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Counselling services in relation to prisoners' needs : a study of a sample group of inmates from the… Penny, Harry L. 1957

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COUNSELLING SERVICES IN RELATION TO PRISONERS' NEEDS  A Study o f a Sample Group o f Inmates From the Westgate U n i t o f O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm i n R e l a t i o n t o Programme P l a n n i n g f o r the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n , B.C., 1957  by Harry L. Penny  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK  School o f S o c i a l Work  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  1957  iv  ABSTRACT  The purpose of the t h e s i s i s (1) to determine the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs of a group of "more reformable" inmates of the type who w i l l e v e n t u a l l y make up the p o p u l a t i o n of the new Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n at Haney, B r i t i s h Columbia, and (2) to d e t e r mine how c u s t o d i a l and casework s t a f f might best meet these needs through the medium of c o u n s e l l i n g . In order to accomplish these o b j e c t i v e s , a sample group o f seventeen inmates from the Westgate U n i t i n O a k a i l a P r i s o n Farm was s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a set up by the Planning s t a f f of the Haney Correc tional Institution. These inmates were s t u d i e d i n t e n s i v e l y by w i d e l y v a r i e d methods, i n c l u d i n g p e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w s , group s e s s i o n s , review of case f i l e s , and interviews with s t a f f . T h i s r e s e a r c h technique proved to be u n u s u a l l y e f f e c t i v e and i t was p o s s i b l e to get a v e r y complete p i c t u r e of each of the men s t u d i e d . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t most of the inmates had s e r i o u s s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems t h a t seemed to c a l l f o r a concentrated programme o f treatment. The c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r who has c l o s e d a i l y contact with the p r i s o n e r was seen to be the 'key' person i n the h e l p i n g process. I t was seen, too, t h a t although the main share of c o u n s e l l i n g inmates must f a l l on the s o c i a l caseworker, some inmates are not amenable to casework help but do need some k i n d of c o u n s e l l i n g . The c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r i s the best person to give such l a y c o u n s e l l i n g , which should t h e r e f o r e be considered a most important part of h i s job. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was seen t h a t he needs t r a i n i n g , experience and s u p e r v i s i o n to p l a y t h i s r o l e e f f e c t i v e l y . The need f o r team work of the highest order between the c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r and the s o c i a l caseworker was seen as v i t a l l y important.  In p r e s e n t i n g the  this thesis in partial fulfilment  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  of  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t  the  L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  and  study.  f r e e l y available f o r reference  I  further  agree t h a t permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  Head o f  my  I t i s understood  t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not  be allowed without my  Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  Columbia,  written  permission.  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The  w r i t e r wishes to thank Mr.  Hugh G. C h r i s t i e ,  Warden, O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm, f o r h i s c o o p e r a t i o n  in  the study to be done i n the Westgate U n i t of the  prison.  Mr.  Graham Watt, Senior  U n i t , and  allowing  C o r r e c t i o n a l O f f i c e r of the Westgate  h i s s t a f f showed ready i n t e r e s t i n the  study  and  were most h e l p f u l . The  writer  a l s o wishes to thank Mr.  E. K.  Warden, Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n , and Mr. Braithwaite,  Nelson,  John  Deputy Warden i n charge of T r a i n i n g , f o r  the  time they gave i n d i s c u s s i n g the proposed programme f o r t h i s new  prison.  t e x t and  Mr.  Braithwaite  his constructive  was  advice  good enough to read was  much  appreciated.  F i n a l l y the w r i t e r wishes to express h i s t i o n to Mr.  apprecia-  A d r i a n Marriage of the S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work, f o r  the c o r d i a l i n t e r e s t he has h e l p f u l and  the  shown i n the  encouraging comments.  study and  for his  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter I .  Custody and Treatment: and P r a c t i c e  Contemporary Thought  Objectives o f the study. The custody-treatment dichotomy. C u s t o d i a l s t a f f . S o c i a l casework and C o r r e c t i o n s . R e s o l v i n g the custody-treatment c o n f l i c t . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f inmates. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s 1 Chapter I I .  Two  Correctional Institutions  The study and s e t t i n g d e s c r i b e d . Westgate U n i t , O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm. The Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n . D e s c r i p t i o n of r e s e a r c h method  19  Chapter I I I . Inmates as Persons F a m i l y background. M a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s . L e i s u r e time. S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Age. I n t e l l i g e n c e . Educat i o n . Employment. R e l i g i o n . H e a l t h and h a b i t s . A t t i t u d e s . Guards. Inmates' c r i t i c i s m of p r i s o n . O f f e n c e s . P r o b a t i o n and p a r o l e . Sentence. Inmates' v e r b a l i z a t i o n of own problems. Group s e s s i o n s w i t h inmates. " C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t " . Case h i s t o r i e s Chapter IV.  Welfare I m p l i c a t i o n s Counselling  f o r Custody  42  and  F a m i l y background. M a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s . L e i s u r e time. S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . E d u c a t i o n . Employment. H e a l t h and h a b i t s . A t t i t u d e s . Guards. Inmates' c r i t i c i s m of p r i s o n . O f f e n c e s . Inmates' v e r b a l i z a t i o n of own problems. Group s e s s i o n s . Case h i s t o r i e s . Counselling  82  Appendices: A.  Types of C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s  B.  Cross S e c t i o n a l Report of the P r i s o n Farm and P o p u l a t i o n as J u l y 2 6 , 1956  Bibliography  Oakalla of  .....Ill  114 118  iii  TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a) Tables T a b l e A.  Leading p e r s o n a l d a t a about inmates s t u d i e d ...  Table B.  Summary o f r e p l i e s to the q u e s t i o n "What k i n d of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programme would you choose f o r y o u r s e l f ? "  Table C.  Summary o f inmates' main thoughts  Page 50  53  about  p r i s o n programme  60  Table D.  C r i m i n a l r e c o r d s o f inmates  6l  Table E .  Summary o f inmates' v e r b a l i z a t i o n of own problems B r i e f impressions o f inmates as seen through group s e s s i o n s  Table F . Table G. Table H.  63 64  Summary o f inmates' responses t o " c r i t i c a l incident"question. Positive incidents  66  Summary o f inmates' incident" question.  67  responses t o " c r i t i c a l Negative i n c i d e n t s  (b) Charts Figure 1 Figure 2  Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n b u i l d i n g s and grounds  26  S i m p l i f i e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t o f the Haney Correctional Institution  27  vi  COUNSELLING  SERVICES IN RELATION  TO PRISONERS' NEEDS  A Study of a Sample Group of Inmates from the Westgate U n i t o f O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm i n R e l a t i o n t o Programme P l a n n i n g f o r the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n , B.C., 1 9 5 7 '  CHAPTER I  CUSTODY AND  Objectives The  TREATMENT:  and  PRACTICE  of Study new  p r i s o n at Haney, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  modern b u i l d i n g s ienced  CONTEMPORARY THOUGHT AMD  and  1  with i t s  f a c i l i t i e s , w i t h i t s q u a l i f i e d and  p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f i n the  with i t s objective  of the  top  administrative  t r a i n i n g and  exper-  positions  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of  the more reformable type of inmate presents a unique c h a l l e n g e to those p l a n n i n g the treatment programme. possible and  f o r t h i s p l a n n i n g s t a f f to create  employ the k i n d of s t a f f , c u s t o d i a l and  w i l l serve the  r e a l needs of the  needs of inmates? can be  solved  e d u c a t i o n and  by  Do  inmates.  I t should  be  the k i n d of programme professional, But  what are  that these  the inmates have common problems that  a more or l e s s uniform programme of work,  r e c r e a t i o n i n v o l v i n g mainly good s u p e r v i s i o n  humane a t t i t u d e s on the p a r t  of the  custodial staff?  t h e i r problems so d i f f e r e n t that each inmate, to be  Or  and are  helped  e f f e c t i v e l y , w i l l have to have a p a r t i c u l a r i z e d programme set up and  f o r him  including special f a c i l i t i e s ,  special professional  t i o n of these two?  Do  staff?  special privileges  Or i s there a f e a s i b l e combina-  inmates have some problems and  needs i n  1 D e t a i l s about Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n are noted i n Chapter I I .  -2-  common and  some that are q u i t e d i s t i n c t  those of every other  inmate?  answers to these questions  d i f f e r e n t from  What i m p l i c a t i o n s do  the  have f o r the programming and  i n g of such i n s t i t u t i o n s ? problems and  and  staff-  C l e a r l y , an understanding of  needs of the inmates who  w i l l be sent to  the  the  i n s t i t u t i o n i s fundamental. The  main o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study i s to t r y to  mine the needs, both common and o f f e n d e r who  d i f f e r e n t i a l , of the type of  w i l l e v e n t u a l l y make up the p o p u l a t i o n 1  Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n . by a d e s i r e to place  The  research  of  the  i s motivated  at the d i s p o s a l of the planning  the Haney p r i s o n i n f o r m a t i o n  staff  about these inmates that may  of a s s i s t a n c e to them i n b u i l d i n g the programme of the The  second o b j e c t i v e of the  first,  deter-  study, which comes out  of  of be  future. the  i s to t r y to determine what a c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e i n  the p r i s o n has  to o f f e r to the kind of p r i s o n e r s  studied;  f u r t h e r , to determine what kind of inmate can be helped what needs of h i s can be met,  by  and  or  (a) p r o f e s s i o n a l casework,  (b) c o u n s e l l i n g by a c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r , teacher, i n s t r u c t o r , e t c . , under p r o f e s s i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n , or (c) some combination of (a) and  (b). Although i t i s recognized  c r i m i n a l behaviour and  how  that our knowledge about  to change or modify i t i s v e r y  l i m i t e d , i t i s assumed, i n t h i s t h e s i s , that the modern trend  1 D e t a i l s about the r e s e a r c h method are d i s c u s s e d Chapter I I .  in  -3to t r e a t r a t h e r than p u n i s h the i n t e l l i g e n t , and  one  criminal i s l o g i c a l  t h a t i s c a l c u l a t e d not  the best i n t e r e s t s of the o f f e n d e r but of the p u b l i c as w e l l . perspective,  f a c t o r s and  some c u r r e n t  and  practice.  The  Custody - Treatment Dichotomy  p r i n c i p l e i n the  However, the form and from age It  to age  and  manifestation  between one  i s o n l y r e c e n t l y that we  always been, and  i n c a r c e r a t i o n of  prisoners. varied  c o r r e c t i o n a l system and  have accepted the  another.  idea that  the best  the  "treatment"  the best c u s t o d i a l p r a c t i c e s i n order to e f f e c t  a p o s i t i v e change i n the T h i s enlightened I t was  continues  of t h i s concept has  best p r o t e c t i o n of s o c i e t y comes from using techniques and  study i n proper  trends i n c o r r e c t i o n a l thought  P r o t e c t i o n of s o c i e t y has a guiding  the best i n t e r e s t s  pages w i l l d e a l w i t h some h i s t o r i -  cal  to be,  only to serve  In order to set the  the f o l l o w i n g  and  point  a t t i t u d e and  behaviour of the  of view d i d not  p a i n f u l l y slow and  offender.  of course a r r i v e suddenly.  d i f f i c u l t f o r clergymen,  social  workers, c r i m i n o l o g i s t s , educators and  others i n t e r e s t e d  reform and  i n p r i s o n programmes.  And  treatment to get  the f o o t h o l d The  members of the  was  first  a foothold  at f i r s t  a precarious  one.*  "treatment" people i n p r i s o n s  clergy.  The  church has  in  influenced  were the  the history  1 Tappan, P a u l W., " O b j e c t i v e s and Methods i n C o r r e c t i o n , " P a u l W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary C o r r e c t i o n s , McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. p. 5.  in  -4-  of penology i n many ways:  the great e a r l y reform movements  u s u a l l y were motivated by r e l i g i o u s people; seen as s i n , churches  because  crime  was  supported and a c t u a l l y i n some cases  e s t a b l i s h e d p r i s o n s which came t o be known as " p e n i t e n t i a r i e s " , where imprisonment  was  not considered as punishment but as a  means of the c r i m i n a l doing penance and thereby o b t a i n i n g d i v i n e pardon f o r h i s wrong-doing. the v i s i o n was  lost  pure and simple.  A l l too o f t e n , however,  and the church p r i s o n s became punishment The one p o s i t i v e r e l i c of church i n f l u e n c e  i s t h a t i t made i t p o s s i b l e f o r the c h a p l a i n to e n t e r the prison.  At f i r s t he went there to console c r i m i n a l s who  condemned to death;  were  l a t e r he began conducting s e r v i c e s ;  and  g r a d u a l l y he moved i n t o c o u n s e l l i n g the inmates, t e a c h i n g them, arranging l i b r a r i e s , conducting r e c r e a t i o n .  1737  As e a r l y as  the B r i t i s h Parliament a u t h o r i z e d m a g i s t r a t e s to appoint chapl a i n s to a l l p r i s o n s .  1  J s time went by the c h a p l a i n was  u a l l y r e l i e v e d of many of these d u t i e s by s o c i a l  event-  workers,  2 librarians, recreational staff, etc. ment p e r s o n n e l i n s i n u a t e d themselves  These s o - c a l l e d i n t o the p r i s o n s ,  "treatoften  as a consequence of p r i s o n r i o t s which f o r c e d government bodies 1  Kuether, F r e d e r i c k C , " R e l i g i o n and the C h a p l a i n , " i n P a u l W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary C o r r e c t i o n s , McGraw-Hill, Toronto,  1951, pp. 254-256.  2 Barnes, H. £., and Negley K. T e e t e r s , New Horizons i n C r i m i n o l o g y , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , New York, 1951, pp. 662-666.  -5-  to reform p r i s o n programmes and t o b e g i n t h i n k i n g i n terms o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the p r i s o n e r s .  1  A l s o , humanitarian wardens  began i n s i s t i n g on g e t t i n g the s k i l l e d help o f p r o f e s s i o n a l 2 people. F o r the most p a r t these treatment people were u n f a m i l i a r with p r i s o n l i f e .  The t r a d i t i o n s were meaningless t o them  and t h e y had l i t t l e  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the many and v a r i e d prob-  lems t h a t the c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r s f a c e i n t h e i r contact w i t h the p r i s o n e r s . s i m p l i f y the problem —  day-to-day  There was a tendency t o over-  t o r e j e c t the t r a d i t i o n a l emphasis on  custody and c o n t r o l as p u n i t i v e and damaging.  They a l s o com-  p l i c a t e d the s i t u a t i o n through t h e i r a b i l i t y to see the many c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s i n crime c a u s a t i o n of the inmate i n p r i s o n .  and i n the behaviour  I n place of the d e f i n i t e procedures  of the past they suggested something v a g u e l y c a l l e d of the i n d i v i d u a l .  "treatment"  The understandings o f the c u s t o d i a l  o f f i c e r , grown out o f h i s long experience and c l o s e d a i l y t a c t s w i t h inmates, were n e g l e c t e d . reacted  con-  Many c u s t o d i a l s t a f f  i n an a n t a g o n i s t i c way t o the new trend and, knowing  prison l i f e  so i n t i m a t e l y , found ways t o sabotage q u i e t l y the  e f f o r t s o f the treatment people.  T h i s c o n f l i c t between the  t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge o f the treatment s t a f f and the p r a c t i c a l  1 O h l i n , L l o y d E., S o c i o l o g y and the F i e l d o f C o r r e c t i o n s , R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, New York, 1 9 5 6 , p. 23. 2 B a t e s , Sanford, " S o c i a l Problems o f the P r i s o n e r , " Proceedi n g s , N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, May 194-6, Columbia U. P r e s s , 1947, p . 427.  -6-  experience  o f the c u s t o d i a l s t a f f c r e a t e d a d i s t u r b i n g s i t u -  a t i o n w i t h i n the p r i s o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y extravagant "treatment'*  c l a i m s were o f t e n made f o r  when i t was e x p l a i n e d t o p r i s o n s t a f f s , and the  l a t t e r , not r e a l l y understanding, in  the way o f r e s u l t s .  expected  something  dramatic  As time went by and the magic was  not produced, c y n i c i s m , doubt and o f t e n a c t i v e antagonism r e s u l t e d , and c o n f u s i o n reigned"; throughout the p r i s o n .  In  a r e a l way t h i s d e s c r i b e s the s t a t e o f many c o r r e c t i o n a l systems today.  I n some g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n s the misunder-  standings between c u s t o d i a l and treatment I n o t h e r systems and p r i s o n s , c o n f l i c t mutual • undersrtending  i s beginning  s t a f f s are acute.  i s d i s a p p e a r i n g and  t o develop.  In s t i l l  other  systems, n o t a b l y some i n the Southern U n i t e d S t a t e s , c o n f l i c t is  absent  because "treatment**  Although  has not as y e t been i n t r o d u c e d .  1  the h i s t o r y o f c o r r e c t i o n s over the past two  decades has been t u r b u l e n t , two important  and r e l a t e d f a c t o r s  (1) P r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l l e a r n e d t h a t i f they  stand out.  were t o s t a y i n the p r i s o n they had t o face the r e a l i t i e s o f prison l i f e  —  s e c u r i n g the p r i s o n e r a g a i n s t escape and at the  same time t r a i n i n g him f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and freedom. that stayed then had t o become acquainted and customs o f p r i s o n l i f e ;  1  Those  w i t h the t r a d i t i o n s  they had t o l e a r n the v a l u e o f  Barnes and T e e t e r s , op_. c i t . ,  pp. 448-452.  -7-  custody and c o n t r o l i n h e l p i n g p r i s o n e r s ;  they had t o l e a r n  to adapt t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l techniques t o the p r i s o n  setting;  and t h e y had t o b e g i n to get to know and a p p r e c i a t e the key r o l e of the c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r . was  (2)  Treatment  of p r i s o n e r s  accepted as a l e g i t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e of p r i s o n programmes.^  I n p r o g r e s s i v e c o r r e c t i o n a l systems i t began t a k i n g i t s p l a c e as an equal p a r t n e r w i t h custody.  Deputy wardens i n charge  of custody and deputy wardens i n charge of treatment were g e t t i n g t o know and understand each o t h e r and were f i n d i n g ways of s o l v i n g t h e i r common problems.  They were s e e i n g t h a t  the d i f f e r e n c e between custody and treatment was  one of 2  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of f u n c t i o n and not one of o b j e c t i v e .  Custod-  i a l o f f i c e r s were l o o k i n g at treatment p e r s o n n e l more r e a l i s t i c a l l y and were t r y i n g t o understand s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l approach.  something  of the  T h e i r former apathy  new  and  h o s t i l i t y were g i v i n g way,  i f not t o complete acceptance, at 3 4 l e a s t t o b e t t e r understanding and s u p p o r t . '  1 Tappan, P a u l W., " O b j e c t i v e s and Methods i n C o r r e c t i o n , " i n P a u l W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary C o r r e c t i o n s , McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1 9 5 1 . pp. 1 0 - 1 2 . 2 A Manual of C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards, American A s s o c i a t i o n , New York, 1 9 5 4 . p. 51.  Correctional  3 Scudder, Kenyon J . , " D i a g n o s i s and Treatment of the A d u l t O f f e n d e r , " Proceedings, N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, A p r i l 1 9 4 7 , Columbia Y. P r e s s , New York, 1 9 4 8 , p. 3 7 3 4  Barnes  and T e e t e r s , op., c i t . , pp.  555-587*  -8-  The  c o n f l i c t between treatment and custody s t i l l  to some extent  exists  almost everywhere but i n more and more p r i s o n s  mutual understanding and a sense o f team work are g r a d u a l l y developing. considered  When the merger i s complete, when custody i s p a r t of treatment and treatment s t a f f recognize the  t h e r a p e u t i c value  o f good custody, when there i s one  philosophy  f o r c o r r e c t i o n s embracing c o n t r o l s and s e c u r i t y as w e l l as the new i n s i g h t s o f the s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f i e l d , when the guard at t h e gate o f a maximum s e c u r i t y p r i s o n w i t h h i s r i f l e and other  a i d s t o c o n t r o l and the s o c i a l worker w i t h i n the p r i s o n  both b e l i e v e i n and p r a c t i c e the same p h i l o s o p h y  though u s i n g  d i f f e r e n t techniques,  then w i l l come mutual support, team work  of the h i g h e s t  and hope o f r e a l success i n the work of  order,  r e h a b i l i t a t i n g the o f f e n d e r .  Custodial Staff I t i s evident  t h a t the c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r w i t h h i s c l o s e  hour t o hour contact w i t h the inmate i s a key person, indeed the key person, i n a p r i s o n .  E s s e n t i a l l y i t w i l l be because  of h i s a t t i t u d e , h i s understanding and h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the d i r e c t i v e s o f the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee that the i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l e i t h e r success o r f a i l i n the j o b of h e l p i n g the prisoner.  Treatment people are a p o w e r f u l , r e l a t i v e l y  small  group compared w i t h c u s t o d i a l s t a f f , e x e r c i s i n g p r e s t i g e and a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n many p r i s o n s that cannot be measured by t h e i r numbers alone.  They must be c o n s t a n t l y cognizant,  however,of  -9-  the f a c t t h a t the success of t h e i r e f f o r t s depends almost t o t a l l y on the c u s t o d i a l s t a f f . L e t us take a c l o s e r l o o k at these important p e o p l e . The c u s t o d i a l s e r v i c e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r i s o n e r ' s comfort, h i s house-keeping arrangement i n the place where he l i v e s , h i s passage t o and from h i s meals; i t must see t h a t he has medical a t t e n t i o n when needed, t h a t he gets t o s c h o o l , and t h a t he knows how t o do the j o b t o which he i s d e t a i l e d . I t s members meet the p r i s o n e r when he a r r i v e s at the i n s t i t u t i o n , guard, p r o t e c t , i n s t r u c t and advise him d u r i n g h i s stay, and arrange f o r h i s r e l e a s e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n when h i s sentence i s over. T h i s should be the quintessence of p r i s o n work, f o r custody i s as o l d as the human r a c e ; i t i s so important a p a r t o f the p r i s o n program t h a t i f i t i s not p r o p e r l y administered there c a n be l i t t l e improvement i n the a t t i t u d e o f the p r i s o n e r s and the p r i s o n cannot accomplish the purpose f o r which i t e x i s t s . So important are the c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r s t h a t no p r i s o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t hopes t o be s u c c e s s f u l w i t h i t s g i v e n of h e l p i n g o f f e n d e r s  can a f f o r d t o n e g l e c t  emphasis t o developing and  task  g i v i n g primary  i n these o f f i c e r s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s  sound c o r r e c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s .  As he goes about h i s j o b  of c a r r y i n g out the p l a n f o r the i n d i v i d u a l s e t up by the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committeej as he takes the n e c e s s a r y steps t o m a i n t a i n good d i s c i p l i n e w i t h i n the p r i s o n ; and as he performs the l e g a l f u n c t i o n o f safekeeping preventing  him from escaping  the p r i s o n e r - that i s ,  custody - the c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r  i s the major f o r c e i n c r e a t i n g the f e e l i n g tone o f the whole  1 U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America Bureau o f P r i s o n s , The Way t o P r i s o n Work, I n s e r v i e e T r a i n i n g Program o f the F e d e r a l P r i s o n System, V o l . 1, Wash., D. C , 1946, p. 173-  -10-  institution.  The  progressive prison administration,  there-  f o r e , concerns i t s e l f w i t h matters t h a t a f f e c t morale among custodial staff —  working c o n d i t i o n s , s a l a r i e s , e t c .  It  concerns i t s e l f , too, w i t h t r a i n i n g program*! c a l c u l a t e d to i n c r e a s e understanding i n areas of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , human behaviour, techniques  i n handling  people, e t c . , and  not o n l y to improve performance on the job but  designed  a l s o t o give  o f f i c e r s r e a l s t a t u s as f u l l - f l e d g e d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the treatment p r o c e s s .  G i v i n g genuine s t a t u s t o c u s t o d i a l o f f i -  c e r s based on the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r c o r r e c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e t h i s i s the heart of good custody. which custody and treatment merge and concepts.  —  T h i s i s the p o i n t at disappear  T h i s i s when p r i s o n s t a f f s become 1,2  as  separate  correctional  o f f i c e r s " i n an almost p r o f e s s i o n a l sense. I n p o i n t of f a c t these s t a f f people have a l r e a d y been placed  i n a q u a s i p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n by v i r t u e of the  great  need of many inmates to have someone i n whom to c o n f i d e .  Thus  c o u n s e l l i n g has been p a r t of the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r ' s r o l e for  some time.  Progressive  p r i s o n s have encouraged t h i s  and 3  some newer p r i s o n s l i k e the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n are c o n s c i o u s l y p r e p a r i n g  to t r a i n c u s t o d i a l s t a f f i n the a r t  1 Roper, W. F., "Human R e l a t i o n s i n E n g l i s h P r i s o n s , " Howard J o u r n a l , V o l . IX, No. 2, 1955, pp. 91-100. 2 A Manual of C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards, American C o r r e c t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , New York, 1954, pp. 184-195. 3 Chapter I I c o n t a i n s some of the main d e t a i l s about Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n .  the  -11-  of c o u n s e l l i n g .  Not  i n the f o r e s e e a b l e  f u t u r e w i l l there  an adequate supply o f caseworkers i n p r i s o n s of the inmates.  Yet  of the p r i s o n to the ling.  one  to meet the needs  of the most important  contributions  inmate i s i n t h i s v e r y matter of  I t i s e s s e n t i a l , as one  be  w r i t e r suggests, t h a t  counselevery 1  inmate should  have at l e a s t one  person i n whom he can  Which inmates need the i n t e n s i v e c o u n s e l l i n g of the  confide.  professional  caseworker and which ones can be helped by the f r i e n d l y , supportive  c o u n s e l l i n g o f the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r who  u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the  i s gen-  inmate, are q u e s t i o n s d i s c u s s e d ,  they r e l a t e to the needs o f the 2,3 t h i s study, i n Chapter IV*.  sample group of men  as  discussed  in  Caseworkers i n the C o r r e c t i o n a l S e t t i n g I n o n l y a r e l a t i v e l y few work been g i v e n  p r i s o n s today has  a definite place.  The  p r i s o n of o l d which  emphasized o n l y punishment, custody and f o r such a t h i n g as casework. o b j e c t i v e s , i t s o u t l o o k and could be found. as he was see l i t t l e  On  The  s o c i a l case-  r e s t r a i n t had  p r i s o n had  a u t h o r i t a r i a n s e t t i n g as the p r i s o n .  place  caseworker, accustomed  t o working w i t h c l i e n t s on a v o l u n t a r y hope of g i v i n g e f f e c t i v e help  place  to change i t s  i t s programme b e f o r e t h a t  the other hand, the  no  basis,  i n such a r i g i d  I t was  could and  n e c e s s a r y f o r both  1 Fenton, Norman, An I n t r o d u c t i o n to C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and T r e a t ment i n S t a t e C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e , C o r r e c t i o n a l Employees T r a i n i n g Manual I I I , C a l i f o r n i a , 1953, P- 14-3• 2  Barnes and  Teeters,  op_. c i t . , p.  645.  3 Clemmer, Donald, "Use of S u p e r v i s o r y C u s t o d i a l P e r s o n n e l as C o u n s e l o r s ; An E x p e d i e n t , " F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , v o l . XX, December 1956, pp. 36-42.  -12-  the p r i s o n and the  caseworker to change:  the p r i s o n to  l a r g e libs programme so t h a t p r i s o n e r s might have the of r e - e d u c a t i v e  and  r e h a b i l i t a t i v e resources  within  en-  benefit the  p r i s o n , the caseworker to accept the n e c e s s i t y of c u s t o d i a l segregation  and  to l e a r n t h a t a c o n t r o l l e d s e t t i n g can i n  many cases aid the casework process.  I t was  the caseworker to b e l i e v e what everyone who must b e l i e v e * u s e f u l agency. The  necessary f o r  works i n a p r i s o n  that, p o t e n t i a l l y at l e a s t , i t i s a s o c i a l l y  i»2,3 7  primary medium through which casework help i s  extended i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the caseworker and prisoner.  T h i s c a l l s f o r an a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of  caseworker that i s b a s i c a l l y a supporting c o n s i s t e n t l y accepting,  strengthening,  one,  the  the  ... i t i s  encouraging, respon-  4 s i v e , and  enabling."  I n g e n e r a l the r o l e of the  i n the p r i s o n i s to explore  w i t h the inmate the  caseworker  possibilities  of p r i s o n l i f e i n r e l a t i o n to the r e s o l u t i o n of h i s own lem,  to help him  p r i s o n , and 1  prob-  f i n d a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l adjustment to  to help him  d i s c o v e r w i t h i n h i m s e l f the w i l l  A Manual of C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards, op.  c i t . , p.  the and  12.  2 Studt, E l l i o t , "Casework i n the C o r r e c t i o n a l F i e l d , " F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , V o l . X V I I I , September 1954. pp. 1 9 - 2 6 . 3 Pray, Kenneth L. M., " S o c i a l Work i n the P r i s o n Program," i n P a u l W . Tappan, ed., Contemporary C o r r e c t i o n s , McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. pp. 2 0 4 - 2 1 0 . 4 Scope and Method of the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, F.S.A.A., New York, 1953, p. 16.  -13-  power to make a more r e s p o n s i b l e wider community.  1  s o c i a l adjustment to  the  Z i s k i n d puts i t s u c c i n c t l y :  I n the c o r r e c t i o n a l f i e l d we seek out the p e r s o n who r e q u i r e s help and t r y t o convince him - u s u a l l y a g a i n s t h i s w i l l - t h a t he should have treatment. S o c i a l work t r a i n i n g t e l l s us t h a t unless we can r e v e r s e the t a b l e s and help the inmate see the need f o r change, no amount o f e x t e r n a l f o r c e can produce a r e a l and l a s t i n g change. The man who w i l l conform t o e x t e r n a l pressure alone w i l l y i e l d to h i s more b a s i c d e s i r e s when t h i s pressure i s removed or overcome. The s o c i a l worker, t h e r e f o r e , seeks to produce the i n n e r change, to accomplish what i n s o c i a l work j a r g o n i s c a l l e d ' i n s i g h t as p a r t of the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process.2 1  Such work demands the d i s c i p l i n e d use of the casework r e l a t i o n s h i p and  a s e n s i t i v e and  of every f a c e t of p r i s o n l i f e , i n v o l v e s the  complete understanding  and  positive.  a b i l i t y to make a sound working d i a g n o s i s  inmate's problem and for  negative  professional  the  a b i l i t y to work out  It also of  the  a p l a n o f treatment  him. He does not preach, t h r e a t e n , o r use ordering-andf o r b i d d i n g techniques. He e s t a b l i s h e s c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which ' p e r s o n a l i t y touches p e r s o n a l i t y . ..." He attempts to g a i n an e s s e n t i a l understanding of the o f f e n d e r ' s t o t a l complex s i t u a t i o n and i t s p s y c h o c u l t u r a l elements. To t h a t extent he i s t r u l y and d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the o f f e n d e r h i m s e l f r a t h e r than w i t h h i s symptomatic d e l i n q u e n t a c t s . ^  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the caseworker does the h i s t o r y - t a k i n g , s e t s up  a case f i l e , 1  Pray, op.  plays  a prominent r o l e i n the process of  c i t . , p.  206.  2 Z i s k i n d , L o u i s , " S o c i a l Work and the C o r r e c t i o n a l F i e l d , " F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , V o l . XIV, March 1950. p. 48. 3 Young, P a u l i n e V.. S o c i a l Treatment i n P r o b a t i o n quency, McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1952, p. 488.  and  Delin-  -14-  c l a s s i f ! c a t i o n and r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , h e l p s i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s , concerns h i m s e l f  with helping  the inmate work out a  sound p l a n f o r the p o s t - d i s c h a r g e p e r i o d him  and helps prepare  f o r release. In any p r i s o n the r o l e o f the t r a i n e d c o r r e c t i o n a l  o f f i c e r who does some c o u n s e l l i n g and the r o l e o f the s o c i a l caseworker o v e r l a p  t o some e x t e n t .  I t i s a f i n e l i n e between  good l a y c o u n s e l l i n g under adequate s u p e r v i s i o n and much o f casework c o u n s e l l i n g , and i n Chapter IV of t h i s study some comments are made about the d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r two  groups o f s t a f f .  between these  At any .irate i t i s c l e a r t h a t the case-  worker and the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r must understand and appreci a t e each other's p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r i b u t i o n , give mutual support and  see t h a t e f f e c t i v e communication e x i s t s between them.  Resolving The the  the Custody - Treatment C o n f l i c t concept o f p r o g r e s s i v e  c o r r e c t i o n s today i s that  sentence i s the o n l y punishment t h a t should be g i v e n the  criminal —  that the c r i m i n a l i s sent  not f o r punishment.  t o p r i s o n as punishment  Whatever o b l i g a t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  the c o r r e c t i o n a l agency assumes i n the way o f treatment o r punishment, the safekeeping o f the p r i s o n e r must n e c e s s a r i l y remain o f g r e a t e s t  importance.  cannot help the o f f e n d e r it  I t i s a t r u i s m t o say t h a t we  i f we do not have him.  Nevertheless,  i s important t o r e a l i z e that good custody i s not o n l y i n the  best  i n t e r e s t s o f the community but a l s o i n the best  interests  -15-  of the o f f e n d e r . to f e e l t h e i r way who  Perhaps o n l y those who  i n t o the mind and h e a r t of an inmate  has escaped l a w f u l custody  s m a l l way  have been able  and  to understand  i n some  the depth of s u f f e r i n g , f e a r and l o n e l i n e s s of  the f u g i t i v e - o n l y those can r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e the need f o r e f f e c t i v e custody  as a h e l p i n g f o r c e f o r the  offender.  With the needs of the o f f e n d e r i n mind, c o r r e c t i o n a l agencies l e a s t one  are today c a r r y i n g the l e g a l concept step f u r t h e r .  l a r g e r concept  We  of custody  at  are coming to l o o k upon t h i s  as a s e r i e s of degrees o f s u p e r v i s i o n , neces-  sary f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of s o c i e t y but adjusted to the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l o f f e n d e r . we  Looking  at custody  i n this  way  can i n c l u d e the t h r e e major areas o f c o r r e c t i o n a l s e r v i c e :  p r o b a t i o n , p r i s o n s and p a r o l e .  P r o b a t i o n and p a r o l e  provide  f a r l e s s s u p e r v i s i o n than does the p r i s o n but the o f f e n d e r p r o b a t i o n and p a r o l e i s i n custody n o n e t h e l e s s .  The  on  degree  of s u p e r v i s i o n g i v e n the o f f e n d e r s depends on the needs o f the i n d i v i d u a l s and on the treatment w i t h i n these  three s e r v i c e s .  resources a v a i l a b l e  Of major concern,  i n g w i t h o f f e n d e r s i s the q u e s t i o n of  then, i n d e a l -  classification.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Inmates C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a v i t a l p a r t of the c o r r e c t i v e process and  i n v o l v e s every  aspect of p r i s o n l i f e  and  programme.  Very b r i e f l y , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the process of s t u d y i n g  the  inmate d u r i n g an o r i e n t a t i o n p e r i o d and of o r g a n i z i n g c o r r e c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s so t h a t the o f f e n d e r w i l l have the  opportunity  -16-  o f a programme o f treatment of h i s i n d i v i d u a l needs.  based on an adequate d i a g n o s i s A v e r y important  p a r t o f the best  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the p r i s o n e r . The best c l a s s i f i c a t i o n committees i n s i s t upon the p e r s o n a l appearance o f the man b e f o r e the committee. They put him at ease. He i s encouraged t o e n t e r i n t o the p l a n n i n g by e x p r e s s i n g , without f e a r , h i s i n t e r e s t s and d e s i r e s , and e s p e c i a l l y h i s p a r o l e plans upon release. L i t t l e o r nothing i s s a i d about the o f f e n s e which sent him t o p r i s o n . He i s encouraged t o make the most of h i s o p p o r t u n i t i e s arid g i v e n assurance o f h e l p and understanding. I n t e r e s t i s expressed i n h i s f a m i l y , and arrangements are made f o r them t o v i s i t him i n prison.]_ Much more could be s a i d about t h i s important  p a r t of  i n p r i s o n s but f o r the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s t h i s will suffice. it  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n at the pre-sentence  treatment statement  l e v e l makes  p o s s i b l e t o decide who goes t o p r i s o n and who i s p l a c e d on  probation.  At the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l i t makes i t p o s s i b l e  to decide what degree of custody  i s necessary  and t h e r e f o r e  what p r i s o n the o f f e n d e r should be sent t o , what k i n d o f t r e a t ment should be g i v e n , when r e l e a s e o r p a r o l e should be c o n s i d ered and what the c o n d i t i o n s of p a r o l e should be.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of I n s t i t u t i o n s Our q u e s t i o n now might be; "What kinds of p r i s o n s are t h e r e o r should there be, having regard t o the v a r y i n g c u s t o d i a l needs o f p r i s o n e r s w i t h i n any one p r i s o n system?"  1 Scudder, Kenyon J . , "Diagnosis and Treatment of the A d u l t O f f e n d e r , " Proceedings. N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, A p r i l 1947, Columbia U. P r e s s , New York, 1948. p. 374.  -17One h e s i t a t e s to be c a t e g o r i c a l about t h i s .  By r e a s o n o f  economic, p o l i t i c a l and other s o c i e t a l i n f l u e n c e s , c u s t o d i a l needs f o r p r i s o n e r s  change from one decade t o another as do  people's needs g e n e r a l l y . the b e h a v i o u r a l  A l s o , as new understandings i n  sciences  take h o l d , new ways o f h a n d l i n g  p r i s o n e r s become evident  and i n f l u e n c e the k i n d o f p r i s o n s we  b u i l d , the ways we adapt e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , programmes c a r r i e d on.  and the kinds of  However, c o r r e c t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s  t a l k o f f o u r k i n d s o f p r i s o n s g i v i n g , r e l a t i v e l y speaking, 1,2 f o u r degrees of custody — I t i s q u i t e evident i n the f u l l e s t  maximum, c l o s e , medium and open.  that no p r i s o n system can adequately meet  sense, the c u s t o d i a l needs o f a l l i t s inmates.  Thus we f i n d , i n every p r i s o n , p r i s o n e r s whose needs are borderl i n e and who might e q u a l l y w e l l be i n a p r i s o n w i t h e i t h e r more emphasis on s e c u r i t y o r l e s s . G i v e n these f o u r types o f p r i s o n s , a p r i s o n system should be  able t o meet the c u s t o d i a l needs o f p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f f e n d e r s  committed t o i t s c a r e . service provided:  I t would do so i f the c o r r e c t i o n a l  (1) c a r e f u l study and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of each  inmate, (2) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f each i n s t i t u t i o n , (3) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the degrees o f custody and the type o f programme w i t h i n each p r i s o n , (4) p e r i o d i c review, o r r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , o f the 1 A Manual of C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards, American C o r r e c t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , New York, 1954. p. 1992 D e t a i l s o f these f o u r types o f p r i s o n s Appendix A.  are d i s c u s s e d i n  -18-  inmate and (5) the o p p o r t u n i t y o f h i s t r a n s f e r t o another p r i s o n with l e s s s e c u r i t y o r more o r w i t h a programme more l i k e l y t o meet h i s present  need.  B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l be one step c l o s e r t o the r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s i d e a l when the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n , which w i l l probable be c a t e g o r i z e d as a "medium s e c u r i t y " p r i s o n opens i n the F a l l o f t h i s year t h i s chapter the present  (1957).  As mentioned e a r l i e r i n  study i s undertaken s p e c i f i c a l l y t o be  of h e l p t o the p l a n n i n g s t a f f o f the Haney p r i s o n i n working out the programme best c a l c u l a t e d t o meet the s o c i a l and psychol o g i c a l needs o f the inmates who w i l l be sent there i n the future.  Some o f the e s s e n t i a l d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  and programme at Haney w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y i n Chapter I I .  CHAPTER I I TWO  CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS  ( 1 ) t o study  The present study aims t o do two t h i n g s ; as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e a sample group of inmates  of the type  w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be sent t o the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l to determine  who  Institution;  t h e i r problems and to suggest ways of h e l p i n g them  modify or change t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n s of behaviour. (2)  to attempt  inmates  t o determine whether some, none, or a l l of the  s t u d i e d might be helped by the k i n d of c o u n s e l l i n g t h a t  a c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r under p r o f e s s i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n might and i f so, what the d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r between the and the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r might The  be.  the o t h e r , Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n , not yet open, selected f o r t h i s  A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of each of these p r i s o n s w i l l  g i v e n f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons. are  The group of seventeen men  a l l from the Westgate U n i t and what goes on t h e r e —  setting, f a c i l i t i e s , staff etc. —  studied programme,  To see these  f u l l y and s h a r p l y , t h e r e f o r e , one needs to see them i n the  environmental s e t t i n g — For  be  a l l these t h i n g s p r o f o u n d l y  a f f e c t the a t t i t u d e and behaviour of the inmates. men  The  done, Westgate U n i t i n O a k a l l a P r i s o n  which w i l l e v e n t u a l l y r e c e i v e the type o f men study.  caseworker  study concerns i t s e l f w i t h two p r i s o n s e t t i n g s .  one i n which the study was Farm;  do;  the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l m i l i e u .  that r e a s o n an understanding of Westgate, i t i s suggested,  w i l l a i d i n understanding the  inmate.  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the Haney I n s t i t u t i o n i s a l s o r e l e v a n t because i t i s t o t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n that the group, of which the seventeen s t u d i e d are a random sample, w i l l be going i n the future.  T h i s t h e s i s w i l l , i n p a r t , attempt t o assess whether  or n o t the type of programTproposed needs o f t h i s sample  group.  f o r Haney w i l l meet the  Thus i n t h i s study an attempt i s  made t o determine the problem areas o f each o f the seventeen, and s u g g e s t i o n s are made w i t h regard  t o the means o f meeting  t h e i r needs most l i k e l y t o be e f f e c t i v e . the programTand  Some a t t e n t i o n t o  f a c i l i t i e s at Haney i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d .  Westgate U n i t - the S e t t i n g f o r the Study Westgate  i s a u n i t w i t h i n O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm which  houses somewhat over 350 inmates i n t i e r s o f 20 men each.  Each  man has h i s own c e l l and there i s a l a r g e a r e a w i t h i n each t i e r t h a t i s used f o r group d i n i n g and group r e c r e a t i o n . o f f i c e r i s i n charge o f each t i e r  A tier  and he i s r e q u i r e d t o p l a y a  s o r t o f counselor-cum-leader-cum-father r o l e .  From h i s t i e r  every inmate goes out t o the v a r i o u s v o c a t i o n a l and work a c t i v i ties.  The programme i s compulsory.  I f a man i s not i n t e r e s t e d  or cannot get i n t o a shop, then he i s r e q u i r e d t o work on the outside  gang where he might do maintenance  that i s needed  anywhere i n O a k a l l a .  o r c o n s t r u c t i o n work  By and l a r g e t h e men who  work on the work gangs are kept separated from those who work i n t h e shops.  -21  I t would appear t h a t the inmate w i t h the b e t t e r who  attitude  tends t o be conforming gets the p i c k of the shops and the  r e b e l l i o u s younger inmate tends t o s t a y on the work gangs. i s hard to get a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f how  one man  It  i s selected f o r  one spot and another f o r another spot because the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system both i n O a k a l l a proper and i n Westgate U n i t i s so rudimentary.  I t appears t h a t a man  i s p l a c e d on the b a s i s o f  h i s own r e q u e s t , h i s p r e v i o u s r e c o r d , h i s a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r . At present Westgate operates the f o l l o w i n g types of shops: motor mechanics, b l a c k s m i t h , e l e c t r i c a l , bookbinding, p a i n t i n g , plumbing,.  shoe, woodworking,  Westgate i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the t o t a l management of the Farm as w e l l as f o r a l l maintenance and c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s . The r e c r e a t i o n a l o r * s o c i a l i z a t i o n ' programme i n Westgate i n v o l v e s i n the main a compulsory gymnasium p e r i o d f o r a l l i n mates who  are p h y s i c a l l y f i t ,  correspondence courses f o r a s m a l l  group o f inmates, and a hobby c r a f t program7made up o f l e a t h e r work and copperwork c l a s s e s . held.  Weekly e d u c a t i o n a l f i l m s are  There i s a v e r y complete l i b r a r y of e d u c a t i o n a l and  trade text-books as w e l l as f i c t i o n . The S e n i o r C o r r e c t i o n a l O f f i c e r and h i s deputy b o t h have s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g and g i v e guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g to the inmates.  They n e c e s s a r i l y spread themselves t h i n and no  i n t e n s i v e casework i s done.  T h e i r work i s supplemented by  s p e c i a l l y arranged i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f such community agencies as the John Howard S o c i e t y , the S a l v a t i o n  -22-  Army, and  the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e .  There i s an i n -  s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g scheme f o r the s t a f f at Westgate and  part  t h i s d e a l s w i t h improving t h e i r a b i l i t y as c o u n s e l l o r s . guards a l r e a d y do some c o u n s e l l i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n that they w i l l do future.  of The  i t i s the hope of  the  an i n c r e a s i n g amount i n the  The Westgate a u t h o r i t i e s t h i n k t h e i r s t a f f i s grow-  i n g i n experience and  understanding.  They f e e l that i f the  guards are i n t e r e s t e d i n the inmates and have p o s i t i v e a t t i tudes and w i l l be  i f the programme i s f u l l  affected i n a positive  and  i n t e n s i v e , the  way.  P a r t of the therapy i s to i n t r o d u c e f a c t o r s as p o s s i b l e and church s e r v i c e s and  such things  as many p o s i t i v e  as f r e e r v i s i t i n g ,  c o n t a c t s w i t h community groups are  p a r t of the programme.  inmates  family now  An Inmate I n t e r - T i e r C o u n c i l made up  of e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  from each t i e r i s i n  Through t h i s group the suggestions and  grievances  operation. of the i n -  mates are made known to the s t a f f .  T h i s t h e s i s does not  port to be  comments here are  a c r i t i q u e of Westgate —  t i v e o n l y and  have been taken by and  r e p o r t of the I n s p e c t o r it  of G a o l s .  The  1  came through i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s  summarized i n Table 3>  i n Chapter  l a r g e from the  and  pur-  descrip-  latest  inmates c r i t i q u e  as  group s e s s i o n s i s  IV.  1 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , Report of the I n s p e c t o r of G a o l s . Year Ended March 31» Queens P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1956. pp. 2 0 - 2 3 .  Annual 1956,  -23-  Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l  Institution  The Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n  i s s i t u a t e d near  the  town of Haney, B r i t i s h Columbia, about 30 miles east of the City  of Vancouver.  C o n s t r u c t i o n began i n the summer of  and i t i s estimated t h a t the b u i l d i n g s w i l l not be u n t i l June 1957-  The  first  appointed Warden i n September 1956  w h i l e he was  still  s t a f f were appointed.  after  and was  January 1957  on a f u l l - t i m e Provincial  Mr. E. K.  Nelson  on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s  a p r o f e s s o r of C r i m i n o l o g y at the U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia.  summer of 1956  completed  inmates w i l l probably not be moved  there u n t i l sometime i n the F a l l of 1957was  1955  At the same time other key a d m i n i s t r a t i v e P l a n n i n g programme began d u r i n g the continued i n a more concentrated  when Mr.  basis.  Nelson assumed h i s d u t i e s as Warden  The new  Gaol S e r v i c e .  form  i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l be p a r t of the  The Warden w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e t o  Mr. E . G. B. Stevens, I n s p e c t o r of G a o l s ,  1  C o r r e c t i o n s Branch,  Department of A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Haney p r i s o n was  recommended by the B r i t i s h Columbia  2 P r i s o n Commission i n 1950 crowding  because o f the concern about  i n O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm and the need f o r a  i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the more reformable type of inmate.  over-  training As i t w i l l  1 Recent l e g i s l a t i o n has changed the t i t l e o f I n s p e c t o r o f Gaols t o D i r e c t o r of C o r r e c t i o n s but i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the new t i t l e i s i n common use as y e t . 2 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , Report of Commission Appointed by the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , 1950. To enquire i n t o the S t a t e and Management of the Gaols of B r i t i s h Columbia, Victoria, B.C., 1951.  -24-  be some time before the Haney p r i s o n opens i t i s understandable that no f i x e d programme has been worked out as y e t . *  However,  t a l k s w i t h Warden Nelson and one o f h i s d e p u t i e s , Mr. John B r a i t h w a i t e , r e v e a l e d something  of the p l a n s they had f o r the  f u t u r e and much o f what f o l l o w s comes from t h i s  source.  E a r l i e r i t was mentioned that Haney f e l l i n t o the c a t e gory o f medium s e c u r i t y i n s t i t u t i o n .  That i s , there w i l l be  e x c e l l e n t s e c u r i t y on the p e r i m e t e r but v a r y i n g degrees o f freedom w i t h i n ? t h e boundaries o f the p r i s o n .  2  i s designed l i k e inmates.  The p l a n t  itself  a telephone pole w i t h u n i t s housing up t o f i f t y  The p r i s o n w i l l  accommodate 400.  About one hundred  and f i f t y o f t h i s number w i l l be a group o f o l d e r inmates will  take v e r y l i t t l e , i f any, p a r t i n the v o c a t i o n a l  who  training  programme but w i l l be s e l e c t e d because t h e i r t a l e n t s and experience can be u t i l i z e d  i n m a i n t a i n i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n and w i l l  a l s o b e n e f i t from t h i s k i n d o f e x p e r i e n c e . 250  The other group o f  i s the group t h i s t h e s i s i s mainly concerned w i t h .  these w i l l take a f u l l programme o f v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o n l y a l i m i t e d programme b u t , i t i s thought,  Some of and some  a l l w i l l have some  maintenance d u t i e s . F o l l o w i n g a study o f the inmate p o p u l a t i o n o f O a k a l l a i n J u l y 1956 250  the p l a n n i n g s t a f f o f Haney thought  inmates 1  there would be about  i n O a k a l l a who could be s e l e c t e d f o r the new p r i s o n  Date o f w r i t i n g - A p r i l ,  1957.  2 See F i g . 1 — a drawing o f the b u i l d i n g s and grounds o f the I n s t i t u t i o n (adapted from a l a r g e r drawing prepared by a r c h i t e c t s of the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n ) .  -25-  using the following c r i t e r i a : a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.  Age - eighteen to forty inclusive Sentence - not less than six months Education - Grade VI or better Previous committals - not more than two No history of drug addiction No history of chronic alcoholism No physical handicap Capacity to respond to and profit by vocational and other types of training. 1  The most basic part of any modern correctional programme is classification.  The planning staff at Haney is making pro-  vision for this most important process both i n the  selection  of inmates for the prison and i n the intensive study and diagnosis of each inmate after he is sent to the institution. On the second floor of the new prison a unit of 50 cells is being set aside for the reception, classification and orientation of a l l new inmates.  Unfortunately the province of British  Columbia has as yet no classification center and i t is necessary, and w i l l be for some time, for Oakalla to receive a l l prisoners committed for sentences of two years less a day and under and to do what classification is possible before transferring them to other more specialized institutions such as the Haney Correctional Institution.  Because under these circumstances the  classification w i l l be very superficial at Oakalla, i t w i l l be necessary for the Haney classification to be very complete and thorough.  This w i l l mean close cooperation and team work on  the part of a l l personnel i n a l l departments.  1 Some physically handicapped inmates w i l l be admitted on a selective basis.  HAttEY  CORRECTIONAL.  INSTITUTION  FIG.  1.  -  $u\LDm&S  AND GROUNDS  -27As we  d i s c u s s the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the Haney programme  i t w i l l be h e l p f u l to r e f e r t o the s i m p l i f i e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t , F i g u r e 2.  The  d i v i s i o n of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  l i n g p l a y s a p a r t i c u l a r l y important f i c a t i o n process.  One  counsel-  p a r t e a r l y i n the c l a s s i -  of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i l l be  prepare an i n i t i a l p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t on each inmate. w i l l p r o b a b l y be based on the caseworker's own  to This  impressions  coming out of h i s i n t e r v i e w s , the r e p o r t s he r e c e i v e s from others who  have i n t e r v i e w e d the new  man  or had  contact with  d u r i n g the o r i e n t a t i o n p e r i o d , p l u s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t might a v a i l a b l e from p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , other i n s t i t u t i o n s s o c i a l agencies, reports, etc.  the f i n d i n g s of the p s y c h o l o g i s t , The  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the other  s e r v i c e s , education, medical  The  be  and  medical  institutional  e t c . , w i l l make t h e i r own  t i o n based on t h e i r c o n t a c t s .  him  evalua-  caseworker presents  the  case to the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee where i t i s d i s c u s s e d thoroughly.  The  inmate i s then i n t e r v i e w e d  latter f u l l y participating that w i l l be of i n t e r e s t The training  and w i t h  the  a programme i s worked out f o r him  and p r o f i t to  him.  core of the Haney programme i s to be v o c a t i o n a l  and i t i s proposed to set up such shops as machine,  auto body, sheet metal, welding,  e l e c t r i c a l , b a r b e r i n g , motor  mechanics, woodworking ( c a b i n e t ) , woodworking ( c o n s t r u c t i o n ) , d i e s e l , plumbing, and  landscaping.  Besides  these twelve shops  an " e x p l o r a t o r y " shop w i l l be set up f o r d i a g n o s t i c purposes. Here an inmate who  i s unsure of what he wants and  i s an  "unknown" q u a n t i t y i n other ways can be observed by s t a f f  as  SI M P L I F \ E D  ORG-MSIZ  AT\cmAL  C H / \ R T  T H £ HANEY  OF  CORRECT* ON  \r\STiTUT\or\  W A R D E N  DE  PuTY  DEPUTY vJARDEN  VJARDEN  BURSAR  (TREATMEHT)  (CUSTODY)  SUPERVISOR OF 5oc.\M_ EPUCATlOH  LIBRARIAN  c F C L f t S S l FICKTtOH *C0UN6 E L L i n a  O F F I C E R S (12)  CASEWORKERS I.5T  RT INSTRUCTOR  PSYCHOLOGIST  ARTS • C R U F T S (ttSTRvJCTOR  SUPERVISOR O F  EDUCATION  MEDlCftL. CHAPLAINS  SERVICES HOSPVTM-  ACCOUNTING  DOCTOR  COMMISSARY  DEHTlST  CULINARY  PSYCHIATRIST  RECORDS  V O C f t T \ 0 N f t \ _  >WSTRUcToRS(/j  CORRECTIONAL OFf>CERS(^  TEACHERSW  LEGEND LmE op f\v)THOR\TT L I M E of S U P E R V I S I O N I i i COUNSELLING P R O G R A M M E PPvRT T m £ 3T*FE  F\Gr.  %  MAINTENANCE  -29part of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process. deal of on-the-job  I t i s hoped that a good  t r a i n i n g w i l l be given i n the maintenance  of the i n s t i t u t i o n to supplement the vocational t r a i n i n g of the shops.  Supplementary to vocational training i s the  academic t r a i n i n g where such subjects as drafting, mathematics and other s k i l l s e s s e n t i a l to many trades w i l l be taught. Furthermore f u l l academic education w i l l be available to i n mates who want t h i s whether or not they are taking a vocational course. The Haney i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l also have a d i v i s i o n of Recreation.  1  This d i v i s i o n w i l l be concerned about the  recreation of the inmate —  sports, physical t r a i n i n g of a l l  sorts, arts and c r a f t s , free time a c t i v i t i e s i n the house units, etc.  However, i t i s concerned, too, about recreation i n the  wider sense of the word —  growth of the i n d i v i d u a l , s o c i a l  education and development of s k i l l s and pleasures that may have a "carry-over" value after release.  I t w i l l be headed by a  trained and experienced group worker and staffed by a q u a l i f i e d physical education i n s t r u c t o r , and arts and craft instructor and twelve programme o f f i c e r s .  Consideration i s also being  given to the use of voluntary interest-group leaders from the community.  1 Since photostats were made of the chart ( F i g . 2) the name of t h i s d i v i s i o n has been changed from Social Education to Recreation.  -30Medical Services. A section of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s being given over to a well-staffed, well-equipped h o s p i t a l . Unfortunately plans c a l l f o r only a part-time doctor.  Besides  the doctor there w i l l be a part-time dentist, and a part-time psychiatrist.  In regard to the last-mentioned i t i s l i k e l y  that he w i l l be used as a psychiatric consultant and w i l l be working very c l o s e l y with the d i v i s i o n of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Counselling.  I t i s u n l i k e l y that such a person w i l l have  much time f o r giving d i r e c t psychiatric services to inmates. Religious services.  It i s planned that a f u l l - t i m e  Protestant chaplain w i l l be appointed and a part-time Roman Catholic chaplain.  Religious services, bible study, r e l i g -  ious discussion groups, and r e l i g i o u s counselling w i l l form the major part of t h i s service. Library.  A f u l l - t i m e l i b r a r i a n and an adequate l i b r a r y  i s being planned. D i v i s i o n of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Counselling.  This i s  the d i v i s i o n which relates most d i r e c t l y to the focus of t h i s thesis.  It w i l l be headed by a f u l l y professional and  exper-  ienced caseworker and staffed by f i v e professional caseworkers and a psychologist.  I t i s proposed that each of these case-  workers w i l l supervise the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r s , vocational i n s t r u c t o r s , teachers and perhaps other s t a f f who w i l l carry small caseloads of inmates whom they w i l l counsel.  Using cor-  r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r s as counsellors i s experimental and as one  -31w r i t e r f r a n k l y admits i n the case of h i s own "expedient",  1  and  the d e t a i l s have not  an  as yet been worked  I t i s hoped t h a t the present study w i l l be i n g j u s t how  institution,  of help  out.  i n determin-  much can be done along t h i s l i n e , what form t h i s  s o r t of c o u n s e l l i n g should between l a y c o u n s e l l o r s  and  take and  the d i v i s i o n of  labor As  p r o f e s s i o n a l caseworkers.  mentioned above, the p s y c h o l o g i s t  comes under t h i s  T h i s job has  p r e c i s e l y but  not yet been d e f i n e d  division.  one  would expect  h i s s e r v i c e s to i n c l u d e , i n the u s u a l case, an a p p r a i s a l of i n t e l l i g e n c e , p e r s o n a l i t y and  i n t e r e s t s , i n other cases voca-  t i o n a l t e s t i n g , i n t e n s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y a p p r a i s a l using techniques (T.A.T. and remedial reading.  Rorschach), v o c a t i o n a l guidance  I n regard  and  sociometric  of analy-  e v a l u a t i o n of the group, i n d i v i d u a l placements,  o f f e r i n g suggestions f o r replacement.  conduct group therapy w i t h s m a l l groups and small-scale  and  to the o v e r a l l f u n c t i o n i n g  the i n s t i t u t i o n , he might make an o c c a s i o n a l sis, facilitating  projective  research  He  might  also  might conduct  p r o j e c t s , p o s s i b l y concerned w i t h  solutions  of s p e c i f i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems i n the f u n c t i o n i n g o f  the  institution.  1 Clemmer, Donald, "Use of S u p e r v i s o r y C u s t o d i a l P e r s o n n e l as C o u n s e l l o r s : An E x p e d i e n t , " F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . V o l . XX, December 1 9 5 6 . pp. 36-42.  -32-  METHOD  S e l e c t i o n of cases The  o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s study was  a group of inmates who  to choose and  would be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  study  of the  of inmate to be s e l e c t e d f o r the new  p r i s o n at Haney.  t a l k s with p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s revealed  that no d e f i n i t e  c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g inmates f o r Haney had However, the p s y c h o l o g i s t Inspector  of Gaols had  Early  been worked  on the headquarters s t a f f of  done a p r e l i m i n a r y study of the  inmate p o p u l a t i o n of O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm. p l e t e d i n J u l y 1956,  type  helped the p l a n n i n g  out.  the total  T h i s study, coms t a f f o f Haney to  work out rough c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n of t h e i r f u t u r e populaI t showed f o r example t h a t there were 325  tion. w i t h two  previous  between the  committals or l e s s ;  ages of 23  and  45;  inmates  t h a t there were  t h a t there were 342  who  sentences of s i x months or more;  t h a t there were 300  between the ages of 18  and  had  or more and  same group who  committals; The  246  o f the  that 313  45 who  claimed  McAllister study  there were between 250  and  1  had inmates  sentences of s i x months had  two  or l e s s  grade V I I I or higher  previous  education.  showed t h a t during J u l y  300  304  1956  inmates t h a t , g e n e r a l l y speak-  i n g , might have enough b a s i c education,  might be  considered  1 See Appendix "B" f o r f u l l d e t a i l s of t h i s study done by Mr. Robert M c A l l i s t e r , p s y c h o l o g i s t f o r the P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service.  -33-  n o n - h a b i t u a l , and might be young enough s t i l l vocational training.  to p r o f i t  by  F a c i l i t i e s were b e i n g p r o v i d e d f o r  g i v i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g t o 250 rectional Institution.  inmates at the Haney Cor-  With these f a c t s i n mind the  criteria  noted on page 25 (Chapter I I ) were accepted as t e n t a t i v e , working  criteria.  rary.  No  findings.  T h i s set of c r i t e r i a i s a d m i t t e d l y a r b i t -  attempt was  made t o adhere  F o r example, the age agreed upon was  45 y e a r s as i n the r e p o r t but was years.  s t r i c t l y to the M c A l l i s t e r  lowered  a r b i t r a r i l y t o 40  Likewise the e d u c a t i o n requirement was  Grade V I .  not up t o  lowered to  The c r i t e r i a chosen f o r the purposes o f t h i s study  adhere c l o s e l y t o those mentioned, w i t h some n e c e s s a r y m o d i f i c a t i o n s noted below. a. b. c. d. e. f.  g.  h.  age - 18-40 i n c l u s i v e sentence - not l e s s than s i x months e d u c a t i o n - Grade VI or b e t t e r p r e v i o u s committals - not more than two no h i s t o r y of drug a d d i c t i o n no h i s t o r y of c h r o n i c a l c o h o l i s m (By t h i s i s meant no inmate was chosen who had been sentenced t o p r i s o n f o r o f f e n s e s that i n v o l v e d , s o l e l y , the heavy consumption of a l c o h o l ) no p h y s i c a l handicaps (As t h i s study attempts t o choose and study the needs of t y p i c a l f u t u r e inmates of Haney i t was decided t o r u l e out persons who had handicaps because by nature o f the handicap they might be considered a t y p i c a l ) r e l e a s e date - not b e f o r e March 1 0 , 1957 ( T h i s r u l e d out a f a i r l y l a r g e group of inmates but i t was necessary t o be c e r t a i n t h a t the inmates chosen f o r the study would be i n the p r i s o n long enough t o complete the study)  I t w i l l be noted that c r i t e r i o n (h) on page 25 i s not I n c l u d e d i n the c r i t e r i a f o r the study.  T h i s i s f o r the obvious reason  -34-  t h a t not u n t i l a thorough study had been done on each could one determine whether o r not the inmates might respond t o and p r o f i t by v o c a t i o n a l  training.  The above c r i t e r i a were a p p l i e d t o the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n f o r Westgate U n i t .  Westgate was  chosen because i n c o n f e r -  ence w i t h the Warden of O a k a l l a and h i s deputy i t was  revealed  t h a t the inmates were s e l e c t e d f o r Westgate more o r l e s s on the b a s i s o f the same s o r t o f c r i t e r i a t h a t were worked out f o r the study.  I t was  thought, t o o , that the t o t a l study  would be f a c i l i t a t e d by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h i s one l a r g e U n i t , where the environmental f a c t o r s would be more o r l e s s a constant f a c t o r .  By chance, e x a c t l y 100 inmates o f Westgate  f i t t e d these c r i t e r i a .  An a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t was  c o n t a i n i n g these 100 names. 100 and e v e r y f i f t h name was names were chosen f o r study.  drawn up  They were numbered from 1 t o checked.  The twenty checked  B e f o r e the s t u d y was  completed  two of the inmates from t h i s group were t r a n s f e r r e d to o u t s i d e f o r e s t r y camps connected w i t h the p r i s o n .  Another o f the  twenty was l a t e r d i s c o v e r e d to be e p i l e p t i c and had t o be considered a t y p i c a l i n l i g h t of c r i t e r i o n ( g ) . manipulate the method o f choosing the men out a way  o f choosing t h r e e more i t was  Rather than  f o r study and work  decided to c o n s i d e r  the seventeen remaining persons as a reasonable sample o f the type of inmate who was  l i k e l y to be chosen f o r v o c a t i o n a l  t r a i n i n g at the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l  Institution.  -35-  Sources of I n f o r m a t i o n .  The  used i n studying these seventeen men ( I ) Warden's f i l e s , (3)  (2)  (6)  (4)  were as f o l l o w s :  f o r those who  Westgate f i l e s ,  interview with medical o f f i c e r ,  (7)  (5)  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h inmates, (10)  i n t e r v i e w w i t h vocaofficers,  group d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h  An e x p l a n a t o r y  been to  records,  r e s u l t s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s performed by the  fication officers. of  had  medical  t i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r s , (8) i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t i e r  (II)  information  C r i m i n a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n Branch Packs,  Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School f i l e s  that i n s t i t u t i o n ,  sources o f  (9)  inmates, classi-  note i s needed f o r each  these. 1.  Warden's f i l e .  T h i s f i l e c o n t a i n s the most p e r t i -  nent m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e i n the p r i s o n about the p r i s o n e r . statistical  m a t e r i a l , correspondence, s o c i a l h i s t o r y , p r e -  sentence r e p o r t , summaries of v o c a t i o n a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l other  All  and  such t e s t s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s r e p o r t , copies  of  r e p o r t s to the B r i t i s h Columbia P a r o l e Board, f a c t s about previous  committals. 2.  C r i m i n a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n Branch Packs.  These c o n t a i n  r e p o r t s on each inmate from the C r i m i n a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n Branch, F i n g e r P r i n t S e c t i o n , R.C.M.P., Ottawa, and accurate  r e c o r d of a l l i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e s  give the  only  committed by  the  inmate anywhere i n Canada. 3.  Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School f i l e s .  k i n d l y requested to send i t s f i l e s  the B. I . S.,  The Warden's o f f i c e  Brannan Lake, Vancouver I s l a n d ,  on a l l the inmates s t u d i e d who  contact w i t h t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n .  had  had  These were p a r t i c u l a r l y  some complete  -36files, from  usually containing a f u l l  the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c ,  inmate's behavior w h i l e 4.  by t h e  and  detailed  These f i l e s  Medical records,  6.  Interview with Medical O f f i c e r .  who  both  some i n m a t e s u n d e r ?•  Each record  officer  and  the inmate's progress  i n shop and  as w e l l as b e h a v i o r ,  officers.  9.  r o l e was.  inmates  Interview w i t h inmates.  twice with  interviews.  Prior  about the  i n t e r v i e w by  an i n t e r v a l to the  study.  o f two first  The  were  attitude  toward  t h e y m i g h t have  charge,  Besides  s t u d i e d were  T h e s e men  their  success  inmates under t h e i r  seemed t o f e e l t h e i r p r e s s i o n s o f the  and  determining  attitude.  interviewed with a view to determining what e x p e r i e n c e  a view to  These  his potential for vocational  and  Interview with t i e r  c o u n s e l l i n g the  his  study.  members o f s t a f f were i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h  the inmates,  was  c o n t r i b u t e d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about  Interview with vocational i n s t r u c t o r s .  8.  and  and  assistant  ledge  the  c o n t a i n monthly  5.  i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h the medical  seen  r e p o r t s on  officer.  discussed  in  report  t h e v o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r o r work gang g u a r d  tier  training  and  i n the s c h o o l .  Westgate f i l e s .  r e p o r t s by  social history  this,  and  what  their  had they  own  recorded. Each o f the inmates  and  was  t h r e e weeks b e t w e e n  i n t e r v i e w t h e y had  writer started  i n t r o d u c i n g h i m s e l f and  im-  the  out  study.  the  no  know-  first  Each  inmate  - 3 7 -  was  shown a copy of the t h e s i s o u t l i n e and  were answered f r a n k l y and p a r t i c u l a r group was the Warden had  honestly.  chosen was  questions  Explanation  given.  I t was  the p r i s o n e r i n the i n t e r v i e w would not be  way  w i t h the p r i s o n .  I t was  interested i n prisons w i t h the p r i s o n .  and  I t was  the i n t e r v i e w s would be  explained  any  made c l e a r t h a t the w r i t e r  was  p r i s o n e r s but was explained  others  The  i n no way  connected  that w h i l e the r e s u l t s o f study  inmate was  everything  and  study then he was be r e s p e c t e d .  and  writer  that without  the study would not be p o s s i b l e .  impressed upon each man  f o r c e d upon him  t o l d t h a t the  h i s i n t e r e s t and h i s h e l p ;  l i k e him  that  writer  p o s s i b l e would be done to d i s g u i s e the m a t e r i a l  would a p p r e c i a t e  i t was  this  shared i n  summarized i n the  no names would be used.  and  of how  agreed t h a t whatever went on between the  and  t h a t was  about i t  t h a t t h i s was  him  However,  not going to  be  i f he would r a t h e r not p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s  q u i t e f r e e t o say  so and  H i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  probably could o n l y be v a l u a b l e  h i s f e e l i n g s would  quite voluntary  and  i f he came i n t o i t because  he  r e a l l y wanted t o . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t not one withdrew and  on the  w i t h the p r o j e c t . w r i t e r had  I t was  explained  t o the inmate,  the Warden's f i l e  about him.  The  I t was  and  that  therefore  the had  notes taken from the Warden's  f i l e were gone over w i t h the inmate who certain material.  seventeen  c o n t r a r y seemed most i n t e r e s t e d i n h e l p i n g  a l r e a d y read  some i n f o r m a t i o n  o f the  explained,  added or  modified  too, that the  writer  -38-  would be checking other a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n the p r i s o n about him — the guards.  Westgate f i l e ,  medical r e c o r d , d i s c u s s i o n w i t h  The w r i t e r s a i d t h a t i f they were agreeable he  would l i k e t o see them each at l e a s t once more and would a l s o l i k e t o have d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h s m a l l groups of them. attempt was  Every  made to put the inmate at h i s ease and make him  i n t e r e s t e d i n the study. t h i s i n t e r e s t throughout  The m a j o r i t y seemed to m a i n t a i n the s t u d y and t h r e e were p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n t e r e s t e d - so much so that they asked i f the w r i t e r would mind i f they looked him up a f t e r t h e i r r e l e a s e i n o r d e r t o continue d i s c u s s i o n . acceptance  No doubt the need f o r c o u n s e l l i n g , f o r  and understanding was  a l s o no doubt about  o p e r a t i v e here but there  the genuineness  was  o f these three men's  i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t . An i n d i c a t i o n of the d e s i r e t o be honest w i t h the w r i t e r about  themselves  i s shown i n the case of "Q"  the i n f o r m a t i o n taken from the warden's f i l e , i n f o r m a t i o n was wrong.  He  who,  i n discussing  s a i d t h a t the  admitted t h a t he had g i v e n a f a l s e  s t o r y t o the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r who  prepared the  pre-sentence  r e p o r t and had continued t o give t h i s f a l s e s t o r y t o the p r i s o n officials.  As t h i s was  checking and he was proceeded  his f i r s t  o f f e n s e t h e r e was  able to perpetuate t h i s f a l s e s t o r y .  of He  afterwards t o give the c o r r e c t f a c t s which were almost  the r e v e r s e of the s t o r y i n the r e c o r d . t h i s frankness was was  no way  Another  example o f  r e v e a l e d when a d i s c u s s i o n about u s i n g drugs  t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h one  inmate.  The  inmate stopped  and  -39-  asked f o r assurance of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y g i v e n , admitted  that he was  been caught and  there was  fact.  Still  he was  married  visit  him.  of the two  a drug user —  no i n d i c a t i o n  another admitted  was  A separate interviews.  headings and  and the corresponding  interview, s t a t i s t i c a l important  prepared  this that  able to f o r each  t h e i r numbers were  number on the i n t e r v i e w  In t h i s way  was  I f not obtained  i n the  other f a c t s  was  guides  the i n t e r v i e w  m a t e r i a l and  were e l i c i t e d  never  to any of the headings  kept more i n f o r m a l and n o n - d i r e c t i v e .  considered  f a l s e l y said  i n t e r v i e w guide was The  was  on h i s r e c o r d of  i n o r d e r that h i s g i r l f r i e n d would be  w r i t t e n i n the margin.  first  after this though he had  t h a t he had  memorized and i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g recorded  and,  i n the  t h a t were  second. 1  A technique was  known as the " C r i t i c a l  used d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w .  plified  the o r i g i n a l t e c h n i q u e .  separate  questions:  about the p r i s o n . inmate was  10.  He  w r i t e r modified  (Very l i t t l e  and  asked each inmate  (1) What i n h i s o p i n i o n was  t o l d to i n t e r p r e t  i n h i s o p i n i o n was  The  I n c i d e n t Method"  e x p l a n a t i o n was  two  the worst t h i n g g i v e n and  t h i s as he wished.)  the best thing about the  sim-  (2)  the  What  prison?  Group d i s c u s s i o n s with inmates.  ble to meet i n group s e s s i o n s w i t h every one  I t was o f the  not p o s s i seventeen.  1 Flanagan, John C , and Burns, Robert K., "The Employee Performance Record: A New A p p r a i s a l and Development T o o l , " Harvard Business Review, September-October, 1955- v o l . 33, pp. 95-102.  -40-  T h i s was the f i n a l p a r t o f the study and u n f o r t u n a t e l y one o f the seventeen had been t r a n s f e r r e d to f o r e s t r y camp, two were i n the Elementary T r a i n i n g Unit ( t h e " h o l e " ) f o r d i s c i p l i n a r y reasons and were not a v a i l a b l e , and t h r e e expressed some f e a r of j o i n i n g such a group  and requested that they not be i n c l u d e d .  The e l e v e n remaining inmates were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups, o f f i v e and s i x r e s p e c t i v e l y . each group.  One l e n g t h y s e s s i o n was h e l d w i t h  The group had no s t r u c t u r e .  The w r i t e r e x p l a i n e d  to the men that he was i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g about them, about the p r i s o n , about t h e i r i d e a s about p r i s o n , about a s s o c i a t e d w i t h being i n p r i s o n .  problems  They were asked t o t a l k  f r e e l y and about what they l i k e d t a l k i n g about o r would be i n t e r ested i n t a l k i n g about.  However, they were asked t o keep i n  mind t h a t the w r i t e r was l o o k i n g f o r a l l s o r t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n about p r i s o n l i f e  and t h e i r response to i t .  These were l o n g  s e s s i o n s and although the w r i t e r kept notes throughout, i n e v i t a b l y much was missed. 11.  Psychological Tests.  Although some o f the inmates  s t u d i e d had been g i v e n p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s i n the past the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r agreed to t e s t a l l of the seventeen and the r e s u l t s o f these were passed along t o the w r i t e r . The i n t e r v i e w was seen as the b a s i c method of the study. T h i s can be seen by examining the breakdown o f time spent on the v a r i o u s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l t o o l s : 42 hours; files —  (2) i n t e r v i e w i n g s t a f f — 9 hours;  (4) group  (1) i n t e r v i e w i n g 13 hours;  inmates  (3) summarizing  s e s s i o n s w i t h inmates —  6 hours.  -41-  The s e t t i n g i n which the seventeen inmates were housed while the study was  going on and the s e t t i n g i n which men  like  them w i l l he imprisoned i n the f u t u r e has been o u t l i n e d i n t h i s chapter.  A l s o , the r e s e a r c h method used i n g a t h e r i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n about the inmates has been d e s c r i b e d . i a l o b t a i n e d by means o f the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l t o o l s was voluminous. carefully sifted  The  mater-  mentioned  F o r the purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s i t has  been  and the p o i n t s r e l e v a n t to the c e n t r a l o b j e c -  t i v e s o f the study have been summarized  i n Chapter I I I .  CHAPTER I I I  INMATES AS PERSONS  S c r u t i n y of a l l i n f o r m a t i o n teen inmates and  c o l l e c t e d about the  seven-  the p r i s o n u n i t i n which they were housed l e d  to a c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l under a number of headings. The  f i n d i n g s i n d e t a i l e d form were f i r s t gathered under these  headings and  from t h i s the  s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s were drawn and  summarized or o u t l i n e d i n t a b u l a r form.  These summaries  and  t a b l e s are presented i n t h i s chapter f o r the most p a r t without comment or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  F a m i l y Background Twelve out of the  seventeen men  studied l o s t  their  f a t h e r s , e i t h e r by d i v o r c e , s e p a r a t i o n or death, before ing  the age  of nine y e a r s .  during i n f a n c y .  F i v e of these l o s t t h e i r  F i v e of the twelve had  a l l cases they d i d not l i k e them and Three others  of the twelve had  fathers  s t e p - f a t h e r s but  felt  were promiscuous  i n t h e i r mothers' l i v e s  were r a t h e r vague f a t h e r f i g u r e s .  in  r e j e c t e d by them.  mothers who  they remembered a s e r i e s of men  reach-  In a l l cases these  who "step-  f a t h e r s " were a c t i v e l y d i s l i k e d by the inmates as c h i l d r e n . Of the remaining f i v e , two w i t h the f a t h e r but meaningful t i e .  seemed to have had  the other  three f e l t  Thus i t can be  good r e l a t i o n s  there was  no  seen that f o u r t e e n of  and  close, the  -43-  group s t u d i e d were d e p r i v e d o f meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a father  figure. Only f o u r of the seventeen had s a t i s f y i n g  with t h e i r mothers.  relationships  F i v e mothers were promiscuous and one was  actually a prostitute.  Two o t h e r s were heavy d r i n k e r s , one  was r i g i d l y r e l i g i o u s , one was a b r u t a l deaf mute and the o t h e r three were unstable i n other ways.  I n a l l t h i r t e e n cases these  mothers showed obvious r e j e c t i o n o f t h e i r sons or the inmates felt  s t r o n g l y t h a t they were r e j e c t e d by these mothers.  In  summary i t can be s a i d t h a t t h i r t e e n , t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the group, had r e j e c t i n g and u n s t a b l e mothers who could not s a t i s f a c torily  meet the b a s i c emotional needs o f t h e i r  children.  Only f o u r of the seventeen had s i b l i n g s who had been i n t r o u b l e w i t h the law.  S i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s were not d i s c u s s e d  i n d e t a i l w i t h t h i s group.  However, most spoke o f f a i r l y  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s .  good  On the p a r t o f at  l e a s t f o u r there was an e x p r e s s i o n o f being the " b l a c k sheep" of  the f a m i l y —  than they.  other s i b l i n g s having become more  successful  Only one was an " o n l y " c h i l d , s i x were o l d e s t  l i n g s , nine were middle  and o n l y one was the youngest  A l l who had younger s i b l i n g s expressed g u i l t  about  sib-  sibling.  setting a  bad example t o the younger ones. Four had spent p a r t o f t h e i r e a r l y years i n f o s t e r homes. One o f these f e l t  that the f o s t e r home had been a p o s i t i v e  i e n c e , two expressed i n t e n s e b i t t e r n e s s about  exper-  the way i n whieh  44-  they had been t r e a t e d by f o s t e r parents  and the fourth," while  not b i t t e r , s a i d he had not been happy i n the f o s t e r home. In summary i t can be s t a t e d that s i x of the seventeen homes o f the men s t u d i e d could be c a t e g o r i z e d as p a t h o l o g i c a l and one extremely so.  Seven others  c o u l d be s a i d t o be u n s a t i s -  f a c t o r y homes, where the needs o f the c h i l d r e n were g i v e n or no c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  little  Only f o u r could be s a i d to be good homes  and y e t three o f these had no f a t h e r f i g u r e a f t e r the inmate was e i g h t years o f age.  Thus t h i r t e e n o f the inmates were  r a i s e d i n v e r y poor homes where t h e i r b a s i c needs c o u l d not have been met adequately.  Only one o f the seventeen could be s a i d  to have come from a "•normal parents  l o v e d each other  11  home - t h a t i s , a home where two  and l o v e d and t r i e d t o meet the needs  of the c h i l d r e n .  Marital  Relationships Of the e i g h t inmates who are married,  separated  orced none are without some s o r t o f prohlem i n t h i s A. l o v e s h i s wife d e a l t o him.  and three  area.  They mean a great  However, s h o r t l y a f t e r coming t o p r i s o n h i s w i f e  sought l e g a l counsel papers.  small c h i l d r e n .  or div-  and attempted t o get him t o s i g n  separation  She had some i d e a t h a t t h i s was what he wanted.  l i v e s i n another province  She  and he has not been able t o t a l k t h i s  out w i t h her and has had t o t r y t o s t r a i g h t e n out t h i s m a r i t a l problem by correspondence. ciliation.  H i s wife  B. i s separated  but wants a recon-  a l s o l i v e s i n another province  and he  -45-  cannot  do anything about h i s problem w i t h h i s wife u n t i l he  is released.  I n the meantime t h i s i s an area o f a n x i e t y and  concern f o r him.  E . i s separated from h i s w i f e and has now  f a l l e n i n l o v e w i t h another woman whom he wants t o marry. H i s wife i s i n another country and the p o s s i b i l i t y of d i v o r c e i s remote.  F . married  pregnant.  a f i f t e e n year o l d g i r l when she became  G. separated from h i s w i f e when she began going out  w i t h o t h e r men.  I . i s married but i s consumed w i t h a n x i e t y  because h i s w i f e i n h e r l e t t e r s speaks o f d i v o r c e . in  another province and he f i n d s correspondence  cult.  ing  with her d i f f -  L. married a g i r l p r i o r t o coming t o p r i s o n because  she was pregnant. of  She l i v e s  1.' s w i f e i s on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e and because  l i m i t e d income i s f o r c e d t o l i v e w i t h i n l a w s , w i t h accompanyproblems.  marriage  I n summary i t can be s a i d t h a t problems around  are common among these p r i s o n e r s and t h a t being i n  p r i s o n not o n l y aggravates  p r e - e x i s t i n g problems but c r e a t e s  new ones.  L e i s u r e Time E l e v e n spent a major p o r t i o n o f t h e i r time around" w i t h the gang.  "hanging  "Hanging around" i s , o f course, a com-  mon s o c i a l phenomenon i n our c u l t u r e and has no n e c e s s a r y connection with delinquency. that "hanging  The m a j o r i t y of t h i s group s a i d  around" e v e n t u a l l y l e d them i n t o t r o u b l e .  were always l o o k i n g f o r excitement, g e s t i o n which promised  fora thrill,  They  and any sug-  t o give t h i s was f o l l o w e d up.  Two o r  three spent some time hunting o r f i s h i n g , t h i r t e e n p a r t i c i p a t e d  -46i n one or more forms of a t h l e t i c s and f o u r of these p l a y e d on teams.  Nine s a i d they had no hobby whatever, three gave  "working  on c a r s " as a hobby, two  photography,  one woodworking and one w r i t i n g .  hobbies i t was hobbies.  s a i d model b u i l d i n g ,  two  In discussing  r e v e a l e d that o n l y the l a s t t h r e e were bona f i d e  Model b u i l d i n g was  something  t h a t was  short p e r i o d d u r i n g pre-adolescence, "working  done f o r a  on c a r s " seemed  to be t i n k e r i n g once i n a w h i l e w i t h somebody's  automobile.  So, i n f a c t , a l l but f o u r had no r e a l hobby. I n summary i t can be s a i d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the group had never l e a r n e d to use t h e i r f r e e time i n a s a t i s f y i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e way.  and  About t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of them spent the major  p a r t of t h e i r time "hanging  around"  and d i d not have any  real  i n t e r e s t s or hobbies.  Social Relationships Male companions.  Nine s a i d t h e i r f r i e n d s were " o t h e r  f e l l o w s " l i k e themselves  who  were o f t e n i n t r o u b l e w i t h the  and were always l o o k i n g f o r a " t h r i l l " .  One  f r i e n d s and two  The remainder  s a i d they had v e r y few.  s a i d he had  s a i d t h e i r f r i e n d s were decent, l a w - a b i d i n g persons.  law  no  (five) Most of  the f i r s t - m e n t i o n e d nine admitted t h a t they were h e a v i l y  influ-  enced by the behaviour and a c t i v i t i e s of the gang they a s s o c i a t e d w i t h and almost activity.  always got i n t o t r o u b l e as p a r t of a gang  None t r i e d t o p l a c e blame on the group f o r t h e i r  d e l i n q u e n t behavior —  a l l admitted t o wanting  and h e l p i n g i n p l a n n i n g gang a c t i v i t y .  the  excitement  On the o t h e r hand,  -47-  most admitted they would not have got i n t o as much t r o u b l e if  they had not been "hanging  around" w i t h the gang.  The  l a s t f i v e f e l t they were d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r f r i e n d s and compared themselves  u n f a v o r a b l y w i t h them.  This  comparison  i n a l l cases seemed t o b r i n g out a strong f e e l i n g i n a l l about  t h e i r low p e r s o n a l worth. Female companions.  S i x have had steady g i r l  friends  i n the p a s t , t h i r t e e n have had promiscuous p r e - m a r i t a l sex relations.  Four o f these a l s o had a n o n - p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n -  ship w i t h a "decent" g i r l  at the same time they were having  sex r e l a t i o n s w i t h the promiscuous type o f g i r l . Summary.  I n t a l k i n g w i t h these men about  their  social  r e l a t i o n s h i p s one gets the f e e l i n g that on the whole they form only s u p e r f i c i a l f r i e n d s h i p s . and, being concerned  They are b a s i c a l l y  narcissistic  o n l y w i t h s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r own needs, are  not able t o give much t o a p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p - i t must give something of  to them.  T h i s would apply to at l e a s t  twelve  the seventeen and p o s s i b l y to one o r two more.  Age The  age o f the inmates was p a r t l y governed  by the  c r i t e r i a (as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I ) , one of which was t h a t the s e l e c t e d inmates years i n c l u s i v e .  should be from e i g h t e e n years t o f o r t y  However, w i t h i n t h a t range  as noted on  Table A we have three who are between 33 and 36 years ive;  seven between the ages o f 20 and 24;  18 o r 19 years of age.  inclus-  and seven who were  T h e r e f o r e there were f o u r t e e n who  were between the ages o f 18 and 24, w e l l over t h r e e - q u a r t e r s  -48-  of  the t o t a l group.  I t would seem, on the b a s i s of t h i s ,  that the l a r g e s t number o f f u t u r e inmates o f Haney w i l l i n t h i s younger age group.  T h i s , of course, i s important i n  that i t has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r programme p l a n n i n g . e s t i n g t h a t no one between the age o f 25 and 32 appeared i n t h i s group.  fall  It i s interinclusive  Whether o r not t h i s i s d i a g n o s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t could o n l y be determined by the breakdown of ages for  the t o t a l inmate p o p u l a t i o n of the p r o v i n c e .  Intelligence Three, or c l o s e t o 18 per cent, f e l l i n t o the aboveaverage o r s u p e r i o r group.  Six f e l l  i n t o the high-average,  two i n the average and f o u r i n the low-average — about 70 per cent were i n the average group. to  12 per cent f e l l i n the below-average group.  Lowrey,  1  would be: cent;  that i s ,  Two,  or c l o s e  A c c o r d i n g to  the p e r f e c t d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the whole p o p u l a t i o n v e r y s u p e r i o r - 3 per cent;  average - 50 per cent;  v e r y i n f e r i o r - 3 per c e n t .  above-average - 22 per  below-average - 22 per cent; Leaving out the extremes on both  ends, except f o r r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n i n the average range the sample group r e p r e s e n t s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e from the normal d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n .  1 Lowrey, Lawson G., P s y c h i a t r y f o r S o c i a l Workers, U. P r e s s , New York, 1946, p. 48.  Columbia  -49-  Education Table A shows grade completed and Ten l e f t  age on l e a v i n g s c h o o l .  s c h o o l at the age of f i f t e e n or e a r l i e r .  Only  one  completed grade X I I and he went on to complete one year u n i v e r sity.  Three l e f t  s c h o o l i n order to help w i t h f a m i l y f i n a n c i n g ,  three wanted to go to work ( o n l y one of these had  a reasonably  s t a b l e work r e c o r d a f t e r w a r d ) , t h r e e l e f t when they were sent to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , one  left  to take  technical  t r a i n i n g i n a p r i v a t e t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l (he never completed one was  suspended f o r truancy, two  failed  this),  and l o s t i n t e r e s t ,  one  j o i n e d the RCAF, two l e f t because they d i d not l i k e s c h o o l , one got " f e d up"  and wanted to wander a b i t .  r a t e student who  enjoyed  studying.  Only one was  a first-  Four others seemed to have  done f a i r l y w e l l and to have p r o f i t e d by the s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . The o t h e r twelve i n v a r y i n g degrees found  school  difficult,  f r u s t r a t i n g , u n i n t e r e s t i n g and so t r u a n t e d , caused c l a s s , were unhappy, and found  trouble i n  i t a r e l i e f to be able to l e a v e .  I n summary i t can be s t a t e d t h a t twelve had u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s c h o o l experiences but that of t h i s group at l e a s t expressed  the wish t h a t they could have found i t more i n t e r e s t -  i n g and wished now Most f e l t  half  t h a t they had  gone on f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d .  the need of more e d u c a t i o n but because of the  t i o n s of the past would be v e r y f e a r f u l of t a k i n g up work a g a i n .  frustra-  academic  At l e a s t t h r e e s t a t e d t h a t they would l i k e  to  take s p e c i a l courses i n mathematics t h a t would be an a i d to them i n the trades they p l a n to f o l l o w .  One  would l i k e to take  -50-  INTELLIGENCE;  GRADE COMPLETED  AGE ON LEAVING SCHOOL  MARITAL STATUS  NATIONAL BACKGROUND OF FATHER  A  35  AA  11  18  M  Canadian  United  Salesman  B  24  HA  9  19  Se  English  Ch of E .  Laborer  C  20  BA  7  16  S  Fr.  R. C.  Laborer  D  20  HA  10  16  S  Norwegian  Quaker  Mechanic  E  36  AA  11  17  D  English  Ch of E .  Writer  F  24  HA  6  13  M  Irish  R. C.  Laborer  G  33  LA  6  11  Se  Fr.  Can.  R. C.  Cat D r i v e r  H  19  LA  7  15  S  Canadian  R. C.  Laborer  I  24  HA  7  15  M  Scottish  United  Truck D r i v e r  J  19  A  7  15  S  Irish  Lutheran  Laborer  K  19  HA  8  15  S  Fr.  R. C.  Laborer  L  19  BA  7  15  M  Germ./Dut. United  Truck D r i v e r  M  19  LA  7  15  S  B.C.Indian R. C.  Laborer  N  18  HA  9  16  S  Russian  United  Laborer  0  24  LA  8  15  M  Irish  R. C.  Mechanic  P  23  A  9  15  S  Scottish  United  Laborer  Q  19  AA  Un. 20  S  Austrian  United  Student  Key:  1  1 yr  Can.  Can.  AA - Above-average ;1 LA HA - High-Average BA A - Average 2 M - Married 2 D S - Single SE -  OCCUPATION  CHURCH DENOMINATION  2  AGE  Leading P e r s o n a l Data About Inmates S t u d i e d  INMATE  TABLE A.  Low-Average Below-Average Divorced Separated  -51-  a course i n w r i t i n g and  another would l i k e to take a course  through the E x t e n s i o n Department of the U n i v e r s i t y .  The  i n t e r e s t i n academic e d u c a t i o n on the p a r t of a l l but one two  i s at present v e r y  or  low.  Employment Only f o u r had h e l d r e l a t i v e l y steady jobs i n the p a s t . F i v e others have worked most of the time but have changed jobs r e p e a t e d l y . extremely  poor work r e c o r d s —  since l e a v i n g s c h o o l  The balance, 8, have had  unemployed most of the  time,  t a k i n g jobs f o r a few days or weeks and then l e a v i n g without n o t i c e , being f i r e d f o r being u n r e l i a b l e or incompetent. f i v e of the group had their future.  Only  c l e a r - c u t , r e a l i s t i c v o c a t i o n a l plans f o r  Four o t h e r s had  most vague and i n d e f i n i t e .  some t e n t a t i v e plans which were  Seven expressed  or i n d i c a t e d i n  other ways that they were u n c e r t a i n and confused  about  v o c a t i o n a l f u t u r e and one maintained  going to f o l l o w  t h a t he was  their  a c r i m i n a l career and become a top s a f e c r a c k e r , at l e a s t  until  he had b u i l t up a s i z a b l e stake f o r h i m s e l f . Thus twelve i n d i c a t e d v o c a t i o n a l problems b o r d e r i n g the p a t h o l o g i c a l .  on  However, when they were asked what s o r t of  t r a i n i n g programme they would set up f o r themselves i f they  had  t h i s choice most were able to s t a t e areas of some i n t e r e s t . These are t a b u l a t e d i n Table B. to  I n twelve  cases these seemed  be q u i t e r e a l i s t i c c h o i c e s i n the l i g h t of the man's a s s e t s  and l i a b i l i t i e s  as observed  by the w r i t e r .  However, i n many  -52-  cases they would be r e a l i s t i c o n l y i f some of the man's o t h e r problems were being met at the same time.  Summary The m a j o r i t y o f the men s t u d i e d have had extremely poor work h i s t o r i e s and t h i r t e e n have never had a r e a l l y work e x p e r i e n c e .  satisfying  They l a c k t r a i n i n g , d e s i r e t o work, and  p e r s o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and have f e a r s about employment i n the f u t u r e .  Even the few who have p o s i t i v e goals f o r the  f u t u r e and who have worked  s t e a d i l y i n the past express concern  and f e a r about the problem the e x - c r i m i n a l faces i n f i n d i n g and r e t a i n i n g a job.  Without doubt t h i s whole  area c o n s t i t u t e s a  v e r y k n o t t y problem t o the inmate both i n r e l a t i o n t o v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n the p r i s o n and t o employment a f t e r r e l e a s e .  Religion The r e l i g i o u s backgrounds o f the inmates under study, as noted i n T a b l e A, do not appear t o have much s i g n i f i c a n c e except t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n o f Roman C a t h o l i c s seems r a t h e r h i g h . Seven of the group are Roman C a t h o l i c s .  T h i s seems h i g h when  one c o n s i d e r s that the percentage o f Roman C a t h o l i c s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia i s o n l y 8 . 8 . cussed q u i t e f u l l y w i t h each inmate.  1  R e l i g i o n was d i s -  One claimed he was an  1 The Ninth Census o f Canada i n 1951 gives the t o t a l populat i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia as 1 , 1 6 5 , 2 1 0 and the t o t a l Roman Catho l i e p o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia as 1 0 3 , 8 3 7 o r 8 . 8 p e r c e n t .  -53-  TABLE B.  Summary o f R e p l i e s t o the Q u e s t i o n "What K i n d o f V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Programme Would you Choose f o r Yourself?"  A  B u s i n e s s methods; p u b l i c speaking; salesmanship; Gr. X I I "  B  Construction  C  Welding;  D  Motor mechanics  E  Writing;  study o f human p e r s o n a l i t y  F  Logging;  business methods  G  P r a c t i c a l mechanics u s e f u l t o c a t d r i v e r  H  Logging  I  Motor mechanics  J  Optical-lens grinding,  K  Motor mechanics  L  D i e s e l mechanics;  M  D i e s e l mechanics  N  Anything that w i l l be an a i d i n s a f e - c r a c k i n g  0  Mechanics;  P  Electricity  Q  Advanced mathematics;  - c a r p e n t r y , b r i c k l a y i n g and i n s u l a t i o n  mathematics  e t c . , o r machine shop  mathematics  mathematics  electronics  -54-  a g n o s t i c though n o m i n a l l y o f the Church o f England.  Seven  others s a i d r e l i g i o n had no meaning f o r them i n any form of  these were Roman C a t h o l i c ) .  (four  The a t t i t u d e s o f the remaining  nine v a r i e d from the t h r e e who thought r e l i g i o n was a good t h i n g and who attended church because  they b e l i e v e d i t was h e l p f u l t o  them, t o the other s i x who were o n l y m i l d l y i n t e r e s t e d but i n a vague way thought t h e r e was p r o b a b l y something T h i s l a t t e r group could not say why they f e l t r e a l c o n v i c t i o n s about  good about i t .  t h i s and had no  religion.  The m a j o r i t y who attended church s e r v i c e at O a k a l l a d i d so because  i t was a d i v e r s i o n , a chance t o see people from the  " o u t s i d e " and p a r t i c u l a r l y the women who came t o some o f the services.  Some attend both the Roman C a t h o l i c s e r v i c e and the  P r o t e s t a n t one.  F o r none o f the seventeen was r e l i g i o n a v i t a l ,  meaningful t h i n g —  even those few who s a i d they b e l i e v e d i n the  church showed a marked l a c k o f enthusiasm  for i t .  None o f the  group had had o c c a s i o n t o meet and t a l k t o the padres and none felt  t h i s was something  they would want to do.  admitted that an o c c a s i o n might  However, t h r e e  a r i s e i n the f u t u r e when a t a l k  w i t h the padre might be p r o f i t a b l e .  Two thought they might be  i n t e r e s t e d i n a d i s c u s s i o n group on r e l i g i o n and two s a i d  that  s i n g i n g hymns d u r i n g the s e r v i c e was the t h i n g they enjoyed most of  all.  -55Health  and  Habits  The  h e a l t h of those i n the sample group was  good.  The  on the whole  complaints f i v e of them s u f f e r from are  considered  by the m e d i c a l o f f i c e r to have an emotional b a s i s . one  uses tobacco, a l l d r i n k f a i r l y h e a v i l y — one  they were heavy d r i n k e r s and erate d r i n k e r s . i t was  revealed  half said  the other h a l f s a i d they were mod-  I n d i s c u s s i n g what moderate d r i n k i n g meant, that i n f a c t the  drank a good d e a l . categorized  A l l but  himself  s e l f - s t y l e d moderate  drinkers  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t none o f t h i s group as a " l i g h t " d r i n k e r .  In s p i t e o f  f a c t that drug users were r u l e d out of t h i s study - two discovered Neither  to be users though n e i t h e r i s as yet  of these two  charge, t h e r e f o r e had  men  had  the were  addicted.  ever been c o n v i c t e d o f a drug  they been able to meet the other  mentioned above they would be e l i g i b l e f o r Haney. doubt t h a t some drug users w i l l be  criteria  There i s no  among those s e l e c t e d f o r  1  t h i s new  jail.  There were two  i n t h i s group;  i t may  be  assumed t h a t about the same percentage of the t o t a l f u t u r e popul a t i o n w i l l have had  some experience w i t h drugs, though the  small number i n v o l v e d does not l a t i o n without  e n t i t l e us to make the  extrapo-  reservations.  Attitudes Police officers.  Seven expressed strong  1 A d d i c t s who are considered to be salvageable s i d e r e d f o r Haney Qn a s e l e c t i v e b a s i s  hostility  w i l l be  con-  -56-  toward p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . a l l "cops",  another  accepted b r i b e s ,  One o f these  s t a t e d t h a t he hated  s a i d the p o l i c e were a l l crooked and  t h r e e s a i d the p o l i c e were always pushing  them around, one s a i d "they never l e t you e x p l a i n anything," the one I n d i a n l a d s a i d the RCMP have a p a r t i c u l a r d i s l i k e f o r Indians and go out o f t h e i r way t o "knock them around". one expressed  a h i g h regard f o r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s .  Only  The o t h e r  nine s a i d they d i d not care f o r them but they thought  on the  whole the p o l i c e "were doing t h e i r job" when they apprehended and questioned experiences  suspects.  Those who were most h o s t i l e  of t h e i r own where p o l i c e o f f i c e r s were e s p e c i a l l y  b r u t a l or o b v i o u s l y c o r r u p t . that a l l or most policemen Courts.  Three thought men committing  From t h i s they have assumed  are l i k e  this.  E l e v e n made u n q u a l i f i e d statements  c o u r t s were j u s t and reasonable  during t r i a l  t h a t the  and sentence.  the c o u r t s were i n c o n s i s t e n t i n sentencing - two s i m i l a r crimes are o f t e n g i v e n v e r y  l e n g t h s o f sentence. the judges  related  Two thought  that i n passing  r e l i e d too h e a v i l y on the pre-sentence  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  They f e l t  r e p o r t was v e r y o f t e n i n a c c u r a t e —  different sentence r e p o r t of  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s t h a t a f u l l p i c t u r e o f the  o f f e n d e r could not be gained by one i n t e r v i e w across the t a b l e in  the p r i s o n hallway.  As mentioned b e f o r e , one inmate d e l i b -  e r a t e l y gave the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r a completely f a l s e s t o r y i n order t o c o n c e a l h i s i d e n t i t y .  One o f the group thought the  judge "had i t i n f o r him" because he had appeared b e f o r e him on a p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n .  -57-  Punishment. punishment.  Five  habilitation. tained  Ten thought t h e p r i s o n  One t h o u g h t t h e p r i s o n  and r e -  was " t o o e a s y " and c o n One t h o u g h t i t was  t o be f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o n l y and t h a t  no p l a c e w h a t e v e r  purely f o r  t h o u g h t i t was f o r b o t h p u n i s h m e n t  t o o few elements o f punishment.  supposed  existed  punishment  had  i n the prison.  Guards E a c h i n m a t e was a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e guards i n the Westgate "very poor".  Three  U n i t as " v e r y g o o d " , " g o o d " , " p o o r " , o r  said  " v e r y good", t e n s a i d  two s a i d one h a l f " g o o d " and one h a l f and one s a i d that  "very poor".  " p o o r " , one s a i d  o f f i c e r s were " t r y i n g " .  a s k e d how many g u a r d s t h e y l i k e d " v e r y much".  "six",  "two",  three said  one s a i d " e i g h t " ,  "poor"  The l a s t q u a l i f i e d t h i s b y s a y i n g  he t h o u g h t t h e s e n i o r  seven s a i d  "good",  They were  Three  said  " t h r e e " , one s a i d " f o u r " ,  and one s a i d " t e n " .  "none",  one s a i d  When a s k e d  how  many t h e y d i s l i k e d " v e r y much", s e v e n s a i d " n o n e " , t w o s a i d t h r e e s a i d " t w o " , t h r e e s a i d " t h r e e " , one s a i d said "twelve". it  said  and one  T h e y w e r e t h e n a s k e d how many g u a r d s t h e y f o u n d  e a s y t o t a l k t o about  Five  "five"  "one",  t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r p r o b l e m s , e t c .  "none", f i v e s a i d "one", t h r e e s a i d "two",  " t h r e e " , one s a i d " f o u r " ,  and one s a i d  I n summary i t m i g h t be s a i d  that  two s a i d  "eight". (1)  f i f t e e n o f t h e group  t h o u g h t a t l e a s t one h a l f o f t h e g u a r d s were t r y i n g t o do a good job,  and were i n t e r e s t e d  i n them;  (2)  fourteen l i k e  at l e a s t  -58-  two of the guards "very much' ; and (3) 1  twelve f i n d they can  t a l k to at l e a s t one guard about i n t i m a t e , p e r s o n a l problems. Interviews w i t h guards.  S i x shop i n s t r u c t o r s and seven  t i e r o f f i c e r s who knew the group of seventeen best were i n t e r viewed.  A l l were v e r y cooperative and seemed i n t e r e s t e d i n  t a l k i n g about the inmates.  The m a j o r i t y had good  positive  a t t i t u d e s but a few were r e j e c t i n g and had p u n i t i v e toward the non-conforming inmate.  attitudes  A l l expressed a d e s i r e t o  do more c o u n s e l l i n g of inmates and a l l wished they could more t r a i n i n g i n t h i s .  have  The t i e r o f f i c e r s f e e l that i t i s  h e l p f u l to the inmates t o be able to t a l k to guards about t h i n g s that are b o t h e r i n g them and a l l b e l i e v e d that t h i s was p a r t o f t h e i r r o l e as a t i e r  officer.  Inmates' C r i t i c i s m o f P r i s o n Programme Most o f the inmates s t u d i e d agree t h a t the shop programme i s good but i s not e x t e n s i v e enough.  Very few get a chance  to go t o the shop o f t h e i r choice and what i s l e a r n e d there i s not  geared t o h e l p g a i n employment on the " o u t s i d e " .  They  f e e l t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l o f the p r i s o n are w e l l motivated i n t h e i r p l a n n i n g f o r these shops but that they are not  as h e l p f u l to inmates as they should and could be.  The  group as a whole thought the hobby programme i s good as f a r as i t goes but again i t i s not complete enough. few i n the group f i n d hobbies i n t e r e s t i n g l i t t l e p l a c e d on t h i s phase of the programme.  The main  However, as emphasis  was  criticism  was d i r e c t e d toward the s o - c a l l e d " s o c i a l i z a t i o n " programme —  -59-  t h at p a r t of the programme i n v o l v i n g compulsory p e r i o d s so many times each week.  gymnasium  As w i l l be noted i n Table C  o n l y one of the seventeen s a i d u n q u a l i f i e d l y that i t was Two  thought i t was  good.  h e l p f u l t o a few, t h r e e thought i t was  h e l p i n g at a l l and two thought i t made them worse.  not  The o t h e r  e i g h t s a i d i t was not h e l p i n g at a l l and added that i t was h e l p f u l because inmates no  the programme was  compulsory  not  and allowed the  choice.  Offences As noted i n T a b l e D "breaking and e n t e r i n g " and " c a r t h e f t " were the o f f e n c e s committed the  group.  by over t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f  Ten of the seventeen had at some time been con-  v i c t e d o f both o f f e n c e s .  P r o b a t i o n and P a r o l e Nine of the group had been on p r o b a t i o n or p a r o l e and three o f these had had both e x p e r i e n c e s .  Sentence The  s h o r t e s t sentence was  s i x months —  the minimum as  s t a t e d i n the c r i t e r i a d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I .  S i x had  tences c o n s i s t i n g of a d e f i n i t e p e r i o d p l u s an i n d e f i n i t e  senperiod.  Seven had d e f i n i t e p e r i o d s of one year or more (see Table D ) .  -60-  TABLE C  Summary o f Inmates' Main Thoughts P r i s o n Programme  About  A  Has l i t t l e p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e ; b e t t e r use  B  Keeps you on the go; keeps you from t h i n k i n g too much; not r e a l l y h e l p i n g  C  Maybe i t h e l p s a few  D  Not h e l p i n g at a l l ; no c o o p e r a t i o n from guards; us l i k e herd o f c a t t l e  E  Good;  F  V e r y few inmates t h i n k i t i s h e l p f u l  G  Programme makes me worse;  H  As i t i s set up, o n l y makes you more b i t t e r  I  Inmate never has any time to h i m s e l f ; not be compulsory  J  Not h e l p i n g ;  K  V e r y "phoney"; d i s o r g a n i z e d , you don't know whether you're coming or going; should not be compulsory  L  Should not be compulsory;  M  No system, keeps changing, not h e l p i n g ;  N  Not h e l p i n g , gets changed  0  Makes time go f a s t e r but i t not h e l p f u l ; guards should be able to spend more time w i t h individuals  P  Doing some good but needs much improvement  Q  Have no choice so can't help you a b i t ; not geared t o h e l p the inmate; d i s o r g a n i z e d ; can't o f f e r me anything  time could be put t o  treat  keeps you from l y i n g i n bunk too much  makes me f e e l angry i n s i d e  programme should  not r u n p r o p e r l y ; a f t e r working a l l day you should be able to r e s t  working o u t s i d e i s not bad l i k e s gym work  around too much  -61-  SENTENCE  PREVIOUS COMMI TALS-JUVENILE  ®1 0* EH  PROBATIC  PAROLE  C r i m i n a l Records o f Inmates  INMATE  TABLE D  A  15  0  0  -  -  F a l s e pretenses  B  6xly  1  1  -  -  B & E; c a r t h e f t ;  C  6x6  1  0  -  -  B & E ; B & E & S;  D  iy  0  0  yes  E  6  0  0  -  -  F  iy  1  2  -  -  G  9  0  0  -  -  H  6  1  1  yes  yes  I  18  0  0  -  -  Car  J  I8x2y  0  1  yes  -  B & E & S; c a r t h e f t ;  K 9xly  1  0  yes  -  B & E & S ; B & E ; car theft; robbery w i t h v i o l e n c e ;  L lyxl8  2  1  yes  yes  B&E;  9  1  1  -  yes  B & E & S ; car theft; escape custody;  0  0  yes  -  M  N 6xly  la  gg  co « 3 O 1 M > CO  OFFENCES COMMITTED BY INMATES  B & E; c a r t h e f t ; Indecent  assault;  B & E; assault;  car:theft  P o s s e s s i o n o f s t o l e n goods; Impersonation; Causing d i s t u r b a n c e ; B & E ; car t h e f t ; theft;  ear t h e f t ;  Theft; car theft;  0  6  1  1  yes  yes  B&E&S;  P  iy  0  1  -  yes  B & E ; c a r t h e f t ; f a l s e pretenses  Q  18  0  0  -  Dealing i n f r a u d u l e n t documents;  . -  B & E ; car theft;  Key: B & E & S - Breaking and e n t e r i n g and s t e a l i n g . Under "sentence" - f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e number o f months unless f o l l o w e d by "y" ( y e a r s ) . - 6x6 means 6 months d e f i n i t e and 6 months i n d e f i n i t e sentence  -62-  Inmates* V e r b a l i z a t i o n o f Own Problems (Table E) E v e r y inmate expressed the f e e l i n g that he had a problem or problems.  Three o f these s a i d o u t r i g h t that they were not  concerned about g e t t i n g h e l p w i t h these problems.  The r e s t i n  v a r y i n g degrees expressed a d e s i r e f o r help i n understanding themselves so they could s o l v e the problems that had caused them t o get i n t o t r o u b l e .  P r o f e s s i o n a l casework was e x p l a i n e d  to each inmate and he was asked whether o r not he would use such a c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e i f i t were a v a i l a b l e i n the p r i s o n on a voluntary basis.  Nine inmates s t a t e d a strong d e s i r e t o have  such h e l p , f i v e s a i d they would p r o b a b l y t r y t h i s but thought they would hold back and would not be helped v e r y much, the other three s a i d they would not use the s e r v i c e .  Group S e s s i o n s w i t h Inmates. I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t the scope o f t h i s study i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o d i s c u s s i n d e t a i l the two group s e s s i o n s h e l d w i t h e l e v e n of the inmates.  A great d e a l o f i n t e r e s t i n g  and v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l about the inmates came out o f these sessions and t h i s has been i n c l u d e d i n the g e n e r a l d i a g n o s t i c t u r e of each inmate.  pic-  The primary r e a s o n f o r h o l d i n g such  s e s s i o n s was t o l e a r n something about the inmates t h a t might not have come through any other channel.  Table F shows i n a  v e r y b r i e f way how each inmate r e a c t e d t o the group s e s s i o n . These were three-hour s e s s i o n s which were that long by choice of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  A f t e r the f i r s t hour a l l were r e l a x e d  and seemed t o be e n j o y i n g the d i s c u s s i o n .  They t a l k e d about  -63TABLE E .  Summary o f Inmates' V e r b a l i z a t i o n o f Own Problems  Since war cannot s e t t l e down, mixed up; has good i n t e n t i o n s ; d r i n k i n g i s problem - p r e s s u r e s b u i l d up and t r i e d escape; Can't understand s e l f . Extremely j e a l o u s which i s b a s i s o f t r o u b l e w i t h w i f e ; weak, easily led. Cannot do t h i n g s p r o p e r l y and "blows h i s t o p " . Has problems but cannot put them i n t o words. Worried about s e l f and has requested i n t e r v i e w w i t h p s y c h i a t r i s t . Thought he had problems before came t o p r i s o n - but h i s seem i n s i g n i f i c a n t now compared t o those of other inmates. Concerned about h i s c o n s t a n t l y g e t t i n g i n t o t r o u b l e ; l i k e t o know why.  would  F e e l s he probably has problems but doesn't t h i n k about t h i s much and i s not concerned about them. F e e l s g u i l t y about what h i s behavior has done t o h i s mother. Wants t o change but he can't because he i s too weak. Has been g e t t i n g i n t o t r o u b l e - t h i s i s f o o l i s h n e s s , does not know why and i t w o r r i e s him. Worried about what went wrong i n h i s f a m i l y . Wants t o be accepted back, has no p l a c e t o go. no .job t o go t o . Has no awareness o f i n n e r problems, but r e a l i z e s that he must have some and would l i k e t o f i n d out more about them. Cannot c o n t r o l s e l f when d r i n k i n g . escape from a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  L i k e s t o get away and  _  Has no p l a c e to go; gets confused; wants to do one t h i n g but does another - never knows what he w i l l do n e x t . P r o b a b l y has problems but i s not concerned about them. Worried about the p o s s i b i l i t y o f g e t t i n g worse- o f g e t t i n g i n t o more t r o u b l e i n the f u t u r e . Worried about why he d r i n k s so much and does the t h i n g s he does when d r i n k i n g . Would l i k e t o get t o the bottom of t h i s Something deep i n s i d e h i m s e l f i s l a c k i n g . He seems t o be searching f o r i n d i v i d u a l i t y and companionship, he needs r e c o g n i t i o n as a human b e i n g .  -64-  A  B r i e f Impressions o f Inmates as seen Through Group S e s s i o n s  GROUP  INMATE  TABLE F.  1  Participated actively; constructive c r i t i c a l o f much about p r i s o n .  attitude; i n t e l l i g e n t  C  -  D  1  P a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y ; n e g a t i v e , b i t t e r ; pent up hostility; intelligent.  E  1  Very a c t i v e ; v e r y c o n s t r u c t i v e ; dominated d i s c u s s i o n ; i n t e l l i g e n t ; needs t o be c e n t e r o f a t t e n t i o n .  B  Requested that he not be  included  Agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e but r e l i e v e d when made c l e a r he d i d not have t o .  that  G  -  H  -  Agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e but c o n f i n e d t o E.T.U.  I  2  T r i e d t o be c o n s t r u c t i v e ;  J  2  A c t i v e ; t r i e d hold f l o o r ; b i g t a l k ; b i t t e r , h o s t i l e , a g g r e s s i v e , c o n t r a d i c t o r y , v e r y confused.  K  2  A c t i v e ; t r i e d t o be c o n s t r u c t i v e ; t a l k s l o t about need t o conform; v e r y t h i c k defenses against i n t e n s e h o s t i l i t y and b i t t e r n e s s .  L  2  M  -  A c t i v e ; spoke i n g l i b p o s i t i v e terms but no r e a l f e e l i n g or c o n v i c t i o n ; plausible.  N  2  T a l k e d l o t ; f a c e t i o u s ; s u p e r f i c i a l , wants t o be c e n t e r ; b o a s t i n g , b i t t e r ; v e r y d i s t u r b e d , has been deeply h u r t .  0  1  Slow t h i n k i n g ; f a i r a t t i t u d e s ; t r i e d t o be but d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e v e r y much.  P  2  Active;  Q  1  Very a c t i v e i n t e l l i g e n t l a d ; i n t e r e s t e d i n p r i s o n as s o c i o l o g i c a l phenomenon; s t u d y i n g p r i s o n and o f f e r e d many i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t s .  F  Agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e but t r a n s f e r r e d  t o Camp.  Did not wish t o p a r t i c i p a t e .  h o s t i l e ; v e r y confused.  Agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e but c o n f i n e d t o E.T.U.  b i t t e r , suspicious,  constructive  cynical.  -65-  almost every aspect of p r i s o n l i f e ,  about  rehabilitation,  punishment, c a p i t a l punishment, crime c a u s a t i o n , about  prob-  lems c r i m i n a l s have and how  they might be s o l v e d , about  world o u t s i d e .  was  No attempt  and the group wandered from one i a t i o n of i d e a s .  the  made to d i r e c t the d i s c u s s i o n s u b j e c t to the other by assoc-  Every inmate expressed the f e e l i n g  that  these were good s e s s i o n s - and suggested t h a t more o p p o r t u n i t y should be g i v e n f o r them.  The  evidence of these s e s s i o n s  suggests t h a t the t h e r a p e u t i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s of such groups are great.  " C r i t i c a l Incident" The " C r i t i c a l Incident" technique used i n the i n t e r v i e w i s summarized on Tables G and H.  An examination of both the  p o s i t i v e and the n e g a t i v e responses inmates  1  f e e l i n g about  the p r i s o n .  r e v e a l s something  of the  F o r example, s i x of them  could see nothing good about the p r i s o n and seven thought present programme was The two  that had  d i s o r g a n i z e d , changing  and  inconsistent.  spent some time i n the "Elementary  U n i t " (the "hole") thought  that i t was  the worst  the  Training  experience  they had ever had i n p r i s o n . T h i s C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t technique should i d e a l l y a p p l i e d to a much l a r g e r number. limited  sampling  N e v e r t h e l e s s even with t h i s  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s seem to emerge.  i n s t a n c e , the inmates*  be  For  s t r o n g f e e l i n g that the programme i s  i n c o n s i s t e n t r e f l e c t s , not i n a c c u r a t e l y , an o b j e c t i v e f a c t of  - 6 6 -  TABLF. G.  Summary o f Inmates' Responses t o C r i t i c a l Incident" Q u e s t i o n . Positive  Incidents  A  Nothing  B  Carpenter's shop- g e t t i n g away from c e l l b l o c k  C  O p p o r t u n i t y to get e d u c a t i o n i f you want i t .  D  Nothing  E  Programme i s w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d — although i t may f a i l .  F  O p p o r t u n i t y of going t o work Camp.  G  Nothing  positive  H  Nothing  Positive  I  Shop work and hobby programme  J  More p r i v i l e g e s here than he expected.  K  Concerts that are brought i n from " o u t s i d e " o c c a s i o n a l l y  L  Meeting new c r i m i n a l s t a l k i n g o f crimes and r e l i v i n g experiences.  M  Nothing  positive  N  Nothing  positive  G  Busy programme makes time go f a s t e r .  P  Not under guard a l l the time, c e r t a i n amount o f t r u s t of inmate.  Q  Sees o l d e r inmates who have been i n t r o u b l e a l l t h e i r l i v e s - sees he may end up t h i s way i f he does not change.  positive  positive t r y i n g to h e l p  inmates  -67-  TABLE H.  Summary o f Inmates' Responses Incident"Question  to C r i t i c a l  Negative I n c i d e n t  A B  Meeting f o r f i r s t time men who criminals Compulsory gymnastic p e r i o d s  are determined to be  C  A guard once s a i d he t r u s t e d no inmate and would never give anyone the b e n e f i t of the doubt  D  You ask f o r something and never get i t ; are t o l d w i l l happen but i t never does.  E  No p r i v a c y i n going to the t o i l e t  F  Being away from w i f e and  G  You never know where you are - one guard says one t h i n g and another says something d i f f e r e n t .  H  Guards are i n c o n s i s t e n t , sometimes h e l p f u l , sometimes p u n i t i v e ; Warden's court i s f i x e d before inmate appears.  I  P r i s o n i s too n o i s y , expected i t to be q u i e t .  J  Compulsory gymnasium programme - nojone should be f o r c e d to take gym.  K  The " h o l e " (E.T.U. Elementary T r a i n i n g U n i t ) No inmates come out worse.  L  E.T.U. - nothing t o do a l l day but l i e around.  M  P r i s o n has no system i n programme - confused inmates  N  Always changing the programme - never know what you are going to do next.  0  Being away from home.  P  No r o u t i n e - never know where you stand; programme always changing, something i s planned and then c a n c e l l e d .  Q  something  children  training,  F e a r that p r i s o n group w i l l have aanegative i n f l u e n c e on him and change h i s way of t h i n k i n g and behaviour.  -68the  situation;  but the i n t e n s i t y  o f t h e i r r e a c t i o n i s t o be  accounted f o r by the f a c t that as people whose l i v e s have been h i t h e r t o marked by d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n c o n s i s t e n c y they are particularly  sensitive to this issue.  I n s h o r t , i n so f a r as  t h i s i s a v a l i d c r i t i c i s m , i t i n d i c a t e s an important i n the i n s t i t u t i o n t o recognize  the d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s  failure o f any  i n s t a b i l i t y i n the programme however w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d the changes might be. I f p o s s i b l e the technique should whole p r i s o n p o p u l a t i o n simultaneously  be a p p l i e d t o the  and f o r comparative purposes i t might  be a p p l i e d t o the guards.  Case H i s t o r i e s The kinds  f o l l o w i n g f o u r c a s e ' h i s t o r i e s are t y p i c a l o f f o u r  o f inmates needing f o u r somewhat d i f f e r e n t  regarding  treatment.  Case "A".  A comes from a s t a b l e , secure home.  the youngest o f a f a m i l y o f f i v e s i b l i n g s . s u c c e s s f u l upstanding c i t i z e n . i n the boy scouts, played  g i r l w h i l e at high seas during  He was  H i s f a t h e r was a  As a youngster A was a c t i v e  hockey and seems to have had a  f a i r l y normal happy c h i l d h o o d .  He began going steady with a  s c h o o l and married h e r p r i o r t o going over-  the l a s t world war.  gence and d i d w e l l at s c h o o l . left  approaches  He has above-average  When he became e i g h t e e n he  s c h o o l i n order t o j o i n the RCAF.  o n l y p a r t way through grade X I I .  intelli-  At t h i s time he was  He became a f i g h t e r  pilot  -69but was  shot down over Germany and spent e i g h t e e n months i n a  p r i s o n e r - o f - w a r camp. salesman  He worked s t e a d i l y a f t e r the war  and a p p a r e n t l y was  able to earn a good l i v i n g .  had s t a r t e d to d r i n k when overseas and continued t h i s wards.  He  after-  H i s job as a salesman took him away from home a good  d e a l and he d i d c o n s i d e r a b l e d r i n k i n g when on these He became worried about h i s d r i h k i n g and what i t was h i s marriage.  He  h e l p i n g him.  He was  doing to  He thought M  was  active  good and  However, one day he began d r i n k i n g again  f o r no apparent r e a s o n . months.  trips.  j o i n e d A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous and was  i n t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a time. was  as a  He d r i f t e d  away from home f o r some  drunk most of the time.  He e v e n t u a l l y r a n  out of money and cashed some checks knowing that he had no money i n the bank to cover them. He was  apprehended and charged on e i g h t separate counts,  a l l f a l s e p r e t e n s e s , and was prison.  He f e e l s he was  sentence.  sentenced to f i f t e e n months i n  j u s t l y d e a l t w i t h and deserved  He d i s l i k e s the p r i s o n i n t e n s e l y and has many c r i t i -  cisms of i t , mostly of a v e r y c o n s t r u c t i v e n a t u r e . a conforming works under.  this  inmate  He had been  and i s thought h i g h l y of by the guards  he  He does not t h i n k t h a t being i n p r i s o n can help  him u n l e s s he can study t h i n g s that w i l l help him succeed i n the business world a f t e r r e l e a s e .  He would l i k e t o f i n i s h  Grade XII and take a b u s i n e s s course and a l s o l e a r n p u b l i c i n g and salesmanship. and h i s p a r e n t s .  He  corresponds w i t h h i s wife and  speak-  children  S h o r t l y a f t e r he a r r i v e d i n p r i s o n h i s wife  -70r e t a i n e d a lawyer  and the l a t t e r contacted A w i t h r e s p e c t t o  a s e p a r a t i o n agreement.  T h i s was a b i t t e r blow t o A f o r he  loved h i s wife and has counted  on h e r support.  Correspondence  w i t h h i s w i f e has c l e a r e d up t h i s p o i n t t o some e x t e n t . Apparently  she was under the i m p r e s s i o n that because he l e f t  home he wanted t o be f r e e o f h e r and the c h i l d r e n .  He now  r e c e i v e s supportive l e t t e r s from h i s w i f e who l i v e s i n another province.  She i s working and h o l d i n g t h i n g s t o g e t h e r .  She  plans t o move out t o Vancouver s h o r t l y i n order t o be c l o s e r to him and they p l a n t o remain i n t h i s area.  A has a strong  d e s i r e t o stop d r i n k i n g a f t e r he i s r e l e a s e d .  He i s r e a l i s t i c  i n f e e l i n g t h a t t h i s w i l l be d i f f i c u l t f o r him and he does not know whether o r not he w i l l have the w i l l power to s t o p .  He  plans t o j o i n the AA again. When d i s c u s s i n g h i s problem w i t h him he s t a t e d that s i n c e the war he has been unable and he cannot understand  t o s e t t l e down.  He has t r i e d  why he f i n d s i t so d i f f i c u l t .  He  sees h i s d r i n k i n g as the problem but r e a l i z e s there i s a reason for his drinking.  He wonders i f he i s not t r y i n g t o escape  from something through d r i n k .  He f i n d s t h a t pressure b u i l d s  up and keeps b u i l d i n g up w i t h i n him u n t i l he j u s t has t o go out and get drunk t o r e l i e v e t h i s p r e s s u r e . stand h i m s e l f .  He does not under-  He f e e l s t h a t no one can be helped u n l e s s he  t r u l y wants to be h e l p e d .  He f e e l s t h a t h i s problem i s deep  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l and nothing i n the p r i s o n programme i s geared to help w i t h problems l i k e t h i s .  He needs p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p  -71-  and t h i n k s he would use the s e r v i c e s o f a t r a i n e d caseworker or p s y c h i a t r i s t i f such were a v a i l a b l e i n the p r i s o n . "A" has many assets and s t r e n g t h s that make h i s prognosis hopeful.  I t would appear h i s b a s i c needs were met as  a c h i l d , he i s i n t e l l i g e n t , h i s goals i n l i f e ones, h i s wife and f a m i l y are prepared support necessary,  are c o n s t r u c t i v e  t o give him a l l the  he i s concerned about h i m s e l f ,  realizes  he has a deep-seated problem and wants help w i t h i t . One  does not see p r i s o n as the a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g f o r  e f f e c t i v e therapy i n t h i s case. his  problem;  i t has confirmed  P r i s o n has o n l y  intensified  h i s f e e l i n g o f h i s own  unworthi-  ness, i n t e n s i f i e d h i s g u i l t f e e l i n g , has created new worries around h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s w i f e , and around how the f a m i l y i s managing without and has l i t t l e  him.  He i s not c r i m i n a l l y  inclined  i n common w i t h the m a j o r i t y o f other inmates.  Consequently he f e e l s i s o l a t e d and alone.  One f e e l s that a  p e r i o d on p r o b a t i o n d u r i n g which time A might have been under treatment  f o r h i s a l c o h o l i s m would have been a sentence i n  l i n e w i t h h i s needs and would have served the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t as w e l l .  F a i l i n g p r o b a t i o n , a short sentence would seem t o  give more chance of s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n than a l o n g one. Suggested programme f o r A. Educational. in  business methods.  (he i s a l r e a d y a f a i r  Correspondence course i n Grade X I I , and P u b l i c speaking. typist).  P r a c t i c e i n typing  -72-  Hobbies.  Woodworking (expressed i n t e r e s t ) .  Recreation.  V o l u n t a r y programme of s p o r t s and  Counselling.  Regular casework i n t e r v i e w s  psychiatric consultation. hopeful  games.  p o s s i b l y w i t h some  (Because of t h i s man's assets  prognosis A might be one  of the few who  would  and  be  s e l e c t e d immediately f o r i n t e n s i v e casework treatment.) Supplementary group therapy s e s s i o n s w i t h a small group having s i m i l a r problems. Living units.  A . i s an e x c e l l e n t s e c u r i t y r i s k and  housed i n the most open u n i t i n the Case "C". dull. C was  Her  C's  mother was  husband was  sent  a deaf-mute who  u n t i l recently believed was  a drunkard and  toward C.  c r u e l and mean and  Mother drank a great  no i n t e r e s t i n the c h i l d r e n . He was  often l e f t  The  and  Mother  children Stepfather  when d r i n k i n g  the o l d e s t o f f o u r  showed chil-  i n charge of the c h i l d r e n w h i l e h i s and  he was  v e r y mean to h i s numerous com-  mistreatment of the c h i l d r e n , and  v e r y unhappy i n the f o s t e r home.  w o r r i e d about what was  drugs when  At other times she  a time the c h i l d r e n were made wards and C was  and  S o c i a l Welfare Branch had  p l a i n t s about n e g l e c t  quite  rejecting, particularly  d e a l too,  C. was  parents went to the beer p a r l o u r young s i s t e r s .  whom a l l the  to be t h e i r r e a l f a t h e r .  became b r u t a l toward the c h i l d r e n .  dren.  was  and he never r e t u r n e d .  l i v e d as the common law wife of a man  be  prison.  to p r i s o n f o r p e d d l i n g  f o u r or f i v e years of age  could  placed He was  for  i n f o s t e r homes. well treated  happening to the r e s t of the  family.  but  -73-  He r a n away r e p e a t e d l y and was home.  e v e n t u a l l y allowed  to r e t u r n  He had below-average i n t e l l i g e n c e , r e c e i v e d few  satis-  f a c t i o n s from s c h o o l but managed to f i n i s h grade seven at the age of s i x t e e n . brief periods. for  He  He began d r i n k i n g a f t e r he l e f t  a time t h i s was  odd-looking  t r i e d to f i n d work but held jobs o n l y f o r  a r e a l problem f o r him.  l a d , had no f r i e n d s and  wandering around on h i s own. ing  He was  He had been suspected  and e n t e r i n g a garage.  the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l . times but  a f t e r he had  He  of s t e a l -  e v e n t u a l l y appreHe was  sent to  found  people  three  his f i r s t  a p l a c e to get r e g u l a r meals.  He the  able to do many of the simpler t a i l o r i n g j o b s .  between them.  The  diagnosed  as a g a s t r i c u l c e r .  Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School he had f o r e was Oakalla.  relation-  which  A f t e r r e l e a s e from the  nothing to go back to and  there-  soon i n t r o u b l e again, t h i s time being sentenced He i s a b i t t e r , d i s i l l u s i o n e d l a d but h i s  i n the p r i s o n i s v e r y conforming.  the inmates.  He has few  to  behaviour  He t r i e d to t a l k to the  guards and wants a f r i e n d d e s p e r a t e l y . of  tailor  He had been e x h i b i t i n g many  p h y s i c a l symptoms and p a r t i c u l a r l y a stomach complaint was  was  School  took a c l o s e p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n the l a d and a strong ship developed  real  i n t e r e s t e d i n him,  p l a c e d i n the t a i l o r shop and by the time he l e f t was  a short,  r a n away from there  s e t t l e d down he found  s e c u r i t y i n a long time. a p l a c e to sleep and  He  and  spent most of h i s time  f o r some time by the l o c a l p o l i c e and was  hended while breaking  school  He has no use f o r any  s t r e n g t h s or p e r s o n a l a s s e t s .  -74-  C. i s a deeply d e p r i v e d person who s u p e r f i c i a l l y to o t h e r s . approval from a d u l t s . the time.  He has He  cannot  relate  except  a consuming d e s i r e f o r  seems d i s o r i e n t e d a good d e a l of  His b o r d e r l i n e i n t e l l i g e n c e and h i s l a c k o f  r e a l s t r e n g t h s make h i s outlook f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n v e r y  any poor;  I d e a l l y he should be t r e a t e d I n a p s y c h i a t r i c c e n t e r and i t seems l i k e l y that before long C w i l l d e t e r i o r a t e t o the p o i n t where he w i l l be commitable t o a Mental H o s p i t a l . know what he wants out of l i f e ,  He does not  changes h i s mind from i n t e r v i e w  to i n t e r v i e w and t e l l s strange s t o r i e s about h i s l i f e  to anyone  who  stories  w i l l take the time to l i s t e n to him.  U s u a l l y the  are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t each time he t e l l s them. ly  d i s t u r b e d person who  needs i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e .  treatment w i l l not h e l p him and one  programme f o r  Educational.  poor.  "C".  Some r o u t i n e job where he would be able to work  alone and l e a r n a simple procedure  - perhaps i n the l a u n d r y .  He would do a c o n s c i e n t i o u s and thorough Hobbies and R e c r e a t i o n .  more than one r e a l  job.  Would be h a p p i e r working on some aspect  of h i s job during the evenings.  Counselling.  Social  suspects that h i s p r o g n o s i s  even under p s y c h i a t r i c treatment would be Suggested  C. i s an extreme-  He  i s not capable o f having  interest.  C has a great need to t a l k t o a d u l t s about h i m s e l f  and needs to have a chance to do t h i s w i t h some one whom he is  r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n him.  Casework treatment  i s not  feels  likely  -75-  to  be o f use t o him.  H i s needs i n t h i s area could be met  adequately by a c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r whom he l i k e s and who is  able t o show an i n t e r e s t i n C.  Living unit.  C needs a c e r t a i n amount o f i s o l a t i o n from the  group and would not be happy i n a dormitory. something o f a s e c u r i t y r i s k . sures he might attempt  Case "G".  He i s a l s o  Given c e r t a i n kinds o f p r e s -  t o escape.  G. was r a i s e d on a farm.  H i s f a t h e r d i e d when he  was e i g h t years o l d and he had t o b e g i n h e l p i n g w i t h the farm chores at t h i s e a r l y age. completed left  grade s i x .  He d i d p o o r l y at s c h o o l and o n l y  He i s o f low-average i n t e l l i g e n c e .  the farm a f t e r h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r took over i t s management  and from then on worked s t e a d i l y f i r s t as a c a t d r i v e r .  as a l a b o u r e r and l a t e r  He d r i n k s a great d e a l and d u r i n g one o f h i s  sprees he impersonated  someone e l s e and passed  checks i n order t o get money f o r more l i q u o r . apprehended he was found  some worthless A f t e r he was  t o have s t o l e n goods on h i s person and  was charged w i t h p o s s e s s i o n of s t o l e n goods. recount how he came by these l a t t e r items. to  He  nine months' imprisonment. G i s a d u l l , hard-working  He does not  He was sentenced  T h i s was h i s f i r s t  offence.  person who does not seem t o  have any s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b i n g f a c t o r s i n h i s background.  How-  ever, he i s weak and e a s i l y i n f l u e n c e d , e s p e c i a l l y when he i s drinking.  He does show a v e r y p o s i t i v e s t r e n g t h i n the f a c t  that he has been c o n t i n u o u s l y employed s i n c e a young man. I n  -76-  the p r i s o n he i s conforming, keeps to h i m s e l f , does not t a l k i n g about crime. p r i s o n and  I n f a c t he d i s l i k e s e v e r y t h i n g  sees i t o n l y as a punishment.  of the p r i s o n on t h i s man and  one  would suspect  The  like  about the  deterrent e f f e c t  w i l l l i k e l y prove to be v e r y  strong  that the thought of having to come back  to p r i s o n would i n h i b i t  any thought of crime i n the f u t u r e  w i l l a l s o probably help him modify h i s d r i n k i n g h a b i t s . i s very l i t t l e  to o f f e r such a man  as t h i s .  and  There  He knows what he  wants to do a f t e r r e l e a s e - continue to be a c a t d r i v e r .  Any-  t h i n g t h a t w i l l a s s i s t him  him.  i n t h i s job would be of use  He does not f i n d t a l k i n g easy and  to  i t i s d o u b t f u l i f he would  be helped by casework or c o u n s e l l i n g by a c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r . He  expresses no d e s i r e to examine h i s own  Suggested programme f o r Educational.  d r i n k i n g problems.  "G".  P r a c t i c a l mechanics that w i l l a s s i s t him  i n his  job as a cat d r i v e r . Hobbies and has no  recreation.  One  of t h i s man's problems i s that  i n t e r e s t s outside h i s job.  D r i n k i n g has  t h i n g he l i k e d to do i n h i s spare time. exposing G to v a r i o u s kinds  been the  he  only  I t i s p o s s i b l e that  by  of r e c r e a t i o n a l and hobby a c t i v i t y  he might develop an i n t e r e s t that he would r e t a i n a f t e r r e l e a s e . G. has  i n d i c a t e d some i n t e r e s t i n sports  be helped to widen h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h i s Counselling.  The  and  games and  he might  area.  n e c e s s a r y c o u n s e l l i n g about day-to-day matters  could be done by the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r . take an i n t e r e s t i n him,  who  G needs someone to  w i l l support h i s s t r e n g t h s  and whom  -77he might t a l k to about change i n programme, r e g u l a t i o n s he might not understand,  employment f e a r s , and the other k i n d s o f prob-  lems each inmate i s c o n s t a n t l y f a c e d w i t h .  I t i s not  likely  that G. would be amenable to the more i n t e n s i v e h e l p of the caseworker. Living units.  G. i s not a s e c u r i t y r i s k and c o u l d be housed i n  the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s most open u n i t . Case L.  L's parents separated when he was  mother remarried a few years l a t e r but L was his  stepfather.  one year o l d . unable  to accept  Because of t h i s h i s mother began t o r e j e c t  him openly and l e f t him to h i s own  devices.  They l i v e d on the  f r i n g e of a "delinquency area" and L soon began ganging delinquent l a d s . and was  was  up w i t h  He began s t e a l i n g when o n l y nine years of  from then on c o n s t a n t l y watched, picked up and  by the p o l i c e .  O c c a s i o n a l l y he was  b e a t i n g might be more e f f e c t i v e .  age  questioned  beaten up by a policeman  t i r e d of c o n s t a n t l y t a k i n g him to c o u r t and thought  ested i n school and t r u a n t e d r e g u l a r l y .  He was  not  who  a good  L t e s t e d below average  many ways he seems much b r i g h t e r than t h i s .  he l e f t  His  but i n inter-  At the age of f i f t e e n  s c h o o l without f i n i s h i n g Grade ¥ 1 1 1 .  He was  uninter-  ested i n working and continued t o hang around w i t h the gang. He had  a l r e a d y been on p r o b a t i o n twice and had  spent one year i n  the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School f o r b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g and car theft.  S h o r t l y a f t e r l e a v i n g s c h o o l he was  Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l . "big  recommitted  A f t e r r e l e a s e he was  to the  something of a  shot" among h i s f r i e n d s and became the l e a d e r of the gang.  -78-  He began p l a n n i n g more adventurous looking f o r a " t h r i l l " .  always  He began d r i n k i n g h e a v i l y and  t a k i n g drugs o c c a s i o n a l l y . w i t h the g i r l s who  r o b b e r i e s and was  was  He had r e g u l a r sexual r e l a t i o n s  hung around the gang.  He was  Young Offenders U n i t f o r c a r t h e f t but on r e l e a s e  sent to the immediately  went back to h i s o l d haunts and resumed h i s d e l i n q u e n t  activity.  The o n l y f r i e n d s he had were d e l i n q u e n t s and most of them had been i n p r i s o n .  He continued h i s p a t t e r n of b r e a k i n g  e n t e r i n g and car t h e f t  and was  again sentenced  and  to p r i s o n .  Just  p r i o r to t h i s h i s c u r r e n t g i r l f r i e n d , a f i f t e e n year o l d , became pregnant L's  and under pressure he agreed  s t r e n g t h s seem l i m i t e d .  to marry her.  He p r o b a b l y has  average  i n t e l l i g e n c e but h i s e d u c a t i o n and work r e c o r d are v e r y He has had  some experience  i n mechanics. except  as a t r u c k d r i v e r and i s i n t e r e s t e d  He has never had  i n some s p o r t s .  He  poor.  any hobby or r e a l i n t e r e s t s  sees the p r i s o n o n l y as a p l a c e of  punishment and sees policemen,  judges  and other a u t h o r i t y  f i g u r e s as p u n i t i v e and i n c o n s i s t e n t .  He has been s e v e r e l y  r e j e c t e d by h i s mother and i s a deeply d i s t u r b e d person.  He  i s beginning to f i n d escape i n d r i n k i n g and t h i s has been a r e a l problem f o r him d u r i n g the l a s t y e a r . to  He i s beginning  take drugs and i s i n danger of becoming an a d d i c t .  sees h i s problem as one of t r y i n g t o escape because he face r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . problems.  He cannot  He v e r b a l i z e s a need f o r h e l p w i t h these  However, he has l i t t l e  concern f o r o t h e r s ,  f e e l i n g of g u i l t f o r h i s past escapades,  is still  little  d r i v e n by  - 7 9 -  the need f o r excitement, i s extremely h o s t i l e towards a u t h o r i t y and  the prognosis without i n t e n s i v e treatment i s poor. T h i s l a d t y p i f i e s i n many ways over h a l f the group  studied.  I t might be  s a i d t h a t the k i n d of programme that  would h e l p  a l a d l i k e t h i s would be h e l p f u l to a l a r g e number  of the f u t u r e inmates of Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n . Suggested programme f o r L. Educational.  V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n motor mechanics w i t h some  practice i n driving i n s t i t u t i o n a l trucks. matics and  S i m p l i f i e d mathe-  a course i n the k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n  that might  be  h e l p f u l to a truck d r i v e r . Hobbies and  recreation.  L. i s fond  of popular music.  might j o i n an i n t e r e s t group that would l i s t e n to and modern j a z z .  T h i s i s the  s o r t of i n t e r e s t group that  He discuss an  i n t e r e s t e d member of the community might conduct on a v o l u n tary basis. explored  H i s expressed i n t e r e s t i n f i s h i n g c o u l d  and might l e a d to rod-making, f l y - t y i n g , p r a c t i c e i n  fly-casting etc. ducted by would f i n d  A g a i n such an i n t e r e s t group might be con-  a volunteer  —  p o s s i b l y the l o c a l game warden.  s a t i s f a c t i o n i n a voluntary  Group S e s s i o n s . actively.  be  group s e s s i o n s  sports.  During group d i s c u s s i o n L. p a r t i c i p a t e d q u i t e  I t was  more e a s i l y and  programme of  L.  felt  that he was  able to express  that he put more of h i m s e l f than i n the i n t e r v i e w s .  himself  forward i n the  Regular group d i s c u s -  s i o n would probably prove to be v e r y t h e r p e u t i c f o r L.  -80-  Counselling.  L's problems are v e r y deep, going back t o r e j e c -  t i o n and u n f u l f i l l e d  emotional needs of i n f a n c y .  He has many  of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of what i s l o o s e l y termed "the psychopathic personality" — inability  l a c k of a f f e c t , l a c k of g u i l t  t o l e a r n from experience, a g g r e s s i v e  i m p u l s i v e and deep h o s t i l i t y . as t h i s i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t defenses  and exposing  i n f a n t i l e traumas. a caseworker.  The treatment  feeling,  tendencies, of such  persons  and i n v o l v e s the breaking down o f  t o consciousness  the r e a l i t i e s of t h e  T h i s i s a j o b f o r a p s y c h i a t r i s t and not  However, through  a slow f a c i n g up to what has  happened i n the p a s t , and the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of repeated p r i s o n sentences  i f i t c o n t i n u e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to h e l p L. accept  the meed f o r h e l p .  T h i s could come about through  a strong r e -  l a t i o n a h i p w i t h a c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r who takes a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the l a d and who convinces L. that he has genuine concern about him.  The c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r at t h i s p o i n t  would r e f e r L. t o the caseworker f o r i n t e n s i v e c o u n s e l l i n g . Once the process began the caseworker would have t o see the l a d at l e a s t once each week f o r about one hour i n t e r v i e w s . defenses  As  began breaking down there would have t o be p s y c h i a t r i c  consultation.  T h i s process o f casework help would be aided  by group therapy s e s s i o n s f o r L. at the same time. Living unit. excitement  L. i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e .  makes him a s e c u r i t y r i s k .  H i s need f o r f u n and With support  o f others  l i k e h i m s e l f he would undoubtedly t r y t o break p r i s o n . would be best housed i n a f a i r l y secure u n i t .  He  T h i s would be  a c t i n g i n L's best i n t e r e s t s f o r there i s no doubt t h a t he i s  -81-  ambivalent about feels  authority;  he both needs i t s c o n t r o l s  and  secure when he has them, and hates the c o n t r o l and t r i e s  to escape or f i g h t them.  K l a r e says t h i s i s common among  p r i s o n e r s and can be u t i l i z e d i n the h e l p i n g process.^" I n t h i s chapter the f i n d i n g s of the study have been outl i n e d i n summary form and case h i s t o r i e s have been used t o illustrate  a number of types of inmates needing somewhat d i f -  f e r e n t k i n d s of treatment.  T h i s m a t e r i a l now  needs to be  examined i n the l i g h t of b a s i c s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s .  Chapter  IV i s g i v e n over to t h i s t a s k .  1 K l a r e , Hugh J . , "The T r a i n e d S o c i a l Worker and the P r i s o n Communities", Howard J o u r n a l , V o l . IX, 1954-. p. 37.  CHAPTER IV  WELFARE IMPLICATIONS FOR CUSTODY AND COUNSELLING  The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r programme and treatment contained i n the m a t e r i a l summarized i n Chapter I I I must now be c o n s i d e r e d . I t i s not w i t h i n the scope o f t h i s study t o suggest other than broad l e a d s f o r c o r r e c t i o n a l treatment.  Speaking  generally  about t h i s group o f seventeen inmates, one i s s t r u c k by the amount of pathology i n t h e i r backgrounds.  T h i s i s a l l the more  s i g n i f i c a n t when we r e a l i z e t h a t t h i s group was drawn from a u n i t i n O a k a l l a that c o n t a i n s l e s s c r i m i n a l l y i n c l i n e d , more reformable types o f inmates.  The i n t e n s i t y of the problems  r e v e a l e d has many i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n p r e s e n t l y being c o n s t r u c t e d to r e c e i v e such inmates —  the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n .  as the group  studied  A d e l i n e a t i o n of the  major problems f a c i n g a l l o r some of these seventeen men would c l e a r l y be o f v a l u e t o the s t a f f p l a n n i n g the programme f o r t h i s new p r i s o n .  An attempt w i l l be made i n t h i s chapter t o  i s o l a t e and d i s c u s s the problem f i n d i n g s of the study;  areas and o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t  the subheadings  used i n Chapter I I I  • w i l l , g e n e r a l l y speaking, p r o v i d e the necessary framework. F a m i l y Background Extremely inadequate home l i f e was e v i d e n t i n over t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the group.  E a r l y emotional d e p r i v a t i o n , o f  -83course, can have d e v a s t a t i n g r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n l a t e r l i f e i n almost every area - employment, s c h o o l , p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , marriage, f e e l i n g s toward ures, e t c .  employers and other a u t h o r i t y  fig-  Any e f f o r t to meet problems l i k e these i n p r i s o n  must r e c o g n i z e , i n each person w i t h these unmet emotional needs, the s t r o n g tug, sometimes c o n s c i o u s , sometimes unconscious, t o f i n d the fundamental fort  t h i n g he has missed  as a c h i l d ;  the com-  and s e c u r i t y of a good home w i t h l o v i n g , a c c e p t i n g p a r e n t s .  T h i s need i s accentuated i n those persons who r e j e c t e d by parents and, although we g e n e r a l i z i n g , we  have been s e v e r e l y  should be c a u t i o u s about  cannot r u l e out the r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y that many  o f f e n d e r s are c r i m i n a l not o n l y because they are u n c o n s c i o u s l y a c t i n g out h o s t i l e f e e l i n g s a g a i n s t p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s but (as Dr. F r e d e r i c Wertham suggests and documents w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n g commit crimes i n order t o get placed i n p r i s o n .  He  c a l l s t h i s a " f l i g h t i n t o custody"  suggests that the i n s t i t u t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the home where  and  one  becomes completely dependent again - a symbolic r e t u r n to i n fancy and a chance t o be "mothered".  Crime i n t h i s sense  be s a i d t o be p a r t of the search f o r a mother.  can  Any unmet  dependency o p e r a t i n g i n the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y i s o n l y accentuated by the p r i s o n sentence. by people who  T h i s i s another  rejection  make up the world i n which the o f f e n d e r l i v e s .  1 Bowen, C r o s w e l l , " F l i g h t i n t o Custody", i n The New Y o r k e r . November 1 and 8, 1952.  two-part  article  -84-  He has been rejected by parents, disapproved of by teachers, fired by employers, knocked about by police officers and then lectured and sent to prison by the magistrate.  Here he loses  his liberty, is cut off from whatever i n his l i f e passes for family and friends.  He feels lost and helpless.  continue to live his l i f e the way he wants.  He cannot  Here he must  depend on others and have most of his decisions made for him. This is the kind of situation that leads to regression to an infantile dependency, and this condition can and should be used dynamically to help the prisoner. presents a challenge.  This kind of situation  For this regression, this emergence of  f a u l t i l y acquired childish attitudes, is a unique opportunity for helping at least some of the prisoners with very basic problems relating to their unmet infantile needs.  This means that  we must introduce into the situation staff who are wise enough and well-trained enough to help undo the harm that was done by the parents.  In a sense, to play this role properly staff  must be prepared to accept the dependency of the inmates and become parent substitutes."'" As noted i n Chapter I the custodial or correctional officer is thought ibo be the key person i n the institution because of his close hour-to-hour contact with the inmates. In doing things for the inmate and i n showing a genuine  1 Klare, Hugh J . , "The Trained Social Worker and the Prison Communities," Howard Journal. V o l . IX, 1 9 5 4 . p. 3 6 .  -85-  i n t e r e s t i n him as a person the inmate comes to r e l y on him as he might a good p a r e n t .  I t cannot be s t r e s s e d enough that  the b a s i c t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r i n a good i n s t i t u t i o n i s the a t t i t u d e o f the s t a f f members.  No programme w i l l succeed  no p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s w i l l be accomplished t h i s fundamental  c o n d i t i o n i s met.  l a t i o n s between o f f i c e r s  unless f i r s t  and  of a l l  The f r e e and f r i e n d l y r e -  and inmates  i s most important i n the  r e - e d u c a t i v e process and goes a l o n g way  toward  effecting  the  emotional r e - ^ o r i e n t a t i o n of the d i s t u r b e d and o f f e n d i n g inmate. Each s t a f f member i n the p r i s o n who  comes i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h  the inmate has some c o n t r i b u t i o n to make i f he understands man  and wants t o help him.  I t i s t h e r e f o r e important  these s t a f f people know something l o g i c a l aspects of the inmate's  about  the s o c i a l and  the  that psycho-  behaviour.  They must be a l e r t to the dynamics of the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the inmate and themselves  and to know  something  of the t r a n s f e r e n c e mechanism whereby the inmate d i s p l a c e s h i s f e e l i n g s about past experiences on t o the person who to h e l p him.  The  a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e , understand  i s trying and  apprec-  i a t e t h i s t r a n s f e r e n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p , without t r y i n g t o use i t or i n t e r p r e t i t to the inmate,  can i n t e n s i f y the t h e r a p e u t i c  i n f l u e n c e of s t a f f i n v o l v e d w i t h the inmate -  especially i f  t h i s understanding i s shared by o t h e r s t a f f having c o n t a c t w i t h the same-prisoner.  I f a l l s t a f f understand t h a t t h i s  relation-  ship rehearses the c h i l d - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p , they w i l l be  better  -86able t o understand the inmate's f e e l i n g s toward them o f both love and hate. standing  At the same time they can u t i l i z e  t h i s under-  i n c o n s c i o u s l y accepting the r o l e o f a f a t h e r cum  mother cum guide cum c o u n s e l l o r , w i t h i n the context  of t h e i r  o f f i c i a l r o l e as w i e l d e r o f a u t h o r i t y . The  composite, p s y c h o l o g i c a l r o l e , o f course,  can o n l y  be developed when the r e l a t i o n s h i p has reached the p o i n t where the inmate f e e l s there i s someone who r e a l l y cares f o r him and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r him.  There may come a time when the inmate  w i l l endow the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r w i t h omnipotent powers and come t o depend on him as he would l i k e to have been able t o depend on h i s f a t h e r and mother.  T h i s p o i n t has been s t r e s s e d  here because o f i t s extreme importance as i t r e l a t e s to every member o f the s t a f f , f o r i t i s w e l l known that the l a r g e of d e s t r u c t i v e impulses toward s o c i e t y by o f f e n d e r s s i o n of the h o s t i l i t y toward parents  are an exten-  o r other a d u l t s p l a y i n g  parental roles i n t h e i r e a r l y years. can be lessened  majority  Gradually t h i s  hostility  by the growing t r u s t the inmate may develop i n  the p r i s o n s t a f f . Needless t o say, these q u e s t i o n s  o f inmate - s t a f f  rela-  t i o n s should be e x p l i c i t l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y understood by s t a f f . Such understandings — c l a r i f y them —  serve  and the d i s c u s s i o n s which r e - e n f o r c e and a double purpose;  they not o n l y a i d i n d i -  v i d u a l s t a f f members i n wise i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f these behaviour and r e l a t i o n s h i p s t i u a t i o n s , but a l s o c r e a t e and enhance mutual  -87-  confidence it  and harmony.  T h i s again has a r e c i p r o c a l v a l u e ;  i s worth while i n i t s e l f but a l s o m u l t i p l i e s the t h e r a p e u t i c  i n f l u e n c e o f s t a f f and i n s t i t u t i o n .  Prisoners gradually  (though n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s c i o u s l y ) f i n d t h a t they have a muchneeded s e c u r i t y - b a s e i n the q u a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among those occupying  the c e n t r a l p l a c e i n the p r i s o n community which i s  a l s o , t e m p o r a r i l y , t h e i r home.  I t i s evident that t h i s can  o n l y be p o s s i b l e i f there i s u n i t y and harmony among the s t a f f and i f there i s l o y a l t y t o one another and t o the i n s t i t u t i o n . H o s t i l i t y , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s , g o s s i p , e t c . , among -staff o n l y serve t o confirm and j u s t i f y the inmate's own h o s t i l i t y and dissatisfaction.  Tensions  among s t a f f r e a c t i v a t e i n the i n -  mate's mind a n x i e t i e s r e l a t i n g t o h i s own i n t r a - f a m i l i a l conflicts.^"  T h i s can o n l y serve t o aggravate h i s problem and  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i l l thereby become d i f f i c u l t i f not i m p o s s i b l e . A l l t h i s has meaning o n l y i f the s t a f f , and here we are t a l k i n g mostly about c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r s (although and i n s t r u c t o r s p l a y these  r o l e s t o o ) , can get t o know the i n -  mates i n t i m a t e l y enough t o win t h e i r confidence The  teachers  and show concern.  achievement o f t h i s end c a l l s f o r the s m a l l e s t p o s s i b l e  groupings o f men under one c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r , who take prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s group.  should  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the  Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n house u n i t s are designed f o r  1 S l a v s o n , S. R., "An E l e m e n t a r i s t i c Approach t o the Understanding o f Delinquency," Nervous C h i l d . V o l . V I , October 1947. p . 418.  -88-  f i f t y inmates and  are f a r too l a r g e to create the  of ''home which i s a fundamental t h e r a p e u t i c 1,  illusion  element.  The  Westgate system, which l i m i t s each t i e r to twenty inmates, i s more n e a r l y i d e a l and  the chance f o r the c o r r e c t i o n a l  o f f i c e r to get to know h i s men ual*' o r p e r s o n a l possible  way  to d e a l i n an  w i t h them i s much g r e a t e r  "individ-  than w i l l  be  at Haney.  A l s o , the p r o p o s a l c a r r y one against  and  or two  to have c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r s ,  cases on a c o u n s e l l i n g b a s i s would work  t h e i r e s s e n t i a l r o l e as group c o u n s e l l o r s who  themselves to be i n some sense s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s . house u n i t s should be know and from him.  "counsel"  allow The  small enough so t h a t the o f f i c e r  a l l i n h i s group who  wish that  service  Time should be made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s .  to a caseworker, doctor,  could  Referral  teacher, i n s t r u c t o r , or whoever,  should grow out of these c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s , but  whatever  i s done by these " s p e c i a l i s t s " the r e a l job of " c o r r e c t i o n " w i l l be done at the " l i n e " l e v e l by the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r . Marital  Relations Problems around marriage were common among p r i s o n e r s  of the  group s t u d i e d who  In at l e a s t two  are married or who  of these cases the inmates would welcome  could p r o f i t by casework h e l p . while t h i s c o u n s e l l i n g was be  have been m a r r i e d .  I t i s to be hoped  and  that,  going on i n p r i s o n , the w i f e  could  going to a community s o c i a l agency f o r s i m i l a r casework  -89help.  One  f e e l s , from the group s e s s i o n s h e l d as p a r t  of  t h i s study, that a s m a l l group of p r i s o n e r s w i t h problems of t h i s nature might p r o f i t by group d i s c u s s i o n . L e i s u r e Time The  study c l e a r l y shows that most men  l i k e those  viewed have never used l e i s u r e time c o n s t r u c t i v e l y . three-quarters interests.  of the group had  The  need to help  never had  semieducational  of R e c r e a t i o n  At l e a s t  constructive  such people to experience r e a l  s a t i s f a c t i o n i n s p o r t s , hobbies, a r t s and and  any  inter-  a c t i v i t i e s i s very  other r e c r e a t i o n a l  great.  The  division  proposed f o r the Haney p r i s o n i s designed  to  meet t h i s need. Social  Relationships. The  study r e v e a l s that most of these men  s u p e r f i c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others. members of t h e i r own  sex  and  had  poor or  Problems r e l a t i n g  to those of the opposite  l i n k e d c l o s e l y to problems around unmet needs i n the Treatment then should  sex  to are  family.  be r e l a t e d to the e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n  under F a m i l y Background. Education The  study showed that almost t h r e e - q u a r t e r s  group had v e r y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s c h o o l experiences.  of  the  Although  some f e l t t h a t f u r t h e r s c h o o l i n g would be d e s i r a b l e , o n l y v e r y few  thought they would s e r i o u s l y consider  academic t r a i n i n g .  a  taking further  I n the l i g h t of t h i s f a c t , i t would seem  -90t h a t , r a t h e r than a bare  announcement t h a t such and  such  courses were a v a i l a b l e , the need i s to create s i t u a t i o n s (such as documentary f i l m s p l u s s k i l f u l l y designed t a l k s ) where embryonic i n t e r e s t s might be developed. mate shows s i g n s of r e a l i n t e r e s t  and  be encouraged to go back to s c h o o l . courses g i v e n should he geared  Once the i n -  some a b i l i t y , he  should  When t h i s i s done the  to an a d u l t l e v e l even though 1,2  the grade being taken i s a c t u a l l y q u i t e low.  The  proposed  p l a n f o r e d u c a t i o n i n Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n i s to i n c l u d e the academic as w e l l as the v o c a t i o n a l and i t i s hoped t h a t the programme w i l l be f l e x i b l e enough to permit I n d i v i d u a l inmates to take correspondence  courses i n almost  any s u b j e c t  i n c l u d i n g courses g i v e n by the Department of E x t e n s i o n , Univers i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Employment The  study showed that the whole area of employment  a great problem to most i n the group.  The  great need seems  to be f o r these men  to have an o p p o r t u n i t y of f i n d i n g  f a c t i o n s i n work.  I n order to do t h i s they need to be  f e e l competent i n some trade or v o c a t i o n a l l i n e . i n i t i a l stimulus i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n can come o n l y by —  by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h some craftsman who  was  But  satisand the  Infection  loves h i s c r a f t  1 Bates, Sanford, " S o c i a l Problems of the P r i s o n e r , " Proceedings, N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, 1946, Columbia U. P r e s s , New York, 1947. p. 436. 2 Chenault, P r i c e , "Education," i n P a u l W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary C o r r e c t i o n s . McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. P« 229.  and  has  an a f f i r m a t i v e a t t i t u d e to h i s inmate l e a r n e r s *  again we  r e t u r n to the b a s i c i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d  Here  under F a m i l y  Background. The  need f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y  o f the mayor needs of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group. expressed a d e s i r e f o r more t r a i n i n g .  one  Everyone  In t h i s r e s p e c t  the  pro-  posed p l a n f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g at the Haney p r i s o n , assuming it  takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n such f a c t o r s as those j u s t mentioned,  seems to be  sound.  On the b a s i s of the i n f o r m a t i o n now  avail-  able about t h i s programme i t would appear that most, i f not a l l , of the group of seventeen could be h e l p e d , at l e a s t to some degree, at the new  jail.  However, i t should  v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , v o c a t i o n a l t e s t i n g and "exploratory"  1  be noted  that  a p e r i o d i n the  shop would be n e c e s s a r y i n the case o f a number  of the group who  have o n l y a vague i d e a about what they want or  what they can do i n the way  of employment i n the f u t u r e .  one  wardens i n the United  of the most e n l i g h t e n e d  States  As has  said, One of the most important steps i n any treatment program i s to a f f o r d a l l men an o p p o r t u n i t y to work. Many men i n p r i s o n have never l e a r n e d to work. They have run away from work. I n the average p r i s o n , work i s the l a s t t h i n g a v a i l a b l e . I f we o n l y teach men to work i n p r i s o n we have accomplished a great deai.«  1 The " e x p l o r a t o r y " shop at the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n i s explained i n Chapter I I . 2 Scudder, Kenyon J . , "Diagnosis and Treatment of the Adult O f f e n d e r , " Proceedings, N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, A p r i l 194-7, Columbia U. P r e s s , New York, 194-8, p. 374-.  -91Rellgion Most of the group appeared to be n e g a t i v i s t i c about r e l i g i o n .  e i t h e r confused or  On the b a s i s of  that came through the i n t e r v i e w s  and  the  information  group s e s s i o n s i t  would appear that the k i n d of r e l i g i o u s programme most  likely  to appeal to the m a j o r i t y of t h i s group would be  a type o f  group d i s c u s s i o n about r e l i g i o n - p r e f e r a b l y not  structured  i n the way  of b i b l e study.  There was  p a r t of some that s i n g i n g hymns was  an e x p r e s s i o n  satisfying.  on  the  Perhaps a  small group i n the p r i s o n could be helped by j o i n i n g a Glee Club or a c h o i r which might s i n g d u r i n g Health  and  Habits  The  study r e v e a l e d  church s e r v i c e s .  that a number of the men  from complaints that have psychosomatic bases. casework, w i t h c l o s e c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the doctor c h i a t r i s t , would be i n d i c a t e d here.  suffered  No  doubt  and/or psy-  As many expressed con-  cern about t h e i r d r i n k i n g h a b i t s some a t t e n t i o n to t h i s problem  should  be g i v e n .  Group d i s c u s s i o n s  (among the  themselves, or perhaps under the auspices mous or The  inmates  of A l c o h o l i c s Anony-  A l c o h o l i s m F o u n d a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia),  l e c t u r e s , f i l m s and  the l i k e would be best  the expressed need f o r help  c a l c u l a t e d to  fill  here.  Attitudes The  a t t i t u d e of the m a j o r i t y of the seventeen inmates  toward the p r i s o n and  toward people i n a u t h o r i t y was  on  the  -92whole n e g a t i v e .  While  there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of such a  r e a c t i o n having been c r e a t e d i n a d u l t l i f e w i t h bosses, policemen  from  experiences  and p r i s o n i t s e l f , n e v e r t h e l e s s i n the  v a s t m a j o r i t y of cases such r e a c t i o n s r e l a t e to e a r l y tudes towards parents, accentuated by unfortunate w i t h s c h o o l teachers and o t h e r a d u l t s .  atti-  experiences  Therefore focusing  on the a t t i t u d e per se i n treatment would, of course, be unproductive.  A t t i t u d e s w i l l o n l y be changed as p o s i t i v e  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s are made with a d u l t s i n p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y who  are c o n s i s t e n t , f a i r ,  standing.  i n c o r r u p t i b l e , a c c e p t i n g and under-  A l l t h i s i s r e l a t e d to the i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r  i n t h i s chapter under F a m i l y Background. Guards The  guards at Westgate are o n l y now  beginning to take  i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and to take more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c o u n s e l l i n g of inmates.  I t says a good d e a l f o r them as a  group t h a t these seventeen inmates r a t e d them as h i g h l y as they d i d (see t h i s s e c t i o n i n Chapter  I I I ) . The m a j o r i t y  thought most of the guards were i n t e r e s t e d i n them.  The  i m p r e s s i o n these guards gave during the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h them was  c o n s i s t e n t with the inmates•  appear t h a t these men  p i c t u r e of them.  I t would  i n t h e i r d e s i r e to be i n t e r e s t e d , h e l p -  f u l people have something p o s i t i v e t o o f f e r the  inmates.  Inmates' C r i t i c i s m of P r i s o n Programme The m a j o r i t y of the inmates were sympathetic p o r t i v e of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s attempt t a t i o n programme.  Most thought  and  sup-  to set up a r e h a b i l i -  the shop programme was  good  -93as f a r as i t went but  that i t should  f e e l i n g on the p a r t of the m a j o r i t y  be expanded. against being  take p a r t i n the gymnasium a c t i v i t i e s makes one of such a compulsory programme.  l i f e must be  compulsory.  games, hobbies and  forced  doubt the  However, such t h i n g s  as  r e c r e a t i o n g e n e r a l l y , which should  activities.  to value  and many aspects of  be r e a l s o c i a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s , have value they are v o l u n t a r y  intense  By v i r t u e of i t s f u n c t i o n as  a p r i s o n the i n s t i t u t i o n i s r e s t r i c t i v e its  The  fun, and  can  i n l a r g e p a r t because  Whether inmates p a r t i c i p a t e or  not i n such a c t i v i t i e s i s o f t e n d i a g n o s t i c a l l y important may  and  i n d i c a t e progress or r e g r e s s i o n on the p a r t of i n d i v i d u a l  inmates. Offences. The  study showed that the m a j o r i t y of the inmates  been c o n v i c t e d  f o r s t e a l i n g - mainly of c a r s .  i t s e l f i s not n e c e s s a r i l y important but the o f f e n d e r ' s  subject  One  offence  in  i f a certain pattern i n  s t e a l i n g can be d i s c e r n e d ,  be d i a g n o s t i c a l l y v a l u a b l e .  The  had  t h i s information  writer i n discussing  may  this  says:  Take, f o r example, s t e a l i n g , which b r i n g s more people i n t o p r i s o n than any other crime. By i t s e l f i t t e l l s us l i t t l e about the person concerned, and we need to know a great d e a l more before o f f e r i n g help or advice - such as whether the impulse i s h a b i t u a l , or o n l y i n c e r t a i n moods or i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , whether i t i s a s t r a i g h t f o r ward d e s i r e f o r the o b j e c t taken, or whether i t r e p r e s e n t s an act of a g g r e s s i o n or a symbolic seeking f o r something other than the a c t u a l o b j e c t , or i s a d i s t r a c t i o n from d e p r e s s i o n , or v a r i o u s other p o s s i b i l i t i e s . ! 1 T i l l e y , Margaret, "The T r a i n e d S o c i a l Worker's Approach to the I n d i v i d u a l P r i s o n e r , " Howard J o u r n a l , V o l . IX, 1954, p. 43.  -94-  If offences committed by the inmate are to be interpreted diagnostically, they should be viewed as any form of anti-social behaviour is viewed, "that i s , as partially neurotic and partially non-neurotic and consciously motivated", and an attempt should be made to see "to what degree and i n what detailed aspects i s this particular case of stealing neurotic,"  and further, to what degree i t "is patternized and  repetitive and changeless from one incident to the next.""*' A number of the group of seventeen, for example, showed a pattern of repeated car thefts.  As automobiles, like guns,  are egoic power or sexual potency symbols (as well as status symbols for status-starved individuals) i t is conceivable that the crime of car theft might "represent a symbolic gratifica2  tion of a forbidden sexual act."  It has been suggested that  the using of a gun i n a hold-up "may contain strong elements of a suppressed homosexuality, or sexual impotency."^  It may  be that the theft of an automobile relates to similar elements in the personality of the offender. Inmates' verbalization of own problems The need for a treatment-oriented programme is clearly shown i n the inmates' verbalization of their own problems. One 1 Gardner, George £ . , "The Primary and Secondary Gains i n Stealing," Nervous Child, Vol. VI, October 1947. p. 440. 2 Wallerstein, James S. "Roots of Delinquency," Nervous Child, v o l . VI, October 1947, p. 404. 3  Ibid  -95-  t h i n g came out s h a r p l y : t h e i r behaviour.  these inmates  are concerned  about  They are a f r a i d of t h e i r a g g r e s s i v e and  a n t i - s o c i a l d r i v e s , f e a r f u l t h a t they w i l l go on i n t o  further  crime, f e e l trapped, w o r t h l e s s , confused and g u i l t y .  And  almost  a l l e x p l i c i t l y want h e l p .  C l e a r l y , on the  adduced from t h i s study, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  evidence  counselling  s e c t i o n planned f o r the new Haney p r i s o n i s of paramount importance i f the whole concept of treatment i s to be more than a f u t i l e  anything  formality.  Group S e s s i o n s with Inmates As mentioned under t h i s subheading  i n Chapter I I I ,  group s e s s i o n s w i t h the inmates  i n d i c a t e d a need i n them to  have the o p p o r t u n i t y of t a l k i n g  about  a v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t s  i n an atmosphere conducive to good d i s c u s s i o n .  Once the  n e c e s s a r y atmosphere of freedom and frankness has been establ i s h e d , the inmate not o n l y begins to r e v e a l h i m s e l f i n a way  - different  from what would emerge w i t h the  new  individual  c o u n s e l l e r - but a l s o makes contact w i t h f e l l o w - i n m a t e s at that l e v e l which can c o n s t i t u t e r e a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  In other  words, the necessary r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h h i s f e l l o w - c r e a t u r e s i n g e n e r a l can grow out of t h i s b e g i n n i n g .  Group work, group  d i s c u s s i o n , and group therapy a l l have a p l a c e i n meeting damental needs i n t h i s group - and presumably any such of  inmates.  fun-  group-  -96-  Case H i s t o r i e s Four case h i s t o r i e s w i t h suggested programmes f o r each of the men have been used i n Chapter I I I to i l l u s t r a t e  the  f o u r types o f inmate t h a t appeared to emerge from the group studied.  N a t u r a l l y there are great v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n each o f  the f o u r groups and d i a g n o s i s and treatment w i l l be from person to person.  different  However, i n regard to c o u n s e l l i n g  needs these f o u r groups show f o u r d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t yet separately i d e n t i f i a b l e  approaches.  Case "A" i s t y p i c a l of three of the seventeen i n t h a t they are aware of t h e i r problems, have done some t h i n k i n g about them and have some i n s i g h t , have expressed a d e s i r e t o understand themselves b e t t e r , appear to want h e l p , and seem to have the kinds of s t r e n g t h s t h a t w i l l make casework successful.  These three men  help  should move i n t o casework  treat-  ment immediately and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o u n s e l l i n g should c l e a r l y r e s t w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n a l caseworkers. Case "C" i s t y p i c a l of two of the seventeen.  He i s  r e a l l y a p s y c h i a t r i c case and i s c l o s e to b e i n g p s y c h o t i c . Casework i n h i s case should not be attempted, f o r i f defences crumbled t h i s would undoubtedly produce a p s y c h o t i c e p i s o d e . Day-to-day c o u n s e l l i n g about programme, i n s t i t u t i o n a l  rules  and r e g u l a t i o n s , d i s c i p l i n a r y f a c t o r s e t c . , should be handled by the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r t h a t has c l o s e s t contact w i t h them.  C o u n s e l l i n g around r e a l problems would not be  attempted.  -97-  Case "G"  i s t y p i c a l of three of the seventeen.  They  need someone to take an i n t e r e s t i n them and c o u n s e l them about problems t h a t a r i s e i n the p r i s o n .  However, they are not v e r y  much aware of problems w i t h i n themselves and are not l i k e l y to prove amenable to i n t e n s i v e c o u n s e l l i n g .  The  correctional  o f f i c e r having c l o s e s t contact w i t h each of them should do c o u n s e l l i n g i n these cases.  the  Here he might d e a l w i t h problems  r e l a t e d to employment a f t e r r e l e a s e , m a r i t a l problems that the inmate f e e l s he w i l l f a c e , and o t h e r problems f o r which he need support  will  i f he i s e v e n t u a l l y to t a c k l e them on h i s own.  No  attempt would be made, i n c o u n s e l l i n g these t h r e e , t o b r i n g about fundamental changes i n the h a b i t p a t t e r n s of the p a s t . Case "L" i s t y p i c a l of n i n e , over h a l f , of the group of seventeen.  T h i s w i l l be the r e a l "hard core" of Haney i n the  f u t u r e and much thought  and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i l l have to take  place b e f o r e a r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e method of h e l p i n g them can be worked out.  By and l a r g e the key to t h i s problem l i e s i n the  c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n o f the casework s t a f f and the officers.  Such men  correctional  as L. need i n t e n s i v e help and must get i t  i f they are to change t h e i r p a t t e r n of behaviour. cannot f o r c e casework on a c l i e n t ;  However, one  u n l e s s he wants to e n t e r  i n t o a casework r e l a t i o n s h i p and seek f o r understanding change, the chances of r e a l l y h e l p i n g him  are n i l .  and  So i t be-  comes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r to get to know these men,  show i n t e r e s t i n them at every o p p o r t u n i t y ,  win t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e .  and  When i n c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s w i t h the  -98inmates, the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r f e e l s the man more i n t e n s i v e c o u n s e l l i n g , he h e l p s the man to h i m s e l f  of r e q u e s t i n g  casework h e l p .  r e f e r r a l , both c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r and v e r y c l o s e l y together and  gradually,  For  i s ready f o r  to see  the  value  a time a f t e r  caseworker should work  as the r e l a t i o n s h i p t r a n s -  f e r s to the caseworker, the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r should withdraw without r e j e c t i n g the  inmate.  Counselling The  illustrative  c a s e - h i s t o r i e s above show the need f o r  c o u n s e l l i n g f o r a l l inmates, though t h i s c o u n s e l l i n g must d i f f e r inoform and  i n degree of i n t e n s i t y i n each case.  that i n three  out of the  seventeen cases p r o f e s s i o n a l casework  would be needed at the o u t s e t ;  t h a t i n nine cases a p r o f e s s i o n a l  caseworker might be needed during  some phase of treatment,  depending i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y on the o f f i c e r i n helping  the  It i s clear  s k i l l of the c o r r e c t i o n a l  inmate accept casework treatment;  that i n the other f i v e cases no casework would be From t h i s we  see  strong  s t a f f i n p r i s o n i s not  Before proceeding to d i s c u s s c o u n s e l l i n g between the  some of the t h i n g s  the d i v i s i o n of labour the  about the meaning of  that i t i s hoped i t w i l l  In t h i s context we  lay  necessary.  c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r and  some c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d and  attempted.  evidence that c o u n s e l l i n g by the o n l y important but  and  in  caseworker, "counselling"  accomplish.  can say t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g i s a process  whereby the inmate i s enabled to accept the p r i s o n community  and  -99make use of i t s resources  so that he i s helped toward a  r e s o l u t i o n o f the problems that are g e t t i n g i n the way o f h i s f u n c t i o n i n g as a f r e e member o f s o c i e t y .  The b a s i c  t o o l o f the c o u n s e l l o r i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p that e x i s t s between him and the inmate.  Unless t h i s develops, i t i s  p o i n t l e s s t o keep i n t e r v i e w i n g the p r i s o n e r .  The man must  f e e l that the c o u n s e l l o r i s i n t e r e s t e d i n him, does not l o o k upon him as " c r i m i n a l " , but sees a f f i r m a t i v e q u a l i t i e s i n him  and r e s p e c t s him f o r the t h i n g both have i n common —  t h e i r e s s e n t i a l humanness. and  respect,  As the inmate f e e l s t h i s warmth  a process o f " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " takes p l a c e whereby  the inmate g r a d u a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e s w i t h i n h i m s e l f t h e standards and  a t t i t u d e s o f the c o u n s e l l o r .  come f i r s t please respect cept  T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n might  o f a l l i n the form o f the inmate doing t h i n g s t o  the c o u n s e l l o r because he wants the c o u n s e l l o r ' s and concern t o continue.  elaborated  Here again we r e a c h the con-  under F a m i l y Background about the p r i s o n  s t a f f ' s r o l e as parent s u b s t i t u t e s . Counselling  s e s s i o n s , o r i n t e r v i e w s , can be f o r a  v a r i e t y o f purposes — from v e r y r o u t i n e matters t o v e r y sive therapeutic  ends.  ients —  and concern f o r the inmate and a r e c o g n i t i o n  respect  A l l c o n t a i n the same b a s i c  inten-  ingred-  of and emphasis, not o f h i s weaknesses but o f h i s s t r e n g t h s . Now l e t us l o o k i n some d e t a i l at the casework i n t e r view —  which i n the p r i s o n would be the most i n t e n s i v e form  -100of c o u n s e l l i n g a v a i l a b l e .  As  already  suggested, there  are  common f a c t o r s i n a l l i n t e r v i e w s between the caseworker ( o r counsellor)  and  the inmate, which form the b a s i s and  d i r e c t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w .  The  set  worker must attempt to  d i s c o v e r the circumstances i n the background and  experience  of the inmate that have brought about the problem which f a c e s him.  the  now  He must attempt to d i s c o v e r c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y trends  and  at the o u t s e t  make a t e n t a t i v e  d i a g n o s i s , on the b a s i s of which he formulates a t e n t a t i v e treatment p l a n .  The  caseworker should  a t t i t u d e of the newly admitted p r i s o n e r  know the and  be s e n s i t i v e to  the p a r t i c u l a r form of t h a t a t t i t u d e i n the man The  s i n e qua non,  probable  before  him.  however, i s t h a t a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y  of caseworker-inmate r e l a t i o n s h i p be e s t a b l i s h e d q u i c k l y thoroughly.  Unless the k i n d of rapport  the deeper and more v a l u a b l e little  which w i l l l e a d i n t o  casework r e l a t i o n s h i p emerges,  i s achieved, l i t t l e r e a l help  can be  given,  and  the  i n t e r v i e w s w i l l proceed on a s u p e r f i c i a l r a t h e r than on creative  a  level.  When the  caseworker f i r s t meets and  inmate these fundamental questions resolved.  and  The  first  interviews  of a t t i t u d e must be  the fully  i n t e r v i e w the caseworker has w i t h the  p r i s o n e r i s o f t e n extremely i m p o r t a n t .  1  The  newcomer has  1 Peck, H a r r i s B, and B e l l s m i t h , V i r g i n i a , Treatment of the Delinquent Adolescent , F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, New York, 1954, pp. 2 9 - 3 5 .  -101-  a l l sorts of feelings about the prison.  He f e e l s alone,  a f r a i d , h o s t i l e , b i t t e r , c y n i c a l , t i r e d , beaten - a l l of these or any combination of them.  This early period i n the prison  can and should be, i n the l i t e r a l sense of the word, c r u c i a l —  the whole of-his past i s being reviewed  towards the future may begin — tions.  and a re-orientation  but only under c e r t a i n condi-  What, then, are these conditions? The primary condition i s that special form of r e l a t i o n -  ship to which we have already referred.  But i n order to build  on t h i s relationship the worker must know c l e a r l y what i s i n the heart and mind of the prisoner before him.  What, then,  i s the mental and emotional condition of the offender as he comes into the prison?  The types of reactions of the inmate  to the s i t u a t i o n he suddenly finds himself faced with are based mainly i n the kinds of relations he has had with his parents i n general, his father i n p a r t i c u l a r and, through t h i s , with society as a whole.  As was noted before, i t i s  f a i r l y well established that many of the destructive impulses toward society by the delinquent are an extension of h o s t i l i t y toward parents r e l a t i n g back to early years i n l i f e .  The  violent reaction to authority exhibited i n so many offenders i s most probably rooted i n the h o s t i l i t y toward a father person who represents the powerful, the r e s t r i c t i n g , the authoritative.  Through a l l these differences of type, however,  the caseworker i n the prison learns to expect certain attitudes and patterns of behaviour i n any inmate during his f i r s t days  -102-  i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  He i s f u l l o f a n x i e t y about h i s  and the a n x i e t y - s t a t e r e a c t i v a t e s o l d c o n f l i c t s .  committal  He i s o f t e n  d e f i a n t and h o s t i l e - h i s whole p e r s o n a l i t y i s o f t e n o r g a n i z e d to  d e f y the a u t h o r i t y the p r i s o n r e p r e s e n t s .  to  hide h i s r e a l nature.  He takes pains  To most p r i s o n e r s the p r i s o n i s j u s t  another form o f punishment - i t i s an enemy and he o r g a n i z e s himself to f i g h t i t .  He has been i n c o n f l i c t w i t h s o c i e t y and  the p r i s o n r e p r e s e n t s t h i s s o c i e t y i n i t s v i c t o r i o u s and p u n i t i v e mode. All  the o r d i n a r y problems of the inmate are heightened  by the sentence.  Some are so threatened by the experience  t h a t , as mentioned e a r l i e r , they r e g r e s s t o e a r l i e r p a t t e r n s o f behaviour. for  Some are overcome w i t h f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t  and ask  punishment i n order t h a t t h e i r g u i l t be assuaged.  Often  they f e e l they are complete f a i l u r e s .  T h i s sweeping condemna-  t i o n of the e n t i r e s e l f i s common i n adolescence mates o f the type s t u d i e d here are f i x a t e d  (and many i n -  at the adolescent  stage o f development o r r e g r e s s t o i t a f t e r committal); f o r them there i s no middle extremes.  ground, e v e r y t h i n g i s p i c t u r e d i n  They want t o s t a r t  p l e t e l y dependent a g a i n .  a l l over again, want t o be com-  Many are completely unresponsive and  stubborn, w i l l not t a l k , no matter what i s s a i d o r done. a l l o f them t e l l l i e s .  Some l i e s are obvious  and o t h e r s are smooth and d i f f i c u l t  to d i s c e r n .  Almost  and p i t i a b l e As August  -103-  Aichhorn  says:  There i s nothing remarkable i n the behaviour of the dissocial; i t d i f f e r s only q u a n t i t a t i v e l y from normal behaviour. We a l l hide our r e a l s e l v e s and use a great d e a l of p s y c h i c energy to mislead our neighbours. We masquerade more or l e s s , according to n e c e s s i t y . ^ The  task of the caseworker r e q u i r e s an  of the d i s t i n c t i o n between two the ego  and  the superego.  understanding  components of p e r s o n a l i t y  A l t h o u g h the inmate's  —  offence  i m p l i e s i n a l l but the e x c e p t i o n a l case the e x i s t e n c e of a superego d e f e c t , i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s  t r u e that a s a t i s f a c t o r y  superego can e x i s t o n l y as a s u p e r s t r u c t u r e on the of a h e a l t h i l y c o n f i d e n t ego.  The  p r i o r need, t h e r e f o r e , i s  to g i v e the p r i s o n e r ' s ego the support can be  accepted  relationship.  by him  and reinforcement  which  o n l y through the rapport of the casework  However, the worker must keep i n h i s mind a l l  the w h i l e the whole superego i d e a —  g e t t i n g the inmate con-  s c i o u s l y r e l a t e d to the demands of s o c i e t y . of t h i s can be  foundation  The  beginnings  accomplished by the worker a l i g n i n g h i m s e l f  w i t h the honest, c o o p e r a t i v e p a r t of the inmate, by  avoiding  h u m i l i a t i n g him by r e f e r e n c e to h i s c r i m i n a l behaviour (though not  condoning h i s a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r ) .  u n m o r a l i s t i c , c o n s i s t e n t , r e f u s i n g to be  He must be corrupted  f o r i n s t a n c e by becoming a p a r t y to d e c e p t i o n .  at any  1  Aichhorn, August. Wayward Youth V i k i n g P r e s s , New p. 125. ?  point,  However, I f  the emphasis were upon the superego d e f e c t d u r i n g the  1925.  just,  first  York,  -104-  p a r t of work w i t h the inmate, the more b a s i c ego-reinforcement would p r o b a b l y be n e g l e c t e d and the inmate might become, as a r e s u l t of t h i s imbalance, a r a t h e r  possibly spiritless  and beaten person. The caseworker needs to be aware of the dynamics of the s i t u a t i o n wherein the inmate, i n essence though u n c o n s c i o u s l y , i n v i t e s punishment.  The p r i s o n e r b e l i e v e s that h i s behaviour  i s such that punishment  i s due and he may  aware o f h i s g u i l t f e e l i n g s .  i n some degree be  H i s d e s i r e f o r punishment, then,  i s seen t o be rooted i n the more b a s i c d e s i r e f o r r e l i e f from the a n x i e t y over g u i l t f e e l i n g s .  I f the caseworker, i n h i s  sympathy, meets o n l y the ego-need f o r acceptance and  relieves  the inmate, h e l p i n g him to r a t i o n a l i z e h i s behaviour, but i g n o r i n g a superego problem, the deepseated g u i l t f e e l i n g r e mains and the chance to d e a l w i t h the problem i n terms o f superego development i s l o s t .  A l s o , i f the caseworker gives i n  to the inmate's d e s i r e f o r punishment  and condemns and s c o l d s ,  the inmate then f e e l s he has p a i d the p r i c e and h i s g u i l t i s relieved.  T h i s ends the a m e n a b i l i t y of the inmate t o f u r t h e r  guidance, while l e a v i n g the b a s i c problem unsolved.  On the  other hand, i f quick, warm reassurance i s g i v e n without s a c r i f i c i n g r e a l i s m , the chances are that t h e inmate w i l l b e g i n to t a l k about h i s f a u l t s , w i l l h i m s e l f v e r b a l i z e h i s problems and will,  i n b u r s t s of emotion, admit h i s t e r r i b l e  confusion.  T h i s b r i n g s us n a t u r a l l y to what i s i n some ways the most important concept o f a l l - acceptance of the inmate.  This  -105-  is  i m p l i c i t i n the casework r e l a t i o n s h i p , which i s i m p o s s i b l e  without the t o t a l l y u n m o r a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e of the caseworker who  c o n s i d e r s the crime of the o f f e n d e r as q u i t e secondary  his  e s s e n t i a l humanness.  No matter what the inmate f e e l s he  needs t o b r i n g out i n the i n t e r v i e w i t should have the acceptance  of the caseworker and he should sense.the  that the caseworker i s condoning  full  case-  worker's support s t r o n g l y at any c r u c i a l p o i n t without  t h i s way  to  his s o c i a l offences.  feeling In  the inmate i s able to f a c e h i m s e l f w i t h , and b r i n g  out i n t o the open, the t r a u m a t i c experiences t h a t have upset him.  To a v e r y l a r g e degree the extent of the caseworker's  acceptance  determines  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the therapy  i n the i n t e r v i e w s themselves.  implicit  Someone has s a i d t h a t the case-  worker must be what the l i t t l e boy  s a i d of h i s f r i e n d :  "My  f r i e n d i s the boy who  f a u l t s and l i k e s me  j u s t the  knows a l l my  same." All  too many o f f e n d e r s l e a v e the penal  fundamentally unchanged.  institution  I f an o f f e n d e r has changed i t w i l l  be because a pathway i n t o h i s s e n s i b i l i t i e s has been c r e a t e d by at l e a s t one person who  has been able to h e l p him w i t h  r e a l i z a t i o n s about h i m s e l f and understandings  about how  he  new can  achieve s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n a s o c i a l l y acceptable manner. Although i n these past few pages we  have been d i s c u s s i n g  the caseworker-inmate r e l a t i o n s h i p i t should be remembered, as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , that c o u n s e l l i n g whether on a f r i e n d l y , ive,  support-  somewhat s u p e r f i c i a l , b a s i s o n l y or on a v e r y i n t e n s i v e  -106-  b a s i s , contains c e r n and  the common f a c t o r s of respect, acceptance, con-  a w i l l i n g n e s s to understand and  l e v e l and  to the degree t h a t the inmate i s ready and  use h e l p . i n contact  be h e l p f u l at  the  able to  In a sense every member of the p r i s o n s t a f f who with the p r i s o n p o p u l a t i o n must " c o u n s e l "  to some degree.  I t may  is  inmates  be i n e x p l a i n i n g a job of work; i n  d i s c u s s i n g a p r i s o n r e g u l a t i o n about which the p r i s o n e r i s not c l e a r ; or i n responding to an inmate's request d i e t or f o r a change of work or shop or other  for a special activity.  Whom-  ever the inmate t a l k s to - teacher, v o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r , doctor,  psychologist,  caseworker, c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r , warden or  deputy - he by that act c r e a t e s f o l l o w s that the  a counselling situation.  s t a f f person who  i s i n most r e g u l a r has  contact  w i t h the inmates w i l l be the one  who  opportunities for counselling.  T h i s person, as mentioned  i n Chapter I and e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, correctional  before  i s the c u s t o d i a l or  s a i d that t h i s p r i s o n o f f i c e r p l a y s  key r o l e i n the p r i s o n programme. recognizes  the g r e a t e s t number of  officer.  A g a i n l e t i± be  who  It  t h i s and  I t i s the wise  administrator  g i v e s t r a i n i n g , s u p e r v i s i o n and  r e c o g n i t i o n to t h i s person so that he may  the  real  p l a y h i s r o l e to  the  fullest. I n the l i g h t of the f i n d i n g s regarding  the inmate's need  f o r c o u n s e l l i n g - namely, t h a t three needed caseworkers immedi a t e l y , nine at some stage l a t e r i n the treatment (and  i n the  -107-  meantime needed the guidance and  counsel  of the c o r r e c t i o n a l  o f f i c e r ) and t h a t the other f i v e , not being work h e l p , needed the f r i e n d l y supportive correctional officer —  amenable to case-  c o u n s e l l i n g of  the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r ' s r o l e takes  on added s i g n i f i c a n c e .  In e f f e c t t h i s means t h a t the  t i o n a l o f f i c e r would be  c o u n s e l l i n g the last-mentioned  p l u s a p o r t i o n of the middle n i n e . of d i s c u s s i o n t h a t the  c o u n s e l l o r had  the seventeen), i n whose case he would have to be  fifty —  caseworker. ( o r nine of responsible  However, the Haney Cor-  house u n i t s of not  almost three times as many.  o f f i c e r ' s l o a d to twenty-seven;  nine  a reasonable load i f h i s t o t a l  group were o n l y seventeen inmates. r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n has  five  brought f i v e of the  That would leave f o u r of these p l u s the other f i v e  T h i s would be  correc-  L e t us say f o r purposes  to the p o i n t where they accepted r e f e r r a l to the  for counselling.  the  seventeen but  T h i s would i n c r e a s e  too l a r g e a number f o r him  handle t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n h i s many other d u t i e s as custodial o f f i c e r . broken i n t o the  The  the to  a  i d e a l would be to have the house u n i t s  s m a l l e s t p o s s i b l e groups so t h a t the  officer  would have enough time to do the necessary c o u n s e l l i n g  and  recording. I f we  hold to these f i g u r e s —  f o r the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r - we i s roughly  divided i n h a l f ;  one  nine out of  see that the c o u n s e l l i n g h a l f under casework and  h a l f under c o u n s e l l i n g by the o f f i c e r . 200  seventeen  inmates, h a l f the f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n  job  one  T h i s means t h a t about of Haney, would need  -108-  casework at any one time.  The c u r r e n t l y proposed p l a n t o have  f i v e caseworkers at Haney would provide able l o a d of about f o r t y inmates.  f o r each a f a i r l y reason-  However, one of the ways to  assure concern and acceptance o f inmates by the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r s i s to give them understanding, and one of the ways t o assure that they are u s i n g c o u n s e l l i n g e f f e c t i v e l y i s t o help them improve t h e i r s k i l l s . t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n planning  I t i s proposed by the Haney  Correc-  s t a f f t h a t the caseworkers w i l l  give  the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r s s u p e r v i s i o n i n the area o f c o u n s e l l i n g . C e r t a i n l y supervision i s inescapably  necessary.  However,  s u p e r v i s i n g about twenty o f f i c e r s p l u s c a r r y i n g a caseload o f f o r t y i s l i k e l y t o s e r i o u s l y overload his  the caseworker and render  c o n t r i b u t i o n that much l e s s e f f e c t i v e . At t h i s p o i n t i t i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t t o s o r t out the  d e t a i l s about t h i s d i v i s i o n of labour  and perhaps the r e s o l u t i o n  w i l l o n l y come through working i t out e m p i r i c a l l y on the j o b . One t h i n g i s c l e a r , though} i f we accept the f i n d i n g r that the c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r i s a key person then we must  give  c e n t r a l r e c o g n i t i o n t o h i s s p e c i a l p l a c e i n the p r i s o n . means f i r s t jobs  of a l l t h a t i n the choice  (129 of them i n the Haney p r i s o n )  to the a t t i t u d e s of the a p p l i c a n t s  o f personnel t o f i l l a t t e n t i o n must be  This these given  and assessment must be made  as t o whether o r not he w i l l be amenable to the k i n d o f t r a i n i n g and  s u p e r v i s i o n that w i l l f i t him f o r t h i s , the most important  p a r t of h i s j o b .  I n a v e r y r e a l way the s e l e c t i o n of c u s t o d i a l  o f f i c e r s i s more important than the s e l e c t i o n of treatment people.  -109The l a t t e r , by v i r t u e of t h e i r t r a i n i n g , have something  on  which to b u i l d and can i n most cases be counted on t o have the p r o p e r l y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward  inmates, and to l e a r n  the necessary r e s p e c t f o r the f u n c t i o n of custody. The  job of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g the o f f e n d e r w i l l be suc-  c e s s f u l only i f a l l s t a f f — trative —  treatment, c u s t o d i a l ,  adminis-  b e l i e v e i n and p r a c t i c e the same b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y ,  though perhaps i n d i f f e r e n t forms.  As l o n g as there are  v e s t i g e s of the p u n i t i v e approach w i t h i n the p r i s o n the w i l l sense them and emphasize them i n h i s mind perhaps n e g a t i o n of any more p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s .  inmate t o the  P a r t o f the p u n i t i v e  approach has been not o n l y t o mark the o f f e n d e r as d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s but to t r e a t him as a person without normal humanness.  However, those who  have absorbed  the t r a d i t i o n a l Judeo-  C h r i s t i a n e t h i c a l i n s i g h t s and have found them r e i n f o r c e d  by  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l understandings of t h i s century, see every s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l as a human being f i r s t  and h i s o f f e n d i n g  behaviour as secondary and i n c i d e n t a l .  Treatment  acy - no power whatever- u n l e s s founded  has no  effic-  on t h i s acceptance o f  the p r i s o n e r , not as a c r i m i n a l , but as a f e l l o w human b e i n g . In  such matters of p r i n c i p l e , there can be no compromise  between the o l d and the new.  The new  is still  a fragile  thing,  though i t s p o t e n t i a l i n terms of r e g e n e r a t i o n i s i n c a l c u l a b l y great.  I t i s s t i l l v u l n e r a b l e to the dehumanized and dehuman-  i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s of the o l d - the p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e s so l o n g  -110-  e s t a b l i s h e d and s t i l l sustained by deep unconscious forces i n our c u l t u r e .  This study, however, of the seventeen inmates,  makes i t abundantly c l e a r that t h e i r welfare can never be served by the m o r a l i s t i c , p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e s of the past. A turning point of h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and indeed f o r Canada w i l l have taken place when a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d uncompromisingly on a treatment-focused programme —  not as a matter of l i p service  but i n f u l l awareness of a l l t h e . s u b t l e , d i f f i c u l t and complex implications.  The opening of the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u -  t i o n may w e l l be such a t u r n i n g p o i n t . 1  Ill  APPENDIX A  TYPES OF CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS.  (1)  The Maximum S e c u r i t y P r i s o n  Such a p r i s o n would be completely w a l l e d ,  would  have i n s i d e c e l l s made of t o o l - r e s i s t a n t s t e e l and would employ a l l the modern s e c u r i t y devices eyes, metal d e t e c t o r s  such as e l e c t r i c  and automatic alarm systems.  p r i s o n e r s would be under constant have r e c r e a t i o n and other  The  s u p e r v i s i o n , would work,  a c t i v i t i e s i n a confined  area.  Such a p r i s o n would accept as inmates o n l y the most i n c o r r i g i b l e escape r i s k s and s p e c i a l k i n d s custody needs are v e r y g r e a t . system would one f i n d  of p r i s o n e r s whose  Only i n a v e r y l a r g e p r i s o n  such a p r i s o n and even i n a f e d e r a l  system the inmate p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s k i n d o f i n s t i t u t i o n would be s m a l l .  A province  w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l popula-  t i o n l i k e B r i t i s h Columbia would s c a r c e l y need a separate p r i s o n of t h i s s o r t and o f course does not have one. Canadian p r o v i n c e s ,  f o r the most p a r t , c o n t a i n w i t h i n a l e s s  than maximum s e c u r i t y p r i s o n a s m a l l b l o c k o r wing f o r those prisoners with exceptional  custody needs.  The United  States  F e d e r a l p r i s o n , A l c a t r a z , s i t u a t e d on a r o c k i n San F r a n c i s c o Bay, might be considered prisons.  the u l t i m a t e  i n maximum s e c u r i t y  -112-  (2)  The C l o s e  Security Prison  T h i s type o f p r i s o n would be walled s e c u r i t y fence surrounding i t .  o r have a h i g h  I t would have many of the  s e c u r i t y f e a t u r e s o f the maximum s e c u r i t y p r i s o n but these would not be emphasized to the same degree.  The  prisoners  would work o n l y w i t h i n the p r i s o n and there would be s u p e r v i s i o n during work, r e c r e a t i o n and other I t would c o n t a i n the most d i f f i c u l t  activities.  type of p r i s o n e r and  would v a r y o n l y i n degree from the f i r s t - m e n t i o n e d prison.  Again, i t i s d o u b t f u l i f p r o v i n c e s  f a i r l y small p o p u l a t i o n s  would f i n d  constant  type o f  or s t a t e s w i t h  a need f o r a separate  c l o s e s e c u r i t y p r i s o n and one would f i n d b l o c k s o r wings w i t h i n medium s e c u r i t y p r i s o n s g i v e n over to t h i s k i n d o f security.  The B r i t i s h Columbia P e n i t e n t i a r y and most  F e d e r a l p r i s o n s i n Canada are of t h i s  (3)  other  type.  The Medium S e c u r i t y P r i s o n  T h i s type o f p r i s o n would u s u a l l y have a h i g h s e c u r i t y fence surrounding i t and s t r i c t periphery. rigid.  s e c u r i t y measures on the  W i t h i n these l i m i t s the s e c u r i t y would be l e s s  Inmates would work and p l a y w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f  the p r i s o n without constant  s u p e r v i s i o n and might work o u t s i d e  the p r i s o n under c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n .  The b u i l d i n g would be o f 1 cheaper c o n s t r u c t i o n , the c e l l s would u s u a l l y be " o u t s i d e "  1 " o u t s i d e " c e l l s are c e l l s that are on the o u t s i d e w a l l o f a p r i s o n w i t h the c o r r i d o r down the m i d d l e . " I n s i d e " c e l l s are blocked down the middle w i t h c o r r i d o r s along the o u t s i d e w a l l s .  -113and  some p r o v i s i o n might be made f o r s m a l l  f o r s p e c i a l groups o f inmates. prisoners  dormitories  By f a r the m a j o r i t y o f  i n any p r i s o n system on t h i s c o n t i n e n t  housed i n i n s t i t u t i o n s such as t h i s . t h e s i s concerns i t s e l f  The p r i s o n  c o u l d be this  about, the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l  Insti-  t u t i o n , i s of t h i s type.  (4)  The Minimum S e c u r i t y ( o r Open Type)  Such a p r i s o n would have no w a l l o r fence around i t and  the inmates would not be under l o c k and key.  Buildings  would be o f f a i r l y cheap c o n s t r u c t i o n and might be o f the c o t t a g e type o r some type which allowed f o r some group living.  Work and r e c r e a t i o n would go on without  s u p e r v i s i o n both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e  constant  the i n s t i t u t i o n .  In  some cases inmates would be allowed t o take part i n a c t i v i t i e s i n the surrounding community and might b e g i n employment while s t i l l l i v i n g i n the p r i s o n .  Examples o f t h i s type o f p r i s o n  would be New Haven ( B o r s t a l ) , the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , and  12"} the f o r e s t r y camps.  1 Barnes, Robert D., "Modern P r i s o n P l a n n i n g , " i n P a u l W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary C o r r e c t i o n s , McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951, P P . 2 6 9 ^ 2 7 6 " 2 L i t c h f i e l d , C l a r e n c e B.,"Developments i n t h e C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n P l a n , " i n P a u l Tappan, ed. op., c i t . p p . 2 7 7 - 2 9 6 . 3 P .  A Manual of C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards, A.C.A. New York, 1 9 9 .  1954,  114 APPENDIX B  CROSS SECTIONAL REPORT OF THE OAKALLA PRISON FARM AND POPULATION AS OF JULY 2 6 , 1 9 5 6 * ( T o t a l count = 958) Number w a i t i n g t r i a l , appeal, c o n v i c t i o n , to P e n i t e n t i a r y e t c .  transfer 143  T h e r e f o r e t o t a l number s e r v i n g t h e i r terms i n O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm ( T h i s i n c l u d e s drug a d d i c t s , and the i n d e t e r m i n a t e sentence group) Number l i s t e d as drug a d d i c t s The i n d e f i n i t e sentence group (Approximately 78 i n Y.O.U., 60 i n Westgate, and 4 i n the E a s t Wing.) Number s e r v i n g i n O.P.F. e x c l u s i v e o f the drug a d d i c t and i n d e t e r m i n a t e sentence group Number e x c l u s i v e of drug a d d i c t , i n d e t e r m i n a t e sentence and under one month sentence groups, equalled ( e x t r a c t e d from the 566) OF THIS 473 (Exclusive of  it  A. B. C.  drug a d d i c t s i n d e t e r m i n a t e sentence one month and under sentence,  Inclusive of " " " "  A. B. C.  a l l ages a l l degrees r e c i d i v i s m a l l types of o f f e n c e s committable to O a k a l l a . )  it 11 it  P r e v i o u s committal t o O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm No p r e v i o u s committal One p r e v i o u s committal 2 p r e v i o u s committals 3 - 5 p r e v i o u s committals 6 or more p r e v i o u s  184  93  48  P 63  107 142  566  473  815  -115-  A rough d i v i s i o n of the occupations g i v e n f o r t h i s group of 473 i n d i c a t e s a preponderance to u n s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s , 362 - 113 or approximately 3 to 1. A v e r y s m a l l number l i s t e d  as not able to speak E n g l i s h  A s m a l l number s t a t e d not able to e i t h e r read or w r i t e The m a j o r i t y claimed grade 8 or higher e d u c a t i o n 313-160 or approximately 2 to 1 . Breakdown of Ages 6 l or more 46-60  14 54  35-45  108  23-34 22 and under  196 101  P l a c e o f Residence Lower mainland and Vancouver I s l a n d (Northern boundary up to but not i n c l u d i n g Ocean F a l l s , West to P a c i f i c Ocean, East to and i n c l u d i n g Hope, East and North to and i n c l u d i n g Squamish) equals elsewhere i n Province out of P r o v i n c e no f i x e d address  280 152 16 25  Liquor Recorded as a b s t a i n i n g Temperate Intemperate  35 275 163  Sentences 9 months or more  6-8 3-5  32 days to 2 months 1 month or l e s s Committed on offense  253  89 90  41 93  sexual 19  i . e . 432 B. C.  Residents  4 36  -11618 t o 45 years w i t h no p r e v i o u s O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm Record Sentences 4 months o r more 4 t o 12 months i n c l u s i v e 13 months o r more Mean age Median age Modal age  .  132 102 30  27 2o 20-26  46 years t o 60 y e a r s o f age w i t h a sentence o f 6 months o r more P r e v i o u s committal t o O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm No p r e v i o u s 1 previous 2 previous 3-5 p r e v i o u s 6 o r more previous  12 4 2 1 8  Mean age 50.5 Median age 50 Modal age 47 Sentences 6-8 months 9 o r more months  9 18  18 t o 45 years o f age w i t h a sentence of 6 months o r more Previous  committal  No p r e v i o u s 1 2 3 4  5 6  7  122 62 62 23 27 10 3 3  -117-  12 13 15 20 30  2 2 1 1 1 300  18 t o 21 years o f age. 6 months o r more and w i t h 3 o r more p r e v i o u s committals 22 t o 25 years o f age. 6 months o r more and w i t h 3 o r more p r e v i o u s committals 26 t o 29 years o f age. 6 months or more and w i t h 3 o r more previous committals  11  30 t o 45 years o f age, 6 months or more and w i t h 3 o r more p r e v i o u s committals  42  Total  77  22 t o 45 years of age, 6 months or more and w i t h 3 o r more previous o f f e n s e s P a r t i a l A n a l y s i s of the Inmates i n the 22 t o 45 age group Offences i n v o l v i n g a g g r e s s i v e a c t i o n t o a person Breaking, entering, s t e a l i n g F o r g e r y and F a l s e Pretences Theft Possession Indecent exposure C o n t r i b u t i n g t o J u v e n i l e Delinquency Vagrancy  14 10 11 1 1 1  Total  49  RVMcsrf  9  2  R. V. M c A l l i s t e r , Gaol P s y c h o l o g i s t , P r o v i n c i a l Gaol S e r v i c e .  * T h i s study was done by the p s y c h o l o g i s t o f the P r o v i n c i a l Gaol S e r v i c e , Mr. Robert V. M c A l l i s t e r , at the request o f the I n s p e c t o r o f Gaols. I t s purpose was t o attempt t o s o r t out the p o p u l a t i o n o f the O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm i n o r d e r t o determine what numbers o f inmates i n p r i s o n at t h a t time might be c o n s i d e r e d as s u i t a b l e candidates f o r the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e .  -118-  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Aichhorn, August, Wayward Youth. Viking Press, New York, 1925. Barnes, Robert D . , "Modern Prison Planning," i n Paul W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary Corrections. McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. Barnes, Harry E . , and Teeters, Negley K . , New Horizons i n nT»-iminriiop;Y Prentice-Hall, New York, 1951. T  Bates, Sanford, "Social Problems of the Prisoner," Proceedings. National Conference of Social Work, May 19-46, Columbia University Press, 1947. Bowen, Croswell, "Flight into Custody," two-part article In The New Yorker. November 1 and 8, 1952. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Attorney-General, Annual Report of the Inspector of Gaols. Year ended March 31, 1956, Queen's Printer, Victoria, 1956. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Attorney-General, Report of Commission Appointed by the Attorney-General. 1950. to Enquire into the State and Management of the Gaols of B r i t i s h Columbia. Victoria, 1951. Chenault, Price, "Education," i n Paul W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary Corrections. McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. Clemmer, Donald, "Use of Supervisory Custodial Personnel as Counselors: An Expedient,'.' Federal Probation, v o l . XX, December 1956. Fenton, Norman, An Introduction to Classification and Treatment i n State Correctional Service. Correctional Employees Training Manual III, California, 1953. Flanagan, John C , and Burnes, Robert K . , "The Employee Performance Record: A New Appraisal and Development Tool," Harvard Business Review v o l . XXXIII, SeptemberOctober 1955. f  -119-  Gardner, George E., "The Primary and Secondary Gains i n S t e a l i n g , " Nervous C h i l d . V o l . VI, October 1947. K l a r e , Hugh J . , "The T r a i n e d S o c i a l Worker and the Communities," Howard J o u r n a l . V o l . IX,  Prison 1954.  Kuether, F r e d e r i c k C , " R e l i g i o n and the C h a p l a i n , " i n P a u l W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary C o r r e c t i o n s . McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. L i t c h f i e l d , Clarence B., "Developments i n the C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n P l a n , " i n Paul W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary C o r r e c t i o n s . McGraw-Hill, Toronto,  1951.  Lowrey, Lawson G., P s y c h i a t r y f o r S o c i a l Workers. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1946. Manual o f C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards, A. American C o r r e c t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , New York, 1954. O h l i n , L l o y d E., S o c i o l o g y and the F i e l d of C o r r e c t i o n s , R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, New York, 1956. Peck, H a r r i s B., and B e l l s m i t h , V i r g i n i a , Treatment o f the Delinquent A d o l e s c e n t , F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, New York, 1954. Pray, Kenneth L. M., " S o c i a l Work i n the P r i s o n Program," i n P a u l W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary C o r r e c t i o n s , McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. Roper, W.  F., "Human R e l a t i o n s i n E n g l i s h P r i s o n s , " Howard J o u r n a l , V o l . IX, No. 2 , 1955.  Scope and Method of the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n of America, New York, 1953. Scudder, Kenyon J . , "Diagnosis and Treatment of the Adult Offender," Proceedings, N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, A p r i l 1947, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1948. Slavson,  S. R., "An E l e m e n t a r i s t i c Approach to the Understandi n g of Delinquency," Nervous C h i l d , V o l . VI, October  1947.  Studt, E l l i o t , "Casework i n the C o r r e c t i o n a l F i e l d , " P r o b a t i o n , V o l . X V I I I , September 1954.  Federal  Tappan, P a u l W., " O b j e c t i v e s and Methods i n C o r r e c t i o n , " i n P a u l W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary C o r r e c t i o n s . McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951.  -120-  T i l l e y , Margaret, "The T r a i n e d S o c i a l Worker's Approach t o the I n d i v i d u a l P r i s o n e r , " Howard J o u r n a l , V o l . IX, 1954. United S t a t e s o f America, Bureau of P r i s o n s , The Way t o P r i s o n Work, I n s e r v i c e T r a i n i n g Program o f the F e d e r a l P r i s o n System, V o l . 1, Washington, D.C., 1946. W a l l e r s t e i n , James, S., "Roots o f Delinquency," Nervous C h i l d . V o l . V I , October 1947. Young, PaulineV., S o c i a l Treatment i n P r o b a t i o n McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1952.  and Delinquency,  Z i s k i n d , L o u i s , " S o c i a l Work and the C o r r e c t i o n a l F i e l d , " F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , V o l . XIV, March 1 9 5 0 .  

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