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Counselling services in relation to prisoners' needs : a study of a sample group of inmates from the… Penny, Harry L. 1957

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COUNSELLING SERVICES IN RELATION TO PRISONERS' NEEDS A Study of a Sample Group of Inmates From the Westgate Unit of Oakalla Prison Farm i n Relation to Programme Planning f o r the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n , B.C., 1957 by Harry L. Penny Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of So c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK School of S o c i a l Work The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1957 i v ABSTRACT The purpose of the thesis i s (1) to determine the s o c i a l and psychological needs of a group of "more reformable" inmates of the type who w i l l eventually make up the population of the new Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n at Haney, B r i t i s h Columbia, and (2) to deter-mine how custodial and casework s t a f f might best meet these needs through the medium of counselling. In order to accomplish these objectives, a sample group of seventeen inmates from the Westgate Unit i n Oakaila Prison Farm was selected on the basis of c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a set up by the Planning s t a f f of the Haney Correc t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n . These inmates were studied i n t e n s i v e l y by widely varied methods, including personal Interviews, group sessions, review of case f i l e s , and interviews with s t a f f . This research technique proved to be unusually e f f e c t i v e and i t was possible to get a very complete picture of each of the men studied. The findings indicated that most of the inmates had serious s o c i a l and psychological problems that seemed to c a l l f o r a concentrated programme of treatment. The custodial o f f i c e r who has close d a i l y contact with the prisoner was seen to be the 'key' person i n the helping process. I t was seen, too, that although the main share of counselling inmates must f a l l on the s o c i a l caseworker, some inmates are not amenable to casework help but do need some kind of counselling. The custodial o f f i c e r i s the best person to give such lay counselling, which should therefore be considered a most important part of his job. Nevertheless, i t was seen that he needs t r a i n i n g , exper-ience and supervision to play t h i s role e f f e c t i v e l y . The need f o r team work of the highest order between the custodial o f f i c e r and the s o c i a l caseworker was seen as v i t a l l y important. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representative. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The writer wishes to thank Mr. Hugh G. C h r i s t i e , Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm, fo r his cooperation i n allowing the study to be done i n the Westgate Unit of the prison. Mr. Graham Watt, Senior Correctional O f f i c e r of the Westgate Unit, and his s t a f f showed ready inte r e s t i n the study and were most h e l p f u l . The writer also wishes to thank Mr. E. K. Nelson, Warden, Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n , and Mr. John Braithwaite, Deputy Warden i n charge of Training, for the time they gave i n discussing the proposed programme for t h i s new prison. Mr. Braithwaite was good enough to read the text and his constructive advice was much appreciated. F i n a l l y the writer wishes to express his apprecia-t i o n to Mr. Adrian Marriage of the School of S o c i a l Work, for the c o r d i a l interest he has shown i n the study and f o r his h e l p f u l and encouraging comments. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I. Custody and Treatment: Contemporary Thought  and Practice Objectives of the study. The custody-treatment dichotomy. Custodial s t a f f . S o c i a l casework and Corrections. Resolving the custody-treatment c o n f l i c t . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of inmates. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s 1 Chapter I I . Two Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n s The study and setting described. Westgate Unit, Oakalla Prison Farm. The Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n . Description of research method 19 Chapter I I I . Inmates as Persons Family background. M a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s . Leisure time. S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Age. I n t e l l i g e n c e . Educa-t i o n . Employment. Religion. Health and habits. Attitudes. Guards. Inmates' c r i t i c i s m of prison. Offences. Probation and parole. Sentence. Inmates' v e r b a l i z a t i o n of own problems. Group sessions with inmates. " C r i t i c a l incident". Case h i s t o r i e s 42 Chapter IV. Welfare Implications f o r Custody and  Counselling Family background. M a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s . Leisure time. S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Education. Employment. Health and habits. Attitudes. Guards. Inmates' c r i t i c i s m of prison. Offences. Inmates' v e r b a l i z a t i o n of own problems. Group sessions. Case h i s t o r i e s . Counselling 82 Appendices: A. Types of Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n s . . . . . I l l B. Cross Sectional Report of the Oakalla Prison Farm and Population as of July 26 , 1956 1 1 4 Bibliography 118 i i i TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT  (a) Tables Page Table A. Leading personal data about inmates studied ... 50 Table B. Summary of r e p l i e s to the question "What kind of vocational t r a i n i n g programme would you choose f o r yourself?" 53 Table C. Summary of inmates' main thoughts about prison programme 60 Table D. Criminal records of inmates 6 l Table E. Summary of inmates' v e r b a l i z a t i o n of own problems 63 Table F. B r i e f impressions of inmates as seen through group sessions 64 Table G. Summary of inmates' responses to " c r i t i c a l incident"question. P o s i t i v e incidents 66 Table H. Summary of inmates' responses to " c r i t i c a l incident" question. Negative incidents 67 (b) Charts Figure 1 Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n -buildings and grounds 26 Figure 2 Simplified organizational chart of the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n 27 v i COUNSELLING SERVICES IN RELATION  TO PRISONERS' NEEDS A Study of a Sample Group of Inmates from the Westgate Unit of Oakalla Prison Farm i n Relation to Programme Planning f o r the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n , B.C., 1957' CHAPTER I CUSTODY AND TREATMENT: CONTEMPORARY THOUGHT AMD PRACTICE Objectives of Study The new prison at Haney, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 with i t s modern buildings and f a c i l i t i e s , with i t s q u a l i f i e d and exper-ienced professional s t a f f i n the top administrative positions and with i t s objective of the t r a i n i n g and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the more reformable type of inmate presents a unique challenge to those planning the treatment programme. It should be possible f o r t h i s planning s t a f f to create the kind of programme and employ the kind of s t a f f , custodial and professional, that w i l l serve the r e a l needs of the inmates. But what are these needs of inmates? Do the inmates have common problems that can be solved by a more or less uniform programme of work, education and recreation involving mainly good supervision and humane attitudes on the part of the custodial s t a f f ? Or are t h e i r problems so d i f f e r e n t that each inmate, to be helped e f f e c t i v e l y , w i l l have to have a p a r t i c u l a r i z e d programme set up f o r him including special f a c i l i t i e s , s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s and special professional s t a f f ? Or i s there a f e a s i b l e combina-t i o n of these two? Do inmates have some problems and needs i n 1 Details about Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n are noted i n Chapter I I . -2-common and some that are quite d i s t i n c t and d i f f e r e n t from those of every other inmate? What implications do the answers to these questions have for the programming and s t a f f -ing of such i n s t i t u t i o n s ? C l e a r l y , an understanding of the problems and needs of the inmates who w i l l be sent to the i n s t i t u t i o n i s fundamental. The main objective of t h i s study i s to t r y to deter-mine the needs, both common and d i f f e r e n t i a l , of the type of offender who w i l l eventually make up the population of the 1 Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n . The research i s motivated by a desire to place at the disposal of the planning s t a f f of the Haney prison information about these inmates that may be of assistance to them i n building the programme of the future. The second objective of the study, which comes out of the f i r s t , i s to try to determine what a counselling service i n the prison has to o f f e r to the kind of prisoners studied; and further, to determine what kind of inmate can be helped or what needs of his can be met, by (a) professional casework, (b) counselling by a c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r , teacher, i n s t r u c t o r , etc., under professional supervision, or (c) some combination of (a) and (b). Although i t i s recognized that our knowledge about criminal behaviour and how to change or modify i t i s very l i m i t e d , i t i s assumed, i n t h i s thesis, that the modern trend 1 Details about the research method are discussed i n Chapter I I . -3-to treat rather than punish the criminal i s l o g i c a l and i n t e l l i g e n t , and one that i s calculated not only to serve the best interests of the offender but the best i n t e r e s t s of the public as well. In order to set the study i n proper perspective, the following pages w i l l deal with some h i s t o r i -c a l factors and some current trends i n c o r r e c t i o n a l thought and p r a c t i c e . The Custody - Treatment Dichotomy Protection of society has always been, and continues to be, a guiding p r i n c i p l e i n the incarceration of prisoners. However, the form and manifestation of t h i s concept has varied from age to age and between one c o r r e c t i o n a l system and another. It i s only recently that we have accepted the idea that the best protection of society comes from using the best "treatment" techniques and the best custodial practices i n order to e f f e c t a p o s i t i v e change i n the attitude and behaviour of the offender. This enlightened point of view did not of course arrive suddenly. It was p a i n f u l l y slow and d i f f i c u l t f o r clergymen, s o c i a l workers, criminologists, educators and others interested i n reform and treatment to get a foothold i n prison programmes. And the foothold was at f i r s t a precarious one.* The f i r s t "treatment" people i n prisons were the members of the clergy. The church has influenced the history 1 Tappan, Paul W., "Objectives and Methods i n Correction," i n Paul W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary Corrections, McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. p. 5. - 4 -of penology i n many ways: the great early reform movements usually were motivated by r e l i g i o u s people; because crime was seen as s i n , churches supported and actually i n some cases established prisons which came to be known as " p e n i t e n t i a r i e s " , where imprisonment was not considered as punishment but as a means of the criminal doing penance and thereby obtaining divine pardon f o r his wrong-doing. A l l too often, however, the v i s i o n was l o s t and the church prisons became punishment pure and simple. The one positive r e l i c of church influence i s that i t made i t possible f o r the chaplain to enter the prison. At f i r s t he went there to console criminals who were condemned to death; l a t e r he began conducting services; and gradually he moved into counselling the inmates, teaching them, arranging l i b r a r i e s , conducting recreation. As early as 1737 the B r i t i s h Parliament authorized magistrates to appoint chap-l a i n s to a l l p r i s o n s . 1 Js time went by the chaplain was event-u a l l y relieved of many of these duties by s o c i a l workers, 2 l i b r a r i a n s , recreational s t a f f , etc. These so-called "treat-ment personnel insinuated themselves into the prisons, often as a consequence of prison r i o t s which forced government bodies 1 Kuether, Frederick C , "Religion and the Chaplain," i n Paul W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary Corrections, McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951, pp. 254-256. 2 Barnes, H. £., and Negley K. Teeters, New Horizons i n  Criminology, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1951, pp. 662-666. - 5 -to reform prison programmes and to begin thinking i n terms of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the p r i s o n e r s . 1 Also, humanitarian wardens began i n s i s t i n g on getting the s k i l l e d help of professional 2 people. For the most part these treatment people were unfamiliar with prison l i f e . The t r a d i t i o n s were meaningless to them and they had l i t t l e appreciation of the many and varied prob-lems that the custodial o f f i c e r s face i n t h e i r day-to-day contact with the prisoners. There was a tendency to over-simplify the problem — to r e j e c t the t r a d i t i o n a l emphasis on custody and control as punitive and damaging. They also com-pli c a t e d the s i t u a t i o n through t h e i r a b i l i t y to see the many contributing factors i n crime causation and i n the behaviour of the inmate i n prison. In place of the d e f i n i t e procedures of the past they suggested something vaguely c a l l e d "treatment" of the i n d i v i d u a l . The understandings of the custodial o f f i c e r , grown out of his long experience and close d a i l y con-tacts with inmates, were neglected. Many custodial s t a f f reacted i n an antagonistic way to the new trend and, knowing prison l i f e so intimately, found ways to sabotage q u i e t l y the e f f o r t s of the treatment people. This c o n f l i c t between the th e o r e t i c a l knowledge of the treatment s t a f f and the p r a c t i c a l 1 Ohlin, Lloyd E., Sociology and the F i e l d of Corrections, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1956, p. 23. 2 Bates, Sanford, " S o c i a l Problems of the Prisoner," Proceed- ings, National Conference of S o c i a l Work, May 194-6, Columbia U. Press, 1947, p. 427. - 6 -experience of the custodial s t a f f created a disturbing s i t u -ation within the prison. Unfortunately extravagant claims were often made f o r "treatment'* when i t was explained to prison s t a f f s , and the l a t t e r , not r e a l l y understanding, expected something dramatic i n the way of r e s u l t s . As time went by and the magic was not produced, cynicism, doubt and often active antagonism resulted, and confusion reigned"; throughout the prison. In a r e a l way thi s describes the state of many co r r e c t i o n a l systems today. In some geographical regions the misunder-standings between custodial and treatment s t a f f s are acute. In other systems and prisons, c o n f l i c t i s disappearing and mutual • undersrtending i s beginning to develop. In s t i l l other systems, notably some i n the Southern United States, c o n f l i c t i s absent because "treatment** has not as yet been introduced. 1 Although the hi s t o r y of corrections over the past two decades has been turbulent, two important and related factors stand out. (1) Professional personnel learned that i f they were to stay i n the prison they had to face the r e a l i t i e s of prison l i f e — securing the prisoner against escape and at the same time t r a i n i n g him f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and freedom. Those that stayed then had to become acquainted with the t r a d i t i o n s and customs of prison l i f e ; they had to lea r n the value of 1 Barnes and Teeters, op_. c i t . , pp. 448-452. - 7 -custody and control i n helping prisoners; they had to learn to adapt t h e i r professional techniques to the prison setting; and they had to begin to get to know and appreciate the key role of the custodial o f f i c e r . ( 2 ) Treatment of prisoners was accepted as a legitimate objective of prison programmes.^ In progressive corr e c t i o n a l systems i t began taking i t s place as an equal partner with custody. Deputy wardens i n charge of custody and deputy wardens i n charge of treatment were getting to know and understand each other and were finding ways of solving t h e i r common problems. They were seeing that the difference between custody and treatment was one of 2 s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of function and not one of objective. Custod-i a l o f f i c e r s were looking at treatment personnel more r e a l i s -t i c a l l y and were trying to understand something of the new socio-psychological approach. Their former apathy and h o s t i l i t y were giving way, i f not to complete acceptance, at 3 4 l e a s t to better understanding and support. ' 1 Tappan, Paul W., "Objectives and Methods i n Correction," i n Paul W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary Corrections, McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. pp. 10 -12 . 2 A Manual of Correctional Standards, American Correctional Association, New York, 1 9 5 4 . p. 51. 3 Scudder, Kenyon J . , "Diagnosis and Treatment of the Adult Offender," Proceedings, National Conference of S o c i a l Work, A p r i l 1 9 4 7 , Columbia Y. Press, New York, 1 9 4 8 , p. 3 7 3 -4 Barnes and Teeters, op., c i t . , pp. 5 5 5 - 5 8 7 * -8-The c o n f l i c t between treatment and custody s t i l l e xists to some extent almost everywhere but i n more and more prisons mutual understanding and a sense of team work are gradually developing. When the merger i s complete, when custody i s considered part of treatment and treatment s t a f f recognize the therapeutic value of good custody, when there i s one philosophy f o r corrections embracing controls and security as well as the new insights of the socio-psychological f i e l d , when the guard at the gate of a maximum security prison with his r i f l e and other aids to control and the s o c i a l worker within the prison both believe i n and practice the same philosophy though using d i f f e r e n t techniques, then w i l l come mutual support, team work of the highest order, and hope of r e a l success i n the work of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g the offender. Custodial Staff It i s evident that the custodial o f f i c e r with his close hour to hour contact with the inmate i s a key person, indeed the key person, i n a prison. E s s e n t i a l l y i t w i l l be because of his attitude, his understanding and his i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d i r e c t i v e s of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee that the i n s t i -t u t i o n w i l l either success or f a i l i n the job of helping the prisoner. Treatment people are a powerful, r e l a t i v e l y small group compared with custodial s t a f f , exercising prestige and authority within many prisons that cannot be measured by t h e i r numbers alone. They must be constantly cognizant, however,of -9-the fact that the success of t h e i r e f f o r t s depends almost t o t a l l y on the custodial s t a f f . Let us take a closer look at these important people. The custodial service i s responsible f o r the prisoner's comfort, his house-keeping arrangement i n the place where he l i v e s , h is passage to and from his meals; i t must see that he has medical atten-t i o n when needed, that he gets to school, and that he knows how to do the job to which he i s deta i l e d . Its members meet the prisoner when he arrives at the i n s t i t u t i o n , guard, protect, i n s t r u c t and advise him during his stay, and arrange f o r h i s release and transportation when his sentence i s over. This should be the quintessence of prison work, f o r custody i s as old as the human race; i t i s so important a part of the prison program that i f i t i s not properly administered there can be l i t t l e improvement i n the attitude of the prisoners and the prison cannot accomplish the purpose f o r which i t e x i s t s . So important are the custodial o f f i c e r s that no prison administration that hopes to be successful with i t s given task of helping offenders can afford to neglect giving primary emphasis to developing i n these o f f i c e r s p o s i t i v e attitudes and sound correctional practices. As he goes about his job of carrying out the plan f o r the i n d i v i d u a l set up by the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committeej as he takes the necessary steps to maintain good d i s c i p l i n e within the prison; and as he performs the l e g a l function of safekeeping the prisoner - that i s , preventing him from escaping custody - the custodial o f f i c e r i s the major force i n creating the f e e l i n g tone of the whole 1 United States of America Bureau of Prisons, The Way to  Prison Work, Inserviee Training Program of the Federal Prison System, V o l . 1, Wash., D. C , 1946, p. 173--10-i n s t i t u t i o n . The progressive prison administration, there-fore, concerns i t s e l f with matters that affect morale among custodial s t a f f — working conditions, s a l a r i e s , etc. I t concerns i t s e l f , too, with t r a i n i n g program*! calculated to increase understanding i n areas of administration, human behaviour, techniques i n handling people, etc., and designed not only to improve performance on the job but also to give o f f i c e r s r e a l status as f u l l - f l e d g e d participants i n the treatment process. Giving genuine status to c u s t o d i a l o f f i -cers based on the q u a l i t y of t h e i r c o r r e c t i o n a l practice — t h i s i s the heart of good custody. This i s the point at which custody and treatment merge and disappear as separate concepts. This i s when prison s t a f f s become cor r e c t i o n a l 1,2 o f f i c e r s " i n an almost professional sense. In point of f a c t these s t a f f people have already been placed i n a quasi professional p o s i t i o n by v i r t u e of the great need of many inmates to have someone i n whom to confide. Thus counselling has been part of the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r ' s role for some time. Progressive prisons have encouraged t h i s and 3 some newer prisons l i k e the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n are consciously preparing to t r a i n c ustodial s t a f f i n the art 1 Roper, W. F., "Human Relations i n English Prisons," Howard Journal, V o l . IX, No. 2, 1955, pp. 91-100. 2 A Manual of Correctional Standards, American Correctional Association, New York, 1954, pp. 184-195. 3 Chapter II contains some of the main d e t a i l s about the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n . -11-of counselling. Not i n the foreseeable future w i l l there be an adequate supply of caseworkers i n prisons to meet the needs of the inmates. Yet one of the most important contributions of the prison to the inmate i s i n t h i s very matter of counsel-l i n g . I t i s e s s e n t i a l , as one writer suggests, that every 1 inmate should have at l e a s t one person i n whom he can confide. Which inmates need the intensive counselling of the professional caseworker and which ones can be helped by the f r i e n d l y , supportive counselling of the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r who i s gen-uinely interested i n the inmate, are questions discussed, as they relate to the needs of the sample group of men discussed i n 2,3 t h i s study, i n Chapter IV*. Caseworkers i n the Correctional Setting In only a r e l a t i v e l y few prisons today has s o c i a l case-work been given a d e f i n i t e place. The prison of old which emphasized only punishment, custody and r e s t r a i n t had no place f o r such a thing as casework. The prison had to change i t s objectives, i t s outlook and i t s programme before that place could be found. On the other hand, the caseworker, accustomed as he was to working with c l i e n t s on a voluntary basis, could see l i t t l e hope of giving e f f e c t i v e help i n such a r i g i d and authoritarian setting as the prison. It was necessary f o r both 1 Fenton, Norman, An Introduction to C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Treat-ment i n State Correctional Service, Correctional Employees Tr a i n -ing Manual I I I , C a l i f o r n i a , 1953, P- 14-3• 2 Barnes and Teeters, op_. c i t . , p. 645. 3 Clemmer, Donald, "Use of Supervisory Custodial Personnel as Counselors; An Expedient," Federal Probation, v o l . XX, December 1956, pp. 36-42. - 1 2 -the prison and the caseworker to change: the prison to en-large libs programme so that prisoners might have the benefit of re-educative and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e resources within the prison, the caseworker to accept the necessity of custodial segregation and to l e a r n that a controlled setting can i n many cases aid the casework process. It was necessary f o r the caseworker to believe what everyone who works i n a prison must believe* that, p o t e n t i a l l y at l e a s t , i t i s a s o c i a l l y i » 2 , 3 useful agency. 7 The primary medium through which casework help i s extended i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the caseworker and the prisoner. This c a l l s f o r an attitude on the part of the caseworker that i s b a s i c a l l y a supporting one, ... i t i s consistently accepting, strengthening, encouraging, respon-4 sive, and enabling." In general the role of the caseworker i n the prison i s to explore with the inmate the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of prison l i f e i n r e l a t i o n to the r e s o l u t i o n of his own prob-lem, to help him f i n d a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l adjustment to the prison, and to help him discover within himself the w i l l and 1 A Manual of Correctional Standards, op. c i t . , p. 1 2 . 2 Studt, E l l i o t , "Casework i n the Correctional F i e l d , " Federal Probation, V o l . XVIII, September 1954. pp. 19 -26 . 3 Pray, Kenneth L. M., " S o c i a l Work i n the Prison Program," i n Paul W . Tappan, ed., Contemporary Corrections, McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. pp. 204-210. 4 Scope and Method of the Family Service Agency, F.S.A.A., New York, 1953, p. 16. - 1 3 -power to make a more responsible s o c i a l adjustment to the wider community.1 Ziskind puts i t s u c c i n c t l y : In the c o r r e c t i o n a l f i e l d we seek out the person who requires help and t r y to convince him - usually against his w i l l - that he should have treatment. S o c i a l work t r a i n i n g t e l l s us that unless we can reverse the tables and help the inmate see the need f o r change, no amount of external force can produce a r e a l and l a s t i n g change. The man who w i l l conform to external pressure alone w i l l y i e l d to his more basic desires when t h i s pressure i s removed or overcome. The s o c i a l worker, therefore, seeks to produce the inner change, to accomplish what i n s o c i a l work jargon i s c a l l e d ' i n s i g h t 1 as part of the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process.2 Such work demands the d i s c i p l i n e d use of the professional casework relationship and a sensitive and complete understanding of every facet of prison l i f e , negative and p o s i t i v e . It also involves the a b i l i t y to make a sound working diagnosis of the inmate's problem and the a b i l i t y to work out a plan of treatment fo r him. He does not preach, threaten, or use ordering-and-forbidding techniques. He establishes constructive relationships i n which 'personality touches personali-ty. ..." He attempts to gain an e s s e n t i a l understand-ing of the offender's t o t a l complex s i t u a t i o n and i t s psychocultural elements. To that extent he i s t r u l y and d i r e c t l y concerned with the offender himself rather than with his symptomatic delinquent acts.^ More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the caseworker does the history-taking, sets up a case f i l e , plays a prominent role i n the process of 1 Pray, op. c i t . , p. 206. 2 Ziskind, Louis, " S o c i a l Work and the Correctional F i e l d , " Federal Probation, V o l . XIV, March 1950. p. 48. 3 Young, Pauline V.. S o c i a l Treatment i n Probation and Delin-quency, McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1952, p. 488. -14-c l a s s i f ! c a t i o n and r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , helps i n the ori e n t a t i o n process, concerns himself with helping the inmate work out a sound plan f o r the post-discharge period and helps prepare him f o r release. In any prison the role of the trained c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r who does some counselling and the role of the s o c i a l caseworker overlap to some extent. It i s a fin e l i n e between good l a y counselling under adequate supervision and much of casework counselling, and i n Chapter IV of th i s study some comments are made about the d i v i s i o n of labour between these two groups of s t a f f . At any .irate i t i s clear that the case-worker and the cor r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r must understand and apprec-iate each other's p a r t i c u l a r contribution, give mutual support and see that e f f e c t i v e communication exists between them. Resolving the Custody - Treatment C o n f l i c t The concept of progressive corrections today i s that the sentence i s the only punishment that should be given the criminal — that the criminal i s sent to prison as punishment not f o r punishment. Whatever o b l i g a t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the correctional agency assumes i n the way of treatment or punishment, the safekeeping of the prisoner must necessarily remain of greatest importance. I t i s a truism to say that we cannot help the offender i f we do not have him. Nevertheless, i t i s important to r e a l i z e that good custody i s not only i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the community but also i n the best interests - 1 5 -of the offender. Perhaps only those who have been able to f e e l t h e i r way into the mind and heart of an inmate who has escaped lawful custody and to understand i n some small way the depth of suffering, fear and loneliness of the f u g i t i v e - only those can r e a l l y appreciate the need f o r e f f e c t i v e custody as a helping force f o r the offender. With the needs of the offender i n mind, co r r e c t i o n a l agencies are today carrying the l e g a l concept of custody at le a s t one step further. We are coming to look upon t h i s larger concept as a series of degrees of supervision, neces-sary f o r the protection of society but adjusted to the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l offender. Looking at custody i n t h i s way we can include the three major areas of c o r r e c t i o n a l service: probation, prisons and parole. Probation and parole provide f a r less supervision than does the prison but the offender on probation and parole i s i n custody nonetheless. The degree of supervision given the offenders depends on the needs of the indiv i d u a l s and on the treatment resources available within these three services. Of major concern, then, i n deal-ing with offenders i s the question of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Inmates C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a v i t a l part of the corrective pro-cess and involves every aspect of prison l i f e and programme. Very b r i e f l y , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the process of studying the inmate during an o r i e n t a t i o n period and of organizing correc-t i o n a l services so that the offender w i l l have the opportunity - 1 6 -of a programme of treatment based on an adequate diagnosis of his i n d i v i d u a l needs. A very important part of the best c l a s s i f i c a t i o n practices i s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the prisoner. The best c l a s s i f i c a t i o n committees i n s i s t upon the personal appearance of the man before the committee. They put him at ease. He i s encouraged to enter into the planning by expressing, without fear, his inte r e s t s and desires, and e s p e c i a l l y his parole plans upon release. L i t t l e or nothing i s said about the offense which sent him to prison. He i s encouraged to make the most of his opportunities arid given assurance of help and understanding. Interest i s expressed i n his family, and arrangements are made f o r them to v i s i t him i n prison.]_ Much more could be said about t h i s important part of treatment i n prisons but f o r the purposes of t h i s thesis t h i s statement w i l l s u f f i c e . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n at the pre-sentence l e v e l makes i t possible to decide who goes to prison and who i s placed on probation. At the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l i t makes i t possible to decide what degree of custody i s necessary and therefore what prison the offender should be sent to, what kind of treat-ment should be given, when release or parole should be consid-ered and what the conditions of parole should be. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of I n s t i t u t i o n s Our question now might be; "What kinds of prisons are there or should there be, having regard to the varying custodial needs of prisoners within any one prison system?" 1 Scudder, Kenyon J . , "Diagnosis and Treatment of the Adult Offender," Proceedings. National Conference of S o c i a l Work, A p r i l 1947, Columbia U. Press, New York, 1948. p. 374. -17-One hesitates to be categorical about t h i s . By reason of economic, p o l i t i c a l and other s o c i e t a l influences, custodial needs f o r prisoners change from one decade to another as do people's needs generally. Also, as new understandings i n the behavioural sciences take hold, new ways of handling prisoners become evident and influence the kind of prisons we b u i l d , the ways we adapt exi s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , and the kinds of programmes carried on. However, co r r e c t i o n a l authorities t a l k of four kinds of prisons giving, r e l a t i v e l y speaking, 1,2 four degrees of custody — maximum, close, medium and open. It i s quite evident that no prison system can adequately meet i n the f u l l e s t sense, the custodial needs of a l l i t s inmates. Thus we f i n d , i n every prison, prisoners whose needs are border-l i n e and who might equally well be i n a prison with either more emphasis on security or l e s s . Given these four types of prisons, a prison system should be able to meet the custodial needs of p r a c t i c a l l y a l l offenders committed to i t s care. It would do so i f the cor r e c t i o n a l service provided: (1) careful study and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of each inmate, (2) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of each i n s t i t u t i o n , (3) c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n of the degrees of custody and the type of programme within each prison, (4) periodic review, or r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , of the 1 A Manual of Correctional Standards, American Correctional Association, New York, 1954. p. 199-2 Details of these four types of prisons are discussed i n Appendix A. -18-inmate and (5) the opportunity of h i s transfer to another prison with less security or more or with a programme more l i k e l y to meet his present need. B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l be one step closer to the r e a l i z a -t i o n of t h i s i d e a l when the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n , which w i l l probable be categorized as a "medium security" prison opens i n the F a l l of t h i s year (1957). As mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter the present study i s undertaken s p e c i f i c a l l y to be of help to the planning s t a f f of the Haney prison i n working out the programme best calculated to meet the s o c i a l and psycho-l o g i c a l needs of the inmates who w i l l be sent there i n the future. Some of the e s s e n t i a l d e t a i l s regarding administration and programme at Haney w i l l be discussed more f u l l y i n Chapter I I . CHAPTER II TWO CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS The present study aims to do two things; ( 1 ) to study as f u l l y as possible a sample group of inmates of the type who w i l l eventually be sent to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n ; to determine t h e i r problems and to suggest ways of helping them modify or change t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c patterns of behaviour. ( 2 ) to attempt to determine whether some, none, or a l l of the inmates studied might be helped by the kind of counselling that a correctional o f f i c e r under professional supervision might do; and i f so, what the d i v i s i o n of labour between the caseworker and the corr e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r might be. The study concerns i t s e l f with two prison settings. The one i n which the study was done, Westgate Unit i n Oakalla Prison Farm; the other, Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n , not yet open, which w i l l eventually receive the type of men selected f o r t h i s study. A b r i e f description of each of these prisons w i l l be given for d i f f e r e n t reasons. The group of seventeen men studied are a l l from the Westgate Unit and what goes on there — programme, setting, f a c i l i t i e s , s t a f f etc. — a l l these things profoundly affect the attitude and behaviour of the inmates. To see these men f u l l y and sharply, therefore, one needs to see them i n the environmental setting — the s o c i a l and psychological milieu. For that reason an understanding of Westgate, i t i s suggested, w i l l aid i n understanding the inmate. A description of the Haney I n s t i t u t i o n i s also relevant because i t i s to t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n that the group, of which the seventeen studied are a random sample, w i l l be going i n the future. This thesis w i l l , i n part, attempt to assess whether or not the type of programTproposed f o r Haney w i l l meet the needs of t h i s sample group. Thus i n t h i s study an attempt i s made to determine the problem areas of each of the seventeen, and suggestions are made with regard to the means of meeting t h e i r needs most l i k e l y to be e f f e c t i v e . Some attention to the programTand f a c i l i t i e s at Haney i s c l e a r l y indicated. Westgate Unit - the Setting for the Study Westgate i s a unit within Oakalla Prison Farm which houses somewhat over 350 inmates i n t i e r s of 20 men each. Each man has his own c e l l and there i s a large area within each t i e r that i s used f o r group dining and group recreation. A t i e r o f f i c e r i s i n charge of each t i e r and he i s required to play a sort of counselor-cum-leader-cum-father r o l e . From his t i e r every inmate goes out to the various vocational and work a c t i v i -t i e s . The programme i s compulsory. I f a man i s not interested or cannot get into a shop, then he i s required to work on the outside gang where he might do maintenance or construction work that i s needed anywhere i n Oakalla. By and large the men who work on the work gangs are kept separated from those who work i n the shops. -21 It would appear that the inmate with the better attitude who tends to be conforming gets the pick of the shops and the rebel l i o u s younger inmate tends to stay on the work gangs. It i s hard to get a clear picture of how one man i s selected f o r one spot and another f o r another spot because the c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n system both i n Oakalla proper and i n Westgate Unit i s so rudimentary. I t appears that a man i s placed on the basis of his own request, his previous record, his attitude and behavior. At present Westgate operates the following types of shops: motor mechanics, blacksmith, e l e c t r i c a l , shoe, woodworking, bookbinding, painting, plumbing,. Westgate i s also responsible fo r the t o t a l management of the Farm as well as f o r a l l mainten-ance and construction projects. The recreational or * s o c i a l i z a t i o n ' programme i n Westgate involves i n the main a compulsory gymnasium period f o r a l l i n -mates who are p h y s i c a l l y f i t , correspondence courses f o r a small group of inmates, and a hobby c r a f t program7made up of leather work and copperwork classes. Weekly educational films are held. There i s a very complete l i b r a r y of educational and trade text-books as well as f i c t i o n . The Senior Correctional O f f i c e r and his deputy both have s o c i a l work tra i n i n g and give guidance and counselling to the inmates. They necessarily spread themselves t h i n and no intensive casework i s done. Their work i s supplemented by s p e c i a l l y arranged interviews with representatives of such community agencies as the John Howard Society, the Salvation -22-Army, and the National Employment Service. There i s an i n -service t r a i n i n g scheme f o r the s t a f f at Westgate and part of t h i s deals with improving t h e i r a b i l i t y as counsellors. The guards already do some counselling and i t i s the hope of the administration that they w i l l do an increasing amount i n the future. The Westgate authorities think t h e i r s t a f f i s grow-ing i n experience and understanding. They f e e l that i f the guards are interested i n the inmates and have posi t i v e a t t i -tudes and i f the programme i s f u l l and intensive, the inmates w i l l be affected i n a p o s i t i v e way. Part of the therapy i s to introduce as many po s i t i v e factors as possible and such things as f r e e r v i s i t i n g , family church services and contacts with community groups are now part of the programme. An Inmate Inter-Tier Council made up of elected representatives from each t i e r i s i n operation. Through t h i s group the suggestions and grievances of the i n -mates are made known to the s t a f f . This thesis does not pur-port to be a c r i t i q u e of Westgate — comments here are descrip-t i v e only and have been taken by and large from the l a t e s t report of the Inspector of Gaols. 1 The inmates c r i t i q u e as i t came through i n d i v i d u a l interviews and group sessions i s summarized i n Table 3> i n Chapter IV. 1 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Attorney-General, Annual  Report of the Inspector of Gaols. Year Ended March 31» 1956, Queens Pr i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1956. pp. 20 -23 . - 2 3 -Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n The Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n i s situated near the town of Haney, B r i t i s h Columbia, about 30 miles east of the C i t y of Vancouver. Construction began i n the summer of 1955 and i t i s estimated that the buildings w i l l not be completed u n t i l June 1957- The f i r s t inmates w i l l probably not be moved there u n t i l sometime i n the F a l l of 1957- Mr. E. K. Nelson was appointed Warden i n September 1956 on a part-time basis while he was s t i l l a professor of Criminology at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. At the same time other key administrative s t a f f were appointed. Planning programme began during the summer of 1956 and was continued i n a more concentrated form after January 1957 when Mr. Nelson assumed his duties as Warden on a f u l l - t i m e basis. The new i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l be part of the P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service. The Warden w i l l be responsible to Mr. E. G. B. Stevens, Inspector of Gaols, 1 Corrections Branch, Department of Attorney-General, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Haney prison was recommended by the B r i t i s h Columbia 2 Prison Commission i n 1950 because of the concern about over-crowding i n Oakalla Prison Farm and the need f o r a t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n for the more reformable type of inmate. As i t w i l l 1 Recent l e g i s l a t i o n has changed the t i t l e of Inspector of Gaols to Director of Corrections but i t i s u n l i k e l y that the new t i t l e i s i n common use as yet. 2 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Attorney-General, Report of  Commission Appointed by the Attorney-General, 1950. To enquire  into the State and Management of the Gaols of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1951. -24-be some time before the Haney prison opens i t i s understandable that no fixed programme has been worked out as yet.* However, talks with Warden Nelson and one of his deputies, Mr. John Braithwaite, revealed something of the plans they had f o r the future and much of what follows comes from t h i s source. E a r l i e r i t was mentioned that Haney f e l l into the cate-gory of medium security i n s t i t u t i o n . That i s , there w i l l be excellent security on the perimeter but varying degrees of freedom within?the boundaries of the prison. The plant i t s e l f i s designed l i k e a telephone pole with units housing up to f i f t y 2 inmates. The prison w i l l accommodate 400. About one hundred and f i f t y of t h i s number w i l l be a group of older inmates who w i l l take very l i t t l e , i f any, part i n the vocational t r a i n i n g programme but w i l l be selected because t h e i r talents and exper-ience can be u t i l i z e d i n maintaining the i n s t i t u t i o n and w i l l also benefit from t h i s kind of experience. The other group of 250 i s the group t h i s thesis i s mainly concerned with. Some of these w i l l take a f u l l programme of vocational t r a i n i n g and some only a lim i t e d programme but, i t i s thought, a l l w i l l have some maintenance duties. Following a study of the inmate population of Oakalla i n July 1956 the planning s t a f f of Haney thought there would be about 250 inmates i n Oakalla who could be selected for the new prison 1 Date of writing - A p r i l , 1957. 2 See F i g . 1 — a drawing of the buildings and grounds of the I n s t i t u t i o n (adapted from a larger drawing prepared by architects of the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n ) . - 2 5 -using the following criteria: a. Age - eighteen to forty inclusive b. Sentence - not less than six months c. Education - Grade VI or better d. Previous committals - not more than two e. No history of drug addiction f. No history of chronic alcoholism g. No physical handicap 1 h. Capacity to respond to and profit by vocational and other types of training. The most basic part of any modern correctional programme is classification. The planning staff at Haney is making pro-vision for this most important process both in the selection of inmates for the prison and in the intensive study and diagnosis of each inmate after he is sent to the institution. On the second floor of the new prison a unit of 50 cells is being set aside for the reception, classification and orienta-tion of a l l new inmates. Unfortunately the province of British Columbia has as yet no classification center and i t is necessary, and wi l l be for some time, for Oakalla to receive a l l prisoners committed for sentences of two years less a day and under and to do what classification is possible before transferring them to other more specialized institutions such as the Haney Cor-rectional Institution. Because under these circumstances the classification wil l be very superficial at Oakalla, i t wi l l be necessary for the Haney classification to be very complete and thorough. This wil l mean close cooperation and team work on the part of a l l personnel in a l l departments. 1 Some physically handicapped inmates wil l be admitted on a selective basis. HAttEY C O R R E C T I O N A L . I N S T I T U T I O N - $ u \ L D m & S AND GROUNDS FIG. 1 . -27-As we discuss the various parts of the Haney programme i t w i l l be h e l p f u l to refer to the s i m p l i f i e d organizational chart, Figure 2. The d i v i s i o n of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and counsel-l i n g plays a p a r t i c u l a r l y important part early i n the c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n process. One of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i l l be to prepare an i n i t i a l preliminary report on each inmate. This w i l l probably be based on the caseworker's own impressions coming out of his interviews, the reports he receives from others who have interviewed the new man or had contact with him during the o r i e n t a t i o n period, plus information that might be available from probation o f f i c e r s , other i n s t i t u t i o n s and s o c i a l agencies, the findings of the psychologist, medical reports, etc. The representatives of the other i n s t i t u t i o n a l services, education, medical etc., w i l l make t h e i r own evalua-t i o n based on t h e i r contacts. The caseworker presents the case to the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee where i t i s discussed thoroughly. The inmate i s then interviewed and with the l a t t e r f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g a programme i s worked out f o r him that w i l l be of interest and p r o f i t to him. The core of the Haney programme i s to be vocational t r a i n i n g and i t i s proposed to set up such shops as machine, auto body, sheet metal, welding, e l e c t r i c a l , barbering, motor mechanics, woodworking (cabinet), woodworking (construction), d i e s e l , plumbing, and landscaping. Besides these twelve shops an "exploratory" shop w i l l be set up f o r diagnostic purposes. Here an inmate who i s unsure of what he wants and i s an "unknown" quantity i n other ways can be observed by s t a f f as SI M P L I F \ E D O R G-MSIZ AT\cmAL C H / \ R T O F T H £ H A N E Y CORRECT* ON \r\STiTUT\or\ W A R D E N D E P u T Y V J A R D E N (CUSTODY) D E P U T Y vJARDEN (TREATMEHT) B U R S A R C O R R E C T I O N A L O F f > C E R S ( ^ S U P E R V I S O R O F 5 o c . \ M _ E P U C A T l O H O F F I C E R S (12) RT INSTRUCTOR ARTS • C R U F T S (t tSTRvJCTOR LIBRARIAN c C L f t S S l * C 0 U N 6 F FICKTtOH E L L i n a C A S E W O R K E R S I.5T P S Y C H O L O G I S T SUPERVISOR O F EDUCATION V O C f t T \ 0 N f t \ _ >WSTRUcToRS(/j TEACHERSW CHAPLAINS MEDlCftL. SERVICES HOSPVTM-DOCTOR D E H T l S T PSYCHIATRIST ACCOUNTING COMMISSARY C U L I N A R Y R E C O R D S MAINTENANCE LEGEND LmE op f\v)THOR\TT L I M E of S U P E R V I S I O N I i i C O U N S E L L I N G P R O G R A M M E PPvRT T m £ 3T*FE F\Gr. % -29-part of the classification process. It i s hoped that a good deal of on-the-job training w i l l be given i n the maintenance of the institution to supplement the vocational training of the shops. Supplementary to vocational training i s the academic training where such subjects as drafting, mathematics and other s k i l l s essential to many trades w i l l be taught. Furthermore f u l l academic education w i l l be available to in -mates who want this whether or not they are taking a vocational course. The Haney institution w i l l also have a division of Recreation. 1 This division w i l l be concerned about the recreation of the inmate — sports, physical training of a l l sorts, arts and crafts, free time activities i n the house units, etc. However, i t is concerned, too, about recreation i n the wider sense of the word — growth of the individual, social education and development of s k i l l s and pleasures that may have a "carry-over" value after release. It w i l l be headed by a trained and experienced group worker and staffed by a qualified physical education instructor, and arts and craft instructor and twelve programme officers. Consideration is also being given to the use of voluntary interest-group leaders from the community. 1 Since photostats were made of the chart (Fig. 2) the name of this division has been changed from Social Education to Recreation. -30-Medical Services. A section of the institution i s being given over to a well-staffed, well-equipped hospital. Unfortunately plans c a l l for only a part-time doctor. Besides the doctor there w i l l be a part-time dentist, and a part-time psychiatrist. In regard to the last-mentioned i t i s l i k e l y that he w i l l be used as a psychiatric consultant and w i l l be working very closely with the division of Classification and Counselling. It i s unlikely that such a person w i l l have much time for giving direct psychiatric services to inmates. Religious services. It i s planned that a full-time Protestant chaplain w i l l be appointed and a part-time Roman Catholic chaplain. Religious services, bible study, r e l i g -ious discussion groups, and religious counselling w i l l form the major part of this service. Library. A full-time librarian and an adequate library is being planned. Division of Classification and Counselling. This i s the division which relates most directly to the focus of this thesis. It w i l l be headed by a f u l l y professional and exper-ienced caseworker and staffed by five professional caseworkers and a psychologist. It i s proposed that each of these case-workers w i l l supervise the correctional officers, vocational instructors, teachers and perhaps other staff who w i l l carry small caseloads of inmates whom they w i l l counsel. Using cor-rectional officers as counsellors i s experimental and as one -31-writer frankly admits i n the case of his own i n s t i t u t i o n , an "expedient", 1 and the d e t a i l s have not as yet been worked out. I t i s hoped that the present study w i l l be of help i n determin-ing just how much can be done along t h i s l i n e , what form th i s sort of counselling should take and the d i v i s i o n of labor between lay counsellors and professional caseworkers. As mentioned above, the psychologist comes under t h i s d i v i s i o n . This job has not yet been defined p r e c i s e l y but one would expect his services to include, i n the usual case, an appraisal of i n t e l l i g e n c e , personality and i n t e r e s t s , i n other cases voca-t i o n a l t e s t i n g , intensive personality appraisal using projective techniques (T.A.T. and Rorschach), vocational guidance and remedial reading. In regard to the o v e r a l l functioning of the i n s t i t u t i o n , he might make an occasional sociometric analy-s i s , f a c i l i t a t i n g evaluation of the group, i n d i v i d u a l placements, and o f f e r i n g suggestions f o r replacement. He might also conduct group therapy with small groups and might conduct small-scale research projects, possibly concerned with solutions of s p e c i f i c psychological problems i n the functioning of the i n s t i t u t i o n . 1 Clemmer, Donald, "Use of Supervisory Custodial Personnel as Counsellors: An Expedient," Federal Probation. Vol. XX, December 1 9 5 6 . pp. 36-42. - 3 2 -METHOD Selection of cases The objective of t h i s study was to choose and study a group of inmates who would be representative of the type of inmate to be selected f o r the new prison at Haney. E a r l y talks with prison o f f i c i a l s revealed that no d e f i n i t e c r i t e r i a f o r selecting inmates fo r Haney had been worked out. However, the psychologist on the headquarters s t a f f of the Inspector of Gaols had done a preliminary study of the t o t a l inmate population of Oakalla Prison Farm. This study, com-pleted i n July 1956, helped the planning s t a f f of Haney to work out rough c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n of t h e i r future popula-t i o n . I t showed f o r example that there were 325 inmates with two previous committals or l e s s ; that there were 304 between the ages of 23 and 45; that there were 342 who had sentences of s i x months or more; that there were 300 inmates between the ages of 18 and 45 who had sentences of six months or more and 246 of the same group who had two or l e s s previous committals; that 313 claimed grade VIII or higher education. The M c A l l i s t e r study 1 showed that during J u l y 1956 there were between 250 and 300 inmates that, generally speak-ing, might have enough basic education, might be considered 1 See Appendix "B" f o r f u l l d e t a i l s of t h i s study done by Mr. Robert M c A l l i s t e r , psychologist f o r the P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service. -33-non-habitual, and might be young enough s t i l l to p r o f i t by vocational t r a i n i n g . F a c i l i t i e s were being provided f o r giving vocational t r a i n i n g to 250 inmates at the Haney Cor-r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n . With these facts i n mind the c r i t e r i a noted on page 25 (Chapter II) were accepted as tentative, working c r i t e r i a . This set of c r i t e r i a i s admittedly a r b i t -rary. No attempt was made to adhere s t r i c t l y to the M c A l l i s t e r f i ndings. For example, the age agreed upon was not up to 45 years as i n the report but was lowered a r b i t r a r i l y to 40 years. Likewise the education requirement was lowered to Grade VI. The c r i t e r i a chosen f o r the purposes of t h i s study adhere c l o s e l y to those mentioned, with some necessary modifi-cations noted below. a. age - 18-40 i n c l u s i v e b. sentence - not le s s than six months c. education - Grade VI or better d. previous committals - not more than two e. no hi s t o r y of drug addiction f . no hi s t o r y of chronic alcoholism (By t h i s i s meant no inmate was chosen who had been sentenced to prison f o r offenses that involved, s o l e l y , the heavy consumption of alcohol) g. no physical handicaps (As t h i s study attempts to choose and study the needs of t y p i c a l future inmates of Haney i t was decided to rule out persons who had handicaps because by nature of the handicap they might be considered atypical) h. release date - not before March 10 , 1957 (This ruled out a f a i r l y large group of inmates but i t was necessary to be c e r t a i n that the inmates chosen f o r the study would be i n the prison long enough to complete the study) It w i l l be noted that c r i t e r i o n (h) on page 25 i s not Included i n the c r i t e r i a f o r the study. This i s f o r the obvious reason -34-that not u n t i l a thorough study had been done on each could one determine whether or not the inmates might respond to and p r o f i t by vocational t r a i n i n g . The above c r i t e r i a were applied to the t o t a l population fo r Westgate Unit. Westgate was chosen because i n confer-ence with the Warden of Oakalla and his deputy i t was revealed that the inmates were selected f o r Westgate more or le s s on the basis of the same sort of c r i t e r i a that were worked out f o r the study. It was thought, too, that the t o t a l study would be f a c i l i t a t e d by concentrating on t h i s one large Unit, where the environmental factors would be more or l e s s a con-stant f a c t o r . By chance, exactly 100 inmates of Westgate f i t t e d these c r i t e r i a . An alphabetical l i s t was drawn up containing these 100 names. They were numbered from 1 to 100 and every f i f t h name was checked. The twenty checked names were chosen f o r study. Before the study was completed two of the inmates from t h i s group were transferred to outside f o r e s t r y camps connected with the prison. Another of the twenty was l a t e r discovered to be e p i l e p t i c and had to be con-sidered a t y p i c a l i n l i g h t of c r i t e r i o n (g). Rather than manipulate the method of choosing the men f o r study and work out a way of choosing three more i t was decided to consider the seventeen remaining persons as a reasonable sample of the type of inmate who was l i k e l y to be chosen for vocational t r a i n i n g at the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n . - 3 5 -Sources of Information. The sources of information used i n studying these seventeen men were as follows: (I) Warden's f i l e s , (2) Criminal Investigation Branch Packs, (3) Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School f i l e s f o r those who had been to that i n s t i t u t i o n , (4) Westgate f i l e s , (5) medical records, (6) interview with medical o f f i c e r , (7) interview with voca-t i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r s , (8) interviews with t i e r o f f i c e r s , (9) interviews with inmates, (10) group discussions with inmates, (II) r e s u l t s of psychological tests performed by the c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r s . An explanatory note i s needed fo r each of these. 1. Warden's f i l e . This f i l e contains the most p e r t i -nent material available i n the prison about the prisoner. A l l s t a t i s t i c a l material, correspondence, s o c i a l h i story, pre-sentence report, summaries of vocational, psychological and other such te s t s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s report, copies of reports to the B r i t i s h Columbia Parole Board, f a c t s about prev-ious committals. 2 . Criminal Investigation Branch Packs. These contain reports on each inmate from the Criminal Investigation Branch, Finger P r i n t Section, R.C.M.P., Ottawa, and give the only accurate record of a l l indictable offences committed by the inmate anywhere i n Canada. 3 . Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School f i l e s . The Warden's o f f i c e kindly requested the B. I. S., Brannan Lake, Vancouver Island, to send i t s f i l e s on a l l the inmates studied who had had some contact with that i n s t i t u t i o n . These were p a r t i c u l a r l y complete -36-f i l e s , u s u a l l y c o n t a i n i n g a f u l l s o c i a l h i s t o r y and r e p o r t from the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , and d e t a i l e d r e p o r t s on the inmate's behavior w h i l e i n the s c h o o l . 4 . Westgate f i l e s . These f i l e s c o n t a i n monthly r e p o r t s by the v o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r or work gang guard and by the t i e r o f f i c e r . 5. M e d i c a l r e c o r d s , and 6. I n t e r v i e w w i t h M e d i c a l O f f i c e r . Each r e c o r d was d i s c u s s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h the medical o f f i c e r and h i s a s s i s t a n t who both c o n t r i b u t e d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about some inmates under study. ?• I n t e r v i e w w i t h v o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r s . These members o f s t a f f were i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h a view to determining the inmate's progress i n shop and h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g as w e l l as b e h a v i o r , and a t t i t u d e . 8. I n t e r v i e w w i t h t i e r o f f i c e r s . These men were i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h a view t o determining t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward the inmates, what experience and success they might have had i n c o u n s e l l i n g the inmates under t h e i r charge, and what they seemed to f e e l t h e i r r o l e was. B e s i d e s t h i s , t h e i r own im-p r e s s i o n s of the inmates s t u d i e d were recorded. 9. I n t e r v i e w w i t h inmates. Each of the inmates was seen twice w i t h an i n t e r v a l of two and t h r e e weeks between i n t e r v i e w s . P r i o r to the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w they had no know-ledge about the study. The w r i t e r s t a r t e d out the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w by i n t r o d u c i n g h i m s e l f and the study. Each inmate - 3 7 -was shown a copy of the thesis outline and questions about i t were answered frankly and honestly. Explanation of how t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group was chosen was given. It was explained that the Warden had agreed that whatever went on between the writer and the prisoner i n the interview would not be shared i n any way with the prison. It was made clear that the writer was interested i n prisons and prisoners but was i n no way connected with the prison. It was explained that while the r e s u l t s of the interviews would be summarized i n the study everything that was possible would be done to disguise the material and no names would be used. The inmate was t o l d that the writer would appreciate his i n t e r e s t and his help; that without him and others l i k e him the study would not be possible. However, i t was impressed upon each man that t h i s was not going to be forced upon him and i f he would rather not p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study then he was quite free to say so and his f e e l i n g s would be respected. His p a r t i c i p a t i o n was quite voluntary and probably could only be valuable i f he came into i t because he r e a l l y wanted to. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that not one of the seventeen withdrew and on the contrary seemed most interested i n helping with the project. It was explained to the inmate, that the writer had already read the Warden's f i l e and therefore had some information about him. The notes taken from the Warden's f i l e were gone over with the inmate who added or modified c e r t a i n material. I t was explained, too, that the writer - 3 8 -would be checking other available information i n the prison about him — Westgate f i l e , medical record, discussion with the guards. The writer said that i f they were agreeable he would l i k e to see them each at l e a s t once more and would also l i k e to have discussions with small groups of them. Every attempt was made to put the inmate at his ease and make him interested i n the study. The majority seemed to maintain t h i s i n t e r e s t throughout the study and three were p a r t i c u l a r l y interested - so much so that they asked i f the writer would mind i f they looked him up after t h e i r release i n order to continue discussion. No doubt the need f o r counselling, f o r acceptance and understanding was operative here but there was also no doubt about the genuineness of these three men's interest i n the project. An i n d i c a t i o n of the desire to be honest with the writer about themselves i s shown i n the case of "Q" who, i n discussing the information taken from the warden's f i l e , said that the information was wrong. He admitted that he had given a false story to the probation o f f i c e r who prepared the pre-sentence report and had continued to give t h i s f a l s e story to the prison o f f i c i a l s . As t h i s was his f i r s t offense there was no way of checking and he was able to perpetuate t h i s f a l s e story. He proceeded afterwards to give the correct facts which were almost the reverse of the story i n the record. Another example of t h i s frankness was revealed when a discussion about using drugs was taking place with one inmate. The inmate stopped and -39-asked f o r assurance of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and, after t h i s was given, admitted that he was a drug user — though he had never been caught and there was no i n d i c a t i o n on his record of t h i s f a c t . S t i l l another admitted that he had f a l s e l y said that he was married i n order that his g i r l f r i e n d would be able to v i s i t him. A separate interview guide was prepared f o r each of the two interviews. The headings and t h e i r numbers were memorized and information r e l a t i n g to any of the headings was recorded and the corresponding number on the interview guides was written i n the margin. In t h i s way the interview was kept more informal and non-directive. I f not obtained i n the f i r s t interview, s t a t i s t i c a l material and other facts that were considered important were e l i c i t e d i n the second. 1 A technique known as the " C r i t i c a l Incident Method" was used during the interview. The writer modified and sim-p l i f i e d the o r i g i n a l technique. He asked each inmate two separate questions: (1) What i n his opinion was the worst thing about the prison. (Very l i t t l e explanation was given and the inmate was t o l d to interpret t h i s as he wished.) (2) What i n his opinion was the best thing about the prison? 10. Group discussions with inmates. It was not possi-ble to meet i n group sessions with every one of the seventeen. 1 Flanagan, John C , and Burns, Robert K., "The Employee Per-formance Record: A New Appraisal and Development Tool," Harvard  Business Review, September-October, 1955- v o l . 33, pp. 95-102. -40-This was the f i n a l part of the study and unfortunately one of the seventeen had been transferred to f o r e s t r y camp, two were i n the Elementary Training Unit (the "hole") f o r d i s c i p l i n a r y reasons and were not available, and three expressed some fear of joining such a group and requested that they not be included. The eleven remaining inmates were divided into two groups, of f i v e and six respectively. One lengthy session was held with each group. The group had no structure. The writer explained to the men that he was interested i n learning about them, about the prison, about t h e i r ideas about prison, about problems associated with being i n prison. They were asked to t a l k f r e e l y and about what they l i k e d t a l k i n g about or would be i n t e r -ested i n tal k i n g about. However, they were asked to keep i n mind that the writer was looking f o r a l l sorts of information about prison l i f e and t h e i r response to i t . These were long sessions and although the writer kept notes throughout, i n e v i t -ably much was missed. 11. Psychological Tests. Although some of the inmates studied had been given psychological tests i n the past the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r agreed to test a l l of the seventeen and the r e s u l t s of these were passed along to the w r i t e r . The interview was seen as the basic method of the study. This can be seen by examining the breakdown of time spent on the various methodological t o o l s : (1) interviewing inmates 42 hours; (2) interviewing s t a f f — 13 hours; (3) summarizing f i l e s — 9 hours; (4) group sessions with inmates — 6 hours. -41-The setting i n which the seventeen inmates were housed while the study was going on and the setting i n which men l i k e them w i l l he imprisoned i n the future has been outlined i n t h i s chapter. Also, the research method used i n gathering information about the inmates has been described. The mater-i a l obtained by means of the methodological tools mentioned was voluminous. For the purposes of t h i s thesis i t has been c a r e f u l l y s i f t e d and the points relevant to the central objec-tives of the study have been summarized i n Chapter I I I . CHAPTER III INMATES AS PERSONS Scrutiny of a l l information collected about the seven-teen inmates and the prison unit i n which they were housed led to a categorization of the material under a number of headings. The findings i n detailed form were f i r s t gathered under these headings and from t h i s the s i g n i f i c a n t f acts were drawn and summarized or outlined i n tabular form. These summaries and tables are presented i n t h i s chapter f o r the most part without comment or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Family Background Twelve out of the seventeen men studied l o s t t h e i r fathers, either by divorce, separation or death, before reach-ing the age of nine years. Five of these l o s t t h e i r fathers during infancy. Five of the twelve had step-fathers but i n a l l cases they did not l i k e them and f e l t rejected by them. Three others of the twelve had mothers who were promiscuous and they remembered a series of men i n t h e i r mothers' l i v e s who were rather vague father f i g u r e s . In a l l cases these "step-fathers" were a c t i v e l y d i s l i k e d by the inmates as children. Of the remaining f i v e , two seemed to have had good relations with the father but the other three f e l t there was no close, meaningful t i e . Thus i t can be seen that fourteen of the - 4 3 -group studied were deprived of meaningful relationships with a father f i g u r e . Only four of the seventeen had s a t i s f y i n g relationships with t h e i r mothers. Five mothers were promiscuous and one was actually a p r o s t i t u t e . Two others were heavy drinkers, one was r i g i d l y r e l i g i o u s , one was a bruta l deaf mute and the other three were unstable i n other ways. In a l l t h i r t e e n cases these mothers showed obvious r e j e c t i o n of t h e i r sons or the inmates f e l t strongly that they were rejected by these mothers. In summary i t can be said that t h i r t e e n , three-fourths of the group, had rej e c t i n g and unstable mothers who could not s a t i s f a c -t o r i l y meet the basic emotional needs of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Only four of the seventeen had s i b l i n g s who had been i n trouble with the law. S i b l i n g relationships were not discussed i n d e t a i l with t h i s group. However, most spoke of f a i r l y good relationships with brothers and s i s t e r s . On the part of at least four there was an expression of being the "black sheep" of the family — other s i b l i n g s having become more successful than they. Only one was an "only" c h i l d , six were oldest s i b -l i n g s , nine were middle and only one was the youngest s i b l i n g . A l l who had younger s i b l i n g s expressed g u i l t about setting a bad example to the younger ones. Four had spent part of t h e i r early years i n fos t e r homes. One of these f e l t that the fos t e r home had been a po s i t i v e exper-ience, two expressed intense bitterness about the way i n whieh 44-they had been treated by foster parents and the fourth," while not b i t t e r , said he had not been happy i n the fos t e r home. In summary i t can be stated that six of the seventeen homes of the men studied could be categorized as pathological and one extremely so. Seven others could be said to be unsatis-factory homes, where the needs of the children were given l i t t l e or no consideration. Only four could be said to be good homes and yet three of these had no father figure after the inmate was eight years of age. Thus t h i r t e e n of the inmates were raised i n very poor homes where t h e i r basic needs could not have been met adequately. Only one of the seventeen could be said to have come from a "•normal11 home - that i s , a home where two parents loved each other and loved and t r i e d to meet the needs of the children. M a r i t a l Relationships Of the eight inmates who are married, separated or div-orced none are without some sort of prohlem i n t h i s area. A. loves his wife and three small children. They mean a great deal to him. However, shortly after coming to prison his wife sought l e g a l counsel and attempted to get him to sign separation papers. She had some idea that t h i s was what he wanted. She l i v e s i n another province and he has not been able to t a l k t h i s out with her and has had to t r y to straighten out t h i s marital problem by correspondence. B. i s separated but wants a recon-c i l i a t i o n . His wife also l i v e s i n another province and he -45-cannot do anything about his problem with his wife u n t i l he i s released. In the meantime t h i s i s an area of anxiety and concern for him. E. i s separated from his wife and has now f a l l e n i n love with another woman whom he wants to marry. His wife i s i n another country and the p o s s i b i l i t y of divorce i s remote. F. married a f i f t e e n year old g i r l when she became pregnant. G. separated from his wife when she began going out with other men. I. i s married but i s consumed with anxiety because his wife i n her l e t t e r s speaks of divorce. She l i v e s i n another province and he finds correspondence with her d i f f -c u l t . L. married a g i r l p r i o r to coming to prison because she was pregnant. 1.' s wife i s on So c i a l Assistance and because of l i m i t e d income i s forced to l i v e with inlaws, with accompany-ing problems. In summary i t can be said that problems around marriage are common among these prisoners and that being i n prison not only aggravates pre-existing problems but creates new ones. Leisure Time Eleven spent a major portion of t h e i r time "hanging around" with the gang. "Hanging around" i s , of course, a com-mon s o c i a l phenomenon i n our culture and has no necessary connection with delinquency. The majority of thi s group said that "hanging around" eventually led them into trouble. They were always looking f o r excitement, f o r a t h r i l l , and any sug-gestion which promised to give t h i s was followed up. Two or three spent some time hunting or f i s h i n g , t h i r t e e n p a r ticipated -46-i n one or more forms of a t h l e t i c s and four of these played on teams. Nine said they had no hobby whatever, three gave "working on cars" as a hobby, two said model bu i l d i n g , two photography, one woodworking and one writ i n g . In discussing hobbies i t was revealed that only the l a s t three were bona f i d e hobbies. Model building was something that was done fo r a short period during pre-adolescence, "working on cars" seemed to be tinkering once i n a while with somebody's automobile. So, i n f a c t , a l l but four had no r e a l hobby. In summary i t can be said that the majority of the group had never learned to use t h e i r free time i n a s a t i s f y i n g and constructive way. About three-quarters of them spent the major part of t h e i r time "hanging around" and did not have any r e a l i n t e r e s t s or hobbies. S o c i a l Relationships Male companions. Nine said t h e i r friends were "other fellows" l i k e themselves who were often i n trouble with the law and were always looking for a " t h r i l l " . One said he had no friends and two said they had very few. The remainder ( f i v e ) said t h e i r friends were decent, law-abiding persons. Most of the first-mentioned nine admitted that they were heavily i n f l u -enced by the behaviour and a c t i v i t i e s of the gang they associated with and almost always got into trouble as part of a gang a c t i v i t y . None t r i e d to place blame on the group f o r t h e i r delinquent behavior — a l l admitted to wanting the excitement and helping i n planning gang a c t i v i t y . On the other hand, -47-most admitted they would not have got into as much trouble i f they had not been "hanging around" with the gang. The l a s t f i v e f e l t they were d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r friends and compared themselves unfavorably with them. This comparison i n a l l cases seemed to bring out a strong f e e l i n g i n a l l about t h e i r low personal worth. Female companions. Six have had steady g i r l friends i n the past, t h i r t e e n have had promiscuous pre-marital sex r e l a t i o n s . Four of these also had a non-physical r e l a t i o n -ship with a "decent" g i r l at the same time they were having sex r e l a t i o n s with the promiscuous type of g i r l . Summary. In talking with these men about t h e i r s o c i a l relationships one gets the f e e l i n g that on the whole they form only s u p e r f i c i a l friendships. They are b a s i c a l l y n a r c i s s i s t i c and, being concerned only with s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r own needs, are not able to give much to a personal relationship - i t must give something to them. This would apply to at least twelve of the seventeen and possibly to one or two more. Age The age of the inmates was p a r t l y governed by the c r i t e r i a (as described i n Chapter I I ) , one of which was that the selected inmates should be from eighteen years to f o r t y years i n c l u s i v e . However, within that range as noted on Table A we have three who are between 33 and 36 years i n c l u s -iv e ; seven between the ages of 20 and 24; and seven who were 18 or 19 years of age. Therefore there were fourteen who were between the ages of 18 and 24, well over three-quarters -48-of the t o t a l group. I t would seem, on the basis of t h i s , that the largest number of future inmates of Haney w i l l f a l l i n t h i s younger age group. This, of course, i s important i n that i t has implications f o r programme planning. I t i s i n t e r -esting that no one between the age of 25 and 32 i n c l u s i v e appeared i n th i s group. Whether or not th i s i s d i a g n o s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t could only be determined by the breakdown of ages fo r the t o t a l inmate population of the province. Intelligence Three, or close to 18 per cent, f e l l into the above-average or superior group. Six f e l l into the high-average, two i n the average and four i n the low-average — that i s , about 70 per cent were i n the average group. Two, or close to 12 per cent f e l l i n the below-average group. According to Lowrey, 1 the perfect d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the whole population would be: very superior - 3 per cent; above-average - 22 per cent; average - 50 per cent; below-average - 22 per cent; very i n f e r i o r - 3 per cent. Leaving out the extremes on both ends, except f o r r e l a t i v e l y high proportion i n the average range the sample group represents no s i g n i f i c a n t difference from the normal d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern. 1 Lowrey, Lawson G., Psychiatry f o r S o c i a l Workers, Columbia U. Press, New York, 1946, p. 48. -49-Education Table A shows grade completed and age on leaving school. Ten l e f t school at the age of f i f t e e n or e a r l i e r . Only one completed grade XII and he went on to complete one year univer-s i t y . Three l e f t school i n order to help with family financing, three wanted to go to work (only one of these had a reasonably stable work record afterward), three l e f t when they were sent to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School, one l e f t to take technical t r a i n i n g i n a private technical school (he never completed t h i s ) , one was suspended f o r truancy, two f a i l e d and l o s t i n t e r e s t , one joined the RCAF, two l e f t because they did not l i k e school, one got "fed up" and wanted to wander a b i t . Only one was a f i r s t -rate student who enjoyed studying. Four others seemed to have done f a i r l y well and to have profited by the school experience. The other twelve i n varying degrees found school d i f f i c u l t , f r u s t r a t i n g , uninteresting and so truanted, caused trouble i n cla s s , were unhappy, and found i t a r e l i e f to be able to leave. In summary i t can be stated that twelve had unsatisfac-tory school experiences but that of t h i s group at l e a s t h a l f expressed the wish that they could have found i t more i n t e r e s t -ing and wished now that they had gone on f o r a longer period. Most f e l t the need of more education but because of the f r u s t r a -tions of the past would be very f e a r f u l of taking up academic work again. At least three stated that they would l i k e to take s p e c i a l courses i n mathematics that would be an aid to them i n the trades they plan to follow. One would l i k e to take - 5 0 -TABLE A. Leading Personal Data About Inmates Studied INMATE AGE INTELLIGENCE; GRADE COMPLETED AGE ON LEAVING SCHOOL MARITAL 2 STATUS NATIONAL BACKGROUND OF FATHER CHURCH DENOMINATION OCCUPATION A 35 AA 11 18 M Canadian United Salesman B 24 HA 9 19 Se English Ch of E. Laborer C 20 BA 7 16 S Fr. Can. R. C. Laborer D 20 HA 10 16 S Norwegian Quaker Mechanic E 36 AA 11 17 D English Ch of E. Writer F 24 HA 6 13 M I r i s h R. C. Laborer G 33 LA 6 11 Se F r . Can. R. C. Cat Driver H 19 LA 7 15 S Canadian R. C. Laborer I 24 HA 7 15 M Scotti s h United Truck Driver J 19 A 7 15 S I r i s h Lutheran Laborer K 19 HA 8 15 S F r . Can. R. C. Laborer L 19 BA 7 15 M Germ./Dut. United Truck Driver M 19 LA 7 15 S B.C.Indian R. C. Laborer N 18 HA 9 16 S Russian United Laborer 0 24 LA 8 15 M I r i s h R. C. Mechanic P 23 A 9 15 S Sco t t i s h United Laborer Q 19 AA 1 yr Un. 20 S Austrian United Student Key: 1 AA - Above-average ;1 LA - Low-Average HA - High-Average BA - Below-Average A - Average 2 M - Married 2 D - Divorced S - Single SE - Separated - 5 1 -a course i n writing and another would l i k e to take a course through the Extension Department of the University. The inter e s t i n academic education on the part of a l l but one or two i s at present very low. Employment Only four had held r e l a t i v e l y steady jobs i n the past. Five others have worked most of the time since leaving school but have changed jobs repeatedly. The balance, 8, have had extremely poor work records — unemployed most of the time, taking jobs for a few days or weeks and then leaving without notice, being f i r e d f o r being unreliable or incompetent. Only f i v e of the group had clear-cut, r e a l i s t i c vocational plans for t h e i r future. Four others had some tentative plans which were most vague and i n d e f i n i t e . Seven expressed or indicated i n other ways that they were uncertain and confused about t h e i r vocational future and one maintained that he was going to follow a criminal career and become a top safecracker, at least u n t i l he had b u i l t up a sizable stake for himself. Thus twelve indicated vocational problems bordering on the pathological. However, when they were asked what sort of t r a i n i n g programme they would set up f o r themselves i f they had t h i s choice most were able to state areas of some i n t e r e s t . These are tabulated i n Table B. In twelve cases these seemed to be quite r e a l i s t i c choices i n the l i g h t of the man's assets and l i a b i l i t i e s as observed by the writer. However, i n many - 5 2 -cases they would be r e a l i s t i c only i f some of the man's other problems were being met at the same time. Summary The majority of the men studied have had extremely poor work h i s t o r i e s and thi r t e e n have never had a r e a l l y s a t i s f y i n g work experience. They lack t r a i n i n g , desire to work, and personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and have fears about employment i n the future. Even the few who have p o s i t i v e goals for the future and who have worked ste a d i l y i n the past express concern and fear about the problem the ex-criminal faces i n finding and retaining a job. Without doubt t h i s whole area constitutes a very knotty problem to the inmate both i n r e l a t i o n to vocational t r a i n i n g i n the prison and to employment after release. Religion The r e l i g i o u s backgrounds of the inmates under study, as noted i n Table A, do not appear to have much significance except that the proportion of Roman Catholics seems rather high. Seven of the group are Roman Catholics. This seems high when one considers that the percentage of Roman Catholics i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia i s only 8 . 8 . 1 Religion was d i s -cussed quite f u l l y with each inmate. One claimed he was an 1 The Ninth Census of Canada i n 1951 gives the t o t a l popula-t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia as 1,165,210 and the t o t a l Roman Catho l i e population of B r i t i s h Columbia as 103,837 or 8 .8 per cent. - 5 3 -TABLE B. Summary of Replies to the Question  "What Kind of Vocational Training  Programme Would you Choose f o r Yourself?" A Business methods; public speaking; salesmanship; Gr. XII" B Construction - carpentry, b r i c k l a y i n g and i n s u l a t i o n C Welding; mathematics D Motor mechanics E Writing; study of human personality F Logging; business methods G P r a c t i c a l mechanics useful to cat dri v e r H Logging I Motor mechanics J Optical-lens grinding, etc., or machine shop K Motor mechanics L Diesel mechanics; mathematics M Diesel mechanics N Anything that w i l l be an aid i n safe-cracking 0 Mechanics; mathematics P E l e c t r i c i t y Q Advanced mathematics; electronics -54-agnostic though nominally of the Church of England. Seven others said r e l i g i o n had no meaning f o r them i n any form (four of these were Roman C a t h o l i c ) . The attitudes of the remaining nine varied from the three who thought r e l i g i o n was a good thing and who attended church because they believed i t was he l p f u l to them, to the other s i x who were only mildly interested but i n a vague way thought there was probably something good about i t . This l a t t e r group could not say why they f e l t t h i s and had no r e a l convictions about r e l i g i o n . The majority who attended church service at Oakalla did so because i t was a diversion, a chance to see people from the "outside" and p a r t i c u l a r l y the women who came to some of the services. Some attend both the Roman Catholic service and the Protestant one. For none of the seventeen was r e l i g i o n a v i t a l , meaningful thing — even those few who said they believed i n the church showed a marked lack of enthusiasm for i t . None of the group had had occasion to meet and t a l k to the padres and none f e l t t h i s was something they would want to do. However, three admitted that an occasion might arise i n the future when a t a l k with the padre might be p r o f i t a b l e . Two thought they might be interested i n a discussion group on r e l i g i o n and two said that singing hymns during the service was the thing they enjoyed most of a l l . -55-Health and Habits The health of those i n the sample group was on the whole good. The complaints f i v e of them suffer from are considered by the medical o f f i c e r to have an emotional basis. A l l but one uses tobacco, a l l drink f a i r l y heavily — one h a l f said they were heavy drinkers and the other h a l f said they were mod-erate drinkers. In discussing what moderate drinking meant, i t was revealed that i n f a c t the s e l f - s t y l e d moderate drinkers drank a good deal. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that none of t h i s group categorized himself as a " l i g h t " drinker. In spite of the fact that drug users were ruled out of t h i s study - two were discovered to be users though neither i s as yet addicted. Neither of these two men had ever been convicted of a drug charge, therefore had they been able to meet the other c r i t e r i a mentioned above they would be e l i g i b l e f o r Haney. There i s no doubt that some drug users w i l l be among those selected f o r 1 t h i s new j a i l . There were two i n t h i s group; i t may be assumed that about the same percentage of the t o t a l future popu-l a t i o n w i l l have had some experience with drugs, though the small number involved does not e n t i t l e us to make the extrapo-l a t i o n without reservations. Attitudes Poli c e o f f i c e r s . Seven expressed strong h o s t i l i t y 1 Addicts who are considered to be salvageable w i l l be con-sidered f o r Haney Qn a selective basis -56-toward po l i c e o f f i c e r s . One of these stated that he hated a l l "cops", another said the police were a l l crooked and accepted bribes, three said the police were always pushing them around, one said "they never l e t you explain anything," the one Indian lad said the RCMP have a p a r t i c u l a r d i s l i k e f o r Indians and go out of th e i r way to "knock them around". Only one expressed a high regard f o r police o f f i c e r s . The other nine said they did not care for them but they thought on the whole the police "were doing t h e i r job" when they apprehended and questioned suspects. Those who were most h o s t i l e related experiences of t h e i r own where police o f f i c e r s were e s p e c i a l l y b r u t a l or obviously corrupt. From t h i s they have assumed that a l l or most policemen are l i k e t h i s . Courts. Eleven made unqualified statements that the courts were just and reasonable during t r i a l and sentence. Three thought the courts were inconsistent i n sentencing - two men committing similar crimes are often given very d i f f e r e n t lengths of sentence. Two thought that i n passing sentence the judges r e l i e d too heavily on the pre-sentence report of the probation o f f i c e r . They f e l t the probation o f f i c e r ' s report was very often inaccurate — that a f u l l picture of the offender could not be gained by one interview across the table i n the prison hallway. As mentioned before, one inmate d e l i b -erately gave the probation o f f i c e r a completely f a l s e story i n order to conceal his i d e n t i t y . One of the group thought the judge "had i t i n for him" because he had appeared before him on a previous occasion. -57-Punishment. Ten thought t h e p r i s o n e x i s t e d p u r e l y f o r punishment. F i v e thought i t was f o r b o t h punishment and r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n . One thought the p r i s o n was "too ea s y " and con-t a i n e d t o o few elements o f punishment. One thought i t was supposed t o be f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o n l y and t h a t punishment had no p l a c e whatever i n t h e p r i s o n . Guards E a c h inmate was asked t o d e s c r i b e the m a j o r i t y o f t h e guards i n the Westgate U n i t as " v e r y good", "good", " p o o r " , o r " v e r y p o o r " . Three s a i d " v e r y good", t e n s a i d "good", two s a i d one h a l f "good" and one h a l f " p oor", one s a i d "poor" and one s a i d " v e r y p o o r " . The l a s t q u a l i f i e d t h i s by s a y i n g t h a t he thought the s e n i o r o f f i c e r s were " t r y i n g " . They were asked how many guards t h e y l i k e d " v e r y much". Three s a i d "none", seven s a i d "two", t h r e e s a i d " t h r e e " , one s a i d " f o u r " , one s a i d " s i x " , one s a i d " e i g h t " , and one s a i d " t e n " . When asked how many t h e y d i s l i k e d " v e r y much", seven s a i d "none", two s a i d "one", t h r e e s a i d "two", t h r e e s a i d " t h r e e " , one s a i d " f i v e " and one s a i d " t w e l v e " . They were t h e n asked how many guards t h e y found i t e asy t o t a l k t o about themselves and t h e i r p r o b l e m s , e t c . F i v e s a i d "none", f i v e s a i d "one", t h r e e s a i d "two", two s a i d " t h r e e " , one s a i d " f o u r " , and one s a i d " e i g h t " . I n summary i t might be s a i d t h a t (1) f i f t e e n o f the group thought at l e a s t one h a l f o f the guards were t r y i n g t o do a good j o b , and were i n t e r e s t e d i n them; (2) f o u r t e e n l i k e at l e a s t -58-two of the guards "very much'1; and (3) twelve f i n d they can t a l k to at least one guard about intimate, personal problems. Interviews with guards. Six shop instructors and seven t i e r o f f i c e r s who knew the group of seventeen best were i n t e r -viewed. A l l were very cooperative and seemed interested i n talking about the inmates. The majority had good p o s i t i v e attitudes but a few were re j e c t i n g and had punitive attitudes toward the non-conforming inmate. A l l expressed a desire to do more counselling of inmates and a l l wished they could have more t r a i n i n g i n t h i s . The t i e r o f f i c e r s f e e l that i t i s he l p f u l to the inmates to be able to t a l k to guards about things that are bothering them and a l l believed that t h i s was part of t h e i r role as a t i e r o f f i c e r . Inmates' C r i t i c i s m of Prison Programme Most of the inmates studied agree that the shop programme i s good but i s not extensive enough. Very few get a chance to go to the shop of t h e i r choice and what i s learned there i s not geared to help gain employment on the "outside". They f e e l that the administrative personnel of the prison are well-motivated i n t h e i r planning for these shops but that they are not as h e l p f u l to inmates as they should and could be. The group as a whole thought the hobby programme i s good as f a r as i t goes but again i t i s not complete enough. However, as few i n the group f i n d hobbies i n t e r e s t i n g l i t t l e emphasis was placed on t h i s phase of the programme. The main c r i t i c i s m was directed toward the so-called " s o c i a l i z a t i o n " programme — -59-th at part of the programme involving compulsory gymnasium periods so many times each week. As w i l l be noted i n Table C only one of the seventeen said unqualifiedly that i t was good. Two thought i t was h e l p f u l to a few, three thought i t was not helping at a l l and two thought i t made them worse. The other eight said i t was not helping at a l l and added that i t was not h e l p f u l because the programme was compulsory and allowed the inmates no choice. Offences As noted i n Table D "breaking and entering" and "car theft " were the offences committed by over three quarters of the group. Ten of the seventeen had at some time been con-victed of both offences. Probation and Parole Nine of the group had been on probation or parole and three of these had had both experiences. Sentence The shortest sentence was six months — the minimum as stated i n the c r i t e r i a described i n Chapter I I . Six had sen-tences consisting of a d e f i n i t e period plus an i n d e f i n i t e period. Seven had d e f i n i t e periods of one year or more (see Table D ) . - 6 0 -TABLE C Summary of Inmates' Main Thoughts About Prison Programme A Has l i t t l e p o s i t i v e influence; time could be put to better use B Keeps you on the go; keeps you from thinking too much; not r e a l l y helping C Maybe i t helps a few D Not helping at a l l ; no cooperation from guards; treat us l i k e herd of ca t t l e E Good; keeps you from l y i n g i n bunk too much F Very few inmates think i t i s h e l p f u l G Programme makes me worse; makes me f e e l angry inside H As i t i s set up, only makes you more b i t t e r I Inmate never has any time to himself; programme should not be compulsory J Not helping; not run properly; a f t e r working a l l day you should be able to rest K Very "phoney"; disorganized, you don't know whether you're coming or going; should not be compulsory L Should not be compulsory; working outside i s not bad M No system, keeps changing, not helping; l i k e s gym work N Not helping, gets changed around too much 0 Makes time go fa s t e r but i t not h e l p f u l ; guards should be able to spend more time with individ u a l s P Doing some good but needs much improvement Q Have no choice so can't help you a b i t ; not geared to help the inmate; disorganized; can't o f f e r me anything - 6 1 -TABLE D Criminal Records of Inmates PREVIOUS COMMI TALS-JUVENILE la SENTENCE PREVIOUS COMMI TALS-JUVENILE gg co « 3 O 1 M > CO ®1 0* EH OFFENCES COMMITTED INMATE SENTENCE PREVIOUS COMMI TALS-JUVENILE PROBATIC PAROLE BY INMATES A 15 0 0 - - False pretenses B 6xly 1 1 - - B & E; car th e f t ; C 6x6 1 0 - - B & E; B & E & S; D i y 0 0 yes - B & E; car th e f t ; E 6 0 0 - - Indecent assault; F i y 1 2 - - B & E; assault; car:theft G 9 0 0 - - Possession of stolen goods; Impersonation; H 6 1 1 yes yes Causing disturbance; B & E; car t h e f t ; I 18 0 0 - - Car t h e f t ; J I8x2y 0 1 yes - B & E & S; car theft; K 9xly 1 0 yes - B & E & S ; B & E ; car theft; robbery with violence; L l y x l 8 2 1 yes yes B & E ; ear theft; M 9 1 1 - yes B & E & S ; car the f t ; escape custody; N 6xly 0 0 yes - Theft; car t h e f t ; 0 6 1 1 yes yes B & E & S ; B & E ; car th e f t ; P i y 0 1 - yes B & E; car th e f t ; f a l s e pretenses Q 18 0 0 . - - Dealing i n fraudulent documents; Key: B & E & S - Breaking and entering and st e a l i n g . Under "sentence" - figures indicate number of months unless followed by "y" (years). - 6x6 means 6 months d e f i n i t e and 6 months i n d e f i n i t e sentence - 6 2 -Inmates* Verbalization of Own Problems (Table E) Every inmate expressed the f e e l i n g that he had a problem or problems. Three of these said outright that they were not concerned about getting help with these problems. The rest i n varying degrees expressed a desire for help i n understanding themselves so they could solve the problems that had caused them to get into trouble. Professional casework was explained to each inmate and he was asked whether or not he would use such a counselling service i f i t were available i n the prison on a voluntary basis. Nine inmates stated a strong desire to have such help, f i v e said they would probably t r y t h i s but thought they would hold back and would not be helped very much, the other three said they would not use the service. Group Sessions with Inmates. It i s unfortunate that the scope of t h i s study i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y large to discuss i n d e t a i l the two group sessions held with eleven of the inmates. A great deal of int e r e s t i n g and valuable material about the inmates came out of these ses-sions and thi s has been included i n the general diagnostic p i c -ture of each inmate. The primary reason f o r holding such sessions was to learn something about the inmates that might not have come through any other channel. Table F shows i n a very b r i e f way how each inmate reacted to the group session. These were three-hour sessions which were that long by choice of the participants. A f t e r the f i r s t hour a l l were relaxed and seemed to be enjoying the discussion. They talked about -63-TABLE E. Summary of Inmates' Ver b a l i z a t i o n of Own Problems Since war cannot s e t t l e down, mixed up; has good intentions; drinking i s problem - pressures b u i l d up and t r i e d escape; Can't understand s e l f .  Extremely jealous which i s basis of trouble with wife; weak, e a s i l y l e d .  Cannot do things properly and "blows his top". Has problems but cannot put them into words. Worried about s e l f and has requested interview with p s y c h i a t r i s t .  Thought he had problems before came to prison - but his seem i n s i g n i f i c a n t now compared to those of other inmates.  Concerned about his constantly getting into trouble; would l i k e to know why.  Feels he probably has problems but doesn't think about t h i s much and i s not concerned about them.  Feels g u i l t y about what his behavior has done to his mother. Wants to change but he can't because he i s too weak.  Has been getting into trouble - t h i s i s foolishness, does not know why and i t worries him.  Worried about what went wrong i n his family. Wants to be accepted back, has no place to go. no .job to go to.  Has no awareness of inner problems, but r e a l i z e s that he must have some and would l i k e to f i n d out more about them.  Cannot control s e l f when drinking. Likes to get away and escape from a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . _ Has no place to go; gets confused; wants to do one thing but does another - never knows what he w i l l do next.  Probably has problems but i s not concerned about them. Worried about the p o s s i b i l i t y of getting worse- of getting into more trouble i n the future.  Worried about why he drinks so much and does the things he does when drinking. Would l i k e to get to the bottom of th i s Something deep inside himself i s lacking. He seems to be searching for i n d i v i d u a l i t y and companionship, he needs recognition as a human being. -64-TABLE F. Br i e f Impressions of Inmates as seen  Through Group Sessions INMATE GROUP A 1 Participated a c t i v e l y ; constructive attitude; i n t e l l i g e n t c r i t i c a l of much about prison. B - Requested that he not be included C - Agreed to par t i c i p a t e but relieved when made clear that he did not have to. D 1 Participated a c t i v e l y ; negative, b i t t e r ; pent up h o s t i l i t y ; i n t e l l i g e n t . E 1 Very active; very constructive; dominated discussion; i n t e l l i g e n t ; needs to be center of attention. F - Agreed to par t i c i p a t e but transferred to Camp. G - Did not wish to p a r t i c i p a t e . H - Agreed to parti c i p a t e but confined to E.T.U. I 2 Tried to be constructive; h o s t i l e ; very confused. J 2 Active; t r i e d hold f l o o r ; big tal k ; b i t t e r , h o s t i l e , aggressive, contradictory, very confused. K 2 Active; t r i e d to be constructive; talks l o t about need to conform; very thick defenses against intense h o s t i l i t y and bitterness. L 2 Active; spoke i n g l i b positive terms but no r e a l f e e l i n g or conviction; p l a u s i b l e . M - Agreed to par t i c i p a t e but confined to E.T.U. N 2 Talked l o t ; facetious; s u p e r f i c i a l , wants to be center; boasting, b i t t e r ; very disturbed, has been deeply hurt. 0 1 Slow thinking; f a i r attitudes; t r i e d to be constructive but did not parti c i p a t e very much. P 2 Active; b i t t e r , suspicious, c y n i c a l . Q 1 Very active i n t e l l i g e n t lad; interested i n prison as so c i o l o g i c a l phenomenon; studying prison and offered many in t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t s . -65-almost every aspect of prison l i f e , about r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , punishment, c a p i t a l punishment, crime causation, about prob-lems criminals have and how they might be solved, about the world outside. No attempt was made to dire c t the discussion and the group wandered from one subject to the other by assoc-i a t i o n of ideas. Every inmate expressed the f e e l i n g that these were good sessions - and suggested that more opportunity should be given f o r them. The evidence of these sessions suggests that the therapeutic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of such groups are great. " C r i t i c a l Incident" The " C r i t i c a l Incident" technique used i n the interview i s summarized on Tables G and H. An examination of both the posit i v e and the negative responses reveals something of the inmates 1 f e e l i n g about the prison. For example, s i x of them could see nothing good about the prison and seven thought the present programme was disorganized, changing and inconsistent. The two that had spent some time i n the "Elementary Training Unit" (the "hole") thought that i t was the worst experience they had ever had i n prison. This C r i t i c a l Incident technique should i d e a l l y be applied to a much larger number. Nevertheless even with t h i s limited sampling s i g n i f i c a n t results seem to emerge. For instance, the inmates* strong f e e l i n g that the programme i s inconsistent r e f l e c t s , not inaccurately, an objective fact of - 6 6 -TABLF. G. Summary of Inmates' Responses to C r i t i c a l Incident" Question. Po s i t i v e Incidents A Nothing positive B Carpenter's shop- getting away from c e l l block C Opportunity to get education i f you want i t . D Nothing positive E Programme i s well-intentioned — tryi n g to help inmates although i t may f a i l . F Opportunity of going to work Camp. G Nothing positive H Nothing Positive I Shop work and hobby programme J More pr i v i l e g e s here than he expected. K Concerts that are brought i n from "outside" occasionally L Meeting new criminals talking of crimes and r e l i v i n g experiences. M Nothing positive N Nothing positive G Busy programme makes time go f a s t e r . P Not under guard a l l the time, c e r t a i n amount of trust of inmate. Q Sees older inmates who have been i n trouble a l l t h e i r l i v e s - sees he may end up thi s way i f he does not change. - 6 7 -TABLE H. Summary of Inmates' Responses to C r i t i c a l Incident"Question Negative Incident A Meeting f o r f i r s t time men who are determined to be criminals B Compulsory gymnastic periods C A guard once said he trusted no inmate and would never give anyone the benefit of the doubt D You ask for something and never get i t ; are t o l d something w i l l happen but i t never does. E No privacy i n going to the t o i l e t F Being away from wife and children G You never know where you are - one guard says one thing and another says something d i f f e r e n t . H Guards are inconsistent, sometimes h e l p f u l , sometimes punitive; Warden's court i s f i x e d before inmate appears. I Prison i s too noisy, expected i t to be quiet. J Compulsory gymnasium programme - nojone should be forced to take gym. K The "hole" (E.T.U. Elementary Training Unit) No t r a i n i n g , inmates come out worse. L E.T.U. - nothing to do a l l day but l i e around. M Prison has no system i n programme - confused inmates N Always changing the programme - never know what you are going to do next. 0 Being away from home. P No routine - never know where you stand; programme always changing, something i s planned and then cancelled. Q Fear that prison group w i l l have aanegative influence on him and change his way of thinking and behaviour. -68-the s i t u a t i o n ; but the i n t e n s i t y of t h e i r reaction i s to be accounted f o r by the fac t that as people whose l i v e s have been hitherto marked by disorganization and inconsistency they are p a r t i c u l a r l y sensitive to this issue. In short, i n so f a r as th i s i s a v a l i d c r i t i c i s m , i t indicates an important f a i l u r e i n the i n s t i t u t i o n to recognize the destructiveness of any i n s t a b i l i t y i n the programme however well-intentioned the changes might be. If possible the technique should be applied to the whole prison population and f o r comparative purposes i t might simultaneously be applied to the guards. Case His t o r i e s The following four case'histories are t y p i c a l of four kinds of inmates needing four somewhat d i f f e r e n t approaches regarding treatment. Case "A". A comes from a stable, secure home. He was the youngest of a family of f i v e s i b l i n g s . His father was a successful upstanding c i t i z e n . As a youngster A was active i n the boy scouts, played hockey and seems to have had a f a i r l y normal happy childhood. He began going steady with a g i r l while at high school and married her p r i o r to going over-seas during the l a s t world war. He has above-average i n t e l l i -gence and did well at school. When he became eighteen he l e f t school i n order to j o i n the RCAF. At thi s time he was only part way through grade XII. He became a f i g h t e r p i l o t -69-but was shot down over Germany and spent eighteen months i n a prisoner-of-war camp. He worked st e a d i l y after the war as a salesman and apparently was able to earn a good l i v i n g . He had started to drink when overseas and continued t h i s a f t e r -wards. His job as a salesman took him away from home a good deal and he did considerable drinking when on these t r i p s . He became worried about his drihking and what i t was doing to his marriage. He joined Alcoholics Anonymous and was active i n t h i s organization f o r a time. He thought M was good and was helping him. However, one day he began drinking again for no apparent reason. He d r i f t e d away from home f o r some months. He was drunk most of the time. He eventually ran out of money and cashed some checks knowing that he had no money i n the bank to cover them. He was apprehended and charged on eight separate counts, a l l f a l s e pretenses, and was sentenced to f i f t e e n months i n prison. He f e e l s he was j u s t l y dealt with and deserved t h i s sentence. He d i s l i k e s the prison intensely and has many c r i t i -cisms of i t , mostly of a very constructive nature. He had been a conforming inmate and i s thought highly of by the guards he works under. He does not think that being i n prison can help him unless he can study things that w i l l help him succeed i n the business world aft e r release. He would l i k e to f i n i s h Grade XII and take a business course and also learn public speak-ing and salesmanship. He corresponds with his wife and childr e n and his parents. Shortly after he arrived i n prison his wife -70-retained a lawyer and the l a t t e r contacted A with respect to a separation agreement. This was a b i t t e r blow to A f o r he loved his wife and has counted on her support. Correspondence with h i s wife has cleared up t h i s point to some extent. Apparently she was under the impression that because he l e f t home he wanted to be free of her and the children. He now receives supportive l e t t e r s from his wife who l i v e s i n another province. She i s working and holding things together. She plans to move out to Vancouver shortly i n order to be closer to him and they plan to remain i n t h i s area. A has a strong desire to stop drinking after he i s released. He i s r e a l i s t i c i n f e e l i n g that this w i l l be d i f f i c u l t f o r him and he does not know whether or not he w i l l have the w i l l power to stop. He plans to j o i n the AA again. When discussing his problem with him he stated that since the war he has been unable to s e t t l e down. He has t r i e d and he cannot understand why he finds i t so d i f f i c u l t . He sees his drinking as the problem but r e a l i z e s there i s a reason f o r his drinking. He wonders i f he i s not tr y i n g to escape from something through drink. He finds that pressure builds up and keeps building up within him u n t i l he just has to go out and get drunk to r e l i e v e t h i s pressure. He does not under-stand himself. He f e e l s that no one can be helped unless he t r u l y wants to be helped. He f e e l s that his problem i s deep and psychological and nothing i n the prison programme i s geared to help with problems l i k e t h i s . He needs professional help - 7 1 -and thinks he would use the services of a trained caseworker or p s y c h i a t r i s t i f such were available i n the prison. "A" has many assets and strengths that make his prog-nosis hopeful. It would appear his basic needs were met as a c h i l d , he i s i n t e l l i g e n t , his goals i n l i f e are constructive ones, his wife and family are prepared to give him a l l the support necessary, he i s concerned about himself, r e a l i z e s he has a deep-seated problem and wants help with i t . One does not see prison as the appropriate setting f o r ef f e c t i v e therapy i n t h i s case. Prison has only i n t e n s i f i e d his problem; i t has confirmed his f e e l i n g of his own unworthi-ness, i n t e n s i f i e d his g u i l t f e e l i n g , has created new worries around his relationship with his wife, and around how the family i s managing without him. He i s not cr i m i n a l l y i n c l i n e d and has l i t t l e i n common with the majority of other inmates. Consequently he f e e l s i s o l a t e d and alone. One f e e l s that a period on probation during which time A might have been under treatment f o r his alcoholism would have been a sentence i n l i n e with his needs and would have served the public inte r e s t as w e l l . F a i l i n g probation, a short sentence would seem to give more chance of successful r e h a b i l i t a t i o n than a long one. Suggested programme for A. Educational. Correspondence course i n Grade XII, and i n business methods. Public speaking. Practice i n typing (he i s already a f a i r t y p i s t ) . - 7 2 -Hobbies. Woodworking (expressed i n t e r e s t ) . Recreation. Voluntary programme of sports and games. Counselling. Regular casework interviews possibly with some psychiatric consultation. (Because of t h i s man's assets and hopeful prognosis A might be one of the few who would be selected immediately f o r intensive casework treatment.) Supplementary group therapy sessions with a small group having sim i l a r problems. Living units. A . i s an excellent security r i s k and could be housed i n the most open unit i n the prison. Case "C". C's mother was a deaf-mute who was quite d u l l . Her husband was sent to prison f o r peddling drugs when C was four or f i v e years of age and he never returned. Mother l i v e d as the common law wife of a man whom a l l the c h i l d r e n u n t i l recently believed to be t h e i r r e a l father. Stepfather was a drunkard and cruel and mean and r e j e c t i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y toward C. Mother drank a great deal too, and when drinking became br u t a l toward the children. At other times she showed no i n t e r e s t i n the children. C. was the oldest of four c h i l -dren. He was often l e f t i n charge of the c h i l d r e n while his parents went to the beer parlour and he was very mean to his young s i s t e r s . The S o c i a l Welfare Branch had numerous com-pl a i n t s about neglect and mistreatment of the children, and for a time the children were made wards and placed i n f o s t e r homes. C was very unhappy i n the foster home. He was well treated but worried about what was happening to the rest of the family. -73-He ran away repeatedly and was eventually allowed to return home. He had below-average i n t e l l i g e n c e , received few s a t i s -factions from school but managed to f i n i s h grade seven at the age of sixteen. He t r i e d to f i n d work but held jobs only f o r b r i e f periods. He began drinking after he l e f t school and fo r a time th i s was a r e a l problem for him. He was a short, odd-looking lad, had no friends and spent most of his time wandering around on his own. He had been suspected of s t e a l -ing f o r some time by the l o c a l police and was eventually appre-hended while breaking and entering a garage. He was sent to the Boys' Ind u s t r i a l School. He ran away from there three times but after he had se t t l e d down he found his f i r s t r e a l security i n a long time. He found people interested i n him, a place to sleep and a place to get regular meals. He was placed i n the t a i l o r shop and by the time he l e f t the School was able to do many of the simpler t a i l o r i n g jobs. The t a i l o r took a close personal inte r e s t i n the lad and a strong r e l a t i o n -ship developed between them. He had been exhibiting many physical symptoms and p a r t i c u l a r l y a stomach complaint which was diagnosed as a g a s t r i c u l c e r . A f t e r release from the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School he had nothing to go back to and there-fore was soon i n trouble again, t h i s time being sentenced to Oakalla. He i s a b i t t e r , d i s i l l u s i o n e d lad but his behaviour i n the prison i s very conforming. He t r i e d to t a l k to the guards and wants a f r i e n d desperately. He has no use f o r any of the inmates. He has few strengths or personal assets. -74-C. i s a deeply deprived person who cannot r e l a t e except s u p e r f i c i a l l y to others. He has a consuming desire f o r approval from adults. He seems disoriented a good deal of the time. His borderline i n t e l l i g e n c e and h i s lack of any r e a l strengths make his outlook f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n very poor; Ideally he should be treated In a ps y c h i a t r i c center and i t seems l i k e l y that before long C w i l l deteriorate to the point where he w i l l be commitable to a Mental Hospital. He does not know what he wants out of l i f e , changes his mind from interview to interview and t e l l s strange stories about his l i f e to anyone who w i l l take the time to l i s t e n to him. Usually the stories are quite d i f f e r e n t each time he t e l l s them. C. i s an extreme-l y disturbed person who needs i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. S o c i a l treatment w i l l not help him and one suspects that his prognosis even under psychiatric treatment would be poor. Suggested programme f o r "C". Educational. Some routine job where he would be able to work alone and learn a simple procedure - perhaps i n the laundry. He would do a conscientious and thorough job. Hobbies and Recreation. Would be happier working on some aspect of his job during the evenings. He i s not capable of having more than one r e a l i n t e r e s t . Counselling. C has a great need to t a l k to adults about himself and needs to have a chance to do t h i s with some one whom he f e e l s i s r e a l l y interested i n him. Casework treatment i s not l i k e l y -75-to be of use to him. His needs i n th i s area could be met adequately by a correc t i o n a l o f f i c e r whom he l i k e s and who i s able to show an intere s t i n C. Livin g u n i t . C needs a cer t a i n amount of i s o l a t i o n from the group and would not be happy i n a dormitory. He i s also something of a security r i s k . Given c e r t a i n kinds of pres-sures he might attempt to escape. Case "G". G. was raised on a farm. His father died when he was eight years old and he had to begin helping with the farm chores at th i s early age. He did poorly at school and only completed grade s i x . He i s of low-average i n t e l l i g e n c e . He l e f t the farm after his older brother took over i t s management and from then on worked st e a d i l y f i r s t as a labourer and l a t e r as a cat dri v e r . He drinks a great deal and during one of his sprees he impersonated someone else and passed some worthless checks i n order to get money fo r more l i q u o r . A f t e r he was apprehended he was found to have stolen goods on his person and was charged with possession of stolen goods. He does not recount how he came by these l a t t e r items. He was sentenced to nine months' imprisonment. This was his f i r s t offence. G i s a d u l l , hard-working person who does not seem to have any seriously disturbing factors i n his background. How-ever, he i s weak and e a s i l y influenced, e s p e c i a l l y when he i s drinking. He does show a very posi t i v e strength i n the f a c t that he has been continuously employed since a young man. In -76-the prison he i s conforming, keeps to himself, does not l i k e t a l k i n g about crime. In f a c t he d i s l i k e s everything about the prison and sees i t only as a punishment. The deterrent e f f e c t of the prison on t h i s man w i l l l i k e l y prove to be very strong and one would suspect that the thought of having to come back to prison would i n h i b i t any thought of crime i n the future and w i l l also probably help him modify his drinking habits. There i s very l i t t l e to o f f e r such a man as t h i s . He knows what he wants to do after release - continue to be a cat d r i v e r . Any-thing that w i l l a s s i s t him i n t h i s job would be of use to him. He does not find t a lking easy and i t i s doubtful i f he would be helped by casework or counselling by a correctional o f f i c e r . He expresses no desire to examine his own drinking problems. Suggested programme f o r "G". Educational. P r a c t i c a l mechanics that w i l l assist him i n his job as a cat d r i v e r . Hobbies and recreation. One of t h i s man's problems i s that he has no interests outside his job. Drinking has been the only thing he l i k e d to do i n his spare time. It i s possible that by exposing G to various kinds of recreational and hobby a c t i v i t y he might develop an interest that he would r e t a i n after release. G. has indicated some interest i n sports and games and he might be helped to widen his interest i n t h i s area. Counselling. The necessary counselling about day-to-day matters could be done by the correctional o f f i c e r . G needs someone to take an interest i n him, who w i l l support his strengths and whom -77-he might t a l k to about change i n programme, regulations he might not understand, employment fears, and the other kinds of prob-lems each inmate i s constantly faced with. I t i s not l i k e l y that G. would be amenable to the more intensive help of the caseworker. Living u n i t s . G. i s not a security r i s k and could be housed i n the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s most open unit. Case L. L's parents separated when he was one year old. His mother remarried a few years l a t e r but L was unable to accept his stepfather. Because of t h i s his mother began to re j e c t him openly and l e f t him to his own devices. They l i v e d on the fringe of a "delinquency area" and L soon began ganging up with delinquent lads. He began stealing when only nine years of age and was from then on constantly watched, picked up and questioned by the p o l i c e . Occasionally he was beaten up by a policeman who was t i r e d of constantly taking him to court and thought a good beating might be more e f f e c t i v e . L tested below average but i n many ways he seems much brighter than t h i s . He was not i n t e r -ested i n school and truanted regularly. At the age of f i f t e e n he l e f t school without f i n i s h i n g Grade ¥ 1 1 1 . He was uninter-ested i n working and continued to hang around with the gang. He had already been on probation twice and had spent one year i n the Boys' In d u s t r i a l School for breaking and entering and car t h e f t . Shortly after leaving school he was recommitted to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School. Afte r release he was something of a "big shot" among his friends and became the leader of the gang. - 7 8 -He began planning more adventurous robberies and was always looking for a " t h r i l l " . He began drinking heavily and was taking drugs occasionally. He had regular sexual r e l a t i o n s with the g i r l s who hung around the gang. He was sent to the Young Offenders Unit f o r car theft but on release immediately went back to his old haunts and resumed his delinquent a c t i v i t y . The only friends he had were delinquents and most of them had been i n prison. He continued his pattern of breaking and entering and car theft and was again sentenced to prison. Just p r i o r to t h i s his current g i r l f r i e n d , a f i f t e e n year old, became pregnant and under pressure he agreed to marry her. L's strengths seem l i m i t e d . He probably has average i n t e l l i g e n c e but his education and work record are very poor. He has had some experience as a truck d r i v e r and i s interested i n mechanics. He has never had any hobby or r e a l interests except i n some sports. He sees the prison only as a place of punishment and sees policemen, judges and other authority figures as punitive and inconsistent. He has been severely rejected by his mother and i s a deeply disturbed person. He i s beginning to f i n d escape i n drinking and t h i s has been a r e a l problem f o r him during the l a s t year. He i s beginning to take drugs and i s i n danger of becoming an addict. He sees his problem as one of trying to escape because he cannot face r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . He verbalizes a need f o r help with these problems. However, he has l i t t l e concern f o r others, l i t t l e f e e l i n g of g u i l t f o r his past escapades, i s s t i l l driven by - 7 9 -the need fo r excitement, i s extremely h o s t i l e towards authority and the prognosis without intensive treatment i s poor. This lad t y p i f i e s i n many ways over half the group studied. It might be said that the kind of programme that would help a lad l i k e t h i s would be h e l p f u l to a large number of the future inmates of Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n . Suggested programme for L. Educational. Vocational t r a i n i n g i n motor mechanics with some practice i n driving i n s t i t u t i o n a l trucks. Simplified mathe-matics and a course i n the kind of information that might be he l p f u l to a truck d r i v e r . Hobbies and recreation. L. i s fond of popular music. He might j o i n an interest group that would l i s t e n to and discuss modern jazz. This i s the sort of i n t e r e s t group that an interested member of the community might conduct on a volun-tary basis. His expressed inte r e s t i n f i s h i n g could be explored and might lead to rod-making, f l y - t y i n g , practice i n f l y - c a s t i n g etc. Again such an i n t e r e s t group might be con-ducted by a volunteer — possibly the l o c a l game warden. L. would f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n a voluntary programme of sports. Group Sessions. During group discussion L. participated quite a c t i v e l y . It was f e l t that he was able to express himself more e a s i l y and that he put more of himself forward i n the group sessions than i n the interviews. Regular group discus-sion would probably prove to be very therpeutic f o r L. -80-Counselling. L's problems are very deep, going back to rejec-t i o n and u n f u l f i l l e d emotional needs of infancy. He has many of the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of what i s loosely termed "the psycho-pathic personality" — lack of a f f e c t , lack of g u i l t f e e l i n g , i n a b i l i t y to learn from experience, aggressive tendencies, impulsive and deep h o s t i l i t y . The treatment of such persons as t h i s i s very d i f f i c u l t and involves the breaking down of defenses and exposing to consciousness the r e a l i t i e s of t h e i n f a n t i l e traumas. This i s a job f o r a p s y c h i a t r i s t and not a caseworker. However, through a slow facing up to what has happened i n the past, and the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of repeated prison sentences i f i t continues, i t i s possible to help L. accept the meed fo r help. This could come about through a strong re-lationahip with a correc t i o n a l o f f i c e r who takes a special i n t e r e s t i n the lad and who convinces L. that he has genuine concern about him. The correc t i o n a l o f f i c e r at t h i s point would ref e r L. to the caseworker f o r intensive counselling. Once the process began the caseworker would have to see the lad at least once each week for about one hour interviews. As defenses began breaking down there would have to be psychiatric consultation. This process of casework help would be aided by group therapy sessions for L. at the same time. Living unit. L. i s unpredictable. His need f o r fun and excitement makes him a security r i s k . With support of others l i k e himself he would undoubtedly t r y to break prison. He would be best housed i n a f a i r l y secure u n i t . This would be acting i n L's best interests f o r there i s no doubt that he i s -81-ambivalent about authority; he both needs i t s controls and f e e l s secure when he has them, and hates the control and t r i e s to escape or f i g h t them. Klare says t h i s i s common among prisoners and can be u t i l i z e d i n the helping process.^" In t h i s chapter the findings of the study have been out-li n e d i n summary form and case h i s t o r i e s have been used to i l l u s t r a t e a number of types of inmates needing somewhat d i f -ferent kinds of treatment. This material now needs to be examined i n the l i g h t of basic s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s . Chapter IV i s given over to t h i s task. 1 Klare, Hugh J . , "The Trained S o c i a l Worker and the Prison Communities", Howard Journal, V o l . IX, 1954-. p. 37. CHAPTER IV WELFARE IMPLICATIONS FOR CUSTODY AND COUNSELLING The implications for programme and treatment contained i n the material summarized i n Chapter III must now be considered. It i s not within the scope of t h i s study to suggest other than broad leads f o r correctional treatment. Speaking generally about t h i s group of seventeen inmates, one i s struck by the amount of pathology i n t h e i r backgrounds. This i s a l l the more s i g n i f i c a n t when we r e a l i z e that t h i s group was drawn from a unit i n Oakalla that contains le s s c r i m i n a l l y i n c l i n e d , more reformable types of inmates. The i n t e n s i t y of the problems revealed has many implications f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n presently being constructed to receive such inmates as the group studied — the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n . A delineation of the major problems facing a l l or some of these seventeen men would c l e a r l y be of value to the s t a f f planning the programme f o r t h i s new prison. An attempt w i l l be made i n t h i s chapter to is o l a t e and discuss the problem areas and other s i g n i f i c a n t findings of the study; the subheadings used i n Chapter III •will, generally speaking, provide the necessary framework. Family Background Extremely inadequate home l i f e was evident i n over three-fourths of the group. E a r l y emotional deprivation, of -83-course, can have devastating ramifications i n l a t e r l i f e i n almost every area - employment, school, personal re l a t i o n s h i p s , marriage, feelings toward employers and other authority f i g -ures, etc. Any e f f o r t to meet problems l i k e these i n prison must recognize, i n each person with these unmet emotional needs, the strong tug, sometimes conscious, sometimes unconscious, to f i n d the fundamental thing he has missed as a c h i l d ; the com-f o r t and security of a good home with loving, accepting parents. This need i s accentuated i n those persons who have been severely rejected by parents and, although we should be cautious about generalizing, we cannot rule out the r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y that many offenders are criminal not only because they are unconsciously acting out h o s t i l e feelings against parental figures but (as Dr. Frederic Wertham suggests and documents with an i n t e r e s t i n g placed i n prison. He c a l l s t h i s a " f l i g h t into custody" and suggests that the i n s t i t u t i o n represents the home where one becomes completely dependent again - a symbolic return to i n -fancy and a chance to be "mothered". Crime i n t h i s sense can be said to be part of the search f o r a mother. Any unmet dependency operating i n the i n d i v i d u a l personality i s only accentuated by the prison sentence. This i s another r e j e c t i o n by people who make up the world i n which the offender l i v e s . 1 Bowen, Croswell, " F l i g h t into Custody", two-part a r t i c l e i n The New Yorker. November 1 and 8, 1952. commit crimes i n order to get -84-He has been rejected by parents, disapproved of by teachers, fired by employers, knocked about by police officers and then lectured and sent to prison by the magistrate. Here he loses his liberty, is cut off from whatever in his l i fe passes for family and friends. He feels lost and helpless. He cannot continue to live his l i f e the way he wants. Here he must depend on others and have most of his decisions made for him. This is the kind of situation that leads to regression to an infantile dependency, and this condition can and should be used dynamically to help the prisoner. This kind of situation presents a challenge. For this regression, this emergence of faulti ly acquired childish attitudes, is a unique opportunity for helping at least some of the prisoners with very basic prob-lems relating to their unmet infantile needs. This means that we must introduce into the situation staff who are wise enough and well-trained enough to help undo the harm that was done by the parents. In a sense, to play this role properly staff must be prepared to accept the dependency of the inmates and become parent substitutes."'" As noted in Chapter I the custodial or correctional officer is thought ibo be the key person in the institution because of his close hour-to-hour contact with the inmates. In doing things for the inmate and in showing a genuine 1 Klare, Hugh J . , "The Trained Social Worker and the Prison Communities," Howard Journal. Vol. IX, 1 9 5 4 . p. 3 6 . -85-i n t e r e s t i n him as a person the inmate comes to r e l y on him as he might a good parent. It cannot be stressed enough that the basic therapeutic factor i n a good i n s t i t u t i o n i s the attitude of the s t a f f members. No programme w i l l succeed and no p o s i t i v e results w i l l be accomplished unless f i r s t of a l l th i s fundamental condition i s met. The free and f r i e n d l y re-l a t i o n s between o f f i c e r s and inmates i s most important i n the re-educative process and goes a long way toward e f f e c t i n g the emotional re-^orientation of the disturbed and offending inmate. Each s t a f f member i n the prison who comes into contact with the inmate has some contribution to make i f he understands the  man and wants to help him. It i s therefore important that these s t a f f people know something about the s o c i a l and psycho-l o g i c a l aspects of the inmate's behaviour. They must be a l e r t to the dynamics of the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the inmate and themselves and to know something of the transference mechanism whereby the inmate displaces his feelings about past experiences on to the person who i s trying to help him. The a b i l i t y to recognize, understand and apprec-iate t h i s transference r e l a t i o n s h i p , without try i n g to use i t or interpret i t to the inmate, can i n t e n s i f y the therapeutic influence of s t a f f involved with the inmate - e s p e c i a l l y i f t h i s understanding i s shared by other s t a f f having contact with the same-prisoner. I f a l l s t a f f understand that t h i s r e l a t i o n -ship rehearses the child-parent r e l a t i o n s h i p , they w i l l be better -86-able to understand the inmate's feelings toward them of both love and hate. At the same time they can u t i l i z e t h i s under-standing i n consciously accepting the role of a father cum mother cum guide cum counsellor, within the context of t h e i r o f f i c i a l role as wielder of authority. The composite, psychological r o l e , of course, can only be developed when the relationship has reached the point where the inmate f e e l s there i s someone who r e a l l y cares f o r him and i s responsible f o r him. There may come a time when the inmate w i l l endow the correc t i o n a l o f f i c e r with omnipotent powers and come to depend on him as he would l i k e to have been able to depend on his father and mother. This point has been stressed here because of i t s extreme importance as i t relates to every member of the s t a f f , f o r i t i s well known that the large majority of destructive impulses toward society by offenders are an exten-sion of the h o s t i l i t y toward parents or other adults playing parental roles i n t h e i r early years. Gradually t h i s h o s t i l i t y can be lessened by the growing trust the inmate may develop i n the prison s t a f f . Needless to say, these questions of inmate - s t a f f r e l a -tions should be e x p l i c i t l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y understood by s t a f f . Such understandings — and the discussions which re-enforce and c l a r i f y them — serve a double purpose; they not only aid i n d i -v idual s t a f f members i n wise i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these behaviour and relationship stiuations, but also create and enhance mutual -87-confidence and harmony. This again has a r e c i p r o c a l value; i t i s worth while i n i t s e l f but also multiplies the therapeutic influence of s t a f f and i n s t i t u t i o n . Prisoners gradually (though not necessarily consciously) f i n d that they have a much-needed security-base i n the q u a l i t y of relationships among those occupying the central place i n the prison community which i s also, temporarily, t h e i r home. It i s evident that t h i s can only be possible i f there i s unity and harmony among the s t a f f and i f there i s l o y a l t y to one another and to the i n s t i t u t i o n . H o s t i l i t y , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s , gossip, etc., among -staff only serve to confirm and j u s t i f y the inmate's own h o s t i l i t y and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . Tensions among s t a f f reactivate i n the i n -mate's mind anxieties r e l a t i n g to his own i n t r a - f a m i l i a l con-f l i c t s . ^ " This can only serve to aggravate his problem and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i l l thereby become d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible. A l l t h i s has meaning only i f the s t a f f , and here we are talking mostly about corr e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r s (although teachers and instructors play these roles too), can get to know the i n -mates intimately enough to win t h e i r confidence and show concern. The achievement of t h i s end c a l l s f o r the smallest possible groupings of men under one cor r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r , who should take prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s group. Unfortunately, the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n house units are designed f o r 1 Slavson, S. R., "An Elementaristic Approach to the Under-standing of Delinquency," Nervous C h i l d . V o l . VI, October 1947. p. 418. -88-f i f t y inmates and are f a r too large to create the i l l u s i o n of ''home1, which i s a fundamental therapeutic element. The Westgate system, which l i m i t s each t i e r to twenty inmates, i s more nearly i d e a l and the chance f o r the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r to get to know his men and to deal i n an " i n d i v i d -ual*' or personal way with them i s much greater than w i l l be possible at Haney. Also, the proposal to have correctional o f f i c e r s , carry one or two cases on a counselling basis would work against t h e i r e s s e n t i a l role as group counsellors who allow themselves to be i n some sense substitute parents. The house units should be small enough so that the o f f i c e r could know and "counsel" a l l i n his group who wish that service from him. Time should be made available f o r t h i s . Referral to a caseworker, doctor, teacher, i n s t r u c t o r , or whoever, should grow out of these counselling sessions, but whatever i s done by these " s p e c i a l i s t s " the r e a l job of "correction" w i l l be done at the " l i n e " l e v e l by the correctional o f f i c e r . M a r i t a l Relations Problems around marriage were common among prisoners of the group studied who are married or who have been married. In at l e a s t two of these cases the inmates would welcome and could p r o f i t by casework help. It i s to be hoped that, while t h i s counselling was going on i n prison, the wife could be going to a community s o c i a l agency f o r similar casework -89-help. One f e e l s , from the group sessions held as part of t h i s study, that a small group of prisoners with problems of th i s nature might p r o f i t by group discussion. Leisure Time The study c l e a r l y shows that most men l i k e those i n t e r -viewed have never used l e i s u r e time constructively. At least three-quarters of the group had never had any constructive i n t e r e s t s . The need to help such people to experience r e a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i n sports, hobbies, arts and other recreational and semieducational a c t i v i t i e s i s very great. The d i v i s i o n of Recreation proposed f o r the Haney prison i s designed to meet t h i s need. So c i a l Relationships. The study reveals that most of these men had poor or s u p e r f i c i a l relationships with others. Problems r e l a t i n g to members of t h e i r own sex and to those of the opposite sex are linked c l o s e l y to problems around unmet needs i n the family. Treatment then should be related to the e a r l i e r discussion under Family Background. Education The study showed that almost three-quarters of the group had very unsatisfactory school experiences. Although some f e l t that further schooling would be desirable, only a very few thought they would seriously consider taking further academic t r a i n i n g . In the l i g h t of t h i s f a c t , i t would seem -90-that, rather than a bare announcement that such and such courses were available, the need i s to create situations (such as documentary films plus s k i l f u l l y designed talks) where embryonic int e r e s t s might be developed. Once the i n -mate shows signs of r e a l interest and some a b i l i t y , he should be encouraged to go back to school. When thi s i s done the courses given should he geared to an adult l e v e l even though 1,2 the grade being taken i s actually quite low. The proposed plan for education i n Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n i s to include the academic as well as the vocational and i t i s hoped that the programme w i l l be f l e x i b l e enough to permit Individual inmates to take correspondence courses i n almost any subject including courses given by the Department of Extension, Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Employment The study showed that the whole area of employment was a great problem to most i n the group. The great need seems to be f o r these men to have an opportunity of finding s a t i s -factions i n work. In order to do t h i s they need to be and f e e l competent i n some trade or vocational l i n e . But the i n i t i a l stimulus i n that d i r e c t i o n can come only by Infection — by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with some craftsman who loves his c r a f t 1 Bates, Sanford, " S o c i a l Problems of the Prisoner," Pro-ceedings, National Conference of S o c i a l Work, 1946, Columbia U. Press, New York, 1947. p. 436. 2 Chenault, P r i c e , "Education," i n Paul W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary Corrections. McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. P« 229. and has an affirmative attitude to his inmate learners* Here again we return to the basic issues discussed under Family  Background. The need f o r vocational t r a i n i n g i s unquestionably one of the mayor needs of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group. Everyone expressed a desire f o r more t r a i n i n g . In this respect the pro-posed plan f o r vocational t r a i n i n g at the Haney prison, assuming i t takes into consideration such factors as those just mentioned, seems to be sound. On the basis of the information now a v a i l -able about t h i s programme i t would appear that most, i f not a l l , of the group of seventeen could be helped, at l e a s t to some degree, at the new j a i l . However, i t should be noted that vocational counselling, vocational t e s t i n g and a period i n the "exploratory" 1 shop would be necessary i n the case of a number of the group who have only a vague idea about what they want or what they can do i n the way of employment i n the future. As one of the most enlightened wardens i n the United States has said, One of the most important steps i n any treatment pro-gram i s to afford a l l men an opportunity to work. Many men i n prison have never learned to work. They have run away from work. In the average prison, work i s the l a s t thing available. I f we only teach men to work i n prison we have accomplished a great deai.« 1 The "exploratory" shop at the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u -t i o n i s explained i n Chapter I I . 2 Scudder, Kenyon J . , "Diagnosis and Treatment of the Adult Offender," Proceedings, National Conference of S o c i a l Work, A p r i l 194-7, Columbia U. Press, New York, 194-8, p. 374-. -91-Rellgion Most of the group appeared to be either confused or n e g a t i v i s t i c about r e l i g i o n . On the basis of information that came through the interviews and the group sessions i t would appear that the kind of r e l i g i o u s programme most l i k e l y to appeal to the majority of t h i s group would be a type of group discussion about r e l i g i o n - preferably not structured i n the way of bible study. There was an expression on the part of some that singing hymns was s a t i s f y i n g . Perhaps a small group i n the prison could be helped by joining a Glee Club or a choir which might sing during church services. Health and Habits The study revealed that a number of the men suffered from complaints that have psychosomatic bases. No doubt casework, with close consultation with the doctor and/or psy-c h i a t r i s t , would be indicated here. As many expressed con-cern about t h e i r drinking habits some attention to t h i s prob-lem should be given. Group discussions (among the inmates themselves, or perhaps under the auspices of Alcoholics Anony-mous or The Alcoholism Foundation of B r i t i s h Columbia), lectures, films and the l i k e would be best calculated to f i l l the expressed need f o r help here. Attitudes The attitude of the majority of the seventeen inmates toward the prison and toward people i n authority was on the -92-whole negative. While there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of such a reaction having been created i n adult l i f e from experiences with bosses, policemen and prison i t s e l f , nevertheless i n the vast majority of cases such reactions relate to early a t t i -tudes towards parents, accentuated by unfortunate experiences with school teachers and other adults. Therefore focusing on the attitude per se i n treatment would, of course, be unproductive. Attitudes w i l l only be changed as p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s are made with adults i n positions of authority who are consistent, f a i r , i n c o r r u p t i b l e , accepting and under-standing. A l l t h i s i s related to the issues discussed e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter under Family Background. Guards The guards at Westgate are only now beginning to take inservice t r a i n i n g and to take more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the counselling of inmates. It says a good deal f o r them as a group that these seventeen inmates rated them as highly as they did (see t h i s section i n Chapter I I I ) . The majority thought most of the guards were interested i n them. The impression these guards gave during the interviews with them was consistent with the inmates• picture of them. I t would appear that these men i n t h e i r desire to be interested, help-f u l people have something positive to o f f e r the inmates. Inmates' C r i t i c i s m of Prison Programme The majority of the inmates were sympathetic and sup-portive of the administration's attempt to set up a r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n programme. Most thought the shop programme was good -93-as f a r as i t went but that i t should be expanded. The intense f e e l i n g on the part of the majority against being forced to take part i n the gymnasium a c t i v i t i e s makes one doubt the value of such a compulsory programme. By v i r t u e of i t s function as a prison the i n s t i t u t i o n i s r e s t r i c t i v e and many aspects of i t s l i f e must be compulsory. However, such things as fun, games, hobbies and recreation generally, which should and can be r e a l s o c i a l i z i n g influences, have value i n large part because they are voluntary a c t i v i t i e s . Whether inmates p a r t i c i p a t e or not i n such a c t i v i t i e s i s often d i a g n o s t i c a l l y important and may indicate progress or regression on the part of i n d i v i d u a l inmates. Offences. The study showed that the majority of the inmates had been convicted f o r stealing - mainly of cars. The offence i n i t s e l f i s not necessarily important but i f a c e r t a i n pattern i n the offender's stealing can be discerned, t h i s information may be d i a g n o s t i c a l l y valuable. One writer i n discussing t h i s subject says: Take, for example, ste a l i n g , which brings more people into prison than any other crime. By i t s e l f i t t e l l s us l i t t l e about the person concerned, and we need to know a great deal more before o f f e r i n g help or advice - such as whether the impulse i s habitual, or only i n c e r t a i n moods or i n c e r t a i n circumstances, whether i t i s a s t r a i g h t f o r -ward desire f o r the object taken, or whether i t represents an act of aggression or a symbolic seeking f o r something other than the actual object, or i s a d i s t r a c t i o n from depression, or various other p o s s i b i l i t i e s . ! 1 T i l l e y , Margaret, "The Trained S o c i a l Worker's Approach to the Individual Prisoner," Howard Journal, V o l . IX, 1954, p. 43. -94-If offences committed by the inmate are to be inter-preted diagnostically, they should be viewed as any form of anti-social behaviour is viewed, "that i s , as partially neurotic and partially non-neurotic and consciously motivated", and an attempt should be made to see "to what degree and in what detailed aspects is this particular case of stealing neu-rotic," and further, to what degree i t "is patternized and repetitive and changeless from one incident to the next.""*' A number of the group of seventeen, for example, showed a pattern of repeated car thefts. As automobiles, like guns, are egoic power or sexual potency symbols (as well as status symbols for status-starved individuals) i t is conceivable that the crime of car theft might "represent a symbolic gratifica-2 tion of a forbidden sexual act." It has been suggested that the using of a gun in a hold-up "may contain strong elements of a suppressed homosexuality, or sexual impotency."^ It may be that the theft of an automobile relates to similar elements in the personality of the offender. Inmates' verbalization of own problems The need for a treatment-oriented programme is clearly shown in the inmates' verbalization of their own problems. One 1 Gardner, George £ . , "The Primary and Secondary Gains in Stealing," Nervous Child, Vol. VI, October 1947. p. 440. 2 Wallerstein, James S. "Roots of Delinquency," Nervous  Child, vol . VI, October 1947, p. 404. 3 Ibid -95-thing came out sharply: these inmates are concerned about t h e i r behaviour. They are afraid of t h e i r aggressive and a n t i - s o c i a l drives, f e a r f u l that they w i l l go on into further crime, f e e l trapped, worthless, confused and g u i l t y . And almost a l l e x p l i c i t l y want help. C l e a r l y , on the evidence adduced from t h i s study, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and counselling section planned f o r the new Haney prison i s of paramount im-portance i f the whole concept of treatment i s to be anything more than a f u t i l e formality. Group Sessions with Inmates As mentioned under th i s subheading i n Chapter I I I , group sessions with the inmates indicated a need i n them to have the opportunity of talking about a v a r i e t y of subjects i n an atmosphere conducive to good discussion. Once the necessary atmosphere of freedom and frankness has been estab-l i s h e d , the inmate not only begins to reveal himself i n a new way - d i f f e r e n t from what would emerge with the i n d i v i d u a l counseller - but also makes contact with fellow-inmates at that l e v e l which can constitute r e a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . In other words, the necessary relationships with his fellow-creatures i n general can grow out of t h i s beginning. Group work, group discussion, and group therapy a l l have a place i n meeting fun-damental needs i n t h i s group - and presumably any such group-of inmates. -96-Case H i s t o r i e s Four case h i s t o r i e s with suggested programmes f o r each of the men have been used i n Chapter I I I to i l l u s t r a t e the four types of inmate that appeared to emerge from the group studied. Naturally there are great varia t i o n s within each of the four groups and diagnosis and treatment w i l l be d i f f e r e n t from person to person. However, i n regard to counselling needs these four groups show four d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t yet separately i d e n t i f i a b l e approaches. Case "A" i s t y p i c a l of three of the seventeen i n that they are aware of t h e i r problems, have done some thinking about them and have some in s i g h t , have expressed a desire to understand themselves better, appear to want help, and seem to have the kinds of strengths that w i l l make casework help successful. These three men should move into casework treat-ment immediately and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r counselling should c l e a r l y rest with the professional caseworkers. Case "C" i s t y p i c a l of two of the seventeen. He i s r e a l l y a psychiatric case and i s close to being psychotic. Casework i n his case should not be attempted, f o r i f defences crumbled th i s would undoubtedly produce a psychotic episode. Day-to-day counselling about programme, i n s t i t u t i o n a l rules and regulations, d i s c i p l i n a r y factors etc., should be handled by the corre c t i o n a l o f f i c e r that has closest contact with them. Counselling around r e a l problems would not be attempted. -97-Case "G" i s t y p i c a l of three of the seventeen. They need someone to take an inte r e s t i n them and counsel them about problems that arise i n the prison. However, they are not very much aware of problems within themselves and are not l i k e l y to prove amenable to intensive counselling. The c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r having closest contact with each of them should do the counselling i n these cases. Here he might deal with problems related to employment after release, marital problems that the inmate f e e l s he w i l l face, and other problems f o r which he w i l l need support i f he i s eventually to tackle them on his own. No attempt would be made, i n counselling these three, to bring about fundamental changes i n the habit patterns of the past. Case "L" i s t y p i c a l of nine, over h a l f , of the group of seventeen. This w i l l be the r e a l "hard core" of Haney i n the future and much thought and experimentation w i l l have to take place before a r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e method of helping them can be worked out. By and large the key to t h i s problem l i e s i n the close cooperation of the casework s t a f f and the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r s . Such men as L. need intensive help and must get i t i f they are to change t h e i r pattern of behaviour. However, one cannot force casework on a c l i e n t ; unless he wants to enter into a casework re l a t i o n s h i p and seek f o r understanding and change, the chances of r e a l l y helping him are n i l . So i t be-comes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the correctional o f f i c e r to get to know these men, show intere s t i n them at every opportunity, and win t h e i r confidence. When i n counselling sessions with the -98-inmates, the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r f e e l s the man i s ready f o r more intensive counselling, he helps the man to see the value to himself of requesting casework help. For a time after r e f e r r a l , both c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r and caseworker should work very c l o s e l y together and gradually, as the relationship trans-fers to the caseworker, the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r should withdraw without re j e c t i n g the inmate. Counselling The i l l u s t r a t i v e case-histories above show the need f o r counselling f o r a l l inmates, though t h i s counselling must d i f f e r inoform and i n degree of i n t e n s i t y i n each case. It i s clear that i n three out of the seventeen cases professional casework would be needed at the outset; that i n nine cases a professional caseworker might be needed during some phase of treatment, depending i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y on the s k i l l of the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r i n helping the inmate accept casework treatment; and that i n the other f i v e cases no casework would be attempted. From t h i s we see strong evidence that counselling by the l a y s t a f f i n prison i s not only important but necessary. Before proceeding to discuss the d i v i s i o n of labour i n counselling between the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r and the caseworker, some c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s required about the meaning of "counselling" and some of the things that i t i s hoped i t w i l l accomplish. In t h i s context we can say that counselling i s a process whereby the inmate i s enabled to accept the prison community and -99-make use of i t s resources so that he i s helped toward a res o l u t i o n of the problems that are getting i n the way of his functioning as a free member of society. The basic t o o l of the counsellor i s the relat i o n s h i p that exists between him and the inmate. Unless t h i s develops, i t i s pointless to keep interviewing the prisoner. The man must f e e l that the counsellor i s interested in him, does not look upon him as "criminal", but sees affirmative q u a l i t i e s i n him and respects him f o r the thing both have i n common — t h e i r e s s e n t i a l humanness. As the inmate feels t h i s warmth and respect, a process of " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " takes place whereby the inmate gradually incorporates within himself the standards and attitudes of the counsellor. This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n might come f i r s t of a l l i n the form of the inmate doing things to please the counsellor because he wants the counsellor's respect and concern to continue. Here again we reach the con-cept elaborated under Family Background about the prison s t a f f ' s role as parent substitutes. Counselling sessions, or interviews, can be f o r a var i e t y of purposes — from very routine matters to very inten-sive therapeutic ends. A l l contain the same basic ingred-ients — respect and concern for the inmate and a recognition of and emphasis, not of h i s weaknesses but of his strengths. Now l e t us look i n some d e t a i l at the casework i n t e r -view — which i n the prison would be the most intensive form -100-of counselling available. As already suggested, there are common factors i n a l l interviews between the caseworker (or counsellor) and the inmate, which form the basis and set the d i r e c t i o n of the interview. The worker must attempt to discover the circumstances i n the background and experience of the inmate that have brought about the problem which now faces him. He must attempt to discover c e r t a i n character-i s t i c personality trends and at the outset make a tentative diagnosis, on the basis of which he formulates a tentative treatment plan. The caseworker should know the probable attitude of the newly admitted prisoner and be sensitive to the p a r t i c u l a r form of that attitude i n the man before him. The sine qua non, however, i s that a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y of caseworker-inmate rela t i o n s h i p be established quickly and thoroughly. Unless the kind of rapport which w i l l lead into the deeper and more valuable casework rela t i o n s h i p emerges, l i t t l e i s achieved, l i t t l e r e a l help can be given, and the interviews w i l l proceed on a s u p e r f i c i a l rather than on a creative l e v e l . When the caseworker f i r s t meets and interviews the inmate these fundamental questions of attitude must be f u l l y resolved. The f i r s t interview the caseworker has with the prisoner i s often extremely important. 1 The newcomer has 1 Peck, Harris B, and Bellsmith, V i r g i n i a , Treatment of  the Delinquent Adolescent, Family Service Association of America, New York, 1954, pp. 2 9 - 3 5 . -101-a l l sorts of feelings about the prison. He feels alone, afraid, hostile, bitter, cynical, tired, beaten - a l l of these or any combination of them. This early period i n the prison can and should be, i n the l i t e r a l sense of the word, crucial — the whole of-his past i s being reviewed and a re-orientation towards the future may begin — but only under certain condi-tions. What, then, are these conditions? The primary condition is that special form of relation-ship to which we have already referred. But i n order to build on this relationship the worker must know clearly what i s i n the heart and mind of the prisoner before him. What, then, is the mental and emotional condition of the offender as he comes into the prison? The types of reactions of the inmate to the situation he suddenly finds himself faced with are based mainly i n the kinds of relations he has had with his parents i n general, his father i n particular and, through this, with society as a whole. As was noted before, i t i s f a i r l y well established that many of the destructive impulses toward society by the delinquent are an extension of ho s t i l i t y toward parents relating back to early years i n l i f e . The violent reaction to authority exhibited i n so many offenders is most probably rooted i n the h o s t i l i t y toward a father person who represents the powerful, the restricting, the auth-oritative. Through a l l these differences of type, however, the caseworker i n the prison learns to expect certain attitudes and patterns of behaviour i n any inmate during his f i r s t days - 1 0 2 -i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . He i s f u l l of anxiety about his committal and the anxiety-state reactivates old c o n f l i c t s . He i s often defiant and hos t i l e - his whole personality i s often organized to defy the authority the prison represents. He takes pains to hide his r e a l nature. To most prisoners the prison i s just another form of punishment - i t i s an enemy and he organizes himself to f i g h t i t . He has been i n c o n f l i c t with society and the prison represents t h i s society i n i t s v i c t o r i o u s and punitive mode. A l l the ordinary problems of the inmate are heightened by the sentence. Some are so threatened by the experience that, as mentioned e a r l i e r , they regress to e a r l i e r patterns of behaviour. Some are overcome with feelings of g u i l t and ask for punishment i n order that t h e i r g u i l t be assuaged. Often they f e e l they are complete f a i l u r e s . This sweeping condemna-t i o n of the entire s e l f i s common i n adolescence (and many i n -mates of the type studied here are fixated at the adolescent stage of development or regress to i t aft e r committal); f o r them there i s no middle ground, everything i s pictured i n extremes. They want to start a l l over again, want to be com-pl e t e l y dependent again. Many are completely unresponsive and stubborn, w i l l not t a l k , no matter what i s said or done. Almost a l l of them t e l l l i e s . Some l i e s are obvious and p i t i a b l e and others are smooth and d i f f i c u l t to discern. As August - 1 0 3 -Aichhorn says: There i s nothing remarkable i n the behaviour of the d i s s o c i a l ; i t d i f f e r s only q u a n t i t a t i v e l y from normal behaviour. We a l l hide our r e a l selves and use a great deal of psychic energy to mislead our neighbours. We masquerade more or l e s s , according to necessity.^ The task of the caseworker requires an understanding of the d i s t i n c t i o n between two components of personality — the ego and the superego. Although the inmate's offence implies i n a l l but the exceptional case the existence of a superego defect, i t i s nevertheless true that a s a t i s f a c t o r y superego can exist only as a superstructure on the foundation of a h e a l t h i l y confident ego. The p r i o r need, therefore, i s to give the prisoner's ego the support and reinforcement which can be accepted by him only through the rapport of the casework re l a t i o n s h i p . However, the worker must keep i n his mind a l l the while the whole superego idea — getting the inmate con-sciously related to the demands of society. The beginnings of t h i s can be accomplished by the worker aligning himself with the honest, cooperative part of the inmate, by avoiding humiliating him by reference to his criminal behaviour (though not condoning his a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour). He must be jus t , unmoralistic, consistent, refusing to be corrupted at any point, f o r instance by becoming a party to deception. However, I f the emphasis were upon the superego defect during the f i r s t 1 Aichhorn, August. Wayward Youth? Viking Press, New York, 1925. p. 125. - 1 0 4 -part of work with the inmate, the more basic ego-reinforcement would probably be neglected and the inmate might possibly become, as a result of t h i s imbalance, a rather s p i r i t l e s s and beaten person. The caseworker needs to be aware of the dynamics of the s i t u a t i o n wherein the inmate, i n essence though unconsciously, i n v i t e s punishment. The prisoner believes that his behaviour i s such that punishment i s due and he may i n some degree be aware of his g u i l t f e e l i n g s . His desire for punishment, then, i s seen to be rooted i n the more basic desire for r e l i e f from the anxiety over g u i l t f e e l i n g s . I f the caseworker, i n his sympathy, meets only the ego-need f o r acceptance and re l i e v e s the inmate, helping him to r a t i o n a l i z e his behaviour, but ignoring a superego problem, the deepseated g u i l t f e e l i n g re-mains and the chance to deal with the problem i n terms of superego development i s l o s t . Also, i f the caseworker gives i n to the inmate's desire f o r punishment and condemns and scolds, the inmate then f e e l s he has paid the price and his g u i l t i s r e l i e v e d . This ends the amenability of the inmate to further guidance, while leaving the basic problem unsolved. On the other hand, i f quick, warm reassurance i s given without s a c r i -f i c i n g realism, the chances are that the inmate w i l l begin to t a l k about his f a u l t s , w i l l himself verbalize his problems and w i l l , i n bursts of emotion, admit his t e r r i b l e confusion. This brings us n a t u r a l l y to what i s i n some ways the most important concept of a l l - acceptance of the inmate. This - 1 0 5 -i s i m p l i c i t i n the casework re l a t i o n s h i p , which i s impossible without the t o t a l l y unmoralistic attitude of the caseworker who considers the crime of the offender as quite secondary to his e s s e n t i a l humanness. No matter what the inmate f e e l s he needs to bring out i n the interview i t should have the f u l l acceptance of the caseworker and he should sense.the case-worker's support strongly at any c r u c i a l point without f e e l i n g that the caseworker i s condoning his s o c i a l offences. In t h i s way the inmate i s able to face himself with, and bring out into the open, the traumatic experiences that have upset him. To a very large degree the extent of the caseworker's acceptance determines the effectiveness of the therapy i m p l i c i t i n the interviews themselves. Someone has said that the case-worker must be what the l i t t l e boy said of his f r i e n d : "My f r i e n d i s the boy who knows a l l my f a u l t s and l i k e s me just the same." A l l too many offenders leave the penal i n s t i t u t i o n fundamentally unchanged. I f an offender has changed i t w i l l be because a pathway into his s e n s i b i l i t i e s has been created by at l e a s t one person who has been able to help him with new r e a l i z a t i o n s about himself and understandings about how he can achieve s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n a s o c i a l l y acceptable manner. Although i n these past few pages we have been discussing the caseworker-inmate re l a t i o n s h i p i t should be remembered, as stated e a r l i e r , that counselling whether on a f r i e n d l y , support-ive, somewhat s u p e r f i c i a l , basis only or on a very intensive - 1 0 6 -basis, contains the common factors of respect, acceptance, con-cern and a willingness to understand and be h e l p f u l at the l e v e l and to the degree that the inmate i s ready and able to use help. In a sense every member of the prison s t a f f who i s i n contact with the prison population must "counsel" inmates to some degree. It may be i n explaining a job of work; i n discussing a prison regulation about which the prisoner i s not clear; or i n responding to an inmate's request f o r a special diet or f o r a change of work or shop or other a c t i v i t y . Whom-ever the inmate talks to - teacher, vocational i n s t r u c t o r , doctor, psychologist, caseworker, custodial o f f i c e r , warden or deputy - he by that act creates a counselling s i t u a t i o n . It follows that the s t a f f person who i s i n most regular contact with the inmates w i l l be the one who has the greatest number of opportunities f o r counselling. This person, as mentioned before i n Chapter I and e a r l i e r i n this chapter, i s the custodial or corr e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r . Again l e t i± be said that t h i s prison o f f i c e r plays the key role i n the prison programme. I t i s the wise administrator who recognizes t h i s and gives t r a i n i n g , supervision and r e a l recognition to t h i s person so that he may play his role to the f u l l e s t . In the l i g h t of the findings regarding the inmate's need f o r counselling - namely, that three needed caseworkers immed-i a t e l y , nine at some stage l a t e r i n the treatment (and i n the -107-meantime needed the guidance and counsel of the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r ) and that the other f i v e , not being amenable to case-work help, needed the f r i e n d l y supportive counselling of the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r — the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r ' s role takes on added si g n i f i c a n c e . In e f f e c t t h i s means that the correc-t i o n a l o f f i c e r would be counselling the last-mentioned f i v e plus a portion of the middle nine. Let us say f o r purposes of discussion that the counsellor had brought f i v e of the nine to the point where they accepted r e f e r r a l to the caseworker. That would leave four of these plus the other f i v e (or nine of the seventeen), i n whose case he would have to be responsible for counselling. This would be a reasonable load i f his t o t a l group were only seventeen inmates. However, the Haney Cor-r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n has house units of not seventeen but f i f t y — almost three times as many. This would increase the o f f i c e r ' s load to twenty-seven; too large a number for him to handle taking into consideration his many other duties as a custodial o f f i c e r . The i d e a l would be to have the house units broken into the smallest possible groups so that the o f f i c e r would have enough time to do the necessary counselling and recording. I f we hold to these figures — nine out of seventeen f o r the correctional o f f i c e r - we see that the counselling job i s roughly divided i n h a l f ; one h a l f under casework and one half under counselling by the o f f i c e r . This means that about 200 inmates, half the future population of Haney, would need -108 -casework at any one time. The currently proposed plan to have fi v e caseworkers at Haney would provide f o r each a f a i r l y reason-able load of about f o r t y inmates. However, one of the ways to assure concern and acceptance of inmates by the co r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r s i s to give them understanding, and one of the ways to assure that they are using counselling e f f e c t i v e l y i s to help them improve t h e i r s k i l l s . I t i s proposed by the Haney Correc-t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n planning s t a f f that the caseworkers w i l l give the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r s supervision i n the area of counselling. C e r t a i n l y supervision i s inescapably necessary. However, supervising about twenty o f f i c e r s plus carrying a caseload of f o r t y i s l i k e l y to seriously overload the caseworker and render his contribution that much less e f f e c t i v e . At t h i s point i t i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t to sort out the d e t a i l s about t h i s d i v i s i o n of labour and perhaps the resolution w i l l only come through working i t out empirically on the job. One thing i s cl e a r , though} i f we accept the findingr that the custodial o f f i c e r i s a key person then we must give central recognition to his special place i n the prison. This means f i r s t of a l l that i n the choice of personnel to f i l l these jobs (129 of them i n the Haney prison) attention must be given to the attitudes of the applicants and assessment must be made as to whether or not he w i l l be amenable to the kind of t r a i n i n g and supervision that w i l l f i t him f o r t h i s , the most important part of his job. In a very r e a l way the s e l e c t i o n of custodial o f f i c e r s i s more important than the s e l e c t i o n of treatment people. -109-The l a t t e r , by virt u e of t h e i r t r a i n i n g , have something on which to b u i l d and can i n most cases be counted on to have the properly positive attitudes toward inmates, and to le a r n the necessary respect f o r the function of custody. The job of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g the offender w i l l be suc-cessf u l only i f a l l s t a f f — treatment, custodial, adminis-t r a t i v e — believe i n and practice the same basic philosophy, though perhaps i n d i f f e r e n t forms. As long as there are vestiges of the punitive approach within the prison the inmate w i l l sense them and emphasize them i n his mind perhaps to the negation of any more positive f a c t o r s . Part of the punitive approach has been not only to mark the offender as d i f f e r e n t from others but to treat him as a person without normal human-ness. However, those who have absorbed the t r a d i t i o n a l Judeo-C h r i s t i a n e t h i c a l insights and have found them reinforced by the psychological understandings of t h i s century, see every single i n d i v i d u a l as a human being f i r s t and his offending behaviour as secondary and i n c i d e n t a l . Treatment has no e f f i c -acy - no power whatever- unless founded on t h i s acceptance of the prisoner, not as a criminal, but as a fellow human being. In such matters of p r i n c i p l e , there can be no compromise between the old and the new. The new i s s t i l l a f r a g i l e thing, though i t s pote n t i a l i n terms of regeneration i s i n c a l c u l a b l y great. It i s s t i l l vulnerable to the dehumanized and dehuman-i z i n g influences of the old - the punitive attitudes so long -110-established and s t i l l sustained by deep unconscious forces i n our culture. This study, however, of the seventeen inmates, makes i t abundantly clear that t h e i r welfare can never be served by the m o r a l i s t i c , punitive attitudes of the past. A turning point of h i s t o r i c a l significance for B r i t i s h Columbia and indeed f o r Canada w i l l have taken place when a correctional i n s t i t u t i o n i s established uncompromisingly on a treatment-focused programme — not as a matter of l i p service but i n f u l l awareness of a l l the.subtle, d i f f i c u l t and complex implications. The opening of the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u -t i o n may wel l be1 such a turning point. I l l APPENDIX A TYPES OF CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS. ( 1 ) The Maximum Security Prison Such a prison would be completely walled, would have inside c e l l s made of t o o l - r e s i s t a n t s t e e l and would employ a l l the modern security devices such as e l e c t r i c eyes, metal detectors and automatic alarm systems. The prisoners would be under constant supervision, would work, have recreation and other a c t i v i t i e s i n a confined area. Such a prison would accept as inmates only the most i n c o r r i g -i b l e escape r i s k s and sp e c i a l kinds of prisoners whose custody needs are very great. Only i n a very large prison system would one f i n d such a prison and even i n a federal system the inmate population f o r t h i s kind of i n s t i t u t i o n would be small. A province with a r e l a t i v e l y small popula-t i o n l i k e B r i t i s h Columbia would scarcely need a separate prison of t h i s sort and of course does not have one. Canadian provinces, f o r the most part, contain within a l e s s than maximum security prison a small block or wing f o r those prisoners with exceptional custody needs. The United States Federal prison, Alcatraz, situated on a rock i n San Francisco Bay, might be considered the ultimate i n maximum security prisons. -112-(2) The Close Security Prison This type of prison would be walled or have a high security fence surrounding i t . It would have many of the security features of the maximum security prison but these would not be emphasized to the same degree. The prisoners would work only within the prison and there would be constant supervision during work, recreation and other a c t i v i t i e s . It would contain the most d i f f i c u l t type of prisoner and would vary only i n degree from the first-mentioned type of prison. Again, i t i s doubtful i f provinces or states with f a i r l y small populations would fi n d a need f o r a separate close security prison and one would f i n d blocks or wings within medium security prisons given over to t h i s kind of security. The B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary and most other Federal prisons i n Canada are of th i s type. (3) The Medium Security Prison This type of prison would usually have a high security fence surrounding i t and s t r i c t security measures on the periphery. Within these l i m i t s the security would be le s s r i g i d . Inmates would work and play within the confines of the prison without constant supervision and might work outside the prison under close supervision. The building would be of 1 cheaper construction, the c e l l s would usually be "outside" 1 "outside" c e l l s are c e l l s that are on the outside wall of a prison with the corridor down the middle. "Inside" c e l l s are blocked down the middle with corridors along the outside walls. - 1 1 3 -and some provision might be made f o r small dormitories f o r s p e c i a l groups of inmates. By f a r the majority of prisoners i n any prison system on t h i s continent could be housed i n i n s t i t u t i o n s such as t h i s . The prison t h i s thesis concerns i t s e l f about, the Haney Correctional I n s t i -t u t i o n , i s of t h i s type. ( 4 ) The Minimum Security (or Open Type) Such a prison would have no wall or fence around i t and the inmates would not be under lock and key. Buildings would be of f a i r l y cheap construction and might be of the cottage type or some type which allowed f o r some group l i v i n g . Work and recreation would go on without constant supervision both inside and outside the i n s t i t u t i o n . In some cases inmates would be allowed to take part i n a c t i v i t i e s i n the surrounding community and might begin employment while s t i l l l i v i n g i n the prison. Examples of t h i s type of prison would be New Haven (Borstal), the Boys' In d u s t r i a l School, 12"} and the f o r e s t r y camps. 1 Barnes, Robert D., "Modern Prison Planning," i n Paul W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary Corrections, McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951, P P . 2 6 9 ^ 2 7 6 " 2 L i t c h f i e l d , Clarence B.,"Developments i n the Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n Plan," i n Paul Tappan, ed. op., c i t . p p . 2 7 7 - 2 9 6 . 3 A Manual of Correctional Standards, A.C.A. New York, 1 9 5 4 , P . 1 9 9 . 114 APPENDIX B CROSS SECTIONAL REPORT OF THE OAKALLA PRISON FARM AND POPULATION AS OF JULY 26 , 1 9 5 6 * (Total count = 958) Number waiting t r i a l , appeal, conviction, transfer to Penitentiary etc. 143 Therefore t o t a l number serving t h e i r terms i n Oakalla Prison Farm 815 (This includes drug addicts, and the indeterminate sentence group) Number l i s t e d as drug addicts 107 The i n d e f i n i t e sentence group 142 (Approximately 78 i n Y.O.U., 60 i n Westgate, and 4 i n the East Wing.) Number serving i n O.P.F. exclusive of the drug addict and indeterminate sentence group 566 Number exclusive of drug addict, indeterminate sentence and under one month sentence groups, equalled 473 (extracted from the 566) OF THIS 473 (Exclusive of it it 1  it A. drug addicts B. indeterminate sentence C. one month and under sentence, Inclusive of A. " " B. " " C. a l l ages a l l degrees recidivism a l l types of offences committable to Oakalla.) Previous committal to Oakalla Prison Farm No previous committal One previous committal 2 previous committals 3 -5 previous committals 6 or more previous 184 93 48 P 63 - 1 1 5 -A rough d i v i s i o n of the occupations given f o r t h i s group of 473 indicates a preponderance to uns k i l l e d laborers, 362 - 113 or approximately 3 to 1. A very small number l i s t e d as not able to speak English 4 A small number stated not able to e i t h e r read or write 36 The majority claimed grade 8 or higher education 313-160 or approximately 2 to 1 . Breakdown of Ages 6 l or more 14 46-60 54 35-45 108 23-34 196 22 and under 101 Place of Residence Lower mainland and Vancouver Island (Northern boundary up to but not including Ocean F a l l s , West to P a c i f i c Ocean, East to and including Hope, East and North to and including Squamish) equals 280 elsewhere i n Province 152 i . e . 432 B. C. Residents out of Province 16 no f i x e d address 25 Liquor Recorded as abstaining 35 Temperate 275 Intemperate 163 Sentences 9 months or more 253 6-8 89 3-5 90 32 days to 2 months 41 1 month or l e s s 93 Committed on sexual offense 19 -116-18 to 45 years with no previous  Oakalla Prison Farm Record Sentences 4 months or more 132 4 to 12 months in c l u s i v e 102 13 months or more 30 Mean age . 27 Median age 2o Modal age 20-26 46 years to 60 y e a r s of age with a  sentence of 6 months or more Previous committal to Oakalla Prison Farm No previous 12 1 previous 4 2 previous 2 3-5 previous 1 6 or more previous 8 Mean age 50.5 Median age 50 Modal age 47 Sentences 6-8 months 9 9 or more months 18 18 to 45 years of age with a sentence  of 6 months or more Previous committal No previous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 122 62 62 23 27 10 3 3 -117-12 2 13 2 15 1 20 1 30 1 300 18 to 21 years of age. 6 months or more and with 3 or more previous committals more and with 22 to 25 years of age. 6 months or 3 or more previous committals more and with 26 to 29 years of age. 6 months or 3 or more previous committals 11 30 to 45 years of age, 6 months or more and with  3 or more previous committals Total 22 to 45 years of age, 6 months or more and with  3 or more previous offenses P a r t i a l Analysis of the Inmates i n the 22 to 45  age group Offences involving aggressive action to a person Breaking, entering, stealing Forgery and False Pretences Theft Possession Indecent exposure Contributing to Juvenile Delinquency Vagrancy Tot a l R. V. M c A l l i s t e r , Gaol Psychologist, RVMcsrf P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service. * This study was done by the psychologist of the P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service, Mr. Robert V. M c A l l i s t e r , at the request of the Inspector of Gaols. I t s purpose was to attempt to sort out the population of the Oakalla Prison Farm i n order to determine what numbers of inmates i n prison at that time might be considered as suitable candidates f o r the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t e . 42 7 7 9 14 10 11 1 1 1 2 49 -118-BIBLIOGRAPHY Aichhorn, August, Wayward Youth. Viking Press, New York, 1925. Barnes, Robert D. , "Modern Prison Planning," in Paul W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary Corrections. McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. Barnes, Harry E . , and Teeters, Negley K . , New Horizons in nT»-iminriiop;YT Prentice-Hall, New York, 1951. Bates, Sanford, "Social Problems of the Prisoner," Proceedings. National Conference of Social Work, May 19-46, Columbia University Press, 1947. 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Flanagan, John C , and Burnes, Robert K . , "The Employee Perform-ance Record: A New Appraisal and Development Tool," Harvard Business Reviewf vol . XXXIII, September-October 1955. - 1 1 9 -Gardner, George E., "The Primary and Secondary Gains i n Stealing," Nervous C h i l d . V o l . VI, October 1947. Klare, Hugh J. , "The Trained S o c i a l Worker and the Prison Communities," Howard Journal. V o l . IX, 1954. Kuether, Frederick C , "Religion and the Chaplain," i n Paul W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary Corrections. McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. L i t c h f i e l d , Clarence B., "Developments i n the Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n Plan," i n Paul W. Tappan, ed., Contemporary Corrections. McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1951. Lowrey, Lawson G., Psychiatry f o r S o c i a l Workers. Columbia University Press, New York, 1946. Manual of Correctional Standards, A. American Correctional Association, New York, 1954. 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