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Administration in a neighbourhood house : a group work study of the role of the House Council Arnold, Shirley June 1954

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ADMINISTRATION IN A NEIGHBOURHOOD HOUSE A Group Work Study o f the Role o f the House Council,  by SHIRLEY JUNE ARNOLD  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t .of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard, required f o r the degree o f Master JQS S o a i a l Work  School o f S o c i a l Work 19  5 4  The U n i v e r s i t y , of-'-British Columiba  iJili ABSTRACT In,recent  year.s there has .been increasing interest i n the  analysis,and c l a r i f i c a t i o n . o f s o c i a l agency administration.  In  the group work s e t t i n g the philosophies of democracy and s o c i a l group work are intimately related.  The Neighbourhood House i s  a "society i n miniature", wherein a l l the pressures and i n t e r actions of human relationships are active and can be observed. The effectiveness of t h i s community experience i s a measure, of the compatibility of democratic aims and i t s p r a c t i c a l implementa' tion.  Modern administrators believe that those who p a r t i c i p a t e  In an agency program should have a part i n the process of policy-making.,  This i s the core of democratic s o c i a l agency  administration. The representative membership council i n the leisure-time agency i s a medium.for self-government and a v i t a l instrument i n the development of a responsible constituency.  Important  to the democratic administrative process i s the r o l e played by the professional group worker. In an attempt to learn something about the dynamic, quality of agency administration and relationships, t h i s study Is focused on the House Council, as the administrative group d i r e c t l y related to the membership.  The analysis of the  effectiveness of the Council i s made i n terms of selected concepts and p r i n c i p l e s of democratic s o c i a l agency admini.stra?tlon..  The material used i s based on records of House Council  meetings gathered by the writer during a student placement at Gordon House i n  1952-53.  iv It i s hoped that the findings of the study w i l l help to point up the need for increased attention .to the dynamics of administrative groups and s p e c i f i c a l l y to the r o l e of the House Council and the s o c i a l group worker i n the o v e r a l l process.  V  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS - The writer wishes to express sincere appreciation to those who have assisted i n the preparation of t h i s study; to the Board of Directors and s t a f f of Gordon Neighbourhood House and p a r t i c u l a r l y to Mrs. Kae McKenzie, past Executive Director of. Gordon House; also to Miss E l i z a b e t h Thomas and Dr. Leonard Marsh of. the School of S o c i a l Work of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e i r encouragement and guidance i n the formulation of t h i s t h e s i s .  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter I .  Concepts of Democratic Administration Concepts of Democratic Social Agency Administration. The Purpose and Function of Gordon House. Objectives of the Study.  Page 1  Chapter I I .  The Hole of the House Council The Program and Purposes of the Council. The Relationship to Administration and Membership. Analysis of Council Records.  Page 23  Chapter I I I .  The Role of the Group Worker Factors influencing the role of the worker. The worker's responsibility to the Council, to individual members, to the groups represented, and to the total agency.  Page 58  Chapter IV.  Implications of the Study Findings and Recommendations. Values of Membership Participation and the need for objectives relative to the situation.  Page 82  Charts i n the Text: Figure I .  Gordon House: General Administrative Structure  Page 15  Figure I I .  Gordon House: Circular Administrative Structure ........  Page 29  Figure I I I . Evaluation of Group Productivity Bibliography  Page 56 Page 100  vi  ADMINISTRATION IN A NEIGHBOURHOOD HOUSE A Group Work Study of the Role of the House Council  CHAPTER 1 Concepts of Democratic Administration Since the advent, of professional .social work,, the administration, of s o c i a l agencies, has. been the subject of much discussion.  Early studies of. administration concerned  themselves with the techniques and organizational aspects of administration.  During t h i s period there was a tendency  to think of administration as synonymous with management or control.  Since 600 years before the b i r t h of Christ  p o l i t i c a l philosophers have been theorizing about the democratic i d e a l i n one form or another.  In the years  that followed p r a c t i c a l philosophers have attempted to prove that the welfare of society Is In fact enhanced by the implementation of the Ideal.-  I t has f a l l e n to the  s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t to show just how  democracy can be made to  work.  Mary Parker F o l l e t t ' s studies of business and  management, and others, along with the modern s o c i a l work concepts of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , have placed the emphasis on the dynamic q u a l i t i e s of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the "process"  of democratic administration.  Louis Blumenthal describes t h i s quality of s o c i a l agency administration i n the following statement: "Democratic administration i s a cooperative process that uses the human resources of a l l the workers and that enables them to share i n the common r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e n t e r p r i s e . " 1  1. Blumenthal, Louis, Administration of Group Work. Association Press, New York, 1948, p. 80. '  -2Helen Beaver defines administration, simply but very well, as "the. process.or means by which the aims, of an .organi zation are determined, plans are made, for achieving those alms and the plans, carried out."  2  The significance of these d e f i n i -  tions can be more f u l l y realized, when recognition i s given to the fact that i n these statements the focus, i s on the individuals who p a r t i c i p a t e i n .administration; the groups of people who. determine and.execute the aims .and. objectives of the agency rather, than a perfection of the techniques of organi z at ion. and. control... Mary Parker F o l l e t t ? w r i t i n g in. the...early part of t h i s century about the administration, of industry and. government, i n what has since become a class exposition, was one of the f i r s t to emphasize that the problems of administration were b a s i c a l l y problems of human relations.. In the same 4  vein, A.H. Leighton i n h i s revealing study conducted at a Japanese r e l o c a t i o n centre during the Second World War., pointed out that the central problem of democracy, was the task of obtaining and coordinating the i n d i v i d u a l ' s part i c i p a t i o n i n matters a f f e c t i n g h i s own destiny.  Leighton.  said that "people must save themselves; they cannot be saved from the outside".  These writers have contributed much to  the understanding of s o c i a l agency administration. 2. Beaver, Helen, Administration i n the Y.W.C.A.: P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures, Woman's Press, New York, 1944, p. 6 3. Metcalf and Urwick, Dynamic Admlnistratlon-The Collected Papers of Mary Parker F o l l e t , Harper Bros., New York, 1942. . .4. Leighton, A.H. The Governing of Men, Princeton University Press, 1946.  -3-  Harleigh Tracker's d e f i n i t i o n i s a conclusive statement of the concept of the democratic process of administration which., has. evolved.. "Administration i s a.creative process of thinking, planning and action i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up with the whole agency. I t i s seen, as a process of working with people.to set goals, to b u i l d organizational r e l a t i o n s h i p s , to d i s t r i b u t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , to conduct programs and to evaluate accomplishments. The r e a l focus of administration i s relationships with and between, people."5 This d e f i n i t i o n i s based, on studies i n which .Trecker was able to i s o l a t e and. .analyse something of the dynamic, q u a l i t y of human relationships, which.are stimulated i n a t r u l y democratic group situation.  The. quality of these r e l a t i o n s  and Inter-relationships.must be considered In the development of democratic administration i n the s o c i a l agency. There Is s t i l l evidence of the t r a n s i t i o n i n s o c i a l work thinking from the "care of the weak by the strong" to a form more consistent with what are generally held as democratic ideals.  This c u l t u r a l l a g i s obvious i n the  discrepancies between structure and the avowed purposes of many agencies.  The pattern of philanthropic management  with i t s h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l s and with l i t t l e contact between administration and the membership s t i l l p e r s i s t s i n many, settings.  This system of control negates the i n t e g r i t y of  the i n d i v i d u a l member and prevents him from sharing f u l l y the opportunities and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the organization: i t denies the fundamental precepts of democracy..  5. Trecker, Harleigh, Group Process i n Administration, Woman's Press, New York, 1950, p. 2.  •Membership i n .recreational..-agencies :has. not been c l e a r l y defined.  Generally the members, are those, who. p a r t i c i p a t e i n  the services of the. agency, that i s , the various groups and Individuals.who are a c t i v e l y engaged in, some aspect of the agency program. constituents.  The. members are often referred to as the The membership of the agency can.be distinguished  from the s t a f f , both professional and. volunteer, the board with its. numerous .committees, and, the community at large, which supports and sanctions the work of the agency. Leisure-time, s o c i a l agencies, such as the Neighbourhood Houses and the "Y's", are attempting to supplement the educational .and. s o c i a l recreation of. individuals, and groups. They came into being as a r e s u l t of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d urban conditions and met a need f o r c o l l e c t i v e recreation.  The  Neighbourhood House becomes a community, of i n d i v i d u a l s who have found a common interest i n the services a v a i l a b l e . It becomes something of a "society i n miniature"...  Through  the media of a c t i v i t i e s and group association, agencies are attempting to meet the needs of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e i n order to further the development of the participants and . to help groups function more e f f e c t i v e l y and  democratically.  The application of s o c i a l group work methods to agency administration i s intimately related to the b e l i e f that . democratic administration i s basic to successful agency operation.  Trecker defines the nature of s o c i a l group work  In the following terms: "Social Group work i s a process and method through which individuals i n groups i n s o c i a l agency settings are helped by a worker to r e l a t e themselves to other  -5people and to experience growth opportunities i n accordance with t h e i r needs and capacities. In s o c i a l group work, the group i t s e l f i s u t i l i z e d by the i n d i v i d u a l with the help of the worker as a primary means of personality growth, change and development. The worker i s interested in..helping to bring about i n d i v i d u a l growth and s o c i a l development f o r the group as ^ a whole as a result of guided, group interaction." The group work method..Is, an, enabling process i n the.development of democratic relationships., and..therefore an important t o o l i n the implementation of democratic administration. The guiding p r i n c i p l e s i n t h i s method are the worker's close r e l a t i o n s h i p with the group and the guided i n t e r a c t i o n that r e s u l t s , the democratic self-determination and the continuous individualization..  These are. fundamental, to the  practice of s o c i a l group work .and .of democratic government. For. maximum, e f f i c i e n c y of the administration, the agency must provide f o r both method and.structure. Structure provides channels and an orderly flow of work, through, which members carry out t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y within the framework of representative government.  Democratic structure enables  groups and individuals to work together e f f e c t i v e l y i n a two-way communication system.  Good structure i s simple and.,  economical, both i n time and leadership, and i t creates unity as well as separation. Concepts of Democratic Social Agency Administration For the purposes of t h i s thesis f i v e main concepts, of s o c i a l work administration have been selected as the basis.  6. Trecker, Harleigh, Social Group Work: P r i n c i p l e s and Practices, Woman's Press, New York, 194-8, p. 8.  ~6r  of the study.  These concepts are. not mutually exclusive;  they are key ideas that have been associated with e f f e c t i v e administration..  The philosophy  of the democratic ideal i s ,  of course, basic to, and .inclusive of a l l these concepts. Democracy places the focus on the i n t e g r i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l , h i s worth and value,, equality of opportunity, and. the significance of human .life...  This, includes the  individual's r i g h t to share i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of government and to select leaders.  Within the democratic  ideal the p r i n c i p l e of " p a r t i c i p a t i o n " i s more than a c i v i l r i g h t ; i t has important psychological implications. A l l p o r t , i n a discussion of the difference between a c t i v i t y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , points out "that to p a r t i c i p a t e means to i d e n t i f y with, to become ego-involved. shares i n common with others.  The true participant  His a c t i v i t y i s a joint or  p l u r a l a c t i v i t y developed as a member of a working team."7 Responsible p a r t i c i p a t i o n , which i s inherent In democratic, administration, means that groups and Individuals are helped to work together  so that they share In the work and p o l i c y -  making of the agency.  In t h i s way the r i g h t s and i n t e r e s t s  of a l l are protected and the i n d i v i d u a l develops a s o c i a l consciousness f o r h i s fellow man. The word "democracy" i s generally associated with the problems of government, nevertheless,  i t can be applied to  the operation of small groups and organizational  operations  7. A l l p o r t , Gordon, The Psychology of P a r t i c i p a t i o n , Psychological Review, May, 194-5. '. ~~~  with l i t t l e .loss. of. precision... For. example,, one of the major problems of democratic governments hinges on the necessity of. the delegation of power.  This i s just as  Important, i n the government of. the social- agency where the board i s the o f f i c i a l policy-making organ, and the members are the constituents and Ideally the electors.  However,  the delegation of power i n the. group work context, i n f e r s also, the. active p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the constituents,, t h e i r readiness to p a r t i c i p a t e , and democratic channels f o r communication.  The board of the agency delegates certain  powers to i t s various committees and to the membership council. ..Therefore, t h i s representative council, of the membership, or House Council, as i t i s sometimes c a l l e d , plays an important part i n the democratic operation, of the agency. stands f o r the basic human r i g h t s of freedom and  Democracy representa-  t i o n which are applicable In any discussion of i n d i v i d u a l s i n association with others, i n the f i e l d of government and i n the management of the s o c i a l agency. The concept of " c i r c u l a r administration" i s one of. the techniques of democratic organization.  C i r c u l a r and  linear  administration are not necessarily opposed to one another; i n f a c t , i t i s held by many that c i r c u l a r administration cannot be achieved  successfully without some of the framework  and controls of the linear pattern.  Linear  administration  recognizes the power of the board of the agency as the sole, responsible body f o r the administration of the organization. Other parts of the agency, committees, councils and members are r e l a t e d to the board In a v e r t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , that  -8-  i s , the l i n e s of authority a l l run from the board down. This pattern of structure places the board i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l p o s i t i o n with complete authority.  Circular, administration,  on the other hand,, provides f o r what i s c a l l e d a horizontal relationship, as opposed to the v e r t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of the l i n e a r pattern.  Wllson^describes  the c i r c u l a r  administration of a group work agency as a series of concentric c i r c l e s with the executive and the board, i n the Innermost c i r c l e , the units of work with the s t a f f and committees serving them, i n the next c i r c l e , and membership In the outer c i r c l e .  the  This, organization  provides  channels of communication and. a more democratic r e l a t i o n s h i p between the various sections of the agency.  Authority i s  delegated according to function and there i s a "flowing back and f o r t h " between the units encouraging communication and consultation.  The " c i r c u l a r agency" not only has d i r e c t  l i n e s into a l l the units of the association, but It also has t h i s horizontal r e l a t i o n s h i p which gives a new meaning to the function of the membership and t h e i r r o l e i n the administration of the agency. The concept of administration as a "process" has been advanced by writers i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l group work. Trecker said that the t o t a l human e f f o r t that goes into the "thinking planning and action" of the administration of an agency becomes the process of administration.  In other  8. Wilson, G., & Ryland G., S o c i a l Group Work Practice, Riverside Press, New York, 1949,  -9-  words, process r e f e r s to the. dynamic relationships which are active in. the group situation, r e s u l t i n g from the Interaction of people i n communication; .with one another.  The  process of administration also takes Into consideration the agency as a whole, the method of. operation,, the structure of organization, and. the human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Process also  r e f e r s to "movement" or the development of the t o t a l group effort.  Trecker suggests that In the evolution of bur  understanding of s o c i a l group work administration, we i d e n t i f y administration with "process" rather than  now  techniques;  and that i n doing so we place "administration i n . i t s proper setting as an inherent part of the whole'social work process rather than merely a t o o l , adjunct, or f a c i l i t a t i n g  device."9  The idea that administration i s fundamentally r e l a t e d to the problems of Individual i n t e r a c t i o n and relationships has been put f o r t h by F o l l e t t , Trecker, and others.  This  concept i s endorsed by our knowledge and p r i n c i p l e s of the s o c i a l group work method.-  I t i s i n t h i s area that s o c i a l  work makes i t s greatest contribution to the science of administration.  This concept takes into consideration, the  human element i n the administration of the agency.  The  creative functioning of the administration Is dependent on the i n d i v i d u a l and his r e l a t i o n s h i p with others i n the agency.  The association of these i n d i v i d u a l s creates  complex Interactions that influence the behaviour of the  9. Trecker, H., op. c i t . , p. 5.  Group Process i n Administration . . . '.  *10group, whether i t be the board,, a committee or a council group.  E f f e c t i v e , purposeful, working, together i s . also  dependent on-the willingness and the a b i l i t y of these individuals to cooperate on a Joint project.  An under-  standing o f the complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s .involved is. fundamental ..to productive association.  The problems of  human, r e l a t i o n s cannot be ignored because t h e i r focus i s changed;, that i s , from .the small, group to the administrative or secondary group.. Perhaps s o c i a l agency administration i s only t r u l y democratic when these i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s are f u l l y understood.. Finally,, i t i s postulated.that the s o c i a l group worker plays a major r o l e i n developing a. democratic social, agency administration..  The t h i r d chapter of t h i s thesis i s devoted  to a study of the role, of the worker with, the House Council i n an attempt to ascertain something of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the worker and one administrative group and. the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s k i l l s of the administrative worker. These basic concepts of e f f e c t i v e democratic  administra-  t i o n , that i s , the democratic i d e a l , the technique of c i r c u l a r relationships, the Idea of process, the significance of human relationships, and the r o l e of the worker, are used as measuring rods i n t h i s study.  Trecker has expressed  these same concepts In other terms i n the following c r i t e r i a for e f f e c t i v e administration. " F i r s t , administration must be i n harmony with the basic objectives of the agency.  -11Second, administration must be based upon a ..dynamic understanding of individuals and . groups i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l setting. Third, administration must be f l e x i b l e as to .procedures and capable _of adjustment, ,to .meet changing conditions and. needs... Fourth, the policy-making and the operating .phases of s o c i a l agencies must be integrated so that p o l i c y flows out of operation and operations t r u l y represent p o l i c y . " 1 0  Administration i n a s o c i a l agency can be used to release creative endeavour and to a s s i s t Individual, members as well as to experience new s a t i s f a c t i o n s , to gain a sense, of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and thus to carry the purpose of the agency to r e a l i z a t i o n .  Included i n t h i s process are a l l the groups  concerned with agency operation: the board, staff and committees and member groups.  Attainment of t h i s goal of  democratic administration depends on these groups i n d i v i d u a l l y , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them.  In order to narrow the  focus of the study t h i s discussion i s c h i e f l y concerned with the r o l e of the House Council as the administrative body representing the membership of Gordon Neighbourhood House. Nevertheless many of the findings, might be applied to other groups involved i n the administration of an agency and only by making a thorough analysis of each group and. t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the t o t a l process can the effectiveness of the administration r e a l l y be measured. Gordon House: Setting of the Study Gordon Neighbourhood House Is one of the projects developed under the Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s of  10. Ibid., p. 15.  Vancouver.  The others include, Alexandra Neighbourhood House,  Camp Alexander, and .Strathcona Day Nursery.  Gordon House  was opened i n 194-2 i n two buildings, purchased .from Crofton House. School, on the recommendation, of the Community Welfare Council of Vancouver.  This. Council had pointed out at  that time, that there was a need.for recreational services In the down-town r e s i d e n t i a l area, known as. the West End district.  Volunteer groups were already organizing l o c a l  a c t i v i t i e s and they were anxious to secure permanent f a c i l i t i e s and leadership.  In l i t t l e over ten years, Gordon  House, staffed by professional s o c i a l workers, has become one of the foremost group work centres i n the c i t y . The West End, once the area of " f i r s t family" homes, with access to., fine beaches and shopping centres, appears to be i n a t r a n s i t i o n stage at t h i s time.  On one hand are  the middle and low rent rooming houses and on the other, an increasing number of luxurious modern apartment b u i l d i n g s . The population of the area has generally been considered to be a highly transient one; but a recent s t u d y o f Gordon 11  House revealed that, beneath t h i s f l o a t i n g population which probably represents about 50% of the residents, Is a core of permanent family groups.  This fact i s r e f l e c t e d i n the  membership of the House. The general purpose of the agency i s to provide a family centre f o r recreational a c t i v i t i e s .  As a neighbourhood  11. Thomas, Elizabeth, Report to Study Committee on Purpose and Function of Gordon Neighbourhood House, Gordon House, Vancouver, B.C., June, 1952.  -13-  house, people of ail..ages, are eligible, f o r membership.  Group  associations foster a s p i r i t of f r i e n d l i n e s s so that i n d i v i d u a l members f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s and purposes of the agency.  The o f f i c i a l purpose of the House 1B contained  in. a recently compiled statement of "Purpose and Function."-^ "Gordon House i s the Neighbourhood House of the West End. I t s purpose i s : 1. To serve the s o c i a l needs of families and Individuals r e s i d i n g permanently or temporarily i n t h i s area. 2 . To provide opportunities f o r Individuals of a l l ages to make relationships and to have experiences which w i l l contribute to t h e i r s o c i a l development. 3 . To enlarge the family's resources f o r creative l i v i n g . 4. To develop neighbourliness among f a m i l i e s and groups and to foster good relationships between the neighbourhood and the larger community. 5 . To improve the neighbourhood services through cooperation with other organizations, by demonstration of new services and by Influencing public bodies. 6 . To p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s o c i a l welfare movement i n i t s broader implications." In 1952 the t o t a l membership engaged i n the various sections of the Gordon House program was'approximately 1 0 8 6 . Two-thirds of t h i s number were "senior c i t i z e n s " or members over 55 years of age, and the remaining t h i r d were adults and children.  The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r membership i n the  House are twofold, residence i n the West End and the payment of a small membership fee. According to the constitution of Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s , the parent body, membership i n Gordon House does not confer membership i n A.C.A.  A Gordon  House Annual Report describes the agency membership as consisting largely of pensioners, working mothers, single  12_. Gordon Neighbourhood House, Statement of Purpose and Function, 1005 Jervis St., Vancouver, B.C., 1952.  -14men and women-living away from .their, f a m i l i e s , and low-income family groups whose children i n p a r t i c u l a r make use of the agency f a c i l i t i e s . The Gordon House program i s designed to provide a variety of leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l . ages In response • to the requests and needs of the community.  There are  program departments f o r senior, citizens,, adults, teen-agers and children.  These divisions, include craft and discussion  groups, dances, i n s t r u c t i o n classes, sports a c t i v i t i e s , small club groups., a nursery school and special agency events. In addition.the agency houses NightSchool  Classes, a Well  Baby C l i n i c , and a branch of the Public. Library,. and various organizations are supplied with accommodation f o r regular meetings.. The wide variety of program'for members of a l l ages, and the representation of the community at large, helps to make t h i s agency, i n f a c t , a centre for neighbourly activities. Gordon House i s a member agency of A.C.A., as i t Is. popularly known, and as such i s responsible to the A.C.A. Board... This Board at i t s annual meeting e l e c t s the Gordon House Committee which then takes on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the operation of that agency.  The President of the Gordon  House Committee i s a member of the A.C.A. Executive Committee which acts on behalf of A.C.A. throughout the year.  This  relationship with A.C.A. i s shown graphically i n the organizational structure chart i n Figure 1.. By l e g a l authority the A.C.A.. Board i s the p o l i c y making body f o r the member associations.  In the actual.  Fig. 1.  GORDON HOUSE: GENERAL AMINISTRATIVE STRUGTDRE k  Alexandra Community Activities Board  Community Chest & Council  Other agencl< »sunder A.C.A. are Strathcoia Nursery School, Alexandra Hoi se and Camp Alexander. Gordon House  c  Program Committees  Board of Directors Direct Board Committees  Senior Citizens' Advisoryflftimnit.+^a  Personnel Committee  Adult Advisory Committee  Building Committee  Junior Advisory Committee  Finance Committee  Nursery School Advisory fi^ma*  z  Executive Director 1 House Council  ;l  fees Fig. 2^  Staff  Staff  ft Taken from the VolunteerIs Manual which the agency circulates for information and orientation to the agency's poiicy and program.  -16-  management of Gordon House a f f a i r s , however, the Gordon House Committee enjoys almost, complete autonomy, and r e f e r s to A.C.A. only when complete changes, of. p o l i c y are recommended .or. with, the expenditure of c a p i t a l funds... In many ways the A.C.A. i s l i k e a "holding company" operating without a paid executive director.  This r e l a t i o n s h i p does, make, .for some confusion, and  there i s some lack of understanding about the scope of function and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Membership f o r the Gordon House Committee i s f i l l e d by nominations made to the A.C.A.. Board at the .annual meeting. According to the. A . C i A . Constitution, those e l i g i b l e f o r nomination to the Board are "members i n good standing with the Society."  The. practice .appears to be to nominate persons  representative of the agency neighbourhoods, persons interested i n the Society, or those .who have been active i n some way i n one of the associations..  The associated agencies have an  opportunity, through t h e i r respective committees, to present nominations f o r the e l e c t i o n .  But because nominations are  made only i n s u f f i c i e n t number to f i l l the vacancies, a democratic e l e c t i o n i s not held.  The status of membership  i n A.C.A. i s not at a l l clear and i n practice only board members have voting priviledges i n the e l e c t i o n of the new board.  Therefore, a bona fide democratic e l e c t i o n would--  c e r t a i n l y involve a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of membership r i g h t s and the status of agency members.  On e l e c t i o n to the Board  and assignment to an agency committee^the term of o f f i c e & ^Many times the agencies through t h e i r own Nominating " Committees take on additional members on t h e i r boards which are l a t e r r a t i f i e d by A.C.A.  -17-  appears to be of. ,an .indefinite length..  As a private, non-profit  s o c i a l agency, Gordon House i s a member of the greater Vancouver Community Chest and Council, and. as. such, receives, an. annual a l l o c a t i o n of funds.for operating expenses.. This r e l a t i o n s h i p insures a certain ..amount, .of f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y and. frees the s t a f f to serve the membership more d i r e c t l y .  This, association .  with the. Community Chest.-requires-the...agency to maintain, certain standards of practice, and .places.the agency i n a p o s i t i o n to communicate with other social, agencies of the  city.  Leadership i n the agency Is given by employed s o c i a l group workers, and shared, .with, volunteers and program .specialists .who make i t possible, to serve the large numbers who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program.,  The professional worker i s delegated c e r t a i n  exclusive functions and. also shares the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the agency i n a partnership relationship with the Gordon House Committee, or Board as i t i s generally known.  E f f e c t i v e programs  depend. ..on. an adequate supply of ...both professional and leaders.  volunteer  The volunteer i n the agency serves both i n an  administrative capacity, that i s a board or committee member, and. as a program volunteer. ..The function of administration i n Gordon House i s defined i n the agency's statement of "Burpose and  Function".  "The administration and p o l i c y of Gordon .House Is supervised and developed by a Board of Directors elected by the members of Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s . The Board e n l i s t s the assistance of Advisory Committees representative of the community. Every effort i s made i n the development of the agency to" provide a structure of councils and committees which enables members to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the formulation of p o l i c y and government of  -18the agency so t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l i n the use of democratic methods may be enhanced."15 The f i n a l phrase <i£ t h i s statement suggests, that, though, the Board hav.e made some movement, toward democratic procedures through a system of councils and.committees,, they have not f u l l y accepted the right, of the members, to share in, the management or acknowledged that members have a contribution to make, i n ...the t o t a l process of agency administration.  This  perhaps, .indicates the stage at which the Board members i n this, association are i n t h e i r understanding and acceptance of membership p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  .  .  .  The diagram on page 13 shows the structure of committees and council which has been i n s t i t u t e d . attempt to make, the advisory  There has been a r e a l  committee representative  of the  community by including school p r i n c i p a l s , ministers and parents who l i v e or work .in the d i s t r i c t .  Also, at l e a s t h a l f of the  present board members, l i v e i n . the neighbourhood and ...several hav.e been active i n the agency membership a c t i v i t i e s at some time,. In order to relate the general membership to the Board of Directors and to a s s i s t members to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p o l i c y making of the agency, the House Council has d i r e c t on the .Board.  representation  Through.the Board Nominating Committee, the,-House  Council can make suggestions for Board membership.  In due time  these may be selected by the Board committee, presented to the A.C.A. annual meeting and become elected as Board .members. In  lj.  Ibid.  this, way the. .Board has. .included, in. i t s .membership several members who .are active In the .program and ,who .have been.delegates to the House Council..  Because they are Board Members they have  voting rights, and certain-responsibilities,, but i n .addition .. they have been used i n .a representative position,, r e p o r t i n g to the House Council, .on Board .activities and vice versa.  This,  relationship makes for. some confusion for the. general, membership and. the individuals, themselves, about .the r o l e of t h e Council i n .the .administrative picture.  On the other hand,,  i t has. maintained ,a d i r e c t , two-way channel f o r communication between, these two. bodies,. The process ,of council.,, committees, .staff,' and. board, working together. Is a part of the .circular, pattern .of this., agency. .The extent to which.each of these, u n i t s are f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r function, is. a measure of the effectiveness of the t o t a l process of administration, and, the acceptance and readiness of the Gordon House members to work, together productively within the framework of relationship established. For t h i s reason the r o l e of the professional staff i n the operation of democratic administration i s the key to the success attained.  The s o c i a l group worker, i s the. representa-  t i v e of agency administration, a s s i s t i n g groups and. inter-groups to function adequately according to the objectives of the agency. The-functions  of the worker i n an administrative setting are  manifiold, but basic to a l l i s the understanding.of persons i n t h e i r group r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  The creative analysis of the  administration process i s dependent on knowledge of the subtle  dynamics of a l l groups working together for the enhancement of human .welfare... Method of Study The purpose of. t h i s thesis i s to analyze the effectiveness of the administrative process at Gordon Neighbourhood House, with.-particular attention to .the .extent to-which i t i s -democratic and. to which the members p a r t i c i p a t e i n the making and .carrying out of p o l i c y .  Examination of administrative relationships  Involves an analysis of the structure and method, an .evaluat i o n of the findings.  Because "analysis" l i t e r a l l y means  separation of the parts, and because i t i s not possible to make a complete study of each of the u n i t s of administration i n t h i s discussion, the focus of t h i s study i s on the House Council, as the centre of membership p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the administration. .The Gordon House Council, i s composed of representatives from the various clubs and groups of the agency.  This i n t e r -  group of delegates plan joint enterprises and make p o l i c y which w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the programs of the constituent groups.  Their  status as an administrative program council i s acknowledged by the Board and by agency members through t h e i r club a f f i l i a t i o n . A study of the House Council i n t h i s s e t t i n g w i l l indicate , something of the effectiveness of the channels of communication within the organizational structure, the acceptance of the . Council as an administrative body, both by the members and. the board, and. the extent to which the membership i s capable of working i n an inter-group r e l a t i o n s h i p .  This measurement  of the process of administration i s therefore attempted, making  -21-  use o f the concepts o f d e m o c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i c h have been d i s c u s s e d and .the. . c r i t e r i a f o r m u l a t e d o f s o c i a l group p r i n c i p l e s . Advisory  Further  by our knowledge  s t u d i e s , o f the. .Board and  Committees w i l l f u r t h e r h e l p t o c l a r i f y the  total  p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l , agency a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A study of the House C o u n c i l would not be complete w i t h o u t an a n a l y s i s of the., r o l e o f t h e worker a s s o c i a t e d w i t h , t h i s group.  Chapter 111  d e a l s w i t h the. r o l e of. t h e worker. I n t h e  inter-group  s e t t i n g and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  generally.  Such an a n a l y s i s o f the. c o u n c i l .and o f the. worker  may  help, t o increase, our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e  administrative  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n l e i s u r e - t i m e . agencies. The  r e c o r d s u s e d i n t h i s study were o b t a i n e d by  the,  w r i t e r d u r i n g a s o c i a l work s t u d e n t .placement i n Gordon House i n 1952-53.  The  w r i t e r a c t e d as s e c r e t a r y t o t h e B o a r d o f  Directors, to Advisory  Committees, and t o s t a f f , meetings,  i n ..this, c a p a c i t y k e p t n a r r a t i v e r e c o r d s I n a d d i t i o n , t h e w r i t e r was  assigned  the d i r e c t worker and t h e r e f o r e was group throughout t h e y e a r .  and  o f t h e s e meetings.  t o t h e House C o u n c i l , .as active i n assisting this  These records, and o t h e r  relevant  m a t e r i a l are used as t h e b a s i s of t h e a n a l y s i s , i n t h i s study. SignificantDexcerptsohave Committee r e c o r d s and  been t a k e n from the B o a r d .and  statements of p o l i c y i n o r d e r t o des-  c r i b e the t o t a l process of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  I t s h o u l d be made  c l e a r t h a t the o b j e c t of t h i s t h e s i s i s not  j u s t t o make. an.  i s o l a t e d study of t h e House C o u n c i l .  Rather, the Council I s  u s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e o v e r a l l approach t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  and  more s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e r o l e o f t h e House  -22Counc.il. .is accepted.,  T h i s study i s an attempt to determine,  something o f the dynamics, of. administration,, and  i n particular  the. r o l e s which the House C o u n c i l and the worker can and p l a y i n the t o t a l  plan.  should  CHAPTER 11 The Role of the. House Council The representative council i s peculiar to leisure-time agencies and .is an e f f e c t i v e instrument of democratic, membership participation.  The membership council..occupies, a. middle p o s i t i o n  i n the .system of. representative government of the agency, and provides a..channel of communication between..the Board of Directors and the constituent groups.  The council i s used  where agencies are successfully coordinating t h e i r work. The membership of. the agency functions through, .organized groups and program a c t i v i t i e s which are i n the main s e l f governing.  I t i s at t h i s l e v e l that p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  responsible membership i s encouraged and developed.  The  o f f i c e r s of club groups and t h e i r advisors, i n t h e i r planning and carrying out of t h e i r own. programs., set the pattern.for democratic operation..  When the members o f these .primary groups  have developed a sense of. belonging and i d e n t i t y with .their own group,, and feel, .some .security and.satisfaction i n working with each other, they are ready to p a r t i c i p a t e i n inter-group associations.  To t h i s council of representatives the clubs  and groups of the agency send t h e i r delegates to plan and carry out joint enterprises and make rules and regulations which f a c i l i t a t e the program of the constituent groups.  The  council must respect the r i g h t s and functions of both the primary groups and of agency committees and board.  The  authority of the council must be c l e a r l y defined and i t must be recognized that certain areas, such as the membership of primary groups and the expenditure  of agency funds, are not  the concern of t n l a group.  The council i s a group of representa-  t i v e s or delegates from the member groups..  I t cuts across .  departmental and functional l i n e s and deals with problems common to a l l .  I t exists to serve the groups represented and the agency  of which i t i s a part rather than the i n d i v i d u a l delegates. In t h i s sense the council i s not a group, but rather an "intergroup".  Newstetter describes the difference i n focus  between s o c i a l group work and s o c i a l intergroup work i n t h i s way:. "The f i r s t focus In the s o c i a l Intergroup work process deals with the adjustmental r e l a t i o n s between groups and not the personal needs of the members of the intergroup who are primarily representatives of some group or groups. The need, therefore, i s not primarily that of p a r t i c u l a r individuals f o r adjusting themselves to other individuals; i t i s the need of groups i n a given community to maintain mutually s a t i s f y i n g relations with other groups. In the s o c i a l group work process one main focus i s In terms of the interpersonal r e l a t i o n s of group members. Here t h i s I B important only as a means to an end, the end being the r e l a t i o n s between groups.."! The "community" i s the t o t a l membership and program of the agency;.the democratic society "In miniature".  The House  Council i s the medium for coordinating the constituent groups and encouraging harmonious relationships amongst the membership.  The council i s the intergroup body, a further step  from the primary group. The representative to the council i s involved i n a dual relationship.  He Is a club member as well as an elected  delegate to the council.  The delegate who maintains his  1 . Newstetter, W.I., The Social Intergroup Process, National Proceedings of Social Work Conference, 1 W , pages 208-209.  i d e n t i t y with the -primary group and also functions as an. e f f e c t i v e representative  has attained a reasonable degree of  maturity and has accepted the purposes of the agency. Healthy r e l a t i o n s between groups and council ..will help to protect the Integrity of the member groups and free the council to do i t s job as a coordinating,  administrative u n i t .  The  council i s a work group; i t does not have a. program .for i t s own recreation.  This i s the d i s t i n c t i v e difference between  groups and a council.  The council represents primary groups  and .is a channel for. communication to the membership and to other parts of the agency  administration..  The membership of. the council..will be determined by i t s constitution or the p o l i c y of the agency.  Active, organized  groups within the agency program'usually elect t h e i r delegates to represent them i n association with other agency groups. In an attempt to make the council t r u l y representative entire program, a l l groups are urged to p a r t i c i p a t e .  of the Sometimes,  because of wide differences i n age and variations i n types of program, the agency has more than one council group.  Frequently  these are developed on a departmental basis and may or may not be brought together at i n t e r v a l s during the year according to the plans, and needs of the s i t u a t i o n . The purpose and objectives of a council are directed towards the planning and execution of joint events and a c t i v i t i e s : making rules and regulations for f a c i l i t a t i n g group associations and coordinating and integrating the t o t a l program and membership of the agency.  The program of the  council' involves the members In a very r e a l cooperative  -26-  experience as they select goals, single out problems f o r discussion, and take on r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and authority.  The  a c t i v i t i e s of the council e n l i s t s the membership i n the process of deliberation- and decision-making concerning the a f f a i r s of the agency program.  The council a s s i s t s groups  and members to become a part of the agency and to increase t h e i r understanding of and s k i l l i n democratic procedures. The effectiveness of the council i s dependent on the operation .of the council within, the administrative structure and of the a b i l i t i e s of the delegates to be representative. As Newstetter puts i t , "the from and to i s the l i f e l i n e of the s o c i a l intergroup process."  2  The extent to which t h i s  "from and to" Is e f f e c t i v e i s d i r e c t l y related to the readiness of the membership for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s representative group.  I t means that members must understand the purpose and  function of the council and t h e i r r o l e as a delegate, and.be capable of working.In the s i t u a t i o n . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and . functioning must be c l e a r l y defined within the context of the purposes of the agency and the l i m i t a t i o n s of the membership* .The fact that a council occupies a middle p o s i t i o n i n the. .administrative structure means that i t must be a part of the " l i n e organization" of the agency—i.e. there must be direct working channels of communication which permit the council to make representation to the board and s t a f f and to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the policy-making of the agency.  2.  Ibid.,"p. 2 1 1  The council  i s the medium, for membership, expression and organization.  On  the other hand,, the .council i s a r e f l e c t i o n of membership, a c t i v i t i e s for the board and the staff, and as .such provides c e r t a i n services and performs services, moreover, which are unique to a House Council.  In t h i s way  the l i n e s run to and  from board, s t a f f , and council i n an horizontal r e l a t i o n s h i p and a pattern of c i r c u l a r administration i s established. Purpose and Function of Gordon House Council Gordon Neighbourhood House operates under the l e g a l sanction of the Constitution and By-laws of Alexandra .Community Activities,  This document makes no recommendations f o r agency  structure.  As already mentioned, membership and voting r i g h t s  i n A.C.A. are r e s t r i c t e d t o board.members. rather suggests a simple,  The constitution  straight .linear, pattern without  consideration of the general membership's. r o l e i n the a f f a i r s of the agency,  Eut, i n e f f e c t , the vagueness of the con-  s t i t u t i o n and the lack of any d e f i n i t e statement on structure have permitted a more l i b e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and Implementation, Some of the A.C.A. agencies, therefore, have developed a more democratic structure and p o l i c y , according to the purposes and understanding of the agency committee, than might otherwise be thought possible. Gordon House, pursuing i t s aim of providing opportunities for a real, understanding and appreciation of the democratic •z  process,  states i n i t s "Purpose and  Function":  J . Gordon Neighbourhood House, Statement of Purpose and Function, 1005 JerVis St., Vancouver, B.C. 1952.  -28"That every effort i s made i n the development of the agency to provide a structure of councils and committees which enables members to p a r t i c i p a t e In the formulation of policy and government of the agency so t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l i n the use of democratic methods may be enhanced." This concern for democratic structure and the development of membership i s basic to the group work method and the present thinking of the board and s t a f f , and i s borne out i n the structure devised.  The nature of c i r c u l a r administration  which i s i n operation at Gordon House (shown i n Figure 11) Indicates the importance attached to the House Council i n the o v e r a l l organization of the agency.  I t i s important to state,  however, that despite the l i n e s from council to s t a f f , membership and board, there i s s t i l l some confusion and doubt about the  r o l e of the council and I t s method of representation to .  the  board.  Because of the relationship with the parent body,  A.C.A., and the lack of an agency constitution, the p o s i t i o n of the House Council i s actually a part of the "unwritten" policy of Gordon House.. This "unwritten" authority and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y makes for some confusion concerning the status of the council. The Gordon House Council was formed soon after the establishment, of the agency I t s e l f .  There are few records..  to trace the progress of t h i s body over the years, but I t i s evident that the council has maintained an important place i n the l i f e of the agency.  The council meets once a month  throughout the year with the Executive Director and/or a student s o c i a l worker giving leadership to the group.  The  Executive Director, a professional s o c i a l group worker, i s  Board Committees - Personnel - Building - Finance  Board of Directors Membership Executive Director  Paid-up membership in brackets, e.g. (  1  Assistant Executive Director  Director  Director  1 = 1  K—  Assistants Pro)jram Ass Lstants /K  Director Teachers HOUSE  Young Adults & Teen-agers  COUNCIL  Children  Nursery School  ( 4 1 9 )  (40)  1  Advisory  Advisory  Advisory Committal  Utee  Cflaaittft  Board of Directors Fig.  II  GORDON HOUSE:  CIRCULAR ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE  si/ Senior Citizens  (469]  Advisory  It tee  8  4  )  -30-  employed by the Board as the chief administrator of the board's p o l i c y and program.. In 1952. some ..minor changes, were made, to the council, cons t i t u t i o n as. regards, representation from the member groups. The following i s the statement of purpose of the council taken from the 1952 constitution ( A r t i c l e 2 ) : The objects of the association s h a l l be: (a) To work In cooperation with the Directors . . and s t a f f and to make suggestions for the operation and improvement of Goiiixm House. (b) To unite those persons who are interested . . i n any phase of the a c t i v i t i e s of Gordon House. (c) To a s s i s t the management i n developing a . . r e a l community s p i r i t i n the West End. • The membership of the council, according to the cons t i t u t i o n , i s composed of clubs which meet regularly i n the House.  I t states that each member organization s h a l l have  three representatives, two active., and one a l t e r n a t i v e . The o f f i c e r s of the council are the president,, vice-president, and the secretary-treasurer,, who are elected at the annual meeting .for a period of one year. The by-laws outline the duties of the o f f i c e r s and provide for the appointment of committees as they are required.  Before  the-annual meeting the chairman appoints a nominating committee which presents a slate covering the o f f i c e s to be f i l l e d .  The  constitution defines the area of council a c t i v i t y i n f a i r l y general terms,, giving some i n d i c a t i o n of the Intended function of the body.  I t i s written i n a way that leaves a margin of  h, Gordon House, House Council Constitution, 1005 J e r v i s St., Vancouver, B.C., 1952.  -31inter.pretat.ion .permitting considerable f l e x i b i l i t y and. c r e a t i v i t y to future council a c t i v i t i e s .  A closer analysis  of the constitution would no doubt reveal that, while the general outline i s probably similar to that of councils, i n other settings, the objectives and the provisos are d i r e c t l y related to the atmosphere and needs of Gordon House. Membership .of the Council The House Council at t h e i r annual Meeting i n January, 1953* l i s t e d 26 delegates, representing 13. groups active in. the House program.  The delegates  Included 6 men and 20 women  with an average attendance at meetings of 14- throughout the year.  The t h i r t e e n groups include f i v e club groups, and  seven interest groups i n the senior c i t i z e n ' s program and the Nursery School parents, a young adult program.  In addition  the council has three standing committees,. Sick V i s i t i n g , Friday Entertainment, and Potluck Suppers, with.members at large serving on the. council., There has been a small, turnover of membership during .the year with about 25$ of the members Inactive.  The largest group  of delegates are between 65 and 70 years of age with four members under 50 years.  Representatives  are selected by  t h e i r groups by e l e c t i o n or ^appointment., according to the p o l i c y of each group.  Normally a council group i s composed  of adults, since children have not usually developed t h e i r capacity s u f f i c i e n t l y to p a r t i c i p a t e at t h i s l e v e l .  In t h i s  setting the council includes an older-age group, r e f l e c t i n g the membership of the agency.  The o f f i c e r s of the council are elected.by the -delegates by secret b a l l o t at. the annual, meeting.  A nominating committee  appointed by the chairman presents a slate of names to f i l l each o f f i c e at the meeting and the delegates can make further nominations from the f l o o r .  This year the president was returned..for  a second year, with only a s l i g h t majority.  Mrs. T., the former  secretary, was elected vice-president, with the former vice-, president immediately r e t i r i n g from the council upon h i s defeat. A younger woman, new to the House,, was elected secretary. The following are b r i e f sketches of some of the key members of the council.. Mrs. U.  Very active i n senior program and House a c t i v i t i e s f o r some time. She i s between 60 and 65 years of age and her status i s high with the membership because of her leadership a b i l i t y . She i s very vocal i n meetings and understands the council function very well. She has some d i f f i c u l t y working with the president.  Mrs. C.  Active In a number of clubs and i s about 67 years o l d . She has a wonderful sense of humour, i s f a i r l y , relaxed i n handling situations and tends to give supportive leadership rather than taking any i n i t i a t i v e .  Miss 0. - New to the program t h i s year and came to the council and Miss B.as representatives of the evening c r a f t s groups. They are both i n t h e i r t h i r t i e s and were active i n council committee planning at Christmas time but since then they have not attended council meetings; though they continue to come to the c r a f t s program. Mrs. N.  - Active i n the House and the Council since i t s beginning. She i s about 70 years old, i s a volunteer on intake and has been the council representative to the board for three years. She i s p a r t i a l l y deaf and not very, active i n meetings. At t h i s point she i s more closely i d e n t i f i e d with board and staff than with the membership.  Mr. Nt. r- A comparatively new member who has aroused strong feelings from the members because of h i s aggressiveness and impulsive behaviour. He i s about 62 years of age and r e t i r e d .  -33-  Mr. K.  - His behaviour i s quite e r r a t i c but he has, gained the support of the members, because of his willingness and active Interest. Tends to f e e l that he i s the spokesman for the membership and has shown some need to place himself i n c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s .  Mr. G.  - A comparatively new member who spends a good deal of his time at the House and i d e n t i f i e s c l o s e l y with the s t a f f . In his anxiety to avoid c o n f l i c t he has aroused considerable c r i t i c i s m from the members,  Mr. T.  - Chairman of the House Council for two years and' f o r an e a r l i e r period i n the council. He has never l i v e d i n the West End but became associated with the House as representative to the council from the Legion. He has no telephone, has many outside i n t e r e s t s and attends the House program infrequently* He Is very charming and speaks very e a s i l y , i s w e l l - l i k e d p a r t i c u l a r l y by the women. He i s a capable chairman i n many ways but tends to be quite authoritarian.  Mrs. I.  - Mrs. I. was sponsored i n her e l e c t i o n t o the council as secretary by Mrs, T. who f e l t that i t would help Mrs. I. There was quite a fuss about t h i s e l e c t i o n because Mrs. I. was not a member of the council at the time. Mrs. I. has had marital d i f f i c u l t i e s which have been discussed at length by the members and one delegate has not returned to the council because of Mrs. 1 s e l e c t i o n . Mrs. I. was very nervous at f i r s t and not too capable i n her Job but has since improved. She tends to be c r i t i c a l of teen-agers. 1  Mr. Q.  Mrs. D.  - A new member to the House and Council. He has outside Interests and tends to be more objective and less involved i n House a f f a i r s . His appearance has made the members look to him for support but he i s cautious of his p a r t i c i p a t i o n . -The representative from the Nursery School Parents group. She i s a very a t t r a c t i v e person and w e l l - l i k e d by the older members, almost i n the r o l e of a daughter. She i s quite creative and l i b e r a l In her thinking but lacks the organizational a b i l i t y for the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s the group has given her.  Analysis of the records indicates that the quality of the i n t e r action within the group and the capacity of the group to perform as a council i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the strengths and understanding of the i n d i v i d u a l members.  Althpugh the c o u n c i l membership i s almost e n t i r e l y composed of d e l e g a t e s program and  from the s e n i o r c i t i z e n ' s department, through i t s s t a f f a s s i s t a n c e the c o u n c i l attempts to  and r e l a t e t o the e n t i r e membership of the agency.  coordinate The  young-  a d u l t program i s l a r g e l y on an i n t e r e s t - g r o u p b a s i s at  present,  and t h e r e f o r e the membership i s not  with  the House.  closely identified  S t a t i s t i c s show too, t h a t t h i s age  a . r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of members.  group  represents  During the year,  there  have been o p p o r t u n i t i e s to i n t r o d u c e these members t o the l a r g e r membership and purposes of the agency.  I t i s f e l t that  increased  a s s o c i a t i o n with other members a n d . o v e r a l l program w i l l  help  them to f e e l a p a r t of the agency and more r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o u n c i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . In 1 9 5 2 - 5 2 , the. C o u n c i l had young-adult groups r e p r e s e n t e d  who  three  v/ere an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f .  the c o u n c i l at t h a t time. Representation.from the children'.s membership on t h e House Council, i s n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d because o f the d i f f e r e n c e i n age and  experience.  Therefore,  the emphasis has  been on  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c h i l d r e n through t h e i r own  developing  councils  and  t o .introduce them t o House C o u n c i l through s p e c i a l events  and  staff interpretation. Program, of House C o u n c i l The  House C o u n c i l r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e t h a t the content  meetings f a l l s i n t o three main areas,  (a) the p l a n n i n g  r e p o r t i n g on events sponsored by the c o u n c i l , (b) the of group a c t i v i t i e s from the d e l e g a t e s , and  group b u s i n e s s ,  complaints.  and  of and  reports  (c) other. House  I n c l u d i n g board r e p o r t s , conferences,  and  -35-  Dur.ing the year, four s p e c i a l events, Open House.., Christmas c e l e b r a t i o n s , the Members' Annual Meeting, and the C a r n i v a l , were sponsored by the House Council.  The execution of these agency  a c t i v i t i e s involved d i s c u s s i o n i n c o u n c i l meetings, the s e t t i n g up of committees to do d e t a i l e d planning, r e p o r t s to and from the member groups, and evaluations and recommendations..  Except  f o r the Annual Meeting, these a f f a i r s were planned to i n c l u d e the t o t a l membership, and a l l groups were encouraged t o part i c i p a t e i n the planning and work involved. The f o l l o w i n g excerpts from Council records i n d i c a t e the way i n which the group plans f o r an event, the s e t t i n g up of a committee, the r e p o r t i n g back t o c o u n c i l , and the f i n a l evaluation. October 7. 1952: . . . ."'The Chairman said that i t was time for - the meeting to t h i n k about Christmas planning. There was some comment about the weather not being s u i t a b l e t o get them i n the mood, and some r e c a l l i n g of l a s t year's program. The worker pointed out the importance f o r delegates to get t h e i r groups t h i n k i n g about the event and t o make suggestions f o r the program. The chairman said that a committee would be set up next month." December 2., 1952: "Mrs. D. (Christmas Planning Committee Chairman) gave a d e t a i l e d report of plans to date, g i v i n g subcommittee chairmen an opportunity to add t h e i r comments. C e r t a i n changes i n date were recommended by the committee and these were discussed at some l e n g t h and f i n a l l y accepted. Mrs. D. cleared with the members about a c t i n g as hosts f o r evening and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of various groups. Mr. K. s a i d that everyone should be on hand f o r the hanging of the decorations and there was some amusement about who would do the hammering and climb the ladders." January 6, 1953: An excerpt from the e v a l u a t i o n of the events. ~ "Mrs. D. p r a i s e d the c h i l d r e n ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the concert and said that i t was too bad that they could not be seen from the audience. She suggested a r a i s e d platform f o r next year. Mr. K. s a i d that we had a portable stage and explained the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n p u t t i n g i t up and the dangers of i t moving and people being hurt. Most of them agreed that something should be done about t h i s . The chairman s a i d that he thought there should be more e f f i c i e n t running of the concert so that the audience didn't have t o wait  -36between numbers. Mr. K. commented that the people who were complaining hadn't done any of the work and he thought the l a d i e s had done a wonderful job. Mr. 0. stepped i n and said that next year we would t r y just a l i t t l e harder." These excerpts give a picture of the .council i n the process of executing one of the highlights of the. agency program.  The  subcommittees mentioned included the planning for decorations, refreshments,  concert, and a dance.  Through group representation  on these committees and Individual enlistment a good portion of the t o t a l membership of the House was brought into the planning for t h i s event. The reports from the groups given by the delegates at each meeting constitute a major part of the meeting's agenda. These reports are the culmination of the business of the i n d i v i d u a l groups and depending on the delegate  represent,a  r e a l e f f o r t to keep both the group and the council informed about current happenings.  The practice of h i g h l i g h t i n g these  reports has helped the members r e t a i n t h e i r i d e n t i t y with the club group and to d i s t i n g u i s h between council and group function. In addition, the importance attached to t h i s part of council business, gives thereby a considerable amount of status to the-individual members and helps them to work more e f f e c t i v e l y i n ,the situation.  The reports r e a l l y serve a multiple function  as they help to integrate a c t i v i t i e s , i d e n t i f y the autonomy of groups, and stimulate democratic p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  For the.  worker these reports provide information about group a c t i v i t i e s , reveal the thinking and f e e l i n g prevalent among the membership, and indicate the development, and. change going on.. This i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n from a section of the record where the group reports are being given:  37October 7, 1952: .."The -Chairman announced that the group would now have t h e i r l i t t l e stories from the clubs. Mrs. D. said that she had nothing to report, that t h e i r first-meeting would be next week. The chairman coaxed'her to say something and then said that he'd have to put a b i g "no" against her name. They a l l laughed. Mrs. D. reported on t h e i r plans f o r the next Potluck and asked the council to forward to the Eoard a request for 125,00. Mr. 0. said that he thought children saw enough movies and he enjoyed the sing songs and the concerts at Potluck. He said he hoped that Mrs. 0. didn't mind h i s suggestions. Mrs. 0. made no comment. The worker commented on the Board's interest i n Potluck and said that she thought the request would be granted. The chairman said that the matter would be forwarded to the Board. Mrs. J . reported very timidly on Friday concerts and there was some discussion about locating a chairman for t h i s project. Mrs. X. t o l d about the i n t e r e s t i n g t r i p s the Art Groups were taking. Mrs. C. said that she had-nothing to report. The chairman said that there must be something. Mrs. U. reminded her of t h e i r t r i p to Bellingham and several of them exchanged humorous incidents of the group's Journey. They a l l enjoyed t h i s and the chairman encouraged them. Mr. 0. presented the Sick Report and they exchanged news of sick members. They agreed to send a l e t t e r to one of the sick, members through the secretary. " Reports from a board meeting and the handling of c o n f l i c t s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n these excerpts from council records. May 5. 1953: . "The chairman asked Mrs. N. for the Board report. Mrs. N. said that certain changes were being made to the fence around Senior House that the members should know about and she described the alterations to be made. She said that she had a copy of the A.C.A. constitution, i n connection with t h e i r questions about membership, and that since the constitution was so general and not a l i t t l e confusing, the council should Invite a member of the Board to discuss i t s meaning with them. The chairman said that-:he was always happy to see any Board member come to t h e i r meetings and he asked the executive director i f Mr. T. was s t i l l President. There was a motion to i n v i t e . a member from the Board and Mr. T. thanked Mrs. N. for her report. March 3, 1953: " "Mr. T. asked i f there was any new business. Mrs. T. gathered herself together, had a conversation with her neighbour and then launched into an excited description of one of the group's a c t i v i t i e s . She complained that she had been accused of being a newcomer and t o l d that she could not s i t at a certain card table and she wanted to know i f "they could reserve a table l i k e that?"  »38-  Several members comforted her In her obvious d i s t r e s s , and added that Mrs. T. was a very old member and intimated that old members should never be so treated. Mr. K. defended the p o l i c y of the group and suggested that the next time the lady see the M.C. There was a heated discussion back and f o r t h and f i n a l l y the chairman c a l l e d for order,. Mrs. U. said she had always thought they needed a receptionist on these evenings, and that even she had been embarrassed when she couldn't f i n d a place to s i t . Mr. X. said that certain people-liked to play together and i t was unwise to break up friendships. Mrs. T. was almost i n tears by now and her neighbours were consoling her and singing her praises. Mr. N. said he thought t h i s was supposed to be a s o c i a l club but I t didn't sound very sociable.. Mrs. N. suggested that the delegate from the club take t h i s complaint to them and have them discuss i t and make some suggestions for a solution. The delegate then reported on the p o l i c y of the club i n t h i s connection. Mrs. W. commented on the autonomy of clubs to make t h e i r own arrangements. Mrs. U. said that t h i s problem had been glossed over before. Worker suggested that Mr. P. discuss i t with his club as a complaint brought to council. The chairman asked Mr. P. to report on t h i s at the next meeting. He added that he was sorry that Mrs. T. was peeved and said that he thought the discussion had been h e l p f u l , saying that " i t should do us a l o t of good.-". These excerpts give a f a i r l y adequate picture of the general conduct of council meetings and of the main concerns of t h i s representative group.  I t Indicates that the content i s geared  to the l e v e l of the members, that i t attempts to coordinate and to make decisions on problems presented.  I t shows too, that  duties are allocated, that there i s some evaluation of a c t i v i t i e s , and that the council i s interested i n helping groups to e f f e c t i v e l y use the channels set up.  The major weakness, .at  t h i s point, probably rests i n the type of leadership given by the chairman, though t h i s i s not so c l e a r l y portrayed excerpts.  in.these  Because he i s not w i l l i n g to give proper preparation  to meetings or s u f f i c i e n t l y Interested to follow through with committees and events planned, the council lacks the kind .of leadership that would bring out new i n t e r e s t s and develop the capacities of the members.  His authoritarian pattern coupled  -39-  with a pleasing. manner, tends to keep the group .pretty s t a t i c . Nevertheless t h i s measurement, i s r e l a t i v e , and i n view of. the potential, a b i l i t i e s of t h i s group they have been able to maintain a f a i r l y satisfactory record and have given considerable  leader-  ship to the membership and also have reflected, the thinking of a large section of the membership to the board and the s t a f f . Analysis of House Council Records The existence of a House Council within the Cordon House organization i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the attempt to. implement the purposes of the agency as stated i n the "Purpose and  Function '.  There i s no record of the reasons for the establishment Council i n i t i a l l y ; although whether the group was the request  of the membership or whether i t was  s t a f f or board i s not important at t h i s point.  1  of the  set up at  imposed by But there i s  evidence that the council, active i n integrating program, and planning special, events,, has attained considerable  status and  importance i n the agency as a whole. An i n i t i a l glance at the l i s t of groups  represented  immediately reveals that the council i s not t r u l y of the t o t a l membership.  representative  This agency has a c l i e n t e l e of over  a thousand persons, aged from two to ninety-two, and almost a hundred i n d i v i d u a l groups.  Yet the council reaches only a  small proportion of these individuals and groups and i s , therefore, l i m i t e d i n i t s major objective. represents  In fact, the council  one section of the membership, namely, the senior  c i t i z e n s , and a few of the adults.  In view of t h i s s i t u a t i o n  i t i s perhaps in-order to question the v a l i d i t y of such a council at a l l .  •^4o-  The concept of respect for individuals, .and the. p r i n c i p l e of Individual.development i s equally as important as the need for the d i s t r i b u t i o n of group representation.. some reasonable  For t h i s reason  compromise i s attempted considering the needs  of the p a r t i c u l a r situation. arrangement of membership.  In Gordon House there i s a unique On one hand, there i s a large group  of senior members; on the other, there i s an equally large section of children.  In between there i s a smaller group of  adults who are not closely related to the 'agency.  This  represents  a wide gap i n the membership, both i n terms of age and i n a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the management of the agency.  This makes a  very d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n i n spite of the tendency to i d e a l i z e a "family membership".  Psychologically i t i s accepted  that,  while children.are wary of adults, adults, p a r t i c u l a r l y older people, f e e l quite threatened by youth.  In a membership where  many of:these members are further limited, by d i f f i c u l t family r e l a t i o n s or no families at a l l , as. with many pensioners, the relationships between old and young are quite precarious. The agency administration i s thus faced with two important p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l group work: (a) the importance of membership p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the psychology of belonging and involvement, and (b) the need to begin at the l e v e l of the groups development.  I t has already been suggested that-  there are many members and groups i n the a c t i v i t i e s who are not ready or capable of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a council.  Still  there i s the need to make provision for the f u l l e s t development of a responsible membership who contributes i n the democratic operation-.of the agency and shares i n the " p r o f i t s and losses" with the administration.  -4r-  Reconciliation of these two fundamental ideas,, which at times .seem almost opposed -to one another, involves a compromise which w i l l be r e l a t i v e to. the particular, setting.. The administrat i o n of Gordon House, i f not the members themselves, have recognized the implications of the wide differences i n age of the membership and what t h i s means In an inter-group association. Certainly the s t a f f are aware that many of the primary groups and  certain individuals are not ready to move into t h i s second  step i n group relationships.  According to the objectives of ,  the council, any active group has the opportunity of being represented. representation itself.  An important part of the democratic process of i s the selection of delegates by the group  Throughout t h i s process the s t a f f are active i n helping  groups prepare for p a r t i c i p a t i o n and setting l i m i t s to ensure a successful experience.  The group decision and .planning  surrounding the choice of a delegate and then the actual . p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the council Is. a r e a l part of the membership's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n democratic administration.  There Is much  learning and growth i n the process of understanding the function of the council and the relationship of the club group to council. Encouraging groups to participate i n a council  involves  not only preparation of the council but also preparation of the council members.  In Gordon House t h i s i s c l e a r l y indicated  because of the tendency for senior members to take control of the council and make i t d i f f i c u l t  for younger people to gain  acceptance and to move i n any kind of a working r e l a t i o n s h i p . The  case of Miss G. and Miss C. bears t h i s out. "These two younger, single g i r l s came to the House because of an interest In c r a f t s . I t was f e l t by  -4.2s t a f f that the expressed need was accompanied by a deeper need for group support and fellowship. They were-.encouraged to j o i n the House Council to represent t h e i r group without r e a l l y understanding the nature of the council or t h e i r r o l e i n i t . They were active i n a committee on Christmas decorations, that i s , on a functional l e v e l , but i n the New Year ceased to attend council meetings. The group selection of delegates, the reporting and the instructions given to club representatives and the e l e c t i o n of council o f f i c e r s i s a further attempt to expose the members to democratic functioning.  The use of agendas, committees,  t h e i r group reports, and the c o l l e c t i v e thinking, evaluations and a program geared to the interest and a b i l i t y of the members a s s i s t s greatly In t h e i r understanding of democratic procedures. Not a l l of these techniques are adequately c a r r i e d out, just as many of the members are not aware of the function or the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of. the council.  For instance, the e l e c t i o n of  the o f f i c e r s at the annual meeting has become a matter of i n d i v i d u a l delegate function.  selection rather than, a representative  Where conditions are against the f u l l e s t functioning  of a council, such as with the s i t u a t i o n t h i s agency faces with an overbalancing  of older members, every opportunity needs  to be taken to e s t a b l i s h the significance of the council as a representative, body. opportunity  The e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s can be an  for group decision carried out by the representative  and can help to r e l a t e council and group i n a s a t i s f y i n g democratic experience. The Gordon House Council though representative i n name and function, i s not a c t u a l l y representative of the agency membership for the reasons discussed.  The fact that the council i s  -4.3almost e n t i r e l y composed of senior members, with t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n i n attitudes and a b i l i t i e s , i n the situation.  creates a number of negative elements  This block of members i n a p o s i t i o n of  authority can represent an. unequal control and lack of perspective, both i n the coordination of the agency membership and i n the execution of the purposes of the council. By optimum standards the delegates are not representative and some of them are not adequately an inter-group association.  f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r r o l e In  Nevertheless, and despite the  l i m i t a t i o n s , the council Is probably representative of the membership that i s able to p a r t i c i p a t e , and to a considerable degree i s operating as a delegate group, helping the members to work together on a program l e v e l and to use the channels of communication provided.  The council serves as a control for  the thinking and feelings of the members and gives s t a f f the opportunity to encourage new  attitudes and understanding  the entire membership of the House.  between  I t also serves as a l i a i s o n  between board and membership and i s i n a p o s i t i o n to .keep the board informed on membership events and a t t i t u d e s .  In t h i s  way  the House Council plays a v i t a l role i n the inter-group associat i o n of the agency primary groups, and i t stands as a symbol of the p o t e n t i a l opportunities for democratic membership p a r t i c i p a t i o n and shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Analysis of the structural p o s i t i o n of the council gives a picture of the functional relationships of agency administration. The structure of an agency provides the framework for communicat i o n and enables groups and individuals to work together  -44successfully.  The pattern of c i r c u l a r administration  recognizes  the need f o r c l e a r l y defined areas of authority and the creative c o l l e c t i v e thinking which comes i n a c i r c u l a r response. The chart on page 29 showing the c i r c u l a r relationships between units of the agency indicates that the House Council i s an active part of the structure with opportunities to communicate with the board and the membership.  This r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  however, i s not set up by constitution but rather by the sanction and acceptance of the board and s t a f f .  There i s  evidence that some of the board members have questioned the p o s i t i o n of a members' council; others f e e l handicapped by the A.C.A. constitution to develop further the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the membership.  Some board members see the council i n a  l i m i t e d area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and on a p r i v i l e g e basis, others have a wider understanding of the r i g h t s of membership to share i n the a f f a i r s of the agency.  Channels are only  useful i f they are i n use and to the extent that the r e l a t i o n ship i s mutually h e l p f u l and acceptable. According to the Council's Constitution one of the objectives, i s the coordination of program a c t i v i t i e s and a s s i s t i n g the "management".  This represents administration on the membership  l e v e l , with the focus on program and group r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A second function Is f o r "suggestions f o r the operation and Improvement of Gordon House".  This leads the council into an  area of policy-making i n matters concerning  the t o t a l agency.  Through representation to the board the council can recommend policy.  This d i s t i n c t i o n of function between the board and  council needs to be c l e a r l y outlined to avoid misunderstandings.  -45The records of the council t h i s year indicate that the council did not do much of t h i s but the provision i s there and properly used can contribute tremendously to the o v e r a l l administrative job. On the l e v e l of direct service, with channels to the membership at large,, the council i s active as an administrative organ.  The following I l l u s t r a t i o n i s an example of t h i s  "contact with the membership and the way t h i s i s used. March 3, 1953: "Mrs. T. discussed with the council her feelings about the reservation of card tables at one of the evening programs. The matter was discussed at length at the meeting and a variety of opinions was presented. I t was agreed that t h i s was a problem and the delegate from the group i n question was asked to defend t h e i r p o l i c y i n t h i s regard. The f i n a l decision was that the delegate•should discuss the problem with h i s club and report back to council. Mr. Q. did discuss t h i s matter with the club executive and some solutions were offered. Because Mr. .,Q. was absent from the next council meeting and Carnival plans had p r i o r i t y at t h i s time, there was no follow-up." This I l l u s t r a t i o n shows the kinds of problems which can. be helped on an inter-group basis and the resources available f o r delegates and members.  Without a council group i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to  bring matters to a place where the members themselves work out agreements which f a c i l i t a t e the whole area of group r e l a t i o n s h i p s . To the general membership the Council represents, a body to which they can appeal for d i r e c t i o n and assistance.  Mr. C. '.a  l e t t e r i s a further example of the member's use of the council. A p r i l 17. 1953: ^ "Mr. C. s l e t t e r , protesting the closing of Gordon House on Easter Monday, was read aloud punctuated by words of agreement from some of the members. The chairman Immediately said that t h i s was e n t i r e l y out of the area of the council and In so many words, dismissed the matter. Mr. K. was very upset by the chairman's attitude and said that the members demanded t h e i r rights, said t h i s was a matter for 1  ^46the House Council, and said he wanted the Executive Director to deal with t h i s . -Several agreed with him but Mrs. N. suggested that t h i s should go to the board. Mr. K. i n s i s t e d that t h i s was a matter to be settled by the "management". The chairman said that the Executive Director was.represented i n the meeting by Miss A. and.that complaints could be handled through her. The worker explained that the House had always been closed on the Easter Monday but that they could present t h e i r feelings about t h i s i f they thought t h i s should be changed. I t was agreed that the matter should be referred to the Executive Director. May 5. 1953: "The Executive Director referred to Mr. C.'s l e t t e r and suggested that the council could make recommendation to the board to change the p o l i c y i f they f e l t changes were i n order. Mr. K. said he couldn't understand a delegate sending a l e t t e r , why didn't he come and defend h i s complaint. They picked, up on t h i s and agreed that Mr. C. should have come to the meeting. Mr. N. said that the council should just ignore i t i f Mr. C. didn't f e e l that i t was worth following up. The chairman said that at least we could be p o l i t e and send him a l e t t e r I n v i t i n g him to present his protest to the council. There was further discussion and they agreed that Mr. C. had been out of order i n writing as an i n d i v i d u a l ; that he should have worked "through h i s . group.", This i l l u s t r a t e s , not only the members' understanding,, and. use of the Council, but also the delegates'  feelings about group  representation and the p r o p e r procedures to follow.  The fact  that t h i s i s a negative use of the council, ( i . e . the r e g i s t r a t i o n of a complaint),  and that i t does show some of the  l i m i t a t i o n s of the council members, does not diminish the function which the council performs.  In f a c t , i t indicates another  important function of the council; i t provides a setting i n which the membership at large and the delegates too, can release h o s t i l e feelings that have developed towards one another or towards the agency and i t s s t a f f . The organization of committees set up by the council i s another example of the use of c i r c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The  annual Gordon. House Carnival Is one of the. biggest membership events of the. year.  The o v e r a l l Carnival committee i s appointed  by the council and i s responsible to them, and i n d i r e c t l y of course through the council to the Board.  Because the Carnival  i s planned as an agency project, a l l sections of the membership are reached through subcommittees of the council planning and through the s t a f f . The committee structure and the membership for t h i s event are shownon page 48.  The extent of the planning of t h i s program  involves a rather complicated structure and many individuals, and for t h i s reason there are both p o s i t i v e and negative factors. A democratic structure i s set up and the opportunities for learning and experience i n such a cooperative project has r e a l value for many persons.  I t does unite the membership i n one  a c t i v i t y for the benefit of the agency and .Indirectly as members.  themselves  For some members i t i s the f i r s t time they have been  made aware of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the membership working together and they begin to f e e l a part of the larger organization. Many groups not previously active i n the council are helped to take on r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and more active groups find new strength i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to organize and p a r t i c i p a t e . This year i t had been hoped that the Children and t h e i r parents would take on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the Decorating Committee and do the necessary planning for t h i s area of Carnival activities.  Faced with the r e a l i t i e s of the situation, i t  proved impossible to include the children In the membership of the committee; and so, where the children helped to make decorations i n t h e i r small groups, the adults took on the o v e r a l l  COMMITTEE STRUCTURE AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR CARNIVALJ PLANNING GORDON HOUSE BOARD OF DIRECTORS HOUSE COUNCIL I  OVERALL^CARNIVAL COMMITTEE REFRESHMENT GYM E N T E R T A I ^ S T ^ ^ V I L T I E S & DETRACTIONS SENIOR HOUSE PUBLIC RELACOMMITTEE COMMITTEE COMMITTEE COMMITTEE COMMITTEE TIONS COMMITTEE Overall Carnival Committee - Responsible for co-ordinating a l l plans for Carnival. Mrs. T. .(Chairman) Mr* N. - Chairman of Gym Committee Mrs. C. (former Chairman) ft Mrs. H. - Chairman of Entertainment Committee ft Mrs. J. Mr. M. - Chairman of Senior House Committee Mr. P. ft Mrs. M. - Novelties & Decorations Staff Gym Committee - Responsible for planning for and obtaining^games, construction of booths, and manning of games throughout Carnival. Mr. N. (Chairman) 4 Mr. H.R. ft Mr. Mr. P. ft Mr. C. Staff ft Miss M.H. Entertainment Committee - Responsible for Band Wagon Spot entertainment, Official Opening, and Saturday Night Dance, ft Mrs. Ho (Chairman) Mrs. I. ft Mrs. H. Mrs. B. ft Mrs. J. Staff Novelties & Decorations - Responsible for planning and providing decorations and special novelty stunts. ft Mrs. M. (Chairman) ft Mrs. B. ft Mrs. W. Staff Senior House Committee - Responsible for planning booths & stalls in Senior House. Mr. M. (Chairman) Mrs. A. •. '. • ft Mrs. B. Mr. W. Mrs. M. Mrs. M. ft Mrs. H. Staff Public Relations Committee - Responsible for tickets, publicity & public relations. Chairman of Overall Carnival Committee ft Mr. H. ft Mr. H. - Board Member Staff Refreshment Committee - Tuesday Social Club Chairman - Mrs. T. ft Represents individuals who are not House Council members.  -4.9-  planning. able  to  on the  Some o f t h e  carry  out  their  experience  Some m e m b e r s  were  fun of  plan.  together the  Included  Another  of  attempt the of  the  council  representative  the  groups  represented  delegates.  responsibility  The  group  reporting to and  opinions.  their  to  and  Council groups  total  is  with. at  make t o  reports  large their  depends  there  some  relationship  with  of the  membership.  activities  council  Not a l l of  the  o r make u s e  of  their  of  this  are  delegates  The r e g u l a r i t y a help  q u i t e .concerned  aware of and  their prominence  in this about  and b r i n g i n g b a c k t h e i r  as  of  conscious  executive  is  group  is  make u s e  council  meetings  of  i n f o r m e d on the  are  the  membership  where  and the  to  remind the  matter.  but  kept  face  delegates  of these  council  council  i n council  chairman.-of the  are  encouraged  often  in this  reports  delegate  groups  Some o f t h e and f a i r l y  come f a c e  have  membership.  and the p r e s s u r e s  delegate,  on t h e  the  conception  f u n c t i o n of the  which;the  of the  "channels"  a wider  communication w i t h the  group  concerned.  of collective thinking,  members  c l u b members  depending  a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h members  and the  reports  more  own r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o  experience  process  of the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  of  agency  were  others  individuals  and c o n s i s t e n c y  and are  the  weakness  of  process  individual  make u s e  council, the  of  regular  on the  to  kind  which the  The c o n t e n t  course  the  the  source  through the  groups.  is  project  i n t r i c a c y of the  o f d e c i s i o n s and p l a n s ,  responsibility  is  is  of the  in this  formulation  relating their  and i n the  purposes  of the  confused by the  This  in this  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s than  and a b i l i t y  and had d i f f i c u l t y total  committees  regard. delegates  suggestions  November 1, .1952: A p l a n n i n g s e s s i o n between Chairman and Worker. "Mrs.. -T.. - ( P r e s i d e n t o f C o u n c i l ) launched i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n of the.member's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r r e p o r t i n g back t o t h e i r c l u b s , and s a i d she would remind them o f t h i s a g a i n at the next meeting. Worker suggested t h a t p o s t i n g o f c o u n c i l minutes on the House b u l l e t i n board f o r a l l t o r e a d might h e l p . Mrs. T. s a i d t h a t the d e l e g a t e s should take notes at the meeting." A p r i l 7, 1955: During a d i s c u s s i o n o f C a r n i v a l "The Chairman requested t h a t members d i s c u s s w i t h t h e i r groups t h e i r suggestions f o r the use o f C a r n i v a l proceeds." T h i s c o n t i n u a l reminder o f the "from and t o " keeps the focus on the r o l e o f the d e l e g a t e and the purpose o f the c o u n c i l . Communication w i t h the Board o f D i r e c t o r s has been by a procedure o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the House C o u n c i l .  The C o u n c i l  has the o p p o r t u n i t y o f p r e s e n t i n g two names t o the nomination committee o f the agency  for their selection.  These names a r e  then on a s i m i l a r b a s i s as other nominations and t h e r e f o r e may or may not become board members.  I n the l a s t  few y e a r s the  nominations committee has made I t a p r a c t i c e t o present, .the names suggested by the c o u n c i l f o r nomination and i n the course of the A.C.A. annual meeting these have been made board members on the Gordon House Committee.  I n t h i s way they do not have  delegate status except as they r e p r e s e n t the g e n e r a l community, which I s the p o l i c y o f the board.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the board member,  who.is a l s o a member o f the c o u n c i l , has been used i n a. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p o s i t i o n and w i t h the h e l p o f the d i r e c t o r makes r e p o r t s t o the c o u n c i l on board a c t i v i t i e s and v i c e v e r s a .  This  r a t h e r ambiguous p o s i t i o n i n which the c o u n c i l member has been p l a c e d , though i t has g i v e n the c o u n c i l a r e a l c o n t a c t w i t h the board, .makes f o r a good d e a l of confusion..in..the minds o f t h e c o u n c i l members and o f the membership a t l a r g e .  Unconsciously  the membership tends t o i d e n t i f y w i t h the board member who i s  a l s o a c t i v e i n t h e membership and t o f e e l t h a t t h i s I s t h e i r only l i n k w i t h t h e board and t h e i r o n l y share i n the governing of t h e i r  affairs.  T h i s year t h e r e has been only one c o u n c i l member s e r v i n g on the board; t h e former member was. deceased and t h e c o u n c i l had not moved t o make any f u r t h e r nomination t o t h e board.  Other  board members, and t h e r e a r e two or t h r e e who became board members through c o u n c i l recommendation, have ceased t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n agency program and t o some extent have l o s t t h e i r w i t h the g e n e r a l membership.  identification  At l e a s t t h e membership f e e l s that  t h i s i s so, and t h a t "the only board member they have i s t h i s one c o u n c i l member". meetings  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt from C o u n c i l and Board  i s an example of the r o l e o f the member who i s b o t h  c o u n c i l member and board member and who a c t s i n a delegate p o s i t i o n . March 3, 1955: C o u n c i l Meeting. . . . . " "The .Chairman c a l l e d on Mrs. N. f o r the Board r e p o r t . Mrs. N. d i s t r i b u t e d the f i n a n c i a l summary sheets, and then i n a very q u i e t v o i c e , read from her notes i n d i c a t i n g that t h e Board was i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s t a t u s o f membership r e p r e s e n t a " tion.'V. March 18, 1955: Board Meeting.. "Mrs. .N.. .reported that House C o u n c i l was c o u n t i n g on t h e support o f the Board i n connection w i t h the C a r n i v a l . A l e t t e r from the Dance Club was read r e q u e s t i n g some minor adjustment i n v e n t i l a t i o n i n the S o c i a l Room. T h i s matter was turned over t o the B u i l d i n g Committee." The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s r e p o r t i n g back and f o r t h i s dependent on the c a p a c i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l member and the help given by the s t a f f .  Mrs. N. i s not very a c t i v e i n e i t h e r s e t t i n g and  i s not too e f f i c i e n t in. u s i n g the o p p o r t u n i t i e s to. develop, t h e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s from t h i s source.  N e v e r t h e l e s s i t does  r e p r e s e n t some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the f u n c t i o n and p o s i t i o n o f the C o u n c i l .  Perhaps one  of the b e s t  examples i n t h i s process of  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are the f o l l o w i n g c h r o n o l o g i c a l excerpts v a r i o u s meetings.  The  circular from  f i r s t Is from a House C o u n c i l Meeting.  December 2, 1952:: ."The Chairman s a i d t h a t we should c o n s i d e r plans f o r the C o u n c i l Annual Meeting. Mr. K."asked what r e p o r t s t h e r e would be, and thought there should be a meeting where suggestions came from the groups. The Chairman s a i d those should come to r e g u l a r meetings o f the c o u n c i l . The D i r e c t o r r e l a t e d Mr. K's i d e a t o the membership meeting which was h e l d two.years ago. The Chairman took support from t h i s and began to push f o r a Members' Meeting. A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n i t was agreed on and a date arranged." A month l a t e r at the Annual Members' Meeting (January 22): " A l l s e n i o r groups represented on the agenda and gave d e t a i l e d r e p o r t s on t h e i r group's a c t i v i t i e s . I n the q u e s t i o n p e r i o d which followed there was only one q u e s t i o n from a member about Gordon House f i n a n c e s , s t a f f and some c r i t i c a l remarks about c e r t a i n program activities. The E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r and the P r e s i d e n t o f the Board spoke t o these questions and suggested t h a t some of these questions would be answered at the Annual A.C.A. meeting and he encouraged members t o a t t e n d . " At the A.C.A. meeting Mr.. K. the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and  (member o f House C o u n c i l ) ,  questioned  of the membership on the Gordon House Board  the money spent on t h e i r b u i l d i n g .  House members only had  one  Mr.  J . said that  member on t h a t Board, Mrs.  "Gordon  M."  House C o u n c i l Meeting: March 3, 1953 "Mr. T. ( P r e s i d e n t ) d e s c r i b e d what had happened at the Annual Members' Meeting and commented on the f u n c t i o n o f the c o u n c i l , -'Mr. K. i n t e r r u p t e d and s a i d that membership should have more than one member on the Board.. He became very e x c i t e d and i n f e r r e d t h a t the Board members d i d n ' t know anything about what the members were doing. There was d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h the worker attempting to e x p l a i n the p o l i c y i n t h i s connection. Mrs. N. agreed to ask the Board about t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . " Minutes of Senior House A d v i s o r y Committee: March 1, 1953 "The E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r reported.oh House C o u n c i l and l i s t e d committee s t r u c t u r e f o r the C a r n i v a l . She mentioned t h a t Mr. K. had again questioned the s t r u c t u r e of the Board and the r i g h t s of members as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . There was much d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s p o i n t . The committee f e l t t h a t  -53t h i s should be cleared by the A.C.A. and the f o l l o w i n g questions channeled through the Board. 1. are members of Gordon House members of A.C.A.? 2. what are t h e i r .'voting r i g h t s ? 3. do they have the r i g h t t o Board representation; and i f so,, how? Minutes of Board Meeting': A p r i l 15, 1953 . "Mr. T. reported that a c o n s t i t u t i o n of A.C.A. i n d i c a t e d that members of Gordon House are not members of A.C.A., that Gordon House members have no v o t i n g p r i v i l e d g e s and that there i s " no s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e that would give members representation to the Board. Mr. T. recommended that copies of the c o n s t i t u t i o n be c i r c u l a t e d to Board members. I t was agreed that there were channels f o r House Council representation t o the Board and that nothing i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n prevented Gordon House from s e t t i n g up some structure f o r representation. I t was f e l t that since House Council had asked f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n on these matters, that someone from the Board should discuss i t with them." House Council Meeting: May 5. 1953 ~~~ "Mrs. N. s a i d that the Council had asked about t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the Board and that the.Board had been i n v e s t i g a t i n g the status of membership i n Gordon House and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . She s a i d that a study of the constitution-was not very r e v e a l i n g , that the c o n s t i t u t i o n was so general eind confusing on t h i s p o i n t . She suggested that the Council i n v i t e a member of the Board t o come to t h e i r next meeting and discuss i t w i t h them,". The democratic process i s frequently a lengthy procedure; but i n these excerpts the members of the House are seen u s i n g the channels of democratic a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o probe one of the v i t a l elements of membership p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  The i l l u s t r a t i o n  i n d i c a t e s the numbers, of people and groups which are drawn into" the d i s c u s s i o n , and the way they are helped t o channel t h e i r questions and make some d e c i s i o n .  I t i s always a p o s i t i v e note  when i n d i v i d u a l s are a l e r t e d t o t h e i r r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s - , and the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n agency purpose and operation, membership capacity, and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l , a u t h o r i t y are the major problems f a c i n g group work agencies a t t h i s time.  The  c r e a t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g , of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s dependent  on the q u a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n the and  subsequently on the degree of maturity  involved.  Maturity  responsiveness,  take, w i l l i n g n e s s t o  make reasonable compromises, c l a r i t y o f thought, and of change.  The  r  o f the i n d i v i d u a l s  has been d e f i n e d as warmth,  a b i l i t y to work w i t h others, to give and  group  acceptance  i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the House  C o u n c i l determines In f a c t the extent  to which t h i s group performs  i t s f u n c t i o n i n the p r a c t i c e of democratic  administration.  I n the Council,, where i n d i v i d u a l s are assuming a dual  role,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e p r e s e n t a t i v e persons Is even more intricate.  The  member has the need to express h i m s e l f  e s t a b l i s h h i s s t a t u s w i t h other a l s o to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e two  of the  r o l e s cannot e n t i r e l y be  i n d i v i d u a l s and  the worker,  f e e l i n g s o f h i s group.  separated  t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y which the delegate  and  are a p a r t of  and  The the  b r i n g s to the C o u n c i l group,  A f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s the age members and  and  of  the  what t h i s means i n terms of c a p a c i t y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n  and a t t i t u d e s . Trecker  has  s a i d that " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of thinking, planning  and  action".  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n , the use  i s a c r e a t i v e process  T h i s i n v o l v e s the  total-  of democratic.techniques, committees  and r e p o r t s , the s t r u c t u r a l framework, and  the e n a b l i n g  i n d i v i d u a l s to work p r o d u c t i v e l y w i t h i n the purposes of agency. one  A n a l y s i s and  measurement of t h i s process w i t h i n  of the any  agency can. probably best be-viewed ..in. terms of comparison;  "but s i n c e every...setting and  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e group i s . p e c u l i a r to  t h a t s i t u a t i o n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o judge success or f a i l u r e  on  -55that b a s i s .  Measurement of s o c i a l case work has been based  on the p r i n c i p l e o f "movement", that i s , the evidence of change and  growth.  Measurement of t h i s k i n d n e c e s s i t a t e s  r a t i n g o f the l e v e l of o p e r a t i o n at s p e c i f i c times by standards.  a  accepted  Groups are r a t e d on the amount of group f e e l i n g ,  t h e i r f e e l i n g s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the development of program, and what the group t h i n k s of i t s e l f .  To  conclude t h i s a n a l y s i s  an attempt has been made t o measure the p r o d u c t i v i t y of Gordon House C o u n c i l at the end The  schedule (Figure 111)  B e r n s t e i n ^ and T r e c k e r ' s ^  of the program year  i s based on an a d a p t a t i o n evaluation  the  1952-53. of  charts.  T h i s e v a l u a t i o n i n d i c a t e s , i n summary form, a measurement of the development of the House C o u n c i l as a working group.  The  r a t i n g shows t h a t the group maintains at l e a s t  an average p r o d u c t i v i t y , and encountered i n any  t h i s , i n view o f the  difficulties  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body, i s a noteworthy  fact.  I f the group shows l i m i t a t i o n s i n p o t e n t i a l growth, i t a l s o shows t h a t the c o u n c i l has a l r e a d y a t t a i n e d a h i g h degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n and  a b i l i t y to cope with the b u s i n e s s at hand.  Measurement here, i s a r e l a t i v e t h i n g , f o r no i n an optimum s e t t i n g . be  considered  not  group work, but  I t Is important t h a t r a t i n g s  only i n terms of standard  practice i n social  a l s o i n the l i g h t of the p o t e n t i a l i n the  particular setting.  4. B e r n s t e i n ,  Press, New  Therefore,  group operates  The Gordon House C o u n c i l , with i t s  S a u l , C h a r t i n g Group P r o c e s s , A s s o c i a t i o n  York, 194-9.  5. Trecker, H., Group Process i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Woman's P r e s s , New York, 1950, p. 166.  -56Fig. I l l  EVALUATION OF GROUP PBXJBgCTIVlTI House Council 1952-53  Evaluation Items  1.  1. Attendance  2.  Scale £ 3-  X  2. Group Organization - parliamentary pro- reports, minutes - committees 3. To what extent is there a balance of participation on the part of council members?  X  X  U. To -what extent i s there collective thinking and co-operative planning?  X  5. To what extent does the chairman do an effective job of leadership?  X  6. To what extent do the members feel representative and understand the function of the Council?  X  7.' To what extent are the members able to deal with differences of opinion?  X  •  8. To what extent i s the group developing "wider horizons"? A  A.  X  The scale is from low to high in numerical progression.  5.  -57liml.tatI.ons of age,  representation,  and perhaps of u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  i s doing a worthwhile job i n the agency, ship,  the s t a f f  a s s i s t i n g the member-  and the Board to c a r r y out the democratic purposes  of a l e i s u r e - t i m e  social  agency.  -58CHAP.TER.ail The, Role of the .Group. Worker The social, group worker Is primarily the helper, the enabler, the c a t a l y s t .  He i s s k i l l e d i n understanding human, relation?-  ships and the meaning of group behaviour.  He believes that  group Interaction i s the basis of s o c i a l growth and development, and that the democratic process i s conducive to s a t i s f y i n g group living..  The professional worker i s s k i l l e d i n diagnosing  the l e v e l of the group's development and i n a s s i s t i n g the group to r e a l i z e i t s maximum capacity.  Therefore  the worker plays  a r e a l part i n the development of a democratic community from the membership of a Neighbourhood House. Consideration of the r o l e of the worker i n t h i s dicsussion i s an attempt to ascertain something of the s p e c i f i c Involved i n democratic administration..  skills  In t h i s connection I t  i s reasonable, t o ask:, to what extent Is the worker responsible for. creating a responsible membership and how Is. t h i s accomplished? What i s the d i s t i n c t i o n between leadership and manipulation of the group; and how does the worker guide the process of democratic decision-making and corporate  action?  What i s the r o l e of the group worker i n the administrative setting?  Some writers suggest that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  e f f e c t i v e administrator are not unlike those of the d i r e c t , service worker, that i s , the worker who i s i n contact with the primary group.  Trecker,^however, suggests that the worker .in  1. Trecker, H., Study Project on the- Job of the Executive: Director, National Board, Y.W.C.A., New York, 1950  -59-  the administrative process assumes a d d i t i o n a l r o l e s and responsibilities.  He states that the way  in.which the administrator  works c l e a r l y a f f e c t s the behaviour of the group, (this holds true for every group of course), also, that only through complete recording of the group i n t e r a c t i o n can the worker evaluate his own r o l e i n the situation.  Whereas the. recording of the.  primary group i s pretty well accepted, the recording board and committee meetings i s not so common.  Trecker claims too, that  the administrator must be s k i l l e d i n "helping people become engaged or involved In a p a r t i c i p a t i n g way  as they work together  i n a l l forms of administrative thinking and action"*  Further,  he assumes that the r o l e of the administrator must change as the group proceeds, and that the r o l e of the  administrator  changes, not according to a prearranged plan, but i n terms of the group development.--from meeting to meeting*  Trecker points,  out that the administrator must bring to the group a.sense of wholeness and coordination since every unit a f f e c t s the t o t a l agency but the u n i t s themselves have a l i m i t e d v i s i o n . In analyzing the r o l e of the worker i n the  Intergroup  setting Kewstetter puts f o r t h the following statement of function. "Generally the r o l e of the Social Intergroup Worker i s , (1) to enable the intergroup to develop suitable structure and operating practices to a t t a i n the achievement of the s o c i a l goals selected; (2) to enable individuals i n the intergroup to function adequately both with respect to the a c t i v i t i e s of the intergroup and respect to the group they are representative of; (3) to enable groups represented to p a r t i c i p a t e appropriately i n the process." 2  2 . Newstetter, W.I.,  Op.  c i t . , p. 2 1 J  -Sa-  l t appears that -the worker related to the representative group has r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n four main areas: to the intergroup i t s e l f , to the Individuals, who make up the group, to the groups they represent, and to the t o t a l agency.  Analysis of the role of  the worker, i n what follows, i s made i n terms of these d i v i s i o n s . The records of the Gordon House Council t h i s year are not s u f f i c i e n t l y complete to give a comprehensive picture of the. various r o l e s that the worker, has assumed.throughout-the entire process.  Therefore a certain amount of observation and evalua^  t i o n of the o v e r a l l agency pattern w i l l be supplemented.. The v a l i d i t y of such material i s subject of course to the o b j e c t i v i t y of the observer and some comparison of the r o l e of the worker i n other settings and previous experiences. The fact that both the Executive Director and a student worker were associated with the council t h i s year presents a factor of dual leadership which makes t h i s s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r somewhat from the usual.  There is.no attempt to compare the  r o l e of the one worker with the other since the student was attempting to f u l f i l the r o l e of the administrator i n t h i s instance.  The executive i s referred to as the director i n the  material and the student as the worker, but i n effect the analysis Is i n terms of the worker as i f i t were one person. Worker Vs. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the Intergroup This general area of concern can be further broken down Into the worker's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r establishing a sound relationship with the group* for providing suitable structure, for the program contentvand expression, and f o r interpreting to the group the r o l e of the worker.  The worker, i s able to work successfully with a group because of the r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s established. i s a way  of thinking and doing, a way  This " r e l a t i o n s h i p "  of i n t e r a c t i n g with group  members that ensures mutual acceptance and confidence.  A  relationship can of course be either a negative or a p o s i t i v e one.  The onus i s on the worker to e s t a b l i s h and maintain the  kind of r e l a t i o n s h i p that i s both productive and  satisfying.  Relationship i s the essence of group l i v i n g ; a guided.relationship i s the basis of democratic p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The aim of the relationship established with an administrative group, may  d i f f e r somewhat from that of the r e l a t i o n s h i p the  worker has with the club, group, but the quality i s the-same. A measurement of the r e l a t i o n s h i p established by the worker i s not e a s i l y described because i t i s a part of the t o t a l i n t e r action and therefore not e a s i l y separated and set apart.  It  becomes more evident i n the tone and. mood of -the group than.in the verbalized expression of e i t h e r the group member, or the worker.  Observation .of the. Gordon House Council reveals that  a precedent of p o s i t i v e relationships.between, the group .and-the worker has been established by the d i r e c t o r over a period, of time. I t i s not by accident that the following i s the most usual mood of the members as they gather for t h e i r meetings. March 3. 1953; "At 8:00 p.m. the members poured into the meeting room and several of the men went out a f t e r more chairs. They a l l seemed In good s p i r i t s and pleased that so many had turned out. They chatted with each other and with the worker. Mrs„T. f i n a l l y called the meeting to order. He helped Mrs.. I . (the new secretary) f i n d the minutes and asked her to read them. Previous to t h i s Mr. T. welcomed a l l th.e new faces. Mrs. U. said that hers wasn't new, just i n a d i f f e r e n t place. They a l l enjoyed t h i s and laughed h e a r t i l y . " .  -62This example comes as a r e s u l t of a continuing strong r e l a t i o n ship between the worker and the group.  The director sets much  of the relaxed enjoyable atmosphere of. the meetings with her sense of humour and her genuine interest i n the group.  One of  the techniques the director uses i s her natural humor.  In d i s -  cussing plans f o r Christmas a c t i v i t i e s at the December meeting the members quickly focused on the director's fondness f o r . plum pudding and i n the fun over t h i s , shared with the worker, the worker relates the group more quickly to the planning process. In establishing t h i s kind .of a r e l a t i o n s h i p the worker has to understand the composition and the background of the group.  Mutual respect and l i k i n g Is dependent on the worker's  acceptance of himself and h i s r o l e i n the group and on h i s acceptance of the group and t h e i r l e v e l of operation.  Periods  of regression i n the group's development, sometimes i l l u s t r a t e d by lengthy, discussions of petty complaints, and .crlticisms.-of younger members i n the agency, such, as are recorded .in.council meetings,  can.be d i f f i c u l t f o r the worker to accept and deal  with constructively.  I t i s at t h i s point that the worker needs  to assess the beginning .level, of the group, accept t h e i r l i m i t a tions and strengths, r e a l i s t i c a l l y and with o b j e c t i v i t y . A further evidence of the s t a b i l i t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between group and worker i s the comparable ease with which, the student was able to move into the group.  This indicates that  the group had been secure enough with t h e i r worker to transfer t h e i r acceptance to another person. October 7, 1952: . "Student waited i n meeting room f o r members to arrive and introduced herself to the f i r s t to come. Mrs. X. p a r t i c u l a r l y was very f r i e n d l y and Introduced the  -63student to the others as they arrived. Mrs. X.. seemed to have a good understanding of the reasons for the student's presence and. she talked about what the previous student had done. When the chairman arrived he c a l l e d the student over, t o l d her where to s i t and thanked har f o r having the agendas ready." An important factor i n a relationship i s the use of language and the ease with which thoughts are communicated to the group at t h e i r l e v e l of understanding and acceptance.  In order to  determine the core of the senior membership i t had been agreed i n a s t a f f meeting that the t o t a l attendance recorded for one month.  figures should be  Previous experience had shown that  older people d i s l i k e d being asked .to sign i n and so i t was  felt  that some interpretation.should be done, through the Council members.  The procedure would be considerably easier once the  council understood .why the check was being made.and. t h e i r support was. obtained.... With singular s k i l l , that i s not adequately i l l u s t r a t e d i n the narrative.record,, the. d i r e c t o r was able to choose words and expression, that won unanimous support for t h i s innovation. December 3t 195.2; "The President asked the Director i f she had any announcements to make. The Director f i r s t of a l l complimented two of the members for the Job they had done as hostesses on behalf of the council at the party for New Canadians. Then she said we would be taking attendance each day for the next month at the front desk and that the delegates, should explain t h i s to the members i n advance so that they would be prepared. She explained that s t a t i s t i c s were needed to show how large our program had grown and Just how t h i s would be done without asking each member to sign every day." Some may  f e e l that the worker i n t h i s instance was  manipulating  the s i t u a t i o n by means, of f l a t t e r y , and. of course, motives should always be examined.  Nevertheless, the use of praise  which Is j u s t i f i e d i s not only h e l p f u l to the., individual-and the group, but i t can also a s s i s t the group to accept an otherwise d i f f i c u l t move.  Here the emphasis Is on a f u l l  explanation of the procedure to the group and helping them to f e e l some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the undertaking. Another important factor i n establishing a p o s i t i v e relationship i s the need for the worker to keep her feelings under control and to avoid becoming defensive.  This is.even  more important i n an administrative setting because of .the worker's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the total, agency and the. dangers of overidentifying..with any one element, of .the. structure. In a council where the group i s handicapped .by the.lack of an overall, representative and ..the personal. l i m i t a t i o n s of the members, the worker i s often .in.danger of becoming defensive or on the other hand of giving unlimited support to the section represented.. "In the February meeting a l e t t e r was read complaining of teen-age behaviour at a recent agency event. The director by way of explanation gave the p a r t i c u l a r s of the s i t u a t i o n and said that the President of the Board had already spoken to the complainant. Several of the Council members were outspoken i n t h e i r c r i t i c i s m of teen-age behaviour and the i n a b i l i t y of the s t a f f to manage them. They suggested that notices should be posted i n the b u i l d i n g describing the standards of behaviour expected of participants In the program. Some of them also offered t h e i r services In coping with the d i s c i p l i n e problems. The Director thanked the men for t h e i r o f f e r and added that t h i s was not just a Gordon House problem, etc. There was some further discussion pro and con teen-age behaviour and f i n a l l y the chairman said that a l e t t e r should go to the writer of the l e t t e r indicating the steps taken i n t h i s regard and he added that i t was a hard job handling teen-agers and perhaps we did need to have the rules more c l e a r l y outlined." The Director here does not negate the member's concern for teenage behaviour, neither i s she on the defensive.  She does attempt  -65to help the members under stand, .some of the reasons ..for such behaviour and suggests ways In which I t can be controlled. I t i s not always possible to keep one's feelings under control especially when the worker f e e l s the Individuals are making unreasonable demands. There i s a place here f o r a firmness of p o s i t i o n which protects the interests of a l l . concerned. A p o s i t i v e , enduring relationship i s aided by the group's f e e l i n g that the worker i s accepting and dependable.  The kind of support  which i s given to the group in vestablishing a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s ;  dependent on the particular, needs of the group. In order to function successfully the members need to f e e l themselves a part of the group and the worker i s therefore active i n helping the council develop and maintain .a bond of group strength.  This i s sometimes a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n to a t t a i n  because once the members become "a group unto themselves".., they cease to. function.as a representative council.  In the Gordon  House Council, the., function of the delegates _has ..been .emphasized through regular group reports and t h i s has served to reinforce the relationship of the delegates, to each other and also Increased t h e i r understanding and interest i n the council as a group. This, attitude appears to have developed as a kind of contagion caught from the worker and the procedures which have resulted have produced a r e a l measure of group f e e l i n g .  This has come  about too, as a r e s u l t of the s a t i s f a c t i o n and prestige which, the members enjoy i n .their status as an.admlnistrativ.e group. I t i s the function of the worker to stimulate the feelings of security and freedom among the members.  Some of t h i s comes  through the active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s as a group, but  It also comes as a r e s u l t of the. attitudes which are developed and encouraged as the worker relates to the group as a whole. Perhaps one of the tests of the strength of the group feeling, i s the a b i l i t y of the members to express both p o s i t i v e and negative opinions and the ease-with which they integrate the differences presented.. In the House Council the active members appear quite free . and.anxious to express t h e i r feelings and the. r o l e of the worker has been largely that of introducing.."reality" and l i m i t s to t h e i r discussions and .helping them to. accept and integrate differences of opinion..  At the same time, the members, .who are inactive i n  the meeting situation,, because of the freedom of the others to participate,, are,. In a sense, rejected and the group lacks r e a l unity.  Also, older people, l i k e children,, sometimes.act out of  proportion to the s i t u a t i o n and t h e i r expression a sign of health or security with the group.  is;not necessarily  In t h i s group, such  instances of impulsive behaviour are usually quickly resolved without prolonged bad feelings.  But t h i s does point to the need  for the worker to assess continually the health of the group and to accept certain l i m i t a t i o n s . In these records the worker serves to b r i n g the members i n . touch with r e a l i t y at the point of t h e i r fantasies and.to a s s i s t the .group to select t h e i r decisions c a r e f u l l y . t h i s i s the. behaviour of Mrs. teen-age .behaviour.  One instance of  C. i n r e l a t i o n to a discussion,of  Mrs. C. became .highly Indignant and .upset  as.the discussion proceeded, and .her near-hysteria was r a p i d l y spreading to the group.  Her outrage finally, s e t t l e d  Jan..the  d i r e c t o r as she p r o j e c t e d . a l l her f e e l i n g s about the d i s c i p l i n i n g of young people.  The director, f i n d i n g that a l o g i c a l  explanation  of the s i t u a t i o n and the plans to handle i t f a i l e d to reach her, added an element of humour to the discussion and ..Immediately-the mounting tension broke and the protest l o s t i t s magnitude. Mrs. C. r e t i r e d f a i r l y graciously and without f e e l i n g defeated or r i d i c u l e d .  This type of behaviour may be peculiar to certain  individuals i n the group but also i t may be closely related to the psychology of the older person..  In the case of the l a t t e r ,  i t i s questionable how much growth or change can be expected. On the other hand there i s evidence that the older people i n t h i s group association have grown In certain Instances and i t may  be  that one cannot r e a l l y know when change i s no longer possible. Perhaps more important than the v e r b a l i z a t i o n of feelings i s the process of integration where groxirth i s evidented.  This  process involves p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a kind of compromise as i n d i v i d u a l members accept decisions other than t h e i r own.  Older  folk f i n d i t more d i f f i c u l t to accept change and therefore integration i s a r e a l sign of development.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to  f i n d examples of t h i s process i n the records because of the leadership of the President i n the group, which tends to.be authoritarian; but the general l e v e l of the group feeling.does Indicate that there are instances of r e a l group thinking and action^ The group tends to r e l y heavily on parliamentary order .and procedure.  This may be d i r e c t l y related to the background .and  experience of the group but i t tends to suggest that a r b i t r a r y decisions are made using a .democratic .form,., rather than a thorough discussion. of group thinking.  In t h i s way there i s no r e a l integration  .-gai t was F o l l e t t 3 who referred to integration as ".the. t h i r d thing"; that i s , not c o n f l i c t , or. compromise, but a new something which .emerges, .as ..the result of cooperative thinking. Worker's .Responsibility.for Structure In order that the intergroup function adequately i t must have some kind of framework of operation.  One of the most  obvious roles of the worker i s In t h i s area of developing suitable structure and operating procedures*  This i s the work-  ing l e v e l of the group - the group has. a. job to do and ..the worker must assist, them to perform i t e f f i c i e n t l y and....reasonably .well. This i s the area,, too, where the members..most, easily, see the place of the...worker.  In the December, meeting of the House  Council, the worker was active i n helping the group set up i t s structure for annual.elections: "During a discussion of the annual meeting reports the worker suggested that t h i s was the time to set up the nominations committee. Thereupon the chairman appointed three members to act i n t h i s capacity and instructed them to present a slate of names for the council o f f i c e s at the next meeting. Following the adjournment of the meeting the worker arranged a meeting time with t h l s . commlttee." This example gives a picture of the worker as the advisor and. theenabler,  helping the group to Implement i t s objectives and  carry out. i t s program. A closer look at the process, which was involved w i t h i n the. nominating committee, .and. the. implications that, i t held..for the t o t a l council group and. the membership at large, reveals a further role of the worker.  The worker i s responsible .for  a s s i s t i n g the members to understand and to use the.democratic  3. Metcalf & Urevich, Dynamic Administration - The Collected Papers of Mary Parke F o l l e t t , Harper Bros., N.Y., 1942. ' ""  processes of. responsible membership and decislon^making.. The excerpts from the meetings, of the nominating committee i l l u s t r a t e the way i n which the worker functions i n t h i s capacity. December 12: ."Mr. K. took charge and said that there was no need f o r a meeting, that they would "just put the same bunch back i n o f f i c e " . At t h i s time the group were standing i n the lounge, amidst the setting up of the Christmas decorations. F i n a l l y the worker was able to persuade them to take a few minutes o f f and go upstairs and t a l k the matter over. Mr. K. was reluctant but Mr. 0. supported worker intimat- . ^ i n g that he was always anxious to please "the management". They discussed d i f f e r e n t types of elections and Mrs. I . .' i n s i s t e d that i t wasn't t h e i r job just to return a l l the existing o f f i c e r s . They said they couldn't think of anyone else who could run. The worker suggested a l e t t e r " to the clubs to bring out further nominations. They agreed to t h i s , named Mr. K. chairman and arranged for a further meeting after l e t t e r had been c i r c u l a t e d . " January 5: "Mr.. K. d i d not arrive and the others f e l t that they could not do much without him. Mrs. J . said that some of the members were d i s s a t i s f i e d with Mr. I . as president and she gave some of their reasons. Mr. 0. immediately pointed out Mr. T.'s good q u a l i t i e s but agreed that maybe It was time for a change. He said that he understood that Mr. K. had made some contacts for nominations and a l i s t was made of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s Mrs. I . and Mr. 0. knew about." At the t h i r d meeting which was .just p r i o r to the Council Meeting: "Mrs. J . and Mr. 0. came In early and talked with worker about t h e i r report. Mr. K. came i n l a t e r , quite panicky about what they were going to do. He had neglected to contact any of the names suggested and at the l a s t meeting stated- asking some of the members who were getting ready for the meeting. Mrs. J . and Mr. 0. d i d some l a s t minute checking with some of the members i n order to get some nominations from the f l o o r . " The worker could very easily have become manipulative i n this. situation.  Because of the relationship .with the committee the  worker might have influenced them, to become a pressure group for a new president.  The worker had to consider a l l the factors  involved;, was the group ready to accept new leadership, was the nominating committee ready to take, on a democratic election? The l i n e between leadership and manipulation i s a f i n e one and the  d i s t i n c t i o n comes at the point of motivation.-  Democratic methods .  come only with the understanding and acceptance of the group and .cannot, be imposed. One of the most helpful ways i n which the worker assists.the council to a t t a i n i t s objectives and to learn from each experience i s through periodic evaluation of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s .  These  reminders strengthen the program of the council and help the members to question their r o l e i n the administration of the agency. In t h i s regard, the council has made a practice of evaluating t h e i r special events.  The worker has attempted to a s s i s t the  committee i n charge to evaluate the Job done and to discuss t h e i r findings with the council.  Because of the l i m i t a t i o n s of  the members themselves t h i s has not always been too successful and the evaluation not too thorough or searching.  Probably the  worker could be more h e l p f u l i n this.process. and_with supportive help the members could be more c r i t i c a l of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . R further area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , which the worker has toward the council, i s the Job of interpreting the r o l e of the worker to the group.  The extent to which the members appreciate  and understand that the worker i s the representative of the agency and a resource person, w i l l i n part determine the way i n which they are able to use the worker's services. The work with the chairman could be considered within the scope of assistance to individuals, and c e r t a i n l y i t i s that too, but because of the r e l a t i o n . o f the chairman.to the group, I t comes more d i r e c t l y i n the worker's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the group. The worker has the opportunity to work more d i r e c t l y with the., chairman than with any other individuals in. the.-group .and..ingaining h i s understanding of the processes involved; helping  him. to assume, h i s duties and. to prepare, for meetings,, the worker i s helping the group.  One of the chief d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s  council grouping has been the attitude of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r chairman and h i s apparent, lack of understanding of individuals ,and of democratic procedures.  Although there have been times when  the president spent time with the worker preparing.for meetings these are r e l a t i v e l y Infrequent.  Even these sessions have  f a i l e d to help the chairman become more understanding and..to take more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n following through on h i s job.. With considerable confidence In his own a b i l i t y to manipulate situations and people, h i s p o l i c y has become one of dependence on the worker to as&ist i n areas where he lacks current information. His dependency on the worker i n such things as preparation of agendas and reports indicates that he has not r e a l l y accepted the r o l e of the worker and that he places her somewhat i n the r o l e of the "daughter person".  This i s a part of h i s authoritarian  pattern and the worker has to understand the l i m i t a t i o n s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p and continue to work with him hoping that a more creative r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l : be possible.  The l i m i t s that ,he has  placed on his time and h i s lack of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards committees and planning sessions indicates a good deal of resistance which probably has not been too thoroughly investigated. I t i s possible that a more c r i t i c a l examination of the. behaviour of t h i s man and h i s relationship to the worker would prove helpful. Worker s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to Individual members 1  A second r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the worker i s i n the area of service to i n d i v i d u a l members.  This i s so because of the o v e r a l l  objectives of the agency and because the i n d i v i d u a l figures so  -72lar.ge i n the group r e l a t i o n s h i p .  In order to f u l f i l l , t h i s r o l e  adequately, the worker must be s k i l l e d i n understanding the meaning of the i n d i v i d u a l s behaviour and sensitive to h i s needs. 1  In t h i s situation we are p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n the behaviour of the older person since so many of the members are well past middle-age... The adult normally attains a degree of. maturity and. retains t h i s up to a period i n his l i f e depending on.his health.and. general circumstances.  Regression may be detected by a sharp  decline of the Individual's effectiveness or, (and more l i k e l y ) , by a very gracLual decline.  Nevertheless, persons i n l a t e  adulthood, or old age, as with some of our council's members, are approaching s e n i l i t y and the loss of effectiveness.  Senility  i s , among other things, a loss of the degree of maturity which has been previously attained, or as Linden suggests "childhood i n reverse"-. At t h i s time certain..characteristics of the. adult, such as .dependency, avoidance .of r e a l i t y , and..others, become comparable to those of the c h i l d .  Some authorities, i n the. f i e l d  of g e r i a t r i c s , among them Dr. Linde^ are beginning to f e e l that much, of the regression attached to old age i s the.product of the culture and can be retarded and perhaps diminished by group association, continued recognition and a c t i v i t y . The behaviour and emotional needs displayed by the members of the council gives a general picture of t h e i r adjustment to old age and group situations.  One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t  attitudes of the members i s t h e i r feelings about "management"  4. Linden, M.E., Group Psychotherapy with I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Senile Women, International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, A p r i l , 1953.  and. authority...  Some individuals are more aggressive i n .this  respect than others hut the general tone i s of a group with considerable ambivalence about dependency and authority.  The  older person, threatened by the diminution of h i s effectiveness, becomes anxious and f e a r f u l and so he tends to c l i n g to the most powerful support.  Within the group, a powerful natural  leader or a s t a f f person f u l f i l l s t h i s need.  At the same time  as he looks for t h i s support he challenges i t because i t represents his. own weakness. The president of the council, with h i s firm and authoritarian approach,, .combined with a good deal of charm and humour, offers a very pleasant and secure support.  The more stable members  are s t i l l , free to challenge his leadership and do so, f o r example, the aggressiveness between Mr. T. and Mrs. U.  But  when i t comes to a vote the members r a l l y behind the person  who  presents the most authoritative position; t h i s i s t h e i r strength.  The ambivalence and. the measure to which they f e e l  acceptance, within the group occasionally prompts them to question the chairman's techniques, hut t h i s i s short-lived. Despite the president's lack of democratic and creative: attitudes, he does have the faculty of helping people to. enjoy themselves, of giving Individual and group recognition, and h i s natural charm i s supportive and accepting.  This combination  of authority and support wins him considerable support, , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the l a d i e s . The concern of the senior members, as expressed i n the council for the "management", i s further evidence of t h e i r ambivalence to dependency.  Mr. X.'s earnest remark about  "we  have to maintain the autonomy of our groups - that's what we  -74-  are f i g h t i n g f o r i " , sounds more l i k e a personal plea:for his own. fight for independence.  The tendency i s to project t h e i r feelings  onto the staff i n either a negative or p o s i t i v e way depending on their needs of the moment. A l l i n d i v i d u a l s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y older people,, are f e a r f u l of exclusion and I s o l a t i o n . Because the aged f e e l a good, deal of r e j e c t i o n and neglect from society, to counterbalance . t h i s t h e y need to f e e l important and to be part of a u n i f i e d group.  With,  a large membership of "senior c i t i z e n s " t h i s i s apt to take on the semblance of possesslveness  and control as they attempt to  hold on to what they f e e l should be t h e i r own.  In t h i s repsect  the delegates threated the proper functioning of a representative council.  This i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r lack of perspective as  they plan for the agency i n terms of t h e i r own "preferred r i g h t s " . I t .is shown too In the group's regression as they focus on the petty troubles which occur In the round of human associations .and .. I n - J t h e i r c r i t i c a l attitude towards young people and t h e i r behaviour i n the agency. The council .members have shown some Impatience with too much advance planning.  This i s a c h i l d l i k e reaction.  They, tend  to expect that they w i l l not be held responsible and that "things w i l l .take care of themselves". t h e i r dependency.  This is. further evidence o f .  In the same vein, many of the members, are-not  r e a l i a b l e i n carrying out r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s taken on and plead?that they have not been t o l d or t h a t they have f o r g o t t e n .  Fearful of  what the future holds they l i m i t t h e i r focus to the present, and cope with each day as i t comes.  This Is an important defence  and needs to be considered In planning a c t i v i t i e s with older  -75-  people.  The r e a l need Is to f i n d a balance, between.dependence .  and independence where.the person feels comfortable and.secure. The tenacity with which older people hold on to conventions and routines i s further evidence of t h e i r e f f o r t s to cope with the loss of ego-Integration and certain f a c u l t i e s and self-maBtery. It for  i s d i f f i c u l t to vary the program of council-sponsored a c t i v i t i e s t h i s reason and innovations are d i f f i c u l t f o r them to accept.  Nevertheless, security within the group setting and acceptance and understanding of s t a f f leadership often tends to counterbalance the r i g i d i t y of older f o l k . The decreased capacity to learn, to accept change and to think c l e a r l y , are a l l symptoms of old age.  Within the council,  each member has h i s own l i m i t a t i o n s and a b i l i t i e s which may or may not have been affected by approaching old age.of  A minority  the group are s t i l l active and a l e r t and able to p a r t i c i p a t e  e f f e c t i v e l y and responsibly. Apparently they s t i l l have the. a b i l i t y to change and grovj.  A smaller group are quite i n e f f e c t i v e  and either do not participate at a l l or have so much trouble r e l a t i n g , to others that they obviously impede the progress..of the group.  The membership of the council seems to f a l l into  three groups,, those who are quite .ineffective, those who maintain a. rather, s t a t i c position, and those who have some insight and understanding of the group r e l a t i o n s h i p . The worker should be active i n helping the member to function, i n the council setting;helping him to understand h i s function .and to  adjust to the secondary group experience.  The member requires  the ..supportive help of the. worker so that he feels some s a t i s f a c t i o n himself and i s able to carry t h i s over to the group he represents.  -16Because of the worker s. understanding: of .the needs of the f  i n d i v i d u a l and from the observation of his..behaviour i n . the representative setting, the worker i s i n a p o s i t i o n to .secure further help f o r the person.  Opportunities to a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l  members come i n a variety of ways and are possible to the extent that a r e l a t i o n s h i p has been established.  The actions.and  attitudes of the worker, both i n the meeting and i n casual conversations outside, which are. communicated, to the i n d i v i d u a l , give him., support and. confidence in..his r o l e i n the group. I n d i r e c t l y the s t a f f i s able to pass on information to workers giving direct service and so supplement and coordinate t h e i r understanding, of the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s needs. one of the most important  This l a t t e r i s  contributions of the worker and can  improve the service which the agency i s able to give to i t s c l i e n t e l l e and a s s i s t In the operation of the council I t s e l f . Because of the nature of t h i s par.ti.cular_councll...group. there has been a r e a l need f o r the worker to give i n d i v i d u a l s supportive help.  This supportive r e l a t i o n s h i p with the worker  i s one .of the creative ways in.which the worker can.help individuals to p a r t i c i p a t e and to take on responsible membership. The following examples are instances where the worker has been able...to give t h i s kind of assistance. February 3t 1953; 7 . . "Before the meeting Mr. 0. t o l d the worker that h i s club had selected another council delegate i n h i s place. He seemed quite upset about t h i s and the worker encouraged him to t a l k . He said that the group were not s a t i s f i e d with h i s representation. The worker assured him that he s t i l l had a job on the council with the Sick V i s i t i n g and Friday Concert Committees. "He went on about wishing the s t a f f and members could get together and t a l k things out. He assured the worker that he admired the Job that the management was doing and said that he wanted to help."  -77-  Quite a.-lot of. help has. been given to Mrs... I., as. .a new member who found, herself, the centre of considerable h o s t i l i t y , because she was elected secretary of the council.  She f e l t the members' c r i t i c i s m  rather keenly and actually d i d tender her resignation.. With the help of the worker t h i s c r i s i s was allayed, and both the group and Mrs. I., were assisted. his  Mr. K. too, has been helped to unload  feelings and-has. been able to maintain some degree of. o b j e c t i v i t y .  Through sessions with Mrs. U.' as committee chairman of one of the events, she has been helped to become more responsible and.function more effectively..  Analysis of the interaction, between, the members  i n the course of the meetings shows that the worker responds quickly to individuals who need support and yet she does not Interfere with the normal responses of the members, towards one another. Worker's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the.-Groups Represented.-. The worker also has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the groups-represented in-.the council..  The worker Is. i n a p o s i t i o n , either through  other s t a f f or d i r e c t l y , to help groups become active in..the council, to select suitable delegates, and to examine the groups' i n t e r e s t s i n r e l a t i o n to the council.  One instance of. t h i s  during the year came when one group i n v i t e d the worker to speak to t h e i r executive about the function of the House Council, and Its relationship to their club.  This request was encouraged by  the  workers who f e l t that the group d i d not r e a l l y understand  the  objectives of the council group and therefore were not  supporting t h e i r delegates. Because of the need f o r the members to maintain t h e i r i d e n t i t y as club delegates, the worker has been active In  a s s i s t i n g the council to recognize the club groups rather than .. individual, members and has sought opportunities to r e l a t e the council to groups and vice versa.  The s e l e c t i o n of two of the  council to serve as hostesses at a party for New Canadians was one instance of r e l a t i n g the council to a community function. These opportunities give the council a certain amount of prestige within the agency and.help both the agency and the council.to recognize the r o l e of the representative membership group. Through the worker,, the council i s able to r e f e r items which are out of i t s province to other groups.  In t h i s way the council  i s made conscious of the relationships between, groups., the proper procedure for channeling  information, and of the functional -  d i s t r i b u t i o n of authority.  For instance,, when the Potluck  Committee required money to carry on i t s a c t i v i t i e s they were helped to . channel. t h i s re que st through, the. .council.to the. Board.., through t h e i r representative.  In so doing they were recognizing  t h e i r own l i m i t a t i o n s In the area of expenditures of agency money and using the channel available f o r such requests. A further way i n which the council i s helped to relate, to other groups i n .the membership i s through the,.polling. of .group and i n d i v i d u a l opinion by l e t t e r s and post notices.  Obtaining  staff, representation and creating, opportunities to r e l a t e , the council, to the general membership, administrative groups, such as Board.and committees, and to the community at large i s the continued r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the worker. Through,staff  meetings, and .supervisory conferences, the  administrative worker i s active i n e n l i s t i n g the interest and  support .of. the. s t a f f i n council, a c t i v i t i e s . In turn .these workers can interpret to the membership the job of the council, and encourage t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Because the council, is. attempting  to coordinate the agency program, information shared with the s t a f f , about the council on one hand, and of the feelings of the membership on the other, i s a major function of the worker. One of the main items of discussion i n s t a f f meetings t h i s year has. been reports of the council, t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , recommendations and.of the Individual, members* reactions and. development. The coordination ..of the c a r n i v a l .plans, would not. have been possible except f o r the s t a f f planning and.circulation of information which ran. p a r a l l e l t o the planning by. the committees, concerned. Excerpts from the r e c o r d B of two s t a f f meetings indicate how this. -was._.handled by the s t a f f . February 8, 1955.: "Miss A. reported on the progress of the Council Carnival Committee. The date has been set f o r May 15 and.16. with a Coney Island.theme. The committee* t h e i r function and membership and staff assignments were outlined.. Because of l i m i t e d time i t was agreed to do further s t a f f planning at.the next meeting.-" February 25.. 1953: T~ "Miss A. described the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s t a f f planning and the role of staff with committees and groups f o r the carnival. I t was agreed that a staff meeting committee would a s s i s t i n planning and In the presentation of reports to s t a f f meetings. Committee to Include. B.., E., H., and A. There was further discussion of the o v e r a l l objectives and the job of the steering committee." The following excerpt from a Board meeting shows how Council... plans were presented to the Board f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and support. March 18. 1953: "The Executive Director i n her report to the Board .said, that the major emphasis.in...Senior House a t t h i s time, was i n the planning for the Annual Carnival, to be held May 15 . and 16% with a Coney Island theme. House Council has set up a net work', of committees bringing i n various elements of the membership to make the arrangements and carry out the plans."  -8.CSThese excerpts, helped to I l l u s t r a t e the process by which...council a c t i v i t i e s ..are related to other groups in..the agency and., the worker's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n c i r c u l a t i n g information and coordinat i n g the various groups i n the agency. The Worker's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the T o t a l Agency F i n a l l y , the administrative worker i s responsible f o r the; o v e r a l l administration and operation of the agency.  The  administrative worker must have a f e e l i n g for the "whole" agency and considerable s k i l l and insight into the problems which impede the integration, of a l l , t h e parts .of the.agency.  The  worker.must, be able to a s s i s t members, and groups to understand the implications of a shared experience and help them.to e s t a b l i s h procedures and..structure in. accord, with the purpose. The challenge of the administrator i s to provide for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning and policy-making by boards, s t a f f , and constituents. Not only i s the worker responsible f o r the groups represented i n the council, but also f o r those not represented.  A sense of  timing and of opportunity w i l l a s s i s t the worker i n helping other groups to i d e n t i f y themselves with the administration,, . through the medium of the Council, when they are ready and.able to do so. There i s always the need to interpret the function of the intergroup and i t s program to a l l areas of the agency. This kind of preparation supplies information about the r o l e ^ of the council and i t s place i n the administration of the agency. Trecker i n his book, "Croup Process i n Administration", suggests that the attainment  of a democratic  s o c i a l agency administration  rests on. .the a b i l i t y of the administrator t o work with the s o c i a l relationships within the. organization t o the end that the members are helped to grow and to take.on responsible  membership.  The r o l e of the worker i n the administrative setting has. been discussed, in. terms of the relationship between the worker and the House Council.  The analysis of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p has. been  divided into four main areas, the worker's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the inter-group, to the Individual, to the groups represented and to the t o t a l agency.  The emphasis has been placed on the f i r s t  two because of the material available but the other areas, are no'.< l e s s Important.  Narrative records are not always adequate i n  pointing out " f e e l i n g tones", which.are most s i g n i f i c a n t i n describing i n t e r a c t i o n and i n t r i c a t e relationships.. Nevertheless, i t i s obvious that the worker does play a major r o l e in. a s s i s t i n g the group to use the democratic processes which are available to them.. In t h i s setting, p a r t i c u l a r l y , the worker has been active in. a s s i s t i n g older members, whose pattern of behaviour has become somewhat s t a t i c and even r i g i d , to work pretty successfully within the agency framework. inter-group experience  Also, through the medium of. the  the worker has helped these i n d i v i d u a l s  to gain a better understanding of t h e i r own l i m i t a t i o n s and„_ c a p a b i l i t l e s and to work cooperatively i n joint enterprises for the advancement of the agency program. .  -82CHAPTER IV Implications of the Study In the western world democracy has been acknowledged as the cornerstone ships.  of human endeavour and the basis of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n -  The concern for democratic procedures has invaded every  aspect of administration and management.  Nevertheless,  implementation of the democratic i d e a l i s fraught with tions.  the complica-  The p r i n c i p l e s of democracy, of basic human r i g h t s ,  responsible p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and of equal representation, have been c l e a r l y described but the v a r i e t y of applications within the administration of s o c i a l agencies indicate wide discrepancies In the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s .  This fact suggests  that there are dynamic q u a l i t i e s inherent i n administration which cannot be accounted for simply by Improved techniques or educational, programs. With increased i n t e r e s t i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between democratic Ideals and administrative functions and the cont r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s to t h i s f i e l d , the concept of s o c i a l agency administration has evolved to a concern for the "administrative process".  Trecker has described t h i s concept  very concisely i n h i s almost classical, statement about "creative" administration. "We thus see administration as a creative process of thinking, planning, and action i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up with the whole agency. The r e a l focus -of ^ administration i s relationships with and between people" Trecker'B d e f i n i t i o n i s based on the b e l i e f that "the agency i s people", that i s , that because the agency i s composed of  1. Trecker, H., The Group Process i n Administration, Woman's Press, New York, 194-8, page 2.  individuals, administration cannot be a r b i t r a r i l y separated those who  make the p o l i c y or from those who,  as participants i n  the program, a f f e c t and i n turn are affected by the of the agency.  Therefore,  from  administration  i n e f f e c t , the agency i t s e l f i s not a  b u i l d i n g or even the organizational structure which f a c i l i t a t e s services, but i s people.  In t h i s sense the administration of the  agency, Its p o l i c y and purpose, i s a product of the attitudes, the needs and the desires, and-the relationships which have-been experienced by the.-individuals, and .groups who  make up the agency.  The process of administration places the emphasis on. "how done" rather, than..."what was. accomplished,".  i t was  The. administrative  process i s . concerned with i n d i v i d u a l s and how  they work-together  i n groups, with the relationships between groups,, and with the worker or the. leader who  f a c i l i t a t e d the total, procedure.  The consideration of the influence of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the administration of s o c i a l agencies i s a r e l a t i v e l y approach.  Formerly, welfare organizations were founded by  interested c i t i z e n s to offer services to those i n heed; l i n e was  new  The  quite sharply drawn between the r e c i p i e n t s of service  and the board and committees who  were the d i r e c t o r s of the agency.  This philanthropic s p i r i t of "doing.for" tended to foster a h i e r a r c h i c a l agency structure and a sort of benevolent despotism which did not provide a basis for the self-respect that i s imparted through a cooperative approach to common problems. Changes i n agency p o l i c y and i n administrative methods come about because people change and each agency makes i t s own progress ..In making the t r a n s i t i o n to a type of administration more considered with democratic concepts.  There are s t i l l wide gaps i n the  -84acceptance of t r u l y democratic procedures In many s o c i a l agencies but the gradual, evolution represents .growth, on the part of the t o t a l agency and therefore of the individuals.involved.. The Neighbourhood House i s a s o c i a l agency established to provide a family centre f o r recreational a c t i v i t i e s .  The agency  i s a network of i n t e r - r e l a t e d groups, of p a r t i c i p a n t s , volunteers, and s t a f f , who have i n common the purposes of the association. The Neighbourhood. House i s a....community of individuals..and.of groups; I t r e f l e c t s many of the complexities society.  of contemporary  The agency i s an experiment In democratic l i v i n g , a  "society i n miniature".  Therefore,  the way i n which t h i s  miniature  society resolves i t s c o n f l i c t s and Integrates i t s experiences i s important, not only f o r the success of the agency but also for the contribution that i t makes i n d i r e c t l y towards successful democratic l i v i n g , i n the larger community. This study i s concerned with the effectiveness, of the administration within one s o c i a l agency, namely. Gordon.Neighbourhood House.  In order to l i m i t the scope of the study, the House  Council has been selected f o r special study because of i t s . , relationship to the membership.  Perhaps the r o l e of the.councll  group i n the administration of an agency indicates fairly, well the extent to which democratic procedures have been established. At any rate the council i s the organized body through which the membership p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the agency administration and. therefore there i s a need to examine the function and a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s group i n order to determine the degree of that p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A complete study of the administration of Gordon House would. necessarily Include investigation of the Board and the various  -85Committees and of the s t a f f group..  Further studies in. these areas  could complete the picture and give an evaluation of the t o t a l situation. The c r i t e r i a f o r e f f e c t i v e administration has been discussed at length i n the f i r s t chapter and these have been used.as guides In the analysis and measurement of the administrative process i n t h i s agency.  Considerable  emphasis has been placed on the r o l e  of the worker because i t i s believed .that the leadership of the professional, s t a f f i s a major factor i n i n s t i t u t i n g democratic procedures and.establishing e f f e c t i v e relationships;  The use  of accepted standards of democratic administration f o r measurement makes the evaluation as objective as possible.  Nevertheless*  because any study of human relationships i s , to a large extent, subjective, the findings are perhaps l i m i t e d i n a p p l i c a t i o n and are presented as a s t a r t i n g point f o r discussion.  They may  at least serve to stimulate further thinking i n t h i s f i e l d and to increase appreciation and concern f o r the following: 1. the need to be concerned about the r i g h t s of the memberships i n the administration of the agency; 2. the need f o r more attention to the subtle dynamics inherent i n the group l i f e of people who are involved i n creating administrative p o l i c i e s of an agency; 3. the need to e s t a b l i s h the kind of r e l a t i o n s h i p s which release human endeavour rather than control i t ; 4. the need to understand with more certainty the r o l e of the leader and the s k i l l s involved i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the administrative process. Findings Perhaps the most unequivocal and important f i n d i n g of. t h i s study has been that a representative body of the membership., namely, the House Council, plays an i n t e g r a l , e f f i c i e n t and  acceptable part in. the administrative process of Gordon House. In t h i s setting the. inter-group body, has f i l l e d a. need, felt- by the membership and/or the administration and .it has,achieved a measure of success i n carrying out I t s objectives.  In an agency  where the memberships divides sharply Into older people and. younger members, with t h e i r inimical.attitudes towards each other, i t might have been considered unwise to set up such a council.  For t h i s reason then I t i s a l l the more an achievment  that, the agency has an active council that Is doing a worthwhile job. And while the council Is not e n t i r e l y representative of the t o t a l . membership, i t does represent the most active groups who are able to p a r t i c i p a t e and those who have maintained a continuing.Interest In the agency.  For the purposes of i n i t i a t i n g democratic procedures  then, the House Council i s representative of the active, responsible membership.  Each agency i s confronted with certain..limitations i n .  i t s membership which w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the council, but i f there i s evidence that some of the membership. Is ready f o r a secondary group experience and able to take on further r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s formation of a council should be encouraged.  Gordon House has attempted  to gear the program and a c t i v i t i e s of the council to the needs of the membership and of the individuals concerned with g r a t i f y i n g results. The agency In i t s statement of Purpose and Function has acknowledged the democratic rights of the members to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the formulation of agency p o l i c y and has provided a structure f o r t h i s purpose. "Every e f f o r t i s made i n the development of the agency to provide a structure of councils and committees which enables members to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the formulation of  p o l i c y and government- of the agency so t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l i n the use of democratic-methods may he enhanced:" 2  This statement s i g n i f i e s the. Board's i n t e r e s t i n developing .the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Council i n the. administration of the agency and should stimulate the Council to be concerned about-their r o l e i n t h e i r own government.  The statement recognizes the need, f o r  s t r u c t u r a l organization In order to f a c i l i t a t e .democratic p r a c t i c e s . Statements of p o l i c y are Important, but even, more s i g n i f i c a n t i s the implementation of the p o l i c y .  The existence of democratic-  sounding p o l i c i e s does not necessarily, ensure that, the administration of the agency w i l l be very democratic.  P o l i c y has.to be p a r a l l e l e d  by consistently democratic agency organization and p r a c t i c e . Gordon House describes i t s organizational pattern i n the chart "Circular Administrative Structure", Figure 11 found i n Chapter 11. This chart indicates a c i r c u l a r pattern of organization with the House Council i n a p o s i t i o n to communicate h o r i z o n t a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y with the other, groups i n .the agency.  This-.structure  i s a further i n d i c a t i o n of the agency's i n t e r e s t In obtaining membership p a r t i c i p a t i o n and in..channeling and delegating c e r t a i n administrative functions through the council.  Even though the  council Is unable, at t h i s point at l e a s t , to use t h i s structure f u l l y , t h i s organization combined with statements of method serve to a l e r t both administration and membership to t h e i r p o t e n t i a l development. How  e f f e c t i v e Is the Council i n t h i s organizational-plan?  The House Council i s the organized body representing the membership.  According to i t s purpose I t has c e r t a i n administrative  2. Gordon Neighbourhood House, Statement of Purpose and Function, 1005 Jervis. Street, Vancouver, B.C., 1952. j  -8.8-  functions. p a r t i c u l a r l y in. the area, of agency a c t i v i t i e s and program.. I t has ...direct access, t o the Executive Director and. to the Board,, and i n d i r e c t l y to other members of the .staff and to the committees of the Board. i t s delegates.and.those through the s t a f f .  I t reaches the membership through  groups not represented can. be contacted  The development of annual.special.events has  made the membership f a i r l y aware of the function of the Council and additional council, committees appointed, from the., general membership has helped In t h i s process. which thecgroups  The amount of interest  show i n the Council u s u a l l y depends on the  effectiveness of t h e i r delegates and t h i s varies from a very casual interest to a pronounced investment  and possessiveness  i n the a f f a i r s of the council. Membership representation to the Board has been.channeled through the Council, v i a Council recommendations f o r the nominat i o n of iBoard personnel..  The Board has tended to use these  i  elected Board members,, who are also .Council members, as. delegates from the Council to the Board.  This r e l a t i o n s h i p between-the  Council and. the. Board has l e d to some mi sunder standing ..and. con-, fusion, p a r t i c u l a r l y for the membership.  However, t h i s ..technique  has. given the Council direct access to the Board and. has. given them, some f e e l i n g of p a r t i c i p a t i o n through the delegates. The success which the Council has had to date, both i n the area of program-planning and i n administration, must be d i r e c t l y related to the quality of the relationships which have been developed within the membership of the Council and between.the . Council and the member groups.  The atmosphere of Council, meetings  and the quality of i n t e r a c t i o n between the members indicates  -59-  that the group i s developing a sense of purpose, of security, and of  s a t i s f a c t i o n i n .its job. This kind of relationship i s dependent  on the a b i l i t y of the Individuals concerned to cope with the s i t u a t i o n , to handle adequately t h i s inter-group experience, and the  s k i l l with which the worker has assisted the group to become  "an inter-group".  Their a b i l i t y to handle differences of opinion  and to cope with new situations i s sometimes l i m i t e d but t h e i r sense of humour, interest i n the. welfare of the agency and t h e i r relationships with the worker has helped them to maintain a balance.  The relationships within the Council have been developed  so that. the. group has not l o s t i t s i d e n t i t y as a representative body which so e a s i l y happens.  Certain techniques of regular  reporting and encouraging an interest i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the primary groups have been used to e s t a b l i s h consciously the nature of the Council and to keep the members aware of t h e i r basic • function and purpose. The performance l e v e l of the Council indicates that there has been some movement i n t h i s group during the.period i n which they were observed by the writer.  The amount of growth expected  must always be i n terms of the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n and the potential development of the individuals concerned. The Council at t h i s time i s l a r g e l y composed of men and women over the age of sixty years.  Many exponents i n the f i e l d of g e r i a t r i c s f e e l that  l i t t l e growth or change can be expected at t h i s stage of l i f e , yet  t h i s Council, as a group, has shown a degree of growth and.  only i n l i m i t e d areas i s there evidence that the l e v e l has. remained static..  In the handling of c o n f l i c t and program planning ,the-  group has ma.de some advances and i n other areas there has been  -90-  a very gradual..growth.  This, of course, Is d i r e c t l y related to  the leadership given by certain, individuals i n the group and the relationship which has been established with.the. worker.  There  are older members i n t h i s group who are making a r e a l contribution to the development of the council and whose leadership i s respected by the others. It i s obvious that the worker has played a major r o l e i n the group l i f e of the Council and i t s development.  The records  Indicate that the worker has established a very constructive relationship with the group and has. been able to use t h i s to work with the Council.  In places where there has been considerable  resistance the worker has been able to a s s i s t the group to a more positive p o s i t i o n .  Also, the worker has-been active i n  helping the group to c l a r i f y i t s function and to define i t s purpose and l i m i t s .  Through other s t a f f personnel..the. worker has  helped the council to work with the membership, and to be a. coordinating program council... Further, with the help of the worker, the council has learned to make use of the channels of communication and to use democratic procedures.  The constant  interpretation of agency purpose, the r o l e of the House. Council in. the administration of the agency, and with .an understanding of .the meaning of the group's behaviour and experiences., the. worker has been able to encourage the democratic process i n t h i s setting. . This study indicates that Gordon House, through i t s . House, Council, i s attempting to encourage membership participation..In the administration of the agency.  The study also points.up  certain weaknesses and these are discussed i n order to continue the movement towards further development i n t h i s area.  -.91Gordon House, members have made some progress i n taking on administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t y within .their own ..agency, however, t h e i r status i n Alexander Community A c t i v i t i e s i s not very c l e a r . One clause from the A.C.A. constitution i n section IV on membership i n the society says that: "The Society s h a l l consist of: -. 1. Active members who are now enrolled, or who may hereafter be elected by the Board of Directors of the Executive Council."3 The phrase, "active members who are now enrolled", could..be interpreted as those constituents of the agencies who are members i n good standing i n t h e i r respective agencies.  On. the other hand,  "election to membership by the Board of the Executive  Council"  - suggests that only Board members are members of the Society with voting privile&ges.  In actual practice the program members of  Gordon House do not have the opportunity to vote at the annual A.C.A. meetings although they are Invited to attend.  This  r e l a t i o n s h i p with the A.C.A. Executive Committee i s confusing for the agency membership and creates some ambivalence on the part of agency committees i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p o l i c y . However, the A.C.A. constitution does permit  considerable  f l e x i b i l i t y i n terms of agency p o l i c y and except i n the area of c a p i t a l expenditures Gordon House enjoys almost complete autonomy, and has implemented much of the committees' own philosophy administrative procedures.  Nevertheless,  about  the s p i r i t i n which  the .constitution and p o l i c i e s of A.C.A., as the parent body, are conceived does influence the member agencies and w i l l be a factor  3. Alexander Community A c t i v i t i e s , Constitution and By-Laws, (as ammended 194-7-1951), Vancouver, B.C.  -92-  i n encouraging or retarding the development of the membership i n the area of administration.  The Gordon..House members have shown .  concern.as to t h e i r status In A.C.A.; t h i s i s a healthy, sign and i t might.be that t h i s i s the time f o r A.C.A., to c l a r i f y this, issue f o r a l l concerned.. At the same time i t must be remembered that written p o l i c y often lingers on after practices have changed to a form more consistent with, the present needs and attitudes. Changes i n p o l i c y come gradually and come at the point where the membership i s ready to assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and when the Board i s able to delegate authority and d i s t r i b u t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I f democratic administrative relationships are conceived i n a democratic s p i r i t , they are nurtured through clear d e f i n i t i o n s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and of function.  For members who are moving  from the club group to the representative council a clear understanding and acceptance of t h e i r job as a delegate and.of the purpose of the group i s most important.  The study indicates that  the Gordon House Council has at times attempted to c l a r i f y I t s function and to make, some evaluation of program a c t i v i t i e s , but . the Council, does need, added help i n t h i s area.  A Council, cannot  carry on e f f e c t i v e l y u n t i l i t does understand and accept, i t s "raison d'etre".  The Council..has..shown.resistance ln,.this regard  which might be traced to the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of c e r t a i n members and t h i s w i l l require special attention and an understanding of the meaning the group has. to these persons and something about t h e i r feelings towards authority. I t has already been pointed out that the Council has -the opportunity to communicate with .other parts, of the agency admini s t r a t i o n and program.  The extent to which these channels are  used depends on the group's understanding of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to other groups i n the. organization, and t h e i r a b i l i t y to use democratic procedures.  Because of the nature of the Council group they have  not been very anxious to include groups not represented  In the  Council. In. their, planning, although some e f f o r t s have been.made i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n through the agency's special events.  This  behaviour may be regarded as a particular, l i m i t a t i o n of. t h i s . Council but i t i s more.likely that with Increased assistance from the worker and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s the Council could work closer with the t o t a l membership and p a r t i c u l a r l y with the junior members.  I t has been suggested at d i f f e r e n t times  that senior and junior House Councils-.should.be equal, l e v e l .  The  set up on an  Junior membership, does have Council groups  r e l a t i n g to i t s own a c t i v i t i e s but for the purposes of coordinating the t o t a l agency the House has been recognized as the group . representing the entire membership.  The  junior Councils .have  channeled their, business d i r e c t l y to the Council by l e t t e r or special representation, or and more frequently, through-the s t a f f . Setting up two Councils on the basis of age would tend to separate the membership even further and would ultimately defeat the purpose of a united, membership working together to achieve the objectives of the agency.  Therefore, i t would seem to.be  more constructive to accept ..the .limitations, .of. representation, within the agency and to accept the. fact, that ..the Council will.be composed l a r g e l y of older members who  are able. to. p a r t i c i p a t e i n  an inter-group experience up to the extent of t h e i r . a b i l i t y . The Council's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Board, has-presented .some d i f f i c u l t i e s and..misunderstandings.. stems mainly from the way  It. i s p o s s i b l e that t h i s -  i n which nominations f o r board  personnel  from the membership have been handled.  The procedure has been  for the House Council to appoint or elect a nominating committee whose job i t i s to select names, and have them approved by the Council.  These are subsequently passed on to the Board and. i f  acceptable by t h i s body they can be presented at the annual A.C.A. meeting.  This established a very close r e l a t i o n s h i p between these  Board members and the Council.  In past year t h i s has meant that  one and sometimes two council, members have been elected to Board membership.  These individuals .have f u l l .board p r i v i l e g e s but the  Board has tended to see them as council delegates as already mentioned. " The success of t h i s technique has depended on the maturity of the Individuals concerned but i t has presented an awkward s i t u a t i o n both for the Board and for the members.  At  the same. time, t h i s relationship has been, d i f f i c u l t f o r the Council as a whole to understand and l a t t e r l y they have tended, to f e e l that ..the membership was represented only by " t h e i r Council ..delegates" and. that, they had a rather exclusive relationship,..with these Board members.  The aim of the agency Board i s , of course,, to be  representative of the agency i n a l l . i t s phases as well as .of the outside community.  As already mentioned, several of the Board  members have been active members, i n the program .at..one time but because of the Council's part i n nominating, these persons the. Council tends to f e e l that these are. their, sole representatives. The existence of opportunities f o r representation and part i c i p a t i o n does not necessarily mean that each unit- must, have d i r e c t representation to a l l the other u n i t s in. the agency, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the membership has, the opportunity to elect the Board, and are represented by the s t a f f .  Unfortunately Gordon.  House members do not have voting p r i v i l e g e s at t h i s time and do  -95not p a r t i c i p a t e In the election, of agency committees.  Therefore  i n a sense the Council*s p a r t i c i p a t i o n in. nominating p o t e n t i a l Board members has acknowledged the r i g h t s of the members to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the elections i n some way.  In. view of the .  d i f f i c u l t i e s that t h i s procedure has presented i t may be possible that the s i t u a t i o n could be handled d i f f e r e n t l y with much better results.  Nominations for Board membership could s t i l l be channeled  through the Council as the membership's representative body, and i t i s l i k e l y that the names selected by the Council would have had Council experience  and probably be active Council members.  However,  these Board members could be used as representatives of the t o t a l membership and not delegates of the Council i f representation between .the Board .and.,the, council was handled through.the .appointment of Board members as delegates to, the."Council.  This technique  has worked successfully i n other agencies and-Is i n l i n e with,.the conception of the Council as a body representlve of all.aspects of the agency.  In t h i s way, the Board would, have representatives  on the Council i n the same way that other groups do and these, representatives would be able to acquaint the Council with..informat i o n about Board a c t i v i t i e s that would be h e l p f u l to the, Council and also keep the Board.informed on. Council a c t i v i t i e s . . This.. would leave the Board members, nominated,by the 'membership,, free to-act as any other Board member.  I t would also serve, to ..strengthen  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between..the Board and .the CounciL.and to increase the. Board's understanding of the membership.  This plan might  well be considered by the agency as an a l t e r n a t i v e to-the  present  system of representation ,and, i t is, one which would-.perhaps make , better use of the democratic channels;  In the area of " i n t e r -  -96-  relationships" perhaps the primary need i s for astute diagnosis of the p o t e n t i a l capacity of the Council to function i n the administration of the agency.  This involves some, d e f i n i t i o n of  the r o l e of the Council i n r e l a t i o n to other administrative groups, an acceptance of the Council's .development and.limitations, and creative planning to develop a Council program geared to the group's capacity.  In t h i s regard, manipulation  and leadership  are often confused and Councils are sometimes used to obtain "democratic procedures" which have no meaning to them.  The  Gordon House Council, has been dominated to some extent by c e r t a i n individuals i n the group, p a r t i c u l a r l y the president.  This Is  related to the needs of the members i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n but need not be a negative factor i f special assistance i s given to. these per sons.and -to. the group. The "basic t r a i n i n g " for inter-group experience . comes ..in the .primary group through active p a r t i c i p a t i o n and exposure ..to democratic .leadership and .procedures.  The. agency ..might,.consider  giving Increased attention to the t r a i n i n g of the .executives of. club groups, i n order to increase democratic p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,at t h i s l e v e l and to prepare them f o r Council association.  Some agencies  have t r a i n i n g sessions for club, executives which have Increased/, the membership's regard, for the leadership they have selected and has helped the members to meet their, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s more adequately. experience  The preparation..of members f o r a secondary-group could also serve to Increase, .the ..membership ..'.s under-  standing of the Council and...to stimulate, interest..ln,„having . delegates appointed  from .more of the active clubs. . This, technique  would gradually increase the prestige of the Council; i t would more t r u l y represent the membership of the agency and the  delegates  selected would more l i k e l y be the leaders of the agency community. Throughout t h i s study i t has been evident that.the worker plays a major r o l e In f a c i l i t a t i n g democratic administration..  The  Council, because of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the membership and.its p o t e n t i a l role i n the administration o f the agency demands considerable s k i l l and understanding from the worker.  The basis  of t h i s i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p that Is established with the group and i t has already been shown that there i s a history of good r e l a t i o n s between the worker and the Council, i n spite of the complications that might have arisen because of the leadership of the student worker who i s attached to the group.  The worker  w i l l need to be s k i l l e d i n diagnosing and understanding i n d i v i d u a l and group behaviour, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view of the age of the members, and t h e i r r e s u l t i n g needs and attitudes, and. objective In~relating the. needs of the group to the development of the t o t a l agency.  The administrative worker must know how. to .use  structure to further the development of the agency as a...whole. He must be keenly sensitive to the needs of the p a r t i c u l a r s i t uation and devoted to the attainment of maturing i n d i v i d u a l s to. play t h e i r proper r o l e i n the government of the agency. i n his. book on "The Elements of. Administration"^quotes  L. Urwick  -Fayol as  saying: " I f we could eliminate the. human .factor, it. would...be easy enough to b u i l d up an organization; anyone could do i t i f they.had some idea of current p r a c t i c e . " This study of the r o l e of the. House Council i n the administra t i o n of Gordon House, indicates that, while..there .are gaps i n the  4. Lyndall, Urwick, The Elements of Administration, Harper & Bros. ,.194.3, p. 4 l .  -98establishment of t r u l y democratic procedures, there i s an awareness and a. desire on .the part of the. Board and., the .membership to develop more consistently democratic methods and techniques.  Gordon  House, with a f a i r l y responsible House Council has. made considerable progress In the matter of r e c o n c i l i n g democratic procedures and the needs and c a p a b i l i t i e s of the constituents. There w i l l continue to be need for c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the membership's r o l e i n the government of the agency and for s k i l l e d leadership i n a s s i s t i n g the Council to work together f o r the o v e r a l l purposes of the agency.  The development of a partnership  relationship between Board,, s t a f f , and membership Is the ultimate goal i n the l i f e of a s o c i a l agency devoted to democratic ends and the enrichment of the Individuals and groups who  participate.  In conclusion,, one might, ask Just what. this, enhanced sense of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the administration of the s o c i a l .agency does . for the. members In other areas of t h e i r l i v e s ?  In other words,  why i s i t so important that Individuals, p a r t i c i p a t e in. the government of t h i s agency community?  Every individual.has .the  need and the right to belong to things;, he needs to be a part of something larger than his..immediate .world, and to be. e f f e c t i v e in. that world.  He needs, to l i v e f u l l y or c r e a t i v e l y .  found-that i n groups he. can...begin..to achieve  Man. has  a~balance..between-  his needs and h i s satisfactions.;., he can-find, a .reasonably s a t i s f y ing l i k e and one which w i l l provide a dividend to sodiety.  I f we  are not born democratic we can, in. as&aciation..wlth others, i n a compatible environment, learn .the..techniques, and ..skills of democratic l i v i n g . i n others.  What i s learned i n one setting i s r e f l e c t e d  The process of the "democratic germ" may be slow  -99-  3  as. Is the process of establishing..poli.cit.cal. democracy, but-to the best of. our knowledge at. t h i s .point, I t does ensure the ...best possible adjustment the individual, can make to his society and i s productive of more s o c i a l beings who are able to achieve and.. construct a more satisfactory world i n which to l i v e .  Therefore,  a sharper knowledge of the dynamics of human, relationships i n the group setting, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the administrative field,, i s tremendously important for our understanding of the quality of r e l a t i o n s which makes for cooperative, productive association. For t h i s reason the analysis of s o c i a l agency administrative relationships, of Boards and.committees and of representative Councils, i s important i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work practice and for the implications i t holds for larger community experiences, because these are groups who are working at the business of making democracy work.  -100BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l p o r t , Gordon W., The Psychology of P a r t i c i p a t i o n , Psychological Review, May,.. 1945. - . . ~ Atwater, Pierse, Problems of Administration i n Social Work. University of Minnesota, 1940. ' Blumenthal, Louis H.,. Administration of Group Work. Association Press, 1948. . Beavers, Helen D., Administration i n the Y.W.C.A; P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures, Woman's Press, New York, 1944. . . ~~ Bernstein, Saul, Charting Group Process, Association Press, 1949. Dunbar, Arthur, Administration of S o c i a l Agencies, S o c i a l Work Year Book, 1947, p. 15 - 22. F o l l e t t , Mary P., Creative. Experience,  Longmans, Green, 1920.  Hendry, Chas. E., The Dynamics of Leadership, Proceedings of the National Conference of Social. Work, 194-6, p. 259 - 268. Johnson, A r l i e n , The Administrative Process i n Social Work, Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work, 1946, p. 249 - 258. Leighton, A.H., The Governing of Men, Princeton University.Press, 1946. Linden, M.E., Group Psychotherapy with I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Senile Women, Journal of Group Psychotherapy, A p r i l , 1953. Metcalf, H.C. & Urwick, L., (editors), Dynami a.- • Admini s t r at i on; The Collected Papers of.Mary P . . F o l l e t t , Harper & Bros., New York, 1942. Newstetter, W.I., The Social Inter-Group Work Process, Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work, 1947, p. 205 - 207. Tead, Ordway, Democratic Administration, Association Press, 1945, Trecker, Harleigh, Social Group Work - P r i n c i p l e s and Practices, Woman's Press, New York, 1948 Trecker, Harleigh, Study Project on the Job of the Executive Director, National. Board Y.W.C.A., New York, 1950 (not published). Trecker, harleigh, The Group Process i n Administration, Woman's Press, New York, 1 9 5 0 . Urwick, Lyndall, The Elements of Administration, Harper & Bros., 1943.  -101-  Blbliography  continued  Wilson, G. & Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work.Practice, Riverside ... Press,, New York,. 194-9. Agency Statement s and Reporta Alexander Community A c t i v i t i e s , Constitution and By-Laws, Vancouver, B.C. (as amended .19.47, 1951). Gordon Neighbourhood House, Statement of Purpose and Function, 1005 J e r v i s Street, Vancouver,. B.C. 1952. Gordon Neighbourhood House, Gordon House Council 1005 J e r v i s Street, Vancouver, B.C. 1952  Constitution,  Thomas, Elizabeth, Report to the Study Committee on Purpose and Function of Gordon Neighbourhood House, Gordon House,. June, 1952.  

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