UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The political career of Sir Richard McBride Hunt, Peter Roberts 1953

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T H E P O L I T I C A L CAREER OP S I R RICHARD McBRIDE b y r PETER ROBERTS HUNT A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS I n t h © D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f r o m c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e d e g r e e o f MASTER OF ARTS i i Members o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r , CANADA A p r i l , 1 9 5 3 . ABSTRACT. The P o l i t i c a l Career of Sir Richard McBride by Peter Roberts Hunt. During recent years the C nadian p l i t i c a l scene has suffered from a dearth of colour. Indeed, i t has almost been forgotten how p o l i t i c a l l y influential and successful a colourful figure can be. This thesis con-stitutes in part a reminder of this fact. Here is the story of the most popular premier in the history of the province of British Columbia, Richard McBride, the man who came to his high office at the age of thirty-two (the youngest premier in our history), and stayed in power over twelve years (the longest term of office in our history). He was the man who introduced party government to the province and thereby headed the f i r s t Conservative government in B.C. history. At the head of this government he directed provincial affairs during the greatest boom, bar the present one, to^-eyer^Jhit this province. At his last election he accomplished the remarkable success of sweeping from the Legislature every representative of the hitherto chief Opposition party, the Liberals. Forty Conservatives faced two Socialists. In federal affairs McBride became one of the leading figures in the Conservative party and, in 1911, Robert Borden's closest r i v a l for the right to lead the Conservatives to victory in the Reciprocity Election. He thus came closer than any other West C 0ast p o l i t i c i a n to becoming Prime Minister of Canada. In imperial affairs he also achieved considerable prominence. He cut a striking figure in London and became personally acquainted with many important imperial figures such as Winston Churchill. It was as ambassador for his province that he found his most effective r o l e . This man from New Westminster does on the above record bulk larger than any other figure in the history of local p o l i t i c s . Another purpose of t h i s thesis is to discover to what extent McBride's a b i l i t y and achievement made him worthy of this prestige. In chapter one, McBride's rise to power is described; from the early days in law in New Westminster, through his f i r s t p o l i t i c a l plunge (a fai l u r e ) , his f i r s t p o l i t i c a l success (in 1898), his f i r s t babinet position (with Premier Dunsmuir in 1900), his resignation from that cabinet and leadership of the Opposition to the Dunsmuir and Prior governments, to his c a l l to the premiership in June, 1905. Chapter two deals with h i s ' d i f f i c u l t i e s in forming and carrying out the decision to form a government along strict party lines. This decision was put to the test in the election of October, 1905. Chapter three t e l l s of the governmental success in combating financial insolvency, a success resulting from a s t r i c t retrenchment policy which was the work of McBride's f i r s t rate Finance Minister, R.G. Tatlow, and aided to at least some small extent by the Premier's attempt to get Better Terms out of Ottawa (in other words an increased financial subsidy). McBride became more widely known through his role in the Better Terms fight, the ollmax o£ which was reached at Ottawa in October, 1906. Chapter four attempts to explain those railway entanglements which the McBride government found i t impossible to avoid in the period 1905 to 1906, and to estimate the results these entanglements in terms of the 1907 election. Chapter five records a change in government policy with the Premier acting more boldly on the basis of better times and a larger majority. A discussion of his t r i p to England in the interests of Better Terms, is followed by an appreciation of the significance of the 1907 cabinet changes, and of some of the policies affected by these changes. The chapter concludes with an account of the government's deoision to guarantiee the bonds of the Cftnadian Northern Railway Company in order to persuade that Company to build to the Pacific, and an analysis of the results of this decision, results which included two resignations and another election, in November, 1909. Abstract p. 2 Chapter six deals with the peak of the boom and concomitantly the peak of Conservative success and popularity. The second phase of McBride's railway polioy is described as is his electoral triumph in 1912. The Premier's activities in the federal f i e l d and in England are also discussed. A l l these a c t i v i t i e s show him at the zenith of his personal success in this period, ? Chpater seven deals with the depression and the decline in popularity suffered by the McBride government from 1915 to 1915. This decline takes plWce in three stages as the outbreak of war provides an imperialistic interlude, a hesitation before the f i n a l collapse. At the end of this chapter i s an analysis of Sir Richard's decision t'6 resign. Chapter eight is a short appreciation of McBride as a colourful figure whose very virtues as a man constituted his worst failings as a statesman. Nevertheless i t i s conoluded that as a man of vision he had an important role in the development of the province. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS T h e a u t h o r w i s h e s t o g i v e v e r y s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o t h e f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e p r e -p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s : T o M i s s M. W o l f e n d e n a n d M r . W i l l a r d I r e l a n d o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e M c B r i d e p a p e r s a n d t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s ; t o M r s . M . P . M a c i n t o s h , a d a u g h t e r o f S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , f o r h e r k i n d n e s s i n p e r m i t t i n g t h e a u t h o r t o u s e t h e v a l u a b l e c o l l e c t i o n o f h e r f a t h e r ' s p a p e r s i n h e r p o s s e s s i o n ; t o D r . W a l t e r N . S a g e , f o r h i s c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r e s t , e n -c o u r a g e m e n t , a n d a d v i c e ; a n d t o t h e a u t h o r ' s f i a n c e e , M i s s J a c q u i e S a w y e r , - f o r more o f t h e s a m e , a n d f o r h e r t i m e , s o g e n e r o u s l y s p e n t i n t y p i n g t h e f i n i s h e d c h a p -t e r s s o t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l t y p i s t w o u l d h a v e m o r e l e g i b l e c o p y t h a n w o u l d h a v e b e e n p r o v i d e d b y t h e a u t h o r ' s l o n g h a n d . * * S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e . K . C . . L L . D . , K . C . M . G . .  P r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 0 3 - 1 9 1 5 ) . T A B L E OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE 1 . DEWDNEY D I C K BECOMES PREMIER 1 I I . P A R T Y GOVERNMENT COMES TO B R I T I S H COLUMBIA 23 I I I . RETRENCHMENT AND B E T T E R TERMS . . . . . . 45 I V . RAILWAY A F F A I R S AND T H E E L E C T I O N OF 1907 68 V . SCHEMES AND DREAMS . 1 0 4 V I . OF OTTAWA, A KNIGHTHOOD, AND F O R T Y S E A T S 146 V I I . B A C K TO RETRENCHMENT 174 V I I I . S I R RICHARD M c B R I D E : MAN, P O L I T I C I A N , AND STATESMAN . 2 0 8 B IBL IOGRAPHY . 214 A P P E N D I X T H E P O L I T I C A L CAREER OF S I R RICHARD McBRIDE C H A P T E R I DEWDNEY D I C K BECOMES PREMIER I n 1 9 0 3 , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e e x p e r i m e n t e d i n t h e u s e o f p a r t y M a t o b r i n g s t a b i l -i t y i n g o v e r n m e n t . T h e p r o v i n c e h a d s u f f e r e d i n t h e d e -p r e s s i o n o f t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s a n d h a d r e a p e d t h e p o l i t i c a l e f -f e c t s o f t h a t d e p r e s s i o n , a s d i d t h e w h o l e c o u n t r y . I n f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s , t h e d e p r e s s i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e * d o w n f a l l o f t h e rump C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t a t t h © e l e c t i o n s o f '96; i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , i t p r o v e d t o o s e v e r e a s t r a i n f o r t h e s y s t e m o f p e r s o n a l g o v e r n m e n t t h e n o p e r a t i n g . H o w e v e r , when t h i s s y s t e m was c h a n g e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e a n d p a r t y l i n e s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d , e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s c h a n g e d a l m o s t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . A t l e a s t , I t i s t r u e t o s a y t h a t g o o d t i m e s w e r e r e t u r n i n g i n t h e E a s t a n d t h a t s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s t h e y w e r e t o r e a c h t h e W e s t . T h u s t h e r e a p p e a r e d t o some B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s t o b e a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n " t h e f i r s t C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t t h a t B . C . e v e r h a d " a n d t h e b o o m , b e t w e e n p a r t y l i n e s a n d p r o s p e r i t y . B o t h w e r e v e r y c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e name o f R i c h a r d M c B r i d e . M c B r i d e m e a n t t h e boom a n d t h e man who b r o u g h t o r d e r o u t o f c h a o s , a n d h i s name a l s o became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h many o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f t h e e r a o f p r o s p e r i t y t h e n b e g i n n i n g . He was t o b e t h e c h a m p i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e a t O t t a w a , a n d e v e n I n L o n d o n , i n t h e f i g h t f o r b e t t e r t e r m s ; t h e man who b r o u g h t t h e p r o v i n c e r a i l w a y s a n d a u n i v e r s i t y ; t h e man who r e p -r e s e n t e d h i s p r o v i n c e - a t t h e i m p e r i a l c a p i t a l a n d , i n d e e d , e v e r y w h e r e h e w e n t , w i t h a g r a c e a n d c h a r m o n l y m a t c h e d b y t h a t o f t h e F e d e r a l P r i m e M i n i s t e r , S i r W i l f r i d L a u r l e r . However much t h e l u s t e r o f t h i s r e p u t a t i o n h a s b e e n d immed i n t h e y e a r s s i n c e M c B r i d e ' s e a r l y d e a t h , two o f h i s c l a i m s t o f a m e s t i l l s t a n d o u t a s i n t e r e s t i n g a n d u n i q u e . He was t h e f i r s t n a t i v e s o n t o b e c o m e p r e m i e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e a n d t o t h i s d a t e h e r e m a i n s b y f a r t h e y o u n g e s t man e v e r to h o l d J t h a t o f f i c e . 1 He was b o r n i n New W e s t m i n s t e r o n D e c e m b e r 1 5 , 1 8 7 0 . Ontario H i s f a t h e r , A r t h u r H . M c B r i d e , was a n .Orangeman who came t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o v e r l a n d w i t h t h e e a r l i e s t s e t t l e r s t o come b y t h a t r o u t e . He s e t t l e d i n V i c t o r i a a n d j o i n e d t h e l o c a l c o n s t a b u l a r y . H e r e , A r t h u r M c B r i d e met a n d m a r r i e d a n I r i s h C a t h o l i c g i r l n a m e d M a r y D a r c y . He c o n t i n u e d i n h i s p r o -f e s s i o n o f l a w e n f o r c e m e n t u n t i l c h o s e n t o t a k e o v e r a s w a r d e n 2 o f t h e f e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y a t New W e s t m i n s t e r . I t was n o t H e n r y J a m e s M o r g a n , e d . , T h e C a n a d i a n Men a n d Women o f t h e T i m e , 2 n d e d i t . , T o r o n t o , B r i g g s , 1 9 1 2 , p . 7 4 8 . 2 fi. E . G o s n e l l , " S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " A r t i c l e N o . 1 , V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 16 J u l y , 1 9 2 1 . R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , whe n h e was a l i t t l e h o y I n New W e s t m i n s t e r * ( P r o b a b l y a b o u t 1 8 7 6 ) . 3 l o n g a f t e r h e moved t o t h e m a i n l a n d t o t a k e u p t h i s p o s i t i o n t h a t h i s t h i r d s o n , R i c h a r d , was b o r n . Y o u n g D i c k was e d u c a t e d i n New W e s t m i n s t e r p u b l i c a n d h i g h s c h o o l s w h e r e h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f b y l e a d i n g h i s 3 c l a s s a c a d e m i c a l l y . T h i s e a r l y p r o m i s e was p r o b a b l y t h e b a s i s o f h i s g o i n g t o t h e c o n t i n e n t ' s o t h e r r i m t o s t u d y l a w a t D a l h o u s i e . He p r o b a b l y h a d h e l p f r o m h i s b r o t h e r B i l l y 4 t o f i n a n c e t h i s e x p e n s i v e p r o j e c t . A c c o r d i n g t o G o s n e l l , t h e y o u n g man f r o m t h e W e s t c o a s t d i d n o t s h a w ^ h i m s e l f as a b r i l l i a n t s c h o l a r b u t d i d s o o n show a p t i t u d e a s a s t u d e n t 5 o f human n a t u r e . T h i s was a l w a y s t o r e m a i n h i s f o r t e . S o u n d r a t h e r t h a n b r i l l i a n t f r o m an i n t e l l e c t u a l p o i n t o f v i e w , h e was a l w a y s a warm a n d s y m p a t h e t i c man w i t h a l o v e f o r p e o p l e . P e r h a p s , u n i v e r s i t y l i f e g a v e t h i s n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y a d d e d i m p e t u s . B u t D i c k M c B r i d e c a n n o t h a v e s p e n t a l l h i s t i m e s t u d y i n g human n a t u r e f o r h e g r a d u a t e d a t t h e age o f n i n e t e e n , i n t h e y e a r 1 8 9 0 , w i t h a n L L . B . a n d a B . A . 6 i n l a n g u a g e s . He r e t u r n e d t o New W e s t m i n s t e r i n t h a t same M T h e H i g h S c h o o l , " S u p p l e m e n t t o t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r  C o l u m b i a n , D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 . 4 I n t e r v i e w w i t h M i s s L . M. B o w r o n . 5 G o s n e l l , " S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " A r t . N o . 1 , V D P . A u d r e y A l e x a n d r a B r o w n , a S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " i n C h a r l e s G . D . R o b e r t s a n d A r t h u r L . T u n n e l l , e d . , A S t a n d a r d D i c t i o n a r y o f C a n a d i a n B i o g r a p h y . T o r o n t o , T r a n s -C a n a d a P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 , p . 3 3 0 . 4 year with a packful of memories of fellow students such as Fred Howay, Hoble Reid and B i l l Bowser; and the best law degree i n Canada. Back i n his hometown, McBride continued his law studies with T. C. Atkinson, the police magistrate, and A. J . McColl, who l a t e r became Chief J u s t i c e . In 1892, he was c a l l e d to the Bar, and l a t e r In that year, through the influence of McColl, he became a junior partner i n the 7 law f i r m of Corbould, McColl, Wilson and Campbell. On© suspects that law was not the only thing learned by McBride from his more experienced partners, f o r i t i s more than l i k e l y that his f i r s t p o l i t i c a l stimulus was encountered while i n this firm. As a son of a c i v i l servant, McBride may have been brought up to keep his p o l i t i c a l views to himself, and probably received l i t t l e encouragement to form any. But now he found himself the junior law partner of the Conservative member of parliament f o r New Westminster, Corbould, and could hardly escape gaining p o l i t i c a l edu-cation thereby. While McBride may have maintained some connection with Corbould, and may through him have investigated the i n t r i c a c i e s of the p o l i t i c a l game, he d i d not remain with the f i r m but set out on his own f o r a year. Then, i n 1895, he joined W. J . Whiteside f o r a year. This partnership was 7 Gosnell, " S i r Richard McBride," Art. No. 1, VDP. 5 dissolved i n 1896 and McBride and H . P. Clinton formed 8 another partnership, t h i s time f o r two years. By 1898, McBride had joined Jack Kennedy, the partner he was to re-main with as long as he practiced law. In 1896, Corbould decided to quit the p o l i t i c a l arena, perhaps shrewdly r e a l i z i n g that the days of Conservative success i n federal p o l i t i e s were at an end, at least f o r some time to come. His former junior law partner stepped into his place as Conservative candidate f o r th© general election of that year and f e l l v i c t i m to the Laurier triumph. However, McBride must be considered to have put up a good f i g h t against his opponent, Aulay Morrison ( l a t e r of the Supreme Court bench), f o r he po l l e d 1450 votes to th© l a t -9 ter's 1758. Despite his defeat, t h i s f i r s t p o l i t i c a l plunge i s not without other s i g n i f i c a n c e . Here McBride had his f i r s t experience on th© hustings and no doubt found that his l e g a l background and his pleasing personality stood him w e l l . Here a l s o , he f i r s t showed his p o l i t i c a l colours and, at the same time, revealed Corbould as an influence i n the formation of his o r i g i n a l allegiance to the Conservative party. L a s t l y , one feels that although he was defeated, he was not discouraged. Rather, he f e l t that he had some talent 8 Gosnell, " S i r Richard McBride," Art. No. 1, VDP. 9 Gosnell, The Year Book of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1897 e d i t . , V i c t o r i a , 1897. 6 f o r this game of p o l i t i c s , and no doubt be resolved to t r y again when the next opportunity should a r i s e . But 1896 was not e n t i r e l y an unsuccessful year f o r McBride because his p o l i t i c a l had luck was followed by domes-t i c good luck. In September, he married Margaret, the younger 10 daughter of N e i l M c G i l l i v r a y of New Westminster. Despite the s t o r i e s of McBride's lack of concern f o r marriage t i e s , the union seems i n the long run to have been a happy one, producing s i x daughters. The new Mrs. McBride was to be f a i t h f u l l y at her husband's side twenty-one years l a t e r , as Lady McBride, when a p r a c t i c a l l y penniless, wasted, and nearly b l i n d man, o l d long before his time, died i n London i n the backwater po s i t i o n of Agent-General*-an ignominious end to a short but glorious career. The year 1898 offered two opportunities f o r a young man with McBride's t a l e n t s , one l e g a l , the other p o l i t i c a l . The A t l i n gold rush had run i n t o l e g a l d i f f i c u l t i e s because the area had f i r s t been thought to be i n the North West T e r r i t o r i e s where placer claims were two .hundred and f i f t y feet i n width. Later, i t was admitted to be part of B r i -t i s h Columbia where such claims were only allowed to be one 11 hundred feet i n width. The mass of l i t i g a t i o n r e s u l t i n g 1 ( 3 Morgan, ed. , The Canadian Men and Women of the Time, 2nd e d i t . , Toronto, Briggs, 1912, p. 748. 1 1 F.W. Howay, B r i t i s h Columbia from the E a r l i e s t Times  to the Present. Vancouver, S.J. Clarke, 1914, v o l . 2, p. 499* J o h n H e r b e r t T u r n e r A c a n n i n g m a g n a t e who was t h e t e n t h p r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( 1 8 9 5 - 1 8 9 8 ) T u r n e r was t h e l a s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s o - c a l l e d S m y t h e d y n a s t y * I t was as T u r n e r ' s s u p p o r t e r t h a t M c B r i d e e n t e r e d p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s i n 1 8 9 8 , a n d a f t e r t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d l o s t t h e e l e c t i o n t h e two men w e r e i n O p -p o s i t i o n t o g e t h e r * T h e y w e r e l a t e r t o g e t h e r i n D u n s m u i r ' s m i n i s t r y ; T u r n e r a s M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e * A s a c a n n i n g m a g -n a t e T u r n e r h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d as a t y p i c a l g o v e r n m e n t l e a d e r o f t h e e r a j u s t b e f o r e M c B r i d e came t o p o w e r , t h e s o r t o f l e a d e r who r e p r e s e n t e d " g o v e r n m e n t b y a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h a t i n t e r e s t N e v e r t h e l e s s T u r n e r was much r e s p e c t e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e , a n d h i s t e n u r e o f t h e A g e n t - G e n -e r a l ' s o f f i c e i n L o n d o n , f r o m 1901 t o 1 9 1 5 , was a c k n o w l e d g e d b y a l l t o h a v e b e e n a m a j o r a c h i e v e m e n t * I n t h i s p o s i t i o n h e d i d s u c h g o o d w o r k , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p u b l i c i t y f o r t h e p r o v i n c e , t h a t Q u e b e c a n d O n t a r i o d e c i d e d t o a p p o i n t A g e n t s -G e n e r a l o f t h e i r own* He r e t i r e d i n 1915 a t t h e age o f 8 1 , t o make w a y f o r M c B r i d e * 1 7 from t h i s confusion was a great a t t r a c t i o n f o r a young lawyer w i l l i n g to "rough i t " f o r the sake of experience, and t h i s experience was to p r o f i t McBride more than he could guess* The p o l i t i c a l opportunity arose from the decision of the Turner administration at V i c t o r i a to go to the people i n J u l y . Although Turner could claim Island support, his pos i t i o n on the mainland was f a r from stable. Indeed, Mc-Bride, who secured nomination for the pro-Turner forces f i n Dewdney, was described as the only stra i g h t government 12 candidate, and his chances were taken as slim. In sup-porting Turner, McBride can be sa i d to have kept his Con-servative reeord unblemished because Turner was representa-t i v e of the type of Conservative i n t e r e s t then prominent i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s . The personal government system has been de-13 scribed as "government by a c l i q u e ; " i t has also been de-scribed as "government by an interest i n the interest of 14 that i n t e r e s t . n The l a t t e r d e f i n i t i o n i s perhaps more apt, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of a canning magnate such as Turner. This i s not to say that the i n d u s t r i a l p o l i t l c o s 1 2 " E d i t o r i a l Notes," New Westminster Daily Columbia, 15 June, 1898. 1 3 E d i t h Dobie, aSome Aspects of Party History i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1903," P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l Review, v o l . 1 (June, 1932), p. 241. 14 J.C. Lawrence, "Joseph Martin," Report to Seminar  ©n B r i t i s h Columbia History, U.B.C, A p r i l , 1952. (copy i n possession of Dr. W. N. Sage). 8 were crooks; rather, they were of the type that would have paraphrased Charles E. Wilson and s a i d that "what i s good f o r canning (or lumber, or mining) i s good f o r B r i t i s h Columbia." I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that McBride joined these ranks. Supported by the e d i t o r i a l powers of the Vancouver World and boosted on the hustings by u n o f f i c i a l campaign I 15 manager, Robie Reid, McBride conducted a vigorous campaign. The Opposition nominations caused some confusion as Sword, the Incumbent member, and a man named Whetham, were close r i v a l s . However, the Columbian predicted that either " w i l l beat the imported, young c i t y lawyer, 'native boy', government 16 candidate, 'hands down.1" This paper quipped that straight government candidates were as rare as Great Auks. Indeed, there was only one on the mainland and i t was suggested that Fannin s t u f f t h i s one f o r the museum as i t was to become extinct on J u l y 9. However, f o r a l l t h i s confident humour, McBride confounded his opponents, and not f o r the l a s t time. Sword dropped out but Whetham was narrov/ly beaten, as the Columbian sadly reported on the eleventh of the month a 17 majority of 218-193 f o r the young c i t y lawyer. 15 " E d i t o r i a l Notes," New Westminster Daily Columbian. 15 June, 1898. 1 6 " E d i t o r i a l Notes," New Westminster D a l l y Columbian, 13 June, 1898. 1 7 "Election Results," New Westminster Daily Columbian. 11 J u l y , 1898. 9 T h u s R i c h a r d M c B r i d e e n t e r e d p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s a s a s u p p o r t e r o f t h e T u r n e r g o v e r n m e n t . T u r n e r , h o w e v e r , was n o t t o l a s t , a n d M c B r i d e , a l o n g w i t h h i s p r e m i e r , f o u n d h i m -18 s e l f i n o p p o s i t i o n a f t e r a m o n t h . The e l e c t i o n o f a l l e x -c e p t s i x members h a d b e e n p r o t e s t e d t h r o u g h p e t i t i o n s a n d i n t h i s u n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r M c l n n e s t o o k i t u p o n h i m s e l f t o d i s m i s s t h e g o v e r n m e n t — n o t t h e l a s t somewhat u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e b y t h i s g e n t l e m a n . B u t w h a t e v e r t h e c a u s e , M c B r i d e o n l y e n j o y e d a m o n t h a s member o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t p a r t y a n d n e v e r s a t o n t h e g o v e r n m e n t b e n c h e s . P r o m A u g u s t 8 t h , 1898 u n t i l J u n e 2 1 , 1 9 0 0 , M c B r i d e was i n o p p o s i t i o n - - a y o u n g b a c k b e n c h e r who g r a d u a l l y made h i m s e l f f e l t a n d , a t l e a s t p e r s o n a l l y , l i k e d , f o r h i s p o l i t i c a l a c u m e n a n d h i s a f f a b l e n a t u r e . He o p p o s e d t h e S e m l i n g o v e r n -19 ment w h i l e i t l a s t e d , a n d w a t c h e d t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r ' s f u t i l e s u p p o r t o f t h e s h o r t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n o u r h i s t o r y , t h a t o f J o s e p h M a r t i n . T h e n , a t t h e c o l l a p s e o f M a r t i n ' s 20 g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e e l e c t i o n o f J u n e 9 , 1 9 0 0 , he f o u n d t h a t 18 T U m e r was d i s m i s s e d o n A u g u s t 8 , 1 8 9 8 . S e e H o w a y , o p . c i t . , p . 5 0 3 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , J o u r n a l s . 1 8 9 9 , 2 5 , 4 1 , , 4 2 , 4 3 . 2 0 M c B r i d e was s a f e l y r e t u r n e d f o r D e w d n e y , a g a i n a g a i n s t W h e t h a m , a n d t h i s t i m e b y a v o t e o f 3 3 8 - 2 8 5 . E r n e s t J . C h a m b e r s , e d . , T h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y G u i d e . 1 9 0 1 . M o n t r e a l , G a z e t t e , 1 9 0 1 . p . 4 0 8 . J o s e p h M a r t i n " F i g h t i n g J o e , " a s he was c a l l e d , was a l s o k n o w n as t h e " s t o r m y p e t r e l o f B . C . p o l i t i c s . " C a l l e d o n t o f o r m a g o v e r n m e n t b y L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r M c l n n e s i n 1 8 9 9 , a f t e r S e m l i n h a d b e e n d e f e a t e d i n t h e H o u s e , M a r t i n o n l y l a s t e d a s P r e m i e r f o r t h r e e m o n t h s — a r e c o r d f o r b r e v i t y i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e p r o v i n c e . A l t h o u g h e l e c t e d L i b e r a l l e a d e r i n 1902 h e was f o u n d u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h a t p o s i t i o n i n t h e summer o f t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . He d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m p o l i t i c s f o r a t i m e a f t e r t h i s , b u t r e a p p e a r e d t o h a l f - h e a r t e d l y c o n -t e s t a V a n c o u v e r f e d e r a l s e a t i n t h e l o c a l 1908 e l e c t i o n ( a g a i n s t M c l n n e s a n d C o w a n ) . A f t e r t h i s he w e n t t o E n g l a n d , a n d w a s , i n 1 9 1 0 , e l e c t e d t o t h e I m p e r i a l p a r l i a m e n t f o r E a s t S t . P a n c r a s . A much m i s u n d e r s t o o d b u t u n d o u b t e d l y s i n c e r e f i g h t e r f o r t h e r i g h t s o f t h e u n d e r d o g , M a r t i n h a d a n a m a z i n g c a p a c i t y f o r a l i e n a t i n g p e o p l e . T h i s was h i s u n d o i n g . I 10 h i s own r e p u t a t i o n g a v e h i m what m i g h t o t h e r w i s e h a v e "been a n u n l i k e l y c h a n c e f o r a d v a n c e m e n t , James D u n s m u i r was c a l l e d t o t h e p r e m i e r s h i p , r a t h e r , o n e s u p p o s e s , w i t h t h e h o p e t h a t h i s f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y w o u l d l e n d s t a b i l i t y i n g o v e r n m e n t . B u t t h e h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p f r o m w h i c h h e h a d t o d r a w s u p p o r t s h o w e d o n l y one common d e n o m i n a t o r ; t h e y 21 a l l w e r e o p p o s e d t o J o e M a r t i n . T h i s was a weak r a l s o n d ' e t r e f o r a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u t a n u n a v o i d a b l e o n e , t h a n k s 22 t o t h e p o l i t i c a l m e d d l i n g o f t h e l a t e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r . M c B r i d e was a s k e d t o j o i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r , y o u n g t h o u g h h e w a s , h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n m i n i n g l a w a t A t l i n f i t t e d h i m b e t t e r t h a n o t h e r s f o r t h e m i n i n g p o r t f o l i o , a n d h i s g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l q u a l i t i e s made h i m a g o o d man t o h e l p h o l d t h e D u n s m u i r g o v e r n m e n t t o g e t h e r . He was w e l l l i k e d a n d h a d a g o o d way w i t h p e o p l e . B e s i d e s h e w a s , as h a s b e e n m e n -t i o n e d , c e r t a i n l y n o t w i t h o u t p o l i t i c a l a c u m e n . T h u s a t t h e a g e o f t w e n t y - n i n e , " G l a d - h a n d D i c k , " a s h e was c a l l e d , r e a c h e d c a b i n e t r a n k , somewhat t o t h e s u r p r i s e , n o d o u b t , o f h i s o l d e r p o l i t i c a l c o m r a d e s , who c e r t a i n l y n e v e r t h o u g h t 23 f o r a moment t h a t h e w o u l d go. a n y h i g h e r . 21 H o w a y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e E a r l i e s t T i m e s to< t h e P r e s e n t , V a n c o u v e r , S . J . C l a r k e , 1 9 1 4 , v o l . 2 , p . 5 1 0 . op M c l n n e s was s u m m a r i l y r e m o v e d i n t h e m o n t h o f M a r t i n ' s d e f e a t . * ° G o s n e l l , " S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " A r t . Wo. 1 , V a n c o u v e r D a l l y P r o v i n c e , 1 6 J u l y , 1 9 2 1 . 11 T h e p r e s s g r e e t e d t h e D u n s m u i r c a b i n e t a p p o i n t m e n t s w i t h a h e a l t h y m i x t u r e o f c r i t i c i s m a n d a p p r o v a l . T h e e d i t o r s o f t h e S l m i l k a m e e n S t a r a n d P h o e n i x P i o n e e r f e l t t h a t i n t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f M c B r i d e a s M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s , 24 t h e P r e m i e r h a d i g n o r e d t h e m i n i n g d i s t r i c t s . I t was f e l t t h a t M c B r i d e knew m o r e a b o u t " m i n e r a l w a t e r " t h a n he d i d a b o u t m i n i n g . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e L i l l o o e t P r o s p e c t o r 25 r e f e r r e d t o t h e c a p a b l e men i n t h e c a b i n e t , M c B r i d e i n c l u d e d ; a n d t h e A t l i n C l a i m c a l l e d t h e y o u n g m i n i s t e r v e r y p o p u l a r 26 i n A t l i n a n d w e l l - f i t t e d f o r t h e j o b . T h e N e l s o n M i n e r s a i d t h a t i t d i d n o t m a t t e r w h e r e h e came f r o m , t h a t h e w o u l d s o o n p i c k u p t h e " s p e c i a l k n o w l e d g e n e c e s s a r y f o r 2 7 t h e p o s i t i o n . " F i n a l l y , T h e K a s l o K o o t e n a i a n a p p l a u d e d t h e a p p o i n t m e n t b y t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t . M r . M c B r i d e , w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e n t e r p r i s e , h a s l a t e l y e x t e n d e d h i s l e g a l b u s i n e s s t o t h e A t l i n g o l d f i e l d s , w h e r e h e h a s q u i t e a c l i e n t a g e , a n d a s M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s h e w i l l b e a b l e t o b r i n g a n i n t e l l i g e n t i n t e r e s t t o b e a r o n l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g t h a t i m p o r t a n t s e c t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e . 28 2 4 S l m i l k a m e e n S t a r . 21 J u l y , 1 9 0 0 . P h o e n i x P i o n e e r , 30 J u n e , a n d 14 J u l y , 1 9 0 0 . 2 5 L i l l o o e t P r o s p e c t o r , 6 J u l y , 1 9 0 0 . 2 6 A t l i n C l a i m , 2 1 J u l y , 1 9 0 0 . 2 7 N e l s o n M i n e r , 5 J u l y , 1 9 0 0 . 2 8 K a s l o K o o t e n a i a n , 28 J u l y , 1 9 0 0 . V J a m e s D u n s m u i r B o r n a b o u t 1 8 5 0 , t h e s o n o f R o b e r t D u n s m u i r , t h e c o a l b a r o n o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , J a m e s D u n s m u i r was P r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m 1900 t o 1 9 0 2 . M c B r i d e was a member o f h i s m i n i s t r y a n d made a name f o r h i m s e l f b y r e s i g n i n g f r o m i t o n a m a t t e r o f p r i n c i p l e . D u n s m u i r p r o b a b l y o n l y e n t e r e d p o l i t i c s a s a s e r v i c e t o t h e p r o v i n c e a n d he r e -s i g n e d when h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d . L a t e r L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r f r o m 1906 u n t i l 1 9 0 9 , h e r e s i g n e d f r o m t h a t p o s i t i o n when h e came u n d e r a t t a c k d u r i n g t h e h e i g h t o f t h e a n t i - O r i e n t a l f e e l i n g . A s i l e n t , a l m o s t g r u f f man i n h i s y o u n g e r d a y s , D u n s m u i r became more k i n d l y a n d d i s t i n g u i s h e d w h e n , i n h i s o l d a g e , h e r e t i r e d t o h i s p a l a t i a l c o u n t r y home a t H a t l e y P a r k , n e a r V i c t o r i a . I 12 T h u s t h r o u g h t h e p r e s s d i d M c B r i d e f i r s t r e a l l y b e c o m e a f i g u r e i n t h e p u b l i c e y e * A s a member o f t h e D u n s m u i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , M c B r i d e j o i n e d T u r n e r , now t h e F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r , i n t h e d u t y o f e n u n c i a t i n g a n d d e f e n d i n g g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y . T h e y w e r e t h e c h i e f s p o k e s m e n o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , f o r i t was n o t f o r n o t h i n g t h a t t h e P r e m i e r h a d b e e n g i v e n t h e s o b r i q u e t o f 29 " s i l e n t " ; he h a r d l y e v e r t o o k p a r t i n d e b a t e * A l t h o u g h M c B r i d e was a c h i e f g o v e r n m e n t s p o k e s m a n , a n d a l t h o u g h h e seems t o h a v e h a n d l e d h i s p o r t f o l i o w i t h c a r e a n d e f f i c i e n c y , n o n e o f h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e D u n s m u i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e c a m e h i m ^ l i k e h i s l e a v i n g o f i t . W h e n , i n A u g u s t 1 9 0 1 , T u r n e r was a p p o i n t e d t o t h e new p o s i t i o n o f a g e n t - g e n e r a l f o r t h e P r o v i n c e i n L o n d o n a s a r e w a r d f o r h i s l o n g s e r v i c e s t o t h e P r o v i n c e , t h e v a c a n t p o r t f o l i o was o f f e r e d b y D u n s m u i r t o J . C . B r o w n , t h e f i n a n c e m i n i s t e r o f t h e m u c h - h a t e d M a r t i n g o v e r n m e n t . Why h e d i d t h i s n o one seems t o k n o w ; b u t M c B r i d e , who h a d n o t b e e n c o n s u l t e d a n d 30 o n l y l e a r n e d t h e news f r o m t h e n e w s p a p e r s , q u i t e u n d e r -s t a n d a b l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e P r e m i e r ' s a c t i o n a c o m p l e t e v o l t e - f a c e a n d " a b s o l u t e l y s u b v e r s i v e o f t h e r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f t h e 2 9 S e e t h e d a y b y d a y r e p o r t s o f t h e a s s e m b l y d e b a t e s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r W o r l d . 3 0 R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , D i a r y . 1 9 0 1 , S e p t e m b e r 1 e n t r y : " J u s t l e a r n f r o m p a p e r s t h a t Brown i s t o b e c a l l e d i n » " 31 D u n s m u i r G o v e r n m e n t s When i t b e c a m e a p p a r e n t t h a t h i s o b j e c t i o n s a s a c a b i n e t member w o u l d n o t p r e v e n t t h i s 32 D u n s m u i r - M a r t i n j u n c t i o n , h e r e s i g n e d o n S e p t e m b e r 3 r d . B u t h e w e n t f a r t h e r t h a n a mere r e s i g n a t i o n o n p r i n c i p l e when he t h r e w a l l h i s i n f l u e n c e a g a i n s t B r o w n i n t h e e n -3 3 s u i n g b y - e l e c t i o n f o r New W e s t m i n s t e r C i t y . W h e t h e r due t o M c B r i d e ' s hometown i n f l u e n c e o r n o t , B r o w n was d e f e a t e d a f t e r a b i t t e r b a t t l e s B y F e b r u a r y 1 9 0 2 , L t . C o l . E . G . P r i o r , a d e f e a t e d F e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e f o r V i c t o r i a , h a d r e p l a c e d M c B r i d e a s M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s a n d h a d a n n o u n c e d h i s i n t e n t -i o n t o c o n t e s t one o f t h e v a c a n t V i c t o r i a s e a t s f o r t h e L e g i s l a t u r e . D e s p i t e t h e s t r o n g f i g h t p u t u p b y h i s r e -n o w n e d l a w y e r o p p o n e n t , E . V . B o d w e l l , C o l . P r i o r won h i s 34 s e a t b y a s c a n t m a r g i n . M c B r i d e , o n c e a g a i n i n O p p o s i t i o n , f o u n d h i s f o r t u n e made b y h i s r e c e n t r e s i g n a t i o n f r o m t h e m i n i s t r y . T h e H o w a y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e E a r l i e s t T i m e s t o  t h e P r e s e n t , V a n c o u v e r , S . J . C l a r k e , 1 9 1 4 , v o l . 2., 5 1 2 . 3 2 R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , D i a r y , 1 9 0 1 , S e p t e m b e r 3 e n t r y : " 9 . 3 0 am w a l k e d t o g o v ' t b l d g s . w i t h F a t h e r - - e x p l a i n e d t h e w h o l e s i t u a t i o n . He s a i d ' M y b o y — r e s i g n e v e r y t h i n g b u t y o u r h o n o u r J ' Met c a b i n e t a t 1 0 . 3 0 . N o t i f i e d P r e m i e r o f my i n t e n t i o n t o r e s i g n a n d w i t h d r e w f r o m c a b i n e t m e e t i n g a t 1 1 . 2 5 a m . " 3 3 H o w a y , o p . c i t . , p . 5 1 2 . 3 4 I b i d . , p . 5 1 3 . 14 p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r i t y o f a y o u n g man l u c k y t o g e t a c a b i n e t p o s t i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e who was w i l l i n g t o r e s i g n i t o n a m a t t e r o f p r i n c i p l e a p p e a l e d t o members a n d e l e c t o r a t e a l i k e . He s o o n f o u n d h i m s e l f p i c k e d b y a n O p p o s i t i o n c a u c u s a s t h e i r l e a d e r . I n t h i s p o s i t i o n M c B r i d e l e d t h e a t t a c k s o n D u n s m u l r ' s m i n i s t r y , h i s a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e b e i n g made u p o f R . F . G r e e n , R . G . T a t l o w , D e n i s M u r p h y , K . C . , 35 D a l l a s H e l m c k e n , K . C . , A . W . N e i l l , a n d C . W . M u n r o . A s t o r m y s e s s i o n w h i c h b e g a n i n F e b r u a r y 1902 saw M c B r i d e ' s s e v e r a l w a n t o f c o n f i d e n c e m o t i o n s j u s t f a i l t o u n s e a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t . M a r t i n , a l t h o u g h h e went t o t h e e x -t e n t o f a b r a w l i n t h e H o u s e t o p r e v e n t M c B r i d e f r o m t a k i n g o v e r t h e s e a t w h i c h h e h a d o c c u p i e d as l e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i -36 t i o n , a l w a y s s i d e d w i t h "the g o v e r n m e n t a f t e r t h e B r o w n 37 A f f a i r , a n d w i t h h i m w e n t M c l n n e s , G i l m o u r , a n d S t a b l e s , T h e s e t r o u b l e s o m e f o u r p e r m i t t e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o s t u m b l e t h r o u g h t h e s e s s i o n a n d t o p a s s , among o t h e r i t e m s , t h e R e d i s t r i b u t i o n B i l l . M c B r i d e a t t a c k e d t h e B i l l a s a g e r r y -m a n d e r , b u t t h i s seems t o h a v e b e e n n o m o r e t h a n a c a s e o f o p p o s i t i o n t a c t i c s a s h e l e f t t h e B i l l u n c h a n g e d when i n 3 5 G o s n e l l , " S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " A r t . N o , l , V a n c o u v e r  D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 16 J u l y , 1 9 2 1 . . 3 6 F o r t h e b e s t a c c o u n t o f t h i s p r i c e l e s s n e a r - r i o t i n t h e l e g i s l a t u r e s e e V a n c o u v e r W o r l d , 1 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 5 . 3 7 J o u r n a l s ,,, 1 9 0 2 , p p . 56 , 57 , 59 , 64 , 6 5 . 1 5 o f f i c e h i m s e l f , a p p a r e n t l y a g r e e i n g w i t h e v e r y o n e t h a t t h e 38 r e d i s t r i b u t i o n was f a i r . A t t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y C o n v e n t i o n a t R e v e l s t o k e b e g i n n i n g o n S e p t e m b e r 1 3 , 1 9 0 2 , C h a r l e s W i l s o n , K . C . , o f V a n c o u v e r was e l e c t e d p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r o f t h e p a r t y . P r i o r , t h e n a p r o s p e c t i v e p r e m i e r , was a l s o m e n t i o n e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s c o n v e n t i o n , a s was R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " a s t r o n g 39 C o n s e r v a t i v e , " a n d H o u s e L e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n . B o r -d e n h i m s e l f was p r e s e n t a n d m e n t i o n s i n h i s memoi rs t h a t h i s own c h o i c e f o r p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r was M c B r i d e . He t h o u g h t 4 0 t h e c h o i c e o f W i l s o n a m i s t a k e . B o r d e n p r o b a b l y r e a l i z e d t h a t W i l s o n r e p r e s e n t e d what m i g h t b e c a l l e d t h e O l d G u a r d o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y i n t h e P r o v i n c e , a s d i d P r i o r , a n d t h a t a b r e a k f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p b y t h i s f a c t i o n was e s s e n t i a l i f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w e r e t o b e c a r -r i e d b y t h e p a r t y . B e f o r e t h e H o u s e s a t a g a i n D u n s m u i r h a d h a d h i s f i l l o f b e i n g p r e m i e r . S m i t h - G u r t i s s , J o e M a r t i n ' s L i b e r a l - L a b o u r l a w p a r t n e r h a d c h a r g e d g o v e r n m e n t c o r r u p t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e a l i n g s o f t h e P r e m i e r w i t h t h e E s q u i m a l t 3 8 N a n a i m o a n d E s q u i m a l t e a c h l o s t a m e m b e r ; V a n -c o u v e r g a i n e d o n e ; a n d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e K o o t e n a y a r e a was i n c r e a s e d f r o m s i x t o e l e v e n . H o w a y , ojp*. c i t . , p . 5 1 4 . 3 9 J . C a s t e l l H o p k i n s , T h e C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w o f  P u b l i c A f f a l r s , ( 1 9 0 2 ) , T o r o n t o , A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 3 , p . 8 7 . M opt j 4 0 ^pff. B o r d e n t v R o b e r t L a i r d B o r d e n , H i s M e m o i r s , T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 3 8 , v o l . I , p . 9 0 . 16 a n d N a n a i m o H a l l w a y , a n d a C o m m i s s i o n , a t w h i c h M c B r i d e t e s t i f i e d a t l e n g t h , was s e t u p u n d e r M r . J u s t i c e G e o r g e A . 41 W a l k e m t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e c h a r g e s . A d i s p u t e o v e r t h e l e g a l i t y o f some i m p o r t a n t e v i d e n c e r e s u l t e d i n S m i t h -C u r t i s s w i t h d r a w i n g h i s c h a r g e s i n d i s g u s t , h u t D u n s m u i r seems t o h a v e t a k e n u m b r a g e i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t n o t h i n g 42 was p r o v e d , a n d h e r e s i g n e d o n N o v e m b e r 2 1 , 1 9 0 2 . He p r o b a b l y h a d f e l t t h a t i n e n t e r i n g p o l i t i c s h e was d o i n g t h e p r o v i n c e a s e r v i c e a n d t h a t n o w , i f s u c h n o b l e a c t i o n was g o i n g t o b e c r i t i c i z e d , h i s s e r v i c e s w o u l d n o l o n g e r b e g i v e n . I t must a l s o b e k e p t i n m i n d t h a t h e was o f t h e s c h o o l w h i c h w o u l d s a y i n a l l s i n c e r i t y a n d w i t h t h e b e s t i n t e n t t h a t what was g o o d f o r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f J a m e s D u n s m u i r was g o o d f o r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h u s - h e w o u l d n o t b e a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e o u t l o o k o f a p r o g r e s s i v e l i k e S m i t h -C u r t i s s a n d may h a v e c o n s i d e r e d t h e l a t t e r * s a t t a c k o n t h e g o v e r n m e n t a s q u i t e u n w a r r a n t e d . A t a n y r a t e , D u n s m u i r j o i n e d . , t h e l e g i o n o f t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l P r e m i e r s a n d s u g -g e s t e d t o t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r , S i r H e n r i J o l y de L o t -b i n i e r e , t h a t C o l . P r i o r , t h e M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s , s h o u l d b e c a l l e d o n t o s u c c e e d h i m . 4 1 G o s n e l l , " S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " A r t . N o . 1 , V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 16 J u l y , 1 9 2 1 . H p w a y , o p . c i t . , p . 521 L i e u t e n a n t C o l o n e l E d w a r d G a w l o r P r i o r C o l . P r i o r was a C o n s e r v a t i v e o f t h e o l d s c h o o l , a n d t h e l a s t P r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o h e a d a p e r s o n a l g o v e r n -m e n t . A f t e r r e p l a c i n g M c B r i d e as M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s I n D u n s -m u i r ' s c a b i n e t , P r i o r r e p l a c e d D u n s m u i r as P r e m i e r when t h e l a t t e r r e s i g n e d i n N o v e m b e r , 1 9 0 2 . T h e c o l l a p s e o f P r i o r ' s g o v e r n m e n t o n J u n e 1 , 1 9 0 3 , made p o s s i b l e M c B r i d e ' s r i s e t o power a n d h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p a r t y l i n e s . T o w i n t h e l e a d e r -s h i p o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e M c B r i d e h a d t o o v e r c o m e t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f C o n s e r v a t i v e s s u c h a s P r i o r , who f o r m e d a n O l d G u a r d , a n d r e s i s t e d a n y r e n o v a t i o n o f C o n -s e r v a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s . A f t e r t h e d i s m i s s a l o f h i s g o v e r n m e n t P r i o r w i t h d r e w f r o m p o l i t i c s . He s e r v e d a s L i e u t e n a n t -G o v e r n o r d u r i n g t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n - t w e n t i e s . \ 17 D u r i n g t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e new g o v e r n m e n t , M c B r i d e a n d R . G . T a t l o w a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e y h a d d e c l i n e d t o b e c o m e I d e n t i f i e d w i t h P r i o r ' s 4 3 m i n i s t r y . A t t h e e n d o f - t h r e e d a y s , t h e m i n i s t r y was a n n o u n c e d a s f o l l o w s : P r e m i e r a n d M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s — H o n . E . G . P r i o r A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l - - H o n . D . M . E b e r t s M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e — E o n . J . D . P r e n t i c e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n d s a n d W o r k s — H o n . W . C . W e l l s P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y a n d M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n — H o n . D e n i s M u r p h y P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o u n c i l — H o n . W . W . B . M c l n n e s . 44 T h e t r o u b l e s o f t h i s , t h e l a s t o f t h e p e r s o n a l g o v -e r n m e n t s , s t a r t e d i m m e d i a t e l y . T h r e e d a y s a f t e r P r i o r a n -n o u n c e d h i s c a b i n e t , D e n i s M u r p h y r e s i g n e d f r o m i t . (Why , n o one seems t o know t o t h i s d a y ) . E v e n w i t h o u t t h i s c a l a -m i t y , t h e p r o s p e c t s w e r e n o t g o o d , f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f a b o u t s e v e n , w h i c h D u n s m u i r h a d e n j o y e d i n 1 9 0 0 , h a d b y t h e d a t e o f 45 P r i o r ' s a c c e s s i o n d e c r e a s e d t o two o r t h r e e . F i l l i n g t h e c a b i n e t p o s t s was n o t t o o d i f f i c u l t ; M c l n n e s t o o k o v e r . B u t f i l l i n g two v a c a n t s e a t s w i t h g o v -e r n m e n t s u p p o r t e r s p r o v e d a n o t h e r m a t t e r . N o r t h V i c t o r i a h a d b e e n u n r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a y e a r , a n d t h e r e s u l t o f t h e b y - e l e c t i o n h e l d t h e r e was t h e r e t u r n o f T . W . P a t e r s o n ( l a t e r L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r ) who e l e c t e d t o s i t o n t h e l e f t 4 6 o f t h e s p e a k e r . W e s t Y a l e was l e f t v a c a n t b y M u r p h y ' s 4 3 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 2 , p . 8 3 . 4 4 H o w a y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e E a r l i e s t T i m e s t o t h e P r e s e n t , V a n c o u v e r , S . J . C l a r k e , 1 9 1 4 , v o l . 2 , p . 5 2 1 . 4 5 L o c . c i t . 4 6 L o c . c i t . 18 r e s i g n a t i o n , a n d a t t h e b y - e l e c t i o n h e l d i n J a n u a r y 1903 t o f i l l t h i s s e a t , t h e g o v e r n m e n t t r o u b l e s r e a l l y came t o a h e a d * S e n t i m e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e was s t r o n g f o r p a r t y l i n e s * A s y e t t h e r e s e n t m e n t was r a t h e r a g a i n s t t h e s y s t e m w h i c h h a d f a i l e d t h a n t h e new g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h h a d h a r d l y b e e n t r i e d * B u t t h e Vsfest Y a l e b y - e l e c t i o n saw a n a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f C o l * P r i o r w i t h t h a t s y s t e m w i t h w h i c h p e o p l e w e r e d i s g u s t e d , a n d c o n c o m i t a n t l y , r e s e n t -ment a g a i n s t b o t h . P r i o r d i d n o t i n t e n d t o c a l l f o r p a r t y l i n e s * On t h e o t h e r h a n d , C . A . S e m l l n , t h e f o r m e r p r e m i e r , a n d now o p p o s i t i o n c a n d i d a t e , h a d t h e v i g o r o u s s u p p o r t o f M c B r i d e , T a t l o w , J o h n O l i v e r , a n d J o e M a r t i n , a l l t h e s e k e y f i g u r e s b e i n g u n i t e d on one f a c t o r - - t h e y c a l l e d f o r p a r t y l i n e s . M a r t i n i s s u e d a s t a t e m e n t c o n d e m n i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t f o r s t a n d i n g i n t h e way o f a g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n a l o n g p a r t y l i n e s , a n d t h i s c h a r g e was s o h o t l y d e b a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w -i n g weeks t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l n o r m a l b y - e l e c t i o n i s s u e l o s t i m p o r t a n c e as a r e s u l t * P e o p l e w e r e e x c i t e d b y t h e p r o s -p e c t o f p a r t y l i n e s b e i n g d r a w n a n d w e r e i m p r e s s e d b y t h e b a t t e r y o f p o w e r f u l e l e c t i o n o r a t o r s s u p p o r t i n g S e m l l n . T h e c o m b i n a t i o n was t o o much f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t c a n d i d a t e , 47 D r . S a n s o n , a n d S e m l l n was e l e c t e d b y a m a j o r i t y o f 1 1 2 . T h e v e r d i c t was a g a i n s t P r i o r a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y a g a i n s t t h e s y s t e m , o r l a c k o f s a m e , w h i c h h e s y m b o l i s e d . C a n a d i a n A n n u a l E e v l e w , 1 9 0 3 , p * 2 1 1 . 19 T h i s v i c t o r y f o r t h e O p p o s i t i o n a m o u n t e d t o a p p r o v a l b y t h e v o t e r s o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t a l o n g p a r t y l i n e s a t t h e e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e t i m e , f o r M c B r i d e , T a t l o w j O l i v e r , a n d M a r t i n h a d a l l a t t a c k e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t a s one s t a n d i n g i n t h e way o f s u c h a n i n t r o d u c t i o n . T h e c r y f o r d i s s o l u t i o n a n d e l e c t i o n u p o n p a r t y l i n e s w e n t u p now a l l o v e r t h e p r o v i n c e . C h a r l e s W i l s o n , p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r , i s s u e d two a p p e a l s f o r s u c h a s t e p , one o n F e b r u a r y 1 3 t h a t a K a m l o o p s m e e t i n g , a n d a n o t h e r o n F e b r u a r y 2 8 t h i n V a n c o u v e r . F . L . C a r t e r - C o t t o n , o w n e r - e d i t o r o f t h e D a i l y - News A d v e r t i s e r o f V a n c o u v e r , a n d f o r m e r l y member o f t h e S e m l i n m i n i s t r y , a d d e d h i s v o i c e t o t h a t o f A . E . M c P h i l l i p s , K . C . , M . P . P . , a n o t h e r C o n s e r v a t i v e c a l l i n g f o r p a r t y l i n e s . On M a r c h 7 t h , t h e L i b e r a l C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e K o o t e n a y a n d B o u n d a r y D i s t r i c t s met a t N e l s o n a n d u n a n i m o u s l y a d o p t e d a r e s o l u t i o n d e c l a r i n g t h a t : W i t h a v i e w t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r e a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e G o v e r n m e n t i n t h i s P r o v i n c e t h e L i b e r a l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h o u l d e n t e r t h e P r o v i n c i a l a r e n a a s a p a r t y a n d t h a t i n e v e r y r i d i n g a L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d be n o m i n -a t e d f o r t h e n e x t g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n . 48 T h u s b o t h p a r t i e s w e r e c a l l i n g f o r a n e n d t o t h e p e r -s o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s y s t e m w h i l e what was t o b e t h e l a s t e x a m p l e o f t h a t s y s t e m t o t t e r e d o n I t s way t o i t s e v e n t u a l d o w n f a l l . C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 3 , p . 2 1 1 . 20 When t h e t h i r d s e s s i o n o f t h e N i n t h L e g i s l a t u r e o p e n e d o n A p r i l 2 n d , P r i o r o f f i c i a l l y c l a i m e d e i g h t e e n o u t o f t h i r t y -e i g h t m e m b e r s , b u t i n a c t u a l f a c t h e c o u l d r e l y o n two o r t h r e e members who w o u l d n o t v o t e f o r a d i s s o l u t i o n w h i c h m i g h t r e s u l t i n t h e i r d e f e a t . T h e s e few m e n - g a v e t h e P r e m i e r a b a r e m a j o r i t y a n d k e p t h i s g o v e r n m e n t a l h e a d j u s t a b o v e w a t e r f o r two m o n t h s . T h e n , a t t h e e n d o f M a y , t h e g o v e r n m e n t q u i c k l y d i s -i n t e g r a t e d . T o t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t was s t a n d i n g i n t h e w a y o f p r o g r e s s i n t h e f o r m o f p a r t y l i n e s was a d d e d d i s g u s t w i t h t h e s c a n d a l o v e r t h e l a n d g r a n t s made t o t h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n R a i l w a y . T h e l a n d g r a n t s h a d b e e n c a n c e l l e d b u t n o t b e f o r e s u s p i c i o n s h a d a r i s e n a s t o why t h e y h a d , e v e r b e e n a l l o w e d . A S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e was s e t u p t o i n v e s t i g a t e b u t j u s t b e f o r e t h e R e p o r t o f t h i s C o m m i t t e e was e x p e c t e d t o a p p e a r I t was a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e P r e m i e r h a d r e -q u e s t e d a n d r e c e i v e d t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e two M i n i s t e r s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e R a i l w a y a f f a i r — t h e H o n .W.C.W e l l s a n d t h e H o n . D . M . E b e r t s . On t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y Mr . W . W . B . M c l n n e s r e s i g n e d a n d i n h i s l e t t e r t o t h e P r e m i e r s t a t e d t h a t t h e a c t i o n was t a k e n w i t h a v i e w t o f a c i l i t a t i n g a n a p p e a l t o t h e c o u n t r y o n p a r t y l i n e s . 4 9 Of t h e c a b i n e t , P r e n t i c e a l o n e r e m a i n e d t o f a c e t h e . u p r o a r o f t h e n e x t f e w d a y s . Much o f t h e d e b a t i n g , i f s u c h May 26 a n d 2 7 — C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 3 , p p . 2 1 3 - 2 1 4 . i t c o u l d be c a l l e d , c e n t e r e d a b o u t t h e c o n t r a c t f o r t h e C h i m n e y C r e e k B r i d g e w h i c h h a d b e e n g i v e n t o C o l . P r i o r ' s b u s i n e s s f i r m u p o n a t e n d e r s u b m i t t e d a f t e r t h e P r e m i e r h a d i n v e s t i g a t e d o t h e r o f f e r s . Few members b e l i e v e d P r i o r g u i l t y o f h a v i n g made u s e o f . o f f i c i a l k n o w l e d g e i n t h e m a t t e r , " b u t t h e c a r e l e s s n e s s o b v i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 5 0 i t . , . h a d a b a d e f f e c t a t t h i s j u n c t u r e . " T h i s c a r e l e s s a t t i t u d e came o u t w i t h t h e R e p o r t o f t h e S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e s e t u p t o i n v e s t i g a t e . T h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n a n d a n s w e r a p p e a r e d i n t h e e v i d e n c e a n d w e r e t o p r o v e t h e f i n a l c a u s e o f P r i o r ' s d o w n f a l l . Q . A l t h o u g h y o u a r e a m a j o r i t y o w n e r o f t h e s t o c k i n t h e f i r m o f E . G . P r i o r & C o . , y o u d o n ' t t h i n k t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g i n a p p -r o p r i a t e i n y o u r G o v e r n m e n t , o r t h e G o v e r n -ment o f w h i c h y o u a r e a m e m b e r , b u y i n g f r o m y o u r f i r m ? A. C e r t a i n l y n o t , a n y more t h a n a member who i s a l a w y e r , o r i s A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , a n d h i s p a r t n e r t a k e s c h a r g e o f l o o k i n g a f t e r a p r i v a t e b i l l f o r a n y b o d y a n d l o b b y i n g i t t h r o u g h t h e H o u s e . 51 I t was on the basis of the above statement that P r i o r was dismissed by the Lieutenant Governor, S i r Henri J o l y de Lotbiniere. S i r Henri said that the views generally expressed by P r i o r i n giving evidence and e s p e c i a l l y that C a n a d i a n A n n u a l H e v l e w , 1 9 0 3 , p . 2 1 4 . 5 1 Journals, 1 9 0 3 , Report of Select Committee re. Tenders f o r Chimney Creek Bridge Cable, p. DCCCxxxii. view embodied i n the answer quoted above were quite imcom-pa t i b l e and at variance with h i s understanding of the "true p r i n c i p l e s of Parliamentary Independence of Members 52 and, above a l l , of Ministers of the Crown," Thus, through this piece of evidence, symbolic of the weakness of the system, personal government came to an end i n B r i -t i s h Columbia on the morning of June 1, 1903, By the afternoon of the same day i t was known that S i r Henri had c a l l e d oh the Leader of the Opposition, Richard McBride, to form a government* In this way, at the age of thirty-two "Dewdney Dick" became Premier of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia* Canadian Annual Review, 1903, p. 215 CHAPTER I I PARTY GOVERNMENT COMES TO B R I T I S H COLUMBIA M c B r i d e c a n h a r d l y h a v e b e e n s u r p r i s e d b y t h e L i e u t -e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s r e q u e s t t h a t h e f o r m a m i n i s t r y . As l e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n , h e was t h e l o g i c a l c h o i c e i n t h e e v e n t o f a g o v e r n m e n t c o l l a p s e , a n d s u c h a c o l l a p s e h a d s e e m e d i m m i n e n t f o r some w e e k s . I n d e e d , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t M c B r i d e h a d g i v e n t h o u g h t t o c a b i n e t m a k i n g as e a r l y as 1 A p r i l 2 7 . T h e c h i e f p r o b l e m t h a t a r o s e i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n was w h e t h e r o r n o t h e s h o u l d s t r i k e o u t f o r s t r a i g h t p a r t y l i n e s . T h e O p p o s i t i o n o f w h i c h he was l e a d e r was c o m p o s e d o f L i b e r a l s a n d C o n s e r v a t i v e s a n d a n y d e c i s i o n t o b r i n g I n p a r t y g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d mean t u r n i n g a c o l d eye o n t h e L i b -e r a l s o f t h i s g r o u p . S u c h c o n d u c t w o u l d n o t h a v e come e a s i l y t o M c B r i d e a n d e v e n I f i t h a d d o n e t h e r e was r i s k i n v o l v e d i n a b a n d o n i n g s t o u t s u p p o r t e r s s u c h a s J o h n O l i v e r a n d C . W. M u n r o f o r t h e s a k e o f a p r i n c i p l e . M c B r i d e ' s f r i e n d " B i l l y " M a n s o n o f M i s s i o n C i t y w r o t e t o h i m a d v i s i n g a n a p p e a l t o t h e p e o p l e a t t h e h e a d o f h i s O p p o s i t i o n p a r t y — i n o t h e r w o r d s , a n o t h e r e l e c t i o n a l o n g t h e o l d l i n e s . " J u s t t h i n k , " w r o t e M a n s o n , " o f y o u a n d O l i v e r , M c P h i l l i p s a n d Wm. M a n s o n o f M i s s i o n C i t y t o M c B r i d e , 27 A p r i l , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , O f f i c i a l , 1 9 0 3 , f i l e N o . 1 ( P r i o r G o v e r n m e n t ) . S i r H e n r i G u a t a v e J o l y d e L o t b i n i e r e Coming to V i c t o r i a i n 1900 a f t e r a distinguished career i n his home province of Quebec, S i r Henri brought grace, kindness, and d i g n i t y to his o f f i c e as Lieutenant-Governor, thereby r e s t o r i n g the prestige of that p o s i t i o n a f t e r i t had suffered at the hands of Mclnnes. Gosnell t e l l s us of this old gentleman's f a t h e r l y i n t e r e s t i n young Richard McBride's decision to bring In party l i n e s . A f t e r his term of o f f i c e had ended i n 1906, S i r Henri kept i n touch with McBride, and he wrote then of "the road that you and I have considered the r i g h t one." Whether or not he had to persuade McBride to introduce party lines i s here beside the point; at l e a s t I t i s c l e a r that he f u l l y sanctioned the step, and gave f r e e l y of his advice, based on long years of experience, to the young Premier whenever he f e l t i t was necessary. > \ 24 Munro starting out on stumping tour, I t e l l you there is no 2 combination that could, withstand such a team." Suggest-ions of this kind must have been tempting and distracting for McBride. In fact, Gosnell claims that he yielded to them and would not have taken his famous step but for pres-sure exerted by S i r Henri Joly. For several reasons this account seems far from creditable. Gosnell said that Mc-Bride knew his election chances were good i f he were at the head of another personal government but that he was taking his p o l i t i c a l l i f e In his hands i f he stumped as a Conser-vative because the province returned a solid delegation of seven Liberals to the Federal House "at the time." On the contrary. In the f i r s t place, McBride knew that the pro-vince was weary of the inefficient personal government regime; and i n the second place, he did not know about the "solid seven" for they were not sent to Ottawa un t i l the following summer. Indeed, there was a good chance that a decision to go to the country along party lines might re-sult in considerable confusion i n Liberal ranks on account of the general dissatisfaction with Martin's leadership. This dissatisfaction had been evident at the Liberal Con-4 vention of 1902% and news of i t must have reached the ears c Wm.Manson of Mission City to McBride, 27 Ap r i l , 1903, in Premier, Letters Inward, Official,1903,file No.l (Prior Govt.) 3 R.E. Gosnell, "Sir Richard McBride," Article No. 1, Vancouver Dally Province, 16 July, 1921. 4 J.Castell Hopkins, The Canadian Annual Review of  Public Af f a i r s, (1902), Toronto, Annual Review, 1903, p. 85. 25 o f M c B r i d e . T h r e e m a i n f a c t o r s must h a v e c o m b i n e d t o p r o d u c e M c B r i d e ' s d e c i s i o n . F i r s t l y , f o r a l l t h a t G o s n e l l l a t e r , a n d M a n s o n t h e n , w r o t e o f M c B r i d e ' s a b i l i t y t o sweep t h e o o u n t r y a t t h e h e a d o f a m i x e d m i n i s t r y , i t must h a v e b e e n c l e a r t o M c B r i d e t h a t h i s r e c o r d w o u l d h a v e t o be b r i l l i a n t w e r e h e t o b r e a k t h e t r a d i t i o n o f r e c e n t p e r s o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s a n d o u t l a s t them t o a n y d e g r e e . He was a b o u t t o f o r m t h e s i x t h g o v e r n m e n t t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e h a d s e e n i n f i v e y e a r s . A s Howay^has s a i d , " ' T w a s a s t r o n g a r g u m e n t f o r a 5 new s y s t e m " — i f o n l y o n g r o u n d s o f p o l i t i c a l e x p e d i e n c y . S e c o n d l y , one must r e m e m b e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p s i t u a t i o n i n t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y , M c B r i d e was n o t t h e o f f i c i a l p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r ; C h a r l e s W i l s o n h e l d t h a t t i t l e , M c B r i d e m u s t h a v e b e e n i r k e d a t h i s n e g l e c t d u r i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y when e v e n B o r d e n h a d f e l t t h a t h e h a d b e e n t h e o b v i o u s c h o i c e . N o w , s h o u l d M c B r i d e l e a d a C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t , t h e f i r s t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h i s t o r y , t o v i c t o r y a t t h e p o l l s , h e w o u l d h a v e a n u n b e a t a b l e c l a i m t o W i l s o n ' s p o s i -t i o n . I n s h o r t , I f h e a c t e d b o l d l y a n d i n t r o d u c e d p a r t y l i n e s , M c B r i d e s t o o d w e l l t o u n d o t h e w o r k o f t h e C o n s e r -v a t i v e o l d g u a r d a t t h e R e v e l s t o k e C o n v e n t i o n , t o r e p l a c e W i l s o n , t o s e t h i m s e l f u p a s a d y n a m i c l e a d e r who c o u l d P . W . H o w a y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e E a r l i e s t  T i m e s t o t h e P r e s e n t , V a n c o u v e r , S . J . C l a r k e , 1 9 1 4 , v o l . 2 , p . 5 2 6 . 26 command t h e l o y a l t y o f t h e y o u n g e r members o f t h e p a r t y — t h o s e who w o u l d c o u n t I n t h e f u t u r e . T h i r d l y , i n a n a l y s -i n g M c B r i d e ' s m o t i v e s , o n e must c r e d i t h i m w i t h a s i n c e r e d e s i r e t o make t h e b e s t c h o i c e f o r t h e p r o v i n c e . He c e r -t a i n l y s h o w e d i n t h e y e a r s t o come t h a t o f a l l h i s l o y a l -t i e s , t o E m p i r e , d o m i n i o n , p r o v i n c e , o r p a r t y , t h a t t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was n e a r e s t t o h i s h e a r t . He h a d g r e a t p l a n s f o r h i s p r o v i n c e a n d h e must h a v e c o n s i d e r e d t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n o f p a r t y g o v e r n m e n t a v i t a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r a n y p r o v i n c i a l p r o g r e s s . A t a n y r a t e , w i t h i n a f e w d a y s o f h i s t a k i n g o f f i c e , i t b e c a m e known o n t h e I s l a n d a n d L o w e r M a i n l a n d t h a t t h e m i n i s t r y b e i n g f o r m e d was C o n s e r v a t i v e I n c h a r a c t e r . He h a d r e s i g n e d h i s s e a t i n t h e H o u s e o n b e c o m i n g P r e m i e r , b u t h e a d d r e s s e d t h e members t h r o u g h a n o p e n l e t t e r t o C a p t a i n T a t l o w i n w h i c h h e r e c o r d e d h i s " a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e d c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e L i b e r a l s who w e r e my c o l l e a g u e s I n t h e O p p o s i t i o n r a n k s , " a n d c o n t i n u e d b y s a y i n g : T h e y a r e e n t i t l e d t o , a n d h a v e , my w a r m e s t t h a n k s ; a n d u n d e r o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . • • I s h o u l d h a v e h a d much p l e a s u r e i n r e c o g -n i z i n g t h e i r s e r v i c e s b y a p r o p o r t i o n o f s e a t s i n t h e C a b i n e t . 6 H o w e v e r , h e c l a i m e d t h a t t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f p a r t y l i n e s was n o t o n l y d e s i r a b l e b u t n e c e s s a r y , a n d t h a t a n e l e c t i o n w o u l d ° B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , J o u r n a l s , 1 9 0 3 , p . 6 6 . 27 b e h e l d " a t t h e e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e moment" a l o n g s u c h l i n e s . 7 A s Howay w r o t e , M c B r i d e h a d c r o s s e d h i s R u b i c o n . T h e g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n t o M c B r i d e ' s d e c i s i o n was f a v o u r -a b l e , a n d m o s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s s e e m t o h a v e a p p l a u d e d , a l t h o u g h f o r d i v e r s e r e a s o n s i t i s t r u e . T h e r e w e r e c h a r g e s o f t r e a c h e r y l e v e l l e d a t M c B r i d e b y some L i b e r a l s a n d t h e i r o r g a n i n V a n c o u v e r , t h e P r o v i n c e , r e f e r r e d t o " a r e g r e t t a b l e 8 d i s p l a y o f b a d f a i t h t o w a r d s . . . o l d a s s o c i a t e s . " C . W . M u n r o s a i d b i t t e r l y , " T h e r e i s o n e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n y o u a n d J u d a s , D i c k , J u d a s h a d t h e d e c e n c y t o go o u t a n d h a n g h i m -9 s e l f . " On t h e o t h e r h a n d , M c l n n e s h a d a l r e a d y d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f i n f a v o u r o f t h e s t e p , a n d S m i t h C u r t i s s a d v i s e d h i s f e l l o w L i b e r a l s t o " s e t t h e i r h o u s e i n o r d e r , c h o o s e 10 a n a c c e p t a b l e l e a d e r a n d go i n t o w i n . " T h e d e s k s w e r e s p e e d i l y c l e a r e d f o r a c t i o n . A c o m -m i t t e e was a p p o i n t e d t o r e v i s e t h e e s t i m a t e s w h i c h w e r e r u s h e d t h r o u g h t h e h o u s e i n two d a y s . P r o r o g a t i o n o n J u n e 11 4 t h was f o l l o w e d b y d i s s o l u t i o n o n t h e 1 6 t h . 7 H o w a y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e E a r l i e s t T i m e s t o t h e P r e s e n t , V a n c o u v e r , S . J . C l a r k e , 1 9 1 4 , v o l . 2 , p . 5 2 5 . 8 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 4 J u n e , 1 9 0 3 . 9 J a m e s M o r t o n , H o n e s t J o h n O l i v e r . T o r o n t o , D e n t , 1 9 3 3 , p . 7 8 . V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 2 J u n e , 1 9 0 3 , p . 1 . H o w a y , op_. c i t . t p . 5 2 6 . A. S. Goodeve Goodeve joined McBride's fi r s t ministry in September, 1903, as Provincial Secretary, but was defeated at the election In the following month. He did not return to pro-vincial politics but ran successfully in Rossland during the federal election of 1908, He evidently was one of those at Ottawa who favoured McBride's succession to the federal leadership in 1911. When Borden came to power Goodeve was appointed Hallway Com-missioner for Canada. 28 T h e a c t u a l m e m b e r s h i p o f M c B r i d e ' s f i r s t C o n s e r -v a t i v e c a b i n e t was n o t a s i m p o r t a n t a s t h e f a c t t h a t I t was c o n s e r v a t i v e , b e c a u s e t h e e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s b r o u g h t a b o u t s e v e r a l c h a n g e s . T h e a p p o i n t m e n t s o f R . G . T a t l o w , as M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e a n d A g r i c u l t u r e , R. F . G r e e n as M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s , a n d C h a r l e s W i l s o n a s P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o u n c i l w e r e known e a r l y i n J u n e . M c P h i l l i p s came i n a l i t t l e l a t e r a s A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l . A . S . G o o d e v e was h o t a p p o i n t e d P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y u n t i l S e p t e m b e r 1 8 t h , a f t e r h i s n o m i n a t i o n f o r R o s s l a n d h a d b e e n a c h i e v e d b y a c -c l a m a t i o n o n t h e e l e v e n t h o f t h a t m o n t h . T a t l o w , G r e e n , a n d H c P h i l l l p s w e r e a l l o l d O p p o s i t i o n c r o n i e s o f M c B r i d e . W i l s o n , o f c o u r s e , r e p r e s e n t e d t h e o f f i c i a l l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p a r t y , a n d i n v i e w o f t h i s , i t i s p e r h a p s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t h e was o n l y g i v e n t h e m i n o r p o s t o f P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o u n c i l . G o o d e v e was an u n c e r t a i n c h o i c e , a n d t h e d e l a y i n h i s a p -p o i n t m e n t i s s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e i t shows t h a t M c B r i d e was n o t o v e r c o n f i d e n t o f a s u f f i c i e n t l y s w e e p i n g e l e c t i o n s u c -c e s s t o c o v e r a l l h i s c a b i n e t m e m b e r s . G o o d e v e h a d w r i t t e n t o M c B r i d e o n A u g u s t 2 7 t h t h a t he c o u l d n o t f a i l t o w i n h i s 1 2 s e a t i f h i s n o m i n a t i o n w e r e u n a n i m o u s . O n l y a f t e r M c B r i d e 13 r e c e i v e d t h e news t h a t i t h a d b e e n u n a n i m o u s was h e a p p o i n t e d . • A * S . G o o d e v e t o M c B r i d e , 27 A u g u s t , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l F i l e N o . 2 . 13 . S e e w i r e , G o o d e v e t o M c B r i d e , 11 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 3 . T h a t e l e c t i o n summer was a h e c t i c a n d n e r v e w r a c k i n g one f o r M c B r i d e . I t was one t h i n g t o d e c l a r e p a r t y l i n e s , q u i t e a n o t h e r t o o r g a n i z e t h e m . T h i s he s o o n f o u n d o u t . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s w e r e n o t u s e d t o t h e - d i s c i p l i n e n e c e s -s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . - M c B r i d e l e a r n e d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t what o n e c o r r e s p o n d e n t c a l l e d " t h e e f f e c t o f p e r s o n a l s p i t e i n a r i d i n g c o m p o s e d o f s m a l l t o w n s . ? T h e r e w e r e many s u c h r i d i n g s . Many e x a m p l e s c a n be g i v e n o f t h e t y p e o f d e v i a t i o n M c B r i d e h a d t o f i g h t i n t h e c a u s e o f p a r t y s o l i d a r i t y b u t f o u r a r e o u t s t a n d i n g : A t k i n s o n i n C h i l l i w a c k , H o u s t o n i n N e l s o n , T a y l o r i n R e v e l s t o k e , a n d C o t t o n i n R i c h m o n d . J . L . A t k i n s o n was d e t e r m i n e d t o b e t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e n o m i n e e ' f o r G h i l l i w a c k w h e t h e r t h e p a r t y a n d c o n s t i t u e n t s l i k e d i t o r n o t . He e v e n a p p e a r s t o h a v e g o n e s o f a r a s t o 15 p a c k t h e c o n v e n t i o n t o a t t a i n t h i s e n d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t o u t C o n s e r v a t i v e s o f t h e d i s t r i c t , who k e p t t h e P r e m i e r i n f o r m e d , A t k i n s o n was i n t e n s e l y d i s l i k e d b y t h e l o c a l C o n s e r v a t i v e s a n d b y e n o u g h o f t h e n o n - p a r t i s a n c o n s t i t u e n t s t o make a f i g h t a g a i n s t C . W. M u n r o , t h e p r o m -i n e n t L i b e r a l , a f a r c e . O n e r e l i a b l e C o n s e r v a t i v e w r o t e t o 1 4 H . R . J o r a n d ( S l o c a n ) t o M c B r i d e , -10 J u l y , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 2 . 1 5 O r i o n Bowman t o M c B r i d e , 22 A u g u s t , 1 9 0 3 , a n d C h a s . H i l l - T o u t t o M c B r i d e , 31 A u g u s t , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 2 . 30 M c B r i d e i n d e s p e r a t i o n s a y i n g : " P o r H e a v e n ' s s a k e a p p o i n t A t k i n s o n a c o n s t a b l e f o r some o u t l a n d i s h p l a c e w h e r e h e c a n 1 6 do n o h a r m o r make t e r m s w i t h M u n r o e ( s i c M u n r o ) • " Y e t a n o t h e r r e c o m m e n d e d g i v i n g Munro a f r e e h a n d a n d t h u s g e t t i n g r i d o f A t k i n s o n . Munro e v i d e n t l y a g r e e d t h a t i f t h i s w e r e d o n e he w o u l d s u p p o r t M c B r i d e a g a i n s t t h e " D u n s m u i r - M a r t i n -17 P r i o r p e o p l e . " T h i s shows how e a s y i t m u s t h a v e b e e n t o f o r g e t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a n d g o b a c k t o t h e o l d p e r s o n a l p a r t y game. A t a n y r a t e , A t k i n s o n won t h e n o m i n a t i o n b u t l o s t t h e e l e c t i o n . J o h n H o u s t o n was mayor o f N e l s o n a s w e l l a s M . P . P . f o r t h a t d i s t r i c t , a n d t h u s a n i n f l u e n t i a l c i t i z e n whose s t a n d i n d e f i a n c e o f M c B r i d e was v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o d e a l w i t h . M c B r i d e w r o t e t o h i s own s u p p o r t e r s a n d t h o s e o f H o u s t o n i n N e l s o n s t r e s s i n g t h e n e e d f o r p a r t y u n i t y i f t h e p a r t y g o v e r n m e n t e x p e r i m e n t was t o b e a s u c c e s s , b u t b e y o n d s u c h a c t i o n h e c o u l d o n l y h o p e t h a t H o u s t o n ' s o b s t i n a c y w o u l d p a s s b y e l e c t i o n t i m e . A t a n e a r l y d a t e , h e r e a l i z e d w i s e l y t h a t f o r c i n g p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h p e o p l e w e r e n o t u s e d t o w o u l d m e r e l y " p r e j u d i c e c a m p a i g n w o r k . " H o u s t o n was Thomas C u n n i n g h a m t o M c B r i d e , 4 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 2 . 1 7 C . B . R e e v e s t o M c B r i d e , 5 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 2 . 1 8 M c B r i d e t o A n d r e w H a s l a m ( N a n a i m o ) , 24 J u n e , 1 9 0 3 , s e e a l s o M c B r i d e t o R o b e r t M c B r i d e ; ( S t e v e s t o n ) , 12 J u n e , 1 9 0 3 , i n w h i c h h e w r i t e s : " U n t i l l o c a l C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n s a r e f o r m e d I do n o t t h i n k i t w o u l d b e w i s e f o r t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o i n d i c a t e a n y p r e f e r e n c e i n t h e way o f c a n d i d a t e s , who d e p e n d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t u p o n l o c a l s e l e c t i o n a n d s u p p o r t . " B o t h i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , P e r s o n a l , v o l . 1 , J u n e t o N o v e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 . e l e c t e d a n d c a u s e d M c B r i d e m o r e t r o u b l e , s p e n d i n g much, o f h i s t i m e w i t h t h e O p p o s i t i o n , b e f o r e h e s u d d e n l y l e f t N e l -s o n a n d p o l i t i c s a b o u t two y e a r s l a t e r * T a y l o r i n E e v e l s t o k e d o e s n o t s e e m t o h a v e h a d M c -B r i d e ' s o f f i c i a l s u p p o r t b e c a u s e t h e P r e m i e r r e a l i z e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a l l o w i n g l o c a l C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n s t o c h o o s e t h e i r own m e n . H o w e v e r , T a y l o r r e f u s e d t o t a k e h i s c h a n c e s o n h i s own m e r i t s a n d , a t t h e c o n v e n t i o n , h e r e a d f a k e d t e l e g r a m s f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o e n d o r s e h i s n o m i n a t -19 i o n . I n . t h i s way h e won i t b u t n o t w i t h o u t a l i e n a t i n g more h o n e s t members o f h i s p a r t y a n d t h e r e b y m a k i n g t h e p a r t y f i g h t i n E e v e l s t o k e a c l o s e r one t h a n i t n e e d h a v e 20 b e e n . C a r t e r - C o t t o n o f V a n c o u v e r was t r y i n g f o r t h e n o m i n a t -i o n i n t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r - R i c h m o n d r i d i n g . He was a v a l -u a b l e man f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e c a u s e a n d h e knew I t . T h e e v i d e n c e o n h i s p o s i t i o n i s q u i t e c o m p l e x b u t i t seems c e r t a i n t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o r i d e h i s j o u r n a l i s t i c i n f l u e n c e f o r a l l i t was w o r t h . He w r o t e t o M c B r i d e i n J u n e s t r e s s -i n g t h e I m p o r t a n c e o n t h e m a i n l a n d o f h i s p a p e r , t h e News  A d v e r t i s e r , a n d h i n t i n g t h a t , i f i t w e r e made w o r t h h i s x y J . T h e o . W i l s o n t o C h a r l e s W i l s o n , 21 A u g u s t , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 2 . 20 He won b y 26 v o t e s o u t o f 844 c a s t . G o s n e l l , T h e Y e a r B o o k o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 1 1 - 1 9 1 4 e d i t . , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 1 1 . F r a n c i s L . C a r t e r - C o t t o n The o w n e r - e d i t o r o f t h e d a i l y a n d w e e k l y N e w s - A d v e r t ! s e r o f V a n c o u v e r u n t i l 1 9 1 0 , C a r t e r - C o t t o n was a n a m b i t i o u s man who u s e d h i s p r e s s I n f l u e n c e t o p o l i t i c a l a d v a n t a g e . He was a member o f t h e S e m l l n m i n i s t r y f r o m 1898 t o 1 9 0 0 . A t t h e c o l l a p s e o f P r i o r ' s g o v e r n m e n t i n J u n e , 1 9 0 3 , he p r o b a b l y h a d h o p e s o f g a i n i n g t h e p r e m i e r s h i p b y s u p p o r t i n g M c B r i d e o n l y t o s u p e r s e d e h i m a f t e r a n e l e c t i o n . A n I n t e l l i g e n t man o f a p p a r e n t l y h i g h p r i n c i p l e s , C o t t o n n e v e r won much p o p u l a r i t y among h i s f e l l o w C o n s e r v a t i v e s b e c a u s e o f h i s somewhat " h o l i e r t h a n t h o u " a t t i t u d e . He c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f a g e n t l e -man j o u r n a l i s t a n d g e n t l e m a n - p o l i t i c i a n . B e c a u s e o f h i s u n p o p u l a r i t y a n d h i s i n d e p e n d e n t a t t i t u d e h e n e v e r a c h i e v e d more t h a n a t o k e n m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e M c B r i d e m i n i s t r y , as P r e s i d e n t o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . D u r i n g h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r h e s a t f o r t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r r i d i n g o f R i c h m o n d . I n 1912 h e was e l e c t e d a s t h e f i r s t C h a n c e l l o r o f t h e new U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 32 w h i l e , h e c o u l d t a k e o v e r t h e C o l o n i s t a n d t h u s i n v a d e I s l a n d t e r r i t o r y w i t h h i s own s p e c i a l b r a n d o f j o u r n a l i s t i c C o n s e r v a t i v e i n t e g r i t y . He a l s o h i n t e d a t a r o l e f o r h i m -s e l f a s g o - b e t w e e n f o r M c B r i d e a n d t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e o l d 21 g u a r d . A l e t t e r f r o m B o w s e r w r i t t e n on t h e same d a y g a v e M c B r i d e t h e b a c k g r o u n d t o C o t t o n ' s l e t t e r : T h i n g s a r e g o i n g a l o n g n i c e l y h e r e , b u t I am a f r a i d we w i l l h a v e t r o u b l e w i t h C o t t o n l a t e r o n . I h a v e a l w a y s t h o u g h t we w o u l d h a v e t o p u t h i m o n one t i c k e t o n a / c o f h i s p a p e r . I a s k e d h i m t h e o t h e r d a y i f h e was g o i n g t o r u n a n d h e s a i d , " O h , y e s , s e v e r a l p e o p l e h a d a s k e d h i m ( t h e o l d g a g ) a n d he was g o i n g on t h e t i c k e t a n d he knew h e w o u l d b r i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f s t r e n g t h t o i t . " He a l s o t o l d me h e t h o u g h t t h a t a f t e r t h e E l e c t i o n t h a t t h e c o u n t r y w o u l d n o t b e s a t -i s f i e d w i t h y o u a s P r e m i e r b u t w o u l d h a v e t o h a v e a n o t h e r man ( w h i c h i s C o t t o n ) a s y o u w e r e t o o l i g h t . S o y o u c a n s e e t h a t h e i s l i k e l y t o g i v e t r o u b l e I f he c a n . 22 B o w s e r ' s s t a t e m e n t s h a d t h e s t a m p o f t r u t h , a n d y e t what was M c B r i d e t o do a b o u t i t . T o a l i e n a t e t h e o w n e r - e d i t o r o f t h e m o s t p r o m i n e n t m a i n l a n d n e w s p a p e r c o u l d do h i s c a u s e i n e s t i -m a b l e d a m a g e . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t B o w s e r u s e d h i s V a n c o u v e r 23 P a r t y m a c h i n e i n a n a t t e m p t t o o u s t C o t t o n ; b u t f o r a l l t h e < 3 X F r a n c i s L . C a r t e r - C o t t o n t o M c B r i d e , 15 J u n e , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 1 . 22 W. J . B o w s e r t o M c B r i d e , 15 J u n e , 1 9 0 3 , i n L o c . c i t . 23 A c c o r d i n g t o one c o r r e s p o n d e n t B o w s e r t r i e d t o k e e p p r o - C o t t o n c a n d i d a t e s away f r o m t h e c o n v e n t i o n . P . M c B r i d e t o M c B r i d e , 1 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e #2 . 3 3 f o r m e r ' s i n f l u e n c e t h e w i l y g e n t l e m a n - j o u r n a l i s t won t h e n o m i n a t i o n b y o n e v o t e and. went o n t o t a k e t h e s e a t i n t h e 24 e l e c t i o n * N o t a l l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s c a u s e d w o r r y , f o r W. R. R o s s 25 was n o m i n a t e d b y a c c l a m a t i o n i n F e r n i e , a n d i n D e w d n e y , M c B r i d e was t o l d b y h i s s u p p o r t e r s "we c a n p u t y o u i n e v e n 2 6 i f y o u n e v e r s h o w e d a n o s e t h e r e . " H o w e v e r , t h e r e w e r e t o o many r e p o r t s l i k e t h e one f r o m F o r t S t e e l e c o n c e r n i n g C a v e n , t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e n o m i n e e f o r C r a n b r o o k . "Our g o o d 27 C o n s e r v a t i v e s " w e r e n o t b e h i n d h i m — a n d money was s h o r t . 28 I n d e e d , e v e r y w h e r e money was s h o r t f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s , w h i l e c o m p l a i n t s r o l l e d i n t o V i c t o r i a t h a t L i b e r a l f u n d s w e r e p l e n t i f u l , t h a n k s , c l a i m e d o n e c o r r e s p o n d e n t , t o l u c r a -t i v e p o s t o f f i c e j o b s a n d e v e n d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e f r o m 2 4 W i r e B o w s e r t o M c B r i d e , 29 A u g u s t , 1 9 0 3 . " C o t t o n w i n s c o n v e n t i o n b y o n e . . . . , " i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 2 . 2 5 W i r e . H u t c h t o M c B r i d e , 28 A u g u s t , 1 9 0 3 , i n L o c . c i t . 2 6 J . S . H i g g i n s o n t o M c B r i d e , 4 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n L o c . c i t . 2 7 J . A . H a r v e y t o M c B r i d e , 9 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 3« 2 8 M c B r i d e w r o t e i n a p o s t - e l e c t i o n summary t h a t " H a d we b e e n p r o p e r l y d e a l t w i t h b y o u r E a s t e r n f r i e n d s s o t h a t o r d i n a r y c a m p a i g n w o r k c o u l d h a v e b e e n p r o p e r l y c a r -r i e d o n , I f e e l s u r e t h a t we c o u l d h a v e c a r r i e d a t l e a s t t w e n t y - n i n e s e a t s . " S e e M c B r i d e t o J . A . H a r v e y , 13 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , P e r s o n a l , v o l . 1 . , J u n e t o N o v e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 . 34 29 O t t a w a . M c B r i d e d o e s n o t s e e m t o h a v e h a d a w e l l o r g a n i z e d c a m p a i g n f u n d a n d h e r e l a y y e t a n o t h e r s o u r c e o f t r o u b l e . B o w s e r t o l d M c B r i d e t h a t : Cowan h a s b e e n t e l l i n g a r o u n d h e r e t h a t h e was g o i n g t o h a n d l e t h e G o v r n ' t c a m p a i g n f u n d f o r t h e P r o v i n c e a n d h a s b e e n h i n t i n g t h a t i t w o u l d be a g o o d t h i n g t o s t a n d i n w i t h h i m . Now, I f o r o n e d e c i d e d l y o b j e c t t o t h i s , a s i n ' 9 6 a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e Dom^ i n i o n f u n d w e n t a s t r a y a n d a g r e a t many t h i n k G e o . H . g o t i t . He h a s n o p u l l h e r e l o c a l l y a n d , he t o o k d — d g o o d c a r e t h a t e v e r s i n c e ' 9 6 , when we w e r e a l l f i g h t i n g t h e p a r t y l i n e f i g h t , h e t o o k no p a r t a t a l l . He h a s n ' t a t t e n d e d a n y o f o u r m e e t i n g s l o c a l l y a n d now when h e t h i n k s t h e r e i s a c h a n c e t o d o some g r a f t i n g h e w a n t s t o b e v e r y p r o m i n e n t . I w a n t t o s e e t h a t f u n d h a n d l e d b y s o m e b o d y " l i k e C a e s a r ' s w i f e . " 30 ' A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t l e t t e r ! How was t h e y o u n g P r e m i e r t o know who t o t r u s t ? He seems t o h a v e p u t a l o t o f f a i t h i n h i s o l d c o l l e g e f r i e n d , B i l l B o w s e r , b u t t h o s e l i k e B o w s e r who c o u l d b e t r u s t e d w e r e a l l t o o f e w a m i d s t t h e u n c e r t a i n t y * * T h e o n e f a c t o r t h a t h e l p e d make u p f o r s h o r t f u n d s was p r e s s p a t r o n a g e . W h e r e M c B r i d e may h a v e f o u n d i t h a r d t o p r o d u c e " a l i t t l e g r a i n " t o h e l p B o w s e r p a y c o l l e c t o r s o f names f o r t h e v o t e r s ' l i s t , h e f o u n d i t e a s i e r t o t h i n k up p r i n t i n g j o b s f o r " R e y n o l d s o f t h e L e d g e r " who was g e t t -i n g n e r v o u s a n d n e e d e d t h e p r o s p e c t o f g o v e r n m e n t p r i n t i n g 29 G o o d e v e t o M c B r i d e , - 27 A u g u s t , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e # 2 . 3 0 . B o w s e r t o M c B r i d e , 15 J u n e , 1 9 0 3 , i n L o o , c i t . 31 t o r e a s s u r e h i m . P r e s s p a t r o n a g e g o t s t a r t e d i n J u n e , f o r M c B r i d e s e n t a memo t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y o n t h e t w e n t y -n i n t h t h a t " T h e D e l t a News i s s u p p o r t i n g t h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d 32 s h o u l d h e o n t h e l i s t t o s e c u r e p a t r o n a g e . " I t c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e l a s t week as " H a r r y " Y o u n g w i r e d a l l t h e way f r o m A t l i n on S e p t e m b e r 2 2 n d i A s s t . E d i t o r C l a i m , p r a c t i c a l p r i n t e r , s t r o n g L i b e r a l , t h r o w i n g v o t e a n d I n f l u e n c e t o m e . What show f o r h i m w i t h K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . 33 M c B r i d e p u l l e d h i s m a j o r c a m p a i g n t r i c k o n t h e 5 t h o f S e p t e m b e r when i t was a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e e l e c t i o n d a t e w h i c h h a d b e e n k n o w n f o r t h e l a s t t h r e e months a s O c t o b e r 3 1 s t was m o v e d f o r w a r d t o O c t o b e r 3 r d — a r u d e j o l t f o r t h e L i b e r a l s who w e r e a l s o s u f f e r i n g f r o m b a d o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t a c o n -s i d e r a b l e r i s k f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s f o r t h e same r e a s o n . C o t t o n h a d s u g g e s t e d t h i s move a s " g o o d t a c t i c s n o t t o l e t t h e enemy know what i s i n t e n d e d u n t i l t h e l a s t p o s s i b l e 34 m o m e n t . . . . T h e n we c o u l d r u s h t h i n g s . " M c B r i d e h a d h i t t h e 31 I n t h e l e t t e r r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e B o w s e r a s k e d f o r a " l i t t l e g r a i n " f o r t h e p a r t y m a c h i n e a n d f o r some r e -a s s u r a n c e s f o r " R e y n o l d s o f t h e L e d g e r . " •zp Memo f o r t h e H o n . t h e P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y , N o . 3 8 3 i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , O f f i c i a l f i l e N o . 2 . 3 3 W i r e . H a r r y Y o u n g t o M c B r i d e , 22 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 3 . 3 4 C o t t o n t o M c B r i d e , 15 J u n e , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 1. 36 L i b e r a l s c a n n i l y t o j u d g e b y t h e i m m e d i a t e a n d a n g r y r e s p o n s e o f J o s e p h M a r t i n who w i r e d t h a t t h e move was a " g r o s s o u t -r a g e , " a n d t h a t i t w o u l d b e i m p o s s i b l e t o g e t L i b e r a l c a n d i -35 d a t e s i n t i m e . B u t t h e n e e d f o r s e c r e c y c a u s e d t h e p l a n t o b a c k f i r e t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t a n d t h u s i t i s h a r d t o a s -c e r t a i n t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h i t w a s e f f e c t i v e . A New W e s t -m i n s t e r e x h i b i t i o n h a d b e e n p l a n n e d f o r O c t o b e r 3 r d a n d e v e n G i f f o r d , t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e f o r New W e s t m i n s t e r C i t y d i d n o t know t h a t a c l a s h was t h e r e f o r e d e s t i n e d u n t i l 36 t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t o f t h e c h a n g e was m a d e . T h u s , e m b a r r a s s -ment was c a u s e d some c a n d i d a t e s , s u c h a s G i f f o r d , a n d t h o s e r e p r e s e n t i n g V a l l e y a n d I n t e r i o r d i s t r i c t s whose c i t i z e n s w o u l d b e a t t e n d i n g t h e f a i r , a n d i n d i g n a t i o n was a r o u s e d 37 a g a i n s t t h e g o v e r n m e n t among p e o p l e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e f a i r . W h a t e v e r t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e t r i c k , i t d i d I n d e e d " r u s h t h i n g s " a n d a l l p a r t i e s c a m p a i g n e d w i t h r e -n e w e d v i g o u r i n t h e l a s t m o n t h . T h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s s t o o d o n t h e p l a t f o r m w h i c h t h e y h a d d r a w n up a t t h e 1902 R e v e l s t o k e C o n v e n t i o n . T h i s was n o t a v e r y s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m a n d t h e o n l y c l a u s e s o f much s i g n i f i c a n c e p l e d g e d t h e p a r t y t o " p e r -s e v e r a n c e i n L e g i s l a t i v e e f f o r t s t o e x c l u d e O r i e n t a l l a b o u r , " a n d " v i g o r o u s p r o s e c u t i o n o f demands o n D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t 3 5 W i r e . J o s e p h M a r t i n to M c B r i d e , 5 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 2 . 3 6 S e e w i r e , T . G i f f o r d t o M c B r i d e , 7 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n L o c . c i t . 3 7 S e e w i r e , W . H . K e a r y ( M a y o r o f New W e s t m i n s t e r ) t o M c B r i d e , 6 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n L o c . c i t . 37 f o r b e t t e r t e r m s i n s u b s i d i e s a n d a p p r o p r i a t i o n s . " L e g i s -l a t i o n t o h e l p s e t t l e l a b o u r - m a n a g e m e n t d i s p u t e s was a l s o 38 r e c o m m e n d e d * T h e y h a d n o " f u r t h e r p l a t f o r m t h a n t h a t , " w r o t e M c B r i d e , a n d , h e c o n t i n u e d , " w i t h r e g a r d t o a n y p a r t i -39 c u l a r p o l i c y we h a v e a d v a n c e d n o n e , n o r d o we i n t e n d t o . " T h u s , t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e c a m p a i g n was c h i e f l y a t e s t o f M c B r i d e ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p a r t y l i n e s . I t was h o p e d t h a t , I f t h e p e o p l e - o f t h e p r o v i n c e f e l t t h a t t h e s t e p h a d b e e n a w i s e o n e , a n d c o n d u c i v e t o more s t a b l e g o v e r n m e n t , t h e y w o u l d g i v e t h e b o l d y o u n g p r e m i e r a c h a n c e t o t r y o u t t h e i n n o v a t i o n . T h e r e h a d b e e n a f a i r l y s e v e r e f l o o d i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y t h a t J u n e a n d t h e M c B r i d e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p r o m p t a c t i o n o n b e h a l f o f f l o o d r e l i e f - - p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s e n d i n g t h e s t e a m e r H a m l i n t o h e l p r e s c u e s t r a n d e d c a t t l e a n d t h e 4 0 l i k e — w a s p r o b a b l y n o t f o r g o t t e n a t t h e p o l l s . B u t a p a r t f r o m t h i s , h a r d l y a n y f a c t o r s c o n f u s e d t h e i s s u e . T h e e l e c t -i o n was a t e s t f o r M c B r i d e p e r s o n a l l y a n d f o r h i s p a r t y l i n e m o v e . One c a n c a t c h a l i t t l e o f h i s f e e l i n g a s t h e g r e a t d a y drew n e a r i n a o n e l i n e l e t t e r t o h i s o l d o p -p o n e n t J . D . P r e n t i c e , now a p a r t y c o m r a d e . " D e a r J i m , 41 Do w h a t y o u c a n f o r me o n t h e 3 r d . R . M c B . " Y o u n g D i c k 38 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w t 1 9 0 2 , p . 8 8 . 3 9 M c B r i d e t o C a p t . C l i v e P h i l l i p s - W o l l e y , 11 S e p t -e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , P e r s o n a l , v o l . 1 , J u n e t o N o v e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 . 4 0 S e e Amor P . T h o m p s o n t o M c B r i d e , 1 8 J u n e , 1 9 0 3 , a n d G e o . H u m b e r t o M c B r i d e , 14 J u l y , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 2 . 4 1 M c B r i d e t o J . D . P r e n t i c e , 9 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , P e r s o n a l , v o l . l , J u n e t o N o v e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 . J • H . H a w t h o r n t h w a l t e L e a d e r o f t h e two S o c i a l i s t s u p o n whose s u p p o r t M c B r i d e was d e p e n d e n t d u r i n g h i s f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t -i o n , H a w t h o r n t h w a l t e was a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d o f t h e P r e m i e r . He was more o f a n i n t e l l e c t u a l S o c i a l i s t t h a n P a r k e r W i l l i a m s a n d went i n f o r a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e o f d e b a t e , u s i n g s a r c a s m a n d b i t i n g w i t . He r e t i r e d u n d e f e a t e d i n 1912 a f t e r w i n n i n g h i s N a n a i m o s e a t i n t h e 1 9 0 3 , 1 9 0 7 , a n d 1909 e l e c t i o n s . 38 h a d a c t e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e c o u r a g e a n d h e m u s t h a v e w o n -tvme d e r e d as t h e t e s t i n g d r e w n e a r w h e t h e r o r n o t h i s a c t i o n w o u l d b e r e w a r d e d w i t h f a m e o r p o l i t i c a l o b s c u r i t y . A s f a r as t h e l i b e r a l s w e r e c o n c e r n e d , t h e y w e r e n o t s o l i d l y b e h i n d J o e M a r t i n a n d c o u l d f i n d n o l e a d e r w i t h a n a p p e a l w h i c h m a t c h e d M c B r i d e ' s . I n d e e d , t h e q u e s t i o n o f p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p was n o t s e t t l e d u n t i l f o u r weeks a f t e r t h e e l e c t i o n when t h e b a t t l e h a d b e e n l o s t . T h e y h a d n o t t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e ' 3 m a i n p l a n k e i t h e r , f o r t h e y h a d n o t b e e n p e r -m i t t e d t h e e h a n c e t o i n t r o d u c e p a r t y l i n e s . L i b e r a l s f a c e d t h e e l e c t i o n w i t h b e t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a t l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n l e v e l s b u t f a r w o r s e a t t h e l e v e l o f l e a d e r s h i p . T h e y c a m -p a i g n e d w i t h e n t h u s i a s m , a n d may h a v e h a d f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l h e l p , b u t i n t h e e n d t h e i r m a i n c h a n c e , w h e t h e r t h e y knew i t o r n o t , l a y i n C o n s e r v a t i v e w e a k n e s s a n d l a c k o f u n i t y . T h e e l e c t i o n was v e r y c l o s e w i t h t h e f i n a l f i g u r e s s t a n d i n g a t t w e n t y - t w o C o n s e r v a t i v e s , s e v e n t e e n L i b e r a l s , two S o c i a l i s t s , a n d o n e L a b o u r ; b u t f o r two m a i n r e a s o n s , t h i s was r e n d e r e d a s a f e v i c t o r y f o r M c B r i d e . T h e L i b -e r a l s d i d n o t want t h e S o c i a l i s t s t o h o l d t h e b a l a n c e o f p o w e r a n d t h e S o c i a l i s t s d i d n o t want t h e L i b e r a l s i n p o w e r . B o t h m i n o r i t y p a r t i e s p r e f e r r e d t o s u p p o r t t h e g o v e r n m e n t . L a b o u r f a v o u r e d t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s , e s p e c i a l l y when r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e more p r o g r e s s i v e e l e m e n t i n t h a t P a r k e r W i l l i a m s T h e i n t e n s e l y s i n c e r e , h i g h l y e m o t i o n a l , S o c i a l i s t member who s a t f o r N e w c a s t l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e M c B r i d e p e r i o d . A f t e r Haw-t h o r n t h w a i t e r e s i g n e d W i l l i a m s became H o u s e L e a d e r . He c o u l d n o t m a t c h H a w t h o m t h w a i t e f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e b u t h i s s i n c e r i t y was a l w a y s i m p r e s s i v e i n h i s s p e e c h e s . 39 p a r t y , a n e l e m e n t s y m b o l i z e d b y M c B r i d e * W i l l i a m M a n s o n , t h e M a y o r o f N a n a i m o , w r o t e t o M c B r i d e o n O c t o b e r 3 1 s t t h a t : P r o m w h a t I c a n l e a r n H a w t h o r n t h w a l t e a n d W i l l i a m s c a n b e r e l i e d u p o n t o k e e p t h e L i b e r a l s o u t o f p o w e r , i f t h e G o v e r n m e n t a c t a t a l l w h i t e w h i c h I h a v e n o d o u b t y o u w i l l s e e t o . 42 T o p a r a l l e l t h i s , t h e T o r o n t o M a i l & E m p i r e o f a f e w d a y s l a t e r q u o t e d " H o n . W . C . W e l l s , a w e l l known L i b e r a l p o l i t i -c i a n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " as s a y i n g t h a t h e : d i d n o t a n t i c i p a t e t h a t t h e L i b e r a l O p -p o s i t i o n w o u l d make a n y s e r i o u s a t t e m p t t o e m b a r r a s s t h e M c B r i d e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e n e x t s e s s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L e g i s l a t u r e a s t h e p r o v i n c e was t i r e d o f t h e p o l i t i c a l t u r m o i l , a n d w o u l d n o t l o o k w i t h f a v o u r o n a n y p a r t y w h i c h w o u l d f o r c e a n o t h e r e l e c t i o n u p o n t h e m . He c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e : L i b e r a l s w o u l d s t a n d t o g a i n more b y a t t e n d i n g t o b u s i n e s s w i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g t o p r e c i p i t a t e a n y c r i s i s u p o n t h e G o v -e r n m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y as s u c h a c o u r s e w o u l d h a v e t h e r e s u l t o f g i v i n g t h e b a l a n c e o f p o w e r t o t h e b r a c e o f S o c i a l -i s t s a n d s i n g l e L a b o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e . 4 3 A s i t t u r n e d o u t , t h e S o c i a l i s t s d i d s i d e w i t h t h e G o v e r n m e n t , a n d t h e L i b e r a l s a s s u m e d t h e n o r m a l o p p o s i t i o n 4 2 Wm. M a n s o n t o M c B r i d e , 31 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m -i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 3 . 4 3 " P a c i f i c C o a s t P o l i t i c s , " T o r o n t o M a i l a n d E m p i r e . 7 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 ; s e e a l s o : T h o s . O ' B r i e n t o M c B r i d e , 6 O c t -o b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 3 * 40 r o l e . B u t f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g , M c B r i d e h a d a d o u b l e b a r -r e l l e d g u a r a n t e e : i f t h e S o c i a l i s t s l e t h i m d o w n , t h e L i b e r a l s w o u l d s u p p o r t h i m , a n d v i c e v e r s a * B e h i n d a l l was t h e v e r y e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c d e s i r e f o r s t a b i l i t y . I n l o o k i n g o v e r t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e e l e c t i o n , M c -B r i d e m u s t h a v e b e e n d i s a p p o i n t e d , f o r h e h a d l o s t two c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s , G o o d e v e a n d M c P h i l l l p s , a n d h i s o v e r a l l v i c t o r y c o u l d o n l y b e d e s c r i b e d as " b y a n a r r o w m a r g i n , " T h e k e y p r o b a b l y l a y i n t h e u n c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t o f t h e o l d g u a r d , e s p e c i a l l y o n t h e I s l a n d ( V i c t o r i a went s o l i d l y L i b e r a l ) a n d i n t h e I n t e r i o r . T h e f o r c e s o f P r i o r a n d S e m l i n e a p p e a r t o h a v e p l a y e d s u b v e r s i v e r o l t s , a n d i n s o d o i n g g a m b l e d away t h e i r i n f l u e n c e a s M c B r i d e n o t o n l y won t h e e l e c t i o n b u t managed t o s t a y i n o f f i c e f o r t w e l v e y e a r s t o c o m e . I n t h r e e l o n g l e t t e r s w r i t t e n a t t h e : e n d o f O c t o b e r , H . P . E v a n s o f A s h c r o f t t o l d M c B r i d e how t h e o l d g u a r d i n t h e I n t e r i o r h a d p l a y e d h i m f a l s e . : He w r o t e : I t i s n o t t o b e w o n d e r e d a t , t h a t a m o n g s t t h o s e t h a t a r e s e e k i n g t o b l a n k e t o u r m i n -e r a l l a n d s a r e t h e e n e m i e s o f g o o d g o v e r n -m e n t . T h e y p r e f e r a p e r s o n a l s y s t e m a s more f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e i r g r a s p i n g a i m s . 44 A t t h e R e v e l s t o k e C o n v e n t i o n , S e m l i n h a d d i s s e n t e d f r o m t h e 4 5 p a r t y l i n e s d e c l a r a t i o n , a n d now E v a n s w r o t e t h a t " A l l o f 4 4 H o r a c e P . E v a n s t o M c B r i d e , 28 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 3 . C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 2 , p . 8 8 . 4 ijjjfail I C h a a . A . S e m l i n P r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 8 9 8 - 1 9 0 0 S e m l i n was t h e v i c t i m o f t h e u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n d u c t o f L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r M c l n n e s , He was d i s -m i s s e d a f t e r a d e f e a t i n t h e H o u s e a l t h o u g h h e c o u l d a s s u r e M c l n n e s t h a t h e h a d t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e m a j o r i t y a n d t h a t g o v e r n m e n t b u s i n e s s n e e d e d t o go t h r o u g h . A f t e r h i s d i s m i s s a l S e m l i n p l a y e d t h e r o l e o f a n O l d G u a r d C o n s e r v a t i v e , a p p a r e n t l y r e p r e s e n t -i n g t h e s o - c a l l e d " l a n d b a r o n s " o f t h e C a r i b o o . He w o r k e d a g a i n s t M c B r i d e i n 1 9 0 3 . a s u d d e n M r . S e m l i n h a s j o i n e d t h e r a n k s o f t h e l a n d b a r o n s 4 6 • . . . n S e m l i n , w i t h P h i l i p P a r k e , G . N . B a r c l a y , a n d t h e C o r n w a l l s e i t h e r d i d n o t v o t e a t a l l o r v o t e d a g a i n s t t h e M c B r i d e C o n s e r v a t i v e s . T h e s e w e r e men o f g r e a t i n f l u e n c e i n t h e C a r i b o o a r e a a n d t h e y h a d s u p p o r t e d i n s t e a d a n a b o r -t i v e a t t e m p t t o b r i n g S i r C h a r l e s H l b b e r t T u p p e r t o t h e 48 f o r e . I n t h i s w a y , t h e y h o p e d t o k e e p t h e i r C o n s e r v a t i s m a s i t h a d a l w a y s b e e n a n d t h e r e f o r e p r i m a r i l y i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s . E v a n s w r o t e t h u s : Some o f t h e B o u r b o n S c h o o l a r e h o r r i f i e d a t o u r l o o k i n g w i t h some i n t e r e s t i n t o l a b o u r p r o b l e m s . T h e y s e e m t o i m a g i n e t h a t one o f t h e i r v o t e s i s e q u a l t o f i v e o f t h e common p e o p l e . T h i s m u s t b e c h a n g e d . 49 A n d h e a l s o r e m a r k e d t h a t : Our o l d f r i e n d s s h o u l d . . . g i v e way a l i t t l e , a t l e a s t , t o a r e c o n s t i t u t e d c o n -s e r v a t i s m . T h i s d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be t h e r u l e w i t h some V i c t o r i a C o n s e r v a t i v e s o f t h e P r i o r S c h o o l who s e e m t o c l i n g t o many t h i n g s t h a t t h e y o u n g e r C o n s e r v a t i v e s w i l l h a v e n o n e o f . 50 4 6 E v a n s t o M c B r i d e , 30 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 3 . 4 7 L o c . c i t . a n d E v a n s t o M c B r i d e , 28 O c t o b e r . 48 E v a n s t o M c B r i d e , 28 O c t o b e r . 4 9 E v a n s t o M c B r i d e , 31 O c t o b e r . 5 0 E v a n s t o M c B r i d e , 2 8 O c t o b e r . 42 E v a n s knew t h e k e y t h a t w o u l d o p e n t h e d o o r t o s u c c e s s f o r M c B r i d e when he a d v i s e d f o r m i n g j u n i o r C o n s e r v a t i v e A s -s o c i a t i o n s , f o r " y o u h a v e a g r e a t many f r i e n d s a m o n g s t t h e 51 y o u n g e r C o n s e r v a t i v e s , " a n d l o o k i n g i n t o l a b o u r p r o b l e m s , b e c a u s e " t h e l a b o r v o t e I s a v e r y l a r g e o n e , a n d . . . w e must a t l e a s t g e t o u r s h a r e o f t h a t v o t e o r t h e enemy w i l l g e t 52 i t . " B y t h e t i m e o f M c B r i d e ' s n e x t e l e c t o r a l b a t t l e h e h a d a s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f w i t h a p r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i s m i n t u n e w i t h E v a n s ' a d v i c e . T h e o l d g u a r d h a d l o s t a n d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e was g o n e f o r e v e r . T h e p o w e r o f t h e o l d i n t e r e s t s d e c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n a l l y as t h e w h o l e p r o v i n c e p r o s p e r e d . T h u s w i t h t h e e l e c t i o n o f O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 3 , R i c h a r d M c B r i d e s u c c e e d e d w h e r e t h e o l d g u a r d C o n s e r v a t i v e s s u c h a s T u r n e r 53 a n d D u n s m u i r h a d f a i l e d , a n d b r o u g h t a p r o g r e s s i v e C o n -s e r v a t i s m t o p o w e r i n t h e P r o v i n c e ' s f i r s t s t r a i g h t p a r t y g o v e r n m e n t » E v a n s t o M c B r i d e , 31 O c t o b e r . 5 2 E v a n s t o M c B r i d e , 28 O c t o b e r : o n l a b o u r , s e e a l s o : E v a n s t o M c B r i d e , 30 O c t o b e r . 5 3 l i e . e l e c t i o n o f 1 8 9 8 : " T h e e f f o r t s o f P r e m i e r T u r n e r t o i n t r o d u c e p a r t y l i n e s i n t o t h i s c o n t e s t h a v e f a l l e n f l a t . " " E d i t o r i a l N o t e s , " New Wes t ra ins t e r D a i l y C o l u m b i a n , 8 J u n e , 1 8 9 8 . R e . 1 9 0 1 : P r e m i e r D u n s m u i r ' s c a b i n e t r e s h u f f l e was t o r e s u l t i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p a r t y l i n e s . V a n c o u v e r W o r l d , 2 3 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 1 . F r e d e r i c k J . P u l t o n , K. C . P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o u n c i l , 1 9 0 3 - 1 9 0 4 P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y a n d M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 0 4 - 1 9 0 6 A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , 1 9 0 6 - 1 9 0 7 C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n d s a n d W o r k s , 1 9 0 6 - 1 9 0 8 C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n d s , 1 9 0 8 - 1 9 0 9 B o r n i n E n g l a n d , F u l t o n was a b a r r i s t e r who h a d a B . A . f r o m M a g d a l e n C o l l e g e , C a m b r i d g e . Member f o r K a m l o o p s f r o m 1900 u n t i l 1 9 0 9 , F u l t o n was a h a r d w o r k i n g , r e l i a b l e c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r . He r e -s i g n e d b e c a u s e o f d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e P r e m i e r o v e r r a i l w a y p o l i c y . C H A P T E R I I I RETRENCHMENT AND B E T T E R TERMS T h e summer o f 1903 h a d g i v e n M c B r i d e t h e e x h i l e r a t -i n g e x c i t e m e n t o f a c l o s e e l e c t i o n f i g h t . T h e f a l l , b r i n g -i n g a s i t d i d an e l e c t i o n v i c t o r y , saw h i m f a c e d w i t h t h e l e s s t h r i l l i n g , b u t e v e n more a r d u o u s t a s k o f g o v e r n i n g a n e a r l y b a n k r u p t p r o v i n c e . T h e g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h he h a d f o r m e d i n J u n e h a d n o t come u n s c a t h e d t h r o u g h t h e e l e c t i o n . D e s p i t e h i s c o n f i d e n t S e p t e m b e r p r e d i c t i o n s , A . S . G o o d e v e , t h e P r o v i n c i a l S e c -r e t a r y , h a d g o n e down t o d e f e a t -In R o s s l a n d . A n d i n V i c t -o r i a , A . E . M c P h i l l i p s , t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , f a r e d no b e t t e r when t h e c a p i t a l r e t u r n e d f o u r L i b e r a l s t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e . M c B r i d e t o o k o v e r G o o d e v e 1 s p o r t f o l i o h i m -s e l f , a n d C h a r l e s W i l s o n was a p p o i n t e d t o r e p l a c e M c P h i l -l i p s , t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l s h i p b e i n g a more f i t t i n g p o s i -t i o n f o r t h e o f f i c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r . T o f i l l t h e v a c a n t p o s i t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , M c B r i d e c a l l e d i n P . J . P u l t o n , t h e member f o r K a m l o o p s . T h u s , w i t h t h e P r e m i e r a n d G r e e n s w a p p i n g p o r t f o l i o s t o make t h e o n l y o t h e r c h a n g e , t h e n e w l y a r r a n g e d m i n i s t r y s t o o d a s f o l l o w s 1 : C a p t . R o b e r t G a r n e t t T a t l o w M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e a n d A g r i c u l t u r e , 1 9 0 3 - 1 9 0 9 B o r n i n 1855 a t S c a r v a , C o . D o w n , I r e l a n d , T a t l o w came o u t t o C a n a d a a t a n e a r l y a g e a n d was l i v i n g i n V a n c o u v e r when t h e f i r s t t r a i n a r r i v e d . He h a d p r e -v i o u s l y b e e n c o m m i s s i o n e d w i t h F i r s t P r i n c e o f V / a l e a R e g i m e n t , M o n t r e a l . A n u n s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e f o r a V a n c o u v e r s e a t i n t h e l o c a l H o u s e I n 1 8 9 4 , h e was e l e c t -e d In 1900 a n d h e l d h i s s e a t u n t i l 1909 when h e r e s i g n e d f r o m M c B r i d e ' s g o v e r n m e n t b e c a u s e he d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e P r e m i e r o v e r r a i l w a y p o l i c y . T a t l o w d i e d t r a g i c a l l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r when he was t h r o w n f r o m h i s g i g o n a V i c t o r i a S t r e e t . He was w i t h o u t d o u b t t h e most r e s -p e c t e d p u b l i c s e r v a n t o f h i s d a y . 44 H o n . R i c h a r d M c B r i d e — P r e m i e r , M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s , a n d P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y , H o n . R. G . T a t l o w — M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e a n d A g r i c u l t u r e , H o n . C h a s . W i l s o n , K . C — A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , H o n . R. F . G r e e n — C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n d s a n d W o r k s , H o n . F . J . F u l t o n , K . C . — P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o u n c i l . 1 T h e s e f o u r m e n , c h o s e n b y M c B r i d e a s h i s m i n i s t e r s , h a d one e h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n common. T h e y w e r e men o f i n t e -g r i t y . T h i s was a n e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y i n a g o v e r n m e n t w h e r e 2 b r i l l i a n c e was n o t t h e p r i m e n e e d . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was h a r d u p , a n d t h e men who f o r m e d h e r f i r s t C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v -e r n m e n t c o u l d a f f o r d l i t t l e , i f a n y t h i n g , f o r t h e n o r m a l p a r t y p r a c t i c e o f p a t r o n a g e ; n e i t h e r c o u l d t h e y u n d e r t a k e t o c a r r y o u t a n y a m b i t i o u s s c h e m e s . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n , t h e F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r became t h e k e y f i g u r e , a n d n o more a b l e a n d c o n s c i e n t i o u s man f o r t h a t p o s i t i o n c o u l d h a v e b e e n f o u n d t h a n C a p t . R. G . T a t l o w . " T a t , " as M c B r i d e c a l l e d h i m , was a s h r e w d , c o n s c i e n t i o u s , l o v a b l e I r i s h m a n w i t h a h o t t e m p e r q u a l i f i e d b y a f i n e s e n s e o f h u m o u r . He was t o b e t h e o n l y member o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t t h a t e v e n a w i l d a n d i r r e s p o n s i b l e O p p o s i t i o n p r e s s n e v e r d a r e d t o a c c u s e o f a n y f o r m o f d i s h o n e s t y d u r i n g t h e more t h a n s i x 1 E r n e s t J . C h a m b e r s , e d . , T h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y  G u i d e , 1 9 1 5 , M o n t r e a l , G a z e t t e , 1 9 1 5 , p . 4 4 5 . 2 A l t h o u g h G r e e n a n d T a t l o w may h a v e h a d i t . \ 45 y e a r s i n w h i c h h e h e l d o f f i c e . T h e c o n d i t i o n o f a f f a i r s w i t h w h i c h T a t l o w was f a c e d h a d i t s o r i g i n s a s f a r b a c k as B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s e n t r y i n t o c o n f e d e r a t i o n , a s , i n t h e t w e n t y - t w o y e a r s s i n c e t h a t d a t e , t h e P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s h a d o n l y managed t o p r o d u c e t h r e e 3 s u r p l u s e s , t o t a l l i n g $ 1 3 8 , 7 2 8 . H o w e v e r , i t was i n t h e y e a r s s i n c e t h e d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e ' 9 0 ' s h i t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n h a d - w o r s e n e d w i t h a l a r m i n g r a p i d i t y . I n 1892 t h e g r o s s b o n d e d d e b t o f t h e P r o v i n c e h a d s t o o d a t 4 5 $ 2 , 8 7 6 , 0 3 6 . B y 1 9 0 3 , t h e d e b t h a d g rown t o $ 1 2 , 5 4 2 , 0 8 6 . I t was t h i s i n c r e a s e o f n e a r l y $10 m i l l i o n i n e l e v e n y e a r s w h i c h h a d d o n e m u c h t o a r o u s e d o u b t s a s t o t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e p e r s o n a l s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t . On t o p o f t h i s t o t a l b o n d e d d e b t o f $ 1 2 ^ m i l l i o n , t h e p r o v i n c e c a r r i e d a f l o a t -6 i n g l i a b i l i t y o f a n o t h e r $1 m i l l i o n . I n d e e d , s o b l a c k was t h e f i n a n c i a l p i c t u r e t h a t t h e b a n k s r e f u s e d t o c a r r y t h e 7 p r o v i n c e a l o n g a n y f a r t h e r , a n d t h e r e t u r n t o p r o s p e r i t y -3 R . E . G o s n e l l , " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . , . " i n Adam S h o r t t a n d A r t h u r G . D o u g h t y , e d . , C a n a d a a n d I t s P r o v i n c e s , T o r o n t o , G l a s g o w B r o o k , 1 9 1 4 , v o l . 2 2 , p . 3 5 9 . 4 P . W. H o w a y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e E a r l i e s t  T i m e s t o t h e P r e s e n t , V a n c o u v e r , S . J . C l a r k e , 1 9 1 4 , p . 4 9 7 . 5 I b i d . , p . 5 2 7 . 6 G o s n e l l , " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " p . 3 5 9 . 7 H o w a y , o p . c i t . , p . 5 2 7 . 4 6 w h i c h h a d b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d i n E a s t e r n C a n a d a was b e i n g s e r i o u s l y h i n d e r e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b y t h e u n w i l l i n g -n e s s o f c a p i t a l i s t s t o i n v e s t t h e i r money i n a p r o v i n c e o n t h e v e r g e o f b a n k r u p t c y a n d i n c a p a b l e o f m a i n t a i n i n g s t a b l e g o v e r n m e n t . T u r n e r , now A g e n t - G e n e r a l , r e p o r t e d I n J u n e t h a t t h e p r e j u d i c i a l o u t l o o k o f L o n d o n p a p e r s r e a c h e d an a l l - t i m e h i g h w h e n ' P r i o r r e s i g n e d , a n d he a s -s u r e d M c B r i d e t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d h a v e t o w o r k h a r d t o r e s t o r e c o n f i d e n c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o c a p i t a l i s t s i n 8 E n g l a n d . A n o t h e r c o r r e s p o n d e n t r e p o r t e d o n h i s r e t u r n f r o m t h e E a s t t h a t t h e members o f t h e C a n a d i a n M a n u f a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n " i n s t e a d o f b e i n g a n x i o u s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r b u s i n e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , . . . w e r e r a t h e r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e 9 q u e s t i o n o f w i t h d r a w i n g t h e i r t r a v e l l e r s a l t o g e t h e r . " A m i l l i o n d o l l a r l o a n was f l o a t e d a s one o f t h e f i r s t 10 a c t s o f M c B r i d e ' s g o v e r n m e n t , b u t T a t l o w made i t c l e a r f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t h a t h e i n t e n d e d t h i s t o b e t h e l a s t l o a n a n d m e r e l y a s t o p - g a p m e a s u r e t o t i d e o v e r t h e t r e a -s u r y u n t i l a p o l i c y o f r e t r e n c h m e n t c o u l d t a k e e f f e c t . I n -d e e d , when M c B r i d e was r e c o n s t r u c t i n g h i s c a b i n e t , T a t l o w 8 T u r n e r t o M c B r i d e , 5 J u n e , 1 9 0 3 , In P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , O f f i c i a l , 1 9 0 3 , # 3 2 3 , i n P i l e N o . 2 . 9 H e r b e r t C u t h b e r t t o M c B r i d e , 2 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , 1 9 0 3 , A l p h a b e t i c a l f i l e N o . 2 . 10 G o s n e l l , " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " p . 3 5 5 . 47 w r o t e t o h i m i n s t r o n g l a n g u a g e o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f g o v e r n -ment members s u p p o r t i n g h i s f i n a n c i a l p o l i c y b y u n d e r t a k i n g no new s c h e m e s . T a t l o w h a d b e e n f o r c e d t o a s s u r e t h e b a n k " i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e r e q u i r e d a d v a n c e , t h a t n o more p u b l i c w o r k s w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n , a n d t h o s e i n h a n d w i l l b e c l o s e d down as s o o n a s p o s s i b l e , u n t i l s u c h t i m e a s o u r 11 f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e c o m p l e t e d . " He t h r e a t e n e d t o r e s i g n i m m e d i a t e l y i f h e c o u l d n o t b e c o m p l e t e l y c e r t a i n o f l o y a l a d h e r e n c e o n t h e p a r t o f h i s f e l l o w m i n i s t e r s t o 12 a f i r m p o l i c y o f r e t r e n c h m e n t . A s s o o n a s h e h a d o b -t a i n e d t h i s a s s u r a n c e , T a t l o w p r o c e e d e d w i t h f i n a n c i a l r e f o r m . T h e m a j o r v e h i c l e s o f t h i s r e f o r m w e r e t h e A s s e s s -ment A c t o f 1903 a n d t h e H a l l w a y A s s e s s m e n t A c t o f 1 9 0 3 , 13 b o t h b e a r i n g t h e d a t e D e c e m b e r 1 2 . T h r o u g h t h e s e A c t s , t a x a t i o n on r a i l r o a d s , w i l d l a n d s , c o r p o r a t i o n s , a n d i n c o m e s was i n c r e a s e d . T h e P o l l T a x was i n c r e a s e d f r o m $ 3 t o $ 5 . T h e P r o s p e c t o r ' s M i n i n g L i c e n s e f e e was d o u b l e d 14 a n d a 2% t a x was p l a c e d o n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f m i n e s . A n 1 1 T a t l o w t o M c B r i d e , 2 2 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n M i s c e l l -a n e o u s P a p e r s i n p o s s e s s i o n o f M r s . M. P. M a c i n t o s h . 1 2 L o c . c i t . 1 3 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S t a t u t e s , 3 & 4 E d . V I I , 1 9 0 3 - 4 , c . 52 a n d 5 3 . 1 4 A n a l y s e d b y G o s n e l l i n 3 S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " A r t i c l e N o . 2 , V a n c o u v e r D a l l y P r o v i n c e , 23 J u l y , 1 9 2 1 . 48 a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e o f i n c o m e was t h e n e w l y i n c r e a s e d C h i n e s e H e a d T a x o f $ 5 0 0 w h i c h h a d b e e n e n a c t e d a f t e r t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o f 1 9 0 2 . T h i s t a x was t o come I n t o e f f e c t i n J a n u a r y 1 9 0 4 , a n d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e m e a s u r e p a s s e d i n 1 9 0 2 , t h i s p r o v i n c e was t o r e c e i v e o n e - h a l f t h e r e s u l t i n g 1 5 r e v e n u e a s i t s s h a r e . I n t h e f i s c a l y e a r s , 1904 a n d 1 9 0 5 , t h i s h e a d t a x b r o u g h t $ 2 2 5 , 0 0 0 a n d | 2 5 8 , 0 0 0 - r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l t r e a s u r y , a n d a l t h o u g h I n s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s t h i s s o u r c e o f r e v e n u e b e c a m e a l m o s t n e g l i g i b l e , i t s e r v e d t o h e l p o u t t h e t r e a s u r y I n t h a t i n i t i a l a n d m o s t d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d i n w h i c h b e g a n t h e h a r d c l i m b t o r e g a i n p r e s t i g e a n d p r o s p e r i t y f o r t h e p r o v i n c e . B u t t o i n c r e a s e r e v e n u e was o n l y h a l f t h e b a t t l e . I t h a d t o b e a c c o m p a n i e d b y h a r d h e a d e d s l a s h i n g o f e x -p e n d i t u r e . I n p u b l i c w o r k s , t h e s h u t down was a l m o s t c o m -p l e t e a n d t i m e a n d t i m e a g a i n M c B r i d e a n d h i s a s s o c i a t e s h a d t o w r i t e s o o t h i n g l e t t e r s t o t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s i n -f o r m i n g t h e m w i t h r e g r e t t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r o a d o r a b r i d g e c o u l d n o t y e t b e u n d e r t a k e n . I n A u g u s t , 1 9 0 4 , M c B r i d e w r o t e t o a r o a d f o r e m a n i n Dewdney s t a t i n g t h a t " O u r e x p e n d i t u r e s t h i s y e a r h a v e b e e n v e r y s m a l l b e c a u s e I 5 J . C a s t e l l H o p k i n s , T h e C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w o f  P u b l i c A f f a i r s , ( 1 9 0 2 ) , T o r o n t o , A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 3 , p . 1 9 . R . G . T a t l o w , 1906 B u d g e t S p e e c h , r e p r i n t b y D a i l y N e w s - A d v e r t i s e r , p . 2 . 49 t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a s had. t o c u t down e x p e n s e s . . . . " B u t h e went o n t o h o p e t h a t " t h e p e o p l e know how p r e s s e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a v e b e e n f o r f u n d s a n d w i l l n o t e x p e c t as m u c h a s h i t h e r t o 17 • • • • • " I n t h i s h o p e h e seems t o h a v e b e e n r e w a r d e d , f o r a l t h o u g h some c o m p l a i n e d , t h e r e w e r e u n d o u b t e d l y many m o r e , t h o s e o n e d o e s n o t h e a r o f , who d i d n o t c o m p l a i n . A n o t h e r Dewdney r o a d f o r e m a n c o u l d r e p o r t t h e f o l l o w i n g summer o n t h e l a c k o f m o n e y f o r r o a d s b y s a y i n g : . . . m i n d y o u n o one i s k i c k i n g . I h a v e y e t t o h e a r t h e f i r s t c o m p l a i n t f r o m e i t h e r f r i e n d o r f o e . T h e y one & a l l r e a l i z e t h e p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h y o u r G o v ' t , w e r e p l a c e d f i n a n c i a l l y when y o u t o o k o f f i c e & t h e y c o n s i d e r t h a t y o u h a v e t a k e n t h e p r o p e r c o u r s e — v i z . t h a t o f c u t t i n g down u n t i l l ( s i c ) y o u r e c o v e r y o u r -s e l v e s • • • • 18 I n t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e e q u a l l y s t r i c t e c o n o m i e s w e r e p r a c t i s e d . M o s t p l a o e - s e e k e r s w e r e t u r n e d away a n d t h o s e e m p l o y e e s a l r e a d y on t h e p a y r o l l h a d t o f e a r f o r t h e i r j o b s . I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e P r e m i e r ' s o f f i c e a l o n e t h a t e v e r y e f f o r t was made t o c u t down o n u n n e c e s s a r y c i v i l s e r v a n t s . I f I t was f o u n d t h a t one man c o u l d do h a l f a s much a g a i n a s h e was d o i n g a n d a n o t h e r was f o u n d t o m a t c h h i m , t h e n a t h i r d man w o u l d l o s e h i s j o b . N o t o n l y i n V i c t o r i a , b u t a l l o v e r t h e p r o v i n c e , w h e r e v e r t h e r e w e r e g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s , o f f i c e s 1 7 M c B r i d e t o Z o e l C y r , 2 0 A u g u s t , 1 9 0 4 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , Dewdney f i l e 1 9 0 4 - 0 7 . 1 8 J o h n S p r o t t t o M c B r i d e , 21 S e p t e m b e r , 1905 i n L o c . c i t . 50 l a r g e a n d s m a l l were I n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h a v i e w t o e c o n o m y . S m a l l c h a n c e was t h e r e o f d i s p e n s i n g p a t r o n a g e w h i l e s u c h a p o l i c y was b e i n g p u r s u e d . U n t i l 1 9 0 6 , t h e i n c r e a s e i n C i v i l S e r v i c e s a l a r i e s a m o u n t e d t o o n l y # 2 5 0 0 , as T a t l o w m o d e s t l y s a i d , " a v e r y s m a l l i n c r e a s e t a k e n i n c o m p a r i s o n 19 w i t h t h e g r e a t e x p a n s i o n o f b u s i n e s s o f t h e P r o v i n c e . " B u t d e s p i t e t h e p r a c t i c e o f s t r i c t economy i n p u b l i c w o r k s a n d t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e , T a t l o w s a w , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1 9 0 5 , t h a t s t i l l f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n s i n e x p e n d i t u r e w o u l d h a v e t o b e made w e r e t h e b u d g e t f o r t h e c o m i n g y e a r t o b e b a l a n c e d . He t o l d M c B r i d e t h a t u n l e s s t h e c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f ' j u s t i c e c o u l d b e c u t down t h e r e 2 0 w o u l d be a d e f i c i t when he g a v e t h e 1906 t r e a s u r y r e p o r t . M c B r i d e a n d h i s c o l l e a g u e s e v i d e n t l y d e c i d e d t h a t t h e w i s e s t c o u r s e l a y i n a c h a n g e i n t h e . e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . C o n t r o l a n d c o s t s o f e d u c a t i o n w e r e a c c o r d i n g l y t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s b y t h e E d u c a t i o n A c t o f 1 9 0 5 . T h i s d e c i s i o n was a b o l d o n e — i t h a d l o n g b e e n c o n s i d e r e d t h e s o r t o f 21 a c t i o n w h i c h w o u l d r e s u l t i n t h e d e a t h b l o w t o a n y g o v e r n m e n t . H o w e v e r I t was t h e s a v i n g f a c t o r f o r t h i s o n e , as i t p r o d u c e d f i n a n c i a l s o l v e n c y a n d r e c e i v e d more s u p p o r t f r o m t h e p e o p l e t h a n m i g h t h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d . 1 9 T a t l o w , 1906 B u d g e t S p e e c h , p p . 5 a n d 6 . 2 0 T a t l o w t o M c B r i d e , 22 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 5 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s i n p o s s e s s i o n o f M r s . M. P. M a c i n t o s h . 2 1 " T h e E d u c a t i o n B i l l . " C h i l l l w a c k P r o g r e s s , M a r c h 1 , 1 9 0 5 * T H E MAGieiAN. / H o n . E . G . T a t l o w ( L o q u i t u r ) : " G e n t l e m e n , a s I r a i s e t h e c o n e a n d wave my m a g i c wand y o u s e e t h a t t h e l a r g e b l a c k b a l l m a r k e d ' d e f i c i t ' has d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m t h e t a b l e , a n d i n I t s p l a c e , h o y p r e s t o ! t h i s b a g o f g o l d . 1 * w i t h a p o l o g i e s t o S i r J o h n T e n n i e l . The W e e k , 19 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 7 . T a t l o w h a d b e e n a b l e t o a n n o u n c e a s u r p l u s f o r t h e 22 f i s c a l y e a r 1 9 0 4 - 5 o f $ 2 7 , 7 0 6 . He was d i s a p p o i n t e d t h a t i t was n o t l a r g e r , b u t m i g h t w e l l h a v e b e e n p r o u d o f t h i s 23 s e c o n d r e a l s u r p l u s s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n . H o w e v e r , i n t h e 1906 B u d g e t S p e e c h , T a t l o w f e l t n o l o n g e r a n y c a u s e f o r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . He r e c a l l e d t h a t h i s f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e b u d g e t ( 1904 ) h a d b e e n l i t t l e more t h a n a t a l e o f w o e . T h e n e x t y e a r h a d s e e n c o n d i t i o n s " s l i g h t l y b e t t e r . " B u t n o w , l o o k i n g b a c k o v e r 1905 a n d a h e a d o v e r t h e p r e s e n t y e a r h e was " a b l e most h a p p i l y t o c o n g r a t u l a t e t h e H o u s e a n d t h e P r o v i n c e u p o n c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a r e h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y a n d e m i n e n t l y e n c o u r a g i n g t o a l l f a i r l y a n d i n t e l l i g e n t l y i n -24 t e r e s t e d i n t h e p r o s p e r i t y a n d f u t u r e o f t h e P r o v i n c e . " I t was h a r d , c o n s c i e n t i o u s w o r k w h i c h h a d d o n e t h e t r i c k b u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s who h a d s e e n one r e a l s u r p l u s i n t h i r t y - t w o y e a r s c a n p e r h a p s b e f o r g i v e n f o r r e g a r d i n g t h e man who p r o d u c e d two i n a row a n d p r o m i s e d a t h i r d as s o m e t h i n g o f a m a g i c i a n . A s i t t u r n e d o u t , s u c c e s s i v e 25 s u r p l u s e s p r o d u c e d b y 1910 a t o t a l s u r p l u s o f $ 8 , 6 2 7 , 2 5 7 . U n t i l t h i s f i g u r e was r e a c h e d T a t l o w c a n b e s a i d t o h a v e C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 5 , p . 3 7 5 . 2 3 T h e o n l y o t h e r r e a l l y v a l i d s u r p l u s was i n 1 8 8 1 . 24 T a t l o w , 1906 B u d g e t S p e e c h , p . 1 . 2 5 H o w a y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e E a r l i e s t T i m e s t o t h e P r e s e n t , V a n c o u v e r , S.J.cYarke, 1 9 1 4 , p . 5 3 0 . " 5 2 b e e n i n e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l . B u t e v e n a f t e r w a r d s i t w a s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f h i s g r o u n d w o r k w h i c h p r o d u c e d two -more n o t a b l e s u r p l u s e s a n d e n a b l e d G o o d e v e , s p e a k i n g i n T o r o n t o i n 1 9 1 1 , t o s a y t h a t : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s i n t h e u n i q u e p o s i t i o n , w h i c h a s f a r a s I am a w a r e n o o t h e r c o u n t r y o r p r o v i n c e o c c u p i e s i n t h e w o r l d , o f b e i n g a b l e , i f s h e s o d e s i r e d , o f w r i t i n g h e r c h e q u e a n d p a y i n g o f f e v e r y c e n t o f h e r b o n d e d i n -d e b t e d n e s s . 2 6 T h a t s h e d i d n o t do s o was n o t T a t l o w ' s f a u l t . T h a t s h e was a b l e t o do s o was a t r i b u t e t o h i s w o r k . T h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o t h e r e t r e n c h m e n t p o l i c y o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t was h i g h l y g r a t i f y -i n g a n d s h o u l d n o t b e j u d g e d f r o m t h e o u t c r i e s o f a f r u s -t r a t e d O p p o s i t i o n p r e s s w h i c h c o u l d , i n r e a l i t y , f i n d n o -t h i n g w o r t h y o f c r i t i c i s m . A t t h e e n d o f 1 9 0 4 , t h e L a r d e a u  M i n i n g r R e v i e w p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e c l a i m s o f t h e L i b e r a l p r e s s t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t was doomed a n d t h e s a t i s f a e t i o n o f t h a t p r e s s a t t h e i m a g i n e d p r o s p e c t o f a n o t h e r e l e c t i o n 2 7 was e m b l e m a t i c o f t h a t p a r t y ' s " r u l e o r r u i n p o l i c y . " B o t h t h e M i n i n g R e v i e w a n d t h e O u t c r o p r e m i n d e d " t h e i r r e a d e r s how s i c k t h e y s h o u l d b e o f g o v e r n m e n t i n s t a b i l i t y " p o l i t i c a l e l e c t i o n s a n d t u r m o i l . " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was 2 6 A . S . G o o d e v e , " P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " E m p i r e C l u b S p e e c h e s , 1 9 1 0 - 1 1 , T o r o n t o , S a t u r d a y N i g h t P r e s s , 1 9 1 1 , p . 2 2 9 . 2 7 " G u t t e r P o l i t i c s , " L a r d e a u M i n i n g flevlew, 24 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 4 . 53 28 " i n n e e d o f l e s s p o l i t i c s a n d a c h a n c e t o p r o s p e r . " T h i s s e n t i m e n t h a d p u b l i c s u p p o r t a n d made i n c r e a s e d t a x a -t i o n a n d r e t r e n c h m e n t p o s s i b l e . Where t a x a t i o n s e e m e d u n -f a i r , t h e g o v e r n m e n t d i s a r m e d i t s c r i t i c s b y a p p o i n t i n g a c o m m i s s i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e a n d o n t h e a d v i c e o f t h i s c o m -m i s s i o n r e d u c i n g t h e p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y t a x © R a i l w a y s a n d c o r p o r a t i o n s w e r e p i n c h e d h a r d e s t a n d t h i s p l e a s e d t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . M c B r i d e s a i d i n a s p e e c h a t C r a n b r o o k : "I c o u l d p o i n t t o one c o r p o r a t i o n f o r m e r l y p a y i n g a b o u t $ 1 8 , 0 0 0 o r $ 1 9 , 0 0 0 t o t h e t r e a s u r y , who i s now p a y i n g a b o u t 29 $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 , a n d i s d o i n g b u s i n e s s t o d a y . " T h o s e who c o u l d a f f o r d t o p a y w e r e p a y i n g . When t h e N e l s o n News c r i t i c i z e d T a t l o w a s " d e v o i d o f I m a g i n a t i o n , " a n d h a v i n g " n o f e r v e n t b e l i e f i n t h e p o t e n -30 t i a l i t i e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . . . , " t h e G r a n d F o r k s G a z e t t e r e p l i e d i n a n a r t i c l e w o r t h q u o t i n g b e c a u s e i t s o c o m p l e t e l y sums u p t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e p o l i c y o f r e t r e n c h m e n t • We b e l i e v e t h a t a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r j u n c t u r e when t h e p r e s e n t g o v e r n m e n t came i n t o o f f i c e we w a n t e d men who c o u l d f o r a t i m e p u t t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n s i n t h e i r p o c k e t s a n d s i t down w i t h s t e r n d e t e r m i n -• ." .nat ion t o g i v e t h e p e o p l e o f t h i s p r o v i n c e what 28 T h e O u t c r o p , 5 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 5 . 2 9 " C o n s e r v a t i v e R a l l y , " C r a n b r o o k P r o s p e c t o r , 23 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 5 . 3 0 N e l s o n N e w s , 28 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 0 5 . 54 t h e y s o r e l y n e e d e d , v i z : a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d make a n h o n e s t e f f o r t t o c u r t a i l t h e p e r p e t u a l d i s b u r s e m e n t s , a n d r e s t o r e a d e c e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e v e n u e a n d e x p e n -d i t u r e . T h i s we i m a g i n e was t h e f i r s t d u t y o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e d a y , a n d P r e m i e r M c B r i d e a n d h i s c o l l e a g u e s h a v e e a r n e d , a n d we b e l i e v e o b t a i n e d , t h e a p p r o v a l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o g i v e w h a t t h e p e o p l e e a r n e s t l y p l e a d e d f o r , a s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e f i n a n -c i a l a f f a i r s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . T h e y e s p e c i a l l y d e s e r v e c r e d i t f o r t h e i r a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h i s r e -g a r d , b e c a u s e , i n d o i n g i t , many t o e s h a v e b e e n t r o d d e n o n , a n d , t o u s e t h e p h r a s e i n t h e News a r t i c l e , " t h e c a r e f u l s a v i n g o f a d o l l a r h e r e , a n d t h e e x a c t i o n o f a n a d d i t i o n a l d o l l a r t h e r e " i s a p r o c e s s w h i c h h a s an e x a s p e r a t i n g e f f e c t o f t h o s e who h a v e t o p a y t h e a d d i t i o n a l d o l l a r , a n d o n t h o s e w h o s e r e q u e s t s f o r e x p e n d i t u r e a r e d e n i e d . 31 W h i l e t h e M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e c o n c e r n e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e ' s i m m e d i a t e p r e d i c a m e n t , t h e P r e m i e r t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p e r m a n e n t c a u s e s o f f i n a n c i a l i n s e c u r i t y a n d t r i e d h i s h a n d a t t h e o l d p r o v i n c i a l game o f t r y i n g t o g e t B e t t e r T e r m s o u t o f O t t a w a . B y 1 9 0 1 , a f t e r t h e p r o v i n c e h a d b e e n i n t h e U n i o n t h i r t y y e a r s , t h e r e v e n u e w h i c h s h e h a d c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e D o m i n i o n g o v e r n m e n t a m o u n t e d t o $ 4 2 , 4 7 5 , 3 4 9 . I n r e t u r n , t h e D o m i n i o n h a d e x p e n d e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d a 32 t o t a l o f | 2 8 , 9 6 8 , 0 9 1 . H a d p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c e s m a i n t a i n e d a 31 " T h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d T a x a t i o n , " G r a n d F o r k s G a z e t t e , 2 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 5 . 3 2 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , S e s s i o n a l  P a p e r s , 1 9 0 1 , Memorandum i n " E e p o r t o f D e l e g a t i o n t o O t t a w a , " p . 5 6 5 . 55 s o l v e n t c o n d i t i o n n o c o m p l a i n t m i g h t h a v e b e e n made a b o u t t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n r e v e n u e t a k e n f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e a n d e x p e n d i t u r e r e t u r n e d t h r o u g h p u b l i c w o r k s , e t c . B u t , a s i t w a s , t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t h a d n o t b e e n a b l e t o make e n d s m e e t . No d o u b t t h e r e may h a v e b e e n some l o c a l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r t h i s c o n d i t i o n b u t i t c o u l d n o t b e d e n i e d t h a t one o f t h e m a i n c a u s e s l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t a s o p e r a t i n g t h e n d i d n o t l e a v e t h e p r o v i n c e w i t h " a s u f f i c i e n t a n n u a l sum f o r t h e d i s c h a r g e 3 3 o f a l l l o c a l s e r v i c e s . " As c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w e n t t h a t r a p i d d e t e r i o r a t i o n a t t h e e n d o f t h e c e n t u r y , i t m u s t h a v e b e e n t h o u g h t more a n d m o r e t h a t t h e o n l y s a l v a t i o n l a y i n i n c r e a s e d f e d e r a l s u b s i d y . A s a r e s u l t , t h r e e m i s s i o n s t o O t t a w a w e r e d i s -p a t c h e d i n t h e f i r s t f o u r y e a r s o f t h e new c e n t u r y . I n 1 9 0 1 , D u n s m u i r h e a d e d a d e l e g a t i o n t o O t t a w a t o p r e s e n t c e r t a i n c l a i m s o f t h e P r o v i n c e f o r i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n b u t h e r e t u r n e d empty h a n d e d . H i s a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m was o f a p u r e l y p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e c o n c e r n e d a s i t was w i t h t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n r e v e n u e a n d e x p e n d i t u r e i n D o m i n i o n -P r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s . " W e L c l a i r a , " s a i d D u n s m u i r , t h a t on a c c o u n t o f t h e v e r y l a r g e p e r c a p i t a c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e P r o v i n c e t o t h e D o m i n i o n , as c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e r e s t o f C a n a d a , i t i s " B e t t e r T e r m s , " G r a n d Fork8 G a z e t t e , 18 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 5 . 56 e n t i t l e d t o g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e way o f e x p e n d i t u r e o n w o r k s o f p u b l i c d e v e l o p m e n t . . . I n J a n u a r y 1 9 0 3 , s h o r t l y a f t e r C o l . P r i o r h a d t a k e n o v e r t h e r e i n s o f g o v e r n m e n t , h e a l s o l e d a d e l e g a t i o n t o O t t a w a . B y t h i s t i m e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e p r o b l e m h a d r e a c h e d a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l a n d p e o p l e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m -b i a w e r e t a l k i n g o f t h e f e d e r a l c o m p a c t o r c o n t r a c t i n a n 1 8 7 8 t o n e o f v o i c e a n d i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n h a d n o t l i v e d up t o i t s p a r t o f t h e T e r m s o f U n i o n " p a c t . " P r i o r d i d w e l l t o i g n o r e t h i s a p p r o a c h a n d , i n d e e d , h i s s t a n d was s t a t e s m a n l i k e a n d d e s e r v i n g o f more f a v o u r a b l e r e s p o n s e t h a n i t r e c e i v e d . P r i o r h e l d t h a t : T h e p o s i t i o n we t a k e i s n o t t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t h a s v i o l a t e d t h e Terms o f U n i o n , o r t h a t we a r e e n t i t l e d t o c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r l a c k o f f u l f i l m e n t i n a n y s u b s t a n t i a l r e s p e c t . . . b u t we do C o n t e n d t h a t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n . . . a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s h a s g r o w n u p . . . t h a t h a s e s t a b l i s h e d a m o r a l r i g h t a n d a s o u n d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c l a i m o n o u r p a r t f o r i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n . . . . 3 5 H o w e v e r , some o f t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s m o d e r a t e a t t i t u d e must h a v e b e e n l o s t when E b e r t s , t h e s p o k e s m a n o f t h e d e l e g a t i o n a s k e d f o r a n o u t r i g h t r e t u r n o f " a l l t h e money c o l l e c t e d b y t h e D o m i n i o n f r o m t h e f i s h e r i e s , s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n , 3 4 D u n s m u i r t o L a u r i e r , 2 8 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 1 , i n B . C .  S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1 9 0 1 , " R e p o r t o f D e l e g a t i o n t o O t t a w a , 1 * p . 5 5 9 . 3 5 S t a t e m e n t r e . F i n a n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , p . k - 6 i n B . C . S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s 1 9 0 3 , " R e p o r t o f D e l e g a t i o n t o O t t a w a . " 57 o u t s i d e o f w h a t money was e x p e n d e d b y t h e D o m i n i o n i n t h e way o f p r o t e c t i o n . T h e amount a s k e d was a b o u t a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . " I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t "No s t a t e m e n t was 36 made i n r e p l y . " S i x m o n t h s l a t e r M c B r i d e was i n o f f i c e a n d o n e o f h i s f i r s t m a j o r d e c i s i o n s a s P r e m i e r i n v o l v e d t h e s e n d i n g t o O t t a w a o f a d e l e g a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f R . F . G r e e n a n d C h a r l e s W i l s o n . T h e y l e f t o n J u l y 1 a n d r e t u r n e d a f t e r a m o n t h i n O t t a w a w i t h e m p t y h a n d s . H o w e v e r , t h e y h a d o p e n e d t h e c a s e f r o m a new p o i n t o f v i e w a n d L a u r i e r was e x p o s e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e r e b y t o M c B r i d e ' s a p p r o a c h t o t h e o l d p r o b l e m . T h i s a p p r o a c h c o n s i s t e d i n a demand f o r p e r i o d i c a d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e s u b s i d y r e c e i v e d b y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t . W i l s o n a n d G r e e n c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r own s u g g e s t -i o n , w h i c h M c B r i d e was l a t e r t o i n c o r p o r a t e c o m p l e t e l y I n h i s s t a n d , when t h e y a s k e d t h a t t h e m a t t e r b e r e f e r r e d t o a n i n d e p e n d e n t c o m m i s s i o n o f e n q u i r y n o t f o r an a w a r d o f f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t b u t f o r a r e p o r t o n t h e m e r i t s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l c l a i m s a n d f o r s u g g e s t i o n s " o f e q u i t a b l e a n d p r a c t i c a l l i n e s o f a d j u s t m e n t . " I t was p r o p o s e d t h a t two c o m m i s s i o n e r s b e a p p o i n t e d b y e a c h G o v e r n m e n t , a f i f t h t o b e s e l e c t e d b y t h e H o n . t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y ; a n d t h a t t h e s e men s h o u l d s p e n d some t i m e i n t h e P r o v i n c e t o f a m -. \ . i l i a r i s e t h e m s e l v e s b y r e s i d e n c e a n d i n v e s t i g a t i o n 5 b " P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r s a t O t t a w a , " V a n c o u v e r D a l l y N e w s - A d v e r t i s e r , 22 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 3 . 58 w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s — p h y s i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l — a n d t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e . When i t b e c a m e a p p a r e n t t o M c B r i d e t h a t L a u r i e r h a d no i n t e n t i o n o f g i v i n g a n y f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e W i l s o n - G r e e n p r o p o s a l s , h e r e t u r n e d t o t h e a t t a c k b y means o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . I n D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , a n d J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 4 , h e e x c h a n g e d l e t t e r s w i t h S i r W i l f r i d i n w h i c h b o t h men o u t l i n e d t h e i r v i e w s o n t h e s u b j e c t o f i n c r e a s e d r e c ; o g i t -t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h r o u g h f e d e r a l s u b s i d i e s . M c B r i d e c l a i m e d t h a t c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d b e e n m i s u n d e r s t o o d b y t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t a t t h e t i m e o f t h e P r o v i n c e ' s e n t r y i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n , a n d f u r t h e r -more t h a t t h e F a t h e r s o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n h a d n o t b e e n a b l e t o f o r e s e e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o u n t r y a n d t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d p r o d u c e . I n a d d i t i o n , h e a l w a y s m a i n t a i n e d f i r m l y t h a t t h e f i n a n c i a l t e r m s o f t h e B . N . A . A c t h a d n o t b e e n i n t e n d e d as p e r m a n e n t a n d t h a t a n y a t t e m p t t o make them s o w o u l d r e n d e r g r e a t i n j u s t i c e t o t h e p r o -38 v i n c e s . H i s v i e w o f t h e F e d e r a l U n i o n i s c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h i s s t a n d a s c a n b e r e a l i z e d f r o m h i s s t a t e m e n t t h a t : i > l M c B r i d e t o L a u r i e r , 24 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , O f f i c i a l N o . 2 , O c t o b e r , 190.3 , t o A p r i l , 1 9 0 4 , N o . 1 4 2 . L o c . c i t . 59 To m a i n t a i n i n v i o l a b l e i n s p i r i t t h e e q u i t y o f a s a c r e d c o m p a c t - - w h i c h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e f r e e , v o l u n t a r y u n i o n o f s e l f -g o v e r n i n g , r e s p o n s i b l e c o l o n i e s — w i t h a f e d -e r a l b o d y r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e w h o l e g r o u p i n c e r t a i n g o v e r n m e n t a l f u n c t i o n s , i t i s e s s e n -t i a l t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e f r o m t i m e t o t i m e — as shown t o b e n e c e s s a r y - - a n a d j u s t m e n t o f f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s c o n f o r m a b l e w i t h new o r a l t e r e d c o n d i t i o n s , gg P r o m a l e g a l a s p e c t , t h i s v i e w o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d o f c o n f e d e r a t i o n may h a v e b e e n d i s t o r t e d a n d e v e n i n c o r r e c t , b u t h i s s t r e s s o n a d j u s t m e n t t o c o n f o r m t o c h a n g i n g c o n d i -t i o n s was s t a t e s m a n l i k e a n d r e a s o n a b l e . L a u r i e r ' s r e p l y d e p r e c a t e d t h e i d e a o f s e p a r a t e a r -r a n g e m e n t s w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S i r W i l f r i d p r e f e r r e d a s y s t e m o f a u t o m a t i c a n d u n i f o r m f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n a l l t h e P r o v i n c e s a n d t h e D o m i n i o n . He d i d n o t d e n y t h a t 4 0 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c l a i m s w e r e s t r o n g . S u c h a r e s p o n s e m i g h t s e e m r e a s o n a b l e t o some b u t t o M c B r i d e i t f a i l e d t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e p e c u l i a r c o n d i -t i o n s e x i s t i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . On t h e t h e o r y o f u n i f o r m a n d a u t o m a t i c f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s , h e s a i d t o S i r W i l f r i d : 3 9 M c B r i d e t o L a u r i e r , 24 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , O f f i c i a l N o . 2 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 3 , t o A p r i l , 1 9 0 4 , N o . 1 4 2 . 4 1 L a u r i e r t o M c B r i d e , 4 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 4 , i n B . C . S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s . 1 9 0 3 - 0 4 , p . G . 2 7 . 60 I s y m p a t h i z e w i t h y o u r v i e w , b u t we a r e now d e a l i n g w i t h a s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e n o t a n d h a v e n o t b e e n u n i f o r m i n t h e i r e f f e c t , a f a c t w h i c h i s t h e p r i n c i p a l b u r d e n o f o u r c o m p l a i n t , ^ A n d , h e w e n t o n , " . . . s o l o n g a s c o n d i t i o n s d i f f e r i n p r o -4 2 v i n c e s , s o l o n g m u s t t h e i r f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s d i f f e r . " T h u s o n t h e two f a c t s , t h a t c o n d i t i o n s c h a n g e d w i t h t h e t i m e s a n d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s p o s i t i o n w o u l d a l w a y s b e u n i q u e , h e b a s e d h i s c l a i m f o r a new f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t b e t w e e n t h i s P r o v i n c e a n d t h e D o m i n i o n — a n a r r a n g e m e n t w h i c h w o u l d p r o v i d e f o r p e r i o d i c a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e f u t u r e . He c o n s i d -e r e d t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f a n i n d e p e n d e n t c o m m i s s i o n o f e n q u i r y was " a n e a r n e s t o f o u r f a i t h i n t h e b o n a f i d e s o f t h e 45 P r o v i n c i a l c o n t e n t i o n s . " H o w e v e r , no c h a n g e a p p e a r e d i n L a u r i e r ' s a t t i t u d e a n d when p r e s s u r e f r o m E a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Q u e b e c , f o r c e d h i m t o t a k e a c t i o n i n 1 9 0 6 , h e d i d s o a l o n g l i n e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s t h e o r i e s o f u n i f o r m r e l a t i o n s . He c a l l e d a c o n f e r e n c e a t O t t a w a t o b e a t t e n d e d b y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t s as g u e s t s o f t h e D o m i n i o n 4 1 M c B r i d e t o L a u r i e r , 27 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 4 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , O f f i c i a l N o . 2 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 5 , t o A p r i l , 1 9 0 4 , N o . 2 4 4 . 4 2 L o c . c i t . M c B r i d e t o L a u r i e r , 24 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 5 , i n L o c . c i t . 61 G o v e r n m e n t s . I n t h e m e a n t i m e , t h e B e t t e r Te rms q u e s t i o n became i n c r e a s i n g l y a p a r t y i s s u e . T h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p a r t y l i n e - u p on B e t t e r T e r m s must r e s t p r i m a r i l y w i t h S i r W i l f r i d , b u t M c B r i d e was b y n o means a s i n n o c e n t a s h e a l w a y s p r o t e s t e d . L a u r i e r h a d u n d e r s t a n d a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s as f e d e r a l l e a d e r i n a n y m a t t e r i n v o l v i n g s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n a p r o v i n c e a n d t h e D o m i n i o n . B u t a s h e was a L i b e r a l a n d a s t h e new p a r t y g o v e r n m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was C o n s e r v a t i v e , h e g o t b l a m e d , p r o b a b l y q u i t e u n j u s t l y , f o r w i t h h o l d i n g , f o r p a r t y r e a s o n s , r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e ! s c l a i m s . M c B r i d e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o a l t e r t h i s p i c t u r e a t a l l a n d c l a i m e d t h a t h e h a d done h i s u t m o s t t o k e e p t h e 44 i s s u e f r e e f r o m p a r t y c o n n e c t i o n s . T h i s was a c o m p l e t e m i s s t a t e m e n t . I n h i s 1 9 0 3 e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n h e w r o t e t o B o r d e n r e q u e s t i n g a s t a t e m e n t t h a t i f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s w e r e r e t u r n e d a t t h e n e x t f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n t h e y w o u l d l o o k f a v o u r -a b l y u p o n t h e c l a i m s o f a C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t i n B r i -t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r B e t t e r T e r m s . " A n o t e a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s , " he s a i d , " w i l l g r e a t l y a s s i s t us i n o u r c a m p a i g n w o r k , a n d a t t h e same t i m e , go a l o n g w a y t o w a r d s e n t h u s i n g 45 o u r p a r t y f o r t h e f o r t h c o m i n g f e d e r a l b a t t l e . " B o r d e n , M c B r i d e t o L a u r i e r , 27 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 3 , i n L o c . c i t . 4 5 M c B r i d e t o B o r d e n , 24 J u n e , 1 9 0 3 , P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , P r i v a t e , v o l . 3 , D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , t o M a r c h , 1 9 0 4 . 62 o f c o u r s e , b e i n g a f e d e r a l f i g u r e , h a d t h e same d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s p r o b l e m a s L a u r i e r . P o r p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s h e c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o c o m m i t h i m s e l f t o a p o l i c y o f s p e c i a l t r e a t -ment f o r a n y one p r o v i n c e . He h a d t o r e f u s e M c B r i d e ' s r e -q u e s t . I n J a n u a r y 1 9 0 4 , M c B r i d e b r o u g h t u p t h e t o p i c a g a i n when h e was c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h B o r d e n o n t h e f o r t h c o m i n g f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . He e m p h a s i z e d t h a t " w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f r o m o u r E a s t e r n f r i e n d s ( m e a n i n g some hope f o r B e t t e r T e r m s ) , i t w i l l b e a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o r e d e e m t h e f a r 46 W e s t . " M c B r i d e was p r o v e d r i g h t when t h e p r o v i n c e s e n t s e v e n L i b e r a l s t o O t t a w a t h a t y e a r , b u t h e c a n n o t b e s a i d t o h a v e d o n e h i s u t m o s t t o k e e p B e t t e r Terms f r e e f r o m p o l i t i c s . I n d e e d f r o m t h e t i m e o f h i s d e f i n i t e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e c a u s e i n t h e p r o v i n c e , h e p l a y e d a d o u b l e game i n t h i s r e s p e c t . T h r o u g h B o r d e n , h e d i d a l l h e c o u l d t o a s s o c i a t e B e t t e r Te rms w i t h t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y , a n d , when he f a i l e d , h e t u r n e d t o S i r W i l f r i d v / i t h l o u d p r o -t e s t a t i o n s a b o u t k e e p i n g t h i s m a t t e r f r e e f r o m p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h e B e t t e r T e r m s c a s e r e m a i n e d somewhat - i n t h e b a c k -g r o u n d d u r i n g 1 9 0 5 , b u t . i n 1 9 0 6 , I t came t o a c l i m a x when L a u r i e r c a l l e d t h e c o n f e r e n c e a t O t t a w a o n d o m i n i o n - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s . T h e P r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t t e n d e d t h i s c o n f e r e n c e a s t h e o n l y o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h i s p r o v i n c e , * ° M c B r i d e t o B o r d e n , 23 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 4 , P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , P r i v a t e , v o l . 3 , D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , t o M a r c h , 1 9 0 4 . 63 b u t h e h a d h a d h i s c a s e w e l l p r e p a r e d f o r h i m b y h i s p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y , R . E . G o s n e l l , a n d a C o n s e r v a t i v e s u p p o x ' t e r i n V a n c o u v e r , G e o . H . C o w a n , a n d h e p r e s e n t e d i t s o f o r c e f u l l y a n d e f f e c t i v e l y t h a t C a s t e l l H o p k i n s c a l l e d h i m t h e m o s t 4 7 s t r i k i n g f i g u r e p r e s e n t . He s c o r e d a n i n i t i a l s u c c e s s w h e n , a f t e r t h e 1902 r e s o l u t i o n s h a d b e e n u n a n i m o u s l y c a r -r i e d , h e s e c u r e d t h e p a s s a g e o f a p r o v i s o t h a t a l l o w e d s p e c i a l c l a i m s f o r p r o v i n c e s ( s u c h a s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) w h e r e 48 u n i q u e c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n e d . T h i s s u c c e s s d i d n o t c o n t i n u e , f o r L a u r i e r h a d a m a j -o r i t y o f t h e d e l e g a t e s u n d e r h i s c o n t r o l — h o w s t r i c t one c a n o n l y g u e s s — b e c a u s e s i x o u t o f n i n e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s w e r e L i b e r a l i n 1 9 0 6 , a n d t h u s t h e i r d e l e g a t e s l o o k e d t o L a u r i e r as t h e i r p o l i t i c a l b o s s . M c B r i d e was r e d u c e d t o m a k i n g t h e b e s t c a s e he c o u l d a n d s t a n d i n g u p f o r w h a t he c o n s i d e r e d t h e r i g h t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . He c o u l d h o p e f o r l i t t l e r e a l s u c c e s s . T h u s when L a u r i e r s u g g e s t e d a c o m -p r o m i s e i n w h i c h t h e p r o v i n c e s w o u l d s u r r e n d e r c e r t a i n r i g h t s , s u c h a s t h e r i g h t o f i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f c o m p a n i e s , i n r e t u r n f o r i n c r e a s e d s u b s i d i e s , M c B r i d e r e f u s e d o n t h e g r o u n d s 4 7 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w . 1 9 0 6 , p . 5 2 0 , 48 E v e n t h e a n t i - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n V a n c o u v e r W o r l d p r a i s e d M c B r i d e f o r t h i s a u s p i c i o u s b e g i n n i n g . " B . C . W i n s a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e , " W o r l d , 1 0 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 6 . 64 49 t h a t h e came f o r j u s t i c e a n d n o t t o make a d e a l . I n t h e e n d , t h e c a s e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d e p e n d e d o n t h e a c t i o n o f Q u e b e c , f o r t h a t p r o v i n c e was a l s o i n n e e d o f a n i n c r e a s e d s u b s i d y . S i r L o m e r G o u i n , c h i e f Q u e -b e c d e l e g a t e a n d c h a i r m a n o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e , f e l t t h a t s h o u l d a s i n g l e p r o v i n c e o b j e c t t o a n y o f t h e p r o p o s e d amendments t o t h e B . N . A . A c t I t m i g h t j e o p a r d i z e t h e c h a n c e s o f t h e 50 l e g i s l a t i o n b e i n g p r o c u r e d f r o m t h e i m p e r i a l p a r l i a m e n t . T h u s i t was h o p e d t h a t M c B r i d e c o u l d b e p e r s u a d e d t o r e m a i n i n t h e c o n f e r e n c e i n r e t u r n f o r some o f f e r l e s s t h a n what h e w a n t e d . He was o f f e r e d $ 7 5 0 , 0 0 0 i n f u l l l i q u i d a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s a d d i t i o n a l c l a i m s a n d when h e r e f u s e d t h i s , t h e sum was r a i s e d t o $ 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n i n s t a l m e n t s o f $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 p e r a n n u m . T h i s h e a l s o r e f u s e d as b e i n g " s i m p l y a b s u r d , " a n d r e v e a l i n g i n a b i l i t y o r r e f u s a l t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s p e c i a l c l a i m s o f t h e P r o v i n c e . A f t e r r e f u s i n g L a u r i e r ' s f i n a l o f f e r , M c B r i d e h a n d e d h i s t e r m s t o t h e c h a i r m a n a n d w a l k s d o u t o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e . I n h i s a b s e n c e , t h e p r o v i n c e 51 was g r a n t e d t h e " a b s u r d " $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 p e r annum f o r t e n y e a r s . 4 9 " L a u r i e r S u g g e s t s a C o m p r o m i s e , " V i c t o r i a D a i l y  C o l o n i s t , 11 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 6 . 50 " p r e m i e r R e j e c t s t h e C o m p r o m i s e , " V i c t o r i a D a i l y  C o l o n i s t , 14 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 6 . 5 1 C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , H o u s e o f Commons , S e s s i o n a l  P a p e r s , 1 9 0 6 - 0 7 , N o . 2 9 - A , M i n u t e s o f t h e P r o c e e d i n g s i n C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f C a n a d a a n d o f t h e P r o v i n c e s , a t O t t a w a , i n O c t o b e r 1 9 0 6 . 65 T h e t e r m s w h i c h h e was a s k i n g f o r a r e i n t e r e s t i n g . He w a n t e d a p e r c a p i t a a r r a n g e m e n t on a s l i d i n g s c a l e as f o l l o w s : One d o l l a r p e r h e a d u n t i l t h e amount r e a c h e s $ 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 , t o r e m a i n f i x e d u n t i l t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 ; 75 c e n t s p e r h e a d o f t h e p o p u l a -t i o n t h e r e a f t e r u n t i l t h e amount r e a c h e s $ 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 p e r a n n u m , t o r e m a i n f i x e d u n t i l t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 ; 50 c e n t s p e r h e a d o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e a f t e r u n t i l t h e amount r e a c h e s $ 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 , t o r e m a i n f i x e d u n t i l t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 ; 3 3 1 / 3 c e n t s p e r h e a d t h e r e a f t e r u n t i l t h e amount r e a c h e s $ 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 , t o r e m a i n f i x e d u n t i l t h e p o p u l a t i o n I s 2 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 ; 25 c e n t s p e r h e a d o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e a f t e r , g P T h i s was t o h e t h e a l l o w a n c e " o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e g e n e r a l 53 b a s i s o f 1 9 0 2 . " P r o m t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t we w o u l d b e o b t a i n i n g $ 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 p e r annum t o d a y — a r i d i c u l o u s sum when t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n f r o m o u r p r e s e n t t a x r e n t a l scheme i s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . I t was r e p o r t e d a f e w months ago t h a t P r e m i e r B e n n e t t i n t e n d e d t o a p p r o a c h t h e S t . L a u r e n t g o v e r n m e n t j u s t b e f o r e i t w e n t t o t h e p e o p l e , w i t h a p r o t e s t t h a t " F o r t y - o n e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a y e a r i s i n a d e q u a t e a n d u n f a i r as r e n t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n t o B . C . u n d e r t h e O t t a w a t a x a t i o n a g r e e m e n t . The j u s t f i g u r e 54 s h o u l d b e $90 t o $ 1 0 0 m i l l i o n . " One w o n d e r s what M c B r i d e 5 2 P r e m i e r R e j e c t s t h e C o m p r o m i s e , " C o l o n i s t , 14 O c t -o b e r , 1 9 0 6 . 5 3 M T h e C a s e f o r B . C . H i n g e s o n Q u e b e c , " C o l o n i s t , 13 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 6 . 5 4 R o y W. B r o w n , " B . C . S e e k s D o u b l e T a x G r a n t , " V a n c o u v e r S u n , 21 J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 3 . C h a m p i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e I n t h e B e t t e r Te rms F i g h t T h e W e e k , 19 J a n u a r y , 1907 w o u l d s a y — I f , I n d e e d , h e c o u l d a d j u s t h i m s e l f t o c a l c u l -a t i n g o n s u c h a s c a l e . B u t i n 1 9 0 6 , f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s w e r e s t i l l o n a h u m b l e r l e v e l , a n d M c B r i d e f o u n d t h a t b y t u r n i n g down L a u r i e r ' s m i l l i o n a n d w a l k i n g o u t o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e h e h a d become t h e h e r o o f , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A p p r o v i n g c r o w d s , w h i c h a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n n o n - p a r t i s a n f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , g r e e t e d h i s t r a i n f r o m R e v e l s t o k e t o V a n c o u v e r . I n V i c t o r i a t h e r e was b a n d 55 m u s i c a n d a b a n q u e t . T h e p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d a d m i r e d t h e i r P r e m i e r f o r t h e f o r t h r i g h t p r e s e n t a t i o n h e h a d g i v e n t o t h e c a s e f o r t h e P r o v i n c e , a n d t h i s a d m i r a t i o n i n -c r e a s e d w h e n , b y h i s w a l k - o u t , he r e f u s e d t o be p a r t y t o a n a g r e e m e n t d e t r i m e n t a l t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t e r e s t s . T h i s was n o t t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t s t i c k i n g t o a p r i n c i p l e h a d b r o u g h t R i c h a r d M c B r i d e f a m e a n d p o p u l a r i t y . As t h e y e a r 1906 drew t o a c l o s e , e l e c t i o n r u m o u r s f l o o d e d t h e p r o v i n c e . T h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d b e e n a t t a c k e d f o r i t s l a n d d e a l 3 w i t h t h e r a i l w a y c o m p a n i e s a n d i t was f e l t t h a t M c B r i d e i n t e n d e d t o g o t o t h e p e o p l e f o r a n e x p r e s s i o n o f c o n f i d e n c e . B u t t h a t i s a n o t h e r s t o r y , a n d i t i s s u f -f i c i e n t t o n o t e h e r e t h a t , as t h e p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 55 t » y i r 0 i c o m e M » B r i d e , " N e l s o n N e w s , 27 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 6 , a n d " C i t i z e n s W a r m l y Welcome P r e m i e r M c B r i d e , " C o l o n i s t , 27 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 6 . -67 p r e p a r e d t o r e v e a l t h e i r o p i n i o n s on t h e r e c o r d o f t h e " f i r s t C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t t h a t B . C . e v e r h a d , " two f a c t o r s s t o o d o u t i n t h e i r m i n d s . M c B r i d e ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e p e r s o n o f T a t l o w , h a d g i v e n h o n e s t , c a u t i o u s a n d e c o n o m i c a l g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h h a d s u c c e e d e d i n p r o d u c i n g f i n a n c i a l s o l v e n c y ; a n d t h e P r e m i e r h i m s e l f h a d n o b l y c h a m p i o n e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l c a u s e a g a i n s t t h e f e d e r a l m o n s t e r a n d i t s p u p p e t s , t h e E a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . " E c o n o m y w i t h e f f i c i e n c y " a n d " f i g h t O t t a w a , " s l o g a n s o f 1953 a n d 1 8 7 8 , w e r e c o m b i n e d i n d e e d s a n d t h o u g h t s , i f n o t i n w o r d s , i n t h e c l o s i n g months o f t h e f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f H i c h a r d M c B r i d e . CHAPTER I V RAIDVAY A F F A I R S AND THE E L E C T I O N OF 1907 A s e l e c t i o n p l a n s g o t u n d e r w a y a t t h e e n d o f 1906 a n d t h e p e o p l e o f t h e p r o v i n c e c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e c o r d o f t h e i r f i r s t C o n s e r v a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e y seem t o h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d d o u b t a n d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o v e r o n l y o n e m a j o r g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y — t h a t c o n n e c t e d w i t h r a i l w a y s . T h e i n c r e a s i n g r e t u r n o f p r o s p e r i t y I n 1 9 0 6 , a l t h o u g h i n t h e l o n g r u n i t w o r k e d t o t h e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t , d i d i n i t s e a r l y s t a g e s p r o v o k e a g e n e r a l d e s i r e f o r f a s t e r d e v e l o p m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y b y means o f r a i l w a y s . T h i s d e -s i r e was most o b v i o u s l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c o n t i n u a l c r i t i -c i s m i n t h e O p p o s i t i o n p r e s s , and I n t h e H o u s e , o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s f a i l u r e t o b r i n g down a s t r o n g r a i l w a y p o l i c y . A d d e d t o t h i s g e n e r a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was t h e s c a n d a l w h i c h h a d a r i s e n i n b o t h t h o s e r a i l w a y " a f f a i r s ' * i n w h i c h t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e p a r t . T h u s , i t was i n t h o s e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h r a i l w a y c o m p a n i e s w h i c h t h e y t r i e d t o a v o i d , a n d i n t h o s e w h i c h t h e y c o u l d n o t a v o i d , t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t a r o u s e d s u f f i c i e n t c r i t i c i s m t o make a n a p p e a l t o t h e p e o p l e seem n e c e s s a r y b y t h e e n d o f 1 9 0 6 , o r a s i t t u r n e d o u t , e a r l y 1 9 0 7 . I t seems e n t i r e l y p r o b a b l e t h a t M c B r i d e f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was i n f a v o u r o f r a i l w a y 69 l e g i s l a t i o n b e c a u s e he was a man who d e l i g h t e d i n m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s a n d l i k e d n o t h i n g b e t t e r t h a n p l a n n i n g new p r o -v i n c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s a n d h e a r i n g t h a t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n o r c o n s t r u c t i o n was u n d e r w a y . T h u s we f i n d h i m w r i t i n g t o B u r r e l l i n M a r c h , 1 9 0 4 , b e f o r e h e h a d b e e n i n p o w e r a y e a r , t h a t : I am d o i n g my b e s t t o w o r k o u t a p r o g r a m t h a t w i l l mean r a i l w a y s - a n d i f i t i s a t a l l p o s s i b l e , I w i l l p r e s e n t t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e a t t h e e a r -l i e s t moment a scheme t h a t w i l l commend i t s e l f t o t h e w h o l e P r o v i n c e . H o w e v e r , i f M c B r i d e e v e r p r o d u c e d s u c h a s c h e m e , i t w a s u n -d o u b t e d l y s t o p p e d n o t o n l y b y a d v e r s e e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , f o r w h i c h h e n e v e r h a d t o o much r e s p e c t , b u t a l s o b y t h e s t u b b o r n T a t l o w , t h e man c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e m e d y i n g t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s . T a t l o w knew t h a t i t was e s s e n t i a l t o f o r -g e t g r a n d i o s e schemes f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g a n d he h a d t h r e a t -e n e d t o r e s i g n i f a n y w e r e u n d e r t a k e n . M c B r i d e o n c e r e -m a r k e d t h a t h e h a d a d r a w e r f u l l o f l e t t e r s o f r e s i g n a t i o n 2 f r o m T a t l o w — i t was p r o b a b l y i n t h e l e a n y e a r s o f r e t r e n c h -ment t h a t t h e s e w e r e h a n d e d I n , a n d , h a v i n g h a d t h e i r d e t e r r i n g e f f e c t , w e r e a l l o w e d t o r e m a i n u n f u l f i l l e d . x M c B r i d e t o M a r t i n B u r r e l l , 2 M a r c h , 1 9 0 4 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , P r i v a t e , v o l . 3 , D e c e m b e r 1 9 0 3 , t o M a r c h , 1 9 0 4 . 2 R. E . G o s n e l l , " S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " A r t i c l e N o . 2 , V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 23 J u l y , 1 9 2 1 . 70 B u t i t was n o t o n l y T a t l o w ' s s t a n d t h a t made i t d i f -f i c u l t f o r M c B r i d e t o b r i n g i n new r a i l w a y s c h e m e s , f o r t h e P r e m i e r m u s t h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d g e n u i n e d i f f i c u l t y i n t r y i n g t o e v o l v e some s a t i s f a c t o r y s c h e m e t o a t t r a c t r a i l w a y s . He h a d s a i d i n 1901 t h a t h e d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t g o v e r n m e n t 3 m a n a g e d r a i l w a y s w e r e a s u c c e s s . U n d o u b t e d l y h e s t i l l h e l d t h i s v i e w i n 1 9 0 4 , a n d i t f o r c e d h i m t o t h e o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e o f m a k i n g i t w o r t h t h e w h i l e o f e x i s t i n g r a i l w a y c o m p a n i e s t o u n d e r t a k e t h e e n o r m o u s c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i n g l i n e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . T h e t i m e w o r n ( a n d w o r n o u t ) m e t h o d o f l u r i n g r a i l w a y c o m p a n i e s was t o o f f e r l a n d g r a n t s , b u t a s M c B r i d e r e m a r k e d many t i m e s i n e x p l a i n i n g h i s d e l a y , t h e s e l a n d g r a n t s h a d b e e n made t o o o f t e n i n t h e p a s t f o r mere p a p e r r a i l w a y s t h a t h a d . n e v e r b e n e f i t t e d t h e p r o v i n c e one w h i t a n d h a d o n l y s e r v e d t o a l i e n a t e some o f i t s b e s t l a n d . The p e o p l e w o u l d n o t t o l e r a t e l a n d g r a n t s . A n d c a s h g r a n t s w o u l d n e v e r r e -c e i v e t h e a p p r o v a l o f T a t l o w e v e n i f i n t h o s e t i g h t d a y s t h e money c o u l d h a v e b e e n g a t h e r e d . N o t f o r n o t h i n g , t h e r e f o r e , d i d t h e C r a n b r o o k H e r a l d r e m a r k i n 1905 t h a t : I f t h e M c B r i d e g o v e r n m e n t , o r a n y o t h e r g o v e r n -ment a t t e m p t s t o g i v e l a n d o r c a s h s u b s i d i e s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r a i l w a y s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e t h e y w i l l h e a r a h o w l t h a t w i l l b e h e a r d f r o m C r o w ' s N e s t t o V i c t o r i a . A ° R e p o r t o f s p e e c h made i n L e g i s l a t u r e b y M c B r i d e w h i l e he was a member o f t h e D u n s m u i r m i n i s t r y — i n V a n c o u v e r  D a i l y W o r l d , 2 7 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 1 . C r a n b r o o k H e r a l d , 16 M a r c h , 1 9 0 5 . 71 M c B r i d e knew t h e t r u t h o f t h i s w a r n i n g a n d e x h i b i t e d h i s f i n e s e n s e o f p o l i t i c a l e x p e d i e n c y r a t h e r t h a n a n y r e a l c o n s e r v a t i s m when he r e f r a i n e d f r o m b r i n g i n g i n r a i l w a y l e g i s l a t i o n . B u t when e v e n C o n s e r v a t i v e s c o m p l a i n e d b e -5 c a u s e t h e r e was " n o t h i n g d o i n g " o n r a i l w a y m a t t e r s , M c B r i d e must h a v e f e l t more k e e n l y f r u s t r a t e d t h a n e v e r . T a t l o w a n d some o t h e r s , P u l t o n among t h e m , f e l t t h a t t h e r a i l w a y c o m p a n i e s w o u l d come i n o f t h e i r own a c c o r d a n d w i t h o u t e x t r a emolument o r g u a r a n t e e i f t h e g o v e r n m e n t o n l y h a d p a t i e n c e . B u t t h e p e o p l e d i d n o t h a v e s u c h p a t i e n c e a n d i n t h e e n d , o f c o u r s e , M c B r i d e ' s s y m p a t h y w i t h t h e i r e x u b e r a n c e r e s u l t e d i n a r a i l w a y p o l i c y w h i c h c o s t h i m 6 T a t l o w a n d P u l t o n b u t g a i n e d h i m a n o t h e r t w e l v e s e a t s . B u t d u r i n g M c B r i d e ' s , f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n n o new r a i l w a y s c h e m e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e e v e r r e a c h e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a g e . I t i s t r u e t h a t M c B r i d e e n t e r e d i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h James D u n s m u i r w i t h a v i e w t o g o v e r n m e n t p u r c h a s e o f t h e E s q u i m a l t a n d N a n a i m o R a i l w a y , o f w h i c h D u n s m u i r was t h e o w n e r . B u t t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s came t o n o u g h t when D u n s -l«ine.nal m u i r i n s i s t e d o n a r e s e r v a t i o n o f E S & S B S B L r i g h t s a n d 5 M c B r i d e t o B o w s e r , 20 M a y , 1 9 0 4 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , P r i v a t e # 4 , M a r c h t o J u n e , 1 9 0 4 . 6 I n 1 9 0 9 . 7 a s k e d t o o h i g h a p r i c e i n v i e w o f t h i s r e s e r v a t i o n . I n 1 9 0 5 , t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c H a l l w a y C o m p a n y , h a v i n g more money a v a i l a b l e t h a n t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t , came t o a n a g r e e m e n t 8 w i t h D u n s m u i r . T h e t r a n s f e r was a n n o u n c e d i n J u n e . I t may a l s o b e t r u e t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t e n t e r e d i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h J a m e s J . H i l l who h a d r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d t h e V i c t o r i a , V a n c o u v e r a n d E a s t e r n R a i l w a y , w i t h t h e i n -t e n t i o n o f p e r s u a d i n g t h e G r e a t N o r t h e r n m a g n a t e t o e x t e n d t h e l i n e s o f t h e V . V . & E . i n t o t h e I n t e r i o r o f t h e P r o v i n c e t o f o r m t h e C o a s t - K o o t e n a y l i n k s o much d e s i r e d b y I n t e r i o r r e s i d e n t s . I n t h e F e d e r a l H o u s e , H i l l ' s a c t i v i t i e s a n d i n -t e n t i o n s w e r e h o t l y d e b a t e d as i l l - c o n c e a l e d e c o n o m i c a n n e x a -t i o n i s m , o r a w o r t h y b l o w t o t h e C . P . R . m o n o p o l y , d e p e n d i n g o n w h e t h e r o n e was T o r y o r L i b e r a l r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e i s s u e n e v e r r e a c h e d s u c h p r o p o r t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e m a i n p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e a f f a i r d i s a p p e a r e d when M c B r i d e f a i l e d t o c o m e , t o a n y s a t i s f a c t o r y a g r e e m e n t w i t h H i l l . I n r e a l i t y , t h e m a t t e r o f b r i n g i n g r a i l w a y l e g i s l a t i o n I n t o t h e H o u s e d e p e n d e d o n t h e P r e m i e r ' s a s s u r a n c e o f h i s s l i m g o v e r n m e n t m a j o r i t y . W h e n , i n M a r c h 1 9 0 5 , M c B r i d e a p -p e a r s t o h a v e c o n s i d e r e d a r a i l w a y b i l l , h e h i r e d a n o p e r -a t i v e o f t h e P i n k e r t o n N a t i o n a l D e t e c t i v e A g e n c y t o f i n d o u t M c B r i d e . t o James D u n s m u i r , 23 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 4 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , P r i v a t e N o . 3 , D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , t o M a r c h , 1 9 0 4 . g J . C a s t e l l H o p k i n s , T h e C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w o f  P u b l i c A f f a i r s . ( 1 9 0 5 ) . T o r o n t o , A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 6 , p . 5 4 7 . t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t e r s c o u l d be r e l i e d u p o n . I n t h e " C a s e o f I n v e s t i g a t i n g L e g i s l a t o r s " t h i s o p e r a t i v e m u s t h a v e g i v e n M c B r i d e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t e r s w e r e s p l i t , a n d i t m u s t h a v e b e e n o n t h e b a s i s o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e P r e m i e r f i n a l l y d e -9 e l d e d n o t t o b r i n g i n a r a i l w a y b i l l . B u t w h i l e M c B r i d e w a s , i n one w a y o r . a n o t h e r , p r e -v e n t e d f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g f r o m e m b a r k i n g on a v i g o r o u s r a i l -way p o l i c y , he c o u l d n o t a v o i d d e a l i n g w i t h a r a i l w a y a f f a i r w h i c h h e h a d i n h e r i t e d f r o m P r i o r ' s g o v e r n m e n t , t h e d i s p u t e o v e r l a n d g r a n t s t o t h e C o l u m b i a , a n d W e s t e r n R a i l w a y ( a s u b -s i d i a r y o f t h e C . P . R . ) . T h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n h a d b e e n a l l o t t e d a b e l t o f l a n d c o n t i g u o u s w i t h t h e i n t e n d e d l i n e b y i t s S u b s i d y A c t o f • 1 8 9 6 . T h i s l o n g s t r i p a m o u n t e d t o a n a r e a o f f o u r a n d o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n a c r e s a n d was a r e -s e r v e w i t h i n w h i c h t h e c o m p a n y h a d t h e r i g h t t o c h o o s e b l o c k s w h i c h w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e i t s l a n d s u b s i d y . H o w e v e r , t h e c o m p a n y h a d t w i c e made e f f o r t s t o o b t a i n two i s o l a t e d b l o c k s o f l a n d i n t h e K o o t e n a y d i s t r i c t d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e l a n d s w e r e n o t I n t h e i r o r i g i n a l r e s e r v e . I n f a c t , h a d t h e s e K o o t e n a y b l o c k s n o t b e e n s u p p o s e d t o c o n t a i n y S e e t h e P i n k e r t o n r e p o r t s i n " t h e c a s e o f i n v e s t i -g a t i n g l e g i s l a t o r s " f r o m 17 M a r c h t o 1 A p r i l , 1 9 0 5 , i n M i s c e l l a n e o u s P a p e r s i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f M r s . M. F . M a c i n t o s h . p e t r o l e u m a n d c o a l d e p o s i t s , t h e a t t e m p t t o o b t a i n them 10 w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n w o r t h w h i l e . T h e s e a t t e m p t s w e r e u n s u c c e s s f u l , h o w e v e r , a n d as a r e s u l t t h e Company h a d r e s o l v e d o n a new r e q u e s t , f o r l a n d s i n t h e o r i g i n a l r e s -e r v e , b y t h e t i m e o f M c B r i d e ' s e s t a b l i s h m e n t I n p o w e r . O b j e c t i o n s t o a g o v e r n m e n t g r a n t t o t h e Company o f l a n d s i n t h i s r e s e r v e w e r e b a s e d o n r e a s o n s b o t h e m o t i o n a l a n d l e g a l . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , p e o p l e w e r e d i s g u s t e d w i t h t h e w h o l e l a n d s u b s i d y s y s t e m a n d t h i s f a c t c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e f e e l i n g a g a i n s t t h e C . P . R . n e a r m o n o p o l y a n d t h e l o c a l -irr\ taction i z e d (1111 Ii 1 IliHTTTil) c a u s e d b y new s u r v e y i n g a n d l a n d c l a i m s , t o p r o d u c e a d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n some d i s t r i c t s t h a t n o more l a n d s h o u l d b e g r a n t e d u n l e s s i t was u n a v o i d a b l e . A n d , i n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e , i t was n o t u n a v o i d a b l e . U n d e r s e c t i o n 5 o f t h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n S u b s i d y A c t , i t was s t a t e d t h a t o n l y l a n d s u r v e y e d w i t h i n s e v e n y e a r s o f t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e A c t c o u l d b e c l a i m e d b y t h e C o m p a n y . T h e s e v e n y e a r p e r i o d h a d e x p i r e d i n 1905 a n d o n l y t h e m o s t v a g u e a n d h a p -h a z a r d s u r v e y i n g h a d b e e n u n d e r t a k e n i n r e s p e c t o f t h i s new 11 c l a i m b y t h e m . T h e O p p o s i t i o n s t o u t l y o p p o s e d t h e c l a i m s o f t h e C o m -p a n y , a n d i n t h e p e r s o n o f S m i t h C u r t i s , n o l o n g e r M . P . P . 1 0 P . W . H o w a y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e E a r l i e s t T i m e s  t o t h e P r e s e n t , V a n c o u v e r , S . J . C l a r k e , 1 9 1 4 , p . 5 2 2 . 1 1 S e e S m i t h C u r t i s t o S i r H e n r i G . J o l y de L o t -b i n i e r e , 7 A p r i l , 1 9 0 5 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 75 b u t s t i l l a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l l y , t h e y e v e n a p p r o a c h e d S i r H e n r i J o l y t o i n f l u e n c e h i m . C u r t i s wrote to t h e L i e u t -G o v e r n o r s t r e s s i n g a l l t h e l e g a l a n g l e s o f t h e c a s e a n d i m p l o r i n g h i m t o w i t h h o l d h i s s i g n a t u r e f r o m a n y o r d e r - i n -c o u n c i l a u t h o r i z i n g a g r a n t o f t h i s n a t u r e t o t h e C o l u m b i a 12 a n d W e s t e r n . T h e g o v e r n m e n t d o e s n o t s e e m t o h a v e a r g u e d f o r a n y l e g a l r i g h t - - t h e y p l a c e d most o f t h e i r c l a i m u n d e r m o r a l r i g h t . T h e Company c l a i m e d t h a t t h e d e l a y i n s u r v e y -i n g w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d a f a i l u r e t o l i v e u p t o t h e t e r m s o f t h e o r i g i n a l A c t was c a u s e d b y t h e c o n f u s i o n o v e r c l a i m s t o t h e K o o t e n a y b l o c k s . T h e g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t e d t h i s a s -s e r t i o n a n d t h e P r e m i e r a d d e d t h a t e v e n t h e r e m a i n i n g s e c t -i o n o f t h e l i n e w o u l d h a v e b e e n b u i l t b u t f o r t h e c h a o t i c c h a n g e s i n p o l i c y o f t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s o f p e r s o n a l g o v e r n -m e n t . A l s o , M c B r i d e t o l d t h e H o u s e t h a t " t h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n h a d b e e n o f immense s e r v i c e t o t h e B o u n d a r y c o u n t r y a n d d e s e r v e d i t s s u b s i d y o n e v e r y g r o u n d o f e q u i t y a n d 13 j u s t i c e . " Why t h e P r e m i e r h a d c h o s e n t o t a k e t h i s s t a n d i s n o t a b s o l u t e l y , c l e a r . He d e n i e d t h a t h e was " a c r e a t u r e o f t h e C . P . R . " a n d c i t e d t h e h e a v y r a i l w a y t a x a t i o n a s 14 p r o o f . A n d y e t h e was i n c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e 1 2 S e e S m i t h C u r t i s t o S i r H e n r i G . J o l y de L o t b i n -i e r e , 7 A p r i l , 1 9 0 5 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 1 3 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 6 , p . 4 9 1 . IA. L o c . c i t . C . P . R . t h r o u g h o u t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n p r o b l e m . T h e t r u t h ; o f t h e m a t t e r p r o b a b l y h a n g s o n t h e o r i g i n a l o p p o s i t i o n o f C . P . R . i n t e r e s t s t o t h e M c -15 B r i d e g o v e r n m e n t ( a s c l a i m e d b y G o s n e l l ) a n d i n v o l v e d y e t a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r t h e l a c k o f r a i l w a y l e g i s l a t i o n , e s p -e c i a l l y w h e r e t h e V . V . & E . was c o n c e r n e d . M c B r i d e t a l k e d p u b l i c l y a s i f h e w e r e g o i n g t o b r i n g down V . V . & E . l e g i s -l a t i o n i n 1 9 0 5 , a n d y e t t h e s e c r e t s e r v i c e r e p o r t s show t h a t e v e n c a u c u s members, t h o u g h t t h e P r e m i e r a C . P . R . m a n , a t l e a s t a t t h e t i m e . T h u s we may a s s u m e t h a t M c B r i d e ' s p r o - V . V . & E . t a l k w a s , c a l c u l a t e d t o woo t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s d a n g e r o u s s p l i n t e r g r o u p , r e p o r t e d b y t h e s e c r e t s e r v i c e ... o p e r a t i v e as i n c l u d i n g B o w s e r , R o s s , M c G o w a n , § S s s s 3 E & , 16 P r a z i e r , a n d W r i g h t ; a l l men i n f a v o u r o f t h e V . V . & E . , a n d two o f t h e m , B o w s e r a n d McGowan f r o m t h e p o w e r f u l V a n -c o u v e r p a r t y g r o u p . H o w e v e r , i f M c B r i d e e v e r d i d b r i n g down V . V . & E . l e g i s l a t i o n h e c o u l d f u r t h e r a l i e n a t e t h e C . P . R . , a n d , a p a r t f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t as a C o n s e r v a t i v e h i s t r a d i t i o n a l a l l i e s w e r e t h e C . P . R . , h e n e e d e d t h e i r s u p p o r t i f h e h o p e d t o p u t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on a more f i r m f o u n d a t i o n . A C . P . R . c a n d i d a t e was a n i m p o r t a n t man i n many 1 5 G o s n e l l , " S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " A r t i c l e N o . 2 , V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 1 6 R e p o r t o f A g e n t N o . 2 , M a r c h 2 9 , 1 9 0 5 , i n P i n k e r -t o n r e p o r t s ( 1 9 0 5 ) , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 77 u p - . c o . u n t r y r i d i n g s a t e l e c t i o n t i m e . T h u s M c B r i d e ' s c o u r s e w a s , i f n o t a c t u a l l y t o t u r n down J . J . H i l l , a t l e a s t t o g a i n t h e s u p p o r t o f S i r Thomas S h a u g h n e s s y , P r e s i d e n t o f -t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y C o m p a n y . I n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r t h i s e n d , h e d e c i d e d t o f a v o u r t h e l a n d g r a n t t o t h e C o l u m -b i a a n d W e s t e r n . A c r i s i s was r e a c h e d i n t h e 1906 s e s s i o n a n d f o r a t i m e t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t m u s t h a v e b e e n v e r y u n s t a b l e . S h a u g h n e s s y , a n d J . S » D e n n i s , h i s l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , s e e m t o h a v e t r i e d t o f o r c e M c B r i d e ' s h a n d u n t i l he r e m i n d e d t h e m t h a t a d e f e a t o f h i s g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d mean t r i u m p h f o r t h e a n t i - C . P . R . L i b e r a l s . T h e n D e n n i s w i r e d S h a u g h n e s s y h a s t i l y a n d f u l l y a n d r e c e i v e d a r e p l y t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t r e c o g n i s e d t h e c o n d i t i o n a n d was u n w i l l -i n g t o do a n y t h i n g t h a t m i g h t p r e c i p i t a t e a c r i s i s . . . " P r o v i d e d o u r u n q u e s t i o n e d r i g h t t o t h e g r a n t n o t p r e -. 17 = j u d i c e d . " T h e n , w i t h S i r Thomas u n d e r c o n t r o l a n d a c a r e f u l P i n k e r t o n eye o n a l l m e m b e r s , M c B r i d e g i n p r l y p u t t h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n G r a n t t o a v o t e w i r i n g S h a u g h n e s s y a s f o l l o w s : . C . a n d W. b i l l i n t r o d u c e d t o d a y t a x a b i l i t y o f g r a n t t o d a t e f r o m O c t o b e r 1901 D e n n i s s t r o n g l y p r o t e s t s Have c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d s i t u a t i o n . W i r e . - S h a u g h n e s s y t o D e n n i s , 4 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 6 ; a l s o l e t t e r s : M c B r i d e t o S h a u g h n e s s y , u n d a t e d , a n d D e n n i s t o M c B r i d e , a p e n c i l l e d n o t e , a l s o u n d a t e d , a l l i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 78 I f m e a s u r e t o b e c a r r i e d a t a l l m u s t be t h i s s e s s i o n a n d as i n t r o d u c e d . I f d e f e a t e d am p r e p a r e d a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , H o w e v e r , h e was n o t d e f e a t e d a n d a n A c t was, p a s s e d t h e r e b y t o e n a b l e t h e Company t o s e l e c t t h e r e m a i n i n g l a n d s w h i c h i t was o w e d . A s a r e s u l t , i m m e d i a t e l y a t t h e e n d o f t h e s e s s i o n , came t h e s u r p r i s e a n n o u n c e m e n t o f t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s r e s i g n a t i o n . T h i s was n o s u r p r i s e t o M c B r i d e b u t m e r e l y t h e f i n a l r e l e a s e f r o m . o n e o f • t h e many t r o u b l e s a b o u t w h i c h o v e r some months he h a d s a i d n o t h i n g . W i l s o n ' s r e s i g n a t -i o n was b y n o means h a s t y o r a m a t t e r o f t h e m o m e n t , b u t h a d a l o n g c o n n e c t i o n w i t h g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y , . p a r t i c u l a r l y o v e r t h e g r a n t t o t h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n . I n J u l y 1 9 0 5 , W i l s o n h a d c o m p l a i n e d t o t h e P r e m i e r t h a t T a t l o w h a d , i n t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , d e s c r i b e d t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s d e -19 p a r t m e n t as " r o t t e n . " F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o n t h i s i s s u e has n o t a p p e a r e d b u t i t i s c l e a r t h a t W i l s o n was e x c e e d i n g l y a r o u s e d o v e r t h e c h a r g e a n d i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e s e e d s o f f u t u r e e x e c u t i v e d i s a g r e e m e n t w e r e l a i d t h e n . I n November 1 9 0 5 , W i l s o n c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e P r e m i e r ' s r a i l w a y a c t i v i t i e s i n a l e t t e r f r o m E n g l a n d w h e r e h e was p l e a d i n g b e f o r e t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . I t i s n o t q u i t e c l e a r w h e t h e r W i r e . M c B r i d e t o S h a u g h n e s s y , u n d a t e d , I n M i s c . P a p e r s . 1 9 W i l s o n t o M c B r i d e , 26 J u l y , 1 9 0 5 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . W i l s o n r e f e r r e d i n t h i s l e t t e r t o t h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n G r a n t o r t o t h e g e n e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a t t i t u d e t o r a i l w a y s b u t , o n c e a g a i n , t h e t o n e o f e x a s p e r a t i o n i s q u i t e o b v i o u s . Now a b o u t t h e r a i l w a y q u e s t i o n I ' m g o i n g t o b e p e r f e c t l y f r a n k w i t h y o u & s t a t e a t o n c e t h a t I - d o n ' t t h i n k you a r e t r e a t i n g me a s I d e s e r v e . . T h i s i s t h e s e c o n d t i m e I h a v e b e e n t o l d t h a t y o u i n t e n d t o g i v e i t y o u r ' m o s t s e r i o u s c o n - -s i d e r a t i o n . ' Now we b o t h know what t h a t m e a n s . B e f o r e t h e n y o u w i l l d o u b t l e s s h a v e a r r i v e d a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t I f e e l v e r y s t r o n g l y o n t h i s s u b j e c t y e t y o u t e l l me t h a t a t a c o m i n g E x e c u t i v e y o u w i l l l a y my v i e w s b e f o r e them a s w e l l as y o u r o w n . Now d o n ' t - y o u t h i n k y o u m i g h t h a v e b e e n o p e n e n o u g h t o t e l l me what y o u r v i e w s a r e . I am t h e o n l y one o f y o u r c o l l e a g u e s t h a t w i l l n o t know y o u r o p i n i o n on t h i s ( t o me) v i t a l s u b j e c t u n t i l I r e t u r n . Y o u may t h i n k t h i s i s OK. I d o n ' t . . . . F a i t h f u l l y y o u r s , C h a r l e s W i l s o n . 20 U p o n h i s r e t u r n f r o m E n g l a n d W i l s o n e v i d e n t l y was t o l d o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y a n d o n J a n u a r y 3 1 , i n a c a u c u s , s t r o n g l y v o i c e d h i s d i s a p p r o v a l o f t h e p r o p o s e d C o l u m b i a 21 a n d W e s t e r n B i l l . A l e t t e r o f r e s i g n a t i o n f o l l o w e d o n F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 0 6 , when i t b e c a m e o b v i o u s t o W i l s o n t h a t h e was i n a n I s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n . H e r e W i l s o n made I t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t h e o b j e c t e d t o two a s p e c t s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y . He t h o u g h t t h a t the* i n t e r e s t s o f t h e P r o v i n c e w e r e n o t b e i n g s e r v e d b y t h e g e n e r a l g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y o n 2 0 W i l s o n t o M c B r i d e , 24 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 0 5 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 2 1 A n " u n c a l l e d f o r a t t a c k " s a i d M c B r i d e i n h i s d i a r y , o n J a n u a r y 3 1 , 1 9 0 6 . C h a r l e s W i l s o n , K . C . P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o u n c i l , 1903 A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , 1 9 0 3 - 0 6 B o r n i n E n g l a n d i n 1 8 4 1 , W i l s o n came t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1 8 6 2 . He f i r s t s a t i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e f o r C a r i b o o f r o m 1882 t o 1 8 8 6 , a n d t h e n l a t e r f o r V a n c o u v e r f r o m 1903 t o 1 9 0 6 . He was c h o s e n b y t h e 1902 R e v e l s t o k e C o n v e n t i o n as p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y b u t h i s c l a i m t o t h a t t i t l e d i s a p p e a r e d , t o a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s w i t h M c B r i d e ' s s u c c e s s a s P r e m i e r . W i l s o n r e s i g n e d f r o m t h e c a b i n e t i n M a r c h , 1 9 0 6 , a s a r e s u l t o f l o n g s t a n d i n g d i s -a g r e e m e n t . 22 r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n . As t h i s was a l a r g e l y n e g a t i v e p o l i c y , f o r t h e v a r i o u s r e a s o n s t h a t h a v e b e e n s u g g e s t e d , one c a n o n l y c o n c l u d e t h a t W i l s o n was one o f t h o s e p e o p l e who w a n t e d i m m e d i a t e r a i l w a y l e g i s l a t i o n o n a l a r g e s c a l e . I t i s a l s o c l e a r f r o m t h e r e s i g n a t i o n l e t t e r t h a t W i l s o n 23 t h o u g h t t h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n G r a n t a m i s t a k e . T h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d o p p o s e d a s i m i l a r g r a n t t o t h e Midway a n d V e r n o n R a i l w a y a n d W i l s o n c i t e d t h i s f a c t a s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n . He p r o b a b l y d i d n o t a p p r e c i a t e , i f I n d e e d , t o n o t e h i s l e t t e r o f N o v e m b e r 1 9 0 5 , h e e v e n knew o f t h e P r e m i e r ' s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e C . P . R . M c B r i d e managed t o p e r s u a d e W i l s o n t o w i t h -h o l d h i s r e s i g n a t i o n u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e s e s s i o n r a t h e r t h a n 24 p r e c i p i t a t e a c r i s i s b u t a f t e r M a r c h 6 t h 1 9 0 6 , h e h a d t o f i n d a new A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l as t h e w a l r u s m u s t a c h e s o f W i l -s o n w e r e n o l o n g e r t o a d o r n t h e e x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g s . T h u s M c B r i d e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company o v e r t h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n l a n d g r a n t b r o u g h t s c a n d a l , c r i s i s , a n d a r e s i g n a t i o n t o h i s m i n i s t r y . T h i s w o u l d h a v e b e e n e x c i t e m e n t e n o u g h f o r " t h e f i r s t C o n -^ W i l s o n t o M c B r i d e , 22 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 6 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . ^ 3 L o c . c i t . 2 4 M c B r i d e t o W i l s o n , 23 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 6 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s • 81 s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t t h a t B . C . e v e r h a d , " b u t more was f o r t h c o m i n g when t h e P r e m i e r ' 3 a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company b r o u g h t f u r t h e r s c a n -d a l , a n d c r i s i s , a n d a n o t h e r r e s i g n a t i o n , a l l i n t h e same t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d . B y t h e summer o f 1 9 0 3 i t was known t h a t t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c i n t e n d e d t o b u i l d i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e a c r o s s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h u s , f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s a d m i n i s t -r a t i o n M c B r i d e was f o r c e d t o f o r m u l a t e a p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h i s a p p r o a c h i n g a n d u n a v o i d a b l e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p r o v i n c e a n d t h e r a i l w a y c o m p a n y . T h e r e was n e v e r a n y q u e s t i o n o f t h e M c B r i d e g o v e r n m e n t a d o p t i n g a p o l i c y t o -w a r d s t h e G . T . P . i n a n y way s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h t h e y w e r e t o f o l l o w w i t h t h e C . P . R . b e c a u s e t h e f o r m e r company was a c r e a t u r e o f t h e L a u r i e r g o v e r n m e n t . H o w e v e r , M c B r i d e a n d h i s e x e c u t i v e w e r e c o n c e r n e d "wi th t h e c o m i n g o f t h e G r a n d T r u n k t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y w a n t e d t o make i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n , e s t a b l i s h m e n t , a n d o p e r a t i o n a s b e n e f i c i a l a s p o s s i b l e t o t h e p r o v i n c e . .When t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c B i l l was f i r s t b e f o r e t h e F e d e r a l H o u s e i n t h e 1903 s e s -s i o n , M c B r i d e ' s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a g o v e r n m e n t s u b m i t t e d : a M i n u t e o f C o u n c i l t o t h e F e d e r a l a u t h o r ! t e s r e q u e s t i n g t h a t d e f i n i t e l e g i s l a t i o n b e p a s s e d g o v e r n i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : a ) t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e c t i o n s s h o u l d b e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m t h e s e a b o a r d e a s t e r l y 82 b ) t h a t n o C h i n e s e o r J a p a n e s e s h o u l d h e e n g a g e d i n t h e w o r k , g g S a v e f o r a f o r m a l a c k n o w l e d g m e n t , n o a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o t h i s r e q u e s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a g o v e r n m e n t h a d b e e n s t a t e d . M c B r i d e seems t o h a v e b e e n . q u i t e i g n o r a n t o f t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c i n S e p t e m b e r o f 1 9 0 3 . I n f a c t , he w r o t e a t t h a t t i m e t h a t he h a d " a b s o l u t e l y n o 2 6 i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t a t p r e s e n t . . . . " To c o r r e c t t h i s s i t u a t i o n he w r o t e i n November t o C h a s . M. H a y # s , t h e G e n e r a l M a n a g e r o f t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company f o r a d v i c e a s t o t h e " p r o b a b l e n a t u r e o f t h e work t o be c a r r i e d on i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h a t s y s t e m w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s ' 2 7 o f t h e P r o v i n c e . " He m e n t i o n e d , o f c o u r s e , t h e d e s i r e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n b e commenced f r o m t h e W e s t . I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s b e t w e e n M c B r i d e a n d t h e Company i s s c a n t y b u t i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t no p r o g r e s s was made on t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d e s i r e f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e t o b e g i n a t t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t . I n A p r i l , 2 5 M c B r i d e t o R . L . B o r d e n , 5 A p r i l , 1 9 0 4 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , P r i v a t e # 4 , M a r c h t o J u n e , 1 9 0 4 . 2 6 M c B r i d e t o J . E . P o u p o r e , 2 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , P e r s o n a l # 1 , J u n e t o N o v e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 . 27 M c B r i d e t o H a y s , 28 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 0 3 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , O f f i c i a l N o . 2 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 3 , t o A p r i l , 1 9 0 4 . 83 1 9 0 4 , M c B r i d e w r o t e t o L a u r i e r o n t h e s u b j e c t c l a i m i n g t h a t b u i l d i n g f r o m t h e C o a s t w o u l d n o t " i n v o l v e a n y m a t e r i a l i n -c r e a s e o f c o s t " h u t w o u l d r e s u l t i n " g r e a t i n c i d e n t a l b e n e -2 f i t . . . t o t h e i n d u s t r y a n d commerce o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . . . . " B y t h i s , h e , o f c o u r s e , r e f e r r e d t o t h e m a r k e t c r e a t e d f o r l a b o u r a n d m a t e r i a l s . I n t h e same m o n t h , a l e t t e r t o B o r -d e n s h o w e d t h a t M c B r i d e h a d l i t t l e h o p e o f a d e q u a t e r e s p o n s e f r o m L a u r i e r o n t h e company a n d t h a t , a s w i t h B e t t e r T e r m s , 29 h e was c o n s i d e r i n g m a k i n g i t a p a r t y .i„s.s„ue. H o w e v e r , i t n e v e r seems t o h a v e b e c o m e a p a r t y i s s u e i n a n y m o r e t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l s e n s e i m p l i e d w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a L i b e r a l r a i l w a y a n d a C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t . I t w o u l d s e e m t h a t H a y e s e x p e c t e d t o e x t r a c t a l a n d s e t t l e m e n t f r o m t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a g o v e r n m e n t i n r e t u r n f o r a n a g r e e m e n t t o commence c o n s t r u c t i o n a t t h e c o a s t . He t o l d t h e p r e s s on M a r c h 1 1 , 1 9 0 5 , t h a t i t w o u l d b e more e x -p e n s i v e t o b u i l d f r o m t h e c o a s t a n d t h a t i t m u s t b e w o r t h 30 s o m e t h i n g t o t h e p r o v i n c e . M c B r i d e , o f c o u r s e , w o u l d h a v e r e f u s e d t h i s as p o l i t i c a l d y n a m i t e . One c a n n o t s a y how d e l i b e r a t e t h e p o l i t i c a l m o t i v e s o f t h e G r a n d T r u n k m a n a g e -28 M c B r i d e t o L a u r i e r , 8 A p r i l , 1 9 0 4 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , O f f i c i a l N o . 2 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 3 , t o A p r i l , 1 9 0 4 . P Q M c B r i d e t o B o r d e n , 5 A p r i l , 1 9 0 4 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , P r i v a t e N o . 4 , M a r c h t o J u n e , 1 9 0 4 . 30 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 5 , p . 5 5 4 . 84 ment w e r e b u t t h e r a i l w a y ' s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p l a n s p r o -v i d e d L a u r i e r w i t h a n e x c e l l e n t t r a p f o r t h e p r o v i n c e ' s c o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t . I f M c B r i d e was l u r e d b y t h e l a b o u r v o t e v a l u e o f " c o n s t r u c t i o n f r o m t h e c o a s t " i n t o m a k i n g l a n d g r a n t s , t h e O p p o s i t i o n c o u l d d e f e a t h i m o n t h e l a t t e r p o l i c y . T h e n t h e p a r t y i s s u e c o u l d b e b r o u g h t o u t i n t o t h e o p e n a n d t h e G r a n d T r u n k c o u l d d e a l a m i c a b l y w i t h a new L i b e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e P r o v i n c e . B u t M c B r i d e d i d n o t r i s e t o t h e b a i t , i f b a i t i t w a s , a n d i n t h i s a s p e c t o f h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h . t h e G r a n d T r u n k h e t h e r e b y managed t o a v o i d a n y s c a n d a l o u s o r d a n g e r o u s e n l a r g e m e n t s . W h i l e t h e M c B r i d e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i d n o t i n c u r c a l u m n y b y s u b s i d i z i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , i t f o u n d i t s e l f i n a s e n s a t i o n a l s c a n d a l t h r o u g h i t s n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e C o m p a n y t o e s t a b l i s h a P a c i f i c c o a s t t e r m i n u s . T h i s was 31 t h e b a s i s f o r t h e much p u b l i c i z e d K a i e n I s l a n d A f f a i r . K a i e n I s l a n d i s t h e s i t e o f t h e C i t y o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , b u t I n 1906 i t was m e r e l y w i l d l a n d a t t h e e n d o f a p e n i n -s u l a w h i c h s h e l t e r e d a g o o d h a r b o u r . A t t h e e n d o f 1903 i t became known t h a t t h i s h a r b o u r a p p e a l e d t o t h e management o f t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c as a p r o s p e c t i v e t e r m i n u s f o r t h e i r t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y . When t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n h a d 3 1 F o r w h i c h t h e - b e s t s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h e " R e p o r t o f S e l e c t C o m m i t e e r e . K a i e n I s l a n d I n v e s t i g a t i o n , " w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s an a p p e n d i x t o — B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , L e g i s -l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , J o u r n a l s , 1 9 0 6 . a c h i e v e d some d e g r e e o f c i r c u l a t i o n , v a r i o u s p r i v a t e p e r -s o n s made a t tempt 's t o p r e e m p t l a n d b o r d e r i n g o n t h i s h a r -b o u r c h i e f l y f o r s p e c u l a t i v e p u r p o s e s . A n I n d i a n r e s e r v e o c c u p i e d t h e l a n d o n one s i d e o f t h e h a r b o u r a n d a s p e c i a l p r o v i n c i a l r e s e r v e was a s s u m e d t o c o v e r t h e r e m a i n i n g s h o r e l i n e . A s a r e s u l t , s p e c u l a t o r s were t u r n e d a w a y . Among t h o s e p r i v a t e p e r s o n s a p p r o a c h i n g t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s a n d Works t o o b t a i n t i t l e t o l a n d i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l r e s e r v e was o n e P e t e r L a r s e n , a v e r y w e a l t h y r a i l w a y c o n t r a c t o r f r o m M o n t a n a a n d h i s a s s o c i a t e , James A n d e r s o n . L a r s e n a n d A n d e r s o n a p p r o a c h e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t t h r o u g h t h e w e l l -known B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l a w y e r , E . V . B o d w e l l , a n d t h e g i s t o f t h e i r p r o p o s i t i o n , a n d t h e y w e r e t h e o n l y s p e c u l a t o r s • o f f e r i n g a n y t h i n g w o r t h y o f t h e t e r m , was t h a t t h e y w o u l d b u y 1 0 , 0 0 0 a c r e s a t $1 p e r a c r e f r o m t h e R e s e r v e a n d t h a t h a v i n g s u r v e y e d t h i s l a n d , t h e y w o u l d a t t e m p t t o p e r s u a d e t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r t e r m i n u s t h e r e . I f t h e y c o u l d n o t a t t r a c t t h e r a i l w a y c o m p a n y t o t h a t l o c a -t i o n , t h e y w o u l d s e l l t h e l a n d b a c k t o t h e P r o v i n c e a t c o s t p r i c e , b u t w o u l d t h e m s e l v e s f o o t t h e c o s t s o f s u r v e y -32 i n g . T h e g o v e r n m e n t g a v e t h e m a t t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e t h o u g h t a n d A n d e r s o n m e a n w h i l e went N o r t h t o c o n d u c t t h e s u r v e y i n g . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o n o t e t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t was n o t f o r -3 2 B o d w e l l t o G r e e n , 19 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 4 , I b i d . , E x h i b i t s , p . c c x i x . 86 g e t t i n g e n t i r e l y t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t when i t c o n s i d e r e d t h e L a r s e n p r o p o s a l b e c a u s e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s f o r t h e G r a n d T r u n k t e r m i n u s w e r e a t K i t i m a t a n d P o r t S i m p s o n w h e r e a l l t h e v a l u a b l e t o w n s i t e l a n d h a d a l r e a d y b e e n p r e e m p t e d b y p r i v a t e s p e c u l a t o r s . T h u s , i f L a r s e n c o u l d p e r s u a d e t h e G r a n d T r u n k t o go t o K a i e n I s l a n d i t w o u l d p r o f i t t h e p r o -v i n c e $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 w h e r e a s i f n o one a t t e m p t e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c o m p a n y t h e y m i g h t go t o K i t i m a t o r P o r t S i m p s o n w h e r e t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t w o u l d p r o f i t t h e p r o v i n c e p r a c t i c a l l y n o t h i n g f i n a n c i a l l y . H o w e v e r , t h e g o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e d t o d e a l o n l y d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e G r a n d T r u n k p e o p l e a n d L a r s e n ' s 33 p r o p o s a l s w e r e t u r n e d down. T h e n , t h e Company h a v i n g d e c i d e d o n K a i e n I s l a n d , n e g o t i a t i o n s w e r e e n t e r e d i n t o w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t — o n c e a g a i n w i t h B o d w e l l a c t i n g as i n t e r m e d i a r y b u t t h i s t i m e i n t h e o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n o f t r u s t e e f o r t h e C o m p a n y . T h e g o v e r n m e n t a t t e m p t e d t o g e t $5 p e r a c r e f o r t h e l a n d a n d when t h e company o f f e r e d $1 p e r a c r e , G r e e n s u g g e s t e d a comprom3.se o f $ 2 . 5 0 . H o w e v e r , i n t h e e n d , t h e Company won o u t a n d t h e l a n d was g r a n t e d t o t h e m b y o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l 34 a t $1 p e r a c r e f o r t h e 1 0 , 0 0 0 . No v a l i d c o m p l a i n t c o u l d 3 3 T e s t i m o n y o f G r e e n , " R e p o r t o f S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e r e K a i e n I s l a n d I n v e s t i g a t i o n , " i n J o u r n a l s , 1 9 0 6 , p . c x l i i . 3 4 T e s t i m o n y o f G r e e n , i b i d . , p . c x v i i . 87 b e made b e c a u s e t h e l a n d was o f f i c i a l l y c l a s s i f i e d a s t h i r d -c l a s s — i n o t h e r v /o rds p r a c t i c a l l y v a l u e l e s s e x c e p t as t o w n -35 s i t e . T h e news o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s d e a l w i t h t h e r a i l w a y c o m p a n y a r o u s e d p u b l i c d i s t r u s t b e c a u s e o f t h e d u a l p o s i t -i o n o f B o d w e l l , t h e a p p a r e n t l y c h e a p p r i c e p a i d f o r t h e l a n d , a n d . the u n c e r t a i n t y a s t o t h e f i n a l p o s i t i o n o f L a r -s e n a n d A n d e r s o n . T h e L i b e r a l s s e i z e d u p o n t h i s d i s t r u s t a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r o u g h t h e i r c h i e f o r g a n i n V a n c o u v e r , t h a t s e n s a t i o n a l i s t r a g , t h e W o r l d , t h e y l e v e l l e d c h a r g e s t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d n o t d e a l t w i t h t h e r a i l w a y c o m p a n y a t a l l , b u t w i t h a b a n d o f a d v e n t u r e r s b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e , ( t h e f e m a l e b e i n g M r s . A n d e r s o n ) . On J a n u a r y 1 5 , 1 9 0 6 , J . A . M a c d o n a l d , t h a t a u s t e r e b u t a s t u t e l a w y e r who l e d t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y , f o l l o w e d i n t h e H o u s e w i t h an a t -t a c k u p o n t h e G o v e r n m e n t : ( 1 ) f o r , i n e f f e c t , i f n o t i n t e n t , g i v i n g a l a n d b o n u s t o t h e G . T . P . w i t h o u t L e g i s l a t i v e e n a c t m e n t ; ( 2 ) f o r i n t r o d u c i n g a w i d e a n d d a n g e r o u s p r e c e d e n t as t o t h e u s e o f s e c r e t O r d e r s - i n - G o u n c i l i n g i v i n g a w a y , o r s e l l i n g f o r some s l i g h t c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e p e o p l e ' s l a n d ; (.3) f o r d o i n g s o m e t h i n g w h i c h h e a s a l a w y e r b e l i e v e d t o b e a b s o l u t e l y i l l e g a l a n d f o r d o i n g i t i n t h e name o f E . V . B o d w e l l i n s t e a d o f t h e Company o f w h i c h h e was m e r e l y t h e s o l i c i t o r ; ( 4 ) f o r , i n r e a l i t y , n o t g i v i n g t h e l a n d t o t h e G . T . P . f o r t h e p u b l i c a d v a n t a g e b u t " t o a c l i q u e o f s p e c u l a t o r s t o make a p r o f i t o u t o f i t b e f o r e h a n d i n g i t o v e r t o t h e R a i l w a y . " _ R 3 5 T e s t i m o n y o f M c B r i d e , " R e p o r t o f S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e r e K a i e n I s l a n d I n v e s t i g a t i o n , " i n J o u r n a l s , 1 9 0 6 , p . c l x x . C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 6 , p . 4 9 6 . 88 A t t h e e n d o f t h e m o n t h , M a c d o n a l d moved t h a t a S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e he a p p o i n t e d t o I n v e s t i g a t e t h e K a i e n 37 I s l a n d t r a n s a c t i o n . P r o m t h e 6 t h o f F e b r u a r y t o t h e 6 t h o f M a r c h t h i s c o m m i t t e e , c o m p o s e d o f G a r d e n , Y o u n g , a n d R o s s f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t , M a c d o n a l d , and Munro who was l a t e r r e p l a c e d b y P a t e r s o n , f o r t h e L i b e r a l s , h e a r d e v i d e n c e f r o m B o d w e l l , G r e e n , t h e P r e m i e r , A n d e r s o n , C h a r l e s W i l s o n a n d 38 a g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l , W . S . G o r e . M a c d o n a l d u s e d a l l h i s l e g a l a b i l i t y i n s u b m i t t i n g t h e s e w i t n e s s e s t o t h e m o s t h a r r o w i n g c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . He t r i e d t o e s t a b l i s h a c o n -n e c t i o n b e t w e e n G r e e n a n d M r s . A n d e r s o n w h i c h c o u l d h a v e l e d t o t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t i n t e n t i o n s t o t h e 39 A n d e r s o n s a n d L a r s e n . He t r i e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e f i n a l d e a l h a d a c t u a l l y b e e n made w i t h L a r s e n 40 r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e G . T . P . A n d h e t r i e d w i t h most s u c -c e s s t o show t h a t G r e e n ' s d e p a r t m e n t h a d r e f u s e d l a n d o n K a i e n I s l a n d t o p r i v a t e p e r s o n s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e 41 I s l a n d was n o t r e a l l y c o v e r e d b y t h e o r i g i n a l r e s e r v e . I n a l l o t h e r r e s p e c t s , M a c d o n a l d w o u l d s e e m t o h a v e f a i l e d 37 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 6 , p . 4 9 7 . 3 8 " R e p o r t o f S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e r e . K a i e n I s l a n d " i n jc&uamals , 1 9 0 6 . 3 9 I b i d . , p . c x i . 40 I b i d . , p . c l x x v i . I b i d . , p . c i x . R o b e r t F r a n c i s G r e e n M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s 1903 C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n d s a n d W o r k s , 1903 - 1906 O r i g i n a l l y f r o m O n t a r i o , G r e e n w o r k e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e c o m i n g W e s t t o f o l l o w t h e " e n d o f s t e e l " t h r o u g h t h e I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , W i t h h i s b r o t h e r s h e s t a r t e d a g e n e r a l s t o r e i n R e v e l s t o k e b u t g r a d -u a l l y moved W e s t t o K a s l o w h e r e h e was i n b u s i n e s s t o 1 9 0 2 , a n d V i c t o r i a w h e r e h e j o i n e d A . C . B u r d i c k i n 1 9 0 7 . He s a t f o r K a s l o f r o m 1898 u n t i l 1 9 0 6 . He was e l e c t e d t o t h e f e d -e r a l h o u s e a t a b y - e l e c t i o n i n 1 9 1 2 . A v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l man among p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e s , h i s m a c h i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n was n o t a s c e n t r a l i z e d as t h a t o f B o w s e r b u t I t was o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h m a j o r s u c c e s s e s . G r e e n became a S e n a t o r i n l a t e r y e a r s , a n d d i e d i n 1 9 4 4 . i 89 t o d i s p r o v e t h e g o v e r n m e n t c l a i m t h a t i t h a d made a g o o d d e a l f o r t h e p r o v i n c e , a n d e v e n h e r e t h e r e s e e m e d no e v i d -e n c e o f r e a l d i s h o n e s t y . H o w e v e r , a n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i -t i o n o f a f f a i r s i n t h e L a n d s a n d Works D e p a r t m e n t w o u l d s e e m t o h a v e b e e n r e v e a l e d b y G r e e n ' s a d m i s s i o n t h a t c o n -f u s i o n e x i s t e d a s t o t h e e x t e n t o f t h e r e s e r v e . G r e e n c l a i m e d t h a t when h e o r i g i n a l l y t u r n e d a w a y b u y e r s , i t was b e c a u s e h i s o l d map o f t h e a r e a d i d n o t r e v e a l t h e e x i s t -e n c e o f a n i s l a n d b u t s h o w e d i t r a t h e r as p a r t o f t h e T s i m p -s e a n P e n i n s u l a . T h e r e s e r v e a p p l i e d t o t h e p e n i n s u l a . A n d y e t he a d m i t t e d t h a t h e knew t h a t K a i e n I s l a n d was an i s -l a n d — i f o n l y b e c a u s e o f i t s n a m e . He h a d b e e n f o r c e d t o make a n e x t r a r e s e r v e when t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y became t r o u b l e -4 2 s o m e . T h i s was c e r t a i n l y a l o o s e s t a t e . o f a f f a i r s . How-e v e r , a p a r t f r o m some s u c c e s s i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , M a c d o n a l d d i d n o t p r o d u c e a n y s t a r t l i n g r e v e l a t i o n s . 4 < f " R e p o r t o f S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e r e K a i e n I s l a n d " i n J o u r n a l s , 1906% p . c l x . M a c d o n a l d q u e s t i o n e d G r e e n a s f o l l o w s : ; Q . S o t h a t , w i t h t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h a t was n o t a p a r t o f t h e p e n i n s u l a , a n d d i d n o t f o r m p a r t o f t h e r e s e r v e , y o u r e f u s e d a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r l a n d o n t h e i s l a n d ? A . W e l l , I r e f u s e d t h e m , c e r t a i n l y . I r e f u s e d them w h e t h e r I t was w i t h t h a t k n o w l e d g e o r n o t . Q . R e f u s e d i t b e c a u s e y o u c l a i m e d i t was u n d e r a r e s e r v e ? A . Y e s ,1 r e f u s e d , c l a i m i n g i t was a l l u n d e r a r e s e r v e . Q . I w a n t t o know w h e t h e r y o u h a d t h e k n o w l e d g e when y o u r e f u s e d t h e m ? D i d y o u know when y o u r e f u s e d t h o s e a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t K a i e n I s l a n d was n o t a p a r t o f t h e T s i m p s e a n P e n i n s u l a a s m e n t i o n e d o n t h e r e s e r v e ? A . I d i d n o t k n o w , b e c a u s e I c l a i m e d t h a t i t w a s , a n d h a d a s e c o n d r e s e r v e p u t u p o n i t . Q . Y o u knew i t was a n i s l a n d ? A . I t i s c a l l e d K a i e n I s l a n d . 90 T h e m a j o r i t y r e p o r t o f t h e S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e c l e a r e d G r e e n when i t f o u n d t h a t : No member o r o f f i c i a l o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t r e -c e i v e d a n y d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t emolument o r r e w a r d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a n y o f t h e m a t t e r s i n q u i r e d i n t o , o r a n y d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t p r o m i s e o f same i n t h e f u t u r e , a n d t h a t t h e members o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t w e r e a c t u a t e d s o l e l y b y a d e s i r e t o s e c u r e t o t h e P r o -v i n c e e v e r y a d v a n t a g e o b t a i n a b l e u n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 4 3 I t was f u r t h e r b r o u g h t o u t i n t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t L a r s e n d i d n o t h o p e t o a c q u i r e t h e l a n d f o r s p e c u l a t i v e p u r p o s e s b u t I n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e r a i l w a y c o m p a n y , a r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h w o u l d p r o v e v a l u a b l e t o h i m as a r a i l -way c o n t r a c t o r . T h e Company was a t a l l t i m e s f u l l y a w a r e o f L a r s e n ' s a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d a p p r o v e d o f 44 h i s p o l i c y . M a c d o n a l d a n d P a t e r s o n d i s s e n t e d f r o m t h i s r e p o r t a n d a t t e m p t e d t o h a v e t h e i r M i n o r i t y R e p o r t o f f i c i a l l y r e -c o g n i s e d b y t h e H o u s e . I n t h i s t h e y w e r e n o t s u c c e s s f u l b u t t h e y p r i n t e d t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n t h e L i b e r a l p r e s s a n d p r o b a b l y h a d p a m p h l e t s p r i n t e d t o e n s u r e e v e n w i d e r c i r -c u l a t i o n . T h e M i n o r i t y R e p o r t f o u n d t h e o r i g i n a l c h a r g e s u b s t a n t i a t e d , t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d d e a l t w i t h "a b a n d o f a d v e n t u r e r s ( m a l e a n d f e m a l e ) who a p p l i e d f o r l a n d s f o r p u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e p u r p o s e s . " V a r i o u s t e n t a t i v e a g r e e m e n t s 4 , 3 " R e p o r t o f S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e r e . K a i e n I s l a n d " i n J o u r n a l s . 1906, p . l x x , N o . 22. 4 4 I b i d . , p . l x i x , N o . 1 6 . 91 b e t w e e n A n d e r s o n a n d L a r s e n a n d t h e R a i l w a y Company w e r e c i t e d as e v i d e n c e t h a t i t h a d b e e n i n t e n d e d b y t h e two men to r e s e l l t h e l a n d a t f o u r t i m e s t h e p r i c e p a i d t o t h e 45 g o v e r n m e n t . T h e m a j o r i t y h a d f o u n d t h e s e t e n t a t i v e a g r e e -ments t o h a v e n o b e a r i n g o n t h e d e a l b e t w e e n t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e r a i l w a y c o m p a n y . A t a n y r a t e , f o r m a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e K a i e n I s l a n d a f f a i r was now a t an e n d a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t v w a s f a c e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f e s t i m a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e f i n d i n g s o n t h e p e o p l e o f t h e P r o v i n c e . How many t h o u g h t t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d b e e n " w h i t e w a s h e d ? " How many t h o u g h t t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d shown i t s e l f c o m p l e t e l y i n n o c e n t ? As M c B r i d e t u r n e d t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s h e must h a v e b e e n t i r e d a n d s u d d e n l y became a g r e a t d e a l o l d e r , f o r t h e l a s t few m o n t h s h a d b e e n a g r u e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e . I t w i l l , b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n p r o b l e m h a d a s -sumed u n u s u a l l y t r o u b l e s o m e p r o p o r t i o n s b y t h e New Y e a r when W i l s o n h a d d e f i n i t e l y r e n o u n c e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n . A l m o s t a t t h e same t i m e , M a c d o n a l d h a d l e d t h e H o u s e a t t a c k s on G r e e n a n d t h e P r e m i e r o v e r K a i e n I s l a n d . A n d t h e n t h e n e x t two months h a d b e e n s p e n t b y M c B r i d e p o n d e r i n g w h e t h e r a n d when t o b r i n g i n t h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n B i l l - - a n d h a l f o f t h a t t i m e t h e P r e m i e r h a d h a d W i l s o n ' s r e s i g n a t i o n i n h i s p o c k e t . T h e c r u c i a l r e s i g n a t i o n s e c r e t was w e l l k e p t b u t , h a d i t b e e n k n o w n , a n d a d d e d t o t h e O p p o s i t i o n ' s f i e r c e l y b o i l i n g p o t , t h e c h a n c e s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r D a i l y W o r l d . 12 M a r c h , 1 9 0 6 . 92 g o v e r n m e n t b e i n g s c a l d e d w o u l d h a v e r i s e n a l a r m i n g l y * I n t h i s same p e r i o d M c B r i d e h a d t o t e s t i f y u n d e r M a c d o n a l d 1 s p r o b i n g i n t h e S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e a n d t o w a t c h c a r e f u l l y w h a t was g o i n g o n i n t h a t C o m m i t t e e , f o r e v e n i f a g o v e r n m e n t h a s n o t b e e n a c t u a l l y c r o o k e d i t w i l l s e l d o m c h o o s e t o h a v e i t s a c t i v i t i e s s u d d e n l y s u b m i t t e d t o s u c h s c r u t i n y . P r o m J a n u a r y 2 n d t o M a r c h 1 3 t h , members o f b o t h p a r t i e s , b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e L i b e r a l s w e r e u n d e r c l o s e w a t c h b y M c -B r i d e ' s P i n k e r t o n o p e r a t i v e * L i t t l e s t a r t l i n g i n f o r m a t -i o n r e s u l t e d b u t o f t e n t h e P r e m i e r was g i v e n some s m a l l t a c t i c a l a d v a n t a g e b y t h e r e c e i p t o f a r e p o r t f r o m h i s P i n k e r t o n man o n a r e c e n t L i b e r a l c a u c u s o r t h e g a r r u l o u s a n d e n t h u s i a s t i c p l o t t i n g o f t h a t r i s i n g L i b e r a l , J o h n O l i v e r * A n d t h e f a c t t h a t s u c h a c o n t i n u o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n - -e v e r y d a y w i t h o u t f a i l f o r two a n d a h a l f m o n t h s - - w a s t h o u g h t n e c e s s a r y g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e c a r i o u s n a t u r e o f 46 e v e n t s i n t h a t s e s s i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , M c B r i d e ' s t r o u b l e s w e r e n o t a l l e v i a t e d b y t h e d e a t h , o n F e b r u a r y 1 0 , 1 9 0 6 , o f h i s b r o t h e r W i l l i e , t h e o n e who h a d h e l p e d t o p u t h i m t h r o u g h D a l h o u s i e . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , was r i g h t i n t h e m i d d l e o f a l l t h e V i c t o r i a e x c i t e m e n t . He seems t o h a v e b e e n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y f o n d o f t h i s b r o t h e r a n d d e e p l y a f f e c t e d b y h i s d e a t h . A f t e r h i s * ° S e e P i n k e r t o n R e p o r t s , f r o m J a n u a r y 2 n d t o M a r c h 1 3 t h , 1 9 0 6 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a f r o m t h e f u n e r a l , h e w r o t e t h a t h e h a d j u s t 47 b e e n t h r o u g h " t h e h a r d e s t a n d most t r y i n g week o f my l i f e . " T h u s w i t h a d o m e s t i c t r a g e d y a d d e d t o t h e t e n s e d r a m a o f h i s p u b l i c c a r e e r , M c B r i d e may w e l l h a v e a c c u m u l a t e d some o f h i s f a m o u s w h i t e h a i r s i n t h i s p e r i o d . T h e P i n k e r t o n man r e p o r t e d M u n r o as s a y i n g , ' ' 'Poor D i c k , h e i s a n i c e f e l l o w , 48 b u t h a s a h a r d row t o h o e . " E v e n M r s . M c B r i d e p r o p h e s i e d 49 h e r h u s b a n d ' s d e f e a t a t a g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n . Y e s , Dewdney D i c k h a d come t o a n o t h e r c r u c i a l s t a g e i n h i s c a r e e r . I f h e h a d g o n e down t o d e f e a t now h e w o u l d h a v e j u s t b e e n t h a t y o u n g man f r o m Dewdney who was l u c k y and h a d made a g o o d e f -f o r t a t b e i n g P r e m i e r . P e o p l e w o u l d h a v e w o n d e r e d what h e c o u l d h a v e d o n e h a d h e s t a y e d . He h a d g i v e n some g o o d g o v e r n m e n t b u t was o n l y j u s t a b o u t t o d e v e l o p h i s r o l e as M r . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , c h a m p i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e , a n d s y m b o l o f p r o s p e r i t y . M c B r i d e m u s t h a v e b e e n w e l l aware o f t h e a l -t e r n a t i v e s w h i c h h e f a c e d a s h e p r e p a r e d S B SB ffWfIJli>Lvfl d u r i n g t h e r e m a i n d e r o f 1906 t o m e e t t h e p e o p l e a t a g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n e a r l y t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . Some e s t i m a t e o f h i s c h a n c e s c o u l d b e r e a c h e d b y a n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e t r e n d s i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s s i n c e he t o o k o f f i c e . I n 1 9 0 3 , t h e r e h a d b e e n two b y - e l e c t i o n s a n d 4 7 M c B r i d e ' s D i a r y , e n t r y f o r 10 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 6 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 4 8 R e p o r t o f A g e n t N o . 7 , M a r c h 9 , 1 9 0 6 , i n P i n k e r -t o n R e p o r t s ( 1 9 0 6 ) , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 4 9 M c B r i d e ' s D i a r y , e n t r y f o r 30 A p r i l , 1 9 0 6 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 94 a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n v / i t h c o n t r a s t i n g r e s u l t s . Of t h e b y -e l e c t i o n s , one was c a u s e d b y t h e p r o m o t i o n o f P u l t o n t o p o r t f o l i o s i n t h e c a b i n e t , t h o s e o f P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y a n d M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n ; t h e o t h e r was c a u s e d b y t h e d i s -p u t e d e l e c t i o n o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e i n L i l l o o e t , A . M a c d o n a l d . B o t h b y - e l e c t i o n s were i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e o f t h e s l i m m a j o r i t y p o s s e s s e d b y t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s a n d b o t h s h o w e d " D i c k t h e P o l i t i c o " i n s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n . A p p a r e n t l y P u l t o n ' s h o l d on t h e K a m l o o p s s e a t was n o n e t o o s e c u r e a n d t h i s s i t u a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e P r e m i e r ' s d e c i s i o n t o r a i s e h i m t o a p o r t f o l i o s o t h a t a p r e s t i g e e l e m e n t w o u l d e n t e r 50 i n t o t h e b y - e l e c t i o n . T h e n , a c c o r d i n g t o one L i b e r a l p a p e r , M c B r i d e m e r e l y w a i t e d u n t i l t h e L i b e r a l c a m p a i g n e x p e r t , S t u a r t H e n d e r s o n , was o u t o f t h e p r o v i n c e , b e f o r e h e c a l l e d 51 f o r n o m i n a t i o n s a n d p r o c e e d e d q u i c k l y t o w i n . T h i s v i e w o f t h e b y - e l e c t i o n , i f i t s t o o d a l o n e , m i g h t p a s s a s a L i b -e r a l d i s t o r t i o n , b u t , i f i t i s t a k e n w i t h t h e move t o " r u s h t h i n g s " b y c h a n g i n g t h e d a t e o f t h e p r e v i o u s g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n , i t seems p l a u s i b l e a n d r e v e a l s M c B r i d e ' s k e e n s e n s e o f p o l i t i c a l t a c t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t i m i n g . A t t h e L i l l o o e t e l e c t i o n , a n o t h e r L i b e r a l r e p o r t g i v e s a v i e w o f M c B r i d e a s a c a m p a i g n e r . " T h e r e was t o be s e e n o u t i T i l e p r e r a i e r i s T r i c k y , " B o u n d a r y C r e e k T i m e s , 27 M a y , 1 9 0 4 . 5 1 L o c . c i t . 9 5 t h e d i s g r a c e f u l e x h i b i t i o n o f a p r e m i e r l a d e l l i n g o u t l i q u o r 52 w i t h h i s own h a n d s t o s e c u r e t h e g o o d w i l l o f t h e e l e c t o r s . " T h i s i n c i d e n t w a s , o f c o u r s e , f a r f r o m d i s g r a c e f u l a n d was more t y p i c a l o f t h e t i m e s t h a n t h e L i b e r a l s w o u l d l i k e t o a d m i t . A f e w L i b e r a l s l i k e J . A . M a c d o n a l d may h a v e b e e n . " a b o v e " s u c h c o n d u c t , b u t t h e y w e r e e x c e p t i o n s whose e x a m p l e d i d n o t p o i n t t h e w a y t o p o l i t i c a l s u c c e s s . M c B r i d e w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e l a s t one t o d e n y a r e p o r t o f t h i s k i n d — h e knew t h a t i t was i n h i s a b i l i t y t o b e "one o f t h e b o y s , " t o j o i n i n t h e p a r t y , t o e x u d e h i s own p a r t i c u l a r b r a n d o f c h a r m t h a t t h e k e y t o h i s p o l i t i c a l s u c c e s s l a y . A t a n y r a t e , b o t h F u l t o n a n d A . M a c d o n a l d h e l d t h e i r s e a t s a n d s h o w e d t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d a d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e t o l o c a l a f f a i r s t h a n t h e y d i d t o d o m i n i o n a f f a i r s , f o r t h e L i b e r a l s 53 r e t u r n e d a s o l i d s e v e n t o O t t a w a i n t h e same, y e a r . J u l y 1905 saw a n o t h e r t e s t f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t when W . W . B . M c l n n e s r e s i g n e d h i s A l b e r n i s e a t t o become C o r n m i s s -54 l o n e r o f t h e Y u k o n . M c l n n e s h a d c a r r i e d t h e c o n s t i t u e n c y w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e e a s e i n 1903 b u t i t w a s . g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d b e i " C l e a n P o l i t i c s , " K o o t e n a y M a i l , 24 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 4 . 5 3 R . E . G o s n e l l , T h e Y e a r B o o k o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 1 1 - 1 4 e d i t . , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 1 1 , p . 9 0 . 5 4 F . W . H o w a y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e E a r l i e s t T i m e s  t o t h e P r e s e n t , V a n c o u v e r , S . J . C l a r k e , 1 9 1 4 , p . 5 3 1 . 9 6 t h a t a n o t h e r L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e w o u l d n o t c a r r y as m u c h p e r -s o n a l w e i g h t , f o r B i l l y M c l n n e s was e x c e p t i o n a l l y p o p u l a r a n d a v e r y f i n e o r a t o r . T h e o u t c o m e w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , b e 55 more d e p e n d e n t on r e a l p a r t y f e e l i n g . T h i s o p i n i o n was s u p p o r t e d when t h e p a r t y c h i e f s a r r i v e d i n f o r c e t o s u p p o r t t h e r e s p e c t i v e c a n d i d a t e s . W i l l i a m M a n s o n , t h e M a y o r o f N a n a i m o , was t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e , a n d h i s s u p p o r t e r s i n c l u d e d " t h e w h o l e C a b i n e t a n d p r o m i n e n t c o n s e r v a t i v e s f r o m 56 a l l p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . " Hugh A i t k e n was t h e L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e a n d h a d t h e s u p p o r t o f J . A . M a c d o n a l d , t h e p r o -v i n c i a l c h i e f o f t h e p a r t y , J o h n O l i v e r , who was r a p i d l y b e -c o m i n g r e g a r d e d as t h e s e c o n d - i n - c o m m a n d , a n d W i l l i a m S l o a n , R a l p h S m i t h , a n d R . L . D r u r y f r o m t h e L i b e r a l c o n t i n g e n t a t O t t a w a . I t was a d i s t i n c t g a i n f o r t h e M c B r i d e a d m i n l s t r a t -57 i o n when M a n s o n was e l e c t e d b y a v o t e o f 2 5 4 - 2 0 4 . T h u s a s M c B r i d e b e g a n c a m p a i g n i n g i n 1 9 0 6 , h e h a d a n e l e c t o r a l r e c o r d o f s u c c e s s i n t h r e e b y - e l e c t i o n s . He a l s o knew t h a t t h e p e o p l e w e r e p l e a s e d w i t h t h e e c o n o m i c a l g o v e r n -ment f o r w h i c h T a t l o w h a d b e e n l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , h e knew t h a t C h a s . W i l s o n ' s r e s i g n a t i o n , t h e C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n B i l l , a n d t h e K a i e n I s l a n d A f f a i r c o u l d "The I s s u e s o f t h e A l b e r n i E l e c t i o n , " V i c t o r i a D a i l y  C o l o n i s t , 8 J u l y , 1 9 0 6 . 5 6 P . W . H o w a y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e E a r l i e s t T i m e s  T o t h e P r e s e n t . V a n c o u v e r , S . J . C l a r k e , 1 9 1 4 , p . 5 3 1 . 5 7 L o c . c i t . 97 h a v e p u t d o u b t s i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e e l e c t o r a t e . U n t i l he w e n t t o O t t a w a i n O c t o b e r 1 9 0 6 , h e must h a v e b e e n u n c e r t a i n as t o r e s u l t s i n t h e c o m i n g e l e c t i o n . H o w e v e r , he m u s t h a v e b e e n f a r m o r e c o n f i d e n t when he r e t u r n e d f r o m O t t a w a t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e p e o p l e s ' c h e e r s a n d t o p l a y t h e new r o l e o f p r o v i n c i a l c h a m p i o n . T h e B e t t e r Terras f i g h t g a i n e d t h e P r e m i e r t h a t p r e s t i g e w h i c h h e n e e d e d t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e i m p r e s s i o n g i v e n b y t h e s c a n d a l s i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s a n d W o r k s . A n d when G r e e n r e s i g n e d , a s h e d i d a t t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r , t h e most c o n t r o v e r s i a l f i g u r e was r e m o v e d f r o m t h e p u b l i c e y e a n d f r o m a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e M c B r i d e a d m i n i s t r a t -i o n . M o t i v e s a n d f a c t s c o n n e c t e d w i t h G r e e n ' s d e c i s i o n t o r e s i g n a r e n o t c l e a r a s r e l a t e d d o c u m e n t s do n o t a p p e a r t o e x i s t . T h e r e w e r e , o f c o u r s e , t h e o r i e s t h a t h e was f o r c e d 58 o u t , as t h e s c a p e g o a t , s a i d t h e L i b e r a l p r e s s j a n d B o v / s e r i m p l i e d s o m e t h i n g s i m i l a r when h e w r o t e t o M c B r i d e f r o m V a n c o u v e r o n D e c e m b e r 2 4 , 1 9 0 6 . T h e y s a y h e r e t h a t Cowan f o r c e d Bob o u t o r a n a w f u l d i s c l o s u r e , y o u knew w h e t h e r t h i s i s r i g h t o r n o t . 59 T h e t r u t h i n t h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s i s p r o b a b l y l i m i t e d I f p r e -s e n t a t a l l b e c a u s e t h e L i b e r a l v i e w was q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h 5ft F o r e x a m p l e , s e e : " T h e L i m i t o f I n d e c e n c y , " V i c t o r i a D a l l y T i m e s , 29 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 0 6 . 59 B o w s e r t o M c B r i d e , 24 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 6 i n M i s c . P a p e r s . t h e i r c l a i m s o f s c a n d a l a n d t h e B o w s e r g u e s s may m e r e l y r e v e a l t h a t g e n t l e m a n ' s c o n t i n u e d d i s t r u s t o f C o w a n . The g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n o f C o n s e r v a t i v e s a n d n o n - p a r t i s a n c i t i -z e n s w o u l d seem t o b e t h a t G r e e n h a d made t h i n g s awkward f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h a t , a s h e knew t h a t he was t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n t h e s c a n d a l , h e h a d s t e p p e d down r a t h e r t h a n e m b a r r a s s M c B r i d e a n d t h e p a r t y a t t h e c o m i n g e l e c t i o n . A t a n y r a t e , t h e r e s u l t i n g c o n d i t i o n o f a f f a i r s i n w h i c h C o n s e r v a t i v e s c o u l d a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s a b o u t G r e e n b y s a y i n g , " O h , he i s n o . l o n g e r w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t , " was u n d o u b t e d l y w o r t h e v e n t h e l o s s o f G r e e n ' s e x p e r t a n d e n e r g e t i c c a m -p a i g n s e r v i c e s . T h e - e v e n t s o f 1906 h a d , o f c o u r s e , n e c e s s i t a t e d c o n -s i d e r a b l e c a b i n e t r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . P u l t o n h a d s u c c e e d e d W i l s o n as A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l i n , M a r c h , w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g t o h o l d h i s p o r t f o l i o s o f E d u c a t i o n a n d P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y — a h e a v y . l o a d . On t h e l a s t d a y o f t h e y e a r , t h e new member f o r A l b e r n i , W i l l i a m M a n s o n , t o o k o v e r t h e s e p o s i t i o n s o f 61 M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n a n d P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y . On t h e same d a y , T a t l o w a d d e d G r e e n ' s v a c a n t p o r t f o l i o , L a n d a n d 62 W o r k s , t o h i s s p e c i a l c o n c e r n , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i n a n c e . G o s n e l l , " S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " A r t i c l e # 2 , V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e . 6 1 " A r e T a k i n g M a n s o n I n t o C a b i n e t , " V a n c o u v e r D a i l y  P r o v i n c e , 31 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 6 . 6 2 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 7 , p . 6 0 4 . W i l l i a m W a l l a c e B u r n s M c l n n e s T h e s o n o f t h a t u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l L i e u t e n a n t -Go v e r n o r 9 M c l n n e s , who was s i x months y o u n g e r t h a n M c B r i d e , was t h e L i b e r a l ' s " b o y w o n d e r " i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h i s c e n t u r y . A member o f t h e l a s t p e r s o n a l g o v e r n m e n t , P r i o r ( 1 9 0 2 - 0 3 ) , h e r e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e a n a p p e a l t o t h e p e o p l e o n p a r t y l i n e s . He s a t f o r A l b e r n i ( o r N o r t h N a n a i m o ) u n t i l 1905 when h e was a p p o i n t e d C o m m i s s i o n e r o f t h e Y u k o n . H i s r e t u r n t o p o l i t i c s i n 1908 was u n s u c c e s s f u l . He i s now a P o l i c e M a g i s t r a t e i n V a n c o u v e r . 99 S i n c e 1 9 0 4 , C o t t o n h a d b e e n P r e s i d e n t o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , b u t h a d b e e n u n a b l e t o w i n a p o r t f o l i o - - p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e o f h i s i n d e p e n d e n t a t t i t u d e . T h e f o r m a l c a m p a i g n , w h i c h b e g a n w i t h d i s s o l u t i o n on 63 D e c e m b e r 2 6 t h , was b a r e l y u n d e r way b e f o r e i t s most d r a m -a t i c a n d s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t t o o k p l a c e . On D e c e m b e r 2 6 t h , M c B r i d e l e a r n e d b y w i r e f r o m t h e A s s o c i a t e d P r e s s t h a t W . W . B . M c l n n e s h a d r e s i g n e d as C o m m i s s i o n e r o f t h e Y u k o n 64 a n d was a b o u t t o r e n t e r p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . A few d a y s l a t e r a t e l e g r a m f r o m " B i l l y " r e a d " H a p p y New Y e a r o l d man 65 h e r e s t o a g o o d f i g h t , " a n d s h o w e d t h a t M c l n n e s was g e t t -i n g i n t o a c t i o n w i t h o u t d e l a y . T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s s u d d e n r e t u r n b y t h e L i b e r a l ' s b o y w o n d e r i s p e r h a p s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t t o t h o s e o f us t o d a y who a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p e r s o n o r a c t i o n s o f P o l i c e M a g i s t r a t e M c l n n e s , a g e d e i g h t y - o n e . I n t h o s e d a y s , B i l l y M c l n n e s was t h e o n l y r e a l r i v a l w h i c h t h e L i b e r a l s c o u l d p u t u p a g a i n s t M c B r i d e . S i x m o n t h s y o u n g e r t h a n Dewdney D i c k , B i l l y M c l n n e s was w i d e l y known as a n o r a t o r a n d h a d g r e a t p e r s o n a l p o p u l a r i t y . He h a d b e e n a member o f P r i o r ' s g o v e r n m e n t a n d h i s r e s i g -n a t i o n c a r r i e d e l e m e n t s i n common w i t h M c B r i d e ' s o p p o r t u n e 6 3 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 6 , p . . 6 0 4 . 6 4 M c B r i d e ' s D i a r y , e n t r y f o r 2 6 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 6 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 6 5 W i r e . M c l n n e s t o M c B r i d e , 31 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 6 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 7 , f i l e N o . 1 . 100 r e s i g n a t i o n f r o m t h e D u n s m u i r g o v e r n m e n t . B o t h r e s i g n e d o n a p r i n c i p l e — M c l n n e s t o f a c i l i t a t e a n a p p e a l t o t h e p e o p l e on p a r t y l i n e s . I n f a c t , t h e W o r l d h a d h o p e d i n 1903 t h a t M c l n n e s w o u l d b e g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y - - w h i c h f e l l t o M c -66 B r i d e — t o f o r m a p a r t y g o v e r n m e n t . A n a c t i v e c a r e e r i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s h a d b e e n f o l l o w e d b y a s u c c e s s f u l r o l e as a d m i n i s t r a t o r B S the Y u k o n . T h u s t h e c o m i n g o f M c l n n e s t o h i s o l d s t a m p i n g g r o u n d s m i g h t w e l l h a v e b o d e d i l l f o r D i c k M c B r i d e . B u t among o t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , M c l n n e s was known as t h e d a r l i n g o f t h e O t t a w a L i b e r a l s - - i n t h i s s e e m i n g s t r e n g t h l a y h i s w e a k n e s s . T h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s c l a i m e d t h a t M c l n n e s h a d b e e n : s e n t b y S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r t o w i n a n d h o l d t h e P r o v i n c e I n c h a i n s t o t h e F e d e r a l c h a r i o t ; t o b e a mere e m i s s a r y o f O t t a w a L i b e r a l i s m t o d e s t r o y M c B r i d e , e l i m i n a t e C o n s e r v a t i s m f r o m the . G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d s i d e t r a c k t h e t r o u b l e s o m e q u e s t i o n o f . " b e t t e r t e r m s ; " t o b e r e a l l y t h e p a r t y l e a d e r a n d f u t u r e P r e m i e r w i t h M r . M a c d o n a l d a c t i n g a s a w a r m i n g p a n i n t h e m e a n t i m e . ^ W i t h t h i s a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r " f i g h t O t t a w a " a p p r o a c h t o B e t t e r T e r m s , t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s p r o d u c e d what was i n p r a c t i c e a l m o s t t h e m a j o r f e a t u r e o f t h e e l e c t i o n b a t t l e a n d i t must be c o n s i d e r e d p e r h a p s t h e i r m o s t e f f e c t i v e a t t a c k 68 on t h e L i b e r a l s . . 6 6 " M » I n n e s S h o u l d Be C a l l e d , " V a n c o u v e r D a l l y W o r l d , 30 M a y , 1 9 0 3 . -6 7 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 7 , p . 6 0 6 . 68 y L o c . c i t . 101 A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g a n d p e r h a p s i n f l u e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f t h e c a m p a i g n was t h e a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e F i n a n c i a l News o f L o n d o n o f two a r t i c l e s h e a v i l y f a v o u r i n g t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d w a r n i n g B r i t i s h i n v e s t o r s t h a t t h e e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s s h o u l d b e a w a i t e d b e f o r e a n y 69 c a p i t a l was r i s k e d i n t h e P r o v i n c e . T h e s e a r t i c l e s w e r e c o p i e d a n d commented o n b y C o n s e r v a t i v e p a p e r s i n t h e P r o -v i n c e a n d m u s t h a v e made a n i m p r e s s i o n ( o n a p r o g r e s s c o n -s c i o u s e l e c t o r a t e ) c o m m e n s u r a t e w i t h t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h e F i n a n c i a l N e w s . Few B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s knew t h a t R . E . G o s -n e l l , a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d a n d f o r m e r p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y o f t h e P r e m i e r , was t h e a u t h o r o f t h e a r t i c l e s , b u t t h o s e who d i d know a p p r e c i a t e d t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f h a v i n g s u c h a r t i c l e s 70 p l a c e d i n t h e c o l u m n s o f t h e F i n a n c i a l N e w s . B y e l e c t i o n d a y , t h e K a i e n I s l a n d i n v e s t i g a t i o n was a y e a r away a n d t r y how t h e y m i g h t t h e L i b e r a l s s e e m t o h a v e b e e n u n a b l e t o k e e p t h e s c a n d a l a l i v e a n d t o u s e i t w i t h r e a l e f f e c t a g a i n s t t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s ' r e c o r d f o r s t a b l e g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e P r e m i e r ' s own p e r s o n a l a p p e a l . 69 " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o g r e s s D e p e n d s bn t h e G o v e r n -m e n t , " T h e F i n a n c i a l N e w s , 15 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 7 ; a n d " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " T h e F i n a n c i a l N e w s , 17 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 7 . . 7 0 G o s n e l l s t r e s s e d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d a n d c r e d i t e d P e r c y H a r d , e d i t o r o f t h e C a n a d i a n G a z e t t e , a n d c o r r e s p o n d e n t o f t h e M o n t r e a l S t a r w i t h t h e t a s k o f e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e a r t i c l e s w e r e c a b l e d t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n G o s n e l l t o M c B r i d e , 7 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 7 , In P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 7 , F i l e N o . 1 . 102 N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e L i b e r a l s w e r e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y c o n f i d e n t — I n d e e d , t o j u d g e b y t h e r e p o r t s i n t h e W o r l d , a l a n d s l i d e c o u l d h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d . A f t e r w a r d s B o r d e n w r o t e t o M c B r i d e t h a t : A v e r y p r o m i n e n t L i b e r a l t o l d me t h a t up t o t h e l a s t moment t h e L i b e r a l h e a d q u a r t e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a s s u r e d t h e members o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t h e r e t h a t y o u r d e f e a t was c e r t a i n a n d t h a t t h e min imum n u m b e r o f L i b e r a l r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h e new L e g i s l a t u r e w o u l d b e t w e n t y - f o u r . S l o a n M . P . f o r C o m o x - A t l i n t e l e g r a p h e d M c l n n i s o n S a t u r d a y a t n o o n a b o u t as f o l l o w s : " H o n . W . W . B . M c l n n i s , M . P . P . , V a n c o u v e r , B . C . 'We s h a l l h e l p y o u s h o u t t o n i g h t . ' " 7 1 B u t t h e r e was n o j o y I n L i b e r a l C i r c l e s i n 0 t t a w a - - o r V a n c o u v e r f o r t h a t m a t t e r . T h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s r e t u r n e d t w e n t y - s i x r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , 72 t h e L i b e r a l s t h i r t e e n , a n d t h e S o c i a l i s t s t h r e e . M c B r i d e h a d won t h a t m a j o r i t y f o r w h i c h he h a d w a i t e d s o i m p a t i e n t l y . To a g r e a t e x t e n t , t h e v i c t o r y was a p e r s o n a l one f o r t h e P r e m i e r who r a n i n V i c t o r i a ( a s w e l l as Dewdney) a n d s u c -c e e d e d i n s w i n g i n g t h e f o u r V i c t o r i a s e a t s t o h i s p a r t y . I n d e e d , t h i s V i c t o r i a c h a n g e " s a v e d t h e s i t u a t i o n " as C o t t o n s a i d when he a l s o o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e I n t e r i o r s i t u a t i o n r e -7 3 m a i n e d v e r y much as b e f o r e . O f c o u r s e , B o w s e r ' s t r u s t -l x B o r d e n t o M c B r i d e , 4 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 7 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 7 , f i l e N o . 1 . 7 2 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 7 , p . 6 0 8 . 7 5 C o t t o n t o M c B r i d e , 15 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 7 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 7 , F i l e N o . 1 . 103 w o r t h y m a c h i n e h a d e l e c t e d V a n c o u v e r ' s s o l i d f i v e . M c B r i d e c a l l e d t h e e l e c t i o n " a c r u s h i n g d e f e a t f o r 74 t h e O t t a w a m a c h i n e . " I t may h a v e b e e n t h a t . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a l i m p o r t a n c e l a y n e a r e r h o m e , f o r t h e m a j o r i t y won b y t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s on F e b r u a r y 2 n d , 1 9 0 7 , l i f t e d a r e -s t r a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e f r o m M c B r i d e a n d seems t o h a v e b r o u g h t h i m i n t o a n e n t i r e l y new e r a — o n e i n w h i c h p r o s p e r i t y a n d a m a j o r i t y made T a t l o w ' s i n f l u e n c e l e s s i m p o r t a n t . I n 1 9 0 5 , T h e N e l s o n T r i b u n e h a d c a l l e d o n t h e P r e m i e r t o " w i t h d r a w h i s a t t e n t i o n f o r f i v e m i n u t e s f r o m g i g a n t i c s c h e m e s w h i c h 75 he c a n n o t m a s t e r . . . . " Now t h e P r e m i e r c o u l d t u r n h i s h a n d t o s u c h s c h e m e s i n e a r n e s t . ' * M c B r i d e t o H.W. A d c o c k , 26 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 7 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 7 , F i l e N o . 1 . Q u o t e d i n E v e n i n g S u n , 3 M a r c h , 1 9 0 5 . CHAPTER V SCHEMES AND DREAMS T h e v e r d i c t o f t h e e l e c t o r s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e P r e m i e r f i r m l y i n t h e p r o v i n c e a n d h i s r o a d h e n c e f o r t h was s t r e w n w i t h f l o w e r s . G o s n e l l T h e e v e n t s o f 1906 a n d t h e e l e c t i o n o f F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 7 , l e f t t h e way o p e n f o r v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s i n t h e M c B r i d e m i n i s t r y . Of t h e f o u r men who f o r m e d M c B r i d e ' s f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o n l y T a t l o w a n d F u l t o n r e m a i n e d , t h e f o r m e r a s t h r i f t y a n d h a r d h e a d e d as e v e r , t h e l a t t e r s l o w , c a u t i o u s , c o n s c i e n t i o u s , a n d u t t e r l y r e l i a b l e . M a n s o n , who h a d t a k e n o v e r t h e p o s i t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y a n d M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , was t h e o n l y o t h e r M i n i s t e r - w i t h -p o r t f o l i o i n t h e o v e r l o a d e d M c B r i d e g o v e r n m e n t when i t went t o t h e p e o p l e . A n d h e was d e f e a t e d i n A l b e r n i . He h a d , o f c o u r s e , n e v e r c o m p e n s a t e d f o r t h e l o s s o f G r e e n a n d W i l s o n , a n y w a y . T h u s , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 7 , saw M c B r i d e , T a t l o w , a n d F u l t o n i n n e e d o f e x e c u t i v e a s s i s t a n c e — a n d a g r e a t d e a l d e p e n d e d u p o n w h e r e t h e y s o u g h t i t . R . E . G o s n e l l , " S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " A r t i c l e N o . 2 , V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 23 J u l y , 1 9 2 1 . H e n r y B s s o n Y o u n f l , M . P . P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y a n d M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , 1907 - 1 9 1 5 . D r . Y o u n g was t h e P r e m i e r ' s c l o s e s t c a b i n e t a l l y . T h e two men w e r e b o t h i m p e r i a l i s t s a n d b o t h h a d s o m e -w h a t s i m i l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t s . B o t h w e r e s c h e m e r s a n d d r e a m e r s o n t h e g r a n d s c a l e when i t came t o p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . Y o u n g h a d a B . A . f r o m Q u e e n ' s , a n d h i s M . D . f r o m M c G i l l . He h a d o r i g i n a l l y p r a c t i s e d i n S t . L o u i s , M i s s o u r i , b u t , I n 1 9 0 1 , h e went t o A t l l n , B . C , w h i c h d i s t r i c t h e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e f r o m 1 9 0 3 u n t i l 1 9 1 5 . 1 0 5 T h e f i r s t a d d i t i o n t o t h e c a b i n e t was t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f D r . H e n r y E s s o n Y o u n g , t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d -member f o r A t l i n , 2 as P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y a n d M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n . D r . Y o u n g was a w e l l - e d u c a t e d g e n t l e m a n , o f s t r i k i n g a p p e a r a n c e , who was a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d o f t h e P r e m i e r . He a n d M c B r i d e h a d o n e g r e a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n c o m m o n - - t h e i r f a i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e . " H a r r y " Y o u n g was t o r e m a i n i n t h e c a b i n e t u n t i l M c B r i d e r e s i g n e d a n d t h e n h e f o l l o w e d s u i t . T h r o u g h o u t t h e i r y e a r s t o g e t h e r , t h e y c o o p e r a t e d c l o s e l y i n p u r s u i t o f t h e i r v i s i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a s t h e g r e a t e s t p r o -v i n c e i n t h e D o m i n i o n . T h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f Y o u n g was s i g n i -f i c a n t f o r c a b i n e t r e l a t i o n s t o o , b e c a u s e t h e more men o f v i s i o n t h e t h r i f t y T a t l o w h a d t o c u r b , t h e more s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s w o u l d b e c o m e . T h e s e c o n d a d d i t i o n t o t h e c a b i n e t d i d n o t come f o r s i x months a n d i n t h a t t i m e many names w e r e j u g g l e d w i t h — among t h e m : f o r m e r A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , A . E . M c P h i l l i p s ; f o r m e r member o f s e v e r a l m i n i s t r i e s , D. M. E b e r t s ; t h e d o o r m a n o f t h e c a b i n e t , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o u n c i l , P. C a r t e r - C o t t o n ; a n d two men who h a d b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o m i n e n t i n t h e r e c e n t e l e c t i o n , W. R. R o s s o f F e r n i e a n d 3 t h e t h i r d member f o r V a n c o u v e r , W. J . B o w s e r . I t seems J . C a s t e l l H o p k i n s , T h e C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w o f  P u b l i c A f f a i r s , 1 9 0 7 , T o r o n t o , A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 8 , p . 6 0 8 . 3 M c P h i l l i p s , E b e r t s , R o s s a n d B o w s e r a r e m e n t i o n e d i n L o c . c i t . 106 p o s s i b l e t h a t M c B r i d e i n t e n d e d t o t a k e i n C o t t o n b e c a u s e t h e f e a r t h a t he was g o i n g t o d o s o was s u f f i c i e n t t o a r o u s e f i f t e e n s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o p e t i t i o n t h e P r e m -4 i e r a g a i n s t s u c h a c t i o n . T h i s w h o l e s a l e r e p u d i a t i o n o f C o t t o n seems s u r p r i s i n g i n t h a t t h e g e n t l e m a n - j o u r n a l i s t a l w a y s e x u d e d s u c h a n a u r a o f s i n c e r i t y a n d p u b l i c c o n -s c i e n c e . H o w e v e r , I t i s v e r y p r o b a b l e t h a t h e was d i s l i k e d f o r p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s as an a m b i t i o u s a n d c r a f t y man who c o n -t i n u a l l y p r e a c h e d a t p o l i t i c i a n s whom he c o n s i d e r e d o f l o w e r m o r a l c a l i b r e t h a n h i m s e l f . A t a n y r a t e , M o B r i d e c o u l d n o t i g n o r e f i f t e e n g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t e r s e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y i n c l u d e d t h r e e p a r t i c u l a r l y p o w e r f u l m e n , R o s s a n d P r i c e E l l i s o n f r o m t h e I n t e r i o r , a n d B o w s e r f r o m V a n -c o u v e r . F o r t h e t i m e b e i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h e o n l y o t h e r c a b i n e t c h a n g e c o n s i s t e d i n F u l t o n ' s a p p o i n t m e n t as C h i e f C o m m i s -s i o n e r o f L a n d s a n d W o r k s . I n a d d i t i o n , he r e t a i n e d t h e 5 A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l s h i p . B u t t h i s was a n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y P e t i t i o n i n M i s c e l l a n e o u s P a p e r s i n p o s s e s s i o n o f M r . M. F . M a c i n t o s h . I t was s i g n e d b y S c h o f i e l d ( Y m i r ) , E l l i s o n ( O k a n a g a n ) , S h a t f o r d ( S i r a i l k a m e e n ) , H a y w a r d ( C o w i -c h a n ) , P a r s o n ( C o l u m b i a ) , T h o m s o n ( V i c t o r i a ) , R o s s ( F e r n i e ) , B o w s e r ( V a n c o u v e r ) , M c K a y ( K a s l o ) , M c G u i r e ( V a n c o u v e r ) , B e h n s e n ( V i c t o r i a ) , G r a n t ( C o m o x ) , H u n t e r ( S l o c a n ) , G i f -f o r d (New W e s t m i n s t e r ) , M c P h i l l i p s ( I s l a n d s ) , a n d D a v e y ( V i c t o r i a ) . C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 7 , p . 6 0 8 . " N a p o l e o n " B o w s e r a n d H i s P u p p e t s . ( T h e b o s s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r C o n s e r v a t i v e m a c h i n e as h e may h a v e v i e w e d h i m s e l f ) . F r o m M c B r i d e ' s A l b u m o f C a r t o o n s 107 h e a v y l o a d as t h e s e two d e p a r t m e n t s w e r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d -e r e d t h e l a r g e s t i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t . F i n a l l y , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f J u l y , a f t e r M c B r i d e h a d b e e n t o E n g l a n d , h e r e c e i v e d a c o m p l a i n t f r o m F u l t o n t h a t " T h e s e two d e p a r t m e n t s . . . a r e g e t t i n g on my n e r v e s . . . a n d y o u 6 know I am n o t g i v e n t o w o r r y . " U n d o u b t e d l y , i t was a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s c o m p l a i n t t h a t t h e P r e m i e r d e c i d e d t o make t h e s e c o n d a d d i t i o n t o h i s c a b i n e t w i t h o u t f u r t h e r d e l a y . 7 On J u l y 2 4 t h , B o w s e r was a p p o i n t e d A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l . T h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f B o w s e r i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n i t s own r i g h t b e c a u s e o f t h e p o w e r w i e l d e d b y t h i s b o s s o f t h e V a n -c o u v e r C o n s e r v a t i v e m a c h i n e a n d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y w h i c h he h a d t o e x t e n d t h i s power t o o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e f r o m h i s p o s i t i o n as A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l . B u t i t i s o f most s i g n i f i c a n c e when t a k e n i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e a p p o i n t -ment o f D r . Y o u n g . When Y o u n g a n d B o w s e r j o i n e d t h e c a b i n e t , T a t l o w a n d F u l t o n w e r e r e n d e r e d p a s s e — t h e d a y o f t h e c o n -s e r v a t i v e s w i t h a s m a l l " o " was o v e r . Y o u n g w o u l d s t a n d a t t h e P r e m i e r ' s r i g h t h a n d a n d s t e e r t h e s h i p o f s t a t e s t e a d f a s t l y i n p u r s u i t o f t h e i r v i s i o n . B o w s e r was t h e man who k e p t t h e s h i p o f s t a t e C o n s e r v a t i v e w i t h a c a p i t a l 6 F u l t o n t o M c B r i d e , 2 9 J u n e , 1 9 0 7 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 7 , f i l e N o . 3 . C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 7 , p . 608 108 " C " . I t was B o w s e r ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t t h a t was t o g i v e a f r e e h a n d t o t h o s e two d r e a m e r s , Y o u n g a n d t h e P r e m i e r . M c B r i d e ' s t r i p t o L o n d o n was o n e o f many o t h e r i n -c i d e n t s as s i g n i f i c a n t ' o f - t h e new e r a a s t h e c a b i n e t a p -p o i n t m e n t s . T h e P r e m i e r h a d " r e t u r n e d f r o m h i s u n s u c c e s s f u l O t t a w a t r i u m p h t h e p r e v i o u s f a l l w i t h p r o m i s e s t o c a r r y t h e c a s e f o r t h e P r o v i n c e t o t h e - f o o t o f t h e t h r o n e . T h e n t h e L a u r i e r g o v e r n m e n t a n n o u n c e d i t s i n t e n t i o n o f i n s e r t i n g t h e t e r m s " f i n a l a n d u n a l t e r a b l e " i n t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e O t t a w a c o n f e r e n c e a s t h e y were t o g o b e f o r e t h e I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t . T h i s m o v e , a l t h o u g h d i r e c t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y a t B r i t i s h C o l u m -b i a , a c t u a l l y p l a y e d i n t o M c B r i d e ' s h a n d s . I t was f u t i l e t o t a l k o f t a k i n g t h e w h o l e B e t t e r T e r m s c a s e t o t h e f o o t o f t h e t h r o n e , b u t i t was j u s t p o s s i b l e t h a t a p e r s o n a l v i s i t f r o m t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e m i e r c o u l d s e c u r e t h e o m i s s i o n o f t h e o f f e n s i v e L a u r i e r f i n a l i t y c l a u s e . I t i s t r u e t h a t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y t h e w h o l e a f f a i r seems r i d i -c u l o u s b e c a u s e "What P a r l i a m e n t h a s d o n e , P a r l i a m e n t c a n u n d o , " b u t t h e f e e l i n g e x i s t e d n e v e r t h e l e s s , a n d n o t w i t h o u t r e a s o n , t h a t s h o u l d a n amendment t o t h e B . N . A . A c t a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s b e c o m e l a w , i t c o u l d make i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o g e t h e r f o o t i n t h e B e t t e r Terms d o o r a g a i n . 109 M c B r i d e d e p a r t e d f o r L o n d o n o n A p r i l 1 0 t h , 1 9 0 7 , a n d b y t h e 1 8 t h h e was i n M o n t r e a l w h e r e h e saw n u m e r o u s p e o p l e i n c l u d i n g S i r Thomas S h a u g h n e s s y b e f o r e g o i n g o n b o a r d s h i p 8 a t S t . J o h n . One c a n o n l y g u e s s a t what o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n M c B r i d e a n d S h a u g h n e s s y , b u t a g o o d g u i d e t o g u e s s i n g i s g i v e n b y t h e e n t h u s i a s t i c a s s u r a n c e s o f C . P . R . s u p p o r t w h i c h M c B r i d e h a d r e c e i v e d a f t e r h i s e l e c t i o n v i c t o r y . S h a u g h n e s s y h a d w r i t t e n t h e n : Y o u a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o s a y more p o s i t i v e l y t h a t e i t h e r i n r e s p e c t t o t r a i n s e r v i c e o r t i c k e t s o r a i d o f a n y k i n d w h a t s o e v e r y o u a r e n o t u n d e r o b l i g a t i o n t o t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t o t h e e x -t e n t o f one b r a s s f a r t h i n g . 9 S t r o n g l a n g u a g e t h a t - - a n d a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t s e q u e l t o t h e r a i l w a y a f f a i r s o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . A n d i t was p r o b a b l y w i t h m e m o r i e s o f e v e n more a s s u r a n c e s , t h i s t i m e o f a p e r s o n a l n a t u r e , t h a t M c B r i d e s a i l e d f o r E n g l a n d . When a p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n g a i n e d s u c h s u p p o r t f r o m t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y C o m p a n y , h e c o u l d a t l e a s t b e g i n t o t h i n k , as S h a u g h n e s s y h o p e d , t h a t , h i s " s w e e p i n g s u c c e s s i n B . C . " ' w a s " o n l y t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f f u t u r e s u c c e s s e s i n 10 t h e b r o a d e r f i e l d o f C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s , " B u t 8 M c B r i d e ' s D i a r y , e n t r y f o r 18 A p r i l , 1 9 0 7 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 9 S h a u g h n e s s y t o M c B r i d e , 22 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 7 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 7 , f i l e N o . 1 . 1 ° L o c . c i t . 110 Dewdney D i c k may h a v e b e e n t h i n k i n g on a n e v e n h i g h e r p l a n e as t h e E m p r e s s o f I r e l a n d b u f f e t e d h e r . w a y t h r o u g h raw w e a t h e r t o w a r d s t h e s e a t o f E m p i r e . A f t e r a l l , , he was g o i n g t o t r y t o c u t a f i g u r e b e f o r e t h e b i g men i n L o n -d o n i t s e l f - - a n d h e was t o do e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l . M c B r i d e s p e n t two months I n E n g l a n d a n d was f u r -i o u s l y b u s y t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t i m e i n t h e c a u s e o f t h e 11 p r o v i n c e . He may p e r h a p s h a v e d e v o t e d m o r e t i m e t o p e r s o n a l e n j o y m e n t when h e s p e n t a c o u p l e o f d a y s i n P a r i s a t t h e e n d o f M a y . I n L o n d o n , h e i m m e d i a t e l y p u t h i s c a s e b e f o r e L o r d E l g i n , " a n d h a d p r o l o n g e d c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h M r . W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l , U n d e r S e c r e t a r y f o r t h e C o l o n i e s , " who h a d c h a r g e o f t h e B i l l i n q u e s t i o n i n t h e 13 H o u s e o f Commons . He a l s o a c t e d t h r o u g h S i r F r a n c i s 14 H o p w b o d , a n o t h e r k e y f i g u r e i n t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . H i s e n d e a v o u r s w e r e r e w a r d e d b y M r . C h u r c h i l l ' s warm e s -p o u s a l o f h i s c a u s e , a n d b y t h e f i n a l p a s s i n g o f t h e m e a s u r e i n t h e Commons w i t h o u t t h e c r u c i a l w o r d s " f i n a l a n d u n a l t e r -a b l e . " I n m e n t i o n i n g t h a t t h e s e w o r d s w e r e " u n u s u a l a n d 1 1 S e e 1907 D i a r y , i n M i s c . P a p e r s , 12 L o c . c i t . 1 3 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 7 , p . 6 0 9 . 1 4 M c B r i d e ' s D i a r y , e n t r i e s f o r 6 a n d 27 M a y , 1 9 0 7 ; i n M i s c . P a p e r s . I l l u n s u i t a b l e i n a P a r l i a m e n t a r y s e n s e , " M r . C h u r c h i l l went on t o p a y t r i b u t e t o t h e c a s e made o u t w i t h " g r e a t f r a n k n e s s a n d f o r c e " b y t h e P r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , n o t o n l y f o r s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t f o r h i s P r o v i n c e . b u t a l s o " f o r f u l l l i b -15 e r t y t o u r g e i t s c l a i m s i n t h e f u t u r e . " H o w e v e r , M r . C h u r c h i l l was n o t t h e o n l y p r o m i n e n t E n g l i s h m a n i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e B r i t i s h - C o l u m b i a P r e m i e r , a s S i r F r a n c i s Hopwood was g r e a t l y t a k e n w i t h M c B r i d e , a s was T . P . O ' C o n n o r , t h e f a m o u s p o l i t i c a n a n d j o u r n a l i s t , a n d Hamar G r e e n w o o d , a n o t h e r p o l i t i c i a n w i t h a f l a r e f o r s p e c u l a t i o n . O ' C o n n o r , o r T e e P e e , as h e was w i d e l y k n o w n , r e f e r r e d t o M c B r i d e i n h i s : p a p e r a s " a y o u n g g i a n t w i t h a 16 w i l l o f i r o n u n d e r n e a t h a n a g r e e a b l e e x t e r i o r . " A n d G r e e n w o o d w r o t e t o M c B r i d e t h a t : Y o u h a v e a m i g h t y g o o d f r i e n d i n Hopwood - and h e r u l e s t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e no m a t t e r what p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i s i n p o w e r . When B u r r e l l went t o E n g l a n d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , h e r e p o r t e d t h a t " t h e p l e a s a n t e s t i m p r e s s i o n s " s t i l l r e m a i n e d 18 o f M c B r i d e ' s v i s i t . Dewdney D i c k h a d come a l o n g way f r o m t h e g o l d f i e l d s o f A t l i n t o t h e b a n q u e t i n g h a l l s o f t h e 1 5 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 7 , p . 6 0 9 . 1 6 L o c . c i t . 1 7 Hamar G r e e n w o o d t o M c B r i d e , A u g u s t , 1 9 0 8 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 8 , F i l e N o . 4 . •j o M a r t i n B u r r e l l t o M c B r i d e , 28 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 8 , I n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 8 , f i l e N o . 1 . 112 S a v o y . A s B u r r e l l p u t i t : I t e l l y o u , o l d m a n , t h e m o r e one s e e s o f L o n d o n a n d t h e m a g n i t u d e o f E n g l i s h p u b l i c a n d i n d u s t r i a l a f f a i r s t h e more we o u g h t t o c o n g r a t u l a t e o u r s e l v e s t h a t y o u a c h i e v e d what y o u d i d . I w o u l d l i k e some o f t h e c a r p i n g c r i t i c s o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n ( s a y o l d J o h n 0 . ) t o t r y a n d s e e what s o r t o f I m - p r e s s t h e y c o u l d make on t h e b i g men a t h o m e . W o u l d n ' t i t b e l o v e l y t o s e e h i m .19 U n k i n d p e r h a p s — b u t s i g n i f i c a n t , b e c a u s e h e r e was one o f M c B r i d e ' s r e a l a c h i e v e m e n t s . He was a c h a r m i n g a m b a s s a d o r f o r a p r o v i n c e t h a t n e e d e d p u b l i c i z i n g , a n d w h a t i s m o r e , h e was a s u c c e s s a t t h i s game f r o m t h e s t a r t . A p p a r e n t l y , t h i s c u r l y - h a i r e d b u t d i g n i f i e d y o u n g P r e m i e r was as much a t home i n C h u r c h i l l ' s p r i v a t e rooms i n t h e H o u s e o f C o m -20 mons o r a t t h e K i n g ' s G a r d e n P a r t y a t W i n d s o r a s he was " l a d e l l i n g o u t l i q u o r " a t t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e r a l l y i n L i l -l o o e t . A n d t h a t was no o r d i n a r y t h i n g . M c B r i d e ' s r e t u r n f r o m L o n d o n i n J u l y was e v e n m o r e t r i u m p h a n t t h a n h i s r e t u r n f r o m O t t a w a t h e p r e v i o u s O c t o b e r . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e P r e m i e r h a d d e a l t a p o w e r f u l b l o w t o t h e e x p r e s s e d p o l i c y o f S i r W i l -f r i d L a u r i e r — a p o l i c y o f u n i f o r m a n d p e r m a n e n t f i s c a l s e t t l e m e n t . " In V a n c o u v e r , a t l e a s t 2 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e w e l -c o m e d h i m o n t h e 1 2 t h w h i l e d e p u t a t i o n s f r o m New W e s t m i n s t e r x v M a r t i n B u r r e l l t o M c B r i d e , 28 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 8 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 8 , f i l e N o . 1 . S e e 1907 D i a r y , i n M i s c . P a p e r s 113 a n d e l s e w h e r e w e r e i n a t t e n d a n c e . . . . " I n M c B r i d e ' s home t o w n o f New Y a e s t m i n s t e r a n d i n V i c t o r i a , " s i m i l a r p u b l i c g r e e t i n g s 21 w e r e g i v e n . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t M c B r i d e c a r e f u l l y f o l l o w e d u p h i s i n i t i a l p e r s o n a l s u c c e s s i n E n g l a n d , a n d a p a r t i c u l a r e x a m p l e o f t h i s p o l i c y was h i s s e n d i n g o f a m o o s e h e a d t o W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l a n d a g r i z z l y b e a r s k i n t o S i r F r a n c i s H o p w o o d . A s M c B r i d e w r o t e t o h i s A g e n t -G e n e r a l t " T h e s e l i t t l e t h i n g s w i l l s u r e l y t e n d t o b r i n g u s 22 i n c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e I m p e r i a l A u t h o r i t i e s . " T h e 1 9 0 7 s e s s i o n h a d met o n M a r c h 7 t h b u t h a d c o n t i n -u e d a f t e r M c B r i d e ' s d e p a r t u r e f o r E n g l a n d . T h e r e u p o n , T a t -2 5 l o w became a c t i n g - P r e m i e r a n d L e a d e r o f t h e H o u s e . T h e s e s s i o n c o n t a i n e d one o r two n o t e s o f m a j o r i n t e r e s t b u t i t a l s o , a t t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g , r e v e a l e d a s m a l l b u t v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f t h e P r e m i e r ' s p a r t y - s o l i d a r i t y p o l i c y . M c B r i d e c a l l e d on H . B . Thomson o f V i c t o r i a t o move t h e A d -d r e s s i n r e p l y t o t h e s p e e c h f r o m t h e t h r o n e a n d G . A . M c G u i r e 24 o f V a n c o u v e r t o s e c o n d t h e A d d r e s s . M c G u i r e , a t l e a s t , was 2 1 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w . 1 9 0 7 , p . 6 1 0 . Op M c B r i d e t o T u r n e r , J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 8 , I n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , f i l e N o . 1 , a t t a c h e d t o g r o u p N o . 1 2 6 . 2 3 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 7 , p . 6 1 1 . 2 4 I b i d . - , p . 6 1 0 . 114 25 obviously touched by t h i s honour., . The s i g n i f i c a n t facts were that Thomson had polled the least votes of V i c t o r i a ' s four conservatives, and that McGuire, while p o l l i n g i n Vancouver a very few votes more than Garden, t r a i l e d the top three of the S o l i d Five quite noticeably. Furthermore, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that both Thomson and McGuire were new mem-26 bers. Here i s some small evidence of McBride's attention to d e t a i l i n party matters. He had a s o f t e r touch than Bowser, but at least within the ranks of elected members I t was no less e f f e c t i v e . Loyalty to McBride always came from the heart; l o y a l t y to Bowser nearly always from the pocket book. Here was one reason why Bowser found out i n the long run that he could not l i v e p o l i t i c a l l y by the machine alone. He had to have McBride as a charming and lovable facade. Each man needed the other; i t was McBride's wisdom always to r e a l i z e t h i s . The two major features of the 1907 Session were Tat-low's annual Budget and Dr. Young's university B i l l . The budget report showed that f o r the year ending on June 50, 1906, the estimated revenue of $2,559,376 had turned out to 2 5 G.A. McGuire to McBride, 15 March, 1907, i n Premier, Letters Inward, P r i v a t e , f i l e No. 1. 2 6 Gosnell, The Year Book of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1911-14 e d i t . , V i c t o r i a , 1911. 115 b e a n a e t u a l r e v e n u e o f # 3 , 0 4 4 , 4 4 2 . T h i s u n e x p e c t e d I n -c r e a s e was a c c o u n t e d f o r b y t h e r i s e I n t i m b e r a n d m i n i n g r e v e n u e s , a r i s e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g p r o v i n c i a l p r o s p e r i t y . A s u r p l u s r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e I n c r e a s e d r e v e n u e , a n d , a l t h o u g h i t was o n l y # 3 6 6 , 7 6 7 , T a t l o w must h a v e b e e n p l e a s e d w i t h I t a s h e h a d n o t e x p e c t e d o n e a t a l l b e c a u s e o f t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e C h i n e s e H e a d T a x as a s o u r c e o f 2 7 r e v e n u e . T h e l a t t e r t a x h a d s e r v e d i t s m a i n p u r p o s e i n r e s t r i c t i n g C h i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n b u t i n d o i n g s o i t h a d c e a s e d t o h a v e s i g n i f i c a n c e a s a s o u r c e o f r e v e n u e . D r . Y o u n g e v i d e n t l y b e l i e v e d i n w a s t i n g n o t i m e i n b r i n g i n g d reams t o f r u i t i o n b e c a u s e h e c a n s c a r c e l y h a v e b e e n i n t h e c a b i n e t two m o n t h s b e f o r e h e b r o u g h t down t h e U n i v e r s i t y B i l l - - t h e p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h was t o b e h i s c h i e f m e m o r i a l . T h e H o u s e d e a l t w i t h t h i s B i l l i n b o t h t h e 1907 a n d 1908 s e s s i o n s . A t t h e f o r m e r s e s s i o n i t w a s d e c i d e d t h a t a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y w o u l d b e p r e f e r a b l e t o a n i n s t i t u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y o f M o n t r e a l . @ a H H B tofe&afefcd US @S w Vancouver &*A v)'«c*«r«». fr'nec. i W . 8 1 ^  T h e n , when a U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d b e e n d e -c i d e d u p o n , t h e L e g i s l a t u r e a u t h o r i z e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t " t o s e t a p a r t 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 a c r e s o f l a n d a s a n endowment o f 2 7 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 7 , p . 6 1 1 . 116 f o u r f a c u l t i e s . . . " To t h i s e x t r a v a g a n c e t h e L i b e r a l s a n d 2 8 S o c i a l i s t s p u t u p s t r e n u o u s o b j e c t i o n s . T h e r e r e a l l y seems I n e s c a p a b l e i r o n y i n t h e r e p o r t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s o r g a n i n V a n c o u v e r , t h e P r o v i n c e . t h a t " l o c a t i o n o f a s i t e f o r t h e p r o p o s e d p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a c o m m i s s i o n c o m p o s e d o f l e a d i n g e d u c a t i o n i s t s r e p r e s e n t -29 i n g t h e e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . " T h e y w o u l d c e r t a i n l y h a v e h a d t o b e l e a d i n g men o f o n e k i n d o r a n o t h e r t o f i n d a s u i t a b l e two m i l l i o n a c r e s i t e . T h e f o r m e r L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r , S i r H e n r i J o l y , now r e t i r e d t o h i s home i n Q u e b e c , w r o t e w i t h a m u s i n g h o r r o r o f t h e a n n o u n c e d g r a n t . U n i v e r s i t y w i t h two m i l l i o n a c r e s 111 Where w i l l y o u p l a c e i t ? What a n e n o r m o u s g r a n t J What t e m p t a t i o n n . ' g Q I t was a n n o u n c e d t h a t " a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a c o m m i s s i o n a n d an a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f a b o u t $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 f o r e x p e n s e s w i l l b e s o u g h t i n a G o v e r n m e n t m e a s u r e " w h i c h D r . Y o u n g w o u l d 31 i n t r o d u c e a t t h e n e x t s e s s i o n . A t t h e n e x t s e s s i o n , i n F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 8 , D r . Y o u n g t o l d t h e L e g i s l a t u r e o f t h e s c h e m e w h i c h t h e g o v e r n m e n t 2 8 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 7 , p . 6 1 1 . 2f° " V a n c o u v e r D a l l y P r o v i n c e , 19 J u n e , 1 9 0 8 . 30 S i r H e n r i G u s t a v e J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e t o M c B r i d e , 13 A p r i l , 1 9 0 7 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , F i l e N o . 31 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 19 J u n e , 1 9 0 8 . I * «ttofe.l |ae»* tkt.-too rn'ilW.A acres u«.i r\e.Je.r t'fthjvAcd as ft*^'"^ ** 8 <*«\ £t\dUww\erft kwfc at iom«. |>«»|>U tftr<_ UAd*.r Hvt i-t*s'i»N 1V\AV VWS 117 then had under consideration. The appointment waa planned of a Chancellor, Convocation, Board of Governors, Senate, and Faculties of Instruction f o r the new u n i v e r s i t y . The Convocation was to Include eminent c i t i z e n s who did not have academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , as w e l l as "resident graduates of B r i t i s h U n i v e r s i t i e s . The Board of Governors was to i n -clude the. Chancellor and President and nine persons s e l e c t -ed by the Government." I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that t u i t -ion i n the Faculty of Arts was to be f r e e , and that f o r those f a c u l t i e s requiring fees a scholarship system was to be established. The Government also hoped to make a grant fo r an A g r i c u l t u r a l College. According to the Canadian  Annual Review, these plans were w e l l received by the House, and the B i l l embodying them was passed to a l l intents and 32 purposes i n t a c t . Dr. Young also brought down a B i l l f o r c i v i l service reform at the 1908 session, and th i s must be considered another notable achievement on the part of the Government. The purpose of th i s B i l l was to grade P r o v i n c i a l employees, to f i x a scale of s a l a r i e s and rate of increase, and to arrange f o r regular superannuation at the age of s i x t y , or, a f t e r twenty-five years se r v i c e , and a superannuation fund. The Province was to grant $200,000 towards t h i s fund. Canadian Annual Review, 1908, pp. 529-530. D r . Y o u n g a n n o u n c e d f u r t h e r t h a t t h e p o l i c y o f t h e B i l l i n c l u d e d p r o m o t i o n b y m e r i t " u n d e r s p e c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s . " T h e L i b e r a l s a t t a c k e d t h e s u p e r a n n u a t i o n c l a u s e b u t o t h e r -w i s e s h o w e d a p p r o v a l o f t h e B i l l , w h i c h , a s a r e s u l t , p a s s e d when t h e G o v e r n m e n t s t r u c k o u t t h e o f f e n d i n g 33 c l a u s e . T h e G o v e r n m e n t m a j o r i t y c o u l d p r e s u m a b l y h a v e p a s s e d t h e B i l l i n t a c t h u t D r . Y o u n g h a d m a i n t a i n e d f r o m t h e s t a r t t h a t s u g g e s t i o n s a n d amendments w e r e w e l c o m e . A p p a r e n t l y h e i n c l u d e d n e g a t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f t h e 1908 s e s s i o n was t h e P r e m i e r ' s m e a s u r e t o d i v i d e t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d & a n d W o r k s . T h e e n o r m o u s i n c r e a s e i n a c t i v i t y i n t h e l a n d a n d t i m b e r b u s i n e s s w h i c h h a d made t h i s s t e p n e c e s s a r y was a n o t h e r s i g n o f p r o v i n c i a l p r o s p e r i t y . F u l t o n r e t a i n e d one h a l f o f h i s f o r m e r d e p a r t m e n t when h e b e c a m e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , a n d Thomas T a y l o r , t h e member f o r R e v e l s t o k e a n d f o r m e r G o v e r n m e n t W h i p , j o i n e d t h e c a b i n e t t o t a k e o v e r 34 t h e o t h e r h a l f , a s M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c W o r k s . T h e c h o i c e o f T a y l o r was n o d o u b t t h e b e l a t e d r e s p o n s e t o a c a l l f o r K o o t e n a y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e c a b i n e t w h i c h M c B r i d e h a d r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e R e v e l s t o k e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n i n C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 8 , p . 5 3 0 . I b i d . , p . 523 a n d 5 3 1 . Thomas T a y l o r M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works 1 9 0 8 - 1 9 1 6 M i n i s t e r o f R a i l w a y s 1 9 1 1 - 1 9 1 6 O r i g i n a l l y G o v e r n m e n t " w h i p , ™ T a y l o r was t a k e n i n t o t h e c a b i n e t t o r e p r e s e n t t h e I n t e r i o r , when a n i n c r e a s e o f b u s i n e s s f o r c e d t h e s p l i t t i n g o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s a n d W o r k s . O r i g i n a l l y f r o m O n t a r i o , he was a m i n i n g b r o k e r b y p r o f e s s i o n . He s a t f o r R e v e l s t o k e f r o m 1900 t o 1 9 1 6 . T y p i c a l o f t h e c a b i n e t i n t h a t he l e f t o f f i c e a p o o r m a n , T a y l o r i s s a i d t o h a v e ^tftk a n d *h.</t I an k'li Ottw r a i l r o a d s a * - d _ eU<fo-W »•» dauK-f ian A 119 F e b r u a r y , 1907 j u s t a f t e r the e l e c t i o n . The S e c r e t a r y o f the A s s o c i a t i o n had reminded McBride t h a t "our man, T a y l o r , has p r i o r c l a i m " and had c o n t i n u e d by s a y i n g t h a t "any f a i l u r e to r e c o g n i z e the c l a i m a t t h i s j u n c t u r e w i l l r e f l e c t 35 to a v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e extent upon our member." Whether or not T a y l o r ' s appointment can be c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t i s h a r d t o t e l l . I t seems l i k e l y , however, t h a t the E e v e l -stoke member was not expected t o be a s t r o n g c a b i n e t p e r -s o n a l i t y , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t he had been an able whip; and t h a t t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h o f a n e g a t i v e v a r i e t y , was the one t h a t g a i n e d him admission. There were s t r o n g men enough i n the c a b i n e t . At l e a s t one "yes man" was needed. Of c o u r s e , one cannot o v e r l o o k the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p o l i t i c a l expediency;' r e q u i r e d acknowledgment of the Kootenay c l a i m . A p p a r e n t l y T a y l o r d i d w e l l i n the P u b l i c Works De-partment; at l e a s t the road b u i l d i n g program seems to have a t t a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s . Louis W. H i l l , P r e s i d e n t o f the Great Northern Railway Company, was witness to t h i s when he wrote to McBride the f o l l o w i n g year t h a t from p e r -s o n a l experience he b e l i e v e d B r i t i s h Columbia roads to be: ahead o f roads on t h i s s i d e o f the b o r d e r , e x c e p t i n g those o f Massachusetts and C a l i -f o r n i a , and c o n s i d e r i n g the newness of your c o u n t r y they a r e even ahead o f the 3 5 W.W. F o s t e r to McBride, 6 F e b r u a r y , 1907, i n Premier, L e t t e r s Inward, P r i v a t e , 1907, F i l e No. 1. 120 r o a d s o f t h e s e s t a t e s , t a k i n g i n t o c o n -s i d e r a t i o n t h e t i m e y o u h a v e b e e n w o r k i n g o n t h e m , e t c * I n d e e d , H i l l e l a b o r a t e d i n a n o t h e r l e t t e r o f t h e same d a t e t o t h e B o a r d o f H i g h w a y C o m m i s s i o n e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a when h e w r o t e , " r o a d b u i l d i n g h a s r e a c h e d a v e r y h i g h s t a t e 37 o f p e r f e c t i o n i n y o u r P r o v i n c e . . . . " T h i s was t e s t i m o n y , f r o m a somewhat i m p r e s s i v e s o u r c e , n o t o n l y t o p r o s p e r i t y b u t t o p r o g r e s s . M c B r i d e m u s t h a v e b e e n more t h a n p l e a s e d . B y f a r t h e most n o i s y e v e n t s o f t h e 1 9 0 7 - 1 9 0 8 p e r i o d w e r e t h o s e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e a n t i - O r i e n t a l f e e l i n g , w h i c h was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n V a n c o u v e r . On t h e w h o l e t h e s e e v e n t s w e r e n o t o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n M c B r i d e ' s c a r e e r , b u t some a s p e c t s o f t h e g e n e r a l t r o u b l e d i d become i m p o r t -a n t a t t h e F e d e r a l e l e c t l o n - o f 1 9 0 8 . T o s u m m a r i z e w i t h m e r c i l e s s b r e v i t y t h e r e c e n t h i s t o r y o f t h e O r i e n t a l p r o b l e m , o n e c a n n o t e t h e o r i g i n a l a n d b a s i c c a u s e o f t h e t r o u b l e a s a f e a r o n t h e p a r t o f w h i t e l a b o u r t h a t O r i e n t a l s c o u l d u n d e r b i d t h e m , a s t h e C h i n e s e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , d i d . T h e C h i n e s e w e r e e f f e c t i v e l y e x c l u d e d b y t h e #500 H e a d T a x , b u t t h e J a p a n e s e p o u r e d i n f r o m H a w a i i i n I n c r e a s i n g n u m -b e r s t o o f f s e t t h i s o r i g i n a l s u c c e s s ( a g a i n s t t h e C h i n e s e ) . S i k h s , o r H i n d u s a s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s h a v e a l w a y s e r r o n -36 L o u i s W. H i l l t o M c B r i d e , 13 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 9 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , S e m i - o f f i c i a l , 1 9 0 9 , f i l e N o . 1 3 7 H i l l t o t h e B o a r d o f H i g h w a y C o m m i s s i o n e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 13 J a n u a r y , 1 9 0 9 , I n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , S e m i - o f f i c i a l , 1 9 0 9 , f i l e N o . 1. 121 e o u s l y d u b b e d t h e m , w e r e a l s o t o a s m a l l e x t e n t " e n t e r i n g t h e P r o v i n c e a t t h i s p e r i o d . L e g i s l a t i o n a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t h e N a t a l A c t h a d b e e n c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s a l l o w e d b y t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t a s t h r e a t e n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e B r i t i s h a n d J a p a n e s e g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h h a d r e c e n t l y b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n a t r e a t y f o r m . I t was a l w a y s t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d t h a t i n d u s t r i a l i s t s s u c h a s D u n s m u i r a l s o s t o o d a g a i n s t e x c l u s i o n l e g i s l a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y w a n t e d t h e c h e a p l a b o u r . A t t h e e n d o f t h e summer o f 1 9 0 7 , a g i t a t o r s . , p r o b a b l y f o r t h e m o s t p a r t f r o m s o u t h o f t h e b o r d e r , s u c c e e d e d i n s t i r r i n g u p t h e a l r e a d y s t r o n g f e e l i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a b o u r r a n k s , a n d v i o l e n c e s o o n f o l l o w e d . A n A s i a t i c E x -c l u s i o n L e a g u e was f o r m e d i n V a n c o u v e r o n A u g u s t 1 2 t h a n d t h i s g r o u p t r i e d t o b r i n g p r e s s u r e t o b e a r o n t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e m o s t r e c e n t t y p e o f N a t a l A c t l e g i s l a t i o n . T h e B i l l i n q u e s t i o n was t h e B o w s e r B i l l r e s t r i c t i n g i m m i g r a t i o n o n a b a s i s o f E u r o p e a n l a n g u a g e q u a l i f i c a t i o n a n d t h e new L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r , D u n s m u i r , h a d w i t h h e l d h i s a s s e n t t o I t b e c a u s e , a s C a s t e l l H o p k i n s n o t e d , i t was a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l i n c o n t e n t w i t h p r o v i n c i a l , A c t s p r e v i o u s l y d i s a l l o w e d . D u n s m u i r ' s p o s i t i o n seems t o h a v e b e e n q u i t e v a l i d b u t h i s r e p u t a t i o n a s one o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' 3 c h i e f u s e r s o f O r i e n t a l l a b o u r d i d , o f c o u r s e , r e n d e r h i s a c t i o n s s u s p e c t , ( a s f a r a s l a b o u r was c o n c e r n e d ) . 122 T h e f a m o u s a n t i - O r i e n t a l r i o t i n V a n c o u v e r o n S e p t e m b e r 8 t h was one o f t h e s e q u e l s t o t h i s l a t e s t f a i l u r e b y e i t h e r p r o -v i n c i a l o r d o m i n i o n g o v e r n m e n t s t o p r o t e c t w h a t l a b o u r saw a s i t s i n t e r e s t s . T h e i m m e d i a t e p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f t h e r i o t 38 was p r o b a b l y t h e w o r k o f a g i t a t o r s . M c B r i d e ' s r o l e i n a l l t h e s e e v e n t s was a somewhat p a s s i v e o n e d e s p i t e t h e a c c u s a t i o n s f r o m some c e n t r e s t h a t h e was i n c a h o o t s w i t h t h a t s i n i s t e r i n d u s t r i a l i s t , t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r . He h a d a l w a y s b e e n a N a t a l A c t m a n , b u t h i s e n t h u s i a s m f o r s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n was u n d o u b t e d l y d i m i n i s h e d b y m e m o r i e s o f d i s a l l o w a n c e a n d b y a c o n s i d e r a b l e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s a t t h e I m p e r i a l L e v e l . A l t h o u g h h e may h a v e a p p r e c i a t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n . o f t h e L a u r i e r g o v e r n m e n t , a n d o n e s u s p e c t s t h a t he d i d b e c a u s e he was n o t o u t s p o k e n a g a i n s t t h e m o n t h i s q u e s t i o n a t t h i s t i m e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , h e p r o p h e s i e d t h e i r d o w n f a l l r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t t h e 1 9 0 8 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n a s a r e s u l t 39 o f t h e O r i e n t a l p r o b l e m . I n t h e y e a r b e t w e e n t h e V a n c o u v e r r i o t o f 1907 a n d t h e d o m i n i o n g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1 9 0 8 , t h e O r i e n t a l i s s u e : g r a d u a l l y s u b s i d e d . T h e d e t a i l s o f t h i s d e c l i n e c a n n o t b e ° ° " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d A s i a t i c I m m i g r a t i o n " i s w e l l c o v e r e d b y C a s t e l l H o p k i n s I n h i s C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w f o r 1 9 0 8 . C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 8 , p . 5 4 0 . 123 g i v e n h e r e b u t o n e o f t h e m a j o r c a u s e s w a s , o f c o u r s e , t h e G e n t l e m a n ' s A g r e e m e n t t o r e s t r i c t i m m i g r a t i o n w h i c h t h e L a u r i e r g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e d o u t w i t h t h e J a p a n e s e g o v e r n m e n t a t t h e e n d o f 1 9 0 7 . P r o v i n c l a l l y a n d p o l i t i c a l l y , t h e i s s u e r e m a i n e d u n t i l t h e t i m e o f t h e g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f t h e A s i a t i c E x c l u s i o n ^ w h i c h was b y t h a t t i m e t h e t o o l o f many p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r t h a n a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r e f f e c t i n g o r a f f e c t i n g p o l i c y s p o n t a n e o u s l y . Once a g a i n , M c B r i d e ' s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s e i s s u e s i s r a t h e r i n d i r e c t b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s n o t w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d i n t e r e s t . He h a d w a t c h e d e v e n t s t h r o u g h t h e med ium o f e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y i n t e l l i g e n t r e p o r t s b y P i n k e r t o n o p e r a t i v e s a n d c o n t a c t m e n , a n d t h i s s i t u a t i o n o b t a i n e d m o s t c o m p l e t e l y a t t h e g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n f i g h t i n V a n c o u v e r I n 1 9 0 8 . T h e s e r e p o r t s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h o n e a s p e c t o f a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n a n d a s s u c h a p p e a r p e r h a p s h a r d l y r e l e v a n t t o a n a c c o u n t o f M c B r i d e ' s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . H o w e v e r , t h e y a r e s u c h a m a r v e l l o u s i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l m a c h i n a t i o n s o f t h e d a y a n d a l s o a v a l u a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e f i n a l d i s -a p p e a r a n c e f r o m a l l p o l i t i c s o f W . W . B . M c l n n e s , M c B r i d e ' s 1 a c t i v e L i b e r a l o p p o n e n t , t h a t some a c c o u n t may b e p e r m l s s i r 4 0 b l e . * u T h i s a c c o u n t i s t a k e n e n t i r e l y f r o m t h e r e p o r t s o f A g e n t N o . 2 7 , i n t h e P i n k e r t o n r e p o r t s o f 1 9 0 8 , e n c l . i n M c B r i d e t o W a l t e r C . N i c h o l , I n M i s c . P a p e r s . 124 T h e c h i e f c h a r a c t e r s I n t h e d r a m a w e r e t h e C o n s e r -v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e , G e o . H . C o w a n ; t h e L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e , W . W . B . M c l n n e s ; t h e I n d e p e n d e n t c a n d i d a t e , J o s e p h M a r t i n ; t h e e d i t o r o f t h e s h o r t - l i v e d L i b e r a l M o r n i n g G u a r d i a n , Sam G o t h a r d ; t h e e d i t o r o f t h e e r s t w h i l e L i b e r a l Ejggg& W o r l d , T a y l o r ; a n d t h e o w n e r - e d i t o r o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e D a i l y P r o - v i n c e , W a l t e r N i c h o l . Cowan was n o t t h e c a n d i d a t e o f t h e m a c h i n e i n t h e c i t y , a n d i n v i e w o f t h e e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n s o f t h e g u i d i n g s p i r i t o f t h a t m a c h i n e q u o t e d h e r e s e v e r a l t i m e s , we d o n o t h a v e t o l o o k f a r f o r r e a s o n s w h y . O b -v i o u s l y , B o w s e r a n d Cowan r e m a i n e d a l o o f f r o m one a n o t h e r . As a r e s u l t Cowan was n o t , a t l e a s t t o b e g i n w i t h , i n a — p o s i t i o n t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e l u r e s o f p a t r o n a g e . M c l n n e s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , d i d h a v e L i b e r a l s u p p o r t , b u t o f c o u r s e , t h e r e was n o L i b e r a l m a c h i n e b e h i n d h i m c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t C o n s e r v a t i v e m a c h i n e r u l e d b y B o w s e r . M a r t i n i r o l e was a m y s t e r i o u s o n e I n t h a t h e made n o g r e a t e f f o r t t o s e c u r e h i s e l e c t i o n a n d I n d e e d p u b l i c l y a d m i t t e d h i s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n w i n n i n g . T h e P i n k e r t o n mahcmade a n e x c e l l e n t a n a l y s i s o f t h i s m y s t e r y a n d c o n c l u d e d t h a t M a r t i n was a c t u a l l y t h e C . P . R , c a n d i d a t e w h o s e l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l r e -s o u r c e s came f r o m t h e C . P . R , p a p e r , t h e P r o v i n c e . N i c h o l h a d p r e s u m a b l y p e r s u a d e d M a r t i n t o e n t e r t h e f i g h t t o d e -f e a t M c l n n e s , a n a n t l - C . P . R . L i b e r a l , a n d t h e r e b y a s s u r e C o w a n ' s v i c t o r y . M c l n n e s made a show o f a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e E x c l u s i o n L e a g u e w h i c h t h e P i n k e r t o n man p r o n o u n c e d a s u s e l e s s when h e w r o t e , "I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e r e a r e f i f t y v o t e s t h a t w i l l b e c a s t o n a n e x c l u s i o n b a s i s a n d t h e y w i l l b e d i v i d e d among t h e t h r e e c a n d i d a t e s . " A f u r t h e r b u n g l e was M c l n n e s ' h a n d l i n g o f t h e P r e s s T h e L i b e r a l s h a d n o t s u p p o r t e d t h e W o r l d i n t h e 1907 p r o -v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , a n d t h i s h a d a n g e r e d T a y l o r who h a d m a i n t a i n e d h i s t r a d i t i o n a l L i b e r a l a p p r o a c h t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i g h t . A f t e r w a r d s , when n o r e s t i t u t i o n was made t o T a y l o r h e b e g a n t o h a v e i n d e p e n d e n t l e a n i n g s . T h e L i b e r a l s h a d c r e a t e d a n d f i n a n c e d t h e M o r n i n g G u a r d i a n d u r i n g t h e e l e c t I o n w i t h Sam G o t h a r d a s e d i t o r . T h i s r e l a t i v e l y w o r t h l e s s c a m p a i g n s h e e t h a d b e e n a l l o w e d t o d i e a n a t u r a l d e a t h a f t e r t h e f a i l u r e o f L i b e r a l h o p e s I n t h e e l e c t i o n . T h u s , b y t h e t i m e o f t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n i n 1 9 0 8 , b o t h T a y l o r a n d G o t h a r d w e r e e m b i t t e r e d w i t h M c l n n e s , who i n c i d e n t a l l y l a c k e d t h e f u n d s t o make a n y r a p p r o c h e m e n t b e t w e e n them o n a c c o u n t o f t h e d e l i b e r a t e w i t h d r a w a l o f D o e r i n g , t h e b r e w i n g m a g n a t e , who h a d o r i g i n a l l y b e e n t h e m a j o r s o u r c e o f L i b e r a l " g r a i n . " M c L e n n a n , o f M c L e n n a n a n d M c P e e l y , r e p l a c e d D o e r i n g b u t p r o b a b l y was w i t h o u t t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e l a t t e r . G o t h a r d , w h o , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e P i n k e r t o n m a n , was a c t i n g p a r t l y o n b e h a l f o f T a y l o r , w e n t i n t o t h e L i b e r a l 126 n o m i n a t i n g c o n v e n t i o n a n d p a c k e d i t f o r M c l n n e s i n t h e h o p e t h a t $20,000 w o u l d h e f o r t h c o m i n g t o a s s u r e t h e L i b e r a l s t a n d o f t h e W o r l d * When n o money was p r o d u c e d , G o t h a r d w e n t i n t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e n o m i n a t i o n a n d p a c k e d i t f o r C o w a n , " t h e o n l y man who c o u l d d e f e a t M c l n n e s , 1 1 a n d " t h e o n l y man i n t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y f r o m whom h e c o u l d 41 h o p e t o g e t a n y f a v o r s . " A t t h a t s t a g e i n t h e a f f a i r , Cowan was e v i d e n t l y n o t i n a p o s i t i o n t o h a n d o u t many f a v o u r s , a n d q u i t e h o n e s t l y t o l d G o t h a r d t h a t p o l i t i c a l r e w a r d was o u t o f h i s h a n d s . H o w e v e r , G o t h a r d was a s s u r e d t h a t h e w o u l d b e t a k e n c a r e o f p e r s o n a l l y . T h e s e W o r l d - l y g y r a t i o n s t o o k p l a c e i n t h e f i r s t two weeks o f S e p t e m b e r a n d t h u s a b o u t s i x weeks b e f o r e t h e e l e c t i o n . U n t i l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f O c t o b e r a s t a l e m a t e s e t »•,< i n b e c a u s e t h e W o r l d owed $33,000 o n i t s p r e s s a n d t h e d e b t was h e l d b y O t t a w a L i b e r a l s . " T h i s was u s e d a s a l e v e r a g e o n T a y l o r t o t r y t o f o r c e h i m t o s u p p o r t M c l n n e s " a n d when " s t e p s w e r e t a k e n t o t a k e t h e p r e s s away f r o m h i m i f h e d i d 42 n o t d o s o , " C o t t o n e v i d e n t l y p l a c e d t h e N e w s - A d v e r t 1 3 e r p r e s s a t h i s d i s p o s a l . T h e L i b e r a l s t h e r e u p o n a b a n d o n e d " t h e i r e f f o r t s t o p u t T a y l o r o u t o f b u s i n e s s " a n d when Cowan r e t u r n e d f r o m a t r i p t o O t t a w a , T a y l o r " h i n t e d " t h a t h e h a d 41 R e p o r t o f S e p t e m b e r 13-16 i n c l . , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 4 2 R e p o r t o f O c t o b e r 1-3 i n c l . , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . RLFINLD VAUDEVILLE. " L a s t A p p e a r a n c e P o s i t i v e l y o f W « W . B . M c l n n e s o n t h e P o l i t i c a l S t a g e " 127 "no further fears of trouble with his Liberal creditors...." Mclnnes appears to have handled this campaign badly and as i t turned out his failure here was to be the "last appear-44 ance positively of W.W.B. Mclnnes on the Political Stage." It is interesting to note how thorough and astute these Pinkerton reports were and to realize the value of such inside information to McBride as Conservative leader in the Province. The chief significance of this particular turmoil in Vancouver was, of course, the defeat of Mclnnesj as the way was left open thereafter'for John Oliver to take over as provincial Leader when Macdonald retired. The 1907 45 failure had made Macdonald a "sick and disappointed man" whose retirement could be expected at any time. If Mclnnes had been s t i l l active and successful politically even in federal politics when this event occurred, he might have returned to take over the provincial leadership. Oliver, > worthy man though he was, does not 3eem to have worried McBride as an opposing leader. McBride was charming and elegant; but Oliver was rough and violent, and Macdonald was too austere. Against either man, on a personal basis 43 Report of October 1-8 incl., In Misc. Papers. 4 4 See cartoon opposite. 4 5 William K. Esling of Rossland to McBride, 4 Feb-ruary, 1907, in Premier, Letters Inward, Private, 1907, f i l e No. 1. 128 McBride was better e l e c t i o n material. But B i l l y Mclnnes was a threat of very d i f f e r e n t c a l i b r e . However, when he came back from the Yukon, i t had been reported even from his o r i g i n a l constituency that he had never been received 46 so c o l d l y . Then he had been defeated i n Vancouver i n the ensuing p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n . And now f i n a l l y , he had bowed out of p o l i t i c s i n a b a t t l e of newspapers and campaign funds, as McBride followed the whole story undoubtedly with r e l i e f and s a t i s f a c t i o n . This period saw the Conservative Premier's path smoothed In many ways—not least among them, the removal of t h i s , his most dangerous L i b e r a l r i v a l . On a more general f r o n t , McBride's personal connect-ions with the federal e l e c t i o n were l i m i t e d in.practice to the province, but they reveal the prestige which he was beginning to win i n federal c i r c l e s . As f a r back as 1902, Borden had been struck with McBride at the Revelstoke Con-ference. Then i n 1903, his name had come to national promr inence with h i s party government step. In 1906, he had r e a l l y gained prestige through his conduct at the Ottawa Conference. And i n 1907, h i s successful general e l e c t i o n >• had impressed those who worried over Laurier's continued triumphal progress i n the federal sphere. At the end of - John Mathews of Cumberland (Vancouver Island) to McBride, 15 January, 1907, i n Premier, Letters Inward, Pr i v a t e , 1907, f i l e Ho. 1. 1 2 9 1 9 0 7 , B o r d e n h a d t o u r e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h M c B r i d e a n d a t t h i s t i m e v a r i o u s C o n s e r v a t i v e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s s e e m t o h a v e b e e n much i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e y o u n g P r e m i e r ' s p r e s t i g e v a l u e o n t h e p l a t f o r m . I t was s a i d t h a t M c B r i d e h a d " p u t 47 new l i f e i n t h e p a r t y . . . . " He was s e e n a s t h e p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s c h a m p i o n a n d i t was s a i d t h a t h i s own 1907 s u c c e s s e v e n a p p e a l e d t o many E a s t e r n L i b e r a l s a s a v i c t o r y o v e r 48 t h e f o r c e s o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . " T h u s i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t . i n 1908 s e v e r a l a t -t e m p t s w e r e made t o i n c l u d e M c B r i d e o n B o r d e n ' s c r o s s c o u n -t r y t o u r w h i c h s t a r t e d a t H a l i f a x on S e p t e m b e r 1 4 t h . M c -B r i d e e v i d e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d i t e s s e n t i a l t h a t h e r e m a i n I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b u t o n r e q u e s t f r o m B o r d e n , h e w i r e d t h e H a l i f a x m e e t i n g a m e s s a g e o f p r o f u s e r e g r e t s a n d r e m i n -4 9 i s c e n c e s o f t h e o l d d a y s a t D a l h o u s l e . T h o u g h t h e t o u r was t h o u g h t a s u c c e s s , t h e e l e c t i o n w a s , o f c o u r s e , a n o t h e r f a i l u r e f o r B o r d e n . O n t a r i o a n d New B r u n s w i c k h a d b e e n 5 0 t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e weak s p o t s . 47 J . D . H e l d t o M c B r i d e , 16 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 0 7 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 7 , f i l e N o . 3 . 48 G o s n e l l ( f r o m M o n t r e a l ) t o M c B r i d e , 26 F e b r u a r y , " 1 9 0 7 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 7 , f i l e N o . 1 49 W i r e . M c B r i d e t o B o r d e n , 14 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 8 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 8 , f i l e N o . 5 . 5 0 S e e E o b l i n t o M c B r i d e , 28 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 8 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 8 , f i l e N o . 5 . 130 I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s w e r e r e t u r n e d 51 t o l e a v e a l o n e l y two L i b e r a l s o u t o f t h e p r e v i o u s s e v e n . 52 M c B r i d e h a d p r e d i c t e d t h e c a p t u r e o f f o u r s e a t s b u t e v i d -e n t l y t h o u g h t t h a t t h e a n t i - O r i e n t a l f e e l i n g m i g h t l o s e t h e L i b e r a l s e v e n m o r e . I t may I n f a c t h a v e b e e n t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h d i d a s much a s a n y t h i n g , t o b r e a k t h e L i b e r a l h o l d o n t h e p r o v i n c e . A t a n y r a t e B o r d e n was g r a t i f i e d a n d w i r e d " h e a r t y t h a n k s " f o r M c B r i d e ' s 53 " s p l e n d i d a i d a n d l o y a l c o o p e r a t i o n . " B a c k i n 1 9 0 7 , a f t e r t h e more l o c a l t r i u m p h M c B r i d e h a d b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t i n g r u m o u r s . I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t h e m i g h t s o o n e n t e r t h e f e d e r a l f i e l d . T h i s g u e s s i n g was p r e m a t u r e b u t o n e man w r o t e w i t h more f o r e s i g h t t h a t h e t h o u g h t t h a t i f B o r d e n " w i t h h i s c a t c h a t a n y s t r a w k i n d o f c a m p a i g n " was t o f a i l a g a i n , a n d M c B r i d e was t o w i n a g a i n p r o v i n e i a l l y , t h e n a s u i t a b l e , i f n o t i n e v i t a b l e o p e n i n g f o r M c B r i d e a s f e d e r a l l e a d e r 54 w o u l d a p p e a r . Now, o n e - h a l f o f t h a t c o n d i t i o n h a d b e e n 51 C o n s e r v a t i v e s : G o o d e v e ( K o o t e n a y ) , T a y l o r (New W e s t m i n s t e r ) , Cowan ( V a n c o u v e r ) , B a r n a r d ( V i c t o r i a ) , B u r -r e l l ( Y a l e - C a r i b o o ) . L i b e r a l s : T e m p l e m a n (Comox a n d A t l i n ) , S m i t h ( N a n a i m o ) , — G o s n e l l , B . C . Y e a r B o o k , 1 9 1 1 - 1 4 , p . 9 0 . 52 M c B r i d e t o H u g h J o h n M a c d o n a l d , 6 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 8 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 8 , f i l e N o . 5 . 5 3 W i r e B o r d e n t o M c B r i d e , 27 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 8 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 8 , f i l e N o . 5 . 5 4 F r e d G . T . L u c a s t o M c B r i d e , 18 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 7 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 0 7 , f i l e N o . 1 . 151 r e a l i z e d . I n t h e n e x t y e a r came M c B r i d e ' s o p p o r t u n i t y t o f u l f i l l t h e o t h e r h a l f . One s u b j e c t o f d i s c u s s i o n , t h o u g h t , a n d s p e c u l a t i o n must h a v e d o m i n a t e d a l l o t h e r s In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1 9 0 9 . T h i s was t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s a n n o u n c e m e n t o f - a p o s i t i v e p o l i c y t o w a r d s b r i n g i n g t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n H a l l w a y t o t h e C o a s t , I n s h o r t , a s t h e y s a i d i n t h o s e d a y s , " t h e c o m i n g o f M a c -K e n z i e a n d M a n n . " T h e g r e a t r a i l w a y s y s t e m w h i c h h a d a r i s e n t h r o u g h t h e f i n a n c i a l g e n i u s o f W i l l i a m M a c K e n z i e a n d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n g e n i u s o f D o n a l d Mann was t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e c a n d i d a t e t o c o m p l e t e a t h i r d t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l l i n e . N e v e r -t h e l e s s , t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s a n n o u n c e m e n t h a d come a s a s u r -p r i s e , i f o n l y b e c a u s e i t e n t i r e l y b r o k e , a t l o n g l a s t a s i t s e e m e d t o s o m e , t h e p o l i c y o f n o r a i l w a y e n t a n g l e m e n t s . A c t u a l l y , t h i s p o l i c y h a d n o t b e e n a s p l a n n e d a s many p r o -b a b l y t h o u g h t ; i t w a s , o f c o u r s e , m o r e t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e , c o n t e s t b e t w e e n M c B r i d e ' s d e s i r e f o r m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s a n d T a t l o w ' s i n s i s t e n c e o n a s t r i c t r e t r e n c h m e n t . A c t u a l l y , t h e s u b j e c t o f b r i n g i n g t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n t o t h e c o a s t h a d a r i s e n among t h e e x e c u t i v e a s f a r b a c k a s 1904 a t a n y r a t e , when T a t l o w , M c P h i l l i p s , a n d M c B r i d e h a d d i s c u s s e d 5 5 w i t h S i r C h a r l e s T u p p e r t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f s u e h a s t e p . T u p p e r h a d s a i d t h a t i t s h o u l d n o t b e n e g l e c t e d , a n d o n e 5 5 S e e M c B r i d e t o S i r C h a r l e s T u p p e r , 27 M a y , 1 9 0 4 , i n P r e m i e r ' s L e t t e r B o o k , P r i v a t e N o . 4 , M a r c h t o J u n e , 1 9 0 4 . 132 f e e l s s u r e t h a t M c B r i d e d i d n o t n e g l e c t i t . H o w e v e r , t i g h t f i n a n c e s , a s t u b b o r n f i n a n c e m i n i s t e r , a n d a s m a l l m a j o r i t y w o u l d s e e m t o h a v e c o m b i n e d t o p r e v e n t a n y a c t i v e p o l i c y * T h e r e f o r e , t h e 1 9 0 7 e l e c t o r a l t r i u m p h must h a v e b e e n a s s i g n i f i c a n t In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n as i t was i n o t h e r s . I n d e e d , a s s o o n a s M c B r i d e was c e r t a i n o f h i s m a j o r i t y , h e w i r e d t o Mann c o n f i d e n t i a l l y t h a t : g o o d w o r k i n g m a j o r i t y now a s s u r e d T h i n k i t w e l l h a v e m a t t e r t a k e n up i m m e d i a t e l y s o t h a t we may u n d e r s t a n d one a n o t h e r . . . . g g When n e g o t i a t i o n s a c t u a l l y g o t u n d e r way i s n o t a b -s o l u t e l y c l e a r , b u t i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t M c B r i d e ' s E n g l i s h t r i p a n d B o r d e n ' s t o u r o f t h e P r o v i n c e o c c u r r e d i n 1907 a n d m u s t h a v e k e p t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e m i e r v e r y b u s y , i t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y d i d n o t s t a r t u n t i l 1908* A m y s t e r i o u s r e p o r t o f a s p e e c h p r e s u m a b l y b y B o w s e r may r e f e r t o t h e p e r i o d j u s t p r i o r t o t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 57 1908 a s t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f n e g o t i a t i o n s . T h i s t h e o r y I s s u b s t a n t i a t e d b y t h e c e r t a i n k n o w l e d g e t h a t some a r r a n g e -ment b e t w e e n t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e r a i l w a y p r o m o t e r s h a d b e e n f a v o u r a b l y c o n s i d e r e d b y e a r l y D e c e m b e r o f t h a t y e a r . I n t h e m y s t e r i o u s s p e e c h , B o w s e r c l a i m e d t h a t h e was r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r t h e f i n a l d e a l w i t h M a c K e n z i e a n d M a n n . M c B r i d e was d e p i c t e d a s e a g e r t o c o n c l u d e a n y a g r e e m e n t a n d t e r r i -f i e d t h a t t h e r a i l w a y p r o m o t e r s w o u l d l e a v e i n d i s g u s t If* 5 6 W i r e M c B r i d e t o D . D . Mann, 13 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 7 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 5 7 U n s i g n e d r e p o r t among M i s c . P a p e r s * 1 3 3 t h e y w e r e p r e s s e d t o o f a r . A s t h e r e p o r t h a s i t : . . . o v e r a n d o v e r a g a i n t h e r a i l w a y b u i l d e r s t o o k u p t h e i r h a t s t o l e a v e , e a c h t i m e t h e P r e m i e r b e i n g i n t h e g r e a t e s t s t r a i t s , a n d f o r g i v i n g i n ; b u t t h e s p e a k e r ( B o w s e r ) was p e r s i s t e n t . 5 8 O n l y when i t was c l e a r t h a t t h © " l a s t o u n c e o f c o n c e s s i o n " h a d b e e n w r e s t e d f r o m t h e r a i l w a y p e o p l e d i d t h e A t t o r n e y -G e n e r a l a g r e e t o t e r m s . T h e r a i l w a y men a r e s u p p o s e d t o h a v e s a i d t h a t t h e y h a d n e v e r " d r i v e n a b a r g a i n w i t h s o 59 h a r d a m a n . " P e r h a p s t h i s v e r s i o n i s e x a g g e r a t e d — b u t a t a n y r a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n seems p l a u s i b l e i n i t s g e n e r a l o u t l i n e i n v i e w o f t h © c h a r a c t e r s o f B o w s e r a n d M c B r i d e . How many a r r a n g e m e n t s w e r e n e a r l y c o n c l u d e d o n e c a n o n l y g u e s s , b u t e v i d e n t l y t h e c a b i n e t members w e r e t o l d o f one i n D e c e m b e r 1 9 0 8 , a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t c l e a r t o what d e g r e e t h i s was s i m i l a r t o t h e f i n a l o n e . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t , C o t t o n w a r n e d M c B r i d e b y l e t t e r t h a t t h e y w e r e " f r a u g h t w i t h d a n -g e r , " a n d h e d e p l o r e d t h e d e p a r t u r e f r o m c a u t i o u s p o l i c y , a d e p a r t u r e w h i c h w o u l d "make a n y a r g u m e n t f o r B e t t e r Terms i m p o s s i b l e . . . c a u s e two p o w e r f u l c o r p o r a t i o n s t o become h o s t i l e . . . ( a n d ) r e s u l t i n f i n a n c i a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t w i l l p r o v e t o b© t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e n d a s f a r a s t h e p r e s e n t 5 8 U n s i g n e d r e p o r t among M i s c . P a p e r s . 5 9 L o c . c i t . 134 60 G o v e r n m e n t i s c o n c e r n e d , B I t I s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e l a s t o b j e c t i o n may h a v e b e e n f a r s i g h t e d i f t h e p r o p o s i -t i o n s r e f e r r e d t o w e r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f i n a l l y a c c e p t e d . T h e p u b l i c f i r s t r e c e i v e d a n i n k l i n g o f t h e n e g o t i a t -i o n s when M c B r i d e a n n o u n c e d i n t h e H o u s e o n J a n u a r y 2 5 t h , 1 9 0 9 , t h a t " T h e G o v e r n m e n t w i l l w e l c o m e a n y f a i r a n d e q u i t -a b l e a r r a n g e m e n t t h a t w i l l b r i n g t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n i n t o t h i s P r o v i n c e , " He c o n t i n u e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b y s a y i n g t h a t " A s s i s t a n c e w i l l be n e c e s s a r y b u t t h e i n t e r e s t s a n d r i g h t s * 61 o f t h e P r o v i n c e w i l l b e s e r v e d . " I n s p e a k i n g o f r a i l w a y d e v e l o p m e n t s s e v e n m o n t h s b e f o r e , M c B r i d e h a d s a i d , " p r e -s e n t l y , n o d o u b t , we w i l l h a v e M a c K e n z i e a n d Mann k n o c k i n g ; a t o u r d o o r s . L e t u s g i v e d e c e n t , i n t e l l i g e n t e n c o u r a g e -62 ment t o t h e s e u n d e r t a k i n g s ; b u t l e t u s g i v e n o t h i n g m o r e . " T h i s p o l i c y o f n o a i d t o r a i l w a y s h a d a t l a s t b e e n d r o p p e d a l t h o u g h i t m u s t h a v e b e e n c l e a r t o M c B r i d e f r o m t h e b e -g i n n i n g t h a t C o t t o n w o u l d n o t b e a l o n e i n d i s a p p r o v i n g . I n -d e e d , G o s n e l l s u g g e s t s t h a t T a t l o w a n d F u l t o n w e r e n o t t o l d t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n s c h e m e u n t i l j u s t 63 b e f o r e t h e s e w e r e made p u b l i c i n O c t o b e r . M c B r i d e knew o u Carter Cotton to McBride, 17 December, 1 9 0 8 , i n Misc. Papers. 61 Canadian Annual Review, 1 9 0 9 , p. 5 8 7 . Quoted i n : Canadian Annual Review, 1 9 0 8 , p. 5 2 5 . 6 3 Gosnell, " S i r Richard McBride," A r t i c l e No. 4 , Vancouver D a l l y Province, 13 August, 1 9 2 1 . 1 3 5 w e l l f r o m what q u a r t e r t r o u b l e w o u l d come* T h e J a n u a r y d e c l a r a t i o n was f o l l o w e d b y n i n e months w i t h o u t f u r t h e r n e w s , b u t i n t h a t t i m e t h e n u m e r o u s t o u r s o f t h e P r o v i n c e b y g o v e r n m e n t members w a r n e d o f p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r a n e l e c t i o n . I n J u n e , a p a r t y o f t h e P r e m i e r a n d some o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s c o v e r e d N e l s o n , S l o c a n , N a k u s p , A r r o w h e a d , R e v e l s t o k e , V e r n o n , K e l o w n a , K e r e m e o s , C r a n b r o o k , P e r n i e , E n d e r b y , P e n t i c t o n , M i d w a y , P h o e n i x , G r a n d P o r k s , R o s s l a n d , T r a i l , K a s l o , " a n d o t h e r p o i n t s " I n t h e I n t e r i o r ; a n d i n A u g u s t t h e P r e m i e r a n d D r . Y o u n g " v i s i t e d P r i n c e R u p e r t a n d p o i n t s i n t h e A t l i n r e g i o n a n d t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , . . . " I n S e p t e m b e r , T a y l o r , t h e M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c W o r k s , t o u r e d t h e I n t e r i o r , t o u c h i n g s u c h p o i n t s a s A r r o w h e a d , G o l d e n , C r a n b r o o k a n d P e r n i e , b e f o r e b e i n g j o i n e d b y B o w s e r t o c o v e r 64 Y a l e , C a r i b o o , a n d L i l l o o e t . M e a n w h i l e , t h e L i b e r a l s c o m p l a i n e d b e c a u s e t h e P r e m i e r d i d n o t r e v e a l h i s d e a l w i t h t h e r a i l w a y men . I t was c h a r g e d t h a t M c B r i d e deemed i t more i m p o r t a n t t o s c o r e a p e r s o n a l p o i n t i n t h e p o l i t i c a l game t h a n t o g i v e t h e p u b l i c t h e n e c e s -65 s a r y I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t i t s own b u s i n e s s . When t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r d i s s o l v e d t h e H o u s e o n O c t o b e r 1 8 t h , t h i s c r y r o s e 64 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w . 1 9 0 9 , p p . 5 8 0 - 5 8 1 " P r e m i e r M c B r i d e A g a i n R e f u s e s t o Show C o n t r a c t , " V a n c o u v e r D a i l y W o r l d . 2 1 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 9 . J . A . M a c d o n a l d , K>C. L i b e r a l L e a d e r , 1905 - 1 9 0 9 . T h e member f o r R o s s l a n d , M a c d o n a l d was a v e r y s i n c e r e a n d much r e s p e c t e d m a n , a n d a v e r y a b l e l a w y e r . H o w e v e r , h e l a c k e d t h e c o l o u r t o m a t c h M c B r i d e a n d a p p e a r e d r a t h e r a u s t e r e b y c o n t r a s t . He r e s i g n e d t h e L i b e r a l l e a d e r s h i p i n 1909 t o b e -come C h i e f J u s t i c e o f t h e new C o u r t o f A p p e a l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 5 6 t o a n e v e n g r e a t e r p i t c h , N o m i n a t i o n s w e r e t o h e h e l d o n N o v e m b e r 1 1 t h , a n d t h e e l e c t i o n was t o f o l l o w o n t h e 2 5 t h . T h e L i b e r a l s w e r e d e s p e r a t e f o r a n a d v a n c e l o o k a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s s c h e m e * J u s t b e f o r e d i s s o l u t i o n , t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p h a d s u f -f e r e d f r o m t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f J.A. M a c d o n a l d a s C h i e f J u s t i c e o f t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , He h a d b e e n i m -m e d i a t e l y s u c c e e d e d b y J o h n O l i v e r , b u t a l t h o u g h M a c d o n a l d ' s a p p o i n t m e n t may h a v e b e e n a n t i c i p a t e d a n d O l i v e r ' s s u c c e s s -i o n h a d u n a n i m o u s s u p p o r t , i t was a n awkward t i m e f o r a c h a n g e . O l i v e r p r e s s e d M c B r i d e f o r t h e r i g h t t o i n s p e c t t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n c o n t r a c t b u t c o u l d o n l y g a i n s u c h p e r m i s s i o n u n d e r a p l e d g e o f s e c r e c y - - a c o n d i t i o n w h i c h h e 66 r e f u s e d . A r e s u m e o f t h e d e a l h a d b e e n r e l e a s e d when t h e H o u s e was d i s s o l v e d , b u t t h e L i b e r a l s d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h i s s u f f i c i e n t . On t h a t o c c a s i o n M c B r i d e h a d i s s u e d t h e f o l l o w -i n g s t a t e m e n t * We h a v e e n t e r e d i n t o a c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r o a d f r o m t h e Y e l l o w - H e a d P a s s t o K a m l o o p s b y w a y o f t h e N o r t h T h o m p s o n R i v e r , f r o m K a m l o o p s t o W e s t - -m i n s t e r a n d V a n c o u v e r a n d f r o m a p o i n t n e a r V a n -c o u v e r t o E n g l i s h B l u f f , t o make a f i r s t - c l a s s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h V i c t o r i a b o t h f o r p a s s e n g e r s a n d f r e i g h t a n d t o b u i l d a r a i l w a y f r o m V i c t o r i a t o B a r k l e y S o u n d . T h e d i s t a n c e i n a l l w i l l b e a b o u t 600 m i l e s . T o a s s i s t t h e Company i n t h e c o n -s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s r o a d , w h i c h w i l l c o s t a t l e a s t b b O l i v e r t o M c B r i d e , 21 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 9 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , O f f i c i a l , 1 9 0 9 , P i l e N o . 5 . 137 a b o u t $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 a m i l e , t h e G o v e r n m e n t w i l l a s k t h e L e g i s l a t u r e t o g u a r a n t e e i n t e r e s t a t 4 p e r c e n t u p o n $ 3 5 , 0 0 0 p e r m i l e . F o r s e c u r i t y t h e P r o v i n c e w i l l h o l d a f i r s t m o r t g a g e o n t h e l i n e o f r a i l w a y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d a n y w i l l h a v e a c o v e n a n t f r o m t h e C . N . R . C o m p a n y , i n d e m n i f y i n g i t a g a i n s t a n y l o s s t h a t m i g h t p o s s i b l y o c c u r . B y t h e t i m e t h i s r a i l w a y i s f i n i s h e d t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n w i l l h a v e a t l e a s t 5 , 0 0 0 m i l e s o f r a i l -way t h r o u g h a h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e c o u n t r y . T h e r a i l w a y i s t o b e f i r s t - c l a s s i n e v e r y r e s p e c t . No A s i a t i c s a r e t o be e m p l o y e d , a n d t h e s t a n -d a r d r a t e s o f wages a r e t o b e p a i d . Work w i l l be b e g u n w i t h i n t h r e e m o n t h s a f t e r t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r h a s b e e n g i v e n t o t h e B i l l , a n d t h e w h o l e l i n e w i l l b e c o m p l e t e d f r o m Y e l l o w - H e a d P a s s t o B a r k l e y S o u n d w i t h i n f o u r y e a r s . 6 7 U n t i l t h e c a m p a i g n o f f i c i a l l y b e g a n , h e r e f u s e d t o r e v e a l a n y t h i n g f u r t h e r * T h e e x c i t e m e n t a l r e a d y a r o u s e d b y t h i s h i n t o f t h e r a i l w a y d e a l was r a i s e d t o f e v e r h e a t b y t h e e v e n t s o f t h e n e x t few d a y s . On t h e 1 9 t h o f 0 c t o b e r - - t h e d a y o n w h i c h t h e c o n t r a c t was s i g n e d b y D o n a l d Mann a n d t h e a b o v e a n n o u n c e -ment o f i t s c o n t e n t s was m a d e , a c a b i n e t m e e t i n g was h e l d 68 t o d i s c u s s t h e r a i l w a y p o l i c y . A t t h i s m e e t i n g T a t l o w a n d F u l t o n m u s t h a v e s t r e n u o u s l y o p p o s e d t h e c o n t r a c t ; f o r , o n t h e f o l l o w i n g two d a y s , f i r s t T a t l o w a n d t h e n F u l t o n r e s i g n e d . M c B r i d e n o t e s i n h i s d a i r y t h a t " C o t t o n s t a y s , " 69 s o h e must h a v e b e e n a d o u b t f u l s u p p o r t e r t o o . When F u l t o n 6 7 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w . 1 9 0 9 , p . 5 8 7 . 6 8 M c B r i d e ' s D i a r y , e n t r y f o r 19 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 9 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 6 9 E n t r i e s f o r 2 0 a n d 21 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 9 , i n M i s e . P a p e r s , 1 3 8 r e s i g n e d , M c B r i d e s e n t f o r P r i c e . . E l l i s o n , - . , t h e w e a l t h y member f o r t h e O k a n a g a n , who a r r i v e d o n t h e 2 3 r d a n d a g r e e d t o t a k e 70 o v e r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s . B o w s e r became F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r u n t i l a f t e r t h e e l e c t i o n . I t s o o n b e c a m e known t h a t T a t l o w a n d F u l t o n h a d t a k e n e x c e p t i o n t o t h e b o n d g u a r a n t e e o f 4 p e r c e n t o n $ 3 5 , 0 0 0 p e r m i l e . T h e y d i d n o t f e e l t h a t i t was t o o much b u t r a t h e r t h a t n o g u a r a n t e e s h o u l d h a v e b e e n made a t a l l . B o t h men w e r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t s h o u l d t h e boom t i m e s c o n t i n u e , M a c K e n z i e a n d Mann w o u l d p a y t h e i r own way t o t h e P a c i f i c 71 w i t h o u t g u a r a n t e e . W h e t h e r o r n o t t h i s v i e w was r i g h t o r w r o n g was i m m a t e r i a l t o M c B r i d e . Q u i t e a p a r t f r o m h i s own p r o g r e s s m a n i a he k n e w , a s a n a s t u t e p o l l t i c a n a n d k e e n j u d g e o f p u b l i c f e e l i n g t h a t t h e p e o p l e w a n t e d r a i l w a y s . T h e y w a n t e d a l l k i n d s o f m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s , a s h e d i d , b u t a b o v e a l l t h e y w a n t e d r a i l w a y s . What M c B r i d e p r o b a b l y d i d n o t r e a l i z e was t h a t , t o t h e e l e c t o r a t e , r a i l w a y s meant a n i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s p e c u l a t i o n i n l a n d . H i s own s c h e m e s a n d d r e a m s w e r e n e v e r s o mundane a n d i t i s t o b e d o u b t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t h e s u s p e c t e d t h e m o t i v a t i o n b e h i n d t h e c r a z e f o r r a i l w a y s , a m o t i v a t i o n t h a t was t o r e n d e r ( K J E n t r y f o r 2 3 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 9 , I n M i s c . P a p e r s . 7 1 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 9 , p . 5 8 8 . 1 3 9 much o f t h e boom h o l l o w , u n r e a l , a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y u n s o u n d . How t h a t " H a r r y " / 5 £ o u n g c o u l d a g r e e w i t h h i m a n d B o w s e r c o u l d d r i v e t h e b a r g a i n f o r h i m a n d s u p p o r t h i m , M c B r i d e f e l t i t e s s e n t i a l t o g o o n t o g r e a t e r t h i n g s , i f n e c e s s a r y w i t h o u t h i s two l o y a l a n d h o n e s t f e l l o w m i n i s t e r s . B u t a l t h o u g h t h e s e r e s i g n a t i o n s w e r e a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l e , t h e y r e m a i n s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n two r e s p e c t s . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , M c B r i d e must h a v e s u f f e r e d p e r -s o n a l l y a t h a v i n g t o p a r t w i t h h i s two f r i e n d s . A l l a u t h o r i -t i e s a g r e e t h a t h e was a n I n t e n s e l y l o y a l a n d a f f e c t i o n a t e man who h a t e d t o h u r t o t h e r s b u t was a l l t o o e a s i l y h u r t h i m s e l f . I n v i e w o f t h i s , o n e f e e l s s u r e t h a t t h e c l a s h w i t h P u l t o n a n d o l d " T a t " must h a v e g r i e v e d h i m d e e p l y . B o t h men r e m a i n e d t h e b e s t o f f r i e n d s w i t h t h e P r e m i e r , T a t l o w i n p a r t i c u l a r l y , who u s e d t o come down f r e q u e n t l y t o t h e H o u s e I n i t s n e x t s e s s i o n t o s e e how " t h e B o y , " a s h e a f f e c t i o n a t e l y c a l l e d t h e y o u n g P r e m i e r , was g e t t i n g 7 2 a l o n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , u n p l e a s a n t n e s s m u s t h a v e o c c u r r e d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e r e s i g n a t i o n s a n d m u s t h a v e u p s e t M c B r i d e . I n t h e s e o o n d p l a c e , t h e p e o p l e o f t h e P r o v i n c e w e r e t r e m e n d o u s l y i m p r e s s e d b y t h e d e p a r t u r e o f T a t l o w . H i s r e p u t a t i o n h a d g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d a s t h e y e a r s w o r e o n u n t i l he was known among a l l i n t e r e s t e d c a p i t a l i s t s b o t h B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n a s t h e man who h a d made B r i t i s h 7 2 I n t e r v i e w w i t h M i s s L . M. B o w r o n . £3 Robert Garnett Tatlow A caricature by SPY, the famous English cartoonist of those days, A much enlarged copy of this hangs i n the lobby of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly i n V i c t o r i a . 140 C o l u m b i a a s a f e I n v e s t m e n t . A t home h e was r e s p e c t e d e v e r y -w h e r e a n d w i t h g o o d r e a s o n . He was t h e i d e a l p u b l i c s e r -v a n t , a n d I t I s d o u b t f u l I f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e v e r h a d o n e t o m a t c h h i m . He h a n d l e d t h e p u b l i c money a s h e w o u l d h a v e h a n d l e d h i s own m o n e y — c a u t i o u s l y . A s t o r y i s t o l d o f T a t -l o w t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s a t t i t u d e w e l l . He a n d M c B r i d e w e r e a b o u t t o t a k e t h e t r a i n f o r t h e E a s t o n one o c c a s i o n a n d a c c o r d i n g l y , T a t l o w w e n t down t o b u y h i m s e l f t i c k e t s a n d s l e e p i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n . He was u s i n g g o v e r n m e n t f u n d s . q u i t e l e g i t i m a t e l y b e c a u s e h e was t r a v e l l i n g o n g o v e r n m e n t , b u s i n e s s . When h e g o t t o t h e t i c k e t o f f i c e , h e b o u g h t h i s t i c k e t a n d a s k e d f o r a l o w e r b e r t h . The t i c k e t s a l e s m a n i n t e r r u p t e d t o s a y t h a t t h e P r e m i e r h a d a l r e a d y b e e n i n a n d r e s e r v e d two d r a w i n g r o o m s . T a t l o w went home m u t t e r i n g t o h i m s e l f t h a t s u c h e x t r a v a g a n c e was n o t n e c e s s a r y . When h e saw M c B r i d e , t h e P r e m i e r a n s w e r e d h i 3 c o m p l a i n t s b y s a y i n g t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o k e e p u p some s t y l e when one w a s a 73 c h i e f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e P r o v i n c e . B o t h men meant w e l l ; M c B r i d e was as s i n c e r e a s T a t l o w a n d t o some e x t e n t h i s a t t i t u d e was a s o u n d o n e * B u t t h e s i g n i f i c a n t T a t l o w a t t i t u d e i s s h o w n e v e n h e r e ; i f i t was n o t a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o s p e n d m o n e y , h e w o u l d n o t s p e n d i t . A l o w e r b e r t h was q u i t e g o o d e n o u g h f o r t h i s h o n e s t I r i s h m a n . T h e b o n d g u a r a n t e e was l i k e u s i n g t h e t w o d r a w i n g r o o m s * I n t e r v i e w w i t h M r s . C o r n w a l l . V a n c o u v e r D a i l y W o r l d . 2 3 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 9 . 141 P u l t o n was n o t a s w i d e l y k n o w n , b u t i n t h e p r o v i n c e h e seems t o h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a s h o n e s t a s T a t l o w a l -t h o u g h n o t a s a s t u t e . T h e i m p r e s s i o n c r e a t e d b y t h e r e s i g -n a t i o n s o f t h e s e two men c a n t h e r e f o r e b e w e l l a p p r e c i a t e d . T h e two m i n i s t e r s who h a d b e e n r e n o w n e d f o r t h e i r h o n e s t y r e s i g n e d a t t h e same t i m e o v e r t h e same p o l i c y . I t was no w o n d e r t h a t t h e r e w e r e some r e p o r t s t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d 74 b e doomed b y t h e r e s i g n a t i o n s . M c B r i d e s u f f e r e d p e r s o n a l m i s f o r t u n e i n t h e m i d s t o f t h i s r e s i g n a t i o n c r i s i s when h i s o n l y s o n was b o r n o n O c t o b e r 2 4 t h b u t f a i l e d t o l i v e m o r e t h a n f i v e d a y s . A man l i k e t h e P r e m i e r m u s t h a v e l o n g e d f o r a s o n , b u t s i x d a u g h t e r s w e r e t h e t o t a l o f h i s p r o g e n y . I t i s t o u c h i n g t o n o t e t h a t a w e e k a f t e r t h e c a b i n e t t u r m o i l , t h e r e a l f r i e n d -s h i p o f M c B r i d e , T a t l o w , a n d P u l t o n b r o u g h t t h e m a l l t o -g e t h e r a t t h e b u r i a l o f : the l i t t l e b o y who h a d b e e n c h r i s t -e n e d R i c h a r d j u s t two h o u r s b e f o r e h e d i e d . A f t e r one d a y ' s 75 r e s t , t h e P r e m i e r h a d t o s t r i k e o f f o n t h e c a m p a i g n t r a i l . T h e e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n o f 1909 was f o u g h t a l m o s t e n -t i r e l y o n r a i l w a y p o l i c y , b e c a u s e n o t o n l y d i d t h e P r e m i e r a n n o u n c e a d e a l w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n , b u t a l s o w i t h t h e K e t t l e R i v e r V a l l e y R a i l w a y f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n f r o m M i d w a y t o V e r n o n w h i c h w o u l d c o n n e c t t h e B o u n d a r y c o u n t r y a n d 7 4 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , / p . 5 8 8 . 7 5 S e e M c B r i d e ' s D i a r y , e n t r i e s f o r 24 t o 31 O c t o b e r , 1909, i n M i s c . P a p e r s J o h n O l i v e r , L i b e r a l Once d e s c r i b e d b y M c B r i d e as a s i n c e r e " J o h n B r o w n t y p e o f m a n , " t h e f a r m e r who e a t f o r D e l t a f r o m 1900 u n t i l h i s d e f e a t i n 1909 was a r o u g h a n d r e a d y d e b a t e r who was m o r e f o r c e f u l t h a n a d r o i t w h e t h e r h e was s p e a k i n g o n t h e f l o o r o f t h e H o u s e , o r o n t h e h u s t i n g s . A s M a c d o n a l d 1 s s u b o r d i n a t e h e s u p p l e m e n t e d t h a t r a t h e r a u s t e r e man s o t h a t t h e y f o r m e d a n e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n . On h i s own as p a r t y l e a d e r i n 1 9 0 9 , O l i v e r f o u n d t h a t h e c o u l d n o t m a t c h M c B r i d e ' s a p p e a l a l t h o u g h h e made a n o b l e e f f o r t i n t h e c a m p a i g n o f t h a t y e a r . R e p l a c e d b y B r e w s t e r a s l e a d e r o f t h e p a r t y a f t e r t h e 1909 d e b a c l e , he r e t u r n e d t o p r o m i n e n c e a f t e r t h e A l b e r n i m e m b e r ' s d e a t h t o b e c o m e P r e m i e r o f t h e P r o v i n c e f r o m 1918 u n t i l 1 9 2 7 , when h e d i e d i n o f f i c e . T h i s n i n e y e a r p e r i o d was o n l y b e a t e n b y M c B r i d e , 142 t h © K o o t e n a y s , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a n a l l - r a i l l i n k f r o m t h © c o a s t c i t i e s t o S p o k a n e . T h i s p r o j e c t was t o b e a i d e d b y 76 a c a s h s u b s i d y t o t a l l i n g $ 7 5 0 , 0 0 0 — a n o t h e r d e p a r t u r e f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y . B o t h t h e new s c h e m e s w e r e t h © f r o s t i n g o n t h © c a k e o f p r o s p e r i t y w h i c h t h © g o v e r n m e n t s h o w e d t o t h © p e o p l e s a y i n g , n We h a v e d o n e t h i s f o r y o u . n T h e e l e c t o r -a t e c o u l d n o t f a i l t o b e i m p r e s s e d b e c a u s e p r o s p e r i t y was e v i d e n t e v e r y w h e r e ( p a r t i c u l a r l y I n l a n d p r i c e s ) , a n d t h e r e s e e m e d © v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s e new r a i l w a y schemes w o u l d b r i n g a n e v e n g r e a t e r boom t o t h e p r o v i n c e . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e y w e r e s o o v e r w h e l m i n g l y f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y , b e c a u s e t h e O p p o s i t i o n , o f f i c i a l a n d o t h e r w i s e , was c e r t a i n l y n o t i d l e . J o h n O l i v e r , t h e new L i b e r a l l e a d e r , was j o i n e d b y S i r C h a r l e s H i b b e r t T u p p e r , a C o n s e r v a t i v e o f v e r y I n d e p e n d -e n t m i n d who h a d l o n g o p p o s e d t h e P r e m i e r , i n a t t a c k i n g t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n c o n t r a c t . O l i v e r s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e new 77 d e a l d i d n o t o p e n up new t e r r i t o r y . I n d e e d , t h e C . P . R . was t o b e d o u b l e t r a c k e d f r o m K a m l o o p s t o V a n c o u v e r b y the i -new l i n e . T h i s o b j e c t i o n was v e r y v a l i d , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y -i t s l a c k o f e f f e c t I s somewhat p u z z l i n g . H o w e v e r , two f a c t o r s may b e s i g n i f i c a n t . A l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e s w o u l d p r o b a b l y n o t go 7 6 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w . 1 9 0 9 , p . 5 8 8 7 7 I b i d . , p . 5 9 1 . 143 t h r o u g h V a n c o u v e r h u t w o u l d c r o s s t h e S e y m o u r N a r r o w s I n -s t e a d * L a n d p r i c e s I n V a n c o u v e r w o u l d n o t go u p i n t h i s c a s e . T h e r e f o r e , V a n c o u v e r i t e s l i k e d t h e new s c h e m e a n d h a d n o i n t e r e s t i n O l i v e r ' s o b j e c t i o n s t o I t . A n o t h e r L f a c t o r w h i c h may h a v e r e n d e r e d O l i v e r ' s o b j e c t i o n s I n -e f f e c t i v e was t h e L i b e r a l l e a d e r ' s own h a r e b r a i n e d r a i l -way p r o p o s a l s . P e o p l e l a u g h e d a f t e r w a r d s a n d many may h a v e l a u g h e d t h e n t o h e a r O l d J o h n 0 . a n n o u n c i n g i n e a c h t o w n o n h i s c a m p a i g n t h a t he w o u l d b r i n g a r a i l w a y t o i t s * d e s e r v i n g c i t i z e n s . T h e s e p r o m i s a r y r a i l w a y s f o l l o w e d h i m i n t o e v e r y n o o k a n d c r a n n y o f t h e P r o v i n c e . S i r H i b b e r t T u p p e r p o i n t e d t o l e s s o b v i o u s w e a k n e s s e s i n t h e d e a l b u t t h e s e p r o v e d h a r d e r t o e x p l a i n . H i s c h i e f o b j e c t i o n s w e r e t h a t t h e a g r e e m e n t h e l d n o m o r t g a g e o n t h e l i n e s o f t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h a t n o p r o v i s i o n s h a d b e e n made f o r a s i n k i n g f u n d , t h a t t h e r e was n o g u a r a n t e e a g a i n s t M a c K e n z i e a n d Mann s e l l i n g o u t t o a n o t h e r r a i l w a y , t h a t t h e r e was n o f o r f e i t f o r b r e a k i n g t h e a g r e e m e n t , no p r o v i s i o n f o r h y p o t h e c a t i n g t h e s t o c k owned 1 b y M a c K e n z i e a n d Mann w i t h t h e G o v e r n m e n t as a g u a r a n t e e o f g o o d f a i t h , a n d n o s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d 7 8 b e g i n a t t h i s e n d o f t h e l i n e . T h e P r e m i e r r e p l i e d b y c o n s t a n t l y a s s e r t i n g t h a t a m o r t g a g e w o u l d b e o b t a i n e d b u t i t seems s t r a n g e t h a t h e C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 0 9 , p p . 5 9 1 - 5 9 2 . 144 c o n t i n u e d t o do t h i s e v e n a f t e r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e 7 9 A g r e e m e n t w h i c h d i d n o t m e n t i o n a m o r t g a g e a t a l l * I n d e e d , t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t seems t o h a v e b e e n s o h i g h t h a t t h e y may n o t h a v e f e l t t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r e f u t e e v e r y c h a r g e m a n u f a c t u r e d b y a d e s p e r a t e O p p o s i t i o n . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e v o t i n g on N o v e m b e r 2 5 t h g a v e t h e g o v e r n m e n t " a c l e a n sweep o f t h e c o u n t r y . " T h i r t y - e i g h t C o n s e r v a t i v e s w e r e r e t u r n e d t o f a c e a n O p p o s i t i o n o f two L i b e r a l s a n d two S o c i a l i s t s . T h e m a c h i n e r y o f B o w s e r a n d a l s o " B o b " G r e e n who was b y n o means o u t o f p o l i t i c s s i n c e h i s 1 9 0 6 r e s i g n a t i o n was c r e d i t e d b y some L i b e r a l s w i t h 80 t h e v i c t o r y . H o w e v e r , t h e e l e c t o r a l e n d o r s a t i o n o f M c -B r i d e ' s g o v e r n m e n t a n d p o l i c i e s was o b v i o u s a n d i n d i s p u t a b l e * I n 1 9 0 7 , t h e p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d g i v e n t h e i r y o u n g P r e m i e r t h e m a j o r i t y w h i c h h e n e e d e d i f h e w e r e t o a t t e m p t a r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s s c h e m e s a n d d r e a m s * I n 1 9 0 9 , t h e y s h o w e d t h e i r o v e r w h e l m i n g a p p r o v a l o f t h e f i r s t i n s t a l m e n t o f M c B r i d e ' s p l a n s * W i t h a n o v e r a l l m a j o r i t y o f t h i r t y - f o u r i n a H o u s e o f f o r t y - t w o , l i t t l e c o u l d s t o p h i m . C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w . 1 9 0 9 , p * 5 8 9 * I b i d . , p p . 5 9 2 - 5 9 3 * 1 4 5 M e a n w h i l e , C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n t h e E a s t w a t c h e d w i t h i n t e r e s t , among t h e m P r e m i e r H a z e n o f New B r u n s w i c k , who d e c l a r e d t h a t M c B r i d e h a d e m e r g e d f r o m t h e c o n t e s t " a n a t -81 i o n a l f i g u r e , " B o r d e n h a d l o s t two e l e c t i o n s a n d M c B r i d e h a d won h i s t h i r d . . Many C o n s e r v a t i v e s b e g a n t o l o o k f o r a y o u n g L o c h i n v a r to. come o u t o f t h e W e s t a n d l e a d t h e p a r t y b a c k f r o m t h e w i l d e r n e s s . T h e r e s e e m e d t o b e some e l e c t o r a l m a g i c i n t h a t y o u n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n w h i c h h o E a s t e r n e r c o u l d m a t c h a t t h e t i m e . 81 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l H e v l e w . 1 9 0 9 , p . 5 9 3 * CHAPTER VT OP OTTAWA, A KNIGHTHOOD, AND F O R T Y S E A T S D u r i n g t h e t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e e l e c t i o n o f 1 9 0 9 , t h e M c B r i d e g o v e r n m e n t came t o s y m b o l i z e p r o s p e r i t y a n d p r o g r e s s t o t h e p e o p l e , o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i l e t h e P r e m i e r p e r s o n a l l y r e a c h e d t h e h e i g h t o f h i s s u c c e s s a n d p r e s t i g e . I n t h r e e s p h e r e s o f a c t i v i t y M c B r i d e e i t h e r g a i n e d new g l o r i e s o r a d d e d t o o l d o n e s . I n t h e f i e l d o f f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e m i e r came v e r y c l o s e t o t a k i n g o v e r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p a n d h e n c e c l o s e r t h a n a n y o t h e r w e s t c o a s t p o l i t i c i a n t o b e c o m i n g P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f C a n a d a . I n t h e f i e l d o f I m p e r i a l r e l a t -i o n s h e won e n o r m o u s p r e s t i g e i n L o n d o n , a n d i n t h e c a s e o f t h e p e r p l e x i n g C a n a d i a n n a v a l i s s u e e v e n a c t e d u n o f f i c -i a l l y a s a n I n t e r m e d i a r y b e t w e e n t h e new B o r d e n g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e A d m i r a l t y . I n t h e f i e l d o f P r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s M c -B r i d e a n d h i s g o v e r n m e n t a n s w e r e d t h e w i s h e s o f t h e e l e c t o r -a t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o n t i n u i n g t h e r a i l w a y p o l i c y , among o t h e r p r o g r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s , a n d w e r e r e w a r d e d i n 1912 w i t h a n e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s u n m a t c h e d t o t h i s d a y i n p r o v i n -c i a l h i s t o r y a n d s e l d o n e q u a l l e d a n y w h e r e . A s a r e s u l t o f a l l t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , R i c h a r d M c B r i d e h a d a c h i e v e d b y 1912 147 a n a l m o s t l e g e n d a r y r e p u t a t i o n . " G l a d - h a n d D i c k " a n d "Dewdney D i c k " h a d become " T h e P e o p l e ' s D i c k , " t h e • u n r i v a l l e d h e r o o f a n o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r o v i n -c i a l p o p u l a t i o n . T h e p e o p l e f e l t , as h e w o u l d h a v e w i s h e d , t h a t t h e y s h a r e d I n h i s g l o r i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , w h i l e t h e boom c o n t i n u e d , t h e y w i s h e d n o e n d t o t h e m . A s s e v e r a l p e o p l e h a d p r o p h e s i e d , M c B r i d e e m e r g e d a f t e r 1909 a s B o r d e n ' s c l o s e s t r i v a l f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p . A t f i r s t , s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n 1 w e r e o n l y e x p r e s s e d b y L i b e r a l n e w s p a p e r s a n d w e r e t h o u g h t b y some p e o p l e t o b e n o t h i n g more t h a n p a r t y p r o p a g a n d a d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s p l i t t i n g t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s . I n d e e d , C a s t e l l H o p k i n s , i n h i s C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w f o r 1 9 1 0 , s a i d t h a t t h e s e r e p o r t s w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h " p o s s i b l e s u c -c e s s o r s i n a l e a d e r s h i p w h i c h was n o t v a c a n t a n d n o t l i k e l y 2 t o b e . " , B y 1 9 1 1 , t h i s s i t u a t i o n was c h a n g e d e n t i r e l y . R e c i -p r o c i t y h a d e m e r g e d a s a n i s s u e w i t h w h i c h t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s m i g h t , a t l a s t , o u s t L a u r i e r , b u t many C o n s e r v a t i v e s f e l t t h a t new l e a d e r s h i p was n e c e s s a r y t o a s s u r e s u c h a v i c t o r y . L F o r e x a m p l e ; " P r e m i e r M c B r i d e S e e k s t o O u s t R . L . B o r d e n . " V a n c o u v e r D a l l y W o r l d , 23 O c t o b e r , 1 9 0 9 ; a n d s e e a l s o r e f . t o E a s t e r n p a p e r s i n J . C a s t e l l H o p k i n s , T h e  C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s , 1 9 1 0 , T o r o n t o , A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1911 ' , p . 2 8 9 , 2 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 0 , p . 2 8 9 . 148 B o r d e n was t h o u g h t o f a s a n u n l u c k y l e a d e r who l a c k e d t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t o r e v i v e t h e p a r t y . M c B r i d e h a d b e e n r e -c o g n i z e d f o r some t i m e a s t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e who p o s s e s s e d s u c h p e r s o n a l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was f e l t b y some t h a t B o u r a s s a ' s a n t i - L a u r i e r g r o u p I n Q u e b e c w o u l d b e more w i l l i n g t o f o r m a n a l l i a n c e w i t h a C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y h e a d -e d b y M c B r i d e , f o r t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e m i e r was p o p u l a r i n Q u e b e c . B o r d e n s t a t e s i n h i s m e m o i r s t h a t s e v e r a l c a b a l s h a d b e e n f o r m e d a g a i n s t h i m s i n c e h i s f a i l u r e i n 1 9 0 8 , a n d t h a t t h r e e o f t h e s e e s p o u s e d t h e c a u s e o f M c B r i d e ( p o s s i b l y q u i t e w i t h o u t t h e l a t t e r ' s k n o w l e d g e o r c o n s e n t ) . , S e v e r a l o f t h e s e c a b a l i s t s w e r e a r o u s e d o v e r B o r d e n ' s n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h p o w e r f u l a n d d i s c o r d a n t e l e m e n t s i n t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y , 5 p a r t i c u l a r l y S i f t o n a n d L l o y d H a r r i s . I t was t h i s p a r t i -c u l a r d i s p u t e w h i c h c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g a l -r e a d y m e n t i o n e d t o p r o d u c e i n t e n s e c r i t i c i s m o f B o r d e n ' s l e a d e r s h i p a t t h e p a r t y c a u c u s i n M a r c h , 1 9 1 1 . T h e a t m o s -p h e r e i n t h e c a u c u s s o d e p r e s s e d B o r d e n t h a t h e d e c i d e d t o 4 r e s i g n . M e a n w h i l e , . M c B r i d e was b e i n g w a r n e d o f t h e s i t u a t i o n b y B a r n a r d , t h e V i c t o r i a M . P . , who was a t t e n d i n g t h e c a u c u s . •z Henry «•}•» B o r d e n , v R o b e r t . L a i r d B o r d e n : H i s M e m o i r s , T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 3 8 , p . 3 0 8 . 4 i P l d . , p . 3 0 9 . 149 T h e l a t t e r w r o t e o n M a r e h 2 4 t h t o M c B r i d e t h a t : Y o u ' d b e t t e r b e p r e p a r e d t o make a d e c i s i o n o n a u n a n i m o u s c a l l b e f o r e l o n g * T h i n g s a r e m o r e o r l e s s b o i l i n g & s i m p l y c a n ' t g o o n i n t h i s s h a p e , g B e f o r e t h i s l e t t e r c a n h a v e r e a c h e d M c B r i d e , B o r d e n h a d made h i s d e c i s i o n t o r e s i g n a n d h a d w i r e d i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e B r i -t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e m i e r a s f o l l o w s : L a s t y e a r ' s t r o u b l e r e v i v e d . Am c o n v i n c e d t h a t i n t e r e s t s o f p a r t y i m p e r a t i v e l y demand my r e t i r e m e n t . B e l i e v e p a r t y w o u l d u n a n i m o u s l y a c c e p t y o u a s l e a d e r . N a t i o n a l e m e r g e n c y a b -s o l u t e l y demands y o u r i m m e d i a t e r e s p o n s e t o s u c h c a l l . E a r n e s t l y h o p e f o r f a v o u r a b l e a n -s w e r . S i t u a t i o n u r g e n t . H e p l y n e c e s s a r y b e -f o r T u e s d a y m o r n i n g , g T h e r e i s n o r e c o r d o f a r e p l y b u t t h e n e e d f o r o n e d i s a p p e a r e d when a r o u n d - r o b i n l e d b y D a v i d H e n d e r s o n p e r s u a d e d B o r d e n t o r e c o n s i d e r h i s d e c i s i o n . A d e c l a r a t i o n o f a l l e g i a n c e s i g n e d b y a l l b u t a few members o f t h e c a u c u s c h a n g e d h i s 7 m i n d . H a d h e n o t d o n e s o , w h a t w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e o u t -c o m e ? T h e r e c a n b e l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t a C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y l e d b y M c B r i d e w o u l d h a v e won t h e r e c i p r o c i t y e l e c t i o n a s s u r e l y a s o n e u n d e r B o r d e n ' s l e a d e r s h i p . F u r t h e r m o r e , M c B r i d e ' s " s w e e t o i l t e c h n i q u e , " as B o w s e r u s e d t o c a l l i t , m i g h t h a v e w o r k e d w e l l I n u n i f y i n g t h e d i s c o r d a n t - e l e m e n t s 5 B a r n a r d t o M c B r i d e , 24 M a r c h , 1 9 1 1 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 1 , f i l e N o . 2 . 6 B o r d e n , R o b e r t L a i r d B o r d e n : H i s M e m o i r s . T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 3 8 , v o l . 1 , p . 3 0 9 . 7 I h l d . , p p . 3 0 9 - 3 1 0 . 150 among t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s . S u c h s p e c u l a t i o n i s a t e m p t i n g p a s t i m e , f o r Dewdney D i c k h a d come v e r y c l o s e t o b e i n g P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f C a n a d a . He w o u l d h a v e r e a c h e d t h a t p o l i t i c a l z e n i t h when o n l y f o r t y y e a r s o l d . E v e n a f t e r t h e c a u c u s s u p p o r t e d B o r d e n , v a r i o u s C o n s e r v a t i v e f a c t i o n s c o n t i n u e d t o t e m p t what f e w f e d e r a l a m b i t i o n s M c B r i d e may h a v e h a d , a n d M c B r i d e ' s name c o n t i n u e d t o b e v e r y f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d a l m o s t a s i f h e h a d t a k e n o v e r t h e p a r t y a f t e r a l l . J u s t b e f o r e i t was known t h a t B o r d e n h a d d e c i d e d t o r e m a i n as l e a d e r , C H . M a c k i n t o s h , a C o n s e r v a t i v e f o r m e r l y o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n t e r i o r , w r o t e t o M c B r i d e f r o m t h e E a s t t h a t : . . . t h o u s a n d s o f C o n s e r v a t i v e s a r e p r e p a r e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e p a r t y o n o n e c o n d i t i o n -t h a t a new l e a d e r f i l l s t h e a r e n a a s a f r o n t i s p i e c e o f a r e g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e p a r t y . I h a v e s e e n S i r H u g h G r a h a m o f t h e S t a r , C h a r l e s S i o r d o n o f t h e M a l l a n d a l l t h e l e a d e r s i n Q u e b e c — a n d a l l a g r e e t h a t s h o u l d B o r d e n r e t i r e , y o u a r e t h e man f o r t h e h o u r . g A n E a s t e r n C o n s e r v a t i v e , one R u f u s H . P o p e , w r o t e o n A p r i l 1 8 , a f t e r t h e c a u c u s s u p p o r t o f B o r d e n , t h a t M c B r i d e ' s s u c c e s s i o n was e s s e n t i a l i f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s w e r e t o make i n r o a d s i n L a u r i e r ' s s o l i d Q u e b e c . 8 C H . M a c k i n t o s h t o M c B r i d e , 27 M a r c h , 1 9 1 1 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 1 , f i l e N o . 1 . v R u f u s H . P o p e t o M c B r i d e , 18 A p r i l , 1 9 1 1 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 1 , f i l e N o . 2 . 151 E v e n a f t e r M c B r i d e w e n t t o E n g l a n d i n May h e r e -c e i v e d r e p o r t s s u c h as t h e f o l l o w i n g f r o m G r e e n i n V i c t o r i a . I saw q u i t e a n u m b e r o f o u r f r i e n d s w h i l e i n M o n t r e a l a n d I may s a y t h a t t h e y a r e v e r y a n x i o u s t h a t y o u s h o u l d e n t e r t h e f e d e r a l a r e n a . I n f a c t I h e a r d t h e same s t o r y a l l o v e r e x c e p t t h a t t h e M o n t r e a l p e o p l e d i d n o t t h i n k I t was w i s e o f y o u t o a c c e p t a n y t h i n g o f a s e c o n d a r y p o s i t i o n . I saw G o o d e v e t h e r e a n d h e t o o k t h e same g r o u n d , A n d , as l a t e a s S e p t e m b e r 2 2 n d , when a l l C a n a d a knew t h a t R o b e r t B o r d e n w o u l d b e t h e n e x t P r i m e M i n i s t e r , a s t u b b o r n M c B r i d e man f r o m M o n t r e a l w r o t e t o c o n g r a t u l a t e t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e m i e r f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s u c c e s s i n h i s P r o -v i n c e a n d a d d e d somewhat e x t r a v a g a n t l y , "We h o p e t o g r e e t y o u a s o u r P r i m e M i n i s t e r s o o n . I t i s t h e w i s h e s o f t h e 11 w h o l e D o m i n i o n o f C a n a d a . T h u s t h e c a l l f o r M c B r i d e was l o u d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r a n d t o o k a l o n g t i m e t o d i e o u t . B u t t h r o u g h o u t t h i s l o n g t i m e , M c B r i d e a s s u r e d a l l C o n s e r v a t i v e s t h a t B o r -d e n h a d h i s s u p p o r t a n d w e l l d e s e r v e d t h e i r s * One m y s t e r i o u s d o c u m e n t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e e a r l y s t a g e o f t h i s i s s u e i s a t e l e g r a m f r o m D o n a l d Mann s e n t o n A p r i l 1 s t , when t h e l e a d e r s h i p c o n t r o v e r s y w a s b a r e l y G r e e n t o M c B r i d e , 31 M a y , 1 9 1 1 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 1 , f i l e N o * 4 * • L X P . H . A . C a r o n t o M c B r i d e , 2 2 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 1 1 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 1 , f i l e N o . 3* 152 s e t t l e d * He was o n h i s way t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d a d v i s e d , " H o p e y o u w i l l n o t c o m m i t y o u r s e l f r e f e r e n c e f e d e r a l a f -f a i r u n t i l I h a v e a n o p p o r t u n i t y o f s e e i n g y o u . H a v e a n 12 i m p o r t a n t m e s s a g e f o r y o u b e a r i n g on q u e s t i o n . " T h e i s s u e was p r o b a b l y a l r e a d y s e t t l e d b y t h i s d a t e ( a l t h o u g h I S M c B r i d e ' s r e p l y i n d i c a t e s i t may n o t h a v e b e e n ) b u t n o t s o d e f i n i t e l y t h a t o n e ' s c u r i o s i t y i s n o t a r o u s e d t o know w h a t t h e V i c e - P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y C o m p a n y h a d t o s a y t o t h e P r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a b o u t t a k i n g o v e r t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y * I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g h e r e , p e r h a p s , t h a t a f t e r t h e c a b a l s h a d b e e n s u b d u e d , B o r d e n w a n t e d M c B r i d e t o e n t e r t h e f e d e r a l a r e n a i n some s e c o n d a r y p o s i t i o n u n d e r h i s D . D . Mann t o M c B r i d e , 1 A p r i l , 1 9 1 1 , I n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 1 , f i l e N o . 3 . T h i s i s a c o d e d m e s s a g e w h i c h w o u l d seem t o b e t r a n s l a t e d b y a m e s s a g e s c r a w l e d o n a l o o s e s h e e t o f p a p e r * T h e y c o m p a r e a s f o l l o w s : I e x p e c t t o b e i n I l l u m i n a t i o n e x p o s i t o r y t r a d e r b e e t l i n g i n c i t e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l a t t e r p a r t t h i s m o n t h b r u t i s h m o r o c c o l e a g u e p a t e r n i t y t i c k l i s h m o t i o n e d h o p e y o u w i l l n o t commit y o u r s e l f h o w l e l i a s won n u m e r i c a l l y c o m p e n s a t e d e v e r a r d r e f e r e n c e f e d e r a l a f f a i r u n t i l I h a v e r e g a l e m e n t f e s t i v i t y a g e d v a g r a n t i l l u m i n a t i o n h e a v i n g a n o p p o r t u n i t y o f s e e i n g y o u a n i m a l i z e o r i e l o p a q u e s e n s u a l i s t e l i a s h a v e a n i m p o r t a n t m e s s a g e f o r y o u h e a v i n g a n i m a l i z e i m p u l s i v e m i l e f o r g e t f u l e l i a s b e a r i n g o n q u e s t i o n b e g e t o r q u o d l i b e t . I f e l i a s i s " y o u " a n d e v e r a r d i s " y o u r s e l f " a n d b r u t i s h m o r o c c o i s " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e f i r s t l e t t e r s m a t c h i n t h e c o d e m e s s a g e a n d t h e s c r a w l e d m e s s a g e * 1 3 T h e r e p l y was M c B r i d e t o M a n n , 3 A p r i l , 1 9 1 1 , a s f o l l o w s : M i l e r e c o m p o s e d n u r s e f l a g g i n g s h a m p o o e d ; w h i c h t a l l i e s w i t h M e s s a g e r e c e i v e d N o t h i n g f i n a l s e t t l e d * . 153 l e a d e r s h i p . I n a l e t t e r o f A u g u s t 8 t h , h e e x p r e s s e d h i s r e g r e t s t h a t M c B r i d e d i d n o t s e e h i s way c l e a r t o d o s o . H o w e v e r , h e w e n t o n t o h o p e " t h a t t h e t i m e w i l l n o t b e f a r d i s t a n t when we c a n r e l y u p o n y o u a s a l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n 14 t h e F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t . " T h e n , a f t e r t h e e l e c t i o n v i c t o r y , 15 B o r d e n a s k e d M c B r i d e t o j o i n h i s c a b i n e t . M c B r i d e d e -16 c l i n e d t h e o f f e r d e s p i t e t h e p l e a d i n g s o f B u r r e l l . T h e l a t t e r w r o t e t h a t " i t w o u l d b e a n u n s p e a k a b l e r e l i e f a n d p l e a s u r e t o me t o know t h a t y o u w o u l d g o i n , a n d I know o n l y t o o w e l l w h a t a n immense a s s i s t a n c e y o u c o u l d b e . " He w e n t o n p e r s u a s i v e l y t o s u g g e s t , " Y o u must come s o o n e r o r l a t e r a n d i t seems t o me y o u o u g h t , i n s p i t e o f y o u r o t h e r p l a n s , t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r y o u r g r e a t e s t d u t y i s n o t t o b e a t O t t a w a . What a f i n e t i m e B a r n a r d a n d I w o u l d h a v e w i t h t h e c o m f o r t a b l e f e e l i n g t h a t y o u w e r e I n t h e s a d d l e a t 17 B o r d e n ' s r i g h t h a n d . ' ? M c B r i d e ' s r e p l y g i v e s t h e k e y t o h i s a t t i t u d e t h r o u g h -o u t t h e y e a r a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t h e may e v e n h a v e g i v e n a n e g a t i v e r e p l y t o B o r d e n ' s M a r c h t e l e g r a m . "I f e e l , " h e 1 4 B o r d e n t o M c B r i d e , 8 A u g u s t , 1 9 1 1 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 1 , f i l e N o . 3 . 15 B o r d e n , o p . c i t . , v o l . 1 , p . 3 3 1 . 1 6 M c B r i d e ' s D i a r y , e n t r y f o r 3 O c t o b e r , 1 9 1 1 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s , r e a d as f o l l o w s : " w i r e d B o r d e n c o u l d n o t a c c e p t o f f e r t o e n t e r h i s g o v ' t . " 1 7 M a r t i n B u r r e l l t o M c B r i d e , 23 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 1 1 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 1 , f i l e N o . 3 . 154 w r o t e , " t h a t o w i n g t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e P r o v i n c e a n d m a t t e r s d e m a n d i n g my a t t e n t i o n h e r e , my p l a c e j u s t now must 18 h e i n B . C . n P r o v i n c i a l p r o g r e s s was h i s r e a l d e l i g h t a n d h e f e l t he m u s t b e h e r e t o h e l p r e a l i z e i t . H o w e v e r , B o r d e n m o s t g r a c i o u s l y s h o w e d h i s i n t e n t i o n s o f a c c o r d i n g M c B r i d e a h i g h p l a c e i n h i s l i s t o f a d v i s o r s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e a d v i c e h a d t o come a l l t h e way f r o m V i c t o r i a , when h e w r o t e o n O c t o b e r 1 7 t h t h a t : . . . i f y o u h a v e a n y s u g g e s t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o p u b l i c m a t t e r s I w o u l d b e d e l i g h t e d t o h e a r f r o m y o u a t a n y t i m e a n d I w o u l d g r e a t l y v a l u e y o u r c o u n s e l a n d a d v i c e . T h i s p r e s t i g e w h i c h M c B r i d e g a i n e d i n f e d e r a l a f -f a i r s was c o n s i d e r a b l y e n h a n c e d b y h i s c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h p r o m i n e n t E n g l i s h m e n a n d members o f t h e I m p e r i a l g o v e r n -ment - - c o n n e c t i o n s e x t e n d e d a n d s t r e n g t h e n e d o n h i s t r i p t o E n g l a n d i n t h e summer o f 1911 f o r t h e c o r o n a t i o n o f K i n g G e o r g e V . M r s . M c B r i d e , B o w s e r , a n d M r s . B o w s e r a c c o m p a n i e d t h e P r e m i e r o n t h i s o c c a s i o n , a l t h o u g h o n l y t h e M c B r i d e s h a d an o f f i c i a l i n v i t a t i o n t o t h e c o r o n a t i o n f e s t i v i t i e s a n d c e r e m o n i e s . A s i n 1 9 0 7 , M c B r i d e c o m b i n e d b u s i n e s s w i t h p l e a s u r e * " a n d c o n t r i v e d t o s e e J . J . H i l l i n S t . P a u l , B o r d e n i n 1 8 M c B r i d e t o B u r r e l l , 7 O c t o b e r , 1 9 1 1 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 1 , f i l e N o . 3 . 1 9 B o r d e n t o M c B r i d e , 17 O c t o b e r , 1 9 1 1 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 1 , f i l e N o . 5 . , , 155 O t t a w a , a n d S i r Thomas S h a u g h n e s s y a n d S i r H u g h G r a h a m i n 2 0 M o n t r e a l b e f o r e b o a r d i n g s h i p a t Hew Y o r k , B u t o n c e t h e P r e m i e r ' s p a r t y r e a c h e d E n g l a n d , t h i s t r i p b e c a m e more o f a h o l i d a y , M c B r i d e e v i d e n t l y f e l t t h a t h e d e s e r v e d one a f t e r t h e y e a r s o f h a r d w o r k s i n c e 1 9 0 3 . O f c o u r s e , M c B r i d e was t h e s o r t o f man who c o u l d t a k e a h o l i d a y I n E n g l a n d a n d s t i l l b e d o i n g g o o d f o r t h e p r o v i n c e , b e c a u s e e v e r y w h e r e h e went h i s s t r i k i n g a p p e a r a n c e a n d c h a r m i n g m a n n e r won ' f r i e n d s f o r t h e p r o v i n c e among p e o p l e who h a d n e v e r s e e n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A n d o f t e n t h e s e p e o p l e c o u l d b e p e r s u a d e d b y t h i s e l e g a n t p r o v i n c i a l a m b a s s a d o r t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was a g o o d I n v e s t m e n t f o r B r i t i s h p o u n d s s t e r l i n g ; a n d s o o n m o r e c a p i t a l w o u l d b e f i n d i n g i t s way t o t h a t u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d . T h i s t y p e o f b u s i n e s s c o u l d b e c o m b i n e d w i t h s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , a n d o f t h e l a t t e r t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l i n E n g l a n d t h a t c o r o n a t i o n y e a r . M c B r i d e ' s d i a r y r e c o r d s h i s a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e K i n g ' s l e v e e , t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s w i f e a t c o u r t , h i s l u n c h w i t h L o r d R o b e r t s , h i s s p e e c h t o a l u n c h e o n w h e r e S i r E d w a r d G r e y was among t h e g u e s t s , a n d h i s v i s i t t o t h e C r y s t a l P a l a c e 21 f e t e ( w h e r e n o t s o l o n g b e f o r e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r u i t , * s u M c B r i d e ' s D i a r y , e n t r i e s f o r f i r s t w e e k o f M a y , 1 9 0 7 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 2 1 I b i d . * e n t r i e s f o r 2 5 a n d 29 M a y , 4 J u n e , a n d 10 a n d 18 J u l y , 1 9 1 1 . 156 t h a n k s t o t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f S i r Thomas S h a u g h n e s s y , h a d b e e n e x h i b i t e d i n q u a n t i t y a n d won many p r i z e s ) . On t h e p u r e e n t e r t a i n m e n t s i d e , he m a n a g e d t o s e e some S h a k e s p e a r e a t S t r a t f o r d , a n d H a r r y L a u d e r i n E d i n b u r g h , As a t o u r i s t , he i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e M c G i l l i v r a y monument o n C u l l o d e n 22 M o o r . ( H i s w i f e was a M c G i l l i v r a y ) . I n d o i n g a l l t h e s e t h i n g s , he m u s t h a v e met many p e o p l e a n d i m p r e s s e d many o f t h e m v e r y m u c h . A n d f i n a l l y , he a t t e n d e d a l l t h e c o r o n a t -i o n f u n c t i o n s a s t h e g u e s t o f t h e K i n g a f t e r h e a n d h i s w i f e h a d b e e n i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e i r M a j e s t i e s o n t h e eve o f t h e g r e a t d a y . T h e n e x t m o r n i n g , M c B r i d e was i n W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y w i t h a l l t h e g r e a t o f t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m a n d E m p i r e , a n d o n t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y s , he a t t e n d e d t h e S p i t h e a d n a v a l r e v i e w , t h e g a l a p e r f o r m a n c e a t C o v e n t G a r d e n , a n d t h e B u c k -2 3 i n g h a m P a l a c e G a r d e n P a r t y . T h i s was a g a y a n d g l a m o r o u s t r i p w h i c h s e r v e d t o make M c B r i d e a w e l l - k n o w n f i g u r e i n E n g l a n d , On t h e w h o l e , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o p i c k o u t i n d i v i d -u a l a c q u a i n t a n c e s c u l t i v a t e d b y M c B r i d e o n t h i s t r i p , b u t one e x c e p t i o n s t a n d s o u t . He e v i d e n t l y r e n e w e d a n d s t r e n g -t h e n e d h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h M r . W i l s t o n C h u r c h i l l , a n d t h i s a t 2 2 M c B r i d e ' s D i a r y , e n t r i e s f o r 1 1 , 1 4 , a n d 16 J u n e , 1 9 1 1 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 2 3 I b i d . , e n t r i e s f o r 21 t o 2 6 J u n e , 1 9 1 1 . 157 a s i g n i f i c a n t t i m e , j u s t b e f o r e M r . C h u r c h i l l became F i r s t L o r d o f t h e A d m i r a l t y . A s i n 1 9 0 7 , M c B r i d e was' q u i c k t o f o l l o w u p t h e p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , a n d i n t h i s c a s e he s e n t a g r i z z l y b e a r s k i n t o j o i n t h e moose h e a d . I n t h a n k i n g M c B r i d e f o r t h e g r i z z l y s k i n , M r . C h u r c h i l l w e n t o n t o d i s c u s s h i s new p o s t a t t h e A d m i r a l t y w h i c h , h e w r o t e , " a b -24 s o r b s my w a k i n g t h o u g h t s . 1 1 A n d f r o m h i s p o s i t i o n as F i r s t S e a L o r d , h e e x t e n d e d t h e h a n d o f c o o p e r a t i o n t h r o u g h M c -B r i d e t o t h e new B o r d e n g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h was t h e n s t r u g g -l i n g t o p r o d u c e a s a t i s f a c t o r y n a v a l p o l i c y . He w r o t e m o s t c o n s i d e r a t e l y t h a t : I s h a l l b e r e a d y t o h e l p t h e new m i n i s t r y I n a n y w a y i n my p o w e r , w i t h a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f some a t l e a s t o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s & l i m i -t a t i o n s o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n . I h o p e y o u w i l l t e l l y o u r f r i e n d s s o . T h e y c a n c o n s u l t t h e A d m i r a l t y i n p e r f e c t c o n f i d e n c e t h a t we w i l l d o a l l I n o u r p o w e r t o make t h e i r n a v a l p o l i c y a b r i l l i a n t s u c c e s s : a n d we w i l l n o t b e h i d e b o u n d o r s h r i n k f r o m new d e p a r t u r e s p r o v i d e d t h a t w h a t e v e r moneys t h e y t h i n k f i t t o e m p l o y s h a l l b e w e l l s p e n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t r u e p r i n c i p l e s b y w h i c h s e a p o w e r i s m a i n t a i n e d . 2 5 M c B r i d e r e p e a t e d M r . C h o r c h i l l ' s c o o p e r a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s i n a l e t t e r t o H a z e n , B o r d e n f s M i n i s t e r o f M a r i n e a n d F i s h e r i e s , 2 6 a n d s u g g e s t e d t h a t h e " d r o p M r . C h u r c h i l l a l i n e . " R a t h e r 2 4 W i n s t o n S . C h u r c h i l l t o M c B r i d e , 2 6 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 1 1 , I n M i s c . P a p e r s . 2 5 L o c . e i t . 2 6 G- .N. T u c k e r , T h e N a v a l S e r v i c e o f C a n a d a . O t t a w a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 2 , v o l . 1 , p . 1 7 6 . 158 t h a n do t h i s , H a z e n w r o t e t o B o r d e n , r e p e a t i n g t h e m e s s a g e 27 w h i c h M c B r i d e h a d f o r w a r d e d f r o m M r . C h u r c h i l l . I n t h i s way M c B r i d e was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h a t p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t b e t w e e n B o r d e n a n d M r . C h u r c h i l l w h i c h was t o p r o -d u c e t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i l l - f a t e d d r e a d n o u g h t p o l i c y . I t w a s , o f c o u r s e , s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h a t i n 1909 M c B r i d e h a d d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f a g a i n s t a " t o y n a v y " a n d h e n c e 28 i n f a v o u r o f c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i m p e r i a l n a v y . A s M c -B r i d e a n d M r . C h u r c h i l l saw e y e t o e y e i n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e f o r m e r e o u l d b e a v e r y e f f e c t i v e l i n k b e t w e e n t h e l a t t e r a n d B o r d e n . I n d e e d , C h u r c h i l l may h a v e c o u n t e d o n M c B r i d e t o i n f l u e n c e B o r d e n t o w a r d s a c o n t r i b u t i o n p o l i c y . I n M a y , 1 9 1 2 , M c B r i d e w e n t t o E n g l a n d o n a s h o r t t r i p a n d o n h i s r e t u r n c a r r i e d o t h e r m e s s a g e s f r o m M r . C h u r c h i l l t o B o r d e n . I t was s h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s t h a t B o r d e n , H a z e n , a n d two o f t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s went t o E n g l a n d i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e p e r s o n a l l y t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e A d m i r a l t y , a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r t h o s e o f t h e F i r s t L o r d . P e r h a p s , t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h M c B r i d e i n f l u e n c e d , t h e s e e v e n t s c a n n o t be d e -f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d b u t i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t h e a c t e d a s a n i n t r o d u c t o r y l i n k b e t w e e n M r . C h u r c h i l l a n d B o r d e n , a n d * ' G . N . T u c k e r , T h e N a v a l S e r v i c e o f C a n a d a . O t t a w a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 2 , v o l . 1 , p . 1 7 6 . S e e a l s o H a z e n t o M c B r i d e , 6 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 1 1 , a n d B o r d e n t o M c B r i d e , 8 F e b -r u a r y , 1 9 1 1 , b o t h i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 1 , f i l e N o . 1 . 2 8 B o r d e n , M e m o i r s , v o l . 1 , p . 2 4 9 . 159 p o s s i b l e t h a t t h r o u g h h i s i n f l u e n c e o n B o r d e n , he was a b l e t o a f f e c t p o l i c y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e i n t h i s ( l a t t e r c o n n e c t i o n t h a t , i n N o v e m b e r , 1 9 1 2 , B o r d e n s u b m i t t e d " t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l a n d s e c r e t c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e A d m i r a l t y " t o M c B r i d e , a n d t h a t , o n more t h a n one o c c a s i o n , h e d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e m i e r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p o l i c y w h i c h 2 9 h e was t h e n f o r m u l a t i n g o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e d o c u m e n t s . When t h e news r e a c h e d E n g l a n d t h a t a c o n t r i b u t i o n p o l i c y h a d b e e n b r o u g h t down i n P a r l i a m e n t , M r . C h u r c h i l l c a b l e d a s f o l l o w s t o M c B r i d e : P r i v a t e a n d p e r s o n a l I s e n d y o u my h e a r t y c o n -g r a t u l a t i o n s a n d g r a t e f u l t h a n k s u p o n t h e s p l e n d i d p o l i c y a n n o u n c e d b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t f o r w h i c h y o u h a v e w o r k e d s o h a r d e v e r y o n e h e r e i s p r o f o u n d l y m o v e d . W h i l e M c B r i d e ' s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e f e d e r a l f i e l d r e a c h e d i t s c l i m a x i n 1 9 1 1 , i t was i n h i s s h o r t t r i p o f May 1 9 1 2 , t h a t h e g a i n e d t h e g r e a t e s t , h o n o u r f r o m h i s a c t i -v i t i e s i n t h e I m p e r i a l f i e l d . He was o n l y i n E n g l a n d n i n e -t e e n d a y s a n d t h e h i g h l i g h t o f t h i s s o j o u r n was h i s p r e s e n -31 t a t i o n t o t h e K i n g b y M r . C h u r c h i l l on May 1 1 t h . A f e w 29 B o r d e n , M e m o i r s , v o l . 1 , p . 2 4 9 . 3 0 W i r e . C h u r c h i l l t o M c B r i d e , 9 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 1 2 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 3 1 M c B r i d e ' s D i a r y , e n t r y f o r 11 M a y , 1 9 1 2 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 1 6 0 d a y s e a r l i e r , T u r n e r , t h e A g e n t - G e n e r a l h a d t o l d t h e P r e m -• i e r t h a t h e was t o r e c e i v e t h e K . C . M . G . i n t h e K i n g ' s B i r t h -32 d a y H o n o u r s . P r e s u m a b l y t h e r o y a l a u d i e n c e was a s p e c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t p r e l i m i n a r y t o t h e o f f i c i a l a n n o u n c e m e n t w h i c h d i d n o t t a k e p l a c e u n t i l a f t e r M c B r i d e r e t u r n e d t o C a n a d a . I n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l o f M c B r i d e ' s l e t t e r s o n n a v a l p o l i c y w e r e shown t o t h e K i n g b y Hopwood a t l a t e r d a t e s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t h i s a u d i e n c e l a s t e d f r o m n i n e o ' c l o c k i n t h e m o r n i n g u n t i l a f t e r two o ' c l o c k i n t h e 33 a f t e r n o o n . M c B r i d e , M r . C h u r c h i l l , a n d t h e S a i l o r K i n g m u s t h a v e h a d a l o n g d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h c o u l d h a r d l y a v o i d i n c l u d i n g n a v a l m a t t e r s . B a c k home i n V i c t o r i a , M c B r i d e a n s w e r e d t h e t e l e p h o n e o n t h e e v e n i n g o f J u n e 1 3 t h t o h e a r t h e o f f i c i a l news o f h i s 34 i n c l u s i o n i n t h e h o n o u r s l i s t . T h i s news was a n n o u n c e d i n t h e p a p e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g m o r n i n g . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d b e e n h o n o u r e d t h r o u g h h e r m o s t d i s t i n g u i s h e d s o n , a n d n e a r l y a l l h e r c i t i z e n s w e r e g l a d f o r p e r s o n a l , i f n o t p o l i t i c a l , r e a s o n s , t o h a i l S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , K . C . M . G . M o s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s w e r e p l e a s e d w i t h t h e h o n o u r d o n e t h e i r P r e m i e r b e c a u s e t h e y h a d come i n c r e a s i n g l y t o M e B r i d e ' s D i a r y , e n t r y f o r 9 M a y , 1 9 1 2 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s « I M d * » e n t r y f o r 11 M a y , 1 9 1 2 . 3 4 I b i d . * e n t r y f o r 13 J u n e , 1 9 1 2 . 161 a s s o c i a t e h i m w i t h t h e g o o d t i m e s w h i c h t h e y now e n j o y e d . Many B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s r e m e m b e r e d a l l t o o w e l l t h e g r i m d a y s j u s t a f t e r t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y when i t h a d s e e m e d t h a t p r o s p e r i t y w o u l d n e v e r r e t u r n t o t h e p r o v i n c e a s i t h a d b e g u n t o d o s o n o t i c e a b l y t o t h e E a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . T h e y knew t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l i n s t a b i l i t y o f t h o s e d a y s h a d b e e n i n l a r g e p a r t , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i s c o u r a g i n g o f c a p i t a l a n d h e n c e t h e d e l a y i n r e c o v e r y . T h e y h a d v o t e d f o r M c B r i d e b e c a u s e , among o t h e r t h i n g s h e p r o m i s e d t o g i v e s t a b l e g o v e r n m e n t u n d e r t h e new p a r t y s y s t e m . A n d s i n e e t h e n , t h e y h a d e n j o y e d s o u n d g o v e r n m e n t a n d s e e n t h e c o m -i n g o f u n p r e c e d e n t e d p r o s p e r i t y . I t was n o t w i t h o u t r e a s o n , a n d n o t t o b e w o n d e r e d a t , t h a t many p e o p l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e w i t h l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d m i n d s , l i n k e d t h e name o f M c B r i d e w i t h t h e i r h i g h s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g a n d t h e e x c i t i n g p r o g r e s s u n d e r way i n p r o v i n c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . P r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n a n d r e v e n u e f i g u r e s w e r e i n d i -c a t i v e o f t h e c h a n g e s w h i c h h a d t a k e n p l a c e s i n c e M c B r i d e came t o p o w e r . A t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , t h e p o p u l a t i o n was 1 7 8 , 6 5 6 a n d t h e r e v e n u e # 1 , 5 4 4 , 1 0 8 . B y 1 9 1 0 , t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a d g r o w n t o n e a r l y 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 a n d t h e r e v e n u e f o r t h e y e a r was e s t i m a t e d a t $ 8 , 8 7 4 , 8 4 6 . " T h e new i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s c h a r t e r e d i n 1910 a g g r e g a t e d $ 4 8 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 o f c a p i t a l ; t h e m i l e a g e o f r a i l w a y s i n t h e P r o v i n c e was 2 , 3 0 7 162 w i t h 1 , 4 0 0 m i l e s u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e 35 y e a r . " T h e o u t p u t o f l u m b e r r o s e f r o m 4 2 5 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 f e e t 36 i n 1904 t o 1 , 0 6 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 f e e t i n 1 9 1 1 . " A p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 o f c a p i t a l was i n v e s t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 37 l u m b e r i n g i n d u s t r i e s . " E v i d e n c e o f c o n t i n u e d p r o g r e s s was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e p u b l i c i n 1910 a n d t o o k v a r y i n g f o r m s . T h e s c h e m e f o r a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y h a d b e e n f o r w a r d e d b y t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a s i t e a t P o i n t G r e y , n e a r V a n c o u v e r , o n t h e r e c o m m e n d a -t i o n o f a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s e t u p t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c l a i m s o f t h a t c i t y a s w e l l a s t h o s e o f V i c t o r i a , N a n a i m o , A l b e r n i , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , New W e s t m i n s t e r , C h i l l i w a c k , K a m l o o p s , 38 V e r n o n , N e l s o n , P e r n i e , a n d R e v e l s t o k e . T h e c i v i l s e r v i c e r e f o r m c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e R e p o r t o f a n a c t i v e C i v i l S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n o n r e g u l a t i o n s f o r c o m p e t i t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n s . The r o a d b u i l d i n g p r o g r a m was g l a m o u r i z e d b y T a y l o r ' s p r o j e c t e d " g r e a t s c e n i c h i g h w a y a n d G o v e r n m e n t r o a d a c r o s s t h e P r o v i n c e t o t h e p r a i r i e w h i c h was t o b e 1 , 2 0 0 m i l e s l o n g a n d c o s t 39 o v e r $ 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . . . . " 35 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 0 , p . 5 2 5 . 36 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 1 , P« 6 0 0 . 37 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 0 , P» 5 2 8 . ° ° I b i d . , p p . 5 4 1 - 5 4 2 . 5 9 I b i d . . p . 5 4 4 . P r i c e E l l i s o n M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s 1 9 0 9 - 1 9 1 0 . M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e a n d A g r i c u l t u r e 1 9 1 0 - 1 9 1 5 B o r n i n E n g l a n d i n 1862 E l l i s o n h a d l i v e d i n B r i -t i s h C o l u m b i a m o s t o f h i s l i f e a n d h a d become a p r o s -p e r o u s f a r m e r a n d r a n c h e r — " t h e l a r g e s t g r o w e r o f w h e a t i n 8 . 0 . " He s a t f o r O k a n a g a n f r o m 1 8 9 8 . 163 I n 1 9 1 1 , t h e r e was s i m i l a r a c t i v i t y p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k o n t h e l i n e s o f t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c , t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n , t h e K e t t l e R i v e r V a l l e y , t h e K o o t e n a y C e n t r a l , t h e V a n c o u v e r , V i c t o r i a a n d E a s t e r n , a n d t h e E s q u i m a l t a n d N a n a i m o r a i l w a y s . N o t a l l o f t h i s was b e y o n d p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e s b u t o n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t h e r e was c o n c r e t e a c h i e v e m e n t when t h e f i r s t t h r o u g h t r a i n r a n 4 0 f r o m V i c t o r i a t o A l b e r n i o n D e c e m b e r 2 0 t h . T e s t i m o n y t o t h e r a i l w a y a c t i v i t y came f r o m t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f Thomas T a y l o r a s t h e f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r o f R a i l w a y s o n 41 M a r c h 1 0 t h . T h i s c a b i n e t c h a n g e was t h e l a s t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e M c B r i d e g o v e r n m e n t a n d f o l l o w e d o n s e v e r a l w h i c h i n t h e p r e -v i o u s y e a r h a d g r a d u a l l y c o m p e n s a t e d f o r t h e d e p a r t u r e o f T a t l o w a n d P u l t o n . T h e c l o s e o f 1909 h a d f o u n d b o t h B o w s e r a n d t h e new c a b i n e t member , P r i c e E l l i s o n h o l d i n g t e m p o r a r y p o s i t i o n s . T h e f o r m e r was M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e a n d A g r i c u l t u r e as w e l l a s A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l . T h e l a t t e r was M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s . T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t o b t a i n e d u n t i l t h e f a l l o f 1 9 1 0 , when t h e l a s t m a j o r c h a n g e s i n t h e M c B r i d e m i n i s t r y o c c u r r e d . On O c t o b e r 1 0 , P r i c e E l l i s o n b e c a m e M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e a n d C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 1 , p . 5 9 7 . I b i d . , p . 6 0 1 . A l b e r t E . M c P h l l l i p s , K . C . M c P h l l l i p s h a d b e e n one o f M c B r i d e ' s c o m r a d e s i n O p p o s i t i o n a n d when M c B r i d e came t o p o w e r he a p -p o i n t e d M c P h l l l i p s A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l . A t t h a t t i m e h e was s i t t i n g f o r V i c t o r i a . A f t e r h i s d e f e a t a t t h e e l e c t i o n o f O c t o b e r 3 r d , 1 9 0 3 , M c P h l l l i p s r e -s i g n e d h i s p o r t f o l i o * E l e c t e d t o t h e H o u s e o n c e a g a i n i n 1 9 0 7 , t h i s t i m e f o r t h e I s l a n d s , h e was r e t u r n e d i n 1909 a n d 1 9 1 2 . I n 1910 h e became P r e s i -d e n t o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l b u t he r e s i g n e d t h i s p o s i t i o n i n 1913 t o go t o t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l . A p e r s o n a l f r i e n d o f M c B r i d e , M c P h l l l i p s was a c o l o u r -f u l f i g u r e w i t h h i s g r a n d i l o q u e n t d e b a t i n g s t y l e , a n d h e made a s u i t a b l e Roman C a t h o l i c r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e i n t h e C a b i n e t . 164 A g r i c u l t u r e a n d s u r r e n d e r e d h i s L a n d s D e p a r t m e n t t o W..R. R o s s , t h e member f o r P e r n i e . On t h e same d a y , C a r t e r -C o t t o n r e s i g n e d t h e P r e s i d e n c y o f t h e C o u n c i l , a n d was r e - r 42 p l a c e d b y A . E . M c P h i l l i p s , now member f o r t h e I s l a n d s . I t w i l l b e r e c a l l e d t h a t M c P h i l l i p s h a d b e e n a member o f t h e f i r s t M c B r i d e m i n i s t r y . a s f o r m e d i n t h e summer o f 1 9 0 3 . T h e r e i s n o g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e s e c h a n g e s . C o t t o n was s a i d t o h a v e r e s i g n e d i n o r d e r t o d e v o t e h i s 43 a t t e n t i o n t o h i s new p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s . (He h a d s o l d t h e Mews A d v e r t i s e r t o M a t s o n o f t h e C o l o n i s t ) . R a t h e r , i t w o u l d seem l i k e l y t h a t C o t t o n h a d f i n a l l y b e e n p u s h e d o u t o f t h e c a b i n e t i n r e s p o n s e t o many w i s h e s . O n l y h i s i n -f l u e n c e t h r o u g h t h e H e w s - A d v e r t i s e r h a d k e p t h i m t h e P r e s i -d e n c y o f t h e C o u n c i l s o l o n g . M c P h i l l i p s was a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d o f t h e P r e m i e r a n d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e whom t h e Roman C a t h o l i c s o f t h e P r o v i n c e h a d l o n g d e s i r e d t o s e c u r e i n t h e G o v e r n m e n t . P r i c e E l l i s o n was a v e r y w i d e l y known r a n c h e r o f c o n s i d e r a b l e w e a l t h , h i g h l y s u i t a b l e a s c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e o f t h e b o o m i n g O k a n a g a n . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t h e was a r a t h e r b l i n d o p t i m i s t , p e r h a p s one c a n e v e n s a y a f e l l o w d r e a m e r w i t h Y o u n g a n d t h e P r e m i e r . I t h a s b e e n R . E . G o s n e l l , T h e Y e a r B o o k o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 9 1 L - 1 9 1 4 , e d i t . , V i c t o r i a , 1911 . , p . 7 4 . 4 5 G o s n e l l , " S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " A r t i c l e N o . 4 , V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 13 A u g u s t , 1 9 2 1 ; a n d C a n a d i a n  A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 0 , p . 5 3 4 . W i l l i a m R o d e r i c k R o a a . K . C . M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s 1 9 1 0 - 1 6 , " B i l l y " R o s s was one o f B o w s e r ' s b e s t f r i e n d s a n d h i s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e M c B r i d e c a b i n e t i n 1910 i s c h i e f l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h a t r e a s o n . N o t a s c u l t u r e d as h i s c o l l e a g u e s , R o s s was a h a r d d r i n k e r a n d e a r n e d a r e p u -t a t i o n a s t h e u n c o u t h member o f t h e c a b i n e t . He r e -p r e s e n t e d P e r n i e , a m i n i n g d i s t r i c t , a n d seems t o h a v e b e e n w e l l l i k e d t h e r e . He was P r e s i d e n t o f t h e N o r t h C o a l a n d C o k e C o . , o f P e r n i e . B o r n i n 1869 i n P o r t C h i p e w y a n , A t h a b a s k a , h e was one y e a r o l d e r t h a n M c B r i d e . 165 s a i d t h a t he was a g r e a t b e l i e v e r i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e a n d w o u l d n o t h e s i t a t e t o a d v o c a t e t h e s p e n d -44 i n g o f m i l l i o n s t o d e v e l o p t h e m — a d i f f e r e n t b r e e d o f man f r o m T a t l o w . " B i l l y " R o s s was a h a r d d r i n k i n g , r a t h e r 45 u n c o u t h man who was " B i l l " B o w s e r ' s b e s t f r i e n d . R o s s d i d g o o d e n o u g h w o r k when h e was s o b e r a n d was u n d o u b t e d l y a p o p u l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e m i n e r s i n P e r n i e , b u t h i s c h i e f s i g n i f i c a n c e l a y i n h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h B o w s e r . I n t h e y e a r s o f c a b i n e t d i s i n t e g r a t i o n w h i c h l a y a h e a d , t h e m i n i s t r y seems t o h a v e s p l i t o n l o y a l t i e s o f t h i s k i n d . R o s s w e n t w i t h B o w s e r . B u t a n y p r o s p e c t o f h a r d t i m e s a h e a d s e e m e d r e m o t e i n 1 9 1 0 , 1 9 1 1 , a n d e v e n In 1 9 1 2 , when t h e y w e r e o n l y j u s t a r o u n d t h e c o r n e r . I n d e e d , 1912 was t h e p e a k y e a r i n t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e M c B r i d e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d i t , more t h a n a n y o t h e r y e a r , saw p r o g r e s s b o o m i n g e v e r y w h e r e . A s h e e n t e r e d t h i s , h i s t r i u m p h a l y e a r , M c B r i d e s u m m a r i z e d t h e a c h i e v e -m e n t s , a s h e c o n s i d e r e d t h e m o f h i s g o v e r n m e n t t o d a t e . Some o f t h e i t e m s w h i c h h e m e n t i o n e d h a v e n o t w a r r a n t e d f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n h e r e , b u t a l l a r e i n t e r e s t i n g a s t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e P r e m i e r h i m s e l f o n w h a t h e a n d h i s g o v e r n -4 4 J a m e s M o r t o n , " B i r t h o f B . C . P a r t y G o v e r n m e n t A t t e n d e d b y C o l o u r f u l F i g u r e s , " V i c t o r i a D a i l y T i m e s . 6 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 3 , m a g . s e c . L o c • c i t • 166 m e n t h a d d o n e f o r t h e P r o v i n c e . He w r o t e : W h i l e I d o n o t d e s i r e t o c l a i m a l l t h e c r e d i t o f t h e work a c c o m p l i s h e d , d u r i n g my a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , I c o n s i d e r t h e b e s t t h i n g s d o n e a r e t h e R a i l w a y L e g i s l a t i o n b r i n g i n g t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n R y , t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l l i n e t o B . C . , t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e K e t t l e V a l l e y r o a d now p r o c e e d i n g , o u r s a t i s -f a c t o r y a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c a t P r i n c e R u p e r t , t h e l e g i s l a t i o n c o n s e r v i n g o u r w a t e r p o w e r a n d t i m b e r , t h e f o r c i n g o f m i l l men t o m a n u f a c t u r e i n B . C . t h e t i m b e r c u t on P u b l i c L a n d s , t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l U n i v e r s i t y t h a t i s now n e a r l y a c c o m p l i s h e d , t h e v e r y l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n P u b l i c W o r k s , e s p e c i a l l y r o a d s t h r o u g h t h e P r o v i n c e , t h e o p e n i n g u p o f t h e N o r t h e r n c o u n t r y , t h e a t t e m p t t o k e e p t h e l a n d a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e s e t t l e r , t h e i m p e t u s g i v e n t o a g r i c u l t u r e a n d f r u i t g r o w i n g , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new a n d u p - t o - d a t e h o s p i t a l f o r t h e m e n t a l l y a f f l i c t e d a n d o f a m o d e l f a r m I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i t t h a t w i l l b e an o b j e c t l e s s o n t o t h e C o n t i n e n t , t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e a n d a p p o i n t -ment o f a C i v i l S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n , t h e s o u n d f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e a n d t h e p u b -l i c i t y w o r k t h a t h a s d o n e much t o i n d u c e t h e a d -v a n c e m e n t o f s e t t l e m e n t a n d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c a p i t a l . T h e s e a r e some o f t h i n g s a c c o m p l i s h e d . Ii,. m i g h t a l s o m e n t i o n t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i n my own D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s t o g i v e g r e a t e r s a f e t y t o t h e w o r k e r s , a n d t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f s t a t i o n s f o r r e s c u e w o r k i n C o a l M i n e s . . c 46 T o t h i s l i s t t h e P r e m i e r w o u l d h a v e w i s h e d h i s 1912 r a i l w a y l e g i s l a t i o n t o b e a d d e d . On F e b r u a r y 2 0 t h , M c B r i d e b r o u g h t down s i x B i l l s i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e a n d t h e r e b y i n a u g u r a t e d t h e l a s t o f h i s p o s i t i v e r a i l w a y s c h e m e s . T h e f i r s t B i l l was t o r a t i f y two a g r e e m e n t s , one b e t w e e n t h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d F o l e y , W e l c h a n d 46 Memo f o r J u d g e Woway ( s i c Howay)", I n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 1 , f i l e N o . 5 , a t t a c h e d t o l e t t e r f r o m J u d g e H o w a y , o f 2 8 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 1 1 , r e q u e s t i n g t h i s I n f o r m a t i o n f o r h i s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F r o m t h e E a r l i e s t  t o t h e P r e s e n t . w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 1 2 . 167 t S t e w a r d , a n d t h e o t h e r b e t w e e n t h a t f i r m a n d t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c R a i l w a y C o m p a n y . T h e o b j e c t o f t h e s e a g r e e -m e n t s was t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r a i l w a y l i n e f r o m t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r t o F o r t G e o r g e * T h e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e F i r m p r o v i d e d f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d t h e o t h e r a r r a n g e d t h a t t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c s h o u l d h a v e t h e f i r s t o p t i o n o f p u r c h a s e a n d , a l s o , h a v e r u n n i n g r i g h t s o v e r t h e l i n e . T h e P r e m i e r i n i n t r o d u c i n g t h i s B i l l s a i d t h a t t h e R a i l w a y w o u l d b e o f s t a n d a r d g a u g e , a n d w o u l d r u n f r o m V a n c o u v e r t o c o n n e c t w i t h t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c a t F o r t G e o r g e . I t w o u l d r e c e i v e f r o m t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t a s u b v e n t i o n e q u a l t o t h a t a l r e a d y g i v e n t o t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n P a c i f i c , b y t h e g u a r a n t e e o f i t s b o n d s f o r $ 3 5 , 0 0 0 p e r m i l e a t 4 p e r c e n t . I n t e r e s t . P r o v i s i o n was a l s o made f o r a d e q u a t e t r a f f i c c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e C i t i e s o f New W e s t -m i n s t e r a n d V i c t o r i a . 47 T o a c c o m p l i s h t h e ' a b o v e c o n s t r u c t i o n t h e s e c o n d B i l l i n -c o r p o r a t e d t h e P a c i f i c G r e a t E a s t e r n R a i l w a y C o m p a n y . T h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company was t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e t h i r d B i l l w h i c h p r o v i d e d f o r a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t e d l i n e s f r o m B a r k l e y S o u n d a s f a r a s Comox a n d a l s o f o r a l i n e i n t h e I n t e r i o r " f r o m K a m l o o p s t o V e r n o n a n d t h e n c e t o L u m b y . , . , n F o r t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n , a m o u n t i n g t o n e a r l y t h r e e h u n d r e d m i l e s i n t h e n e x t t h r e e y e a r s , t h e o r i g i n a l b o n d g u a r a n t e e o f $ 3 5 , 0 0 0 p e r m i l e was t o h o l d g o o d . C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 2 , p . 6 0 7 . 168 T h e f o u r t h B i l l was d e s i g n e d t o s u p p l y t h e l o n g a w a i t e d C o a s t - K o o t e n a y l i n k b y b u y i n g t h e K e t t l e V a l l e y R a i l w a y o v e r t h e c o a s t r a n g e a t a s u b s i d y o f $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 p e r m i l e . P r o v i s i o n f o r a $ 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 s u b s i d y t o w a r d s t h e c o n -s t r u c t i o n o f a c o m b i n e d r a i l w a y a n d t r a f f i c - b r i d g e o v e r 4 8 t h e F r a s e r R i v e r a t H o p e was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s B i l l . T h e f i f t h B i l l p r o v i d e d f o r t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e E s q u i m a l t a n d N a n a i m o R a i l w a y t o " a p o i n t a t o r n e a r t h e V i l l a g e o f C o u r t e n a y 1 1 b y D e c e m b e r 3 1 , 1 9 1 5 , T h e s i x t h a n d l a s t B i l l was a n a t t e m p t t o c l e a n u p t h e s c a t t e r e d r e m n a n t s o f l a n d g r a n t s b y G o v e r n m e n t r e -p u r c h a s e o f t h e r e m a i n i n g B , C . S o u t h e r n a n d C o l u m b i a a n d W e s t e r n L a n d s a t f o r t y c e n t s a n a c r e . T h e C . P . R . was t o r e t u r n c e r t a i n l a n d s i n l i e u o f a c c u m u l a t e d t a x e s , a n d a g r e e t o t a k e o v e r t h e K a s l o a n d S l o c a n R a i l w a y f o r r e -49 c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . P a r t l y b y means o f t h i s i m p r e s s i v e r a i l w a y l e g i s -l a t i o n , i t was p l a n n e d t h a t , b y 1 9 1 5 , t h e r e w o u l d be 5000 m o r e m i l e s o f r a i l w a y i n t h e P r o v i n c e t h a n t h e r e h a d b e e n i n 1 9 0 3 . C i r c u m s t a n c e s b e y o n d t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t w e r e t o f r u s t r a t e t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y w e r e b o l d l y c o n c e i v e d a n d e v e n i n t h e i r p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t 4 8 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 2 , p . 6 0 7 . 4 9 I b i d . , p . 6 0 8 . 169 r e m a i n a monument t o M c B r i d e . O t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s m a r k e d 1912 a s t h e p e a k y e a r i n t h e l i f e o f t h e M c B r i d e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e p r o v i n c i a l u n i -v e r s i t y h a d r e a c h e d t h e s t a g e when a C o m m i t t e e was s e l e c t -i n g s u i t a b l e a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n s . A S e n a t e h a d b e e n e l e c t e d a n d C a r t e r - C o t t o n h a d b e e n c h o s e n a s t h e f i r s t C h a n -c e l l o r ( i n p r e f e r e n c e t o h i s r i v a l , S i r C h a r l e s H i b b e r t T u p p e r ) . D r . Y o u n g a n d some o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s h a d b e e n E a s t t o s e a r c h f o r a p r e s i d e n t , b u t t h e y h a d n o t y e t f o u n d 50 o n e . I n P u b l i c W o r k s , r o a d a p p r o p r i a t i o n s o f $6 m i l l i o n i n 1912 c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e $ 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 a l l o t t e d i n 1904 a n d 51 r e v e a l e d t h e p r o g r e s s a n d f u r i o u s a c t i v i t y i n t h i s f i e l d . E v e n t h e o l d i s s u e o f B e t t e r Terms came c l o s e r t h a n e v e r b e f o r e t o some s a t i s f a c t o r y s e t t l e m e n t when t h e new B o r d e n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n n o u n c e d i t s w i l l i n g n e s s t o a p p o i n t a C o m -52 m i s s i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c l a i m s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . W i l s o n a n d G r e e n h a d a s k e d f o r s u c h a c o m m i s s i o n i n t h e summer o f 1 9 0 5 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s must h a v e t h o u g h t t h e y w e r e e n t e r -i n g a m i l l e n i u m when e v e n t h i s a g g r a v a t i n g i s s u e s h o w e d s i g n s o f s e t t l e m e n t a l o n g t h e l i n e s p r o p o s e d f o r n i n e y e a r s b y t h e i r i l l u s t r i o u s P r e m i e r . 5 0 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 2 , p . 607 6 1 I b i d . , p . 5 9 7 . 5 2 I b i d . , p . 5 9 8 . 170 P e r h a p s e n e o f t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s o f 1912 was t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y b y t h e G o v e r n o r -G e n e r a l . M c B r i d e a n d D r . Y o u n g h a d h e r e b r o u g h t i n t o b e i n g a t l e a s t o n e m e m o r i a l t o t h e m s e l v e s w h i c h c o u l d n o t b e r e -v i l e d i n t h e y e a r s t o c o m e . C i t i z e n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d r e a s o n t h e n , e v e n more t h a n t h e y do n o w , t o b e p r o u d o f t h i s l i b r a r y . A n d f o r i t s o u t s t a n d i n g c o l l e c t i o n o f C a m a d i a n a , t h e y m u s t g i v e a l m o s t a l l t h e c r e d i t t o M c B r i d e a n d Y o u n g . I t i s I n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t o n e h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y a f f i l i a t e d t r a v e l l i n g l i b r a r i e s w e r e a r r a n g e d f o r b y 5 3 t h e t i m e o f t h i s o f f i c i a l o p e n i n g , s h o w i n g t h a t M c B r i d e ' s c u l t u r a l scheme h a d a p r a c t i c a l s i d e . T h e c l i m a x t o a l l t h i s a c t i v i t y came i n t h e p r o v i n -c i a l e l e c t i o n o f M a r c h 1 4 , 1 9 1 2 . P o l i t i c s h a d n o t b e e n e x c i t i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s i n c e 1909 b e c a u s e t h e c r u s h -i n g d e f e a t o f t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y a t t h a t l a s t e l e c t i o n h a d r e n d e r e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e H o u s e a l m o s t p i t i a b l e , a n d o u t s i d e t h e H o u s e t h e y c o u l d , o f c o u r s e , a c c o m p l i s h l i t t l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y f o u n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o s t i r up m u c h d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t . J o h n O l i v e r h a d b e e n s u p e r s e d e d a s L i b e r a l l e a d e r b y H . C . B r e w s t e r , who b y 1 9 1 2 , was t h e o n l y L i b e r a l l e f t i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e . Two L i b e r a l s h a d b e e n e l e c t e d i n 1909 b u t t h e member f o r E s q u i -m a l t , J o h n J a r d i n e , h a d c r o s s e d t h e f l o o r i n 1911 t o b e c o m e a n i n d e p e n d e n t C o n s e r v a t i v e . E v i d e n t l y h e f e l t h i m s e l f i n 5 3 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w . 1 9 1 2 , p . 5 9 7 . P r e m i e r M c B r i d e As Many B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s M u s t H a v e S e e n Him H e r e he i s s p e a k i n g f r o m t h e r e a r o f a r a i l w a y c a r a t N a k u s p d u r i n g t h e t r i u m p h a l 1912 c a m p a i g n . B o w s e r s t a n d s a t h i s r i g h t ; t h e man o n h i s l e f t i s p r o b a b l y t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e f o r N e l s o n , W. R . M a c L e a n . 171 a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s r a i l w a y p o l i c y a n d i n d i s -a g r e e m e n t w i t h B r e w s t e r o v e r t h e l a t t e r ' s a t t a c k s o n t h a t p o l i c y . T h e two L i b e r a l s a l s o q u a r r e l l e d o v e r who s h o u l d 54 b e l e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n . T h u s when t h e H o u s e was d i s s o l v e d i n 1 9 1 2 , t h i r t y - n i n e C o n s e r v a t i v e s f a c e d o n e L i b e r a l a n d two S o c i a l i s t s . T h e c a m p a i g n o f 1912 h a d e x c i t e m e n t d e s p i t e i t s o n e -s i d e d c h a r a c t e r b e c a u s e i t was i n t h e n a t u r e o f a t r i u m p h a l t o u r o f t h e P r o v i n c e . B a n d s a n d f i r e w o r k s g r e e t e d t h e c a m p a i g n e r s a t e a c h c e n t r e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , l a r g e o r s m a l l . A n d t h e P r e m i e r was a t h i s b e s t , d i g n i f i e d , g a y a n d c h a r m i n g . James M o r t o n w r o t e : N e v e r d i d M c B r i d e a p p e a r t o b e t t e r a d v a n t a g e . T h e s p e e c h h e d e l i v e r e d w i t h few v a r i a t i o n s f r o m p o i n t t o p o i n t , h a d b e e n more c a r e f u l l y p r e -p a r e d a n d was l e s s d i f f u s e t h a n h i s o r d i n a r y o r a t i o n s . H i s manner was n e v e r m o r e g r a c i o u s , a n d a t t h e d i n i n g t a b l e o r i n t h e r a i l w a y c a r h e b u b b l e d o v e r w i t h o p t i m i s m a n d w h o l e s a l e f u n . He l e f t p r a c t i c a l d e t a i l s a n d s o l i d a r g u m e n t s t o B o w s e r , who was a t h i s v e r y b e s t I n p l a t f o r m f o r c e . B u t M c B r i d e g r a c i o u s l y t o o k t h e s p o t l i g h t w h i l e t h e a u d i e n c e was f r e s h a n d u n t i r e d a n d h e a n s w e r e d h e c k l e r s w i t h w i t t y r e p a r t e e t h a t p u t e v e r y o n e i n g o o d h u m o u r . When a l i t t l e g i r l m o u n t e d t h e p l a t f o r m a n d p r e s e n t e d h i m w i t h a b o u q u e t , h e t o o k h e r u p i n h i s arms a n d k i s s e d h e r , t h o u g h B o w s e r , s m i l i n g p l e a s a n t l y , c o n t e n t e d h i m s e l f w i t h a p a t on t h e h e a d . ^ g N e a r l y a l l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s seem t o h a v e j o i n e d i n t h e 54 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w . 1 9 1 1 , p . 6 0 7 . 5 5 J a m e s M o r t o n , " B a n d s , F i r e w o r k s , G r e e t e d C a m -p a i g n e r s i n Boom D a y s o f M c B r i d e a n d B o w s e r , " V i c t o r i a D a i l y  T i m e s , 13 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 3 , m a g . s e c . 172 s e n t i m e n t o f t h a t o l d L i b e r a l D e n i s M u r p h y t h a t D i c k M c -56 B r i d e was " t h e b e s t o f a l l n a t i v e s o n s . " T h e e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s g a i n e d o n l y one s e a t , w e r e p h e n o m e n a l . T h a t s e a t was t h e one r e m a i n i n g L i b e r a l , s o t h a t n o w , o n l y t h e two S o c i a l i s t s 57 w e r e l e f t t o f a c e t h e f o r t y C o n s e r v a t i v e s . M c B r i d e ' s p a r t y h a d e n t i r e l y r e m o v e d t h e c h i e f o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y f r o m a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y . T h e L i b e r a l s h a d d o n e t h e i r b e s t i n a n u p h i l l f i g h t b u t h a d b e e n c o m -p l e t e l y h e l p l e s s I n t h e f a c U o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e r e c o r d a n d t h e a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c m i n d o f t h a t p a r t y w i t h t h e boom w h i c h was now a t i t s v e r y z e n i t h . T h e e l e c t o r a t e was money m a d , p r o g r e s s m a d ; many o f t h e m h a d g o n e w i l d i n a n o r g y o f s p e c u l a t i o n . None o f them w a n t e d t o h e a r a b o u t m o d e r a t i o n — - t h e y a l l w a n t e d t o s t a y o n t h e b a n d w a g o n o f C o n -s e r v a t i v e p r o g r e s s a n d go c a r e e n i n g a l o n g o n t h e p r i m r o s e p a t h t o a c e r t a i n m i l l e n i u m . P r e s i d i n g o v e r a l l t h i s g l o r -i o u s e x c i t e m e n t was t h a t b e n i g n , d i s t i n g u i s h e d m a n , t h e P r e m i e r , w i t h h i s w h i t e l o c k s a n d h i s g r a c i o u s manner r i -v a l l i n g S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r h i m s e l f . 0 0 D e n i s M u r p h y t o M c B r i d e , 26 A p r i l , 1 9 1 1 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 2 , f i l e m a r k e d E n g l i s h l e t t e r s a n d i n v i t a t i o n s . 57 H a w t h o r n t h w a l t e , h i t h e r t o t h e S o c i a l i s t H o u s e L e a d e r , d i d n o t r u n i n 1 9 1 2 . J o h n P l a c e was e l e c t e d f o r N a n a i m o i n h i s s t e a d , a n d P a r k e r W i l l i a m s became H o u s e l e a d e r . 173 A c h a n g e i n p o l i t i c a l and, e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s was n o t f a r o f f i n 1 9 1 2 , b u t n o b o d y g a v e a t h o u g h t t o s u c h a p o s s i -58 b i l i t y . T h e y s m o k e d " O u r D i c k " c i g a r s , t r a v e l l e d o n M c -B r i d e r a i l w a y s , a n d when t h e e l e c t i o n c a m e , t h e y v o t e d C o n s e r v a t i v e . S i r fiichard M c B r i d e , a s h e became i n J u n e , was t h e c o n f i d a n t a n d a d v i s o r o f t h e f e d e r a l P r i m e M i n i s t e r , t h e p e r s o n a l f r i e n d o f t h e F i r s t L o r d o f t h e A d m i r a l t y a n d many o t h e r n o t a b l e i m p e r i a l f i g u r e s ; h e was t h e l e a d e r o f f o r t y o u t o f f o r t y - t w o s e a t s i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l y . " T h e P e o p l e ' s D i c k " h a d become a s y m b o l a n d a n i n s t i t u t i o n i n a n a m b i t i o u s p r o v i n c e . N o t e : J . B r u c e P a y n e L t d . t o M c B r i d e , 31 J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 2 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 2 , f i l e N o . 1 . T h e P r e m i e r was a s k e d f o r a p i c t u r e w h i c h c o u l d s u i t a b l y a d o r n t h e l a b e l o f t h i s b r a n d o f c i g a r s . C H A P T E R V I I BACK TO RETRENCHMENT One d a y i n 1913 t h e r e was a c u r t a i l m e n t o f c r e d i t . A t t e n t i o n was c a l l e d t o o u r o v e r -d r a f t s a n d d e f e r r e d p a y m e n t s w h i c h s u d d e n l y a p p e a r e d t o a s s u m e u n u s u a l s i z e a n d i m p o r t -a n c e , w i t h a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i f f i c u l t y o f r e d u c i n g t h e m . N e x t d a y we w e r e a l l p e r -c e p t i v e l y p o o r e r i n p o c k e t a n d p r o s p e c t a n d s p e c u l a t i o n g o t a t e r r i b l e j a r . T h e r e was e v e r y t h i n g t o s e l l a n d n o one t o b u y . P r o m t h a t d a y t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t s t a r t e d o n t h e d e c l i n e . G o s n e l l . 1 T h e M c B r i d e g o v e r n m e n t h a d s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d i n p o p u l a r i t y o v e r a p e r i o d o f n i n e y e a r s . I n t h e t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r 1912 t h i s b a c k l o g o f p r e s t i g e a l m o s t e n t i r e l y d i s -a p p e a r e d . T h i s d e c l i n e was i n t h r e e n o t i c e a b l e s t a g e s , t h e i n i t i a l one l a s t i n g f r o m e a r l y 1913 u n t i l t h e summer o f 1 9 1 4 ; t h e s e c o n d , b r i e f h e s i t a t i o n b e f o r e t h e f i n a l c o l l a p s e l a s t i n g f o r s e v e r a l months a f t e r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e w a r ; a n d t h e t h i r d a n d l a s t p e r i o d , o c c u p y i n g most o f 1915 a n d b r i n g i n g d i s r e p u t e a n d d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . T h e d e p r e s s i o n w h i c h b e g a n a t t h e e n d o f 1912 a f -f e c t e d d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t t o d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s . I t a f f e c t e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a more t h a n 1 R . E . G o s n e l l , " S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " A r t i c l e N o . 5 , V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e . 20 A u g u s t , 1 9 2 1 . 175 m o s t o t h e r s b e c a u s e o f t h e d e p e n d e n c e o f t h i s p r o v i n c e u p o n o u t s i d e c a p i t a l . I n v e r y many c a s e s t h i s c a p i t a l was B r i -t i s h i n o r i g i n — a n u n f o r t u n a t e f a c t i n o n e w a y , f o r B r i t i s h c a p i t a l t i g h t e n e d u p m o r e q u i c k l y t h a n A m e r i c a n b e c a u s e o f i t s g r e a t e r p r o x i m i t y t o t h e s o u r c e s o f w o r l d a l a r m s u c h a s t h e B a l k a n W a r s , A n o t h e r r e a s o n why B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s u f -f e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y was t h a t t h e boom w h i c h s h e was t h e n e n -j o y i n g l a c k e d a s o l i d b a s i s . H a d g o o d t i m e s c o n t i n u e d a l i t t l e l o n g e r , t h e p r o v i n c e m i g h t h a v e b e e n i n more s o u n d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n , a n d t h e r e f o r e , b e t t e r f i t t e d t o s u r v i v e a d e p r e s s i o n . E v i d e n c e t h a t t h e boom was f a r t o o s p e c u l a t i v e h a d n o t b e e n n o t i c e a b l e p r i o r t o 1913 b e c a u s e t h e w h o l e b u s i n e s s o f s p e c u l a t i o n d e p e n d e d u p o n c o n t i n u e d a s s u r a n c e s o f p r o s -p e r i t y f r o m a l l a u t h o r i t i e s c o n c e r n e d , t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n p a r t i c u l a r . H o w e v e r one o r two s i g n s d i d a p p e a r . I n 1 9 1 1 , A l e x L u c a s , M . P . P . , w r o t e - t o i n f o r m t h e P r e m i e r t h a t a l l was n o t w e l l i n t h e s u p p o s e d l y t h r i v i n g f r u i t g r o w i n g i n d u s t r y . " T h e o l d e s t a b l i s h e d f r u i t g r o w e r s " w e r e d o i n g w e l l a n d g e t t i n g r i c h , h e s a i d . " B u t t h e new men who h a v e come i n w i t h t h e boom f a c e many d i f f i c u l t i e s : I n e x p e r i e n c e , l a c k o f p i c k i n g l a b o u r , l a c k o f c a p i t a l . T h e y go i n d e b t t o s t a r t o f f w i t h a n d t h e r i s k i s c o n s i d e r a b l e t h a t t h i s w i l l 2 p r o f i t t h e m l i t t l e i n t h e l o n g r u n . " Two p o i n t s a r e c A l e x L u c a s t o M c B r i d e , 30 J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 1 , I n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 1 , f i l e N o . 2 . 176 p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t h e r e * I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , h e r e i s some s m a l l e v i d e n c e t h a t p e o p l e w e r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n i n v e s t i n g t h e i r money i n a g r i c u l t u r e . T r u e , t h i s was j u s t o n e t y p e o f a g r i c u l t u r e , b u t t h e s i t u a t i o n seems t o h a v e o b t a i n e d e v e n more s e r i o u s l y w i t h o t h e r t y p e s . T h e p e o p l e w i t h c a p i t a l b o u g h t u p l a n d f o r s p e c u l a t i o n a n d h a d l i t t l e c o n c e r n o v e r i t s f u t u r e o n c e some b u y e r h a d b e e n f o o l i s h e n o u g h t o a t t e m p t t o w o r k i t . T h e s e c o n d p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t i s t h e e v i d e n c e o f a l a b o u r s h o r t a g e . A g i a n t t e r r i t o r y w i t h a w e a l t h o f r e s o u r c e s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . c a n b e s a i d t o h a v e h a d n o more t h a n a s k e l e t o n c r e w w o r k i n g t h e s e r e -s o u r c e s . A n d t h i s c o n d i t i o n was made w o r s e t h a n i t n e e d h a v e b e e n b y t h e t e n d e n c y o f e v e n n a t i v e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s t o w h i l e away a l l t h e i r t i m e a n d s a v i n g s i n f r a n t i c s p e c u -l a t i o n . One c o m m e n t a t o r o n t h e boom g a v e some s u r p r i s i n g f i g u r e s t o s u p p o r t h i s w a r n i n g s o f i t s e c o n o m i c i n s t a b i l i t y . O f V a n c o u v e r , a r e a l boom town i f t h e r e e v e r was o n e , he w r o t e " t h e r e a r e 8 t i m e s a s many r e a l e s t a t e d e a l e r s a s t h e r e a r e d e a l e r s I n l u m b e r — t h e g r e a t e s t s i n g l e i n d u s t r y o f t h e p l a c e . . . . I n d e e d , " h e c o n t i n u e d , " t h e c i t y d i r e c t o r y shows a l i s t o f 1 , 0 5 0 r e a l e s t a t e d e a l e r s as c o m p a r e d w i t h 3 o n l y 325 g r o c e r s . " F a r t o o many p e o p l e came t o t h e c i t i e s ° W. M a r t i n S w i f t , " T h e I n d u s t r i a l F u t u r e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " M o o d y ' s M a g a z i n e , J u n e , 1 9 1 3 . 177 w h i l e t h e boom l a s t e d a n d t h e r e t h e y e a r n e d h i g h wages w h i c h t h e y s p e n t o n i m p o r t e d g o o d s , t h e r e b y s e n d i n g t h e money o u t o f t h e c o u n t r y , o r t h e y w e r e s w i n d l e d b y r e a l e s t a t e s h a r k s . I f t h e y w e r e n o t s w i n d l e d , t h e y became s h a r k s t h e m s e l v e s s o t h a t one o l d V a n c o u v e r I t e was p r o m p t e d t o w r i t e t o M c B r i d e t h a t " n o w a d a y s " p e o p l e I n V a n c o u v e r l i v e d b y t h e i r w i t s . 4 T h e y h a d f o r g o t t e n how t o w o r k . B u t a l l t h e l i t t l e s h a r k s d e p e n d e d u p o n t h e b i g o n e s — a n d when t h e b i g o n e s n o l o n g e r s p e c u l a t e d I n t h e i r a c c u s t o m e d w a y t h e w h o l e mad--money r a c e came g r a d u a l l y t o a h a l t . A n d when r e p o r t s s u c h as t h a t p u b l i s h e d i n J u n e , 1913 b y t h e B r i t i s h f i n a n c i a l a u t h o r i t y , H o m e P a y n e , h a d t a k e n e f f e c t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h money m a r k e t d e t e r i o r a t e d w i t h c(fcr\oorice.c) i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d i t y . H o m e P a y n e S g S B S B B B B m u n i c i p a l b o n d s , c h a r g i n g t h a t C a n a d i a n c i t i e s w e r e s p e n d i n g money b e f o r e 5 t h e y h a d r a i s e d i t , a n d w e r e , t h e r e b y , c h e a p e n i n g p r i c e s . I t p r o f i t e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s l i t t l e t o d e n y t h e s e c h a r g e s , i f f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n t h a t t h e y w e r e a l l t o o o f t e n t r u e . M c B r i d e r e s p o n d e d i n s e v e r a l ways t o t h i s d e p r e c i a t i o n I n f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . He s p o k e c o n f i d e n t l y , a n d was d e s -c r i b e d , r i g h t up u n t i l h i s r e s i g n a t i o n i n 1 9 1 5 , a s a l w a y s V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 2 0 J u n e , 1 9 1 3 . 5 E . P . B r e m n e r t o M c B r i d e , 15 J u l y , 1 9 1 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 3 , f i l e N o . 5 . 178 6 o p t i m i s t i c . I n d e e d , J a m e s M o r t o n c l a i m s t h a t t h e P r e m i e r 7 m e r e l y t r u s t e d t o l u c k . N e i t h e r o f t h e s e comments s e e m t o c r e a t e a n a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e . M c B r i d e was o b v i o u s l y a w a r e t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n was s e r i o u s . He w r o t e t o C a r t e r - C o t t o n i n A p r i l , 1913 a b o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r a i s i n g c a p i t a l i n E n g l a n d f o r t h e B u r r a r d I n l e t T u n n e l a n d B r i d g e C o m p a n y , a n d on t h i s o c c a s i o n s t a t e d t h a t " T h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f t h e f i n a n c i a l m a r k e t d o e s n o t e n c o u r a g e one t o l o o k f o r r e a d y 8 r e s p o n s e . . » i n t h e O l d C o u n t r y . " A n d y e t a t t h e same t i m e he was d o i n g h i s b e s t t o m a i n t a i n B r i t i s h c o n f i d e n c e i n p r o v i n c i a l i n v e s t m e n t s a n d t o t h i s e n d h e t o l d T . P . O ' C o n n o r t h a t " t h e f i e l d f o r g o o d i n v e s t m e n t grows d a i l y a n d t h e 9 c e r t a i n t y o f s p l e n d i d r e t u r n s i s a s s u r e d . " O ' C o n n o r w r o t e a f e w months l a t e r t h a t h i s p l a n s f o r a g i a n t money t r u s t 10 ( " t o b o r r o w m o n e y h e r e a n d l e n d i t t o y o u r p e o p l e " ) w o u l d p r o c e e d f o r a l t h o u g h h e was " s o r r y t o h e a r t h a t money was r a t h e r t i g h t , " he was s u r e t h a t " t h i s I s o n l y a p a s s i n g i n -11 e i d e n t . " O ' C o n n o r m u s t h a v e b e e n a f e l l o w o p t i m i s t b e c a u s e g J . C a s t e l l H o p k i n s , T h e C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w o f  P u b l i c A f f a i r s , 1 9 1 5 , T o r o n t o , A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 6 , p . 7 1 1 . 7 James M o r t o n , "Why M c B r i d e , B o w s e r S p l i t O v e r P . G . E . C o n s t r u c t i o n , " V i c t o r i a D a i l y T i m e s , 2 0 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 3 , m a g . s e c . 8 M c B r i d e t o C o t t o n , 18 A p r i l , 1 9 1 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 3 , f i l e N o . 3 . 9 M c B r i d e t o T . P . O ' C o n n o r , 15 A p r i l , 1 9 1 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 3 , f i l e N o . 3 . 1 0 O ' C o n n o r t o M c B r i d e , 30 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 1 2 , i n l o c . c i t . 1 1 O ' C o n n o r t o M c B r i d e , 5 J u l y , 1 9 1 3 , i n l o c . c i t . 179 o t h e r E n g l i s h f i n a n c i e r s w e r e l e s s e a s i l y p e r s u a d e d . I n a n a t t e m p t t o u s e h i s p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e t o s e t t l e t h e f i n a n c i a l m a r k e t M c B r i d e v i s i t e d E n g l a n d i n A u g u s t , 1 9 1 3 . U n d o u b t e d l y , i t was t o t h i s t r i p t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g c l i p p i n g f r o m t h e L o n d o n C a n a d i a n G a z e t t e r e f e r r e d . Y e s t e r d a y S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e b r o u g h t t o a c l o s e h i s most p l e a s a n t a n d , we d o u b t n o t , p r o f i t a b l e v i s i t t o t h i s c o u n t r y . He h a s b e e n t h e g u e s t o f t h e K i n g a n d o f t h e Duke o f C o n n a u g h t ; h e h a s r e n e w e d s o c i a l i n t i m a c y w i t h M r . W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l a n d M r . L l o y d " G e o r g e , a s w e l l a s w i t h e x - M i n i s t e r s , a n d t h e b e n e f i t s h a v e b e e n m u t u a l ; a n d h i s u t -t e r a n c e s t h r o u g h t h e p r e s s a n d f r o m t h e p l a t f o r m , o f w h i c h t h e l a s t a n d t h e b e s t was t h a t d e l i v e r e d b e f o r e t h e C i t y C a r l t o n C l u b l a s t F r i d a y , h a v e done m u c h t o s t e a d y p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n r e g a r d t o C a n a d a a t a moment when t h e a u t h o r i t a t i v e w o r d was m o s t w e l c o m e . W i t h B r i t i s h M i n i s t e r s l i k e M r ; S a m u e l e x p r e s s i n g t h e m s e l v e s f r e e l y I n C a n a d a , a n d C a n a d i a n M i n i s t e r s l i k e S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e d o i n g t h e same i n E n g l a n d , p u b l i c o p i n i o n c a n n o t go f a r w r o n g . ^2 B u t p u b l i c o p i n i o n c o u l d " g o f a r w r o n g , " f r o m t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n p o i n t o f v i e w , a n d d i d i n c r e a s i n g l y s o as t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n b e c a m e more t e n s e . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t M c B r i d e a t t e m p t e d t o c o m -p e n s a t e f o r t h e l a c k o f B r i t i s h c a p i t a l b y e x t e n d i n g t h e P a c i f i c G r e a t E a s t e r n a t e i t h e r e n d s o t h a t i t w o u l d r u n f r o m T a c o m a t o A l a s k a — a p r o j e c t c a l c u l a t e d t o l u r e 13 A m e r i c a n c a p i t a l . H o w e v e r , t h e P . . G . E . was t o h a v e a 12 A n u n d a t e d c l i p p i n g f r o m t h e ' L o n d o n C a n a d i a n G a z e t t e , i n t h e M i s c e l l a n e o u s P a p e r s i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f M r s . M . F . M a c i n t o s h . M c B r i d e t o G e n e r a l , J . M . A s h t o n , 10 J u l y , a n d A s h t o n t o M c B r i d e , 14 J u l y , 1 9 1 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 3 , f i l e N o . 5 . 180 h a r d e n o u g h t i m e r e a c h i n g L i l l o o e t b y t h e e n d o f 1 9 1 5 , a n d i t s s l o w p r o g r e s s must h a v e r e n d e r e d a n y T a c o m a - A l a s k a e x t r a v a g a n c e somewhat r i d i c u l o u s . F a n c i f u l scheme t h o u g h t h i s was i t c o n t a i n e d t h e two m a i n e l e m e n t s o f M c B r i d e ' s d e p r e s s i o n p o l i c y . S i r R i c h a r d c o n s i d e r e d two f a c t o r s o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , c o n f i d e n c e m u s t b e m a i n t a i n e d i n p r o v i n -c i a l i n v e s t m e n t s . To t h i s e n d he e x u d e d a n o p t i m i an w h i c h m u s t h a v e b e e n p i t i f u l l y i n v a l i d . He must h a v e known t h a t t h e d a y s o f s w e e p i n g p r o g r e s s w e r e o v e r f o r some t i m e t o c o m e , a n d y e t h e t a l k e d a s i f t h e y w e r e c o n t i n u i n g . He c e r t a i n l y d i d t h i s b e c a u s e h e w a n t e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e c o n -f i d e n c e o f i n v e s t o r s . He may a l s o h a v e d o n e i t b e c a u s e h e r e f u s e d t o a d m i t e v e n t o h i m s e l f t h a t t h e t i m e h a d a g a i n come f o r p e o p l e t o p u t t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n s i n t h e i r p o c k e t s . I n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e , h e knew w h a t a c a l a m i t y i t w o u l d b e i f w o r k o n t h e r a i l w a y s came t o a c o m p l e t e h a l t . I n J u l y , 1 9 1 4 , 14 t h e r e w e r e s i x t h o u s a n d men w o r k i n g o n t h e P . G . E . n o t t o m e n t i o n o t h e r r a i l w a y p r o j e c t s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n h e c o n -s i s t e n t l y a d v i s e d e x t r a g u a r a n t e e s a n d s u b s i d i e s t o k e e p c o n s t r u c t i o n u n d e r w a y . F o u r s h o r t B i l l s w e r e p a s s e d a t t h e 1913 S e s s i o n t o " e n a b l e t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n P a c i f i c a n d t h e P a c i f i c G r e a t C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 4 , p . 6 8 1 . 181 E a s t e r n C o m p a n i e s t o c a r r y t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e u n d e r t a k i n g s t o a s p e e d y c o n s u m m a t i o n . " I n t h e c a s e o f t h e C . N . P . , t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a d d e c i d e d t o g u a r a n t e e $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 f o r t e r -m i n a l s a t P o r t M a n n , New W e s t m i n s t e r , V a n c o u v e r , V i c t o r i a , S t e v e s t o n a n d U n i o n B a y . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e P . G . E . two B i l l s p r o v i d e d f o r a n i n c r e a s e o f t h e i n t e r e s t r a t e f r o m 4 t o 4 ^ p e r c e n t o n t h e p r o v i n c i a l l y - g u a r a n t e e d b o n d s o f t h e 15 C o m p a n y . M c B r i d e s o o n d i s c o v e r e d t h a t h i s new s u p p o r t o f M a c K e n z i e a n d Mann h a d a l i e n a t e d t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c . S h a u g h n e s s y w r o t e a n g r i l y o n M a r c h 5 , 1 9 1 3 : I m u s t c o n f e s s ray amazement a t t h e b o l d n e s s o f y o u r G o v e r n m e n t I n u n d e r t a k i n g t o g u a r a n t e e t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d i n t e r e s t o f t e n m i l l i o n d o l l a r s o f s e c u r i t i e s f o r t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n P a c i f i c t e r -m i n a l s o n t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t . P r o b a b l y y o u h a d jusK]\uWo** -gbms*{gint i 'TnAnrtm^^m t h a t d o e s n o t o c c u r t o me b u t , i f P o r t Mann i s i n c l u d e d a m o n g s t t h e T e r m i n a l s , a n d I am i n f o r m e d t h a t i t I s , t h e r e i s g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y a b o u t d e t e r m i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h a t j u s t i f i c a t i o n . P o r t Mann i s I u n d e r s t a n d , e s -s e n t i a l l y a n I n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e , o n l y i n c i d -e n t a l l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e C a n a d -i a n N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y , a n d t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d f e e l w a r r a n t e d i n u t i l i z i n g i t s r e s o u r c e s t o a s s i s t i n t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f l a n d s c h e m e s f o r t h e p e r s o n a l p r o f i t o f i n d i v i d u a l s i s p a s t b e l i e f . We h a v e a r r a n g e d t o s p e n d t h a t amount o f money a t o u r P a c i f i c C o a s t T e r m i n a l s b u t we a r e d o i n g i t q u i t e o f f o u r own b a t . V a n c o u v e r t o w n s i t e h a s b e e n p r o f i t a b l e b u t t h e money h a s a l l g o n e b a c k w h e r e i t came f r o m . Why s h o u l d n o t t h e s e e n t e r -p r i s i n g g e n t l e m e n b e p e r m i t t e d t o p u r s u e t h e same c o u r s e ? I f e a r t h a t some d a y t h e r e w i l l b e a m o s t d i s a g r e e a b l e a w a k e n i n g , a n d I s h a l l b e s o r r y i n -d e e d I f i t r e f l e c t s u p o n y o u r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a f f a i r s . i @ 15 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 3 . p . 6 7 5 . 1 6 S h a u g h n e s s y t o M c B r i d e , 5 M a r c h , 1 9 1 3 , I n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 3 , f i l e N o . 5 . 182 T h i s was a n o m i n o u s l e t t e r i n a t l e a s t two r e s p e c t s . I t was p r o p h e t i c i n i t s c o n c l u d i n g s e n t e n c e , a n d i t s h o w e d t h a t t h e w h e e l was t u r n i n g f u l l c y c l e w i t h M c B r i d e l o s i n g t h e f r i e n d s h i p a n d s u p p o r t o f S h a u g h n e s s y a f t e r a b o u t s e v e n y e a r s . T h e M c B r i d e g o v e r n m e n t h a d s t a r t e d a g a i n s t C , P , R , o p p o s i t i o n ; i t seems m o r e t h a n l i k e l y t h a t i t f i n i s h e d a g a i n s t t h e same o p p o s i t i o n . T h e U n i v e r s i t y w h i c h h a d p r o g r e s s e d b y s e v e r a l s t a g e s t o w a r d s r e a l i t y i n 1912 s u f f e r e d o n l y l e s s t h a n t h e r a i l w a y s a y e a r l a t e r , A P r e s i d e n t was f o u n d i n t h e p e r s o n o f D r , P r a n k F a i r c h i l d W e s b r o o k , f o r m e r l y D e a n o f t h e M e d i c a l 17 F a c u l t y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , b u t b e f o r e he h a d b e e n l o n g i n o f f i c e t h i s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t was c o m p l a i n i n g o f t h e l a c k o f f u n d s . He c o n s i d e r e d one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s p e r y e a r f o r e i g h t y e a r s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o p u t t i n g t h e 18 i n s t i t u t i o n o n a p r o p e r f o o t i n g . H o w e v e r h e s o o n f o u n d t h a t t h e s e b o o m - s i z e f i g u r e s w e r e n o l o n g e r I n u s e . D r , Y o u n g t o l d C o t t o n t h a t a b u i l d i n g f u n d o f $ 1 ^ m i l l i o n c o u l d b e p r o v i d e d i f i t w e r e s p r e a d o v e r a s i x y e a r p e r i o d , $ 3 5 0 , 0 0 0 f o r t h e same p e r i o d w o u l d b e a l l o t t e d t o F a c u l t y a n d g e n e r a l management e x p e n s e s . I t w o u l d b e d e c i d e d b e t -ween t h e G o v e r n o r s a n d t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l how much o f t h e 17 M c B r i d e t o B o r d e n , 22 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 1 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 3 , f i l e N o , 2 . 1 8 C a r t e r - C o t t o n t o M c B r i d e , 9 M a y , 1 9 1 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 3 , f i l e N o . 4 . & see*** d e * * W 183 19 a b o v e sums c o u l d b e v o t e d f r o m y e a r t o y e a r . When he h e a r d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , W e s b r o o k t h o u g h t t h e r e must b e some m i s -u n d e r s t a n d i n g . When he f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was n o m i s u n d e r -s t a n d i n g h e d e s c r i b e d t h e a r r a n g e m e n t a s " i m p o s s i b l e " a n d h o p e d f e r v e n t l y t h a t t h i s g r e a t p r o j e c t w o u l d n o t b e " e m -20 b a r r a s s e d a t t h e s t a r t . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t M c B r i d e d i d n o t c o n -t i n u e t o s p e n d l a v i s h l y o n t h e U n i v e r s i t y a n d t h a t h e t e n d e d t o l i m i t s p e n d i n g t o r a i l w a y s . T h i s was n o t b e c a u s e o f ui'<Hi some i n f a t u a t i o n II IH Ii 11HI r a i l w a y s b u t b e c a u s e t h e r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n k e p t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s e m p l o y e d . D u r i n g t h i s f i r s t s t a g e o f t h e c o l l a p s e t h e C o n s e r -v a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n managed t o l o s e much o f i t s p o p u l a r i t y t h r o u g h a r b i t r a r y p r a c t i c e s , a n d p r o b a b l y a c e r t a i n a r r o -g a n c e o n t h e p a r t o f p a r t y b o s s e s . I n 1912 M c B r i d e h a d r e c e i v e d a r e p o r t o f t h e u n c o u t h c o n d u c t o f many c i v i l s e r -v a n t s who b y r u d e n e s s a n d d i s i n t e r e s t w e r e d i s c o u r a g i n g 21 s e t t l e r s . T h e s e men h a d b e e n f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d f o r y e a r s • • ' / • > _ _ _ 1 9 W i r e . H . E . Y o u n g t o C o t t o n , 19 M a y , 1 9 1 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 3 , f i l e N o . 4 . 2 0 C o t t o n t o M c B r i d e , 29 M a y , 1 9 1 3 , i n l o c . c i t . 21 T h i s r e p o r t was f r o m a l o y a l s u p p o r t e r who h a d b e e n p r o v i n c i a l f r u i t I n s p e c t o r t h r o u g h o u t t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e r e -g i m e . S e e r Thomas C u n n i n g h a m t o M c B r i d e , 26 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 1 2 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 2 , f i l e N o . 6 . 184 u n d e r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t a n d i n 1912 many o f t h e m must h a v e t h o u g h t t h e same s i t u a t i o n w o u l d c o n t i n u e i n -d e f i n i t e l y . O t h e r r e p o r t s t o l d M c B r i d e o f t h e a u t o c r a t i c m a n n e r o f t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l a n d w a r n e d h i m t h a t B o w s e r w o u l d d i s c r e d i t t h e w h o l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . One man w r o t e o f " w i d e - s p r e a d r e s e n t m e n t " o f t h a t " p o p i n j a y B o w s e r , " a n d d e s c r i b e d t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l as a s m a l l m i n d e d , j e a l o u s man who w o u l d n o t a l l o w a n y r i v a l s a n d r e f u s e d t o h i r e e m -2 2 p l o y e e s m o r e i n t e l l i g e n t t h a n , ihims e l f • I n t h e m a t t e r o f p a t r o n a g e , many p e o p l e s e e m t o h a v e o b j e c t e d t o B o w s e r ' s m e t h o d s o f d i s p e n s a t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e m a t t e r o f h t h e r e a l e s t a t e made a v a i l a b l e b y c l e a r i n g t h e S o n g V e e I n d i a n R e s e r v e I n V i c t o r i a t o make way f o r a r a i l w a y t e r m i n u s , H e r b e r t C u t h b e r t , a r e l i a b l e s u p p o r t e r o f l o n g s t a n d i n g , t o l d M c B r i d e t h a t t h e p a t r o n a g e was i n s u f f i c i e n t a n d b a d l y d i s -t r i b u t e d . He went o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s f o l l o w s : Now, S i r R i c h a r d , I- s p e a k p l a i n l y when I s a y t h a t t h e P a r t y i s i n s u c h a c o n d i t i o n i n t h i s c i t y , t h a t i t i s o n l y y o u r own p e r s o n -a l i t y w h i c h k e e p s ) i t t o g e t h e r . T h e r e i s a v e r y g r e a t amount o f u n r e s t a n d d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n , a n d e a c h t i m e a n y t h i n g o f t h i s n a t u r e t a k e s p l a c e i t g e t s w o r s e . 2 3 No amount o f l e g i s l a t i v e s t r e n g t h c o u l d r e c t i f y t h i s s o r t o f p a r t y t r o u b l e - - I n d e e d i t p r o b a b l y t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e i t . A g o v e r n m e n t f a c e d b y no e f f e c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n may t e n d t o d i s i n t e g r a t e b e c a u s e t h e r e i s n o l o n g e r t h e n e e d t o m a i n t a i n d * B r i a n T h o m p s o n t o M c B r i d e , 4 A u g u s t , 1 9 1 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 S 1 3 , f i l e N o . 6 . 2 5 H e r b e r t C u t h b e r t t o M c B r i d e , 14 M a r c h , 1 9 1 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 9 3 , f i l e N o . 3 . 185 a n e f f e c t i v e u n i t y . A t t h i s s t a g e B o w s e r a n d S i r R i c h a r d may h a v e t e n d e d t o go t h e i r own w a y s , a n d a l t h o u g h a n o p e n s p l i t d i d n o t o c c u r f o r some t i m e , i t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t i n t e r n a l c a b i n e t - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was w e a k e n e d . S i r R i c h a r d was t o l d b y one w e l l m e a n i n g f r i e n d t h a t " t h e doom c l o u d i s on t h e h o r i z o n . " T h e n i n r e f e r e n c e t o S i r R i c h a r d ' s w e l l - k n o w n l o v e f o r E n g l a n d h e a d v i s e d " B e f o r e i t b u r s t s g e t y o u t o w h e r e y o u w i l l r e c e i v e t r e a t m e n t b e -24 c o m i n g a g e n t l e m a n . " S i r R i c h a r d may h a v e k e p t t h i s a d -v i c e i n m i n d b e c a u s e h e c e r t a i n l y seems t o h a v e f o l l o w e d i t I n t h e e n d . I n d e e d , i t was r u m o u r e d i n 1914 t h a t h e w o u l d s u c c e e d L o r d S t r a t h c o n a as C a n a d i a n H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r i n 25 L o n d o n . H o w e v e r n o t h i n g e v e r came o f t h e s e r u m o u r s . F u r t h e r r a i l w a y a i d B i l l s i n t h e 1914 S e s s i o n must h a v e b r o u g h t home t o many B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s t h e f a c t t h a t c o n d i t i o n s w e r e n o t r i g h t i n g t h e m s e l v e s , a n d were n o t e v e n s t a t i c . R a t h e r , t h e y w e r e c o n t i n u i n g t o d e p r e c i a t e . T h e K e t t l e V a l l e y R a i l w a y Company was r e l i e v e d o f some o f i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n o b j e c t i o n s a n d p e r m i t t e d t o u s e G r e a t N o r t h e r n t r a c k i n s t e a d . T h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n P a c i f i c was a l l o w e d a n a d d i t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t g u a r a n t e e o f # 1 0 , 0 0 0 p e r m i l e a n d i t s c o m p l e t i o n d e a d l i n e was e x t e n d e d two y e a r s , 2 4 B r i a n T h o m p s o n t o M c B r i d e , 4? A u g u s t , 1 9 1 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s I n w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 3 , f i l e N o . 6 . 2 5 C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 4 , p . 6 8 0 . 26 u n t i l J u l y , 1 9 1 6 , T h e r e w e r e n o l o n g e r r e f e r e n c e s t o c a r r y -i n g t h e s e u n d e r t a k i n g s t o " s p e e d y c o n s u m m a t i o n , " E v e n t h e h o p e f u l news a b o u t a B e t t e r Te rms C o m m i s s i o n 27 h a d t u r n e d r a t h e r s o u r b y 1 9 1 4 , No c h a i r m a n c o u l d be f o u n d a n d b e f o r e o n e e v e r was t h e w a r b r o k e o u t a n d t h e w h o l e a f -f a i r was p o s t p o n e d i n d e f i n i t e l y , A g o v e r n m e n t b o n d i s s u e o f f 1 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n 1914 s h o w e d t h a t t h e d e b t s i t u a t i o n was r a p i d l y r e t u r n i n g t o t h a t o b t a i n i n g i n 1 9 0 3 . I t was n e v e r t o b e c o m e s o b a d b e c a u s e , e v e n i f t h e a c t u a l b o n d e d i n d e b t e d n e s s became a s g r e a t , a c o n s i d e r a b l e s i n k i n g f u n d r e m a i n e d a n d t h e boom d a y s o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s h a d b r o u g h t more w e a l t h t o t h e p r o v i n c e t h a n t h e r e h a d b e e n I n t h e o l d d a y s . H o w e v e r t h e d i l e m m a o f 1914 was s i g n i f i c a n t o f " t h e downward t r a i l . " I t was a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t d i d n o t t h i n k i t a d -v i s a b l e t o " p r e s s f o r p a y m e n t o f money o w i n g t o i t b y c i t i -z e n s o f a P r o v i n c e who b a d b o u g h t P r o v i n c i a l l a n d s . " P r o b a b l y many o f t h e s e c i t i z e n s h a d b e e n c a u g h t w i t h t h e l a n d o n t h e i r h a n d s when t h e boom b r o k e . T h e y h a d n e v e r C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 4 , p . 6 9 5 , 2 7 I b i d , , p , 6 8 0 ; a n d s e e a l s o S i r F r a n c i s Hopwood t o M c B r i d e , 16 M a y , 1 9 1 3 , i n P r e m i e r , L e t t e r s F o r w a r d , P r i v a t e , 1 9 1 3 , f i l e N o . 5 , Hopwood s u g g e s t e d f i v e r e -t i r e d i m p e r i a l f i g u r e s f o r t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p . C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 4 , p , 6 8 2 , 187 i n t e n d e d t o p a y f o r i t u n t i l t h e y s o l d , i t a g a i n a t a v a s t l y g r e a t e r p r i c e . S u c h p e o p l e c o u l d n o t be p r e s s e d - f o r m o n e y * T h e r e w e r e o n l y two i n c i d e n t s r e m i n i s c e n t o f f o r m e r g l o r i e s t o b r i g h t e n f o r M c B r i d e t h e d a r k d a y s o f 1913 a n d e a r l y 1 9 1 4 . One came I n M a r c h 1 9 1 3 , whe n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f -o r n i a i n v i t e d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e m i e r t o B e r k e l e y t o r e c e i v e a n L L . D . B u t e v e n t h i s h o n o u r was s p o i l e d f o r M c -29 B r i d e b y h i s s e r i o u s i l l n e s s d u r i n g most o f t h e t r i p . T h i s i l l n e s s may h a v e b e e n a w a r n i n g o f t h i n g s t o come* He h a d a l w a y s t e n d e d t o c o l l a p s e a f t e r p e r i o d s o f s t r a i n , p a r t i c u l -a r l y a f t e r e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n s , b u t t h i s s p e l l o f s i c k n e s s seems t o h a v e b e e n w o r s e t h a n u s u a l . One o t h e r f i e l d o f a c t i v i t y f o u n d S i r R i c h a r d s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g h i s f o r m e r p r e s t i g e . T h i s was i n i m p e r i a l a f f a i r s . H i s v i s i t s t o E n g -l a n d i n 1913 a n d 1914 m u s t h a v e b e e n a w e l c o m e r e l i e f p r o -v i d i n g a s t h e y d i d a n e s c a p e f r o m t h e now h a r s h e r a t m o s p h e r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A n d a l t h o u g h t h e S e n a t e d e f e a t o f t h e B o r d e r n a v a l p o l i c y p r o m p t e d M r . C h u r c h i l l t o w r i t e i n a d i s c o u r a g e d t o n e o f C a n a d i a n n a v a l a f f a i r s , t h e F i r s t S e a L o r d h a d a l w a y s h a d a k i n d w o r d f o r S i r R i c h a r d . M r . C h u r c h i l l w r o t e : A d m i r a l t y i n t e r e s t s h a v e s u f f e r e d v e r y much b y t h e d e l a y a n d u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e C a n a d i a n 2 9 M c B r i d e ' s D i a r y , e n t r y f o r 18 t o 24 M a r c h , 1 9 1 3 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . 188 s h i p s ; a n d my d i f f i c u l t i e s h e r e w i l l i n c r e a s e c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e f u t u r e . I s e e p r o s p e c t o f p o l i t i c a l b a t t l e s i n C a n a d a , b u t l i t t l e p r o s -p e c t o f a c t u a l b a t t l e s h i p s a r r i v i n g i n B r i t i s h w a t e r s . 30 b u t h e a l s o s a i d t o M c B r i d e : I f t h e y w e r e a l l l i k e y o u o r i f y o u h a d t h e m a l l b y t h e c o l l a r , how much b e t t e r o u r a f f a i r s w ' d goJ 5! S u c h l i t t l e c o m p l i m e n t s must h a v e t o u c h e d S i r R i c h a r d d e e p l y a n d h e l p e d t o k e e p h i s s p i r i t s u p , f o r t h e r e w e r e f e w c o m -p l i m e n t s f l y i n g n o w a d a y s a b o u t members o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e v i s i t t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o f H . M . S . New Z e a l a n d i n l a t e J u l y , 1 9 1 3 , g a v e M c B r i d e a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s t h o s e i m p e r i a l i s t s e n t i m e n t s w h i c h h a d made h i m s o p o p u l a r i n t h e O l d C o u n t r y , a n d t o d e n o u n c e t h e d e l a y s c a u s e d b y C a n a d i a n d i s p u t e s o v e r n a v a l p o l i c y . T h e M o n t r e a l S t a r q u o t e d S i r R i c h a r d a s s a y i n g "when I saw . 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 C a n a d i a n s l i n i n g o u r s h o r e s r e c e n t l y , l o o k i n g w i t h a d m i r a t i o n u p o n t h e f i n e v e s s e l w h i c h l i t t l e New Z e a l a n d h a s c o n t r i b u t e d f o r common d e f e n c e o f t h e E m p i r e , I was h a l f a s h a m e d t o 32 c a l l m y s e l f a C a n a d i a n . " 3 0 C h u r c h i l l t o M c B r i d e , 7 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 1 3 , i n M i s c . P a p e r s . •z-l u L o c . c i t . 32 Q u o t e d i n C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , 1 9 1 3 , p . 6 6 5 . 189 When w a r came i n A u g u s t , 1914 i t p r o v i d e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s I m p e r i a l i s t P r e m i e r w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e -g a i n some o f h i s l o c a l p r e s t i g e a n d p o p u l a r i t y b e c a u s e p o l i t i c s w e r e f o r g o t t e n f o r some m o n t h s , e v e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h e r e p o l i t i c s w e r e a l w a y s t a k e n s o s e r i o u s l y i n t h o s e d a y s . M c B r i d e ' s g o v e r n m e n t h a d s t r e s s e d i m p e r i a l -i s t s p i r i t o n many o c c a s i o n s a n d t h i s h a d b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n e d u c a t i o n a l m a t t e r s . D r . Y o u