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A system of indirect control of the Douglas fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk Walters, John 1954

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A SYSTEM OF INDIRECT CONTROL OF THE DOUGLAS FIR BEETLE DENDROCTONUS PSEODOTSUGAE HOPK. by JOHN WALTERS A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE GF,' MASTER OF FORESTRY In the Faculty of Forestry We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF FORESTRY. Members of the Faculty of Forestry THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December^ 1954 ABSTRACT The paper describes a Douglas-fir classification for the interior of British Columbia which was developed for the purpose of identifying trees susceptible to the attacks of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk. The significance of the depredations of the beetle to the objectives of sustained-yield forestry is discussed and the need for control and continuous protection stressed. A method of direct control of bark beetles i s exemplified and receives criticism for i t s laborious-ness, high cost, and temporary protection. It is noted that foresters and entomologists are increasingly cognizant that forest management should strive for insect control through the development and maintenance of forest conditions unfavourable to insects. These conditions become manifest in vigorous forests which possess an inherent resistance to inseet attack. By harvesting on a selective and c r i t i c a l basis the forest may be made relatively resistant and insects can be controlled by indirect means. Detailed reference is made to a system of indirect control developed for ponderosa pine forests against the attacks of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis Lec. The theory, development, and application of the system i s considered and later referred to in the light of the results of the present study. The possibility of develop-ing similar systems for other insects and hosts is demonstrate^ from the literature. Similarly,•the a b i l i t y of otlier workers, to classify Douglas 1 II f i r into vigour and age groups i s shown. In view of the apparent f e a s i b i l i t y of judging the suscepti-b i l i t y of classes of Douglas f i r to attack by beetles an attempt was made to develop a classification which might have value in this regard„ A classification was developed and tabulated from data collected at Westwold, B. C. in the interior Dry Belt at an elevation of 3,000 feet. The method is described in detail and the limits of the four vigour classes and of the four age groups are s t a t i s t i c a l l y justified,, The classification was tested for i t s accuracy in judging actual and relative age and vigour at Westwold and also at Lumby in the interior Wet Belt. The results of the tests are tabulated and the reason for the high degree of accuracy in judging actual vigour in terms of diametral growth attributed to the measurements of phloem streaks. Infested trees were objectively c l a s s i f i e d on an area of eight • square miles at Westwold to determine which classes of vigour and age were susceptible to attack. The results reveal that the older, slower growing trees are most susceptible. Specifically, trees of over 150 years of age with a ten-year diametral growth of less than 11 millimetres are most li k e l y to be infested. The type of host selection made by the Douglas-fir beetle is compared to a combined thinning from below and a selection cutting of the older age classes. It i s suggested that, in forests subjected to endemic populations of beetles, trees of classes 2D, 3C, 3D, 40, and 4D be I l l "harvested to increase the vigour and resistance of the residual stand and to implement indirect control. IV TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract • 1 Introduction 1 Procedure. . . . . . . 12 Results. - 26 Discussion . . . . . . . • ' 92 Summary. . 99 Conclusions 100 Acknowledgments • • ' 101 Literature cited . . . . . . . . . 102 Appendix 106 3 INTRODUCTION The Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk., has long been recognized as an insidious, i f unspectacular, pest of Douglas f i r , Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, in the interior of British Columbia,, In the United States i t i s classed as the most important bark-beetle enemy of Douglas f i r (Keen 1952) and although no appraisal of the losses from the insect has been made in Br i t i s h Columbia, i t is certain that they are appreciable. Each year numerous groups of Douglas-fir trees, V ranging in size from a few to about one hundred trees, are infested and k i l l e d . In some localized areas annual mortality has exceeded annual growth and with the advent of sustained-yield forestry in these areas the losses from the Douglas-fir beetle assume major significance to management. Indeed, such losses have raised a serious question for one large company, at least, as to the f e a s i b i l i t y of profitably managing Douglas f i r in the dimensions best suited to the company's product. It i s , therefore, evident that in managed Douglas-fir forests a method of controlling the Douglas-fir beetle is a necessity. It is equally evident that, in view of the chronic and localized nature of the infestations, successful control must depend upon i t s being applied constantly and economically over the entire manage-ment area. Direct control of bark beetles has rarely, i f ever, proved economical or adequate in North America. Keen (1952) states that the objective of direct control is to destroy such a high percentage of the beetle population that the agressive character of an outbreak w i l l be broken and the remaining beetles w i l l be controlled by biotic factors. He warns that this involves the treatment of as nearly a l l - 2 -of the infested trees within the natural boundaries of ah affected area as i s feasible within physical l imitations; and that i f mig-rations threaten from neighbouring areas these should also be included in the control work0 Many systems have been devised to destroy bark-beetle popu-lations and the reader is referred to the extensive l i terature on the subject (Bedard 1938;, DeLeon 1934, Evenden, Bedard and Struble 1943, Hopping 1946, Johnson 1940, Keen 1927, 1928, 1929, 1931, Patterson 1930, Salman 1938, Swaine 1918). The writer intends to review brief ly the f e l l i n g , peeling, and burning method since i t i l lustrates the laboriousness of direct control of bark beetles. In this method when applied to ponderosa pine the infested trees are f i r s t fe l led and the bark peeled from the upper half of the stems, piled along the sides of ' •the trees and then ignited. When applied to Douglas f i r i t may be unnecessary to peel the bark but s instead, branches may be piled on the tree before ignit ing. It is self-evident that the method is costly and requires considerable care to avoid causing a forest f i r e . Craighead et a l (1931) i n appraising the f e l l i n g , peeling, and burning method of direct control state that the benefits from control work are temporary, lasting only one or two seasons, and that conditions similar to those on untreated areas return unless work i s continued on the same area year after year. Similar objections can be raised to the use of a modification of the f e l l i n g , peeling, and burning method in which only the unmerchantable portion of infested trees are treated to destroy the insect broods, the rest being removed - 3 -for uti l ization, , -In, order to achieve a longer period of protection maintenance ..control was also t r i ed . Under this plan, direct control was applied for several years on one area. Keen and Salman (1942) state that the unpublished results of this work reveal that although beetle populations could be greatly reduced and maintained at a low levels, the cost of such protection was excessive when compared with the timber values involved. A method of direct control worthy of note . because of the poss ib i l i ty of i t s rapid and wide application is the more recent one of spraying infested host material with chemicals. Salman and Bongberg (1938) describe experiments with penetrating o i l sprays up to that time. Since the Second World War DDT, benzene hexaehloride, chlordane9 and, more recently, ethylene dibromide have been used successfully when applied to dry bark when a i r temperatures exceed 60°F. However, they are generally effective in k i l l i n g beetle broods only when applied to trees with relat ively thin bark such as lodgepole pine0 western white pine9 and spruce. Although sprays have proved f a i r l y ineffective when applied to trees with thick bark, such as Douglas f i r , iliere are indications (Kinghorn 1953) that a chemical spray w i l l eventually be formulated which w i l l prove satisfactory on such trees. The dost of direct control i s dependent on the factors of tree size and species,, method, intensity of infestation, terrain, and accessibi l i ty. That i t may be extremely costly is indicated by Keen (1942) who quotes costs per tree lip t o |1&. At best, then, direct control is merely a temporary expedient. Moreover i t requires epidemic conditions for i t s economic application. Foresters and entomologists are increasingly cognizant that forest management should strive for insect control through the development and - 4 -maintenance of forest conditions unfavourable to insects. These conditions, with regard to bark beetles, become manifest in vigorous forests which possess an inherent resistance to bark-beetle depredations. By harvesting on a selective and c r i t i c a l basis the forest may be made relatively resistant to bark-beetle infestation and a measure of control achieved and maintained through indirect means. The possibility of selective harvesting as a means of reducing bark beetle attacks was f i r s t studied intensively in the 1920's. Observations by s i l v i c u l t u r i s t s and forest entomologists in the ponderosa pine forests of California, Oregon, and Washington showed that the risk of being infested by the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus  brevlcomis Lee., was greater for trees with certain characteristics than i t was for other trees on the same area. It was recognized that, in general, the older, less vigorous trees were most susceptible to attack. Person (1928) found that the beetles showed a preference for slow-growing trees, for trees ranging in diameter at breast height from 20 to 30 inches, and for those growing on the low quality sites. He therefore recommended an early cutting of the slowest growing trees. At that time, however, practical d i f f i c u l t i e s of easily gauging the relative growth of trees in the slow growing pine stands were encount-ered. Dunning (1928) developed a tree classification for ponderosa pine based on age, degree of dominance, and crown development and Keen (1936 and 1943) noted marked differences in susceptibility existed within some of Dunning's tree classes. The problem, then, was in recognizing the combination of characters indicative of susceptibility. Keen used similar tree classes to develop a bark-beetle susceptibility - 5 -classification. Age and vigour were given primary importance; four groups of each being recognized to make a total of 16 classes applicable to a l l ponderosa-pine stands in sputheastern Oregon and northeastern California on sites of average quality. In dividing trees into the four general age groups Keen gave more weight to physiological age than to exact age as indicated by annual rings, postulating that some trees under favourable conditions on good sites retain their relative immaturity and vigour much longer than trees under poor environmental conditions. He assessed relative susceptibility by dividing the percentage occurrence of beetle losses in a given class by the percentage occurrence of that class in the original stand. The measure of susceptibility thus derived Keen ^ called the "mortality ratio", A class having a mortality ratio greater than one was rated more susceptible to attack than a class having a mortality ratio of less than one, A ratio of one signified no parti-cular susceptibility for that class. In each age group susceptibility increases with a decrease in crown vigour (A to D), except that in the three older groups the G crowns appear more susceptibile than the D crowns. Keen offered as a reason for this apparent deviation that trees of the latter class offer insufficient nourishment to the beetles to make them attractive, A comparison of the relative susceptibility by comparable crown classes for the four age groups shows that there is an increase in susceptibility with advancing age. Keen found, however, that the difference in age between adjacent classes is of less value in determining susceptibility than the differences in crown vigour classes. Thus a young intermediate tree was more susceptible -- 6 -than an old dominant tree of high vigour. Susceptible types, in order of decreasing susceptibility are classed as ID, 2C, 4C, 3C, 1C, 3D, 4D, and 2D„ Intermediate types in order of decreasing suscep-t i b i l i t y are classed as 4B, 3B, and 2B. The type called "resistant", and which comprises classes IB, 4A, 3A, 2A, and 1A, Keen recommended should be l e f t as the reserve stand. Keen (1943) redefined his tree classification on the basis of further study and, although no great changes were necessary, the new definitions f a c i l i t a t e d the classifying of borderline trees-Referring to the success of Keen's classification, Keen and Salman (1942), on the basis of records involving 38,800 infested trees, state that trees k i l l e d by bark beetles are largely those of the poorest t h r i f t and, more frequently, those in the older age classes. Taylor (1937) adapted Keen's classification for lodgepole pine with considerable success. Salman and Bongberg (1942) studied the possibility of developing a classification for ponderosa pine on a more c r i t i c a l basis than that of Keen's. They were concerned with reducing the volume harvested in any one area and increasing the mobility and coverage of logging: two conditions which they considered essential in meeting the infestation conditions in northeastern California. Salman and Bongberg developed a classification for use in light sanitation-salvage operations consisting of low-, moderate-, high-, and very high-risk groups based entirely on foliage characteristics. They claim that observations on 18,056 trees over a three-year period show 84.0 per cent of the losses occurred in their very high-risk group which constituted 11.1 per cent _ 7 -of the tota l sample. Removal of high-risk trees reduced subsequent infestations and volume of loss by an estimated 90„6 per cent in the f i r s t year, 82.0 per cent in the two-year period, and 71.9 per cent i n the three-year period following the cutting. Indirect control has shown considerable promise in combating defoliating insects such as the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem. ) p in the spruce-balsam forests of eastern North America. McLintoek (1948) developed a system of identifying high-risk spruce and balsam based on three classes of each of the variables of crown class, percentage l ive crown, and vigour as measured by diameter growth. Westveld (1954) described in considerable deta i l his "vigour-resistance class i f icat ion for spruce and balsam f i r " which assesses maturity, dominance, and vigour by subjectively evaluating tree characteristics such as crown position and shape, quality of foliage, and condition of bark. Outside the f i e l d of forest entomology and the demands of indirect control of insects other workers have developed tree c lass i-fications for various tree species. Many of these classif ications show poss ibi l i t ies of being adaptable to the requirements of indirect control. Wellner (1952) describes his vigour c lass i f icat ion for western white pine and states "tree vigour and bole condition largely determine whether or not a particular white-pine tree is a 'good mortality r i sk ' to leave in part ia l cutting". In using the term "r i sk" he referred to susceptibility to k i l l i n g by natural agents such as beetles, wind, and snow. Wellner selected crown class, crown density, crown length, crown width, crown colour, t ip vigour, and presence of dead branches - 8 -in the upper crown to indicate relative vigour. He gave crown class and crown density greatest emphasis in the class i f icat ion. Observations on 3 0 656 trees over a ten-year period showed that both mortality and diametral growth were related to the vigour ratings; six poor vigour trees being infested for each high vigour tree infested. Hoe (1948) devised a system of classifying the vigour of Douglas f i r and larch in western Montana, He employed position, length, width, and shape of crown, branching, foliage, bark type,, and presence of disease to designate trees of good, f a i r , or poor vigour. Although the class i f icat ion was tested on only 33 Douglas-fir trees and 23 larch trees i t showed consi-derable accuracy when vigour was defined in terms of volume (board foot) growth, G-evorkiantz, Rudolf, and Zehngraff (1943) presented their system of classifying aspen, jack pine, and second-growth red pine for vigour. Working with Douglas f i r in central Idaho, Wilson (1952) developed an "age-vigour class i f icat ion" which shows promise of value in marking to retain trees of high growth potential. Although other classifications have been described for Douglas f i r they are intended for use in the coastal form of Douglas f i r (Anon 1950, Tinney and Malmberg 1948) or, i f applicable to the interior form of Douglas f i r , do not consider the relationship of age and vigour. Wilson's c la s s i -f ication has three age classes each divided into four vigour classes based on subjective estimates of crown and bark characteristics. An interesting feature i s the recognition of phloem streaks as a reflec-tion of tree vigour in terms of diametral growth. Wilson employed these "bark streaks" with considerable accuracy in evaluating tree vigour. - 9 -In view of the body of opinion agreeing with Hopkins7 (1909) statement that "pract ical ly a l l of the more destructive species of Dendroctonus show a decided preference for the larger and best matured \trees" i t appeared feasible to the writer that a tree c lass i f icat ion such as Wilson's might have value in identifying the preferred host trees of the Douglas-fir beetle. By marking and harvesting such trees a measure of indirect control could be achieved, particularly on areas being managed under sustained yield objectives. It was, therefore, decided to adapt Wilson's system to the Douglas-fir types in the' interior of Br i t i sh Columbia with the immediate objective of c lass i -fying Douglas f i r according to age and diametral growth and the ultimate objective of relating tree class with beetle susceptibil i ty. Before discussing the development of the tree c lass i f icat ion described i n this paper i t is advisable, perhaps, to consider br ie f ly the l i f e history and habits of the Douglas-fir beetle which support the supposition that i t i s feasible to identify susceptible trees by means of an age-vigour c lass i f icat ion. Normally the Douglas-fir beetle prefers to attack logs, wind-f a l l s , slash, injured or weakened trees. Frequently, however, i t becomes aggressive and infests trdes singly or, more usually, in groups. Infestation i s f i r s t evident with the appearance of reddish boring dust in the bark crevices. Adults are l ight- to dark-brown or black beetles about one-fifth of an inch long. Beetles work in pairs to construct an egg gallery in the inner bark. Galleries follow the grain of the wood and vary in length from a few to 30 inches although a length of about 10 inches i s most"common. Eggs are l a id in groups on alternate sides of the gallery. After an incubation period of about 10 days the eggs hatch - 10 -and the larvae feed between the cambium and inner bark in mines which diverge from the egg groups,, The larval mines become enlarged as the larvae mature and terminate in pupal cavities . After pupation has taken place, the teneral adults congregate in groups for several months under the bark before emerging and f lying to infest fresh host material. The l i f e cycle generally takes one year to complete. The Douglas-fir beetle usually overwinters in the adult stage although larvae are sometimes found. The emergence period for overwintering adults commences in early spring when the f i r s t of the two broods i s established. The second brood i s started about four weeks later , usually in fresh host material. The characteristic form of infestation is in small groups of trees. Generally, a group of trees i s k i l l e d by the attacks of one season, the beetle population then migrating to other groups of trees some distance away. For the purpose of this study i t i s postulated that certain trees are the focal points for the group attacks. That i s , within a group of infested trees a lesser group, or even a single tree, i s responsible, because of low vigour and/or advanced age, for attracting a large f l ight of beetles to the area. The beetles concentrate on the more attractive trees and are eventually forced, by pressure of their numbers, to attack surrounding trees. A class i f icat ion which would enable a forester to identify the focal trees would be a very valuable s i l v i c u l t u r a l too l . Since a policy of leaving a considerable reserve stand is currently favoured in the interior of Br i t i sh Columbia i t is particularly necessary for markers to be able to recognize those tree characteristics which might separate low-from high-risk trees. Such a system wouTfr'-jjeTTOTtr-gTCat^  in harvesting overmature forests which are particularly susceptible to chronic infestation by the Douglas-fir beetle. - 12 -PROCEDURE The development of a tree classification for Douglas f i r as a preliminary step to the establishment of a susceptibility rating for attacks by the Douglas-fir beetle was initiated in June, 1953, The general area of study was a virgin, all-aged Douglas f i r - f o r e s t 17 miles southwest of Westwold in the Kamloops Forest District, B„C The a l t i -tude was about 3,000 feet and the general aspect was southeast. Fundamentally, the procedure involves the development of a tree classification based on age and vigour as measured in terms of diametral growth and then testing the clas s i f i c a t i o n for i t s value in rating susceptibility against freshly infested trees. This part of the study is described in the report. It s t i l l remains to apply a long-term '•est to the classification by periodically tallying previously classified trees as they become infested. The frequency with which individual tree classes are attacked when related to the occurrence of those tree classes w i l l provide a reliable index of their relative susceptibility. Since the tests already applied indicate the c l a s s i f i -cation's ultimate value in this regard, and since a complete test involves a detailed study of perhaps 10 years duration, the writer believes that a presentation of the classification and the results up to this time w i l l have some merit and purpose. The reasons for developing a classification and then testing i t against freshly infested trees, as distinct from using infested trees as a basis for the classification, perhaps requires elaboration: a) a large number of trees are required to develop such a elassi-fieation but i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to locate sufficient - 13 -green-infested trees~during the short time they are suitable for qualitative measurements, b) by using infested trees as a basis the classification would automatically include those trees which were attacked as a result of population pressure merely because of their proximity to key trees, and c) the classification is less subject to errors as a result of bias i f healthy trees only are used i n i t s development. This i s particularly important when the classification i s to be largely qualitative. Four virgin Douglas-fir types were selected as being f a i r l y typical of the range of types i n the interior of Br i t i s h Columbia. These were: a) Douglas fir-spruce type - a dense all-aged forest with the Douglas f i r growing in even-aged groups; located along creek bottoms; altitude of study area 3,100 feet, b) Douglas fir-lodgepole pine type - an all-aged forest with an open overstory of mature and overmature Douglas f i r and a f a i r l y dense understory of aspen and immature pine; good moisture conditions; altitude of study area 2,570 feet, c) Douglas f i r type - an all-aged open grown forest; f a i r l y good moisture conditions; altitude of study area 2,570 feet, d) Douglas fir-ponderosa pine type - overmature forest; very open; with very exposed southeasterly aspect; dry site; altitude of study area 3,070 feet. A l l the Douglas f i r trees over 6 inches d.b.h., were measured and appraised i n the four types on sites ranging from Class 2 to Class 5 . •*Site classes based on diameter-height volume tables issued by the British Columbia Forest Service, Kamloops Forest Di s t r i c t , May 18, 1951. - 14 -Since the classification was intended for extensive application the data from each of the types were not kept discrete. Measurements consisted of d.b.h., height, age, per cent l i v e crown, growth in millimetres for the last 5 and the last 10 years on the east and west sides of the trees, and the sum of the width in inches of the phloem streaks at breast*height. For the purpose of the study i t was assumed that diametral growth reflected tree vigour although i t is appreciated that certain criticisms of this assumption are justified. Baker (1950) states that as a tree matures a slow decrease i n growth rate takes place and in many cases this reduc-tion appears to be occasioned less by waning growth energy of the tree than by a simple mechanical diminution caused by spreading the growth over a greater and greater circumference. Baker states, however, that this condition eventually ceases to apply and the rate of growth de-creases more rapidly than is dictated by the increasing diameter, as the tree is losing crown area, v i t a l i t y and growth capacity. Periodic dia-metral growth measurements are therefore reasonably accurate as indicators of tree vigour and, being easy to take, are frequently used. "Moreover, diameter at breast height appears to be strongly related to attack by bark beetle (Hopping and Beall 1948, and Thomson and Walters 1950). A l l trees were classified according to the Schadelin and American systems (Table 1). qualitative observations were made of the quality of the foliage, the density of the foliage, the shape of the top of the crown, the branching habit, the bark type, and the length of the bole made rough by the formation of deep cork. The phloem streaks were counted and their width, and the furrow depth, measured. Crown quality was given primary importance during the i n i t i a l stages of development of - 1 5 -the c lass i f icat ion since i t i s generally considered that in judging the relative vigour of different trees of a given age, the size of crown and abundance of foliage are probably the best indicators (Keen 1936). K i t t -redge (1948) states that i t has been shown that greater current growth of stems i s associated with greater amounts of foliage and that, qualitat ively, the relations of foliage to species, age, s i te , and density are l i k e l y to correspond to differences in wood increment, Guttenberg (1953) made measurements of l ob lo l ly pine and showed that trees having grown 1.5 inches in diameter in the last five years had 37=45 per cent of their to ta l height in l ive crown regardless of tree diameter in the range 10 to 20 inches d.b.h. He found that slower growing trees have less crown length than faster growing trees. During the analysis of the f i e l d data i t became apparent that crown characters could not be adequately related to vigour in terms of diametral growth. The emphasis was then directed to bark characters with the hope of finding there a satisfactory reflection of tree vigour for Douglas f i r . Relative abundance and approximate average width of phloem streaks was used successfully on Douglas f i r by Wilson (1953). Although similar observations were made in the present study they were supplemented quantitatively by measuring the total width of the phloem streaks on each tree at d.b.h. At least two very different kinds of bark are common on interior types of Douglas f i r . They are roughly represented by a corky, widely Y-furrowed type and a ridged, re la t ive ly narrowly U-furrowed type. These two broad types were arb i t rar i ly divided into four classes (Table 1). Since i t appeared possible that the differences were of genetic or ig in i t was theorized that such bark differences might indicate genetic differences which in turn might be responsible for differences in growth potential. - 16 -Furrow depth and the length of the bole made rough by the forma-tion of deep cork were included in the class i f icat ion since they are generally considered to have promise in aiding the assessment of tree age (Brown and Panshin 1940). Four degrees or classes for each of the crown and bark characters were recognized and coded,, Table 1 describes the classes and the code for those tree characters considered as having value as indicators of vigour and age. Figures 1 to 43 (see Appendix) i l lus t ra te the characters employed in the c lass i f icat ion and wherever possible demonstrate their application to specific age and vigour classes. Certain characters were not included in the class i f icat ion since they did not appear to possess a rel iable relation-ship to vigour and/or age. The characters which were omitted on this account were the Schadelin Tree Classif ication and Bark Type. Additional characters were omitted after the c lass i f icat ion was tested in the f i e l d . Vis ib le de-fects were also recorded although no consideration was given to mechanical, pathological, entomological or f i re injuries in developing the c lass i f ica-t ion. The number of trees in the sample was 424, these ranged in d.b.h. from 5.5 to 51.7 inches and in age from 34 to 390 years. Table 9 shows the distribution of the d.b.h. classes within four age classes and the correlation between the two factors. Growth rate was measured in millimetres on both the east and west sides for the last five and last ten years. Thus i t was not to be expected that a given growth measured on young and old trees would be direct ly comparable. Similarly, i t was considered possible that tree characteristics assessed qualitatively would show variation in r e l i a b i l i t y from one age class to another. The data, therefore, were f i r s t separated by age classes and the data within each age class then separated by growth rate. - 17 -TABLE I Key to the Classif ication of Tree Characteristics Schadelin Tree Classi f ication: Position of crown -100 ) 5 classes of each recognized -Stem quality - 10 ) l»good, 2-average, 3-poor. Grown quality - 1 ) Suppressed trees designated S American Crown Classif ication: D C I s dominant ) codominant. } as described by the Society of American intermediate ) Foresters in "Forestry Terminology", 1950. suppressed ) Quality of Foliage:: (Upper half of crown). Class A - F u l l complement of needles on twigs. Needles of average length or longer (Figs, 1,5,9, and 15). Class B - F u l l complement of needles on twigs. Needles of average length or shorter 'Figs. 2,9, and 11). Class C - Twigs partly denuded of needles (Figs, 3,7,10,18,19, and 20). Class D - Many twigs denuded of needles (Figs. 4,8,13,14,21, and 22), Density of Foliage: (Upper half of crown). Class A - Dense crown, often pyramidal (Figs, 1,5,9,10, and 15), Class B - Fa ir ly dense crown with few large openings (Fig, 11). Class C - Thin crown or with many openings (Figs. 2,3,7, and 16). Class D - Thin crown with many openings (Figs. 4,8,14, and 22). Top Shape: Class A - Sharp acute (Figs. 23 and 24).-Class B - Large acute (Figs. 25 and 26), Class C - Approximately right-angled (Fig, 27). Class D - Obtuse or f l a t (Figs, 28 and 29). Per Cent Live Crown: Length of l i v ing crown expressed as a percentage of the to ta l height of the tree. - 18 -TABLE I (cont.); Branching Habit: Class A - Branches angled upwards for entire or almost entire length of crown. Branches acute to bole (Figs. 1 and 5), Class B - Branches angled upwards for 1/2 - 3/4 length of crown. Branches less acute to bole (Figs. 2 and 6). Class C - Branches angled upwards in t i p of crown only (Figs. 9,12, 13,15 and 17). Class D - Branches horizontal or drooping (Figs. 3,4,14,16 and 20). Phloem Streaks: (At breast height) Class A - Streaks of new phloem tissue abundant or more than 1/2" wide (Fig. 30). Class B - Streaks of new phloem tissue f a i r l y abundant, or streaks 1/4" - 1/2" wide (Fig. 33). Class C - Streaks of phloem tissue less abundant or narrower than 1/4" (Fig.-32). Class D - Streaks of phloem tissue absent (Fig. 31). Bark Type: (At breast height). Class A - Phloem reddish; periderm lunes abundant, dark. Bark abundantly ridged, often reddish, not corky (Fig. 39). Class B - Phloem lighter in color than A. Bark ridged or flaky, not corky. Class C - Phloem buff in color; periderm brownish, less abundant. Furrow-edge f a i r l y smooth, fewer furrows than A and B. Bark corky, grey (Fig, 38). Class D - Phloem yellowish. : Furrow-edge smooth, fewer furrows than C, Bark very corky, grey. Furrow Depth: (At breast height) Class A - Less than 1/2" deep. Class B - Between 1/2" - 1" deep. Class C - Between 1" - 1 1/2" deep. Class D - Over 1 1/2" deep. Bark Roughness: Class A - Rough up to 1/2 of height (Fig. 40), Class B - Rough up to 1/2 - 3/4 of height (Fig. 41). Class C - Rough over 3/4 of height (Fig. 42). Class D - Rough over entire height (Fig. 43). - 19 -Table 2 shows the significance of the differences of averaged growth rates between ar b i t r a r i l y selected age classes. That there i s a significant difference between age classes 0-75 and 76-150, and 76-150 and 151-225 i s shown from the fact that the observed value of " t " exceeds the c r i t i c a l value of " t " at the one per cent level in both instances. The division of the basic data into the three age classes i s therefore s t a t i s t i c a l l y justified. Comparison of age classes 151-225 and 226* years shows that there is no significant difference in their respective mean growth rates since the c r i t i c a l value of " t " exceeds the observed value of " t " . Nevertheless, in view of the strong representation of trees over 226 years of age in the basic data, i t was decided to include age class 226* years in the classification. It i s f e l t that the results j u s t i f i e d this procedure, TABLE 2 Significance of Differences of Growth Rate Measurements on East Side in Last Ten Years Between Four Age Classes. Age Classes Observed Value of " t " C r i t i c a l Value of " t " at One Per Cent Level Degrees of Freedom Associated with Observed Value of " t r t 0-75 and 76-150 4.3126 2.601 241 76-150 and 151-225 7.70785 2.592 288 151-225 and 2264 0.6661 2.601 178 - 20 -The relative merits of the various tree characteristics as indi-cators of age and/or growth rate were appraised by compiling and comparing correlation tables* such as shown in Tables X and 4. In such correlation tables the best correlation between the factors represented on the ordinates and abscissae exists where a line connecting c e l l s of the highest frequencies forms a diagonal across the 16 c e l l s . The tree characteristics whose cor-relation line approached most closely the diagonal were classified as "Good" TABLE 3 Correlation Table for Age Class and Quality of Foliage pQuality " i ' o f ! Foliage I "0-75" Ige Class "76-150 es (Years) ~ 151-225 226* i A 1 B i C _ . D 43 23 8 2%-82 71 L.._ 4  20 70 33 ~ 2 22 44 TABLE 4 Correlation Table for Growth Rate (Last 5 years Radial Growth in Millimetres on-West Side) and Width of Phloem Streaks Reduced to Units of 1/8 Inch. ; No. of Growth Rate ' 1/8" Phloem Classes (mm,) Streaks ~0-l 2-4 5-7 ; o=9 12 8 3 I 10=17 7 26 14 2 18-25 - 13 13 6 264 - 5 11 5 1 Smith, J.G. and A.J. Duncan, 1944. Elementary Statistics and Applications. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. p. 358. - 21 -or "Fair" indicators of age and/or growth rate. Less reliable tree characteristics were classified as "Poor" or "Nil'' depending upon the degree with which the correlation line deviated from the diagonal. Correlation tables were constructed for each of the 12 tree characteristics within each of four age classes and within each of four growth rate classes for six growth rate measurements. A total of 278 tables were constructed and then compared for inclusion in the tree classification. Table 5 shows the arithmetic mean and standard deviation for each growth rate measurement by age classes. Since i t was expected that, in the long run, growth rates would be distributed with normal frequency the mean growth rate and i t s standard deviation within any single age class were used to delimit the growth rate classes within that age class. For example, the growth rate in age class 0-75 years as measured by the last ten years radial growth on the east side has an arithmetic mean of 15.6 and a stan-dard deviation of 10.3. These values were rounded off to 16 and 10 res-pectively. The four growth rate classes would then be 0-6, 7-16, 17-26, and 27+, the second and third growth rate classes being divided by the arithmetic mean and possessing an interval in units equal to the number of units in the standard deviation. Similarly, class limits for per cent c l i v e crown and number of 1/8 inch phloem streaks were defined within each age class. - 22 -TABLE g Arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation of Radial and Dia-metral Measurements. Measurement (Millimetres) AGE GLASSES (Years) 0 - 7 5 76 - 150 151 - 225 226* Arith-metic Mean Standard Deviation Arith-metic Mean Standard Deviation Arith-metic Mean Standard Deviation Arith-metic Mean Standard Deviation Last 10 years radial growth on east side 15.6 1003 10,9 6.2 6.1 3,9 5.7 4.0 Last 10 years radial growth on west side 14.0 8.9 ' 9.3 5,3 5.4 3.7 5.3 3.1 Last 10 years diametral growth on east and west sides 29.4 19.0 20,1 10,8 11.5 7.0 11,0 6.5 Last .5 years radial growth on east side 7.4 5.3 5,2 3,2 2.7 1.8 2.7 2.0 Last 5 years radial growth on west side 6.5 4.2 4,4 2,5 2,5 1.8 2,6 1.7 Last 5 years diametral growth on east and west sides 14.1 9.0 9.6 5,2 5,2 3.2 5,4 3.5 Similarly, the per cent li v e crown classes and the phloem streak width classes were delimited (Tables 6 and 7). TABLE 6 Arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation by Age Classes (Per cent Live Grown), Age Classes (Years) Arithmetic Mean (Mm.) Standard Deviatit*x (Mm.) 0-75 77„8 13.0 76-150 74.1 16.1 151-225 72.3 12.4 226* 72.7 9,9 - 23 -TABLE 7 Arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation by Age Classes. • (Phloem Streak Width Reduced to Units of 1/8 inch) |~Age Classes-' I (Years) Arithmetic Mean- (Mm. ) Standard Deviation (Mm.) 0=75 ' 22.2 10.7 i 76-150 • 16.-6 7.5 151-225' 10.8 5.9 1 226f 9,9 6.1 Table 8 shows the significance of the differences of per cent l i v e crown measurements between age classes 0-75 and 76-150 years, and age classes 76-150 and 151-225 years. There i s a significant difference in per cent live crown classes between age classes 0-75 and 76-150 years since the observed value of n t " exceeds the c r i t i c a l value of " t " at the five per cent level^. TABLE 8 Significance of Difference Between Age Glasses 0-75 and 76-150 years and 76-150 and 151-225 years. . Age Classes Observed Value of "t" C r i t i c a l Value of " t " at Five Per Cent Level Degrees of Freedom Associated with Observed Value of »t" 0-75 and 76-150 76-150 and 151-225 2.01 1.09 1.972 1.968 241 289 Snedecor, G.W., 1938. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods. Collegiate Press, Inc., Ames, Iowa. -...-24.--The relative value of the various tree characteristics as i n d i -cators of age and/or growth rate were compared. Descriptive tables (Tables 294 to 298 inclusive) were compiled to indicate the age classes and the growth rate classes within age classes, by employing certain combinations of tree characteristics. The descriptive tables are essentially the syntheses of the correlation tables and are the ciphers used in the tree class i f icat ion. The descriptive tables were tested on 142 trees on the area used in the development of the class i f icat ion and on 53 trees on an area five miles east of Lumby, B. C. in the interior wet belt type at an elevation of 2,100 feet. Trees which furnished the original data were not used in the f ie ld test. Trees were f i r s t classif ied on the basis of Tables 294 to 298 inclusive. Gores were extracted from classif ied trees for age and 10-year diametral growth to check the accuracy of the descriptive tables. During the test, and in view of the apparently strong relationship between number of phloem streaks as expressed in units of 1/8 inch and the 10-year diametral increment in millimetres, a record was kept of the number of phloem streaks on each classif ied tree. In order to obtain an immediate evaluation of the c lass i f icat ion in gauging susceptibil ity of Douglas f i r to bark-beetle attack under endemic conditions, eight square miles of virgin forest in the Westwold area were cruised and a l l trees infested during the period 1952 to 1954 were t a l l i e d . A tota l of 98 infested trees in 24 groups were t a l l i ed and then class i f ied on the basis of increment borings. I t was considered inaccurate to classify these infested trees by means of the descriptive tables only - 25 -because many of the trees were partially denuded of foliage. Moreover, a strong element of bias would be avoided by-classifying the infested trees objectively rather than subjectively. - 26 -RESULTS The basic data are sorted and displayed in Tables 9 to 18 inclusive, which show the correlation between age and tree characteristics, and in Tables 19 to 282 inclusive, which show the correlation between growth rate and tree characteristics. Tables 287 to 292 inclusive, show the relative correlation between the six growth-rate measurements and the 11 tree characteristics. Table 293 shows the relative correlation between the four age classes and the 11 tree characteristics. These tables indicated which tree characteristics would prove most valuable for inclusion i n the tree classification (Tables 294 to 298 inclusive). Tables 287 to 292 inclusive demonstrated that the last ten year's diametral growth would be the best measure of growth rate. The- accuracy-of the classification in assessing both actual and relative age and vigour is shown in Table 299. With the experience gained in applying the classification in the f i e l d a c r i t i c a l examination of Tables 294 to 298 inclusive revealed that several of the characteristics used had l i t t l e or no value as indicators of age and/or vigour and required modification. For example, the value of per cent live crown was far less, than that indicated in the literature probably because of the overlapping classes. The examination also showed that, in view of the accuracy of the phloem streak classes in evaluating tree vigour, this part of the c l a s s i -fication should receive greater emphasis than heretofore. An improved synthesis i s , therefore, offered in Tables 300 to 304 inclusive. - 27 -TABLE 9 Correlation Table for Age Class and D„B.H. D. B„ H, Class Age. Classes (inches) , 0-75 76-150 151-225 226+ 6-10 I 52 21 6 • 11-15 18 31 37 • 16-20 4 66 40 1 21-25 37 18 13 26-30 10 11 16 31-35 2 9 13 36-40 1 2 10 41-45 5 46+ 1 Mean Diameter at Breast Height - 18.6 inches Standard Deviation =26.3 -28-Correlation Tables for Age Class and Several Tree Characteristics Table 10„ Age Class and Quality of Foliage, Age Classes q u a l i t y of , IFoliage iQ_75 7^150 151-225 22*+ A il ^3 2 - -B ji 23 82 20 2 C ii 8 71 70 12 D 14 33 44 Table 11„ Age Class and Density of Foliage„ Age Classes Foliage j Q-7JL...ZE-,150 151-225 225T A 34 8 2 -i B 26 73 14 3 13 64 64 23 D j 1 25 41 33 J Table 13. Age Class and Branching Table 12. Age Class and Top Shape Habit. Top ! Age Classes 1 Branching! Age Classes Shape j 226+ Habit . 0-75 76-150 151-225 226+ -j l A 1 28 6 1 A * 15 22 6 -B 3J 70 29 ( B I 1 40 50 36 6 C i I i 52 69 25 C 19 83 50 14 D 1 l 18 18 26 1 1 j i 14 29 39 Table 14. Age Class and Per Cent Live Crown. Per Cent Live Crpwn_ 0..60 11 Age 5IT56 26 Classes ~"T5i~-22j 19 226+ 7 61-75 14 50 47 24 76-90 39 76 53 27 91+ 10 18 — - 29 -Correlation Tables for Age Class and Several Tree Character!stics Table 15. Age Class and Phloem Streaks. Phloem Age Classes Streaks 0=75 76-150 151-225 226* A 21 12 2 1 B 53 72 41 5 C 11 76 63 19 D - 14 17 17 Table 16. Age Class and Texture. Bark Bark Age Classes Texture 0-75 76-150 151-225 226* A 1 18 17 6 B 13 62 22 20 C 59 79 79 31 D 1 10 4 2 Table 17. Age Class and Furrow Depth. Table 18. Age Class and Bark Roughness. Furrow Age Classes Depth 0-75 76-150 151-225 226* A 66 44 43 -B 7 89 44 7 C 1 35 25 20 D - 2 8 33 Bark Age Classes Roughness 0-75 76-150 151-225 226* A 45 - - -B 25 26 1 _ C 3 139 62 2 D - 5 59 57 - 30 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Per Cent Live Crown Age Class 0-75 Years Table 19. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Per Cent) Live j Growth Rate Classes Grown p0-2 3-7 8-12 13* 0-60 2 9 -61-75 3 8 2 1 76-90 2 22 9 6 91* - 1 6 3 Table 31. Last 10 years radial a rowtl in mm. on east side | Per Cent i Live Growth Rate Classes j Grown jO-4 5-15 16-26 27* 1 1 0-60 11 -61-75 2 8 4 -76-90 - 23 10 6 91* - 1 6 3 Table 35. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Per Cent Live Crown Growth Rate Classes 0-5 6-14 15-23 24* 0-65 4 8 1 66-78 3 12 4 79-91 3 16 10 5 92* - - 4 4 Table 20. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Per Cent Live Growth Rate Classes Crown 0-2 3=6 7-10 11* 0-65 4 6 2 -66-78 2 14 3 1 79-91 3 16 6 9 92+ - 1 . 4 2 Table 22. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Per Cent Live Growth Rate Classes Crown 0-5 6-14 15-23 24 * 0-60 5 5 1 -61-75 2 7 4 1 76-90 2 22 10 5 91+ 1 - 6 2 Table 24. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Per Cent Live Crown Growth-Rate Classes 0-10 11-29 30-48 49* 0-60 2 8 1 -61-75 2 7 5 -76-90 2 21 10 6 91* - 1 6 3 - 31 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Per Cent Live Crown Age Class 76-150 Years Table 25, Last 5 years radial growth in mm, on east side. Per Cent Live Crown "5-8"" Growth Rate Classes 3-5 6-8 9* 0-58 9 8 3 _ 59-74 17 17 11 6 75-90 8 32 16 14 91* 2 8 2 5 Table 26. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Per Cent. Live Crown Growth Rate Classes 0-1 2-4 5-7 8+ 0-58 8 7 6 1 59-74 12 18 14 6 75-90 - 34 34 9 91* - 7 9 1 Table 27. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 28. Last 10 years radial growth Per Cent Live Crown Growth Rate Classes 0-5 6-11 12-1? 18* j 0-58 9 6 5 1 59-74 15 16 14 6 75-90 8 35 20 15 91+ 1 8 3 4 in mm, on west side. Per Cent Live Growth Rate Classes Crown 0-4 5-9 10-14 15+ 0-58 8 5 8 1 59-74 18 12 12 8 75-90 6 33 35 13 91+ 1 6 7 3 Table 29. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Table 50. Last 10 years diametral growth i n mm. on east and west sides. Per Cent Live Crown Growth Rate Classes 0-5 6-10 11-15 16+ 0-58 9 8 4 59-74 18 15 13 6 75-90 9 50 22 15 ' 91+ 2 7 6 3 Per Cent Live Growth Rate Classes Crown 0-9 10-20 21-31 32+ 0-58 8 7 6 -59-74 15 17 11 8 75-90 5 33 24 15 91* 1 6 6 4 - 32 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Per Cent Live Crown Lge Class 151-225 Years Table 31. Last 5 years radial growth Table 32. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. in mm. on wes t side. Per Cent Live Growth Rate Classes Per Cent Live Growth Rate Classes Crown 0=1 2=3 4-5 6* Crown 0-1 2-3 4-5 6* 0=60 7 8 2 - 0=60 8 9 2 _ 61=72 14 12 9 4 61=72 16 15 5 2 73-84 10 27 6 5 73-84 13 22 12 3 85* 3 6 5 4 85* 4 8 2 3 Table 33, Last 10 years radial growth Table 34. Last 10 years radial growt in mm„ on east side. in mm. on wes t side. Per Cent Live Growth Rate Classes Per Cent Live Growth Rate Clas ses Crown 0=2 3=6 7 »10 11+ Crown 0*1 2-5 6-9 10+ 0=60 5 10 2 - 0-60 16 1 1 61=72 10 15 7 5 61-72 27 5 4 73=84 3 31 8 8 73-84 28 14 8 85* 1 7 6 3 85* 8 5 4 Table 35. Last 5 years diametral Table 36. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and growth in mm. on east and west sides. west sides. Per Cent Live Growth Rate Classes Per Cent Live Growth Rate Classes Crown 0=2 3-5 6-8 9* Crown 0-4 5-11 12-18 19* 0-60 7 8 3 1 0-60 4 11 3 -61=72 12 15 7 4 61-72 9 18 5 6 73=84 5 21 13 8 73-84 2 26 14 7 85* 2 6 3 6 85* 8 5 4 - 35 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Per Cent Live Crown Age Class 226+ Years Table 37, Last 5 years radial growth in ram« on east side. Per Cent Live Crown Growth Rate Classes 0-1 2=3 4-•5 6+ 0-63 4 = - 3 64-73 5 7 4 -74-83 8 11 8 1 84+ 3 - 1 2 Table 38. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Per Cent Live Crown Growth Rate Classes 0-1 2-3 4--5 6+ 0-63 5 2 1 1 64-73 6 8 1 -74-83 7 11 8 1 84+ 2 1 1 2 Table 59. Last 10 years radial Table 40. Last 10 years radial growth growth in mm. on east side, i n mm. on west side. Per Centj Growth Rate Classes Live ji Per Cent Live Growth Rate Classes Crown !;0-2 3-6 7-10 11* ' Crown 0-2 3-5 6-8 9+ 0-63 \ 4 - 2 1 2 • 0-63 4 3 1 1 64-73 1 3 10 3 - 64-73 4 9 2 1 74-83 6 i 12 7 2 74-83 4 10 6 6 84* I 2 - 1 2 _ 84* 1 1 1 3 Table 41. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Table 42, Last 10 years diametral growth i n mm, on east and west sides. Per Cent Live Crown Growth Rate Classes J 0-2 3-5 6-8 9* 1 0-63 64-73 74-83 84* 5 1 - 3 4 7 6 5 10 6 5 2 2 - 3 Per Cent Live Growth Rate Classes Crown 0-4 5-11 12-18 19+ 0-63 3 3 • 2 1 64-73 2 11 3 74-83 3 13 6 5 84+ 1 2 3 - 34 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Quality of Foliage^ Age Class 0-75 Years Table_43. Quality of Jj3liags A B C D Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Growth Rate Classes P-2 1 4 2 3-7 16 18 6 8-12 15 2 1 3 i _ 10 Table 44. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Quality of Foliage A B C D Growth Rate Classes 0-3 "3-6 7-10 134" 5 12 14 12 2 19 2 2 6 - -Table 45. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Quality ! of Foliage Gr "6-4 A -B 1 C i D -Table 47, Last _5-15_ 16 20 7 16-26^ 18 2 27 *_ 9 growth in mm. on east and west sides. Quality"] of Foliage A B C Growth Rate Classes 0-5 4 3 3 6-14 12 19 5 15-23 24+ 18 1 Table 46. Last 10 years radial .growth in mm. on west side. "Quality" _Foiiage J i 0 Table 48. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Quality of Foliage A B C Growth Rate Classes ^ 1 0 11-29 1 13 2 19 3 5 30-48 20 2 49+_ 9 - 35 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Quality of Foliage Age Class 76-150 Years Table 49, Last 5 years radial growth in mm, on east side. Table 50. Last 5 years radial growth in ram. on west side. Quality of Foliage Growth Rate Classes 0-2 3-5 6-8 9* A - _ 1 1 B 4 31 32 15 C 20 22 9 9 D 12 2 -Table 51. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Quality of Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0-5 6-11 12-17 18* A - 2 B - 3 32 28 18 C 18 31 14 6 D 12 2 Table 53. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Quality of Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0-5 6-10 11-15 16+ A - 2 B 5 30 30 15 C 20 28 15 7 D 13 2 - -Quality of Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0-1 2-4 5-7 8* A - - 2 B 1 30 41 9 C 10 32 22 6 D 9 4 -Table 52. Last 10 years radial growt in mm. on west side. Quality of Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0-4 5-9 10-14 15* A - - 2 B 4 24 35 18 C 18 30 17 5 D 12 2 -Table 54. Last 10 years growth in ram. west sides. diametral on east and Quality of Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0-9 10-20 21-31 32* A - - 2 B 2 28 32 18 C 15 34 16 5 D 12 2 _ 36 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Quality of Foliage Age Class 151-225 Years_ Table 55. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Quality of Foliage Growth "5-1" 2 3 Rate Classes 4-5 6*~ A - -B 8 8 4 C 24 29 10 6 D 10 16 1 3 3 Table 57. Last 10 years radial growth i n mm. on east side. Quality of Foliage Growth Rate Classes 0-2 5-6 7-10 11* A B -7 6 6 C 12 39 10 9 D 7 18 6 Table 56. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Quality of Growth Rate Glasses Foliage 0-1 2-3 4-5 6* 1 A - - ... B 2 7 11 1 C 25 32 7 6 D 15 15 3 1 Table 58. Last 10 years radial growt in mm. on west sid6. Quality of Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0-1 2-5 6-9 10* A B 5 8 7 C 49 12 8 D 25 5 2 Table 59. Last 5 years diametral Table 60. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and growth in mm. on east and west sides. west sides. Quality of Growth Rate Classes j Quality i ° f Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0-2 3-5 6-8 9* Foliage 0-4 5-11 12-18 19+ A - - - - =^ A B - 4 9 7 B - 5 8 7 C 17 33 9 10 C 9 42 10 9 D 9 13 8 2 D 6 16 9 1 - 37 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Quality of Foliage Age Class 2364- Years Table 61. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Quality of Foliage Growth Rate Glasses 0-1 3-3 4-5 6+ A - - -B 1 - 1 G 3 6 2 2 D 17 12 11 3 Table 62. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Quality of Foliage Growth Rate Classes 0-1 2-3 4-5 6+ A - - -B - 1 1 C 4 3 4 1 D 16 18 6 3 Table 63. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. in mm. on west side. Quality of Growth Rate Classes Quality of Growth Rate Classes i Foliage 0-2 3-6 7--10 l l f Foliage , 0-2 3-5 6--8 94 A _ - _ A - - - -B 1 - 1 B - - 1 1 C j 2 5 3 1 C 2 4 3 3 D 12 19 9 4 D 11 19 5 7 Table 65. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. I Quality !j j of !l Growth Rate Classes i Foliage ;[~0-23-5 6-8 i A | B i C D I' 1 2 5 14 14 2 10 ~'94_ 1 3 7 Table 66. Last 10 years diametral growth i n mm. on east and west sides. | Quality jj G r o w t h R a t e Classes of A B C D 2 7 1 5 23 2 9 _Foliage £ 0-4 5-11 12-18 194_ 1 3 5 - 38 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Density of Foliage Age Class 0-75 Years Table 67. in ram. on east side. ] Density of Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0=2 3-7 8-12 13+ A 1 12 13 8 B 2 20 3 1 0 4 7 1 1 D - 1 -Table 69_. Last 10 years radial in mm. on east side. growt Density of Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0=4 5-15 16-26 27* A ~ 12 16 6 B 1 20 4 1 C i 10 2 D 1 -Table 68. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Density of Foliage Growth Rate Classes 0=2 3-6 7-10 11* A 1 11 12 10 B 5 17 3 1 C 5 6 1 1 D - 1 - -Table 70. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Density of Foliage i 0=5 Growth Rate Classes A B C D :  6-14 15-23 24* 1 10 16 6 3 18 4 1 6 5 1 1 1 _, Table 71. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sideSo Density of _Foliage A B C D Growth Rate Classes 5 6-14 15-23 24* 2 10 15 7 3 19 3 1 5 6 1 1 1 _ Table 72. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Density of Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0=10 11-29 30-48 49*_ A - 10 18 6 B 2 19 4 1 C 4 7 2 D - 1 -- 39 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Density of Foliage Age Class 76-150 Years Table 75. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Density "! of Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0-2 3-5 6-8 9+ A | 1 1 5 1 B 1 28 25 18 C 18 29 11 6 D L._ 16 7 1 -Table 74. Last 5 years radial growth in ram. on west side. Density of Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0=1 2-4 5-7 A - 3 1 4 B - 23 40 9 C 8 30 20 4 D 12 10 2 -Table 75. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 76. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Density of t  Growth Rate Clas ses Density or Growth Rate Classes Foliage i_0-5 6-11 12-17 18* Foliage 0-4 5-9 10-14 15* A ! 1 - 5 2 1 A 1 2 5 B ! 1 1 28 25 17 B 2 23 34 13 C i 15 i 32 10 6 C 14 24 17 7 D 16 6 2 1 D 1 17 7 1 -Table 77. Last 5 years growth in mm. west sides. diametral on east and Table 78. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Density of i Growth Rate Clas ses Density of Growth Rate Classes Foliage ]L°~5 6-10 11-15 16* Foliage li 0-9 10-20 21-31 32*_ A ; 1 1 4 2 r A 1 1 2 4 B ; 4 25 27 18 B -•• 26 39 17 C j 1 8 27 13 4 C 13 30 13 6 D i ! 15 li 6 3 - D 15 7 3 _ - 40 £°?.?elation Tables., for Growth Rate and Density of Foliage Age Class 151=225 Years Table 79. Last 5 years radial growth Table 80. Last 5 years radial growth i n mttio on east side. in mm. on west side. Density of Growth Rate Classes Density of Growth Rate Classes _Foli_age 0-1 " " j i-3 4-5 ' '"" 6*^ _Foliage 2-3 4-5" " 6f A - - 1 1 A - 2 B - 5 5 5 • B _ 4 8 3 = 16 29 12 6 C 17 35 8 5 18 19 3 1 D 24 14 3 i ' Table 81. Last 10 years radial growth Table 82. Last 10 years radial growth in,mm. on east side. i n mm. on west side. ["Density i o f i_Foliage \ Growth Rate Class ~6-'i" 3-6" 7-10 -4;-es i u ~ ! Density I of |_Foliage |! Growth 0-1 2-5 Rate Classes 6-9 10+^ A 1 - 1 1 J A _ 1 1 B - 4 3 7 • i B 2 5 8 C i 9 35 13 7 ! c 1. ; - 45 1 11 7 1 D 1! 10 J _ 26 5 - j - 32 l i 8 1 Table 83. Last 5 years diametral growth In mm, on east and west sides* Table 84. Last 10 years diametral growth i n mm. on east and west sides. '"Density ' of Growth Rate Classes Density of Growth Rate Clas ses _Foliage ; 0-2 3-5 6-8 .. .94_ f o l i a g e .9.-4 5-11 12-18 19*"" i A j 1 1 A - - 1 1 2 4 9 B - 4 3 9 1 ° 9 34 13 8 C 6 36 14 7 j D 17 14 8 1 D 9 23 9 -- 41 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Density of Foliage Age Class 226* Years Table 85. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 86. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Growth Rate Classes Density of b  Foliage : 0-1 2-5 4-5 A B C D 2 7 11 7 11 7 6 6* I l 1 I 2 ! 3 Density of Growth Rate Clas ses Foliage 0=1 2-3 4--5 6* A - - • _ -B 1 1 - 1 7 7 7 1 D 12 14 4 2 Table 87. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 88. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Density of Foliage Growth Rate Classes ! 0-2 3-6 7-10 1U A B C D *-• • • -1 2 - - 1 5 8 8 2 8 16 4 3 Density of 1 Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0-2 3-5 6-=8 9* A B 1 -1 1 C 5 6 7 D 7 17 2 5 Table 89. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Density of Growth Rate i Classes ; i 1 Foliage 0-2 3-5 6--8 9+ | A - -B 1 1 1 C 5 8 5 5 i D 10 11 7 5 Table 90. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Density of Growth Rate Classes Foliage 0-4 5-11 12-18 19* 1 A • -_ — — — B 1 1 1 c 4 9 6 4 ' 1 4 19 5 4 - 42 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Top Shape Age Class 0-75 Years Table 91. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 92. Last 5 years radial growth Top Shape A B C D ] Growth Rate Classes -• i-0-2 3-7 1 4 2 12 18 9 1 8-12 8 9 8 2 in mm. on west side. Top Growth Rate Classes Shape 0-2 3-6 7-10 l l f _ A 1 10 10 8 B 4 19 6 4 C 4 7 -D - 1 -Table 93. Last 10 years radial growth in no. on east side. Table 94. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Top Growth Rate Classes Top Growth Rate Classes Shape j 0-4 5-15 16-26 27+ Shape 0-5 6-14 15-23 24 + A 11 12 7 A 1 9 14 5 B 1 21 7 3 B 5 16 7 3 C 1 10 - C 4 8 -D 1 D 1 1 Table 95. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Table 96_. Last 10 years diametral growth i n mm. on east and Top . . . . _Shape 0-5 A 2 B 4 C 4 D -Growth_ Rate Classes  6-14 "I;15_-23l_ 24+_ 9 10 9 18 9 -7 1 west sides. Top Shape Growth Rate Classes 0-10 111-29 "30=48"" _49>_ A - 10 12 7 B 3 18 10 2 C 3 8 D 1 43 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Top Shape_ Age Class 76-150 Years Table 97. Last 5 years radial growth in mm, on east side. Table 98. Last 5 years radial growth Top f Growth Rate Classes _Shape i 0-2 3-5 6-8 9* A 4 5 11 7 B 5 32 21 12 C 14 23 10 6 D 13 5 - -Table 99. Last 10 years radial in ram. on east side. grow Top Growth Rate Class es Shape r_0-5__ 6-11 12-17 18* A 4 5 8 10 B 4 32 25 9 C 12 23 9 7 D 13 6 - -in mm. on west side. Top Growth Rate Classes _J> hap e 0-1 2-4 5-7 8+ A 1 9 13 5 B 3 29 30 9 C 9 20 18 3 D 7 8 2 -Table 100. Last 10 years radial growt in mm. on west side. Top Growth Rate Classes Shape 0-4 5-9 10-14 15* A 3 7 7 12 B 6 29 24 11 C 12 16 20 2 D 13 4 1 -Table 101. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Top Shape I Growth Rate Classes ! 0-5 6-10 " 11-15 T 6 f A B 0 D r 3 6 11 7 5 34 21 12 17 16 12 5 13 4 1 Table 102. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Top Growth Rate Classes Shape 0-9 10-30 21-31 32* | A 1 8 7 11 B 4 30 25 12 C 13 20 14 4 D 11 6 1 -- 44 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Top Shape_ Age Class 151-225 Years Table 105. Last 5 years radial growth in ram. on east Table 104. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. side. j "Top""""] Growth Rate Classes r~Top Growth Rate Classes < Shape J 0=1 2=3 _ 4-5 _6J_ j Shape 1 0-1 2 -3 4=5 i i ! * - 1 2 3 i ! A 1 - 4 1 ! B 9 8 8 3 B 7 13 6 1 18 33 10 7 c , 24 30 10 6 ; D 1 .1 • 7 11 1 L J 9 10 1 -Table 105. Last 10 years radial Table 106. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Top Shape ;! Growth Rate Classes j j~6=2 3-6 7-10 A :! 1 2 3 ! B 5 11 5 6 . i , C I io 40 13 l 5 ! D 1 4 12 2 1 ' Top A ! B C D growth i n side. mm. on west Growth Rate Classes -1 2=5 6-9 10* 1 1 4 18 6 4 44 16 9 16 2 -Table 107. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Top Shape A B C D Growth R§^e_Jilasses !! 0 - 2 ' 6 14 6 3=5 1 10 31 8 6-8 9* i l 5 17 3 4 7 8 Table 108. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Growth Rate Classes ! Shape [0~-4 5-11 12-18 ~ ~ 19*" i A - 1 1 —1 4 ! B 4 11 7 5 ! ! C 1 7 39 16 8 D 4 12 3 =» - 4 5 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Top Shape Age Class 226* Years Table 1 0 9 . Last 5 years radial growth in mm, on east side. Top Shape A B C D ...1 fa Growth Rate Classes i 2 - 3 J 1 4 - 5 6+ 4 1 1 1 7 8 5 4 9 8 7 1 Table 111 . Last 1 0 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Top Growth Rate Classes Shape 3 - 6 7 - 1 0 r • -A - 1 -B 3 1 2 I C 5 10 6 3 D 7 1 2 4 2 Table 1 1 0 . Last 5 years radial growth i n mm. on west side. Top Shape Growth Rate Classes "O-I 2 - 3 4 - 5 6*~ A - 1 - -B 2 2 1 1 C 9 6 6 2 D 9 13 4 1 Table 112. La st 1 0 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Top Growth Rate Classes Shape 0 - 2 3 - 5 6 - 8 9 * A - _ 1 -B 2 2 - 2 5 10 4 5 D 6 1 1 5 4 Table 113. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Top Shape Growth Rate Classes i 0 - 2 3 - 5 6 - 8 9 * t A B i 1 0 ! d 1 2 3 1 1 6 8 7 5 8 9 4 5 Table 114. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Growth Rate Classes - 4 5 - 1 1 12=18 1 9 * - 1 - -3 1 2 1 4 1 2 4 5 4 15 5 3 - 46 -Correlation. Tables for Growth Rate and Crown Class Age Class 0-75 Tears Table 115. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 116. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. ! Crown i Growth Rate ClasseB Crown ! Growth Rate Classes ! Class ' 0-2 3-7 8-12 134" _Class [0-2 3-6 7-10 I H i i D j 2 14 6 5 D 3 12 5 7 2 11 8 5 C 1 12 9 4 i I i i 3 13 3 I 5 11 2 1 i s l - 2 - S - 2 - -Table 117. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. rc rown Growth Rate Classes J31ass 76-41 5-15 1 16-2611 15 8 4 c ! 2 10 10 4 I 1 - 16 2 1 s | - 2 - -Table 118. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Crown 7 Class f D C i I Growth Rate Classes 6-14 15-23 24 fr 3 12 7 4 l 11 10 4 6 9 4 -2 _ Table 119. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Crown =£LafL8 D C I T 0-5 4 2 4 Growth Rate Classes "" "6-14-"" 24* 11 11 12 15-23 7 5 9 4 3 Table 120. Last 10 years diametral growth i n mm. on east and west sides. Crown Class Growth Rate Classes D C I 0-10 11-29 30-48 ..._49+_ 1 2 3 14 8 4 9 11 4 12 3 1 - 47 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Crown Class Age Class 76°150 Years Table 121. Class D C I s Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Crown Y. Growth Rate Classes 0-2 7 11 9 9 3=5 30 25 9 1 6-8 9* 26 14 2 22 3 Table 122. Last 5 years radial growth i n mm. on west side. Crown Growth Rate Classes Class 0-1 2-4 5-7 8+ D 2 32 37 12 C 4 21 24 5 I 7 11 2 -S 7 2 - -Table 123. Last 10 years radial growth in mm, on east side. Crown Growth Rate Classes _Class 0-5 6-11 12-17 18+ D 7 30 24 23 C 9 25 16 3 I 8 10 2 S 9 1 -Table 125. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm, on east and west sides. Crown I Growth Rate Classes Class 0-5 6-10 11-15 16+ D 8 25 — — — — — — i 29 21 C 11 25 15 3 I 10 9 1 3 i 9 1 -Table 124. Last 10 years radial growth in ram. on west side. Crown Growth Rate Classes Class 0-4 5-9 10-14 15*J D 8 25 28 22 C 8 21 21 3 I 8 9 3 -S 10 - - -Table 126. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Crown Growth Rate Classes Class 0-9 10-20 21-31 32* D 6 26 25 25 C 6 28 19 2 I 8 9 3 -S 9 1 -- 48 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Crown Class Table 127. Last 5 years radial growth in mm, on east side. Age Class 151-235 Years Table 138, Crown Growth Rate Classes Class 10-1 3-3 4-5 6* D 8 34 15 11 C 11 16 6 3 1 14 3 -s 1 1 - -Last 5 years radial growth in. mm, on west side. Crown Growth Rate Classes Class 0-1 2-3 4-5 6+ D 10 29 20 7 C 19 19 1 1 I 11 5 - -S 1 - - -Table 129, Last 10 years radial growth in mm, on east side. Crown _Class D C 0=2 4 6 Growth Rate_Classes 3-6 '"' 33 22 7-10 16 6 11*_ 13 2 I i 8 9 -1 _ T a b l e m , Last 5 years diametral growth i n mm, on east and west sides. Crown ! Growth Rate Classes Class , 0-2 3-5 6-8 9* D 5 24 20 18 C 8 21 6 1 I 12 15 - -S 1 - -Table 130, Last 10 years radial growth in mm,, on west side. Crown Growth Rate Classes Class ,0-1 2-5 6-9 10*1 D - 30 . . . . . . . _ j 21 16 C - 31 4 1 I - 17 -S - 1 -Table 132. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm, on east and west sides. Crown Growth Rate Classes Class 10-4 5-11 12-18 19* D 3 29 21 15 C 5 23 6 2 I 6 11 -S 1 - -- 49 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Crown Class Table 133 6 Last 5 years radial growth in mm, on east side. Table 134, Last 5 years radial growth in mm, on west side. Crown Growth Rate Glasses Grown Growth Rate Classes Glass 0-1 2-3 4-5 6f Class 0-1 2-3 4-5 6* D 16 15 13 7 P 14 21 11 4 3 3 C 5 1 I 1 - I 1 _ • -S 1 S _ Table 135, Last 10 years radial growth in ram, on east side. Table 136. Last 10 years radial growth in mm, on west side. Crown Growth Rate Classes Crown Growth Rate Classes Class 0-2 3-6 7-10 11+ Class 1 0-2 3-5 6-8 9+ D * 11 20 11 6 P | 8 21 10 11 c 3 4 1 - G 4 2 -I 1 - - I 1 s _ _ S _ Table 137. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm, on east and west sides. Table 138. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Crown Growth Rate Classes Grown Growth Rate Classes Class 0-2 3-5 6-8 9+ Glass 0-4 5-11 12-18 19* P 12 17 12 11 D 5 26 11 8 C 3 . 3 - C 3 3 - 1 I 1 - - I 1 -S - - _ S - _ - 50 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Branching Habit Age Class 0-75 Years Table 159. Last 5 years radial growth in mm0 on east side. Table 140, Last 5 years radial 1 • growth in mm, on west side. Branching Growth Rate Clas ses Habit 0-2 5-7 8-12 13+' A 1 9 2 2 B 5 17 15 7 C 5 15 2 1 D = 1 - ' -Branching Growth Rate Clas ses Habit 0-2 5-6 7-10 11* A 2 8 1 5 B 5 16 14 7 C 4 12 1 2 D - 1 - -Table 141. Last 10 years radial growth i n mm. on east side. Branching Growth Rate Classes Habit 0-4 5-15 16-26 27* A - 10 1 5 B 1 17 16 6 C 1 15 5 -D - .1 - -Table 142. Last 10 years growth in mm. side. radial on west Branching Growth Rate Classes Habit 0-5 6-14 15-23 24 * ' A " 2 8 2 4 B 5 14 16 4 C 5 11 5 . -D - 1 -Table 145. Last 5 years diametral growth i n mm. on east and west sides. Branching Growth Rate Classes Habit 0-5 6-14 15-25 24* A 2 8 2 2 B 5 16 15 6 C 5 11 2 1 D - 1 - -Table 144. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Branching Habit A B C D Growth Rate Classes 0-10 11-29 50-48 49+ 2 4 10 1 15 8 11 5 1 5 6 - 51 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Branching Habit  Age Class 76-150 Years Table 145,, Last 5 growth side. years in mm. radial on east Table 146. Last 5 years growth in mm. side. radial on west Branching Growth Rate Classes Branching Growth Rate Glasses Habit 0-3 3-5 6-8 9f Habit 0-1 3-4 5-7 8+ A 2 7 9 5 A 3 5 10 5 B 7 17 13 10 B 5 18 18 8 C 18 37 30 9 G 4 39 33 4 D 9 4 - 1 D 9 4 3 Table 147. Last 10 years radial growth in ram. on east side. Branching Growth Rate Classes Habit 0=5 6-11 13-17 18f A 3 5 8 7 B 7 17 11 13 c 16 39 33 5 D 8 5 1 Table 148. Last•10 years growth in mm. side. radial on west Branching Growth Rate Classes Habit 0-4 5-9 10=14 15+ A 3 3 7 9 B 6 14 16 13 C 1.6 36 37 4 * D 9 3 3 Table 149. Last 5 years diametral Table 150. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east growth in mm. on east and west sides. and west sides. Branching Growth Rate Clas ses Branching Growth Rate Classes Habit 0-5 6-10 11-15 16+ Habit 10-30 21-31 32+ A 3 6 7 8 A 3 6 5 9 B 11 15 14 9 B 6 15 14 13 C 17 35 33 8 C 14 37 27 5 D 8 4 1 - D 7 6 1 - 52 -Ag e Class 151 -225 Years Table 151. Last 5 years growth in mm. side. radial on east Table 152. Last 5 years growth in ram. side. radial on west Branching Growth Rate Classes Branching | Growth Rate Classes Habit 0-1 2-3 4-5 6+ Habit 0-1 2-3 4-5 6+ A - 3 1 2 A 1 4 1 B 9 15 7 6 B 10 16 8 3 C 14 23 . 9 3 C 16 25 7 3 D 11 12 4 2 D 14 12 2 1 Table 153. Last 10 years growth in mm. side. radial on east Table 154. Last 10 years growth in mm. side. radial on west Branching Growth Rate Classes Branching Growth Rate Classes Habit 0-2 3-6 7-10 11+ Habit 0-1 2-5 6-9 lOf A - 3 1 2 A 1 3 2 B 3 18 7 8 B 20 8 8 G 9 28 8 4 C 34 10 6 •P 7 15 6 1 P 23 5 1 Table 155. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east = and west sides. Table 156. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm, on east and west sides. Branching Growth Rate Classes Branching Growth Rate Classes Habit 0-2 3-5 6-8 9+ Habit 0-4 5-11 12-18 19f A - 1 3 2 A 2 2 2 B 7 13 7 9 B 2 16 8 10 C 8 28 9 6 C 6 29 10 5 P 11 8 7 2 P 7 16 7 - 53 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Branching Habit Table 157. Last 5 growth side. years in ram. radial on east Table 158. Last 5 years growth in mm. side. radial on west Branching Growth Rate Classes Branching Growth Rate Classes Habit 0-1 2=3 4-5 Habit 0-1 2=3 4=5 6* A - - - - A - - -B 2 3 1 - B 3 2 1 C 6 3 4 2 C 4 6 2 2 P 12 12 8 4 D 13 14 8 2 Table 159. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 160. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Branching Growth R ate Classes Habit 0=2 3-6 7-10 11* A - - - -B 2 4 - -' C 2 5 3 2 P 11 15 9 4 Branching Growth R ate Clas ses Habit 0-2 3-5 6-•8 9*_ A - - - -B 1 3 1 1 C 3 6 2 4 D .9 14 7 6 Table 161. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Table 162. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Branching Growth Rate Classes Branching Growth Rate Classes Habit 0-2 3-5 6-8 9+ Habit 0-4 5-11 12-18 19* A - - - - A - - -B 1 4 - 1 B 1 4 1 C 4 4 3 3 C 2 7 1 5 P 11 12 9 7 P 6 18 10 3 - 54 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Phloem Streaks Age Class 0-75 Years Table 163; Last 5 years radial growth in ram. on east side. Table 164. Last 5 years radial growth in mnu on west side. Phloem Growth Rate Classes Phloem Growth Rate Classes Streaks 0=2 3-7 8-12 134 Streaks 0-2 3-6 7-10 I H A - 9 9 3 A 1 6 8 6 B 5 24 7 7 B 5 25 7 6 C 2 7 1 C 3 6 - 1 D - - D - - - -Table 165. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 166. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Phloem Growth Rate Classes ! Phloem Growth Rate Classes Streaks 0-4 5-15 16-26 27 f Streaks 0-5 6-14 15=23 24* A 8 11 2 A 1 5 12 3 B 1 27 8 7 B 6 23 8 5 c 1 8 1 C 3 6 1 -D _ _ D _ Table 167. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Table 168. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Phloem Growth Rate Classes Phloem Growth Rate Classes Streaks 0-5 6-14 15-23 24+ Streaks 0-10 11-29 30-48 49* A 8 10 3 A 6 12 2 B 7 22 8 6 B 3 25 19 7 C 3 6 1 - C 3 6 1 -D _ - D - 55 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Phloem Streaks Age Class 76-150 Years Table 169, Last 5 years radial growth iii mm. on east side. Table 170. Last 5 years radial growth i n mm. on west side. Phloem Growth Rate Classes Streaks 0=2 3-5 6-8 9f A 1 1 7 2 B 6 32 23 11 G 19 28 12 12 D 10 4 - -Table 171. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Phloem Growth Rate Classes Streaks 0-5 6-11 12-17 18+ A 1 - 7 3 B 4 -35 22 11 C 17 39 12 12 D 11 2 1 -Phloem Growth Rate Classes Streaks 0-1 2-4 5-7 84-A 1 1 4 5 B 1 30 34 9 C 10 31 24 3 D 8 4 1 Table 172. Last 10 years growth in mm. side. radial on west Phloem Growth Rate Glasses Streaks 0-4 5-9 10-14 15* A 1 - 5 5 B 6 28 25 14 C 17 26 20 6 D 9 2 2 Table 173. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Phloem l_ Growth Rate Classes Streaks 0-5 6-10 11-15 16* A 1 1 4 5 B 4 34 23 10 C 22 33 17 9 B 11 2 1 -Table 174. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Phloem Growth Rate Classes Streaks 0-9 10-20 21-31 32* A 1 - 4 6 B 3 32 35 I 13 C 15 29 17 9 D 10 3 1 - 56 -Correlation Tables for Growth Hate and Phloem Streaks 4g e Class 151 -225 Years Table 175. Last 5 years growth in mm. side. radial on east Table 176. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Phloem Growth Rate Glasses Phloem Growth Rate Classes Streaks 0-1 2-3 4-5 6+ Streaks 0-1 2-3 4-5 6+ A - 1 1 - A 1 2 -B 4 19 10 9 B 5 19 13 5 G 20 28 10 3 C 25 28 5 3 D 10 5 - 1 D 11 5 1 Table 177. Last 10 years growth in mm* side. radial on east Table 178. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Phloem Growth Rate Classes Phloem Growth Rate Classes Streaks 0-2 3-6 7-10 11+ Streaks 0-1 2-5 6-9 10+ A 2 1 - A 1 1 B - 19 9 11 B 18 " 14 9 C 12 34 11 4 C 45 10 6 D 7 9 1 _ D 15 1 1 Table 179. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Table 180. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Phloem Growth R ate Classes Phloem Growth Rate Glasses Streaks 0-2 3-5 6-8 9+ Streaks 0-4 5-11 12-18 19+ A - - 1 1 A 1 - 1 B 2 14 13 12 B 1 15 17 9 0 14 32 10 5 C 7 39 9 7 D 10 4 1 1 D 7 7 2 - 57 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Phloem Streaks Age Glass 236-I- Years Table 181. Last 5 growth side. years in mm. radial on east Table 182. Last 5 growth side. years in mm. radial on west Phloem Growth Rate Glasses Phloem Growth Rate Glasses Streaks 0=1 2=3 4-5 6*. Streaks l 0-1 2-3 4-5 6* A - _ 1 A - - 1 B 2 5 - = B 3 2 1 C 6 7 8 4 C 4 10 8 3 D 12 6 4 2 P 13 10 1 1 Table 185. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 184. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Phloem ' Growth Rate Clas ses Streaks 0-2 5=6 . 7 -10 11+ A • _ - - -B - 5 ! - -0 4 •n t 9 4 D 11 12 5 2 Phloem Growth Rate Classes Streaks 0-2 5-5 6-8 9%-A - - - 1 B 1 5 1 1 C 5 5 8 8 D 9 15 1 1 Table 185. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Table 186. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Phloem Growth Rate Classes Phloem Growth Rate Glasses Streaks 0=2 3-5 6=8 9+ Streaks 0=4 5-11 12-18 194 A - - - 1 A - - - 1 B 1 4 1 -• B - 5 1 1 G 3 8 6 8 G 2 9 8 5 D 12 8 5 2 D 7 15 2 2 - 58 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Bark Type Age Class 0-75 Years Table 187. Last 5 growth side. years in ram. radial on east Table 188. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Bark Growth Rate Classes Bark Growth Rate Classes Type 0-2 3-7 8-12 13* , Type 0-2 3-6 7-10 11+ A - 1 _ A - 1 B - 7 5 1 B - 7 3 1 C 6 32 12 9 C 8 29 12 12 D 1 - - D - _ Table 189. Last 10 years growth in ram. side. radial on east Table 190. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Bark Growth Rate Classes Bark Growth Rate Classes Type 0-4 5-15 16-26 27* Type 0-5 6-14 15- 23 24+ A 1 - A - 1 B - 7 3 2 B - 7 5 1 e 2 34 17 7 C 9 25 16 7 D - 1 - D 1 - - -Table 191. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Table 192. Last 10 years diametral growth i n mm. on east and west sides. Bark Growth Rate Classes Bark Growth Rate Classes Type 0-5 5-14 15-23 24+ Type 0-10 11-29 30-48 49+ A - 1 - A - 1 B - 7 5 1 B - 7 4 2 C 9 28 14 8 C 5 29 18 7 D 1 - - D 1 -- 59 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Bark Type Age Class 76-150 Years Table 195. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Bark Type .' Growth Rate 0-2 3-5 i; Classes 6=8 '" 9"t" A !: 4 6 5 4 B ! 1 9 21 8 12 0 !: 13 32 26 8 D 6 3 1 Table 195. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Bark ^ Growth Rate Classes Type 0^.-5 6 - 1 1 ™ 12-17 18+ A J 5 6 3 4 B ! 17 21 12 10 • C ' i l ! 35 23 10 D ii 4 4 2 Table 197_. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. ' Bark |7~ Growth Rate Classes^ : Type i 0-5" "6-10"11-15 16+ > — ' • - - *• - ^ " — B C D Table 194. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. 1 Bark f Growth Rate Classes Type ; o-i — .* • 2-4 5-7 8+ A I 3 10 8 -! B i 1 8 27 18 5 1 c 9 25 32 11 i D ; 4 5 1 Table 196. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side." 1 Bark " Growth Rate Classes Type 0-4 5-9 10-14 J.5+ A 3 5 9 -B 19 17 15 10 C 12 28 23 14 D 5 4 1 J Table 198. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. ' Bark [_ Growth Rate Classes _ Type 0-9 J."li0-2p"^2>31_."_.32£ 5 5 7 1 10 19 15 8 13 31 20 13 5 3 2 2 8 7 2 16 20 15 9 11 32 21 14 4 4 2 - 60 Age Glass 151- 225 Years Table 199, Last 5 growth side. years radial in ram. on east Table 200. Last 5 years growth in mm. side. radial on west Bark 1 Growth Rate Class es Bark Growth Rate Classes Type 0-1 2-3 4-5 6* Type 0-1 2-3 4-5 6+ A 5 10 2 A 6 10 1 2 B 6 6 6 3 B 7 5 5 3 C 23 36 12 8 C 27 37 12 3 D - 1 3 - D 1 1 3 Table 201. Last 10 years growth in mm. side. radial on east Table 202. Last 10 years growth i n mm. side. radial on west Bark Growth Rate Glasses Bark Growth Rate Classes Type 0-2 3-6 7-10 11+ Type 0-1 2-5 6-9 10+ A 3 12 1 1 A - 11 4 2 B 5 6 4 B = 11 5 4 G 11 45 14 9 C • - 55 17 8 D - 1 1 1 D - 1 3 Table 203. Last 5 years diametral growth in ram. on east and west sides. Table 204. Last 10 years growth in mm. and west side diametral on east s. Bark Growth Rate Glasses Bark Growth Rate Classes Type 0-2 3-5 6-8 9+ Type 0-4 5-11 1-218 19+ A 3 9 2 3 A 2 12 2 2 B 6 5 5 5 B 4 4 7 4 C 17 36 19 8 C 8 45 17 8 D - - 3 D - 2 1 3 - 61 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Bark Type  Age Class 836+ Years Table 305, Last 5 years growth in mm. side. radial on east ,Table 206. Last 5 growth side. years in ram. radial on west Bark Growth Rate Classes Bark Growth Rate Classes Type 0-1 2-3 4-5 6+_ Type 0-1 2-3 4-5 6+ A 1 3 2 A 1 3 1 1 B 5 5 10 B 6 9 3 2 C ,12 9 3 4 C 12 9 7 1 D 2 1 - P 1 1 T Table 207. Last 10 years growth in mm. side. radial on east Table 208. Last 10 years growth in ram. side. radial on west Bark Growth Rate Classes Bark Growth Rate Classes Type 0-2 3-6 7-10 11+ Type 0-2 3 -5 6-8 9* A 1 3 1 1 A - 3 2 1 B 4" 9 8 B 4 9 2 5 C 10 11 3 5 G 9 9 5 5 D 1 - D .,- 2 1 Table 209. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Table 210. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm, on east and west sides. Bark Growth Rate Classes Bark Growth Rate Classes Type 0-2 3-5 6-8 9+ Type 0-4 5 -11 12-18 19+ A 1 3 2 A - 4 1 1 B 5 6 8 3 • B 3 11 4 2 C 9 10 4 6 C 6 12 6 6 D 1 1 - B - 2 -- 62 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Furrow Depth  Age Class 0-75 Years Table 211. Last 5 years radial growth i n mm. on east side. Table 212. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Furrow Growth Rate Classes Furrow Growth Rate Glasses Depth 0-2 3-7 8-12 13+ Depth 0-2 3-6 7-10 11* A 6 38 13 9 A 9 35 13 9 B ' - 2 4 1 B 1 3 3 C 1 _ C 1 D - - - D - ' -Table 213. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 214. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Furrow Growth Rate Classes Furrow Growth Rate> Glasses" Depth 0-4. 5-15 16-26 27f Depth 0-5 6-M 15-25 24* A 1 42 15 8 A 10 32 15 8 B 1 5 1 B 1 5 C 1 - - C 1 1 -D _ D - - - -Table 215. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and Table 216. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east west sides. and west sides. Furrow Growth Rate Class ?es Depth 0-5 6-14 15-25 24* A 9 55 14 8 B - 1 5 1 G •1 - - -D - - - -Furrow Growth Rate Classes Depth 0-10 11-29 30-48 49* A 5 36 17 8 B 1 5 1 C 1 - - -D _ - 63 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Furrow Depth Table 217., Last 5 years growth in mm0 side. radial on east Table 218. Last 5 growth side. years radial in mm. on west Furrow Growth Rate Classes Furrow Growth Rate Classes Depth 0-2 3-5 6-8 9+ Depth 0-1 2-4 5-7 8* A 20 12 7 2 A 11 16 11 2 B 15 35 19 19 B 7 37 34 8 0 - 17 16 4 C 1 12 17 7 D 1 1 - D 1 1 1 Table 219. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 220. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Furrow Growth Rate Clas ses Depth ! 0-5 6-11 12-17 18+ A 18 13 8 3 B 14 36 19 20 C - 15 16 4 D 1 1 -Furrow Growth Rate Classes Depth 0-4 5-9 10-14 15+ A 13 11 3 B 17 29 24 17 C ! 2 13 15 5 D 1 - 1 -Table 221. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Furrow Growth Rate Clas ses Depth 0-5 6-10 11-15 16+ A 18 14 7 2 B 17 32 23 17 C 2 14 14 5 D 1 - 1 -Table 222. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Furrow Growth Rate Classes Depth 0-9 10-20 21-31 32+ A 14 15 8 4 B 14 34 24 17 C 15 14 6 D 1 - 1 -- 64 Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Furrow Depth Age Class 151 -225 Years Table 223.: Last 5 years growth in ram. side. radial on east Table 224. Last 5 years growth in mm0 side. radial on west Furrow Growth Rate Classes Furrow Growth Rate Classes Depth 0-1 2-3 4-5 6+ Depth : 0-1 2-3 4-5 6+ A 23 16 3 1 A 26 15 3 1 B 10 23 8 5 B 11 22 8 4 C 1 11 6 5 e 2 10 9 2 D - 3 4 2 D 2 6 1 1 Table 225. Last 10 years growth in mm. side. radial on east Table 226. Last 10 years growth in mm. side. radial on west Furrow Growth Rate Classes Furrow Growth Rate Glasses Depth 0-2 3-6 7-10 11* Depth 0-1 2-5 6-9 10+ A 15 24 4 _ A 37 5 2 B 3 27 8 7 B 28 10" 7 C 1 10 4 7 C 8 9 6 D - 3 6 1 D 5 2 2 Table 227. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Table 228. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Furrow Growth Rate Clas ses Depth 0-2 3-5 6-8 94-A 20 18 3 3 B 5 23 10 8 C 1 6 11 5 D 3 2 3 Furrow Growth Rate Classes . Depth 0-4 5-11 12-18 19* A 6 25 3 2 B 2 28 11 7 e 2 7 10 6 D - 4 3 2 - 65 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Furrow Depth  Age Class 226+ Years Table 229. Last 5 years radial growth in ram, on east side. Furrow Growth Rate Classes Depth 0-1 2=3 4-5 6+ A - - -B 3 1 1 2 C 4 8 7 1 D 13 9 5 3 Table 250„ Last 5 years radial growth in ram, on west side-Furrow n rowth Rate Clas ses -Depth 0-1 2-5 4--5 6+ A - - - -B 5 2 1 1 C 6 10 2 5 D 11 10 8 -Table 251. Last 10 years radial growth in mm, on east side. Table 252. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Furrow Growth Rate Clas ses Depth 0-2 5-6 7-10 11+ A - - - -B 3 2 1 1 C 5 10 7 1 D 9 12 4 4 Furrow Growth Rate Classes Depth 0-2 5-5 6-8 94-A - - -B 2 5 1 1 C 2 11 3 6 D 9 9 6 4 Table 253. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east sides. Table 254. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Furrow Growth Rate Classes Depth 0-2 5-5 6-8 9+ A - - -B 5 1 1 2 C 4 9 6 5 D 9 10 5 6 Furrow Growth Rate Classes Depth 0-4 5-11 12-18 19+ A -. - - -B 2 3 1 1 G 2 11 4 3 D 5 15 6 5 - 66 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Bark Roughness  Age Class 0-75 Years Table 235. Last 5 years radial Table 236. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. side. on east growth side. in ram. on west Bark Growth Rate Classes J Bark Growth Rate Classes Roughness 0-2 3-7 8-12 13*. 1 Roughness 0-2 3-6 7-10 . . . l l f . A 3 22 12 8 I A . 3 21 13 9 B 3 16 5 2 | B 5 14 3 3 C 1 2 i C 1 2 - -D - - i " LJ D - - - -Table__237_. La3t 10 years radial growth in mm. on east _ side. i Bark ]_ Growth Rate Classes ]1 i Roughness i T O - i 5-15 16-26" 27+ ! A B G D 22 19 2 15 5 8 1 Table 239. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Table 238. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. | Bark 1 Growth Rate Classes i Roughness ' 0-5 6-14 15-23 24+ A 1 2 20 16 8 l B 7 13 5 -! c 1 1 D - _ Table 240. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Bark ; Growth Rate Classes Roughness 0-5 6=14 15-23 24|_ A B 4 5 20 14 15 4 7 2 Bark Roughness A B Growth Rate Classes 0-10 __11-29 30-48 _ 49£ 2 19 17 8 3 16 5 1 - 67 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Bark Roughness^ Age Class 76-150 Years T^ble_24i. Last 5 years growth- in mm, side. radial on east -Bark Growth Rate Classes Roughness 0-2 3-5 6-8 9* A - - -B 5 9 7 4 C 26 55 35 20 D 5 - 1 Table 243, Last 10 years growth in mm. side. radial on east Bark Growth Rate Classes Roughness 0-5 6-11 12-17 184 A - _ _ B 5 8 6 4 C 24 57 36 22 . D 4 1 -Table 242. Last 5 growth side. years in mm. radial on west Bark Growth Rate Class es Roughness 0-1 2-4 5-7 8+ A - - - _ B 3 9 8 5 C 14 54 55 12 D 3 3 - -Table 244. Last 10 years growth in mm. side. radial on west Bark Growth Rate Classes Roughness 0-4 5-9 10-14 15+ A - - - -B 4 7 7 7 C 27 46 45 18 D . 3 2 - -Table 245. Last 5 years diametral growth in am, on east and west sides. Bark Roughness Growth Rate Classes 0-5 6-10 11-15 16* A B C 5 11 4 5 27 49 40 19 Table 246. Last 10 years diametral growth in nun, on east and west sides. Bark Roughness A B C Growth Rate Classes 0-9 10-20 21-31 32+ 5 21 9 55 5 42 6 21 - 68 Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Bark Roughness  Age Class 151-225 Years Table 247. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Bark Growth Rate Glasses Roughness 0-1 2-3 4-5 6* A _ _ B - . -e 18 20 14 8 D 16 34 6 5 Table 249. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Bark Growth Rate Classes Roughness 0=2 -3-6 7-10 l l f A 1 _ B e | 8 30 12 10 D 11 34 10 4 Table 251. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Bark Growth Rate Classes Roughness 0-2 3-5 6-8 9* A _ -B 1 C 11 25 10 15 D 15 25 15 4 Table 248. Last 5 years growth in mm. side. radial on west Bark Growth Rate Classes Roughness 0-1 2-3 4-5 6+ A - -B 1 -G 15 29 13 5 D 26 24 8 3 Table 250. Last 10 years growth in mm. side. radial on west Bark Growth Rate Classes Roughness 0-1 2-5 6-9 10* A - -B 2 -G 35 13 12 P 43 12 5 Table 252. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Bark Growth Rate Classes Roughness 0-4 5-11 12-18 19* A - -B - 1 C 5 33 13 12 D 10 31 14 3 - 69 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Bark Roughnesg  Age Class 226* Years Table 255. Last 5 years radial growth in mm, on east side. Bark Roughness A B C D Growth Rate Classes 0-1 2-3 4-5 . 6+ 20 1 17 1 12 Table 254. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Bark Roughness A B C D Growth Rate Glasses 0-1 2-3 4-5 6V 20 22 1 10 1 3 Table 255. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Bark Roughness GrowthRate Glasses | 0-2 3-6 7-10 11* A B D 1 1 -15 23 11 6 Table 256. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Bark Growth Rate Classes Roughness 0-2 3-5 6-8 9+ A - - - -. B - - - -C - - - 2 D 13 23 10 9 Table 257. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. Table 258. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. ' Bark Growth Rate Classes Bark Growth Rate Classes Roughness 0-2 3-5 6-8 9* ,Roughness 0-4 5-11 12-18 19+ A _ _ A -B - - B -C 1 1 C 1 1 D 16 20 11 10 D 9 29 10 7 - 70 -Correlation Tables for growth Rate and Width of Phloem Streaks  Reduced to Units Of 1/8" Age Class 0-75 Years Table 259, Last 5 years radial growth in mm, on east side. Table 260, Last 5 years radial growth-in mm, on west side. No, of 1/8" Growth Rate Classes Phloem Streaks 0-2 3-7 8-12 13*. 0-11 4 5 -12=22 3 27 2 23-33 5 5 1 34+ 1 4 7 Table 261, Last 10 years radial No. of 1/8* Phloem Streaks Growth Rate Classes 0-2 3-6 7-10 11+ 0-11 12-22 23-33 34+ 5 5 -3 25 2 1 4 6 4 1 5 5 growth in mm, on east side. Table 262. Last 10 years radial growth in mm, on west side. No, of 1/8". Growth Rate Classes No. of 1/8" Growth Rate Classes Phloem Streaks 0--4 5-15 16-26 27* Phloem Streaks 0-5 6-14 15-23 24+ 0-11 1 7 - - - 0-11 5 4 -12-22 29" 3 - 12-22 4 25 4 23-33 5 6 2 23-33 3 7 2 34+ 1 4 6 34+ 4 6 Table 263, Last 5 years diametral growth in mm.; on east and west sides. Table 264. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. No. of 1/8" Growth R ate Cla sses No, of 1/8" ' Growth Rate Classes Phloem Streaks 0--5 6-14 15-23 24* Phloem Streaks 0-10 11-29 30-48 49* 0-11 5 5 - - 0-11 4 6 -12-22 4 24 3 - 12-22 1 26 3 23-33 5 6 1 23-33 4 7 1 34* - 5 6 34+ - 5 7 - 71 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate, and Width of Phloem Streaks  Reduced to Units of 1/8" Age Class 76-150 Years Table 265. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 266. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. No„ of 1/8" Growth Rate Classes Phloem Streaks 0-2 3-5 6-8 9+ 0-9 15 7 1 10-17 17 23 7 4 18-25 1 21 8 6 26* - 3 10 6 No,, of 1/8" Phloem Streaks Growth Rate Glasses 0-1 2-4 5-7 8+ 0-9 8 3 10-17 7 26 14 2 18-25 - 13 13 6 26* - 5 11 5 Table 267. Last 10 years radial growth in mm, on east side. Table 268. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. No. of 1/8" Phloem Streaks Growth Rate Glasses 0-5 6-11 12-17 18+ 0-9 14 8 1 10-17 16 24 9 3 18-25 - 18 11 6 26+ - 4 9 6 No. of 1/8" Phloem Streaks Growth Rate Classes 0-4 5-9 10-14 15+ 0-9 15 6 1 1 10-17 16 22 11 2 18-25 - 14 14 7 26* 1 2 9 7 Table 269. Last 5 years diametral Table 270. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm', on east growth in mm. on east and west sides. and west sides. No. of 1/8" Phloem Streaks Growth Rate Classes ! No. of 1/8" Phloem Streaks Growth Rate Classes 0-5 6-10 11-15 16+ 0-8 9-19 20-30 31+ 0=9 15 5 1 - 0-9 12 8 2 10-17 17 25 9 2 10-17 13 23 13 2 18-25 2 16 9 7 18-25 - 14 11 10 26+ -. 4 10 5 26+ - 3 8 8 - 73 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Width of Phloem Streaks  Reduced to Units of 1/8" Age Class 151-225 Years Table 271. Last 5 years radial growth in mm„ on east side-Table 272. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. No. of 1/8" Phloem Streaks Growth Rate Classes 0-1 2-3 4-=5 6+ 0-5 14 4 6-11 18 27 9 2 12-17 3 15 1 3 18+ - 4 9 4, No. of 1/8" Phloem Streaks Growth Rate Classes 0-1 2-3 4-5 6+ 0-5 6-11 12-17 18+ 14 2 23 7 9 3 13 4 1 7 6 4 •Table 273. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 274. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. No. of 1/8" Growth R ate Classes Phloem Streaks 0-2 3-6 7-10 l l f 0-5 8 8 -6-11 10 36 10 2 12-17 1 13 6 1 184 - 4 4 8 No. of 1/8" Phloem Streaks Growth Rate Classes 0-1 2-5 6-9 10+ 0-5 16 6-11 - 45 10 4 12-17 12 7 2 18+ 4 5 7 Table 375. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. No. of 1/8" Growth Rate Classes Phloem Streaks 0=2 3-5 6-8 9+ 0-5 13 3 - -6-11 13 32 9 4 12-17 - 12 7 2 18+ - 2 5 9 Table 276. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. No. of 1/8" Growth Rate Classes Phloem Streaks 0-4 5-11 13-18 19+ 0-5 8 8 -• 6-11 7 39 10 3 12-17 - 13 8 1 18+ - 4 4 9 - 73 -Correlation Tables for Growth..Rate and Width of Phloem Streaks  Reduced to Units of 1/8* Age Class 2264- Years Table 277. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. Table 278. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. No. of 1/8" Growth Rate Classes Phloem Streaks 0-1 2-3 4--5 6| 0=4 4 2 1 -5-10 12 7 4 11-16 3 1 4 1 17+ - 3 2 2 No. of 1/8" Phloem Streaks Growth Rate Classes 0-1 2-3 4-5 6f 0-4 4 3 5-10 12 11 11-16 3 2 3 -17* - 6 2 Table 279. Last 10 years radial growth in mm, on east side. Table 280. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. No, of 1/8" Growth Rate Classes Phloem Streaks 0-2 3-6 7--10 11+ 0-4 3 4 -5-10 11 11 2 11-16 - 3 4 174 - 1 2 3 No, of: 1/8" Growth Rate Classes Phloem Streaks 0-2 3-5 6-8 9* 0-4 3 4 - -5-10 7 11 5 -11-16 2 2 2 4 17+ - - 2 4 Table 281. Last 5 years diametral growth in mm, on east and west sides. No. of 1/8" Phloem Streaks Growth Rate Classes 0-2 3-5 6--8 9+ 0-4 4 2 2 5-10 9 11 4 1 11-16 2 2 3 3 174 - - 3 2 Table 282. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. No, of 1/8" Growth Rate Classes Phloem Streaks 0-4 5-11 12-18 19+ 0-4 2 5 5-10 4 16 2 -11-16 4 3 2 17+ - 3 4 - 74 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Sohadelin Tree Classification Age Class 0-75 Years  Table 285. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. DOMINANT CODOMINANT INTERMEDIATE SUPPRESSED ' Growth Rate Growth Rate Growth Rate Growth Rate Class -29 50+ Class -29 30+ Class -29 30+ -29 30+ 11 1 1 11 4 11 1 12 1 12 12 13 13 13 21 4 6 21 3 21 22 9 4 22 10 8 22 11 3 23 23 1 23 2 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 1 33 33 2 2 i Totals _15__ 12 11 15 15 4 2 ! -Age Class 76-150 Years Table 284. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm . on east and west sides. DOMINANT CODOMINANT INTERMEDIATE SUPPRESSED ~| " Growth Rate Growth Rate Growth Rate Growth Rate Class -20 21+ Class -20 21+ Class -20 21+ -20 ! 21* 1 11 3 11 11 i 12 1 12 2 12 ; 1 ; i 13 1 13 13 j | 1 21 4 12 21 1 1 21 ; i I 22 21 27 22 20 11 22 5 3 j 23 3 1 23 4 23 7 ! ! 31 1 1 31 31 1 I 32 2 2 32 4 4 32 5 i | 33 3 1 35 2 4 35 4 ; i i i • 10 { «,:rr ----- • • Totals 34 48 31 - 22 19 3 10 ! " i J - 75 -Correlation Tables for Growth Rate and Schadelin Tree Cla s s i f i c a t i o n Age Class 151-225 Years Table 285, Last 10 years diametral growth in mm, on east and west sides. Class OMINANT Growth "Rate" CODOMINANT | Growth Rate INTERMEDIATE SUPPRESSED Growth Rate Growth Rate " =11 12* Class -11 12+ Class -11 12+ =11 12* 11 -1 11 1 11 12 1 12 12 13 1 2 13 13 21 3 21 1 21 22 15 16 22 11 5 22 3 23 10 6 23 5 23 7 31 1 31 '31 32 3 1 32 6 2 32 3 33 3 3 33 3 1 33 4 1 i Totals 32 34 26 9 17 1 1 Age Class 226+ Years Table 286, Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. DOMINANT CODOMINANT INTERMEDIATE SUPPRESSED Class Growth Rate Class Growth Rate Growth Rate Growth Rate -11 12+ -11 12* Class -11 12+ -11 12* 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 1 13 13 21 1 21 21 22 3 7 22 4 22 23 16 6 23 2 23 1 31 31 31 ' 32 1 2 32 32 33 10 5 33 33 Totals 31 21 6 1 - 76 -Relative Correlation Between Growth Rate and:Tree Characteristics by Age Classes Table 287. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on east side. 0-75 76-150 151-225 « 226* Tree > Character isti-cs '"" rH S Ik •H 111 o Q rH r< o u o rH g r< tH o rH r) iH o & £ w C5 C 825 3 •H S3 <? rC| 8 % Live Crown k A Quality of Foliage k A Density of Foliage k k A A Top Shape 1 k A it A Crown Class A k Branching Habit k A Phloem Streaks k k A Bark Type k k k A Furrow Depth A k A Bark Roughness k A k k No. 1/B« Phloem Streaks A A Totals 6 2 2 1 5 6 0 0 8 2 1 0 10 0 1 0 Table 288. Last 5 years radial growth in mm. on west side. Tree Characteristics 0-75 76-150 151-225 226* rH tH S3 Poor Fair •o o S Nil . Poor Fair Good Nil Poor Fair Good Nil Poor Fair Good f Live Crown Quality., of Foliage Density of Foliage Top Shape Crown 'Class Branching Habit Phloem Streaks Bark Type Furrow Depth Bark Roughness No, 1/8" Phloem Streaks A A A A A A A A k A -A-.: A A A A A A A A A A k A A k A A A A A A A A A A A A k A A k A A ! ! 1 1 1 1 i 1 j j 1 1 1* 0: Totals If 3 0 1 2 7 1 .1: 6 4 1 0 L 9 1 1 i - 77 -Relative Correlation Between Growth Rate and Tree Characteristics^ by jAge Classes Table 889, Last 5 years diametral growth, in mm. on east and west sides. 0= •75 76-150 151-885 886* Tree Characteristics <-t u o m •H o r-i u o •H •o o rH u o u •H o rH u o rH •H o •H o CO o •rl o CO o-. iH o cO o o CO o PM B. PM C5 PM &H rjj PH fo Live Crown A & k A Quality of Foliage & •A ft A Density of Foliage k A A A Top Shape k A k A Crown Class A '* k k Branching Habit k k k k Phloem Streaks k k k k Bark Type k k •k k Furrow Depth k k k k Bark Roughness k k k k No, 1/8" Phloem Streaks k A k A Totals 6 3 1 1 6 3 8 0 7 8 2 0 10 0 1 0 Table 890. Last 10 years radial growth in mm, on east side. 0= •75 76-150 151-•225 226* Tree -Characteristics rH u c rl •rl (Tl •a o /*••, rH o rl •H rrt -a o ^ \ rH 8 Fair o rH u o /—» Fair O T H W PH w rj> •rH \J PM I.U \*> 53 O PM Fair •rH r~« \J PM Fair o % Live Crown k • A k A Quality of Foliage k A- A it Density of Foliage k A k Top Shape k ft k & Crown Class k A k k Branching Habit k k k k Phloem Streaks k A k k Bark Type k k A k Furrow Depth k k A k Bark Roughness k A A k No, 1/8" Phloem Streaks A ••• k k Totals 5 2 3 1 3 4 4 0 3 5 3 0 8 2 1 0 - 78 -Relative Correlation Between Growth Rate and Tree Characteristics by Age Classes Table 291. Last 10 years radial growth in mm. on west side. 0-75 76-150 151-225 226+ Tree > u m • u -a /•% •» tH In •O ( j u Q Characteristics • H 5 3 £ fa o o r 1 • H J 3 c o FM CO fa W o •iH £ CO fa W C iH S 3 o d. fa o % Live Crown .A A A Quality of Foliage Density of Foliage A A A A A A A A Top Shape Crown Class A A A A A A A A Branching Habit A A A A Phloem Streaks A A A A Bark Type A A A Furrow Depth A & A A Bark Roughness No. 1/8" Phloem Streaks A A A A A A A Totals 3 4 3 1 4 3 3 1 6 4 1 0 9 1 1 0 Table 292. Last 10 years diametral growth in mm. on east and west sides. 0-75 76-150 151-225 226+ Tree C harac t e r i st i c s r H u o u i H ni o r H u o /"N Fair T3 C r H o Fair "8 r H f-i o Fair •o o • H K w P4 w fa is £ Fair U c5 w PH Fair c5 £ Fair <§ Schadelin A A A A $ Live Crown A A A Quality" of Foliage Density of Foliage Top Shape Crown Class A A A A / A A A A A A A A A A Branching Habit A A A Phloem Streaks A A A A Bark Type A •A A A Furrow Depth A A A A Bark Roughness No. 1/8" Phloem Streaks A • A A A A A A A Totals 5 3 2 2 5 3 A 0 5 3 3 1 7 4 1 0 = 79 Relative Correlation Between Age and Tree Character!sties Table 895. Age Classes 0-75, 76-150, 151-225, 226+ Years. Tree Characteristics N i l Poor Fair Good Schadelin k fo Live Crown k Quality of Foliage k Density of Foliage k Top Shape k Branching Habit k Phloem Streaks k Bark Type k Furrow Depth k Roughness k D.B0H. k Totals 2 2 5 J 2 Table 294. Characteristics of Douglas F i r in Relation to Four Age Classes Tree Characteristic Class 1 (0-75 Years) Class 2 (76-150 Years) Class 3 (151-225 Years) Class 4 (226+ Years) Quality of Foliage (Upper 1/2 of crown) j Density of 1 Foliage (Upper i 1/2 of crown) Top Shape F u l l complement of needles on twigs| needles of aver-age length or longer, some-times shorter than average. Dense to f a i r l y dense crown, often pyramidal. Sharp to large acute; rarely f l a t . F u l l complement of needles to partly denuded of need-les ; needles of average length or shorter. Fa i r ly dense to thin crown or with few to many open-ings. Usually large acute but often right-angled or even f l a t . Twig partly denuded of needles; sometimes many twigs denuded. Thin crown or with many openings, Many twigs denuded of needles. Thin crown with many openings. Usually right-angled but often large acute or even f l a t . Usually f la t but often right-angled. Branching Habit Branches often angled up-wards for | - f length of crown. Branches usually angled upwards i n t ip of crown only. Branches f l a t or drooping; never angled upwards for more than \ -% length of crown. Bark Roughness Usually rough up to | height; often up to $ height but never more. Usually rough over f- of height but rarely for en-t i r e height; never less than g height. Usually rough over f-of height but often for entire height.; never less than J height. Rough over entire height rarely rough over only f-height. Furrow Depth (at breast height) Usually less than g-" deep, rarely up to 1^" deep. Usually between g-"-l r t deep but may extend from less than | " to 1^"; rarely more than l ^ n deep. Usually over L|" deep but often l»-l|»» deep; ne-ver less than | " . D.B.H. Usually 6"-10" s rarely j 1 6 „ _ 2 0 « o Usually l l n - 2 5 " rarely 36"-40". Usually 26"-35", never less than 16". Phloem Streaks Streaks never absent; usually f a i r l y abundant or \ n ~ ^ n wide. Streaks rarely absent and infrequently more than jg-" wide. Streaks frequently absent and rarely more than I-" wide. Table 295, Characteristics of Douglas F i r (0-75 Years) in Relation to Four Growth Rate Classes (Last 10 Years Diametral Growth on East and West Sides), Characteristic Class D (0-10 mm.-) Class C (11-29 mm.) Class B (30-48 mm.) Class A (49+ mm.) No. of 1/8" Phloem Streaks 0-11 streaksj rarely 12-22. Usually 12-22 streaks; never more than 33. Usually 23-33 streaks; never less than 12. 34 or more; very rarely 23-33. quality of Foliage Twigs often partly denuded of needles; needles of ave-rage length or shorter. Usually f u l l complement of needles on twigs; needles of average length or shorter. F u l l complement of needles on twig3 needles of average length or longer, rarely shorter in Class E. Density of Foliage Usually thin crown or with many openings, less often f a i r l y dense crown with few large openings. Usually f a i r l y dense crown with few large openings. Dense to f a i r l y dense with few large open-ings s often pyramidal. Top Shape Large acute to approxi-mately right-angled. Usually large acute but often sharp or right-angled. Usually sharp but often large acute; never right-angled. Usually sharp, i n -•-> frequently large ., acute. Per Cent Live Crown 0-90 0-90 but usually 76-90, 61+ usually 76-90 but often 91+„ 76+ Branching Habit Branches angled upwards in t i p of crown, occasionally for g-f- length of crown. Branches usually angled upwards for | - f length of crown. Same as Class C; never horizontal or drooping. Branches always angled upwards for at least |--f length of crown. Table 296. Characteristics of Douglas F i r (76-150 Years) in Relation to Four Growth Rate Glasses (Last 10 Years Diametral Growth on iiast and West Sides), Characteristic 1 Class D (0-8 mm,) Glass C (9-19 mm.) Class B (20-30 mm.) Class A (31+ mm,) Ho, of 1/8" Phloem Streaks 0=17 streaks. Usually 10=25 streaks. 18+ streaks, rarely 10+. Quality of Foliage, Many twigs partly or en-t i r e l y denuded of needles. Twigs partly denuded of needles to f u l l complement of needles; needles of average length or shorter. Usually f u l l complement of needles on twigs; needles of average length or shorter. Same as Glass B but needles of average length or longer. Density of Foliage Thin crown, may have many openings. Thin to f a i r l y dense crown or with many openings. Fair ly dense crown with few large openings. Same as Glass B but may be dense crown. Grown Glass Usually suppressed or i n -termediate but may be co-dominant or dominant. Usually codominant or do-minant; rarely suppressed. Usually dominant; never suppressed, :~p Dominant; never intermediate or . suppressed. Top Shape Right-angled to f l a t ; rarely sharp acute. Large acute to right-angled; rarely f l a t . Large acute to sharp acute; ne-ver obtuse or flat. Per Gent Live Crown Usually 0-74; rarely over 91. Usually 75-90; infrequently less than 59 or more than 91, Usually 75 or more;., never less than 59. Table 397, Characteristics of Douglas F i r (151-225 Years) in Relation to Four Growth Rate Classes (Last 10 Years Diametral Growth on &ast and West Sides), C hara c ter i s t i c Class D (0=4 mm.) Class C ( 5 - 1 1 mm.) Class B (12-18 mm.) Class A (19+ mm.) No. of 1/8* Phloem Streaks 0-8 streaks, never more. Usually 6-11 streaks; may be 0-17 s but rarely more. Usually 6-17 streaks; never less and rarely more. Usually 18 or more streaks; never less than 6, Density of Foliage Thin crown; may or may not have many openings. Same as Class D but less frequently thin-crowned with many openings; rarely dense crowned in Class Bo Usually f a i r l y dense crown with few large openings; never thin-crowned with many openings. Branching Habit Branches horizontal or drooping; often angled up-wards in t ip of crown only; never angled upwards for entire length of crown. Branches angled upwards in t ip of crown only ;,_of ten angled upwards for sy-f- length of crown to f l a t or drooping, Usually angled up-wards for g--f- leng-th of crown; never f lat or drooping. Phloem Streaks (at breast height) Streaks of phloem tissue absent or scarce; narrower than | " . Streaks of phloem tissue not abundant or narrower than J " . Streaks of phloem tissue f a i r l y abundant, or streaks k n".h" wide. Streaks as Class B but phloem tissue never absent; phloem tissue may be abun-dant or more than j?" wide. Crown Glass Intermediate or codominant; rarely dominant; suppres-sed. Dominant, codominant, or intermediate; never suppressed. Usually dominant; may be codominant but never intermediate. Per Cent Live Crown Usually 61-73; never more than 84. Usually 73-84 but often 61-72. Usually 73-84; rarely 0-60, Usually 73-84; • never 0-60. Table 298. Characteristics of Douglas F i r (226f Years) in Relation to Four Growth Rate Classes (Last 10 Years Diametral Growth on l a s t and West Sides). Characteristic Class D (0=4 mm.) Class C (5=11 mm.) Class B | Class A (12-18 mm.) - j (19+ mm.) No. of 1/8". Phloem Streaks Never more than 10; usually; Usually 5-10 but up to 5-10 streaks. j 16 streaks. 11 or more; never less than 5 streaks. Usually 17 or more never less than 11 streaks. Per Cent Live Crown Crown Class 0-83; rarely more. j Usually 64-83 or more. Usually 74=83. ';'• • •Always more than 74, Dominants codominant or suppressed. Dominant or codominant only. Dominant, rarely codominant. Furrow Depth Usually over Ig" deep but often | « t o l l " . Usually over Ig-" deep; occasionally less than 1". Usually over l g " deep; rarely less than 1". CO Table 299. average Ages Ten-Year Diametral Growth in mm., and Number of 1/8 Inch Phloem Streaks of Classified Douglas F i r . I 1 WESTWOLD (Dry Belt) 1 : Age Class | Ave, a.ge I Basis (No. Trees) 1 51,5 25 £ 113.5 35 3 167,3 63 4 263.4 19 Vigour Class Vigour Class Vigour Class Vigour Class A B C D ~5676~ 4~o73 "" 19~ 1 ~ 975" 34.0 28,6 14,? 9.5 2 6 15 2 A B C D A B C D A B C D Ave. Diam. Growth in mm, Ave, No, Phloem Streaks Basis (No. Trees) .45.3 25.7 14.1 6,4 36,0 23.5 14,0 6.? 3 4 14 14 1 25.6 15.0 8,1 4.3 22.7 14.0 8.1 3.6 8 24 25 6 26,0 18,0 9.8 3,0 19,0 - 9.5 4.0 3 3 13 3 LUMBY (VJet Belt) Ave, Age Basis (No. Trees) 49,1 II 106 o 4 24 179.9 18 Ave, Diam, Growth in mm0. Ave, No. Phloem Streaks Basis (No, Trees) 101.5 34,0 18,5 8.0 60,5 31,0 19,3 10,0 2 1 6 2 42,7 24,6 15.3 6,0 29.7 24,6 15.0 6,0 6 8 9 1 26,9 17,2 11.0 23.7 16.4 8.5 7 9 2 -39.0 - - -29.2 -4 - -Table 500. Characteristics of Dnuglas i ' i r i n Relation to Four x^ ge Glasses Tree Characteristic Class 1 (0-75 Years) Class 2 (76-150 Years) Class 3 (151=225 Years) Class 4 ~ (226* Years) Bark Roughness Usually rough up to | height; often up to 5 height but never more. Usually rough over f of height but rarely for entire height; never less than g-height. Usually rough over f-of height but often for entire height; never less than % height. Rough over entire height, rarely rough over only § height, Quality of Foliage (Upper & of crown) F u l l complement of needles on twigs; needles of aver-age length or longer. F u l l complement of needles to partly denuded of need-les; needles of average length or shorter. Few to many twigs denuded of needles. Many twigs denuded of needles. Density of Foliage (Upper g of crown) Dense to f a i r ly dense crownF often pyramidal. Fair ly dense to th in crown or with few to many open-ings , Thin crown or with many openings= Thin crown with many openings. Top Shape Sharp- to large acute; rarely f i a t . Usually large aeute but often right-angled or even f late Usually right-angled but often large acute or even f l a t . Usually f la t but often right-angled. Branching Habit Branches often angled up-wards for g«£- length of crown. Branches usually angled upwards in t i p of crown only= Branches f lat or drooping; never- ang-led upwards for more than jHt length of crown. Furrow Depth (at breast height) Usually less than deep, rarely up to l£ n deep. Usually between ^"-1" deep but may extend from less than | r t to i | - " ; rarely more than l | " deep. Usually over l g " deep but often 1"-1§" deep; never less than | " . D.B.H. Usually 6"-10", rarely 16'»-20". Usually ll"-25" rarely 36"-40". Usually 26"-35", never less than 16". Phloem Streaks Streaks never absent; usually f a i r l y abundant or J.n-i-» wide. Streaks rarely absent and infrequently more than a" wide. Streaks frequently absent and rarely more than |-" wide. Table 501. Characteristics of Douglas F i r (0=75 Years) in Relation to Four Growth Rate Classes (Last 10 Years Diametral Growth on East and .Vest Sides), | Characteristic ] Class D (0-10 mm.) "' Class" C I (11-29 mm,) 1 1 Class B (50-48 mm.) Class A (49* mm,) j No. of 1/8" ; Phloem Streaks Usually 0-11 streaks, Usually 12-22 streaks, Usually 25-53 streaks. 34 or more streaks. I Quality of i Foliage Twigs often partly de-nuded of needles; needles of average length or shorter. Usually f u l l complement of needles on twigs; needles of average len-gth or shorter. F u l l complement of needles on twigs; needles of average length orllonger, rarely shorter in Class B. Density of Foliage Usually thin crown or with many openings, less often f a i r l y de-nse crown with few large openings. Usually f a i r l y dense crown with few large openings. Dense to f a i r l y dense with few large openings, often pyramidal. Top Shape Large acute to appro-ximately right-angled. Usually large acute but often sharp or right-angled. Usually sharp but often large acute; never right-angled. Usually sharp, infre-quently large acute. Table 302. Characteristics of Douglas F i r (76-150 Years) in Relation to Four Growth Rate Classes (Last 10 Year3 Diametral Growth on East and West Sides). 1 Characteriestics Class D {0-8 mm.) Class C (9-19 mm.) Class B (20-30 mm.) Class A (31f mm.) No. of 1/8" Phloem Streaks Usually 0-8 streaks. Usually 9-19 streaks. Usually 20-27 streaks. 28* streaks. Quality of Foliage Many twigs partly or entirely denuded of needles. Twigs often partly de-nuded of needles; needles of average length or shorter. Usually f u l l complement of needles on twigs; needles of average length or shorter. Same as Glass B but needles of average length or longer. Density of Foliage Thin crown, may have many openings. Thin to f a i r l y dense crown or with many openings. Fairly dense crown with few large openings. Same as Class B but may be dense crown. Crown Class Usually suppressed or intermediate but may be codominant or do-minant. Usually codominant or dominant; rarely sup-pressed. Usually dominant; never suppressed. Dominant; never in-termediate or supp-ressed. Top Shape Right-angled to f l a t ; rarely sharp acute. Large acute to right-angled; rarely f l a t . Large acute to sharp acute; never obtuse or f l a t . Table 305. Characteristics of Douglas F i r (151-225 Years) in Relation to Four Growth "m——~-—~ H ate Classes (Last 10 Years Diametral Growth on ^ast and West Sides). Characteristics Class D (0=4 mm.) Class G (5-11 mm.) Class B (12-18 mm.) Class A (19$ mm.) | No. 1/8" | Phloem Streaks Usually 0=4 streaks; narrower than 1/4 inch. Usually 5-11 streaks; narrower than \ inch. Usually 12=17 streaks; 5=|- inch wide. 184- streaks; may be more than \ inch wide. | Density ! of Foliage Thin crown; may or may not have many openings. Same as Class D but less frequently th in-crowned with many openings; rarely dense crowned in Class B. Usually f a i r ly dense crown with few large openings; never thin-crowned with many openings. Crown Class Intermediate or co-dominant; rarely do-minant; suppressed. Dominant, codominant, or intermediate; never suppressed. Usually dominant; may be codominant but never intermediate. Table 504. Characteristics of Douglas F i r (226+ Years) in Relation to Four Growth Rate Classes (Last 10 Years Diametral Growth on East and West Sides). Characteristics Class D (0-4 mm.) Class C (5-11 mm.) Class B (12-18 mm.) Class A (19+ mm.) No. 1/8" Phloem Streaks Usually 0-4 streaks. Usually 5-11 streaks. Usually 12-17 streaks. 18+ streaks. Density of Foliage Thin crown with many ;^p>nings. Thin crown, may have many openings. Usually thin crown but sometimes dense crown. Usually f a i r l y dense crown with few large openings. Crown Class dominant, codominant Or suppressed. Dominant or codomin-and only. Dominant, rarely codominant. • - 91 -Table 505i. Frequency of Infestation Presented by Group and Tree Class. Virgin Forest - Westwold A G E C L A S S Tree 1 2 5 4 Group Vigour Class Vigour Class Vigour Class Vigour Class Number A B C D A B G D A B C D A B C D Number of Trees in Each Glass Infested by Tree Groups 1 2 1 8 7 5 2 2 1 1 3 1 4 2 5 5 1 5 6 2 2 7 1 8 1 9 1 1 10 1 11 1 12 1 13 1 5 14 1 15 2 1 1 2 16 2 2 5 5 17 1 3 1 1 1 1 18 1 1 19 1 20 1 2 1 5 2 1 1 21 1 22 1 23 2 24 1 Totals - - 1 - 5 5 - 2 29 28 1 12 17 - 92 -DISCUSSION It i s important to note that growth rate measurements used in developing and testing the classification originate from the same side of the trees in a l l cases., Students' ^ t " test applied to the east; and west measurements of growth rate in the last ten years show that since the observed value of " t " is 2-5829 with 844 degrees of freedom and the • ft' * c r i t i c a l value of " t " at the one per cent level i s 2.581 there i s a significant difference between .growth rate measurements taken on east and west sides. The arithmetic mean of both the five- and ten-year measurements in a l l age classes was consistently higher for measurements from the east side than for measurements on the west side of trees. The writer can offer no explanation for this nor is he able to find reference to the subject in the literature. It i s apparent from an examination Of the correlation tables for growth rate and tree characteristics that there are very few reliable indicators of growth rate. The best indicator by far is obtained from the relationship of diametral growth measurements in millimetres summed from the east and west sides for the last ten years and width of the phloem streaks at breast height reduced to units of 1/8 inch. When the two units of measurement are graphed the rate of change of the abscissa is practically equal to the rate of change of the ordinate. This relation-ship holds true up to the following limits for the four age classes, 49 mm. diametral growth in the 0-75 age class, 30 mm, diametral growth in the 76-150 age class, 19 mm, diametral growth in the 151-225 age class, and 19 mm, diametral growth in the 226f age class. - 93 -Although, perhaps, i t is incidental to the main purpose of the paper, i t may prove profitable to discuss the nature of the phloem streaks and the probable reasons for their u t i l i t y in assessing growth rate. Phloem streaks are formed by longitudinal fissuring of the bark which exposes the newly formed phloem. The phloem is formed year by year outside the cambium of the tree and i s pushed farther and farther to the outside as new phloem forms under i t , and eventually is cast off as dead bark (Brown and Panshin 1940)., This process, of course, is v is ible only after the inception of deep cork formation. In the interior of Br i t i sh Columbia deep cork formation as evidenced by the invasion of the phloem by periderm lunes i s pronounced on trees as small as 6 inches d,b,h, and was observed on a sapling with d.b.h, of one inch. As phloem cel l s are added, the older phloem tissue i s stretched tangentially and eventually divides to prevent actual rupture of the tissue. The divisions (or streaks) are i n i t i a l l y orange due to the inner l i v i n g bark composed of accumulated phloem in which the sieve tubes are no longer functioning (except in the layer immed-iately contiguous to the cambium) but in which the phloem parenchyma i s s t i l l l i v i n g . As the tree (and the bark) ages, the streaks which were or ig inal ly orange, weather and become grey. It is the width of the orange streaks which were measured for use in the tree c lass i f icat ion. In deciding to make measurements of the orange phloem streaks i t was thought probable that the phloem increased in proportion to the increase of xylem since both originate from the same cambium. Depending on the expansion of the xylem ( i . e . the growth rate as measured by annual increment) the width and number of streaks would increase in some definable - 94 -ratio. It has already been pointed out that the increase of phloem-streak width is in arithmetic ratio to growth rate. It is obvious that circumferential growth should show an increase of -TTX over diametral growth since the circumference of a cir c l e i s represented by the formulaT/d (where d is the diameter). The study has shown that a diametral increase of one millimetre is represented by freshly exposed phloem streak (or streaks) with total width of 1/8 inch, but 1/8 inch is equivalent to 3.175 millimetres, or an increase approximately equal to-^x. (The difference of 0.03 m i l l i -metres is not considered significant here since the phloem streak measure-ments were necessarily approximate.) From this i t would -appear that not • . o only is the relationship between increment and phloem streaks mathematical, but also real. Certainly, the importance attached to this measure of growth rate has not been over-emphasized in the development of the tree classification. The writer believes that the results displayed in Table 299 amply justify this statement. Generally speaking, the tree classification has proved satisfactory as a means of assessing, not only relative age and vigour, but also actual vigour as defined in terms of periodic diametral growth. The classification as such, therefore, may be of value to those concerned with tree selection in Douglas-fir forests. In considering the relative susceptibility of Douglas f i r to attack by bark beetle i t i s necessary to confine the discussion to the trends demonstrated in Table 305. In this regard i t may prove profitable to*compare those tree classes which appear most susceptible with the - 95 -susceptible classes in Keen's system for ponderosa pine. Referring to the relative susceptibility of his sixteen tree classes Keen (1936) states " i n each age group susceptibility increases with a decrease in crown vigour s except that in the three older age groups the C crowns appear to be more susceptible than the D crowns"„ Without knowing the stand composition at Westwold by tree classes i t i s , of course, dangerous to make direct comparisons between Keen's statement and the results of the present study shown in Table 305, However, with the possible exception of the statement that C crowns appear more suscep-t ib l e than D crowns, Keen's results correspond closely with those in Table 305, Keen continues "an old, overmature tree of Class 4A, while more susceptible than younger trees with A crowns, i s not nearly as l i k e l y to be k i l l e d as an immature tree of Class 2B or 2C", Once again, Keen's results, with only slight modification, coincide with the results of this study. Three trees in Class 2C and one in Class ID were infested while no Class 3A or Glass 4A tree was observed to have been infested. The system of identifying susceptible trees presented in this paper would seem to have application in Douglas-fir types other than those studied at Westwold i n view of the accuracy of the class i f icat ion (Table 299) in-gauging vigour and age in the mixed (fir-larch-white-pine-hemlock) type at Lumby, It was, unfortunately, impossible to test the system at Lumby because of the relative absence of infested trees and the disturbed forest conditions of the area. It i s interesting to note that the c r i t i c a l ten-year diametral growth at which a tree apparently becomes susceptible to infestation i s approximately 19 millimetres. Only trees having a diametral growth of 19 - 96 -millimetres or less were infested. A significant feature of the results may be indicated by the great difference in the numbers of trees infested in Age Classes 2 and 3, and the absence of a similar difference between Age Classes 3 and 4. The inference from this may be that the age class l i m i t between Classes 2 and 3, v iz . 150 years, corresponds with what may be called "entomological maturity" for interior Douglas f i r . The results of the study indicate that as a tree approaches 150 years of age i t s susceptibil i ty to bark beetle attack is greatly increased. The fact that 90.7 per cent of the infested trees are over 150 years of age may well indicate that this age division ;is a c r i t i c a l one in the relationship between the insect and i t s host. This i s especially true of those trees of over 150 years of age whose ten-year diametral growth does not exceed 11 millimetres. The apparent anomaly of the similar frequency of infestation in Age Classes 3 and 4 can probably be explained by referring to the method of delimiting the four age classes. The divis ion of the basic data into the three youngest age classes was shown to be s t a t i s t i c a l ly just i f ied (Table 8 ) . The data included in Age Class 4 showed no significant difference from that in Age Class 3 and i t is probably for this reason that the anomaly described above exists. However, since the class i f icat ion permits the identif ication of the high vigour trees of Age Class 4 and in view of the poss ibi l i ty that such identif ication may prove profitable in reserving large trees for such material as peeler logs i t seems desirable to maintain the four age classes. The type of selection made by the Douglas-fir beetle in this study closely resembles a combined thinning from below and a selection cutting of the older age classes. This, at least, appears to be the - 97 -tendency in host selection since a l l D-vigour trees in addition to the C-vigour trees in the older age classes are apparently susceptible to bark beetle attack. The writer wishes to emphasize that the findings of this study are applicable only in virg in forests subject to the depredations of an endemic population of beetles. Examinations of infestations i n , or adjacent to, disturbed forests reveal that, since the disturbance fre-quently is the source of populations of epidemic proportions, i t i s unlikely that the pattern of attack w i l l even approximately correspond to that observed in thi s study. Person (1928) found that preference for slow-growing trees of the larger diameters was less marked under decreasing epidemic conditions than under endemic or increasing epidemic conditions. Keen (1936) stated that the ratios he calculated would apply only in v irg in forests and that quite different ratios could be expected in logged-over areas. Keen was of the opinion, however, that the relative susceptibil ity ranking of the different tree classes would remain unchanged under varying susceptibil ity. The problem in Douglas-fir forests i s somewhat more complicated than in ponderosa pine forests due to the characteristic group-infestations and the capacity of slash and windfalls to attract beetles to an area. Nevertheless, a definite tendency i s apparent for the beetles to choose slower growing trees of 150 years or more of age. Thus i t can be asserted that the 2D, 3C, 3D, 4G and 4D trees j;Show- the:;.-gr.eatest degree of susceptibil i ty to infestation. Trees of Glass ID are also susceptibile although less so than the other classes named. This selective tendency w i l l be more - 98 -pronounced when the beetle population i s endemic. It i s , therefore, suggested that on areas with endemic populations the tree classes named above should be included in the trees harvested. By this means the residual stand would be both suff iciently vigorous to respond to release and to resist bark beetle attack. Such a system of tree selection would greatly increase the average vigour of the forest making i t inherently resistant to infestation and thus exerting a measure of indirect control of the Douglas-fir beetle. - 99 -SUMMARY In view of the nature and economic significance of infestations of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk., in the interior of Br i t i sh Columbia i t i s considered desirable to develop a method of providing permanent protection within the economy of sustained yield forestry. Direct control has generally proved unsatisfactory in this respect. A review of systems of indirect control devised to increase the resistance of the forest to infestation indicates the f ea s ib i l i ty of applying similar systems to the Douglas-fir beetle and i t s host. From data collected at Westwold, B„ C„ on crown and bark characteristics a tree class i f ication was developed which divided each of four age classes into four vigour classes. An objective test made of subjectively c lass i -fied Douglas f i r at Westwold in the Interior Dry Belt , and at Lumby, B„ C. in the Interior 77et Belt revealed that i t i s possible to judge age and vigour with considerable accuracy. The class i f icat ion was applied to recently-infested trees at Westwold. The results were tabulated by age and vigour classes to reveal preferences by the Douglas-fir beetle for particular tree classes. I t is suggested that the preferences demonstrated in the study indicate the tree classes which should be harvested to increase the resistance of Douglas-fir forests to infestation by the Douglas-fir beetle. In this manner a measure of indirect control may be achieved and maintained. - 100 -CONCLUSIONS Interior types of Douglas f i r can be readily class i f ied on the basis of subjective evaluations of external characteristics of crown and stem into four vigour classes in each of four age classes. When vigour i s defined in terms of diametral growth in the last ten years s phloem streaks provide an extremely accurate index of relative and actual vigour. This accuracy persists up to certain l imits within each of the four age classes. When recently infested trees are class i f ied the pattern of distribution over the age and vigour classes indicate that the older, slower-growing trees are most susceptible to infestation. Only trees with a ten-year diametral growth rate of 19 m i l l i -metres or less were infested. Interior Douglas f i r apparently approaches "entomological maturity" at approximately 150 years of age. This i s particularly true when ten-year diametral growth does not exceed 11 millimetres. The results of the study closely coincide with those of other studies connected with relative susceptibil ity of host trees. Tree classes 2D, 3C, 3D, 4C, and 4D are apparently more susceptible to infestation by endemic populations of the Douglas-fir beetle than other classes. Class ID i s s imilarly susceptible although to a lesser degree than the classes named above. - 101 -ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer wishes to express his indebtedness to the Unit of Forest Zoology of the Forest Biology Division of the Canada Department of Agriculture for permission to use the study data as the subject of this thesis. Thanks are extended to Dr. M. L, Prebble of Ottawas Mr. H. A. Richmond of Victoria, and Mr. W. G. Mathers of Vernon for advice and encouragement throughout the study and.in the preparation of the manuscript. Grateful appreciation is expressed by the author to Dean G, S, Allen, Professors J, W. Ker and J. H. G, Smith of the Faculty of Forestry, and Professor K„ Graham of the Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, for their valuable criticisms of the intent and presentation of the thesis. = 102 -LITERATURE CITED Anon., 1950. A tree classification for Douglas f i r for quality cruising, stand structure studies, growth studies, etc. Recommended Forest Practices and Techniques. The Western Forestry and Conservation Assoc. Portland, Oregon. Baker, F. S, 1950. Principles of Silviculture. McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York. Bedard, W„ D. 1938. Control of the mountain pine beetle by means of chemicals. Jour, of Forestry 36:35-40. Brown, H. P. and A, J. Panshin, 1940. Commercial Timbers of the United States. McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York. Craighead, F„ G., J. M. Miller, J. C. Svenden, and F„ P. Keen, 1931. Control work against bark beetles in western forests and an appraisal of i t s results. Jour, of Forestry 29:1001-1018. DeLeon, D„, 1934. Recent discoveries concerning the biology of the mountain pine beetle and their effects on control in western white pine stands. Jour, of Forestry 32:430-436. Dunning, D., 1928. A tree cla s s i f i c a t i o n for the selection forests of the Sierra Nevada. Jour, of Agric. Research 36:755-771. Evenden, J. C„, W. D. Bedard, and G. R„ Struble, 1943. The mountain pine beetle, an important enemy of western pines. U.S.D.A. Circ, 664, 25 pp. Fisher, R. A. and F. Yates, 1949. S t a t i s t i c a l tables for biological agricultural, and medical research. Oliver and Boyd, Ltd., Edinburgh. Gevorkiantz, S. R „, P. 0. Rudolph, and P. J. Zehngraff, 1943. A tree classification for aspen, jack pine and second growth red pine. Jour, of Forestry 41:268-274. - 103 -Guttenberg, S., 1953. Loblolly crown length — clue to vigour. Sth. For. Note No. 88. Sth. For. Exp. Sta. Hopkins, A. D.„ 1909. Practical information on the scolytid beetles of North America. 1. Bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus. •IJ. S. D. A. Bur. Ent, Bul„ 83, part 1. 169 pp. Hopping, G. R., 1946. Control of the more injurious bark beetles of tire Canadian Rockies. Dom. For. Insect Lab. Pub. 49.^J? pp. (Proc). Hopping, G„ R„ and G. Beall, 1948. The relation of diameter of lodgepole pine to incidence of attack by the bark beetle Dendroctonus monticolae Hopk. For. Chron. 24:2. 5 pp. Johnson, P. C„, 1940. Entomological considerations in u t i l i z a t i o n of insect-killed ponderosa pine. Jour, of Econ. Ent. 33:773-776. Keen, F. P., 1927. Manual of bark beetle control in western pine forests. U. S. D„ A. 95 pp. (Proc). Keen F. P., 1928. Insect enemies of California pines and their control. Calif. Dept. Natl. Resources, Div. Forestry Bui. 7. 113 pp. Keen, F. P., 1929. Bark beetles of the family Scolytidae infesting forest trees of western United States. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. 129 pp. (Proc.)„ Keen, F„ P., 1931. Pine beetle control costs reduced through logging and salvage. U. S. D. A. Yearbook .1931;428-430. Keen, F. P., 1936. Relative susceptibility of ponderosa pines to bark-beetle attack. Jour, of Forestry 34:919-927. Keen, F. P., 1943. Ponderosa pine tree classes redefined. Jour, of For-estry 41:249-253. Keen, F. P„, 1952. Insect enemies of western forests. U. S. D„ A. Mis. Pub. 273. 280 pp. - 104 -Keen, F. P. and K. A. Salman, 1942. Progress in pine beetle control through tree selection. Jour, of Forestry 11:854-858. Kinghorn, J, M.1953. Chemical control of bark beetles. Canada Dept. of Agriculture Bi-Monthly Prog. Rep, 9:44. Kittredge, J., 1948. Forest Influences. McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York. McLintock, T. F., 1948. Evaluation of tree risk in the spruce-fir region of the northeast. Sta. Paper No. 16. Northeastern For. Ex. Sta. Philadelphia. Patterson, J , E., 1930. Control of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine by the use of solar heat. TJ„ S. D, A, Tech. Bui. 195. 20 pp. Person, H. L., 1928. Tree selection by the western pine beetle. Jour, of Forestry 26:564-578. Roe, A, L,, 1948. A preliminary classification of tree vigour for western larch and Douglas-fir trees in western Montana. Research Note 66. Northern Rocky Mt„ Forest and Range Expt. Sta, Montana, Salman, K. A., 1938. Recent experiments with penetrating o i l sprays for the control of bark beetles. Jour, Econ, Ent, 31:119-123, Salman, K. A. and J. W. Bongberg, 1942. Logging high-risk trees to control insects in the pine stands of northeastern California. Jour, of Forestry 40:535-539, Smith, J. .G. and A. J, Duncan, 1944, Elementary s t a t i s t i c s and applications. McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York. Shedecor, G. W,, 1938. S t a t i s t i c a l methods. Collegiate Press, Inc. Ames, Iowa. Swaine, J. M., 1918. Canadian bark-beetles s Part II. Canada Dept. A g r i c , Ent. Branch Bui. 14. 143 pp. \ - 105 -Taylor, H.. F., 1937. A tree classification for lodgepole pine in Colorado and Wyoming. Jour, of Forestry 35:868-875. Thomson, M. Gv and J. Walters, 1950. The relation of diameter of engelmann spruce to incidence of attack by the bark beetle Dendroctonus engelmanni Hopk. Unpub. 5 pp. Tinney, W. A. and D. B. Malmberg, 1948. Tree classification and marking rules. Univ. of Washington, College of Forestry. Wellner, C. A., 1952. A vigour classification for mature western white pine trees in the inland empire. Res. Note.No. 110. Northern Rocky Mt. Forest and Range Ex. Sta. Montana. 3 pp. Westveld, M., 1954. A budworm vigour-resistance classification for spruce and balsam f i r . Jour, of Forestry 52:11-24. Wilson, A. K., 1952. An age-vigour classification for Douglas-fir in central Idaho. Jour, of Forestry 50:929-933. APPENDIX Quality, Density, and Branching Habit of Foliage of Trees Aged 0-75 Years (Age C l a s s ! ) Fig. 1 A very vigorous 1A tree having class A for a l l crown characteristics. Rather open-grown. Fig. 2 Class B for quality of foliage and branching and class C for density of foliage on a IB tree. Fig. 3 Class C for quality and density of foliage and class D branching on a 1C tree. Fig. 4 Crown on ID tree (curved towards right) showing class D quality, density and branching of foliage. - 107 -Quality, Density, and Branching Habit of Foliage of Trees Aged 76-150 Years (Age Class 2) Fig. 5 Vigorous 2A tree Fig. 6 Typical 2A tree having class A for a l l with class B branch-crown characteristics. ing habit. Fig. 7 Low vigour 2C tree Fig. 8 Centre back-in centre of photo— ground shows typical graph. Foliage i s 2D tree, less dense than average. - 108 -Quality, Density, and Branching Habit of Foliage of Trees Aged 151-225 Years (Age Class 3) Fig. 9 Class 3A tree on Fig. 10 Exceptional 3A left with three class tree on le f t with typi— 3B trees on right. Bran- cal 3C tree on r i g h t , ching habit on 3A tree is class C. Fig. 11 Above average Fig. 12 Class 3B tree with 3B tree. class C density of foliage and branching habit. F ig . 13 Class 3D tree with Fig. 14 Class D in a l l class C branching. characteristics. - 109 -Quality, Density, and Branching Habit of Foliage of Trees Aged 226-f-Years (Age Class 4) W3» Fig. 15 Class 4A tree showing class B quality, class A density, and class C branching habit. Fig. 16 Class 4B tree showing many openings of class C density and class D branching habit. Fig. 17 Class 4B tree with f a i r -l y thin crown of class B and branching habit of class C. Fig. 18 Class 4C tree with many openings and many twigs de-nuded of needles. - 110 -Quality, Density, and Branching Habit of Foliage of Trees Aged 226-j- Years (Age Class 4) (continued) Fig. 19 Class 4C tree with thin Fig. 20 Class 4C tree with many crown of class C density and openings of class C density class C branching habit. and class D branching habit. Fig. 21 Class 4D tree i n centre Fig. 22 Class 4D tree with thin background showing thin crown crown and many openings of with many openings of typical class D density and class C class D density. branching habit. - I l l -Fig. 23 Sharp acute of class A top shown on tree i n centre. Fig. 24 Extreme example of class A top on l e f t with right-angled top of class C on right. - 112 -Top Shape (continued) Fig. 27 Approximately right-angled top of class C shown on l e f t of photograph. - 113 -Phloem Streaks Fig. 30 Pencil shows position of phloem streak. Width of new phloem tissue on this tree is 2 " Fig. 32 Narrow (l/8") phloem streaks shown to right of pencil. Fig. 31 Almost complete absence of phloem streaks. Fig. 33 Location and width (3/8") of phloem streak shown by white paper i n centre of photograph. ~1M -Phloem Streaks (continued) Fig. 34 Narrow phloem streaks on IB tree. Fig. 35 Narrow but numerous phloem streaks on young tree. v Fig. 36 Wide phloem streaks on 2A tree. Fig. 37 Wide phloem streaks on 3A tree. - 115 -Bark Type Fig. 38 Corky grey bark of class C bark type. It is this type which is most commonly encountered. Phloem s t -reaks are relatively easily mea-sured on this type of bark. Fig. 39 Ridged, dark, reddish bark of class A bark type. Some d i f -f i c u l t y in measuring phloem streaks since they are often hidden under bark folds. - 116 -Bark Roughness Fig. 40 Sapling showing rough bark (deep cork formation) at base of tree only (class A bark roughness). Fig. 41 A 2C tree rough up to J — f- height of tree (class B roughness). Fig. 42 Rough over § of height but bark at t i p s t i l l smooth (class C roughness). Fig. 43 Large tree i n centre shows bark roughness over entire height (class D roughness). 

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