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Children in group homes : a survey of wards of the Children's Aid Society living in these units, Vancouver… Coppock, Audrey Mary 1955

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CHILDREN IN GROUP HOMES A Survey of Wards of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y l i v i n g i n these u n i t s , Vancouver 1954-. by AUDREY MARY COPPOCK Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work 1955 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia - i l l ABSTRACT This study i s part of a survey of a l l wards of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B.C. who were not in foster homes in 1954. Those in Agency group homes or subsidized boarding homes comprised a group of thirty-nine children, eighteen g i r l s and twenty-one boys, ranging in age from one month to fifteen years. The purpose of the study was to determine some of the reasons for this type of care for children, since the Children's Protection Act requires children be placed in foster homes and puts limitations upon any other type of care. The case records of these children were examined to determine whether or not this type of care was meeting their needs. Further, i t examined the existing resources in Vancouver for child care to see i f they were adequate to meet the needs of a l l children in care. From the records for each child certain material has been summarized (appendix) and developed for descrip-tive use i n the text. A detailed summary of case records of four of the children is also used to point out areas that need special attention in any child welfare programme. Many factors in the lives of these children appear to have contributed to a special placement other than foster homes. Each child has come from a home that does not constitute a stable family unit. Many had sev-eral foster home placements. The majority came into care before the age of seven years. Group homes are meeting the needs of some, but not a l l such children. In particu-lar, the needs of disturbed children are not being met as adequately in group homes. The needs of babies do not seem to be best served in subsidized boarding homes which in effect are institutions. In general, there i s evidence that community services are not adequate to meet the needs of a l l children in care in Vancouver. The recommendations include the pro-vision of additional services to meet the needs of children as well as further co-ordination and co-operation between existing resources so that together they may offer better service to children. Additional trained staff are needed. And, f i n a l l y , the study reinforces the need for further research into child dependency. i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 . H i s t o r i c a l Development i n C h i l d Care  and the use of I n s t i t u t i o n s . Page - I n s i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s of the E l i z a b e t h i a n Poor Law. American trends i n c h i l d care. The development of orphanages. The use of f o s t e r homes. Canadian developments. Legal aspects of wardship. H i s t o r i c a l development of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver and i t s use of i n s t i t u -t i o n s . Focus of the study. 1 Chapter 2. T h i r t y - n i n e Wards: A Survey. Information d i r e c t l y p e r t a i n i n g to the c h i l d s i nce coming i n t o care. The f a m i l i e s of these c h i l d r e n . D i s c u s s i o n of reasons f o r placement i n group homes. Problems e x h i b i t e d by the c h i l d r e n . . . 24 Chapter 3. Four C h i l d r e n : Case H i s t o r i e s . A c h i l d f o r whom the mother had made no p l a n . An "unadoptable" c h i l d . A c h i l d who has had many f o s t e r homes. A c h i l d who i s i n need of s p e c i a l treatment 4 5 Chapter 4 . C h i l d Welfare: A Constant Challenge. Findings of the study. Types of c h i l d r e n r e c e i v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. Goal f o r the f u t u r e — t h e prevention of dependency 1 06 Appendices: A. Summary of data of t h i r t y - n i n e cases. B. Reasons f o r placement and problems of the c h i l d r e n . (Chart used t o check d i s t r i b u t i o n . ) C. Legal p r o v i s i o n s f o r apprehension and wardship w i t h s p e c i f i c reference to the t h i r t y - n i n e cases. D. Schedule used f o r the survey. E. B i b l i o g r a p h y . Tables i n the Text Table 1 . Present ages of c h i l d r e n i n study. . . 2 5 Table 2 . Age at which c h i l d r e n came i n t o C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y care. . . . 2 5 - iv -ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my thanks and gratitude to Mr. Stanley Pinkerton, Acting Executive Director of the Chil-dren's Aid Society of Vancouver and the members of his staff for their assistance and co-operation in this study. Special thanks to Miss Marjorie Smith, Dr. Leonard Marsh and Mrs. Joan Grant of the School of Social Work, University of Brit i s h Columbia, for their suggestions, guidance and encouragement i n the formulation of this thesis. - V -CHILDREN IN GROUP HOMES A Survey of Wards of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y l i v i n g i n these u n i t s , Vancouver 1954. CHAPTER I HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHILD CARE AND THE USE OF INSTITUTIONS The C h i l d Welfare Movement has made great progress i n the l a s t f i f t y years. However, the r o o t s of the present movement f o r b e t t e r c h i l d care go back even f u r t h e r . The care of c h i l d r e n has been of concern to many i n a l l forms of organized s o c i e t y . C h i l d r e n have not always been h e l d worthy of s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y c h i l d r e n of par-ents who d i d not prove themselves adequate-in the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order. The c h i l d of the poor, the neglected c h i l d , the abandoned or i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d has not or does not always r e c e i v e the same a t t e n t i o n or c o n s i d e r a t i o n as one i n more fo r t u n a t e circumstances. The e a r l y w r i t i n g s of the Eastern c i v i l i z a t i o n s 1 make reference to the care of needy c h i l d r e n . S t . Vincent de Paul became concerned about the c h i l d r e n abandoned by unmarried mothers i n P a r i s during the s i x t e e n t h century. With the a s s i s t a n c e of orders of nuns he provided homes f o r these c h i l d r e n i n an attempt to remove them from a l i f e of 1 Smith, M a r j o r i e J . , " C h i l d r e n Are S p e c i a l , " B r i t i s h  Columbia Welfare. V o l . 10, No. 9> March, 1953> p. 3. - 2 -n e g l e c t and poverty. B r i t i s h Developments Since developments i n c h i l d care i n England are the ones th a t most s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d the e a r l y beginning of organized C h i l d Welfare on the North American Continent, these w i l l be considered i n more d e t a i l . Before the break from the Roman C a t h o l i c Church during the r e i g n of Henry V I I I i n the s i x t e e n t h century the needs of the poor and t h e i r c h i l d r e n were l a r g e l y met through the kindness of r e l a t i v e s , neighbours and the Church w i t h i t s monastic orders. F o l l o w i n g the s p l i t i n the Church w i t h the r e s u l t a n t c o n f i s c a t i o n of Church property by the S t a t e , the Church was no longer able to provide a l l of i t s former s e r v i c e s . Previous to t h i s there was l i t t l e on the s t a t u t e s to provide l e g a l l y f o r the poor and d e s t i t u t e and c e r t a i n l y nothing applying s p e c i f i c a l l y to c h i l d r e n . The purpose of e a r l y s t a t u t e s (e.g. The St a t u t e of Laborers of 1349) was to make begging unlawful and to provide landowners w i t h a s u f f i c i e n t supply of labourers f o l l o w i n g the Black Death of 1384 - 1349. The f i f t e e n t h century was one of comparative w e l l being but the gradual break up of feudalism, and the tur n i n g to sheep r a i s i n g , w i t h the r e s u l t i n g enclosures was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d by the end of t h i s century. Great numbers of s e r f s were no longer r e q u i r e d on the manors. The t u r n i n g of land to pastures r e s u l t e d i n large, numbers of formerly - 3 -s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s being e n t i r e l y 1 without l i v e l i h o o d . The c u l m i n a t i o n of a l l previous l e g i s l a t i o n and p r a c t i c e i n England was the Act of 1601, the 43 E l i z a b e t h , commonly r e f e r r e d to as the E l i z a b e t h i a n Poor Law. Thomas Mackay, i n h i s H i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h Poor Law, f o l l o w s h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the e a r l y beginnings of the Poor Laws w i t h the statement "Subject to these remarks on the more remote o r i -gins of Poor Law l e g i s l a t i o n , the Act of 1601, . . . i s the 2 s t a t u t o r y foundation of our E n g l i s h Poor Law." Pour s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s of the E l i z a b e t h i a n Poor Law a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y to d e s t i t u t e c h i l d r e n or to the c h i l -dren of needy parents. These were: (1) Apprentice them to a craftsman ( i n d e n t u r e ) . (2) Put them to work. (3) Out door r e l i e f ( r e l i e f i n own home). (4) Put them i n an almshouse. The Act provided f o r the b u i l d i n g of almshouses, and, w i t h i n the next two c e n t u r i e s , n e a r l y every p a r i s h i n England had i t s own almshouse or workhouse. I t became the p r a c t i c e to place whole f a m i l i e s , from the youngest to the 1 deSchweinitz, K a r l , England' s Road to S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania P r e s s , P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1943> P» 9» 2 Mackay, Thomas, A H i s t o r y of The E n g l i s h Poor Law. V o l . 3 , From 1834 to The Present Time, P.S. King and Son, London; G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1899, p. 17. - 4 -oldest member, therein. There was no segregation of the children, the insane, the mentally defective, the aged or the criminal. The greatest importance of the "43 Elizabeth" to Child Welfare i n Great B r i t a i n was that i t established a precedent f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r children which contin-ued to be the type of care most frequently used u n t i l t h i s day. An Act of 1802 was the " f i r s t e f f o r t to control the e v i l s of apprenticing pauper children to cotton-mill owners, (and) . . . i s a chapter i n the hi s t o r y of the care of dependent children. . . (and) t h i s law was the fore-1 runner aof c h i l d labor l e g i s l a t i o n . " This and other c h i l d labour- l e g i s l a t i o n was rendered less e f f e c t u a l by the great-est exponents of these enactments. They refused to allow, as part of the Act, the central government machinery neces-2 sary to see that the laws were enforced. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care for Children During the nineteenth century workhouse schools or separate buildings were established on the grounds of the workhouse. I t was a means of separating children from the adult group i n the workhouse. This was the beginning of 1 Abbott, Grace, The Chi l d and The State. V o l . 1. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 111., 1938, p. 83. 2 Loc. c i t . - 5 -orphanages or farm schools i n England. Farm schools were e s t a b l i s h e d before 1834 and as separate i n s t i t u t i o n s , were 1 a s u p e r i o r type of care to tha t of the workhouse. This development of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r dependent c h i l d r e n continued i n England to the present day and not u n t i l the C u r t i s Report on C h i l d Care of 1946 was there governmental urging of f o s t e r home care f o r these c h i l d r e n . F o l l o w i n g the "Report of The Care of C h i l d r e n Committee," appointed i n March 1945 " t o enquire i n t o e x i s t i n g methods of p r o v i d i n g f o r c h i l d r e n who . . . are deprived of a normal home l i f e w i t h t h e i r own parents or r e l a t i v e s ; and to consider what f u r t h e r measures should be taken. . . to compensate them 2 f o r l a c k of p a t e r n a l care," t h i s s i t u a t i o n was a l t e r e d by l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1948, "The Ch i l d r e n ' s A c t . " Much has been done i n England w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n , but the i n s t i t u t i o n has not always proved to be a b e t t e r means of c h i l d care than the c h i l d ' s own home or a f o s t e r home. The E n g l i s h s o l u t i o n f o r the care of the dependent c h i l d was not one of i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d but r a t h e r group care f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . American Trends i n C h i l d Care The American c o l o n i s t s brought the B r i t i s h 1 Thurston, Henry, The Dependent C h i l d . Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1930, p. 245. 2 Report of The Care of C h i l d r e n . H i s Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, September, 1946, p. 5« - 6 -practices and customs with them to th e i r new country. How-ever, a d i f f e r e n t trend developed—that of i n d i v i d u a l care fo r the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . Indenture was a common practice i n the newly formed United States of America. I t was, as i n England, a l e g a l transaction between two private indiv i d u a l s providing f o r the placement of a c h i l d i n the home of another and a wr i t -ten guarantee that the person taking the c h i l d would pro-vide care f o r the c h i l d u n t i l he was of l e g a l age. The c h i l d i n turn would give.services to cover the cost of his care. Almshouses were also established i n North America and i n some parts of the continent, notably some Eastern American States and Eastern Canadian Provinces, are s t i l l i n existence and use. Up to and during the eighteenth cen-tury the only means of c h i l d care f o r neglected or depend-ent children were indenture and the almshouse. Indentured children were l i v i n g with families and the c h i l d ' s fortune or misfortune lay e n t i r e l y with the family taking the c h i l d . In some instances he became a part of that family and l i v e d there as t h e i r own c h i l d would. In others he was merely used as a servant and received few of the basic necessities of l i f e . Education of children was not universal at that time and i t i s not surprising that families having indentured c h i l d r e n i n the i r care were loathe to expend any money for the education of the c h i l d . Again i t depended upon the type of people - 7 -w i t h whom the c h i l d l i v e d as there was no a u t h o r i t y to enforce any such " p r i v i l e g e s " f o r the indentured c h i l d . A development s i m i l a r to the farm school of Eng-land discussed p r e v i o u s l y was t a k i n g place on the American Continent i n the nineteenth century. The orphan asylum was developing as an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the care of dependent c h i l -dren. U n l i k e the E n g l i s h counterparts which were u s u a l l y s i t u a t e d w i t h and were an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the almshouse, these were separate i n s t i t u t i o n s , e s t a b l i s h e d under p r i v a t e auspices. By 1800 there were seven such i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the United S t a t e s , the f i r s t one having been e s t a b l i s h e d i n I729 by "ten U r s y l i n e S i s t e r s . . . brought to New 1 Orleans from France. . . to found a convent." They o r i g i -n a l l y cared f o r ten g i r l s orphaned by Indian massacres. Another development at t h i s time was t h a t of spe-c i a l and separate i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the p h y s i c a l l y handi-capped c h i l d . I n 1817 the f i r s t school f o r the "deaf and dumb" was e s t a b l i s h e d and f o u r t e e n years l a t e r , i n I83I, a school f o r b l i n d c h i l d r e n was e s t a b l i s h e d . One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t developments i n mod-ern c h i l d w e l f a r e took place In New York C i t y i n 1853 w i t h the founding of the New York C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y by Mr. Charles L o r i n g Brace. Under the d i r e c t i o n of Mr. Brace, 1 Lundberg, Emma Oct a v i a , Unto the Least of These. D. Appleton Century Company, Inc . , New York and London, p. 52. - 8 -crude methods of fos t e r home placements were established. He, and his workers, took the destitute children from the streets of New York and sent them to free foster homes out-side the C i t y . Large numbers of children were taken west to homes where they were to become "one of the family" and each c h i l d was i n turn expected to work for his keep. As Mr. Thurston points out i t was an extension of the old indenture 1 system i n a less r i g i d form. Mr. Brace f e l t very strongly that l i f e on a farm or i n a v i l l a g e had more to o f f e r a c h i l d than the slums of New York C i t y . His two expressed 2 p r i n c i p l e s , on which h i s work was based, were: 1. The sup e r i o r i t y of the C h r i s t i a n family to any and a l l other i n s t i t u t i o n s for the education and Improvement of a poor c h i l d , and, ^ 2. The necessity, i n treating the e v i l s of the poor on a large scale, of following the natural laws and demand f o r labor. Ten years l a t e r , i n 1863, a second such society was formed, the Society f o r the Protection of Destitute Roman Catholic Children i n the City of New York. This society put more e f f o r t towards holding the family together and i f a c h i l d was removed from the home, the society would, when 3 possible, return him afte r a " t r a i n i n g period." 1 Thurston, op_. c i t . ? p. II3. 2, Ibid., p. 102. 3 I b i d . , p. 125. - 9 -I n d i v i d u a l i s e d Care f o r C h i l d r e n Another important development, dating from 1883, took place i n I l l i n o i s under the sponsorship and l e a d e r s h i p of M a r t i n Van Buren Van Arsdale—whose f i r s t concern was to remove c h i l d r e n from the almshouses. He o r i g i n a l l y planned to place them i n separate i n s t i t u t i o n s but abandoned t h i s p l a n f o r one t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h modern c h i l d welfare standards, t h a t of i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n and the s e l e c t i o n of the best p o s s i b l e home f o r each c h i l d . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the S o c i e t y was s t a t e wide, and Mr. Van Arsdale and h i s a s s i s t a n t s t r a v e l l e d throughout I l l i n o i s . When he could not f i n d a home f o r any dependent c h i l d he took t h a t c h i l d to h i s home to be cared f o r by h i s w i f e u n t i l another home could be found. I n 1885 a sm a l l r e c e i v i n g home was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Aurora, I l l i n o i s and the S o c i e t y l a t e r e s t a b l i s h e d s e v e r a l more. C h i l d r e n were placed i n the r e c e i v i n g homes u n t i l a f o s t e r home was found. S i m i l a r developments f o l l o w e d i n other S t a t e s ; i n Iowa i n 1888 and i n Minnesota the f o l l o w i n g year. By 1892 ten States had such o r g a n i z a t i o n s , each having a s i m i l a r 1 p a t t e r n : I n a d d i t i o n to the State Board of D i r e c t o r s , the superintendent and s t a f f , i t was planned to have a l o c a l a dvisory board i n each com-munity where c h i l d r e n were placed i n f o s t e r 1 Thurston, The Dependent C h i l d , p. 149 - 10 -homes, and a l s o i n each s t a t e a r e c e i v i n g home f o r the temporary care of c h i l d r e n . The passing of the f i r s t J u v e n i l e Court law, 1899, i n I l l i n o i s represented f u r t h e r r e c o g n i t i o n of s p e c i a l con-s i d e r a t i o n f o r the c h i l d . F o l l o w i n g the passing of t h i s law any c h i l d accepted f o r permanent placement i n a f r e e f o s t e r home had to be committed to the guardianship of the So c i e t y by the J u v e n i l e Court of the county l e g a l l y respon-s i b l e f o r h i s care. Thus I l l i n o i s set an example i n c h i l d c a r e — t h a t of i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of each c h i l d i n p l a c i n g him i n a f o s t e r home and secondly the passing of a J u v e n i l e Court law which provided separate courts and laws f o r the j u v e n i l e delinquent who formerly had been t r i e d and sen-tenced under the c r i m i n a l laws of the S t a t e . Previous to these developments i n I l l i n o i s the Boston Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y (organized i n I863 w i t h the object of p r o v i d i n g some care f o r c h i l d r e n i n j a i l s ) was making tremendous s t r i d e s i n the work f o r p r o t e c t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the c h i l d . The most prominent f i g u r e i n t h i s S o c i e t y was C .W. B i r t w e l l who began h i s e f f o r t s as an ^outdoor worker" i n 1866. Mr. B i r t w e l l expressed the f o l -lowing views i n the twenty-fourth annual r e p o r t of the 1 S o c i e t y i n 1888: The aim w i l l be i n each instance to s u i t 1 Thurston, The Dependent C h i l d , p. 185-86. - 11 a c t i o n to the r e a l need—heeding the teaching of experience, s t i l l to study the c o n d i t i o n s w i t h a freedom from assumptions, and a d i r e c t -ness and freshness of view, as complete as though the case i n hand stood a b s o l u t e l y alone. The o r i g i n s of many modern p r a c t i c e s i n c h i l d w e l f a r e are to be found i n the work of Mr. B i r t w e l l and the Boston Children's A i d S o c i e t y . Some examples are: Mr. B i r t w e l l ' s 1 emphasis on case records f o r each c h i l d ; and h i s s t r e s s upon i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n f o r each c h i l d ; and the u t i l i z a -t i o n of a l l experience of each worker to understand and meet the needs of the c h i l d . Mr. B i r t w e l l a l s o pointed out that c h i l d r e n were not capable of earning t h e i r keep i n a f o s t e r home, nor should t h i s be expected of them. Conse-quently the State of Massachusetts pa i d board f o r c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes a f t e r 1869. From t h i s date the S o c i e t y made a r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e of s u p e r v i s i n g c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes. His g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n was the r e c o g n i t i o n and p r a c t i c e that there was not j u s t one answer f o r the care of the dependent c h i l d — b e i t f o s t e r homes or i n s t i t u t i o n s — e a c h c h i l d had s p e c i a l needs and Mr. B i r t w e l l and the members of the S o c i e t y sought to know, understand and meet the needs of each c h i l d . As Mr. Thurston p o i n t s out i n h i s book, The Dependent C h i l d , the Boston S o c i e t y made mistakes but "Mr. B i r t w e l l and the Boston Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y 1 The workers of the New York C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y had kept some notes on t h e i r c h i l d r e n but they were g e n e r a l l y very scanty. - 12 -gained such a c l e a r v i s i o n of the process many others were more or l e s s c o n s c i o u s l y groping f o r , and became so a r t i c u -l a t e i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i s process, that they helped enormously to create an a t t i t u d e of mind, a c o n c e p t i o n — i n s h o r t , an a l l - i n c l u s i v e b a s i c approach to the process of c a r i n g f o r dependent and neglected c h i l d r e n , which a l l the world must ev e n t u a l l y accept and use i f we would not p u b l i c l y acknowl-1 edge our i n e f f i c i e n c y . " Canadian Developments i n C h i l d Care The f i r s t Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the dependent and neglected c h i l d was "An Act f o r the Prevention of C r u e l t y 2 to and B e t t e r P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n " passed i n Ontario i n I893. Mr. J . J . K e l s o , an Ontario newspaperman " l e d the - n 3 f i g h t f o r the' f i r s t P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act i n Canada." This piece of l e g i s l a t i o n has been copied by other provinces thus g i v i n g Canadian C h i l d l e g i s l a t i o n some u n i -f o r m i t y . Under t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n the " u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y f o r the prevention of n e g l e c t of c h i l d r e n and f o r f i n d -in g homes f o r those who need them r e s t e d upon and s t i l l remains w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d now 1 Thurston, op., c i t . . p. 201. 2 S t a t u t e s of O n t a r i o , 1893, C. 45. 3 Smith, M a r j o r i e J . , " C h i l d r e n Are S p e c i a l , " B r i t i s h Columbia Welfare. V o l . 10, No. 9> March, 1953 > p. 4 . - 13 -1 the superintendent of c h i l d w e l f a r e . " The s t a t e assumes guardianship of neglected c h i l d r e n and provides f o r care of these c h i l d r e n by d e l e g a t i n g a u t h o r i t y f o r such care to the superintendent of c h i l d w elfare or p r i v a t e c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . The m u n i c i p a l i t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r support of the c h i l d and where p o s s i b l e the m u n i c i p a l i t y may c o l l e c t 2 from the parents of the c h i l d . The trend i n the Western provinces has been away from the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of p r i v a t e c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e -t i e s c a r r y i n g a l l the care of neglected and dependent c h i l -dren w i t h that power being g r a d u a l l y absorbed at the gov-ernmental l e v e l . The p r i v a t e agencies are moving towards areas of s p e c i a l i z e d and experimental work i n the treatment of d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n as w e l l as c o n t i n u i n g the more formal work of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . They are g e n e r a l l y no longer supported e n t i r e l y by p r i v a t e or c h a r i t a b l e funds but r a t h e r o b t a i n the greater percentage of t h e i r f i n a n c i a l support from p r o v i n c i a l governments—in e f f e c t operating 3 as agents of the government. B r i t i s h Columbia has, i n common w i t h most other Canadian P r o v i n c e s , a Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare. The guardianship of c h i l d r e n apprehended under p r o v i s i o n s of 1 Smith, M a r j o r i e J . , "An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the H i s t o r i c a l Development of C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n i n Canada," C h i l d  P r o t e c t i o n i n Canada. Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Ottawa, 1954, p. 5. 2 I b i d . , p. 3 . 3 I b i d . . p. 6. 14 -the Act i s vested w i t h the Superintendent and a l s o w i t h p r i v a t e c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . The Act s p e c i f i e s the various reasons f o r which a c h i l d may be apprehended. When a c h i l d i s known to be i n need of p r o t e c t i o n he i s appre-hended by the Superintendent or a person who has been d e l e -gated the a u t h o r i t y to apprehend (workers i n p r i v a t e s o c i e -t i e s ) or any policeman. F o l l o w i n g an apprehension of a c h i l d n o t i c e of t h i s apprehension and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the c h i l d must be made i n a Court w i t h i n seven days. I f home con d i t i o n s of the c h i l d are such that he i s thought to be i n need of p r o t e c t i o n and wardship i s to be a p p l i e d f o r by the Superintendent or a p r i v a t e s o c i e t y , w r i t t e n n o t i c e must be given f i v e days before the proceedings to the par-ents, the m u n i c i p a l i t y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r support and the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare i f a p r i v a t e s o c i e t y i s apprehending. The d e c i s i o n f o r guardianship of the c h i l d l i e s w i t h the Court. Should evidence i n d i c a t e t h a t the c h i l d i s i n need of p r o t e c t i o n h i s guardianship i s t r a n s -f e r r e d from h i s parents to the Superintendent of C h i l d Wel-f a r e or a p r i v a t e agency. That i s , the c h i l d becomes a ward of the Superintendent or the p r i v a t e s o c i e t y . The parents have the r i g h t to appeal t h i s d e c i s i o n at any time and the Court again hears evidence and decides i f the g u a r d i -anship of the c h i l d i s to remain as i t i s or be returned to h i s parents. - 15 -C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver. B r i t i s h Columbia The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the development of c h i l d welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been l a r g e l y obtained from the h i s t o r y of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1901 - 1951, w r i t t e n by Anne Margaret Angus f o r the occasion of the S o c i e t y ' s f i f t i e t h anniver-sary. 1 "The C h i l d r e n ' s P r o t e c t i o n Act" f o r B r i t i s h Colum-b i a was passed i n 1901 and immediately f o l l o w i n g t h i s the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver was i n c o r p o r a t e d . The Act was passed at the i n s t i g a t i o n of the Vancouver L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women. The m o t i v a t i o n f o r the Act was the case of a l i t t l e g i r l who was being s e v e r e l y neglected and h a r s h l y t r e a t e d by her a l c o h o l i c mother. The c i t i z e n group wished to take a c t i o n to p r o t e c t t h i s c h i l d . The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i s a combination of the s e r v i c e s of the type of s o c i e t y founded by Charles Brace i n New York—The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , and the pro-t e c t i o n s o c i e t y e s t a b l i s h e d some twenty years l a t e r i n New York. The S o c i e t y o f f e r s care to abandoned or neglected c h i l d r e n and a l s o intervenes t o p r o t e c t c h i l d r e n whose parents are t r e a t i n g them h a r s h l y . The S o c i e t y operated over the whole of B r i t i s h Columbia and c h i l d r e n were c o n s t a n t l y being r e c e i v e d from outside Vancouver. In 1905 & branch of the Vancouver 1 S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1901, C 9. - 16 -S o c i e t y was e s t a b l i s h e d a t Nelson and committees were appointed i n Kamloops, Cranbrook, F e r n i e , Rossland and other centres whose d u t i e s were to v i s i t wards of the So c i e t y l i v i n g i n f o s t e r homes i n that area and advise the Vancouver S o c i e t y of t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g . I n 1905 the Catho-l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Vancouver t o provide s i m i l a r care f o r C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n . "The P r o t e c t i o n Act," as d i d a l l other Canadian A c t s , s t a t e d that f o s t e r home placements were to be the form of c h i l d care provided and i n s t i t u t i o n s and s h e l t e r s were to be used only as temporary measures. As i s o f t e n the case, i t took twenty-six years t o put t h i s i n t o opera-t i o n . I t was not u n t i l 1927 t h a t a se r i o u s e f f o r t was made to provide f o s t e r home care to a l l charges of the S o c i e t y . The f i r s t t wenty-five years were a constant s t r u g -gle to provide s h e l t e r or care f o r c h i l d r e n and to o b t a i n the necessary funds f o r o p e r a t i o n . C h i l d r e n were o r i g i n a l l y placed i n the Alexandra Orphanage or the S a l v a t i o n Army Refuge Home. In 1903 i t was necessary f o r the S o c i e t y to provide i t s own i n s t i t u t i o n . The number of wards continued to increase and when, i n 1907? the b u i l d i n g of an i n s t i t u -t i o n on Wa l l S t r e e t was completed, i t was found to be too small and another wing had to be added. Funds re c e i v e d from the C i t y of Vancouver and the p r o v i n c i a l government were inadequate to meet costs of ope r a t i o n and the S o c i e t y was l a r g e l y dependent upon p r i v a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . - 17 -At the end of t h i s p e r i o d the S o c i e t y d i r e c t o r s and members of the community decided t h a t an e v a l u a t i o n and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia was e s s e n t i a l . They were unable to bridge the gap between lack of f i n a n c i a l resources and l a c k of space i n the Agency i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n coming i n t o care. I n 1926 a com-mittee f o r t h i s C h i l d Welfare Survey was appointed under the d i r e c t i o n of Miss C h a r l o t t e Yftiitton, then s e c r e t a r y of the Canadian C o u n c i l f o r C h i l d Welfare. As a r e s u l t of t h i s survey the e n t i r e f i e l d of c h i l d w e l f a r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia was changed and put on i t s present day f o o t i n g . The Committee reported t h a t the Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d So c i e t y had done some f i n e work but made the f o l l o w i n g sug-1 gestions f o r the m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r p r a c t i c e s : 1. The appointment of a q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l worker to the p o s i t i o n of superintendent to do the job of r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2. C r e a t i o n of c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n f i e l d s e r v i c e s . 3. S o c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n i n connection w i t h f r e e home placement. 4. Establishment of a boarding home system. 5. Development of baby care. The f o l l o w i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e changes were suggested: 1. I n s t a l l a case record system.. 2. Rearrangement and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of b u i l d i n g s . 3. Adequate medical and p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s . 4. Night s u p e r v i s i o n . Trained s o c i a l workers had not been p r e v i o u s l y employed by the S o c i e t y . B r i t i s h Columbia had no f a c i l i t i e s 1 Angus, Anne Margaret, C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, B.C., 1901 - 1951. Vancouver, 1951> P- 30. - 18 -f o r t h i s t r a i n i n g and p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of t h i s survey such t r a i n i n g was i n s t i t u t e d at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. When Miss Laura H o l l a n d , the new superintendent, and her two a s s i s t a n t s a r r i v e d from Toronto i n 1927 they were faced w i t h the tremendous task of r e o r g a n i z i n g the So c i e t y and placement of the 177 c h i l d r e n then i n i n s t i t u -t i o n s i n t o c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d f o s t e r homes. By the end of 1928 only 33 c h i l d r e n remained i n the Wa l l S t r e e t Home. The p r a c t i c e of p l a c i n g c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes i n p r e f e r -ence to the i n s t i t u t i o n was thus e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the C h i l -dren's A i d S o c i e t y . The Second World War brought about some of the dilemma faced twenty-five years e a r l i e r when the Agency had not been able to f i n d enough f o s t e r homes during war time. To meet t h i s need the Agency e s t a b l i s h e d three R e c e i v i n g Homes: one f o r i n f a n t s ; one f o r t o d d l e r s to the age of eleven or twelve; and one f o r g i r l s over twelve. This met an immediate need and a l s o a f u r t h e r one. The 0 C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , as have other c h i l d r e n ' s agencies, have found t h a t not every c h i l d could adjust to a f o s t e r home, p a r t i c u l a r l y c h i l d r e n i n the adolescent group. The So c i e t y s t a f f was aware th a t a group of adolescent boys were not a d j u s t i n g i n f o s t e r homes although every e f f o r t had been made to place them i n good homes. I t was there-f o r e decided, i n l i n e w i t h C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y f i n d i n g s - 19 -and a growing movement on the North American Continent, t o use the i n f a n t home f o r a group l i v i n g home f o r adolescent boys. The babies were then t r a n s f e r r e d to c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d s u b s i d i z e d boarding homes. The home f o r t o d d l e r s to the age of twelve and the one f o r g i r l s over twelve were already being used as group l i v i n g homes and were continued as such. The Receiving Home was intended as a means of tem-porary placement where the c h i l d could be studied and observed to determine the type of placement most s u i t a b l e . However, the development i n Vancouver and many other centres has been to use them f o r the dual purpose of temporary or inbetween placements f o r a c h i l d and a l s o as a more perma-nent placement f o r c h i l d r e n . They are a l s o being used as semi-treatment centres f o r d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . The Use of I n s t i t u t i o n s and Subsidized Boarding Homes The i n s t i t u t i o n i s again being recognized as a means of care f o r some c h i l d r e n w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n that there are c h i l d r e n who need group care where they w i l l not be c l o s e l y bound i n f a m i l y t i e s . The i n s t i t u t i o n coming i n t o modern use i s not the former type that housed hundreds or even thousands of c h i l d r e n , but r a t h e r smaller type homes. The Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y homes are not an excep-t i o n to t h i s as each home accomodates about twelve c h i l d r e n . S u b s i d i z e d boarding home care f o r babies i s a l s o i n l i n e w i t h modern c h i l d w e l f a r e p r a c t i c e . The i n f a n t - 20 -needs more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a t t e n t i o n than can be o f f e r e d i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. Leon H. Richman warns that the new type of i n s t i -t u t i o n must not be used as a means of di s p o s i n g of a c h i l d because of a la c k of adequate resources. Such i n s t i t u t i o n s must be w i s e l y used and run or t h e i r purpose i s defeated. The use of s u b s i d i z e d f o s t e r homes f o r babies, he s t a t e s , i s p r e f e r a b l e to i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. Mr. Richman a l s o sug-gests that two babies i s a l l one home can handle but adds 1 that the number tends to run hig h e r . At present, C h i l -dren's A i d S o c i e t y has seven s u b s i d i z e d boarding homes, s i x f o r babies and one f o r boys aged nine to eleven. The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n Vancouver r e c e n t l y recognized t h a t the "Receiving Homes" were not being used p r i m a r i l y f o r that purpose when they o f f i c i a l l y changed the name of the committee i n charge of them from "Receiving Homes Committee" to "Group Homes Committee." There i s no s i m i l a r i t y between the group l i v i n g homes of today and the i n s t i t u t i o n s of twenty-five or f i f t y years ago. The c h i l d i s u s u a l l y placed i n the group home f o r the s p e c i f i c purpose of h e l p i n g him to a b e t t e r adjustment w i t h a d u l t s and c h i l -dren but not f o r c i n g him i n t o i t by placement i n a f o s t e r home. 1 Richman, Leon H., " R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r and Use of In t e r i m and Emergency Placement," C h i l d Welfare League of  America B u l l e t i n , January, 1947. - 2 1 -P r e c i p i t a t i n g Causes This thesis i s part of a larger survey of Chi l d Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The larger study i s to ascer-t a i n the whereabouts of wards of the Superintendent of Chil d Welfare and of the private children's a i d s o c i e t i e s . The study was pre c i p i t a t e d by recent newspaper p u b l i c i t y following the imprisonment of a young g i r l , the ward of a private society. The "Protection of Children Act," (1948) f o r B r i t -i s h Columbia states: I f the Judge commits a c h i l d to a children's aid society pursuant to the provisions of t h i s section, the society s h a l l receive the c h i l d into i t s custody and s h a l l make arrangements as soon as may be for the placement of the c h i l d i n a foster home.-1 And further, as a l i m i t a t i o n on i n s t i t u t i o n a l care of c h i l -dren, the Act reads: No c h i l d s h a l l be maintained by a society else-where than i n a fost e r home fo r a period exceeding s i x months, except with the written consent of the Superintendent who may at any time withdraw his consent. 2 The B r i t i s h Columbia "Protection of Children Act" thereby states that foster home care i s the type of care most acceptable and further places l i m i t s upon any other type of care f o r a c h i l d . Where then, are the wards of the Superintendent 1 R.S.B.C. c. 47, s. 8 (12) 1948. 2 R.S.B.C. c. 47, s. 8 (13) 1948. - 22 and the p r i v a t e s o c i e t i e s i f not i n f o s t e r homes? The g i r l who was found i n a Vancouver h o t e l and subsequently imprisoned on a drug charge was o b v i o u s l y not i n a f o s t e r home, nor was she, at that time, r e c e i v i n g proper super-v i s i o n . I t i s not the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s to answer the above question but to examine one small area i n the t o t a l number of wards i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. S e t t i n g of Thesis With the co-operation of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia a survey has been made of a l l placements of wards of that S o c i e t y not i n f o s t e r homes. The survey was made as of October 31st, 1954 and a l l i n f o r m a t i o n contained h e r e i n r e l a t e s to that date. On that date the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d had a t o t a l of 1,120 wards. Of t h i s t o t a l , 211 c h i l d r e n were not i n f o s t e r homes. This number c o n s t i t u t e s 18.8 per cent of the t o t a l number of wards of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . Scope of Thesis The scope of t h i s t h e s i s i s to examine only 39 of 211 c h i l d r e n . These 39 c h i l d r e n were, on October 31st, 1954> l i v i n g i n s u b s i d i z e d boarding homes and group l i v i n g homes of the Agency. S i x t e e n of these c h i l d r e n , twelve i n f a n t s under the age of one year, were l i v i n g i n the seven s u b s i d i z e d boarding homes and the remaining twenty-three c h i l d r e n were l i v i n g i n the Agency's three group l i v i n g - 23 -homes. The f i l e s of these t h i r t y - n i n e c h i l d r e n and a l s o t h e i r parents' f i l e s have been examined. The purpose of the study i s to attempt to determine the reasons f o r t h i s type of care and f u r t h e r to see i f t h i s care i s meeting the needs of these c h i l d r e n . I t a l s o pro-poses to examine e x i s t i n g resources f o r c h i l d care to see I f they are adequate to meet the needs of the t o t a l group of " c h i l d r e n i n care." Research Methods The research methods used are: survey; case; d e s c r i p t i o n . Common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n each case have been l i s t e d and w i l l be found i n the t a b l e i n Appendix A. This t a b u l a t i o n was made from the accumulated schedules used f o r each case. CHAPTER 2 THIRTY-NINE WARDS: A SURVEY This chapter i s a discussion of material contained In tabulated form i n Appendix A, taken from the thir t y - n i n e 1 case records of the children and t h e i r parents that were examined for thi s study. I t i s proposed to examine the material under the headings of: age, r a c i a l o r i g i n , b i r t h -place, number of placements, number of s o c i a l workers, length of time spent i n the group or subsidized boarding home, school grade, marital status of parents, source of r e f e r r a l , s i b l i n g s , number of s i b l i n g s i n care, stated r e l i g i o n , reasons for placement i n the spe c i a l setting and problems exhibited by the c h i l d . Age Eighteen of the children are females and twenty-one are males. The ages i n t h i s group range from two months to f i f t e e n years. Twenty eight children i n the group came into care at the age of six or under and only eleven of the group 1 A s p e c i f i c c h i l d i s indicated by the use of the code number. - 25 -Table 1. Present Ages of C h i l d r e n , Showing Both Sexes  and T o t a l Number i n Each Age Group Present Age of c h i l d No. of c h i l d r e n Present Age of c h i l d No, of c h i l d r e n M. F. T o t a l M. F. T o t a l Under 1 year 7 5 12 11 years 3 0 3 1 - 6 years* 0 0 0 12 years 0 1 1 7 years 0 1 1 13 years 3 4 7 8 years 2 1 3 14 years 2 3 5 9 years 1 1 2 15 years 1 2 3 10 years 2 0 2 T o t a l s 21 18 39 •There are no c h i l d r e n i n the age grouping 1 to 6 years. Table 2. Age of C h i l d r e n Coming i n t o Care, Showing Both Sexes and T o t a l  Number i n Each Age Group Age of c h i l d at coming i n t o care No. M. pf F. c h i l d r e n T o t a l Age of c h i l d at coming i n t o care No. M. of F. •ciiAldrsft T o t a l Under 1 year 8 6 14 6 years 2 0 2 1 year 0 1 1 7-9 years* 0 0 0 2 years 1 0 1 10 years 1 2 3 3 years 4 0 4 11 years 1 0 1 4 years 0 1 1 12 years 1 3 4 5 years 3 2 5 13 years 0 3 3 •There are no c h i l d r e n i n the age grouping 7 to 9 years. - 26 -came i n t o care a f t e r the age of s i x . No c h i l d came i n t o care at the ages of seven, e i g h t or nine years. Excluding the twelve babies c u r r e n t l y i n s u b s i d i z e d boarding homes s i x t e e n of the twenty nine c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t l y over the age of s i x years came i n t o care before t h e i r seventh b i r t h d a y . 1 Wardship I n the m a j o r i t y of cases wardship f o l l o w e d s h o r t l y a f t e r the c h i l d came i n t o care. In twelve cases there i s a d i f f e r e n t age shown on the t a b u l a t i o n f o r the age of admission or "Into care" and the age at wardship. I n three cases there was a p e r i o d of more than one year before the Agency was given l e g a l g u a r d i a n s h i p — t h a t i s , before the c h i l d was made a ward of the Agency. I n two cases—Numbers 29 and 26, there was a per i o d of s l i g h t l y over a year before the c h i l d was made a ward. I n case 21 the c h i l d was admitted to non-ward care at the age of f i v e years and l a t e r returned to h i s f a t h e r . He was then re-admitted at the age of t e n years and made a ward at that time. R a c i a l O r i g i n of C h i l d D i v i s i o n as to r a c i a l o r i g i n i s made on the b a s i s of i n f o r m a t i o n given i n the f i l e s , i n f o r m a t i o n which may or may not be complete or accurate. For purposes of t h i s t h e s i s the terms Caucasian ( w h i t e ) , O r i e n t a l (yellow) and 1 Appendix C contains the Legal P r o v i s i o n f o r Apprehension and Wardship of the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study. - 27 -Mixed (Caucasian and O r i e n t a l or North American I n d i a n or Mexican) are used. Twenty-eight c h i l d r e n are of Caucasian o r i g i n . R a c i a l o r i g i n i s u n l i s t e d f o r one c h i l d but he e x h i b i t s the s o - c a l l e d Caucasian c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i s t h e r e f o r e considered as Caucasian. There i s only one c h i l d of O r i e n t a l e x t r a c t i o n . Nine of the c h i l d r e n are of mixed r a c i a l o r i g i n , ( a n d f i v e of these are babies i n the s u b s i -dized boarding homes). Twenty-eight of the t o t a l of t h i r t y - n i n e c h i l d r e n (of a l l r a c i a l groups) are p a r t l y or wholly of B r i t i s h e x t r a c t i o n . B i r t h p l a c e One of the t h i r t y - n i n e c h i l d r e n was born i n the United S t a t e s . Twenty-seven c h i l d r e n were born i n Vancou-ver and s i x c h i l d r e n were born elsewhere i n B r i t i s h Colum-b i a . F i v e of the c h i l d r e n were born i n other provinces of Canada—one i n A l b e r t a , one i n Saskatchewan, one i n Mani-toba and two i n Ontario. Number of Placements The number of placements i n c l u d e s each f o s t e r home (temporary or permanent) that the c h i l d has had, each r e c e i v i n g or group l i v i n g home, each s u b s i d i z e d boarding home, h o s p i t a l placements and camp placements where the c h i l d has been sent to a new home upon n i s r e t u r n from - 28 -camp. In several instances a c h i l d has been sent to sum-mer camp because foster parents wanted him moved and no other home was immediately a v a i l a b l e . The group of infants under one year have (as might be expected) a.lower number of placements than the older children. Seven of the twelve infants have had three placements. Case 4 was moved from his o r i g i n a l placement because he was not getting the attention needed since there were several other babies i n the home. Number 9 had a ho s p i t a l placement because of a physical defect. Number 11 had two placements because another agency "needed" the home where he was f i r s t placed ( t h i s i s discussed f u r -ther i n Chapter 3)» The babies with three placements, Numbers 5 and 14, have also had h o s p i t a l placements due to i l l n e s s . Four of these babies were i n one subsidized board-ing home, the other boarding homes for babies having either one or two wards. This does not include non-ward babies who are also placed i n these homes. On October 31st. each of three subsidized boarding homes had 6 babies, each of two had 4 and one had 5« The four boys l i v i n g i n the Subsidized Boarding Home for boys aged 9 to 11 (Cases 1, 3> 5 and 6) have had four, s i x , one and nine placements respectively. Cases 17 to 39 i n c l u s i v e are children l i v i n g i n the Agency's group homes. Three of these children (Cases 31, 34 and 38) were placed i n a group home when they came - 29 -into- care r e c e n t l y . Taking the number of placements i n consecutive order from the t a b u l a t i o n f o r Cases 17 to 39 i n c l u s i v e , they read as f o l l o w s : 5; 13; 2; 7} 8; 12j 10; 3; 9; 12; 8; 8; 13; 6; 1; 6; 16; 1; 2; 4; 2; 1; 9. (The c h i l d t h a t has had 16 placements, Case 33, i s f u l l y discussed i n Chapter 3.) The two c h i l d r e n i n t h i s group w i t h nine p l a c e -ments (Cases 25 and 39) came i n t o care at the ages of two years and four years. At the present time they are both nine years o l d . The f i r s t i s a boy who has had nine p l a c e -ments i n seven years and the second i s a g i r l who has had nine placements i n f i v e years. The two c h i l d r e n w i t h t h i r -teen placements came i n t o care at the ages :of 6 years (Case 18) and 1 month (Case 29). Th e i r present ages are 13 and 8 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The 13 year o l d boy has had 13 placements i n seven years and the 8 year o l d g i r l has had t h i r t e e n placements i n e i g h t years. There appears to be a tendency to place c h i l d r e n that have had a succession of f o s t e r home f a i l u r e s i n the group l i v i n g homes i n the hope that the home w i l l be a s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e upon the c h i l d . The c o n t i n u a l change of f o s t e r homes would be damaging to any c h i l d . The c h i l d not only loses a set of f o s t e r parents and i s faced w i t h the problem of forming an attachment to a new set of f o s -t e r p arents, but he must a l s o adopt new sets of standards i n new homes, new ways of doing t h i n g s ; he must become used - 30 -to new types of food, a d i f f e r e n t bed. He l o s e s previous playmates i n the neighbourhood and has to form a new group of f r i e n d s . The moves u s u a l l y e n t a i l a' change of schools thus he f i n d s new teachers, new b u i l d i n g s and new classmates. I n e f f e c t , very l i t t l e remains constant i n the c h i l d ' s l i f e except the f a c t o r of change. Number of S o c i a l Workers A l i s t f o l l o w s which shows the number of c h i l d r e n who have had each of various numbers of s o c i a l workers: 13 have had 1 worker 6 have had 2 workers 3 have had ; 3 workers 4 have had 4 workers 5 have had 5 workers 1 has had 7 workers 2 have had 9 workers 1 has had 10 workers 2 have had 11 workers 2 have had 12 workers Eleven of the 13 c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study t h a t have had one s o c i a l worker each are babies and the other two are c h i l d r e n t h a t have been i n care f o r one and two years r e s p e c t i v e l y (Cases 31 and 37). Eighteen of the t o t a l group have had from two to f i v e workers. Case 1 has already had three workers i n the eigh t month per i o d he has been i n care. Case 17 has had f i v e workers during h i s f i v e year p e r i o d of care. The boy had each worker f o r a p e r i o d of one year. E i g h t c h i l d r e n have had seven to twelve workers. The two c h i l d r e n who have had twelve workers are Cases 33 - 31 -(discussed i n Chapter 3) and 37. These two c h i l d r e n have been i n care f o r a ten year p e r i o d . The number of s o c i a l workers f o r the c h i l d i s g e n e r a l l y much higher f o r the c h i l d r e n that have been i n care f o r a p e r i o d of over one year. Length of Time i n Group Homes or S u b s i d i z e d Boarding Homes An examination of the l e n g t h of time spent i n group homes i n d i c a t e s that the m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n have been i n such homes f o r a p e r i o d of more than one month. S i x c h i l d r e n have been i n the group homes ( i n c l u d i n g sub-s i d i z e d homes) f o r one month or l e s s . The l e n g t h of p l a c e -ments f o r the remaining t h i r t y - t h r e e c h i l d r e n ranges from one month to s l i g h t l y over two and one-half years Some of these c h i l d r e n have been placed i n the group homes previous to t h i s placement but these periods have not been counted. The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of time these c h i l d r e n have spent i n these homes during t h i s p l a c e -ment : 25 c h i l d r e n up to 6 months 7 c h i l d r e n 6 months to 1 year 4 c h i l d r e n 1 year to l£ years 2 c h i l d r e n l£ years to 2 years 0 c h i l d r e n 2 years to 2^ years 1 c h i l d 2^ - years to 3 years School Grade Most of these c h i l d r e n appear to be doing ade-quate work at s c h o o l . For one boy, who has been r a t e d as - 32 -a moron by the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , the school r e p o r t s are poor. Four of the c h i l d r e n are i n s p e c i a l or oppor-t u n i t y c l a s s e s designed f o r c h i l d r e n who are not advanc-ing s a t i s f a c t o r i l y at s c h o o l . I n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g s have been obtained from the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c on the major-i t y of the school age c h i l d r e n and the r a t i n g s that have been given are g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c h i l d ' s pro-gress at s c h o o l . However, i t should be noted t h a t i n sev-e r a l of these r a t i n g s the p s y c h o l o g i s t has i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c h i l d has a higher p o t e n t i a l mental c a p a c i t y . Family Background Information regarding the ages and n a t i o n a l i t i e s of the parents has been obtained from the f i l e s and i s included i n the m a t e r i a l i n Appendix A. Of the t h i r t y - n i n e cases examined, there are a c t u -a l l y o n l y t h i r t y - s i x f a m i l i e s i n v o l v e d . There are three groups of two s i b l i n g s — 7 and 39 are brother and s i s t e r , 25 and 26 are b r o t h e r s , 30 and 32 are s i s t e r s . However, f o r the purpose of t h i s study, they are considered as t h i r t y - n i n e separate cases. M a r i t a l Status of Parents The m a r i t a l s t a t u s of the parents ( i n each case s p e c i f i c a l l y the mother of the c h i l d ) i s l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : Married 3 "Common law" 8 Widowed. . . . . . . . . . 3 Dead i 33 -Separated 7 Unmarried mothers 10 Divorced 3 Remarried 4 A confusing term used i n the above l i s t i s tha t 1 of "common law." There i s no l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the "common law" r e l a t i o n s h i p and the c h i l d r e n born of t h i s union are considered i l l e g i t i m a t e , the mother being l e g a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as unmarried. The term has been used to de s c r i b e the s i t u a t i o n where there i s no l e g a l marriage but the couple are l i v i n g together and p r o v i d i n g a home f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I t i s a more s t a b l e f a m i l y arrangement than t h a t of the unmarried mother who, i n most cases, has not or does not l i v e w i t h the p u t a t i v e .father. S e v e r a l couples l i v i n g i n "common law" r e l a t i o n s h i p were separated from t h e i r l e g a l mates but were not di v o r c e d . Only three of these c h i l d r e n have come from homes where t h e i r n a t u r a l parents are married and con t i n u i n g t o l i v e together. I n two of these homes p h y s i c a l and moral c o n d i t i o n s were so deplorable i t was necessary to apprehend the c h i l d r e n . I t i s a l s o noteworthy t h a t i n both of these cases (17 and 33) the mother i s p h y s i c a l l y or mentally d i s -abled and f u r t h e r , there i s a wide d i f f e r e n c e between the ages of the p a r e n t s — 1 9 and 21 years r e s p e c t i v e l y . The 1 A c l a s s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n f o r the "common law" r e l a t i o n s h i p was recorded on one f i l e . When the woman was asked why she d i d not marry the man she l i v e d w i t h she r e p l i e d she would r a t h e r not be t i e d to him as someone b e t t e r might come along. - 34 -t h i r d marriage (Case 5) i s an unhappy one, both parents being immature and mentally r e t a r d e d . They requested adoption placement of t h i s c h i l d , t h e i r t h i r d , as they d i d not t h i n k they could accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c h i l d ' s c are. E i g h t mothers are l i v i n g i n a "common law" r e l a t i o n -s h i p . The man the mother i s l i v i n g w i t h i s not i n every case the f a t h e r of the c h i l d . An example of t h i s i s Case 13 where the mother deserted her husband, the f a t h e r of the c h i l d , and subsequently l i v e d w i t h another man. As n e i t h e r the mother nor her "common law" husband wished to keep the c h i l d she was surrendered f o r adoption. Three of the parents of these c h i l d r e n are widowed. In Case 21 the mother and f a t h e r had been separated before the f a t h e r ' s death. I n only one case are both parents dead but they were l e g a l l y married. Case 38 i s t h e r e f o r e the only orphan i n the group. Seven parents are separated. Case 23 i s an example of a mother d e s e r t i n g her husband and i n f a n t c h i l d r e n . The f a t h e r subsequently placed the youngest son, a boy i n t h i s study, i n a p r i v a t e boarding home but, as he d i d not continue payment f o r the c h i l d ' s care, the p r i v a t e boarding home "mother" refused to keep the c h i l d who was then r e f e r r e d to the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . The unmarried mother c o n s t i t u t e s the l a r g e s t group. Nine of t h i s group are the mothers of babies i n t h i s study. - 35 -This means that i n only one case i n the remaining twenty-seven c h i l d r e n i s the mother unmarried and not l i v i n g w i t h a man i n a "common law" r e l a t i o n s h i p . There are three cases where the parents are l e g a l l y d i v o r c e d . These are Cases 6, 18 and 35. In f o u r cases the parents are remarried. T h i s , of course, e n t a i l e d a l e g a l d i v o r c e so a c t u a l l y seven sets of parents are d i v o r c e d . However, the remarriage i n two cases —27 and 3 1 — r e f e r s only to the mother. In Case 27 the mother and f a t h e r were d i v o r c e d , the f a t h e r d i e d , and then the mother remarried. The c h i l d was l i v i n g w i t h her mother and s t e p - f a t h e r who brought the c h i l d to the Agency and requested that she be taken i n t o care. Se p a r a t i o n , d i v o r c e , death, the r e l a t i v e i n s t a b i l -i t y of the "common law" r e l a t i o n s h i p and the unmarried par-ents are common f a c t o r s i n the p i c t u r e of a d i s r u p t e d home f o r each of these c h i l d r e n . The unstable m a r i t a l a d j u s t -ments or arrangements have i n almost every case r e s u l t e d i n the parents e i t h e r g i v i n g up t h e i r c h i l d or i n the Agency having to take the necessary l e g a l steps to remove the c h i l d from i t s home because of p a r e n t a l n e g l e c t . Source of R e f e r r a l s I n twenty-nine cases the r e f e r r a l was from other agencies, w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , the p o l i c e or from concerned c i t i z e n s . I n the other ten cases the parents (or step-parents) requested d i r e c t s e r v i c e from the Agency. - 36 -S i b l i n g s and S i b l i n g s I n Care I t has been necessary to r e l a t e s i b l i n g s to the o f f s p r i n g of the mother. I n cases where both parents have remarried the c h i l d r e n then born to the mother are the only ones considered. I n a l l cases these f i g u r e s may not be accurate but they do represent the number of c h i l d r e n of the mother of which the Agency has a r e c o r d . On t h i s b a s i s there i s a t o t a l of 137 s i b l i n g s . The t o t a l number of these s i b l i n g s i n the care of the Agency i s 77. That i s f i v e per cent of the c h i l d r e n of these mothers are i n the care of the Agency. F i v e of the s i b l i n g s not i n the care of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y are known to be i n the care of other agencies i n the P r o v i n c e . A f u r t h e r number of t h i s group of c h i l d r e n have been placed f o r a d o p t i o n — p r i v a t e l y by the parents, through other agencies and by the Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . S i x are known to have had adoption placements through the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . Stated R e l i g i o n A s p e c i f i c r e l i g i o u s denomination of the parents i s given f o r s i x t e e n of the t h i r t y - n i n e cases. The remain-der give " P r o t e s t a n t " as the r e l i g i o u s denomination. Two of the s p e c i f i c denominations are l i s t e d as n o n - p r a c t i c i n g Roman C a t h o l i c s who d i d not wish to request s e r v i c e from a C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . - 37 -Number of Contacts with Family It has been found impossible to determine the num-ber of contacts with a family. In some cases there are indications of contacts that have not been recorded or else have been recorded i n a summary fashion that does not give any i n d i c a t i o n of the actual number of times an Agency worker contacted or was contacted by the family. Reasons f o r Placement i n Special Setting The reasons for placement i n a subsidized boarding home or a group home as well as special^ problems exhibited by these children should be considered. In the cases of the twelve babies the reason f o r subsidized boarding home placement rather than adoption placement i s indicated. Five of the twelve babies are of mixed r a c i a l o r i -gin. Three of these babies are i n excellent health but are i n need of adoptive parents. The mother's consent f o r the adoption of these children has been obtained but the Agency has been unable to locate suitable adoptive parents. In the two other cases the mother has refused adoption consent. One of the mothers has since married and applied to the Court for the return of the c h i l d but her app l i c a t i o n was turned down at that time. She plans to continue to apply for the return of the c h i l d . The second mother has refused 1 Appendix B contains a l i s t i n g of the reasons for placement and s p e c i f i c problems of each c h i l d . - 38 -adoption and also applied to the Court f o r the return of the c h i l d but since she had made no adequate plans for the c h i l d the plea was turned down. Another group of s i x babies had poor physical health thus complicating permanent plans for each c h i l d . Two of the s i x babies have serious heart conditions, and one of them has a club foot as w e l l . The prognosis for th i s l a t t e r c h i l d i s poor. Another c h i l d had gastro-i n t e s t i n a l upsets that involved h o s p i t a l placements and delayed adoption consideration. Two others i n the group were delivered by Caesarian b i r t h and as these children are generally kept by the Agency for an observation period there were no other immediate plans. One of these children was expected to be returned to his mother when she made suitable plans for him. The s i x t h c h i l d was a premature b i r t h and was also being held for a period of observation before adoption placement was considered. Permanent plans were not made fo r the remaining c h i l d as the Agency did not have the mother's decision as to her plan f o r the c h i l d . This case (Number 11) i s d i s -cussed i n the t h i r d Chapter. In four of the cases there was doubt as to the mother's plan for the c h i l d and i n a f i f t h the father's consent was lacking but not the mother's. Three of these f i v e children have been placed for adoption since October 31st, 1954. - 39 -With the remaining twenty-seven c h i l d r e n the r e a -sons f o r placement and problems of the c h i l d g e n e r a l l y have a very d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . The problems l i s t e d may not a l l be manifest at the present, but at some time the c h i l d has had them. The reasons f o r these problems no doubt are i n pa r t r e l a t e d to some of the p o i n t s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , e.g. i n s t a b i l i t y i n c h i l d ' s own home; h i g h num-ber of placements; changes of s o c i a l workers f o r the c h i l d . Each a d d i t i o n a l time the c h i l d i s placed i n a f o s t e r home the i n i t i a l f e e l i n g s of being removed from h i s own home may be re-experienced. The change of s o c i a l workers i s a f u r t h e r l o s s of s t a b i l i t y i n the c h i l d ' s l i f e . The f o s t e r home placement i t s e l f may have a great d e a l to do w i t h the c h i l d ' s problems. I f the c h i l d i s placed i n a home that does not meet h i s needs i t i s not l i k e l y t h a t he w i l l then develop i n a normal way. C h i l -dren have many ways of showing t h a t they have problems. The "problems" l i s t e d f o r these c h i l d r e n are common to a l l c h i l d r e n ; there i s , however, a matter of degree. How many times has the c h i l d done t h i s ? Another serio u s con-s i d e r a t i o n i n d i s c u s s i n g the problems of these c h i l d r e n i s th a t the r e p o r t s of t h e i r " s t e a l i n g , " e t c . have come from f o s t e r parents. How w e l l accepted i s the c h i l d h i m s e l f by the f o s t e r parents? This cannot be assessed, but there i s the question of how n o t i c e a b l e these problems would have been had they been e x h i b i t e d by t h e i r n a t u r a l - 40 -children. Can these foster parents understand that pos-s i b l y t h e i r way of dealing with the c h i l d i s contributing to his poor adjustment i f t h i s i s the case? This, of course, i s not true of a l l foster parents. The majority are doing a commendable job with foster children, but i n the cases now being considered the foster parents which these children have had may not have been suitable for the pa r t i c u l a r c h i l d . One factor i n thi s s i t u a t i o n i s the s o c i a l worker who placed the c h i l d i n the home. In so fa r as i t i s possible, the home and the c h i l d should not con-f l i c t . 1 Problems Involved Stealing i s the most common problem i n the group of twenty-seven children over six years of age. F i f t e e n of the children were reported by the fost e r parents or the police to have been s t e a l i n g . In each case there was ade-quate proof that the c h i l d has taken the property of others and i n some of the cases i t was frequent enough to be beyond the normal range of "s t e a l i n g " of children. Workers noted poor school adjustments f o r ten of the children. There has been a Chi l d Guidance C l i n i c evaluation of mental capacities for these ten. Three are rated i n the average group of general i n t e l l i g e n c e , one i s rated i n the moron group and the other six are rated as low average or below average. In each case other problems 1 Appendix B contains a spot chart of each c h i l d and the problems recorded of the c h i l d . - 41 -Indicating emotional disturbance have been recorded f o r the c h i l d . Most of these children have severe emotional prob-lems that would a f f e c t the school adjustment and might pos-s i b l y a f f e c t the c h i l d to the extent that he was not able to u t i l i z e his mental capacity to a normal degree. Six of the children continued to "run away" or wander o f f from the foster or group home. The setting of f i r e s was a problem that occurred i n seven cases. In eight cases the c h i l d was enuretic. Temper tantrums, l y i n g , sex play, fantasy, day dreaming, swearing, destructiveness and disobedience are r e l a t i v e l y common problems i n t h i s group of children. Certainly i t can be said that these children do have these problems to a greater degree than a "normal" c h i l d , and they may be seen as indications that these c h i l -dren have not made "normal" adjustments to l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Use of Group Homes and Subsidized Boarding Homes  The group homes are commonly referred to as "neu-t r a l " settings, e.g. the c h i l d "needs a neutral environment such as the Receiving Home." "Neutral" presumably means that the c h i l d i s not required to adjust to a family unit as would be the case i n a foster home. However, the c h i l d does have to make an adjustment to the s t a f f and the other children i n the home. The homes are also frequently referred to as " s t a b i l i s i n g environments" which would appear to be more de s c r i p t i v e . The rules and regulations applying - 42 to the t o t a l group gives the c h i l d a more impersonal s e t -t i n g i n which to a d j u s t . The r u l e s of the Home do not apply to the s p e c i f i c c h i l d , but ra t h e r to a l l of the c h i l d r e n i n the Home and thus are g e n e r a l l y more accept-able to the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the group. In seven of the cases i t appears that the group home has been used on a treatment b a s i s f o r severe behav-i o u r or emotional problems. These are cases 18, 19, 20, 21> 33> 28 and 37» In almost a l l the other cases they are used on a treatment b a s i s f o r l e s s s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l -dren, but nevertheless c h i l d r e n w i t h problems exceeding the "normal" range. These c h i l d r e n were placed i n the group homes not only because of a l a c k of extremely good f o s t e r homes but u s u a l l y because the c h i l d needed something e x t r a that could be o f f e r e d i n such a s e t t i n g . The c h i l d may need to have a group h i s own age w i t h which to conform and may a l s o have need to be removed from the c l o s e paren-t a l contact that he would experience i n a f o s t e r home. In the case of the adolescents who have r e c e n t l y been removed from t h e i r own homes i t i s g e n e r a l l y more d i f f i c u l t f o r them to accept f o s t e r parents than to accept such a group s e t t i n g . This a l s o a p p l i e s to c h i l d r e n who have experienced unfortunate f o s t e r home placements. In three cases the c h i l d has e i t h e r been committed to an I n d u s t r i a l School or committal i s being considered f o r the near f u t u r e . These are cases 22, 28, and 35. Case 28 - 43 -has, s i n c e October 3 1 , 1954, been committed to the G i r l s 1 I n d u s t r i a l School as " i n c o r r i g i b l e . " I n these instances i t appears that the group home i s used when the c h i l d needs s p e c i a l and c l o s e observation and Int e n s i v e case-work treatment. I t may a l s o be used as a t r a i n i n g p e r i o d f o r the c h i l d before placement i n a f o s t e r home. The c h i l d t h a t has known no r o u t i n e i n e a t i n g , s l e e p -ing or personal hygiene may need to adjust to such r o u t i n e i n an impersonal s e t t i n g and a l s o to the c o n t r o l s of the house s t a f f and the group. Bed-wetting, e s p e c i a l l y i n teen age c h i l d r e n , i s a l s o a common reason f o r keeping the c h i l d i n the group home. Foster parents (or n a t u r a l parents) are ge n e r a l l y not too permissive about bed-wetting and the c h i l d may need a p e r i o d i n a more or l e s s impersonal s e t t i n g to overcome t h i s . I t can then be s a i d t h a t the group homes are being used as a p a r t of treatment f o r the c h i l d and not g e n e r a l l y as stop-gaps or "Receiving Homes" i n the older use of the w o r d — t h a t i s , a c h i l d i s not r e g u l a r l y placed i n t o a group home when he comes i n t o care. I t would appear t h a t the group homes and the Subsidized Boarding Home f o r boys from nine to eleven years are used w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n an e f f o r t t o meet s p e c i a l needs of some c h i l d r e n . The s u b s i d i z e d boarding homes f o r babies appear to be used when the mother has not reached a d e c i s i o n f o r the c h i l d ; when an adoptive home cannot be found; when the - 44 -c h i l d i s considered "unadoptable" f o r various h e a l t h reasons. On October 31, the ages of the wards i n the s u b s i d i z e d board-in g homes f o r babies ranged from two months to nine months. 1 Since these homes a l l had other babies as w e l l , i t would appear t h a t the s e r v i c e given these babies i s more of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d type of care than i n d i v i d u a l c are. 1 See p. 28 CHAPTER 3 POUR CASE HISTORIES This chapter contains s e v e r a l summaries of the case records of fo u r c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the preceding pages. The m a t e r i a l contained h e r e i n i s as recorded i n the f i l e s of the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r parents. Where quotations appear i n the summary the s e c t i o n was taken d i r e c t l y from the case r e c o r d . Further i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained through d i s c u s s i o n of the cases w i t h the pre-sent workers. The f i r s t two are i n f a n t s under one year of age l i v i n g i n s u b s i d i z e d boarding homes. These two were cho-sen because one represents the longest placement and the other represents the most placements (three) f o r c h i l d r e n i n the age group 0 to 1 year. The t h i r d case discussed i s that of a 13 year o l d g i r l who has had 16 placements s i n c e coming i n t o c are. She i s l i v i n g i n the Group Home f o r g i r l s over twelve years of age. The f o u r t h and l a s t case i s a boy, who, because of h i s delinquent behaviour, i s i n need of s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s that the Agency i s not equipped to give at t h i s time. He i s l i v i n g i n the Group Home f o r boys over the age of twelve. These cases have been chosen as they p o i n t out many areas of concern i n any c h i l d w e l f a r e pro-gram. Some of these p o i n t s are discussed at the c o n c l u s i o n - 46 -of each case. Case 11 I s tha t of an ei g h t month o l d son o f unmarried parents of U k r a i n i a n o r i g i n . The mother, age 25, came t o Vancouver from her home i n another province t o pre-vent her f a m i l y from l e a r n i n g of her i l l e g i t i m a t e pregnancy. The 28 year o l d f a t h e r was aware of the s i t u a t i o n . The mother i s described i n the record as being an a t t r a c t i v e , i n t e l l i g e n t g i r l w i t h a winning, f r i e n d l y per-s o n a l i t y . The f a t h e r was described by the mother as being a gay person who l i k e d dancing and s p o r t s . The couple were at one time engaged but the mother broke the engagement. The mother came to the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y about two months before the b i r t h of the c h i l d t o o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e i n p l a c i n g the expected c h i l d f o r adoption. F o l -lowing a normal d e l i v e r y the mother s t i l l planned t o place the c h i l d f o r adoption. A l e t t e r from the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r upset her p l a n and she then was unable to come to any d e c i -s i o n . Before l e a v i n g the h o s p i t a l she became s e r i o u s l y i l l and an op e r a t i o n was r e q u i r e d . Rather than have her f a m i l y come t o Vancouver she decided to r e t u r n t o her home f o r the oper a t i o n . The mother signed a form s t a t i n g she r e a l i z e d the c h i l d would probably be apprehended and made a ward of the Agency. She wanted more time to come t o a d e c i s i o n about the c h i l d and promised to w r i t e the Agency very s h o r t l y . The c h i l d was apprehended and placed i n a f o s t e r - 47 -home of the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Branch. The C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n workers placed the c h i l d because they had a pr o s p e c t i v e adoptive home f o r him. Two months l a t e r i t was necessary f o r the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y worker to remove the c h i l d from t h a t home as the S o c i a l Welfare Branch concerned "needed" the home f o r another c h i l d . The boy was then placed i n a su b s i d i z e d boarding home of the Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . When the Agency d i d not hear from the mother or re c e i v e a r e p l y to the l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o her i n A p r i l , i t was necessary to w r i t e an agency i n the mother's c i t y t o have them contact her. The l e t t e r was w r i t t e n i n August when the baby was f i v e months o l d . A l e t t e r was a l s o w r i t t e n to the mother at tha t time. The mother had asked th a t the agency not be contacted but i n view of the f i v e month p e r i o d t h a t had elapsed s i n c e the b i r t h of the c h i l d the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y had no a l t e r n a t i v e . That agency contacted the mother and i t was learned t h a t the mother d i d not r e c e i v e the l e t t e r from the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y worker or n o t i f i c a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s apprehension as the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r , who was a p o s t a l c l e r k t h e r e , had i n t e r -cepted her m a i l . The mother was very confused as to a pl a n f o r her c h i l d . The p u t a t i v e f a t h e r s t i l l wished t o marry her but she was s t i l l u n w i l l i n g to do t h i s . She was a l s o consider-i n g t e l l i n g her f a m i l y about the c h i l d i n the hope that they - 48 -would take him. The agency c o n t a c t i n g the mother requested I n f o r -mation on the adoptive home planned f o r the c h i l d and t h i s was forwarded by the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n September. With t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n the agency was able t o help the mother come to a d e c i s i o n to have her c h i l d adopted. Mean-w h i l e , the adoptive parents were most anxious to have t h i s c h i l d and the mother's i n d e c i s i o n was u p s e t t i n g t o them. The c h i l d has, s i n c e October 31, 1954, been placed f o r adoption. I n t h i s case a c h i l d remained i n the s u b s i d i z e d  boarding home much longer than was b e n e f i c i a l t o him. He d i d very w e l l i n the baby home but nevertheless a perma-nent p l a n was necessary f o r the c h i l d and keeping him i n the baby home was not i n h i s best i n t e r e s t . This case p o i n t s out s e v e r a l other areas where the paramount needs of the c h i l d were not the f i r s t c o n sidera-t i o n . One example i s tha t of l a c k of co-operation between agencies. This r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y to the removal of the c h i l d from the f o s t e r home of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch because t h a t Agency "needed" the home f o r another baby. Could not that Agency have found another home f o r the other c h i l d as t h i s one was doing w e l l i n the home. The needs of the c h i l d already i n the home were not considered i n such a move. - 49 -The l a c k of d e c i s i v e n e s s i n c o n t a c t i n g the other agency when the mother d i d not respond to l e t t e r s w r i t t e n to her caused f u r t h e r delay i n planning f o r the c h i l d . This p e r i o d was no doubt a d i f f i c u l t one f o r the mother and help from the agency might have r e l i e v e d her worries and f e e l i n g s . As i t was, both she and the c h i l d were l e f t w i t h no d e f i n i t e p l a n . Undoubtedly the mother's d e c i s i o n was a d i f f i c u l t one, complicated by her i l l n e s s , the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r ' s r e f u s a l to have the c h i l d but a t the same time wishing t o marry her, and a l s o the g u i l t the. mother e x p e r i -enced about t h i s out-of-wedlock c h i l d . Had the Agency f o l -lowed through w i t h the r e f e r r a l t o the out-of-town agency sooner than i t d i d , the mother would have had support and encouragement i n making her d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n as to a pl a n f o r the f u t u r e of her c h i l d . The second I n f a n t i s case Number 14. the c h i l d of  a teen age unmarried mother. Her mental c a p a c i t y f a l l s i n t o the low normal group (74-84) of general i n t e l l i g e n c e . The mother was s t e r i l i z e d a f t e r an e v a l u a t i o n of her mental c a p a c i t i e s . The mother requested an adoption placement but " t h i s p l a n i s c o n t r a - i n d i c a t e d by f a m i l y h i s t o r y of mental r e t a r d a t i o n and the c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . . . There i s a l s o a p o s s i b i l i t y of i n c e s t . For these reasons long term temporary f o s t e r home i s r e q u i r e d t o a f f o r d obser-v a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s development." - 50 -The mother and her f a m i l y have been known to the Agency f o r a number of years through n e g l e c t i n her home. Two of her s i s t e r s have had i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n , one of whom i s p r e s e n t l y a ward of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . The baby's h e a l t h i s a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n the d e c i s i o n not to place the c h i j d f o r immediate adoption. The c h i l d has a lung c o n d i t i o n , a heart c o n d i t i o n and a club f o o t . The lung c o n d i t i o n and c l u b f o o t are both responding to treatment but the prognosis f o r the heart con-d i t i o n i s poor. The c h i l d was h o s p i t a l i z e d twice during the f i r s t s i x months of her l i f e . The baby i s managing s a t i s -f a c t o r i l y i n the s u b s i d i z e d boarding home but another p l a c e -ment w i l l soon have to be made as these homes are geared f o r younger babies. Adoption i s not being considered at t h i s time and i t seems t h a t there were d i f f i c u l t i e s i n making a "long term temporary" arrangement. The t h i r d case to be considered i s Number Evelyn, a H year o l d g i r l , the f o u r t h of f i v e c h i l d r e n . Evelyn was almost s i x years o l d when she came i n t o care w i t h two older s i s t e r s , 11 and 13 years o l d , and a 10 year o l d b r o t h e r . The c h i l d r e n were committed to the care of the Agency f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: The "mother i s unstable mentally and f a t h e r takes no i n t e r e s t i n c h i l d r e n and allows and encourages them to beg. The c h i l d r e n have been l i v i n g - 51 -under a p p a l l i n g c o n d i t i o n s and s t a y i n g out l a t e at n i g h t . " The f a m i l y was o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d t o the Agency by the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e who had re c e i v e d many complaints of p a r e n t a l n e g l e c t of the c h i l d r e n . The f a m i l y had f r e -quently been i n r e c e i p t of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e as a r e s u l t of a s e r i e s of accidents encountered by the f a t h e r . During t h i s p e r i o d the c h i l d r e n had been i n and out of h o s p i t a l . The h o s p i t a l a u t h o r i t i e s thought the c h i l d r e n ' s i l l n e s s e s were l a r g e l y due t o the improper care the parents were pro-v i d i n g . The c h i l d r e n were very pale and undernourished. The f a m i l y was l i v i n g over a st o r e i n one of the old e r s e c t i o n s of the C i t y . The f u r n i t u r e was i n very poor c o n d i t i o n and the pl a c e was run-down and g e n e r a l l y d i r t y . T o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s d i d not pass as adequate by a s a n i t a r y i n s p e c t o r . The mother was 38 when the f a m i l y was f i r s t known to the Agency i n 1944. She was e x c i t a b l e and had l i t t l e or no c o n t r o l over the c h i l d r e n . She attempted t o d i s c i p l i n e them by shouting. She i s "exceedingly d u l l (mentally and q u i t e unable) t o care f o r the c h i l d r e n without considerable s u p e r v i s i o n . " She had " l i t t l e understanding of her c h i l -dren." She d i d , however, give the c h i l d r e n the best care she p o s s i b l e could i n view of her l i m i t e d c a p a c i t i e s . This l e f t "much to be d e s i r e d . " The mother attended school u n t i l the age of 12 years at which time she had reached the t h i r d grade. She r e c a l l e d t h a t she d i d not l i k e s c h o o l . A f t e r l e a v i n g school she d i d housework—laundry and scrubbing f l o o r s . She attempted "waitress work, but had to give i t up because she could not remember more than one order at a time." When seen by a p s y c h i a t r i s t i n 1 9 4 5 he was q u i t e amazed at her "ignorance." She was q u i t e "unaware of the most or d i n a r y happenings." P s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s placed her i n the moron group of general i n t e l l i g e n c e . The f a t h e r was 60 years of age i n 1944. He had been married p r e v i o u s l y but h i s f i r s t w i f e d i e d i n c h i l d -b i r t h . As a boy he refused to attend s c h o o l , and thus had l i t t l e education. He took l i t t l e p a r t i n d i s c i p l i n i n g the c h i l d r e n . While r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e he was seldom i n the home as "the n o i s e of the c h i l d r e n " got "on h i s nerves." He gen-e r a l l y wandered the s t r e e t , o c c a s i o n a l l y begging. He had i n j u r e d h i s arm i n a f a l l and because he refused a minor o p e r a t i o n to " r e s t o r e I t s usefulness" had "almost l o s t the use of i t e n t i r e l y . " The f a t h e r was described as being "somewhat of a braggart." The e l d e s t daughter was described as having "a withdrawing p e r s o n a l i t y and an i n f e r i o r i t y complex." She was a shy and nervous g i r l . Her school adjustment was very poor and she wished to q u i t s c h o o l . She was i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s revealed her to be of very low i n t e l l i g e n c e and unable to d e r i v e any f u r t h e r b e n e f i t - 53 -from attending s c h o o l . She q u i t school immediately and remained at home. A f t e r coming i n t o care she was commit-ted to the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l because of her low i n t e l l i g e n c e . The second daughter i s described as being the " b r i g h t e s t one i n the f a m i l y . " She was a "smart a l e c type of g i r l and q u i t e a chatterbox." The record adds th a t she was c o n t i n u a l l y v i e i n g f o r a t t e n t i o n and g e n e r a l l y q u i t e n o i s y . She had been questioned by the p o l i c e when found "accepting money from strange men on the s t r e e t . " A r e f e r r a l to Family Court followed t h i s . The only i n f o r m a t i o n given on the son at the time he came i n t o care was tha t he had been attending s p e c i a l c l a s s e s where h i s progress was poor. There i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n regard t o Evelyn other than the f a c t she was attending a Day Nursery. The record s t a t e d t h a t she had r e c e n t l y been taken to the docks by a man who as s a u l t e d her. The parents d i d not n o t i f y the p o l i c e but i n s t e a d wandered the s t r e e t s w i t h Evelyn i n an unsuccessful attempt to l o c a t e t h i s man. The worker handling the case thought there was l i t t l e i n t h i s f a m i l y t o b u i l d upon and the only answer was to remove the c h i l d r e n from the home. In so doing he considered the mother's fondness f o r the c h i l d r e n but decided t h a t i t d i d not overweigh the damaging f a c t o r s i n the home. There i s l i t t l e recorded to i n d i c a t e t h a t there - 54 -was any great attempt to provide case work s e r v i c e s to the f a m i l y . I t appears t h a t the home c o n d i t i o n s were de p l o r a b l e but there i s nothing too s p e c i f i c i n the reco r d i n g to sub-s t a n t i a t e t h i s . The worker spent a good dea l of time gather-i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from neighbours i n order t h a t they might have s u f f i c i e n t evidence f o r committal of these c h i l d r e n t o the care of the Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . The f o l l o w i n g appeared on the court order request-i n g committal of the c h i l d r e n . "Case was r e f e r r e d to the Chil d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y on the 18th J u l y , 1944 by the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department i n view of the many complaints of n e g l e c t . A l l resources were t r i e d , i n an endeavour t o r a i s e the standards of the f a m i l y , w i t h l i t t l e success. The f a c t t h a t mother i s c e r t i f i a b l e and the antagonism of f a t h e r were mainly r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s . N e ither parent has any i d e a of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The c h i l d r e n are allowed to beg on the s t r e e t s , w i t h the knowledge of the parents. The d i e t of the c h i l d r e n i s not good and they stay up u n t i l twelve and one a.m. Hence they are i n and out of h o s p i t a l f r e q u e n t l y . Apprehension and commitment to the Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y appears to be the only s o l u t i o n . (Evelyn) has been a s s a u l t e d and the e l d e s t questioned by M o r a l i t y Squad f o r s u s p i c i o u s behaviour." The Court committed the c h i l d r e n t o the care of the Child r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y at which time the parents were g r e a t l y upset. They l e f t the Court w i t h the c h i l d r e n arid a couple - 55 -of days elapsed before the S o c i e t y was able to take the c h i l d r e n out of the custody of the parents. When the par-ents were l o c a t e d the mother was asked to b r i n g the c h i l d r e n i n t o the o f f i c e at which time they were "removed" from her. Apparently she had not understood t h a t the c h i l d r e n would be taken from her and q u i t e a scene f o l l o w e d . S h o r t l y a f t e r the f a t h e r came to the o f f i c e and was most b e l l i g e r e n t about the S o c i e t y t a k i n g the c h i l d r e n i n s p i t e of h i s know-ledge t h a t the Court had ordered t h i s t o be done. The parents made every e f f o r t to have the c h i l d r e n returned and f o r a p e r i o d of three years had s e v e r a l Court hearings i n an attempt t o have them back. Since the a c t u a l reasons f o r removing the c h i l d r e n were not improved, p a r t i c u -l a r l y the mother's m e n t a l i t y , (which could not improve), the orders were ref u s e d . The parents were, however, granted the p r i v i l e g e of having the second daughter v i s i t i n t h e i r home and were a l s o allowed t o see the c h i l d r e n i n the o f f i c e . V i s i t s were g e n e r a l l y arranged twice y e a r l y . During these v i s i t s the c h i l d r e n were o f t e n upset because of the parents promise t o take them home, a promise they were unable t o f u l f i l l . Another c h i l d was born to these parents i n 1948. In view of the e f f e c t of the l o s s of the other f o u r c h i l -dren the S o c i e t y decided not t o take any a c t i o n t o remove the c h i l d unless c o n d i t i o n s r e a l l y became d e p l o r a b l e . One c h i l d was not the s t r a i n on the mother t h a t four had been. - 56 -She was a l s o able to give her c h i l d r e n a foundation of l o v e . Neglect complaints have been r e c e i v e d about t h i s c h i l d but the s i t u a t i o n i s being supervised by the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and thought to be te m p o r a r i l y under c o n t r o l . When Bvely came i n t o care a t 5 years and 9 months her general h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n was described as poor; I t was a l s o recommended th a t she have a chest X-ray. She was described as a "blonde c h i l d , (with) s t r a i g h t h a i r , l a r g e eyes.* She was a very " t a l k a t i v e , loud and a f f e c t i o n a t e " c h i l d . She was a l s o " i n c l i n e d to be d i s -obedient." She appeared to f o r g e t about her mother very q u i c k l y and st a t e d she d i d not care where she went. 1 s t Placement. 2 6 - 7 - 4 5 to 4 - 8 - 4 5 (Temporary) The c h i l d was placed i n a home w i t h s e v e r a l other f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . She wet the bed on the f i r s t n i g h t of her placement but no f u r t h e r mention was made of t h i s . The f o s t e r mother d i d complain about her " t e r r i b l e language" and reported t h a t she had washed the c h i l d ' s mouth w i t h soap s e v e r a l times f o r t h i s . The f o s t e r mother found her l i k e a b l e but wanted her moved as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e so the boys i n the home would not "p i c k up her language." She chattered c o n t i n u a l l y and sometimes t o l d " t a l l t a l e s u s u a l l y ending up w i t h the t o p i c of men." She was quoted by the f o s t e r mother as having s a i d that her mother would not leave her alone w i t h her f a t h e r because he "played d i r t y w i t h her, l i k e men do i n the s t r e e t . " - 57 -Although she was s t i l l pale and t h i n her general appearance was improved by new c l o t h e s and a t t e n t i o n to her h a i r . 2nd Placement. 4-28-45 to 5-9-45 There was no mention i n the f i l e of any p r e p a r a t i o n of the c h i l d or the f o s t e r parents f o r t h i s placement. I t was, however, Intended as a r e l a t i v e l y temporary one. She was placed by her second worker since coming i n t o c a r e , w i t h her two s i s t e r s i n the Country R e c e i v i n g Home. W i t h i n the f i r s t week a telephone c a l l was re c e i v e d from the f o s t e r mother asking that the c h i l d r e n be replaced w i t h i n t en days as she was planning to go on a h o l i d a y . The worker v i s i t e d very s h o r t l y and recorded t h a t the f o s t e r mother "has never had c h i l d r e n of t h i s type before and i t i s f e l t t h a t because she cannot take them out w i t h her and have a p r i d e i n them, she cannot work w i t h them." The f o s t e r mother described the c h i l d r e n as being j u s t l i k e "animals." On the date of the removal of the c h i l d r e n from t h i s home the worker recorded—"because . . . the parents knew the whereabouts of the c h i l d r e n . . • i t was necessary t o move them." The c h i l d r e n had been t o l d p r e v i o u s l y t h a t i t was only a temporary placement. The e l d e s t g i r l was at t h i s time committed t o the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l because of her extremely low mental a b i l i t y . 3rd Placement. 5-9-45 to 28-2-47 Before placement of the two younger s i s t e r s i n - 58 -t h i s home the worker discussed the c h i l d r e n and f a m i l y s i t u -a t i o n w i t h the f o s t e r parents. D e f i n i t e arrangements were made i n regard to v i s i t s and correspondence of the n a t u r a l parents. Due to the moves the c h i l d had had she was not r e g i s t e r e d f o r Grade 1. When the c h i l d was taken to the school by the f o s t e r mother she was informed that i t would not be p o s s i b l e to have her s t a r t t h a t year. The worker recorded t h i s seemed l i k e a good p l a n i n view of the upsets she had experienced. The f o s t e r parents soon reported to the t h i r d worker t h a t Evelyn had many embarrassing (to the f o s t e r parents) t w i t c h i n g h a b i t s . The f o s t e r mother was advised to ignore them but they d i d not disappear immediately which upset the f o s t e r mother somewhat. The c h i l d a l s o p e r s p i r e d a great d e a l at n i g h t . The f o s t e r parents became very fond of t h i s c h i l d and she seemed most contented i n t h e i r home. She was not v i s i b l y upset by a v i s i t w i t h her parents at Christmas time. In A p r i l of 194-6, e i g h t months a f t e r placement, the t w i t c h i n g h a b i t s had almost disappeared and her h e a l t h was much improved. She seemed e x c e p t i o n a l l y happy i n the f o s t e r home and reported to the worker that she d i d not wish to r e t u r n to her own parents and home. The f o s t e r parents had taught her to p r i n t and she i n t u r n l i k e d to help the f o s t e r mother or "shadow" the f o s t e r f a t h e r . She - 59 -was very attached to him and he to her. She was reported to he eating and s l e e p i n g w e l l . However, her s i s t e r resented her. The s i s t e r was not as w e l l l i k e d by the f o s t e r parents and they asked that she be moved. They wished t o keep Evelyn, bat not her s i s t e r because she was not so a f f e c t i o n a t e . This s i s t e r was 12 years o l d at the time. The f o u r t h worker recorded t h a t Evelyn was extremely fond of the f o s t e r mother and during one v i s i t s at on the f o s t e r mother's knee throughout the e n t i r e v i s i t . She was about s i x and-one h a l f years a t t h a t time. In June of 194-6 she was seen at the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c and was found to t e s t i n the average group of gen-e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . They reported f u r t h e r that she "lacked s e l f - r e l i a n c e but has a good sense of f e e l i n g of belonging." Towards the end of t h a t month she v i s i t e d her par-ents. The f o s t e r parents were q u i t e upset by t h i s v i s i t c l a i m i n g that the c h i l d was always g r e a t l y upset when she v i s i t e d her parents. They added t h a t n a t u r a l parents had no r i g h t t o see t h e i r c h i l d r e n i f they could not look a f t e r them. The worker recorded that the f o s t e r parents d i d not l i k e to t h i n k she belonged to someone e l s e . S h o r t l y a f t e r her s i s t e r was moved from t h i s home. The f i l e s t a t e s t h a t Evelyn d i d not miss her s i s t e r or even ask about her. F o l l o w i n g t h i s there i s the f i r s t mention of - 60 -Evelyn being a nervous c h i l d . I f she i s " a n t i c i p a t i n g something—such as a p i c n i c — s h e gets so e x c i t e d she can-not slee p . " I t appears th a t she got e x c i t e d very e a s i l y . I n October the f o s t e r parents s a i d she was e r r a t i c and e x c i t a b l e and thought that she needed another c h i l d i n the home w i t h whom she could p l a y . Consequently a very "backward", " s p a s t i c boy" of s i x was placed i n the home i n November. I n December of that year the worker recorded that there had been no p a r t i c u l a r improvement. I n January of 1947, two months a f t e r the boy was pla c e d , the f i f t h worker r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from the f o s t e r mother asking t h a t Evelyn be removed. The f o s t e r mother was becoming impatient w i t h her because she would not get ready f o r school i n the morning nor would she eat her lunch when she took i t to school w i t h her. • They were f i n d i n g her ge n e r a l l y "hard on t h e i r nerves" and they no longer had the necessary patience w i t h her. They were " c o n t i n u a l l y com-parin g her w i t h the d u l l and q u i e t s i x year o l d boy and f i n d i n g nothing but f a u l t w i t h her." A C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c e v a l u a t i o n i n February recommended t h a t she be replaced i n a home w i t h no other c h i l d r e n so she would not have to compete f o r a t t e n t i o n and a f f e c t i o n . They found her to be g e n e r a l l y more " s e t t l e d , e x h i b i t i n g l e s s grimaces" than p r e v i o u s l y . They suggested th a t t h i s might be "due to the d i s c i p l i n e she r e c e i v e d a t scho o l . " - 61 -4th Placement. 28-2-47 to 20-5-48 The c h i l d d i d not appear to be o v e r l y upset when she l e f t the l a s t f o s t e r home and moved to t h i s one. She " q u i t e gayly t o l d worker she had not been a good g i r l and th e r e f o r e could not stay t h e r e , but she planned to be one from now on." These f o s t e r parents were given an account of t h i s c h i l d * s background and the n e c e s s i t y of a s t a b l e and con-t i n u i n g f o s t e r home. The worker recorded these comments on the f o s t e r parents: "Foster parents both had r a t h e r miser-able l i v e s being brought up by unkind people and one hopes they w i l l not i d e n t i f y w i t h (Evelyn) too much. They are very b i t t e r about t h e i r past and are more than anxious to make i t up to ( E v e l y n ) . " Four months l a t e r the worker recorded t h a t Evelyn had "improved i n every way." She was " q u i e t e r , more obedi-ent and has l o s t many of her s t u p i d inahnerisms." The f o s -t e r parents handled the d i s c i p l i n i n g of the youngster j o i n t l y . The "Foster parents always emphasize to (Evelyn) that they want t h e i r l i t t l e g i r l to be a l a d y . " At t h i s p o i n t the worker s t r e s s e d t h a t she was, a f t e r a l l , a c h i l d . The f o s t e r parents were quick to s t a t e that they recognized t h i s and d i d not wish her to l o s e her c h i l d i s h ways. The worker f u r t h e r recorded "They are very f i r m , but have given (Evelyn) a good f e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y and love which she has not had before." However, the worker added, the f o s t e r par-ents were possessive of her i n that they resented her - 62 -n a t u r a l parents v i s i t i n g as i t " w i l l upset t h e i r t r a i n i n g . " The worker then recorded t h a t the f o s t e r mother was " f r i e n d l y , out going, v i v a c i o u s " and " e n t h u s i a s t i c about. . . (the) progress." Evelyn had passed to Grade 2. The f o s t e r mother showed the worker two p i c t u r e s of Ev e l y n , one taken the day she a r r i v e d and a recent photograph. The worker noted that there was q u i t e a c o n t r a s t . I n September of 194-7 the s i x t h worker recorded that the c h i l d seemed w e l l s e t t l e d . She added t h a t the f o s t e r mother seemed t e r r i b l y anxious to please. S h o r t l y a f t e r there was a change of workers. The seventh worker recorded that the f o s t e r mother was an "odd person" but "seems s i n c e r e . " The f o s t e r mother reported she needed t o give the c h i l d s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e but that w i t h t h i s the c h i l d ' s h a b i t s were improving and she was no longer as nerv-ous as p r e v i o u s l y . In A p r i l of 1948 a g i r l was placed i n t h i s home from the G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l School. During the f o l l o w i n g month there were many upsets i n c l u d i n g the new g i r l run-ning away. I n May the f o s t e r mother asked the worker t o move Evelyn. The f o s t e r mother s t a t e d she found, w i t h the other g i r l t h e r e , t h a t she had never had any r e a l love from Evelyn and tha t she got more "love from the o l d e r g i r l i n a month than she had from (Evelyn) I n a year." Further "(Evelyn) d i d not f i l l the empty space i n her heart." She wanted her moved immediately because of her - 63 -( f o s t e r mother) h e a l t h . 5th Placement. 20-5-48 to 10-6-48 During the next placement the c h i l d r e v ealed t h a t the f o s t e r parents had t o l d her tha t she was a "bad g i r l " and would e v e n t u a l l y be sent to the "bad g i r l s 1 s c h o o l . " The c h i l d was t e r r i f i e d and experienced nightmares during t h i s placement. The former f o s t e r parents had a l s o t o l d her t h a t her "mother was crazy" and " d i d not love her c h i l -dren." As t h i s home was overcrowded and Evelyn and the f o s t e r parents adopted daughter fought c o n t i n u a l l y , Evelyn was again moved. 6th Placement. 10-6-48 to 7-7-48 This f o s t e r mother was an experienced f o s t e r par-ent. She i s described as warm and motherly. She was given d e t a i l s about the c h i l d before placement. There were two other C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y c h i l d r e n i n the home, one younger and one o l d e r . At f i r s t the c h i l d seemed to do w e l l i n the home and appeared to become attached to the f o s t e r mother. Evelyn argued a great d e a l . The f o s t e r mother decided she could not keep her "because of the other c h i l d r e n i n the home." She described Evelyn as being "quarrelsome, d i s -obedient, cheeky and extremely h i g h strung." She thought i t was not f a i r to the other c h i l d r e n to keep Evelyn. How-ever, the f o s t e r mother suggested t h a t Evelyn be placed - 6 4 -with a friend of hers who knew the chi ld and was interested im taking her. This was arranged. 7th Placement. 7-7-48 to 19 -8 -49 The foster parents were well prepared about the chi ld and before placement the chi ld had three v i s i t s with the foster parents. The worker emphasised to the foster parents this ch i ld ' s great need for permanence. The f i l e gives a good picture of the home, the yard and the neigh-bourhood. The foster parents had three older sons and a two year old ward of the Children's Aid Society. The worker expressed surprise at the fast adjust-ment the chi ld made to this home. The chi ld was getting over her nervousness and was no longer hysterical and inco-herent as formerly. She also played well with the other children, part icularly the foster parent's middle son. She o was given more freedom than i n the fourth foster home i n that she was allowed to play with other children i n the neighbourhood. In the fourth foster home she was not allowed to play out of the yard • The chi ld "thrived" i n her new home. In November of 1948 Evelyn began wearing glasses to correct her astigmatism. Evelyn, then nine years o ld , told her worker she intended to stay in this home unt i l she grew up. She behaved better i n school, was more able to concentrate and consequently received better grades. The change i n foster homes had been accompanied by changes in schools. - 76 -very near the end of the term, Evelyn formed a good r e l a -t i o n s h i p w i t h these f o s t e r parents and was upset when her own mother requested a v i s i t w i t h her on Mother's Day. Evelyn was not f o r c e d t o make t h i s v i s i t which g r e a t l y r e l i e v e d her. About June, Evelyn began making plans f o r summer camp. At t h i s time she was not g e t t i n g along w i t h the daughter of the f o s t e r parents. They simply d i d not speak to each other. Before Evelyn l e f t f o r camp the s i t u a t i o n i n the f o s t e r home was becoming r a t h e r i n t o l e r a b l e . Evelyn would not speak to the f o s t e r parent's daughter and she i n t u r n was spending most of her time away from home. The f o s t e r parents were very t o l e r a n t of both g i r l s but recog-n i z e d that t h i s s i t u a t i o n could not continue. They d i d not take s i d e s w i t h t h e i r daughter aga i n s t Evelyn but i n s i s t e d t hat both g i r l s had to be reasonable and come t o a more s a t i s f a c t o r y understanding of each other. F o l l o w i n g the camping p e r i o d i n J u l y i t appears t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two g i r l s had not improved and i t was again necessary f o r Evelyn to be moved from a f o s t e r home. The te n s i o n the g i r l s created i n the home was so great i t was thought best f o r both g i r l s to move Evelyn. Evelyn under-stood the reasons f o r t h i s move and d i d not make much o b j e c t i o n to i t . As the worker s a i d ; "By now her a t t i t u d e was understandably " I don't care what happens."" Her only request was that she remain i n the same school area. - 65 -I n December Evelyn looked forward to a v i s i t w i t h her parents. F o l l o w i n g t h i s v i s i t she complained that her mother "looked funny" and added that she was glad she d i d not have to l i v e w i t h her. She t o l d her f o s t e r parents that her mother d i d not l i k e her c a l l i n g them "mother" and " f a t h e r " but the c h i l d continued to do so. These f o s t e r parents were not upset by the v i s i t s of the n a t u r a l parents. The c h i l d kept requesting a v i s i t w i t h her f o u r t h f o s t e r parents, the ones th a t t o l d her she was a "bad g i r l " and t h a t her "mother d i d not love her c h i l d r e n . " The f o s t e r mother refused to see the c h i l d and explained t h a t i t would be too u p s e t t i n g . I n February of 194-9 a teen age g i r l was placed i n t h i s home by the Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . Evelyn and t h i s g i r l shared a bedroom and d i d not get along at a l l w e l l . A month l a t e r Evelyn was caught s t e a l i n g comic books from a nearby grocery s t o r e . The f o s t e r mother was upset by t h i s . The worker explained the e f f e c t of another move on t h i s c h i l d and suggested that the o l d e r g i r l be moved i n s t e a d as she had s t a t e d she was not happy i n t h i s home. At t h i s time the worker had p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a -t i o n on Evelyn. The content of the p s y c h i a t r i c e v a l u a t i o n f o l l o w s : . . . (Evelyn) presents a p i c t u r e of over-anxiety and general s o c i a l maladjustment. Present p i c t u r e — . . . over a c t i v e , c o n t i n u a l l y t a l k i n g , exuberant, n o i s y , aggressive, e t c . — i s - 66 -a p i c t u r e of an over-anxious c h i l d who cannot bear her own t e n s i o n and a n x i e t y and r e a c t s through o v e r - a c t i v i t y . . . . (Thought) that she i s s t i l l i n the p r e - o e d i p a l phase as her aggressiveness i s towards everyone. She has not yet obtained empathy w i t h people. . . • S t e a l i n g and l y i n g — . . . e a r l i e r s a t i s f a c t i o n s were connected w i t h t h i s . . . . ( S t e a l i n g gives) immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n and. . . (she) would not give i t up u n t i l she no longer needed i t . . . . (She) cannot t r u s t promises or anyone. This was very evident when (Evelyn) s t o l e the "yo-yo" only the day before her f o s t e r mother promised to buy her one. . . . P a t t e r n s a great d e a l of her behaviour a f t e r that of her mother. For i n s t a n c e , her grimaces, s u s p i c i o u s n e s s , her evasiveness and u n t r u t h f u l n e s s , her l y i n g and her over-i n t e r e s t i n housework. . . . Although (she) has mixed f e e l i n g s to her mother, she s t i l l c l i n g s to the only person who ever loved her f o r any p e r i o d of time. I n t e r e s t i n s e x — . . . H i s t o r y of probable i n c e s t , a l s o the one time when (she) was a s s a u l t e d , could be q u i t e s t i m u l a t i n g and would very l i k e l y p l a y a p a r t i n her general r e s t l e s s n e s s . Reason f o r l i k i n g s t r i c t home. . . where i t was discovered a f t e r she moved that she had been badly t r e a t e d . . . . (She) knew she had been removed from her own home because t h i s was not a good home. The c h i l d r e n were allowed to do e n t i r e l y as they wished and s i n c e (Evelyn) knew that t h i s was not good, a home such as the f o u r t h , where the standards were very r i g i d and very s t r i c t care was g i v e n , would be such a c o n t r a s t to her own home that she would n a t u r a l l y f e e l t h a t t h i s was a good one. A l s o the very f i r m care represents a good dea l of s e c u r i t y to a c h i l d such as (Evelyn) who has had many moves• S t e a l i n g — . . . L i k e l y the t r o u b l e between (the 4 two g i r l s ) . . . . (The other g i r l i s o l d e r and l a r g e r so Evelyn) could not f i g h t d i r e c t l y w i t h her and has to swallow her anger. She cannot take things from (the g i r l ) so she takes t h i n g s from others which i s a simple displacement of her anger. - 67 -The following suggestions were given for a treat-ment plan: 1. Medical examination including neurological examination. 2. Therapy—an explanation and interpretation as to why she l e f t her home. 3. Work with her school—arrange group activity. 4. Continued contact with her mother. 5. Office interviews for the child to express herself to her worker. Prognoses— . . . f a i r l y good providing treatment is given at this time. . . • She Is a primary behaviour problem showing some neurotic traits . . . not developed enough to say that she has a neurosis but i t i s f e l t she i s on the way. The above evaluation was explained to the foster mother who expressed great interest and a willingness to co-operate in working with the child. The foster mother also decided to keep Evelyn in the home. The worker saw the child i n the office regularly and she was allowed to express her feelings about the older g i r l . Evelyn did not need encouragment in this and very quickly "exploded" her anger towards the g i r l . The worker also told Evelyn why she had been removed from her own home — t h a t her mother loved her but just was not good at looking after children, as some people are not good at other things. The child wanted this repeated to her weekly during the next four months before she f i n a l l y began to understand i t and was able to drop the subject herself. During this period the child had an enjoyable v i s i t with her mother. In August, at the end of these interview sessions, the foster mother discovered that Evelyn had been "tampered with" for the past six months by a man on a nearby farm - 68 -from whom the c h i l d had been buying eggs f o r the f o s t e r mother. The worker checked w i t h the p o l i c e and found t h a t there had been s e v e r a l r e p o r t s of t h i s nature about the man. At the end of August the f o s t e r mother requested t h a t Evelyn be moved. She was alarmed about the c l o s e r e l a -t i o n s h i p Evelyn had w i t h one of her sons and ,in view of Evelyn's recent experience, feared sex-play between the c h i l d r e n . The son refused to p l a y w i t h anyone e l s e . The worker explained f u l l y what a move would mean to the c h i l d a t t h i s time but the f o s t e r mother i n s i s t e d that she be moved because of the f r i e n d s h i p between Evelyn and her son. The f o s t e r mother suggested a f r i e n d whom she thought would be a good f o s t e r mother and i n t e r e s t e d i n tak i n g Evelyn. 8th Placement. 29-8-49 to 8-9-49 Evelyn spent 10 days at camp before going to her new f o s t e r home. 9th Placement. 8-9-49 to 22-9-50 Previous t o placement i n t h i s home Evelyn had three v i s i t s w i t h her new f o s t e r parents. These parents were given a f u l l p i c t u r e of the g i r l and again the need f o r perm-anence was s t r e s s e d . When Evelyn moved t o t h i s home she i n s i s t e d t h a t she be c a l l e d Margaret. She has kept the l a t t e r name sin c e t h a t time. No reason was given f o r the change of names by the new worker, the e i g h t h . - 69 -She continued to do w e l l a t sc h o o l . This move d i d not mean a change of sehools f o r her. She a l s o got along w e l l w i t h the s e v e r a l other c h i l d r e n i n t h i s home. She began t a k i n g piano lessons and showed a b i l i t y . She had a s u c c e s s f u l v i s i t i n the o f f i c e w i t h her mother the C h r i s t -mas of 1949 and again i n A p r i l of 1950. I n J u l y of 1950, when Evelyn was almost 11, a 13 year o l d g i r l was placed i n t h i s home. She proved t o be an up s e t t i n g f a c t o r and had q u i t e a b i t of i n f l u e n c e upon Evelyn. Evelyn spent J u l y 19th t o J u l y 27th at camp. The worker reported t h a t Evelyn got along very w e l l i n t h i s home. She was not as e x c i t a b l e as p r e v i o u s l y . "She d i d not speak I n such a high-pitched v o i c e . " She began t o take more i n t e r e s t i n her own person and i n her belongings. I n September of 1950 the f o s t e r mother had a s e r i -ous operation and a l l of the c h i l d r e n i n the home had t o be moved• 10th Placement. 29-9-50 to 11-5-51 Evelyn and her room-mate were moved to another home i n the same d i s t r i c t when the former f o s t e r mother went to a h o s p i t a l f o r an o p e r a t i o n . I t was hoped a t the time t h a t they would be r e t u r n i n g to t h i s l a s t f o s t e r home when the f o s t e r mother recovered. Her h e a l t h d i d not improve s u f f i c i e n t l y , consequently t h i s temporary placement became r a t h e r lengthy. Since i t was i n the same d i s t r i c t i t d i d not n e c e s s i t a t e a change i n sc h o o l s . - 7 0 -The home was, however, very overcrowded and the s i t u a t i o n was g e n e r a l l y q u i t e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . The f o s t e r mother i s described as a warm and k i n d l y person. Evelyn became extremely quarrelsome and argumentative w i t h the other c h i l d r e n i n the home. She had an enormous a p p e t i t e and b o l t e d her food. The f o s t e r mother reported t h a t she was unable t o show any a f f e c t i o n or take any i n t e r e s t i n other people. Evelyn f e l t t hat everyone "picked" on her and according to the f o s t e r mother wanted everyone to f e e l s o r r y f o r her. She was s t i l l a very anxious c h i l d and per-s p i r e d very e a s i l y . I n February of 1951 a Sunday School teacher became i n t e r e s t e d i n her and wanted,to take her i n t o her own home. She had a t h i r t e e n year o l d g i r l l i v i n g w i t h her a t the time and Evelyn decided, a f t e r a weekend v i s i t , t hat t h i s home was not f o r her. The worker recorded at t h i s time t h a t Evelyn " l a c k s confidence and seems in s e c u r e . " In A p r i l of 1951 the worker decided that a country f o s t e r home might be the best placement but i n l i e u of a good country f o s t e r home the Alma R e c e i v i n g Home would be the best a l t e r n a t i v e . The f o s t e r home she was i n was not working at a l l w e l l . I t was decided t h a t "a p e r i o d of observation at the R e c e i v i n g Home" would be the best move. Consequently Evelyn v i s i t e d the R e c e i v i n g Home. She was q u i t e e n t h u s i a s t i c about i t and anxious to move there immedi-a t e l y . - 71 11th Placement. 11-5-51 to 11-11-52 The move to the Rec e i v i n g Home e n t a i l e d a change of schools near the beginning of May. The home s t a f f soon found her to be a nervous and anxious g i r l w i t h deep f e e l -ings of i n f e r i o r i t y . She t a l k e d c o n s t a n t l y and quarreled c o n t i n u a l l y w i t h the other g i r l s . She was a constant wor-r i e r . She lacked s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and remarked t h a t "every-one e l s e was p r e t t i e r or n i c e r . " However, she began t a k i n g more i n t e r e s t i n her per-sonal appearance. During J u l y she v i s i t e d her mother twice and a l s o had outings w i t h her o l d e r s i s t e r , (the one tha t she " d i d not miss or ask about" when she was removed from a home that Evelyn was a l s o i n ) . Evelyn spent from August 6th to l6th at a Camp. During November Evelyn had a new worker, her n i n t h , who spent a great d e a l of time w i t h her i n an e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p and a l s o to help the g i r l w i t h her f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y and l a c k of s e l f -confidence. She confided t o her worker t h a t she d i d l i k e to see her mother but she was f r i g h t e n e d going there alone as i t meant a walk through "Chinatown." She added that her "mother i s funny" and t e l l s her tha t she and the f a t h e r w i l l "run away w i t h her" and not " l e t her go back to the Rece i v i n g Home." Evelyn r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s would be an impossible s i t u a t i o n . She s a i d she d i d not l i k e t o be alone w i t h her f a t h e r at any time. She p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed her v i s i t s home when her s i s t e r accompanied her. - 72 -Her s i s t e r was able to help her understand her parents. She added that her mother embarrassed her by d i s c u s s i n g the whole f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n w i t h strangers on buses. She s a i d of her mother that she was "a wonderful mother i f only she weren't so funny." The f r i e n d s h i p w i t h her s i s -t e r was strengthened and the s i s t e r had a very good i n f l u -ence upon Evelyn. The s i s t e r , Agnes, had adjusted w e l l i n a f o s t e r home, completed her hi g h school and was then t a k i n g a business course. At f i r s t E v e l yn showed a f e a r of new s i t u a t i o n s i n many ways. She would not venture home by way of any route but a f a m i l i a r one. W i t h i n a few months she began s k a t i n g and was c o n s i d e r i n g t a k i n g s i n g i n g lessons as she had a very "sweet" v o i c e . Her t a l k began to i n d i c a t e l e s s f e a r of adolescence and she spoke of completing her h i g h scho o l i n g and becoming a s e c r e t a r y (as her s i s t e r had done). She began t a k i n g an a c t i v e p a r t i n school a c t i v i t i e s as well as a c t i v i t i e s i n the Receiving Home. About t h i s time she rece i v e d more acceptance from the other g i r l s i n the Home. She showed "considerable s t r e n g t h i n overcoming (her poor) a t t i t u d e s " and h a b i t s i n t h a t she c o n t r o l l e d her swearing, cheekiness and began to develop more s e l f confidence. The worker helped her w i t h her f e a r s i n regard to sex and men. Evelyn was g e n e r a l l y f r i g h t e n e d of men and thought t h a t a l l men were bad. She v i s i t e d her parents o c c a s i o n a l l y but continued to express "almost - 73 -v i o l e n t f e e l i n g s of r e v u l s i o n towards her f a t h e r . " About A p r i l of 1952 her worker thought she was ready f o r a f o s t e r home and broached the subject to Evelyn. Evelyn "most emphatically s a i d she d i d not want to move u n t i l school was out." However, she d i d d i s c u s s the type of home she wanted. She asked f o r one where the parents would be i n t e r e s t e d i n her and accepting of her. She d i d not want one w i t h a number of c h i l d r e n already i n the home. In May of 1952 she had a change of workers, her t e n t h , and about the same time there was a change of s t a f f i n the R e c e i v i n g Home. She was g r e a t l y e x c i t e d about the change i n s t a f f and could h a r d l y c o n t a i n h e r s e l f from wondering what type of people they would be. The new s t a f f matron was "concerned about (Evelyn wanting a f o s t e r home) because w h i l e she f e e l s (Evelyn) can not r e a l l y b e n e f i t from some of her contacts i n the Receiving Home, a number of the g i r l s are very rough, s t i l l ( E v e l y n ) , of a l l the g i r l s i s the l e a s t prepared to s e t t l e down. She (House matron) was very concerned over (Evelyn's) extreme e x c i t a b i l i t y , and temper tantrums, and wondered whether (a f o s t e r home) would be prepared t o put up w i t h these t h i n g s . " • Throughout June Evelyn planned f o r summer camp. She a l s o wanted a f o s t e r home on her r e t u r n from camp. She spent J u l y 9th t o l 8 t h at Camp and thoroughly enjoyed - 74 -i t . The house s t a f f were not so pleased w i t h her camping experience. They s t a t e d t h a t she returned w i t h "most of t h e i r work undone." "She had been a very neat c h i l d . . . and she had come back so d i r t y from camp tha t g i r l s could not stand to s i t next to her and they (house s t a f f ) had to send her u p s t a i r s f o r a bath at once." They a l s o com-pl a i n e d that her manners were worse than ever. This they i n d i c a t e d was s u f f i c i e n t reason f o r not c o n s i d e r i n g a f o s -t e r home placement at t h i s time. Evelyn was most d i s -appointed that a f o s t e r home had not been found. At t h i s time the worker recorded t h a t she thought the house s t a f f "are q u i t e r e l u c t a n t to t h i n k of (Evelyn) l e a v i n g the Receiving Home, and I am attempting to help them w i t h t h i s . I t h i n k p a r t of i t i s t h a t they f i n d (Evelyn) q u i t e a l o v -able and rewarding c h i l d and are r e l u c t a n t to see her go" but "they give f a c t u a l reasons f o r wanting her to s t a y , f o r i n s t a n c e her extreme e x c i t a b i l i t y . " Evelyn had been promoted t o Grade 7 and was doing average work at s c h o o l . She was q u i t e l o o k i n g forward to j u n i o r high school but d i d not want a home tha t would r e q u i r e her to go to a school other than one i n the Receiv-i n g Home d i s t r i c t . A home i n another d i s t r i c t was found and a f t e r a v i s i t there Evelyn decided she would very much l i k e t o l i v e w i t h these people i n s p i t e of the change of school i n v o l v e d . - 75 -12th Placement. 11-11-52 to 3-4-53 The new foster mother was a young woman with two step-children, a g i r l seven and a boy of five and a one year old child of the foster parents. Evelyn shared a room with the seven year old g i r l , A change of workers occurred just after this move. The eleventh worker found her an "attractive, appealing child—nervous and high strung, always close to tears or giggles." On this worker's f i r s t v i s i t to this home she "realized that a l l was not well." The foster mother, who was pregnant, was expecting her to be a "mother's helper" and Evelyn just did not see the work to be done. The fos-ter mother stated Evelyn "required more attention than her own youngsters." It was very d i f f i c u l t for Evelyn to real-ize and accept that the foster mother did not want her to remain in the home. When she f i n a l l y admitted this to herself she became very angry and bitter towards the fos-ter mother. The worker immediately arranged for a new foster home placement. n t h Placement. 3-4-53 to 1-9-53 Evelyn visited this home over the Easter weekend and was most anxious to move i n immediately. The foster parents had a daughter Evelyn's age, thirteen. The foster parents appeared to have insight and understanding i n regard to Evelyn. The move meant a change of schools - 77 -14th Placement. 1 - 9 - 5 3 t o 14 - 9 - 5 3 There was l i t t l e choice of f o s t e r homes i n t h i s d i s t r i c t and she was placed t e m p o r a r i l y w i t h an ol d e r widow who had experience w i t h f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . The p l a c e -ment was a most u n f o r t u n ate one. Evelyn was "most rude to ( f o s t e r mother), i n s i s t e d she could do as she l i k e d , f lew i n t o v i o l e n t tempers when crossed i n any way and was com-p l e t e l y out of hand." She was immediately removed from t h i s home. 15th Placement. 14-0 -53 to 2 5-11 - 5 3 Evelyn was placed i n the same d i s t r i c t and con-t i n u e d i n Grade 8 at the same sch o o l . This f o s t e r mother i s described as " E x c e p t i o n a l . . . warm, acc e p t i n g , p a t i e n t , w i t h a great d e a l of i n s i g h t i n t o (Evelyn's) d i f f i c u l t i e s . " The f a m i l y c o n s i s t e d of the f o s t e r mother and f o s t e r f a t h e r , t h e i r s m a l l grandson and a woman boarder. Evelyn had her own room i n t h i s home. The home i t s e l f was c l e a n and com-f o r t a b l e . The f o s t e r mother, however, had a chronic heart c o n d i t i o n and she found Evelyn's temper tantrums and con-stant demands very t r y i n g . Evelyn d i d not s e t t l e down i n t h i s home during the f i r s t month. She clung to her "gang" at school and i n s i s t e d that she be allowed t o go out w i t h them every n i g h t . The f o s t e r mother decided t h a t a fou r t e e n year o l d g i r l could not be allowed out every n i g h t i n view of her age and a l s o i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of her school work. When - 7 8 -she was r e q u i r e d t o spend an evening i n the f o s t e r home she was most r e s t l e s s . Her choice i n f r i e n d s d i d not appear to he too wise but i n her desp e r a t i o n f o r accept-ance went w i t h any group that would have her. She had begun ta k i n g s i n g i n g lessons and was very i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s . I t was her hope th a t she could make a career of s i n g i n g . She continued to v i s i t her mother o c c a s i o n a l l y and see her brothers and s i s t e r s . She worried about her older s i s t e r who had been t r a n s f e r r e d to Woodlands from the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l where she was placed s h o r t l y a f t e r the c h i l d r e n came i n t o care i n 1945. The o l d e r brother was extremely r e t a r d e d , and was not able to read at the age of eighteen. "She i s f i e r c e l y l o y a l to her fa m i l y and claims they are the most wonderfully " u n i t e d " f a m i l y , never q u a r r e l w i t h each other, e t c . and a l t e r n a t e l y she i s ashamed of them." At t h i s time Evelyn was described by her worker as being a " s l i m a t t r a c t i v e g i r l who can be very charming when she i s happy and r e l a x e d . She i s always c l e a n and neat about her person. She i s not l a z y and w i l l o f t e n v o l -unteer t o help w i t h the housework and dishes—sometimes she w i l l s u r p r i s e f o s t e r mother by doing something e x t r a without being asked." However, the worker added: "When things are going e x a c t l y as she wants, (she) i s gay and h a p p y — i f she doesn't get her way, she argues, her voice - 79 -gets s h r i l l e r u n t i l i t n e a r l y reaches a scream. She may f l y i n t o a v i o l e n t temper at which time she w i l l then/throw things or h i t , and uses very f I T t h y language." u The f o s t e r mother reported to the worker by w r i t i n g l e t t e r s on two occasions j u s t a f t e r q u a r r e l s w i t h Evelyn. She r e l a t e d t h a t there had been some progress i n tha t Evelyn no longer t a l k e d c o n s t a n t l y but added that one "can't con-vince her (Evelyn) that she i s not p e r f e c t both i n looks and ways." She s t a t e d t h a t Evelyn had no f e e l i n g s of sym-pathy. She found her obedient but not always too w i l l i n g to do as she was asked. During her time i n t h i s home her f r i e n d s at school appeared to have dropped her and she was very l o n e l y . As she was most unhappy i n t h i s home and i n view of the f o s t e r mother's h e a l t h i t was decided t o move her t o the Alma Rec e i v i n g Home. Since she knew the Home S t a f f from her previous stay there i t was not too f r i g h t e n i n g a step. She was q u i t e agreeable t o t h i s move. I t a l s o was i n the same d i s t r i c t as the f o s t e r home so a change i n schools was not i n v o l v e d . 16th Placement. 25-11-53 Evelyn was warmly welcomed to the Alma Home by the house s t a f f and the g i r l s l i v i n g t h e re. She began to s e t t l e down immediately and although not p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a x e d , she d i d appear to be happier i n tha t s e t t i n g . The house s t a f f was pleased that she had "not f o r g o t t e n a l l she - 80 -learned when she was w i t h them before." She continued t o v i s i t her f a m i l y and during t h i s p e r i o d reported t h a t she now f e l t " n a t u r a l " w i t h her f a t h e r . During a v i s i t w i t h her f a m i l y i n January of 1954 the p o l i c e searched t h e i r house because they thought the f a t h e r f i t t e d the d e s c r i p t i o n of a person who had broken i n t o a s t o r e . Evelyn was upset by t h i s . Upon her r e t u r n to the Receiving Home she began to wonder again about her p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to her f a m i l y . She t o l d the worker tha t she d i d not t h i n k c h i l d r e n should be taken away from t h e i r parents even though she " r e a l i z e d i t was f o r t h e i r own good." At t h i s time she decided to q u i t t a k i n g s i n g -ing lessons because the House matron t o l d her she would "never have a v o i c e . " She was q u i t e upset f o r about the next month f o l -lowing her v i s i t home. She again began to ask f o r a f o s -t e r home. She s a i d she d i d not l i k e the home s t a f f , par-t i c u l a r l y the House matron, and f u r t h e r she was misunder-stood by them i n regard to the work she d i d i n the home, her f r i e n d s and her temper tantrums. The House matron s a i d t h a t she had improved a b i t since her upset during her v i s i t home. During March she took p a r t i n an " i c e Show" and was g e n e r a l l y very busy. She was given a k i t t e n of her own and seemed to be i n b e t t e r s p i r i t s . She was concerned about some of her school marks as she was not passing two - 81 -of her courses. She was doing w e l l i n her other subjects and the worker o f f e r e d to give her some e x t r a coaching i n the poorer s u b j e c t s . During the next w h i l e she had numerous complaints about the Alma Home and the s t a f f . She was s t i l l asking f o r a f o s t e r home. She mentioned that she would l i k e t o l i v e w i t h her f a m i l y but would not want to l i v e i n the slums. She discussed her f a m i l y w i t h her worker p o i n t i n g out that they had some p r i d e . Her worker discussed the p o s s i b i l i t y of a f o s t e r home and a l s o the d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g a permanent one f o r her. She was q u i t e d i s t r e s s e d as she r e a l i z e d that a f o s t e r home would l i k e l y not work out but she s t i l l thought that the Alma home s t a f f were too s t r i c t . This time she was p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l of the Home f a t h e r as she found him harsh i n h i s punishment, o f t e n over s m a l l matters. H o s p i t a l Placement I t was necessary f o r her to have an op e r a t i o n on her l e g and arrangements were made f o r her to have i t dur-ing the Easter h o l i d a y s . Evelyn spent from A p r i l 20th to 2 8 t h i n h o s p i t a l . Her worker v i s i t e d her there and she t r i e d to be very brave and matter of f a c t about her opera-t i o n . On the day she was to go home she begged the nurses to l e t her stay as she d i d not wish to r e t u r n to the Alma Home. However she d i d r e t u r n there. Upon her a r r i v a l i n the Home the House matron gave her a n i c e welcome and made - 82 -her most comfortable by f i x i n g a bed f o r her i n the l i v i n g room. Her l e g was kept i n a cast f o r a month, duri n g which time she got around very w e l l on crutch e s , and d i d not miss any s c h o o l . During May she wanted money from her Family Allow-ance to buy a b e e n i e — " l i k e the r e s t of the gangs." The house f a t h e r thought t h i s was "a b i g waste of f a m i l y a l l o w -ance" and that she should buy i t out of her pocket money. Since I t would only leave her w i t h twenty-five cents a week the worker d i d not agree. The worker a l s o thought i t was very important to get i t f o r her because Evelyn " f e l t school was so important." About the middle of May she decided t h a t she would l i k e to remain i n the Alma Home throughout the summer. During the month of June Evelyn had a temporary worker, her t w e l f t h , as her r e g u l a r worker, who has continued s i n c e that time, was on h o l i d a y s . I t was not u n t i l J u l y of 1954 that she again began to ask f o r a f o s t e r home. During August the Home matron contacted the worker to t e l l her that Evelyn had shown "a very b i g improvement" and that she thought "she now deserves a f o s t e r home." Evelyn now was "going steady" w i t h a messenger boy and she was most anxious to remain i n the same d i s t r i c t . She s a i d she d i d not mind s t a y i n g on i n the Alma Home as she wished to remain i n the d i s t r i c t more than she wanted a f o s t e r home. A couple of weeks l a t e r she had returned the boy's r i n g - 83 -and again requested a f o s t e r home. She s t a r t e d Grade 9 i n September of 1954. Evelyn was now almost 15 years o l d . The worker remarked that she looked very a t t r a c t i v e i n her new cl o t h e s purchased f o r the school term and added th a t she "always dresses i n very good t a s t e . " During the next two months, September and October her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the house s t a f f had g r e a t l y improved. She appeared t o be making an e f f o r t to stay out of t r o u b l e . During October a p o s s i b l e f o s t e r home was found f o r her. At t h i s p o i n t she was a b i t confused. She now enjoyed l i v i n g at the Alma Home but a l s o wished to be i n a f o s t e r home. As the home was not i n the present school area she decided a g a i n s t i t . At the end of October another f o s t e r home was found and she was q u i t e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s one. She arranged to v i s i t the home i n November. Since the time of the o r i g i n a l survey, October 31st, Evelyn has been placed i n a f o s t e r home and has been happy there to date. She i s g e t t i n g along w e l l w i t h the f o s t e r mother who i s understanding of her. She has a l s o returned to the Alma Home f o r the o c c a s i o n a l supper and v i s i t . She continues to v i s i t i n the t h i r t e e n t h f o s t e r parent's home, who were and s t i l l a r e , most understanding and considerate towards her. The Alma Home matron agreed w i t h the present worker, t h a t Evelyn seemed happy and rela x e d i n her new home. - 8 4 -This i s the case of a 13 year o l d g i r l who came  i n t o care, w i t h three s i b l i n g s , at the age of f i v e . Her mother was of extremely low i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n f a c t c e r t i f i -a b l e , and her f a t h e r apparently was of low i n t e l l i g e n c e . These c h i l d r e n s u f f e r e d extreme negle c t and d e p r i v a t i o n i n the home i n s p i t e of the mother g i v i n g her c h i l d r e n a l l the love and a f f e c t i o n of which she was capable. Since coming i n t o care Evelyn has experienced numerous changes i n f o s t e r homes and s o c i a l workers and scho o l s . The r e s u l t has been tha t she has developed i n t o an unstable c h i l d , unable t o form l a s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f o s t e r parents and w i t h c h i l d r e n of her own age. She has, however, been able to form r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h some of her workers and a l s o w i t h some f o s t e r parents which would i n d i c a t e t h a t w i t h con-tinued treatment she may make a more adequate adjustment. Evelyn's "removal" from her parents was a most traumatic one. She, along w i t h her s i s t e r s and br o t h e r , was taken from the mother as the woman stood by unable to do anything but sob and scream. The mother had not r e a l -i s e d t h a t her c h i l d r e n would be taken from her when she ob l i g e d the worker by b r i n g i n g the c h i l d r e n to the o f f i c e . Evelyn s t i l l r e c a l l s the event. The home was a very poor one i n every sense of the word. The parents were unable to give t h e i r c h i l d r e n a minimum of p h y s i c a l needs l e t alone emotional ones. At the time Evelyn came i n t o care there was no - 8 5 -study of her f a m i l y , of her and the s i b l i n g s , and the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s of each. I n f a c t , the f i l e gives very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h i l d r e n at t h i s time. The e l d e s t s i s t e r and the brother are both extremely d u l l and l i k e l y should not have been placed w i t h Evelyn and the other s i s -t e r who are of average i n t e l l i g e n c e . However, these c h i l -dren were l a t e r separated and the e l d e s t s i s t e r was commit-ted to the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l and l a t e r Woodlands because of her extremely low mental c a p a c i t y . These c h i l d r e n had experienced extreme deprivation!. This i n d i c a t e s that the c h i l d should have had a f o s t e r home where she would r e c e i v e very s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . Pos-s i b l y a home could have been found f o r Evelyn and her sec-ond s i s t e r but the value of having other c h i l d r e n i n the home i s questionable.v, Placement of each as an only c h i l d might have been even b e t t e r as each needed a great d e a l of a t t e n t i o n to make up f o r past experiences. However, Evelyn was placed i n a home w i t h " s e v e r a l other f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . " This f o s t e r mother wanted her moved s h o r t l y a f t e r she was placed because of her " t e r r i b l e language." The f o s t e r mother could not have been w e l l prepared by the worker or a home where the c h i l d ' s swearing would be o f f e n s i v e would not have been chosen. This p a t t e r n of placement and replacement con-'i t l n u e d . A dia g n o s i s was not made when the c h i l d came i n t o care. There seems t o have been no i n i t i a l planning to f i n d - 86 -a f o s t e r home t o meet the s p e c i a l needs of t h i s c h i l d . Frequently there was no p r e p a r a t i o n of the c h i l d f o r the f o s t e r home and a l t e r n a t e l y there was no p r e p a r a t i o n of the f o s t e r parents regarding the c h i l d . The r e s u l t s of l a c k of study, d i a g n o s i s and planning on the b a s i s of the study and diag n o s i s showed time and again. The record s t a t e s t h a t f o s t e r parents f r e q u e n t l y lacked understanding of Evelyn's parents as w e l l as under-standing of Evelyn. The mother p a r t i c u l a r l y , gave her c h i l d r e n a l l of which she was capable. She a l s o has a r i g h t to continue seeing her c h i l d r e n . However, the f o s t e r parents were g e n e r a l l y upset by Evelyn's v i s i t s w i t h her parents• I t would appear that various workers d i d not always see the need f o r d i a g n o s i s of Evelyn. I n instances where a diagnosis was made i t was never fo l l o w e d through f o r any lengt h of time. C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c r e p o r t s and p s y c h i -a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n advised t h a t Evelyn r e c e i v e s p e c i a l and undivided a t t e n t i o n . However, Evelyn d i d not have many placements where she was the only c h i l d and when she was f i n a l l y the only c h i l d the f o s t e r parent's request f o r another c h i l d was complied w i t h . For example, the p l a c e -ment of a p l a c i d and retar d e d c h i l d made her behaviour seem most extreme and the f o s t e r parents asked f o r her removal. Warm and understanding f o s t e r parents, whose a t t e n t i o n was not d i v i d e d among s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n , might - 8? -have helped Evelyn develop the s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , t r u s t , s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e t h a t she now l a c k s . At the time of Evelyn's l a s t placement i n the Alma Home her worker thought she was very c l o s e t o a mental breakdown. The previous placement had been an extremely d i s t u r b i n g one to both Evelyn and the widow w i t h whom she was p l a c e d . However, the group home acted as a s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e and Evelyn has, a f t e r eleven months, been able to move from here to another f o s t e r home. However, t h i s f o s t e r home i s more of a boarding home and the f o s t e r mother does not put many demands upon the g i r l . Since the home has no man i t does not c o n s t i t u t e a normal f a m i l y group but Evelyn seems to be r e l a t i n g f a i r l y w e l l . She has a good r e l a t i o n -ship w i t h her present worker and w i t h a continuance of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p and her present f o s t e r home, Evelyn may be able to make a more adequate adjustment than s i x t e e n placements and twelve workers w i t h i n nine years would i n d i c a t e . Case Number 19 i s t h a t of Bobby who was born on  the 11th of January. 1940. Bobby's f a m i l y have been known and seen by the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y since 1938, however Bobby hi m s e l f d i d not come i n t o care u n t i l October 9 t h , 1952 when he was twelve years o l d . He became a ward of the Agency about s i x months l a t e r . Bobby was "placed i n (the) J u v e n i l e Detention Home ( i n ) September of 1952 on a charge of i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y 88 -by h i s f a t h e r . As f a t h e r and step-mother (are) unable to c o n t r o l him and u n w i l l i n g to have him i n t h e i r home, the a l t e r n a t i v e t o Chil d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y placement would be (Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l ) . The l a t t e r i s f e l t t o be unsat-i s f a c t o r y and he i s remaining i n the Detention Home u n t i l a s u i t a b l e f o s t e r home i s found or a vacancy i n the Boys' Receiving Home occurs." The above paragraph i n d i c a t e s many t h i n g s . A twelve year o l d boy has been charged as " i n c o r r i g i b l e " or unmanageable by h i s f a t h e r . I t a l s o t e l l s us tha t h i s f a t h e r i s remarried and that he and h i s present w i f e do not want the boy i n t h e i r home. Since Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School i s considered as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o f o s t e r home placement h i s " i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y " must be of a ser i o u s nature. I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t d i f f i c u l t i e s are being encountered i n f i n d i n g a " s u i t a b l e " f o s t e r home and tha t the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y Receiving Home f o r o l d e r boys may be the answer f o r h i s placement. I t may i n d i c a t e t h a t Bobby has had a d i s r u p t i v e and u n s e t t l e d l i f e to be considered " i n c o r r i g i b l e " a t the age of twelve. Bobby's mother was born i n 1918. She became known to the Child r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n 1938 f o l l o w i n g a complaint t h a t she and her husband were n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r c h i l d . L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s given about the mother but I t was known tha t - 89 -her mother was dead and t h a t she had l i t t l e or nothing to do w i t h her f a t h e r . Her s i s t e r was married t o her mother-in-law's younger brother who was then s e r v i n g a term i n the p e n i t e n t i a r y f o r a holdup i n which the s i s t e r was b e l i e v e d to have a s s i s t e d . This s i s t e r had s e v e r a l abor-t i o n s and was at that time i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant. The mother and t h i s s i s t e r saw each other f r e q u e n t l y . The mother i s described as being a ••sociable" per-son but " i n c l i n e d to be stubborn and headstrong." She i s a l s o reported to have been promiscuous before and a f t e r her marriage to the boy's f a t h e r . She was described by her mother-in-law as being extremely l a z y and n e g l e c t f u l of her c h i l d . The f a t h e r i s described as being a "pleasant look-in g immature l i t t l e man and seems young to have taken on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a f a m i l y . " His mother impressed the worker as being "an extremely o b j e c t i o n a b l e , prosperous type of woman." The mother and f a t h e r were married i n 1937 j u s t four days before the b i r t h of t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d , a daughter. The marriage was from the outset a stormy one. The mother had not wished to marry the f a t h e r but he and h i s mother had i n s i s t e d upon i t and she f i n a l l y complied. There were many q u a r r e l s and s e p a r a t i o n s , charges and counter-charges t h a t one or the other was u n f a i t h f u l and a l s o t h a t whoever was c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d was not t a k i n g s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t - 90 -or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f a t h e r ' s mother, w i t h whom they l i v e d most of the time seems to have i n t e r f e r e d c o n t i n u a l l y i n t h e i r marriage. The f a t h e r was unemployed q u i t e f r e -quently and the f a m i l y r e c e i v e d i n t e r m i t t e n t f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The f a t h e r was i n the army f o r two months i n 1939 but was discharged on medical grounds. During t h a t year the mother and f a t h e r moved i n t o a house of t h e i r own and the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n seemed to improve. Bobby was born i n January of 1940 and when the worker v i s i t e d a month l a t e r a l l seemed w e l l and Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y v i s i t s were d i s c o n t i n u e d . I n August of tha t year the mother came t o the Child r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y asking f o r adviee as she had l e f t the f a t h e r two months previous to t h i s and he was now r e f u s i n g to allow her to see the c h i l d r e n . She had taken the daughter w i t h her when she l e f t but as she was unable to o b t a i n work and support the c h i l d , she had returned her to the f a t h e r . At t h i s time the f a t h e r placed Bobby and h i s s i s t e r B e t t y i n a good boarding home. The mother and f a t h e r discussed the s i t u a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n and the f a t h e r promised to give the mother the daughter as soon as she was f i n a n c i a l l y a ble to support her. At the end of 1940 the mother i n h e r i t e d some money from her f a t h e r and the f a t h e r sent both c h i l d r e n to her. This d i d not please the mother as she wanted only to have her daughter and not the i n f a n t son Bobby. She sent - 91 -B e t t y to l i v e w i t h r e l a t i v e s (whom the f a t h e r described as "drunkards") i n a d i s t a n t c i t y and kept Bobby. Two months l a t e r , i n February of 1941 the mother took court a c t i o n t o have the f a t h e r c o n t r i b u t e f i n a n c i a l support f o r the c h i l -dren. The f a t h e r o f f e r e d to take the son as an a l t e r n a t i v e to f i n a n c i a l support and the mother was agreeable to t h i s . However, the f a t h e r immediately disappeared and the mother kept Bobby. Two weeks l a t e r the f a t h e r r e t u r n e d , having been deported from the United States f o r i l l e g a l e n t r y . He sta t e d he wanted Bobby and a l s o began d i v o r c e proceedings. J u l y of 1941 was the l a s t contact w i t h the Agency and the case was closed i n 1945 as there had been no v i s i t s t o the f a m i l y s i n c e 1941 and there had been no f u r t h e r n e g l e c t com-p l a i n t s . There had been an attempt to l o c a t e the p a t e r n a l grandmother i n November 1944 but i t was un s u c c e s s f u l . The case was reopened i n June 1948 f o l l o w i n g a r e f e r r a l from a M e t r o p o l i t a n Health Nurse about a boy who was l i v i n g w i t h an e l d e r l y woman and her son. The boy was confused about h i s f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the p s y c h i a -t r i s t who had seen him suggested that case work s e r v i c e s would be of value to t h i s boy to help him w i t h h i s confu-s i o n as to who h i s parents were and what h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was w i t h the e l d e r l y woman and her son. I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the f i l e s revealed that t h i s was Bobby, the baby who had not been wanted by h i s mother. Taking the threads back over the years i t was - 9 2 -o learned that Bobby's mother and f a t h e r had obtained a d i v -orce i n 1941 a t which time the custody of the c h i l d r e n was not decided. The mother took the daughter and f a t h e r took Bobby. He immediately placed Bobby, then about 15 months o l d , w i t h a woman of 65 and her son who was i n h i s twenties. The f a t h e r v i s i t e d Bobby r e g u l a r l y i n t h i s home u n t i l he remarried l a t e i n 1942. F o l l o w i n g t h i s , h i s v i s i t s became very i r r e g u l a r and he f i n a l l y v i s i t e d j u s t once a year at Christmas time. I t appeared that h i s w i f e , Bobby's step-mother, d i d not wish to have anything to do w i t h t h i s boy and "openly s t a t e s she does not l i k e c h i l d r e n . " The mother made no e f f o r t to v i s i t her son a f t e r the f a t h e r took him i n 1941. This " f o s t e r mother," Mrs. Edwards, s t a t e d t h a t Bobby was i n very neglected c o n d i t i o n when he was brought to her i n 1941. His arms had been badly s c a l e d and he had not had any s o l i d food. He was walking at t h i s time but d i d not t a l k u n t i l he was two years o l d . She found Bobby no problem u n t i l he began attending s c h o o l . Bobby c a l l e d Mrs. Edwards "Mum" and her son "Dad." He was a l s o aware that he had a f a t h e r , mother and step mother. No doubt the impact of the confusing and unnatural s i t u a t i o n would s t r i k e him when he f i r s t moved out i n t o the community i n attending s c h o o l . I t would become obvious t o him th a t h i s "Mum" and "Dad" were not l i k e the other c h i l d r e n ' s parents, p a r t i c u -l a r l y i n age d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n — t h a t of mother - 93 -and s o n — t o each other. Mrs. Edwards t o l d the worker t h a t v i s i t e d her that Bobby has a "very bad temper but. . . obeys e a s i l y . " S h o r t l y a f t e r Mrs. Edwards was v i s i t e d i n regard to Bobby, h i s f a t h e r was i n the o f f i c e to r e p o r t a n e g l e c t com-p l a i n t about h i s f i r s t w i f e who had the custody of t h e i r daughter B e t t y . He sta t e d t h a t B e t t y was underfed, l e f t alone day and n i g h t and tha t she was g e n e r a l l y a disobedient c h i l d . H is f i r s t w i f e had remarried twice and he st a t e d she was p r e s e n t l y a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h " o b j e c t i o n a b l e company." He was advised to take the matter of custody of the daughter to a lawyer who could then prepare f o r the necessary Sup-reme Court a c t i o n to determine the custody of t h i s c h i l d . The f a t h e r mentioned that h i s son was w i t h f r i e n d s f o r the time being. The worker who saw him was unaware of the other contacts the Agency had w i t h t h i s f a m i l y . The f a t h e r f o l -lowed through on t h i s and obtained custody of the daughter who came to l i v e w i t h her f a t h e r and step-mother. Meanwhile Bobby remained w i t h Mrs. Edwards and the worker recorded " I t i s obvious t h a t he f e e l s secure and wanted i n t h i s home." The worker reported t h a t although Mrs. Edwards " i s i n her 70s, she i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y a c t i v e and has not l o s t her understanding of young boys and t h e i r needs." There was no continued contact w i t h Bobby and h i s " f o s t e r " mother a f t e r January of 1949. The worker decided t o c l o s e the case i n May of - 94 -1950 "As there seems no f u r t h e r s e r v i c e i n d i c a t e d . " How-ever, upon review of t h i s case i n September f o l l o w i n g a ne g l e c t complaint about B e t t y i t was decided to keep i t open. I n view of the f a t h e r t a k i n g the daughter i n t o h i s home w i t h h i s second w i f e and a l s o c o n s i d e r i n g the age of Mrs. Edwards and the p o s s i b i l i t y of l a t e r plans f o r Bobby the case remained open. L i t t l e was done a t t h i s time except to v i s i t Mrs. Edwards once i n November of 1950 when she r e p o r t e d , and worker accepted, t h a t a l l was w e l l . A telephone c a l l to the school Bobby was attending revealed t h a t he was i n a " s p e c i a l c l a s s " and t h a t he was c o n t i n u a l l y i n t o " m i s c h i e f " that kept the whole c l a s s i n " h y s t e r i c s . " The school a l s o reported t h a t Bobby had a s l i g h t hearing d i s a b i l i t y . There was no f u r t h e r contact f o r a pe r i o d of eleven months. At t h a t time a worker from another agency telephoned to r e p o r t that Bobby and another boy had broken i n t o s e v e r a l cottages, that worker being the owner of one of them. This worker learned from the p o l i c e t h a t the boy had been returned to h i s f a t h e r . She thought t h a t the Chi l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y might look i n t o the circumstances since the boy had been l i v i n g i n a " f o s t e r " home and had not used h i s l e g a l name but tha t of the " f o s t e r " parents. A worker c a l l e d at the f a t h e r ' s home a few weeks l a t e r but no one was home. The contact was not fol l o w e d through. I n A p r i l of 1952 the f a t h e r and p a t e r n a l - 95 -grandmother came to the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y to ask f o r help i n d e a l i n g w i t h Bobby. He s a i d that h i s f i r s t w i f e —Bobby's mother—was l i v i n g i n a "common-law" r e l a t i o n -ship out of Vancouver and had no i n t e r e s t i n the c h i l d . The f a t h e r s t a t e d that Mrs. Edwards had "loved" Bobby and because of that she had hidden from the f a t h e r h i s many delinquencies over the past years. However, Mrs. Edwards r e c e n t l y decided t o r e t u r n him to h i s f a t h e r a f t e r Bobby i n f l i c t e d a severe beating upon her. The neighbours had a l s o signed a p e t i t i o n asking t h a t he be removed from the d i s t r i c t because of h i s continued vandalism. Bobby had a l s o attempted to burn the Edward's home by e n c i r c l i n g the house w i t h g a s o l i n e and l i g h t i n g the gas. One s i d e of the house had been damaged at th a t time. At t h i s time Bobby had been w i t h h i s f a t h e r and step-mother f o r s i x months. During t h i s p e r i o d he had c o n t i n u a l l y run away from the home, o f t e n walking about ten miles to the Edwards home. He was a l s o breaking i n t o s t o r e s , breaking windows, p l a y -ing t r uant from school and was g e n e r a l l y d e f i a n t and d e s t r u c t i v e . He had no male playmates and g e n e r a l l y pre-f e r r e d g i r l s , whom he would k i s s and pet. He spent a great d e a l of time alone or walking w i t h h i s dog. He was " s l y l y a f f a b l e when faced by a person, but s t r i k e s out v i n d i c t i v e l y behind one's back." His f a t h e r had placed Bobby i n a P r i v a t e School but he ran away a f t e r three days and returned to Mrs. Edward's home. She was to have an - 96 -o p e r a t i o n s h o r t l y and could not keep him. The p a t e r n a l grandmother o f f e r e d to take him f o r a short time. The f a t h e r was at a l o s s i n handling the c h i l d and the step-mother refused to have him back i n t h e i r home. The f a t h e r was prepared to l a y a charge of i n c o r -r i g i b i l i t y a g a i n s t Bobby but he hoped that the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y could f i n d him a f o s t e r home so t h a t the boy would not have to go t o the I n d u s t r i a l School. Two weeks l a t e r , i n A p r i l , 1952, the f a t h e r l a i d a charge of " i n c o r r i g i b l e " as no immediate pla n could be worked out. The c h i l d remained w i t h Mrs. Edwards u n t i l the Family Court hearing e a r l y i n May. During A p r i l the nurse at Bobby's school telephoned to r e p o r t that she, the p r i n c i p a l and Bobby's teacher were very concerned about h i s behaviour. He "had been mastur-ba t i n g i n school and h i s language and behaviour was d e t r i -mental to the r e s t of h i s classmates." The nurse added that he was " d e f i a n t , r e j e c t e d and extremely unhappy l i t t l e boy." On one occasion the boy had doubted h i s teacher when she t o l d him she was fond of him. He s t a t e d no one cared about him, h i s f a t h e r d i d not want him, h i s grand-mother d i d not have room f o r him and Mrs. Edwards d i d not want him any longer e i t h e r . There i s no f u r t h e r recording f o r a f o u r month pe r i o d but l a t e r r e c o r d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t Bobby spent a p e r i o d of two weeks i n the Detention Home whil e a C h i l d - 97 -Guidance assessment was being made. The boy went to the I n d u s t r i a l School at the suggestion of the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c p s y c h i a t r i s t as there was no f o s t e r home t o meet h i s need. The p s y c h i a t r i s t pointed out that a c t u a l l y n e i t h e r a f o s t e r home or the I n d u s t r i a l School was what was needed but r a t h e r an i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment center f o r a d i s t u r b e d and delinquent c h i l d such as he. He remained i n the I n d u s t r i a l School f o r two months and was then r e l e a s e d to h i s f a t h e r and step-mother as they asked to have Bobby home. I t appeared that both f e l t g u i l t y about not being able to care f o r Bobby, but were p a r t i c u -l a r l y g u i l t y about h i s being i n the I n d u s t r i a l School. The stay a t the I n d u s t r i a l School was of no par-t i c u l a r value to him. Bobby i s a very small boy and i n 1952 was four and one-half f e e t t a l l which was much smaller than the m a j o r i t y of boys i n the School. The School was not equipped to give him the segregation and a t t e n t i o n he r e q u i r e d . The f a t h e r and step-mother "made an earnest, though s u p e r f i c i a l attempt" to make Bobby happy at home. About one month a f t e r Bobby returned home he broke i n t o a neighbours house and h i s f a t h e r again l a i d a charge of " i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y . " Bobby then went i n t o the Detention Home where he stayed w h i l e the Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y was t r y i n g t o f i n d a s u i t a b l e f o s t e r home or made some other arrangement. - 98 -During the time i n the Detention Home Bobby was a f u l l time job for the s t a f f . He was continually getting into mischief and becoming very explosive when ordered to behave. However, If he was given stern and consistent d i s c i p l i n e , such as being taken to his room or given a s p e c i f i c task he would usually s e t t l e down immediately and l a t e r would soon be able to r e j o i n the res t of the group. Bobby was i n the Detention Home for almost three months, during which time there was no r e a l improvement i n his behaviour. At f i r s t he seemed to s e t t l e but he l a t e r became discontented as his was the longest stay there. The other c h i l d r e n were i n and out and the Detention Home po l i c y was being broken i n allowing Bobby to remain there f o r the extended period of time. Bobby became upset by the coming and going of other children and the lack of plans f o r himself. Several conferences were held during t h i s period. Some of the conferences were within the Agency, others c a l l e d i n other interested agencies such as the Child Guidance C l i n i c and the Juvenile Court. These meetings did not accomplish much more than to point out time and again that the foster home wanted fo r Bobby was not to be had, the i n s t i t u t i o n needed for his care was not yet planned or b u i l t and that actually the only al t e r n a t i v e other than BISCO was to place Bobby i n the Boys* Receiving Home. 3obby was f i n a l l y moved from the Detention Home to the Boys 1 Receiving Home i n December, 1952, having been there since September, 1952. - 99 -As Bobby had expressed concern about Mrs. Edwards and a f e a r that she might d i e and he i n some way would be r e s p o n s i b l e , h i s worker v i s i t e d Mrs. Edwards and her son to arrange f o r Bobby to v i s i t them. They were q u i t e agree-able to t h i s . N e i t h e r had any understanding of Bobby's behaviour, i n f a c t were at q u i t e a l o s s as to why he had become such a problem. They i n d i c a t e d that they had given Bobby a great d e a l m a t e r i a l l y and th a t both had loved him. They d i d not see that Bobby t h i n k i n g of a mother and son as a mother and f a t h e r could be so u p s e t t i n g to him. When Bobby's worker took him out to v i s i t the Edwards a few days l a t e r , he had a pleasant time w i t h them and arrange-ments were made f o r him to v i s i t them r e g u l a r l y . Bobby continued w i t h play therapy at the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c t h a t had begun i n October w h i l e he was s t i l l i n the Detention Home. He had a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i s worker and was seen by him at l e a s t once a week. Bobby p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed h i s worker t a k i n g him swimming. He had weekly v i s i t s w i t h h i s f a t h e r , step-mother and s i s -t e r B e t t y u n t i l February of 1953* At t h i s time h i s s i s t e r went to l i v e w i t h her n a t u r a l mother and Bobby then made only i n f r e q u e n t v i s i t s to h i s f a t h e r ' s home. He began v i s i t i n g h i s n a t u r a l mother and s i s t e r . I t was the f i r s t time Bobby had met h i s mother as he was a baby when she l e f t him. Although Bobby saw h i s mother and s i s t e r f r e -quently he never spoke of them to h i s worker or h i s - 100 -t h e r a p i s t at the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . I n A p r i l of 1953 Bobby became a ward of the Agency. Previous t o t h i s Bobby had j o i n e d the Army Cadet i n January. This was q u i t e a step f o r him as h i s p a t t e r n had been to avoid boys i n h i s own age group. He d i d very w e l l i n cadets and q u a l i f i e d f o r Cadet Camp tha t summer, an experience he thoroughly enjoyed. He purchased a b i c y c l e w i t h the s i x t y d o l l a r s earned at camp. His adjustment i n the Re c e i v i n g Home "was s a t i s f a c -t o r y although he acts on an immature l e v e l . " H is school pro-gress was very poor. He d i d not show any c o n s i s t e n t improve-ment i n h i s school work. He would appear to be managing and then s l i d e back. However, he was promoted to the next grade i n June of 1953. I n August of 1953> f o l l o w i n g h i s r e t u r n from Cadet Camp, Bobby spent three days w i t h the Edwards. Mrs. Edwards and her son were planning to move i n September and would be l i v i n g much c l o s e r to Bobby thus making more frequent v i s i t s p o s s i b l e . At t h i s time Bobby had a change of workers. During the e a r l y p a r t of 1954 h i s n a t u r a l mother and her husband moved away from Vancouver, The record does not i n d i c a t e whether or not Bobby's s i s t e r B e t t y went w i t h them. They returned once i n 1954 to v i s i t Bobby. The r e t u r n v i s i t was p r e c i p i t a t e d by t h e i r r e c e i p t of a b i l l of $^00.00 f o r Bobby's care from the C i t y of Vancouver. They came to the Agency to complain that Bobby was not doing w e l l i n care - 101 -and they might j u s t as w e l l take him home. However, they d i d not make any e f f o r t to take the necessary court a c t i o n to have Bobby returned to t h e i r care. During the sp r i n g of 1954 Bobby obtained a paper rou t e . With the a s s i s t a n c e of the house f a t h e r he d i d very w e l l . His p l a y therapy i n t e r v i e w s i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the paper route and f o l l o w i n g a conference i t was decided t h a t the route was of more value than continued p l a y therapy at t h i s time. I n A p r i l of 1954 Bobby and fo u r boys i n the Home ran away and were i n v o l v e d i n the t h e f t of a ca r . Bobby was given a suspended sentence and returned to the R e c e i v i n g Home. A month l a t e r he disappeared from the R e c e i v i n g Home and two days l a t e r "turned up. . . a t the Detention Home and requested admission. A f t e r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s i t u a t i o n , i t appeared t h a t one or two o l d e r boys i n the Home had pres-sured (Bobby) i n t o s t e a l i n g a r t i c l e s f o r them. However, (Bobby) had been strong enough to r e s i s t t h i s , but I n view of the th r e a t of p h y s i c a l abuse, he had run away. This s i t u -a t i o n was c l e a r e d f a i r l y adequately i n the Home s i t u a t i o n and (Bobby) had continued to adjust s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . " Bobby d i d not q u a l i f y f o r Cadet Camp so arrange-ments were made f o r him to spend a month at another camp. Fo l l o w i n g h i s r e t u r n from camp he spent a week i n a tempo-r a r y f o s t e r home as the Boys' Home s t a f f were away on h o l i -days. - 102 -The worker recorded t h a t Bobby "made a slow but p o s i t i v e adjustment i n the Boys' Home from 4:12:J?2 (when he was placed there) to 3J8 :54. He began to r e l a t e both to Home s t a f f and to peers." I n September Bobby attended Grade 8 s p e c i a l c l a s s i n a nearby j u n i o r h i g h school His work was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and h i s c l a s s standing was low. Bobby's i n t e l l i g e n c e has been assessed as d u l l normal w i t h higher p o t e n t i a l . H i s teachers have c o n s i s t e n t l y reported t h a t they do not t h i n k that Bobby i s working to c a p a c i t y i n sc h o o l . Between August and October of 1954- there were many changes i n the Home. E i g h t of the boys l i v i n g there were placed elsewhere and a new group of boys moved i n . This l e f t Bobby i n the p o s i t i o n of se n i o r boy i n the Home. At t h i s time he formed a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the s t a f f and took "over some e x t r a r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the Home, i . e . d i s t r i b u t i n g cod l i v e r o i l capsules to the boys d a i l y . " A l l seemed w e l l u n t i l the end of October when a very d i s t u r b e d 16 year o l d boy was placed i n the Home over a week-end. This boy was extremely demanding of a t t e n t i o n from the house mother. This boy was described as being confused over h i s "own sex d r i v e s as a 16 year o l d " and as having "a tremendous i n f a n t i l e need f o r a f f e c t i o n and a t t e n t i o n from a mother f i g u r e . " "He fo l l o w e d the house mother around, snuggled up to her and stroked her body." The worker sug-gested the f o l l o w i n g reasons f o r Bobby's upset f o l l o w i n g - 103 -t h i s hoys stay i n the Home. "At t h i s time (Bobby) was form-ing a much c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the house parents. The new boy q u i c k l y moved i n t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the house mother which (Bobby) probably wanted to do but was not a b l e . This experience seemed to r e a c t i v a t e some of h i s f e e l i n g s regarding the dis c o v e r y t h a t " h i s mother and f a t h e r " (Mrs. Edwards and her son). . . were r e a l l y a mother and son, and perhaps a good d e a l of g u i l t was generated regarding the accepted sex r o l e of parent to parent as against the sex r o l e between mother and son. The e f f e c t of (Bobby's) knowl-edge th a t h i s n a t u r a l mother and st e p f a t h e r had. . .(moved away) apparently increased the trauma. These i n c i d e n t s apparently completely upset and uprooted (Bobby), so tha t he could only r u n from the s i t u a t i o n . " Since October 31st, 1954, the worker has recorded that Bobby "began t o be uncooperative, r e s t l e s s ; show some h o s t i l i t y towards d i s c i p l i n e , and g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e d r e g r e s -s i o n . " He has run away from the Boys' Home s e v e r a l times and has been i n v o l v e d i n t h e f t s . Because of t h i s he has been placed i n the J u v e n i l e Detention Home, one time at h i s own request. He has been put on pro b a t i o n t o the J u v e n i l e Court. The l a s t time Bobby was i n the Detention Home he was found to be most d i f f i c u l t to manage. However, he s t a t e d he pre-f e r r e d the Detention Home, th a t he found i t much e a s i e r to do h i s work and was happier there. His worker t h i n k s t h a t the Agency w i l l have l i t t l e a l t e r n a t i v e but to charge Bobby - 104 -as " i n c o r r i g i b l e , " at which time he w i l l l i k e l y be placed i n the Boys 1 I n d u s t r i a l School. Bobby was f i r s t known to the Agency when he was one  month old. His parents had been known to the Agency for two years at that time. I t i s possible that more intensive case-work service to the family at that time would have prevented Bobby from becoming the unhappy, unadjusted youngster he i s now. However, the Ageney l o s t contact with the family i n July of 1941. As there had been no further contact with the family following that time the case was closed i n 1945. Bobby again came to the attention of the Society i n 1948 when he was seven years o l d . At that time he was l i v i n g i n a home where hi s "foster mother" was i n her 70s and her son, whom Bobby c a l l e d "Dad" was i n h i s 30s. In May 1949 the case was again closed a f t e r the worker made two v i s i t s , one i n June of 1948 and the other i n January 194-9. The case was reviewed i n September of 194-9 and i t was decided that i t should remain open i n view of a possible necessity f o r future plans for Bobby. One v i s i t to the home followed i n November, 1950. In October of 1951 the Agency received a report from a worker i n another agency that Bobby had been involved i n t h e f t s . A worker c a l l e d at Bobby's home but no one was at home. In 1952 Bobby's father came to the Agency to request service as he was unable to control the boy. At - 105 -t h a t time the workers recognized Bobby's disturbance and saw that they were not equipped to give the s p e c i a l s e r v i c e Bobby then r e q u i r e d . He was placed ( a f t e r almost three months i n the J u v e n i l e Detention Home) i n the group home f o r o l d e r boys. This was the only f a c i l i t y the Agency had that might meet h i s needs. Bobby's case p r e c i p i t a t e d a l a r g e conference wherein i t was f u r t h e r recognized that Vancouver needs a treatment centre f o r d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n and h i s was a case worth c i t i n g to b r i n g a t t e n t i o n to t h a t need. I t i s u n l i k e l y that such a centre w i l l be b u i l t i n time to be of any s e r v i c e to Bobby. I n any case, there has been enough d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n h i s behaviour to j u s t i f y commitment to the I n d u s t r i a l School. The f a c t remains th a t Bobby's f a m i l y was known t o the Agency i n 1938. Bobby again came to the a t t e n t i o n of the Agency s t a f f i n 1948. I t was not u n t i l 1952, when Bobby's behaviour was a community problem, that i n t e n s i v e and continued s e r v i c e was given. O r i g i n a l p r e v e n t i v e work might have removed the need f o r s p e c i a l (and unobtainable) treatment at t h i s time. CHAPTER 4 CHILD WELFARE: A CONSTANT CHALLENGE This survey and study of t h i r t y - n i n e wards of the Chi l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, who were l i v i n g i n group or s u b s i d i z e d boarding homes of the Agency as of Octo-ber 31J 1954, has revealed some of the reasons f o r the use of t h i s type of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. I t has a l s o pointed out that t h i s care i s not e n t i r e l y adequate f o r some of these c h i l d r e n . F u r t h e r , i t has shown that there i s a need f o r a d d i t i o n a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n and co-operation of e x i s t i n g resources as w e l l as the n e c e s s i t y f o r other resources f o r the care of c h i l d r e n i n Vancouver. Case Records The examination of the case records of the t h i r t y -nine c h i l d r e n and t h e i r parents has i n some cases revealed a l a c k of m a t e r i a l from which conclusions can be drawn. Two p a r t i c u l a r areas are outstanding. 1. A c l e a r and concise s o c i a l study of the parents, the c h i l d and the f o s t e r home i s g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g . C e r t a i n r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l i n making a study and diag n o s i s of each c h i l d . Without t h i s there can be no p l a n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the needs of the c h i l d . The h i g h num-ber of placements i n many of these cases bears t h i s out. - 107 -2. S p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n , such as the school grade of the c h i l d , the date of the parents b i r t h , addresses of the parents and f o s t e r p a r ents, i s f r e q u e n t l y missing on the c h i l d 1 s f i l e . Dates of b i r t h recorded i n the c h i l d ' s record do not always agree w i t h those recorded i n the par-ent's record or the Agency's master card f o r each c h i l d . The date the c h i l d became a ward of the Agency i s f r e q u e n t l y not l i s t e d i n the c h i l d ' s r e c o r d and i t i s necessary to check the case record of the parents to o b t a i n i t . S o c i a l Backgrounds The study r e v e a l s some of the f a c t o r s i n the back-grounds of these t h i r t y - n i n e c h i l d r e n which have no doubt c o n t r i b u t e d to the n e c e s s i t y of s p e c i a l c are. 1. Each c h i l d has been removed from h i s own par-ents. Any type of care o f f e r e d i s a s u b s t i t u t e which can never f u l l y compensate to the c h i l d f o r the l o s s of h i s own f a m i l y . 2. Each c h i l d has parents who do not c o n s t i t u t e a l e g a l and/or s t a b l e f a m i l y u n i t . The parents of these c h i l -dren do not always meet the moral or l e g a l concepts of " f a m i l y " that Canadian s o c i e t y a t t r i b u t e s to t h i s u n i t . 3» Most of these c h i l d r e n have experienced changes i n f o s t e r homes th a t f r e q u e n t l y e n t a i l e d changes i n schools attended. I n other words, these c h i l d r e n have not only known the i n i t i a l l o s s of t h e i r parents but have a l s o known the l o s s of s u b s t i t u t e parents. - 108 -4. Most of these c h i l d r e n have experienced frequent change of s o c i a l workers. The s o c i a l worker represents the S o c i e t y , the c h i l d ' s l e g a l guardian, but changes of workers remove the c o n t i n u i t y f a c t o r . 5, For most of these c h i l d r e n there i s no c o n t i n u -i n g contact w i t h t h e i r own f a m i l i e s — p a r e n t s and/or s i b -l i n g s . There i s a need f o r continued work w i t h the f a m i l y a f t e r the c h i l d has been removed i n order t h a t the f a m i l y may be r e h a b i l i t a t e d and the c h i l d returned to h i s own home. I f t h i s cannot be accomplished a contact of the c h i l d w i t h h i s f a m i l y may have to s u f f i c e . The need f o r more c o n s i s t -ent work w i t h parents a f t e r the c h i l d i s removed from h i s home has been recognized and d e a l t w i t h by the S o c i e t y . The r a d i c a l change i n s t r u c t u r e t h a t occurred one year ago was i n order to provide b e t t e r s e r v i c e to the c h i l d and h i s parents. The success of t h i s s t r u c t u r e change cannot be assessed i n t h i s study, or even at t h i s time, but there are many i n d i c a t i o n s that the move was a p o s i t i v e one. Many of these c h i l d r e n have been emotionally dam-aged i n t h e i r own f a m i l i e s . C o n t i n u a l changes a f t e r being removed from t h e i r f a m i l i e s would be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t f o r c h i l d r e n so i l l - e q u i p p e d to meet f u r t h e r i n s t a b i l i t y i n t h e i r l i v e s . I t i s impossible to assess the amount of r e t a r d a -t i o n due to emotional components but there i s l i t t l e doubt that t h i s i s i n p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some of the inadequate - 109 -social and school adjustments of these children. Training of Staff As i s common to a l l agencies, there i s a need for more trained workers to serve these children and their families. Their situations deviate from the "normal" and the "typical" and require knowledge and s k i l l on the part of those who serve them in social agencies. Classification of the Children The children receiving care in the group and subsi-dized boarding homes have been divided into the following categories 1. 2. 3-4. 6. 7. 8. Emotionally disturbed children who have not become delinquent but who do show signs of maladjustment which may lead to future neuroses or psychoses. Children whose activities verge upon or are delinquent. Children who have known a series of unsuccess-f u l foster home placements. Children whose natural parents are s t i l l interested in them and cannot see them forming attachments with foster parents. Teen-aged children who have recently been removed from their own parents and are them-selves unable to accept foster parents. Babies for whom no long term plan has been made. Babies for whom adoptive homes have not been found. Babies considered to be "unadoptable" for various reasons. - 110 -9* C h i l d r e n and habies who could w e l l be placed i n f o s t e r homes. The group homes are g e n e r a l l y doing a commendable job I n meeting the needs of such a v a r i e d group of c h i l d r e n as i s to be found i n each home. However, these homes are not equipped to de a l w i t h c h i l d r e n who f i t i n t o the f i r s t and second c a t e g o r i e s . There i s no s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d s t a f f i n these homes to de a l con-s t r u c t i v e l y w i t h the c o n t i n u a l problems these c h i l d r e n c r e a t e . I n answer to the question—What do d i s t u r b e d e h i l -1 dren need?—Helen Hagau has s t a t e d : These c h i l d r e n need an environment th a t i s the r a p e u t i c i n i t s every aspect. They need a new and g r a t i f y i n g experience of l i v i n g , and they need r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n who, w h i l e g i v i n g acceptance and tole r a n c e of d e v i a t i o n , w i l l a l s o provide c o n t r o l s a g a i n s t anxiety-producing impulses. They need a s p e c i a l program of remedial educa-t i o n which i s geared to give them a c o r r e c t i v e school experience not only academically, but a l s o w i t h regard to t h e i r f e e l i n g s about s c h o o l . They need c r e a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s as necessary o u t l e t s f o r dammed-up energies. In other words, what these c h i l d r e n  need i s a the r a p e u t i c " m i l i e u " where i n d i v i d u a l  psychotherapy i s but one of the many c o r r e c t i v e  experiences i n the r e d i r e c t i n g of the c h i l d ' s  emotional development. This s p e c i a l " m i l i e u " cannot be arranged i n the present group homes of the Agency. The necessary s t a f f f o r such a 1 Hagan, Helen R., " R e s i d e n t i a l Treatment," J o u r n a l of  the C h i l d Welfare League of America» V o l . 31> No. 1, January, 1952, C h i l d Welfare League of America, I n c . , p. 3, Under-l i n i n g by w r i t e r . - I l l -programme i s l a c k i n g . A l s o the necessary funds are l a c k i n g . The group homes could not begin to i n c l u d e a school pro-gramme w i t h i n the homes. At present, these c h i l d r e n attend r e g u l a r community scho o l s . The c h i l d r e n are f r e e to come and go w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s . They are i n no sense p h y s i -c a l l y removed from the community of Vancouver. Some emotion-a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n need to be removed from the community — f o r t h e i r own sakes as w e l l as f o r those i n the community. The needs of c h i l d r e n i n ca t e g o r i e s t h r e e , f o u r and f i v e can and are being met i n the group homes. Frequently these c h i l d r e n may need a s t a b l e environment where too many demands w i l l not be put upon them. They p a r t i c u l a r l y need an environment where there are no c l o s e p a r e n t a l t i e s such as i n a f o s t e r home. C h i l d r e n may be placed f o l l o w i n g a s e r i e s of unhappy f o s t e r home placements or f o l l o w i n g removal from t h e i r own homes i n order t h a t they may be studi e d and observed to determine the best p o s s i b l e type of care f o r each c h i l d . The value of group care f o r the remaining four c a t e -g o r i e s i s not so c l e a r . Babies need i n d i v i d u a l c a r e . When a long term p l a n i s l a c k i n g f o r a baby because of the unmarried mother's i n d e c i s i o n i n regard t o the f u t u r e of the c h i l d , every e f f o r t must be made to help t h a t mother see the n e c e s s i t y f o r an immediate d e c i s i o n . A baby considered "unadoptable" f o r various h e a l t h reasons i s l i k e l y a c h i l d t h a t needs more i n d i v i d u a l time and a t t e n t i o n than a c h i l d - 112 -in good health. If adoption' placement i s not being consid-ered, there is no reason why foster home placement cannot be the alternative. The reasons for the decision that these children are "unadoptable" are further questions of concern. Children with physical handicaps born to parents who cannot or w i l l not keep them might be placed with foster or adop-tive parents who wish to have children. In any case, group care would not seem to be the best answer for the needs of these children. Babies for whom no adoptive home can be found pre-sent a d i f f i c u l t problem to any agency. The babies i n the study for whom adoptive homes are lacking are those of mixed racial origin. This in i t s e l f raises the whole area of feelings and prejudices about various races and particularly mixed races. If agency programmes of interpretation to the community have not provided a sufficient supply of such homes in Vancouver and the rest of British Columbia there may be a need for co-ordination of such placements on a nation-wide basis. It may be that homes could be found for these children in other provinces. Foster Home Shortages There are many reasons for shortages of foster homes. People in Vancouver—prospective foster parents-may not be aware of this need and could possible be reached through more intensive and extensive community interpretation. The present remuneration for foster home care has long been - 113 -recognized as inadequate. With increased payment to f o s t e r parents for t h e i r service to children i t i s very probable that many more homes would become a v a i l a b l e . Prevention of Dependency There i s another dimension on the question of the care of children. I t includes the whole area of the preven-t i o n of dependency of children. I t i s the preservation of family l i f e . This includes a whole myriad of services to f a m i l i e s , a few of which are c i t e d : — b e t t e r community hous-ing programmes; f u l l employment or means for providing ade-quate s o c i a l insurance to the unemployed; premarital counsel-l i n g ; adequate service to families i n d i f f i c u l t y — e c o n o m i -c a l l y and/or emotionally. Where there has been a death of a parent i n a family, the surviving parent might be helped to keep the children i n the home. A programme of house-keeper service to widowers may be part of the answer. Fi n a n c i a l assistance to mothers when they are l e f t with the t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e i r children would prevent other children from becoming wards of agencies. Both these serv-ices are lacking i n Vancouver and the need for them seems to be apparent. There i s also a need f o r further services to Vancouver families with problems. Community f a c i l i t i e s f o r t his service are not at the present time meeting t h i s need. Part of the answer may be extended service. Another facet may be greater co-ordiantion and co-operation between existing services. - 114 -Recommendations It appears that the existing resources for c h i l d care i n Vancouver are not adequate to meet the needs of a l l the c h i l d r e n i n care. Areas discussed previously that are found to be lacking are summarized i n the following l i s t . 1. There i s need f o r a treatment centre f o r disturbed children. There are many disturbed childr e n i n Vancouver and B r i t i s h Columbia who are i n need of immediate service that such an i n s t i t u t i o n could provide. 2. There i s need for more trained s t a f f i n a l l agencies. The worker with a knowledge of human behaviour and spe c i a l s k i l l s i n working with people i s better equipped to recognize and treat problems of people—both i n early and l a t e r phases of those problems. 3. There i s need f o r greater co-ordination and co-operation of exis t i n g services. The common goal of service to children demands the co-operation and co-ordination of a l l interested i n the welfare of children, e.g. s o c i a l workers, teachers, doctors, psychi-a t r i s t s , nurses, etc. 4. There i s a need f o r more foster homes. In l i n e with t h i s there i s also a need f o r more adequate remuneration for the service offered by foster parents. With further remuneration for t h i s service, there i s a necessity f o r greater vig i l a n c e i n the s e l e c t i o n of foster parents i n order that t h e i r paramount i n t e r e s t i s to serve c h i l d r e n — n o t to obtain money. 5. There i s a need to use group homes and subsi-dized boarding homes only when they serve the c h i l d better than any other placement the Agency can o f f e r . This i s rela t e d to the lack of foster homes as only with a s u f f i c i e n t supply of good foster homes can such practice be followed. 6. There i s a need f o r further research i n the prevention,of dependency. L i t t l e has been done to determine the causes of dependency, - 115 -consequently the need for services to children continues to grow. So c i a l workers do not control the whole f i e l d of c h i l d w e l f a r e — t h e y share i t with those of other services. Only through further co-operation with these services and the community, of which the s o c i a l workers and the children are a part, can s o c i a l workers play t h e i r part i n the pro-v i s i o n of the best possible service to children, whatever th e i r area of need. - 116 -Appendix A The table i s an accumulation of the material obtained i n the study of thirty-nine children's'and par-ents' case records. Where blanks occur i n the table the information was not obtainable i n the case records or i n other Agency records. An explanation of the headings follows: Code No. (C.N.) — Code number used to i d e n t i f y the case or c h i l d . Sex (S.) — Sex of the c h i l d . Age (A.) — Age of the c h i l d in'years at birthday previous to October 31, 1954. For children under one year the age i s indicated i n months. Age-Into Care (A.I.C.) — The ch i l d ' s age i n years (or months where indicated) when he was admitted to the care of the Society. Age at Wardship (A.A.W.) — The ch i l d ' s age i n years (or months where indicated) when the Agency became h i s l e g a l guardian by Court order. Race (R.) — Refers to r a c i a l o r i g i n of c h i l d or s p e c i f i c n a t i o n a l i t i e s where given. The following abbreviations are used to designate various n a t i o n a l i t i e s . Where more than one national derivitave i s known to exis t they are grouped together. Ch.—Chinese lex.—Mexican Dan.—Danish N.A.I.—North American Du.—Dutch Indian E . — E n g l i s h O r . — O r i e n t a l F i n n . — F i n n i s h Scav.—Scandinavian F r . — F r e n c h S c . — S c o t t i s h Ger.—German Sw.—Swedish I r . — I r i s h Ukr.—Ukrainian I t . — I t a l i a n Wei.—Welch Jap.—Japanese - 1 1 7 -Birthplace (B.) — Province i n which the c h i l d was born. The following abbreviations are used. A l t a . — A l b e r t a B. C . — B r i t i s h Columbia Man.—Manitoba Sask.—Saskatchewan U.S.A.—United States of America Ho. of Placements (#P.) — Number of placements t h i s c h i l d has had since being apprehended or coming into care of the Society. This includes a l l foster home placements, ho s p i t a l placements, group home placements and camp placements where the c h i l d was placed i n a new foster home upon his return from camp. No. of Sc. Wks. (#S.W.) — Number of s o c i a l workers the c h i l d has had since coming into care. Length of time i n G.H. or S.B.H. (L.T. i n G.H. or S.B.H.) Length of time that the c h i l d has spent i n a group home or subsidized boarding home as of October, 3 1 s t , 1954. This does not include any time the c h i l d may have spent i n t h i s setting previous to t h i s placement. School Grade (S.G.) — School grade of c h i l d as of October 3 1 s t , 1954. Information Concerning Parents of Chi l d Age & Race Moth. (A. & R. moth.) — Age and race or nation-a l i t y of mother. The age of mother i s as of October 3 1 s t , 1954. Where mother i s dead age at death i s given and death Is thus i n d i c a t e d — ( d d ) . The same abbreviations are used for race or n a t i o n a l i t y as were used for race or n a t i o n a l i t y of the c h i l d . Age & Race Path. (A. & R. fath.) — Age of father as of. October 3 1 s t , 1954. Where father i s dead age at death i s given and death of father i s thus i n d i c a t e d — ( d d ) . The race or n a t i o n a l i t y of father i s indicated by use of the same abbreviations as were used for race and n a t i o n a l i t y of c h i l d . M a r i t a l Status (M.S.) — Marital status i s given i n r e l a t i o n to the mother as of October 3 1 s t , 1954. The following abbreviations are used. C. L.—Common Law (explained f u l l y i n test)—mother l i v i n g with man, no leg a l marriage and not necessarily the father of the c h i l d . - 118 -Div.—Mother and father divorced. (See remarried.) Mar.—Mother married to and l i v i n g with father of c h i l d . Rem.—Mother and father divorced or father dead and mother remarried. Sep.—Mother separated from or not l i v i n g with father. U.M.—Unmarried mother—mother and father of c h i l d not married or l i v i n g together. Wid.—Widowed—used i n reference to both the mother and father as i n two cases the mother i s dead and the father i s widowed. Referral ( R . ) — Source of o r i g i n a l r e f e r r a l of family to the Agency. The following abbreviations are used: G.S.S.—City S o c i a l Service of Vancouver. C H . — C o u r t House P.CS.—Family and Children's Service of V i c t o r i a . F.W.B.—Family F/elfare Bureau of Vancouver. N . C — N e g l e c t complaint from c i t i z e n of Vancouver, unless otherwise q u a l i f i e d . D.H.—Juvenile Detention Home. Par.—Parent or Step parent of c h i l d . J>ol.— P o l i c e . "P.B.H.—Private Boarding Home for children. P.M.H.—Provincial Mental Hospital. St. V.H.—St. Vincent's Hospital, Vancouver. S.A.H.—Salvation Army Home f o r Unmarried Mothers. S.W.B.—Social Welfare Branch of the Province. U.C.H.—United Church Home V.G.H.—Vancouver General Hospital. Siblings (S.) — Number of children of mother as recorded i n the record. No. of Sib. In-care (#S. i n C ) — Number of s i b l i n g s (of mother) i n the care of the Agency. Stated Religion (S.R.) — R e l i g i o n of parents as stated i n record. S p e c i f i c r e l i g i o u s denomination given i n some instances otherwise Protestant. The following abbrevi-ations have been used: Ang.—Anglican Bap.—Baptist Bud.—Buddist Gk. Or.—Greek Orthodox Luth.—Lutheran N.P.R.C—Non-practicing Roman Catholic P res.—Presbyterian P r o t . — P r o t e s t a n t Family D e t a i l C.N. s. A. A.I.C. A.A.W. R. B. # P. • # SW L.T.in GH or S.G. A.& R. Moth. A.& R. Fath . M.S. R. S. # s. In.C i • 1 s . R SBH 1 M 11 y r s 11 y r s 11 y r s E BC 4 3 1 Mo 7 36 E 41- E Rem SWB 2 1 P r o t 2 M 2 mo 2 wks 2 mo E BC 1 1 2 mo 38 E 50s ' E U.M. Van 1 1 Ang 3 M 13 y r s 2 mo 2g- mo Mex.Fr. BC 6 11 1-1/3 Y 3-| mo 6§ mo 4 i mo Sp.Class 27 Mex.Fr . Unknown C-L SWB 1 1 Prot 4 M 4 mo 2 wks 1 mo Ch.Ir. BC 2 1 23 Ch 23 I r U.M. FCS 1 1 Prot 5 M 9 mo 1 mo 2 mo E.&Sw. BC 3 2 22 E 25 Sw Mar FWB 3 1 Ang 6 M 10 y r s 10 y r s 10 y r s I r . BC 1 2 6 35 I r Unknown D i v PAR 2 1 Prot 7 M 8 y r s Sj y r s 3 i y r s E.&Scan BC 9 5 3 mo 3 28 E 35 Scan Sep PBH 3 3 Prot 8 M 4 mo If- mo 3 mo I r . BC 1 1 3 mo 18 I r 24 U.M. VGH 1 1 Prot 9 M 4 mo 1 mo 2 mo E. S c . I r . BC 2 1 3 mo 17 Sc 20 I r U.M. UCH 1 1 Prot 10 M 5 mo 5 wks 6 wks Ch.E. BC 1 1 4 mo 25 E :- Ch C-L PAR 4 1 NPRC 11 M 8 mo 111 mo 2\ mo Ukr Be 2 1 6^ mo 25 Ukr 28 Ukr U.M. PAR 1 1 GrOr 12 F 2 mo 2 wks 2 mo E.Sc. NAI NAI or Or BC 1 1 2 mo 25 E.Sc. -:c- or Or U.M. PAR 3 >1 Ang 13 F 4 mo 2 wks 2 mo NAI, F r 3^ mo NAI or I t BC 1 1 18 F r . 22 I t C-L PAR 1 1 NPRC 14 F 6 mo 2 wks 5 Wks E BC 3 1 5 mo 18 E U.M. FWB 1 1 P r o t 15 F 4 mo 2 wks 2 mo E. Ch. BC 1 1 3^ mo 26 E 21 Ch U.M. SAH 1 1 UC 16 F 5 mo ljt mo 3 mo Ge BC 1 1 3 mo 20 Ge * U.M. VGH 1 1 Luth 17 M 11 6 6 Sw BC 5 5 2 wks 4 37 Sw 56 Sw Mar VGH 2 2 Lutft 18 M 13 6 2/3 7 E.Sc. Sc. N.A.I. BC 13 4 1 mo 4 34 E 36 N.A.I. D i v . N.C. 1 1 Luth 19 M 14 12 13 E.Wei. BC 2 2 Sp.Class 36 E 38 Wei Rem JDH 2 1 Ang 20 M 13 5 6 F r . BC 7 9 l W 6 33 F r 40 E Sep PAR 3 3 Pr o t 21 M 14 5 10 E. I r . BC 8 5 2 i y r 6 45 E . I r . dd 43 E Wid PAR 4 1 Pres 22 K 11 5 5 E. Dan. ALTA 12 3 2 mo 5 30 E 42 Dan C-L POL 5 1 Pr o t 23 M 15 3 4 F i n n BC 10 9 1 y r 6 36 -"- 52 F i n n Sep PBH 3 1 Luth 24 M 8 3 3 3/4 # ONT 3 4 2 mo 2 26 30 Sep CH 2 2 Pr o t 25 M 9 2 2 E.& Du. BC 9 11 3^ mo 3 45 E 48 Du C.L. FWB 14 6 Pr o t 26 M 10 3 3 E.& Du. BC 12 7 1 to y r 3 45 E 48 Du C L . FWB 14 6 Pr o t 27 F 14 13 13 Sc. BC 8 3 1 mo 9 44 Sc dd 50 Sc Rem PAR 7 2 P r o t 28 F 14 10 10 E.,N.A.I. E l i y r I r . MAN 8 , 4 1 mo 7 44 N.A.I. 41 I r Sep NC 7 1 P r o t 29 F 8 1 mo F r . , F r . ,E N.A.I. N.A.I.,E BC 13 10 10 mo 3 29 E U.M. StVH 3 2 Ang Prot i 30 F 15 12 13 E BC 6 5 3 mo 9 dd 38 44 E_ Wid. PMH 5, 5 31 F 13 12 12 E SASK 1 1 5 mo 9 42 E 56 E Rem PAR 4 2 P r o t 32 F 13 10 11 E BC 6 5 3 mo 7 dd 38 E 44 E WId PMH 5 5 F r e t 33 F 15 5 5 E ONT 16 12 11 mo _ - 9 48 E 69 E Mar CSS 5 4 Bap P r o t 34 F 14 13 14 Sc BC 1 2 11 mo Oppor. C l a s s 35 Sc 45 * C-L NC 1 1 35 F 13 13 13 Sc USA 2 2 2 mo 8 -«- * 36 Sc Div NC 4 1 P r o t 36 F 12 1 5/6 3 E BC 4 12 1 mo Sp.Class 39 E 40 E Sep PAR 4 3 Pr o t 37 F 7 5 6 F r . I r . E . BC 2 1 11 mo 1 38 E . I r 50 F r C-L PBH 9 8 Pr o t 38 F 13 12 13 Jap BC 1 2 7 mo 8 dd 57 Jap dd 59 Jap Dead POL 3 1 Bud 39 i F 9 4 4 11/12 E.Scan. BC 9 4 1 l / 3 y r 3 38 E 35 Scan Sep PBH 3 3 P r o t No i n f o r m a t i o n on Agency Records. - 119 -Appendix B Reasons for Placement and Problems of the Children Code No. Reason f o r subsidized i hoarding home placement No. 2 . Mother l e f t Vancouver but Caesarian b i r t h . planned to take the c h i l d C h i l d i n good health. eventually. She hoped to marry putative father who was attempting to divorce his wife. Did not have Mother's adoption consent. No. 4. Placed i n S.B.H. while Agency Chinese-Irish r a c i a l workers were looking for o r i g i n . C h i l d i n adoptive home. Had mother's good health. adoption consent. No. 5. "Doctor f e l t c h i l d not ready f o r adoption i n view of poor health." Had  parent's adoption consent. No. 8. "Premature so cannot place for adoption u n t i l he has been under more observation for his development." Had  Mother's adoption consent. No. 9« "Doctor advised he be kept for an observation period because of a heart condition. Had mother's adoption consent. No. 10. Baby placed while mother deciding on plan. Short time l a t e r had mother's  adoption consent. Baby has spent almost two months In h o s p i t a l with diarrhoea. Other-wise developing norm-a l l y . Premature. B i r t h weight 3 pounds 1 ounce. Adoption placement "contraindicated by the c h i l d ' s physical .condition. Chinese-English r a c i a l o r i g i n . Unable to f i n d adop-ti o n home. No. 11. Placed as mother had l e f t Vancouver,and Agency did  not have her adoption consent. Child i n excellent health. 1 The 12 babies or children under the age of one year have been grouped separately. - 120 -Reason for subsidized Code No. boarding home placement* No. 12. Mother planning to marry — n o t putative f a t h e r — and wanted baby placed temporarily while she established h e r s e l f . Mother would not give  adoption consent. No. 13. Mother and father sepa-rated and mother l i v i n g with another man. Mother wanted adoption  placement, however father  refusing. No. 14. Adoption plan "contra-indicated by family his t o r y of mental retardation and the ch i l d ' s physical condi-t i o n . " Had mother's  adoption consent. No. 15. Mother has most unreal-i s t i c plans for baby. Application for c h i l d not granted. Did not have  mother's consent for  adoption. No. 16. " C h i l d kept f o r observa-t i o n period. Mother now missing. Had mother's  request for adoption. Mixed r a c i a l o r i g i n . Mother's applications fo r return of c h i l d not as yet granted. Mixed r a c i a l o r i g i n — French, Indian and I t a l i a n . "Poor "heredity". Club foot, lung and heart condition. Prognosis on heart condition poor." English and Chinese r a c i a l o r i g i n . Caesarian b i r t h . Although f u l l term baby, weighed 3 pounds 11 ounces at b i r t h . - 121 -Reason for placement of Child over six years of age i n subsi-dized boarding home or Code No. group home.  No. 1 . "Needs neutral environ-ment such as the group home as he has been rejected by both his mother and father." Problems exhibited by c h i l d .  Stealing; poor school adjustment—truant; l y i n g ; running away; crue l to younger c h i l -dren. No. 3. Had proved very d i f f i -c u l t to manage i n p r e v i -ous foster home. As "mother" i n S.B.H. "had previous experience with d i f f i c u l t boys" i t was decided to place him here. No. 6. Very withdrawn c h i l d ; lacking i n f e e l i n g of worth; needed masculine i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Had many private placements by mother so Agency did not want to r i s k poor place-ment. Destructive; determined; stubborn; poor school adjustment. Lying; s t e a l i n g ; with-drawn; lack of trust i n adults. No. 7 . Needed observation aft e r so many moves ( 9 ). Did not want to r i s k another poor placement. No. 1 7 . Had to be moved immedi-ately from foster home. Needed a stable environ-ment. Rejected i n foster homes where s i s t e r was, preferred. No. 1 8 . Placed here a f t e r return from a treatment centre i n United States. No. 1 9 . "Decided he should be placed i n (group home) on t r i a l basis." Had been kept i n Juvenile Deten-t i o n Home longer than t h e i r rules allowed. Enuresis; d i f f i c u l t to d i s c i p l i n e ; disobedient. Stealing; occasional bed wetting and day time wetting; poor school adjustment; set-ting of f i r e s . Severe behaviour prob-lems; setting f i r e s ; s t e a l i n g , running away; poor school adjustment. Stealing; setting f i r e s ; running away; unaccept-ing of d i s c i p l i n e of parents. - 122 -Code No. Reason for placement No. 20. Needed psy c h i a t r i c t r e a t -ment. Received play therapy under d i r e c t i o n of p s y c h i a t r i s t . Given up by foster parents who had previously considered adoption. No. 21. Very emotionally d i s -turbed. Placed on tre a t -ment basis. L i f e had been dominated mostly by women except for cruel treatment he had received from father. Numerous placements by own family and„Agency. No. 22. Unable to f i n d a good foster home for t h i s c h i l d . No. 23. Mentally retarded. Fos-ter parents could no longer cope with him. Attempts to place him i n Woodlands f a i l e d . No.. 24. Needed intensive t r e a t -ment. Was not doing well i n foster home. No. 25. So many foster home f a i l u r e s thought that group home best for him. Also continued i n t e r e s t of mother plus associa-t i o n with brother then i n home made this advisable. Problems exhibited by c h i l d .  Stealing; sex play; masturbation to the extent of physical hurt; screaming f i t s ; jealous of other c h i l -dren; wandered away from home; day dreaming; poor school adjustment. Effeminate t r a i t s ; s t e a l i n g ; sex play; day dreaming; poor school adjustment. Disobedient; cheeky; bossy; temper tantrums,; l y i n g ; fantasy about own mother. Child sick great deal with numerous stomach upsets; s o i l i n g and wetting; mentally retarded; setting f i r e s ; poor school adjustment. Fantasy, destructive; enuresis; setting f i r e s ; s t e a l i n g ; temper tan-trums; talks constantly of k i l l i n g and death; concerned about r e c o l -l e c t i o n s of r e j e c t i o n i n own home. Poor school adjustment; setting f i r e s ; s t e a l i n g ; slow mentally; insecure; tense; f e e l s discrimin-ated against by a l l — almost paranoid. - 123 -Code No. Reason for placement No. 26. " I t was f e l t that he was not ready f o r another foster home placement i n view of the past two s i t u -ations he had been i n and L that i t would be advisable to t r y and have him admit-ted to the Children's Home.' Problems exhibited by c h i l d  Stubborn; setting f i r e s ; enuresis; destructive; disobedient; untruth-f u l ; w i l f u l l y destruc-t i v e . No. 27. Lack of good foster homes for teen-age g i r l . Used as "maid" i n several suc-cessive foster home place ments. Sulky; moody; vi o l e n t temper; w i l l resort to f i s t s when annoyed. No. 28. Could not adjust to foster Unuresis; temper tan-homes (8 placements). Too trums; steal i n g ; many problems and generally unable to sleep; not able to form l a s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s with foster parents. No. 29. Needed stable environment af t e r 13 placements. No. 3C• Placed i n group home after extremely poor foster home placement. Own father v i s i t s . defiant; swears exces-s i v e l y ; "seduced" fo s -ter parent's 15 year old son; also "seduced" boys i n neighbourhood of foster home. Chil d conscious and ashamed of being part Indian. Lacks f e e l -ings of worth; sex play with animals; needs to command and control; aggressive behaviour; s t e a l i n g ; loud. Enuresis; high strung; sex play. No. 31. Placed while looking for suitable foster home. No. 32. Placed i n group home after extremely poor foster home placement. Own father v i s i t s . Sullen i f she does not get own way; run-ning away. Poor school adjust-ment; sex play. - 124 -Code No. Reason.for placement Problems exhibited by c h i l d No. 33, No. 34, No. 35. No. 36. NO. 37. No. 38. No. 39. Temporary placement for Talkative and noisy; period of observation while tense; nervous; d i s -looking for foster home. obedient; stealing; swearing excessively; temper tantrums; moody. Stealing; Since she had never known routine found i t d i f f i c u l t to accept. Poor personal hygiene; ste a l i n g ; unable to accept l i m i t s ; d i f f i -c u lty i n r e l a t i n g to adults; Fantasy re own family. Enuresis; bossy; poor school adjustment. Placed i n many private homes by own mother so put i n group home f o r s t a b i l i t y . Did not do well i n fos-ter homes. In view of this and past rejections placed her i n group home, Following removal from poor foster home place-ment that had lasted ten years thought she would need period of adjustment and observation. Foster parents could not Masturbation; wandering cope with severe behav- away from foster home; iour problems. "Child aggressive, needed special treatment." Placed "temporarily" while Stealing; e p i l e p t i c . father was i n ho s p i t a l — h e died. Has refused a l l f oster home plans to date. Needed stable environment after nine placements. Enuresis; nightmares; disobedient; uncon-t r o l l a b l e ; confused regarding r e l i g i o n after placement with s t r i c t family that had "saved" her. - 125 -Appendix B This chart has been used to check the d i s t r i b u t i o n of problems for the children over s i x years of age. The Code numbers specify the c h i l d being considered. Code Numbers Stealing Poor School Adjustment Swearing Lying Running Away Cruel to Children Destructive Defiant Temper Tantrums Disobedient Enuresis Masturbating Sex Play Setting Fires Nightmares Fantasy (excessive) Moody X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X - X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X x X X X SL X X X X x X X, X X X X X x X X X X X X X X X :. 1 X X X - 126 -Appendix C LEGAL PROVISION FOR APPREHENSION AND WARDSHIP Sp e c i f i c reference to the thir t y - n i n e cases. Section 7: The Superintendent and every person who i s authorized i n writing by the Superintendent, every con-stable or o f f i c e r of the P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e or of any municipal p o l i c e , and every Probation O f f i c e r , may appre-hend, without warrant, and bring before a Judge, as needing protection, any c h i l d apparently under the age of eighteen years who i s within any of the following classes or descriptions:-(a) Who i s found begging i n any street, house, or place of public resort, whether ac t u a l l y begging or under pretext of s e l l i n g or of f e r i n g anything for sale: (b) Who i s found sleeping at night i n other than proper housing accomodation and without proper adult supervision: (c) Who i s found associating or dwelling with a t h i e f , drunkard, or vagrant, or who, by reason of neglect or drunkenness or other vices of the parents or guardians, i s suffered to grow up without salutary parental control and education, or i n circumstances exposing such c h i l d to an i d l e or dissolute l i f e : (d) Who i s found i n any disorderly house, or i n com-pany of people reputed to be criminal, immoral, or disorderly: (e) Who i s an orphan without adequate protection f o r his upbringing: (f) Who has been deserted by h i s parents: (g) Who i s found g u i l t y of petty crimes, and who i s l i k e l y to develop criminal tendencies i f not removed from his surroundings; - 127 -(h) Who is found wandering about at late hours and not having any home or settled place of abode or proper guardianship: (i) Who i s , whether residing with his parents or not, incorrigible or who cannot be controlled by his parents: (j) Whose only parent or whose parents are undergoing imprisonment: (k) Whose home by reason of neglect, cruelty, or depravity i s an unfit place for the child, or who has no proper guardianship, or who has no parent capable of exercising proper parental control: (1) Who is subject to such blindness, deafness, feeble-mindedness, or physical di s a b i l i t y as i s li k e l y to make him a charge upon the public, or who is exposed to infection from tuberculosis or from venereal disease where proper precau-tions to prevent infection are not taken, or who is suffering from such a lack of medical or surgical care as is l i k e l y to interfere with his normal development: (m) Who, by reason of the action of his parents or otherwise, is habitually truant from school and is liable to grow up without proper education: (n) Who is neglected so as to be in a state of habit-ual vagrancy or mendicancy: (o) Who i s il l - t r e a t e d so as to be in p e r i l in respect of l i f e , health, or morality by continued personal injury, or by grave misconduct or habitual intemperance of•the parents. 1943, c . 5 , s .7 ; 194-5, c.9, s . 2 . The apprehension of children is generally carried out under Section 7> subsection "k" of the "Protection of Children Act." In practice, the part reading "who has no parent capable of exercising proper parental control" is most frequently used. The reason for this is that this is the easiest to prove in Court and further i t i s less con-demning of the parents than some of the other classes described. This latter consideration is especially - 128 -important where the Agency w i l l continue to work with the family i n the hope of eventually returning the c h i l d to his own home. A l l of the children i n this study have been apprehended under Subsection "k" and generally the phrase "who has no parent capable of exercising proper parental control" i s the only part used. - 129 -Appendix D Sample of Schedule Used f o r the Survey - 130 -Appendix E BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Abbott, Grace, The C h i l d and the S t a t e , V o l s . 1 and 2, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 1938. Angus, Anne Margaret, C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, B.C.. 1901-1951, Vancouver, 1951. deSchweinitz, K a r l , England's Road to S o c i a l S e c u r i t y . U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania P r e s s , P h i l a d e l p h i a ; Humphrey M i l f o r d ; Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , London, 1943. Great B r i t a i n , Care of C h i l d r e n Committee, Report. His Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , (1946) Cmd. 6922. (Myra C u r t i s , chairman). Lundberg, Emma Octa v i a , Unto the Least of These, D. Appleton-Century Co., New York, 1947. Mackay, Thomas, A H i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h Poor Law. From I034 to the Present Time, V o l . 3 , P.S. King and Son, London, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1899. Thurston, Henry, The Dependent C h i l d , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1930. A r t i c l e s Blackburn, C l a r k W., "Long Time Temporary Placement: A D i s c u s s i o n , " J o u r n a l of the C h i l d Welfare League of  America, V o l . 31, No. 1, January, 1952, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc. Burns, P h y l l i s K., "Group Care of C h i l d r e n — A Challenge to the Community," Canadian Welfare, V o l . 29, No. 1, May 1, 1953, Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Ottawa. Hagan, Helen R., " R e s i d e n t i a l Treatment," J o u r n a l of the  C h i l d Welfare League of America, V o l . 31, No. 1, January, 1952, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc. Johnson, L i l l i a n J . , " I n s t i t u t i o n s I n R e l a t i o n s h i p to the Community," B u l l e t i n of the C h i l d Welfare League of  America, V o l . 26, No. 6, June, 1947, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc. - 1 3 1 -Lenroot, Katharine F., "Community Planning and C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Behalf of C h i l d r e n and Youth," The  C h i l d , V o l . 1 8 , No. 1 2 , December, 1 9 5 0 , U.S. Dept. of H e a l t h , Education and Welfare. Markley, Oscar B., "Assets and L i a b i l i t i e s i n Group L i v i n g f o r C h i l d r e n , " B u l l e t i n of the C h i l d Welfare League of  America, V o l . 1 9 , No. 3 , March, 1940, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc. Radinsky, E l i z a b e t h K., "Dilemmas Faced i n Planning f o r the C h i l d Needing S p e c i a l Foster Care," C h i l d Welfare. V o l . 3 0 , No. 6 , June, 1 9 5 1 , C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc. Richman, Leon H., " R e s p o n s i b i l i t y For and Use of I n t e r i m and Emergency Placement," B u l l e t i n of the C h i l d Welfare League of America, V o l . 2 6 , No. 1 , January, 1 9 4 7 , C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc. Smith, M a r j o r i e J . , "An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the H i s t o r i c a l Development of C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n I n Canada," C h i l d  P r o t e c t i o n i n Canada, Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Ottawa, Smith, M a r j o r i e J . , " C h i l d r e n Are S p e c i a l , " B r i t i s h Columbia  Welfare, V o l . 1 0 , No. 9 , March, 1 9 5 3 , Dept. of Health and Welfare, S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Vancouver. Wolkomir, B e l l e , "The Unadoptable Baby Achieves Adoption," B u l l e t i n of the C h i l d Welfare League of America, V o l . 2 6 , No. 2 , February, 194?, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc. S t a t u t e s B r i t i s h Columbia, Revised S t a t u t e s 1948, Chapter 47. 

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