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Soils of the Doukhobor (former CCUB) lands of British Columbia Van Ryswyk, Albert L. 1955

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SOILS OF THE DOUKHOBOR (FORMER COUB) LANDS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by ALBERT L. VAN RYSWYK A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the Department of S o i l Science We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE Members of the Department of THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1955 11 S o i l s of the Doukhobor (Former CCUB) Lands of B r i t i s h Columbia A b s t r a c t The s o i l s of the Doukhobor lands of B r i t i s h Columbia were s t u d i e d as a p a r t of a researc h p r o j e c t undertaken by f a c u l t y members of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia at the request of the Attorney General of the P r o v i n c e . ' These lands comprise about 12,0*72 acres that occur i n 16 p a r c e l s or communities i n two gener-a l areas, 5£27 aores near Grand Forks and 13,5^5 aores i n the West Kootenay area. S o i l surveys of these areas were conducted during the summers of 1953- and 1952* They were t r a v e r s e d by automobile and on fo o t and the s o i l type boundaries and r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n p l o t t e d on a e r i a l photographs of the sc a l e of about one mile to 13 inches. From these photographs, s o i l maps were prepared of the scale of hoo f e e t to the Inch. I n the course of the f i e l d operations bulk and undisturbed s o i l p r o f i l e samples were c o l l e c t e d from the more important s o i l types and test6 were conducted r e l a t i v e to i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s and f i e l d moisture c a p a c i t i e s . The s o i l p r o f i l e samples were used i n the i l l laboratory during the winters f or the determination of s o i l reaction, organic carbon, nitrogen, mechanical composition, apparent speoiflo gravity, pore size d i s t r i b u t i o n , permanent w i l t i n g percentage and other properties. The more important s o i l s of the val l e y s at Grand Forks were found to belong to the Black s o i l group while those i n the West Kootenay were classed as Brown Podzolio. Small areas of G l e i s o i l s were also found. The s o i l parent materials were c h i e f l y alluvium, g l a c i a l t i l l and t i l l derivatives and a l l u v i a l fan. From t h i s information s o i l series were te n t a t i v e l y named and described. The Black s o i l s have reactions ranging from about pH 7 i n the A-^  horizon to pH g.5 i n the 0 h o r i -zon where free lime occured, In reaction the Brown Podzolio s o i l s were acid i n a l l horizons and free lime was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y absent. The organic carbon content of the Black s o i l s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher and the carbon to nitrogen r a t i o narrower than that of the Brown Podzolio s o i l s . The mechanical analysis showed the s o i l s to be low i n clay and s i l t and high i n sand i n both areas, the exceptions being the s o i l s derived from fine textured alluvium such as the Shoreacres, Glaybrlck and Claypit series. High macro-pore space, i n f i l t r a t i o n Iv r a t e s and h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t i e s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e most of the s o i l s . The f i e l d moisture storage capacity and permanent w i l t i n g percentage values showed that most of the s o i l s have very low a v a i l a b l e moisture storage c a p a c i t i e s whloh s e r i o u s l y l i m i t t h e i r use f o r crop production without i r r i g a t i o n . When the s o i l s were c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r crop production without i r r i g a t i o n , only 3,037 acres or 17 percent of the area was c l a s s e d as a r a b l e , and of t h i s only 321 acres o r 2 peroent was Class 1. The l a n d c l a s s e d as nonarable without i r r i g a t i o n i s s u i t a b l e f o r f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e , water storage, b u i l d i n g s i t e s and other uses. When r a t e d on the b a s i s of i t s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r orop pro-duct i o n w i t h s p r i n k l e r type i r r i g a t i o n 11,053 acres or 5# percent of the t o t a l area was c l a s s i f i e d as s u i t a b l e f o r i r r i g a t i o n but of t h i s only 635 acres or 3 percent was r a t e d as Class 1, I t i s evident that I r r i g a t i o n w i l l be a very Important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the use of these l a n d s . V ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer wishes to extend special thanks to Dr. C, A. Rowles, Chairman, Department of So i l Science, the University of British Columbia under whose direction the f i e l d and laboratory studies were conducted. Appreciation i s also expressed to Dr. D. G. Laird, Professor Emeritus, Department of Soil Science, the University of Brit i s h Columbia and Mr. L, F&rstad, Soil Survey Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture and members of his staff who were particularly helpful with respect to the f i e l d classification, laboratory procedures and in c r i t i c i z i n g portions of the manuscript. The writer also wishes to acknowledge the assistance given by the Department of Lands and Forests, Land Ut i l i z a t i o n Research and Surveys Division of the British Columbia Government i n providing aerial photo-graphs and maps and to Mr. M.T. Drewry of that Division for his assistance In the f i e l d work. Acknowledgment and thanks are also made to the Doukhobor Research Committee of the University of British Columbia and to the Attorney General of Brit i s h Columbia who provided the funds which made the work possible. v i The t o l e r a n c e shown by the Doukhobors themselves while the f i e l d s and yards were being t r a v e r s e d and examined i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. v l i CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . . . . . 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . v INTRODUCTION 1 DOUKHOBORS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA . . . 3 DOUKHOBOR LANDS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 6 DESCRIPTION OF AREAS . . . . . 15 GRAND FORKS . . 15 Location and Extent . • • » 15 Transportation and Amenities . . . . 16 Industry and Development 12 Climate . . . . . 12 Vegetation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Physiography and General Geology . . . . . . . 24 WEST KOOTENAS 26 Location and Extent 26 Transportation and Amenities . . . . . . . . . 22 Industry and Development 3° Climate . . . . 31 Vegetation 35 Physiography and General Geology 3° SOILS kl Methods of F i e l d Survey • 1^ Soi l Class i f icat ion . 50 SOIL DESCRIPTIONS . 57 GRAND FORKS AREA , . 57 Soils Derived from Alluvium • 57 Claypit Series . • 52 Boundary Series . . . . . . . 62 v i l i CONTENTS (oontinued) Page Carson S e r i e s . . . . • 63 D a n v i l l e S e r i e s • 69 Granby S e r i e s Caesar S e r i e s 76 S o i l s Derived from G l a c i a l T i l l and T i l l D e r i v a t i v e s • . 79 Hardy S e r i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Gibbs Series S6 S o i l s Derived from A l l u v i a l Pans 90 Rideau Complex . 90 Miscellaneous S o i l s • . . . . . . . . 92 Bottomland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 S a l i n e Seepage 93 Eroded and Di s s e c t e d Lands . . . . . . . • 9© Rough Mountainous Lands . . . . . . . . . . 97 WEST KOOTENAY AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9^ S o i l s Derived from A l l u v i u m . . . . . . . . . . 9& Shoreacres S e r i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9& Krestova S e r i e s . . . . . . • 102 Champion S e r i e s 10(5 C l a y b r i c k S e r i e s • . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Pass Creek S e r i e s 113 S o i l s Derived from A l l u v i a l Fans . . . . . . . . 116 Glade S e r i e s . . . . . . . . . . 116 Miscellaneous S o i l s • 121 Peat ...! 121 Dune . . . , 121 Eroded and Dis s e c t e d Lands . . . . . . • • 122' Rough Mountainous Lands . . . . . . . . . • 122 SOIL TESTS CONDUCTED IN THE FIELD AND LABORATORY 123 RESULTS OF FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDIES . . . . . . 12*5 Chemical A n a l y s i s . 122 Mechanical Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Apparent S p e c i f i c G r a v i t y , T o t a l , Maoro- and Micro - Pore Space and H y d r a u l i c C o n d u c t i v i t y . 135 F i e l d I n f i l t r a t i o n Rates . . . . . 139 F i e l d Moisture Capacity, Moisture E q u i v a l e n t , Permanent W i l t i n g P o i n t and A v a i l a b l e Moisture l4o i x CONTENTS (Concluded) Page CONCLUSIONS 150 APPENDIX 152 LAND CLASSIFICATION AND RATING- . . . . . . . 152 Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r General Crops Without I r r i g a t i o n 153 Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r General Crops With S p r i n k l e r I r r i g a t i o n . . . . . l 6 l S o i l R a t i n g f o r General Crops w i t h S p r i n k l e r I r r i g a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I06 LITERATURE CITED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 X TABLES Page Table 1 Area of Doukhobor lands i n , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1931 and 1951 . 1 Table 2 U t i l i z a t i o n of Doukhobor lands of B r i t i s h Columbia (1951) 9 Table 3 Climatic data f o r Grand Forks, Nelson Penticton and Kelowna 20 1 Table U- Comparison of evapotranspiration data for Nelson, T r a i l and Grand Forks . . . . . . . . 22 Table 5 Climatiq data f o r West Kootenay stations and Grand Forks . . . . . . • 32 Table 6 Slope and topographic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n • . k-7 Table 1 Drainage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . . . . . . • 4-9 Table &A F i e l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the s o i l s of the Grand Forks area . . . . . . . . . . . . . • 52 Table 6B F i e l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the s o i l s of the West Kootenay area . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Table 9 Carbon, nitrogen and organic matter content of some Grand Forks and West Kootenay s o i l s 130 Table 10A Mechanical composition and textural classes of some Grand Forks s o i l s • 133 Table 10B Mechanical composition and textural classes of some West Kootenay s o i l s . . . . . . . 13^ Table 11 Apparent s p e c i f i c gravity, porosity and hydraulic conductivity of some Grand Forks and West Kootenay s o i l s . . . 137 x i TABLES (Concluded) Page Table 12 F i e l d I n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s found f o r some Grand Forks and West Kootenay s o i l s • . • ikl Table 13 F i e l d moisture c a p a c i t y , moisture e q u i v a l e n t , permanent w i l t i n g p o i n t and a v a i l -able moisture of some Grand Forks s o i l s • . . 1^3 Table ik F i e l d moisture c a p a c i t y , moisture e q u i v a l e n t , permanent w i l t i n g p o i n t and a v a i l -able moisture of some West Kootenay s o i l s • • 144 Table 15 Pore s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n of some Grand Forks and West Kootenay s o i l s . . . » • 1^9 Table 16 U n l r r l g a t e d l a n d c l a s s acreages of Doukhobor lands of B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . . . 155 Table 17 Summary of acreages of s o i l r a t i n g s f o r crops w i t h S p r i n k l e r i r r i g a t i o n . . . • • 160 Table 12 I r r i g a t e d l a n d c l a s s acreages of Doukhobor lands of B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . • 162 Table 19 Ratings and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s . of Doukhobor lands f o r i r r i g a t i o n * . . • . • 167,167 a Table 20 Summary of aoreages of s o i l r a t i n g s f o r orops w i t h s p r i n k l e r i r r i g a t i o n . . . . . . 162 Table 21 S o i l type and l a n d c l a s s acreages: ^ Grand Forks area . • . I n .Pocket , Table 22 S o i l type and l a n d c l a s s acreages: ( ^ West Kootenay area I n PooketA x i i FIGURES AND MAPS Fol l o w i n g Page Figure 1 Sketch map showing l o c a t i o n of former C h r i s t i a n Community of U n i v e r s a l Brotherhood lands s t u d i e d i n the Kootenay and Slmilkameen Land D i e t r i o t s of B r i t i s h Columbia and i n d i c a t i n g some major physiographic features • • . . . . . . . . 6 Figure 2 P r e c i p i t a t i o n and p o t e n t i a l evapo-t r a n s p i r a t i o n at s e l e c t e d s t a t i o n s . . . . . . . 2 1 Figure 3 Pore space and h y d r a u l i c c o n d u o t i v i t y , 1 3 7 Figure k Percent s o l i d m a t e r i a l , a i r and water at f i e l d capaolty . .14-2 Figure 5 Inches of a v a i l a b l e water . . . . . . 1^7 Figure 6 S o i l moisture t e n s i o n curves • • • • lM-g S o i l maps d r a f t e d and p r i n t e d by the Department of Lands and Forests • F i l e d Separately x i i l PLATES Follo w i n g Page P l a t e I A Black s o i l the Hardy s e r i e s , showing average A^ h o r i z o n development • 50 P l a t e I I A Brown P o d z o l i c s o i l p r o f i l e developed on sandy a l l u v i u m and showing a very t h i n Ag h o r i z o n . 5^ P l a t e I I I An i n t r a z o n a l Humic fl-lel p r o f i l e developed on a l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l i n a p o o r l y drained p o s i t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . 55 P l a t e IV Grand Forks area, l o o k i n g east, w i t h the K e t t l e r i v e r winding through f l a t t e r r a c e l a n d . Doukhobor l a n d l i e s n o r t h of the r i v e r where s o i l s of the D a n v i l l e , Carson and C l a y p i t s e r i e s occupy the t e r r a o e e . Foreground i s Hardy stony loam u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 57 P l a t e V A. C l a y p i t s i l t loam on l e v e l to very g e n t l y s l o p i n g topography i n the foreground. B. C l a y p i t s i l t loam p r o f i l e w i t h one foot of dark colo r e d surface s o i l . The top s i x Inches i s c u l t i v a t e d . At about f i v e f e e t a f i n e sand s t r a t a appears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • 5& P l a t e VT A. D a n v i l l e loamy coarse sand w i t h l e v e l topography. B. D a n v i l l e loamy coarse sand showing shallow surface h o r i z o n and g r a v e l l y cobbly s u b s o i l . . . 71 P l a t e V II Slope beyond b u i l d i n g s i l l u s t r a t e s the topography of the Hardy s e r i e s . Hardy loam, s l o p i n g phase grades Into Hardy g r a v e l l y loam, moderately steep phase f o l l o w e d by the steeper slopes of the Hardy stony loam which covers the h i l l - t o p . Foreground i s C l a y p i t s e r i e s . . . . . . 30 xiv PLATES (Continued) F o l l o w i n g Page P l a t e V I I I A. Hardy g r a v e l l y sandy loam, k e t t l e phase, i s not w e l l s u i t e d to c u l t i -v a t i o n . Abandoned orchard I n foreground* B. Hardy g r a v e l l y sandy loam. Note A]i h o r i z o n reduced to s i x inches by e r o s i o n . Parent m a t e r i a l has been p a r t i a l l y worked by water though there i s no d i s t i n c t s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . . , . • &k P l a t e ^ I X Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam showing t y p i c a l landscape i n the West Kootenay where t e r r a c e s r i s e stepwise from the v a l l e y bottoms. Along the mountain can be seen the slumped and eroded kame t e r r a c e s . Fans extend from the er o s i o n g u l l e y s and over the t e r r a c e m a t e r i a l s , , 98 P l a t e X A, L e v e l topography of Shoreacres s i l t loam begins at r i g h t , Krestova loamy sand l i e s on the higher e l e v a t i o n . B, Shoreaores s i l t loam p r o f i l e showing very l i t t l e p r o f i l e development below 16 Inches • 99 P l a t e XI A, Sloping phase of Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam at Ooteshenie, D e r e l i c t orchard pro-? duces very l i t t l e f r u i t now . . . . . . . . . . B, P r o f i l e of Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam; an i d e a l s o i l f o r I r r i g a t i o n , The n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n of wheat grasses and bluegrasses can be seen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 P l a t e X I I Shoreaores f i n e sandy loam. The i r r e g u l a r dark brown bands i n the s u b s o i l are of common ocourence i n t h i s s o i l and a l s o are f r e -quently found i n Krestova loamy sand. The s t e e l c y l i n d e r at the top of the p i o t u r e was used f o r i n f i l t r a t i o n and f i e l d c a p a c i t y s t u d i e s • • • 101 P l a t e X I I I A. L e v e l to gen t l y s l o p i n g topography of Krestova sand. Sparse grass cover w i t h some bare spots showing up B. Forest regrowth on logged over area of Krestova sand. Regeneration I s slow. • • 105 P l a t e XIV A, Krestova coarse sand on a broad f l a t t e r r a c e at Ooteshenie. White patches are o l d sand dunes that have been n e a r l y s t a b i l i z e d by ve g e t a t i o n . XV PLATES (Concluded) F o l l o w i n g Page B, Sand dune at edge of a c l i f f i n . the process of being s t a b i l i z e d by v e g e t a t i o n . These dunes are found.in a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Krestova coarse sand • • • • • • • , 107 P l a t e XV Krestova coarse sand p r o f i l e w i t h shallow development; a droughty s o i l • • • • , 107 P l a t e XVI Champion g r a v e l l y sandy loam, A very poor s o i l without i r r i g a t i o n . Topography i s l e v e l to g e n t l y s l o p i n g and amount of stones on the surface would hinder c u l t i v a t i o n only s l i g h t l y . . . . . . . . . . 109 P l a t e XVII A. Pass Creek s e r i e s at Winlaw. Dark loam h i g h i n organic matter u n d e r l a i n by a g r a v e l l y , bpuldry d e p o s i t . B. F l a t topography of Pass Creek s e r i e s i n a wet s i t u a t i o n w i t h h i g h water t a b l e a l a r g e p a r t of the season • 11 ^  P l a t e XVIII A. Pass Creek s e r i e s on meadow lands i n upper Pass Creek area. Drainage d i t c h e s take o f f excess water so that hay and garden crops can be grown, B, Terraced gardens a l s o on Pass Creek s o i l . They are i r r i g a t e d by d i v e r t i n g creek water onto the t e r r a c e s . . . . . . . . . 115 P l a t e XIX' A. Glade g r a v e l l y sandy loam p r o f i l e on stream f a n m a t e r i a l . Rough s t r a t i f i c a t i o n can be seen, A few inches of dark A i h o r i z o n has developed since c l e a r i n g . B, Extremely stony phase of Glade g r a v e l l y sandy loam, a non-arable s o i l • • » • 119 P l a t e XX A barchan type of dune found i n an area of Krestova coarse sand. Note the crescen-t l o shape. Vegetation growing between the "horns" of the crescent i s beginning to s t a b i l i z e v.,: t h i s dune. Scanty grass oover may be seen attempting to e s t a b l i s h I t s e l f on the dune , . 121 P l a t e XXI Pressure membrane apparatus w i t h mercury d i f f e r e n t i a l r e g u l a t o r and h i g h pressure n i t r o g e n gas c y l i n d e r used f o r l a b o r a t o r y determinations of permanent w i l t i n g p o i n t . .. 12^  1 INTRODUCTION The forty year old problem of the Doukhobors adjustment to l i f e i n Br i t i s h Columbia reached euoh a point i n the spring of 1 9 5 0 that the Hon* (J.S. Wlsmer, Attorney General of the Provlnoe of Brit i s h Columbia, requested Dr. N.A.M. Mackenzie, President of the University of Br i t i s h Columbia to appoint a group whloh would parry out research aimed at a better understanding of the situation and make recommendations for i t s improve-ment. Dr. H.B. Hawthorn of the University was appointed director of the research project, and work was started in the late summer of 1 9 5 0 * Dr. C.A. Rowles, also of the University of Brit i s h Co-lumbia was asked the following spring to begin a study of the characteristics of the lands oooupled by the Doukhobors with a view to enabling them to be used more effectively i n the future* The author was engaged to assist with this study which was 2 conducted i n oooperation with Mr* N.T, Drewry of the Department of Lands and Forests* Field studies were oonduoted during the summers of 1951 and 1952 and laboratory investi-gations were made at the University the following winters* The work oonduoted during these periods forms the basis for this thesis* 3 DOUKHOBORS OP BRITISH COLUMBIA The present study of the soils of the Doukhobor lands was but a small part of a much larger study of the Doukhobors of British Columbia (52)• It is not possible to oonsider the soils and their use without some reference to their history and the present occupants* Therefore, a short reference to the Doukhobors and their use of the soil8 Is desirable. Hawthorn (52) 1952 in an exoellent re-view of the contemporary picture reports, in part, as follows The Doukhobors emerged in Russia as a seot of dissident peasants separating themselves during the eighteenth oentury from the Orthodox Church. Throughout the nineteenth century their actions and beliefs led to intermittent conflict with state and olerlcal authorities and to persecution and exile, until humanitarians in England and Russia sought a land to whioh they could emigrate* In brief, their beliefs centered pn direct revelation and guidance, whioh denied the need for a church organization and by extension included a denial of governmental authority and of the right of anyone to use 1* f o r c e i n human a f f a i r s . The attempt to oonstruot complete and l o g i c a l systems of b e l i e f took them even f a r t h e r , and the t r a n s l a t i o n of b e l i e f i n t o a o t l o n was pur-sued without the compromises which are usu-a l l y l a b e l l e d "common sense". I n order to p r o t e c t t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , however, they developed ways to evade, mislead and p a s s i v e -l y r e s i s t the i n q u i r i e s and requirements of the a u t h o r i t i e s . Welcomed by a government which wanted s e t t l e r s , the f i r s t groups of Doukhobors a r r i v e d i n Canada i n 1&99, some 7,^27 i n number* They were f o l l o w e d from 1900 to 1920 by smaller numbers of l i b e r a t e d e x i l e s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , t o t a l l i n g K\l i n a l l * I n 1927 one small a d d i t i o n a l group a r r i v e d w i t h Peter P e t r o v i c h V e r i g i n , son of the man who had been the Doukhobor's f i r s t l e a d e r i n Canada. They were seeking l a n d and freedom, on t h e i r own terms. I n t h e i r n e g o t i a t i o n s they were represented by Aylmer Maude, one of the E n g l i s h S o c i e t y of F r i e n d s , two Doukhobor delegates, and others* The Doukho-bor understanding of the terms of entry and settlement almost o e r t a i n l y l a c k e d c l a r i t y . They had i n the f i r s t plaoe f i x e d ideas of t h e i r g o a l which i n c l u d e d freedom from the c o n t r o l of any government, and they f a i l e d to consider i t s i m p o s s i b i l i t y . Decisions and oommunioatlon were h o p e l e s s l y bogged down, u n t i l they had to be made by Maude and the other r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s without the group 1s f u l l understanding simply because f u l l under-standing could not be aohieved. Something of the nature of t h e i r own governmental pro-cesses was shown by the f a c t that none of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was p r o p e r l y Invested w i t h power to negotiate f o r them. P o s s i b l y , aware of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the way of reaching and a b i d i n g by such agreements, some Doukhobors saw an advantage i n being represented by n e g o t i a t o r s whose bargains could be repudiated* C o n f l i c t and more misunderstanding a r i s i n g from t h i s e a r l y confusion continue today* Yet they were at the outset sur-mounted to the extent that Doukhobor settlement 5 as homesteaders took plaoe on three b l o c k s o f l a n d i n Saskatchewan, then Northwest T e r r i t o r -i e s * There, i n accordance w i t h t h e i r b e l i e f s , they t r i e d v a r i a t i o n s of communal l i f e , some v i l l a g e s o p e r a t i n g as separate cooperative u n i t s , and some groups of v i l l a g e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h a o e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n sharp con-t r a s t , from the beginning, an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g number of farmers worked t h e i r l a n d as i n d i v i d -u a l s and set t h e i r s i g h t s a t i n d i v i d u a l owner-s h i p , f e e l i n g there was no e s s e n t i a l c o n f l i c t between Doukhoborism and l i f e i n Canada* I n 1903 a pioneer group l e f t to s t a r t the development of l a n d they had purohased i n B r i t i s h Columbia* W i t h i n the next f i v e years they were f o l l o w e d by n e a r l y s i x thousand others* T h e i r reasons f o r the westward move were, not e n t i r e l y u n l i k e those o f some other pioneers; they wished to escape from what they f e l t to be the c o n s t r a i n t s of government and the c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e i r Canadian neighbours* Purchasing the l a n d i n p l a c e of homesteading obviated the need to take an oath of a l l e g i a n c e * The move was p r e o i p i t a t e d by the s t a t e d i n t e n t i o n of the Saskatchewan govern-ment to open schools throughout the settlements* The westward movement of Doukhobors continued through the twenties and t h i r t i e s , i t s most recent push the foundation of the small colony at H i l l l e r s on Vancouver I s l a n d * There was one major eastward f l o w t o form a s e t t l e -- ment i n A l b e r t a i n 192*** The present urge f o r m i g r a t i o n or r e l o c a t i o n i s i n p a r t s i m i l a r tp the r e s t l e s s n e s s of e a r l i e r decades which im-p e l l e d the westward d r i v e s ; some of the recent proposals f o r r e l o c a t i o n are d i r e c t e d n o r t h -ward because a western f r o n t i e r no longer e x i s t s * From Hawthorn's review, i t i s apparent t h a t the so p a l l e d Doukhobor problem i n B r i t i s h Columbia, began w i t h the purohase of the l a n d now under study and ever s i n c e t h i s l a n d has played an important p a r t i n the t r o u b l e d h i s t o r y of the Doukhobors* 6 DOUKHOBOR LANDS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA The Doukhobor lands o f B r i t i s h Columbia l i e i n the south eastern s e c t i o n of the province and t h e i r a c t u a l l o o a t i o n s are shown on the sketch map of Figure 1. The I n d i v i d u a l blooka of l a n d are l o -cated i n the Grand Forks and Vest Kootenay areas and i n t h i s study they are r e f e r r e d to as the Doukhobor l a n d s . These lands were owned by the Doukhobor company, The C h r i s t i a n Community of U n i v e r s a l B r o t h e r -hood (CCUB), u n t i l i t s bankruptcy i n 193Jat which time the P r o v i n c i a l Government a c q u i r e d t r u s t e e s h i p of the l a n d s . Zubek(59) 1952 r e p o r t s that upon a r r i v a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1909 the Doukhobors found much of t h e i r l a n d h e a v i l y f o r e s t e d so they Immediately s t a r t e d c l e a r i n g before b u i l d i n g homes. Jamieson (52) 1952 reoords t h a t by 1910 some 2,600 aores of l a n d had been purchased i n the West Kootenay and Grand Forks areas and th a t sawmills, roads, b r i d g e s and i r r i g a t i o n systems had been b u i l t . Thousands of f r u i t t r e e s had a l s o been p l a n t e d . By FIGURE I COMMUNITY AREAS STUDIED 1 Champion Creek 9 Koch Siding 2 Ooteshenie 10 Lebahdo 3 Brilliant 1 1 Winlaw 4 Raspberry 12 Clay brie* 5 Glade 13 Perry Siding 6 Shoreacres 14 Grand Forks 7 Pass Creek 15 Gilpin 8 Krestova (6 Caesar Elevations in feet above sea level _ _ • 1764 Scale [/% inches = 1 mile Lk i SlocarT • N <T702ol 8540 NELSON 10 MILES > Sloe an Lower Arrow Lk. Columbia Castlegar -7230 Champion Cr. it I ROSSLAMD 3385B i C A N A D A U.S.A. ,4950 vTRAL Sketch map showing location of former Christian Community^  of Universal Brotherhood lands studied in the Kootenay and Sirnilkameen Land Districts of British Columbia and indicating some major physiographic features. . 7 the beginning of World War I the acreage of l a n d purchased by the C h r i s t i a n Community of U n i v e r s a l Brotherhood had r i s e n to ik.kOJ aores (52). of the a g r i c u l t u r e of the Doukhobor lands and r e -p o r t e d the acreages i n c l u d e d i n Table 1 below* Also i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t a b l e are the acreages s u p p l i e d by the Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a , B.C. (IS) 1953. TABLE 1 AREA OF DOUKHOBOR LANDS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1931 AND 1951 Trevor (k9) 1931 made a d e t a i l e d study 1 1931 (aores) (acres) Reduction (acres) Grand Forks 5,*99 16,157 22,056 5,327 13,5^5 115,872 572 2,612 3,1^ West Kootenay TOTAL 1 F i g u r e s from Trevor (k9) 1931 2 Figures from Report o f Dept. of Lands and F o r e s t s (IS) 1953 I t w i l l be noted from Table 1 t h a t the aoreage of l a n d decreased between 1931 and 1951* Thla reduction of approximately 3,13*+ aores may be ac-counted f o r by the land sales over the 20 year period whioh oocured concurrently with the general deoline of CCUB a c t i v i t i e s during t h i s period* E a r l i e r w r i t e r s , (22) (32) (W, gave very glowing reports of the Doukhobors1 a g r i c u l t u r a l development, Maude (32) l$0k lauds the "prosperous 8 community farms and the "progressive" inhabitants* Hindus (22) 1922-23* as c i t e d by Trevor, aeoounts as follows: • • • one gazes down upon endless rows of orchards and gardens, superbly c u l t i v a t e d * I t has the aspect of a modern, progressive, prosperous community whose inhabitants are quiok to make use of the discoveries of science, and spare no pains to woo.the precious orop from a stubborn s o i l * Despite these praiseworthy aooounts Trevor (^ 9) 1931 oould f i n d no facts to support them* He observed that the orchards were well planted only i n the sense that the rows were straig h t but otherwise the f i e l d s presented "* • * a miserable and p i t i f u l sight of 111-oultivated and clumsily plotted a g r i c u l t u r a l crops and orohards*" Even at that time many of the apple v a r i e t i e s were obsolete* A good deal of the apple orop was of very poor q u a l i t y having been adversely affeoted by pests and diseases* TABLE 2 UTILIZATION OF M M DOUKHOBOR LANDS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA1 (195D Cultivated (Including Pasture Pasture Buildings Forest Community Former Orchard) (Formerly (Rough) and Totals Non- Cultivated Wild Irrigated Irrigated or Orchard) Land Grand Forks 130 685 930 1550 100 1321 4716 Gilpin 25 45 366 436 Caesar 20 25 130 175 T f Y P f i T f 1 ! ? ft TTTI T P H T T T ' ' 0 AREA 155 705 1000 1550 100 1817 5327 Champion Creek 34 69 188 4 625 920 Ooteshenie 75 185 1275 230 30 2205 4000 B r i l l i a n t 30 20 100 75 11 541 777 Raspberry- 58 14 89 183 3 78 242 Glade 81 237 97 15 350 963 Shoreacres 7 210 40 45 6 323 631 Pass Creek 31 211 199 64 14 2071 2590 Krestova 40 210 390 50 45 1350 2085 Koch Siding 5 25 16 40 4 102 192 Lebahdo 18 • :.-5 145 1 145 314 Winlaw 3 64 33 23 4 96 223 Claybrick 1 50 100 16 7 170 344 Perry Siding 13 61 53 11 5 121 264 TOTAL WEST KOOTENAY AREA 378 1374 2585 882 149 8177 13545 TOTAL 533 2079 3585 2432 249 9994 18872 1 Revised from Rowles (52) 1952 and Drewry (18) 1953 10 These same orchards were observed i n 1951 and were reporte d to have no commercial value except f o r one a t Raspberry Community ( I S ) . The a c t u a l use being made of the lands at t h i s time i s summarised i n Table 2* I t w i l l be noted from t h i s t a b l e t h a t o f the t o t a l area, 12,272 a c r e s , only 2,612 acres were c l a s s e d as c u l t i v a t e d , and of t h i s only 533 aores were i r r i g a t e d . The l a r g e s t area was i n f o r e s t and w i l d l a n d , 9»99^ aores, and as such was of very l i m i t e d value* I n a l l , some 25 peroent of the t o t a l area was used f o r rough pasture o r f o r e s t t r e e s and reoeived no c u l t u r a l a t t e n t i o n whatsoever* Thus i t seems th a t by 1931 abandonment of the lands had already begun and oontinued up to the present. Rowles (52) 1952 g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g summary* From these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i t seems tha t the change i n the c o n d i t i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r e on the CCUB lands s i n c e they went i n t o r e c e i v e r s h i p i s not as great as the present appearance of the l a n d might i n d i c a t e * What e s s e n t i a l l y has taken p l a c e i s that the orchards and f i e l d s that were b r i n g i n g l i t t l e cash r e t u r n to the v i l l a g e s have been turned over to grass and used f o r hay and pasture* The v i l l a g e s d i d and s t i l l do have f i n e gar-dens produced by hand on s m a l l p l o t s * However, apart from these s m a l l I n t e n s i v e l y c u l t i v a t e d gardens, the l a n d was not and i s not being u t i l i z e d e f f e c t i v e l y * Many f a o t o r s would be i n v o l v e d i n an attempt to improve t h i s s i t u a t i o n • • • 11 Jamieson (52) 1952 r e p o r t s on the h i s t o r y of the economic d e c l i n e o f the Doukhobor o r g a n i z a t i o n , as f o l l o w s . The CCUB began to d e c l i n e r a p i d l y a f t e r the death of Pe t e r V a s l l i v l c h V e r i g i n and the acces s i o n o f h i s son, Peter P e t r o v i o h V e r i g i n , to l e a d e r s h i p * During the i n t e r i m the execu-t i v e beard of the CCUB, i n order to co n s o l i d a t e the Company's accounts, borrowed $350,000 from the Bank of Commerce, secured by bonds h e l d by the N a t i o n a l Trust Company. A f t e r P e t e r P e t r o -v i c h V e r i g i n assumed o f f i c e as Pre s i d e n t o f the CCUB, i t went f u r t h e r i n t o debt, and f i n a l l y i n t o complete bankruptcy I n 1937* There have been many reasons o f f e r e d to e x p l a i n t h i s c a t a s t r o p h i c r e v e r s a l i n the fortunes of the Doukhobors 1 major communal undertaking. Much has been spoken and w r i t t e n about P e t e r P e t r o v i o h V e r i g i n * s s p e c t a c u l a r mismanagement and a l l e g e d m i s a p p r o p r i a t i o n of hundreds of thousands of d o l l a r s of CCUB funds. This c o u l d not have been however, the s o l e o r even the major cause of the CCUB's f a i l u r e . . . . . . . • • • . Growing numbers o f Independents, whose main oareers l a y o u t s i d e the CCUB, found the r e s t r i c t i o n s o f community l i f e irksome. They ceased to c o n t r i b u t e to communal under-t a k i n g s , moved out o f the v i l l a g e s and e s t a b l i s h e d separated residences on t h e i r own farms o r I n nearby c i t i e s and towns. Included among them were some of the a b l e s t members of the Doukhobor community — one s k i l l e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r , f o r i n s t a n c e , who had managed the Community's lumbering operations and who l e f t to b u i l d up a prosperous lumber business of h i s own.•••••• • • • . A t the other extreme, the Sons of Freedom were winning converts and growing i n numbers and i n f l u e n c e . They became i n c r e a s i n g l y h o s t i l e towards the CCUB l e a d e r s h i p during' the 1920*8 and 1930*8, and helped to undermine the morale of the whole o r g a n i z a t i o n . Their growth was f o s t e r e d by discouragement over the f i n a n c i a l setbacks of the CCUB a f t e r years o f f r u g a l i t y and e f f o r t on the p a r t of the members, and by r i s i n g o p p o s i t i o n t o continued payments of p r i n c i -p a l and i n t e r e s t a t h i g h r a t e s on loans from 12 banks and mortgage companies.•••••• • • • . The whole burden of c a r r y i n g on the COUB, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s l a r g e overhead of f i x e d annual payments of p r i n c i p a l and i n t e r -est on i t s debts, thus f e l l upon a s h r i n k i n g membership* At the height of i t s operations the o r g a n i z a t i o n had had c l o s e t o 8.000 members. By 1928 the number had f a l l e n to 5,485. Ten years l a t e r there were only 3,103, of whom s c a r c e l y more than 2,000 were f u l l y paid-up members* This t r e n d f o r c e d higher i n d i v i d u a l assessments on each remaining member as time went on* The i n d u s t r i a l undertakings of the COUB were op e r a t i n g at a l o s s from 1928 on, and the Saskatchewan branches f e l l behind i n t h e i r assessments* Depression and unemployment d u r i n g the 1930*8 reduced the o u t s i d e incomes and at the same time p l a c e d a d d i t i o n a l burdens on the Community f o r r e l i e f and s o c i a l w e l f a r e on be-h a l f of i t s d e s t i t u t e members* F i n a l l y , i n 1937, the COUB went bankrupt* F o r e c l o s u r e pro-ceedings were i n s t i t u t e d i n 193*$. At t h i s p o i n t the Government of the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia entered the p i c t u r e by f o r e s t a l l i n g the threatened a o t i o n and assumed the mortgages and c o n t r o l of a l l the l a n d and improvements* Jamieson (52) 1952 f u r t h e r r e p o r t s t h i s a o t i o n as f o l l o w s . I n t h i s way the P r o v i n c i a l Government assumed t r u s t e e s h i p over some 19,000 aores of land , together w i t h b u i l d i n g s and other f a c i l i -t i e s , formerly owned by the CCUB L t d . From one p o i n t of view t h i s was a humanitarian gesture on the p a r t of the P r o v i n c i a l Government* I t prevented the wholesale d i s p o s s e s s i o n of the Doukhobors* They have been allowed to continue occupying the l a n d and b u i l d i n g s , and have been charged very moderate r e n t a l s * Many have p a i d no rent at a l l * The t o t a l c o l l e c t e d , amounting to a few thousand d o l l a r s a year, probably does not even cover the c o s t s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by the Land Settlement Board, l e t alone provide a reasonable r a t e of i n t e r e s t on the Government's 1 3 i n i t i a l investment of $ 2 9 6 , 5 0 0 , or reimbursement f o r the ta x revenues that have been s a c r i f i c e d . Prom another p o i n t of view, however, the P r o v i n c i a l Government put i t s e l f i n a dubious p o s i t i o n which has g r e a t l y complicated the problem of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the Doukhobors. There i s the l e g a l aspect f o r one t h i n g . Under f o r e -c l o s u r e a c t i o n , l a n d and other assets are sup-posed to be s o l d at a p u b l i c a u c t i o n a f t e r due n o t i c e has been g i v e n . The government f o r e -s t a l l e d t h i s a o t i o n and took over the l a n d and b u i l d i n g s en b l o c f o r a lump sum w e l l under the probable r e t u r n from a u c t i o n s a l e s i n i n d i -v i d u a l p a r c e l s . Or, to put i t another way, the P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r the sum of $ 2 9 6 , 5 0 0 acquired c o n t r o l over l a n d and b u i l d i n g s i n which the Doukhobors had Invested m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s p l u s work. Despite the considerable d e t e r i o r -a t i o n i n l a n d and b u i l d i n g s t h a t has ocourred during and since the 1 9 3 0*6, at present I n f l a t e d p r i c e s these ass e t s would probably be worth w e l l over a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . The main problem a r i s i n g out of t h i s s i t u a t i o n l i e s i n i t s e f f e c t s upon the a t t i t u d e s of the Doukhobors themselves. Not only i s there widespread apathy and discouragement as a r e s u l t of the c o l l a p s e and l i q u i d a t i o n of t h e i r great communal e n t e r p r i s e ; there i s a l s o a widespread s u s p i c i o n , which a mere p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f a c t s alone w i l l not d i s p e l , that they were "gypped" by the mortgage and t r u s t companies and by the P r o v i n c i a l Government. At the time o f the f o r e -c l o s u r e they had r e p a i d i n I n t e r e s t and p r i n c i -p a l the major p a r t of t h e i r Indebtedness. Not knowing the t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s and cost Involved i n the f o r e c l o s u r e proceedings, many suspect that the c r e d i t o r s c o l l e o t e d f a r more from the sale of CCUB as s e t s than was owing to them, and many l i k e w i s e f e e l t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Government " p u l l e d a f a s t one" i n g a i n i n g c o n t r o l of some 1 9 , 0 0 0 acres of l a n d and b u i l d i n g s f o r l e s s than $ 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 . P a r t l y because of t h e i r inseoure p o s i t i o n as tenants and sq u a t t e r s , the Doukhobor occupants have been u n w i l l i n g to maintain and improve the la n d , b u i l d i n g s and other f a c i l i t i e s . Large t r a c t s are remaining u n c u l t i v a t e d . Houses and other b u i l d i n g s , I r r i g a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , and the l i k e , are being allowed to d e t e r i o r a t e or break 1* down entirely* To an increasing degree since the f ina l collapse and l iquidat ion of the CCUB L t d * , Doukhobors have been abandoning farming and have been working at other employments* This has brought a corresponding tendency to-wards dependence upon c i ty or town for recre-ational l i f e * In summary, i t i s evident that the Doukhobor problem i n Br i t i sh Columbia began at the time the Doukhobors purchased the land now under study i n the West Kootenay and Grand Forks areas of Br i t i sh Columbia* Although great enthusiasm and hard work went into the development of the lands there i s evidence of an almost complete lack of direotlon and technical planning* As a result the i r r igat ion and cropping practices have been unsuccessful and the land now largely l i e s i d l e * 15 DESCRIPTION OF AREAS The Doukhobor lands of B r i t i s h Columbia l i e i n the south eastern s e c t i o n o f the province and t h e i r l o c a t i o n s may be noted from F i g u r e 1. The lands occur i n two general areas, the Grand Forks area and the West Kootenay area* The names used here to i d e n t i f y the va r i o u s b l o c k s of l a n d , designated as communities, are the same as those used i n the Report of the Doukho-bor of B r i t i s h Columbia (52) 1952 and are the names i n common usage i n the areas at the present time* L e g a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , areas and numbers of a l l l o t s Involved are l i s t e d i n the r e p o r t o f the Department of Lands and F o r e s t s (IS) 1953* GRAND FORKS AREA LooatIon and Extent The Doukhobor lands of the Grand Forks area l i e w i t h i n the Slmilkameen Land D i s t r i c t and comprise 5,327 acres* The l a r g e s t b lock i s l o c a t e d a few mil e s west of Grand Forks c i t y which i s on the southern t r a n s - p r o v i n c i a l highway n e a r l y 400 m i l e s 16 east of Vancouver, B. C. This b l o c k I s *f-,7l6 aores i n s i z e and though i r r e g u l a r l y shaped i s bounded on the south by the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary and extends about 3,5 m i l e s north up J u l y creek v a l l e y * Another s e c t i o n extends about the same dlstanoe up the east s i d e of the Granby (North Fork) r i v e r v a l l e y ending j u s t below the r e c e n t l y drained Smelter Lake b a s i n * Further up the G-ranby r i v e r l y i n g on a g r a v e l highway i s another b l o c k o f 175 acres now designated as Caesar but formerly known as Grahams Ranch* One other small area of kj6 acres, G i l p i n , i s s i t u a t e d about 7 m i l e s east of Grand Forks on the south s i d e of the K e t t l e r i v e r * G i l p i n i s not pr o p e r l y a former CCUB h o l d i n g but si n c e a number of the Sons o f Freedom sect oooupy t h i s b l o c k i t was i n -cluded i n the' survey* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Amenities The l a r g e s t biook of l a n d i s t r a v e r s e d by B r i t i s h Columbia paved Highway Number 3* F r o m t h i s highway a g r a v e l road extends up the west side o f the G-ranby r i v e r s e r v i n g the northeast s e c t i o n of the b l o c k and the Caesar community* G i l p i n community i s the most I n a c c e s s i b l e p a r o e l * Some of the r e s i d e n t s reach i t from the main highway on the no r t h side of the K e t t l e r i v e r by l e a v i n g t h e i r v e h i o l e s there and c r o s s i n g the r i v e r by 17 boat o r cable c h a i r . However, at the time of study, the l a t t e r had been sabotaged and d i d not operate* An a l t e r n a t e route e x i s t e d along the south side of the r i v e r over a poor and winding l o g g i n g road* Hallway s e r v i c e s are provided by the Canadian P a o i f i o Railway, K e t t l e V a l l e y l i n e w i t h d a l l y passenger and f r e i g h t s e r v i c e s to east and west (19) 1951r» The Great Northern Railway operates a spur l i n e f o r f r e i g h t o n l y , to Spokane* Greyhound bus l i n e s and a number of t r u c k l i n e s have scheduled t r a n s - p r o v i n c i a l and t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l s e r v i c e * There i s a small municipal a i r p o r t w i t h no scheduled a i r -l i n e s e r v i c e but used f o r emergency and p r i v a t e l a n d i n g s * The nearest main a i r p o r t s are at C a s t l e g a r 75 m i l e s to the east and at P e n t l o t o n 125 m i l e s t o the west* Although power and telephone l i n e s cross most of the Doukhobor lands n e i t h e r of these f a c i l i -t i e s were found I n s t a l l e d i n homes on these l a n d s * I n Grand Forks c i t y there i s one elemen-t a r y and one J u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h school which are attended by c h i l d r e n of the community lands* Another elementary school i s l o c a t e d a number of m i l e s up the Granby v a l l e y * One small 27 bed h o s p i t a l and v o l u n -t e e r f i r e brigade a l s o serve Grand Forks* Many other s e r v i c e s o f the independent trades and businesses are 16 a v a i l a b l e to the c i t y * I ndustry and Development of the Area The Grand Forks area has a p o p u l a t i o n of ^,700 i n 195^ as compared w i t h *J-,05$ r e s i d e n t s I n 19^1 (19)* Although o r i g i n a l development was based on mining, the economy now depends on a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y and lumbering operations* The lumber ind u s -t r y produced 13,270 thousand f e e t board measure i n 1953 and employed about 160 men (19) 195^. Mining a o t l v i t y i s now l i m i t e d to one limestone quarry at F i f e * There are two o p e r a t i n g I r r i g a t i o n d i s -t r i c t s but n e i t h e r provide water to the Doukhobor lands* I n the Grand Forks d i s t r i c t there are 2,500 i r r i g a t e d a c r e s , and i n the Covert d i s t r i c t , 260 aores are i r r i g a t e d * I n a d d i t i o n , over 120 acres are p r i v a t e l y i r r i g a t e d * These i r r i g a t e d lands pro-duce mainly seed potatoes of h i g h q u a l i t y along w i t h f l o w e r and vegetable seed and some t r e e f r u i t s and g r a i n * I n the G-ranby v a l l e y dry farming i s p r a c t i c e d , the main emphasis being p l a c e d on hay and pasture crops f o r d a i r y i n g and beef c a t t l e production* One commercial d a i r y has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n Grand Forks (19). Climate Grand Forks has a dry sub-humid cl i m a t e 1 9 i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Thornthvalte (k6) 1 9 ^ . The r a i n f a l l and temperature values f o r Grand Forks s t a t i o n are l i s t e d i n Table 3 and a number of other s t a t i o n s are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t a b l e f o r comparison* I t should be noted t h a t a l l the r e c o r d i n g s t a t i o n s are l o c a t e d i n the v a l l e y bottoms and there-f e r e are i n d i c a t i v e of c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s o n l y at the l o v e r e l e v a t i o n s * I t w i l l be noted that the annual r a i n f a l l at Grand Forks i s 1 6 inches* This i s 5 lnohes higher than the annual r a i n f a l l a t P e n t l c t o n * D i f f e r -ence i n summer r a i n f a l l between the two p o i n t s , how-ever, are not so great* With regard to temperature, the cl i m a t e of Grand Forks shows the gre a t e s t extreme- of the s t a t i o n s l i s t e d * I t has the hi g h e s t average mean temperature i n J u l y , 69°F and the lowest average mean o temperature i n January, 1 9 F* The f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d , shown i n Table 3» i s the number of days between the l a s t day i n s p r i n g o when the temperature f a l l s below 3 2 F and the f i r s t i n the f a l l when the temperature again f a l l s below 3 2 F (£)• Comparing s t a t i o n s l i s t e d i n Table 3 i& I s seen that the f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d f o r Grand Forks, 1 3 0 days, i s l e s s than that f o r Nelson, l M 4 days, or f o r P e n t i o t o n , 1^9 days. The f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d f o r Grand Forks, however, i s q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the growth of crops normally r a i s e d i n the area* TABLE 3 CLIMATIC DATA FOR GRAND FORKS, NELSON, PENTICTON AND KELOWNA _ — - ; E F r o s t - f r e e Growing P r e c i p i t a t i o n Thornthwaltes t (Ins* Annual) (Days) Season (Ins*) Data (Bays) June P o t e n t i a l Evapo- Net moist-J u l y Aug. Ann. t r a n s p i r a t i o n Mean Temp. _ (°F) J u l y Jan.Ann. DefSolenoy Grand Forks 69 19 45 130 205 3.75 16.26 25.95 12.26 Nelson 67 25 46 144 199 5.46 22.02 24.12 6.77 P e n t i o t o n 62 27 42 14-9 212 3.05 11.35 Kelowna 67 25 46 144 204- 2.24 12.38 24.2 13.00 1 Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia, B.C. Dept. A g r i c . 1952 2 F r o s t - f r e e Season i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Can. Dept. of Transport, 1949 3 B r i n k , V.C. Climates of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r A g r o l o g i s t s . P a r t 1 Unpub, Tech. Comm. Agron. Dept. U.B.C., Vancouver, B.C.. 4 C a l c u l a t e d by Thornthwaites Method (46) 21 The growing season shown i n Table 3 i s the number of days i n which the average d a i l y temperature r i s e s above M-3°P (8), I t i s considered a good c r i t e r i o n f o r a s s essing and comparing c l i m a t e s f o r p l a n t growth si n c e i t i s an average value, and i s not g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by abrupt drops i n temperature. The growing season f o r Grand Porks, 205 days, f a l l s between those f o r Nelson and P e n t i c t o n , I t would not be a r e s t r i c t i n g f a o t o r f o r the production of most crops. The Thornthwaite ( k6) 19*^ 8 evapostranspi-r a t i o n data was c a l c u l a t e d , as shown i n Table k, and the r e s u l t s are given i n Table 3 and shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 2. I n c o n s t r u c t i n g these curves the s o i l moisture storage c a p a c i t y of 4 i n c h e s , suggested by Thornthwaite was used. I t should be noted however that t h i s f i g u r e i s somewhat higher than the average f o r the s o i l s under study. Figure 2 shows a c a l c u l a t e d moisture need of 12,86 Inches occuring at Grand Forks from mid-Kay through the growing season to l a t e September, This i s very s i m i l a r to that r e p o r t e d f o r Kelowna, 13,00 lnohes (53) and- suggests a s i m i l a r water d e f i c i e n c y f o r the two p o i n t s . Vegetation Both f o r e s t and g r a s s l a n d v e g e t a t i o n opour i n the area. The south and to some extent the east FIGURE 2 16 15 14 13 12 II 10 1 9 G R A N D F O R K S , B.C. PRECIPITATION POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION [TTTTT1 SURPLUS Y//A UTILIZATION I:DEFICIENCY RECHARGE T E M P - A V E R A G E 3 8 Y E A R S P P T N . - " 3 9 ESTIMATED SOIL MOISTURE STORAGE 4 ACRE INCHES T R A I L , B.C PRECIPITATION POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION FTTTTT1 SURPLUS Y//A UTILIZATION [:::::] DEFICIENCY T E M P - A V E R A G E 2 2 Y E A R S P P T N - " 21 ESTIMATED SOIL MOISTURE STORAGE 4 ACRE INCHES N E L S O N , B.C. PRECIPITATION POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION QJJJJJ SURPLUS Y//A UTILIZATION \\\\'\'\ DEFICIENCY RECHARGE T E M P - A V E R A G E 4 6 Y E A R S P P T N - " 4 8 ESTIMATED SOIL MOISTURE STORAGE 4 ACRE INCHES PRECIPITATION AND POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AT SELECTED STATIONS TABLE 4 COMPARISON OP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION DATA FOR NELSON, TRAIL AND GRAND FORKSl Jan, Feb, Mar, April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct, Nov. Dec. Year NELSON (elevation, 2,235 ft.) Pot. Evapotrans. 0 0 1.3 4.1 6»4 7.8 9.8 9.2 6.8 4.2 0.8 0 (unadj.) cms. . . , • „ , Pot. Evapotrane. 0 0 0.53 1.80 3*34 4.15 5.25 4.52 2.83 1.52 0.24 0 24.18 (adjust.) ins. , . , . . ^ . . . „ w Preoipitalclon,lns. 1.40 2.36 1.92 1.59 2.17 2.65 1*45 1.39 1.27 2.53 2,94 3.68 27.95 Water storage,ins. 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.79 2.62 1.12 0 0 0 1.01 3.71 4.00 Storage change,ins. 0 0 0 - 0 . 2 1 -1.17 -1.50-1.12 0 Q 1.01 2.70 0.29 Water deficiency,ins. 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.68 3.13 O.96 0 0 0 6.77 Water surplus, ins. 3*40 2.36 1,39 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.39 10.54 TRAIL (elevation, 1,982 ft.) Pot. Evapotrans. 0 0 1.3 4.3 7.0 8.5 11.2 10.4 7.6 4.0 0.6 0 (unadj.) oms. Pot. Evapo trans., 0 0 O.53 1.96 3.69 4.55 6.04 5.16 3.19 1.49 0.18 0 26.79 (adjust.) ins. . Precipitation,ins. 2.94 2.502.00 1,63 l . * l 2.61 1.06 0.82 1.64 2.52 2,72 3.64 25.89 Water storage,ins. 4.00 4.00 4,00 3.67 1.79 0 0 0 0 I .03 3.57 4.00 Storage change,ins. 0 0 0 -O.33 -1 .88 -1.79 0 0 0 I .03 2.54 O.43 Water deficiency,Ins. 0 0 0 0 0 0.15 4.98 4.34 I .55 0 0 0 11.02 Water surplus, ins. 2.94 2,50 1.47 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.21 10.12 GRAND FORKS (elevation, 1,746 ft.) Pot. Evapotrans. 0 0 1.0 4.79 2.52 11.2513,91 12.02 7.46 3.16 0,15 0 (unadj.) cms. Pot. Evapotrans. 0 0 0.41 I .94 3,43 5.50 5.56 4.81 2.92 1.26 0,06 0 25.95 (adjust,)ins. Precipitation,ins. 1,74 1.21 0.95 1,04 1,44 2,09 0.81 0,84 1.14 I .45 I .53 1.86 16.10 Water storage,ins. 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.10 1.11 0 0 0 0 0.19 1.66 3.52 Storage change,ins. 0 0 0 - 0 . 9 0 -1.99 -1.11 0 0 0 0.19 I .47 1.86 Water deficiency,ins, 0 0 0 0 0 2.3 4.75 3.97 1,84 0 0 0 12.86 Water surplus, Ins. 1.26 1.21 O.54 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.01 1 Temperature and precipitation data from Climate of British Columbia, Proy. Dept. Agrio. 1950 23 f a o l n g slopes are grass covered, c o n s i s t i n g o f n a t i v e short grasses, some wheat grasses, rye grasses and k o e l e r i a . Some of the small g u l l e y s that r e c e i v e seep-age support vetch and sweet c l o v e r * Where overgrazing has been pe r m i t t e d r a t h e r poor q u a l i t y forage p l a n t s such as downy brome, cheat, s o w t h i s t l e , knapweed and Russian t h i s t l e tend to take over. Forest v e g e t a t i o n covers the n o r t h f a c i n g slopes where moister and oooler c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l . S everal t r e e species occur i n c l u d i n g f i r , oedar, hem-l o o k , pine and l a r c h . The f o r e s t undercover c o n s i s t s of ohokeoherry, snowberry, rose and numerous other small shrubs. The f o r e s t on the community lands s u p p l i e s r e s i d e n t s w i t h f u e l , poles and p o s t s . On some communi-t i e s timber i s q u i t e h e a v i l y out so t h a t s u p p l i e s f o r these needs must be sought elsewhere. Much of the community l a n d once was r e g u l a r l y c u l t i v a t e d or supported orchards. Now, however, the orchards are unattended and are becoming decadent. Many of the c u l t i v a t e d areas were allowed to go back to w i l d v e g e t a t i o n , but some were seeded to grass or a l f a l f a and produce a f a i r l y good hay crop each ye a r . The balance of the l a n d l n o l u d i n g o l d orchard lands are. merely used f o r summer pasture of m i l k cows. On some of the b e t t e r s o i l types small p l o t s are used f o r the production of c e r e a l crops. 24 Physiography and General Geology The Grand Forks area i s mountainous w i t h rounded summits r i s i n g up to 5,000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n * Below t h i s l e v e l two main v a l l e y s t r a v e r s e the area. The K e t t l e r i v e r enters Canada near the oustoms p o r t of D a n v i l l e , e l e v a t i o n 1,733 feet, and then t u r n s east, n e a r l y p a r a l l e l to the border, f o r about 15 m i l e s where i t flows baok i n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The v a l l e y i n which i t flows i s U-shaped and f i l l e d w i t h a l l u v i a l sediments at l e a s t 5° to 150 f e e t deep. I t i s i n t o these sediments that the K e t t l e r i v e r has out a deep meandering t r e n c h . The Granby r i v e r enters t h i s v a l l e y from the n o r t h Just east of Grand Forks, e l e v a t i o n 1,737 f e e t , through a narrow rook w a l l e d gorge. The v a l l e y of the north f o r k i s a l s o U-shaped and sediment f i l l e d but the r i v e r has not entrenched i t s e l f q u i t e as deeply as has the K e t t l e . At the confluence of these two v a l l e y s a broad f l a t t e r r a c e area of sediments has been b u i l t up Just west of Grand Forks. The Doukhobor lands occupy a part of t h i s t e r r a c e area. I t was probably deposited w h i l e v a l l e y g l a c i e r s r e t r e a t e d i n l a t e p l e i s t o c e n e time. Evidenoe of t h i s i s seen i n the k e t t l e topography developed by the melting of the l a s t remaining i c e b l o c k s Just above the t e r r a c e l e v e l . A s maller narrower v a l l e y which oontains 25 J u l y creek runs n o r t h from the border on the western side of the Doukhobor lands* I t , too, i s U-shaped showing evidence of g l a c i a l e r o s i o n but i t s w a l l s are very steep and i t contains very l i t t l e sediment* At present the creek i s f u r t h e r entrenohing i t s e l f along a r a t h e r s t r a i g h t course* Daly (11) 1912 estimates t h a t the i c e oap at one time covered the v a l l e y s to a depth of 4,500 f e e t . He concluded that the i c e has done very l i t t l e e r o s i o n work on the bedrock but tha t most of I t s work was done i n d e p o s i t i n g and t r a n s p o r t i n g d e b r i s * A l l the upland areas are h e a v i l y oovered w i t h g l a o l a l d r i f t * Brock (6) 1905 a l s o e x p l a i n s that most of the area i s d r i f t oovered and tha t c l a y s , s i l t s , sands and g r a v e l are widespread being found along l a r g e v a l l e y s , where p r o t e c t e d by the topography o f the country, i n w e l l marked t e r r a c e s * The s o i l parent m a t e r i a l t h e r e f o r e i s l a r g e -l y made up o f rook d e b r i s and sediments of g l a c i a l o r i g i n c o n s i s t i n g of t e r r a c e s , fans and t i l l which were f u r t h e r modified by e r o s i o n and d e p o s i t i o n * Since the g l a c i a l movements were v a r i e d and widespread i t can be seen that the nature of m a t e r i a l deposited by t h e i r a c t i o n w i l l be heterogeneous and may con t a i n many oombinatlons of minerals and rooks that outcrop i n the v i c i n i t y * 26 According to the map o f Brock (6) 1905 a r a t h e r v a r i e d arrangement of rooks outcrop i n t h i s v i c i n i t y * Sedimentary, a l t e r e d sedimentary and vo l c a n i o rocks are common* Most of them are of b a s i c nature* Included i n the sedimentables are a number of limestones o c c u r r i n g as pods and len s e s i n the h i g h l y f o l d e d s t r a t a * Enough of these out-crop to make the t i l l i n the area h i g h l y calcareous and the s o i l s developed on i t were calcareous at a depth of one t o three f e e t * Some of the s o i l s on hea v i e r t e x t u r e d a l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l were a l s o c a l c a r -eous i n the l o v e r h o r i z o n s ; very few coarse t e x t u r e d s o i l s of a l l u v i a l o r i g i n had lime accumulation i n the p r o f i l e , although f a i n t t r a c e s maybe found at depth* WEST KOOTENAY AREA L o c a t i o n and Extent The West Kootenay r e g i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d e s the area drained by the Kootenay r i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s beyond the p o i n t where i t leaves the Rocky Mountain t r e n c h and enters the S e l -k i r k mountains i n the v i c i n i t y o f Creston and c o n t i n -ues west approximately to C h r i s t i n a l a k e * However, as used i n t h i s study, West Kootenay r e f e r s o n l y to those b l o c k s of l a n d s i t u a t e d i n the v a l l e y s between T r a i l and Slocan* 27 The Doukhobor lands of the West Kootenay, 13>545 aores, are contained p a r t i a l l y by the Columbia r i v e r v a l l e y from the Champion Creek community, 9 m i l e s n o r t h of T r a i l , to B r i l l i a n t , p a r t i a l l y by the Kootenay r i v e r v a l l e y from i t s J u n c t i o n w i t h the Columbia at B r i l l i a n t to Shoreaores and then p a r t i a l l y by the Slocan r i v e r v a l l e y n o r t h to Perry S i d i n g (see Figure 1). The most s o u t h e r l y b l o c k of l a n d r e f e r r e d to as Champion Creek comprises 920 acres* I t l i e s on the east side o f the Columbia r i v e r about 9 m i l e s n o r t h o f T r a i l * Ooteehenie, 4,000 a c r e s , and B r i l l i a n t and Raspberry, 1,019 acres i n a l l l i e i n a contiguous biook immediately n o r t h of Champion Creek at the confluence of the Columbia and Kootenay r i v e r s * Glade oommunity, a b l o c k of 963 aores, l i e s on the east side o f the Kootenay r i v e r between the p o i n t where the Slocan r i v e r enters i t and Tenmlle creek at the southern edge of the community* Shore-aores, 6 3 I a c r e s , i s s i t u a t e d Just above the J u n c t i o n o f the Slooan and Kootenay r i v e r s * I t i s . separated i n t o two p a r c e l s by the Kootenay r i v e r s * The p a r t on the east side l i e s on a h i g h g r a v e l l y t e r r a c e w i t h s o i l of poor q u a l i t y and at present i s uninhabited* L y i n g along Goose creek and west of the Slocan r i v e r , Krestova oommunity makes up 2065 a c r e s , Pass Creek 28 community, 2,590 aores, l i e s south-west of Krestova and n o r t h o f Raspberry i n the Norns (Pass) creek v a l l e y . The Pass Greek block and the Krestova b l o c k are separated by only a short d i s t a n c e * Horns creek and the Kootenay r i v e r v a l l e y s are almost p a r a l l e l and are separated by a narrow rocky r i d g e — S e n t i n e l Mountain — which l i e s i n a northeast to southwest d i r e c t i o n on the west s i d e of the Kootenay v a l l e y . F i v e s mall communities l i e along the Slooan r i v e r and are named a f t e r the r a i l w a y s t a t i o n s nearby. I n order, from south to n o r t h they are Koch S i d i n g 192 a c r e s , Lebahdo 314 a c r e s , Winlaw 223 acres, C l a y b r i c k aores and P e r r y S i d i n g 264 a c r e s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Amenities Residents of Champion Greek on the east; bank of the Columbia r i v e r are o b l i g e d to reach the community by a long tortuous road from B r i l l i a n t o r by c r o s s i n g the r i v e r by boat from the main p r o v i n c i a l highway across the r i v e r . One elementary sohool serves the area. Ooteshenle, B r i l l i a n t , Raspberry and Shoreaores are w i t h i n easy reach of the payed p r o v i n c i a l highway and only a few minutes d r i v e from Ca s t l e g a r * The C a s t l e g a r a i r p o r t l i e s i n Ooteshenle area* An elementary school i s nearby* 29 Glade oommunity i s completely i n a c c e s s i -b l e by road. There i s a small p r i v a t e barge capable o f f e r r y i n g one v e h i c l e at a time across the Kootenay r i v e r and many o f the r e s i d e n t s keep t h e i r c a r s on the vest side of the r i v e r and row across i n sm a l l boats, A, d i r t road enters Pass creek v a l l e y through Raspberry oommunity t r a v e r s i n g the Pass Creek oommunity and c o n t i n u i n g through Krestova where i t crosses the Slocan r i v e r and Joi n s the main g r a v e l highway i n the Slocan v a l l e y . There i s one elementary school a t Pass Creek and a J u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h school at South Slocan, A l l Slocan v a l l e y communities except Wlnlav l i e on the main g r a v e l highway to Slooan c i t y , V inlaw can be reached by c r o s s i n g the bridge at V a l l i c a n o r Appledale and f o l l o w i n g a g r a v e l road. Schools, post o f f i c e s and small s t o r e s are e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e to a l l of these communities. Senior h i g h schools and other amenities a r e a v a i l a b l e at Nelson, T r a i l and C a s t l e g a r , H o s p i t a l s e r v i o e i s a v a i l a b l e at Nelson, T r a i l , Rossland and New Denver, E l e c t r i c power and phone l i n e s cross many o f the Doukhobor communities but none have a v a i l e d themselves o f these s e r v i c e s . 30 The area I s w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . The Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -way, K e t t l e V a l l e y l i n e , runs d a i l y to Vancouver and Calgary* A weekly t r a i n goes up the Slooan v a l l e y to Slocan c i t y and a f r e i g h t s e r v i o e oper-ates to T r a i l * There are numerous t r u c k l i n e s h a u l i n g f r e i g h t on the main roads* Buses operate d a l l y on a l l main highways and connect w i t h t r a n s -c o n t i n e n t a l s e r v i o e s * The Ca s t l e g a r a i r p o r t l o -cated Just south of B r i l l i a n t has scheduled a i r l i n e f l i g h t s d a i l y except Sunday to Vancouver and C a l -gary* I n d u s t r y and Development i n General Area The West Kootenay r e g i o n , p o p u l a t i o n 63,000 (1954), i s one of the more h e a v i l y I n d u s t r i e a l l z e d seotlons of the i n t e r i o r of the province and employment i s n e a r l y always a v a i l a b l e * The 1953 production o f lumber was 141 m i l l i o n f e e t board measure employing about 2*000 men (19)* I n 1953 t h i s r e g i o n aocounted f o r 17 peroent of the value of a l l B r i t i s h Columbia mineral production (19)• Apart from t h i s there i s the c i t y of T r a i l , p o p u l a t i o n 22,000 (1954) which I s sustained almost e n t i r e l y by the ope r a t i o n of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company L t d * I t produces a l l o f 31 Canada's r e f i n e d l e a d , a n t i m o n l a l l e a d , bismuth, indium and a major p a r t of Canada's s l a b z i n c , r e -f i n e d s i l v e r and r e f i n e d cadmium. Approximately 6,50Q aores are now under i r r i g a t i o n (19) of t h i s about 37*1 acres are i r r i g a t e d on former community l a n d (1&) 9 The only community to operate an i r r i g a t i o n system on an e f f i c i e n t b a s i s at the present time i s Raspberrry which s e l l s f r u i t commercially. Residents of the Slooan v a l l e y communities are able t o set up small pumping p l a n t s f o r i r r i g a t i o n and one or two f a m i l i e s i n each of these communities appear to support themselves by f u l l time farming. One f a m i l y at Winlaw,maintains a herd of approximately one dozen m i l k cows. I n c o n t r a s t to the l i m i t e d , i n e f f i c i e n t a g r i c u l t u r e on the community l a n d s , there are many t h r i v i n g farms set up by Independent operators on adjaoent l a n d s . Climate I n g e n e r a l , the area can be c l a s s e d as moist subhumld to humid (46), c h a r a c t e r i z e d by hot summers and c o o l but not s e v e r e l y c o l d w i n t e r s . Due to mountainous t e r r a i n l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n c l i m a t e are marked but the data of s e l e c t e d s t a t i o n s i n Table 5 g i v e s a good i n d i c a t i o n of the r e g i o n as a whole. However, i t should be noted t h a t most of the s t a t i o n s TABLE 5 CLIMATIC DATA FOR WEST KOOTENAY STATIONS AND GRAND FORKS Mean Temp. <°F) 1 F r o s t - f r e e 2 (Days) Growing^ Season (Days) P r e c i p i t a t i o n 1 (Ins.) Thornthwaites 1 Data (Ins.Ann*) P o t e n t i a l Evapo- Net Moisture t r a n s p i r a t i o n D e f i c i e n c y J u l y Jan* Ann. June J u l y Aug, » Ann* T r a i l 70 23 48 126 206 4*40 25*9« 26.79 11.02 South Slocan 69 22 kl 157 205 5.59 31.12 Nelson 61 24 46 144 199 5*46 28.02 24.18 6.77 Crescent 65 21 kk 97 5.07 29.49 V a l l e y P e r r y S i d i n g 117 195 4.0a5 23*82^  Grand Forks 69 19 k5 130 205 3.75 16.26 25.95 12.86 1 Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia, B.C. Dept. A g r i o . 1952 2 F r o s t - f r e e Season i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Can. Dept. of Transport, 1949 3 B r i n k , V.C. Climates of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r A g r o l o g i s t s . Part 1 unpub* Teoh. Comm. Agron. Dept. U.B.C., Vanoouver, B.C. 4 C a l o u l a t e d by Thornthwaltes* Method (46) 5 C l i m a t i c Data of B r i t i s h Columbia, B.C. Dept. of A g r i o . Hort. Branch,1932 33 are l o c a t e d i n v a l l e y bottoms. Data f o r Grand Forks i s i n c l u d e d i n the t a b l e f o r comparison* I t w i l l be noted from Table 5 t h a t p r e -c i p i t a t i o n i n the area ranges from 23*6 inches t o 29*5 inohes and about one t h i r d of t h i s f a l l s as snow* I f the ground i s not f r o z e n i n the autumn be-f o r e s n o w f a l l much of the m e l t i n g snow soaks i n t o the s o i l and i s present i n the s o i l at the s t a r t of the growing season* Going from south to n o r t h the mean temperatures are seen to d e c l i n e , the average J u l y temperature being 5 degrees c o o l e r at Crescent V a l l e y s t a t i o n Just aoross the Slocan r i v e r from Krestova oommunity, than at T r a i l * The Slocan v a l l e y i s gener-a l l y considered to be even c o o l e r * This i s evidenced by a s h o r t e r f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d and growing season at P e r r y S i d i n g , 117 days and 195 days r e s p e c t i v e l y , than at T r a i l , 186 days and 206 days, or Nelson, 144 days and 199 days* The short f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d of 97 days at Crescent V a l l e y , e l e v a t i o n 1564 f e e t , as compared to 157 days at South Slocan, e l e v a t i o n 1622 f e e t shows the great v a r i a t i o n p o s s i b l e i n mountainous country* I n t h i s regard l o c a l r e p o r t s show tha t garden vegetables are f r o z e n more f r e q u e n t l y i n the Upper Goose creek v a l l e y than i n the South Slooan area* 34 The growing season shows a decrease going from T r a i l , 206 days, to the Slocan V a l l e y (Perry S i d i n g , 195 days) though the d i f f e r e n c e i s only 12 days. The growing season f o r South Slooan i s s i m i l a r to that f o r Grand Forks, 205 days* With the exception of c e r t a i n unfavorable areas the grow-i n g season f o r the p o i n t s l i s t e d i s q u i t e s u f f i c i e n t f o r the production of the orops t h a t are r a i s e d * Thornthwaite e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n data (46) was o a l c u l a t e d , as shown i n Table 4, f o r the T r a i l and Nelson r e c o r d i n g s t a t i o n s and the r e s u l t s are given i n Table 5 and shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n Figure 2* I t w i l l be noted t h a t T r a i l has a h i g h p o t e n t i a l e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n v a l u e , 26*79 inches, and a h i g h moisture d e f i c i e n c y , 11*02 inches* For Nelson these values were 24*18 inches and 6*77 inches r e s p e c t i v e -l y * These f i g u r e s show that i r r i g a t i o n would be important at both s t a t i o n s , and th a t the g r e a t e r b e n e f i t would be noted at T r a i l * The h i g h t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t Crescent V a l l e y does not i n d i c a t e a lower summer moisture d e f i c i e n c y since the average summer r a i n f a l l at th a t s t a t i o n I s very l i t t l e h igher than the average sum-mer r a i n f a l l f o r any other s t a t i o n t a b u l a t e d * C l i -matic data f o r Perry S i d i n g , i n the no r t h , i s r a t h e r incomplete* No temperature f i g u r e s are a v a i l a b l e and 3 5 the p r e c i p i t a t i o n f i g u r e s are recorded to 1 9 3 2 o n l y * According to these f i g u r e s the average summer r a i n -f a l l at F e r r y S i d i n g i s the lowest i n the West Kootenay area and on t h i s b a s i s i t would seem that the moisture d e f i c i e n c y would be q u i t e high* How-ever, to s a t i s f a c t o r i l y evaluate t h i s c o n d i t i o n , temperature would have to be taken i n t o aooount* On the b a s i s of the a v a i l a b l e c l i m a t i c data and c o n s i d e r i n g the nature of the s o i l s , i t appears th a t i r r i g a t i o n would be e s s e n t i a l to any type of s u c c e s s f u l i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e i n the West Kootenay area* Vegetation As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , when the lands i n the West Kootenay were f i r s t s e t t l e d by the Douk-hobors they were h e a v i l y f o r e s t e d , the p r i n c i p a l speoies being f i r , l a r c h , oedar and white pine* The merchantable timber was soon harvested, and the l a n d e i t h e r c l e a r e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e or allowed to go w i l d * Much of the l a n d now i n t r e e s shows evidence of i n t e n s i v e l o g g i n g and regeneration i s slow* Con-t i n u e d c u t t i n g of t r e e s f o r community needs of f u e l , poles and posts i n the more a c c e s s i b l e areas has r e s u l t e d i n the cover becoming p r i n c i p a l l y sorub i n the form of w i l l o w and hazelnut* 36 Physiography and General Geology The Doukhobor lands i n the West Kootenay area may be considered as l y i n g i n one continuous " v a l l e y 1 1 running i n a n o r t h to South d i r e c t i o n and being made up of p a r t s o f three main r i v e r v a l l e y s , Slocan, Kootenay and Columbia, w i t h an adjacent side v a l l e y s t a r t i n g at the mouth of Goose creek c o n t i n u -i n g about: 5 m i l e s up i t s course and then down Pass creek v a l l e y to i t s J u n c t i o n w i t h the Columbia r i v e r * This " v a l l e y " shows much evidence of g l a c i a t i o n * I t i s g e n e r a l l y U-shaped w i t h steep v a l l e y w a l l s , the outcrops of whioh are p o l i s h e d and show some g l a c i a l s t r i a e and grooves* The surround-i n g mountains are made up of mainly g r a n i t i c rooks i n the form o f rounded knobs* The n o r t h e r l y and e a s t e r l y slopes are g e n e r a l l y steeper and have the appearance of being q u a r r i e d s i n c e they have been more subject to e r o s i o n by g l a c i e r s than the other s i d e s * Occasional sharp peaks w i t h c i r q u e v a l l e y s r i s e i n d i s t a n c e to 8,000 or 9*000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n * These probably stood as nunataks above an o l d i c e sheet* No g e o l o g i c a l r e p o r t covers these areas i n p a r t i c u l a r but general statements i n r e p o r t s of nearby areas i n d i c a t e that the whole area of i n t e r i o r 37 B r i t i s h Columbia was once oovered by a great depth of i c e . Drysdale (12) 1915 I n h i s r e p o r t on Frank-l i n Mining Camp west of the Lower Arrow l a k e s t a t e s , • • • * The C o r d i l l e r a n i o e sheet covered the r e g i o n w i t h the p o s s i b l e exception o f a few hi g h peaks on the Cariboo range, which stood as nunataks above the i c e surfaoe. I t but s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d the upland topography, l e a v i n g s t r i a e and scourings i n p l a c e s , but on r e t r e a t i n g l e f t moralnic d r i f t and e r r a t i c s , s t r a n d e d h i g h on the upland* The i o e cap gave pl a c e to a l p i n e v a l l e y and c i r q u e g l a c i e r s 1 whioh s l o w l y r e t r e a t e d u n t i l the time of the Keewatin i c e sheet ex-t e n s i o n t o the east, when the seoond main p e r i o d of v a l l e y g l a c i a t i o n took pl a c e * I t i s to t h i s p e r i o d t h a t the s t r o n g l y g l a c i a t e d v a l l e y forms (such as U-shaped v a l l e y s , l a t e r a l moraines, s t r i a e , eto«) owe t h e i r o r i g i n , and the v a l l e y t r a i n s o f outwash m a t e r i a l were deposited*• •• ••• * * * * With the r e t r e a t of the v a l l e y g l a c i e r s the streams, unburdened of t h e i r moralnic l o a d , began to degrade t h e i r v a l l e y f i l l s * A s e r i e s of t e r r a c e - s t e p s mark succes-s i v e p e r i o d s of aggradation and degradation dependent upon c l i m a t i c o s c i l l a t i o n s * • • • • • • 1 F i r s t p e r i o d of v a l l e y g l a c i a t i o n * The p r e l i m i n a r y map of the west h a l f of Nelson g e o l o g i c a l area by L i t t l e (28) 19^9 shows many g l a c i a l s t r i a e and d r i f t covered areas* Most of the s o i l parent m a t e r i a l s are o l d and recent r i v e r t e r r a c e s l a i d down i n t h i s U-shaped v a l l e y d u r i n g the time that i c e occupied the v a l l e y and g r a d u a l l y r e t r e a t e d * I n many pl a c e s kame t e r r a c e remnants are d i s c e r n i b l e along the v a l l e y w a l l s * When the i c e melted these slumped down and have since 33 been eroded and d i s s e c t e d to t h e i r present form. They do not c o n s t i t u t e a very l a r g e area and f o r the pur-pose of c l a s s i f y i n g the s o i l s have been i n c l u d e d w i t h the r i v e r t e r r a c e s , t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s being s i m i l a r . The main r i v e r t e r r a c e s of each area l i e at approximately the same height above present r i v e r l e v e l i n d i c a t i n g they were a l l l a i d down at the same time and p o s s i b l y by the same r i v e r . Subsequent g e o l o g i c a l u p l i f t , o r p o s s i b l y , simply the removal of i o e b l o c k s , has allowed the r i v e r s to out down through the o r i g i n a l d e p o s i t s t o t h e i r present p o s i t i o n s . The t e r r a c e s , vary i n t e x t u r e from loamy coarse sand to g r a v e l l y sandy loam and sandy loam. Some of the lower t e r r a c e s are of s l i g h t l y f i n e r t e x t u r e v a r y i n g from f i n e sandy loam to loam. I n a d d i t i o n to the t e r r a c e s there are stream fan deposi t s l a i d down at the mouth of en-t r a n t side v a l l e y s and p a r t i a l l y b u rying the terraoe m a t e r i a l s . There are a l s o c o l l u v l a l f an d e p o s i t s , covering s m a l l p a r t s o f the t e r r a c e s , and brought down the v a l l e y w a l l s by g r a v i t y o r a combination of g r a v i t y and water a o t i o n . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y a l l these fan d e p o s i t s have boulders and coarse m a t e r i a l s at t h e i r a p i c e s , and an i n c r e a s i n g amount of f i n e r m a t e r i a l s toward the toe of the f a n where the gradient l e s s e n s . 39 Many recent d e p o s i t s of small area, have been l a i d along the present r i v e r channels and now stand 10 to 20 f e e t above them. This has occurred i n the Slocan v a l l e y p a r t i c u l a r l y where the r i v e r ' s meander b e l t i s much wider than t h a t of the Columbia r i v e r . There are v e r y few recent d e p o s i t s along the Kootenay r i v e r as i t s w a l l s are steep and con-f i n i n g . Small a l l u v i a l d e p o s i t s have b u i l t up along the beds of Pass and Goose oreeks where t h e i r g r a d i -ents are low. No de p o s i t s of g l a c i a l t i l l were found on the community lands, probably because the v a l l e y w a l l s are a l l e x o e s s i v e l y steep and any t i l l d e p o s i t s on moderately s l o p i n g ground are oovered by a l l u v i u m . However, a few outcrops of g l a c i a l t i l l were observed along the road to Nelson Just east of South Slocan where more moderately s l o p i n g topography i s found above t e r r a c e l e v e l . The main mass o f country rook appears to be s i m i l a r to th a t I d e n t i f i e d i n the Nelson area by L i t t l e (28) 1949, I n t h i s paper L i t t l e r e p o r t s great areas of predominantly a c i d i c rocks; g r a n i t e , g r a n o d i o r l t e , quartz d l o r i t e , andeslte and a host of other mixtures l y i n g immediately east of the Doukhobor l a n d s . Very few limestone or marble out-crops' appear and these only i n the eastern p a r t of ko the area d e s c r i b e d by L i t t l e , Drysdale (12) 1915 r e p o r t i n g on the F r a n k l i n Mining Gamp area, which l i e s about 15 miles west of the Lower Arrow l a k e , shows t h a t a v a r i e d mixture of both a o i d i o and b a s i c rooks outcropping* He found very few l i m e -stone outcrops. From the e x i s t i n g evidence and a v a i l -able r e p o r t s i t i s evident that the p r i n c i p a l s o i l s of the West Kootenay area are d e r i v e d from a o l d and moderately b a s i c rocks s t r o n g l y a f f e o t e d by g l a c i -a t i o n and i t i s I n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t no c a l c o r -eous parent m a t e r i a l of any s i g n i f i c a n t area was found on the West Kootenay Doukhobor lands* SOILS Methods of F i e l d Survey S o i l s of the Doukhobor lands were examined, c l a s s i f i e d and mapped i n the f i e l d . Traverses were made by oar and on f o o t , and the s o i l s were examined and described using p r o f i l e p i t s dug at s t r a t e g i c i n t e r v a l s i n r e l a t i o n to s o i l boundaries. The s o i l s were desoribed i n accordance w i t h recognized procedures (1) (50) (51), and the c r i t e r i a summarized below were used to c h a r a c t e r i z e the s o i l p r o f i l e s (1), 1, Number of horizons i n the s o i l p r o f i l e , 2* Colour of the various h o r i z o n s , w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on the s u r -face one or two* 3* Texture of the h o r i z o n s * 4 , Structure of the h o r i z o n s * 5* R e l a t i v e arrangements of the h o r i z o n s * 6* Chemical composition of the h o r i -zons* 7m Thickness of the true s o i l * 8* Thickness of the t r u e s o i l * 9 * Character of the s o i l m a t e r i a l * Other f e a t u r e s r e l a t i v e to s o i l s and noted i n the f i e l d were the e l e v a t i o n , slope, v e g e t a t i o n and present use of the l a n d * The p l o t t i n g of boundaries separating d i f f e r e n t s o i l s was g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d by the use of a e r i a l photographs* These photographs were sup-p l i e d by the A i r Surveys D i v i s i o n of the Department of Lands and Forests and were of a soale of a p p r o x i -mately one foot to one m i l e * While i n the f i e l d , a s i t e was c a r e f u l l y f s e l e c t e d to represent the modal p r o f i l e f o r each of the s o i l types c l a s s i f i e d and mapped* These p r o f i l e s were des c r i b e d i n d e t a i l and samples taken from each ho r i z o n f o r l a b o r a t o r y determinations* I n c l a s s i f y i n g the s o i l s of the Doukhobor lands, the f i e l d system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n adapted by the N a t i o n a l S o i l Survey Committee was f o l l o w e d (26) (37)• Thla system provides f o r c l a s s i f y i n g s o i l s i n t o s i x c a t e g o r i e s proceeding from the broad-est grouping as f o l l o w s , Zones, Subzones, Catenas, S e r i e s , Types and Phases* The d e f i n i t i o n s of these ca t e g o r i e s as set down by the N a t i o n a l S o i l Survey Committee i s as f o l l o w s (37)• The s o i l zone was d e f i n e d as "a broad 43 b e l t of s o i l s i n which the dominant 'normal 1 s o i l s belong to one of the Zonal Great S o i l Groups," The oommlttee f u r t h e r s t a t e d that "the dominant s o i l forming processes i n a zone are towards the formation of a d e f i n i t e g e n e t i c type of s o i l " (Zonal Great S o i l Group) and that c l i m a t e and v e g e t a t i o n are dominant f a o t o r s i n determining these s o i l forming prooesses. Although the use of s o i l subzones has been r a t h e r l i m i t e d the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n was suggested, " f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t broad v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n a zone, which can be l i n k e d w i t h gradual c l i m a t i c and v e g e t a t i v e changes and which may or may not be accom-panied w i t h ohanges i n parent m a t e r i a l s . The Catena i s the f i r s t s u b d i v i s i o n of the s o i l zones and i s o u t l i n e d by the N a t i o n a l S o i l Survey Committee as f o l l o w s . The catena i s considered as a group of s o i l 8 on s i m i l a r parent m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n a s o i l zone. I t Includes the e n t i r e range of s o i l s produced under d i f f e r e n t l o c a l moisture r e l a t i o n s h i p s on the same parent m a t e r i a l . I t i s r e -cognized that s o i l s have depth, w i d t h and breadth and that they may vary i n a l l three dimensions. There o f t e n i s no sharp d i v i s i o n between the I n d i v i d u a l s o i l s and one g r a d u a l l y merges i n t o another. This e n t i r e range of s o i l s i n a oatenaaoften, but not always forms a d e f i n i t e mappable l a n d p a t t e r n . Catenas are f u r t h e r subdivided i n t o s o i l s s e r i e s on the b a s i s of p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 44 d i f f e r e n c e B as described below* The Catena oomprlses a l l the s o i l s which have developed under the e n t i r e range of s o i l moisture c o n d i t i o n s which e x i s t on the same parent m a t e r i -a l w i t h i n a s o i l zone. The catena thus contains a continuous range of s o i l s o r p r o f i l e s which can g e n e r a l l y be broken i n t o segments and which have v a r i o u s l y been recognized as s o i l s e r i e s , a s s o c i a t e s or members* The s o i l s e r i e s mapped i n t h i s study u s u a l l y Included s o i l s of v a r y i n g t e x t u r e and they were d i v i d e d i n t o s o i l s types on t h i s b a s i s i n ac-cordance w i t h the prooedure o u t l i n e s by Leahey and Stobbe (27) as f o l l o w s . While the s o i l s e r i e s I s considered to be the b a s i c u n i t of s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n Canada i t i s sometimes d e s i r a b l e and p o s s i b l e to sub-divided s o i l s e r i e s on a t e x t u r a l b a s i s * Such d i v i s i o n s are known as s o i l types* However, the t e x t u r a l range w i t h i n a s e r i e s i s seldom very wide and the gen e r a l tendenoy i s t o e s t a b l i s h mono-type s e r i e s . I f a l l s e r i e s were confined to one t e x t u r a l range the need f o r t h i s category would of course disappear* The e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s of topography and stonlness a f f e c t the use of s o i l f o r a g r i c u l t u r e * Where p o s s i b l e these d i f f e r e n c e s were mapped and cl a s s e d as phases of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s o i l type (27)t Suoh a f i e l d system of s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s d e s i r a b l e since i t i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p ; of areas of r e l a t e d s o i l s and the l a n d patterns they c r e a t e . I t a l s o takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n c e r t a i n 45 p e n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but i t f r e q u e n t l y a l l o w s s o i l s of g r e a t l y v a r y i n g morphologioal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to be grouped c l o s e l y together* To overcome t h i s b i a s the morphologioal system of s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can be u t i l i z e d and t h i s i s discussed by Leahey and Stobbe (27), i n p a r t , as f o l l o w s * I n t h i s system the s o i l s e r i e s i s regarded as the b a s i c u n i t of c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n and hence the s e r i e s and i t s s u b - d i v i s i o n s are the same as i n the p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d system* The d i f -ference between the two systems l i e s i n the grouping of the s o i l s i n t o h i g h e r c a t e g o r i e s * I n the morphologioal c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n the s o i l s e r i e s are grouped i n -to f a m i l i e s and f a m i l i e s i n t o a great s o i l groups. The f a m i l y category has been introduced only r e c e n t l y and i n the past the s o i l s e r i e s have been grouped d i r e c t l y i n t o great s o i l groups. The i n c r e a s i n g number of s e r i e s w i t h i n a great s o i l group has n e c e s s i t a t e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n of an Intermediate category — the s o i l f a m i l y . A morphological system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was used i n the present study only to the extent that each s o i l s e r i e s reoognized was assigned to a Zonal Great S o i l Group as I n d i c a t e d i n Tables £A and SB. The category of Zonal Great S o i l Group as used i n Canada i s des c r i b e d below (27). This term has been used i n Canada to designate a group of s o i l s haying the same general s o r t o f p r o f i l e * That i s , the s o i l s w i t h i n a great s o i l group must be of the same genetic type* This u n i t of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has served a very u s e f u l purpose i n Canada as i t a s s i s t s i n the ca t a l o g u i n g of s o i l s of the same g e n e t i c type although i t i s not s u i t a b l e f o r c a r t o g r a p h i c purposes* The Great S o i l Group should not be con-fused w i t h a S o i l Zone* Whereas the former represents a d e f i n i t e g e n e t i c type of s o i l , the l a t t e r i s a geographic area which may c o n t a i n a number of great s o i l groups but i n whioh one d e f i n i t e genetio type i s dominant* I n c l a s s i f y i n g the s o i l s of the Doukhobor lands a number of miscellaneous groups were used f o r areas o f l a n d that have l i t t l e o r no n a t u r a l s o i l , are l n a c e s s i b l e or cover too small an acreage to be mapped (50)* These miscellaneous types — bottomland, s a l i n e seepage, peat, dune, eroded and d i s s e o t e d , and rough mountainous — are d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l under the s e o t i o n on s o i l d e s c r i p t i o n s * Two other s o i l mapping u n i t s , the s o i l complex and the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s o i l group (§>0)* were a l s o used i n c l a s s i f y i n g the s o i l s * The s o i l complex was used at the s e r i e s l e v e l to i n c l u d e s o i l s of widely v a r y i n g t e x t u r e and drainage* The u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s o i l group may be used f o r mapping taxonomieally s i m i l a r s o i l s t h a t are not r e g u l a r i l y g e o g r a p h i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d (50), I n t h i s study the two u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d groups were made up of s o i l s t h a t belonged to the same Zonal Great S o i l Group but t h a t v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n t e x t u r e , slope and stonlness* Muoh of the area covered by these groups 4 7 was considered non-arable and so d i d not warrant separation i n t o s maller u n i t s * While the s o i l boundaries were being e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f i e l d , the topography was c l a s s i -f i e d and the boundaries of the recognized topographio phases were p l o t t e d on the a e r i a l photographs* The percent slope was measured w i t h an Abney l e v e l and the slopes c l a s s i f i e d i n accordance w i t h the ranges suggested by the S o i l Survey D i v i s i o n of the Uni t e d States Department of A g r i c u l t u r e (50), This c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n i s o u t l i n e d i n Table 6* TABLE 6 SLOPE AND TOPOGRAPHIC CLASSIFICATION Symbol on Range of (a) Hap IbJFhotograph C h a r a c t e r i s t i c L e v e l to g e n t l y s l o p i n g A Tl , 2&3 0 - 5 percent slope Sloping C % 5 - 1 0 percent slope Moderately steep D T5&6 10 - 25 percent slope Steep E T 7 25* percent slope Windblown K e t t l e W K w K Hummocks 5 - 1 5 f e e t h i g h Depressions tu> to 25 f e e t deep The stonlness of the l a n d was noted and recorded on the photographs by means of symbols* The cl a s s e s of stonlness (50) and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to t i l -l a ge p r a c t i c e s are i n d i c a t e d below* St No stones or too few to i n t e r f e r e w i t h t i l l a g e . S ^ T i l l a g e i n t e r f e r e d w i t h but i n t e r -t i l l e d crops s t i l l p r a o t i o a b l e . Sto T i l l a g e of i n t e r t i l l e d crops b a r e l y p r a c t i c a b l e . St - r Use of only very l i g h t machinery - and hand t o o l s , i m p r a c t i c a b l e . Stjj. Use of a l l machinery i m p r a c t i c a b l e . S o i l s t h a t had a stonlness g r e a t e r than S t 2 were c l a s s i f i e d as a stony phase. The d e s c r i p -t i o n f o r Glass 3 s t o n l n e s s , St-j above, i s as f o l l o w s (50). Glass 3: S u f f i c i e n t stones to make a l l use of machinery i m p r a c t i c a b l e , except f o r very l i g h t machinery or hand t o o l s where other s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are s p e c i a l l y f a vorable f o r improved pas t u r e . S o i l s w i t h t h i s c l a s s of stonlness may have some use f o r w i l d pasture or f o r e s t s , depending on other s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ( I f stones are 1 foot i n diameter and about 2.5 to 5 f e e t a p a r t , they occupy about 3 to 15 percent o f the su r f a c e , and there are about 50 to 2^0 cubic yards per acre-f o o t . ) S o i l drainage was observed and c l a s s i f i e d i n accordance w i t h the system o u t l i n e d i n Table 7 (50). R O -TABLE 7 DRAINAGE CLASSIFICATION N a t u r a l Surface I n t e r n a l Drainage Runoff Drainage Symbol Term Symbol Term Symbol Term Dl Excessive DSi Very n i g h Very r a p i d D 2 W e l l DS 2 High Rapid Imperfect DS 3 Moderate Moderate % Poor DS k Low Slow Very poor DS 5 Very low Very slow D6 None. DS 6 Ponded D I 6 None The n a t u r a l drainage of a s o i l as i n d i -cated i n the foregoing t a b l e i s a oomblned expression of the surface r u n o f f and I n t e r n a l drainage* To show the i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e to s o i l , topography, drainage and stoniness on the a e r i a l photographs symbols were used and arranged according to the fou r p o i n t p l a n shown below* S o i l Topography Ch g s l T, e*g* ;'. Drainage Stoniness D l S t2 50 This example would i n d i c a t e an area of Champion g r a v e l l y sandy loam w i t h g e n t l y s l o p i n g topography, excessive drainage and enough stones t o make the t i l l a g e of i n t e r t i l l e d crops b a r e l y p r a c t i c a b l e . Along w i t h the s o i l i n f o r m a t i o n , data r e -garding the present use and v e g e t a t i v e cover was a l s o gathered and recorded. This data was used i n the pr e p a r a t i o n of Table 2. The s o i l boundaries and other i n f o r m a t i o n Shown on the a e r i a l photographs were l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d to base maps of the s c a l e of 4 0 0 f e e t to the i n c h . These maps were provided by the Land U t i l i z a t i o n , Reasearch and Survey Branch of the Department of Lands and F o r e s t s and form a p a r t of t h i s t h e s i s . The a e r i a l photographs are p r e s e n t l y h e l d by the Department of S o i l Scienoe of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the s o i l s of the Doukhobor lands of B r i t i s h Columbia i s shown i n Tables &A and SB. This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a combin-a t i o n of the f i e l d and morphological c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y . The most extensive s o i l s of the area are, PLATE I A Black s o i l , the Hardy series, showing average A^ horizon develop-ment. 51 c l a s s e d i n two groups, the Black and Brown P o d z o l i c . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Brown P o d z b l i c s o i l s , oocupying the l e s s w e l l drained p o s i t i o n s , are Low Humio and Huraic G l e i s o i l s * The Black s o i l s , mapped only i n the Grand Porks area, make up about 3,046 acres or three f i f t h s of the Grand Porks area* They oooupy mainly south f a c i n g slopes and the l a r g e s t areas are seen from the southern t r a n s - p r o v i n c i a l highway on the south and east t r e e l e s s slopes of Hardy mountain* Grass vege-t a t i o n covers a l l areas o f Black s o i l * I n the more a r i d p o s i t i o n s , the s o i l s are shallower and c o u l d be considered as belonging to the Shallow Black Subgroup* The general nature and h o r i z o n sequences of the Black s o i l s may be seen i n P l a t e I * These fe a t u r e s are i n agreement w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s of Black s o i l s d e s c r i b e d elsewhere (24) (33) (51)* The Brown P o d z o l i c s o i l s are mapped i n both the Grand Porks and West Kootenay areas and i n those areas comprise 1,633 acres and 6,23s 1 acres r e s p e c t i v e l y . They make up n e a r l y two f i f t h s of the Grand Forks area, and about one h a l f of the West Kootenay area. I n the Grand Forks area they occupy mainly north and west f a c i n g slopes and the higher e l e v a t i o n s above J u l y creek and on Hardy mountain. I n the West Kootenay area Brown P o d z o l i c s o i l s were 52 TABLE SA FIELD CLASSIFICATION OF THE SOILS OF THE GRAND FORKS AREA Catena, S e r i e s , Type and Phase Group A« S o i l s Derived from A l l u v i u m (a) W e l l drained C l a y p l t S e r i e s • • • • • • • • Black C l a y p l t s i l t loam C l a y p l t loam, l e v e l phase C l a y p l t loam, s l o p i n g phase Boundary S e r i e s . • • • • • • Black Boundary loam, l e v e l phase Boundary loam, s i p p i n g phase Granby S e r i e s • • • • « . • • Brown P o d z o l i o Granby sandy loam Granby s i l t loam Granby loamy sand (b) Well to e x c e s s i v e l y drained Carson S e r i e s • • • • • • • • Black Carson loamy sand, l e v e l phase Carson loamy sand, windblown phase Carson coarse sandy loam Carson sandy loam D a n v i l l e S e r i e s • • • • • • • Black D a n v i l l e loamy coarse sand Caesar S e r i e s • • • • • • • • Brown P o d z o l i o Caesar loamy ooarse sand Caesar f i n e sand B. S o i l s Derived from G l a c i a l T i l l and T i l l D e r i v a t i v e s (a) W e l l drained Hardy S e r i e s • Black Hardy loam, l e v e l phase Hardy loam, s l o p i n g phase Hardy g r a v e l l y loam, s l o p i n g phase Hardy g r a v e l l y loam, moderately steep phase Hardy g r a v e l l y sandy loam, l e v e l phase Hardy g r a v e l l y sandy loam, k e t t l e phase Hardy stony loam, u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Gibbs S e r i e s . . . . . . . . . Brown P o d z o l i o G l b b 8 g r a v e l l y loam Gibbs g r a v e l l y sandy loam, s l o p i n g phase Gibbs g r a v e l l y sandy loam, k e t t l e phase Gibbs stony loam, u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d C. S o i l s Derived from C o l l u v i a l Slopes and Fans (a) W e l l to e x c e s s i v e l y d r a i n e d Rldeau Complex . . . . . . . . Brown P o d z o l i o D« Miscellaneous S o i l s Bottomland S a l i n e Seepage Rough Mountainous Erwoded and Disse c t e d 53 TABLE SB FIELD CLASSIFICATION OF THE SOILS OF THE WEST KOOTENAY AREA Catena, S e r i e s , Type and Phase Group A* S o i l s Derived from Al l u v i u m (a) W e l l drained Shoreaores S e r i e s • • • • • • • « • Brown P o d z o l i o Shoreacre* s i l t loam Shoreaores f i n e sandy loam, l e v e l phase Shoreaores f i n e sandy loam, s l o p i n g phase (b) W e l l to e x c e s s i v e l y drained Krestova S e r i e s • • • • • • • • • • Brown P o d z o l i c Krestova loamy sand Krestova sand Krestova coarse.sand Champion S e r i e s . . . . . . . . . . Brown P o d z o l i o Champion g r a v e l l y sandy loam, non-stonyphase Champion g r a v e l l y sandy loam, stony phase (o) I m p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d CIaybrick S e r i e s . . . . . . . . • Low Humio G l e i C l a y b r i c k loam C l a y b r i c k c l a y loam C l a y b r i c k loamy sand C l a y b r i c k g r a v e l l y sandy loam, non-stony phase C l a y b r i c k g r a v e l l y sandy loam, stony phase (d) P o o r l y drained Pass Creek S e r i e s . . . . . . * • • Humio G l e l Pass Creek loam Pass Creek loamy sand B. S o i l s Derived from C o l l u v i a l Slopes and Fans (a) W e l l drained Glade S e r i e s Brown P o d z o l i o Glade g r a v e l l y loam, l e v e l phase Glade g r a v e l l y loam, s l o p i n g phase Glade loam Glade g r a v e l l y sandy loam, non-stony phase Glade g r a v e l l y sandy loam, stony phase C« Miscellaneous S o i l s Peat Dune Rough Mountainous Eroded and B i s s e c t e d 54 found on a l l the v e i l d rained p o s i t i o n s . I n c o n t r a s t to the Black s o i l s whioh developed under grass v e g e t a t i o n , the Brown P o d z o l i c s o i l s developed under f o r e s t cover. The general nature and h o r i z o n sequence of the Brown P o d z o l l o s o i l s may be noted from P l a t e I I , This d e s c r i p t i o n agrees w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n s of Brown P o d z o l i c s o i l s g i ven elsewhere (31) (42) ( 5 D . I n c o n t r a s t w i t h the "Brown P o d z o l i c " s o i l s of the P a c i f i o Goast, (9) very few "shotty s t r u c t u r e s " vere found, and these only to a very l i m i t e d extent i n one s e r i e s , Shoreacres, Another important d i f f e r e n c e between many of the Brown P o d z o l l o s o i l s of the Grand Forks area and those of the West Kootenay area was the presence of f r e e lime at a depth of 2 to 3 ^oet i n the former. More extensive f i e l d and l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s need to be done to e s t a b l i s h c o n c l u s i v e l y to which S o i l Group these P o d z o l l o s o i l s should be assigned. U n t i l t h i s i s done, and c r i t e r i a have been c l e a r l y and f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , one can only conjecture and t e n t a t i v e l y group them w i t h the Brown P o d z o l i c s o i l s . The Low Humio G l e i s o i l s u s u a l l y occu-py p o s i t i o n s adjacent to the streams and r i v e r s PLATE II A Brown Podaolic s o i l profile developed on sandy alluvium and showing a very thin A? horizon. 55 and are found on most of the communities i n the West Kootenay area* They cover a comparatively small area of s o i l , 464 acres occurring only i n the West Kootenay area* This group of s o i l s developed on almost l e v e l topography under the i n f l u e n c e of a water t a b l e that f l u c t u a t e s from the surface t o about 10 to 20 f e e t depth* N a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n on these s o i l s c o n s i s t s of scrub t r e e s suoh as c o t t o n -wood and w i l l o w w i t h a undergrowth of shrubs and grasses* Most of the areas mapped were c u l t i v a t e d * The general nature and h o r i z o n sequence i n these Low Humio G l e i s o i l s agrees q u i t e c l o s e l y w i t h that set out by Thorp and Smith (47) who de-f i n e d them as f o l l o w s * An i n t r a z o n a l group of i m p e r f e c t l y to p o o r l y d r a i n e d s o i l s w i t h very t h i n surface h o r i z o n s , moderately h i g h i n organic matter, over mottled gray and brown g l e l - l l k e m i n e r a l horizons w i t h a low degree of t e x t u r a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n * The Humlc G l e i , f o u r t h group of s o i l s mapped, ocoupy 316 acres* This group Includes the Pass Creek S e r i e s mapped i n the Pass Creek, Krestova, Lebahdo, Winlaw and C l a y b r i c k communities* These s o i l s occur i n areas where drainage i s r e s t r i c t e d ; g e n e r a l l y the water t a b l e i s c l o s e to the surface throughout most of the year* The general nature and h o r i z o n sequenoe i n the Humic G l e l s o i l s may be seen i n P l a t e I I I * PLATE III An intrazonal Humio G l e i p r o f i l e developed on a l l u v i a l material i n a poorly drained position. 56 The fe a t u r e s are In general agreement w i t h those given hy Thorp and Smith (47) who d e s c r i b e Humlc G l e i s o i l s as f o l l o w s * An l n t r a z o n a l group of p o o r l y to very p o o r l y drained hydromorphic s o i l s w i t h d a r k - c o l o r e d o r g a n i -mlrieral horizons of moderate t h i c k -ness u n d e r l a i n by m i n e r a l g l e l h o r i z o n s . 57 SOIL DESCRIPTIONS | GRAND FORKS AREA The soils of the Grand Forks area were classifie d and mapped into four groups, soils de-rived from alluvium, soils derived from gla c i a l t i l l and t i l l derivatives, soils derived from a l l u -v i a l fans and miscellaneous s o i l s . The acreages of each of the s o i l types mapped i n these groups are l i s t e d by communities i n / TABLE.21. In a l l , 5,327 acres were mapped i n the Grand Forks area. Soils Derived from Alluvium The term alluvium includes a l l de-posits l a i d down by streams and rivers (57)* These deposits are quite uniformly sorted as to size of particle and may range in texture from oobbly gravelly loamy sand to s i l t . The alluvium that constitutes the parent materials of these soils was deposited by glaoial and post glacial rivers and very l i t t l e material has been l a i d down recently. PLATE IV Grand forks area, looking east, with the Kettle river winding through f l a t terrace land. Doukhobor land lies north of the river where soils o f the Danville, Carson and Claypit series occupy the terraces. Foreground i s Hardy stony loam undifferentiated. 5 * The a l l u v i u m i s , on the average,, ; one to two hundred f e e t deep and forms the t e r r a c e s that may be seen i n P l a t e IV, Coarse t e x t u r e d s u b s t r a t a u s u a l l y u n d e r l i e the medium to heavy text u r e d surface l a y e r s on the t e r r a c e s . S i x s e r i e s covering 323 aores make up the s o i l s d e r i v e d from a l l u v i u m , C l a y p i t S e r i e s (Black s i l t loam and loam) Included i n t h i s s e r i e s are the very dark grey brown s o i l s developed on medium to heavy t e x t u r e d sediments o v e r l y i n g l i g h t e r t e x t u r e d s e d i -ments. Two types, s i l t loam and loam were d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d comprising 130 aores i n a l l * C l a y p i t s i l t loam This type covers 100 aores mostly i n one. piece along the back of a wide t e r r a c e i n Lot 4-53* I t occupies an area of b a s i n r e l i e f w i t h very gen-t l e slopes as seen i n P l a t e V, The type of f o r -mation suggests an abandoned r i v e r channel which the r i v e r occupied only at f l o o d stage oyer a l o n g p e r i o d of years dur i n g whioh f i n e t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s were deposited on top of e a r l i e r d e p o s i t s of coarser m a t e r i a l s * The f i n e m a t e r i a l s accumulated i n l a y e r s up to a depth of 1 5 f e e t or more* The t e x t u r e of the parent m a t e r i a l i s c l a y to s i l t y c l a y * Labor-a t o r y a n a l y s i s o f the surface sample taken showed PLATS V Claypit s i l t loam on level to very gently sloping topography i n the foreground. Claypit s i l t loam profile with one foot of dark colored surface s o i l . The top six inches i s cultivated. At about five feet a fine sand strata appears. 59 the t e x t u r e to he c l a y loam hut the te x t u r e i n the f i e l d ranges from a heavy loam through s i l t loam to c l a y loam and the type has been designated as s i l t loam* The f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e was examined i n a n e a r l y l e v e l c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d * A. x 0 - 6• 10YR V 2 * very dark grey brown (moist) 1 0 10YR 4/2 dark grey brown (dry) medium blooky to coarse p l a t y c l a y loam; f r i a b l e ; s l i g h t l y hard when dry; pH 5*2 Numerous worm and rodent burrows, f i n e feeding r o o t s * A-p 6-12" 10YR 3/2 dark grey brown (moist), X d 10YR 5/2 - 4/2 grey-brown (dry) moder-ate coarse blocky c l a y loam; f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y hard when dry, pH 6,0* Many f i n e r o o t s , burrows* B 12-20" 10YR 3/4 very dark y e l l o w brown (moist, 1 10YR 6/3 pale brown (dry) s i l t y c l a y loam; strong medium blocky; hard when dry; pH 6*5* Numerous r o o t s * B 2 20-24" 2*5Y 4/4 o l i v e brown (moist), 10YR 7/2 l i g h t grey ( d r y ) , strong medium blooky clay.loam; very hard when dry; numerous r o o t s , pH g*0 effervescence w i t h d i l u t e a c i d * C l 24-54" 2*5^ 5/2 grey brown mottled w i t h 5/4 l i g h t o l i v e brown (wes); 2.5Y 7/2 l i g h t grey mottled w i t h 6/2 l i g h t brownish grey c l a y ; strong medium blooky w i t h limey ooating on aggre-gates; very hard when dry; s t i c k y when.wet. pH S*0; strong effervescence w i t h d i l u t e a o l d * 0 54 -60" 2*5Y 4/2-dark grey brown (m o i s t ) , 10YR 6/2 l i g h t brown grey ( d r y ) , f r i a b l e , oompaot, c l a y loam; weak f i n e blooky s t r u c t u r e * pH $*©, Strong effervescence* 60 D 60* p l u s 10YR V 2 dark grey brown (mo i s t ) , 10YR 7/2 l i g h t grey (dry) f i n e sand; f r i a b l e , moderately compact, weak massive s t r u c t u r e * pH 8*0 effervescence w i t h a o l d * x HC° denotes a c u l t i v a t e d h o r i z o n * * Numbers are Munsell n o t a t i o n s which express the p r e c i s e q u a l i t y of a c o l o r i n terms o f i t s components,hue/ value and chroma (36)* The main v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the type i s the depth to the D h o r i z o n , whloh may range from two to f i f t e e n f e e t * Surface drainage i s low i n the b a s i n areas and temporary ponding 0pours i n the s p r i n g i n these depressions* I n t e r n a l drainage i s slow due to the moderately heavy-textured s u b s o i l * This i s evidenoed by the m o t t l i n g of o o l o r i n the h o r i z o n i n d i c a t i n g wet c o n d i t i o n s f o r a good p a r t of the year* I n the map area t h i s type i s a l l c l e a r e d , so that n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n must be I n f e r r e d from s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s elsewhere. These were observed to be sparse stands of y e l l o w p i n e , w i t h some Douglas f i r growing i n gr a s s l a n d environment* I n common w i t h other s o i l s of the Doukhobor l a n d s , t h i s type i s being used to o n l y a l i m i t e d extent. Though good stands of a l f a l f a pan be e s t a b l i s h e d and maintained, muoh of t h i s l a n d 61 i s i n a semi-abandoned s t a t e * Weed i n f e s t a t i o n I s very s e r i o u s , suoh noxious p l a n t s as sow t h i s t l e , Russian t h i s t l e , knapweed and couoh grass being p r e v a l e n t ; i n some oases they c o n s t i t u t e the en-t i r e crop* These weeds, w i t h v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s of sweet-clover, v e t c h and tame grasses are regu-l a r l y out f o r hay* Because of the l o c a l b a s i n r e l i e f , summer f r o s t s w i l l l i k e l y be more oommon here than elsewhere on the t e r r a c e and i t was noted, t h a t tomatoes, beans and other s e n s i t i v e crops are grown at higher e l e v a t i o n s w i t h b e t t e r a i r drainage* C l a y p l t loam In general the C l a y p l t loam has the same p o s i t i o n , l a n d form and r e l i e f as the C l a y -p i t s i l t loam* I t covers 80 acres, d i v i d e d i n t o two phases, l e v e l and s l o p i n g * The s l o p i n g phase i s found on only 3 acres* The main area of t h i s type I s found along the margin of the s i l t loam* The loam c o u l d be regarded as a t r a n s i t i o n i n t o the l i g h t e r s o i l s near the r i v e r * The p r o f i l e d e s c r i b e d below was exam-ine d i n a c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d where the depth to the D h o r i z o n was considered to be average* 61 A- 0-gfl 10YR 3/2 very dark grey brown (moist), A 0 10YR 4/2 - 4/3 dark brown (dry), f r i a b l e heavy sandy loam; moderate coarse blooky structure; pH 6.5* Numerous roots* A, 2 8-15" 10YR 3/3 dark brown (moist), 10YR 4/3 dark brown (dry), f r i a b l e loam, moderate coarse blooky. pH 7*0* Numerous roots* *l 15-20* 1QYR 3A dark yellowish brown (wet), 1QYR 5/3 brown (dry), f r i a b l e loam, moderate coarse blocky; pH 7.5 Numerous roots. Bp 30*40M 10YR 6/4 l i g h t yellowish brown (moist), 10YR 2/3 very pale brown (dry), very firm s l l t y clay loam; s l i g h t l y hard when dry; moderate medium blooky struoture; pH 8Y3, limy* Pew roots. D 40" plus 10YH 6/3 pale brown (dry), loose sand; single grain* pH 2*3; limy, Pew roots* The texture i s l i g h t e r , Internal drainage and aeration better and the consistence more f r i a b l e than i n the s i l t loam* These q u a l i t i e s are responsi-ble for the better workability and the l o c a l farmers express a preference for t h i s type f o r gardens be-cause of i t 8 great ease of c u l t i v a t i o n , and lack of tendency to bake a f t e r i r r i g a t i o n * Surface drainage i s comparable to that of the s i l t loam but Internal drainage i s more rapid than the loam type i s formed on l i g h t e r , more porous materi-a l , underlain by bedded sands generally of a coarser nature* 6 2 Boundary Ser i e s (Black loam over sand and g r a v e l ) This s e r i e s lnoludes very dark brown s o i l s of medium te x t u r e developed on a t h i n veneer of s l i g h t l y g r a v e l l y sediments o v e r l y i n g coarse, exces-s i v e l y d rained sediments. I n the map area only the loam type was c l a s s i f i e d * Boundary loam This s e r i e s i s widespread i n the v a l l e y but on the Doukhobor l a n d only 31 aores of I t were found* I t i s formed on K e t t l e r i v e r t e r r a c e s having very l i t t l e r e l i e f * An area c o n t a i n i n g some small k e t t l e s about ten f e e t i n depth was mapped as a s l o p i n g phase* Only one acre of t h i s phase l i e s w i t h i n the community boundary. The parent m a t e r i a l i s a l a y e r of medium-tex t u r e d a l l u v i a l sediments, normally about two f e e t i n depth, l a i d unconformably on coarse sands and g r a v e l s . There i s considerable v a r i a b i l i t y i n the depth to g r a v e l and i n the content of g r a v e l i n the solum. The f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e , w i t h an average depth of solum was examined i n a c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d , A]_ 0 0-14" Very dark brown g r a n u l a r to bl o c k y , f r i a b l e loam, c o n t a i n i n g some f i n e g r a v e l , many r o o t s , pH 6 , 2 5 * 63 B 14-21" Brown medium blocky loam, f r i a b l e , c o n t a i n i n g f i n e g r a v e l * Many r o o t s * pH 6.6. P 21 p l u s L i g h t grey s t r a t i f i e d coarse sand and g r a v e l J l o o s e , s i n g l e g r a i n s t r u c t u r e ; no r o o t s . Lime at 3 0^ 4 f e e t ; pH 7.0. The A l 0 h o r i z o n i s present only i n l o c a l areas that have been c u l t i v a t e d and i r r i g a t e d . I n areas that are more n e a r l y v i r g i n the A h o r i z o n i s shallower* There are few stones though the g r a v e l content of the surface s o i l i s considerable i n p l a c e s . Prainage through the g r a v e l l y substratum i s r a p i d , though the p e r m e a b i l i t y of the solum i s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r furrow i r r i g a t i o n . Native cover probably c o n s i s t e d of grass-l a n d w i t h s c a t t e r e d y e l l o w pine s i m i l a r to that assumed f o r the C l a y p i t s o i l s . The Boundary loam i s a l l under c u l t i -v a t i o n and most of i t i s i r r i g a t e d . Tree f r u i t s , a l f a l f a , potatoes, garden crops and c e r e a l s are grown. I t i s an important s o i l type i n the Covert I r r i g a t i o n P i s t r i c t west of the D a n v i l l e customs p o r t . Carson S e r i e s (Black loamy sand and sandy loam) Very dark grey brown s o i l s developed on l i g h t t e x t u r e d t e r r a c e sediments comprise t h i s s e r i e s . 64 I t embraces three s o i l types, sandy loam, coarse sandy loam and loamy sand, t o t a l l i n g 2 6 l acres* Carson loamy sand Carson loamy sand i s developed on l e v e l to g e n t l y s l o p i n g t e r r a c e s f l a n k i n g the K e t t l e and Granby r i v e r s * The mapped areas amounting to 2 2 3 acres oocur west of Grand Forks i n the v i o i n l t y of Carsons Corner, and no r t h of Grand Forks on d i s s e c t e d t e r r a c e s above Ward's l a k e * A windblown phase acoounts f o r 6 2 aores of t h i s type* F u r t h e r areas are b e l i e v e d to ooour south of the K e t t l e r i v e r i n the Grand Forks I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t * Some of the terraoes are q u i t e extensive, ranging up to a m i l e or so i n width* The e l e v a t i o n s of the t e r r a c e s examined range from 17OO to 1 9 5 0 f e e t . R e l i e f i s l e v e l or g e n t l y s l o p i n g . I n the windblown phase m l c r o r e l l e f i s very uneven, many of the former dunes are too l a r g e to be economically l e v e l l e d . The topography i s hummocky w i t h dunes f i v e to f i f t e e n f e e t h i g h and seventy f i v e to one hundred yards a c r o s s . At present these dunes are not a c t i v e l y s h i f t i n g , having been g e n e r a l l y s t a b i l i z e d by v e g e t a t i o n . The general order of d e p o s i t i o n of terraoes i s sand over g r a v e l . This i s the p a t t e r n here, though 6 5 o c c a s i o n a l lenses of s i l t y t e x t u r e are found at va r y i n g depths I n exposures along t e r r a c e faces* Judging by t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a t i f i c a t i o n these lenses of f i n e m a t e r i a l probably were l a i d i n temporary l a k e s * The p r o f i l e d escribed below was examined i n a formerly c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d , now i n grass, near Carsons Corner* A- 0 ~ l 4 " 10YR 2/2 very dark brown (moist), 10YR 4 / l dark grey ( d r y ) , weak f i n e to coarse blocky/sand, medium s o f t , very f r i a b l e , b reaking r e a d i l y i n t o s i n g l e g r a i n s ; many r o o t s * pH 6*0 B, 14-24" 10YR 3 / 3 dark brown (moist), 10YR 5 / 3 brown (dry) sand; weak f i n e to coarse b l o o k y ; . s o f t , very f r i a b l e , b reaking r e a d i l y i n t o s i n g l e g r a i n s ; many r o o t s * pH 6.0 B_ 24-40" 10YR 4 / 4 dark y e l l o w brown (moist), 2 10YR 5 / 4 - 6 / 4 y e l l o w i s h brown ( d r y ) , weak massive to blooky sand, s o f t , very f r i a b l e , breaking r e a d i l y i n t o s i n g l e g r a i n s ; many r o o t s * pH 6 * 5 C. 4 0 - 6 0 " 10YR 4/2 dark grey brown ( m o i s t ) , 10YR 6/2 l i g h t brownish grey (dry) sand; l o o s e , s i n g l e g r a i n ; pM 8*0 C 2 20" p l u s 10YR 4 / 3 dark brown (mo i s t ) , 10YR 6 / 3 p a l e brown ( d r y ) , sand; s l i g h t l i m e accumulation; pH 8 * 3 Free carbonate i s found only i n the f i n e r t e x t u r e d s t r a t a and i s not a r e g u l a r f e a t u r e of the sandy parent m a t e r i a l from which the Carson S e r i e s i s d e r i v e d though a s l i g h t lime accumulation may occur beneath the solum* 66 The t e x t u r e , determined by l a b o r a t o r y t e s t was sand* However, some v a r i a t i o n was found i n the f i e l d and i t has been c l a s s e d as loamy sand* The hummock tops have a shallower and l i g h t e r c o l o r e d h o r i z o n due t o e r o s i o n i n t o the hollows where the top s o i l i s somewhat deeper than the average l e v e l areas* I t can thus be noted t h a t there i s l e s s organic matter i n the s o i l of the hum-mocks r e s u l t i n g i n lower f e r t i l i t y and a lower mois-tur e h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y * I n a few very small areas about h a l f a m i l e southwest of Wards l a k e extreme wind e r o s i o n has removed the solum and exposed the l i m y parent m a t e r i a l * Drainage of the p r o f i l e i s r a p i d * There i s very l i t t l e surface r u n o f f ; most of the surplus moisture reaches the r i v e r by p e r c o l a t i o n through the t e r r a c e s * Small streams from h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s d i s a p -pear i n the porous t e r r a c e s and reach the main d r a i n -age v i a t h e i r surface channels only when i n : flood;* The n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n has been destroyed e n t i r e l y by c u l t i v a t i o n o r a l t e r e d by over-grazing but had c o n s i s t e d of moderate to sparse stands of y e l l o w pine w i t h a grass undercover* Most of the type on the oommunity l a n d was formerly c u l t i v a t e d but i s now l a r g e l y abandoned w i t h a small acreage used f o r o e r e a l s * Hay crops are harvested i n wet 67 seasons from a p o r t i o n of the remainder* The forage c o n s i s t s o h i e f l y of couoh grass and other weeds but w i t h some c u l t i v a t e d grasses* Carson coarse sandy loam The ten acres mapped as t h i s type i s prop-e r l y a v a r i a t i o n due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n parent m a t e r i a l * I t i s found on a deposit c o n s i s t i n g of mixed m a t e r i a l s eroded from the Hardy and Carson S e r i e s and deposited on a t e r r a c e belonging to the D a n v i l l e S e r i e s * F a i l -ure of the storage dam at the n o r t h side of L. 453 r e s u l t e d i n the r a p i d e r o s i o n and mixing of m a t e r i a l s and t h e i r deposit on the lower t e r r a c e as the r e l e a s e d water made i t s way to the K e t t l e R i v e r by way of the most n a t u r a l route* Topography of t h i s type I s l e v e l to very g e n t l y s l o p i n g * The p r o f i l e was examined at s e v e r a l s i t e s i n f i e l d s under c u l t i v a t i o n and i r r i g a t i o n * The A-h o r i z o n i s dark grey brown, f r i a b l e , coarse sandy loam c o n t a i n i n g v a r y i n g amounts of g r a v e l to a depth of s i x inches* The second h o r i z o n , from s i x to eighteen inohes, i s very compact brown coarse sandy-loam* I t s hardness might be due to mechanloal compaction, or p o s s i b l y to i t s p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n * Below a depth of IS inches the m a t e r i a l i s l o o s e , brown, ooarse sandy loam, u n d e r l a i d by coarse sand and g r a v e l at depth* 68 The compact l a y e r r e s t r i c t s the downward movement of water and makes p o s s i b l e the conveyance of water i n d i t c h e s . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c has been recognized by the Doukhobors, who are i r r i g a t i n g the type from the K e t t l e r i v e r . Water i s pumped by e l e c t r i c a l l y powered pumps to the h i g h p o i n t on the p l o t to be I r r i g a t e d , Prom there i t i s spread I n d i t c h e s and furrows down the n a t u r a l slope, which i s very g e n t l e , Carson coarse sandy loam i s a l l under c u l t i v a t i o n , devoted to gardens, f r u i t t r e e s and a l f a l f a i n small p l o t s , Carson sandy loam An area of 28 aores, on a low t e r r a c e o f the K e t t l e r i v e r was mapped as Carson sandy loam. Part of the same t e r r a c e i s Carson loamy sand. The sandy loam surface s t r a t a i s l a i d on deep sandy d e p o s i t s , s i m i l a r to those from which the loamy sand i s d e r i v e d . This p r o f i l e was de s c r i b e d i n a c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d , A- 0 - 8 " 10YR 2/2 very dark brown (m o i s t ) , 10YR 5/2 grey brown (dry) sandy loam; moderate coarse blooky, very f r i a b l e , many f i n e r o o t s , pH 6 ,4 8 - 2 1 " 1GYR 3/3 dark brown (moist), 10XR 5/2-5/3 grey brown (dry) sandy loam; moderate coarse b l o c k y , very f r i a b l e many r o o t s , pH 6,9 69 B 21-44" 10YR 4/2-3/2 dark grey brown (moist), d 1GYR 6/3 pale brown (dry) sandy loam; weak coarse blooky, very f r i a b l e , some r o o t s . pH 7.6 D 44" p l u s 10YR 4/2 - 5/2 dark grey brown (moist) 10YR 6/2 l i g h t brown grey (dry) sand; s i n g l e grained, l o o s e , no r o o t s . PH 7.2 The importance of the f i n e r t e x t u r e i s i n b e t t e r moisture-holding c a p a c i t y , and a gr e a t e r a b i l i t y to oarry water I n d i t c h e s . Consequently the type i s a l l under c u l t i v a t i o n , devoted to forage crops and gardens. I n e a r l y summer, at the peak of the f r e s h e t , drainage i n p a r t s of the type i s a f f e c t e d by h i g h water. S u b i r r i g a t i o n i s l i m i t e d to a b r i e f p e r i o d , however, and the moisture from t h i s source does not s u s t a i n optimum growth l a t e r i n the season. Beoause of i t s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n f i f t e e n to twenty f e e t o f r i v e r l e v e l , the area of the type mapped on community lands can be i r r i g a t e d r e a d i l y by pumping from the K e t t l e r i v e r . D a n v i l l e S e r i e s (Very dark brown g r a v e l l y loamy sand) This s e r i e s contains very dark brown s o i l s d e r i v e d from ooarse t e x t u r e d and g r a v e l l y stony t e r r a c e s . Only one type, loamy ooarse sand, was d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n the map area. D a n v i l l e loamy coarse sand This s o i l type occurs widely to the west 70 and north o f the c i t y of Grand F o r k s , Besides the 193 acres c l a s s i f i e d on the communities there i s a l a r g e area of t h i s immediately adjacent to them, A t y p i o a l area i s the broad t e r r a c e on which the a i r -p o r t i s l o c a t e d . The r e l i e f i s t y p i c a l l y l e v e l to very g e n t l y s l o p i n g , though k e t t l e s are found on the upper t e r r a c e s . These are of infrequent occurrence and are shown on the map as miscellaneous eroded areas. The p r o f i l e s examined are very permeable though f i n e r ^ t e x t u r e d s t r a t a are observed on some t e r r a c e f a c e s . At one p l a c e e r o s i o n of the parent g r a v e l has exposed a band of f i n e - t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l whioh outcrops along a g e n t l e slope, forming the d i v i s i o n between two a d j o i n i n g g r a v e l l y t e r r a c e s , one ten f e e t higher than the o t h e r . The exposed s e c t i o n i s f i f t y f e e t wide and extends along, the t e r r a c e face a d i s t a n c e of 1,000 f e e t . While the f i n e r stratum presumably u n d e r l i e s the g r a v e l on the upper t e r r a c e at a depth of l e s s than ten f e e t , i t appears to have no e f f e c t on moisture r e l a t i o n s as no d i f f e r e n c e s i n the growth of p l a n t s were noted, though growth i s much more abundant on the exposure of f i n e m a t e r i a l i t s e l f . The t e r r a c e s are composed of s t r a t i f i e d sands and g r a v e l s , the l a r g e r p a r t i c l e s of which are w e l l rounded. K e t t l e s found on the 71 higher t e r r a c e s (1,950' e l e v a t i o n ) at e x t r e m i t i e s of t h i s type i n d i c a t e the m a t e r i a l was l a i d down by meltwater of r e t r e a t i n g g l a c i e r s at the c l o s e of the l a s t g l a o i a l p e r i o d . I n p a r t s of t h i s type surface d e p o s i t s of sand vary from a few inches to two f e e t . Other , areas which are q u i t e extensive have the g r a v e l l y loamy sand m a t e r i a l r i g h t at the s u r f a c e . From the poi n t of view o f l a n d use i t was not deemed worth whi l e to separate these areas. Therefore w i t h i n t h i s type areas may be found that c o n t a i n up to 25 percent g r a v e l at the s u r f a c e . The surface A and B horizons are s h a l -lower where there i s a h i g h percentage of g r a v e l , G e n e r a l l y the g r a v e l l y surface i s found more f r e -quently along the outer edge of the t e r r a c e . The f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n r e p r e -sents the average c o n d i t i o n on formerly c u l t i v a t e d l a n d now used f o r g r a z i n g as shown i n P l a t e V I , A. 0-12" 10 YR 2/2 very dark brown (mo i s t ) , A 10YR 4/2 dark grey brown ( d r y ) , f r i a b l e loamy ooarse sand c o n t a i n -i n g some g r a v e l ; b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; many feeding r o o t s ; pH 6,0 B^ 12-17" 10YR 3/3 dark brown (moist), 10YR 5/4 y e l l o w brown ( d r y ) , f r i a b l e loamy ooarse sand c o n t a i n i n g some g r a v e l ; weak f i n e blocky s t r u c t u r e ; many r o o t s ; pH 6,5 B g 17-23" 10YR 2/4 dark y e l l o w brown (moist), P L A T E V I A . D a n v i l l e loamy coarse sand w i t h l e v e l topography. 72 1GYR 6 A l i g h t y e l l o w brown ( d r y ) , loose g r a v e l and ooarse sand; s i n g l e g r a i n s t r u c t u r e ; many r o o t s ; pH 6 , 8 0 2 3 " p l u s 10YR 6 / 3 pale brown (mo i s t ) , 10YR 6 A l i g h t y e l l o w brown ( d r y ) , l o o s e , ooarse sand and g r a v e l ; s i n g l e g r a i n s t r u c t u r e pH 7 ,0 The B h o r i z o n i s weakly developed and the boundary w i t h the C h o r i z o n i s i n d i s t i n c t . Although a few cobbles are present I n the upper h o r i z o n s , stoniness does not appear to be a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n the use of these s o i l s . A l l of t h i s type i s e x c e s s i v e l y drained i n t e r n a l l y and water l o s s e s take p l a c e due to deep p e r c o l a t i o n . One small area, l e s s than one h a l f acre, i s a f f e c t e d by wind e r o s i o n . This i s c l a s s i f i e d as a dune w i t h the miscellaneous areas as i t i s subject to c o n t i n u a l s h i f t i n g . V a r i a t i o n s i n the depth to g r a v e l i n p r o f i l e s cannot be a t t r i b u t e d to e r o s i o n ; they are due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n the o r i g i n a l deposition of the parent m a t e r i a l s . Native v e g e t a t i o n on uncleared p a r t s of the t e r r a c e s c o n s i s t s of s c a t t e r e d y e l l o w pine w i t h grassy undercover. Most of the type has been c u l t i -vated and abandoned. I t now supports e a r l y maturing spear grasses and downy brome w i t h a s s o r t e d annual and p e r e n n i a l weeds. I n the present c o n d i t i o n the 73 v e g e t a t i o n I s s u i t a b l e only f o r s p r i n g and e a r l y summer g r a z i n g because i t matures by the end of June* Under c u l t i v a t i o n , the type was devoted mainly to the production of c e r e a l s * The Granby S e r i e s (Brown p o d z o l i c loamy sand to s i l t loam) This s e r i e s embraces only 32 aores of three s o i l types, sandy loam, s i l t loam and loamy sand* A l l three types occur as small t e r r a c e s from ten to f o r t y or f i f t y f e e t above low water along the Granby and K e t t l e r i v e r s * They are i n c l u d e d i n one s e r i e s because of t h e i r common o r i g i n and the small acreage* Granby sandy loam This i s the most important type i n the s e r i e s , occupying 17 acres on two small benches at Caesar and G i l p i n * As the intermediate type between the s i l t loam and loamy sand i t probably best r e p r e -sents the s e r i e s as to s o i l p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s * The r e l i e f i s f l a t , or n e a r l y so, and the parent m a t e r i a l i s u n d e r l a i n by bedded f i n e sands* This i s the same m a t e r i a l that u n d e r l i e s the s i l t loam as a D h o r i z o n a t G i l p i n * The f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n was taken from a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i t e near Caesar* A 0-2" 10YR 5/3 brown (dry) sandy loam; medium f i n e g r a n u l a r ; numerous r o o t s ; pH 7.5 B 2-18* 10YR 6/2 l i g h t brown grey sandy loam; medium massive; hard; numerous r o o t s ; pH 6.0 74 G 13" p l u s L i g h t y e l l o w brown f i n e sand; s i n g l e g r a i n ; l o o s e ; s o f t ; pH 6.5 There i s considerable v a r i a t i o n i n pro-f i l e s due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n the parent m a t e r i a l s . Development of the p r o f i l e i s weak and the character of the parent m a t e r i a l dominates other s o i l character** i s t i c s . I n general t h i s type i s stone f r e e and I n t e r n a l drainage i s moderate to e x c e s s i v e . The type i s a l l c l e a r e d and under c u l t i -v a t i o n ; the p o r t i o n at G i l p i n i s d i v i d e d i n t o small p l o t s f o r I r r i g a t e d gardens and homesltes, wh i l e the p a r t at Caesar i s devoted to growing c e r e a l s without i r r i g a t i o n . The n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of Douglas f i r and cottonwood, and p o s s i b l y y e l l o w pine on the d r i e s t l o c a t i o n s . The sandy loam i s w e l l adapted to i n t e n -s i v e use w i t h i r r i g a t i o n . Poor to moderate y i e l d s of c e r e a l s or hay oan be expected without i r r i g a t i o n . Granby s i l t loam Pound on a t e r r a c e at G i l p i n c o v e r i n g 3 acres, i t i s w e l l drained, l y i n g f i f t y f e e t above the K e t t l e r i v e r . The parent m a t e r i a l o o n s i s t s of s i x f e e t of bedded s i l t y m a t e r i a l over sand. Gravel occurs at a depth of ten f e e t . 75 The surfaoe t e x t u r e i s s i l t loam which i s f r i a b l e when moist, hard when dry* Free carbonate occurs i n the Bg h o r i z o n . The present use of t h i s small area i s f o r gardens, i r r i g a t e d from the K e t t l e r i v e r by pumping. The s u b s o i l s u p p l i e s the l o c a l requirements of " c l a y " f o r making p l a s t e r . Granby loamy sand This type covers 12 acres of a low terraoe of the Granby r i v e r i n the oommunity of Caesar. The t e r r a c e , shaped l i k e a p e n i n s u l a , i s about 15 f e e t above low water, and while not o r d i n a r i l y subject to f l o o d i n g , drainage i s markedly a f f e c t e d by h i g h water. This i s evldenoed by strong m o t t l i n g i n the lower B h o r i z o n . The p r o f i l e i s v a r i a b l e due to v a r i a t i o n s I n the parent m a t e r i a l and m i c r o - r e l i e f and o l d channels two or three f e e t deep produce an uneven s u r f a c e . The r i d g e s are sandy and the hollows are h e a v i e r t e x t u r e d . The parent m a t e r i a l i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of the Granby sandy loam though the surfaoe m a t e r i a l , and i n some cases the deeper l a y e r s as w e l l , are coarser i n t e x t u r e . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the upper ho r i z o n s are s i m i l a r to those of the sandy loam type, however the B h o r i z o n i s oompaot and massive due to i r o n cemen-t a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from a h i g h water t a b l e . For t h i s 76 reason i t should not p r o p e r l y he c l a s s e d as a Brown P o d z o l i c s o i l but r a t h e r be plaoed i n a d i f f e r e n t category were the acreage l a r g e enough to warrant a separation* Stones and g r a v e l are not abundant but the depth to g r a v e l i s not more than ten f e e t . G r a v e l was noted outcropping at the surface i n one l o o a t l o n . Stream bank er o s i o n i s a s e r i o u s problem. The r i v e r i s g r a d u a l l y o u t t i n g i n t o the p e n i n s u l a and threatens to cut i t o f f i f i t continues to s h i f t i n i t s present d i r e c t i o n . Judging by the t r e e s growing along the r i v e r banks w i l l o w s and oottonwood were the n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n , although the mapped p o r t i o n of the type i s a l l under c u l t i v a t i o n , devoted mainly to c e r e a l p r o d u c t i o n . Farmers r e p o r t t h a t a l f a l f a stands cannot be maintained and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the h i g h s p r i n g water i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the deep r o o t i n g h a b i t , and g i v e s the advantage to shallower r o o t i n g p l a n t s . Caesar S e r i e s (Brown P o d z o l l o sands) The s e r i e s occupies 113 acres of sandy deposi t s l a i d over g l a c i a l t e r r a c e s on the Doukhobor communities. I t occupies a much l a r g e r area outside the communities along the Granby r i v e r n o r t h of Grand Forks. Two types were separated, loamy coarse sand and f i n e sand. 77 Caesar loamy ooarse sand The r e l i e f on t h i s type i s very i r r e g u l a r . K e t t l e s w i t h slopes up to 30 peroent are common and some of the l a r g e r holes are 5 ° f e e t deep and although there are areas of g e n t l e slopes they were not con-* sld e r e d to be of s u f f i c i e n t extent or importance to J u s t i f y separating* The t o t a l area mapped i s 100 acres. This type i s developed on d e p o s i t s of ooarse sand* Deeper s t r a t a c o n t a i n g r a v e l and stones which increase i n number and s i z e w i t h depth. The t i l l which u n d e r l i e s p a r t s of the s e r i e s has no apparent i n f l u e n c e on s o i l formation* The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n I s a p r o f i l e examined on a g e n t l y s l o p i n g p o r t i o n of a r o l l i n g , deeply k e t t l e d t e r r a c e , under a sparse cover of immature white p i n e , lodgepole pine and Douglas f i r about 6" i n diameter w i t h grass undercover. A_ -^ —O" Leaves and twigs r e c e n t l y f a l l e n . L i t t l e tendency to accumulate. A, 0-1• 10YR 3/2 very dark grey (moist) 10YR 4/2 dark grey brown ( d r y ) , loamy coarse sand; weak f i n e blocky s t r u c -t u r e ; very f r i a b l e ; many r o o t s ; pH 7.0 Ao Present or absent, a very t h i n l i g h t grey l a y e r . B, 1-6* 10YR V3 dark brown (moist) 1QYR 6/3 pale brown ( d r y ) , loamy ooarse sand; weak ooarse blocky; f r i a b l e , many r o o t s ; pH 6*0 73 B 6-16" 10YR 4/3 dark brown (moist) 10YR 2 6/3 p a l e brown ( d r y ) ; moderate ooarse blocky loamy ooarse sand; s l i g h t l y hard; numerous r o o t s ; pH 7*0 C, 16-20" 10YR 4/3 dark brown (moist) 10YR 6/3 pale brown (dry) ooarse sand; moder-ate massive; f r i a b l e , few r o o t s ; pH 7,0 0 20 " p l u s 10YR 5 A y e l l o w brown (moist), 10YR 6 A l i g h t y e l l o w brown ( d r y ) , ooarse sand; s i n g l e g r a i n ; l o o s e ; pH 7»0 Where c l e a r e d and i n grass f o r many years a dark surface h o r i z o n up to 9 Inches deep has d e v e l -oped. Grassland i s not l i k e l y to p e r s i s t and the areas which were formerly c u l t i v a t e d , i f allowed to remain i d l e may e v e n t u a l l y r e v e r t to f o r e s t growth. N a t u r a l drainage of the s o i l p r o f i l e i s ex c e s s i v e . Surface drainage i s r a p i d a l s o except i n de p r e s s i o n a l areas r e c e i v i n g r u n o f f from surrounding l a n d . None of the k e t t l e s c o n t a i n permanent ponds, which would l n d l o a t e t h a t t h e i r drainage i s accomplished by porous m a t e r i a l s beneath. Once a l l f o r e s t e d , the c l e a r e d p o r t i o n s are now devoted c h i e f l y to g r a z i n g . Only a few aores i n a k e t t l e on the community of Caesar remain i n c u l t i v a t i o n and the y i e l d s are poor, Caesar f i n e sand This s e r i e s i s d e r i v e d from a shallow de-p o s i t of f i n e sand and 18 acres was mapped on the Doukhobor l a n d s . Many smaller d e p o s i t s of s i m i l a r s o r t e d m a t e r i a l s are found adjacent to the map area 79 and I t was noted t h a t the s m a l l e r these are I n a r e s the f i n e r t h e i r t e x t u r e * Cleared and c u l t i v a t e d at one time, t h i s type has long been abandoned* I f l e f t , i t e v e n t u a l l y w i l l r e t u r n to f o r e s t though regrowth i s slow* I n t e r n a l drainage on t h i s type i s moder-ate to excessive* I t i s too dry to be c u l t i v a t e d without i r r i g a t i o n and the e x o e s s i v e l y d r a i n e d p r o f i l e i s not i d e a l f o r furrow i r r i g a t i o n * The best use f o r t h i s l a n d at the present time i s g r a z i n g or f o r e s t r y * S o i l s Derived from G l a c i a l T i l l and T i l l D e r i v a t i v e s Semi-consolidated t i l l l a i d down by a former i o e sheet (30) c o n s t i t u t e s the parent m a t e r i -a l f o r most of these s o i l s * However, p a r t i a l l y water worked and k e t t l e d m a t e r i a l s , d e r i v e d from the t i l l , are i n c l u d e d * The t i l l oovers a wide range of l a n d forms from mountainous uplands to t e r r a o e - l i k e mor-aines* The mountainous areas c o n s i s t s of rook prom-o n t o r i e s r i s i n g 1,500 f e e t above the v a l l e y s * They have been rounded by e r o s i o n and g l a c i a t i o n and covered by a t h i n mantle of t i l l t h a t leaves many Jagged rocks exposed* so The v a l l e y w a l l s and m o u n t a i n s i d e s have p r e c i p i t o u s slopes* The g l a c i a l mantle deepens t o -wards the v a l l e y bottom and merges w i t h the morainal deposits of v a l l e y g l a c i e r s * At some places end moraines are found 300 f e e t up the v a l l e y w a l l * The Hardy S e r i e s (Black loam and sandy loam) The s e r i e s comprises f o u r types, loam, g r a v e l l y loam, g r a v e l l y sandy loam and stony loam, w i t h some v a r i a t i o n i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s depending on the c o n d i t i o n s of d e p o s i t i o n of the parent t i l l * The t o t a l area of the s e r i e s as measured from the map sheets i s 2,373 acres* The d i s t r i b u t i o n i s over a l l the south f a c i n g slopes i n the main K e t t l e v a l l e y , the e a s t e r l y slope above Ward's l a k e , and extending w e l l up onto the pl a t e a u to the west* Hardy loam Two phases of t h i s type were mapped, a l e v e l and a s l o p i n g phase* The former amounts to 17 acres and the l a t t e r 197 acres* This type i s stone and g r a v e l f r e e a t the bottom of the slope, but becomes s l i g h t l y g r a v e l -l y along the upper margin where i t contacts the Hardy g r a v e l l y loam* This type l i e s i n a t r a n s i t i o n area be-tween Hardy g r a v e l l y loam and C l a y p i t s i l t loam* The small amount of g r a v e l I n the p r o f i l e and a somewhat hea v i e r t e x t u r e as w e l l as the absence of stones makes PLATE VII Slope beyond b u i l d i n g s i l l u s t r a t e s the topography of the Hardy s e r i e s . The Hardy loam, s l o p i n g phase grades i n t o Hardy g r a v e l l y loam, moderately steep phase followed by the steeper slopes of the Hardy stony loam which covers the h i l l - t o p . Foreground i s C l a y p i t s e r i e s . 81 i t more d e s i r a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l y * The Hardy loam i s made up l a r g e l y of f i n e m a t e r i a l s eroded o f f of the Hardy g r a v e l l y loam* This eroded m a t e r i a l has been deposited p a r t l y on g l a c i a l t i l l and p a r t l y on c l a y loam a l l u v i u m * The lower p a r t s of the s l o p i n g phase and much of the l e v e l phase of Hardy loam i s u n d e r l a i n by the c l a y loam a l l u v i u m which forms a D-horlzon* The p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n below was taken i n an a l f a l f a f i e l d on an 6 percent slope i n the s l o p i n g phase* A- 0-12" 10YR 2/2 very dark brown (moist) 10YR 3/2 - 4/2 very dark grey brown (dry) loam; weak coarse b l o c k y , very f r i a b l e , numerous r o o t s , small amount of f i n e g r a v e l pH 6*8 A. 12-2S" 10YR 3/2 very dark brown (moist) X d 10YR 4/2 - 3/2 dark grey brown (dry) loam; weak ooarse blocky very f r i -a b l e , numerous r o o t s , small amount of f i n e g r a v e l * pH 7.0 R, 23-38" 10YR 3A - 4/3 dark y e l l o w brown (moist) 10YB 5/3 brown (dry) loam; weak coarse b l o c k y , very f r i a b l e , r o o t s , s l i g h t effervescence w i t h a c i d * pH 7*5 P 36M p l u s 10YR 4/3 - 3/3 brown (moist) 10YR 6/3 p a l e brown (dry) c l a y loam; strong ooarse blocky, hard, few r o o t s , s l i g h t effervescence w i t h a o l d * PH 7.7 Surface drainage i s good and i n t e r n a l drainage moderate* Very few stones ocour on t h i s type* &2 O r i g i n a l l y g r a s s l a n d w i t h s c a t t e r e d y e l l o w pine and f i r , i t has a l l been c l e a r e d of t r e e s and stones and brought under c u l t i v a t i o n . I t was o r i g i n a l l y p l a n t e d to orchard but because of inadequate water and other f a c t o r s the orchards d i d not produce s a t i s f a c t o r i l y and are now deoadent and produce no f r u i t of val u e . Most of the type, i n -c l u d i n g the spaces between rows of t r e e s , i s now de-voted to forage p r o d u c t i o n . Crops c o n s i s t of grasses and legumes and u s u a l l y a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of weeds. Hardy g r a v e l l y loam The g r a v e l l y loam type c o n s i s t s of two phases, a s l o p i n g phase (23 acres) and a moderately steep phase (513 a c r e s ) * I t occupies the upper p a r t s of the arabl e slopes of the v a l l e y w a l l s , and extends i n a band around the base of the south and east sides of Hardy mountain* The p r o f i l e d e scribed below was examined i n a c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d on a 10 peroent slope* 0-g" 2.5Y 2/0 b l a c k ( m o i s t ) , 10YR 3/1 very dark grey (dry) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; extremely f r i a b l e ; very weak f i n e blocky to s i n g l e grained s t r u c t u r e * Very many r o o t s . Some rounded and angular cobbles* pH 7*0 A j p S-25" 2*5? 2/0 black (moist), 10YR 3/2 very dark grey brown. pH 6*8* Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as above, 25-34" 10YR 2/2 very dark brown ( m o i s t ) , *3 10YR 3/3 dark brown (dry) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; very f r i a b l e , weak f i n e blooky. Numerous r o o t s . Some rounded and angular oobbles. pH 6.9 B1 34-50" 10YR 3/4 dark y e l l o w brown ( m o i s t ) , 10YR 5/3 - V3 brown (dry) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; f r i a b l e , weak f i n e blooky, some r o o t s , some rounded and angular oobbles. pH 6.9 B 2 50-64" 10YR 5/3 brown (moist) 10YR 6/3 pale brown (dry) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; hard, moderate medium blocky, few r o o t s , some rounded and angular oobbles. pH 7.0, Q\ 6ff-100« 2.5* 5/2 - 4/2 grey brown, 10YR 7/2?-6/2 l i g h t grey (dry) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; extremely hard, strong coarse b l o c k y , lime cemented, strong effervescenoe w i t h a c i d , no r o o t s , some rounded and angular oobbles. pH 2.0 0 100" p l u s 2.5Y 5/2 grey brown (moist) 10$R 7/2 l i g h t grey (dry) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; s t r o n g l y lime cemented pH 2.1. Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as above. Although the meohanioal a n a l y s i s of the s o i l showed i t to be a sandy loam, tending toward loam, i t has been designated as loam on the b a s i s of numerous f i e l d t e s t s . The g r a v e l content w i l l vary from 30 to 40 percent In the s u b s o i l , and w i l l vary over a wider range I n the surface depending on the e f f e c t of e r o s i o n . The A h o r i z o n v a r i e s i n depth from 12 to 36 inches w i t h the extremes of drainage p o s i t i o n , and where e r o s i o n has been severe surface horizons shallower than one foot are found-. Depth to the f r e e 134 lime a l s o v a r i e s g r e a t l y w i t h drainage p o s i t i o n . A l l the steeper slopes were o r i g i n a l l y moderately stony and were covered w i t h sub-angular fragments up to ten inches or more i n diameter. The 8tones have been removed to a depth of s i x Inohes i n the c u l t i v a t e d areas which now c o n t a i n many stone p i l e s . Surface drainage i s q u i t e adequate on a l l phases of the g r a v e l l y loam type. Vegetation i s s i m i l a r to that found on the loam and much of the area i s used f o r oommunity g r a z i n g , A few small f i e l d s are c u l t i v a t e d and i r r i -gated from seepage from Hardy mountain. Hardy g r a v e l l y sandy loam There are 74 acres i n the type, l o c a t e d on rough terraoes which c o n s i s t of p a r t l y - s o r t e d t i l l and accumulations of outwash products from the m e l t i n g g l a c i e r which occupied the v a l l e y of J u l y creek at the end of the i o e age. Some of the te r r a c e s or moraines are q u i t e smooth wh i l e others are deeply k e t t l e d and k e t t l e phases comprise 17 and 57 acres r e s p e c t i v e l y . The former may be seen i n P l a t e V I I I , The parent m a t e r i a l i s seen to be roughly s t r a t i f i e d i n p l a c e s . The content of g r a v e l and sand i s higher than i n the t i l l as a r e s u l t of s o r t i n g and the removal of f i n e m a t e r i a l by water. Two P L A ^ V T I I A. Hardy gravelly sandy loam, k e t t l e phase, i s not well suited to c u l t i v a t i o n . Abandoned orchard i n foreground. B. Hardy gravelly sandy loam. Note A^-horizon reduced to six inches by erosion. Parent material has been p a r t i a l l y worked by water though there i s no d i s t i n c t s t r a t i f i c a -t i o n . &5 prominent d e p o s i t s , one of g r a v e l , the other sand, were noted along the highway at what has been r e -f e r r e d to as Spencer H i l l I n Lot 1027, They are the r e s u l t of water s o r t i n g along the margins of v a l l e y g l a c i e r s . Surface s o r t i n g of the t i l l i s f a i r l y common i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The type i s mostly c l e a r e d and i n aban-doned orchard. There i s no commercial production of f r u i t and the p r i n c i p a l use made of the l a n d i s g r a z i n g . Hardy stony loam ( u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ) Inoluded i n t h i s type are 1,54-9 acres of mountain and upland p l a t e a u . The major p a r t of the Hardy stony loam i s l i t h o s o l l c s o i l s and rock out** crops many of which l i e on steep slopes but w i t h i n t h i s type there i s a l s o many areas of Hardy loam, g r a v e l l y loam, and g r a v e l l y sandy loam t h a t are too small and i s o l a t e d to map s e p a r a t e l y . Mixed n a t i v e grasses make up most of the cover. Small non-stony p o r t i o n s w i t h l e s s than 25 percent slope were formerly under c u l t i v a t i o n . The f i e l d s occupied small depressions f r e q u e n t l y l e s s than one-half acre i n extent. Many of the p l o t s were pl a n t e d to grass, and hay crops are s t i l l harvested from a few of them; others are abandoned and are covered w i t h weeds. Attempts at c u l t i v a t i o n were S6 never sound, and the l a n d would have been b e t t e r used i f i t had been l e f t as range* On the stony, and steep p o r t i o n s there was a moderate coyer of grasses except on some areas where stock had grazed i n t e n s i v e l y * Gibbs S e r i e s (Brown P o d z o l i o g r a v e l l y loam and sandy loam) The Gibbs S e r i e s i s developed on s i m i l a r parent m a t e r i a l to thei Hardy S e r i e s but the Hardy S e r i e s i s developed under g r a s s l a n d v e g e t a t i o n w h i l e the Gibbs s o i l i s developed under a f o r e s t cover* T o t a l area of t h i s s e r i e s I s 1,53-5 aores, w i t h three types, g r a y e l l y loam, g r a v e l l y sandy loam and stony loam u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d * I t i s found on a v a r i e t y of rough t e r r a i n on f o r e s t e d p l a t e a u s , on s t e e p l y s l o p i n g mountain sid e s and v a l l e y w a l l s and on the t e r r a c e l i k e remnants l e f t by v a l l e y g l a c i e r s * The parent m a t e r i a l i s g l a c i a l t i l l , i n p laces somewhat a l t e r e d by g l a c i a l meltwater and s o r t i n g i s the main f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the occur-rence of d i f f e r e n t s o i l types i n the s e r i e s , Gibbs g r a v e l l y loam The 102 acres c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s type l n -olude the best of the c u l t i v a t e d and formerly c u l t i v a t e d lands along J u l y creek. Most of the area has strong r e l i e f w i t h slopes up to 25 peroent. Stones are few 27 to numerous and have been removed from most of the c u l t i v a t e d areas. The p r o f i l e d e scribed below was examined under f o r e s t oover of f i r predominantly w i t h ohoke-oherry, oregon grape, snowberry and some pine grass as undercover. A 3-0" Leaves and twigs p a r t i a l l y decomposed i n the upper part and w e l l decomposed i n the lower p a r t . Dark oolored and moist, A i i n c i p i e n t B a r e l y r e c o g n i z a b l e as a t h i n veneer of mineral on the bottom of the AQ« Very dark brown, High i n organic matter. Ag 0-1/2" 10YR 7/1 - 6/1 grey (moist) 10YR 7/l l i g h t grey (dry) loamy sand, s o f t . pH 6.5 Absent i n many p l a c e s . Best developed under o l d l o g s or decayed wood. B, 1/2-12"10YR 3/3 dark brown (moist), 10YR 5/3 -V3 brown (dry) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak very f i n e blooky, extremely f r i a b l e , very many f i n e f e e d i n g r o o t s , small amount of rounded and angular oobbles. pH 6.9 B« l£ -27 " 10YR 3 A dark y e l l o w brown (moist) 10YR 5/4 - 5/6 y e l l o w brown (dry) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak f i n e b l o cky, very f r i a b l e , f i n e f e eding r o o t s , oobbles as above. pH 6.3* 10YR 3/4 - 4/4 dark y e l l o w brown (moist) 10YR 5/4 y e l l o w brown (dry) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; moderate blocky, f i r m , very few r o o t s , cobbles as above. Very s l i g h t effervesoence w i t h a c i d . pH 7.9 C 48" p l u s 10YR 4/2 dark grey brown (moist) 10YR 6/2 •» 7/2 p a l e brown (dry) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, lime cemented, extremely hard, oobbles as above, effervesoence w i t h a o l d . pH 8.0 C-, 27-48" gg Although the mechanical analysis of the s o i l showed i t to he a sandy loam, tending toward a loam i t has been designated as loam on the basis of f i e l d tests. Gravel i s found i n loca l areas and the var iab i l i ty i n the parent material due to sorting i s marked. Internal drainage on this type i s only moderate sinoe most of i t i s underlain by compapt g lac ia l t i l l . The surface drainage varies with the topography but generally i s quite adequate. The native vegetation consisted of f i r , white and lodgepole pine, and larch . The present cover i s grass with the forest encroachment on the areas that have been abandoned. It i s used almost exclusively for grazing. Gibbs gravelly sandy loam Along the lower part of July creek and the Kettle r iver 45 acres of a sloping phase and gg aores of a kettle phase were mapped on the moraines of valley glaciers . Most of the sloping phase has been irr igated for the production of garden and forage orops. It occupies small patches i n larger areas of s o i l which are not suitable for cult ivat ion. In the kettle phase depressions vary from 10 to approximately 3° feet i n depth and may be s i tu-ated as close as 100 yards apart. Size and occurence, 89 though, i s q u i t e v a r i a b l e , Stoniness i s v a r i a b l e , the c u l t i v a t e d areas having been c l e a r e d of stones. I n t e r n a l drainage i s moderate where t i l l u n d e r l i e s the solum and more r a p i d where water worked m a t e r i a l s have been deposited. The f a c t that no ponds were found i n the k e t t l e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t water must p e r c o l a t e r e a d i -l y through a porous substratum, Gibbs stony loam ( u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ) This type, embraoing 1,280 aores on the Doukhobor lands, Includes a l l the f o r e s t e d areas of t i l l on mountainous topography together w i t h some formerly c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d s w i t h slopes from 25 to 45 peroent or more. I t i s g e n e r a l l y stony w i t h h i l l y topography. The stony loam i s devoted to f o r e s t r y or g r a z i n g . The f o r e s t e d p o r t i o n s produce p o l e s , posts and f u e l f o r the communities. The n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to t h a t found on the g r a v e l l y loam type. The commercial timber crop has been harvested l o n g ago and p a r t s of the type were onoe c l e a r e d f o r c u l t i v a t i o n . The c u l t i v a t e d areas have been abandoned and are now used f o r g r a z i n g although the f o r e s t i s now encroaching on them. Much of the f o r e s t l a n d has been over cut to supply l o c a l demands f o r wood, l e a v i n g a scanty growth of herbaceous and 90 woody p l a n t s that have some value f o r g r a z i n g * The present production of f o r e s t products i s very low and f o r maximum f u t u r e production g r a z i n g should not he permitted* S o i l s Derived from A l l u v i a l Fans The a l l u v i a l fans are commonly found along the base of steep v a l l e y w a l l s where a stream enters the main v a l l e y * The fan i s b u i l t because the gradient of the e n t e r i n g stream suddenly decreases so I t cannot c a r r y i t s o r i g i n a l l o a d * The gradient i s steep near the apex which i s u s u a l l y very b o u l d r y . Below the apex the gradient lessens and f i n e r t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l i s deposited* While b u i l d i n g a f a n a stream w i l l change p o s i t i o n many times so that the fans surfaoe w i l l be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a network of b r a i d e d channels (30). Rideau Complex (Brown P o d z o l i c a l l u v i a l fans) The t o t a l area i n c l u d e d i n the Rideau complex i s 13 aores* I t occurs at the community of G i l p i n , along the base of the mountain slope where i t meets the r i v e r t e r r a c e as a s l o p i n g wedge of s o i l composed of numerous c o a l e s c i n g fans washed down from the bench above by e r o s i o n * The ma t e r i a l - IS of a mixed nature v a r y i n g according to the steepness of the slope above and the p a r t played by running water 91 I n t r a n s p o r t i n g the parent m a t e r i a l s . The upper s i d e of the slope or fans con-s i s t s of coarse m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g stones and boulders; the l a r g e r the fan and the higher up the slope, the l a r g e r the fragments encountered. The lower p a r t of the fans are made up of the f i n e r m a t e r i a l s washed from above and resemble the f i n e a l l u v i u m of the t e r r a c e s i n mechanical composition. The slopes on the a r a b l e p o r t i o n s of the fans are u s u a l l y l e s s than 10 percent. Slope i s not c r i t i c a l as the areas are very s m a l l , and i r r i g a t i o n furrows correspondingly s h o r t . The parent m a t e r i a l i s the dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s o i l and no p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n could adequately d e s c r i b e the complex. The t e x t u r e s are mainly sandy loam to loamy sand w i t h v a r i a b l e i n -c l u s i o n s of g r a v e l , stones and boulders. I n some cases g r a v e l may occur w i t h i n 16 inches of the s u r f a c e . The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of a pro-f i l e examined on the lower p a r t of one of the smaller fans In a formerly c u l t i v a t e d a r e a , A 0-3" Brown loamy sand; weak crumb s t r u o t u r e ; l o o s e , f r i a b l e ; many r o o t s , B- 3-12" Pale brown loamy sand; weak, ooarse blooky; f r i a b l e ; numerous r o o t s . Bg 12-24" Very pale brown loamy sand; medium massive; f i r m ; few r o o t s , C 24" p l u s Pale brown sand; s i n g l e g r a i n ; l o o s e , porous. 92 I n t e r n a l drainage i s q u i t e v a r i a b l e depending mainly on the arrangement of u n d e r l y i n g s t r a t a . This i s an important f a c t o r i n the use of the complex. Host of the type has, or has had some stones and the range i s from o c c a s i o n a l stones to numerous stones* The type i s mostly devoted to gardens un-der i r r i g a t i o n w i t h s m a l l areas l e f t i d l e or grazed. The p a r t which i s not c u l t i v a t e d supports a few y e l l o w pine and f i r t r e e s , enough to provide shade f o r g r a z i n g l i v e s t o c k and grasses and some shrubs form the ground cover. Miscellaneous S o i l s Bottomland These are immature s o i l s found on recent a l l u v i a l d e p o s i t s * They are not de s c r i b e d as separate zonal s e r i e s because of t h e i r l i m i t e d extent, only 7 aores, on the Doukhobor lands* They are found on the west side of the Granby R i v e r i n Lot 2017 at Caesar* Most of the bottomlands on the oommunity were aoqulred by Granby Mining and Smelting Company as p a r t of a r e s e r v o i r s i t e . Though not a o t u a l l y p a r t of Smelter l a k e , f l o o d i n g along the r i v e r i n t h i s l o o a l i t y was aggravated by r a i s i n g the water l e v e l downstream. The dam c o n t r o l l i n g the l e v e l of the Smelter l a k e r e s e r v o i r has been removed and the l a k e drained but the bottoms, even s i n c e the d r a i n i n g of 93 the l a k e , are subjeot to frequent f l o o d i n g , and when examined at low water the r i v e r was only about ten feet below i t s banks* The topography i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by numerous shallow channels and the parent m a t e r i a l s a r e f i n e sands over w e l l sorted g r a v e l at f i v e to ten f e e t * These bottomland s o i l s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o i l s of the Brown PodBoli© group and themselves show some development* I n the w e l l wooded s e c t i o n s Ag horizons up to one i n c h i n t h i c k n e s s were noted. A weakly developed brown B h o r i z o n may be present above the y e l l o w brown sandy parent m a t e r i a l which i s i r o n s t a i n e d by the f l u c t u a t i n g water t a b l e . How-ever, t h i s development i s very s l i g h t and i n some cases i s obscured by f r e s h d e p o s i t i o n . The cover on the bottom lands i s v a r i a b l e * The p o r t i o n s where f l o o d i n g i s frequent and prolonged have only ooarse grasses and reeds growing on them* Where f l o o d i n g i s of short d u r a t i o n , oottonwood i s the dominant growth* The bottoms might have a value f o r pasture i f oleared, but c l e a r i n g i s not recommended i n the face of the apparent f l o o d hazard and they are s u i t e d to growing f o r e s t products. S a l i n e Seepage S o i l s These areas make up 103 acres on the community r 9 4 lands* They are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e v e r a l s o i l s e r i e s and are found on both g l a c i a l and a l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l s i n soattered l o c a t i o n s along the v a l l e y of J u l y creek and i n the p o r t i o n o f the Grand Porks area l o c a l l y c a l l e d Christovoye o v e r l o o k i n g the Granby r i v e r * The t o t a l area i s made up of many sm a l l seepages o f t e n l e s s than an acre i n extent* Topography i s v a r i a b l e * Some of the areas are d e p r e s s i o n a l ; others are l o c a t e d around s i d e h l l l springs where a t r i c k l e of l i m y water keeps the ground saturated much of the time* R e l i e f and topography are not a d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n the use of the s o i l ; most of the areas can be c u l t i v a t e d f o r some purpose though t h e i r uses might be l i m i t e d * Slopes, however, w i l l range from 0 to 25 percent. A l l p r o f i l e s examined i n these areas showed lime accumulation to the surface* The parent m a t e r i -a l v a r i e s widely from heavy loam to g r a v e l l y sand Soils w i t h many cobbles* The m a j o r i t y of the agea* though have developed on a medium t e x t u r e d a l l u v i u m * The f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n which was taken i n a pasture on a 10 peroent/may be c o n s i d -ered average f o r the type* Groundwater i n the l a t e summer was below ten f e e t * 0 - 13" 10YR 2/2 very dark brown (moist) 10YR 4/2 dark grey brown (dry) loam; weak medium blo c k y , very f r i a b l e , numerous 95 f i n e graes r o o t s strong effervescence w i t h a d d * pH 8.1 18-30« 10YR 6/2 l i g h t brown grey (moist) 10YR 7)2 l i g h t grey (dry) loam; strong coarse b l o c k y , very hard, very s t r o n g l y lime cemented, very few grass r o o t s , strong effervescence pH 8.0 30-36° 10YR 6/3 pale brown (moist) 10YR 8/2 - 7/2 white (dry) loam; strong coarse b l o c k y , very hard, very s t r o n g l y lime cemented, no r o o t s , strong effervescence. pH 8.1 36-44" 10YR 6/3 p a l e brown (moist) 10YR 7/2 l i g h t grey (dry) loam; massive, very hard, s t r o n g l y lime cemented, strong effervescence* pH 8*0 44" p l u s 2*51 5 A - 5/2 l i g h t o l i v e brown (moist) 2.5* 7/2 - 8/2 l i g h t grey (dry) loam; massive, very hard, s t r o n g l y lime cemen-ted, strong effervesoence pH. 8.3 Poor drainage i s the f a c t o r which dominates the development of these s o i l s * L o c a l rock formations contain outcrops of limestone and drainage waters f l o w i n g over these formations become charged w i t h l i m e * When a s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s where an area i s kept saturated w i t h these waters the s a l i n e c o n d i t i o n developes by accumulation of the l i m y r e s i d u e s . Some of the limy areas ooour on a l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l s along small streams where the surface i s kept moist by n a t u r a l s u b - I r r i -g a t i o n and o c c a s i o n a l f l o o d i n g . Others occur on g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s having impeded drainage. These f r e q u e n t l y are looated on s l o p i n g ground where a s p r i n g s u p p l i e s j u s t enough water to keep the surface l a y e r s of s o i l moist* 96 The compaot, impermeable s u b s o i l prevents the down-ward p e r c o l a t i o n of water and the removal of s a l t s to deeper s t r a t a * Hay and pasture crops c o n s t i t u t e the major production from s c a t t e r e d areas of t h i s group, though small p o r t i o n s are a l s o used f o r gardens* I n these oases the a v a i l a b i l i t y of water outweighs the adverse a f f e c t s of the lime accumulations* G e n e r a l l y the water supply to these areas a l s o contains lime so that i t could not be used to l e a c h exoess lime from the s o i l * However, i f the s o i l can be kept q u i t e moist w i t h an adequate supply of water there i s l e s s chance of p l a n t growth being i n h i b i t e d by i n c r e a s i n g s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n as the s o i l d r i e s out* Eroded and D i s s e c t e d Lands This group i n c l u d e s a l l steep t e r r a c e faces and deep eroded g u l l e y s , most of which are s i t u a t e d between the d i f f e r e n t t e r r a c e l e v e l s * I t i s wasteland or l a n d of l i t t l e p r o d uctive value* The t o t a l area i n v o l v e d on the community lands i n Grand Porks area i s 244 acres* At present not a l l of the slopes are a c t i v e l y eroding as many are s t a b i l i z e d w i t h t r e e s and shrubs* A l l v e g e t a t i o n on these slopes should be l e f t and i f p o s s i b l e more growth encouraged on the barren areas as g r a z i n g or l o g g i n g would l e a d to 97 e r o s i o n and cause l o s s of s o i l from the upper t e r -races and d e p o s i t d e b r i s on the l o v e r t e r r a c e s * Rough Mountainous Lands In Grand Porks area 244 acres of/type are mapped* Rock outcrops, areas too steep and rocky to be c u l t i v a t e d and mountainous lands l y i n g on the out-s k i r t s of most of the Community lands are inoluded i n t h i s group* These lands are of no value f o r c u l t i -v a t i o n but may be used i n a l i m i t e d way f o r g r a z i n g or f o r e s t r y * On the community lands however, many of these areas have been over cut and the small regrowth s u p p l i e s only f u e l , posts and p o l e s * I n the more populous communities they do not even supply these needs* Very small patches of a r a b l e s o i l may occur i n the rough mountainous lands* 9& ~ WEST KOOTENAY AREA The s o i l s of the West Kootenay area were c l a s s i f i e d and mapped i n t o three groups, s o i l s d e r i v e d from a l l u v i u m , s o i l s d e r i v e d from a l l u v i a l fans and miscellaneous s o i l s * The s o i l types mapped i n these groups amount to 13,545 acres and are l i s t e d by communities w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e acreages i n i iTAMi§j22«-. S o i l s Derived from A l l u v i u m , F i v e s e r i e s of s o i l s t o t a l l i n g 6,351 acres were de s c r i b e d on a l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l i n the West Kootenay area, A t y p i c a l example of t h i s m a t e r i a l i s shown i n P l a t e IX, Shoreaores S e r i e s (Brown P o d z o l i o s i l t loam to f i n e sandy loam) Two types, t o t a l l i n g 939 acres, were mapped i n the s e r i e s ; Shoreaores s i l t loam (414 acres) and Shoreacrea f i n e sandy loam (453 a c r e s ) . Areas of s i l t loam are found at Raspberry, Glade, Pass Creek and Krestova, The main areas of f i n e sandy loam are l o -oated at B r i l l i a n t , Raspberry, Shoreacres and Krestova, These s o i l s occur on g l a c i a l r i v e r t e r raoes ranging from 20 to 500 f e e t above present r i v e r l e v e l * Shoreacres s i l t loam This s o i l has developed on very f i n e t e x -tured a l l u v i u m such as s i l t loam and c l a y s that were PLATE IX Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam showing t y p i c a l landscape i n the West Kootenay area where t e r r a c e s r i s e stepwise from the v a l l e y bottoms. Along the mountain can be seen the stumped and eroded kame t e r r a c e s (Krestova s e r i e s ) . Fans extend from the e r o s i o n g u l l i e s over the t e r r a c e d e p o s i t s . 99 deposited i n q u i e t water. I n many places a t h i n l a y e r of coarser t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l has been l a i d on the surfaoe to give a t e x t u r e i n the surfaoe h o r i -zons of f i n e sandy loam or loam. The topography i s n e a r l y l e v e l . The p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n given below i s from a s i t e l o c a t e d i n a p a s t u r e . The s i t e and pro-f i l e are shown i n P l a t e X. A, 0-5" 10YR 3/4 dark y e l l o w brown (moist) 10YR 5/3 - 5/4 brown (dry) loam; weak ooarse blocky, very f r i a b l e , very many f i n e feeding r o o t s . pH 6 .0 A?12 5-9" 10YR 4/2 dark grey brown (moist) 10YR 6/3 •* 6/2 pale brown (dry) loam; moderate coarse p l a t y to b l o c k y , f i r m , numerous r o o t s . pH 5.7 B i 9-12" 2.5Y 4/2 dark grey brown (moist), 2.5Y 5/2 - 6/2 grey brown (dry) c l a y ; moderate medium blocky, very hard, f i n e feeding r o o t s . pH 5.7 B 2 12-32" 2.5Y 5/2 - 4/2 very dark grey brown (moi s t ) , 2.5Y 6/2 l i g h t brown grey (dry) c l a y ; moderate medium blooky hard, few r o o t s . pH 5*6 0 32" p l u s 5Y 4/2 «i 3/2 o l i v e grey ( m o i s t ) , 5* 6/2 1 - .6/1 l i g h t o l i v e grey (dry) heavy c l a y ; moderate medium blocky, hard, no r o o t s . pH 5.8 No stones were found i n the p r o f i l e s of Shoreacres s i l t loam. Surfaoe r u n o f f i s low and i n t e r n a l drainage i s slow. Very l i t t l e surfaoe e r o s i o n i s evident on t h i s type. At the t e r r a c e edges however some g u l l e y s PLATE X A. Shoreacres s i l t loam on l e v e l topography at r i g h t . Krestova loamy sand occurs on the higher elevation. B. Shoreacres s i l t loam p r o f i l e showing very l i t t l e p r o f i l e devel-opment below 18 inches. 1 0 0 are being cut* The s i l t loam type I s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s o e p t l b l e to g u l l e y l n g because of i t s very low i n f i l t r a t i o n c a p a c i t y * At present most areas of t h i s type have been abandoned and d e r e l i c t orchards s t i l l remain on some small p l o t s * U s u a l l y there i s a very good stand of mixed grasses that are u t i l i z e d very e x t e n s i v e l y f o r p a s t u r i n g d a i r y cows and some areas are fenced o f f f o r hay production* Shoreacres s i l t loam i s q u i t e productive and i s d e s i r a b l e f o r farming* I t was probably among the f i r s t s o i l s to be c l e a r e d f o r c u l t i v a t i o n * Sinoe c l e a r i n g , an A^ h o r i z o n has developed i n most places and t h i s now obscures the surface c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the o r i g i n a l f o r e s t s o i l * Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam Two phases of t h i s type were mapped, the l e v e l phase 453 acres and the s l o p i n g phase, 12 acres* The topography of the s l o p i n g phase i s r a t h e r I r r e g u l a r due to the abandonment of o l d r i v e r channels as i l l u s -t r a t e d i n P l a t e X I * This s o i l i s developed on a l l u v i u m c o n s i s -t i n g of s t r a t a of m a t e r i a l ranging i n t e x t u r e from loamy f i n e sand to loam and w i t h i n the s o i l p r o f i l e a number of t h i n sand l e n s may occur* The surface t e x t u r e of the l e v e l to g e n t l y s l o p i n g phase i s q u i t e uniform f i n e i Sloping phase of Shoreacres fine sandy loam at Ooteshenle. Derelict orchard produces very l i t t l e f r u i t now. B. p r o f i l e of Shore-acres fine sandy loam; an i d e a l s o i l f o r i r r i g a t i o n . The native vegetation of wheat grasses and bluegrasses can be seen. 101 sandy loam but the s l o p i n g phase e x h i b i t s a range of te x t u r e s ; loamy f i n e sand to loam depending on the i n f l u e n c e of the o l d streams i n t h e i r channels. The p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n below was taken on an o l d orohard w i t h a good stand of grass and l e g -umes* The p r o f i l e s i t e i s shown i n P l a t e X I I * jL 0-6" 10YR 4/4 dark y e l l o w brown (moist) x o 10YR 5/4 - 6/4 y e l l o w brown (dry) f i n e sandy loam; moderate medium blocky, f r i a b l e , very many r o o t s . Top 2" i s a mat of interwoven r o o t s and s o i l i s very f r i a b l e . pH 5.5 A 1 2 6#9" 10YR 4/4 dark y e l l o w brown (moist) 10YR 7/3 very p a l e brown (dry) f i n e sandy loam; moderate f i n e b l o c k y , quite.compact, many f i n e f e eding r o o t s . pH 5*5 E, 9-15" 10YR 4/3 dark brown (mo i s t ) , 10YR 7/4 - 6/4 very p a l e brown (dry) f i n e sandy loam; moderate f i n e blocky, q u i t e compact, many f i n e r o o t s * pH 5«5 Band 15-17". 10YR 5/3 brown (mo i s t ) , 10YR 6/4 l i g h t y e l l o w brown (dry) f i n e sandy loam; strong very coarse p l a t y , very hard, few r o o t s * discontinuous and o c c u r r i n g at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s * pH 5.6 B„ 17-26" 10YR 6/3 pale brown (moist), 10YR 7/4 very p a l e brown (dry) sandy loam, massive, s l i g h t l y compact* Very few r o o t s . pH 5*8 S l i g h t y e l l a w i s h m o t t l i n g . Q 1 26*35" 10YR 4/4 dark y e l l o w brown ( m o i s t ) , 10YR 6/4 - 7/4 l i g h t y e l l o w brown (dry) sandy loam; s l i g h t y e l l o w i s h m o t t l i n g , massive, q u i t e compaot, very few r o o t s . pH 5«8 D 35" p l u s 10YR 4/4 dark y e l l o w brown (moist), 10YR 6/4 - $'/6 l i g h t y e l l o w brown (dry) loam; massive, very compaot, no r o o t s . pH 6*3 PLATE X I I Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam. The i r r e g u l a r dark brown bands i n the s u b s o i l are of common occurrence i n t h i s s o i l and are also f r e q u e n t l y found i n Krestova loamy sand. The s t e e l c y l i n d e r at the top of the p i c t u r e was used f o r i n f i l t r a t i o n and f i e l d c a p a c i t y s t u d i e s . 102 S o i l lands or l a y e r s s i m i l a r to the one described above from 15 to 17 inches are a r e g u l a r fea t u r e of t h i s type. S i m i l a r bands occur i n some p r o f i l e s of Krestova loamy sand. I n t e r n a l drainage of the f i n e sandy loam type i s much more r a p i d than that of the s i l t loam and t h i s f e a t u r e makes i t a more d e s i r a b l e s o i l under I r r i g a t i o n . The f i n e sandy loam i s probably l e s s sub-j e c t to sheet and g u l l e y e r o s i o n than the s i l t loam because i t has a higher i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e being able to absorb a greater percentage of r a i n f a l l . Much of t h i s type i s under s i m i l a r oover to the s i l t loam type. Other areas are being used f o r gardens and are c u l t i v a t e d each year. This type i s probably used i n preference t o the s i l t loam because of i t s e a s i e r w o r k a b i l i t y . Krestova S e r i e s (Brown P o d z o l i o loamy sand and sand) The s e r i e s i n c l u d e s s o i l s developed on ooarse t e x t u r e d a l l u v i u m . I t covers an area of 3*559 a c r e s . Three s o l i types were mapped i n t h i s s e r i e s , loamy sand, sand and coarse sand. They occur on f l a t broad t e r r a c e s up to 5°0 f e e t above r i v e r l e v e l . 103 Krestova loamy sand The l a r g e s t areas of t h i s type are found i n the communities of Ooteshenle, Krestova and Clay -b r i c k . I n a l l , 1131 acres were mapped. The topog-raphy i s l e v e l to g e n t l y s l o p i n g . The f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e was de s c r i b e d near the Cresoent V a l l e y bridge under a grass cover. A™ 0-6" 10YR 3 A dark y e l l o w brown (mo i s t ) , 9 10YR 5/4 - 5/6 y e l l o w brown (dry) loamy sand; weak f i n e g r a n u l a r , extremely f r i a b l e , very many f i n e f e e d i n g r o o t s . pH 6.1 B-, 6-10" 10YR 4/2 dark grey brown ( m o i s t ) , x 10YR 7/2 - 6/3 l i g h t grey (dry) loamy sand; moderate medium b l o c k y , many r o o t s , extremely f r i a b l e . pH 6.5 B« 10-15*" 2.5Y 5/4 l i g h t o l i v e brown, ( m o i s t ) , 10YR 7/2 l i g h t grey (dry) loamy sand; weak massive to s i n g l e grained s t r u c t u r e , extremely f r i a b l e , many r o o t s . pH 6.2 B, 18-32? 10YR 5/2 - 5/3 grey brown (moist), D 10YR 7/2 - 6/3 l i g h t grey (dry) sand, s i n g l e grained, l o o s e , r o o t s . pH 6,2 Band 26-27" 10*R 4 A dark brown (moist) 10YR 5/3 - 6/4 brown (dry) sandy loam; moderate very ooarse.platy, hard, few r o o t s . pH 6.0 Discontinuous and o c c u r r i n g at v a r y i n g l e v e l s u s u a l l y below 13 i n c h e s . C 32" p l u s 10YR 5/3 - 4/2 dark grey brown (moist) 10YR 6/3 pale brown (dry) sand; loose s i n g l e g r a i n e d . Very few r o o t s pH 6,4 I n some l o o a t l o n s the C h o r i z o n i s loamy sand t e x t u r e and somewhat compact. T h i s , however, does not impede I n t e r n a l drainage. The bands o c c u r r i n g i n 1 0 4 t h i s p r o f i l e are s i m i l a r to those of the Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam hut ocour l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . Mechanical a n a l y s i s shows them to c o n t a i n 8-10 percent more c l a y and 5-6 percent more s i l t than the surrounding m a t e r i a l . I f t h i s s o i l were c u l t i v a t e d and l e f t f a l l o w considerable damage could r e s u l t from wind a c t i o n , G u l l e y e r o s i o n was noted only where a broken flume had r e l e a s e d f l o o d i n g waters or along the t e r r a c e edges where waters from heavy r a i n s had accumulated, "A good d e a l of the drainage i s through the porous sandy p r o f i l e and i s c a r r i e d away by u n d e r l y i n g g r a v e l s . Many small streams disappear on the t e r r a c e and presumably p e r c o l a t e to r i v e r l e v e l through g r a v e l s u b s t r a t a as i n t e r n a l drainage i s q u i t e r a p i d * Nearly a l l of the uncleared p o r t i o n s have had much of the v a l u a b l e timber removed, so t h a t the f o r e s t i s now a second growth of p i n e , f i r , b i r c h , oottonwood and w i l l o w w i t h a small amount of under-growth such as hazelnut and rose* Most of the c l e a r e d areas have been l e f t I d l e and are used f o r range only and many areas have a sparse grass oover. The loamy sand s o i l s a f f o r d the best forage* Abandoned, d e r e l i c t orchards are q u i t e common. Forest regeneration i s slow. A f t e r twenty years or more without c u l t i v a t i o n s i g n i f i -cant regrowth occurs only along the f o r e s t edges, Krestova sand Large areas of t h i s type, t o t a l l i n g 1,929 105 acres, occur at Ooteshenle, Glade, Pass Creek and Krestova communities* For the most p a r t , topography of Krestova sand I s l e v e l to g e n t l y s l o p i n g and a t y p i c a l example may he noted i n P l a t e X I I I * Two small areas of 0*6 acres each l i e i n k e t t l e l i k e depressions a few hundred yards west o f the r a d i o range s t a t i o n of the Dominion Department of Transport on the Krestova community* The steeper slopes of the k e t t l e s are mapped as eroded and non-arable* Some areas are s l i g h t l y hummooky due to wind e r o s i o n * No water accumulates i n the k e t t l e s i n d i -c a t i n g the u n d e r l y i n g s t r a t a are made up of porous sands and g r a v e l s that a l l o w ground water to p e r c o l a t e away* The p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n below was taken I n Krestova community near the r a d i o range s t a t i o n * The s i t e was i n a h e a v i l y logged f o r e s t w i t h many young t r e e s and regrowth* The p r o f i l e represents the aver-age zonal development of Brown P o d s o l l c s o i l s i n the area* AQ 2-0" 10YR 2/2 very dark brown (mo i s t ) , 10YR V 3 dark brown (dry) p a r t i a l l y decomposed organic l i t t e r * Dead leaves twigs and some moss on sur-face* Some b i t s o f c h a r c o a l , very many f i n e f e eding r o o t s * pH 5*4 A X 0-i« 10YR 2/1 black (moist), 1QYR 3/2 very dark grey brown (dry) sand; weak medium blocky, very f r i a b l e , many f i n e feeding PLATE XIII A . Krestova sand on l e v e l to gently sloping topography. Sparse grass cover with some bare spots showing up. B. Forest regrowth on logged-over area of Krestova sand. Regeneration i s slow. 106 r o o t s , i n c i p i e n t , pH 5,4 A p 10YR 4/1 dark grey (moist) 10YR 4/23 d l i g h t grey (dry) sand; s i n g l e grained, very f r i a b l e , many f i n e r o o t s , i n c i p i e n t sometimes absent a l t o g e t h e r , occurs at greatest depth under r o t t i n g l o g s , pH 4.S B-. £-4" 10YR 3/3 - 2/2 dark brown (mo i s t ) , 10YR 4/4 5/4 dark y e l l o w brown (dry) sand; weak f i n e b l o c k y , very f r i a b l e , numerous r o o t s , pH 6,0 Bp 4-12" 10YR 4/3 - 3/3 dark brown (mo i s t ) , 10YR 5/6 - 5/4 y e l l o w brown (dry) sand; weak f i n e blooky, very f r i a b l e , r o o t s p resent, pH 6,0 0 I S " p l u s 10YR 4/2 - 5/2 dark grey brown (moist) 10YR 6/3 pale brown (dry) sand; s i n g l e g rained, l o o s e , very few r o o t s , pH 6,0 Krestova sand i s stone f r e e . I n t e r n a l d r a i n -age i s r a p i d to excessive. The e r o s i o n hazards are s i m i l a r to those of the loamy sand type. No appr e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e was noted i n the vege t a t i o n cover between the sand type and the loamy sand type. However, f o r e s t regrowth,as seen i n P l a t e X I I I , i s thought to be slower on the former due to greater general droughtlness, Krestova coarse sand Krestova coarse sand was mapped only on the communities of Ooteshenle and Glade and t o t a l l e d 499 acres. The macro-topography of Krestova coarse sand i s l e v e l to g e n t l y s l o p i n g ; but the micro-topography 107 I s made up of a p a t t e r n of very low (5 to 10 f e e t ) o r e s c e n t l c shaped r i d g e s which are the remnants of o l d barchan type wind dunes. These have now beoome s t a b i l i z e d by v e g e t a t i o n as shown on P l a t e XIV, The p r o f i l e d escribed below was s i t u -ated at the south end of Castlegar a i r p o r t on Ooteshenle community. The s i t e was i n an abandoned orchard w i t h sparse grass cover. The p r o f i l e i s s i m i l a r to that shown i n P l a t e XV, A- 0-6" 10YR V 2 very dark grey brown (moist) 10YR 4/3 - 4/2 brown (dry) ooarse sand; weak medium b l o c k y , extremely f r i a b l e , many f i n e grass r o o t s pH, 5»5 B. 6-14« 5YR 3/4 dark r e d brown (moist), 1 7»5YR 5/6 strong brown (dry) coarse sand; weak medium blocky, extremely f r i a b l e , few r o o t s , pH 6,0 B« 14-26« 10YR 5/3-6A brown (mo i s t ) , 10YR 6/3 pale brown (dry) coarse sand; s i n g l e g r a i n e d , l o o s e , very few r o o t s , pH 6,2 C 26" p l u s 10YR 6/2: l i g h t brown grey (moist) 10YR 7/2 l i g h t grey (dry) coarse sand; s i n g l e grained, l o o s e , no r o o t s , pH 6,2 The p r o f i l e i s stone f r e e though a few places are u n d e r l a i n at f i v e f e e t or more by g r a v e l l y loamy sand s t r a t a c o n t a i n i n g oobbles. Drainage on the coarse sand type i s very e x c e s s i v e , P r a o t l c a l l y a l l of the drainage i s through the extremely porous p r o f i l e w i t h l i t t l e or no surfaoe r u n o f f except during very heavy r a i n s . Wind e r o s i o n i s a great hazard, as evidenced PLATE XIV A. Krestova coarse sand on a broad f l a t terrace at Ooteshenie. White patches are old sand dune that have been nearly stabilized by vegetation. Sand dune at edge of a c l i f f i n the process of being stabilized by vegetation. These dunes are found i n association with Krestova coarse sand. P L A T E X V Krestova coarse sand with shallow development; a very droughty s o i l . l o g by the old dune ridges mentioned above. The top s o i l on these ridges i s shallower than on the lower areas* Dry land oultlvatlon would not be suitable because re-moval of stabilizing vegetation would subject this s o i l to renewed wind erosion* Some areas within this type are s t i l l being actively eroded* These areas are olassed as dunes* Gulley erosion i s noted only where an irrigation flume has broken or where excess, rain water has run off along the terrace edge* Originally this s o i l was covered by forest vegetation similar to that of the loamy sand type. Much of i t was oleared i n the early nineteen hundreds* One large area at Ooteshenie was used for cereal crop produotlon and this practice i s believed responsible for the development of the dune topography* Forest regrowth on the ooarse sand i s extremely slow* Some areas mapped had a sparse cover of low shrubs but for the most part sparse grass cover was the only vegetation found* Champion Series (Brown Podzolio gravelly sandy loam) This series consists of soils developed on gravelly coarse textured alluvium1 containing some cobbles. It oovers 1,073 aores on gravelly terraces* The Champion series occupies a similar position and has similar r e l i e f to the Krestova series* The main 109 areas are at Champion Creek, Ooteshenle and Krestova* Champion gravelly sandy loam Two phases of t h i s s o i l type were described, a non-stony phase amounting to 8 9 4 aores and a stony phase amounting to 1 7 9 aores* Topography of the Champion s o i l s i s l e v e l to very gently sloping* Deep r i v e r l a i d gravels form the parent material of t h i s s o i l * These gravels often underly the sandy Krestova parent material* In some plaoes the Krestova sands may have been eroded leaving the gravelly surface exposed again* Gravel content made up mainly of rounded g r a n i t l o pebbles ranges from 3° ** 60 peroent of t o t a l material and texture of the f i n e r f r a c t i o n ranges from sandy loam to loamy sand* Much of the material i n the C horizon i s a sand texture* The following p r o f i l e was examined i n a recent excavation i n a formerly c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d * A*Q 0-6" 10YR 2/2 very dark brown (moist) 10YR 4/3 - 3/3 dark brown (dry) gravelly loamy sand; weak medium blocky, extremely f r i a b l e , numerous grass roots, few small rounded cobbles pH 5*6 B, 6-12" 10YR 3 A - 4 / 4 dark yellow brown (moist) x 10YR 5/6 - 4 / 4 yellow brown (dry) gravelly sand; weak medium blocky, extremely f r i a b l e , few roots, few small round cobbles. pH 6*3 B 2 12-36" 10YR 5/2 grey brown (moist) 10YR 6/3 pale brown (dry) gravelly sand; single grained, loose* Some round cobbles and stones, no roots. pH 6.5 PLATE XVI Champion gravelly sandy loam. A very poor s o i l without irrigation. Topography is level to gently sloping and amount of stones on the sur-face would hinder cultivation only slightly. 110 C 36 w plus 10YR 4/2 - 5/2 dark grey brown (moist), 10YR 6/2 l ight brown grey (dry) gravelly sand; single grained, loose some round oobbles and stones, no roots, pH 6,5 Wind and water erosion has removed up to 50 percent of the topsoll on some of the low knolls * In f i l t ra t ion rate i s not as high on these soi l s as on the Krestova soils so that more water Is obliged to run off* Qulley erosion occurs at the terraoe edges where water may be concentrated down shallow gulleys* There are large traots of formerly cleared and cultivated land now with sparse grass cover or abandoned orohards and other areas of logged forest. Many of the very stony areas have hot been cleared* A few small areas are under cult ivation with; i rr igat ion for hay production and garden use* Much of this type i s used for seasonal grazing* Claybrick Series (Low humio g l e i on alluvium) These soi ls which amount to 464 aores are situated along rivers or major streams ten to twenty feet above low water* They are imperfeotly drained* Claybrick loam A tota l of 99 aores of this type occurs on the communities of Shoreaores, Krestova, Lebahdo and Claybrick. Because drainage i s the dominant factor i n these soils a l l the texture types have been placed in one series* I l l Topography I s l e v e l to gen t l y s l o p i n g w i t h o l d abandoned channels c r o s s i n g some areas i n the form of long but r a t h e r shallow channels* No m a t e r i a l i s now being deposited on t h i s s o i l type as i t i s not normally subject to f l o o d i n g * The surface i s composed of a foot or two of a l l u v i u m g e n e r a l l y f i n e r i n t e x t u r e than the und e r l y i n g m a t e r i a l which i s a loamy sand* The f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n was taken i n a c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d . JL 0 - 1 2 " 10YR l A dark y e l l o w brown (moist), • L 0 10YR 6/3 - 5/3 p a l e brown (dry) sandy loam; moderate coarse blooky, q u i t e f i r m , r o o t s . pH 6*1 B, 1 2 - 2 8 " 10YR 3/3 « V3 dark brown (moist) 10YR 7/3 very pale brown (dry) sandy loam; some y e l l o w i s h brown m o t t l i n g , moderate medium blooky, f i r m , few r o o t s * pH 6*6 B P_ 28-38" 1GYR 4 A - 5 A dark y e l l o w brown * g ( m o i s t ) , 10YR 7/3 - 7/2 very pale brown (dry) loam, moderate medium blo c k y , q u i t e hard, brownish m o t t l i n g * pH 6 .8 D 38" p l u s 10YR 3/3 - 4/2 dark brown (moist) 10YR 6/2 l i g h t brown grey (dry) loamy sand, some brownish m o t t l i n g , very weak, f i n e blocky, extremely f r i a b l e , mica f l a k e s * no r o o t s * pH 6.6 The t e x t u r e here i s a heavy sandy loam but may vary to a loam. The p r o f i l e i s stone f r e e . Some of the o l d ohannels and hollows may f l o o d during h i g h water i n the s p r i n g * I n t e r n a l drainage i s somewhat Impaired < r 112 due to a high early season water table. The presence of a high water table i s often b e n e f l o i a l i n supplying moisture by s u b - i r r i g a t i o n . Deep rooted crops such as a l f a l f a though do not do wel l beoause t h e i r root system i s i n h i b i t e d by high water. Native cover consists of low shrubs, cotton-wood and willow. Most of the loam type i s cleared, producing hay, pasture crops and some garden crops. Gardens are nearly a l l I r r i g a t e d by sp r i n k l e r from nearby streams, Claybriok d a y loam This s o i l type was found only on Claybriok community where 36 acres were mapped l y i n g a few feet lower than Claybriok loam and having a l e v e l topography. The clay loam type has a slower Internal drainage and i s a " l a t e " s o i l compared to others i n the area. I t s higher water holding capacity makes i t quite drought r e s i s t a n t and would require less i r r i -gation than would the l i g h t e r textured s o i l s of the area, Claybriok loamy sand One hundred and eighty one aores of t h i s s o i l type were found d i s t r i b u t e d throughout most of the communities. The topography i s s i m i l a r to Claybriok loam, Claybriok loamy sand i s quite subject to 1 1 3 drought I n mid-season but r a t h e r good y i e l d s of e a r l y crops are obtained without i r r i g a t i o n , C l a y b r i o k g r a v e l l y sandy loam Two phases of t h i s type were mapped, the non-stony phase amounting to 1 1 1 acres and the stony phase amounting to 3 7 aores. The major p a r t of t h i s type occurs at Wlnlaw and Lebahdo communities. The topography of the g r a v e l l y sandy loam type i s s i m i l a r to that of the loam type. The non-stony phase i s used f o r hay and pasture purposes up to mid season at which time drought i s e x c e s s i v e . The stony phase i s not used f o r hay but only f o r l i m i t e d g r a z i n g . The n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n of t h i s type i s s i m i l a r to that of the C l a y b r i o k loam. Pass Creek S e r i e s (Humio g l e l on alluvium) Three hundred and s i x t e e n acres of t h i s s e r i e s were mapped as a loam and a sandy loam type and they occur at Pass Creek, Krestova, Lehabdo, Wlnlaw and C l a y b r i o k . S o i l s of the Pass Creek s e r i e s are imper-f e c t l y to p o o r l y drained and show a g r e a t e r g l e i h o r i z o n development than do the C l a y b r i o k s e r i e s . Pass Creek loam A t o t a l of 222 acres of Pass Creek loam was found mainly on the communities of Pass Creek, Lebahdo and Wlnlaw. 114 The topography l a l e v e l or very g e n t l y s l o p i n g w i t h a b a s i n r e l i e f * The type occurs at va r i o u s e l e v a t i o n s between r i v e r and the highest t e r r a c e l e v e l s * The l a r g e area at Pass Creek l i e s i n a h i g h b a s i n between Pass creek and Gtoose creek and s u p p l i e s drainage waters to both creeks* The Winlaw and Lebahdo areas are s i t u a t e d 10 to 20 f e e t above the Slocan r i v e r and t h e i r water t a b l e i s kept h i g h by seepage waters from peat bogs behind them* A small area at C l a y b r i o k i s s i t u a t e d on a h i g h t e r r a c e and surrounds a small pond* The parent m a t e r i a l I s of v a r i e d o r i g i n , but since a very low slope i s necessary f o r a h i g h water t a b l e to develop these s o i l s u s u a l l y occur on a l l u v i u m * This a l l u v i u m i s u n d e r l a i n at v a r y i n g depth by g r a v e l l y stony r i v e r d e p o s i t s i n d i c a t i n g that the grade of the o l d r i v e r which once deposited g r a v e l s g r a d u a l l y lessened so that the r i v e r d e p o s i -t e d f i n e r m a t e r i a l * F i n a l l y the area beoame almost f l a t r e s u l t i n g i n the present c o n d i t i o n which may be observed i n P l a t e s XVII and X V I I I * The f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n was taken at Winlaw community i n a c u l t i v a t e d area that had been dra i n e d by surface d i t c h e s * A 0-12 10YR 2/1 black (wet), 10YR 4 / l dark grey (dry) loam, compact but f r i a b l e , medium blocky s t r u c t u r e , peds become very hard on d r y i n g , h i g h organic PLAT3 XVII Pass Creek series at Winlaw. Dark loam high i n organic matter underlain by a gravelly, bouldery deposit. Flat topography of Pass Creek series i n a wet situation with high water table a large part of the season. 115 oontent, low volume weight, grass sod w i t h many r o o t s , pH 6 , 4 a 1 2 - 3 0 10YR 4 / 2 dark grey (wet). 10YR 6 / 2 l i g h t brownish grey (dry) very f i n e sandy loam, some strong brown m o t t l i n g , oompaot and very hard when dry, p l a s t l o when wet, few r o o t s , pH 6 , 4 D, 30 p l u s Brownish grey g r a v e l and sand w i t h many rounded cobbles up to t e n inches i n diameter. Where these s o i l s are b e t t e r drained a r e d d i s h brown h o r i z o n occurs under the A h o r i z o n . Very few stones occur i n the surface horizons of Pass Creek loam but at many l o c a t i o n s stones are found i n the lower horizons and i n some p r o f i l e s they may be found at f o u r f e e t . N a t u r a l drainage i s always poor. Many of the c u l t i v a t e d areas have been drained by d i t c h e s which lower the water t a b l e a few f e e t . This a r t i -f i c i a l drainage allows the l a n d to be used e a r l i e r i n the s p r i n g and e f f e c t i v e l y lengthens the growing season. Native cover o o n s l s t s of spruce, w i l l o w , cottonwood, sedge grasses and some underbrush. Much of t h i s type has been c l e a r e d and i s e f f e c t i v e l y used f o r permanent hay crops. Pass Creek loamy sand The loamy sand s o i l type occurs mainly i n the Pass Creek and Krestova communities and a PLATE XVIII Pass Creek series on meadow lands i n upper Pass Creek area. Drainage ditches take off excess water so that hay and garden crops can be grown. Terraced gardens also on Pass Creek s o i l . They are irrigated by diverting creek water onto the terraces. 116 t o t a l of 94 aores was mapped. Topography i s s i m i l a r to the loam type. Stones are r a r e l y found i n the surface h o r i z o n s , but some cobbles and boulders f r e q u e n t l y occur i n lower h o r i z o n s . There i s very l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n found on the loamy sand and loam types. The loamy sand type produces moderately good y i e l d s of forage and garden crops. S o i l s Derived from A l l u v i a l Pans A l l u v i a l fan de p o s i t s of the West Kootenay area are s i m i l a r to those d e s c r i b e d f o r the, Grand Forks area but they cover a more extensive area and have t h e r e f o r e been mapped i n t o s o i l types and phases. Glade S e r i e s (Brown P o d z o l i o a l l u v i a l fans), A number of d i f f e r e n t s o i l types of the Glade S e r i e s are found on a l l communities and together they t o t a l 717 a c r e s . Glade g r a v e l l y loam This type covers 110 a c r e s , the major p a r t of which i s l o c a t e d at Glade community. The two phases, s l o p i n g and l e v e l to g e n t l y s l o p i n g , occupy 72 and 32 aores r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1 117 Where c l e a r e d the main use I s f o r pasture and hay* I f water f o r I r r i g a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e from a permanent stream very good gardens, oereals or forage crops are obtained* However, most of these areas l i e at or above the l e v e l of the highest t e r r a c e s making i t uneconomical to pump water from the r i v e r l e v e l * Glade g r a v e l l y sandy loam compares very w e l l w i t h Shoreaores f i n e sandy loam In regard to p r o d u c t i v i t y . The steeper and more i r r e g u l a r slopes make furrow i r r i g a t i o n d i f f i c u l t * There I s more stones and g r a v e l on the steeper slopes which a l s o hinder furrow i r r i g a t i o n * Glade loam There i s a t o t a l of only 9 aores of t h i s type and these are l o c a t e d at Glade and Krestova* The Glade loam occurs at the lower end of fans where there i s p r a c t i c a l l y no g r a v e l or stones* On the average the tex t u r e i s somewhat h e a v i e r than the g r a v e l l y loam type making i t a more de s i r a b l e a g r i c u l -t u r a l s o i l * P r o f i l e development i s s i m i l a r to that of Glade g r a v e l l y loam* The topography i s q u i t e u n i f o r m l y s l o p i n g to g e n t l y s l o p i n g * On the g e n t l e r topography l e s s e r o s i o n and d e p o s i t i o n occur* Surface and internal drainage are adequate* 118" At present the mapped areas of this type are used for pasture and garden purposes* They are quite productive without irrigation and with i r r i -gation produce an excellent crop. Their original cover was probably similar to that of Glade gravelly loam* There i s a wide variation In gravel content. The upper parts of a fan deposit usually contain more gravel and also some stones and oobbles. As the slope decreases towards the bottom of the fan so does the gravel and stone content u n t i l It merges with the loam type* The following profile description was taken on a slope of ten percent under a pasture cover* A. 0-1" 10YR V 2 very dark grey brown (moist) 1 10YR 4 / 2 dark grey brown (dry) gravelly loam; granular, very f r i -able, many roots* pH 6*0 1-g'l 10YR 3 A - 4 / 3 dark brown (moist), 10YR 5 / 4 yellow brown (dry) gravelly loam; fine platy, firm, numerous roots* pH 6 . 4 B„ S - l 4 " 10YR 4 / 2 dark grey brown (moist) 10YR 6 / 2 light brown grey (dry) gravelly loam; moderate fine blocky, quite compact, numerous roots. pH 6 . 5 0 1 4 " plus 2 * 5 ^ 4 / 2 dark grey brown (moist) 10YR 7 / 2 light grey (dry) gravelly sandy loam; some yellowish mottling, massive, quite oompact, roots. pH 6 .6 At this particular location the A^ horizon was very shallow probably due to sheet erosion. In other places on lower slopes this horizon m a y be up 119 to g Inches deep. The t e x t u r e of t h i s type v a r i e s from loam to sandy loam depending on c o n d i t i o n s of stream d e p o s i t i o n s . The g r a v e l and coarse skeleton Is composed of angular to subangular g r a n i t i c fragments i n d i c a t i n g they have not been transported f a r . Most of the c l e a r e d areas that were once c u l t i v a t e d have had the surfaoe stones removed. The upper p a r t s of the a l l u v i a l fans are very stony. Here the t e x t u r e i s u s u a l l y ooarser and the s o i l has been plaoed I n the g r a v e l l y sandy loam type, stony phase. Surface drainage i s g e n e r a l l y q u i t e r a p i d . I n t e r n a l drainage i s g e n e r a l l y good depending on the s u b s o i l . O r i g i n a l l y t h i s s o i l type supported s i m i -l a r v e g e t a t i o n to t h a t which was supported by the Champion and Krestova s o i l s , t hat i s p i n e , f i r , b i r o h , aspen and w i l l o w , but i t has now been q u i t e h e a v i l y out f o r lumber, p o l e s , fenceposts and firewood so that only an Immature f o r e s t i s l e f t w i t h seedlings and sorub undergrowth. Glade g r a v e l l y sandy loam There are 129 acres of the non-stony phase and 469 of the stony phase d i s t r i b u t e d over the communities. Topography on t h i s type i s q u i t e i r r e g u l a r A. Glade gravelly sandy loam profile on stream fan material. Rough stratification can be seen. A few inches of dark A^ horizon has developed since clearing. B . Extremely stony phase of Glade gravelly sandy loam, a non-arable s o i l . 120 due to numerous old stream channels. In many respects Glade gravelly sandy loam is similar to the gravelly loam but the parent materi-als were laid down in swifter waters and the texture varies from sandy loam to loamy sand. The gravel and stone content is quite variable being more concen-trated along old water coarses. The stony phase In general is not worth clearing for cultivation. Many areas have numerous large boulders. One area in particular lying on the main terrace at Glade is almost completely paved with boulders. This area cannot be recognized as a reoent fan but seems to be the result of extreme erosion on an earlier glacial deposit of bouldery material. Similar profile development is ob-tained on this type as on Glade gravelly loam. Drainage, both surfaoe and internal, is variable depending on topography and underlying strata* No areas were found to be poorly or imperfeotly drained and more oommonly drainage was excessive or adequate, A good deal of sheet and gulley erosion has occurred on the gravelly sandy loam. It is influ-enced mainly by topography. Deposition occurs in the lower areas, A few pockets of good soil oocur within this soil type and some of them are cleared and used for hay or gardens. Original oover was probably similar to other forested locations in the general area. 121 Miscellaneous S o i l s Peat Att.Lebahdo 39 acres of peat l i e behind the r a i l w a y and road grade and at Wlnlaw 25 aores are s i t u a t e d i n a depression at the base of a mountain from which seepage water d r a i n s . I n both cases the water t a b l e I s c l o s e to the surface at a l l times of the year and the peat depo s i t s have b u i l t up. The surfaoe l a y e r s become aerated p e r i o d i -c a l l y and thus have undergone some decomposition but the lower l a y e r s remain as the raw undeoomposed peat. The topography i s always f l a t or s l i g h t l y oonvex. Sedge grasses and a few shrubs cover these areas. The d r i e r spots are out f o r hay but much of the area remains s o f t and spongy a l l season w i t h water a few Inches from the su r f a c e . I f the very wet areas were adequately drained they too could be har-vested r e g u l a r l y . Dunes Dunes are a c t i v e l y being formed by wind a o t i o n at Champion Creek, Ooteshenle and B r i l l i a n t communities and at present they occupy 37 aores. The dunes may be 10 to 3° f e e t h i g h and a t y p l o a l example of them may be seen i n P l a t e XX. The dunes are c o n t i n u a l l y s h i f t i n g causing PLATE XX A barchan type of dune found i n an area of Krestova coarse sand. Note the crescentic shape. Vegetation growing between the "horns" of the crescent i s beginning to s t a b i l i z e t h i s dune. Scanty grass cover may be seen attempting to establish i t s e l f on the dune. 122 some threat to adjacent productive s o i l s . However, at the present time they do not appear to be advancing r a p i d l y and vegetation may e v e n t u a l l y s t a b i l i z e them. Eroded and D i s s e c t e d Land In the West Kootenay area 2122 acres of land was c l a s s e d as eroded and d i s s e c t e d . I t c o n s i s t s of steep t e r r a c e faces and deep eroded g u l l e y s . These s o i l s whloh. are d i s t r i b u t e d through-out the communities are a c t i v e l y eroding only i n a few places as v e g e t a t i o n on the steep slopes has h a l t e d s o i l creep and down slope movements. These areas are considered w i l d l a n d w i t h no Important value f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . Rough Mountainous Land Land olassed as rough mountainous c o n s i s t s of steep, rocky or mountainous slopes and on the Doukho-bor communities of the West Kootenay i t oomprises 4254. aores. Most of these lands are f o r e s t e d and some have been logged. At present they supply the communi-t i e s w i t h f u e l , posts and p o l e s . Some of these areas have been severely overcut and show evidenoe of s o i l e r o s i o n . 123 SOIL TESTS CONDUCTED IN THE FIELD AND LABORATORY To f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e the more Important s o i l s e r i e s described during the s o i l survey operations, a number of t e s t s were made i n the f i e l d and l a b o r a t o r y * The t e s t s made and the procedures f o l l o w e d are summar-i z e d below* Bulk samples were c o l l e o t e d from each ho r i z o n of the more important s o i l p r o f i l e s and these were used f o r the determination of t o t a l carbon by the dry combustion method and the t o t a l n i t r o g e n by the K J e l d e h l method as p r e s c r i b e d by the A s s o c i a t i o n of O f f i c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Chemists methods of a n a l y s i s (2). From the r e s u l t s of the carbon and n i t r o g e n determi-nations the carbon n i t r o g e n r a t i o - , was c a l c u l a t e d and the t o t a l organic matter content was c a l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the percentage carbon by the f a c t o r 1*724 (2)* The r e a c t i o n of each sample was determined us i n g a Beckman Model WN" PH meter according to the s o i l paste method of Doughty (20)* The r e s u l t s of these t e s t s were i n c l u d e d w i t h the s o i l p r o f i l e 124 d e s c r i p t i o n s given p r e v i o u s l y . Mechanical analyses were made on a num-ber of the bulk samples using the Bouyouoos hydro-meter method (5) as modified by Toogood and Peters to a l l o w f o r organic matter removal (4*5). I n the case of the coarser t e x t u r e d samples, a f u r t h e r examination of the sand f r a c t i o n was made by passing the sample over a 100 mesh seive w i t h openings of 0.149 m i l l i m e t e r s . S o i l from a number of the bulk samples was used f o r the determination of the permanent w i l t i n g percentage by d i r e c t e s t i m a t i o n w i t h sun-flower p l a n t s as de s c r i b e d by Work and Lewis (52)« I n d i r e c t estimate of the w i l t i n g percentage or the f i f t e e n atmosphere percentage was made on other sam-p l e s u s i n g the pressure membrane apparatus as de-s c r i b e d by Richards (38) (39)• When usi n g the pressure membrane method, samples of s o i l f o r which the permanent w i l t i n g percentage had been found w i t h sunflowers were i n c l u d e d as a c o n t r o l . Moisture equivalent determinations as described by Brlggs and McLean (7) were a l s o made using s o i l from the bulk samples. At the time the bulk samples were c o l -l e c t e d i n the f i e l d , a number of other observations were made and samples c o l l e c t e d i n brass c y l i n d e r s . The procedure f o l l o w e d Included u s i n g two s t a i n l e s s PLATE X X I Pressure membrane apparatus with mercury differential regulator and high pressure nitrogen gas cylinder used for laboratory determinations ox' permanent wilting point. 125 s t e e l c y l i n d e r s , 16" i n diameter and 12"? h i g h and open at both ends, which were f o r c e d i n t o the s o i l to a depth of 6", Water was then allowed to run i n -side the c y l i n d e r s at a c o n t r o l l e d r a t e so that a head of 1" of water was maintained on the s o i l sur-f a c e . The r a t e at which the water was added was recorded by f o l l o w i n g the l e v e l of water i n a s i t e gauge fastened to the water r e s e r v o i r s . Readings were taken at 15 minute I n t e r v a l s then at 30 minute I n t e r v a l s and f i n a l l y at hourly i n t e r v a l s u n t i l the r a t e of water entry i n t o the s o i l became constant. When s u f f i c i e n t water had been added to moisten the s o i l to the depth of at l e a s t three f e e t the c y l i n -ders were removed and the s o i l covered to prevent evaporation. This method of adding water to the s o i l has been used as an i n d i c a t i o n of the i n f i l -t r a t i o n of the s o i l (26), The s i t e s were l e f t covered f o r one to three days depending upon the t e x t u r e of the s o i l a f t e r which p r o f i l e p i t s were then dug through each s i t e and s o i l cores taken from each h o r i z o n u s i n g a sampling t o o l (3). equipped w i t h 3" brass l i n e r s . Four separate cores were taken from each h o r i z o n and these were c a r e f u l l y trimmed and weighed immedi-a t e l y , i n the f i e l d so that the moisture content of these f i e l d s o i l s c o u l d be l a t e r c a l c u l a t e d . The moisture r e t a i n e d under such circumstances has been 1 2 6 used as an e s t i m a t i o n of f i e l d moisture storage c a p a c i t y (10)• The trimmed cores were then care-f u l l y packed and shipped to the s o i l l a b o r a t o r y at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r f u r t h e r study. I n the l a b o r a t o r y the cores were used f o r the e s t i m a t i o n of pore s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n , perme-a b i l i t y and apparent s p e o i f l o g r a v i t y , A f i l t e r paper and a piece of muslin was f i r s t p l a c e d over the bottom of each core and h e l d i n place w i t h an e l a s t i c band. The cores were then placed i n a s u i t -able c o n t a i n e r and the l e v e l of water i n the oonr-t a l n e r g r a d u a l l y r a i s e d over a p e r i o d of 12 hours u n t i l the s o i l was completely s a t u r a t e d . F l o o d i n g of the cores was avoided. A f t e r the cores had been allowed to remain s a t u r a t e d f o r 24 hours they were removed and Immediately weighed on a watch g l a s s to give the saturated weight. The cores were then placed on a t e n s i o n t a b l e of the type d e s c r i b e d by Learner and Shaw (23), and allowed to come to e q u i l i b r i u m at tensions of 10, 20, 40, 6 0 , and SO oentlmeters of water. F o l l o w i n g the f i n a l weighing at SO cm, tens i o n the cores were again s a t u r a t e d and a 1" brass c y l i n d e r taped i n place on top of each. A f t e r supporting the saturated cores above the beakers, a constant head of water equlvfllant to was kept on 127 the s o i l i n each core and the r a t e at which water passed through i t was determined hy measuring, at s p e c i f i e d i n t e r v a l s , t h e water whioh c o l l e o t e d i n the beakers (4) (42)• From these values the hy-d r a u l i c or water c o n d u c t i v i t y of the s o i l In the cores was c a l c u l a t e d (44), When the r a t e of water f l o w through the core8 reached a constant value the o y l i n d e r s were removed and the s o i l allowed to dry to constant weight at 110° centigrade. From the weight of the oven dry s o i l the apparent s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of the f i e l d s o i l was c a l c u l a t e d . 122 RESULTS OF FIELD AND LABORATORY TESTS Chemical A n a l y s i s Horizon samples from f i v e p r o f i l e s r e p r e -s e n t i n g important s o i l s e r i e s were analysed f o r t o t a l carbon and n i t r o g e n and the r e s u l t s together w i t h r e a o t l o n values are l i s t e d i n Table 9* The horizons of C l a y p i t s i l t loam below 20 Inches were not Included as they c o n t a i n l a r g e amounts of i n -organic carbon i n the form of oarbonates which would have i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the t o t a l carbon determi-n a t i o n by the dry combustion method used. From the r e a o t l o n values i n c l u d e d i n Table 9» together w i t h those given p r e v i o u s l y i n the p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n s , i t i s evident that the S l a c k s o i l s of the Grand Forks area are n e u t r a l to s l i g h t l y a c i d i n the surface and m i l d l y to moder-a t e l y a l k a l i n e i n the lower h o r i z o n s . The Brown P o d z o l i c s o i l s of the West Kootenay area are some-what more a c i d v a r y i n g from about pH 5»0 to pH 6,0 or s t r o n g l y a c i d to medium a c i d i n the surfaoe to medium and s l i g h t l y a c i d i n the deeper h o r i z o n s . 129 The r e s u l t s of Table 9 a l s o show th a t the Black s o i l s of the Grand" Forks area g e n e r a l l y c o n t a i n more organic carbon and n i t r o g e n to a g r e a t e r depth than do the Brown P o d z o l i c s o i l s of the West Kootenay area. I n the Brown P o d z o l i c s o i l s the carbon and n i t r o g e n i s concentrated c l o s e to the s u r f a c e . These d i f f e r e n c e s are what may normally be expected f o r these two s o i l groups. For a Black s o i l , the carbon content of Carson loamy sand i s r a t h e r low, 0 . 5 percent. This s o i l has a h i g h percentage of macropores which allows a great d e a l of a e r a t i o n and a h i g h r a t e of o x i -d a t i o n of organic matter. At v a r i o u s times t h i s s o i l has been a f f e c t e d by wind e r o s i o n and t h i s would a l s o l e a d to a lower oarbon and n i t r o g e n con^-t e n t . The c u l t i v a t e d surface h o r i z o n of Shore-acres f i n e sandy loam has a r a t h e r h i g h carbon and n i t r o g e n content due to a sod cover, but below t h i s h o r i z o n both oarbon and n i t r o g e n are very low. The h i g h amount of oarbon i n the upper 4 inches of Krestova sand oan be aocounted f o r by the presence of charcoal residues from past f o r e s t f i r e s . I t i s a l s o of i n t e r e s t to note t h a t the carbon to n i t r o g e n r a t i o s of the Black s o i l s of the 130 TABLE 9 CARBON, NITROGEN AND ORGANIC MATTER CONTENT OF SOME GRAND FORKS AND WEST KOOTENAY SOILS (Percent by weight of oven dry soil) Soil Type and Horizons Grand Forks Area Depth Soil C?N Organic (Inches) Reaction Carbon Nitrogen Ration^ga^te,^ Clayplt silt, loam Carson loamy sand Hardy gravelly loam fa A l 2 h * i fa A12 0-6 5.3 6-12 6,0 12-20 6.5 0-14 6.0 14-24 6.0 24-40 6.5 0-8 7.0 8-26 6.3 26*34 6.9 34-50 6.9 50-64 7.0 2.735 1.271 0.371 0.571 0.343 0.170 4.167 2.650 1,846 0.725 O.345 0,242 11.28 0.135 9.42 0.047 7.90 O.056 10.20 O.O35 9.7? 0.014 12.14 0.343 11.15 0.193 13t73 O.I55 II.90 O.O74 9.30 0.031 11.12 4.72 2.20 0.64 0.99 0.59 0.29 7.20 4.57 3*19 1.25 0.60, West Kootenay Area Shoreacres A l c 0-2 5.5 3.210 0,194 16.55 5,54 fine sandy A, 2*>6 , 5»5 1.307 0.072 18.15 2,26 loam Bj° 6-121, 5*5 O.174 0.OI5 11,60 O.30 Band 12^14 5«6 0,176 0,018 9.78 0.30 Bo 14-20 5«3 0,118 0.010 11.80 0.20 Band 20-22 5»3 0.122 0.016 7.64 0.21 01 22-36 5*3 0.159 0.019 2.38 0,27 Krestova sand &, £~4 6,0 0,813 0,079 22.90 3,13 Bo 4-12 6.0 0.620 0.045 13.79 I.07 0 12-36 6.0 0.091 0.004 22.70 0.16 131 Grand Porks area are g e n e r a l l y lower than those of the Brown P o d z o l i c West Kootenay s o i l s . This i n d i c a t e s a more advanced s t a t e of decomposition of the organ-i c matter i n the Black s o i l s and again i s i n aocord w i t h what i s u s u a l l y expected f o r these two types of s o i l (Ho). I t may be conoluded from these r e s u l t s , that the Black s o i l s are b e t t e r s u p p l i e d w i t h t o t a l n i t r o g e n and would r e l e a s e more a v a i l a b l e n i t r o g e n f o r p l a n t growth than the Brown P o d z o l i c s o i l s . Mechanical Composition The r e s u l t s of the mechanical composition a n a l y s i s are summarized i n Tables 10A and 10B and are expressed according to the. I n t e r n a t i o n a l system of p a r t i c l e s i z e s e p a r a t i o n (50). The t e x t u r a l o l a s s e s i n c l u d e d i n the t a b l e s are based on the U.S.D.A. t e x t u r e t r i a n g l e (50). I t w i l l be noted that a number o f the s o i l samples were analysed both w i t h and without peroxide treatment and t h a t i n a l l instano.es higher c l a y percentages were found w i t h peroxide-, treatment. This emphasizes the importance of the peroxide t r e a t -ment to destroy the cementing e f f e c t of organic matter and achieve complete d i s p e r s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y In surface horizons (4S). I t i s seen, however, that the inorease i n c l a y content by the use of peroxide treatment was s u f f i c i e n t to change the t e x t u r a l 132 o l a s s of only two s o i l h o r i zons; the B h o r i z o n of C l a y p i t s i l t loam and the A L O h o r i z o n of Shoreaores s i l t loam. The a n a l y s i s , both w i t h and without peroxide treatment showed the surface horizons of C l a y p i t s i l t loam to be c l a y loam, tending only s l i g h t l y toward s i l t loam. The c l a y s i z e f r a c t i o n of t h i s s o i l may not be of the p l a t y m o n t m o r i l l o n i t e type but r a t h e r a very f i n e l y ground g l a c i a l d e b r i s that would not e x h i b i t the u s u a l s t i c k i n e s s when t e x t u r e d by hand. The c l a y content of Carson loamy sand i s shown to be too low f o r the loamy sand c l a s s . However when t r e a t e d w i t h peroxide t h i s s o i l n e a r l y approaches a loamy sand. With the exception of Shoreaores s i l t loam the West Kootenay s o i l s are a l s o g e n e r a l l y low i n c l a y content. These s o i l s are developed on t e r -races l a i d down by g l a o l a l r i v e r s which do not normal-l y c a r r y a l a r g e amount of c l a y s i z e p a r t i c l e s or d a y m i n e r a l s . The dark brown hard band of Krestova loamy sand contained S percent more c l a y and 6 peroent more s i l t than the m a t e r i a l surrounding i t . The o r i -g i n of these s o i l bands or l a y e r s i s u n c e r t a i n but they are b e l i e v e d to a r i s e during s o i l development. TABLE 10A MECHANICAL COMPOSITION AND TEXTURAL CLASSES 1 OP SOME GRAND PORKS SOILS (PERCENT BY WEIGHT OF OVEN DRY SOIL, LESS THAN 2 M«M« FRACTION) S o i l Type and Horizons Depth Coarse No rj> e r 0xide Treatment Peroxide Treatg. .(inches) Skeleton Coarse^Total S i l t Clay T e x t u r a l T o t a l S i l t u lay 'i'extura Sand Sand Cl a s s Sand Cl a s s 0 ?! 36 32 OL 22 32 40 CL 0 22 3? CL. 23 37 40 CL 0 26 34 40 CL 25 33 42 C 0 23 27 • m C 0 31 44 C 0 56 9?- 7 2 S 29 7 4 S 0 94 6 0 S 0 6 & 31 0 SL 60 26 14 SL 0 5 67 31 2 SL 33 26 71 24 5 SL 5S 26 16 SL 30 60 22 12 SL 51 32 71 25 4 SL 7 46 22 26 L C l a y p i t s i l t Aio loam Aip G 1 Carson A^ loamy sand B Carson sandy A i 0 loam B Hardy g r a v e l l y A i 0 loam Hardy loam %2 *10 0-.6 6-12 12-20 20- 24 24-54 o-i4 24-34 Q-2 21- 44 0-2 2-26 34-50 0-12 1 Based on I n t e r n a t i o n a l System of p a r t i o l e s i z e separation and t e x t u r a l t r i a n g l e i n S o i l Survey Manual (50). 2 Greater than 2 num. f r a c t i o n . 3 By wet s e i v i n s TABLE 10B MECHANICAL COMPOSITION AND TEXTURAL CLASSES OP SOME WEST KOOTENAY SOILS (PERCENT BY WEIGHT OF OVEN DRY SOIL, LESS THAN 2 M.M. FRACTION) Soi l Type and Horizons Depth Coarse 2 N6>eroxide Treatment Peroxide Treatment (inohes)SkeletonCgaggePTgtgJ S i l t . Clay Texjural ggtjal S i l t Clay Tgxtugal "54" 32 14 Shoreaores fine sandy loam Shoreaores s i l t loam Krestova loamy sand Alo 0-6 A l 0 B i 0-9 9-12 •32 • A< lo Q-6 BTT 10-is Bf 18-32 Band 26-2? C 32-40 Krestova sand Krestova coarse sand B^  C 1 0 j*4 4-12: 12-30 0-6 14 + Champion gravelly A i 0 0-6 sandy loam Ej_ 6-12 Claybrlok loam 0 0 0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 22 28 12-36 66 B 2 An 0-12 0 B 2« 28-38 0 •D Q 10 26 24 47 50 72 79 88 68 61 27 63 31 59 34 22 31 16 20 75 $ 80 95 P 87 93 qg 65 89 98 59 32 84 i FSL VFSL C C 24 1 LS 21 0 LS 5 1 S 11 9 SL 5 0 S 13 4 LS 11 2 S 1 1 CoS 5 2 CoS 2 0 CoS 12 35 LS 9 2 S 2 0 S ?2 9 SL 49 19 L 11 5 LS FSL 52 34 14 14 80 LS 16 31 53 SL 1 Based on International System of partiole size separation and textural triangle In Soil Survey Manual (50). 21 Greater than 2 m.m. fraction. 3 By wet seivins 135 The p r o f i l e of C l a y b r i o k loam showed an increase i n c l a y content i n the B 2g h o r i z o n . This would i n d i c a t e a movement of c l a y out of the surface h o r i z o n . The two g r a v e l l y s o i l s , Hardy gravelly-loam and Champion g r a v e l l y sandy loam have percentages of coarse s k e l e t o n ranging from 22 to 66 based on the whole s o i l . S o i l s c o n t a i n i n g more than 15 - 20 percent coarse s k e l e t o n , or fragments between 2 num. and 10 Inches i n diameter, are named aooording to the type of fragment they c o n t a i n (50). Thus these s o i l s are described as being g r a v e l l y . Apparent S p e c i f i c G r a v i t y , T o t a l , Macro- and Micro-pore Space and H y d r a u l i c C o n d u c t i v i t y The r e s u l t s of the apparent s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y , p o r o s i t y and h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y t e s t s are summarized i n Table l l f and are shown g r a p h i c a l l y I n Figure 3* The values f o r apparent s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y are averages of f o u r i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s . I t w i l l be noted from Table 11 that the apparent s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y values f o r the Grand Forks s o i l s vary from 1.05 to 1.52 and that i n s e v e r a l the values Increase w i t h depth. A l s o , the values are lower f o r the f i n e t e x t u r e d s o i l s . The apparent s p e o i f i o g r a v i t y values f o r the West Kootenay s o i l s show a s i m i l a r range to the Grand Forks s o i l s , 1.05 to I . 5 6 , however the Increase w i t h depth i s not as c o n s i s t e n t . The h o r i z o n of Shoreacres 136 s i l t loam has a h i g h apparent s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of 1*56 that may be due to compaction of t i l l a g e implements i n the manner that a plow sole developes. The maoropore space shown i n Table 11 and Figure 3 corresponds to the percent of s o i l volume drained by a t e n s i o n of 40 om. water, or pF 1.6, and i s the peroent of s o i l pores w i t h e f f e c t i v e r a d i u s of Q.0333 m.m, or l a r g e r . Considering the Grand Forks s o i l s f i r s t i t w i l l be noted from Table 11 that the maoropores of these s o i l s range from 3 *»o 10 percent and that i n general the C l a y p i t s i l t loam has the highest percentage and the Carson loamy sand the lowest. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that the C l a y p i t s i l t loam has a good s t r u c t u r e , that i s , the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c l e s , c l a y , s i l t and sand are w e l l grouped i n t o aggregates that provide pore space. The low macropore space i n Carson sandy loam probably r e f l e c t s a l a c k of s t r u c t u r a l aggregates. I t w i l l be noted from the meohanioal data In Table 10A t h a t t h i s s o i l i s very low i n c l a y but h i g h i n s i l t and f i n e sand. I t has o f t e n been observed that s o i l s h i g h i n s i l t have l i t t l e s t r u c t u r e and a low macropore space and apparently i n t h i s case the c o n d i t i o n i s f u r t h e r aggravated by the h i g h content of f i n e sand whioh has favored c l o s e packing. However, c o n s i d e r i n g the t e x t u r e of the m a t e r i a l , the macro-pore spaoe would not be considered low enough to be an Important l i m i t a t i o n 137 TABLE 11 APPARENT SPECIFIC GRAVITY, POROSITY AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SOME GRAND FORKS AND WEST KOOTENAY SOILS. S o i l Type and Horizons Pore Space Sample Apparent [% of Tot* V o l . ) J Depth S p e c i f i c Maora- Micro- Total'Maxl-G r a v l t y Pore8lPores2pores3mum, Grand Forks Area C l a y p l t s i l t loam Carson loamy sand Carson sandy loam A l c B 1 2 B 0 1-4 S - l l 15-18 27-30 54-57 3-6 24-2? 42-4§ £lo 3-6 B A O 12-15 G 28-31 West Kootenay Area Shoreacres f i n e An. sandy loam A 1 e B x C Shoreaores s i l t loam Krestova sand Krestova B : 0 - 3 2-5 10-13 2S-31 1- 4 9^ -12 20*23 32-35 1-4' S - l l 20-23 1-4 1*05 1.0s 1,39 1.52 1.46 1.37 1.41 1.41 1.14 1.11 1.20 1.10 1.22 1.40 1.33 05 I . 5 6 1 A l 0 ooarse sand B IO-I3 42 26 1.42 1,45 1.2S S 7 10 i 5 7 7 3 3 3 2 3 5 10 s 11 25 16 21 48 45 37 37 37 4o 41 36 49 56 51 51 52 fl 42 48 30 17 29 31 56 5 2 42 43 46 48 43 52 57 52 46 53 1 51 I 5 2 42 45 51 o,4i 0.82 0.70 0,31 0.27 0.38 0.52 0*27 0.15 0.81 0.27 0,51 0,-35 0,45 1.59 0.31 0.09 0.64 O.67 0.40 1.19 7.40 0 .82 4.15 0,37 0.38 0.43 0.31 0.16 0.29 0.17 0.16 0.13 O.69 0.16 0,51 0,35 0.33 0.S7 O.31 0.07 0,39 0.43 O.38 1.47 6.19 0.75 3.44 1 2 3 Taken asr percent of pores drained at 50 cm. t e n s i o n By d i f f e r e n c e C a l c u l a t e d from saturated weight of core. F IGURE 3 u o X I-0. Q r < to o NI Aic m Claypit silt IS A,2 -12 — loam 1 1 B -24- s C \ 1 A,,. M l C Shoreacres V| B fine sondy \ loam V -20"-C y A, Carson loamy \ sand — 14— V s B, \ -24-B 2 \ 1 s 1 o o B| -4"-B2 -12-Krestova sand TO I 47 TO 619 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 80100 0-0 10 PERCENT OF VOLUME HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (IN/HR) SOLID -6"-B Krestova coarse sand TO 3-44 TO 619 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 80IOO|0-0 10 PERCENT OF VOLUME HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (INv'HR-) MACROPORES I MICROPORES P O R E S P A C E AND H Y D R A U L I C CONDUCTIVITY 13$ on p l a n t growth. I t w i l l be noted from Table 11 and Figure 3 that the t o t a l pore, space of the s o i l s examined ranged from a low of 35 percent in;: the h o r i z o n of Shore-acres s i l t loam to a h i g h of 59 percent i n the B ho r i z o n of Carson sandy loam. I n ge n e r a l , the t o t a l pore space was i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to the apparent s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y and was higher i n the surface h o r i z o n s . For most of the s o i l s examined more than one-f i f t h of the t o t a l pore space was made up of f i n e or micropores. I n Carson loamy sand the f i n e pores c o n s t i -tuted n e a r l y 95 percent of the t o t a l pore space. The lower horizons of Krestova sand and the p r o f i l e of Krestova coarse sand are qu i t e d i f f e r e n t i n that the micropores make up l e s s than three-quarters of the t o t a l pore space. I t w i l l be noted i n Table 11 that two f i g u r e s are given f o r h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y , the f i r s t i s the maximum value reached dur i n g the experiment and the second i s the value obtained at the end of S hours at which time the c o n d u c t i v i t y r a t e s appeared to be approaching a oonstant r a t e . This l a t t e r f i g u r e was used i n preparing Figure 3, The h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y values shown I n Table 11 range from 0,07 inches per hour i n the B-^  ho r i z o n of Shoreacres s i l t loam to 6,19 inches per hour 139 I n the C h o r i z o n of Krestova sand. I n comparing hy-d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y w i t h maoropore space there i s a general r e l a t i o n s h i p evident. The horizons w i t h the lowest h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y have the lowest macro-pore space and horizons w i t h the highest h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y have the highest macropore space. Also, although the h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y values d i f f e r c o n s iderably, as do the percents maoro-pore space, they are a l l g e n e r a l l y h i g h and should not present a prob-lem i n the i n t a k e or drainage of water. F i e l d I n f i l t r a t i o n Rates Included i n Table 1 2 are the r a t e s of water i n f i l t r a t i o n observed u s i n g the small r i n g s em-ployed f o r w e t t i n g the s o i l p r i o r to c o l l e c t i n g the s o i l core samples. I t should be emphasized that these r a t e s maybe used f o r purposes of comparison onl y , and would be higher than expected under f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s . I n t h i s regard i t should be noted that s i n k i n g the r i n g s i n t o the s o i l d i s t u r b s the s o i l to some extent and a l s o , there i s a great d e a l of opportunity f o r l a t e r -a l movement of water below the r i n g s . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s i n Table 1 2 show that w i t h two exceptions the i n f i l -t r a t i o n of water decreased from the f i r s t h a l f hour p e r i o d and the decrease was g r e a t e s t i n the s o i l s con-t a i n i n g the most s i l t and c l a y . The g r e a t e s t r e d u c t i o n 140 oocurred I n the Shoreacres s l i t loam which decreased from 5*6 to 0*6 inches per hour. I n the case of the very coarse t e x t u r e d s o i l s i t w i l l be noted that there was l i t t l e or no reduotion i n the i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e during the t e s t s * The e f f e c t of a sod cover 1B shown q u i t e markedly i n Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam where the I n f i l -t r a t i o n r a t e s under sod cover and under clean c u l t i -v a t i o n are 4.1 and 1*5 inches per hour r e s p e c t i v e l y , •This would i n d i c a t e that some d i f f i c u l t y may be encoun-t e r e d due to er o s i o n from r u n o f f when t h i s type of s o i l i s i r r i g a t e d w i t h no oover. With the'exoeptlon of Shoreacres s i l t loam and f i n e sandy loam and C l a y p i t s i l t loam the i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s of a l l the s o i l s s t u d i e d are g e n e r a l l y h i g h . F i e l d Moisture Capacity, Moisture E q u i v a l e n t , Permanent W i l t i n g P o i n t and A v a i l a b l e Moisture The f i e l d c a p a c i t y values r e p o r t e d i n Tables 13 and 14 and shown i n Figu r e 4 were found by apply i n g water to a small area of s o i l and then a l l o w -i n g the s o i l to d r a i n f o r one to three days a f t e r which time samples were taken f o r the determination of mois-t u r e . I t w i l l be noted that a wide range i n r e s u l t s were obtained, from low of 2 percent i n the Bg h o r i z o n of D a n v i l l e loamy coarse sand to a h i g h of 35 percent i n the A. h o r i z o n of C l a y p i t s i l t loam. 141 TABLE 12 FIELD INFILTRATION RATES FOUND FOR SOME GRAND FORKS AND WEST KOOTENAY SOILS Rate of I n f i l t r a t i o n S o i l Type Inches per hour  F i r s t hour A f t e r f i r s t £ hour Grand Forks Area C l a y p l t s i l t loam Carson loamy sand Hardy g r a v e l l y loam D a n v i l l e loamy coarse sand 3.5 1 . 9 5.7 4.4 2.8 3.0 3-9 2.5 West Kootenay Area Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam - sod cover 7«0 4.1 - no cover ( c u l t i v a t e d ) 4.8 1.5 Shoreacres s i l t loam 5.6 0.6 Krestova sand 3«1 4.2 Krestova coarse sand 7*6 4.8 Champion g r a v e l l y sandy loam 6.6 4.0 142 When the f i e l d moisture c a p a c i t y r e s u l t s are considered i n r e l a t i o n to the mechanical a n a l y s i s values i t i s apparent that the horizons w i t h the highest p r o p o r t i o n of f i n e m a t e r i a l s are those w i t h the highest f i e l d moisture c a p a c i t y . A l s o , i n the case of the sur-face h o r i z o n s , i t i s evident that the organic m a t e r i a l has a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s p r o p e r t y . I n Tables 13 and 14 the f i e l d moisture capacity values are given on a percent by weight b a s i s . Using the apparent s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y values obtained f o r each h o r i z o n , these values may be expressed on a volume b a s i s . A l s o , since the t o t a l p o r o s i t y of the s o i l i s known, the volume of the s o i l oocupied by a i r at i t s f i e l d moisture c a p a c i t y may be c a l c u l a t e d . This was done f o r the s o i l s under study, and the r e s u l t s f o r s i x of them are shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 4.. I t w i l l be noted from- Figure 4, t h a t when at t h e i r f i e l d moisture c a p a c i t y , the s i x s o i l s had d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s of s o l i d l i q u i d and a i r . I n a l l oases, however, the volume of a i r was s u f f i c i e n t t h a t the s o i l s could be considered to be w e l l aerated. A l s o , the very low volume oocupied by water, even at f i e l d moisture oapaolty, i s very n o t i c e a b l e I n the oases: of Carson loamy sand, Krestova sand and Krestova ooarse sand. PERCENT SOLID MATERIAL, AIR AND WATER AT FIELD CAPACITY 143 TABLE 13 FIELD MOISTURE CAPACITY, MOISTURE EQUIVALENT, PERMANENT WILTING POINT AND AVAILABLE MOISTURE OF SOME GRAND FORKS SOILS (Percent by weight of oven dry s o i l ) S o i l Type and Horizons Permanent Inches Depth F i e l d Moisture W i l t i n g A v a i l a b l e (inches) CapaoltyEquivalent P o i n t Moisture to ; . 3 f t . d e p t h C l a y p l t s i l t loam Carson loamy sand Carson sandy loam fa A 12 B C c x A-B C l c D a n v i l l e loamy ooarse sand A-B 1 2 B 1 2 Hardy g r a v e l l y A, loam Anp 0-6 35 30 6-12 28 26 12-24 22 22 24-36 15 22 O-36 0-,14 12 6 14-24 7 7 24-36 6 5 Q-S6 o-g 22 20 S-21 15 17 21-36 1.5 17 V— y\J 0-7 12 20 7*12 8 14 12-18 4 6 13-24. 2 3 0-8 22 26 S-26 !? 21 26-34 14 20 153 11 12 4 3 3 3 7 1 5 s 3 1 1 10* x R e s u l t s obtained by sunflower method; other r e s u l t s by pressure membrane method. Determinations made on l e s s than 2 m.m. f r a o t i o n . l44 TABLE 14 FIELD MOISTURE CAPACITY, MOISTURE EQUIVALENT, PERMANENT WILTING POINT AND AVAILABLE MOISTURE OF SOME WEST KOOTENAY SOILS (Percent by weight of oven dry s o i l ) S o i l Type and Horizons Shoreaores f i n e sandy loam Shoreaores s i l t loam Krestova sand Krestova coarse sand Krestova sandy loam C I 1 0 B^  C he h 4 A v a i l a b l e Depth F i e l d Moisture Permanent Moisture (inohes) Capacity Equivalent W i l t i n g to 3 f o o t P o i n t depth Champion g r a v e l l y A i 0 sandy loam B, o~6 6-20 20-36 O-36 Q-9 9-12 12-32 32-36 O-36 0-4 4-12 12-36 O-36 0 - 4 6-14 14-36 O-36 0-6 6~io 10-lS 12-32 0-6 6-12; 12-36 25 27 11 9 6 24 22 13 29 20 35 27 32 23 16 IS 11 9 3 11 5 16 S 3 -19 11 10 4 14 13 13 10 3 2; 10* 4 2 i o x 9 9 7 X 7 X 2 x I 7 2 2 2 g x 6 X 2 X x R e s u l t s obtained by sunflower method; other r e s u l t s by pressure membrane method. Determination made on l e s s than 2 m.m. f r a c t i o n * 145 The moisture equivalent determination has been used as an i n d i r e c t estimate of the f i e l d mois-ture c a p a c i t y of s o i l s (7), although the r e s u l t s do not always agree (58)• Prom the moisture equivalent r e s u l t s Included i n Tables 13 and 14 i t w i l l be noted that t h i s was the case f o r a number of the s o i l s t e s -t e d . I n g e n e r a l , i n the instances of the f i n e r t e x t u r e d s o i l s , the r e s u l t s approach one another c l o s e l y , but f o r the ooarse t e x t u r e d s o i l s , the moisture equiva-l e n t values are g e n e r a l l y lower. These r e s u l t s are i n general agreement w i t h the f i n d i n g s of others such as Veighmeyer and Hendrlokson(54) and Thprne and Peterson (45). For t h i s study, t h e r e f o r e , l t ( may be concluded that the a c t u a l f i e l d measurement i s a much b e t t e r estimate of f i e l d oapaolty than i s the moisture e q u i v a l e n t . When c o n s i d e r i n g the r e s u l t s by the two methods i t should be noted that f o r the g r a v e l l y s o i l s the moisture equivalent f i g u r e B given i n the t a b l e s are based on m a t e r i a l of p a r t i c l e s i z e l e s s than 2 mm. i n diameter while the f i e l d r e s u l t s are based on the whole s o i l . A l s o the c o n d i t i o n s r e p o r t e d by Colman (10) and others that s o i l s u n d e r l a i n by coarse t e x t u r e d s t r a t a r e t a i n more moisture than would be expected from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e i r t e x t u r e and content of coarse fragments. This c o n d i t i o n appears to e x i s t i n some of the s o i l s under study, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the oases of 146 D a n v i l l e loamy ooarse sand and Champion g r a v e l l y sandy loam. Prom the f i g u r e s Included i n Tables 13 and 14 i t i s evident that f o r the s o i l s under study, the moisture equivalent gave a reasonable estimate of f i e l d moisture c a p a c i t y f o r the f i n e t e x t u r e d s o i l s when adjustments f o r the coarse f r a o t i o n s are made. However, i n the oase of the coarse t e x t u r e d s o i l s , the moisture equivalent underestimates the moisture r e t a i n e d by the s o i l under f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s * The permanent w i l t i n g percentages reported i n Tables 13 and 14 show a wide range, from a low of 1 percent i n the C h o r i z o n of Krestova ooarse sand to a h i g h of 15 peroent i n the A i 0 h o r i z o n of C l a y p l t s i l t loam* When these r e s u l t s are considered i n r e l a t i o n to the f i e l d moisture oapaclty and the moisture equivalent values, I t w i l l be noted thatttoere those values are h i g h the w i l t i n g percentage values are a l s o h i g h * There i s , however, no d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the values* Suoh authors as Veighmeyer and Hendrlokson (54) and Purr and Keene (22) have a l s o found t h i s to be the case* The t o t a l a v a i l a b l e moisture storage c a p a c i -ty of s o i l i s o f t e n taken as the d i f f e r e n c e between the f i e l d moisture c a p a c i t y and the permanent w i l t i n g percen-tage (45)* This was done i n the present study and i n Tables 13 and 14 the t o t a l a v a i l a b l e water storage oapaclty 147 o f the s o i l s to a 3 f o o t depth i s shown. These values were o a l o u l a t e d f o r each h o r i z o n u s i n g the expression, d » (Pfo * Ppwp) A s D 10(3 Pfo • f i e l d moisture c a p a c i t y Ppwp a permanent w i l t i n g percentage A s ss apparent s p e c i f l o g r a v i t y D ss depth of s o i l d « a v a i l a b l e moisture storage c a p a c i t y The t o t a l a v a i l a b l e moisture storage c a p a c i t y of a number of the s o i l s to a 3 f o o t depth I s shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n Figure 5* I * w i l l be noted that the amount of a v a i l a b l e water ranges from only 2.5 inches f o r Carson loamy sand to 5*6 inches f o r Shore-aores s i l t loam. A more complete e v a l u a t i o n of the moisture r e t a i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of some of the more Important s o i l s may be made from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the data i n -cluded i n Table 15 and shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n Figure 6. I n preparing the s o i l moisture t e n s i o n curves r e p r e -sented i n Figure 6, the data contained i n Table 15 was used together w i t h the moisture equivalent and w i l t i n g p o i n t v a l u e s . In c o n s t r u c t i n g s o i l moisture t e n s i o n curves the moisture t e n s i o n expressed as the l o g a r i t h m of a corresponding column of water i n centimeters, that i s pF u n i t s , i s p l o t t e d against the percent moisture found i n the s o i l at that t e n s i o n . The water a v a i l a b l e to p l a n t s FIGURE 5 • 4 A, i 4 • 2-5M 14" • B| r -24" Carson loamy sand B2 • _i • 2CT 3-7" Shoreacres fine sandy loam u I I l i I i 1_ Aic 9" A 12 32" C J I 5-6H Shoreacres slit loam •12* • • • • « 31" Krestova sand J — i — i — i i i i ' A* 6" B "l4" C 0 10 20 30 40 50 % MOISTURE BY WEIGHT 2-6" Krestova coarse sand - i — i — i _ i i i i i_ 0 10 20 30 40 50 % MOISTURE BY WEIGHT -WILTING POINT FIELD CAPACITY I ZZZ] AVAILABLE WATER INCHES OF AVAILABLE MOISTURE 142 may be taken as that part of the s o i l moisture which l i e s between the permanent w i l t i n g percentage, pF 4,2 and moisture equivalent pF 2,7 ( 3 ) , Thus, from these curves the percent moisture a v a i l a b l e to p l a n t s oan be r e a d i l y i n t e r p r e t e d by observing the gradient .of. the curve between these two pF values; the steeper the gradient of the curve the lower the percent a v a i l a b l e moisture. In general the s o i l moisture t e n s i o n curves appear to f a l l i n t o two groups, those of Carson loamy sand, and K r e s t o v a sand and coarse sand that have high gradients and those of C l a y p i t s i l t loam and Shoreaores f i n e sandy loam and s i l t loam that have low g r a d i e n t s i n the range of a v a i l a b l e water. The Inches of a v a i l a b l e water h e l d to a three foot depth were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g f i e l d c a p a c i t y , permanent w i l t i n g p o i n t and apparent s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y data f o r seven s o i l s of the Doukhobor l a n d s . The r e -s u l t s of these c a l c u l a t i o n s are r e p o r t e d i n Tables 13 and 14 and f o r s i x of the s o i l s s t u d i e d the r e s u l t s are shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n Figure 6« FIGURE 6 <0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 PERCENT MOISTURE SOIL MOISTURE TENSION CURVES 149 TABLE 15 PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SOME GRAND FORKS AND WEST KOOTENAY SOILS S o i l Type and Horizon Sample depth Peroent of T o t a l S o i l Volume Drained at Tensions I n d i c a t e d (cm, of water ) , 0-10 10-20 20*40 40-60 60-S0 80 to 0-40 40 to oven dryness oven dryness GRAND FORKS AREA C l a y p i t s i l t loam Aio 1-4 Aw p 8-»ll BXd 15^18 c-, 27*30 0 54-57 4.9 3.9 3.9 2.9 3.7 1.4 1.5 1.9 1.0 1.0 2.0 4.0 0.9 1.6 2.0 2'? 1.6 l . l 1.2 1.2 U J 0,6 0.6 0.6 f 5 ' 41. 34. 35. 35. ^8.3 7.7 9.8 3.8 6.3 47.9 45.0 36.6 36,6 36.9 Carson loamy sandy k 24^27 42-45 & 5.9 0.4 0.8 0.3 0.5 1.3 3*8 2.4 3.1 5.2 33,5 33.2 ?* 2 6.7 7.2 40,4 4o.9 36.0 Carson sandy loam c 1,4 12-15 28-31 2.3 2.5 2.1 0.5 0.1 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.6 0,8 1.6 2,5 0,9 1.9 1.7 47.1 m 3.2 3.0 3.5 48.8 56.0 50.8 WEST KOOTENAY AREA Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam Ale Alo C 0-3 2-5 10-13 28-31 4.5 ill 4.9 1.3 0.3 0,6 0.8 1.6 0.2 0,7 Q.7 2.4 1:1 10.7 1.8 1.2 5.8 9.4 45.0 45.5 21.9 19.8 7 ^ 3.6 6,4 48,2 44.3 39.9 Shoreacres s i l t loam % c 2 1-4 9-12 20-23; 32-35 1.4 ?* 7 4.0 6.3 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.9 0,4 o*3 1.0 2.5 0.7 0,6 0.9 0.8 0.5 0,5 0.5 0.7 50.2 31.0 40.8 40.3 *? 9.7 51.4 32.1 43.1 41.8 Krestova sand \ c 2 1-4 8-11 20-23 P 4,1 0.6 2.9 2.4 §•? 18.4 4.0 7.2 5.4 2,6 1.8 4l.O 7.6 19.8 11.1 .9.4 25.4 47.6 30.4 16.6 Krestova coarse sand 1-4 10-13 4.2 4,1 4.8 8.3 8.14 .4,0 0,7 2.0 IM 16.5 24,6 20,8 28.7 30.6 150 CONCLUSIONS Most of the s o i l s that occur on the 18,872: acres of Doukhobor lands i n the Grand Porks and West Kootenay areas of B r i t i s h Columbia belong to the Black or Brown P o d z o l i o Great S o i l Groups. Small areas of G l e i z o l l o s o i l s a l s o occur together w i t h areas of dunes, peat and s a l i n e s o i l s . These s o i l s are developed from a wide v a r i e t y of t r a n s p o r t e d parent m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g r i v e r a l l u v i -um, g l a c i a l t i l l and t i l l d e r i v a t i v e s and a l l u v i a l f a n s . On the steeper slopes of the mountain side s the s o i l s are very shallow and stony and many outcrops of bare rock oocur, I n most s o i l s , parent m a t e r i a l has played a dominant r o l e i n determining s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Chemical a n a l y s i s showed the Black s o i l s to contain s i g n i f i c a n t l y more organic matter and n i t r o g e n , and to have a narrower carbon to n i t r o g e n r a t i o than the Brown P o d z o l i o s o i l s . For the most p a r t the s o i l s of the Doukhobor lands are very coarse t e x t u r e d ranging from sand to sandy 151 loam, although i n some small areas f i n e t e x t u r e d s o i l s occur such as loam to d a y loam. The s o i l s c o n t a i n i n g the highest percentage of c l a y and s i l t were g e n e r a l l y found to have the lowest percent of macro-pore space and the lowest i n f i l -t r a t i o n r a t e and h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y values but they were capable of s t o r i n g the l a r g e s t amounts of a v a i l a b l e water. At the time of the present study about 14 percent of the Doukhobor lands was c u l t i v a t e d r e g u l a r l y and the remaining g>6 percent was used f o r rough pasture or f o r e s t r y . About S3 percent of the area covered by the s o i l s of the Doukhobor lands was considered non-arable because of coarse t e x t u r e , steep topography or s t o n i n e s s . However under i r r i g a t i o n only 42 percent was c l a s s e d as d o u b t f u l f o r crop p r o d u c t i o n . 152 APPENDIX LAND CLASSIFICATION AND RATING Using the s o i l survey and l a b o r a t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n , the s o i l s of the Doukhobor lands have been c l a s s i f i e d according to t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r crop produotion w i t h and without i r r i g a t i o n . I n a r r i v i n g at the l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the s o i l f a c t o r s , such as t e x t u r e , s t r u o t u r e , p e r m e a b i l i t y , water s t o r -age c a p a c i t y , topography, s t o n i n e s s , about which i n f o r -mation was a v a i l a b l e and which were known to a f f e c t the use of the l a n d f o r crop p r o d u c t i o n were taken i n t o account. However,. i t should be noted, t h a t , as i n the oase of most l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , a o e r t a i n amount of p e r s o n a l Judgment was neoessary both i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the f a c t s o o l l e c t e d during the f i e l d and l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s and i n making assumptions concern-i n g f a c t o r s about which i n f o r m a t i o n was not a v a i l a b l e . The l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system used f o r c l a s s i f y i n g the lands f o r orop produotion without i r r i g a t i o n , was s i m i l a r to that used by the Land U t i l i z a t i o n Research and Survey D i v i s i o n of the 153 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Lands (15) (16) (17). Although some m o d i f i c a t i o n was necessary i n app l y i n g i t to the s o i l s of the Doukhobor l a n d s . The system I s patterned a f t e r that used by the Uni t e d States S o i l Conservation Service as de s c r i b e d by Hockensmlth (23). I n r a t i n g the l a n d f o r orop produotion w i t h i r r i g a t i o n , the system d e s c r i b e d i n the. B r i t i s h Columbia Land Reclamation Committee B r i e f Number 22 (13) was f o l l o w e d . This r a t i n g system i s based on that used i n A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan (21) which i n tur n i s patterned a f t e r the S t o r l e system used i n C a l i f o r n i a , I n a cooperative study, the Land U t i l i -z a t i o n Researoh and Survey D i v i s i o n used the l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to a r r i v e at a o t u a l d o l l a r per acre values f o r the l a n d (IS) but t h i s has not been i n -cluded i n the present study. I t i s b e l i e v e d , t h a t whereas the monetary value of the lands may change, t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and r a t i n g w i l l remain more steady. Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r General Crops Without I r r i g a t i o n Although eight l a n d c l a s s e s are Included i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system (17), (IS) only seven were used i n c l a s s i f y i n g the Doukhobor lands, no l a n d being plaoed i n Class 4. I n the s e c t i o n s that f o l l o w the 154 d e s c r i p t i o n s of the d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s are given along w i t h the s o i l types andacreages of each of the c l a s s e s i n the Grand Porks and West Kootenay areas. The acreages of each land c l a s s are giv e n hy communities i n Table 16. Class 1 This i s good arab l e l a n d s u i t a b l e f o r general farming and i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n . I t has no permanent l i m i t a t i o n s . Medium te x t u r e d Humlo G l e l and Low Humic G l e i s o i l s r e o e i v l n g s u f f i c i e n t moisture by n a t u r a l s u b - i r r i g a t i o n f o r crop growth are placed I n t h i s c l a s s . The acreage of Class 1 i s very l i m i t e d and ooours only i n the West Kootenay area. T o t a l S o i l type (Class l ) Aores Acreage WEST KOOTENAY AREA Cl a y b r i o k loam 99 Pass Creek loam 222 321 Class 2 Class 2 l a n d I s f a i r a rable l a n d s u i t a b l e f o r general farming but having some l i m i t a t i o n , such as imperfect drainage i n the e a r l y season, whioh a f f e c t s root development and crop m a t u r i t y . Some types of the Cl a y b r i o k and Pass Creek s e r i e s are r a t e d as Class 2. 1 5 5 TABLE 16 1 J UNIRRIGATED LAND CLASS ACREAGES OF POMHI DOUKHOBOR LANDS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA1 Land C l a s s Community 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 T o t a l Grand Forks 492 1151 94 134 1871 North Sheet Grand Forks 712 1942 n o 81 2845 South Sheet G i l p i n 10 414 12 435 Caesar 22 96 40 17 175 Grand Forks Area 1236 3603 244 244 5327 Champion Creek 4 466 84 366 920 Ooteshenie 30 165 2096 677 1032 4000 B r i l l i a n t & Rasp- 31 244 81 625 38 1019 berry 289 963 Glade 182 400 92 Shoreacres 21 1 220 85 304 631 Pass Creek 108 53 63 489 1796 81 2590 Krestova 13 89 164 1179 285 355 2085 Koch S i d i n g 32 7 65 17 71 192 Lebahdo 102 58 39 36 79 314 Winlaw 40 17 40 25 30 14 57 223 C l a y b r i c k 37 52 212 43 344 P e r r y S i d i n g 2 26 128 84 24 264 West Kootenay Area 321 311 1169 64 5267 4254 2159 13545 TOTAL 321 311 2405 64 8870 4498 2403 I8872 1 Revised from Drewry (18) 1953 156 Acreage S o l i Type (Class 2) Aores T o t a l WEST KOOTENAY AREA C l a y b r i c k c l a y loam 36 C l a y b r i c k loamy sand 181 Pass Creek loamy sand v 9^ 3 H Class 3 Arable land w i t h l i m i t e d usefulness be-oause i t beoomes too dry f o r optimum orop growth but i s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r extensive c u l t i v a t i o n of oe r e a l and forage crops. Most of the communities have l a r g e areas of t h i s c l a s s of l a n d . T o t a l S o i l Type (Class 3) Aores Acreage GRAND FORKS AREA C l a y p l t s i l t loam 100 C l a y p l t loam, l e v e l phase 11 C l a y p l t loam, s l o p i n g phase 3 Boundary loam, l e v e l phase 30 Boundary loam, s l o p i n g phase 1 Carson ooarse sandy loam 10 Carson sandy loam 26 Hardy loam, l e v e l phase 17 Hardy loam, s l o p i n g phase 197 Hardy g r a v e l l y loam, s l o p i n g phase 23 Hardy g r a v e l l y loam, moderately steep 513 phase Granby sandy loam 17 Granby s i l t loam 3 Granby loamy sand 12 Gibbs g r a v e l l y loam 102 S a l i n e Seepage 103 1236 157 T o t a l S o i l type (Class 3) (oontlnued) Aores Acreage WEST KOOTENAY AREA Shoreacres s i l t loam 4l4 Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam, l e v e l 453 phase Shoreaores f i n e sandy loam, s l o p i n g 72 phase C l a y b r i o k g r a v e l l y sandy loam 111 Glade g r a v e l l y loam, l e v e l phase 3^  Glade g r a v e l l y loam, s l o p i n g phase 72 Glade loam __9 116.9 "2"4TD5 C l a s s 4 Land th a t i s not s u i t e d to r e g u l a r c u l t i -v a t i o n beoause of excessive droughtiness f a l l s i n t o C l a s s 4, I t may be described as l i m i t e d arable s u i t e d only f o r pasture* I n the oase of the Doukhobor lands s o i l s t h a t might have been Included here are inc l u d e d i n Class 6* C l a s s 5 C l a s s 5 l a n d 1B non-arable because of excessive wetness or same other f a c t o r * I t I s s t i l l capable of producing n a t i v e forage* Two small b l o c k s of peat s o i l ocour i n the West Kootenay area, com-p r i s i n g 64 aores of Class 5 l a n d i n a l l * C l a s s 6 Land r a t e d as Class 6 i s u n s u i t a b l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n because of excessive drought, unfavourable 1 5 6 topography or extreme s t o n i n e s s . This olass i n c l u d e d nearly h a l f of the non-arable l a n d which i s d i s t r i b u t e d throughout a l l the communities. I t i s mainly s u i t e d f o r g r a z i n g or f o r e s t p r o d u c t i o n . T o t a l S o i l type (Class 6) Aores Acreage GRAND FORKS AREA Carson loamy sand, l e v e l phase l 6 l Carson loamy sand, windblown phase 6 2 D a n v i l l e loamy ooarse sand 2 0 1 Hardy g r a v e l l y sandy loam, l e v e l phase 1 7 Hardy g r a v e l l y sandy loam,kettle phase J>7 Hardy stony loam, u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 1 5 4 9 Caesar loamy coarse sand 1 0 0 Caesar f i n e sand IS Rideau Complex IS Gibbs g r a v e l l y sandy loam, s l o p i n g 4 5 phase Gibbs g r a v e l l y sandy loam, k e t t l e SS phase Gibbs stony loam, u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 1 2 8 0 Bottomland 2 3^03 WEST KOOTENAY AREA Krestova loamy sand 1 1 3 1 Krestova sand 1 9 2 9 Krestova ooarse sand 4 9 9 Champion g r a v e l l y sandy loam, non- S 9 4 stony phase Champion g r a v e l l y sandy loam, stony 1 7 9 phase C l a y b r i c k g r a v e l l y sandy loam, stony 37 phase Glade g r a v e l l y sandy loam, non-stony 1 2 9 phase Glade g r a v e l l y sandy loam, stony 469. ^ 2 6 7 phase g g 7 0 159 C l a s s 7 The non-arable, rough mountainous, f o r e s t e d t r a o t s are pl a c e d i n t h i s c l a s s * I t may have i n c l u s i o n s of barren rock or wasteland that would be i n Cl a s s 8 i f more d e t a i l e d separations were made* A l l communi-t i e s inolude l a r g e areas of t h i s c l a s s , the main use of Class 7 being f o r f o r e s t r y . I n the Grand Forks and West Kootenay areas there are 244 acres and 4254 acres r e s p e c t i v e l y making a t o t a l of 4498 aores of Class 1 l a n d on a l l the Doukhobor l a n d . Class 8 I n t h i s c l a s s are placed non-productive areas such as steep eroded slopes, rock outcrop, sand dunes and any barren areas* T o t a l S o i l type (Class 8) . Aores Acreage GRAND FORKS AREA' Eroded and Di s s e c t e d l a n d 244 244 WEST KOOTENAY AREA Dunes 37 Eroded and Di s s e c t e d l a n d 2122 2159. 2403 The t o t a l acreages, and the r e s p e c t i v e percentages, of the la n d c l a s s e s of the Grand Forks and West Kootenay areas and of a l l the Doukhobor lands are summarized below* 1 6 0 TABLE 17 SUMMARY GF ACREAGES AND PERCENTAGES OF LAND CLASSES WITHOUT IRRIGATION Land Class Grand Forks West Kootenay A l l Doukhobor Land Total Feroent Total Percent Total Percent Class 1 , Class 2 , _ C l a s s "3," Class 4, Class 5» Class 6 , Classi 7 , Class 8 , arable arable arable non-arable non-arable non-arable non-arable non-arable 1 2 3 6 24 3 i i 244 6 6 5 5 3 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 6 9 64 267 254 2 1 5 9 E: 2 2 9 mmm 0 3 9 1 6 3 2 1 2405 6 4 8 8 7 0 4493 2 4 0 3 2 2 1 3 0 4 7 2 3 1 3 TOTAL 5 3 2 7 1 0 0 1 3 5 4 5 1 0 0 1 8 8 7 2 1 0 0 From the summary of l a n d c l a s s e s I n Table 1 7 i i t w i l l be noted t h a t , f o r the Grand Forks area, 1 , 2 3 6 aores or 24 percent of the area has been c l a s s e d as s u i t a b l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n without i r r i g a t i o n but that i t i s placed i n the lowest category, or Class 3 « In the West Kootenay area, the acreage of s o i l s u i t -able f o r c u l t i v a t i o n without i r r i g a t i o n was found to amount to 1,801 acres or 1 3 percent of the area. For the Doukhobor lands as a whole, the acreage of arable s o i l s was found to be 3 » ° 3 7 acres or 1 7 percent and that 1 3 percent of t h i s was placed i n Class 3 , Reference to Table 1 7 a l s o shows that the l a r g e s t acreage of s o i l s i n both the Grand Forks and West Kootenay areas, a t o t a l of 6 6 7 0 aores or 4 7 percent 161 was placed I n Class 6.. S o i l s of t h i s c l a s s are thought to he best s u i t e d to g r a z i n g or timber production or a combination of the two. Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r General Crops w i t h S p r i n k l e r I r r i g a t i o n A f u r t h e r general c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the s o i l s was made on the b a s i s of s u i t a b i l i t y f o r c u l t i -v a t i o n w i t h s p r i n k l e r i r r i g a t i o n (.1$), I n t h i s case, three c l a s s e s of s o i l s u i t a b l e f o r i r r i g a t i o n were used, and the remaining s o i l s considered u n s u i t a b l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n w i t h s p r i n k l e r I r r i g a t i o n were a l l placed i n a f o u r t h c l a s s . A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of these c l a s s e s and the acreages of s o i l i n c l u d e d i n each i s given below. The acreages of each l a n d c l a s s are l i s t e d by communities i n Table 18. Cl a s s 1 This c l a s s i s oomprlsed of good l a n d s u i t e d to i n t e n s i v e cropping under f i e l d i r r i g a t i o n and i n -cludes the w e l l drained s o i l s of medium te x t u r e haying no l i m i t a t i o n s f o r cropping. Areas of t h i s c l a s s occur at each oommunity and i n most instances water i s a v a i l a b l e to I r r i g a t e them. 1 6 2 TABLE! 1 8 IRRIGATED LAND CLASS ACREAGES OF I M t W m DOUKHOBOR LANDS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA1 Land Class Community 1 2 3 Unclassi- Total f ied Grand Forks 163 273 186 1249 1 8 7 1 North Sheet Grand Forks 3 2 3 6 2 8 1 1 7 1 7 7 7 2845 South Sheet Gi lp in 10 1 8 29 379 4 3 6 Caesar 1 0 12 89 6 4 175 Grand Forks Area ^06 931 421 3469 5327 Champion Creek 9 5 2 12 613 920 Ooteshenie 165 1 2 5 9 827 1 7 5 0 4000 B r i l l i a n t & Rasp- 244 91 3. 681 1019 berry 2 2 6 Glade 1 1 7 109 511 963 Shoreacres 241 1 81 308 631 Pass Creek 63 315 2 2 1 2 2 5 9 0 Krestova 1 7 7 1 0 5 7 130 7 2 1 2 0 8 5 Koch Siding 3 9 8 145 192 Lebahdo 9 4 14 2 0 6 314 Winlaw 40 26 13 145 223 Claybrick 29 224 1 90 3 4 4 Perry Siding 26 94 9 137 264 West Kootenay Area 1196 3441 1393 7515 13545 TOTAL 1 7 0 2 4372 1814 10984 1 8 8 7 2 1 Revised from Drewry ( 1 8 ) 1 9 5 3 163 S o i l type (Class 1) Aores T o t a l Acreage GRAND FORKS AREA C l a y p l t s i l t loam 100 C l a y p l t loam, l e v e l phase 77 C l a y p l t loam, s l o p i n g phase 3 Boundary loam, l e v e l phase 3° Boundary loam, s l o p i n g phase 1 Carson coarse sandy loam 10 Carson sandy loam 2S Hardy loam, l e v e l phase 17 Hardy loam, s l o p i n g phase 19? Hardy g r a v e l l y loam, s l o p i n g phase 23 Granby sandy loam 17 Granby s i l t loam 3 WEST KOOTENAY AREA Shoreacres s i l t loam 414 Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam, l e v e l 453 phase Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam, s l o p i n g 72 phase C l a y b r l o k loam 99 C l a y b r i c k g r a v e l l y sandy loam i l l Glade g r a v e l l y loam, ge n t l y s l o p i n g 3S phase Glade loam 9 —a—lb 506 1196  1702 Class 2 Land s u i t e d to I r r i g a t i o n but having some l i m i t a t i o n s such as coarse t e x t u r e or unfavorable topography i s placed i n t h i s c l a s s * I t contains the l a r g e s t acreage of s o i l c l a s s e d as i r r i g a b l e , but i t i s l i k e l y that l a c k of water and h i g h development costs would prevent a considerable p o r t i o n of t h i s v l a n d from being i r r i g a t e d , i n the near f u t u r e at l e a s t , 164 S o i l type (Class 2) Acres T o t a l Acreage GRAND FORKS, AREA Carson loamy sand, l e v e l phase l 6 l Carson loamy sand, windblown phase 62 Hardy g r a v e l l y loam, moderately steep 513 phase Hardy g r a v e l l y sandy loam, l e v e l 17 phase Granby loamy sand 12 Gibbs g r a v e l l y sandy loam, 45 s l o p i n g phase Rldeau Complex 12 S a l i n e Seepage 105 WEST KOOTENAY AREA Krestova loamy sand 1131 Krestova sand 1923 C l a y b r i c k loamy sand 121 Glade g r a v e l l y loam, s l o p i n g phase 72 Glade g r a v e l l y sandy loam, s l o p i n g 129 phase 931 3441 4372 C l a s s 3 Land i n t h i s c l a s s i s p o o r l y s u i t e d to i r r i g a t i o n except under s p e c i a l circumstances where water may be cheaply a v a i l a b l e or where the l a n d i s s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d . Where r e q u i r e d , l a n d of t h i s c l a s s could be used f o r homesites. L i m i t a t i o n s to orop production may c o n s i s t of h i l l y topography, excessive drainage or s t o n i n e s s . T o t a l S o i l type (Class 3) Aores Acreage GRAND FORKS AREA D a n v i l l e loamy coarse sand Caesar loamy coarse sand Caesar f i n e sand Gibbs g r a v e l l y loam 201 100 12 102; 421 165 Total S o i l type (Class 3) (continued) Aores Acreage WEST KOOTENAY AREA • ' Krestova coarse sand 499 Champion gravelly sandy loam, stony 894 phase ^ 1393 1814 U n c l a s s i f i e d S o i l s that do not require i r r i g a t i o n he-cause of natural s u b - i r r i g a t i o n or because of d e f i -nite u n s u i t a b l l i t y f o r c u l t i v a t i o n have not been considered i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n with i r r i g a t i o n and are included i n the u n c l a s s i f i e d category. Total S o i l type (Unclassified) Acres Acreage GRAND FORKS AREA \ Hardy gravelly sandy loam, k e t t l e phase 57 Hardy stony loam, undifferentiated 1549 Gibbs gr a v e l l y sandy loam, k e t t l e phase 88 Gibbs. stony loam, undifferentiated 1280 Bottomland ; 7 Eroded and Dissected ; 244 Rough Mountainous 244 3469 WEST KOOTENAY AREA Champion gravelly sandy loam, stony phase 179 Claybriok clay loam 36 Claybriok gravelly sandy loam, stony phase 37 Pass creek loam 222 Pass creek loamy sand 94 Glade gravelly sandy loam, stony phase 469 Peat 64 Dune 37 Eroded and Dissected 2123 Rough Mountainous 4254 7515 10984 166 S o i l R a t i n g f o r General Crops w i t h S p r i n k l e r I r r i g a t i o n A more complete c l a s s i f i c a t i o n or r a t i n g of the s o i l s f o r c u l t i v a t i o n w i t h s p r i n k l e r i r r i g a t i o n was made us i n g the s o i l r a t i n g method des c r i b e d i n B r i e f Number 22 of the B r i t i s h Columbia Land R e c l a -mation Committee (13)« This r a t i n g system takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n such s o i l f a c t o r s as t e x t u r e , s a l i n i t y , topography, st o n l n e s s , e r o s i o n and drainage. Each f a c t o r i s evaluated s e p a r a t e l y and then the ev a l u a t i o n s are m u l t i p l i e d together to give a f i n a l r a t i n g . The f i n a l r a t i n g i s used to group the s o i l s Into f i v e main olasses as f o l l o w s . Group D e s c r i p t i o n R a t i n g 1 Very good, 100-71 2 Good 70-55 3 P a i r 54-40 4 P a i r to poor 39-20 5 Doubtful 19-0 The index r a t i n g s and s o i l groups f o r the s o i j s of a l l the Doukhobor lands are given i n Table 19» Group 1 s o i l s f i t w e l l w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n given i n B r i e f Number 22 (13). They have tex t u r e s of sandy loam or he a v i e r , a good topography, and very few stones. The Group 2: s o i l s are r a t e d lower because of ooarse t e x t u r e or s l o p i n g topography. Shoreaores s i l t loam I s r a t e d as Group 3 TABLE 19 RATINGS AND CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS OF DOUKHOBOR LANDS FOR IRRIGATION a . , Tex- Salin-Topog- S t o n i - Ero- Drain- Rat- a a S o i l type and Phase t u r e l t y ; r a p h y n e s 8 s i o n age l n g C l a s 8 Boundary loam, l e v e l 90 100 100 97 95 100 83 1 Boundary loam, elo p i n g 90 100 90 97 90 100 71 1 Carson loamy sand, l e v e l 35 100 95 100 100 100 33 4 Carson loamy sand, windblown 35 100 75 100 100 100 26 4 Carson ooarse sandy' loam 7° 100 100 100 100 100 70 2 Carson sandy loam 70 100 90 100 95 100 60 2 Caesar, loamy ooarse sand 35 100 60 100 90 100 19 5 Caesar f i n e sand . 45 100 90 100 90 100 17 4 Champion g r a v e l l y sandy loam, non-stony 55 100 95 95 95 100 47 3 Champion, g r a v e l l y sand, stony 55 100 95; 50 95 100 25 4 C l a y b r i c k loam 95 100 95 100 95 100 86 1 Cla y b r i o k olay loam: 90 100 95 100 95 90 73 1 Clay b r i o k loamy sand 45 100 95 100 95 100 41 3 C l a y b r i c k g r a v e l l y sandy loam non-stony 60 100 95 90 95 100 49 3 C l a y b r i c k g r a v e l l y sandy loam, stony 60 100 95 50 95 100 27 4 Cl a y p l t , s i l t loam 100 100 95 100 95 90 81 1 C l a y p l t loam, l e v e l 95 100 100 100 95 95 36 1 C l a y p l t loam, s l o p i n g 95 100 90 100 95 95 77 1 D a n v i l l e loamy coarse sand 30 100 100 96 94 100 27 4 Dune 25 100 60 100 50 100 10 5 Gibbs g r a v e l l y loam 35 100 60 90 95 100 44 3 Gibbs g r a v e l l y sandy loam, s l o p i n g • 70 100 70 90 95 100 42: 3 Gibbs g r a v e l l y sandy loam, k e t t l e 55 100 25 90 90 100 11 5 Gibbs stony loam, u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 30 100 40 90 95 100 27 4 TABLE 19 (continued) - . . Tex- Salln-Topog- StomlscEro- D r a i n - Rat- m „«„ S o i l type and .Phage ture i t y raphy ness s l o n age i n g G l a s s Glade g r a v e l l y loam, l e v e l 90 100 95" 95 95; 100 77 1 Glade g r a v e l l y loam, s l o p i n g 90 100 go §0 90 100 5g 2 Glade loam 95 100 95 100 95 100 g6 1 Glade g r a v e l l y sandy loam, non-stony 65 100 95 95 95 100 56 2 Glade g r a v e l l y sandy loam, stony 65 100 §5 40 95 100 23 4 Granby sandy loam 6Q 100 100 100 §5 100 57 2 Granby s i l t loam Q5 100 95 100 90 95 77 1 Granby loamy sand 40 100 100 100 §0 go 29 4 Hardy loam, l e v e l 95 100 100 100 95 95 g6 l Hardy loam, s l o p i n g 95 100 gO 100 §0 100 6g 2 Hardy g r a v e l l y loam, s l o p i n g 90 100 70 100 90 100 57 2 Hardy g r a v e l l y loam, moderately steep 90 100 40 95 90 100 31 4 Hardy g r a v e l l y sandy loam, l e v e l 60 100 95 95 95 100 51 3 Hardy g r a v e l l y sandy loam, k e t t l e 60 100 25 §5 90 100 13 5 Hardy stony loam, u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 90 100 40 §0 95 100 31 4 Krestova loamy sand 30 100 95 100 95 100 27 4 Krestova sand 25 100 95 100 95 100 23 4 Krestova ooarse sand 20 100 95 100 95 100 l g 5 Pass Creek loam 95 100 95 100 100 90 g l l Pass Creek loamy sand 50 100 95 100 100 90 43 Rideau Complex 50 100 60 g5 90 100 23 S a l i n e Seepage 60 50 go 90 100 75 16 5 Shoreaores s i l t loam 75 100 95 100 95 go 54 3 Shoreaores f i n e sandy loam, l e v e l SO 100 95 100 95 100 72- 2 Shoreacres f i n e sandy loam, s l o p i n g SQ 100 §0 100 95 100 61 2? 1  95" 95 95; 100 100 go 90 90 100 100 95 100 95 100 100 95 95 95 100 100 95 95 100 100 100 100 95 100 100 95 100 90 95 100 100 100 90 SO 1  1  1  95 95 100 go 100 90 100 10b 7° 100 90 100 100 4o 95 90 100 100 95 95 95 100 100 25 95 90 100 100 4o 90 95 100 100 95 100 95 100 100 95 100 95 100 100 95 100 95 100 100 95 100 100 90 100 95 100 100 90 1  6  S5 90 1  50 go 90 100 75 100 95 100 95 SO 100 95 100 95 100 100 go 100 95 100 162 because of i t s Impervious s u b s o i l which r e s t r i o t s drainage* Pass Creek loam has been place d In the t h i r d group because of poor drainage due to a h i g h water t a b l e i n the e a r l y season* Other Group 3 s o i l s have a coarser t e x t u r e or are more stony than Group 2 s o i l s * The very ooarse t e x t u r e d s o i l s and the stony s o i l s f a l l i n t o Group 4* Pass Creek loamy sand) the s a l i n e seepage s o i l s and the moderately steep phase of Hardy g r a v e l l y loam are a l s o r a t e d Group 4* Group 5 s o i l s have s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s such as poor topography, excessive stoniness or poor drainage* Included i n Group 5 are the k e t t l e phases, areas of bottomlands, peat and dunes* Krestova coarse sand was a l s o placed i n Group 5 because of i t s extreme-l y coarse t e x t u r e * The t o t a l acreages, and the r e s p e c t i v e percentages, of a l l the s o i l groups of the Grand Porks and West Kootenay areas and of a l l the Doukhobor lands are summarized below* TABLE 20 SUMMARY OP ACREAGES AND PERCENTAGES SOIL RATINGS FOR CROPS WITH SPRINKLER IRRIGATION Grand Porks West Kootenay A ^ Sand*10*301* S o i l Group Rating T o t a l Percent T o t a l Percent T o t a l Percent Group 1 Group 2 Group 5 Group 4-Group 5 231 4 III \ 3314 72 84^ 16 404 3 J26 5 1694 13 3745 26 6976 R l 635 3 1001 5 1858 10 7559 40 ISA 42 TOTAL 5327 100; 13545 100 18872 100 1 Includes Eroded and D i s s e c t e d , and Rough Mountainous Lands, Bottomlands and Peat, 169 From the foregoing summary i t w i l l be noted that there I s an extremely low percentage, 3 peroent, of Group 1 or very good s o i l on a l l Doukho-bor lands and l i k e w i s e the percentage of Groups 2 and 3, good to f a i r , s o i l s i s low, 15 percent, on a l l Doukhobor l a n d s , A l a r g e p a r t of the Group 4 or f a i r to poor s o i l , could be used w i t h s p r i n k l e r i r r i g a t i o n and i n the Grand Forks area t h i s c o n s t i -t u t e s 72 percent. 170 LITERATURE CITED 1 Ableiter, Kenneth J., Soil Classification in the United States Soil Science 6ji IS3 -I9I 1949 2 Association of O f f i c i a l Agricultural Chemists. 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