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The utilization of fat by the growing chick Burdett, Michael Owen 1955

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THE UTILIZATION OF FAT BY THE GROWING- CHICK PART I FOLIO AOID AND FAT, TQT^ANCE IN THE OHICK PART I I SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS AND FAT IN OHICK NUTRITION by Michael 0; Burdett, B.S.A. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the Department of Poultry Science  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to. the standard required from candidates f o r the degree of Master of Science In Agriculture.  Members of the Department of Poultry Science. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1955.  ABSTRACT  THE UTILIZATION OF FAT BY THE GROWING- CHICK PART I - FOLIC ACID AND FAT TOLERANCE IN THE CHICK Two p r a c t i c a l feeding experiments have been c a r r i e d out t o i n v e s t i g a t e the supplementary value of f o l i c a c i d , When added t o corn-fishmeal type chick s t a r t i n g r a t i o n s containing d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of h e r r i n g o i l . Growth was depressed when h e r r i n g o i l was added t o r a t i o n s containing sub-optimal amounts of f o l i o a c i d . The extent t o which o i l depressed growth with a d i e t sub-optimal i n f o l i o a c i d was probably dependent on the q u a l i t y o f the o i l added t o the d i e t .  The a d d i t i o n of  0.36 mg. of f o l i c a c i d per pound of d i e t a l l e v i a t e d the f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n c y and counteracted the growth depressant a o t l o n of the o i l . PART I I - SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS AND FAT IN CHICK NUTRITION Chicks on a p r a c t i c a l s t a r t e r r a t i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h e a v i e r a t the end o f 8 weeks when t h e i r r a t i o n s were supplemented with 1 per cent of Tween-80 o r 3.3 p.p.m. of procaine penicillin.  The a d d i t i o n of 0.25 per cent Tween-80 t o  r a t i o n s containing e i t h e r 2.5 o r 5*0 per cent h e r r i n g o i l f a i l e d t o produce a growth response. utilization  Tween-80 enhanced the  of e i t h e r 5 per cent cottonseed o i l and t a l l o w  f o r growth promotion a t 8 weeks but not a t 4 weeks. Chicks were f e d t o 9 weeks of age on a s e r i e s o f  rations each with and without the addition of 0.2 per cent of Santomerse-80.  The addition of Santomerse-80 or procaine  p e n i c i l l i n singly or i n combination improved the growth rate of the chicks.  The addition of Santomerse-80 d i d not  further stimulate the growth of chicks reoeiving rations containing both herring o i l and procaine p e n i c i l l i n .  No  s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the rate of growth was observed as a r e s u l t of replacing p e n i c i l l i n with aureomycin or replacing herring o i l with tallow. When chicks were fed to 4 or 5 weeks on a f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t corn-flshmeal type of ration, Tween-80 d i d not a l l e v i a t e f o l i o a c i d deficiency whereas Santomerse-80, aureomycin or p e n i c i l l i n d i d .  Tween-80 i n the presence of  5 per cent cottonseed o i l further aggravated f o l i o a c i d deficiency.  Santomerse-80, when f e d i n combination with  f o l i c acid, increased the growth rate of chicks over that obtained with the combination of Tween-80 and f o l i c a c i d . L e c i t h i n spared f o l i c a c i d when the rations d i d not contain additional o i l .  In the presence of the additional  o i l , l e c i t h i n aggravated f o l i c a c i d deficiency.  ACKNOWLEDGMENT This study was undertaken with the guidance and counsel of Professor Jacob B i e l y of the Department of Poultry Science.  I wish to express my sincere  appreciation and gratitude to him f o r h i s kindliness and generous assistance during the course of t h i s study.  I t i s also a p r i v i l e g e to acknowledge my debt  of gratitude to Mrs. B. E. March f o r her kindness and invaluable help during the course of t h i s work. The author g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges the assistance of Miss Freda Morel i n the care and weighing of the chicks.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PART I I II  III  IV V  Introduction . ,  1  Review of L i t e r a t u r e (a)  Folic A d d  (b)  Functions of F o l i c A c i d  1 . . . . . . .  Experimental . . . . . . . . . . . .  .6 8  Test 1  10  Test 2  11  Discussion  12  Summary  16  • • . • •  PART I I I II  Introduction Review of L i t e r a t u r e (a) (b)  III  la  Fats Surface A c t i v e Agents  Experimental Experiment I • • Test 1 . . . . . Test 2 Test 3 Experiment I I Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 . Test 5  .*  1 5 14 16 17 19 20 22 22 24 27 28 31  TABLE OF CONTESTS Page Experiment I I I Test 1 Test 2 IV V VI  ...»  33 33 3*  Discussion  37  Summary  51  . . . . .  Bibliography  53  INTRODUCTION Experiments conducted pertaining to the author's undergraduate essay indicated that the addition of e i t h e r commercial herring o i l or herring o i l subjected to severe heating impaired the n u t r i t i v e value of a corn-flshmeal type chick s t a r t e r r a t i o n .  Subsequent experiments  that such a r a t i o n was deficient i n f o l i c a d d .  indicated  The  addition of either type of o i l to the corn flshmeal r a t i o n adequately supplemented with f o l i c a c i d stimulated the growth of chicks to a greater extent than d i d the rations without additional o i l .  In the present study further  experimentation was conducted to study the effects of f o l i c acid on the tolerance of the chick for  fat.  REVIEW OF LITERATURE F o l i c acid i s the popular descriptive term for a group of closely related compounds of the Vitamin B. Complex. In early investigations,  t h i s vitamin was described under  various names including Vitamin B c , Vitamin M, factor A, L.easel factor,  S . l a c t i s R factor,  factor U, yeast n o r l t  eluate factor depending upon the source of the material and the species of organisms used f o r t e s t purposes.  There  was much evidence that the several factors a l l had a common chemical structure but differed from each other by: a) the presence of extra chemical groups attached to the parent molecule which made these forms  a v a i l a b l e only t o c e r t a i n organisms, o r b) the absence of c e r t a i n p a r t s of the common s t r u c t u r e which r e s t r i c t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y t o those organisms which could synthesize the missing moiety. t h i s compound i s widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n nature, but i t i s a l s o present i n modified forms e s p e c i a l l y i n compounds w i t h added glutamic a c i d . P f i f f n e r and associates  F o l i o a c i d was i s o l a t e d by  (1943) i n o r y s t a l l i n e form from  hog l i v e r and i d e n t i f i e d chemically acid.  as  pteroylglutamlc  There a r e three d i f f e r e n t groups i n the f o l i c a c i d  molecule, namely the p t e r i d i n e part (a two-ringed  nitrogen  compound), para-aminobenzoic a c i d and glutamic a c i d .  The  u n i t c o n s i s t i n g of p t e r i d i n e and the para-aminobenzoic a c i d i s known as p t e r o l o a c i d .  This compound was shown t o  be h i g h l y a c t i v e i n promoting the growth of L. h e l v e t i c u s and t o antianemic a c t i v i t y i n the chick.  Pteroylglutamlc  a c i d was synthesized by Angler e t a l (1945).  Synthetic  f o l i c a c i d functions not only f o r growth s t i m u l a t i o n and feather production, but a l s o f o r blood formation. HOOO-OH2 01% HOO0-CH-HH-CO-C  glutamic acid  .0-0  HG  0  0= 0  II  p-aminobenzoio a c i d  pteridine  FOLIO AOID  / OH  Following the establishment of the molecular constitut i o n of f o l i c or pteroylglutamlc acid, the nature of several of the molecular conjugates of t h i s vitamin was demonstrated. The marked differences observed In p h y s i o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y of the conjugates t o various species of animals and microorganisms has been responsible f o r the apparent m u l t i p l i c i t y of factors now recognized as variants of pteroylglutamlc acid.  P f i f f n e r et a l (1945) prepared Vitamin Be conjugate  from yeast and showed that t h i s substance had a lower nitrogen content than had Vitamin B . 0  Absorption spectra  date of these two compounds indicate that the molecule of the conjugate i s nearly three times as b i g as that of Vitamin B . c  I t had p r a c t i c a l l y no growth promoting  f o r S . l a c t i s R.  action  The conjugate known as fermentation L.easel  faotor which d i f f e r s from the l i v e r factor ( l i v e r L.easel factor, Vitamin B ) i s o l a t e d by P f i f f n e r and associates, 0  In i t s b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y .  I t i s just as active, mole  f o r mole, as pteroylglutamlc a c i f f o r L. easel, r a t s , chicks and monkey8, i s r e l a t i v e l y i n a c t i v e f o r Streptococcus f a e o a l l s R; on the other hand, the degradation product pterolc aold, In which the glutamic acid portion of the pteroylglutamlc aeld molecule i a replaced by hydrogen Is active f o r the l a t t e r microorganisms  but not f o r L. easel.  They accordingly  reserved the name Vitamin Be f o r the l i v e r f a c t o r and gave the name Vitamin B  0  conjugate t o the f a c t o r present In yeast*  Vitamin Bo conjugate i s converted into pteroylglutamlc a c i d by the action of an enzyme, known as vitamin B This enzyme has been reported by B i r d et a l  0  oonjugase. to be  (1946)  present i n the l i v e r , pancreas and the i n t e s t i n a l mucosa of the chick. Keresztesy  et a l  (1943.)  obtained a f a c t o r from fumaric  acid fermentation by Hhizapus nigricans whioh had no a c t i v i t y i n stimulating the growth of L.easel, although i t was e f f e c t i v e f o r the growth of S.faecalls and S . l a c t i s R. Accordingly i t was named the S . l a c t i s R. Factor. l y , stokes et a l  (1944)  Subsequent-  found that f o l i c a c i d could replace  the S. l a o t i s R. f a c t o r f o r a l l b a c t e r i a that could u t i l i z e the l a t t e r and that f o l i c a c i d was produced when S. f a e c a l l s R. was  grown on a f o l i c acid free medium containing the S. l a o t i s  R. f a c t o r .  The experiments of Rlckes et a l  (1947)  indicated  that, unlike the L.easel faotor, S.Lactis R. f a c t o r did not stimulate growth or haemoglobin formation i n chicks. During a search f o r better organisms f o r the microb i o l o g i c a l determination Sauberlich  (1948)  f o r non-essential amlno-aclds,  found that Leuconostoc citrovorum  to grow on a synthetic medium that was  failed  satisfactory for  Leuconostoc mesenteroides and other assay organisms.  Supple-  mentation of the synthetic medium with l i v e r or yeast extract proved to be e f f e c t i v e i n such small quantities In promoting rapid growth, that L.citrovorum  could be used f o r the  m i c r o b i o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f n o n - e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s . I n the presence o f a l l the amino a c i d s ,  L . C i t r o v o r u m was  used f o r the q u a n t i t a t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the new growth faotor,  and a " c i t r o v o r u m u n i t " was d e f i n e d as the amount  p e r m i l l l l i t r e o f medium t h a t produces h a l f - o p t i m a l growth o f the organism.  T h i s f a c t o r Is c o n s i d e r e d t o be  r e l a t e d to pteroylglutamlc  closely  a c i d because when moderately  l a r g e amounts o f p t e r o y l g l u t a m l c a c i d were added t o medium and the c u l t u r e i n c u b a t e d f o r t h r e e days,  acid  p r o d u c t i o n was almost o p t i m a l , even i n the absence l i v e r or yeast e x t r a c t .  the  of  But whe)a the i n c u b a t i o n p e r i o d was  s h o r t , moderately l a r g e amounts o f p t e r o y l g l u t a m l c f a i l e d t o s t i m u l a t e growth.  aold  I n t h e presence of a m l n o p t e r l n  ( h y d r o x y l group i n p o s i t i o n 4 o f the p t e r i d i n e r i n g r e p l a c e d by an amino group) growth o f L . c i t r o v o r u m was i n h i b i t e d , and t h i s i n h i b i t i o n was r e v e r s e d by the c i t r o v o r u m f a o t o r but not by p t e r o y l g l u t a m l c a c i d .  N i c h o l and Welch  (1950)  have shown t h a t p t e r o y l g l u t a m l c a c i d Is c o n v e r t e d by an enzymatic r e d u c t i o n t o the c i t r o v o r u m f a o t o r ,  and they  b e l i e v e t h a t the f u n c t i o n o f a s c o r b i c a c i d i s t h a t o f  the  r e d u c i n g agent r a t h e r than o f an e s s e n t i a l component o f an enzyme system.  P t e r o y l g l u t a m l c a c i d may be regarded as a  p r o v i t a m i n I n much the same sense t h a t carotene I s a p r e c u r s o r o f V i t a m i n A. i n c e r t a i n foods,  Both forms may e x i s t s i d e by  side  and b o t h may be p r e s e n t I n the same t i s s u e ,  6. but under ordinary conditions the e f f i c i e n c y of conversion i s such that the precursor e f f e c t i v e l y s a t i s f i e s n u t r i t i o n a l needs. FUNCTION OF FOLIC ACID The metabolic r o l e of f o l i c a c i d i n the l i v i n g c e l l i s not as c l e a r as some of the other B complex vitamins much as n i a c i n and r i b o f l a v i n , although i n animals and man i t i s necessary f o r the proper function of the haemopoietlc system and much evidence l i n k s i t t o purine and pyrimldlne, (thymine) synthesis, to formate metabolism, and to general reactions i n v o l v i n g the t r a n s f e r of one carbon fragments. No s a t i s f a c t o r y explanation has been presented  i n the  l i t e r a t u r e to explain the mechanism whereby f o l i c a c i d stimulates red blood c e l l formation.  Unconfirmed data by  Davis (1946) Indicates that the action of f o l i c a c i d probably Is to Increase the choline esterase a c t i v i t y i n the body.  He claimed that subcutaneous i n j e c t i o n of  acetylcholine produced hyperchromlc anemia i n dogs and that both l i v e r extract and f o l i c a c i d increased the number of reticulocytes and red blood c e l l s , at the same time increasing the choline esterase a c t i v i t y .  The choline  esterase a c t i v i t y of dog serum was increased i n v i t r o by Incubation with f o l i c a c i d or l i v e r extract, and o r a l administration of f o l i c a c i d to normal humans also increased the choline esterase a c t i v i t y .  I t has been suggested by  Dinning (1949) that f o l i c a c i d may function i n a choline  oxidase system, since the l i v e r and kidneys of aminopterint r e a t e d monkeys were p r a c t i c a l l y devoid of c h o l i n e oxidase, as were the l i v e r s and kidneys of monkeys f e d a f o l i c a c i d deficient diet* The replacement of the methyl group of thiamine by an amino or h y d r o x y l group r e s u l t e d i n the formation of compounds which i n h i b i t e d the growth of L. h e l v e t i e u s .  The a d d i t i o n  of e i t h e r thiamine o r f o l i c a c i d r e s t o r e d normal growth. This l e d t o the hypothesis of Stokes ( 1 9 4 4 ) t h a t thiamine Is the product of an enzyme system of which f o l i c a c i d o r a co-enzyme form of i t , f u n c t i o n s I n the synthesis of thiamine, Shlve e t a l ( 1 9 4 7 ) presented evidence t h a t i n the presence of an a n t i m e t a b o l i t e of f o l i c a o l d , 4 amino-5lmldazolecarboxamlde accumulated i n the media used f o r the  growth of E. c o l i ,  These workers b e l i e v e d that the  accumulated oompound f u n c t i o n s as a precursor of purines by the organism and that para-aminobenzoic a c i d o r a compound synthesized by the organism from para-aminobenzoic a c i d f u n c t i o n s as a co-enzyme I n converting such a precursor to purines (hypoxanthine). The accumulation of 4-amino5-imldazolecarboxamlde has been confirmed by Woolley and P r i n g l e ( 1 9 5 0 ) who f u r t h e r showed t h a t t h i s compound a l s o accumulated i n the media used f o r the growth of E . c o l i I n the  presence of an a n t i - m e t a b o l i t e of para-amlnobenzoic  acid. the  From t h i s work, these workers are i n agreement w i t h  hypothesis of Woods ( 1 9 4 8 ) t h a t the i n h i b i t i o n o f f o l i c  8.  acid synthesis i s due to a lack of available para-aminobenzoic acid, which i n turn Is responsible f o r the f a i l u r e of purine formation. With the demonstration that f o l i o acid i s involved In the biosynthesis of thiamin and the biosynthesis of the purine r i n g i t follows  that:  a) a n u t r i t i o n a l deficiency of f o l i c acid or related metabolite i n species requiring these factors should be accompanied by a reduced nucleic a c i d synthesis and, b) antimetabolites of f o l i c acid should i n h i b i t nucleic acid  synthesis.  EXPERIMENTAL Previous work by B i e l y , March and Tarr (1951a), has shown that the n u t r i t i v e value o f a f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t r a t i o n fed as a s t a r t i n g diet to chicks wa.s further reduced with the presence of added herring o i l .  Available data on  the mechanism of f o l i c a c i d i n metabolism are fragmentary and c o n f l i c t i n g .  F o l i c a c i d has been shown to be e f f e c t i v e  i n the treatment of sprue (faulty absorption of f a t s and carbohydrates) i n human beings by Darby et a l (1947), although Woodruff (1950) could not correlate the absorption of o l e i c acid i n the absence or presence of f o l i c acid In the diets of r a t s . According to Luckey et a l (1946) the response obtained  from f o l i c a c i d by chicks depends on the type of d i e t used, the greater response occurring with lower l e v e l s of f a t In the d i e t .  The following experiments were conducted t o  ascertain the f o l i c a c i d requirements of chicks fed rations containing d i f f e r e n t types and amounts of f a t . A series of two feeding t r i a l s has been conducted i n whloh the e f f e c t on growth rate of the addition of: ( l ) d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of cold cleared herring o i l , (2) cold cleared herring o i l and heated herring o i l , to the basal rations containing the ingredients presented was investigated.  i n Table 1  The basal r a t i o n used i n these experi-  ments previously was shown to be d e f i c i e n t In f o l i c a c i d by B l e l y et a l (1951).  The growth rates of the chicks  whloh were fed the d i f f e r e n t supplements were compared to the growth rate of chicks fed the basal d i e t and the basal d i e t f o r t i f i e d with added f o l i o acid.  The o i l s  were added to the rations at the expense of an equivalent amount of cornstarch In each instance. The experimental  rations were fed to day-old White  Leghorn cockerels In these t e s t s .  Randomization was  followed In assigning the chicks to positions i n the e l e c t r i c a l l y heated battery brooders where the chloks were reared t o 35 days In Test 1 and to 28 days In Test 2, Feed and water were offered ad l i b i t u m . weighed i n d i v i d u a l l y at weekly i n t e r v a l s .  A l l chicks were The weights  10.  reported  are i n d i c a t e d i n the v a r i o u s  tables.  TEST 1 In t h i s t e s t , c o l d c l e a r e d h e r r i n g o i l was the r a t i o n s a t l e v e l s o f 2.5  and 5*0  per c e n t .  supplements were f e d a t a l e v e l of 0.36 per pound.  At f i v e weeks of age  mg.  added t o Folio acid  and 0.72  mg.  the b i r d s f e d the  folic  a c i d d e f i c i e n t r a t i o n s were showing symptoms of severe d e f i c i e n c y and as m o r t a l i t y was essary  becoming heavy, i t was  nec-  t h e r e f o r e t o terminate the t e s t .  RESULTS The  average weights o f the c h i c k s I n Test 1,  obtained  by f e e d i n g the b a s a l r a t i o n p l u s d i f f e r e n t percentages o f o i l and  amounts o f f o l i c a c i d f o r the experimental p e r i o d  o f f i v e weeks are shown i n Table 1. t h a t 2.5 5.0  The  data  Indicate  per cent o i l d i d not a l t e r the growth r a t e w h i l e  per oent o i l had  a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t depressing  Examination o f the m o r t a l i t y data i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r e c e i v i n g 2.5  effect. birds  per cent o i l s u f f e r e d more from m o r t a l i t y  than d i d the b a s a l .  I n every Instance, as was  expected,  the added supplements o f f o l i c a c i d t o the d e f i c i e n t d i e t s r e s u l t e d i n an I n c r e a s e i n growth.  I t may  a l s o be  noted  t h a t the a d d i t i o n of f o l i c a c i d completely overcame the depressing The  e f f e c t o f o i l on the growth r a t e .  presence o f f o l i c a c i d I n the r a t i o n s  containing  o i l p e r m i t t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n I n weight by those  chicks  11.  over those r e c e i v i n g the b a s a l r a t i o n s .  The e f f i c i e n c y  with which the b i r d s converted feed to body weight improved with the a d d i t i o n of f o l i c a c i d ; the a d d i t i o n of o i l t o these f o l i c a c i d f o r t i f i e d d i e t s Increased the e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n ,  whereas, the a d d i t i o n of o i l t o the  f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t d i e t s diminished the u t i l i z a t i o n  of  feed. TEST 2. Using the f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t b a s a l d i e t shown i n Table 1, a study was conducted to determine the e f f e c t s of the quantity and q u a l i t y of h e r r i n g o i l upon e a r l y chick growth.  The q u a l i t y of the h e r r i n g o i l was a l t e r e d by  s u b j e c t i n g the o i l to a continuous flow of a i r f o r 30 hours. The o i l was maintained at a temperature of 110°C out the o x i d a t i v e process.  through-  The o r i g i n a l and the o x i d i z e d  o i l were each added t o the d e f i c i e n t d i e t s and to the d i e t s supplemented w i t h f o l i c a c i d at l e v e l s of 3 and 6 per cent. RESULTS From the data of t h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n (Table 1) i t i s apparent that the a d d i t i o n of unheated o i l to the r a t i o n s e i t h e r d e f i c i e n t or supplemented w i t h f o l i c a c i d had e f f e c t on the growth of the c h i c k s .  little  The r a t e of growth of the  chicks was not a f f e o t e d by the a d d i t i o n of 3 per cent heated herring o i l .  On the other hand, the n u t r i t i v e content of the  12. r a t i o n was  f u r t h e r I m p a i r e d t h r o u g h the a d d i t i o n of 6  per  c e n t h e a t e d o i l t o the f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t r a t i o n a l t h o u g h t h i s detrimental  e f f e c t was  adequate f o l i c a c i d .  The  overcome by the p r e s e n c e o f  c h i c k s r e c e i v i n g 6 per  h e a t e d h e r r i n g o i l i n the presenoe o f 0.36  mg.  cent  of  folic  a c i d p e r pound o f d i e t were 6 p e r c e n t h e a v i e r t h a n c o n t r o l s and were 59 p e r c e n t h e a v i e r t h a n the r e c e i v i n g the f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t r a t i o n s  the  lots  supplemented  w i t h $ per c e n t h e a t e d o i l . DISCUSSION The  r e s u l t s of the t e s t s i n v o l v i n g the  corn-fishmeal  t y p e o f r a t i o n s c o n f i r m the e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s o f B l e l y March (1951a) t h a t f o l i o  a c i d d e f i c i e n c y i n o h i c k s Induced  by f e e d i n g t h e s e r a t i o n s was presence o f h e r r i n g o i l .  and  f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t e d by  I t may  a l s o be  the  seen t h a t , w h i l e  the d i e t a r y l a c k o f f o l i c a c i d i n t h e s e r a t i o n s may  be  overcome by the a d d i t i o n o f 0.36  pound  mg.  folio  a c i d per  of d i e t , the a d d i t i o n of o i l t o these f o r t i f i e d  diets  r e s u l t e d i n a f a s t e r r a t e o f growth by the c h i c k s when o i l was  than  e x c l u d e d from t h e s e d i e t s .  There i s l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e t o e x p e r i m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a t u t i l i z a t i o n I d the l i t e r a t u r e .  and  folio  acid  I t has been r e p o r t e d by Luokey e t a l  (1946) t h a t the r e s p o n s e o f c h i c k s t o a g i v e n l e v e l  of  f o l i c a c i d depends on the t y p e o f d i e t and t h a t t h e  res-  13. ponse I s l e s s w i t h a h i g h f a t d i e t t h a n w i t h a low f a t d i e t . Results  s i m i l a r t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s were a l s o o b t a i n e d  T e s t 1, where no advantage was  o b t a i n e d by  the f a t l e v e l o f t h e d i e t s beyond 2.5 where two  in  increasing  per cent.  I n Test  2,  q u a l i t i e s o f t h e same, o i l were compared, the  commercial grade o f h e r r i n g o i l d i d not a g g r a v a t e a c i d d e f i c i e n c y as d i d the h e a t e d o i l .  The  folic  aggravated  d e f i c i e n c y was  d e c i d e d l y n o t i c e a b l e when the l e v e l  of  h e a t e d o i l was  I n c r e a s e d from 3 t o 6 p e r c e n t o f the r a t i o n .  Under t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y i t was  found  t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t growth d i f f e r e n c e between l o t s r e s u l t e d f r o m the a d d i t i o n o f h e r r i n g o i l t o t h e f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t rations.  Growth d e f i c i e n c y was  demonstrated not o n l y t o  be  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the o i l p e r se b u t a l s o w i t h i t ' s q u a l i t y , p o s s i b l y t o t h e c h e m i c a l n a t u r e o f the o i l . f r o m the r e s u l t s t h a t the use  It is  of h e r r i n g o i l i n the  evident rations  adequate i n f o l i c a c i d had a b e n e f i c i a l e f f e o t on average body weight and f e e d e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e d i f f e r e n t l o t s . D i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d i n the r a t e o f growth and f e e d  effic-  i e n c i e s o f the d i f f e r e n t l o t s r e c e i v i n g h e r r i n g o i l o f different quality.  When h e a t e d h e r r i n g o i l was  the b a s a l r a t i o n s , t h e growth r e s p o n s e was  included  definitely  in  dimin-  i s h e d f o r those c h i c k s r e a r e d on the d i e t s supplemented w i t h h e a t e d h e r r i n g o i l t h a n f o r t h o s e r e & r e d on the d i e t s adequate I n f o l i c  acid.  corresponding  14. I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f o i l q u a l i t y on growth, Crampton and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (1951) o b s e r v e d t h a t I n r a t s growth was  i m p a i r e d when the d i e t s f e d c o n t a i n e d h e a t p o l y -  merized o i l s .  From t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t s , t h e s e  I n v e s t i g a t o r s were o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t o x i c compounds were d e v e l o p e d i n the o i l s d u r i n g the p o l y m e r i z i n g p r o c e s s and i t was  t h e s e compounds t h a t d e p r e s s e d growth.  There i s a p o s s i -  b i l i t y t h a t s i m i l a r t o x i c compounds a r e p r e s e n t  I n commercial  h e r r i n g o i l and t h e s e compounds e x e r t t h e i r maximum i n f l u e n c e when c h i c k s a r e r e a r e d u n d e r s t r e s s . may  As an a l t e r n a t i v e , I t  be t h a t t h e s e t o x i c compounds a r e none o t h e r t h a n  formed i n t h e u n s a t u r a t e d  peroxides  o i l s and i t i s t h e s e p e r o x i d e s  that  I n a c t i v a t e o r d e s t r o y t h e f o l i c a c i d o c c u r r i n g i n the n a t u r a l Ingredients of the r a t i o n .  I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e a c t i v e form  o f f o l i c a c i d I s l e u c o v o r i n and t h e f i r s t s t e p i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n v e r t i n g f o l i c a c i d i n t o t h i s a c t i v e form i s one reduction.  of  T h i s r e d u c t i o n I s b e l i e v e d t o be I n i t i a t e d by  ascorbic acid.  I t may  be t h a t t h e p e r o x i d e s  present  i n the  added o i l s p r e v e n t t h i s r e d u c t i o n whereby a f u r t h e r d e f i c i e n c y o f f o l i c a c i d would e x i s t i n t h e c o r n - f i s h m e a l  type of d i e t .  Popp and T o t t e r (1952) found t h a t when c h i c k s were f e d a f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t d i e t f o r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e weeks, markedly low l e v e l s o f Coenzyme A were found i n t h e i r  livers.  The r e a s o n f o r t h e a p p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between Coenzyme A and f o l i o a c i d may  not be d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n .  I t has been  15. r e p o r t e d by Gregory e t a l (1952) t h a t Coenzyme A adenylic acid.  contains  Presumably normal s u p p l i e s o f t h i s  nucleo-  t i d e would be n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n normal Coenzyme A l e v e l s . According  t o the hypothesis  deficiency of folio  o f Wood (1948) a n u t r i t i o n a l  a c i d i n species mquirlng t h i s f a c t o r  should r e s u l t i n reduced n u c l e i c a c i d s y n t h e s i s .  I t seems  not u n r e a s o n a b l e t h a t a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e b i o s y n t h e s i s o f n u c l e i c a c i d would l e a d t o l o w e r e d l e v e l s o f a d e n y l i c a c i d . This hypothesis  has found support t h r o u g h t h e e x p e r i m e n t s o f  T o t t e r (1953) who was a b l e t o show t h a t t i s s u e a d e n y l i c a c i d was d e c r e a s e d i n f o l i c a o l d d e f i c i e n c y .  The p r e l i m i n a r y  n e c e s s i t y o f f a t a b s o r p t i o n appears, except f o r small q u a n t i t i e s w h i c h may be a b s o r b e d as a f i n e e m u l s i o n o f u n s p l i t f a t , t o be t h e h y d r o l y s i s o f t h e f a t i n t o i t s c o n s t i t u e n t f a t t y and g l y c e r i n e .  acids  The e x p e r i m e n t s o f Lynen and Ochoa (1953)  indicated that the oxidation of f a t t y acids i s the reverse process o f f a t t y a c i d synthesis, furthermore, these i n v e s t i g a t o r s and o t h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t Coenzyme A i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h i s system.  Therefore,  a f o l i c acid deficiency  would l e a d t o a r e d u c e d Coenzyme A c o n t e n t .  The p o s s i b i l i t y  exists that with a f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t d i e t high i n f a t , a s t r e s s i s p l a c e d upon a v a i l a b l e Coenzyme A.  To meet t h i s  s t r e s s , Coenzyme A i s m o b i l i z e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t a n t breakdown o f o t h e r systems dependent on Coenzyme A and hence an aggravated d e f i c i e n c y .  16. SUMMARY Two p r a c t i c a l chick feeding experiments have been c a r r i e d out t o i n v e s t i g a t e the supplementary value o f f o l i c a c i d and h e r r i n g o i l when added t o a corn-fishmeal type of chick s t a r t e r r a t i o n . 1) With such d i e t s , the f o l i c a c i d requirement f o r r a p i d growth was adequately met w i t h a d i e t a r y supplement of 0.36 mg. f o l i c a c i d per pound of feed. 2) F o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n c y i n chicks f e d a corn-fishmeal  type  of s t a r t e r r a t i o n was aggravated by the a d d i t i o n of h e r r i n g oil.  Incorporating o x i d i z e d h e r r i n g o i l i n c h i c k r a t i o n s  of t h i s type had a greater e f f e c t i n aggravating the deficiency. 3) A greater growth response was obtained w i t h a c o r n - f i s h meal type chick s t a r t e r r a t i o n adequate i n f o l i c a c i d i f the r a t i o n contained a d d i t i o n a l o i l . 4) The a d d i t i o n of heated o i l t o the experimental  rations  adequate i n f o l i c a c i d increased the growth r a t e o f c h i c k s t o a greater extent than d i d the f r e s h h e r r i n g o i l when i t was added t o a s i m i l a r r a t i o n .  TABLE 1. Average^ weights of ohlck In Teat 1. Supplement to basal diet • • • None 2.55^ 5.0$ 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.72 0.72 0.72  herring o i l herring o i l mg. f o l i c aold/lb. mg. plus 2.5# herring mg. plus 5.0$ herring mg. f o l i c a c i d / l b . mg. plus 2 . 5 # herring mg. plus 5.0$ herring  Ave. wt. (gms. )  oil oil oil oil  317 318 270 340 381 377 325 356 354  Feed Gain  Mortalltv  2.15 2.46 2.45 2.11 2.06 2.06 2.24 2.05 2.06  2 4 8 0 1 2 0 0 1  * Twenty-five day-old White Leghorn cockerels chicks per l o t . Average weights at 5 weeks. MSD at 5% l e v e l 31, at 1% l e v e l 41. Average^ weights of chick i n Test 2. Supplement to basal d i e t None 0.36 3.0# 0.36 6,0% 0.36 3.0# 0.36 6,0% 0.36  mg. f o l i c a c i d / l b . herring o i l mg. plus 3.0$ herring herring o i l mg. plus 6,0% herring herring o i l * mg. plus 3,0% h e r r i n g herring o i l " mg. plus 6,0% herring  Av. wt. (gms.)  oil oil oil* oil*  262 306 267 293 255 308 253 311 SQ4 324  * Twenty-five White Leghorn day-old cockerel chicks per l o t . Average weights at 4 weeks. * Herring o i l heated at 110°C f o r 30 hours. Composition of basal rations used In tests (lbs./lOO l b s . ) Ground yellow oorn Cornstarch Herring meal Iodized s a l t Limestone Feeding o i l (2.250A-300D) Manganese sulphate Riboflavin Calcium pantothenate Nicotinic acid  72.75 6.00 19.00 0.50 1.25 0.25 10.00 0.16 0.50 0.80  gms. gms. gms. gms.  INTRODUCTION During the past few years, considerable emphasis has been placed on the importance of compounding poultry , rations high In protein and vitamins to give accelerated growth along with minimum food intake. Through the a p p l i c a t i o n of modern methods i n the processing of protein supplements, rations are now lower i n f a t than has h i t h e r t o been the case*  Since the energy  content contributes to the maximum u t i l i z a t i o n of the r a t i o n , i t might be advantageous to r a i s e the energy l e v e l of these high protein, vltamln-rioh rations*  With such  rations, supplementation with various f a t s may o f f e r a means of doing t h i s * The successful use of animal and vegetable o i l s In feed depends to an important degree on the n u t r i t i v e q u a l i t y of the r a t i o n used.  Furthermore, the increased  growth rate obtained with high p r o t e i n , vitamln-rich rations together with high e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n might well increase the energy requirements of the chlok f o r maximum growth rate and feed u t i l i z a t i o n .  Experiments  oonducted i n various laboratories have demonstrated c l e a r l y that c a l o r i e s added i n the form o f rendered f a t are well u t i l i z e d by dogs and chicks* In view of the s c a r c i t y of information on the e f f e c t s of f a t i n chick s t a r t e r rations, i t was considered d e s i r able t o study the influence o f varying amounts of f a t i n  rations commonly used f o r growing chicks*  In the present  study s p e c i a l attention i s given to the incorporation of various f a t s at l e v e l s that may be applied i n commercial feeds together with surface active agents and a n t i b i o t i c s i n the hope that increased u t i l i z a t i o n of the f a t might be aohieved*  REVIEW OF LITERATURE Evidence i n the l i t e r a t u r e f o r the a d v i s a b i l i t y of adding f a t to chick rations i s contradictory.  Henderson  (1940) found no v a r i a t i o n i n the weight or feed consumption of chicks receiving rations supplemented with soybean o i l up to 10 per cent, however, above t h i s l e v e l a regression of weight was  observed*  negative  Reiser and Pearson's  studies (1949a) revealed that lardfor commercial hydrogenated vegetable f a t d i d not r e t a r d the growth of chicks when fed i n l e v e l s of twenty per cent.  Pepper et a l (1953) presented  evidence that b r o i l e r d i e t s made up mainly of wheat and soybean o i l meal gave b e t t e r growth with improved feed e f f i c i e n c y when supplemented with one or two per cent soybean oil.  Feeding t e s t s conduoted by the United States Department  of the I n t e r i o r (1953) with menhaden o i l have indicated that the growth rate of chicks was  s a t i s f a c t o r y up to twelve weeks  of age when the rations contained eight per cent o i l . Sledler and Sehweigert (1953) found that the addition of f a t up to eight per cent did not a l t e r the rates of gain of chicks fed a p r a c t i c a l s t a r t e r r a t i o n f o r nine weeks and that the added c a l o r i e s were e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e d at the two and  four  per cent l e v e l s but not at the eight per cent l e v e l . There has been an increasing amount of experimental eyidenoe that f a t may  a c t u a l l y play a s p e c i f i c r o l e i n  n u t r i t i o n other than as a concentrated as a solvent f o r f a t soluble vitamins.  source of c a l o r i e s and I t has been repeatedly  REVIEW OF LITERATURE E v i d e n c e i n the l i t e r a t u r e * f o r the  advisability  of a d d i n g f a t t o c h i c k r a t i o n s i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y . (1940) found no v a r i a t i o n i n the w e i g h t or f e e d  Henderson consumption  of c h i c k s r e c e i v i n g r a t i o n s supplemented w i t h up t o 10 c e n t of soybean o i l .  Above t h i s l e v e l however, a  r e g r e s s i o n of w e i g h t was  observed.  R e i s e r and  per  negative  Pearson s r  s t u d i e s (1949a) r e v e a l e d t h a t l a r d or commercial hydrogenated v e g e t a b l e f a t d i d not r e t a r d the growth of c h i c k s when f e d a t l e v e l s of twenty per c e n t .  Pepper e t a l (1953) p r e s e n t e d  e v i d e n c e t h a t b r o i l e r d i e t s made u p m a i n l y of wheat and -  soy-  o  bean o i l meal gave b e t t e r growth w i t h improved f e e d e f f i c i e n c y when supplemented w i t h one  or two  per c e n t soybean  oil.  F e e d i n g t e s t s conducted by the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of the I n t e r i o r (1953) w i t h menhaden o i l i n d i c a t e d t h a t growth r a t e of c h i c k s was  the  s a t i s f a c t o r y up t o t w e l v e weeks of  age when the r a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d  e i g h t per cent o i l .  Siedler  and S c h w e i g e r t (1953) found t h a t the a d d i t i o n of up t o 8  per  c e n t f a t d i d not a l t e r the r a t e s of g a i n of c h i c k s f e d a p r a c t i c a l s t a r t e r r a t i o n f o r n i n e weeks.  They a l s o found  t h a t t h e added c a l o r i e s were e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e d from f a t added a t the two and  f o u r per c e n t l e v e l s but not a t the  eight  per c e n t l e v e l . There i s i n c r e a s i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t f a t may a s p e c i f i c r o l e i n n u t r i t i o n o t h e r t h a n as a  a c t u a l l y play  concentrated  s o u r c e of c a l o r i e s and as a s o l v e n t f o r f a t - s o l u b l e v i t a m i n s .  I t has been r e p e a t e d l y shown by B u r r and B u r r  (1929)  t h a t r i g i d e x c l u s i o n of f a t from the d i e t s of r a t s  and  other animals r e s u l t s i n a c e s s a t i o n of growth and i n the appearance of s k i n symptoms w h i c h are prevented or by e i t h e r l i n o l e i c or a r a c h i d o n i c a c i d .  The  cured  k i n d of p r o t e i n  i n the d i e t appears t o have some i n f l u e n c e on the onset s e v e r i t y of symptoms of f a t d e f i c i e n c y . Holman (195D  Working w i t h r a t s  r e p o r t e d t h a t symptoms of f a t d e f i c i e n c y appear  e a r l i e r w i t h d i e t s compounded w i t h c e s e i n t h a n w i t h albumin.  and  R e i s e r (1950) was  egg  a b l e t o show t h a t an a c u t e  d e f i c i e n c y syndrome developed i n c h i c k s f e d a d i e t d e v o i d linoleic acid.  When l a r d or c o t t o n s e e d  r a t i o n the d e f i c i e n c y was  remedied.  o i l was  of  added t o the  Supplementation w i t h  m e t h y l p a l m i t a t e , s a t u r a t e d f a t s or b a y b e r r y t a l l o w , d i d not a m e l i o r a t e d e f i c i e n c y sumptoms, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the e f f e c t was not due  to f a t alone.  poly-unsaturated growth of c h i c k s .  From h i s work, R e i s e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t  f a t t y a c i d s a r e e s s e n t i a l n u t r i e n t s f o r the By s t u d y i n g t h e e f f e c t of a d d i n g  o i l s and f a t t y a c i d c o n c e n t r a t e s  vegetable  to semi-purified d i e t s ,  C a r v e r and Johnson (1954) improved the growth r a t e of c h i c k s as much as t h i r t y per c e n t when f o u r per cent c o r n or soybean o i l was  included i n these d i e t s .  r e q u i r e some f a c t o r ( s ) present maximum growth.  They concluded t h a t c h i c k s  i n unsaturated  Normal growth i n c h i c k s was  fats for observed by  Russel  (1940) and by D a v i s (1941) u s i n g p r a c t i c a l c h i c k s t a r t e r r a t i o n s w h i c h were e x t r a c t e d t o c o n t a i n no more t h a n 0.1  per  3.  fat. There are a number of w e l l r e c o g n i z e d f a t may  play.  f u n c t i o n s which  F a t i s g e n e r a l l y regarded as an  component of the d i e t which can be p a r t l y or  optional  wholly  r e p l a c e d by o t h e r sources of c a l o r i e s a l t h o u g h i t has  been  l o n g known t h a t f a t s are the f o o d s t u f f s w h i c h possess the highest c a l o r i c density. was  A few  y e a r s ago  b e l i e v e d t o have an a p p r e c i a b l e  only carbohydrate  protein-sparing  activity.  Forbes et a l (1946) w o r k i n g w i t h r a t s showed t h a t a d i e t a r y f a t supplement " s p a r e d " p r o t e i n much more e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n d i d a comparable amount of c a r b o h y d r a t e . more e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g ingested protein.  The  f a t was  also  the s p e c i f i c dynamic a c t i o n of  The work of W i l l i a m e t a l (1947) i n d i c a t e d  t h a t f a t i s a b l e t o spare p r o t e i n under c o n d i t i o n s where carbohydrate i s completely  ineffective.  (1949b) a r r i v e d a t s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s approach.  They r e p o r t e d  administered  by a n o t h e r  Panzer  experimental  t h a t the l o s s of the e s s e n t i a l amino  a c i d s i n the u r i n e and the s t o o l was c o r n o i l was  P e a r s o n and  c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced when  i n the d i e t of r a t s .  In similar  work w i t h r a t s , Hoover and Swanson (1950) observed t h a t when f a t was  omitted  from a l o w - p r o t e i n low c a l o r i c d i e t , the  of p r o t e i n c a t a b o l i s m was and h i s a s s o c i a t e s  doubled.  E n s u i n g work by Forbes  (1946) brought f o r w a r d e v i d e n c e t h a t  d i g e s t i b i l i t y of p r o t e i n and  T h i s e f f e c t was  the  the r e t e n t i o n of n i t r o g e n were  improved i n the o r d e r of the i n c r e a s i n g f a t c o n t e n t of diet.  rate  noted not  the  o n l y i n growing r a t s but  also  4.  w i t h mature animals. Fat  as a d i e t a r y component, i s characterized by  s e v e r a l other unique c a p a c i t i e s .  I n a d d i t i o n to being  the n u t r i e n t of maximum energy value i t may a l s o serve as a source of f a t s o l u b l e vitamins.  Fish l i v e r o i l s ,  for example, c o n t a i n Vitamin A as such.  F i s h which  contain much body o i l such as salmon and h e r r i n g are the r i c h e s t n a t u r a l sources of V i t a m i n D.  Vegetable o i l s are  regarded as the most s a t i s f a c t o r y f o o d s t u f f from which the tocopherols can be obtained. Another e x p r e s s i o n of the s p e c i f i c n u t r i t i v e power of f a t i s i t s sparing a c t i o n on some of the B. vitamins.  The  sparing e f f e c t of f a t on thiamine was noted by Evans and Lepkovsky (1929) and has been confirmed by Elvehjem (1939a, 1939b).  Reports from the l a b o r a t o r i e s of B i r c h (1938),  Salmon (1941), and Qackenbush e t a l (1942) have demonstrated that pyridoxime d e f i c i e n c y which i s s i m i l a r t o a f a t d e f i c i e n c y i n r a t s can be r e l i e v e d by the presence of d i e t ary f a t c o n t a i n i n g the e s s e n t i a l f a t t y a c i d , l i n o l e i c a c i d . Many reports have appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e with regard t o the a b i l i t y of surface agents to improve the absorption of f a t .  The h i s t o r y of emulsifying agents and  surface a c t i v e agents goes back t o the discovery of soap, probably the f i r s t emulsifying agent which has been covered e x t e n s i v e l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  I n the past few decades and  5. p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e past few y e a r s , o t h e r c l a s s e s o f surface for  a c t i v e agents have come i n t o prominence  i n d u s t r i a l use but due t o r e c e n t  primarily  technological  developments, some o f t h e s e compounds have found a p p l i c a t i o n i n b i o l o g i c a l systems.  When a p p l i e d t o such systems,  phenomena such as p r e c i p i t a t i o n and d e n a t u r a t i o n o f p r o t e i n , d e s t r u c t i o n o f m i c r o o r g a n i s m s , and growth promoting ies  propert-  a r e some examples. S u r f a c e a c t i v e agents a r e d e f i n e d  as s u b s t a n c e s w h i c h  c o n t a i n both a w a t e r s o l u b l e and o i l s o l u b l e group. o i l s o l u b l e group o f t h e s u r f a c e  The  a c t i v e m o l e c u l e w i l l have  l i t t l e a t t r a c t i o n f o r t h e w a t e r o f an aqueous s o l u t i o n and t h e r e w i l l be a tendency f o r i t t o accumulate i n a s u r f a c e layer.  The m o l e c u l e s w h i c h a r e i n t h e s u r f a c e  a l t e r t h e energy r e l a t i o n s h i p a t i n t e r f a c e s . a surface  layer w i l l I n o t h e r words,  a c t i v e agent has t h e p r o p e r t y o f o r i e n t i n g between  two i n t e r f a c e s i n such a way t h a t i t becomes a c o u p l i n g b r i n g i n g t h e i n t e r f a c e s i n t o more i n t i m a t e  contact.  agent  The  i n t e r f a c e may be between l i q u i d and gas, l i q u i d and s o l i d , or between l i q u i d and l i q u i d . immiscible  When t h e two i n t e r f a c e s and  l i q u i d s , the surface  a c t i v e agent l o w e r s t h e i n t e r -  f a c i a l t e n s i o n so t h a t e m u l s i o n s a r e formed, t h e agent i s then characterized  as an e m u l s i f y i n g  agent.  The group r e c e i v i n g most r e c e n t and growing a t t e n t i o n i s that of the non-ionic  surface  a c t i v e agents.  Non-ionics,  6. as the name implies do not ionize i n water s o l u t i o n as do the anionics and c a t i o n i c s .  They depend on a  proper balance i n the molecule between t h e i r hydrophilic groups (polar) and l y p o p h i l i c groups (non-polar) for t h e i r effectiveness as surface active agents.  Generally  the hydrophilic portion of the molecule i s represented by a grouping consisting of free hydroxyl groups, ether oxygen linkages or both.  The l y p o p h i l i c property i s  introduced into the molecule by the hydrocarbon  chain of  f a t t y acids or alcohols. Jones et a l (1948) reported improved absorption of fat and f a t soluble substances with the addition of Tween80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monoaleate) to the diet of patients having a poor f a t d i g e s t i b i l i t y . £l950)  Johnson et a l  reported that Tween-20 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan  monolaurate) increased f a t absorption to some extent i n the case of premature i n f a n t s .  The addition of 0 . 5 per cent  glycerol monostearate to a diet containing 3 per cent hydrogenated cottonseed o i l was (195D  demonstrated by Huff et a l  to s i g n i f i c a n t l y increase the plasma f a t levels i n  the blood of calves. Working with young pigs, Luecke et a l ( 1 9 5 2 ) was  able to present evidence that either 0 . 1  cent Bthonoid^ C/15  per  or aureomycin i n t h e i r diets improved  #-Ethonoids - substituted f a t t y acid amides, the substituents being polyoxyethylene groups. the growth rate of these animals as much as 1 5 per cent.  7.  Shoshkes,  Geyer and S t a r e (1950a)  t h a t f a t i n the form of an e m u l s i o n was  demonstrated absorbed t o a  g r e a t e r e x t e n t from r a t i n t e s t i n e t h a n when the f a t was i n the u n e m u l s i f i e d form.  I n further experimentation  t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t o r s (1950b) found t h a t the a b s o r p t i o n of an e d i b l e v e g e t a b l e o i l a f t e r i n t u b a t i o n i n t o the stomach was u n a f f e c t e d by t h e presence of l a r g e amounts of soybean I r w i n e t a l (1936) have  phosphatide or Tween-80.  i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of t h e a d d i t i o n of v a r i o u s substances t o f a t d i e t s upon f a t a b s o r p t i o n i n the r a t and found t h a t t h e y had l i t t l e  or no p o s i t i v e e f f e c t , but l a r g e r  amounts i n v a r i a b l y decreased t h e r a t e of f a t a b s o r p t i o n . H a r r i s and Sherman (195D  found t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n of  h i g h l e v e l s of c e r t a i n s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents  containing  p o l y o x y e t h y l e n e and s o r b i t a n groups i n a s y n t h e t i c d i e t i n h i b i t e d the growth of r a t s .  Chow e t a l (1953) p r e s e n t e d  e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e f e e d i n g of t h e e m u l s i f i e r s Span-60 ( s o r b i t a n m o n o s t e a r a t e ) , Tween-60 ( p o l y o x y e t h y l e n e s o r b i t a n m o n o s t e r a t e ) , or M a r j - 5 2  ( p o l y o x y e t h y l e n e monostearate)  l e v e l s of 5 per c e n t or 15  at  per c e n t of a b a s a l soybean d i e t  t o young w e a n l i n g or o l d r a t s of both sexes d i d r e s u l t i n growth r e t a r d a t i o n .  F u r t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h these  e m u l s i f i e r s by A l l i s o n e t a l (1952) d i d not produce  any  d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s on growth or maintenance of dogs, mice or hamsters.  S c h w e i g e r t and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (1950) r e p o r t e d  8.  t h a t f e e d i n g w e a n l i n g hamsters  polyoxyethylene  monostearate a t 5 o r 15 per c e n t l e v e l s i n a d i e t c o n t a i n i n g p u r i f i e d c a s e i n , produced a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower r a t e of g a i n i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h a t observed i n a n i m a l s f e d the same c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l a r d . K r a n t z (1949a) and co-workers have made e x t e n s i v e a n i m a l f e e d i n g s t u d i e s on t h e e m u l s i f i e r s d e s i g n a t e d  Span,  Tween and M a r j and found t h a t t h e i n g e s t i o n o f these subs t a n c e s by r a t s a t l e v e l s o f 2 t o 5 per cent i n a commercial f e e d over a p e r i o d o f two y e a r s d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e i r growth rates.  I n a l a t e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n K r a n t z (1949b) r e p o r t e d  t h a t t h e d a i l y o r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o humans o f Tween-80 i n doses o f 4 . 5 t o 6 gm. f o r about 4 years d i d n o t r e s u l t i n any o b s e r v a b l e According  effect.  t o T i d w e l l and N a g l e r  (1952) t h e a d m i n i s t r a -  t i o n o f Tween-80 had no e f f e c t on the r a t e o f f a t a b s o r p t i o n i n r a t s o r human b e i n g s .  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s suggest t h a t  the " f a t a b s o r p t i o n r a t e i s n o t a f f e c t e d by exogenous e m u l s i f i e r s b u t may be i n c r e a s e d by substances  a f f e c t i n g the  c h e m i c a l mechanism o f f a t a b s o r p t i o n " . The  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents t o p o u l t r y  n u t r i t i o n was I n i t i a t e d by E l y (1951)•  He supplemented a n  a l l - v e g e t a b l e c h i c k r a t i o n w i t h an e t h y l e n e condensate and o b t a i n e d an i n c r e a s e i n growth t o t h e e x t e n t o f about t e n  9. per cent i n 10 - 12 weeks.  The i n c r e a s e i n growth  was of t h e same magnitude as o b t a i n e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f a n t i b i o t i c s or v i t a m i n B  t o  t  h  e  s  a  1 2  m  e  basal d i e t although  the response o b t a i n e d by t h e supplementary s u r f a c e a c t i v e agent was n o t r e v e a l e d u n t i l r a t h e r l a t e i n t h e growing period.  E l y f u r t h e r emphasized t h a t no s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t  o c c u r r e d between t h e s u r f a c e a c t i v e agent and t h e a n t i b i o t i c v i t a m i n B]jp supplements. F o l l o w i n g t h i s o r i g i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n , S c o t t e t a l (1952) found no e v i d e n c e o f growth s t i m u l a t i o n from d i f f e r e n t s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents when added t o an a l l p l a n t d i e t adequate i n v i t a m i n B ^ and known t o g i v e a p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e t o aureomycin.  I n one case a c o m b i n a t i o n o f two agents  s h a r p l y d e p r e s s e d growth.  S t e r n and M c G i n n i s (1953) o b t a i n e d  no s i g n i f i c a n t growth r e s p o n s e from t h e a d d i t i o n o f d e t e r g e n t s t o a d i e t c a l c u l a t e d t o c o n t a i n ample amounts o f known vitamins.  I n some cases a growth d e p r e s s i o n o c c u r r e d when  the d e t e r g e n t l e v e l was i n c r e a s e d . The r e s u l t s obtained  from t h e l a t t e r two i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  were from e x p e r i m e n t s conducted over a p e r i o d o f f o u r weeks, whereas E l y ' s o r i g i n a l r e p o r t was based on an e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d o f 10-12 weeks.  U s i n g 10 weeks as t h e b a s i s o f s t u d y ,  Snyder e t a l (1953) found no i n c r e a s e i n growth w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f a s u r f a c e a c t i v e a g e n t , i n an a l l - v e g e t a b l e d i e t adequate i n v i t a m i n Bi2» however, i n t h e absence o f t h i s  10.  v i t a m i n , t h e s u r f a c e a c t i v e agent a l o n e or i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h aureomycin i n c r e a s e d t h e growth r a t e o f c h i c k s a t n i n e weeks, but t h e f i n a l w e i g h t was n o t e q u a l t o t h e d i e t supplemented w i t h v i t a m i n Bi2« obtained  T  n  e  growth s t i m u l a t i o n  from v i t a m i n B12 and t h e s u r f a c e a c t i v e agent was  not m a n i f e s t e d u n t i l l a t e r i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t , whereas, t h o s e b i r d s r e c e i v i n g aureomycin made r a p i d g a i n s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f o u r weeks o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  period.  U s i n g a c o n t r o l p e r i o d o f 1 2 weeks, B r a n i o n and H i l l (1954) found no evidence o f growth s t i m u l a t i o n w i t h a b a s a l r a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g a n i m a l p r o t e i n supplements a l o n g  with  v i t a m i n B12 when s y n t h e t i c d e t e r g e n t s were added a t 0 . 5 p e r c e n t of t h e d i e t .  They f u r t h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t  procaine  p e n i c i l l i n a l s o f a i l e d t o g i v e a response t o t h e same b a s a l d i e t i n d i c a t i n g t h a t , i f s u r f a c t a n t s as growth promoters f u n c t i o n through s e l e c t i v e b a c t e r i a l i n h i b i t i o n as proposed by E l y ( 1 9 5 2 ) , i t i s p o s s i b l e under c e r t a i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t b a c t e r i a w h i c h c a n be i n h i b i t e d a r e n o t always p r e s e n t .  E l y ( 1 9 5 2 ) s t a t e d t h a t growth response t o  s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents would n o t be d e t e c t e d  u n t i l after the  c h i c k s were 5 t o 6 weeks o f age u n l e s s a g e r m i c i d a l type o f s u r f a c e a c t i v e agent was f e d . I t i s p o s s i b l e growth r e s p o n s e observed w i t h t h e s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents may be mediated i n a s i m i l a r way t o t h e growth s t i m u l a t i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f a n t i biotics.  11.  The growth promoting a c t i o n variable  effect.  of a n t i b i o t i c s i s a  The v a r i a b i l i t y h o l d s t r u e b o t h f o r t h e  d i f f e r e n t a n t i b i o t i c s and f o r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f t h e same antibiotic. The v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e r e s p o n s e t o d i e t a r y has been s t u d i e d e x t e n s i v e l y by many w o r k e r s . studies,  t h e growth promoting a c t i o n  antibiotics From t h e s e  o f a n t i b i o t i c s i s most  f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d as one a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f l o r a o f t h e gastrointestinal  tract.  The method whereby a n t i b i o t i c s a c t  may be one o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : a) F a v o r i n g t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f n u t r i e n t s intestinal  from t h e g a s t r o -  tract.  b) D e c r e a s i n g t h e growth o f b a c t e r i a  w h i c h would  o r d i n a r i l y use l a r g e amounts o f some e s s e n t i a l ary  diet-  nutrient.  c) S e l e c t i v e l y  f a v o r i n g t h e growth o f microorganisms  t h a t a r e c a p a b l e of s y n t h e s i z i n g some growth The f a c t o r  i s t h e n made a v a i l a b l e  factor.  to the test animal.  d) I n h i b i t i n g t h e growth o f m i c r o o r g a n i s m s , t h a t might o t h e r w i s e produce a d i s e a s e . The e f f i c i e n c y w i t h w h i c h c h i c k s c o n v e r t f e e d i n t o body w e i g h t when a n t i b i o t i c s a r e added t o t h e r a t i o n has been investigated  by many w o r k e r s .  One o f t h e most  intriguing  p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e a n t i b i o t i c s used i n c h i c k r a t i o n s a b i l i t y t o reduce t h e d i e t a r y  i s their  r e q u i r e m e n t s o f v a r i o u s members  12.  of the B-complex v i t a m i n s . S h e p i l e v s k i i (1928) s t u d y i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l guinea p i g s was o f the o p i n i o n t h a t 0.015  scurvey  in  per c e n t o l e a t e ,  w h i c h has no a n t i s c o r b u t i c e f f e c t , i n the d i e t o f t h e s e animals somewhat r e t a r d e d t h e l o s s i n body w e i g h t . (1953) r e p o r t e d  t h a t the a d d i t i o n t o the d i e t o f a s u r f a c e  a c t i v e agent ( a p o l y o x y e t h y l e n e  o x i d e - s u b s t i t u t e d amine)  enhanced the a b s o r p t i o n of v i t a m i n B-^  and  amount o f v i t a m i n B ^ a p p e a r i n g i n the egg Aldersberg was  Halick  and Sabotka (1943) r e p o r t e d  increased  the  yolk. that vitamin A  abs orbed a t a f a s t e r r a t e by man i f l e c i t h i n , an  e f f e c t i v e e m u l s i f y i n g a g e n t , was added t o t h e d i e t . E s h and S u t t o n  (1948) a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t l e c i t h i n improves  a b s o r p t i o n of b o t h c a r o t e n e and  the  v i t a m i n A i n the r a t .  B u r n s , Hauge and Quackenbush (195D  reported that  the  gr owth o f r a t s f e d c a r o t e n e e m u l s i f i e d i n a w a t e r s u s p e n s i o n c o n t a i n i n g 10 per c e n t Tween-40 was  somewhat b e t t e r t h a n i n  r a t s r e c e i v i n g the c a r o t e n e i n an o i l s o l u t i o n . co-workers (195D found t h a t c a l v e s , d e p l e t e d had h i g h e r plasma l e v e l s o f c a r o t e n e and v i t a m i n A i n the l i v e r and of c a r o t e n e had  Eaton  and  o f v i t a m i n A,  g r e a t e r amounts o f  l u n g a f t e r an aquous s u s p e n s i o n  been g i v e n i n t r a v e n o u s l y t h a n f o l l o w i n g i t s  oral administration.  T o m a r e l l i and a s s o c i a t e s (1946) and  more r e c e n t l y B i e r i and Sandman ( 1 9 5 D » r e p o r t e d  that  - c a r o t e n e can be r e a d i l y u t i l i z e d by r a t s when g i v e n p a r e n t e r a l l y , provided  an aquous s u s p e n s i o n i n Tween-80 o r  13  Tween-40 ( p o l y o x y e t h y l e n e used.  s o r b i t a n monopalmitate) was  H a l p e r n and B i e l y (1948) r e p o r t e d t h a t e m u l s i f -  i e d o i l s c o n t a i n i n g v i t a m i n A have a h i g h e r  biological  v a l u e f o r c h i c k s t h a n i f t h e same o i l was d i s s o l v e d i n f r e s h vegetable  o i l . Jones e t a l (1948)  obtained  g r e a t e r a b s o r p t i o n o f v i t a m i n A by u s i n g Tween-80 as an e m u l s i f y i n g agent.  14. EXPERIMENTAL The r a t i o n s used i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t s were made up of n a t u r a l i n g r e d i e n t s .  E x c e p t where the  r a t i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d t o be d e f i c i e n t i n f o l i c a c i d t h e y may be termed as p r a c t i c a l c h i c k s t a r t e r s .  E x c e p t i n one  i n s t a n c e a l l the c o n t r o l r a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d c o r n s t a r c h . The v a r i o u s o i l s were added a t the expense of the c o r n s t a r c h . T h i s procedure made i t p o s s i b l e t o add o i l t o the d i e t s w i t h o u t d i l u t i n g t h e components i n the r a t i o n or changing the p r o p o r t i o n s of t h e components.  Some of the c h i c k s used i n  t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s were o b t a i n e d from a commercial h a t c h e r y and the r e m a i n d e r from the U n i v e r s i t y f l o c k . White Leghorn and New Hampshire  S i n g l e comb  males and females were u s e d .  F o r t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s , d a y - o l d c h i c k s were wing-banded  for  identification.  They were d i s t r i b u t e d a t random i n t o  groups of 18-22  i n compartments of e l e c t r i c a l l y heated  b a t t e r y brooders w i t h r a i s e d screen f l o o r s .  Natural  light  was e x c l u d e d and a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t was s u p p l i e d f o r a 12 day.  hour  Feed and water were kept b e f o r e the b i r d s a t a l l t i m e s .  The c h i c k s were i n d i v i d u a l l y weighed each week and t h e average w e i g h t a t 4 or 5 weeks was used as a measure o f growth r e s p o n s e t o the d i e t f e d .  Records of m o r t a l i t y  and,  i n some experiments, of f e e d consumption were k e p t . There were t h r e e a n a l y s e s made d u r i n g t h e s e experiments t o determine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount of f a t  15.  consumed and t h e amount o f f a t e x c r e t e d by c h i c k s on v a r i o u s d i e t s .  I n o r d e r t o determine t h e amount of  f a t eaten, the q u a n t i t y of feed remaining  a f t e r a weighted  amount of f e e d had been o f f e r e d over a p e r i o d o f 24 hours was d e t e r m i n e d .  I n a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e amount o f f a t  consumed, 10 gram samples of each d i e t under i n v e s t i g a t i o n was s u b j e c t e d t o e t h e r e x t r a c t i o n by means o f a S o x h l e t f a t e x t r a c t o r and t h e per c e n t o f f a t i n each d i e t calculated. The f e c e s o f each e x p e r i m e n t a l l o t o f c h i c k s was a l l o w e d t o accumulate s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as t h e known amount of feed o f f e r e d t o t h e c h i c k s was consumed.  At t h e end  o f 24 hours t h e f e c e s was c o l l e c t e d and t h o r o u g h l y ground. The procedure w h i c h was f o l l o w e d i n p r e p a r i n g the f e c e s f o r t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f f a t and t h e subsequent i s o l a t i o n of t h e f a t was as f o l l o w s : 5 grams of f e c e s and  approximately  15 grams o f anhydrous sodium s u l p h a t e was p l a c e d i n a m o r t a r and t r i t u r a t e d w i t h a p e s t l e u n t i l t h e m i x t u r e had a granular consistency.  The samples were t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d  t o a S o x h l e t f a t e x t r a c t o r and e x t r a c t e d w i t h d i - e t h y l e t h e r f o r a p e r i o d o f 16 h o u r s .  F o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t i o n , the e t h e r  e x t r a c t was t r a n s f e r r e d t o weighed beakers and t h e s o l v e n t d i s t i l l e d on a steam b a t h .  The per cent f a t i n the wet  f e c e s was t h e n determined.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e samples o f  f e c e s o b t a i n e d f o r f a t d e t e r m i n a t i o n s , 2 gram samples were  16.  ajlso t a k e n and p l a c e d i n a n e l e c t r i c a l l y h e a t e d oven maintained  a t a temperature o f 110°C f o r 12 hours and a t  the end o f t h i s time t h e d r y w e i g h t o f t h e f e c e s was determined.  I n a l l experiments the f a t e x c r e t i o n r a t i o  was c a l c u l a t e d as f a t e x c r e t e d : f a t consumed: d r y matter e x c r e t e d : d r y matter consumed. EXPERIMENT I The e f f e c t o f s u r f a c e a c t i v e agent on t h e growth r a t e and e f f i c i e n c y of f e e d u t i l i z a t i o n o f c h i c k s f e d d i e t s containing various l e v e l s of f a t . The use o f s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents as growth promotants f o r c h i c k s was i n i t i a t e d b y E l y ( 1 9 5 D . an e t h y l e n e  The a p p l i c a t i o n o f  o x i d e condensate o f coco f a t t y a c i d s , when  added t o an a l l p l a n t d i e t s t i m u l a t e d c h i c k growth t o t h e e x t e n t o f about 10 per cent a t 10 - 12 weeks. L a t e r work by S c o t t e t a l (1952) S t e r n e t al- (1952), and S t e r n and M c G i n n i s (1953) i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents d i d n o t produce any s i g n i f i c a n t growth r e s p o n s e , and i n some c a s e s , when f e d a t h i g h l e v e l s o r i n t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of two s u r f a c t a n t s , d e p r e s s e d growth.  The experiments o f  these w o r k e r s were o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n (4 weeks) compared t o t h e 10-12 week p e r i o d of E l y .  I n a l a t e r r e p o r t , Snyder e t  a l (1953) f e d one s u r f a c t a n t f o r a p e r i o d o f 10 weeks w i t h out i n c r e a s i n g t h e growth r e s p o n s e .  The l a t t e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s  a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t s e v e r a l o t h e r s u r f a c t a n t s were w i t h o u t e f f e c t over a 4 week p e r i o d .  17. Test l . As an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e f u r t h e r s t u d y o f the possibility  o f adding s u r f a c t a n t s t o c h i c k s t a r t e r r a t i o n s  i n order t o i n c r e a s e growth r a t e and improve f e e d  efficiency,  i t was deemed d e s i r a b l e t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a s u r f a c t a n t i n a p r e l i m i n a r y experiment.  The  b a s a l d i e t chosen was one w i t h which p e h i c i l l i n was known t o give a response. D u p l i c a t e l o t s o f W h i t e Leghorn c o c k e r e l s used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were o b t a i n e d as day o l d b i r d s .  The c h i c k s  were kept i n back warmer t y p e b a t t e r y b r o o d e r s under t h e u s u a l management c o n d i t i o n s w i t h ad l i b i t u m f e e d i n g . b a s a l d i e t used d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l i n Table (5).  The  p e r i o d i s presented  The s u r f a c e a c t i v e agent, Tween-80  (polyoxy-  e t h y l e n e s o r b i t a n monoleate) was added t o t h e b a s a l r a t i o n a t l e v e l s o f 0 . 2 5 , 0 . 5 , 1.0 and 2.0 per c e n t .  Penicillin  was added t o t h e b a s a l r a t i o n a t a l e v e l of 0.15 gm/100 lbs. RESULTS T a b l e (2) shows t h e average w e i g h t s and t h e e f f i c i e n c y of d i e t u t i l i z a t i o n a t t h e end of f o u r and e i g h t weeks respectively.  At t h e end o f f o u r weeks o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t ,  the b i r d s r e c e i v i n g p e n i c i l l i n were h e a v i e r t h a n those r e c e i v i n g t h e b a s a l or t h e b a s a l supplemented w i t h Tween-80. The b i r d s r e c e i v i n g Tween-80 a t l e v e l s g r e a t e r t h a n .25 per c e n t were a l l h e a v i e r t h a n those r e c e i v i n g t h e b a s a l .  The  18. same growth p a t t e n n was m a i n t a i n e d a t 8 weeks but t h o s e b i r d s r e c e i v i n g .75 per c e n t t o 2.0 per c e n t Tween-80 had w e i g h t s almost e q u a l t o t h e l o t r e c e i v i n g p e n i c i l l i n . feed e f f i c i e n c i e s  The  of the d i f f e r e n t l o t s f o l l o w e d the same  p a t t e r n as t h e growth r a t e s except t h a t a t f o u r and e i g h t weeks r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e l o t s r e c e i v i n g 2.0 per cent Tween80 u t i l i z e d f e e d as w e l l as t h e l o t r e c e i v i n g  penicillin.  The body w e i g h t d a t a show t h a t t h e b i r d s r e c e i v i n g p e n i c i l l i n and Tween-80 f o l l o w e d d i f f e r e n t growth p a t t e r n s . The l o t s r e c e i v i n g .5 per c e n t and .75 per c e n t Tween-80 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h e a v i e r a t t h e 5 per c e n t l e v e l  than  t h e c o n t r o l a t 4 weeks of age, whereas t h e l o t f e d p e n i c i l l i n as a supplement were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h e a v i e r a t t h e 1 per c e n t l e v e l t h a n t h e c o n t r o l a t f o u r weeks of age. r e c e i v i n g supplements  These l o t s  o f Tween-80 g r e a t e r t h a n .75 per c e n t  were h e a v i e r t h a n the c o n t r o l b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y s o .  At  8 weeks o f age, those b i r d s r e c e i v i n g .5 per c e n t and .75 per cent Tween-80 were now s i g n i f i c a n t l y h e a v i e r t h a n t h e c o n t r o l as was t h e l o t r e c e i v i n g p e n i c i l l i n . r e c e i v i n g t h e supplements as those r e c e i v i n g  The l o t s  of Tween-80 were no so heavy however  penicillin.  The d a t a p r o v i d e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g two experiments a r e an e x t e n s i o n o f the s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t o f d i e t a r y f a t and s u r f a c t a n t s on t h e growth o f c h i c k s .  19.  TEST 2. I n the second t e s t , l e v e l s o f 0.25  and 0.50 per^  cent Tween-80 was added t o t h e b a s a l , b a s a l p l u s 2.5 per cent h e r r i n g o i l and b a s a l p l u s 5.0  p e r cent h e r r i n g  oil.  Three hundred and s i x t e e n d a y - o l d White L e g h o r n p u l l e t s were d i v i d e d i n t o n i n e d u p l i c a t e l o t s o f s e v e n t e e n c h i c k s each and f e d t h e r a t i o n s o u t l i n e d .  The c o m p o s i t i o n  b a s a l d i e t i s summarized i n T a b l e 5.  of the  The c h i c k s were  r e a r e d under t h e u s u a l management procedures and they were weighed i n d i v i d u a l l y a t w e e k l y i n t e r v a l s .  The average  w e i g h t s a t 4 and 8 weeks o f age and t h e d a t a w i t h r e g a r d t o f e e d u t i l i z a t i o n a r e shown i n T a b l e 3 . RESULTS The presence o f e i t h e r amount o f t h e s u r f a c t a n t i n t h e b a s a l r a t i o n had l i t t l e e f f e c t i n s t i m u l a t i n g growth o f t h e c h i c k s up t o f o u r weeks o f age.  The average w e i g h t o f t h e  b i r d s r e c e i v i n g o i l was o n l y s l i g h t l y i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o f the b i r d s r e c e i v i n g t h e b a s a l r a t i o n w i t h and w i t h o u t t h e surfactant.  The growth r e s p o n s e was somewhat d i f f e r e n t a t  8 weeks o f age.  I n each i n s t a n c e , t h e added supplement o f  Tween-80 r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n growth w i t h t h e b a s a l ration.  T h i s growth p a t t e r n was n o t p r e s e n t where o i l was  incorporated i n the r a t i o n . The presence o f t h e s u r f a c t a n t i n t h e d i e t s improved t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f f e e d u t i l i z a t i o n a t f o u r weeks except i n  20.  t h e l o t r e c e i v i n g 0 . 2 5 per c e n t Tween-80 i n t h e presence o f 5 per cent h e r r i n g o i l .  At 8 weeks of age,  T w e e n - 8 0 had somewhat o f t h e o p p o s i t e e f f e c t t h a t i t had  a t f o u r weeks, t h a t i s , poorer f e e d  utilization  was o b t a i n e d as t h e l e v e l s of T w e e n - 8 0 i n c r e a s e d .  I ti s  a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t a t 8 weeks o f age no group u t i l i z e d  feed  as w e l l as t h e c o n t r o l group w h i c h was n o t t h e case a t t h e f o u r week i n t e r v a l . TEST 3 . A d d i t i o n a l d a t a on t h e growth r a t e u s i n g a s u r f a c e a c t i v e agent i s d e r i v e d from a study i n w h i c h c h i c k s have d i e t s f o r as l o n g as 8 weeks,  received the experimental  and where h e r r i n g o i l , c o t t o n s e e d  o i l , t a l l o w and T w e e n - 8 0  were t h e v a r ' i a b l e s u t i l i z e d . The b a s a l d i e t used f o r t h i s - s t u d y was t h e same as that reported i n a previous Tween-80. T a b l e 5.  study w i t h the s u r f a c t a n t ,  The c o m p o s i t i o n Management  o f t h i s d i e t i s summarized i n  procedures were s i m i l a r t o the o t h e r  experiments o f t h i s s e r i e s .  The growth s t i m u l a t i n g e f f e c t s  of t h e T w e e n - 8 0 and t h e f a t supplements a r e t a b u l a t e d i n Table 4. RESULTS The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d  a t f o u r weeks i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e  c h i c k s f e d t h e d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g t h e added f a t grew a t a f a s t e r r a t e than the chicks f e d the t h e presence o f c o t t o n s e e d  b a s a l r a t i o n although  o i l i n the d i e t d i d n o t improve  21.  •  the growth r a t e t o the same e x t e n t as d i d the o t h e r two  oils.  added f a t was  The  enhanced g a i n caused by  the  not demonstrated i n the presence of  Tween-80 i n the r a t i o n .  I t may  be n o t e d t h a t  the  i n c l u s i o n of Tween-80 t o the b a s a l d i e t caused  an  improvement i n w e i g h t g a i n amounting t o 22 grams or 5.8  per cent a t f o u r weeks. Data o b t a i n e d a t the end  of 8 weeks f o l l o w e d  the  same p a t t e r n as the f o u r week data w i t h r e g a r d t o the e f f e c t on growth of the a d d i t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t  oils  t o the b a s a l r a t i o n .  I n the presence of Tween-80, a  g r e a t e r r e s p o n s e was  o b t a i n e d by the a d d i t i o n o f the  o i l t o t h e s e r a t i o n s as compared t o the b a s a l , maximum growth a p p e a r i n g During  w i t h the o o t t o n s e e d  o i l and the t a l l o w .  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the c h i c k s i n t o  r e s p e c t i v e compartments a t the commencement of  their the  e x p e r i m e n t , one hundred W h i t e Leghorn p u l l e t s were a c c i d e n t l y mixed w i t h the c o c k e r e l s o b t a i n e d f o r t h i s trial.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , d a t a r e g a r d i n g the  utilization  of feed a t the e i g h t week p e r i o d have been o m i t t e d Table 4 .  However, a t f o u r weeks of age  the f e e d  from  efficienc-  i e s were improved w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f the o i l s t o the basal d i e t .  When Tween-80 was  only cottonseed  added t o t h e b a s a l r a t i o n  o i l improved the u t i l i z a t i o n of f e e d .  h e r r i n g o i l and t a l l o w d e c r e a s e d f e e d e f f i c i e n c y when added t o a r a t i o n supplemented w i t h Tween-80.  Both  TABLE 2 Average weight of chicks a t 4 weeks i n Experiment I, Test 1. Supplement to basal r a t i o n None 0.25% Tween-80  Weight (gms.) A B A B  0.50% Tween-80 1.0% Tween-80 2.0% Tween-80 Penicillin*  A  Feed Gain  342 « Q 318  311 347  351  B  371  A B  357  A B  341  A B  382  332 346 386  5  5  0  2 2  #  1  0  1  °  329  2.06  561  2.06  344  2.12  344  1.99  384  1.95  Average weight of chicks a t 3 weeks i n Experiment I, Test 1. Supplement to basal r a t i o n None  Weight (mas.) B  770 730  A  752  B  777  A  B  804 809  A B  845 803  2.0% Tween-80  A B  829 820  824  2.74  Penicillin*  A  826 844  835  2.70  0.25% Tween-80 0.50% Tween-80 1.0% Tween-80  A  Feed Gain  750  3.01  754  2.89  806  2.79 p  2  0.15 gm. procaine p e n i c i l l i n G/100 l b .  2  »°5  TABLE 3 . Average weight and feed u t i l i z a t i o n at 4 and 8 weeks of White Leghorn cockerels i n Experiment I, Test 2. 4 weeks of age. Supplement to basal r a t i o n .  8 weeks of afte.  Weight (gms.)  Feed Gain  Fat Exere -tion Ratio  Weight (gms*)  None  321  2.24  1.87  755  2.73  1*47  2.5% Herring o i l  302  2.25  1.77  734  2.81  1.20  •  -....  Feed Fat Gain Exere -tion Ratio  .)  5.0% Herring o i l  301  2.05  1.56  749  2.83  1.53  0.25JS Tween-80  322  2,20  1.24  772  2.75  ©•80  0,25% Tween-80 plus 2.5# Herring o i l  310  2.22  1.54  730  2.87  0.81  0.25% Tween-80 plus 5.0% Herring o i l  305  2.16  1.25  724  2.76  0.81  0.5%  316  2.12  1.27  766  2.88 0 . 6 6  306  2.14  1.14  737  2.78 0 . 6 0  310  2.10  0.92  746  2.84  Tween-80  0*5%  Tween-80 plus 2.5% Herring o i l 0.5#  Tween-80 plus 5.0% Herring o i l  0.56  TABLE 4. Gain and feed u t i l i z a t i o n of White Leghorn cockerels fed a surfactant and various fats at 4 and 8 weeks of age.  Supplement to basal ration  4 weeks of age.  8 weeks of age.  Average Gain (gms.)  Average Gain (gms.}  Fej  None  275  2^39  729  5.0* Herring o i l  296  2.27  762  5.0# Cottonseed o i l  278  2.15  743  5.0% Tallow  300  2.23  752  0.5% Tween-80  287  2.07  719  Tween-80 plus 5.0% Herring o i l  289  2.35  746  0.5% Tween-80 plus 5.0% Cottonseed o i l  283  2.00  774  0*5% Tween-80 plus 5.0% Tallow  287  2.10  775  0i5%  Analysis of Variance - 4 weeks. Source of Error  Sum of Squares  d.f.  Total  442872  332  Treatment  144348  15  Error  298524  317  Minimum Significant Difference at P at p  0.05 ^ 19 0.01= 25  Variance  9623 ** 942  TABLE 5. Composition  of basal rations used i n Experiment I,  (Weight of ingredients i n pounds unless otherwise Ingredients  Ration 1*  stated.)  Ration 2.  Ground yellow corn  32.60  35.10  Ground wheat  32.60  35.10  Soybean o i l meal  13*40  13.40  F i shmeal  6.70  6.70  Livermeal  3.00  3.00  Dried brewers' yeast  2.00  2.00  Dehydrated cereal grass  1.00  1.00  Iodized s a l t  0.50  0.50  Limestone  1.00  1.00  Bonemeal  1.50  1.50  Feeding o i l (2,250A-300D)  0.25  0.25  Choline chloride (25%)  0.40  0.40  Manganese sulphate  0.025  0.025  Nicotinic a c i d  0.80 gms.  0,80 gms.  0  Ration 2 was used i n Tests 2 and 3.  EXPERIMENT II A comparison of surface active agents and a n t i b i o t i c s as growth stimulants f o r the chick. In the previous experiments attempts were made to evaluatethe growth promoting properties of Tween-80 i n chick s t a r t e r rations with and without added f a t .  The  r e s u l t s of these t r i a l s have not been consistent.  There  remains the f a c t , however, that some of the added f a t s tended to promote increased growth.  No improvement i n ^  growth could be a t t r i b u t e d to the presenoe of the surfactant i n rations containing added f a t . TEST 1. This i n v e s t i g a t i o n was undertaken i n an attempt to determine the supplemental value of herring o i l i n the presence of the detergent Santomerse-80 (an a l k y l a r y l sulfonate) and an a n t i b i o t i c when they were added i n d i v i d u a l l y and i n combination i n the experimental r a t i o n s . Gold cleared herring o i l was incorporated i n a s t a r t e r r a t i o n as a replacement f o r the cornstarch.  Partial  replacement was made at the 2.5 and 5.0 per cent l e v e l s and complete replacement made at the 7.5 per cent l e v e l . White Leghorn cockerels were used.  The chicks were  raised and managed under the same procedures as previously described.  The composition of the i n d i v i d u a l d i e t s i s  shown i n Table 12.  23..  RESULTS The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 6 show t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n o f 0.15 gm. p r o c a i n e p e n i c i l l i n G per 100 l b s . r e s u l t e d i n a ( s i g n i f i c a n t ) s t i m u l a t i o n i n growth, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e o i l c o n t e n t o f the d i e t f e d .  The  a d d i t i o n o f o i l t o the b a s a l r a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n an i m p r o v e ment i n growth a t n i n e weeks. the  The r e s p o n s e observed from  a d d i t i o n o f p e n i c i l l i n t o each b a s a l r a t i o n was s i m i l a r . The growth response from t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e s u r f a c e  a c t i v e agent d i d n o t f o l l o w t h e same p a t t e r n as t h a t o b t a i n e d by t h e a n t i b i o t i c .  The response t o Santomerse-80  i n t h e b a s a l d i e t , w i t h o u t t h e a d d i t i o n o f any h e r r i n g o i l , was s i m i l a r t o t h e growth r e s p o n s e produced by t h e a n t i b i o t i c alone.  The a n t i b i o t i c p e n i c i l l i n was t h e more  e f f e c t i v e when added t o t h e d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g o i l t h a n was Santoraerse 80. ing  The growth o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e d i e t s c o n t a i n -  5 per c e n t o r 7.5 per c e n t o i l and Santomerse-80 caused  a growth d e p r e s s i o n . The a d d i t i o n o f Santomerse-80 t o t h e b a s a l r a t i o n p l u s the  a n t i b i o t i c r e s u l t e d i n no i n c r e a s e i n growth above  t h a t o b t a i n e d by p e n i c i l l i n o r Santomerse-80  alone.  The c h i c k s r e c e i v i n g p e n i c i l l i n and Santomerse-80 w i t h d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g added h e r r i n g o i l showed a l o w e r r a t e o f growth a t each l e v e l o f o i l t h a n was o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e antibiotic  alone.  24. The f e e d e f f i c i e n c y f i g u r e s f o r a l l g r o u p s , i n most i n s t a n c e s were s i m i l a r .  The e f f i c i e n c y was improved  by the a d d i t i o n o f p e n i c i l l i n t o a l l d i e t s , w h i c h was n o t t h e case w i t h Santomerse-80.  The c o m b i n a t i o n o f p e n i c i l l i n  and Santomerse-80 w i t h no added o i l i n c r e a s e d the e f f i c i e n c y of the u t i l i z a t i o n of the b a s a l d i e t but i n t h e presence of an o i l supplement no such r e s u l t was  obtained.  TEST 2. The c h i c k growth s t u d i e s conducted p r e v i o u s l y u s i n g o i l , s u r f a c t a n t s , and a n t i b i o t i c s , have, on t h e whole, given inconclusive r e s u l t s .  The d a t a from the t e s t d e s c r i b e d  h e r e i n are p r o v i d e d by t h e e f f e c t o f the s u r f a c t a n t , Santomerse-80 and the a n t i b i o t i c , a u r e o m y c i n , s i n g l y and t o g e t h e r , on r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g 7.5 edible tallow.  pei; c e n t h e r r i n g o i l  and  I n the case o f the o i l d i e t s , the e x p e r i m e n t a l  r a t i o n s were p r e p a r e d by s u b s t i t u t i n g e q u a l q u a n t i t i e s o f t h e o i l i n p l a c e o f c o r n s t a r c h i n the s t a n d a r d b a s a l d i e t . d i e t s were f e d under comparable c o n d i t i o n s t o d u p l i c a t e  These lots  o f twenty New Hampshire p u l l e t s each f o r a p e r i o d of n i n e weeks. The e f f e c t s o f s u p p l e m e n t i n g d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g 7.5  per  c e n t h e r r i n g o i l or t a l l o w w i t h Santomerse-80 and a u r e o m y c i n on growth and f e e d e f f i c i e n c i e s a r e summarized a t f i v e and n i n e weeks i n T a b l e 7. d a t a from d u p l i c a t e  The r e s u l t s r e p r e s e n t t h e combined  trials.  25.  RESULTS During  t h e f i r s t f i v e weeks o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , t h e r e  was a v e r y s l i g h t decrease i n growth due t o t h e presence of t h e 7.5 per cent h e r r i n g o i l .  With respect t o the  7.5 per cent t a l l o w , t h e unsupplemented d i e t was below t h a t o f t h e b a s a l , w h i l e t h e remainder were s l i g h t l y above. The  a d d i t i o n o f Santomerse-80 t o t h e b a s a l r a t i o n  and t o t h e b a s a l plus t a l l o w r e s u l t e d i n an improvement i n growth.  No such improvement was o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e  d i e t c o n t a i n i n g 7.5 per c e n t h e r r i n g o i l .  The response  observed from t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e aureomycin supplements showed, i n a l l c a s e s , an improvement i n growth when f e d alone.  When Santomerse-80 was added w i t h aureomycin t o  the b a s a l d i e t s , t h e r e was a g a i n an improvement over t h e b a s a l and t h e b a s a l supplemented w i t h t h e o i l s . i n c r e a s e i n growth was a p p r o x i m a t e l y  This  equal t o that r e s u l t i n g  from t h e a d d i t i o n o f aureomycin alone e x c e p t where t h e b a s a l c o n t a i n e d 7.5 per cent t a l l o w , where growth was s l i g h t l y above t h a t o b t a i n e d from aureomycin by i t s e l f . At t h e age o f n i n e weeks, m o d e r a t e l y good growth had been o b t a i n e d i n t h e group f e d t h e b a s a l d i e t .  Comparably  the d i e t c o n t a i n i n g 7.5 per cent h e r r i n g o i l and 0.25% aureomycin a t t h e same time produced i n c r e a s e d growth over the b a s a l .  A l l t h e c h i c k s r e c e i v i n g 7.5 per cent t a l l o w  were h e a v i e r t h a n t h e b i r d s f e d c o r r e s p o n d i n g and w i t h o u t h e r r i n g o i l .  diets with  The b a s a l d i e t w i t h t a l l o w added  i n d i c a t e d an improvement i n c h i c k w e i g h t d u r i n g t h e f i n a l  26.  weeks o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , because a t f i v e weeks, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , t h i s l o t was l e s s heavy t h a n t h e b a s a l , and now, f o u r weeks l a t e r , i t was 3.4 per c e n t h e a v i e r t h a n the b a s a l .  There was no d i f f e r e n c e i n growth p a t t e r n  r e s u l t i n g from t h e a d d i t i o n o f Santomerse-80 a t n i n e weeks than that obtained at f i v e .  S i m i l a r l y , t h e same p a t t e r n  was m a n i f e s t e d w i t h aureomycin a t n i n e weeks as a t f i v e . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f Santomerse-80 and aureomycin a t f i v e weeks showed an e f f e c t on i m p r o v i n g growth w i t h t h e 7.5 per c e n t t a l l o w t h a n w i t h aureomycin  and t a l l o w a l o n e .  This e f f e c t  had d i s a p p e a r e d a t the t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , and t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n had no b e t t e r e f f e c t on growth r a t e t h a n t h a t o b t a i n e d from aureomycin  alone.  The response observed from t h e a d d i t i o n of t h e above supplements  t o t h e b a s a l r a t i o n upon t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f  f e e d s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d .  At f i v e weeks, t h e b i r d s  f e d t h e h e r r i n g o i l supplements  i n a l l c a s e s , except w i t h  a c o m b i n a t i o n o f aureomycin and Santomerse-80, u t i l i z e d f e e d b e t t e r t h a n when these d i e t s c o n t a i n e d c o r n s t a r c h .  These  b i r d s had f e e d e f f i c i e n c i e s o f t h e same o r d e r o f those r e c e i v i n g 7.5 per cent t a l l o w i n t h e i r r a t i o n s , except i n t h e case where aureomycin was i n c l u d e d w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n an increased e f f i c i e n c y .  The presence o f t a l l o w i n t h e r a t i o n s  improved f e e d e f f i c i e n c i e s over t h a t o f t h e b a s a l but where aureomycin was i n c l u d e d a l o n e , t h e e f f i c i e n c y dropped t h a t observed w i t h t h e c o r n s t a r c h .  below  27.  At n i n e weeks t h e r e was  l i t t l e change i n the  p a t t e r n of f e e d e f f i c i e n c i e s except t h a t , i n the  presence  of aureomycin, f e e d e f f i c i e n c i e s were improved over similar diets containing  tallow.  TEST ^ S i n c e the i n c l u s i o n of o i l , s u r f a c t a n t s , and b i o t i c s i n a b a s a l d i e t d e f i c i e n t and  anti-  a b a s a l d i e t adequate  i n f o l i c a c i d gave v a r i e d r e s p o n s e s , a f u r t h e r s t u d y  was  made t o d e t e r m i n e the e f f e c t s o f t h e s e s u b s t a n c e s on  chick  growth. Twenty-four W h i t e Leghorn c o c k e r e l s i n this Test.  per l o t were used  F o l i c a c i d , aureomycin and  the  Tween-80 were the v a r i a b l e s added s i n g l y and the b a s a l r a t i o n ( T a b l e 9) herring o i l .  The  surfactant together i n  the b a s a l p l u s 5»°  and  per  cent  u s u a l methods of management were adhered  t o throughout the e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . d a t a are summarized i n T a b l e  The  experimental  9.  RESULTS Under the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t the a d d i t i o n of 5»0  of t h i s T e s t i t was  found a g a i n  per c e n t h e r r i n g o i l r e s u l t e d i n  a d e p r e s s i o n i n r a t e of growth when added t o a f o l i c deficient diet.  acid  A d d i t i o n a l f o l i c a c i d added t o t h e s e  d e f i c i e n t d i e t s not o n l y r e l i e v e d the d e f i c i e n c y but  also  m u l l i f i e d the a g g r a v a t e d d e f i c i e n c y caused by the h e r r i n g o i l .  28.  I t may be noted that a t f i v e weeks of age aureomycin caused a weight increase of 6.2 per cent over the basal d i e t but 10.6 per cent l e s s than when f o l i c a c i d was added t o the basal d i e t .  Aureomycin and f o l i c a c i d  together d i d not improve the growth response over that obtained by f o l i c a c i d alone.  Aureomycin and Tween-80 when  added together t o the basal d i e t increased the growth response but not as w e l l as d i d f o l i c a c i d alone. The  a d d i t i o n of Tween-80 d i d not improve the growth  r a t e obtained w i t h e i t h e r the basal r a t i o n or the r a t i o n s w i t h added o i l .  Tween-80 when fed w i t h f o l i c a c i d d i d not  augment the growth over that obtained w i t h f o l i c a c i d alone, i n f a c t , chicks weighed l e s s than those r e c e i v i n g  folic  a c i d alone w i t h e i t h e r o i l - f r e e or o i l supplemented d i e t s . The  a d d i t i o n of f o l i c a c i d had l i t t l e e f f e c t i n  improving the f a t e x c r e t i o n r a t i o whereas i t was markedly decreased by the .presence of aureomycin or Tween-80.  A  combination of aureomycin and Tween-80 reduced the r a t i o to a greater extent than e i t h e r supplement alone, e i t h e r aureomycin or Tween-80 i n combination w i t h f o l i c a c i d lowered the r a t i o t o a greater extent than d i d f o l i c a c i d alone. TEST 4. Evidence obtained i n previous experiments i n d i c a t e s  that  w i t h a f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t d i e t s , the i n c l u s i o n of h e r r i n g o i l i n such d i e t s depressed growth.  I n the f o l l o w i n g two  29. t e s t s a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d towards the e f f e c t different dietary o i l s , surfactants and  and  antibiotics  c o m b i n a t i o n s of t h e s e substances when added t o  c h i c k s t a r t e r r a t i o n s d e f i c i e n t and in f o l i c acid. was  of  The  rations  adequate  b a s a l r.ation used f o r these t e s t s  compounded by the i n g r e d i e n t s  appearing i n Table  12. I n t h i s t e s t , a comparison was  made i n the  effect  of aureomycin, p e n i c i l l i n , Santomerse-80 and  Tween-80  on t h i s type of r a t i o n w i t h and w i t h o u t the  addition  of .036  gms.  of f o l i c a c i d per 100  w e i g h t of the c h i c k s i n Table  lbs.  a t f o u r weeks of age  The  average  are  presented  10.  RESULTS A g a i n , as i n p r e v i o u s e x p e r i m e n t s , the d a t a from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n v e r i f y the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t a d d i t i o n of 5 per cent h e r r i n g  the  o i l to a r a t i o n d e f i c i e n t  i n f o l i c a c i d aggravates f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n c y . mycin i n c r e a s e d the growth r a t e of the c h i c k s  fed  Aureothe  f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t r a t i o n r e g a r d l e s s whether t h e r e o i l p r e s e n t or not. was  The  was  growth s t i m u l u s from aureomycin  n o t , however, e q u a l t o t h a t o b t a i n e d by the  of f o l i c a c i d , where the i n c r e a s e was c o m b i n a t i o n of aureomycin and  addition  highly evident.  f o l i c a c i d gave no  growth e f f e c t t h a n d i d f o l i c a c i d a l o n e on e i t h e r b a s a l or the b a s a l p l u s 5 per cent o i l .  A  greater the  -30-  I n e v e r y i n s t a n c e , t h e added supplements  of  Tween-80 t o t h e b a s a l d i e t c o n t a i n i n g c o r n s t a r c h o r o i l had no e f f e c t on i m p r o v i n g t h e growth o f the b i r d s . The c o m b i n a t i o n of Tween-80 w i t h f o l i c  a c i d d i d not  improve c h i c k growth as w e l l as d i d f o l i c a c i d a l o n e but t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of Tween-80 and aureomycin gave b e t t e r growth t h a n aureomycin a l o n e r e g a r d l e s s o f whether t h e b a s a l d i e t c o n t a i n e d o i l or n o t . No advantage  was  o b t a i n e d by supplementing t h e b a s a l r a t i o n w i t h Tween-80, aureomycin  and f o l i c a c i d i n c o m b i n a t i o n t h a n by f o l i c  a c i d supplementation alone. A l l groups r e c e i v i n g f o l i c a c i d , a l o n e or i n combinat i o n e x h i b i t e d a f o u r week growth response t h a t was i n some cases s i g n i f i c a n t due t o t h e a d d i t i o n of 5 per c e n t herring o i l s .  The a b i l i t y of aureomycin  i n ameliorating  the f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n c y was i n h i b i t e d by t h e a d d i t i o n of  5 per c e n t h e r r i n g o i l t o t h e r a t i o n . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t r a t i o n s adequate i n f o l i c  a c i d and c o n t a i n i n g 5 p e r c e n t h e r r i n g o i l produced t h e b e s t r e s u l t s o f the e n t i r e experiment w i t h r e g a r d t o f e e d e f f i c i e n c y e x c e p t i n t h e case where f o l i c were i n c o m b i n a t i o n .  a c i d and Tween-80  The presence o f Tween-80 a l o n e o r  w i t h f o l i c a c i d d e c r e a s e d f e e d e f f i c i e n c y when added t o t h e basal r a t i o n containing cornstarch.  Aureomycin  had l i t t l e  e f f e c t on f e e d e f f i c i e n c y except when-in c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h Tween-80 or f o l i c a c i d .  When o i l r e p l a c e d c o r n s t a r c h i n t h e  b a s a l r a t i o n , f e e d e f f i c i e n c i e s were improved i n a l l cases  31  regardless of the supplementation  although the best  e f f i c i e n c i e s were obtained i n the presence of adequate f o l i c acid.  The combination  of f o l i c acid and aureomycin  improved feed u t i l i z a t i o n s l i g h t l y more than either of these supplements alone i n the rations containing 5 per cent herring o i l . TEST 5. Evidence obtained i n the previous test indicates that with a f o l i c acid d e f i c i e n t diet the addition of 5 per cent herring o i l to the diet depressed  growth.  In Test 2 the  M  same l e v e l of supplementary cottonseed o i l was chosen f o r a further investigation on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o i l and a f o l i c acid d e f i c i e n t d i e t on chicks from day old through f i v e weeks of age. The basal rations used i n this feeding t r i a l contained a l l the known nutrients f o r the chick with the exception of f o l i c acid.  The cottonseed o i l substituted  for an equal amount of cornstarch as before.  The experimental  diets were formulated according to Table 12, f o l i c acid, aureomycin, and Tween-80 were fed singly and i n combination to various l o t s of chicks. RESULTS The e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n , growth, and mortality are given i n Table I I .  I t i s to be noted again  that i n a l l instances where the f o l i c acid d e f i c i e n t d i e t contained cottonseed o i l there was a decrease i n growth rate i n a l l but one instance.  The d e f i c i e n t diet containing  32,  aureomycin d i d not s u f f e r i n n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e due t o the  presence of o i l . The a d d i t i o n of aureomycin t o the b a s a l d i e t  r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n t h e w e i g h t of the c h i c k s from b o t h the o i l and the o i l - f r e e d i e t s .  I t did n o t , however,  produce t h e growth o b t a i n e d w i t h f o l i c a c i d a l o n e .  No  a d d i t i o n a l growth s t i m u l u s was  o b t a i n e d from a c o m b i n a t i o n  of  The presence of o i l had the  f o l i c a c i d and aureomycin.  e f f e c t of i n c r e a s i n g f e e d e f f i c i e n c i e s a l t h o u g h i n t h e d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g Tween-io and a c o m b i n a t i o n of aureomycin and f o l i c a c i d , f e e d u t i l i z a t i o n was i m p a i r e d but i n the l a t t e r c a s e , v e r y good e f f i c i e n c y was m a i n t a i n e d . The presence of Tween-80 i n the o i l - f r e e  deficient  d i e t a g g r a v a t e d the d e f i c i e n c y w h i c h i s i n d i c a t e d i n the m o r t a l i t y d a t a a p p e a r i n g i n T a b l e 11.  TABLE 6. Average weight of ohloks at nine weeks resulting from the dietary supplements* Supplement to basal ration  None  2.5%  5.0%  7.5%  Herring oil  Herring oil  Herring oil  Weight (gms*)  Weight (gms*)  Weight (gms.)  Weight (gms*)  865  902  852  Penicillin**  775 850  912  952  900  Santomerse-80*  841  880  897  827  Santomerse-80 plus Penicillin  841  834  916  882  None  Feed efficiencies of ohloks at nine weeks resulting from the dietary supplements* Supplement to basal ration  None  2.5%  Herring Oil  5.0%  Herring oil  7.5%  Herring oil  Feed Gain  Feed. Gain  Feed Gain  Feed Gain  None  3.28  3;02  2.89  2.92  Penicillin**  2.98  2.82  2.75  Santomerse-80*  3.13 2;97  3a4  2^95  2.-94  Santomerse-80 plus Penicillin  3*02  3ao  2i94  2.-87  .0*15 gm. procaine p e n i c i l l i n G added per 100 l b s . *Santomerse-80 added at 0*2% level.  TABLE 7. Average weights of Hew Hampshire pullets fed the experimental diets at 5 weeks of age* Supplement to basal ration  None  7.5% Herring Oil  7.5% Tallow  Feed Gain  Weight («ms.)  Feed Gain  486  2.55  471  2.42  478  2.45  Santomerse-80 479  2.55  452  2.41  494  2.37  516  2.46  508  2.37  522  2.49  Santomerse-80 plus Aureomycin 518  2.50  503  2.52  534  2.49  Weight (mns*) None  Aureomycin  Weight (gms.)  Ga?n  Average weights of New Hampshire p u l l e t s f e d the experimental d i e t s at 9 weeks,of age. Supplement to basal r a t i o n  None  7.5% Herring Oil  7.5% Tallow  Weight (ffms.)  Feed Gain  Weight (was.)  Feed Gain  Weight  1,101  2.76  1,095  2.57  1,140  2.53  Santomerse-80 1,118  2.71  1,050  2.63  1,162  2.57  Aureomycin  1,110  2.91  1,154  2.47  1,194  2.58  Santomerse-80 plus Aureomycin 1,152  2.64  1,100  2.55  1,178  2.61  None  ( M I S .  Santomerse-80 was added at the rate of 0.10^. Aureomycin was added at the rate of 4.5 mg./lb. (from Aurofao A.)  )  TABLE 8 Analysis of Variance Experiment I I , Test 2 - 4 weeks. Source of Error  Sum of Squares  Total Treatment Error  d.f.  Variance  1873999  403  233724  23  10162  1640275  380  4317  Minimum S i g n i f i c a n t Difference  •  **  at p  0.05  44  at p  0.01  57  Experiment I I , Test 2 - 9 weeks. Souroe of Error Total Treatment Error  Sum of Squares  d.f.  Variance  6427331  368  908182  23  39486  5519149  345  15998  Minimum S i g n i f i c a n t Difference at p  0.05^ 90  at p  0.01=118  **  TABLE 9. Average weight (gmsv) of White Leghorn pullets at four weeks* Supplement to basal ration  Fat Excretion Ratio  With 5% Cornstarch  With 5% Herring oil  None  354  318  1.63  Folio acid  416  447  1.54  Aureomycin  376  377  1.14  Tween-80  351  315  1.27  Folic acid plus aureomycin  417  447  1.18  Folic acid plus Tween-80  369  408  1.24  Tween-80 plus aureomycin  399  384  1*05  Folic acid plus aureomycin plus Tween-80  407  443  1.24  Folic acid was added at the rate of 0.36 mg.Ab., aureomycin at the rate of 4.5 mg./lb. (from Aurofac A) and Tween-80 at the rate of 0.  Source of Error Total Treatment Error  Sum of Squares  d.f.  1740908  357  528803  15  1212105  342  Minimum Significant Difference ^ **  at p 0.05 -35 at p 0.01 > 47  Variance  35253 4 * 3544  TABLE 10. Results of feeding f o l i o acid, detergents and a n t i b i o t i c s to New Hampshire cockerels f o r a period of four weeks. Supplement to basal d i e t  Mean Weight a t 4 weeks. (gms,)  None F o l i c acid J Aureomycin • Penicillin * Tween-80 • Santomerse-80 F o l i c a c i d and Tween-80 F o l i c a c i d and Santomerse-80 Aureomycin and Tween-80 Aureomycin and Santomerse-80 P e n i c i l l i n and Tween-80 P e n i c i l l i n and Santomerse-80 F o l i c a c i d and aureomycin F o l i c acid and p e n i o i l l i n  Increase over basal (%)  -  229 356 365 359 248 296 364 384 336 364 329 373 425 398  55.5 60.0 57.0 8.3 29.3 60.0 68.0 47.0 60.0 44.0 63.0 86.0 74.0  • Quantities of supplements added per 100 l b s . F o l i c acid 0.036 gms. Aurofao A 0.25 l b s . Procaine p e n i c i l l i n 0 1.5 gms. Tween-80 0.5 l b . Santomerse-80 0.1 l b . Analysis of Varlanoe Source of Error  Sum of Squares  d.f.  Variance  1537967  298  Treatment  714050  13  54927  Error  823917  285  2891  Total  Minimum S i g n i f i c a n t  **  Difference  at p  0.05 =23  at p  0.01 *43  H  TABLE 11 Average weight (gms.) of New Hampshire cockerels at 5 weeks. Supplement to basal r a t i o n  With 5% Mort- With 5% Comstareh a l i t y Cottonseed Oil  Mortality  None  438  2  408  2  Folic acid  514  1  547  2  Aureomycin  458  451  3  Tween-80  421  377  3  F o l i c a c i d plus aureomycin  534  548  F o l i c a c i d plus Tween-80  487  524  Tween-80 plus aureomycin  528  457  F o l i c acid plus aureomycin plus Tween-80  519  576  Analysis of Variance Source of Error Total Treatment Error  Sum of Squares  d.f.  2324367  309  959691  15  1364676  294  Minimum S i g n i f i c a n t Difference at p  0.05 ^43  at p  0.01s 57  Variance  63979 ** 4642  TABLE  12.  Composition of basal diets used i n outlined Tests, (Weight of ingredients i n pounds unless otherwise stated*) Ingredients  Test 1  Test 2  Test 4  Test 345  Ground yellow oora Ground wheat Soybean o i l meal Fishmeal Livermeal Dried brewers yeast Dehydrated oereal grass Iodized salt Limestone Bonemeal Feeding o i l (2,250A-300D) Choline chloride  31.05 31.05 13.90 6.90 3.00  27.41 27.41 20*00 10.00 3.00  79.75  72.75  18.00  i9;oo  2.00  1.00  1.00 0.50 1.00 1.50  0.50 1.00 1.50  0.50 1.25  0.50 1.25  0.25  0.25  0.25  0.25  0.40 0.40 0.25 0.025 0.025 10.00 0.16 gm. 0.10 gm* 0.16 0.50 gm. 0.50 0.80 gm. 0.90 gm. 0.80 7.50 7.50  0.25 gm* 10.00 gm* 0.16 gm. 0.50 gm. 0.80 6.00  1  Manganese sulphate Riboflavin Calcium pantothenate Nicotinic acid Cornstarch  -  -  gm. gm. gm. gm.  Supplements were added to 100 pounds of basal ration at the following levels. Test 1.  Test  Folio acid (gms.) Aureomycin (lbs.) P e n i c i l l i n (gms*)  0.25  Test 4.  Test  0.036  0.036  0.036  0.25  0.25  Q.25  1.50  1.50  0.50  0.50  0.10  0.10  1.50  Tween-80 (lbs.) Santomerse-80 (lbs.)  Test  0.50 0.20  0.10  Aureomycin added as "Aurofao A" P e n i c i l l i n added as Procaine p e n i c i l l i n G.  33. EXPERIMENT I I I The e f f e c t of l e c i t h i n on the growth r a t e of chicks fed v a r i o u s d i e t s . TEST 1. The f i r s t feeding t e s t of the s e r i e s was conducted t o determine the e f f e c t of l e c i t h i n a t l e v e l s of 0.5 and  1.0  per cent on the growth of chicks f e d the b a s a l r a t i o n , the composition of which appears i n Table 15 w i t h 5 and  10  per cent h e r r i n g o i l s u b s t i t u t e d f o r equal amounts of cornstarch i n the b a s a l r a t i o n .  The l e c i t h i n was d i s s o l v e d  i n each o i l supplement and i n the feeding o i l of the f r e e d i e t s p r i o r t o combining i t w i t h the  oil-  experimental  rations. RESULTS The e f f e c t of l e v e l s of l e c i t h i n and o i l on weight and feed e f f i c i e n c y i s shown i n Table 13.  The weight data were  examined s t a t i s t i c a l l y according t o the method of a n a l y s i s of variance (Snedecor, 1946).  They i n d i c a t e t h a t i n the  absenoe of l e o i t h l n , the e f f e c t on growth of 5 per oent h e r r i n g o i l was s i g n i f i c a n t .  There was a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease  on the growth of the chicks r e c e i v i n g the b a s a l r a t i o n supple* mented w i t h 10 per cent h e r r i n g o i l .  The a d d i t i o n of 5 per  cent h e r r i n g o i l to those d i e t s containing e i t h e r 0.5 or  1.0  per cent l e c i t h i n , d i d not Improve growth over t h a t obtained i n the absence of o i l .  The presence of 10 per cent o i l i n  the d i e t s containing e i t h e r l e v e l of  l e c i t h i n r e s u l t e d i n a lower r a t e of growth than t h a t obtained without any o i l or w i t h the 5 per oent l e v e l of o i l . A s l i g h t advantage i n growth was obtained by the a d d i t i o n of 0.5 per cent l e c i t h i n t o the b a s a l r a t i o n and t o the d i e t containing 10 per cent h e r r i n g o i l , but no such advantage was evident w i t h the r a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g 5 per cent herring o i l .  The response of chicks t o 1.0 per cent l e c i t h i n  was no b e t t e r than t h a t obtained w i t h the 0.5 per cent l e v e l , of l e c i t h i n , i n f a c t , there was a s l i g h t decrease i n growth i n the presence of e i t h e r 5 or 10 per cent h e r r i n g o i l . The e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n was a f f e c t e d b e n e f i c i a l l y by the presence of o i l whereas the presence of l e c i t h i n decreased the e f f i c i e n c y unless o i l was i n c l u d e d .  The best  conversion of feed t o body weight was obtained w i t h 10  per  cent h e r r i n g o i l and 0.5 per oent l e c i t h i n , although the b i r d s f e d the d i e t c o n t a i n i n g these supplements d i d not grow a t the maximum r a t e observed i n t h i s t e s t . TEST 2  f  Evidence obtained i n the previous t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t the presence of l e c i t h i n i n a chick s t a r t e r r a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g 10 per cent h e r r i n g o i l reduced the growth of c h i c k s .  In t h i s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the e f f e c t s of l e c i t h i n , aureomycin and  folic  a c i d on the growth of the c h i c k s f e d a oorn-flshmeal  type of  r a t i o n w i t h and without the a d d i t i o n of 7.5 per cent h e r r i n g 011 were examined.  35. The composition of the basal d i e t i s shown i n Table 15. Day-old Hew Hampshire cockerels were used and d i s t r i b uted at random i n heated brooders into twelve l o t s of 27 b i r d s each.  The usual methods of management were maintained  throughout the experimental period of 5 weeks. The data obtained from the feeding t r a i l are summarized i n Table 14 .  At the conclusion of the experiment,  the  hemoglobin content of the blood from chicks fed the basal d i e t s with and without o i l , basal plus f o l i c with and without o i l and a s a l plus l e c i t h i n with and without o i l , was determined by the copper sulphate s p e c i f i c gravity method. RESULTS As was anticipated the addition of f o l i c acid to the basal diet resulted i n a marked Increase i n growth.  The  addition of both f o l i o acid and aureomycin to the r a t i o n gave an Increase i n growth over and above the basal containing f o l i c acid.  L e c i t h i n , when added to the basal r a t i o n d e f i c -  ient i n f o l i o acid improved the growth rate to the same extent as d i d f o l i c acid.  However, the combination of f o l i c a c i d  and l e c i t h i n d i d not increase the growth rate above that of f o l i c a c i d or l e c i t h i n alone.  The response obtained from a  combination of f o l i c acid, aureomycin and l e c i t h i n was greater than f o l i c acid plus l e c i t h i n but l e s s than f o l i c acid plUB aureomycin. Again as i n previous tests, the addition of herring o i l  36.  to a f o l i o acid d e f i c i e n t d i e t augmented the deficiency. The presence of f o l i c a c i d and o i l gave greater growth than did the f o l i c a c i d alone.  The response observed with  the combination of f o l i c acid and aureomycin was greater than with f o l i c a c i d alone with o i l but l e s s than with f o l i c a c i d and aureomycin i n the o i l - f r e e d i e t .  When  l e c i t h i n was added to the basal r a t i o n , a greater growth depression occurred than with the o i l alone.  There was an  additional response when f o l i c acid and l e c i t h i n i n these o i l supplemental diets was used than that obtained with f o l i c acid alone.  Supplementation of the o i l - c o n t a i n i n g  diets with f o l i o a c i d , aureomycin and l e c i t h i n resulted i n a considerable increase i n the rate of growth of the chicks. Shown i n Table 14 are the feed e f f i c i e n c i e s different  groups at the end of 5 weeks.  of the  These r e s u l t s  indicate that the presence of l e c i t h i n i n the growing d i e t resulted i n better u t i l i z a t i o n of feed.  The i n c l u s i o n of  supplementary herring o i l , on the other hand, tended to decrease the e f f i c i e n c y of u t i l i z a t i o n , with the of the groups containing f o l i c a c i d and l e c i t h i n .  exception The  u t i l i z a t i o n of the rations containing f o l i o acid alone or i n combination with l e c i t h i n was further Improved when aureomycin was added to these d i e t s .  The greatest improve-  ment i n feed e f f i c i e n c y occurred i n the r a t i o n containing f o l i c a c i d , l e c i t h i n and aureomycin supplemented with 7.5 per cent herring o i l .  TABLE 13. E f f e c t of l e c i t h i n and f a t on the growth response of New Hampshire cockerels at four weeks of age. Supplement to basal r a t i o n  None  5*0% Herring - oil.  10% Herring oil. Weight Feed (was.) Gain  Weights (wna.)  Feed Gain  Weight (was.)  Feed Gain  None  357  1.96  382  1.88  338  2.00  0.5% L e c i t h i n  370  2.01  372  1.96  355  1.81  1.0% L e c i t h i n  371  2.00  364  1.99  349  1.84  Analysis of Variance Source of Error Total Treatment Error  Sum of Squares  d.f.  434606  197  41868  8  492738  189  Minimum s i g n i f i c a n t Difference  at p 0.05* 31 at p 0.01  Variance  5224 * 2607  TABLE 14. E f f e c t of l e c i t h i n , f o l i c acid and f a t on growth and feed e f f i c i e n c i e s o f chicks fed f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t d i e t s at f i v e weeks* Supplements to basal r a t i o n  Without 7.5% Herring o i l  With 7.5% Herring o i l  Weight (gms.)  Feed Gain  2.44 2.14  399 424  2.82  F o l i c aold *  355 392  Lecithin  395  1.91  299  2.65  F o l i c aold plus lecithin  399  1.91  447  1.84  F o l i c acid pluja aureomycin W  461  1.75  456  1.98  F o l i o a c i d plus l e o i t h i n plus aureomycin  424  1.68  509  1.57  None  •** *+ 4  Weight (gms.)  Feed Gain  2.15  Aureomycin added at l e v e l of 4.5 mg.Ab. (from Aurofao A) L e c i t h i n added at l e v e l of 6.5 per cent. F o l i c aold added at l e v e l of 0.36 mg./lb. Analysis of Variance  Source of Error  Total Treatment  Error  Sum of Squares  d.f.  1617919  275  761307  12  1056612  264  Minimum S i g n i f i c a n t at p at p  Difference  0.05 * 35 0.012 47  Variance  63442 * * 4002  TABLE 15*  Composition of basal diets used i n studies on l e c i t h i n and f a t * INGREDIENTS  Test 1* (percent)  Ground y e l l o v oorn  20*00  Ground wheat  26*00  Cornstarch  10*00  Soybean o i l meal  25*00  Test 2. (percent) 70*25  7*50  Fishmeal  8*00  20*00  Vacatone  2*00  Dehydrated cereal grass  2*50  Dried brewers' yeast  3*00  Bonemeal  1*50  Limestone  1*00  1*25  Iodized s a l t  0*50  0*50  Feeding o i l (2,250A-300D)  0*25  0*25  Choline chloride (25#)  0*25  0.25  Manganese sulphate  0.0125  10.00  gms.  Riboflavin  0.16  gms.  Calcium pantothenate  0.50  gms.  Nicotinic aold  0.80  gms.  F o l i c acid  0.036 gms.  37. DISCUSSION The above e x p e r i m e n t s r e g a r d i n g s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents gave a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e i n c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s o f E l y and S c h o t t  (1952) and Synder e t a l (1953)  t h a t t h e growth r e s p o n s e o f c h i c k s i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e composition of the d i e t f e d .  R e s u l t s from t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s  show d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e r e s p o n s e s o b t a i n e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e s u r f a c e a c t i v e a g e n t s , Tween-80 and to  the b a s a l d i e t s .  Santomerse-80  P u b l i s h e d e x p e r i m e n t s on t h e growth  o f c h i c k s f e d d i e t s supplemented w i t h v a r i o u s s u r f a c t a n t s have f a i l e d t o show a growth s t i m u l a t i n g e f f e c t a t 4 weeks. The growth r e s p o n s e o b t a i n e d when c h i c k s were f e d t h e c o r n flshmeal b a s a l d i e t , adequately f o r t i f i e d  with f o l i c acid,  and supplemented w i t h s u r f a c e a c t i v e a g e n t s showed c o n s i d erable v a r i a t i o n .  I n Experiment I I , T e s t 1, 3 and 5, i t  was demonstrated t h a t when t h e s u r f a c e a o t i v e agents were added t o t h e c o r n - f l s h m e a l b a s a l d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g adequate f o l i c a c i d t h e r e was an improvement i n t h e r a t e o f growth a t 4 weeks.  I t may be n o t e d t h a t , i n a l l t e s t s where an  a n t i b i o t i c was a v a r i a b l e , s t i m u l a t i o n o f growth  occurred  a t 4 weeks. The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d a t 8 o r 9 weeks t e n d t o c o n f i r m t h e r e s u l t s o f E l y (1952) t h a t t h e w e i g h t r e s p o n s e s o b t a i n e d a t 10 weeks were d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e a t 4 weeks.  These  38. r e s u l t s do not agree with the findings of Branion and H i l l  (1954) or Snyder et a l (1953) who d i d not obtain any growth response over the 10-12 week feeding period with the a d d i t i o n of detergent to the bgsal d i e t . The data obtained from Experiment I I I , Test 4 i n d i c a t e a s i m i l a r i t y i n the a c t i o n of detergents to that of a n t i b i o t i c s since the addition of Santomerse-80 to a f o l i o a c i d d e f i c i e n t r a t i o n improved the rate of growth obtained with this ration.  The growth promoting properties of detergents  obtained by E l y (1951) has been reported by Stern and McGinn!s  (1953) to be due to a deficiency i n the basal d i e t of vitamin &12*  Equal growth responses resulted from the addition to  t h i s basal d i e t of vitamin B12, detergents or aureomycin, Whitehall e t a l (1950) and Mariakulandai e t a l (1952) suggests that under c e r t a i n conditions a n t i b i o t i c s spare the requirement of chicks f o r vitamin Bi2» possibly by increasing i n t e s t i n a l synthesis or by increasing i n t e s t i n a l absorption of the vitamin.  In the present feeding t e s t s , the basal d i e t s were  considered an ample source of vitamin B12; fishmeal and l i v e r meal supply u n i d e n t i f i e d factors as w e l l .  The a b i l i t y o f the  detergents to stimulate growth on these basal d i e t s may be explained, therefore, by increasing the i n t e s t i n a l absorption of vitamins or unknown growth f a e t o r ( s ) .  However, i n those  rations where no a d d i t i o n a l growth response occurred with the presence of detergents, the p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s that more  39. r a p i d a b s o r p t i o n o f t h e n u t r i e n t s from a r a t i o n ,  containing  such n u t r i e n t s i n excess o f maximum requirements, would n o t r e s u l t i n I n c r e a s e d growth. Examination o f the d a t a p r e s e n t e d by t h e d i f f e r e n t t a b l e s show t h a t a d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e a c t i o n o f the d e t e r gents and a n t i b i o t i c s e x i s t e d when the b a s a l d i e t s c o n t a i n e d oil.  The growth o b t a i n e d w i t h each o f these  supplements  b e i n g s i m i l a r when the d i e t c o n t a i n e d no a d d i t i o n a l o i l and the response t o t h e s u r f a c e a c t i v e agent f a l l i n g o f f as o i l was added t o the r a t i o n .  I n some o f t h e experiments r e p o r t e d  above, i t may be observed t h a t a combination o f a s u r f a c e a c t i v e agent and an a n t i b i o t i c s t i m u l a t e d growth g r e a t e r than the a n t i b i o t i c a l o n e w h i l e on the o t h e r hand, such combinations had the e f f e c t o f r e d u c i n g t h e growth below t h a t a c q u i r e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f an a n t i b i o t i c a l o n e .  The presence  o f o i l w i t h such combinations reduced t h e growth response t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than when an a n t i b i o t i c and a s u r f a c e a c t i v e agent were p r e s e n t i n t h e o i l - f r e e  diets.*  I t i s apparent from t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d t h a t any growth s t i m u l a t i n g e f f e c t by I n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents i n the d i f f e r e n t r a t i o n s c o u l d n o t be a t t r i b u t e d to an e f f e c t on t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f f a t .  There appears t o be  no adequate e x p l a n a t i o n o f the v a r y i n g growth responses t o the s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents observed i n these experiments.  In  s p e c u l a t i n g on the v a r i o u s responses, s e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s may  40.  be considered.  I f the stimulation of growth of chicks fed  a complete r a t i o n containing an a n t i b i o t i c i s due to an a l t e r a t i o n of the b a c t e r i a l f l o r a , the i n c l u s i o n of a surfaoe active agent may  also influence the i n t e s t i n a l f l o r a  i n a s i m i l a r manner.  Thus the e f f e c t of a surface active  agent might be said to be due to an a n t i b i o t i c e f f e c t .  Ely  and Schott (1952) suggested that s e l e c t i v e b a c t e r i a l i n h i b i t i o n may  also apply to surface active agents.  As a second  alternative theory these investigators proposed that more rapid absorption of n u t r i t i o n a l factors from an a l t e r e d i n t e s t i n a l surface tension.  I f such a phenomenon occurs,  then the change i n the i n t e s t i n a l surface tension may e f f e c t the i n t e s t i n a l microflora. or a l l of these phenomena may  also  I t i s possible that  be functioning  one  simultaneously  within the i n t e s t i n e of the chick and hence the variable responses.  I t therefore seems possible that v a r i a b l e growth  responses to detergents may be mediated through i n t e s t i n a l bacteria and (or) a l t e r e d surface tension.  In the l i g h t of  the data presented, and Inasmuch as other investigations have not yielded conclusive evidence on the mechanism of surface active agents within the i n t e s t i n e of the chick, the indiscriminate addition of surfactants to chick s t a r t e r rations i s contraindicated. Biely and March (1951b) obtained an improvement i n the growth of chicks when aureomycin was  added to a f o l i c a c i d  deficient diet.  They concluded that sub-optimal dietary  l e v e l s of f o l i c aold are adequate when the a n t i b i o t i c i s f e d . The r e s u l t s of these tests show that the addition of aureomycin to a corn-flshmeal type chick starter r a t i o n d e f i c i e n t i n f o l i o acid resulted i n increased growth, i n agreement with the r s u l t s of the above mentioned investigators.  Furthermore,  the data obtained i n Experiment I I , Test 4 and Experiment I I I , Test 2 indicate that both p e n i c i l l i n and l e c i t h i n lessened the degree of f o l i o a c i d deficiency when these compounds were added to the f o l i c aold d e f i c i e n t basal d i e t s .  With the f o l i c  a c i d d e f i c i e n t rations supplemented with f a t , i t w i l l be seen i n Tables 10, 11  that aureomycin or l e c i t h i n d i d not spare  the retirement f o r f o l i o acid as well as when these rations d i d not contain a d d i t i o n a l . f a t .  With the basal diets contain-  ing optimal l e v e l s of f o l i c a c i d there was a s l i g h t improvement i n growth with the presence of l e c i t h i n whereas with the a n t i b i o t i c s no greater e f f e c t occurred than with f o l i c a c i d alone.  The addition of f o l i c a c i d and aureomycin to the basal  d i e t d e f i c i e n t i n f o l i c a c i d and containing 7.5% herring o i l resulted i n a s l i g h t l y greater growth response than the addit i o n of f o l i c a c i d or f o l i c acid and l e c i t h i n . From the r e s u l t s reported herein i t does not appear that the i n c l u s i o n of l e c i t h i n i n diets containing added f a t enhanced the u t i l i z a t i o n of the f a t .  The influence of l e c i -  t h i n on the growth promoting a b i l i t y of the s t a r t i n g diets may  42. be seen i n Table 14  .  I t may be noted that, at f i v e weeks  of age, l e c i t h i n when added to the basal d i e t containing 7»5%  herring o i l further augmented the f o l i c a c i d deficiency.  Evidence i s presented i n the same table that a combination of f o l i c a c i d , aureomycin and l e c i t h i n to the basal d i e t with included f a t Increased the growth response of the chicks to a greater extent than any other supplement or combination of supplements. Since aureomycin and l e c i t h i n increased the growth rate of chicks f e d the f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t d i e t s , t h e i r e f f e c t i n growth may have been i n d i r e c t through an action on the i n t e s t i n a l microflora.  The a b i l i t y of l e c i t h i n to ameliorate  f o l i c a c i d deficiency i n rations without additional f a t and to exacerbate f o l i c a c i d deficiency when the d i e t s contained additional f a t cannot be associated with a s i m i l a r mechanism as occurs with aureomycin.  Why marginal intakes of f o l i c  a c i d w i l l cause chicks to respond favorably to the a d d i t i o n of aureomycin to t h e i r d i e t s has been postulated by B l e l y and March (1951b) by e i t h e r reducing the i n t e s t i n a l microflora which compete with the'chick f o r B-complex vitamins, and/or by permitting the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of microorganisms which synthesize the vitamins.  A search of the l i t e r a t u r e reveals no  data i n d i c a t i n g that l e c i t h i n may have a n t i b i o t i c properties although due to i t s emulsifying properties, the surface tension within the g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l t r a c t of the chick may  43. been a l t e r e d thereby a f f e c t i n g the microflora.  I t seems  unreasonable to assume that any ohange i n surface tension within the g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l t r a c t of the chick by l e c i t h i n would only I n h i b i t those micro-organisms that compete with the chick f o r c e r t a i n vitamins  and-or only permit the  m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of others whioh synthesize c e r t a i n vitamins, but that a l t e r e d surface tension would a f f e c t a l l members of the f l o r a equally. A tentative explanation of the differences i n the growth promoting values of l e c i t h i n i n f o l i c a c i d d e f i c i e n t diets can be offered by considering that l e c i t h i n  Increases  the speed and degree of e m u l s i f i c a t i o n . Such an e f f e c t could be explained by an increased rate of absorption of nutrients from the g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l t r a o t .  On the other  hand, i f f o l i c a c i d i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the proper metabolism of f a t , increasing the speed and degree of f a t e m u l s i f i c a t i o n would heighten the demand f o r f o l i c a c i d In the basal d i e t s containing supplemental f a t .  However, i t should be  mentioned that i f growth i s influenced by changes i n surface tension within the g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l t r a c t , the responses obtained by the presence of emulsifying agents i n the d i e t would be extremely v a r i a b l e . Analysis of the feces f o r f a t content  (Tables 3 and  9)  indicated that the presence of a surface a c t i v e agent i n the d i e t d i d a f f e c t the u t i l i z a t i o n of f a t .  44. These findings are not i n agreement with the hypothesis of Tidwell and Nagler (1952) i n which they suggest that f a t absorption i s not affected by exogenous emulsifiers*  It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h i s connection that Auger et a l (1947) improved the d i g e s t i b i l i t y of hydrogenated cottonseed o i l by incorporating 3 per cent l e c i t h i n with the o i l .  In these  experiments a combination of Tween-80 and aureomycin had a greater e f f e c t on f a t absorption than d i d each supplement singly.  The f a t excretion data also indicate that b i r d s  at 8 weeks of age are able to. u t i l i z e more f a t than at 4 weeks.  Tween-80 had a greater e f f e c t at 3 weeks i n lowering  t h i s r a t i o than i t d i d at 4 weeks.  45. The effeets of the addition of the o i l s i n various ehiok s t a r t e r rations upon the growth of the chicks to four and i n some cases f i v e weeks of age may be seen i n the data summarized i n Table  16.  These data show that the addition of various l e v e l s of herring o i l , cottonseed o i l and tallow to the basal d i e t s containing 18 or 20 per cent fishmeal resulted i n a stimul a t i o n to growth.  Concentrations of 2.5» 5*0 and 7.5 per  cent herring o i l produced heavier chicks at the end of the experimental period than d i d the basal rations. experiments  In those  containing either cottonseed o i l or tallow,  increased growth responses also occurred.  The u t i l i z a t i o n  of feed by these experimental chicks followed the same pattern as the growth response, that i s , with the b e t t e r growth more e f f i c i e n t a s s i m i l a t i o n of feed occurred. With the diets containing 8-9 per cent fishmeal, the r e s u l t s varied with the type of f a t present.  receiving  The chicks  the herring o i l supplement were only 3 grams heav-  i e r i n one experiment  (C) while i n the other experiment  (D)  at the end of four weeks they weighed less than the control groups.  On the other hand, those chicks receiving the d i e t s  with the supplementary  tallow had greater weight at the  conclusion of the experimental period than tfce basal d i e t s . The weight data obtained from the experiments with 6.7%  conducted  fishmeal i n the rations indicate that a general  46, decrease In f i n a l weights occurred with the presence of herring o i l , whereas with tallow and oottonseed  oil,  weights corresponding to or s l i g h t l y greater than the controls occurred.  The presence of f a t i n these d i e t s ,  i n a l l oases, regardless of the type, reduced the amount of feed reqired to produce a u n i t gain i n weight by the birds.  Furthermore, the e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n  was affected b e n e f i c i a l l y as the f a t l e v e l i n the r a t i o n was  increased. An inspection of the average weight records of the  groups of chicks at the end of t h e i r respective  experimental  period reveals a strong trend of greater weight among the chicks fed a basal d i e t high i n productive energy supplemented with f a t than that among chicks whose d i e t contained approximately  the recommended productive energy l e s s  supplemental f a t .  The extent to which f a t stimulated the  growth rate i n chicks v a r i e d with the type of f a t and the composition of the d i e t .  Herring o i l showed a tendenoy to  decrease growth i n chicks using rations low i n productive energy as compared to i t s use with the high productive energy of the com-fishmeal type of r a t i o n .  No such growth  depression accompanied the i n c l u s i o n of cottonseed o i l or tallow i n the d i e t s low i n productive energy although  these  f a t s increase the weight of the chicks when added to the corn-fishmeal type of basal r a t i o n .  I t i s apparent that  47. herring o i l , cottonseed  o i l and tallow are worthwhile  additions to an a l l fishmeal protein d i e t , whereas with a fishmeal-vegetable  protein d i e t only cottonseed  o i l or  tallow are worthwhile additions. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to o f f e r a d e f i n i t e explanation why one f a t should decrease the rate of growth with one type of r a t i o n while increasing growth on another, and furthermore, why one f a t should increase growth regardless of the basal r a t i o n used.  Some possible reasons f o r the discrepancy can  be advanced. I t may be possible that some d i s t i n c t i v e properties of o i l s might account f o r t h i s increased growth.  I t has been  reported by Reiser (1950) that unsaturated f a t t y acids are e s s e n t i a l f o r the proper n u t r i t i o n of chicks.  Carver and  Johnson (1954) presented r e s u l t s which Indicate that unsaturated f a t s contain some u n i d e n t i f i e d faotor(s) f o r maximum growth.  However, the growth stimulation observed from the  addition of tallow would not tend to support t h i s evidence due to a r e l a t i v e low content of unsaturated f a t t y acids. Numerous investigators have reported that fishmeal contains an unknown f a c t o r ( s ) necessary i n obtaining maximum growth f o r chicks and poults.  The p o s s i b i l i t y that such  factor(s) may be more e f f i c i e n t l y absorbed i n the presence of o i l i n the d i e t cannot be overlooked.  This view stems  from the f i n d i n g of Saxena (1953) that the maximum e f f e c t  48. of the faotor(s) occurred when the r a t i o n contained 5 per cent herring meal.  Whether f a t i n such a r a t i o n supplies  u n i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r ( s ) or acts as a growth promotant B  M  i n an  i n d i r e c t manner could not be determined from the experiments conducted.  However, the "promotant" action of the f a t may  act by increasing the p a l a t a b i l i t y of the r a t i o n , i n which case the ingredients of the r a t i o n would be more c l o s e l y bound to each other and hence the chick would not be able to pick out c e r t a i n ingredients of the r a t i o n . Comparatively few kinds of b a c t e r i a have the a b i l i t y to s p l i t f a t , and probably small numbers of those normally present i n the I n t e s t i n a l t r a c t of the chick possess t h i s property.  Therefore the addition of more f a t to the diet  than i s n a t u r a l l y present i n the ingredients i s not expected to induce increases i n numbers of i n t e s t i n a l b a c t e r i a , but on the contrary tends to suppress some of those already present.  This theory i s supported by the evidence put  forward by Slinger, Pepper and H i l l (1952) i n feeding turkeys d i e t s of r e l a t i v e l y high f a t content.  These investigations  showed that the increase i n growth may be accounted f o r by applying one of the many hypotheses proposed;, action,.by a n t i b i o t i c s as growth "promotants", w i l l deorease the growth of bacteria whioh would o r d i n a r i l y use large amounts of some e s s e n t i a l dietary nutrient. manner.  Dietary f a t may  act i n a s i m i l a r  o  49. The l a c t i c a c i d b a c t e r i a which are believed to make up a large part of the I n t e s t i n a l f l o r a of the chick require almost a l l of the known growth f a c t o r s f o r t h e i r own growth and m u l t i p l i c a t i o n , and hence may be regarded as agents harmful to the chioks.  The suppression of these b a c t e r i a  i n the f l o r a of the chick through the use of a n t i b i o t i c s has been shown by B i e l y and March (1951  )•  I f such b a c t e r i a  are i n h i b i t e d by the presence of dietary f a t , then additiona l vitamins and perhaps unknown f a c t o r ( s ) as well would then be available to the host. The influenoe of dextrin and other insoluble carbohydrates i n maintaining a high oollform count i n chicks whloh are believed to be potent vitamin synthesizers i s f a i r l y well known.  The high corn content may  contribute the  neo-  essary carbohydrates i n order to produce a high coliform f l o r a which through synthesis may  contribute a d d i t i o n a l  vitamins and unknown f a c t o r ( s ) , providing that dietary f a t does not decrease t h e i r numbers to a greater extent than the carbohydrates promote them. The f a i l u r e of herring o i l to maintain or increase the growth over the basal or with the basal supplemented with tallow or cottonseed  o i l cannot be r e a d i l y accounted f o r .  I f the amino acids of f i s h meal are more completely u t i l i z e d and/or micro-biological synthesis favours the chick, i t does not seem probable that one o i l should favour these phenomena  50. while another i s adverse to i t .  A more l i k e l y  explanation  would be the e f f e c t on the p a l a t i b i l i t y of the r a t i o n . Tallow as used i n these d i e t s i s a s o l i d at temperatures maintained i n the experimental a liquid.  rooms, whereas herring o i l i s  When incorporated i n the rations, tallow tends to  coalesce the ingredients of the r a t i o n more c l o s e l y than the herring o i l , hence ingredients l i k e wheat, corn and soybean o i l meal which tend to increase the bulklness of the r a t i o n are more c l o s e l y adhered to the other ingredients r a t i o n by the presence of tallow.  of the  This reduces the a b i l i t y  of the chick to s e l e c t c e r t a i n ingredients i n the r a t i o n with the o v e r a l l e f f e c t that the chick ingests a complete diet  continuously.  TABLE 16. E f f e c t of feeding d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of the various f a t s on the average weight (gms.) and feed e f f i c i e n c i e s of chicks a t 4 weeks of age. (Unless otherwise indicated.) Ration Type  A  Prod.*. Energy  888  B  914  B  914 914  B  %  Supplement  20.00  Basal T.5% H.O.  392 424  18.75  Basal  18.75  Basal  18.75  Basal  Fishmeal  5.0%  5.0% B  914  C  744  18.75 9.20  E  695  8.00  784  6.70  340 381 377  +12.0 +1.1..0  2.11 2.06 2.06  H.O.  416 * 447 *  + 7.5  2.05 1.98  H.O. Tallow  278 322 356  +15.8 t-28.0  801  P  801  6.70  6.70  J  514 547 *  + 6.8  Basal  260 263 281  +8.0  Basal  382 374 402 362 399  -2.1 +5.2 -5.5 +4.5  Basal  331 330 351 326  +6.0 -1.5  2.12 2.06 1.98 2.02  321 302 301  .15.8 -15.8  2.24 2.25 2.05  358 331 369 362  ~8.2 +-3.0 +1.1  2.36 2.35 2.20 2.23  6.0%  H.O. Tallow  5.0%  H.O. 5.0% Tallow 10.0% H.O. 10.0% Tallow  Basal  2.5% H.O. 5.0% H.O.  Basal  5.0%  5.0% 5.0% *  2.14 2.15  2.5% H.O. 5 . 0 * H.O. 7.5% H.O.  P  Increase Over Basal.  Feed Gain  Basal 5.0% C.S.O.  6.0% D  * *  %  ^8.2  2.5% H.O. 5.0% H.O. 5.0%  Weight 4 wks. 5 wks.'  H.O. C.S.O. Tallow  1.97 1.88  The productive energy values calculated from Fraps' (1946) table on the c a l o r i c content of the various r a t i o n s . (H.O. - Herring O i l C.S.O. - Cottonseed O i l )  TABLE 17 Composition of the diets supplemented with the various o i l s , (Weight of ingredients i n pounds unless otherwise stated.) Ration Type  C  D  E  F  28.00 28.00 18.40 9.20  20.00 26.00 25.00 8.00  32.60 32.60 13.40  31.05  2.00 1.50  3.00  Ingredient Ground Yellow corn Ground wheat Soyabean o i l meal Flshmeal Livermeal Dried brewers' yeast Dehydrated cereal grass Vacatone Iodized s a l t Limestone Bonemeal Feeding o i l (2.250A-300D) Choline chloride (25#) Manganese Sulphate  Ration Type  0.50 1.00  1.75  0.25 0.40 0.025  2.50 2.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 0.25 0.25  0.025  A  6.70  3.00 2.00 1.00  0.50  1.00 1.50 0.25 0.40 0.025  31.05 13.93  6.97  3.00 2.00 1.00  0.50 1.00 1.50 0.25 0.40 0.025  B  Ingredient Ground yellow corn Fishmeal Iodized s a l t Limestone Feeding o i l (2,250A-300D) Choline chloride (25%) Manganese sulphate Riboflavin Calcium pantothenate N i c o t i n i c acid F o l i c acid  70.25 20.00 0.5© 1.25 0.25 0.25 10.00 gms. 0.16 gms. 0.50 gms. 0.86 gms. 0.036 mg.  74.00 18.75 0.50 1.25 0.25 0.25 10.00 gms. 0.16 gms. 0.50 gms. 0.80 gms. 0.036 mg.  51. SUMMARY A s e r i e s o f t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t s i n v o l v i n g t e n t e s t s , was u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s on c h i c k growth o f v a r i o u s s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents and a n t i b i o t i c s when t h e s e s u b s t a n c e s were added t o c h i c k r a t i o n s .  Basal r a t i o n s of  d i f f e r e n t c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h and w i t h o u t a d d i t i o n a l f a t were u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d i e t a f f e c t e d t h e growth o f c h i c k s .  F a t was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e b a s a l  d i e t s a t t h e expense o f e q u i v a l e n t amounts o f c o r n s t a r c h . 1) Growth s t i m u l a t i o n h a s been o b t a i n e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents and a n t i b i o t i c s . a p p a r e n t f o r t h e same d e t e r g e n t  V a r i a b i l i t y was  i n different  experiments.  I n some c a s e s a growth s t i m u l a t i o n o f c h i c k s o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e s u r f a c e a c t i v e a g e n t s a t 4 weeks w h i l e i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t a n t i b i o t i c s i n eaoh case produced a growth s t i m u l u s a t 4 weeks.  The t r i p l e c o m b i n a t i o n  of f o l i c acid, a n t i -  b i o t i c s and s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents i n c r e a s e d t h e growth r a t e of c h i c k s t h a n t h e double c o m b i n a t i o n ments.  o f any o f t h e s u p p l e -  The t r i p l e r e s p o n s e was g r e a t e r i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f  additional f a t i n the basal diets. r i n g with the detergents  Growth s t i m u l a t i o n o c c u r -  a t 8 weeks o f age was n o t a l w a y s  apparent when t h e c h i c k s had r e a c h e d t h e age o f 4 weeks. Some o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o b s e r v e d i n t h e r e s p o n s e t o s u r f a c e a c t i v e agents seem t o be due t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e experimental  diets.  52. 2)  An increase i n the weights of chicks and an accompanied  improvement i n feed e f f i c i e n c i e s was obtained by the addition of e i t h e r herring o i l , cottonseed o i l or tallow to corn-fishmeal basal d i e t s well f o r t i f i e d with a l l the known vitamins required f o r chick growth.  On the other hand,  with  a fishmeal-soybean protein d i e t only cottonseed o i l or tallow are advantageous additions. 3)  Supplementation of the f o l i o a c i d d e f i c i e n t c o r n - f i s h -  meal type of r a t i o n with l e c i t h i n ameliorated the deficiency while a combination of l e c i t h i n , aureomycin and f o l i c a c i d did not improve the growth of the chicks as much as f o l i c acid and aureomycin. 4^)i No enhanced u t i l i z a t i o n of f a t as measured by the growth response of chicks could be a t t r i b u t e d to the addition of l e c i t h i n to d i e t s containing r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l s of f a t . 5)  Analysis of the feces f o r f a r oontent indicated that f a t  was more e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d i n the presence of a surface active agent. The greater u t i l i z a t i o n of f a t occurred  with  the higher l e v e l of the surface active agent and as the chicks became older.  53.  BIBLIOGRAPHY Aldereberg, D. and H. Sobotka, 1943. Influence of l e c i t h i n on f a t and vitamin A absorption i n man. J . N u t r i t i o n . 25: 255-263.  A l l i s o n , J.B., H.L. Rosenthal and A.H. M i l l s , 1952. E f f e c t s of non-ionic surface active agents on the growth of animals. Fed. Proc. 11: 4 3 5 . Angler, R.B., J.H. Booth, B.L. Hutchings, J.H. Howat, J. Semb, E.L.R. Stokatad, Y. Subbarow and C.W. Walker, 1945. Synthesis of a compound i d e n t i c a l with the L. easel f a c t o r i s o l a t e d from l i v e r . Science, 102: 227-228. Augur, V., H.S. Hollman and H.J. Deuel J r . , 1947. The e f f e c t of crude l e c i t h i n on the c o e f f i c i e n t of d i g e s t i b i l i t y and the rate of absorption of f a t . J . N u t r i t i o n . 33: 177-186. B i e l y , J . , B.E. March and H.L.A. Tarr, 1951. The n u t r i t i v e value of f i s h meal and condensed f i s h solubles. I I I . E f f e c t of heating f a t - containing and hexane-extracted meal. Progress Reports, P a c i f i c Coast Stations, F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, 89: 7 9 . B i e l y , J . and B. March, 1951. The e f f e c t of aureomycin and vitamins on the growth rate of chicks. Science 114: 3 3 0 331.  B i e r i , J.G. and R.P. Sandman, 1951. Comparative u t i l i z a t i o n of carotene administered o r a l l y and parenterally. Proc. Soc. E x p t l . B i o l . Med. 77: 617-619. Birch, T.W., 1938. The r e l a t i o n between vitamin B< and the unsaturated f a t t y acid faotor. J . B i o l . Chem. 124: 775793.  B i r d , O.D., M. Robblns, J.M. Vanderbett and J . J . P f i f f n e r , 1946. Observations on vitamin B conjugase from Hog kidney. J . B i o l . Chem. 163: 649-659. c  Branion, H.D. and D.C. H i l l , 1954. Detergents and chick growth. Poultry S c i . 33: 62-66. Burns, M.J., S.M. Hauge and F.W. Quaokenbush, 1951. U t i l i zation of vitamin A and carotene by the r a t . 1. E f f e c t s of tocopherol, Tween and dietary f a t . 2. E f f e c t s of mineral o i l and f a t content of d i e t . Arch. Biochem. 3 0 : 341-346.  54 Burr, G-.0. and M.M. Burr, 1929* A new deficiency disease produced by the r i g i d exclusion of f a t from the d i e t , J . B i o l . Ghem, 8 2 : 3 4 5 - 3 6 7 . Carver, D.S. and E,L, Johnston, 1 9 5 4 , Further studies of the u n i d e n t i f i e d chick growth factors i n unsaturated f a t s . Poultry S c i . 3 3 : 5 4 3 - 5 4 8 . Chow, B.F., J,M, Burnett, C,T. Long and L. Barrows, 1953* E f f e c t of non-ionic surface active agents on the growth of animals. Fed. Proc. 2: 4 3 5 . Commercial Fisheries Review, 1 9 5 3 . F i s h and W i l d l i f e Service, U.S.D.I. 1 5 : No. 6, 1 3 - 1 5 . Crampton, E.W., R.H, Common, F,A, Farmer, F.M. B e r r y h i l l and L. Wiseblatt, 1 9 5 1 . Studies to determine the nature of the damage to the n u t r i t i v e value of some vegetable o i l s from heat treatment. I . The r e l a t i o n of autooxidation to decrease the n u t r i t i o n a l value of heated linseed o i l . J. Nutrition 4 3 : 533-539. Darby, W.J., M.M.- Kaser and E. Jones, 1 9 4 7 . The influence of pteroylglutamlo a c i d on the absorption of vitamin A and carotene by patients with sprue. J . N u t r i t i o n 3 3 : 243-250.  Davis, J.E., 1 9 4 6 . Hyperchronlc anemia produced by choline or acetylcholine and the induced remission of both by f o l i c acid or l i v e r Injection: The probable mechanism of action of l i v e r and f o l i c acid i n the treatment of anemia. Am. J . Physiol. 1 4 7 : 4 0 4 - 4 1 1 . Chow, B.F., J.M. Burnett, C.T. Ling and L. Barrows, 1 9 5 3 . E f f e c t s of basal diets on the response of rats to c e r t a i n non-ionic surfaoe active agents. J . Nutrition. 4 9 : 5 6 3 577.  -  Dinning, J.S., C.K. Keith and P,L. Day, 1 9 4 9 . A r e l a t i o n ship of f o l i c acid to choline oxidase. Arch, Biochem, 2 4 : 463-464,  Eaton, H.D., L.D. Matterson, L. Decker, C.F. Helmboldt and E.L. Gungherr, 1 9 5 1 . Intravenous a n d o r a l administration of an aquous suspension of carotene to calves depleted of t h e i r vitamin A stores. J . Dairy S c i . 34: 1 0 7 3 - 1 0 8 0 . Elvehjem, C.A. and A. Arnold, 1 9 3 9 a . Influence of the comp p o s i t i o n of the d i e t on the thiamin requirement of dogs. J . Physiol. 2 6 : 2 8 9 - 2 9 2 .  55.  Elvehjem, CA., A. Arnold and F.E. Stern, 1939b. The r e l a t i o n of dietary f a t to the thiamin requirement of growing rate. J . N u t r i t i o n 17: 485-495. Ely, CM., 1951. Chick growth stimulation produced by sur, factants. Science 114: 523-524. Ely, C.M., and S. Schott, 1952. Surface active agents as growth stimulators i n chick r a t i o n s . Proc. 7th D i s t i l l e r s Feed Conference: 72-84. Esh, G.C. and T.S. Sutton, 1948. L e c i t h i n i n vitamin A N u t r i t i o n . J . N u t r i t i o n . 36: 391-404. Evans, H.M. and S. Lepkovsky, 1929. Sparing a c t i o n of f a t on the a n t i n e u r i t i c vitamin B. J . B i o l . Chem. 83: 269287. Forbes, E.B. and R.W. Swift, 1944. Associative dynamic e f f e c t s of protein, carbohydrate and f a t . J . Nut. 27: 453-468. Forbes, E.B., R.W. Swift and R.F. E l l i o t , 1946. Relation of f a t to economy of food u t i l i z a t i o n by the mature albino r a t . J . N u t r i t i o n 31: 213-227. Gregory, J.D., G.D. N o v e l l i and F. Lipmann, 1952. The composition of Coenzyme A. J . Am. Chem. Soc. 74: 854. Haliok, J.V., B.L. Rsid, G.L. Brown and J.R. Couch, 1953. The vitamin B^o content of egg yolks as influenced by o r a l and parenteral administration of the vitamin. J . N u t r i t i o n . 5 0 : 330-340. Halpern, G.R. and J . B i e l y , 1948. The u t i l i z a t i o n of vitamin A i n various c a r r i e r s . J . B i o l . Chem. 174: 817-826. Harris, R.S. and H.S. Sherman, 1951. N u t r i t i o n a l and pathological e f f e c t s of sorbitan monolaurate, polyoxyethylene monolaurate, and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate when fed to r a t s . Arch. Biochem. and Biophys. 34: 249-258. Henderson, E.W. and W.E. Irwin, 1940. The tolerance of growing chicks f o r soybean o i l i n t h e i r r a t i o n . Poultry S c i . 19: 389-395. Holman, R.T., 1951. Fatty acids i n n u t r i t i o n . Conf. on Research.  P r o c , o f 3rd  56.  Hoover, C. and P. Swanson, 1950, Role of f a t In protein metabolism. Fed. Proc. 9 : 362. Huff, J.S., R.K. Waugh and Q.H. Wise, 1951. E f f e c t of g l y c e r o l monosterate i n f a t absorption, growth and health of calves. J . Dairy S c i . 34: 1056-1063. Irwin, M.H., J . Weber and H. Steenbock, 1936. The Influence of c e r t a i n hydrotropic and other substances upon f a t absorption. J . N u t r i t i o n . 12: 365-371. Johnson, A.L., R.B. Scott and L.H. Newman, 1950. Tween-20 and f e c a l f a t i n premature i n f a n t s . Am. J . Diseases Children. 80: 545-550. Jones, C.H., P.J. Culver, G.D. Drummer and A.E. Ryan, 1948. Modification of f a t absorption i n the digestive t r a c t by the use of an emulsifying agent. Am. Internal Med.29: 1-10.  Keresztesy, J.C., E.L. Rickes and J.L. Stokes, 1943. Anew growth f a c t o r f o r streptococcus l a c t l s . S c i . 97: 465. Krantz, S.C., 1949. Unpublished observations c i t e d i n N u t r i t i o n Revs. 7, 205-207. Luckey, T.D., P.R. Moore, C.A. Elvehjem and E.B. Hart, 1946. E f f e c t of d i e t on the response of chicks to f o l i c a c i d . Proc. Soc. Exp. B i o l . Med. 62: 307-312. Leuoke, R.W., J.A. Haefer and F. Thorp J r . , 1952. The growth promoting e f f e c t on pigs of a surface active agent. Quarterly B u l l , of the Mich. Agr. Exp. Stat. 34: 331-332. Lynen, F. and S. Oohoa, 1953. Enzymes and f a t t y acid.Metabolism Biochemica et Biophysics Acta 12: 299-314. Niekol, C.A. and A.D. Welch, 1950. Synthesis of citrovorum factor from f o l i c acid by l i v e r s l i c e s . Pro. Soc. Exper. B i o l . Med. 74: 52-55. Pearson, P.B. and F. Panzer, 1949. E f f e c t of f a t i n the d i e t of rats on t h e i r growth and t h e i r excretion of amino acids. J . N u t r i t i o n . 38: 257-265. Pepper, W.F., J . J . Slinger and E.S. Snyder, 1953. Value of low l e v e l s of soybean o i l i n B r o i l e r d i e t s containing a high percentage of wheat. Poultry S c i . 32: 1084-85.  57.  P f i f f n e r , J . J . , SfB. Blinkley, E.S. Bloom, R.A. Brown, O.D. Bird, A.D. Emmett, A.G. Hogan and B.L. 0 ' D e l l , 1943. I s o l a t i o n of the antianemia factor (vitamin B ) i n o r y s t a l l i n e form from l i v e r . Science 97: 404-405. 0  Popp, E.M, and J.R. Totter, 1952. Studies on the r e l a t i o n ship between f o l i c acid and Coenzyme A. J . B i o l . Chem. 199:  547-552.  Quackenbush, F.W., F.A. Kummerov and H. Steenback, 1942. 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