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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Treatment of emotionally disturbed teen-age boys in a group-living residence : an examination of Children's… Cobbin, Jack Macdonald 1955

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TREATMENT OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED TEEN-AGE BOYS IN A GROUP-LIVING RESIDENCE An examination of Children's Aid Society wards, with special reference t© movement shown after a period i n a group-living institution*  by JACK MACDONALD COBBIN  Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of Social Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work  School of Social Work  1955 The University of British Columbia  ABSTRACT This t h e s i s d e a l s with t h e treatment o f d i s turbed c h i l d r e n . Beginning w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l care o f c h i l d r e n , i t t r a c e s developments t o t h e modern conception o f f o s t e r home placement and t h e e v o l u t i o n o f c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s . The v a l u e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d teenage boys i s c o n s i d e r e d . Three t y p e s o f r e s i d e n c e s now i n e x i s t e n c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e d e s c r i b e d f o r comparison purposes ( i n an appendix) The p r i n c i p a l methods used a r e (1) case study o f s i x teenage boys and t h e i r parents from Vancouver Children's A i d Society f i l e s . (2) comparative a n a l y s i s o f t h e behaviour o f t h e boys p r i o r t o and f o l l o w i n g placement i n the Group Residence. The behaviour of t h e boys a t t h e Residence b e i n g assessed from e x i s t i n g group work r e c o r d s . The scope o f t h e t h e s i s i s o f n e c e s s i t y l i m i t e d . Very e x t e n s i v e case work and group work r e c o r d s had t o be summarized, and t h e developmental h i s t o r y o f s i x boys t o g e t h e r w i t h b r i e f d e t a i l s o f p a r e n t a l h i s t o r y a r e compared. E x c e r p t s from the group r e c o r d s which d i s p l a y t h e progress o f t h e boys i n t h e Residence are i n c l u d e d . The v a l u e o f a l l excerpt m a t e r i a l i s assessed by t h e r e s e a r c h e r , and an attempt i s made t o i n d i c a t e t h e p r o g r e s s made by t h e boys d u r i n g t h e i r s t a y a t t h e Group Residence. Some o t h e r p o s s i b l e c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r s , are d i s c u s s e d , and a b r i e f Resume madp o f t h e s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Residence.  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The w r i t e r would l i k e t o acknowledge t h e a s s i s t ance g i v e n by R.E.Hawkes f o r many hours spent prov i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e Residence and t h e boys studied. The c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , who provided t h e case work and group work records, i s also g r a t e f u l l y appreciated.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1.  The Development of Aid to Dependent Children.  Growth from meeting of physical needs to the attempted solution of emotional needs. The development of the Child Guidance Clinics. Aims of the thesis Chapter 2.  Six Teen-Age Boys:  20  Treatment Programme at the Boys' Residence.  Group work treatment at the Residence. Description from group records. Development of leisure-time activities. The role of the Bouse parents i n the treatment setting. Overall growth and progress of the boys Chapter 5.  11  Case Studies.  Health history, sleeping habits, physical development. Scholastic records. Personalities, a b i l i t y to handle feelings of fear, anger, affection, dependency, etc. Attitudes toward parents, siblings, etc. Interests and recreation, adjustment to groups, friends, etc. Ambitions, self-awareness, sense of humour Chapter 4*  1  The Children's Aid Society's Boys' Residence.  The need for a group-living residence i s recognized by the Children's Aid Society. The inception of a Group Residence. Lines of authority, and intake procedure. Qualifications for staff, professional and non-professional. Criteria for treatment of disturbed teenage boys. Chapter 3.  Page  62  The Residence and the Progress of the Boys.  Effect of early childhood experience on Later behaviour. Some reasons for failure of earlier treatment methods. Success of the Home, i t s strengths and weaknesses. Recommendations  •• 97  APPENDICES: Appendix,  103  Bibliography,  113  TREATMENT OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED TEENAGE BOYS IN A GROUP-LIVING RESIDENCE An examination o f s i x C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y Wards, with s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o movement a f t e r a p e r i o d in a group-living institution.  CHAPTER 1. THE  I.  DEVELOPMENT OF AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN.  A great d e a l has been w r i t t e n concerning the v a r i o u s  of c h i l d care.  In e a r l y times  c h i l d r e n who  aspects  were deprived o f t h e i r  parents were sent to alms houses which cared a l s o f o r the aged the p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y  infirm.  In North America  and  institutions  f o r the s o l e care o f c h i l d r e n were i n t r o d u c e d about one hundred years ago.  Such p l a c e s served as s a n c t u a r i e s or p l a c e s o f  and p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n .  These i n s t i t u t i o n s were unique i n t h a t  they cared f o r c h i l d r e n o n l y . why  refuge  Some o f the more predominant  reasons  c h i l d r e n l i v e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d e death of a parent,  deser-  t i o n s , poverty,  i l l n e s s e s and p a r e n t a l incompetency.  i n d i c a t e s ; "The  a c t u a l improvements i n i n s t i t u t i o n s have f o l l o w e d  roughly c e r t a i n l o g i c a l s t e p s :  As Hopkirk  asylums and orphanages have changed  i n t o schools or homes and more r e c e n t l y , c e r t a i n  institutions  have become c h i l d r e n ' s c e n t r e s o r home s t u d i e s . " The modern i n s t i t u t i o n s t i l l attempts t o perform  the  primary  f u n c t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n by s u p p l y i n g food, s h e l t e r and c l o t h i n g .  Its  aims over the years have g r a d u a l l y extended to i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n f o r 2  the h e a l t h , education,  s k i l l s and r e c r e a t i o n of i t s r e s i d e n t s .  1.  Hopkirk, Howard, W., Sage Foundation, New  2.  Ibid!.,  p.14  I n s t i t u t i o n s Serving Children, R u s s e l l York, 1944, p.10.  B e f o r e 1900 elementary to  education i n i n s t i t u t i o n s g e n e r a l l y l e d  a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , f a r m work, o r d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e .  During the  p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s t h e r e has been a g r o w i n g tendency t o encourage i n t e l l e c t u a l l y p r o m i s i n g c h i l d r e n t o seek a h i g h e r education.  scholastic  C h i l d r e n have been g i v e n i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  are allowed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g o f t h e i r f u t u r e .  Our  own c h a n g i n g c u l t u r e h a s f o s t e r e d compulsory e d u c a t i o n and c h i l d labour laws.  Thus t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s no l o n g e r a s o u r c e o f cheap  l a b o u r b u t attempts t o g i v e each c h i l d t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and benef i t s h i s more f o r t u n a t e p e e r s may enjoy l i v i n g a t home w i t h t h e i r families.  The r e c e n t swing f r o m t h e t e r m i n s t i t u t i o n t o a use o f  t h e name "Home" marks t h e g r o w i n g r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t l e s s f o r t u n a t e c h i l d r e n s h o u l d l i v e i n r e s i d e n c e s s i m i l a r t o t h e average f a m i l y unit.  C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e t r e n d i s t o d e c r e a s e t h e s i z e o f t h e homes  and t h u s g i v e more i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n t o c h i l d r e n .  T h i s change  has been p a r a l l e l e d by t h e placement o f c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes. The f o s t e r home p l a n has been s a t i s f a c t o r y i n many i n s t a n c e s , and t h e r e i s today l e s s emphasis on i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e . However, t h e r e has been a r e c e n t r e v i v a l i n f a v o u r o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e f o r some c h i l d r e n who a r e t o o d i s t u r b e d e m o t i o n a l l y t o a d j u s t t o f o s t e r homes.  F i s h e r d i s c u s s e s c e r t a i n examples o f  such d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n who "had b i t t e r memories o f l i f e t h e i r own f a m i l i e s , and were a f r a i d and u n w i l l i n g t o g i v e set  o f parents a t r i a l .  with another  O t h e r s had a l r e a d y been i n f o s t e r homes,  had s u f f e r e d u n s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s t h e r e , and had come back t o the i n s t i t u t i o n .  A younger group o f boys whose b e h a v i o u r was so  p r o v o c a t i v e and a g g r e s s i v e t h a t t h e r e g u l a r f o s t e r p a r e n t s were u n w i l l i n g t o t a k e them. and b e h a v i o u r to  Then t h e r e were c h i l d r e n w i t h conduct  d i s o r d e r s so severe a s t o make them  t h e u s u a l f o s t e r home f a m i l y .  unacceptable  W i t h i n t h i s group t h e r e were  the h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d , t h e s e v e r e l y withdrawn, t h e extremely h o s t i l e and t h e c h i l d who was so s e l f - i n v o l v e d t h a t he c o u l d g i v e 1 l i t t l e a f f e c t i o n o r regard t o others."  I t i s very d i f f i c u l t t o  f i n d t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t who c a n a c c e p t , o v e r an extended p e r i o d o f time, aggressiveness, n i g h t l y enuresis, s t e a l i n g , l y i n g , and r e j e c t i o n o f a d u l t a u t h o r i t y .  truancy  The o b v i o u s q u e s t i o n t o be  answered i s "what causes c h i l d r e n t o d i s p l a y such p e r s o n a l i t y d i s orders?". A n o t h e r a u t h o r i t y , R e d l , d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e a s o n s f o r such e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e c o n s i d e r s t h a t - " I f we were t o make a l i s t o f some o f t h e m i s s i n g l i n k s i n t h e i r l i v e s i t would l o o k something like  this: 1)  Factors leading to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with adult, f e e l i n g s of  b e i n g l o v e d and wanted and encouragement t o a c c e p t v a l u e s and standards o f t h e a d u l t world. 2)  O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r and h e l p i n a c h i e v i n g a g r a t i f y i n g  recreational pattern. 3)  O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r adequate p e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p .  4)  O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r making community t i e s , e s t a b l i s h i n g a  1.  F i s h e r , F l o r e n c e , M., The Group Home. An I n n o v a t i o n i n C h i l d Placement. C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f A m e r i c a , New Y o r k , 18 N.Y., O c t o b e r , 1952.  f e e l i n g of being rooted somewhere where one belongs, where other people beside your parents know you and l i k e you. 5)  Ongoing family structures which were not i n some phase  of basic d i s i n t e g r a t i o n at almost any given time i n t h e i r l i v e s . 6)  Adequate economic security f o r some of the basic needs 1  and necessities of l i f e . " It i s small wonder that children experiencing even some of the aforementioned treatment react to other humans with mistrust, h o s t i l i t y , delinquency and soon become as Redl says - "The 2  chilren  nobody wants." A genuine concern about childhood tendencies which might lead to delinquency gave r i s e to the Child Guidance C l i n i c s .  The term  Child Guidance C l i n i c did not evolve u n t i l 1922 but the e s s e n t i a l s behind the scheme appeared a decade e a r l i e r .  The Chicago Juvenile  Psychopathic I n s t i t u t e founded by Doctor William Healy i n 1909 was the pioneer i n t h i s f i e l d .  Doctor Healy concentrated on a  study from the medical, psychological and s o c i a l points of view upon youthful offenders, with the aim of searching out the causes of t h e i r misbehaviour and f i n d i n g ways of preventing them from developing into adult criminals.  The work of the Chicago  Insti-  tute began exerting i t s influence on s o c i a l workers, psychologists, p s y c h i a t r i s t s , and juvenile court judges.  Healy's book, "The  Individual Delinquent," when published i n 1920 was soon regarded 1.  Redl, F r i t z and Wineman, David., Children Who I l l i n o i s Free Press, p.57  2.  ilhld..  p.22  Hate. Glencoe,  -  as an a u t h o r i t y the world over. of  compulsory  ure,  5 -  Schools o p e r a t i n g under laws  student attendance were aware o f s c h o l a s t i c  fail-  b u l l y i n g , t r u a n c y , withdrawal and o t h e r a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour.  Many t e a c h e r s were aware t h a t t h e problems o f c h i l d r e n were beyond the c o n t r o l o f t h e s c h o o l and gave a c t i v e support t o any e f f o r t d i r e c t e d t o o b t a i n i n g added i n f o r m a t i o n on methods t o h e l p  1  these c h i l d r e n . The N a t i o n a l Committee f o r Mental Hygiene,  on b e h a l f o f t h e  Commonwealth Fund, secured t h e s e r v i c e s o f Henry W. Thurston t o formulate a p l a n f o r work i n C h i l d W e l f a r e .  A demonstration pro-  gramme c o v e r i n g a f i v e y e a r p e r i o d was adopted i n 1921.  I t s pur-  poses were as f o l l o w s : 1)  "To develop t h e work o f the v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r whereby t h e  i n v a l u a b l e e a r l y c o n t a c t s which our s c h o o l systems make p o s s i b l e w i t h every c h i l d may be u t i l i z e d f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g and d e v e l opment o f the c h i l d . 2)  To develop t h e p s y c h i a t r i c study o f d i f f i c u l t  pre-delin-  quent and d e l i n q u e n t s i n s c h o o l and j u v e n i l e c o u r t s ; and t o dev e l o p sound methods o f treatment based on such a study. 3)  To p r o v i d e courses and t r a i n i n g a l o n g sound l i n e s f o r  those q u a l i f i e d and d e s i r i n g t o work i n the f i e l d . 4)  To extend by v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s t h e knowledge  2  and use o f these methods." The f i r s t f i e l d demonstration c l i n i c took p l a c e i n S t . L o u i s  1.  Stevenson, George, S., M.D., and Smith, Geddes, C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s , New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press,1934,  p.15. 2.  Ibid.,  p.21  - 9 -  i n 1922.  The s t a f f c o n s i s t e d o f a p s y c h i a t r i s t , p s y c h o l o g i s t  and p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l worker.  I t examined and t r e a t e d many  problem c h i l d r e n , demonstrated methods and o f f e r e d t o a s s i s t i n f o r m i n g permanent c l i n i c s .  While t h e f i r s t demonstration d i d not  e s t a b l i s h t h e need f o r a permanent c l i n i c , t h e n e x t attempt t o do so succeeded and a c l i n i c was o f f e r e d a t D a l l a s i n 1 9 2 3 .  When  t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s ended i n 1 9 2 4 , t h r e e permanent c l i n i c s were i n operation. spread.  By 1 9 2 7 i n t e r e s t i n C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s were wide-  The system was g r a d u a l l y adopted t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d 1  S t a t e s and has s u b s e q u e n t l y s p r e a d t o Canada. C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s c u r r e n t l y attempt t o s t u d y and t r e a t c h i l d r e n who a r e g e n e r a l l y between f i v e and f i f t e e n y e a r s o f age. They a r e brought t o t h e c l i n i c s because o f u n a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o u r - d i s o b e d i e n c e , s t e a l i n g , l y i n g , temper t a n t r u m s , t r u a n c y and s i m i l a r problems:  b e h a v i o u r problems  such a s n e r v o u s n e s s ,  inatten-  t i o n , shyness: . s c h o o l d i f f i c u l t i e s - poor work, r e t a r d a t i o n , i n d i f f e r e n c e , o r o t h e r c r i s e s - making i t d e s i r a b l e t o have a t e c h n i c a l a n a l y s i s o f h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s and q u a l i t i e s a s a g u i d e f o r constructive action.  C h i l d r e n a r e r e f e r r e d c h i e f l y by p a r e n t s , s c h o o l s ,  c o u r t s , and s o c i a l a g e n c i e s .  The r e f e r r i n g agency o r p a r e n t i s i n t e r -  viewed t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e problem.  The c l i n i c s ' f u n c -  t i o n may be d i a g n o s t i c o n l y ; when t r e a t m e n t i s g i v e n i t g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t s o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l adjustments. 1.  I t o f t e n i n v o l v e s working w i t h parents t o h e l p modify  Stevenson, George, S., M.D., and S m i t h , Geddes, C h i l d C l i n i c s . Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934, p.55.  Guidance  - 7 -  c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s o r u n s u i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t s which may i n g t h e c h i l d i n an adverse way.  Stevenson  be  affect-  d e p i c t s t h e metamor-  p h o s i s o f t h e C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c a s : 1)  B e g i n n i n g as an a d j u n c t t o t h e c o u r t s , i t has  an independent  developed  s t a t u s , e s t a b l i s h i n g c l o s e communication w i t h s c h o o l s  and s o c i a l a g e n c i e s and now moved toward u n i v e r s a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . " 2)  B e g i n n i n g i n i s o l a t i o n as a s o c i a l anomaly, i t has  shared  t e c h n i q u e s w i t h t e a c h e r s and s o c i a l workers and now has a p a r t i n t h e rapprochment between p s y c h i a t r y and g e n e r a l m e d i c i n e . " 3)  Beginning w i t h the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s e x p o s i t i o n of a  new  group t e c h n i q u e i t has l o s t i t s r i g i d i t y and become a f l e x i b l e instrument f o r v a r i e d uses.  C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s have p i o n e e r e d  the treatment of e m o t i o n a l l y i l l  children.  T h e i r s u c c e s s e s have  encouraged o t h e r s t o form t r e a t m e n t homes f o r s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n f o r whom C h i l d Guidance C l i n c s , f o s t e r c a r e a g e n c i e s , f a m i l y a g e n c i e s and c o r r e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s have been u n a b l e t o 1  p r o v i d e adequate h e l p . " P i o n e e r work i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t r e a t m e n t c e n t r e s f o r c h i l d r e n has been u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  I t i s not t h e  i n t e n t i o n to d i s c u s s these centres i n d e t a i l i n t h i s present  study,  which i s concerned w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t o f f e r e d a t t h e Vancouver centre. 1.  I t i s however, f e l t t h a t a r e v i e w o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t  and  Stevenson, George, S., M.D., and Smith, Geddes, C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934, p.155.  -  8 -  programme o f s e v e r a l o f t h e American c e n t r e s might be o f h e l p i n making some e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e programme d i s c u s s e d i n t h e main part of the t h e s i s .  T h e r e f o r e , a review o f t h r e e American c e n t r e s  has been made and i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e appendix on pages 103, 105 and 109.  The t h r e e chosen f o r d i s c u s s i o n a r e :  1)  The A r t h u r Brisbane Treatment  2)  Hawthorne-Cedar K n o l l s S c h o o l .  3)  Evaston R e c e i v i n g Home.  The number o f treatment  Centre.  centres f o r emotionally disturbed 1  c h i l d r e n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s n o t l a r g e and as R e i d emphasizes, - few, i t i s b e l i e v e d , have developed d e s c r i b e d here.  r e s o u r c e s comparable t o those  The t h r e e o f the twelve treatment  c e n t r e s have  been chosen f o r d i s c u s s i o n because they v a r y i n t h e number o f c h i l d r e n who r e s i d e t h e r e i n , because i n t a k e p o l i c i e s and p h i l o s o p h i e s v a r y , because they t y p i f y t h e e x i s t i n g treatment i n t h e United S t a t e s o f America.  These treatment  residences  c e n t r e s were a l l  e s t a b l i s h e d t o f i n d more s u c c e s s f u l ways o f h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n . have a l l developed  a t o t a l approach t o therapy, as Reid  - " I n d i v i d u a l psychotherapy  They  indicates,  w i t h t h e c h i l d and h i s p a r e n t s , a  t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y designed l i v i n g experience and r e m e d i a l 2  education  are a l l seen as p a r t s o f a whole." In Canadaj t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y a t Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, has become aware o f t h e need f o r a treatment  home f o r  1.  Reid, Joseph, H., and Hagan, Helen, R., " R e s i d e n t i a l T r e a t ment f o r E m o t i o n a l l y D i s t u r b e d C h i l d r e n , " C h i l d Welfare League o f America, New York, 1952, P r e f a c e p.5.  2.  Ibid., p . l .  d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , and, i n 1 9 5 0 , a R e c e i v i n g Home f o r teen-age boys was opened.  The R e c e i v i n g Home c o n s i s t s o f a l a r g e house  l o c a t e d i n a middle c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t .  Staff includes  domestic h e l p , r e l i e f s u p e r v i s o r s , house p a r e n t s , case w o r k e r and group w o r k e r .  I t i s dependent  upon t h e community f o r s c h o o l i n g  and c o n s t r u c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y .  Some o f t h e b e h a v i o u r  e x h i b i t e d by t h e boys p r i o r t o placement i n c l u d e d s t e a l i n g , b u l l y ing,  f i g h t i n g , h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d a u t h o r i t y , t r u a n c y and i n a b i l i t y  to r e l a t e t o p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s . the  There were t e n boys r e s i d i n g a t  R e c e i v i n g Home between t h e age o f t w e l v e and s i x t e e n and s i x  have been chosen f o r t h i s case s t u d y .  S e l e c t i o n was based on t h e  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f background h i s t o r y o f t h e b o y s , s u f f i c i e n t case r e c o r d i n g w h i l e t h e boys were a t t h e R e c e i v i n g Home and t h e b o y s ' l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e a t t h e R e c e i v i n g Home.  Four o f t h e t e n c a s e s  were e x c l u d e d due t o one o r more o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d r e a s o n s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s an attempt i s made t o : 1)  Show t h e e f f e c t o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d l i f e on l a t e r b e h a v i o u r .  2)  Show why t h e c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t e d p r o b l e m s .  3)  Show why e a r l i e r a t t e m p t s t o modify b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s failed.  4)  Show what p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s group l i v i n g o f f e r e d t h e s e c h i l d r e n and,  5)  Show t h e amount o f s u c c e s s t h a t t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t e d .  The second c h a p t e r g i v e s a b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e e s t a b l i s h ment and maintenance o f t h e Home, w i t h some d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e  -  10  i n t a k e p r o c e d u r e and t r e a t m e n t p l a n .  Chapter 3 i n c l u d e s r e c o r d s  o f t h e s o c i a l h i s t o r y and d i a g n o s i s o f c a r e o f t h e s i x c a s e s mentioned.  Chapter 4 d i s c u s s e s t h e movement shown i n t h e s i x  cases o v e r a p e r i o d o f t r e a t m e n t and t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r a t t e m p t s an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e programme and o f t h e f u t u r e development o f such c e n t r e s i n Canada.  CHAPTER 2. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY'S BOYS' RESIDENCE. I n i t i a l Work: There i s a s c a r c i t y o f w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l on t r e a t m e n t r e s i dences f o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d Canadian c h i l d r e n .  I n so f a r  as can be a s c e r t a i n e d , i t i s t h e o p i n i o n o f some s e n i o r  social  workers t h a t no s i m i l a r f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t e d i n Canada i n 1954 a s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e American f i e l d .  Some group houses e x i s t e d .  However, t h e nomenclature v a r i e s and t h e y a r e r e f e r r e d t o as homes, h o s t e l s , and r e s i d e n c e s and each one has u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i t s own. I n e a r l y 1950, t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, found t h e y had a number o f teen-age boys i n t h e i r  care.  There were no a v a i l a b l e homes f o r t h e s e boys as e a r l i e r f o s t e r homes had f a i l e d . R e c e i v i n g Home.  I n A p r i l 1950, t h e s e boys were p l a c e d i n t h e U n t i l t h i s t i m e t h e Home had c a r e d f o r i n f a n t s  u n t i l more permanent p l a n s c o u l d be made f o r t h e i r w e l f a r e . Boys' Home was e s t a b l i s h e d as an agency r e s o u r c e and  The  due t o n e c e s s i t y  i t s a u t h o r i t y i s i d e n t i c a l t o that vested i n the Children's A i d  Society.  I t i s a u t h o r i z e d , as a p r i v a t e agency t o o p e r a t e under t h e  C h i l d r e n ' s P r o t e c t i o n A c t o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The agency and t h e  Boys' Home a r e f i n a n c e d by t h e Community Chest and C o u n c i l and t h e  - 12 -  M u n i c i p a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments. U n t i l June 1951  t h e r e was no programme, and i n t a k e was  a f f e c t e d when a l l o t h e r placement r e s o u r c e s were exhausted.  A  case worker was appointed as s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e Home and c a r r i e d a f u l l country c a s e l o a d i n a d d i t i o n t o these d u t i e s .  I n June  1951,  a new case worker was made Boys' Home S u p e r v i s o r and h i s r e g u l a r caseload was reduced t o enable him t o spend more time a t t h e Receivi n g Home, i n an attempt group o f boys.  t o develop an adequate programme f o r t h e  A t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d o f s i x t e e n months f o l l o w e d .  There was a g r a d u a l change i n the Home* boys twelve t o s i x t e e n y e a r s o f age, vironment  From a "Catch a l l " f o r  i t became a group l i v i n g en-  f o r those boys who, i t was f e l t would a d j u s t t o t h i s  l i v i n g experience.  The number o f boys was reduced from f i f t e e n t o  t e n and p o p u l a t i o n changes were continuous.  Boys who were constant-  l y i n v o l v e d i n sex-play, c a r and b i c y c l e t h e f t s , r u n n i n g away, ext e n s i v e , p e t t y t h e f t s , h a b i t u a l t r u a n c y and a host o f o t h e r emotiona l problems were removed. more p o s i t i v e p r o g n o s i s . aforementioned  They were r e p l a c e d by boys who had a Three o f the group who e x h i b i t e d t h e  behaviour were sent t o t h e Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l .  Another l a d was committed t o Essondale Mental H o s p i t a l . moves were p r e c i p i t a t e d somewhat because neighbours  These  sent a p e t i -  t i o n t o the C i t y C o u n c i l which requested t h a t t h e Home be removed. There was a l s o an awareness on t h e p a r t o f the agency and R e c e i v i n g Home s t a f f t h a t some o f t h e boys needed a more c o n t r o l l e d environment  than t h e House c o u l d o f f e r .  T h i s t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d was  - 13 a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h r e e changes i n House parents e r a b l e changes i n r e l i e f s t a f f . i n t a k e , - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and June 1952  By June 1952,  innum-  p o l i c y regarding  l i m i t e d programmes was  u n t i l September 1952,  and  created.  the boys d i s p l a y e d  From  considerable  h o s t i l i t y but g r a d u a l l y s e t t l e d down and made a f a i r adjustment t o the Home. DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY RESOURCES: The R e c e i v i n g Home, per se, had activities. i t y resources  l i m i t e d space f o r group  To overcome t h i s weakness i t was should be canvassed.  In June 1951,  members o f the neighbourhood were contacted ance.  A neighbourhood a u x i l i a r y was  decided  the commun-  responsible  and asked f o r a s s i s t -  formed.  T h i s c l u b was  com-  p r i s e d of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a l o c a l church, Alexandra Neighbourhood House and  l o c a l s e r v i c e c l u b members., e.g.  Kiwanis  Through the e f f o r t s of t h i s a u x i l i a r y , the c h u r c h . o f f e r e d room i n the basement o f the R e c e i v i n g Home. hood House p r o v i d e d  the use  Club.  the games  Alexandra Neighbour-  o f i t s woodwork shop, o f f i c i a l s o f  the  Army and A i r Force Cadets a l s o o f f e r e d t h e i r s e r v i c e s when approached.  The Y.M.C.A.'s Boys* Camp at Camp Howdy was  with  e f f e c t i v e n e s s d u r i n g the summer v a c a t i o n .  also u t i l i z e d Over a p e r i o d of  time l i m i t e d l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s g r a d u a l l y developed. October 1952,  a group worker j o i n e d the s t a f f .  By  From t h i s p e r i o d  onward, treatment o f the boys became more pronounced.  The  former  a p p e l a t i o n , "Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home" no l o n g e r a p p l i e d .  I t was  now  a Group L i v i n g Residence f o r Teen-age boys.  Chapter 4 w i l l d e a l w i t h the p e r i o d between October 1952 t o A p r i l 1953 as i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t more e f f e c t i v e treatment o f the . boys was i n s t i g a t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d .  STAFF QUALIFICATIONS; N o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were s e t f o r t h a s follows: 1)  Mature people who can h a n d l e t h e day t o day b e h a v i o u r  and problems o f d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . 2)  P e o p l e who a r e c a p a b l e o f a c c e p t i n g s u p e r v i s i o n f r o m a  s o c i a l worker. 3)  Men and women who a r e f l e x i b l e and can a c c e p t and g a i n  knowledge f r o m d i r e c t i o n . 4)  People who a r e a b l e t o share t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a r e s i -  dence w i t h an agency who a r e n o t prone t o o p e r a t e i t on t h e i r own. 5)  Academic t r a i n i n g (perhaps Grade Twelve).  I f possible  house mother s h o u l d be a r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e .  own  6)  An approximate age l i m i t o f t h i r t y t o f o r t y y e a r s .  7)  House p a r e n t s s h o u l d have t h e a b i l i t y t o r e s t r a i n t h e i r  d e s i r e t o give o l d e r c h i l d r e n a great deal o f a f f e c t i o n unless  t h e boys t h e m s e l v e s 8)  seek  it.  The House f a t h e r s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f m a i n t a i n i n g a  s t r o n g , f a i r d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e Home.  I f problems a r i s e w h i c h r e -  q u i t e s e r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e , t h e House f a t h e r s h o u l d be a b l e t o d i s cuss t h e s i t u a t i o n f u l l y w i t h t h e s o c i a l worker b e f o r e a c t i o n i s taken. 9)  House p a r e n t s s h o u l d be f r e e o f p e r s o n a l problems o f an  i n t e n s i v e nature.  T h i s has caused c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y when  t r e a t m e n t o f t h e c h i l d has become secondary t h e House p a r e n t s .  t o t h e treatment o f  10)  B o t h p a r e n t s need p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c h i l d r e n  a l t h o u g h i t i s h e l p f u l i f t h e House p a r e n t s have no c h i l d r e n o f their  own. 11)  Minimum House s t a f f f o r t h i s t y p e o f r e s i d e n c e i n c l u d e s  House p a r e n t s , one f u l l t i m e domestic  ( f o r c l e a n i n g , washing,  etc.)  one week-end cook and one week-end r e l i e f s u p e r v i s o r . INTAKE: The c r i t e r i a f o r i n t a k e were now based not o n l y on t h e needs o f t h e a p p l i c a n t but t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Residence, w h i c h accommodates o n l y t e n boys.  The f o l l o w i n g a r e some o f t h e e s s e n t i a l  requirements: a)  Approximate  age - e l e v e n t o fifteen],: boys o n l y .  b)  School attendance.  c)  Strong p a r e n t a l t i e (negative or p o s i t i v e )  d)  Problems o f s t e a l i n g , l y i n g , e n e u r e s i s .  e)  M o b i l i t y t o form r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s .  f)  D i f f i c u l t y i n understanding or accepting a u t h o r i t y or  discipline. g)  E x p e r i e n c e o f u n s u c c e s s f u l f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t s .  h)  Long t e r m o r permanent  i)  Near average i n t e l l i g e n c e o r where i n t e l l i g e n c e i s  a f f e c t e d by e m o t i o n a l  placement.  problems.  j)  A b i l i t y to function within a  k)  Agency of  group,  placement.  Any s o c i a l worker a t t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y can r e q u e s t placement  of a c h i l d .  The worker p r o v i d e s a s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f t h e  -  16  -  a p p l i c a n t and a conference i s h e l d t o determine the a d v i s a b i l i t y of i n t a k e .  The D i r e c t o r o f t h e Boys* Residence u s u a l l y makes  the f i n a l d e c i s i o n .  He can however, be o v e r - r u l e d by the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n cases where t h e need f o r placement  agency  i s great.  Intake conferences a r e attended by case work s u p e r v i s o r s , the agency case work c o n s u l t a n t , D i r e c t o r o f the Boys'  Residence,  the case worker i n v o l v e d and i n some i n s t a n c e s a p s y c h i a t r i s t . LINES OF AUTHORITY: The Boys' Residence S u p e r v i s o r t a k e s the i n i t i a t i v e and the a u t h o r i t y .  has  He i s i n charge o f the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f  and handles such d u t i e s as s u p e r v i s o r and h i r i n g and f i r i n g o f staff.  F i n a l d e c i s i o n however, u s u a l l y r e s t s with the E x e c u t i v e  D i r e c t o r where a d m i n i s t r a t i v e matters are i n v o l v e d .  Where p l a n -  n i n g and treatment o f the boys i s concerned, the Boys' S u p e r v i s o r i s guided by conferences w i t h h i s treatment s u p e r v i s o r . . P r o p o s a l s o f the agency  d i r e c t o r and treatment s u p e r v i s o r a r e submitted t o  the R e c e i v i n g Home Committee, composed o f s t a f f , board, and l a y members.  Recommendations are then presented t o the Board o f D i r -  ectors f o r f i n a l  ratification.  PROFESSIONAL STAFF: Treatment  i n t h i s Group Residence r e q u i r e s one case worker  and one group worker,  and a Boys' Residence S u p e r v i s o r .  v i s o r s a r e necessary t o guide both workers.  Super-  Assistance i s also  r e q u i r e d from the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c o r from p s y c h i a t r i c sultation.  con-  The treatment programme d e s c r i b e d i n chapter 1+ operated  - 17 -  with t h e Boys' Residence S u p e r v i s o r a l s o h a n d l i n g the case worker  role.  TREATMENT: Treatment i s viewed as a group l i v i n g p r o j e c t i n which and boys work t o g e t h e r t o make t h e v e n t u r e a s u c c e s s .  staff  The p l a n -  n i n g , a c t i v i t i e s programme and day t o day l i v i n g o f the Residence are  used t o develop the s t r e n g t h s o f each i n d i v i d u a l .  are  made t o e r e c t i n t i m a t e t r a d i t i o n s concerning Christmas, b i r t h -  days, e t c . which are p a r t o f t h e average f a m i l y u n i t .  Attempts  The t r e a t -  ment aim i s t o develop w e l l b a l a n c e d and happy c i t i z e n s .  It i s  r e c o g n i z e d t h a t Residence i s an a r t i f i c i a l s e t t i n g i n which the t o t a l environment, s o c i a l and p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s are c o n t r o l l e d and f o c u s e d t o produce the best treatment medium. to  T h i s i s done  h e l p the d i s t u r b e d youngster meet t h e d a i l y and f u t u r e p r e s s -  ures o f h i s environment.  I t i s believed that disturbed  children  need not o n l y a n u t r i t i v e d i e t , but a s o c i a l one as w e l l .  This i s  p r o v i d e d by the s o c i a l case worker, s o c i a l group worker and the House p a r e n t s . team. to  S t a f f , p r o f e s s i o n a l o r otherwise, f u n c t i o n as a  Behaviour and p r o g r e s s o f each c h i l d i s watched from week  week and t h e i n d i c a t e d treatment f o r h e l p i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i s  d i s c u s s e d and e f f e c t e d by the t o t a l s t a f f where p o s s i b l e . s p e c i f i c cases one s t a f f member's s k i l l s  may be  In  utilized.  OUTLINE OF BASIC STAGES IN TREATMENT: a)  When t h e c h i l d a r r i v e s a t the Residence, t h e i n i t i a l  f o c u s i s t o a s s i s t him t o a d j u s t t o the Home environment.  He i s  - i d-  a s s i s t e d t o f e e l secure and t o l e a r n t h a t he can p r o g r e s s a t h i s own speed and a b i l i t y . b)  He i s then h e l p e d t o f u n c t i o n adequately i n t h e group  l i v i n g atmosphere. c)  The group work programme now h e l p s t h e youngster t o  l e a r n t o co-operate, b u i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and encourage t i v e and s a t i s f y i n g experiences through group d)  initia-  activity.  At t h i s p o i n t , t h e c h i l d begins t o emerge as an i n d i v i d -  u a l with s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses.  I n t e n s i v e treatment such a s  p l a y therapy o r p s y c h i a t r i c treatment now may be i n t r o d u c e d . The case worker i s used i n t h i s a r e a . e)  When t h e youngster d i s p l a y s s e l f and group  adjustment,  t h e next step i s a move t o t h e community through community c e n t r e s , neighbourhood f)  house and Y.M.C.A.etc.  When he has e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f w i t h h i s peers i n t h e  community, h i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s complete.  When h i s i n t e r e s t s  begin t o develop beyond t h e scope o f t h e programme placement where i s i n d i c a t e d .  else-  T h i s may take t h e form o f f o s t e r home p l a c e -  ment, employment and commercial  b o a r d i n g home o r r e t u r n t o h i s  parents, e t c . The remainder o f the t h e s i s i s devoted t o a study o f t h e programme a t t h e Home, and i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e examination o f t h e case r e c o r d s o f s i x o f t h e r e s i d e n t s , w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e movement evidenced i n t h e r e c o r d s a f t e r a p e r i o d o f treatment.  In  chapter 3 the s i x case r e c o r d s a r e g i v e n i n a b r i d g e d form as t h e y  were e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h e f i l e s .  Chapter 4 d i s c u s s e s t h e t r e a t -  ment p l a n i n more d e t a i l and i n c l u d e s t h e r o l e o f t h e case w o r k e r , t h e group l e a d e r and t h e House p a r e n t s .  The f i n a l  c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e e x t e n t o f movement i n t h e s i x c a s e s and a t t e m p t s some e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e programme.  CHAPTER 3. SIX TEEN-AGE BOYS:  CASE STUDIES.  Six case records were studied i n order to provide the background history of each case i n capsulated form.  The  files  of the s i x parents were also consulted i n order to gain a succinct picture of each family u n i t . CASE #1. I. a)  Name - Wayne Carr.  b)  Date of B i r t h - August 28  c)  Status - VJard of Children's Aid Society - March 7 1949-  II.  1938.  Parents: a)  Mother:  -  Born June 9 1909,  Canadian by b i r t h .  t i o n , Grade Six, r e l i g i o n - Protestant, married 1930. marriage employed as domestic and waitress. deserted her mother and s i x children.  EducaP r i o r to  Mrs. Carr's father  She l e f t her own husband  six months a f t e r the marriage as he expected her to support Married Wayne's father i n 1935 who the marriage.  him.  deserted her two years a f t e r  Mother t r i e d hard to co-operate with agency.  meant well and was a hard worker.  She had poor l i v i n g  and appeared to have l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Welfare  She  standards  officials  reported she had d i f f i c u l t y c o n t r o l l i n g her children as they matured. b)  Father: - Born June 11 1908.  Canadian by b i r t h .  t i o n not known, r e l i g i o n - Protestant.  Educa-  Occupation - not known.  Described by h i s wife as brutal and s p i t e f u l .  Made no e f f o r t to  support h i s w i f e o r f a m i l y w h i l e i n army d u r i n g second w o r l d war o r a f t e r h i s d i s c h a r g e . III.  Siblings: a)  B e t t y , s t e p - s i s t e r , b o r n 7 December  b)  Susan, s i s t e r , b o r n 3 November  IV.  1930.  1936.  F i r s t Contact w i t h Agency: November 15 1944.  mother was  Neighbours o f t h e C a r r f a m i l y r e p o r t e d  neglecting children.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n d i s c l o s e d mother  was w o r k i n g as a d i s h w a s h e r i n a l o c a l c a f e .  The home was  c r i b e d as a , d i r t y , s q u a l i d two room tenement house. agreed t o q u i t h e r j o b and a c c e p t V.  P a r e n t s ' M a r i t a l Adjustment:  insecurity.  VI.  Mother  social assistance.  A p p a r e n t l y f r a u g h t w i t h d o m e s t i c q u a r r e l s and  was  des-  economic  T h i s c u l m i n a t e d w i t h f a t h e r ' s d e s e r t i o n when Wayne  two y e a r s o f  age.  a) A t t i t u d e s o f Parent toward B i r t h o f C h i l d : F a t h e r ' s r e a c t i o n unknown.  Mother was u n d e r n o u r i s h e d  r u n down p r i o r t o b i r t h o f t h e c h i l d .  She was  f i n a n c i a l i n s e c u r i t y , h e r husband's b e h a v i o u r employment.  She was  younger c h i l d aged b)  and  concerned w i t h and h i s s p o r a d i c  a l s o l e f t w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r her two.  Health of C h i l d at B i r t h :  N a t u r a l b i r t h , p a t i e n t b r e a s t f e d , weaned a t f i v e months. c)  Food H a b i t s :  ' He had a h e a r t y a p p e t i t e but l a t e r was t o which he was  u n a b l e t o eat  unaccustomed i n h i s e a r l i e r l i f e .  food  F a m i l y were on  - 22 -  r e l i e f f o r many y e a r s and d a i l y meals were o f a s i m p l e n a t u r e . I n h i s t e e n s Wayne r e f u s e d f r u i t and r i c h f o o d p r e f e r r i n g  bread,  b u t t e r , p o t a t o e s and s i m i l a r s t a r c h e s . d)  Bowel and B l a d d e r C o n t r o l ;  Wayne had no d i f f i c u l t y e s t a b l i s h i n g good t o i l e t h a b i t s a l t h o u g h u n t i l s i x y e a r s o f age he wet t h e bed a t n i g h t i f he was  cold.  He a l w a y s had r e g u l a r bowel movements.  e)  Sleeping Habits;  Wayne was a sound s l e e p e r b u t h i s eyes were n e v e r f u l l y c l o s e d w h i l e he s l e p t . VII.  a)  P h y s i c a l Development:  March 7 1949. - Examined by p h y s i c i a n a f t e r becoming a ward. At t h i s t i m e , h i s p o s t u r e and p e r s o n a l h y g i e n e were poor and h i s t e e t h were i n poor c o n d i t i o n . He weighed s e v e n t y - f i v e pounds and was  f i f t y - s i x i n c h e s i n h e i g h t and was h a r d o f h e a r i n g i n one e a r . b)  H i s t o r y o f I l l n e s s and D i s e a s e s :  Wayne c o n t a c t e d s c a r l e t f e v e r a t e i g h t e e n months and was hospitalized. was  When he r e t u r n e d he was s u b j e c t t o f i t s w h e r e i n he  unable t o r e c o g n i z e h i s mother.  He had R u b e l l a a t two y e a r s  and C h i c k e n Pox a t t h r e e y e a r s o f age.  I n September 1950 h i s  adenoids were removed t o f a c i l i t a t e h i s h e a r i n g . c)  Reaction t o I l l n e s s :  On June 16 1951, he f e l l f r o m a window and f r a c t u r e d b o t h wrists.  He was a d i s c i p l i n e p r o b l e m i n h o s p i t a l and r e v e a l e d  intense fear of bodily injury.  F i r s t attempt t o remove arm c a s t s  f a i l e d and Wayne s a i d he was a f r a i d t h e d o c t o r was g o i n g t o c u t  - 23 -  hira h o r r i b l y and p o s s i b l y c u t o f f h i s arms.  F i n a l l y , he had t o  be h e l d f o r c i b l y and screamed h y s t e r i c a l l y d u r i n g t h e removalooT his  casts.  VIII.  S c h o l a s t i c Record:  Wayne r e p e a t e d Three on t r i a l .  Grades One and Two and was promoted t o Grade  He was promoted t o Grade F o u r .  Teacher r e p o r t e d  him a s moody a t t i m e s b u t b e l i e v e d he was d e v e l o p i n g n i c e l y i n 1949• 1951  He was promoted t o Grade F i v e on t r i a l i n June 1950. I n t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l r e p o r t e d he was h o p e l e s s l y o v e r - g r a d e d  but c o u l d n ' t be demoted because o f h i s s i z e and age.  Child  Guidance C l i n i c i n t e r v i e w i n O c t o b e r 1948 d i s c l o s e d he t e s t e d l o w i n g e n e r a l group o f average i n t e l l i g e n c e .  He was no  behaviour  problem a t s c h o o l , b u t was l e t h a r g i c and i n t r o v e r t e d . IX.  a)  Personality:  I n 1948 a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r r e p o r t e d Wayne was f r e q u e n t l y l e f t a l o n e a t home. d i d n ' t r e a d them.  He spent h i s t i m e l o o k i n g a t comic books b u t  He l a c k e d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and was r e t i c e n t and  v e r y prone t o s u g g e s t i o n .  He had d i f f i c u l t y making f r i e n d s , l a c k e d  i n i t i a t i v e and l e t o t h e r s l e a d him.  He m i n g l e d w i t h s m a l l "gangs"  who c o n s t a n t l y s t o l e f r o m shops and department s t o r e s .  He  appeared a t C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t i n 1948" charged w i t h s t e a l i n g from Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y and p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n .  cars.  He was adjudged  toys  delinquent  ( A t t h i s t i m e he was t e n y e a r s o f a g e ) .  A few months l a t e r , Wayne and two f r i e n d s b r o k e i n t o two o f f i c e s and committed an a c t o f v a n d a l i s m . e.g.  Pyrene m i x t u r e  ($500.00 damage was done.,  s q u i r t e d everywhere, i n k s p i l l e d , windows  b r o k e n and o f f i c e p a r a p h e n a l i a  s c a t t e r e d and r u i n e d . )  He was  i n t e r v i e w e d a t C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c who recommended C h i l d r e n ' s Aid  Society wardship.  He was made a ward March 7 1949.  At  t h i s t i m e he was t i m i d , q u i e t and spoke a l m o s t i n a w h i s p e r . Other t h a n h i s a c t o f v a n d a l i s m he showed no a g g r e s s i v e t e n d e n cies. b)  A b i l i t y t o Handle F e e l i n g s o f Anger:  Soon a f t e r coming i n t o c a r e he r e a c t e d t o a u t h o r i t y by silence.  On March 7 1951, f o s t e r mother mother r e p o r t e d he r e -  f u s e d t o do as she a s k e d .  He would n o t do h i s c h o r e s , m i s s e d a  meal, and f i n a l l y r e f u s e d t o speak t o h e r o r r e c o g n i z e any l i m i t s she s e t .  ( T h i s r e a c t i o n f o l l o w e d a v i s i t t o h i s mother  who t o l d h i m she wanted h i m back a s soon a s she f o u n d s u i t a b l e l i v i n g accommodation.) c)  A b i l i t y t o Handle F e e l i n g s o f Fear:  Wayne h a n d l e d h i s f e a r s by n e g a t i v i s m o r s t u b b o r n n e s s ,  e.g.  when he was i l l he f r e q u e n t l y s h o u t e d i n c o h e r e n t l y . d)  A b i l i t y t o Handle Needs o f A f f e c t i o n :  Wayne appeared t o have a f f e c t i o n f o r h i s mother.  Various  f o s t e r home p a r e n t s have found h i m c o - o p e r a t i v e , b u t d i s t a n t . e)  A b i l i t y t o Handle Dependency Needs:  Wayne w^as g e n e r a l l y shy and w i t h d r a w n .  W h i l e he a c c e p t e d  f o s t e r p a r e n t s , he was n o t c l o s e n o r d i d he c o n f i d e i n them. X.  R e l a t i o n s h i p and A t t i t u d e s Toward P a r e n t s :  F a t h e r d e s e r t e d when Wayne was two. He was l o n e l y f o r h i s mother and a good r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d .  He r a n away f r o m f o s t e r  -  25 -  home 22 January 1951 f o r t h i s r e a s o n .  He v i s i t e d h i s mother  once monthly and she s u p p l i e d h i m w i t h pocket money. XI.  F o s t e r Home H i s t o r y ; Wayne was p l a c e d i n a p r i v a t e b o a r d i n g home f o r one month  when he was f o u r . f o r t h i s placement.  There i s no i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e r e a s o n The e x p e r i e n c e  frightened him considerably.  i n t h i s home a p p a r e n t l y  A complaint  of i l l  t r e a t m e n t was  r e c e i v e d b u t Wayne was moved by h i s aunt b e f o r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c o u l d be made. 194&  H i s f i r s t f o s t e r home placement was O c t o b e r 20  and he remained t h e r e u n t i l J a n u a r y 1951 when t h e f o s t e r  father died. requested  This experience  h i s removal.  u p s e t Wayne and t h e f o s t e r mother  He showed no emotion when he l e f t and  s a i d a c a s u a l "good-bye." Second F o s t e r Home - 15 January 1951. t h r e e weeks, was l o n e l y f o r h i s mother. 17 F e b r u a r y 1951.  He r a n away a f t e r T h i r d F o s t e r Home -  F o s t e r mother r e q u e s t e d h i s r e m o v a l a s she  f e l t he would n o t c o - o p e r a t e and r e f u s e d t o do h i s XII.  a)  chores.  I n t e r e s t s and R e c r e a t i o n :  He d i s p l a y e d l i t t l e e n t h u s i a s m f o r a n y t h i n g . b)  A t t i t u d e s toward S i b l i n g s :  Not known. c)  Adjustment t o Groups:  He was g e n e r a l l y a poor m i x e r .  A 1951 summer camp h i s t o r y  i n d i c a t e d Wayne was q u i t e s e c l u s i v e and independent.  He c o u l d n t  t a k e "knocks", and even i n p l a y i f he was roughed up, he would  T  get t o u c h y and throw a temper tantrum.  He r e p u t e d l y was  very  changeable i n h i s d e c i s i o n s . d)  Personal Friends:  He had a few, but h i s b e h a v i o u r e)  Adjustment t o O p p o s i t e  toward them v a s c i l l a t e d . Sex:  He had no g i r l f r i e n d s and seemed t o have t r o u b l e a c c e p t i n g new  f o s t e r mothers because o f h i s t i e t o h i s mother. f)  Future  Ambitions:  Not known. g)  S e l f Awareness:  He d i s p l a y e d v e r y h)  little.  Sense o f Humour:  He d i d not d i s p l a y much but a f t e r one  summer camp exper-  i e n c e i t was n o t i c e d t h a t he c o u l d perhaps be encouraged i n t h i s area.  He was  p l a c e d i n Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home 11 August  1951.  CASE #2. I.  a)  Name - A r t h u r  Wilson  b)  Date o f B i r t h - J u l y 13 1937.  c)  S t a t u s - Ward o f C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y - November 25 1938.  II.  Parents: Mother: - Born 30 J u l y 1913,  Canadian by b i r t h .  Grade S i x , r e l i g i o n - P r o t e s t a n t . I n d i a n , g r a n d f a t h e r was E n g l i s h .  Mother's grandmother was p a r t Mother's f a t h e r was F r e n c h -  Canadian, h e r mother was one q u a r t e r I n d i a n . mother had v e r y l i t t l e f a m i l y l i f e along with her parents.  Education,  I t appeared h i s  and found i t d i f f i c u l t t o g e t  Mother was t h e t h i r d c h i l d o f a f a m i l y  o f t e n r a n g i n g i n age f r o m t w e n t y - f i v e t o seven and t o l d worker "There were so many c h i l d r e n , so much t o do, and so l i t t l e t o do with."  C l i e n t ' s mother s a i d she had always been wayward,  and r e f u s e d guidance f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s . became pregnant t o s p i t e them.  stubborn  She t o l d h e r p a r e n t s she  Her mother d e s c r i b e d h e r a s an  e x c e l l e n t w o r k e r , and a good cook.  A r t h u r was h e r second  ille-  g i t i m a t e c h i l d and she r e f u s e d t o t e l l h e r p a r e n t s t h e name o f either of the punitive fathers.  Mother m a r r i e d i n 1940 b u t h e r  husband r e f u s e d t o have t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e home.  Her husband  d i e d o f s i l i c o s i s i n 1942 and mother r e m a r r i e d i n 1943. F a t h e r : - Born 1899, III.  Canadian.  No f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n .  Siblings: a)  A l e x , b o r n 22 March 1936 - s t e p b r o t h e r .  b)  Anne, b o r n 1947 - f o s t e r  sister.  -  IV.  2*  . F i r s t Contact w i t h J u l y 22 1936.  Agency;  Mother r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d  S o c i e t y make h e r i l l e g i t i m a t e son A r t h u r , a ward.  Mother k e p t  h e r son f o r s i x t e e n months and r e q u e s t e d he be made a ward 12 March 1938.  She had p l a c e d A r t h u r i n a p r i v a t e b o a r d i n g home  and was away w o r k i n g and d i d n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d h i s s u p p o r t . V.  P a r e n t ' s M a r i t a l Adjustment; C o n d i t i o n o f f i r s t m a r r i a g e unknown.  1943 was a p p a r e n t l y VI.  a)  Second m a r r i a g e i n  successful.  A t t i t u d e s o f P a r e n t s Toward B i r t h o f C h i l d :  Mother was u n m a r r i e d .  She c o u l d n o t s u p p o r t A r t h u r and  c o n s e n t e d t o have h i m made a ward November 25 1938. b)  Health o f C h i l d a t B i r t h :  Unknown, h e a l t h good when he was made a ward a t s i x t e e n months. c)  Food H a b i t s :  Normal a p p e t i t e b u t a t e v e r y q u i c k l y . p a i n s when under e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n .  S u b j e c t t o stomach  E a r l y h i s t o r y o f nausea w h i l e  c a r r i d i n g w h i c h has p e r s i s t e d . d)  Bowel and B l a d d e r C o n t r o l :  Normal. e)  Sleeping  Habits:  Normal s l e e p i n g h a b i t s . VII.  a)  P h y s i c a l Development:  Normal p h y s i c a l development. b)  H i s t o r y o f I l l n e s s and D i s e a s e :  J a n u a r y 24 1943 - Good c o n d i t i o n b u t stomach  distended.  - 29 -  March 9 1949 - G l a s s e s o b t a i n e d f o r r e a d i n g . March 17 1951 - Mumps, measles t h r e e months l a t e r . May  29 1952 - T o n s i l l e c t o m y - b l i n k i n g t i c , was v e r y  tense.  A p r i l 18 1953 - Good p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , b u t needed d e n t a l care. c)  Reaction t o I l l n e s s :  Normal concern u n t i l 1951 when he was i l l t h r e e o r f o u r times d u r i n g s p e c i a l e v e n t s .  A f t e r t h i s he o f t e n s a i d p e s s i -  m i s t i c a l l y t h a t t h i s would c o n t i n u e . III.  S c h o l a s t i c Record: March 28 1947 - E x a m i n a t i o n  a t C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c  dis-  c l o s e d A r t h u r was slow, c o - o p e r a t i v e , t h o u g h t f u l and s c o r e d i n average group o f g e n e r a l 1944  intelligence.  - S c h o o l r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d he was n e v e r l a t e o r a b s e n t .  Work was s a t i s f a c t o r y a l t h o u g h i t was f e l t he needed t o l e a r n how to  c o - o p e r a t e w i t h o t h e r s , he r e p o r t e d l y f o u g h t a g r e a t d e a l w i t h  other p u p i l s . 1945 behaviour 1946  - Report c a r d - c l a s s s t a n d i n g "C" w o r k i n g t o c a p a c i t y , fair. - ( V i s i t e d parents)  C l a s s s t a n d i n g "D" - a t t i t u d e v e r y  bad, d i d n ' t c a r e about a n y t h i n g . 1947  - C l a s s s t a n d i n g D" - n o t w o r k i n g n  t o c a p a c i t y - pro-  motion d o u b t f u l . 1949 unhappy.  - February  16 - P r i n c i p a l phoned t o s a y A r t h u r seemed  When c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n a r o s e c o n c e r n i n g f a m i l y u n i t s ,  - 30 -  parents, etc.  A r t h u r c r i e d and h i d h i s f a c e .  School report -  good average a b i l i t y b u t needed a g r e a t d e a l o f encouragement. Promoted t o Grade S i x .  Teacher r e q u e s t e d p s y c h i a t r i c  advice  because o f A r t h u r ' s swing i n moods f r o m good t o bad and v i c e v e r s a . 1951 - F a i l e d Grade E i g h t . 195.2 - Repeated Grade E i g h t , seemed t o r e s e n t s c h o o l a u t h o r i t y and was s u l l e n and d i d n o t c o - o p e r a t e  a l t h o u g h he proved he  had a b i l i t y when a s p e c i a l a p p e a l was made. IX.  a)  Personality:  C l a s s s t a n d i n g D". n  y  When a d m i t t e d t o c a r e he appeared shy and backward. 1943,  symptoms o f d i s t u r b a n c e appeared.  h a i r f r o m h i s head. soon d e s i s t e d .  In July  A r t h u r began p u l l i n g t h e  He was t e a s e d about t h i s by f o s t e r mother and  I n F e b r u a r y 1945, A r t h u r was r e p o r t e d f i g h t i n g  w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and o f t e n r e t u r n e d home f r o m s c h o o l i n t i m e f o r supper.  C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c examined A r t h u r i n 1942  t o d e t e r m i n e i f he s h o u l d be p l a c e d f o r a d o p t i o n as he h a s some I n d i a n b l o o d and p a t e r n i t y n o t e s t a b l i s h e d . a g a i n s t t h i s move.  The C l i n i c  advised  I n A p r i l 1945, A r t h u r ' s n a t u r a l mother made  h e r f i r s t c o n t a c t w i t h agency and h e r son f o r seven y e a r s . wanted A r t h u r back.  ( I t was a r r a n g e d f o r A r t h u r and h i s p a r e n t s t o  become a c q u a i n t e d g r a d u a l l y . ) she d i d n ' t keep.  She  Mother o v e r - f e d h i m and made p r o m i s e s  This r e j e c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n aggressive  a t s c h o o l , grades became poor, he was u n c o - o p e r a t i v e and h i s moods f l u c t u a t e d e a s i l y .  behaviour  and a b u l l y  ( A c t i n g out was a p p a r e n t l y  somewhat i n check by h i s a b i l i t y a t s o c c e r - good p l a y e r ) .  kept  - 31 -  A r t h u r ' s parents l a s t took him out Christmas now December 1947*  day 1946  P a r e n t s t o o k h i m out f o r C h r i s t m a s  (came home w i t h u p s e t stomach).  only  March 19 1950 - Mother and  f o s t e r f a t h e r haven't seen A r t h u r f o r one and one h a l f y e a r s . He was sombre and unhappy.  Suspended f r o m s c h o o l f o r d i s o b e d -  i e n c e March 3 1950. A p r i l 12 - 1950 - arrangements were made t o v i s i t p a r e n t s once a month.  A r t h u r ' s r e a c t i o n was a c a s u a l "O.K."  The n i g h t b e f o r e f i r s t v i s i t , mother wanted t o c a l l i t o f f , b u t f o s t e r mother i n s i s t e d .  On t h e way t o v i s i t h i s f o l k s , A r t h u r  became p a l e and t e n s e and was c a r s i c k . a t i v e r e t u r n i n g from t h e v i s i t . eye t i c and stomach p a i n s .  He was happy, and t a l k -  March 17 1951,  he developed  The d o c t o r s a i d he was t e n s e .  i s dark and i n t e l l i g e n t l o o k i n g and f o s t e r p a r e n t s o f t e n  an Arthur  expected  t o o much f r o m him. b)  A b i l i t y t o Handle F e e l i n g s o f Anger:  He has had some s u c c e s s i n t r a n s f e r r i n g h o s t i l e f e e l i n g s t o sports - soccer.  I t however, appeared i n h i s c o n t i n u a l f i g h t s  with other children, occasional b u l l y i n g , h o s t i l i t y a t school, and v a s c i l l a t o r y moods. c)  A b i l i t y t o Handle F e e l i n g s o f F e a r :  He d i s p l a y e d moody b e h a v i o u r .  He o f t e n s t a t e d t h a t everyone  p i c k e d on him because he was " A r t h u r W i l s o n " .  He had a b i l i t y t o  d i s p l a c e much o f h i s h o s t i l i t y w h i l e p l a y i n g s p o r t s . d)  A b i l i t y t o Handle Needs o f A f f e c t i o n :  He showed a need f o r a f f e c t i o n and r e c o g n i t i o n .  Responded  under c o n s i s t e n t support and t r i e d t o p l e a s e t o g a i n a f f e c t i o n .  e)  A b i l i t y t o Handle Needs o f Dependency:  He needed a p p r o v a l and sought t o g a i n i t by c o n f o r m i n g behaviour.  D e s p i t e o b v i o u s e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e he c h a n n e l l e d  much o f t h i s i n a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o u r t o s o c c e r and f i s h i n g . X.  R e l a t i o n s h i p and A t t i t u d e s Toward P a r e n t s : S i n c e t h e age o f one u n t i l 1945, he had n o t seen h i s mother.  He was a t f i r s t t h r i l l e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f l i v i n g w i t h h i s mother and f o s t e r f a t h e r b u t t h e y made p r o m i s e s t h e y d i d n ' t keep which b e w i l d e r e d him.  They c o n t a c t e d h i m i n f r e q u e n t l y a f t e r t h e  f i r s t few months and i g n o r e d h i m f o r p e r i o d s o f one and one h a l f y e a r s and l a t e r one y e a r . o r hear f r o m them.  D u r i n g t h e s e i n t e r v a l s he d i d n o t see  These r e j e c t i o n s caused h i m t o t r a n s f e r h i s  resentment t o s c h o o l a u t h o r i t y and h i s s c h o o l mates. 1950,  h i s mother and f o s t e r f a t h e r w r o t e t o s a y t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t  want A r t h u r back. his XI.  In July  They a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h e y were i n d i f f e r e n t t o  future, w e l f a r e . F o s t e r Home H i s t o r y : A r t h u r ' s mother p l a c e d h i m i n a p r i v a t e b o a r d i n g house soon  a f t e r h i s b i r t h and he remained t h e r e f o r f o u r t e e n months u n t i l he was made a ward.  He was a t h i s next f o s t e r home f o r f i v e and  one h a l f y e a r s f r o m O c t o b e r 31 1945 u n t i l January 15 1951• When t h e f o s t e r f a t h e r d i e d , h i s w i f e c o u l d no l o n g e r c o n t r o l t h e b o y s . January 16 1951 - A r t h u r a d j u s t e d w e l l t o h i s new f o s t e r home b u t t h e f o s t e r mother found c a r i n g f o r h i m t o o much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and r e q u e s t e d h i s removal.  He was happy t h e r e .  A p r i l 11 195k.  He  moved t o h i s f o u r t h f o s t e r home, and enjoyed l i f e try.  The f o s t e r parents l i k e d him a t f i r s t ,  i n t h e coun-  but made t o o many  demands o f him and he was unable t o respond t o t h e i r tion.  satisfac-  Two weeks a f t e r h i s placement, t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s  cussed a d o p t i o n w i t h A r t h u r who was e n t h u s i a s t i c .  dis-  Two months  l a t e r they requested h i s removal as he c o u l d not meet t h e i r standards.  J u l y 13 1951 - He was p l a c e d i n R e c e i v i n g Home.  (He a l s o had f o u r t e e n workers t o d a t e ) . XII.  I n t e r e s t s and R e c r e a t i o n : a)  fishing. did  A r t h u r d i s p l a y e d marked a b i l i t y i n s o c c e r and enjoyed He j o i n e d t h e Boy Scouts 29 January 1951 and a p p a r e n t l y  well.  He l i k e d camping and b i c y c l e  b)  riding.  A t t i t u d e Toward S i b l i n g s :  He had no c o n t a c t w i t h h i s s t e p - b r o t h e r and seldom saw h i s step-sister. to  He experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n one f o s t e r home due  s i b l i n g r i v a l r y which was i n j u d i c i o u s l y handled by t h e f o s t e r  parents. c)  Adjustment i n Groups:  He experienced d i f f i c u l t y as he i s prone t o f i g h t w i t h o t h e r children.  I n camp r e p o r t on 2 J u l y 1951, A r t h u r r e p o r t e d l y found  some d i f f i c u l t y forming r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s h i s own age and younger.  He a l s o had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h a u t h o r i t y and was s u l l e n  and unco-operative w i t h camp s t a f f . d)  Personal Friends:  He had a few c l o s e f r i e n d s , Wayne C a r r i s one example.  e)  Adjustment t o O p p o s i t e Sex:  He seemed t o r e l a t e w e l l t o women. f)  Future Ambitions:  None were e x p r e s s e d p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g R e c e i v i n g Home i n 1951. g)  S e l f Awareness:  Recording indicated nothing i n t h i s area p r i o r t o a r r i v a l a t R e c e i v i n g Home i n 1951. h)  Sense o f Humour:  Not i n d i c a t e d i n r e c o r d i n g .  -  35  -  CASE #3 I.  a)  Name - Peter White  b)  Date o f B i r t h - October 29  c)  S t a t u s - Ward o f C h i l d r e n s A i d S o c i e t y June 27 1  II.  1949  Parents: Mother: - Born A p r i l 9 1398,  a)  Education, Grade Ten. P r i o r t o marriage School. She  1938  She was  d i e d i n May  Religion, Protestant.  Grade E i g h t .  birth.  Married i n  she kept house f o r her u n c l e and taught d e s c r i b e d as c h e e r f u l , q u i e t and  1942  1932. Sunday  home-loving.  f o l l o w i n g a sudden two week i l l n e s s .  Father: - Born i n 1894,  b)  Canadian by  E n g l i s h by b i r t h .  Religion, Protestant.  Occupation  Education  - carpenter,  s m a l l i n s t a t u r e , he appeared t i m i d and i n e f f e c t u a l , h e a l t h - poor. Work r e c o r d i n t e r m i t t e n t as h i s o c c u p a t i o n was III.  often seasonal.  Siblings: a)  IV.  C a r o l - Born May  25  1935  F i r s t Contact w i t h Agency: September 25 1948.  L e t t e r from agency i n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t -  i s h Columbia r e q u e s t i n g placement o f P e t e r and h i s s i s t e r . f a t h e r was V.  Their  moving to Vancouver and had no p l a c e f o r h i s c h i l d r e n . Parents'  Marital.Adjustment:  Unknown, f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n a p p a r e n t l y kept him f r e q u e n t l y from home. VI.  a)  A t t i t u d e s o f Parents Towards B i r t h o f Child;'  Mother was b)  i n good h e a l t h .  Both parents wanted c h i l d r e n .  H e a l t h of C h i l d at B i r t h :  Described as good.  He c o n t a c t e d pneumonia at one year,  but  - 36 -  r e c o v e r e d w i t h no i l l c)  effects.  Food H a b i t s :  Normal a p p e t i t e f o r h i s age. d)  Bowel and B l a d d e r C o n t r o l :  Normal. e)  Sleeping Habits:  Normal. VII.  a)  P h y s i c a l Development:  Normal p h y s i c a l development. b)  H i s t o r y o f I l l n e s s and D i s e a s e :  Pneumonia a t one y e a r , measles a t two y e a r s .  A p r i l 25 1949 -  p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n d i s c l o s e d good h e a l t h b u t poor p o s t u r e . c)  Reaction t o I l l n e s s :  November 10 1952 - c r i t i c i z e d h o s p i t a l , d o c t o r and s t a f f , behaviour, hostile. VIII.  He t h r e a t e n e d t o t h r o w h i s meal t r a y a t n u r s e .  S c h o l a s t i c Record:  He s t a r t e d Grade One i n 1944 i n Manitoba and c o n t i n u e d Grade Two i n B r i t i s h Columbia. promoted t o Grade Four.  I n 1949 c l a s s s t a n d i n g was "D",  Teachers commented he was immature i n  some o f h i s a t t i t u d e s , t r y i n g h a r d t o improve i n s c h o o l . January 1951 - When t e a c h e r was a l i t t l e abrupt w i t h him, P e t e r threw waste paper b a s k e t a t him.  L a t e r t h a t week he was rude i n  c l a s s , t h e t e a c h e r kept him a f t e r s c h o o l and P e t e r t h r e a t e n e d him w i t h a b a s e b a l l b a t . He was s u b s e q u e n t l y e x p e l l e d .  January  12 1951 - C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c i n t e r v i e w , r e s u l t s o f t e s t  dis-  c l o s e d an i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t o f e i g h t y - e i g h t . He was recommended f o r s p e c i a l c l a s s as he was d i a g n o s e d  as v e r y d i s t u r b e d  - 37 -  and i n need of much help.  I t was f e l t that i n a s p e c i a l school  class, Peter would only have to r e l a t e to one teacher.  Febru-  ary 20 1951, Peter announced he was q u i t t i n g special c l a s s at school a f t e r being kept i n a f t e r school by h i s teacher. His school standing January 18 1951 was "E". to  capacity.  He was not working  A p r i l 16 - 1951. He was s t i l l not at school and  refused to see worker. IX.  a) Personality; October 28 1948, Peter's f o s t e r mother reported he found i t  impossible to relax and play l i k e other boys.  He i n s i s t e d on  chopping wood and digging i n the garden, etc.  He was exceedingly  anxious to please.  However, he constantly stole food and money  from foster parents and prevaricated. did  When questioned why he  these things, he was always penitent and c r i e d , but was at a  loss to explain h i s behaviour.  When he played games at school  he played hard and drove himself.  A p r i l 2 1951 - Police v i s i t e d  f o s t e r home to say Peter had thrown f i s h at the screen of a l o c a l theatre.  He also stole mud guards and other parts from another  boy!.s b i c y c l e .  Neighbours complained about h i s swearing.  3 1951 - He destroyed h i s f o s t e r father's razor. money from h i s f o s t e r mother. to  April  He s t i l l  stole  A p r i l 6 1951 - When worker v i s i t e d  discuss Peter's refusal to return to school, he threatened he  would "knock worker's teeth i n . " horse and l a t e r a b r i d l e .  A p r i l 11 1951 - Peter stole a  Foster mother requested h i s removal  as he encouraged other boys to play truant from school.  He was  - 33 -  moved t b s t h e R e c e i v i n g Home.  A p r i l 20 1951 - He s t o l e f i v e  d o l l a r s f r o m h i s f o s t e r mother t h e day he was t r a n s f e r r e d . b)  A b i l i t y t o Handle F e e l i n g s o f Anger;  P e t e r t e n d s t o a c t out h i s f e e l i n g s o f a n g e r .  This i s  e v i d e n c e d by h i s t h r e a t e n i n g one t e a c h e r w i t h a b a s e b a l l b a t , r e f u s a l t o a t t e n d s c h o o l and h o s t i l i t y toward h i s w o r k e r . c)  A b i l i t y t o Handle F e e l i n g s o f F e a r :  Peter handled d)  f e a r by a g g r e s s i v e a c t i n g - o u t  behaviour.  A b i l i t y t o Handle Needs o f A f f e c t i o n :  He seemed t o seek a f f e c t i o n f r o m women r a t h e r t h a n men. He met t h i s need by conforming w i l l i n g t o do h i s c h o r e s .  behaviour,  e.g. He was always  A f t e r a n t i - s o c i a l a c t s such a s s t e a l -  i n g , l y i n g , and temper o u t b u r s t s , he was a b l e t o seek f o r g i v e ness w i t h minimal e)  support.  A b i l i t y t o Handle Needs o f Dependency:  W h i l e t h i s boy's b e h a v i o u r  i n d i c a t e d dependency needs, h i s  a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s a r e t h o s e o f independency.  He appeared  t o make h i s own r u l e s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n w a r n i n g s and punishment. T h i s a l l o w e d h i m t o r a t i o n a l i z e t h a t everyone p i c k e d on h i m . X.  R e l a t i o n s h i p and A t t i t u d e Toward P a r e n t s : March 29 1949 - F a t h e r r e p o r t e d P e t e r ' s b e h a v i o u r was good,  p r i o r t o t h e i r move t o B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1945.  After this  move he began t o s t e a l s m a l l a r t i c l e s from t h e house.  His father  o c c a s i o n a l l y t h r e a t e n e d t o spank P e t e r b u t r a r e l y d i d so as he didn't believe i n punishing t h e children.  O c t o b e r 31 1948 - P e t e r  - 39 -  was  p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home and l a t e r i n d i c a t e d he d i d not want  t o r e t u r n t o h i s dad.  March 29 1949 - H i s f a t h e r ' s l e t t e r s t o  P e t e r ' s f o s t e r parents i m p l i e d he had no i n t e r e s t i n h i s son. A p r i l 8 1949 - When P e t e r ' s f a t h e r heard o f h i s l y i n g and s t e a l i n g , he suggested treatment  P e t e r be sent t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l School f o r  of his d i f f i c u l t i e s .  rarely v i s i t e d . his father.  H i s f a t h e r was out o f town and  P e t e r ' s behaviour  i n d i c a t e d he f e l t r e j e c t e d by  I n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g , male t e a c h e r s appeared t o b r i n g  out h i s h o s t i l i t y . XI.  F o s t e r Home H i s t o r y : In 1942, f o l l o w i n g t h e death o f P e t e r ' s mother, a  cared f o r him f o r two y e a r s .  H i s f a t h e r was away from home work-  i n g as a fireman i n t h e A i r Force. w i t h an aunt.  neighbour  I n 1944,  P e t e r spent one y e a r  I n 1945, Mr. White brought P e t e r and h i s s i s t e r t o  B r i t i s h Columbia and p l a c e d them w i t h a housekeeper w h i l e he worked out o f town.  He v i s i t e d once a month.  Peter l i v e d w i t h h i s f a t h e r and s i s t e r .  From 1946 t o 1947  I n 1948%  h i s f a t h e r was  unemployed so t h e c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home. was  made a ward on A p r i l 5 1949.  home as t h e f i r s t i v e behaviour.  He was p l a c e d i n another  Peter foster  f o s t e r parents had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h h i s aggress-  Here h i s behaviour  improved f o r a few months.  A p r i l 20 1951 - He moved t o t h e R e c e i v i n g Home as h i s f o s t e r mother c o u l d not c o n t r o l him.  He r e f u s e d t o go' t o s c h o o l , o r  to see h i s worker,, and s t o l e and l i e d c o n s i s t e n t l y .  The f o s t e r  mother handled him i n a v a s c i l l a t o r y manner, sometimes p u n i s h i n g him,  i g n o r i n g him, o r t h r e a t e n i n g t o make him l e a v e h e r home i f  40  -  -  he didn't reform. XII.  a)  I n t e r e s t s and r e c r e a t i o n ;  He enjoyed b i c y c l i n g and horseback r i d i n g . b)  A t t i t u d e s towards S i b l i n g s ;  Peter and h i s s i s t e r got along w e l l u n t i l they were separated on December 5 1949.  He seemed t o accept her suggestions  and d i r e c t i o n s w i t h good grace. c)  Adjustment i n Groups;  Peter d i d not seem t o get along w e l l w i t h h i s peers.  At  summer camp i n J u l y 1951, he i s reported t o have wanted everything h i s own way and openly d e f i e d any d i s c i p l i n e by d i s p l a y i n g uncont r o l l e d temper tantrums.  Camp o f f i c i a l s advised he needed a more  d i s c i p l i n e d atmosphere than the camp could o f f e r . d)  Personal Friends:  He seemed t o have very few c l o s e f r i e n d s and o f t e n p r e f e r r e d h i s own company. e)  o  Adjustment t o Opposite Sex:  He had no g i r l f r i e n d s .  Peter seemed to a d j u s t t o f o s t e r  mothers but g e n e r a l l y resented a u t h o r i t y of any nature. f)  Future Ambitions:  May 1 1951 - He refused t o go t o school and stated he wanted t o s e l l newspapers on a s t r e e t corner i n the f u t u r e . g)  Self-Awareness:  He was often penitent a f t e r h i s a c t i n g out behaviour.  In  1949, he said he didn't know why he s t o l e t h i n g s . He showed  - 41  -  l i t t l e self-awareness p r i o r t o h i s a r r i v a l at the R e c e i v i n g 1951.  Home i n h)  Sense o f Humour:  He d i s p l a y e d v e r y  little.  - 42 -  CASE #4. I.  a)  Name - Donald  Bates  b)  Date o f B i r t h : - August  c)  S t a t u s : - Ward o f C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y ,  28  1937  September 4 1942. II.  Parents: a)  Mother: - Born J u l y 4 1914, I r i s h  extraction.  M a r r i e d December 23 1936, e d u c a t i o n , Grade Four, Roman C a t h o l i c .  religion,  D e s e r t e d husband on J u l y 8 1942 and r e t u r n e d  J u l y 1 1943 e x t r a m a r i t a l l y pregnant. worked as a domestic on farms.  P r i o r t o marriage  she  Psychometric examination a t  C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c i n 1938 c l a s s i f i e d mother as a h i g h grade  imbecile. b)  F a t h e r : - Born i n 1912, Canadian by b i r t h .  E d u c a t i o n , Grade E i g h t . when Mr. Bates was d a l e i n 1936.  Mr. Bates' f a t h e r committed  eighteen.  The mother was  suicide  committed  t o Esson-  Psychometric examination a t C h i l d Guidance  Clinic  i n 1938, c l a s s i f i e d the f a t h e r as d u l l normal i n g e n e r a l i n t e l l i gence.  P h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y - the muscles o f h i s l e f t arm were  a t r o p h i e d , o c c u p a t i o n - newspaper vendor, steady work r e c o r d a t t h i s o c c u p a t i o n from 1938 t o 1953. III.  Siblings: a)  IV.  C a r l - Born January 13 1941. F i r s t Contact with Agency:  In August 1937, f a t h e r a p p l i e d f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e as h i s w i f e was  pregnant and they had no income.  In 1939 t h e r e were  - 43 -  r e p o r t s , t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were n e g l e c t e d  and Mrs.  Bates  slapped t h e baby f o r no apparent reason. V.  P a r e n t s ' M a r i t a l Adjustment: His mother deserted  returned  with a male boarder i n A p r i l 1942 and  e x t r a m a r i t a l l y pregnant i n J u l y 1943.  f a t h e r l e f t home a s Mrs.  Bates' b r o t h e r s  I n 1948 Donald's  and f r i e n d s were r e s i d -  i n g w i t h t h e f a m i l y and d i d not pay board.  He r e t u r n e d  home i n  1949. VI.  a)  A t t i t u d e s o f Parents Toward B i r t h o f C h i l d :  Mother was under c o n s i d e r a b l e  mental s t r a i n d u r i n g  preg-  nancy due t o t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . b)  Health a t B i r t h :  Normal pregnancy and b i r t h .  At s i x months t h e c h i l d was i n  good h e a l t h but i n need o f s u n l i g h t . c)  Food  to colds.  Habits:  No food f a d s , had l a r g e d)  He was s u b j e c t  appetite.  Bowel and Bladder C o n t r o l :  He had e s t a b l i s h e d bowel and b l a d d e r c o n t r o l by 1945, but became e n e u r e t i c e)  a t nine years o f age.  Sleeping  Habits:  C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c found s l e e p i n g h a b i t s were normal. VII.  a)  P h y s i c a l Development:  Normal p h y s i c a l development. b)  H i s t o r y o f I l l n e s s and Disease:  As a baby he was s u b j e c t h o s p i t a l w i t h pneumonia.  to colds.  I n 1942 he was i n t h e  I n 1944 he had a t o n s i l l e c t o m y , h i s  - 44 -  adenoids were removed and myringectomy on r i g h t ear was formed.  per-  A f t e r these o p e r a t i o n s he remained weak, nervous and  frightened.  Afternoon r e s t s were advocated In 1945  c a r r i e d out. effects.  In 1952  subsequently  he contacted. Chicken Pox with no  he became i l l  i z e d f o r one week.  and  In 1953  w i t h p l e u r i s y and was  h i s l u n g was  punctured  after hospital-  due t o a  k n i f e s t a b b i n g a t boys' camp. c)  Reaction to I l l n e s s :  . D e s p i t e t h i s h i s t o r y he shows no f e a r o f i l l n e s s . VIII. He  Scholastic  Record:  s t a r t e d s c h o o l i n 1943  keep up w i t h the c l a s s .  but a f t e r two months c o u l d not  He was  but the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l a d v i s e d i n October t h a t he w a i t year as he a g a i n c o u l d n ' t keep up i n c l a s s . s a i d he was or paper.  o n l y t o l e r a t e d i n c l a s s and was He appeared  from other c h i l d r e n . Sunday S c h o o l .  aware t h a t he was In 1944  I f he was  H i s f o s t e r mother not allowed  made t o concentrate f o r a few  In 1945  IX.  a)  a t e s t at s c h o o l Teachers com-  " i n s o l e n t , l a z y and hard t o handle." special  minutes,  He had a poor voca-  showed an i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t o f s i x t y - o n e .  advocated  pencil  he couldn't l e a r n memory work i n  b u l a r y and used o n l y simple sentences.  ance C l i n i c i n 1945  another  treated differently  the teacher r e p o r t e d , he b u r s t i n t o t e a r s .  p l a i n e d he was  1944,  e n r o l l e d a g a i n i n September  Child  Guid-  class.  Personality:  At e i g h t y e a r s of age  i t was  p l a y i n g w i t h younger c h i l d r e n .  noted t h a t Donald p r e f e r r e d He would not take  responsibility  -  45 -  i f he was blamed f o r misdemeanours, he f o i s t e d t h e blame on others.  He was never quarrelsome o r stubborn, but prone t o  suggestion.  He r e p e a t e d l y brought home o t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s  toys,  and c o u l d not seem t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between h i s b e l o n g i n g s and others.  I n 1 9 4 2 h i s f o s t e r mother noted he wasn't t o o i n t e l l i -  gent, as day a f t e r day, he asked t h e same q u e s t i o n s .  In 1 9 4 6 ,  h i s new f o s t e r mother s a i d he t a l k e d i n c e s s a n t l y about n o t h i n g , and she found t h i s most nerve-wracking.  In 1 9 4 7 h i s f o s t e r  mother had d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g Donald home a t n i g h t as he d i d n ' t seem t o have any c o n c e p t i o n o f time. b)  A b i l i t y t o Handle F e e l i n g s o f Anger:  Donald was unable t o win arguments w i t h o t h e r s due t o h i s low i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t .  I n September 1 9 4 9 , a t t h e age o f  twelve, he t o l d another boy aged e i g h t t o get out o f h i s way. When t h e boy d i d n ' t , Donald f r a c t u r e d h i s s k u l l w i t h a b a s e b a l l bat.  I n 1 9 4 9 he was e x p e l l e d from a Club Troupe because o f  " i n c o r r i g i b l e " behaviour.  He c o n s t a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h younger  boys and used p h y s i c a l f o r c e t o g a i n t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n . He was not v i c i o u s but d i d not understand t h e r e s u l t s o f h i s behaviour. c)  A b i l i t y t o Handle F e e l i n g s o f Fear:  He handled f e a r by withdrawing. d)  A b i l i t y t o Handle Needs o f A f f e c t i o n :  Between t h e ages o f eight and t e n , he showed a g r e a t need f o r a f f e c t i o n and responded w e l l .  As he grew o l d e r h i s low  i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t r e s u l t e d i n behaviour problems which p r e -  - 46 -  vented him from g a i n i n g a f f e c t i o n . e) Due ald  A b i l i t y t o Handle Needs o f Dependency:  t o h i s low i n t e l l i g e n c e and emotional d i s t u r b a n c e , Don-  was v e r y dependent.  H i s i n a b i l i t y t o comply with simple  rules  o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n requests f o r removal from f o s t e r homes. X.  R e l a t i o n s h i p and A t t i t u d e Toxvard P r i o r t o adolescence, Donald  Parents:  admired h i s p a r e n t s .  I n 1949  he r a n away from t h e R e c e i v i n g Home and r e t u r n e d t o h i s p a r e n t s . I t was decided he should remain t h e r e on t r i a l .  I n June 1950,  he r a n away from h i s own home t o an e a r l i e r f o s t e r home.  When  he was with h i s n a t u r a l parents he s t o l e money from them, stayed out l a t e and c a l l e d h i s f a t h e r a c r i p p l e . control.  He was out o f p a r e n t a l  H i s f a m i l y wanted t o keep him although they  t h a t they c o u l d n ' t handle him.  confessed  I n June 1950, he a r r i v e d a t t h e  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y v e r y d i s t u r b e d and announced t h a t h i s "mother and f a t h e r d i d n ' t want him any more."  I n August 1950  he r a n away from h i s f o s t e r home and r e t u r n e d a g a i n t o h i s parents.  When t h e worker v i s i t e d he i n s i s t e d " k i d s should be w i t h  t h e i r p a r e n t s , and mother and f a t h e r want me." he seemed ambivalent XI.  towards h i s p a r e n t s .  F o s t e r Home H i s t o r y : On A p r i l 9 1942, he was p l a c e d i n h i s f i r s t  In  Despite t h i s ,  f o s t e r home.  March 1945, he was p l a c e d i n t h e R e c e i v i n g Home as.the  Guidance C l i n i c recommended s p e c i a l s c h o o l c l a s s e s . 1945, he was p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home.  Child  I n October  There was no s p e c i a l  class  - 47 -  i n t h e a r e a and he was o u t o f h i s d e p t h i n s c h o o l .  I n Sep-  tember 1 9 4 6 , he was p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home and e n r o l l e d i n Special Class a t school.  I n September 1947, he was moved t o  a new f o s t e r home a s t h e former f o s t e r mother became i l l and c o u l d n o t a d j u s t t o h a v i n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e home.  I n September  1948, he was p l a c e d i n a n o t h e r f o s t e r home on a f a r m , and a d justed w e l l . removal.  The f o s t e r mother became i l l  and r e q u e s t e d h i s  I n September 1949, he was p l a c e d i n a new f o s t e r home.  The f o s t e r p a r e n t s asked f o r h i s r e m o v a l i n December 1 9 4 9 a s i ' Donald i n j u r e d a s c h o o l chum. i n t h e R e c e i v i n g Home. kept him.  I n December 1 9 4 9 , he was p l a c e d  He r a n away t o h i s n a t u r a l p a r e n t s who  I n June 1950, he r a n away from h i s p a r e n t s t o h i s  former f o s t e r home and was a l l o w e d t o r e m a i n , l a t e r he r a n away and r e t u r n e d home.  I n February  1 9 5 1 , he a g a i n r a n away f r o m h i s  own home t o a f o r m e r fos.ter home.  The C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c  recommended t h e Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home.  He was p l a c e d t h e r e and  remained u n t i l January 1 9 5 4 . XII.  a)  I n t e r e s t s and R e c r e a t i o n :  He enjoyed p l a y i n g w i t h t o y s and g o i n g on b i c y c l e b)  Attitudes  trips.  Towards S i b l i n g s :  He g o t a l o n g w e l l w i t h h i s b r o t h e r , b u t h i s p a r e n t s f e l t he was a bad i n f l u e n c e . c)  Adjustment i n . Groups:  He was hampered because o f h i s l o w i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t w h i c h p r e v e n t e d h i m from p l a y i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n h i s own age.  Sum-  mer Camp h i s t o r y i n J u l y 1 9 5 3 , i n d i c a t e d t h a t he f i t t e d i n w i t h  - 4$ -  o t h e r boys i n h i s t e n t .  Being g u l l i b l e and e a s i l y l e d , t h e  o t h e r boys used him t o do t h e l e s s a t t r a c t i v e chores.  He  needed s u p e r v i s i o n i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o keep up w i t h t h e o t h e r boys i n h i s group.  H i s s h o r t span o f i n t e r e s t  h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n many i n t e r e s t d)  prevented  groups.  Personal Friends:  Donald p l a y e d w i t h boys younger than h i m s e l f because o f h i s low i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t .  He was g e n e r a l l y found t o be  f r i e n d l y , but i m p r e s s i o n a b l e . e)  Adjustment t o Opposite Sex:  Donald had no g i r l f r i e n d s , but was fond o f h i s mother. f)  Future  Ambitions:  He was vague i n t h i s r e s p e c t and h i s f u t u r e was hampered by h i s low i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t . g)  Self-Awareness:  There was v e r y l i t t l e undoubtedly due t o h i s low i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t , i n a b i l i t y t o read and w r i t e , e t c . h)  Sense o f Humour:  Donald had a f a i r sence o f humour, but i t was f r e q u e n t l y hampered by h i s i n a b i l i t y t o comprehend.  -  49 -  CASE #5. •I.  II.  a)  Name: - M i c h a e l Robb.  b)  Date o f B i r t h : - O c t o b e r 29 1935.  c)  S t a t u s : - Ward o f C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y March 17 1950.  Parents: a)  unknown.  Mother:  -  Born 1912,  Canadian by b i r t h ,  R e l i g i o n - L a t t e r Day S a i n t s .  M a r r i e d i n 1933, no  work h i s t o r y a v a i l a b l e p r i o r t o m a r r i a g e . t h a t she had an unhappy c h i l d h o o d .  Father:  -  t o worker  as s c h i z o p h r e n i c  Mrs. Robb was committed t o E s s o n d a l e  M e n t a l H o s p i t a l A p r i l 21 b)  Reported  She was h o s p i t a l i z e d i n  1944 f o r a c u t e d e p r e s s i o n , l a t e r diagnosed w i t h paranoid trends.  education,  1951.  B o r n 1894, b i r t h p l a c e unknown.  eighteen years o l d e r than h i s w i f e . R e l i g i o n - L a t t e r Day S a i n t s .  He was  E d u c a t i o n , unknown.  Occupation,  f o l l o w i n g an a c c i d e n t March 23 1940.  engineer, died  Mr. Robb r e p o r t e d l y  assumed major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e m a r r i a g e  situation.  Mrs.  Robb had d i f f i c u l t y assuming t h e s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a f t e r h i s death. III.  IV.  Siblings: a)  Ted - Born December 1937  b)  S a l l y - Born October 17 1940. F i r s t C o n t a c t w i t h Agency:  On September 23 1949, Mrs. Robb phoned t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y and r e q u e s t e d h e l p w i t h M i c h a e l who she s a i d had been  - 50  -  s t u b b o r n s i n c e t h e day he was b o r n and was now a b e h a v i o u r problem.  He had r e f u s e d t o eat h i s meals o r a t t e n d s c h o o l .  He  had a paper r o u t e and h i s mother f e l t t h i s was t h e cause o f h i s independent  behaviour.  A home v i s i t l a t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t Mrs.  Robb had been n e g l e c t i n g h e r c h i l d r e n and t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e d i s t r i c t were concerned. of  H i s mother gave c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e  d i s t u r b a n c e , t a l k e d i n c e s s a n t l y , wrung h e r hands and  dis-  p l a y e d a d i s t u r b i n g amount o f i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f thought d u r i n g the v i s i t .  S c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s were concerned because Mrs. Robb  had f r e q u e n t l y phoned t o say t h a t she would have t o k i l l  the  boys as she c o u l d not c o n t r o l them. V.  Parents  1  Marital  Adjustment:  Mrs. Robb s t a t e d t h e f a m i l y was happy u n t i l h e r husband's death.  The boys began t o show b e h a v i o u r problems t h r e e y e a r s  a f t e r h i s demise. VI.  a)  A t t i t u d e s o f P a r e n t s Towards B i r t h o f C h i l d :  Both p a r e n t s had l o o k e d f o r w a r d t o t h e b i r t h o f t h e F i n a n c e s were adequate.  child.  A f t e r f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , t h e mother showed  p r e f e r e n c e t o h e r daughter and blamed M i c h a e l f o r h e r o t h e r son's r e b e l l i o u s behaviour.  She s t a t e d Mike i n f l u e n c e d him c o n s i d e r -  a b l y and t h e n b o t h boys q u e s t i o n e d h e r a u t h o r i t y . b)  Health of C h i l d at B i r t h :  There was no e a r l y h e a l t h r e c o r d , b u t i n 1950 e x a m i n a t i o n , h i s heath was c)  Food H a b i t s :  Normal a p p e t i t e .  good.  upon m e d i c a l  - 51 -  d)  Bowel and B l a d d e r C o n t r o l :  He had normal t o i l e t h a b i t s and t h e r e was no e a r l y h i s t o r y of  inconsistency. e)  Sleeping  Habits:  He had normal s l e e p i n g h a b i t s , e a r l i e r h i s t o r y u n a v a i l a b l e . VII.  a)  P h y s i c a l Development:  I t appeared normal, when examined by a p h y s i c i a n March 17 1950.  H i s mother s a i d he had always enjoyed good h e a l t h . b)  H i s t o r y o f I l l n e s s and D i s e a s e :  Early history unavailable. 1950,  When he was examined i n March  M i c h a e l was i n good h e a l t h . c)  Reaction  to Illness:  He was normal and r e a l i s t i c when i t concerned h i m s e l f . i n d i c a t e d problems concerning  He  h i s mother's committal t o Mental  H o s p i t a l and s t a t e d she was i n T r a n q u i l l e .  Michael  apparently  blamed h i m s e l f f o r h i s mother's i l l n e s s . VIII.  S c h o l a s t i c Record:  I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s a t s c h o o l showed M i c h a e l ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient t o be 147.  In 1949 he was i n Grade Nine and h i s marks  ranged from C p l u s t o C minus.  H i s attendance r e c o r d was poor  and he f r e q u e n t l y attended s c h o o l o n l y two o r t h r e e days each week.  The s c h o o l s t a f f d e s c r i b e d him as r e t i r i n g and without  friends.  M i c h a e l was o f t e n t a r d y .  His teachers  r e p o r t e d he  was not working t o c a p a c i t y . IX.  a)  Personality:  M i c h a e l was very  i n t e l l i g e n t , reserved,  uncommunicative and  - 52 -  independent when he was  made a ward i n 1950.  H i s a c t i n g out  b e h a v i o u r had been a g a i n s t h i s mother and b r o t h e r . most s o c i a l c o n t a c t s .  of  b)  c o n t i n u a l l y v a s c i l l a t e d i n her  him.  A b i l i t y t o Handle F e e l i n g s o f Anger:  P r i o r t o becoming a ward i n March 1950, h i s h o s t i l e f e e l i n g s toward h i s mother. school.  avoided  He had d i f f i c u l t y w o r k i n g t h r o u g h h i s  f e e l i n g s toward h i s mother who treatment  He  Michael acted  out  He r e f u s e d t o a t t e n d  M i c h a e l and h i s b r o t h e r broke a l l t h e windows i n t h e  house i n February  1950.  H i s mother r e p o r t e d t h a t he c o n t i n -  u a l l y f o u g h t w i t h h i s younger b r o t h e r .  She r e q u e s t e d t h e y  be  placed separately. c)  A b i l i t y t o Handle F e e l i n g s o f F e a r :  Withdrawal,  and was  l a t e r a b l e t o d i s c u s s h i s problems and  displayed excellent co-operation. d)  A b i l i t y t o Handle Needs o f A f f e c t i o n :  M i c h a e l was acceptance.  c a p a b l e o f good b e h a v i o u r  i n order t o gain  He f o u n d employment as a paper c a r r i e r and  deliv-  e r y boy i n o r d e r t o become f i n a n c i a l l y independent as h i s mothe r ' s income was independent e)  limited.  H i s mother a p p a r e n t l y r e s e n t e d h i s  behaviour. A b i l i t y t o Handle Needs o f Dependency:  M i c h a e l ' s b e h a v i o u r a f t e r b e i n g made a ward i n 1950 i n d i c a t e d h i s d e s i r e t o be independent.  He was  able to finance h i s c l o t h -  i n g and spending money by employment a f t e r s c h o o l .  He  t o become i n v o l v e d i n a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o u t any substitutes.  refused parent  - 53 -  X.  Relationship and Attitude Toward Parents: When Michael was f i v e years old h i s father died.  His  mother was mentally disturbed and Michael had d i f f i c u l t y working out a s a t i s f a c t o r y relationship with her.  He s e c r e t l y  blamed himself f o r h i s mother's mental i l l n e s s and subsequent committal. XI.  Foster Home History:  Michael l i v e d with h i s mother u n t i l he became a ward of Children's Aid Society at the age of f i f t e e n . XII.  a)  Interests and Recreation:  Michael's main i n t e r e s t , p r i o r to entering care, appeared to be employment so he could become self-supporting and i n dependent.  There was no record of recreational i n t e r e s t s  other than reading. b)  Attitude Toward S i b l i n g s :  He fought continually with h i s younger brother.  His s i s t e r  was favoured by h i s mother but there was no record of h i s a t t i tude toward her. c) In 1949  Adjustment i n Groups: the school reported that Michael did not mix with  the other students. d)  Personal Friends:  There was i n d i c a t i o n that Michael had no friends at school. He seemed to prefer h i s own company.  - 54 -  e)  Adjustment  t o Opposite Sex:  There was no r e f e r e n c e t o g i r l f r i e n d s  p r i o r t o 1950.  He d i s p l a y e d c o n s i d e r a b l e h o s t i l i t y and resentment  toward  h i s mother. f)  Future Ambitions:  Not known. g) His  Self-Awareness:  self-awareness was not known p r i o r t o wardship i n 1950  as M i c h a e l was very uncommunicative. h)  Sense o f Humour:  As M i c h a e l was o f a r e t i r i n g n a t u r e , h i s sense o f humour was d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h .  -  55 -  CASE #6. I.  A)  Name; - Samuel A r n o l d  b)  Date o f B i r t h ; - May 30 1940.  c)  Status; - Admitted  t o non-ward care March 22 1946.  Made a ward o f C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y February II.  19 1951.  Parent s; a)  Mother; - Born i n 1908,  t i o n not known.  M a r r i e d i n 1931.  r e s s b e f o r e h e r marriage.  Canadian by b i r t h .  Educa-  She was employed as a w a i t -  Religion, Protestant.  H i s mother  l i v e d with another man i n 1943 w h i l e h e r husband was overseas. She l e f t h e r husband and c h i l d r e n November 23 1943 and secured work as a w a i t r e s s .  She was unable t o cope w i t h h e r husband's  abuse and constant d r i n k i n g .  Mrs. A r n o l d was d e s c r i b e d as a  shy, capable a t t r a c t i v e woman.  She took l i t t l e  interest i n  the f a m i l y a f t e r she l e f t . b)  F a t h e r : - Born i n 1908,  Grade Seven, poor s c h o o l r e c o r d . was  i n Ireland.  Religion, Protestant.  There  a l o n g h i s t o r y o f j o b changes which i n c l u d e d l a b o u r e r ,  watchman, plumber and e l e c t r i c i a n ' s h e l p e r . were l o n g p e r i o d s o f unemployment. and was d i s c h a r g e d i n 1943.  personality deviation.  Between jobs t h e r e  He j o i n e d t h e army i n 1941  A p s y c h i a t r i c r e p o r t a t t h a t time  diagnosed him as a psychopathic  p e r s o n a l i t y with f a i r l y  benign  I t was recommended t h a t he c o u l d not  b e n e f i t from h o s p i t a l c a r e . Mr.  Education  The case r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e d t h a t  A r n o l d was promiscuous i n h i s sexual r e l a t i o n s .  His h i s -  t o r y c o n t i n u a l l y i n d i c a t e d i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward h i s c h i l d r e n  -  56 -  and he o c c a s i o n a l l y l e f t them w i t h o u t adequate f o o d o v e r night.  H i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e agency was u s u a l l y one o f  sullen h o s t i l i t y .  D e s p i t e c o m p l a i n t s t h a t he n e g l e c t e d h i s  c h i l d r e n , he s t e a d f a s t l y r e f u s e d e a r l y 1951.  t o consent t o w a r d s h i p u n t i l  He d i e d f o l l o w i n g an i n d u s t r i a l a c c i d e n t  Septem-  b e r 29 1951. III.  Siblings: a)  Sara:  Born O c t o b e r 6 1931.  b)  Mark:  Born June 19 1934.  c)  Joel:  Born June 1 1937.  IV.  F i r s t C o n t a c t w i t h Agency: On November 23 1943, M r s . A r n o l d v i s i t e d t h e agency.  s t a t e d she was l e a v i n g h e r husband and f o u r c h i l d r e n . reported and  h e r husband was f r e q u e n t l y  She  She  i n t o x i c a t e d , ^independable  sometimes beat h e r and t h e c h i l d r e n .  She s t a t e d she was  concerned about t h e c h i l d r e n ' s f u t u r e , b u t made no a t t e m p t s a t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h h e r husband o r c h i l d r e n a f t e r h e r separation.  A f t e r h e r husband's d e a t h i n 1951 she v i s i t e d Sam  o c c a s i o n a l l y b u t made i t c l e a r she d i d n o t want h i m r e t u r n e d to her care. V.  P a r e n t ' s M a r i t a l Adjustment: T h e i r m a r r i a g e was v e r y unhappy.  Mrs. Arnold  lived  with  a n o t h e r man w h i l e f a t h e r was s e r v i n g o v e r s e a s from 1941-1943• F a t h e r ' s work h i s t o r y was s p o r a d i c . had  He drank t o excess and  g i v e n e a r l i e r e v i d e n c e o f u n f a i t h f u l n e s s toward h i s w i f e .  - 57 -  T h e i r home l i f e was one o f frequent VI.  a)  b i c k e r i n g and d i s s e n t i o n .  A t t i t u d e o f Parents Toward B i r t h o f C h i l d :  No e a r l y a t t i t u d e s were r e c o r d e d . mother r e p o r t e d  I n 1949 one f o s t e r  t h a t Sam's f a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e d h i s p r e f -  erence f o r h i s o l d e r son w h i l e i n t h e presence o f t h e two boys. b)  Health  of Child at Birth:  Sam's h e a l t h a t b i r t h was good. c)  Food  Habits:  Samuel had a good a p p e t i t e and showed no i n c l i n a t i o n toward food  fussiness. d)  Bowel and Bladder C o n t r o l :  H i s bowel c o n t r o l was normal. eneuresis  There was a h i s t o r y o f  which began i n 1946 and p e r s i s t e d u n t i l h i s placement  i n t h e R e c e i v i n g Home i n 1951. e)  Sleeping  Habits:  He appeared t o s l e e p n o r m a l l y .  February 14 1950,  h i sfoster  mother r e p o r t e d t h a t Sam sang aloud t o h i m s e l f f r e q u e n t l y f o r an hour before he f e l l a s l e e p and a l s o when he awoke i n t h e morning. VII.  a)  P h y s i c a l Development:  February 5 1951.  - A f t e r he became a ward, a medical  examination d i s c l o s e d Sam was t a l l f o r h i s age, was i n good h e a l t h and possessed no p h y s i c a l b)  abnormalities,  H i s t o r y o f I l l n e s s and D i s e a s e :  There was no recorded  h i s t o r y of i l l n e s s .  -  c)  53 -  Reaction t o I l l n e s s :  Samuel d i s p l a y e d o n l y normal concern f o r i l l n e s s . VIII.  S c h o l a s t i c Record:  Sam s t a r t e d s c h o o l a t the age o f s i x . ing  Information  concern-  s c h o o l p r o g r e s s p r i o r t o wardship i n 1951 was scanty.  In  1946 d u r i n g h i s f i r s t year a t s c h o o l , he was e n e u r e t i c and o t h e r p u p i l s avoided  s i t t i n g near him i n c l a s s .  He sought a t t e n t i o n  i n c l a s s by t a l i n g a l o u d and wandering a i m l e s s l y around t h e room. ing  I n 1950 Sam's t e a c h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t he showed no l e a r n -  a b i l i t y , was completely  h a v i o u r problem i n c l a s s .  l a c k i n g i n . i n t e r e s t , and was a beIn 1952 Sam repeated  Grade F i v e and  showed marked improvement a t s c h o o l i n i n t e r e s t and a t t i t u d e . He was r e p o r t e d t o p l a y o n l y with g i r l s a t s c h o o l and h i s t e a c h e r complained t h a t he day-dreamed c o n s t a n t l y d u r i n g h i s lessons. IX.  a) P e r s o n a l i t y : A few months a f t e r becoming a ward i n 1951, Sam's  was a l a r m i n g .  He a r r i v e d a t s c h o o l unkempt and was l i s t l e s s  and uncommunicative. f o s t e r home. stick.  behaviour  He was r e j e c t e d by t h e other boys i n t h e  He began c u r l i n g h i s h a i r and used rouge and l i p -  Sam i n d u l g e d i n sex p l a y w i t h a younger g i r l which r e -  s u l t e d i n h i s removal from t h e f o s t e r home.  He r e p e a t e d l y wore  j e w e l r y and r i n g s t o s c h o o l and p l a y e d o n l y with g i r l s i n his  c l a s s i n h i s spare time.  sisted.  H i s e n e u r e t i c t e n d e n c i e s had per-  On o c c a s i o n , he had been seen t o s i t by h i m s e l f and  rock t o and f r o w i t h a vacuous e x p r e s s i o n .  He a l s o  requested  - 59  permission  t o take dancing lessons w i t h the g i r l s i n h i s  c l a s s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t he was b)  -  the only  boy.  A b i l i t y t o Handle F e e l i n g s o f Anger:  Same c o u l d not c o n t r o l h i s anger f e e l i n g s and w i t h provocation  threw temper t a n t r u m s .  little  He had f r e q u e n t l y been  observed b e r a t i n g o t h e r boys i n a manner not u n l i k e a n a g g i n g woman. c)  A b i l i t y t o Handle F e e l i n g s o f F e a r :  When f r i g h t e n e d Sam  stuttered frequently.  when p r e s e n t e d by a f r i g h t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n a n d i n t o a s t u p o r i n w h i c h he was d) Sam homes.  He o f t e n l i e d seemed t o  go  u n a b l e t o see o r h e a r .  A b i l i t y t o Handle Needs o f A f f e c t i o n :  showed l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f o s t e r His frequent  r e j e c t i o n s by h i s f a t h e r and h i s mother's  d e s e r t i o n when he was  t h r e e y e a r s o l d , were p r o b a b l y r e s p o n s -  ible for his actions. e)  A b i l i t y t o Handle Needs o f Dependency:  There was his  no r e c o r d i n g i n t h i s a r e a .  behaviour r e s u l t e d i n r e j e c t i o n .  I n most f o s t e r homes  In h i s l e t t e r s to h i s  grandmother he p r e v a r i c a t e d f a c t s c o n c e r n i n g h i s g r e a t  success  i n s c h o o l and h i s ownership o f a b i g boat w h i c h p r o b a b l y i n d i cated a wish f o r X.  approval.  R e l a t i o n s h i p and A t t i t u d e s t o  Parents:  Sam's mother and f a t h e r s e p a r a t e d when he was old.  three years  He d i d not see h i s mother a f t e r she moved away.  f a t h e r openly displayed h i s preference  t o Sam's o l d e r  His brother.  - 60 -  When he was t o l d o f h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h i n 1951, he was unconcerned and basked i n t h e a t t e n t i o n t h i s news a f f o r d e d him f o r a b r i e f t i m e a t s c h o o l .  H i s f a t h e r r e p o r t e d l y beat  t h e c h i l d r e n when he was i n t o x i c a t e d . XI.  F o s t e r Home H i s t o r y : U n t i l 1947 he remained a t home under t h e c a r e o f h i s  s i s t e r who was n i n e y e a r s h i s s e n i o r .  She f o u n d h i m d i f f i c u l t  t o c o n t r o l and a c t i v e l y r e s e n t e d h i m because he c u r t a i l e d h e r social activities.  I n 1947, Sam's f a t h e r p l a c e d h i m i n t h e  L o y a l P r o t e s t a n t s ' Home.  There f o l l o w e d a s e r i e s o f seven  f o s t e r homes f r o m 1947 t o 1951 when Sam was made a ward. t  In  t h e s e homes, Sam e x p e r i e n c e d r e j e c t i o n f r o m t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s and t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h whom he r e s i d e d .  I n t h e f i r s t two p l a c e -  ments, Sam's b r o t h e r was, i n many c a s e s h e l d up a s an example f o r h i m t o emulate. XII.  a)  I n t e r e s t s and R e c r e a t i o n :  H i s i n t e r e s t s d i f f e r e d markedly f r o m o t h e r boys. p l a y e d i n t e r e s t i n t a p and b a l l e t d a n c i n g .  He d i s -  He j o i n e d an a l l  g i r l dance c l a s s and g a i n e d o b v i o u s s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m t h e e x p e r ience.  He e n j o y e d s i n g i n g and sometimes spent h i s money making  recordings  of his voice.  He l i k e d m u s i c a l movies, b u t a v o i d e d  Western and murder p i c t u r e s .  He s t a t e d he had no i n t e r e s t i n  guns, b u t enjoyed swimming i n which he e x c e l l e d , b)  A t t i t u d e Toward S i b l i n g s :  A l t h o u g h he n e v e r d i s p l a y e d h o s t i l i t y he must have k e e n l y  -  61  -  f e l t h i s f a t h e r s preference f o r h i s brother. 1  He  refused  t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h h i s e l d e s t s i s t e r w h i l e l i v i n g a t home.  Sam  c)  Adjustment i n Groups:  was  r e j e c t e d by most boys but seemed t o r e l a t e w e l l  with g i r l s .  His feminine behaviour  p r o v o k e d t e a s i n g f r o m boys  so he a v o i d e d them whenever p o s s i b l e . d) Sam in  Personal Friends:  had no known male f r i e n d s p r i o r t o becoming a ward  1951.  e)  Adjustment t o O p p o s i t e  He a d j u s t e d w e l l w i t h g i r l s and s c h o o l w i t h them. who  Sex: spent h i s f r e e t i m e a t  He a l s o r e l a t e d w e l l w i t h h i s grandmother  t a u g h t him t o k n i t . f) I n 1953  Future  Ambitions:  he s t a t e d he w o u l d l i k e t o become a movie a c t o r  or a doctor. g)  Self-Awareness:  He had v e r y h)l  little.  Sense o f Humour:  Many j o k e s were d i r e c t e d a t him and he was and d i s p l a y e d l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f humour. R e c e i v i n g Home A p r i l 22  1952.  very  defensive  He e n t e r e d t h e B o y s  1  CHAPTER 4. TREATMENT PROGRAMME AT THE The treatment  BOYS' RESIDENCE  programme at the Home f a l l s i n t o t h r e e p a r t s  - group work with a l l the boys (work with i n d i v i d u a l boys by the case worker) and the continued h e l p and  i n t e r e s t given  by  the House p a r e n t s . Although  these t h r e e s e c t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y i n  the f o l l o w i n g pages, i t must be remembered t h a t a l l t h r e e were c a r r i e d on c o n c u r r e n t l y , and the progress r e p o r t e d i n the  case  work summary r e f l e c t s elements o f a l l t h r e e p a r t s of the programme. I.  GROUP WORK TREATMENT: Summary o f Group Work r e c o r d i n g taken from f i l e s . October 16 1952  - During the f i r s t meeting between the group  worker and t h e boys, marked r e s i s t a n c e was game was last."  suggested  displayed.  When a  the r e a c t i o n o f a l l seemed t o be " I am  going  When one member f i n a l l y v o l u n t e e r e d , the group d i s p l a y e d  t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l to him by " c a t c a l l s " .  Two  boys l e f t t h e group  and the remainder played b a l l t a g i n an e x c i t e d , e r r a t i c manner. They d i d n ' t f o l l o w the r u l e s and developed. not.  One  p l a y f i g h t i n g amongst the group  o f the m i s s i n g boys r e t u r n e d but Sam  Span o f i n t e r e s t was  i n rapid succession.  short and  Arnold d i d  a v a r i e t y o f games f o l l o w e d  Many o f the boys showed a common c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c to the worker, namely, a d i s t r u s t o f any a d u l t .  Sam  Arnold  entered the games room once or twice and u s u a l l y hovered near the  - 63 -  door.  He l o o k e d l o n e l y and m o u r n f u l and w o r k e r h e a r d h i m s i n g -  i n g t o h i m s e l f i n a d u l l monotone v o i c e .  P e t e r White f r e q u e n t l y  s t a t e d he would not p l a y but o c c a s i o n a l l y j o i n e d t h e group a c t i vities.  On o c c a s i o n he s a t a l o n e and appeared o b l i v i o u s t o t h e  a c t i v i t y nearby.  Donald B a t e s j o i n e d no a c t i v i t i e s b u t s a t nearby October 2 4 1 9 5 2 ,  f o r a few minutes r e a d i n g a comic book. was a c c e p t e d by some group members.  A t t h e gymnasium, P e t e r W h i t e ,  Sam A r n o l d and Donald B a t e s r a n w i l d l y around t h e f l o o r and s h o u t i n g w h i l e o t h e r members p l a y e d b a s k e t b a l l . couraged t h e boys t o p i c k teams f o r b a s k e t b a l l .  the  screaming  Worker en-  A f t e r a few min-  u t e s o n l y A r t h u r W i l s o n and a n o t h e r boy were p l a y i n g . and a n o t h e r member began t o f i g h t  worker  Sam  Arnold  f u r i o u s l y and l a t e r r a n out o f  gym and s a i d t h e y were g o i n g home.  Only A r t h u r W i l s o n and  a n o t h e r member had any u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f group games.  P e t e r White  spent a l l h i s t i m e i n v e s t i g a t i n g e v e r y room he c o u l d e n t e r . boys a l l t o o k t u r n s a t rope c l i m b i n g . up h a l f way.  The  Sam A r n o l d managed t o c l i m b  The b a s k e t b a l l game was a f a i l u r e but s e r v e d t o i n d i -  c a t e t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e group t o a c c e p t h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d  activity.  D u r i n g t h e w r e s t l i n g i t was apparent t h a t A r t h u r W i l s o n was r e c o g n i z e d as t h e b e s t a l l - r o u n d a t h l e t e by t h e o t h e r s .  Individual  p r o g r e s s was d i s p l a y e d by A r t h u r W i l s o n who had a c c e p t e d t h e w o r k e r . Sam Arnold.made a spontaneous e f f o r t his  a t rope c l i m b i n g but showed  e a r l i e r tendency t o w i t h d r a w and s i t a l o n e .  Donald B a t e s  j o i n e d i n some a c t i v i t i e s but a l s o w i t h d r e w and s a t a l o n e .  By  November 7 1 9 5 2 worker n o t e d t h a t an hour was now t h e l i m i t f o r p e a c e f u l group a c t i v i t y a t t h e gymnasium.  Minor disruptions  still  - 64 -  o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e hour but a f t e r an h o u r e v e r y t h i n g d i s i n t e g r a t e d and t h e b o y s  1  u n c o n t r o l l e d urges r a n amock.  The  group  worker saw some o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s b e h a v i o u r a t t h i s p o i n t appeared t o be because: (1)  A l l t h e boys d i s p l a y e d f e e l i n g s o f a g g r e s s i o n  and  hostility. (2)  They were a l l h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and unable  to  co-operate f o r any l e n g t h o f t i m e . (3) . They a l l wanted immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n . (4)  They a l l had v e r y b e w i l d e r e d f e e l i n g s about a d u l t s . They a p p e a l e d t o w o r k e r f o r h e l p , t h e n r e f u s e d t o f o l l o w s u g g e s t i o n s and t u r n e d on w o r k e r and accused him o f b e i n g no good and a s p o i l - s p o r t .  (5)  Each boy i n e v i t a b l y a n t a g o n i z e d t h e o t h e r s . t h e i r h o s t i l i t y toward  They s t o r e d  each o t h e r d u r i n g t h e day  and  used t h e gymnasium p e r i o d s t o s e t t l e t h e i r grudges a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r i n t h e  evening.  (6)  They d i s p l a y e d i n a b i l i t y t o share w i t h each o t h e r .  (7)  Many l a c k e d p e r s e v e r e n c e  (8)  T h e i r dependency-independency f e e l i n g s were h e i g h t e n e d by  adolescence.  On November 28 1952. i n g Home.  and p a t i e n c e .  a group m e e t i n g was h e l d a t t h e R e c e i v -  Case worker and Group worker were p r e s e n t and t h e boys  were encouraged t o c o m p l a i n about a n y t h i n g t h e y wanted t o and was  there  t o be no punishment a f t e r w a r d s f o r a n y t h i n g t h e y s a i d a t t h i s  - 65 -  session.  The case worker suggested  they s t a r t by a l l s a y i n g  why they were a t t h e R e c e i v i n g Home. Sam  A r n o l d s a i d "I'm here because I d i d n ' t l i k e my  f o s t e r home and r a n away." A r t h u r Wilson  s a i d " I don't know why I'm h e r e . "  (Appar-  e n t l y c o u l d n ' t f a c e f a c t s as they were p a i n f u l ) . Peter White -."I'm here because I s t o l e s t u f f . " Donald Bates - "I'm here because my p a r e n t s  couldn't  l o o k a f t e r me." Sam  A r n o l d s a i d everyone p i c k e d on him.  t h e r e wasn't enough a c t i v i t i e s .  Arthur Wilson  said  Peter White s a i d he wanted Sam  A r n o l d t o stop a c t i n g l i k e a g i r l and added he a l s o wanted t o q u i t s c h o o l as, "You can't g e t nowhere i n s p e c i a l c l a s s . " worker asked  i f they l i k e d t h e i r " G r i p e S e s s i o n s " .  imous t h a t they d i d . follow.-  Case  A l l were unan-  The boys were t o l d o t h e r s e s s i o n s would  T h i s meeting i n d i c a t e d  t h e boys' v a r i o u s degrees o f i n -  s i g h t i n t o t h e reasons f o r t h e i r b e i n g a t t h e R e c e i v i n g Home. Some o f t h e complaints gave c l u e s t o t h e boys' r e a l needs. December 1 1952. - The group l e f t f o r t h e gymnasium.  The boys,  under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f A r t h u r W i l s o n s t a r t e d t h e b a s k e t b a l l game on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e .  A l l p a r t i c i p a t e d but Sam A r n o l d , who  requested worker t o show him some tumbling  s t u n t s on t h e mat.  Peter White made repeated t r i p s t o t h e mats t o antagonize r e p e a t e d l y pushed him over. and t h e o t h e r s f o l l o w e d .  Sami and  Peter White then went t o t h e a t t i c  He l a t e r found a c o l l a p s i b l e wheel  -. 66 -  c h a i r and asked p e r m i s s i o n t o use  it.  Soon a l l the boys were  t a k i n g t u r n s pushing one another as f a s t as p o s s i b l e .  Arthur  Wilson gave Peter White a r i d e and went so f a s t the wheel c h a i r overturned and P e t e r f e l l  out.  He almost  temper, but both boys immediately couldn't be angry. activity.  A boy  b u r s t out i n a f i t o f  began t o laugh so hard  On t h r e e o c c a s i o n s worker l i m i t e d  s t a r t e d t o throw some wax  they  individual  at the o t h e r s but  worker t o l d him i t would s p o i l the f l o o r and requested he put i t in  the paper basket.  The boy  complied.  Peter White took a  candle from the cupboard and prepared t o l i g h t i t . him t o r e p l a c e i t as i t was  church p r o p e r t y .  new  Worker asked  Peter d i d .  Arthur  W i l s o n took a magazine from a p i l e and put i t under h i s sweater. Worker asked i f he r e a l l y wanted i t . i t nonchalantly. to  s o l d i e r s who  Worker e x p l a i n e d t h a t the magazines were sent were f i g h t i n g and A r t h u r seemed q u i t e i n t e r e s t e d .  December 5 1 9 5 2 . enthusiasm.  Sam  He s a i d no and r e p l a c e d  The gym  A r n o l d now  programme was  felt  now  met  with  eager  secure enough with worker t o  request h i s a s s i s t a n c e a t tumbling.  The f a c t t h a t P e t e r White,  A r t h u r W i l s o n , Donald Bates and the o t h e r s played b a s k e t b a l l on t h e i r own  initiative,  even though o n l y f o r f i v e minutes  i n d i c a t i v e of progress.  The gym  programme was  b a s k e t b a l l , rope c l i m b i n g , tumbling, the wheel c h a i r . behaviour  There was  was  v a r i e d and i n c l u d e d  e x p l o r i n g a t t i c and  pushing  no f i g h t i n g between the boys.  of A r t h u r f o l l o w i n g h i s f a l l from the wheel c h a i r  The was  i n d i c a t i v e of h i s increasing a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l h i s outbursts.  This  - 67 -  may have i n d i c a t e d w o r k e r ' s a c c e p t a n c e by t h e group and a l s o showed i n c r e a s e d t o l e r a n c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e boys i n v o l v e d . On December 12 1952. Worker suggested  t h e second " G r i p e S e s s i o n " was h e l d .  i t was more o f a meeting t h a n a g r i p e s e s s i o n .  A r t h u r W i l s o n s a i d i t was a d i s c u s s i o n .  Worker suggested  a v o t e be t a k e n t o change t h e name t o d i s c u s s i o n . d i s s e n t e r s , a g r e e d t h a t t h e name be changed.  that  A l l b u t two  A r t h u r W i l s o n had  by t h i s t i m e a t t e n d e d A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House.  The boys  showed c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e Woodwork shop a t t h e Neighbourhood House.  They a l s o r e q u e s t e d more s p o r t s equipment.  boys agreed t o go w i t h worker t o t h e Woodwork shop. son made h i m s e l f a dagger. t o make guns.  The  Arthur W i l -  Donald B a t e s and P e t e r White s t a r t e d  P e t e r White was a b l e t o work i n d e p e n d e n t l y .  Peter  W h i t e v o l u n t a r i l y d i d most o f t h e c l e a n i n g up b e f o r e t h e g r o u p left. The e v e n i n g a s a whole was a success and t h e b e s t by f a r t o t h i s date.  I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n , t h e term " G r i p e S e s s i o n , " was  vetoed w i t h worker's support.  The Woodwork c l a s s was a s u c c e s s .  A r t h u r W i l s o n r e v e a l e d l i t t l e a b i l i t y a t woodwork.  Donald B a t e s  and P e t e r White showed s u p e r i o r i t y i n t h i s a r e a and A r t h u r seemed to keenly f e e l t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n . December 24 1952. a t t h e R e c e i v i n g Home. were i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d .  The House p a r e n t s h e l d a C h r i s t m a s  party  R e s i d e n t s o f t h e G i r l s ' R e c e i v i n g Home The programme was p r e - a r r a n g e d  and i n -  c l u d e d , m u s i c a l c h a i r s , b i n g o , s p i n t h e b o t t l e , d a n c i n g and games.  - 68 -  At f i r s t everyone was games s t a r t e d .  awkward but t e n s e n e s s d i m i n i s h e d as t h e  Everyone p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e games.  p o i n t o f group u n i t y was  Highest  reached when " A u l d Lang Syne" was  sung.  Even t h e members were r e c e i v e d l e a s t enjoyment, j o i n e d i n and eagerly p a r t i c i p a t e d . cant.  Some o f t h e b o y s  T  b e h a v i o u r was  Donald B a t e s d i s p l a y e d l a c k o f r e s t r a i n t and  signifi-  evident  p h y s i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n when k i s s i n g o r s i t t i n g n e a r t h e g i r l s .  On  s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , A r t h u r W i l s o n and P e t e r White t o l d him t o s t o p making a f o o l o f h i m s e l f . awkward.  A r t h u r W i l s o n appeared embarrassed and  He seemed c o m p l e t e l y out o f h i s element a t t h e p a r t y ,  i n the presence  of g i r l s .  P e t e r White seemed more a t ease w i t h  g i r l s than d i d the o t h e r boys. D e s p i t e o b v i o u s i n t e g r a t i o n and p r o g r e s s o f t h e boys, a r e c o r d i n g on December 8 1952 t e g r a t i o n could occur.  i n d i c a t e d how  e a s i l y group d i s i n -  The sequence o f events w h i c h l e d t o t h i s  i n c i d e n t was u n n o t i c e d by t h e group w o r k e r .  Arthur Wilson, Peter  W h i t e , Donald B a t e s and a n o t h e r group member became i n v o l v e d i n a fierce fight. P e t e r White was  Donald B a t e s had h i s f e e t t i e d w i t h rope, w h i l e p a r t i a l l y t i e d and c r y i n g b i t t e r l y . When worker  approached one o f t h e boys swore a t him l o n g and i n t e n s e l y i n a f i t o f v i o l e n t temper.  Worker c a l m l y t o l d t h e boys t o g e t  c o a t s on as t h i s f i n i s h e d t h e gym  their  programme f o r t h e e v e n i n g .  were v e r y s u r p r i s e d but a f t e r t h e y r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e w o r k e r  They was  s e r i o u s , t h e y obeyed. The gym  p e r i o d h e l d on January 12 1953  i n the above b e h a v i o u r .  indicated a contrast  A l l members p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a game o f  - 69 i  dodge b a l l .  The p l a y e r s a l l became e x c i t e d and a f i g h t s t a r t e d  between P e t e r W h i t e and a n o t h e r member. A r t h u r W i l s o n , s e p a r a t e d them. f r a n t i c manner and t h e r e was a t each o t h e r .  The w o r k e r , a s s i s t e d by  N e i t h e r boy a c t e d i n h i s u s u a l  no s w e a r i n g .  Worker s a i d t h e r e was  They s t o o d and g l a r e d  t o be no f i g h t i n g .  r e j o i n e d t h e game and a few minutes l a t e r t h e o t h e r boy  They approached  P e t e r and s a i d , "You wanna make f r i e n d s ? " They shook hands and a g a i n resumed t h e game o f dodge b a l l . January 30 1953.  I n d i v i d u a l p r o g r e s s i n woodwork.  Peter  W h i t e made a t e a p o t s t a n d and appeared i n t e n t on t e s t i n g worker.  the  He took a b r a c e and b i t and s t a r t e d d r i l l i n g h o l e s i n  benches and d o o r s .  Even when t h e worker t r i e d t o r e - d i r e c t h i s  a c t i v i t y , he p e r s i s t e d u n t i l he saw the w o r k e r would not become i m p a t i e n t o r a n g r y w i t h him.  He l a t e r p a i n t e d "drop dead" on a  p i e c e o f plywood and n a i l e d t h e s i g n on t h e w a l l .  He spent t h e  remainder o f t h e evening c a r e e n i n g around i n an e r r a c t i c manner. B e f o r e l e a v i n g , he v o l u n t a r i l y removed the s i g n f r o m t h e w a l l , c l e a n e d t h e p a i n t b r u s h e s and h e l p e d  sweep out t h e woodwork room.  A r t h u r W i l s o n made a boomerang w i t h the w o r k e r ' s a s s i s t a n c e .  Later  he n a i l e d a p i e c e o f plywood on t h e bench, drew a f a c e and w r o t e t h e House f a t h e r ' s name below i t . I'm  He s a i d , "O.K., watch t h i s ,  g o i n g t o n a i l h i s f a c e i n . " He t o o k t h e hammer and  drove  n a i l s i n t o t h e f a c e w i t h t e r r i f i c i n t e n s i t y and t h e n pounded t h e wood t o shreds w i t h h i s hammer.  When he had f i n i s h e d , he heaved  a s i g h o f r e l i e f and s a i d "There, t h a t ' s what I t h i n k o f  him."  - 70 -  L a t e r , A r t h u r was  t e a s i n g Donald Bates who  a t t a c k e d A r t h u r w i t h a hammer. r a n out o f t h e shop and was On F e b r u a r y  2 1953,  f l e w i n t o a rage  Worker s e p a r a t e d them and  and  Donald  gone f o r f i f t e e n m i n u t e s .  t h e group w o r k e r r e c o r d e d h i s  o f the group development s i n c e O c t o b e r 1952  impressions  as f o l l o w s :  "The group i s b e t t e r a b l e t o h a n d l e f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Before Christmas they c o u l d n ' t even t a k e t h e m i l d f r u s t r a t i o n o f c o m p e t i t i v e games. Now t h e y a r e a s k i n g t o p l a y b a s k e t b a l l and o t h e r team games; t h e y a b i d e by t h e r u l e s and work as a team. They can a l s o a c c e p t t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f h a v i n g t o a b i d e by t h e c a r e t a k e r ' s w i s h e s . I f he f e e l s t h a t a c e r t a i n game w i l l be damaging t o t h e gymnasium, t h e boys a r e a b l e t o make new p l a n s f o r o t h e r games." February  3 1953.  The group a r r i v e d a t t h e woodwork shop and  each one began t o make some o b j e c t .  P e t e r White and w o r k e r d i s -  cussed t h e woodwork shop a t P e t e r ' s s c h o o l . to use t h e l a t h e as he had l e a r n e d how Sam to  Worker a l l o w e d  t o o p e r a t e one a t s c h o o l .  A r n o l d n a i l e d some boards t o g e t h e r and announced he was build a sled.  Worker had observed  i n t e r e s t f o r some t i m e but t h i s was  P e t e r mentioned i t . w i t h machinery.  going  P e t e r White v o l u n t e e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n about h i s  i n t e r e s t i n machinery and woodwork. obvious  Peter  He d e r i v e d o b v i o u s  I t a l s o heightened  the f i r s t  occasion  s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m working,  h i s group s t a t u s as  machinery f r i g h t e n e d some o f t h e o t h e r s .  Peter's  the  The worker had p r e v i o u s l y  met w i t h A l e x a n d r a House members and arranged f o r "tween-agers" to  v i s i t t h e group i n t h e woodwork shop.  S e v e r a l boys and  e n t e r e d t h e woodwork shop d u r i n g t h e e v e n i n g .  girls  They were a p p a r e n t l y ,  - 71 -  school friends of the group and everyone knew each other's name. The i n t e r - a c t i o n between the two groups was harmonious.  Many of  the v i s i t o r s were more e r r a t i c and caused more disturbance than the worker's group. February 6 1953. dence.  Worker stayed for supper at the Boys' Resi-  During the dinner, Peter White said he wanted two nights  of woodwork instead of one.  Arthur Wilson was encouraging  another member to j o i n the Alexandra Neighbourhood House soccer team.  Peter White and another member had joined the Army Cadets  and l e f t immediately after the meal.  They took obvious pride i n  t h e i r appearance.  Discussion centred largely around these points  during the meal.  The content of conversation had changed marked-  l y over e a r l i e r dinner discussion where members were c h i e f l y interested i n The Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School. February 9 1953.  A c t i v i t y i n gymnasium.  A basketball,  soccer b a l l and rugby b a l l were thrown around the gym i n an orderly, methodical manner. soccer.  Sam Arnold and Arthur Wilson played  Arthur suggested " s i t t i n g f o o t b a l l " and the others  agreed.  In t h i s game participants were not allowed to stand up but must slide in a s i t t i n g position. players and spectators.  The game proved highly amusing to  The worker was referee,  but seldom i n t e r -  vened as the players abided by the simple rules and d i s c i p l i n e d themselves.  The game was played for twenty-five minutes with few  interruptions.  Arthur then suggested a game of basketball and  t h i s was agreed upon without opposition from other members.  The  72  -  -  group p l a y e d f o r f i f t e e n minutes u n t i l i t was t i m e t o l e a v e . When t h e y a r r i v e d home, group members were i n h i g h s p i r i t s and seemed e m o t i o n a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e gym programme. no anger o r t e n s i o n i n t h e Home atmosphere.  There was  The group worker  r e c o r d e d t h a t i n t h i s n a r r a t i v e "The group" was r e f e r r e d t o more than i n d i v i d u a l s .  The g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n was o f "a group," r a t h e r  t h a n sub-groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s . F e b r u a r y 10 1953* A s t a f f member from A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House c o n t a c t e d t h e group w o r k e r and e x p l a i n e d t h a t a l o c k and t o o l s had been m i s s e d f r o m t h e woodwork shop.  Worker was a l m o s t  c e r t a i n he had seen one o f t h e members t a k e t h e l o c k .  Worker  a r r i v e d a t t h e R e s i d e n c e and t o l d Mr.T. t h e House f a t h e r , about the  e p i s o d e and s u g g e s t e d t h e y d i s c u s s t h e m a t t e r w i t h t h e boys.  When t h e y g a t h e r e d , t h e worker s a i d t h a t t h e l o c k f r o m t h e woodwork cupboard was m i s s i n g .  I t had been a t t h e shop when t h e y  a r r i v e d - a n d had been m i s s e d a f t e r t h e group l e f t , so t h e y were responsible.  Worker added t h e y had t h e c h o i c e o f f i n d i n g t h e  m i s s i n g l o c k o r h a v i n g t h e Neighbourhood House send Mr.T. to  replace i t .  a bill  Mr.T. s a i d i f he r e c e i v e d a b i l l t h e group would  pay f o r i t from t h e i r w e e k l y a l l o w a n c e s .  Sam A r n o l d s a i d he had  a l o c k t h a t c o u l d be used and produced t h e m i s s i n g l o c k .  The  worker knew Sam had not t a k e n t h e l o c k but nobody a d m i t t e d t h e theft. ing to  Mr.T.  s a i d t h a t anyone caught t h i e v i n g would b e g i n wear-  short pants immediately.  The thought o f s h o r t p a n t s seemed  p a r a l y z e t h e group w i t h t e r r o r . a n d a n x i e t y .  Worker mentioned  -  73  -  t h a t t o o l s had been s t o l e n a l s o but i t was not known who responsible.  was  The worker s a i d i f t h i s continued t o happen, t h e  shop might be c l o s e d and then nobody c o u l d use i t . seemed s u r p r i s e d and  The boys  '"shocked" i n t o t h e r e a l i t y o f what they  would s u f f e r through l o s s o f p r i v e l e g e s .  They understood t h e  s i t u a t i o n and seemed anxious t h a t t h i s should not happen.  Worker  concluded the matter by saying, "Okay, don't s p o i l i t f o r yourselves."  That evening a t the woodwork shop the boys' behaviour  was u n e v e n t f u l .  The i n t e r - a c t i o n between t h e boys and t h e o t h e r  tween-agers was smooth and n a t u r a l .  The group members s t a r t e d  to v i s i t the games room with o t h e r tween-agers. February 13  1953.  a t the R e s i d e n c e .  The group worker had supper w i t h t h e boys  A group meeting had been planned and a l l t h e  boys s a t around one t a b l e w i t h the worker.  Worker opened the  meeting by a s k i n g i f they were s t i l l i n t e r e s t e d i n an o v e r - n i g h t trip.  There was a chorus o f consent.  A r t h u r and Sam i n p a r t i c -  u l a r , were i n f a v o u r o f going on a t r i p .  The worker mentioned  t h a t they might be a b l e t o get t h e Y.M.C.A. c a b i n . asked the group, "Why  do we get t o g e t h e r l i k e t h i s ? "  s a i d , "To keep us guys out o f t r o u b l e . " help l i t t l e  children,"  Worker t h e n One member  Sam A r n o l d s a i d ,  "To  A r t h u r W i l s o n s a i d , "To h e l p us have a  b e t t e r time l i k e o t h e r k i d s have."  The worker s a i d t h e f i r s t  two  answers were p a r t l y c o r r e c t but A r t h u r ' s answer was t h e b e s t . That the worker wanted t o h e l p them p l a n f o r themselves and wanted everyone o f them t o b r i n g i d e a s t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n s as t h e y  - 74  -  c o u l d work them out t o g e t h e r and make them happen.  The  group  seemed t o r e a l i z e more c l e a r l y t h a t t h e s e s s i o n s h e l d were f o r p l a n n i n g and t h e worker was i n a h e l p i n g r o l e . f i n a l remark was " I t ' s  up t o you t o b r i n g y o u r i d e a s - and w e ' l l  h e l p you w i t h them, O.K.?" the  The w o r k e r ' s  There was a g e n e r a l agreement  among  group and t h e w o r k e r f e l t t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e  s e s s i o n s were f o r them.  The worker n o t e d t h a t t h e group-worker  r e l a t i o n s h i p had now r e a c h e d a new p o i n t .  I t was.now p o s s i b l e  f o r t h e worker t o go deeper i n t o r e a s o n i n g and a b s t r a c t c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e group.  dis-  They i n t u r n , would " g i v e back" by  acknowledging t h e worker's s u g g e s t i o n s and q u e s t i o n s w i t h l o g i c a l and c o - o p e r a t i v e r e s p o n s e s under most c i r c u m s t a n c e s . F e b r u a r y 16 1953.  House mother  (Mrs.T.) t o l d t h e worker  t h a t h e r p u r s e had gone from h e r room. her  room f r o m t h e f i r e escape.  Somebody had b r o k e n i n t o  Mrs.T. f e l t i t must have been  one o f t h e boys as t h e dog would have b a r k e d i f any s t r a n g e r s had approached.  She s a i d P e t e r White a c t e d s t r a n g e l y e v e r s i n c e t h e  p u r s e had d i s a p p e a r e d .  The worker s a i d a l l t h e boys had ample  money e a r l i e r i n t h e e v e n i n g w h i c h was i n i t s e l f u n u s u a l . i n g was a r r a n g e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g day.  A meet'  When t h e boys had g a t h -  e r e d , worker asked i f t h e y knew why t h e y were t h e r e . s a i d i t was t o h e l p them be good c i t i z e n s .  One  boy  Arthur Wilson said i t  was t o h e l p them and s u p e r v i s e them when t h e y went t o t h e woodwork shop so t h e y wouldn't get i n t o t r o u b l e . worker was t h e r e t o h e l p them.  A l l agreed t h a t t h e  Worker asked i f t h e y t h o u g h t t h e  - 75 -  Residence was a good p l a c e t o l i v e . e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y agreed.  A l l , but one member  Worker asked i f they r e a l i z e d  that  the case worker, group worker and House p a r e n t s a l l worked t o gether t o h e l p them.  The group agreed r e l u c t a n t l y .  The worker  s a i d t h a t they a l l knew about t h e t h e f t o f t h e purse from Mrs.T. The group agreed t h a t they knew.  Worker s a i d he knew a l s o .  The  worker s a i d t h i s s o r t o f behaviour was s p o i l i n g t h e i r own l i v e s f o r the f u t u r e when they would want t o f i n d j o b s , get married and l i v e an o r d i n a r y l i f e l i k e anyone e l s e . was t h e i r chance t o work toward t h a t .  Worker s a i d t h i s  Worker asked i f they knew  how they c o u l d h e l p t h e Residence t o become a b e t t e r p l a c e f o r themselves.  Nobody seemed c l e a r on t h i s p o i n t .  Worker s a i d they  c o u l d h e l p by s t o p p i n g t h e "guys" who wanted t o s t e a l s t u f f by t e l l i n g "the guy t o q u i t s t e a l i n g . "  Worker s a i d t h a t t h e group  had good l e a d e r s l i k e A r t h u r and p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s l i k e P e t e r White.  The group agreed they c o u l d h e l p themselves.  Worker then  asked "How about the guys t h a t p u l l e d t h a t j o b l a s t n i g h t , what are you going t o do about t h a t ? " f i n g e r s a t the t h r e e c u l p r i t s .  The group p o i n t e d a c c u s i n g  The group then agreed t o put  them '|through t h e m i l l " , t h e r e and then.  The g u i l t y boys, 'Peter  and two o t h e r s , were f o r c e d t o crawl down t h e l i n e o f boys w h i l e each group member whacked i n t u r n w i t h h i s shoe.  The worker  noted t h a t a l o t o f t e n s i o n had been c r e a t e d d u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n and t h e punishment o f t h e o f f e n d e r s served as an o u t l e t . A f t e r the meeting,  a l l members were e x c i t e d and anxious.  Those  members who l a t e r attended woodwork c l a s s wandered a i m l e s s l y  - 76  -  around o r used t h e i r hammers v i o l e n t l y . c o n s t r u c t i v e work.  He made a harpoon.  Only Donald B a t e s d i d The worker l a t e r r e -  corded t h a t he f e l t t h a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n was o f l i t t l e v a l u e t o t h e group members.  lasting  I t was b e l i e v e d i t p r o v i d e d a"  temporary check on s t e a l i n g but d i d not get a t t h e b a s i c cause. The worker was a l s o aware o f t h e danger o f d e v e l o p i n g group l e a d e r s h i p which c o u l d e a s i l y become d i c t a t o r i a l and p u n i t i v e unless c a r e f u l l y guided. F e b r u a r y 25 1953. the  woodwork shop.  downstairs. attended.  Only t h r e e o r f o u r boys were p r e s e n t a t The o t h e r s a t t e n d e d a tween-age programme  The worker a s k e d Sam A r n o l d why P e t e r White had not Sam s a i d "Haven't you caught on y e t ? "  Sam what he meant.  Worker a s k e d  He s a i d t h a t whenever P e t e r and J i m got t o -  g e t h e r t h e r e was t r o u b l e . was most s u r p r i s i n g .  The worker n o t e d t h a t t h i s b e h a v i o u r  U s u a l l y t h e group members a r e v e r y r e l u c -  t a n t t o r e v e a l any such " c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n " , as i t i s a g a i n s t t h e i r "code o f honour."  Worker f e l t t h a t t h i s  incident  perhaps i n d i c a t e d a more p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Sam himself. point.  and  The group worker n o t e d t h e boys' p r o g r e s s a t t h i s A r t h u r W i l s o n u s e d t h e A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House  f a c i l i t i e s on h i s own.  A r t h u r and a n o t h e r group r e s i d e n t a r e  on t h e s o c c e r team., A r t h u r a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d h i s group a t t h e tween-age c o u n c i l .  Donald B a t e s and Sam A r n o l d use t h e N e i g h -  bourhood programme i n t e r m i t t e n t l y .  Most o f t h e group had  developed more c o n t a c t w i t h t h e community s i n c e October 1952. They became members o f a l o c a l community c e n t r e and s p o r t s events connected w i t h t h e s c h o o l t h e y a t t e n d e d .  - 77 -  February 28 1953»  The worker and group took the long  planned over-night camping expedition. at a l o c a l s k i resort. by a l l members. everyone agreed. prepare the meal.  A cabin was secured  The t r i p up the mountain was enjoyed  The worker offered to be cook at meal time, The following morning a l l the boys helped to The worker f r i e d bacon, Arthur f r i e d the  eggs, Donald made toast, Peter l a i d the table.  After the meal  everyone prepared f o r a day of s k i i i n g except Donald who f e l t i l l and remained at the cabin.  The worker taught the boys the  fundamentals of walking and climbing on s k i i s .  Everyone eh-  joyed the experience and returned to the cabin at noon i n high spirits.  Donald, who had f e l t i l l had disappeared.  found him an hour l a t e r at the f i r s t a i d station.  Worker  When worker  returned to the cabin the group had cleaned the cabin, cut wood and kindling f o r the next group who v i s i t e d .  The worker be-  lieved the experience had displayed an increased co-operation on the part of the group members and also showed much i n i t i a t i v e on the part of a l l members.  The worker f e l t that Donald Bates  might have f e l t very inadequate i n the group and feigned i l l n e s s as a defense.  'It was also believed that h i s tendency to wander  off i s a danger to himself.  I f he had not been found a search  party would have been necessary.  The worker recognized that  the group was very insecure and dependent.  They compensated by  being over-conscientious i n t h e i r chores i n t h e i r desire to please the worker and thus gain h i s approval and support. March 3 1953. The group worker recorded that f i v e of the  - 78 -  boys had found t h e i r own  i n t e r e s t s and f r i e n d s and were happy  and s e l f - c o n f i d e n t i n the tween-age programme. Peter White and Sam  A r n o l d and two  Arthur Wilson,  o t h e r members composed t h i s  group. March 9 1953. Worker f e l t t h a t the work programme had served i t s purpose w i t h the group and t h a t the members were a b l e t o u t i l i z e new  experiences.  I t was  indicated that  now  Donald  Bates had been a b l e t o a v a i l h i m s e l f o f l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s o n l y , due t o h i s impaired i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Wayne C a r r was  dis-  charged t o the care of h i s mother b e f o r e t h e group work programme was  innovated.  M i c h a e l Robb was  a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y .  f a r advanced emotion-  With minimum support, he moved i n t o  community a c t i v i t i e s which were more on a l e v e l w i t h h i s i n t erests. March 17 1953.  Worker v i s i t e d the Residence  f o r d i n n e r and group d i s c u s s i o n .  One  and remained  o f the group v o l u n t a r i l y  suggested they have a d i s c u s s i o n as one had not been h e l d f o r a long while.  The boys agreed and Worker asked them a l l t o t h i n k  of t h i n g s they had l i k e d doing. what he  When worker asked P e t e r White  c o u l d remember he s a i d , " N o t h i n ' , "  Worker s a i d he c o u l d  remember t h i n g s Peter had done and done w e l l and added he had V . " h thought  about what each one had done and w r i t t e n i t down.  he s a i d t h i s , the worker p u l l e d a sheet o f paper f r o n r h i s Members showed s u r p r i s e and i n t e r e s t . list  While pocket.  Worker moved down the  r e a d i n g what each boy had accomplished.  l i t up as v a r i o u s i n c i d e n t s were r e c a l l e d .  The boys' f a c e s Worker s a i d t h a t  - 79 -  P e t e r had made ping-pong b a t s f o r t h e Neighbourhood House and they were s t i l l  i n use.  S e v e r a l member!' s.aid, " D i d you White?"  i n a s u r p r i s e d , doubting manner.  P e t e r s a i d , "Sure" and attempt-  ed t o be nonchalant but he was o b v i o u s l y p l e a s e d .  This discuss-  i o n went around t h e group with each member r e c o u n t i n g what he recalled. nothing.  When Sam A r n o l d ' s t u r n came, he t o o , c o u l d  recall  Worker reminded him he was good a t tumbling and had  l e a r n e d t o use t h e l a t h e and power saw which he had e a r l i e r feared.  Sam seemed s a t i s f i e d when t h e s e items were r e c a l l e d .  A r t h u r W i l s o n remembered t h e camping  t r i p and t h e s k i i n g and the  worker s a i d he had h e l p e d on t h e Christmas t r e e h i k e as w e l l . Somebody remarked s n e e r i n g l y , "wait ' t i l  i t s Bates' t u r n . "  (As i f n o t h i n g good c o u l d be s a i d about him.) When Donald's t u r n came, he r e c a l l e d n o t h i n g he had enjoyed.  The worker r e -  c a l l e d t h a t Donald had made a good sword l a s t week and nobody e l s e had done t h a t . i a t e t h e sword.  There were s e v e r a l attempts made t o deprec-  However, t h e worker reminded everyone t h a t Don-  a l d had designed and made t h e sword and i t was a good one. The group members seemed t o r e a l i z e i t was a good sword and made no f u r t h e r attempt t o d e p r e c i a t e i t .  Another boy s a i d h i s case  worker had t o l d him he had done something good. what i t was.  Everyone.' asked  The l a d stood up and s a i d e x c i t e d l y , "He t o l d me  I've gone out and made my own f r i e n d s i n t h e neighbourhood and he s a i d t h a t ' s good!" a b l e t o do t h a t .  The worker agreed t h a t i t was good t o be  - 80 -  The worker recorded t h a t he had attempted d e f i n i t e o b j e c t i v e s from the d i s c u s s i o n . each member t o see t h a t he had  to achieve  He attempted  s k i l l and a b i l i t y .  to help  The worker's  impressions had been t h a t any experience where t h e group members d i d . a c h i e v e s a t i s f a c t i o n and r e c o g n i t i o n had been so s l i g h t i n r e l a t i o n t o a l l the n e g a t i v e experiences they have experienced over t h e y e a r s .  I t was  f e l t t h a t the c a r r y - o v e r v a l u e  p o s i t i v e experiences had been of very s h o r t d u r a t i o n . evident i n P e t e r White and Sam to  A r n o l d who  from This  was  probably were unable  r e c a l l t h e i r successes e a s i l y i n view o f t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f  uselessness.  Worker f e l t , as a r e s u l t o f the d i s c u s s i o n , t h a t  more of t h i s ego-support  was  necessary i f members were t o  spontaneous f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - w o r t h .  recall  The group worker a l s o r e -  corded the obvious v a l u e o f c o - o p e r a t i o n between the case worker and group worker.  The case worker had e a r l i e r g i v e n one boy  ego  support, i n a s i m i l a r manner, and t h i s boy l a t e r r e c a l l e d what his  case worker had t o l d him a t an e a r l i e r i n t e r v i e w . March 2 4 1 9 5 3 .  hood House. and t h e r e was  A tween-age p a r t y was h e l d a t the Neighbour-  P a r t y games were p l a y e d by about t h i r t y tween-agers much excitement.  the gym  to play basketball.  but was  very e x c i t e d .  Sam  A r t h u r Wilson l e f t  A r n o l d remained w i t h the group  The group worker b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e group  members d i d not take the mixed a c t i v i t y too w e l l . to  and went t o  Their, a b i l i t y  f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y , i n a group s i t u a t i o n s t i l l appeared  to  be l i m i t e d t o the experiences t h a t were p r o v i d e d in. t h e woodwork shop.  - 81 -  A p r i l 7 1953•  The worker p l a n n e d t o have supper w i t h t h e  boys a t t h e r e s i d e n c e .  He had two o b j e c t i v e s i n mind.  One  was  t o h e l p t h e members t o e v a l u a t e how t h e y had b e n e f i t t e d from t h e A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House programme.  The second a i m was t o  a s s i s t t h e group t o c o n t r i b u t e i n some way t o t h e p a r t y f o r tween-agers which was t o be h e l d t h e same e v e n i n g .  The w o r k e r  proposed a d i s c u s s i o n and t h e group c o m p l i e d w i t h f a i r l y acceptance.  eager  The worker asked t h e group t o each t h i n k o f one o f  t h e good t i m e s t h e y had e x p e r i e n c e d a t t h e Neighbourhood House. Sam A r n o l d s a i d , ( w i t h s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n ) t h a t he had e n j o y e d p a i n t i n g , making a plywood l a n d s c a p e and c u t t i n g out plywood animals.  When w o r k e r asked P e t e r W h i t e he c o u l d r e c a l l n o t h i n g  and added, "The p l a c e i s a dump".  The w o r k e r reminded him he  had enjoyed making t h e ping-pong b a t s .  The o t h e r members s a i d  t h e y had used t h e b a t s and t h e y were good.  P e t e r d i s p l a y e d no  enthusiasm.  The o t h e r members r e c o u n t e d a t l e a s t one e n j o y a b l e  experience.  D u r i n g supper t h e worker was brought a cup o f c o f f e e .  A few minutes l a t e r Sam brought t h e w o r k e r a s p e c i a l j u g o f m i l k . The w o r k e r , i n t h e meantime, had used t h e m i l k from t h e t a b l e t h a t t h e o t h e r s had used.  Sam saw t h i s and s a i d "you a s s " , i n  an i m p a t i e n t , c h a l l e n g i n g manner.  A r t h u r thought t h a t t h e  worker s h o u l d h i t Sam f o r c a l l i n g him names.  The worker r e p l i e d  t h a t name c a l l i n g d i d not h u r t and Sam had not meant what he said. o f Sam.  The group t h e n t e a s e d t h e worker and s a i d he was  afraid  The w o r k e r laughed w i t h t h e boys whose b e h a v i o u r was  - 82 -  c h a l l e n g i n g and f r i e n d l y .  The  i n c i d e n t g r a d u a l l y subsided.  The worker noted t h a t t h i s was t h e f i r s t meeting t h a t t h e group had c h a l l e n g e d t h e worker i n such a f r i e n d l y f a s h i o n w i t h spontaneity.  L a t e r t h e worker h e l p e d Sam w i t h t h e d i s h e s when  he r e q u e s t e d a s s i s t a n c e .  Sam  asked w o r k e r i n a shame-faced  manner, "You know what l e s s o n s I'm worker s a i d he knew he was t h a t was what he meant.  t a k i n g don't you?"  The  t a k i n g tap dancing l e s s o n s .  Sam  Sam  c o n t i n u e d t o t a l k f r e e l y and  c r i b e d h i m s e l f as a " d a i n t y " dancer. Sam  such  said  des-  The w o r k e r n o t i c e d t h a t  showed more depth i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a n on e a r l i e r o c c a s i o n s .  I t was b e l i e v e d Sam he was  s t i l l i d e n t i f i e d i n a f e m i n i n e way  a much h a p p i e r boy t h a n i n O c t o b e r 1952.  bourhood House, A r t h u r , P e t e r , Sam  although  At t h e  and two o t h e r members h e l p e d  t h e w o r k e r s e t up t h e p u b l i c address  system.  Arthur volunteered  and i n s i s t e d upon l o o k i n g a f t e r t h e phonograph r e c o r d s . i t was  Neigh-  Since  dark i n t h e b o o t h , P e t e r v o l u n t a r i l y r e t u r n e d t o t h e  Residence  and was  soon back w i t h h i s f l a s h l i g h t .  A r t h u r made  a l l n e c e s s a r y announcements o v e r t h e p u b l i c a d d r e s s  system.  and A r t h u r h e l p e d t o put away t h e c h a i r s a f t e r t h e dance had cluded.  con-  A l l t h e group showed'a s i n c e r e w i l l i n g n e s s t o h e l p a t  the p a r t y .  The degree o f s e l f - c o n t r o l was  t h e h i g h l y c o n t a g i o u s p a r t y atmosphere. own  Sam  pre-arranged  d u t i e s t o perform.  remarkable  i n view of  Each group had i t s  T h i s a p p a r e n t l y gave t h e  group freedom w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s and p e r m i t t e d them t o be more comfortable.  - 83 -  II.  THE ROLE OF THE HOUSE PARENTS. IN THE TREATMENT SETTING: Two i n c i d e n t s have been chosen t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e r o l e House  parents p l a y i n t h e treatment ing  o f d i s t u r b e d teenagers.  i s an excerpt from t h e group worker's r e c o r d i n g .  The f o l l o w One o f t h e  b i g g e s t problems a t t h e Residence was Lome's e n e u r e s i s .  At  f i r s t , Mr.T. t h e House f a t h e r o b j e c t e d s t r e n u o u s l y and c o n t i n u a l l y remonstrated  L o m e t o no a v a i l .  L o m e and made h i s l i f e m i s e r a b l e .  The other boys t e a s e d  At a weekly meeting w i t h t h e  case worker and group worker, t h i s s i t u a t i o n was c l a r i f i e d . was  e x p l a i n e d t o Mr. T. t h a t L o m e was r e s i s t i n g Mr. T. as a  f a t h e r person by h i s e n e u r e s i s . to  It  Mr. T. understood  and was a b l e  e x p l a i n t o L o m e t h a t he was not i n t h e r o l e -of a f a t h e r .  At  the same time, i n a group d i s c u s s i o n with t h e boys, Mr. T. asked the group t o co-operate w i t h him and t o r e f r a i n from t e a s i n g Lome.  The boys co-operated w i l l i n g l y .  As a r e s u l t , L o m e ' s eneu-  r e s i s d i m i n i s h e d c o n s i d e r a b l y and t h e atmosphere a t t h e Residence became more harmonious.  The second  i n c i d e n t i n v o l v e d Peter White  and Mr. T. who had made arrangements t o go horse-back made t h e r e s e r v a t i o n s i n h i s f a t h e r ' s name.  riding.  Peter  When the h o s t l e r a t  the s t a b l e asked Peter where h i s f a t h e r was, Peter looked a p p e a l i n g l y a t Mr. T. who s a i d "Here I am." kept c l o s e t o Mr. T.  When out r i d i n g ,  Peter  E a r l i e r i n t h e week, a t a w r e s t l i n g match,  Peter had i n s i s t e d on s i t t i n g next to.Mrs. next t o h e r d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e evening.  T. and had remained  He l a t e r , on h i s own,  presented two c o f f e e t a b l e s t o Mr. and Mrs.  T.  He had made t h e s e  - 84 -  at school.  Peter's behaviour had changed c o n s i d e r a b l y  during  t h i s time.  He was happy and c o - o p e r a t i v e a t t h e Residence and  at s c h o o l . III.  CASE WORK DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT AT THE RECEIVING HOME: Boys' Problems as Diagnosed by t h e case worker Summary t a k e n from t h e Group Work F i l e s : CASE #1.  Wayne had deep attachment f o r h i s mother. placements threatened ings o f inadequacy.  F o s t e r home  t h e mother and accentuated  h e r own f e e l -  When Wayne v i s i t e d each month, she always  promised him t h a t he would be home with h e r i n t h e near f u t u r e although  she was a c t u a l l y aware t h i s was not t r u e .  acted by r e f u s i n g t o r e c o g n i z e h i s f o s t e r p a r e n t s '  Wayne r e guidance.  Methods o f Treatment: Worker v i s i t e d mother and e x p l a i n e d t h e R e c e i v i n g Home s e t t i n g and i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e House parents had t e n boys t o care f o r and t h e t i e between Wayne and t h e House parents was i n f o r m a l . C l a r i f i c a t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e mother r e g a r d i n g how h e r promises t o h e r son a f f e c t e d him when she was unable t o c a r r y them o u t . E a r l i e r r e c o r d i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t Mrs. C a r r had co-operated with the agency i n t h e past and o b v i o u s l y maintained  well  a genuine  i n t e r e s t i n h e r son.  T h i s enabled  s h i p t o be e f f e c t e d .  Wayne and h i s mother were encouraged t o v i s i t  each week.  1.  a quick c l i e n t - w o r k e r  relation-  Worker and mother d i s c u s s e d t h e f a c t t h a t Wayne had no  D e t a i l s o f Case Record #1 commenced i n Chapter 3, on page 20.  -  masculine  85 -  p a t t e r n t o f o l l o w and how t h i s l e d t o c o n f l i c t  adult authority.  Mrs. Carr was a b l e t o understand  R e c e i v i n g Home could h e l p h e r son i n t h i s a r e a .  with  how t h e  The success  of the R e c e i v i n g Home i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i s d i s p l a y e d by t h e f a c t t h a t Wayne was a b l e t o a d j u s t and was d i s c h a r g e d permanently t o h i s mother's care on October 27 1952. CASE #2. 1 I t was obvious t h a t A r t h u r ' s a h i l i t y t o p l a y s p o r t s and h i s a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n outdoor strenghts.  l i f e and f i s h i n g were p o s i t i v e  He had a l s o been a member o f a Cub Pack and had  enjoyed t h e experience.  I t was noted t h a t A r t h u r ' s r e j e c t i o n  by h i s p a r e n t s had d i s t u r b e d him t o a g r e a t extent.  He was  aware t h a t h i s parents no l o n g e r wanted him and had g r a d u a l l y accepted t h i s r e j e c t i o n .  I t was f e l t t h a t t h e i n f o r m a l atmos-  phere o f t h e R e c e i v i n g Home without  emotional demands from  parent f i g u r e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h encouragement and support would be therapeutic t o Arthur.  I t was a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t minimal de-  mands from parents who maintained  c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r e s t i n him  would a s s i s t him t o r e a l i z e a l l parents were not c r u e l and hence modify h i s h o s t i l i t y toward a u t h o r i t y . Methods o f Treatment: A r t h u r responded w e l l t o warmth and support and r e a c t e d p o s i t i v e l y when t h i s was c o n s i s t e n t l y maintained. 1.  His interests  D e t a i l s o f Case Record #1 commenced i n Chapter 3 , page 27.  - 86 -  i n outdoor l i f e were supported and he j o i n e d the Army Cadet where he r e v e a l e d h i m s e l f as a l e a d e r and was promoted t o t h e rank o f sergeant. apprentice  He j o i n e d the Canadian Army as a s o l d i e r  September 24 1 9 5 3 .  He c o n f i d e d t o h i s worker p r i o r  t o h i s departure t h a t he r e a l i z e d he had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h authori t y and hoped he would be a b l e t o use i t w i s e l y when he was promoted i n h i s army  career.  CASE #3. The worker noted t h a t P e t e r had a low I.Q. and  that h i s e a r l i e r l i f e  of eighty-eight  showed a complete l a c k o f a f f e c t i o n  from the age o f two u n t i l h i s a r r i v a l a t the R e c e i v i n g Home. The  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f h i s f a m i l y prevented him from working out  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with f a t h e r and mother f i g u r e s . t h a t t h e number o f a d u l t s i n h i s e a r l y l i f e was  b e l i e v e d t h a t such past  I t was suggested  confused him.  experiences had l e f t him completely  unprepared f o r the demands o f s o c i e t y .  There was a l s o a l a c k  o f a male f i g u r e a f t e r whom he c o u l d p a t t e r n h i m s e l f . had  It  Peter  compensated f o r h i s i n s e c u r i t y and l a c k o f a f f e c t i o n by  aggressive  and n e g a t i v i s t i c behaviour.  The worker saw h i s many  f o s t e r home placements as one r e j e c t i o n a f t e r another. f e l t t h a t the R e c e i v i n g  Home o f f e r e d P e t e r an i n f o r m a l  I t was environ-  ment where he could form r e l a t i o n s h i p s as he wished, a t h i s own speed.  1.  I t was f e l t t h a t the Home would a l s o p r o t e c t him from  D e t a i l s o f Case Record #3 commenced on page 3 5 , Chapter 3 .  - 87 -  too many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , p r e s s u r e s and c l o s e f a m i l y l i v i n g . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t P e t e r needed and would f i n d c o n s i s t e n t l i m i t i n g o f h i s behaviour t o g e t h e r w i t h support and a f f e c t i o n . I t was hoped he c o u l d form a s t r o n g p o s i t i v e  relationship  w i t h t h e House p a r e n t s and, hence h e l p d i m i n i s h h i s many e a r l y r e j e c t i o n s by a d u l t s . Methods o f Treatment: P e t e r experienced d i f f i c u l t y s e t t l i n g i n t h e R e c e i v i n g Home. He questioned t h e a u t h o r i t y o f the House p a r e n t s , c o n t i n u e d t o s t e a l and had weekly temper tantrums. to  see worker.  him.  On J u l y 19 1951, he came  He was c r y i n g and s a i d a l l t h e boys p i c k e d on  Worker asked i f he antagonized them f i r s t .  He was q u i e t  f o r a minute, t h e r e - i t e r a t e d he wasn't going t o remain i n t h e Home.  Worker e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e r e was no home a v a i l a b l e and  s a i d he d i d n ' t t h i n k P e t e r would want j u s t , any home. stopped c r y i n g and agreed.  Peter  Worker s a i d he would t e l l t h e o t h e r  boys not t o beat P e t e r up and would see t h a t they l e f t him a l o n e in future.  Peter w i l l i n g l y accompanied worker back t o t h e Home,  a d i s c u s s i o n with t h e group ensued and t h e matter was then dropped.  J u l y 24 1951 - $9.50 was s t o l e n from t h e bathhouse a t  the beach where P e t e r was employed.  Worker d i s c u s s e d t h e matter  w i t h P e t e r who s a i d he gave the money t o a f r i e n d who had j u s t been r e l e a s e d from t h e Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l . . Worker e x p l a i n e d t h a t w h i l e Peter h e l d t h i s job, he was r e s p o n s i b l e t o h i s employer" f o r t h e money l e f t  i n h i s care.  Worker suggested  repay t h e money from h i s j o b and spending allowance.  t h a t Peter Peter  - 88 -  r e a d i l y agreed and worker handled employer.  On October 8 1952,  the d e t a i l s w i t h  the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l  the House f a t h e r r e g a r d i n g P e t e r ' s conduct  Peter's contacted  i n school.  In a f i t  of temper P e t e r c h a l l e n g e d f i v e t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l t o a fight.  House f a t h e r contacted the worker who  clarified  the  reason f o r P e t e r ' s behaviour  and suggested  v i s i t the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l .  Worker and House f a t h e r v i s i t e d  s c h o o l and met  he and House f a t h e r  the p r i n c i p a l and P e t e r ' s t e a c h e r s .  the  Worker ex-  p l a i n e d t h e f u n c t i o n o f the R e c e i v i n g Home and gave a b r i e f desc r i p t i o n o f Peter's background, i n c l u d i n g h i s v a r i o u s moves from home to home and how s t a f f was  c o n f u s i n g t h i s c o u l d be t o a boy.  The  most a c c e p t i n g and s t a t e d they c o u l d understand  r e a c t i o n t o them.  A s p e c i a l c l a s s was  suggested  the number of t e a c h e r s to one and i t was threatening to Peter.  When t h i s p l a n was  f u r t h e r t r o u b l e developed  at school.  school Peter's  as i t reduced  f e l t t h i s would be put i n t o e f f e c t ,  October 14 1952,  less no  Peter  changed t h e p r i c e on a c l o t h i n g voucher from $15.00 t o $27.95 and bought a s p o r t s j a c k e t . matter, he r e a d i l y admitted  When worker broached him about the i t and agreed t o repay the money from  the proceeds o f h i s d e l i v e r y j o b .  He was  prone to p r e v a r i c a t e  i n e a r l i e r s i t u a t i o n s and h i s honesty w i t h the worker i n d i c a t e d the presence  o f a good r e l a t i o n s h i p .  i n s t a l l m e n t s w i t h no r a n c o r .  P e t e r r e p a i d the money by  August 1953  - P e t e r began t o r e l a t e  w e l l t o the House f a t h e r and h i s t r o u b l e w i t h a u t h o r i t y began t o diminish.  By October,  f r i e n d s and was  he had  changed completely, was  h e l p f u l around the House.  happy, made  - $9 -  CASE #4. 1 Donald's attachment t o h i s f a m i l y was p a r t i a l l y  responsible  f o r h i s i n a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t i n e a r l i e r f o s t e r home s e t t i n g s . H i s l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e a l s o proved d e t r i m e n t a l and he found d i f f i c u l t y i n h i s adjustment t o most f a m i l y ' s standards. was  It  f e l t t h e i n f o r m a l R e c e i v i n g Home s e t t i n g would not t h r e a t e n  these t i e s . support  Again,  t h e Home c o u l d o f f e r him acceptance and  and some a t t a i n a b l e standards  while accepting h i s ina-  b i l i t y t o perform as w e l l as o t h e r s due t o h i s l i m i t e d  intelli-  gence. Methods o f Treatment: Case work i n t e r v i e w s were r a r e and treatment c o n s i s t e d o f support and r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s accomplishments.  He was h e l p e d  to understand why he was i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s a t s c h o o l and l e a r n e d to h o l d h i s own with other boys when d i s c u s s i n g t h i s with anyone. J u l y 1953•  situation  He was unable t o read o r w r i t e t o any degree by I t was f e l t t h a t he c o u l d u t i l i z e o n l y a minimum o f  the r e s o u r c e s o f the Home which c o u l d have been used t o b e t t e r advantage by other boys. CASE ft. M i c h a e l had been having mother.  considerable d i f f i c u l t y with h i s  She v a s c i l l a t e d from dependence on him t o almost com-  plete control.  He r e a c t e d by r e f u s a l t o a t t e n d s c h o o l and  1.  D e t a i l s o f Case Record #4 commenced i n Chapter 3 , page 42.  2.  I b i d . , page 49  - 90 -  damaged t h e house and was openly r e b e l l i o u s .  H i s mother  responded t o h i s behaviour by r e f u s i n g t o w r i t e him notes when he was absent from s c h o o l and began s t a r v i n g him when he misbehaved.  D e s p i t e t h e f a c t she requested placement,  i t was f e l t  .that M i c h a e l could not a d j u s t t o a f o s t e r home because t i e s t o h i s mother.  of h i s  He was p l a c e d i n t h e R e c e i v i n g Home because  i t was b e l i e v e d he c o u l d a d j u s t t o an i n f o r m a l atmosphere.  It  was hoped t h a t group l i v i n g would reduce h i s s e c l u s i v e b e h a v i o u r In 1951, h i s mother was committed t o Mental H o s p i t a l .  As he  d i s p l a y e d s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y i t was f e l t t h a t a v i s i t t o C h i l d Guidance  C l i n c would perhaps c l a r i f y h i s p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t i e s  and c l a r i f y h i s reasons f o r s t e a l i n g a b i c y c l e . Methods o f Treatment: Report from C h i l d Guidance  C l i n i c disclosed that Michael  was q u i t e w e l l a d j u s t e d c o n s i d e r i n g h i s u p b r i n g i n g .  Michael  had never had h i s mother's i l l n e s s i n t e r p r e t e d t o him and t h e i n t e r v i e w i n d i c a t e d he was confused abo.ut h i s mother's and r e p o r t e d she was i n " T r a n q u i l l e S a n i t o r i u m " .  illness  The C l i n i c  b e l i e v e d a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f Mrs. Rpbb's i l l n e s s would b e n e f i t M i c h a e l a g r e a t d e a l as he was i n t e l l i g e n t the s i t u a t i o n .  enough t o understand  The case worker arranged w i t h t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t a t  Essondale Mental H o s p i t a l t o e x p l a i n t h e mother's i l l n e s s w i t h Michael. him.  Worker prepared M i c h a e l f o r t h e v i s i t and accompanied  Three v i s i t s were n e c e s s a r y .  Michael benefitted a great  d e a l from t h e s e meetings and was a b l e t o t e l l worker t h a t he had s e c r e t l y wondered i f h i s e a r l i e r behaviour had caused h i s mother's  -  91  -  j  committal.  Now  he understood more about the i l l n e s s he  he was"less confused and h a p p i e r i n s i d e . " were arranged and  completed  said  V i s i t s t o h i s mother  without n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s .  After  the c l e a r a n c e o f h i s mother's i l l n e s s , M i c h a e l progressed a good d e a l and was and completed  p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home.  He a d j u s t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  h i s Grade Twelve i n s c h o o l .  H i s appearance changed.  P r e v i o u s l y , he had been uncommunicative, h e l d h i s head down and slouched.  He walked u p r i g h t and spoke t o people and  more sure o f h i m s e l f and much h a p p i e r . i n d i c a t e d he had found a new  ter  o f h i s f o s t e r mother.  H i s behaviour  l e a s e on l i f e .  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y approved  appeared  In June  seemingly 1954,  M i c h a e l ' s marriage t o the daugh-  M i c h a e l has  continued h i s good pro-  gress and p l a n s t o a t t e n d U n i v e r s i t y i n 1955.  In the meantime,  he has secured a job as a t e l e v i s i o n salesman and has bought a car  f o r h i s work. CASE #6. 1 I t was  obvious t h a t Sam was  an exeedingly d i s t u r b e d boy.  H i s mother separated from h e r husband when Sara was old.  three years  H i s f a t h e r openly d i s p l a y e d h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r Sam's  o l d e r b r o t h e r , so a t the age o f t h r e e t h e r e was r e j e c t i o n of t h i s l a d .  a history of  H i s e l d e s t s i s t e r a t the age o f twelve,  attempted  to f i l l  found Sam  c u r t a i l e d her l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s as she was  care f o r him. 1.  the breach l e f t by the departed mother. left  She to  H i s s i s t e r r e s e n t e d h i s presence and he i n t u r n ,  D e t a i l s o f Case Record #6 commenced i n Chapter page 55.  3,  -  o f t e n disobeyed  92 -  h e r by being u n c o - o p e r a t i v e .  When p l a c e d i n  p r i v a t e b o a r d i n g homes he was again r e j e c t e d by parent f i g u r e s who p r e f e r r e d h i s b r o t h e r .  He became e n e u r e t i c and h i s behav-  i o u r became feminine which r e s u l t e d i n open r e j e c t i o n by h i s peers everywhere.  He t o l d a case worker he was r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the s e p a r a t i o n between h i s p a r e n t s .  He began t o c u r l h i s  h a i r , wear j e w e l r y t o s c h o o l and wore l i p s t i c k and f i n g e r n a i l polish.  At s c h o o l he p l a y e d e x c l u s i v e l y with g i r l s .  I t was  hoped t h a t t h e R e c e i v i n g Home s e t t i n g w i t h nine o t h e r boys would g r a d u a l l y h e l p Sam t o r e g a i n masculine  behaviour.  I t was be-  l i e v e d t h a t i n t h i s i n f o r m a l atmosphere he would be b e t t e r prot e c t e d from s o c i e t y p r e s s u r e s .  He could, a t t h e Home, r e l a t e t o  parent f i g u r e s a t h i s own pace without p o r t , r e c o g n i t i o n and a f f e c t i o n .  being d e p r i v e d o f sup-  I t was deemed a d v i s a b l e t o  seek p s y c h i a t r i c a d v i c e a t t h e C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c and t o u t i l i z e t h e i r recommendations wherever p o s s i b l e . Methods o f Treatment: Report from C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c on February  27 1 9 5 3 ,  i m p l i e d t h a t i t was f e l t Sam would have d i f f i c u l t y other than s u p e r f i c i a l l y t o o t h e r people.  relating  During p s y c h o l o g i c a l  t e s t s , he was c o - o p e r a t i v e but gave up e a s i l y i f he c o u l d n ' t answer q u e s t i o n s .  A f t e r repeated f a i l u r e i n s u b - t e s t s , he d i s -  played sudden i n s i g h t and s o l v e d q u e s t i o n s more d i f f i c u l t  than  those he had f o r m e r l y f a i l e d which i n d i c a t e d h y s t e r i c a l r e a c t i o n and  c o n s i d e r a b l e emotional  disturbance.  He t e s t e d low normal i n  - 93  -  average i n t e l l i g e n c e but probably  d i d n ' t do h i m s e l f  H i s response t o p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s showed he was s a t i s f a c t i o n from p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . the women as dominant and men  ment.  little  seemed t o view  felt  He  displayed  inadequate, and  signs  feared  punish-  Long r e l a t i o n s h i p with a k i n d understanding male case  worker was  recommended and prognosis  f u l but movement would be slow. f o r weekly meetings. Sam  getting  as p u n i t i v e and a u t h o r i t a t i v e  and they never had any a f f e c t i o n f o r him. of t e n s i o n and a n x i e t y and  He  justice.  was  The  and  d e c l a r e d t o be hope-  case worker and  A good r e l a t i o n s h i p was  v e r y tense when h e . f i r s t met  monosyllables  was  worker.  d i d n ' t l o o k at worker.  Sam  arranged  gradually  created.  He r e p l i e d i n  H i s only d i s p l a y o f  enthusiasm came when the s u b j e c t of h i s dancing was  discussed.  He r e p o r t e d he d i d n ' t l i k e the boys at the R e c e i v i n g Home because they s t o l e and made him Sam  mentioned the part he was  where he c o u l d s i n g and and  do l i k e w i s e .  s a i d standing  In the second  interview,  to p l a y i n the Christmas  dance.  concert  Worker encouraged p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n f r o n t o f an audience r e q u i r e d nerve.  He  a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t dancers must be i n good p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and athletes.  c i t e d Fred A s t a i r e and Sam  was  encouraged t o enter group a c t i v i t i e s i n the  R e c e i v i n g Home so he dancing.  Gene K e l l y as examples o f good  c o u l d b u i l d up h i s physique and h e l p h i s  When asked who  h i s f r i e n d s were, he s a i d he had  one but he wasn't a good f r i e n d because he played w i t h and  I p r e f e r t o go on walks."  "guns"  At the t h i r d i n t e r v i e w Sam  worker f o r t a p dancing shoes and  pink dancing s l i p p e r s .  only  asked On  his  - 94 -  own i n i t i a t i v e he c o n f i d e d t o worker t h a t he had made two records of h i s s i n g i n g .  At t h e f i f t h i n t e r v i e w , Sam d e c l a r e d  h i s i n t e n t i o n t o q u i t t h e present dancing c l a s s which was a l l g i r l s with the exception o f himself.  " I t w i l l be b e t t e r t o  j o i n a c l a s s where I can dance w i t h boys."  Worker  suggested  t h a t perhaps pink dancing shoes weren't necessary, but Sam thought  they were f i n e .  Sam asked i f i t was a l l r i g h t i f t h e  worker v i s i t e d h i s s c h o o l t e a c h e r , he agreed. view.  Eighth i n t e r -  Worker mentioned t h a t t h e t e a c h e r was concerned  Sam as he p l a y e d o n l y with g i r l s a t s c h o o l .  about  Sam vehemently  denied t h i s query and d i s p l a y e d c o n s i d e r a b l e h o s t i l i t y and t e n s i o n . - He s t u t t e r e d f r e q u e n t l y .  When worker asked why t h e  b a l l e t s l i p p e r s had t o be pink, Sam r e p l i e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s a i d they should be p i n k .  Worker c a s u a l l y r e p l i e d t h a t Sam's  t e a c h e r had s a i d b l a c k ones would be f i n e . l y i n h i s c h a i r and looked a t t h e f l o o r .  Sam slumped d e j e c t e d Worker n o t i c e d Sam  wore n a i l p o l i s h and mentioned t h i s but Sam f r a n t i c a l l y  denied  t h i s and l a t e r s a i d he d i d n ' t know "who had put i t on." At t h e n i n t h meeting, worker a p o l o g i z e d t o Sam and s a i d he was anxious t o h e l p but probably made Sam angry.  Sam s m i l e d and s a i d he was  only a l i t t l e mad and r e q u e s t e d t o j o i n ah a l l male dancing group at B.C. Dancing school.  School.  Worker agreed and e n r o l l e d him a t t h e  Sam d i s p l a y e d i n t e r e s t i n a mechanic magazine and s a i d  " I l i k e t a k i n g guns a p a r t and do t h i s a t Cadet Corps."  Sam  t o l d worker he was going t o Army Cadet Camp i n t h e summer and take a d r i v e r ' s mechanic course.  Worker expressed a p p r o v a l and  - 95 -  supported Sam's p r o p o s a l .  Tenth and f i n a l i n t e r v i e w .  mentioned h i s eyes bothered him.  After a brief  worker s a i d he might need g l a s s e s .  Sam  discussion,  Sam r e p l i e d he had a  voucher f o r g l a s s e s years ago but h i s f a t h e r had l o s t i t . Worker asked i f he remembered h i s f a t h e r . had dad,  gone t o the f u n e r a l .  He r e p l i e d yes he  When asked how he got along w i t h h i s  he t w i s t e d h i s f a c e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the r e l a t i o n was a sur-  f a c e one and r e p l i e d , "I  d i d n ' t l i k e him, he drank t o o much."  When asked why h i s f a t h e r drank, Sam s a i d , "Because he was unhappy when mother l e f t him." f r i e n d when h i s dad r e t u r n e d was my dad.  I  Sam s a i d h i s mother had a man from t h e war.  "I  d i d n ' t know he  s a i d mother's f r i e n d was my f a t h e r .  Mother and  dad had a f i g h t and f a t h e r h i t mother, then she l e f t . " my f a u l t t h e f a m i l y broke up." i t was my f a u l t . " "How o l d were you?"  "Why Sam?"  "Do you t h i n k i t was?" "Just l i t t l e . "  " I t was  "My s i s t e r t o l d me "I  don't know."  Then worker t o l d Sam t h e r e  must have been more than t h a t behind t h e s e p a r a t i o n and Sam agreed "I  guess s o . " During t h e above d i s c u s s i o n Sam spoke  compulsively enough.  and couldn't  J u l y 29 1953,  he had stayed  seem t o get t h e words out q u i c k l y  Sam r e t u r n e d  f o r t h r e e weeks.  from Army Cadet Camp where  He seemed l i k e a d i f f e r e n t boy.  He v o l u n t a r i l y gave up h i s dancing l e s s o n s and no l o n g e r played  feminine mannerisms.  dis-  Upon h i s r e t u r n t o s c h o o l he q u a l i -  f i e d f o r a p o s i t i o n on the b a s e b a l l team from which he r e c e i v e d much s a t i s f a c t i o n and r e c o g n i t i o n .  He now sported a crew c u t and  -  was tanned and h e a l t h y .  96 -  Prognosis a t t h a t time seemed q u i t e  good but i t was decided he should remain i n the R e c e i v i n g Home so he c o u l d become s o l i d l y masculine.  September 1953-June  1954.  Sam was not promoted i n s c h o o l and c l a s s standing was "E" and he had not worked t o c a p a c i t y .  CHAPTER 5. THE RESIDENCE AND THE PROGRESS OF THE BOYS The p r e s e n t study has been focused on s i x d i s t u r b e d t e e n age boys l i v i n g i n a s p e c i a l r e s i d e n c e which has been developed t o meet t h e needs o f such boys i n Vancouver. The i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l opment i n t h i s f i e l d , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e Residence and the programme, and e s p e c i a l l y t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e s i x boys which have been s t u d i e d . . By s t u d y i n g a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l i t was p o s s i b l e t o draw up a l i s t o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on a l l t h e boys.  Added  t o t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n were d e t a i l s taken from case work and group work r e c o r d s and accounts o f t h e House parents  concerned.  In t h i s f i n a l chapter i t i s p o s s i b l e t o make c e r t a i n observ a t i o n s about t h e s i x cases and t h e programme o f f e r e d a t t h e Home. In a d d i t i o n c e r t a i n areas f o r f u t u r e study a r e i n d i c a t e d . The s i x cases s t u d i e d a l l seem t o emphasize t h a t behaviour has i t s r o o t s i n the o r i g i n a l f a m i l y u n i t .  problem A l l six  f a m i l y r e c o r d s show t h a t t h e parents o f a l l t h e boys had problems f o r which a p p a r e n t l y no s o l u t i o n was found.  The e f f e c t s o f  death, d e s e r t i o n o r s e p a r a t i o n o f parents upon t h e boys, were i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r l a t e r a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour.  The boys'  parents  - 98 -  were deceased  o r maintained separate r e s i d e n c e i n f i v e o f t h e  s i x cases examined.  Even the s i x t h marriage was f r a u g h t w i t h  m a r i t a l d i s c o r d and spasmodic d e s e r t i o n and s e p a r a t i o n . l i t t l e wonder t h a t t h e boys' a t t i t u d e ; and l a t e r toward  It i s  toward t h e i r p a r e n t s ,  other a d u l t f i g u r e s i s marked by s u s p i c i o n ,  h o s t i l i t y and n e g a t i v i s m .  L a t e r attempts t o modify t h i s behav-  i o u r by f o s t e r home placement  f a i l e d i n some i n s t a n c e s because  of a m i s t r u s t o f a l l a d u l t s based upon t h e i r e a r l i e r of r e j e c t i o n , desertion o r i n d i f f e r e n t parents.  experiences  I n t h r e e cases,  p a r e n t a l t i e s e x i s t e d but were o f an unhealthy nature and s t i l l prevented adjustment  i n f o s t e r home s e t t i n g s .  The programme a t the Boys* Residence o f f e r e d p o s i t i v e t o r s which o t h e r environments  f a i l e d to provide.  fac-  The Residence  o f f e r e d c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e which was f a i r but f i r m .  I t pro-  v i d e d a d u l t s who were experienced and c o u l d t h e r e f o r e meet t h e problems o f t h e boys.  I t p r o v i d e d an i n f o r m a l atmosphere which  was-safe and where emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s was not expected.  I t p r o v i d e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and i t o f f e r -  ed people with whom problems c o u l d be d i s c u s s e d and whose g u i d ance,  support and i n t e r e s t were c o n s t a n t l y i n evidence.  presence o f o t h e r boys a t t h e Residence  provided  The  companionship,  support and s a f e t y . The success o f group l i v i n g f o r some d i s t u r b e d teenage  boys  i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the r a p i d p r o g r e s s t h e s i x boys d i s p l a y e d i n t h i s type o f environment.  I t must be remembered t h a t f i v e o f  - 99 -  the  s i x boys entered t h e Residence a f t e r they had experienced  repeated r e j e c t i o n s and subsequent moves from one f o s t e r home to  another.  D e s p i t e such h i s t o r i e s , every boy made some p o s i -  t i v e progress.  The boys whose behaviour i n d i c a t e d l e a s t emo-  t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s when p l a c e d at the Residence ( a s . r e c o r d e d i n the case work f i l e ) l a t e r made more r a p i d p r o g r e s s . of  the r e c o r d s , the s o c i a l workers  In some  concerned, were aware t h a t  t h e i r c l i e n t s were i n need o f a type o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r which t h e r e was no r e s o u r c e s . The programme at the Residence proved e f f i c i o u s t o those boys who  had s t r o n g t i e s t o e i t h e r o r both p a r e n t s which hampered  t h e i r adjustment t o f o s t e r p a r e n t s . teenagers who the  I t was  a l s o h e l p f u l t o the  d i s p l a y e d h o s t i l i t y toward a d u l t s .  The scope o f  programme was however, l i m i t e d i n some areas.  This  i l l u s t r a t e d by the perhaps l i m i t e d b e n e f i t t h a t Donald d e r i v e d from h i s stay a t t h e Residence.  Donald's low  was Bates  intelli-  gence prevented him from g a i n i n g f u l l v a l u e from the programme.  2 M i c h a e l Robb's s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e , w h i l e i n c o n t r a s t , r e s u l t e d i n a s i m i l a r dilemma as t h a t o f Donald. far  advanced  M i c h a e l ' s i n t e r e s t s were  t o those o f t h e o t h e r boys and he t h e r e f o r e ,  l i t t l e p a r t i n group a c t i v i t i e s at the Residence. ary  I t was  took necess-  t o p l a c e two o f the boys In commercial b o a r d i n g homes a f t e r  1.  D e t a i l s o f Case #4 commenced i n Chapter 3 ,  page 4 2 .  2.  D e t a i l s o f Case #5  page 4 9 .  commenced i n Chapter 3 ,  -  they had l e f t  school.  100 -  I t proved a d i f f i c u l t t a s k f o r t h e  s o c i a l worker t o f i n d such homes where i n f o r m a l s u p e r v i s i o n might be g i v e n .  Some group r e s i d e n c e s w i t h a l e s s p r o t e c t e d  environment, under the a u s p i c e s o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , might i n t h e f u t u r e meet t h e needs o f teenagers who a r e beyond the scope o f t h e present programme. S i m i l a r l y with t h e o t h e r f o u r boys, g a i n s cannot be accura t e l y measured.  From t h e examination  o f a v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s and  d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e case worker i t i s p o s s i b l e t o say t h a t a n t i s o c i a l behaviour  g r a d u a l l y decreased  although as t h e group  worker's r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e d , t h e r e were r e c u r r e n c e s o f p e t t y t h e f t s and d e s t r u c t i v e behaviour. proved  t o t h e p o i n t where the case worker b e l i e v e d he c o u l d r e -  t u r n t o h i s mother. Wilson,  Wayne C a r r ' s b e h a v i o u r im-  T h i s was e f f e c t e d October 27 1952.  Peter White and Sam A r n o l d were a l l a b l e t o f i n d  own c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s i n t h e community by March 3 1953*  Arthur their Earlier  r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e d an i n a b i l i t y t o form f r i e n d s p r i o r t o t h e i r a r r i v a l a t t h e Residence. Programme as d i s c u s s e d i s t h a t shown i n t h e case work r e c o r d s , and t o be v a l i d , should be reviewed ther period.  again a f t e r a f u r -  I t has a l r e a d y been s t a t e d t h a t l i t t l e  can be done  a t t h e moment i n t h e development o f c r i t e r i a f o r such s t u d i e s . The programme i s new i n B r i t i s h Columbia - indeed i n Canada and w h i l e t h e r e a r e a u t h o r i t a t i v e t e x t s upon s i m i l a r  institu-  t i o n s i n t h e United S t a t e s , t h e r e i s a need f o r s t u d i e s and  - 101 -  developments i n Canada and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c r i t e r i a f o r such group l i v i n g homes. The p r e s e n t t h e s i s has attempted a r e v i e w o f t h e programmes i n one Vancouver Home and i s c o n f i n e d t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f case work m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e on s i x o f t h e r e s i d e n t s , t o g e t h e r w i t h some assessment o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e s i x boys a f t e r a p e r i o d o f r e s i d e n c e i n t h e Home.  From t h e s t u d y s e v e r a l p o i n t s emerge  as r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r case work, c l a r i f i c a t i o n and s t u d y . 1)  Case work r e c o r d s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l  but a r e n o t always complete  i n every d e t a i l .  v a l u e t o t h e Home i f such r e c o r d s a r e complete  residents,  I t would be o f and comprehensive  and a r e r e v i e w e d r e g u l a r l y , t h e n a more d e t a i l e d study o f t h e programme c o u l d be made a t a l a t e r d a t e . 2)  The p r e s e n t e x a m i n a t i o n has been c o n f i n e d t o a home  f o r teenage boys.  T h i s does n o t p r e c l u d e a s i m i l a r study o f  teenage g i r l s , n o r i s t h e r e any s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s n o t t h e same need f o r such an i n s t i t u t i o n . 3)  There i s a d e f i n i t e need f o r a f o l l o w up study o f t h e  boys, t o a s c e r t a i n i f t h e p r o g r e s s made a t t h e Home i s m a i n t a i n e d and i f f u r t h e r development t a k e s p l a c e .  I n t h e p r e s e n t study i t  s h o u l d be noted t h a t : 4)  The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h used case and group work r e c o r d s o n l y  and s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a f o r measuring age boys have n o t been developed.  adjustment  o f disturbed teen-  A more complete  study s h o u l d  be u n d e r t a k e n , both t o o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , t o s t u d y c o n d i t i o n s and o p e r a t i o n s o f s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n o t h e r p a r t s  - 102 -  of North America and elsewhere and t o develop c r i t e r i a f o r the  b e t t e r e v a l u a t i o n o f such programmes. 5)  The whole q u e s t i o n of the f u t u r e development o f s i m i -  l a r c e n t r e s i n Canada r e q u i r e s d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n . f e l t t h a t such group l i v i n g  It.is  experiences as have been s t u d i e d  h e r e i n do have d e f i n i t e b e n e f i t s f o r d i s t u r b e d teenage boys and t h a t t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e need f o r the development o f o t h e r s i m i lar  centres. I t i s hoped t h a t t h e present study has a t l e a s t  the  indicated  complexity o f the problems encountered i n such work and  i l l u s t r a t e d the p o s s i b l e p r o g r e s s f o r some boys i n a group living  setting.  APPENDIX The A r t h u r B r i s b a n e Treatment C e n t r e o f A l l a i n e , New was  e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e o b s e r v a t i o n , care and t r e a t m e n t  minor c h i l d r e n o f a l l r a c e s , c r e e d s and c o l o u r s , who maladjusted was  o r who  developed  have nervous o r m e n t a l d i s o r d e r s .  out o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s U n i t o f New  p i t a l and opened i n 1940. t o t h e S t a t e o f New  are The  The  for seriously Centre  donated  S t a t e Board o f C o n t r o l f e l t t h a t  t h e p r o p e r t y c o u l d b e s t be used t o c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n . treatment  1  J e r s e y S t a t e Hos-  I n 1944 t h e B r i s b a n e e s t a t e was  Jersey.  Jersey  I n 1947  the  c e n t r e f o r c h i l d r e n was e s t a b l i s h e d .  The Centre i s l o c a t e d i n s o u t h e r n Monmount County a few m i l e s from the Jersey shore.  The p r i n c i p a l s t r u c t u r e houses s i x t y  children,  some o f t h e key s t a f f , m e d i c a l d i s p e n s a r y , s c h o o l , r e c r e a t i o n rooms, c o o k i n g and e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , playroom and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s . A s i x - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g , nearby t h e main b u i l d i n g houses t h e added employees.  The grounds i n c l u d e p l a y i n g f i e l d s , outdoor swimming  p o o l , t e n n i s c o u r t s , garden and wooded a r e a .  The Centre i s i s o l a t e d  f r o m any l a r g e community and i s l a r g e l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d . I n t a k e p o l i c i e s r e s t r i c t t h e age l i m i t t o boys and g i r l s between t h e ages o f f i v e and t w e l v e .  Primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r a l l a p p l i -  c a n t s i s dependent upon t h e r e s u l t s o f p h y s i c a l , p s y c h i a t r i c , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l s t u d i e s .  The  second c o n s i d e r a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s t h e  p o t e n t i a l o f t h e a p p l i c a n t t o f i t i n w i t h t h e group i n r e s i d e n c e w i t h  1.  R e i d , Joseph, H., and Hagan, H e l e n , R., " R e s i d e n t i a l T r e a t ment o f E m o t i o n a l l y D i s t u r b e d C h i l d r e n " . New Y o r k . 1952. P r e f a c e p.5*  .- .104 -  the l e a s t d i s t u r b i n g e f f e c t .  Most o f the c h i l d r e n are r e f e r r e d t o  the Centre from mental hygiene c l i n i c s , guidance departments o f p u b l i c schools, s t a t e h o s p i t a l s and other p s y c h i a t r i c agencies. At the time o f study there were f i f t y - s e v e n c h i l d r e n i n r e s i dence. The f o l l o w i n g are the recorded diagnosis o f these c h i l d 1 ren: 1)  Primary behaviour d i s o r d e r s o f the conduct disturbance type  31  2)  Primary behaviour d i s o r d e r s w i t h neurotic t r a i t s  3)  Primary behaviour d i s o r d e r s w i t h a h a b i t d i s turbance  9 1  4)  Dimentia Praecox  13  5)  Dimentia Praecox, Hebephrenic type  2  6)  Mental D e f i c i e n c y  1  The m a r i t a l status of the parents o f these c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e s t h a t twenty-nine parents were married and l i v i n g together w h i l e the remainder were e i t h e r separated, d i v o r c e d , unmarried, death of one parent o r s t a t u s was unknown. 2 The o b j e c t i v e s of treatment a t t h e Centre are: 1)  To provide an opportunity t o observe and t r e a t a c h i l d i n  an environment i n which he i s f r e e o f pressures and t e n s i o n s which e x i s t i n h i s u s u a l s o c i a l and f a m i l y l i f e and make d i f f i c u l t o r im1.  Reid, Joseph, H., and Hagan, Helen, R., " R e s i d e n t i a l Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed C h i l d r e n " , New York. 1952 Preface p.5.  2. IBID., p.7.  - 105 -  p o s s i b l e a t r u e e v a l u a t i o n o f a l l the f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o h i s problem. 2)  To p r o v i d e him an o p p o r t u n i t y to r e c e i v e therapy  o t h e r treatment  as needed.  The c h i l d r e n are under m e d i c a l  and direction  at a l l times and t h e p s y c h i a t r i c programme c o n s i s t s o f i n d i v i d u a l , group and p l a y therapy and o c c a s i o n a l l y narco-therapy. t i o n i s emphasized as another form o f treatment  Re-educa-  and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f  p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s i s a l s o considered e s s e n t i a l i n some cases. Another r e s i d e n c e which t r e a t s d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n i s Hawthorne-  1 Cedar K n o l l s School l o c a t e d a t Hawthorne. New t a i n e d f o r the treatment  York,  which i s main-  and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n w i t h behav-  i o u r d i s o r d e r s and p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s .  I t was  founded i n  1906  so t h a t d e l i n q u e n t Jewish  c h i l d r e n might be cared f o r through  c i e s of t h e i r own  E a r l y p h i l o s o p h y d i r e c t e d t h a t poor behav-  faith.  i o u r should be punished;  good behaviour  rewarded and a f t e r a  agen-  child  behaved normally f o r a g i v e n time, be r e t u r n e d to t h e community. There was  a t r a n s i t i o n o f t h i s p h i l o s o p h y over a twenty year p e r i o d  which f i n a l l y r e s u l t e d i n the f o r m a t i o n o f a C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c i n 1935.  By 1937 the d i r e c t o r s t a t e d t h a t "Each c h i l d must be d e a l t  2 with d i f f e r e n t l y i n accordance  with the d i s t i n c t problem he  The s c h o o l i s twenty-nine m i l e s from mid-town New  presents."  York. I t i s  a s m a l l community i n i t s e l f c o n s i s t i n g o f eleven c o t t a g e s which house 1.  Reid, Joseph, H., and Hagan, Helen, R., " R e s i d e n t i a l T r e a t ment of E m o t i o n a l l y D i s t u r b e d C h i l d r e n . " New York, 1952, P r e f a c e , p.5.  2.  Ibid.,  p.7.  * .10.6 -  t h e two hundred c h i l d r e n .  In a d d i t i o n i t provides a  combination  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and academic s c h o o l b u i l d i n g , a t r a d e s c h o o l , d i n i n g h a l l , c h i l d g u i d a n c e c l i n i c , gymnasium, f u l l y equipped f a r m , an i n f i r m a r y , p l a y g r o u n d s and swimming p o o l s .  I n a l l , there are  t w e n t y - s i x b u i l d i n g s and two hundred and e i g h t y - e i g h t a c r e s o f l a n d . Each c o t t a g e houses f r o m s i x t e e n t o e i g h t e e n  children.  Hawthorne houses two hundred boys and g i r l s .  Intake  policies  p r o v i d e t h a t boys be between t h e ages o f s i x t o s i x t e e n , and g i r l s , t w e l v e t o s i x t e e n y e a r s o f age.  The d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r f o r ad-  mission i s not diagnosis, but r a t h e r the a p p l i c a n t ' s a b i l i t y  t o be  a c c e p t e d by a c o t t a g e group and t h e p o t e n t i a l t o f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e programme.  C h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d from t h e f i v e  New Y o r k boroughs r e c e i v e p r i o r i t y . c h i l d r e n a r e accepted  p r o v i d e d t h e y do n o t exceed f i v e p e r c e n t o f  t o t a l c h i l d r e n i n care. admitted through atrists,  A l i m i t e d number o f non-Jewish  S i x t y - s e v e n pereent  o f t h e c h i l d r e n were  c h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t s ; o t h e r s were r e f e r r e d by p s y c h i -  f a m i l y and c h i l d r e n ' s a g e n c i e s , p s y c h i a t r i c d i v i s i o n s o f  h o s p i t a l s and some by d i r e c t p a r e n t a l a p p l i c a t i o n .  A l l applicants  must be w i t h i n t h e normal range o r n e a r n o r m a l where i n t e l l i g e n c e 1  i s a f f e c t e d by e m o t i o n a l  factors.  At t h e t i m e o f study t h e r e were one hundred and n i n e t y - e i g h t children i n residence.  They ranged i n age f r o m e i g h t t o e i g h t e e n .  The d i a g n o s e s r e c o r d e d f o r c h i l d r e n i n r e s i d e n c e was a s f o l l o w s : 1.  R e i d , Joseph, H., and Hagan, H e l e n , R., " R e s i d e n t i a l T r e a t ment o f E m o t i o n a l l y D i s t u r b e d C h i l d r e n , " New Y o r k , 1952, p.141.  - 107 -  1)  Schizophrenia  57  2)  Possible schizophrenia  5  3)  Incipient schizophrenia  1  4)  Pre-psychotic, paranoid p e r s o n a l i t y  1  5)  Psychoneurosis  6)  Anxiety neurosis  1  7)  Neurosis with homosexuality  1  8)  N e u r o s i s , h y s t e r i c a l element  1  9)  Possible neurosis  1  10)  Possible psychoneurosis  3  11)  Obsessive compulsive n e u r o s i s  1  12)  Schizoid personality  4  13)  Character neurosis  14)  Primary behaviour d i s o r d e r  15)  Psychopathic p e r s o n a l i t y  16)  Possible psychopathic p e r s o n a l i t y  17)  P s y c h o p a t h i c p e r s o n a l i t y , i n s t i t u t i o n a l type6  18)  Character disorder  4  19)  Organic b r a i n i n j u r y , e p i l e p s y  1  20)  E p i l e p s y , grand mal w i t h p s y c h o n e u r o s i s  1  21)  No d e f i n i t e d i a g n o s i s  1  25  63 7 13 1  198  The m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n ' s p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t n i n e t y - o n e were m a r r i e d and l i v i n g t o g e t h e r .  The remainder were  e i t h e r s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d , .death o f one o r b o t h p a r e n t s o r unmarried.  - 108 -  Treatment  i s s e t up as a programme where a c t i v i t i e s ,  facili-  t i e s and s t a f f merge i n a c o l l a b o r a t i v e treatment designed t o develop healthy p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  Group l i v i n g a t Hawthorne i s con-  c e i v e d as a f l e x i b l e c o n t r o l l e d environment where c h i l d r e n can l i v e w i t h i n l i m i t s where they can f i t  comfortably.  They c a r r y out such  f u n c t i o n s as h e a l t h c a r e , s h e l t e r , c l o t h i n g , t e a c h i n g good l i v i n g h a b i t s and d i s c i p l i n e and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p l a n n i n g t h e use o f t h e c h i l d ' s time w i t h i n the cottage and i n l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t y .  Treat-  ment ' i s seen as a t w o - f o l d process combining psychotherapy and planned l i v i n g .  The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e treatment programme i s t o  i n t e g r a t e the treatment programme w i t h psychotherapy.  This i n t e -  1 gration includes: a)  The k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p he i s t o e x p e r i e n c e .  b)  The i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n t o which he i s t o be exposed.  c)  The groups he i s t o j o i n .  d)  The r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n which he i s t o p a r t i c i p a t e .  e)  The worker he i s t o see.  A l l these a r e c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h what he needs and t h e s t r e n g t h he has as understood through continued p s y c h i a t r i c treatment and evaluation.  Great care i s taken i n e v a l u a t i n g each c h i l d ' s needs  and s p e c i a l e f f o r t s a r e made t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e t h e programme and t o a d j u s t and adopt the f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i n accordance with those 1.  needs.n  R e i d , Joseph, H., and Hagan, Helen, R., " R e s i d e n t i a l T r e a t ment o f E m o t i o n a l l y D i s t u r b e d C h i l d r e n N e w York, 1952,  p.153.  * 109 -  The f i n a l t r e a t m e n t  c e n t r e chosen f o r d i s c u s s i o n i s t h e  E v a s t o n C h i l d r e n ' s Home a l s o known a s t h e E v a s t o n R e c e i v i n g Home. The  i n s t i t u t i o n was b u i l t i n 1907 a s a r e s i d e n t n u r s e r y f o r p r e -  s c h o o l and young s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n i n need o f placement and physical care. Illinois 1907  The R e c e i v i n g Home i s one o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s  C h i l d r e n ' s Home and A i d S o c i e t y o f C h i c a g o ,  o f The  Illinois.  From  t o 1940 t h e i n s t i t u t i o n g r a d u a l l y changed I t s p o l i c y t o embrace  older children.  I n 1945 a d m i s s i o n s  t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n were g e a r e d  to p r o v i d e c a r e f o r more d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n on t h e S o c i e t y ' s caseloads.  These c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e d c h i l d r e n who c o u l d not be e f f e c t i v e l y  s e r v e d i n e x i s t i n g f o s t e r homes, t h e i r own homes, o r o t h e r a v a i l a b l e institutions.  To p r o v i d e f o r t h i s group i t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e  e x i s t i n g programme needed m o d i f i c a t i o n . up t o study r e s i d e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t . l i n i n g a proposed p l a n f o r t r e a t m e n t not m a t e r i a l i z e . ) and t r e a t m e n t  I n 1946 a committee was s e t  A pamphlet was p u b l i s h e d o u t o f adolescents.  (The p l a n s d i d  The e x i s t i n g programme i s u t i l i z e d f o r t h e  care  o f e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n between t h e ages o f  s i x and t w e l v e who cannot l i v e i n t h e i r own homes o r be m a i n t a i n e d 1 i n f o s t e r homes. The E v a s t o n C h i l d r e n ' s Home i s l o c a t e d i n Chicago,  Illinois.  The Home i s c a p a b l e o f h o u s i n g t w e n t y - f o u r boys and g i r l s between t h e ages o f s i x and t w e l v e . ings.  The Home i s comprised o f t h r e e b u i l d -  The main b u i l d i n g p r o v i d e s s l e e p i n g q u a r t e r s , k i t c h e n and  d i n i n g room f o r c h i l d r e n . 1.  The second b u i l d i n g i s equipped w i t h a  R e i d , Joseph, H., and Hagan, H e l e n , R., " R e s i d e n t i a l Treat' ment o f E m o t i o n a l l y D i s t u r b e d C h i l d r e n , " New Y o r k . 1952. p.120.  - ne -  l i v i n g room, c r a f t s shop, s t a f f o f f i c e s and an i n t e r v i e w i n g room. The Home i s not  s e l f s u f f i c i e n t e n t i r e l y , c h i l d r e n are r e q u i r e d t o  a t t e n d to nearby s c h o o l s .  A l l c h i l d r e n i n r e s i d e n c e at the time o f  the study were wards o f the s o c i e t y and i n t a k e i s dependent upon this condition.  The  case worker r e f e r r i n g the case p r o v i d e s  a  s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f the a p p l i c a n t a f t e r an i n i t i a l c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the f o s t e r care d i r e c t o r .  A complete m e d i c a l  and  the c h i l d with p r e s e n t i n g symptoms i s g i v e n t o the The  s o c i a l h i s t o r y of psychiatrist.  d i r e c t o r o f the i n s t i t u t i o n and the t h e r a p i s t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n  the i n t a k e conference  where added i n f o r m a t i o n i s presented  p s y c h i a t r i s t a f t e r he has  conducted the i n i t i a l  by  the  interview.  There were eleven c h i l d r e n i n r e s i d e n c e a t the time o f Dynamic d i a g n o s i s r a t h e r t h a n d i a g n o s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was 1  study. used  and d i s c l o s e d . 1)  C h i l d r e n w i t h symptoms o f s t e a l i n g , l y i n g , a g g r e s s i v e  upon o t h e r c h i l d r e n , d e s t r u c t i o n o f p r o p e r t y , running t i o n to r e c o g n i z a b l e " n e u r o t i c " symptoms. -  ted  C h i l d r e n c l e a r l y showing p s y c h o t i c episodes  3)  A c h i l d who  sex 4)  interest  1  S e v e r e l y n e u r o t i c symptoms without  N e u r o t i c adoloscent  d i a g n o s i s and  2  hypomanic w i t h much i n h i b i -  observation  overt, 2  a c t i n g - o u t behaviour 5)  away, i n a d d i -  5  2)  was  acts  g i r l placed f o r 1 11  1.  Reid, Joseph, H., and Hagan, Helen, R., " R e s i d e n t i a l T r e a t ment o f E m o t i o n a l l y D i s t u r b e d C h i l d r e n , " New York, 1 9 5 2 , p. 1 2 3 .  - 1-11-  Th e m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f these c h i l d r e n ' s parents shows t h a t the p a r e n t s of t h r e e c h i l d r e n were m a r r i e d and l i v i n g t o g e t h e r , f i v e had parents separated or d i v o r c e d , one c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s were dead and two  c h i l d r e n had unmarried  The treatment  parents.  g o a l o f the Home i s t o p r o v i d e i n d i v i d u a l  and  group therapy f o r each c h i l d and hence enable maximum development w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t y t o change.  I t i s stressed that  " . . . . I n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t him from exposure to s i t u a t i o n s which cannot be c o n t r o l l e d o u t s i d e the i n s t i t u t i o n , no r e l i a n c e i s p l a c e d on any e x t e r n a l r e s o u r c e such as s c h o o l s , r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , the homes o f parents and r e l a t i o n s . Such treatment r e q u i r e s t h a t a l l a s p e c t s o f the programme d a i l y l i v i n g , psycho-therapy, education, r e c r e a t i o n and m e d i c a l care - be so i n t e g r a t e d t h a t each c h i l d may develop the maximum b e n e f i t from treatment. I t i s necessary to have more or l e s s constant communication between the v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s working w i t h him." 1 R e s i d e n t i a l treatment i n d i v i d u a l who  p h i l o s o p h y views each c h i l d as an  should be handled on the b a s i s of h i s own  personality structure.  The f u n c t i o n of the House s t a f f i s seen  p a r e n t a l , i n v o l g i n g ego t r a i n i n g w i t h i n an e f f e c t i o n a l The  c h i l d r e n i n the t h r e e aforementioned  g e n e r a l l y those who  unique  treatment  have f a i l e d to a d j u s t elsewhere  as  relationship. c e n t r e s are  and as Reid says,  "They have been d e s c r i b e d as i n c o r r i g i b l e , u n t r e a t a b l e , have been ousted from p u b l i c s c h o o l s and r e j e c t e d by the neighbourhood and community. Many o f these cases have so b a f f l e d the o r d i n a r y attempts o f p s y c h i a t r i c treatment t h a t t h e i r d i a g n o s i s have  1.  R e i d , Joseph, H., and Hagan, Helen, R., " R e s i d e n t i a l T r e a t ment o f E m o t i o n a l l y D i s t u r b e d C h i l d r e n . " New York, 1952,  p.123.  -  112-  been r e l e g a t e d t o the c a t c h - a l l cons o l o g i c a l waste basket. They a r e l a b e l l e d w i t h obscure and n o n - v e r i f i c a b l e o r g a n i c d e f e c t s , such as c o n s t i t u t i o n a l psychopath." 1 The treatment  c e n t r e s were c r e a t e d t o h e l p  d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n and  emotionally  do not accept a p p l i c a n t s who  are f e e b l e  minded or those p o s s e s s i n g i n n a t e mental r e t a r d a t i o n .  1.  R e i d , Joseph, H., and Hagan, Helen, R., " R e s i d e n t i a l Treatment o f E m o t i o n a l l y D i s t u r b e d C h i l d r e n . " New York, 1952, p. 127  - 113 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY GENERAL REFERENCES: 1) Bender, Lauretta, B.S., MiA.., M.D., Child Psychiatric Techniques, Charles, Thomas, C , S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s , 2) Burns, P h y l l i s , K., "Group Care of Children, A Challenge to the Community", Canadian Welfare, V o l . 2 9 , No.7, September 1940. 3) Fisher, Florence, M., "An Innovation In Child Placement", Child Welfare League of America, October, 1952, New York, 18, N.Y. 4) Hay-Shaw, C e c i l , Your Child and You, Wyman & Sons Ltd., London, Fakenham & Reading. 5) Healy, William & Bronner, Augusta, F., Reconstructing Behaviour In Youth. A Study of Problem Children i n Foster Families, Knopf, New York. 6) Hopkirk, Howard, W., I n s t i t u t i o n s Serving Children, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, New York, 1944. 7) Johnson, L i l l i a n , J . , "Value of Case Work Service to the Child i n the I n s t i t u t i o n " , Child Welfare League of America, Vol., 19, No.7, September, 1940. 8) Redl, F r i t z , & Wineman, David, Children Who Hate, Free Press Glencoe, I l l i n o i s . 9) Reid, Joseph, & Hagan, Helen, R., Residential Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed Children, Child Welfare League of America, New York, 1952. 10) Stevenson, George, S., M.D., & Smith, Geddes, Child Guidance C l i n i c s , a Quarter Century of Development, M i l f o r d , Oxford University Press, 1934. UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL: 1) Case Records, Children's Aid Society, Vancouver, Canada. 2) B i l l i n g t o n , A.R., Group Work Records, Children's Aid Society, October 1952.  

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