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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The work of community citizenship councils : a study of the development and co-ordination of services.. Allman, John Jacob 1955

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THE WORK OP COMMUNITY CITIZENSHIP COUNCILS A Study of the Development and Co-ordination of Services f o r Immigrants based on Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , and Nanaimo E x p e r i e n c e .  JOHN JACOB ALEMAN  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OP SOCIAL WORK i n the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work  School of S o c i a l Work  1955 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  ABSTRACT  The purpose of t h i s study i s to examine the r o l e of the l o c a l C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l i n a s s i s t i n g new immigrants upon t h e i r a r r i v a l i n the community, and d u r i n g t h e i r subsequent e a r l y r e s i d e n c e i n t h e i r new environment. The study c o n s i d e r s the problems of o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f a c e d by the C o u n c i l s ; and the i n d i v i d u a l and group adjustments f a c e d by the immigrant. The broad i m p l i c a t i o n s of community organi z a t i o n , and of education f o r c i t i z e n s h i p , are a l s o examined* Time and g e o g r a p h i c a l f a c t o r s l i m i t e d the study to three C o u n c i l s , l o c a t e d i n Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , and Nanaimo. The e s s e n t i a l m a t e r i a l of the study has been d e r i v e d from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h v a r i o u s executive members of the C o u n c i l s concerned, and from p e r u s a l of t h e i r r e c o r d s and minutes of meetings. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n some l i m i t a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y when the minutes or records were inadequate or incomplete. The study shows ( l ) the v a l u e of the guidance, l e a d e r s h i p and s t a b i l i t y p r o v i d e d by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , when new o r g a n i z a t i o n s are formed w i t h i n the community; ( 2 ) that a C o u n c i l programme should evolve out of d i s c u s s i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h l o c a l v o l u n t a r y groups i n t e r e s t e d i n the adjustment of the immigrant, and w i t h the government agencies concerned; (3) members h i p should i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of e t h n i c groups,, who should p a r t i c i p a t e i n p l a n n i n g the programme; and ( 4 ) . t h a t care i s r e q u i r e d i n f o r m u l a t i n g any p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g c i t i z e n s h i p education w i t h i n the community; i n i t i a l l y , t h e i r programme should be p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h meeting the immediate needs of the immigrant. I t i s hoped that t h i s study w i l l be of value to C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l s now f u n c t i o n i n g , by emphasizing the need f o r a p p l i c a t i o n of sound community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s ; and w i l l a s s i s t C o u n c i l s now i n the forma t i v e stage, by p o i n t i n g out some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n c r e a t i n g a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n which attempts to work w i t h d i v e r s e n a t i o n a l i t y g r o u p s .  •ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  •I wish t o acknowledge great  indebtedness  to D r . L . C. Marsh, of the School of S o c i a l Work, who have generously  of h i s time and  p r o f e s s i o n a l advice d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of this  study.  THE WORK OF COMMUNITY CITIZENSHIP COUNCILS  TABU) OF CONTENTS Cb.apt.er 1.  The Immigrant and the Community  Recent trends i n immigration. Admissible c l a s s e s i n c l u d i n g d i s p l a c e d persons; a s s i s t e d passage scheme. C i t i z e n s h i p A c t ; problem of a l i e n ' s s t a t u s , f o r m a t i o n of C i t i z e n s h i p Branch and Immigration Settlement S e r v i c e . Social work i m p l i c a t i o n s ; i n d i v i d u a l and group problems of immigrant. Method used and s e t t i n g of s t u d y . . . . Chapter 2 .  C o n s t i t u t i o n and F u n c t i o n of C o u n c i l s  M o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s behind f o r m a t i o n of Councils. C o n s t i t u t i o n of C o u n c i l s . Membership. S p e c i f i c focus of each C o u n c i l . Administrative difficulties Chapter 3«  Work and Problems of C o u n c i l s  P l a n n i n g programme. Language and v o c a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s . Accommodation. H e a l t h and w e l f a r e . Creating interest i n c i t i z e n s h i p . P u b l i c i t y . . . . . Chapter 4.  F u t u r e Role of C i t i z e n s h i p  Councils  The citiz.ensb.ip c o u n c i l i n the community. Inadequacies i n Canadian immigration programme. Role of c o u n c i l s w i t h e t h n i c group o r g a n i z a t i o n s . C i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g w i t h i n the community Appendices: A.  Bibliography.  CHAPTER r THE  IMMIGRANT AND THE COMMUNITY  The r a t e of immigration to Canada has to a l a r g e extent, been c o n t r o l l e d "by economic, p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and has been i n f l u e n c e d by b o t h domestic and world c o n d i t i o n s .  Canadian immigration has never  ceased, but i t has f l u c t u a t e d from the v a s t and c o m p a r a t i v e l y u n r e g u l a t e d flow of immigrants d u r i n g the r e l a t i v e l y p r o s p e r ous years,. 1904 - 1914, to the s m a l l and r e s t r i c t e d , t r i c k l e admitted d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s of 1932 - 1935*  The  c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g i n many European c o u n t r i e s a t the end o f the l a s t war ( c i r c a 1945) c r e a t e d a need f o r e m i g r a t i o n from them..  A t the same time Canada needed im-  migrants to supplement  the labour f o r c e i n an expanding  post-war economy.  These circumstances r e s u l t e d i n a c c e l e r a t e d  immigration t o Canada and i t i s t h i s post-war a c t i v i t y  which  i s of prime i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y . A c c o r d i n g to a r e c e n t o f f i c i a l spokesman, s i n c e World War Two ended, about 685,000 immigrants have a r r i v e d i n 1 Canada, 3 7 ° »  0 0 0  o  f  whom, a r e workers and 315»000 dependents.  The source of these immigrants i s of s p e c i a l  interest  because t h e r e i s a tendency on the p a r t of many Canadians 1 R e i d , E.B., C h i e f of Immigration S e r v i c e s , Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, speaking on r a d i o programme "Points of View", Thursday, J u l y 17, 1952. (Copies o b t a i n a b l e from C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Ottawa.)  to  t h i n k of a l l immigrants as d i s p l a c e d persons o r p o l i t i c a l  refugees.  The p u b l i c i t y which attended  U n i t e d Nations  the e f f o r t s of the  R e l i e f and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Refugee O r g a n i z a t i o n i s p a r t l y for  t h i s s t e r e o t y p i n g of newcomers.  p l a c e d persons were admitted under the a u s p i c e s  3?or s e v e r a l y e a r s  t o Canada from European  of U.N.R.R.A., p a r t i c u l a r l y from  camps i n Western Germany and Western Europe. was  responsible dis-  centres refugee  When U*N.R.R.A.  d i s c o n t i n u e d the r . R . Q . took over t h i s branch o f i t s work. I-  D i s p l a c e d persons came from such war-torn c o u n t r i e s as A u s t r i a , Poland  and C z e c h o s l o v o k i a ,  t o which they were un-  r e p a t r i a b l e f o r economic and p o l i t i c a l  reasons.  T h e i r entry  i n t o Canada was a mixture of n e c e s s i t y and c h o i c e .  Although  they s t i l l a r r i v e , t h e number of t h e i r admissions has dec r e a s e d g r e a t l y , and i n 1951 only 22 p e r cent of European immigrants were i n the d i s p l a c e d person  category.  Many r e c e n t immigrants do not have a background o f uprooted f a m i l y l i f e and p o l i t i c a l p e r s e c u t i o n .  They a r e  people who come to Canada because they b e l i e v e there a r e more o p p o r t u n i t i e s here f o r them, and they d e s i r e t o r a i s e t h e i r economic s t a t u s .  The recent t r e n d appears to f a v o u r  a g r e a t e r percentage from the U n i t e d Kingdom and Northern Europe.  Taking  the f i r s t  f i v e months of 1952 as an example,  23 p e r cent o f a l l immigrants were from the U n i t e d Kingdom, as compared w i t h \1\  p e r cent i n 1951»  3°" p e r cent were from  - 3 N o r t h e r n Europe, as compared w i t h 3  4  P  e r  cent i n  1951}  and 39 per cent were from other c o u n t r i e s , as compared w i t h 2 48£ per cent i n  1951•  I n p a r t , t h i s t r e n d i s the r e s u l t of the governmentsponsored a s s i s t e d - p a s s a g e scheme. on February 1,  1951*  T h i s was  instituted  and under i t advances a r e made on a  r e c o v e r a b l e b a s i s to immigrants whose s e r v i c e s a r e r e q u i r e d i n Canada, but who own  passage.  do not have s u f f i c i e n t funds to pay  their  The immigrants a r e r e q u i r e d to c o n t r i b u t e not  l e s s than t h i r t y d o l l a r s , or an e q u i v a l e n t amount i n the c u r r e n c y of t h e i r c o u n t r y .  In r e t u r n f o r t h i s a s s i s t a n c e  the immigrants must agree to work f o r a Canadian  employer,  and to remain i n the same type of employment f o r a p e r i o d of one y e a r , or u n t i l such time as they have r e p a i d the advance made to them by the government. The s e l e c t i o n procedure and p r i o r i t y g i v e n c e r t a i n immigrants v a r i e s .  Immigrants from the U n i t e d Kingdom,  the Commonwealth c o u n t r i e s , I r e l a n d , F r a n c e , and the U n i t e d S t a t e s may  come f r e e l y to Canada, p r o v i d i n g they a r e of  good h e a l t h , good c h a r a c t e r , and have funds to m a i n t a i n themselves u n t i l employed.  From Belgium, S w i t z e r l a n d and  the S c a n d i n a v i a n c o u n t r i e s , immigrants who q u a l i f i e d i n such t r a d e s as may  a r r i v e are usually  be needed from time to time.  2 Canada, House of Commons Debate. Speech, Hon. W a l t e r H a r r i s , Q.C., M i n i s t e r of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, d e l i v e r e d on J u l y 4, 1952, Q u e e r s P r i n t e r , Ottawa.  - 4 From H o l l a n d a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , farm workers, and  certain  a r t i s a n s a r e s e l e c t e d under an agreement w i t h the Dutch Government.  Farm workers, domestics, nurses, and nurses'  a i d e s , a r e being s e l e c t e d from Germany, A u s t r i a , Greece and F i n l a n d . From a l l these c o u n t r i e s , c l o s e r e l a t i v e s of n a t i o n a l s a l r e a d y i n Canada,  i n c l u d i n g grandparents, orphan nephews  and n i e c e s , f i a n c e ( e ) s , and c e r t a i n " m e r i t o r i o u s c a s e s " , are  b e i n g accepted*  In view of the l a r g e number of ap-  p l i c a t i o n s on b e h a l f of c l o s e r e l a t i v e s made by I t a l i a n s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d In Canada, and i n order to a s s u r e the r e u n i o n of the f a m i l i e s , i t has been n e c e s s a r y f o r the time b e i n g to l i m i t the " p r o c e s s i n g " of I t a l i a n a p p l i c a t i o n s to husbands, wives, minor unmarried children,, parents and fiance(e)s.  From most other c o u n t r i e s , only c l o s e  relatives  and "cases of e x c e p t i o n a l m e r i t " a r e approved. Two government in  the i n i t i a l  a new  departments have been a c t i v e l y  s e l e c t i o n of immigrants o v e r s e a s .  development  of  This i s  i n Canadian immigration procedure and i n -  v o l v e s the Department Department  engaged  of Labour.  of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration and the In a d d i t i o n to the i n i t i a l  selection  immigrants these Departments are a l s o i n v o l v e d i n the sub-  sequent r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r those s e l e c t e d .  For example,  Department  come to Canada  of l a b o u r s e l e c t s immigrants who  under c o n t r a c t to f i l l s p e c i f i c labour v a c a n c i e s .  the  The Depart-  ment of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration s e l e c t s immigrants  who  .  5  -  a r e coming to r e l a t i v e s , or who have s u f f i c i e n t funds to e s t a b l i s h themselves i n Canada. Citizenship A problem which accompanies t h a t o f the a l i e n ' s s t a t u s .  any immigration scheme i s  L e g a l l y a newcomer remains an  immigrant u n t i l he has spent a s p e c i f i e d number o f y e a r s i n Canada, and has taken the necessary a c t i o n t o o b t a i n h i s citizenship certificate.  S o c i a l l y , a newcomer may remain  an "immigrant" f o r the r e s t o f h i s l i f e , because as Henry P r a t t F a i r c h i l d p o i n t s out:  " a s s i m i l a t i o n i s a r e a c t i o n of  the i n d i v i d u a l t o the s o c i a l environment.  While i t i s pro-  duced by the i n f l u e n c e s of the group, i t takes p l a c e w i t h i n  3 the i n d i v i d u a l . " The a t t i t u d e o f the immigrant and h i s adjustment w i t h i n the community w i l l depend  to a l a r g e extent upon the a t t i t u d e s  and adjustments o f those w i t h whom he comes i n t o c o n t a c t . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , the newcomer i s q u i c k l y i n v o l v e d i n the process of " A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n " . i s d e l i b e r a t e and f o r m a l .  The procedure  A good example i s the f l a g - r a i s i n g  ceremony performed by American c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r s c h o o l , and of course, . p a r t i c i p a t e d i n by the immigrant o f s c h o o l age. T h i s " r i t u a l o f f l a g worship and o a t h - t a k i n g i n an American s c h o o l from which r e l i g i o n i n the o l d sense i s b a r r e d , 3 P a i r c h i l d , Henry P r a t t , "Immigration and N a t i o n a l U n i t y , " "The Immigration Problem, P e t e r s , C l a r e n c e A., ed., H.W. W i l s o n Company, New York, 194b , p.27 ( i t a l i c s added by present w r i t e r ) . 1  -  6  -  solemnly r i s i n g each morning and 4  r e c i t i n g together  the  'American Creed*, are performing a r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e as t r u l y as i f they began the day w i t h  f  I b e l i e v e i n God  the 5  F a t h e r A l m i g h t y ' or a s s e r t e d that 'There i s no God  but God'."  T h i s approach must r e s u l t i n acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of "Americanization" c h i l d ' s parents  - i t does not allow  for lethargy.  f e e l a s i m i l a r pressure  The  because of n a t i o n a l  l e g i s l a t i o n , i . e . , the American N a t i o n a l i t y A c t of  1940,  which c o n s o l i d a t e d a number of d u t i e s which had been e x p l i c i t in earlier legislation.  The  " r e g u l a t i o n s s p e c i f y three  fields  of knowledge i n which the p e t i t i o n e r f o r c i t i z e n s h i p may questioned; country's and  namely:  ( l ) p r i n c i p a l h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s of  development as a r e p u b l i c , (2) the  l o c a l , and  (3)  the  organization  p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n s of American Government a t  l e v e l s , f e d e r a l , s t a t e , and  be  the  three  relation  of the i n d i v i d u a l i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s to h i s government, 4 "I b e l i e v e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America as a Government o f the p e o p l e , by the people, f o r the p e o p l e , whose j u s t powers are d e r i v e d from the consent of the governed; a democracy i n a r e p u b l i c ; a s o v e r e i g n N a t i o n of many s o v e r e i g n S t a t e s ; a p e r f e c t union, one and i n s e p a r a b l e ; e s t a b l i s h e d upon those p r i n c i p l e s of freedom, e q u a l i t y , J u s t i c e , and humanity f o r which American p a t r i o t s s a c r i f i c e d t h e i r l i v e s and f o r t u n e s . I t h e r e f o r e b e l i e v e i t i s my duty to my country to l o v e i t ; to support i t s C o n s t i t u t i o n ; to obey i t s laws; to r e s p e c t i t s f l a g ; and to defend i t a g a i n s t a l l enemies." 5 Brogan, Dennis, ¥., "The American C h a r a c t e r Today", N a f t a l i n , A r t h u r , et a l , ed., An I n t r o d u c t i o n to S o c i a l S c i e n c e , J.B. L i p p i n e o t t Company, New York, 1953* P»324.  and the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s growing from t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p  6 and the d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which r e s u l t from  it".  In Canada, the approach to the problem of c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n i s much l e s s d i r e c t and perhaps more d e m o c r a t i c . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s l e f t w i t h the immigrant and i n p a r t t h i s i s due to the f a c t that b e f o r e 194-7 Canada had no c l e a r c u t d e f i n i t i o n of a Canadian c i t i z e n .  B e f o r e t h i s date t h e r e  were three s t a t u t e s b e a r i n g on the matter of c i t i z e n s h i p . The N a t u r a l i z a t i o n A c t of 1914 d e f i n e d B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s and covered the n a t u r a l i z a t i o n o f a l i e n s i n Canada.  The Canadian  N a t i o n a l s A c t o f 1921 d e f i n e d Canadian " n a t i o n a l s " ; and the Canadian Immigration A c t of 1910 d e f i n e d Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p . A l l three were i n c o n f l i c t w i t h each other; the l e g a l s t a t u s of the f o r e i g n - b o r n was i n t r i c a t e and i n v o l v e d , v a r y i n g 7 a c c o r d i n g to the o r i g i n of the immigrant.  As H.j . Angus 1  p o i n t e d out, p o l i c y u n d e r l y i n g the v a r i o u s A c t s and Ordersi n - C o u n c i l was vague, and i n some ways d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . When on January 1,  1947, the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p A c t  came i n t o f o r c e , these anomalies were removed, and Canada passed another m i l e s t o n e on the road t o n a t i o n h o o d .  F o r the  f i r s t time i n Canada's h i s t o r y , an immigrant coming to t h i s 6 H a r r i n g t o n , B u r r i t t C , "The Government and A d u l t C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n " , P e t e r s , C l a r e n c e A., ed. "The Immigration Problem", The H.W. W i l s o n Company, New York, 194b, p p . i 9 7 - b . 7 Angus, H.F. "Canadian Immigration - The Law and i t s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , American J o u r n a l o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, Washington, B.C., Vol.26, January, 193b".  - a c o u n t r y c o u l d , a f t e r a s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d of time, be d e s i g n a t e d as a Canadian. of  legally  A c c o r d i n g to the o f f i c i a l  title  the s t a t u t e , i t c o v e r s " C i t i z e n s h i p , N a t i o n a l i t y , Natur-  a l i z a t i o n and Status of A l i e n s " . clarified  I t s passage not only  the procedure by which an immigrant could  attain  c i t i z e n s h i p , but brought w i t h i t a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the p a r t of the government to a c t i v e l y a s s i s t newcomers t o a t t a i n full  citizenship.  Branch was the  Thus on January l 8 , 1950»  j o i n e d by the new  the  Immigration  C i t i z e n s h i p Branch and r a i s e d to 8  s t a t u s of a government department.  At t h i s time the  Prime M i n i s t e r , Mr. L o u i s S t . L a u r e n t , e x p l a i n e d  that  " u n i f o r m i t y of p o l i c y and treatment was more l i k e l y to be achieved i f one M i n i s t e r had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b o t h imm i g r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and the a c t i v i t i e s pursued to b r i n g immigrants as r e a s o n a b l y as. could be expected to f u l l 9 citizenship"• In  the f i r s t  annual r e p o r t of the new  Department,  Mr. Frank F o u l d s , D i r e c t o r of the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, 8 On October 12, 1917* the Immigration Branch was taken out o f the Department of the I n t e r i o r , and the Department of Immigration and C o l o n i z a t i o n was c r e a t e d . However, when i n 1936 the Department of Mines, and Resources was e s t a b l i s h e d , t h i s Department combined the f u n c t i o n s of the former Department o f Mines, Department of the I n t e r i o r , Hydrographic Survey of the Department of the Marine, Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s , and the Department of Immigration and C o l o n i z a t i o n . 9 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Report f o r the f i s c a l y e a r ended March 31, 1950, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1951, P.7-  -  states:  "The  9  -  f u n c t i o n s of the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch  are to promote unity among the v a r i o u s e t h n i c elements i n (  Canada; to awaken i n a l l Canadians a consciousness t r u e worth o f t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p ; and t h i s country  of  the  to a s s i s t newcomers to  to a d j u s t themselves more r a p i d l y to the Canadian 10  way  of l i f e . "  A Settlement  Immigration Branch and o f areas sources  D i v i s i o n was  its activities  of p o t e n t i a l establishment of immigration  date flow  c r e a t e d w i t h i n the  include:  "the  i n Canada and  survey  of p o t e n t i a l  abroad; the maintenance of an up-to-  o f f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e s p e c t of  occupational  c a t e g o r i e s to v i s a o f f i c e r s abroad i n order to guide them i n s e l e c t i n g immigrants; the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n to p r o s p e c t i v e immigrants i n Europe by means of l e c t u r e s ; l i a i s o n w i t h f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s and voluntary private organizations interested i n and a s s i s t a n c e to immigrants who  with  immigration;  w i s h to s e t t l e on  their  11  own  farms or i n s m a l l W i t h the new  businesses."  flow of immigration  i n the post-war y e a r s ,  there has been growing concern about the f u t u r e adjustment of immigrants.  What k i n d of c i t i z e n s w i l l our newcomers make?  W i l l they f i n d j o b s , s e t t l e down and make c o n t r i b u t i o n s to Canadian l i f e ?  These q u e s t i o n s and many more are asked  o n l y by government, but a l s o by p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s .  not  In many  1 0 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Report f o r the f i s c a l year ended March 3 1 t 1 9 5 1 * Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1 9 5 1 , p . 7 11.  Ibid,  p.23.  - 10 Canadian communities t h i s concern has of c i t i z e n s h i p c o u n c i l s . interested t h e i r own  c i t i z e n s who  l e d to the  These c o u n c i l s  composed  of  v o l u n t a r i l y form a group w i t h i n  community, the g e n e r a l purpose of which i s to  a s s i s t newcomers and  to c r e a t e i n t e r e s t i n Canadian c i t i z e n -  s h i p among a l l members of the I f these c o u n c i l s  are  community.  to be s u c c e s s f u l  to help newcomers, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t something about the  immigrant as an  must become people - they must not types.  are  formation  in their  they understand  individual. be  d e a l of support and come i n c o n t a c t .  stereo-  to accept  community, immigrants need a g r e a t  encouragement from those w i t h whom they  Citizenship  p o s i t i v e approach to the s e t t i n g an  Immigrants  looked upon as  In t h e i r s t r u g g l e to f i n d acceptance, and  the mores of t h e i r new  efforts  example not  councils  should sponsor a  immigrant as an  individual,  thereby  only to other v o l u n t e e r groups but  also  to government. The  success or f a i l u r e of c o u n c i l s  members of the upon how ject.  to i n t e r e s t a l l  community i n Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p w i l l depend  democratic they are  i n t h e i r approach to t h i s pro-  Democracy i m p l i e s compromise on the  p l a n , and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the p a r t of those who  recipients  of such p l a n n i n g .  b u r e a u c r a t i c and interest  p a r t of those  I t i s sometimes e a s i e r  d i c t a t e ways and  seems to be  lacking,  are  but  who  the to  be  means, e s p e c i a l l y when t h i s method w i l l produce  - 11 o n l y short-term r e s u l t s .  The  democratic approach i s o f t e n  made even more d i f f i c u l t "because many newcomers a r e r e l u c t a n t to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , d i c t a t o r i a l methods.  having been " c o n d i t i o n e d " by  The r o l e of the c o u n c i l i n the community  should be to h e l p a l l members of t h e i r community r e a l i z e t h a t they l i v e i n a democracy and responsibility by  to make them aware of the  that this implies.  T h i s can be best a c h i e v e d  example.  S o c i a l Work I m p l i c a t i o n s S o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n i s concerned needs of people and w i t h the democratic needs.  b o t h w i t h the  approach i n meeting  I t has been d e f i n e d as "an e n a b l i n g process of help-  i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ,  the group, and  the community, to cope  w i t h s t r e s s e s t h a t prevent t h e i r b e s t p o s s i b l e adjustment society. and  these  I t s p h i l o s o p h y i s r o o t e d i n democratic  to  principles  i n the s o c i a l worker's b e l i e f and c o n v i c t i o n i n man's 12  d i g n i t y , worth, and determining r i g h t s . "  T h i s would  imply,  t h e r e f o r e , that a study of the problems f a c i n g the immigrant as an i n d i v i d u a l and as a member o f a m i n o r i t y group w i l l  en-  a b l e Canadians to o f f e r newcomers not merely c a s u a l f r i e n d l y h e l p , but planned and  organized a s s i s t a n c e to enable him to  m o b i l i z e h i s i n t e r n a l s t r e n g t h s and t h a t he may  reach h i s optimum  e x t e r n a l r e s o u r c e s , so  adjustment.  12 Abrahamson, A r t h u r C , e t . a l . , " D e f i n i n g S o c i a l Casework" (a r e p o r t of a student group p r o j e c t ) . Unp u b l i s h e d manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work, Vancouver, B.C.  - 12 The Immigrant  as an I n d i v i d u a l  The immediate d i f f i c u l t i e s of newcomers should he the f i r s t concern of those p l a n n i n g to a s s i s t them. may  These  he the f i n d i n g of a j o b . housing, language h a r r i e r s ,  or the a n x i e t y which accompanies immigrant may  any new  situation.  The  become h o s t i l e and a g g r e s s i v e , demand more  a t t e n t i o n than u s u a l , or he may withdraw  into a protective  s h e l l whereby he i s unable to cope w i t h the s i m p l e s t uation.  sit-  I t i s important to r e a l i z e that each immigrant  must l e a r n to understand and work w i t h i n a new  culture.  T h i s a p p l i e s to the B r i t i s h immigrant j u s t as i t does to the I t a l i a n newcomer o r the P o l i s h "D.P.  The tmo  W  mentioned may  last-  have a language b a r r i e r , but a l l have  unconscious and e m o t i o n a l l y - c h a r g e d codes and  customs,  which are meaningful to them, and which i n v a r y i n g degrees o f f e r them s e c u r i t y .  Some have no s t r o n g d e s i r e to f o r g e t  t h e i r own ways of doing t h i n g s , t h e i r own customs.  folkways and  F o r a few, the i n s e c u r i t y they f e e l  reinforces  t h e i r d e s i r e to c l i n g to t h e i r o l d b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s , even when i n so doing, they j e o p a r d i z e t h e i r chances f o r success i n t h i s c o u n t r y .  A case i n q u e s t i o n concerns a  young A u s t r i a n immigrant brought to t h i s country by h i s brother.  He was  s i n g l e and an e l e c t r i c i a n by t r a d e , but  because of language and t r a d e - q u a l i f i c a t i o n he was  unable to f i n d work i n t h i s f i e l d  difficulties  immediately,  - 13 a l t h o u g h he had heen a d v i s e d be overcome i n time. occupations, of time.  He  that these o b s t a c l e s  obtained work a t v a r i o u s manual  but would never s t a y f o r any  He was  could  always re-appearing  reasonable  a t the  Immigration  S e r v i c e i n quest of employment as an e l e c t r i c i a n . jobs h i s b r o t h e r  supported  In the course of two "In my  country  forever. too.  i f you  interviews, t h i s youth stated:  do u n s k i l l e d labour you  stay at i t dig ditches  I am not a labourer,' I am an e l e c t r i c i a n . "  been i n Canada some months by t h i s time and  i n h i s s t r e s s and  escaped i n t o an o l d c u l t u r a l concept. the r e a l i t y  down a c r o s s  had  h i s knowledge  He was  irrationally unable to  that i n Canada people can move up  the l i n e s of c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n .  Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n the hope of e v e n t u a l l y  he was  the  obtaining  Some two months l a t e r he  s t i l l employed i n an u n s k i l l e d c a p a c i t y , but  and  A f t e r some  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , he a p p l i e d f o r an u n s k i l l e d job w i t h  e l e c t r i c a l work w i t h them.  with  disappointment a t  being a b l e to u t i l i z e h i s t r a i n i n g he had  accept  He  improved; a l s o he had become acquainted  Canadian customs, but not  Between  him.  I f your f a t h e r digs d i t c h e s then you  of E n g l i s h had  period  was confident  t h a t e v e n t u a l l y he would be a b l e to o b t a i n employment as  an  electrician. I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t the young immigrant mentioned above might have been c l a s s i f i e d as " l a z y " or " i r r e s p o n s i b l e " by  someone who  assessed  h i s behaviour on a s u p e r f i c i a l  level.  - 14 Before  he c o u l d he helped  t o c o n s c i o u s l y express h i s  " c u l t u r a l t r a i t s " he had t o he accepted  as a person,  as d i s t i n c t from a " f o r e i g n immigrant".  When d e a l i n g  immigrants i t i s important to remember t h a t : f o r others one  includes respect f o r t h e i r  with  "respect  differences....each  i s d i f f e r e n t , not o n l y as to thumbprints but as to h i s  unique v i s i o n of h i m s e l f and h i s w o r l d . the stamp o f h i s times, b l u r r e d impression,  Each has on him  h i s c u l t u r e , h i s community, now a  not a d i s t i n c t i v e one, now adding to  h i s s t a t u r e and achievement as a human b e i n g .  Stereotypes  about other c u l t u r e s break down as soon as one gets t o know 13 the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n those c u l t u r e s . " T h i s same p r i n c i p l e a p p l i e s when p l a n n i n g w i t h i n the community. get  Those sponsoring  a new o r g a n i z a t i o n  the new p r o j e c t must  to know the r e a l f e e l i n g s of a l l s e c t i o n s of community  life. and  S u p e r f i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n must g i v e way t o f r e e the u t i l i z a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c method.  e s t e d i n a s s i s t i n g immigrants should  enquiry  Groups i n t e r -  encourage d i s c u s s i o n  w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a l l e t h n i c groups w i t h i n the community. At  the same time r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from government departments,  s o c i a l agencies,  s c h o o l boards, churches, and other groups  i n t e r e s t e d i n immigrants, should be contacted to c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r knowledge, experience,  and encouraged  and p o i n t o f view.  T h i s approach w i l l ensure t h a t the community i s understood, 13 Hamilton, Gordon, "Helping People - The Growth o f a P r o f e s s i o n , " J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Casework, New York, V o l . 2 5 . October, 1§48, pp.295-6.  -  15  -  and should r e s u l t i n a p l a n of a c t i o n a c c e p t a b l e to the community as i t i s and where i t i s * The Immigrant  and H i s Problems  The newcomer to t h i s country i s a person w i t h the same b a s i c needs as those of the n a t i v e - b o r n Canadian.  In the  case of the immigrant* however, these needs a r e i n t e n s i f i e d because he i s f a c e d by a completely strange environment. Everyone has a s t r o n g emotional need to belong and i n t h i s r e g a r d the newcomer f a c e s a d i f f i c u l t y r a r e l y experienced by a Canadian c i t i z e n w i t h i n Canada. many "Canadians" a r e new f e e l l i k e "strangers"•  I t might be argued that  to a p a r t i c u l a r community and thus I t must be remembered, however, that  they have the advantage of a Canadian e d u c a t i o n , Canadian group a s s o c i a t i o n s , r e l a t i v e s , mutual f r i e n d s , or a t l e a s t o t h e r Canadians w i t h whom they can communicate w i t h comparative ease and on an e q u a l b a s i s .  Initially,  f o r the immigrant and a l t h o u g h he may  t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e  have h i s p a r t i c u l a r  e t h n i c group a s s o c i a t i o n he cannot c o n f i n e a l l h i s a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h i s group.  When he leaves i t ,  he o f t e n becomes aware  of a t l e a s t a strange and sometimes s e m i - h o s t i l e  environment  which i s a c o n s t a n t reminder t h a t he does not b e l o n g . B o t h the newcomer and the Canadian r e s i d e n t f a c e the common problem of f i n d i n g a j o b , l o c a t i n g s u i t a b l e housing, t r y i n g to improve t h e i r income, f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e  recreational  o u t l e t s and g e n e r a l l y s t r i v i n g to make a s a t i s f a c t o r y  - 16 adjustment -within the community.  In g r a t i f y i n g  needs the n a t i v e - h o r n have the advantage  these  over the immigrant.  Through l o n g a s s o c i a t i o n they become aware of the l o c a l i d i o c y n c r a s i e s and "the way t h i n g s a r e done" i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r community.  They belong to c e r t a i n groups and  o f t e n b e n e f i t through these c o n t a c t s . migrant  I n i t i a l l y the im-  i s a " f r i n g e member" of the community.  Whether he  i s accepted or not depends almost e n t i r e l y upon h i s own efforts.  I t i s t r u e , however, he i s o f t e n helped i n t h i s  r e g a r d by h i s e t h n i c group a s s o c i a t i o n or by h i s c h u r c h . The  emotional needs o f an immigrant  accompanied here  by h i s f a m i l y a r e probably l e s s than those of an immigrant coming here a l o n e .  The m a r r i e d man does "belong" w i t h i n  h i s own f a m i l y and i n i t i a l l y , a t l e a s t , d e r i v e s a good d e a l of support from f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Gn the other hand  the m a t e r i a l needs o f the m a r r i e d man a r e g r e a t e r than those of the s i n g l e immigrant.  C h i l d r e n must be c l o t h e d and  educated and t h e i r immediate needs must be met. p a r e n t s , immigrant  Like  c h i l d r e n have a g r e a t adjustment  their  to make.  I f they a r e of s c h o o l age they a r e f a c e d w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g p a t t e r n s of behaviour a t s c h o o l and a t home.  A t s c h o o l they  must q u i c k l y l e a r n the "Canadian way" of doing t h i n g s and if  they attempt  flict.  these methods a t home i t o f t e n leads t o con-  I f a language b a r r i e r e x i s t s , then the p r e s s u r e i s  - 17 intensified.  The parents are o f t e n a b l e to f u n c t i o n  i n the community w i t h merely  "a working knowledge" of  E n g l i s h , but the c h i l d r e n are expected p r o f i c i e n t i n this regard. they may  T h i s means, however, t h a t  s t a r t s c h o o l w i t h a grade placement below  intellectual The  to become more  their  level.  language d i f f i c u l t y encountered  by many immigrants  i s perhaps the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e o b s t a c l e they f a c e i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to a d j u s t to t h e i r new  community.  Those who  are  i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s i s t i n g newcomers must have some means of communicating w i t h them.  The problem can be m i t i g a t e d to  some extent by the use of an i n t e r p r e t e r , but concepts as "help i s most e f f e c t i v e i f the r e c i p i e n t  participates  a c t i v e l y and r e s p o n s i b l y i n the process" are d i f f i c u l t i n t o p r a c t i c e i f a language b a r r i e r e x i s t s . equipped  to speak the many languages  such  to put  Trained personnel  needed i n d e a l i n g w i t h  immigrants a r e j u s t not a v a i l a b l e , and  i n a country w i t h a  p o p u l a t i o n as s c a t t e r e d as t h a t of Canada they probably never w i l l be.  Initially,  t h e r e f o r e , the community members  must help the immigrant by "doing". j o b , he must be taken to one. f i n d i n g h i s way  He cannot ask f o r a  The same approach a p p l i e s to  about, making f r i e n d s , and g e t t i n g h e l p .  This  i s time-consuming but most necessary i f the immigrant i s ' to f e e l t h a t some i n t e r e s t i s being taken i n h i s w e l f a r e .  His  p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group o r g a n i z a t i o n can be of g r e a t h e l p i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s problem.  -  18  -  A b a s i c answer to t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s , of course, to p r o v i d e E n g l i s h c l a s s e s and attend  them.  encourage the immigrant to  His adjustment to the community can  be  hastened through the medium of language c l a s s e s and education. and  adult  T h i s i s best accomplished on a group b a s i s ,  the c o o p e r a t i o n  of every e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n and  group must be e n l i s t e d to make i t e f f e c t i v e .  church  Facilities  f o r l e a r n i n g the language are c o n s t a n t l y growing and many c l a s s e s o r i g i n a l l y s t a r t e d by v o l u n t e e r taken over by l o c a l s c h o o l boards. should  be encouraged, but  groups have been  Further  e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s must be  p u b l i c i z e d among the v a r i o u s That t h i s i s necessary was  e t h n i c group  proportion 14 low.  The  of the new  survey of  t h a t " l e s s than  immigrants are e n r o l l e d and  the  of women, p a r t i c u l a r l y married women i s q u i t e experience i n B r i t i s h Columbia has  s i d e r a b l y , some areas seeing  To a l a r g e extent,  v a r i e d con-  the need f o r more c l a s s e s ,  other areas being unable to f i l l ing.  well  organizations.  shown by a recent  E n g l i s h c l a s s e s i n Ontario which r e v e a l e d f i f t y per cent  development  those c l a s s e s a l r e a d y  exist-  immigrant response depends upon the  approach taken by the sponsors o r g a n i z i n g  the c l a s s e s .  It  must a l s o be remembered that not a l l immigrants are faced language d i f f i c u l t i e s , and  that some are content to  a l o n g w i t h a minimum of E n g l i s h , and  do not have the  by  struggle capacity  f o r further education. 14 Hendry, C h a r l e s F. "Summing Up", Food f o r Thought, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , Toronto, January, 1953, V o l . 13.  - 19 This r e l a t i v i t y of need and the a b i l i t y o f the immigrant must a l s o he c o n s i d e r e d i n the matter of immigrant housing.  Some newcomers a r r i v e i n Canada f i n a n c i a l l y  sol-  vent and housing presents them w i t h no g r e a t problem. S i n g l e immigrants do not experience too much d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s regard because t h e i r needs a r e not t o o g r e a t . g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i s experienced by immigrant with limited f i n a n c i a l resources.  The  families  When these f a m i l i e s  a r r i v e , they a r e f o r c e d to s e t t l e i n d i s t r i c t s where r e n t s are  low and where the accommodation  i s poor.  U s u a l l y the  d w e l l i n g has not been improved f o r y e a r s because of the e x p e c t a t i o n that commercial and b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s expand and annex the a r e a .  will  T h i s type o f accommodation  may  be a c c e p t a b l e t o the a d u l t immigrant but i t sometimes has an adverse e f f e c t upon t h e i r c h i l d r e n . has few r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , difficulty  A commercial a r e a  and the c h i l d r e n have  i n f i n d i n g healthy outlets f o r their  Neighbourhood houses have l o n g recognized t h i s  activities. situation  and a r e s t i l l attempting to meet the need of newcomers i n t r a n s i e n t and d e t e r i o r a t e d areas i n many communities. W i t h v e r y few e x c e p t i o n s , immigrants a r r i v i n g i n Canada are  immediately p r o v i d e d w i t h employment.  undertaken by e i t h e r the Department  This is, i n f a c t ,  of Labour or the Depart-  ment o f C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration depending upon which Department  p r o c e s s e d the immigrant's a p p l i c a t i o n .  Difficulty  a r i s e s when the immigrant e i t h e r l e a v e s h i s i n i t i a l employer  - 20 or i s d i s c h a r g e d hy him. Employment S e r v i c e and by the Immigration  I f he a p p l i e s a t the N a t i o n a l  i t i s d i s c o v e r e d he was. "brought  out  S e r v i c e , he i s then r e f e r r e d to them.  r e v e r s e procedure a l s o a p p l i e s .  While  i s b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d , the immigrant  this  "responsibility"  wanders around  completely  bewildered.  A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n sometimes a r i s e s f o r im-  migrants who  a r r i v e here as q u a l i f i e d  They f i n d themselves  The  tradesmen or journeymen.  i n the unfortunate p o s i t i o n of being a  non-union tradesman i n s e a r c h of employment i n a u n i o n i z e d trade.  When a p p l y i n g f o r a job they a r e t o l d  that union  membership i s o b l i g a t o r y b e f o r e they can be h i r e d ; and when they a p p l y to the union they f i n d they a r e unable to j o i n unless employed.  Thus they become confused and  In most c a s e s , i f the immigrant  frustrated.  i s w e l l q u a l i f i e d and a b l e to  a d j u s t t o the change of method and tempo found i n Canadian i n d u s t r y , as compared to h i s own,  t h i s problem  i s s o l v e d as  he becomes known to h i s p a r t i c u l a r group, and makes c o n t a c t s i n the community.  In the i n i t i a l s t a g e s , however, a g r e a t  d e a l of support i s n e c e s s a r y , and  i f he cannot  ment because of l a c k of knowledge of Canadian  o b t a i n employtechniques i n  a s p e c i f i c trade he should be helped e d u c a t i o n a l l y and v o c a t i o n a l l y to improve h i s s k i l l . Handicapped by h i s l a c k of knowledge of the and  customs of Canada, the immigrant  language  seeks a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h  persons of h i s p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group.  Among these people  he can converse f r e e l y and o f t e n they can understand h i s  - 21 problems and g i v e him  the support  he needs.  I f these e t h n i c  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , through the medium of f o l k f e s t i v a l s or organized  a c t i v i t i e s , can p a r t i c i p a t e i n community a f f a i r s ,  then the newcomer i s g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y of other groups i n the community. he  other  of meeting members  Through these  contacts  i s o f t e n able to make a t r a n s i t i o n from e t h n i c group organ-  i z a t i o n s to other a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n the  community.  Method of Study In B r i t i s h Columbia, i n r e c e n t years considerable  i n t e r e s t i n extending  there has been a  help to new  Canadians,  and  as many as twelve l o c a l c i t i z e n s h i p c o u n c i l s have been formed. They are l o c a t e d a t Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, C h i l l i w a c k , P r i n c e Rupert, Kamloops, Vernon, Kelowna, P e n t i c t o n , Westminster, R e v e l s t o k e and P r i n c e George. v a r i e s i n focus and purposes and  f u n c t i o n , being  resources  New  Each c o u n c i l  i n f l u e n c e d by the  of the l o c a l scene, and b e i n g  varying designed  to f i t d i f f e r e n t needs i n the community which i t s e r v e s . There appears to be a double i m p l i c a t i o n i n C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l work. organizations  The  task of the c o u n c i l and  i t s associated  i s to help the newcomer to r e c o g n i z e  p a r t i n the democratic aspects  of Canadian l i f e .  d i f f i c u l t because these may  economic, s o c i a l ,  be  c u l t u r a l - they are d i v e r s e and  unstandardized.  and  take  This i s political, In the second  p l a c e , the c o u n c i l must i t s e l f f o l l o w democratic procedures i n its  e d u c a t i o n a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n a l or w e l f a r e  grammes.  pro-  T h i s i m p l i e s good community o r g a n i z a t i o n , which has  ' been, d e f i n e d as as  22  -  "the proeess by which people of communities,  i n d i v i d u a l s or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of groups, j o i n together  to  determine s o c i a l w e l f a r e needs, p l a n ways of meeting them, 15 and m o b i l i z e the necessary  resources."  A p p l i e d to c i t i z e n -  s h i p c o u n c i l s t h i s p o i n t s up the n e c e s s i t y f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from a l l e t h n i c group o r g a n i z a t i o n s . or resources  Needs f o r immigrants  to meet these needs cannot be t r u l y  assessed  u n l e s s immigrants p a r t i c i p a t e i n the examination of both the needs and  the r e s o u r c e s .  a l l aspects  I f the c o u n c i l i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  of community l i f e  then t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n  e t h n i c group r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w i l l g i v e them an to meet r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from s o c i a l agencies,  by  opportunity government  departments, s c h o o l boards, churches, and v o l u n t a r y groups engaged i n h e l p i n g immigrants.  D i s c u s s i o n of  realistic  d i f f i c u l t i e s , a t t i t u d e s and p o i n t s of view w i l l l e a d to a b e t t e r understanding result  in a realistic  of the problems i n v o l v e d and  should  programme s u i t e d to the needs of the  community. For the purpose of t h i s enquiry,  i t was  decided  to  study  the c o u n c i l s l o c a t e d i n Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo. m a t e r i a l was  obtained  by p e r u s a l of t h e i r r e c o r d s and  of meetings, and by i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the v a r i o u s members. and  An attempt has been made to analyze  f u n c t i o n , and  to enquire  how  The  minutes  executive  their  organization  f a r they have been h e l p f u l i n  15 M c N e i l , C.F., "Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l Work", i n K u r t z , R u s s e l l , ed., S o c i a l Work Year Book, 1954, New York, American A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers, p.121.  - 23 m i t i g a t i n g some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s which newcomers  face.  In so doing the study attempts to a s s e s s the extent to w h i c h the c o u n c i l s have a p p l i e d the p r i n c i p l e s  of community  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n in  o  t h e i r work w i t h i n the community.  interest  CHAPTER. I I CONSTITUTION AND Any  EDUCTION OP COUNCILS  programme which attempts to i n c l u d e d i v e r s e n a t i o n -  a l i t y groups w i l l encounter d i f f i c u l t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems.  Language, c u l t u r a l and  r e l i g i o u s h a r r i e r s are super-  imposed upon the o r d i n a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures f a c e d hy any new new  group.  For t h i s reason an attempt to c r e a t e a  o r g a n i z a t i o n , which purports  ities  i n the f o r m a t i v e  i d e a which may  activ-  to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a s p e c t s ,  stage.  The  while  programme s t a r t s w i t h  come from w i t h i n the community, or he  imposed from the o u t s i d e . is  the  of heterogeneous groups, must g i v e s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n  t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s and still  to c o - o r d i n a t e  In e i t h e r case, b e f o r e  an  super-  this  idea  implemented, good community o r g a n i z a t i o n procedure demands  t h a t those i n t e r e s t e d "get the f a c t s " .  T h i s e v a l u a t i o n of  the s i t u a t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i n good p l a n n i n g , work, i n educating  members, and  i n c r e a t i n g team-  i n broadening community  participation. STotivating f o r c e behind formation The  of C o u n c i l s  i d e a of an o r g a n i z a t i o n to help i n the i n t e g r a t i o n  of a l l s e r v i c e s f o r immigrants a r r i v i n g at Vancouver came from o u t s i d e the community.  On August 31»  19 9» i n *ne 4  board  room of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l o f f i c e i n "Vancouver,, B.C.  a meeting was  h e l d a t which the guest speaker was  Miss  Constance Hayward, l i a i s o n o f f i c e r w i t h the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and M i s s Hayward was  anxious to know what was  being  Immigration. done by  -  25  -  o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c r o s s Canada to help the newcomer a d j u s t to h i s new  community.  She  pointed  out t h a t while  the  Dominion government i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the i n i t i a l placement and  continued  employment of immigrants, through the  of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and  Immigration, and  Department of Labour, the formal process considered  efforts  of i n t e g r a t i o n i s  to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p r o v i n c e s  the newcomers are p l a c e d .  i n which  T h i s meeting r e s u l t e d i n a  r e s o l u t i o n to the e f f e c t that Community Chest and be asked to p l a n f o r the establishment committee on c i t i z e n s h i p .  the  of a c o - o r d i n a t i n g  T h i s committee should  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from s o c i a l agencies,  Council  c o n s i s t of  government, and  unteer groups i n t e r e s t e d i n the w e l f a r e  vol-  of immigrants,  i n an i n t e g r a t e d approach to the s i t u a t i o n . gave r i s e to the Vancouver C o - o r d i n a t i n g  and  This resolution  C o u n c i l on  Citizen-  ship. In Nanaimo, the i d e a which l e d to the f o r m a t i o n C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l came from w i t h i n the community. November 13,  1951,  a  group of business  men  formed a  of  their  On Co-  o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l , sponsored by the Mayor, to meet the need f o r a movement to f o s t e r good Canadian c i t i z e n s - w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n being p a i d to new  immigrants.  from t h i s g e n e r a l concern about c i t i z e n s h i p and of newcomers, the programme of the C o u n c i l was r a t h e r nebulous.  the  Apart welfare  undefined  and  - 26 The  i d e a behind the formation  of a C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l  i n V i c t o r i a was  the d i r e c t r e s u l t of a s p e c i f i c problem w i t h i n  the community.  E a r l y i n 1949  the Community W e l f a r e C o u n c i l  of Greater V i c t o r i a became concerned w i t h the encountered by  immigrant domestics.  difficulties  In order to i n v e s t i g a t e  and  a s s i s t w i t h these problems, a C o - o r d i n a t i n g  new  Canadians was  formed on June 2, 1949*  Committee f o r  T h i s committee  became i n t e r e s t e d i n an i n t e g r a t e d approach to the  immigrant  s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n the community, and as a s u b - c o u n c i l of Community W e l f a r e C o u n c i l of Greater V i c t o r i a , i t now as the G r e a t e r  the  functions  V i c t o r i a Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l .  Thus i n these three examples of C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l s , motivating the  f o r c e behind each C o u n c i l d i f f e r e d .  Similarly,  implementation of a programme which e v e n t u a l l y l e d to a  f o r m a l c o n s t i t u t i o n , or a statement of aims and also  the  objectives,  differed.  C o n s t i t u t i o n of C o u n c i l s In the f o r m a t i v e Co-ordinating  stages  of i t s development the Vancouver  C o u n c i l on C i t i z e n s h i p was  primarily interested  i n the c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s e t h n i c group a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n the community. and  there was  T h i s p o l i c y was  not too c l e a r l y  some d i s s e n s i o n because of the d e s i r e on  p a r t of some members of executive j e c t s w i t h the community.  defined the  to implement s p e c i f i c  Lack of a d e f i n i t e focus  pro-  delayed  a dynamic programme, and because of t h i s , no c o n s t i t u t i o n evolved  u n t i l the C o u n c i l had been a c t i v e f o r over one  A c o n s t i t u t i o n was  f i n a l l y adopted on September 28,  year.  1950,  but  unfortunately  27 -  t h e writer, was unable to peruse the o r i g i n a l  document, as i t was r e v i s e d on June 24, 1952, and i n the hands of committee during the i n t e r i m p e r i o d .  In p a r t , t h e  r e v i s e d c o n s t i t u t i o n reads as f o l l o w s : The  f u n c t i o n s of the C o u n c i l s h a l l be: (a)  to promote the development of such e d u c a t i o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and other  s e r v i c e s as may be necessary  f o r f u r t h e r i n g the w e l f a r e (b)  of new Canadians.  to i n t e r p r e t to the l a r g e r community the needs and problems of new Canadians.  (c)  to promote an understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n of the p r i v i l e g e s of Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p .  (d)  to p r o v i d e  an avenue of c o o p e r a t i o n f o r c i t i z e n  groups, p r i v a t e w e l f a r e agencies and government, i n matters a f f e c t i n g the w e l f a r e In order  to d e f r a y p a r t o f the expenses which the C o u n c i l  would i n c u r i t was decided pay  of new Canadians.  t h a t each a f f i l i a t e d  s o c i e t y would  an annual f e e o f two d o l l a r s , and each i n d i v i d u a l member  an annual f e e of one d o l l a r . F i n a n c i a l l y , the G r e a t e r  V i c t o r i a Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p  C o u n c i l i s dependent upon donations from member o r g a n i z a t i o n s . There i s no amount s p e c i f i e d and donations a r e c a l l e d f o r i n t e r m i t t e n t l y when the need a r i s e s .  The response has been  immediate and t h e r e f o r e no s t r u c t u r e d f e e system has been necessary.  The o r g a n i z a t i o n f u n c t i o n s as a s u b - c o u n c i l o f the  G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , and as such has no f o r m a l  -  constitution.  28  -  However, i t s f u n c t i o n i s o u t l i n e d i n the  following six objectives: (a)  to f a m i l i a r i z e the new  Canadian r e s i d e n t w i t h  the laws of n a t u r a l i z a t i o n , to p u b l i c i z e these r u l e s , and  to see  the committee i t s e l f  shows an  i n t e r e s t i n the n a t u r a l i z a t i o n ceremonies i n the l o c a l courts,  thereby impressing the new  r e s i d e n t w i t h a sense of the  Canadian  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  the  occasion. (b)  to a s s i s t new  residents  so that they can become  Canadian c i t i z e n s i n the best  sense of the word,  c o n t r i b u t i n g something of t h e i r own cultures while sharing (c)  national  i n ours.  to p r o v i d e a c e n t r a l i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n  and  s e r v i c e on n a t u r a l i z a t i o n , h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n and (d)  to c o - o r d i n a t e m i g r a n t s , and in  (e)  welfare,  other s e r v i c e s .  the a c t i v i t i e s i n r e s p e c t  to  im-  groups which are a c t i v e or i n t e r e s t e d  the a f o r e s a i d  objectives.  to e s t a b l i s h " l i a i s o n " between governmental s e r v i c e s and  private welfare organizations,  such funds as may (f)  guidance  be  entrusted  and  to  disburse  to i t .  to i n t e r p r e t to the community as a whole the needs and  problems of the new  Canadian r e s i d e n t s , i n order  that they be accepted i n t o the Canadian community as soon as  possible.  - 29 The Nanaimo C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l i s an autonomous organi z a t i o n , hut i t has not y e t produced a c o n s t i t u t i o n .  It  f u n c t i o n s under the terms of r e f e r e n c e o u t l i n e d hy a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, spoke a t the C o u n c i l ' s second g e n e r a l meeting.  who  The C o u n c i l ' s  c h i e f aim i s to a s s i s t landed immigrants to become good Canadian c i t i z e n s , w i t h s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n t o : (a)  i n t e r p r e t e r s , b i l l e t i n g , employment, s o c i a l contacts.  (b)  Court House ceremonies, whenever such immigrants f i n a l l y receive t h e i r n a t u r a l i z a t i o n papers.  (c)  annual c i t i z e n s h i p days f o r b o t h Canadian-born and n a t u r a l i z e d  citizens.  The C o u n c i l a l s o aims to a s s i s t i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of North American Indians as f u l l c i t i z e n s , and to cooperate w i t h the Immigration S e r v i c e and w i t h l o c a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . T h i s programme has l i t t l e  chance of b e i n g implemented  because i t encompasses too many a s p e c t s of community p l a n n i n g . Because members of the C o u n c i l accepted these terms of r e f e r e n c e w i t h a minimum of d i s c u s s i o n , they became confused as to the g o a l s of the group. not  Employment, f o r example,  was  i n t e r p r e t e d as i n f o r m i n g immigrants about the N a t i o n a l  Employment S e r v i c e or o t h e r community a g e n c i e s , but  was  a c c e p t e d as a "job f i n d i n g " f u n c t i o n i n v o l v i n g a c t u a l contact w i t h employers.  How  t h i s could be handled by a v o l u n t a r y  p a r t - t i m e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a f a c t o r which a p p a r e n t l y r e c e i v e d scant c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  W i t h l a c k of o f f i c e space i n which to  - 30 h o l d executive meetings, and w i t h no p r o v i s i o n for. o b t a i n i n g funds (the C o u n c i l has never had  any  funds s i n c e i t s  i n c e p t i o n ) , i t i s d o u b t f u l i f the o r g a n i z a t i o n was accept  job placement as one  reference but  ready to  of i t s main f u n c t i o n s .  to N o r t h American Indians  i s indeed  The  commendable,  t h i s again i s a f u l l - t i m e pursuit for a voluntary  I f thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n had r e g a r d was  agency.  i n d i c a t e d that a c t i o n i n t h i s  a r e a l need i n the community, then some membership  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Nanaimo C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l might have been d e l e g a t e d  to take a c t i o n i n t h i s m a t t e r .  Membership The membership of the Nanaimo C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l f i v e l o c a l service clubs.  A l t h o u g h church groups and  a s s o c i a t i o n s are a l s o represented, on a n o n - o f f i c i a l b a s i s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  maintaining  ethnic  their representation i s  t h e r e f o r e much of t h e i r a c t i v e  c o n t i n u i t y of attendance i s l o s t .  i n p a r t , i s the reason why  includes  the C o u n c i l has  had  This,  difficulty in  a dynamic programme of i n t e r e s t to immigrants.  The Vancouver C o - o r d i n a t i n g a s i m i l a r problem concerning  the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of e t h n i c  associations i n i t s organization. the C o u n c i l represented  C o u n c i l on C i t i z e n s h i p had  At the time of i t s f o r m a t i o n  twenty o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as  the  Department of Labour, the Department of Immigration, C a t h o l i c , P r o t e s t a n t and Y.M.C.A., and  Jewish Church groups, w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s , the Y.W.C.A.  the  There were no r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  from  - 31 the v a r i o u s 1951»  ©n J u l y 17«  e t h n i c s o c i e t i e s w i t h i n the c i t y ,  some members on the C o u n c i l , r e c o g n i z i n g the need f o r  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from such groups, made a motion t h a t the Vancouver C o - o r d i n a t i n g  C o u n c i l on C i t i z e n s h i p ( i n the e x i s t -  i n g form) he disbanded, and t h a t a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n meeting he c a l l e d  to which r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups  he i n v i t e d .  A s p e c i a l meeting was c a l l e d  and the motion to disband was s e t a s i d e *  three days  later  The minutes o f  t h i s meeting a r e not too comprehensive,, but a great d e a l of d i s c u s s i o n ensued* question  The cause of the d i s s e n s i o n was the  of whether the C o u n c i l should  continue as a co-  o r d i n a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , or whether i t should - p r o j e c t s to a s s i s t immigrants.  initiate  specific  Many members were of the  o p i n i o n t h a t the disbandment of the C o u n c i l and i t s subsequent r e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of e t h n i c a s s o c i a t i o n s would defeat  the purpose f o r which i t was formed.  They argued that  c o - o r d i n a t i o n would become secondary, and t h a t the implementat i o n of a s p e c i f i c programme would l e a v e l i t t l e broader a s p e c t s of community o r g a n i z a t i o n .  time f o r the  I t was decided not  to disband, but t o r e v i s e the c o n s t i t u t i o n to allow  f o r the  i n c l u s i o n of four v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s .  positions  These executive  were to be f i l l e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from e t h n i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h i s gave r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from ethnic groups an o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n and p l a n n i n g . members of the v a r i o u s  Since  that time,  e t h n i c groups have become i n t e r e s t e d  and a c t i v e members of the C o u n c i l .  - 32 E t h n i c a s s o c i a t i o n s have been members o f the Greater V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l ever s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n , and i t s membership r e f l e c t s a l l s e c t i o n s and a s p e c t s life.  o f community  The membership c o n s i s t s o f the Women's Canadian  Club,  the Knights o f Columbus, the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , the P r o t e s t a n t M i n i s t e r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n , the I m p e r i a l  Order  of the Daughters o f the Empire, the Business and P r o f e s s i o n a l Women's Club,  the L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women, the U n i v e r s i t y  Women's Club,  the Canadian Club,  the V i c t o r i a P u b l i c L i b r a r y ,  the Chinese Benevolent S o c i e t y , the Y.M.C.A., the Greater V i c t o r i a School Board, the P r o v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n , the Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e Chamber o f Commerce, the E a s t I n d i a n Community, the Y.W.C.A., the C a t h o l i c Women's C o u n c i l , the Community Chest and C o u n c i l , the Department of Immigration, the B.C. Indian A r t s and W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , the Sons of Norway, the Canadian Daughters League, and the L u t h e r a n Church.  T h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e membership, which i n -  cludes representatives sources,  of e t h n i c groups and community r e -  has been the prime f a c t o r i n the i n i t i a l and continued  dynamic q u a l i t y o f the C o u n c i l . Specific  focus o f each C o u n c i l  I t has a l r e a d y been pointed Co-ordinating adopting  out t h a t the Vancouver  C o u n c i l on C i t i z e n s h i p had d i f f i c u l t y  a formal c o n s t i t u t i o n .  i n finally  There was much time spent i n  d i s c u s s i o n , and to a c e r t a i n degree i n d i s s e n s i o n over what the s p e c i f i c focus  o f the C o u n c i l would be.  To construe  from  t h i s evidence that the time spent i n debate was wasted, would  - 33 be m i s l e a d i n g  and  erroneous.  Before  there can be a sound  programme of a c t i o n , there must be an understanding of e x i s t i n g problems.  D i s c u s s i o n l e d to the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t  o r d i n a t i o n of e x i s t i n g agencies w i t h i n the c i t y was The  C o u n c i l t h e r e f o r e decided  f u n c t i o n s the promotion and may  to i n c l u d e as one  co-  not  enough.  of i t s main  development of such s e r v i c e s as  be necessary f o r f u r t h e r i n g the w e l f a r e  of new  Canadians.  Those forming the Nanaimo C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l wanted to "do  something" f o r the new  immigrants a r r i v i n g i n t h i s  but  t h e i r approach to the problem was  country,  extremely o p p o r t u n i s t i c .  Without studying the s i t u a t i o n or a s s e s s i n g the needs of t h e i r community, they accepted made".  a set of aims and  objectives  These f u n c t i o n s proved to be over-ambitious,  r e s u l t has been t h a t the C o u n c i l has  floundered  "ready and  badly  l a c k of a s p e c i f i c and workable programme a c c e p t a b l e  the  through to  the  community. The not  Greater V i c t o r i a Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l  experienced  programme. was  too much d i f f i c u l t y  T h i s i s p r i m a r i l y due  accomplished by  formation.  T h i s was  i n the f o r m u l a t i o n  to the f a c t  that  by  the  by the i n c l u s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s or e t h n i c  group r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who a programme a c c e p t a b l e community.  with i t s  by encouraging the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  of a l l major groups concerned or a f f e c t e d i n some way s i t u a t i o n , and  of a  co-ordination  the C o u n c i l almost s i m u l t a n e o u s l y achieved  has  could c o n t r i b u t e much i n e f f e c t i n g  to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s e c t i o n of  the  Since then, concern w i t h s p e c i f i c problems f a c e d  by new It*  Canadians has  3  4  -  kept the programme of the C o u n c i l dynamic.  l i k e the other C o u n c i l s  studied*  has  had as one  of i t s  prime o b j e c t i v e s , an attempt to f o s t e r good c i t i z e n s h i p among b o t h Canadian-born and Administrative As it,  naturalized  citizens.  Difficulties  one member of the Vancouver C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l  initially  t h e i r b i g g e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problem was  among the v a r i o u s membership groups. the l a c k of e t h n i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , s p e c i f i c programme.  and  stated lethargy  In p a r t t h i s was  due  to  i n p a r t to l a c k of  I n c l u s i o n of both has  overcome t h i s  difficulty. The ftanaimo C o u n c i l has a l s o experienced l e t h a r g y among members, but  t h i s has been coupled w i t h a m i s c o n c e p t i o n  on  the p a r t of many as to the a c t u a l f u n c t i o n of the  Council.  They have a l s o s u f f e r e d from a l a c k of funds, and  although  they d i d appeal to b o t h the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , no help was The Greater  forthcoming.  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by  the  V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l have been n e g l i g i b l e .  Summary One  of the f a c t o r s which shows most c l e a r l y i n t h i s  e x p e r i e n c e i s the v a l u e s t a b i l i t y provided  by  of the guidance, l e a d e r s h i p ,  the Community Chest and  Although the Vancouver C o - o r d i n a t i n g  and  Councils.  C o u n c i l on  Citizen-  s h i p i s now  an autonomous o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s t i l l b e n e f i t s from  members who  are a c t i v e w i t h the Vancouver W e l f a r e C o u n c i l ,  - 35 and  i t can o b t a i n a d v i c e and guidance from the W e l f a r e  Council  should the n e c e s s i t y a r i s e . The G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l i s a s u b - c o u n c i l of  the G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a Welfare  C o u n c i l and has had few ad-  m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a dynamic programme. On the other hand, Nanaimo has no Community Chest and C o u n c i l , and the Nanaimo C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l has l a c k e d the support and a d v i c e from a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which i s so necessary when new p r o j e c t s a r e s t a r t e d * The C o u n c i l has no w r i t t e n c o n s t i t u t i o n . to  I t seems  content  s t r u g g l e along under terms of r e f e r e n c e which d i d not evolve  out of d i s c u s s i o n and i n v e s t i g a t i o n , but which were adopted w i t h out r e g a r d t o the s p e c i f i c needs of the community. Good community o r g a n i z a t i o n should f o l l o w a process wherei n a new o r g a n i z a t i o n s t a r t s by " g a i n i n g the f a c t s about human needs....analyzing 16 needs". migrants,  resources  ( s e r v i c e s ) a v a i l a b l e to meet  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y important  when d e a l i n g w i t h im-  because c o n t r o v e r s y o f t e n a r i s e s when t h e i r needs  are discussed.  A n a l y s i s of t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y w i l l l e a d to an  assessment o f a t t i t u d e s toward newcomers.  An understanding  of  the immigrants' a t t i t u d e towards h e l p w i l l a l s o evolve i f the means a r e provided f o r " b r i n g i n g i n t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l phases 17 of the process i n d i v i d u a l s and members of groups concerned". !6 M c N e i l , C I . , "Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l Work", i n K u r t z , R u s s e l l , ed., S o c i a l Work Year Book, 1 9 5 , New York, American A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers, p.123* 1  4  17  Ioe. . " c i t .  The  36  -  Vancouver C o u n c i l ignored  as r e s u l t they achieved  t h i s b a s i c concept* and  very l i t t l e u n t i l they  to i n c l u d e ethnic r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . ficult  stage of t h i s process*  reorganized  Perhaps the most d i f -  when a p p l i e d to  organizations  working i n a c o n t r o v e r s i a l area such as immigration, " f o s t e r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n of a t t i t u d e s and viewpoints  is  representative  w i t h the o b j e c t i v e of r e a c h i n g agreement through 18  mutual understanding".  T h i s procedure may  lengthen  taken by an o r g a n i z a t i o n to become a c t i v e , but  community. Loc.cit.  the  time  i t usually  r e s u l t s i n a sound programme based upon the needs of  18  as  the  CHAPTER I I I  The  WORK AND  PROBLEMS Off COUNCILS  aims and  o b j e c t i v e s of the C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l s  as  s e t f o r t h i n p r e l i m i n a r y s t a t e m e n t s , s u c h as have been examined, a r e the n u c l e u s f r o m w h i c h a p l a n of a c t i o n To be s u c c e s s f u l , however, any p r o j e c t c o n s i d e r e d voluntary who  evolves*  by  a  o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d by  those  w i l l be a f f e c t e d i f the proposed p l a n i s implemented.  C i t i z e n s h i p c o u n c i l s are p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s i s t i n g newcomers and  i t f o l l o w s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t newcomers or  representatives  s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n p l a n n i n g any  d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e i r needs.  their  programme  I f t h e y a r e not i n c l u d e d ,  the  p r o j e c t w i l l not be too s u c c e s s f u l . An  illustration  of t h i s concept i s p r o v i d e d  by  the  e x p e r i e n c e of the Land S e t t l e m e n t Committee of the Vancouver Co-ordinating  C o u n c i l on C i t i z e n s h i p *  T h i s Committee  formed t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e x i s t e n c e  o f , and  government-assisted land settlement  programme f o r b o t h  Canadians and  established c i t i z e n s *  An  was  need f o r , a new  e n q u i r y was  sent to  the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , who  replied  t h a t no p o s i t i v e p o l i c y of a s s i s t a n c e f o r l a n d had been, s e t , but t h a t the m a t t e r was The Deputy M i n i s t e r was  under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  able to provide  the a r e a s where Crown l a n d was  settlement  some i n f o r m a t i o n  on  a v a i l a b l e a t low p r i c e s , and  s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e were many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i m m i g r a n t s  -  38 -  t o e s t a b l i s h themselves w i t h l i m i t e d On October l 6 ,  1951*  capital.  the committee  i n g l e t t e r to s i x t e e n e t h n i c group  sent out the f o l l o w -  organizations:  I t i s f e l t t h a t many European immigrants a r e anxious to make f a r m i n g t h e i r c a r e e r i n Canada* but are unable to do so due to the h i g h p r i c e s b e i n g asked f o r e s t a b l i s h e d farms i n B r i t i s h Columbia* and the e q u a l l y h i g h c o s t of o p e r a t i n g new farmland from v i r g i n country. T h i s C o u n c i l i s hoping to i n t e r e s t the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Government i n a scheme of a s s i s t a n c e f o r such immigrants. Such a program should make new l a n d a v a i l a b l e on a b a s i s the immigrant can a f f o r d , should i n c l u d e h e l p i n c l e a r i n g the l a n d , and o f f e r a d v i c e and t e c h n i c a l data on such matters as c l i m a t e , c u l t i v a t i o n , marketing of c r o p s , e t c . W i l l you p l e a s e h e l p us i n t h i s work by sending to the above address your ideas about the d e s i r a b i l i t y of such government h e l p . To what extent do you t h i n k the immigrant of your N a t i o n a l Group would w i s h to make farming a means of l i v e l i h o o d , i f such h e l p were a v a i l a b l e ? The e x e c u t i v e members of A u s t r i a n , Belgium, B r i t i s h , C z e c h o s l o v a k i a n , B a n i s h , Butch, E s t h o n i a n , German, Greek, Hungarian, I t a l i a n , Norwegian,  P o l i s h and Swedish  ethnic  group o r g a n i z a t i o n s were among those c i r c u l a r i z e d . By e a r l y Becember only two r e p l i e s had been r e c e i v e d . These showed l i m i t e d group*  interest in their particular  A reminder was  on Becember 3» 1951*  national  sent to the remaining f o u r t e e n groups Three more r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d ;  one i n d i c a t e d i n t e r e s t , one asked f o r more time to make an i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and another asked f o r a speaker to e x p l a i n  -  39  -  the Committee's plan to t h e i r membership; a t o t a l of f i v e r e p l i e s from s i x t e e n e n q u i r i e s . In view of the meagre i n t e r e s t shown by ethnic groups, no f u r t h e r a c t i o n was  taken on t h i s p l a n .  I t must be r e -  membered, however, that the organizations canvassed were not members of the C o u n c i l when the scheme was p r o j e c t e d .  It  appears evident, t h e r e f o r e , that because they did not have r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , they were not too i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the scheme. The amount of i n t e r e s t that a voluntary  organization  can create i n any community p r o j e c t , w i l l depend to a l a r g e extent, upon the amount of cooperation and good l i a i s o n that the sponsoring group has w i t h other voluntary and government agencies w i t h i n the community.  organizations, The success of  one of the e a r l i e s t p r o j e c t s of the Greater V i c t o r i a Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , w i l l i l l u s t r a t e what can be done when the cooperation and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l community resources  i s achieved.  During the months from December, the Immigration H a l l , i n V i c t o r i a , was  1950*  "to February,  1951»  crowded w i t h newly  a r r i v e d immigrants who were b i l l e t e d on a temporary b a s i s w a i t i n g f o r work which would be a v a i l a b l e i n the e a r l y s p r i n g . The needs of these people were tremendous.  The  majority  could not speak E n g l i s h , had no s o c i a l contacts w i t h i n the community, and very few amenities.  Working i n close l i a i s o n  w i t h the Immigration Inspector-in-Charge,  the Greater  Victoria  - 40 Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l managed to get E n g l i s h c l a s s e s organized The  and  obtained  the s e r v i c e s of f o u r t e e n  teachers.  C o u n c i l arranged h o s p i t a l i t y f o r these immigrants,  p e c i a l l y during  es-  the Christmas season when i n v i t a t i o n s were  arranged and many newcomers were able to c e l e b r a t e the season i n Canadian homes. and  r a d i o s and  A p u b l i c appeal was  the response was  gratifying.  made f o r i r o n s  After a  weeks the E n g l i s h c l a s s e s were t r a n s f e r r e d to the H i g h School where v o l u n t e e r s nights.  An a p p e a l was  few  Victoria  taught twice a week on  regular  again made to the community f o r  t i c k e t s , as the arrangements i n v o l v e d t r a v e l l i n g , and the response was not  w  outstanding.  j u s t happen . M  I t was  l o c a l organizations.  bus again  T h i s Community response d i d  the r e s u l t of good p l a n n i n g  e x c e l l e n t c o o p e r a t i o n between the C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l other  festive  I f the C o u n c i l had  and and  not had  good  l i a i s o n w i t h the l o c a l Immigration S e r v i c e , f o r example, i t i s d o u b t f u l i f the p r o j e c t would have been s u c c e s s f u l . Language and V o c a t i o n a l  Difficulties  The E n g l i s h c l a s s e s s t a r t e d as a v o l u n t a r y p r o j e c t by the V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l were e v e n t u a l l y taken over by the G r e a t e r  V i c t o r i a School Board and  continued  nominal f e e b a s i s f o r a l l immigrants w i s h i n g One  to  attend.  member o r g a n i z a t i o n of the C o - o r d i n a t i n g  on C i t i z e n s h i p i n Vancouver, i s now  conducting  on a  Council  a survey of  the E n g l i s h c l a s s e s a v a i l a b l e to newcomers i n Vancouver, and a t the same time i n v i t i n g the groups being p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s v i t a l work.  surveyed to  A l t h o u g h the survey i s not  41 y e t complete, as the r e s u l t of the e n q u i r y ,  one a d d i t i o n a l  c l a s s has a l r e a d y been s t a r t e d by a c h u r c h group w i t h i n the city. Language c l a s s e s were being p r o v i d e d authorities  by the e d u c a t i o n a l  i n Nanaimo, a t the time the Uanaimo C i t i z e n s h i p  C o u n c i l was formed.  Response was poor, however, and the  C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l attempted to s t i m u l a t e c l a s s e s , and provided classes.  i n t e r e s t i n these  a s o c i a l "get together"  for  graduating  Success was l i m i t e d , however, because many new-  comers l i v e d  i n o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s and c o u l d not get t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n t o and from the c l a s s e s , which were held i n the c i t y . A l t h o u g h the C o u n c i l dropped t h i s p r o j e c t , they d i d recognize  the d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by immigrants who c o u l d not  speak E n g l i s h .  T h i s matter was d i s c u s s e d a t a g e n e r a l meet-  i n g , and i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the v a r i o u s  e t h n i c group organ-  i z a t i o n s w i t h i n the community, the C o u n c i l has been s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g the s e r v i c e s of twenty-four i n t e r p r e t e r s representing  such languages as Dutch, Roumanian, German,  F r e n c h , Chinese, and the S l a v o n i c group. The  Vancouver C o - o r d i n a t i n g  C o u n c i l on C i t i z e n s h i p has  a l s o formed a committee to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n s t i t u t i n g a s i m i l a r s e r v i c e w i t h i n t h e i r community.  They  are a l s o i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of the establishment of a r o t a t i n g l o a n fund  to a i d young immigrants, who a r e  endeavouring to f i n a n c e themselves w h i l e  taking vocational  courses i n the f i e l d s of t h e i r s p e c i a l a p t i t u d e s . proposal  i s that the loans be n o n - i n t e r e s t - b e a r i n g ,  The and that  - 42 they he r e p a i d hy the r e c i p i e n t s a f t e r  they have  completed  t h e i r c o u r s e s , and have had s u f f i c i e n t time t h e r e a f t e r i n which t o e s t a b l i s h  themselves.  Accommodation D u r i n g the month of.May, 1951* the D i s t r i c t ent of the Department of Immigration  requested t h a t the  Vancouver C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l on C i t i z e n s h i p assist  Superintend-  actively  i n the f i n d i n g of accommodation f o r newcomers.  C o u n c i l r e p l i e d that the problem  The  of housing should be handled  by government and employer sources r a t h e r than by a v o l u n t e e r group. a list  However, they d i d p r o v i d e the Immigration  Service with  of e t h n i c group o r g a n i z a t i o n s to whom they c o u l d t u r n  f o r h e l p w i t h t h i s problem. Approximately  one year l a t e r , the C o u n c i l sent a l e t t e r  to the M i n i s t e r of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Imm i g r a t i o n i n which the problem  of housing was o u t l i n e d .  c o n t a i n e d the s p e c i f i c request that the immigration i n Vancouver be f u r t h e r renovated more immigrants  It  building  i n o r d e r to accommodate  upon t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Vancouver.  The M i n i s t e r  r e p l i e d t h a t the p r o v i s i o n of f u r t h e r permanent h o s t e l s f o r immigrants  was not planned by the government.  He d i d a d v i s e ,  however, that i n the event of an emergency d u r i n g the i n i t i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t p e r i o d , immigrants  may be p r o v i d e d w i t h food  and s h e l t e r a t government expense. The  immigration b u i l d i n g i n V i c t o r i a i s a l a r g e  s t r u c t u r e which was designed to accommodate Chinese immigrants  d u r i n g the e r a when they came to Canada i n g r e a t  - 43 numbers.  During the post-war p e r i o d t h i s b u i l d i n g has been  utilized  to accommodate r e c e n t newcomers, and as the number  of immigrants  a r r i v i n g i n V i c t o r i a i s l e s s than the number  d e s t i n e d f o r Vancouver, the s i t u a t i o n has not been so a c u t e . The I n s p e c t o r - i n - C h a r g e has a l s o worked very c l o s e l y w i t h the G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , the church o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the e t h n i c group a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n the city.  Thus the problem  of emergency accommodation has been  handled most adequately w i t h i n the community. A l t h o u g h b o t h Vancouver and V i c t o r i a have immigration b u i l d i n g s which can be u t i l i z e d f o r emergency accommodation, Manaimo has no such r e s o u r c e .  The church groups and e t h n i c  groups have been a c t i v e i n f i n d i n g accommodation f o r newcomers, but the Nanaimo C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l has found the problem  too  l a r g e to be d e a l t w i t h by t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . H e a l t h and W e l f a r e E a r l y i n 1952,  the Vancouver C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l on  C i t i z e n s h i p became concerned w i t h the s i t u a t i o n f a c i n g newcomers who,  through no f a u l t of t h e i r own,  t h e i r employment through a c c i d e n t .  became i l l  or l o s t  Many were i n occupations  not covered by the B r i t i s h Columbia Workmen's Compensation A c t , and because of l a c k of r e s i d e n c e were not e l i g i b l e f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , or f o r the f r e e m e d i c a l care p r o v i d e d to r e c i p i e n t s of t h i s a s s i s t a n c e . T h e r e f o r e , on J u l y 30, the C o u n c i l sent a l e t t e r to the M i n i s t e r of C i t i z e n s h i p Immigration  concerning the w e l f a r e of immigrants  1952, and  upon a r r i v a l  44 i n Canada.  -  The M i n i s t e r r e p l i e d  ment would p r o v i d e w e l f a r e  that the Dominion govern-  s e r v i c e s to immigrants  rendered  i n d i g e n t through a c c i d e n t or i l l n e s s d u r i n g the f i r s t f o l l o w i n g a r r i v a l i n Canada, provided ment would share welfare and  year  the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-  the c o s t on a f i f t y - f i f t y  basis.  These  s e r v i c e s would i n c l u d e h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , m e d i c a l  care  rehabilitation assistance. The  C o u n c i l took the matter up w i t h  a u t h o r i t i e s and was  informed  the  Provincial  that e a r l y i n 1952  discussions  took p l a c e between the P r o v i n c i a l Department of H e a l t h Welfare,  and  and  the F e d e r a l Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and  Immigration to arrange f o r payment of care which should provided  f o r the n e c e s s i t o u s  residence.  In December, 1952.  the P r o v i n c e and  d u r i n g the f i r s t year the agreement was  sent to Ottawa.  On March 24,  be  of  signed  1953»  by  the  P r o v i n c i a l Department of H e a l t h and W e l f a r e announced t h a t "an agreement has been signed by the F e d e r a l and  Provincial  Governments i n r e s p e c t to a s s i s t a n c e to immigrants which i s r e t r o a c t i v e to A p r i l 1,  1952.  I t i s considered  that  the  agreement w i l l i n a great measure meet some of the needs of t h i s group of people....The F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments w i l l share  e q u a l l y , f o r a p e r i o d not exceeding one y e a r , 19 a c t u a l c o s t of w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n c e , m e d i c a l treatment and  the  19 W e l f a r e a s s i s t a n c e means s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , i n c l u d i n g m e d i c a l treatment to unemployed immigrants, the treatment and c a r e of c h i l d r e n , or allowances" to mothers, i n such amounts and under such c o n d i t i o n s ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of a l l c o n d i t i o n s r e l a t i n g to r e s i d e n c e , i f any) as are r e s p e c t i v e l y p r e s c r i b e d a t the date hereof i n or under the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Act R.S.B.C., 1948, Chapter 310, or the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n A c t R.S.B.C., 1948, Chapter 47.  - 45 h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g care i n s a n i t a r i a f o r the t u b e r c u l o u s and h o s p i t a l s f o r the m e n t a l l y i l l ,  i n any  where a p p l i c a t i o n f o r w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n c e or m e d i c a l has been approved, or h o s p i t a l expenses have been  ease  treatment guaranteed,  w i t h i n a p e r i o d of twelve months f o l l o w i n g the e n t r y i n t o Canada of the immigrant; p r o v i d e d that the P r o v i n c i a l Government w i l l not be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any such expenses i n c u r r e d  20 p r i o r to the entry of the immigrant i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia." The matter  of h e a l t h and w e l f a r e has a l s o been of  concern  to the G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l which decided on February 25,  1953» to approach the B r i t i s h Columbia  M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a view to working out a scheme of m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n c e s i m i l a r to that by which the Bar A s s o c i a t i o n now  p r o v i d e d l e g a l a i d f o r i n d i g e n t s , to d e a l w i t h the whole  q u e s t i o n of m e d i c a l c a r e , i n c l u d i n g p r e v e n t i v e work and f o l l o w up a s s i s t a n c e f o r persons who a s s i s t e d - p a s s a g e scheme. treatment  have entered Canada under the  At t h i s time, of course,  medical  f o r immigrants as provided f o r i n the Dominion-  P r o v i n c i a l agreement was  not a v a i l a b l e , but, even though the  p r e s s u r e has been r e l i e v e d  i n t h i s r e s p e c t , such a p l a n , i f  i n s t i g a t e d , would be of i n e s t i m a b l e value to those who,  a f t e r one year of r e s i d e n c e , f i n d themselves  but employable, and unable  domestics, unemployed  to meet the b u d g e t - s h a t t e r i n g  con-  t i n g e n c y which a major s u r g i c a l o p e r a t i o n p r e s e n t s . 20 Department of H e a l t h and Welfare, S o c i a l Welfare Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia, C i r c u l a r l e t t e r S e r i a l Ho. 267P/201M, dated March 24, 1953.  - 46 The Greater V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p Council has been extremely active i n attempting to a l l e v i a t e some of the problems faced by those immigrants who a r r i v e i n the community as domestic workers.  The majority of these women  are brought to Canada by the Federal Department of Labour under the assisted-passage scheme and also under contract. This contract reads as follows: I do hereby undertake that on my a r r i v a l i n Canada I w i l l accept employment i n domestic work. I agree to remain i n such employment for a period of at least one year or u n t i l such time as the cost of my ocean transportation has been repaid i n f u l l to the Government of Canada. I understand that i f I remain i n the employment as selected f o r me for a period of at least one year the cost of my inland transportation i n Canada w i l l be absorbed by the Canadian Department of Labour; but i f I should leave my employment before completing one year,. I s h a l l be required to reimburse the cost of my inland transportation i n Canada. On March 8,  1951»  MacHamara, who was then the Federal  Deputy Minister of Labour, was questioned before a Senate Standing Committee on Immigration and Labour concerning the contract labour of domestics and he made the following statement:  "Well, these people agree to stay i n domestic service  for a year.  That does not mean there i s a 'deep f r e e z e . 1  They do not agree to stay with the same employer and we f i n d a constant necessity for changing them....We move them around quite a l o t . "  21  21 Canada, Proceedings of the Standing Committee on Immigr a t i o n and Labour, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1951» No.2, Thursday, March ti, 1951, p.3"l.  - 47 In s p i t e of t h i s , the Greater V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l has "been concerned w i t h the d i f f i c u l t y these women experience should they wish to repay the money advanced ( e s p e c i a l l y f o r i n l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) or change t h e i r employment.  I n p a r t , t h i s d i f f i c u l t y may he due to the  amount of money owing f o r i n l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , as women coming from Europe  to B r i t i s h Columbia must t r a v e r s e the  c o n t i n e n t and i n c u r a much l a r g e r debt than those who remain on the E a s t C o a s t .  However, t h i s i s not the only  difficulty,  as may be i l l u s t r a t e d by a case where the immigrant  suffered  from a s k i n e r u p t i o n of the hands,, and requested t h a t the Department of Labour change her employment.  She made s e v e r a l  v i s i t s t o t h e l o c a l N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , but was unable to convince them of her r e a l i s t i c need f o r a d i f f e r e n t type o f employment. Council intervened  The G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p on b e h a l f of the immigrant, and the matter  was e v e n t u a l l y brought to the a t t e n t i o n o f the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration.  A great d e a l of correspondence  was i n c u r r e d b e f o r e t h i s woman could be t r a n s f e r r e d from domestic work i n a home to chambermaid work i n a h o t e l where dishwashing was not r e q u i r e d .  In the i n t e r i m she was r e q u i r e d  to remain i n domestic work where her a i l m e n t was c o n s t a n t l y aggravated. The G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l has encountered a l a r g e amount of misunderstanding among domestics.  The  C o u n c i l has, t h e r e f o r e , requested t h a t the Department of Labour make every e f f o r t to ensure that t h e i r Canadian  representatives  48 overseas  a r e made aware of the s i t u a t i o n i n t h i s  country.  They should he i n s t r u c t e d to inform p r o s p e c t i v e immigrant domestics,  emigrating under the a s s i s t e d - p a s s a g e scheme,  of the domestic  employment p i c t u r e i n Canada; i . e . , (a)  that there i s no labour code, (b) there i s no labour c o n t r a c t w i t h s t a t e d hours of work or s t a t e d s a l a r y , ment insurance b e n e f i t s a r e a v a i l a b l e ,  (c) no unemploy-  (d) there i s no work-  men's compensation and (e) women i n domestic  employment i n  Canada have a t the present time no l e g a l s t a t u s whatsoever. The G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l r e c o g n i z e s that t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y important of domestic  i n view of the f a c t  that the c o n d i t i o n s  employment a r e o f t e n very d i f f e r e n t i n the homeland  of the e m i g r a t i n g worker.  Many European c o u n t r i e s , f o r  i n s t a n c e , i n c l u d e domestic  s e r v i c e i n t h e i r labour  l a t i o n , and p r o v i d e safeguards  f o r the domestic  legis-  worker.  Creating Interest i n Citizenship The  three C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l s s t u d i e d have been most  a c t i v e i n attempting  to promote a Court House ceremony t h a t  i s i n keeping w i t h the a u s p i c i o u s o c c a s i o n o f g r a n t i n g c i t i z e n s h i p to new Canadians.  They have met w i t h v a r y i n g s u c c e s s .  How much can be accomplished  i n t h i s regard depends e n t i r e l y  upon the a t t i t u d e of the p r e s i d i n g Judge, and u n t i l a d e f i n i t e policy i s laid  down by the j u d i c i a r y , the g r a n t i n g of c i t i z e n -  s h i p w i l l remain c o l o u r f u l and s t i m u l a t i n g i n some communities, drab and unimpressive  i n others.  However, each C o u n c i l i s  stimulating interest i n citizenship within their respective  - 49 communities, by t a k i n g an a c t i v e r o l e i n the p l a n n i n g and p r e s e n t a t i o n of C i t i z e n s h i p Day ceremonies. The  G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l has been  e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e i n t h i s regard s i n c e  1949*  They p l a n an  e x t e n s i v e programme f o r the " I Am a Canadian" C i t i z e n s h i p Ceremonies which take p l a c e d u r i n g mid-summer.  A typical  programme w i l l i n c l u d e the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Dominion and P r o v i n c i a l Government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , an address by a l o c a l community l e a d e r , a c o n c e r t by a n a v a l , m i l i t a r y , or R.C.M.P. band, and some a p p r o p r i a t e c i t i z e n s h i p , e.g.,  ceremony designed to h i g h l i g h t  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the oath of l o y a l t y to  Canada t o s e l e c t e d immigrants.  Miss E l l e n Hart, a member o f  the C o u n c i l , has w r i t t e n the f o l l o w i n g pledge, which i s r e c i t e d by  the a u d i e n c e : I am a Canadian c i t i z e n . I i n h e r i t from those who have l i v e d b e f o r e me a v a s t and b e a u t i f u l l a n d , a land of f o r e s t and p l a i n , l a k e , mountain and sea shore - a goodly l a n d . I am h e i r of a proud r e c o r d , f o r the h i s t o r y of my country abounds i n s t o r i e s of the love o f freedom, of courage, adventure, sober common sense and hard work. I accept my i n h e r i t a n c e humbly, knowing t h a t a country's greatness s p r i n g s from the wisdom and v i r t u e of i t s p e o p l e . To my country I pledge my l o y a l t y . I w i l l t r y to be a good Canadian, a good neighbour, and a good c i t i z e n of the w o r l d .  Publicity The  Vancouver C o - o r d i n a t i n g  C o u n c i l on C i t i z e n s h i p has  r e c e n t l y been promised space, on a weekly b a s i s , i n a  -  50 -  m e t r o p o l i t a n d a i l y newspaper i n which the m a t e r i a l to he p u b l i s h e d w i l l he t r a n s l a t e d i n t o v a r i o u s languages. w i l l p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y  to reach many immigrants  who may he unaware of the s e r v i c e s and resources munity designed  This  i n the com-  t o a s s i s t them.  Another p l a n which has been formulated  i s the p u b l i c a t i o n  of a b u l l e t i n which w i l l c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n of i n t e r e s t t o the l o c a l group*  Contact  has a l r e a d y been made w i t h  c i t i z e n s h i p c o u n c i l s i n the P r o v i n c e and  problems.  other  f o r an exchange of ideas  These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the b u l l e t i n .  The Greater V i c t o r i a Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l does not p u b l i s h a b u l l e t i n , but i t has been f o r t u n a t e i n e n l i s t i n g the c o o p e r a t i o n the success  of the l o c a l press and r a d i o as evidenced by  of the appeal mentioned p r e v i o u s l y .  On the other hand, the Hanaimo C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , probably  because of l a c k of competition w i t h i n the c i t y , has  not been a b l e to o b t a i n a great d e a l of s e r v i c e from the l o c a l press and r a d i o . Summary I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s chapter  has not been  a l l - i n c l u s i v e i n p r e s e n t i n g the work of the C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l s studied..  Although the h i g h l i g h t s have been a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d ,  an attempt has been made to g i v e a c o n c i s e and f a i r l y p i c t u r e of what each C o u n c i l i s doing and how they handled s p e c i f i c problems i n order t h a t some might be p o s s i b l e .  complete  have  observations  - 51 In the p r o v i s i o n o f housing,  f o r example, although the  C o u n c i l s a r e aware o f the important  resource  to be found i n  church and e t h n i c groups i n p r o v i d i n g temporary s h e l t e r , each r e a l i z e s that the problem i s too l a r g e f o r a v o l u n t a r y group to handle adequately,  and should be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  government or employer. E v e r y C o u n c i l has concerned i t s e l f w i t h the need f o r English classes.  The Nanaimo C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l n o t i c e d  t h a t many immigrants were not t o o keen to a v a i l themselves of these c l a s s e s .  However, there was not enough i n f o r m a t i o n  a v a i l a b l e from the other C o u n c i l s to draw any c o n c l u s i o n s . The "Vancouver C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s concerned w i t h the l a c k of E n g l i s h c l a s s e s , r a t h e r than the l a c k o f immigrants t o f i l l  them i f they a r e c r e a t e d .  B o t h the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l s have been quick to p l a c e before the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of government the problems faced by newcomers, i n an attempt to hasten a c t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d , and a l s o t o keep t h e i r members  informed  of r e c e n t developments i n the area of w e l f a r e . . The Greater V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l has a l s o  il-  l u s t r a t e d what can be done when t h e r e i s good l i a i s o n and c o o p e r a t i o n between the v o l u n t a r y group and government agency. The  important  r e s u l t was t h a t the immigrants f a c e d  with  f o r c e d i d l e n e s s because of the s e a s o n a l nature  of employment  a v a i l a b l e to them were g i v e n t a n g i b l e evidence  of the concern  i n the community, and of the i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r  welfare.  - 52 F i n a l l y , the c o - o r d i n a t i o n between C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l s i s b e i n g made p o s s i b l e through the medium of the being  bulletin  i s s u e d by the Vancouver C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l  Citizenship.  on  Although each C o u n c i l i s autonomous and  should  remain geared to the needs of i t s p a r t i c u l a r  community,  exchange of ideas and  overlapping.  suggestions  This r e s u l t s i n a co-ordinated  eliminates  e f f o r t by a l l C o u n c i l s ,  aimed a t s t i m u l a t i n g i n t e r e s t and a c t i o n by the f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l  l e v e l s of government.  CHAPTER IV FUTURE ROLE OP CITIZENSHIP COUNCILS C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l s have been organized  as "community  p r o j e c t s " , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t most of t h e i r achievements a r e a t the l o c a l or community l e v e l , i . e . , p a r t i c u l a r towns and c i t i e s .  One c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t they make  to community l i f e , which may be overlooked, v e r y e x i s t e n c e i s evidence i n the w e l f a r e  i s that  their  of the i n t e r e s t of p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s  of immigrants.  Through t h e i r e f f o r t s ,  other  members of the community become i n t e r e s t e d i n the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by newcomers.  An example of t h i s i s the experience of  the V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l when they made a p u b l i c appeal and  f o r a i d f o r immigrants who were t e m p o r a r i l y  billetted  i n the l o c a l immigration  building.  unemployed, The co-  o p e r a t i o n of l o c a l press and r a d i o f a c i l i t i e s was e n l i s t e d , and  the community response was encouraging.  This positive  response, i n a d d i t i o n t o c r e a t i n g g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t w i t h i n the community, was t a n g i b l e proof to the immigrant of the community's i n t e r e s t i n him as an i n d i v i d u a l .  He became aware  t h a t a v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t was being made on h i s b e h a l f .  This  knowledge had a r e a s s u r i n g e f f e c t a t a time when he was f a c i n g many d i f f i c u l t i e s  o f adjustment, and when f i r s t  of h i s new environment were being  impressions  formulated.  The C i t i z e n s h i p C d u n c i l s have been a c t i v e l y engaged i n an effort  to e l i m i n a t e some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by newcomers  upon t h e i r a r r i v a l  i n the community.  Many v o l u n t a r y man-hours  - 54 of work have been spent e i t h e r i n g e t t i n g new  English  c l a s s e s s t a r t e d , or s t i m u l a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n those in existence.  C o u n c i l members have assessed  f o r immigrants and conscious  already  housing needs  have at l e a s t made community members  of t h i s need.  They have i n v e s t i g a t e d the  of immigrant domestics i n the community, and  status  have c r e a t e d  a l o a n fund which can be drawn on by an immigrant who to improve h i s academic standing has  been shown, success  v a r i e d , and  has  wishes  or v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l .  i n these and  other ventures  Aa  has  depended to a l a r g e extent upon the approach  taken by the C o u n c i l concerned.  In g e n e r a l , however, the  C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l s have succeeded i n c r e a t i n g an awareness of the needs of newcomers among r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s i n the community. conscious  They have a l s o had  success  i n making newcomers  of the f a c t that some members of the community are  interested in their  welfare.  Inadequacies i n Canadian Immigration Programme Unfortunately,  there are d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by newcomers,  which cannot be handled a t the community l e v e l .  This i s w e l l  e x e m p l i f i e d when an immigrant, brought to t h i s c o u n t r y by Department of Labour to f i l l  a s p e c i f i c j o b , leaves h i s  ployment and moves to another s e c t i o n of the c o u n t r y . a r r i v e s i n the new cannot o b t a i n any.  the em-  He  community l o o k i n g f o r employment, but I f he i s sent to the Immigration S e r v i c e  f o r a s s i s t a n c e they are r e l u c t a n t to help him, a Department of Labour r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " .  "because he i s  I f he a p p l i e s to  N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e he r e c e i v e s scant  the  consideration  - 55 "because he has broken h i s c o n t r a c t " . the community w e l f a r e  I f he i s r e f e r r e d to  s e r v i c e s , they a r e unable to grant him  a s s i s t a n c e "because he has not e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n c e the a r e a " .  within  The r e s u l t i s t h a t some c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n  takes care of him on a per diem b a s i s u n t i l one of the a g e n c i e s mentioned i s f i n a l l y persuaded t o accept  responsibility  f o r him. T h i s problem i s p r i m a r i l y the r e s u l t of the d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y shared between the Department of Labour and the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration. C o u n c i l s a r e aware t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n  Citizenship  between groups and organ-  i z a t i o n s w i t h i n a community must be avoided; y e t " u n t i l competitive  this  element can be e l i m i n a t e d , no s u b s t a n t i a l gains  are p o s s i b l e " .  22  In Vancouver, f o r example, there a r e s p e c i f i c  o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h such problems as r a c i a l and  m i n o r i t y group r i g h t s .  met  t h i s s i t u a t i o n by o f f e r i n g these groups  prejudice  The Vancouver C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l representation  i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n order t o a v o i d o v e r l a p p i n g and d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t . I t may not be v a l i d to B t a t e t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n  exists  between the two Government Departments i n v o l v e d , but c e r t a i n l y a t times there appears t o be o v e r l a p p i n g and d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t , and c o n f u s i o n  e a s i l y a r i s e s i f two government  ments appear to be " r e s p o n s i b l e " .  depart-  There may be an i n t e g r a t e d  22 Atwater, P i e r c e . Problems of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n S o c i a l Work, M c C l u i n and Hedman Company, Minnesota, 1937* p»203«  -  56 -  p o l i c y regarding the s e l e c t i o n and subsequent r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for  immigrants l a i d down by the top levels of government, but  i t seems evident that this policy f a i l s to s i f t down to the actual administrative l e v e l .  It would appear, therefore,  that C i t i z e n s h i p Councils should draw the attention of the f e d e r a l government to the confusion that the present s i t u a t i o n creates.  This could probably be best accomplished by quoting  cases i n point to the l o c a l Member of Parliament, who i s i n a p o s i t i o n to have the matter discussed at the appropriate  level  of government. Role of Councils with Ethnic Group Organizations This study has constantly referred to the ethnic group organization within the community, yet a l l too frequently these minority groups are neglected or even forgotten i n community wide programmes.  This i s a problem that each com-  munity must solve i n i t s own way.  Immigrants tend to seg-  regate, i n varying degrees into isolated and insulated groups. With 685*000 immigrants entering Canada since World War Two, this problem w i l l increase rather than decrease.  For some of  these people, e s p e c i a l l y displaced persons, Canada i s not a country that has attracted them e s p e c i a l l y , but one to which they have come for assistance and a safe home.  Deprived of  security i n their homeland, circumstance rather than choice has directed their steps to Canada.  They have no strong desire  to forget their own ways of doing things, their own customs and r e l i g i o n .  In f a c t , a f t e r the i n s e c u r i t y of l i f e i n their  -  57  -  own land, i t i s l i k e l y that they w i l l follow the ways of behaviour and r e l i g i o n which they understand, and which are meaningful to them, with renewed vigour when they are confronted with the strangeness of Canada* In search of security, they group together with those of t h e i r own kind where support can be counted on, and where they are able to prediet events with a reasonable degree of satisfaction.  The entire immigrant  family i s usually included  i n this ethnic group association and this presents a s p e c i a l problem for the c h i l d r e n .  These children are exposed, i n  Canada, to an environment which expects from them substantial uniformity, yet t h e i r families encourage reproduction of a l i e n ways.  They are torn and confused by these c o n f l i c t i n g values.  With the often unwitting sanction of t h e i r school, they repudiate parental d i r e c t i o n .  Their a l i e n home environment,  and t h e i r lack of close contact with members of the majority culture group, make t h e i r problem of adaptation d i f f i c u l t . It should be pointed out, however, that not a l l ethnic group associations are composed of displaced persons, or f o r that matter, of individuals faced with a language b a r r i e r . The Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire i s just as much an "ethnic group organization", i n the sense required by the present study, as i s the Chinese Benevolent Society. I t must be recognized that t h i s process of banding together, of forming the " i n group", i s l a r g e l y an unconscious one to the newcomer or the ethnic group member. Moral codes are nonr a t i o n a l and are emotionally charged.  Thus i t i s that most  - 5a p e o p l e do not analyze h a b i t s and  t h e i r c u l t u r e ; they l i v e i t , and  their  customs have a deep emotional meaning f o r them -  they cannot be l e g i s l a t e d out of Helping community and  existence.  these e t h n i c group o r g a n i z a t i o n s to accept f i n d acceptance w i t h i n i t , i s perhaps  greatest single challenge  the  the  facing Citizenship Councils.  Vancouver C o u n c i l has made a s t a r t i n t h i s regard by  The  holding  t h e i r meetings at the v a r i o u s e t h n i c group h e a d q u a r t e r s . t h i s way,  e t h n i c group members have an opportunity  In  to meet  members of the C o u n c i l , which i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l a s p e c t s of community l i f e .  In V i c t o r i a , the v a r i o u s  e t h n i c group  a s s o c i a t i o n s have been encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c i t i z e n s h i p ceremonies on "I Am  a Canadian" day,  and a t a  ceremony, c i t i z e n s h i p c e r t i f i c a t e s were granted Chinese immigrants. i n order  P o l k f e s t i v a l s should  t h a t each group may  recent  to P o l i s h and  a l s o be  encouraged  come to understand something  about the c u l t u r e of the o t h e r .  I t i s only through t h i s k i n d  of p r a c t i c a l , p e r s o n a l understanding t h a t t o l e r a n c e can  be  achieved* C i t i z e n s h i p T r a i n i n g w i t h the Community The  f u t u r e r o l e of the C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l w i t h i n  community should be  to show, by example, that a democratic  approach to c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g i s both v a l i d and  effective.  Democracy must be p r a c t i c e d ; i t must not be c o n s i d e r e d as a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t . " i f we  who  the  As  one  noted Canadian has  l i v e i n the r e l a t i v e comfort of the  only  stated,,  liberal,  - 59 democratic., and n o m i n a l l y disapprove  C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s of the West.  of the s o l u t i o n s that a r e b e i n g  o f f e r e d by the  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of another p o l i t i c a l f a i t h , i t i s time t h a t we s e r i o u s l y b e s t i r o u r s e l v e s has  to prove t h a t our way of l i f e  something p r a c t i c a l and e f f e c t i v e to offer....Complacent  23 preaching  i s not enough.  Unfortunately  Neither  i s military  there i s a tendency on the p a r t of many members  of the C o u n c i l s s t u d i e d t o be content ing.  strength."  An example of t h i s i s the f a i r l y  w i t h complacent preachl a r g e percentage of  members of B r i t i s h o r i g i n who have not a p p l i e d f o r t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p c e r t i f i c a t e s , but who advocate that must make an e f f o r t i n t h i s T h i s presents  "immigrants"  regard.  a dilemma, because the C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l s  are committed to the task of making the community " c i t i z e n s h i p conscious".  Before  t h i s can be achieved,  however, i n d i v i d u a l  members must a t t a i n a r e a l understanding of the nature, p r i v i l e g e s , and o b l i g a t i o n s of c i t i z e n s h i p . be aware of t h e i r own m o t i v a t i o n  They must a l s o  f o r j o i n i n g the C o u n c i l .  One r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a member group, of a C o u n c i l  studied,  j o i n e d the C o u n c i l w i t h the s p e c i f i c purpose of a d v o c a t i n g t h a t Canada i n c r e a s e B r i t i s h immigration, i n f l u x of " f o r e i g n e r s " .  and r e s t r i c t the  Other members have j o i n e d to  " i n v e s t i g a t e " the i n c i d e n c e of "communism" among the newcomers to Canada.  These, of course, a r e the p e r s o n a l  con-  s i d e r a t i o n s o f the i n d i v i d u a l s concerned, or sometimes o f ^3 e e n l e y s i d e , Hugh, Is M i l i t a r y Defence Enough, C i t i z e n s h i p Items pamphlet No.29> (mimeographed), Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , Ottawa, February 27, 1953. K  - 60 p a r t i c u l a r groups they r e p r e s e n t .  Such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  may he v a l i d , hut they should he c o n t r i b u t e d to a group where they can be openly d i s c u s s e d .  The C o u n c i l  itself  must have some degree of common understanding, and must recognize  some balance i n the C o u n c i l ' s  programme.  To be s u c c e s s f u l i n i n t e r e s t i n g the community member i n c i t i z e n s h i p , the C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l must e n l i s t the help of a l l r e l e v a n t community groups.  Their  programme  must i n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s which draw i n s u c h groups as the Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n , the Community Chest and C o u n c i l , l o c a l government a g e n c i e s ,  trade unions, r e l i g i o u s  a t i o n s , e t h n i c group a s s o c i a t i o n s . and  organiz-  An attempt t o educate  inform executive members of these groups  concerning  c i t i z e n s h i p , could r e s u l t i n the i n c l u s i o n of c i t i z e n s h i p education  i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e group programmes.  C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l s should  The  a l s o a p p e a l t o government  sources f o r l e a d e r s h i p and c l a r i f i c a t i o n concerning ship education  on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l .  citizen-  In t h i s way an informed  p u b l i c o p i n i o n may emerge, as w e l l as a more balanced and efficient  e f f o r t , on the p a r t of C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l s , t o  implement programmes citizenship  of h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , a s s i s t a n c e , and  education.  Appendix A BIBLIOGRAPHY I  General R e f e r e n c e s :  Dawson, Robert MacGregor, The Government of Canada, The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , Toronto.. 1948. Harvey,  I s o b e l , "A Study o f Ten Lumigrant Families"„ A Research P r o j e c t f o r the Department of H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , B r i t i s h Columbia. March 11, 1947.  H i l l m a n , A r t h u r , Community O r g a n i z a t i o n and P l a n n i n g , The Macmillan Company. New. Y o r k . 1950* Kage, Joseph, "Immigration and S o c i a l S e r v i c e " . Canadian W e l f a r e . The Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l . Ottawa. V o l . 25, No. V I I I . March, 1949. Kraus, Hertha,, "New.comers O r i e n t a t i o n to the New Community," J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Casework. New York, V o l . 2 9 , No. I , January, 194b. K i n g , C l a r e n c e , Your Committee i n Community A c t i o n . and B r o t h e r s • New Y o r k . 1952*  Harper  Ogden, Jean and J e s s , S m a l l Communities i n A c t i o n . Stories of C i t i z e n Programs a t Work. Harper and B r o t h e r s . New York. 1946. P e t e r s , C l a r e n c e A., ed., The Immigration Problem, W i l s o n Company.. New Y o r k . 194b..  H.W.  Rawley, Callum, "The Adjustment of Jewish D i s p l a c e d Persons", J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Casework. New York, V o l . 25, No. VIII.. October, 194b. Reynolds, L l o y d G., The B r i t i s h Immigrant. Oxford U n i y e r s i t y P r e s s . Toronto. 1945*  -  62  -  Rose, A l b e r t , and Anderson, V i o l e t , "Into the Unknown Country", Food f o r Thought, The Canadian Associ a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . Toronto, V o l . 13» No. IV, January, 1953* Sanders, I r w i n T., Making Good Communities B e t t e r . A Handbook f o r C i v i c - M i n d e d Men and Women. U n i v e r s i t y of Kentucky P r e s s . L e x i n g t o n . 1950• Warner, W.  L l o y d and S r o l e , Leo, S o c i a l Systems of American E t h n i c Groups, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . New Haven. 1945.  I I S p e c i f i c References: Abrahamson, A r t h u r C , et.. a l . , " D e f i n i n g S o c i a l Casework", (A Report of a Student Group P r o j e c t ) , Unpublished M a n u s c r i p t , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work, Vancouver, B.C. 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