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The work of community citizenship councils : a study of the development and co-ordination of services.. 1955

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THE WORK OP COMMUNITY CITIZENSHIP COUNCILS A Study of the Development and Co-ordination of Services f o r Immigrants based on Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , and Nanaimo Experience. JOHN JACOB ALEMAN Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OP SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of So c i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work 1955 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia ABSTRACT The purpose of this study i s to examine the r o l e of the l o c a l Citizenship Council i n a s s i s t i n g new immigrants upon t h e i r a r r i v a l i n the community, and during t h e i r subsequent early residence i n t h e i r new environment. The study considers the problems of organization and administration faced by the Councils; and the i n d i v i d u a l and group adjustments faced by the immigrant. The broad implications of community organ- i z a t i o n , and of education f o r c i t i z e n s h i p , are also examined* Time and geographical factors limited the study to three Councils, located i n Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , and Nanaimo. The e s s e n t i a l material of the study has been derived from interviews with various executive members of the Councils concerned, and from perusal of t h e i r records and minutes of meetings. This resulted i n some l i m i t a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y when the minutes or records were inadequate or incomplete. The study shows (l) the value of the guidance, leadership and s t a b i l i t y provided by the Community Chest and Councils, when new organizations are formed within the community; ( 2 ) that a Council programme should evolve out of discussion and p a r t i c i p a t i o n with l o c a l voluntary groups interested i n the adjustment of the immigrant, and with the government agencies concerned; (3) member- ship should include representatives of ethnic groups,, who should p a r t i c i p a t e i n planning the programme; and ( 4 ) . that care i s required i n formulating any p o l i c y regarding c i t i z e n s h i p education within the community; i n i t i a l l y , t h e i r programme should be primarily concerned with meeting the immediate needs of the immigrant. It i s hoped that this study w i l l be of value to C i t i z e n s h i p Councils now functioning, by emphasizing the need f o r a p p l i c a t i o n of sound community organization p r i n c i p l e s ; and w i l l a s s i s t Councils now i n the form- ati v e stage, by pointing out some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n creating a voluntary organization which attempts to work with diverse n a t i o n a l i t y groups. •ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS •I wish to acknowledge great indebtedness to Dr. L. C. Marsh, of the School of S o c i a l Work, who have generously of his time and professional advice during the preparation of this study. THE WORK OF COMMUNITY CITIZENSHIP COUNCILS TABU) OF CONTENTS Cb.apt.er 1. The Immigrant and the Community Recent trends i n immigration. Admissible classes including displaced persons; assisted- passage scheme. Citi z e n s h i p Act; problem of al i e n ' s status, formation of Citi z e n s h i p Branch and Immigration Settlement Service. S o c i a l work implications; i n d i v i d u a l and group problems of immigrant. Method used and s e t t i n g of study.... Chapter 2 . Constitution and Function of Councils Motivating forces behind formation of Councils. Constitution of Councils. Membership. S p e c i f i c focus of each Council. Administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s Chapter 3« Work and Problems of Councils Planning programme. Language and vocational projects. Accommodation. Health and welfare. Creating i n t e r e s t i n c i t i z e n s h i p . P u b l i c i t y . . . . . Chapter 4. Future Role of Citizenship Councils The citiz.ensb.ip council in the community. Inadequacies i n Canadian immigration programme. Role of councils with ethnic group organizations. C i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g within the community Appendices: A. Bibliography. CHAPTER r THE IMMIGRANT AND THE COMMUNITY The rate of immigration to Canada has to a large extent, been controlled "by economic, p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l considerations, and has been influenced by both domestic and world conditions. Canadian immigration has never ceased, but i t has fluctuated from the vast and comparatively unregulated flow of immigrants during the r e l a t i v e l y prosper- ous years,. 1904 - 1914, to the small and restricted, t r i c k l e admitted during the depression years of 1932 - 1935* The chaotic conditions e x i s t i n g i n many European countries at the end of the l a s t war ( c i r c a 1945) created a need f o r emigration from them.. At the same time Canada needed im- migrants to supplement the labour force i n an expanding post-war economy. These circumstances resulted i n accelerated immigration to Canada and i t i s t h i s post-war a c t i v i t y which i s of prime interest to t h i s study. According to a recent o f f i c i a l spokesman, since World War Two ended, about 685,000 immigrants have arri v e d i n 1 Canada, 3 7 ° » 0 0 0 o f whom, are workers and 315»000 dependents. The source of these immigrants i s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t because there i s a tendency on the part of many Canadians 1 Reid, E.B., Chief of Immigration Services, Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, speaking on radio programme "Points of View", Thursday, July 17, 1952. (Copies obtain- able from Citizenship Branch, Department of Citi z e n s h i p and Immigration, Ottawa.) to think of a l l immigrants as displaced persons or p o l i t i c a l refugees. The p u b l i c i t y which attended the e f f o r t s of the United Nations R e l i e f and Re h a b i l i t a t i o n Administration and the International Refugee Organization i s p a r t l y responsible for t h i s stereotyping of newcomers. 3?or several years d i s - placed persons were admitted to Canada from European centres under the auspices of U.N.R.R.A., p a r t i c u l a r l y from refugee camps i n Western Germany and Western Europe. When U*N.R.R.A. was discontinued the r.R .Q. took over th i s branch of i t s work. I- Displaced persons came from such war-torn countries as Au s t r i a , Poland and Czechoslovokia, to which they were un- repatriable for economic and p o l i t i c a l reasons. Their entry into Canada was a mixture of necessity and choice. Although they s t i l l a r r i v e , the number of t h e i r admissions has de- creased greatly, and i n 1951 only 22 per cent of European immigrants were i n the displaced person category. Many recent immigrants do not have a background of uprooted family l i f e and p o l i t i c a l persecution. They are people who come to Canada because they believe there are more opportunities here f o r them, and they desire to ra i s e t h e i r economic status. The recent trend appears to favour a greater percentage from the United Kingdom and Northern Europe. Taking the f i r s t f i v e months of 1952 as an example, 23 per cent of a l l immigrants were from the United Kingdom, as compared with \1\ per cent i n 1951» 3°" per cent were from - 3 - Northern Europe, as compared with 3 4 P e r cent i n 1951} and 39 per cent were from other countries, as compared with 2 48£ per cent i n 1951• In part, t h i s trend i s the r e s u l t of the government- sponsored assisted-passage scheme. This was i n s t i t u t e d on February 1, 1951* and under i t advances are made on a recoverable basis to immigrants whose services are required i n Canada, but who do not have s u f f i c i e n t funds to pay t h e i r own passage. The immigrants are required to contribute not l e s s than t h i r t y d o l l a r s , or an equivalent amount i n the currency of t h e i r country. In return f o r t h i s assistance the immigrants must agree to work fo r a Canadian employer, and to remain i n the same type of employment for a period of one year, or u n t i l such time as they have repaid the advance made to them by the government. The s e l e c t i o n procedure and p r i o r i t y given c e r t a i n immigrants va r i e s . Immigrants from the United Kingdom, the Commonwealth countries, Ireland, France, and the United States may come f r e e l y to Canada, providing they are of good health, good character, and have funds to maintain themselves u n t i l employed. From Belgium, Switzerland and the Scandinavian countries, immigrants who a r r i v e are usually q u a l i f i e d i n such trades as may be needed from time to time. 2 Canada, House of Commons Debate. Speech, Hon. Walter H a r r i s , Q.C., Minister of the Department of Cit i z e n s h i p and Immigration, delivered on July 4, 1952, Queers P r i n t e r , Ottawa. - 4 - From Holland a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , farm workers, and c e r t a i n a r t i s a n s are selected under an agreement with the Dutch Government. Farm workers, domestics, nurses, and nurses' aides, are being selected from Germany, A u s t r i a , Greece and Finland. From a l l these countries, close r e l a t i v e s of nationals already i n Canada, including grandparents, orphan nephews and nieces, fiance(e)s, and c e r t a i n "meritorious cases", are being accepted* In view of the large number of ap- p l i c a t i o n s on behalf of close r e l a t i v e s made by I t a l i a n s already established In Canada, and i n order to assure the reunion of the f a m i l i e s , i t has been necessary f o r the time being to l i m i t the "processing" of I t a l i a n applications to husbands, wives, minor unmarried children,, parents and f i a n c e ( e ) s . From most other countries, only close r e l a t i v e s and "cases of exceptional merit" are approved. Two government departments have been a c t i v e l y engaged i n the i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n of immigrants overseas. This i s a new development i n Canadian immigration procedure and i n - volves the Department of Citizenship and Immigration and the Department of Labour. In addition to the i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n of immigrants these Departments are also involved i n the sub- sequent r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r those selected. For example, the Department of labour selects immigrants who come to Canada under contract to f i l l s p e c i f i c labour vacancies. The Depart- ment of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration selects immigrants who . 5 - are coming to r e l a t i v e s , or who have s u f f i c i e n t funds to e s t a b l i s h themselves i n Canada. Ci t i z e n s h i p A problem which accompanies any immigration scheme i s that of the ali e n ' s status. Legally a newcomer remains an immigrant u n t i l he has spent a s p e c i f i e d number of years i n Canada, and has taken the necessary ac t i o n to obtain his c i t i z e n s h i p c e r t i f i c a t e . S o c i a l l y , a newcomer may remain an "immigrant" f o r the rest of his l i f e , because as Henry Pr a t t F a i r c h i l d points out: "assimilation i s a reaction of the i n d i v i d u a l to the s o c i a l environment. While i t i s pro- duced by the influences of the group, i t takes place within 3 the i n d i v i d u a l . " The a t t i t u d e of the immigrant and his adjustment within the community w i l l depend to a large extent upon the at t i t u d e s and adjustments of those with whom he comes into contact. In the United States, f o r instance, the newcomer i s quickly involved i n the process of "Americanization". The procedure i s deliberate and formal. A good example i s the f l a g - r a i s i n g ceremony performed by American children i n t h e i r school, and of course, .participated i n by the immigrant of school age. This " r i t u a l of f l a g worship and oath-taking i n an American school from which r e l i g i o n i n the old sense i s barred, 3 P a i r c h i l d , Henry P r a t t , "Immigration and National Unity," "The Immigration Problem, Peters, Clarence A., ed., H.W. Wilson Company, New York, 194b1, p.27 ( i t a l i c s added by present w r i t e r ) . - 6 - solemnly r i s i n g each morning and r e c i t i n g together the 4 'American Creed*, are performing a r e l i g i o u s exercise as t r u l y as i f they began the day with f I believe i n God the 5 Father Almighty' or asserted that 'There i s no God but God'." This approach must r e s u l t i n acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of "Americanization" - i t does not allow for lethargy. The c h i l d ' s parents f e e l a s i m i l a r pressure because of national l e g i s l a t i o n , i . e . , the American Nationality Act of 1940, which consolidated a number of duties which had been e x p l i c i t i n e a r l i e r l e g i s l a t i o n . The "regulations specify three f i e l d s of knowledge i n which the p e t i t i o n e r for c i t i z e n s h i p may be questioned; namely: ( l ) p r i n c i p a l h i s t o r i c a l facts of the country's development as a republic, (2) the organization and p r i n c i p a l functions of American Government at three l e v e l s , f e d e r a l , state, and l o c a l , and (3) the r e l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l i n the United States to his government, 4 "I believe i n the United States of America as a Government of the people, by the people, for the people, whose just powers are derived from the consent of the governed; a democracy i n a republic; a sovereign Nation of many sovereign States; a perfect union, one and inseparable; established upon those p r i n c i p l e s of freedom, equality, Justice, and humanity fo r which American p a t r i o t s s a c r i f i c e d t h e i r l i v e s and fortunes. I therefore believe i t i s my duty to my country to love i t ; to support i t s Constitution; to obey i t s laws; to respect i t s f l a g ; and to defend i t against a l l enemies." 5 Brogan, Dennis, ¥., "The American Character Today", N a f t a l i n , Arthur, et a l , ed., An Introduction to S o c i a l Science, J.B. Lippineott Company, New York, 1953* P»324. and the right s and p r i v i l e g e s growing from that r e l a t i o n s h i p 6 and the duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which r e s u l t from i t " . In Canada, the approach to the problem of c i t i z e n s h i p education i s much less d i r e c t and perhaps more democratic. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s l e f t with the immigrant and i n part t h i s i s due to the fact that before 194-7 Canada had no cle a r - cut d e f i n i t i o n of a Canadian c i t i z e n . Before t h i s date there were three statutes bearing on the matter of c i t i z e n s h i p . The Naturalization Act of 1914 defined B r i t i s h subjects and covered the n a t u r a l i z a t i o n of alie n s i n Canada. The Canadian Nationals Act of 1921 defined Canadian "nationals"; and the Canadian Immigration Act of 1910 defined Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p . A l l three were i n c o n f l i c t with each other; the l e g a l status of the foreign-born was i n t r i c a t e and involved, varying 7 according to the o r i g i n of the immigrant. As H.j 1. Angus pointed out, p o l i c y underlying the various Acts and Orders- in-Council was vague, and i n some ways discriminatory. When on January 1, 1947, the Canadian Cit i z e n s h i p Act came into force, these anomalies were removed, and Canada passed another milestone on the road to nationhood. For the f i r s t time i n Canada's history, an immigrant coming to thi s 6 Harrington, B u r r i t t C , "The Government and Adult C i t i z e n s h i p Education", Peters, Clarence A., ed. "The Immigration Problem", The H.W. Wilson Company, New York, 194b, pp . i97-b. 7 Angus, H.F. "Canadian Immigration - The Law and i t s Administration", American Journal of International Law, Washington, B.C., Vol.26, January, 193b". - a - country could, a f t e r a spe c i f i e d period of time, be l e g a l l y designated as a Canadian. According to the o f f i c i a l t i t l e of the statute, i t covers "Citizenship, N a t i o n a l i t y , Natur- a l i z a t i o n and Status of A l i e n s " . Its passage not only c l a r i f i e d the procedure by which an immigrant could a t t a i n c i t i z e n s h i p , but brought with i t a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the part of the government to a c t i v e l y a s s i s t newcomers to a t t a i n f u l l c i t i z e n s h i p . Thus on January l 8 , 1950» the Immigration Branch was joined by the new Cit i z e n s h i p Branch and raised to 8 the status of a government department. At this time the Prime Minister, Mr. Louis St. Laurent, explained that "uniformity of p o l i c y and treatment was more l i k e l y to be achieved i f one Minister had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r both im- migration a c t i v i t i e s and the a c t i v i t i e s pursued to bring immigrants as reasonably as. could be expected to f u l l 9 c i t i z e n s h i p " • In the f i r s t annual report of the new Department, Mr. Frank Foulds, Director of the Canadian Cit i z e n s h i p Branch, 8 On October 12, 1917* the Immigration Branch was taken out of the Department of the I n t e r i o r , and the Department of Immigration and Colonization was created. However, when i n 1936 the Department of Mines, and Resources was established, t h i s Department combined the functions of the former Department of Mines, Department of the I n t e r i o r , Hydrographic Survey of the Department of the Marine, Depart- ment of Indian A f f a i r s , and the Department of Immigration and Colonization. 9 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Report f o r the f i s c a l year ended March 31, 1950, Queen's Pr i n t e r , Ottawa, 1951, P.7- - 9 - s t a t e s : "The functions of the Canadian Citizenship Branch are to promote unity (among the various ethnic elements i n Canada; to awaken i n a l l Canadians a consciousness of the true worth of t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p ; and to a s s i s t newcomers to t h i s country to adjust themselves more rapidly to the Canadian 1 0 way of l i f e . " A Settlement D i v i s i o n was created within the Immigration Branch and i t s a c t i v i t i e s include: "the survey of areas of p o t e n t i a l establishment i n Canada and of p o t e n t i a l sources of immigration abroad; the maintenance of an up-to- date flow of f a c t u a l information i n respect of occupational categories to v i s a o f f i c e r s abroad i n order to guide them i n s e l e c t i n g immigrants; the dissemination of information to prospective immigrants i n Europe by means of l e c t u r e s ; l i a i s o n with f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and municipal a u t h o r i t i e s and with voluntary private organizations interested i n immigration; and assistance to immigrants who wish to s e t t l e on t h e i r 1 1 own farms or i n small businesses." With the new flow of immigration i n the post-war years, there has been growing concern about the future adjustment of immigrants. What kind of c i t i z e n s w i l l our newcomers make? W i l l they f i n d jobs, s e t t l e down and make contributions to Canadian l i f e ? These questions and many more are asked not only by government, but also by private c i t i z e n s . In many 1 0 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Report f o r the f i s c a l year ended March 3 1 t 1 9 5 1 * Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1 9 5 1 , p . 7 - 1 1 . Ibid, p.23. - 10 - Canadian communities this concern has led to the formation of c i t i z e n s h i p councils. These councils are composed of interested c i t i z e n s who v o l u n t a r i l y form a group within t h e i r own community, the general purpose of which i s to a s s i s t newcomers and to create interest i n Canadian c i t i z e n - ship among a l l members of the community. If these councils are to be successful i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to help newcomers, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that they understand something about the immigrant as an i n d i v i d u a l . Immigrants must become people - they must not be looked upon as stereo- types. In t h e i r struggle to f i n d acceptance, and to accept the mores of t h e i r new community, immigrants need a great deal of support and encouragement from those with whom they come in contact. Ci t i z e n s h i p councils should sponsor a p o s i t i v e approach to the immigrant as an i n d i v i d u a l , thereby s e t t i n g an example not only to other volunteer groups but also to government. The success or f a i l u r e of councils to interest a l l members of the community i n Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p w i l l depend upon how democratic they are i n t h e i r approach to t h i s pro- j e c t . Democracy implies compromise on the part of those who plan, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the part of those who are the r e c i p i e n t s of such planning. It i s sometimes easier to be bureaucratic and dictate ways and means, espe c i a l l y when int e r e s t seems to be lacking, but t h i s method w i l l produce - 11 - only short-term r e s u l t s . The democratic approach i s often made even more d i f f i c u l t "because many newcomers are reluctant to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , having been "conditioned" by d i c t a t o r i a l methods. The role of the council i n the community should be to help a l l members of their community r e a l i z e that they l i v e i n a democracy and to make them aware of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y that this implies. This can be best achieved by example. S o c i a l Work Implications S o c i a l work as a profession i s concerned both with the needs of people and with the democratic approach i n meeting these needs. It has been defined as "an enabling process of help- ing the i n d i v i d u a l , the group, and the community, to cope with stresses that prevent their best possible adjustment to society. Its philosophy i s rooted i n democratic p r i n c i p l e s and i n the s o c i a l worker's b e l i e f and conviction i n man's 12 d i g n i t y , worth, and determining r i g h t s . " This would imply, therefore, that a study of the problems facing the immigrant as an i n d i v i d u a l and as a member of a minority group w i l l en- able Canadians to offe r newcomers not merely casual f r i e n d l y help, but planned and organized assistance to enable him to mobilize his i n t e r n a l strengths and external resources, so that he may reach his optimum adjustment. 12 Abrahamson, Arthur C , et. a l . , "Defining S o c i a l Casework" (a report of a student group p r o j e c t ) . Un- published manuscript, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, School of S o c i a l Work, Vancouver, B.C. - 12 - The Immigrant as an Individual The immediate d i f f i c u l t i e s of newcomers should he the f i r s t concern of those planning to a s s i s t them. These may he the fi n d i n g of a job. housing, language h a r r i e r s , or the anxiety which accompanies any new s i t u a t i o n . The immigrant may become h o s t i l e and aggressive, demand more attention than usual, or he may withdraw into a protective s h e l l whereby he i s unable to cope with the simplest s i t - uation. It i s important to r e a l i z e that each immigrant must learn to understand and work within a new culture. This applies to the B r i t i s h immigrant just as i t does to the I t a l i a n newcomer or the P o l i s h "D.P.W The tmo l a s t - mentioned may have a language b a r r i e r , but a l l have unconscious and emotionally-charged codes and customs, which are meaningful to them, and which i n varying degrees o f f e r them security. Some have no strong desire to forget t h e i r own ways of doing things, their own folkways and customs. For a few, the inse c u r i t y they f e e l reinforces t h e i r desire to c l i n g to t h e i r old b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s , even when i n so doing, they jeopardize t h e i r chances f o r success i n this country. A case i n question concerns a young Austrian immigrant brought to t h i s country by his brother. He was single and an e l e c t r i c i a n by trade, but because of language and t r a d e - q u a l i f i c a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s he was unable to f i n d work i n this f i e l d immediately, - 13 - although he had heen advised that these obstacles could be overcome i n time. He obtained work at various manual occupations, but would never stay f o r any reasonable period of time. He was always re-appearing at the Immigration Service i n quest of employment as an e l e c t r i c i a n . Between jobs his brother supported him. In the course of two interviews, t h i s youth stated: "In my country i f you do u n s k i l l e d labour you stay at i t forever. I f your father digs ditches then you dig ditches too. I am not a labourer,' I am an e l e c t r i c i a n . " He had been i n Canada some months by t h i s time and his knowledge of E n g l i s h had improved; also he had become acquainted with Canadian customs, but i n his stress and disappointment at not being able to u t i l i z e his t r a i n i n g he had i r r a t i o n a l l y escaped into an old c u l t u r a l concept. He was unable to accept the r e a l i t y that i n Canada people can move up and down across the l i n e s of class d i s t i n c t i o n . A f t e r some inte r p r e t a t i o n , he applied for an unskilled job with the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n the hope of eventually obtaining e l e c t r i c a l work with them. Some two months l a t e r he was s t i l l employed i n an u n s k i l l e d capacity, but he was confident that eventually he would be able to obtain employment as an e l e c t r i c i a n . I t i s quite possible that the young immigrant mentioned above might have been c l a s s i f i e d as "lazy" or "irresponsible" by someone who assessed his behaviour on a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l . - 14 - Before he could he helped to consciously express his " c u l t u r a l t r a i t s " he had to he accepted as a person, as d i s t i n c t from a "foreign immigrant". When dealing with immigrants i t i s important to remember that: "respect f o r others includes respect f o r the i r differences....each one i s d i f f e r e n t , not only as to thumbprints but as to his unique v i s i o n of himself and his world. Each has on him the stamp of his times, his culture, his community, now a blurred impression, not a d i s t i n c t i v e one, now adding to his stature and achievement as a human being. Stereotypes about other cultures break down as soon as one gets to know 13 the i n d i v i d u a l s within those cultures." This same p r i n c i p l e applies when planning a new organization within the community. Those sponsoring the new project must get to know the r e a l feelings of a l l sections of community l i f e . S u p e r f i c i a l investigation must give way to free enquiry and the u t i l i z a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c method. Groups i n t e r - ested i n a s s i s t i n g immigrants should encourage discussion with representatives of a l l ethnic groups within the community. At the same time representatives from government departments, s o c i a l agencies, school boards, churches, and other groups interested i n immigrants, should be contacted and encouraged to contribute t h e i r knowledge, experience, and point of view. This approach w i l l ensure that the community i s understood, 13 Hamilton, Gordon, "Helping People - The Growth of a Profession," Journal of S o c i a l Casework, New York, Vol . 2 5 . October, 1§48, pp.295-6. - 15 - and should r e s u l t i n a plan of action acceptable to the community as i t i s and where i t i s * The Immigrant and His Problems The newcomer to t h i s country i s a person with the same basic needs as those of the native-born Canadian. In the case of the immigrant* however, these needs are i n t e n s i f i e d because he i s faced by a completely strange environment. Everyone has a strong emotional need to belong and i n t h i s regard the newcomer faces a d i f f i c u l t y r a r e l y experienced by a Canadian c i t i z e n within Canada. It might be argued that many "Canadians" are new to a p a r t i c u l a r community and thus f e e l l i k e "strangers"• I t must be remembered, however, that they have the advantage of a Canadian education, Canadian group associations, r e l a t i v e s , mutual friends, or at least other Canadians with whom they can communicate with comparative ease and on an equal basis. I n i t i a l l y , this i s not possible f o r the immigrant and although he may have his p a r t i c u l a r ethnic group association he cannot confine a l l his a c t i v i t i e s within this group. When he leaves i t , he often becomes aware of at least a strange and sometimes semi-hostile environment which i s a constant reminder that he does not belong. Both the newcomer and the Canadian resident face the common problem of fi n d i n g a job, locating suitable housing, t r y i n g to improve t h e i r income, finding suitable r e c r e a t i o n a l outlets and generally s t r i v i n g to make a s a t i s f a c t o r y - 16 - adjustment -within the community. In g r a t i f y i n g these needs the native-horn have the advantage over the immigrant. Through long association they become aware of the l o c a l idiocyncrasies and "the way things are done" i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r community. They belong to certa i n groups and often benefit through these contacts. I n i t i a l l y the im- migrant i s a "fringe member" of the community. Whether he i s accepted or not depends almost e n t i r e l y upon his own e f f o r t s . I t i s true, however, he i s often helped i n thi s regard by his ethnic group association or by his church. The emotional needs of an immigrant accompanied here by his family are probably less than those of an immigrant coming here alone. The married man does "belong" within his own family and i n i t i a l l y , at lea s t , derives a good deal of support from family r e l a t i o n s h i p . Gn the other hand the material needs of the married man are greater than those of the single immigrant. Children must be clothed and educated and th e i r immediate needs must be met. Like t h e i r parents, immigrant children have a great adjustment to make. If they are of school age they are faced with c o n f l i c t i n g patterns of behaviour at school and at home. At school they must quickly learn the "Canadian way" of doing things and i f they attempt these methods at home i t often leads to con- f l i c t . I f a language b a r r i e r exists, then the pressure i s - 17 - i n t e n s i f i e d . The parents are often able to function i n the community with merely "a working knowledge" of English, but the children are expected to become more p r o f i c i e n t i n t h i s regard. This means, however, that they may s t a r t school with a grade placement below their i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l . The language d i f f i c u l t y encountered by many immigrants i s perhaps the greatest single obstacle they face i n th e i r e f f o r t s to adjust to their new community. Those who are interested i n a s s i s t i n g newcomers must have some means of communicating with them. The problem can be mitigated to some extent by the use of an interpreter, but concepts such as "help i s most e f f e c t i v e i f the re c i p i e n t p a r t i c i p a t e s a c t i v e l y and responsibly i n the process" are d i f f i c u l t to put into practice i f a language b a r r i e r e x i s t s . Trained personnel equipped to speak the many languages needed i n dealing with immigrants are j u s t not a v a i l a b l e , and i n a country with a population as scattered as that of Canada they probably never w i l l be. I n i t i a l l y , therefore, the community members must help the immigrant by "doing". He cannot ask f o r a job, he must be taken to one. The same approach applies to finding his way about, making friends, and getting help. This i s time-consuming but most necessary i f the immigrant is' to f e e l that some intere s t i s being taken i n his welfare. His p a r t i c u l a r ethnic group organization can be of great help i n dealing with t h i s problem. - 1 8 - A basic answer to this d i f f i c u l t y i s , of course, to provide English classes and encourage the immigrant to attend them. His adjustment to the community can be hastened through the medium of language classes and adult education. This i s best accomplished on a group basis, and the cooperation of every ethnic organization and church group must be e n l i s t e d to make i t e f f e c t i v e . F a c i l i t i e s f o r learning the language are constantly growing and many classes o r i g i n a l l y started by volunteer groups have been taken over by l o c a l school boards. Further development should be encouraged, but ex i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s must be well p u b l i c i z e d among the various ethnic group organizations. That th i s i s necessary was shown by a recent survey of E n g l i s h classes i n Ontario which revealed that "less than f i f t y per cent of the new immigrants are enrolled and the proportion of women, p a r t i c u l a r l y married women i s quite 14 low. The experience i n B r i t i s h Columbia has varied con- siderably, some areas seeing the need for more classes, other areas being unable to f i l l those classes already e x i s t - ing. To a large extent, immigrant response depends upon the approach taken by the sponsors organizing the classes. I t must also be remembered that not a l l immigrants are faced by language d i f f i c u l t i e s , and that some are content to struggle along with a minimum of English, and do not have the capacity f o r further education. 14 Hendry, Charles F. "Summing Up", Food for Thought, Canadian Association for Adult Education, Toronto, January, 1953, V o l . 13. - 19 - This r e l a t i v i t y of need and the a b i l i t y of the immigrant must also he considered i n the matter of immigrant housing. Some newcomers a r r i v e i n Canada f i n a n c i a l l y s o l - vent and housing presents them with no great problem. Single immigrants do not experience too much d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s regard because t h e i r needs are not too great. The greatest d i f f i c u l t y i s experienced by immigrant families with l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l resources. When these families a r r i v e , they are forced to s e t t l e i n d i s t r i c t s where rents are low and where the accommodation i s poor. Usually the dwelling has not been improved for years because of the expectation that commercial and business a c t i v i t i e s w i l l expand and annex the area. This type of accommodation may be acceptable to the adult immigrant but i t sometimes has an adverse e f f e c t upon t h e i r children. A commercial area has few recreational f a c i l i t i e s , and the children have d i f f i c u l t y i n finding healthy outlets for their a c t i v i t i e s . Neighbourhood houses have long recognized t h i s s i t u a t i o n and are s t i l l attempting to meet the need of newcomers i n transient and deteriorated areas i n many communities. With very few exceptions, immigrants a r r i v i n g i n Canada are immediately provided with employment. This is, i n f a c t , undertaken by either the Department of Labour or the Depart- ment of Citi z e n s h i p and Immigration depending upon which Department processed the immigrant's a p p l i c a t i o n . D i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s when the immigrant either leaves his i n i t i a l employer - 20 - or i s discharged hy him. If he applies at the National Employment Service and i t i s discovered he was. "brought out by the Immigration Service, he i s then referred to them. The reverse procedure also applies. While t h i s " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " i s being established, the immigrant wanders around completely bewildered. A similar s i t u a t i o n sometimes arises for im- migrants who a r r i v e here as q u a l i f i e d tradesmen or journeymen. They f i n d themselves i n the unfortunate p o s i t i o n of being a non-union tradesman i n search of employment i n a unionized trade. When applying for a job they are told that union membership i s obligatory before they can be hired; and when they apply to the union they f i n d they are unable to j o i n unless employed. Thus they become confused and f r u s t r a t e d . In most cases, i f the immigrant is well q u a l i f i e d and able to adjust to the change of method and tempo found i n Canadian industry, as compared to his own, t h i s problem i s solved as he becomes known to his p a r t i c u l a r group, and makes contacts i n the community. In the i n i t i a l stages, however, a great deal of support i s necessary, and i f he cannot obtain employ- ment because of lack of knowledge of Canadian techniques i n a s p e c i f i c trade he should be helped educationally and vocationally to improve his s k i l l . Handicapped by his lack of knowledge of the language and customs of Canada, the immigrant seeks associations with persons of his p a r t i c u l a r ethnic group. Among these people he can converse f r e e l y and often they can understand his - 21 - problems and give him the support he needs. If these ethnic organizations, through the medium of f o l k f e s t i v a l s or other organized a c t i v i t i e s , can p a r t i c i p a t e i n community a f f a i r s , then the newcomer i s given the opportunity of meeting members of other groups i n the community. Through these contacts he i s often able to make a t r a n s i t i o n from ethnic group organ- iz a t i o n s to other associations within the community. Method of Study In B r i t i s h Columbia, i n recent years there has been a considerable i n t e r e s t i n extending help to new Canadians, and as many as twelve l o c a l c i t i z e n s h i p councils have been formed. They are located at Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, Chilliwack, Prince Rupert, Kamloops, Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton, New Westminster, Revelstoke and Prince George. Each council varies i n focus and function, being influenced by the varying purposes and resources of the l o c a l scene, and being designed to f i t d i f f e r e n t needs i n the community which i t serves. There appears to be a double implication i n Citizenship Council work. The task of the council and i t s associated organizations i s to help the newcomer to recognize and take part i n the democratic aspects of Canadian l i f e . This i s d i f f i c u l t because these may be economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l - they are diverse and unstandardized. In the second place, the council must i t s e l f follow democratic procedures i n i t s educational, organization, recreational or welfare pro- grammes. This implies good community organization, which has - 22 - ' been, defined as "the proeess by which people of communities, as individuals or representatives of groups, j o i n together to determine s o c i a l welfare needs, plan ways of meeting them, 15 and mobilize the necessary resources." Applied to c i t i z e n - ship councils t h i s points up the necessity f o r representation from a l l ethnic group organizations. Needs f o r immigrants or resources to meet these needs cannot be t r u l y assessed unless immigrants p a r t i c i p a t e i n the examination of both the needs and the resources. I f the council is representative of a l l aspects of community l i f e then t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n by ethnic group representatives w i l l give them an opportunity to meet representatives from s o c i a l agencies, government departments, school boards, churches, and voluntary groups engaged i n helping immigrants. Discussion of r e a l i s t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s , attitudes and points of view w i l l lead to a better understanding of the problems involved and should r e s u l t i n a r e a l i s t i c programme suited to the needs of the community. For the purpose of t h i s enquiry, i t was decided to study the councils located i n Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo. The material was obtained by perusal of t h e i r records and minutes of meetings, and by interviews with the various executive members. An attempt has been made to analyze t h e i r organization and function, and to enquire how f a r they have been hel p f u l i n 15 McNeil, C.F., "Community Organization for S o c i a l Work", i n Kurtz, Russell, ed., S o c i a l Work Year Book, 1954, New York, American Association of S o c i a l Workers, p.121. - 23 - mitigating some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s which newcomers face. In so doing the study attempts to assess the extent to which the councils have applied the p r i n c i p l e s of community organization i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to create and maintain interest i n their work within the community. o CHAPTER. I I CONSTITUTION AND EDUCTION OP COUNCILS Any programme which attempts to include diverse nation- a l i t y groups w i l l encounter d i f f i c u l t organizational pro- blems. Language, c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s h a r r i e r s are super- imposed upon the ordinary administrative procedures faced hy any new group. For t h i s reason an attempt to create a new organization, which purports to co-ordinate the a c t i v - i t i e s of heterogeneous groups, must give s p e c i a l consideration to administrative d e t a i l s and to organizational aspects, while s t i l l i n the formative stage. The programme s t a r t s with an idea which may come from within the community, or he super- imposed from the outside. In either case, before this idea is implemented, good community organization procedure demands that those interested "get the f a c t s " . This evaluation of the s i t u a t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i n good planning, i n creating team- work, i n educating members, and i n broadening community p a r t i c i p a t i o n . STotivating force behind formation of Councils The idea of an organization to help i n the integration of a l l services f o r immigrants a r r i v i n g at Vancouver came from outside the community. On August 31» 1949» i n *ne board room of the Community Chest and Council o f f i c e i n "Vancouver,, B.C. a meeting was held at which the guest speaker was Miss Constance Hayward, l i a i s o n o f f i c e r with the Canadian C i t i z e n - ship Branch, of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration. Miss Hayward was anxious to know what was being done by - 25 - organizations across Canada to help the newcomer adjust to his new community. She pointed out that while the Dominion government i s interested i n the i n i t i a l placement and continued employment of immigrants, through the e f f o r t s of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, and the Department of Labour, the formal process of integration i s considered to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the provinces i n which the newcomers are placed. This meeting resulted i n a r e s o l u t i o n to the e f f e c t that Community Chest and Council be asked to plan for the establishment of a co-ordinating committee on c i t i z e n s h i p . This committee should consist of representatives from s o c i a l agencies, government, and v o l - unteer groups interested i n the welfare of immigrants, and i n an integrated approach to the s i t u a t i o n . This resolution gave r i s e to the Vancouver Co-ordinating Council on C i t i z e n - ship. In Nanaimo, the idea which led to the formation of t h e i r C i t i z e n s h i p Council came from within the community. On November 13, 1951, a group of business men formed a Co- ordinating Council, sponsored by the Mayor, to meet the need for a movement to foster good Canadian c i t i z e n s - with p a r t i c u l a r attention being paid to new immigrants. Apart from th i s general concern about c i t i z e n s h i p and the welfare of newcomers, the programme of the Council was undefined and rather nebulous. - 26 - The idea behind the formation of a C i t i z e n s h i p Council i n V i c t o r i a was the d i r e c t r e s u l t of a s p e c i f i c problem within the community. Early i n 1949 the Community Welfare Council of Greater V i c t o r i a became concerned with the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by immigrant domestics. In order to investigate and a s s i s t with these problems, a Co-ordinating Committee for new Canadians was formed on June 2, 1949* This committee became interested i n an integrated approach to the immigrant s i t u a t i o n within the community, and as a sub-council of the Community Welfare Council of Greater V i c t o r i a , i t now functions as the Greater V i c t o r i a Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Council. Thus i n these three examples of C i t i z e n s h i p Councils, the motivating force behind each Council d i f f e r e d . S i m i l a r l y , the implementation of a programme which eventually led to a formal constitution, or a statement of aims and objectives, also d i f f e r e d . C o nstitution of Councils In the formative stages of i t s development the Vancouver Co-ordinating Council on Citizenship was primarily interested in the co-ordination of the various ethnic group associations within the community. This policy was not too c l e a r l y defined and there was some dissension because of the desire on the part of some members of executive to implement s p e c i f i c pro- j e c t s with the community. Lack of a d e f i n i t e focus delayed a dynamic programme, and because of t h i s , no c o n s t i t u t i o n evolved u n t i l the Council had been active f o r over one year. A c o n s t i t u t i o n was f i n a l l y adopted on September 28, 1950, but - 27 - unfortunately the writer, was unable to peruse the o r i g i n a l document, as i t was revised on June 24, 1952, and i n the hands of committee during the interim period. In part, the revised c o n s t i t u t i o n reads as follows: The functions of the Council s h a l l be: (a) to promote the development of such educational, r e c r e a t i o n a l , and other services as may be necessary for furthering the welfare of new Canadians. (b) to interpret to the larger community the needs and problems of new Canadians. (c) to promote an understanding and appreciation of the pr i v i l e g e s of Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p . (d) to provide an avenue of cooperation for c i t i z e n groups, private welfare agencies and government, i n matters a f f e c t i n g the welfare of new Canadians. In order to defray part of the expenses which the Council would incur i t was decided that each a f f i l i a t e d society would pay an annual fee of two d o l l a r s , and each i n d i v i d u a l member an annual fee of one d o l l a r . F i n a n c i a l l y , the Greater V i c t o r i a Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Council i s dependent upon donations from member organizations. There i s no amount s p e c i f i e d and donations are ca l l e d f o r inter m i t t e n t l y when the need a r i s e s . The response has been immediate and therefore no structured fee system has been necessary. The organization functions as a sub-council of the Greater V i c t o r i a Welfare Council, and as such has no formal - 28 - c o n s t i t u t i o n . However, i t s function i s outlined i n the following s i x objectives: (a) to f a m i l i a r i z e the new Canadian resident with the laws of n a t u r a l i z a t i o n , to p u b l i c i z e these rules, and to see the committee i t s e l f shows an inte r e s t i n the n a t u r a l i z a t i o n ceremonies i n the l o c a l courts, thereby impressing the new Canadian resident with a sense of the significance of the occasion. (b) to a s s i s t new residents so that they can become Canadian c i t i z e n s i n the best sense of the word, contributing something of t h e i r own national cultures while sharing i n ours. (c) to provide a centralized information and guidance service on n a t u r a l i z a t i o n , health and welfare, education, recreation and other services. (d) to co-ordinate the a c t i v i t i e s i n respect to im- migrants, and groups which are active or interested i n the aforesaid objectives. (e) to e s t a b l i s h " l i a i s o n " between governmental services and private welfare organizations, and to disburse such funds as may be entrusted to i t . (f) to interpret to the community as a whole the needs and problems of the new Canadian residents, i n order that they be accepted into the Canadian community as soon as poss i b l e . - 29 - The Nanaimo Citizenship Council i s an autonomous organ- i z a t i o n , hut i t has not yet produced a c o n s t i t u t i o n . It functions under the terms of reference outlined hy a representative of the Canadian Citizenship Branch, who spoke at the Council's second general meeting. The Council's c h i e f aim i s to a s s i s t landed immigrants to become good Canadian c i t i z e n s , with s p e c i f i c attention to: (a) i nterpreters, b i l l e t i n g , employment, s o c i a l contacts. (b) Court House ceremonies, whenever such immigrants f i n a l l y receive t h e i r n a t u r a l i z a t i o n papers. (c) annual c i t i z e n s h i p days for both Canadian-born and naturalized c i t i z e n s . The Council also aims to a s s i s t i n the integration of North American Indians as f u l l c i t i z e n s , and to cooperate with the Immigration Service and with l o c a l s o c i a l service agencies. This programme has l i t t l e chance of being implemented because i t encompasses too many aspects of community planning. Because members of the Council accepted these terms of reference with a minimum of discussion, they became confused as to the goals of the group. Employment, for example, was not interpreted as informing immigrants about the National Employment Service or other community agencies, but was accepted as a "job f i n d i n g " function involving actual contact with employers. How t h i s could be handled by a voluntary part-time organization i s a factor which apparently received scant consideration. With lack of o f f i c e space i n which to - 30 - hold executive meetings, and with no provision for. obtain- ing funds (the Council has never had any funds since i t s inception), i t i s doubtful i f the organization was ready to accept job placement as one of i t s main functions. The reference to North American Indians i s indeed commendable, but t h i s again i s a f u l l - t i m e pursuit for a voluntary agency. If thorough investigation had indicated that action i n t h i s regard was a r e a l need i n the community, then some membership organization of the Nanaimo Citizenship Council might have been delegated to take action i n t h i s matter. Membership The membership of the Nanaimo Citi z e n s h i p Council includes f i v e l o c a l service clubs. Although church groups and ethnic associations are also represented, t h e i r representation i s on a n o n - o f f i c i a l basis, and therefore much of t h e i r active p a r t i c i p a t i o n and continuity of attendance is l o s t . This, i n part, i s the reason why the Council has had d i f f i c u l t y i n maintaining a dynamic programme of i n t e r e s t to immigrants. The Vancouver Co-ordinating Council on Citizenship had a s i m i l a r problem concerning the representation of ethnic associations i n i t s organization. At the time of i t s formation the Council represented twenty organizations, such as the Department of Labour, the Department of Immigration, Catholic, Protestant and Jewish Church groups, welfare agencies, the Y.M.C.A., and the Y.W.C.A. There were no representatives from - 31 - the various ethnic s o c i e t i e s within the c i t y , ©n July 17« 1951» some members on the Council, recognizing the need for representatives from such groups, made a motion that the Vancouver Co-ordinating Council on Citi z e n s h i p ( i n the ex i s t - ing form) he disbanded, and that a reorganization meeting he c a l l e d to which representatives of various ethnic groups he i n v i t e d . A spe c i a l meeting was c a l l e d three days l a t e r and the motion to disband was set aside* The minutes of this meeting are not too comprehensive,, but a great deal of discussion ensued* The cause of the dissension was the question of whether the Council should continue as a co- ordinating organization, or whether i t should i n i t i a t e s p e c i f i c -projects to a s s i s t immigrants. Many members were of the opinion that the disbandment of the Council and i t s subsequent reorganization with the inclu s i o n of ethnic associations would defeat the purpose for which i t was formed. They argued that co-ordination would become secondary, and that the implementa- t i o n of a s p e c i f i c programme would leave l i t t l e time for the broader aspects of community organization. It was decided not to disband, but to revise the constitu t i o n to allow for the in c l u s i o n of four vice-presidents. These executive positions were to be f i l l e d by representatives from ethnic associations. This gave representatives from ethnic groups an opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n organization and planning. Since that time, members of the various ethnic groups have become interested and active members of the Council. - 32 - Ethnic associations have been members of the Greater V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p Council ever since i t s inception, and i t s membership r e f l e c t s a l l sections and aspects of community l i f e . The membership consists of the Women's Canadian Club, the Knights of Columbus, the National Employment Service, the Protestant M i n i s t e r i a l Association, the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire, the Business and Professional Women's Club, the Local Council of Women, the University Women's Club, the Canadian Club, the V i c t o r i a Public Library, the Chinese Benevolent Society, the Y.M.C.A., the Greater V i c t o r i a School Board, the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Education, the Parent-Teacher Association, the Chamber of Commerce, the East Indian Community, the Y.W.C.A., the Catholic Women's Council, the Community Chest and Council, the Department of Immigration, the B.C. Indian Arts and Welfare Council, the Sons of Norway, the Canadian Daughters League, and the Lutheran Church. This representative membership, which i n - cludes representatives of ethnic groups and community re- sources, has been the prime factor i n the i n i t i a l and continued dynamic quality of the Council. S p e c i f i c focus of each Council I t has already been pointed out that the Vancouver Co-ordinating Council on Citizenship had d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n a l l y adopting a formal c o n s t i t u t i o n . There was much time spent i n discussion, and to a certai n degree i n dissension over what the s p e c i f i c focus of the Council would be. To construe from thi s evidence that the time spent i n debate was wasted, would - 33 - be misleading and erroneous. Before there can be a sound programme of action, there must be an understanding of e x i s t - ing problems. Discussion led to the r e a l i z a t i o n that co- ordination of e x i s t i n g agencies within the c i t y was not enough. The Council therefore decided to include as one of i t s main functions the promotion and development of such services as may be necessary f o r furthering the welfare of new Canadians. Those forming the Nanaimo Citi z e n s h i p Council wanted to "do something" f o r the new immigrants a r r i v i n g i n t h i s country, but t h e i r approach to the problem was extremely opportunistic. Without studying the s i t u a t i o n or assessing the needs of t h e i r community, they accepted a set of aims and objectives "ready made". These functions proved to be over-ambitious, and the r e s u l t has been that the Council has floundered badly through lack of a s p e c i f i c and workable programme acceptable to the community. The Greater V i c t o r i a Canadian Citizenship Council has not experienced too much d i f f i c u l t y i n the formulation of a programme. This i s primarily due to the fact that co-ordination was accomplished by the Council almost simultaneously with i t s formation. This was achieved by encouraging the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l major groups concerned or affected i n some way by the s i t u a t i o n , and by the i n c l u s i o n of individuals or ethnic group representatives who could contribute much i n e f f e c t i n g a programme acceptable to t h e i r respective section of the community. Since then, concern with s p e c i f i c problems faced - 3 4 - by new Canadians has kept the programme of the Council dynamic. I t * l i k e the other Councils studied* has had as one of i t s prime objectives, an attempt to f o s t e r good c i t i z e n s h i p among both Canadian-born and naturalized c i t i z e n s . Administrative D i f f i c u l t i e s As one member of the Vancouver Citizenship Council stated i t , i n i t i a l l y their biggest administrative problem was lethargy among the various membership groups. In part t h i s was due to the lack of ethnic representation, and i n part to lack of s p e c i f i c programme. Inclusion of both has overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . The ftanaimo Council has also experienced lethargy among members, but t h i s has been coupled with a misconception on the part of many as to the actual function of the Council. They have also suffered from a lack of funds, and although they did appeal to both the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r f i n a n c i a l assistance, no help was forthcoming. The administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by the Greater V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p Council have been n e g l i g i b l e . Summary One of the factors which shows most c l e a r l y i n this experience i s the value of the guidance, leadership, and s t a b i l i t y provided by the Community Chest and Councils. Although the Vancouver Co-ordinating Council on C i t i z e n - ship i s now an autonomous organization i t s t i l l benefits from members who are active with the Vancouver Welfare Council, - 35 - and i t can obtain advice and guidance from the Welfare Council should the necessity a r i s e . The Greater V i c t o r i a Citizenship Council i s a sub-council of the Greater V i c t o r i a Welfare Council and has had few ad- mi n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s while maintaining a dynamic programme. On the other hand, Nanaimo has no Community Chest and Council, and the Nanaimo Citizenship Council has lacked the support and advice from a professional organization which i s so necessary when new projects are started* The Council has no written c o n s t i t u t i o n . It seems content to struggle along under terms of reference which did not evolve out of discussion and investigation, but which were adopted with- out regard to the s p e c i f i c needs of the community. Good community organization should follow a process where- i n a new organization s t a r t s by "gaining the facts about human needs....analyzing resources (services) available to meet 16 needs". This i s e s p e c i a l l y important when dealing with im- migrants, because controversy often arises when th e i r needs are discussed. Analysis of this controversy w i l l lead to an assessment of attitudes toward newcomers. An understanding of the immigrants' attitude towards help w i l l also evolve i f the means are provided for "bringing into p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l phases 17 of the process individuals and members of groups concerned". !6 McNeil, C I 1., "Community Organization for S o c i a l Work", i n Kurtz, Russell, ed., S o c i a l Work Year Book, 195 4 , New York, American Association of S o c i a l Workers, p.123* 17 Ioe. ."cit. - 36 - The Vancouver Council ignored this basic concept* and as as r e s u l t they achieved very l i t t l e u n t i l they reorganized to include ethnic representatives. Perhaps the most d i f - f i c u l t stage of t h i s process* when applied to organizations working i n a controversial area such as immigration, i s " f o s t e r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n of attitudes and representative viewpoints with the objective of reaching agreement through 18 mutual understanding". This procedure may lengthen the time taken by an organization to become ac t i v e , but i t usually r e s u l t s i n a sound programme based upon the needs of the community. 18 L o c . c i t . CHAPTER I I I WORK AND PROBLEMS Off COUNCILS The aims and o b j e c t i v e s of the C i t i z e n s h i p Councils as set f o r t h i n p r e l i m i n a r y statements, such as have been ex- amined, are the nucleus from which a p l a n of a c t i o n evolves* To be s u c c e s s f u l , however, any p r o j e c t considered by a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n should be f u l l y understood by those who w i l l be a f f e c t e d i f the proposed plan i s implemented. C i t i z e n s h i p c o u n c i l s are p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s i s t i n g newcomers and i t f o l l o w s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t newcomers or t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s should p a r t i c i p a t e i n planning any programme designed to meet t h e i r needs. I f they are not i n c l u d e d , the p r o j e c t w i l l not be too s u c c e s s f u l . An i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s concept i s provided by the experience of the Land Settlement Committee of the Vancouver Co - o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l on C i t i z e n s h i p * This Committee was formed to i n v e s t i g a t e the existence of, and need f o r , a government-assisted land settlement programme f o r both new Canadians and e s t a b l i s h e d c i t i z e n s * An enquiry was sent to the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , who r e p l i e d that no p o s i t i v e p o l i c y of a s s i s t a n c e f o r land settlement had been, s e t , but that the matter was under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The Deputy M i n i s t e r was able to provide some inf o r m a t i o n on the areas where Crown land was a v a i l a b l e at low p r i c e s , and suggested t h a t there were many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r immigrants - 38 - to e s t a b l i s h themselves with limited c a p i t a l . On October l 6 , 1951* the committee sent out the follow- ing l e t t e r to sixteen ethnic group organizations: I t i s f e l t that many European immigrants are anxious to make farming th e i r career i n Canada* but are unable to do so due to the high prices being asked for established farms i n B r i t i s h Columbia* and the equally high cost of operating new farmland from v i r g i n country. This Council i s hoping to i n t e r e s t the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Government i n a scheme of assistance f o r such immigrants. Such a program should make new land available on a basis the immigrant can a f f o r d , should include help i n clearing the land, and o f f e r advice and technical data on such matters as climate, c u l t i v a t i o n , marketing of crops, etc. W i l l you please help us i n th i s work by sending to the above address your ideas about the d e s i r a b i l i t y of such government help. To what extent do you think the immigrant of your National Group would wish to make farming a means of l i v e l i h o o d , i f such help were available? The executive members of Austrian, Belgium, B r i t i s h , Czechoslovakian, Banish, Butch, Esthonian, German, Greek, Hungarian, I t a l i a n , Norwegian, P o l i s h and Swedish ethnic group organizations were among those c i r c u l a r i z e d . By early Becember only two r e p l i e s had been received. These showed limited i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r national group* A reminder was sent to the remaining fourteen groups on Becember 3» 1951* Three more r e p l i e s were received; one indicated i n t e r e s t , one asked f o r more time to make an in v e s t i g a t i o n , and another asked for a speaker to explain - 3 9 - the Committee's plan to t h e i r membership; a t o t a l of f i v e r e p l i e s from sixteen enquiries. In view of the meagre interest shown by ethnic groups, no further action was taken on t h i s plan. I t must be re- membered, however, that the organizations canvassed were not members of the Council when the scheme was projected. I t appears evident, therefore, that because they did not have representation, they were not too interested i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the scheme. The amount of i n t e r e s t that a voluntary organization can create i n any community project, w i l l depend to a large extent, upon the amount of cooperation and good l i a i s o n that the sponsoring group has with other voluntary organizations, and government agencies within the community. The success of one of the e a r l i e s t projects of the Greater V i c t o r i a Canadian Ci t i z e n s h i p Council, w i l l i l l u s t r a t e what can be done when the cooperation and active p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l community resources i s achieved. During the months from December, 1 9 5 0 * "to February, 1 9 5 1 » the Immigration H a l l , i n V i c t o r i a , was crowded with newly arrived immigrants who were b i l l e t e d on a temporary basis waiting f o r work which would be available i n the early spring. The needs of these people were tremendous. The majority could not speak English, had no s o c i a l contacts within the community, and very few amenities. Working i n close l i a i s o n with the Immigration Inspector-in-Charge, the Greater V i c t o r i a - 40 - Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Council managed to get E n g l i s h classes organized and obtained the services of fourteen teachers. The Council arranged h o s p i t a l i t y for these immigrants, es- p e c i a l l y during the Christmas season when i n v i t a t i o n s were arranged and many newcomers were able to celebrate the f e s t i v e season i n Canadian homes. A public appeal was made for irons and radios and the response was g r a t i f y i n g . A f t e r a few weeks the E n g l i s h classes were transferred to the V i c t o r i a High School where volunteers taught twice a week on regular nights. An appeal was again made to the community fo r bus t i c k e t s , as the arrangements involved t r a v e l l i n g , and again the response was outstanding. This Community response did not w j u s t happen M. It was the re s u l t of good planning and excellent cooperation between the Citizenship Council and other l o c a l organizations. If the Council had not had good l i a i s o n with the l o c a l Immigration Service, f o r example, i t i s doubtful i f the project would have been successful. Language and Vocational D i f f i c u l t i e s The E n g l i s h classes started as a voluntary project by the V i c t o r i a Citizenship Council were eventually taken over by the Greater V i c t o r i a School Board and continued on a nominal fee basis for a l l immigrants wishing to attend. One member organization of the Co-ordinating Council on Citizenship i n Vancouver, i s now conducting a survey of the E n g l i s h classes a v a i l a b l e to newcomers i n Vancouver, and at the same time i n v i t i n g the groups being surveyed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n this v i t a l work. Although the survey i s not 41 - yet complete, as the r e s u l t of the enquiry, one a d d i t i o n a l class has already been started by a church group within the c i t y . Language classes were being provided by the educational a u t h o r i t i e s i n Nanaimo, at the time the Uanaimo Ci t i z e n s h i p Council was formed. Response was poor, however, and the Cit i z e n s h i p Council attempted to stimulate interest i n these classes, and provided a s o c i a l "get together" for graduating classes. Success was l i m i t e d , however, because many new- comers l i v e d i n outlying d i s t r i c t s and could not get trans- portation to and from the classes, which were held i n the c i t y . Although the Council dropped this project, they did recognize the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by immigrants who could not speak E n g l i s h . This matter was discussed at a general meet- ing, and i n cooperation with the various ethnic group organ- i z a t i o n s within the community, the Council has been successful i n obtaining the services of twenty-four interpreters representing such languages as Dutch, Roumanian, German, French, Chinese, and the Slavonic group. The Vancouver Co-ordinating Council on Citizenship has also formed a committee to investigate the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n s t i t u t i n g a similar service within t h e i r community. They are also investigating the p o s s i b i l i t y of the establishment of a rotating loan fund to aid young immigrants, who are endeavouring to finance themselves while taking vocational courses i n the f i e l d s of the i r s p e c i a l aptitudes. The proposal i s that the loans be non-interest-bearing, and that - 42 - they he repaid hy the recipients a f t e r they have completed t h e i r courses, and have had s u f f i c i e n t time thereafter i n which to e s t a b l i s h themselves. Accommodation During the month of.May, 1951* the D i s t r i c t Superintend- ent of the Department of Immigration requested that the Vancouver Co-ordinating Council on Citi z e n s h i p a c t i v e l y a s s i s t i n the finding of accommodation for newcomers. The Council r e p l i e d that the problem of housing should be handled by government and employer sources rather than by a volunteer group. However, they did provide the Immigration Service with a l i s t of ethnic group organizations to whom they could turn for help with t h i s problem. Approximately one year l a t e r , the Council sent a l e t t e r to the Minister of the Department of Citi z e n s h i p and Im- migration i n which the problem of housing was outlined. It contained the s p e c i f i c request that the immigration building i n Vancouver be further renovated i n order to accommodate more immigrants upon t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Vancouver. The Minister r e p l i e d that the provision of further permanent hostels f o r immigrants was not planned by the government. He did advise, however, that i n the event of an emergency during the i n i t i a l establishment period, immigrants may be provided with food and shelter at government expense. The immigration building in V i c t o r i a i s a large structure which was designed to accommodate Chinese im- migrants during the era when they came to Canada i n great - 43 - numbers. During the post-war period t h i s building has been u t i l i z e d to accommodate recent newcomers, and as the number of immigrants a r r i v i n g i n V i c t o r i a i s less than the number destined f o r Vancouver, the s i t u a t i o n has not been so acute. The Inspector-in-Charge has also worked very c l o s e l y with the Greater V i c t o r i a Canadian Citizenship Council, the church organizations and the ethnic group associations within the c i t y . Thus the problem of emergency accommodation has been handled most adequately within the community. Although both Vancouver and V i c t o r i a have immigration buildings which can be u t i l i z e d for emergency accommodation, Manaimo has no such resource. The church groups and ethnic groups have been active i n finding accommodation f o r newcomers, but the Nanaimo Ci t i z e n s h i p Council has found the problem too large to be dealt with by t h e i r organization. Health and Welfare E a r l y i n 1952, the Vancouver Co-ordinating Council on C i t i z e n s h i p became concerned with the s i t u a t i o n facing new- comers who, through no f a u l t of their own, became i l l or l o s t t h e i r employment through accident. Many were i n occupations not covered by the B r i t i s h Columbia Workmen's Compensation Act, and because of lack of residence were not e l i g i b l e f o r s o c i a l assistance, or for the free medical care provided to recipients of this assistance. Therefore, on July 30, 1952, the Council sent a l e t t e r to the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration concerning the welfare of immigrants upon a r r i v a l 44 - i n Canada. The Minister replied that the Dominion govern- ment would provide welfare services to immigrants rendered indigent through accident or i l l n e s s during the f i r s t year following a r r i v a l i n Canada, provided the P r o v i n c i a l Govern- ment would share the cost on a f i f t y - f i f t y basis. These welfare services would include h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , medical care and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n assistance. The Council took the matter up with the P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s and was informed that early i n 1952 discussions took place between the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Health and Welfare, and the Federal Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration to arrange f o r payment of care which should be provided for the necessitous during the f i r s t year of residence. In December, 1952. the agreement was signed by the Province and sent to Ottawa. On March 24, 1953» the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Health and Welfare announced that "an agreement has been signed by the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l Governments i n respect to assistance to immigrants which i s retroactive to A p r i l 1, 1952. It i s considered that the agreement w i l l i n a great measure meet some of the needs of t h i s group of people....The Federal and P r o v i n c i a l Governments w i l l share equally, for a period not exceeding one year, the 19 actual cost of welfare assistance, medical treatment and 19 Welfare assistance means s o c i a l assistance, including medical treatment to unemployed immigrants, the treatment and care of children, or allowances" to mothers, i n such amounts and under such conditions (with the exception of a l l conditions r e l a t i n g to residence, i f any) as are respectively prescribed at the date hereof i n or under the S o c i a l Assistance Act R.S.B.C., 1948, Chapter 310, or the Protection of Children Act R.S.B.C., 1948, Chapter 47. - 45 - h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , including care i n s a n i t a r i a f o r the tuberculous and hospitals for the mentally i l l , i n any ease where ap p l i c a t i o n for welfare assistance or medical treatment has been approved, or h o s p i t a l expenses have been guaranteed, within a period of twelve months following the entry into Canada of the immigrant; provided that the P r o v i n c i a l Govern- ment w i l l not be responsible for any such expenses incurred 20 p r i o r to the entry of the immigrant into B r i t i s h Columbia." The matter of health and welfare has also been of concern to the Greater V i c t o r i a Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Council which decided on February 25, 1953» to approach the B r i t i s h Columbia Medical Association with a view to working out a scheme of medical assistance s i m i l a r to that by which the Bar Association now provided l e g a l a i d for indigents, to deal with the whole question of medical care, including preventive work and follow- up assistance for persons who have entered Canada under the assisted-passage scheme. At this time, of course, medical treatment for immigrants as provided for i n the Dominion- P r o v i n c i a l agreement was not available, but, even though the pressure has been relieved i n this respect, such a plan, i f instigated, would be of inestimable value to those domestics, who, a f t e r one year of residence, f i n d themselves unemployed but employable, and unable to meet the budget-shattering con- tingency which a major s u r g i c a l operation presents. 20 Department of Health and Welfare, S o c i a l Welfare Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia, C i r c u l a r l e t t e r S e r i a l Ho. 267P/201M, dated March 24, 1953. - 46 - The Greater Victoria Citizenship Council has been extremely active in attempting to alleviate some of the problems faced by those immigrants who arrive in the com- munity as domestic workers. The majority of these women are brought to Canada by the Federal Department of Labour under the assisted-passage scheme and also under contract. This contract reads as follows: I do hereby undertake that on my a r r i v a l in Canada I w i l l accept employment in domestic work. I agree to remain in such employment for a period of at least one year or until such time as the cost of my ocean transportation has been repaid in f u l l to the Government of Canada. I understand that i f I remain in the employment as selected for me for a period of at least one year the cost of my inland transportation in Canada w i l l be absorbed by the Canadian Department of Labour; but i f I should leave my employment before completing one year,. I shall be required to reimburse the cost of my inland transportation in Canada. On March 8, 1951» MacHamara, who was then the Federal Deputy Minister of Labour, was questioned before a Senate Standing Committee on Immigration and Labour concerning the contract labour of domestics and he made the following state- ment: "Well, these people agree to stay in domestic service for a year. That does not mean there is a 'deep freeze 1. They do not agree to stay with the same employer and we find a constant necessity for changing them....We move them around 21 quite a lo t . " 21 Canada, Proceedings of the Standing Committee on Immig- ration and Labour, Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1951» No.2, Thursday, March ti, 1951, p.3"l. - 47 - In spite of t h i s , the Greater V i c t o r i a Citizenship Council has "been concerned with the d i f f i c u l t y these women experience should they wish to repay the money advanced (especially for inland transportation) or change t h e i r employment. In part, this d i f f i c u l t y may he due to the amount of money owing for inland transportation, as women coming from Europe to B r i t i s h Columbia must traverse the continent and incur a much larger debt than those who remain on the East Coast. However, this i s not the only d i f f i c u l t y , as may be i l l u s t r a t e d by a case where the immigrant suffered from a skin eruption of the hands,, and requested that the Department of Labour change her employment. She made several v i s i t s to the l o c a l National Employment Service, but was unable to convince them of her r e a l i s t i c need for a d i f f e r e n t type of employment. The Greater V i c t o r i a Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Council intervened on behalf of the immigrant, and the matter was eventually brought to the attention of the Department of Cit i z e n s h i p and Immigration. A great deal of correspondence was incurred before this woman could be transferred from domestic work i n a home to chambermaid work i n a hotel where dishwashing was not required. In the interim she was required to remain i n domestic work where her ailment was constantly aggravated. The Greater V i c t o r i a Citizenship Council has encountered a large amount of misunderstanding among domestics. The Council has, therefore, requested that the Department of Labour make every e f f o r t to ensure that their Canadian representatives 48 - overseas are made aware of the s i t u a t i o n i n this country. They should he instructed to inform prospective immigrant domestics, emigrating under the assisted-passage scheme, of the domestic employment picture i n Canada; i . e . , (a) that there i s no labour code, (b) there i s no labour contract - with stated hours of work or stated salary, (c) no unemploy- ment insurance benefits are available, (d) there i s no work- men's compensation and (e) women i n domestic employment i n Canada have at the present time no l e g a l status whatsoever. The Greater V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p Council recognizes that t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y important i n view of the fac t that the conditions of domestic employment are often very d i f f e r e n t i n the homeland of the emigrating worker. Many European countries, f o r instance, include domestic service i n t h e i r labour l e g i s - l a t i o n , and provide safeguards for the domestic worker. Creating Interest i n Citi z e n s h i p The three Citizenship Councils studied have been most act i v e i n attempting to promote a Court House ceremony that i s i n keeping with the auspicious occasion of granting c i t i z e n - ship to new Canadians. They have met with varying success. How much can be accomplished i n this regard depends e n t i r e l y upon the at t i t u d e of the presiding Judge, and u n t i l a d e f i n i t e p o l i c y i s l a i d down by the j u d i c i a r y , the granting of c i t i z e n - ship w i l l remain c o l o u r f u l and stimulating i n some communities, drab and unimpressive i n others. However, each Council i s stimulating interest i n c i t i z e n s h i p within t h e i r respective - 49 - communities, by taking an active role i n the planning and presentation of Citi z e n s h i p Day ceremonies. The Greater V i c t o r i a Citizenship Council has been es p e c i a l l y active i n t h i s regard since 1949* They plan an extensive programme f o r the "I Am a Canadian" C i t i z e n s h i p Ceremonies which take place during mid-summer. A t y p i c a l programme w i l l include the introduction of Dominion and P r o v i n c i a l Government representatives, an address by a l o c a l community leader, a concert by a naval, m i l i t a r y , or R.C.M.P. band, and some appropriate ceremony designed to highlight c i t i z e n s h i p , e.g., administration of the oath of l o y a l t y to Canada to selected immigrants. Miss E l l e n Hart, a member of the Council, has written the following pledge, which i s re c i t e d by the audience: I am a Canadian c i t i z e n . I i n h e r i t from those who have l i v e d before me a vast and b e a u t i f u l land, a land of forest and p l a i n , lake, mountain and sea shore - a goodly land. I am heir of a proud record, f o r the hist o r y of my country abounds i n stories of the love of freedom, of courage, adventure, sober common sense and hard work. I accept my inheritance humbly, knowing that a country's greatness springs from the wisdom and v i r t u e of i t s people. To my country I pledge my l o y a l t y . I w i l l t r y to be a good Canadian, a good neighbour, and a good c i t i z e n of the world. P u b l i c i t y The Vancouver Co-ordinating Council on Citi z e n s h i p has recently been promised space, on a weekly basis, i n a - 50 - metropolitan d a i l y newspaper i n which the material to he published w i l l he translated into various languages. This w i l l provide an excellent opportunity to reach many immigrants who may he unaware of the services and resources i n the com- munity designed to a s s i s t them. Another plan which has been formulated i s the publication of a b u l l e t i n which w i l l contain information of intere s t to the l o c a l group* Contact has already been made with other c i t i z e n s h i p councils i n the Province for an exchange of ideas and problems. These w i l l be discussed i n the b u l l e t i n . The Greater V i c t o r i a Canadian Citizenship Council does not publish a b u l l e t i n , but i t has been fortunate i n e n l i s t i n g the cooperation of the l o c a l press and radio as evidenced by the success of the appeal mentioned previously. On the other hand, the Hanaimo Citizenship Council, probably because of lack of competition within the c i t y , has not been able to obtain a great deal of service from the l o c a l press and radio. Summary It should be pointed out that this chapter has not been a l l - i n c l u s i v e i n presenting the work of the Citizenship Councils studied.. Although the highlights have been a r b i t r a r i l y selected, an attempt has been made to give a concise and f a i r l y complete picture of what each Council i s doing and how they have handled s p e c i f i c problems i n order that some observations might be possible. - 51 - In the provision of housing, for example, although the Councils are aware of the important resource to be found i n church and ethnic groups i n providing temporary shelter, each r e a l i z e s that the problem i s too large for a voluntary group to handle adequately, and should be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of government or employer. Every Council has concerned i t s e l f with the need for E n g l i s h c lasses. The Nanaimo Ci t i z e n s h i p Council noticed that many immigrants were not too keen to a v a i l themselves of these classes. However, there was not enough information a v a i l a b l e from the other Councils to draw any conclusions. The "Vancouver Co-ordinating Council, for instance, i s con- cerned with the lack of English classes, rather than the lack of immigrants to f i l l them i f they are created. Both the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a C itizenship Councils have been quick to place before the various l e v e l s of govern- ment the problems faced by newcomers, i n an attempt to hasten action i n this regard, and also to keep the i r members informed of recent developments i n the area of welfare. . The Greater V i c t o r i a C itizenship Council has also i l - l u s t rated what can be done when there i s good l i a i s o n and cooperation between the voluntary group and government agency. The important r e s u l t was that the immigrants faced with forced idleness because of the seasonal nature of employment availa b l e to them were given tangible evidence of the concern i n the community, and of the intere s t i n the i r welfare. - 52 - F i n a l l y , the co-ordination between Citizenship Councils i s being made possible through the medium of the b u l l e t i n being issued by the Vancouver Co-ordinating Council on C i t i z e n s h i p . Although each Council i s autonomous and should remain geared to the needs of i t s p a r t i c u l a r community, exchange of ideas and suggestions eliminates overlapping. This r e s u l t s i n a co-ordinated e f f o r t by a l l Councils, aimed at stimulating interest and action by the f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and municipal levels of government. CHAPTER IV FUTURE ROLE OP CITIZENSHIP COUNCILS Citiz e n s h i p Councils have been organized as "community projects", and i t i s therefore not surprising that most of th e i r achievements are at the l o c a l or community l e v e l , i . e . , p a r t i c u l a r towns and c i t i e s . One contribution that they make to community l i f e , which may be overlooked, i s that t h e i r very existence i s evidence of the interest of private c i t i z e n s i n the welfare of immigrants. Through their e f f o r t s , other members of the community become interested i n the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by newcomers. An example of this i s the experience of the V i c t o r i a C i t i z e n s h i p Council when they made a public appeal for aid for immigrants who were temporarily unemployed, and b i l l e t t e d i n the l o c a l immigration b u i l d i n g . The co- operation of l o c a l press and radio f a c i l i t i e s was en l i s t e d , and the community response was encouraging. This p o s i t i v e response, i n addition to creating general i n t e r e s t within the community, was tangible proof to the immigrant of the com- munity's in t e r e s t i n him as an i n d i v i d u a l . He became aware that a voluntary e f f o r t was being made on his behalf. This knowledge had a reassuring effect at a time when he was facing many d i f f i c u l t i e s of adjustment, and when f i r s t impressions of his new environment were being formulated. The C i t i z e n s h i p Cduncils have been a c t i v e l y engaged i n an e f f o r t to eliminate some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by newcomers upon t h e i r a r r i v a l i n the community. Many voluntary man-hours - 54 - of work have been spent either i n getting new E n g l i s h classes started, or stimulating interest i n those already i n existence. Council members have assessed housing needs f o r immigrants and have at least made community members conscious of t h i s need. They have investigated the status of immigrant domestics i n the community, and have created a loan fund which can be drawn on by an immigrant who wishes to improve his academic standing or vocational s k i l l . Aa has been shown, success i n these and other ventures has varied, and has depended to a large extent upon the approach taken by the Council concerned. In general, however, the C i t i z e n s h i p Councils have succeeded i n creating an awareness of the needs of newcomers among responsible c i t i z e n s i n the community. They have also had success i n making newcomers conscious of the f a c t that some members of the community are interested i n t h e i r welfare. Inadequacies i n Canadian Immigration Programme Unfortunately, there are d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by newcomers, which cannot be handled at the community l e v e l . This i s well exemplified when an immigrant, brought to t h i s country by the Department of Labour to f i l l a s p e c i f i c job, leaves his em- ployment and moves to another section of the country. He a r r i v e s i n the new community looking for employment, but cannot obtain any. I f he is sent to the Immigration Service f o r assistance they are reluctant to help him, "because he i s a Department of Labour r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " . I f he applies to the National Employment Service he receives scant consideration - 55 - "because he has broken his contract". I f he i s referred to the community welfare services, they are unable to grant him assistance "because he has not established residence within the area". The r e s u l t i s that some charitable organization takes care of him on a per diem basis u n t i l one of the agencies mentioned i s f i n a l l y persuaded to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r him. This problem i s primarily the re s u l t of the dual re- s p o n s i b i l i t y shared between the Department of Labour and the Department of Citi z e n s h i p and Immigration. C i t i z e n s h i p Councils are aware that competition between groups and organ- iz a t i o n s within a community must be avoided; yet " u n t i l t h i s competitive element can be eliminated, no substantial gains 22 are possible". In Vancouver, f o r example, there are s p e c i f i c organizations dealing with such problems as r a c i a l prejudice and minority group r i g h t s . The Vancouver C i t i z e n s h i p Council met t h i s s i t u a t i o n by o f f e r i n g these groups representation i n t h e i r organization, i n order to avoid overlapping and dupli c a t i o n of e f f o r t . It may not be v a l i d to Btate that competition exists between the two Government Departments involved, but c e r t a i n l y at times there appears to be overlapping and duplication of e f f o r t , and confusion e a s i l y a r i s e s i f two government depart- ments appear to be "responsible". There may be an integrated 22 Atwater, Pierce. Problems of Administration i n S o c i a l Work, McCluin and Hedman Company, Minnesota, 1937* p»203« - 56 - policy regarding the selection and subsequent responsibility for immigrants laid down by the top levels of government, but i t seems evident that this policy f a i l s to s i f t down to the actual administrative level. It would appear, therefore, that Citizenship Councils should draw the attention of the federal government to the confusion that the present situation creates. This could probably be best accomplished by quoting cases in point to the local Member of Parliament, who is in a position to have the matter discussed at the appropriate level of government. Role of Councils with Ethnic Group Organizations This study has constantly referred to the ethnic group organization within the community, yet a l l too frequently these minority groups are neglected or even forgotten in community wide programmes. This is a problem that each com- munity must solve in i t s own way. Immigrants tend to seg- regate, in varying degrees into isolated and insulated groups. With 685*000 immigrants entering Canada since World War Two, this problem w i l l increase rather than decrease. For some of these people, especially displaced persons, Canada is not a country that has attracted them especially, but one to which they have come for assistance and a safe home. Deprived of security in their homeland, circumstance rather than choice has directed their steps to Canada. They have no strong desire to forget their own ways of doing things, their own customs and religion. In fact, after the insecurity of l i f e i n their - 57 - own land, i t is l i k e l y that they w i l l follow the ways of behaviour and religion which they understand, and which are meaningful to them, with renewed vigour when they are confronted with the strangeness of Canada* In search of security, they group together with those of their own kind where support can be counted on, and where they are able to prediet events with a reasonable degree of satisfaction. The entire immigrant family is usually included in this ethnic group association and this presents a special problem for the children. These children are exposed, in Canada, to an environment which expects from them substantial uniformity, yet their families encourage reproduction of alien ways. They are torn and confused by these conflicting values. With the often unwitting sanction of their school, they re- pudiate parental direction. Their alien home environment, and their lack of close contact with members of the majority culture group, make their problem of adaptation d i f f i c u l t . It should be pointed out, however, that not a l l ethnic group associations are composed of displaced persons, or for that matter, of individuals faced with a language barrier. The Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire is just as much an "ethnic group organization", in the sense required by the present study, as is the Chinese Benevolent Society. It must be recognized that this process of banding together, of forming the "in group", is largely an unconscious one to the newcomer or the ethnic group member. Moral codes are non- rational and are emotionally charged. Thus i t is that most - 5a - people do not analyze t h e i r culture; they l i v e i t , and t h e i r habits and customs have a deep emotional meaning fo r them - they cannot be l e g i s l a t e d out of existence. Helping these ethnic group organizations to accept the community and f i n d acceptance within i t , i s perhaps the greatest single challenge facing C i t i z e n s h i p Councils. The Vancouver Council has made a s t a r t i n t h i s regard by holding t h e i r meetings at the various ethnic group headquarters. In t h i s way, ethnic group members have an opportunity to meet members of the Council, which i s representative of a l l aspects of community l i f e . In V i c t o r i a , the various ethnic group associations have been encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c i t i z e n - ship ceremonies on "I Am a Canadian" day, and at a recent ceremony, c i t i z e n s h i p c e r t i f i c a t e s were granted to P o l i s h and Chinese immigrants. Polk f e s t i v a l s should also be encouraged i n order that each group may come to understand something about the culture of the other. It i s only through th i s kind of p r a c t i c a l , personal understanding that tolerance can be achieved* C i t i z e n s h i p Training with the Community The future r o l e of the C i t i z e n s h i p Council within the community should be to show, by example, that a democratic approach to c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g i s both v a l i d and e f f e c t i v e . Democracy must be practiced; i t must not be considered only as a t h e o r e t i c a l concept. As one noted Canadian has stated,, " i f we who l i v e i n the r e l a t i v e comfort of the l i b e r a l , - 59 - democratic., and nominally C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s of the West. disapprove of the solutions that are being offered by the representatives of another p o l i t i c a l f a i t h , i t i s time that we seriou s l y b e s t i r ourselves to prove that our way of l i f e has something p r a c t i c a l and ef f e c t i v e to offer....Complacent 23 preaching i s not enough. Neither i s m i l i t a r y strength." Unfortunately there i s a tendency on the part of many members of the Councils studied to be content with complacent preach- ing. An example of thi s i s the f a i r l y large percentage of members of B r i t i s h o r i g i n who have not applied f o r the i r c i t i z e n s h i p c e r t i f i c a t e s , but who advocate that "immigrants" must make an e f f o r t i n thi s regard. This presents a dilemma, because the Citi z e n s h i p Councils are committed to the task of making the community " c i t i z e n s h i p conscious". Before t h i s can be achieved, however, i n d i v i d u a l members must a t t a i n a r e a l understanding of the nature, p r i v i l e g e s , and obligations of c i t i z e n s h i p . They must also be aware of t h e i r own motivation f o r j o i n i n g the Council. One representative of a member group, of a Council studied, joined the Council with the s p e c i f i c purpose of advocating that Canada increase B r i t i s h immigration, and r e s t r i c t the i n f l u x of "foreigners". Other members have joined to "investigate" the incidence of "communism" among the new- comers to Canada. These, of course, are the personal con- siderations of the individuals concerned, or sometimes of ^3 K e e n l e y s i d e , Hugh, Is M i l i t a r y Defence Enough, Ci t i z e n s h i p Items pamphlet No.29> (mimeographed), Canadian Cit i z e n s h i p Council, Ottawa, February 27, 1953. - 60 - p a r t i c u l a r groups they represent. Such considerations may he v a l i d , hut they should he contributed to a group where they can be openly discussed. The Council i t s e l f must have some degree of common understanding, and must recognize some balance i n the Council's programme. To be successful i n inter e s t i n g the community member i n c i t i z e n s h i p , the Ci t i z e n s h i p Council must e n l i s t the help of a l l relevant community groups. Their programme must include a c t i v i t i e s which draw i n such groups as the Parent-Teacher Association, the Community Chest and Council, l o c a l government agencies, trade unions, r e l i g i o u s organiz- ations, ethnic group associations. An attempt to educate and inform executive members of these groups concerning c i t i z e n s h i p , could r e s u l t i n the i n c l u s i o n of c i t i z e n s h i p education i n the i r respective group programmes. The Ci t i z e n s h i p Councils should also appeal to government sources for leadership and c l a r i f i c a t i o n concerning c i t i z e n - ship education on a national l e v e l . In t h i s way an informed public opinion may emerge, as well as a more balanced and e f f i c i e n t e f f o r t , on the part of Cit i z e n s h i p Councils, to implement programmes of health, welfare, assistance, and c i t i z e n s h i p education. Appendix A BIBLIOGRAPHY I General References: Dawson, Robert MacGregor, The Government of Canada, The Unive r s i t y of Toronto Press, Toronto.. 1948. Harvey, Isobel, "A Study of Ten Lumigrant Families"„ A Research Project f o r the Department of Health and Welfare, B r i t i s h Columbia. March 11, 1947. Hillman, Arthur, Community Organization and Planning, The Macmillan Company. New. York. 1950* Kage, Joseph, "Immigration and S o c i a l Service". Canadian Welfare. The Canadian Welfare Council. Ottawa. V o l . 25, No. VIII . March, 1949. Kraus, Hertha,, "New.comers Orientation to the New Community," Journal of S o c i a l Casework. New York, Vol.29, No. I, January, 194b. King, Clarence, Your Committee i n Community Act i o n . Harper and Brothers• New York. 1952* Ogden, Jean and Jess, Small Communities i n Action. Stories of C i t i z e n Programs at Work. Harper and Brothers. New York. 1946. Peters, Clarence A., ed., The Immigration Problem, H.W. Wilson Company.. New York. 194b.. Rawley, Callum, "The Adjustment of Jewish Displaced Persons", Journal of S o c i a l Casework. New York, V o l . 25, No. VIII.. October, 194b. Reynolds, Lloyd G., The B r i t i s h Immigrant. Oxford Uniyersity Press. Toronto. 1945* - 62 - Rose, Albert, and Anderson, V i o l e t , "Into the Unknown Country", Food for Thought, The Canadian Assoc- i a t i o n f o r Adult Education. Toronto, V o l . 13» No. IV, January, 1953* Sanders, Irwin T., Making Good Communities Better. A Hand- book for Civic-Minded Men and Women. University of Kentucky Press. Lexington. 1950• Warner, W. Lloyd and Srole, Leo, So c i a l Systems of American Ethnic Groups, Yale University Press. New Haven. 1945. I I S p e c i f i c References: Abrahamson, Arthur C , et.. a l . , "Defining S o c i a l Casework", (A Report of a Student Group Pr o j e c t ) , Unpublished Manuscript, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, School of S o c i a l Work, Vancouver, B.C. Angus, H.E., "Canadian Immigration - The Law and i t s Administration", American Journal of International Law.. Washington, Vol.2b", No. I., January, 193b. Atwater, Pierce, Problems of Administration i n S o c i a l Work. McClain and Hedman Company. Minnesota. 1937* C ana da, Proceedings of the Standing Committee on Immigration and Labour, No. I I . Thursday, March ti, 1951* Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. 1951* P a i r c h i l d , Henry P r a t t , "Immigration and National Unity", The Immigration Problem, Peters, Clarence A., ed., H.W. Wilson Company. New York. 1948. Hamilton, Gordon* "Helping People - The Growth of a Profession" Journal of S o c i a l Casework, New York, V o l . 25, No. VIII. October, 1948. Harrington, B u f r i t t C., "The Government and Adult C i t i z e n s h i p Education", Peters, Clarence A., ed., The Immig- ra t i o n Problem. The H.W. Wilson Company. New York. 1946".. - 63 - Hendry, Charles F., "Summing Up", Food f o r Thought. The Canadian Association for Adult Education, Toronto, V o l . 13, Ho. IV. January, 1953* Keenleyside, Hugh, "Is M i l i t a r y Defence Enough", (Mimeographed Pamphlet) C i t i z e n s h i p Items Pamphlet Ho.29» Canadian.Citizenship Council, Ottawa. Feb. 27, 1953* Kurtz, R u s s e l l , ed., S o c i a l Work Year Book, lew York, American Association of S o c i a l Workers, 195 4 » H a f t a l i n , Arthur, ed., An Introduction to S o c i a l Science,. J.B. Lippincott -Company, Hew York. 1953*

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