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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A preliminary study of the moose (Alces and alces andersoni Peterson) in northern Manitoba, with special… Bryant, Joseph Edward 1955

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A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE MOOSE (Alces alces andersoni Peterson) IN NORTHERN MANITOBA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS MANAGEMENT by • JOSEPH EDWARD BRYANT A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Zoology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates f o r the degree.of MASTER OF ARTS^ Members of the Department of THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1955 V ABSTRACT A study of the history, numbers, d i s t r i b u t i o n , u t i l i z a t i o n , habitat, and economic importance of moose i n Manitoba north of the . 53rd p a r a l l e l , was commenced i n the spring of 1951 and continued f o r three of the following four years. In the past 200 years moose have advanced t h e i r range from the 55th p a r a l l e l and 97th meridian to the northern and eastern l i m i t s of the boreal fore s t * The advance i s considered to have been part of a "normal" p o s t - g l a c i a l movement accelerated by the concurrent extent sion of range of the Cree Indians which increased the number of f i r e -produced openings i n the for e s t . Limited a e r i a l censuses and ground counts by trappers showed few areas with more than 1 moose per square mile, but a number of iso l a t e d blocks with up to 1 moose per f i v e square miles. Adult sex r a t i o s approached 1:1 i n most areas where both sexes were hunted. Calf:cow r a t i o s approached 1:1 i n the trappers' censuses and .5:1 i n the a e r i a l censuses. I t i s believed that the true r a t i o probably l i e s near *75:1* U t i l i z a t i o n by man varied between 6 percent and 20 percent of the reported populations i n the Indian sections and between 2 percent and 12 percent i n other areas. In most areas the human k i l l was not excessive but was poorly dis t r i b u t e d i n time and space, and took too many calves. Wolf predation has probably been a l i m i t i n g factor i n the recent past but a government poisoning program has now vi eliminated the significance of t h i s f a c t o r . Accidental death through drowning takes a f a i r l y large annual t o l l . Parasitism, and disease are not considered s i g n i f i c a n t . Good habitat i s mainly dependent upon,fire-produced openings i n the coniferous forests and study of the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of controlled burning and clear-cutting i s suggested. A major l i m i t i n g factor f o r moose i s believed to be lack of variety of browse species. The economic value of moose i s placed at $384*000 annually, divided between Indians and non-Indians i n the. proportion of 3.8:1. Suggestions f o r the management of moose i n remote and accessible areas are given. CONTENTS Page Table of Contents i Abstract v Acknowledgments v i i PART I INTRODUCTION 1 PART I I DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA 5 1. Geography 5 2. Climate 6 3. B i o t i c Position 7 4. Human Population 9 a. Introduction 9 b. Indians 11 i . P r i m i t i v e Culture of the "Bush" or "Swampy"Cree ' . 11 i i . Changes i n t h e i r culture 14 i i i . Present So c i a l P o s i t i o n o f the Cree i n Northern Manitoba 18 i v . Economic Status of t he Cree i n Northern Manitoba 22 v. Present Numbers and Di s t r i b u t i o n of Cree i n Northern Manitoba 24 v i . The Cree i n W i l d l i f e Conservation 25 a. W i l d l i f e as Fur 25 1?» W i l d l i f e as Food 26 c Metis 28 d. Whites 29 5» Natural Resources 30 a. Mining 31 b. Forests 32 c. Waterpower 33 d. Fish and W i l d l i f e 33 e. Agriculture 36 f . Summary 37 PART I I I HISTORICAL SURVEY 1. Introduction 38 2. Pattern.of Settlement 45 3 . H i s t o r i c a l Records of Moose i n the Area 50 a. 17th Century 50 b. 18th Century 52 c. 19th Century 58 d. 20th Century 63 e. Summary 67 PART IV PRESENT STATUS OF MOOSE IN NORTHERN MANITOBA 1. Di s t r i b u t i o n 69 a. Introduction 39 i i Page b. Northern Limit of Di s t r i b u t i o n 71 c. Internal Pattern of Di s t r i b u t i o n 72 2. Factors Affecting D i s t r i b u t i o n 72 a. Introduction $2 b. Northern Limit 73 c. Internal Pattern • 73 i . Habitat 73 1. Climax Forests 73 2. Forest Fires 73 3. Riparian Habitat 74 4. Aquatic Habitat 75 5. S o i l Types 76 6. Summary 77 i i , Hunting Pressure 78 1. Human Abundance and D i s t r i b u t i o n 78 2. Mobility and fire-power of the Indian Population S i 3. Effect of Domestic and .Commercial Fishing 83 4. Effect of Abundance and Value of Fur Bearers 84 5. Summary 85 3» Abundance of Moose 86 a. Introduction 86 b. Registered Trapline Areas 86 i . Introduction 86 i i . Description of Registered Trapline System 87 i i i . Methods .89 - i v . Results 90 v, Discussion 95 1. Census Reports 95 a. Total Counts 95 b. Age and Sex Ratios ' 9 . 7 i . Age Ratios 97 i i . Sex Ratios 98 2. K i l l Reports 100 c. Summerberry Area (Saskatchewan River Delta) 101 i . Introduction 101 i i . A e r i a l Census 102 1. Methods 102 2. Results 105 a. General Notes on each F l i g h t 105 1. November 29, 1951 105' 2. February 4 and 5, 1952 107 3. May 6, 1952 108 4. December 10 and 15, 1952 109 5. December 12, 1953 109 6. December 7, 1954 H I b. Total Counts 112 i i i Page 1. Population Density 112 2. Sex and Age Ratios 112 i . Sex Ratios 112 i i . Age Ratios 113 c. Counts on Transects 14 to 17 in c l u s i v e 113 1. Population Density 114 2, Sex and Age Ratios 115 d. Counts by the w r i t e r compared to counts by the other observers ' 116 1. Population Density 116 2. Sex and Age Ratios 119 e. Variables Recognized 120 1. Weather 120 2. Time of Day 121 3. S t r i p Width 121 4. Observers 121 5. Eye Fatigue 122 3. Discussion 124 i i i . Ground Census 124 1. Method • 124 2. Results 124 3. Discussion 126 i v . Reports of Hunter K i l l s 127 1. Materials and Methods 127 2. Results 127 3* Discussion 129 v. General Discussion 130 1. Comparison of A e r i a l and Ground Surveys 130 2. Comparison of Census Results and Theoretically computed Population Relative Merits 132 4. Factors Affecting Abundance 133 a. Introduction 133 b. Breeding Potential 135 i . Methods 135 i i . Results 136 i i i . Discussion 138 c. Environmental Resistance 139 i . Decimating Factors 139 1. Hunting Pressure 140 a. Introduction 140 b. R.T.L. Sections (Less Central D i s t r i c t ) 142 i . Methods 142 i i . Results 143 i i i . Discussion 143 c. Mon-R.T.L. areas and the Central D i s t r i c t 146 i . Methods 146 i i . ' Results 148 i v Page a. Licensee Reports 148 b # Treaty Indian Permits 150 i i i . Discussion 150 a. License Returns, 1914-53 150 b. License Returns, 1951-1953 152 c. Treaty Indian Permit Returns 165 2. Predation 172 a. Introduction 172 b. Results 172 c. Discussion 181 d. Summary 186 3« Parasites, Accidents and Disease 186 PART V ' HABITAT STUDIES 1. Introduction 188 2. Methods 189 3. Results 192 . 4» Discussion 198 PART VI. ECONOMIC ROLE OF MOOSE IN NORTHERN MANITOBA 1. Introduction 207 a. In Remote Areas 207 b. In Accessible Areas • 209 2. Summary 211 PART VII MANAGEMENT 212 1. Regulation of Hunting Pressure 213 a. In Remote Areas 213 b. In Accessible Areas 219 2. Predator Control 222 3. Habitat Improvement 223 PART VIII SUMMARY 225 •LITERATURE CITED , 231 APPENDIX A following 24$ ILLUSTRATIONS Following Fig. 1. Geological Sketch Map of Northern Page Manitoba 5 Fig. Z. Forest Classification (Halliday , 1957)» and northern Clay Belt (Ehrlieh ,1952:) . 6 Fig. 5 . Human population Distribution 49 Fig. 4 . Moose Range Limits. 67 Fig. 5 . Distribution of moose in Northern Manitoba based mainly on trappers' reports, 1955-54 71 Fig. 6 . Gunisao Lake area,black spruce forest. 74 Fig. 7. Otter Lake area-:, BanksdLan pine forest. 74 Fig. .8. Connelly Lake area-., white spruce-Banksiain pine forest 74 Fig. 9 . Cross Latce area-:,small burned patch and mature white spruce. 74 Fig.10 . North of Cranberry Portage.A panorama.. 74 Fig.11 . Favourable post-fire regeneration 74 Fig. 12:. Direct post-fire regeneration of conifers. 74 Fig.15 . Direct post-fire return to Banksian pine 74 Fig. 14. Bennett River, riparian habitat 75 Fig. 15» Blackwater Lafce area,aerial view, of riparian habitat 75 F i g . l 6 . Split Lake: sect ion, riparian habitat.. 75 Fig. 17. Head River Lake area:, balsam poplar on am old ri v e r levee. 75 F i g . l 8 . Sepastic River, a panorama of a riparia-n border 75 Fig. 19. Division of Northern Manitoba into Registered Trapline • Sections 88 Fig.2.0. Typical divis-ion of a Registered Trap-line section into traplines 88 Fig. 21 . Aerial Transects. Summerberry Marsh 101 Fig.22. Plan of cards used to record aerial transect data. 10.5 Fig . 2 3 . Distribution of moos:e hunting pressure.. 143 Fig. 24. pukatawagan, distribution of main moose-hunting pressure 143 Fig.25. Geographic divisions used in analysing moose hunting license returns 148 Fig.2d. Annual k i l l of moose and deer in Manitoba estimated from hunting license returns.. 150 Fig . 2 7 . Antler-point distributions, 1951-52-53.. 1&2 Fig.2.8. Distribution of antler-points by modal classes 162 Fig.29. Hudson Bay Railway vegetation transect...189 Fig.30. Original exclosure fence i...l90 Fig.31. Second exclosure fence 190 Fig.32. TJnbrowsed red osier dogwood 201 Fig.3 3 . Moderately browsed red osier dogwood 201 Fig. 34. Heavily browsed red osier dogwood 201 Fig.35• Nine-year-old red osier dogwood. Heavily u t i l i z e d "broom*.., 201 TABLES Page Number 1. Economic worth of the meat of game animals to residents of the remote areas of Northern Manitoba 35 2. Historical Summary ....... 39 - 44 3. Registered Trappers* Re turns.Moose. Census; and. K i l l in Northern Man-it;oba, 1940-50 to 1953-54 91 4. Summary of Age and Sex Returns in Trappers* Census 94 5 . Summary of Age and Sex Returns in Reported K i l l in Registered Trapline Sections 94 6 . Moose Populations in Portions of Northern Manitoba, 1952-53 and 1 9 5 3 - 5 4 . . . . . 96 7. Summary of Sex Classifications of Trappers* Censuses ....98 8 . Summary of Known Aerial Moose Census; Reports in North America .103 9 . Summary of Aerial Moose Censusies of the Sask-atchewan River Delta 106 10. Summary of Aerial Censuses on Transects 14 to 17 inclusive:,Saskatchewan River Delta. .107 11. Summary of Moose Recorded by Each of Three 110 Observers on the December 12, 1953» Aerial Census; 12. Summary of Moose Recorded by Each of Three Observers on the; December 7» 1954, Aerial Census I l l 13. Moose seen on the? Four North Transects 115 14. Summary of Moose Recorded by the; Writer, Summerberry Aerial Census 117 15. Summary of Moose Recorded by Observers Other Than the Writer,Summerberry Aerial Census 118 16. Summary of Individual's Records on the Four Northern Transects 119 17. Summary of Conservation Officers* Moose Census Reposts from the Saskatchewan River Delta 125 18. Summary of Conservation Officers» Reports of Moose K i l l e d in the Saskatchewan River Delta....125 19. 1955 Hunting Statistics for the Saskatchewan River Delta 128 2 0 . 1953 Moose Hunting Statistics for the aerial Census: Area 12.8 21. Breakdown of Sex Ratios of Moose Reported K i l l e d by Treaty Indians i n the Aerial census Area 129 22. Summary of Population St a t i s t i c s Obtained by Aerial and Ground Surveys ..151 25. Summary of Age and Sex Ratios Obtained by Three Methods of Census. 157 24. Theoretical Breeding Potential of Moose Population 140 25. Summary of Annual K i l l of Moose in Manitoba from 1914 to 1955, Estimated from License Returns. 149 2 6 . K i l l of Deer in Manitoba, 1955-1952:, Estimated from Hunting. License Returns 152 27. Analysis of Hunters' License Returns to Show Estimated Total K i l l . ..154 2 8 . Summary of Statistics Derived from Hunting License Returns,Northern Manitoba,1951-1952-1955 155 29. Summary of Northern Manitoba Moose Hunting Statistics by Areas Hunted and Geographic Source of Hunters, 1951^52.-55 Number of Licenses Returned 156 5 0 . Monthly K i l l of Moose by Treaty Indians in the Summerberry Fur Rehabilitation Block 166 51. Treaty Indian Special Permits, Summerberry Marsh 1952-55-54 167 5 2 . Moose K i l l by Treaty Indians,1955 find 1954, in the Summerberry Marsh in the summer as Compared to the K i l l in the Winter 167 5 5 . Numbers of Moose Killed, by the three Indian "-Bands in the summerberry Marsh. 169 34. Sex Ratios of Moose Reported: K i l l e d by Treaty Indians in the Summerberry Marsh, 1933 170 35. Relative Abundance of Wolves, Moose and Woodland Caribou on 22 Traplines 177 36. Percentage of Traplines Reporting a Census, Cormorant Map Sheet Area 178 37 . Relative Abundance of Wolves, Moose and Woodland Caribou in the Herb Lake Group..... -..178 3 8 . Percentage of Traplines from which Census Reports were Received, Herb Lake Group . .179 39. Stomach contents of 25 Wolves examined in the^  Spring of 1954 180 40. Stomach and Intestinal Contents of 37 Wolves examined in the Spring of 1954 181 41. Relative Dominance of 9 Trees and Shrubs at One-miane Intervals along the Hudson Bay Railway. 193 42. Counts of Stems and of Browsed and Unbrowsed Twigs of Red Osier Dogwood 195 43. Counts of Stems and of Browsed and Unbrowsed . Twigs Occurring in a l/10th.acre Exclosure 196 44. Twig Counts of a Random Sample of Willow Bushes. 197 4 5 . Moose Population and Crop Statistics, 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 . 2 2 0 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Material for this thesis was obtained while the writer was employed by the Game and Fisheries Branch, Department of Mines and Natural Resources, Manitoba, Thanks are due to Mr* G.W. Malaher, Director, Game and Fisheries Branch for permission to use this material and for his encouragement and criticism during the course of the study. Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan, Head, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, provided valuable criticism and comments during the course of the study end of the manuscript. Special thanks are due the office and f i e l d staffs of the Game and Fisheries Branch in northern Manitoba without whose constant assistance and advice this thesis would have been impossible. Acknowledgement i s made to Mr. A.J. Reeve, Executive Assistant, Department of Mines and Natural Resources, Winnipeg, who designed the original study program and who gave much assistance both i n office and f i e l d ; To Mr. F.B. Chalmers, Supervisor, Northern Resources Area, whose stimulation opened many new approaches; to Mr. H.R. Conn, Chief Fur Supervisor, and to other members on the staff of the Indian Affairs Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration for advice and comments on the work dealing with Treaty Indians; to the staffs of the Manitoba Legislative Library and the Library, Faculty of Medicine, University of v i i i Manitoba, whose assistance greatly simplified literature research; to Dr. P.A. Larkin, Assistant professor, and Mr. F.H. Fay, graduate student, of the Department of Zoology, University of Brit i s h Columbia for assistance with s t a t i s t i c a l problems; to Dr. H.B. Hawthorn, Professor of Anthropology, University of Brit i s h Columbia, for assistance with literature relating to Indians; to Dr. V. Krajina, Associate Professor, Department of Biology and Botony, University of Brit i s h Columbia, who introduced the writer to the f i e l d of forest ecology; and to the many hundreds of trappers, hunters, and other interested persons who provided much of the information upon which this thesis i s based. To my parents, gratitude i s extended for their encouragement throughout the years spent i n the University. Finally, i t i s especially pleasant to have this opportunity to thank my wife for her constant help and encouragement through the whole study and for- preparing the f i n a l illustrations. PART I . INTRODUCTION Before the i l l - f a t e d Henry Hudson sail e d into the bay now bearing h i s name and thus l a i d the groundwork for opening a »back door 1 , to early Canada, the aborigines of Manitoba, a few members of the great Athapaskan (and Algonkian?) race, were obtaining a somewhat hazardous l i v e l i h o o d from the f u r , game and plant resources of the area. Following the recession of the i c e of the Wisconsin g l a e i a t i o n , some 5,000 years ago, plants and a n i * mals, including man, began to populate the area. By the time i t was 'di s -covered 1 by the white man, a w e l l established biota was to be found. Because there was p r o f i t a b l e commerce i n furs during the l ? t h , 18th and 19th centuries, development of northwestern Canada consisted mainly of exploration f o r and establishment of posts to further the trade. Everyone l i v e d to a large extent on the natural produce of the land. Un~ scrupulous trapping and trading practices tended to impoverish each new area that was uncovered, causing the focus of the fur trade gradually to move westward* The f u r trade thrived where the human population was small and the harvestable area vast. Under such conditions the game resources, although perhaps unethically hunted according to present standards, pro-bably f e l t the effect of humans only s l i g h t l y — except that forest f i r e s probably increased i n number and thus altered range conditions. With the advent of the 20th century and i t s headlong f l i g h t to ind u s t r i a l i s m , the human population i n the northwest began to soar. 2 Prospectors pounded and powdered t h e i r way over the vast Pre-Cambrian "Canadian Shield" i n summer and often stayed to trap through the winter* Farming spread to the very doorstep of the boreal fo r e s t , sawmills, t i e and pulp camps variously followed and l e d to mines and mine s i t e s newly discovered by the prospector-trappers. S t i l l everyone t r i e d to l i v e as much as possible on the country Ts natural produce, and i n some places the s t r a i n was more than could be borne* In northern Manitoba concern about the near-disappearance of beaver resulted i n the establishment of registered t r a p l i n e s i n 1940-46 and i n 1950 concern about the reported diminution i n numbers of moose resulted i n the i n i t i a t i o n of the present study of the r S l e played by that species i n the economy and ecology of the north. In a memorandum dated A p r i l 9, 1951 and on f i l e at the Winni-peg Office of the Game and Fisheries Branch, the purpose of the study was set out by A. J . Reeve, B i o l o g i s t , as follows: "The commencement of a two-to-three year population and d i s t r i b u t i o n study including study of a l l ob-tainable information on moose f o r the recent pastj habitat studies; economic importance to residents of remote areas, and pos i t i o n as sporting game. I t i s planned to begin the srtudy i n the northern portion of the Province f o r the following reasons: (a) The season i s closed i n the south and therefore takes care- of the s i t u a t i o n f o r the present. (b) Moose are shot mainly f o r sport i n the south, whereas i n the north they are taken p r i -marily for food and clothing. (c) There i s an immediate problem i n the north i n as much as some polic y should be formulated before next f a l l as to whether sport hunting i s to continue." Thus the reasons f o r and the scope of the study were b r i e f l y described and i t was on t h i s stage that the study began. The f i r s t task was to discover where moose were to be found w i t h i n the area and i n what numbers. To t h i s end an appeal to the ad«* minist r a t i o n of registered trap l i n e s brought f o r t h estimates of abun-dance on each of hundreds of t r a p l i n e s . This trapper census had been i n i t i a t e d i n a small way i n the Central D i s t r i c t (see Part IV f o r des-c r i p t i o n of R. T. L. administrative sections) i n the f a l l of 1949 and i n 1951 i t was extended to other organized sections. With information on population and d i s t r i b u t i o n being accumulated, attention was turned to such matters as population trends, age and sex r a t i o s , habitat con~ d i t i o n s , decimating influences and to an attempt to coordinate a l l of these factors into a f l e x i b l e management program. A e r i a l censuses were conducted on a suitable t e s t area, license returns were analyzed and questionnaires, personal interviews, and l i b r a r y research were employed to f i l l i n needed background information. As no previous study had been made of any of the large game animals of northern Manitoba, one of the main contributions of t h i s study has been the delineation of range l i m i t s and population trends. Since any management program f o r the area w i l l of necessity have to be based on a number of years of experimentation, no f i n a l statement con« cerning t h i s phase of the work can be made now. The known recent i n -creases i n numbers of moose i n a portion of the range have however indicated that heavier hunting pressure can be withstood there and experiments during two hunting seasons indicate that an open season on both sexes i s having no harmful e f f e c t . The study has also shown that 4 i t would be desirable to spread hunting pressure i n t o some of the l e s s accessible areas, but no experimental work to t e s t ways and means of doing so has been done,, Nor have experiments been ca r r i e d out on habi-t a t improvement although i t i s now rea l i z e d that continued or increased abundance of moose i n t h i s northern area i s very l a r g e l y dependent upon openings i n the forest cover. The r S l e of the natives i n the economy of the area i s considered as w e l l as the role of the moose i n the economy of the natives and the attitude i s taken that people are as much a r e -source as w i l d l i f e — or minerals or forests — and must be considered i n their, true p o s i t i o n as one of the most important facets of the ecology and management of other resources* PART I I . DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA Geography "Northern Manitoba", i n popular usage includes a l l of the province l y i n g north of the 53rd p a r a l l e l north l a t i t u d e . This i s the area with which the present study has been mainly concerned* The t o t a l area of Manitoba i s 246,512 square miles, of which approximately 26,790 square miles are water. Northern Manitoba con« st i t u t e s 68.9 percent of the t o t a l or 169,750 square miles (15,590 * square miles water). (Figures supplied by Surveys Branch, Department Mines and Natural Resources, Winnipeg). As indicated i n F i g . 1 the largest portion of the area i s underlain with rock of Pre-Cambrian age,, with Paleozoic limestones situated- i n the southwest and northeast. I t i s estimated that the i c e sheets of the l a s t g l a c i a t i o n receded from the area approximately 5,000 years ago ( F l i n $ , 1953, P1.3) and that during the Late G l a c i a l epoch, Lake Agassiz covered "Almost a l l of Manitoba west of the 95th meridian and south of the divide between Burntwood and Ch u r c h i l l r i v e r s ..." (Antevs, 1931, P»46) Crystophenes (buried sheets of i c e ) ( T y r r e l l , 1904) and permafrost s t i l l underlay very large t r a c t s of the northern part of the area (Jenness, J . L. 1949). The "Great Lakes" of Manitoba, remains of Lake Agassiz, are prominent features on present?-day maps and the "Old Beach" notation on To follow page 5 6 the prominent ridges p a r a l l e l i n g the shores of Hudson Bay attests to an e a r l i e r , larger Bay. Eskers and mer^aines are prominent features of the area, p a r t i c u l a r l y of the northern part, and the great clay deposits of the south central portion (See F i g . 2) show the r e s u l t s of sedimentation at the time of the great g l a c i a l l a k e . Following recession of the i c e , plants and animals gradually moved into the area u n t i l today only a small portion around Hudson Bay i s not covered with trees ( F i g . 2)* Although not d e f i n i t e l y reported upon i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s considered that, as Griggs (1934) found i n Alaska, the edge of the tundra i s gradually being pushed back as the f o r -est advances. Further south, plants and animals are s t i l l advancing northward and occasional vagrants are found w e l l beyond t h e i r normal population range. Drainage i s from west to east, towards Hudson Bay. The t e r r a i n i s generally very f l a t with consequent poor drainage and a high water table* In the northwest ( i . e . north of the 58th p a r a l l e l and west of the 100th meridian), the t e r r a i n i s more rugged, being furrowed with dozens of eskers and with round-topped "mountains" f i v e hundred feet or more i n height. The west^central portion (drained by the Grass, Burntwood and Chur c h i l l r i v e r s ) i s rough,, rocky country with sections r i s i n g more than 1,000 feet above sealevel, whereas the elevation i n the f l a t east-central and southern portions seldom r i s e s above 850 feet . Climate The climate, too, trends from southwest to northeast (Connor, 1939), the annual average d a i l y mean temperature at The Pas being 31° F» To follow page 6 H U D S O N X Fig. 2. Forest Classification (Halliday,1937), and northern Clay Belt (Khrlich,1952). 2 B15 Manitoba Lowlands BS1 Nelson Hirer B22 Northern Coniferous o B27 Northern Transition -p i Main Deposits Localized Deposits SgKJsilty Sediments xxxxx The Pas Morain s.ovir3 aaaaea. w , « . » , . . , . • 3 O « 0 » • and a t C h u r c h i l l 18° F, I t i s a land of cool temperate climate, modi« f i e d i n part by Hudson Bay and the large lakes, July average maxima range from 75° F. at The Pas to 64° F. at C h u r c h i l l and January average minima from »18° F. at The Pas to *-27° F, at Ch u r c h i l l * (Anonymous, n*d., Climatic Summaries, V o l , 1) , The average f r o s t ^ f r e e period i s about 100 days at The Pas and 70 days at C h u r c h i l l and the vegetative seasons at the two points are about 160 and 90 days respectively (Currie, 1948). P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s l i g h t , averaging about 15 inches per year, of which approximately two-thirds f a l l s as r a i n during the growing season of May to September and the r e s t mainly as snow (computed on the basis of 10" snow • 1" water equivalent) from October to A p r i l . (Anon, n.d. Climatic Summaries, V e l . I ) . B i o t i c Position The area l i e s almost wholly w i t h i n the Hudsonian B i o t i c Pro* vince of Dice (1943) and the Northern Coniferous Forest Formation of Shelford (1926, p.264). I t i s composed of parts of four Sections of Halliday*s (1937) Boreal Forest Region (Fig . 2 ) *• v i z . , Manitoba Lowlands, (southwest Paleozoic area) Nelson River (clay b e l t ) , Northern Coniferous (Pre-Cambrian area east and west of the clay b e l t ) and Northern Transi-t i o n (zone of integradation between forest and tundra). Costing ls (1950, p,240 f f . ) Boreal Forest Formation and Weaver and Clements 1 (1938, p«48 f f . ) Picea-Larix Formation also cover approximately the same area as Halliday*s and Shelford*s groupings. In the southern portion, white spruce (Picea glauca) i s found on the better-drained s i t e s , black spruce (Picea mariana) and l a r c h or tamarack (Larix l a r i c i n a ) on the a wetter s i t e s , and. Jack pine (Pinus Banksiana) on dry, rocky or sandy s i t e s j balsam f i r (Abies balsamea) i s present but not abundant i n t h i s areaj paper birch (Betula papyrifera) i s frequently found associated with white spruoej and b i r c h and. trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) are common p o s t - f i r e invaders on w e l l drained s i t e s from which the humus has not been t o t a l l y burned* Jack pine i s the common post f i r e invader on rocky areas from which most of the humus has disappeared* Bogs are not so frequently burned as are d r i e r locations, and are normally rein« vaded by spruce and l a r c h without a deciduous successional stage* In the northern portion of the area (but south of the tundra) black spruce inhabits both the lowlands and uplands and white spruce becomes a l e s s prominent component of the vegetation. In the northwest sandhill region Jack pine, aspen and bir c h are dominants (none however growing to com*» mercial size) on the w e l l drained areas and black spruce on the low-lying wet lands* In the f l o o d p l a i n of the Saskatchewan River are found a number, of plant species belonging to b i o t i c communities farther to the south and east. F a i r stands of Manitoba maple (Acer negundo) may be found here as w e l l as sparse showings of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and white elm (Ulmus americanal. Mountain ash (Sorbus sp.) (gyrus sp.) was seen i n the Norway House area and was reported to be growing near Wabowden* The species thrives i n gardens at The Pas and two bur oaks (Quercus  macrocarpa) have had a hazardous existence i n the town park at The Pas -» we l l north of t h e i r normal range. Typical components of the fauna are moose, woodland caribou 9 (Rangifer caribou), barrenground caribou (Rangifer a r c t i c u s ) , beaver (Castor canadensis), muskrat (Ondatra zibethica ), mink (Mustela vison), wolf (Canis lupus), black bear (Ursus americanus), boreal redback vole, (Clethrionomys gapperi), snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus); spruce grouse, (Canachites canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), sharp-tailed grouse (Pediocetes phasfanellus)', willow and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus and L, r u p e s t r i s ) . and snow bunting (Plectrophenax n i v a l i s ) * Human Population a) Introduction There i s an oft-recurring statement i n recent w i l d l i f e litera« ture that game management i s dependent more upon the "management11 of man than of the game animals themselves, and i n order to manage man i t i s f i r s t of a l l necessary to understand something of h i s background, h i s culture, his economic status and h i s psychology* In northern Manitoba the native peoples are the ones who harvest the largest proportion of the annual game crop ( i n the case of moose, they harvest an estimated eighty percent of the annual crop), and extensive management procedures must take t h i s f a c t into consideration. The following analysis may appear naive i n some respects, especially to those schooled i n the d i s c i p l i n e s of geo-graphy, sociology, anthropology or ethnology: i t i s not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of the subject, but considers people from the view* point of a b i o l o g i s t interested i n the wise use of w i l d l i f e , and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , of moose. Just as moose cannot be studied i n t e l l i g e n t l y without reference to t h e i r environment, so the management of moose cannot be considered i n t e l l i g e n t l y without reference to the wider f i e l d of the 10 management of the associated game and fur animals and of the economic, c u l t u r a l , and s o c i a l status of the peoples • concerned.. There are four reasonably d i s t i n c t r a c i a l types of peoples i n northern Manitoba: the o r i g i n a l inhabitants, the Cree and Chipewyan Indiansj whites of diverse extraction but mainly Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxonj and persons of mixed Indian and white bl»od who, f o r want of a more descriptive term, w i l l be referred to as metis. The Cree belong to the Algonkian race, the Chipewyan to the Athapaskan, The l a t t e r appear to be r e l a t i v e l y recent post-Pleistocene immigrants from Asia and are pro-bably mongoloidj the former are considered by Jenness (1937) to be of older stock than the Athapaskans, non-mongoloid, and perhaps more cl o s e l y r e -l a t e d to Europeans than to the Indians of Canada's west Coast* The Atha-pascans (Chipewyans) occupy the extreme northern part of the province, mainly beyond the areas where moose compose an essential part of the fauna, and w i l l therefore be omitted from the following discussion. Throughout the remainder of the northern part of the province, the Cree are the main Indian t r i b e , although i n the southeast portion there are a number of closely*related Saulteaux, Because of t h e i r close r e l a t i o n -ship and apparently i d e n t i c a l present-day culture these Saulteaux w i l l be considered without d i s t i n c t i o n from the Cree* The majority of the metis have chosen to follow the Indian way of l i f e rather than the white and l i v e i n close apposition to the lixdians throughout the area. They are considered separately from the Indians mainly because they are f u l l c i t i z e n s and do not enjoy certain p r i v i l e g e s accorded to the Indians. 11 The white population i s concentrated mainly i n the larger centres along the railways but a few are located i n the remote areas, some as trappers but most as traders, missionaries and government employees* b) Indians i * P r i m i t i v e Culture of the "Bush" or "Swampy" Cree At the time of f i r s t contact with white man the Cree appeared as a nomadic group of the boreal forest i n the James Bay-Lake Superior area, l i v i n g i n conical or dome-shaped lodges covered with skins or birch bark (and spruce bark?). They were hunters whose l i v e s depended on t h e i r prowess with snowshoe, canoe, bow, spear and snare* They apparently wandered i n small family groups, meeting i n larger rendez-vous only once a year* Of these spring assemblages, Skinner (1912, p*56) has said, "During the two or three weeks of t h e i r duration, the few ceremonies and councils of these people were held, and the miteo, or prophet, prophesied the events of the coming year* At t h i s a time the feasting or greeting dance was held*" Also at t h i s time the younger men and women obtained t h e i r marriage partners* Their d i e t was primarily meat augmented occasionally by f i s h and probably by berries i n season* They apparently did not "clean" t h e i r game and f i s h , eating the stomach and i t s contents i n the case of moose and woodland caribou, and the complete e n t r a i l s of ducks, geese and f i s h , thus obtaining highly n u t r i t i o u s foods that the white man normally wastes* Even as recently as the f i r s t decade of the present century, Skinner (191}£, p*26) reported that the Cree of the James Bay area s t i l l made a thi c k soup of the blood "mixed with the undigested white moss (lichen) 12 found i n i t s (the caribou's) stomach and sometimes Trock weed* (a lichen) i s added to thicken i t «*. The legbones of the caribou are pounded to a powder »*• to eat on the journey ••• A small bag-like part of the c a r i -b o u ^ stomach ... i s used as a k e t t l e f o r cooking food*" The n u t r i t i o n a l value derived from ingesting lichens i s questionable, but at least by eating a l l the parts, they would have obtained as much food value as pos-s i b l e from the animals k i l l e d * Mien more meat was avail a b l e than could be u t i l i z e d immediately, i t was dried and smoked over an open f i r e . Regarding vegetable foods, Skinner (1912, p*30) has stated that "they were almost unknown* Berries, especially blueberries, were eaten. They were boiled u n t i l they formed a t h i c k paste, and then cut into loaves. As most of the Eastern Cree t e r r i t o r y i s beyond the northernmost range of the sugar maple, they have no maple sugar or syrup; but *birch water molasses' i s made. Boots are often eaten* The tops and stems of w i l d onions (Allium) are cut up and b o i l e d , but the roots are not eaten. A plant said to resemble rhubarb (Rhus] i s also used." The writer has un-covered no evidence to indicate that berries were used i n pemmican by the early Cree. At the time of the f i r s t Jesuit records of the t r i b e they were said to make occasional t r i p s southward to obtain maize from the more a g r i c u l t u r a l southern t r i b e s , but even t h i s supplement seems to have been l i t t l e used and may have been a recent innovation at the time the Jesuits f i r s t recorded i t * During periods of food s c a r c i t y these people knew extreme priva-? t i o n and the legends of cannibalism among them attest to t h e i r sometimes precarious l i f e . I t was because of t h i s precarious existence that they 13 d i d not l i v e i n v i l l a g e s or even i n large roaming bands but i n small groups most commonly of one family or of one central family accompanied by a few small f i l i a l groups. Their clothing was e n t i r e l y of animal o r i g i n . Caribou and moose hides were used for moccasins, leggings, hooded coats and mittens; beaver f o r s h i r t s (dressed with the fur side i n , from whence came the fur t r a d e r T s term "Coat Beaver"); f i s h e r and other f i n e f urs f o r caps and leggings; wov-en rabbit skins f o r blankets and, according to Skinner (1912, p,15) f o r moccasins f o r walking on glare i c e . The l i s t need not be expanded — the Cree were dependent almost s o l e l y on the forest animals f o r t h e i r food and cl o t h i n g . They were also dependent upon the big game animals f o r shelter. Their conical or domed loges were most commonly covered with the skins of moose or caribou, although they also u t i l i z e d b i r c h bark and possibly even spruce bark f o r t h i s purpose. Their snowshoes were laced with animal "babiche" and t h e i r canoes were covered with b i r c h bark, (Apparently the Cree d i d not make skin-covered canoes as did some of the plains Indians and the Chipewyans,) The use of dogs to p u l l toboggans or sleds i n p r e h i s t o r i c a l time i s denied by some writers and supported by others. I t seems to the present w r i t e r that the maintenance of any large number of dogs would have sorely taxed the food resources of a forest people dependent upon primitive weapons, and that i f dogs were used at a l l they were probably few i n number and used more for hunting game than as draught animals, (In t h i s regard i t i s of i n t e r e s t to note that the Chipewyans i n early 14 times would not use t h e i r dogs to p u l l toboggans, "because they believed t h e i r t r i b e had descended from a connection between a dog and a woman" (Birket-Smith, 1930, p.40)), i i Changes i n t h e i r culture Perhaps one of the most important early changes wrought by white man was the introduction of fire-arms, thereby permitting greater exploitation by the Cree of the forest animals and of the surrounding Indian t r i b e s (especially of those t r i b e s which could not gain access to the white fur traders without passing through Cree t e r r i t o r y . Apparently very soon a f t e r the English established trading posts on James and Hudson Bays, the Cree began to fl o c k to them, t h e i r l i v e s became centered around the annual t r i p to the post, and i n order to obtain the new "necessities" such as muskets, axes, knives, tea, tobacco and alcohol, the emphasis of t h e i r hunting a c t i v i t i e s shifted from food gathering to f u r gathering. As f u r trappers and as middlenmen traders between the English and the more distant t r i b e s , the Cree prospered. Within a century of the founding of the English posts they had expanded t h e i r range westward to the Rocky Mountains and northward from Churchill to Great Slave Lake. Perhaps i t was smallpox that ended t h e i r sudden r i s e , perhaps i t ended because the white f u r traders moved westward too and brought the balance of power back to a more normal l e v e l by dealing d i r e c t l y with the t r i b e s which the Cree had subjugated. Whatever the cause, the Cree began to lose t h e i r influence, and by the end of another century l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r former glory was l e f t except the huge area of t h e i r new range. As the r i f l e replaced the bow, so the trap replaced the p r i m i -t i v e snare. The new axes and s t e e l c h i s e l s permitted easier access to 15 beaver under the i c e of their winter ponds^traps and r i f l e s permitted easier destruction of game and f u r animals. Desire f o r the white man'Ts goods encouraged the k i l l i n g of more and more animals, and the f o r e s t s which had o r i g i n a l l y provided the Indians with a generally s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v e l i h o o d became depleted of the necessities of l i f e . L i t t l e by l i t t l e more time was spent i n the v i c i n i t y of the posts. The culture changed from a nomadic existence i n which every family was e n t i r e l y s u f f i c i e n t unte i t s e l f to a semi-nomadic existence where every family was dependent upon the white trader, to greater or lesser degree for i t s very existence. S t i l l , i t seems to have taken the twentieth century, with i t s increased transportation f a c i l i t i e s to bring about the almost complete acculturation of the northern Cree. So long as the traders could not provide a l l the necessities of l i f e f o r the Indians because costs of transportation were too high, the natives were forced to obtain at l e a s t part of t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d from the chase, and to spend at l e a s t the winters away from the trading posts, trapping f u r bearers and generally following some of the aboriginal pattern of l i f e . As the traders increased the v a r i e t y and quantity of t h e i r wares, the natives began to spend l e s s time i n the forest, remaining only long enough to obtain a supply of furs which would permit them to obtain food and clothing at the posts. From the o r i g i n a l practice of spending only one to three days at the post i n the early summer and returning to t h e i r hunting grounds for the remainder of the year, they advanced (or regressed, perhaps) to spending a few weeks and then a few months at the posts, and, as the influence of the churches increased, they even returned to the posts at Christmas and Easter, Where o r i g i n a l l y a hunter came to the post i n the spring with 16 a supply of f u r s , obtained certain goods i n trade and departed with them, through spending i d l e time at the post i n the summer, he approached the winter with i n s u f f i c i e n t materials to carry him through the trapping season, and the enslaving credit system arose* Under t h i s system a trapper would obtain from a trader s u f f i c i e n t c r e d i t i n trade goods to carry him through the trapping season and vihen he returned to the post i n the spring the trader would f i r s t deduct the amount of the debt before allowing new pur-chases to be made* Most frequently the trapper would barter whatever f u r was l e f t f o r a few "necessities" plus many worthless items and f i n d that i n order to go back to his trapping grounds he would have to obtain more c r e d i t . As Valentine (1954) has mentioned, being i n debt soon became "the accepted mode of l i v i n g " . Woollen clothing replaced t h e i r native f u r s , canvas replaced b i r c h bark f o r covering lodges and canoes; bannock (a crude form of wheat bread) became a "necessity" where animal products had previously s u f f i c e d ; tea and tobacco were nearly indispensible; and, of course, fire-arms and ammunition, knives, axes, c h i s e l s , traps, and snare wire became essential parts of the trapper*s o u t f i t where primevally h i s two hands had been h i s only basic essentials. With the increase i n expensive "necessities", more cr e d i t had to be obtained and more furs had to be turned i n to pay o f f the debt. I t was, and i s , a "vicious c i r c l e " . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to see the many ramifications of the widespread influence of the churches i n changing the Cree*s way of l i f e , but c e r t a i n l y one of the most notable, i f l e a s t commendable, features of the missionaries 1 influence was the tendency to draw the natives into central communities. 17 The early Jesuits nearly despaired o f ever converting the Cree because they never stayed i n one place long enough to be instructed i n the Chris-t i a n l i f e . The European-trained missionaries appeared to consider that agriculture and v i l l a g e l i f e were necessary concomitants of C h r i s t i a n i t y and worked assiduously to bring such conditions about* While there i s not the s l i g h t e s t doubt that i t was through high p r i n c i p l e s and i n the b e l i e f i that such an existence was i n the n a t i v e s 1 best i n t e r e s t s that these z e a l -ous men strove to bring the Indians i n t o communities, i n retrospect i t appears to t h i s w r i t e r that t h e i r doing so simply aggravated an unhealthy trend, and hastened the degradation of the race* A combination of factors l e d the Indians i n t o v i l l a g e l i f e ; but t h e i r conversion to any form of agriculture other than the growing of a few potatoes has yiet to take place. The missionaries also banished much of the old Indian medicine l o r e — a f a c t which has been regretted by at l e a s t one medical doctor who has r e * cently worked among them (Corrigan, 1946)* The b e l l that t o l l e d f o r the passing of the bow, t o l l e d more loudly as the years.went by and one item a f t e r another slipped away and was l o s t from the culture. With the introduction of industry i n the form of r a i l r o a d s , c i t i e s , mines and timber production, the b e l l was gradually slowed so that i t s sound was heard by only a few. In some areas i t stopped* The old culture withered and was l a i d to r e s t . In other areas, while dying, i t s t i l l shows flashes of l i f e , and with that l i f e the hope that i t can be maintained, even i f not rejuvenated. I t can be maintained through i n t e l l i -gent u t i l i z a t i o n of the w i l d l i f e resource, through the integration of w i l d -l i f e and other forms of l i v e l i h o o d , through teaching the natives to appre-c i a t e t h e i r own c u l t u r a l background and showing them what they have l o s t 18 through t r y i n g to imitate every aspect -r* both good and bad — of the white man's culture. I t seems in e v i t a b l e that the Cree eventually w i l l be assimilated into the polyglot of n a t i o n a l i t i e s that i s emerging as "Canadian", but these people are only a ,few generations removed from stone age nomads and the present trend toward rapid deculturation i s e v i l because i t i s leaving them with a bastard culture, an unuseful mixture of sophistication and.savagery, that i s unsuited to t h e i r environ-ment and to th e i r slow r a c i a l advance from the stone age. I t i s making an o r i g i n a l l y proud race into a race of beggars and parasites* I f the Cree are to be made into useful c i t i z e n s they must be re-taught how to l i v e with t h e i r environment. I t must be the aim of re« sources administrations to make that environment support as many as possible with a standard of l i v i n g that w i l l permit health, happiness and pride to return. I f the environment cannot support a l l of them then i t must be the task of the administrations concerned to see that the overflow i s taken care of i n other environments i n which i t . i s possible f o r honest li v e l i h o o d s to be made. Game management i s only one' part of the mosaic, but i t i s one of the most important. I t aims to promote the best possible u t i l i z a t i o n of the game and f u r resources over the longest possible period of time, i i i Present Social P o s i t i o n of the Cree i r i Northern Manitoba According to the 1944 census of Indians i n Canada (Canada, 1945),, there were 7,051 Indians l i v i n g on f i f t e e n reservations i n northern Manitoba at that time. Other smaller reservations have also been set aside f o r them but are not mentioned i n the census report. The Cree a l l profess one or another form of C h r i s t i a n i t y , about t h i r t y percent belonging to the Roman 19 Catholic Church and the remainder to various protestant branches, c h i e f l y the Church of England, Their dominant source of l i v e l i h o o d i s from f u r trapping and hunting although i n recent years more of them have also become part-time fishermen on the many commercially-fished Lakes of the north* A few are employed as laborers on the railways, i n the mines, logging and prospecting camps, i n the larger settlements such as the Pas, and occasion-a l l y by the trading posts, missions and hospitals i n the more remote areas. They are educated at mission schools and at schools operated by the federal government, and while the rate of i l l i t e r a c y i s steadily dropping, only a very small percentage advance beyond grade-school l e v e l . Two boarding schools are operated by the Roman Catholic Church, one at the Pas and one at Cross Lake, Some Protestant pupils are sent to a government boarding school at Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. Free medical services are operated by the federal government through a hos p i t a l at Norway House and nursing stations at most of the larger Indian centres. Some intermarriage with whites and with metis occurs but the writer has no s t a t i s t i c a l reference on t h i s point, Indian-white marriages are usually of a white man to an Indian woman although supposedly the reverse combination may occasionally occur. Indian-metis intermarriage appears to be on a more re c i p r o c a l b a s i s . About ten years ago a medical survey team studied the Indians of northern Manitoba, and i n one part of t h e i r report gave a v i v i d description of Indian housing and sanitation: "Today the Indian i s copying the white man and l i v e s during the winter months i n small one-roomed shacks. Frequently the conditions are almost unbelievable -as many as 10 to 12 people l i v i n g i n a shack 12 feet 20 square. The only furniture may consist of a box stove i n the centre and a small table or s t o o l . Sometimes there may be one broken down single bed, but the majority sleep on the f l o o r . The door i s seldom more than 5 feet high and i s covered with a blanket or old piece of canvas to keep out the wind. Two small windows l e t i n the l i g h t , and the sole source of v e n t i l a t i o n i s the stove and f a i r l y large hole i n the f l a t roof f o r the stove-pipe. Their sanitary habits are very p r i m i t i v e . Refuse and excreta l i t t e r the snow i n the immediate v i c i n -i t y of the house. With the advent of spring the whole family moves to tents, which they set up a few hundred yards away, and t r u s t to the spring and summer ra i n s to wash away the refuse. During the summer months they frequently change the l o c a t i o n of the tents as they move about i n t h e i r quest f o r food." (Moore, et a l . , .1946, p.226) At the present time winter quarters on the trap l i n e s i n the majority of cases do not d i f f e r m a t e r i a l l y from Moore rs description* Houses i n the settlements are generally of much better q u a l i t y and where l o c a l sawmills have been introduced, many good frame buildings have recently been b u i l t . Furnishings are generally few however, even i n the best houses, C l e a n l i -ness varies from scrubbed and water-bleached f l o o r s to almost unbelievable squalor. As f o r community sanitation, there was no need f o r i t i n the r a -c i a l h i s t o r y of the Cree, and i t appears as though i t w i l l take considerable teaching, patience and time to bring them to r e a l i z e the need for i t , -Cer-t a i n of the Indian Health Service nurses are to be commended f o r t h e i r r e -cent work i n t h i s regard. Now the Indians (and metis) are frequently referred to as being l a z y , whereas t a l e s of t h e i r hardihood, stamina and energy i n the past are leg i o n . Medical authorities have recognized t h i s change as fact and believe i t has been brought about l a r g e l y through a decreasing plane of n u t r i t i o n which i n turn has been fostered by the increasing tendency of the Indians 21 to l i v e as much as possible "off the shelf" and l e s s and l e s s " o f f the land". N u t r i t i o n a l studies (e.g., Moore, et aL, 1946; Vivian et a l . , 1948) have shown that the c a l o r i c intake from store foods i s quite small (varying from an average of 1,470 calories at Norway House, Manitoba, i n 1941, to 1,915 and 2,387 at AHawapiskat and Rupert Ts House, Ontario, respectively, i n 1946-47). Vivian et a l . (1948) showed that the Cree i n the James Bay area had a d i e t high i n protein but very d e f i c i e n t i n c a l -cium and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and Corrigan (1946) i n reporting a case of scurvy i n an Indian woman at Norway House, Manitoba, has also decried the unbalanced d i e t . He compared the Indians of northern Mani-toba to "persons of low economic status i n the southern United States. They have t h e i r sow b e l l y and g r i t s , the Cree Indian has his s a l t pork and white f l o u r " . While at Norway House i n the f a l l of 1951, the w r i t e r was informed that there were then twelve Indians with scurvy i n the l o c a l h o s p i t a l . Tuberculosis i s also rampant among them, the l a t e s t available figures f o r Canada as a whole showing an-incidence of 480.1 per 100,000 among Indians whereas the incidence of tuberculosis i n non-Indians ( i n c l u d -i n g Metis) i n Canada at the same time was only 32.4 per 100,000 (Canada, 1950?). This k i l l e r i s being subdued, however, by increasing treatment and by early diagnosis through annual X-ray c l i n i c s . Venereal disease (both sy p h i L l i s and gonorrhoea) i s said to be common, but the writer has seen no figures on i t s suspected incidence. Because of these d e b i l i t a t i n g influences, the Indian i s often considered by p o t e n t i a l white employers not to be a p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f i c i e n t workman and h i s assimilation into the o v e r a l l s o c i a l structure of the area o i s therefore hampered. Notable exceptions occur, and certain individuals 22 are given high preference where they have shown themselves w i l l i n g and capable of doing p a r t i c u l a r jobs," Those who have been able to remain aloof from what may be considered almost a r a c i a l love of alcohol have been especially favoured. Their poor n u t r i t i o n a l status also r e s u l t s i n lack of aggressiveness on the t r a p l i n e , . i v Economic Status of the Cree i n Northern Manitoba The main income of the natives i s from the sale of f u r s , which, i n 1953-54 averaged about four hundred d o l l a r s per trapper. The returns from trapping fluctuate with the vagaries of fashion and the variations i n abundance of f u r bearers, but the introduction of registered traplines has tended to offer some measure of s t a b i l i t y and has very noticeably increased the abundance of beaver. I t has also forced the natives to make more complete use of the avail a b l e fur producing areas* An increasing number of natives i s being used i n the commercial f i s h i n g industry. Here the recorded income per fisherman i s considerably higher than the income per trapper but only.a small f r a c t i o n of the popu-l a t i o n can be u t i l i z e d * A few Indians are also employed as labourers at great variety of non-wildlife i n d u s t r i e s , but figures on per capita income from these sources are not a v a i l a b l e . As the population increases, overcrowding on trapl i n e s becomes more acute and the more energetic and ambitious i n d i v i -duals tend to seek t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d elsewhere. The effect of t h i s emi-gration w i l l probably be to foster a lowering of the percentage of "good" trappers and may have unfortunate consequences i n the remaining population. Income from government allowances i s headed by the Family Allow-23 ance which, since i t s introduction i n July, 1945, has been one of the mainstays of the economy* In 1948 the federal government introduced special allowances f o r aged Indians. Shortly thereafter the general Old Age Security Pension f o r a l l over seventy and the Old Age Assistance Pension f o r those i n need over s i x t y - f i v e were introduced and are shared i n equally by Indians and non-Indians. The federal B l i n d Persons Allow** ance i s also paid to Indians i n that category. The free medical services available to Indians have been very greatly expanded i n recent years (the annual appropriation has r i s e n from about two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s to about thirteen m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n the past ten years; Jones, 1954) and the decrease i n T.B. and infant mortality i s r e f l e c t e d i n a r a p i d l y pyra-miding population (an increase of 25 percent has been recorded f o r Manitoba i n the l a s t ten years; Jones, 1954)* The increasing population and the new tendency towards v i l l a g e l i f e are making the task of w i l d l i f e management increasingly d i f f i c u l t . In some areas there are now more trappers than there i s trapping ground to support them, but so f a r there appears to be no long-range administra-t i v e planning to take care of the overflow* The fur resource has been made to produce an increased annual y i e l d i n recent years but present management programs do not appear capable of stretching i t much fa r t h e r . Increasing poverty can be expected i f "remunerative employment for which they w i l l show some aptitude" i s not made available f o r those who are capable of leaving t h e i r trapping existence and moving i n t o some other f i e l d . The Family Allowance i s not the entire blessing i t appears to be on the surface* Where schools are available — and more are being 24 b u i l t each year — the children must be i n registered attendance i n order f o r t h e i r parents to receive the Allowance, This means that the trappers must go to t h e i r traplines alone and maintain t h e i r families i n the v i l -lages instead of taking them to t h e i r traplines as they had done t r a d i -t i o n a l l y . The lone trappers are discontent and return to the v i l l a g e s at every opportunity. They are able to bring i n small quantities of w i l d meat, but as t h e i r winter transportation i s either on snowshoes p u l l i n g a handwtoboggan or by poor to mediocre dog teams, the amount they can bring i n i s very l i m i t e d . The families must therefore depend , very l a r g e l y on l o c a l l y available f i s h and on what foods they can buy at the trading posts with t h e i r small cash incomes. Meat of game animals and fur bearers i s under-utilized, the health of the village-dwellers decreases, and the trappers, by spending much of .their time i n the v i l l a g e s and i n t r a v e l l i n g back and forth to t h e i r t r a p l i n e s , are not making the best use of the available fur resource. One of the greatest tasks of the Conservation Officers today i s simply t r y i n g to get the trappers out to t h e i r l i n e s and to keep them there. The Family Allowance, which i n theory should have been a tremendous boon to t h i s low-income and large -familied. group, has, paradoxically, proven just the reverse, . v Present Numbers and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Cree i n Northern Manitoba The most recent published figures of which the writer i s aware are those of the 1944 "Census of Indians i n Canada" (Canada, 1945). At that time there were 6,685 Cree and Saulteaux Indians recorded l i v i n g on reserves i n northern Manitoba. The present population i s probably between 8,000 and 8,500 of which about twenty percent are registered trappers, • The population i s mainly concentrated i n f i f t e e n reservations, of which, 25 i n 1944, the smallest was Moose Lake with 112 and the largest was Island Lake with 1112, The model group had 493 and the average was 514 i n d i v i -duals per reservation. Except f o r the Central D i s t r i c t , where only three Indians were registered trappers i n 1953-54, the Indians are d i s t r i b u t e d a l l over northern Manitoba during the trapping season, each making h i s headquarters at one p a r t i c u l a r reservation, v i . The Cree i n W i l d l i f e Conservation In the following discussion, " w i l d l i f e " w i l l be considered mainly as meaning f u r bearers and big game. This i s not to indicate that the writ e r f e e l s that f i s h are of minor importance, but he does not have suffi« cient f a m i l i a r i t y with the problems of f i s h conservation to discuss the subject with any degree of competence. Even without great acquaintance with the subject, however, i t i s evident that intensive research into f i s h e r i e s management i n t h i s northern area i s a crying need at the. pre» sent time. From the viewpoint o f an observer interested i n wise use^ of animal resources, the present commercial f i s h e r y i n northern Manitoba appears to be suffering from two needless and unfortunate circumstances, lack of s c i e n t i f i c information concerning the resource and too mmch p o l i -t i c a l interference with i t s management, a) W i l d l i f e as Fur On the whole, the Cree have cooperated w e l l i n the program of fur-bearer restoration and management which has been sponsored j o i n t l y by the federal and p r o v i n c i a l governments through the registered trap-l i n e program i n the past decade. Their handling of pelts has generally improved, and they have gradually come to r e a l i z e that i n order to have something to trap they must leave some animals as breeding stock. In. 26 f a c t they may have learned t h i s lesson too w e l l ; f o r , as the fur-bearer populations rose, i t became d i f f i c u l t to convince them that they must trap more heavily i n order to maintain the stocks i n balance with the "carrying capacity" of t h e i r t r a p l i n e s . This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the beaver populations, and over-stocking of beaver was possibly i n s t r u -mental i n increasing the severity of the die-off that has occurred i n t h i s species i n the l a s t three years. From the point of view of the present study, the Indian trap-pers, through t h e i r annual census of fur bearers and game animals on t h e i r t r a p l i n e s , have provided a picture of density and d i s t r i b u t i o n of many species that could not have been even guessed at previously. Their census attempts appear to be improving each year and w i l l be extremely useful i n future management studies* b) W i l d l i f e as Food I t i s axiomatic that i n order to make the best use of a resource, as l i t t l e as possible should be wasted.' Apparently when each family l i v e d together i n the fore s t , f a i r l y high u t i l i z a t i o n of the meat from "furbear-ers was made, but with the trend to v i l l a g e l i f e i t i s becoming increasingly d i f f i c u l t f o r them to u t i l i z e t h i s food source f u l l y . The two furbearers which are mainly used for'food are beaver and muskrats* Both are trapped mainly i n the spring and frequently i n proportions which make i t impossible f o r a l l the carcasses to be eaten, especially since the weather at t h i s time of the year may at times be very warm and conducive to b a c t e r i a l de-* composition. Some carcasses, p a r t i c u l a r l y of muskrats, are dried, but t h i s means of preservation may o f f e r even greater p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r more 27 complete u t i l i z a t i o n . At the height of the muskrat trapping season, break-up usually makes t r a v e l very d i f f i c u l t and prevents the'trappers from taking the carcasses to the settlements* Increased u t i l i z a t i o n of f u r bearers as food would tend to r e l i e v e some pressure from big game and appears to of f e r a valuable f i e l d of experimentation. In t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n of big game the Cree are t y p i c a l l y com-munistic *• i n the pre-Marxian connotation of the term. For instance, i f an Indian comes in t o a v i l l a g e with the carcass of a moose i t i s expected that everyone may share i t , and although he has not personally witnessed i t , the writer has been t o l d that not infrequently the hunter gets a les s e r portion than do some of the others. Game animals are generally f u l l y u t i l i z e d except for the digestive t r a c t , lungs and skeleton. The l i v e r , heart, tongue, kidneys, v i s c e r a l f a t , and i n the case of moose, the nose, are choice partsj the hide i s tanned and used mainly f o r moccasins and occasionally f o r parkas; and marrow from the long bones i s also often eaten. In the summertime the meat i s often smoked and dried on a rack over an open f i r e - a very s a t i s f a c t o r y means of preser« vation. As w i l l be discussed i n another section of t h i s paper, b i g game hunting i s centred on the settlements and most e a s i l y accessible waterways, so that some areas are barely hunted at a l l while others are over-hunted. This uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of hunting pressure reduces the annual percentage of the t o t a l big game population which can be u t i l i z e d . Methods designed to d i s t r i b u t e the pressure more evenly would improve u t i l i z a t i o n of the resource by harvesting surplus animals that are now being wasted and by permitting the over-hunted areas to support popula-28 tions more i n keeping with t h e i r "carrying capacity". While the Cree have apparently learned some of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying f u r management, most of them have not yet been able to transfer t h i s learning to manage-ment of big game. This subject w i l l be brought up under the section '"Management" and some of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of better u t i l i z a t i o n discussed at that time. ( c Metis Although the metis are a very diverse group, the common l o c a l appellation of "non-treaty Indians" i s descriptive of the great majority of them; f o r while etymologically the word "metis" means one of half-blood or half-caste, i n practice i t refers to almost everyone who appears to be "part Indian". The r o l e of the metis i n w i l d l i f e management i s less clear-cut than that of either Indians or whites because, while most of them i n the remote areas are s o c i a l l y indistinguishable from Indians, they are l e g a l l y i n the same category as whites. I t i s probable that i n order to be s o c i a l l y j u s t , laws regarding management of game i n the remote, low-income areas, w i l l have to be d i f f e r e n t from these i n the more settled and higher-income areas along the railways. No precise figures are known to be available concerning the number of metis, but i n the Indian Sections of the Registered Trapline system they compose something less than ten percent of the number of trappers, and pro** bably occur i n about the same proportion i n the population. This approach would place t h e i r numbers at s l i g h t l y l e s s than eight hundred at the pre-sent time. In the more settle d areas along the railroads perhaps another 29 three hundred may occur. This l a t t e r group tends to have a higher stand-ard of l i v i n g than the res t and i s becoming increasingly assimilated into the general s o c i a l pattern of the white population.. For these reasons i t appears j u s t i f i a b l e to regard them without d i s t i n c t i o n from whites so f a r as game management i s concerned. d. Whites In the remote areas of the Registered Trapline System only s i x -teen whites were l i s t e d as trappers i n 1954 as compared to nearly sixteen hundred Indian trappers. By comparison, i n the four largest centres, F l i n Flon, The Pas, Lynn Lake and Snow Lake, the white population probably approached twenty thousand at t h i s time. Because of t h e i r small numbers i t would appear f i t t i n g that game management plans fo r the remote areas should include those whites whose l i v e l i h o o d i s dependent upon trapping rather than to t r y to discriminate between white and metis. However, i t i s not expected that such plans should include whites who are g a i n f u l l y employed i n the v i l l a g e s or as transient commercial fishermen, prospect-ors, etc. The writer*s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s attitude i s that almost a l l of these white trappers are nearly as much permanent f i x t u r e s i n t h e i r respective areas as are the Indians and, l i k e the Indians, can hardly be regarded as free to " p u l l up t h e i r stakes and return south" to more re-munerative p o s i t i o n s . They, too, are part of the resources of the area. Some of them have Indian or metis wives and i t would appear unjust and unwise to draw even a technical b a r r i e r between a father and h i s sons simply on the basis of colour. On the other hand, those whites i n the remote areas who are g a i n f u l l y employed i n occupations other than trapping 30 are such a diverse group, including missionaries, traders, c i v i l servants, prospectors, fishermen, and a v a r i e t y of other categories, that i t would probably be l e g a l l y and s o c i a l l y impossible to d i f f e r e n t i a t e among them. I t i s not expected that t h i s heterogeneous group should be included i n the same plan of management as the white trappers. The t o t a l white population of northern Manitoba probably l i e s between 23,000 and 25,000* Of t h i s number seventy-five to eighty percent l i v e i n four main centres — F l i n Flon, The Pas, Lynn Lake and Snow Lake. The major source of employment i s the mining industry. NATURAL RESOURCES One might be i n c l i n e d to think that a discussion, even a b r i e f one as here, on such things as mineral resources and i n d u s t r i a l develop-ment, forestry, and water power, might be out of place i n a consideration of the management of big game, and yet these aspects of the modern environ-ment have just as much significance as the forest cover i t s e l f * The boreal forest i s one of comparatively low s o i l f e r t i l i t y ( c . f . Cowan, 1951) and the wealth of information now available proving the relationship of s a i l f e r t i l i t y to game abundance (Leopold, 1947J Denney, 1944$ Crawford, 1950; Steen, 1947; A l l a n , 1950; and many more) makes i t necessary to r e a l i z e that i f the human population of the area should increase manifold, due to i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , there would be less game per i n d i v i d u a l than now, even with more intensive management. Unlike more f e r t i l e regions to the south we cannot hope to produce very large populations of game animals here. (Leopold, 1954, f o r instance states that i n C a l i f o r n i a , with i t s population of 12,000,000 persons, duck marshes are being f i l l e d i n f o r i n d u s t r i a l 31 s i t e s and a g r i c u l t u r a l f l a t s "swallowed up i n r e s i d e n t i a l suburbs", and < yet even on marginal land enough game can be produced to supply,'to greater or lesser degree, the growing demand for f i s h and game.) a. Mining Mining i s a new f i e l d of resource development i n northern Manitoba* The f i r s t gold was taken out i n 1917 from Herb Lake and i n the same year the f i r s t copper, gold and s i l v e r was produced by the Mandy Mine near the present F l i n Flon. (Manitoba, 1952*6). A number of mines such as those at Gx>dts Lake on the east and Elbow.Lake on the-west have opened and then f a i l e d when either the veins ran out or the market slumped, but the main producer to date, F l i n Flon, appears to be i n a p o s i t i o n to maintain production f o r many years yet. New devel« opment i s prominent: the Lynn Lake mine (nickel) i s now i n production; the Snow Lake mine (gold) i s beginning to take on the dignity expected of a stable community; and feverish a c t i v i t y i n uncovering n i c k e l depos-i t s a l l the way from the 55th p a r a l l e l to w e l l north of the p r o v i n c i a l boundary indicates that yet another large producer may be expected i n the next few years. Metal mine production i n 1952 was i n excess of $14,000,000 (Richards, 1953) and i n 1951 i t was over $19,000,000 (Richards, 1952). There has been i n the past some fear that mine t a i l i n g s were causing p o l l u t i o n to f i s h i n g waters but, so f a r as the writer i s aware, t h i s fear has not been w e l l based nor have reports been received by the writer that smelter smoke or fumes were causing damage i n the F l i n Flon area. With increased i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n however, the danger of p o l l u t i o n of water and a i r w i l l increase and i t should be recognized that the best 32 remedy i s prevention, •With more mines, greater hydro-electric development must be envisaged. With more power available, greater exploitation of other resources may be expected. With t h i s exploitation w i l l come more humans^, With a greater human population greater demands w i l l be placed on the w i l d l i f e resources. And w i l d l i f e managers must be looking to t h i s future. W i l d l i f e administration should be aware of t h i s trend, aware that greater stresses are going to be placed on the w i l d l i f e resource as other resources are developed, and planning f o r the future through f a c t -f i n d i n g , experimentation and through close l i a s o n with a l l other parties concerned with land use, b» Forests I t i s estimated (Chalmers, 1954) that should hydro»electric development take place as presently expected, a sustained y i e l d cut of 280,000 cords of pulpwood i s available f o r a m i l l or m i l l s which i t i s expected would be established i n the area. What effect would t h i s degree of forest e x p l o i t a t i o n have on w i l d l i f e ? (Present annual cut i s about 13,000 cords and t o t a l value of forest products produced i n Northern Manitoba i n 1953-54 was $1,027,000. Figure supplied by Mr, C* Patterson, D i s t r i c t Forester, The Pas), What s i l v i c u l t u r a l practices w i l l give the greatest sustained benefits to forest, w i l d l i f e , s o i l , water, and r e -creational resources? No integrated program i s at present i n effect to produce s c i e n t i f i c a l l y sound answers to these questions and yet the day of such exploitation i s just around the corner. 33 c, Waterpower Mention has been made of hydro-electric development. I t i s estimated (Hogarth, 1953) that the undeveloped water power resources of Manitoba exceed 3,000,000 horse power (at ordinary minimum flow) ninety-eight percent of which l i e s i n the northern area. Present developed power i s just over 700,000 horse-power with only one percent coming from the northern area. I t i s obvious that development of water power must take place as industry advances and these figures make i t obvious where i t i s going to take place. I t i s c e r t a i n l y not obvious what effects such development w i l l have on the w i l d l i f e resource which, i n t h i s land of l i m i t e d f e r t i l i t y , w i l l have to be managed closely and well i f future generations are to enjoy i t . d, Fish and W i l d l i f e The commercial fishe r y resource o f northern Manitoba i s worth approximately $1,000,000 annually. (Malaher, 1953). Fishing i s carried out on over s i x t y lakes each year and as cheaper transportation methods are made avai l a b l e , more remote lakes become economical producers. I t would appear to the writer that the t r i a l and error basis used i n opening lakes and setting l i m i t s must soon give way to methods based on b i o l o g i c a l l y sound assessments i f the resource i s to be u t i l i z e d to i t s greatest sus-tained annual y i e l d . No figures are available concerning the sports fis h e r y , but i t i s apparent to the most casual observer that i t i s growing very rapid-l y . F i f t y thousand d o l l a r s was re a l i z e d from the sale of non-resident angling licenses i n 1952-53, but t h i s figure i s f o r the province as a whole and there i s no in d i c a t i o n of what portion i s at t r i b u t a b l e to the • 34 northern area (Malaher, 1953). The rapidly expanding simmer t o u r i s t business i s l a r g e l y attributable to sports f i s h i n g . The fur resource (as compiled by the writer from annual r e -ports of Registered Trapline Officers and from the Summerberry Fur Re-h a b i l i t a t i o n Block reports) i s worth about $900,000 annually under pre-sent low market prices* This resource, subject to fluctuations i n a n i -mal populations as well as to the whims of fashion and the effects of world tension and unrest, i s not renowned for i t s s t a b i l i t y . The effects of introducing registered traplines during.the past decade has-however, had somewhat of a s t a b i l i z i n g influence through encouraging managed crop-ping rather than a "trap out and get out" p o l i c y . There i s need for more knowledge of the biology of fur bearers so that less t r i a l and error can be used i n setting management p o l i c i e s and so that i n t e l l i g e n t long range plans f o r integration with other resources may be made. The place of sporting game as a northern resource cannot be recognized by s t a t i s t i c s * Moose w i l l be dealt with more f u l l y i n a l a t e r section, The only other sporting game presently of s i g n i f i c a n t propor* t i o n i s waterfowl* (white-tailed deer are becoming l o c a l l y important at The Pas.) The i n f l u x of waterfowl hunters from southern Manitoba and from the United States i s growing annually, and where formerly the marshes at The Pas were the only major shooting area, quite recently increasing i n t e r e s t i s being shown i n the vast goose migration i n the v i c i n i t y of York Factory on Hudson Bay. The remoteness of t h i s l a t t e r area w i l l , i t i s hoped, mitigate against i t s becoming another Horseshoe Lake (Hanson & Smith, 1950). Woodland caribou and barrenground caribou are not at present considered as sporting game i n Manitoba due to the scar c i t y of the former 35 and the decreasing numbers of the l a t t e r . The value of big game and game birds as a source of meat to residents of remote areas i s shown i n Table 1» TABLE 1 Economic worth of the meat of game animals to residents of the remote areas of Northern Manitoba based on reports by Conservation Officers covering the period July 1, 1953 to June 30, 1954. Central D i s t r i c t Trapline area i s excluded. Species No. taken f o r food Average Unit Weight (lbs.) Total Weight Approxt-(Pounds mate value (per pound) Total Value Barrenground Caribou 15,000 100 1,500,000 $0.50 $750,000 Moose 800 600 480,000 $0.50 240,000 Woodland Caribou 60 150 9,000 $0.50 4,500 White«tailed Deer • 10 80 800 $0.50 400 Ducks 7,000 1 7,000 $0.50 3,500 Geese ' 2,000 5 10,000 $0.50 5,000 Grouse (incl.) Ptarmigan 6,000 1 6,000 $0,50 3,000 Totals 2,132,800. $0,50 1,006,400 Fish 3,000,000 $0.25 T50,000 At the conservative figure of f i f t y cents a pound for meat and twenty-f i v e cents f o r f i s h , the human u t i l i z a t i o n i s thus seen to run i n the neighbourhood of one and three quarter m i l l i o n d o l l a r s per year. I t i s a food source that i s v i t a l l y necessary to the natives * n u t r i t i o n 36 (Vivian et a l , 1948, Moore at a l , 1946), e. Agriculture Agriculture has been l e f t to l a s t i n t h i s consideration of resources because that i s the geographic and economic pos i t i o n i t now occupies. There are accounts of cereals and of root crops being grown at various f u r posts i n northern Manitoba over the past two hundred years, but u n t i l reclamation work was begun i n 1953 to drain and to protect from floods an area of 135,000 acres i n the Saskatchewan River Valley at The Pas (the "Carrot River Triangle"), agriculture could not be considered as an important land use resource i n t h i s area. As development of the Carrot River Triangle i s s t i l l i n an early stage, no statement of i t s economic p o s i t i o n can yet be made, but the f a c t that $1,500,000 i s being spent by the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l governments to develop i t would suggest that i t s potential value i s high* The area being developed has been a good muskrat and water-fowl producer and has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a major res t i n g area f o r water-fowl on t h e i r southward migration. A g r i c u l t u r i s t s should r e a l i z e that major duck depredation problems await them here and they and the w i l d l i f e authorities should be planning ways to minimize the trouble before i t becomes unmanageable. Another major po t e n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l area i s the so-called "Nelson River Clay B e l t " which received i t s f i r s t preliminary s o i l survey i n 1952 ( E h r l i c h , 1952) and was then shown to cover f i f t e e n m i l l i o n acres, 25 percent of which (3,750,000 acres) was considered to be w e l l to im-p e r f e c t l y drained and therefore of possible p o t e n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l value, 37 An experimental st a t i o n i s to be set up at Wabowden on the Hudson Bay-Railroad to conduct longwrange tests of production of coarse grain, hay and vegetable crops i n t h i s clay b e l t * The p o s s i b i l i t y that at l e a s t part of the clay b e l t w i l l one day be sett l e d f o r agriculture and the effect of thus opening the for*-est and increasing the human population should be kept i n mind i n any long-range programs of resource development i n the area* f» Summary In summary, i t may be said that the non-renewable metal r e -source stands i n f i r s t place i n the economy of the north and i s l i k e l y to be the motivating power f o r further expansion i n other i n d u s t r i a l f i e l d s , some of which w i l l c e r t a i n l y have di r e c t effects upon w i l d l i f e . Increased hunting pressure may be anticipated, and disturbance of the climax forests could be used as a t o o l i n manipulation of habitat i n -cidental to forestry or a g r i c u l t u r a l ends so that t h i s increased pressure could be countered with increased game populations* Moose and deer w i l l be benefitted by an abundance of young deciduous veges* t a t i o n such as i s found i n the early successional stage of forest r e -generation, but caribou requiring the lichens found i n mature forests, w i l l not benefit by removal of the climax cover and unless special consideration i s given to t h e i r needs, t h e i r l o c a l extinction may e a s i l y be brought about. There appears to be a need f o r o v e r - a l l coordination and planning of research and development programs so that a l l resources of the area may be u t i l i z e d i n such a manner that the greatest sustained benefits w i l l accrue to a l l with the l e a s t possible hindrance or harm to one form of land use by another. 38 PART I I I HISTORICAL SURVEY Introduction Fifteen years ago, Leopold (1940) i n discussing "The State of the Profession" of w i l d l i f e management, had t h i s to say regarding h i s t o r i c a l studies: "Lastly, the research program pays too l i t t l e attention to the his t o r y o f w i l d l i f e ... We do not yet appreciate how much h i s t o r i c a l evidence can be dug up, or how important i t can be i n the appraisal of contemporary ecology*" Appreciation was not long i n coming, however, as i s indicated by the space given i t i n regional studies o f game undertaken since that time (e.g., Swift, 1946, Grange, 1948, and Schorger, 1947, 1953, 1954 i n Wisconsin; the deer studies by Leopold et a i , 1951 and Longhurst et a l . , 1952 i n C a l i f o r n i a , and moose studies by Hatter (1950) i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and Peterson (1950) i n Ontario), and i n forest ecology studies such as that of Day (1953) who stated that "a knowledge of l o c a l archeology and histor y should be a part of the e c o l o g i s t t s equipment." The,;.early h i s t o r i c a l record i n northern Manitoba i s b r i e f and not very detailed, but by examining i t we may discover some of the causes of present b i o t i c relationships and perhaps even f i n d management techniques which have worked more by accident than by design i n the past. I t was with t h i s view i n mind that c e r t a i n of the published h i s t o r i c a l material concerning Northern Manitoba was examined. No attempt was made to exhaust t h i s avenue of study, and while i t i s believed that most of the important works were seen, c e r t a i n l y many others were not. 39 TABLE 2 HISTORICAL SUMMARY (with p a r t i c u l a r reference to the f u r trade of the northern part of the province) Authority Year Event Author Schofield 32 » 32 II 33* Schofield and MacKay . MacKay Schofield MecKay 34 41 26 26 41 26 1610-11 Henry Hudson (England) s a i l e d into the bay now bearing his name and wintered i n the "southwest corner" of the bay. 1612-13 Thomas Button (England) wintered at mouth of Nelson River. 1619-20 Jens Munck (Denmark) wintered at mouth of Chu r c h i l l River. I63O Luke Fox (England) explored west coast of Hudson Bay. 163Q«31 Thomas James (England) wintered at Charlton Island (James Bay) and explored the western shores of Hudson Bay. A l l of the above were exploring expeditions and carried on no trade with the Indians* 1668-9 HudsonTs Bay Company ketch "Nonsuch" under Cap Tt. Zachary. Gillam wintered at Charles Fort (now Rupert rs House) and carried out valuable trade with, the Indians. 1669 Hudson's Bay Company ship "Wivenhoe" at the mouth of the Nelson River trading with the Indians. 1670 Royal Charter granted to "the governor and adventurers of England trading into Hudson1s Bay" a monopoly on the f u r trade of Rupert's Land - the beginning of exploration of Manitoba. * Typographical error i n Schofield p.33 reads 1719 instead of 1619. 40 H i s t o r i c a l Summary Authority Year Event Author Page MacKay Schofield Innis MacKay 27 44 123 Wivenhoe back to the mouth of the Nelson to trade, 1682-3 F i r s t trading posts b u i l t at mouths of Nelson and Hayes r i v e r s . C o n f l i c t between English and French, 1688 F i r s t trading post b u i l t at the mouth of the C h u r c h i l l River. 59 & 1689 map 57 Henry Kelsey made excursion by land northward from C h u r c h i l l , Saw muskox but no Indians, Innis 126, quoting from l e t t e r from H.B.C. committee to Gov-ernor Geyer. Innis 124-5 1690-2 Henry Kelsey made t r i p from. York Factory to the P r a i r i e s and returned with a "good f l e e t of Indians" to trade. . . Schofield MacKay Innis 61 89 93 92-102 Schofield 74 1690-1 Kelsey probably spent the winter near the present s i t e of The Pas. 1694 French (under d t I b e r v i l l e ) captured York Factory. 1696 English recaptured York Factory. 1697 French retook York and held i t u n t i l 1714 when i t was returned to the English under terms of the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), 1718 Fort Prince of Wales (wooden) b u i l t f i v e miles below o r i g i n a l C h u r c h i l l River post, 1731-61 Fort Prince of Wales (stone) constructed. 1734 Fort Maurepas b u i l t hear mouth of Red River by La Verendrye * The f i r s t inland post i n Manitoba. 1731-50 La Verendrye and his sons together with other French traders established many posts i n the Lake Winnipeg area and on the Red, A s s i n i ~ boine, Souris and Saskatchewan Rivers, 1741 Fort Bourbon b u i l t at mouth of Saskatchewan River on Cedar Lake, Fort Dauphin b u i l t the same year. 41 H i s t o r i c a l Summary Authority Year Event Author Schofield 69' Innis Henday Morton 97 1907 250 Hearne 1911 1739-42 1750 (approx.) 1754-*55 1756 1759 1763 1769-73 Cocking Schofield 1908 80 MacKay 96 1772*3 1772 1773 1774 1765 -1813 Joseph La France t r a v e l l e d from Lake Superior to Hudson Bay v i a Lake Winnipeg on a trading expedition. Fort Pascoyac b u i l t by La Verendrye on the Saskatchewan River at the mouth of the Carrot River. Anthony Hendry tra v e l l e d from York Factory to the p r a i r i e s and return. Met French traders at Pascoyac. Joseph Smith and Joseph Waggoner t r a v e l l e d from York. Factory to the p r a i r i e s . Quebec f a l l s to Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham. Peace of P a r i s , by France. Canada ceded to B r i t a i n Samuel Hearne fs expeditions took him to the Coppermine River to Great Slave and Athabasca Lakes and return to C h u r c h i l l (Fort Prince of Wales). Mathew Cocking from York Factory to the p r a i r i e s and return. Joseph Frobisher from Lake Superior to Hudson Bay v i a Lake Winnipeg. Fur trading post established by Montreal traders near Norway House. Cocking and Hearne b u i l t Cumberland House -the f i r s t inland post of the Hudson*s Bay Company - to compete with the "Pedlars" from the Great Lakes who had become very numerous following the Peace of Pa r i s . Unscrupulously competitive trade practices by independent "pedlars", XY Company, Northwest Company and Hudson1s Bay Company had demoralizing influence on the natives and greatly depleted the f u r supplies i n the older established areas. h2 H i s t o r i c a l Summary Authority Year Event Author MacKay 129 1778 95 MacKay (York assumed) 104 1780 1782 1783 Schofield T y r e l l Wilson Wilson Wilson Wilson T y r r e l l (1916) Innis Wilson MacKay 82 1783-84 1916 1784 -1812 1796 1796 1799 - 1824 1798 1804-5 164 1804 1805 135-6 1811 • 1812 Grand Rapids House established at mouth of Saskatchewan River. Oxford House b u i l t (date approximate). Fort Prince of Wales and York Factory sacked by the French under Perouse. Both f o r t s reestablished: York on i t s former s i t e , F t , Prince of Wales on the s i t e of the o r i g i n a l post of 1688, North West Company organized as protection against competition and h o s t i l e natives, David Thompson explored large areas of western Canada, H.B.C* established fur post at Norway House. H,B,C, established fur post on northwest shore of Reindeer Lake (Bedfont House), H,B.C, post operated i n t e r m i t t e n t l y at South Indian Lake, H.B.C. post established at Oxford House. Thompson wintered just south of Granville Lake. Northwest Company and XY Company amalga-mate to decrease competition i n face of increased pressure by Hudsonts Bay Company, N.W.C. established a post at the south end of South Indian Lake. Se l k i r k sent out seventy men from Scotland under Capt. Miles MacDonell to establish a colony at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine r i v e r s , MacDonell and 23 men reached t h e i r destina-t i o n and l a i d claim to 116,000 square miles of p r a i r i e and forest for S e l k i r k . Wilson 1818 H.B.C. post established at Island Lake. 43 Authority H i s t o r i c a l Summary Year Event Author Innis Wilson MacKay Innis Wilson Innis Schofield Schofield Schofield Innis Innis Innis Page 283 1821 249 162 162 footnote 344 17 & 432 17 17 345 345-7 1825 1826 1808 1795 1841 1867 1869 1870 1881 1912 1878 1870 347 1874 Hudson*s Bay Company and Northwest Company amalgamated to reduce competition and to give the N.W.Co. int e r e s t s cheaper access v i a the Hudson Bay waterway. H.B.C. post established at GodTs Lake. York boats f i r s t developed by the Hudson*s Bay Company. Large (oared) boats being used on the York-Saskatchewan route. F i r s t boats (to take the place of canoes) launched on the Saskatchewan River. Rev. James Evans established mission at Ro s s v i l l e . B.N.A. Act passed. Confederation of Canada. Hudson*s Bay Company sold i t s r i g h t s to Rupert*s Land to Canada thus ending tech-n i c a l monopoly of the fur trade i n the West. Manitoba became a province - 14,340 sq, mi. Area of Manitoba increased to 73,956 sq.mi. Area of Manitoba increased to 251,832 sq. miles. (Present area estimated to be 246,512 sq. miles). HudsonTs Bay Company headquarters moved from York Factory to Fort Garry, f.f,Great decrease i n number of York Boat b r i -gades due to cheaper supply route v i a Red River carts from St. Paul and steamers on the large waterways. Steamer Northcote b u i l t above Grand Rapids• to carry goods up the Saskatchewan. Later the L i l y Northwest, Manitoba, and Marquis were added to t h i s waterway. Innis 347 1877 Tramway b u i l t at Grand Rapids. 44 H i s t o r i c a l Summary Authority Year Event Author Schofield Wilson Wilson Innis Innis Manitoba, 1952 Wilson Wilson Wilson . Wilson 354 1878 1878 1884 F i r s t Railway connection between St. Boni-face and S t . Paul, Minnesota. H.B.C. post established at Nelson House. H.B.C. post established at Cross Lake where an outpost had previously been i n operation. 348 1893 End of the Saskatchewan River boat service, 374 1900 - (approx.) R e v i l l o n Freres established large 1910 chain of posts throughout the west to com-pete with the HudsonTs Bay Company — i n -cluded posts at The Pas, Pukatawagan, Brochet, Kasmere Lake and Nuelton Lake, 1907 Canadian National Railway reached The Pas* 1929 Hudson Bay Railway reached C h u r c h i l l . 2 1917 Mandy Mine at Schist Lake produced f i r s t Manitoba copper, gold and s i l v e r . 2 1917 Moosehorn claim at Herb Lake produced gold. 119 1930 F l i n Flon mine i n production. 88 1935 God's Lake mine i n production, 128 1931 Sherridon mine i n production. 1953 Lynn Lake mine i n production. 1918 H.B.C. established a fur post at Pukatawagan, 1922 H.B.C. outpost operated at South Indian Lake out of Nelson House, 1934 H.B.C. outpost at Shamattawa raised to f u l l post status, 1934 H.B.G. outpost at R o s s v i l l e raised to f u l l post status, 45 I t has been said (McKay, 1921) that "The Indians have no h i s -t o r y . Their t r a d i t i o n s and legends are mostly mere f a i r y tales and have no h i s t o r i c value. The h i s t o r y of the f u r traders.and the h i s t o r y of missionary work i s the history of the Northland", and u n t i l more i s known of the archaeology of the area, t h i s statement must stand. We mmst turn to the records of the f u r traders and missionaries f o r information on the biota of years gone by. 2 # Pattern of Settlement The summary of h i s t o r i c a l events given i n Table 2 i s designed to show chronologically, how and when various new developments took place which then or l a t e r had either d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t effects on the w i l d l i f e of the area. The pattern of development i s thus shown to have followed along the water courses u n t i l the present century when railroads started to open up "inland" areas. The tendency of exploration of the northern portion to be i n c i d e n t a l to finding t r a v e l routes to the west and south i s also s i g n i f i c a n t ; f o r i t would appear that when the tempo of explora-t i o n was stepped up during the l a s t h a l f of the 18th century, less than one hundred years a f t e r posts were f i r s t established on the Bay, the area presently under discussion was not of very great importance as a f u r pro-ducer and was c e r t a i n l y not noted f o r i t s game supplies. I t i s doubtful i f the area from the Pasquia H i l l s to the Coast was even permanently inhabited by Indians during the 17th century. Mandelbaum (1941) who made a rather thorough survey of the Cree said (p.171) that "The f i r s t f i f t y years of documented history [of the Crees -i . e . 1640-1690] reveal the. Cree as a nomadic people occupying much the 4* same t e r r i t o r y between Lake Superior and Hudson Bay as do the Eastern Cree today." And, (p.172) "although i t i s hardly to be expected that the early p r i e s t s and traders could have known of the lands beyond Hud-son Bay or even about Lake Winnipeg, yet there i s not the s l i g h t e s t e v i -dence that the Cree had a western extension. Their t r a v e l s were s t r i c t l y i n a north-south d i r e c t i o n . " Jenness (1937* a> P»41) considered that i n the f i r s t millenium A.D., " ... the Cree doubtless occupied the same areas i n northern Mani-toba and northern Ontario that they occupy today," but h i s statement appears to be conjectural, Mr. R.S.MacNeish of the National Museum of Canada (personal communication, addressed to Prof, H.B,Hawthorn, U.B.C, dated A p r i l 4, 1955) supplied the information that "At present our know-ledge of (human habitation in} northern Manitoba i s pretty s l i g h t as we only know of a few s i t e s and we have never done any intensive excavation." He considered that the e a r l i e s t known occupation of the area south and east of Lake Winnipeg dated from about 2000 B.C. and that from then to the time of Christ the few, semi-nomadic inhabitants r e l i e d upon the bison for subsistence. From the time of Christ to about 1000 A.D. the population showed only a s l i g h t increase but the culture shifted to include forest animals as w e l l as bison, and Mr. MacNeish suspected that " i t was during t h i s period that the forests were extensively invading eastern Manitoba." No moose bones were found associated with t h i s Later culture. The next c u l t u r a l groups are known as the Selkirk Focus (post 1300 A.D,) and the Manitoba Focus (post 1000 A.D.), both in d i c a t i n g a subsistence on forest game - including moose - and f i s h . Thus i n the l i g h t of the most recent findings, Jenness*s previously quoted statement appears to be probably i n 47 error* I t seems reasonable to assume that MandelbaumTs ( l o c . c i t . ) sus«* p i c i o n that Cree did not occur i n northern Manitoba p r i o r to the middle of the seventeenth century i s more correct* There i s no evidence of which the w r i t e r i s aware that the Chipewyans occupied t e r r i t o r y much south of the Churchill River at t h i s time* Cree may have inhabited the southern coastal area ( c . f . Skinner, 1912, pp. 8-10) but i t i s noteworthy that Kelsey and his Indians d i d not l o i t e r between York and Deerings Point (on the Saskatchewan River) i n 1690. The fact that these Indians were apparently Cree (Nayhathaway) might indicate that already t h e i r extension of range, which i n the next century was to take them to the Rockies and Great Slave Lake, had begun. In summary i t seems quite possible that "Northern Manitoba" was not permanently inhabited by the Cree u n t i l the middle of the 17th century and that i t took the next 150 years to bring about the present d i s t r i b u t i o n of the race. The f o r t at the mouth of the Ch u r c h i l l River has not been given much attention by economic historians (e.g. Innis, 1930) apparent-l y because i t was not of very great economic importance, but whether t h i s was due to sc a r c i t y of Indians along the C h u r c h i l l River, s c a r c i t y of f u r and/or game, the d i f f i c u l t y of navigation and scarcity of canoe bir c h (Betula papyrifera) of adequate s i z e , or to some other cause i s not apparent from the l i t e r a t u r e . There i s evidence (Birket-Smith, 1930, pp. 14, 16, 30) that the southern boundary of the Chipewyans roughly coincided with the Churchill River l e s s than f i f t y years ago* Diamond (1937, b) indicated that he considered the C h u r c h i l l River to be the 48 southern boundary of the Chipewyans i n 1725, but (Diamond, 1937, a) apparently considered that they d i d not take possession of the coastal area long before the s t a r t of the fur trade. I t i s possible that war-fare between the Cree and Chipewyan i n the C h u r c h i l l River area was part of the cause of poorer trade at Fort C h u r c h i l l than at other coastal f o r t s where the 6ree held f u l l sway. At the turn of the 19th century, a new era began with the s t a r t of the S e l k i r k settlement, and a few years l a t e r the amalgamation of Eng-l i s h and Canadian fu r i n t e r e s t s reduced f o r a time the f i e r c e and ruinous r i v a l r y of the traders. The advent of farming west of the Great Lakes and the'consequent production of grain meant that less dependence had to be placed on the natural meat resources of the area; f o r although maize had been of great significance i n the development of inland trading routes, the expense of i t s transportation caused only a minimum to be brought west and the same si t u a t i o n held f o r grains imported through York Factory. Cheaper, l o c a l grain, allowed f o r a more varied diet than was previously possible. The Selkirk Settlement had of course a wholly different and more s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i r e c t effect on the present s i t u a t i o n than that of providing cheap grain f o r the fur trade. I t was t h i s settlement which le d the way for further western settlement and the gradual eclipse of the fur trade and i t s way of l i f e , by farming and i t s way of l i f e , and l a t e r by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Northern Manitoba showed l i t t l e d i r e c t effect of the changes of the 19th century except that as new f u r trade posts were established and the natives flocked to them, there came a gradual change i n these 49 former nomads. They tended to spend more and more time a t the posts and to depend more and more on the new "necessities" which were unknown to t h e i r forefathers. They were often encouraged to take the l a s t beaver, the l a s t marten, the l a s t muskrat from the area within the trading post's sphere of influence and they were at times encouraged to k i l l a l l the big game and game birds possible i n order to f i l l the larder at the post* And sometimes t h e i r best was not good enough (e»g, Lewes, i n Glazebrook, 1938, remarks on the sca r c i t y of fresh provisions at York Factory and Oxford House i n the spring of 1833)* From Table 2 i t can be seen that the pattern of settlement was: 1* concentration of whites at the coast of Hudson. Bay drawing the natives from the i n t e r i o r , . 2* the i n f i l t r a t i o n of the Canadian traders from the southeast to cut the Hudson*s Bay Company*s supply routes, 3* exploration inland.to the west of Manitoba by both Canadians and B r i t i s h to augment dxvindling fur supplies, 4* settlement of the southern p r a i r i e region by Selkirk*s Scottish and I r i s h farmers, 5* establishment of numerous smaller inland trading posts with resultant concentration of natives around them, 6* advent of the r a i l r o a d which was clo'sely followed by develop* ment of sawmilling, mining, commercial f i s h i n g and t o u r i s t r e s o r t s . Figure 3 shows the present pattern of population i n northern Manitoba, I f one were to remove from t h i s figure a l l the settlements To follow page 49 50 attr i b u t a b l e to the r a i l r o a d s , the r e s u l t would approximate the pattern of 100 years ago. There seems l i t t l e doubt that the present d i s t r i b u t i o n of moose can be linked very closely with the pattern of settlement of the area; s c a r c i t y i s most marked about the f u r trade communities, with larger populations found i n the areas midway between the posts, especially i n zones away from major canoe routes; the largest populations are i n the areas of greatest density of white men where the environment has been accidentally altered to produce better feed and cover conditions than previously prevailed. H i s t o r i c a l Records of Moose i n the Area a, 17th Century Because inland t r a v e l by whites was almost wholly lacking i n t h i s period (Kelsey was the only one to venture away from tidewater), there i s l i t t l e available information on the presence or absence of any of the animals at any point except around the f o r t s . That moose were absent from the v i c i n i t y of the Bay at t h i s time seems quite c e r t a i n , Kelsey ls narrative (Doughty & Martin, 1929, B e l l , 1928) gives only in** d i rect clues to a general s c a r c i t y of game i n the area; he remarks about a d i e t of f i s h , grouse, pigeons (probabiy passenger pigeons), s q u i r r e l , grass and berries and that i t was during the night following t h e i r s i x t h day of overland t r a v e l southwestward, a f t e r leaving the Carrot River that a moose was f i n a l l y k i l l e d : but at night they*re people returning/ from hunting one had/ k i l l t d 2 Swans and another had/ k i l l T d a Buck Muse but did not come home t i l l i n / ye Night so I being asleep he sent h i s son to c a l l me/ and when he came he t o l d me yt his father 51 wanted me/ to come & smoke a pipe with him so I went & when/ I came he gave me a pipe to l i g h t & then presented/ me wth the great gut of ye Beast aforesd, so when I had/ Eaten I returned to my rest ... " (Doughty & Martin 1929). ( I t i s interesting to note that the honoured guest was given the gut — probably the part then considered the greatest delicacy.) This account of the moose does not pertain to northern Manitoba but as i t i s probably the e a r l i e s t first-hand record of moose on the Western Hudson Bay drainage i t i s h i s t o r i c a l l y important. Actually moose hides had been bought by the traders on the Bay f o r a number of years p r i o r to 1690, For instance, there are the records of public fur sales i n L»ndon which included s i x moose hides as early as 1677 (Rich, 1945, p.311) and i n the sale of 1679, 7,766 "elk" hides were sold averaging i n value from 9^ for "raw" hides to 7s 2d f o r the best "dressed" hides (Rich, 1945, pp. 320-327). In 1682 dressed hides brought 9s to 10s each (Rich, 1946, p.471). But whether a l l of these were moose hides and whether they came mainly from the Hudson Bay or James Bay posts cannot be ascertained. (Note: At the 1679 sale by comparison marten sold f o r 4s, otter f o r 8s 3d and beaver f o r 12s.) In 1682 Governor Nixon reported that: "mous" skins were being used i n the Bay "... to make tents to cover our houses ..." and that the use of such was much more expensive than would be the cost of lumber i f the Company would send him sawyers and good saws* (Rich, 1945, p.253). In 1684 the value of moose skins was raised to p a r i t y with beaver (Rich, 1948, p»121): an i n d i c a t i o n of the esteem i n which they were held and 52 also perhaps of t h e i r s c a r c i t y . Father Marest, a French p r i e s t who l i v e d at York Factory from 1694 to I696, although mentioning caribou makes no reference to moose i n that area. ( T y r r e l l , 1931, p.ix and 127). Jeremie, who l i v e d at York Factory from 1694-1714 ( i . e . , during the longest period of French tenure)' wrote an account of the trade and the hinterland, at that time but appar-ently never ventured f a r from the fort., His account must be viewed with caution. Douglas and Wallace (1926), i n editing Jeremie !s account, make i t look as though the country about Landing Lake ( l a t . 50° 17 T, long. 90° 20 T) " i s a land of dense forests with many beaver and moose" (Douglas and Wallace, 1926, p .32). Whereas the reference, i n the present writer's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i s a c t u a l l y to Lake Winnipeg rather than to Landing Lake. (Peterson, 1955, accepted the interpretation of Douglas and Wallace). In summary, a l l that can be said of th i s period i s that i t saw the st a r t of the f u r trade i n northern Manitoba and that although moose hides were a common a r t i c l e of trade, t h e i r geographic source i s not known. I t i s quite probable that more moose hides were traded at the James Bay posts than at those on Hudson Bay, (See, f o r instance, Seton, 1927, V, I I I p.159*161 on primitive range). • b. 18th Century As i s indicated i n Table 2, i t was during the f i r s t h a l f of t h i s century that development of trade routes from the Great Lakes to Lake Winnipeg and the Saskatchewan, Red and Assiniboine Rivers was car* r i e d out - the star t of earnest western exploration. The only reference to moose i n the Northern area during t h i s f i r s t h a l f century which the 53 writer found was i n the journal of Captain Knight at the time of the construction of Churchill f o r t at the mouth of the Churchill River (Kenney, 1932). There on August 15, 1717, "2 cano#>s of Indians came down from ye great Water Lake" (Lake Winnipeg according to Burpee, 1908 ( ? ) , p.635) (Kenney, op . c i t . , p,l6l-2) find the following day gave Knight "a side of Moose f l e s h , Dry'd, & Another of Deers f l e s h , and 2 pretty bigg bladders of Marrow f a t t ... & a couple of Geese wth a pretty large Sturgeon." (Kenney, o p . c i t . , p.l64). There i s so much confusion however about whom these Indians were and from where they had come that the record i s of no value as an indicator of the range of the moose at that time. I t does nevertheless give an i n d i c a t i o n of the food habits of the aborigines. I t was not u n t i l 1754 when Anthony Henday t r a v e l l e d to the p r a i r i e to draw more Indians to the Coast to trade that we have another mention of Moose i n the area, and that was i n the form of meat presented to Henday by the French traders at the mouth of the Carrot River. Hen-day's journal (Burpee, 1907) which was entered d a i l y , shows that on the outward journey the party was often fatigued by an inadequate and mono-tonous di e t of f i s h , only twice varied by beaver and ducks i n twenty-three days' t r a v e l from York Factory to the French post (Basquia). There i s no mention of moose or other big game u n t i l 36 days 1 t r a v e l from York and about 150 miles southwestward from Basquia -*» w e l l out toward the p r a i r i e . Then on August 1, 1754 two moose were k i l l e d , the next day two wa p i t i , then two more moose, and so on almost every day, k i l l i n g now moose, now wapiti and occasionally bison. (See also, Morton, 1937, p.3M4 on Southward extension of forest i n Saskatchewan). 54 Henday spent the winter on the plains of south-central Alberta' and returned to York Factory the following year. The return journey, l i k e the outward one, showed no record of big game^in Northern Manitoba, This absence does not necessarily mean that no moose or caribou were present, because the Indians were t r a v e l l i n g as s w i f t l y as possible to make the journey from the edges of the plains to the Coast and return to where they knew game was to be found. They would.3naturally take as l i t t l e time as possible to procure provisions. The record does i n d i c a t e , how-ever, that moose were not p l e n t i f u l i n the area or at least a few would, have been seen i n or about the water. The next journal of a voyage through northern Manitoba i s that of Mathew Cocking (Burpee, 1908) who l e f t York Factory on June 27, 1772 and t r a v e l l e d (according to Burpee ls interpretation) v i a the Hayes River, Deer Lake ( ? ) , Cross Lake, Minago River, Moose Lake, Saskatchewan. River, Saskeram Lake, Saskatchewan River to near i t s d i v i s -i o n into north and south branches and hence overland to somewhere near the present s i t e of Kerrobert, Sask, The return t r i p was presumably>by the same route. On July 11, 1772, his party entered the northeast end of Cross Lake (96° 40* W, 54° 551 N) and on the 12th "several men went a moose hunting; but without success," On the 13th: "... men went a hunting; they saw the tracks of several but k i l l e d none; Hungry times: A quarter of an Eagle, G u l l or Duck i s one person's allowance pr day," On the 15th: "plenty of f i s h " i n Cross Lake, On the 16th: "... men went a Meose hunting; at noon returned: no success" at the west end of Gross Lake, On the 19th the moose hunters again " ,,, returned i n 55 the evening: No success: Here are plenty of Pike Fish . " On the 2 1 s t , paddling up the Minago River " I am wearied of f i s h , eating scarcely anything else". July 23 and 2 4 — at Moose Lake k i l l i n g sturgeon. July 3 1 — t h i r t y - f i v e days from York, they a r r i v e d at Basquia and had not been able to k i l l a single big game animal a l -though the rate of t r a v e l was slowed and on some days even stopped i n order to allow the hunters to t r y to k i l l moose. After two days* t r a -v e l southwestward from Basquia " ... Men went a hunzting Moose, k i l l e d one, good food", again outside the area of the present study. Cocking ts reference to the hunters seeing several moose tracks at the Northeast end of Cross Lake i s the f i r s t p o s i t i v e i n d i -cation we have that moose were present i n northern Manitoba i n the eighteenth century. On the return voyage, he remarks that a f t e r enter-ing the Minago River (on May 31, 1773), "The natives are very brisk not stopping to hunt." t The next p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n of the presence of moose i s i n the journal of Samuel Hearne ( T y r r e l l , 1934). In h i s entry f o r July 18, 1774 when he was a few miles a^ove Setting Lake on the Grass River, he wrote, "there i s also great Plenty of Moose but the Indians w i l l , not take time to hunt them." ( T y r r e l l , 1934, p*104). At Cumberland House there are a number of references to Indians bringing meat to trade; e.g., on Sept. 14, 1775, "Traded ... several hundred pounds of Dry'd meat & Fatt a few Parchment Beaver, and some dress't Moos Skinns .... l a t e at Night 3 other Cannoes came with a l i t t l e Green Moose f l e s h & C." ( T y r r e l l , 1934, PP. 178-9). 56 In H e a r n e n a r r a t i v e of his explorations (Hearne, 1795) there are some unusual observations* For example, he says (p»260): "I have also seen women and boys k i l l the old moose i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ( i . e . while i n the waterj, by knocking them on the head with a hatchetj and i n the summer of one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five, when I was on my passage from Cum-berland House to York Fort, two boys k i l l e d a f i n e buck moose i n the water by forcing a s t i c k up i t s fundament; f o r they had neither gun, bow, nor arrows with them." "The moose are also the easiest to tame and domesticate of any of the.deer kind* I have repeatedly seen them at C h u r c h i l l [where Hearne was Governor from 1776 to 1787H as tame as sheep, and even more so; f o r they would follow t h e i r keeper.any distance from home ..." (Professor Richard Glover, University of Manitoba h i s t o r i a n says ([personal communication] that at the time of Hearneis governorship at C h u r c h i l l , some tame moose followed an Indian from the i n t e r i o r [ t h a t nebulous country"]], following along the banks of the waterways and that a few were shipped to England and kept f o r a time i n a park there). And (on page 261) Heafne (1795) made the s t a r t l i n g statement: " I t i s perhaps worth remarking, that the l i v e r s of the moose are never found, not at any time of the year;" In November 1775 and June 1776 Alexander Henry recorded the ' k i l l i n g of a number of moose i n the v i c i n i t y of Amisk Lake, Saskatchewan,, between Cumberland House and the Ch u r c h i l l River, The casualness of h i s statements indicates that moose were c e r t a i n l y not uncommon i n that v i c i n i t y . (Henry, 1901, pp. 265 and 325), An inte r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t of Henry's observations i s that he may be the f i r s t to note, i n p r i n t , the 57 abundance of passenger pigeons at Gedar Lake and above the lake on the Saskatchewan River «•*»• 1808, (Coues, 1897, v o l . I I , Part I I , pp. 4, 467, 469), In July 1779 P h i l i p Turnor, on his return voyage to York Factory remarked of the Saskatchewan delta between the Pasquia River and Cedar Lake that the land was "low and covered with small poplars and willows" but, although two days were passed i n t h i s area without t r a v e l l i n g , no game was recorded, ( T y r r e l l , 1934, pp. 237*9). David Thompson*s narrative ( T y r r e l l , 1916) contains many re*> ferences to moose, t h e i r range, habits, numbers, and Indian supersti-tions regarding them. And while we may be quite certain that h i s state* ments of where moose were found are correct, his statements on the other aspects must be noted that caution; f o r i t i s obvious from many of h i s remarks that he never hunted them himself and there are d e f i n i t e i n d i c a -t i o n s (e.g., T j t r e l l , 1916, p.97) that the Indians were not above " p u l l i n g his l e g " at times perhaps not to the extent of Hearne*s anhepatic beast however. Thompson says ( T y r r e l l , 1916, p.95) that moose are "not numerous i n proportion to the extent of the country, but may even be said to- be scarce." This reference i s to the "Stony Region" which roughly'coincides with the Pre-Cambrian Shield. Even i n Thompson1^ time (1784~1812) i t was thought that hunting was depleting the moose population; f o r he says ( T y r r e l l , 1916, p,97) "... i t s numbers are decreasing f o r , from i t s i s e t t l e d habits a s k i l l f u l hunter' i s sure to f i n d , and wou^d, or k i l l t h i s deer, and i t i s much sought f o r , f o r food, f o r clothing and f o r tents." 58 Between November 1798 and March 1 7 9 9 Thompson says ( T y r r e l l , 1916, p*305) that at "Red Deers Lake" (now Lac La Biche, Alberta) "... i n f i v e months they [Indian Hunters] gave us f o r t y nine Moose a l l w ithin twenty miles of the House and a few B u l l Bisons, whereas on the Stoney region, i t would be a fortunate trading house, that during the winter had the meat J 3 0 o J of s i x moose deer brought to i t , and even that quantity wouldu r a r e l y happen." In summary, the records o f the 18th century showed that moose were present at the north end of Cross Lake, south end of Setting Lake and i n the v i c i n i t y of Cumberland House, Saskatchewan, and i t may reasonably be presumed that the area to the south of a l i n e connecting" these points would also have harboured them. They were probably scarce along the route from Cross Lake to the Saskatchewan River, but more p l e n t i f u l at Setting Lake and Cumberland House., I t i s also apparent that even a t t h i s time the w e l l - t r a v e l l e d waterways from the Saskatche-wan River to York Factory were receiving the brunt of the hunting pressure. c» 19th Century The 1800's saw the spread and consolidation of the f u r trade to the farthest parts of the Northwest but.northern Manitoba was affected l e s s than the areas beyond i t s boundaries to the south and west. I t s r o l e was l a r g e l y that of a supply route from Hudson Bay and the Southern settlements to northern Saskatchewan and Alberta and to the western por-t i o n of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . The f i r s t mention of moose i n t h i s period i s by David Thompson ( T y r r e l l , 1916) who, i n 1804, b u i l t a trading post at "Musquawegan Lake" 59 (probably the now unnamed expansion of the C h u r c h i l l River, above De v i l Rapid, and about 10 miles above Granville Lake — 56° 10* No. 100° 30 1 W. according to ThompsonTs map). At t h i s point he t e l l s of an Indian, a f t e r much d i l i g e n t work, k i l l i n g a moose.. From h i s remarks i t would appear that moose were very scarce i n the area at that time — probably i t was close to the northern l i m i t of t h e i r range* Ermatinger (1912) gives the journal record of the express c a r r i e r from Fort Vancouver to York Factory and return i n 1827, and back to York i n 1028. Unfortunately the part of the t r i p from York to Norway House i s omitted and the only fresh supplies mentioned as being obtained i n northern Manitoba are sturgeon at. Grand Rapids. Per-haps the need to stop f o r supplies was not too urgent; f o r on the east-ward-trip i n 1827 the journal entries note that 4 elk and 26 bison were k i l l e d between Edmonton and The Pas (the elk were taken nearer Edmonton) and at Grand Rapids 45 sturgeon were obtained. There was also a sturgeon fi s h e r y at Norway House as early as 1757 (Morton, 1939, p,251) but Ermatinger does not mention i t . Morton (1939, p»698) i n speaking of the Lesser Slave Lake country says " ... i t produced the great mass of pemmican which provis-ioned the brigades of the North and the boats running from Lake Winnipeg to York Factory." —> about 1820-40. The day of being able to k i l l enough meat "on.the road" was gone* Travel had speeded up and the great d i s -tances, large quantities of supplies and furs to be moved, and the short season made i t imperative that a reasonably concentrated food be available f o r the f r e i g h t e r s . I t i s possible, also, that game had by t h i s time 60 been badly depleted along the freight routes* Lewes ( i n Glazebrook, 1938), a chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company at Oxford House i n 1833, made no mention of moose at that point when w r i t i n g of the establishments provisions, and i n the follow-ing year he sent a request to York f o r deer hides as there were not enough available at Oxford House to mend snowshoes, (Glazebrook, 1938, P.176). In 1835 John Charles was factor at Oxford House and although he too described provisioning, he did not mention moose. (Glazebrook, 1938, p»205). The same i s true of Richard Grant*s correspondence from Oxford House i n 1839. Mr. Sam Waller of The Pas kindly obtained the following i n f o r -mation f o r the writ e r : Zacchaius Young (an Indian) who was born about 1880 remembered hearing the men at Oxford House t e l l of the f i r s t moose k i l l e d i n that area. We may suppose from t h i s that moose were not known there p r i o r to about 1830-1840, There i s mention of "deer" at Norway House i n 1834, but i t i s more l i k e l y that i t refers to caribou than to moose. (Glazebrook, 1938, p,171) although there i s no reason to suppose that moose were not present at Norway House at that time. Referring to the period about 1865, Lockhart (1890) stated: "There are p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t i e s ... where Moose are ra r e l y , i f ever, seen. For instance, so f a r as I have heard, they never approach the shores of Hudson's Bay near York Factory. 61 Robert B e l l , geologist of the Canadian Geological Survey, made a number of t r i p s through northern Manitoba towards the end of the century ( B e l l , 1879, 1880, 1881) but he made no mention of moose or for that matter, of other game* In h i s 1880 report, however, he r e -ports being able to f i n d out very l i t t l e i n either Winnipeg or Norway House of the Nelson and C h u r c h i l l Rivers or of the land l y i n g between them and says ( B e l l , 1880, p,20): "This arises from the fact that both these r i v e r s have long since been abandoned as 'Voyaging 1 routes by the HudsonIs Bay Company, and also that no Indians l i v e at or near the parts I was to examine" — i . e . , the central portion of northern Manitoba* In the same report B e l l made numerous references to forest f i r e s having burned huge tra c t s of land i n the God's, Oxford, and Island Lake areas* Anderson (1924) quoted from a l e t t e r from E* T. Blundell of Island Lake post, written February 2, 1920: " I have made frequent enquir-i e s of the Indians regarding Moose and Deer,, and f i n d that 40 years ago more or l e s s , Moose were unknown i n t h i s region (Northeastern Man.), Since then they have gradually appeared i n increasing numbers and i n some places more remote from the main lake are i n f a i r numbers (mostly to the southeast, a better feeding country,)" Former conservation o f f i c e r A. Burling, i n reply to a questionnaire, stated that the Indians t o l d him ( i n 1952) that moose f i r s t moved into the Island Lake area about 1890-1910 so that B l u n d e l l t s estimate of 1880 (-) can be considered corrobor-ated. In the Report of the Select Committee of the Senate f o r 1887** 88 (Ghambers, 1908) there appears a map which purports to show the range of the moose i n North America at that time. Neither authorship nor source 62 i s indicated, and although other parts of i t may be c r i t i c i z e d , the range given f o r northern Manitoba i s believed to be reasonably accurate so f a r as the present survey has been able to ascertain. This range l i m i t i s indicated i n F i g . 4. Seton (1886) stated that "at present [the moose^ i s found i n great numbers only about the south of Hudson's Bay and i n the region north of Great Slave Lake. In Manitoba [then the "postage stamp" pro-vincej i t i s sparingly dist r i b u t e d ..." This reference to abundance south of Hudson Bay i s d i f f i c u l t to reconcile with other information — i n c l u d -i n g that which was furnished by Seton himself at a l a t e r date. (Seton, 1953, PP. 170-171) and the writer's f e e l i n g i s that i t should be dismissed as an error. That moose were p l e n t i f u l about t h i s time at Grand Rapids, however, i s apparent from the remark by Russell (1898) that a Cree hunter there named Aleck Easter had k i l l e d "sixty-nine more moose i n the l a s t s i x months than I had." R u s s e l l , so f a r as his report shows, had k i l l e d only one. He stated further that the Indians at Grand Rapids " l i v e d very comfortably ... by trapping ... and by the sale of sturgeon and moose meat." This report i s the only one discovered during t h i s study which would indicate a very large moose concentration anywhere i n northern Manitoba p r i o r to the present century. T y r r e l l (1897, p.154 F and on map facing P. 156 F) indicates a "Musogetewi Lake" or Moosenose Lake approximately 56° 20* N. 95° 15* W. now call e d "Moose Lake" on topographic maps. The name given by T y r r e l l indicates that moose were present north of the Nelson River toward the close of the 19th century. 63 i In summary then, the 19th century saw the extension of moose range to the north and northeast into areas where i t had never been seen before. There i s no reason f o r believing that t h i s movement was -a " d r i f t " back into an area previously occupied as i s suggested by B e l l (Seton, 1953, p.169) f o r the area south of James Bay, There are i n d i c a -t i o n s that the major t r a v e l routes were the main hunting areas, but except f o r one instance, at the close of the century, there are no references to large populations of moose i n northern Manitoba, d, 20th Century Preble of the United States B i o l o g i c a l Survey, made the f i r s t b i o l o g i c a l reconnaissance of northern Manitoba i n 1900, and indicated that the Northern l i m i t of moose range at that time (Preble, 1902, p.43) was from Shamattawa River, to near the confluence of Hayes and Fox r i v e r s to S p l i t Lake and west to the Stone River (between Wollaston Lake and Lake Athabasca — T y r r e l l , 1896, p.13). Preble also remarked on the previous absence of moose at Oxford House but that i t " i s now frequently k i l l e d near that part." In his report of his b i o l o g i c a l sur-vey of the Athabasca-MacKenzie region (Preble, 1908) he confirmed this' range on a map (p,131) and showed the l i n e as running from S p l i t Lake to the south shore of Gran v i l l e Lake, cutting across the south end of Reindeer Lake to the west shore of Wollaston Lake, etc. This i s e s s e n t i a l l y the northern l i m i t as given, by Seton (1953) whose map ( p , l 6 l ) was drawn for an e a r l i e r book (Seton 1909) and included i n the l a t e r edition with no apparent changes. Anderson (1934, 1938) however, on very small scale maps, indicated the "former range" of the moose considerably to the north and east of Preble's l i n e and the "extension 64 of range" as correspondingly farther north and east, including the barrengrounds of northern Manitoba i n which of course, the moose i s not found. I t would seem to the present writer that at l e a s t part of the difference between Preble's and Anderson's maps i s unintentional on the part of the l a t t e r , since he gives no reasons f o r a l t e r i n g the boundary of the "former range," Burt (1948) appears to have taken h i s range boundaries from Anderson (1938), Although Preble (1902) referred to moose hunting on the Shamattawa River i n 1900, there i s some doubt as to the precise loca« t i o n of his reference because h i s "Shamattawa River" i s the present "God's River" and extends from God's Lake (outlet at 94° 05' W, 54° 50* N.) to i t s junction with the Hayes River (93° 50* W, 56° 20' N), a distance of about.175 miles. According to former Conservation Officer Joe B i g n e l l , J r , who was stationed at York Factory from 1947 to 1953, the f i r s t moose were seen at Shamattawa (junction of God's and Echoing Rivers -•* .92° 05' W, 55° 50* N.) about 1910, and according to a story t o l d by the Anglican Bishop of Rupertsland i n a church paper i n the f a l l of 195L (Mr, Sam Waller — personal communication), the f i r s t Indian i n the York Factory area to see a moose (about 1900) was ostracized by the community because he reported having seen a horse with huge antlers swimming the r i v e r l Former Conservation O f f i c e r B i g n e l l i s a native Cree of northern Manitoba and knows something of the o l d stories of the Indians: he maintains that the "hunters of the olden days" t o l d stories of the coming of the moose to The Pas area from the west. 65 Mention has been made of B e l l ' s remarks concerning forest f i r e s i n the God's Lake - Island Lake - Oxford Lake area ( B e l l , 1880) towards the end of the nineteenth century, and, at the st a r t of the twentieth T y r r e l l (1902) made numerous references to the f i r e s that had burned large areas on the Muhigan River south of Sipiwesk Lake (p,22), Paint Lake on the Grass River (p«31), Birch Lake (now B i r c h -tree Lake) on the Burntwood River (p»33), Cranberry Lakes (p.39) and Setting Lake (p«47)* Some of these burns were w e l l wooded with poplars at the time of h i s v i s i t (1900?) while others were more recent and i n e a r l i e r successional stages. Since Samuel Heame had remarked i n the journal of h i s t r i p up the Grass River i n 1774 ( T y r e l l , 1934, P»10) that below Paint Lake "Most of the woods which we came by f o r these 2 Days Past have formaly ben set on f i r e , as ware also i n many other Parts as we came along •••", we may assume that at l e a s t on t h i s t r a v e l route, forest f i r e s were common, and, by inference, that they were no le s s common on the more widely used Hayes River route. Whether these f i r e s were purposely set or accidental i s unknown, but there seems l i t t l e doubt that they played an important r o l e i n the range and abundance of moose. A l l reports that have been examined indicate that where f i r e was absent, spruce, pine or la r c h were dominant forms and very l i t t l e de-ciduous forest was present. Personal observations have strengthened t h i s b e l i e f , as the writer has found extremely l i t t l e climax hardwood forest anywhere, i n northern Manitoba, (Two of the few exceptions were found on, certain of the ridges of the Saskatchewan River delta where one may f i n d small areas of climax balsam poplar and on stretches of the north bank of the Minago River below H i l l Lake where trembling aspen 66 appears to hold a new-found climax role,) Since the moose, contrary to popular b e l i e f , cannot e x i s t i n climax coniferous forests, the only way i n which i t could advance i t s range north of the aspen parklands was by having openings i n the spruce forests made available to i t . The abundance of moose on the Muhigan River at the turn of the present century i s indicated by T y r r e l l ' s report of having seen eleven i n one day ( T y r r e l l , 1902, p .23) . The Muhigan was o f f the beaten track and has never been used except by trappers working out from i t . This f a c t coupled with T y r r e l l 1 s e a r l i e r marks (q.v,) about forest f i r e s i n the area indicate two very good reasons for there having been an abundance of moose. Dickson (1911), quoted by Chambers (1914), stated that i n the region from The Pas-Moose Lake-Mitishto River, Setting, Wintering, Land-i n g , Sipiwesk, Cross Lakes Minago River-Moose Lake, which he traversed i n the summer of 1910, "moose and caribou are p l e n t i f u l . " Conservation Officer W. C. Slade reported i n 1952 that the o l d Indians at South Indian Lake claimed that f i f t y years previously there had been very few moose north of the Burntwood River, that the f i r s t moose were seen i n the South Indian Lake area t h i r t y - f i v e years before and that just t h i r t y years previously (1920) the f i r s t moose was reported shot on the Seal River north of Southern Indian Lake, The f i r s t report of a moose on the Putahow River was given by Conservation Officer N« A. Pater-son i n 1953. This moose was k i l l e d i n the f a l l of 1952 just inside the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s about 101° 20» W, 60° +. j j . The f i r s t report of moose i n the Churchill area seems to be that of Macoun, quoted by Seton 67 (1953, P,l64) who "saw tracks of 8 moose t h i s year^within 25 miles of C h u r c h i l l ... about 3 miles up the Deer RiverJ" The l e t t e r from yhich Seton was quoting was dated January 25, 1911. Mr. E. Kronlund of C h u r c h i l l t o l d the writer i n 1951 that "a number of years ag»" there were quite a few moose on Great Island i n the Seal River, and i n 1953, trappers at Duck Lake Post on N e j a n i l i n i Lake reported that a very few moose were now to be found not f a r to the south of that l o c a t i o n . One completely e x t r a - t e r r i t o r i a l record was advanced by Father F a r r i n of the R. C, Mission at Churchill who t o l d the writer that a number of years ago a moose was k i l l e d at Chesterfield I n l e t — approximately 350 miles north of C h u r c h i l l and, according to Father F a r r i n , 260 miles from the nearest timber. He said the animal was badly emaciated and was k i l l e d to put i t out of i t s misery. There seems l i t t l e doubt that t h i s animal was one of two reported to have been k i l l e d by natives i n January and February 1923 n t 4 0 or 50 miles southwest of ... (Chester-f i e l d ) I n l e t ' " (Anderson, 1924). e» Summary Pr i o r to recorded his t o r y , i t seems doubtful i f moose were to be found north of the 55th p a r a l l e l of north l a t i t u d e nor east of the 96th meridian of west longitude i n the area now occupied by north-ern Manitoba, Their range has been extended i n the intervening three hundred-odd years to beyond the 59th p a r a l l e l i n the north and is.con-tinuous with the range of the moose i n adjacent Ontario, The only areas now not occupied are the barrengrounds along the coast of Hudson Bay and i n the tundra-forest ecotone across the north of the Province (Fig,4 ) . SvXVlfa 3#*NCH. WIN*,*** 77ft +1 68 Since there i s no reason f o r believing that the c l i m a t i c a l l y controlled elements of the moose's habitat have varied to any marked degree i n t h i s three hundred year period, i t would appear that the northward movement i s either a normal portion of a long-term post-g l a c i a l invasion, a r e s u l t of human influence on the habitat, or a combination of the two* To the w r i t e r , the combined effect seems the most probable explanation, with human influence i n the nature of forest f i r e s accelerating the natural p o s t - g l a c i a l northward movement. The fu r trade was the activating influence.which caused the acceleration of the human invasion of the area, and as Mandelbaum (1941) suggests that the advance of the Cree race westward was due i n the f i r s t instance to the "European fad f o r the beaver hat" (Mandelbaum, 1941, p*l87), we might, with tongue i n cheek, compose the syllogism: The acceleration of the human invasion of Northern Manitoba was due to the European fad f o r the beaver hat* The human invasion of northern Manitoba accelerated the northward extension of the range of the moose i n Manitoba. Therefore, the European fad f o r the beaver hat accelerated the northward extension of the range of the moose i n Manitoba. 69 PART IV PRESENT STATUS OF MOOSE IN NORTHERN MANITOBA ' D i s t r i b u t i o n a. Introduction One of the i n i t i a l purposes of the study was to determine where moose were to be found and i n what numbers. No previous attempt . had been made to assemble the evidence which was r e a d i l y available nor to f e r r e t out detailed information on any portion of the ar*ea. This lack of information arose because u n t i l about ten years ago the Game and Fisheries Branch had no o f f i c e r s stationed i n any northern s e t t l e -ment except The Pas'. I t was not u n t i l the advent of registered trap-l i n e s that o f f i c e r s were placed i n the more remote settlements and information on game conditions became more r e l i a b l e and more e a s i l y ob-tainable. From avainable government reports i t seems that "north of the 53rd p a r a l l e l " used to be thought of as a region of l i t t l e importance and l e s s interest and unless s p e c i f i c mention of i t was made i n these older reports i t appeared that i t was seldom considered when making generalizations about game conditions i n the province. The following quotations from annual reports of the Game and Fisheries Branch, Winnipeg, may better i l l u s t r a t e t h i s point: 1943- 44 "North of the 53rd p a r a l l e l ... moose were generally p l e n t i f u l through the d i s t r i c t . " (Manitoba, 1944), 1944- 45 "Moose and Woodland Caribou show no change. Moose. and Deer are s t i l l on the increase i n the •••Summerberry 70 Fur R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Block." (Manitoba, 1945). 1945-46 Moose are not p l e n t i f u l , and i n order to increase t h e i r numbers a closed season was declared." (Manitoba, 1946). 1946 Report from The Pas, " I t must be noted that the Moose season was closed i n the area covered by the new R. L~ egisteredj T. [raplinej D i s t r i c t l a s t season. We were not consulted on t h i s change and I recommend that i t be opened again and l e f t open unless some great need f o r closing i t a r r i v e s . "From a l l I can gather Moose are holding up w e l l and extending t h e i r range i n some places. "Not that the closing caused hardship or much complaint because the hunters of the country do customarily pay no heed to the moose season anyway. Most moose are k i l l e d out of season, at present by trappers. "The point i s we do not want to place anybody who wishes to observe the open season i n a position where there i s no such thing." (Wells, 1946). I t appears that the closure of the season i n 1945 was made be-cause of depleted stocks i n the southern part of the province without reference, to the much larger and more moose-productive northern part. The season was reopened north of the 53rd p a r a l l e l i n 1946 but t h i s fact d i d not receive d i r e c t mention i n the annual report f o r that year. Only the southern s i t u a t i o n was commented upon - and the same thing occurred i n the next few years following. Apparently i t was not u n t i l 1950 that the administration gave serious consideration to the northern moose supply and i n 1951 the present study was inaugurated p a r t l y to f i n d out 71 where and i n what numbers moose occurred i n northern Manitoba, By the time the study started, the registered traplines admin-i s t r a t i o n had expanded to i t s present broad coverage and the f i e l d o f f i -cers were able to start gathering s t a t i s t i c a l information from the trappers. With each succeeding year the r e l i a b i l i t y of such information increased and the o f f i c e r s 1 own increasing f a m i l i a r i t y with t h e i r areas and t h e i r trappers permitted more adequate assessment of the trappers 1 reports* I t was through trappers 1 reports that most of the information to follow on d i s t r i b u t i o n was obtained. R.T.L, o f f i c e r s obtained figures on number of moose on each t r a p l i n e and the w r i t e r then converted these figures to "square miles per moose, shaded each t r a p l i n e according t« the groupings given on F i g . 5 and then when a l l the Sections were placed together, the t r a p l i n e mozaic was blended into the d i s t r i b u t i o n map, F i g * 5* The r e s u l t , while crude, does give a f a i r idea of the present numerical d i s t r i b u t i o n of moose i n the area. The map i s a preliminary one and should be refined as more data become available and as changes i n population density occur. b. Northern Limit of Di s t r i b u t i o n F i g . 4 indicates the northern l i m i t of d i s t r i b u t i o n at the present time.. This l i m i t coincides approximately with the northern l i m i t of forest ( F i g , 2) and may be considered to be under climatic control. No material extension of range can be expected to occur u n t i l the primary succession of the taiga extends the forest cover onto the present tundra. To f o l l o w page 71 72 c* Internal Pattern of D i s t r i b u t i o n . Figure 5 shows the most recent available pattern of density d i s t r i b u t i o n . The northern boundary of the "16-30 square miles per i moose" zone i s l a r g e l y speculative but the rest of the map i s based on census reports and personal observations-I t i s r e a d i l y apparent from t h i s map that the greatest concen« t r a t i o n of moose i s i n the area between The Pas, Herb Lake, and Sherridon with f a i r l y large patches of sim i l a r density i n the Pukatawagan, western South Indian Lake Pikwitonei and Wabowden areas. Lowest density i s i n the Norway House-Cross Lake zone and i n the northern fringe of .the range. Although more detailed information on density should be obtained f o r more intensive management, the information available i s probably adequate for the present i n t e n s i t y of u t i l i z a t i o n . Refining the s t a t i s t i c s w i l l be expensive and of doubtful j u s t i f i c a t i o n - f o r management purposes - u n t i l the need becomes i n t e n s i f i e d * Factors Affecting D i s t r i b u t i o n a. Introduction The simple f a c t that moose are d i s t r i b u t e d i n a ce r t a i n pattern i n any area i s useful knowledge, but i t i s much more useful f o r management purposes i f the reasons for the d i s t r i b u t i o n are knownj f o r i f a favourable set of circumstances, occurring n a t u r a l l y , allow Aa r e l a t i v e l y high density, i t may be possible purposely to a l t e r present unfavourable circumstances i n similar fashion so as to permit low density populations to increase* 73 b». Northern Limit As has been mentioned, the northern l i m i t of d i s t r i b u t i o n i s under c l i m a t i c control and i s unimportant from a p r a c t i c a l manage-ment viewpoint. c* Internal Pattern i . Habitat 1. Climax Forests Contrary to popular b e l i e f , moose do not and apparently cannot l i v e i n pure climax coniferous f o r e s t . Their tracks and droppings are often seen there but the absence of browse signs shows that they must obtain t h e i r food elsewhere* Openings i n the climax forest are essen-t i a l to moose survival and as w i l l be discussed l a t e r , the means of ob-tai n i n g such openings are some of the most r e a d i l y applicable means of management. 2. Forest Fires I t i s doubtful i f the importance of f i r e i n the ecology of moose i n boreal America can be over-emphasized. Cowan (1951) states that the two processes "coming to be recognized as the most important ... i n the development and maintenance of big game populations on forest areas are manipulation of range stage (through logging or burning] and d i s t r i b u t i o n and manipulation of the. breeding population. The accidental manipulation of range stage i n northern Manitoba, mainly through forest f i r e s , has probably been the most important single influence involved i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n and abundance of moose. The purposeful manipulation of range stage, again through f i r e , w i l l probably be of major importance to the future supply of moose. 74 Because the subject of " f i r e ecology" was considered to be outside the scope of t h i s study, only subjective assessment of i t s importance was made, A combined study of the subject by both forest and game interests leading toward, eventual application of controlled burning techniques appears to be due now, i f moose populations are to be maintained i n the face of increasingly e f f i c i e n t f o r e s t - f i r e pre-vention and suppression and increasing hunting pressure. F i g s , 6, 7, and 8 indicate the normal appearance of the i n t e r i o r s of two types of climax boreal forest and Figs. 9, 10, and 11 indicate the favourable deciduous p o s t - f i r e regeneration which one may expect on f a i r l y w e l l drained s i t e s with some overburden. Figs. 12 and 13 show direct p o s t - f i r e regeneration of conifers where s o i l conditions are unfavourable to aspen-birch-willow succession* 3, Riparian Habitat One of the. most s t r i k i n g phenomena of the boreal forest i s the deciduous border found along streams and a round many of the lakes and "potholes! 1. The border i s not always present; f o r i t i s dependent upon proper edaphic and c l i m a t i c factors as w e l l as upon the close prox-imity of water, but where g l a c i a l action has l e f t s u f f i c i e n t fine-tex-tured deposits, or erosion of native rock has been s u f f i c i e n t l y rapid, or where r i v e r levees have been b u i l t up, or " f i l l i n g " of shallow water bodies with decaying vegetation has provided humus, and one or more of these circumstances i s coupled with the presence of water i n the form of streams or lakes, i t i s common to f i n d such borders* At times these borders are so narrow as to be only intermittent ( F i g . 14) at other times, as i n the delta of the Saskatchewan River. They p r a c t i c a l l y Fig, inclusive, to follow page 74. •^•••••••••IBHHHHHHHP F i g . 6. Gunisao Lake Area,Norway House Se c t i o n , showing t y p i c a l "black spruce climax f o r e s t . The shrub "by growth i n the foreground i s Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum) Ground cover i s c h i e f l y Sphagnum sp.. F i g . 7. Otter Lake area, Cranberry Portage S e c t i o n , showing t y p i c a l Banksian pine climax f o r e s t . Note n e a r l y complete absence of d e c i d -uous understory. Fig. 8. Connelly Lake area, jRskatohe1 an li v e r delta, showing climax white aoruce-Bankslan nine forest, Tote absence of under-story and presence of old paper biroh bole Just to the l e f t and beyond the figure. ?^ig, 9. An i a l nd in t' e *est end of Cross lake, showing snail burned ^atoh in foreground and nearly nature vrhite enruoe In the back-ground. Figure i s standing behind a three-year-old tre* bllng csoen, which i s elrecdy over four feet t a l l . F i g . 10. North of the v i l l a g e o f Cranberry portage. A panorama to show r e p r o d u c t i o n 23 years a f t e r a mature spruoe f o r e s t had been burned. F i g . 11. Near the s i t e of Fig.10 to show: 1} 18" spruce stump,age approximately 110 years; 2) t a l l aspen (D.B.Ii.Z-k") now grown out o f reach of moose and being invaded by 3) white spruce (D.B.H.I").The i n t e n s i t y of the f i r e i s i n d i c a t e d by the way the roots o f the o l d spruce were burned and l a i d bare. F i g . 12. Near the s i t e s o f Figs.10 and 11, showing d i r e c t r e t u r n to Banksian pine f o l l o w i n g f i r e where the s o i l has e i t h e r been burned o f f or simply has not yet formed f o l l o w i n g g l a c i a l denudation. 75 exclude a l l conifers (Fig* 15) and a l l intervening stages may be found (e.g., Figs, 16', 17, 18), The importance of such habitat i n the density d i s t r i b u t i o n of moose probably stands i n t h i r d place a f t e r forest f i r e s and human hunting pressure. P r i o r to the invasion of the area by man, i t was probably of greater significance than now, but upon t h i s theory we can only speculate. I t seems s i g n i f i c a n t that the area now harbouring the highest moose density (over an area of a few hundred square miles) i s one i n which a large amount of permanent deciduous r i p a r i a ^ growth i s a v ailable, that i s , i n the Saskatchewan River Delta, 4. Aquatic Habitat Although the r e a l importance of aquatic food i n the ecology of moose has yet to be determined, i t appears that some i s necessary and that frequently the highest populations are found i n areas where aquatics are most p l e n t i f u l . The p o s s i b i l i t y exists however that p l e n t i -f u l aquatics and adequate browse are environmentally l i n k e d , Montana studies (Cooney, 1943, reviewed by Hosley, 1949) showed that true "under-water plants" constituted only 2 percent to 5 percent of the d i e t from June to October as compared to 64 percent to 93 percent shrubs, and 5 percent to 34 percent "grasses","grasslike plants" and "weeds". In Ontario, Peterson (1950) found the u t i l i z a t i o n of aquatics and other green succulents to be very high i n the early spring and gradually to wane as the summer progressed. He found Potamogeton sp t to be the most preferred aquatic on St, Ignace Island, Lake Superior. Because there appeared to be a superfluity of aquatic vegetation i n a l l areas v i s i t e d during the present study, i t was assumed that t h i s factor was not Figs. 1^-18, inclusive,to follow; page 75. F i g . 1J. Gunisao Lake ai?ea, Norway House S e c t i o n , showing d i r e c t r e t u r n to Banksian pine f o l l o w i n g f i r e on area w i t h poor s o i l ; 10-year-old burn. F i g . 14. Bennett R i v e r , Norway House s e c t i o n , showing very naarow r i p a r i a n border between the water and near-mature jjanksian nine f o r e s t . F i g . 15. An unnamed channel i n the Blackwater Lake area, Saskatchewan R i v e r D e l t a , showing dense deciduous r i p a r i a n border and absence of c o n i f e r s . F i g . 16. A small creek j o i n i n g two unnamed l a k e s i n the S p l i t Lake s e c t i o n , showing a moderate r i p a r i a n border o f paper b i r c h and w i l l o w c o n t r a s t -ing w i t h the surrounding stunted black spruce f o r e s t . F i g . 17. Head R i v e r Lake area, Saskatchewan R i v e r d e l t a , showing climax balsam poplar on o l d aband-oned r i v e r levee. A few o l d spruce (D.B.H.l8 t t/) are also found on t h i s levee but p r a c t i c a l l y no spruce regeneration. The main components o f the spruce l a y e r are red o s i e r dogwood and viburnum. F i g . 18. Along a sdde channel from the Sepastic a i v e r , Norway House S e c t i o n , a panorama shornng a moderate r i p a r i a n border c o n s i s t i n g mainly o f w i l l o w , red o s i e r dogwood and trembling as^en. Very ggod moose h a b i t a t . 76 acting to l i m i t the size or d i s t r i b u t i o n of the population, and since an adequate s t a t i s t i c a l treatment of these plants would have entailed much more time and manpower than was av a i l a b l e , the ro l e of- aquatics i n the di e t was lar g e l y ignored. Summer canoe t r a v e l was l i m i t e d to areas south of the 57th p a r a l l e l but up to that l a t i t u d e , at l e a s t i n the centre of the Province, the variety of aquatics was almost as great as at the 54th p a r a l l e l . With increasing l a t i t u d e , one would expect further re-duction i n the number of species present, but the more rigorous climate also eliminates a number of the more southern browse species, and the reduced moose population i s thought to be more closely linked with browse qu a l i t y than with the q u a l i t y of the aquatic f l o r a . In short, i t i s the writer's opinion that aquatics are not a co n t r o l l i n g factor i n the d i s -t r i b u t i o n of moose i n northern Manitoba although they may be link e d to factors which do exert c o n t r o l l i n g influences, 5. S o i l Types S o i l analyses have been carried out i n only two l o c a l i t i e s i n t h i s northern area - i n the "Carrot River Triangle" west of The Pas and i n the Wanless area 30 miles north of The Pas, A reconnaissance survey of the large i n t e r i o r clay b e l t was made i n 1952 ( E h r l i c h , 1952) but l i t t l e s o i l sampling was carried out at that time. A l l of these testings have been on actual or pot e n t i a l farm land and no analyses of forest s o i l s as such have been undertaken, Skunke (1949) showed that calcium content of the s o i l correlated very w e l l with moose density i n Sweden, but i n the present study the only limestone-bedded area i n which even a moderate moose population was found was so deeply covered over most of i t s area with s i l t and/or g l a c i a l t i l l that the effect of the under-l y i n g rock was l a r g e l y masked,. There appeared to be no correlation 77 between moose density and presence or absence of limestone; f o r even where the overburden was not deep there was no observable effect on moose density. E l l i s (1938) refers to the whole northern area of the province as podzolic, but i t i s possible that some l o c a l variations may also occur. Although no study of s o i l s was undertaken, the generally uniform nature of the forests i n the area suggests that, except i n the case of p o s t - f i r e succession, s o i l s probably do not play a major r S l e i n moose d i s t r i b u t i o n . Where f i r e s have occurred, the type of succes-sion to be expected i s apparently quite dependent upon the o r i g i n a l nature of the s o i l . S o i l s with a shallow " A l " horizon often lose almost a l l t h e i r organic matter during a f i r e and succession then st a r t s with Banksian pine. Very wet "black muck" s o i l s tend to r e s i s t f i r e but when t h e i r vegetation i s burned, succession usually s t a r t s with spruce. Drier s o i l s with a r e l a t i v e l y deep "A^" horizon appear to be the ones most productive of browse species such as willow, b i r c h and aspen following f i r e s , and i n consequence are considered to be the most important i n moose d i s t r i b u t i o n and abundance. 6. Summary Of the habitat factors considered, forest f i r e s and r i p a r i a n habitat were thought to be of major importance i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of moose. Aquatic vegetation may be a necessary component of the summer diet but i s so ubiquitous that i t probably has exerted l i t t l e or no effe c t on density or d i s t r i b u t i o n . S o i l s are very imperfectly known but favourable p o s t - f i r e succession appears to be dependent upon the s o i l type and s o i l s are therefore probably c l o s e l y l i n k e d to moose 78 abundance and d i s t r i b u t i o n * Research into possible means of habitat improvement as a management technique i s indicated. At the present " time i t appears that such research may be most productive i f directed toward habitat changes through controlled burning of conifers and of hardwoods which have grown beyond the reach of moose. i i . Hunting Pressure While i t i s to be expected that moose w i l l not be found in-, areas where the habitat i s unsuitable, i t i s sometimes the case that, due to the influence of other factors of the environment, they are not found i n areas where the habitat i s suitable. In the region studied, instances of t h i s sort were mainly confined to the areas away from the railroads and appeared to be due, i n the majority of cases, to native hunting pressure. In the l i g h t of present knowledge of moose d i s t r i -bution, the following discussion w i l l aim to separate the most obvious factors influencing t h i s hunting pressure and to analyze them with a view to using the information thus obtained as a basis f o r management considerations. ' ' 1. Human Abundance and D i s t r i b u t i o n About seventy-five to eighty percent of the human population of northern Manitoba i s concentrated i n the communities along the r a i l -ways. The majority of the inhabitants' of these communities are whites whose hunting a c t i v i t i e s do not now appear to play a dominant r o l e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of moose. The other twenty to twenty-five percent of the population i s located i n the more remote settlements and i s made up of approximately eighty percent Indians and twenty percent metis and whites. The hunting a c t i v i t i e s of the Indians appear to play a f a i r l y 79 important r 6 l e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of moose. . To an ever-increasing extent the Indians are becoming v i l -lage dwellers, and the hunting pressure applied to the areas within a few hours canoe t r a v e l of the v i l l a g e s i s increasing accordingly. In the summer of 1951 the writ e r , accompanied by Conservation Officer E.B. Johanson, examined areas i n the v i c i n i t i e s of the communities of Norway House and Cross Lake and along the main canoe-route between.the two. The s o i l s i n t h i s area are mainly clays deposited at the time of g l a c i a l Lake .Aggassiz, covered to varying degrees with an overburden of r i c h alluvium carried from the Great Plains by the Saskatchewant Assiniboine, Souris and Red Rivers. I t appears to be very productive.soil; gardens 9 i n the area are excellent and the f o r s t vegetation i s very suitable f o r moose. But, as i s indicated i n F i g . 5, the moose population i s very low —> estimated at less than one moose per t h i r t y square miles. Immediately a f t e r examining t h i s area, Mr. Johanson, a guide, and the w r i t e r flew to an area about eighty miles southeast of Norway House where the habitat f o r moose was less favourable but where hunting pressure was .quite l i g h t . At the time of our v i s i t the moose popula-t i o n probably exceeded one moose per ten square miles. The differences i n moose density between the two. areas appeared to be due to hunting' pressure, since on the basis of other observable factors of the environ-ment the density should have been highest i n the Norway House - Cross Lake area* In the summer of 1954, the w r i t e r , accompanied by Conservation Of f i c e r H.M.Reynolds and a guide, examined the area l y i n g between Nelson House and South Indian Lake, following the main canoe route between the 80 two points - the Rat River, Because t h i s route i s considerably longer and passes over a height-of-land, i t i s not so much used as i s the Norway House. - Cross Lake route which follows the upper portion of the Nelson River and i s ea s i l y navigated. Summer hunting pressure along the Rat River appears to be mainly confined to the area below Karsakuwigamak Lake or within two days canoe t r a v e l of Nelson House, Although the purpose of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t r i p was concerned with muskrats rather than moose and l i t t l e time was spent examining the area fo r signs of moose, i t was s t r i k i n g l y apparent that the greatest concentration of moose was i n an area above Karsakuwigamak Lake and about two hours t r a v e l away from the main r i v e r where few i f any hunters went i n the summertime. Reports from Conservation Officers i n almost a l l areas confirmed the b e l i e f that hunting pressure by the Indians, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the sum-mer months, was the major factor c o n t r o l l i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of moose, and that the d i s t r i b u t i o n and abundance of the human population were roughly i n inverse proportion to the d i s t r i b u t i o n and abundance of moose. One major exception to t h i s generalization occurs i n the Opachuanau Lake area, South Indian Lake Section, This area i s apparently the main summer hunting ground of the South Indian Lake residents, yet boasts a moose density of under f i v e square miles per moose - probably the highest density i n the Section. The writer has so far paid only a f l e e t i n g v i s i t to t h i s area and no reasons for the large population can yet be advanced. Because of i t s apparently anomalous nature, t h i s ' area deserves intensive study. 81 2, M o b i l i t y and fire-power of the Indian population Immediately following the second World War there was a large increase i n the number of outboard motors bought by the natives i n northern Manitoba* This increase was due both to the release of mater-i a l s which had been scarce during the. war and to the high prices being . paid f o r furs at that time. (Between•1928-29 and 1952-53, the highest prices paid f o r beaver, muskrat, mink, marten, weasel and s q u i r r e l were recorded i n 1945-46: Manitoba, 1953)* The outboards gave the Indians a much greater easy c r u i s i n g radius and they could range farther i n search of game with much less e f f o r t than had previously been the case. I t i s impossible to estimate the degree to which the increased number of out-boards influenced the moose population. Certainly, any predator increases i t s chances of success by increasing i t s mobility, other elements of the hunting technique remaining stable, simply by increasing the opportunity f o r contact. Many Indians consider i t easier and faster to paddle than to use an outboard where many portages are encountered, and the influence of the outboard has probably been confined mainly to the most e a s i l y navigated waters. Former Conservation Officer J. D, Smith of Godts Lake t o l d the writer that prior, to the 1930*s only three r i f l e s were known to exist among the God's Lake band but that the number had s t e a d i l y increased from that time onward. I t seems probable that a comparable s i t u a t i o n occurred at other points. Anyone who has hunted moose w i l l appreciate the effect of increasing fire-power on hunters' a b i l i t y to k i l l moose. I t i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t to get w i t h i n rifle-range of them, but very d i f f i c u l t to get w i t h i n bow and arrow, spearing, or clubbing range. 82 Even though the modern generation of hunters i s much less s k i l f u l than were t h e i r forebears, t h e i r lack of s k i l l i s probably more than o f f s e t by their increased k i l l i n g range, especially when t h i s range i s coupled with the outboard motor. Although the a c q u i s i t i o n of firearms per se would not be expected to influence moose d i s t r i b u t i o n , when considered i n conjunction with the•concomitant tendency to v i l l a g e l i f e i t s effect has probably been of considerable importance i n increasing the pressure on moose i n the v i c i n i t y of the settlements. 3. Effect of other big game as buffers In the northern part of the area, the most noteworthy game buffer between moose and man has been the barrenground caribou. These animals migrate southward by the thousands each winter, frequently as f a r as the 55th p a r a l l e l and occasionally as f a r as the 54th p a r a l l e l of l a t i t u d e . Because they are a herding animal, tend to spend much of t h e i r time i n the open, and are much less wary than moose, they are more eas i l y hunted, and generally are taken i n preference to moose. However, because the caribou are usually absent from most of the moose's range from A p r i l to November, the time of the heaviest hunting pressure on moose, t h e i r o v e r a l l effect i n lessening the number of moose k i l l e d i s probably not of very great significance and they probably do not a l t e r materially the effect of hunting pressure on d i s t r i b u t i o n of moose. I t has frequently been reported that the moose move out of an area when the barrenground caribou move i n . However, since there appear to be no indications of any major concentrations of moose south of the caribou range coincident with the caribou migrations, these reports must 83 te n t a t i v e l y be discounted. I t i s thought that perhaps the apparent de-crease i n moose where caribou occur may be due to o b l i t e r a t i o n of moose sign by the myriads of caribou tracks. At the present time the r o l e of woodland.caribou and w h i t e - t a i l deer as buffers i s probably not s i g n i f i c a n t i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of moose due to the small numbers of both species i n northern Manitoba. • 3/, Effect of Domestic and Commercial Fishing As was indicated i n an e a r l i e r part of t h i s study, f i s h probably compose the bulk of the natives 1 unpurchased d i e t , Since d i s t r i b u t i o n of domestic f i s h i n g pressure roughly p a r a l l e l s d i s t r i b u t i o n of hunting pressure, domestic f i s h i n g possibly re l i e v e s some pressure from moose i n the v i c i n i t y of the v i l l a g e s but probably does not have a large enough effect to a l t e r the influence of hunting on moose d i s t r i b u t i o n . On the other hand, commercial f i s h i n g tends to spread the natives out to a greater extent than would otherwise occur, and might be expected to a l t e r hunting pressure i n three ways. By taking some of the Indians away from the v i l l a g e s , i t might be expected that hunting pressure i n the v i l l a g e areas would be lessened. By placing these fishermen on lakes where, generally, they would not normally be found (at le a s t not i n so large numbers), hunting pressure i n these areas i s probably i n -creased* By placing cash income from f i s h i n g i n t h e i r hands, the natives may k i l l fewer moose and l i v e more "off the shelf", thus further reducing hunting pressure p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the most heavily hunted areas around the settlements. There may w e l l be other facets which the writer has not considered, but at the present time i t may be proposed that domestic 84 f i s h i n g has l i t t l e effect on moose d i s t r i b u t i o n ; that commercial f i s h i n g may tend to spread hunting pressure more evenly and thus have at le a s t a potential effect on moose d i s t r i b u t i o n . *f.f>» E f f e c t of Abundance and Value of Fur Bearers Increasing abundance- and value of f u r bearers appear to have f i v e major effects which i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t b i g game* Perhaps the most notable effect i s the increase i n cash income* This income i n turn causes an increase i n the amount of "off the shelf" l i v i n g and increases the amount of time which the natives spend i n the v i l l a g e s - especially i n the summer months* Due to more people spending more time i n the v i l l a g e s i n the summertime, i t i s probable that an increase i n hunting pressure wit h i n easy canoe range of the v i l l a g e s also occurs although t h i s effect may be somewhat offs e t by the increasing purchasing power of the natives. The increasing amount of meat available from fur bearers — p a r t i c u l a r l y beaver and muskrats — may act as a buffer i n reducing the b i g game k i l l . The importance of recent population changes i n beaver may be in f e r r e d from the following figures on number of beaver cropped i n three r e g i s -tered t r a p l i n e sections: Pukatawagan, 1945-46, 40?J 1952-53, 3,187. Nelson House 1946-47, 623; 1951-52, 2,652. God's Lake, 1947-48, 17; 1951-52,1,414. I t i s probable that the effect of such changes i n r e l i e v i n g pressure on moose would probably be increased even more i f methods of preserving excess meat through the summer months were av a i l a b l e . Decreasing abundance and value of fur bearers would normally be expected to have just about the reverse effects to those mentioned 85 above. Decreasing available cash would promote an increasing tendency to l i v e "off the land", would draw more people away from the v i l l a g e s , tend to spread hunting pressure more evenly and would probably increase the number of moose k i l l e d due to lack of meat from fur bearers. Of recent years however there has been an increasing tendency f o r the na-tives to request r e l i e f i n the form of free rations when normal sources of monetary wealth decrease* I f t h i s tendency continues along with the present slump of the fur market and decreasing beaver populations, i t may be expected that the decreasing abundance and value of fur bearers w i l l cause an increase i n hunting pressure near the v i l l a g e s and aggra-vate the already uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of moose. 5$, Summary In summary, summer hunting pressure near the native settlements i s considered of major importance i n causing moose density to be less i n the areas e a s i l y accessible from the settlements and greater i n the less e a s i l y accessible areas. Many factors tend to aggravate the uneven d i s t r i -bution, including outboard motors, r i f l e s , absence of big game buffers i n the summertime, and the new c u l t u r a l trend of the natives to v i l l a g e existence. The basic factor underlying a l l the others i s the fact that the great majority of the moose are k i l l e d i n the months of open water. Management programs aimed at lessening the summer k i l l i n areas of low moose density should prove b e n e f i c i a l to the long-term u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i s resource. 86 Abundance of Moose a* Introduction Since appreciation of an animal population i s dependent i n part upon a knowledge of the number of in d i v i d u a l s composing i t , and since f o r management purposes i t i s desirable to have some means of following trends i n these numbers, the present study attempted to obtain t h i s information. Because the area involved was very large, t h i n l y s e t t l e d , and d i f f i c u l t of access, more attention was paid to trends i n numbers than to positive counts. Almost a l l of the area i s divided i n t o registered tr a p l i n e s and i t was through the medium of the r e g i s -tered trappers' estimates of numbers on each t r a p l i n e that most of the information was obtained. Experimental a e r i a l census work supplemented by ground counts by Conservation Officers supplied further information i n the Saskatfhewan River delta where no registered traplines existed and computations based on the known k i l l and population composition provided additional estimates of abundance. b. Registered Trapline Areas i . Introduction Hunting pressure on moose i n northern Manitoba i s exerted mainly by residents of remote areas — by Indians and persons l i v i n g -the l i f e of Indians. "Sport" hunting, or hunting by persons whose normal standard of l i v i n g does not depend upon w i l d game, i s mainly l i m i t e d to areas e a s i l y accessible by automobile or r a i l r o a d . Because i t was de-si r e d to obtain information on the economic importance of moose to re-sidents of remote areas as w e l l as i t s p o s i t i o n as sporting game, some 87 means of obtaining s t a t i s t i c s on population density and trends was necessary. The vast areas involved and the suspected r e l a t i v e l y small moose population precluded the use of any standard methods of inventory. Unlike mountainous areas where moose are found concentrated i n the valleys during part of the year, and can there be censussed rapidly and cheaply from the a i r , no seasonal concentrations were known to exist i n t h i s area and hence a e r i a l census was not considered prac-t i c a b l e . However there d i d exist an elaborate system of registered t r a p l i n e s covering the whole area (except for a r e l a t i v e l y small por-t i o n i n the southwest) and i t was considered that i f the trappers . would supply estimates of populations on each t r a p l i n e , the mosaic would probably be adequate to show trends. Results have been only p a r t i a l l y successful but are expected to become of increasing use as more date are b u i l t up with which to make year-to-year comparisons, i i . Description of Registered Trapline System Because a knowledge of the basic organization and adminis-t r a t i o n of registered t r a p l i n e s i s prerequisite to an appreciation of the value and shortcomings of censuses obtained from the trappers, a b r i e f description of the Manitoba system w i l l be given. Depletion of the fur resource through "cut throat" trapping practices led to requests as early as the 1920 rs for some means of securing to the i n d i v i d u a l exclusive r i g h t s to trap a p a r t i c u l a r piece of ground. By 1940 the f i r s t r e g i s t r a t i o n had become a' f a i t  accompli i n a small area along the Hudson Bay Railway and i n the 88 succeeding two or three years an area of some thirte e n thousand square miles adjacent to the two railway l i n e s and occupied mainly by non-Indian trappers had been completely divided up and registered* Due to the success of t h i s venture i n increasing fur stocks, the system was extended l i t t l e by l i t t l e to the rest of the northern area u n t i l now a l l except the northern Chipewyan lands are divided up and admin-iste r e d by thirteen o f f i c e r s i n the f i e l d and two at headquarters i n The Pas. Figure 19 shows the way the area has been divided into Sections and F i g , 20 i s a t y p i c a l example of the way i n which each section i s subdivided into t r a p l i n e s . I t w i l l be noticed that there i s no vacant land between traplines or between Sections, A l l t r a p l i n e and section boundaries were drawn i n by the trappers concerned, the government acting only as a mediator of boundary disputes. No l e g a l surveys have been carried out, the l i n e s drawn by the trappers on the o r i g i n a l maps serving as the sole basis of a r b i t r a t i o n i n any dispute. Some of the t r a p l i n e s are registered to only one i n d i v i d u a l while others — so called "group t r a p l i n e s " — are registered to more than one person but usually with one "senior trapper" as spokesman and supervisor of the group, The members of group traplines are most commonly a group of(brothers or a father and his sons. By 1954 there were 2,056 trappers registered to i n d i v i d u a l t r a p l i n e s and group trap-l i n e s and the area under r e g i s t r a t i o n was approximately 151,300 square miles. BARRENS fH&w page 88. H U D S O N 'ji BROCHET ^Church/// BAY 3fOchat SOUTH INDIAN , CHURCH I l/i r \4 w Vii A Gran v//7 NELSON HOUSE 5 Turnfuvooz ^SPL/T Port ^ f Nalsot &/-A- Factory YORK II ford A* } ftSHAMATTAWA ^^JsZinsk J HOUSE L ? r - S L n -fC. _y rO^ ^/Gods r -'^OSS°X^%T^{Y^ fGODL ^bovvcian. LAKE ^Cross^ W LAKE TMOXOSE (LAKE, . [Norway <tzvansoA J-ok ^Island L. r * ^ 9 ^ S J - j £ l / S L A N D LA/CE Pig. i 9 . Division of Northern Manitoba into registered Trapline Sections. ELS To f o l l o w page 88, F i g . 20. T y p i c a l d i v i s i o n o f a R e g i s t e r e d T r a p l i n e S e c t i o n i n t o t r a p l i n e s . 89 i i i . • Methods Between freeze*up and Christinas the trappers are expected to get out to t h e i r l i n e s , count t h e i r beaver houses and generally get a picture of the state of the f u r and game populations* Trapping at t h i s time i s mainly f o r mink and i n some places f o r f i s h e r and marten. The beaver season i s open from November to May but only a small per-centage of the annual beaver crop i s taken p r i o r to Christmas, . For the most part the attention of the trappers during t h i s census period i s focussed on the lakes and streams and large areas are therefore missed, Long-term tenure of one t r a p l i n e by one i n d i v i d u a l or group of individuals allows a more i n t e l l i g e n t guess to be made of the size of moose population than would be the case i f the estimate had to be based just on the sign seen along the waterways i n early.winter. As a general p o l i c y , trappers are encouraged to stay on the same tr a p l i n e year a f t e r year and t h i s s t a b i l i t y i s of considerable benefit to any management method. Most of the trappers return, to the settlements at Christmas and at t h i s time submit t h e i r censuses to the Conservation O f f i c e r concerned. In the Central D i s t r i c t most of the trappers are l i t e r a t e and submit t h e i r returns i n w r i t i n g but i n the other Sections the l i t e r a c y rate i s quite low and most returns are submitted ve r b a l l y . (At the present time tests are being run to see i f census forms p r i n t * ed i n Indian s y l l a b l e s w i l l increase the returns). The dependence of the quality of census results i n most areas upon the relationship be-tween f i e l d o f f i c e r and trapper introduces a possible source of error 90 whenever an o f f i c e r i s transferred from one Section to another. Unfor-tunately, since t h i s factor cannot be analyzed i t must be ignored i n f i n a l computations. Although i t would have been valuable to have checked some of the trappers 1 censuses i n order to obtain an in d i c a t i o n of t h e i r average accuracy, lack of funds, personnel and adequate techniques prevented t h i s from being done. Officers naturally disregarded known w i l d guesses by persons of more or less unbalanced minds, but the average trapper's census was accepted at face value. Each o f f i c e r also supplied an estimate of the number of moose k i l l e d by hunters i n the area under h i s supervision. This estimate was based on reports by the trappers plus whatever more could be picked up through.keeping eyes and ears a l e r t , i v . Results Table 3 summarizes a l l of the available trappers 1' census re-su l t s by Sections, Sections having very incomplete or no returns are omitted ( S p l i t Lake, Limestone, C h u r c h i l l , Duck Lake, Brochet), For a l l of the censuses for which the "percent of Traplines Reporting" was known, the t o t a l census reported has been extrapolated to show the es-timated number which would have been reported had a l l t raplines been i heard from. Also included i n the table are the records of a l l the known hunter k i l l s i n each Section. The k i l l i n a l l the Indian Sections i s estimated to average approximately 800 moose annually. Table 4 summarizes a l l of the age and sex reports, and Table 5 summarizes the age and sex c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the known k i l l . TABLE 3 REGISTERED TRAPPERS' RETURNS. MOOSE CENSUS AND KILL IN NORTHERN MANITOBA, 1940-50 to 1953-54 CENSUS CROP '••J en § P H CD CD CO O o -1-3-a R.T.L. SECTION God's LAKE CD CO YEAR ffi CD CO o p CD CO OXFORD a O H P CO co H -H s H -CD P -I CO "8 4 3 O CD H> H - 4 era TJ i H CD CO CD CO \ H O O ## — incomplete k i l l record 588 82.2 50-51 51*52 52- 53 53- 54 106 116 # — estimated k i l l ## — said to contain 27 w o I f - k i l l s and 2 drownings ### — incomplete k i l l record 102 778 41.7 92 88 50*51 51- 52 52- 53 53- 54 # — not extrapolated 363# 537# 371# 463 97.1 T H CD CO 50 25 51 54 — e — — e * P H o [5 H CD P CD CO co CO CO H -H> H * CD P . NORWAY 1950-HOUSE 1951 294# 30 9 51-52 391# 36 21 52-53 316# 23 7 53-54 387 30 16 # — not extrapolated ISLAND 51-52 714# 99 48 LAKE 52-53 354 336 358 118 1306 89.1 105 106 53 47 53-54 142 131 238 268 984 78.3 108 182 37 35 # - -not extrapolated 21 30 26 21 13 42 35 20 15 7 8 39 57 30 49 173 121 85## 90# 24 151## 60### 84 79 92 TABLE 3 (Cont'd.) R.T.L. SECTION CENSUS H CO-CO YEAR H CD Co O p CD 0) G 3 a H P> CO CO H -H j H -CD i-3 4 O s CD H -0 O em i al o CD H j P CD < h i CO H co H CD d- c+ CD \ CD co H - h i CO CO \ H 0Q 1 O O CROP 8F H CD CO •3 o G h3. ffi (a 3 o 3 H o H t> H CO (0 r 1 CD CO CO co co CO H -H ) H-CD CROSS LAKE EAST CENTRAL DISTRICT WEST CENTRAL DISTRICT PUKATA-WAGAN 50«51 51*52 52- 53 53- 54 # — not extrapolated 49*50 50*51 51- 52 52- 53 53- 54 49- 50 50- 51 51- 52 52- 53 53- 54 50- 51 51- 52 52- 53 53- 54 185 170 204 166 185 168 703 191 136 200. 153 82 340# 330 302 1134 1166 1241 1703 2109 725 496 627 562 647 82.4 73.5 58,6 71.6 74.2 60.3 32.8 44.9 77.9 66.7 88.6 88.3 91 102 91 101 24 20 68 77 29 26 500# 1473## 63.3 1594###55.2 5 17 29 8 1 45 1 55 50 41 100 111 # — Conservation Officer Burns' personal estimate ... ## — Estimate by extrapolation . — Estimate by extrapolation — Conservation Officer Slade estimated a t o t a l population i n the Section of only 1000, TABLE 3 (Continued) CENSUS CROP R.T.L. SECTION YEAR H CD co o s r a CO CO H-H j H-CD 3 "O 3 O O CD H j 4 CO ct" c + on . i O g § CD (o H H H CD p5 <i CD H CO H CD CO CD \ CD co CO g o CO 001/ H CD CO O CO o H S» CO CO H-Hi H -CD I T o NELSON HOUSE SOUTH INDIAN LAKE YORK / SHAMAT-TAWA 50*51 51- 52 547 94.3 52- 53 482 86.7 53- 54 631 72.9 # **- four of these said to have been k i l l e d by wolves, 37 8 50*51 51- 52 52- 53 53*54 50*51 •51-52 52*53 53- 54 55 37 # — not extrapolated 1033 54.7 1343 57.7 1499 65.4. 331# 39 34 165# 30 8 53 46 149 106 27 19 14 6 19 29 45 56 100 78# 51 45 84 75 150 53 104 106 94 TABLE 4 SUMMARY OF AGE AND SEX RETURNS IN TRAPPERS1 CENSUS ' (# based on only those animals i d e n t i f i e d as to age and sex) Adult Males: Calves: Males Females 100 Females Calves 100 Females Unidentified Totals # 539 540 100 543 101 821 2443 1952-53 #33.2 33.4 33.5 100.1 # 609 650 94 700 108 575 2543 1953-54 #31,1 33.1 35.7 99.9 TABLE 5 SUMMARY OF AGE AND SEX RETURNS IN REPORTED KILL IN REGISTERED TRAPLINE SECTIONS (# based on only those animals i d e n t i f i e d as to age and sex) Adult Males Females Calves Unidenti-f i e d Totals No. of Sections reporting 1950-51 # 67 % 39 14 262 382 7 1951-52 #185 % 111 61 166 523 6 1952«53 #152 % 95 43 386 676 9 1953-54 #262 % 200 37 337 836 11 TOTALS #666 #52.6 445 35-1 ' 155 12.2 1151 '2417 99.9 95 v» Discussion Beaver management was the primary factor i n the est a b l i s h -ment of registered t r a p l i n e s and i t s i n i t i a l success was att r i b u t a b l e i n part to the census of beaver houses turned i n each f a l l by the trap-pers. Not too much trouble was experienced i n obtaining censuses i n the predominantly "white" Central D i s t r i c t , but i n the Indian Sections the trappers at f i r s t looked upon counting beaver houses as just about the s i l l i e s t thing that a government agency had ever dreamed up. "When t h i s prejudice was worn down the trappers were asked to count the other animals too — or at least to take an i n t e l l i g e n t guess at t h e i r numbers. As might be expected, the f i r s t attempts were not too r e l i a b l e but the idea gradually developed u n t i l at the present time census returns i n the majority of the sections are considered about as r e l i a b l e as i s possible under t h i s system, /. Censu. S "R.e.por'ts a. Total Counts I f the 1952-53 and 1953«54 moose censuses may be considered reasonably i n d i c a t i v e of population trend, Table 6 shows that i n the seven areas f o r which data permitted extrapolation i n these two years, there has been an increase of about 8 percent. The " t " test of s i g n i -ficance shows that the increase i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence. In making t h i s comparison, i t was assumed that the myriads of variables influencing the data should have been s u f f i c i e n t l y a l i k e i n the two years to cancel t h e i r effects and that the increase recorded was therefore r e a l . However, the p o s s i b i l i t y that the d i f f e r -ence i s also p a r t l y due to increased accuracy cannot be completely d i s -regarded. I t w i l l probably take another f i v e years of trappers 1 censuses TABLE 6 MOOSE POPULATIONS IN PORTIONS OF NORTHERN MANITOBA, 1952-53 and 1953-54 Section Area (sq. mi?*) Estimated Population 1952*53 1953-54 Population Density (sq.mi. per moose; 1952-53 1953-54 . Net Change 1953*54 Number % of Total • Reported Population K i l l e d K i l l e d 1953*54 1953^54 Island Lake 8600 1306 1035 6.6 8*3 «21#* 85 8.3 Gross Lake 5600 330 302 17.0 18.5 -8.5$ 8 2.7 E* Central D i s t r i c t 8950 1703 2109 5*2 4.2 . +23.5% 45 2.1 W. Central D i s t r i c t 3850 562 647 6.9 6.0 +15# 55 8.5 Pukatawagan 9500 1473 1594 6.5 6.0 +8% 111 7.0 Nelson House 9500 482 631 19.7 15.1 +31# 51 8.1 South Indian Lake 15000 1343 1499 11*1 10.0 +11>6% 150 10.0 Totals 67000 7199 7817 - 8.5 7.8 +8,5# 505 6.5 The Conservation Officer making t h i s report stated that b i g game had increased-between these two years, i n d i c a t i n g that the 1952-53 census had been too high. .97 to allow f i r m conclusions to be drawn from them, but i n the meantime since they are the only s t a t i s t i c s available, they must form the basis f o r management considerations, In Ontario, trappers 1 estimates are gen-e r a l l y considered to be too high. (deVos, 1952). b, Age and Sex Ration i . Age Ratios Table 4 indicates that calves composed about one t h i r d of the population and that the calf:cow r a t i o was greater than 1:1. Peterson (1950 pp. 111-113) summarized a l l - t h e known records of calf:cow counts i n North America and showed that r a t i o s i n excess of 50:100 were ex-tremely rare — only two out of the twelve which he l i s t e d coming into t h i s category. His explanation of the low r a t i o s was that probably poor n u t r i t i o n was a f f e c t i n g the reproductive capacities of the cows i n the same manner that Morton and Cheatum (1946) found i t a f f e c t i n g deer re-production i n New York. The present study indicates either that repro«* duction i n northern Manitoba i s phenomenally, successful or that the census reports are biased i n favour of calves. Unfortunately there are no means presently available of checking the census results and i t must therefore be presumed that they are at l e a s t approximately correct. No reasons can be offered at the present time as to why reproduction should be more successful i n t h i s area than i n other portions of the moose's range, but the fact that a l l of the reports of hunting k i l l s i n the Indian Sections ( i , e , , outside the Central D i s t r i c t ) add up"to an average of 38 calves k i l l e d f o r every 100 cows (Table 5) indicates that a good c a l f crop probably does e x i s t , especially since these reports are con-sidered to be conservative i n the number of calves reported k i l l e d . 98 it-yL Sex Ratios Trappers were asked f o r information on the breakdown of th e i r census figures during only the l a s t two years (1952-53 and 1953-54) and i n consequence i t i s probably too early yet to discern any trends. The uniformity of the sex r a t i o s between the two years (100:100 i n 1952-53; 94:100 i n 1953-54) may indicate r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y but data are much too few to allow conclusions to be drawn (Table 7 summarizes the available data), TABLE 7 SUMMARY OF SEX CLASSIFICATIONS OF TRAPPERS' CENSUSES 1952-53 1953-54 Males: Males: Section Male Female 100 Females Male Female 100 Females Island Lake 354 336 105 142 131 108 God's Lake 106 116 91 East Central D i s t r i c t 185 204 91 170 166 102 West Central D i s t r i c t 136 200 68 York-Shamattawa 55 37 • 148 Totals 539 540 100 609 650 94 I t does d e f i n i t e l y appear from these s t a t i s t i c s however that there i s no serious unbalance i n the adult sex r a t i o s * Cowan (1950) reported a sex r a t i o of 160 males:100 females i n the unhunted Rocky Mountain National Parks but considered that his figures might have been biased 99 i n favour of males. Spencer and Chatelain (1953) reported a sex r a t i o of about 50 males:100 cows on the Kenai range of Alaska where 19 years previously when the area was unhunted there were "no modifications of the sex r a t i o . " Peterson (1950) recorded sex r a t i o s of 67 percent males and 87 percent males on unhunted St. Ignace Island, Ontario, i n 1947 and 1948 respectively but considered the 1948 count biased i n favour of males. In Newfoundland, Pimlott (1953) recorded a sex r a t i o of near 1:1 " i n spite of an alleged b u l l k i l l of approximately 14,000 animals i n the past eight years". However, proof of sex was not required and he be-liev e d that a comparatively high cow k i l l occurred at least i n some areas. Hatter (1947) recorded a sex r a t i o of 22.1 percent males to 77.9 percent females i n the heavily hunted Bonaparte region of B r i t i s h Columbia but r e l a t i v e l y twice as many males i n the less heavily hunted Burns Lake region. ( B r i t i s h Columbia at that time had a "buck law.") From these accounts and from the present study, i t appears that under conditions of no hunting, adult sex r a t i o s may be weighted i n favour of males, where heavy hunting under a buck law occurs the r a t i o s w i l l be weighted i n favour of females and that where either sex i s taken, r a t i o s may approach unity. .So f a r as the writer i s aware, Ontario i s the only other pro-vince i n Canada which requests moose census information from a l l regis** tered trappers. However, the Ontario trappers are not asked for a break-down of age and sex c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and there are consequently no other data with which to compare those from northern Manitoba* By comparison' with other areas where d i r e c t counts of moose have been recorded (e.g., Cowan, 1950, Peterson, 1950, Hatter, 1947, Spencer and Chatelain, 1953, 100 Pimlott, 1953) the trappers 1 census reports show a very unusually high proportion of calves i n the t o t a l population but a "normal" adult sex r a t i o . 2, K i l l Reports Since the great majority of persons hunting moose i n northern Manitoba (except i n the southwest portion between F l i n Flon, Wabowden and The Pas) are Treaty Indians who may take game for food at any time on unoccupied crown lands and another large segment i s composed of ha l f breeds who l i v e the l i f e of Indians and who have so f a r not been bother-ed too much by the government i f they took game for food without a l i c e n s e , i t becomes obvious that hunting license returns would not give an i n d i c a -t i o n of the number of moose k i l l e d i n the registered t r a p l i n e areas. The only means of obtaining these data was for the Conservation Officers to question each trapper i n d i v i d u a l l y and to keep themselves generally w e l l informed of a c t i v i t i e s within each administrative area. The t o t a l available k i l l reports are summarized i n Tables 5 and 6, Of the seven areas f o r which comparable data are available f o r 1952-53 and 1953-54, the reported k i l l i n the l a t t e r year averaged 6*5 percent of the reported population. Since the net increase reported that year was 8*5 percent of the previous year's population, there must have been a minimum increment to the herd of 15 percent* Losses due to natural causes could be expected to r a i s e t h i s figure another few points — per-haps to 17 percent — the figure given by Peterson (1949 and 1950) as being average for North American moose range. The proportion of calves to cows k i l l e d has been reported as 101 high as 84:100 but the average ( i n the Indian Sections) has been 38:100 with annual v a r i a t i o n , i n the average of a l l reports, from 24:100 (1953-54) to 55:100 (1951-52). There does not seem to be any par t i c u l a r geographic pattern to v a r i a t i o n i n c a l f u t i l i z a t i o n ; f o r the most part moose are k i l l e d during open water and i t would be a rare hunter i n these parts who would even hesitate before k i l l i n g a cow and c a l f whenever the opportunity arose. The fact that the c a l f : cow k i l l r a t i o i s low r e l a t i v e the calf-cow census r a t i o i s thought to indicate that the census r a t i o i s possibly too high. o The seK r a t i o %i adult moose k i l l e d averaged 150 males:100 females and of the t o t a l k i l l , adult males comprised 53 percent, adult females 34 percent and calves 13 percent. ( A l l exclusive of the Central D i s t r i c t where calves were supposedly not k i l l e d ) . c. Summerberry Area (Saskatchewan River Delta i . Introduction Because the Summerberry area of the Saskatchewan River delta (see F i g . 21) i s considered one'of the best moose areas i n northern Manitoba and because i t i s hunted the year around by three Indian bands, as w e l l as by non-Indians during the regular open-season, and i s reason-ably accessible from The Pas, i t was chosen f o r more detailed study. Preliminary reconnaissance i n 1951 indicated that the portion of the Summerberry east of The Pas had the larger moose population and received the brunt of the Indian hunting pressure; for these reasons most e f f o r t was expended i n t h i s eastern area. To f o l l o w page 101, F i g . 21. A e r i a l Transects. Summerberry Marsh. (Scale 8 mi. - 1 inch.) 102 —DcGoriptiion of the Area Due to the dense deciduous growth i n the area, p a r t i c u l a r l y along the waterways, i t was not practicable to conduct censuses during the summer. Winter census methods consisted of an a e r i a l s t r i p census and an estimate of abundance from tracks and "sign" by Conservation Of f i c e r s during t h e i r annual f a l l (December) muskrat house count. These censuses were compared and checked against the estimated annual k i l l i n order %e- better^evaluate t h e i r precision, i i i . A e r i a l Census As indicated by Table 8, the use of a e r i a l census i n moose inventory work i s a f a i r l y new technique with re s u l t s s t i l l of question-able merit i n most areas outside the Cordilleran region. In the present study, a e r i a l census was attempted only on the Summerberry area because .previous operational f l y i n g over coniferous forested areas indicated that probably only a very small proportion of moose i n coniferous areas could be seen, ( I t was not unusual to f l y f o r f i f t e e n or twenty hours, on f l i g h t s to various northern detachments, without seeing a single moose, but i n the Summerberry area normal operational'flying often re-vealed f i f t e e n or twenty moose per hour.) 1, Methods At the outset i t was hoped that repeated censuses over one area would.:.(1) reveal population trends as w e l l as give a rough e s t i -mate of t o t a l population; and (2) permit standardization of techniques which when perfected might be extended to other areas as the need arose. Transect l i n e s were l a i d out mechanically east and west across the area <5 TABLE 8 , SUMMARY OF KNOWN AERIAL MOOSE CENSUS REPORTS IN NORTH AMERICA Authority* * Place Area (sq.mi,). S t r i p Width % Coverage No.Moose Seen* Years Results 1 I s l e Royale, Michigan 210 1/6 mi. (?) 30 122 1945 Good 2 Northern Minnesota 494 1/2 mi. (?) # 100 260 1946 ? II II 133 1/4 mi. (?) # (?) 50 42 1946 ? 3 Isle.Royale, Michigan 210 ? •> 1947 ? 4 Algonquin Park, Ontario 20*25 1947 F a i r 4 S t , Ignace I s , Ontario 110 0 1947 Poor 4 St* Ignace and Simpson Islands, Ontario 140 1/8 mi. 20-50 34 1948 F a i r 5 Black Bay Peninsula,Ont, 273 varied 12,5 (*) 115 1949«50*51«52~53 (10 f l i g h t s ) F a i r 6 South Central Alaska *? varied varied 9436 1950-51-52-53 Good 7 Wells Gray Park, B.C. 60 1/8 mi. ( i ) . 3*4.3 300 1952 (.3 f l i g h t s ) Good 8 Central B,C, 9 • 679 GO 1952-53-54 Good 430* 9 Saskatchewan River delta, Manitoba 1600 3/16 mi. 9-14.5 491 1951-52*53-54 (5 f l i g h t s ) F a i r * A l l moose recorded f o r the years indicated are summed. !* Authorities: 1, Aldous and Krefting, 1946: 2, Morse, 1946: 3. Krefting, 1951: 4. Peterson, 1950: 5. DeVos and Armstrong, 1954: 6. Spencer and Chatelaine, 1953: 7* Edwards, 1952, 1954: 8, Martin and Sugden, 1954: 9» Present study. # Morse, elsewhere i n his a r t i c l e , claimed a s t r i p width of 1/8 to 3/16 mi. at 500' a l t i t u d e was preferable. 104 at three mile i n t e r v a l s and covered a t o t a l area of 1614 square miles. (Fig.21) An a l t i t u d e of approximately 500 feet was main« tained (chosen a f t e r preliminary t e s t i n g on operational f l i g h t s ) and a s t r i p of approximately one-eighth mile (220 yards) was ob-served on each side of the a i r c r a f t . Except on the l a s t f l i g h t , no mechanical device was used to guage the width of s t r i p , but as the a i r c r a f t had to pass over a section of railway track, each observer could check his estimate of one-eighth mile by marking o f f the dis*» tance covered by four telephone poles along the track. During the l a s t f l i g h t , markers were placed on the wing struts and rear windows to mark an angle which when projected from 500 feet would enclose a one-eighth mile s t r i p . In calculating t h i s angle, allowance must be made f o r the "blind spot" beneath the a i r c r a f t , especially when using a i r c r a f t equipped with either s k i i s or f l o a t s . Observations tended to stray beyond the one-eighth mile s t r i p over very "open" country and to be r e s t r i c t e d to less than one-eighth mile i n densely wooded areas. Because there was a greater proportion of "open" country i n the area censused, f i n a l computations assumed that the s t r i p width was three-sixteenths mile instead of one-eighth. Whenever possible three observers other than the p i l o t were u t i l i z e d but constant s t a f f s h i f t s and pressure of other work d i d not allow the same observers to be used each time. The w r i t e r took part i n a l l except the December 1952 survey. Each observer was provided with a map with the transect l i n e s 105 boldly marked and with a form s i m i l a r to that shown i n F i g * 22 on which to record observations* (As the longest transects were t h i r t y -f i v e miles, f i v e columns of five-minute i n t e r v a l s were allowed on the forms used). The De Hayilland "Beaver" a i r c r a f t used on a l l censuses had a normal airspeed of about 110 miles per hour but ground"speed was sometimes reduced by winds to about 90 miles per hour. By noting the time necessary to make each "run", i t was r e l a t i v e l y easy afterward to work out the boundaries of any given five-minute i n t e r v a l and thus to determine the location of the major areas of abundance or s c a r c i t y . S i x f l i g h t s were made, one i n November, three i n December, one i n February and one i n May. I t was not always possible to obtain an a i r d r a f t f o r s u f f i c i e n t time to cover a l l the transect l i n e s with the r e s u l t that no two censuses covered the same amount.of area* In a l l cases however, the four most northerly transects were covered and then as many of the other thirteen as time permitted. In general, f l i g h t s started about ten a,m, and were not continued a f t e r about four p*m. 2. Results A e r i a l census results are summarized i n Tables 9 and 10. (a) General Notes on Each F l i g h t 1. November 29. 1951 P i l o t and two observers covered four transects. Started at 2:50 p.m., ended at 4*07 p*m* for an elapsed time of 1 hour and 17 minutes. 52 moose observed, 23 on one side, 29 on the other. Good Time at Start Tran-sect Number; of Run 0 - 5 Minutes a 3 3 5! 5 - 10 Minutes a 3 3 5 20-25 Minutes 9 N 1 . . . X J I a > a i J 4 CM 4 I I I I a 03 at H O £ u •J o 9 a 2 3 <£ CM s Time Moose Seen Between •I Transects at : g End of 3 * ° O CO 4H CM 43 o o I J j f t m ' S § § 09 ,. — u i Date Weather Observer Plane Fig* 22. plan of cards used for recording aerial transect data. Pilot 106 TABLE 9 SUMMARY OF AERIAL MOOSE CENSUSES OF THE SASKATCHEWAN RIVER DELTA Nov.* 51 Feb.t52 Dec.*52 Dec.*53 Dec.*54 Totals Area Observed 55.9 234 214 144 87.8 735.7 (sq.mi.) Total Area 433 1614 1614 1614 648 (sq.mi.) % Coverage 13.7 14.3 13.3 8.9 13.6 Males 17 7 36. 26 17 103 Females, no c a l f 9 9 30 29 14 91 Females, 1 c a l f 2 7 13 19 4 45 Females 2 calves 1 0 3 9 1 14 Total Females 12 16 46 57 19 150 Total Calves •> •4 7 19 37 6 73. Unclassified 20 86 9 29 22 166 Total Moose seen 53 116 110 149 64 492 Bull:Cow r a t i o 142:100 44:100 78:100 46:100 89:100 69:100 Calf:Cow Ratio 33:100 44:100 41:100 65:100 32:100 49:100 Percent Calves* 12.1 23.3 18.8 30.8 14 .0 22.4 Sq.mi./moose 1.1 2.0 1.9 1.0 1.4 1.5 * Percentage based on only those animals i d e n t i f i e d as to age. 107 TABLE 10 SUMMARY OF AERIAL CENSUSES ON TRANSECTS 14 to 17 INCLUSIVE, SASKATCHEWAN RIVER DELTA Nov.'51 Feb.*52 Dec* 52 Dec.*53 Dec.'54 Totals Males 17 2 13 11 57 Females 12 4 10 27 14 67 Calves 4 1 4 •10 2 21 Unclassified 20 7 3 10 15 55 Total Moose seen 53 14 30 58 45 100 Bull:Cow Ratio 142:100 50:100 1301100 41:100 100:100 85:100 C a l f : Cow Ratio 33:100 25:100 40:100 37:100 14:100 31:100 Percent Calves* 12.1 14.3 14 .8 20.8 6.7 15.0 Sq.Mi./Moose 1.1 4.3 1.9 0.9 1.2 1.4 Percentage based on only those animals i d e n t i f i e d as to age. observation conditions. The highest concentration observed was near the west end of transect #14. (Landry Lake to Saskatchewan River). In t h i s area 16 moose were observed i n one f i v e minute i n t e r v a l (covering about 3.6 square mi l e s ) , an average of 5 moose per square mile. Only one a n i -mal was seen on Transect 15. One observer saw 29 moose, the other, 23. 2. February 4 and 5. 1952 P i l o t and two observers, one of whom was a d i f f e r e n t person on each day, covered 12 transects on February 4, f i v e on February 5. Flying time: Feb. 4, 10:30 am. to 11*45 a.m. and 1:55 p.m. to 4:25 p.m., Feb-ruary 5, 2:40 p.m. to 4-10 p.m., t o t a l , f i v e hours and f i f t e e n minutes. 108 116 moose were observed, 50 on one side, 66 on the other. Observation conditions were good on February 4 , only f a i r on February 5 . Highest concentration observed was on the east end of Transect #5 (Long Grass Lake and Summerberry River) where 1 1 moose were seen i n one five-minute i n t e r v a l -%» a concentration of 3 , 3 moose per square mile. I t was most remarkable that on the four northern transects, only 13 moose were seen where 52 had been observed only two months before. In f a c t , on transect #17 none was seen during t h i s census while twenty-one had been counted there e a r l i e r . The writer i s at a lo s s to explain the differences noted, especially since there was an abundance of tracks and beds i n the nor-thern area during the l a t t e r census, i n d i c a t i n g that moose had recently been occupying i t i n large numbers. Since neither emigration from the area nor sudden decimation of the indicated three hundred moose (the difference between the popu-l a t i o n s estimated from the two surveys - Table 9 ) appear to be very s a t i s f a c t o r y explanations of the differences i n number of animals seen, the discrepancy must be attributed to some unrecognized error or errors i n the survey method. No moose were seen i n the whole south-west corner of the study area (black spruce muskeg). Nor were any seen between Head River and Head River Lake on transect #8, although the area was pock-marked with a great many beds and was known from previous ground observa-tions to contain a large moose population. 3 . May 6, 1 9 5 2 P i l o t and three observers covered s i x transects. Started 9 : 2 5 a,m., ended 1 1 : 3 0 a,m., elapsed time 2 hours and f i v e minutes. Seven moose observed, two on one side, f i v e on the other. Observation conditions 109 were very poor due to absence of snow and to the f a c t that much of the deciduous growth was already i n l e a f . This f l i g h t was made ju s t to see whether or not summer census was practicable. The numerical r e s u l t s are s i g n i f i c a n t only to the extent that they show that summer census i s not practicable and for t h i s reason are omitted from Tables 9 and 10. 4. December 10 and 15. 1952 P i l o t and two observers on December 10, pilot-and one ob-server on December 15, This was the only census i n which the writer did not take part. I t was conducted by Conservation Officers J , Robert-son and C. Morrish, F l y i n g time, December 10, 9:50 a.m. to 11:50 a.m., and 1:40 p,m, to 4:25 p,m,, December 15, 2:00 p.m, to 3:15 p.m. Total f l y i n g time was s i x hours, 110 moose observed. Observation conditions were very good. Highest concentration was on Transect #17 where eight moose were seen i n one five-minute i n t e r v a l or 2,1 per square mile. On t h i s transect, 21 moose were seen i n November, 1951, none i n February, 1952, and 19 during t h i s survey, 5. December 12, 1953 P i l o t and three observers. Started 9:45 a.m., stopped 11:20 a.m., started 1:50 p«m., stopped 4:10 p,m. Total f l i g h t time three hours and fifty»five minutes. Covered ten transects, 149 moose ob« served, 79 on one side, 73 on the other. Observation conditions were good i n the morning but became progressively poorer i n the afternoon as the overcast became very dark. Two rather large concentrations were observed: one of about 110 8.7 per square mile on the eastern end of transect #16, one of about 8.4 per square mile between the eastern ends of Transects #7 and #9. A very small proportion of males was recorded. This was an int e r e s t i n g census i n that i t appeared that the three observers were a l l of d i f f e r -ent e f f i c i e n c y . Two sat on the r i g h t side of the a i r c r a f t (one beside the p i l o t and one a f t ) and one on the l e f t side behind the p i l o t . (Both rear windows were of the equal large s i z e ) . Since the wri t e r was the only observer who had made these s t r i p counts over the area previously, i t was assumed that he would have the l e a s t trouble estimating s t r i p width from the forward seat and took that p o s i t i o n . The observer behind the p i l o t , Conservation Officer N i c h o l l , had not counted moose before but had had some experience on s t r i p counts of seals i n the Antarctic. The t h i r d observer, Conservation Officer Dey, had no previous experience although he had done a l o t of "Bush f l y i n g " i n northern Manitoba. Table 11 summarizes the i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s . TABLE 11 SUMMARY OF MOOSE RECORDED BY EACH OF THREE OBSERVERS ON THE DECEMBER 12, 1953, AERIAL CENSUS Observer B u l l s Cows Cow & Calf Cow & 2 Calves Unknown Total N i c h o l l ( l e f t side) 19 16 12 4 2 73 Bryant (right side) 5 10 5 5 21 61 Dey "(right side) 7 18 5 0 13 48 I l l 6. December 7, 1954 P i l o t and three observers. S i x transects covered, 64 moose observed', 38 on one side, 26 on the other. Observation conditions were f a i r . The highest concentration observed was again on the east end of Transect #16 where 15 moose were seen on 1.5 square miles — 10 moose per square mile. This census showed a decrease from the pre-ceding year on the four north transects. Due to an unusually l a t e freeze-up, the animals were staying on the small areas of high ground where the cover was denser instead of spreading out onto the open marsh and swamp habitats as i s usual by t h i s time of year. The apparent de-crease i n population could we l l have been p a r t l y the r e s u l t of a smaller percentage of the animals within the s t r i p s being seen due to t h i s fac* t o r rather than to an actual decrease i n population. Again a comparison of i n d i v i d u a l counts i s of i n t e r e s t . The writer again occupied the r i g h t front seat next to the p i l o t , Conservation Officer Lagimodiere sat behind him and Conservation Officer Morrish behind the p i l o t on the l e f t . O f f i c e r Morrish had been on the December 1952 census but Conser-vation O f f i c e r Lagimodiere had not previously flown on census work. Table 12 summarizes the i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s . TABLE 12 SUMMARY OF MOOSE RECORDED BY EACH OF THREE OBSERVERS ON THE ' DECEMBER 7, 1954, AERIAL CENSUS Cow & Cow & 2 Observer Position B u l l Cow Calf Calves Unknown Total Bryant r i g h t front 7 6 2 0 18 33 Lagimodiere r i g h t rear 4 6 3 0 6 19 Morrish l e f t rear 10 8 0 1 5 26 112 b» Total Counts Total counts f o r each census are summarized i n Table 9. i . Population Density Variations between one and two square miles per moose were obtained, with an average of one and one-half square miles per moose. On 1600 square miles, these figures represent variations from 800 to 1600 animals, averaging 1200. The largest estimate was made on December 12, 1953, and the smallest on February 4 and 5, 1952. 492 moose were seen during 19 hours f l y i n g (26 per hour) and 66 per cent were segregated as to age and sex. The main concentrations recorded were: (1) on the eastern end of Transect #16 (8.7 and 10 per square mile on December 12, 1953, and December 7, 1954, respectively); (2) on Transect #14 between the north end of Landry Lake and the Saskat-chewan River (5 per square mile on November 29, 1951; (3) on the l i n e between Transects #7 and #9 (8.4 per' square mile on December 12, 1953); and (4) on Transect #5 i n the v i c i n i t y of Long Grass Lake and the Summerberry River (3.3 per square mile on February 4, 1952). Sex and Age Ratios (i.) Sex Ratios The attempt made to segregate adult b u l l s and adult cows was only p a r t i a l l y successful due to the f a c t that by the time most of the surveys were made (early December) antler shedding had already begun. While one might normally be able to t e l l even an ant l e r l e s s b u l l from a cow at close range, passing at 500 feet and at 100 miles per hour permitted such a f l e e t i n g glance that the task was v i r t u a l l y impossible. The w r i t e r discouraged guessing at the sex of moose seen 113 but even so a certain amount was indulged i n , more so by some observers than by others. An average f o r the four years gave a sex r a t i o of 69 males:100 females with v a r i a t i o n from 44:100 (February 1952) to 142:100 (November, 1951). Low counts of males i n February 1952 and December, 1953, were thought to be due to the presence of a large number of a n t l e r -l e s s b u l l s (see "General Notes on Each F l i g h t " ) and the very high pro-portion of males i n November, 1951, appeared to ,be due to one observer's c l a s s i f y i n g almost a l l cows without calves as "Doubtful". (See Table 15). Age Ratios The average calf*cow r a t i o was 49:100 with v a r i a t i o n from 32:100 i n December, 1954, to 65:100 i n December, 1953. Observers were asked to pay pa r t i c u l a r attention to calves, but the general tendency seemed to be to make a note of a cow as soon as i t was seen instead of thoroughly searching the surrounding area to see i f a c a l f or calves were present and waiting to make the note at a more convenient time such as when f l y i n g over a lake or open marsh. The ca l f crop indicated by these censuses i s probably considerably lower than r e a l i t y . c. Counts on Transects 14 to 17 i n c l u s i v e Different proportions of the study area were censused on each occasion and i n order to test whether or not t h i s v a r i a t i o n might have been responsible f o r the rather e r r a t i c estimates of population density, the data from just the four northern transects were compared. These transects were a l l covered during each census. 114 i» Population Density Table 10 summarizes the observations made on these trans-ects and shows an even more e r r a t i c pattern than does the summary f o r the whole study area although the average density i s above the same i n both cases. The very low count i n February, 1952, has already been discussed. The p o s s i b i l i t y that the writer's observations were at f a u l t during t h i s census seems to be one explanation since of the fourteen moose recorded on these transects, he saw only one and the second ob-server (F. Shpiruk) saw the r e s t . The abundance of tracks and beds seen indicated that' the census did not r e f l e c t the true population density but no s a t i s f a c t o r y reason can be given f o r t h i s oddity. Late freeze-up and early snowfalls with consequent concentration of th.e population on ridges where they were less e a s i l y seen due to denser cover was consid-ered to be the main reason f o r fewer moose being seen i n December, 1954, than i n the preceding census, but no explanation of the low count i n December, 1952, could be offered by the o f f i c e r s who conducted i t . I t i s probable that a population density of about 1 moose per square mile e x i s t s i n t h i s northern zone. During freeze-up and break-up the popu-l a t i o n i s concentrated on the few ridges i n the area and densities of up to 10 moose per square mile were recorded on one of these ridges. Table 13 shows that the animals were f a i r l y w e l l d i s t r i b u t -ed among the transects with the exception of Transect #15 which t r a -versed the greatest proportion of open marsh and bog and the least amount of high ground. Most of transect #16 covered ground s i m i l a r to that of #15 but the large concentration of moose on the ridge at the eastern end of #16 raised i t s count very considerably. 115 TABLE 13 MOOSE SEEN ON THE FOUR NORTH TRANSECTS Number of Moose Seen Per-Transect No. Nov«'51 Feb , *52 Dec.'52 Dec.'53 Dec.*54 Total cent 14 25 6 5 10 6 52 2 6 15 1 6 1 4 5 17 8,5 1 6 6 2 5 21 19 53 26.5 1 7 21 0 19 23 15 78 39 Totals 53 14 30 58 45 200 100 i i . Sex and Age Ratios The average bull:cow r a t i o on these four transects was 8 5 : 1 0 0 — considerably higher than the o v e r a l l t o t a l of 6 9 : 1 0 0 although no satisfactory reason can be advanced to explain the difference. The high proportion of males i n November 1 9 5 1 has been mentioned as being probably due to a greater proportion of females than males being classed as "doubtful", but a si m i l a r explanation cannot be offered f o r the high count of December, 1 9 5 2 . The February, 1 9 5 2 , and December, 1 9 5 3 , counts show a very low percentage of males, probably due to the presence of l a r -ger numbers of antlerless males than on other occasions. The data i n d i -cate that the o v e r a l l bull:cow r a t i o shown by the censuses may be lower than r e a l i t y . The calf:cow r a t i o on these transects averaged 3 1 s 1 0 0 with v a r i a t i o n from 1 4 : 1 0 0 i n December, 1 9 5 4 , to 4 0 : 1 0 0 i n December, 1 9 5 2 — much lower than the average for a l l transects of 4 9 : 1 0 0 , 116 d» Counts by the writer compared to counts by the other observers  Although the w r i t e r had no previous experience with a e r i a l census techniques, reading acquaintance with and some practice of other census methods afforded him a s l i g h t background. Because of these facts and because he was the only person to accompany more than two of the census f l i g h t s , i t was thought that a comparison of his observations with those of the other observers might shed some l i g h t on possible sources of v a r i a t i o n due to the observers. Table 14 summarizes the writer's observations and Table 15 summarizes the observations of the other observers. (The December, 1952, counts are omitted because the writer was not involved and be* cause the observations of the two men making the survey were not kept separate.) i« Population Density Although the w r i t e r T s counts were lower than those of F*S. on November, 1951, and February, 1952, and lower than that of T.N. on December, 1953, the differences are not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence. The differences, however, between the writer's counts and those of K.D. and R.L. on December, 1953, and December, 1954, respectively are s i g n i f i c a n t because each of these two observers was supposedly censusing the same s t r i p of ground as was the w r i t e r . The average density of 1.6 square miles per moose, recorded by the writer i s not much diff e r e n t from the 1.4 square miles per moose recorded by the other observers* 117 TABLE 14 SUMMARY OF MOOSE RECORDED BY THE WRITER SUMMERBERRY AERIAL CENSUS Nov. 151 Feb. 152 Dec.'53 Dec* 54 Totals Male 7 1 5 7 20 Female, no c a l f 6 10 6 - 22 Female, one c a l f 2 6 5 3 16 Female, two calves - i- 5 - 5 Total Females 8 6 20 9 43 Total Calves 2 6 15 3 26 Unclassified 6 37 21 15 . 79 Total Moose seen 23 50 61 34 168 Bull:Cow r a t i o 88:100 17:100 25:100 78:100 47:100 Calf:Cow r a t i o 25:100 100:100 75:100 33:100 60:100 Percent Calves* 12 46 27 16 29 Area Observed (sq.mi.) 28 117 72 44 .. 261 Square miles/moose 1.2 2.3 1.2 1.3 1.6 Bull:Cow Ratio ' (less February, 1952 count) 51:100 Calf:Cow Ratio (less December, 1953 count) 47:100 Percent Calves (less December, 1953 count) 22 based on animals i d e n t i f i e d as to age. 118 TABLE 15 SUMMARY OF MOOSE RECORDED BY OBSERVERS OTHER THAN THE WRITER SUMMERBERRY AERIAL CENSUS Nov. '51 F.S. Feb.' F.S. 52 Dec.-'53 K.D.* T.N. R.L. * CM. Totals Male 10 6 7 19 4 10 56 Female, no Calf 3 9 18 16 6 8 60 Female, one " 1 5 12 3 - 21 Female, Two 11 1 - 4 - 1 6 Total Females 4 10 23 3 2 9 9 87 " Calves 2 1 5 20 3 2 33 Unclassified 14 49 13 2 6 5 89 Total Moose seen 30 66 48 73 19 26 262 Bull:Cow r a t i o 250:100 60:100 30:100 59:100 45:100 111:100 64:100 Calf:Cow r a t i o 50:100 10:100 22:100 63:100 33:100 22:100 38:100 Percent Calves** 25 6 14 18 19 10 19 Area Observed (sq.mi.) 28 117 72 72 44 44 377 Square Miles/Moose 0.9 1.8 1.5 . 1.0 2.3 1.7 1.4 Bull:Cow Ratio (less February, 1952 count) 6 5 : 1 0 0 Calf:Cow Ratio (less December, 1953 count) 2 5 : 1 0 0 Percent Calves (less December, 1953 count) . . . 1 1 * K.D. and R.L. observed from the same side of the a i r c r a f t as the w r i t e r . * based on animals i d e n t i f i e d as to age. I 119 Table 1 6 shows that on the four northern transects,.very-l i t t l e difference between observations on opposite sides of the a i r -c r a f t was noticed except during the February, 1 9 5 2 count. TABLE 1 6 SUMMARY OF INDIVIDUAL'S RECORDS ON THE FOUR NORTHERN TRANSECTS (F.S., T.N., and CM., observed opposite side to J.B.) i Date Nov .»51 Feb, '52 Dec. '53 Dec. '54 Totals Observer J.B. F.S. J.B. F.S. J.B. T.N. J.B. CM. J.B. Other Moose Recorded 23 3 0 1 13 27 28 23 2 0 74 91 Total, omitting February, 1 9 5 2 count 73 7 8 From a l l the data i t would appear that i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n observation e f f i c i e n c y occurred but not i n a manner which s i g n i f i -cantly affected r e s u l t s except on the four northern transects i n Feb-ruary, 1 9 5 2 . i i . Sex and Age Ratios The marked difference i n the average sex r a t i o s recorded by the w r i t e r and that recorded by the other observers ( 4 7 : 1 0 0 v.s. 6 4 : 1 0 0 ) may be due to the writer's caution i n not recording b u l l s un-l e s s antlers were seen or perhaps to a poorer v i s u a l acuity i n observ-i n g a n t l e r s . On the other hand, some observers may have been doing quite a b i t of guessing as w e l l as recording more cows than b u l l s i n the "Unclassified" category. At any rate, there i s good evidence of 120 very wide v a r i a t i o n among the observers i n t h i s aspect of the census and forces one to place but l i t t l e f a i t h i n the r e s u l t . In the case of age r a t i o s , the evidence i s a l i t t l e more clear cut. Most observers saw f a r fewer calves than did the w r i t e r (38:100 as compared to 60:100) and the evidence indicates that the over-a l l average calf:cow r a t i o of 49:100 i s probably lower than r e a l i t y . The only observer who made higher c a l f scores than d i d the w r i t e r was T,N, who had had previous a e r i a l census experience. I t appears that l i t t l e f a i t h can be placed i n the calf:cow r a t i o of any one census, due i n part to the small numbers of animals c l a s s i f i e d , e. Variables Recognized i . Weather Variation in^cloud cover seemed to influence the ease of ob-serving most features of the landscape and thus probably affected.the number of moose observed. Very bright sunshine was at' f i r s t thought to enhance observation but i t probably does not i n the long run due to increased eye fatigue from the glare of the snow and from the darker shadows which tend to confuse one fs senses. The i d e a l sky condition appeared to be a l i g h t haze which reduced the glare and shadow contrast without much reduction i n effective l i g h t . An unbroken snow cover was much superior to a broken one. Censuses too early i n the winter, before s u f f i c i e n t snow ha# f a l l e n , or too l a t e i n the winter, a f t e r increasing i n s o l a t i o n ha.fi melted holes around trees, stumps, rocks and other dark objects, caused con-fusion on the part of the observers as they attempted to i d e n t i f y 121 each of hundreds of dark objects. i i . Time of Day Since moose normally are most active during hours of lessened l i g h t and least active i n l a t e morning and early afternoon, i t i s ob-vious that the best hours for observing are the poorest hours for seeing moose. An active animal — even i f just standing and moving i t s head — i s much more eas i l y seen than one l y i n g down. On the December, 1954 survey only 6 of the 64 moose recorded were standing. Censuses taken farthest from the winter s o l s t i c e when longer daylight hours p r e v a i l would o f f e r greater p o s s i b i l i t i e s of varying the time of the census, but no te s t s of th i s v a r i a t i o n were run. i i i . S t r i p Width The habitat varied from very Large open areas where moose could be observed e a s i l y up to one half mile to areas of extremely dense conifers where one had to look straight down i n order to see the ground. These variations tended to cause some confusion i n the re s u l t s obtained. The a b i l i t y to judge distances varied with each i n d i v i d u a l — i f t r i a l s on the ground can be regarded as s i g n i f i c a n t —. but t h i s v a r i a -t i o n was probably of less importance than some of the others. The use of markers on the wing struts helped to control t h i s variable. i v . Observers Employing d i f f e r e n t individuals as observers introduced a possible source of error. The wri t e r was on four of the f i v e surveys, two other observers were each on two surveys and the remaining four were each on only one. Ideally the same observers and p i l o t should 122 have conducted a l l the censuses but they d i d not and no controls seem avai l a b l e . The data indicate that there can be great' v a r i a t i o n i n the a b i l i t y of persons to see moose under census conditions. v. .Eye Fatigue Eye fatigue was mentioned by Edwards (1952, 1954) as being probably the main source of e r r o r ' i n his censuses. No basis exists i n the present material upon which to judge the weight of t h i s factor but the writer does not consider i t a major one. The transects traversed many lakes and open bogs and marshes where moose, i f present, could be seen f o r miles, and oyer these areas the observers could rest t h e i r eyes by relaxing t h e i r v i g i l and looking at other things f o r a while. Without these numerous "breaks" i t would have been impossible to make such protracted f l i g h t s without loosing accuracy. Greatest fatigue was caused by the glare from the snow on days of bright sunshine. On these days too, dark shadows had to be examined i n t e n t l y , thus adding to the s t r a i n . The presence of an inadequate snow cover has been mentioned previously as a source of confusion —• the s t r a i n i s very great when one has to examine hundreds rather than tens, of dark objects. Censuses were not conducted on very cold days when f r o s t i n g of the a i r c r a f t win-dows would have added yet another s t r a i n . 3. Discussion The adequacy of any one census i n giving an estimate of t o t a l numbers or of age and sex r a t i o s i s questionable. De Vos and Armstrong (1954) reached a si m i l a r conclusion f o r t h e i r study area of 274 square miles i n Black Bay Peninsula, Ontario, but i n Alaska (Spencer and Chatelain, 123 1953) and B r i t i s h Columbia (Edwards, 1954, Martin and Sugden, 1954) i t appears that more confidence i s placed i n a e r i a l r e s u l t s . The major difference between the -eastern and western areas a f f e c t i n g the r e s u l t s seems to be population density. Both the eastern studies were on areas of average densities of one moose per square mile or less whereas the western studies were mainly on winter concentrations i n mountainous areas with densities up to 50 or more moose per square mile. Apparently reasonable conformity was attained between two a e r i a l censuses of I s l e Royale, Michigan (Aldous and Kr e f t i n g , 1946, K r e f t i n g , 1951) where the population density was between 2.5 and 3 moose per square mile, but these censuses were based on 30 percent coverage of the area whereas the present study and that of DeVos and Armstrong were based on l e s s than ha l f t h i s coverage. The present surveys have indicated that the method used i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y delicate to follow normal small increases or decreases i n the population but that i t probably serves to give a reasonably accurate estimate of abundance over a period of years. I t i s possible that censuses of the main ridges during freeze-up would be a better basis f o r guaging changes i n population density and composition but to be r e a l l y effective the f l i g h t s probably would have to be made during the time when neither f l o a t s nor s k i i s could be used* Wheeled a i r c r a f t were not available to test t h i s hypothesis. Since differences i n i n d i -v i d u a l a b i l i t y to see moose were found to be rather large, i t i s possible that these differences could often be greater than the year to year changes i n the moose population and any census method aimed at follow-ing population changes should eliminate a l l such possible sources of extraneous v a r i a t i o n s . 124 iv» Ground Census Since Conservation Officers and t h e i r helpers cover a l l of the Summerberry Fur Block on foot each f a l l just a f t e r freeze-up i n order to count muskrat houses, opportunity was taken of t h i s unique ground coverage to obtain from the o f f i c e r s an estimate of the number of moose on each of the hundred-odd muskrat-trapping zones, 1. Method » The areas involved were much too large to be thoroughly searched by each o f f i c e r , but from sign — mainly tracks and beds observed he was asked to make an i n t e l l i g e n t guess of the population. In some instances considerable extra ef f o r t was expended to cover wooded areas more thoroughly than was normal during muskrat census but since the muskrat census was of major importance such e f f o r t s were not s o l i c i t e d . Officers were also requested to indicate the number of moose which had been k i l l e d by hunters on each Zone and also an estimate of the number of wolves present. Censuses were conducted i n December 1952 and December 1954. 2, Results Conservation O f f i c e r s ' reports are summarized i n Tables 17 and 18. Four major items stand out i n these tables: 1. The large increase i n t o t a l population between the two years, 2. The decrease i n number of moose reported k i l l e d , 3* The uniformity of the age and sex r a t i o s and, 4. The very high calf:cow r a t i o s . 125 TABLE 17 SUMMARY OF CONSERVATION OFFICERS' MOOSE CENSUS REPORTS FROM THE SASKATCHEWAN RIVER DELTA Year B u l l Cow Calf Total Bulls : 1 0 0 Calves: % Cows 100 Cows Calves PART I A l l reports 1952 1954 176 205 184 565 86 90 33 309 371 370 , 1050 83 100 35 PART I I Reports from a e r i a l census area only: 1952 147 186 169 502 1954 218 259 274 751 79 84 91 106 34 37 TABLE 18 SUMMARY OF CONSERVATION OFFICERS' REPORTS OF MOOSE KILLED IN THE SASKATCHEWAN RIVER DELTA Year B u l l Cow Calf Total By Indians , (Treaty) By Others PART I A l l Reports: 1952 65 36 40 41 3 2 108 79 1954 PART I I Reports from A e r i a l Census Area only: 1952 54 39 3 96 1954 28 35 64 87 56 84 51 17 22 9 13 126 In Table 17 the difference between Part I.and Part I I i n d i -cates that the population increased less i n the a e r i a l transect area than i n the rest of the d e l t a . The difference was apparently due however, to more complete coverage i n the area west of The Pas i n 1954 than i n 1952 while the coverage i n the other areas remained r e l a t i v e l y constant. The change i n the proportion of cows i n the reported k i l l between 1952 and 1954 coincided with a change i n the game laws making cows l e g a l game i n 1953 and 1954 whereas they had not been l e g a l (except f o r Treaty Indians) i n 1952. 3, Discussion Almost without exception the o f f i c e r s making t h i s census were well experienced, "bush wise", and appeared to make an honest attempt at a very d i f f i c u l t job. Through lack of appreciation of the purpose of the census when i t was f i r s t taken some of the o f f i c e r s have since admitted that they "held back" and did not record a l l the moose they thought were present. This factor undoubtedly was responsible f o r part of the difference i n numbers of moose recorded on the two censuses, A good i n d i c a t i o n that the high proportion of calves i s not due just to guesswork i s , that of nine o f f i c e r s taking part i n the 1954 census, 6 recorded more calves than cows: the other three recorded r a t i o s of 81:100, 75:100 and 56:100, Since i t i s easier to d i s t i n g u i s h cow-and-caif sign than to separate adult b u l l s from adult cows, more confidence can be placed i n the calf:cow ratios of the ground census than i n the adult sex r a t i o s . 127 v. Reports of Hunter K i l l s Since there were wide variations i n estimates of population density based on the a e r i a l s t r i p counts and since none of these esti« mates agreed with the estimate based on the ground census, i t was de-cided to run a t h i r d test using the age and sex r a t i o s as obtained by the censuses as bases and working from these backward to estimate the minimum population which could support the estimated hunter k i l l * 1, Materials and Methods By p r o v i n c i a l law no one, including a Treaty Indian, may carry firearms i n the Summerberry marsh unless licensed to'do so. Treaty In-dians are issued free permits to hunt big game at any time of the year and other hunters, by purchasing the proper hunting license, may hunt i n the area during open seasons for game birds and big game. Hunter k i l l s t a t i s t i c s were thus obtained from the free permits and from hunting licenses returned by the hunters. 2. Results The only year f o r which reasonably complete returns were ob-tained of Treaty Indian permits was 1953 and consequently that year has been chosen as a basis f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s . Table 19 summarizes the reported k i l l s by. the two classes of hunters — 95 by Treaty Indians and 55 by others on the whole delta; 83 by Treaty Indians and 25 by others on the a e r i a l census area. Since, for the purposes of t h i s section, the k i l l on the a e r i a l census area i s of main importance, i t has been expanded i n Table 20.to 128 TABLE 19-1953 HUNTING STATISTICS FOR THE SASKATCHEWAN DELTA Number of Moose Reported K i l l e d Whole S Tberry Fur Block A e r i a l Census Area Hunter Class B u l l C o w T o t a l B u l l C o w T o t a l Treaty Indian 68 27 95 56 27 83 Other 41 14 55 19 6 25 Total 109 41 150 75 33 108 TABLE 20 1953 MOOSE HUNTING STATISTICS FOR THE AERIAL CENSUS AREA Hunter Class Reported K i l l ;Percentage Reporting Estimated K i l l Treaty Indian 83 85 X 75 = 64 130 Other 25 83 . 30 Totals 108 • 160 show the estimated t o t a l k i l l on t h i s area. Eighty-five percent of the Indian Permits were returned. The percentage of moose k i l l e d by Indians who were covered by permits was placed at seventy-five as an approximate f i g u r e . I t i s f e l t that the estimate' i s probably quite accurate although proof i s not obtainable. Eighty-three percent of moose hunting licenses issued i n 1953 were returned. This figure i s probably quite v a l i d as a conversion factor since poaching i n the area i s thought to be ne g l i g i b l e * 129 Table 21 indicates that Indians from The Pas Reserve either k i l l e d . f a r fewer females than did those from the other two Reserves or that they did not give true reports of the sexes of the animals k i l l e d . . There i s very good reason to believe that the l a t t e r explanation i s the correct one and that the sex r a t i o reported by the other Reserves i s more i n d i c a t i v e of the actual k i l l . The average sex r a t i o of the k i l l on the census area, combining non-Indian reports and the Indian reports from Moose Lake and'Cedar Lake, was 203:100 or 67 percent males. TABLE 21 BREAKDOWN OF SEX RATIOS OF MOOSE REPORTED KILLED BY TREATY INDIANS IN THE AERIAL CENSUS AREA Reported K i l l Indians Resident on Reserves at: The Pas Moose Lake Cedar Lake Males:Females 24:1 16:10 28:15 % Males Reported 96 62 65 3* Discusgion Given a moose population with: A bull:cow:calf r a t i o of 30:38:32, an annual hunting loss of 161 adults of which 67 percent are males, either no change or an increase i n numbers from one year to the next, assuming that: the annual losses of calves to yearling age are 25 percent of the c a l f population 1. • 2. 3. and 1. 130 2, to yearling age, the sex r a t i o i s 50:50 3 . the annual losses of adults from causes other than hunting are 10 percent of the adult population 4* these adult losses are prorated between the sexes 5* .there i s no change i n the adult sex r a t i o from one year to the next, . then the minimum population that can s a t i s f y these requirements i s : 1 6 1 X 0 . 6 7 « 1190 moose 0.32 . 4 0 . 2 5 X 0.32) ^ 0.10 X 0.68 X 0.44 2 I f the assumptions made are reasonably accurate and i f the census results may be interpreted as i n d i c a t i n g an increasing moose population, then a population i n excess of 1190 animals must occur on the area — a density of 1.3 square miles or l e s s per moose. v i . General Discussion 1. Comparison of A e r i a l and Ground Surveys Evidence has been presented to indicate that the average c a l f : cow r a t i o obtained by the a e r i a l surveys i s probably lower than r e a l i t y and the much higher r a t i o s obtained by the ground censuses add further weight to t h i s b e l i e f . There i s no way of determining which method i s most accurate. The averages shown i n Table 22 are weighted i n favour of the ground censuses and since these censuses were supposedly based on actual "sign" observed, such weighting would seem to be i n order. The adult sex r a t i o s were very si m i l a r on the two ground sur-veys but fluct u a t i n g on the a e r i a l surveys. The p r o b a b i l i t y that the November, 1951, February, 1952, and December, 1953, a e r i a l censuses gave TABLE 22 SUMMARY OF POPULATION STATISTICS OBTAINED BY AERIAL AND GROUND SURVEYS Source of Data B u l l s Cows Calves % Calves % B u l l s % Cows Ground Census 365 445 443 35.4 29.1 35.5 A e r i a l Census 103 150 73 22.4 31.6 46.0 Total 468 595 . 516 32.6 29.6 37.8 erroneous adult sex r a t i o s has been discussed. Averaging the other two a e r i a l censuses (December 1 9 5 2 and December 1 9 5 4 ) shows 45 percent males i n the adult population — the same proportion as was shown by the ground censuses on the same area i n the same years. In the absence of c o n f l i c t -i ng evidence, t h i s proportion may be assumed to be v a l i d . There was an indicated increase i n the population of 35 percent between the December 1 9 5 2 and December 1954 a e r i a l censuses ( 8 4 9 to 1 1 5 3 ) and of 50 percent between the two ground censuses ( 5 0 2 to 7 5 1 ) . There i s some reason to believe that the 1 9 5 4 ground census was more thorough than the 1 9 5 2 one and that the indicated, increase i s probably p a r t l y due to t h i s difference. However, the combined evidence does indicate an increase i n the population between the years. The consistently lower figures pro-vided by the ground census are probably due to incomplete coverage, par-t i c u l a r l y on the larger ridges, and to the f a c t that one block of 85 square miles containing much good habitat (T. Lamb's Muskrat Lease) was censused from the a i r but not from the ground. 132 2. Comparison of Census Results and Theoretically Computed Population.' Relative Merits  Because i t i s based on admittedly doubtful s t a t i s t i c s and on a number of assumptions., not too much r e l i a b i l i t y can be placed i n the computed minimum population. I t i s of interest — i f not surprising ~ that t h i s population (1190) was quite close to that estimated by the a e r i a l census and considerably higher than that reported by the ground census* I t would be possible to obtain a reasonably accurate popula-t i o n f i g u r e f o r the area from hunting returns i f more detailed knowledge of the age and sex r a t i o s and of losses to both calves and adults from < natural causes were known. However, i t appears that i n a small popula-t i o n such as t h i s estimates based on small samples only are inadequate to follow age and sex r a t i o s , and large, detailed, properly controlled samples would be more costly than the s i t u a t i o n warrants from a manage-ment standpoint. The ground census would probably be adequate to show trends provided the same persons censused the same areas each year. The re« ' suits from t h i s method have been much more consistent than from the a e r i a l censuses and are probably of greater accuracy i n i n d i c a t i n g age and sex- r a t i o s . As i t has been conducted i n t h i s experiment, the a e r i a l census has not been very s a t i s f a c t o r y either i n indi c a t i n g t o t a l numbers or i n age and sex c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s * I t could probably be very greatly improved" by using the same observers each time and by concentrating more intensive 133 coverage on the main "freeze-up" concentrations before the animals have been able to spread out into the bogs and marshes. IV. Factors Affecting Abundance a. Introduction In a recent paper, Scott (1954) has very n i c e l y set out the basic p r i n c i p l e s underlying population growth, and t h i s discussion perhaps can be introduced best by quoting from his paper: "For centuries, men have implied that i t i s i n the nature of l i v i n g things to multiply t h e i r numbers. That t h i s i s a fact i n a s t r i c t mathematical sense as w e l l as a r h e t o r i c a l one was impressed upon the world by the B r i t i s h clergyman, Malthus, toward the end of the 18th century. He pointed out that, i n multiplying, the human population a c t u a l l y grows i n a geometric progression; i n other words, growth of the population tends to be exponential. This means that the amount of growth added at any given time i s i n proportion to the s i z e of the population at that time; and the p a r t i c u l a r f r a c t i o n represented by t h i s proportional relationship i s then the r e l a t i v e  rate of growth of that population, usually expressed as a percentage. A common analogy i s the accumula-t i o n of compound interest by a sum of money, and s i m i l a r exponential progressions are found i n many natural phenomena. The growth i n weight of an i n -d i v i d u a l organism during certain phases of i t s l i f e i s one of the more s i g n i f i c a n t comparisons. "But t h i s exponential growth i s only part of the story. Thompson (1942, p.144), reminds us T... how formidable a thing successive m u l t i p l i c a t i o n becomes. English law forbids the protracted accumulation of compound i n t e r e s t ; and likewise nature deals a f t e r her own fashion with the case, and provides her automatic remedies ••« multiply as they w i l l , these ... popula-t i o n s have t h e i r l i m i t s . They reach the end of t h e i r tether, the pace slows down, and a t l a s t they increase no more. Their world i s f u l l y peopled, whether i t be an i s l a n d with i t s swarms of hummingbirds, a t e s t -tube with i t s myriads of yeast c e l l s , or a continent with i t s m i l l i o n s of mankind. Growth, whether of a population or ah i n d i v i d u a l draws to i t s natural end; tti ... 134 Hatter (1947) has indicated the phenomenal growth which must have taken place i n the moose"population which invaded central B r i t i s h Columbia early i n t h i s century and Pimlott (1953) has shown the increases which took place when moose were introduced to the island of Newfoundland where they had not previously occurred. Murie (1934) has described an even more remarkable increase i n the moose population of I s l e Royale. Yet these populations-eventually became more or less s t a b i l i z e d . There was no noted change i n the genetically controlled reproductive capacity, but factors of the environment acting either d i r e c t l y through lack of space and food or i n d i r e c t l y through decreased physiological capacity to reproduce, forced a l e v e l l i n g o f f of the populations. In 'the present discussion consideration w i l l be given to the factors tending to increase the moose population of Northern Manitoba as well as to those tending to reduce the - population ,(or to reduce the tendency of the population to increase); f o r i t i s upon both factors that management considerations must be based. Data have been presented to show the size and d i s t r i b u -t i o n of the population, but these facts i n themselves do not show what might be done to a l t e r either the numbers or the disp o s i t i o n of the po-pulation. Numbers of moose are affected by reproduction and by forces tending to n u l l i f y the effect of reproduction. Although now almost over-taxed, the terms "breeding p o t e n t i a l " and "environmental resistance" proposed by Leopold (1933) are very descriptive of the forces involved. Data on reproduction have been gathered i n the form of calf:cow r a t i o s usually i n December of each year but no colle c t i o n s of embryos were made to obtain primary reproductive and sex ra t i o s and p r a c t i c a l l y no data 135 could be obtained on c a l f counts i n early summer. Of the "environmental resistance" factors, most attention was directed toward obtaining i n f o r -mation on hunter k i l l s although some information was obtained on preda-t i o n and other "natural" decimating factors. The investigation has indicated that while predation may have had some effect i n the past, the present i n t e n s i t y of hunting and the l i m i t a t i o n of suitable habitat are probably the main forces tending to reduce the effect of a high breeding p o t e n t i a l . b. Breeding Potential i . Methods Other North American workers, such as Peterson (1950), Hatter (1950), Pimlott (1953) and workers i n Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, have u t i l i z e d "Moose Record Cards" to good advantage i n obtaining data r e l a t i v e to herd composition. In the present study a l l attempts to make use of s i m i l a r cards proved nearly useless for the very simple reason that i n Northern Manitoba very few moose are seen at any time of the year except from a i r c r a f t . Roads i n the area are extremely l i m i t e d (even when including the "winter roads" which are used f o r only three months of the year) and ground transportation i s , therefore, mainly by canoe i n summer and bombardier or dog team i n winter. In the summer, v i s i b i l i t y back from the water courses i s greatly hindered by the dense r i p a r i | h growths of willows and aldersj some mose are seen i n the water but t h e i r numbers are not large. In the winter, bombardier roads l i e as much as possible over lakes and open muskegs where moose are r a r e l y seen. Adding to these d i f f i c u l t i e s i s the extreme s c a r c i t y of persons who could give r e l i a b l e reports of moose seen. A i r c r a f t p i l o t s , since they saw f a r more moose 136 than a l l other observers put together, were asked to f i l l i n the record cards but the main response was silence: apparently bush p i l o t s consider t h e i r time f u l l y occupied with f l y i n g and want nothing t o do with extran-eous matters. Before the study was begun, the Game and Fisheries Branch supplied cards to a l l p i l o t s i n Manitoba but so f a r as the writer i s aware only two of them ever f i l e d r e p l i e s . Since d i r e c t observation by widespread co-operators was not an available source of information on population composition, two other methods were i n s t i t u t e d : a e r i a l census on a r e s t r i c t e d area where ob-servation conditions were p a r t i c u l a r l y good; and ground census .by trappers and Conservation Of f i c e r s , based on "sign" rather than on animals actually observed. The re s u l t i n g information has many weakness-es, which were discussed i n the preceding section, but they must never-theless be considered as at least moderately i n d i c a t i v e of the p r e v a i l -ing conditions. i i . Results Calf:cow r a t i o s and adult sex ra t i o s were obtained from a e r i a l and ground censuses but no "yearling" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was made. The available data have been discussed under the appropriate census-method sections and are summarized i n Table 23. Minimum breeding age of moose i s normally considered to be two and a half years (28-29 months), but at l e a s t some cows are successfully bred at 16-17 months. One such animal was-reported to the w r i t e r by a trapper, Mr. G.Lindgren, who adopted i t at a very early age, raised i t mainly on canned milk, aspen bark, and oats, and had i t return to his 137 TABLE 23 SUMMARY OF AGE AND SEX RATIOS OBTAINED BY THREE METHODS OF CENSUS o JJq< 0 f Age and Sex C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Method Censuses A d u l t A d u l t M a i e s : Calves: Male Fern. 100 Fe. Calf 100 Females Trapper Census 2 1148 1190 97 1243 105 Conservation 2 485 576 84 554 96 Off. Census A e r i a l Census 5 103 150 69 73 49 Average Values 91 97 cabin at i n t e r v a l s throughout a number of succeeding years. The spring i t was two years o l d , i t showed up with a single c a l f ; the following spring i t returned with i t s yearling and twin calves; the next year with a single and the next with another single — f i v e offspring by the time i t was f i v e years o l d . The incidence of yearling-bred females i s un-known, but i f the relationship between n u t r i t i o n and age at f i r s t breed-ing i s comparable i n moose to that found by Cowan (1951) i n the Columbian black t a i l , i t might be expected that the better the range, the larger would be the proportion of young cows that would be bred. The number of young born to each reproductive female has been considered to average 1.5 (Leopold, 1933, p.32), but the rate of twinning varies so much from one area and time to another, that such an average figure i s probably not very s i g n i f i c a n t . The only data obtained i n the present study which were considered to be reasonably representative were 138 the counts made by the writer on a e r i a l surveys -*> 5 sets of twins out of 21 cows seen with calves — and t h i s average of 24 percent twins . was probably lower than actually occurred i n the population. Examination was. made of a case of suspected t r i p l e t s . The three new-born animals were found dead on a small i s l a n d i n Rocky Lake a few miles north of The Pas during May, 1954, by an Indian trapper. They had not been badly damaged by mammalian or avian scavengers when seen by the writer two weeks l a t e r and probably about three weeks a f t e r death. L i t t l e remained except hide and bone and a f t e r three wweks of blow-fly a c t i v i t y any evidence which might have been found e a r l i e r as to cause of death was unavailable. Other cases of t r i p l e t s were reported by various individuals from time to time but none could be p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d as such. No information could be obtained on the sex r a t i o of calves. I t was, therefore, assumed tp be 1:1. The degree of polygamy i n moose has been the subject of much speculation f o r many years. The present study has not produced any posi« t i v e evidence on t h i s subject, but the impression has been gained that "limited polygamy" rather than monogamy i s probably the r u l e , with the degree of l i m i t a t i o n depending la r g e l y on a v a i l a b i l i t y of females i n heat. This a v a i l a b i l i t y i s probably mainly dependent upon population density but could also become dependent upon population composition. i i i . Discussion In b r i e f , the v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s affecting reproduction of moose i n northern Mantioba are: 139 1. approximate 1:1 adult sex r a t i o , 2. calfjcow r a t i o between 0.5:1 and 1:1, 3. average minimum breeding age, two years (28 months), 4. rate of twinning 25 percent + on best range, 5* t r i p l e t s rare, 6. assumed 1:1 secondary sex r a t i o , 7. degree of polygamy controlled by density and adult sex r a t i o . I f we l e t the calf:cow r a t i o equal 75:100 and the adult and c a l f sex r a t i o s equal 100:100, and assume cows do not breed u n t i l two years o l d , the following table can be constructed to show that, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , such a population would more than double i t s numbers every three years. I f the calf:cow r a t i o i s reduced to 60:100, the increase becomes not quite double every three years; i f i t i s raised to 100:100 the increase-doubles the population every two years. I t i s quite obvious that such increases are not occurring i n the populations studied due to the action of the various components of the "environmental resistance". 6. Environmental Resistance i . • Decimating Factors Included under t h i s general heading are a l l those factors which a c t u a l l y remove members from the population: hunting, predation, diseases, parasites, accidents and starvation. I t i s l a r g e l y the com-bined effect of these factors which prevents the population from attain-i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l l y possible increases and i t i s among these factors, or among others which influence them, that one must look f o r means of 140 managing the populations. TABLE 2 4 THEORETICAL BREEDING POTENTIAL OF MOOSE POPULATION Starting with 100 Adults: Adult Sex Ratio 1:1; Calf:Cow Ratio 75:100; No Losses Years Total Adults Calves Yearlings start at end of Year Male Female Male Female Male Female 0 100 50 50 18 19 1 137 50 50 18 19 18 19 2 • 174 68 69 26 26 18 19 3 2 2 6 86 88 33 33 26 2 6 4 292 112 114 43 43 33 33 5 378 145 147 55 55 43 43 6 488 188 190 76 75 55 55 1* Hunting Pressure a. Introduction Since the k i l l by man i s one of the easiest decimating factors on which to collect f a i r l y representative and reliable data and since i t i s the factor which i s of greatest immediate economic importance, especially to the native population, the study has aimed to assess i t i n as much detail as possible. There are two f a i r l y dis-t i n c t types of hunting i n the area: (1) "survival" hunting by persons whose physical well-being i s pa r t i a l l y i f not wholly dependent upon 141 the chasej (2) "sport" hunting by persons whose welfare i s not depen-dent upon the chase» The term "meat hunting" has purposely been skirt e d because of the popular concept, i n t h i s area at l e a s t , that anyone who wants more than the antlers i s a "meat hunter"* Many, including the write r , f i n d the addition to the larder of a few hund-red pounds of meat each f a l l a very welcome escape from high market prices of beef, but since t h e i r standard of l i v i n g i s not greatly affected whether they get such an addition or not, they are here considered "sport hunters". Although there i s some overlap between the two categories, i n t h i s report a l l licensed hunters w i l l be considered "sport" hunters, unlicensed hunters, (mainly treaty Indians), " s u r v i v a l " hunters* P r i o r to t h i s study very few data had been collected on moose harvest i n northern Manitoba. Licenses a f t e r 1945 r e s t r i c t e d hunting to north of. the 53rd p a r a l l e l so that analysis of them gave an idea of the number taken under license from 1946 onward. P r i o r to that not only were moose and deer licenses combined but no geographic breakdown was made of the returns to indicate i n what portion of the province moose were k i l l e d . In the Summerberry Marsh special permits had been issued to Treaty Indians f o r a number of years to allow them to hunt i n ths Fur Rehabi l i t a t i o n Blocks but no records were kept of the number of permits issued or of the number of animals reported k i l l e d . In the Registered Trapline Area, s t a t i s t i c s on number of moose k i l l e d were f i r s t reported f o r the 1950-51 season, from seven sections. The pre-sent study made use of a l l three avenues — licenses, Summerberry special permits, and unlicensed k i l l reports from the Registered Trapline areas. 1 4 2 The results showed an estimated annual k i l l of 13^0 moose; ±99- by-licensed hunters; 140 by Indians on the Summerberry Fur Blocks; 800 by unlicensed hunters i n the remote areas. For the purposes of the following discussion, the Central D i s t r i c t Registered Trapline area i s not included with the other R.T.L. sections because the unlicensed k i l l i n i t i s n e g l i g i b l e and unrecorded. b. R.T.L, Sections (less Central D i s t r i c t ) i . Methods A l l k i l l data recorded from these areas were collected by Con-servation Officers resident i n the respective sections and represent the most accurate evaluation that could be obtained i n each case. The degree of accuracy varied from one area and time to another mainly de-pending upon the qu a l i t y of the relationship between f i e l d o f f i c e r and trappers, but i n almost a l l cases i t i s f e l t that a high percentage of the actual k i l l was recorded. There i s more question as to the r e l i a -b i l i t y of the age and sex c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the k i l l : i n general, the greater the influence of c i v i l i e a t i o n , the less the accuracy of these s t a t i s t i c s due to the natives' r e a l i z a t i o n that f o r years past the white man had looked with disfavour on the k i l l i n g of females and calves. The "sacred cow" idea had penetrated but not convinced and many were a f r a i d of being reprimanded i f they t o l d they had k i l l e d other than adult males. Through the patience and i n t e l l i g e n c e of the f i e l d o f f i c e r s such fears are being worn down and each year brings increases i n the quantity and r e l i a b i l i t y of such s t a t i s t i c s . Although the precise location of each animal reported.killed 143 was not plotted, a general picture was obtained of the main hunting areas i n each section — and also of the main areas not hunted, i i . Results The data concerning the number and composition o f the k i l l were presented i n the preceding section (["Numbers of Moose", Table 5 ) . Figs. 23 and 2 4 show t y p i c a l hunting pressure d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns (prepared for the writer by Conservation O f f i c e r , D,C.Ferris, Island Lake, and W.C.Slade, Pukatawagan). i i i . Discussion The greatest proportion of moose k i l l e d i n the gemote areas i s taken i n the summertime when "hunting consists simply of paddling a canoe up a l i k e l y looking stream or of just s i t t i n g q u i e t l y near where moose are expected t o come to feed i n the water. L i t t l e s k i l l and less effort i s involved. Others are taken as they are happened upon by a c c i -dent i n the course of normal canoe t r a v e l : i t would be a rare native indeed who would pass up the opportunity to k i l l a summer moose. Winter hunting, where more s k i l l and e f f o r t i s needed to track A an animal, i s indulged i n by only the few good hunters. The storied s k i l l of the Indian hunter pertains to very few Indians of t h i s area, although often the number of moose k i l l e d by the few makes up f o r the few k i l l e d by many. The high proportion of calves i n the k i l l i s pro-bably the r e s u l t of the natives' long association with the fear of sta r -vation; and the associated philosophy of k i l l i n g anything that can be used f o r food whenever opportunity presents i t s e l f , although not now so basic to s u r v i v a l , has nevertheless been perpetuated to the present day: To follow page 143. I S L A N D L A K E G R O U P S c a l e : 20 M i l e s = 1 I n c h . Fig, 23. D i s t r i b u t i o n of moose hunting pressure To follow page 143 PUKATAWAGAN SECTl'ON le:20 miles = 1 inch Area of main moose hunting pressure. Fig* 24. Distribution of main moose-hunting pressure. 144 the philosophy i s part of t h e i r heritage and w i l l not be changed overnight. In some instances education appears to be having some r e -s u l t s but the Indian i s not a knowing conservationist; when he practices conservation i t i s usually accidental. Before much advance can be made i n t h i s f i e l d i t w i l l be necessary to convince the leaders at l e a s t that looking to the future i s important and that a lean b e l l y today can often mean a f u l l one tomorrow, whereas a f u l l one today can often mean an empty one tomorrow. But i t i s hard to think of f i v e years hence when a cow and c a l f walk i n front of those sightsI There i s one possibly fortunate aspect to the natives' hunting methods, however — t h e i r concentration on the main waterways, means that there are pockets l e f t where moose are unmolested. The importance of such pockets as reservoirs from which the animals spread out in t o the surrounding areas would depend on t h e i r frequency and habitat. Each one would probably have to.be considered i n d i v i d u a l l y i n order to deter-mine i t s value. Three of these pockets were c u r s o r i l l y examined during the course of the investigation but none was considered to be of any appreciable value as a "feeder" f o r heavily hunted regions. The figure of 800 moose, given as an estimate of the annual k i l l i n the Indian Sections was arrived at by summing the k i l l s given i n Table 5 and adding the following estimates: S p l i t Lake-Limestone Sections 29 (average of reports f o r 1952-53 and 1953-54) Chu r c h i l l Section, 10 (a guess) 145 Duck Lake Section, 3 (based on Hudson's Bay Company Manager's report) Brochet Section, 10 (Conservation Officer's report). Because the reports of k i l l s are known to be of varying accuracy, the r e s u l t was simply rounded o f f to the nearest hundred animals so as not to imply greater accuracy than a c t u a l l y existed. I t i s expected that there w i l l be f a i r l y large variations i n the k i l l from year to year, especially i n the northwestern sections, depending upon the abundance, southern extent of migration and length of stay at the southern end of migration of the barrenground caribou. When caribou are p l e n t i f u l i n any area they are k i l l e d so much more ea s i l y than moose that the Indians do not make much effo r t to hunt moose. Fluctuations i n abundance of moose could of course also a l t e r the number k i l l e d , but so many extraneous circumstances could i n t e r f e r e with t h i s relationship that i t might be d i f f i c u l t to determine; f o r instance, i f the moose population were increasing and thus becoming more e a s i l y available i n an area where p r o f i t a b l e employment f o r the natives was also increasing i n commercial f i s h i n g , mining, logging, etc., the incentive to go out a f t e r moose would diminish and the absol-ute k i l l , which would be expected to increase with an increasing popu-l a t i o n , might not be materially altered. At the present time, our st a -t i s t i c s indicate that i n the majority of the Indian Sections, the annual k i l l i s approximately ten percent of the reported population of moose, with variations between s i x percent and twenty percent. 146 c» Non-R.T.L. areas and the Central D i s t r i c t i . Methods Hunter - k i l l data f o r the Central D i s t r i c t were obtained from license returns. Only one percent (3 out of 232) of the trappers pre-sently registered i n t h i s area are treaty Indians so that the k i l l from t h i s source i s not considered of s u f f i c i e n t magnitude to warrant con-si d e r a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , the number of moose taken by poachers i n t h i s area i s not considered to be large enough to a l t e r the o v e r a l l picture obtained from the licensed k i l l . Data pertaining to the k i l l by Treaty Indians i n the Summerberry area were obtained through returns of the Special Permits issued to them. Data for the remainder of the area were obtained from license reports. a In 1951 and 1952 special questionnaires were issued with each moose license and i n 1953 the questionnaire was printed d i r e c t l y on the li c e n s e . These questionnaires requested information on, 1. Success, . 2, Area hunted, 3,, hunter's residence, 4. length of time spent hunting, 5. occupation of licensee, , 6. whether or not a guide was employed, 7. number of antler points, 8. hunter's estimate of age of moose k i l l e d (1951*52 only), 9. hunter's estimate of weight of moose k i l l e d (1951-52 only), 10. Whether or not crippled or diseased moose or deer were seen (1951-52 only), 1 4 7 11. sex of the moose k i l l e d (1953 only - females i l l e g a l i n 1951 -52) , 12. what di s p o s i t i o n was made of the hide (1953 only), 13. number of moose, wolves, or deer seen, and remarks. Licenses are required to be returned within t h i r t y days of the close of the season or the licensee becomes subject to either a ten d o l -l a r s f i n e or r e f u s a l of a license the following year. In practice, the l e g i s l a t i o n has never been put into force, and license returns are there-fore only e l e c t i v e . After a l l l icense stubs had been returned a l i s t of the licensees was made up and checked against the l i s t of returned l i c e n s e s . Delinquents were sent a second questionnaire and covering l e t t e r explaining the need f o r t h e i r assistance. In analysing the license returns, the area was divided into eleven zones, eight of which corresponded to the registered t r a p l i n e groups of: Moose Lake ( 3 ) , Cormorant Lake (4), Cranberry Portage ( 5 ) , F l i n Flon ( 6 ) , Sherridon ( 7 ) , Herb Lake (8), Wabowden ( 9 ) , and Thicket-. onei (10). Zone 1 was an area bounded on the south by the 53rd p a r a l l e l ; on the west by the Manitoba-Saskatchewan boundary; on the north by a l i n e drawn from t h i s boundary between Townships 52 and 53 east to R .25 W.P.M., south between Ranges 24 and 25 to the south side of Twp. 4 9 , west between Twps. 48 and 4 9 to Cedar Lake, thence following the south shore of Cedar Lake to the 100th Meridian; on the east by the 100th meridian. Zone 2 was an area bounded on the south by zone 1; on the west by the Manitoba-Saskatchewan border; on the north by zones 3 , . 4 and 5 ; on the west by the 100th meridian. At f i r s t , zone 2 was divided into four parts using the No.10 Pr o v i n c i a l trunk highway and the Sas-katchewan River as div i d e r s . This scheme was Later abandoned i n favour 148 of a single divider - the Saskatchewan River - separating i t into a southern zone (2A) and a northern zone (2B). The loc a t i o n of the zones i s indicated i n F i g . 25, After May, 1952, special serialed permits were issued to Indians to hunt i n the Summerberry Fur Rehab i l i t a t i o n Block, Previously c h i t s had been issued, but these were not serialed and no duplicate copies were made, with the res u l t that i t was not possible to determine the . number issued or to make follow-up enquiries about those not returned. The new permits were issued f o r any part of the Fur Block the Indian r e -quested but d i d , supposedly, r e s t r i c t h is hunting to one or two zones. Space was provided f o r the permittee to indicate whether a moose or deer had been taken, sex of the animal and the Indian's estimate of i t s age. Delinquents from The Pas Reserve were contacted through mailed question-naires and those from the Moose Lake and Ghemshawin (Cedar Lake) Re-serves were contacted by the f i e l d o f f i c e r s stationed at these points. P r i o r to the s t a r t of t h i s study, Mr. A,J.Reeve, then B i o l o -g i s t with the Game and Fisheries Branch, compiled the returns of big game licenses from 1914 to show the long-term trends. A summary of these s t a t i s t i c s i s given with t h i s report f o r comparative purposes, i i . Results a. Licensee Reports Table 25 summarizes the estimated k i l l of moose oyer the past f o r t y years (1914-1953)* I t was not possible to ascertain the proportion of the k i l l a t t r i b u t a b l e to northern Manitoba p r i o r to 1946. These s t a t i s -t i c s are shown graphically i n F i g . 26, « Fig» 2% Geographic divisions used i n analysing moose hunting license returns. 1 4 9 TABLE 2 5 . SUMMARY OF ANNUAL KILL OF MOOSE IN MANITOBA FROM 1914 to 1953, ESTIMATED FROM LICENSE RETURNS Year Estimated K i l l Year Estimated K i l l Year Estimated K i l l 1914 2,633 1927 669 1941 2 2 4 -1915 1 , 7 4 2 1928 580. 1942 220 1916 1,561 1929 666 1943 250 1917 1,419 1930 685 1944 263 1918 1,528 1931 423 1945 closed 1919 2,212 1932 268 1946 ? 1920 1,473 1933 221 1947 . 83 1921 697 1934 131 1948 145 1922 •450 1935 143 1949 1 2 7 1 9 2 3 278 1936 100 1950 209 1 9 2 4 3 2 1 1937 ,158 1951 176 1925 3 8 2 1938 181 1952 148 1926 493 1939 252 1953 243 1940 2 2 2 Tables 28 and 29 summarize the information obtained from r e -turned licenses and questionnaires during 1951-1952-1953• The detailed tables from which these two summaries were drawn are given i n Appendix A. Pr i o r to the 1954 hunting season, a holder of a moose license could use the license f o r deer i f he were unsuccessful i n obtaining a 150 moose. For.purposes of s i m p l i c i t y i n t h i s analysis, persons who held moose licenses but did not k i l l moose were considered as "unsuccessful" whether they k i l l e d deer or not. In 1951, 52 holders of moose licenses reported having k i l l e d deer (19 i n northern Manitoba), i n 1952, 36 deer were reported k i l l e d (24 i n northern Manitoba), and i n 1953, 18 deer were reported k i l l e d (14 i n northern Manitoba). b'« Treaty Indian Permits Table 30 summarizes the k i l l of moose reported by treaty Indians hunting i n the Summerberry Marsh (Saskatchewan River Delta) i n the years 1952, 1953 and 1954. Table 31 summarizes the t o t a l number of permits issued f o r the three.years, the percent returned, the number of moose reported k i l l e d and the percent success. Table 32 compares the number of moose k i l l e d i n the summer months of May to October inc l u s i v e i n 1953 and 1954 to the number k i l l e d i n the remaining s i x months of the year. Table 33 compares the reported moose k i l l to the populations of the three Indian Bands taking part i n the hunting i n the Summerberry Marsh, and Table 34 shows the sexes of the moose reported k i l l e d by the three bands i n 1953* i i i . Discussion (a) License Returns, 1914-1953 Figure 26 indicates that there has been a tremendous decrease i n the number of moose k i l l e d i n Manitoba over the past f o r t y years. The Fig* 26. Annual k i l l of moose and deer in Manitoba 151 records p r i o r to the second World War may be considered to apply almost s o l e l y to southern Manitoba, because up to that time only a very small percentage of the moose k i l l e d i n the northern area was covered by licenses and hence recorded. Seton (1953, v o l . I l l , p.175) quotes an estimate of ten thousand moose k i l l e d annually about the turn of the present century i n the province of Manitoba. Old timers who l i v e d i n the south just before the f i r s t World War t o l d the writer that i n t h e i r opinions perhaps only 20 percent or 25 percent of the people who k i l l e d moose held licen s e s , as game law enforcement was apparently i n s i g n i f i c a n t . There i s no i n d i c a t i o n i n the government reports of the time to indicate overhunting, but accord-ing to Turner (1906) market hunting was an accepted p r a c t i c e . The reduc-t i o n of the southern moose population - by whatever forces brought i t about - was accompanied by an increase and northward extension of range of f i r s t of a l l the mule deer (Odocoileus ^emionus) and then i n a second wave the w h i t e - t a i l (Odocoileus virginianus) flooded northward and the mule deer a l l but disappeared (Table 26). Similar declines i n moose and up-surges i n w h i t e - t a i l deer have been recorded i n the Maritimes and i n On-t a r i o (reviewed by Peterson, 1950; see i n s e t , Fig.2,6), The only part of the curve ( F i g . 26) which may be considered to have any bearing on the northern moose harvest i s that from 1938 or 1939 onward, and even then persons l i v i n g i n the bush, such as trappers and prospectors, d i d not take out licenses i n the majority of cases. From ta l k i n g to northern residents i n a l l walks of l i f e the wr i t e r con-siders i t doubtful i f a hundred moose a year were covered by licenses i n t h i s area up t i l l the end of the second World War. Shortly a f t e r the war the Game and Fisheries Branch increased i t s f i e l d s t a f f and by 1950 was exerting pressure on a l l non-Indians to buy licenses (with the 152 TABLE 2 6 KILL OF DEER IN MANITOBA, 1933-1952, ESTIMATED FROM HUNTING LICENSE RETURNS. (Manitoba, 1952, 1953) Year Estimated K i l l Year Estimated K i l l 1933 907 1943 8,120 1934 2,250 1944 9,440 1935 2,018 1945 13,320 1936 . 2,410 1946: 16,320, 1937 2,815 1947 16,160 1938 3,780 " 1948 19,550 1939 4 ,940 1949 20,675 1940 5,035 1950 18,050 " 1941 5,700 . 1951 30,950 1942 7 ,730 1952 22,368 exception of metis l i v i n g i n remote areas). Part of the increase i n recorded moose k i l l between 1946 and 1951 was due to t h i s pressure rather than to an increase i n the number of moose k i l l e d ; the sale of resident licenses increased from an average of 369 i n 1948-49-50 to 580 i n 1951-52-53, again at least p a r t i a l l y r e f l e c t i n g increasing game law enforcement. b. License Returns 1951-1953 The major items of information desired from returns of l i c e n -sed hunters were: 153 1 . number of moose k i l l e d ; 2 , locations of the k i l l s ; 3 ; geographic source of the hunters; 4» the d i s t r i b u t i o n of hunting pressure, Pimlott ( 1 9 5 3 ) found that i n personal interviews with hunters who did not make returns, t h e i r percentage success was only one-half that of those who did make returns. In the present study, follow-up questionnaires i n 1 9 5 1 revealed a success of only 27 percent (of 2 0 9 hunters) as compared to 43 percent (of 2 4 4 hunters) f o r those who made returns without being prompted. In 1 9 5 2 the re s u l t s were respectively, 1 0 percent (of 205 hunters as compared to 49 percent (of 237 hunters) and i n 1 9 5 3 , 3 7 percent (of 1 2 4 hunters) as compared to 4 0 percent (of 4 3 8 hunters). The averages f o r the three years were, respectively, 2 3 percent (of 538 hunters) as compared to 43 percent (of 919 hunters). I t seems unl i k e l y that material bias would resu l t from assuming that the non-reporting hunters i n 1 9 5 1 and 1953 enjoyed only one-half the suc-cess of the unprompted group, but i n 1 9 5 2 , f o r reasons unknown, the suc-cess of the second wave of returns was extremely low, and the assumption has been made that those who made no returns did not have better success than those i n the prompted group. The following table shows the analysis leading to the estimated t o t a l k i l l . Detailed break-downs of the license returns showing the k i l l and number of hunters i n each zone are given i n Appendix A and summarized i n Table 2 9 . 154 TABLE 27 r ANALYSIS OF HUNTERS' LICENSE RETURNS TO SHOW ESTIMATED TOTAL KILL 1951 1952 1953 No, licenses sold 521 553 667 No. licenses returned (unprompted) 244 . 237 438 Total No. licenses returned 4531 442 562 No. moose reported k i l l e d 161 137 222 Success of unprompted hunters 43# k% kO% No. licenses not returned 68 ' 109 105 Assumed success of non-reporting hunters 21,5% 10% 20% Assumed k i l l by non-reporting hunters • ,15 11 21 Estimated t o t a l k i l l 176 148 243 Zones 1 and 2 received the brunt of the pressure since they absorbed most of the hunters from south of '53 as well as the hunters l i v i n g i n the v i c i n i t y of The Pas, Of those hunters who indicated where they had hunted, 41 percent reported either zone 1 or 2, or both. Except for these two zones, hunting pressure was very largely limited to r e s i -dents of each particular zone. Hunters from zone 6 ( F l i n Flon) did how-ever tend to be more mobile than those from other Central District points, M urn beV apparently because of easy access by automobile along Nankor 10 Highway and possibly because of the generally higher per capita income of persons l i v i n g i n F l i n Flon. 155 TABLE 28 SUMMARY OF STATISTICS DERIVED FROM MOOSE HUNTING LICENSE RETURNS, NORTHERN MANITOBA, 1951-1952-1953 1951 1952 1953 Totals Number of licenses sold 521 553 667 1741 Number of licenses returned 453 442 562 1457 Percentage of licenses returned 87 77 84 84 Number of moose reported k i l l e d 161 137 222 520 Percentage success 35.5 31.0 39.5 35.7 Average number of hours hunted 21.8 24.0 21.8 Average number of hours hunted per moose bagged ( a l l hunters) 59.0 73.8 54.2 Average number of hours hunted per moose bagged (successful hunters) 17.0 21.9 18.6 Number of trappers reporting 47 56 81 184 Percentage success of trappers 80.1 73.2 85.2 81 Number of non-trappers reporting 406 386 481 1273 Percentage success of non-trappers 30.3 . 27.5 31.2 29 Average number of antler points 12.3 10,4 9.5 10,4 Average estimated age of moose 6,0 4,4 Average estimated weight of moose 636 698 Percentage of males k i l l e d 100 100 70 Percentage of hides retained 58.3 Percentage of hides sold 11.4 Percentage of hides l e f t i n bush 30.3 157 (Cranberry Portage), where the season was open for either sex,from south of T53, zone 2 and zone 6 ( F l i n Flon), There was also an i n -crease i n zone 5 due to more residents of the zone buying licenses, A s i m i l a r increase i n residents of the zone was recorded for zone 2, Although more data i s required to confirm i t , there i s a f a i r i n d i c a -t i o n that hunting pressure i n areas accessible.from No, 10 Highway can be manipulated by regulation of the type of open season. Hunting pressure i n the more inaccessible zones has given no i n d i c a t i o n of being p l a s t i c . There has been a consistent decline i n the percentage of hunt-ers from south of '53. In 1951, 33 percent came from southern Manitoba, i n 1952, 29 percent and i n 1953, only 23 percent despite the fact that i n the l a t t e r year the season was open f o r residents on the east side of Lake Winnipeg, Possibly the large deer populations i n the southern part of the province are inducing more hunters there to stay closer to home. There has been a concurrent increase i n the proportion of hunters from The Pas and F l i n Flon. Hunters from The Pas area (zone 2) amounted to 18 percent of the t o t a l i n 1951 and 23 percent i n 1953. F l i n Flon hunters amounted to 13 percent of the t o t a l i n 1951 and 17 percent i n 1953. These differences are both s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence. To recapitulate then, the estimated t o t a l k i l l s by license holders were 176 i n 1951, 148 i n 1952 and 243 i n 1953- Zones 1 and 2 accommodated an average, of 41 percent of the hunters and provided 39 percent of the moose k i l l e d . Zone 5 had an average of 13 percent of 158 the hunters and provided 15 percent of the moose k i l l e d . Hunting pressure i n areas accessible from No. 10 Highway appeared susceptible to manipula-t i o n by regulation of the type of season allowed, but i n the more inac-cessible areas changing from a "males only" to an "either sex" season did not result i n a noticeable a l t e r a t i o n of hunting pressure. I t was at f i r s t anticipated that the "percent success" figures might be used as indicators of a v a i l a b i l i t y , but so many variables must be taken into account that with the li m i t e d s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e t h i s index does not appear useful. For example, the decrease i n "percent success" i n zone 1 showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t decrease between 1951 and 1952, but the decrease was i n r e a l i t y due to an i n f l u x of hunt-ers from F l i n Flon i n 1952 who had not hunted zone 1 i n the preceding year and who proved to be very unsuccessful. I f these F l i n Flon hunters are ignored, the difference i n success i n zone 1 between 1951 and 1952 i s no greater than would be expected by chance, i n d i c a t i n g , perhaps, that a v a i l a b i l i t y was the same i n the two years. Again, i n zone 2 the percent success was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n 1952 than i n 1951, but only one-third the number of hunters from south of 53 who hunted zone 2 i n 1951 showed up the following year, and i t was the.very high success (73%) of t h i s t h i r d which caused the success r a t i o f o r the zone to S p i r a l . Apparently these few southern hunters were much above average i n hunting a b i l i t y . There-was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n success f o r zone 2 when hunters from south of *53 were omitted from the calculations, suggesting that the l o c a l hunters were finding no change i n a v a i l a b i l i t y . The fact that the "percent success" was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n 1953 when much of the area was open to either sex than i t was i n 1951 when only b u l l s were available, i s a further i n d i c a t i o n that with the information 159 presently at hand, hunter success cannot be used as an index of a v a i l a -b i l i t y . Besides such variations as these, changes i n weather would also have to be taken into account i n a r r i v i n g at a r e l a t i v e a v a i l a b i l -i t y f i g u r e . For instance, i n 1 9 5 1 only nine hunters remarked that the weather was "poor" f o r hunting, while i n 1 9 5 2 , 2 0 such remarks were received. In general, because of the paucity of s t a t i s t i c a l information, especially of background data to use as a "norm", it.seems inadvisable to t r y to a r r i v e at an iddex of a v a i l a b i l i t y from hunters'..success reports. Data concerning number of hours each licensee hunted were also gathered i n the expectation of being able to use them to supplement the "percent success" fi g u r e s , but much the same c r i t i c i s m s may be made of them as have been made f o r the "percent success" results (Appendix A, Table E). In t h i s regard i t i s however of interest to note that only about one-third the amount of time was spent hunting, per moose bagged, as was recorded f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1 9 5 0 and the success i n Manitoba averaged 3 6 per-cent ( 3 1 $ - 4 0 $ ) as compared to 2 4 percent success f o r resident hunters i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1 9 5 0 (Hatter and Sugdon, 1 9 5 1 ) * Since many of the B r i t i s h Columbia moose ranges are considered to be overstocked while the Manitoba range i s not, an investigation into these differences i n success might provide useful information for the game managers on both areas. Two types of information were gathered to see to what extent hunting experience and f a m i l i a r i t y with an area influenced hunter success. Hunters were c l a s s i f i e d into eight occupational groups, but these were l a t e r reduced to two - trappers and non-trappers - because i n s u f f i c i e n t data were available to make f i n e r d ivisions s i g n i f i c a n t . The differenfce 6 160 i n success between these two groups was quite remarkable: trappers averaged 81 percent success for the three years, non-trappers averaged 29 percent success, i n d i c a t i n g that the trappers benefitted greatly from experience and f a m i l i a r i t y with t h e i r t r a p l i n e s . Trappers also averaged less time spent hunting than did non-trappers. A l l data were grouped in t o zone hunted and zone of hunter's residence. This grouping was not.. so useful i n determining the influence of f a m i l i a r i t y with the area hunt-ed as had been expected because only a very few persons hunted outside t h e i r respective zone of residence. (See Table 29 and Appendix A, Tables B and F) . While admittedly inconclusive, the data show that there i s a tendency f o r hunters to be more successful i f they hunt within t h e i r zone o f residence. This difference could also be due to more time being spent i n the f i e l d by hunters who stayed close to home than by those who ranged more widely. * Should l a t e r information confirm t h i s tendency, i t s significance from a management point of view would be that by manipulating the d i s t r i -bution of hunting pressure through changes i n the type of season allowed, lowered success of persons attracted to a new area would tend to offs e t the increased number of hunters, and i f i n a "normal" year one hundred hunters took t h i r t y - f i v e moose i n a p a r t i c u l a r zone^in order to double the k i l l by attracting "outside" hunters, considerably more than double the number of hunters would have to be used. Very few hunters reported that they had hired guides. In 1951 8 out of 453 hunters f i l i n g reports said they hired guides. The success of the guided hunters was 25 percent as compared to 30 percent f o r non-.. trappers as a whole. In 1952, 5 out of 442 reported using guides: t h e i r 161 success was 80 percent as compared to 28 percent f o r a l l non-trappers• In 1953, 8 out of 562 reported using guides* t h e i r success was 27 per cent as compared to 31 percent f o r a l l non-trappers. There appears to be scope for considerable improvement i n the big-game guiding business i n t h i s area. In an attempt to obtain some ind i c a t i o n of the' age composition and the general welfare of the moose population hunters were asked to report t h e i r estimates of the ages and weights of moose taken and also the number of antler points. Through an oversight, a question concerning presence or absence of embryos i n 1953 (when females were l e g a l game) was omitted from the printed questionnaires. The hunters' estimates of age and weight were compiled but proved to be valueless. In the majority , of cases the hunters reported age as equal to the number of antler points and guesses of weight were so extremely variable that no credence could be given to them. The number of antler points rather than basal diameter or maxi-mum spread was requested because the answer required of the hunter only the a b i l i t y to count and was therefore more apt to be recorded c o r r e c t l y . The o r i g i n a l purpose of c o l l e c t i n g antler information was to use i t as an.indicator of hunting pressure, p a r t i c u l a r l y of selective hunting of animals with large antlers. (Hatter, 1948, had suggested that heavy hunting pressure was reducing the antler spread i n B r i t i s h Columbia), However, f a i r l y /early i n the study i t was learned that hunting pressure i n most areas was l i g h t r e l a t i v e to the available moose population, and that selective hunting pressure ( i . e . trophy hunting) was probably n e g l i g i b l e . The question on antler points was continued nevertheless, 162 mostly out of the writer's c u r i o s i t y to see what, i f anything, i t might r e v e a l . The data were graphed as frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r each year ( F i g . 27). These graphs showed polymodal d i s t r i b u t i o n s , the modes of which were reduced to percentages and the material regraphed as histograms ( F i g . 28). In order to check the p o s s i b i l i t y that the ap-parent differences i n antler development over the three years were due simply to sampling error or to chance v a r i a t i o n , the data were analyzed by the method of the "standard error of the differences between two means" and by a "multiple contingency table" method (the l a t t e r analy-s i s was made by Dr. P.A.Larkin of the Department of Zoology, U.B.C.). Both analyses showed that the observed differences were s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent level, of confidence, in d i c a t i n g that they were probably r e a l and not due to sampling error or to chance v a r i a t i o n i n the popu-l a t i o n . The graphs indicate that there has been an increase i n the number of small antlered moose (2 - '5 points) and a decrease i n the number of large antlered ones (over 15 points). There also appears to have been an upward s h i f t within the intervening group ( 6 - 1 5 poin t s ) , but t h i s change was not s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y (the means of each year, plus or minus twice the standard errors, overlap). There appear to be four possible explanations of the d i f f e r -ences noted: ( l ) They could be due to hunting pressure's removing more of the older, large antlered, i n d i v i d u a l s ; (2) they could be due to decreasing n u t r i t i o n causing fewer large-antlered animals and more small-antlered ones; (3) they could be due to an expanding population; or (4) they could be due to a combination of these e f f e c t s . To follow page 1&2. 17 1 6 I S 1 4 1 3 1 2 II 1 0 9 6 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 (/> 9 • • /I • — • • \ 1 1953 • \ \ 1 • 2 7 A 1952 Z * < 5 A / \ A U. 4 O 3 2 _/\ 2 J O • • 2 Z 6 7 6 5 4 3 Z 1 A 1951 V \ A / * —» 1 1 . | t mL • mL 2 4 6 8 10 12 1 4 10 18 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 NUMBER OF ANTLER POINTS Fig* 27 . Antler-point distributions, 1951-^2-^3. To follow page 1&2: 44 40 36 32 28 24 £ 0 I 0 12 S CLASS INTERVAL 1951 1952 1 9 5 3 & % 4*. % *t % 2-5 4 6 9 13 19 18 6-10 29 4 3 30 44 44. 42 II- 15 16 24 1 9 28 3 4 32 16-21 14 21 8 12 7 7 21 + 4 6 2 3 1 1 TOTALS 67 100 68 100 1Q5 100 1951 9 5 2 1 953 1 II III IV v I II m IV V I II /II IV V ANTLER POINT MODAL CLASS Fig,' 2:8. Distribution of antler-points, 1951-52-53 by modal classes. 163 In order to test the f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y , the reports from trappers were separated from those of non-trappers and histograms prepared as previously described for the whole population. The d i f f e r -ences between the antler-point classes f o r the two groups were not s i g -n i f i c a n t although there was a tendency f o r the trapper's reports to con-t a i n more large-antlered individuals than d i d the non-trapper's. Since the trappers, f o r the most part, took t h e i r moose on t h e i r t r a p l i n e s where hunting pressure was generally very l i g h t , the tendency f o r t h e i r reports to indicate a greater proportion o f large-antlered moose sug-gests that hunting pressure might be involved i n the smaller number of large-antlered animals taken by non-trappers. However, since the d i f -ferences between the two- may w e l l be due- to sampling error, not too much credence can be given them. . The p o s s i b i l i t y that decreasing n u t r i t i o n was causing the changes was t e n t a t i v e l y discounted because the changes appeared to be f a i r l y uniform over the whole area sampled (about 20,000 square m i l e s ) . However, not enough figures were availa b l e to make regional break-downs s i g n i f i c a n t and t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y was therefore checked by another method. One would expect that i f n u t r i t i o n were decreasing, there would be a downward s h i f t i n the mean number of antler points i n the large central group (6 - 15 p o i n t s ) . These means are 9.9, 9.8, and 9»9 f o r 1951, 1952, and 1953 respectively: the standard error f o r the 1953 data i s 0.27. These figures show quite conclusively that there has been no r e a l change i n number of a n t l e r points i n the central group, and indicate that changing n u t r i t i o n a l q u a l i t y of the range WSLS not responsible f o r the decrease i n number of large antlers and increase i n number of small 1 6 4 ones. (This t e s t would also rul e out the p o s s i b i l i t y of a tendency to "cervina" type antlers.) Since i t has been possible p a r t i a l l y to discount hunting pressure and almost surely to discount d i f f e r e n t i a l n u t r i t i o n , there appears to be only one reasonable explanation l e f t to account f o r the changes noted — that there has been an increasing recruitment of young animals to the population. That t h i s explanation agrees with the census data which showed an increasing population, i s further confirma-t i o n of the hypothesis. I t i s expected that i n the next few years forage w i l l probably decrease i n amount due to improved f o r e s t - f i r e detection and suppression, and antler-point data w i l l be continued to be collected to see i f de-creasing n u t r i t i o n can be detected. When t h i s does appear, i f range deterioration cannot be countered by habitat improvement i t w i l l be necessary to reduce the moose population to keep i t within the carry-ing capacity of the range. Thus continued antler-point analysis, supplemented i f possible by age analysis through such a method as tooth erosion, may' become a very useful management technique i n t h i s area. t Hatter ( 1 9 5 0 ) reported on the number of antler points of moose k i l l e d i n central B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1 9 4 8 , but considered that his data showed no relationship to age structure of the population. Cringan ( 1 9 5 5 ) showed that antler-point data f o r Ontario correlated w e l l with age determined by tooth development and wear f o r yearlings, but that age correlations of-older animals were less precise. Ninety-seven percent of his animals with ten points or fewer were under 5 - 1 / 2 1 6 5 years of age, but eighteen percent of his sample which were under 5 - 1 / 2 years of age had more than ten points. S i m i l a r l y , ninety-eight percent of his animals with f i f t e e n points or fewer were c l a s s i f i e d as under 8 - 1 / 2 - 1 0 - 1 / 2 years of age by the tooth erosion method, but s i x -teen percent of his sample which were under 8 - 1 / 2 - 1 0 - 1 / 2 years of age had more than f i f t e e n points. I t would appear that a n t l e r points are more representative of age d i s t r i b u t i o n i n eastern Canada than i n B r i t -i s h Columbia but data from both areas are as yet too meagre to permit interpretation of the differences. b. Treaty Indian Permit Returns The new permit system was introduced i n the l a t t e r part of May, 1952 and consequently no reports f o r the f i r s t four and a half months are a v a i l a b l e . Following t h e i r introduction they were u t i l i z e d extensively at The Pas and Cedar Lake, but f o r unknown reasons very few were issued during the f i r s t year at Moose Lake. In consequence, the t o t a l reported k i l l f o r 1 9 5 2 f e l l short by a considerable but un-ascertainable amount. For t h i s reason no estimate of the t o t a l k i l l f o r that year has been made. In the following two years i t was estimated that about seventy-f i v e percent of the t o t a l k i l l was covered by permits. This figure was arrived at af t e r discussion with some of the Conservation o f f i c e r s con-cerned, and while i t may be low i t i s probably close enough f o r present management purposes. The t o t a l estimated k i l l by Indians i s shown i n Table 3 0 as 1 5 0 f o r 1 9 5 3 and 1 4 1 f o r 1 9 5 4 . These figures were arrived at by r a i s i n g the reported k i l l to 1 0 0 percent by d i r e c t proportion from the number of permits returned, assuming that t h i s t o t a l represented TABLE 3 0 MONTHLY KILL OF MOOSE BY TREATY INDIANS IN THE SUMMERBERRY FUR REHABILITATION BLOCK, MANITOBA, 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 - 5 4 , Compiled from Returns of Special Permits Year J F M A M J J A S 0 N D Totals % May to October Estimated Total K i l l 1 9 5 2 no reports 9 13 9 8 12 1 0 0 52 * 1953 1 1 1 15 32 1 7 13 .7 7 1 95 9 0 150 1 9 5 4 3 3 3 4 26 22 1 0 1 4 5 2 9 2 83 141 Totals 4 4 3 1 4 54 63 35 3 9 8 12 3 2 5 7 % of Total 1 , 7 1 , 7 1 , 3 5 . 9 2 2 . 6 2 6 . 4 1 4 . 6 1 6 . 4 3 . 3 5 . 0 1 . 3 1 0 0 . 2 * Estimate not possible due to incomplete coverage as discussed i n text 167 TABLE 31 TREATY INDIAN SPECIAL PERMITS, SUMMERBERRY MARSH, 1952-53-54 1952 1953 1954 Number of permits issued 122 206 218 Number of permits returned 1 0 5 174 189 Percentage of permits returned 86 85 87 Number of moose reported k i l l e d 52 95 92 Percentage Success (on returned permits) 49. 55 49 TABLE 32 MOOSE KILL BY TREATY INDIANS, 1953 and 1 9 5 4 , IN THE SUMMERBERRY MARSH IN THE SUMMER (May to October Inclusive) AS COMPARED TO THE KILL IN THE WINTER (November to Apr i l inclusive) Summer Winter Totals Number of permits issued 354 70 424 Percentage of permits issued 88 12 Number of permits returned 313 50 363 Percentage of permits returned 88 72 86 Number of moose reported k i l l e d 161 26 187 Percentage of moose reported k i l l e d 86 14 Percentage success (on returned permits) 52 54 52 Estimated k i l l by permit holders 182 36 218 Total estimated k i l l by Indians i n the Summerberry Marsh 243 48 291 168 75 percent of the actual k i l l , and then r a i s i n g i t to 100 percent. While i t i s generally known subjectively that treaty Indians of northern Manitoba take most of t h e i r moose during the months of open water ( l a t t e r part of May to the l a t t e r part of October), Tables 30 and 32, seems to be the f i r s t quantitative description o f the f a c t . These tables are based on only the 1953 and 1954 returns because of the incomplete coverage i n 1952. They show that i n these two years 86 percent of the moose reported k i l l e d were taken i n the months of open water and that the percentage success for both seasons was approximately the same. One possible source of bias i n these figures i s that, i n the winter, when some of the Indians are on t h e i r traplines within the marsh, they take moose without bothering to obtain permits, and while i t i s recognized that some moose not covered by permits are taken i n the summertime, the percentage i s probably much less than i n the winter. I t i s thought however that t h i s bias i s not of s u f f i c i e n t magnitude to a l t e r the o v e r a l l picture m a t e r i a l l y . Indians at Moose Lake and Cedar Lake appeared to make reason-ably honest reports of the number of females k i l l e d , but those at The Pas consistently refused to report anything but males, apparently due to fear of being reprimanded i f they said they k i l l e d females. Table 34 gives the breakdown of the k i l l by Indian Bands and by sexes f o r 1953 and shows the marked discrepancy between the reports from The Pas as compared to those from the other two settlements. Not a single'report xvas received from these Indians of a. c a l f having been k i l l e d although i t i s known that some are taken. (One old TABLE 33 NUMBERS OF MOOSE KILLED BI THE THREE INDIAN BANDS HUNTING IN THE SUMMERBERRY MARSH, 1952-53^ 54, IN COMPARISON TO THE POPULATIONS OF THE BANDS THE PAS MOOSE LAKE CEDAR LAKE 1952 1953 1954 1952- 1953 1954 1952 1953 1954 Number of Treaty Indians (approx.) • 600 600 600 150 150 150 175 175 175 Number of moose reported k i l l e d 21 25 35 2 27 24 29 43 33 Average, persons/moose 28.6 24.0 17.1 75.0 5.6 6.3 6.0 4.1 5.3 Average, persons/moose, 1953-54 20.0 5.9 4.6 170 TABLE 34 SEX RATIOS OF MOOSE REPORTED KILLED BY TREATY INDIANS IN THE SUMMERBERRY MARSH, 1953 The Pas Band Moose • Lake Cedar Lake Totals Moose Lake and Cedar Lake Females 1 10 15 25 Males 24 16 28 44 Totals 25 26 43 69 Percentage males 96 62 65, 64 hunter, who reported k i l l i n g a female, scrawled across h i s permit, appar-ently i n disgust, "the c a l f s got away.") In the registered t r a p l i n e areas, Indians reported about 12 percent calves i n the annual k i l l and i t seems probable that a si m i l a r percentage i s taken i n the Summerberry. Apparently there i s no simple relationship between the r e l a t i v e abundance of the two sexes, as indicated by the censuses, and r e l a t i v e a v a i l a b i l i t y as indicated by the k i l l reports. Both a e r i a l and ground censuses i n the area indicated a preponderance of females i n the popula-t i o n while the k i l l reports of both Indians and whites showed a large majority of.males .shot. Some of the difference may be due to inaccurate k i l l reports and i t i s possible that some s l i g h t selection i s made i n favour of males. However, i t i s considered that neither of these f a c -tors could account completely for the differences shown. The census figures were based on animals seen from the a i r and on tracks (and i droppings?) seen on the ground. The hunting results indicate that a 171 greater percentage of males than females are seen from the ground and i f t h i s tendency i s confirmed by additional data, i t w i l l have to be taken into consideration when estimating the maximum allowable k i l l under an "either-sex" system of management. Table 33, comparing the annual moose k i l l to the population of the Indian Bands, indicates that there were many more moose k i l l e d per capita by the Moose Lake and Cedar Lake Bands than by The Pas Band. The main reason f o r t h i s difference appears to be the more is o l a t e d position of the f i r s t two Bands and the greater a v a i l a b i l i t y of jobs providing cash income at The Pas than at the other two locations. When cash i s . a vailable to purchase store goods, the desire to hunt f o r food rapi d l y diminishes (as was indicated i n the section on "Human Popula-t i o n " ) , Although there i s l i t t l e or no p o s s i b i l i t y , or even desira-b i l i t y at the present time, of r e s t r i c t i n g the k i l l by these three Indian Bands through l e g i s l a t i o n , the information provided by the Indians' re-ports provide two items of interest from the viewpoint of non-Indian hunting season regulation. One i s that, on the basis of the Indians' reports, an open season f o r non-Indians during "openwater" should not be expected to produce very much greater hunter success than would a winter season. The other i s that with an open season on either sex, i t should not be expected that the increase i n a v a i l a b i l i t y (as com-pared to a season on males only) would be i n direct proportion to the percentage of females which census reports show occurring i n the popu-l a t i o n . 172 2, Predation a. Introduction In most recent w i l d l i f e publications dealing with predation of b i g game there appears the recurrent theme that predation by the large carnivores cannot, per se, reduce a healthy big game population or keep one i n check. The only exception that i s commonly expressed that a small prey population ( i . e . , one that i s much smaller than t h e o r e t i -c a l l y could be maintained on a given range) can sometimes be prevented from increasing by the a c t i v i t y of predators, as f o r example a small antelope population on a range containing many coyotes ( R i t e r , 1940). As i n many f i e l d studies of predation, the present work has been ham-pered by paucity of f a c t u a l information concerning the role played by predators i n the mechanism of big game population changes. Evidence i s l i m i t e d to verbal reports of persons l i v i n g i n the area, to wolf and big game censuses made i n the l a s t few years by trappers, to ex-tremely small samples of scats and moose carcasses examined i n normal t r a v e l , and to a few examinations of wolf stomachs. The r e s u l t s i n d i -cate that predation by wolves may have been a l i m i t i n g factor at cer-t a i n times, but that under the present system of government-roperated predator control i t i s no longer a co n t r o l l i n g influence. b. Results Verbal reports have indicated that the period of greatest abundance of moose i n recent years was i n the l a t e twenties and early t h i r t i e s of the present century. A number of independent observers have attributed a decline i n population i n the early t h i r t i e s to wolf predation, some to predation plus hunting pressure and one to severe t i c k i n f e s t a t i o n . However almost a l l the reports were very subjective 173 and, i n the writer's opinion, the resu l t of inductive rather than de-ductive reasoning: the moose population declined; therefore, something must have k i l l e d them o f f ; there were a l o t of wolves present; there-fore wolves must have k i l l e d them o f f . One report however stands out from the r e s t * I t was made by Mr. J.D.Robertson, now Assistant Inspec-tor of Manitoba Registered Traplines, but at the time of the observa-tions a trapper i n the area of the Upper Minago River about eighty miles east of The Pas. Mr. Robertson reported'that i n the early 1930*s moose were very p l e n t i f u l i n the area trapped by his father, brother and himself but that about 1933 there was a great migration of barrenground caribou into the area, a r r i v i n g i n November. These caribou were attended by enormous numbers of wolves and i n one instance he and his father and brother counted the fresh tracks of a band of f o r t y wolves. These wolves k i l l e d many moose and for the rest of the winter the three trappers fed t h e i r dogs on nothing but moose carcasses which had been only p a r t l y eaten by the wolves. The moose population was. reduced to a low l e v e l and apparently remained that way f o r a number of years although these three, trappers not long afterward ceased to trap t h i s area and therefore could not give much more information. From another informant, Mr. Charles S i n c l a i r , a temporary f i r e ranger and l i f e - t i m e resident of the Crass Lake area to the east of the Minago area referred to by Mr. Robertson, came a report that i n the upper Minago River region, the moose population had again increased through the t h i r t i e s and early f o r t i e s but that by 1947 d e f i n i t e de-creases were apparent. Mr. S i n c l a i r considered that t h i s time the de-crease was due to human predation brought about by a marked increase i n 174 the number of outboard motors i n the hands of the Cross Lake Indians, giving them greater hunting range than previously existed. In the area west of The Pas - mainly i n the area from the Saskatchewan boundary to the Pasquia H i l l s - two independent reports were received of large moose populations about 1929• One informant gave a v i v i d account of very severe t i c k i n f e s t a t i o n i n these moose about 1930 and considered that the subsequent population decrease was due to these parasites. The other informant considered that the decrease was due to hunting pressure and wolves - i n that order. Reports from almost a l l trappers at Cranberry Portage - about s i x t y miles north of The Pas - indicated that there had been a very large moose population there i n the early t h i r t i e s but that wolves had increased and by about 1948 had reduced the moose population to perhaps one-tenth of what i t had been. An in d i c a t i o n of e a r l i e r moose density •in t h i s area was obtained from one witness who, f o r reasons which w i l l become obvious, would prefer to remain anonymous. He i s considered by the writer to be r e l i a b l e . He reported that from 1930 to 1938 he k i l l e d an average of one moose every two weeks to feed eighteen people, plus giving some away to others from time to time. I f we consider t h i s man's hunting radius to be about twenty miles, the area hunted would be approxi-mately 125 square miles. Using an average figure of 25 moose k i l l e d per year, and, since t h i s scale of hunting did not reduce the population, we might conservatively estimate that he may have cropped between one-f i f t h and one-tenth of the moose population annually, there would have to have been between one and two moose per square mile to support t h i s pressure. In t h i s general area the moose population i n 1950 was e s t i -175 mated to be about seven square miles per moose and i n 1953, three square miles per moose, both many times lower than t h i s e a r l i e r estimate. While the e a r l i e r estimate may be i n error to some extent, these figures do show that there was probably a great decrease i n moose abundance be-tween the 1930*s and 1950, and as mentioned previously, the decrease was attributed by l o c a l trappers to wolves. In 1949, at the annual Registered Traplines Conference at The Pas, both the Conservation Officers and a delegation of trappers from the Central D i s t r i c t expressed grave concern over the great abun-dance of wolves i n the Central D i s t r i c t and over the losses of big game to these predators. In the same year a number of trappers wrote to the Game and Fisheries Branch t e l l i n g of the large wolf populations. One l e t t e r from the l a t e Hjalmar Peterson, a long-time trapper i n the Reed Lake area about seventy miles northeast of the Pas, contained the follow-i n g statement: " I have not seen wolves so p l e n t y f u l l i n the 30 years that I have been trapping around Reed Lake, and I have seen a l o t of them from time to time". He continued to say that the wolves were destroying a l o t of big game. And i n 1950, a l e t t e r from Mr. Glen Rapson of Snow Lake, about twenty miles north of Peterson's area, stated: "Out of 25 summers |l have spent [J i n the bush country, I have not seen anything l i k e t h i s before f o r Timber Wolves sign. And I have not seen fewer signs of Moose, Deer, and Caribou". At the previously mentioned Registered Traplines Conference i n 1949, Mr. J . D. Robertson who was then Conservation Of f i c e r at Cranberry Portage, reported increasing numbers of wolves and decreasing numbers of big game, suggesting that the two were related i n a cause 176 and effect manner. He also stated that he had made careful studies of wolf scats i n h i s area and.that they contained moose hair "without f a i l , " In a far-removed portion of the province, Mr. E. Krunland r e -ported that on his trapping grounds, including Great Island on the Seal River (eighty miles west of C h u r c h i l l ) , the moose population had b u i l t up over a number of years and then was r a p i d l y depleted when, i n springs with mild weather followed by cold snaps producing a hard crust on the snow, migrating "caribou wolves" found the moose very easy prey and nearly wiped out the population". Trappers 1 censuses of big game and wolves are li m i t e d to the past f i v e years and, of these, censuses which permit comparison of rela«* t i v e abundance of the two forms are l i m i t e d to small areas of the Central D i s t r i c t . In 1949 Mr. J. D. Robertson set up an experimental wolf poison-ing program i n the Cormorant Map Sheet area of the Central D i s t r i c t , cov-ering twenty-two t r a p l i n e s and approximately twelve hundred square miles. Census data from t h i s area are shown i n Table 3 5 . In t h i s table the number of wolves i s whown as one-third the number actually reported because analysis of the reports indicated that, on the average, each wolf pack was counted on three t r a p l i n e s . The number of moose and woodland caribou shown i s the number a c t u a l l y report-ed except that i n years when not a l l the tr a p l i n e s were heard from, the average number of each on the trapli n e s from which reports were received was applied to the non-reporting t r a p l i n e s . The percentage of. t r a p l i n e s reporting i n each year i s shown i n Table 3 6 . 3 1 7 7 TABLE 35 RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF WOLVES,. MOOSE AND WOODLAND CARIBOU ON 22 TRAPLINES IN THE CORMORANT MAP SHEET AREA OF MANITOBA. COMPILED- FROM TRAPPERS* CENSUSES 1949 1 9 5 0 1 9 5 1 1952 1953 Wolves 93 3 4 2 9 4 4 4 1 Moose 210 177 2 1 4 3 2 4 459 Woodland Caribou 189 1 5 3 1 8 4 247 276 Sq. mi./Wolf 1 2 . 9 3 5 . 3 4 1 . 4 ^ 2 7 . 3 2 9 . 2 Sq. mi./Moose 5 . 7 6 . 8 5 . 6 3 . 7 2 . 6 Sq, mi./W. Caribou 6 , 4 7 . 8 6 . 5 4 . 9 4 . 4 Sq»mi. /Moose and W. Caribou 3 . 0 3 . 6 3»° 2 . 1 1 . 6 Moose/Wolf 2 . 3 5 . 2 7 . 4 7 . 4 1 1 . 2 W. Caribou/Wolf 2 , 0 4 . 5 . 6 . 3 5 . 6 6 . 7 Moose and W. Caribou/Wolf 4 . 3 9 . 7 1 3 . 7 1 3 . 0 1 7 * 9 The only other area from which s u f f i c i e n t l y comparable data are available i s the Herb Lake Group of the Central D i s t r i c t . This Group comprises thirty-one traplines and covers an area of 1775 square miles. Table 3 7 indicates the results of the trappers' censuses i n t h i s area. 178 TABLE 36 PERCENTAGE OF TRAPLINES REPORTING A CENSUS, CORMORANT MAP SHEET AREA (22 Traplines) 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 Wolf 95* 100 95 95 55 Moose 100 100 87 95 77 Woodland Caribou 95* 100 73 91 . 77 * One trapper i n 1949 reported 125 wolves and 200 caribou • on his t r a p l i n e . These reports were ignored and the re s u l t s computed as though t h i s were a non-reporting t r a p l i n e f o r these two species. TABLE .,37 'RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF WOLVES, MOOSE AND WOODLAND CARIBOU IN THE HERB LAKE GROUP OF THE CENTRAL DISTRICT. COMPUTED FROM CENSUS BY TRAPPERS ON 31 TRAPLINES 1949 1950 1951 1952 Wolf 119 53 32 34 Moose 315 201 339 456 Woodland Caribou - 100 129 — Sq.Mi./Wolf 14.9 33.5 55.5 52.2 Sq.Mi./Moose 5.6 8.8 5.2 3.9 Sq.mi./Caribou W. - 17.8 13.7 -Sq.mi./Moose & W.Caribou - 5.7 14.6 — Moose/Wolf 2.6 3.8 10.6 13.4 W. Caribou/Wolf 1.9 3.8 -Moose & W. Caribou/Wolf — 5.7 14.4 Populations were computed as i n the Cormorant Map Sheet data, and the percentage of Herb Lake Group traplines heard from i s shown i n Table 38. • 179 TABLE 38 PERCENTAGE OF TRAPLINES FROM "WHICH CENSUS REPORTS WERE RECEIVED,•HERB LAKE GROUP, CENTRAL DISTRICT, MANITOBA, (31 Traplines) 1949 1950 1951 1952 woif 77 81 77 '45 Moose 58 81 71 65 Woodland Caribou i 68 74 -Of the fragments of f i v e moose carcasses found by the writer and assigned to predation as the most l i k e l y , cause of death, 2 were adults of unknown sex, 1 was a young adult female, and 2 were yearlings of unknown sex. Of 15 scats examined i n the f i e l d , 5 ^ contained only moose h a i r , 1 contained a bear toe and unidentified feathers, 3 contained grouse and rab b i t , 5 contained rabbit and unidentified mouse remains, and one con-tained only r a b b i t . These gave a r a t i o of 1 moose to 2 non-game forms. Stomachs were examined of twenty-five wolves k i l l e d on poison b a i t s i n the spring of 1954 within the range of moose but.south of- the l i m i t of the barrenground caribou migration. (Most of these examinations were made under d i f f i c u l t f i e l d conditions and were therefore not very de t a i l e d ) . The results of these examinations are shown i n Table 39. 180 TABLE 39 STOMACH CONTENTS OF 25 WOLVES EXAMINED IN THE SEEING OF 1954. ( A l l K i l l e d on Poison Baits South of the Barren-ground Caribou Migration). Number Contents Type of Bait 4 Moose ? (not. moose) 1 Moose and f i s h f i s h 1 Moose Moose 1 Moose and Wolf Moose 1 Deer deer (?) 1 Deer and Fish ? 1 Caribou and Fish ' ? 1 Beaver and Fish Fish 1 Bear Bear 6 Fish • Fish (?) 1 Fish Fish 1 Fish and grass Fish 1 Fish and garbage 1 Fi s h , fox, mouse, feather. Fish (?) 1 Fish, Wolf, garbai ie, feathers Fish (?) 2 Wolf For comparison, Table 40 shows the r e s u l t s of analyses of thirty-seven stomachs of wolves k i l l e d on poison b a i t s i n the spring of 1954 within the barrenground caribou range. Although these examina-tions were also made i n the f i e l d , conditions were much more favourable 181 and, except f o r the l a s t s i x l i s t e d , included i n t e s t i n a l contents as w e l l as stomach contents, TABLE 40 1 STOMACH AND INTESTINAL CONTENTS OF 37 WOLVES EXAMINED IN THE SPRING OF' 1954. ( A l l k i l l e d on Poison b a i t s within the winter range of barrenground caribou). Number Contents Bait 25 caribou only- Caribou 1 caribou and white fox II 1 caribou and red fox it 3 caribou and unidentified mouse ti 1 caribou and grass ti 6* caribou only* II * I h t e s t i n a l contents not examined - stomach probably -contained only b a i t . c. Discussion The number.'of verbal reports presented here has been l i m i t e d because i t i s f e l t that a few give the pattern of evidence without en-cumbering the issue with too many small d e t a i l s . The pattern that emerges i s one of f a i r l y high moose densities i n various areas followed by conspicuous declines attributed i n the main to wolf predation and only secondarily to hunting pressure and t i c k s . Two common f o i b l e s of mankind enter the picture here: the desire to seek scapegoats f o r otherwise unexplained phenomena or to r e l i e v e the burden of conscience; and the peculiar habit that memory has of t e l l i n g one that conditions 182 I* were much better i n bygone days .than they are today. There i s also a large unpainted area i n the pic t u r e , that of the forest ecology and the changes which took place i n the moose's habitat at the time of the population changes* Forest Service maps of f i r e s i n t h i s area are incomplete but indicate that i n the years 1928 to 1933 many large f i r e s ran through parts of the Central D i s t r i c t - especially i n the Cranberry Portage area* These f i r e s should have produced numerous good feed areas by the l a t e 1930's when reports of moose decreases began to show up. The remaining large blank i n the picture i s that of weather. I t i s the general consensus of the older residents that the winters used to be much colder and had more frequent deep-snow years that now occur but meteorological data are very l i m i t e d . With so many gaps i n our knowledge of the period, i t may seem undesirable even to speculate on what may have been the true nature of events, but i n the writer's opinion - and i t can be only an opinion - at least some of the decreases reported were due to wolf predation. The notable example i s that related by Mr. Robertson of the great immigration of wolves into an area where only a few had pre-viously occurred, and t h e i r decimation of a f a i r l y large moose popula-t i o n . We do not yet know enough about the migration of wolves, but we do know that each year, when the barrenground caribou migrate south-ward, they bring with them large numbers of barrenground wolves (t e n t a t i v e l y assigned to the race Cqnis lupus hudsonicus Goldman), and i f the wolves' migration i s alimental - as i t appears to be - rather than gametic or c l i m a t i c , then i t would seem reasonable to suppose that i f they followed the caribou yrouth i n t o an area where other game was 183 abundant, they might remain behind when the caribou returned north. Such' an immigration could w e l l have a disastrous effect on the game of the newly invaded area. I t i s possible that a large i n f l u x of wolves could deplete a l o c a l game population i n one area one winter and move into another area the following winter, ad i n f i n i t u m . Since the two main races of wolves i n northern Manitoba (Canis lupus hudsonicus and C_.l. k n i g h t i i ) appear to be quite d i s t i n c t craniometrically, i t i s possible that d i l u t i o n of a portion of the southern race ( k n i g h t i i ) by the- northern one (hudsonicus) may be d i s -cernible through craniometric analysis. This approach has been com-menced but so f a r specimens have been too few to show any r e s u l t s . I t i s quite possible that i f only one invasion of the southern t e r r i -t o r y has been made by the barrenground wolves i n the past twenty years, the d i l u t i o n of the l o c a l gene pool may have been too small to be apparent phenotypically a f t e r eight or ten generations. In more recent years, the trappers* censuses show that there has been a very marked increase i n the moose:wolf r a t i o , changing from .5:1 to 11:1 i n the Cormorant Map Sheet area between 1950 and 1953 and from 4:1 to.13:1 i n the Herb Lake area between 1950 and 1952. Trappers and Conservation Officers i n these areas reported i n 1949 and 1950 that wolves were k i l l i n g many moose and woodland caribou but apparently few carcasses were found. At the present time neither group seems greatly concerned over predation, i n d i c a t i n g , perhaps, that the e a r l i e r reports were reasonably w e l l founded and not simply the r e s u l t of prejudice and the age-old cry of "wolfI wo l f I " . 184 Unfortunately, there are no areas from which population data i n these years are available which did not receive f a i r l y intensive predator control through the government's woIf-poisoning program. Thus no "control" exists which would allow a t e s t to be made of b i g game population changes i n an area from which the wolves had not been r e -moved. Peterson (1955, p . l 6 2 ) reported a population of 166 moose and 8 wolves (I b i d . , p» 1 7 2 ) on St. Ignace Island, Ontario, (area about 110 sq. miles) i n 1948 and considered ( I b i d . , p.176) that there was "a high population of wolves and moose". The moose:wolf r a t i o was 21:1 - considerably higher than the presently existing r a t i o s i n north-ern Manitoba which are not considered serious, although actual wolf density was higher. I t seems probable that the r a t i o between predator and prey (including buffers) i s of greater significance than absolute densities i n determining the effect of predation on prey populations. The samples of scats and carcass remains are extremely l i m i t -ed and i n d i c a t e only that some wolf predation on moose does occur. Most of the scats containing rabbit remains were picked up i n an area of young second-growth Banksian pine where, from evidence of droppings and cuttings of the pine, the rabbit population was quite high. The scats containing moose hair were picked up i n an area where the rabbit and grouse populations were low and the moose population f a i r l y high. I t seems reasonable to suppose that wolf predation on b i g game would . be heaviest where more e a s i l y caught buffers were scarce. In the period covered by t h i s study no large rabbit populations were encoun-tered except i n two l o c a l i z e d areas, one of which has just been referred t o . 185 Of the twenty-five records of stomach contents shown i n Table 29, f i v e probably contained only b a i t , f i v e contained moose where the bait was something el s e , and f i f t e e n contained various items other than b a i t or moose, an average of twenty-five percent moose i n the d i e t . The sample i s too small to allow much confidence to be placed i n the percentage composition, but, coupled with the scat material, which showed t h i r t y percent moose, i t gives a rough idea of the wolves' food habits* . (Peterson (1955) recorded occurrence of moose i n 30 percent of t h i r t y wolf stomachs and 36 percent of seventy-six wolf scats i n Ontario), The prevalence of f i s h i n the d i e t may come as a surprise to some. I t i s a common component i n areas where winter commercial f i s h i n g i s carried out. The fishermen throw the coarse f i s h aside and the wolves apparently learn quite quickly to take ad-vantage of t h i s e a s i l y obtained source of food* Thirty-one of the digestive t r a c t s of wolves k i l l e d within the winter range of the barrenground caribou were known to contain other than b a i t . Of t h i s number eighty percent contained only c a r i -bou. Moose, i n the area from which these wolves were taken, were very scarce, probably not exceeding a density of one per one hundred square miles. Microtine and c r i c e t i d rodents, rabbits and foxes were also scarce, although probably no more so than i n areas farther south. The preponderance of caribou i n these wolves' d i e t indicates that caribou was t h e i r staple winter food and i t might be supposed that i f the caribou migration led such wolves south into a moose-concen-t r a t i o n area, the wolves might w e l l turn to moose when the caribou returned north. 186 i' Moose predation by bears or coyotes i s not considered of significance at the present time i n t h i s area although occasional reports are received of both animals taking moose calves i n the spring. d. Summary Evidence i s given which indicates that wolf predation on moose may have been a major l i m i t i n g factor at various times i n the recent past, p a r t i c u l a r l y following immigration of wolves from nor-thern areas. Big game buffers are very l i m i t e d i n t h i s area and i n consequence pressure on moose i s probably much greater than i n areas where such buffers are more common. I t i s suggested that the r a t i o between predator and prey i s probably of greater importance i n deter-mining the effect of predation than i s the absolute size of either the predator or prey population. At the present time, due to an intensive wolf-poisoning program carried out by the p r o v i n c i a l government, pre-dation i s not considered to be a c r i t i c a l factor l i m i t i n g the size of the moose population. 3* Parasites, Accidents and Disease The only parasites i d e n t i f i e d from moose during the course of this•study were Echinococcus granulosis and Bermacentor a l b i p i c t u s . Neither species i s considered of importance, at the present time, as a decimating influence. No reports suggesting the "moose disease" of Thomas and Cahn (1932), Fenstermacher (1934, etc.), Benson (1952) and other workers, were received. Accidental death from f a l l i n g through t h i n i c e or into deep, narrow muskeg streams seems to be f a i r l y common as numerous reports were received from both trappers and Conservation 18? Of f i c e r s . In one instance a large (1,000 pounds) cow moose drowned, or perhaps just froze to death, when i t broke through the i c e of a small r i v e r and could not gain a foothold on the steeply sloping i c e along it.s shores. Two.well authenticated cases of b u l l s dying with locked antlers were received. In one of these cases the animals had both r o l l e d into a deep stream and were drowned. Moose are occasionally k i l l e d by t r a i n s and automobiles i n th i s area, but the major "natural" decimating factor appears to be drowning.-188 PART V HABITAT.STUDIES Introduction A large herbivore such as the moose requires great quantities of the low-caloric foods on which i t normally subsists. Examination of the vegetation to determine the major food species, t h e i r dispersion and r e l a t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n was undertaken as the f i r s t step towards reaching an understanding of the r o l e that t h i s aspect of the habitat plays i n l i m i t i n g moose abundance. In the summer months, when tracks are not ea s i l y seen, and the animals themselves are very r a r e l y observed, the effect of browsing i s one of the chief means of determining r e l a t i v e moose abundance i n d i f f e r e n t areas; f o r , once one becomes aware of i t , browse sign i s very noticeable even where moose populations are low. The studies reported upon here were l i m i t e d to rather small samples of browse analyzed quantitatively, to a q u a l i t a t i v e assessment of the habitat along the Hudson Bay Railway between The Pas and C h u r c h i l l , and to general subjective appraisal of habitat i n other areas. The r e s u l t s indicated that the largest moose populations could be expected on areas with a w e l l d i v e r s i f i e d deciduous f l o r a , moderate populations on areas with large quantities of a few main browse species but l i t t l e d i v e r s i t y , and low populations on areas with small quantities of browse of either d i v e r s i f i e d or uniform composition. Moose were l a r g e l y absent from areas of uniform spruce forests and, except i n the Saskatchewan River d e l t a , appeared to fare best i n areas of interspersed deciduous and coniferous forest. Since the area l i e s almost wholly within the climax boreal forest, the presence of deciduous browse species i s l a r g e l y dependent upon openings i n the forest cover caused by f i r e . 189 Continued or increased abundance of moose i n most areas w i l l probably be mainly dependent upon these fire-produced openings. Methods The Hudson Bay Railway was used as a transect l i n e i n the summer of 1952 when the w r i t e r t r a v e l l e d from Churchill to The Pas (510 miles) on an open "gas car" or "speeder"; At each mile-post the most prominent components of the tree and shrub vegetation were record-ed i n order of t h e i r apparent dominance. Up to f i v e components were recorded at each s i t e : thus, i f at a certain mile-post the order of importance appeared to be spruce, tamarack, willow, glandular b i r c h and aspen, these were recorded as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively. In order to represent the r e l a t i v e importance of each species, the most common com-ponent — i . e . , the one ranked as "1" on the score-sheet - — was given a value of 5, the second 4 and so on down to a value of 1 f o r the l e a s t important member. The data were then grouped by 50-mile i n t e r v a l s , starting from mile 1, and the re s u l t s graphed ( F i g . 29). The trends shown by t h i s graph were further analyzed by grouping the data f o r spruce, tamarack, pine and aspen i n 10-mile i n t e r v a l s over the most important stretch of miles 1 - 300, A few plots were analyzed i n the Summerberry area by the Aldous technique (Aldous, 1944). I t was not considered p r a c t i c a l to extend t h i s survey method to cover any large areas i n t h i s i n i t i a l ' study, due to the length of time i t would have taken to obtain a s u f f i * cient number of samples i n enough areas to make s t a t i s t i c a l treatment rel i a b l e . . To follow page 189. 2 6 0 240| 2 2 0 2 0 0 1801 I 6 0 i 6 , 4 < H SB i 2 © or i -Q IPOH I I •'•\/ \ ?/ M I L A G E Fig. 29. Relative densities of* the fiv/e major wroody plants along the Hudson. Bay Railway from The Pas tMile 0) to Churchill (Mile 510). Dominance of one species at every mile-post i n one fifty-mile interval would be^  represented by a value of 250 on. the ordinate: scale. The bar at; the top represents mooae density as determined from trapperst censuses.The stippling: i s the same as on Fig. 5 , and is; rouglnly proportional to moose density. 1 9 0 One exlosure plot of one-tenth acre and a suitable control were set up i n a heavily-browsed area of the Summerberry Marsh i n an attempt to determine the effect of moose browsing on red osier dogwood (Comus st o l o n i f e r a ) . The exclosure was f i r s t set up i n May, 1 9 5 2 , but was destroyed by moose i n the l a t e spring of 1953 before a check of the browse was made. This f i r s t exclosure was constructed with three strands of #11 galvanized wire stapled to tripods of balsam poplar poles (Populus balsamifera) set up at approximately 1 0-foot i n t e r v a l s , and was topped with one set of horizontal poles attached to the tripods about 6 - 1 / 2 to 7 feet from the ground ( F i g , 3 0 ) . A new exclosure was constructed on the same s i t e i n October, 1 9 5 3 , using f i v e strands of #11 wire stapled to trees and to heavy balsam poplar posts set at least three feet i n the ground, A continuous horizontal r a i l i n g of balsam poles was set about four feet from the ground and upright pickets of balsam saplings were inserted between the wires at about one-foot i n t e r v a l s ( F i g , 3 1 ) . A l l trees cut f o r construc-t i o n purposes were taken f a r enough away from the fence to prevent the effect of such minor clearing from influencing the vegetation within the exclosure. This exclosure was s t i l l i n t a c t when r e - v i s i t e d i n June and October, 1 9 5 4 . A control plot of the same size was set out 1 5 0 yards from the exclosure and marked with inconspicuous wooden stakes. In May, 1 9 5 2 , when the plots were f i r s t set up, counts were made of the number of stems and of the number of browsed and unbrowsed twigs of the previous summer's growth on red osier dogwood, balsam poplar, viburnum (Viburnum edule), alder (Alnus rugosa var. americana), and willow ( S a l i x sp.). Thereafter only red osier dogwood was analyzed. Figs. 30 and 51 to follow page 190. i Fig. } Q . original type of fencing enr>loy?:d on Head tiver La>ce exclosure. note tripods'and horiz-ontal bar. The larpe tree in the right foreground is the sane bale ore nopiar referred to below. Fig. 3 1 . estern aide of exclosure "lot, Head ttver L«ke. note upright pieketo and horizontal bar, size of the balsam nonlar in the right foreground is Indicated by the axe with 3-foot handle. 191 Stem and twig counts were made i n May 1952, May 1953, October 1953, June 1954 and October 1954* Unfortunately, the records of the October 1953 counts, made when the new exclosure was constructed, were l o s t , but presumably t h i s count should have been comparable to the October 1954 count on the control p l o t . Twig counts of willow were also made north of Cranberry Port-age i n an area of about 540 acres between a point one mile north of the v i l l a g e to about three miles north and between the F l i n Flon-Sherridon Railways and No. 10 Highway. Counts were made i n March and A p r i l 1952, May 1953 and May 1954. The method used was to follow predetermined compass l i n e s and a t set in t e r v a l s to select randomly a sample of willow twigs from the nearest bush. No fixe d number of twigs was chosen at each p l o t except that where only a very few ( f i v e or fewer) twigs occurred on one "bush", a l l were counted. In the two check made i n 1952, plots were spaced one-hundred paces apart. In the 1953 and 1954 samples the plots were only f i f t y yards apart. A preliminary t e s t was run to see i f habitat interspersion could be interpreted i n t e l l i g e n t l y from a e r i a l photographs, but the method appeared to be too time-consuming f o r the manpower available f o r t h i s sort of work. I f more intensive management i s to be practiced i n t h i s northern area, a e r i a l photograph interpretation w i l l probably be-come necessary. To date, however, no results have been obtained from t h i s method. Subjective appraisal of range conditions was carried out at a l l times. 1 9 2 Results The r e s u l t s of the Hudson Bay Railway transect survey are shown graphically i n F i g . 29» The data from which t h i s graph was drawn are shown i n Table 4 1 below. I t had been expected that the survey would show marked north-south trends i n most of the species but i t i s apparent only from Mile 4 5 0 north, with respect to spruce (Picea glauca and P. mariana), and from Mile 2 5 0 or 3 0 0 with respect to aspen (Populus  tremuloides) pine (Pinus banksiana)» and willow ( S a l i x sp.). Tamarack "(Larix l a r i c i n a ) which showed extreme fluctuation i n r e l a t i v e importance, was comparatively more common from miles 4 5 1 to 500 than i t was from miles 1 5 1 to 2 5 0 and was of equal importance at the extreme ends of the transect. Aspen and pine tended to be present i n the same general pro-portions throughout the transect, as did spruce and tamarack. Willow remained i n f a i r l y constant proportion except on the northern end of the transect. A t o t a l of only 49 milacre plots was analyzed by the Aldous method. Twenty-nine were taken along the periphery of a forested penin-sula j u t t i n g into Moose Lake a few miles north of the Moose Lake s e t t l e -ment and twenty were taken i n the purely deciduous growth i n the centre of the Saskatchewan River Delta (at Head River Lake). In both areas red osier dogwood and willow were the two main foods eaten: i n the Moose Lake p l o t s , balsam f i r (Abies balsamea) ranked t h i r d , trembling aspen fourth and viburnum f i f t h : i n the Head River Lake p l o t s , Manitoba maple (Acer Negundo) ranked t h i r d , balsam poplar fourth and raspberry (Rubus pubescens) f i f t h , with small amounts of alder (Alnus rugosa), gooseberry (Ribes hudsonianum), and viburnum making up the remainder. 193 TABLE 41 RELATIVE DOMINANCE OF 9 TREES AND SHRUBS RECORDED AT ONE-MILE.INTERVALS ALONG THE HUDSON BAY RAILWAY. (Scale used had a maximum value of 250 for one species i n any one 50*-mile i n t e r v a l ) Mileage Zones (The Pas « Mile 0) 1- 51- 101- 151- 201- 251-• 301-351- 401- 451- 501- Totals 50 100 150 200 250 300 3 5 0 400 450 500 510 Spruce 150 215 2 3 2 163 209 2 4 5 235 234 217 112 3 2 2044 Tamarack 61 114 131 45 52 1 2 4 110 88 21 60 2 6 8 3 2 Jack Pine 91 23 15 123 72 14 27 365 Willow 109 126 108 135 131 118 131 74 40 64 11 1047 Aspen 126 73 93 154 1 2 5 17 7 13 6 0 8 Balsam 2 4 19 8 15 23 8 1 98 Poplar Glandular 3 4 10 28 22 6 4 77 Birch Paper 26 11 32 8 53 53 33 1 217 Birch Alder 2 4 9 2 6 5 6 7 77 Other 14 4 8 3 7 6 1 0 5 143 163 10 463 Totals 625 585 6 2 8 680 677 602 584 538 427 403 79 5 8 2 8 Other plants that were found to have been eaten i n the Moose Lake p l o t s were: Saskatoon (Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ) , alder, paper birch (Betula  papyrifera), rose (Rosa sp«)> balsam poplar, chokecherry (Prunus y i r g i n -iana), raspberry, gooseberry, bear berry (Shepherdia canadensis), pin cherry (Prunus pennsylvanica), and spruce (Picea glauca). Species a v a i l -able but not noted to be browsed were: juniper (Juniperus communis), Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), honeysuckle (Lonicera d i o i c a ) , w i l d sarsasparila ( A r a l i a nudicaulis ), vetch ( V i c i a sp»), h o r s e t a i l (Equisetum 1 9 4 sp*), Usnea, and grasses (Graminea, c o l l e c t i v e l y ) . Present, but pro-bably unavailable f o r browse were: twin flower (Linnaea b o r e a l i s ) , bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), k i n n i k i n i c k (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), and various mosses, including Dicranum and Hylocomium. The r e s u l t s of the exclosure experiment are shown i n Tables 42 and 4 3 . Table k\ indicates that the control and exclosure plots were roughly si m i l a r i n f l o r a l composition and received approximately the same i n t e n s i t y of browsing at the s t a r t of the experiment. The major differences between the two plots were the absence of alder i n the con t r o l , the generally smaller stature of the plants i n the control — as shown by the twigs/stem r a t i o , and the greater density of dogwood and viburnum i n the exclosure. Intensity of browsing was very s i m i l a r z i n both p l o t s * Table 4 / , comparing the r e s u l t s of four counts on each p l o t f a i l s to indicate any marked changes i n the habitat over a two-year period* I t i s planned to continue the counts for at l e a s t another three years, provided that the fence continues to exclude moose f o r that length of time* The browsing indicated i n the exclosure f o r June, 1 9 5 4 was apparently due so l e l y to deer as i t would have been impossible f o r a moose to enter and leave the exclosure between the one-foot spacing of the pickets without leaving certain evidence of i t s having been there. In the same general area as the exclosure, two 1/100-acre p l o t s were established i n May 1 9 5 2 and were rechecked i n May 1 9 5 3 . These plots were about f i v e hundred yards apart and each about two hund* red and f i f t y yards from the exclosure. The r e s u l t s of stem and twig counts of red os i e r dogwood on these plots showed 6 3 * 5 percent u t i l i z a t i o n 1 9 5 TABLE 4 2 GOUNTS OF STEMS AND OF BROWSED* AND UNBROWSED TWIGS OF RED OSIER DOGWOOD IN A l/10-AGRE EXCLOSURE AND A 1/lO-ACRE CONTROL PLOT, HEAD RIVER LAKE, SASKATCHEWAN RIVER DELTA, MANITOBA Av. Date of Browsed Unbrow- Total % Twigs Sample Stems Twigs sed Twigs Twigs Browsed Stem May, 1 9 5 2 1023 4855 3 2 3 8 8093 6 0 . 0 7 . 9 May, 1 9 5 3 * * 1 0 7 4 7 4 3 4 9 823 5 7 . 6 7 . 7 Exclosure June, 1 9 5 4 986 1828 6110 8 0 3 8 2 2 . 7 8 . 2 Oct., 1 9 5 4 9 7 6 0 9012 9 0 1 2 0 . 0 9 . 3 May, 1 9 5 2 * * * 2 4 8 886 6 4 4 1 5 3 0 5 7 . 8 6 . 2 May, 1953# 181 622 535 1157 5 3 . 8 6 . 4 Control June, 1 9 5 4 675 2285 1372 3 6 5 7 6 2 . 5 5 . 4 June, 1954## 2 3 6 743 6 4 4 1219 6 1 . 3 5 . 1 Oct., 1 9 5 4 711 51 4 3 7 6 4427 1 . 2 6 , 2 * Includes browsing by rabbit s , deer, and moose. ** Exclosure had been broken down. Count based on small sample of the exclosure (about 1 0 $ ) . *** Count based on kk% sample of the control area. # Count based on 2$% sample of the control area. ## Count based on only those parts of the control plot which were counted i n May, 1 9 5 2 . 196 TABLE 43 COUNTS OF STEMS AND OF BROWSED AND UNBROWSED TWIGS OF PLANTS OCCURRING IN A l/10th-acre EXCLOSURE AND A 1/10-acre CONTROL PLOT, HEAD RIVER LAKE, SASKATCHEWAN RIVER DELTA, MANITOBA, IN MAy, 1952 WHEN THE EXCLOSURE WAS FIRST SET UP SPECIES Red osier Balsam Dogwood Poplar Alder Vibur-num Willow Stems 1023 148 160 62 1 Browsed* Twigs 4855 172 363 72 58 Unbrowsed Twigs Exclosure Total Twigs 3238 8093 182 354 682 1045 340 412 22 80 % Browsed 60.0 48.6 34.7 17.5 72.5 Av. Twigs Stem 7.9 2.4 6.5 5.5 80.0 Stems . 248 159 30 9 Browsed Twigs* 886 . 180 22 23 Unbrowsed Twigs Control** -• Total Twigs 644 1530 274 454 94 116 178 201 % Browsed 57.8 39,6 18.9 11.4 Av. Twigs Stem ' 6.2 2,9 3.9 22.3 * Includes browsing by rabbi t s , deer, and moose. ** Based on a 44$ sample of the control area f o r red osier dogwood and on t o t a l counts for the other three species. 197 i n 1952, 6 l . l percent i n 1953 and twig/stem r a t i o s were 13*2 and 11.4 i n 1952 and 1953 respectively. The plots could not be rechecked i n 1954 due to high water l e v e l s i n the area. Also i n the same area, a 1/2-acre (2 yards X 1210 yards) . pellet-group plot was established i n 1952 and rechecked i n 1953. The res u l t s showed 138 moose p e l l e t groups and 34 deer groups per acre i n 1952 and 100 moose p e l l e t groups and 5 2 deer groups per acre i n 1953. High water levels also prevented rechecking t h i s p l o t i n 1954* The r e s u l t s of the twig counts i n the Cranberry Portage area are shown i n Table 44. TABLE-44 TWIG COUNTS OF A RANDOM SiMPLE OF WILLOW BUSHES, CRANBERRY PORTAGE, MANITOBA Date of Sample March, A p r i l May May 1952 1952 1953 • 1954 No. of Plots 86 110 173 182 Browsed Twigs 115 89 108 126 Unbrowsed Twigs 1228 769 1569 1831 Total Twigs 1343 858 1677 1957 % Browsed 8*6 •10*4 6.4 6.4 Av. Twigs/Plot 15.6 • 7.8 9.7 10.8 The data were f i r s t analyzed by frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n graphs. These graphs indicated great v a r i a t i o n between the March and A p r i l 1952 198 counts, and minor variations between these l a s t two and the A p r i l 1952 count. The differences are believed by the writer to be r e f l e c t i o n s more of experimental error than of varying conditions. This b e l i e f pertains most p a r t i c u l a r l y to the March 1952 data and i n consequence those data w i l l be considered as biased and analyzed no further. The data concerning number of twigs per plot f o r the other three counts were grouped mechanically and analyzed by the "multiple contingency table" method: the differences among the three counts were shown to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence. The differences between the 1953 and 1954 counts, analyzed by the chi-square method, were s i g n i f i c a n t at 5 percent but not at 1 percent, i n d i c a t i n g that they may have been due to chance* The main feature shown by these samples i s the very small percentage u t i l i z a t i o n of the available browse, and the differences i n number of twigs per plot may w e l l be due to experimental bias rather than to changes i n the plants. I t appeared to take two f a i r l y large samples to standardize the method. Discussion The Hudson Bay Railway transect data, while not showing quite the north-south gradation i n f l o r a l interspersion that was anticipated, revealed other s i g n i f i c a n t information. The sharp drop i n spruce and tamarack and the corresponding_increase i n aspen and pine i n the 151-250-mile zone coincided with r e l a t i v e l y high moose densities as revealed by trappers' censuses; i n the 51-100-mile zone, increasing spruce and tamarack, decreasing aspen and pine, and r e l a t i v e l y low moose densities 199 coincided (Fig.29). The northern end of the zone of r e l a t i v e moose (one moose per 6-15 square miles) was marked by near absence of aspen and pine i n the sample, and the zone of r e a l moose sc a r c i t y (less tha n one moose per t h i r t y square miles) was marked by the f i n a l drop i n abundance of willow* The writer does not mean to i n f e r that these correlations be-tween the recorded f l o r a l composition and moose density are necessarily cause-and-effect relationships between the tree species and moose, but that the same environmental factors which favour aspen and pine appear also to favour moose and that the factors which exclude these two trees and favour spruce-tamarack dominance, are not favourable f o r moose* From subjective observation, the main c o n t r o l l i n g factors appear to be forest f i r e s and edaphic conditions. Dry, rocky or sandy areas favour pine-aspen dominance whereas wet, low-lying areas favour spruce-tamarack dominance. However, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) appears to be the clim a t i c climax and i s often found on areas which, when the spruce i s burned, are very favourable to a successional stage dominated by either aspen or pine depending mainly on the amount of humus remaining. Black spruce (Picea mariana ( M i l l ) B.S.P.) and tamarack (Larix l a r i c i n a (Du Roi) K. Koch) are usually found on wet s o i l s which are resistant to f i r e , but when burned do not usually per-mit a deciduous successional stage. Further study of the correlations indicated i n t h i s analysis are necessary to c l a r i f y the s i t u a t i o n , but the writer considers i t reasonable to propose that these correlations are r e a l and that f i r e , 200 combined with s o i l type, i s the major co n t r o l l i n g influence on the moose populations along the southern ha l f of the Hudson Bay Railway. The l i m i t i n g factor along the northern ha l f of the l i n e i s probably climate which acts to eliminate the deciduous shrubs and trees neces-sary to the moosers d i e t . Since exclusion of moose from the fenced p l o t was effected f o r only one complete year, the r e s u l t s of the experiment are as yet inconclusive. The fact that twenty-three percent of the available dog-wood browse was consumed -apparently by deer i n the winter of 1953-54 indicates that competition for t h i s highly preferred moose food i s occurring i n the area, but no conclusion can yet be reached regarding the degree of t h i s competition: the twenty-three percent u t i l i z a t i o n could have been due to one or more deer getting' into the exclosure and brows-in g the area more intensively than normal due to d i f f i c u l t y i n getting out again. Further data should help to c l a r i f y t h i s point. One dif-t ference between the two plots which may prove of significance i s the tendency f o r the twig/stem r a t i o to r i s e i n the exclosure and to f a l l i n the control p l o t (comparing the May 1952 and 1953 counts to the June 1954 counts). This trend i s a c t u a l l y the reverse of what would normally be expected, since the pruning effect of browsing would be ex-pected to produce a greater abundance of twigs per stem. Aldous (1952) showed that heavy pruning (100$ of the annual growth) of red osier- dog-wood produced l e s s weight of forage than did l i g h t pruning (25$ of the annual growth) and remarked that under repeated heavy use "the bushes become spiny and growth retarded". Apparently h i s "spiny" bushes would have had a greater twig/stem count than normal or l i g h t l y pruned bushes. Additional data i s necessary to c l a r i f y the changes reported upon here. 201 Some of the effects of browsing on red osier dogwood are shown i n Figs. 32, 33, 34, and 35* The species appears to be f a i r l y r e s i s t a n t , but i n areas where more than f i f t y percent of the annual growth was re-moved every year for four or f i v e years, large numbers of the plants had been k i l l e d . Aldous (1952) clipped a l l of the annual growth from a sample of red osier dogwood i n Michigan and showed that while the t o t a l length of twigs was approximately the same as on undipped plants after f i v e years of cl i p p i n g , the t o t a l weight of the f i f t h c l i p was less than on the untouched specimens. The tendency for t h i s species to produce a "pin cushion" effect a f t e r repeated heavy browsing (Figs. 34 and 35) probably decreases i t s attractiveness to moose. No precise population figures for the area containing the exclosure plots and the pellet-group plot are available, but from ground observations i n December, 1953, i t i s considered that the population may at that time have exceeded twenty moose per square mile or thirty-two acres per moose. Although the largest population occurs i n t h i s area during the s i x winter months (November to A p r i l ) , c e r t a i n l y some moose remain there a l l year around, Browsing i s mainly l i m i t e d to the winter months although the writer considers the very small degree of browsing recorded for October 1954 on the control plot to be considerably lower than average f o r the whole area. I f the estimate of thirty-two acres per moose i s reasonably accurate for the s i x winter months, the deposition of one hundred p e l l e t groups per acre during the 1952-53 season, represents a deposition rate of about eighteen groups per day (32 acres per moose X 100 groups per acre). 180 days Peterson (1955, p.112) records an estimate of four groups per day for Figs. 32>33,34, and 3 5 . To follow page 201* F i g . 32. Unbrowsed red o s i e r dogwood, Saskatchewan R i v e r d e l t a . F i g . 34. H e a v i l y browsed red o s i e r dogwood, Saskatchewan R i v e r d e l t a . F i g . 33. Moderately browsed red o s i e r dogwood Saskatchewan R i v e r d e l t a . Fig. 33• Nine-year-old red osier dogwood. Heavily u t i l i z e d "broom", collected, in mid-October. Practically a l l of the current year's growth had already been removed. Saskatchewan River Delta. 2 0 2 moose i n the New York Zoological Garden, and Hatter ( 1 9 5 0 ) reported an observation of.one moose having made four defecations i n one 24-hour period* These reports show a much lower rate of defecation than occurs i n w h i t e - t a i l deer Qfennett, English & McCain, 1 9 4 0 ) , and may be lower than normal for moose. At the present time i t does not appear p r a c t i -cable to use pellet-groups as Abasis of population estimates, but i t i s possible that continued counts on one area may serve as an index to population changes. The Cranberry Portage p l o t s , taken i n an area of rough pre-cambrian t e r r a i n which had been burned about 1 9 3 0 ( F i g , 1 0 ) , showed very low u t i l i z a t i o n of willow by moose (deer were very scarce i n the area and t h e i r effect on the browse was considered n e g l i g i b l e ) . The only other plant species available i n quantity were paper birch and aspen. Ocular estimate placed b i r c h u t i l i z a t i o n at about one percent of the growth available and aspen u t i l i z a t i o n at only a trace. A very small amount of red osier dogwood was present (a f r a c t i o n of one percent of the willow), and the writer found that the best way to f i n d t h i s species was to follow moose tracks. Moose appeared to be able to detect i t s presence from at least f i f t e e n feet away, even when i t was l a r g e l y hidden by other plants, and of 268 twigs of dogwood t a l l i e d i n March, 1 9 5 2 , 77 percent had been browsed. Although the moose population i n the Cranberry Portage area i s showing signs of increasing, the writer considers i t doubtful i f even under t o t a l protection i t would increase to the apparent carrying capacity of the willow, b i r c h and aspen i n the area. No proof i s a v a i l -able, but i t i s considered that the main l i m i t i n g factor presently working 203 against the moose of t h i s area i s the lack of d i v e r s i t y of the available browse f l o r a . That these moose are not being p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l nourished on t h e i r diet of willow i s indicated by the fact that few, i f any, that are k i l l e d i n t h i s area are f a t (the w r i t e r has heard of none), whereas i n the Summerberry area, where there i s much greater d i v e r s i t y of browse species, a moose without large amounts of v i s c e r a l and subcutaneous f a t i s a r a r i t y . Subjective appraisal of habitat conditions gave much more ex-tensive, general, but less precise information than did the quantitative methods. In a t o t a l of t h i r t y - s i x months spent i n the area, approximately one half of which was spent i n the f i e l d , many thousands of miles were covered by a i r c r a f t , canoe, snowmobile, gas car, t r a i n , automobile and on foot, so that a f a i r idea was obtained of habitat conditions over much of northern Manitoba. Since no quantitative description can be given of the re s u l t s obtained, i t i s considered best to l i m i t t h i s sec-t i o n to a few generalizations rather than to give long q u a l i t a t i v e des-criptions of a number of areas. Excluding•the effect of hunting pressure, the following con-clusions regarding the relationship between the moose and i t s habitat i n northern Manitoba may be made: 1. With few exceptions, r e l a t i v e l y large moose populations (up to f i v e square miles per moose), were found only i n the v i c i n i t i e s of areas which had been burned within the preceding f i v e to t h i r t y years. 2. These populations appeared to vary d i r e c t l y as the i n t e r -spersion of the habitat: the greater the amount of conifer-204 ous "edge", the greater the size of the moose population. Numerous small f i r e s appeared more favourable than one large one although a somewhat s i m i l a r effect was occasionally noted where low-lying swampy islands resisted the path of a f i r e and remained unscathed. 3. The large number of lakes, streams and sloughs favoured the growth of deciduous r i p a r i a n vegetation where a l l u v i a l deposits had been b u i l t up. This vegetation, of considerable value i n i t s e l f , was much enhanced for moose habitat when occurring i n close proximity to burned areas regenerating through deciduous ser a i stages. 4. In general, i t i s considered that the major habitat factor acting to prevent large concentrations of moose i n t h i s area i s probably the lack of variety.of browse species. Further to the southeast, studies, by Peterson (1950, 1953, 1955) i n Ontario and by Aldous and Krefting (1946) and Krefting (1951) i n I s l e Royale, Michigan indicated usage by moose of a number of browse species which are very scarce or e n t i r e l y absent from much of northern Manitoba, In t h i s northern area, the main browse species i s willow, supple-mented to varying degree with aspen, paper b i r c h , and balsam poplar. Red osier dogwood and saskatoon (Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ) are heavily used wherever they occur but are not of s u f f i c i e n t abundance i n most areas to form a s i g n i f i c a n t portion of the d i e t . The following species which were found to be of considerable im-portance i n Ontario and I s l e Royale, are either absent or of too l i m i t e d occurrence i n northern Manitoba to be of importance for moose: balsam f i r , mountain ash (Sorbus americana), viburnum, 205 pincherry (Prunus pennsylvanica),yew (Taxus canadensis), elder (Sambueus racemosa), and hazel (Corylus cornuta). Glandular birch (Betula glandulosa) which Hatter (1946) reported to be eaten "quite extensively" i n Jasper Park and at Telegraph Creek, B r i t i s h Columbia, was not noted to have been u t i l i z e d i n Manitoba although i t i s a very common shrub i n low, damp s i t e s . Theoretically, a d i v e r s i f i e d .diet i s not necessary to maintain good health. The necessity i s f o r a s u f f i c i e n t quantity of minerals, v i t a -mins, proteins, f a t s , and carbohydrates to maintain the somatic and ger- . minal tissues i n a satisfactory state of .repair and reproduction. I t appears, however, that i n the wi l d , such d i v e r s i t y of food requirements can be s a t i s f i e d only by a diver s i t y - o f foods, and that where t h i s diver-s i t y i s lacking the energy obtained from what foods are available would f i r s t of a l l be needed to b u i l d and maintain the somatic t i s s u e s , leaving less than an optimum amount for hormone production and reproduction. The ov e r a l l effect would be to lower the reproductive rate of the population below i t s p o t e n t i a l . That moose can^' i n some areas, obtain s u f f i c i e n t energy from an undivers i f i e d natural d i e t i s indicated by Spencer and Chatelain (1953) f o r Alaska. In one area which they studied i t was found that a large and apparently healthy' population was subsisting on a d i e t of 98 percent aspen. In two other areas the d i e t consisted of 90 percent and 98 percent willow and b i r c h , and i n a fourth area of 91 percent b i r c h . I t would be highly int e r e s t i n g to analyze such browse to determine why i t should be of such outstanding value. 206 Cowan, Hoar and Hatter (1950), on the basis of chemical analyses of moose browse from three areas of varying serai age, con-cluded that a varied diet was desirable and could be provided best on areas of young stages of forest succession* The present q u a l i t a t i v e study has indicated that the same conclusions apply to northern Manitoba. 207 PART VI . ECONOMIC ROLE OF MOOSE IN NORTHERN MANITOBA Introduction In order f o r game administrations to determine the r e l a t i v e importance of various components of the fauna under t h e i r supervision, i t i s highly desirable that they have some idea of the economic worth of each. In the case of fur bearers such valuations are arrived at quite e a s i l y but i n the case of game animals the task i s much greater and has so far been accomplished i n only a very few instances i n North America, The present' assessment i s f a r from complete, and without con-siderable time and e f f o r t directed s o l e l y at i t , i t w i l l probably remain so f o r many years to come, A crude valuation was placed on the meat and hides of moose reported k i l l e d and the importance of t h i s food source to the natives indicated. Expenditures of licensed hunters have not yet been assessed, but since most of the hunting i s done on the hunter's doorstep, so to speak, such expenditures are undoubtedly very much lower than i n areas where hunters t r a v e l long distances to enter the game areas, h i r e guides and camping outfits,- and generally make the hunt into an e l a -borate and costly expedition, Reintroduction of non-resident hunting could be expected to a l t e r t h i s aspect of moose hunting i n northern Manitoba, but speculation on such an outcome appears i d l e , a. In Remote Areas The annual k i l l of moose i n the remote areas of the province (taken almost solely by unlicensed hunters) has been estimated at approxi-208 mately eight hundred. Using an average'weight of 6 0 0 pounds and a con-servative figure of f i f t y cents per pound, these animals would be worth $240,000. The hides, made up into mocassins at four d o l l a r s per p a i r and s i x pairs per hide would be worth an additional $19,200, f o r a t o t a l of roughly $260,000 annually. By comparison, the fur resource i s worth approximately $800,000 annually to these natives at the present time, or only three times the estimated value of moose." The value of moose meat i n the natives' n u t r i t i o n cannot be so e a s i l y recognized. Medical studies (Vivian, et. a l . , 1948; Moore, et. a l . , 1946) have indicated that the n u t r i t i o n of the Indians i s roughly i n inverse proportion to the degree to which they l i v e "off the shelf" — the greater t h e i r dependence upon store foods, the poorer their, condi-t i o n . One can perhaps v i s u a l i z e the reason f o r t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i f he c o n s i d e r ^ that these natives have an annual cash income per family from a l l sources, including Family Allowance, which probably averages w e l l under one thousand d o l l a r s . The prices charged f o r both dry goods and food i n these remote areas are higher than at any point served by a railway or highway and even a thousand d o l l a r s doesn't go very f a r i n feeding and clothing.a large family. Added to t h i s combination of low income and high cost of l i v i n g i s the lack of f i n a n c i a l acumen and experience of these Indians which renders t h e i r problem even more d i f f i c u l t . The value of wild foods i n the n u t r i t i o n of the natives has as yet received very l i t t l e attention i n the form of s c i e n t i f i c studies. V i v i a n e t . a l . (1948) reported as " i n press" a paper on the " N u t r i t i o n a l 2 0 9 values of certain game consumed by northern Canadian aborigines." So f a r as the w r i t e r has been able to determine, the paper has not yet been published* Apparently i t i s the only study of the subject that has yet been made. Even without precise information on the n u t r i t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s of game meat, Vivan considered i t o f s u f f i c i e n t importance to the welfare of the James Bay Cree to recommend that a freezing plant be i n s t a l l e d to permit greater year-around u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i s food source. Thus, while the present d o l l a r s and cents value of moose meat i s high, i t s health value may be even higher. Under proper management i t should be possible to increase the quantity of food from t h i s source and hence i n d i r e c t l y perhaps to better the health of the natives. Since t h e i r value to the country should be ehhanced through better health, programs aimed at increasing the amount of native foods i n t h e i r diet should i n d i r e c t l y benefit the economy of the area. Moose meat i s only one component of t h i s d i e t . Better u t i l i z a t i o n of other game animals, of the meat from certain furbearers, of f i s h , and of l o c a l l y grown.-gar-den produce should also be incorporated into plans f o r the betterment of native n u t r i t i o n . B. In Accessible Areas The d i r e c t value to the p r o v i n c i a l treasury from the sale of moose licenses i s quite small. In the three years of the course of t h i s study, a t o t a l of 1,741 moose licenses was sold for an average annual value of $ 2 9 0 2 (at f i v e d o l l a r s per l i c e n s e ) . No trophy or tagging fees are charged. By comparison, the revenue derived from the sale of a l l big game licenses i n Manitoba averaged $ 1 4 1 , 3 2 5 f o r 1 9 5 1 and 1 9 5 2 (Manitoba, 1 9 5 3 ) , indicating that moose license sales represent only about 210 two percent of the revenue derived from t h i s source. (In these two years, an average of 4 2 , 5 6 1 deer and elk licenses was sold; Manitoba, 1 9 5 3 ) . With an average annual k i l l of approximately 2 0 0 moose by licensed hunters, the value of the meat, as computed i n the preceding section, i s about $ 6 0 , 0 0 0 . The value of the hides when made into c l o t h -ing (mostly mocassins) i s about $ 3 , 4 0 0 . (Thirty percent of the hides are not u t i l i z e d ) . I f expenditures f o r r i f l e s , ammunition, transporta-t i o n , and other items are even one-half the $ 4 9 . 0 0 per capita that Hatter and Taylor ( 1 9 5 4 ) determined f o r resident B r i t i s h Columbia moose hunters, the t o t a l expenditure f o r these items would be i n the neighbour-hood of $ 1 3 , 4 0 0 annually. Thus, the value of moose hunting by licensed hunters may be set at approximately $80 , 0 0 0 , of which only $-1/2 percent i s made up'of license fees. The moose i s important as sporting game to only 0 * 2 percent of the residents of southern Manitoba, but to 1 . 7 percent of the non-Indian residents of northern Manitoba. Although the writer has no precise figures on the place of the w h i t e - t a i l deer as sporting game, i t i s pro-bably hunted by about 5 percent of the southern population and by 1 or 2 percent of the northern population, ( i t i s estimated that 75 percent of the deer and 4 0 percent of the moose k i l l e d by licensed hunters i n northern Manitoba are taken i n the region between the 53rd p a r a l l e l and northern boundary of the Summerberry Marsh). Thus, i n the province as a whole, the moose presently stands i n a very i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n to deer as sporting game. In northern Manitoba, while the numbers of these two 2 1 1 c species k i l l e d annually are probably quite s i m i l a r , the much greater trophy and meat value of moose places i t i n a much superior position to deer* With a series of mild winters, the w h i t e - t a i l population i n northern Manitoba w i l l probably increase considerably above i t s present l e v e l , but the writer considers i t doubtful i f deer w i l l replace moose as the primary b i g game animal i n t h i s northern area i n the f o r -seeable future. I f a choice must be made, eff o r t s directed towards the management of moose rather than of deer w i l l probably be of greatest economic benefit i n the long run. The three Indian bands hunting i n the Summerberry Marsh k i l l an average of 1 4 0 moose per year, worth $ 4 5 , 3 6 0 ( $ 4 2 , 0 0 0 f o r meat and $ 3 , 3 6 0 f o r hides). Summary A preliminary valuation of $ 3 8 4 , 2 6 0 has been placed on the present annual harvest of 1 1 4 0 moose i n northern Manitoba. This t o t a l i s made up of 8 9 . 1 percent meat, 6 . 7 percent hides, 3 . 5 percent licensed hunter expenses, and 0 . 8 percent license fees. The t o t a l i s divided between Indian and licensed hunters i n the proportion of 3 . 8 : 1 * I t i s considered that, f o r the forseeable future, w h i t e - t a i l deer w i l l stand i n a quite i n f e r i o r economic p o s i t i o n to moose i n northern Manitoba. The value of moose as interpreted here i s about one-third the value of the annual fur crop. The importance of native foods to the health of the Indians, and of the health of the Indians to the economy of the area i s indicated. 212 PART VII MANAGEMENT Game management attempts to produce and to crop the greatest possible sustained annual harvest of wil d game compatible with the wise use of other renewable land resources, Leopold, who made one of the ea r l i e s t d e f i n i t i o n s of game management on t h i s continent, defined i t as "... the a r t of making land produce sustained annual crops of wi l d game for recreational use"(Leopold, 1933, P«3)» In northern Manitoba the recreational value of game i s at present of quite secondary impor-tance to i t s value as food. In order to manage a game species, certain basic information concerning i t and i t s habitat i s necessary. One needs to know: 1, the size and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the population 2, the age and sex composition of the population 3, the annual increment (usually considered as the percentage of yearlings i n the population) 4, the carrying capacity of the habitat (which includes the effects of other animals as we l l as of the plant constitu-ents, weather, climate, topography, etc., of the range). Generally, not a l l o f these aspects are f u l l y known, but by obtaining a much information as practicable and by experimenting with" di f f e r e n t management schemes, i t should be possible to manage a species within satisfactory l i m i t s . In northern Manitoba there appear to be three possible ap-proaches to moose management, or at l e a s t to experimental manipulation 213 of the moose population: 1, regulation of hunting pressure, 2, control of predation, 3, habitat improvement* The f i r s t approach has reached the stage of experimental manipulation of hunting by licensed hunters but has not been applied to treaty Indians; the second has been highly successful i n reducing the timber wolf population i n most areas; the t h i r d approach has not yet reached even the investigation stage. Regulation of Hunting Pressure Depending upon the type of hunting carried out, northern Manitoba may be divided into two regions, which for t h i s factor are reasonably w e l l defined e n t i t i e s . The larger region (the "remote areas") i s that containing a l l of the registered t r a p l i n e sections except the Central D i s t r i c t , where moose hunting i s very l a r g e l y by treaty Indians. The smaller region (the "accessible areas") i s that containing the Cen-t r a l D i s t r i c t and the area_ between i t and the 53rd p a r a l l e l and between the Saskatchewan boundary and the 100th meridian, where moose hunting i s l a r g e l y by licensed hunters except i n the Summerberry marsh where treaty Indians again predominate. Because of these differences, hunting regulation w i l l be considered spparately f o r each region. A. In Remote Areas I t has-been shown that hunting pressure i n these areas i s very unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d both as to time and place and that, from a management viewpoint, some change i n these unbalances i s desirable. I t 214 has also been shown that from the viewpoint of native n u t r i t i o n , an increase i n the amount of wild-caught foods i n the diet - including b i g game, meat from furbearers, and;fish - probably would be of mater-i a l benefit and might i n d i r e c t l y benefit the o v e r a l l economy of the area. Further, i t has been indicated that from the viewpoint of fur management, i t would be desirable i f the families l i v i n g i n the s e t t l e -ments during the winter were more adequately provided with food so that the trappers would not have to return*so often to replenish the lar d e r s . F i n a l l y , i t has been suggested that the deculturation of the Cree i s pro-ceeding at too fast a rate, and that i n the inter e s t s of humanity and of the Indian's inevitable eventual assimilation i n t o the o v e r a l l "Canadian" culture, the rapid t i d e of deculturation should be stemmed where p r a c t i -cable. The writer suggests that a l l of these factors should be taken into consideration i n the management of a game resource where the peoples through whom such management must be effected are themselves a primary resource of the area. Perhaps the greatest stumbling block to e f f e c t i v e game manage-ment i n t h i s area i s the Indian's right to take game for food at any time and i n any manner, and by the pre v a i l i n g l e g a l opinion that, i n making the o r i g i n a l t r e a t i e s with the Indians, i t was the intention of Parliament, "to assure to the Indians a supply of game i n the .future f o r t h e i r support and subsistence by re -quiring them to comply with the game laws of the province, subject however to the express and dominant proviso that care f o r the future i s not to deprive them of the right to s a t i s f y t h e i r 215 present need f o r food by hunting and trapping game, using the word Tgame' i n i t s broadest sense, at a l l seasons on a l l unoccupied Crown lands or other land to which they may have a ri g h t of access" (Rex-vs. Wesley I I a f t e r Conn, n.d). . By the terms of t h e i r treaty with the government, the Indians are assured of the r i g h t to take game for food but they.are not assured that there w i l l always be game to take. Management, which attempts to assure the presence of game, must therefore operate through native co-operation rather than through coercion, and hunting regulations can be eff e c t i v e only i f they are endorsed and supported by the natives con-cerned. Increasing the complexity of the problem i s the unwritten p o l i c y of the pr o v i n c i a l government that the game resource i s not to be reserved s o l e l y to Indians. . The f i r s t step i n moose management i n t h i s area should be to increase the crop taken from presently, under-hunted areas and to decrease the. crop taken from over-hunted areas. Present methods of trappers 1 censuses are probably adequate for determining the allowable harvest i n each area, especially i f the cropping program i s placed on an experi-mental basis and reviewed annually. The s i m p l i c i t y of the statement that hunting pressure should be shifted from one area to another b e l i e s the complexity of d i f f i c u l t i e s which would be encountered, and while the wr i t e r believes that the task of a b i o l o g i s t or w i l d l i f e manager i s p r i n c i p a l l y to place before the administrators recommendations based on his investigations, also considers that such recommendations should be accompanied by suggestions' of how they might be implemented. In the present case the f i r s t need i s f o r cooperation of the Indians without which management i s impossible. This cooperation may,possibly best be 216 obtained by placing the pertinent facts before the Indians,showing them that changes are desirable,and by s o l i c i t i n g t h e i r opinions on how to bring such ahanges about. Since the use of game i s not to be reserved s o l e l y to the Indian majority, care must be taken to ensure that the minority groups also are adequately provided f o r . Judicious suggestion of possible changes may a s s i s t the various groups i n a r r i v -ing at and accepting satisfactory r e s t r i c t i v e regulations. Some of the changes which might be suggested are: 1. that a quota be placed on the number of moose to be k i l l e d each year i n each registered t r a p l i n e section, 2. that the u t i l i z a t i o n of "wild" meat be spread over a greater period of time through increased preservation by freezing, dry-ing or "canning", 3.. that each f a l l organized parties of hunters systematically i i remove the available surpluses of moose from areas which are presently underharvested and that the meat so acquired be preserved either on the spot through the native system of drying, or by returning to the settlements with i t immed-i a t e l y i t i s obtained and there preserving i t either through freezing, "canning", or drying. (In t h i s respect i t would be most useful to have s c i e n t i f i c assessments made of the n u t r i t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s of meat preserved by these three methods or by others that might be proposed). 4 . that surplus meat from fur-bearers be preserved for use during the summer and that, during the summer, when f i s h are readily available, the u t i l i z a t i o n of game meat be minimized. 217 5. that by one or another means of preservation, some of the game meat obtained during the summer be reserved for use i n the settlements during the winter months when other forms of food are more d i f f i c u l t to obtain. (Preservation of f i s h i n the summer for use during the winter might also be encouraged). 6. that, where remunerative employment i s lacking, the natives would be f a r better o f f spending the summers i n t h e i r old s t y l e of l i v i n g rather than i n the v i l l a g e s . They would probably be much better nourished l i v i n g "off the land"; t h e i r summer expenses would be lower, thus leaving more money available f o r f a l l grubstakes; hunting pressure would be spread out instead of concentrated around th e ' v i l l a g e s ; the children, besides being better nourished, would also receive i n s t r u c t i o n i n the type of l i v i n g which some of them at least w i l l l a t e r be following as trappers and as wives of trappers; the self-respect of a self-supported i n d i v i d u a l might be expected to return; and the cost to the government for r e l i e f , which i s presently manifested i n diverse ways, would be 1es sened. 7 . that the quota of moose to be taken be divided on a pro rata basis among Indians and non-Indians who are obtaining t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d s from the fur and game resources of the area. 8". That hunting by persons not resident i n the various quota d i s -t r i c t s be prohibited u n t i l such time as the needs of l o c a l re-sidents have been provided f o r . 218 9. That sport hunting f o r trophies be permitted however i f the hunter agrees to take only the head and to turn the meat over either to the trapper upon whose t r a p l i n e the animal was taken, or to the central community of the section i n which the moose was k i l l e d . In t h i s respect i t i s envis-aged that the number of moose taken f o r trophies woul^d come out of the community quota, that l o c a l trappers would be employed as guides, and that the onus would be on the hunter to see that the meat was disposed of according to the p a r t i -cular terms of his l i c e n s e . 10. That i f investigation should show that dried meat i s mater-i a l l y i n f e r i o r i n n u t r i t i o n a l q u a l i t y to frozen meat, freezer plants be i n s t a l l e d at each community f o r the preservation of meat and f i s h especially during the summer months. 11. That i f meat dried according to Indian custom i s shown to be of equal quality to frozen meat, the drying of meat be en-couraged as a means of preservation, especially during the summer months. 12. That the Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration, be responsible for the s t o c k p i l i n g of preserved meat and f i s h i n each community and for the issuance of such foods to the Indians as i t i s needed. 13. That the P r o v i n c i a l Game and Fisheries Branch be responsible for the size and geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of the quota set and fo r the reservation of a part of t h i s quota to non-Indians; but that the Indians be encouraged to determine which of 219 t h e i r numbers w i l l remove t h e i r part of the quota. 1 4 . That hunting by non-Indians be by license only and that such licenses define the time and place at which the moose may be taken. The time set should be that at which most efficacious use may be made of the meat but not at a time which might be detrimental to breeding success of the moose. 1 5 . That the k i l l i n g of cows with calves be discouraged i n the spring, summer and f a l l and of calves at a l l seasons. 1 6 . That hunting of both sexes during the r u t t i n g season be minimized. 1 7 . That ef f o r t s at increasing the effic i e n c y of the moose census be continued, but that f o r the time being the annual quota should not greatly exceed ten percent of the popula-t i o n indicated by the annual census. "If i t i s l a t e r shown that a larger .percentage may be taken without damage to the population, then increasing quotas should be permitted except i n areas where i t i s desirable and practicable to increase the population. B. Accessible Areas Since r e s t r i c t i v e regulation of the moose k i l l i n the re-mainder o f northern Manitoba may be effected through manipulation of license sales, i t i s more e a s i l y controlled than i n the remote areas. However, evidence presently available indicates that i n most of these accessible areas an increased annual harvest may now be taken. Manage-ment should encourage t h i s increase through relaxation of regulations. The f i r s t step i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n has been taken by allowing either sex 2 2 0 to be k i l l e d , but the following figures indicate that even greater harvests may be taken without harming the population, TABLE 4 5 ' MOOSE POPULATION AND CROP STATISTICS, 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 Area Zones Zones 5 , 6 , 7 . 4 , 8 , 9 , 1 0 . Estimated population, Xmas 1952 5 6 0 1703 Estimated crop, F a l l , 1953 66 54 Estimated Population, Xmas, 1953 646 2109 Gross Increase, 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 1 5 2 4 6 0 Gross Increase as a % of 1 9 5 2 population 2 7 . 2 26 .6 % of gross increase cropped 4 3 . 4 1 1 . 7 Net increase 86 406 Net increase as a % of 1 9 5 2 pop. 1 5 . 6 2 3 . 5 I f these population s t a t i s t i c s are reasonably accurate - and they are believed to be - then a harvest of twenty percent of the population should do no harm, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the harvest could be taken from a l l parts of the areas instead of from the parts w i t h i n two or three miles of the roads and railways as i s presently the case. Certainly no l a s t -i ng harm should be incurred i f such a harvest were taken one year on an experimental basis. Experimentally increasing the annual harvest i s at present the only available means of a r r i v i n g at a satisfactory l e v e l of cropping. 221 Since the desirable i n t e n s i t y of hunting w i l l probably not remain con-stant from one time and place to another, i t w i l l have to be continually revised i n order to maintain proper pressure. (Zone 6 - F l i n Flon - may already be receiving as much pressure as i t can withstand). There appear to be at least four means available of increasing the k i l l : 1. by lengthening the open season 2 . by opening another season i n the l a t e f a l l before freeze-up, 3. by readmitting non-residents 4. by zoning geographically and by "either-sex — males only" type seasons i n order to d i r e c t maximum pressure at the most seriously underharvested areas. The f i r s t approach has been made by extending the season from ten to f i f t e e n days i n 1953 and to s i x weeks i n 1954* The 1954 returns have not yet been compiled, but i t i s considered that even the six-weeks season (December 1 to January 1 5 ) did not allow for removal of the a v a i l -able surplus. The second approach i s objected to i n some quarters because of the fear that meat would s p o i l and that breeding would be i n t e r f e r e d with. However, pre-winter moose hunting seasons are permitted i n other areas ( B r i t i s h Columbia, Ontario and Newfoundland, and perhaps others) with no reported detrimental effects, and were also allowed i n Manitoba p r i o r to 1945. In northern Manitoba the breeding season for moose f a l l s mainly between the middle of September and the middle of October. A, hunting season s t a r t i n g about October 7 to 15 and continuing f o r one or two weeks should not materially i n t e r f e r e with breeding, should be early 222 enough not to endanger hunters being "caught" during freeze-up, yet l a t e enough to ensure that the meat would not s p o i l quickly. Since a greater percentage of the moose population may be harvested without reducing i t , and since lengthening the winter season has not appeared to effect t h i s increase i n harvest, the writer suggests that an "open water" season be implemented at l e a s t on an experimental basis, Readmission of non-residents i s looked upon with disfavour probably by the majority of northern moose hunters but i s favoured by the administration. I t i s suggested that l o c a l disfavour could be over-come by w e l l directed p u b l i c i t y and that non-resident hunting would be of considerable economic value i f properly handled. I t i s further sug-gested that non-residents should not be allowed i n u n t i l l e g i s l a t i o n has been passed requiring them to hir e guides, and that i n order to be f a i r i n making t h i s step compulsory, guides should not be licensed unless they can meet certain minimal requirements regarding both equipment and experience. Zoning r e s t r i c t i o n s have been begun and indicate that they are useful only i n areas served by No. 10 P r o v i n c i a l Trunk Highway where the hunter population i s f a i r l y mobile. I t i s possible that combining the present zoning practices with "open water" seasons may effect greater mobility i n other areas as w e l l . I t i s suggested that experiments with such a combination be donducted. Predator Control The present system of government operated predator control appears to be very e f f i c i e n t i n reducing timber wolf populations and i n 223 maintaining these populations at low l e v e l s . "Where populations of prey animals can be u t i l i z e d by man, i t w i l l probably be wise to con-tinue the present controls. (The fact that moose do not require the presence of wolves to keep the populations healthy i s shown by New-foundland (Pimlott, 1953) and Sweden (Anonymous, 1955) where wolves are either absent or very scarce yet the moose population are i n very good health.) Where the moose populations cannot at present be u t i l i z e d by man, the control of wolves should be c a r e f u l l y reviewed, and i f found unnecessary, discontinued. • In parts of the Central D i s t r i c t wolf control i s presently aimed at protecting small herds of woodland caribou (Rangifer caribou) i n areas where the moose population does not require protection. In such instances the control i s probably warranted but the caribou po-pulation should be harvested by man when i t reaches s u f f i c i e n t size to stand such cropping without endangering i t . Habitat Improvement As was indicated i n an e a r l i e r section of t h i s study, i n v e s t i -gation into the p o s s i b i l i t y of improving habitat for moose through the use of controlled burning should be undertaken now. Studies i n other areas (Jenkins, 1946; L i t t l e , 1953; Smith, N.F., 1947) have shown that controlled burning can be a useful t o o l i n both game and forest manage-, ment but that i t s proper use requires detailed l o c a l study. I t i s also suggested that, where practicable, logging opera-tions should be of a "clear-cut" or "block-logging" nature instead of selective cutting. Clear cutting opens the forest canopy so that shade-224 intolerant deciduous shrubs and trees of value as moose browse can f l o u r i s h whereas selective.cutting does not produce large enough openings to be of any material value for game* 225 PART VIII SUMMARY A study of the moose and of factors affecting i t s management i n northern Manitoba was commenced by the writer i n the spring of 1 9 5 1 : three of the following four years were spent i n northern Manitoba i n • the employ of the Pro v i n c i a l Game and Fisheries Branch pursuing t h i s and other w i l d l i f e studies. Northern Manitoba ( 1 7 0 , 0 0 0 square miles) i s underlain mainly by rock of Pre-Cambrian age with some Palaeozoic limestone i n the south-west and northeast. The climate i s cool-temperate and the climax forests are of white and black spruce and tamarack. The non-Indian population of 2 5 , 0 0 0 i s concentrated mainly i n the southwestern portion where the primary industry i s metal mining. The native population (Cree and Saulteaux) t o t a l s about 8 , 0 0 0 and i s responsible•for approximately 80 percent of the estimated annual k i l l of 1 1 4 0 moose. The Indians are distributed over the whole area i n settlements of 1 0 0 to 1 5 0 0 i n d i -viduals. H i s t o r i c a l records indicate that p r i o r to the middle of the eighteenth century moose were probably absent from the area north of ' the 5 5 t h p a r a l l e l and east of the 9 7 t h meridian. In the succeeding two hundred years they have populated a l l of the forested areas of the province, from the 5 9 t h p a r a l l e l on the east to the 6 0 t h p a r a l l e l on the west. This northward advance apparently coincided with the invasion of the area by Cree Indians from the east and south and i t i s suggested that while the northward movement of moose was probably part of a 226 "natural" p o s t - g l a c i a l advance,' i t was probably accelerated by the concurrent human invasion which increased the number of fire-produced openings i n the coniferous forests. The northern l i m i t of moose d i s t r i b u t i o n appears now to be under climatic control. The i n t e r n a l pattern of density - d i s t r i b u t i o n i s mainly the re s u l t of the combined influence of forest f i r e s and Indian hunting pressure with the hunting pressure i n turn influenced by recent s o c i a l , economic, and psychological changes among the Indians. Numerical status of the moose was determined from censuses conducted by trappers on hundreds of trapli n e s i n the area, from ground counts of "sign" by Conservation Officers and a e r i a l censuses on the Saskatchewan River delta, and from k i l l reports gathered by Conservation Officers and from hunting license returns. I t has not yet proven f e a s i b l e to estimate the t o t a l number of moose i n northern Manitoba although year-to-year trends are becoming clear i n a number of areas. At the present time there are indications that the moose population i s increasing i n most areas but i t i s not yet- possible to eliminate the p o s s i b i l i t y that the reported increases are due to varying accuracy of the censuses. I t w i l l probably take another f i v e years to allow f i r m conclusions to be drawn from the trappers' census reports, and changes i n technique w i l l be necessary to reduce the experimental error which appears to be involved i n the a e r i a l census r e s u l t s . A e r i a l censuses showed concentrations of up to 10 moose per square mile on the Saskatchewan River delta where the average density on 1600 square miles was 1.5 square miles per moose. Only a few iso l a t e d spots outside the delta showed densities approaching one moose 2 2 7 per square mile but a number of f a i r l y Large areas showed more than one moose per f i v e square miles. Three methods were used to obtain age and sex c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the populations. They gave quite d i f f e r e n t results as indicated i n the following tables: Adult male:female r a t i o s Method Range Mean A e r i a l census ( 1 6 0 0 sq,mi.) . ,44:1 to 1 , 4 2 : 1 . 6 9 : 1 Ground count (same area) , 7 9 : 1 to . 8 4 : 1 ,82:1 Trapper's census (northern Manitoba) , 9 4 : 1 to 1 : 1 . 9 7 : 1 Calf:cow r a t i o s A e r i a l census ( 1 6 0 0 sq.mi.) . 3 2 : 1 to . 6 9 : 1 . 4 9 : 1 Ground count (same area) , 9 1 : 1 t o l . 0 6 : l 1 : 1 Trappers' census (northern Manitoba) 1 . 0 1 : 1 toL>08:l 1 , 0 5 : 1 Both the sex and age rat i o s obtained by a e r i a l census were believed to be low and the age rat i o s obtained by the ground censuses were believed to be high. Probably the adult sex r a t i o s approach unity where both , sexes are hunted but i n the areas where only males are k i l l e d they are l e s s than u n i t y . The age r a t i o s are believed to f a l l somewhere within the range shown by the three census types, probably near , 7 5 : 1 , The known calf:cow k i l l r a t i o (Indian k i l l ) was , 3 8 : 1 . The age and sex rat i o s obtained by the various census methods indicated a t h e o r e t i c a l l y possible increase of one-quarter to one-third of the population per year. 228 The main factors considered to be concerned i n l a r g e l y n u l l i f y i n g the "reproductive p o t e n t i a l " were human use, poor qu a l i t y of the habitat, wolf predation and accidents. U t i l i z a t i o n by man varied between 6 percent and 20 percent of the reported populations i n the Indian Sections and between 2 percent and 12 percent i n other areas. With few exceptions, the Indian k i l l would not be excessive i f i t were more evenly dist r i b u t e d geographically and i f calves, and cows with calves, were unmolested. At the present time, however, the moose populations along the more easily navigated waterways are- being overharvested i n a number of areas, and the proportion of calves i n the t o t a l k i l l i s probably over 12 percent. By contrast, the k i l l i n the predominantly "white" southwest portion of the study area i s not considered to be high enough to remove the available annual surpluses and i n t h i s area the moose population i s now rapi d l y increasing. Wolf predation i s considered to have been a l i m i t i n g factor of the moose population i n the recent past but a government-operated woIf-poisoning campaign has now eliminated the significance of t h i s f a c t o r . Drowning i s thought to be responsible f o r a f a i r l y large number of moose deaths annually. Other accidents, parasitism, and disease are considered to be of no significance at the present time. There i s reason to believe that a heavy i n f e s t a t i o n of winter t i c k s was partly responsible for the decimation of one Large moose popula-t i o n i n the early 1930 rs. Habitat studies took the form of: an ocular estimate of the 229 r e l a t i v e dominance of the main tree and shrub species a t each mile post along the railway between The Pas the C h u r c h i l l (510 miles); a l i m i t e d number of "Aldous" plots i n the Saskatchewan River delta; one l/10th-acre exclosure p l o t and suitable control; stem and twig counts of red osier dogwood i n the delta and of willow i n a Pre-Cambrian area north of the v i l l a g e of Cranberry Portage. The railway transect showed a relationship between moose density and presence or absence of pine and aspen, i n d i c a t i n g that the ecological factors which favoured these two species also favoured moose. The two main ecologi-c a l factors concerned were believed to be forest f i r e s and edaphic conditions. The "Aldous" plots showed red osier dogwood and willow to be the main components of the moose's di e t i n the delta area. D i f f i c u l t y was encountered i n building a moose-proof exclosure. The f i r s t one constructed was broken down. I t was r e b u i l t , but has not been i n operation long enough to provide useful comparisons. Twig counts of red osier dogwood i n the d e l t a showed about 60 percent u t i l i z a t i o n and where browsing of t h i s i n t e n s i t y had occurred for four or f i v e years, large numbers of the plants had been k i l l e d . Twig counts i n the Pre-Cambrian area showed less than 10 percent u t i l i z a t i o n of willow, which was the main browse species present. In the same area, ocular estimate placed u t i l i z a t i o n of paper bi r c h at 1 percent and of aspen at only a trace although both species were present i n large quantities. I t i s considered that one of the prime l i m i t i n g factors c o n t r o l l i n g moose populations i n many parts of northern Manitoba i s the lack of variety of winter foods. No analysis of the aquatic f l o r a 230 was made but i t i s not considered to be a l i m i t i n g factor at the present time. The economic value of moose i n northern Manitoba i s placed at $384,000 annually. This t o t a l i s made up of 89.1 percent meat, 6,7 percent hides, 3*5 percent licensed-hunter expenses, and 0,8 per-cent license fees. The t o t a l value i s divided between Indians and non-Indians i n the proportion of 3.8:1,. Suggestions f o r the management of moose i n both the remote and accessible areas are presented. LITERATURE CITED Aldous, Shaler E. 1944 1952 A deer brow.se survey method. Jour. Mammal., 25: 130-136. Deer browse clipping study in the Lake States region. Jour. Wildl. Mgt., 16: 401-409. Aldous, S . l . and L.W. 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Being the journal o f Captain James Knight, Governor-in-Chief in Hudson Bay, from the 14th of July to the 13th of September, 1717. J..M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., London, x / 213, i l l u s . . What i s the future of the Isle Royale moose herd? Trans. 16th N. Amer. Wildl. Conf.: 461-470. Game management. Charles Scribner»s Sons, New York, xxi / 481, i l l u s . . "Reprinted, T947. 1940 1947 Leopold, A. Starker 1954 The state of the profession. Wildl. Mgt., 4 : 343-346. Jour. Summarization of the Twelfth North American Wildlife Conference. Trans. 12th N. Amer. Wildl. Conf.: 529-536. Natural resources «*- whose responsibility? Appraisal of the 19th North American Wildlife Conference. Trans. 19th N. Amer. Wildl. Conf.: 589-598. 241 Leopold, A. Starker, Thane Riney, Randal McCain and Lloyd Tevis Jr. 1951 Lewes, J.L. 1938 L i t t l e , Silas Jr. 1953 ' Lockhart, J.G. 1890 The Jawbone deer herd. Cali f . Dept. Nat. Res., Div. Fish & Game, Game Bull. No. 4: 1-138, i l l u s . . See Glazebrook,G.P. de T. 1938. Prescribed burning as a tool of forest management in the northeastern states. Jour. Forestry 51: 49t>-500. Notes on the habits of the moose in the far north of Brit i s h America in 1865. Proc. U.S. ' Natl. Mus. Vol. XIII, No. 827: 305-308. Longhurst, Wm. M., A. Starker Leopold and Raymond F. Dasmann 1952 A. survey of California deer herds. Their ranges and management problems. Cali f . Dept. Nat. Res.. Div. Fish & Game, Game Bull. No. o: 1-136 Ma*cKay, Douglas 1949 Malaher, G.W. 1953 Mandelbaum, David G. 1941 Manitoba Manitoba 1944-1953 1952 (b) The honourable company; a history of the Hudson's Bay Company. Toronto, McClelland & Stewart. pp .397, i l l u s . [Report o f l Game and Fisheries Branch, in Ann.Rept. Dept. Mines and Natural Resources for year ending March 5 1 s t . , 1 9 5 3 . pp.4 9 - 6 6 . The Plains cree. Anthrop. Papers, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. , 3 7 : 1 5 5 - 3 1 6 . Annual reports of the Department of Mines and Natural Resources, Winnipeg, Manitoba. A guide for prospectors in Manitoba, 1952. King's Printer, Winnipeg. VIII / 158, i l l u s . & fold. maps. 2.42 Martin, P.W. and L.G. Sugden 1954 Present status of moose i n central British Columbia. Prov. of B.C., Game Dept., Rept. Proc. 8 t h Ann. Game Conv.: McKay, Archdeacon J.A. 1921 A short histor i c a l sketch of the northland. Rept. Rupert's Land Hist. Soc, 1921, The Pas, Man., pp. 12-14. Moore, P.E., H.D. Kruse, F.F. Ti s d a l l , R.S.C. Corrigan 1946 Medical survey of nutrition among the northern Manitoba Indians. Can. Med. Assoc. Jour.: 54: 223-232. Morse, Marius 1946 Morton, Arthur S. 1937 1939 Censusing big game from the a i r . Cons. Volunteer, 9: 29-33, i l l u s . , (Minn. Dept. Cons., St. Paul, Minn.) Under western skies. Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd., Toronto, pp. 1-232, i l l u s . . A history of the Canadian West to 1870-71. Being a.history of Rupert's Land (the Hudson's Bay Company's Territory) and of the North-west Territory (including the Pacific slope. Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd., Toronto, xiv / 987, 12 sketch maps. Morton, Glen H. and E.L. Cheatum 1946 Regional differences i n breeding Potential of white-tailed deer in New York. Jour. Wildl. Mgt., 10: 242-248. Murie, Adolph 1934 Costing, Henry J. 1950 The moose of Isle Royale. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ.-Mich. No. 25: 1-44, i l l u s . The study of plant communities. An introduction to plant ecology. W.H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco 243 Peterson, H.L. 1949 1950 1953 1955 Pimlott, Douglas H. 1953 Preble, Edward A. 1902 1908 Rich, E.E. (ed.) 1945 1946 1948 Management of moose. Thirty-ninth Conv. Intematl. Assoc. Game, Fish & Cons. Commissioners, pp. 71-75. A study of North American moose with special reference to Ontario. Ph. D. Thesis, Univ. Toronto, pp. 1-471. Studies of the food habits and the habitat of moose in Ontario. Contrib. Roy. Ont. Mus. Zool. & Palaeont., No. 36: 1-49. North American moose. Univ. Toronto Press in co-operation with the Roy. Ont. Mus. Zool. & Palaeont.. x i / 280, i l l u s , maps. Newfoundland moose. Trans. 18th N. Amer. Wildl. Conf.: 563-579. . A biological investigation of the Hudson Bay region. U.S.D.A.", Div. B i o l . Surv., N. Amer. Fauna No. 22: 1-140, i l l u s . , 1 fold map. A biological investigation of the Athabascan MacKenzie region. U.S.D.A., Bur. Biol. Surv., N. Amer. Fauna No. 27: 1-574, i l l u s . , maps. Minutes of the Hudson»s Bay Company, 1679-1684. F i r s t Part 1679- 8 2 . The Champlaln Society, Toronto, x l v i / 378. Minutes of the Hudson*s Bay Company, 1679-84. Second Part 1682-84. The Champlain Society, Toronto. Copy-book of letters outward &c. 1680- 8 7 . The Champlain Society, Toronto, x l i / 415 / (xv)• 244 Richards, J.S. 1952: 1953 Riter, William E. 1940 Russell, Frank 1898 Schofield, Frank 1913 Schorger, A.W. 1947 1953 1954 Scott, Robert F. 1954 Seton, Ernest T. 1886 [Report of] Mines Branch. In Manitoba, 1952. Ann. Rept.~T5ept. Mines and Nat. Res.: 5-14. (Reportj of Mines Branch, gn Manitoba, 1953. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines and Nat. Res.: 5-15. Predator control and wildlife management. Trans. 6 t h N. Amer. Wildl. Conf.: 294-298. Explorations in the far north. Being the report of an expedition under to auspices of the University of Iowa during the years 1892., »93 and '94. Published by the University [State Univ. of Iowa] . v i i / 290, i l l u s . . Howard The story of Manitoba. The S.J. Clarke Publishing Co.,. Winnipeg, Vancouver, Montreal. 3 vols. Vol. I: 1-443. The ruffed grouse in early Wisconsin. Wise. Acad. Sci., Arts & Letters, 37: 35-90. The white-tailed deer in early Wisconsin. Wise. Acad. Sci., Arts & Letters, 42: 197-247. Elk in early Wisconsin. Wise. Acad. Sci., Arts & Letters, 43; 5-23. Population growth and game ( management. Trans. 19th N. Amer. Wildl. conf.: 480-502. The mammals of Manitoba.The Hist. & Sci. Soc. of Man.,Trans.No.23, May 27,1886, pp 1-15. 245 Seton, Ernest Thompson 1909 1953-Shelford, Victor E. 1926 Skinner, Alanson 1912 Skunke, Folke 1949 Smith, Norman F.. 1947 Life histories of northern animals, an account of the mammals of Manitoba. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 2 vols., 1267 pp., i l l u s , maps. Lives of game animals. Charles T. Branford, Co. Boston. 4 vols., vol. 3 : 780 pp., i l l u s . , maps. (ed.) Naturalist's guide to the Americas. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, xv / 761; Manitoba pp. 263-267. Notes on the Eastern Cree and Northern Saulteaux. Anthrop. Papers, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 9: 1-177, 2 pis., 56 figs., 1 map. Algen, studier, jakt och vard. P.A. Norstedt and Soners, Forlag, Stockholm, pp. 1-400, i l l u s . . Controlled burning in Michigan's forest and game management programs. Reprinted from Proc. Soc. Amer. Foresters' Meeting, pp. 200-2.05. Spencer, David L. and Edward F. Chatelain 1953 Steen, Melvin 0. 1947 Swift, Ernest 1946 Progress in the management of the moose of south central Alaska. Tfaus. 18th N. Amer. Wildl. Conf.: 539-552. Wake up, Amerioa J Trans. 3:2th. N. Amer. Wildl. Conf.: 40-44. A history of Wisconsin deer. Wise. Cons. Dept. Publ. 323, pp. 1-96, i l l u s . . 2:46 Thomas. L.J. and A.R, 1932 Thompson, David 1897 Tuxner, J.P. 1906 Tyrrell, J . Burr 1896 1897 1902 1904 1911 1916 1931 Calm A new disease of moose. I. Preliminary report. Jour. Parasit., 18: 219-231. See Coues, E l l i o t , 1897. The moose and wapiti of Manitoba. A plea for their preservation. The Hist. & Sci. Soc. Man., Trans. No. 69: 1-8. Report on the country between Athabasca Lake and Churchill River with notes on two routes travelled between the Churchill and Saskatchewan rivers. Geol. Surv. Can., Ann. Rept., vol. VIII, Part D., 120 pp.. Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson rivers and the North-west coast of Hudson Bay and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg. Geol. Surv. Can., Ann. Rept., vol. IX, Part F., 218 pp.. Report on explorations in the north-eastern portion of the District of Saskatchewan and adjacent parts of the District of Keewatin. Geol. Surv, Can., Ann. Rept., vol. XIII, Part F.,.. 48 pp.. Crystosphenes or buried sheets of ice in the tundra of northern America. Jour. Geol., 12: 232-236. See Hearne, Samuel, 1795• David Thompson's narrative of his explorations in western America, 1784-1812. The Champlain Soc, Toronto. x C v i i i / 582, i l l u s . , maps. Documents relating to the early history of Hudson Bay. The Champlain Soc., Toronto. xix / 419 / x i i , i l l u s . . 247 T y r r e l l J. Burr (ed.) 1934 Journals of Samuel Hearne and Philip Turnor between the years 1774 and 1792. The Champlain Soc, Toronto, x v i i i / 611, i l l u s . and maps. Some problems of the metis of northern Saskatchewan. Can. Jour. Economics & P o l i t i c a l Sci., 20: 8 9 - 9 5 . Vivian, R.D., C. McMillan, P.E. Moore, E.C. Robertson, W.H. Sorbell, F.F. Tisdall, and W.G. Mcintosh 1948 The nutrition and health of the James Bay Indian. Can. Med. Assoc. Jour., 59: 505-518, 2 p. col. i l l u s . . Weaver John E. and Frederic E. Clements 1938 Plant ecology. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York and London. Second edition, x x i i / 601 , i l l u s . . Wells, H.E. 1946 Annual progress report. Registered traplines. May, 1946. pp. 1-73t typescript, copy on f i l e at office of Game and Fisheries Branch, The Pas, Man., Valentine, V.F, 1954 APPENDIX Tables A - J,pages i to x i i , to follow page 247• TABLE A Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Summary of License Returns and Hunter Success Region Number of Percentage of Number of Hunters a l l Reporting Moose report- Percent Hunted Reporting Hunters ed k i l l e d Success *53. *51 *52 T53 r51 r52 '53 '51 • 52 f53 '51 •52 ' 1 46 '66 34 10.2 14.9 6.0 24 25 24 52,2 37.9 70.6 2A 35 14 48 7.7 3,3 8.5 15 6 19 42.9 42.9 39.6 2B 20 26 39 4.4 6.1 •6.9 13 19 32 65.0 73.3 82,0 .2 Misc. 42 25 20 9.3 5.9 3.6 13 10 4 31.0 40.0 20.0 3 1 - 0,2 - - 1 - - 100 -4 12 16 10 2,6 3.6 1.8 8 7 7 66.7 43.8 70.0 5 46 38 101 10.2 8.6 17.9 20 16 42 43.5 42.1 41,6 6 14 13 24 , 3.1 2.9 4.3 4 5 8 28,6 38.5 33.3 7 16 6 8 3.5 1 .4 1 .4 10 4 5 62,5 66.7 62.5 8 31 33 33 6.8 7.5 5.9 19 22 19 61.3 66.7 57,6 9 13 11 12 2.9 2.5 2.1 7 9 5 53.8 81.8 41,7 10 19 10 16 4.2 2.3 2.8 15 8 14 78.9 80,0 87.5 - R.T *L • 62.5 50.0 Extension 16 10 12 3.5 2.3 2.1 10 4 6 40.0 E» Lake 70,6 Winnipeg - - 34 - - 6.1 - - 24 - — Other S. 16 .6. of 53° - 39 19 6. 8.6 4.3 1.1 0 0 1 — — • Region not 12 3.5 0,8 7.8 Reported 87 133 154 19.2 30.1 27,4 3 1 . Did not Hunt 17 21 n ' 3.8 4.8 2,0 0 0 0 - — — Totals 453 442 562 . 100,0 99.9 99.9 161 137 222 35.5 31*0 39.5 i i TABLE B Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Di s t r i b u t i o n of Hunting Pressure and Source of Hunters Region of Hunter's Residence Region 3 & 9 & S. of Misc. & Hunted Year 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 10 53° None 1951 44 2 1952 2 10 54 1953 1 4 1 27 1 1951. 57 3 3 33 1 1952 40 6 7 11 1 1953 68 21 1 16 1 1951 8 4 1952 3 14 1953 1 8 1 1951 5 30 5 6 1952 1 23 12 2 1953 1 15 38 35 11 1 1951 1 13 1952 13 1953 24 1951 . 2 12 2 • 7 1952 6 1953 7 I l l TABLE B (Cont'd.) Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Region Region of Hunter's Residence 9 & S. of .Misc. & Hunted Year 1 2 Jk 5 6 7 8 10 53° None 1951 1 29 1 -8 1952 1 1 1 29 1 1953 1 32 • 1951 32 9 & 10 1952 21 1953 28 1951 3 13 R.T.L. 1952 1 9 EXTENSION 1953 1 11 1951 13 1 25 S.of 53° 1952 d 11 1953 40* Misc. & 1951 19 1 8 25 6 10 2 33 None 1952 21 9 13 35 5 10 12 47 2 1953 2 40 10 17 33 5 ' 13 5 34 6 1951 00 82 13 40 59 18 40 34 150 17 ' Totals 1952 0 68 30 36 86 11 39 33 127 12 1953 4 129 39 55 95 12 45 33 129* 21 Grand Totals 4 279 8 2 131 240 41 124 100 406 50 * Includes East Lake Winnipeg. TABLE C Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Comparison of Hunting Success of Trappers and Non-trappers P Number of Percent Success of Region Trappers Others Trappers Others Hunted '51 '52 '53 '51 ' *52 •53 •51 '52 '53 '51 '52 '53 1 0 0 0 46 66 34 *** 52,2 37.9 70.6 2 5 6- 17 92 59 90 100 100 100 39.1 49.2 42.2 3 & 4 3 7 6 9 10 4 66.7 71.4 33.3 66.7 30.0. 50.0 5 9 5 11 37 33 • 90 66.7 100 81.8 37.8 33.3 36.7 6 0 ' 0 1 14 13 23 - - - • 28,6 38.5 34.8 7 6 2 2 10 4 6 82.7 100 50,0 50.0 50.0 66,7 8 14 12 7 17 21 26 92.8 100 100 35.1 47.6 46.2 9 & 10 10 9 16 22 12 12 70.0 100 81.3 68.1 41.7 50.0 R.T.L. Extension 0 2 5 16 . 8 7 - 100 80.0 62.5 25.0 28.6 E. Lake -Winnipeg 10 24 90.0 62.5 Other S. of 53° 0 0 0 39 19 6 - - - - - 16.6 Region not 6.1 reported 0 12 6 87 121 148 - 0.0 50.0 3.5 9.9 Did not hunt 0 1 0 17 20 11 - - - - - -Totals 47 56 81 406 " 386 481 80.1 73.2 85.2 30.3 27.5 31.2 Totals excluding -E. Lake Winnipeg 47 56 71 406 386 457 80.1 73.2 84.5 30.3 27.5 30.2 V TABLE D Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Summary of Data by Geographic Source of Hunters Year 1 2 3 & 4 5 Region of ] 6 7 Hunter 8 's Residence 9 &• S. of 10 53° Misc» & None No. Hunters 0 82 13 40 59 18 40 34 150 17 1951 Moose K i l l e d - 30 9 14 6 9 18 22 45 8 % Success - 37 69 33 11 50 45 72 "29 47 ° No. Hunters - 68 30 36 86 11 39 33 127 12 1952 Moose K i l l e d - 20 16 10 13 4 20 17 33 4 % Success - 29 53 28 15 36 51 52 26 33 No.Hunters 4 129 39 55 95 12 45 33 129* 21 1953 Moose K i l l e d 2 38 28 23 22 6 18 20 59* 6 % Success 50 29 72 42 23 50 40 61 46* 29 T No.Hunters 4 279 0 T Moose K i l l e d 2 88 A • 82 131 240 41 124 100 406 50 53 47 41 19 56 59 137 18 A L % Success 50 32 S 65 36 17 46 45 59 34 .36 . * .Includes East Lake Winnipeg. v i TABLE E Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Time Spent Hunting Region Hunted Year Average Number of Hours spent Hunting Average number of hours per moose bagged ( A l l hunters) Average number of hours per moose bagged (Successful Hunters) 1951 24.8 47.5 .21.7 1 1952 25.6 67.6 33.5 1953 27.9 39.5 34.5 1951 25.7 59.9 23.4 2A 1952 18.9 44.0 15.7 1953 23.0 58.1 19.3 1951 18.1 . 27.8 12.6 2B • 1952 21.5 29.4 22.3 1953 18.9 22.7 14.0 1951 25.2 52.9 23.0 2 Misc. 1952 16.8 42.1 18.3 1953 28.2 . 141.0 . - * 1951 22.7 34.0 20.8 3 & 4 19.52 20.8 44.2 24.7 1953 s19 .4 • 27.7 7.5 1951 21.4 49.2 20.6 5 1952 25.9 61.6 . 21.4 1953 23.7 57.0 22,5 Only one report, therefore, no average taken. v i i TABLE E (cont'd.) Moose Hunting. License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Season Region Hunted Year Average Number of Hours spent Hunting Average number of hours per Moose bagged ( A l l hunters) Average number of hours per Moose bagged (Successful Hunters)  1951 1952 1953 14.8 20.4 24.0 51.8 53.0 72.0 14.8 21.6 18.2 1951 1952 1953 18.8 17.6 8.8 30.1 26.4 14.1 15.1 13.0 7.5 8 1951 1952 1953 15.1 20.4 25.6 24.6 30.6 44.5 11.8 15.0 19.8 1951 1952 1953 21.3 21,3 25.0 39.6 26.0 60.0 19.9 22.0 50.0 10 1951 1952 1953 20.2 31.1 19.9 25.6 38.9 22.7 11.5 29.3 19.4 R.T .L. EXTENSION AREAS 1951 1952 1953 9.6 16.4 10.8 15.4 41.0 21.6 9.0 3.1 4.3 v i i i TABLE E (Cont'd.) Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Season Segion Hunted 4 Year Average Number of Hours spent Hunting Average Number of Hours per Moose bagged ( A l l hunters) Average number . • of hours per Moose bagged (Successful .Hunters) E. Lake Winnipeg 1951 1952 1953 10.6 15*0 10.8 Other S. of 53° 1951 1952 1953 29,4 22.2 - -Region not Reported 1951 1952 1953 18,9 26.1 20.8 548.1 _ * 217.0 4.3 _ * 30,0 1951 21.8 59,0 17.0 Totals** 1952 24.0 73.8 21.9 1953 21.8 54.2 18.6 Grand Average ** 22.6 63.3 19.1 * Only one report, therefore average not taken. ** Licensees who reported they did not hunt are omitted from these •• calculations. i x TABLE F Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Percent* Success by Residence and Hunting Areas Region Hunted Year 3 & 2 4 Region of Hunter's Residence 9 & S. of-. 5 6 7 8 10 53° Other 1 1951 1952 1953 - 20 - 55 43 70 -2 1951 1952 1953 46 50 41 33 100 14 36 73 38 -3 & 4 1951 1952 1953 - 63 57 75 -5 1951 1952 1953 60 27 43 44 58 40 33 37 33 18 6 1951 1952 1953 23 38 33 7 1951 1952 1953 75 67 72 -8 1951 1952 1953 - -62 69 56 -9 & 10 1951 1952 1953 68 81 68 R.T.L. 1951 1952 . 1953 62 22 55 S. of 53' o 1951  3 1952 1953 0 0 0 0 '63* Misc. & None 1951 1952 1953 0 0 3 11 10 0 0 6 4 0 0 0 0 . 20 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 21 -Percentages T . a K e n \>o nearesu wuuxe n u m u o i o a i v * — — — than f i v e reports. - indicates that one to four reports had been received. TABLE G Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Antlers — : ; 195]! 1952 1953 Totals Region No.Pts. No.Moose Average No.Pts. No.Moose Average No.Pts. No.Moose Average No.Pts,No.Moose Aver, Hunted Reported Reported Points/ Reported Reported Points/ Reported Reported Points/ Report-Reported Pts,/ Moose Moose Moose ed Moose 1 8 1 6 1 3 . 5 1 1 0 1 2 9 . 4 1 9 8 2 0 9 . 9 3 8 9 38. 1 0 . 2 2 1 4 0 1 3 1 0 , 8 1 8 6 . 1 7 1 0 . 9 3 2 9 3 6 9 . 1 655 66 •^9.9 3 & 4 6 2 5 1 2 . 4 3 4 3 1 1 . 3 2 4 3 8 . 0 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 . 9 5 1 7 0 1 3 1 3 . 1 8 4 8 1 0 . 4 1 6 0 1 8 8 . 9 4 1 4 3 9 1 0 . 6 6 7 1 _ 29 3 9 . 7 52 5 1 0 . 4 8 8 9 9 . 8 7 8 2 5 16.4 7 1 •- 4 6 3 1 5 . 3 1 3 5 9 1 5 . 0 8 1 4 1 1 3 1 0 . 8 1 2 7 1 3 9 . 8 9 7 1 0 9 , 7 3 6 5 3 6 1 0 . 1 9 & 1 0 1 5 3 1 2 1 2 . 7 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 . 3 3 8 4 9 , 5 3 1 5 2 7 11 . 7 R *T «XJ* 2 9 2 1 4 . 5 2 9 3 9 . 7 58 5 1 1 . 6 Other 2 4 0 2 6 9 . 2 240 2 6 • 9 . 2 Totals 8 3 6 6 8 1 2 . 3 730 7 0 1 0 . 4 1 2 1 3 1 2 8 9 . 5 2 7 7 9 2 6 6 1 0 . 4 X Year xl TABLE H Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Antlers L R T L R T 423 68 413 836 68 68 6*2 6.1 12.3 365 70 365 730 70 70 5,2 5.2 10.4 599 128 614 1213 128 128 4.7 4.8 9.5 1387 266 1392 2779 266 266 5.2 5.2 10.4 1951 1952 1953 .TABLE I Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Weights Year Weight Reports Average Maximum Minimum 1951 1952 Totals 51,558 55,150 106,708 81 79 160 636 698 667 1500 1200 1500 300 450 300 XXI TABLE J Moose Hunting License Statistics, 1953 Hunting Season Sex Proportions and Util i z a t i o n of Hides Region Hunted Sex of Moose Ki l l e d Males Females Reported DispositiojjTof H^des Males Kept Sold Bush Report 1 24 - 100 11 3 6 4 2A 19 - 100 12 2 4 1 2B 18 14 56 23 2 4 3 2 Misc. .4 - 100 n3 - 1 -3 & 4 5 2 . 71 .5 1 1 -5 21 21 50 17 6 10 9 6 5 3 63 —* 1 5 2 7 3 2 60 1 - 2 2 8 13 5 72 6, - 9 4 9 & 10 6 13 32 1 3 . 4 1 1 R.T «L • Extension 3 3 50 5 - - 1 E. Lake Winnipeg 24 - 100 8 - 11. 5 Other 10 3 77 4 2 2 5 Totals 155 66 . 7g 108 21 56 37 

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