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A preliminary study of the moose (Alces and alces andersoni Peterson) in northern Manitoba, with special… Bryant, Joseph Edward 1955

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A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE MOOSE (Alces a l c e s andersoni Peterson) IN NORTHERN MANITOBA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS MANAGEMENT  by •  JOSEPH EDWARD BRYANT  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Zoology  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the standard required from candidates f o r the degree.of MASTER OF ARTS^  Members o f the Department o f  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1955  V  ABSTRACT A study o f the h i s t o r y , numbers, d i s t r i b u t i o n , u t i l i z a t i o n , h a b i t a t , and economic importance o f moose i n Manitoba north o f the . 53rd p a r a l l e l , was commenced i n the spring o f 1951 and continued f o r three o f the f o l l o w i n g four years. I n the past 200 years moose have advanced t h e i r range from the 55th p a r a l l e l and 97th meridian t o t h e northern and eastern l i m i t s of the boreal forest*  The advance i s considered to have been p a r t of  a "normal" p o s t - g l a c i a l movement a c c e l e r a t e d by the concurrent  extent  s i o n o f range o f the Cree Indians which increased the number o f f i r e produced openings i n the f o r e s t . L i m i t e d a e r i a l censuses and ground counts by trappers showed few areas w i t h more than 1 moose per square m i l e , but a number o f i s o l a t e d b l o c k s with up to 1 moose per f i v e square m i l e s .  Adult sex  r a t i o s approached 1:1 i n most areas where both sexes were hunted. Calf:cow r a t i o s approached 1:1 i n t h e trappers' censuses and .5:1 i n the a e r i a l censuses.  I t i s believed that the t r u e r a t i o probably  l i e s near *75:1* U t i l i z a t i o n by man v a r i e d between 6 percent and 20 percent of the reported populations i n the Indian sections and between 2 percent and 12 percent i n other areas.  I n most areas t h e human k i l l  was not excessive but was poorly d i s t r i b u t e d i n time and space, and took too many calves. Wolf predation has probably been a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n the recent past but a government poisoning program has now  vi  eliminated the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s f a c t o r . drowning takes a f a i r l y l a r g e annual t o l l .  A c c i d e n t a l death through P a r a s i t i s m , and disease  are not considered s i g n i f i c a n t . Good h a b i t a t i s mainly dependent upon,fire-produced openings i n t h e coniferous f o r e s t s and study o f the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f c o n t r o l l e d burning and c l e a r - c u t t i n g i s suggested.  A major l i m i t i n g f a c t o r f o r  moose i s b e l i e v e d t o be l a c k o f v a r i e t y o f browse s p e c i e s . The economic value o f moose i s placed a t $384*000 a n n u a l l y , d i v i d e d between Indians and non-Indians i n the. proportion o f 3.8:1. Suggestions f o r t h e management o f moose i n remote and a c c e s s i b l e areas are given.  CONTENTS Page Table o f Contents Abstract Acknowledgments PART I  INTRODUCTION  i v v i i 1  PART I I DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA 1. Geography 2. Climate 3. B i o t i c P o s i t i o n 4. Human Population a. I n t r o d u c t i o n b. Indians i . P r i m i t i v e Culture of the "Bush" o r "Swampy"Cree '. i i . Changes i n t h e i r c u l t u r e i i i . Present S o c i a l P o s i t i o n o f the Cree i n Northern Manitoba i v . Economic Status of t he Cree i n Northern Manitoba v. Present Numbers and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Cree i n Northern Manitoba v i . The Cree i n W i l d l i f e Conservation a. W i l d l i f e as Fur 1?» W i l d l i f e as Food c Metis d. Whites 5» N a t u r a l Resources a. Mining b. F o r e s t s c. Waterpower d. F i s h and W i l d l i f e e. A g r i c u l t u r e f . Summary  5 5 6 7 9 9 11  24 25 25 26 28 29 30 31 32 33 33 36 37  PART I I I HISTORICAL SURVEY 1. Introduction 2. Pattern.of Settlement 3 . H i s t o r i c a l Records o f Moose i n the Area a. 17th Century b. 18th Century c. 19th Century d. 20th Century e. Summary  38 45 50 50 52 58 63 67  PART IV PRESENT STATUS OF MOOSE IN NORTHERN MANITOBA 1. D i s t r i b u t i o n a. Introduction  69 39  11 14 18 22  ii Page b. Northern L i m i t of D i s t r i b u t i o n 71 c. I n t e r n a l Pattern of D i s t r i b u t i o n 72 2. Factors A f f e c t i n g D i s t r i b u t i o n 72 a. I n t r o d u c t i o n $2 b. Northern L i m i t 73 c. I n t e r n a l P a t t e r n • 73 i . Habitat 73 1. Climax Forests 73 2. Forest F i r e s 73 3. R i p a r i a n Habitat 74 4. Aquatic Habitat 75 5. S o i l Types 76 6. Summary 77 i i , Hunting Pressure 78 1. Human Abundance and D i s t r i b u t i o n 78 2. M o b i l i t y and fire-power of the Indian Population Si 3. E f f e c t o f Domestic and .Commercial Fishing 83 4. E f f e c t o f Abundance and Value of Fur Bearers 84 5. Summary 85 3» Abundance of Moose 86 a. Introduction 86 b. Registered T r a p l i n e Areas 86 i . Introduction 86 i i . D e s c r i p t i o n o f Registered T r a p l i n e System 87 i i i . Methods .89 - i v . Results 90 v, Discussion 95 1. Census Reports 95 a. T o t a l Counts 95 b. Age and Sex Ratios ' 9 . 7 i . Age R a t i o s 97 i i . Sex Ratios 98 2. K i l l Reports 100 c. Summerberry Area (Saskatchewan River Delta) 101 i . Introduction 101 i i . A e r i a l Census 102 1. Methods 102 2. Results 105 a. General Notes on each F l i g h t 105 1. November 29, 1951 105' 2. February 4 and 5, 1952 107 3. May 6, 1952 108 4. December 10 and 15, 1952 109 5. December 12, 1953 109 6. December 7, 1954 HI b. T o t a l Counts 112  iii Page 1. Population Density 112 2. Sex and Age Ratios 112 i . Sex Ratios 112 i i . Age Ratios 113 c. Counts on Transects 14 to 17 i n c l u s i v e 113 1. Population Density 114 2, Sex and Age Ratios 115 d. Counts by the w r i t e r compared t o counts by the other observers ' 116 1. Population Density 116 2. Sex and Age R a t i o s 119 e. Variables Recognized 120 1. Weather 120 2. Time of Day 121 3. S t r i p Width 121 4. Observers 121 5. Eye Fatigue 122 3. Discussion 124 i i i . Ground Census 124 1. Method • 124 2. R e s u l t s 124 3. Discussion 126 i v . Reports of Hunter K i l l s 127 1. M a t e r i a l s and Methods 127 2. Results 127 3* D i s c u s s i o n 129 v. General Discussion 130 1. Comparison o f A e r i a l and Ground Surveys 130 2. Comparison o f Census Results and T h e o r e t i c a l l y computed Population Relative Merits 132 4. Factors A f f e c t i n g Abundance 133 a. I n t r o d u c t i o n 133 b. Breeding P o t e n t i a l 135 i . Methods 135 i i . Results 136 i i i . Discussion 138 c. Environmental Resistance 139 i . Decimating Factors 139 1. Hunting Pressure 140 a. I n t r o d u c t i o n 140 b. R.T.L. Sections (Less C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t ) 142 i . Methods 142 i i . Results 143 i i i . Discussion 143 c. Mon-R.T.L. areas and the C e n t r a l District 146 i . Methods 146 i i . ' Results 148  iv Page a. Licensee Reports b Treaty Indian Permits i i i . Discussion a. License Returns, 1914-53 b. License Returns, 1951-1953 c. Treaty Indian Permit Returns 2. Predation a. Introduction b. Results c. Discussion d. Summary 3« P a r a s i t e s , Accidents and Disease #  PART V ' HABITAT STUDIES 1. Introduction 2. Methods 3 . Results . 4» Discussion PART VI. ECONOMIC ROLE OF MOOSE IN NORTHERN MANITOBA 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n a. I n Remote Areas b. I n A c c e s s i b l e Areas • 2. Summary  3. Habitat Improvement  APPENDIX A  207 207 209 211  223 225  SUMMARY  •LITERATURE CITED  188 189 192 198  212 213 213 219 222  PART V I I MANAGEMENT 1. Regulation o f Hunting Pressure a. I n Remote Areas b. I n A c c e s s i b l e Areas 2. Predator Control  PART V I I I  148 150 150 150 152 165 172 172 172 181 186 186  231  , following  24$  ILLUSTRATIONS F i g . 1.  Geological Sketch Map of Northern Manitoba  F i g . Z.  Forest C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( H a l l i d a y , 1 9 5 7 ) » and northern Clay Belt (Ehrlieh,1952:).  Following Page 5 6  Fig. 5.  Human population D i s t r i b u t i o n  49  Fig. 4.  Moose Range L i m i t s .  67  Fig. 5.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of moose i n Northern Manitoba based mainly on trappers' reports, 1955-54  71  F i g . 6.  Gunisao Lake area,black spruce forest.  74  F i g . 7.  Otter Lake area-:, BanksdLan pine f o r e s t .  74  F i g . .8.  Connelly Lake area-., white spruceBanksiain pine forest  74  Fig. 9.  Cross Latce area-:,small burned patch and mature white spruce.  74  Fig.10.  North of Cranberry Portage.A panorama.. 74  Fig.11.  Favourable p o s t - f i r e regeneration  74  F i g . 12:.  D i r e c t p o s t - f i r e regeneration of conifers. Direct p o s t - f i r e return to Banksian  74  Fig.15.  pine  74  F i g . 14.  Bennett River, r i p a r i a n habitat  75  F i g . 15»  Blackwater Lafce a r e a , a e r i a l view, of r i p a r i a n habitat S p l i t Lake: sect ion, r i p a r i a n habitat.. Head River Lake area:, balsam poplar on am o l d r i v e r levee. Sepastic River, a panorama o f a riparia-n border D i v i s i o n of Northern Manitoba into Registered Trapline • Sections  Fig.l6. F i g . 17. Fig.l8. F i g . 19. Fig.2.0.  75 75 75 75 88  Typical divis-ion of a Registered Trapl i n e section into traplines 88  F i g . 21.  A e r i a l Transects. Summerberry Marsh  101  Fig.22.  Plan of cards used to record a e r i a l transect data.  10.5  Fig.23.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of moos:e hunting pressure.. 143  F i g . 24.  pukatawagan, d i s t r i b u t i o n of main moosehunting pressure 143  Fig.25.  Geographic d i v i s i o n s used i n analysing moose hunting license returns  148  Fig.2d.  Annual k i l l of moose and deer i n Manitoba estimated from hunting license returns.. 150  Fig.27.  Antler-point d i s t r i b u t i o n s , 1951-52-53..  1&2  Fig.2.8.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of antler-points by modal classes  162  Fig.29.  Hudson Bay Railway vegetation transect...189  Fig.30.  O r i g i n a l exclosure fence  Fig.31.  Second exclosure fence  190  Fig.32.  TJnbrowsed red o s i e r dogwood  201  Fig.33.  Moderately browsed red o s i e r dogwood  201  F i g . 34.  Heavily browsed red o s i e r dogwood  201  Fig.35•  Nine-year-old red o s i e r dogwood. Heavily u t i l i z e d "broom*..,  201  i...l90  TABLES  Page  Number 1. Economic worth of the meat o f game animals to residents o f the remote areas o f Northern Manitoba  35  2.  H i s t o r i c a l Summary  3.  Registered Trappers* Re turns.Moose. Census; and. K i l l i n Northern Man-it;oba, 1940-50 to 1953-54  .......  39 - 44 91  4.  Summary o f Age and Sex Returns i n Trappers* Census  94  5.  Summary o f Age and Sex Returns i n Reported K i l l in Registered Trapline Sections  94  6.  Moose Populations i n Portions o f Northern Manitoba, 1952-53 and 1 9 5 3 - 5 4 . . . . .  96  7.  Summary o f Sex C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of Trappers* Censuses  ....98  8.  Summary o f Known A e r i a l Moose Census; Reports i n North America  .103  9.  Summary of A e r i a l Moose Censusies of the Saskatchewan River Delta  106  10.  Summary o f A e r i a l Censuses on Transects 14 to 17 inclusive:,Saskatchewan River Delta.  .107  11.  Summary of Moose Recorded by Each o f Three 110 Observers on the December 12, 1953» A e r i a l Census;  12.  Summary o f Moose Recorded by Each o f Three Observers on the; December 7» 1954, A e r i a l Census  I l l  13.  Moose seen on the? Four North Transects  115  14.  Summary of Moose Recorded by the; Writer, Summerberry A e r i a l Census  117  15.  Summary of Moose Recorded by Observers Other Than the Writer,Summerberry A e r i a l Census  118  16.  Summary o f Individual's Records on the Four Northern Transects  119  17.  Summary o f Conservation O f f i c e r s * Moose Census Reposts from the Saskatchewan River Delta  125  18.  Summary o f Conservation Officers» Reports o f Moose K i l l e d i n the Saskatchewan River Delta....125  19.  1955 Hunting S t a t i s t i c s f o r the Saskatchewan River Delta  128  20.  1953 Moose Hunting S t a t i s t i c s f o r the a e r i a l Census: Area  12.8  21.  Breakdown of Sex Ratios of Moose Reported K i l l e d by Treaty Indians i n the A e r i a l census Area  129  22.  Summary of Population S t a t i s t i c s Obtained by A e r i a l and Ground Surveys  25.  Summary of Age and Sex Ratios Obtained by Three Methods of Census.  157  24.  Theoretical Breeding P o t e n t i a l of Moose Population  140  25.  Summary of Annual K i l l of Moose i n Manitoba from 1914 to 1955, Estimated from License Returns.  149  26.  K i l l o f Deer i n Manitoba, 1955-1952:, Estimated from Hunting. License Returns  152  27.  Analysis of Hunters' License Returns to Show Estimated Total K i l l .  ..154  28.  Summary of S t a t i s t i c s Derived from Hunting License Returns,Northern Manitoba,1951-19521955  155  ..151  29.  Summary of Northern Manitoba Moose Hunting S t a t i s t i c s by Areas Hunted and Geographic Source of Hunters, 1951^52.-55 Number of Licenses Returned 156  50.  Monthly K i l l of Moose by Treaty Indians i n the Summerberry Fur R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Block  51.  Treaty Indian Special Permits, Summerberry Marsh 1952-55-54 167  52.  Moose K i l l by Treaty Indians,1955 find 1954, i n the Summerberry Marsh i n the summer as Compared to the K i l l i n the Winter 167  55.  Numbers of Moose K i l l e d , by the three Indian "Bands i n the summerberry Marsh.  166  169  34.  Sex Ratios of Moose Reported: K i l l e d by Treaty Indians i n the Summerberry Marsh, 1933  170  35.  Relative Abundance o f Wolves, Moose and Woodland Caribou on 22 Traplines  177  36.  Percentage of Traplines Reporting a Census, Cormorant Map Sheet Area  178  37.  Relative Abundance o f Wolves, Moose and Woodland Caribou i n the Herb Lake Group..... -..178  38.  Percentage of Traplines from which Census Reports were Received, Herb Lake Group ..179  39.  Stomach contents of 25 Wolves examined i n the^ Spring of 1954  180  40.  Stomach and I n t e s t i n a l Contents of 37 Wolves examined i n the Spring of 1954  181  41.  Relative Dominance of 9 Trees and Shrubs at One-miane Intervals along the Hudson Bay Railway. 193  42.  Counts of Stems and of Browsed and Unbrowsed Twigs of Red Osier Dogwood  43.  Counts o f Stems and of Browsed and Unbrowsed . Twigs Occurring i n a l / 1 0 t h . a c r e Exclosure  195  196  44.  Twig Counts of a Random Sample of Willow Bushes. 197  45.  Moose Population and Crop S t a t i s t i c s ,  1952-53.220  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Material f o r t h i s thesis was obtained while the writer was employed by the Game and F i s h e r i e s Branch, Department o f Mines and Natural Resources, Manitoba,  Thanks  are due to Mr* G.W. Malaher, Director, Game and F i s h e r i e s Branch f o r permission to use t h i s material and f o r h i s encouragement and c r i t i c i s m during the course o f the study. Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan, Head, Department o f Zoology, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, provided valuable c r i t i c i s m and comments during the course o f the study end of the manuscript. Special thanks are due the o f f i c e and f i e l d s t a f f s of the Game and Fisheries Branch i n northern Manitoba without whose constant assistance and advice t h i s thesis would have been impossible. Acknowledgement i s made to Mr. A.J. Reeve, Executive Assistant, Department o f Mines and Natural Resources, Winnipeg, who designed the o r i g i n a l study program and who gave much assistance both i n o f f i c e and f i e l d ; To Mr. F.B. Chalmers, Supervisor, Northern Resources Area, whose stimulation opened many new approaches; to Mr. H.R. Conn, Chief Fur Supervisor, and to other members on the s t a f f o f the Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Department o f Citizenship and Immigration  f o r advice and comments on the work dealing  with Treaty Indians; to the s t a f f s o f the Manitoba L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y and the Library, Faculty o f Medicine, U n i v e r s i t y o f  viii  Manitoba, whose assistance g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d  literature  research; to Dr. P.A. Larkin, Assistant professor, and Mr. F.H. Fay, graduate student, o f the Department o f Zoology, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r assistance with s t a t i s t i c a l problems; to Dr. H.B. Hawthorn, Professor o f Anthropology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r assistance with l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to Indians; to Dr. V. K r a j i n a , Associate Professor, Department of Biology and Botony, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, who introduced the w r i t e r to the f i e l d of forest ecology; and to the many hundreds o f trappers, hunters, and other interested persons who provided much o f the information upon which t h i s thesis i s based. To my parents, gratitude i s extended for t h e i r encouragement throughout the years spent i n the U n i v e r s i t y . F i n a l l y , i t i s e s p e c i a l l y pleasant to have t h i s opportunity to thank my wife f o r her constant help and encouragement through the whole study and for- preparing the final illustrations.  PART I . INTRODUCTION Before the i l l - f a t e d Henry Hudson s a i l e d i n t o t h e bay now bearing h i s name and thus l a i d the groundwork f o r opening a »back door  1,  to early  Canada, the aborigines o f Manitoba, a few members o f t h e great Athapaskan (and Algonkian?) race, were o b t a i n i n g a somewhat hazardous l i v e l i h o o d from the f u r , game and p l a n t resources o f the area.  Following the r e c e s s i o n o f  the i c e o f t h e Wisconsin g l a e i a t i o n , some 5,000 years ago, p l a n t s and a n i * mals, i n c l u d i n g man, began t o populate the a r e a . covered  1  By the time i t was ' d i s -  by the white man, a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d b i o t a was t o be found. Because there was p r o f i t a b l e commerce i n f u r s during the l ? t h ,  18th and 19th c e n t u r i e s , development o f northwestern Canada consisted mainly o f e x p l o r a t i o n f o r and establishment o f posts t o f u r t h e r the t r a d e . Everyone l i v e d t o a l a r g e extent on the n a t u r a l produce o f the l a n d .  Un~  scrupulous trapping and t r a d i n g p r a c t i c e s tended t o impoverish each new area t h a t was uncovered, causing the focus o f the f u r trade g r a d u a l l y t o move westward* The f u r trade t h r i v e d where the human population was small and the harvestable area v a s t .  Under such c o n d i t i o n s the game resources,  although perhaps u n e t h i c a l l y hunted according t o present standards, probably f e l t t h e e f f e c t o f humans only s l i g h t l y —  except t h a t f o r e s t f i r e s  probably increased i n number and thus a l t e r e d range c o n d i t i o n s . With the advent o f the 20th century and i t s headlong f l i g h t t o i n d u s t r i a l i s m , the human population i n t h e northwest began t o soar.  2  Prospectors pounded and powdered t h e i r way over the vast Pre-Cambrian "Canadian S h i e l d " i n summer and o f t e n stayed to t r a p through t h e w i n t e r * Farming spread to the very doorstep o f t h e b o r e a l f o r e s t , sawmills, t i e and pulp camps v a r i o u s l y followed and l e d t o mines and mine s i t e s newly discovered by the prospector-trappers. S t i l l everyone t r i e d t o l i v e as much as p o s s i b l e on the c o u n t r y s n a t u r a l produce, and i n some places T  the s t r a i n was more than could be borne* In northern Manitoba concern about t h e near-disappearance o f beaver r e s u l t e d i n the establishment o f r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s i n 1940-46 and i n 1950 concern about t h e reported diminution i n numbers o f moose r e s u l t e d i n t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f the present study o f the r S l e played by t h a t species i n t h e economy and ecology o f t h e n o r t h . In a memorandum dated A p r i l 9, 1951 and on f i l e a t the Winnipeg O f f i c e o f the Game and F i s h e r i e s Branch, the purpose o f the study was set out by A. J . Reeve, B i o l o g i s t , as f o l l o w s : "The commencement o f a two-to-three year population and d i s t r i b u t i o n study i n c l u d i n g study of a l l obt a i n a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on moose f o r the recent p a s t j h a b i t a t s t u d i e s ; economic importance t o r e s i d e n t s of remote areas, and p o s i t i o n as sporting game. I t i s planned t o begin the srtudy i n the northern p o r t i o n o f the Province f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g reasons: (a) The season i s closed i n t h e south and t h e r e f o r e takes care- o f the s i t u a t i o n f o r t h e present. (b) Moose a r e shot mainly f o r sport i n the south, whereas i n the north they are taken p r i m a r i l y f o r food and c l o t h i n g . (c) There i s an immediate problem i n t h e north i n as much as some p o l i c y should be formulated before next f a l l a s t o whether sport hunting i s to continue." Thus t h e reasons f o r and the scope o f t h e study were b r i e f l y  described and i t was on t h i s stage t h a t the study began. The f i r s t task was t o d i s c o v e r where moose were t o be found w i t h i n the area and i n what numbers. To t h i s end an appeal t o the ad«* m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s brought f o r t h estimates o f abundance on each o f hundreds o f t r a p l i n e s .  This trapper census had been  i n i t i a t e d i n a small way i n the C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t (see Part IV f o r desc r i p t i o n o f R. T. L. a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e c t i o n s ) i n the f a l l o f 1949 i n 1951  and  i t was extended t o other organized s e c t i o n s . With i n f o r m a t i o n  on population and d i s t r i b u t i o n being accumulated, a t t e n t i o n was turned t o such matters as population t r e n d s , age and sex r a t i o s , h a b i t a t con~ d i t i o n s , decimating i n f l u e n c e s and t o an attempt t o coordinate a l l of these f a c t o r s i n t o a f l e x i b l e management program. A e r i a l censuses were conducted on a s u i t a b l e t e s t area, l i c e n s e r e t u r n s were analyzed and questionnaires, personal i n t e r v i e w s , and l i b r a r y research were employed t o f i l l i n needed background i n f o r m a t i o n . As no previous study had been made of any o f the l a r g e game animals of northern Manitoba, one o f the main c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h i s study has been the d e l i n e a t i o n o f range l i m i t s and population t r e n d s . Since any management program f o r the area w i l l of n e c e s s i t y have t o be based on a number o f years of experimentation, no f i n a l statement con« cerning t h i s phase o f the work can be made now.  The known recent i n -  creases i n numbers of moose i n a p o r t i o n o f the range have however i n d i c a t e d t h a t heavier hunting pressure can be withstood there and experiments during two hunting seasons i n d i c a t e that an open season on both sexes i s having no harmful e f f e c t .  The study has a l s o shown t h a t  4  i t would be d e s i r a b l e t o spread hunting pressure i n t o some of the l e s s a c c e s s i b l e areas, but no experimental work t o t e s t ways and means o f doing so has been done,, Nor have experiments been c a r r i e d out on h a b i t a t improvement although i t i s now r e a l i z e d t h a t continued o r i n c r e a s e d abundance o f moose i n t h i s northern area i s very l a r g e l y dependent upon openings i n the f o r e s t cover.  The r S l e o f the n a t i v e s i n the economy o f  the area i s considered as w e l l as the r o l e o f t h e moose i n the economy o f the n a t i v e s and the a t t i t u d e i s taken t h a t people are as much a r e source as w i l d l i f e —  o r minerals o r f o r e s t s —  and must be considered  i n t h e i r , t r u e p o s i t i o n as one o f the most important f a c e t s o f the ecology and management of other resources*  PART I I . DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA Geography "Northern Manitoba", i n popular usage i n c l u d e s a l l o f the province l y i n g north o f the 53rd p a r a l l e l north l a t i t u d e .  This i s the  area w i t h which the present study has been mainly concerned* The t o t a l area of Manitoba i s 246,512 square m i l e s , o f which approximately 26,790 square m i l e s are water.  Northern Manitoba con«  s t i t u t e s 68.9 percent o f the t o t a l o r 169,750 square m i l e s (15,590 * square m i l e s water).  (Figures supplied by Surveys Branch, Department  Mines and N a t u r a l Resources, Winnipeg). As i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . 1 the l a r g e s t p o r t i o n of the area i s u n d e r l a i n w i t h rock o f Pre-Cambrian age,, w i t h P a l e o z o i c limestones situated- i n t h e southwest and northeast.  I t i s estimated t h a t the i c e  sheets o f the l a s t g l a c i a t i o n receded from the area approximately 5,000 years ago ( F l i n $ , 1953, P1.3) and t h a t during the Late G l a c i a l epoch, Lake Agassiz covered "Almost a l l o f Manitoba west o f the 95th meridian and south o f the d i v i d e between Burntwood and C h u r c h i l l r i v e r s ..." (Antevs, 1931, P»46) Crystophenes ( b u r i e d sheets o f i c e ) ( T y r r e l l , 1904) and permafrost s t i l l underlay very l a r g e t r a c t s o f the northern p a r t o f the area (Jenness, J . L. 1949). The "Great Lakes" o f Manitoba, remains o f Lake A g a s s i z , are prominent features on present?-day maps and t h e "Old Beach" n o t a t i o n on  To f o l l o w page 5  6  the prominent r i d g e s p a r a l l e l i n g t h e shores o f Hudson Bay a t t e s t s t o an e a r l i e r , l a r g e r Bay. Eskers and mer^aines a r e prominent features o f the a r e a , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the northern p a r t , and the great c l a y d e p o s i t s o f the south c e n t r a l p o r t i o n (See F i g . 2) show the r e s u l t s o f sedimentation a t the time o f the great g l a c i a l l a k e . Following recession o f the i c e , p l a n t s and animals g r a d u a l l y moved i n t o the area u n t i l today o n l y a small p o r t i o n around Hudson Bay i s not covered w i t h trees ( F i g . 2 ) * Although not d e f i n i t e l y reported upon i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s considered t h a t , as Griggs (1934) found i n Alaska, the edge o f the tundra i s gradually being pushed back as the f o r est advances.  Further south, p l a n t s and animals a r e s t i l l advancing  northward and occasional vagrants are found w e l l beyond t h e i r normal population range. Drainage i s from west to east, towards Hudson Bay. The t e r r a i n i s g e n e r a l l y very f l a t w i t h consequent poor drainage and a high water table*  I n the northwest ( i . e . north o f the 58th p a r a l l e l and west o f  the 100th meridian), the t e r r a i n i s more rugged, being furrowed w i t h dozens o f eskers and w i t h round-topped "mountains" f i v e hundred f e e t o r more i n height. The west^central p o r t i o n (drained by the Grass, Burntwood and C h u r c h i l l r i v e r s ) i s rough,, rocky country w i t h sections r i s i n g more than 1,000 f e e t above s e a l e v e l , whereas the e l e v a t i o n i n the f l a t e a s t - c e n t r a l and southern portions seldom r i s e s above 850 f e e t . Climate The c l i m a t e , too, trends from southwest t o northeast (Connor, 1939), the annual average d a i l y mean temperature a t The Pas being 31° F»  To f o l l o w page 6  H U D S O N  X  Fig. 2. Forest Classification (Halliday,1937), and northern Clay Belt (Khrlich,1952).  2 o -p  B15 BS1 B22 B27  Manitoba Lowlands Nelson Hirer Northern Coniferous Northern Transition  i  Main Deposits Localized Deposits S g K J s i l t y Sediments xxxxx The Pas Morain  s.ovir  3  aaaaea.  w,«.»,..,.  • 3  O «  0 »  •  and a t C h u r c h i l l 18° F, I t i s a land o f c o o l temperate c l i m a t e , modi« f i e d i n part by Hudson Bay and the l a r g e l a k e s ,  J u l y average maxima  range from 75° F. a t The Pas t o 64° F. a t C h u r c h i l l and January average minima from »18° F. a t The Pas t o *-27° F, a t C h u r c h i l l * n*d., C l i m a t i c Summaries, V o l , 1 ) ,  (Anonymous,  The average f r o s t ^ f r e e p e r i o d i s  about 100 days a t The Pas and 70 days a t C h u r c h i l l and the vegetative seasons a t t h e two points are about 160 and 90 days r e s p e c t i v e l y ( C u r r i e , 1948). P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s l i g h t , averaging about 15 inches per year, o f which approximately two-thirds f a l l s as r a i n during the growing season o f May t o September and the r e s t mainly as snow (computed on the b a s i s o f 10" snow • 1" water equivalent) from October to A p r i l .  (Anon,  n.d. C l i m a t i c Summaries, V e l . I ) .  B i o t i c Position The area l i e s almost wholly w i t h i n the Hudsonian B i o t i c Pro* vince o f Dice (1943) and the Northern Coniferous Forest Formation o f Shelford (1926, p.264).  I t i s composed o f parts o f f o u r Sections o f  H a l l i d a y * s (1937) B o r e a l Forest Region ( F i g . 2 ) *• v i z . , Manitoba Lowlands, (southwest Paleozoic area) Nelson R i v e r ( c l a y b e l t ) , Northern Coniferous (Pre-Cambrian area east and west o f the c l a y b e l t ) and Northern T r a n s i t i o n (zone o f i n t e g r a d a t i o n between f o r e s t and tundra). C o s t i n g s l  (1950, p,240 f f . ) B o r e a l Forest Formation and Weaver and Clements  1  (1938, p«48 f f . ) P i c e a - L a r i x Formation a l s o cover approximately the same area as H a l l i d a y * s and Shelford*s groupings. I n the southern p o r t i o n , white spruce (Picea glauca) i s found on the better-drained s i t e s , black spruce (Picea mariana) and l a r c h o r tamarack ( L a r i x l a r i c i n a ) on the  a  wetter s i t e s , and. Jack pine (Pinus Banksiana) on dry, rocky or sandy s i t e s j balsam f i r (Abies balsamea) i s present but not abundant i n t h i s areaj paper b i r c h (Betula p a p y r i f e r a ) i s f r e q u e n t l y found a s s o c i a t e d w i t h white spruoej and b i r c h and. trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) are common p o s t - f i r e invaders on w e l l drained s i t e s from which the humus has not been t o t a l l y burned*  Jack pine i s t h e common post f i r e invader  on rocky areas from which most of t h e humus has disappeared*  Bogs a r e  not so frequently burned as are d r i e r l o c a t i o n s , and a r e normally rein« vaded by spruce and l a r c h without a deciduous s u c c e s s i o n a l stage* I n the northern p o r t i o n of the area (but south o f t h e tundra) black spruce i n h a b i t s both the lowlands and uplands and white spruce becomes a l e s s prominent component o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n . I n the northwest s a n d h i l l r e g i o n Jack p i n e , aspen and b i r c h are dominants (none however growing t o com*» m e r c i a l s i z e ) on t h e w e l l drained areas and black spruce on t h e l o w - l y i n g wet lands* I n t h e f l o o d p l a i n o f t h e Saskatchewan R i v e r are found a number, o f p l a n t species belonging t o b i o t i c communities f a r t h e r t o the south and e a s t . F a i r stands o f Manitoba maple (Acer negundo) may be found here as w e l l as sparse showings o f green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and white elm (Ulmus americanal. Mountain ash (Sorbus sp.) (gyrus sp.) was seen i n the Norway House area and was reported t o be growing near Wabowden* The species t h r i v e s i n gardens a t The Pas and two bur oaks (Quercus macrocarpa) have had a hazardous existence i n the town park a t The Pas -» w e l l north o f t h e i r normal range. T y p i c a l components o f t h e fauna are moose, woodland c a r i b o u  9  (Rangifer c a r i b o u ) , barrenground caribou (Rangifer a r c t i c u s ) , beaver (Castor canadensis), muskrat (Ondatra z i b e t h i c a ) , mink (Mustela v i s o n ) , wolf (Canis l u p u s ) , black bear (Ursus americanus), b o r e a l redback v o l e , (Clethrionomys g a p p e r i ) , snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus); spruce grouse, (Canachites canadensis), r u f f e d grouse (Bonasa umbellus), s h a r p - t a i l e d grouse (Pediocetes phasfanellus)', w i l l o w and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus and L , r u p e s t r i s ) . and snow bunting (Plectrophenax n i v a l i s ) *  Human Population a) I n t r o d u c t i o n There i s an o f t - r e c u r r i n g statement i n recent w i l d l i f e litera« t u r e t h a t game management i s dependent more upon the "management o f man 11  than o f the game animals themselves, and i n order t o manage man i t i s f i r s t o f a l l necessary t o understand something o f h i s background, h i s c u l t u r e , h i s economic status and h i s psychology*  I n northern Manitoba  the n a t i v e peoples are the ones who harvest the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f the annual game crop ( i n t h e case o f moose, they harvest an estimated eighty percent o f the annual crop), and extensive management procedures must take t h i s fact into consideration.  The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s may appear naive i n  some respects, e s p e c i a l l y t o those schooled i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e s o f geography, sociology, anthropology o r ethnology:  i t i s not intended to be an  exhaustive treatment o f the subject, but considers people from the view* p o i n t o f a b i o l o g i s t i n t e r e s t e d i n the wise use o f w i l d l i f e , and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , o f moose.  Just as moose cannot be studied i n t e l l i g e n t l y  without reference t o t h e i r environment, so the management o f moose cannot be considered i n t e l l i g e n t l y without reference t o the wider f i e l d o f the  10  management of the a s s o c i a t e d game and f u r animals and of the economic, c u l t u r a l , and s o c i a l status of the peoples • concerned.. There are f o u r reasonably d i s t i n c t r a c i a l types o f peoples i n northern Manitoba:  the o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s , the Cree and Chipewyan  Indiansj whites of d i v e r s e e x t r a c t i o n but mainly Scandinavian and AngloSaxonj and persons o f mixed Indian and white bl»od who, f o r want of a more d e s c r i p t i v e term, w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as metis.  The Cree belong t o  the Algonkian race, the Chipewyan to the Athapaskan,  The l a t t e r appear to  be r e l a t i v e l y recent post-Pleistocene immigrants from A s i a and are probably mongoloidj the former are considered by Jenness (1937) t o be of o l d e r stock than the Athapaskans, non-mongoloid, and perhaps more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to Europeans than to the Indians o f Canada's west Coast*  The Atha-  pascans (Chipewyans) occupy the extreme northern p a r t o f t h e province, mainly beyond the areas where moose compose an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the fauna, and w i l l t h e r e f o r e be omitted from the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . Throughout the remainder of the northern p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e , the Cree are the main Indian t r i b e , although i n the southeast p o r t i o n there are a number o f c l o s e l y * r e l a t e d Saulteaux,  Because of t h e i r close r e l a t i o n -  ship and apparently i d e n t i c a l present-day c u l t u r e these Saulteaux w i l l be considered without d i s t i n c t i o n from the Cree* The m a j o r i t y o f the metis have chosen t o f o l l o w the Indian way of l i f e r a t h e r than the white and l i v e i n c l o s e a p p o s i t i o n to the lixdians throughout the a r e a .  They are considered separately from the Indians  mainly because they are f u l l c i t i z e n s and do not enjoy c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s accorded t o the I n d i a n s .  11  The white population i s concentrated mainly i n the l a r g e r centres along the railways but a few are l o c a t e d i n the remote areas, some as trappers but most as t r a d e r s , m i s s i o n a r i e s and government employees* b)  Indians i * P r i m i t i v e Culture of the "Bush" or "Swampy" Cree At the time o f f i r s t contact w i t h white man the Cree appeared as  a nomadic group of the b o r e a l f o r e s t i n the James Bay-Lake Superior area, l i v i n g i n c o n i c a l or dome-shaped lodges covered w i t h skins o r b i r c h bark (and spruce b a r k ? ) .  They were hunters whose l i v e s depended on t h e i r  prowess w i t h snowshoe, canoe, bow,  spear and snare*  They apparently  wandered i n small f a m i l y groups, meeting i n l a r g e r rendez-vous only once a year*  Of these spring assemblages, Skinner (1912, p*56) has s a i d ,  "During the two or three weeks o f t h e i r d u r a t i o n , the few ceremonies and c o u n c i l s o f these people were h e l d , and the miteo, or prophet, prophesied the events o f the coming year*  At t h i s time the f e a s t i n g or g r e e t i n g a  dance was h e l d * " Also at t h i s time the younger men and women obtained t h e i r marriage p a r t n e r s * Their d i e t was p r i m a r i l y meat augmented o c c a s i o n a l l y by f i s h and probably by b e r r i e s i n season*  They apparently d i d not "clean" t h e i r  game and f i s h , e a t i n g the stomach and i t s contents i n the case of moose and woodland caribou, and the complete e n t r a i l s o f ducks, geese and f i s h , thus o b t a i n i n g h i g h l y n u t r i t i o u s foods that the white man normally wastes* Even as r e c e n t l y as the f i r s t decade o f the present century, Skinner (191}£, p*26) reported t h a t the Cree o f the James Bay area s t i l l made a t h i c k soup of the blood "mixed w i t h the undigested white moss ( l i c h e n )  12  found i n i t s (the caribou's) stomach and sometimes r o c k weed* (a l i c h e n ) T  i s added to t h i c k e n i t «*.  The legbones of the caribou are pounded t o a  powder »*• to eat on the journey •••  A small b a g - l i k e p a r t of the c a r i -  b o u ^ stomach ... i s used as a k e t t l e f o r cooking food*"  The n u t r i t i o n a l  value derived from i n g e s t i n g l i c h e n s i s questionable, but a t l e a s t by eating a l l the p a r t s , they would have obtained as much food value as poss i b l e from the animals k i l l e d *  Mien more meat was a v a i l a b l e than could  be u t i l i z e d immediately, i t was d r i e d and smoked over an open f i r e . Regarding vegetable foods, Skinner (1912, p*30) has stated t h a t "they were almost unknown*  B e r r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y b l u e b e r r i e s , were eaten.  They were b o i l e d u n t i l they formed a t h i c k paste, and then cut i n t o l o a v e s . As most of the Eastern Cree t e r r i t o r y i s beyond the northernmost range o f the sugar maple, they have no maple sugar o r syrup; but * b i r c h water molasses' i s made. Boots are o f t e n eaten*  The tops and stems o f w i l d  onions ( A l l i u m ) are cut up and b o i l e d , but the roots are not eaten. p l a n t s a i d t o resemble rhubarb (Rhus] i s a l s o used."  A  The w r i t e r has un-  covered no evidence to i n d i c a t e t h a t b e r r i e s were used i n pemmican by the e a r l y Cree.  At the time o f the f i r s t J e s u i t records o f the t r i b e they were  s a i d t o make o c c a s i o n a l t r i p s southward to o b t a i n maize from the more a g r i c u l t u r a l southern t r i b e s , but even t h i s supplement seems to have been l i t t l e used and may have been a recent innovation at the time the J e s u i t s f i r s t recorded i t * During periods of food s c a r c i t y these people knew extreme priva-? t i o n and the legends of cannibalism among them a t t e s t to t h e i r sometimes precarious l i f e .  I t was because of t h i s precarious existence t h a t they  13  d i d not l i v e i n v i l l a g e s o r even i n l a r g e roaming bands but i n small groups most commonly of one f a m i l y o r of one c e n t r a l f a m i l y accompanied by a few small f i l i a l  groups.  T h e i r c l o t h i n g was e n t i r e l y of animal o r i g i n .  Caribou and moose  hides were used f o r moccasins, l e g g i n g s , hooded coats and mittens; beaver f o r s h i r t s (dressed w i t h the f u r side i n , from whence came the f u r t r a d e r s T  term "Coat Beaver"); f i s h e r and other f i n e f u r s f o r caps and leggings; woven r a b b i t s k i n s f o r blankets and, according t o Skinner (1912, p,15) f o r moccasins f o r walking on g l a r e i c e . The l i s t need not be expanded —  the  Cree were dependent almost s o l e l y on the f o r e s t animals f o r t h e i r food and c l o t h i n g . They were a l s o dependent upon the b i g game animals f o r s h e l t e r . T h e i r c o n i c a l o r domed loges were most commonly covered with the s k i n s o f moose o r caribou, although they a l s o u t i l i z e d b i r c h bark and p o s s i b l y even spruce bark f o r t h i s purpose.  T h e i r snowshoes were l a c e d w i t h animal  "babiche" and t h e i r canoes were covered w i t h b i r c h bark,  (Apparently the  Cree d i d not make skin-covered canoes as d i d some o f the p l a i n s Indians and the Chipewyans,) The use of dogs to p u l l toboggans or sleds i n p r e h i s t o r i c a l time i s denied by some w r i t e r s and supported by o t h e r s .  I t seems to the  present w r i t e r t h a t the maintenance of any l a r g e number of dogs would have s o r e l y taxed the food resources of a f o r e s t people dependent upon p r i m i t i v e weapons, and t h a t i f dogs were used a t a l l they were probably few i n number and used more f o r hunting game than as draught animals, ( I n t h i s regard i t i s o f i n t e r e s t to note t h a t the Chipewyans i n e a r l y  14  times would not use t h e i r dogs t o p u l l toboggans, "because they b e l i e v e d t h e i r t r i b e had descended from a connection between a dog and a woman" (Birket-Smith, 1930, p.40)), ii  Changes i n t h e i r c u l t u r e Perhaps one o f the most important e a r l y changes wrought by  white man was the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f i r e - a r m s , thereby p e r m i t t i n g greater e x p l o i t a t i o n by the Cree o f the f o r e s t animals and o f the surrounding Indian t r i b e s ( e s p e c i a l l y of those t r i b e s which could not g a i n access to the white f u r t r a d e r s without passing through Cree t e r r i t o r y .  Apparently  very soon a f t e r the E n g l i s h e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i n g posts on James and Hudson Bays, the Cree began t o f l o c k t o them, t h e i r l i v e s became centered around the annual t r i p to the post, and i n order t o o b t a i n the new  "necessities"  such as muskets, axes, k n i v e s , t e a , tobacco and a l c o h o l , the emphasis o f t h e i r hunting a c t i v i t i e s s h i f t e d from food gathering to f u r gathering. As f u r trappers and as middlenmen t r a d e r s between the E n g l i s h and the more d i s t a n t t r i b e s , the Cree prospered.  W i t h i n a century of the founding o f  the E n g l i s h posts they had expanded t h e i r range westward t o the Rocky Mountains and northward from C h u r c h i l l to Great Slave Lake.  Perhaps i t  was smallpox t h a t ended t h e i r sudden r i s e , perhaps i t ended because the white f u r t r a d e r s moved westward too and brought the balance of power back to a more normal l e v e l by dealing d i r e c t l y w i t h the t r i b e s which the Cree had subjugated.  Whatever the cause, the Cree began t o l o s e  t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , and by the end of another century l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r former g l o r y was l e f t except the huge area of t h e i r new As the r i f l e replaced the bow, t i v e snare.  range.  so the t r a p replaced the p r i m i -  The new axes and s t e e l c h i s e l s permitted e a s i e r access t o  15  beaver under the i c e o f t h e i r w i n t e r ponds^traps and r i f l e s permitted e a s i e r d e s t r u c t i o n of game and f u r animals.  Desire f o r the white man' s T  goods encouraged the k i l l i n g o f more and more animals, and the f o r e s t s which had o r i g i n a l l y provided the Indians w i t h a g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v e l i h o o d became depleted o f the n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e . more time was spent i n the v i c i n i t y o f the p o s t s .  L i t t l e by l i t t l e  The c u l t u r e changed  from a nomadic existence i n which every f a m i l y was e n t i r e l y s u f f i c i e n t unte i t s e l f to a semi-nomadic existence where every f a m i l y was dependent upon the white t r a d e r , to greater or l e s s e r degree f o r i t s very e x i s t e n c e . S t i l l , i t seems to have taken the twentieth century, w i t h i t s increased t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s to b r i n g about the almost complete a c c u l t u r a t i o n of the northern Cree.  So long as the t r a d e r s could not  provide a l l the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e f o r the Indians because costs of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were too high, the n a t i v e s were forced t o obtain at l e a s t p a r t o f t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d from the chase, and t o spend a t l e a s t the winters away from the t r a d i n g posts, trapping f u r bearers and g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w i n g some of the a b o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n of l i f e .  As the traders increased the  v a r i e t y and q u a n t i t y of t h e i r wares, the natives began t o spend l e s s time i n the f o r e s t , remaining only long enough to o b t a i n a supply o f f u r s which would permit them to obtain food and c l o t h i n g a t the posts.  From the  o r i g i n a l p r a c t i c e o f spending only one to three days a t the post i n the e a r l y summer and r e t u r n i n g t o t h e i r hunting grounds f o r the remainder o f the year, they advanced (or regressed, perhaps) to spending a few weeks and then a few months a t the posts, and, as the i n f l u e n c e of the churches increased, they even returned to the posts a t Christmas and Easter,  Where o r i g i n a l l y a hunter came t o the post i n the spring w i t h  16  a supply of f u r s , obtained c e r t a i n goods i n trade and departed w i t h them, through spending i d l e time at the post i n the summer, he approached the winter w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l s t o carry him through the trapping season, and the enslaving c r e d i t system arose*  Under t h i s system a trapper would  o b t a i n from a t r a d e r s u f f i c i e n t c r e d i t i n trade goods t o c a r r y him through the trapping season and vihen he returned t o the post i n the s p r i n g the trader would f i r s t deduct the amount o f the debt before a l l o w i n g new purchases to be made* Most f r e q u e n t l y the trapper would b a r t e r whatever f u r was l e f t f o r a few " n e c e s s i t i e s " plus many worthless items and f i n d t h a t i n order to go back to h i s trapping grounds he would have t o o b t a i n more credit.  As V a l e n t i n e (1954) has mentioned, being i n debt soon became  "the accepted mode of l i v i n g " . Woollen c l o t h i n g replaced t h e i r n a t i v e f u r s , canvas replaced b i r c h bark f o r covering lodges and canoes; bannock (a crude form o f wheat bread) became a "necessity" where animal products had p r e v i o u s l y s u f f i c e d ; t e a and tobacco were n e a r l y i n d i s p e n s i b l e ; and, of course, fire-arms and ammunition, knives, axes, c h i s e l s , t r a p s , and snare wire became e s s e n t i a l p a r t s of the trapper*s o u t f i t where p r i m e v a l l y h i s two hands had been h i s only b a s i c e s s e n t i a l s . With the increase i n expensive " n e c e s s i t i e s " , more c r e d i t had to be obtained and more f u r s had to be turned i n to pay o f f the debt.  I t was, and i s , a " v i c i o u s c i r c l e " .  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see the many r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f the widespread i n f l u e n c e o f t h e churches i n changing the Cree*s way o f l i f e , but c e r t a i n l y one o f the most notable, i f l e a s t commendable, features of the m i s s i o n a r i e s i n f l u e n c e was the tendency to draw the natives i n t o c e n t r a l communities.  1  17  The e a r l y J e s u i t s n e a r l y despaired o f ever converting the Cree because they never stayed i n one place long enough t o be i n s t r u c t e d i n the C h r i s tian l i f e .  The European-trained m i s s i o n a r i e s appeared t o consider t h a t  a g r i c u l t u r e and v i l l a g e l i f e were necessary concomitants of C h r i s t i a n i t y and worked assiduously to b r i n g such c o n d i t i o n s about*  While there i s not  the s l i g h t e s t doubt t h a t i t was through high p r i n c i p l e s and i n the b e l i e f i  t h a t such an existence was i n the n a t i v e s best i n t e r e s t s t h a t these z e a l 1  ous men  strove to b r i n g the Indians i n t o communities, i n r e t r o s p e c t i t  appears t o t h i s w r i t e r t h a t t h e i r doing so simply aggravated an unhealthy t r e n d , and hastened the degradation o f the race* led  A combination o f f a c t o r s  the Indians i n t o v i l l a g e l i f e ; but t h e i r conversion t o any form o f  a g r i c u l t u r e other than the growing of a few potatoes has yiet to take p l a c e . The m i s s i o n a r i e s a l s o banished much o f the o l d Indian medicine l o r e —  a  f a c t which has been r e g r e t t e d by at l e a s t one medical doctor who has r e * c e n t l y worked among them (Corrigan, 1946)* The b e l l t h a t t o l l e d f o r the passing o f the bow, t o l l e d more l o u d l y as the years.went by and one item a f t e r another s l i p p e d away and was l o s t from t h e c u l t u r e .  With the i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n d u s t r y i n the form  o f r a i l r o a d s , c i t i e s , mines and timber production, the b e l l was g r a d u a l l y slowed so t h a t i t s sound was heard by only a few. The o l d c u l t u r e withered and was l a i d to r e s t .  I n some areas i t stopped*  I n other areas, w h i l e dying,  i t s t i l l shows f l a s h e s of l i f e , and w i t h t h a t l i f e the hope t h a t i t can be maintained, even i f not rejuvenated.  I t can be maintained through  intelli-  gent u t i l i z a t i o n o f the w i l d l i f e resource, through the i n t e g r a t i o n of w i l d l i f e and other forms o f l i v e l i h o o d , through teaching the n a t i v e s t o apprec i a t e t h e i r own c u l t u r a l background and showing them what they have l o s t  18  through t r y i n g t o i m i t a t e every aspect -r* both good and bad — o f t h e white man's c u l t u r e .  I t seems i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the Cree eventually w i l l  be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e p o l y g l o t o f n a t i o n a l i t i e s t h a t i s emerging as "Canadian", but these people are o n l y a ,few generations removed from stone age nomads and t h e present trend toward r a p i d d e c u l t u r a t i o n i s e v i l because i t i s l e a v i n g them w i t h a bastard c u l t u r e , an unuseful mixture o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and.savagery, t h a t i s unsuited t o t h e i r environment and t o t h e i r slow r a c i a l advance from the stone age.  I t i s making  an o r i g i n a l l y proud race i n t o a race o f beggars and p a r a s i t e s * I f the Cree are t o be made i n t o u s e f u l c i t i z e n s they must be re-taught how t o l i v e w i t h t h e i r environment.  I t must be the aim o f re«  sources administrations t o make t h a t environment support as many as p o s s i b l e with a standard o f l i v i n g t h a t w i l l permit h e a l t h , happiness and pride to return.  I f the environment cannot support a l l of them then i t  must be the task o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s concerned t o see t h a t t h e overflow i s taken care o f i n other environments i n which i t . i s p o s s i b l e f o r honest l i v e l i h o o d s t o be made. Game management i s only one' part o f the mosaic, but i t i s one o f the most important.  I t aims t o promote the best possible  u t i l i z a t i o n o f the game and f u r resources over t h e longest p o s s i b l e period of time, iii  Present S o c i a l P o s i t i o n o f the Cree i r i Northern Manitoba According to the 1944 census o f Indians i n Canada (Canada, 1945),,  there were 7,051 Indians l i v i n g on f i f t e e n reservations i n northern Manitoba a t t h a t time.  Other smaller reservations have also been set aside f o r them  but are not mentioned i n t h e census r e p o r t .  The Cree a l l profess one o r  another form o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , about t h i r t y percent belonging t o t h e Roman  19  C a t h o l i c Church and the remainder t o various protestant branches, c h i e f l y the Church o f England,  Their dominant source o f l i v e l i h o o d i s from f u r  t r a p p i n g and hunting although i n recent years more o f them have a l s o become part-time fishermen on the many commercially-fished Lakes o f the north*  A  few are employed as l a b o r e r s on the r a i l w a y s , i n the mines, logging and prospecting camps, i n the l a r g e r settlements such as t h e Pas, and occasiona l l y by the t r a d i n g p o s t s , missions and h o s p i t a l s i n the more remote areas. They are educated a t mission schools and a t schools operated by the f e d e r a l government, and w h i l e the r a t e o f i l l i t e r a c y i s s t e a d i l y dropping, only a very small percentage advance beyond grade-school l e v e l .  Two boarding  schools are operated by the Roman C a t h o l i c Church, one a t the Pas and one a t Cross Lake,  Some Protestant p u p i l s are sent t o a government boarding  school a t Prince A l b e r t , Saskatchewan.  Free medical s e r v i c e s are operated  by the f e d e r a l government through a h o s p i t a l a t Norway House and nursing s t a t i o n s a t most o f t h e l a r g e r Indian centres.  Some intermarriage w i t h  whites and w i t h metis occurs but the w r i t e r has no s t a t i s t i c a l reference on t h i s p o i n t ,  Indian-white marriages are u s u a l l y o f a white man t o an  I n d i a n woman although supposedly the reverse combination may o c c a s i o n a l l y occur.  Indian-metis intermarriage appears t o be on a more r e c i p r o c a l  basis. About t e n years ago a medical survey team studied t h e Indians o f northern Manitoba, and i n one part o f t h e i r report gave a v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n o f Indian housing and s a n i t a t i o n : "Today the Indian i s copying the white man and l i v e s d u r i n g the winter months i n small one-roomed shacks. Frequently the c o n d i t i o n s are almost unbelievable as many as 10 t o 12 people l i v i n g i n a shack 12 f e e t  20  square. The o n l y f u r n i t u r e may c o n s i s t o f a box stove i n t h e centre and a s m a l l t a b l e o r s t o o l . Sometimes there may be one broken down s i n g l e bed, but the m a j o r i t y sleep on the f l o o r . The door i s seldom more than 5 f e e t high and i s covered w i t h a blanket or o l d piece o f canvas to keep out the wind. Two small windows l e t i n the l i g h t , and the s o l e source o f v e n t i l a t i o n i s the stove and f a i r l y l a r g e hole i n the f l a t roof f o r the stove-pipe. Their s a n i t a r y habits are very p r i m i t i v e . Refuse and excreta l i t t e r the snow i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of the house. With the advent o f s p r i n g the whole f a m i l y moves t o t e n t s , which they s e t up a few hundred yards away, and t r u s t to the s p r i n g and summer r a i n s t o wash away the r e f u s e . During the summer months they f r e q u e n t l y change the l o c a t i o n o f the t e n t s as they move about i n t h e i r quest f o r food." (Moore, et a l . , .1946, p.226) At the present time winter quarters on the t r a p l i n e s i n the m a j o r i t y of cases do not d i f f e r m a t e r i a l l y from Moore s d e s c r i p t i o n * Houses i n the r  settlements are g e n e r a l l y o f much b e t t e r q u a l i t y and where l o c a l sawmills have been introduced, many good frame b u i l d i n g s have r e c e n t l y been b u i l t . Furnishings are g e n e r a l l y few however, even i n the best houses, ness v a r i e s from scrubbed and water-bleached squalor.  Cleanli-  f l o o r s t o almost unbelievable  As f o r community s a n i t a t i o n , there was no need f o r i t i n the r a -  c i a l h i s t o r y of the Cree, and i t appears as though i t w i l l take considerable teaching, patience and time t o b r i n g them t o r e a l i z e the need f o r i t , -Cert a i n of the Indian Health Service nurses are to be commended f o r t h e i r r e cent work i n t h i s regard. Now the Indians (and metis) are f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as being l a z y , whereas t a l e s o f t h e i r hardihood, stamina and energy i n the past are legion.  Medical a u t h o r i t i e s have recognized t h i s change as f a c t and b e l i e v e  i t has been brought about l a r g e l y through a decreasing plane of n u t r i t i o n which i n t u r n has been fostered by the i n c r e a s i n g tendency o f the Indians  21  to l i v e as much as p o s s i b l e " o f f the s h e l f " and l e s s and l e s s " o f f the land".  N u t r i t i o n a l studies (e.g., Moore, et aL, 1946; V i v i a n et a l . ,  1948) have shown t h a t the c a l o r i c i n t a k e from store foods i s q u i t e small (varying from an average o f 1,470 1941, to 1,915  c a l o r i e s a t Norway House, Manitoba, i n  and 2,387 a t AHawapiskat and Rupert s House, Ontario, T  r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n 1946-47).  V i v i a n et a l . (1948) showed t h a t the Cree i n  the James Bay area had a d i e t high i n p r o t e i n but very d e f i c i e n t i n c a l cium and ascorbic a c i d ( v i t a m i n C), and Corrigan (1946) i n r e p o r t i n g a case o f scurvy i n an Indian woman a t Norway House, Manitoba, has a l s o d e c r i e d the unbalanced d i e t .  He compared the Indians o f northern Mani-  toba to "persons of low economic status i n the southern United S t a t e s . They have t h e i r sow b e l l y and g r i t s , the Cree Indian has h i s s a l t pork and white f l o u r " .  While a t Norway House i n the f a l l of 1951, the w r i t e r  was informed t h a t there were then twelve Indians w i t h scurvy i n the l o c a l hospital.  Tuberculosis i s a l s o rampant among them, the l a t e s t a v a i l a b l e  f i g u r e s f o r Canada as a whole showing an-incidence of 480.1 per 100,000 among Indians whereas the incidence of t u b e r c u l o s i s i n non-Indians  (includ-  i n g Metis) i n Canada at the same time was only 32.4 per 100,000 (Canada, 1950?).  This k i l l e r i s being subdued, however, by i n c r e a s i n g treatment  and by e a r l y d i a g n o s i s through annual X-ray c l i n i c s .  Venereal disease  (both s y p h i L l i s and gonorrhoea) i s s a i d to be common, but the w r i t e r has seen no f i g u r e s on i t s suspected i n c i d e n c e . Because o f these d e b i l i t a t i n g i n f l u e n c e s , the Indian i s o f t e n considered by p o t e n t i a l white employers not t o be a p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f i c i e n t workman and h i s a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o the o v e r a l l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f the area o i s therefore hampered. Notable exceptions occur, and c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s  22  are given high preference where they have shown themselves w i l l i n g and capable of doing p a r t i c u l a r jobs," Those who have been able to remain a l o o f from what may be considered almost a r a c i a l l o v e o f a l c o h o l have been e s p e c i a l l y favoured.  Their poor n u t r i t i o n a l status a l s o r e s u l t s i n  l a c k of aggressiveness on the t r a p l i n e , . iv  Economic Status of the Cree i n Northern Manitoba The main income o f the n a t i v e s i s from the s a l e o f f u r s , which,  i n 1953-54 averaged about four hundred d o l l a r s per t r a p p e r . The returns from trapping f l u c t u a t e w i t h the vagaries of f a s h i o n and the v a r i a t i o n s i n abundance o f f u r bearers, but the i n t r o d u c t i o n of r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s has tended to o f f e r some measure o f s t a b i l i t y and has very n o t i c e a b l y increased the abundance of beaver.  I t has a l s o forced the n a t i v e s to make  more complete use of the a v a i l a b l e f u r producing areas* An i n c r e a s i n g number of n a t i v e s i s being used i n the commercial f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . Here the recorded income per fisherman i s considerably higher than the income per trapper but only.a small f r a c t i o n of the popul a t i o n can be u t i l i z e d * A few Indians are a l s o employed as labourers at great v a r i e t y o f n o n - w i l d l i f e i n d u s t r i e s , but f i g u r e s on per c a p i t a income from these sources are not a v a i l a b l e .  As the population i n c r e a s e s , overcrowding  on  t r a p l i n e s becomes more acute and the more energetic and ambitious i n d i v i duals tend to seek t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d elsewhere.  The e f f e c t of t h i s emi-  g r a t i o n w i l l probably be to f o s t e r a lowering of the percentage of "good" trappers and may have unfortunate consequences i n the remaining p o p u l a t i o n . Income from government allowances i s headed by the Family Allow-  23  ance which, since i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n J u l y , 1945, has been one o f the mainstays o f the economy* I n 1948 the f e d e r a l government introduced s p e c i a l allowances f o r aged Indians. S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r the general Old Age S e c u r i t y Pension f o r a l l over seventy and the Old Age Assistance Pension f o r those i n need over s i x t y - f i v e were introduced and are shared i n equally by Indians and non-Indians.  The f e d e r a l B l i n d Persons Allow**  ance i s also p a i d t o Indians i n t h a t category.  The f r e e medical services  a v a i l a b l e t o Indians have been very g r e a t l y expanded i n recent years (the  annual a p p r o p r i a t i o n has r i s e n from about two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s t o  about t h i r t e e n m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n t h e past t e n years; Jones, 1954) and the decrease i n T.B. and i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n a r a p i d l y pyramiding population (an increase o f 25 percent has been recorded f o r Manitoba i n the l a s t t e n years; Jones, 1954)* The i n c r e a s i n g population and the new tendency towards v i l l a g e l i f e are making t h e task o f w i l d l i f e management i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t . In some areas there are now more trappers than there i s t r a p p i n g ground to support them, but so f a r there appears t o be no long-range a d m i n i s t r a t i v e planning t o take care o f t h e overflow*  The f u r resource has been  made t o produce an increased annual y i e l d i n recent years but present management programs do not appear capable o f s t r e t c h i n g i t much f a r t h e r . Increasing poverty can be expected i f "remunerative employment f o r which they w i l l show some a p t i t u d e " i s not made a v a i l a b l e f o r those who are capable o f l e a v i n g t h e i r trapping existence and moving i n t o some other field. The Family Allowance i s not t h e e n t i r e b l e s s i n g i t appears t o be on the surface* Where schools are a v a i l a b l e —  and more a r e being  24  b u i l t each year —  the c h i l d r e n must be i n r e g i s t e r e d attendance i n order  f o r t h e i r parents to r e c e i v e the Allowance,  This means t h a t the trappers  must go to t h e i r t r a p l i n e s alone and maintain t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n the v i l lages instead o f t a k i n g them to t h e i r t r a p l i n e s as they had done t r a d i tionally.  The lone trappers are discontent and r e t u r n t o the v i l l a g e s  a t every opportunity. They are able t o b r i n g i n small q u a n t i t i e s of w i l d meat, but as t h e i r winter t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s e i t h e r on snowshoes p u l l i n g a handwtoboggan or by poor to mediocre dog teams, the amount they can b r i n g i n i s very l i m i t e d .  The f a m i l i e s must therefore depend  , very l a r g e l y on l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e f i s h and on what foods they can buy a t the t r a d i n g posts w i t h t h e i r small cash incomes.  Meat o f game animals  and f u r bearers i s u n d e r - u t i l i z e d , the h e a l t h o f the v i l l a g e - d w e l l e r s decreases, and the t r a p p e r s , by spending much o f .their time i n the v i l l a g e s and i n t r a v e l l i n g back and f o r t h t o t h e i r t r a p l i n e s , are not making the best use of the a v a i l a b l e f u r resource.  One o f the greatest t a s k s of the  Conservation O f f i c e r s today i s simply t r y i n g t o get the trappers out to t h e i r l i n e s and to keep them t h e r e .  The Family Allowance, which i n  theory should have been a tremendous boon to t h i s low-income and l a r g e f a m i l i e d . group, has, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , proven j u s t the r e v e r s e , . v  Present Numbers and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Cree i n Northern Manitoba The most recent published f i g u r e s of which the w r i t e r i s aware  are those o f the 1944 "Census of Indians i n Canada" (Canada, 1945).  At  t h a t time there were 6,685 Cree and Saulteaux Indians recorded l i v i n g on reserves i n northern Manitoba.  The present population i s probably between  8,000 and 8,500 o f which about twenty percent are r e g i s t e r e d t r a p p e r s , • The population i s mainly concentrated i n f i f t e e n r e s e r v a t i o n s , o f which,  25  i n 1944, the smallest was Moose Lake w i t h 112 and the l a r g e s t was I s l a n d Lake w i t h 1112,  The model group had 493 and the average was 514 i n d i v i -  duals per r e s e r v a t i o n .  Except f o r the C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t , where o n l y three  Indians were r e g i s t e r e d trappers i n 1953-54, the Indians a r e d i s t r i b u t e d a l l over northern Manitoba during t h e trapping season, each making h i s headquarters a t one p a r t i c u l a r r e s e r v a t i o n , v i . The Cree i n W i l d l i f e Conservation In the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , " w i l d l i f e " w i l l be considered mainly as meaning f u r bearers and b i g game. This i s not t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t f i s h are o f minor importance, but he does not have suffi« c i e n t f a m i l i a r i t y with t h e problems o f f i s h conservation t o d i s c u s s the subject w i t h any degree o f competence. Even without great acquaintance w i t h the subject, however, i t i s evident t h a t i n t e n s i v e research i n t o f i s h e r i e s management i n t h i s northern area i s a c r y i n g need a t the. pre» sent t i m e .  From the viewpoint o f an observer i n t e r e s t e d i n wise use^ o f  animal resources, the present commercial f i s h e r y i n northern Manitoba appears t o be s u f f e r i n g from two needless and unfortunate circumstances, l a c k o f s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n concerning t h e resource and too mmch p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e with i t s management, a) W i l d l i f e as Fur On the whole, the Cree have cooperated w e l l i n the program o f fur-bearer r e s t o r a t i o n and management which has been sponsored  jointly  by the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments through the r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e program i n the past decade.  Their handling o f p e l t s has g e n e r a l l y  improved, and they have g r a d u a l l y come t o r e a l i z e that i n order t o have something t o t r a p they must leave some animals as breeding stock. I n .  26  f a c t they may have learned t h i s l e s s o n too w e l l ; f o r , as t h e fur-bearer populations rose, i t became d i f f i c u l t t o convince them t h a t they must trap more h e a v i l y i n order to maintain t h e stocks i n balance w i t h the " c a r r y i n g capacity" o f t h e i r t r a p l i n e s .  This was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f  the beaver populations, and over-stocking o f beaver was p o s s i b l y i n s t r u mental i n i n c r e a s i n g the s e v e r i t y o f the d i e - o f f that has occurred i n t h i s species i n the l a s t three years. From the p o i n t o f view o f t h e present study, the Indian t r a p p e r s , through t h e i r annual census o f f u r bearers and game animals on t h e i r t r a p l i n e s , have provided a p i c t u r e o f d e n s i t y and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f many species t h a t could not have been even guessed a t p r e v i o u s l y .  Their  census attempts appear t o be improving each year and w i l l be extremely u s e f u l i n future management s t u d i e s * b) W i l d l i f e as Food I t i s axiomatic t h a t i n order t o make the best use o f a resource, as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e should be wasted.' Apparently when each f a m i l y l i v e d together i n t h e f o r e s t , f a i r l y high u t i l i z a t i o n o f the meat from "furbearers was made, but w i t h the trend t o v i l l a g e l i f e i t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r them t o u t i l i z e t h i s food source f u l l y . which are mainly used for'food are beaver and muskrats*  The two furbearers Both are trapped  mainly i n the spring and f r e q u e n t l y i n proportions which make i t impossible f o r a l l the carcasses t o be eaten, e s p e c i a l l y since the weather a t t h i s time of the year may a t times be very warm and conducive t o b a c t e r i a l de-* composition.  Some carcasses, p a r t i c u l a r l y o f muskrats, are d r i e d , but  t h i s means o f p r e s e r v a t i o n may o f f e r even greater p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r more  27 complete u t i l i z a t i o n .  At the height o f t h e muskrat t r a p p i n g season,  break-up u s u a l l y makes t r a v e l very d i f f i c u l t and prevents the'trappers from t a k i n g the carcasses t o the settlements*  Increased u t i l i z a t i o n o f  f u r bearers as food would tend t o r e l i e v e some pressure from b i g game and appears to o f f e r a valuable f i e l d o f experimentation. In t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n o f b i g game the Cree are t y p i c a l l y comm u n i s t i c *• i n the pre-Marxian connotation o f the term.  For i n s t a n c e , i f  an Indian comes i n t o a v i l l a g e w i t h t h e carcass of a moose i t i s expected t h a t everyone may share i t , and although he has not p e r s o n a l l y witnessed i t , the w r i t e r has been t o l d t h a t not i n f r e q u e n t l y t h e hunter gets a l e s s e r p o r t i o n than do some o f the o t h e r s . Game animals are g e n e r a l l y f u l l y u t i l i z e d except f o r the d i g e s t i v e t r a c t , lungs and s k e l e t o n . The l i v e r , heart, tongue, kidneys, v i s c e r a l f a t , and i n t h e case o f moose, the nose, are choice p a r t s j the hide i s tanned and used mainly f o r moccasins and o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r parkas; and marrow from the long bones i s a l s o o f t e n eaten.  I n the summertime the meat i s o f t e n smoked and  d r i e d on a rack over an open f i r e - a very s a t i s f a c t o r y means o f preser« vation. As w i l l be discussed i n another s e c t i o n o f t h i s paper, b i g game hunting i s centred on the settlements and most e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e waterways, so t h a t some areas are b a r e l y hunted a t a l l w h i l e others are over-hunted.  This uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n o f hunting pressure reduces the  annual percentage o f t h e t o t a l b i g game population which can be u t i l i z e d . Methods designed t o d i s t r i b u t e the pressure more evenly would improve u t i l i z a t i o n o f the resource by h a r v e s t i n g surplus animals t h a t a r e now being wasted and by p e r m i t t i n g the over-hunted areas t o support popula-  28  t i o n s more i n keeping w i t h t h e i r " c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y " . While t h e Cree have apparently learned some o f the p r i n c i p l e s underlying f u r management, most o f them have not y e t been able t o t r a n s f e r t h i s l e a r n i n g t o management o f b i g game.  This subject w i l l be brought up under the s e c t i o n  '"Management" and some o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f b e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n discussed at t h a t time. c  (  Metis Although the metis are a very d i v e r s e group, t h e common l o c a l  a p p e l l a t i o n o f "non-treaty Indians" i s d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e great m a j o r i t y o f them; f o r while e t y m o l o g i c a l l y the word "metis" means one o f h a l f - b l o o d or h a l f - c a s t e , i n p r a c t i c e i t r e f e r s t o almost everyone who appears t o be "part I n d i a n " . The r o l e o f the metis i n w i l d l i f e management i s l e s s c l e a r - c u t than t h a t o f e i t h e r Indians o r whites because, w h i l e most o f them i n the remote areas are s o c i a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from Indians, they a r e l e g a l l y i n the same category as whites.  I t i s probable t h a t i n order t o be s o c i a l l y  j u s t , laws regarding management o f game i n the remote, low-income areas, w i l l have t o be d i f f e r e n t from these i n the more s e t t l e d and higher-income areas along the r a i l w a y s . No p r e c i s e f i g u r e s a r e known t o be a v a i l a b l e concerning the number o f metis, but i n t h e Indian Sections o f t h e Registered T r a p l i n e system they compose something l e s s than t e n percent o f the number o f t r a p p e r s , and pro** bably occur i n about t h e same p r o p o r t i o n i n the p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s approach would place t h e i r numbers a t s l i g h t l y l e s s than eight hundred a t the present time.  I n the more s e t t l e d areas along t h e r a i l r o a d s perhaps another  29  three hundred may occur.  T h i s l a t t e r group tends to have a higher stand-  ard of l i v i n g than the r e s t and i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the general s o c i a l p a t t e r n o f the white population.. For these reasons i t appears j u s t i f i a b l e to regard them without d i s t i n c t i o n from whites so f a r as game management i s concerned. d. Whites I n the remote areas of the Registered T r a p l i n e System o n l y s i x teen whites were l i s t e d as trappers i n 1954  as compared to n e a r l y s i x t e e n  hundred Indian t r a p p e r s . By comparison, i n the f o u r l a r g e s t centres, F l i n F l o n , The Pas, Lynn Lake and Snow Lake, the white population probably approached twenty thousand a t t h i s time.  Because of t h e i r small numbers  i t would appear f i t t i n g that game management plans f o r the remote areas should i n c l u d e those whites whose l i v e l i h o o d i s dependent upon t r a p p i n g r a t h e r than to t r y to d i s c r i m i n a t e between white and metis.  However, i t  i s not expected t h a t such plans should include whites who are g a i n f u l l y employed i n the v i l l a g e s or as t r a n s i e n t commercial fishermen, prospecto r s , e t c . The w r i t e r * s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s a t t i t u d e i s t h a t almost a l l of these white trappers are n e a r l y as much permanent f i x t u r e s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e areas as are the Indians and, l i k e the Indians, can h a r d l y be regarded as f r e e to " p u l l up t h e i r stakes and r e t u r n south" t o more r e munerative p o s i t i o n s .  They, t o o , are part of the resources o f the area.  Some o f them have Indian o r metis wives and i t would appear u n j u s t and unwise to draw even a t e c h n i c a l b a r r i e r between a f a t h e r and h i s sons simply on the b a s i s o f c o l o u r .  On the other hand, those whites i n the  remote areas who are g a i n f u l l y employed i n occupations other than trapping  30  are such a diverse group, i n c l u d i n g m i s s i o n a r i e s , t r a d e r s , c i v i l servants, prospectors, fishermen, and a v a r i e t y of other categories, t h a t i t would probably be l e g a l l y and s o c i a l l y impossible t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e among them. I t i s not expected that t h i s heterogeneous group should be included i n the same p l a n o f management as the white trappers. The t o t a l white population o f northern Manitoba probably  lies  between 23,000 and 25,000*  Of t h i s number seventy-five to eighty percent  l i v e i n four main centres —  F l i n F l o n , The Pas, Lynn Lake and Snow Lake.  The major source of employment i s the mining i n d u s t r y .  NATURAL RESOURCES One might be i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k t h a t a d i s c u s s i o n , even a b r i e f one as here, on such things as mineral resources and i n d u s t r i a l development, f o r e s t r y , and water power, might be out of place i n a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the management of b i g game, and yet these aspects of the modern environment have j u s t as much s i g n i f i c a n c e as the f o r e s t cover i t s e l f *  The b o r e a l  f o r e s t i s one o f comparatively low s o i l f e r t i l i t y ( c . f . Cowan, 1951)  and  the wealth of information now a v a i l a b l e proving the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s a i l f e r t i l i t y to game abundance (Leopold, 1947J Denney, 1944$ Crawford, Steen, 1947;  A l l a n , 1950;  1950;  and many more) makes i t necessary t o r e a l i z e  that i f the human population of the area should increase manifold, due to i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , there would be l e s s game per i n d i v i d u a l than now,  even  w i t h more i n t e n s i v e management. Unlike more f e r t i l e regions t o the south we cannot hope to produce very l a r g e populations of game animals here. (Leopold, 1954,  f o r instance states t h a t i n C a l i f o r n i a , with i t s population  o f 12,000,000 persons, duck marshes are being f i l l e d i n f o r i n d u s t r i a l  31 s i t e s and a g r i c u l t u r a l f l a t s "swallowed up i n r e s i d e n t i a l suburbs", and <  y e t even on marginal l a n d enough game can be produced t o supply,'to greater o r l e s s e r degree, the growing demand f o r f i s h and game.) a. Mining Mining i s a new f i e l d o f resource development i n northern Manitoba*  The f i r s t gold was taken out i n 1917 from Herb Lake and i n  the same year the f i r s t copper, gold and s i l v e r was produced by the Mandy Mine near the present F l i n F l o n . (Manitoba, 1952*6).  A number  o f mines such as those a t Gx>d s Lake on t h e east and Elbow.Lake on thet  west have opened and then f a i l e d when e i t h e r t h e v e i n s r a n out o r the market slumped, b u t the main producer t o date, F l i n F l o n , appears t o be i n a p o s i t i o n t o maintain production f o r many years y e t . New devel« opment i s prominent:  the Lynn Lake mine ( n i c k e l ) i s now i n production;  the Snow Lake mine (gold) i s beginning t o take on the d i g n i t y expected o f a stable community; and f e v e r i s h a c t i v i t y i n uncovering n i c k e l deposi t s a l l the way from t h e 55th p a r a l l e l t o w e l l north o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l boundary i n d i c a t e s that y e t another l a r g e producer may be expected i n the next few y e a r s . Metal mine production i n 1952 was i n excess o f $14,000,000 (Richards, 1953) and i n 1951 i t was over $19,000,000 (Richards, 1952). There has been i n the past some f e a r that mine t a i l i n g s were causing p o l l u t i o n t o f i s h i n g waters but, so f a r as the w r i t e r i s aware, t h i s f e a r has not been w e l l based nor have reports been received by the w r i t e r that smelter smoke o r fumes were causing damage i n t h e F l i n F l o n area.  With increased i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n however, t h e danger o f p o l l u t i o n  o f water and a i r w i l l increase and i t should be recognized that the best  32  remedy i s prevention, •With more mines, greater h y d r o - e l e c t r i c development must be envisaged.  With more power a v a i l a b l e , greater e x p l o i t a t i o n o f other  resources may be expected.  With t h i s e x p l o i t a t i o n w i l l come more humans^,  With a greater human population greater demands w i l l be placed on the w i l d l i f e resources. future.  And w i l d l i f e managers must be l o o k i n g to t h i s  W i l d l i f e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n should be aware of t h i s t r e n d , aware  t h a t greater stresses are going t o be placed on the w i l d l i f e resource as other resources are developed, and planning f o r the f u t u r e through f a c t f i n d i n g , experimentation and through c l o s e l i a s o n w i t h a l l other p a r t i e s concerned w i t h land use, b» Forests I t i s estimated (Chalmers, 1954) t h a t should hydro»electric development take place as p r e s e n t l y expected, a sustained y i e l d cut o f 280,000 cords o f pulpwood i s a v a i l a b l e f o r a m i l l or m i l l s which i t i s expected would be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the a r e a . o f f o r e s t e x p l o i t a t i o n have on w i l d l i f e ?  What e f f e c t would t h i s degree (Present annual cut i s about  13,000 cords and t o t a l value o f f o r e s t products produced i n Northern Manitoba i n 1953-54 was $1,027,000. D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r , The P a s ) ,  Figure supplied by Mr, C* Patterson,  What s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s w i l l give the  greatest sustained b e n e f i t s t o f o r e s t , w i l d l i f e , s o i l , water, and r e c r e a t i o n a l resources?  No i n t e g r a t e d program i s a t present i n e f f e c t t o  produce s c i e n t i f i c a l l y sound answers t o these questions and yet the day o f such e x p l o i t a t i o n i s j u s t around the corner.  33  c, Waterpower Mention has been made o f h y d r o - e l e c t r i c development.  It i s  estimated (Hogarth, 1953) t h a t the undeveloped water power resources o f Manitoba exceed 3,000,000 horse power ( a t ordinary minimum flow) n i n e t y eight percent o f which l i e s i n t h e northern a r e a .  Present developed  power i s j u s t over 700,000 horse-power w i t h only one percent coming from the northern area.  I t i s obvious t h a t development o f water power must  take place as i n d u s t r y advances and these f i g u r e s make i t obvious where i t i s going t o take p l a c e . I t i s c e r t a i n l y not obvious what e f f e c t s such development w i l l have on the w i l d l i f e resource which, i n t h i s l a n d o f l i m i t e d f e r t i l i t y , w i l l have t o be managed c l o s e l y and w e l l i f f u t u r e generations a r e t o enjoy i t . d,  F i s h and W i l d l i f e The commercial f i s h e r y resource o f northern Manitoba i s worth  approximately $1,000,000 a n n u a l l y . (Malaher, 1953).  Fishing i s carried  out on over s i x t y lakes each year and as cheaper t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods are made a v a i l a b l e , more remote lakes become economical producers. I t would appear t o t h e w r i t e r t h a t the t r i a l and e r r o r basis used i n opening l a k e s and s e t t i n g l i m i t s must soon give way t o methods based on b i o l o g i c a l l y sound assessments i f the resource i s t o be u t i l i z e d t o i t s g r e a t e s t sust a i n e d annual y i e l d . No f i g u r e s are a v a i l a b l e concerning the sports f i s h e r y , but i t i s apparent t o the most casual observer t h a t i t i s growing very r a p i d ly.  F i f t y thousand d o l l a r s was r e a l i z e d from the sale o f non-resident  angling l i c e n s e s i n 1952-53, but t h i s f i g u r e i s f o r t h e province as a whole and there i s no i n d i c a t i o n of what p o r t i o n i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the •  34  northern area (Malaher, 1953).  The r a p i d l y expanding simmer t o u r i s t  business i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to sports f i s h i n g . The f u r resource (as compiled by the w r i t e r from annual r e ports o f Registered T r a p l i n e O f f i c e r s and from the Summerberry Fur Reh a b i l i t a t i o n Block r e p o r t s ) i s worth about $900,000 annually under present low market p r i c e s *  This resource, subject t o f l u c t u a t i o n s i n a n i -  mal populations as w e l l as t o the whims o f f a s h i o n and the e f f e c t s o f world t e n s i o n and unrest, i s not renowned f o r i t s s t a b i l i t y .  The e f f e c t s  o f i n t r o d u c i n g r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s during.the past decade has-however, had somewhat o f a s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e through encouraging managed cropping r a t h e r than a "trap out and get out" p o l i c y .  There i s need f o r more  knowledge o f the b i o l o g y o f f u r bearers so t h a t l e s s t r i a l and e r r o r can be used i n s e t t i n g management p o l i c i e s and so t h a t i n t e l l i g e n t long range plans f o r i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other resources may be made. The place o f sporting game as a northern resource cannot be recognized by s t a t i s t i c s * section,  The only other sporting game p r e s e n t l y o f s i g n i f i c a n t propor*  t i o n i s waterfowl* The Pas.)  Moose w i l l be d e a l t w i t h more f u l l y i n a l a t e r  ( w h i t e - t a i l e d deer are becoming l o c a l l y important a t  The i n f l u x o f waterfowl hunters from southern Manitoba and  from the United States i s growing a n n u a l l y , and where formerly the marshes a t The Pas were the only major shooting area, q u i t e r e c e n t l y i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i s being shown i n the v a s t goose migration i n the v i c i n i t y o f York Factory on Hudson Bay.  The remoteness o f t h i s l a t t e r area w i l l , i t  i s hoped, m i t i g a t e against i t s becoming another Horseshoe Lake (Hanson & Smith, 1950).  Woodland caribou and barrenground  caribou are not a t present  considered as s p o r t i n g game i n Manitoba due t o the s c a r c i t y o f the former  35  and the decreasing numbers o f t h e l a t t e r . The value o f b i g game and game b i r d s as a source o f meat t o r e s i d e n t s o f remote areas i s shown i n Table 1» TABLE 1 Economic worth o f the meat o f game animals t o r e s i d e n t s o f t h e remote areas o f Northern Manitoba based on r e p o r t s by Conservation O f f i c e r s covering the p e r i o d J u l y 1, 1953 to June 30, 1954. C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t T r a p l i n e area i s excluded.  Species  Barrenground Caribou  No. taken Average Unit T o t a l Weight ApproxtTotal f o r food Weight ( l b s . ) (Pounds mate value Value (per pound) 15,000  100  1,500,000  $0.50  $750,000  800  600  480,000  $0.50  240,000  Woodland Caribou  60  150  9,000  $0.50  4,500  White«tailed Deer •  10  80  800  $0.50  400  Ducks  7,000  1  7,000  $0.50  3,500  Geese '  2,000  5  10,000  $0.50  5,000  Grouse (incl.) Ptarmigan  6,000  1  6,000  $0,50  3,000  Totals  2,132,800.  $0,50  1,006,400  Fish  3,000,000  $0.25  T50,000  Moose  At the conservative f i g u r e o f f i f t y cents a pound f o r meat and twentyf i v e cents f o r f i s h , the human u t i l i z a t i o n i s thus seen t o run i n the neighbourhood o f one and three quarter m i l l i o n d o l l a r s per y e a r . a food source t h a t i s v i t a l l y necessary t o the natives * n u t r i t i o n  It i s  36  ( V i v i a n et a l , 1948, Moore at a l , 1946), e.  Agriculture A g r i c u l t u r e has been l e f t t o l a s t i n t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  resources because t h a t i s the geographic and economic p o s i t i o n i t now occupies.  There are accounts o f c e r e a l s and o f root crops being grown  a t various f u r posts i n northern Manitoba over the past two hundred years, but u n t i l reclamation work was begun i n 1953 to d r a i n and t o p r o t e c t from f l o o d s an area of 135,000 acres i n the Saskatchewan R i v e r V a l l e y a t The Pas (the "Carrot R i v e r T r i a n g l e " ) , a g r i c u l t u r e could not be considered as an important l a n d use resource i n t h i s a r e a .  As  development of the Carrot River T r i a n g l e i s s t i l l i n an e a r l y stage, no statement o f i t s economic p o s i t i o n can yet be made, but the f a c t t h a t $1,500,000 i s being spent by the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l governments t o develop i t would suggest t h a t i t s p o t e n t i a l value i s high* The area being developed has been a good muskrat and waterf o w l producer and has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a major r e s t i n g area f o r waterf o w l on t h e i r southward m i g r a t i o n . A g r i c u l t u r i s t s should r e a l i z e t h a t major duck depredation problems await them here and they and the w i l d l i f e a u t h o r i t i e s should be planning ways to minimize the t r o u b l e before i t becomes unmanageable. Another major p o t e n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l area i s the s o - c a l l e d "Nelson River Clay B e l t " which received i t s f i r s t p r e l i m i n a r y s o i l survey i n 1952 ( E h r l i c h , 1952) and was then shown t o cover f i f t e e n m i l l i o n acres, 25 percent of which (3,750,000 acres) was considered to be w e l l t o imp e r f e c t l y drained and t h e r e f o r e of p o s s i b l e p o t e n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l v a l u e ,  37  An experimental s t a t i o n i s to be set up a t Wabowden on the Hudson BayR a i l r o a d t o conduct longwrange t e s t s o f production o f coarse g r a i n , hay and vegetable crops i n t h i s c l a y b e l t * The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t at l e a s t part of the c l a y b e l t w i l l  one  day be s e t t l e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and the e f f e c t of thus opening the for*est and i n c r e a s i n g the human population should be kept i n mind i n any long-range programs of resource development i n the area* f»  Summary In summary, i t may be s a i d t h a t the non-renewable metal r e -  source stands i n f i r s t place i n the economy of the north and i s l i k e l y to be the motivating power f o r f u r t h e r expansion i n other i n d u s t r i a l f i e l d s , some o f which w i l l c e r t a i n l y have d i r e c t e f f e c t s upon w i l d l i f e . Increased hunting pressure may be a n t i c i p a t e d , and disturbance o f the climax f o r e s t s could be used as a t o o l i n manipulation o f h a b i t a t i n c i d e n t a l to f o r e s t r y o r a g r i c u l t u r a l ends so t h a t t h i s increased pressure could be countered w i t h increased game populations* Moose and deer w i l l be b e n e f i t t e d by an abundance of young deciduous veges* t a t i o n such as i s found i n the e a r l y s u c c e s s i o n a l stage o f f o r e s t r e generation, but caribou r e q u i r i n g the l i c h e n s found i n mature f o r e s t s , w i l l not b e n e f i t by removal o f the climax cover and unless s p e c i a l consideration i s given t o t h e i r needs, t h e i r l o c a l e x t i n c t i o n may e a s i l y be brought about.  There appears t o be a need f o r o v e r - a l l  coordination and planning of research and development programs so t h a t a l l resources of the area may be u t i l i z e d i n such a manner t h a t the g r e a t e s t sustained b e n e f i t s w i l l accrue to a l l w i t h the l e a s t p o s s i b l e hindrance or harm to one form o f land use by another.  38  PART I I I HISTORICAL SURVEY Introduction F i f t e e n years ago, Leopold (1940) i n d i s c u s s i n g "The State o f t h e P r o f e s s i o n " o f w i l d l i f e management, had t h i s t o say regarding h i s t o r i c a l studies: " L a s t l y , t h e research program pays too l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o the h i s t o r y o f w i l d l i f e ... We do not y e t appreciate how much h i s t o r i c a l evidence can be dug up, o r how important i t can be i n the a p p r a i s a l o f contemporary ecology*"  Appreciation was not long i n coming, however, as  i s i n d i c a t e d by the space given i t i n r e g i o n a l studies o f game undertaken since that time (e.g., S w i f t , 1946, Grange, 1948, and Schorger, 1947, 1953, 1954 i n Wisconsin; t h e deer studies by Leopold e t a i , 1951 and Longhurst e t a l . , 1952 i n C a l i f o r n i a , and moose studies by Hatter (1950) i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and Peterson (1950) i n Ontario), and i n f o r e s t ecology studies such as that o f Day (1953) who stated t h a t "a knowledge o f l o c a l archeology and h i s t o r y should be a part o f the e c o l o g i s t s t  equipment."  The,;.early h i s t o r i c a l record i n northern Manitoba i s b r i e f  and not very d e t a i l e d , but by examining i t we may discover some o f the causes o f present b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s and perhaps even f i n d management techniques which have worked more by accident than by design i n the p a s t . I t was w i t h t h i s view i n mind that c e r t a i n o f the published h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l concerning Northern Manitoba was examined.  No attempt was  made t o exhaust t h i s avenue o f study, and while i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t most o f the important works were seen, c e r t a i n l y many others were not.  39  TABLE 2 HISTORICAL SUMMARY (with p a r t i c u l a r reference t o the f u r trade o f the northern part o f the province) Year  Authority  Event  Author Schofield  32  1610-11  Henry Hudson (England) s a i l e d i n t o the bay now bearing h i s name and wintered i n the "southwest corner" o f the bay.  »  32  1612-13  Thomas Button (England) wintered a t mouth o f Nelson R i v e r .  II  33*  1619-20  Jens Munck (Denmark) wintered a t mouth o f Churchill River.  I63O  Luke Fox (England) explored west coast of Hudson Bay.  34  163Q«31 Thomas James (England) wintered a t Charlton I s l a n d (James Bay) and explored the western shores o f Hudson Bay. A l l o f the above were e x p l o r i n g expeditions and c a r r i e d on no trade with the Indians*  Schofield and  41  MacKay .  26  MacKay  26  1669  Hudson's Bay Company ship "Wivenhoe" a t the mouth o f the Nelson R i v e r t r a d i n g w i t h the Indians.  Schofield MecKay  41 26  1670  Royal Charter granted t o "the governor and adventurers o f England t r a d i n g i n t o Hudson s Bay" a monopoly on the f u r trade o f Rupert's Land - the beginning o f e x p l o r a t i o n of Manitoba.  1668-9  Hudson s Bay Company ketch "Nonsuch" under C a p t . Zachary. T  T  G i l l a m wintered a t Charles Fort (now Rupert s House) and c a r r i e d out valuable t r a d e with, the Indians. r  * Typographical e r r o r i n S c h o f i e l d p.33 reads 1719 i n s t e a d o f 1619.  1  40 H i s t o r i c a l Summary Authority Author  Year Page  MacKay  27  Schofield  44  Innis  123  MacKay Innis  Innis  Event  59 & map 57  Wivenhoe back t o the mouth o f the Nelson to trade, 1682-3  F i r s t t r a d i n g posts b u i l t at mouths of Nelson and Hayes r i v e r s . C o n f l i c t between E n g l i s h and French,  1688  F i r s t t r a d i n g post b u i l t a t the mouth of the C h u r c h i l l R i v e r .  1689  Henry Kelsey made excursion by land northward from C h u r c h i l l , Saw muskox but no I n d i a n s ,  126, 1690-2 Henry Kelsey made t r i p from. York quoting from the P r a i r i e s and returned w i t h a l e t t e r from H.B.C. of Indians" to t r a d e . committee to Governor Geyer. 1690-1 Kelsey probably spent the winter 124-5 present s i t e of The Pas.  Factory to "good f l e e t . . near the  1694  French (under d I b e r v i l l e ) captured York Factory.  1696  E n g l i s h recaptured York Factory.  1697  French retook York and h e l d i t u n t i l  1714  when i t was returned to the E n g l i s h under terms of the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), F o r t Prince of Wales (wooden) b u i l t f i v e m i l e s below o r i g i n a l C h u r c h i l l R i v e r post,  t  Schofield  61  1718  MacKay  89  1731-61 Fort P r i n c e of Wales (stone) constructed.  Innis  93  1734  92-102  Schofield  74  Fort Maurepas b u i l t hear mouth of Red R i v e r by La Verendrye * The f i r s t i n l a n d post i n Manitoba.  1731-50 La Verendrye and h i s sons together w i t h other French t r a d e r s established many posts i n the Lake Winnipeg area and on the Red, A s s i n i ~ boine, Souris and Saskatchewan R i v e r s , 1741  F o r t Bourbon b u i l t a t mouth of Saskatchewan R i v e r on Cedar Lake, Fort Dauphin b u i l t the same year.  41 H i s t o r i c a l Summary Year  Authority  Event  Author  1739-42 Joseph La France t r a v e l l e d from Lake Superior  Schofield  69'  Innis  97  Henday  1907  1754-*55 Anthony Hendry t r a v e l l e d from York Factory  250  1756  Joseph Smith and Joseph Waggoner t r a v e l l e d from York. Factory t o the p r a i r i e s .  1759  Quebec f a l l s t o Wolfe on the P l a i n s o f Abraham.  1763  Peace o f P a r i s , by France.  Morton  to Hudson Bay v i a Lake Winnipeg on a t r a d i n g expedition.  Fort Pascoyac b u i l t by La Verendrye on 1750 (approx.) the Saskatchewan R i v e r a t the mouth o f the Carrot R i v e r . t o the p r a i r i e s and r e t u r n . t r a d e r s a t Pascoyac.  Met French  Canada ceded t o B r i t a i n  Hearne  1911  1769-73 Samuel Hearne s expeditions took him t o  Cocking  1908  1772*3  Mathew Cocking from York Factory to the p r a i r i e s and r e t u r n .  1772  Joseph Frobisher from Lake Superior t o Hudson Bay v i a Lake Winnipeg.  1773  Fur t r a d i n g post e s t a b l i s h e d by Montreal t r a d e r s near Norway House.  1774  Cocking and Hearne b u i l t Cumberland House the f i r s t i n l a n d post o f the Hudson*s Bay Company - t o compete w i t h the "Pedlars" from the Great Lakes who had become very numerous f o l l o w i n g the Peace o f P a r i s .  1765 1813  Unscrupulously competitive t r a d e p r a c t i c e s by independent "pedlars", XY Company, Northwest Company and Hudson s Bay Company had demoralizing i n f l u e n c e on the natives and g r e a t l y depleted the f u r supplies i n the older e s t a b l i s h e d areas.  Schofield  MacKay  80  96  f  the Coppermine R i v e r t o Great Slave and Athabasca Lakes and r e t u r n t o C h u r c h i l l ( F o r t Prince o f Wales).  1  h2 H i s t o r i c a l Summary Authority  Year  Event  Author MacKay  129  1778  Grand Rapids House e s t a b l i s h e d a t mouth o f Saskatchewan R i v e r .  95  1780  Oxford House b u i l t (date approximate).  1782  F o r t Prince o f Wales and York Factory sacked by the French under Perouse.  MacKay (York assumed) 1783 104 Schofield Tyrell  82 1916  Both f o r t s r e e s t a b l i s h e d : York on i t s former s i t e , F t , Prince o f Wales on the s i t e o f the o r i g i n a l post o f 1688,  1783-84 North West Company organized as p r o t e c t i o n against competition and h o s t i l e n a t i v e s , 1784 1812  David Thompson explored l a r g e areas o f western Canada,  Wilson  1796  H.B.C* established f u r post a t Norway House.  Wilson  1796  H,B,C, established f u r post on northwest shore o f Reindeer Lake (Bedfont House),  Wilson  1799 - 1824  Wilson  1798  H.B.C. post established a t Oxford House.  1804-5  Thompson wintered j u s t south o f G r a n v i l l e Lake.  1804  Northwest Company and XY Company amalgamate t o decrease competition i n face o f increased pressure by Hudson s Bay Company,  T y r r e l l (1916) Innis  164  H,B.C, post operated i n t e r m i t t e n t l y a t South Indian Lake,  t  Wilson MacKay  Wilson  1805 135-6  N.W.C. established a post a t t h e south end of South Indian Lake.  1811 • S e l k i r k sent out seventy men from Scotland under Capt. M i l e s MacDonell t o e s t a b l i s h a colony a t the confluence o f the Red and Assiniboine r i v e r s , 1812  MacDonell and 23 men reached t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n and l a i d c l a i m t o 116,000 square m i l e s o f p r a i r i e and f o r e s t f o r S e l k i r k .  1818  H.B.C. post established a t I s l a n d Lake.  43 H i s t o r i c a l Summary Year  Authority Author  Page  Innis  283  Wilson  Event  1821  Hudson*s Bay Company and Northwest Company amalgamated t o reduce competition and t o give the N.W.Co. i n t e r e s t s cheaper access v i a the Hudson Bay waterway.  1825  H.B.C. post established a t God s Lake. T  MacKay  249  1826  York boats f i r s t developed by the Hudson*s Bay Company.  Innis  162  1808  Large (oared) boats being used on the YorkSaskatchewan r o u t e .  162  1795  F i r s t boats ( t o take the place o f canoes) launched on the Saskatchewan R i v e r .  1841  Rev. James Evans established m i s s i o n a t Rossville.  1867  B.N.A. Act passed.  1869  Hudson*s Bay Company sold i t s r i g h t s t o Rupert*s Land t o Canada thus ending t e c h n i c a l monopoly o f the f u r trade i n the West.  17 & 432 1870  Manitoba became a province - 14,340 sq, m i .  footnote Wilson  Innis  Schofield  344  Confederation o f Canada.  Schofield  17  1881  Area o f Manitoba increased t o 73,956 sq.mi.  Schofield  17  1912  Area o f Manitoba increased t o 251,832 s q . m i l e s . (Present area estimated t o be 246,512 sq. m i l e s ) .  Innis  345  1878  Hudson s Bay Company headquarters moved from York Factory to Fort Garry,  Innis  345-7 1870 f.f,Great decrease i n number o f York Boat b r i gades due t o cheaper supply route v i a Red R i v e r c a r t s from S t . P a u l and steamers on the l a r g e waterways.  Innis  347  1874  Steamer Northcote b u i l t above Grand Rapids• to carry goods up the Saskatchewan. L a t e r the L i l y Northwest, Manitoba, and Marquis were added t o t h i s waterway.  Innis  347  1877  Tramway b u i l t a t Grand Rapids.  T  44 H i s t o r i c a l Summary Authority Author Schofield  Year  354  Event  1878  F i r s t Railway connection between S t . B o n i face and S t . P a u l , Minnesota.  Wilson  1878  H.B.C. post established a t Nelson House.  Wilson  1884  H.B.C. post established a t Cross Lake where an outpost had p r e v i o u s l y been i n o p e r a t i o n .  Innis  348  1893  End o f t h e Saskatchewan R i v e r boat s e r v i c e ,  Innis  374  1900 1910  (approx.) R e v i l l o n Freres e s t a b l i s h e d l a r g e chain o f posts throughout t h e west t o compete w i t h t h e Hudson s Bay Company — i n cluded posts a t The Pas, Pukatawagan, Brochet, Kasmere Lake and Nuelton Lake, T  1907  Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway reached The Pas*  1929  Hudson Bay Railway reached C h u r c h i l l .  2  1917  Mandy Mine a t S c h i s t Lake produced Manitoba copper, gold and s i l v e r .  2  1917  Moosehorn claim a t Herb Lake produced g o l d .  119  1930  F l i n F l o n mine i n production.  88  1935  God's Lake mine i n production,  128  1931  Sherridon mine i n production.  1953  Lynn Lake mine i n production.  Wilson  1918  H.B.C. e s t a b l i s h e d a f u r post a t Pukatawagan,  Wilson  1922  H.B.C. outpost operated a t South Indian Lake out of Nelson House,  Wilson  1934  H.B.C. outpost a t Shamattawa r a i s e d t o f u l l post s t a t u s ,  . Wilson  1934  H.B.G. outpost a t R o s s v i l l e r a i s e d t o f u l l post s t a t u s ,  Manitoba,  1952  first  45  I t has been s a i d (McKay, 1921) t h a t "The Indians have no h i s tory.  Their t r a d i t i o n s and legends are mostly mere f a i r y t a l e s and have  no h i s t o r i c v a l u e .  The h i s t o r y o f the f u r traders.and the h i s t o r y o f  missionary work i s the h i s t o r y of the Northland", and u n t i l more i s known o f the archaeology of the area, t h i s statement must stand.  We mmst t u r n  to the records o f the f u r traders and m i s s i o n a r i e s f o r information on the b i o t a o f years gone by. 2  #  P a t t e r n o f Settlement The summary o f h i s t o r i c a l events given i n Table 2 i s designed  to show c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , how and when v a r i o u s new developments took place which then or l a t e r had e i t h e r d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s on the w i l d l i f e o f the area.  The p a t t e r n o f development i s thus shown t o have followed  along the water courses u n t i l the present century when r a i l r o a d s s t a r t e d to open up " i n l a n d " areas.  The tendency o f e x p l o r a t i o n of the northern  p o r t i o n t o be i n c i d e n t a l t o f i n d i n g t r a v e l routes t o the west and  south  i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t ; f o r i t would appear t h a t when the tempo of e x p l o r a t i o n was stepped up during the l a s t h a l f o f the 18th century, l e s s than one hundred years a f t e r posts were f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d on the Bay, the area p r e s e n t l y under d i s c u s s i o n was not o f very great importance as a f u r producer and was c e r t a i n l y not noted f o r i t s game s u p p l i e s . I t i s d o u b t f u l i f the area from the Pasquia H i l l s to the Coast was even permanently i n h a b i t e d by Indians during the 17th century. Mandelbaum (1941) who made a r a t h e r thorough survey of the Cree s a i d (p.171) t h a t "The f i r s t f i f t y years of documented h i s t o r y [of the Crees i . e . 1640-1690] r e v e a l the. Cree as a nomadic people occupying much the  4* same t e r r i t o r y between Lake Superior and Hudson Bay as do the Eastern Cree today."  And, (p.172) "although i t i s hardly to be expected that  the e a r l y p r i e s t s and t r a d e r s could have known o f the lands beyond Hudson Bay or even about Lake Winnipeg, yet there i s not the s l i g h t e s t e v i dence t h a t the Cree had a western extension. i n a north-south  direction."  Jenness (1937* > P»41) a  A.D.,  Their t r a v e l s were s t r i c t l y  considered t h a t i n the f i r s t millenium  " ... the Cree doubtless occupied the same areas i n northern Mani-  toba and northern Ontario that they occupy today," but h i s statement appears to be c o n j e c t u r a l , Mr. R.S.MacNeish o f the N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada (personal communication, addressed to P r o f , H.B,Hawthorn, U.B.C, dated A p r i l 4, 1955)  supplied the information t h a t "At present our know-  ledge of (human h a b i t a t i o n in}  northern Manitoba i s p r e t t y s l i g h t as we  o n l y know of a few s i t e s and we have never done any i n t e n s i v e excavation." He considered t h a t the e a r l i e s t known occupation o f the area south and east o f Lake Winnipeg dated from about 2000 B.C. and t h a t from then to the time of C h r i s t the few, semi-nomadic i n h a b i t a n t s r e l i e d upon the b i s o n f o r subsistence.  From the time of C h r i s t to about 1000  A.D.  the population  showed only a s l i g h t increase but the c u l t u r e s h i f t e d to include f o r e s t animals as w e l l as b i s o n , and Mr. MacNeish suspected that " i t was  during  t h i s period t h a t the f o r e s t s were extensively invading eastern Manitoba." No moose bones were found associated w i t h t h i s Later c u l t u r e . The next c u l t u r a l groups are known as the S e l k i r k Focus (post 1300 Manitoba Focus (post 1000  A.D,)  and the  A.D.), both i n d i c a t i n g a subsistence on f o r e s t  game - i n c l u d i n g moose - and f i s h .  Thus i n the l i g h t o f the most recent  f i n d i n g s , Jenness*s p r e v i o u s l y quoted statement appears to be probably i n  47  error*  I t seems reasonable t o assume t h a t Mandelbaum s ( l o c . c i t . ) sus«* T  p i c i o n that Cree d i d not occur i n northern Manitoba p r i o r to the middle of the seventeenth century i s more c o r r e c t * There i s no evidence o f which the w r i t e r i s aware t h a t the Chipewyans occupied t e r r i t o r y much south of the C h u r c h i l l R i v e r a t t h i s time*  Cree may have i n h a b i t e d the southern c o a s t a l area ( c . f . Skinner,  1912, pp. 8-10) but i t i s noteworthy t h a t Kelsey and h i s Indians d i d not l o i t e r between York and Deerings P o i n t (on the Saskatchewan R i v e r ) i n 1690.  The f a c t t h a t these Indians were apparently Cree (Nayhathaway)  might i n d i c a t e t h a t already t h e i r extension o f range, which i n the next century was t o take them t o the Rockies and Great Slave Lake, had begun. I n summary i t seems quite p o s s i b l e that "Northern Manitoba" was not permanently i n h a b i t e d by the Cree u n t i l the middle of the 17th century and t h a t i t took the next 150 years to bring about the present d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the r a c e . The f o r t a t the mouth of the C h u r c h i l l R i v e r has not been given much a t t e n t i o n by economic h i s t o r i a n s (e.g. I n n i s , 1930) apparentl y because i t was not o f very great economic importance, but whether t h i s was due to s c a r c i t y of Indians along the C h u r c h i l l R i v e r , s c a r c i t y o f f u r and/or game, the d i f f i c u l t y of n a v i g a t i o n and s c a r c i t y of canoe b i r c h (Betula p a p y r i f e r a ) of adequate s i z e , o r to some other cause i s not apparent from the l i t e r a t u r e .  There i s evidence (Birket-Smith, 1930,  pp. 14, 16, 30) t h a t the southern boundary o f the Chipewyans roughly coincided w i t h the C h u r c h i l l R i v e r l e s s than f i f t y years ago*  Diamond  (1937, b) i n d i c a t e d t h a t he considered the C h u r c h i l l R i v e r to be the  48  southern boundary of the Chipewyans i n 1725, but (Diamond, 1937,  a)  apparently considered t h a t they d i d not take possession of the c o a s t a l area long before the s t a r t of the f u r t r a d e .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t war-  f a r e between the Cree and Chipewyan i n the C h u r c h i l l R i v e r area was part o f the cause o f poorer trade a t Fort C h u r c h i l l than at other c o a s t a l f o r t s where the 6ree h e l d f u l l sway. At the t u r n of the 19th century, a new era began w i t h the s t a r t o f the S e l k i r k settlement, and a few years l a t e r the amalgamation of Engl i s h and Canadian f u r i n t e r e s t s reduced f o r a time the f i e r c e and ruinous r i v a l r y of the t r a d e r s . The advent o f farming west of the Great Lakes and the'consequent production of g r a i n meant that l e s s dependence had t o be placed on the n a t u r a l meat resources of the area; f o r although maize had been o f great s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the development o f i n l a n d t r a d i n g routes, the expense o f i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n caused only a minimum to be brought west and the same s i t u a t i o n held f o r grains imported York Factory.  through  Cheaper, l o c a l g r a i n , allowed f o r a more v a r i e d d i e t than  was p r e v i o u s l y p o s s i b l e . The S e l k i r k Settlement had o f course a wholly d i f f e r e n t and more s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i r e c t e f f e c t on the present s i t u a t i o n than t h a t o f p r o v i d i n g cheap g r a i n f o r the f u r t r a d e .  I t was t h i s settlement which  led  the way f o r f u r t h e r western settlement and the gradual e c l i p s e o f the  fur  trade and i t s way o f l i f e , by farming and i t s way o f l i f e , and l a t e r  by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Northern Manitoba showed l i t t l e d i r e c t effect of the changes o f t h e 19th century except t h a t as new f u r trade posts were e s t a b l i s h e d and the natives f l o c k e d to them, there came a gradual change i n these  49  former nomads.  They tended t o spend more and more time a t the posts and  to depend more and more on the new " n e c e s s i t i e s " which were unknown t o t h e i r forefathers.  They were o f t e n encouraged t o take t h e l a s t beaver,  the l a s t marten, the l a s t muskrat from the area w i t h i n the trading post's sphere o f i n f l u e n c e and they were a t times encouraged t o k i l l a l l the b i g game and game b i r d s p o s s i b l e i n order t o f i l l the l a r d e r a t the post* And sometimes t h e i r best was not good enough (e»g, Lewes, i n Glazebrook, 1938, remarks on the s c a r c i t y o f f r e s h p r o v i s i o n s a t York Factory and Oxford House i n the spring o f 1833)* From Table 2 i t can be seen that the p a t t e r n o f settlement was: 1*  concentration o f whites a t the coast o f Hudson. Bay drawing the natives from the i n t e r i o r , .  2*  the i n f i l t r a t i o n o f the Canadian t r a d e r s from the southeast to cut the Hudson*s Bay Company*s supply routes,  3*  e x p l o r a t i o n i n l a n d . t o the west o f Manitoba by both Canadians and B r i t i s h t o augment dxvindling f u r supplies,  4*  settlement o f the southern p r a i r i e r e g i o n by S e l k i r k * s S c o t t i s h and I r i s h farmers,  5*  establishment of numerous smaller i n l a n d t r a d i n g posts w i t h r e s u l t a n t concentration of n a t i v e s around them,  6*  advent o f the r a i l r o a d which was clo'sely followed by develop* ment o f sawmilling, mining, commercial f i s h i n g and t o u r i s t resorts. Figure 3 shows the present p a t t e r n o f population i n northern  Manitoba,  I f one were t o remove from t h i s f i g u r e a l l the settlements  To follow page 49  50  a t t r i b u t a b l e to the r a i l r o a d s , the r e s u l t would approximate the p a t t e r n o f 100 years ago. There seems l i t t l e doubt that the present d i s t r i b u t i o n o f moose can be l i n k e d very c l o s e l y w i t h the p a t t e r n o f settlement o f the area; s c a r c i t y i s most marked about t h e f u r trade communities, w i t h l a r g e r populations found i n the areas midway between the posts, e s p e c i a l l y i n zones away from major canoe routes; the l a r g e s t populations a r e i n the areas o f greatest density o f white men where t h e environment has been a c c i d e n t a l l y a l t e r e d to produce b e t t e r feed and cover c o n d i t i o n s than previously prevailed.  H i s t o r i c a l Records o f Moose i n t h e Area a , 17th Century Because i n l a n d t r a v e l by whites was almost wholly l a c k i n g i n t h i s period (Kelsey was t h e o n l y one t o venture away from t i d e w a t e r ) , there i s l i t t l e a v a i l a b l e information on the presence o r absence o f any o f the animals a t any point except around the f o r t s .  That moose were  absent from t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e Bay a t t h i s time seems q u i t e c e r t a i n , K e l s e y s n a r r a t i v e (Doughty & M a r t i n , 1929, B e l l , 1928) gives o n l y in** l  d i r e c t clues t o a general s c a r c i t y o f game i n the area; he remarks about a d i e t o f f i s h , grouse, pigeons (probabiy passenger pigeons), s q u i r r e l , grass and b e r r i e s and t h a t i t was during the n i g h t f o l l o w i n g t h e i r s i x t h day o f overland t r a v e l southwestward, a f t e r l e a v i n g the Carrot R i v e r t h a t a moose was f i n a l l y k i l l e d : but a t night they*re people r e t u r n i n g / from hunting one had/ k i l l d 2 Swans and another had/ k i l l d a Buck Muse but d i d not come home t i l l i n / ye Night so I being asleep he sent h i s son t o c a l l me/ and when he came he t o l d me y t h i s f a t h e r t  T  51  wanted me/ t o come & smoke a pipe w i t h him so I went & when/ I came he gave me a pipe t o l i g h t & then presented/ me wth the great gut o f ye Beast a f o r e s d , so when I had/ Eaten I returned t o my r e s t ... " (Doughty & M a r t i n 1929). ( I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that t h e honoured guest was given the gut —  probably the p a r t then considered the greatest d e l i c a c y . )  This account o f the moose does not p e r t a i n t o northern Manitoba but as i t i s probably the e a r l i e s t f i r s t - h a n d record of moose on the Western Hudson Bay drainage i t i s h i s t o r i c a l l y important. A c t u a l l y moose hides had been bought by t h e t r a d e r s on the Bay f o r a number o f years p r i o r t o 1690, For i n s t a n c e , there are the records o f p u b l i c f u r s a l e s i n L»ndon which included s i x moose hides as e a r l y as 1677 ( R i c h , 1945, p.311) and i n the sale o f 1679, 7,766 " e l k " hides were sold averaging i n value from 9^ f o r "raw" hides t o 7s 2d f o r the best "dressed" hides ( R i c h , 1945, pp. 320-327). dressed hides brought 9s t o 10s each ( R i c h , 1946, p.471).  I n 1682  But whether  a l l o f these were moose hides and whether they came mainly from the Hudson Bay or James Bay posts cannot be a s c e r t a i n e d . (Note: At the 1679 s a l e by comparison marten sold f o r 4s, o t t e r f o r 8s 3d and beaver f o r 12s.) I n 1682 Governor Nixon reported t h a t : "mous" s k i n s were being used i n the Bay "... t o make t e n t s t o cover our houses ..." and t h a t the use o f such was much more expensive than would be the cost o f lumber i f the Company would send him sawyers and good saws*  ( R i c h , 1945, p.253).  In 1684 the value o f moose skins was r a i s e d t o p a r i t y w i t h beaver ( R i c h , 1948, p»121): an i n d i c a t i o n of the esteem i n which they were held and  52  a l s o perhaps o f t h e i r s c a r c i t y . Father Marest, a French p r i e s t who l i v e d a t York Factory from 1694 t o I696, although mentioning c a r i b o u makes no reference t o moose i n t h a t a r e a . ( T y r r e l l , 1931, p . i x and 127).  Jeremie, who l i v e d a t York  Factory from 1694-1714 ( i . e . , during the longest p e r i o d o f French t e n u r e ) ' wrote an account o f the trade and the hinterland, a t t h a t time but appare n t l y never ventured f a r from the fort., caution.  His account must be viewed w i t h  Douglas and Wallace (1926), i n e d i t i n g Jeremie s account, !  make i t look as though the country about Landing Lake ( l a t . 50° 1 7 , l o n g . T  90° 2 0 ) " i s a land o f dense f o r e s t s w i t h many beaver and moose" (Douglas T  and Wallace, 1926, p . 3 2 ) .  Whereas the reference, i n t h e present w r i t e r ' s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i s a c t u a l l y to Lake Winnipeg r a t h e r than t o Landing Lake. (Peterson, 1955, accepted the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Douglas and W a l l a c e ) . In summary, a l l t h a t can be said o f t h i s p e r i o d i s t h a t i t saw t h e s t a r t o f t h e f u r trade i n northern Manitoba and t h a t although moose hides were a common a r t i c l e o f t r a d e , t h e i r geographic source i s not known.  I t i s q u i t e probable t h a t more moose hides were traded a t the  James Bay posts than a t those on Hudson Bay,  (See, f o r i n s t a n c e , Seton,  1927, V, I I I p.159*161 on p r i m i t i v e range). •  b. 18th Century As i s i n d i c a t e d i n Table 2, i t was during the f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s century that development o f trade routes from the Great Lakes to Lake Winnipeg and the Saskatchewan, Red and A s s i n i b o i n e R i v e r s was c a r * r i e d out - the s t a r t o f earnest western e x p l o r a t i o n .  The o n l y reference  to moose i n the Northern area during t h i s f i r s t h a l f century which the  53  w r i t e r found was i n the j o u r n a l o f Captain Knight a t the time o f the construction of C h u r c h i l l f o r t a t the mouth o f the C h u r c h i l l R i v e r (Kenney, 1932). There on August 15, 1717,  "2 cano#>s o f Indians came  down from ye great Water Lake" (Lake Winnipeg according to Burpee, 1908  ( ? ) , p.635) (Kenney, o p . c i t . , p,l6l-2) find the f o l l o w i n g day gave  Knight "a side o f Moose f l e s h , Dry'd, & Another o f Deers f l e s h , and 2 p r e t t y bigg bladders o f Marrow f a t t ... & a couple o f Geese wth a p r e t t y l a r g e Sturgeon."  (Kenney, o p . c i t . , p.l64).  There i s so much confusion  however about whom these Indians were and from where they had come t h a t the record i s of no value as an i n d i c a t o r of the range o f the moose a t t h a t time. I t does nevertheless give an i n d i c a t i o n o f the food h a b i t s o f the a b o r i g i n e s . I t was not u n t i l 1754 when Anthony Henday t r a v e l l e d to the p r a i r i e to draw more Indians to the Coast to trade t h a t we have another mention of Moose i n the a r e a , and t h a t was i n the form of meat presented to Henday by the French traders a t the mouth o f the Carrot R i v e r . day's j o u r n a l (Burpee, 1907)  Hen-  which was entered d a i l y , shows that on the  outward journey the party was o f t e n f a t i g u e d by an inadequate and monotonous d i e t o f f i s h , only twice v a r i e d by beaver and ducks i n twentyt h r e e days' t r a v e l from York Factory t o t h e French p o s t (Basquia). There i s no mention of moose or other b i g game u n t i l 36 d a y s  1  travel  from York and about 150 miles southwestward from Basquia -*» w e l l out toward the p r a i r i e .  Then on August 1, 1754  two moose were k i l l e d , the  next day two w a p i t i , then two more moose, and so on almost every day, k i l l i n g now moose, now w a p i t i and o c c a s i o n a l l y b i s o n . 1937,  (See a l s o , Morton,  p.3 4 on Southward extension o f f o r e s t i n Saskatchewan). M  54  Henday spent the winter on the p l a i n s o f south-central A l b e r t a ' and returned to York Factory the f o l l o w i n g year.  The r e t u r n journey,  l i k e the outward one, showed no record of b i g game^in Northern  Manitoba,  This absence does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t no moose o r caribou were present, because the Indians were t r a v e l l i n g as s w i f t l y as p o s s i b l e t o make the journey from the edges o f the p l a i n s to the Coast and r e t u r n to where they knew game was to be found.  They would.3naturally take as l i t t l e  time as p o s s i b l e to procure p r o v i s i o n s .  The record does i n d i c a t e , how-  ever, t h a t moose were not p l e n t i f u l i n the area o r at l e a s t a few would, have been seen i n or about the water. The next j o u r n a l o f a voyage through northern Manitoba i s t h a t of Mathew Cocking (Burpee, 1908) who l e f t York Factory on June 27,  1772  and t r a v e l l e d (according t o Burpee s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) v i a the l  Hayes R i v e r , Deer Lake ( ? ) , Cross Lake, Minago R i v e r , Moose Lake, Saskatchewan. R i v e r , Saskeram Lake, Saskatchewan R i v e r to near i t s d i v i s i o n i n t o north and south branches and hence overland to somewhere near the present s i t e of Kerrobert, Sask,  The r e t u r n t r i p was presumably>by  the same route. On J u l y 11, 1772, h i s p a r t y entered the northeast end o f Cross Lake (96°  40* W, 54° 55  1  N) and on the 12th " s e v e r a l men went a  moose hunting; but without success,"  On the 13th:  "... men went a  hunting; they saw the t r a c k s o f s e v e r a l but k i l l e d none;  Hungry times:  A quarter o f an Eagle, G u l l or Duck i s one person's allowance pr day," On the 15th:  "plenty o f f i s h " i n Cross Lake,  On the 16th:  went a Meose hunting; at noon returned: no success" o f Gross Lake,  "...  men  a t the west end  On the 19th the moose hunters again " ,,, returned i n  55  the evening: 21st,  No success:  Here are p l e n t y o f Pike F i s h . "  On the  paddling up the Minago R i v e r " I am wearied o f f i s h , eating  scarcely anything e l s e " . sturgeon.  July 3 1 —  J u l y 2 3 and 2 4 —  a t Moose Lake k i l l i n g  t h i r t y - f i v e days from York, they a r r i v e d a t  Basquia and had not been a b l e t o k i l l a s i n g l e b i g game animal a l though t h e r a t e o f t r a v e l was slowed and on some days even stopped i n order to a l l o w the hunters to t r y t o k i l l moose.  A f t e r two days* t r a -  v e l southwestward from Basquia " ... Men went a hunzting Moose, k i l l e d one, good food", again outside the area o f the present study. Cocking s reference t o the hunters seeing s e v e r a l moose t  t r a c k s a t t h e Northeast end of Cross Lake i s the f i r s t p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n we have that moose were present i n northern Manitoba i n the eighteenth century.  On the r e t u r n voyage, he remarks t h a t a f t e r enter-  i n g the Minago R i v e r (on May 31, 1773), "The n a t i v e s a r e very b r i s k not stopping to hunt." t  The next p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n o f the presence o f moose i s i n the j o u r n a l o f Samuel Hearne ( T y r r e l l , 1934). I n h i s entry f o r J u l y 18, 1774 when he was a few m i l e s a^ove S e t t i n g Lake on t h e Grass R i v e r , he wrote, "there i s a l s o great P l e n t y o f Moose but the Indians w i l l , not take time t o hunt them."  ( T y r r e l l , 1934, p*104). At Cumberland House  there are a number o f references to Indians b r i n g i n g meat t o trade; e.g., on Sept. 14, 1775, "Traded ... s e v e r a l hundred pounds o f Dry'd meat & F a t t a few Parchment Beaver, and some dress't Moos Skinns .... l a t e a t Night 3 other Cannoes came w i t h a l i t t l e Green Moose f l e s h & C." ( T y r r e l l , 1934, PP. 178-9).  56  In H e a r n e n a r r a t i v e o f h i s explorations (Hearne, there are some unusual observations*  1795)  For example, he says (p»260):  "I have a l s o seen women and boys k i l l the o l d moose i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ( i . e . w h i l e i n the w a t e r j , by knocking them on the head with a hatchetj and i n the summer of one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five, when I was on my passage from Cumberland House to York F o r t , two boys k i l l e d a f i n e buck moose i n the water by f o r c i n g a s t i c k up i t s fundament; f o r they had n e i t h e r gun, bow, nor arrows w i t h them." "The moose are also the e a s i e s t t o tame and domesticate o f any o f the.deer k i n d * I have repeatedly seen them at C h u r c h i l l [where Hearne was Governor from 1776 to 1787H as tame as sheep, and even more so; f o r they would f o l l o w t h e i r keeper.any distance from home ..." (Professor Richard Glover, U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba h i s t o r i a n says ([personal communication] t h a t a t the time o f Hearneis governorship at C h u r c h i l l , some tame moose followed an Indian from the i n t e r i o r [ t h a t nebulous country"]], f o l l o w i n g along the banks o f the waterways and t h a t a few were shipped to England and kept f o r a time i n a park there). And (on page 261) Heafne (1795) made the s t a r t l i n g statement: " I t i s perhaps worth remarking, t h a t the l i v e r s o f the moose are never found, not a t any time of the year;" In November 1775  and June 1776 Alexander Henry recorded the  ' k i l l i n g o f a number of moose i n the v i c i n i t y o f Amisk Lake, Saskatchewan,, between Cumberland House and the C h u r c h i l l R i v e r ,  The casualness of h i s  statements i n d i c a t e s that moose were c e r t a i n l y not uncommon i n t h a t vicinity.  (Henry, 1901,  pp. 265 and 325),  An i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t o f  Henry's observations i s that he may be the f i r s t to note, i n p r i n t , the  57  abundance of passenger pigeons a t Gedar Lake and above the lake on the Saskatchewan R i v e r «•*»• 1808,  (Coues, 1897, v o l . I I , Part I I ,  pp. 4, 467, 469), In J u l y 1779 P h i l i p Turnor, on h i s r e t u r n voyage to York Factory remarked o f the Saskatchewan d e l t a between the Pasquia R i v e r and Cedar Lake t h a t the l a n d was "low and covered with small poplars and w i l l o w s " but, although two days were passed i n t h i s area t r a v e l l i n g , no game was recorded,  without  ( T y r r e l l , 1934, pp. 237*9).  David Thompson*s n a r r a t i v e ( T y r r e l l , 1916) contains many re*> ferences to moose, t h e i r range, h a b i t s , numbers, and Indian s u p e r s t i t i o n s regarding them.  And while we may be q u i t e c e r t a i n that h i s s t a t e *  ments o f where moose were found are c o r r e c t , h i s statements on the other aspects must be noted t h a t caution; f o r i t i s obvious from many o f h i s remarks t h a t he never hunted them himself and there are d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n s (e.g., T j t r e l l , 1916, p.97) t h a t the Indians were not above " p u l l i n g h i s l e g " a t times  perhaps not to the extent of Hearne*s anhepatic  beast however. Thompson says ( T y r r e l l , 1916, p.95) t h a t moose are "not numerous i n proportion t o the extent of the country, but may even be s a i d to- be scarce."  This reference i s to the "Stony Region" which roughly'coincides  w i t h the Pre-Cambrian S h i e l d . Even i n Thompson ^ time (1784~1812) i t was 1  thought t h a t hunting was d e p l e t i n g the moose population; f o r he says ( T y r r e l l , 1916, p,97) "... i t s numbers are decreasing f o r , from i t s i  s e t t l e d habits a s k i l l f u l hunter' i s sure to f i n d , and wou^d, or k i l l t h i s deer, and i t i s much sought f o r , f o r food, f o r c l o t h i n g and f o r tents."  58  Between November 1798 and March 1 7 9 9 Thompson says ( T y r r e l l , 1916, p*305) that a t "Red Deers Lake" (now Lac La B i c h e , A l b e r t a ) "... i n f i v e months they [ I n d i a n Hunters] gave us f o r t y nine Moose a l l w i t h i n twenty m i l e s of the House and a few B u l l Bisons, whereas on the Stoney r e g i o n , i t would be a fortunate t r a d i n g house, t h a t during the winter had the meat J 3 0 o J o f s i x moose deer brought to i t , and even t h a t quantity wouldu r a r e l y happen." I n summary, the records o f the 18th century showed that moose were present a t the north end o f Cross Lake, south end of S e t t i n g Lake and i n the v i c i n i t y of Cumberland House, Saskatchewan, and i t  may  reasonably be presumed t h a t the area t o the south o f a l i n e connecting" these p o i n t s would a l s o have harboured them. They were probably scarce along the route from Cross Lake t o the Saskatchewan R i v e r , but more p l e n t i f u l a t S e t t i n g Lake and Cumberland House., I t i s a l s o apparent t h a t even a t t h i s time the w e l l - t r a v e l l e d waterways from the Saskatchewan R i v e r to York F a c t o r y were r e c e i v i n g the brunt o f the hunting pressure.  c» 19th Century The 1800's saw the spread and c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f the f u r trade to the f a r t h e s t p a r t s o f the Northwest but.northern Manitoba was a f f e c t e d l e s s than the areas beyond i t s boundaries to the south and west. I t s r o l e was l a r g e l y t h a t o f a supply route from Hudson Bay and the Southern settlements to northern Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a and t o the western port i o n of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . The f i r s t mention o f moose i n t h i s period i s by David Thompson ( T y r r e l l , 1916) who, i n 1804, b u i l t a t r a d i n g post a t "Musquawegan Lake"  59  (probably the now unnamed expansion of the C h u r c h i l l R i v e r , above D e v i l Rapid, and about 10 m i l e s above G r a n v i l l e Lake — 100° 3 0  1  W. according to Thompson s map). T  56° 10*  No.  At t h i s point he t e l l s o f  an Indian, a f t e r much d i l i g e n t work, k i l l i n g a moose.. From h i s remarks i t would appear t h a t moose were very scarce i n the area a t t h a t time  —  probably i t was c l o s e to the northern l i m i t of t h e i r range* Ermatinger (1912) gives the j o u r n a l record of the express c a r r i e r from Fort Vancouver to York F a c t o r y and r e t u r n i n 1827, back t o York i n 1028.  and  Unfortunately the p a r t of the t r i p from York  to Norway House i s omitted and the only f r e s h supplies mentioned as being obtained i n northern Manitoba are sturgeon at. Grand Rapids.  Per-  haps the need t o stop f o r supplies was not too urgent; f o r on the eastward-trip i n 1827 the j o u r n a l e n t r i e s note t h a t 4 elk and 26 b i s o n were k i l l e d between Edmonton and The Pas (the e l k were taken nearer Edmonton) and at Grand Rapids 45 sturgeon were obtained.  There was a l s o a sturgeon  f i s h e r y a t Norway House as e a r l y as 1757 (Morton, 1939, p,251) but Ermatinger does not mention i t . Morton (1939, p»698) i n speaking of the Lesser Slave Lake country says " ... i t produced the great mass o f pemmican which p r o v i s ioned the brigades of the North and the boats running from Lake Winnipeg to York Factory." —> about 1820-40. meat "on.the road" was gone*  The day o f being able to k i l l enough  T r a v e l had speeded up and the great d i s -  tances, l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of supplies and f u r s to be moved, and the short season made i t imperative that a reasonably concentrated food be a v a i l a b l e f o r the f r e i g h t e r s .  I t i s p o s s i b l e , a l s o , t h a t game had by t h i s time  60  been badly depleted along t h e f r e i g h t routes* Lewes ( i n Glazebrook, 1938), a c h i e f f a c t o r o f the Hudson's Bay Company a t Oxford House i n 1833, made no mention o f moose a t t h a t p o i n t when w r i t i n g of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i s i o n s , and i n t h e f o l l o w i n g year he sent a request to York f o r deer hides as there were not enough a v a i l a b l e a t Oxford House to mend snowshoes, (Glazebrook, 1938, P.176). In 1835 John Charles was f a c t o r a t Oxford House and although he too described p r o v i s i o n i n g , he d i d not mention moose.  (Glazebrook,  1938, p»205). The same i s t r u e o f Richard Grant*s correspondence  from  Oxford House i n 1839. Mr. Sam W a l l e r o f The Pas k i n d l y obtained the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r mation f o r t h e w r i t e r :  Zacchaius Young (an Indian) who was born about  1880 remembered hearing t h e men a t Oxford House t e l l of the f i r s t moose k i l l e d i n that area.  We may suppose from t h i s t h a t moose were not known  there p r i o r t o about 1830-1840, There i s mention o f "deer" a t Norway House i n 1834, but i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t i t r e f e r s to caribou than t o moose.  (Glazebrook, 1938,  p,171) although there i s no reason to suppose t h a t moose were not present at Norway House a t t h a t time. R e f e r r i n g t o the period about 1865, Lockhart (1890) s t a t e d : "There are p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t i e s seen.  ... where Moose are r a r e l y , i f ever,  For i n s t a n c e , so f a r as I have heard, they never approach the  shores o f Hudson's Bay near York F a c t o r y .  61  Robert B e l l , g e o l o g i s t o f the Canadian G e o l o g i c a l Survey, made a number of t r i p s through northern Manitoba towards the end of the century ( B e l l , 1879, 1880, 1881) but he made no mention o f moose o r f o r that matter, of other game*  I n h i s 1880 r e p o r t , however, he r e -  p o r t s being able to f i n d out very l i t t l e i n e i t h e r Winnipeg or Norway House of the Nelson and C h u r c h i l l R i v e r s or o f the land l y i n g between them and says ( B e l l , 1880, p,20): "This a r i s e s from the f a c t t h a t both these r i v e r s have long since been abandoned as 'Voyaging  1  routes by the  Hudson s Bay Company, and a l s o t h a t no Indians l i v e at or near the p a r t s I  I was to examine" —  i . e . , the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of northern Manitoba*  In  the same report B e l l made numerous references to f o r e s t f i r e s having burned huge t r a c t s of l a n d i n the God's, Oxford, and I s l a n d Lake areas* Anderson (1924) quoted from a l e t t e r from E* T. B l u n d e l l of I s l a n d Lake post, w r i t t e n February 2, 1920: " I have made frequent enquiri e s o f the Indians regarding Moose and Deer,, and f i n d t h a t 40 years ago more or l e s s , Moose were unknown i n t h i s r e g i o n (Northeastern Man.), Since then they have g r a d u a l l y appeared i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers and i n some places more remote from the main lake are i n f a i r numbers (mostly to the southeast, a b e t t e r feeding country,)" Former conservation o f f i c e r A. B u r l i n g , i n r e p l y to a questionnaire, stated t h a t the Indians t o l d him ( i n 1952) t h a t moose f i r s t moved i n t o the I s l a n d Lake area about 18901910 so t h a t B l u n d e l l s estimate of 1880 (-) can be considered corrobort  ated. In the Report of the S e l e c t Committee o f the Senate f o r 1887** 88 (Ghambers, 1908) there appears a map which purports to show the range o f the moose i n North America a t t h a t time.  Neither authorship nor source  62  i s i n d i c a t e d , and although other p a r t s o f i t may be c r i t i c i z e d , the range given f o r northern Manitoba i s b e l i e v e d to be reasonably accurate so f a r as the present survey has been able to a s c e r t a i n .  This range  l i m i t i s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . 4. Seton (1886) stated t h a t "at present [the moose^ i s found i n great numbers o n l y about the south o f Hudson's Bay and i n the r e g i o n n o r t h o f Great Slave Lake.  I n Manitoba [ t h e n t h e "postage stamp" p r o -  v i n c e j i t i s s p a r i n g l y d i s t r i b u t e d ..." This reference t o abundance south o f Hudson Bay i s d i f f i c u l t to r e c o n c i l e w i t h other information — i n g t h a t which was furnished by Seton himself a t a l a t e r date.  includ(Seton,  1953, PP. 170-171) and the w r i t e r ' s f e e l i n g i s t h a t i t should be dismissed as an e r r o r .  That moose were p l e n t i f u l about t h i s time a t Grand Rapids,  however, i s apparent from the remark by R u s s e l l (1898) t h a t a Cree hunter there named Aleck Easter had k i l l e d " s i x t y - n i n e more moose i n the l a s t s i x months than I had." o n l y one.  R u s s e l l , so f a r as h i s r e p o r t shows, had k i l l e d  He s t a t e d f u r t h e r t h a t the Indians a t Grand Rapids " l i v e d  v e r y comfortably ... by trapping ... and by the s a l e o f sturgeon and moose meat."  This report i s the only one discovered during t h i s study  which would i n d i c a t e a very l a r g e moose concentration anywhere i n northern Manitoba p r i o r t o the present century. T y r r e l l (1897, p.154 F and on map f a c i n g P. 156 F ) i n d i c a t e s a "Musogetewi Lake" o r Moosenose Lake approximately 56° 20* N. 95° 15* W. now c a l l e d "Moose Lake" on topographic maps. The name given by T y r r e l l i n d i c a t e s that moose were present north o f the Nelson R i v e r toward the c l o s e o f the 19th century.  63 i  I n summary then, the 19th century saw the extension o f moose range to the north and northeast i n t o areas where i t had never been seen before.  There i s no reason f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h i s movement was  -a " d r i f t " back i n t o an area p r e v i o u s l y occupied as i s suggested by B e l l (Seton, 1953, p.169) f o r the area south of James Bay,  There are i n d i c a -  t i o n s t h a t the major t r a v e l routes were the main hunting areas, but  except  f o r one instance, a t the c l o s e of the century, there are no references to l a r g e populations of moose i n northern Manitoba, d, 20th Century Preble of the United States B i o l o g i c a l Survey, made the f i r s t b i o l o g i c a l reconnaissance of northern Manitoba i n 1900, and i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Northern l i m i t of moose range at t h a t time ( P r e b l e , 1902, p.43) was from Shamattawa R i v e r , t o near the confluence of Hayes and Fox r i v e r s t o S p l i t Lake and west t o the Stone R i v e r (between Wollaston Lake and Lake Athabasca —  T y r r e l l , 1896, p.13).  Preble a l s o remarked  on the previous absence o f moose at Oxford House but that i t " i s now frequently k i l l e d near t h a t p a r t . "  In h i s r e p o r t of h i s b i o l o g i c a l sur-  vey of the Athabasca-MacKenzie region ( P r e b l e , 1908) he confirmed t h i s ' range on a map  (p,131) and showed the l i n e as running from S p l i t Lake  to the south shore of G r a n v i l l e Lake, c u t t i n g across the south end of Reindeer Lake t o the west shore of Wollaston Lake, e t c . T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the northern l i m i t as given, by Seton (1953) whose map ( p , l 6 l ) was drawn f o r an e a r l i e r book (Seton 1909) and i n c l u d e d i n the l a t e r e d i t i o n w i t h no apparent changes.  Anderson (1934, 1938) however,  on very small scale maps, i n d i c a t e d the "former range" of the moose considerably t o the north and east o f Preble's l i n e and the "extension  64  of range" as correspondingly f a r t h e r north and east, i n c l u d i n g the barrengrounds o f northern Manitoba i n which o f course, the moose i s not found.  I t would seem t o the present w r i t e r t h a t a t l e a s t part o f  the d i f f e r e n c e between Preble's and Anderson's maps i s u n i n t e n t i o n a l on the part o f the l a t t e r , since he gives no reasons f o r a l t e r i n g the boundary o f the "former range,"  Burt (1948) appears t o have taken h i s  range boundaries from Anderson (1938), Although Preble (1902) r e f e r r e d to moose hunting on the Shamattawa R i v e r i n 1900, there i s some doubt as t o the p r e c i s e loca« t i o n o f h i s reference because h i s "Shamattawa R i v e r " i s the present "God's R i v e r " and extends from God's Lake ( o u t l e t a t 94° 05' W, 54° 50* N.) t o i t s j u n c t i o n w i t h the Hayes R i v e r (93° 50* W, 56° 20' N), a distance o f about.175 m i l e s . According t o former Conservation O f f i c e r Joe B i g n e l l , J r , who was stationed a t York Factory from 1947 t o 1953, the f i r s t moose were seen a t Shamattawa ( j u n c t i o n o f God's and Echoing R i v e r s -•* .92° 05' W, 55° 50* N.) about 1910, and according t o a story t o l d by the Anglican Bishop o f Rupertsland i n a church paper i n the f a l l o f 195L (Mr, Sam Waller — personal communication), the f i r s t Indian i n the York Factory area t o see a moose (about 1900) was o s t r a c i z e d by the community because he reported having seen a horse with huge a n t l e r s swimming t h e r i v e r l  Former Conservation O f f i c e r B i g n e l l i s a n a t i v e  Cree o f northern Manitoba and knows something o f the o l d s t o r i e s o f the Indians:  he maintains t h a t the "hunters o f the olden days" t o l d  s t o r i e s o f the coming o f t h e moose t o The Pas area from the west.  65  Mention has been made o f B e l l ' s remarks concerning f o r e s t f i r e s i n the God's Lake - I s l a n d Lake - Oxford Lake area ( B e l l , 1880) towards the end o f the nineteenth century, and, a t the s t a r t o f t h e twentieth T y r r e l l (1902) made numerous references t o the f i r e s t h a t had burned l a r g e areas on the Muhigan R i v e r south o f Sipiwesk Lake (p,22), Paint Lake on the Grass R i v e r (p«31), B i r c h Lake (now B i r c h t r e e Lake) on the Burntwood R i v e r (p»33), Cranberry Lakes (p.39) and S e t t i n g Lake (p«47)*  Some o f these burns were w e l l wooded w i t h poplars  at t h e time o f h i s v i s i t (1900?) w h i l e others were more recent and i n e a r l i e r successional stages.  Since Samuel Heame had remarked i n the  j o u r n a l o f h i s t r i p up the Grass R i v e r i n 1774 ( T y r e l l , 1934, P»10) t h a t below Paint Lake "Most o f the woods which we came by f o r these 2 Days Past have formaly ben set on f i r e , as ware a l s o i n many other P a r t s as we came along •••", we may assume t h a t a t l e a s t on t h i s t r a v e l r o u t e , f o r e s t f i r e s were common, and, by i n f e r e n c e , that they were no l e s s common on the more widely used Hayes R i v e r r o u t e .  Whether these  f i r e s were purposely s e t o r a c c i d e n t a l i s unknown, but there seems l i t t l e doubt t h a t they played an important r o l e i n the range and abundance o f moose. A l l r e p o r t s t h a t have been examined i n d i c a t e t h a t where f i r e was absent, spruce, pine o r l a r c h were dominant forms and very l i t t l e deciduous f o r e s t was present.  Personal observations have strengthened  t h i s b e l i e f , as the w r i t e r has found extremely l i t t l e climax hardwood f o r e s t anywhere, i n northern Manitoba,  (Two o f the few exceptions were  found on, c e r t a i n o f the ridges o f the Saskatchewan R i v e r d e l t a where one may f i n d small areas o f climax balsam poplar and on stretches o f the north bank o f the Minago R i v e r below H i l l Lake where trembling aspen  66  appears t o hold a new-found climax r o l e , ) Since the moose, contrary to popular b e l i e f , cannot e x i s t i n climax coniferous f o r e s t s , the only way i n which i t could advance i t s range north o f t h e aspen parklands was by having openings i n t h e spruce f o r e s t s made a v a i l a b l e t o i t . The abundance o f moose on t h e Muhigan River a t the t u r n o f the present century i s i n d i c a t e d by T y r r e l l ' s report o f having seen eleven i n one day ( T y r r e l l , 1902, p . 2 3 ) .  The Muhigan was o f f t h e beaten t r a c k  and has never been used except by trappers working out from i t .  This  f a c t coupled with T y r r e l l s e a r l i e r marks (q.v,) about f o r e s t f i r e s i n 1  the area i n d i c a t e two very good reasons f o r there having been an abundance o f moose. Dickson (1911), quoted by Chambers (1914), stated t h a t i n the r e g i o n from The Pas-Moose Lake-Mitishto R i v e r , S e t t i n g , Wintering, Landing,  Sipiwesk, Cross Lakes  i n the summer o f 1910,  Minago River-Moose Lake, which he traversed  "moose and caribou are p l e n t i f u l . "  Conservation O f f i c e r W. C. Slade reported i n 1952 t h a t the o l d Indians a t South Indian Lake claimed that f i f t y years p r e v i o u s l y there had been very few moose north o f the Burntwood R i v e r , t h a t the f i r s t moose were seen i n the South Indian Lake area t h i r t y - f i v e years before and t h a t j u s t t h i r t y years p r e v i o u s l y (1920) the f i r s t moose was reported shot on the S e a l R i v e r north o f Southern Indian Lake,  The f i r s t r e p o r t o f a  moose on the Putahow R i v e r was given by Conservation O f f i c e r N« A. Paterson i n 1953.  This moose was k i l l e d i n t h e f a l l o f 1952 j u s t i n s i d e the  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s about 101° 20» W, 60° +. j j . The f i r s t report o f moose i n the C h u r c h i l l area seems to be that o f Macoun, quoted by Seton  67  (1953, P,l64) who  "saw t r a c k s of 8 moose t h i s y e a r ^ w i t h i n 25 m i l e s o f  C h u r c h i l l ... about 3 miles up the Deer R i v e r J " Seton was quoting was dated January 25, C h u r c h i l l t o l d the w r i t e r i n 1951  1911.  The l e t t e r from y h i c h Mr. E. Kronlund of  t h a t "a number of years ag»"  there  were q u i t e a few moose on Great I s l a n d i n the Seal R i v e r , and i n  1953,  trappers at Duck Lake Post on N e j a n i l i n i Lake reported t h a t a very few moose were now to be found not f a r to the south of t h a t l o c a t i o n .  One  completely e x t r a - t e r r i t o r i a l record was advanced by Father F a r r i n of the R. C, Mission a t C h u r c h i l l who t o l d the w r i t e r t h a t a number of years ago a moose was k i l l e d at C h e s t e r f i e l d I n l e t —  approximately  350 miles north o f C h u r c h i l l and, according to Father F a r r i n , 260 miles from the nearest timber.  He s a i d the animal was badly emaciated and  was k i l l e d to put i t out o f i t s misery.  There seems l i t t l e doubt t h a t  t h i s animal was one of two reported t o have been k i l l e d by natives i n January and February 1923  nt  4 0 or 50 miles southwest of ... (Chester-  f i e l d ) I n l e t ' " (Anderson, 1924). e»  Summary P r i o r to recorded h i s t o r y , i t seems doubtful i f moose were  to be found north of the 55th p a r a l l e l of north l a t i t u d e nor east of the 96th meridian of west longitude i n the area now occupied by northern Manitoba,  Their range has been extended i n the i n t e r v e n i n g three  hundred-odd years to beyond the 59th p a r a l l e l i n the north and i s . c o n tinuous w i t h t h e range of the moose i n adjacent Ontario,  The only areas  now not occupied are the barrengrounds along the coast o f Hudson Bay and i n the tundra-forest ecotone across the north o f the Province  (Fig,4).  SvXVlfa  3#*NCH.  WIN*,***  77ft  +1  68  Since there i s no reason f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t the c l i m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d elements o f t h e moose's h a b i t a t have v a r i e d t o any marked degree i n t h i s three hundred year p e r i o d , i t would appear that the northward movement i s e i t h e r a normal p o r t i o n o f a long-term postg l a c i a l i n v a s i o n , a r e s u l t of human i n f l u e n c e on the h a b i t a t , or a combination of the two*  To the w r i t e r , t h e combined e f f e c t seems t h e  most probable explanation, w i t h human i n f l u e n c e i n the nature o f f o r e s t f i r e s a c c e l e r a t i n g t h e n a t u r a l p o s t - g l a c i a l northward movement. The f u r trade was the a c t i v a t i n g influence.which  caused t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n o f  the human i n v a s i o n o f t h e area, and as Mandelbaum (1941) suggests that the advance o f t h e Cree race westward was due i n the f i r s t instance t o the "European fad f o r t h e beaver hat" (Mandelbaum, 1941, p * l 8 7 ) , we might, w i t h tongue i n cheek, compose the s y l l o g i s m : The a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e human i n v a s i o n o f Northern Manitoba was due t o t h e European fad f o r t h e beaver hat* The human i n v a s i o n o f northern Manitoba accelerated the northward extension o f the range o f the moose i n Manitoba. Therefore, the European f a d f o r the beaver hat accelerated the northward extension o f t h e range o f the moose i n Manitoba.  69  PART IV PRESENT STATUS OF MOOSE IN NORTHERN MANITOBA ' Distribution a. I n t r o d u c t i o n One o f the i n i t i a l purposes of the study was t o determine where moose were to be found and i n what numbers. No previous attempt . had been made to assemble the evidence which was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e nor t o f e r r e t out d e t a i l e d information on any p o r t i o n of the ar*ea.  This  l a c k of information arose because u n t i l about ten years ago the Game and F i s h e r i e s Branch had no o f f i c e r s stationed i n any northern ment except The Pas'.  settle-  I t was not u n t i l the advent of r e g i s t e r e d t r a p -  l i n e s that o f f i c e r s were placed i n the more remote settlements  and  information on game conditions became more r e l i a b l e and more e a s i l y obtainable.  From avainable government reports i t seems t h a t "north of  the 53rd p a r a l l e l " used to be thought o f as a r e g i o n of l i t t l e importance and l e s s i n t e r e s t and unless s p e c i f i c mention o f i t was made i n these o l d e r reports i t appeared that i t was  seldom considered when making  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about game c o n d i t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e . The f o l l o w i n g quotations from annual reports of the Game and F i s h e r i e s Branch, Winnipeg, may b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t : 1943- 44  "North of the 53rd p a r a l l e l ... moose were g e n e r a l l y p l e n t i f u l through the d i s t r i c t . "  1944- 45  (Manitoba, 1944),  "Moose and Woodland Caribou show no change. Moose. and Deer are s t i l l on the increase i n the •••Summerberry  70  Fur R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Block."  (Manitoba, 1945).  1945-46 Moose are not p l e n t i f u l , and i n order t o increase t h e i r numbers a closed season was declared." 1946  (Manitoba, 1946).  Report from The Pas, " I t must be noted that the Moose season was closed i n the area covered by the new R. L~ egisteredj  T. [ r a p l i n e j D i s t r i c t l a s t season.  We were  not consulted on t h i s change and I recommend t h a t i t be opened again and l e f t open unless some great need f o r c l o s i n g i t a r r i v e s . "From a l l I can gather Moose are h o l d i n g up w e l l and extending t h e i r range i n some p l a c e s . "Not that the c l o s i n g caused hardship or much complaint because the hunters of the country do customarily pay no heed to the moose season anyway. Most moose are k i l l e d out of season, a t present by t r a p p e r s . "The point i s we do not want to place anybody who  wishes  t o observe the open season i n a p o s i t i o n where there i s no such t h i n g . "  (Wells, 1946).  I t appears t h a t the closure of the season i n 1945  was made be-  cause of depleted stocks i n the southern part o f the province  without  reference, to t h e much l a r g e r and more moose-productive northern p a r t . The season was reopened north o f the 53rd p a r a l l e l i n 1946  but t h i s f a c t  d i d not receive d i r e c t mention i n the annual report f o r that year.  Only  the southern s i t u a t i o n was commented upon - and the same t h i n g occurred i n the next few years f o l l o w i n g . Apparently i t was not u n t i l 1950  that  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n gave serious consideration to the northern moose supply and i n 1951  the present study was inaugurated p a r t l y to f i n d out  71  where and i n what numbers moose occurred i n northern Manitoba, By t h e time the study s t a r t e d , the r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s admini s t r a t i o n had expanded to i t s present broad coverage and the f i e l d o f f i cers were able to s t a r t gathering s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n from the trappers.  With each succeeding year the r e l i a b i l i t y o f such i n f o r m a t i o n  increased and the o f f i c e r s  1  own i n c r e a s i n g f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e i r areas  and t h e i r trappers permitted more adequate assessment o f the t r a p p e r s reports*  1  I t was through t r a p p e r s reports that most o f the i n f o r m a t i o n 1  to f o l l o w on d i s t r i b u t i o n was obtained.  R.T.L, o f f i c e r s obtained f i g u r e s  on number o f moose on each t r a p l i n e and t h e w r i t e r then converted these f i g u r e s t o "square miles per moose, shaded each t r a p l i n e according t« the groupings given on F i g . 5 and then when a l l the Sections were placed together, the t r a p l i n e mozaic was blended i n t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n map, F i g * 5*  The r e s u l t , while crude, does give a f a i r i d e a o f the present  numerical d i s t r i b u t i o n o f moose i n t h e a r e a .  The map i s a p r e l i m i n a r y  one and should be r e f i n e d as more data become a v a i l a b l e and as changes i n population d e n s i t y occur. b.  Northern L i m i t o f D i s t r i b u t i o n F i g . 4 i n d i c a t e s the northern l i m i t o f d i s t r i b u t i o n a t the  present time.. This l i m i t coincides approximately with the northern l i m i t o f f o r e s t ( F i g , 2) and may be considered to be under c l i m a t i c c o n t r o l . No m a t e r i a l extension o f range can be expected t o occur u n t i l the primary succession o f the t a i g a extends the f o r e s t cover onto the present tundra.  To f o l l o w page 71  72  c*  I n t e r n a l Pattern o f D i s t r i b u t i o n . Figure 5 shows the most recent a v a i l a b l e p a t t e r n o f d e n s i t y  distribution.  The northern boundary of the "16-30 square miles per i  moose" zone i s l a r g e l y speculative but the r e s t o f the map i s based on census reports and personal observationsI t i s r e a d i l y apparent from t h i s map t h a t the greatest concen« t r a t i o n o f moose i s i n the area between The Pas, Herb Lake, and Sherridon w i t h f a i r l y l a r g e patches o f s i m i l a r density i n the Pukatawagan, western South Indian Lake P i k w i t o n e i and Wabowden areas.  Lowest d e n s i t y i s i n  t h e Norway House-Cross Lake zone and i n t h e northern f r i n g e o f .the range. Although more d e t a i l e d information on density should be obtained f o r more i n t e n s i v e management, the information a v a i l a b l e i s probably adequate f o r the present i n t e n s i t y o f u t i l i z a t i o n .  R e f i n i n g the s t a t i s t i c s w i l l be  expensive and o f doubtful j u s t i f i c a t i o n - f o r management purposes - u n t i l the need becomes i n t e n s i f i e d * Factors A f f e c t i n g D i s t r i b u t i o n a.  Introduction The simple f a c t that moose are d i s t r i b u t e d i n a c e r t a i n p a t t e r n  i n any area i s u s e f u l knowledge, but i t i s much more u s e f u l f o r management purposes i f the reasons f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n are knownj f o r i f a favourable set o f circumstances, occurring n a t u r a l l y , a l l o w a r e l a t i v e l y high d e n s i t y , A  i t may be p o s s i b l e purposely t o a l t e r present unfavourable  circumstances  i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n so as to permit low density populations t o i n c r e a s e *  73  b». Northern L i m i t As has been mentioned, the northern l i m i t o f d i s t r i b u t i o n i s under c l i m a t i c c o n t r o l and i s unimportant  from a p r a c t i c a l manage-  ment viewpoint. c*  Internal Pattern i . Habitat 1.  Climax Forests  Contrary t o popular b e l i e f , moose do not and apparently cannot l i v e i n pure climax coniferous f o r e s t .  Their t r a c k s and droppings are  o f t e n seen there but the absence o f browse signs shows t h a t they must o b t a i n t h e i r food elsewhere*  Openings i n t h e climax f o r e s t are essen-  t i a l t o moose s u r v i v a l and as w i l l be discussed l a t e r , the means of obt a i n i n g such openings are some o f the most r e a d i l y a p p l i c a b l e means o f management. 2.  Forest F i r e s  I t i s d o u b t f u l i f the importance o f f i r e i n the ecology o f moose i n b o r e a l America can be over-emphasized.  Cowan (1951) states  t h a t the two processes "coming to be recognized as the most important ... i n the development and maintenance o f b i g game populations on f o r e s t areas  are manipulation o f range stage (through logging o r burning]  and d i s t r i b u t i o n and manipulation o f the. breeding p o p u l a t i o n . The a c c i d e n t a l manipulation o f range stage i n northern Manitoba, mainly through f o r e s t f i r e s , has probably been the most important s i n g l e i n f l u e n c e i n v o l v e d i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and abundance o f moose.  The  purposeful manipulation o f range stage, again through f i r e , w i l l probably be o f major importance to t h e f u t u r e supply o f moose.  74  Because the subject o f " f i r e ecology" was considered to be outside the scope of t h i s study, only s u b j e c t i v e assessment o f i t s importance was made, A combined study of the subject by both f o r e s t and game i n t e r e s t s leading toward, eventual a p p l i c a t i o n of c o n t r o l l e d burning techniques appears to be due now, i f moose populations are to be maintained i n the face of i n c r e a s i n g l y e f f i c i e n t f o r e s t - f i r e prev e n t i o n and suppression and i n c r e a s i n g hunting pressure. F i g s , 6, 7, and 8 i n d i c a t e the normal appearance of the i n t e r i o r s o f two types o f climax boreal f o r e s t and F i g s . 9, 10, and 11 i n d i c a t e the favourable deciduous p o s t - f i r e regeneration which one may expect on f a i r l y w e l l drained s i t e s w i t h some overburden.  Figs.  12 and 13 show d i r e c t p o s t - f i r e regeneration of c o n i f e r s where s o i l conditions are unfavourable to aspen-birch-willow succession* 3,  R i p a r i a n Habitat  One of the. most s t r i k i n g phenomena of the boreal f o r e s t i s the deciduous border found along streams and a round many of the lakes and "potholes! . 1  The border i s not always present; f o r i t i s dependent  upon proper edaphic and c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s as w e l l as upon the c l o s e proxi m i t y of water, but where g l a c i a l a c t i o n has l e f t s u f f i c i e n t f i n e - t e x tured d e p o s i t s , or erosion of n a t i v e rock has been s u f f i c i e n t l y r a p i d , o r where r i v e r levees have been b u i l t up, o r " f i l l i n g " of shallow water bodies w i t h decaying vegetation has provided humus, and one or more of these circumstances i s coupled w i t h the presence of water i n the form of streams or l a k e s , i t i s common to f i n d such borders*  At times these  borders are so narrow as t o be only i n t e r m i t t e n t ( F i g . 14) a t other times, as i n the d e l t a of the Saskatchewan R i v e r . They p r a c t i c a l l y  Fig,  i n c l u s i v e , to follow page 74.  ^••••••••••IBHHHHHHHP F i g . 6. Gunisao Lake Area,Norway House S e c t i o n , showing t y p i c a l "black spruce c l i m a x f o r e s t . The shrub "by growth i n the f o r e g r o u n d i s L a b r a d o r t e a (Ledum groenlandicum) Ground c o v e r i s c h i e f l y Sphagnum sp..  F i g . 7. O t t e r Lake a r e a , C r a n b e r r y P o r t a g e S e c t i o n , showing t y p i c a l B a n k s i a n p i n e c l i m a x f o r e s t . Note n e a r l y complete absence o f d e c i d uous u n d e r s t o r y .  Fig. 8. Connelly Lake area, jRskatohe an l i v e r delta, showing climax white aoruceBankslan nine forest, Tote absence of understory and presence of old paper biroh bole Just to the l e f t and beyond the figure. 1  ?^ig, 9. An i a l nd i n t' e *est end of Cross lake, showing s n a i l burned ^atoh in foreground and nearly nature vrhite enruoe In the background. Figure i s standing behind a three-yearo l d tre* bllng csoen, which i s elrecdy over four feet t a l l .  F i g . 10. N o r t h o f the v i l l a g e o f C r a n b e r r y p o r t a g e . A panorama to show r e p r o d u c t i o n 23 y e a r s a f t e r a mature spruoe f o r e s t had been burned.  F i g . 11. Near the s i t e o f Fig.10 to show: 1} 18" spruce stump,age a p p r o x i m a t e l y 110 y e a r s ; 2) t a l l aspen (D.B.Ii.Z-k") now grown out o f r e a c h o f moose and b e i n g i n v a d e d by 3) w h i t e s p r u c e (D.B.H.I").The i n t e n s i t y of the f i r e i s i n d i c a t e d by the way the r o o t s o f the o l d s p r u c e were burned and l a i d b a r e .  F i g . 12. Near the s i t e s o f Figs.10 and 11, showing d i r e c t r e t u r n to B a n k s i a n p i n e f o l l o w i n g f i r e where the s o i l has e i t h e r been burned o f f o r s i m p l y has n o t y e t formed f o l l o w i n g g l a c i a l denudation.  75  exclude a l l c o n i f e r s ( F i g * 15) and a l l i n t e r v e n i n g stages may be found (e.g., F i g s , 16', 17, 18), The importance o f such h a b i t a t i n the d e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f moose probably stands i n t h i r d place a f t e r f o r e s t f i r e s and human hunting pressure.  P r i o r t o the i n v a s i o n o f the area by man, i t was  probably o f greater s i g n i f i c a n c e than now, but upon t h i s theory we can only speculate.  I t seems s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the area now harbouring  the highest moose density (over an area o f a few hundred square miles) i s one i n which a l a r g e amount o f permanent deciduous r i p a r i a ^ growth i s a v a i l a b l e , that i s , i n the Saskatchewan R i v e r D e l t a , 4. Aquatic Habitat Although the r e a l importance o f aquatic food i n the ecology o f moose has y e t t o be determined, i t appears t h a t some i s necessary and that f r e q u e n t l y the highest populations a r e found i n areas where aquatics are most p l e n t i f u l .  The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s however t h a t p l e n t i -  f u l aquatics and adequate browse a r e environmentally l i n k e d ,  Montana  studies (Cooney, 1943, reviewed by Hosley, 1949) showed t h a t t r u e "underwater p l a n t s " c o n s t i t u t e d only 2 percent t o 5 percent o f the d i e t from June to October as compared to 64 percent t o 93 percent shrubs, and 5 percent to 34 percent "grasses","grasslike p l a n t s " and "weeds". I n Ontario, Peterson (1950) found the u t i l i z a t i o n o f aquatics and other green succulents to be very high i n the e a r l y spring and g r a d u a l l y t o wane as the summer progressed.  He found Potamogeton s p to be the most  preferred aquatic on S t , Ignace I s l a n d , Lake Superior.  t  Because there  appeared t o be a s u p e r f l u i t y o f aquatic vegetation i n a l l areas v i s i t e d during the present study, i t was assumed t h a t t h i s f a c t o r was not  Figs. 1^-18, inclusive,to follow; page 75.  F i g . 1 J . Gunisao Lake ai?ea, Norway House S e c t i o n , showing d i r e c t r e t u r n t o B a n k s i a n p i n e f o l l o w i n g f i r e on a r e a w i t h poor s o i l ; 1 0 - y e a r - o l d b u r n .  F i g . 14. Bennett R i v e r , Norway House s e c t i o n , showing v e r y naarow r i p a r i a n b o r d e r between the water and near-mature j j a n k s i a n n i n e f o r e s t .  F i g . 15. An unnamed c h a n n e l i n t h e B l a c k w a t e r Lake a r e a , Saskatchewan R i v e r D e l t a , showing dense deciduous r i p a r i a n b o r d e r and absence o f c o n i f e r s .  F i g . 16. A s m a l l c r e e k j o i n i n g two unnamed l a k e s i n t h e S p l i t Lake s e c t i o n , showing a moderate r i p a r i a n b o r d e r o f paper b i r c h and w i l l o w c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h the s u r r o u n d i n g s t u n t e d b l a c k spruce forest.  F i g . 17. Head R i v e r Lake a r e a , Saskatchewan R i v e r d e l t a , showing c l i m a x balsam p o p l a r on o l d abandoned r i v e r l e v e e . A few o l d spruce (D.B.H.l8 /) are a l s o f o u n d on t h i s l e v e e b u t p r a c t i c a l l y no spruce r e g e n e r a t i o n . The main components o f the spruce l a y e r a r e r e d o s i e r dogwood and viburnum. tt  F i g . 18. A l o n g a sdde c h a n n e l from the S e p a s t i c a i v e r , Norway House S e c t i o n , a panorama shornng a moderate r i p a r i a n b o r d e r c o n s i s t i n g m a i n l y o f w i l l o w , r e d o s i e r dogwood and t r e m b l i n g a s ^ e n . Very ggod moose h a b i t a t .  76  a c t i n g to l i m i t the s i z e o r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the population, and since an adequate s t a t i s t i c a l treatment o f these p l a n t s would have e n t a i l e d much more time and manpower than was a v a i l a b l e , the r o l e of- aquatics i n the d i e t was l a r g e l y ignored.  Summer canoe t r a v e l was l i m i t e d t o areas  south o f the 57th p a r a l l e l but up t o t h a t l a t i t u d e , a t l e a s t i n the centre o f the Province, the v a r i e t y o f aquatics was almost as great as a t the 54th p a r a l l e l .  With i n c r e a s i n g l a t i t u d e , one would expect f u r t h e r r e -  duction i n the number o f species present, but the more r i g o r o u s climate also eliminates a number o f t h e more southern browse species, and the reduced moose population i s thought t o be more c l o s e l y l i n k e d with browse q u a l i t y than with the q u a l i t y o f t h e aquatic f l o r a .  I n s h o r t , i t i s the  w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n that aquatics are not a c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f moose i n northern Manitoba although they may be l i n k e d t o f a c t o r s which do exert c o n t r o l l i n g i n f l u e n c e s , 5. S o i l Types S o i l analyses have been c a r r i e d out i n only two l o c a l i t i e s i n t h i s northern area - i n the "Carrot R i v e r T r i a n g l e " west o f The Pas and i n the Wanless area 30 miles north o f The Pas,  A reconnaissance  survey  of the l a r g e i n t e r i o r c l a y b e l t was made i n 1952 ( E h r l i c h , 1952) but l i t t l e s o i l sampling was c a r r i e d out a t that time.  A l l o f these t e s t i n g s  have been on a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l farm land and no analyses o f f o r e s t s o i l s as such have been undertaken,  Skunke (1949) showed that calcium  content o f the s o i l c o r r e l a t e d very w e l l w i t h moose d e n s i t y i n Sweden, but i n the present study the only limestone-bedded area i n which even a moderate moose population was found was so deeply covered over most o f i t s area w i t h s i l t and/or g l a c i a l t i l l t h a t the e f f e c t o f the underl y i n g rock was l a r g e l y masked,. There appeared t o be no c o r r e l a t i o n  77  between moose d e n s i t y and presence o r absence o f limestone; f o r even where the overburden was not deep there was no observable e f f e c t on moose d e n s i t y . E l l i s (1938) r e f e r s t o t h e whole northern area o f the province as p o d z o l i c , but i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s may a l s o occur. Although no study o f s o i l s was undertaken, the g e n e r a l l y uniform nature o f the f o r e s t s i n t h e area suggests t h a t , except i n the case o f p o s t - f i r e succession, s o i l s probably do not p l a y a major r S l e i n moose d i s t r i b u t i o n .  Where f i r e s have occurred, the type o f succes-  s i o n t o be expected i s apparently q u i t e dependent upon the o r i g i n a l nature o f t h e s o i l .  S o i l s w i t h a shallow " A l " horizon o f t e n l o s e  almost a l l t h e i r organic matter during a f i r e and succession then s t a r t s with Banksian pine.  Very wet "black muck" s o i l s tend t o r e s i s t  f i r e but when t h e i r vegetation i s burned, succession u s u a l l y s t a r t s w i t h spruce.  D r i e r s o i l s w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y deep "A^" horizon appear  to be t h e ones most productive o f browse species such as willow, b i r c h and aspen f o l l o w i n g f i r e s , and i n consequence are considered t o be the most important i n moose d i s t r i b u t i o n and abundance. 6.  Summary  Of t h e h a b i t a t f a c t o r s considered, f o r e s t f i r e s and r i p a r i a n h a b i t a t were thought t o be o f major importance i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f moose. Aquatic vegetation may be a necessary component o f t h e summer d i e t but i s so ubiquitous that i t probably has exerted l i t t l e o r no e f f e c t on d e n s i t y o r d i s t r i b u t i o n .  S o i l s are very i m p e r f e c t l y known  but favourable p o s t - f i r e succession appears t o be dependent upon the s o i l type and s o i l s are therefore probably c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o moose  78  abundance and d i s t r i b u t i o n *  Research i n t o p o s s i b l e means o f h a b i t a t  improvement as a management technique i s i n d i c a t e d .  At the present  " time i t appears t h a t such research may be most productive i f d i r e c t e d toward h a b i t a t changes through c o n t r o l l e d burning of c o n i f e r s and o f hardwoods which have grown beyond the reach o f moose. ii.  Hunting Pressure While i t i s to be expected t h a t moose w i l l not be found in-,  areas where the h a b i t a t i s u n s u i t a b l e , i t i s sometimes the case t h a t , due to the i n f l u e n c e of other f a c t o r s of the environment, they are not found i n areas where the h a b i t a t i s s u i t a b l e .  In the region s t u d i e d ,  instances of t h i s s o r t were mainly confined to the areas away from the r a i l r o a d s and appeared to be due, i n the m a j o r i t y of cases, to n a t i v e hunting pressure.  In the l i g h t o f present knowledge of moose d i s t r i -  b u t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l aim to separate the most obvious f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h i s hunting pressure and t o analyze them w i t h a view to using the information thus obtained as a b a s i s f o r management considerations. 1.  '  '  Human Abundance and D i s t r i b u t i o n  About seventy-five to e i g h t y percent o f the human p o p u l a t i o n of northern Manitoba i s concentrated i n the communities along the r a i l ways.  The m a j o r i t y of the inhabitants' of these communities are whites  whose hunting a c t i v i t i e s do not now appear to p l a y a dominant r o l e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f moose. The other twenty to twenty-five percent of the population i s l o c a t e d i n the more remote settlements and i s made up of approximately e i g h t y percent Indians and twenty percent metis and whites.  The hunting a c t i v i t i e s of the Indians appear to p l a y a f a i r l y  79  important r 6 l e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of moose. . To an ever-increasing extent the Indians are becoming v i l l a g e d w e l l e r s , and the hunting pressure a p p l i e d to the areas w i t h i n a few hours canoe t r a v e l o f the v i l l a g e s i s i n c r e a s i n g a c c o r d i n g l y .  In  the summer of 1951 the w r i t e r , accompanied by Conservation O f f i c e r  E.B.  Johanson, examined areas i n the v i c i n i t i e s o f the communities of Norway House and Cross Lake and along the main canoe-route between.the two. The s o i l s i n t h i s area are mainly c l a y s deposited a t the time o f g l a c i a l Lake .Aggassiz, covered t o varying degrees w i t h an overburden of r i c h a l l u v i u m c a r r i e d from the Great P l a i n s by the Saskatchewan A s s i n i b o i n e , t  S o u r i s and Red R i v e r s .  I t appears t o be very p r o d u c t i v e . s o i l ; gardens 9  i n the area are e x c e l l e n t and the f o r s t vegetation i s very s u i t a b l e f o r moose. But, as i s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . 5, the moose population i s very low —> estimated at l e s s than one moose per t h i r t y square m i l e s . Immediately a f t e r examining t h i s area, Mr. Johanson, a guide, and the w r i t e r flew to an area about eighty m i l e s southeast of Norway House where the h a b i t a t f o r moose was l e s s favourable but where hunting pressure was .quite l i g h t .  At the time of our v i s i t the moose popula-  t i o n probably exceeded one moose per ten square m i l e s .  The d i f f e r e n c e s  i n moose d e n s i t y between the two. areas appeared to be due to hunting' pressure, since on the b a s i s o f other observable f a c t o r s o f the environment the d e n s i t y should have been highest i n the Norway House - Cross Lake area* I n the summer o f 1954, the w r i t e r , accompanied by Conservation O f f i c e r H.M.Reynolds and a guide, examined the area l y i n g between Nelson House and South Indian Lake, f o l l o w i n g the main canoe route between the  80  two p o i n t s - the Rat R i v e r , Because t h i s route i s considerably longer and passes over a h e i g h t - o f - l a n d , i t i s not so much used as i s the Norway House. - Cross Lake route which f o l l o w s t h e upper p o r t i o n o f t h e Nelson R i v e r and i s e a s i l y navigated.  Summer hunting pressure along t h e Rat  R i v e r appears t o be mainly confined t o t h e area below Karsakuwigamak Lake o r w i t h i n two days canoe t r a v e l o f Nelson House, Although the purpose o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t r i p was concerned w i t h muskrats r a t h e r than moose and l i t t l e time was spent examining the area f o r signs o f moose, i t was s t r i k i n g l y apparent that the greatest concentration o f moose was i n an area above Karsakuwigamak Lake and about two hours t r a v e l away from t h e main r i v e r where few i f any hunters went i n t h e summertime. Reports from Conservation O f f i c e r s i n almost a l l areas confirmed the b e l i e f t h a t hunting pressure by the Indians, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the summer months, was the major f a c t o r c o n t r o l l i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f moose, and t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n and abundance o f the human population were roughly i n i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n and abundance o f moose. One major exception t o t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n occurs i n the Opachuanau Lake area, South Indian Lake S e c t i o n , This area i s apparently the main summer hunting ground o f the South Indian Lake r e s i d e n t s , y e t boasts a moose d e n s i t y o f under f i v e square miles per moose - probably the highest d e n s i t y i n the S e c t i o n . The w r i t e r has so f a r p a i d only a f l e e t i n g v i s i t t o t h i s area and no reasons f o r the l a r g e population can yet be advanced.  Because o f i t s apparently anomalous nature, t h i s '  area deserves i n t e n s i v e study.  81  2, M o b i l i t y and fire-power of the Indian population Immediately f o l l o w i n g the second World War there was a l a r g e increase i n the number o f outboard motors bought by the natives i n northern Manitoba*  This increase was due both to the r e l e a s e of mater-  i a l s which had been scarce during the. war and to the high p r i c e s being . p a i d f o r f u r s a t t h a t time.  (Between•1928-29 and 1952-53, the highest  p r i c e s p a i d f o r beaver, muskrat, mink, marten, weasel and s q u i r r e l were recorded i n 1945-46: Manitoba, 1953)* The outboards gave the Indians a much greater easy c r u i s i n g r a d i u s and they could range f a r t h e r i n search o f game w i t h much l e s s e f f o r t than had p r e v i o u s l y been the case.  It i s  impossible to estimate the degree to which the increased number of outboards i n f l u e n c e d the moose population.  C e r t a i n l y , any predator increases  i t s chances of success by i n c r e a s i n g i t s m o b i l i t y , other elements o f the hunting technique remaining s t a b l e , simply by i n c r e a s i n g the opportunity f o r contact.  Many Indians consider i t e a s i e r and f a s t e r to paddle than  to use an outboard where many portages are encountered, and the i n f l u e n c e o f the outboard has probably been confined mainly to the most e a s i l y navigated  waters. Former Conservation O f f i c e r J . D, Smith o f God s Lake t o l d the t  w r i t e r t h a t prior, to the 1930*s only three r i f l e s were known to e x i s t among the God's Lake band but t h a t the number had s t e a d i l y increased from that time onward.  I t seems probable that a comparable s i t u a t i o n  occurred a t other p o i n t s . Anyone who has hunted moose w i l l appreciate the e f f e c t of i n c r e a s i n g fire-power on hunters' a b i l i t y t o k i l l moose. I t i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t t o get w i t h i n r i f l e - r a n g e of them, but very d i f f i c u l t to get w i t h i n bow and arrow, spearing, o r clubbing range.  82 Even though the modern generation of hunters i s much l e s s s k i l f u l than were t h e i r forebears, t h e i r l a c k of s k i l l i s probably more than o f f s e t by t h e i r increased k i l l i n g range, e s p e c i a l l y when t h i s range i s coupled w i t h the outboard motor.  Although the a c q u i s i t i o n o f firearms per se  would not be expected t o i n f l u e n c e moose d i s t r i b u t i o n , when considered i n conjunction w i t h the•concomitant tendency to v i l l a g e l i f e i t s e f f e c t has probably been o f considerable importance i n i n c r e a s i n g the pressure on moose i n the v i c i n i t y of the settlements. 3.  E f f e c t of other b i g game as b u f f e r s  In the northern p a r t o f the area, the most noteworthy game b u f f e r between moose and man has been the barrenground c a r i b o u . These animals migrate southward by the thousands each w i n t e r , f r e q u e n t l y as f a r as the 55th p a r a l l e l and o c c a s i o n a l l y as f a r as the 54th p a r a l l e l of l a t i t u d e .  Because they are a herding animal, tend to spend much of  t h e i r time i n the open, and are much l e s s wary than moose, they are more e a s i l y hunted, and g e n e r a l l y are taken i n preference to moose. However, because the caribou are u s u a l l y absent from most o f the moose's range from A p r i l to November, the time of the heaviest hunting pressure on moose, t h e i r o v e r a l l e f f e c t i n l e s s e n i n g the number of moose k i l l e d i s probably not o f very great s i g n i f i c a n c e and they probably do not a l t e r m a t e r i a l l y the e f f e c t of hunting pressure on d i s t r i b u t i o n of moose. I t has f r e q u e n t l y been reported t h a t the moose move out o f an area when the barrenground caribou move i n . However, since there appear to be no i n d i c a t i o n s of any major concentrations of moose south of the caribou range coincident w i t h the caribou m i g r a t i o n s , these r e p o r t s must  83  t e n t a t i v e l y be discounted.  I t i s thought t h a t perhaps the apparent de-  crease i n moose where caribou occur may be due t o o b l i t e r a t i o n o f moose s i g n by t h e myriads o f caribou t r a c k s . At the present time the r o l e o f woodland.caribou and w h i t e - t a i l deer as b u f f e r s i s probably not s i g n i f i c a n t i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f moose due t o the small numbers o f both species i n northern Manitoba. • 3/,  E f f e c t o f Domestic and Commercial F i s h i n g  As was i n d i c a t e d i n an e a r l i e r part o f t h i s study, f i s h probably compose the bulk of the n a t i v e s unpurchased d i e t , 1  Since d i s t r i b u t i o n  o f domestic f i s h i n g pressure roughly p a r a l l e l s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f hunting pressure, domestic f i s h i n g p o s s i b l y r e l i e v e s some pressure from moose i n the v i c i n i t y o f the v i l l a g e s but probably does not have a l a r g e enough e f f e c t t o a l t e r the i n f l u e n c e o f hunting on moose d i s t r i b u t i o n . On t h e other hand, commercial f i s h i n g tends t o spread the natives out t o a greater extent than would otherwise occur, and might be expected to a l t e r hunting pressure i n three ways. By t a k i n g some o f the Indians away from the v i l l a g e s , i t might be expected t h a t hunting pressure i n the v i l l a g e areas would be lessened.  By p l a c i n g these fishermen on  l a k e s where, g e n e r a l l y , they would not normally be found ( a t l e a s t not i n so l a r g e numbers), hunting pressure i n these areas i s probably i n creased*  By p l a c i n g cash income from f i s h i n g i n t h e i r hands, t h e n a t i v e s  may k i l l fewer moose and l i v e more " o f f the s h e l f " , thus f u r t h e r reducing hunting pressure p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e most h e a v i l y hunted areas around the settlements.  There may w e l l be other f a c e t s which the w r i t e r has not  considered, but a t the present time i t may be proposed t h a t domestic  84  f i s h i n g has l i t t l e e f f e c t on moose d i s t r i b u t i o n ; that commercial f i s h i n g may tend to spread hunting pressure more evenly and thus have a t l e a s t a p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t on moose d i s t r i b u t i o n . *f.f>»  E f f e c t o f Abundance and Value of Fur Bearers  Increasing abundance- and value o f f u r bearers appear t o have f i v e major e f f e c t s which i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t b i g game* Perhaps the most notable e f f e c t i s the increase i n cash income*  This income i n t u r n causes  an increase i n the amount o f " o f f the s h e l f " l i v i n g and increases the amount of time which the n a t i v e s spend i n the v i l l a g e s - e s p e c i a l l y i n the summer months*  Due to more people spending more time i n the v i l l a g e s  i n the summertime, i t i s probable that an increase i n hunting pressure w i t h i n easy canoe range o f the v i l l a g e s also occurs although t h i s e f f e c t may be somewhat o f f s e t by the i n c r e a s i n g purchasing power o f the n a t i v e s . The i n c r e a s i n g amount of meat a v a i l a b l e from f u r bearers —  particularly  beaver and muskrats — may a c t as a b u f f e r i n reducing the b i g game k i l l . The importance o f recent population changes i n beaver may be i n f e r r e d from the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s on number o f beaver cropped i n three r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e sections: Pukatawagan, 1945-46, 40?J  1952-53, 3,187.  Nelson House 1946-47, 623;  1951-52, 2,652.  God's Lake,  1947-48,  17;  1951-52,1,414.  I t i s probable t h a t the e f f e c t o f such changes i n r e l i e v i n g pressure on moose would probably be increased even more i f methods of p r e s e r v i n g excess meat through the summer months were a v a i l a b l e . Decreasing abundance and value o f f u r bearers would normally be expected to have j u s t about the reverse e f f e c t s to those mentioned  85 above.  Decreasing a v a i l a b l e cash would promote an i n c r e a s i n g tendency  to l i v e " o f f the l a n d " , would draw more people away from t h e v i l l a g e s , tend to spread hunting pressure more evenly and would probably increase the number o f moose k i l l e d due t o lack o f meat from f u r bearers.  Of  recent years however there has been an i n c r e a s i n g tendency f o r t h e nat i v e s t o request r e l i e f i n t h e form o f f r e e r a t i o n s when normal sources of monetary wealth decrease*  I f t h i s tendency continues along with the  present slump o f the f u r market and decreasing beaver populations, i t may be expected that t h e decreasing abundance and value o f f u r bearers w i l l cause an increase i n hunting pressure near the v i l l a g e s and aggravate the already uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n o f moose. 5$,  Summary  In summary, summer hunting pressure near t h e n a t i v e settlements i s considered of major importance i n causing moose d e n s i t y to be l e s s i n the areas e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e from the settlements and greater i n the l e s s e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e areas.  Many f a c t o r s tend t o aggravate t h e uneven d i s t r i -  b u t i o n , i n c l u d i n g outboard motors, r i f l e s , absence o f b i g game b u f f e r s i n the summertime, and the new c u l t u r a l trend o f the natives t o v i l l a g e existence.  The b a s i c f a c t o r underlying a l l the others i s the f a c t that  the great m a j o r i t y o f the moose are k i l l e d i n the months o f open water. Management programs aimed a t l e s s e n i n g the summer k i l l i n areas o f low moose d e n s i t y should prove b e n e f i c i a l to the long-term u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h i s resource.  86  Abundance of Moose a* I n t r o d u c t i o n Since a p p r e c i a t i o n o f an animal population i s dependent i n p a r t upon a knowledge of the number o f i n d i v i d u a l s composing i t , and since f o r management purposes i t i s d e s i r a b l e to have some means of f o l l o w i n g trends i n these numbers, the present study attempted to o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . Because the area involved was very l a r g e , t h i n l y s e t t l e d , and d i f f i c u l t of access, more a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to trends i n numbers than t o p o s i t i v e counts.  Almost a l l of the area i s d i v i d e d  i n t o r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s and i t was through the medium of the r e g i s t e r e d t r a p p e r s ' estimates of numbers on each t r a p l i n e that most of the information was obtained. Experimental a e r i a l census work supplemented by ground counts by Conservation O f f i c e r s supplied f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i n the Saskatfhewan River d e l t a where no r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s e x i s t e d and computations based on the known k i l l and p o p u l a t i o n composition provided a d d i t i o n a l estimates o f abundance. b.  Registered T r a p l i n e Areas i.  Introduction Hunting pressure on moose i n northern Manitoba i s exerted  mainly by r e s i d e n t s of remote areas — the l i f e of Indians.  by Indians and persons l i v i n g -  "Sport" hunting, o r hunting by persons whose normal  standard o f l i v i n g does not depend upon w i l d game, i s mainly l i m i t e d to areas e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e by automobile or r a i l r o a d .  Because i t was  de-  s i r e d t o o b t a i n information on the economic importance o f moose to r e sidents o f remote areas as w e l l as i t s p o s i t i o n as sporting game, some  87  means of o b t a i n i n g s t a t i s t i c s on population d e n s i t y and trends was necessary. The vast areas i n v o l v e d and the suspected r e l a t i v e l y small moose population precluded the use of any standard methods o f i n v e n t o r y . Unlike mountainous areas where moose are found concentrated i n the v a l l e y s during part o f the year, and can there be censussed  rapidly  and cheaply from the a i r , no seasonal concentrations were known to e x i s t i n t h i s area and hence a e r i a l census was not considered practicable.  However there d i d e x i s t an elaborate system o f r e g i s t e r e d  t r a p l i n e s covering the whole area (except f o r a r e l a t i v e l y small port i o n i n the southwest) and i t was considered t h a t i f the trappers . would supply estimates of populations on each t r a p l i n e , the mosaic would probably be adequate t o show trends.  Results have been only  p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l but are expected to become of i n c r e a s i n g use as more date are b u i l t up w i t h which to make year-to-year ii.  comparisons,  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Registered T r a p l i n e System Because a knowledge o f the b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n and adminis-  t r a t i o n of r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s i s p r e r e q u i s i t e t o an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the value and shortcomings of censuses obtained from the t r a p p e r s , a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the Manitoba system w i l l be given. Depletion of the f u r resource through "cut t h r o a t " t r a p p i n g p r a c t i c e s l e d to requests as e a r l y as the 1920 s f o r some means of r  securing to the i n d i v i d u a l e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s to t r a p a p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e o f ground. By 1940 the f i r s t r e g i s t r a t i o n had become a' f a i t accompli i n a small area along the Hudson Bay Railway and i n the  88  succeeding two o r three years an area o f some t h i r t e e n thousand square miles adjacent to the two r a i l w a y l i n e s and occupied mainly by  non-  Indian trappers had been completely d i v i d e d up and r e g i s t e r e d *  Due  to the success of t h i s venture i n i n c r e a s i n g f u r stocks, the system was extended l i t t l e by l i t t l e to the r e s t o f the northern area u n t i l now a l l except the northern Chipewyan lands are divided up and admini s t e r e d by t h i r t e e n o f f i c e r s i n the f i e l d and two at headquarters i n The  Pas. Figure 19 shows the way the area has been d i v i d e d i n t o  Sections and F i g , 20 i s a t y p i c a l example of the way i n which each s e c t i o n i s subdivided i n t o t r a p l i n e s .  I t w i l l be n o t i c e d that there  i s no vacant land between t r a p l i n e s o r between S e c t i o n s ,  A l l trapline  and s e c t i o n boundaries were drawn i n by the trappers concerned, the government a c t i n g only as a mediator o f boundary d i s p u t e s .  No l e g a l  surveys have been c a r r i e d out, the l i n e s drawn by the trappers on the o r i g i n a l maps serving as the sole b a s i s of a r b i t r a t i o n i n any d i s p u t e . Some o f the t r a p l i n e s are r e g i s t e r e d t o o n l y one i n d i v i d u a l while others —  so c a l l e d "group t r a p l i n e s " —  are r e g i s t e r e d to more than  one person but u s u a l l y w i t h one "senior trapper" as spokesman and supervisor of the group,  The members of group t r a p l i n e s are most  commonly a group o f ( b r o t h e r s or a f a t h e r and h i s sons.  By 1954  there  were 2,056 trappers r e g i s t e r e d to i n d i v i d u a l t r a p l i n e s and group t r a p l i n e s and the area under r e g i s t r a t i o n was approximately miles.  151,300 square  fH&w  page 88.  H U D S O N  BARRENS  'ji  BROCHET ^Church///  BAY 3fOchat  , CHURCH  SOUTH  I l/i  INDIAN  r  ^  f  Port Nalsot &/-A-  \4  Gran v//7  YORK  ^SPL/T  NELSON HOUSE  II ford  ftSHAMATTAWA  A*  5  }  Turnfuvooz  w  ^^JsZinsk  Vii A  r-S  r  J  HOUSE  nX -fC. _y  rO^  -'^OSS° ^%T^{Y^  ^bovvcian.  TMOXOSE  Factory  L  LAKE ^Cross^  .  [Norway  L  ?  ^/Gods  fGODL  LAKE  W <tzvansoA J-ok  ^Island L.  (LAKE, r * ^ 9 ^  S  J - j £ l / S L A N D  LA/CE  Pig. i 9 . Division o f Northern Manitoba i n t o registered Trapline Sections.  ELS To  f o l l o w page  88,  F i g . 20. T y p i c a l d i v i s i o n of a Registered Trapline Section into traplines.  89  i i i . • Methods Between freeze*up and Christinas the trappers are expected to get out to t h e i r l i n e s , count t h e i r beaver houses and g e n e r a l l y get a p i c t u r e o f the s t a t e of the f u r and game populations*  Trapping at  t h i s time i s mainly f o r mink and i n some places f o r f i s h e r and marten. The beaver season i s open from November t o May but o n l y a small percentage of the annual beaver crop i s taken p r i o r t o Christmas, . For the most part the a t t e n t i o n o f the trappers during t h i s census period i s focussed on the lakes and streams and l a r g e areas are t h e r e f o r e missed,  Long-term tenure of one t r a p l i n e by one i n d i v i d u a l or group  o f i n d i v i d u a l s allows a more i n t e l l i g e n t guess to be made of the s i z e of moose population than would be the case i f the estimate had t o be based j u s t on the s i g n seen along the waterways i n e a r l y . w i n t e r .  As  a general p o l i c y , trappers are encouraged to stay on the same t r a p l i n e year a f t e r year and t h i s s t a b i l i t y i s o f considerable b e n e f i t to any management method. Most of the trappers return, to the settlements a t Christmas and a t t h i s time submit t h e i r censuses to the Conservation O f f i c e r concerned.  In the C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t most of the trappers are l i t e r a t e  and submit t h e i r returns i n w r i t i n g but i n the other Sections the l i t e r a c y r a t e i s q u i t e low and most returns are submitted v e r b a l l y . (At the present time t e s t s are being run to see i f census forms p r i n t * ed i n Indian s y l l a b l e s w i l l increase the r e t u r n s ) . The dependence of the q u a l i t y o f census r e s u l t s i n most areas upon the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i e l d o f f i c e r and trapper introduces a p o s s i b l e source o f e r r o r  90  whenever an o f f i c e r i s t r a n s f e r r e d from one S e c t i o n t o another.  Unfor-  t u n a t e l y , since t h i s f a c t o r cannot be analyzed i t must be ignored i n final  computations. Although i t would have been v a l u a b l e to have checked some o f  the t r a p p e r s censuses i n order t o o b t a i n an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r average 1  accuracy, l a c k o f funds, personnel and adequate techniques t h i s from being done.  prevented  O f f i c e r s n a t u r a l l y disregarded known w i l d guesses  by persons o f more o r l e s s unbalanced minds, but the average trapper's census was accepted a t face value. Each o f f i c e r a l s o supplied an estimate o f t h e number o f moose k i l l e d by hunters i n the area under h i s s u p e r v i s i o n . This estimate was based on reports by the trappers plus whatever more could be picked up through.keeping  eyes and ears a l e r t ,  i v . Results Table 3 summarizes a l l o f the a v a i l a b l e trappers ' census r e 1  s u l t s by Sections,  Sections having very incomplete o r no r e t u r n s are  omitted ( S p l i t Lake, Limestone, C h u r c h i l l , Duck Lake, B r o c h e t ) , F o r a l l o f the censuses f o r which t h e "percent o f Traplines Reporting" was known, the t o t a l census reported has been extrapolated t o show the estimated number which would have been reported had a l l t r a p l i n e s been i  heard from.  Also included i n t h e t a b l e are the records o f a l l the  known hunter k i l l s i n each S e c t i o n .  The k i l l i n a l l the Indian Sections  i s estimated to average approximately 800 moose a n n u a l l y . Table 4 summarizes a l l o f the age and sex r e p o r t s , and Table 5 summarizes the age and sex c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the known k i l l .  TABLE 3 REGISTERED TRAPPERS' RETURNS. MOOSE CENSUS AND KILL IN NORTHERN MANITOBA, 1940-50 t o 1953-54  CENSUS ffi  R.T.L. SECTION  NORWAY HOUSE  ISLAND LAKE  God's LAKE  OXFORD  CROP  CD CO  YEAR  CD CO  o p CD CO  19501951 51-52 52-53 53-54 # — not extrapolated 51-52 358 52-53 354 336 53-54 142 131 238 # - -not extrapolated ## — incomplete k i l l record  a O H P CO co HHs HCD P-  I  CO  '••J en  4  "8  3 CD  H-  O H> 4  era TJ i  § H CD  CD CO  714# 118 1306 268 984  89.1 78.3  363# 537# 371# 463  97.1  105 108  92  —  T  H CD CO  e  [5  CD CO  CD CO  o  106 182  88  — P H  O  294# 391# 316# 387  588 50-51 82.2 51*52 52- 53 53- 54 106 116 102 778 41.7 # — estimated k i l l ## — s a i d t o contain 27 w o I f - k i l l s and 2 drownings ### — incomplete k i l l record 50*51 51- 52 52- 53 53- 54 # — not extrapolated  CD CO H CD \ CO H O O  P  30 36 23 30  9 21 7 16  99 53 37  48 47 35  26 21 13  50 25  42 20  35 15  51 54  21 30  7 8  — e * o H P co CO HH> H* CD P.  -1-3-  a  39 57 30 49 173 121 85##  24  90# 151## 60### 84  79 92  TABLE 3 (Cont'd.)  CROP  CENSUS  SECTION  CROSS LAKE  H  COCO  H  CD Co  YEAR  CD  0)  i-3  s  4 CD  o hi  d-  CO CO HHj HCD  O  H0 CD CO  H-  O Hj c+ hi  P CD H co CD \ CO  0Q  i H CD CO  <  CD co  8F H CD CO  \  H  •3  o  H CD  CO CO  ffi (a 3 H co  O O  1  50«51  340#  52- 53 53- 54  330 302  82.4 73.5  49*50 50*51 51- 52 52- 53 53- 54  1134 1166 1241 1703 2109  58,6 71.6 74.2 60.3 32.8  91 102  725 496  44.9 77.9 66.7 88.6 88.3  68  51*52  al  R.T.L.  p  em  G 3 a H P>  O  G 3 o H  (0 CO CO HH)  h3. o t> r co 1  HCD  5 17 29 8  # — not extrapolated EAST CENTRAL DISTRICT  WEST CENTRAL DISTRICT  PUKATAWAGAN  49- 50 50- 51 51- 52 52- 53 53- 54 50- 51 51- 52 52- 53 53- 54  185 170  204 166  185 168  703 191  627  136  200.  153  82  562 647  500# 1473## 63.3 1594###55.2  91 101 24 20  77 29  26  1 45  1 55 50 41 100 111  # — Conservation O f f i c e r Burns' personal estimate ... ## — Estimate by e x t r a p o l a t i o n . — Estimate by e x t r a p o l a t i o n — Conservation O f f i c e r Slade estimated a t o t a l population i n the Section o f o n l y 1000,  TABLE 3 (Continued)  CENSUS H CD co  YEAR  sr  3  a  "O 3 O  CO CO  O CD 4 CO ct"  Hj  on .  HHCD  NELSON HOUSE  SOUTH INDIAN LAKE YORK / SHAMATTAWA  Hj c+  i  § H  CD  H CD CO  H CD CO  p5  CD CO  \  g o  H <i CD co  50*51 51- 52 547 94.3 52- 53 482 86.7 53- 54 631 72.9 # **- four of these s a i d t o have been k i l l e d by wolves, 50*51 51- 52 52- 53 53*54 50*51 •51-52 52*53 53- 54 55 37 # — not extrapolated  1033 1343 1499  54.7 57.7 65.4.  o  H CD CO  I T  O  g  001/  o  R.T.L. SECTION  CROP O (o  H CD CO  CO  o  H S» CO CO  HHi HCD  37  30  14  19  8  8  6  29  53  46  45  100 78# 51 45 84 75 150 53  39  34  331# 165#  149  106  27  19  56  104 106  94  TABLE 4 SUMMARY OF AGE AND SEX RETURNS IN TRAPPERS CENSUS ' 1  (# based on only those animals i d e n t i f i e d as t o age and sex)  Adult Males Females  1952-53  1953-54  Males: 100 Females 100  # 539  540  #33.2  33.4  # 609  650  #31,1  33.1  Calves 543  Calves: 100 Females  Unidentified  Totals  821  2443  101  100.1  33.5 94  700  108  2543  575  99.9  35.7  TABLE 5 SUMMARY OF AGE AND SEX RETURNS IN REPORTED KILL IN REGISTERED TRAPLINE SECTIONS (# based on o n l y those animals i d e n t i f i e d as t o age and sex)  Adult Males Females # 67  Calves  Unidentified  Totals  No. o f Sections reporting  39  14  262  382  7  111  61  166  523  6  95  43  386  676  9  200  37  337  836  11  1151  '2417  1950-51 % 1951-52  #185 % #152  1952«53  % #262  1953-54  TOTALS  % #666  445  #52.6  35-1  ' 155 12.2  99.9  95  v»  Discussion Beaver management was the primary f a c t o r i n the e s t a b l i s h -  ment o f r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s and i t s i n i t i a l success was a t t r i b u t a b l e i n part t o the census o f beaver houses turned i n each f a l l by the t r a p pers.  Not too much t r o u b l e was experienced i n o b t a i n i n g censuses i n the  predominantly "white" C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t , but i n the Indian Sections the trappers a t f i r s t looked upon counting beaver houses as j u s t about the s i l l i e s t t h i n g t h a t a government agency had ever dreamed up.  "When t h i s  prejudice was worn down the trappers were asked t o count the other animals too — o r a t l e a s t t o take an i n t e l l i g e n t guess a t t h e i r numbers. As might be expected, the f i r s t attempts were not too r e l i a b l e but the i d e a g r a d u a l l y developed u n t i l a t the present time census r e t u r n s i n the m a j o r i t y o f the sections are considered about as r e l i a b l e as i s p o s s i b l e under t h i s system, /. Censu. S  a.  "R.e.por'ts  T o t a l Counts  I f the 1952-53 and 1953«54 moose censuses may be considered reasonably i n d i c a t i v e o f population t r e n d , Table 6 shows t h a t i n the seven areas f o r which data permitted e x t r a p o l a t i o n i n these two y e a r s , there has been an increase o f about 8 percent.  The " t " t e s t o f s i g n i -  f i c a n c e shows t h a t the increase i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence.  I n making t h i s comparison, i t was assumed that the  myriads o f v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g the data should have been s u f f i c i e n t l y a l i k e i n the two years t o cancel t h e i r e f f e c t s and t h a t the increase recorded was t h e r e f o r e r e a l .  However, the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the d i f f e r -  ence i s a l s o p a r t l y due t o increased accuracy cannot be completely d i s regarded.  I t w i l l probably take another f i v e years o f t r a p p e r s  1  censuses  TABLE 6 MOOSE POPULATIONS IN PORTIONS OF NORTHERN MANITOBA, 1952-53 and 1953-54  Section  Area (sq. mi?*)  Estimated Population 1952*53 1953-54  Population Density (sq.mi. per moose; 1952-53 1953-54 .  Net Change 1953*54  I s l a n d Lake  8600  1306  1035  6.6  8*3  Gross Lake  5600  330  302  17.0  18.5  E* Central D i s t r i c t  8950  1703  2109  5*2  4.2  W. Central D i s t r i c t  3850  562  647  6.9  6.0  Pukatawagan  9500  1473  1594  6.5  6.0  Nelson House  9500  482  631  19.7  15.1  +31#  South Indian Lake  15000  1343  1499  11*1  10.0  Totals  67000  7199  7817  -  8.5  7.8  «21#*  .  Number Reported Killed 1953*54  % of Total • Population Killed 1953^54  85  8.3  -8.5$  8  2.7  +23.5%  45  2.1  +15#  55  8.5  111  7.0  51  8.1  +11>6%  150  10.0  +8,5#  505  6.5  +8%  The Conservation O f f i c e r making t h i s report stated that b i g game had increased-between these two years, i n d i c a t i n g that t h e 1952-53 census had been too h i g h .  .97  to a l l o w f i r m conclusions to be drawn from them, but i n the meantime since they are the only s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e , they must form the b a s i s f o r management c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  In Ontario, trappers estimates are gen-  e r a l l y considered to be too high. b,  1  (deVos, 1952).  Age and Sex Ration i.  Age R a t i o s  Table 4 i n d i c a t e s that calves composed about one t h i r d o f the population and that the calf:cow r a t i o was greater than 1:1.  Peterson  (1950 pp. 111-113) summarized a l l - t h e known records of calf:cow counts i n North America and showed t h a t r a t i o s i n excess of 50:100 were extremely rare —  only two out of the twelve which he l i s t e d coming i n t o  t h i s category.  His explanation of the low r a t i o s was t h a t probably poor  n u t r i t i o n was a f f e c t i n g the reproductive c a p a c i t i e s of the cows i n the same manner t h a t Morton and Cheatum (1946) found i t a f f e c t i n g deer r e production i n New York.  The present study i n d i c a t e s e i t h e r that repro«*  duction i n northern Manitoba i s phenomenally, successful or that the census r e p o r t s are biased i n favour of c a l v e s .  Unfortunately there are no means  p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e o f checking the census r e s u l t s and i t must therefore be presumed t h a t they are a t l e a s t approximately c o r r e c t .  No reasons  can be o f f e r e d at the present time as t o why reproduction should be more s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s area than i n other p o r t i o n s of the moose's range, but the f a c t that a l l o f the reports o f hunting k i l l s i n the Indian Sections ( i , e , , outside the C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t ) add up"to an average of 38 calves k i l l e d f o r every 100 cows (Table 5) i n d i c a t e s t h a t a good c a l f crop probably does e x i s t , e s p e c i a l l y since these reports are considered to be conservative i n the number of calves reported k i l l e d .  98  it-yL  Sex Ratios  Trappers were asked f o r information on the breakdown o f t h e i r census f i g u r e s during only the l a s t two years (1952-53 and 195354) and i n consequence i t i s probably too e a r l y y e t to d i s c e r n any trends.  The u n i f o r m i t y o f the sex r a t i o s between the two years  (100:100 i n 1952-53; 94:100 i n 1953-54) may i n d i c a t e r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y but data are much too few to allow conclusions to be drawn (Table 7 summarizes the a v a i l a b l e d a t a ) , TABLE 7 SUMMARY OF SEX CLASSIFICATIONS OF TRAPPERS' CENSUSES 1952-53 Section Island Lake  Males: Male Female 100 Females Male 354  336  105  God's Lake East C e n t r a l District  185  204  91  West C e n t r a l District York-Shamattawa Totals  142  131  108  106  116  91  170  166  102  136  200  68  55 539  540  100  1953-54 Males: Female 100 Females  609  37 • 650  148 94  I t does d e f i n i t e l y appear from these s t a t i s t i c s however that there i s no serious unbalance i n the adult sex r a t i o s *  Cowan (1950) reported  a sex r a t i o o f 160 males:100 females i n the unhunted Rocky Mountain N a t i o n a l Parks but considered t h a t h i s f i g u r e s might have been biased  99  i n favour o f males.  Spencer and Chatelain (1953) reported a sex r a t i o  o f about 50 males:100 cows on the Kenai range of Alaska where 19 years p r e v i o u s l y when the area was unhunted there were "no m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the sex r a t i o . "  Peterson (1950) recorded sex r a t i o s o f 67 percent males  and 87 percent males on unhunted S t . Ignace I s l a n d , Ontario, i n 1947 and 1948 r e s p e c t i v e l y but considered the 1948 count biased i n favour of males. "in  I n Newfoundland, P i m l o t t (1953) recorded a sex r a t i o o f near 1:1  s p i t e of an a l l e g e d b u l l k i l l of approximately 14,000 animals i n the  past eight years".  However, proof of sex was not required and he be-  l i e v e d t h a t a comparatively high cow k i l l occurred at l e a s t i n some areas. Hatter (1947) recorded a sex r a t i o of 22.1 percent males to 77.9  percent  females i n the h e a v i l y hunted Bonaparte r e g i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia but r e l a t i v e l y twice as many males i n the l e s s h e a v i l y hunted Burns Lake region.  ( B r i t i s h Columbia at t h a t time had a "buck law.") From these  accounts and from the present study, i t appears t h a t under c o n d i t i o n s o f no hunting, a d u l t sex r a t i o s may be weighted i n favour o f males, where heavy hunting under a buck law occurs the r a t i o s w i l l be weighted i n favour o f females and t h a t where e i t h e r sex i s taken, r a t i o s may approach unity. .So f a r as the w r i t e r i s aware, Ontario i s the only other prov i n c e i n Canada which requests moose census information from a l l regis** tered t r a p p e r s . However, the Ontario trappers are not asked f o r a breakdown of age and sex c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and there are consequently no other data w i t h which t o compare those from northern Manitoba*  By  comparison'  w i t h other areas where d i r e c t counts of moose have been recorded (e.g., Cowan, 1950, Peterson, 1950, Hatter, 1947, Spencer and C h a t e l a i n , 1953,  100  P i m l o t t , 1953) the t r a p p e r s census r e p o r t s show a very unusually high 1  p r o p o r t i o n of calves i n the t o t a l population but a "normal" adult sex ratio. 2, K i l l Reports Since the great m a j o r i t y o f persons hunting moose i n northern Manitoba (except i n the southwest p o r t i o n between F l i n F l o n , Wabowden and The Pas) are Treaty Indians who may take game f o r food at any time on unoccupied crown lands and another l a r g e segment i s composed of h a l f breeds who l i v e the l i f e o f Indians and who have so f a r not been bothered too much by the government i f they took game f o r food without a l i c e n s e , i t becomes obvious t h a t hunting l i c e n s e r e t u r n s would not give an i n d i c a t i o n of the number of moose k i l l e d i n the r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e areas. The o n l y means of obtaining these data was f o r the Conservation O f f i c e r s t o question each trapper i n d i v i d u a l l y and to keep themselves g e n e r a l l y w e l l informed of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a . The t o t a l a v a i l a b l e k i l l r e p o r t s are summarized i n Tables 5 and 6, Of the seven areas f o r which comparable data are a v a i l a b l e f o r 1952-53 and 1953-54, the reported k i l l i n the l a t t e r year averaged 6*5 percent o f the reported p o p u l a t i o n . Since the net increase reported t h a t year was 8*5 percent of the previous year's p o p u l a t i o n , there must have been a minimum increment t o the herd of 15 percent*  Losses due t o n a t u r a l  causes could be expected t o r a i s e t h i s f i g u r e another few p o i n t s —  per-  haps to 17 percent — the f i g u r e given by Peterson (1949 and 1950) as being average f o r North American moose range. The p r o p o r t i o n o f calves to cows k i l l e d has been reported as  101  high as 84:100 but the average ( i n the Indian Sections) has been 38:100 w i t h annual v a r i a t i o n , i n the average o f a l l r e p o r t s , from 24:100 (1953-54) t o 55:100 (1951-52).  There does not seem to be any  p a r t i c u l a r geographic pattern to v a r i a t i o n i n c a l f u t i l i z a t i o n ; f o r the most part moose are k i l l e d during open water and i t would be a r a r e hunter i n these parts who would even h e s i t a t e before k i l l i n g a cow and c a l f whenever the opportunity arose.  The f a c t that the c a l f :  cow k i l l r a t i o i s low r e l a t i v e the calf-cow census r a t i o i s thought to i n d i c a t e that the census r a t i o i s p o s s i b l y too high. o The seK r a t i o %i a d u l t moose k i l l e d averaged 150 males:100 females and o f the t o t a l k i l l , a d u l t males comprised 53 percent, a d u l t females 34 percent and calves 13 percent.  ( A l l e x c l u s i v e o f the C e n t r a l  D i s t r i c t where calves were supposedly not k i l l e d ) . c.  Summerberry Area (Saskatchewan R i v e r Delta i.  Introduction Because the Summerberry area o f the Saskatchewan River d e l t a  (see F i g . 21) i s considered one'of the best moose areas i n northern Manitoba and because i t i s hunted the year around by three Indian bands, as w e l l as by non-Indians during the regular open-season, and i s reasona b l y a c c e s s i b l e from The Pas, i t was chosen f o r more d e t a i l e d study. Preliminary reconnaissance  i n 1951 i n d i c a t e d that the p o r t i o n o f the  Summerberry east o f The Pas had the l a r g e r moose population and received the brunt o f the Indian hunting pressure; f o r these reasons most e f f o r t was expended i n t h i s eastern area.  To f o l l o w page  101,  F i g . 2 1 . A e r i a l T r a n s e c t s . Summerberry Marsh. (Scale 8 m i . - 1 i n c h . )  102  — D c G o r i p t i i o n o f t h e Area Due t o the dense deciduous growth i n the area, p a r t i c u l a r l y along the waterways, i t was not p r a c t i c a b l e t o conduct censuses during the summer. Winter census methods consisted o f an a e r i a l s t r i p census and an estimate o f abundance from t r a c k s and " s i g n " by Conservation O f f i c e r s during t h e i r annual f a l l (December) muskrat house count. These censuses were compared and checked against t h e estimated annual k i l l i n order %e- better^evaluate t h e i r p r e c i s i o n , iii.  A e r i a l Census As i n d i c a t e d by Table 8, the use o f a e r i a l census i n moose  inventory work i s a f a i r l y new technique w i t h r e s u l t s s t i l l o f questionable merit i n most areas outside the C o r d i l l e r a n r e g i o n .  I n the present  study, a e r i a l census was attempted o n l y on the Summerberry area because .previous o p e r a t i o n a l f l y i n g over coniferous forested areas i n d i c a t e d t h a t probably o n l y a very small p r o p o r t i o n o f moose i n coniferous areas could be seen,  ( I t was not unusual t o f l y f o r f i f t e e n o r twenty hours,  on f l i g h t s t o various northern detachments, without seeing a s i n g l e moose, but i n the Summerberry area normal o p e r a t i o n a l ' f l y i n g o f t e n r e vealed f i f t e e n or twenty moose per hour.) 1,  Methods  At the outset i t was hoped t h a t repeated censuses over one area would.:.(1) r e v e a l population trends as w e l l as g i v e a rough e s t i mate o f t o t a l population; and (2) permit s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f techniques which when perfected might be extended t o other areas as the need arose. Transect l i n e s were l a i d out mechanically east and west across the area  <5  TABLE 8  ,  SUMMARY OF KNOWN AERIAL MOOSE CENSUS REPORTS IN NORTH AMERICA  Authority**  1 2  I s l e Royale, Michigan Northern Minnesota  3 4 4 4 5  Isle.Royale, Michigan Algonquin Park, Ontario S t , Ignace I s , Ontario St* Ignace and Simpson Islands, Ontario Black Bay Peninsula,Ont,  6 7 8  South Central Alaska Wells Gray Park, B.C. C e n t r a l B,C,  9  !  Place  * *  #  II  II  Area (sq.mi,). S t r i p Width  210 494 133 210  (?)  110 140 273 *?  60 9  • 430* Saskatchewan R i v e r d e l t a , 1600  Manitoba  1/6 mi. ( ? ) 1/2 mi. ( ? ) # 1/4 mi. (?) #  % Coverage  30 100 50 ?  20*25  1/8 m i .  20-50 12,5 (*)  varied 1/8 mi. ( i )  varied  varied  3/16 m i .  . 3*4.3  9-14.5  No.Moose Seen*  122 260 42 •>  0 34 115  Years  Results  1945 1946 1946 1947 1947 1947  Good ? ? ? Fair Poor  1948 1949«50*51«52~53  Fair Fair  (10 f l i g h t s )  Good 9436 1950-51-52-53 300 1952 (.3 f l i g h t s ) Good Good 679 GO 1952-53-54  491  1951-52*53-54 (5 f l i g h t s )  Fair  A l l moose recorded f o r t h e years i n d i c a t e d are summed. A u t h o r i t i e s : 1, Aldous and K r e f t i n g , 1946: 2, Morse, 1946: 3. K r e f t i n g , 1951: 4. Peterson, 1950: 5. DeVos and Armstrong, 1954: 6. Spencer and Chatelaine, 1953: 7* Edwards, 1952, 1954: 8, Martin and Sugden, 1954: 9» Present study. Morse, elsewhere i n h i s a r t i c l e , claimed a s t r i p width o f 1/8 t o 3/16 mi. a t 500' a l t i t u d e was preferable.  104  a t three m i l e i n t e r v a l s and covered a t o t a l area of 1614 m i l e s . (Fig.21)  square  An a l t i t u d e o f approximately 500 f e e t was main«  t a i n e d (chosen a f t e r p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g on o p e r a t i o n a l f l i g h t s ) and a s t r i p of approximately one-eighth m i l e (220 yards) was served on each s i d e of the a i r c r a f t .  ob-  Except on the l a s t f l i g h t , no  mechanical device was used t o guage the width of s t r i p , but as the a i r c r a f t had t o pass over a section of r a i l w a y t r a c k , each observer could check h i s estimate o f one-eighth m i l e by marking o f f the dis*» tance covered by four telephone poles along the t r a c k .  During the  l a s t f l i g h t , markers were placed on the wing s t r u t s and r e a r windows t o mark an angle which when p r o j e c t e d from 500 f e e t would enclose a one-eighth m i l e s t r i p .  In c a l c u l a t i n g t h i s angle, allowance must be  made f o r the " b l i n d spot" beneath the a i r c r a f t , e s p e c i a l l y when using a i r c r a f t equipped w i t h e i t h e r s k i i s or f l o a t s . Observations tended t o s t r a y beyond the one-eighth m i l e s t r i p over very "open" country and to be r e s t r i c t e d to l e s s than oneeighth m i l e i n densely wooded areas.  Because there was a greater  p r o p o r t i o n of "open" country i n t h e area censused, f i n a l  computations  assumed that the s t r i p width was t h r e e - s i x t e e n t h s m i l e i n s t e a d o f oneeighth. Whenever p o s s i b l e three observers other than the p i l o t were u t i l i z e d but constant s t a f f s h i f t s and pressure of other work d i d not a l l o w the same observers t o be used each time.  The w r i t e r took part  i n a l l except the December 1952 survey. Each observer was provided w i t h a map w i t h the t r a n s e c t l i n e s  105  b o l d l y marked and w i t h a form s i m i l a r t o t h a t shown i n F i g * 22 on which to record observations* (As the longest transects were t h i r t y f i v e m i l e s , f i v e columns o f five-minute i n t e r v a l s were allowed on the forms used).  The De H a y i l l a n d "Beaver" a i r c r a f t used on a l l  had a normal a i r s p e e d o f about 110  censuses  miles per hour but ground"speed  sometimes reduced by winds to about 90 miles per hour.  was  By n o t i n g the  time necessary to make each "run", i t was r e l a t i v e l y easy afterward to work out the boundaries o f any given five-minute i n t e r v a l and thus t o determine the l o c a t i o n of the major areas of abundance or s c a r c i t y . S i x f l i g h t s were made, one i n November, three i n December, one i n February and one i n May.  I t was not always p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n  an a i r d r a f t f o r s u f f i c i e n t time t o cover a l l the t r a n s e c t l i n e s w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t no two censuses covered the same amount.of area*  In  a l l cases however, the f o u r most n o r t h e r l y transects were covered and then as many o f the other t h i r t e e n as time permitted. I n general, f l i g h t s s t a r t e d about t e n a,m, and were not continued a f t e r about f o u r p*m. 2.  Results  A e r i a l census r e s u l t s are summarized i n Tables 9 and  10.  (a) General Notes on Each F l i g h t 1.  November 29.  1951  P i l o t and two observers covered four t r a n s e c t s . 2:50  p.m.,  minutes.  Started a t  ended a t 4*07 p*m* f o r an elapsed time o f 1 hour and  17  52 moose observed, 23 on one s i d e , 29 on the other. Good  Time Transect  0-5  Minutes  at Start  Number; of Run  5 - 10 Minutes a  a  3 3 5! 9  N  2 0 - 2 5 Minutes  a> ai  u  3 3 5 CM  4  •J o 9  a  03  1...XJ I J 4 I I I I at  H  O  £  o  o  Time Moose Seen Between •I Transects at : g  a 2  3 <£ End  3 O  CM  s I  of Jjftm'S  43 §  ,.  —u i  Date  Weather  Observer  Plane  F i g * 22. plan o f cards used f o r recording a e r i a l transect data.  *  CO  CM  Pilot  §  °  4H  09  106 TABLE 9 SUMMARY OF AERIAL MOOSE CENSUSES OF THE SASKATCHEWAN RIVER DELTA  Nov.* 51  Feb.t52  Dec.*52  Dec.*53  Dec.*54  Totals  55.9  234  214  144  87.8  735.7  1614  1614  1614  Area Observed (sq.mi.) T o t a l Area (sq.mi.) % Coverage  13.7  Males  17  Females, no c a l f  433  13.3  8.9  13.6  7  36.  26  17  103  9  9  30  29  14  91  Females, 1 c a l f  2  7  13  19  4  45  Females 2 calves  1  0  3  9  12  16  46  57  19  T o t a l Females  •>  14.3  648  1  14 150  T o t a l Calves  •4  7  19  37  6  Unclassified  20  86  9  29  22  166  T o t a l Moose seen  53  116  110  149  64  492  73.  Bull:Cow r a t i o  142:100  44:100  78:100  46:100  89:100  69:100  Calf:Cow Ratio  33:100  44:100  41:100  65:100  32:100  49:100  Percent Calves*  12.1  23.3  18.8  30.8  14.0  22.4  1.1  2.0  1.9  1.0  1.4  1.5  Sq.mi./moose  *  Percentage based on only those animals i d e n t i f i e d as t o age.  107 TABLE 10 SUMMARY OF AERIAL CENSUSES ON TRANSECTS 14 to 17 INCLUSIVE, SASKATCHEWAN RIVER DELTA  Nov.'51  Feb.*52  D e c * 52  Dec.*53  Totals  Dec.'54  Males  17  2  13  11  Females  12  4  10  27  14  67  4  1  4  •10  2  21  Unclassified  20  7  3  10  15  55  T o t a l Moose seen  53  14  30  58  45  100  Calves  57  Bull:Cow Ratio  142:100  50:100  1301100  41:100  100:100  85:100  C a l f : Cow R a t i o  33:100  25:100  40:100  37:100  14:100  31:100  Percent Calves*  12.1  14.3  14.8  20.8  6.7  15.0  1.1  4.3  1.9  0.9  1.2  1.4  Sq.Mi./Moose  Percentage based on only those animals i d e n t i f i e d as to age. observation c o n d i t i o n s . west end of transect #14.  The highest concentration observed was near the (Landry Lake to Saskatchewan R i v e r ) .  In t h i s  area 16 moose were observed i n one f i v e minute i n t e r v a l (covering about 3.6 square m i l e s ) , an average o f 5 moose per square m i l e . mal was seen on Transect 15.  Only one a n i -  One observer saw 29 moose, the o t h e r , 23.  2. February 4 and 5. 1952 P i l o t and two observers, one of whom was a d i f f e r e n t person on each day, covered 12 t r a n s e c t s on February 4, f i v e on February 5.  Flying  time:  Feb-  Feb. 4, 10:30 am. to 11*45 a.m. and 1:55 p.m. to 4:25 p.m.,  r u a r y 5, 2:40 p.m. to 4-10 p.m.,  t o t a l , f i v e hours and f i f t e e n minutes.  108  116 moose were observed, 50 on one s i d e , 66 on the o t h e r .  Observation  conditions were good on February 4 , o n l y f a i r on February 5 .  Highest  concentration observed was on t h e east end o f Transect #5 (Long Grass Lake and Summerberry R i v e r ) where 1 1 moose were seen i n one five-minute i n t e r v a l -%» a concentration o f 3 , 3 moose per square m i l e .  I t was most  remarkable t h a t on the f o u r northern t r a n s e c t s , only 13 moose were seen where 52 had been observed only two months b e f o r e .  I n f a c t , on t r a n s e c t  #17 none was seen during t h i s census w h i l e twenty-one had been counted there e a r l i e r .  The w r i t e r i s a t a l o s s t o e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e s noted,  e s p e c i a l l y since there was an abundance o f t r a c k s and beds i n the northern area d u r i n g the l a t t e r census, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t moose had r e c e n t l y been occupying i t i n large numbers. Since n e i t h e r emigration from the area nor sudden decimation o f the i n d i c a t e d three hundred moose (the d i f f e r e n c e between the popul a t i o n s estimated from the two surveys - Table 9 ) appear t o be very s a t i s f a c t o r y explanations o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n number o f animals seen, the discrepancy must be a t t r i b u t e d t o some unrecognized e r r o r o r e r r o r s i n the survey method.  No moose were seen i n the whole south-west corner  o f t h e study area (black spruce muskeg).  Nor were any seen between Head  R i v e r and Head River Lake on t r a n s e c t #8, although t h e area was pockmarked w i t h a great many beds and was known from previous ground observat i o n s to contain a l a r g e moose p o p u l a t i o n .  3.  May 6,  1952  P i l o t and three observers covered s i x t r a n s e c t s .  Started 9 : 2 5  a,m., ended 1 1 : 3 0 a,m., elapsed time 2 hours and f i v e minutes. moose observed, two on one s i d e , f i v e on the o t h e r .  Seven  Observation c o n d i t i o n s  109  were very poor due t o absence o f snow and t o the f a c t t h a t much o f the deciduous growth was a l r e a d y i n l e a f .  This f l i g h t was made j u s t  to see whether or not summer census was p r a c t i c a b l e .  The numerical  r e s u l t s are s i g n i f i c a n t only to the extent that they show t h a t summer census i s not p r a c t i c a b l e and f o r t h i s reason are omitted from Tables 9 and 10. 4.  December 10 and 15. 1952  P i l o t and two observers on December 10, p i l o t - a n d one observer on December 15, This was the only census i n which t h e w r i t e r d i d not take p a r t .  I t was conducted by Conservation O f f i c e r s J , Robert-  son and C. M o r r i s h , F l y i n g time, December 10, 9:50 a.m. t o 11:50 a.m., and 1:40 p,m, t o 4:25 p,m,, December 15, 2:00 p.m, to 3:15 p.m. f l y i n g time was s i x hours,  110 moose observed.  Total  Observation conditions  were very good. Highest concentration was on Transect #17 where e i g h t moose were seen i n one five-minute i n t e r v a l o r 2,1 per square m i l e .  On  t h i s t r a n s e c t , 21 moose were seen i n November, 1951, none i n February, 1952, and 19 during t h i s survey, 5.  December 12, 1953  P i l o t and three observers.  S t a r t e d 9:45 a.m., stopped 11:20  a.m., s t a r t e d 1:50 p«m., stopped 4:10 p,m. hours and fifty»five minutes.  T o t a l f l i g h t time three  Covered t e n t r a n s e c t s , 149 moose ob«  served, 79 on one s i d e , 73 on t h e other.  Observation c o n d i t i o n s were  good i n the morning but became p r o g r e s s i v e l y poorer i n the afternoon as the overcast became very dark. Two r a t h e r l a r g e concentrations were observed:  one o f about  110  8.7 per square m i l e on the eastern end o f t r a n s e c t #16, one o f about 8.4 per square m i l e between t h e eastern ends o f Transects #7 and #9. A very small proportion o f males was recorded.  This was an i n t e r e s t i n g  census i n t h a t i t appeared t h a t the three observers were a l l o f d i f f e r ent e f f i c i e n c y .  Two sat on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f the a i r c r a f t (one beside  the p i l o t and one a f t ) and one on t h e l e f t s i d e behind t h e p i l o t . rear windows were o f the equal l a r g e s i z e ) .  (Both  Since t h e w r i t e r was t h e  o n l y observer who had made these s t r i p counts over t h e area p r e v i o u s l y , i t was assumed that he would have the l e a s t t r o u b l e estimating s t r i p width from the forward seat and took t h a t p o s i t i o n .  The observer behind the  p i l o t , Conservation O f f i c e r N i c h o l l , had not counted moose before but had had some experience on s t r i p counts o f s e a l s i n the A n t a r c t i c . The t h i r d observer, Conservation O f f i c e r Dey, had no previous experience although he had done a l o t o f "Bush f l y i n g " i n northern Manitoba. 11 summarizes t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s . TABLE 11 SUMMARY OF MOOSE RECORDED BY EACH OF THREE OBSERVERS ON THE DECEMBER 12, 1953, AERIAL CENSUS Observer  Bulls  Cow & Cows C a l f  Cow & 2 Calves  Unknown  Total  N i c h o l l ( l e f t side) 19  16  12  4  2  73  Bryant ( r i g h t side) 5  10  5  5  21  61  Dey  18  5  0  13  48  "(right side) 7  Table  Ill  6. December 7, 1954 P i l o t and three observers. S i x t r a n s e c t s covered,  64 moose  observed', 38 on one s i d e , 26 on the o t h e r . Observation conditions were f a i r .  The highest concentration observed was again on t h e east  end o f Transect #16 where 15 moose were seen on 1.5 square m i l e s — 10 moose per square m i l e .  This census showed a decrease from the p r e -  ceding year on the f o u r north t r a n s e c t s .  Due t o an unusually l a t e  freeze-up, the animals were staying on the small areas o f high ground where the cover was denser i n s t e a d o f spreading out onto t h e open marsh and swamp h a b i t a t s a s i s u s u a l by t h i s time o f year.  The apparent de-  crease i n p o p u l a t i o n could w e l l have been p a r t l y the r e s u l t o f a smaller percentage o f the animals w i t h i n the s t r i p s being seen due t o t h i s f a c * t o r rather than t o an a c t u a l decrease i n population. of i n d i v i d u a l counts i s o f i n t e r e s t .  Again a comparison  The w r i t e r again occupied the  r i g h t f r o n t seat next to the p i l o t , Conservation O f f i c e r Lagimodiere sat behind him and Conservation O f f i c e r M o r r i s h behind the p i l o t on the left.  O f f i c e r Morrish had been on the December 1952 census but Conser-  v a t i o n O f f i c e r Lagimodiere had not p r e v i o u s l y flown on census work.  Table  12 summarizes the i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s . TABLE 12 SUMMARY OF MOOSE RECORDED BY EACH OF THREE OBSERVERS ON THE ' DECEMBER 7, 1954, AERIAL CENSUS  Observer Bryant  Position right front  Lagimodiere r i g h t r e a r Morrish  l e f t rear  Bull  Cow  Cow & Calf  Cow & 2 Calves  Unknown  Total  7  6  2  0  18  33  4  6  3  0  6  19  10  8  0  1  5  26  112  b»  T o t a l Counts  T o t a l counts f o r each census are summarized i n Table 9. i.  Population Density  V a r i a t i o n s between one and two square miles per moose were obtained, with an average o f one and one-half square miles per moose. On 1600 square m i l e s , these f i g u r e s represent v a r i a t i o n s from 800 to 1600 animals, averaging 1200.  The l a r g e s t estimate was made on  December 12, 1953, and the smallest on February 4 and 5, 1952.  492  moose were seen during 19 hours f l y i n g (26 per hour) and 66 per cent were segregated as t o age and sex. were:  The main concentrations recorded  (1) on the eastern end o f Transect #16 (8.7 and 10 per square  m i l e on December 12, 1953, and December 7, 1954, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ; (2) on Transect #14 between the north end o f Landry Lake and the Saskatchewan R i v e r (5 per square m i l e on November 29, 1951; (3) on the l i n e between Transects #7 and #9 (8.4 per' square m i l e on December 12, 1953); and (4) on Transect #5 i n the v i c i n i t y o f Long Grass Lake and t h e Summerberry R i v e r (3.3 per square m i l e on February 4, 1952). Sex and Age Ratios (i.)  Sex Ratios  The attempt made t o segregate a d u l t b u l l s and a d u l t cows was only p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l due to the f a c t that by the time most o f the surveys were made ( e a r l y December) a n t l e r shedding had already begun. While one might normally be able t o t e l l even an a n t l e r l e s s b u l l from a cow a t c l o s e range, passing a t 500 f e e t and a t 100 miles per hour permitted such a f l e e t i n g glance that t h e task was v i r t u a l l y impossible.  The w r i t e r discouraged guessing a t the sex o f moose seen  113  but even so a c e r t a i n amount was indulged i n , more so by some observers than by o t h e r s . An average f o r the four years gave a sex r a t i o o f 69 males:100 females with v a r i a t i o n from 44:100 (February 1952) t o 142:100 (November, 1951).  Low counts o f males i n February 1952 and December,  1953, were thought t o be due t o the presence o f a l a r g e number o f a n t l e r l e s s b u l l s (see "General Notes on Each F l i g h t " ) and the very high prop o r t i o n o f males i n November, 1951, appeared t o ,be due to one observer's c l a s s i f y i n g almost a l l cows without calves as "Doubtful".  (See Table  15). Age R a t i o s The average calf*cow r a t i o was 49:100 w i t h v a r i a t i o n from 32:100 i n December, 1954, t o 65:100 i n December, 1953.  Observers were  asked t o pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o c a l v e s , but the general tendency seemed t o be t o make a note o f a cow as soon as i t was seen i n s t e a d o f thoroughly searching the surrounding area t o see i f a c a l f o r calves were present and w a i t i n g t o make the note a t a more convenient time such as when f l y i n g over a l a k e o r open marsh.  The c a l f crop i n d i c a t e d by these  censuses i s probably considerably lower than r e a l i t y . c.  Counts on Transects 14 to 17 i n c l u s i v e  D i f f e r e n t proportions o f the study area were censused on each occasion and i n order t o t e s t whether or not t h i s v a r i a t i o n might have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r a t h e r e r r a t i c estimates of population density, the data from j u s t the four northern t r a n s e c t s were compared. These t r a n s e c t s were a l l covered during each census.  114  i»  Population Density  Table 10 summarizes the observations made on these t r a n s ects and shows an even more e r r a t i c p a t t e r n than does the summary f o r the whole study area although the average d e n s i t y i s above the same i n The very low count i n February, 1952,  both cases. discussed.  has already been  The p o s s i b i l i t y that the w r i t e r ' s observations were a t f a u l t  during t h i s census seems to be one explanation since of the fourteen moose recorded on these t r a n s e c t s , he saw o n l y one and the second observer (F. Shpiruk) saw the r e s t .  The abundance of t r a c k s and beds seen  i n d i c a t e d that' the census d i d not r e f l e c t the t r u e population d e n s i t y but no s a t i s f a c t o r y reason can be given f o r t h i s o d d i t y .  Late  freeze-up  and e a r l y snowfalls with consequent concentration of th.e population on r i d g e s where they were l e s s e a s i l y seen due to denser cover was  consid1954,  ered to be the main reason f o r fewer moose being seen i n December, than i n the preceding census, but no explanation o f the low count i n December, 1952,  could be o f f e r e d by the o f f i c e r s who conducted i t .  It  i s probable that a population d e n s i t y o f about 1 moose per square m i l e e x i s t s i n t h i s northern zone.  During freeze-up and break-up the popu-  l a t i o n i s concentrated on the few ridges i n the area and d e n s i t i e s o f up to 10 moose per square m i l e were recorded on one of these r i d g e s . Table 13 shows t h a t the animals were f a i r l y w e l l d i s t r i b u t ed among the t r a n s e c t s w i t h the exception of Transect #15  which t r a -  versed the greatest proportion o f open marsh and bog and the l e a s t amount o f high ground. Most o f t r a n s e c t #16 t h a t of #15  covered ground s i m i l a r t o  but the l a r g e concentration of moose on the r i d g e a t  the eastern end of #16  r a i s e d i t s count very considerably.  115  TABLE 1 3 MOOSE SEEN ON THE FOUR NORTH TRANSECTS  Number o f Moose Seen Transect No.  Nov«'51 F e b , * 5 2  Dec.'52 Dec.'53  Dec.*54 T o t a l  Percent  14  25  6  5  10  6  52  15  1  6  1  4  5  17  8,5  16  6  2  5  21  19  53  26.5  17  21  0  19  23  15  78  39  Totals  53  14  30  58  45  200  100  26  i i . Sex and Age R a t i o s The average bull:cow r a t i o on these f o u r t r a n s e c t s was 85:100  —  considerably higher than the o v e r a l l t o t a l o f 6 9 : 1 0 0 although  no s a t i s f a c t o r y reason can be advanced to e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e .  The  high p r o p o r t i o n o f males i n November 1 9 5 1 has been mentioned as being probably due t o a greater p r o p o r t i o n o f females than males being classed as "doubtful", but a s i m i l a r explanation cannot be o f f e r e d f o r the high count o f December, 1 9 5 2 . The February, 1 9 5 2 , and December, 1 9 5 3 , counts show a very low percentage o f males, probably due to the presence of l a r ger numbers o f a n t l e r l e s s males than on other occasions. The data i n d i cate t h a t t h e o v e r a l l bull:cow r a t i o shown by the censuses may be lower than r e a l i t y . The calf:cow r a t i o on these t r a n s e c t s averaged 3 1 s 1 0 0 w i t h v a r i a t i o n from 1 4 : 1 0 0 i n December, 1 9 5 4 ,  to 4 0 : 1 0 0 i n December, 1 9 5 2  much lower than the average f o r a l l t r a n s e c t s o f 4 9 : 1 0 0 ,  —  116  d»  Counts by the w r i t e r compared to counts by the other observers  Although the w r i t e r had no previous experience w i t h a e r i a l census techniques, reading acquaintance w i t h and some p r a c t i c e of other census methods afforded him a s l i g h t background. Because of these f a c t s and because he was the only person to accompany more than two of the census f l i g h t s , i t was thought t h a t a comparison of h i s observations w i t h those o f the other observers might shed some l i g h t on p o s s i b l e sources o f v a r i a t i o n due to the observers. Table 14 summarizes the w r i t e r ' s observations and Table 15 summarizes the observations of the other observers. 1952,  (The December,  counts are omitted because the w r i t e r was not i n v o l v e d and be*  cause the observations of the two men making the survey were not kept separate.) i«  Population Density  Although the w r i t e r s counts were lower than those of F*S. T  on November, 1951, December, 1953,  and February, 1952,  and lower than that of T.N.  on  the d i f f e r e n c e s are not s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 5 percent  l e v e l o f confidence.  The d i f f e r e n c e s , however, between the w r i t e r ' s  counts and those o f K.D.  and R.L.  on December, 1953,  and December,  1954,  r e s p e c t i v e l y are s i g n i f i c a n t because each o f these two observers was supposedly censusing the same s t r i p o f ground as was the w r i t e r . average d e n s i t y o f 1.6  square m i l e s per moose, recorded by the w r i t e r  i s not much d i f f e r e n t from the 1.4 by the other observers*  The  square m i l e s per moose recorded  117  TABLE 14 SUMMARY OF MOOSE RECORDED BY THE WRITER SUMMERBERRY AERIAL CENSUS  Nov. 151 Male  7  Female, no c a l f  6  Female, one c a l f  2  Female, two calves  Feb. 152  Dec.'53  1  Totals  D e c * 54  5  7  20  10  6  - 22  6  5  3  16  -  i-  5  -  5  T o t a l Females  8  6  20  9  43  T o t a l Calves  2  6  15  3  26  Unclassified  6  37  21  15 .  79  23  50  61  34  168  Bull:Cow r a t i o  88:100  17:100  25:100  78:100  47:100  Calf:Cow r a t i o  25:100  100:100  75:100  33:100  60:100  Percent Calves*  12  46  27  16  29  Area Observed (sq.mi.)  28  117  72  44  .. 261  Square miles/moose  1.2  2.3  1.2  1.3  1.6  T o t a l Moose seen  Bull:Cow R a t i o ' ( l e s s February, 1952 count)  51:100  Calf:Cow R a t i o  ( l e s s December, 1953 count)  47:100  Percent Calves  ( l e s s December, 1953 count)  22  based on animals i d e n t i f i e d as t o age.  118 TABLE 15 SUMMARY OF MOOSE RECORDED BY OBSERVERS OTHER THAN THE WRITER SUMMERBERRY AERIAL CENSUS  Nov.'51  F.S.  Male Female, no C a l f  Feb.' 52 F.S.  Dec.-'53 K.D.* T.N. R.L.*  CM.  Totals  10  6  7  19  4  10  56  3  9  18  16  6  8  60  1  5  12  3  -  21  4  -  1  6  32  9  9  87  Female, one " 1  -  4  10  2  1  5  20  3  2  33  Unclassified  14  49  13  2  6  5  89  T o t a l Moose seen  30  66  48  73  19  26  262  Bull:Cow r a t i o  250:100  60:100  30:100 59:100 45:100 111:100 64:100  Calf:Cow r a t i o  50:100  10:100  22:100 63:100 33:100  Female, Two  11  T o t a l Females "  Calves  Percent Calves**  23  22:100 38:100  6  14  18  19  10  19  Area Observed (sq.mi.) 28  117  72  72  44  44  377  Square Miles/Moose  1.8  1.5  . 1.0  2.3  1.7  1.4  25  0.9  Bull:Cow R a t i o ( l e s s February, 1 9 5 2 count)  65:100  Calf:Cow Ratio ( l e s s December, 1 9 5 3 count)  25:100  Percent Calves ( l e s s December, 1 9 5 3 count) . . .  11  * K.D. and R.L. observed from the same side o f the a i r c r a f t as t h e w r i t e r . * based on animals i d e n t i f i e d as t o age.  119  I  Table 16 shows t h a t on the f o u r northern transects,.veryl i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between observations on opposite s i d e s of the a i r c r a f t was n o t i c e d except during the February, 1952  count.  TABLE 1 6 SUMMARY OF INDIVIDUAL'S RECORDS ON THE FOUR NORTHERN TRANSECTS (F.S., T.N.,  and CM.,  observed opposite side to  J.B.)  i Date  Nov.»51  Observer  J.B. F.S.  Feb,'52  Dec.'53  J.B.  F.S.  J.B.  T.N.  1  13  27  28  Dec.'54  Totals  J.B.  CM.  J.B. Other  23  20  74  91  73  78  Moose 23  Recorded  30  T o t a l , o m i t t i n g February, 1952 count  From a l l the data i t would appear t h a t i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n observation e f f i c i e n c y occurred but not i n a manner which s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d r e s u l t s except on the four northern t r a n s e c t s i n February, 1 9 5 2 . ii.  Sex and Age R a t i o s  The marked d i f f e r e n c e i n the average sex r a t i o s recorded by the w r i t e r and t h a t recorded by the other observers ( 4 7 : 1 0 0 v.s. 64:100)  may be due to the w r i t e r ' s c a u t i o n i n not recording b u l l s un-  l e s s a n t l e r s were seen or perhaps t o a poorer v i s u a l a c u i t y i n observing antlers.  On the other hand, some observers may have been doing  q u i t e a b i t of guessing as w e l l as recording more cows than b u l l s i n the " U n c l a s s i f i e d " category.  At any r a t e , there i s good evidence of  120  very wide v a r i a t i o n among the observers i n t h i s aspect o f the census and forces one to place but l i t t l e f a i t h i n the r e s u l t . In the case o f age r a t i o s , the evidence i s a l i t t l e more c l e a r c u t . Most observers saw f a r fewer calves than d i d the w r i t e r (38:100 as compared to 60:100) and the evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t the overa l l average calf:cow r a t i o o f 49:100 i s probably lower than r e a l i t y . The o n l y observer who made higher c a l f scores than d i d the w r i t e r was T,N, who had had previous a e r i a l census experience. I t appears t h a t l i t t l e f a i t h can be placed i n the calf:cow r a t i o o f any one census, due i n part t o the small numbers o f animals c l a s s i f i e d , e.  Variables Recognized i . Weather  V a r i a t i o n i n ^ c l o u d cover seemed to i n f l u e n c e the ease o f observing most features o f the landscape and thus probably affected.the number o f moose observed.  Very b r i g h t sunshine was at' f i r s t thought to  enhance observation but i t probably does not i n the long run due to increased eye f a t i g u e from the g l a r e o f the snow and from the darker shadows which tend to confuse one s senses. f  The i d e a l sky c o n d i t i o n  appeared to be a l i g h t haze which reduced the g l a r e and shadow contrast without much r e d u c t i o n i n e f f e c t i v e l i g h t . An unbroken snow cover was much superior to a broken one. Censuses too e a r l y i n the w i n t e r , before s u f f i c i e n t snow ha# f a l l e n , or  too l a t e i n the w i n t e r , a f t e r i n c r e a s i n g i n s o l a t i o n ha.fi melted  holes around t r e e s , stumps, rocks and other dark o b j e c t s , caused conf u s i o n on the part o f the observers as they attempted t o i d e n t i f y  121  each o f hundreds o f dark objects. ii.  Time o f Day  Since moose normally are most a c t i v e during hours o f lessened l i g h t and l e a s t a c t i v e i n l a t e morning and e a r l y afternoon, i t i s obvious t h a t t h e best hours f o r observing a r e the poorest hours f o r seeing moose. An a c t i v e animal —  even i f j u s t standing and moving i t s head  —  i s much more e a s i l y seen than one l y i n g down. On the December, 1954 survey o n l y 6 o f the 64 moose recorded were standing.  Censuses taken  f a r t h e s t from the winter s o l s t i c e when longer d a y l i g h t hours p r e v a i l would o f f e r greater p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f varying the time o f the census, but no t e s t s o f t h i s v a r i a t i o n were r u n . iii.  S t r i p Width  The h a b i t a t varied from very Large open areas where moose could be observed e a s i l y up t o one h a l f m i l e t o areas o f extremely dense c o n i f e r s where one had t o look s t r a i g h t down i n order t o see the ground. obtained.  These v a r i a t i o n s tended t o cause some confusion i n t h e r e s u l t s The a b i l i t y t o judge distances v a r i e d w i t h each i n d i v i d u a l  —  i f t r i a l s on t h e ground can be regarded as s i g n i f i c a n t —. but t h i s v a r i a t i o n was probably o f l e s s importance than some o f the o t h e r s .  The use  o f markers on the wing s t r u t s helped t o c o n t r o l t h i s v a r i a b l e . iv.  Observers  Employing d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s as observers introduced a possible source o f e r r o r .  The w r i t e r was on four o f the f i v e surveys,  two other observers were each on two surveys and the remaining four were each on only one.  I d e a l l y the same observers and p i l o t should  122  have conducted a l l the censuses but they d i d not and no c o n t r o l s seem available.  The data i n d i c a t e that there can be great' v a r i a t i o n i n the  a b i l i t y o f persons t o see moose under census c o n d i t i o n s . v. .Eye Fatigue Eye f a t i g u e was mentioned by Edwards (1952, 1954) as being probably the main source o f e r r o r ' i n h i s censuses.  No b a s i s e x i s t s i n  the present m a t e r i a l upon which to judge the weight o f t h i s f a c t o r but t h e w r i t e r does not consider i t a major one.  The transects traversed  many lakes and open bogs and marshes where moose, i f present, could be seen f o r m i l e s , and oyer these areas the observers could r e s t t h e i r eyes by r e l a x i n g t h e i r v i g i l and l o o k i n g a t other things f o r a w h i l e . Without these numerous "breaks" i t would have been impossible to make such protracted f l i g h t s without l o o s i n g accuracy.  Greatest f a t i g u e was  caused by the g l a r e from the snow on days o f b r i g h t sunshine.  On these  days too, dark shadows had t o be examined i n t e n t l y , thus adding t o the strain.  The presence of an inadequate snow cover has been mentioned  p r e v i o u s l y as a source o f confusion —• the s t r a i n i s very great when one has to examine hundreds r a t h e r than t e n s , of dark o b j e c t s .  Censuses  were not conducted on very c o l d days when f r o s t i n g of the a i r c r a f t windows would have added yet another s t r a i n . 3. D i s c u s s i o n The adequacy o f any one census i n g i v i n g an estimate o f t o t a l numbers o r o f age and sex r a t i o s i s questionable. De Vos and Armstrong (1954) reached a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n f o r t h e i r study area of 274 square m i l e s i n Black Bay Peninsula, Ontario, but i n Alaska (Spencer and C h a t e l a i n ,  123  1953) and B r i t i s h Columbia (Edwards, 1954, Martin and Sugden, 1954) i t appears that more confidence i s placed i n a e r i a l r e s u l t s .  The major  d i f f e r e n c e between the -eastern and western areas a f f e c t i n g t h e r e s u l t s seems t o be population d e n s i t y .  Both the eastern studies were on areas  of average d e n s i t i e s o f one moose per square mile o r l e s s whereas the western studies were mainly on winter concentrations i n mountainous areas w i t h d e n s i t i e s up t o 50 o r more moose per square m i l e .  Apparently  reasonable conformity was a t t a i n e d between two a e r i a l censuses o f I s l e Royale, Michigan (Aldous and K r e f t i n g , 1946, K r e f t i n g , 1951) where the population d e n s i t y was between 2.5 and 3 moose per square m i l e , but these censuses were based on 30 percent coverage o f t h e area whereas the present study and that o f DeVos and Armstrong were based on l e s s than h a l f t h i s coverage. The present surveys have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the method used i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y d e l i c a t e t o f o l l o w normal small increases o r decreases i n t h e population but t h a t i t probably serves t o give a reasonably accurate estimate o f abundance over a period o f years.  I t i s possible  that censuses o f the main ridges during freeze-up would be a b e t t e r b a s i s f o r guaging changes i n population density and composition but t o be r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e the f l i g h t s probably would have t o be made during the time when n e i t h e r f l o a t s nor s k i i s could be used* were not a v a i l a b l e to t e s t t h i s hypothesis.  Wheeled a i r c r a f t  Since d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i -  v i d u a l a b i l i t y t o see moose were found t o be r a t h e r l a r g e , i t i s p o s s i b l e that these d i f f e r e n c e s could o f t e n be greater than t h e year t o year changes i n the moose population and any census method aimed a t f o l l o w i n g population changes should eliminate a l l such p o s s i b l e sources o f extraneous v a r i a t i o n s .  124  iv»  Ground Census  Since Conservation O f f i c e r s and t h e i r helpers cover a l l o f the Summerberry Fur Block on f o o t each f a l l j u s t a f t e r freeze-up i n order t o count muskrat houses, opportunity was taken o f t h i s unique ground coverage t o obtain from the o f f i c e r s an estimate o f the number of moose on each o f the hundred-odd muskrat-trapping 1.  Method  zones,  »  The areas i n v o l v e d were much too l a r g e t o be thoroughly searched by each o f f i c e r , but from sign —  mainly t r a c k s and beds  observed he was asked to make an i n t e l l i g e n t guess o f the p o p u l a t i o n . In some instances considerable e x t r a e f f o r t was expended to cover wooded areas more thoroughly than was normal during muskrat census but since the muskrat census was of major importance such e f f o r t s were not s o l i c i t e d .  O f f i c e r s were a l s o requested t o i n d i c a t e the  number o f moose which had been k i l l e d by hunters on each Zone and a l s o an estimate of the number o f wolves present.  Censuses were conducted  i n December 1952 and December 1954. 2,  Results  Conservation O f f i c e r s ' r e p o r t s are summarized i n Tables 17 and 18. Four major items stand out i n these t a b l e s : 1.  The l a r g e increase i n t o t a l population between the two years,  2.  The decrease i n number of moose reported k i l l e d ,  3*  The u n i f o r m i t y o f the age and sex r a t i o s and,  4.  The very high calf:cow r a t i o s .  125  TABLE 17 SUMMARY OF CONSERVATION OFFICERS' MOOSE CENSUS REPORTS FROM THE SASKATCHEWAN RIVER DELTA  Bull  Cow  Calf  Total  Bulls:100 Cows  1952  176  205  184  565  86  90  33  1954  309  371  370 , 1050  83  100  35  Year  Calves: % 100 Cows Calves  PART I A l l reports  PART I I Reports from a e r i a l census area o n l y :  1952 1954  147  186  169  502  79  91  34  218  259  274  751  84  106  37  TABLE 18 SUMMARY OF CONSERVATION OFFICERS' REPORTS OF MOOSE KILLED IN THE SASKATCHEWAN RIVER DELTA  Year  Bull  Cow  Calf  Total  1952  65  40  3  108  87  17  1954  36  41  2  79  56  22  96  84  9  64  51  13  By Indians , (Treaty)  By Others  PART I A l l Reports:  PART I I Reports from A e r i a l Census Area o n l y :  1952  54  39  1954  28  35  3  126  In Table 17 the d i f f e r e n c e between Part I.and Part I I i n d i cates t h a t the population increased l e s s i n the a e r i a l t r a n s e c t area than i n the r e s t of the d e l t a .  The d i f f e r e n c e was apparently  due  however, to more complete coverage i n the area west of The Pas i n 1954 than i n 1952 w h i l e the coverage i n the other areas remained r e l a t i v e l y constant.  The change i n the proportion o f cows i n the reported  kill  between 1952 and 1954 coincided w i t h a change i n the game laws making cows l e g a l game i n 1953 and 1954 whereas they had not been l e g a l (except f o r Treaty Indians) i n 1952. 3,  Discussion  Almost without exception the o f f i c e r s making t h i s census were w e l l experienced,  "bush wise", and appeared to make an honest attempt  at a very d i f f i c u l t job.  Through l a c k o f a p p r e c i a t i o n of the purpose  o f the census when i t was f i r s t taken some o f the o f f i c e r s have s i n c e admitted t h a t they "held back" and d i d not record a l l the moose they thought were present.  This f a c t o r undoubtedly was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p a r t  of the d i f f e r e n c e i n numbers o f moose recorded on the two  censuses,  A good i n d i c a t i o n that the high proportion of calves i s not due j u s t to guesswork i s , that of nine o f f i c e r s t a k i n g part i n the 1954 census, 6 recorded more calves than cows: r a t i o s o f 81:100, 75:100 and 56:100,  the other three  recorded  Since i t i s e a s i e r to d i s t i n g u i s h  cow-and-caif s i g n than to separate a d u l t b u l l s from a d u l t cows, more confidence can be placed i n the calf:cow r a t i o s o f the ground census than i n the a d u l t sex r a t i o s .  127  v.  Reports o f Hunter K i l l s  Since there were wide v a r i a t i o n s i n estimates o f population density based on the a e r i a l s t r i p counts and since none o f these esti« mates agreed w i t h the estimate based on the ground census, i t was decided t o run a t h i r d t e s t using the age and sex r a t i o s as obtained by the censuses as bases and working from these backward to estimate the minimum population which could support the estimated hunter k i l l * 1,  M a t e r i a l s and Methods  By p r o v i n c i a l law no one, i n c l u d i n g a Treaty Indian, may carry f i r e a r m s i n the Summerberry marsh unless l i c e n s e d to'do so.  Treaty I n -  dians are i s s u e d f r e e permits t o hunt b i g game a t any time o f the year and other hunters, by purchasing the proper hunting l i c e n s e , may hunt i n the area during open seasons f o r game b i r d s and b i g game. Hunter k i l l s t a t i s t i c s were thus obtained from the free permits and from hunting l i c e n s e s returned by the hunters. 2.  Results  The only year f o r which reasonably complete r e t u r n s were obt a i n e d o f Treaty Indian permits was 1953 and consequently t h a t year has been chosen as a b a s i s f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s . Table 19 summarizes the reported k i l l s by. the two c l a s s e s o f hunters — 95 by Treaty Indians and 55 by others on the whole d e l t a ; 83 by Treaty Indians and 25 by others on the a e r i a l census area. Since, f o r the purposes o f t h i s s e c t i o n , the k i l l on the a e r i a l census area i s o f main importance, i t has been expanded i n Table 20.to  128  TABLE 191953 HUNTING STATISTICS FOR THE SASKATCHEWAN DELTA Number o f Moose Reported K i l l e d  Whole S b e r r y F u r Block  A e r i a l Census Area  T  Hunter Class  B  u  l  l  C  o  w  T o t a l  B  u  l  l  C  o  w  T o t a l  Treaty Indian  68  27  95  56  27  83  Other  41  14  55  19  6  25  Total  109  41  150  75  33  108  TABLE 20 1953 MOOSE HUNTING STATISTICS FOR THE AERIAL CENSUS AREA  Hunter Class  Reported Kill  ;Percentage Reporting  Treaty Indian  83  Other  25  83  108  •  Totals  85 X 75 = 64  show the estimated t o t a l k i l l on t h i s area. Indian Permits were returned.  Estimated Kill 130 . 30 160  E i g h t y - f i v e percent o f the  The percentage o f moose k i l l e d by Indians  who were covered by permits was placed a t seventy-five as an approximate figure.  I t i s f e l t t h a t t h e estimate' i s probably q u i t e accurate although  proof i s not o b t a i n a b l e . Eighty-three percent of moose hunting l i c e n s e s issued i n 1953 were returned.  This f i g u r e i s probably q u i t e v a l i d as a  conversion f a c t o r since poaching i n the area i s thought t o be n e g l i g i b l e *  129  Table 21 i n d i c a t e s that Indians from The Pas Reserve e i t h e r k i l l e d . f a r fewer females than d i d those from the other two Reserves o r t h a t they d i d not give true r e p o r t s o f the sexes o f the animals k i l l e d . . There i s very good reason t o b e l i e v e that the l a t t e r explanation i s the correct one and t h a t the sex r a t i o reported by the other Reserves i s more i n d i c a t i v e o f the a c t u a l k i l l .  The average sex r a t i o o f the k i l l  on the census a r e a , combining non-Indian reports and the Indian r e p o r t s from Moose Lake and'Cedar Lake, was 203:100 o r 67 percent males. TABLE 21 BREAKDOWN OF SEX RATIOS OF MOOSE REPORTED KILLED BY TREATY INDIANS IN THE AERIAL CENSUS AREA  Reported K i l l  Indians Resident on Reserves a t : The Pas  Males:Females % Males Reported  Moose Lake  Cedar Lake  24:1  16:10  28:15  96  62  65  3* Discusgion Given a moose population w i t h : 1. •  2.  A b u l l : c o w : c a l f r a t i o o f 30:38:32, an annual hunting l o s s o f 161 a d u l t s o f which 67 percent are males,  3.  e i t h e r no change or an increase i n numbers from one year to the next,  and assuming t h a t : 1.  the annual l o s s e s of calves t o y e a r l i n g age are 25 percent o f the c a l f population  130  2,  to y e a r l i n g age, the sex r a t i o i s 50:50  3.  the annual losses o f a d u l t s from causes other than hunting are 10 percent of the a d u l t population  4*  these adult l o s s e s are prorated between the sexes  5* .there i s no change i n the a d u l t sex r a t i o from one year t o the next,  .  then the minimum population that can s a t i s f y these requirements i s : 161X0.67 0.32  . 4 0 . 2 5 X 0.32) 2  ^ 0.10  X 0.68 X  0.44  «  1190 moose  I f the assumptions made are reasonably accurate and i f the census r e s u l t s may be i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d i c a t i n g an i n c r e a s i n g moose population, then a population i n excess of 1190 animals must occur on t h e area —  a d e n s i t y o f 1.3 vi.  square miles or l e s s per moose.  General D i s c u s s i o n 1. Comparison o f A e r i a l and Ground Surveys  Evidence has been presented to i n d i c a t e t h a t the average c a l f : cow r a t i o obtained by the a e r i a l surveys i s probably lower than r e a l i t y and the much higher r a t i o s obtained by the ground censuses add f u r t h e r weight to t h i s b e l i e f .  There i s no way o f determining which method i s  most accurate. The averages shown i n Table 22 are weighted i n favour o f the ground censuses and since these censuses were supposedly based on a c t u a l " s i g n " observed, such weighting would seem t o be i n order. The a d u l t sex r a t i o s were very s i m i l a r on the two ground surveys but f l u c t u a t i n g on the a e r i a l surveys. November, 1951,  February, 1952,  The p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the  and December, 1953,  a e r i a l censuses gave  TABLE 22 SUMMARY OF POPULATION STATISTICS OBTAINED BY AERIAL AND GROUND SURVEYS  Source o f Data  Bulls  Cows  Ground Census  365  445  A e r i a l Census  103  150  Total  468  595  Calves  % Calves % B u l l s  % Cows  443  35.4  29.1  35.5  73  22.4  31.6  46.0  32.6  29.6  37.8  . 516  erroneous a d u l t sex r a t i o s has been discussed.  Averaging the other two  a e r i a l censuses (December 1 9 5 2 and December 1 9 5 4 ) shows 4 5 percent males i n the a d u l t population — the same proportion as was shown by the ground censuses on the same area i n the same years.  I n the absence o f c o n f l i c t -  i n g evidence, t h i s proportion may be assumed t o be v a l i d . There was an i n d i c a t e d increase i n the population o f 3 5 percent between the December 1 9 5 2 and December 1954 a e r i a l censuses ( 8 4 9 t o 1 1 5 3 ) and o f 5 0 percent between the two ground censuses ( 5 0 2 t o 7 5 1 ) . There i s some reason to b e l i e v e t h a t the 1 9 5 4 ground census was more thorough than the 1 9 5 2 one and that the indicated, increase i s probably p a r t l y due t o this difference.  However, the combined evidence does i n d i c a t e an increase  i n the population between the years.  The c o n s i s t e n t l y lower f i g u r e s pro-  vided by the ground census are probably due t o incomplete coverage, part i c u l a r l y on the l a r g e r r i d g e s , and to the f a c t that one block o f 8 5 square m i l e s containing much good h a b i t a t (T. Lamb's Muskrat Lease) was censused from the a i r but not from the ground.  132  2. Comparison o f Census Results and T h e o r e t i c a l l y Computed Population.' R e l a t i v e M e r i t s Because i t i s based on admittedly doubtful s t a t i s t i c s and on a number o f assumptions., not too much r e l i a b i l i t y can be placed i n the computed minimum p o p u l a t i o n .  I t i s of i n t e r e s t — i f not s u r p r i s i n g ~  t h a t t h i s population (1190) was quite c l o s e to that estimated by the a e r i a l census and considerably higher than t h a t reported by t h e ground census* I t would be p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n a reasonably accurate  popula-  t i o n f i g u r e f o r the area from hunting returns i f more d e t a i l e d knowledge o f t h e age and sex r a t i o s and o f l o s s e s to both calves and a d u l t s from < n a t u r a l causes were known. However, i t appears that i n a small  popula-  t i o n such as t h i s estimates based on small samples only are inadequate to f o l l o w age and sex r a t i o s , and l a r g e , d e t a i l e d , properly c o n t r o l l e d samples would be more c o s t l y than t h e s i t u a t i o n warrants from a management standpoint. The ground census would probably be adequate to show trends provided the same persons censused the same areas each year.  The re«  '  s u i t s from t h i s method have been much more consistent than from t h e a e r i a l censuses and a r e probably o f greater accuracy i n i n d i c a t i n g age and sex- r a t i o s . As i t has been conducted i n t h i s experiment, t h e a e r i a l census has not been very s a t i s f a c t o r y e i t h e r i n i n d i c a t i n g t o t a l numbers o r i n age and sex c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s *  I t could probably be very g r e a t l y improved"  by using the same observers each time and by concentrating more i n t e n s i v e  133  coverage on the main "freeze-up" concentrations before the  animals  have been able t o spread out i n t o the bogs and marshes. IV. Factors A f f e c t i n g Abundance a.  Introduction  In a recent paper, Scott (1954) has very n i c e l y set out the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s underlying population growth, and t h i s d i s c u s s i o n perhaps can be introduced best by quoting from h i s paper: "For c e n t u r i e s , men have i m p l i e d that i t i s i n the nature of l i v i n g things t o m u l t i p l y t h e i r numbers. That t h i s i s a f a c t i n a s t r i c t mathematical sense as w e l l as a r h e t o r i c a l one was impressed upon the world by the B r i t i s h clergyman, Malthus, toward the end of the 18th century. He pointed out t h a t , i n m u l t i p l y i n g , the human population a c t u a l l y grows i n a geometric progression; i n other words, growth o f the population tends to be exponential. This means that the amount of growth added at any given time i s i n proportion to the s i z e o f the population a t that time; and the p a r t i c u l a r f r a c t i o n represented by t h i s p r o p o r t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s then the r e l a t i v e r a t e of growth of that population, u s u a l l y expressed as a percentage. A common analogy i s the accumulat i o n o f compound i n t e r e s t by a sum of money, and s i m i l a r exponential progressions are found i n many n a t u r a l phenomena. The growth i n weight of an i n d i v i d u a l organism during c e r t a i n phases o f i t s l i f e i s one o f the more s i g n i f i c a n t comparisons. "But t h i s exponential growth i s only part o f the s t o r y . Thompson (1942, p.144), reminds us ... how formidable a t h i n g successive m u l t i p l i c a t i o n becomes. E n g l i s h law f o r b i d s the protracted accumulation of compound i n t e r e s t ; and l i k e w i s e nature deals a f t e r her own f a s h i o n w i t h the case, and provides her automatic remedies ••« m u l t i p l y as they w i l l , these ... populat i o n s have t h e i r l i m i t s . They reach the end of t h e i r t e t h e r , the pace slows down, and a t l a s t they increase no more. Their world i s f u l l y peopled, whether i t be an i s l a n d with i t s swarms of hummingbirds, a t e s t tube w i t h i t s myriads of yeast c e l l s , o r a continent w i t h i t s m i l l i o n s of mankind. Growth, whether of a population or ah i n d i v i d u a l draws to i t s n a t u r a l end; ... tti T  134  Hatter (1947) has i n d i c a t e d the phenomenal growth which must have taken place i n the moose"population which invaded c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia e a r l y i n t h i s century and P i m l o t t (1953) has shown the increases which took place when moose were introduced t o the i s l a n d o f Newfoundland where they had not p r e v i o u s l y occurred.  Murie (1934) has described an  even more remarkable increase i n the moose population of I s l e Royale. Yet these populations-eventually became more o r l e s s s t a b i l i z e d .  There  was no noted change i n the g e n e t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d reproductive c a p a c i t y , but f a c t o r s o f the environment a c t i n g e i t h e r d i r e c t l y through l a c k o f space and food o r i n d i r e c t l y through decreased p h y s i o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t y to reproduce, forced a l e v e l l i n g o f f o f the populations.  I n 'the present  d i s c u s s i o n consideration w i l l be given t o the f a c t o r s tending t o increase the moose population o f Northern Manitoba as w e l l as t o those tending to reduce the - population ,(or t o reduce the tendency o f the population t o i n c r e a s e ) ; f o r i t i s upon both f a c t o r s t h a t management considerations must be based.  Data have been presented t o show the s i z e and d i s t r i b u -  t i o n o f the population, but these f a c t s i n themselves do not show what might be done t o a l t e r e i t h e r the numbers o r the d i s p o s i t i o n o f the population. Numbers o f moose are a f f e c t e d by reproduction and by forces tending t o n u l l i f y the e f f e c t o f reproduction.  Although now almost over-  taxed, the terms "breeding p o t e n t i a l " and "environmental r e s i s t a n c e " proposed by Leopold (1933) are very d e s c r i p t i v e o f the forces i n v o l v e d . Data on reproduction have been gathered i n the form o f calf:cow r a t i o s u s u a l l y i n December o f each year but no c o l l e c t i o n s o f embryos were made to obtain primary reproductive and sex r a t i o s and p r a c t i c a l l y no data  135  could be obtained on c a l f counts i n e a r l y summer. Of the "environmental r e s i s t a n c e " f a c t o r s , most a t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d toward o b t a i n i n g i n f o r mation on hunter k i l l s although some i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained on predat i o n and other " n a t u r a l " decimating f a c t o r s .  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n has  i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h i l e predation may have had some e f f e c t i n the p a s t , the present i n t e n s i t y of hunting and the l i m i t a t i o n o f s u i t a b l e h a b i t a t are probably the main f o r c e s tending to reduce the e f f e c t of a high breeding potential. b.  Breeding P o t e n t i a l i.  Methods  Other North American workers, such as Peterson (1950), Hatter (1950), P i m l o t t (1953) and workers i n Nova S c o t i a and New  Brunswick,  have u t i l i z e d "Moose Record Cards" to good advantage i n o b t a i n i n g data r e l a t i v e to herd composition.  In the present study a l l attempts t o make  use of s i m i l a r cards proved n e a r l y useless f o r the very simple reason t h a t i n Northern Manitoba very few moose are seen a t any time of the year except from a i r c r a f t .  Roads i n the area are extremely l i m i t e d (even when  i n c l u d i n g the "winter roads" which are used f o r only three months of the year) and ground t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , mainly by canoe i n summer and bombardier or dog team i n w i n t e r .  In the summer, v i s i b i l i t y back  from the water courses i s g r e a t l y hindered by the dense r i p a r i | h growths o f w i l l o w s and a l d e r s j some mose are seen i n the water but t h e i r numbers are not l a r g e .  In the w i n t e r , bombardier roads l i e as much as p o s s i b l e  over lakes and open muskegs where moose are r a r e l y seen.  Adding t o these  d i f f i c u l t i e s i s the extreme s c a r c i t y o f persons who could give r e l i a b l e r e p o r t s of moose seen.  A i r c r a f t p i l o t s , since they saw f a r more moose  136  than a l l other observers put together, were asked t o f i l l i n the record cards but t h e main response was s i l e n c e :  apparently bush p i l o t s consider  t h e i r time f u l l y occupied w i t h f l y i n g and want nothing t o do w i t h e x t r a n eous matters.  Before the study was begun, t h e Game and F i s h e r i e s Branch  supplied cards t o a l l p i l o t s i n Manitoba but so f a r as t h e w r i t e r i s aware o n l y two o f them ever f i l e d r e p l i e s . Since d i r e c t observation by widespread co-operators was not an a v a i l a b l e source o f information on population composition, two other methods were i n s t i t u t e d :  a e r i a l census on a r e s t r i c t e d area where ob-  s e r v a t i o n conditions were p a r t i c u l a r l y good; and ground census .by trappers and Conservation O f f i c e r s , based on "sign" r a t h e r than on animals a c t u a l l y observed.  The r e s u l t i n g information has many weakness-  es, which were discussed i n the preceding s e c t i o n , but they must nevert h e l e s s be considered as a t l e a s t moderately i n d i c a t i v e o f the p r e v a i l ing conditions. ii.  Results  Calf:cow r a t i o s and a d u l t sex r a t i o s were obtained from a e r i a l and ground censuses but no " y e a r l i n g " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was made. The a v a i l a b l e data have been discussed under t h e appropriate census-method sections and are summarized i n Table 23. Minimum breeding age o f moose i s normally considered t o be two and a h a l f years (28-29 months), but a t l e a s t some cows a r e s u c c e s s f u l l y bred a t 16-17 months.  One such animal was-reported t o t h e w r i t e r by a  trapper, Mr. G.Lindgren, who adopted i t a t a v e r y e a r l y age, r a i s e d i t mainly on canned m i l k , aspen bark, and o a t s , and had i t r e t u r n t o h i s  137  TABLE 23 SUMMARY OF AGE AND SEX RATIOS OBTAINED BY THREE METHODS OF CENSUS o JJ  Method  q<  0  f  Age and Sex C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Censuses  A d u l t  Male  Mai Fern. 100 Fe.  A d u l t  e s :  Calf  Calves: 100 Females  Trapper Census  2  1148  1190  97  1243  105  Conservation  2  485  576  84  554  96  Off. Census A e r i a l Census  5  103  150  69  73  49  Average Values  91  97  cabin a t i n t e r v a l s throughout a number o f succeeding years.  The spring  i t was two years o l d , i t showed up w i t h a s i n g l e c a l f ; the f o l l o w i n g spring i t returned w i t h i t s y e a r l i n g and twin calves; the next year w i t h a s i n g l e and the next with another s i n g l e — f i v e o f f s p r i n g by the time i t was f i v e years o l d .  The incidence o f yearling-bred females i s un-  known, but i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between n u t r i t i o n and age a t f i r s t breedi n g i s comparable i n moose to that found by Cowan (1951) i n the Columbian black t a i l , i t might be expected t h a t the b e t t e r the range, the l a r g e r would be the proportion of young cows that would be bred. The number o f young born to each reproductive female has been considered to average 1.5 (Leopold, 1933, p.32), but the r a t e o f twinning v a r i e s so much from one area and time t o another, that such an average f i g u r e i s probably not very s i g n i f i c a n t .  The only data obtained i n the  present study which were considered to be reasonably representative were  138  the counts made by the w r i t e r on a e r i a l surveys -*> 5 sets o f twins out of 21 cows seen w i t h calves —  and t h i s average of 24 percent twins .  was probably lower than a c t u a l l y occurred i n the population. was. made o f a case of suspected t r i p l e t s .  Examination  The three new-born animals were  found dead on a small i s l a n d i n Rocky Lake a few miles north of The during May, 1954, by an Indian t r a p p e r .  Pas  They had not been badly damaged  by mammalian or a v i a n scavengers when seen by the w r i t e r two weeks l a t e r and probably about three weeks a f t e r death.  L i t t l e remained except hide  and bone and a f t e r t h r e e wweks of b l o w - f l y a c t i v i t y any evidence which might have been found e a r l i e r as t o cause of death was u n a v a i l a b l e .  Other  cases o f t r i p l e t s were reported by various i n d i v i d u a l s from time t o time but none could be p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d as such. No information could be obtained on the sex r a t i o o f c a l v e s . I t was, t h e r e f o r e , assumed tp be  1:1.  The degree o f polygamy i n moose has been the subject o f much speculation f o r many y e a r s .  The present study has not produced any posi«  t i v e evidence on t h i s subject, but the impression has been gained t h a t " l i m i t e d polygamy" r a t h e r than monogamy i s probably the r u l e , w i t h the degree o f l i m i t a t i o n depending l a r g e l y on a v a i l a b i l i t y of females i n heat.  This a v a i l a b i l i t y i s probably mainly dependent upon population  d e n s i t y but could a l s o become dependent upon population iii.  composition.  Discussion  I n b r i e f , the v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s a f f e c t i n g reproduction of moose i n northern Mantioba are:  139  1.  approximate 1:1 a d u l t sex r a t i o ,  2.  c a l f j c o w r a t i o between 0.5:1 and 1:1,  3.  average minimum breeding age, two years (28 months),  4.  r a t e o f twinning 25 percent + on best range,  5*  triplets rare,  6.  assumed 1:1 secondary sex r a t i o ,  7.  degree o f polygamy c o n t r o l l e d by d e n s i t y and a d u l t sex r a t i o . I f we l e t the calf:cow r a t i o equal 75:100 and the a d u l t and  c a l f sex r a t i o s equal 100:100, and assume cows do not breed u n t i l two years o l d , t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e can be constructed to show t h a t , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , such a population would more than double i t s numbers every three years.  I f the calf:cow r a t i o i s reduced to 60:100, the  i n c r e a s e becomes not q u i t e double every three years; i f i t i s r a i s e d to 100:100 the increase-doubles the population every two y e a r s . I t i s q u i t e obvious t h a t such increases are not o c c u r r i n g i n the populations studied due t o the a c t i o n o f the v a r i o u s components o f the "environmental r e s i s t a n c e " . 6.  Environmental Resistance i.  • Decimating Factors  Included under t h i s general heading a r e a l l those f a c t o r s which a c t u a l l y remove members from the population: hunting, p r e d a t i o n , diseases, p a r a s i t e s , a c c i d e n t s and s t a r v a t i o n .  I t i s l a r g e l y the com-  bined e f f e c t o f these f a c t o r s which prevents the population from attaini n g the t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e increases and i t i s among these f a c t o r s , o r among others which i n f l u e n c e them, t h a t one must look f o r means o f  140  managing the populations. TABLE 2 4 THEORETICAL BREEDING POTENTIAL OF MOOSE POPULATION S t a r t i n g with 100 Adults: Adult Sex Ratio 1:1; Calf:Cow Ratio 75:100; No Losses  Years  Total Adults  start  at end of Year  Calves  Male  Female  Male  Female  Yearlings Male  Female  0  100  50  50  18  19  1  137  50  50  18  19  18  19  2•  174  68  69  26  26  18  19  3  226  86  88  33  33  26  26  4  292  112  114  43  43  33  33  5  378  145  147  55  55  43  43  6  488  188  190  76  75  55  55  1*  Hunting Pressure  a. Introduction Since the k i l l by man i s one of the easiest decimating f a c t o r s on which to c o l l e c t f a i r l y representative and r e l i a b l e data and since i t i s the f a c t o r which i s o f greatest immediate economic importance, e s p e c i a l l y t o the native population, the study has aimed to assess i t i n as much d e t a i l as p o s s i b l e . There are two f a i r l y d i s t i n c t types o f hunting i n the area:  (1) " s u r v i v a l " hunting by persons  whose p h y s i c a l well-being i s p a r t i a l l y i f not wholly dependent upon  141  the chasej (2) "sport" hunting by persons whose welfare i s not dependent upon the chase»  The term "meat hunting" has purposely been  s k i r t e d because o f the popular concept, i n t h i s area a t l e a s t , t h a t anyone who wants more than the a n t l e r s i s a "meat hunter"*  Many,  i n c l u d i n g the w r i t e r , f i n d the a d d i t i o n to the l a r d e r o f a few hundred pounds o f meat each f a l l a very welcome escape from high market p r i c e s o f beef, but since t h e i r standard o f l i v i n g i s not g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d whether they get such an a d d i t i o n or not, they a r e here considered "sport hunters". Although there i s some overlap between the two c a t e g o r i e s , i n t h i s report a l l l i c e n s e d hunters w i l l be considered "sport" hunters, unlicensed hunters, (mainly t r e a t y I n d i a n s ) , " s u r v i v a l " hunters* P r i o r t o t h i s study very few data had been c o l l e c t e d on moose harvest i n northern Manitoba.  Licenses a f t e r 1945 r e s t r i c t e d hunting  to north of. the 53rd p a r a l l e l so that a n a l y s i s o f them gave an idea of the number taken under l i c e n s e from 1946 onward.  P r i o r t o t h a t not  o n l y were moose and deer l i c e n s e s combined but no geographic breakdown was made o f the returns to i n d i c a t e i n what p o r t i o n o f the province moose were k i l l e d .  I n the Summerberry Marsh s p e c i a l permits had been  issued t o Treaty Indians f o r a number of years t o a l l o w them to hunt i n ths Fur R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Blocks but no records were kept o f the number o f permits i s s u e d o r o f the number o f animals reported k i l l e d .  I n the  Registered T r a p l i n e Area, s t a t i s t i c s on number o f moose k i l l e d were f i r s t reported f o r the 1950-51 season, from seven s e c t i o n s . The present study made use o f a l l three avenues —  l i c e n s e s , Summerberry s p e c i a l  permits, and unlicensed k i l l reports from the Registered T r a p l i n e areas.  142  The r e s u l t s showed an estimated annual k i l l of 13^0 moose; ±99- byl i c e n s e d hunters; 140 by Indians on the Summerberry Fur Blocks; 800 by unlicensed hunters i n the remote areas. For the purposes o f the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , the C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t Registered T r a p l i n e area i s not included w i t h the other R.T.L. sections because the unlicensed k i l l i n i t i s n e g l i g i b l e and unrecorded. b.  R.T.L, Sections ( l e s s C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t ) i.  Methods  A l l k i l l data recorded from these areas were c o l l e c t e d by Cons e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r s resident i n the r e s p e c t i v e s e c t i o n s and represent the most accurate evaluation t h a t could be obtained i n each case.  The  degree of accuracy v a r i e d from one area and time to another mainly depending upon the q u a l i t y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i e l d o f f i c e r and trappers, but i n almost a l l cases i t i s f e l t t h a t a high percentage of the a c t u a l k i l l was recorded.  There i s more question as to the r e l i a -  b i l i t y o f the age and sex c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the k i l l : greater the i n f l u e n c e o f c i v i l i e a t i o n ,  i n general, the  the l e s s the accuracy o f these  s t a t i s t i c s due to the n a t i v e s ' r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t f o r years past the white man had looked w i t h d i s f a v o u r on the k i l l i n g of females and calves.  The "sacred cow" i d e a had penetrated but not convinced and  many were a f r a i d of being reprimanded i f they t o l d they had k i l l e d other than a d u l t males.  Through the patience and i n t e l l i g e n c e of the f i e l d  o f f i c e r s such fears are being worn down and each year brings increases i n the q u a n t i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of such  statistics.  Although the p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n o f each animal r e p o r t e d . k i l l e d  143  was not p l o t t e d , a general p i c t u r e was obtained of the main hunting areas i n each s e c t i o n — ii.  and a l s o o f the main areas not hunted,  Results  The data concerning the number and composition o f the k i l l were presented i n the preceding s e c t i o n (["Numbers of Moose", Table 5 ) . F i g s . 23 and 2 4 show t y p i c a l hunting pressure d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns (prepared f o r the w r i t e r by Conservation O f f i c e r , D,C.Ferris, I s l a n d Lake, and W.C.Slade, Pukatawagan). iii.  Discussion  The greatest proportion o f moose k i l l e d i n the gemote areas i s taken i n the summertime when "hunting c o n s i s t s simply of paddling a canoe up a l i k e l y l o o k i n g stream or o f j u s t s i t t i n g q u i e t l y near where moose are expected t o come t o feed i n the water.  L i t t l e s k i l l and l e s s  e f f o r t i s i n v o l v e d . Others are taken as they are happened upon by a c c i dent i n the course of normal canoe t r a v e l :  i t would be a r a r e native  indeed who would pass up the opportunity to k i l l a summer moose. Winter hunting, where more s k i l l and e f f o r t i s needed t o t r a c k A  an animal, i s indulged i n by only the few good hunters.  The s t o r i e d  s k i l l of the Indian hunter p e r t a i n s t o very few Indians of t h i s area, although o f t e n the number of moose k i l l e d by the few makes up f o r the few k i l l e d by many. The high proportion o f calves i n the k i l l i s probably the r e s u l t of the n a t i v e s ' long a s s o c i a t i o n with the f e a r of s t a r v a t i o n ; and the associated philosophy o f k i l l i n g anything t h a t can be used f o r food whenever opportunity presents i t s e l f , although not now so b a s i c to s u r v i v a l , has nevertheless been perpetuated t o the present day:  To follow page 143.  I S L A N D S c a l e :  L A K E 20  M i l e s  G R O U P =  Fig, 23. D i s t r i b u t i o n of moose hunting pressure  1  Inch  .  To follow page 143  PUKATAWAGAN  SECTl'ON  le:20 miles = 1 inch  Area o f main moose hunting pressure.  Fig* 24.  Distribution o f main moose-hunting pressure.  144  the philosophy i s part o f t h e i r h e r i t a g e and w i l l not be changed overnight.  I n some instances education appears t o be having some r e -  s u l t s but t h e Indian i s not a knowing c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t ; when he p r a c t i c e s conservation i t i s u s u a l l y a c c i d e n t a l . Before much advance can be made i n t h i s f i e l d i t w i l l be necessary t o convince the l e a d e r s a t l e a s t t h a t l o o k i n g t o the f u t u r e i s important and t h a t a l e a n b e l l y today can o f t e n mean a f u l l one tomorrow, whereas a f u l l one today can o f t e n mean an empty one tomorrow.  But i t i s hard t o think o f f i v e years hence when  a cow and c a l f walk i n f r o n t o f those s i g h t s I There i s one p o s s i b l y fortunate aspect t o the n a t i v e s ' hunting methods, however —  t h e i r concentration on t h e main waterways, means  t h a t there a r e pockets l e f t where moose a r e unmolested.  The importance  of such pockets as r e s e r v o i r s from which t h e animals spread out i n t o the surrounding areas would depend on t h e i r frequency and h a b i t a t . Each one would probably have to.be considered i n d i v i d u a l l y i n order t o d e t e r mine i t s value.  Three o f these pockets were c u r s o r i l l y examined during  the course o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n but none was considered t o be o f any appreciable value as a "feeder" f o r h e a v i l y hunted r e g i o n s . The f i g u r e of 800 moose, given as an estimate o f t h e annual k i l l i n the Indian Sections was a r r i v e d a t by summing the k i l l s given i n Table 5 and adding t h e f o l l o w i n g estimates: S p l i t Lake-Limestone Sections  29 (average o f reports f o r 1952-53 and 1953-54)  Churchill Section,  10 (a guess)  145  Duck Lake S e c t i o n ,  3 (based on Hudson's Bay Company Manager's report)  Brochet S e c t i o n ,  10 (Conservation O f f i c e r ' s r e p o r t ) .  Because the reports of k i l l s are known to be o f varying accuracy,  the  r e s u l t was simply rounded o f f to the nearest hundred animals so as not to imply greater accuracy than a c t u a l l y e x i s t e d . I t i s expected t h a t there w i l l be f a i r l y l a r g e v a r i a t i o n s i n the k i l l from year to year, e s p e c i a l l y i n the northwestern s e c t i o n s , depending upon the abundance, southern extent o f migration and length of stay a t the southern end o f migration of the barrenground c a r i b o u . When caribou are p l e n t i f u l i n any area they are k i l l e d so much more e a s i l y than moose that the Indians do not make much e f f o r t to hunt moose. F l u c t u a t i o n s i n abundance of moose could o f course a l s o a l t e r the number k i l l e d , but so many extraneous circumstances  could i n t e r f e r e  w i t h t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t i t might be d i f f i c u l t to determine; f o r i n s t a n c e , i f the moose population were i n c r e a s i n g and thus becoming more e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e i n an area where p r o f i t a b l e employment f o r the natives was a l s o i n c r e a s i n g i n commercial f i s h i n g , mining, l o g g i n g , etc.,  the i n c e n t i v e to go out a f t e r moose would diminish and the a b s o l -  ute k i l l , which would be expected to increase w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g popul a t i o n , might not be m a t e r i a l l y a l t e r e d . At the present time, our s t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e that i n the majority of the Indian Sections, the annual k i l l i s approximately  ten percent of the reported population o f moose,  w i t h v a r i a t i o n s between s i x percent and twenty percent.  146  c» i.  Non-R.T.L. areas and the C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t Methods  H u n t e r - k i l l data f o r t h e C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t were obtained from l i c e n s e r e t u r n s . Only one percent (3 out o f 232) o f the trappers pres e n t l y r e g i s t e r e d i n t h i s area are t r e a t y Indians so t h a t the k i l l from t h i s source i s not considered o f s u f f i c i e n t magnitude t o warrant sideration.  con-  S i m i l a r l y , t h e number of moose taken by poachers i n t h i s  area i s not considered t o be l a r g e enough to a l t e r the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e obtained from the l i c e n s e d k i l l .  Data p e r t a i n i n g to t h e k i l l by Treaty  Indians i n the Summerberry area were obtained through r e t u r n s o f the S p e c i a l Permits i s s u e d t o them. Data f o r the remainder o f the area were obtained from l i c e n s e r e p o r t s . a  In 1951 and 1952 s p e c i a l questionnaires were issued w i t h each moose l i c e n s e and i n 1953 the questionnaire was p r i n t e d d i r e c t l y on the license.  These questionnaires requested i n f o r m a t i o n on,  1. Success, . 2, Area hunted, 3,, hunter's residence, 4. length o f time spent hunting, 5. occupation o f l i c e n s e e ,  ,  6. whether o r not a guide was employed, 7. number o f a n t l e r p o i n t s , 8. hunter's estimate o f age o f moose k i l l e d (1951*52 o n l y ) , 9. hunter's estimate o f weight o f moose k i l l e d (1951-52 o n l y ) , 10. Whether o r not c r i p p l e d o r diseased moose o r deer were seen (1951-52 o n l y ) ,  147  11. sex o f the moose k i l l e d (1953 only - females i l l e g a l i n 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 ) , 12. what d i s p o s i t i o n was made o f the hide (1953 o n l y ) , 13. number o f moose, wolves, o r deer seen, and remarks. Licenses are required to be returned w i t h i n t h i r t y days o f the c l o s e of the season o r the l i c e n s e e becomes subject to e i t h e r a t e n d o l l a r s f i n e o r r e f u s a l o f a l i c e n s e the f o l l o w i n g year.  I n p r a c t i c e , the  l e g i s l a t i o n has never been put i n t o f o r c e , and l i c e n s e returns are t h e r e f o r e only e l e c t i v e .  A f t e r a l l l i c e n s e stubs had been returned a l i s t o f  the l i c e n s e e s was made up and checked against the l i s t o f returned licenses.  Delinquents were sent a second questionnaire and covering  l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g the need f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e . In analysing the l i c e n s e r e t u r n s , the area was d i v i d e d i n t o eleven zones, eight o f which corresponded groups o f :  t o the r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e  Moose Lake ( 3 ) , Cormorant Lake ( 4 ) , Cranberry Portage ( 5 ) ,  F l i n Flon ( 6 ) , Sherridon ( 7 ) , Herb Lake ( 8 ) , Wabowden ( 9 ) , and Thicket. o n e i (10).  Zone 1 was an area bounded on the south by the 53rd p a r a l l e l ;  on the west by the Manitoba-Saskatchewan boundary; on the north by a l i n e drawn from t h i s boundary between Townships 52 and 53 east t o R . 2 5 W.P.M., south between Ranges 24 and 25 t o the south side o f Twp. 4 9 , west between Twps. 48 and 4 9 t o Cedar Lake, thence f o l l o w i n g the south shore of Cedar Lake t o the 100th Meridian; on the east by the 100th meridian.  Zone 2 was an area bounded on the south by zone 1; on the  west by the Manitoba-Saskatchewan border; on the north by zones 3 , . 4 and 5 ; on the west by the 100th meridian.  At f i r s t , zone 2 was d i v i d e d  i n t o four p a r t s using the No.10 P r o v i n c i a l trunk highway and the Saskatchewan R i v e r as d i v i d e r s .  This scheme was Later abandoned i n favour  148  o f a s i n g l e d i v i d e r - the Saskatchewan R i v e r - separating i t i n t o a southern zone (2A) and a northern zone (2B).  The l o c a t i o n o f the zones  i s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . 25, A f t e r May, 1952, s p e c i a l s e r i a l e d permits were i s s u e d t o Indians to  hunt i n the Summerberry Fur R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Block,  Previously chits  had been i s s u e d , but these were not s e r i a l e d and no d u p l i c a t e copies were made, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t i t was not p o s s i b l e to determine  the  . number issued or to make follow-up enquiries about those not returned. The new permits were issued f o r any p a r t of the Fur Block the Indian r e quested but d i d , supposedly, r e s t r i c t h i s hunting to one or two  zones.  Space was provided f o r the permittee t o i n d i c a t e whether a moose o r deer had been taken, sex of the animal and the Indian's estimate of i t s age. Delinquents from The Pas Reserve were contacted through mailed questionn a i r e s and those from the Moose Lake and Ghemshawin (Cedar Lake) Reserves were contacted by the f i e l d o f f i c e r s stationed a t these p o i n t s . P r i o r t o the s t a r t of t h i s study, Mr. A,J.Reeve, then B i o l o g i s t w i t h the Game and F i s h e r i e s Branch, compiled the r e t u r n s o f b i g game l i c e n s e s from 1914 t o show the long-term trends.  A summary of  these s t a t i s t i c s i s given w i t h t h i s report f o r comparative ii.  purposes,  Results a. Licensee Reports  Table 25 summarizes the estimated k i l l o f moose oyer the past f o r t y years (1914-1953)*  I t was not p o s s i b l e to a s c e r t a i n the p r o p o r t i o n  o f the k i l l a t t r i b u t a b l e to northern Manitoba p r i o r to 1946. t i c s are shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g . 26,  These s t a t i s -  «  Fig» 2 % Geographic d i v i s i o n s used i n analysing moose hunting l i c e n s e returns.  149  TABLE 2 5 . SUMMARY OF ANNUAL KILL OF MOOSE IN MANITOBA FROM 1914 to 1953, ESTIMATED FROM LICENSE RETURNS  Year  Estimated Kill  Year  Estimated Kill  Year  Estimated Kill  1914  2,633  1927  669  1941  224-  1915  1,742  1928  580.  1942  220  1916  1,561  1929  666  1943  250  1917  1,419  1930  685  1944  263  1918  1,528  1931  423  1945  closed  1919  2,212  1932  268  1946  ?  1920  1,473  1933  221  1947  . 83  1921  697  1934  131  1948  145  1922  •450  1935  143  1949  127  1923  278  1936  100  1950  209  1937  ,158  1951  176  1924  321  1925  382  1938  181  1952  148  1926  493  1939  252  1953  243  1940  222  Tables 28 and 29 summarize the information obtained from r e turned l i c e n s e s and questionnaires during 1951-1952-1953• The d e t a i l e d t a b l e s from which these two summaries were drawn are given i n Appendix A. P r i o r t o the 1954 hunting season, a holder o f a moose l i c e n s e could use the l i c e n s e f o r deer i f he were unsuccessful i n o b t a i n i n g a  150 moose. For.purposes o f s i m p l i c i t y i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , persons who held moose l i c e n s e s but d i d not k i l l moose were considered as "unsuccessful" whether they k i l l e d deer o r not. I n 1951, 52 holders o f moose l i c e n s e s reported having k i l l e d deer (19 i n northern Manitoba), i n 1952, 36 deer were reported k i l l e d (24 i n northern Manitoba), and i n 1953, 18 deer were reported k i l l e d (14 i n northern Manitoba). b'« Treaty Indian Permits Table 30 summarizes the k i l l o f moose reported by t r e a t y Indians hunting i n the Summerberry Marsh (Saskatchewan R i v e r Delta) i n the years  1952, 1953 and 1954. Table 31 summarizes the t o t a l number o f permits issued f o r the three.years, the percent returned, the number o f moose reported k i l l e d and the percent success. Table 32 compares the number of moose k i l l e d i n the summer months o f May t o October i n c l u s i v e i n 1953 and 1954 t o the number k i l l e d i n the remaining s i x months o f t h e year. Table 33 compares the reported moose k i l l t o t h e populations o f the three Indian Bands taking p a r t i n t h e hunting i n t h e Summerberry Marsh, and Table 34 shows the sexes o f t h e moose reported k i l l e d by the three bands i n 1953* iii.  Discussion  (a) License Returns, 1914-1953  Figure 26 i n d i c a t e s that there has been a tremendous decrease i n the number o f moose k i l l e d i n Manitoba over the past f o r t y y e a r s . The  F i g * 26. Annual k i l l o f moose and deer i n Manitoba  151 records p r i o r to t h e second World War may be considered to apply almost s o l e l y to southern Manitoba, because up t o t h a t time only a very small percentage o f the moose k i l l e d i n the northern area was covered by l i c e n s e s and hence recorded.  Seton (1953, v o l . I l l , p.175) quotes an estimate of  ten thousand moose k i l l e d annually about the t u r n o f the present century i n the province o f Manitoba.  Old timers who l i v e d i n the south j u s t before  the f i r s t World War t o l d the w r i t e r t h a t i n t h e i r opinions perhaps o n l y 20 percent or 25 percent o f the people who k i l l e d moose held l i c e n s e s , as game law enforcement was apparently i n s i g n i f i c a n t .  There i s no i n d i c a t i o n  i n the government r e p o r t s o f the time t o i n d i c a t e overhunting, but accordi n g t o Turner (1906) market hunting was an accepted p r a c t i c e .  The reduc-  t i o n o f the southern moose population - by whatever forces brought i t about - was accompanied by an increase and northward extension o f range o f f i r s t o f a l l the mule deer (Odocoileus ^emionus) and then i n a second wave the w h i t e - t a i l (Odocoileus v i r g i n i a n u s ) flooded northward and the mule deer a l l but disappeared (Table 26).  S i m i l a r d e c l i n e s i n moose and up-  surges i n w h i t e - t a i l deer have been recorded i n the Maritimes and i n Ont a r i o (reviewed by Peterson, 1950; see i n s e t , Fig.2,6), The o n l y part o f t h e curve ( F i g . 26) which may be considered to have any bearing on the northern moose harvest i s that from 1938 o r 1939 onward, and even then persons l i v i n g i n t h e bush, such as trappers and prospectors, d i d not take out l i c e n s e s i n t h e m a j o r i t y of cases. From t a l k i n g t o northern r e s i d e n t s i n a l l walks o f l i f e the w r i t e r cons i d e r s i t d o u b t f u l i f a hundred moose a year were covered by l i c e n s e s i n t h i s area up t i l l t h e end o f the second World War.  S h o r t l y a f t e r the  war the Game and F i s h e r i e s Branch increased i t s f i e l d s t a f f and by 1950 was exerting pressure on a l l non-Indians t o buy l i c e n s e s ( w i t h t h e  152 TABLE 2 6 KILL OF DEER IN MANITOBA, 1933-1952, ESTIMATED FROM HUNTING LICENSE RETURNS. (Manitoba, 1952, 1953)  Year  Estimated Kill  Year  Estimated Kill  1933  907  1943  8,120  1934  2,250  1944  9,440  1935  2,018  1945  13,320  1936 .  2,410  1946  16,320,  1937  2,815  1947  16,160  1938  3,780  " 1948  19,550  1939  4,940  1949  20,675  1940  5,035  1950  18,050  . 1951  30,950  1952  22,368  5,700  " 1941  7,730  1942  :  exception o f metis l i v i n g i n remote a r e a s ) .  Part o f t h e increase i n  recorded moose k i l l between 1946 and 1951 was due t o t h i s pressure r a t h e r than to an increase i n the number o f moose k i l l e d ; the sale o f r e s i d e n t l i c e n s e s increased from an average o f 369 i n 1948-49-50 t o 580 i n 1951-52-53, again a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y r e f l e c t i n g i n c r e a s i n g game law enforcement. b.  License Returns 1951-1953  The major items o f information d e s i r e d from r e t u r n s o f l i c e n sed hunters were:  153  1 . number o f moose k i l l e d ; 2 , l o c a t i o n s o f the k i l l s ; 3 ; geographic source o f the hunters; 4» the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f hunting pressure, Pimlott ( 1 9 5 3 ) found that i n personal i n t e r v i e w s w i t h hunters who d i d not make r e t u r n s , t h e i r percentage success was o n l y one-half t h a t o f those who d i d make r e t u r n s .  I n the present study, follow-up  questionnaires i n 1 9 5 1 revealed a success o f only 2 7 percent ( o f 2 0 9 hunters) as compared t o 43 percent ( o f 2 4 4 hunters) f o r those who made returns without being prompted.  I n 1 9 5 2 the r e s u l t s were r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  1 0 percent ( o f 2 0 5 hunters as compared t o 4 9 percent ( o f 2 3 7 hunters) and i n 1 9 5 3 , 3 7 percent (of 1 2 4 hunters) as compared t o 4 0 percent ( o f 4 3 8 hunters). The averages f o r t h e three years were, r e s p e c t i v e l y , 2 3 percent (of 5 3 8 hunters) as compared t o 4 3 percent ( o f 9 1 9 h u n t e r s ) . I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t m a t e r i a l b i a s would r e s u l t from assuming t h a t the non-reporting hunters i n 1 9 5 1 and 1 9 5 3 enjoyed o n l y one-half the success o f the unprompted group, but i n 1 9 5 2 , f o r reasons unknown, t h e success o f t h e second wave o f returns was extremely low, and the assumption has been made that those who made no returns d i d not have b e t t e r success than those i n the prompted group.  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the a n a l y s i s  l e a d i n g t o the estimated t o t a l k i l l . D e t a i l e d break-downs o f the l i c e n s e returns showing the k i l l and number o f hunters i n each zone a r e given i n Appendix A and summarized i n Table 2 9 .  154 TABLE 27 r  ANALYSIS OF HUNTERS' LICENSE RETURNS TO SHOW ESTIMATED TOTAL KILL  1951  1952  1953  No, licenses sold  521  553  667  No. licenses returned (unprompted)  244  . 237  438  T o t a l No. l i c e n s e s returned  453  442  562  No. moose reported k i l l e d  161  137  222  Success o f unprompted hunters  43#  k%  kO%  68  ' 109  105  21,5%  10%  20%  ,15  11  21  176  148  243  No. l i c e n s e s not returned Assumed success of non-reporting hunters Assumed k i l l by non-reporting hunters  •  Estimated t o t a l k i l l  1  Zones 1 and 2 received the brunt of the pressure since they absorbed most of the hunters from south of '53 as w e l l as the hunters l i v i n g i n the v i c i n i t y of The Pas,  Of those hunters who  indicated where  they had hunted, 41 percent reported either zone 1 or 2, or both.  Except  f o r these two zones, hunting pressure was very l a r g e l y l i m i t e d to r e s i dents of each p a r t i c u l a r zone.  Hunters from zone 6 ( F l i n Flon) d i d how-  ever tend to be more mobile than those from other Central D i s t r i c t p o i n t s ,  M urn beV apparently because of easy access by automobile along Nankor 10 Highway and p o s s i b l y because of the generally higher per capita income of persons l i v i n g i n F l i n Flon.  155 TABLE 28 SUMMARY OF STATISTICS DERIVED FROM MOOSE HUNTING LICENSE RETURNS, NORTHERN MANITOBA, 1951-1952-1953  1951  1952  1953  Number o f l i c e n s e s sold  521  553  667  1741  Number o f l i c e n s e s returned  453  442  562  1457  Percentage of l i c e n s e s returned  87  77  84  84  Number o f moose reported k i l l e d  161  137  222  520  Percentage success  35.5  31.0  39.5  35.7  Average number o f hours hunted  21.8  24.0  21.8  Average number o f hours hunted per moose bagged ( a l l hunters)  59.0  73.8  54.2  Average number o f hours hunted per moose bagged ( s u c c e s s f u l hunters)  17.0  21.9  18.6  47  56  81  80.1  73.2  406  386  481  1273  Number o f trappers r e p o r t i n g Percentage success o f trappers Number o f non-trappers r e p o r t i n g  85.2  Totals  184 81  Percentage success o f non-trappers  30.3  . 27.5  31.2  29  Average number o f a n t l e r points  12.3  10,4  9.5  10,4  Average estimated age o f moose  6,0  4,4  Average estimated weight o f moose  636  698  Percentage o f males k i l l e d  100  100  70  Percentage o f hides retained  58.3  Percentage o f hides sold  11.4  Percentage of hides l e f t i n bush  30.3  157  (Cranberry Portage), where the season was open f o r e i t h e r sex,from south o f 53, zone 2 and zone 6 ( F l i n F l o n ) , T  There was a l s o an i n -  crease i n zone 5 due to more r e s i d e n t s o f t h e zone buying l i c e n s e s , A s i m i l a r increase i n r e s i d e n t s o f the zone was recorded f o r zone 2, Although more data i s required to confirm i t , there i s a f a i r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t hunting pressure i n areas accessible.from No, 10 Highway can be manipulated by r e g u l a t i o n o f the type o f open season.  Hunting  pressure i n the more i n a c c e s s i b l e zones has given no i n d i c a t i o n o f being p l a s t i c . There has been a consistent d e c l i n e i n the percentage o f hunters from south o f '53.  I n 1951, 33 percent came from southern Manitoba,  i n 1952, 29 percent and i n 1953, only 23 percent despite the f a c t t h a t i n the l a t t e r year the season was open f o r r e s i d e n t s on the east side o f Lake Winnipeg,  P o s s i b l y the l a r g e deer populations i n the southern  p a r t o f the province are inducing more hunters there t o stay c l o s e r to home. There has been a concurrent i n c r e a s e i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f hunters from The Pas and F l i n F l o n . Hunters from The Pas area (zone 2) amounted to 18 percent o f the t o t a l i n 1951 and 23 percent i n 1953.  F l i n Flon  hunters amounted to 13 percent o f t h e t o t a l i n 1951 and 17 percent i n 1953.  These d i f f e r e n c e s are both s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 1 percent l e v e l o f  confidence. To r e c a p i t u l a t e then, the estimated t o t a l k i l l s by l i c e n s e holders were 176 i n 1951, 148 i n 1952 and 243 i n 1953-  Zones 1 and 2  accommodated an average, o f 41 percent o f the hunters and provided 39 percent o f the moose k i l l e d .  Zone 5 had an average o f 13 percent o f  158  the hunters and provided 15 percent o f the moose k i l l e d .  Hunting pressure  i n areas a c c e s s i b l e from No. 10 Highway appeared s u s c e p t i b l e t o manipulat i o n by r e g u l a t i o n o f the type o f season allowed, but i n the more i n a c c e s s i b l e areas changing from a "males o n l y " t o an " e i t h e r sex" season d i d not r e s u l t i n a n o t i c e a b l e a l t e r a t i o n o f hunting pressure. I t was a t f i r s t a n t i c i p a t e d that t h e "percent success" f i g u r e s might be used as i n d i c a t o r s o f a v a i l a b i l i t y , but so many v a r i a b l e s must be taken i n t o account that w i t h the l i m i t e d s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e t h i s index does not appear u s e f u l .  For example, the decrease i n "percent  success" i n zone 1 showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t decrease between 1951 and 1952, but the decrease was i n r e a l i t y due t o an i n f l u x o f hunters from F l i n F l o n i n 1952 who had not hunted zone 1 i n the preceding year and who proved t o be very unsuccessful.  I f these F l i n F l o n hunters  are ignored, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n success i n zone 1 between 1951 and 1952 i s no greater than would be expected by chance, i n d i c a t i n g , perhaps, t h a t a v a i l a b i l i t y was the same i n the two y e a r s .  Again, i n zone 2 the  percent success was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n 1952 than i n 1951, but o n l y one-third the number o f hunters from south o f 53 who hunted zone 2 i n 1951 showed up the f o l l o w i n g year, and i t was the.very high success (73%) o f t h i s t h i r d which caused t h e success r a t i o f o r t h e zone t o S p i r a l . Apparently these few southern hunters were much above average i n hunting ability.  There-was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n success f o r zone 2 when  hunters from south o f *53 were omitted from the c a l c u l a t i o n s , suggesting t h a t the l o c a l hunters were f i n d i n g no change i n a v a i l a b i l i t y .  The f a c t  t h a t the "percent success" was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n 1953 when much o f the area was open t o e i t h e r sex than i t was i n 1951 when o n l y b u l l s were a v a i l a b l e , i s a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n  159  p r e s e n t l y a t hand, hunter success cannot be used as an index of a v a i l a bility.  Besides such v a r i a t i o n s as these, changes i n weather would  a l s o have to be taken i n t o account i n a r r i v i n g at a r e l a t i v e a v a i l a b i l i t y figure.  For i n s t a n c e , i n 1951 o n l y nine hunters remarked that the  weather was "poor" f o r hunting, w h i l e i n 1 9 5 2 , 2 0 such remarks were received.  In general, because o f the p a u c i t y of s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ,  e s p e c i a l l y o f background data to use as a "norm", it.seems i n a d v i s a b l e t o t r y t o a r r i v e at an iddex of a v a i l a b i l i t y from hunters'..success r e p o r t s . Data concerning number o f hours each l i c e n s e e hunted were a l s o gathered i n the expectation o f being a b l e to use them to supplement the "percent success" f i g u r e s , but much the same c r i t i c i s m s may be made of them as have been made f o r the "percent success" r e s u l t s (Appendix A, Table E ) . I n t h i s regard i t i s however o f i n t e r e s t t o note t h a t o n l y about o n e - t h i r d the amount o f time was spent hunting, per moose bagged, as was recorded f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1 9 5 0 and the success i n Manitoba averaged 3 6 percent ( 3 1 $ - 4 0 $ ) as compared to 2 4 percent success f o r r e s i d e n t hunters i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1 9 5 0  (Hatter and Sugdon, 1 9 5 1 ) *  Since many of the  B r i t i s h Columbia moose ranges are considered t o be overstocked w h i l e the Manitoba range i s not, an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o these d i f f e r e n c e s i n success might provide u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the game managers on both areas. Two types o f i n f o r m a t i o n were gathered t o see to what extent hunting experience and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h an area influenced hunter success. Hunters were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o eight occupational groups, but these were l a t e r reduced to two - trappers and non-trappers - because i n s u f f i c i e n t data were a v a i l a b l e to make f i n e r d i v i s i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t .  The differenfce  6  160  i n success between these two groups was q u i t e remarkable:  trappers  averaged 81 percent success f o r t h e three years, non-trappers averaged 29 percent success, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the trappers b e n e f i t t e d g r e a t l y from experience and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e i r t r a p l i n e s . l e s s time spent hunting than d i d non-trappers.  Trappers a l s o averaged A l l data were grouped  i n t o zone hunted and zone o f hunter's residence. This grouping was not.. so u s e f u l i n determining t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the area hunted as had been expected because only a very few persons hunted o u t s i d e t h e i r respective zone o f residence. (See Table 29 and Appendix A, Tables B and F ) . While admittedly i n c o n c l u s i v e , the data show t h a t there i s a tendency f o r hunters t o be more s u c c e s s f u l i f they hunt w i t h i n t h e i r zone o f residence.  This d i f f e r e n c e could a l s o be due to more time being  spent i n the f i e l d by hunters who stayed close to home than by those who ranged more w i d e l y .  *  Should l a t e r i n f o r m a t i o n confirm t h i s tendency, i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e from a management p o i n t o f view would be t h a t by manipulating t h e d i s t r i bution o f hunting pressure through changes i n the type o f season allowed, lowered success o f persons a t t r a c t e d t o a new area would tend to o f f s e t the increased number o f hunters, and i f i n a "normal" year one hundred hunters took t h i r t y - f i v e moose i n a p a r t i c u l a r zone^in order t o double the k i l l by attracting "outside" hunters, considerably more than double the number o f hunters would have t o be used. Very few hunters reported that they had h i r e d guides.  I n 1951  8 out o f 453 hunters f i l i n g reports s a i d they h i r e d guides. The success of the guided hunters was 2 5 percent as compared t o 30 percent f o r non-.. trappers as a whole.  I n 1952, 5 out o f 442 reported using guides: t h e i r  161  success was 80 percent as compared to 28 percent f o r a l l non-trappers• I n 1953, 8 out o f 562 reported using guides* t h e i r success was 27 per cent as compared to 31 percent f o r a l l non-trappers.  There appears t o  be scope f o r considerable improvement i n the big-game guiding business i n t h i s area. In an attempt t o o b t a i n some i n d i c a t i o n o f the' age composition and the general welfare o f the moose population hunters were asked t o report t h e i r estimates o f t h e ages and weights o f moose taken and a l s o the number o f a n t l e r p o i n t s .  Through an o v e r s i g h t , a question concerning  presence o r absence o f embryos i n 1953 (when females were l e g a l game) was omitted from the p r i n t e d questionnaires. The hunters' estimates o f age and weight were compiled but proved t o be v a l u e l e s s .  I n the m a j o r i t y  , o f cases the hunters reported age as equal t o the number of a n t l e r p o i n t s and guesses o f weight were so extremely v a r i a b l e t h a t no credence could be given t o them. The number o f a n t l e r p o i n t s r a t h e r than b a s a l diameter o r maximum spread was requested because the answer required o f the hunter o n l y t h e a b i l i t y to count and was t h e r e f o r e more apt to be recorded c o r r e c t l y . The o r i g i n a l purpose o f c o l l e c t i n g a n t l e r i n f o r m a t i o n was t o use i t as a n . i n d i c a t o r o f hunting pressure, p a r t i c u l a r l y o f s e l e c t i v e hunting o f animals w i t h l a r g e a n t l e r s .  (Hatter, 1948, had suggested t h a t heavy  hunting pressure was reducing the a n t l e r spread i n B r i t i s h Columbia), However, f a i r l y /early i n the study i t was learned that hunting pressure i n most areas was l i g h t r e l a t i v e t o the a v a i l a b l e moose p o p u l a t i o n , and t h a t s e l e c t i v e hunting pressure ( i . e . trophy hunting) was probably negligible.  The question on a n t l e r p o i n t s was continued nevertheless,  162  mostly out of the w r i t e r ' s c u r i o s i t y to see what, i f anything, i t might r e v e a l . The data were graphed as frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r each year ( F i g . 27).  These graphs showed polymodal d i s t r i b u t i o n s , the modes  o f which were reduced to percentages and the m a t e r i a l regraphed as histograms ( F i g . 28).  In order to check the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the ap-  parent d i f f e r e n c e s i n a n t l e r development over the three years were due simply to sampling e r r o r o r to chance v a r i a t i o n , the data were analyzed by the method of the "standard error of the d i f f e r e n c e s between two means" and by a " m u l t i p l e contingency t a b l e " method (the l a t t e r analys i s was made by Dr. P.A.Larkin o f the Department o f Zoology, U.B.C.). Both analyses showed t h a t the observed d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l , o f confidence, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t they were probably r e a l and not due to sampling e r r o r or to chance v a r i a t i o n i n the population.  The graphs i n d i c a t e that there has been an increase i n the  number of small antlered moose (2 - '5 p o i n t s ) and a decrease i n the number of l a r g e antlered ones (over 15 p o i n t s ) .  There a l s o appears  to have been an upward s h i f t w i t h i n the i n t e r v e n i n g group  (6-15  p o i n t s ) , but t h i s change was not s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y (the means of each year, p l u s o r minus twice the standard e r r o r s , o v e r l a p ) . There appear to be f o u r p o s s i b l e explanations o f the d i f f e r ences noted: ( l ) They could be due to hunting pressure's removing more o f the o l d e r , l a r g e a n t l e r e d , i n d i v i d u a l s ; (2) they could be due to decreasing n u t r i t i o n causing fewer l a r g e - a n t l e r e d animals and more s m a l l a n t l e r e d ones; (3) they could be due t o an expanding p o p u l a t i o n ; o r (4) they could be due t o a combination of these e f f e c t s .  \  To follow page 1&2.  17  •  16 IS 14 13 12 II  /I  10  9 6  •  •  7  6  1 1953  — •  5 4  •  \  3 2 1  (/>  •  9  A  1 • 2  7  Z  *  <  5  U. O  3 2  2  JO  Z  6  2  / \A  A  4  1952  \ _/\  A V  •  •  1951  7  6 5 4 3  Z 1  * 2  —» 4  1  1  6  8  10  12  14  10  NUMBER OF ANTLER  .  18  \A /  | t 20  2 2  •  mL  24  2 6  POINTS  Fig* 2 7 . Antler-point d i s t r i b u t i o n s , 1951-^2-^3.  mL  2 8  30  To follow page 1&2:  CLASS INTERVAL  1951 & %  1952 4*. %  *t  1953  %  2-5  4  6  9  13  19  18  6-10  29  43  30  44  44.  42  II-  16  24  1  28  3 4  32  16-21  14  21  8  12  7  7  21 +  4  6  2  3  1  1  TOTALS  67  100  68  100  15  9  1Q5  100  44 40 36 32 28 24 £0 I0 12  1951  953  952  S  1 II III IV v  ANTLER  1  I II m IV V  POINT MODAL  I II /II IV V  CLASS  Fig,' 2:8. D i s t r i b u t i o n of antler-points, 1951-52-53 by modal classes.  163  In order to t e s t the f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y , the r e p o r t s from trappers were separated from those o f non-trappers and histograms prepared as p r e v i o u s l y described f o r the whole population.  The d i f f e r -  ences between the a n t l e r - p o i n t classes f o r the two groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t although there was a tendency f o r the trapper's reports to cont a i n more l a r g e - a n t l e r e d i n d i v i d u a l s than d i d the non-trapper's.  Since  the trappers, f o r the most p a r t , took t h e i r moose on t h e i r t r a p l i n e s where hunting pressure was g e n e r a l l y very l i g h t , the tendency f o r t h e i r reports to i n d i c a t e a greater proportion o f l a r g e - a n t l e r e d moose suggests that hunting pressure might be i n v o l v e d i n the smaller number of l a r g e - a n t l e r e d animals taken by non-trappers.  However, since the d i f -  ferences between the two- may w e l l be due- to sampling e r r o r , not too much credence can be given them. . The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t decreasing n u t r i t i o n was causing the changes was t e n t a t i v e l y discounted because the changes appeared to be f a i r l y uniform over the whole area sampled (about 20,000 square m i l e s ) . However, not enough f i g u r e s were a v a i l a b l e t o make r e g i o n a l break-downs s i g n i f i c a n t and t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y was therefore checked by another method. One would expect t h a t i f n u t r i t i o n were decreasing, there would be a downward s h i f t i n the mean number of a n t l e r p o i n t s i n the l a r g e c e n t r a l group (6 - 15 p o i n t s ) . These means are 9.9, 9.8, and 9»9 f o r 1951, 1952, and 1953 r e s p e c t i v e l y : the standard e r r o r f o r the 1953 data i s 0.27.  These f i g u r e s show quite c o n c l u s i v e l y that there has been no r e a l  change i n number o f a n t l e r points i n the c e n t r a l group, and i n d i c a t e t h a t changing n u t r i t i o n a l q u a l i t y o f t h e range  WSLS  not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  the decrease i n number of l a r g e a n t l e r s and increase i n number of small  164  ones.  (This t e s t would a l s o r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a tendency  to "cervina" type a n t l e r s . ) Since i t has been p o s s i b l e p a r t i a l l y t o discount hunting pressure and almost s u r e l y t o discount d i f f e r e n t i a l n u t r i t i o n , there appears t o be only one reasonable explanation l e f t t o account f o r the changes noted — t h a t there has been an i n c r e a s i n g recruitment o f young animals t o the p o p u l a t i o n . That t h i s explanation agrees w i t h the census data which showed an i n c r e a s i n g population, i s f u r t h e r confirmat i o n o f the hypothesis. I t i s expected t h a t i n the next few years forage w i l l probably decrease i n amount due to improved f o r e s t - f i r e d e t e c t i o n and suppression, and a n t l e r - p o i n t data w i l l be continued t o be c o l l e c t e d to see i f decreasing n u t r i t i o n can be detected.  When t h i s does appear, i f range  d e t e r i o r a t i o n cannot be countered by h a b i t a t improvement i t w i l l be necessary t o reduce the moose population t o keep i t w i t h i n the c a r r y ing  capacity o f the range.  Thus continued a n t l e r - p o i n t a n a l y s i s ,  supplemented i f p o s s i b l e by age a n a l y s i s through such a method as tooth erosion, may' become a very u s e f u l management technique i n t h i s a r e a . t  Hatter ( 1 9 5 0 ) reported on the number o f a n t l e r p o i n t s o f moose k i l l e d i n c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1 9 4 8 , but considered t h a t h i s data showed no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o age s t r u c t u r e o f the population. Cringan ( 1 9 5 5 ) showed t h a t a n t l e r - p o i n t data f o r Ontario c o r r e l a t e d w e l l w i t h age determined by tooth development and wear f o r y e a r l i n g s , but t h a t age c o r r e l a t i o n s o f - o l d e r animals were l e s s p r e c i s e . Ninetyseven percent o f h i s animals w i t h ten p o i n t s o r fewer were under 5 - 1 / 2  165  years o f age, but eighteen percent o f h i s sample which were under 5-1/2 years o f age had more than ten p o i n t s .  S i m i l a r l y , ninety-eight  percent o f h i s animals w i t h f i f t e e n p o i n t s o r fewer were c l a s s i f i e d as under 8 - 1 / 2 - 1 0 - 1 / 2 years o f age by the tooth erosion method, but s i x teen percent o f h i s sample which were under 8 - 1 / 2 - 1 0 - 1 / 2 years o f age had more than f i f t e e n p o i n t s .  I t would appear that a n t l e r p o i n t s are  more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f age d i s t r i b u t i o n i n eastern Canada than i n B r i t i s h Columbia but data from both areas are as yet too meagre t o permit i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n c e s . b. Treaty Indian Permit Returns The new permit system was introduced i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f May, 1952 and consequently no r e p o r t s f o r the f i r s t four and a h a l f months are a v a i l a b l e .  Following t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n they were u t i l i z e d  extensively a t The Pas and Cedar Lake, but f o r unknown reasons very few were i s s u e d during the f i r s t year a t Moose Lake.  I n consequence,  the t o t a l reported k i l l f o r 1 9 5 2 f e l l short by a considerable but una s c e r t a i n a b l e amount. For t h i s reason no estimate o f the t o t a l k i l l f o r t h a t year has been made. In the f o l l o w i n g two years i t was estimated t h a t about seventyf i v e percent o f the t o t a l k i l l was covered by permits. This f i g u r e was a r r i v e d a t a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h some o f the Conservation o f f i c e r s concerned, and w h i l e i t may be low i t i s probably c l o s e enough f o r present management purposes.  The t o t a l estimated k i l l by Indians i s shown i n  Table 3 0 as 1 5 0 f o r 1953 and 1 4 1 f o r 1 9 5 4 .  These f i g u r e s were a r r i v e d  at by r a i s i n g the reported k i l l t o 1 0 0 percent by d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n from the number o f permits returned, assuming t h a t t h i s t o t a l represented  TABLE 3 0 MONTHLY KILL OF MOOSE BY TREATY INDIANS IN THE SUMMERBERRY FUR REHABILITATION BLOCK, MANITOBA, 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 - 5 4 ,  Year  J  F  M  no reports  1952  A  Compiled from Returns of S p e c i a l Permits  M  J  J  A  9  13  9  8  1  15  32  D  Totals  12  1  0  0  52  17  13  .7  7  1  95  90  150  5  2  92  83  141  257  1  1  1954  3  3  3  4  26  22  10  14  Totals  4  4  3  14  54  63  35  39  8  12  3  16.4  3.3  5.0  1.3  1,3  5.9  Estimated Total Kill  N  1953  % of Total 1,7 1,7  % May t o October  0  S  22.6 26.4 14.6  *  100.2  * Estimate not p o s s i b l e due t o incomplete coverage as discussed i n t e x t  167 TABLE 31 TREATY INDIAN SPECIAL PERMITS, SUMMERBERRY MARSH,  1952-53-54  1952  1953  1954  Number o f permits issued  122  206  218  Number o f permits returned  105  174  189  Percentage of permits returned  86  85  87  Number o f moose reported k i l l e d  52  95  92  Percentage Success (on returned permits)  49.  55  49  TABLE 3 2 MOOSE KILL BY TREATY INDIANS, 1 9 5 3 and 1 9 5 4 , IN THE SUMMERBERRY MARSH IN THE SUMMER (May to October Inclusive) AS COMPARED TO THE KILL IN THE WINTER (November to A p r i l i n c l u s i v e ) Summer Number of permits issued Percentage o f permits issued  354 88  Winter 70  Totals  424  12 50  363  72  86  161  26  187  Percentage of moose reported k i l l e d  86  14  Percentage success (on returned permits)  52  54  52  Estimated k i l l by permit holders  182  36  218  T o t a l estimated k i l l by Indians i n the Summerberry Marsh  243  Number of permits returned Percentage of permits returned Number of moose reported k i l l e d  313 88  48  291  168  75 percent of the a c t u a l k i l l , and then r a i s i n g i t to 100 percent. While i t i s g e n e r a l l y known s u b j e c t i v e l y t h a t t r e a t y Indians of northern Manitoba take most o f t h e i r moose during the months of open water ( l a t t e r p a r t of May t o the l a t t e r p a r t o f October), Tables 30 and 32,  seems to be the f i r s t q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the f a c t .  These t a b l e s are based on only the 1953 the incomplete coverage i n 1952.  and 1954  returns because of  They show t h a t i n these two years  86 percent o f the moose reported k i l l e d were taken i n the months of open water and t h a t the percentage success f o r both seasons approximately the same.  was  One p o s s i b l e source o f b i a s i n these f i g u r e s  i s t h a t , i n the w i n t e r , when some of the Indians are on t h e i r t r a p l i n e s w i t h i n the marsh, they take moose without bothering t o o b t a i n permits, and w h i l e i t i s recognized t h a t some moose not covered by permits are taken i n the summertime, the percentage i s probably much l e s s than i n the w i n t e r . I t i s thought however t h a t t h i s b i a s i s not o f s u f f i c i e n t magnitude t o a l t e r the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e m a t e r i a l l y . Indians at Moose Lake and Cedar Lake appeared t o make reasona b l y honest r e p o r t s of the number o f females k i l l e d , but those a t The Pas c o n s i s t e n t l y refused to report anything but males, apparently due to f e a r o f being reprimanded i f they s a i d they k i l l e d females.  Table  34 g i v e s the breakdown o f the k i l l by Indian Bands and by sexes f o r 1953  and shows the marked discrepancy between the r e p o r t s from The Pas  as compared to those from the other two settlements. Not a s i n g l e ' r e p o r t xvas received from these Indians o f a. c a l f having been k i l l e d although i t i s known t h a t some are taken.  (One o l d  TABLE 33 NUMBERS OF MOOSE KILLED B I THE THREE INDIAN BANDS HUNTING IN THE SUMMERBERRY MARSH, 1952-53^54, IN COMPARISON TO THE POPULATIONS OF THE BANDS  THE PAS  1952 1953 1954 Number o f Treaty Indians (approx.) • Number o f moose reported k i l l e d Average, persons/moose Average, persons/moose, 1953-54  600 600 21  25  28.6 24.0 20.0  MOOSE LAKE  CEDAR LAKE  1952- 1953 1954  1952 1953 1954  600  150  150  150  175  175  175  35  2  27  24  29  43  33  75.0 5.6  6.3  6.0  4.1  5.3  17.1  5.9  4.6  170  TABLE 34 SEX RATIOS OF MOOSE REPORTED KILLED BY TREATY INDIANS IN THE SUMMERBERRY MARSH, 1953 Band Moose • Cedar The Pas Lake Lake Females  Totals Moose Lake and Cedar Lake  1  10  15  25  Males  24  16  28  44  Totals  25  26  43  69  Percentage males  96  62  65,  64  hunter, who reported k i l l i n g a female, scrawled across h i s permit, appare n t l y i n d i s g u s t , "the c a l f s got away.") I n the r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e areas, Indians reported about 12 percent calves i n the annual k i l l and i t seems probable t h a t a s i m i l a r percentage i s taken i n the Summerberry. Apparently there i s no simple r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e l a t i v e abundance o f the two sexes, as i n d i c a t e d by the censuses, and r e l a t i v e a v a i l a b i l i t y as i n d i c a t e d by the k i l l r e p o r t s . Both a e r i a l and ground censuses i n the area i n d i c a t e d a preponderance o f females i n the populat i o n w h i l e the k i l l r e p o r t s o f both Indians and whites showed a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of.males .shot.  Some o f the d i f f e r e n c e may be due t o inaccurate  k i l l reports and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some s l i g h t s e l e c t i o n i s made i n favour o f males.  However, i t i s considered that n e i t h e r o f these f a c -  t o r s could account completely f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s shown. The census f i g u r e s were based on animals seen from t h e a i r and on t r a c k s (and i droppings?) seen on the ground. The hunting r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that a  171  greater percentage o f males than females are seen from the ground and i f t h i s tendency i s confirmed by a d d i t i o n a l d a t a , i t w i l l have t o be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when e s t i m a t i n g the maximum a l l o w a b l e k i l l under an "either-sex" system of management. Table 33, comparing t h e annual moose k i l l to the p o p u l a t i o n of the Indian Bands, i n d i c a t e s t h a t there were many more moose k i l l e d per capita by the Moose Lake and Cedar Lake Bands than by The Pas Band. The main reason f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e appears to be the more i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t two Bands and the greater a v a i l a b i l i t y o f jobs p r o v i d i n g cash income a t The Pas than a t t h e other two l o c a t i o n s .  When  cash i s . a v a i l a b l e t o purchase store goods, the d e s i r e t o hunt f o r food r a p i d l y diminishes (as was i n d i c a t e d i n the s e c t i o n on "Human Population"), Although there i s l i t t l e o r no p o s s i b i l i t y , o r even d e s i r a b i l i t y a t the present time, o f r e s t r i c t i n g t h e k i l l by these three Indian Bands through l e g i s l a t i o n , the i n f o r m a t i o n provided by the Indians' r e p o r t s provide two items o f i n t e r e s t from the viewpoint o f non-Indian hunting season r e g u l a t i o n .  One i s t h a t , on the b a s i s of the Indians'  r e p o r t s , an open season f o r non-Indians during "openwater" should not be expected t o produce very much greater hunter success than would a winter season.  The other i s that w i t h an open season on e i t h e r sex,  i t should not be expected that the i n c r e a s e i n a v a i l a b i l i t y (as compared t o a season on males only) would be i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to the percentage o f females which census r e p o r t s show o c c u r r i n g i n the population.  172  2, Predation a. Introduction In most recent w i l d l i f e p u b l i c a t i o n s dealing with predation of b i g game there appears the recurrent theme that predation by the l a r g e carnivores cannot, per se, reduce a healthy b i g game population or keep one i n check.  The only exception t h a t i s commonly expressed t h a t a  small prey population ( i . e . , one that i s much smaller than t h e o r e t i c a l l y could be maintained on a given range) can sometimes be prevented from increasing by the a c t i v i t y o f predators, as f o r example a small antelope population on a range containing many coyotes ( R i t e r , 1940). As i n many f i e l d studies of predation, the present work has been hampered by paucity of f a c t u a l information concerning the r o l e played predators i n the mechanism of b i g game population changes.  by  Evidence  i s l i m i t e d to v e r b a l reports o f persons l i v i n g i n the area, to wolf and b i g game censuses made i n the l a s t few years by trappers, to extremely small samples of scats and moose carcasses examined i n normal t r a v e l , and to a few examinations o f wolf stomachs.  The r e s u l t s i n d i -  cate that predation by wolves may have been a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r at c e r t a i n times, but t h a t under the present system o f government-roperated predator c o n t r o l i t i s no longer a c o n t r o l l i n g i n f l u e n c e . b.  Results  Verbal r e p o r t s have i n d i c a t e d that the period of greatest abundance of moose i n recent years was i n the l a t e twenties and e a r l y t h i r t i e s of the present century.  A number of independent observers  have a t t r i b u t e d a d e c l i n e i n population i n the e a r l y t h i r t i e s to wolf predation, some to predation plus hunting pressure and one to severe tick infestation.  However almost a l l the reports were very subjective  173  and, i n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , the r e s u l t o f i n d u c t i v e r a t h e r than deductive reasoning: the moose population d e c l i n e d ; t h e r e f o r e , something must have k i l l e d them o f f ; there were a l o t o f wolves present; therefore wolves must have k i l l e d them o f f . One report however stands out from the r e s t *  I t was made by Mr. J.D.Robertson, now A s s i s t a n t Inspec-  t o r o f Manitoba Registered T r a p l i n e s , but a t the time o f t h e observat i o n s a trapper i n the area o f the Upper Minago River about eighty m i l e s east o f The Pas.  Mr. Robertson reported'that i n the e a r l y  1930*s moose were very p l e n t i f u l i n t h e area trapped by h i s f a t h e r , brother and himself but t h a t about 1933 there was a great migration o f barrenground caribou i n t o the area, a r r i v i n g i n November.  These  caribou were attended by enormous numbers o f wolves and i n one instance he and h i s f a t h e r and brother counted the f r e s h t r a c k s o f a band o f f o r t y wolves.  These wolves k i l l e d many moose and f o r t h e r e s t o f the  winter the three trappers f e d t h e i r dogs on nothing but moose carcasses which had been only p a r t l y eaten by the wolves.  The moose population  was. reduced t o a low l e v e l and apparently remained that way f o r a number o f years although these three, trappers not long afterward ceased to trap t h i s area and therefore could not give much more information. From another informant, Mr. Charles S i n c l a i r , a temporary f i r e ranger and l i f e - t i m e resident o f the Crass Lake area to the east o f the Minago area r e f e r r e d t o by Mr. Robertson, came a report t h a t i n the upper Minago R i v e r region, the moose population had again increased through the t h i r t i e s and e a r l y f o r t i e s but that by 1947 d e f i n i t e decreases were apparent.  Mr. S i n c l a i r considered t h a t t h i s time the de-  crease was due to human predation brought about by a marked increase i n  174  the number o f outboard motors i n the hands of t h e Cross Lake Indians, g i v i n g them greater hunting range than p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t e d . In the area west o f The Pas - mainly i n the area from the Saskatchewan boundary t o the Pasquia H i l l s - two independent reports were r e c e i v e d of l a r g e moose populations about 1929•  One informant gave  a v i v i d account o f very severe t i c k i n f e s t a t i o n i n these moose about 1930 and considered t h a t the subsequent population decrease was due t o these p a r a s i t e s . The other informant considered that t h e decrease was due t o hunting pressure and wolves - i n t h a t order. Reports from almost a l l trappers a t Cranberry Portage - about s i x t y miles north o f The Pas - i n d i c a t e d t h a t there had been a very l a r g e moose population there i n the e a r l y t h i r t i e s but t h a t wolves had increased and by about 1948 had reduced the moose population t o perhaps one-tenth o f what i t had been.  An i n d i c a t i o n o f e a r l i e r moose d e n s i t y  •in t h i s area was obtained from one witness who, f o r reasons which w i l l become obvious, would p r e f e r t o remain anonymous. the w r i t e r to be r e l i a b l e .  He i s considered by  He reported that from 1930 t o 1938 he k i l l e d  an average o f one moose every two weeks to feed eighteen people, plus g i v i n g some away to others from time t o time.  I f we consider t h i s man's  hunting radius to be about twenty m i l e s , the area hunted would be approximately 125 square m i l e s . Using an average f i g u r e o f 25 moose k i l l e d per year, and, since t h i s s c a l e o f hunting d i d not reduce the p o p u l a t i o n , we might c o n s e r v a t i v e l y estimate t h a t he may have cropped between onef i f t h and one-tenth o f the moose population annually, there would have t o have been between one and two moose per square m i l e t o support t h i s pressure.  I n t h i s general area the moose population i n 1950 was e s t i -  175 mated t o be about seven square m i l e s per moose and i n 1953, three square miles per moose, both many times lower than t h i s e a r l i e r estimate. While the e a r l i e r estimate may be i n e r r o r to some extent, these f i g u r e s do show that there was probably a great decrease i n moose abundance between the 1930*s and 1950, and as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the decrease was a t t r i b u t e d by l o c a l trappers t o wolves. In 1949, a t the annual Registered T r a p l i n e s Conference a t The Pas, both the Conservation O f f i c e r s and a delegation o f trappers from the C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t expressed grave concern over the great abundance o f wolves i n the Central D i s t r i c t and over the l o s s e s o f b i g game to these predators.  I n the same year a number o f trappers wrote t o t h e  Game and F i s h e r i e s Branch t e l l i n g o f the l a r g e wolf populations. One l e t t e r from the l a t e Hjalmar Peterson, a long-time trapper i n the Reed Lake area about seventy miles northeast o f the Pas, contained the f o l l o w i n g statement:  " I have not seen wolves so p l e n t y f u l l i n the 30 years  t h a t I have been trapping around Reed Lake, and I have seen a l o t o f them from time t o time". He continued t o say that the wolves were destroying a l o t o f b i g game. And i n 1950, a l e t t e r from Mr. Glen Rapson o f Snow Lake, about twenty m i l e s north o f Peterson's area, s t a t e d : "Out o f 25 summers |l have spent [J i n the bush country, I have not seen anything l i k e t h i s before f o r Timber Wolves s i g n .  And I have not  seen fewer signs o f Moose, Deer, and Caribou". At the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned Registered Traplines Conference i n 1949, Mr. J . D. Robertson who was then Conservation O f f i c e r a t Cranberry Portage, reported i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f wolves and decreasing numbers o f b i g game, suggesting t h a t the two were r e l a t e d i n a cause  176  and e f f e c t manner. He also stated that he had made c a r e f u l studies o f w o l f scats i n h i s area and.that they contained moose h a i r "without fail," I n a far-removed p o r t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e , Mr. E. Krunland r e ported that on h i s trapping grounds, i n c l u d i n g Great I s l a n d on the Seal R i v e r (eighty m i l e s west o f C h u r c h i l l ) , the moose population had b u i l t up over a number o f years and then was r a p i d l y depleted when, i n springs w i t h m i l d weather followed by c o l d snaps producing a hard c r u s t on the snow, m i g r a t i n g "caribou wolves" found the moose very easy prey and n e a r l y wiped out the population". Trappers  1  censuses o f b i g game and wolves a r e l i m i t e d t o the  past f i v e years and, o f these, censuses which permit comparison o f rela«* t i v e abundance o f the two forms are l i m i t e d t o small areas o f the C e n t r a l District.  I n 1 9 4 9 Mr. J . D. Robertson s e t up an experimental wolf poison-  i n g program i n the Cormorant Map Sheet area o f the C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t , cove r i n g twenty-two t r a p l i n e s and approximately twelve hundred square m i l e s . Census data from t h i s area are shown i n Table 3 5 . In t h i s t a b l e the number o f wolves i s whown as one-third t h e number a c t u a l l y reported because a n a l y s i s o f t h e reports i n d i c a t e d t h a t , on t h e average, each wolf pack was counted on three t r a p l i n e s .  The  number o f moose and woodland caribou shown i s the number a c t u a l l y r e p o r t ed except that i n years when not a l l the t r a p l i n e s were heard from, the average number o f each on the t r a p l i n e s from which reports were received was applied t o t h e non-reporting t r a p l i n e s .  The percentage of. t r a p l i n e s  r e p o r t i n g i n each year i s shown i n Table 3 6 .  3  177  TABLE 3 5 RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF WOLVES,. MOOSE AND WOODLAND CARIBOU ON 2 2 TRAPLINES IN THE CORMORANT MAP SHEET AREA OF MANITOBA. COMPILED- FROM TRAPPERS* CENSUSES  1949  1950  1951  1952  1953  93  34  29  44  41  Moose  210  177  214  324  459  Woodland Caribou  189  153  184  247  276  Sq. mi./Wolf  12.9  35.3  41.4^  27.3  29.2  Sq. mi./Moose  5.7  6.8  5.6  3.7  2.6  Sq, mi./W. Caribou  6,4  7.8  6.5  4.9  4.4  Sq»mi. /Moose and W. Caribou  3.0  3.6  3  2.1  1.6  Moose/Wolf  2.3  5.2  7.4  7.4  11.2  W. Caribou/Wolf  2,0  4.5  6.3  5.6  6.7  Moose and W. Caribou/Wolf  4.3  9.7  13.0  17*9  Wolves  .  »°  13.7  The only other area from which s u f f i c i e n t l y comparable data are a v a i l a b l e i s the Herb Lake Group o f the Central D i s t r i c t .  This  Group comprises t h i r t y - o n e t r a p l i n e s and covers an area o f 1 7 7 5 square miles.  Table 3 7 i n d i c a t e s the r e s u l t s of t h e t r a p p e r s ' censuses i n  t h i s area.  178 TABLE 36 PERCENTAGE OF TRAPLINES REPORTING A CENSUS, CORMORANT MAP SHEET AREA (22 T r a p l i n e s )  Wolf  1949  1950  1951  1952  95*  100  95  95  55  100  87  95  77  100  73  91 .  77  100  Moose Woodland Caribou  95*  1953  * One trapper i n 1949 reported 125 wolves and 200 caribou • on h i s t r a p l i n e . These reports were ignored and the r e s u l t s computed as though t h i s were a non-reporting t r a p l i n e f o r these two species. TABLE .,37 'RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF WOLVES, MOOSE AND WOODLAND CARIBOU IN THE HERB LAKE GROUP OF THE CENTRAL DISTRICT. COMPUTED FROM CENSUS BY TRAPPERS ON 31 TRAPLINES  1949  1950  1951  1952  Wolf Moose Woodland Caribou  119 315  53 201 100  32 339 129  34 456  Sq.Mi./Wolf Sq.Mi./Moose Sq.mi./Caribou W. Sq.mi./Moose & W.Caribou  14.9  33.5 8.8 17.8 5.7  55.5 5.2 13.7 14.6  52.2 3.9  3.8 1.9 5.7  10.6 3.8 14.4  13.4  Moose/Wolf W. Caribou/Wolf Moose & W. Caribou/Wolf  -  5.6  -  2.6 —  —  —  -  Populations were computed as i n the Cormorant Map Sheet data, and the percentage o f Herb Lake Group t r a p l i n e s heard from i s shown i n Table 38. •  179 TABLE 38 PERCENTAGE OF TRAPLINES FROM "WHICH CENSUS REPORTS WERE RECEIVED,•HERB LAKE GROUP, CENTRAL DISTRICT, MANITOBA, (31 T r a p l i n e s )  1949  1950  1951  1952  woif  77  81  77  '45  Moose  58  81  71  65  68  74  -  Woodland Caribou  i  Of the fragments o f f i v e moose carcasses found by t h e w r i t e r and assigned t o predation as the most l i k e l y , cause o f death, 2 were a d u l t s o f unknown sex, 1 was a young a d u l t female, and 2 were y e a r l i n g s of unknown sex. Of 15 scats examined i n the f i e l d , 5 ^contained only moose h a i r , 1 contained a bear toe and u n i d e n t i f i e d feathers, 3 contained grouse and r a b b i t , 5 contained r a b b i t and u n i d e n t i f i e d mouse remains, and one cont a i n e d only r a b b i t .  These gave a r a t i o o f 1 moose t o 2 non-game forms.  Stomachs were examined o f twenty-five wolves k i l l e d on poison b a i t s i n the spring o f 1954 w i t h i n the range o f moose but.south of- the l i m i t o f t h e barrenground caribou m i g r a t i o n .  (Most o f these examinations  were made under d i f f i c u l t f i e l d conditions and were t h e r e f o r e not very detailed).  The r e s u l t s o f these examinations are shown i n Table 39.  180 TABLE 39 STOMACH CONTENTS OF 25 WOLVES EXAMINED IN THE SEEING OF 1954. ( A l l K i l l e d on Poison B a i t s South o f t h e Barrenground Caribou M i g r a t i o n ) .  Contents  Number  Type of Bait  4  Moose  ? (not. moose)  1  Moose and f i s h  fish  1  Moose  Moose  1  Moose and Wolf  Moose  1  Deer  deer ( ? )  1  Deer and F i s h  1  Caribou and F i s h  1  Beaver and F i s h  Fish  1  Bear  Bear  6  Fish  1  Fish  Fish  1  F i s h and grass  Fish  1  F i s h and garbage  1  F i s h , f o x , mouse, feather.  Fish (?)  1  F i s h , Wolf, garbaiie, feathers  Fish (?)  2  Wolf  ? ' ?  •  Fish (?)  For comparison, Table 40 shows the r e s u l t s o f analyses o f t h i r t y - s e v e n stomachs o f wolves k i l l e d on poison b a i t s i n the spring of 1954 w i t h i n the barrenground caribou range.  Although these examina-  t i o n s were also made i n t h e f i e l d , conditions were much more favourable  181  and, except f o r the l a s t s i x l i s t e d , included i n t e s t i n a l contents as w e l l as stomach contents, TABLE 40 1  STOMACH AND INTESTINAL CONTENTS OF 37 WOLVES EXAMINED IN THE SPRING OF' 1954.  ( A l l k i l l e d on Poison b a i t s  w i t h i n t h e winter range o f barrenground c a r i b o u ) .  Bait  Contents  Number  Caribou  caribou only-  25  II  1  caribou and white f o x  1  caribou and red f o x  it  3  caribou and u n i d e n t i f i e d mouse  ti  1  caribou and grass  ti  6*  caribou o n l y *  II  * I h t e s t i n a l contents not examined - stomach probably -contained only b a i t .  c.  Discussion  The number.'of v e r b a l r e p o r t s presented here has been l i m i t e d because i t i s f e l t that a few give the pattern o f evidence without encumbering t h e i s s u e with too many small d e t a i l s .  The p a t t e r n t h a t  emerges i s one o f f a i r l y high moose d e n s i t i e s i n various areas followed by conspicuous declines a t t r i b u t e d i n the main t o wolf predation and only secondarily t o hunting pressure and t i c k s . o f mankind enter the p i c t u r e here:  Two common f o i b l e s  the d e s i r e t o seek scapegoats f o r  otherwise unexplained phenomena or t o r e l i e v e the burden o f conscience; and the p e c u l i a r habit that memory has o f t e l l i n g one that conditions  182 I*  were much b e t t e r i n bygone days .than they are today.  There i s a l s o a  l a r g e unpainted area i n the p i c t u r e , that of t h e f o r e s t ecology and the changes which took place i n the moose's h a b i t a t a t the time o f the population changes*  Forest S e r v i c e maps of f i r e s i n t h i s area are  incomplete but i n d i c a t e that i n the years 1928 to 1933 many l a r g e f i r e s ran through p a r t s of the C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t - e s p e c i a l l y i n the Cranberry Portage area*  These f i r e s should have produced numerous  good feed areas by the l a t e 1930's when r e p o r t s of moose decreases began to show up. o f weather.  The remaining l a r g e blank i n the p i c t u r e i s t h a t  I t i s the general consensus of the o l d e r r e s i d e n t s t h a t  the winters used to be much colder and had more frequent deep-snow years t h a t now occur but m e t e o r o l o g i c a l data are very l i m i t e d . With so many gaps i n our knowledge of the p e r i o d , i t may seem undesirable even to speculate on what may have been the t r u e nature of events, but i n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n - and i t can be o n l y an o p i n i o n - at l e a s t some of the decreases reported were due to wolf predation.  The notable example i s t h a t r e l a t e d by Mr. Robertson of  the great immigration of wolves i n t o an area where o n l y a few had prev i o u s l y occurred, and t h e i r decimation o f a f a i r l y l a r g e moose population.  We do not yet know enough about the migration of wolves, but  we do know that each year, when the barrenground caribou migrate southward, they b r i n g w i t h them l a r g e numbers of barrenground wolves ( t e n t a t i v e l y assigned to the race Cqnis lupus hudsonicus Goldman), and i f the wolves' m i g r a t i o n i s a l i m e n t a l - as i t appears t o be - r a t h e r than gametic or c l i m a t i c , then i t would seem reasonable to suppose t h a t i f they followed the c a r i b o u yrouth i n t o an area where other game was  183  abundant, they might remain behind when the caribou returned n o r t h .  Such'  an immigration could w e l l have a d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t on the game o f the newly invaded area.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a l a r g e i n f l u x of wolves could  deplete a l o c a l game population i n one area one winter and move i n t o another area the f o l l o w i n g w i n t e r , ad i n f i n i t u m . Since the two main races o f wolves i n northern Manitoba (Canis lupus hudsonicus and C_.l. k n i g h t i i ) appear to be quite d i s t i n c t c r a n i o m e t r i c a l l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e that d i l u t i o n of a p o r t i o n of the southern race ( k n i g h t i i ) by the- northern one (hudsonicus) may be d i s c e r n i b l e through craniometric a n a l y s i s .  This approach has been com-  menced but so f a r specimens have been too few to show any r e s u l t s . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t i f only one i n v a s i o n o f the southern t e r r i t o r y has been made by the barrenground wolves i n the past twenty y e a r s , the d i l u t i o n of the l o c a l gene pool may have been too small to be apparent p h e n o t y p i c a l l y a f t e r eight o r ten generations. In more recent years, the trappers* censuses show t h a t t h e r e has been a very marked increase i n the moose:wolf r a t i o , changing from .5:1 to 11:1 i n the Cormorant Map Sheet area between 1950 and 1953 from 4:1 to.13:1 i n the Herb Lake area between 1950 and 1952.  and  Trappers  and Conservation O f f i c e r s i n these areas reported i n 1949 and 1950 t h a t wolves were k i l l i n g many moose and woodland caribou but apparently few carcasses were found.  At the present time n e i t h e r group seems g r e a t l y  concerned over predation, i n d i c a t i n g , perhaps, t h a t the e a r l i e r r e p o r t s were reasonably w e l l founded and not simply the r e s u l t o f p r e j u d i c e and the age-old c r y of "wolfI w o l f I " .  184  Unfortunately, there are no areas from which population data i n these years are a v a i l a b l e which d i d not r e c e i v e f a i r l y i n t e n s i v e predator c o n t r o l through the government's woIf-poisoning program.  Thus  no " c o n t r o l " e x i s t s which would a l l o w a t e s t to be made of b i g game population changes i n an area from which the wolves had not been r e moved. Peterson (1955, p . l 6 2 ) reported a population o f 166 moose and 8 wolves ( I b i d . , p » 1 7 2 ) on S t . Ignace I s l a n d , Ontario, (area about 110 sq. m i l e s ) i n 1948 and considered ( I b i d . , p.176) t h a t there was "a high population of wolves and moose". The moose:wolf r a t i o  was  21:1 - considerably higher than the p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n g r a t i o s i n northern Manitoba which are not considered s e r i o u s , although a c t u a l wolf d e n s i t y was higher.  I t seems probable that the r a t i o between predator  and prey ( i n c l u d i n g b u f f e r s ) i s o f greater s i g n i f i c a n c e than absolute d e n s i t i e s i n determining the e f f e c t o f predation on prey populations. The samples o f scats and carcass remains are extremely  limit-  ed and i n d i c a t e only that some wolf predation on moose does occur. Most of the scats containing r a b b i t remains were picked up i n an area o f young second-growth Banksian pine where, from evidence o f droppings and c u t t i n g s of the pine, the r a b b i t population was q u i t e h i g h .  The  scats containing moose h a i r were picked up i n an area where the r a b b i t and grouse populations were low and the moose population f a i r l y high. I t seems reasonable to suppose that wolf predation on b i g game would . be heaviest where more e a s i l y caught b u f f e r s were scarce.  In the  period covered by t h i s study no l a r g e r a b b i t populations were encountered except i n two l o c a l i z e d areas, one o f which has j u s t been r e f e r r e d to.  185  Of the twenty-five records o f stomach contents shown i n Table 29, f i v e probably contained only b a i t , f i v e contained moose where the b a i t was something e l s e , and f i f t e e n contained various items other than b a i t or moose, an average of twenty-five percent moose i n the d i e t .  The sample i s too small to a l l o w much confidence  to be placed i n the percentage composition, but, coupled w i t h the scat m a t e r i a l , which showed t h i r t y percent moose, i t gives a rough i d e a of the wolves' food h a b i t s * . (Peterson (1955) recorded occurrence of moose i n 30 percent o f t h i r t y wolf stomachs and 36 percent o f seventy-six wolf scats i n O n t a r i o ) , The prevalence of f i s h i n the d i e t may come as a s u r p r i s e to some.  I t i s a common component i n areas where winter  commercial f i s h i n g i s c a r r i e d out.  The fishermen throw the coarse  f i s h aside and the wolves apparently l e a r n q u i t e q u i c k l y to take advantage of t h i s e a s i l y obtained source of food* Thirty-one of the d i g e s t i v e t r a c t s o f wolves k i l l e d w i t h i n the winter range of the barrenground other than b a i t . bou.  caribou were known t o contain  Of t h i s number eighty percent contained o n l y c a r i -  Moose, i n the area from which these wolves were taken, were very  scarce, probably not exceeding a d e n s i t y o f one per one hundred square miles.  M i c r o t i n e and c r i c e t i d rodents, r a b b i t s and foxes were a l s o  scarce, although probably no more so than i n areas f a r t h e r south. The preponderance o f caribou i n these wolves' d i e t i n d i c a t e s t h a t caribou was t h e i r s t a p l e winter food and i t might be supposed t h a t i f the caribou migration l e d such wolves south i n t o a moose-concent r a t i o n area, the wolves might w e l l t u r n to moose when the caribou returned n o r t h .  186 i' Moose predation by bears or coyotes i s not considered o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the present time i n t h i s area although o c c a s i o n a l reports are r e c e i v e d o f both animals t a k i n g moose calves i n the spring. d.  Summary Evidence i s given which i n d i c a t e s that wolf predation on  moose may have been a major l i m i t i n g f a c t o r a t various times i n the recent p a s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o l l o w i n g immigration o f wolves from northern areas.  B i g game b u f f e r s are very l i m i t e d i n t h i s area and i n  consequence pressure on moose i s probably much greater than i n areas where such b u f f e r s are more common. I t i s suggested t h a t the r a t i o between predator and prey i s probably o f greater importance i n d e t e r mining the e f f e c t of predation than i s the absolute s i z e o f e i t h e r the predator or prey p o p u l a t i o n .  At the present time, due to an i n t e n s i v e  wolf-poisoning program c a r r i e d out by the p r o v i n c i a l government, pred a t i o n i s not considered to be a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r l i m i t i n g the s i z e of the moose population. 3*  P a r a s i t e s , Accidents and Disease The only p a r a s i t e s i d e n t i f i e d from moose during the course  of t h i s • s t u d y were Echinococcus granulosis and Bermacentor  albipictus.  Neither species i s considered o f importance, a t the present time, as a decimating i n f l u e n c e .  No reports suggesting the "moose disease" o f  Thomas and Cahn (1932), Fenstermacher (1934, e t c . ) , Benson (1952) and other workers, were r e c e i v e d .  A c c i d e n t a l death from f a l l i n g through  t h i n i c e or i n t o deep, narrow muskeg streams seems to be f a i r l y common as numerous reports were received from both trappers and Conservation  18? Officers.  I n one instance a large (1,000 pounds) cow moose drowned,  o r perhaps j u s t froze t o death, when i t broke through the i c e of a small r i v e r and could not gain a foothold on t h e steeply sloping i c e along it.s shores.  Two.well authenticated cases of b u l l s dying w i t h locked a n t l e r s  were r e c e i v e d .  I n one o f these cases the animals had both r o l l e d i n t o a  deep stream and were drowned. Moose a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y k i l l e d by t r a i n s and automobiles i n t h i s a r e a , but the major " n a t u r a l " decimating f a c t o r appears t o be drowning.-  188 PART V HABITAT.STUDIES Introduction A l a r g e herbivore such as the moose r e q u i r e s great q u a n t i t i e s of the l o w - c a l o r i c foods on which i t normally s u b s i s t s .  Examination of  the vegetation to determine the major food species, t h e i r d i s p e r s i o n and r e l a t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n was undertaken as the f i r s t step towards reaching an understanding of the r o l e t h a t t h i s aspect of the h a b i t a t p l a y s i n l i m i t i n g moose abundance.  I n the summer months, when t r a c k s are not  e a s i l y seen, and the animals themselves are very r a r e l y observed, the e f f e c t of browsing i s one o f the chief means of determining r e l a t i v e moose abundance i n d i f f e r e n t areas; f o r , once one becomes aware of i t , browse s i g n i s very n o t i c e a b l e even where moose populations are low. The s t u d i e s reported upon here were l i m i t e d t o rather small samples of browse analyzed q u a n t i t a t i v e l y , to a q u a l i t a t i v e assessment of the h a b i t a t along the Hudson Bay Railway between The Pas and C h u r c h i l l , and to general s u b j e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l o f h a b i t a t i n other areas.  The  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the l a r g e s t moose populations could be expected on areas w i t h a w e l l d i v e r s i f i e d deciduous f l o r a , moderate populations on areas w i t h l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of a few main browse species but l i t t l e d i v e r s i t y , and low populations on areas w i t h small q u a n t i t i e s of browse o f e i t h e r d i v e r s i f i e d o r uniform composition.  Moose were l a r g e l y absent  from areas of uniform spruce f o r e s t s and, except i n the Saskatchewan River d e l t a , appeared to f a r e best i n areas of i n t e r s p e r s e d deciduous and coniferous f o r e s t .  Since the area l i e s almost wholly w i t h i n the  climax b o r e a l f o r e s t , the presence of deciduous browse species i s l a r g e l y dependent upon openings i n the f o r e s t cover caused by f i r e .  189  Continued o r increased abundance o f moose i n most areas w i l l probably be mainly dependent upon these fire-produced openings. Methods The Hudson Bay Railway was used as a t r a n s e c t l i n e i n the summer o f 1952 when the w r i t e r t r a v e l l e d from C h u r c h i l l to The Pas (510 m i l e s ) on an open "gas car" o r "speeder";  At each mile-post the  most prominent components o f the t r e e and shrub vegetation were recorded i n order o f t h e i r apparent dominance. Up to f i v e components were recorded a t each s i t e :  thus, i f a t a c e r t a i n mile-post the order o f  importance appeared to be spruce, tamarack, w i l l o w , glandular b i r c h and aspen, these were recorded as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I n order t o  represent the r e l a t i v e importance o f each s p e c i e s , the most common component —  i . e . , the one ranked as "1" on the score-sheet - — was given  a value o f 5, the second 4 and so on down t o a value o f 1 f o r the l e a s t important member. The data were then grouped by 50-mile i n t e r v a l s , s t a r t i n g from m i l e 1, and the r e s u l t s graphed ( F i g . 29). The trends shown by t h i s graph were f u r t h e r analyzed by grouping the data f o r spruce, tamarack, pine and aspen i n 10-mile i n t e r v a l s over the most important s t r e t c h o f m i l e s 1 - 300, A few p l o t s were analyzed i n t h e Summerberry area by the Aldous technique (Aldous, 1944).  I t was not considered p r a c t i c a l t o  extend t h i s survey method t o cover any l a r g e areas i n t h i s i n i t i a l ' study, due t o the l e n g t h o f time i t would have taken t o o b t a i n a s u f f i * c i e n t number of samples i n enough areas to make s t a t i s t i c a l treatment reliable..  To follow page 189.  260  I  I  240| 220  200  1801  I60i  6  , 4 < H  SB i 2 © or iQ  IPOH  •'•\/  \  ?/  M ILAGE F i g . 29. Relative densities of* the fiv/e major wroody plants along the Hudson. Bay Railway from The Pas tMile 0) to C h u r c h i l l (Mile 5 1 0 ) . Dominance o f one species at every mile-post i n one f i f t y - m i l e i n t e r v a l would be^ represented by a value o f 250 on. the ordinate: scale. The bar at; the top represents mooae density as determined from trapperst censuses.The stippling: i s t h e same as on F i g . 5 , and is; rouglnly proportional to moose density.  190  One exlosure p l o t of one-tenth acre and a s u i t a b l e c o n t r o l were set up i n a heavily-browsed area of the Summerberry Marsh i n an attempt to determine the e f f e c t of moose browsing on red o s i e r dogwood (Comus s t o l o n i f e r a ) .  The exclosure was f i r s t set up i n May, 1 9 5 2 ,  but  was destroyed by moose i n the l a t e s p r i n g of 1953 before a check of the browse was made. This f i r s t exclosure was constructed w i t h three strands o f #11 galvanized wire stapled to t r i p o d s o f balsam poplar p o l e s (Populus balsamifera) set up at approximately 1 0 - f o o t i n t e r v a l s , and was topped with one set o f h o r i z o n t a l poles attached t o the t r i p o d s about 6-1/2  to 7 f e e t from the ground ( F i g , 3 0 ) . A new exclosure was constructed on the same s i t e i n October,  1 9 5 3 , using f i v e strands of #11 wire stapled to trees and to heavy balsam poplar posts set at l e a s t three f e e t i n the ground,  A continuous  h o r i z o n t a l r a i l i n g o f balsam poles was set about four f e e t from the ground and upright p i c k e t s o f balsam saplings were i n s e r t e d between the wires at about one-foot i n t e r v a l s ( F i g , 3 1 ) .  A l l t r e e s cut f o r construc-  t i o n purposes were taken f a r enough away from the fence t o prevent the e f f e c t of such minor c l e a r i n g from i n f l u e n c i n g the vegetation w i t h i n the exclosure.  This exclosure was s t i l l i n t a c t when r e - v i s i t e d i n June and  October, 1 9 5 4 .  A c o n t r o l p l o t of the same s i z e was set out 1 5 0 yards  from the exclosure and marked w i t h inconspicuous wooden s t a k e s . In May, 1 9 5 2 , when the p l o t s were f i r s t set up, counts were made of the number of stems and of the number o f browsed and unbrowsed twigs of the previous summer's growth on red o s i e r dogwood, balsam p o p l a r , viburnum (Viburnum edule), a l d e r (Alnus rugosa v a r . americana), willow ( S a l i x sp.).  Thereafter o n l y red o s i e r dogwood was  and  analyzed.  F i g s . 30 and 51 to follow page 1 9 0 .  i  F i g . } Q . o r i g i n a l type of fencing enr>loy?:d on Head tiver La>ce exclosure. note tripods'and horizontal bar. The l a r p e tree i n the right foreground i s the sane bale ore nopiar referred to below.  F i g . 3 1 . estern aide o f exclosure " l o t , Head ttver L«ke. note upright pieketo and horizontal bar, s i z e of the balsam nonlar i n the right foreground i s Indicated by the axe with 3 - f o o t handle.  191 Stem and twig counts were made i n May 1952, May 1953, October 1953, June 1954 and October 1954* Unfortunately, the records o f the October 1953 counts, made when the new exclosure was constructed, were l o s t , but  presumably t h i s count should have been comparable to t h e October  1954 count on the c o n t r o l p l o t . Twig counts o f w i l l o w were a l s o made north o f Cranberry P o r t age i n an area o f about 540 acres between a point one m i l e north o f the  v i l l a g e t o about three miles north and between the F l i n F l o n -  Sherridon Railways and No. 10 Highway. A p r i l 1952, May 1953 and May 1954.  Counts were made i n March and  The method used was t o f o l l o w  predetermined compass l i n e s and a t set i n t e r v a l s t o s e l e c t randomly a sample o f w i l l o w twigs from the nearest bush.  No f i x e d number o f twigs  was chosen a t each p l o t except that where only a very few ( f i v e o r fewer) twigs occurred on one "bush", a l l were counted. I n the two check made i n 1952, p l o t s were spaced one-hundred paces a p a r t .  I n the 1953  and 1954 samples the p l o t s were o n l y f i f t y yards a p a r t . A p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t was run t o see i f h a b i t a t i n t e r s p e r s i o n could be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t e l l i g e n t l y from a e r i a l photographs, but the method appeared t o be too time-consuming f o r the manpower a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s sort o f work.  I f more i n t e n s i v e management i s t o be p r a c t i c e d i n  t h i s northern area, a e r i a l photograph i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l probably become necessary.  To date, however, no r e s u l t s have been obtained from  t h i s method. Subjective a p p r a i s a l o f range conditions was c a r r i e d out a t a l l times.  192  Results The r e s u l t s o f the Hudson Bay Railway t r a n s e c t survey are shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g . 29»  The data from which t h i s graph was drawn  are shown i n Table 4 1 below.  I t had been expected t h a t the survey would  show marked north-south trends i n most of the species but i t i s apparent o n l y from M i l e 4 5 0 north, with respect to spruce (Picea glauca and  P.  mariana), and from M i l e 2 5 0 or 3 0 0 w i t h respect t o aspen (Populus tremuloides) pine (Pinus banksiana)» and w i l l o w ( S a l i x s p . ) . Tamarack "(Larix l a r i c i n a ) which showed extreme f l u c t u a t i o n i n r e l a t i v e importance, was comparatively more common from m i l e s 451 to 500 than i t was from m i l e s 151 to 2 5 0 and was of equal importance at the extreme ends o f the transect.  Aspen and pine tended t o be present i n the same general p r o -  p o r t i o n s throughout the t r a n s e c t , as d i d spruce and tamarack.  Willow  remained i n f a i r l y constant proportion except on the northern end of the t r a n s e c t . A t o t a l o f only 49 m i l a c r e p l o t s was analyzed by the Aldous method.  Twenty-nine were taken along the periphery of a f o r e s t e d penin-  sula j u t t i n g i n t o Moose Lake a few miles north o f the Moose Lake s e t t l e ment and twenty were taken i n the purely deciduous growth i n the centre o f the Saskatchewan River D e l t a (at Head R i v e r Lake). red  In both areas  o s i e r dogwood and w i l l o w were the two main foods eaten:  i n the  Moose Lake p l o t s , balsam f i r (Abies balsamea) ranked t h i r d , trembling aspen f o u r t h and viburnum f i f t h :  i n the Head R i v e r Lake p l o t s , Manitoba  maple (Acer Negundo) ranked t h i r d , balsam poplar f o u r t h and raspberry (Rubus pubescens) f i f t h , w i t h small amounts o f a l d e r (Alnus rugosa), gooseberry (Ribes hudsonianum), and viburnum making up the remainder.  193 TABLE 41 RELATIVE DOMINANCE OF 9 TREES AND SHRUBS RECORDED AT ONE-MILE.INTERVALS ALONG THE HUDSON BAY RAILWAY. (Scale used had a maximum value o f 250 f o r one species i n any one 50*-mile i n t e r v a l )  1- 5150 100  Mileage Zones (The Pas « M i l e 0) 101- 151- 201- 251-• 301-351- 401- 451- 501- Totals 200 300 3 5 0 400 450 500 510 250 150 234  217  112  32  2044  88  21  60  26  832  150  215  232  163  209  Tamarack  61  114  131  45  52  Jack Pine  91  23  15  123  72  Willow  109  126  108  135  131  Aspen  126  73  93  154  125  17  Balsam Poplar Glandular Birch Paper Birch Alder  24  19  8  15  23  8  3  4  10  28  22  53  33  1  Other  14  Spruce  Totals  26  11  24  625  235  124  110  14  365  27  118 131 7  74  40  64  11  1047 608  13  98  1 6  77  4  217  32  8  9  26  5  6  7  8  3  7  6  105  143  163  10  463  680  677  584  538  427  403  79  5828  4 585  245  628  53  602  77  Other plants t h a t were found to have been eaten i n the Moose Lake p l o t s were:  Saskatoon (Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ) , a l d e r , paper b i r c h (Betula  p a p y r i f e r a ) , rose (Rosa sp«)> balsam p o p l a r , chokecherry (Prunus y i r g i n i a n a ) , raspberry, gooseberry, bear b e r r y (Shepherdia canadensis), p i n cherry (Prunus pennsylvanica), and spruce (Picea glauca ). a b l e but not noted t o be browsed were:  Species a v a i l -  juniper (Juniperus communis),  Labrador t e a (Ledum groenlandicum), honeysuckle (Lonicera d i o i c a ) , w i l d s a r s a s p a r i l a ( A r a l i a n u d i c a u l i s ) , vetch ( V i c i a sp»), h o r s e t a i l (Equisetum  194  sp*),  Usnea, and grasses (Graminea, c o l l e c t i v e l y ) .  bably unavailable f o r browse were:  Present, but pro-  t w i n flower (Linnaea b o r e a l i s ) ,  bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), k i n n i k i n i c k (Arctostaphylos u v a - u r s i ) , and various mosses, i n c l u d i n g Dicranum and Hylocomium. The r e s u l t s of t h e exclosure experiment a r e shown i n Tables 42 and 4 3 .  Table k\ i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c o n t r o l and exclosure p l o t s  were roughly s i m i l a r i n f l o r a l composition and received approximately the same i n t e n s i t y o f browsing a t the s t a r t of the experiment.  The  major d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two p l o t s were the absence of a l d e r i n the c o n t r o l , the g e n e r a l l y smaller stature o f t h e p l a n t s i n the c o n t r o l  —  as shown by the twigs/stem r a t i o , and the greater d e n s i t y o f dogwood and viburnum i n the exclosure. I n t e n s i t y o f browsing was very s i m i l a r  z i n both p l o t s *  Table 4 / , comparing the r e s u l t s o f f o u r counts on each  p l o t f a i l s t o i n d i c a t e any marked changes i n t h e h a b i t a t over a two-year period*  I t i s planned to continue the counts f o r a t l e a s t another t h r e e  y e a r s , provided t h a t the fence continues to exclude moose f o r that l e n g t h of time*  The browsing i n d i c a t e d i n the exclosure f o r June, 1 9 5 4 was  apparently due s o l e l y t o deer as i t would have been impossible f o r a moose to enter and leave t h e exclosure between the one-foot spacing of the p i c k e t s without l e a v i n g c e r t a i n evidence of i t s having been t h e r e . In the same general area as the exclosure, two 1/100-acre p l o t s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n May 1 9 5 2 and were rechecked i n May  1953.  These p l o t s were about f i v e hundred yards apart and each about two hund* red  and f i f t y yards from the e x c l o s u r e . The r e s u l t s o f stem and twig  counts of red o s i e r dogwood on these p l o t s showed 63*5 percent u t i l i z a t i o n  195  TABLE 4 2 GOUNTS OF STEMS AND OF BROWSED* AND UNBROWSED TWIGS OF RED OSIER DOGWOOD IN A l/10-AGRE EXCLOSURE AND A 1/lO-ACRE CONTROL PLOT, HEAD RIVER LAKE, SASKATCHEWAN RIVER DELTA, MANITOBA  Date o f Sample  Stems  May, 1 9 5 2  1023  4855  3238  8093  60.0  7.9  May, 1 9 5 3 * *  107  474  349  823  57.6  7.7  June, 1 9 5 4  986  1828  6110  8038  22.7  8.2  Oct., 1 9 5 4  976  0  9012  9012  0.0  9.3  May, 1 9 5 2 * * *  248  886  644  1530  57.8  6.2  May, 1 9 5 3 #  181  622  535  1157  53.8  6.4  June, 1 9 5 4  675  2285  1372  3657  62.5  5.4  June, 1954##  236  743  644  1219  61.3  5.1  Oct., 1 9 5 4  711  51  4376  4427  1.2  6,2  Exclosure  Control  * **  Total Browsed Unbrow% Twigs sed Twigs Twigs Browsed  Includes browsing by r a b b i t s , deer, and moose. Exclosure had been broken down. Count based on small sample o f the exclosure (about 1 0 $ ) .  ***  Count based on kk% sample o f the c o n t r o l area.  #  Count based on 2$% sample o f the c o n t r o l area.  ##  Av. Twigs Stem  Count based on only those parts o f the c o n t r o l p l o t which were counted i n May, 1 9 5 2 .  196 TABLE 43 COUNTS OF STEMS AND OF BROWSED AND UNBROWSED TWIGS OF PLANTS OCCURRING IN A l/10th-acre EXCLOSURE AND A 1/10-acre CONTROL PLOT, HEAD RIVER LAKE, SASKATCHEWAN RIVER DELTA, MANITOBA, IN MAy, 1952 WHEN THE EXCLOSURE WAS FIRST SET UP SPECIES Red Viburo s i e r Balsam num Dogwood Poplar Alder Stems  1023  148  160  62  1  Browsed* Twigs  4855  172  363  72  58  Unbrowsed Twigs  3238  182  682  340  22  T o t a l Twigs  8093  354  1045  412  80  % Browsed  60.0  48.6  34.7  17.5  72.5  Av. Twigs Stem  7.9  2.4  6.5  5.5  80.0  . 248  159  30  9  Browsed Twigs*  886 . 180  22  23  Unbrowsed Twigs  644  274  94  178  1530  454  % Browsed  57.8  Av. Twigs Stem  ' 6.2  Exclosure  Stems  Control** -• T o t a l Twigs  * **  Willow  116  201  39,6  18.9  11.4  2,9  3.9  22.3  Includes browsing by r a b b i t s , deer, and moose. Based on a 44$ sample of the c o n t r o l area f o r red o s i e r dogwood and on t o t a l counts f o r the other three s p e c i e s .  197 i n 1952, 6 l . l percent i n 1953 and twig/stem r a t i o s were 13*2 and 11.4 i n 1952 and 1953 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The p l o t s could not be rechecked i n  1954 due t o high water l e v e l s i n the a r e a . Also i n the same area, a 1/2-acre (2 yards X 1210 yards) . pellet-group  p l o t was established i n 1952 and rechecked i n 1953.  The  r e s u l t s showed 138 moose p e l l e t groups and 34 deer groups per acre i n 1952 and 100 moose p e l l e t groups and 5 2 deer groups per acre i n 1953. High water l e v e l s a l s o prevented rechecking t h i s p l o t i n 1954* The r e s u l t s o f the twig counts i n the Cranberry Portage area are shown i n Table 44. TABLE-44 TWIG COUNTS OF A RANDOM SiMPLE OF WILLOW BUSHES, CRANBERRY PORTAGE, MANITOBA  Date o f Sample May • 1954  April 1952  May 1953  86  110  173  182  115  89  108  126  Unbrowsed Twigs  1228  769  1569  1831  T o t a l Twigs  1343  858  1677  1957  March, 1952 No. o f P l o t s Browsed Twigs  % Browsed  8*6  •10*4  6.4  Av. Twigs/Plot  15.6  • 7.8  9.7  6.4 10.8  The data were f i r s t analyzed by frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n graphs. These graphs i n d i c a t e d great v a r i a t i o n between the March and A p r i l 1952  198 counts, and minor v a r i a t i o n s between these l a s t two and the A p r i l count.  1952  The d i f f e r e n c e s are b e l i e v e d by the w r i t e r to be r e f l e c t i o n s  more of experimental e r r o r than o f v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s . This b e l i e f p e r t a i n s most p a r t i c u l a r l y to the March 1952 data and i n consequence those data w i l l be considered as biased and analyzed no f u r t h e r .  The  data concerning number of twigs per p l o t f o r the other three counts were grouped mechanically and analyzed by the " m u l t i p l e contingency t a b l e " method:  the d i f f e r e n c e s among the three counts were shown to  be s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l o f confidence.  The d i f f e r e n c e s  between the 1953 and 1954 counts, analyzed by the chi-square method, were s i g n i f i c a n t at 5 percent but not a t 1 percent, i n d i c a t i n g that they may have been due to chance* The main feature shown by these samples i s the very small percentage u t i l i z a t i o n o f the a v a i l a b l e browse, and the d i f f e r e n c e s i n number o f twigs per p l o t may w e l l be due t o experimental b i a s r a t h e r than to changes i n the p l a n t s . I t appeared t o take two f a i r l y l a r g e samples to standardize the method. Discussion The Hudson Bay Railway transect data, w h i l e not showing q u i t e the north-south gradation i n f l o r a l i n t e r s p e r s i o n that was a n t i c i p a t e d , revealed other s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . The sharp drop i n spruce and tamarack and the corresponding_increase i n aspen and pine i n the 151250-mile zone coincided w i t h r e l a t i v e l y high moose d e n s i t i e s as revealed by trappers' censuses; i n the 51-100-mile zone, i n c r e a s i n g spruce and tamarack, decreasing aspen and p i n e , and r e l a t i v e l y low moose d e n s i t i e s  199  coincided (Fig.29).  The northern end o f t h e zone o f r e l a t i v e moose  (one moose per 6-15 square m i l e s ) was marked by near absence o f aspen and pine i n the sample, and the zone o f r e a l moose s c a r c i t y ( l e s s t h a n one moose per t h i r t y square miles) was marked by the f i n a l drop i n abundance o f willow* The w r i t e r does not mean t o i n f e r that these c o r r e l a t i o n s between the recorded f l o r a l composition and moose density a r e n e c e s s a r i l y cause-and-effect r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the t r e e species and moose, but that the same environmental f a c t o r s which favour aspen and pine appear a l s o t o favour moose and that the f a c t o r s which exclude these two trees and favour spruce-tamarack  dominance, are not favourable f o r moose*  From s u b j e c t i v e observation, the main c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s appear t o be f o r e s t f i r e s and edaphic conditions.  Dry, rocky o r sandy areas  favour pine-aspen dominance whereas wet, l o w - l y i n g areas favour sprucetamarack dominance.  However, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss)  appears t o be the c l i m a t i c climax and i s o f t e n found on areas which, when the spruce i s burned, are very favourable t o a successional stage dominated by e i t h e r aspen o r pine depending mainly on the amount o f humus remaining.  Black spruce (Picea mariana ( M i l l ) B.S.P.) and  tamarack ( L a r i x l a r i c i n a (Du Roi) K. Koch) are u s u a l l y found on wet s o i l s which are r e s i s t a n t t o f i r e , but when burned do not u s u a l l y permit a deciduous successional stage. Further study o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s are necessary t o c l a r i f y the s i t u a t i o n , but the w r i t e r considers i t reasonable t o propose that these c o r r e l a t i o n s are r e a l and that f i r e ,  200 combined w i t h s o i l type, i s the major c o n t r o l l i n g i n f l u e n c e on the moose populations along the southern h a l f o f the Hudson Bay Railway. The l i m i t i n g f a c t o r along the northern h a l f o f the l i n e i s probably climate which a c t s to eliminate the deciduous shrubs and t r e e s necessary to the moose s d i e t . r  Since exclusion of moose from the fenced p l o t was e f f e c t e d f o r only one complete year, the r e s u l t s of the experiment are as yet inconclusive.  The f a c t that twenty-three percent of the a v a i l a b l e dog-  wood browse was consumed -apparently by deer i n the winter of 1953-54 i n d i c a t e s t h a t competition f o r t h i s h i g h l y p r e f e r r e d moose food i s o c c u r r i n g i n the area, but no conclusion can yet be reached regarding the degree o f t h i s competition: the twenty-three percent u t i l i z a t i o n could have been due to one or more deer getting' i n t o the exclosure and browsi n g the area more i n t e n s i v e l y than normal due to d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g out again.  Further data should help t o c l a r i f y t h i s p o i n t .  One dif-t  ference between the two p l o t s which may prove o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the tendency f o r the twig/stem r a t i o to r i s e i n the exclosure and t o f a l l i n the c o n t r o l p l o t (comparing the May 1952 and 1953 counts t o the June 1954 counts).  This trend i s a c t u a l l y the reverse of what would  normally be expected, since the pruning e f f e c t of browsing would be expected to produce a greater abundance o f twigs per stem.  Aldous (1952)  showed that heavy pruning (100$ of the annual growth) of red osier- dogwood produced l e s s weight of forage than d i d l i g h t pruning (25$ o f the annual growth) and remarked that under repeated heavy use "the bushes become spiny and growth retarded".  Apparently h i s "spiny" bushes would  have had a greater twig/stem count than normal or l i g h t l y pruned bushes. A d d i t i o n a l data i s necessary t o c l a r i f y the changes reported upon here.  201  Some o f the e f f e c t s o f browsing on red o s i e r dogwood are shown i n F i g s . 32, 33, 34, and 35*  The species appears t o be f a i r l y r e s i s t a n t ,  but i n areas where more than f i f t y percent o f the annual growth was r e moved every year f o r four o r f i v e years, l a r g e numbers o f the p l a n t s had been k i l l e d .  Aldous (1952) c l i p p e d a l l o f the annual growth from a  sample o f red o s i e r dogwood i n Michigan and showed that while the t o t a l length o f twigs was approximately the same as on u n d i p p e d p l a n t s a f t e r f i v e years o f c l i p p i n g , the t o t a l weight o f the f i f t h c l i p was l e s s than on the untouched specimens. "pin  The tendency f o r t h i s species t o produce a  cushion" e f f e c t a f t e r repeated heavy browsing ( F i g s . 34 and 35)  probably decreases i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s t o moose. No p r e c i s e population f i g u r e s f o r the area containing the exclosure p l o t s and the pellet-group p l o t are a v a i l a b l e , but from ground observations i n December, 1953, i t i s considered t h a t the population may at t h a t time have exceeded twenty moose per square m i l e o r t h i r t y - t w o acres per moose. Although the l a r g e s t population occurs i n t h i s area during the s i x winter months (November t o A p r i l ) , c e r t a i n l y some moose remain there a l l year around,  Browsing i s mainly l i m i t e d t o the winter  months although the w r i t e r considers the very small degree o f browsing recorded f o r October 1954 on the c o n t r o l p l o t t o be considerably lower than average f o r the whole area. I f the estimate o f t h i r t y - t w o acres per moose i s reasonably accurate f o r the s i x winter months, the d e p o s i t i o n o f one hundred p e l l e t groups per acre during the 1952-53 season, represents a d e p o s i t i o n r a t e of about eighteen groups per day (32 acres per moose X 100 groups per a c r e ) . 180 days Peterson (1955, p.112) records an estimate o f four groups per day f o r  Figs. 32>33,34, and 3 5 .  To follow page 201*  F i g . 32. Unbrowsed r e d o s i e r Saskatchewan R i v e r d e l t a .  dogwood,  F i g . 33. M o d e r a t e l y browsed r e d o s i e r dogwood Saskatchewan R i v e r d e l t a . F i g . 34. H e a v i l y browsed r e d o s i e r dogwood, Saskatchewan R i v e r d e l t a .  F i g . 33• Nine-year-old red o s i e r dogwood. Heavily u t i l i z e d "broom", collected, i n mid-October. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the current year's growth had already been removed. Saskatchewan River Delta.  202  moose i n the New York Z o o l o g i c a l Garden, and Hatter ( 1 9 5 0 ) reported an observation of.one moose having made four defecations i n one 24-hour period*  These r e p o r t s show a much lower r a t e of defecation than occurs  i n w h i t e - t a i l deer Qfennett, E n g l i s h & McCain, 1 9 4 0 ) , and may be lower than normal f o r moose.  At the present time i t does not appear p r a c t i -  cable to use p e l l e t - g r o u p s a s b a s i s o f population estimates, but i t i s A  p o s s i b l e that continued counts on one area may  serve as an index t o  population changes. The Cranberry Portage p l o t s , taken i n an area of rough precambrian t e r r a i n which had been burned about 1 9 3 0 ( F i g , 1 0 ) ,  showed very  low u t i l i z a t i o n of w i l l o w by moose (deer were very scarce i n the area and t h e i r e f f e c t on the browse was considered n e g l i g i b l e ) .  The o n l y  other p l a n t species a v a i l a b l e i n q u a n t i t y were paper b i r c h and aspen. Ocular estimate placed b i r c h u t i l i z a t i o n at about one percent of the growth a v a i l a b l e and aspen u t i l i z a t i o n a t only a t r a c e .  A very s m a l l  amount o f red o s i e r dogwood was present (a f r a c t i o n o f one percent o f the w i l l o w ) , and the w r i t e r found t h a t the best way to f i n d t h i s species was to f o l l o w moose t r a c k s . Moose appeared to be a b l e to detect i t s presence from at l e a s t f i f t e e n feet away, even when i t was l a r g e l y hidden by other p l a n t s , and o f 268 twigs o f dogwood t a l l i e d i n March, 1 9 5 2 ,  77  percent had been browsed. Although the moose population i n the Cranberry Portage area i s showing signs of i n c r e a s i n g , the w r i t e r considers i t d o u b t f u l i f even under t o t a l p r o t e c t i o n i t would increase to the apparent c a r r y i n g capacity of the w i l l o w , b i r c h and aspen i n the area.  No proof i s a v a i l -  able, but i t i s considered t h a t the main l i m i t i n g f a c t o r p r e s e n t l y working  203  against the moose o f t h i s area i s the l a c k o f d i v e r s i t y o f t h e a v a i l a b l e browse f l o r a .  That these moose are not being p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l nourished  on t h e i r d i e t o f w i l l o w i s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t that few, i f any, t h a t are k i l l e d i n t h i s area are f a t (the w r i t e r has heard o f none), whereas i n t h e Summerberry area, where there i s much greater d i v e r s i t y o f browse species, a moose without l a r g e amounts o f v i s c e r a l and subcutaneous f a t is a rarity. Subjective a p p r a i s a l o f h a b i t a t conditions gave much more ext e n s i v e , general, but l e s s p r e c i s e information than d i d the q u a n t i t a t i v e methods.  I n a t o t a l o f t h i r t y - s i x months spent i n the area, approximately  one h a l f o f which was spent i n the f i e l d , many thousands o f miles were covered by a i r c r a f t , canoe, snowmobile, gas car, t r a i n , automobile and on f o o t , so that a f a i r i d e a was obtained o f h a b i t a t c o n d i t i o n s over much o f northern Manitoba.  Since no q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n can be  given o f the r e s u l t s obtained, i t i s considered best t o l i m i t t h i s sect i o n t o a few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r a t h e r than t o give long q u a l i t a t i v e desc r i p t i o n s o f a number o f areas. Excluding•the e f f e c t o f hunting pressure, the f o l l o w i n g conc l u s i o n s regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the moose and i t s h a b i t a t i n northern Manitoba may be made: 1. With few exceptions, r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e moose populations (up t o f i v e square m i l e s per moose), were found only i n the v i c i n i t i e s o f areas which had been burned w i t h i n t h e preceding f i v e t o t h i r t y years. 2. These populations appeared to vary d i r e c t l y as the i n t e r spersion o f the h a b i t a t : the greater t h e amount o f c o n i f e r -  204  ous "edge", the greater the s i z e o f the moose population. Numerous small f i r e s appeared more favourable than one l a r g e one although a somewhat s i m i l a r e f f e c t was o c c a s i o n a l l y noted where l o w - l y i n g swampy i s l a n d s r e s i s t e d the path of a f i r e and remained  unscathed.  3. The l a r g e number of l a k e s , streams and sloughs favoured the growth of deciduous r i p a r i a n vegetation where a l l u v i a l deposits had been b u i l t up.  This vegetation, of considerable value i n  i t s e l f , was much enhanced f o r moose h a b i t a t when o c c u r r i n g i n c l o s e proximity t o burned areas regenerating through deciduous s e r a i stages. 4. I n general, i t i s considered t h a t the major h a b i t a t f a c t o r a c t i n g to prevent l a r g e concentrations o f moose i n t h i s area i s probably the l a c k o f v a r i e t y . o f browse species.  Further to the southeast,  studies, by Peterson (1950, 1953, 1955) i n Ontario and by Aldous and K r e f t i n g (1946) and K r e f t i n g (1951) i n I s l e Royale, Michigan i n d i c a t e d usage by moose o f a number of browse species which are very scarce or e n t i r e l y absent from much o f northern Manitoba, In t h i s northern area, the main browse species i s w i l l o w , supplemented to varying degree with aspen, paper b i r c h , and balsam poplar.  Red o s i e r dogwood and saskatoon (Amelanchier  alnifolia)  are h e a v i l y used wherever they occur but are not of s u f f i c i e n t abundance i n most areas to form a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the d i e t . The f o l l o w i n g species which were found to be o f considerable importance i n Ontario and I s l e Royale, are e i t h e r absent or o f too l i m i t e d occurrence i n northern Manitoba to be of importance f o r moose: balsam f i r , mountain ash (Sorbus americana), viburnum,  205  pincherry (Prunus pennsylvanica),yew  (Taxus canadensis), elder  (Sambueus racemosa), and h a z e l (Corylus cornuta).  Glandular  b i r c h (Betula glandulosa) which Hatter (1946) reported t o be eaten " q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y " i n Jasper Park and a t Telegraph Creek, B r i t i s h Columbia, was not noted t o have been u t i l i z e d i n Manitoba although i t i s a very common shrub i n low, damp s i t e s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , a d i v e r s i f i e d .diet i s not necessary t o maintain good h e a l t h . The n e c e s s i t y i s f o r a s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y o f m i n e r a l s , v i t a mins, p r o t e i n s , f a t s , and carbohydrates t o maintain the somatic and ger- . minal t i s s u e s i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a t e of .repair and reproduction. I t appears, however, that i n the w i l d , such d i v e r s i t y o f food  requirements  can be s a t i s f i e d only by a d i v e r s i t y - o f foods, and that where t h i s d i v e r s i t y i s l a c k i n g the energy obtained from what foods are a v a i l a b l e would f i r s t o f a l l be needed t o b u i l d and maintain the somatic t i s s u e s , l e a v i n g l e s s than an optimum amount f o r hormone production and reproduction. The o v e r a l l e f f e c t would be t o lower the reproductive r a t e o f the population below i t s p o t e n t i a l . That moose can^' i n some areas, o b t a i n s u f f i c i e n t energy from an u n d i v e r s i f i e d n a t u r a l d i e t i s i n d i c a t e d by Spencer and Chatelain (1953) f o r Alaska.  I n one area which they studied i t was found that a l a r g e  and apparently healthy' population was s u b s i s t i n g on a d i e t o f 98 percent aspen.  I n two other areas the d i e t consisted o f 90 percent and 98 percent  w i l l o w and b i r c h , and i n a f o u r t h area o f 91 percent b i r c h .  I t would  be h i g h l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o analyze such browse t o determine why i t should be o f such outstanding value.  206  Cowan, Hoar and Hatter (1950), on the b a s i s o f chemical analyses o f moose browse from three areas o f v a r y i n g s e r a i age, concluded that a v a r i e d d i e t was d e s i r a b l e and could be provided best on areas o f young stages o f f o r e s t succession*  The present q u a l i t a t i v e  study has i n d i c a t e d t h a t the same conclusions apply t o northern Manitoba.  207  PART VI . ECONOMIC ROLE OF MOOSE IN NORTHERN MANITOBA  Introduction In order f o r game administrations t o determine t h e r e l a t i v e importance o f various components o f the fauna under t h e i r supervision, i t i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e that they have some idea o f the economic worth o f each.  I n t h e case o f f u r bearers such valuations a r e a r r i v e d a t  q u i t e e a s i l y but i n t h e case o f game animals the t a s k i s much greater and has so f a r been accomplished i n o n l y a very few instances i n North America,  The present' assessment i s f a r from complete, and without con-  s i d e r a b l e time and e f f o r t d i r e c t e d s o l e l y a t i t , i t w i l l probably remain so f o r many years t o come, A crude v a l u a t i o n was placed on the meat and hides o f moose reported k i l l e d and the importance o f t h i s food source to t h e n a t i v e s i n d i c a t e d .  Expenditures o f l i c e n s e d hunters have not  y e t been assessed, but since most o f t h e hunting i s done on the hunter's doorstep, so t o speak, such expenditures are undoubtedly very much lower than i n areas where hunters t r a v e l l o n g distances t o enter the game areas, h i r e guides and camping outfits,- and g e n e r a l l y make the hunt i n t o an e l a borate and c o s t l y e x p e d i t i o n ,  Reintroduction o f non-resident hunting  could be expected t o a l t e r t h i s aspect o f moose hunting i n northern Manitoba, but speculation on such an outcome appears i d l e , a. I n Remote Areas The annual k i l l o f moose i n the remote areas o f the province (taken almost s o l e l y by unlicensed hunters) has been estimated a t a p p r o x i -  208  mately eight hundred.  Using an average'weight  of 6 0 0 pounds and a con-  s e r v a t i v e f i g u r e of f i f t y cents per pound, these animals would be worth $240,000. The h i d e s , made up i n t o mocassins at four d o l l a r s per p a i r and s i x p a i r s per hide would be worth an a d d i t i o n a l $19,200, f o r a t o t a l o f roughly $260,000 annually. By comparison, the f u r resource i s worth approximately $800,000 annually t o these n a t i v e s a t the present time, or o n l y three times the estimated value of moose." The value of moose meat i n the n a t i v e s ' n u t r i t i o n cannot be so e a s i l y recognized. Medical studies ( V i v i a n , et. a l . , 1948; Moore, e t . a l . , 1946) have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the n u t r i t i o n of the Indians i s roughly i n inverse p r o p o r t i o n to the degree t o which they l i v e " o f f the s h e l f " — the greater t h e i r dependence upon store foods, the poorer t h e i r , condition.  One can perhaps v i s u a l i z e the reason f o r t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i f he  c o n s i d e r ^ t h a t these n a t i v e s have an annual cash income per f a m i l y from a l l sources, i n c l u d i n g Family Allowance, which probably averages w e l l under one thousand d o l l a r s .  The p r i c e s charged f o r both dry goods  and food i n these remote areas are higher than at any p o i n t served by a r a i l w a y or highway and even a thousand d o l l a r s doesn't go very f a r i n feeding and c l o t h i n g . a l a r g e f a m i l y .  Added to t h i s combination of  low income and high cost of l i v i n g i s the l a c k of f i n a n c i a l acumen and experience of these Indians which renders t h e i r problem even more difficult. The value of w i l d foods i n the n u t r i t i o n o f the n a t i v e s has as yet received very l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n the form of s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s . V i v i a n e t . a l . (1948) reported as " i n press" a paper on the " N u t r i t i o n a l  209  values o f c e r t a i n game consumed by northern Canadian a b o r i g i n e s . " So f a r as the w r i t e r has been able t o determine, the paper has not y e t been published*  Apparently i t i s the only study o f the subject t h a t  has yet been made. Even without p r e c i s e information on the n u t r i t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s o f game meat, Vivan considered i t o f s u f f i c i e n t importance t o the welfare o f the James Bay Cree t o recommend t h a t a f r e e z i n g p l a n t be i n s t a l l e d t o permit greater year-around u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i s food source. Thus, while the present d o l l a r s and cents value o f moose meat i s high, i t s health value may be even h i g h e r .  Under proper management  i t should be p o s s i b l e to increase the q u a n t i t y o f food from t h i s source and hence i n d i r e c t l y perhaps t o b e t t e r the h e a l t h o f the n a t i v e s . Since t h e i r value t o the country should be ehhanced through b e t t e r h e a l t h , programs aimed a t i n c r e a s i n g the amount o f n a t i v e foods i n t h e i r d i e t should i n d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t t h e economy o f the area. one component o f t h i s d i e t .  Moose meat i s o n l y  B e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f other game animals,  o f the meat from c e r t a i n furbearers, o f f i s h , and o f l o c a l l y grown.-garden produce should a l s o be incorporated i n t o plans f o r the betterment of native n u t r i t i o n . B.  I n A c c e s s i b l e Areas The d i r e c t value t o the p r o v i n c i a l t r e a s u r y from the s a l e o f  moose l i c e n s e s i s q u i t e s m a l l . I n the three years o f the course o f t h i s study, a t o t a l o f 1,741 moose l i c e n s e s was sold f o r an average annual value o f $ 2 9 0 2 (at f i v e d o l l a r s per l i c e n s e ) . are charged.  No trophy o r tagging fees  By comparison, the revenue derived from the s a l e o f a l l  b i g game l i c e n s e s i n Manitoba averaged $ 1 4 1 , 3 2 5 f o r 1 9 5 1 and 1 9 5 2 (Manitoba, 1 9 5 3 ) , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t moose l i c e n s e s a l e s represent o n l y about  210  two percent o f t h e revenue derived from t h i s source.  ( I n these two  years, an average o f 4 2 , 5 6 1 deer and e l k l i c e n s e s was s o l d ; Manitoba, 1953).  With an average annual k i l l o f approximately 2 0 0 moose by l i c e n s e d hunters, the value of the meat, as computed i n the preceding s e c t i o n , i s about $ 6 0 , 0 0 0 .  The value o f the hides when made i n t o c l o t h -  i n g (mostly mocassins) i s about $ 3 , 4 0 0 . are not u t i l i z e d ) .  ( T h i r t y percent o f the hides  I f expenditures f o r r i f l e s , ammunition, t r a n s p o r t a -  t i o n , and other items are even one-half the $ 4 9 . 0 0 per c a p i t a t h a t Hatter and Taylor ( 1 9 5 4 ) determined f o r r e s i d e n t B r i t i s h Columbia moose hunters, the t o t a l expenditure f o r these items would be i n the neighbourhood o f $ 1 3 , 4 0 0 annually. Thus, the value o f moose hunting by l i c e n s e d hunters may be set a t approximately $ 8 0 , 0 0 0 , o f which o n l y $-1/2 percent i s made up'of l i c e n s e f e e s . The moose i s important as sporting game t o o n l y 0 * 2 percent o f the r e s i d e n t s of southern Manitoba, but t o 1 . 7 percent of the non-Indian r e s i d e n t s o f northern Manitoba.  Although the w r i t e r has no p r e c i s e  f i g u r e s on the place o f the w h i t e - t a i l deer as sporting game, i t i s probably hunted by about 5 percent o f t h e southern population and by 1 o r 2 percent o f t h e northern p o p u l a t i o n ,  ( i t i s estimated t h a t 7 5 percent  o f the deer and 4 0 percent o f the moose k i l l e d by l i c e n s e d hunters i n northern Manitoba a r e taken i n the r e g i o n between t h e 53rd p a r a l l e l and northern boundary o f the Summerberry Marsh).  Thus, i n the province as  a whole, the moose p r e s e n t l y stands i n a very i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n t o deer as sporting game.  I n northern Manitoba, w h i l e the numbers o f these two  c 211  species k i l l e d annually a r e probably q u i t e s i m i l a r , the much greater trophy and meat value o f moose places i t i n a much superior p o s i t i o n to  deer* With a s e r i e s o f m i l d w i n t e r s , the w h i t e - t a i l population  i n northern Manitoba w i l l probably increase considerably above i t s present l e v e l , but t h e w r i t e r considers i t d o u b t f u l i f deer w i l l r e p l a c e moose as the primary b i g game animal i n t h i s northern area i n the f o r seeable f u t u r e . I f a choice must be made, e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d towards the management o f moose rather than o f deer w i l l probably be o f greatest economic b e n e f i t i n t h e long run.  The three Indian bands hunting i n  the Summerberry Marsh k i l l an average o f 1 4 0 moose per year, worth $45,360 ($42,000  f o r meat and $ 3 , 3 6 0 f o r h i d e s ) .  Summary A p r e l i m i n a r y v a l u a t i o n o f $ 3 8 4 , 2 6 0 has been placed on the present annual harvest o f 1 1 4 0 moose i n northern Manitoba.  This t o t a l  i s made up o f 8 9 . 1 percent meat, 6 . 7 percent h i d e s , 3 . 5 percent l i c e n s e d hunter expenses, and 0 . 8 percent l i c e n s e f e e s .  The t o t a l i s d i v i d e d  between Indian and l i c e n s e d hunters i n the proportion o f 3 . 8 : 1 *  It i s  considered t h a t , f o r t h e forseeable f u t u r e , w h i t e - t a i l deer w i l l stand i n a q u i t e i n f e r i o r economic p o s i t i o n to moose i n northern Manitoba. The value o f moose as i n t e r p r e t e d here i s about one-third the value o f the annual f u r crop.  The importance of n a t i v e foods to the h e a l t h of  the Indians, and o f the h e a l t h o f the Indians to the economy o f the area i s i n d i c a t e d .  212  PART V I I MANAGEMENT Game management attempts t o produce and t o crop the greatest p o s s i b l e sustained annual harvest o f w i l d game compatible w i t h the wise use o f other renewable land resources,  Leopold, who made one o f the  e a r l i e s t d e f i n i t i o n s o f game management on t h i s continent, d e f i n e d i t as "... the a r t o f making land produce sustained annual crops o f w i l d game f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use"(Leopold, 1933, P«3)»  I n northern Manitoba  the r e c r e a t i o n a l value o f game i s a t present o f q u i t e secondary importance t o i t s value as food. I n order t o manage a game s p e c i e s , c e r t a i n b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n concerning i t and i t s h a b i t a t i s necessary.  One needs t o know:  1, the s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the population 2, the age and sex composition o f the population 3, the annual increment ( u s u a l l y considered as the percentage of y e a r l i n g s i n the population) 4, the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f the h a b i t a t (which i n c l u d e s the e f f e c t s o f other animals as w e l l as o f the p l a n t c o n s t i t u e n t s , weather, c l i m a t e , topography, e t c . , o f the range). Generally, not a l l o f these aspects are f u l l y known, but by obtaining a much information as p r a c t i c a b l e and by experimenting with" d i f f e r e n t management schemes, i t should be p o s s i b l e t o manage a species w i t h i n satisfactory l i m i t s . In northern Manitoba there appear t o be three p o s s i b l e approaches to moose management, o r a t l e a s t t o experimental manipulation  213  o f the moose population: 1,  r e g u l a t i o n of hunting pressure,  2,  c o n t r o l o f predation,  3,  h a b i t a t improvement*  The f i r s t approach has reached the stage of experimental manipulation of hunting by l i c e n s e d hunters but has not been a p p l i e d to t r e a t y Indians; the second has been h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l i n reducing the timber w o l f population i n most areas; the t h i r d approach has not yet reached even the i n v e s t i g a t i o n stage. Regulation of Hunting Pressure Depending upon the type o f hunting c a r r i e d out, northern Manitoba may be d i v i d e d i n t o two regions, which f o r t h i s f a c t o r are reasonably w e l l defined e n t i t i e s .  The l a r g e r region (the "remote areas")  i s t h a t containing a l l o f the r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s e c t i o n s except the C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t , where moose hunting i s very l a r g e l y by t r e a t y Indians. The smaller region (the " a c c e s s i b l e areas") i s that containing the Cent r a l D i s t r i c t and the area_ between i t and the 53rd p a r a l l e l and between the Saskatchewan boundary and the 100th meridian, where moose hunting i s l a r g e l y by l i c e n s e d hunters except i n the Summerberry marsh where t r e a t y Indians again predominate.  Because o f these d i f f e r e n c e s , hunting  r e g u l a t i o n w i l l be considered spparately f o r each r e g i o n . A.  In Remote Areas I t has-been shown that hunting pressure i n these areas i s  very unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d both as to time and place and t h a t , from a management viewpoint, some change i n these unbalances i s d e s i r a b l e . I t  214  has also been shown that from the viewpoint o f n a t i v e n u t r i t i o n , an increase i n the amount o f wild-caught foods i n the d i e t - i n c l u d i n g b i g game, meat from furbearers, a n d ; f i s h - probably would be o f materi a l b e n e f i t and might i n d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t the o v e r a l l economy o f the area.  Further, i t has been i n d i c a t e d that from the viewpoint o f f u r  management, i t would be d e s i r a b l e i f the f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n the s e t t l e ments during the winter were more adequately provided with food so t h a t the trappers would not have t o return*so o f t e n to r e p l e n i s h the l a r d e r s . F i n a l l y , i t has been suggested that the d e c u l t u r a t i o n of the Cree i s proceeding a t too f a s t a r a t e , and that i n the i n t e r e s t s of humanity and o f the Indian's i n e v i t a b l e eventual a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o t h e o v e r a l l "Canadian" c u l t u r e , the r a p i d t i d e o f d e c u l t u r a t i o n should be stemmed where p r a c t i cable. The w r i t e r suggests that a l l o f these f a c t o r s should be taken i n t o consideration i n the management o f a game resource where the peoples through whom such management must be e f f e c t e d a r e themselves a primary resource o f t h e area. Perhaps t h e greatest stumbling block t o e f f e c t i v e game management i n t h i s area i s the Indian's r i g h t t o take game f o r food a t any time and i n any manner, and by the p r e v a i l i n g l e g a l opinion t h a t , i n making the o r i g i n a l t r e a t i e s with the Indians, i t was t h e i n t e n t i o n o f Parliament, "to assure to t h e Indians a supply o f game i n the .future f o r t h e i r support and subsistence by r e q u i r i n g them t o comply with the game laws o f t h e province, subject however to t h e express and dominant proviso that care f o r the f u t u r e i s not to deprive them o f the r i g h t to s a t i s f y t h e i r  215  present need f o r food by hunting and trapping game, using t h e word Tgame' i n i t s broadest sense, at a l l seasons on a l l unoccupied Crown lands o r other land t o which they may have a r i g h t o f access" (Rex-vs. Wesley I I a f t e r Conn, n.d). . By the terms o f t h e i r t r e a t y with the government, the Indians are assured o f the r i g h t t o take game f o r food but they.are not assured t h a t there w i l l always be game t o t a k e .  Management, which attempts t o  assure the presence o f game, must t h e r e f o r e operate through n a t i v e cooperation rather than through c o e r c i o n , and hunting r e g u l a t i o n s can be e f f e c t i v e only i f they a r e endorsed and supported by the natives concerned.  Increasing t h e complexity of the problem i s the unwritten p o l i c y  o f the p r o v i n c i a l government t h a t the game resource i s not t o be reserved s o l e l y t o Indians. . The f i r s t step i n moose management i n t h i s area should be t o increase the crop taken from presently, under-hunted areas and t o decrease the. crop taken from over-hunted areas.  Present methods o f t r a p p e r s  1  censuses are probably adequate f o r determining the allowable harvest i n each area, e s p e c i a l l y i f the cropping program i s placed on an e x p e r i mental b a s i s and reviewed annually.  The s i m p l i c i t y o f the statement  t h a t hunting pressure should be s h i f t e d from one area t o another b e l i e s the complexity o f d i f f i c u l t i e s which would be encountered, and w h i l e the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t the task o f a b i o l o g i s t o r w i l d l i f e manager i s p r i n c i p a l l y t o place before the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s recommendations based on his investigations,  also considers t h a t such recommendations should  be accompanied by suggestions' o f how they might be implemented.  I n the  present case the f i r s t need i s f o r cooperation o f the Indians without which management i s impossible.  This cooperation may,possibly best be  216  obtained by p l a c i n g the p e r t i n e n t f a c t s before the Indians,showing them that changes are desirable,and by s o l i c i t i n g t h e i r opinions on how to b r i n g such ahanges about.  Since the use of game i s not t o be  reserved s o l e l y t o the Indian m a j o r i t y , care must be taken t o ensure t h a t the m i n o r i t y groups a l s o are adequately provided f o r .  Judicious  suggestion o f p o s s i b l e changes may a s s i s t the various groups i n a r r i v i n g a t and accepting s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s t r i c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s . Some o f the changes which might be suggested a r e : 1. that a quota be placed on the number o f moose t o be k i l l e d each year i n each r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e s e c t i o n , 2. that t h e u t i l i z a t i o n of " w i l d " meat be spread over a greater p e r i o d of time through increased preservation by f r e e z i n g , dryi n g o r "canning", 3.. that each f a l l organized p a r t i e s o f hunters s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i  i  remove the a v a i l a b l e surpluses o f moose from areas which are p r e s e n t l y underharvested and that t h e meat so acquired be preserved e i t h e r on the spot through the native system o f d r y i n g , o r by r e t u r n i n g t o the settlements w i t h i t immedi a t e l y i t i s obtained and there preserving i t e i t h e r through f r e e z i n g , "canning", o r d r y i n g .  ( I n t h i s respect i t would  be most u s e f u l t o have s c i e n t i f i c assessments made o f the n u t r i t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s o f meat preserved by these three methods o r by others t h a t might be proposed). 4 . t h a t surplus meat from fur-bearers be preserved f o r use during the summer and t h a t , during t h e summer, when f i s h are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , the u t i l i z a t i o n o f game meat be minimized.  217  5. that by one or another means o f preservation, some of the game meat obtained during the summer be reserved f o r use i n t h e settlements during the winter months when other forms o f food are more d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n .  (Preservation  o f f i s h i n the summer f o r use during the winter might a l s o be encouraged). 6. t h a t , where remunerative employment i s l a c k i n g , the natives would be f a r b e t t e r o f f spending the summers i n t h e i r o l d s t y l e of l i v i n g rather than i n the v i l l a g e s .  They would  probably be much b e t t e r nourished l i v i n g " o f f the land"; t h e i r summer expenses would be lower, thus l e a v i n g more money a v a i l a b l e f o r f a l l grubstakes; hunting pressure would be spread out instead o f concentrated  around t h e ' v i l l a g e s ;  the c h i l d r e n , besides being b e t t e r nourished, would also r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n the type o f l i v i n g which some o f them at l e a s t w i l l l a t e r be f o l l o w i n g as trappers and as wives o f trappers; the s e l f - r e s p e c t o f a self-supported i n d i v i d u a l might be expected to r e t u r n ; and the cost t o the government f o r r e l i e f , which i s p r e s e n t l y manifested i n diverse ways, would be 1es sened. 7 . t h a t t h e quota of moose t o be taken be d i v i d e d on a pro r a t a b a s i s among Indians and non-Indians who a r e obtaining t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d s from the f u r and game resources o f t h e area. 8". That hunting by persons not r e s i d e n t i n the various quota d i s t r i c t s be p r o h i b i t e d u n t i l such time as the needs o f l o c a l r e sidents have been provided f o r .  218  9. That sport hunting f o r t r o p h i e s be permitted however i f the hunter agrees to take only the head and t o t u r n t h e meat over e i t h e r to the trapper upon whose t r a p l i n e the animal was taken, o r to the c e n t r a l community o f the s e c t i o n i n which the moose was k i l l e d .  I n t h i s respect i t i s e n v i s -  aged that the number o f moose taken f o r t r o p h i e s woul^d come out o f t h e community quota, that l o c a l trappers would be employed as guides, and that t h e onus would be on the hunter to see that the meat was disposed o f according t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r terms o f h i s l i c e n s e . 10. That i f i n v e s t i g a t i o n should show t h a t d r i e d meat i s materi a l l y i n f e r i o r i n n u t r i t i o n a l q u a l i t y t o frozen meat, f r e e z e r p l a n t s be i n s t a l l e d a t each community f o r t h e preservation o f meat and f i s h e s p e c i a l l y during t h e summer months. 11. That i f meat d r i e d according t o Indian custom i s shown t o be o f equal q u a l i t y t o f r o z e n meat, t h e drying o f meat be encouraged as a means o f p r e s e r v a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y during the summer months. 12. That the Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Department o f C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, be responsible f o r the s t o c k p i l i n g o f preserved meat and f i s h i n each community and f o r the issuance o f such foods t o the Indians as i t i s needed. 13. That t h e P r o v i n c i a l Game and F i s h e r i e s Branch be responsible f o r the s i z e and geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the quota set and f o r the r e s e r v a t i o n o f a p a r t o f t h i s quota t o non-Indians; but t h a t the Indians be encouraged t o determine which o f  219  t h e i r numbers w i l l remove t h e i r part of t h e quota. 1 4 . That hunting by non-Indians be by l i c e n s e only and t h a t such l i c e n s e s d e f i n e the time and place a t which t h e moose may be taken.  The time set should be that a t which most  e f f i c a c i o u s use may be made o f t h e meat but not a t a time which might be detrimental t o breeding success o f the moose. 1 5 . That t h e k i l l i n g o f cows w i t h calves be discouraged i n t h e s p r i n g , summer and f a l l and o f calves a t a l l seasons. 1 6 . That hunting o f both sexes during t h e r u t t i n g season be minimized. 1 7 . That e f f o r t s a t i n c r e a s i n g the e f f i c i e n c y o f the moose census be continued, but t h a t f o r the time being the annual quota should not g r e a t l y exceed t e n percent o f the populat i o n i n d i c a t e d by t h e annual census. " I f i t i s l a t e r shown t h a t a l a r g e r .percentage may be taken without damage t o the population, then i n c r e a s i n g quotas should be permitted except i n areas where i t i s d e s i r a b l e and p r a c t i c a b l e t o i n c r e a s e the p o p u l a t i o n . B. A c c e s s i b l e Areas Since r e s t r i c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e moose k i l l i n t h e r e mainder o f northern Manitoba may be e f f e c t e d through manipulation of l i c e n s e s a l e s , i t i s more e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d than i n the remote areas. However, evidence p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e i n d i c a t e s that i n most o f these a c c e s s i b l e areas an increased annual harvest may now be taken. Management should encourage t h i s increase through r e l a x a t i o n of r e g u l a t i o n s . The f i r s t step i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n has been taken by a l l o w i n g e i t h e r sex  220  to be k i l l e d , but t h e f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e that even greater harvests may be taken without harming t h e population,  TABLE 4 5 ' MOOSE POPULATION AND CROP STATISTICS, 1 9 5 2 - 5 3  Area Zones 5,6,7.  Estimated population, Xmas 1 9 5 2  Zones 4,8,9,10.  560  1703  66  54  Estimated Population, Xmas, 1 9 5 3  646  2109  Gross Increase, 1 9 5 2 - 5 3  152  Estimated crop, F a l l , 1953  460  Gross Increase as a % o f 1 9 5 2 population % o f gross increase cropped Net increase Net increase as a % of 1 9 5 2 pop.  27.2  26.6  43.4  11.7  86  406  15.6  23.5  I f these population s t a t i s t i c s are reasonably accurate - and they a r e b e l i e v e d t o be - then a harvest o f twenty percent o f the population should do no harm, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the harvest could be taken from a l l p a r t s o f the areas i n s t e a d o f from t h e parts w i t h i n two or three m i l e s o f the roads and r a i l w a y s as i s p r e s e n t l y the case.  C e r t a i n l y no l a s t -  i n g harm should be i n c u r r e d i f such a harvest were taken one year on an experimental b a s i s . Experimentally i n c r e a s i n g the annual harvest i s a t present the only a v a i l a b l e means o f a r r i v i n g a t a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l o f cropping.  221  Since the d e s i r a b l e i n t e n s i t y o f hunting w i l l probably not remain constant from one time and place to another, i t w i l l have t o be c o n t i n u a l l y r e v i s e d i n order t o maintain proper pressure.  (Zone 6 - F l i n F l o n - may  already be r e c e i v i n g as much pressure as i t can withstand). There appear t o be at l e a s t four means a v a i l a b l e of i n c r e a s i n g the k i l l : 1. by lengthening the open season 2 . by opening another season i n the l a t e f a l l before freeze-up, 3. by readmitting non-residents 4. by zoning geographically and by " e i t h e r - s e x —  males only"  type seasons i n order to d i r e c t maximum pressure at the most s e r i o u s l y underharvested  areas.  The f i r s t approach has been made by extending the season from ten to f i f t e e n days i n 1953  and to s i x weeks i n 1954* The 1954  not yet been compiled, but i t i s considered that even the  returns have six-weeks  season (December 1 to January 15) d i d not a l l o w f o r removal of the a v a i l able surplus. The second approach i s objected t o i n some quarters because o f the f e a r t h a t meat would s p o i l and that breeding would be i n t e r f e r e d with.  However, pre-winter moose hunting seasons are permitted i n other  areas ( B r i t i s h Columbia, Ontario and Newfoundland, and perhaps others) w i t h no reported detrimental e f f e c t s , and were a l s o allowed i n Manitoba p r i o r t o 1945.  In northern Manitoba the breeding season f o r moose f a l l s  mainly between the middle of September and the middle of October.  A,  hunting season s t a r t i n g about October 7 to 15 and continuing f o r one or two weeks should not m a t e r i a l l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h breeding, should be e a r l y  222  enough not to endanger hunters being "caught" during freeze-up, yet l a t e enough to ensure that the meat would not s p o i l q u i c k l y .  Since a  greater percentage o f the moose population may be harvested without reducing i t , and s i n c e lengthening the winter season has not appeared to e f f e c t t h i s i n c r e a s e i n harvest, the w r i t e r suggests t h a t an "open water" season be implemented at l e a s t on an experimental b a s i s , Readmission o f non-residents i s looked upon w i t h d i s f a v o u r probably by the m a j o r i t y of northern moose hunters but i s favoured by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  I t i s suggested t h a t l o c a l d i s f a v o u r could be over-  come by w e l l d i r e c t e d p u b l i c i t y and that non-resident hunting would be of considerable economic value i f p r o p e r l y handled.  I t i s f u r t h e r sug-  gested t h a t non-residents should not be allowed i n u n t i l l e g i s l a t i o n has been passed r e q u i r i n g them to h i r e guides, and t h a t i n order t o be f a i r i n making t h i s step compulsory, guides should not be l i c e n s e d unless they can meet c e r t a i n minimal requirements regarding both equipment and experience. Zoning r e s t r i c t i o n s have been begun and i n d i c a t e t h a t they are u s e f u l only i n areas served by No. 10 P r o v i n c i a l Trunk Highway where the hunter population i s f a i r l y mobile.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t combining  the present zoning p r a c t i c e s w i t h "open water" seasons may greater m o b i l i t y i n other areas as w e l l .  effect  I t i s suggested t h a t experiments  w i t h such a combination be donducted. Predator C o n t r o l The present system of government operated predator c o n t r o l appears to be very e f f i c i e n t i n reducing timber wolf populations and i n  223  maintaining these populations a t low l e v e l s .  "Where populations o f  prey animals can be u t i l i z e d by man, i t w i l l probably be wise t o cont i n u e the present c o n t r o l s .  (The f a c t t h a t moose do not r e q u i r e the  presence o f wolves t o keep the populations healthy i s shown by Newfoundland ( P i m l o t t , 1953) and Sweden (Anonymous, 1955) where wolves are either absent or very scarce yet the moose population are i n very good health.)  Where the moose populations cannot a t present be u t i l i z e d  by man, t h e c o n t r o l o f wolves should be c a r e f u l l y reviewed, and i f found unnecessary, discontinued. • I n parts o f the Central D i s t r i c t wolf c o n t r o l i s p r e s e n t l y aimed a t p r o t e c t i n g small herds o f woodland caribou (Rangifer caribou) i n areas where the moose population does not r e q u i r e p r o t e c t i o n . I n such instances the c o n t r o l i s probably warranted but the caribou pop u l a t i o n should be harvested by man when i t reaches s u f f i c i e n t s i z e t o stand such cropping without endangering i t . Habitat Improvement As was i n d i c a t e d i n an e a r l i e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s study, i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f improving h a b i t a t f o r moose through the use o f c o n t r o l l e d burning should be undertaken now. Studies i n other areas (Jenkins, 1946; L i t t l e , 1953; Smith, N.F., 1947) have shown t h a t c o n t r o l l e d burning can be a u s e f u l t o o l i n both game and f o r e s t manage-, ment but t h a t i t s proper use r e q u i r e s d e t a i l e d l o c a l study. I t i s a l s o suggested t h a t , where p r a c t i c a b l e , l o g g i n g operat i o n s should be o f a " c l e a r - c u t " o r "block-logging" nature i n s t e a d o f selective cutting.  Clear c u t t i n g opens t h e f o r e s t canopy so t h a t shade-  224  i n t o l e r a n t deciduous shrubs and trees o f value as moose browse can f l o u r i s h whereas s e l e c t i v e . c u t t i n g does not produce l a r g e enough openings t o be o f any m a t e r i a l value f o r game*  225  PART V I I I SUMMARY  A study o f the moose and o f f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g i t s management i n northern Manitoba was commenced by the w r i t e r i n the spring o f 1 9 5 1 : three of the f o l l o w i n g four years were spent i n northern Manitoba i n • the employ o f the P r o v i n c i a l Game and F i s h e r i e s Branch pursuing t h i s and other w i l d l i f e studies. Northern Manitoba ( 1 7 0 , 0 0 0 square m i l e s ) i s u n d e r l a i n mainly by rock of Pre-Cambrian age w i t h some Palaeozoic limestone i n the southwest and northeast. The climate i s cool-temperate and the climax f o r e s t s are o f white and black spruce and tamarack.  The non-Indian population  of 2 5 , 0 0 0 i s concentrated mainly i n the southwestern p o r t i o n where the primary i n d u s t r y i s metal mining.  The n a t i v e population (Cree and  Saulteaux) t o t a l s about 8 , 0 0 0 and i s r e s p o n s i b l e • f o r approximately 80 percent o f the estimated annual k i l l o f 1 1 4 0 moose. The Indians are d i s t r i b u t e d over the whole area i n settlements o f 1 0 0 t o 1 5 0 0 i n d i viduals. H i s t o r i c a l records i n d i c a t e that p r i o r to the middle o f the eighteenth century moose were probably absent from the area north o f ' the 5 5 t h p a r a l l e l and east o f the 9 7 t h meridian.  I n the succeeding  two hundred years they have populated a l l o f t h e f o r e s t e d areas o f the province, from the 5 9 t h p a r a l l e l on the east t o the 6 0 t h p a r a l l e l on the west.  This northward advance apparently coincided w i t h the i n v a s i o n  of t h e area by Cree Indians from the east and south and i t i s suggested that w h i l e t h e northward movement o f moose was probably part o f a  226  " n a t u r a l " p o s t - g l a c i a l advance,' i t was probably a c c e l e r a t e d by the concurrent human i n v a s i o n which increased the number of fire-produced openings i n the coniferous f o r e s t s . The northern l i m i t o f moose d i s t r i b u t i o n appears now t o be under c l i m a t i c c o n t r o l .  The i n t e r n a l pattern o f d e n s i t y - d i s t r i b u t i o n  i s mainly the r e s u l t o f the combined i n f l u e n c e o f f o r e s t f i r e s and Indian hunting pressure with t h e hunting pressure i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e d by recent s o c i a l , economic, and p s y c h o l o g i c a l changes among the Indians. Numerical s t a t u s o f the moose was determined from  censuses  conducted by trappers on hundreds of t r a p l i n e s i n the a r e a , from ground counts o f " s i g n " by Conservation O f f i c e r s and a e r i a l censuses on the Saskatchewan River d e l t a , and from k i l l reports gathered by Conservation O f f i c e r s and from hunting l i c e n s e r e t u r n s . I t has not y e t proven f e a s i b l e t o estimate the t o t a l number o f moose i n northern Manitoba although year-to-year trends a r e becoming c l e a r i n a number o f areas. At the present time there a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the moose population i s i n c r e a s i n g i n most areas but i t i s not yet- p o s s i b l e t o eliminate the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the reported increases a r e due t o varying accuracy of the censuses.  I t w i l l probably take another f i v e years t o a l l o w  f i r m conclusions t o be drawn from the t r a p p e r s ' census r e p o r t s , and changes i n technique w i l l be necessary t o reduce the experimental error which appears t o be i n v o l v e d i n the a e r i a l census r e s u l t s . A e r i a l censuses showed concentrations o f up t o 10 moose per square m i l e on the Saskatchewan River d e l t a where the average d e n s i t y on 1600 square miles was 1.5 square m i l e s per moose. Only a few i s o l a t e d spots outside the d e l t a showed d e n s i t i e s approaching one moose  227  per square m i l e but a number o f f a i r l y Large areas showed more than one moose per f i v e square m i l e s . Three methods were used t o o b t a i n age and sex c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f the populations.  They gave quite d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s as i n d i c a t e d i n  the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s : A d u l t male:female r a t i o s Method  Range  A e r i a l census ( 1 6 0 0 sq,mi.)  Mean  .,44:1 t o 1 , 4 2 : 1  .69:1  Ground count (same area)  , 7 9 : 1 to . 8 4 : 1  ,82:1  Trapper's census (northern Manitoba)  , 9 4 : 1 to  .97:1  1:1  Calf:cow r a t i o s A e r i a l census ( 1 6 0 0 sq.mi.)  . 3 2 : 1 to . 6 9 : 1  Ground count (same area)  ,91:1 tol.06:l  Trappers' census (northern Manitoba)  1.01:1  toL>08:l  .49:1 1:1 1,05:1  Both the sex and age r a t i o s obtained by a e r i a l census were b e l i e v e d t o be low and the age r a t i o s obtained by the ground censuses were b e l i e v e d to be h i g h .  Probably t h e a d u l t sex r a t i o s approach u n i t y where both  , sexes are hunted but i n t h e areas where only males are k i l l e d they are l e s s than u n i t y .  The age r a t i o s are b e l i e v e d t o f a l l somewhere w i t h i n  the range shown by the three census types, probably near , 7 5 : 1 ,  The  known calf:cow k i l l r a t i o (Indian k i l l ) was , 3 8 : 1 . The age and sex r a t i o s obtained by the various census methods i n d i c a t e d a t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e increase o f one-quarter t o one-third of the population per year.  228  The main f a c t o r s considered t o be concerned i n l a r g e l y n u l l i f y i n g the "reproductive p o t e n t i a l " were human use, poor q u a l i t y of the h a b i t a t , wolf predation and accidents.  U t i l i z a t i o n by man  v a r i e d between 6 percent and 20 percent o f t h e reported populations i n the Indian Sections and between 2 percent and 12 percent i n other areas.  With few exceptions, the Indian k i l l would not be excessive  i f i t were more evenly d i s t r i b u t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and i f c a l v e s , and cows w i t h c a l v e s , were unmolested.  At t h e present time, however, the  moose populations along t h e more e a s i l y navigated waterways are- being overharvested i n a number o f areas, and t h e proportion of calves i n the t o t a l k i l l i s probably over 12 percent.  By c o n t r a s t , t h e k i l l i n  the predominantly "white" southwest p o r t i o n o f the study area i s not considered t o be high enough t o remove t h e a v a i l a b l e annual surpluses and i n t h i s area the moose population i s now r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g . Wolf predation i s considered t o have been a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r o f t h e moose population i n the recent past but a government-operated woIf-poisoning campaign has now eliminated the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s factor. Drowning i s thought to be responsible f o r a f a i r l y l a r g e number o f moose deaths annually.  Other a c c i d e n t s , p a r a s i t i s m , and  disease are considered t o be o f no s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the present time. There i s reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t a heavy i n f e s t a t i o n o f winter t i c k s was p a r t l y responsible f o r the decimation of one Large moose populat i o n i n the e a r l y 1930 s. r  Habitat studies took the form o f :  an o c u l a r estimate o f t h e  229  r e l a t i v e dominance of the main t r e e and shrub species a t each m i l e post along the r a i l w a y between The Pas the C h u r c h i l l (510 m i l e s ) ; a l i m i t e d number of "Aldous" p l o t s i n the Saskatchewan R i v e r d e l t a ; one l/10th-acre exclosure p l o t and s u i t a b l e c o n t r o l ; stem and twig counts of red o s i e r dogwood i n the d e l t a and o f w i l l o w i n a PreCambrian area north o f the v i l l a g e of Cranberry Portage.  The r a i l w a y  transect showed a r e l a t i o n s h i p between moose density and presence or absence of pine and aspen, i n d i c a t i n g that the e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s which favoured these two species a l s o favoured moose. The two main e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s concerned were b e l i e v e d to be f o r e s t f i r e s and conditions.  edaphic  The "Aldous" p l o t s showed red o s i e r dogwood and w i l l o w to be  the main components of the moose's d i e t i n the d e l t a area. was encountered i n b u i l d i n g a moose-proof exclosure. constructed was broken down.  Difficulty  The f i r s t  one  I t was r e b u i l t , but has not been i n  operation long enough to provide u s e f u l comparisons.  Twig counts of  red o s i e r dogwood i n the d e l t a showed about 60 percent u t i l i z a t i o n and where browsing o f t h i s i n t e n s i t y had occurred f o r four or f i v e years, l a r g e numbers o f the plants had been k i l l e d .  Twig counts i n  the Pre-Cambrian area showed l e s s than 10 percent u t i l i z a t i o n of w i l l o w , which was the main browse species present.  In the same area,  o c u l a r estimate placed u t i l i z a t i o n of paper b i r c h at 1 percent and o f aspen a t o n l y a trace although both species were present i n l a r g e quantities. I t i s considered that one of the prime l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g moose populations i n many p a r t s of northern Manitoba i s the l a c k of v a r i e t y of winter foods.  No a n a l y s i s of the aquatic f l o r a  230  was made but i t i s not considered t o be a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r at t h e present time. The economic value o f moose i n northern Manitoba i s placed at $384,000 annually.  This t o t a l i s made up o f 89.1 percent meat,  6,7 percent hides, 3*5 percent licensed-hunter expenses, and 0,8 percent l i c e n s e f e e s . The t o t a l value i s d i v i d e d between Indians and non-Indians i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n of 3.8:1,. Suggestions f o r the management of moose i n both the remote and a c c e s s i b l e areas a r e presented.  LITERATURE CITED  Aldous, Shaler E. 1944 1952  A deer brow.se survey method. Jour. Mammal., 2 5 : 130-136. Deer browse c l i p p i n g study i n the Lake States region. Jour. W i l d l . Mgt., 16: 401-409.  Aldous, S . l . and L.W. Krefting !94eS The present status o f moose on Isle Royale. Trans. 1 1 t h N, Amer. W i l d l . Conf.: 296-308. A l l a n , Durward L. 1950  Problems and needs i n pheasant research. Jour. W i l d l . Mgt., 14: 105-114.  Anderson, Rudolph Martin 1924 Range of moose extending northward. Can. Field-Nat., 3 8 : 27-29.  Anonymous  1934  The d i s t r i b u t i o n , abundance and economic importance of the game and fur-bearing mammals o f western North America. Proc. F i f t h P a c . S c i . Congress, pp 4055-4075. 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Rept. of Proceedings: 20-28.  1948  A progress report on moose i n v e s t i gations i n central B r i t i s h Columbia. PTov. of B.C., Game Dept., Second Ann. Game Conv. Rept. P r o c : 2 3 - 3 2 .  1930  The moose o f central B r i t i s h Columbia. Ph. D. thesis, State Univ. Wash., Pullman, pp. I - 3 5 6 , illus..  1952  Some trends i n the hunting and harvest o f moose and mule deer i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Prov. o f B.C., Game Dept., Sixth Ann. Game Conv. Rept. P r o c : 57*61.  Hatter, James and L.G. Sugdon 1931 A summary o f resident hunter returns o f 1950. prov. o f B.C., Game Dept., F i f t h Ann. Game Conv. Rept. P r o c : 6 5 - 7 0 . Hatter, James and E.W. Taylor . 1954 Some economic aspects o f w i l d l i f e resources o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Prov. o f B.C., Game Dept., Eighth Ann. Game Conv. Rept. P r o c : 83-90. Hearne, Samuel 1795  A journey from Prince o f Wales's Fort, i n Hudson's Bay, to the Northern Ocean, Undertaken by order of the Hudson's Bay Company. 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Dasmann 1952 A. survey o f C a l i f o r n i a deer herds. Their ranges and management problems. C a l i f . Dept. Nat. Res.. Div. F i s h & Game, Game B u l l . No. o: 1-136 Ma*cKay, Douglas 1949  Malaher, G.W. 1953  Mandelbaum, David G. 1941  The honourable company; a h i s t o r y of the Hudson's Bay Company. Toronto, McClelland & Stewart. pp.397, i l l u s . [Report o f l Game and F i s h e r i e s Branch, i n Ann.Rept. Dept. Mines and Natural Resources f o r year ending March 5 1 s t . , 1 9 5 3 . p p . 4 9 - 6 6 . The P l a i n s cree. Anthrop. Papers, Amer. Mus. Nat. H i s t . , 3 7 : 1 5 5 - 3 1 6 .  Manitoba  Manitoba  1944-1953  Annual reports o f the Department of Mines and Natural Resources, Winnipeg, Manitoba.  1952 (b)  A guide f o r prospectors i n Manitoba, 1952. King's P r i n t e r , Winnipeg. VIII / 1 5 8 , i l l u s . & f o l d . maps.  2.42 Martin, P.W. and L.G. Sugden 1954 Present status o f moose i n central B r i t i s h Columbia. Prov. of B.C., Game Dept., Rept. Proc. 8th Ann. Game Conv.: McKay, Archdeacon J.A. 1921 A short h i s t o r i c a l sketch o f the northland. Rept. Rupert's Land H i s t . S o c , 1921, The Pas, Man., pp. 12-14. Moore, P.E., H.D. Kruse, F.F. T i s d a l l , R.S.C. Corrigan 1946 Medical survey o f n u t r i t i o n among the northern Manitoba Indians. Can. Med. Assoc. Jour.: 54: 223-232. Morse, Marius 1946  Morton, Arthur S. 1937  1939  Censusing big game from the a i r . Cons. Volunteer, 9: 29-33, i l l u s . , (Minn. Dept. Cons., St. Paul, Minn.) Under western skies. Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd., Toronto, pp. 1-232, i l l u s . . A h i s t o r y o f the Canadian West to 1870-71. Being a.history o f Rupert's Land (the Hudson's Bay Company's Territory) and o f the North-west T e r r i t o r y (including the P a c i f i c slope. Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd., Toronto, x i v / 9 8 7 , 12 sketch maps.  Morton, Glen H. and E.L. Cheatum 1946 Regional differences i n breeding P o t e n t i a l o f white-tailed deer in New York. Jour. W i l d l . Mgt., 10: 242-248. Murie, Adolph 1934  Costing, Henry J . 1950  The moose o f I s l e Royale. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ.-Mich. No. 25: 1-44, i l l u s . The study o f plant communities. An introduction to plant ecology. W.H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco  243 Peterson, H.L. 1949  Management o f moose. T h i r t y ninth Conv. I n t e m a t l . Assoc. Game, F i s h & Cons. Commissioners, pp. 7 1 - 7 5 .  1950  A study o f North American moose with special reference to Ontario. Ph. D. Thesis, Univ. Toronto, pp. 1-471.  1953  Studies o f the food habits and the habitat o f moose i n Ontario. Contrib. Roy. Ont. Mus. Zool. & Palaeont., No. 3 6 : 1 - 4 9 .  1955  North American moose. Univ. Toronto Press i n co-operation with the Roy. Ont. Mus. Zool. & Palaeont.. x i / 280, i l l u s , maps.  Pimlott, Douglas H. 1953 Preble, Edward A. 1902  1908  Rich, E.E. (ed.) 1945  Newfoundland moose. Trans. 1 8 t h N. Amer. W i l d l . Conf.: 5 6 3 - 5 7 9 . . A b i o l o g i c a l investigation o f the Hudson Bay region. U.S.D.A.", Div. B i o l . Surv., N. Amer. Fauna No. 22: 1-140, i l l u s . , 1 f o l d map. A b i o l o g i c a l investigation of the Athabascan MacKenzie region. U.S.D.A., Bur. B i o l . Surv., N. Amer. Fauna No. 27: 1-574, i l l u s . , maps. Minutes o f the Hudson»s Bay Company, 1679-1684. F i r s t Part 1679- 8 2 . The Champlaln Society, Toronto, x l v i / 3 7 8 .  1946  Minutes o f the Hudson*s Bay Company, 1679-84. Second Part 1682-84. The Champlain Society, Toronto.  1948  Copy-book of l e t t e r s outward &c. 1680- 8 7 . The Champlain Society, Toronto, x l i / 415 / (xv)•  244 Richards, J.S. 1952:  1953  R i t e r , William E. 1940  R u s s e l l , Frank 1898  [Report of] Mines Branch. In Manitoba, 1952. Ann. Rept.~T5ept. Mines and Nat. Res.: 5-14. (Reportj o f Mines Branch, gn Manitoba, 1953. Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines and Nat. Res.: 5 - 1 5 . Predator control and w i l d l i f e management. Trans. 6 t h N. Amer. W i l d l . Conf.: 294-298. Explorations i n the f a r north. Being the report of an expedition under to auspices of the University of Iowa during the years 1892., »93 and '94. Published by the University [State Univ. of Iowa] . v i i / 290, i l l u s . .  Schofield, Frank Howard The story of Manitoba. The S.J. 1913 Clarke Publishing Co.,. Winnipeg, Vancouver, Montreal. 3 vols. Vol. I: 1-443. Schorger, A.W. 1947  The r u f f e d grouse i n early Wisconsin. Wise. Acad. S c i . , Arts & Letters, 3 7 : 3 5 - 9 0 .  1953  The white-tailed deer i n early Wisconsin. Wise. Acad. S c i . , Arts & Letters, 42: 197-247.  1954  Elk i n early Wisconsin. Wise. Acad. S c i . , Arts & Letters, 43; 5-23.  Scott, Robert F. 1954  Seton, Ernest T. 1886  Population growth and game management. Trans. 1 9 t h N. Amer. W i l d l . conf.: 480-502. (  The mammals of Manitoba.The H i s t . & S c i . Soc. o f Man.,Trans.No.23, May 2 7 , 1 8 8 6 , pp 1-15.  245 Seton, Ernest Thompson 1909 L i f e h i s t o r i e s of northern animals, an account of the mammals of Manitoba. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 2 vols., 1267 pp., i l l u s , maps. 1953-  Lives of game animals. Charles T. Branford, Co. Boston. 4 vols., v o l . 3 : 780 pp., i l l u s . , maps.  Shelford, V i c t o r E. (ed.) 1926 Naturalist's guide to the Americas. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, xv / 761; Manitoba pp. 263-267. Skinner, Alanson 1912  Skunke, Folke 1949  Smith, Norman F.. 1947  Notes on the Eastern Cree and Northern Saulteaux. Anthrop. Papers, Amer. Mus. Nat. H i s t . , 9: 1-177, 2 p i s . , 56 f i g s . , 1 map. Algen, studier, jakt och vard. P.A. Norstedt and Soners, Forlag, Stockholm, pp. 1-400, i l l u s . . Controlled burning i n Michigan's forest and game management programs. Reprinted from Proc. Soc. Amer. Foresters' Meeting, pp. 200-2.05.  Spencer, David L. and Edward F. Chatelain Progress i n the management of 1953 the moose of south central Alaska. Tfaus. 1 8 t h N. Amer. W i l d l . Conf.: 539-552. Steen, Melvin 0. 1947 Swift, Ernest 1946  Wake up, Amerioa J Trans. 3:2th. N. Amer. W i l d l . Conf.: 40-44. A h i s t o r y o f Wisconsin deer. Wise. Cons. Dept. Publ. 3 2 3 , pp. 1 - 9 6 , i l l u s . .  2:46 Thomas. L.J. and 1932  Thompson, David 1897 Tuxner, J.P. 1906  T y r r e l l , J . Burr 1896  A.R, Calm A new disease of moose. I. Preliminary report. Jour. Parasit., 18: 219-231. See Coues, E l l i o t ,  1897.  The moose and wapiti of Manitoba. A plea f o r t h e i r preservation. The H i s t . & S c i . Soc. Man., Trans. No. 6 9 : 1-8. Report on the country between Athabasca Lake and C h u r c h i l l River with notes on two routes t r a v e l l e d between the C h u r c h i l l and Saskatchewan r i v e r s . Geol. Surv. Can., Ann. Rept., v o l . VIII, Part D., 120 pp..  1897  Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson r i v e r s and the North-west coast of Hudson Bay and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg. Geol. Surv. Can., Ann. Rept., v o l . IX, Part F., 218 pp..  1902  Report on explorations i n the north-eastern portion of the D i s t r i c t of Saskatchewan and adjacent parts of the D i s t r i c t of Keewatin. Geol. Surv, Can., Ann. Rept., v o l . XIII, Part F.,.. 48 pp..  1904  Crystosphenes or buried sheets of i c e i n the tundra of northern America. Jour. Geol., 12: 232-236.  1911  See Hearne, Samuel, 1795•  1916  David Thompson's narrative of h i s explorations i n western America, 1784-1812. The Champlain S o c , Toronto. x C v i i i / 582, i l l u s . , maps.  1931  Documents r e l a t i n g to the early h i s t o r y of Hudson Bay. The Champlain Soc., Toronto. xix / 419 / x i i , i l l u s . .  247 T y r r e l l J . 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May, 1946. pp. 1-73 typescript, copy on f i l e at o f f i c e of Game and Fisheries Branch, The Pas, Man., t  APPENDIX  Tables A - J,pages i to x i i , to follow page 247•  TABLE A Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Summary o f License Returns and Hunter Success  Region Hunted  Number of Hunters Reporting *52 53 *51 T  ' 1 2A 2B .2 Misc.  3 4 5 6 7 8  9  10 - R.T *L • Extension E» Lake Winnipeg Other S. of 53° Region not Reported Did not Hunt Totals  46  '66  35 20  14  42  26 25 1 16 38 13  34 48 39 20  -  r  Percentage o f a l l Reporting Hunters 52 '53 51 r  6.0  10.2 7.7 4.4 9.3  14.9  2,6  1.8 17.9  3,3  6.1  5.9  0,2  8.5 •6.9 3.6  -  Number o f Moose r e p o r t ed k i l l e d 53 '51 • 52 f  24 15 13 13  -8  25 6 19 10 1  24  42.9  -  -  32 4  7 42  12 16  4.2  10  12  3.5  2.3  2.1  10  -  -  34  -  -  6.1  -  39  19  6.  8.6  4.3  1.1  0  0  1  87  133  154  19.2  30.1  27,4  3  1  . 12  17  21  n'  3.8  4.8  2,0  0  0  0  453  442  562 . 100,0  99.9  99.9  161  137  222  13  6 33  19  11 10  16  10 101  24  10.2 , 3.1  33  6.8  8  3.5  2.9  4.3 1.4 5.9  2.1 2.8  20  4  7  16  5 4  52,2 37.9  19  3.6 8.6 2.9 1.4 7.5 2.5 2.3  12 46 14 16 31  Percent Success •52 '51  8  5  10 19  22  19  15  8  14  4  6  62.5  -  24  -  7  9  5  42.9  65.0 73.3 31.0 40.0 100 66.7 43.8 43.5 42.1 28,6 38.5 62,5 66.7 61.3 66.7 53.8 81.8 78.9 80,0 40.0  *53. 70.6 39.6 82,0 20.0  70.0 41,6  33.3  62.5 57,6 41,7 87.5 50.0  —  70,6  —  —•  16.6.  3.5  0,8  7.8  —  —  35.5  31*0  39.5  ii TABLE B Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Hunting Pressure and Source o f Hunters  Region Hunted  Year  1  2  3 & 4  Region o f Hunter's Residence 9 & S. o f M i s c . & 5 6 7 8 10 53° None  44  1951 1952 1953  1  2  10  54  4  1  27  1  1951.  57  3  3  33  1  1952  40  6  7  11  1  1953  68  21  1  16  1  4  8  1951 1952  3  14  1953  1  8  1951  5  30  5  6  1952  1  23 12  2  15  38 35  11  1  13  1953 1951  1  1  1952  13  1953  24  1951 7  2  . 2  12  1952  6  1953  7  2•  1  Ill  TABLE B (Cont'd.) Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons  Region Hunted  Region o f Hunter's Residence Year  1  2  6  7  1  1951 8  5  k  J  1952  1 1  1953  1  8  9 & S. o f .Misc. & None 10 53° 1  29 1  1  29 32 •  1951  32  9 & 10 1952  21  1953  28  1951  3  13  R.T.L. 1952 EXTENSION  1  9  S.of 53°  1953  1  1951  13  1952  d  11 1  25 11 40*  1953 Misc. &  1951  19  1 8  25  6  10  2  33  None  1952  21  9 13  35  5  10  12  47  2  5  34  6  Totals  1953  2  40  10  17  33  5  ' 13  1951  00  82  13  40  59  18  40  34 150  17 '  1952  0  68  30 36  86  11  39  33 127  12  1953  4 129  39  55  95  12  45  33  8 2 131  240  41  Grand Totals  4 279  * Includes East Lake Winnipeg.  124 100  129*  21  406  50  -  TABLE C Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Comparison o f Hunting Success o f Trappers and Non-trappers  Region Hunted 1 2 3 & 4 5 6 7 8 9 & 10 R.T.L. Extension E. Lake Winnipeg Other S. of 53° Region not reported Did not hunt  P Number o f Trappers '53 '51 '52 0 5 3 9 0' 6 14 10  0 67 5 0 2 12 9  0  2  0 17 6 11 1 2 7 16 5  Others '51 46  92  9 37 14 10 17 22 16 .  ' *52  66 59 10 33 • 13 4 21 12 8  10  •53 34 90 4 90  •51  Percent Success o f Trappers Others '52 '52 '51 '53  50,0 100 81.3  52,2 39.1 66.7 37.8 28,6 50.0 35.1 68.1  37.9 49.2 30.0. 33.3 38.5 50.0 47.6 41.7  70.6 42.2 50.0 36.7 34.8 66,7 46.2 50.0  80.0  62.5  25.0  28.6  ***  100 66.7 66.7  100 71.4 100  100 33.3 81.8  26  82.7 92.8 70.0  100 100 100  7  -  100  23  6  12  -  -  - •  -  90.0  24  -  -  -  0.0  481  80.1  457  80.1  0  0  0  39  19  6  0 0  12 1  6 0  87  17  121 20  148 11  Totals  47  56  81  406  " 386  T o t a l s excluding E. Lake Winnipeg  47  56  71  406  386  -  -  '53  62.5 -  -  50.0  3.5  9.9  -  -  73.2  85.2  30.3  27.5  31.2  73.2  84.5  30.3  27.5  30.2  -  -  -  16.6 6.1  -  V TABLE D Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Summary o f Data by Geographic Source o f Hunters  Year 1 2  3 & 4  Region o f ]Hunter 's Residence 9 &• S. o f Misc» & 8 None 10 53° 6 7 5  40  59  18  40  34  150  17  30  9 14  6  9  18  22  45  8  -  37  69 33  11  50  45  72  "29  47 °  -  68  30  36  86  11  39  33  127  12  1952 Moose K i l l e d -  20  16  10  13  4  20  17  33  4  % Success  -  29  53  28  15  36  51  52  26  33  No.Hunters  4 129  39  55  95  12  45  33  129*  21  0  82  1951 Moose K i l l e d % Success No. Hunters  No. Hunters  13  1953 Moose K i l l e d 2  38  28  23  22  6  18  20  59*  6  50  29  72  42  23  50  40  61  46*  29  4 279 • 82 131 240  41  124  100  % Success T  No.Hunters  T A L S  Moose K i l l e d 2  88  53  47  41  19  50  32  65 36  17  46  0 A  % Success  * .Includes East Lake Winnipeg.  406  50  56  59 137  18  45  59  34  .36 .  vi TABLE E Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Time Spent Hunting  Region Hunted  Year  1  2A  2B •  2 Misc.  3 &4  Average number of hours per moose bagged (Successful Hunters)  1951  24.8  47.5  .21.7  1952  25.6  67.6  33.5  1953  27.9  39.5  34.5  1951  25.7  59.9  23.4  1952  18.9  44.0  15.7  1953  23.0  58.1  19.3  1951  18.1  . 27.8  12.6  1952  21.5  29.4  22.3  1953  18.9  22.7  14.0  1951  25.2  52.9  23.0  1952  16.8  42.1  18.3  1953  28.2  . 141.0 .  1951  22.7  34.0  20.8  19.52  20.8  44.2  24.7  27.7  7.5 20.6  1953  5  Average number of hours per moose bagged ( A l l hunters)  Average Number o f Hours spent Hunting  s  19.4  •  1951  21.4  49.2  1952  25.9  61.6  1953  23.7  57.0  - *  .  Only one r e p o r t , t h e r e f o r e , no average taken.  21.4 22,5  vii TABLE E (cont'd.) Moose Hunting. License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Season  Region Hunted  Year  Average Number of Hours spent Hunting  Average number of hours per Moose bagged ( A l l hunters)  Average number of hours per Moose bagged (Successful Hunters)  1951  14.8  51.8  14.8  1952  20.4  53.0  21.6  1953  24.0  72.0  18.2  1951  18.8  30.1  15.1  1952  17.6  26.4  13.0  1953  8.8  14.1  7.5  1951  15.1  24.6  11.8  1952  20.4  30.6  15.0  1953  25.6  44.5  19.8  1951  21.3  39.6  19.9  1952  21,3  26.0  22.0  1953  25.0  60.0  50.0  1951  20.2  25.6  11.5  1952  31.1  38.9  29.3  1953  19.9  22.7  19.4  R.T .L.  1951  9.6  15.4  9.0  EXTENSION  1952  16.4  41.0  3.1  AREAS  1953  10.8  21.6  4.3  8  10  viii TABLE E  (Cont'd.)  Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Season  4  Segion Hunted  E. Lake Winnipeg  Other S.  Year  Average Number of Hours spent Hunting  Average Number of Hours per Moose bagged ( A l l hunters)  Average number . • of hours per Moose bagged (Successful .Hunters)  1951 1952 1953  10.6  1951  29,4  1952  22.2  -  1951  18,9  548.1  1952  26.1  1953  20.8  1951  21.8  59,0  17.0  1952  24.0  73.8  21.9  1953  21.8  54.2  18.6  22.6  63.3  19.1  of 53°  15*0  10.8  -  1953  Region not Reported  Totals**  Grand Average **  _ * 217.0  4.3 _ * 30,0  * Only one r e p o r t , therefore average not t a k e n . ** Licensees who reported they d i d not hunt are omitted from these •• c a l c u l a t i o n s .  ix TABLE F Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Percent* Success by Residence and Hunting Areas  Region Hunted  Year 1951  1952  1  2  3 & 4  Region o f Hunter's Residence 9 & S. o f - . 5 6 7 8 10 53° Other -  -  20  55 43 70  14  36 73 38  1953 2  1951 1952 1953  46 50 33 41 100  3 & 4  1951 1952 1953  60  5  1951 1952 1953  6  1951 1952 1953  7  1951 1952 1953  8  1951 1952 1953  9 & 10  1951 1952 1953  R.T.L.  1951 1952 . 1953  o 1952 1951  3  S. o f 53'  27  63 57 75  -  43 44 58  40  33  33 37  18  23 38 33 75 67 72  -  -  62 69 56  68 81 68 62 22 55 0 0 '63*  0 0  1953  0 0 0 4 1951 0 . 0 0 11 0 M i s c . & 1952 20 0 6 3 None 1953 10 Percentages T . a K e n \>o nearesu wuuxe than f i v e r e p o r t s . - i n d i c a t e s t h a t one  0 0 0  n u m u o i  0 0 20 o a i v *  0 0 21  —  —  —  to four r e p o r t s had been r e c e i v e d .  TABLE G Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Hunting Seasons Antlers —: Region Hunted  1 2 3 & 4 5 6 7 8 9 & 10 R *T «XJ*  ; 195]! 1952 1953 Totals No.Pts. No.Moose Average No.Pts. No.Moose Average No.Pts. No.Moose Average No.Pts,No.Moose Aver, Reported Reported P o i n t s / Reported Reported P o i n t s / Reported Reported P o i n t s / Report-Reported P t s , / Moose Moose Moose ed Moose 81 140 62 170 7 82 141 153  6 13 5 13 1 5 13 12  13.5 10,8 12.4 13.1 _  110 186 34 84 29  12 .  17 3 8  16.4  7  3 1  10.8 12.7  127 124 29  13 11 2  9.4 10.9 11.3 10.4 9.7  •-  9.8 11.3 14.5  Other Totals  836  68  12.3  730  70  10.4  198 329 24 160 52 46 97 38 29 240  1213  9.9 9.1 8.0  389 655 120  38. 66 11  414 88  39 9 9 36  4 3 26  8.9 10.4 15.3 9,7 9,5 9.7 9.2  128  9.5  2779  20 36 3 18 5 3 10  135 365 315 58 240  27 5 26  266  10.2 •^9.9 10.9 10.6 9.8 15.0 10.1  11.7 •  11.6 9.2  10.4  X  xl TABLE H Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Antlers  Year  L  R  T  1951  423  413 68  836 68  1952  365  70  365 70  730 70  1953  599 128  614 128  1213  68  1387 266  R  T  6*2  6.1  12.3  5,2  5.2  10.4  4.7  4.8  9.5  5.2  5.2  10.4  L  128  1392 2779 266 266  .TABLE I Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-52-53 Weights  Year  Weight  Reports  Average  Maximum  Minimum  1951  51,558  81  636  1500  300  1952  55,150  79  698  1200  450  106,708  160  667  1500  300  Totals  XXI  TABLE J Moose Hunting License S t a t i s t i c s , 1953 Hunting Season Sex Proportions and U t i l i z a t i o n of Hides  Region Hunted  Sex o f Moose K i l l e d Males Females  1  24  2A  19  -  2B  18  14  2 Misc.  .4  -  Reported DispositiojjTof H^des Males  Kept  Sold  Bush  Report  100  11  3  6  4  100  12  2  4  1  56  23  2  4  3  100  n3  -  1  -  5  2  . 71  .5  1  1  -  5  21  21  50  17  6  10  9  6  5  3  63  —*  1  5  2  7  3  2  60  1  -  2  2  8  13  5  72  6,  -  9  4  9 & 10  6  13  32  4  1  1  R.T «L • Extension  3  3  50  5  -  -  1  E. Lake Winnipeg  24  -  100  8  -  11.  5  Other  10  3  77  4  2  2  5  108  21  56  37  3 &4  Totals  155  66 .  7  g  1  .  3  

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