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Critical requirements of trolley-bus operator's job Stoyva, Johann Martin 1956

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CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS OF TROLLEY-BUS OPERATOR'S JOB by Johann Martin Stoyva A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN PSYCHOLOGY In the Department of Philosophy and Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS Members of the Department of Philosophy and Psychology THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1956 ABSTRACT v The major aim of the study was to determine the c r i t i c a l requirements of the trolley-bus operator's job by employment of the c r i t i c a l incident technique, with the ultimate objective of providing an empirical cr i ter ion of performance i n that job. It was also desired to examine certain methodological features of the c r i t i c a l requirement approach. The technique developed by Flanagan Involves interview-ing qualified observers to obtain " c r i t i c a l incidents." These are first-hand reports of actual behaviour which the observer has judged to constitute highly effective or highly ineffective performance of the job under study. C r i t i c a l incidents with reference to the behaviour ©f trolley-bus operators were collected from three groups by face-to-face interviews of 134 trolley-bus operators and 33 supervis-ors, and from 108 members of the travel l ing public by telephone interview. Interviews with the three groups yielded a total of 786 c r i t i c a l incidents which were formulated into 33 c r i t i c a l require-ments. By grouping similar c r i t i c a l requirements five major areas were delineated. In order of frequency of c r i t i c a l i n c i -dents which they represent these are: 1. Dealing with public 2. Safe driving 3. S k i l l f u l and courteous operation 4. Maintaining service 5- Relations with supervisors The data were analyzed to show the distr ibution of the c r i t i c a l incidents amongst the 33 c r i t i c a l requirements and the vi five major areas. Various breakdowns of the data were tabulated in detail. Suggestions were given for the construction of check list and rating scale type performance ratings based upon the critical requirements. The problem of weighting critical requirements in relation to functional importance was discussed. Two methodological problems were studied. The effect of lapse of time between the critical incident and its recall was examined. 1 significant difference was found in the patternof distribution of critical incidents collected within one month of occurrence and those recalled over a longer period. Collection of incidents by telephone interview was employed for one group of respondents, the public, and found to be a satisfactory tech-nique . i i CONTENTS Chapter Page A b s t r a c t v Acknowledgments v i i I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 A. O r i g i n s of problem 1 B. O r i g i n and development o f the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique 2 C. Areas o f a p p l i c a t i o n of c r i t i c a l requirements 4 D. Procedures i n the use of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique 8 I I . P r e l i m i n a r y Arrangements 16 I I I . Aims of the P r o j e c t as a whole 18 IV. P i l o t Study 19 A. Aims o f p i l o t study 19 B. Procedure i n p i l o t study 20 C. R e s u l t s of p i l o t study 20 P h r a s i n g o f q u e s t i o n s 20 Manner o f conducting i n t e r v i e w s 23 V. Procedure 25 A. Sample s i z e and s e l e c t i o n 25 B. Treatment of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s 29 V I . R e s u l t s 33 A. C r i t i c a l requirements 33 B. M e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s 46 ' i i i Chapter Page V I I . D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s 53 A. C r i t i c a l requirements formulated 53 B. , M e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s 57 C. A p p l i c a t i o n s o f f i n d i n g s 63 D. Summary of f i n d i n g s on c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique 69 BIBLIOGRAPHY 71 APPENDICES 77 APPENDICES Appendix I , A Longer form of question for operators I , B Shorter form of question for operators II. Form of question for supervisors III; A Sample form of question for public III , B F ina l form of question for telephone interviews IV. Copy of brief submitted to union o f f i c ia l s V. Copy of management notice posted on operators' bul le t in board VI. General comments of supervisors, operators and public A. General comments of supervisors B. General comments of operators C. General comments of public VII . C r i t i c a l behaviours constituting each of the 33 c r i t i c a l requirements and frequencies of positive and negative c r i t i c a l incidents i n each c r i t i c a l behaviour v i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer i s greatly indebted to the many individuals whose co-operation made the undertaking possible. To Professor E . S. W. Belyea the writer offers heartiest thanks for his con-tinued interest and assistance. It was indirect ly through Professor Belyea fs own studies that this particular investigation received i t s f i r s t impetus. To Professor E . I . Signori acknow-ledgment is given for the many valuable suggestions he provided, especially as to organizing the project and securing the approval of the company management. The management of the B r i t i s h Columbia E lec tr i c Railway Company proved to be i n f u l l accord with carrying out the invest i -gation and their help was greatly appreciated. The executives who gave approval to the project were Dr. L . H. Jacks, Director of Industrial Relations; Mr. Ralph Purves, Personnel Manager; and Mr. S. Sigmundson, General Manager, Transportation Divis ion. The Street Railwayman's Union, without whose help the study would have been impossible,, showed much interest i n the investigation. The writer i s part icularly grateful for the co-operation of Mr. Charles Stuart, and Mr. William Deyell , business agent and operator representative, respectively, for the Amalga-mated Association of Street E lec tr i c Railway and Motor Coach Employees of America. The actual f i e ld work was carried out i n the Transporta-t ion Division and the writer offers sincerest thanks to Mr. John Intihar, City Lines Operations, who was most generous with his v i i i time, and who secured the co-operation of the other executives in the Divis ion. Part icularly valuable was the support of Mr. Col in Dobell, Director of Safety} Mr. William McAulay, Traff ic Control Superintendent; Mr. Arthur McKenzie, superin-tendent, and Mr. Thomas Sawyer, superintendent. During the interviewing of the operators the efforts of the four "sign-up" men were indispensable i n so l i c i t ing the support of the subjects. Moreover, their patience was admir-able and the writer wishes to acknowledge his gratitude to Mr. Lloyd Reid, Mr. Hugh Kel ly , Mr. Ernest F i tzpatr ick , and Mr. Clarence Acton. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. ORIGINS OF PROBLEM This i n v e s t i g a t i o n grew out of discussions held with the management of a large public t r a n s i t corporation. For several years t h i s corporation has used a c e r t a i n series of tests to select i t s trolley-bus operators, and i t was desired by management to obtain an evaluation of the t e s t i n g program's effectiveness. However, i n order to measure the e f f e c t i v e -ness of the t e s t i n g program i t was f i r s t necessary to determine the c r i t e r i a that constitute successful trolley-bus operation. Derivation of these c r i t e r i a through employment of an approp-r i a t e form of job analysis became the i n i t i a l step i n the inve s t i g a t i o n . Several types of job analysis have been used to estab-l i s h c r i t e r i a . These includes 1. Direct observation of the a c t i v i t y . 2. Questioning the worker on his job duties. 3. Using "expert opinions" as to what comprises the elements of the job. There are two versions of t h i s method. One involves obtaining "expert opinions" on the tasks comprising the job. The chief defect of t h i s version i s that i t i s not systematic. The other version of the method seeks to obtain "expert opinions" regarding the personality  q u a l i t i e s necessary to successful performance on the job. The major drawback of the l a t t e r approach i s i t s lack of o b j e c t i v i t y . 2 4. Factor analyzing job descriptions obtained from interviews. This technique was recently devised and used by McQuitty et al. (44). 5. C r i t i c a l requirements approach. The " c r i t i c a l requirements" approach appeared to offer the most promise for the present investigation. This approach i s empirical i n nature, and appears to be well adapted to the analysis of jobs where human relations form an important com-ponent as they do i n trolley-bus operation. Br i e f l y , the " c r i t i c a l requirements" approach to job analysis involves the determination of those requirements which persons competent to judge regard as having made the difference between success and fai lure i n carrying out important aspects of the job. The gist of the method is to obtain first-hand reports ("cr i t i ca l incidents") of behaviour judged to be either markedly satisfactory or markedly unsatisfactory. These f i r s t -hand reports are obtained by asking qualified respondents for specific instances of satisfactory and unsatisfactory behaviour. Afterwards, the material i s c lass i f ied into a number of " c r i t i -cal requirements." These " c r i t i c a l requirements" constitute a description of successful performance i n terms of on-the-job behaviour. B. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE John C. Flanagan, who has been pr inc ipal ly responsible for developing the c r i t i c a l incident technique, regards i t as 3 having its origins in the exploratory work of Galton some seventy years ago. Galton held that personality characteris-tics are durable and persistent, and thus subject to measure-ment. It was Galton and like-minded investigators who gave the initial impetus to the testing movement of which the critical incident technique can be considered an outgrowth. More specifically, however, the critical incident technique can be considered to have sprung from the investiga-tions carried out in the Aviation Psychology Program of the United States Air Force in World War II. The objective of this program was to develop procedures for the selection and classification of aircrews. Amongst the first studies carried out was an analysis for the specific reasons for failure in flight training. Many of the reasons for failure in training were found to be vague and very general. The study indicated the need for improved procedures in obtaining factual observa-tions of on-the-job performance. Stimulated by this early research, the United States Army Air Force conducted a series of investigations on the problem of combat leadership in the summer of 1944. This time a systematic attempt was made to gather large numbers of specific incidents of effective and ineffective behaviour. These inci-dents were analyzed into a number of "critical requirements" in order to provide a factual definition of combat leadership. After World War II, some of the psychologists who had taken part in the Aviation Psychology Program, led by Flanagan, founded the American Institute for Research in Pittsburgh, 4a Pennsylvania. Flanagan ( 2 5 , p. 329) states that "The aim of this organization i s the systematic study of human behaviour through a co-ordinated program of scientific research that follows the same general principles developed i n the Aviation Psychology Program." Thus, quite naturally, the i n i t i a l studies of the American Institute for Research were outgrowths of the research previously conducted i n the Aviation Psychology Program. One major group of studies investigated the work of the USAF officer, leading to the identification of some 54 " c r i t i c a l requirements," (Preston 48 , 4 9 ) . Another series of researches was carried out i n collaboration with the C i v i l Aeronautics Administration by Erickson ( 1 1 ) , Gordon ( 3 5 ) , Nag ay (45) and Preston ( 4 7 ) . At Pittsburgh a number of studies were conducted which involved the determination of c r i t i c a l require-ments for certain occupational groups. Wagner (55) determined the c r i t i c a l requirements for dentistry. Finkle (61) analyzed the work of factory foremen. Smit (63) determined the c r i t i c a l requirements for instructors of general psychology courses. Many of these Pittsburgh studies are notable for having made valuable methodological contributions. Extensive research was done on the development of cr i t e r i a and selection tests for research personnel employing the c r i t i c a l requirements approach by A.I.R. under Flanagan ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 1 5 , 5 8 ) . A new method for formulating item s p e c i f i -cations from c r i t i c a l requirements known as the "rationales method" was devised (Weislogel, 5 8 ) . Other studies for the 4 armed forces involved work on USN officers by Glickman (37, 38, 39), Vallance (53), Bernstein (9), R icc iu t i (50), Nunnally (46); USAF pi lot requirements by Erickson (13), Hahn (40), Krumm (42), Marley (43), Smith (51), Taylor (52), Wagner (56). Studies u t i l i z i n g the c r i t i c a l incident technique con-ducted outside the A . I .R . are few i n number. One carried out by Bryan (10) at the University of Southern Cal i fornia involved the analysis of reports on the performance of certain off icers . In Belgium, tEmons (60) used the c r i t i c a l incident technique i n investigating the aptitudes of effective department store sales personnel. C. AREAS OF APPLICATION OF CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS Performance ratings One of the most frequent uses of the c r i t i c a l incident technique has been i n the development of performance ratings. The obtained l i s t of c r i t i c a l requirements can be used as the starting point for check l i s t s and rating scales. By means of these devices the behaviour of the man on the job can be system-at ica l ly recorded by marking the appropriate categories. The American Institute for Research (3) developed a check l i s t of c r i t i c a l requirements for the evaluation of re-search personnel. Each item contained several examples of "effective" and "ineffective" behaviour. The rater checked the appropriate categories for the individual concerned i n terms of behaviour he had observed the ratee to have exhibited. A rating scale was devised by Preston (48) for use by 5 the United States A i r Force i n officer evaluation. It was based upon 58 c r i t i c a l requirements such as "Understanding instructions," "Planning work," "Scheduling work," etc. on which the individual officer was rated. One item was devel-oped for each of the 58 c r i t i c a l requirements. Each item consisted of five examples of behaviour which ranged from highly effective to highly ineffective behaviour. The rating off icer checked the appropriate categories for the individual concerned, i n terms of behaviour he had observed the ratee to have exhibited. Gordon (35) developed a flight-check for use with com-mercial aircraft which was based on the c r i t i c a l requirements for safe f ly ing . This flight-check was made up of eighteen manoeuvers similar i n nature to situations often encountered i n actual f l ight i n which c r i t i c a l requirements exist . During the course of the check-flight the instructor rated the trainee v of each of the eighteen standardized manoeuvers. Test construction Weislogel (58) u t i l i zed c r i t i c a l requirements i n the construction of tests for the evaluation of research prof ic-iency i n physics and chemistry using the "method of rationales", which i s a systematic technique for developing test items. The f i r s t step i s to derive a definit ive description of satisfactory behaviour from the obtained " c r i t i c a l requirements." Then the various behaviours are analyzed and Inferences are made on the nature of the act iv i ty and the ab i l i t i e s required to carry i t out. F i n a l l y , item specifications are made. These consist 6 of suggestions for the type of item that is l i k e l y to sample adequately the behaviour under consideration. However, with the "rationales" approach conventional methods are employed. Wagner (57) has used the distribution of incidents i n the various categories to weight selection tests . Wagner's idea (57> P- 374) was that by "weighting a series of aptitude tests corresponding to each element i n accordance with the job analysis results i t would be possible to predict job success without waiting for the customary cr i ter ion data." It i s as-sumed here that a large random sample of on-the-job incidents have been collected. Wagner gathered information on three bomber-crew posi-tions; namely, those of p i l o t , f l ight engineer, and radar observer. For each of these three positions there were charac-t e r i s t i c distributions, and Wagner believed that these differing distributions could be used to weight selection tests. However, an edi tor ia l note (57, p. 381) following Wagner's art ic le states that the tests would have to be validated i n the conventional manner before any confidence could be placed i n them. Moreover, the note goes on to say that "As i t i s not l i k e l y that each of the categories w i l l be uniquely predictable by a single test or battery which has zero v a l i d i t y for a l l the other categories, some complicated s ta t i s t i ca l problems are involved i n arriving at the proper weights." In other words, Wagner's system of weight ing has yet to be placed on a firm footing. Training Use has been made of the c r i t i c a l incident technique i n 7 connection with training. C r i t i c a l requirements are frequently valuable in determining what aspects of a training course should be given most emphasis. Wagner's (55) study of dentists, for example, revealed that voice quali ty , which some dental instruct-ors had previously thought was an important consideration, was not regarded as an important factor by patients. However, i n using the distr ibution of c r i t i c a l incidents as an indication of the most important training needs for a given job, i t may be necessary to exercise caution. Do the obtained c r i t i c a l i n c i -dents cover a l l the important aspects of the job? This question would appear to warrant further consideration. Equipment design C r i t i c a l incidents have been used to study operating procedures and equipment design. Gordon's (34-) study of f ly ing accidents, for example, resulted i n several recommendations for change i n the design of cockpits and instrument panels. M i l l e r (25) developed a standard maintenance procedure for use i n re-cording the f i e ld performance of new equipment. Reports from the f i e ld have long been used to modify the design of mi l i tary equipment but M i l l e r ' s procedures greatly fac i l i t a t e the flow of relevant information, and thus make i t possible to improve the training of the men who maintain the new equipment, and to revise job requirements i n accord with changes i n equipment and conditions. Psychotherapy Exploratory attempts have been made to use the c r i t i c a l 8 i n c i d e n t technique t o determine the e f f e c t s o f psychotherapy, Speth, G o l d f a r b (64, 62). A t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g was t h a t t h e r a -p i s t s s t r e s s d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a o f improvement and l a c k o f im-provement. A c c o r d i n g t o Flanagan (25) the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique may prove t o be v a l u a b l e not o n l y i n f o r m u l a t i n g o b j e c t i v e measures of improvement, but a l s o i n i n i t i a t i n g exper-iments designed t o study the e f f e c t s of v a r i o u s types of therapy. Code of e t h i c s f o r p s y c h o l o g i s t s The American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n has made use o f the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique t o e s t a b l i s h a code of e t h i c s f o r p s y c h o l o g i s t s . Over one thousand c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v -i n g behaviour regarded as e t h i c a l or u n e t h i c a l i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e were c o n t r i b u t e d by members of the American P s y c h o l o g -i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , ( H a h n ( 4 0 ) ) . The study was v e r y w e l l r e c e i v e d by the s u b j e c t s and the p a r t i c i p a t i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s expressed the view t h a t " e t h i c a l standards must emerge from day-to-day v a l u e commitments made by p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n the p r a c t i c e o f t h e i r p r o -f e s s i o n . " (25, p. 347). The code has been accepted and p u b l i s h e d by the American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , and adopted by v a r i o u s o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D. PROCEDURES IN THE USE OF THE CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE Perhaps the best r e c e n t statement o f procedures i n the use o f the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique can be found i n Flanagan (25, p. 335). He there d e c l a r e s t h a t : The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique i s e s s e n t i a l l y a pro-cedure f o r g a t h e r i n g c e r t a i n important f a c t s c o n c e r n i n g 9 behaviour i n defined situations. It should be emphasized that the c r i t i c a l incident technique does not consist of a single r ig id set of rules governing such data col lect ion. Rather i t should be thought of as a f lexible set of principles which must be modified and adapted to meet the specific situation at hand. Basical ly , the c r i t i c a l incident technique is to ques-t ion selected subjects for the purpose of obtaining examples of effective and ineffective behaviour. In a c r i t i c a l re-quirements study the major steps as outlined by Flanagan (25) are as follows; (a) Determine the aims of the act iv i ty . (b) Frame the questions and pretest. (c) Decide who to interview. (d) Gather c r i t i c a l incidents. (e) Categorize c r i t i c a l incidents into c r i t i c a l requirements. Determining, aims In order to achieve a satisfactory phrasing of the questions designed to e l i c i t examples of effective and ineffect-ive incidents the investigator must f i r s t know the aims of the job under study. Most statements of aims i n various studies have been cast i n terms of general objectives as provided by executives of the employing organizations. The experience which these executives possess i s l i k e l y to make their opinions authoritative. Flanagan (25) mentions that the most useful statements of objectives are those which center around some sim-ple phrase which may be almost slogan-like i n character. Words such as "effectiveness" and "service" are frequently used. 10 F o r cases where i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n a d e f i n i t e and c o n c i s e statement o f aims a s p e c i a l type o f i n t e r v i e w has been d e v i s e d (25, p. 337)* These i n t e r v i e w s are conducted amongst the e x e c u t i v e s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and proceed as f o l -lows. F i r s t , t h e r e i s an i n t r o d u c t o r y statement: "We are making a study o f ( s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y ) . We b e l i e v e t h a t you: are e s p e c i -a l l y w e l l q u a l i f i e d to t e l l us about ( s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y ) . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a request f o r the ge n e r a l aim of the a c t i v i t y : "What would you say i s the primary purpose o f ( s p e c i f i c a c t i v i -t y ) ? " F i n a l l y the s u b j e c t i s asked f o r a summary: " I n a few words, how would you summarize the g e n e r a l aim o f ( s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y ) ? On the b a s i s of the obtained responses a t r i a l form of the statement of g e n e r a l aim can be developed. T h i s statement can then be presented t o v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a -t i o n and d i s c u s s e d with these e x e c u t i v e s i n o r d e r to a r r i v e at a statement o f o b j e c t i v e s on which there i s a measure of agreement. I n t h i s way i t i s p o s s i b l e t o secure a wording which i s c o n c i s e , t o the p o i n t , and not burdened down w i t h a gre a t number o f q u a l i -f y i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Framing the qu e s t i o n s and p r e t e s t i n g The q u e s t i o n s designed t o e l i c i t examples o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s are framed i n such a way as to b r i n g out both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s from the s u b j e c t s . ( F or examples of questions see Appendices I , I I , I I I ) . I t i s a d v i s a b l e t o p r e t e s t the proposed q u e s t i o n s i n order t o determine t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r can then s a t i s f y h i m s e l f t h a t 11 the q u e s t i o n s are e l i c i t i n g d e t a i l e d and accurate i n f o r m a t i o n , and a l s o t h a t the s u b j e c t s understand the q u e s t i o n s . One t e c h -nique (25, p- 334) which has been found u s e f u l i s to have the s u b j e c t s summarize t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f what they have been asked to do. The answers t h a t the s u b j e c t s g i v e are v a l u a b l e i n p h r a s i n g the f i n a l q u e s t i o n so t h a t they are i n t e r p r e t e d i n the same manner by a l l the respondents."^ Determining who i s t o i n t e r v i e w I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s i t i s best t o i n t e r v i e w s u b j e c t s who are i n c l o s e day-to-day contact w i t h the o p e r a t i o n , and thus i n a p o s i t i o n to make numerous o b s e r v a t i o n s . A p a r t i c u l a r l y good group t o i n t e r v i e w i s composed o f people who are immediately r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g e t t i n g the job done; i . e . the s u p e r v i s o r y group. 1 S e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out at the U n i v e r -s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h explored the e f f e c t o f v a r i a t i o n s i n the ques-t i o n wording. F I n k l e (25, p. 332) compared the i n c i d e n t s from questions asking f o r markedly e x c e p t i o n a l behaviours w i t h the i n c i d e n t s o b t a i n e d from asking f o r o n l y s l i g h t l y e x c e p t i o n a l behav i o u r s . The i n c i d e n t s from both types o f q u e s t i o n were then c l a s s i f i e d i n t o 40 c a t e g o r i e s . The i n c i d e n t s o b t a i n e d from the two types o f q u e s t i o n s asking f o r e f f e c t i v e i n c i d e n t s y i e l d e d 3 c a t e g o r i e s where th e r e e x i s t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . But comparison of the i n c i d e n t s o b t a i n e d from the two types o f ques-t i o n asking f o r i n e f f e c t i v e i n c i d e n t s f a i l e d t o produce evidence of any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . Consequently, Flanagan (25,p.333) b e l i e v e s t h a t the types o f i n c i d e n t s obtained are not g r e a t l y changed by t h i s type of v a r i a t i o n i n the q u e s t i o n wording. He surmises t h a t p o s s i b l y the respondents r e p o r t r a t h e r extreme i n c i d e n t s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f the p r e c i s e wording of the q u e s t i o n . I n t h i s same study F i n k l e (6l) d e s i r e d to see i f there was any d i f f e r e n c e i n asking f o r the e f f e c t i v e or i n e f f e c t i v e i n c i d e n t f i r s t . He found t h a t r o u g h l y 10$ more i n c i d e n t s were obtained when the e f f e c t i v e i n c i d e n t s were asked f o r f i r s t . However, the d i f f e r e n c e was s m a l l enough so t h a t i t c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o chance sampling f l u c t u a t i o n s . Perhaps a f u r t h e r study c o u l d be conducted to s e t t l e t h i s p o i n t more d e f i n i t e l y . 12 Those whose work i s the o b j e c t of the study ( i n t h i s case the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r s ) are good s u b j e c t s as w e l l . Sometimes, consumers of products and s e r v i c e s may p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n , i f they are f a m i l i a r w i t h the a c t i v i t y . Wagner's (55) study on the c r i t i c a l requirements f o r d e n t i s t s p r o v i d e s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of the types o f s u b j e c t s t h a t may be used. One group o f s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d o f c l i n i c a l i n s t r u c t o r s i n a d e n t a l s c h o o l , who could be regarded as b e i n g i n a s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n . Another group of s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of p r a c t i c i n g d e n t i s t s . A t h i r d group of s u b j e c t s was made up of those who r e c e i v e d e n t a l s e r v i c e s , i . e . , p a t i e n t s . Wagner found t h a t the l a t t e r emphasized somewhat d i f f e r e n t aspects o f d e n t i s t r y t han d i d the d e n t i s t s themselves and thus p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the p a t i e n t ' s p o i n t o f view. I n the present study the three types of s u b j e c t s used were s i m i l a r t o the three groups i n Wagner's study. The t h r e e types were the t r a n s i t " s u p e r v i s o r s " , the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r s themselves, and members o f the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c . C o l l e c t i n g i n c i d e n t s There i s evidence t h a t the most d e t a i l e d and a c c u r a t e accounts are obtained i f the i n c i d e n t s are recorded as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r they occur. Flanagan ( 2 5 , p. 3 3 D s t u d i e d t h i s e f f e c t o f recency of r e p o r t i n g a t h e r i n g i n c i d e n t s from f a c t o r y foremen. One group recorded i n c i d e n t s d a i l y , another recorded weekly and a f i n a l group recorded i n c i d e n t s o n l y at the end of the two week p e r i o d . The foreman r e c o r d i n g at the end o f the 13 two-week p e r i o d r e p o r t e d o n l y 20 per cent as many c r i t i c a l i n -c i d e n t s as the s u b j e c t s who recorded d a i l y . However, i n many s i t u a t i o n s the o n l y technique r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i s t o ask the s u b j e c t s t o r e c a l l m a t e r i a l . T h i s method u s u a l l y works s a t i s -f a c t o r i l y i f the i n c i d e n t s are of r e c e n t o c c u r r e n c e , and i f the s u b j e c t s have been s u f f i c i e n t l y motivated to make d e t a i l e d o b s e r v a t i o n s , even i f t h e r e was no i n t e n t t o make these observa-t i o n s . I n most s t u d i e s the s u b j e c t s have been questioned i n d i v i d u a l l y . However, Wagner (57) t r i e d an i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a -t i o n i n the c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a i n which he made use o f group i n t e r v i e w s . The s u b j e c t s , who were m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s , were in t e r v i e w e d i n groups from two t o seven i n number. The r e s e a r c h -e r s addressed h i s q u e s t i o n s to the whole group a f t e r which the s u b j e c t s wrote down t h e i r answers. Upon comparing the i n c i d e n t s from the group i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the i n c i d e n t s o b t a i n e d i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l manner, Wagner found t h a t by u s i n g the group i n t e r -viewsohe obtained the same i n f o r m a t i o n i n approximately one-q u a r t e r the time. C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the process o f c o l l e c t i n g i n c i d e n t s i s the problem o f how many i n c i d e n t s t o c o l l e c t . F l anagan (25, p. 343) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no simple answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n . H i s own view on the matter i s t h a t : I f the a c t i v i t y or job b e i n g d e f i n e d i s r e l a t i v e l y simple, i t may be necessary t o c o l l e c t 50 or 100 i n c i d e n t s . On the o t h e r hand, some types o f complex a c t i v i t y appear t o r e q u i r e s e v e r a l thousand i n c i d e n t s f o r an adequate statement o f requirements. The most u s e f u l procedure f o r determining whether or not a d d i t i o n a l i n c i d e n t s are needed i s to keep a running count 14 on the number o f new c r i t i c a l behaviours added t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system w i t h each a d d i t i o n a l 100 i n c i d e n t s . F o r most purposes, i t can be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t adequate coverage has been achieved when the a d d i t i o n of 100 c r i t i -c a l i n c i d e n t s t o the sample adds o n l y two or three c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r s . C l a s s i f y i n g i n c i d e n t s A f t e r the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s have been c o l l e c t e d they are analyzed i n o r d e r to express the obtained d a t a i n more compact and manageable form. Thus, as Flanagan ( 2 5 , p. 334) d e c l a r e s , the a n a l y s i s does not improve on the comprehensiveness o f the data, but r a t h e r i t i s concerned "With making i t e a s i e r t o r e p o r t these requirements, to draw i n f e r e n c e s from them and t o compare the a c t i v i t y w i t h other a c t i v i t i e s . ' 1 I n o t h e r words, the prime aim of the a n a l y s i s i s to g i v e us a shorthand d e s c r i p t i o n o f the job w h i le at the same time s a c r i f i c i n g as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e i n the way o f c l a r i t y and p r e c i s i o n . I t might a l s o be noted t h a t t h e r e are no r i g i d r u l e s i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of the c a t e g o r i e s i n t o which the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s are d i v i d e d . The best method seems to be to b e g i n by forming some t e n t a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s . The i n c i d e n t s are c l a s s i f i e d i n these c a t e g o r i e s and then these same c a t e g o r i e s are l a t e r m o d i f i e d as more d a t a are c l a s s i f i e d . D e f i n i t i o n s of terms employed 1. C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t . T h i s i s the b a s i c u n i t of the whole technique and c o n s i s t s o f a s i n g l e occurrence or i n c i d e n t . An example of a s i n g l e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t would be the s p e c i f i c case of "The bus o p e r a t o r on the 4 t h avenue bus who helped a b l i n d man across the s t r e e t at 4 t h and B a l a c l a v a about a week and a h a l f ago." 15 2. C r i t i c a l behaviour. T h i s i s the next and l a r g e r u n i t . A c r i t i c a l behaviour c o n s i s t s o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s t h a t are i d e n t i c a l o r at l e a s t s i m i l a r enough t h a t they can be regarded as the same a c t i o n . F o r example, a c r i t i c a l behaviour may c o n s i s t o f a l l i n c i d e n t s r e l a t i n g t o h e l p i n g a b l i n d man o f f the bus and across the s t r e e t . 3- C r i t i c a l requirement. C r i t i c a l requirements are formulated by grouping c r i t i c a l behaviours charac-t e r i z e d by a s i m i l a r purpose. F o r i n s t a n c e , one c r i t i c a l requirement may r e l a t e t o the h e l p i n g o f handicapped passengers g e n e r a l l y ; t h a t i s , h e l p i n g c r i p p l e d and i n v a l i d passengers as w e l l as the b l i n d . 4 . A r e a s . C r i t i c a l requirements may be grouped i n t o major areas. F o r example, the above-mentioned c r i t i c a l requirement may be i n c l u d e d i n the same area as a l l those c r i t i c a l requirements concerned w i t h d e a l i n g w i t h the p u b l i c . CHAPTER I I PRELIMINARY ARRANGEMENTS Se c u r i n g management and union a p p r o v a l Before any of the f i e l d work c o u l d be c a r r i e d out i t was necessary t o o b t a i n the c o - o p e r a t i o n of both the management and the uni o n of the company. Approval was i n i t i a l l y secured from the d i r e c t o r o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s , the personnel manager, and the g e n e r a l manager of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i v i s i o n . To o b t a i n the backing of the uni o n a b r i e f was presented and d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the u n i o n (see Appendix I V ) . The b r i e f was subsequently endorsed at a g e n e r a l meeting of the membership. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the p a s s i n g o f the motion at the g e n e r a l meeting served a u s e f u l purpose i n p u b l i c i z -i n g the study, s i n c e r o u g h l y 50 per cent of the op e r a t o r s were present when the motion was p l a c e d on the f l o o r . Another d e v i c e which helped make the study known to the operato r s was a b u l l e t i n which the g e n e r a l superintendent o f c i t y l i n e s o p e r a t i o n s posted on the r e g u l a r n o t i c e board (see Appendix V ) . During the course of the f i e l d work i t was found t h a t the op e r a t o r s who were e a s i e s t to approach f o r purposes of i n t e r v i e w i n g were those who had heard of the s t u d y beforehand, e i t h e r through the union meeting or through r e a d i n g the manage-ment b u l l e t i n . 17 Management statement of aims A statement of the aims of the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r ' s job was obtained from the management of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i v i -s i o n . The o f f i c i a l s questioned were the Manager of C i t y L i n e s Operations and h i s two A s s i s t a n t D i v i s i o n a l S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o these o f f i c i a l s the o b j e c t i v e s of the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r ' s j o b are as f o l l o w s : i To give courteous s e r v i c e t o the p u b l i c , i i To take good care o f the v e h i c l e , i i i To operate the bus s a f e l y and on schedule. i v To get along w e l l w i t h f e l l o w o p e r a t o r s and s u p e r v i s o r s . Choice o f sub.iects The s u b j e c t s chosen f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g were those who had had the o p p o r t u n i t y of o b s e r v i n g the a c t u a l behaviour of bus oper-a t o r s on the j o b , and who were q u a l i f i e d t o judge e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e behaviour. The th r e e groups o f s u b j e c t s chosen were the o p e r a t o r s themselves, s u p e r v i s o r s o f o p e r a t o r s , and members of the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c . These were comparable to the th r e e groups chosen i n Wagner's (55) study o f d e n t i s t s ; namely, the d e n t i s t s themselves, c l i n i c a l i n s t r u c t o r s and p a t i e n t s . CHAPTER I I I AIMS OF THE PROJECT AS A WHOLE The major alms' of the study may be summarized as f o l l o w s : A. To use the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique i n o r d e r to determine the c r i t i c a l requirements o f the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r ' s j o b w i t h i t h e u l t i m a t e o b j e c t o f u s i n g the obtained c r i t i c a l r e -quirements to c o n s t r u c t a performance r a t i n g s c a l e . T h i s i n -v o l v e s the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s : 1 . Determination of the c r i t i c a l requirements o f the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r ' s j o b . 2. D e t e r m i n a t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s amongst the obtained c r i t i c a l requirements. 3. D e r i v a t i o n of c r i t e r i a from c r i t i c a l requirements which might be u t i l i z e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a r a t i n g d e v i c e . B. A secondary aim of the s t u d y was to e x p l o r e c e r t a i n methodolog-i c a l aspects o f the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e . These i n c l u d e : 1 . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of the e f f e c t o f time l a p s e i n o r der t o f i n d out i f the time l a p s e p r i o r to r e c a l l i n f l u e n c e s the type of i n c i d e n t t h a t tends t o be remembered. 2. Determination o f the e f f e c t o f o p e r a t o r s e n i o r i t y on the type of i n c i d e n t t h a t the o p e r a t o r tends to r e c a l l . 3. Examination of the m e r i t s of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique as a f a c t - g a t h e r i n g instrument. 18 CHAPTER IV PILOT STUDY A. AIMS OF PILOT STUDY P r i o r t o beginning the f i e l d work a p i l o t study was undertaken w i t h the f o l l o w i n g aims: (a) Examination of the p h r a s i n g of the questions t o be used f o r the i n t e r v i e w s . T h i s i n v o l v e d : i . Determining whether the q u e s t i o n s e l i c i t e d d e t a i l e d answers about observed behaviour over a broad range o f a c t i v i t i e s . F o r example, i f the obtained c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s were a l l r e s t r i c t e d t o "keeping on schedule" one would tend t o doubt the v a l i d i t y o f the quest i o n s asked. i i . T r y i n g out two types o f q u e s t i o n s i n order t o determine which was the most s u i t a b l e f o r ga t h e r i n g d a t a . The " l o n g e r form" o f ques-t i o n c o n tained a d e t a i l e d statement of o b j e c t -i v e s ; the s h o r t e r one contained merely a g e n e r a l statement of o b j e c t i v e s . D e t a i l s o f these q u e s t i o n s are g i v e n i n Appendix I . I t w i l l be noted t h a t the t r y - o u t was l i m i t e d t o o p e r a t o r s . (b) D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the best.method o f conducting the i n t e r v i e w s . 20 B. PROCEDURE IN PILOT STUDY Ten o p e r a t o r s were p i c k e d at random from men a v a i l a b l e at t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i v i s i o n headquarters. The l o n g e r form o f q u e s t i o n c o n t a i n i n g the d e t a i l e d statement o f o b j e c t i v e s (see Appendix I , A) was administered t o f i v e o p e r a t o r s . The s h o r t e r form (see Appendix I , B) was administered to another f i v e opera-t o r s . A t r i a l form of q u e s t i o n was administered t o f i v e s u p e r v i s o r s who happened t o be a v a i l a b l e at t r a n s p o r t a t i o n head-q u a r t e r s . F o r d e t a i l s o f wording i n t h i s statement see Appendix I I . A p r e l i m i n a r y form of q u e s t i o n was t r i e d out on t e n mem-bers of the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c , approached at bus stops where they were w a i t i n g f o r r i d e s . The q u e s t i o n used w i t h the p u b l i c may be found i n Appendix I I I , A. The t o t a l number of s u b j e c t s used i n the p i l o t study was t w e n t y - f i v e . C. RESULTS OF PILOT STUDY Ph r a s i n g o f Questions O p e r a t o r s . I n the matter o f p h r a s i n g the qu e s t i o n s the problem was whether t o use the l o n g e r form o f q u e s t i o n which s t a t e d the o b j e c t i v e s o f the job i n d e t a i l , or whether t o use the s h o r t e r form of q u e s t i o n which la c k e d examples and which made on l y a v e r y g e n e r a l statement o f o b j e c t i v e s . As a matter o f convenience the two forms o f q u e s t i o n were administered o n l y t o 21 the t e n o p e r a t o r s . F i v e were g i v e n the l o n g e r form, and f i v e the s h o r t e r form. I n s p e c t i o n of the r e s u l t s showed t h a t both forms succeeded i n g a t h e r i n g many types o f i n c i d e n t s . ( I t had been surmised beforehand t h a t i f one of the types o f q u e s t i o n had o n l y e l i c i t e d one s o r t o f i n c i d e n t i t s v a l i d i t y as a f a c t g a t h e r i n g instrument would be under s u s p i c i o n . ) However, i t d i d appear t h a t the long form (see Appendix I , A ) , which mentioned "keeping on schedule" as one of the job's o b j e c t i v e s , there were p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y f o u r times as many i n c i d e n t s r e l a t i n g t o "keeping on schedule" as w i t h the sh o r t form. There was a l s o evidence t h a t the examples g i v e n i n the lo n g e r form i n f l u e n c e d the nature o f the responses. F o r i n s t a n c e , a f t e r the q u e s t i o n which mentioned "Forgot to change d e s t i n a t i o n s i g n " as a n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t one op e r a t o r r e p l i e d , "Oh, n o i The boys are good about changing s i g n s . " Furthermore, s e v e r a l o f the ope r a t o r s d i s a g r e e d w i t h some o f the examples g i v e n . They d e c l a r e d t h a t " h e l p i n g w i t h baby buggies" was e n t i r e l y a r o u t i n e matter and not i n any way o u t s t a n d i n g . A f u r t h e r disadvantage of the long form of q u e s t i o n was i t s long-windedness; the opera-t o r s o f t e n became impatient b e f o r e the whole q u e s t i o n had been read out. I n view of these drawbacks w i t h the l o n g e r form i t was decided t o make use of the s h o r t e r form (see Appendix I, B ) . S u p e r v i s o r s . The q u e s t i o n form used on the s u p e r v i s o r s i n the p i l o t study was found t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y . T h e r e f o r e , no change was made (see Appendix I I ) . 22 P u b l i c . The s u b j e c t s f o r the t r i a l r u n on members o f the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c were obtained by approaching i n d i v i d u a l s w a i t i n g at v a r i o u s bus-stops. Although t h i s method of o b t a i n -i n g s u b j e c t s worked w e l l f o r the purpose of p r e t e s t i n g the q u e s t i o n s , i t i s probable t h a t the group of s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d was not a random one. I n order to o b t a i n a more dependably random sample i t was decided to i n t e r v i e w the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c by telephone. Names were chosen from the Vancouver telephone d i r e c t o r y . I n o r d e r to randomize s e l e c t i o n , one r e s i d e n t i a l number was chosen from each page of the d i r e c t o r y . The number on each page was the r e s i d e n t i a l number t h a t was s i t u a t e d t e n l i n e s from the bottom of the second column. When i t proved im-p o s s i b l e t o make contact on the f i r s t - c h o s e n number, the next r e s i d e n t i a l number above i t was telephoned. The o r i g i n a l form of q u e s t i o n used f o r members of the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c was found to be too long-winded (Appendix I I I , A ) . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y so when the i n t e r v i e w i n g was done by telephone. Consequently, f o r the telephone i n t e r v i e w s , the shortened form shown i n Appendix I I I , B was used. The d i f f i c u l t y a n t i c i p a t e d w i t h the telephone i n t e r v i e w s was t h a t the r e f u s a l r a t e might be h i g h and thus throw doubt on the randomness o f the sample. The f i r s t paragraph of the t e l e -phone i n t e r v i e w was a c c o r d i n g l y s t a t e d i n such a manner t h a t the respondent might seem some i n c e n t i v e i n answering the q u e s t i o n . F i r s t , u t i l i z i n g p r e s t i g e - a p p e a l , the name of the u n i v e r s i t y was mentioned. Second, i t was p o i n t e d out t h a t the study was con-cerned w i t h bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , w h i c h appeared t o arouse i n t e r e s t , 23 s i n c e everyone i n the c i t y has had some co n t a c t w i t h the m u n i c i -p a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. Another technique f o r r e d u c i n g the number o f r e f u s a l s was to l a u n c h i n t o the f i r s t q u e s t i o n immed-i a t e l y i f the s u b j e c t was undecided as to whether he was going t o be i n t e r v i e w e d o r n o t . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w sounded l i k e a f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n of what the i n v e s t i g a t o r was up to as w e l l as s e r v i n g t o e l i c i t the d e s i r e d i n c i d e n t s . 2. Manner o f conducting i n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n i n g procedure A v e r y u s e f u l r e s u l t o f the p i l o t study was t h a t i t en-abled the i n v e s t i g a t o r to determine the most s u i t a b l e procedure f o r s o l i c i t i n g c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . The s t a n d a r d i z e d procedure evolved was t o f i r s t ask f o r i n c i d e n t s t h a t had o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the l a s t two weeks. I f the s u b j e c t could r e c a l l an i n c i d e n t , he was asked to estimate the number of days s i n c e the i n c i d e n t had taken p l a c e . The s u b j e c t was then encouraged to recount more i n c i d e n t s t h a t had o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the l a s t two weeks. At t h i s j u n c t u r e i t was a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s could r e l a t e t o any p a r t o f the o p e r a t o r ' s j o b . The reason f o r t h i s l a s t measure was to make sure t h a t the s u b j e c t s d i d not r e -main under any i m p r e s s i o n t h a t a l l i n c i d e n t s had t o be of the same type. Sometimes the s u b j e c t gave a v e r y g e n e r a l answer such as, "The a t t i t u d e of the o p e r a t o r to the p u b l i c i s v e r y important." I n cases l i k e t h i s , the best method appeared t o be to p i n the 1. Henceforth, the term ' p u b l i c ' r e f e r s to the p o p u l a t i o n of telephone s u b s c r i b e r s . 24 s u b j e c t down t o a s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e o f , say, where the o p e r a t o r ' s a t t i t u d e was of importance. Another f r e q u e n t type of r e p l y was something l i k e t h i s : " I h e l p b l i n d men a l l the time." I n such cases, the technique used was t o ask the s u b j e c t t o recount the l a s t i n s t a n c e of t h i s behaviour and to s t a t e approximately how l o n g ago i t o c c u r r e d . When the s u b j e c t c o u l d not t h i n k of any more r e c e n t i n c i -dents he was asked to r e l a t e any t h a t he c o u l d t h i n k of w i t h i n the l a s t year. A s i m i l a r method was used w i t h s u b j e c t s who c o u l d not b r i n g t o mind any recent i n c i d e n t s at a l l . These persons were asked to r e c a l l some i n c i d e n t t h a t had- o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the f o r e g o i n g y e a r . I t was found t h a t once the s u b j e c t began t h i n k -i n g about " o l d " i n c i d e n t s he was g e n e r a l l y able t o remember some "new" i n c i d e n t s as w e l l . The approximate time of occurrence was obtained f o r a l l the i n c i d e n t s . L a t e r , i n p r o c e s s i n g the d a t a , the i n c i d e n t s were broken down i n t o " o l d " i n c i d e n t s which were those which had occurred more than a mpnth ago; and the "new" i n c i d e n t s , which were those t h a t had o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the l a s t month. Recording d a t a D e t a i l s on the i n c i d e n t s were taken down i n longhand i n a notebook d u r i n g the course.of the i n t e r v i e w . A f t e r w a r d s , t h i s m a t e r i a l was e d i t e d and the i n c i d e n t s were typed out one per page. By having o n l y one c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t per page the process o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was g r e a t l y e x p e d i t e d . CHAPTER V PROCEDURE A. SAMPLE SIZE AND SELECTION Operators The " o p e r a t o r s " were chosen from the group o f s l i g h t l y over 1000 men who a c t u a l l y operate t r o l l e y - b u s s e s i n the c i t y of Vancouver. The type o f t r o l l e y - c o a c h i s standard through-out the c i t y and i s the Canadian Car B r i l l , models T-44 and T-48. These two models are the same except t h a t one c a r r i e s 44 and the o t h e r 48 passengers. The sample of op e r a t o r s i n t e r v i e w e d was 134. The i n -t e r v i e w d u r a t i o n was approximately 20 to 25 minutes per o p e r a t o r . These i n t e r v i e w s were secured d u r i n g the r e g u l a r q u a r t e r l y s i g n -up which l a s t e d 7 days i n a l l . The sign-up i s conducted i n order of s e n i o r i t y . The s u b j e c t s on the f i r s t day were a l l the most s e n i o r men. Those o f the seventh day c o n s i s t e d of the most r e c e n t l y employed. The i n t e r v i e w s were a l l on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s and each person approached at random had to be persuaded t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i n t e r v i e w . Four s e n i o r operators helped the i n t e r v i e w e r i n s o l i c i t i n g the s u b j e c t s . They had been i n s t r u c t e d beforehand not t o choose any p a r t i c u l a r type of s u b j e c t , but to p i c k any oper a t o r who w^ as a v a i l a b l e at the time. 2 6 Out of approximately 175 approaches to operators there were four f l a t r e f u s a l s . Two of these subjects f l a t l y refused to be interviewed and stated no reason. The other two alleged they "didn't know anything", and that the r i g h t place to look f o r information was "upstairs" with management. Three of these refusals occurred on the f i r s t day with the senior operators, and one was on the second day. A further 2 5 per cent of the operators approached had to refuse the interviews since they were scheduled f o r a run at that time. However, there did not seem to be any selective factors operative i n t h i s regard. The remaining 134 men approached co-operated to the f u l l i n the i n t e r -views . To check on whether or not the sample size was large enough, a modification of the method suggested by Flanagan was u t i l i z e d (see quotation from Flanagan on page 13). Flanagan considers that i f the addition of 100 c r i t i c a l incidents to the sample adds only two or three new c r i t i c a l behaviours then ade-quate coverage has been attained. The basic p r i n c i p l e of Flanagan's method of determining whether sample size was adequate was used i n the present i n v e s t i -gation. However, a modification of his method was necessary since the incidents i n t h i s study were obtained i n the order of descending operator s e n i o r i t y during the 7-day "sign-up" period. To have taken the l a s t 100 c r i t i c a l incidents gathered would have meant that these were a l l ones coming from the junior operators. I f i t be the case that junior operators tend to give d i f f e r e n t 27 s o r t s o f i n c i d e n t s than the more s e n i o r o p e r a t o r s , then t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n of Flanagan's method would r e s u l t i n a s p u r i o u s l y h i g h number of new c r i t i c a l behaviours i n the l a s t group of 100 c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t was deemed necessary t o d i v i d e up the responses from the operators i n such a manner as to compensate f o r any e f f e c t s t h a t might have been i n t r o d u c e d by s e n i o r i t y . The procedure i n the present study was to break down the o b t a i n e d t o t a l of 510 i n c i d e n t s i n t o s i x groups o f approximately 85 i n c i -dents each. Thus, the responses obtained from the o p e r a t o r s were f i r s t arranged i n o r d e r o f o p e r a t o r s e n i o r i t y . Then every 1 s t , 7th, 13th, 19th e t c . response was placed i n one group 1; e v e r y 2nd, 8th, 14th, 20th e t c . , i n another group, and so on u n t i l a l l the o p e r a t o r responses had been p l a c e d i n one of the s i x groups. Thus, each of the s i x groups contained responses from opera t o r s at v a r i o u s l e v e l s of s e n i o r i t y r anging from v e r y h i g h through to v e r y low s e n i o r i t y . Upon i n s p e c t i o n of the s i x t h group i t was found t h a t o n l y two out of approximately 85 i n c i -dents were ones which had not a l r e a d y a r i s e n i n any o t h e r o f the f i v e groups. T h e r e f o r e , i t I s reasonable to suppose t h a t the sample o f 134 o p e r a t o r s was an adequate one. S u p e r v i s o r s A l l the members o f the " s u p e r v i s o r y " group were former bus o p e r a t o r s and were th o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the j o b . The " s u p e r v i s o r s " , being i n the f r o n t l i n e of management, were a l l i n immediate co n t a c t w i t h the men i n day-to-day o p e r a t i o n s and so were i n a p o s i t i o n to make f i r s t - h a n d o b s e r v a t i o n s . 28 The number of s u b j e c t s i n the " s u p e r v i s o r y " group was 33- Of these, 26 were a c t u a l ^ s u p e r v i s o r s . " The t r a n s i t s u p e r v i s o r i s s i m i l a r t o an i n d u s t r i a l foreman i n h i s d u t i e s . The s u p e r v i s o r sees t h a t the operators are running on schedule and takes any a c t i o n such as r e - r o u t i n g t h a t may be n e c e s s a r y t o handle unusual l o a d s . H i s prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o ensure t h a t t r a f f i c i s kept moving so t h a t passengers reach t h e i r d e s t i -n a t i o n s . Of the remaining seven s u b j e c t s , f i v e were from the t r a i n i n g department, and two were from the r a d i o c o n t r o l room. A l l these s u b j e c t s were former o p e r a t o r s and thus thoroughly f a m i l i a r w i t h the o p e r a t i o n . The main f u n c t i o n s of the t r a i n -e r ' s job are to i n s t r u c t newly-inducted o p e r a t o r s and to check the d r i v i n g h a b i t s o f op e r a t o r s a l r e a d y on the j o b . The c h i e f f u n c t i o n of the personnel i n the r a d i o e o n t r o l room i s t o watch the c i t y o p e r a t i o n as a whole. The c o n t r o l room i s a c e n t r a l i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e c o n s t a n t l y i n r a d i o c o n t a c t w i t h the p a t r o l c a r s . I f a breakdown occurs on a l i n e the c o n t r o l room informs the s u p e r v i s o r nearest t o the scene of the t r o u b l e i n order t h a t c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n may be taken as soon as p o s s i b l e . P u b l i c The names o f s u b j e c t s were chosen at random from the telephone d i r e c t o r y i n the manner p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d on page 22. Approximately 200 c a l l s were made i n a l l . I t proved p o s s i b l e t o speak t o 108 of t h i s number. Of the 108 people whom i t was p o s s i b l e to con t a c t t h e r e 29 were th r e e r e f u s a l s . One of these r e f u s e d q u i t e d e f i n i t e l y on the grounds o f "no time." The oth e r two s a i d to phone back l a t e r . However, on the whole, i t would seem t h a t the s e l e c t i o n was re a s o n a b l y random i n s p i t e of the presence o f some b i a s t h a t may have been caused by the r e l a t i o n s h i p between socio-economic s t a t u s and telephone ownership. As a check on whether or not the sample s i z e was l a r g e enough, the i n t e r v i e w s were broken down i n t o f o u r separate groups. In the l a s t group o f 27 s u b j e c t s o n l y one new i n c i d e n t appeared ( c f . Flanagan's statement quoted on page 1 3 ) . Consequently, i t was reasonable t o suppose t h a t an adequate sample had been secured. B. TREATMENT OF CRITICAL INCIDENTS The f i r s t step necessary i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l requirements of the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r ' s j o b was to process the d a t a from the i n t e r v i e w s and t o s e l e c t o n l y t h a t mat-e r i a l which c o u l d be con s i d e r e d as s a t i s f y i n g the c o n d i t i o n s e s s e n t i a l f o r c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o Flanagan (22) the e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s are as f o l l o w s : 1. The i n c i d e n t must be observed behaviour. 2. The observer must know the aims of the a c t i v i t y . 3 . The s p e c i f i c judgment of the observer must be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . F o r example, i s the foreman o u t s t a n d i n g i n the sense t h a t he "gets along w e l l w i t h the boys" or i s he ou t s t a n d i n g i n the sense t h a t he maximises p r o d u c t i o n ? 30 4. The observer must be q u a l i f i e d t o judge both e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e behaviour. 5. The r e p o r t i n g of the behaviour must be a c c u r a t e . Using these c r i t e r i a , a l l the i n t e r v i e w r e c o r d s were examined. ift. number o f the r e p o r t s were found to be m u l t i p l e i n c i d e n t s ; these were broken down i n t o s i n g l e c r i t i c a l i n c i -d ents. Other m a t e r i a l had to be d i s c a r d e d as not meeting the c r i t e r i a . I n o r d e r to e x p e d i t e the a n a l y s i s each c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t was p l a c e d on a s i n g l e sheet o f paper ( f o r d e t a i l e d f i g u r e s on the number of usable i n c i d e n t s see page 33)* The usable c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o ap-p r o p r i a t e c r i t i c a l b e h a viours. F o r the purposes o f t h i s study a c r i t i c a l behaviour was regarded as being made up o f a group of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r t h a t they c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as the same a c t i o n s . Furthermore, i t might be noted t h a t a l l the i n c i d e n t s i n one c r i t i c a l behaviour are of the same s i g n ; that i s , the i n c i d e n t s contained i n one c r i t i c a l behaviour are a l l e i t h e r p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e . Thus, t h i s step of the a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t s of grouping s i m i l a r c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . There are no hard and f a s t r u l e s t o go by I n the analy-s i s and as the work progressed i t was n e c e s s a r y to r e - d e f i n e the t e n t a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s one had developed i n the e a r l i e r s t a g e s. Flanagan (25, p. 344) mentions t h a t , The u s u a l procedure i s to s o r t a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l sample o f i n c i d e n t s i n t o p i l e s t h a t are r e l a t e d t o the frame o f r e f e r e n c e s e l e c t e d . A f t e r these t e n t a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n s o f them are made, and a d d i t i o n a l i n c i d e n t s are c l a s s i f i e d 31 Into them. During t h i s p r o c e s s , needs f o r r e d e f i n i -t i o n and f o r the development of new c a t e g o r i e s are noted. The t e n t a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s are modified as i n d i c a t e d and the process continues u n t i l a l l the i n c i d e n t s have been c l a s s i f i e d . The l a r g e r c a t e g o r i e s are s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l e r groups and the i n c i d e n t s t h a t d e s c r i b e v e r y n e a r l y the same type of behaviour are p l a c e d t o g e t h e r . The d e f i n i t i o n s f o r a l l the c a t e g o r i e s and major headings should then be re-examined i n terms of the a c t u a l i n c i d e n t s c l a s s i f i e d under each. I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n the procedure adopted was based on Flanagan's s u g g e s t i o n s . The f i r s t s tep i n the method c o n s i s t e d of grouping those c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s t h a t were most o b v i o u s l y i d e n t i c a l i n n a t u r e . By t h i s means, t e n or e l e v e n c r i t i c a l behaviours were formu l a t e d . Examples of the t e n t a t i v e c r i t i c a l behaviours were "Helping the b l i n d , " "Waiting f o r passengers," "Making a q u i c k stop," "Safe p r a c t i c e s w i t h p o l e s , " "Making proper use of f l a s h e r s , " and so f o r t h . These c r i t i c a l behaviours gave a rough i d e a of the g e n e r a l areas i n t o which the d a t a would f a l l and a l s o served as n u c l e i f o r the form-u l a t i o n o f c r i t i c a l requirements. F o r p r a c t i c a l reasons, the remaining u n c l a s s i f i e d c r i t i c a l behaviours were t e n t a t i v e l y p l a c e d i n what seemed the most a p p r o p r i a t e g e n e r a l a r e a s . A f t e r t h i s had been done i t was p o s s i b l e to see more r e a d i l y the c r i t i c a l behaviours t h a t were c l o s e l y enough r e l a t e d to one another so t h a t they c o u l d form c r i t i c a l requirements. Some of the c r i t i c a l b ehaviours, of course, had t o be l a t e r p l a c e d i n d i f f e r e n t areas a f t e r t h i s f i r s t crude c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . But the use of the above method d i d seem to expedite the c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n procedure. A l l the d a t a were d i v i d e d i n t o a number of c r i t i c a l 32 requirements. As mentioned b e f o r e , these c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e -ments were e s t a b l i s h e d by grouping t o g e t h e r s i m i l a r c r i t i c a l b e haviours. I t might be noted t h a t c r i t i c a l requirements i n -clude both p o s i t i v e and negative c r i t i c a l b e h a viours. F o r example, a l l c r i t i c a l behaviours r e l a t i n g t o the use o f f l a s h e r and s i g n a l l i g h t s , both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a c t i o n s , were p l a c e d i n the same c r i t i c a l requirement. The c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e ment was s t a t e d i n p o s i t i v e terms and i n such a way as to encompass a l l the c r i t i c a l behaviours which t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e i t . F o r convenience a s h o r t t i t l e was formulated f o r each c r i t i c a l requirement. The l a s t step i n the a n a l y s i s was t o group r e l a t e d c r i t i c a l requirements i n t o a number o f "areas." These areas are made up of s i m i l a r c r i t i c a l requirements; f o r example, those c r i t i c a l requirements concerned w i t h " D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c (F o r a summary of c r i t i c a l requirements by areas see page 35• To o b t a i n a complete breakdown of a l l the c r i t i c a l behaviours see Appendix VII.) CHAPTER VI RESULTS A. CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS Number of c r i t i c a l incidents collected and  number of c r i t i c a l requirements formulated The or ig inal total of incidents obtained from the oper-ators was 510. Of this number 47 were multiple incidents, and 12 had to be discarded as not meeting the c r i t e r i a . The inter-views with the operators thus yielded a tota l of 451 usable incidents of which 343 were "new" incidents, 108 were "old" incidents• With the supervisors the orig inal to ta l of incidents was 154. Out of this number 49 were multiple incidents; that i s , containing two or more c r i t i c a l incidents, and 5 had to be discarded as non-incidents. The supervisory group yielded a total of 220 usable incidents, of which 146 were "new" incidents, 74 were "old" incidents. In the case of the public there was an orig inal tota l of 118 incidents. Out of this number 10 were double Incidents, and 13 were ones that had to be discarded. The tota l of usable incidents was 115, of which 84 were "new" incidents and 31 were "old" incidents. In the process of determining c r i t i c a l requirements only the "new" c r i t i c a l incidents were u t i l i z e d . . "New" c r i t i -cal incidents were those which had occurred within the last 34-month; these t o t a l l e d 573• "Old" c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s were those which had o c c u r r e d e a r l i e r than one month ago; these t o t a l l e d 213. The reason f o r u s i n g o n l y the "new" c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l requirements was t h a t i t seemed probable t h a t the "new" i n c i d e n t s would be l e s s s u b j e c t to d i s t o r t i o n through s e l e c t i v e r e c a l l than would the " o l d " i n c i d e n t s . Hence the "new" i n c i d e n t s would p r o v i d e a more ac-curate r e c o r d of the observed behaviour. The f i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f 33 c r i t i c a l requirements. A summary o f the c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e -ments f o r t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r s by areas may be found i n T a b l e I . As a f u r t h e r c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , the 33 c r i t i c a l requirements were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f i v e major a r e a s . These areas are made up o f r e l a t e d c r i t i c a l requirements. These areas are shown i n Tab l e I . The complete breakdown of a l l the c r i t i c a l behaviours i s g i v e n i n Appendix V I I . TABLE I Statement o f c r i t i c a l requirements T a b l e I I g i v e s a f o r m a l statement of a l l 33 c r i t i c a l requirements. The c r i t i c a l requirements are c l a s s i f i e d by areas and are l i s t e d under t h e i r s h o r t t i t l e s . Table I I g i v e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f each c r i t i c a l requirement and a l s o shows the frequency- o f i n c i d e n t s i n each c r i t i c a l requirement. The f r e -quencies are based on the 573 "new" i n c i d e n t s c o l l e c t e d . The 35 TABLE I SUMMARY OF CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TROLLEY BUS OPERATORS BY AREAS (Table g i v e s o n l y short t i t l e s o f c r i t i c a l requirements) AREA I DEALING WITH PUBLIC 1 Being courteous t o p u b l i c 2 D i s p l a y i n g good p e r s o n a l deportment 3 G i v i n g c l e a r and accurate d i r e c t i o n s 4 C a l l i n g s t r e e t s 5 D e a l i n g w i t h t r a n s f e r s 6 D e a l i n g w i t h f a r e s 7 G i v i n g f i r s t a i d 8 A s s i s t i n g handicapped passengers 9 W a i t i n g f o r passengers AREA I I SAFE DRIVING 10 Taking s p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n 11 A n t i c i p a t i n g o r f o r e s t a l l i n g a c c i d e n t 12 Making q u i c k stop 13 Safe p r a c t i c e s w i t h p o l e s 14 Safe h a n d l i n g o f doors and m i r r o r s 15 P a r k i n g p a r a l l e l t o curb 16 T r a v e l l i n g at moderate speed 17 Safe p o s i t i o n on road 18 Backing up i n a sa f e manner AREA I I I SKILLFUL AND COURTEOUS OPERATION 19 Operating smoothly 20 P u l l i n g i n and out of areas c a r e f u l l y 21 Being courteous w i t h horn 22 Y i e l d i n g r i g h t o f way 23 Making proper use o f f l a s h e r s AREA IV MAINTAINING SERVICE : 24 Overcoming t i e - u p 25 R e p a i r i n g breakdown 26 Showing i n i t i a t i v e i n g e t t i n g back on route 27 M a i n t a i n i n g f l o w o f t r a f f i c and passengers 28 Keeping on schedule 29 A r r i v i n g at bus on time AREA V RELATIONS WITH SUPERVISORS 30 Communicating t o s u p e r v i s o r s 31 Obeying commands 32 Working overtime i n emergency 33 Improving performance 36 breakdown i n the t a b l e shows s e p a r a t e l y the f r e q u e n c i e s f o r o p e r a t o r s , s u p e r v i s o r s , and the p u b l i c . These groups are abbrev i a t e d t o OPS, SUPS, and PUB r e s p e c t i v e l y . TABLE I I Rank order of c r i t i c a l requirements T a b l e I I I shows the c r i t i c a l requirements ranked i n order of the frequency of the i n c i d e n t s c o ntained i n them. The c r i t i c a l requirements are arranged i n the rank order of the o p e r a t o r s . . The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t the op e r a t o r group has c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s i n n e a r l y every c r i t i c a l requirements Having few zero f r e q u e n c i e s , i t i s the most convenient one on which t o I n i t i a l l y arrange the r a n k i n g s . TABLE I I I Operators, s u p e r v i s o r s and p u b l i c are d i s p l a y e d separ-a t e l y i n order t o make p o s s i b l e comparisons. The t a b l e shows both the rank of a p a r t i c u l a r c r i t i c a l requirement and a l s o the absolute frequency of i n c i d e n t s i n t h a t c r i t i c a l requirement. I n the case of the s u p e r v i s o r s and the p u b l i c no rank i s g i v e n i f the frequency i n a p a r t i c u l a r c r i t i c a l requirement i s z e r o . The f r e q u e n c i e s are based on the 573 "new" i n c i d e n t s c o l l e c t e d . 37 TABLE I I LIST OF CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TROLLEY BUS OPERATORS'^ AREA I DEALING WITH PUBLIC No. o f i n c i d e n t s PUB 8 10 2 5 3 1. Being courteous to p u b l i c OPS SUPS Is p l e a s a n t w i t h passengers; puts them at ease; i s courteous; does not l o s e temper i f passenger abusive. 31 4 2. D i s p l a y i n g good p e r s o n a l deportment Is clean-shaven and a b s t a i n s from smoking on the j o b . 1 1 3. G i v i n g c l e a r and accurate d i r e c t i o n s Gives courteous, simple and adequate d i r e c t i o n s ; r e a l i z e s passenger's needs and v o l u n t e e r s i n f o r m a t i o n i f necessary. 9 4. C a l l i n g s t r e e t s C a l l s out s t r e e t s c l e a r l y and r e g u l a r l y . 5 5. D e a l i n g w i t h t r a n s f e r s Is c o n s i d e r a t e when passengers have d i f f i -c u l t i e s w i t h t r a n s f e r s ; i s courteous i n r e f u s i n g a bad one; g i v e s t o passengers who g e n u i n e l y need them l a t e r on and who d i d not r e a l i z e t h i s on f i r s t b o a rding; i s c a r e f u l i n marking the time a t r a n s f e r was i s s u e d . 4 4 1 6. D e a l i n g w i t h f a r e s C o n s i d e r a t e when passenger has d i f f i c u l t y w i t h f a r e , such as being short o f money or o n l y having a l a r g e b i l l . I l l 7. G i v i n g f i r s t a i d Gives f i r s t a i d t o i n j u r e d passenger or p e d e s t r i a n ; takes the t r o u b l e to i n v e s -t i g a t e at scene o f a c c i d e n t to see i f he can be o f a s s i s t a n c e . 4 0 1 8« A s s i s t i n g handicapped passengers Gives p h y s i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o b l i n d , c r i p p l e d or handicapped person, or to some-r one i n d i f f i c u l t y such as a woman w i t h a baby buggy or a c h i l d i n t r o u b l e . 37 10 22 9. W a i t i n g f o r passengers Makes a s p e c i a l e f f o r t t o make sure t h a t passenger able to c a t c h bus; waits f o r running passenger, w a i t s f o r c o n n e c t i n g bus, p i c k s up at the r i g h t p l a c e s . 1. Based on "new" i n c i d e n t s . 60 10 19 38 AREA I I ; SAFE DRIVING No. o f i n c i d e n t s 10. Taking s p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n OPS SUPS PUB Operator takes s p e c i a l s a f e t y precau-t i o n s when c h i l d r e n are around; slows down when he comes t o the pl a c e where they are p l a y i n g , helps across the s t r e e t o r takes out of danger. 6 3 2 11. A n t i c i p a t i n g o r f o r e s t a l l i n g an a c c i d e n t Operator a n t i c i p a t e s or f o r e s t a l l s ac-c i d e n t by bra k i n g i n good time; n o t i c e s dangerous s i t u a t i o n shaping up while he i s s t i l l some d i s t a n c e from the scene; swings out i n the middle o f the s t r e e t to prevent p e d e s t r i a n s from being run down by the t r a f f i c ; o r able to prevent a c c i d e n t by f l a g g i n g down ca r s behind him to stop f o r p e d e s t r i a n s c r o s s i n g an i n t e r s e c t i o n . 21 1 1 12. Making q u i c k stop Operator able t o stop q u i c k l y when c a r or p e d e s t r i a n suddenly d a r t s i n f r o n t ; d i d not throw passengers w i t h stop; able to stop q u i c k l y when brakes alone would not g i v e chance t o stop soon enough. 25 0 2 13. Safe p r a c t i c e s w i t h p o l e s T r a v e l s at moderate speed over i n s u l a t -o r s ; uses hooks and o t h e r approved s a f e t y p r a c t i c e s i n r e t r i e v i n g p o l e s . 7 12 0 14. Safe h a n d l i n g o f doors and m i r r o r s Opens and c l o s e s doors w i t h care so t h a t passengers not endangered; uses m i r r o r t o check t r a f f i c before p u l l i n g out, and a l s o watches i n m i r r o r t o see i f any more passengers approaching and a l s o t o see what the unloaded passengers are do i n g . 10 3 0 15. P a r k i n g p a r a l l e l t o curb Parks p a r a l l e l t o curb i n l o a d i n g zones so t h a t passengers do not have t o jump; parks s a f e l y by c u r b i n g wheels. 4 1 1 16. T r a v e l l i n g at moderate speed M a i n t a i n s a moderate speed, e s p e c i a l l y i f i n a r e s t r i c t e d zone. 2 2 0 17. Safe p o s i t i o n on road T r a v e l s at a safe d i s t a n c e from the bus ahead; c a r e f u l about p a s s i n g o r st o p p i n g on i n s u l a t o r s at i n t e r s e c t i o n s ; gets i n r i g h t l a n e when about t o make a stop 16 0 0 39 No. of incidents OPS SUPS PUB 18. Backing up i n a safe manner When backing up operator has someone outside to wave him on and to signal that the coast is c lear. 2 0 0 AREA III: SKILLFUL AND COURTEOUS ROAD OPERATION 19• Operating smoothly Travels smoothly, even i n heavy t r a f f i c ; travels without much gunning and braking or swerving i n and out of stops. 8 6 4 20. Pulling i n and out of zones carefully Pulls away and into zones very careful ly, and with due regard for other t r a f f i c . 14 0 10 21. Being courteous with horn Does not unnecessarily blast horn at vehicle in way, part icularly i f the driver of the other vehicle already knows that he has;.:to get out of the way, and is just waiting for a chance to get clear. 1 5 0 22. Yielding right of way Operator yields right of way to another vehicle, especially truck with big load; bus takes only one lane; i f i n l ine of busses, stops to let l ine of following autos pass. 17 2 1 23. Making proper use of flashers Makes proper use of signals i n t e l l ing t ra f f i c what he i s going to do; uses flashers at right time. 13 5 3 AREA IV: MAINTAINING SERVICE 24. Overcoming tie-up If s ta l led , operator lets down his own poles or moves bus out of way; swings bus out to block t ra f f i c i f he sees a tie-up ahead i n order to keep more cars from jamming i n ; relieves tie-up by shoving stalled car. 7 3 0 40 25. Repairing Breakdown Keeps bus i n operation by fixing or overcoming breakdown. 4 1 26. Showing in i t i a t i ve i n getting back on route When forced off route uses Ini t iat ive i n getting back on route by taking down poles and coasting back on route; or helps fellow operator to do this by taking down his poles. 5 1 27. Maintaining flow of t ra f f i c and passengers Voluntary action to make sure that the flow of t ra f f i c and passengers maintained; re-routs t ra f f i c when necessary, and co-oper-ates by working d i l igent ly i n rush period; and makes sure that passengers get to dest i -nation. 6 13 28. Keeping on schedule Operator keeps on time and i f he is too slow he sacrifices his recovery time to get back on schedule. 10 15 29. Arriving at bus on time Operator arrives on time at the bus he i s supposed to drive. 3 3 No. of incidents OPS SUPS PUB AREA V: RELATIONS WITH SUPERVISORS 30. Communicating with supervisors Informs supervisors or radio control of trouble on l ine or with vehicle; makes suggestions to improve service; secures names and addresses of witnesses after an accident. 10 7 31• Obeying commands Obeys direct command; keeps temper even though supervisor t e l l s him to do something he doesn't l ike ; or able to carry out a d i f -f i cu l t command; reads bulletins properly. 0 15 32. Working overtime i n emergency Makes extra t r i p at suggestion of supervisor i n emergency. 0 5 33. Improving performance Improves performance after suggestions from supervisor. 0 1 TABLE I I I RANK ORDER OF CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS CRITICAL REQUIREMENT OPERATORS SUPERVISORS PUBLIC  rank frequency rank frequency rank frequency Waiting f o r passengers 1 60 6 10 2 19 A s s i s t i n g handicapped passengers 2 37 6 10 1 22 Being courteous t o p u b l i c 3 31 13 .5 4 4 8 Making q u i c k stop 4 25 0 9.5 2 A n t i c i p a t i n g or f o r e s t a l l i n g an ac c i d e n t 5 21 25 1 13 .5 1 Y i e l d i n g r i g h t o f way 6 17 20 2 13 .5 1 Safe p o s i t i o n on road 7 16 0 0 P u l l e d i n and out of zones c a r e f u l l y 8 14 0 3 10 Making proper use of f l a s h e r s 9 13 11 5 7.5 3 Safe h a n d l i n g o f doors and m i r r o r s 11 10 16.5 3 0 Keeping on schedule 11 10 1.5 15 0 Communicating to s u p e r v i s o r s 11 10 8 7 0 G i v i n g c l e a r and accurate d i r e c t i o n s 13 9 6 10 5 5 Operating smoothly 14 8 9 6 6 4 Safe p r a c t i c e s w i t h p o l e s 15.5 7 4 12 0 Overcoming t i e - u p 15.5 7 16 .5 3 0 Taking s p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n 17 .5 6 16.5 3 9.5 2 M a i n t a i n i n g f l o w o f t r a f f i c and passengers 17-5 6 3 13 0 C a l l i n g s t r e e t s 19.5 5 20 2 7.5 3 Showing i n i t i a t i v e i n g e t t i n g back on 19.5 5 25 1 0 route D e a l i n g w i t h t r a n s f e r s 22 .5 4 13 .5 4 13 .5 1 G i v i n g f i r s t a i d 22 .5 4 0 13 .5 1 Pa r k i n g p a r a l l e l to curb 22 .5 4 25 1 13 .5 1 R e p a i r i n g breakdown 22 .5 4 25 1 0 A r r i v i n g at bus on time 25 3 16 .5 3 0 T r a v e l l i n g at moderate speed 26.5 2 20 2 0 Backing up i n a safe manner 26.5 2 0 0 Dea l i n g w i t h f a r e s 29 1 25 1 13 .5 1 Being courteous w i t h horn 29 1 11 5 0 D i s p l a y i n g good p e r s o n a l deportment 29 1 25 l 0 Obeying commands 32 0 1 .5 15 0 Working overtime i n emergency 32 0 11 5 0 Improving performance 33 0 25 l 0 42 Rank order of areas T a b l e IV shows the percentage of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s f a l l i n g i n t o each of the f i v e areas i n t o which the c r i t i c a l r e -quirements have been c l a s s i f i e d . Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r o p e r a t o r s , s u p e r v i s o r s , and p u b l i c are.,.,shbwn s e p a r a t e l y . I n each case, the areas are l i s t e d i n order of magnitude w i t h the a r e a c o n t a i n i n g the l a r g e s t percentages of i n c i d e n t s p l a c e d f i r s t . The l e f t s i d e of the t a b l e i s based upon the "new" i n -c i d e n t s ; the r i g h t s i d e of the t a b l e shows rank i n g and frequency on the b a s i s o f the " o l d " i n c i d e n t s . The " o l d " i n c i d e n t s are those which o c c u r r e d more than one month ago. (For e x p l a n a t i o n o f " o l d - new" d i v i s i o n see page 24.) TABLE IV In the case of the o p e r a t o r s , the i n c i d e n t s r e l a t i n g t o "D e a l i n g w i t h the p u b l i c " and " S k i l l f u l and courteous o p e r a t i o n " were l e s s f r e q u e n t amongst the " o l d " i n c i d e n t s than they were amongst the "new" i n c i d e n t s . (See t a b l e IV.) The areas which became more prominent amongst the " o l d " i n c i d e n t s were " M a i n t a i n -i n g s e r v i c e " and "Safe d r i v i n g . " In the s u p e r v i s o r y group, the areas t h a t l o s t ground amongst the " o l d " i n c i d e n t s were those r e l a t i n g t o " D e a l i n g w i t h the p u b l i c , " "Safe d r i v i n g , " and " S k i l l f u l and courteous opera-t i o n . " The areas which were more prominent amongst the " o l d " i n c i d e n t s were those concerned w i t h " M a i n t a i n i n g s e r v i c e " and " R e l a t i o n s w i t h s u p e r v i s o r s . " TABLE IV  RANK ORDER OF AREAS 43 A. OPERATORS New Incidents Old Incidents 1. Dealing with public 44.32$ 2. Safe driving 27.10 3. S k i l l f u l and courteous operation 15.46 4. Maintaining service 10.20 5. Relations with super-visors 2.92 1. Dealing with public 32.29$ 2. Safe driving 32.29 3* Maintaining service 21.62 4. S k i l l f u l and cour-teous operation 7«85 5* Relations with supervisors 5*91 B. SUPERVISORS New Indidents Old Incidents 1. Dealing with public 28.76$ 2. Maintaining service 24.62 3. Relations with super-visors 19.17 4. Safe driving 15.10 5* S k i l l f u l and courteous operation 5*91 1. Maintaining service 45.12$ 2. Relations with supervisors 36.62 3. Dealing with public 14.61 4. Safe driving 3.65 5. S k i l l f u l and cour-teous operation 0.00 C. PUBLIC New Incidents Old Incidents 1. Dealing with public 71.49$ 2. S k i l l f u l and courteous operation 21.39 3. Safe driving 7.12 4. Maintaining service 0.00 5« Relations with super-visors 0.00 1. Dealing with public 93-10$ 2. Safe driving 3.45 3. Maintaining service 3*45 4. S k i l l f u l and cour-teous operation 0.00 5. Relations with supervisors 0.00 44 I n the case of the p u b l i c , the areas r e l a t i n g t o "Deal-i n g w i t h the p u b l i c " became more prominent amongst the " o l d " i n c i d e n t s , w h i l e the areas concerned w i t h "Safe d r i v i n g " and " M a i n t a i n i n g s e r v i c e " decreased i n magnitude 1. Q u a l i t a t i v e l y , the o l d e r i n c i d e n t s tended t o be more dramatic than the ones of r e c e n t occurrence. F o r example, the bus ope r a t o r s r e c a l l e d such i n c i d e n t s as the o p e r a t o r who t h r e a t -ened to f i g h t another o p e r a t o r ; or the o p e r a t o r who n o t i c e d a l a d y drop a white g l o v e , and who l a t e r p i c k e d up t h i s glove f o r the l a d y . F o r a d d i t i o n a l examples of these more dramatic i n -c i d e n t s see Appendix V I I . T h i s f i n d i n g t h a t the o l d e r i n c i d e n t s are more dramatic c o r r o b o r a t e s the work of Nagay (25, p. 330). Percentages o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s  f a l l i n g w i t h i n each a r e a T a b l e V shows the percentages o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s f a l l i n g w i t h i n each of the f i v e areas. F o r example, A r e a I , " D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c " , c o n t a i n s n e g a t i v e i n c i -dents to the extent of 15«89 per cent of the t o t a l number o f i n c i d e n t s o b t a i n e d . The p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t s f a l l i n g i n t h i s a r e a c o n s t i t u t e 28.60 per cent o f the t o t a l number o f i n c i d e n t s . The gra p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n which has become c o n v e n t i o n a l i n t h i s f i e l d w i l l a s s i s t i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p a t t e r n s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n . TABLE V TABLE V PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL EFFECTIVE AND TOTAL INEFFECTIVE BEHAVIOURS FALLING WITHIN EACH AREA A. NEW CRITICAL INCIDENTS 45 . Negative: % o f t o t a l AREA OF  CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS 15. 11.18 11.00 6.25 3.33 47.65 Negative: % of t o t a l l6.40# 8.80 3.30 14.10 9.40 I I I I I IV B. OLD CRITICAL INCIDENTS I I I I I I IV V P o s i t i v e : % o f t o t a l 28. 9.96 4.53 6.11 3*14 52.34 P o s i t i v e : %. of t o t a l 17.60# 9.20 0.50 13.40 7.30 52.00 48.00 46 Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of f r e q u e n c i e s  i n v a r i o u s c r i t i c a l requirements Tab l e VI shows the number o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s f a l l i n g i n each c r i t i c a l requirement and the percentage which t h i s frequency-forms of the t o t a l number of i n c i d e n t s . F o r example, 69 c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s were i n c l u d e d i n C r i t i c a l Requirement Ko. 7. The t a b l e shows t h i s to be 12.1 per cent of the 573 t o t a l . A separate breakdown i s shown f o r " o l d " and "new" i n c i d e n t s . TABLE VI  B. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS E f f e c t of time l a p s e p r i o r to r e c a l l One o b j e c t of t h i s study was to see i f the time l a p s e p r i o r t o r e c a l l i n f l u e n c e s the type of i n c i d e n t t h a t tends to be remem-bered. The h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t "the d i s t r i b u t i o n amongst the v a r -i o u s c r i t i c a l requirements o f i n c i d e n t s r e c a l l e d from the r e c e n t past w i l l not d i f f e r from the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n c i d e n t s r e c a l l e d from the more d i s t a n t p a s t . " The c h i - s q u a r e technique could not be used t o t e s t the d i f f e r -ence i n t h i s case, s i n c e t h i s method assumes independence of c e l l s . The l a t t e r assumption could not be made s i n c e the "new" and the " o l d " i n c i d e n t s were c o l l e c t e d from the same i n d i v i d u a l s and hence may have been c o r r e l a t e d . However, a comparison of the f r e q u e n c i e s i n the v a r i o u s areas was made by i n s p e c t i o n . Table V I I shows the a c t u a l f r e q u e n c i e s o f "new" and " o l d " i n c i d e n t s i n . t h e v a r i o u s areas. I n b r a c k e t s are shown the frequen-c i e s which would have been obtained had the r a t i o of " o l d " to "new" i n c i d e n t s i n each a r e a been i n the p r o p o r t i o n 573*213; t h a t i s , i n the same r a t i o as the o v e r a l l t o t a l o f "new" to " o l d " i n c i d e n t s . TABLE VI.. PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FREQUENCIES IN VARIOUS CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS New I n c i d e n t s Old I n c i d e n t s CRITICAL REQUIREMENT Frequency »%»*g? ° f Frequency ^ g f f i AREA I : DEALING WITH PUBLIC 1. Being courteous t o p u b l i c 43 7.5$ 17 8.0$ 2. D i s p l a y i n g good p e r s o n a l deportment .... 2 0.3 1 0.5 3* G i v i n g c l e a r and accurate d i r e c t i o n s ... 24 4.2 11 5.1 4. C a l l i n g s t r e e t s 10 1.8 4 1.9 5. D e a l i n g w i t h t r a n s f e r s 9 1.6 0 0.0  . $  2 0.3 1 .    .    .   3 0.5 7 5 0.8 1 69 12.1 19 89 15.4 13 6. D e a l i n g w i t h f a r e s  .   3.3 7. G i v i n g f i r s t a i d 5 0.8 1 0.5 8. A s s i s t i n g handicapped 69 12.1 19 8.9 9. W a i t i n g f o r passengers 9 15*4 13 6.1 AREA I I : SAFE DRIVING ID. Taking s p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n . 11 1.9 3 1.4 11. A n t i c i p a t i n g or f o r e s t a l l i n g a c c i d e n t .. 23 4.0 9 4.2 12. Making q u i c k stop 27 4.7 10 4.7 13. Safe p r a c t i c e s w i t h p o l e s 19 3»3 7 3.3 14. Safe h a n d l i n g of doors and m i r r o r s 13 2.3 1 0.5 15. P a r k i n g p a r a l l e l to curb 6 1.1 1 0.4 16. T r a v e l l i n g at moderate speed 4 0.7 2 0.9 17. Safe p o s i t i o n on road 16 2.8 4 1.9 18. Backing up i n a safe manner .. 2 0.3 0 0.0 AREA I I I : SKILLFUL AND COURTEOUS OPERATION 19. Operating smoothly 18 3.1 4 1.87 20. P u l l i n g i n and out of areas c a r e f u l l y . . 2 4 4.2 2 0.94 21. Being courteous w i t h horn 6 1.1 0 0.0 22. Y i e l d i n g r i g h t of way 20 3.5 1 0.47 23. Making proper use of f l a s h e r s 21 3.7 1 0.47 / c o n t i n u e d TABLE VI — continued New I n c i d e n t s Old I n c i d e n t s  CRITICAL REQUIREMENT Freauencv Percentage o f F r e a u e n c v Percentage o f ,.; • f r e q u e n c y ^ t Q t a l frequency ^ t Q t & 1 ,. AREA. IV: MAINTAINING SERVICE 24. Overcoming t i e - u p 10 1.8 3 1»4 25. R e p a i r i n g breakdown .. 5 0.9 1 0.5 26. Showing i n i t i a t i v e i n g e t t i n g back on route .. 6 1.1 12 5*6 27. M a i n t a i n i n g flow o f t r a f f i c and passengers. 19 3-3 25 11.7 28. Keeping on schedule .... 25 4.4 16 7.5 29. A r r i v i n g at bus on time 6 1.0 2 1.0 AREA V: RELATIONS WITH SUPERVISORS 30. Communicating to s u p e r v i s o r s 17 3-0 15 7«0 31. Obeying commands 15 2.6 15 7.0 32. Working overtime I n emergency 5 0.8 4 1.9 33• Improving performance 1 0.2 2 0.9 I n s p e c t i o n o f Table V I I i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were marked d i f f e r e n c e s between the f r e q u e n c i e s of the a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and the d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a t would have occu r r e d had there been no s e l e c t i v e f a c t o r p r e s e n t . The d i f f e r e n c e was e s p e c i a l l y marked 4 i n the areas I I I , IV, and V. In other words, there appears to be evidence f o r the presence of s e l e c t i v e r e c a l l . TABLE V I I E f f e c t o f s e n i o r i t y on the type of i n c i d e n t r e c a l l e d The o p e r a t o r s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o seven groups i n descending order o f s e n i o r i t y . T h i s was the most convenient c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n c e the o p e r a t o r s were i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g the 7-day "sign-up" p e r i o d . During the "sign-up" p e r i o d the most s e n i o r o p e r a t o r s came the f i r s t day, the next s e n i o r the f o l l o w -i n g day, and so on u n t i l the l e a s t s e n i o r men had taken p a r t i n the "sign-up" p r o c e s s . I n Table V I I I , Group 1 c o n s i s t s of the most s e n i o r oper-a t o r s . S e n i o r i t y here ranges from 18-25 y e a r s . S e n i o r i t y i n Group 7, which c o n s i s t s o f the l e a s t s e n i o r o p e r a t o r s ranges from 5 years t o 1 month. Tab l e V I I I i s d e r i v e d s o l e l y from the operator i n t e r v i e w s and i s based on 34-3 "new" i n c i d e n t s . TABLE V I I I I n Table V I I I s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g r e g u l a r i t i e s are apparent i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f r e q u e n c i e s i n the f i r s t t h r e e 50 TABLE V I I DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DISTRIBUTION OF "OLD" AND "NEW" INCIDENTS AREA Observed f r e q u e n c i e s w i t h expected TOTAL f r e q u e n c i e s i n parentheses "New" I n c i d e n t s " O l d " I n c i d e n t s I 254 73 327 (238) (89) I I 121 37 158 (115) (43) I I I 89 .8 97 (71) (26) IV 71 59 130 (95) (35) V 38 36 74 (54) (20) 573 213 786 (573) (213) TA-DLC- "VTTT DLPCXNT/UX ( X CRITICAL INCIDENTS IN VARIOUS ODLDHTOD 5LNI0RITV C-R0UP5 CALLING IN. C A C L i A-QLA- Of- CRITICAL RtQUIRt-MLNTS I JL HE 3C I HT 3: r n m EC G R O U P l ; 2 5 - I B y-EA-RS 20% 10% 0% 10% 20% CROUP 3 : 15-15 ytA-R5 10% 0%. \Q'/o 1 I I tr CROUP 6 : 8-5 yt-A-RS 20%. 10% 0% 10% 20% GROUP 2 : IS-15 y t A R S 20% io% o % |0% 20% G R O U P K : 13-10 ytJVRS iq% o% 10% G-ROUP 7 : 5-0.1 ytA-RS 20% 10% 0% 10% zo% G R O U P 5 : IO-6 y t^RS C O M P O S I T E OF- A.LL 7 G R O U P S 10% 0% 10% 20% 10% 0% 10% 20%, 52 Areas of c r i t i c a l requirements. I t w i l l be observed t h a t i n c i d e n t s r e l a t i n g t o " D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c " are prominent i n the most s e n i o r group, t h a t i s , group 1. Then the predomin-ance o f t h i s A r e a d e c l i n e s s t e a d i l y w i t h the l e s s s e n i o r oper-a t o r s u n t i l i t c o n s t i t u t e s o n l y 23 per cent of the t o t a l i n Group 4. Then the percentages r i s e p r o g r e s s i v e l y a g a i n u n t i l they reach 53 per cent of a l l i n c i d e n t s i n Group 7» which con-s i s t o f the youngest o p e r a t o r s . On the other hand, the Area o f "Safe d r i v i n g " i s s m a l l e r w i t h the o l d e r o p e r a t o r s (19 per cent of Group 1), but r i s e s s t e a d i l y u n t i l i t c o n s t i t u t e s 42 per cent of Group 4. Then the frequency o f i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s A r e a d e c l i n e s u n t i l i n Group 7 i t c o n s t i t u t e s o n l y 11 per cent of the t o t a l i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s Area. S i m i l a r l y , the A r e a con-cerned w i t h " S k i l l f u l and courteous operation 1" makes up o n l y 12 per cent of Group 1. But t h i s percentage r i s e s t o a h i g h of 23 per cent i n Group 3« Then i t f a l l s t o 11 per cent i n Group 7« A l s o n o t i c e a b l e i s the f a c t t h a t i n Groups 3 and 4 the A r e a of "Safe d r i v i n g " ranks h i g h e r t h a n " D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c . " I n a l l the o t h e r Groups " D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c " ranks f i r s t . More-over i t can be seen that i n the middle s e n i o r i t y groups, t h a t i s , Groups 3, 4, and 5> the f i r s t t h r e e Areas are r o u g h l y equal i n prominence. But i n the case of the most s e n i o r and the most j u n i o r o p e r a t o r s i n c i d e n t s c l a s s e d as " D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c " form over 50 per cent of the Group t o t a l s . I n Areas 4 and 5 no r e g u l a r i t i e s are apparent. CHAPTER V I I DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS A. CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS FORMULATED C r i t i c a l requirements The f i v e major areas i n t o which the c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e -ments were grouped were remarkably s i m i l a r t o the g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s o f the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r ' s job as s t a t e d by the management of the company. 1 T h i s agreement between the two sources would appear t o l e n d some c r e d i b i l i t y t o the r e s u l t s . There was o n l y one of the management statement of o b j e c -t i v e s which was not contained i n one o f the f i v e major ar e a s . T h i s was the " R e l a t i o n s to f e l l o w o p e r a t o r s . " The absence o f any such a r e a i n the c r i t i c a l requirements was r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g , 1 A c c o r d i n g t o management the o b j e c t i v e s of the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r ' s job a r e : i To g i v e courteous s e r v i c e t o the p u b l i c i i To take good care of the v e h i c l e i i i To operate the bus s a f e l y and on schedule i v To get along w e l l w i t h f e l l o w . o p e r a t o r s and s u p e r v i s o r s . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the major areas o f c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e -ments were as f o l l o w s : i D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i e i i Safe d r i v i n g i i i S k i l l f u l and courteous o p e r a t i o n i v M a i n t a i n i n g s e r v i c e v R e l a t i o n s w i t h s u p e r v i s o r s 54 especially i n view of the large proportion of incidents concerned with handling the public, as well as the fact that i t was men-tioned by the management. While i t i s d i f f i c u l t to assign any specific reason for this absence i t may be that some of the obtained c r i t i c a l behaviours could be interpreted as fa l l ing i n an area of "Relations to fellow operators." For example, "Made sure to wait for meet," (see C.R. no. 9, Appendix VII , item d), "Followed too close behind another bus," (see C.R. No. 17, Appen-dix VII , item a) and several other c r i t i c a l behaviours could be regarded as being i n the general area of "Relations with fellow operators." However, even with this re-interpretation, the proportion of c r i t i c a l incidents i n this area would be very small. Another explanation for the lack of any area of "relations to fellow operators" may be that the operator i s on his own v i r tua l ly a l l the time while he i s on the job, and consequently has l i t t l e occasion to deal d irect ly with the other operators dur-ing the course of the day. It would appear that his relations to the other operators are confined to such things as not crowd-ing the next bus i n front of him or lagging too close to the one behind. Regarding the percentage distr ibution of incidents i n the various areas i t . was expected that "Dealing with public" would emerge as an important area. However, the obtained percentage of 44 per cent i n that area was surprisingly large (see Table IV). 55 • T h i s was more than was contained i n any o t h e r two areas combined, and confirms the remarks of dozens of o p e r a t o r s who s t r e s s e d the importance of the o p e r a t o r being able to d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the p u b l i c . From a management st a n d p o i n t , i t would appear t h a t t h i s i s a v i t a l area i n which t o focus f u r t h e r e f f o r t s i n the way of s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g . C r i t i c a l requirements concerned w i t h mechanical o p e r a t i o n were much s c a r c e r than expected. The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : i s t h i s because the mechanical o p e r a t i o n of the bus i s not an important aspect o f the job? The l a t t e r e x p l a n a t i o n i s not a v e r y p l a u s i -b l e one. I t seems more l i k e l y t h a t good t r a i n i n g and s e l e c t i o n have l a r g e l y e l i m i n a t e d mechanical p r o f i c i e n c y as a source o f v a r i a b i l i t y between o p e r a t o r s . I n o t h e r words, the o n l y men who f i n a l l y get out on the job are those who manifest a h i g h degree o f t e c h n i c a l o p e r a t i n g s k i l l . Hence, mechanical p r o f i c -i e n c y would not appear as a source of great i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t r a i n e d o p e r a t o r s . I t may be t h a t a l l operators are p r o f i c i e n t at the mechanical aspects o f the job while there are marked d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h the p u b l i c . T h i s c o n t e n t i o n would appear t o be supported by the l a r g e p e r c e n t -age of both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s i n the area " D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c . " Ranks o f v a r i o u s c r i t i c a l requirements The t o p - r a n k i n g c r i t i c a l requirements f o r both o p e r a t o r s and p u b l i c were the same, i . e . , "Waiting f o r passengers," and " A s s i s t i n g handicapped passengers." However, between the opera-t o r s and the s u p e r v i s o r s t h e r e were some d i s c r e p a n c i e s . I n the 56 ease of the s u p e r v i s o r s , the areas w i t h the h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c i e s were those o f "Keeping on schedule," "Obeying commands" and " M a i n t a i n i n g f l o w of t r a f f i c and passengers." That i s , the ou t l o o k o f the s u p e r v i s o r s appears to be more "management o r i e n t a -t e d , " o r concerned w i t h the o v e r a l l problem of g e t t i n g the job done. The g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n produced by t h i s i d e a i s t h a t the operator's j o b c o u l d be viewed as a compromise between the demands of the p u b l i c and the demands of the s u p e r v i s o r s . Thus, the p u b l i c shows the g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t i n such matters as "wa i t -i n g " and " c o u r t e s y " , while the s u p e r v i s o r s s t r e s s "schedule adherence" and "obedience." I t i s probable t h a t a c e r t a i n amount of t e n s i o n i s generated when the ope r a t o r attempts to r e c o n c i l e these two s e t s o f demands, and many of the spontaneous remarks made by the o p e r a t o r s themselves would seem t o bear out t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . F o r example, s e v e r a l o p e r a t o r s mentioned t h a t they would f r e q u e n t l y l i k e t o h e l p a b l i n d man across the s t r e e t , but to do so would mean a l o s s of t h r e e minutes time, which, on a " t i g h t run" would l e a v e them too f a r behind schedule. But t h i s d i f f i c u l t y was s t a t e d t o be worst i n the downtown areas, and the same operator when on the o u t s k i r t s o f the c i t y where the p r e s -sure o f time and t r a f f i c i s not so heavy, would do much more i n the way o f l o o k i n g a f t e r the w e l l - b e i n g of h i s passengers. I t might a l s o be noted t h a t the o p e r a t o r s p r e f e r the runs on the o u t s k i r t s o f the c i t y . The reasons f o r t h i s p r e f e r e n c e are th a t the o p e r a t o r i s more independent on these runs, t h e r e i s l e s s r u s h , and t h e r e i s a b e t t e r chance t o become acquainted 57 w i t h the passengers p e r s o n a l l y on these o u t l y i n g areas. Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of f r e q u e n c i e s i n  v a r i o u s c r i t i c a l requirements The d i s t r i b u t i o n of both the " o l d " and the "new" f r e -quencies was shown i n Table V I . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n s of the v a r i o u s c r i t i c a l requirements to one another remain roughly the same w i t h i n any one a r e a i n the t r a n s i t i o n from "new" t o " o l d " i n c i d e n t s . F o r example, i n area 1, c r i t i c a l requirements 1, 7» and 8 (Table VI) are i n approximately the same r a t i o t o one another i n the " o l d " i n c i -dents as i n the "new" i n c i d e n t s . What s i g n i f i c a n c e can be attached t o c t h i s f a c t i s hard to say. However, i f i t were the case t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n s of the c r i t i c a l requirements w i t h i n a g i v e n a r e a had not remained approximately the same i n r e l a t i o n t o one another, then one would be i n c l i n e d t o doubt the s i m i l a r i t y of the c r i t i c a l r e -quirements which had been p l a c e d i n t h a t area. B. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS S h i f t s between d i s t r i b u t i o n s As mentioned i n the r e s u l t s (page 42) t h e r e was a change i n the c h a r a c t e r of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s i n going from the "new" ones to the " o l d " ones. The l a t t e r c ontained many more i n c i d e n t s of a dramatic n a t u r e . T h i s observed tendency f o r the " o l d " i n c i d e n t s t o be of a more dramatic c h a r a c t e r than the "new" ones confirms the r e s u l t s o f an e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n c a r r i e d out by Nagay (25, p. 330). 58 I t was a l s o n o t i c e a b l e t h a t In the area " D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c " , " o l d " i n c i d e n t s f i g u r e d l e s s p r o m i n e n t l y than the "new11 i n c i d e n t s . I n view of t h i s f a c t i t would seem reasonable t o suppose t h a t the s h o r t e r the time l a p s e taken between the obser-v a t i o n and the a c t u a l c o l l e c t i o n o f the i n c i d e n t s the h i g h e r would be the percentage o f i n c i d e n t s f a l l i n g i n the ar e a " D e a l i n g w i t h public." T h i s s u p p o s i t i o n c o u l d be c a s t i n the form o f a hyp o t h e s i s and t e s t e d without much d i f f i c u l t y . The process o f change i n c h a r a c t e r o f " o l d " and "new" i n c i d e n t s i s o f some importance as f a r as any e f f o r t s at weight-i n g the c r i t i c a l requirements i s concerned s i n c e the percentage of i n c i d e n t s f a l l i n g i n v a r i o u s c r i t i c a l requirements v a r i e s w i t h the time l a p s e i n r e c a l l . Assuming t h a t the most r e c e n t i n c i d e n t s r e f l e c t most a c c u r a t e l y the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n on the job, then the i n c i d e n t s to be used f o r weighting purposes should be recorded as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r they occur say, on the same day. Comparison o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s i n v a r i o u s o p e r a t o r  s e n i o r i t y groups f a l l i n g i n each major a r e a . The o p e r a t o r s had been d i v i d e d i n t o seven major groups on the b a s i s o f s e n i o r i t y , and some i n t e r e s t i n g r e g u l a r i t i e s were apparent i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s amongst the v a r i o u s areas. I n c i d e n t s r e l a t i n g to ."Dealing w i t h p u b l i c " were most prominent amongst the most s e n i o r and the most j u n i o r o p e r a t o r s . Amongst the o p e r a t o r s i n the middle ranges o f s e n i o r i t y " s a f e d r i v i n g " and " s k i l l f u l and courteous o p e r a t i o n " were the most prominent areas. 59 The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s o f how t o account f o r these observed r e g u l a r i t i e s . I t does not seem p o s s i b l e t o g i v e any d e f i n i t e answer on the b a s i s o f the a v a i l a b l e evidence, but two a l t e r n a -t i v e s suggest themselves. " The f i r s t i s t h a t perhaps there have been s y s t e m a t i c changes i n the type o f o p e r a t o r s e l e c t e d f o r the j o b i n the l a s t twenty years o r so. There may have been g r a d u a l changes i n h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s , i n the type of man who stayed on the job, or i n t r a i n i n g procedures and emphasis. I t might be noted a l s o , t h a t the middle s e n i o r i t y groups would r o u g h l y c o r -respond t o the o p e r a t o r s who were taken on d u r i n g and soon a f t e r World War I I . The v e r y s e n i o r and the v e r y j u n i o r groups would be s i m i l a r i n t h a t they were both h i r e d d u r i n g the time of peace when c o n d i t i o n s i n the l a b o u r market were more s i m i l a r . The a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t the nature o f the runs may have something t o do w i t h the observed r e g u l a r i t i e s . The s e n i o r oper-a t o r s o b t a i n the most d e s i r a b l e runs, which are the ones on the c i t y o u t s k i r t s . The most j u n i o r o p e r a t o r s o b t a i n the l e a s t d e s i r e d runs which are the ones i n the downtown a r e a where both the passen-ger l o a d and the t r a f f i c are heavy. Thus, the s e n i o r o p e r a t o r s may emphasize " D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c ' 1 because on the o u t l y i n g runs the operator comes to know a l o t o f the passengers p e r s o n a l l y , and he has more time t o i n d u l g e i n c o u r t e s y . The j u n i o r o p e r a t o r s , who get the toughest runs^ a l s o emphasize " D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c " ; how-ever, they may emphasize somewhat d i f f e r e n t aspects o f t h i s a r ea. I n s p e c t i o n of the i n c i d e n t s f o r the two extreme groups seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t "Waiting f o r passengers" i s v e r y important f o r the s e n i o r o p e r a t o r s . C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g c o u r t e s y , 60 h a n d l i n g o f drunks and u n r u l y passengers are the most important among j u n i o r o p e r a t o r s . I t would seem t h a t perhaps the most p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t b o t h the v e r y s e n i o r and the v e r y j u n i o r o p e r a t o r s p l a c e great emphasis on " D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c " but the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s concerned seem to be of a somewhat d i f f e r -ent nature i n the two cases. However, the number of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v e d are r a t h e r too s m a l l t o o b t a i n an ac c u r a t e e s t i m a t e . Collecting i n c i d e n t s by telephone •In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, the use of the telephone t o c o l l e c t c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s from one group o f s u b j e c t s c o u l d be considered s u c c e s s f u l . The method of p i c k i n g random numbers out of the telephone d i r e c t o r y was p o s s i b l e s i n c e n e a r l y everyone i n the c i t y has made use of the m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system at some time or another. The method has the advantage t h a t i t made p o s s i b l e b e t t e r randomization than i f the s u b j e c t s had merely been approached on the s t r e e t c o r n e r s . However, i t might be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s method i s d i f f i c u l t to; use u n l e s s a complete l i s t o f a l l the s u b j e c t s who a v a i l themselves o f the g i v e n s e r v i c e can be o b t a i n e d . I t was noted t h a t the i n c i d e n t s e l i c i t e d from the p u b l i c were c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s r i c h i n d e t a i l than the i n c i d e n t s from the ope r a t o r s and p a r t i c u l a r l y the s u p e r v i s o r s . The percentage of r e f u s a l s was much lower than expected. Only t h r e e out o f 108 people to whom the i n t e r v i e w e r spoke over the telephone r e f u s e d to p a r t i c i p a t e . 61 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique I t would appear that as a f a c t - g a t h e r i n g device the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique i s both comprehensive and f l e x i b l e . There are, however, s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s t o the method as i t now stands. The f i r s t o f these l i m i t a t i o n s i s t h a t the c r i t i c a l I n -c i d e n t s o b t a i n e d appear to be determined i n some measure by temporary c o n d i t i o n s . F o r example, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e may be sea s o n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s as to what are the c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e -ments. The i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s study were gathered i n the summer and there were o n l y a few r e f e r e n c e s to sea s o n a l f a c t o r s . How-ever, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t i n the wint e r season t h e r e may be many i n c i d e n t s gathered concerning seasonal f a c t o r s . S e v e r a l o f the o l d i n c i d e n t s r e l a t e d t o being able to d r i v e s a f e l y under c o n d i -t i o n s of f o g or i c i n g on the road. T h i s was amongst the " o l d " i n c i d e n t s c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the summer. The p r o p o r t i o n of t h i s type of i n c i d e n t would pr o b a b l y be g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d i f an eq u a l number of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s were c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the w i n t e r months. Another temporary c o n d i t i o n that appeared t o i n f l u e n c e the type of i n c i d e n t obtained was the f a c t t h a t t h e r e had r e c e n t l y been a great many changes i n the c i t y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s . T h i s may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n f l a t i n g the percentage o f i n c i d e n t s i n such c r i t i c a l behaviours as answering que s t i o n s about d i r e c t i o n s , showing i n i t i a t i v e i n g e t t i n g back on r o u t e , and i n t a k i n g the wrong r o u t e . 62 It i s also l i k e l y that the proportion of incidents i n categories such as "Repairing breakdown" may become somewhat larger i n the course of five or ten years. At the present time the changeover from street-cars to tro l ley busses has been completed and the equipment i s quite new. However, when the equipment begins to deteriorate over the course of the years there may be a larger percentage of incidents concerned with "Repairing breakdown.n A d i f f i c u l t problem concerns the question of weighting the c r i t i c a l requirements i n re lat ion to one another. It seems unlikely that frequency alone would indicate precisely the -importance of one c r i t i c a l requirement in re lat ion to another. For example, an incident such as being able to stop quickly i n order to avoid running over a pedestrian may occur only once i n two weeks, while "Waiting for passengers" may occur a dozen times a day, but there could be l i t t l e doubt that the former consider-ation is the more important one. So i t i s clear that frequency alone is not a very good indication to determine the weighting of the various c r i t i c a l requirements. Perhaps the judgments of the subjects could be used to solve the weighting problem. Since i t is the subjects who provide the c r i t i c a l incidents, then why not use the subjects to determine the importance of the various c r i t i c a l requirements i n relat ion to one another? The rank order of the c r i t i c a l requirements i n terms of importance could then be compared to the same c r i t i c a l requirements ranked i n terms of the frequencies of the c r i t i c a l incidents contained within them. By comparing the two sets of ranks i t would be 63 poss ible to estimate whether the frequencies of c r i t i c a l i n c i -dents i n the various c r i t i c a l requirements represented an accu-rate measure of t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance. The above method would not give a prec ise measure of weights to be assigned but i t could be argued that a crude measure i s bet ter than none. In any case, i t would seem that the place where further research with the c r i t i c a l inc ident technique should be focussed i s on the problem of weighting. C . APPLICATIONS OF FINDINGS 1. Construct ion of ra t ing scale The obtained c r i t i c a l requirements can be used to p r o -vide the basis for the construct ion of a r a t i n g scale for t r o l l e y - b u s operators . Since the c r i t i c a l requirements have been e m p i r i c a l l y determined as cons t i tu t ing the most important aspects of t r o l l e y - b u s operat ion , then i t would seem that the behaviours represented by the 33 c r i t i c a l requirements should form a sound groundwork for the development of a r a t i n g s c a l e . Below are examples of three types of items that may be used i n developing a r a t i n g sca le : see EXAMPLE I : on the fol lowing page. 64 EXAMPLE I: (Taken from the Check L i s t of C r i t i c a l Requirements f o r the Evaluation of S c i e n t i f i c Personnel devel-oped by the American I n s t i t u t e f o r Research (3) ) I: Formulating Problems and Hypotheses (Area) B. Defining the Problem ( c r i t i c a l requirement) Ineffective i Proposed an i n v e s t i g a t i o n confined to s u p e r f i c i a l aspects of the problem i i Began work without defining problem or objectives of inv e s t i g a t i o n i i i F a i l e d to obtain informa-t i o n needed to define the requirements, s p e c i f i c a -tions and goal of the assigned project E f f e c t i v e i Proposed i n v e s t i g a t i o n of basic factors and implica-tions involved i n the prob-lem as well as i t s super-f i c i a l aspects i i Defined the problem and the objectives of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i i i gathered information on exact requirements, speci-f i c a t i o n s , and goal of assigned project Chose a problem which did not lend I t s e l f to inves-t i g a t i o n because of p r a c t i c a l problems i v Proposed investigating fac-tors which could be studied i n the time available v Outlined i n v e s t i g a t i o n of only those factors whose eontrol was practicable v i Submitted a plan covering both t h e o r e t i c a l and experi-mental aspects of problem. The type of item shown i n Example 1 was developed by arranging c r i t i c a l behaviours contained i n the c r i t i c a l requirement con-cerned under the headings " e f f e c t i v e " and " i n e f f e c t i v e . " Each one of the 36 c r i t i c a l requirements f o r research personnel was used to develop an item f o r the check l i s t . The rating administrator checks the appropriate category f o r the i n d i v i d u a l concerned i n terms of behaviour he has observed the ratee to have exhibited. 65 EXAMPLE 2: (Taken from Preston's (4-8) Procedure f o r E v a l u a t i n g O f f i c e r s i n the USAF). 32 Taking Prompt A c t i o n ( c r i t i c a l requirement) unknown l e f u s e d t o H e s i t a t e d Took nec-act when a or put o f f e s s a r y d e c i s i o n making a a c t i o n was needed needed dec- without i s i o n a l - s e r i o u s though d e l a y possessed of a l l the e s s e n t i a l f a c t s Took prompt Took a c t i o n t o prompt meet an a c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d to meet need a l e g i t -imate need even though he might have delayed The type of item shown i n Example 2 i s developed by t a k i n g c r i t i c a l behaviours contained i n the c r i t i c a l requirement con-cerned and a r r a n g i n g them i n a continuum. With Preston's (48^ ,. r a t i n g s c a l e f i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c r i t i c a l behaviours ranging from v e r y e f f e c t i v e to v e r y i n e f f e c t i v e were arranged on a con-tinuum as i n d i c a t e d i n Example 2. There were a s e r i e s of 58 s i m i l a r items based on the 58 c r i t i c a l requirements. The r a t e r t i c k e d o f f those c a t e g o r i e s which most c l o s e l y approximated the behaviour of the i n d i v i d u a l being r a t e d . 66 EXAMPLE 3 : (Taken from the Performance Record r e c e n t l y d e v i s e d by F l a n a g a n and M i l l e r (31) ) 9 . Response to Need f o r E x t r a E f f o r t ( c r i t i c a l requirement) a. F a i l e d t o h e l p s u p e r v i s o r . a. A s s i s t e d s u p e r v i s o r without b. I n t e r f e r e d w i t h e f f o r t s of being asked others t o meet s p e c i a l b. V o l u n t a r i l y helped co-needs, worker. c. Did not v o l u n t e e r when c. V o l u n t e e r e d f o r e x t r a needed. d u t i e s . d. F a i l e d t o h e l p i n emer- d. O f f e r e d t o h e l p i n emer-gency gency. date item what happened | date * item what happened * * * * RED BLUE The Performance Record developed by Flanagan and M i l l e r (28) (29) (30) (31) was made up of s i x t e e n items such as example 3 . Each item was based on a c r i t i c a l requirement. The r a t i n g foreman recorded observed c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s i n the space p r o v i d e d . At the end of a s i x month p e r i o d the recorded i n c i d e n t s were summar-i z e d and used as the b a s i s f o r a performance review of the i n d i v -i d u a l concerned. Items f o r e v a l u a t i n g t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r s c o u l d be formulated based on the c r i t i c a l behaviours i n the 33 o b t a i n e d c r i t i c a l requirements. I f a check l i s t were d e s i r e d , items such as Example 2 could be c o n s t r u c t e d . The items would be based on behaviours known e m p i r i c a l l y t o be c r i t i c a l i n the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r ' s job and would be grouped t o g e t h e r accord-in g t o an e m p i r i c a l l y - d e r i v e d scheme. 67 I t can be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t one of the c h i e f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e v a l u a t i n g t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r s would be i n the a c t u a l obser-v a t i o n of the s u b j e c t s . The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t the oper-a t o r s are alone on the busses and any one s u p e r v i s o r does not observe a g i v e n employee f o r more than a few minutes i n a day. However, i t would seem h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e to meet t h i s d i f f i c u l t y even i f i t e n t a i l s c o n s i d e r a b l e t r o u b l e and expense, f o r i t i s c l e a r t h a t e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n and development of manpower i s j e o p a r d i z e d u n l e s s some sound method of e v a l u a t i n g performance i s a v a i l a b l e . A l s o , from the standpoint o f a s s e s s i n g the v a l u e of the t e s t i n g programme, acc u r a t e measures of performance must be made before i t i s p o s s i b l e t o determine the u s e f u l n e s s o f the t e s t s as p r e d i c t o r s . I n o t h e r words, the i n d i v i d u a l opera-t o r s must be a c c u r a t e l y measured as to t h e i r on-the-job perform-ance. Is t h i s p a r t i c u l a r o p e r a t o r good, bad, or i n d i f f e r e n t ? When t h i s l a t t e r q u e s t i o n has been determined i t i s then p o s s i b l e to compare the i n d i v i d u a l o p e r a t o r ' s job performance w i t h the p r e d i c t i o n s of the t e s t s o r i g i n a l l y g i v e n him. Then i t i s p o s s i b l e to see whether the p r e d i c t i o n s were accurate or not. 2. A d d i t i o n a l uses of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique Use of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o o p e r a t i o n a l  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems i n c o r p o r a t i o n s . Wagner (57) sug-gests t h a t the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique can be used f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o o p e r a t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems i n c o r p o r a -t i o n s . The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique c o u l d be used as a d e v i c e f o r g a t h e r i n g f a c t s . The q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be framed i n such a manner as to e l i c i t i n c i d e n t s of p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f i c i e n t or p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i n g or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e proced-u r e s . Even i n the present study, where the main concern was t o analyze a g i v e n job, there were many remarks made by the s u b j e c t s which would be of i n t e r e s t from an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a n d p o i n t . The content of the more fr e q u e n t o f these remarks i s summarized i n Appendix V I . Use o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s t o gauge p u b l i c o p i n i o n . A p o s s i b l e use of the obtained c r i t i c a l requirements i s i n the a n a l y s i s of m a t e r i a l spontaneously submitted by members o f the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c t o the company and recorded by the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s department. T h i s m a t e r i a l c o u l d be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t i c a l requirements i n t o which i t f e l l . Thus, i t may be p o s s i b l e to use t h i s m a t e r i a l as a barometer i n d i c a t i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n towards l o c a l t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t i o n over s u c c e s s i v e p e r i o d s o f time. Use o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s to d e f i n e and explore an area  of the .16b. Sometimes i t may be d e s i r a b l e to e x p l o r e one a r e a of the job more f u l l y than has a l r e a d y been done through d e t e r -mining the c r i t i c a l requirements f o r the job as a whole. With the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r s , f o r example, the t r a i n i n g department might d e s i r e a f u l l e r and more p r e c i s e statement o f the behav-i o u r s i n v o l v e d i n the area "Safe d r i v i n g . " To o b t a i n t h i s f u l l e r d e s c r i p t i o n , i t would be p o s s i b l e to e i t h e r q u e s t i o n more opera-t o r s and focus the i n t e r v i e w s e n t i r e l y on s a f e t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , 69 or use the same technique Gordon (35) employed and c o n s u l t a c c i d e n t r e c o r d s . However, the o r i g i n a l c r i t i c a l requirements study would s t i l l be u s e f u l i n t h a t i t would serve to p l a c e the area o f "Safe d r i v i n g " i n the proper p e r s p e c t i v e i n r e l a -t i o n t o o t h e r areas of the job. D. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ON CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE T h i r t y - t h r e e c r i t i c a l requirements were formulated i n a n a l y z i n g the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r ' s j o b . These were d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e major areas. F o r t y - f o u r per cent o f the i n c i d e n t s f e l l i n the a r e a " D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c , " 21 per cent f e l l i n the a r e a of "Safe d r i v i n g . " The remainder f e l l i n the areas " S k i l l f u l and courteous o p e r a t i o n , " " M a i n t a i n i n g s e r v i c e , " and " R e l a t i o n s w i t h s u p e r v i s o r s . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that h a l f of the i n c i d e n t s f e l l i n the a r e a of " D e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c ^ w h i l e t h e r e were v e r y few i n c i d e n t s r e l a t i n g t o a c t u a l mechanical o p e r a t i o n . A sug-gested reason f o r t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n was t h a t perhaps a l l the o p e r a t o r s have been s e l e c t e d and t r a i n e d so t h a t they are q u i t e p r o f i c i e n t m e c h a n i c a l l y , but t h a t the g r e a t source of v a r i a t i o n i s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h the p u b l i c . T h i s l a t t e r a r e a i s l i k e l y t o be a f r u i t f u l one f o r purposes o f f u t u r e s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g . Another s u g g e s t i o n was that the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r ' s job c o u l d be regarded as a compromise between the demands o f the p u b l i c , who view the job i n terms o f p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e , and the demands of the s u p e r v i s o r s , who view the job more i n terms of schedules and the f l o w of t r a f f i c and passen-g e r s . 70 The breakdown of the d a t a r e v e a l e d v a r i o u s important r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F o r one t h i n g , there was a marked d i f f e r e n c e between the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the " o l d " and the "new" i n c i d e n t s i n the f i v e a r e a s . There was a l s o a d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i -b u t i o n of i n c i d e n t s i n the v a r i o u s s e n i o r i t y groups of the o p e r a t o r s . However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say t o what f a c t o r these d i f f e r e n c e s can be a t t r i b u t e d . The d a t a have a p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h a t they may be used to d e v i s e a performance r a t i n g s c a l e . The suggested manner o f c o n s t r u c t i n g the r a t i n g s c a l e has been g i v e n . T h i s s c a l e could be t r i e d out, r e v i s e d , and then be used to make e v a l u a t i o n s of the performance o f i n d i v i d u a l o p e r a t o r s . These e v a l u a t i o n s c o u l d serve t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n order to determine the m e r i t s of the t e s t s at present employed as p r e d i c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t s . 71 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. American Institute for Research: Technical appendices for c r i t i c a l requirements for research personnel. Pittsburgh, March 194-9. 2. 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R., An e x p l o r a t o r y study of the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique  t o the assessment o f c u r r i c u l a f o r o f f i c e r candidate  t r a i n i n g . USN. BuPers Tech. B u l l . 54-23, December 1954. 38. Glickman, A. S., O f f i c e r p e r s o n n e l r e s e a r c h program. F i n a l status, r e p o r t , P i t t s b u r g h , A.I.R., March 1955. 39. Glickman, A. S., O f f i c e r p ersonnel s e l e c t i o n program. Ameri-can I n s t i t u t e f o r Research, March 1955. 74 40. Hahn, C. P., The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f some c r i t i c a l a i r c r e w j o b requirements. USAF School o f A v i a t i o n M edicine, 1 9 5 4 , P r o j e c t No. 21-29-014, Report No. 2. 41. Hobbs, N., The development o f a code o f e t h i c a l standards f o r psychology, Amer. P s y c h o l . . 1948, 3, 80-84. 42. Krumm, R. L., The development o f a measure o f p i l o t i n s t r u e -t o r p r o f i c i e n c y based on the c r i t i c a l requirements o f  the i n s t r u c t o r ' s j o b . Research B u l l e t i n , 1954, A i r Force T r a i n i n g and Pe r s o n n e l Research Center, Tech. Rep., 54-111. 43. Marley, F. W., I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c r i t i c a l a i r c r e w requirements. 1. The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f c r i t i c a l p r o f i c -i e n c y requirements f o r B - 2 9 combat crews, USAF Seh.Aviat. Med.. P r o j . No. 21-29-014, No. 1, 1 9 5 2 . 44. McQuitty, L. L., W r i g l e y , C , and G a i e r , £ . L., An approach to i s o l a t i n g dimensions o f job success, J . A p p l . P s y c h o l . . 1954, 34, 227-232. 45. Nagay, J . A., The a i r l i n e t r y o u t o f the standard f l i g h t -check f o r the a i r l i n e t r a n s p o r t r a t i n g . 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S., and V a s i l a s , J . N., C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s i n .junior o f f i c e r d u t i e s aboard  d e s t r o y e r - t y p e v e s s e l s . USN, BuEers, A.I.R., C o n t r a c t Nonr 890 (01), Tech. B u l l . 54-5, A p r i l 1954. 54. V a l l a n c e , T. R., and Glickman, A. S., The v e r b a l - n u m e r i c a l t e s t : Development and v a l i d a t i o n , DSN, BuPers Tech. B u l l . 54-15, A.I.R., C o n t r a c t Nonr 890 (01), October 1954. 55. Wagner, R. F., C r i t i c a l requirements f o r d e n t i s t s , J . A p p l . P s y c h o l . . 1950, 34-, 190-192 ( f o r m i c r o f i l m see A.D.I, document 2826). 56. Wagner, R. F., Development of s t a n d a r d i z e d procedures f o r d e f i n i n g requirements o f a i r c r e w .lobs i n terms o f t e s t a - b l e t r a i t s . USAF Sch. A v i a t . Med., P r o j . No. 21-29-010, No. 1, 1951. 57* Wagner, R. 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( A b s t r a c t . ) 62 G o l d f a r b , A., Use of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique t o es-t a b l i s h areas o f change i n psychotherapy: I I . R e l a t i o n - s h i p t o d i a g n o s t i c group. Unpublished master's t h e s i s , U n i v. of P i t t s b u r g h , 1952. 7 6 Smit, Jo Anne, A study of the c r i t i c a l requirements f o r i n s t r u c t o r s of g e n e r a l psychology c o u r s e s . U n i v e r . P i t t s b u r g h B u l l . . 1 9 5 2 , 48, 2 7 9 - 2 8 4 ( A b s t r a c t ) . Speth, E . W., The use of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique  to e s t a b l i s h areas o f change accompanying psychotherapy: I . F u n c t i o n of age and e d u c a t i o n . Unpublished master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , 1 9 5 2 . 77 APPENDICES APPENDIX I 1 A. LONGER FORM OF QUESTION FOR OPERATORS I*m stud y i n g the work of the bus o p e r a t o r as p a r t o f a p r o -j e c t at the u n i v e r s i t y . My purpose i s to f i n d out what are the most important t h i n g s t o do i n the bus oper a t o r ' s j o b . The o b j e c t i v e s o f the bus o p e r a t o r ' s job are s a i d t o be: i To gi v e courteous s e r v i c e to the p u b l i c i i To take good care o f the v e h i c l e i i i To operate the bus s a f e l y and on schedule i v To get along w e l l w i t h f e l l o w o p e r a t o r s and s u p e r v i s o r s a. Now, I wonder i f you could b r i n g t o mind any i n c i d e n t t h a t happened r e c e n t l y i n which e i t h e r you, y o u r s e l f , o r a f e l l o w bus o p e r a t o r was abl e t o act i n such a way as t o f u l f i l l any of these o b j e c t i v e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y manner. Do not mention any names, but t e l l me e x a c t l y what happened t h a t made you f e e l he was p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e . The f o l l o w -i n g are examples of the v a r i o u s a c t i o n s you might g i v e : Examples i Helped l a d y w i t h baby buggy t o board bus. i i Slowed t o 8 m i l e s per hour under s p e c i a l work at i n t e r s e c t i o n . i i i Sounded horn t o warn c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g by r o a d s i d e . ( I n t e r v i e w e r records responses. When s u b j e c t cannot r e c a l l any more f a v o u r a b l e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s the i n t e r v i e w e r asks f o r unfavourable c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . ) b. Now, I wonder i f you could b r i n g t o mind any i n c i d e n t which happened r e c e n t l y i n which e i t h e r you, y o u r s e l f , o r a f e l l o w bus o p e r a t o r acted i n such a way as t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e f -f e c t i v e i n f u l f i l l i n g any o f these o b j e c t i v e s . Do not mention any names, but t e l l me e x a c t l y what happened t h a t made you f e e l the o p e r a t o r was not doing a gpod j o b . The fo l l o w i n g , are the s o r t o f d e s c r i p t i o n s of v a r i o u s a c t i o n s t h a t you might g i v e : Examples i F o r g o t t o change d e s t i n a t i o n s i g n , i i Ran too c l o s e t o next bus. (I n t e r v i e w e r r e c o r d s responses. Waits t i l l s u b j e c t cannot r e c a l l any more unfavourable c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . ) 1 This, t r i a l form o f q u e s t i o n c o n t a i n s both the o b j e c t i v e s o f the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r ' s job as s t a t e d by management, and examples o f the type o f i n c i d e n t d e s i r e d . I - 1 APPENDIX I (con t . ) B. SHORTER FORM OF QUESTION FOR OPERATORS1 I'm studying the work of the bus op e r a t o r as p a r t o f a p r o j e c t at the u n i v e r s i t y . My purpose i s t o f i n d out what are the most important t h i n g s to do i n the bus op e r a t o r ' s j o b . a. F i r s t , w i l l you t r y t o remember an i n c i d e n t w i t h i n the l a s t two weeks i n which a t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r acted i n such a way as t o l e a d you t o remark to y o u r s e l f , o r t o someone e l s e , t h a t he was being p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n h i s j o b . The op e r a t o r may have been y o u r s e l f . o r some oth e r o p e r a t o r whom you were able to observe d i r e c t l y . Do not mention who i t was, but t e l l me e x a c t l y what happened t h a t made you f e e l he was being e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e . ( I n t e r v i e w e r records responses. When s u b j e c t cannot r e c a l l any more f a v o u r a b l e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s the i n t e r v i e w e r asks f o r unfavourable c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . ) b. Now, I would l i k e you t o t r y t o remember an i n c i d e n t w i t h i n the l a s t two weeks i n which a t r o l l e y bus op e r a t o r acted i n such a way as to l e a d you t o remark to y o u r s e l f o r to someone e l s e , t h a t he was being p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e f f e c t i v e I n h i s j o b . The o p e r a t o r may have' been y o u r s e l f o r some oth e r o p e r a t o r whom you were able t o .observe d i r e c t l y . Do not mention who i t was, but t e l l me e x a c t l y what happened t h a t made you f e e l t h a t he was doing an e s p e c i a l l y poor j o b . ( I n t e r v i e w e r r e c o r d s responses. Waits u n t i l s u b j e c t cannot r e c a l l and more unfavourable c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . ) 1 S h o r t e r form o f q u e s t i o n c o n t a i n s o n l y a g e n e r a l statement o f o b j e c t i v e s and gi v e s no examples o f the type o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t d e s i r e d . 1 - 2 APPENDIX I I FORM OF QUESTION FOR SUPERVISORS The purpose of t h i s study i s t o examine the work o f the bus o p e r a t o r i n order t o f i n d out what are the most important t h i n g s t o do i n t h i s j o b . a. F i r s t , I would l i k e you t o t r y t o remember an i n c i d e n t t h a t you have observed w i t h i n the l a s t two weeks where a t r o l l e y bus o p e r a t o r acted so e f f e c t i v e l y as t o e i t h e r make you f e e l l i k e p r a i s i n g the man o r s u b m i t t i n g h i s name f o r a commenda-t i o n . Do not mention any names, but t e l l me e x a c t l y what happened t h a t made you f e e l he was being p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n h i s j o b . ( I n t e r v i e w e r r e c o r d s responses. When s u b j e c t cannot r e c a l l any more f a v o u r a b l e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s the i n t e r v i e w e r asks f o r unfavourable c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . ) b. Now, I would l i k e you to t r y t o remember an i n c i d e n t which you have observed w i t h i n the l a s t two weeks where a t r o l l e y bus o p e r a t o r acted so i n e f f e c t i v e l y as t o e i t h e r make you f e e l . l i k e c r i t i c i z i n g the man or su b m i t t i n g h i s name f o r a c a u t i o n i n g . Do not mention any names, but t e l l e x a c t l y what happened t h a t made you f e e l he was d e f i n i t e l y not doing a good j o b . ( I n t e r v i e w e r r e c o r d s responses. Waits u n t i l s u b j e c t cannot r e c a l l any more unfavourable c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . ) I I - 1 APPENDIX I I I A. FORM OF QUESTION FOR PUBLIC I'm studying the work of the t r o l l e y - b u s o p e r a t o r as p a r t of a p r o j e c t at the u n i v e r s i t y . My purpose i s to f i n d but what are the most important t h i n g s t o do i n the bus op e r a t o r ' s j o b . a. F i r s t o f a l l , would you t r y t o remember an i n c i d e n t which you have observed w i t h i n the l a s t two weeks where a t r o l l e y -bus o p e r a t o r acted i n such a way as to l e a d you to remark t o y o u r s e l f , o r t o someone e l s e , t h a t he was being p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n doing h i s jo b . T e l l me e x a c t l y what happened t h a t made you f e e l he was being e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e . ( I n t e r v i e w e r records responses. When su b j e c t cannot r e c a l l any more f a v o u r a b l e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s the i n t e r v i e w e r asks f o r unfavourable c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . ) b* Now, I would l i k e you t o t r y t o remember an i n c i d e n t which you have observed w i t h i n the l a s t two weeks where a t r o l l e y bus d r i v e r acted i n such a way as to l e a d you t o remark t o y o u r s e l f , or t o someone e l s e , t h a t he was being p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e f f e c t i v e i n h i s j o b . T e l l me e x a c t l y what happened t h a t made you f e e l he was d e f i n i t e l y not doing a good j o b . (I n t e r v i e w e r r e c o r d s responses. Waits u n t i l s u b j e c t cannot r e c a l l any more unfavourable c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . ) 1 T h i s form o f q u e s t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y d e v i s e d f o r a f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r v i e w . I l l - 1 APPENDIX I I I 1 B. FORM OF QUESTION FOR TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS H e l l o . My name i s Johann Stoyva. I'm at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and I'm conducting a survey on bus t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n i n Vancouver. Could you spare a minute f o r two short q u e s t i o n s about the work of t r o l l e y - b u s d r i v e r s ? a. B r i e f l y , what I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n i s your o b s e r v a t i o n s about the work of the t r o l l e y - b u s d r i v e r s . F i r s t , I'd l i k e you to remember an i n c i d e n t w i t h i n the l a s t two weeks where you thought the bus d r i v e r was p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n h i s j o b . T e l l me e x a c t l y what happened t h a t made you t h i n k the d r i v e r was doing a v e r y f i n e j o b . ( I n t e r v i e w e r records responses. When the su b j e c t cannot r e c a l l any more f a v o u r a b l e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s the i n t e r v i e w e r asks f o r unfavourable c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . ) b. Next, I'd l i k e you t o remember an i n c i d e n t w i t h i n the l a s t two weeks where you thought the bus d r i v e r was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e f f e c t i v e i n h i s j o b . T e l l me e x a c t l y what happened t h a t made you t h i n k the bus d r i v e r was v e r y d e f i n i t e l y doing a poor j o b . ( I n t e r v i e w e r records responses. Waits u n t i l s u b j e c t cannot r e c a l l any more unfavourable c r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s . ) 1 T h i s p a r t i c u l a r form o f q u e s t i o n was de v i s e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the telephone i n t e r v i e w s . I l l - 2 APPENDIX IV COPY OF BRIEF SUBMITTED TO UNION OFFICIALS OUTLINE OF PROJECT TO DETERMINE CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS OF JOB OF BUS OPERATORS I . The aim o f t h i s study i s to determine the important p a r t s of the bus d r i v e r ' s j o b . The method which I i n t e n d to use i s known as the c r i t i c a l requirements;: technique. T h i s method has been used p r e v i o u s l y t o analyze such jobs as the work of d e n t i s t s , f a c t o r y employees, and a i r l i n e p i l o t s . The g i s t o f the method i s to f i n d out what the men a c t u a l l y do on the j o b . Instead o f merely l i s t i n g broad q u a l i t i e s such as honesty, k i n d l i n e s s , e f f i c -i e n c y and so f o r t h , which are thought to be important f o r a g i v e n job, the technique i s to ask people c l o s e l y connected w i t h the work what they t h i n k the most important, p a r t s of the job are. F o r example, i n the case o f bus d r i v e r s , I would ask them to r e -member any recent i n c i d e n t i n which they were able to act i n such a way as to render p a r t i c u l a r l y safe or p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e t o the p u b l i c . (Assuming t h a t these are the aimsO The method would be t o gather up a g r e a t number of these " c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s " so t h a t a l l the important aspects of the job were i n -c l u d e d . Then, these i n c i d e n t s are b o i l e d dovni i n t o a fevr major c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s j say, f i f t e e n or twenty of them. I I . As an example of j u s t how the c r i t i c a l requirements t e c h -nique i s used, I would l i k e t o mention how i t was employed to IV - 1 determine the important p a r t s o f the p i l o t ' s job i n a commercial a i r l i n e . The p i l o t s were asked t o d e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l any re c e n t i n c i d e n t where they d i d something t h a t p l a c e d them i n an unsafe p o s i t i o n . Hundreds o f i n c i d e n t s such as the f o l l o w i n g were c o l -l e c t e d . "There was a 35 mph cross-wind on the runway. The co-p i l o t came i n too slow. The f o r c e of the cross-wind would have caused him to s k i d , at t h a t low speed. T h i s would have buckled the l a n d i n g gear. So the c a p t a i n took over the c o n t r o l s . " Other i n c i d e n t s i n c l u d e d p i l o t a c t i o n s i n l a n d i n g s , t a k e - o f f s and opera-t i o n of c o n t r o l s . Many i n c i d e n t s are cases where a p i l o t f a i l e d t o operate a c e r t a i n switch or operated the wrong one. Hundreds o f s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s such as t h i s were c o l l e c t e d , and were c l a s s i -f i e d i n t o seven major c a t e g o r i e s such as p l a n n i n g the f l i g h t , going through r o u t i n e maneuvers, going through emergency maneuvers, and o p e r a t i n g equipment of the plane. A l l the i n c i d e n t s were d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f a c t i o n s by the p i l o t s which had been shown to make a d i f f e r e n c e between s a f e and unsafe f l y i n g . T h i s c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n of i n c i d e n t s werved t o h i g h l i g h t the important aspects o f the p i l o t ' s j o b . I I I . By a n a l y z i n g the c r i t i c a l requirements of a job i t i s p o s s i b l e to determine what the important aspects o f the job a r e . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be of va l u e f o r t r a i n i n g purposes. F o r example, the t r a i n i n g program may not be g i v i n g enough emphasis t o c e r t a i n a spects o f the job or i t may be s t r e s s i n g some p a r t s of the job too much. F o r example, w i t h d e n t i s t s i t had p r e v i o u s l y been thought t h a t i t was important t h a t the d e n t i s t d i d not ask questions w h i l e the p a t i e n t was not i n a p o s i t i o n t o answer. IV - 2 However, a c r i t i c a l requirements study o f d e n t i s t r y showed t h a t t h i s was not an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n such as t h i s showed what aspects of d e n t i s t r y were important and what were n o t . However, my own study w i l l not i n v o l v e any a n a l y s i s Of t r a i n i n g procedures, but w i l l merely c o n s i s t of the f i r s t s t e p , i . e . , a n a l y z i n g the bus d r i v e r ' s job by means of the c r i t i -c a l requirements technique. IV My study would i n v o l v e c o n s u l t i n g the d r i v e r s themselves i n o r d e r to determine the c r i t i c a l requirements of the j o b . Since the o p i n i o n of the d r i v e r s would be extremely important i n t h i s study, I would c e r t a i n l y a p p r e c i a t e i t i f I co u l d get your consent t o c a r r y out t h i s study, which I w i l l be doing i n order to earn my master of a r t s degree at the u n i v e r s i t y . Johann Stoyva IV - 3 APPENDIX V COPY OF MANAGEMENT NOTICE POSTED ON OPERATORS' BULLETIN BOARD •NOTICE TO ALL OPERATORS THE UNION AND MYSELF HAD A MEETING WITH MR. JOHANN STOYVA, WHO IS A STUDENT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, TO CONSIDER HIS REQUEST TO GATHER INFORMATION, THROUGH CONVERSA-TIONS WITH OPERATORS, TO ENABLE HIM TO PREPARE A THESIS ON THE CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS OF A BUS OPERATOR'S JOB. THE UNION AND THE COMPANY AGREED TO COOPERATE WITH MR. STOYVA TO THE EXTENT OF APPROVING HIS ACTIVITY IN SOLICITING IN-FORMATION FROM YOU. THE INFORMATION, ONCE" GATHERED, WILL BE ANALYZED BY HIM, AND HE WILL PREPARE A THESIS DEALING WITH THE IMPORTANT PARTS OF A BUS OPERATOR'S DUTIES. MR. STOYVA WILL BE MAKING CONTACTS WITH VARIOUS OPERATORS AT THE END OF OUR LINES, AND YOUR COOPERATION WITH HIM WILL BE APPRECIATED BY THE COMPANY AND, IN PARTICULAR, BY MR. STOYVA. I WOULD LIKE TO SAY THAT YOUR COOPERATION WITH MR. STOYVA WILL ENABLE HIM TO PREPARE MATERIAL ON WHICH TO GAIN HIS M.A. DEGREE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. June 21, 1955. (signed) J . I n t i h a r y _ G e n * Su&t, of C i t y L i n e s Op-e r a t i o n s . APPENDIX VI GENERAL COMMENTS OF SUPERVISORS, OPERATORS AND PUBLIC A. Gen e r a l Comments o f S u p e r v i s o r s The f o l l o w i n g comments were spontaneous ones on the p a r t of the s u p e r v i s o r s . I t was not p a r t of the o r i g i n a l i n -q u i r y t o conduct an o p i n i o n survey, but some remarks kept r e c u r -r i n g so f r e q u e n t l y t h a t the i n v e s t i g a t o r c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i t might be of some value t o r e c o r d the more numerous of these remarks. One comment made by ro u g h l y h a l f of the s u p e r v i s o r s was that they seldom took an op e r a t o r ' s name and number. As one s u p e r v i s o r put i t , " I f you ask f o r a man's name and number he has i t i n f o r you." Most of the s u p e r v i s o r y group s t a t e d t h a t they seldom put i n an o p e r a t o r ' s name f o r a commendation. On the o t h e r hand, they seldom turned i n a v i o l a t i o n . S e v e r a l s u p e r v i s o r s , d e c l a r e d t h a t "the s u p e r v i s o r h i m s e l f i s i n e f f e c t -i v e i f he can't s e t t l e the i s s u e s on the spot. A l s o , the r e s u l t s are much b e t t e r i f I t a l k t o the man myself." Others" c i t e d cases o f where they d i d not t u r n i n a v i o l a t i o n because i t would damage a l o n g r e c o r d o f good s e r v i c e . One mentioned a case where he would have l i k e d t o have g i v e n a man.a commenda-t i o n f o r v o l u n t a r i l y c o n t i n u i n g s e r v i c e when h i s r e l i e f was l a t e , but t h i s would have meant t u r n i n g i n a v i o l a t i o n f o r the man who was l a t e . V I - 1 Regarding the matter o f communication between op e r a t o r s and s u p e r v i s o r s , one s u p e r v i s o r suggested t h a t the op e r a t o r s should have some reward f o r communicating. T h i s problem o f communication would appear t o be a v e r y ' r e a l one i n the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n d i v i s i o n , s i n c e most o f the ope r a t o r s have o n l y a v e r y b r i e f c o n t a c t w i t h the s u p e r v i s o r s d u r i n g the course o f the day's work. One s u p e r v i s o r , who appeared t o get along v e r y w e l l w i t h the men, s t a t e d t h a t he made a s p e c i a l p o i n t o f g e t t i n g t o know a man's i n t e r e s t s , so t h a t the two of them would have something i n common to t a l k about whenever they met. When a f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n had been b u i l t up the op e r a t o r would f e e l q u i t e f r e e to t a l k t o the s u p e r v i s o r , and would a l s o mention such t h i n g s as t r o u b l e on the l i n e e t c . , which the s u p e r v i s o r might not get t o know about otherwise. S e v e r a l of the s u p e r v i s o r s a l s o mentioned t h a t there were i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n d i s c i p l i n e from one s u p e r v i s o r t o another. As one of them s a i d , "An o p e r a t o r has three o r f o u r s u p e r v i s o r s on the one run. He may get away w i t h something w i t h one super-v i s o r , w h i l e another s u p e r v i s o r may jump him f o r the same t h i n g . So the op e r a t o r doesn't know what t o expect." One of the super-v i s o r y group s t a t e d t h a t some of h i s f e l l o w s were "out f o r s c a l p s , and t h a t t h i s made t h i n g s d i f f i c u l t f o r the r e s t o f the s u p e r v i s -o r s , s i n c e the op e r a t o r s would say, "You f e l l o w s are a l l the same." Regarding the q u e s t i o n o f d i s c i p l i n e , one s u p e r v i s o r remarked t h a t , "The s u p e r v i s o r can win out on the l i n e , but he may l o s e out i n the b u l l - p e n . " Thus, when t h i s s u p e r v i s o r r e -q u i r e s c o o p e r a t i o n i n some emergency, i t may be r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n . V I - 2 Some of the s u p e r v i s o r s mentioned a l s o t h a t morale and customer c o n t a c t s had improved i n the l a s t two y e a r s . A p p a r e n t l y there i s a more seasoned crew o f o p e r a t o r s now. I n a d d i t i o n , the i n c r e a s e i n running time two years ago r e s u l t e d i n a favour-able change of a t t i t u d e . The q u e s t i o n o f time a l s o came up f r e q u e n t l y . The super-v i s o r s s t r e s s e d t h a t the op e r a t o r i s under pressure o f time. But he must l e a r n t o r e l a x i f the job i s not to get the b e t t e r o f him. A p p a r e n t l y , stomach d i s o r d e r s , such as u l c e r s and oth e r d i s e a s e s r e l a t e d to h i g h t e n s i o n , used t o be p r e v a l e n t amongst many of the o p e r a t o r s . E v i d e n t l y t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s b e t t e r now than p r e v i o u s l y . Some of the s u p e r v i s o r s a l s o mentioned t h a t they would never c r i t i c i z e a man i f he were l a t e ; o n l y i f he were "running sharp"; t h a t i s , ahead of schedule. B. G e n e r a l Comments o f Operators The o p e r a t o r s d i d not o f f e r g e n e r a l o p i n i o n s as f r e q u e n t l y as the s u p e r v i s o r s . However, the g i s t o f the remarks most f r e -q u e n t l y made i s o u t l i n e d below. One remark o f t e n made i n response t o the request f o r e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r neg a t i v e i n c i d e n t s was t h a t the job i s " a l l r o u t i n e . " However, i n s p i t e o f t h i s i n i t i a l response the op e r a t o r s would g e n e r a l l y r e c a l l t hree or f o u r c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . Another r e s -ponse f r e q u e n t l y g i v e n t o the request f o r c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s was, "I don't know of anyone who's a r e a l l y bad bus d r i v e r . He wouldn't be on the job i f he was r e a l l y bad." Some op e r a t o r s a l s o mentioned t h a t they made a p o i n t o f not remembering v a r i o u s V I - 3 i n c i d e n t s t h a t o c c u r r e d on the j o b . The reason which they gen-e r a l l y gave f o r t h i s behaviour was t h a t t h e r e was no use worrying about these t h i n g s . Us one o p e r a t o r s a i d , " I never g i v e these t h i n g s a second thought. But some guys go home and worry about i t a l l n i g h t . " Many remarks r e l a t e d t o the pressure of time; f o r example, "There i s always time on your mind on t h i s j o b ," or " T h i s job i s tough i f you l e t time p r e s s u r e get you down." A p r e v a l e n t o p i n i o n on the matter of time was t h a t the op e r a t o r who i s worry-i n g about time i s l i k e l y to be rougher both i n the h a n d l i n g o f h i s v e h i c l e and i n d e a l i n g w i t h the passengers. Most o f the o p e r a t o r s were a l s o c a r e f u l t o s t r e s s t h a t i f an o p e r a t o r were brusque or rude t h e r e was a good reason f o r i t . Perhaps the o p e r a t o r had had a p a r t i c u l a r l y tough day. Many mentioned that f a m i l y t r o u b l e s o r f i n a n c i a l w o r r i e s might be the cause. Another t h i n g f r e q u e n t l y mentioned was t h a t the o p e r a t o r who "gets a rough time" from one passenger, i s l i k e l y t o vent h i s h o s t i l i t y on another passenger l a t e r on d u r i n g the day; f o r example, "Someone g i v e s you a bad time. So you p i c k on the next guy." Some of the o p e r a t o r s a l s o had remarks about the i r r e g u l a r hours on the job. These i r r e g u l a r hours mean t h a t the op e r a t o r i s l i m i t e d i n the s p o r t s and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n which he can take p a r t . S i n c e he may l a c k much d i v e r s i o n i n the way o f sp o r t he i s sometimes i n poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . Another oper-a t o r remarked t h a t the changeover t o t r o l l e y busses has meant th a t the op e r a t o r i s much more alone than he was i n the days o f VI- 4 ' the s t r e e t - c a r s when the r e were two men on each c a r . I n the o l d days he had someone to t a l k t o at the end of the l i n e . But now he may be alone at the end of the run. Consequently, he may s i t there by h i m s e l f and t h i n k about h i s t r o u b l e s . S e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g remarks concerned the mood of the pub-l i c . Some of the o p e r a t o r s mentioned t h a t the mood o f the p u b l i c was much b e t t e r i n sunny weatherj and a l s o t h a t when people have to wait a long time i n the r a i n before they get on the bus they tend to become more i r r i t a b l e . A few o p e r a t o r s a l s o s t a t e d t h a t the people who came e a r l y i n the morning were e a s i e r to d e a l w i t h , not o n l y because they were r e s t e d , but a l s o because these people were r e g u l a r passengers. With regard t o s a f e t y , one i d e a t h a t came out v e r y f r e -q u e n t l y was that the good op e r a t o r l e a r n s to a n t i c i p a t e dangers: "You have to d r i v e the o t h e r f e l l o w ' s c a r a l o t . " Consequently, the good operator i s seldom i n v o l v e d i n emergencies. Another o p i n i o n t h a t came up v e r y f r e q u e n t l y was t h a t the o p e r a t o r s f e l t t h a t they r e c e i v e d e x c e l l e n t t r a i n i n g , and they were proud o f the f a c t t h a t they were " p r o f e s s i o n a l d r i v e r s . " As to the matter of suggestions f o r improving s e r v i c e e t c . , there were no remarks t h a t were g e n e r a l l y made. But the f o l l o w -i n g are examples of some of the i d e a s o f the o p e r a t o r s . One o p e r a t o r s t a t e d t h a t he had some d i f f i c u l t y i n t e l l i n g whether the f l a s h e r b u t t o n was on or o f f . T h i s b u t t o n i s meant to i n d i -cate when the f l a s h e r s are on, but t h i s man d e c l a r e d t h a t , " I f the sun i s s h i n i n g on the button you can't t e l l i f i t ' s on or o f f . " Another o p e r a t o r suggested t h a t t h e r e should be a speaker on each bus as t h e r e i s i n D e t r o i t . T h i s way t h e r e would be no d i f f i c u l t y i n the passengers h e a r i n g what the name of the s t r e e t i s . Another s u g g e s t i o n r e l a t i n g to road o p e r a t i o n , was that the company has not educated the motoring p u b l i c to the f a c t t h a t a t r o l l e y bus needs a wide angle when i t i s t u r n i n g . Re-g a r d i n g schedules, one man d e c l a r e d t h a t "We're d r i v i n g too f a s t a schedule f o r o l d people. The a c c e l e r a t i o n i s too h i g h . " Another s a i d he thought the s u p e r v i s o r s d i d not g i v e enough c r e d i t t o the o p e r a t o r s . He a l s o remarked t h a t "One pat on the back i s b e t t e r than f i f t y k i c k s i n the r e a r . " Another s t a t e d that a new operator on a run should have a f e l l o w o p e r a t o r e x p l a i n the runs t o him. T h i s should be done by one of the o p e r a t o r s on the r u n r a t h e r than the s u p e r v i s o r , because the s u p e r v i s o r l o s e s touch w i t h the d e t a i l s of the r u n . C. G e n e r a l Comments o f P u b l i c I n the case of the i n t e r v i e w s c a r r i e d out by means o f t e l e -phone, about 50 per cent of the respondents o f f e r e d g e n e r a l o p i n -i o n s about the t r o l l e y bus o p e r a t o r s . Of the o p i n i o n s put f o r t h r o u g h l y 90 per cent c o u l d be regarded as f a v o u r a b l e to the opera-t o r s . Less than 10 per cent of the s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d o p i n i o n s which were unfavourable to the o p e r a t o r s . T y p i c a l comments made by those who thought w e l l of the o p e r a t o r s were, "The major-i t y are v e r y c o n s i d e r a t e on our run." " I t h i n k h i g h l y of the d r i v e r s i n the B . C . E l e c t r i c . " "They a l l seem q u i t e n i c e . " An i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g t h a t came t o l i g h t was t h a t a l a r g e p e r c e n t -age o f those who o f f e r e d g e n e r a l o p i n i o n s s a i d t h a t they r e a l i z e d t h a t the o p e r a t o r ^ job was a d i f f i c u l t one. Very common were V I - $ remarks such as the f o l l o w i n g : "The d r i v e r s are v e r y courteous on the whole. And the p u b l i c i s enough t o d r i v e anybody c r a z y . " "They have a b i g v e h i c l e t o handle t h e r e . " "They're doing a f a i r l y good job, e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the r e s t r i c t i o n s t h e y ' r e o p e r a t i n g under, such as t i g h t schedules, heavy t r a f f i c and so f o r t h . " Of the m o t o r i s t s who made comments concerning the opera-t o r s about 50 per cent made f a v o u r a b l e remarks towards the opera-t o r s , the remainder appeared to be i n d i f f e r e n t i n a t t i t u d e . Most of the respondents seemed to have a more d i f f i c u l t time t r y i n g t o remember ne g a t i v e r a t h e r than p o s i t i v e I n c i d e n t s . Furthermore, i t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t even when the respon-dents d i d o f f e r n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t s they o f t e n q u a l i f i e d the s t a t e -ment w i t h remarks to the e f f e c t t h a t the o p e r a t o r ' s job i s a d i f f i c u l t one and t h a t i f he does something wrong t h e r e i s prob-a b l y a r e a s o n f f o r i t . Thus, roughly 40 per cent of the s u b j e c t s who r e c a l l e d n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t s a l s o made remarks such as the f o l l o w i n g : " T h i s o p e r a t o r turned out too f a s t i n t o the t r a f f i c . But they have to f o l l o w a schedule, so t h i s makes i t hard f o r them." "Some of them s t a r t p r e t t y j e r k y , but I don't t h i n k i t j s the bus d r i v e r ' s f a u l t . " " I guess they need t o have l o t s of p a t i e n c e . They have l o t s o f i r r i t a t i o n s . " " I t was a j e r k y r i d e . Maybe he was i n a hurry>;" "He p u l l e d r i g h t out i n f r o n t . Maybe he d i d n ' t see. me." S e v e r a l suggestions were made, most of them r e l a t i n g to the d e s i r e f o r more fre q u e n t s e r v i c e . I n c i d e n t a l l y , i t c o u l d be noted i n some cases t h a t the s u b j e c t s were h i g h l y f a v o u r a b l e V I - ? towards the o p e r a t o r s yet they f e l t t h a t s e r v i c e was not frequent enough on t h e i r l i n e . One man s t a t e d t h a t he d i d not mind i f the o p e r a t o r d i d not c a l l out the s t r e e t s as long as i t was day-l i g h t . However, he l i k e d the o p e r a t o r s to c a l l out the s t r e e t names when i t was dark or i n the wintertime when the windows were fogged up, because then he could not. observe f o r h i m s e l f which s t r e e t the bus was approaching. Some s u b j e c t s s t a t e d t h a t they thought the bus o p e r a t o r s were much more p o l i t e than the s t r e e t - c a r men used to be, and t h a t they had n o t i c e d a change f o r the b e t t e r i n the l a s t few y e a r s . VI- $ APPENDIX V I I CRITICAL BEHAVIOURS CONSTITUTING EACH OF THE 33 CRITICAL  REQUIREMENTS AND FREQUENCIES OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CRITICAL E x p l a n a t o r y note T h i s appendix g i v e s a d e t a i l e d breakdown of the 33 c r i t i c a l requirements i n t o t h e i r component " c r i t i c a l b ehaviours." One c r i t i c a l requirement i s l i s t e d per page and the f u l l statement of the p a r t i c u l a r c r i t i c a l requirement can be found on the upper l e f t of each t a b l e . F o r each c r i t i c a l requirement the frequency and the source of the c o n s t i t u e n t " c r i t i c a l b e haviours" i s shown. The " c r i t i c a l b e haviours" are but one step removed from the raw data; that i s , the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s themselves. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h at each " c r i t i c a l behaviour" i s d e r i v e d from a group o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r t h a t they can be regarded as the same a c t i o n . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the t a b l e s i s ex-p l a i n e d i n the example reproduced on the next page. A b b r e v i a t i o n s used INCIDENTS IN EACH CRITICAL BEHAVIOUR OPS op e r a t o r s SUPS s u p e r v i s o r s PUB p u b l i c pos p o s i t i v e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s neg n e g a t i v e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s sum sum of p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s C R . c r i t i c a l requirement VI I - 1 AREA I I : C.R. No. 16 TRAVELLING AT MODERATE SPEED Ma i n t a i n s a mod-er a t e speed, e s p e c i a l l y i f i n a r e s t r i c t e d zone OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum New C r i t i c a l behaviours -a.Operator was t r a v e l l i n g too f a s t -b.Operator was t r a v e l l i n g too^ f a s t i n r e s t r i c t e d zone^ Old c r i t i c a l  behaviours -©.Operator was t r a v e l l i n g too f a s t V 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 ' X 7 0 1 1 0 1 1 8 1. C r i t i c a l requirement: Statement of the c r i t i c a l requirement together w i t h i t s short t i t l e . 2. A r e a and C.R. d e s i g n a t i o n : T h i s c r i t i c a l requirement f a l l s i n A r ea I I , safe d r i v i n g , and i s number 16 i n the s e r i e s of 33 c r i t i c a l requirements. 3. "New" c r i t i c a l b ehaviours: The "new" c r i t i c a l behaviours are those based on c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s l e s s than one month o l d . Favourable c r i t i c a l behaviours are regarded as being p o s i -t i v e and are i n d i c a t e d by preceding p l u s s i g n . Unfavour-able c r i t i c a l behaviours are regarded as being megative and are i n d i c a t e d by a minus s i g n . 4. Frequencies of "New" c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s : I n d i c a t e s that there are 2 negative c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s c o n t r i b u t e d by the oper a t o r group, i n the "new" c r i t i c a l behaviour, "-a. Oper-at o r was t r a v e l l i n g too f a s t . " V I I - 2 5« T o t a l "new" f r e q u e n c i e s : Shows the t o t a l number o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s which each o f the th r e e groups o f s u b j e c t s con-t r i b u t e d t o the t o t a l o f "new" c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r s . T o t a l s c o n t r i b u t e d by each group are broken down i n t o p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t s . 6. Old c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r s : The " o l d " c r i t i c a l behaviours are based on c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s more than one month o l d . 7. F r e q u e n c i e s of " o l d " c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s : I n d i c a t e s t h a t the s u p e r v i s o r group and the p u b l i c group c o n t r i b u t e d 1 nega-t i v e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t each t o the " o l d " c r i t i c a l behaviour, " - a . Operator was t r a v e l l i n g too f a s t . " 8 . T o t a l " o l d " f r e q u e n c i e s : Shows the t o t a l number of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s which each o f the three groups o f s u b j e c t s con-t r i b u t e d t o the t o t a l o f " o l d " c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r s . T o t a l s c o n t r i b u t e d by each group are broken down i n t o p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t s . V I I - 3 AREA I : DEALING WITH PUBLIC; C R . No. 1 BEING COURTEOUS TO PUBLIC < I s p l easant w i t h passengers; puts them at ease; and does not OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum l o s e temper i f passenger abusive New c r i t i c a l behaviours 7 24 31 0 4 4 3 5 8 10 33 43 - a Argued w i t h passenger r a t h e r than e x p l a i n i n g q u e s t i o n . 0 1 1 -b Operator rude, abrupt, abusive or c u r t w i t h passenger. 0 23 23 0 4 4 0 5 5 +c Operator v e r y p l e a s a n t ; puts passenger at ease, i s q u i e t i f passenger abusive t o him; t h a t i s , not angered e a s i l y . 6 0 6 3 0 3 +d Operator q u i e t e d a n o i s y passen-ger. 1 0 1 Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 1 10 11 1 1 2 0 4 4 2 15 17 - a Operator rude, abrupt, abusive or c u r t w i t h passenger. 0 9 9 0 1 1 0 3 3 +b Operator v e r y p l e a s a n t ; puts • passenger at ease, i s q u i e t i f passenger abusive t o him; th a t i s , not e a s i l y angered. 1 0 1 1 0 1 -c F a i l e d t o q u i e t n o i s y o r troublesome passenger. 0 1 1 0 1 1 AREA Is C.R. No. 2 DISPLAYING GOOD PERSONAL DEPORTMENT Is clean shaven and abstains from smoking on job New c r i t i c a l behaviours - a Smoked while on duty -b Operator was unshaven Old c r i t i c a l behaviours - a Smoked while on duty OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum O i l O i l 0 0 0 0 2 2 O i l O i l 0 0 0 O i l 0 0 0 O i l O i l AREA I : C.R.No. 3 GIVING CLEAR AND ACCURATE DIRECTIONS pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 3 - a Gave wrong or con f u s i n g or no d i r -e c t i o n s at a l l when be should have -b Had wrong s i g n up. +c R e a l i z e d passenger's needs and v o l -unteered i n f o r m a t i o n on d i r e c t i o n s : e g . i f passenger w a i t i n g f o r bus t h a t was not coming, or l e t passenger know when he had g i v e n him wrong i n f o r m a t i o n the f i r s t time. +d Gave f u l l and courteous d i r c t n s : 2 +e Could not answer q u e s t i o n on d i r -e c t i o n s but t o l d person who to ask. 1 4 0 2 6 2 2 0 0 2 1 1 2 0 0 1 2 20 4 24 Gives courteous, simple and OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL adequate d i r e c t i o n s . R e a l i z e s passenger's needs and v o l u n t e e r s i n f o r m a t i o n i f necessary. New c r i t i c a l behaviours 9 0 9 7 3 10 4 1 5 - a Gave wrong or c o n f u s i n g or no d i r e c t i o n s at a l l when he should 0 2 2 O i l have. -b Had wrong s i g n up. O i l +c R e a l i z e d passenger's needs and vol u n t e e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n on d i r -e s t i o n s : eg. i f passenger w a i t i n g f o r bus t h a t was not coming or l e t passenger know i f he gave him wrong i n f o r m a t i o n the f i r s t time. 4 0 4 3 0 3 2 0 2 +d Gave f u l l and courteous d i r c t n s : 3 0 3 4 0 4 1 0 1 +e Could not answer a q u e s t i o n on d i r e c t i o n s but made sure passen-ger found out by using, a map or t e l l i n g person who to ask. 2 0 2 1 0 1 4 11 AREA Is C.R. No. 4 CALLING STREETS C a l l s out s t r e e t s c l e a r l y and r e g u l a r l y . OPS SOPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum New c r i t i c a l behaviours 4 1 5 2 0 2 2 1 3 8 2 10 - a F a i l e d t o c a l l out s t r e e t s r e g u l a r l y and c l e a r l y . 0 1 1 0 1 1 +b C a l l e d out s t r e e t s c l e a r l y and r e g u l a r l y . 4 0 4 2 0 2 +c C a l l e d out s t r e e t s and e s p e c i a l l y connections c l e a r l y and r e g u l a r l y . 2 0 2 Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 1 0 1 1 2 3 2 2 4 -!-a F a i l e d t o c a l l out s t r e e t s c l e a r l y and r e g u l a r l y . 0 2 2 +b C a l l e d out s t r e e t s c l e a r l y and r e g u l a r l y . 1 0 •1 +c C a l l e d out s t r e e t s and e s p e c i a l l y connections c l e a r l y and r e g u l a r l y '1 0 1 AREA Is C.R. No. 5 DEALING WITH TRANSFERS Is c o n s i d e r a t e when passengers have d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t r a n s f e r s ; i s courteous i n r e f u s i n g a bad one; g i v e s to passengers who gen-u i n e l y need them l a t e r on and who d i d not r e a l i z e t h i s on f i r s t b oarding; c a r e f u l i n marking the time a t r a n s f e r was i s s u e d . OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum New c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 4 4 4 - a Too o f f i c i o u s i n r e f u s i n g a t r a n s f e r , or r e f u s e d t r a n s f e r to passenger who gen u i n e l y needed i t l a t e r on. 0 3 3 +b Very c a r e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g t o passenger t h a t t r a n s f e r was no good. +c Lax i n marking the time a t r a n s -f e r was i s s u e d , so t h a t the operator on the next bus d i d not know i f i t was r e a l l y good or not. O i l Old c r i t i c a l behaviours (none present i n t h i s c r i t i c a l requirement) AREA Is C.R. 6 DEALING WITH FARES Con s i d e r a t e when passenger has d i f f i c u l t y w i t h f a r e , such as being short o f money or o n l y having a l a r g e b i l l . C r i t i c a l Behaviours - new +a Passenger had o n l y a l a r g e b i l l , so o p e r a t o r l e t passenger r i d e to a p l a c e where she could change i t . +b Paid e x t r a f a r e f o r woman who found h e r s e l f short of money. -c Operator d i d not e x p l a i n system of f a r e s t o confused passenger. Old c r i t i c a l behaviours OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum 0 4 -d Refused t o handle " d i r t y money" from woman—she had i t i n her mouth. -e Was absent from bus while pas-sengers were boarding. - f Operator d i d not know how much money had had i n h i s changer. +g Gave f r e e r i d e t o r e g u l a r pas-senger who found s e l f broke. -h Ordered o f f a passenger who o n l y had a l a r g e b i l l . 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 AREA Ix C R . 7 GIVING FIRST AID M o Gives f i r s t a i d t o i n j u r e d passenger o r p e d e s t r i a n ; takes the t r o u b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e at the scene o f an a c c i d e n t t o see i f he can be o f a s s i s t a n c e . New c r i t i c a l behaviours +a Operator gave f i r s t a i d t o s i c k o r i n j u r e d person. +b At scene o f a c c i d e n t o p e r a t o r i n q u i r e d to see i f anybody was h u r t . +c Operator i n v e s t i g a t e d nearby chimney f i r e to make sure t h a t i t was under c o n t r o l . OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum 4 0 4 0 0 0 1 0 1 5 0 5 3 0 3 1 0 1 1 0 1 Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 +a Operator gave f i r s t a i d t o s i c k or i n j u r e d person. ASSISTING HANDICAPPED PASSENGER Gives p h y s i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o b l i n d , c r i p p l e d o r handicapped person, or t o someone i n d i f f i -c u l t y such as a woman w i t h a buggy • or a c h i l d i n t r o u b l e . New c r i t i c a l b ehaviours +a Helped woman on or o f f w i t h baby buggy. -b F a i l e d t o h e l p woman w i t h buggy. +c Helped e l d e r l y person o r pers o n w i t h p a r c e l s on or o f f . +d Cl o s e d window f o r o l d couple who were too weak t o do i t themselves +e Helped an i n v a l i d on o r o f f . +f Helped a b l i n d person; e i t h e r on or o f f the bus or acro s s the s t r e e t and saw t h a t they got s t a r t e d i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . +g Went out to he l p passenger r e -t r i e v e l o s t money. +h Stopped i n r u s h hour t o l e t o f f a s i c k c h i l d . + i Operator looked a f t e r c h i l d r e n , on bus. Old c r i t i c a l behaviours OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum 3 0 1 2 11 +a Helped woman on or o f f bus w i t h buggy. 1 +c Helped e l d e r l y p erson o r person w i t h p a r c e l s on or o f f bus. +f Helped a b l i n d person on or o f f bus o r a c r o s s s t r e e t and saw th a t 9 t h e y got s t a r t e d i n r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . 0 1 0 0 3 1 5 2 23 0 23 0 1 0 2 0 11 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 5 0 5 1 0 1 3 0 3 6 o 6 1 0 1 9 0 9 11 0 11 1 0 1 2 0 2 6 0 6 19 0 19 2 0 2 1 0 1 3 0 3 /continmed AREA I ; C R . Mo. 8 - continued ASSISTING HANDICAPPED PASSENGERS OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum +j Helped l a d y who had f a l l e n w i t h baby i n arms. 1 0 1 1 0 1 +k Inquired at l o s t and found f o r passenger's l o s t a r t i c l e . 1 0 1 AREA I : C.R. No. 9 WAITING FOR PASSENGERS 0 1 1 0 8 11 0 11 8 0 2 HO 1 2 Makes s p e c i a l e f f o r t t o make sure OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL . t h a t passenger able t o .catch bus; s u m o g g u m o g n e g s u m o s n e g s u m waits f o r running passenger; waits. — = £ = f o r connecting bus., p i c k s up at the r i g h t p l a c e s . New c r i t i c a l behaviours 28 32 60 7 3 10 13 6 19 48 41 89 +a Tooted horn t o make sure t h a t connecting bus waited. 3 0 3 1 0 1 -b Operator waited so long t h a t he missed some l a t e r connections ^ f o r h i s passengers, n -c Did not wait f o r connecting buss i e s p e c i a l l y as bus approaching. H +d Made sure t o wait f o r a meet. +e Waited f o r passengers on s t r e e t , runnihg o r walking, who wanted to c a t c h the .bus. 10 0 10 4 0 4 9 0 9 - f F a i l e d t o wait f o r passenger, run-ning or walking, who wanted r i d e . 0 15 15 0 2 2 0 5 5 +g Went out o f way to p i c k up or un-load passengers eg. i n middle o f s t r e e t , or woke up passenger ( u s u a l l y on o u t l y i n g l i n e s ) . 4 0 4 1 0 1 -h Picked up or unloaded passenger i n dangerous places eg. i n middle of b l o c k . 0 4 4 - i Did not g i v e passengers, e s p e c i -a l l y o l d ones, a chance t o s i t down bef o r e s t a r t i n g bus. O i l O i l +j I f e l d e r l y o r c r i p p l e d people boarding d i d not s t a r t t i l l they were seated. 3 0 3 3 0 3 AREA I : C R . No. 9 - continued WAITING FOR PASSENGERS OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum  Old C r i t i c a l behaviours 2 5 7 O i l 4 1 5 6 7 13 -b Waited too long and so missed some l a t e r connections f o r h i s passengers. O i l -c Did not wait f o r approaching connecting bus: e s p e c i a l l y as other bus approaching. 0 2 2 <j +§ Waited f o r passenger on the £ s t r e e t , running or walking, who wanted to c a t c h bus. 2 0 2 1 r f F a i l e d to w a i t , f o r person, run-•£J n i n g o r walking, who wanted cr to c a t c h bus. 3 3 0 1 1 +g Went out of way to p i c k up per-son, or to unload person; eg. i n middle o f s t r e e t , or woke up a r e g u l a r passenger ( u s u a l l y on o u t l y i n g l i n e s ) . 1 0 1 +j I f e l d e r l y o r c r i p p l e d people boarding, o p e r a t o r d i d not s t a r t t i l l they were seated 1 0 1 1 0 1 . +k Dropped p a r c e l s f o r passengers at c e r t a i n stops ( o u t l y i n g d i s -t r i c t s ) . 1 0 1 AREA I I ; SAFE DRIVING; C R . No. 10, TAKING SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS FOR CHILDREN Operator t a k e s s p e c i a l s a f e t y p r e - Qpg SUPS PUB TOTAL c a u t i o n s when c h i l d r e n are around; „ — ^ „ „ „ „ — " ~ ~ " ~ ~ T ~ 7 r i — r r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ^ T slows down b e f o r e he comes to p l a c e P ° s neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum where they are p l a y i n g , h e l p s them acro s s s t r e e t o r takes out of danger New c r i t i c a l b e haviours 4 2 6 2 1 3 2 0 2 8 3 1 1 +a Took s p e c i a l s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n s when c h i l d r e n were about; e i t h e r stopped o r braked t o l e t a c r o s s s t r e e t o r took a c r o s s h i m s e l f . 3 0 3 1 0 1 2 0 2 -b F a i l e d t o take s p e c i a l precau-t i o n s when c h i l d r e n were about. 0 2 2 +c Dashed out and rescued t o t as car b e a r i n g down on h e r . 1 0 1 +d Removed c a r r i a g e l e f t by s i d e of r o ad. 1 0 1 -e L e f t bus i n dangerous p o s i t i o n ( c h i l d p l a y i n g behind wheel). O i l Old c r i t i c a l b ehaviours 3 +a Took s p e c i a l s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n s when c h i l d r e n about; e i t h e r stopped or braked t o l e t across the s t r e e t o r took a c r o s s h i m s e l f . 1 +d Removed c a r r i a g e l e f t by s i d e o f road. 1 +f Operator checked o u t s i d e bus when he n o t i c e d t h a t one c h i l d who had been t h e r e a minute ago was no l o n g e r t h e r e . 1 AREA H i C.R. No. 11 ANTICIPATING OR FORESTALLING AN ACCIDENT Operator a n t i c i p a t e s or f o r e s t a l l s OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL a c c i d e n t by b r a k i n g i n good time; pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum n o t i c e s dangerous s i t u a t i o n shaping up while he i s s t i l l some d i s t a n c e away; swings out i n middle o f s t r e e t t o prevent p e d e s t r i a n s from being run down by t r a f f i c , or able t o prevent a c c i d e n t by f l a g g i n g down ca r s behind him t o stop f o r p e d e s t r i a n c r o s s i n g an i n t e r s e c t i o n . New c r i t i c a l behaviours 16 5 21 0 - 1 1 1 0 1 17 6 23 < +a Was observa n t j sensed o r saw M dangerous s i t u a t i o n shaping up , f u r t h e r down s t r e e t and slowed down beforehand, p e r m i t t i n g q u i c k £ stopping at danger spot. 5 0 5 +b Swung out i n middle o f s t r e e t t o stop t r a f f i c b e a r i n g down on p e d e s t r i a n s . 4 0 4 -c Did not slow down when th e r e was an a c c i d e n t hazard ahead. O i l +d Operator, who was stopped, waved to m o t o r i s t OK t o go ahead. 1 0 1 +e Was able t o prevent a c c i d e n t by f l a g g i n g down ca r s behind him to stop f o r p e d e s t r i a n c r o s s i n g i n t e r s e c t i o n . 7 0 7 - f Was l o o k i n g at wires w h i l e going through i n t e r s e c t i o n , so t h a t a t t e n t i o n was o f f the road. O i l -g Was t a l k i n g t o f e l l o w o p e r a t o r s i t t i n g i n f r o n t o f bus so he f o r g o t what he was doing. 0 4 4 AREA I I . C. R. No. 11 - continued OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 6 2 8 +a Was observant, o r saw or sensed dangerous s i t u a t i o n shaping up down the s t r e e t and slowed down beforehand so that he co u l d stop q u i c k l y when he got to the danger spot. 2 0 2 +b Swung out i n middle o f s t r e e t t o stop t r a f f i c b e a r i n g down on p e d e s t r i a n s . 1 0 1 +h Used f l a s h e r s and swished a i r when th e r e was not time t o f l a g down a c a r coming behind. 1 0 1 - i Was l o o k i n g i n m i r r o r when c a r swerved i n f r o n t and o p e r a t o r h i t c a r . O i l +j Swerved i n bus to stop empty c a r which had begun to r o l l down h i l l . 1 0 1 -k Passengers were i n f r o n t o f red l i n e and thereby o b s t r u c t e d v i s i b i l i t y . O i l -1 Noticed l a d y up the s t r e e t drop white glove and picked i t up f o r her. 1 0 1 AREA I I : C R . No. 12 MAKING QUICK STOP H M H ON Able t o stop q u i c k l y when c a r or ped- OPS e s t r i a n suddenly d a r t s i n f r o n t ; does not throw passengers w i t h stop; able to swerve q u i c k l y when brakes alone would not gi v e chance t o stop soon enough. New c r i t i c a l behaviours 24 1 25 + a Made gr a d u a l s a f e t y stop so t h a t no passengers were thrown. 2 0 2 -b Stopped too q u i c k l y and threw woman to the f l o o r . +c Able to stop q u i c k l y when c a r o r p e d e s t r i a n darted i n f r o n t o f bus. 17 0 17 +d Bus able t o swerve q u i c k l y when brakes alone would not gi v e chance t o stop soon enough. 5 0 5 SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum 1 1 Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 9 1 10 -b Stopped too q u i c k l y and threw woman to the f l o o r . O i l +c Able t o stop q u i c k l y when c a r or p e d e s t r i a n darted suddenly i n . f r o n t of bus. 5 0 5 +d Able to swerve q u i c k l y when brakes alone would not gi v e chance to stop soon.enough. 4 0 4 0 26 1 27 10 AREA I I : C.B. No. 13 SAFE PRACTICES WITH POLES t—1 T r a v e l l e d at moderate speed over ops SUPS PUB TOTAL i n s u l a t o r s ; used hooks and o t h e r pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum approved s a f e t y p r a c t i c e s i n r e - : : t r i e v i n g l o s t p o l e s . New c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 7 7 0 12 12 0 0 0 0 19 19 - a Operator broke h i s p o l e . O i l -b Operator damaged s p e c i a l work. 0 2 2 -c Did not come to immediate stop a f t e r l o s i n g p o l e s . O i l O i l -d Went too f a s t over s p e c i a l work and so l o s t p o l e s . 0 6 6 -e Did not s w i t c h o f f c o n t r o l s w itch when rewinding r e t r i e v e r s . O i l - f F a i l e d t o f i r s t p l a c e hooks under pole when r e t r i e v i n g . 0 4 4 -g Thumb was i n wrong p o s i t i o n on rope, and d i d not give steady, strong p u l l s . 0 2 2 -h P u l l e d rope towards t r a f f i c when rewinding. O i l Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 - a Operator broke h i s p o l e . O i l -c Did not come to immediate stop a f t e r l o s i n g p o l e s . O i l -d Went too f a s t over s p e c i a l work and so l o s t p o l e s . 0 4 4 - i L ost p o l e s and watched i n m i r r o r as c o a s t i n g around i n t e r s e c t i o n . O i l AREA I I : C.R. No. 14 SAFE HANDLING OF DOORS AND MIRRORS Opens and c l o s e s doors w i t h care so QPS SUPS PUB TOTAL t h a t passengers not endangered: uses — — — — — — — — — — m i r r o ? t o check t r a f f i c b l f o r V p u l l - P ° s neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum i n g out, and a l s o watches i n m i r r o r to see i f any more passengers ap-proaching and a l s o t o see what the unloaded passengers are d o i n g . New c r i t i c a l behaviours 2 8 10 1 2 3 0 0 0 3 10 13 - a Closed door too q u i c k l y and caught passenger. 0 2 2 -b Opened and c l o s e d doors too q u i c k l y , thus causing a rough r i d e . 0 1 . 1 0 2 2 +c Used care i n opening and c l o s i n g doors; waited u n t i l s t opping before opening, and always c l o s e d before t r y i n g to s t a r t up again. 1 0 1 -d F a i l e d to l o o k i n m i r r o r e i t h e r to check f o r t r a f f i c behind or f o r passengers who wanted a r i d e . 0 5 5 •e Watched i n m i r r o r to see i f any more people wanted a r i d e , or to see what unloaded passengers were doing. _2 0 2  Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 1 1 0 -d F a i l e d t o l o o k i n m i r r o r to check e i t h e r f o r t r a f f i c or f o r passengers who wanted t o c a t c h a r i d e . O i l AREA I I : C.R. No. 15 PARKING PARALLEL TO CURB <1 M vO -Parke p a r a l l e l t o curb i n l o a d -i n g zones so t h a t passengers do not have t o jump; parks s a f e l y by c u r b i n g wheels. New c r i t i c a l b ehaviours - a Parked w i t h wide space between r e a r door and curb. +b Curbed wheels b e f o r e l e a v i n g bus. Old c r i t i c a l behaviours -c F a i l e d t o put on emergency brake when s t o p p i n g . OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum 0 1 3 o 3 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 AREA I I ; C.R. No. 16 TRAVELLING AT MODERATE SPEED M a i n t a i n s a moderate speed,, e s p e c i a l l y i f i n a r e s t r i c t e d zone. OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum New c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 4 4 -a Operator was t r a v e l l i n g too f a s t . 0 2 2 H -b Operator was t r a v e l l i n g H too f a s t i n r e s t r i c t e d zone, i ro o Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 O i l 0 2 2 - a Operator was t r a v e l l i n g too f a s t . O i l O i l AREA I I : C.R. No. 17 SAFE POSITION ON ROAD T r a v e l s at a s a f e d i s t a n c e from OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL bus ahead: c a r e f u l about p a s s i n g „ • ^ „ , „„_ „ „ _ „ M o r stopping on i n s u l a t o r s at i n t e r - P o s neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum s e c t i o n s ; gets i n r i g h t l a n e when about to make a stop. New c r i t i c a l behaviours 1. 15 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 15 16 - a Followed too c l o s e behind another bus. 0 7 7 +b Moved i n t o i n s i d e l a n e b e f o r e making stop. 1 0 1 < -c L e t c a r get i n between bus and H curb on a t u r n . O i l -d Operator s t a l l e d s i n c e he had to stop on an i n s u l a t o r on i n t e r -im s e c t i o n . 0 4 4 -e T r i e d to pass another bus i n a dangerous p l a c e . 0 3 3  Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 3 3 - a Followed too c l o s e behind another bus. O i l -e T r i e d t o pass another bus i n a dangerous p l a c e . 0 2 2 - f Stopped too suddenly when another bus was too c l o s e behind. AREA i i i C.R. No. 18 BACKING UP IN A SAFE MANNER When backing up op e r a t o r has someone o u t s i d e t o wave him on and t o s i g n a l t h a t coast i s c l e a r . OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum New c r i t i c a l behaviours +a Helped another o p e r a t o r back up by waving him on. -b Operator backed up without any a s s i s t a n c e from r e a r . 1 1 2 0 0 1 0 . 1 O i l 0 0 0 1 1 2 Old c r i t i c a l behaviours none present i n t h i s c r i t i c a l requirement AREA I l l s SKILLFUL AMD COURTEOUS ROAD OPERATION: C.R. No. 19 OPERATING SMOOTHLY T r a v e l s smoothly even i n heavy t r a f f i c ; t r a v e l s without much gunning or bra k i n g or swerving i n and out of sto p s . New c r i t i c a l behaviours - a Operator swerved i n and out of stop s . -b Gunning and bra k i n g too <« s h a r p l y . £J +c E x c e p t i o n a l l y smooth o p e r a t i o n ; e s p e c i a l l y i n heavy t r a f f i c . 1 -d Allowed t r o l l e y to r o l l back £> on h i l l . Old c r i t i c a l behaviours -b Gunning and b r a k i n g too s h a r p l y , * c E x c e p t i o n a l l y smooth o p e r a t i o n ; e s p e c i a l l y i n heavy t r a f f i c . OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos sum pos neg sum pos neg sum 2 6 8 5 1 6 0 4 4 7 11 18 0 2 2 0 4 4 2 0 2 5 0 5 0 1 1 1 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 4 0 3 3 1 0 1 AREA I I I : C.R. No. 20 PULLING IN AND OUT OF ZONES CAREFULLY P u l l s away and i n t o zones v e r y c a r e f u l l y , and w i t h due regard f o r o ther t r a f f i c . OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum New c r i t i c a l behaviours 2 12 14 8 10 4 20 24 - a Bus cut r i g h t i n t o t r a f f i c ; p u l l e d out too q u i c k l y i n f r o n t of t r a f f i c , -b Operator p u l l e d out and f o r c e d m o t o r i s t i n t o next l a n e . +c P u l l e d away and i n t o zones c a r e f u l l y ; d i d not p u l l out u n t i l t h e r e was an opening. 12 12 0 0 6 2 6 2 Old c r i t i c a l behaviours -a Bus cut r i g h t i n t o t r a f f i c ; p u l l e d out too q u i c k l y i n f r o n t of t r a f f i c . AREA I I I : C.R. No. 21 BEING COURTEOUS WITH HORN Does not u n n e c e s s a r i l y b l a s t horn at v e h i c l e i n way, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f d r i v e r o f o t h e r v e h i c l e a l r e a d y knows t h a t he has to get out o f the way, and i s j u s t w a i t i n g f o r a chance to get:out o f way. New c r i t i c a l behaviours - a U n n e c e s s a r i l y b l a s t e d horn at car or bus i n the way; espec-i a l l y when d r i v e r of o t h e r v e h i c l e was about t o get out o f way i n any case. OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum O i l 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 6 6 0 - 1 1 0 5 5 Old c r i t i c a l behaviours none present i n t h i s c r i t i c a l requirement AREA I I I : C.R. No. 22 YIELDING RIGHT OF WAY Operator y i e l d s r i g h t o f way t o o p s SUPS PUB TOTAL another v e h i c l e ; e s p e c i a l l y t r u c k w i t h a b i g l o a d ; bus takes o n l y one pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum l a n e ; i f i n l i n e of busses stops t o l e t l i n e o f f o l l o w i n g autos pass. New c r i t i c a l behaviours 11 6 17 2 0 2 O i l 13 7 20 +a Y i e l d e d r i g h t of way where i t would do a l o t of good to the other d r i v e r ; eg. where auto t r y -i n g to get i n t o long l i n e o f t r a f f i c from a s i d e road; or i n <{ case of t r u c k w i t h l o a d t h a t was H hard to stop and s t a r t ; o r to f e l -, low o p e r a t o r who was l a t e . 8 0 8 2 0 2 -b Bus edged over and would have squeezed c a r . O i l -c F a i l e d t o y i e l d r i g h t of way t o v e h i c l e t h a t needed i t , o r s t o l e r i g h t of way. 0 3 3 +d L i n e of busses, or l a s t bus i n l i n e stopped t o l e t f o l l o w i n g busses pass s a f e l y . 3 0 3 -e Bus s t r a d d l e d both l a n e s going down s t r e e t . 0 3 3 •  Old c r i t i c a l behaviours -c Bus f a i l e d t o y i e l d r i g h t o f way t o v e h i c l e t hat needed i t , or s t o l e r i g h t of way. AREA I I I : C. R. No. 23 MAKING PROPER USE OF FLASHERS Makes proper use o f f l a s h e r s OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL i n t e l l i n g t r a f f i c what he i s p O S n e g s u m p o s n e g s u m p o s n e g s u m p o s n e g s u m going t o do; i . e . uses f l a s h e r s at r i g h t time. New C r i t i c i a l Behaviours 1 12 13 0 5 5 1 2 3 2 19 21 -a Used f l a s h e r when not p u l l i n g out. O i l -b Used f l a s h e r s too soon when !M approaching i n t e r s e c t i o n . 0 3 3 0 2 2 £j -c F a i l e d t o use f l a s h e r s p r o p e r l y i when p u l l i n g out. (11 p u l l i n g out; 1 p u l l i n g i n ) . 0 8 8 0 2 2 0 2 2 -d Did not s i g n a l soon enough t h a t he was going t o t u r n . O i l +e C a r e f u l t o put on f l a s h e r b e f o r e p u l l i n g out from curb. 1 0 1 1 0 1 Old C r i t i c a l Behaviours O i l 0 0 0 0 0 0-. -c F a i l e d t o use f l a s h e r s p r o p e r l y when p u l l i n g out. O i l AREA IV; MAINTAINING SERVICE: C.R. No. 24 OVERCOMING TIE-UP I f s t a l l e d , o p e r a t o r l e t s down own OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL po l e s or moves bus out of way; pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum swings bus out to block t r a f f i c i f he sees a t i e - u p ahead to keep more c a r s from jamming i n ; r e l i e v e s t i e - u p by shoving s t a l l e d c a r . New c r i t i c a l behaviours 5 2 7 1 2 3 0 0 0 6 4 10 +a S t a l l e d bus p u l l e d down p o l e s so other busses could get around 1 0 1 +b Moved bus out of l i n e and around corner to r e l i e v e t i e - u p at corner.1 0 1 -c L e f t bus so other busses c o u l d nop get by. 0 2 2 0 2 2 +d Shoved s t a l l e d car wi t h bus and so r e l i e v e d t i e - u p . 3 0 3 +e Saw a t i e - u p ahead and s t r a d d l e d both l a n e s of t r a f f i c t o keep ca r s from jamming i n any more. 1 0 1  Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 -c L e f t bus so other busses could not get by. O i l - f M erely sat w i t h bus at scene o f t i e - u p which made t h i n g s even worse. O i l -g Gave bumper push to s t a l l e d c a r , which i s dangerous i f bumper s l i p s over. O i l AREA IV; C.R. No. 25 REPAIRING BREAKDOWN Keeps bus i n o p e r a t i o n by f i x i n g SUPS PUB TOTAL or overcoming breakdown. pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum New c r i t i c a l behaviours +a Repaired s t a l l e d auto which was o b l o c k i n g t r a f f i c . -b Kept bus i n o p e r a t i o n by f i x i n g <j or overcoming breakdown. H -c F a i l e d t o t r y to f i n d out , cause of breakdown. ro Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 4 0 4 0 1 1 0 0 0 4 1 5 1 0 1 3 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 l +b Kept bus i n o p e r a t i o n by f i x i n g o r overcoming breakdown. 1 0 1 AREA IV: C.R. No. 26 SHOWING INITIATIVE IN GETTING BACK ON ROUTE When f o r c e d o f f rou t e uses i n i t i - OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL a t i v e i n g e t t i n g back on rou t e by p 0 s neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum t a k i n g down p o l e s and c o a s t i n g back on r o u t e ; o r he l p s f e l l o w o p e r a t o r t o do t h i s by t a k i n g down h i s p o l e s . New c r i t i c a l behaviours 4 1 5 1 0 1 +a Used i n i t i a t i v e t o get back on route by t a k i n g down p o l e s and c o a s t i n g , o r being able t o t u r n around. 3 0 3 1 0 *b Helped another o p e r a t o r get around b a r r i e r by running behind and l o w e r i n g p o l e s o f o t h e r bus which was c o a s t i n g around. 1 0 1 -c Got e x c i t e d and d i d f o o l i s h t h i n g s a f t e r going o f f l i n e . O i l  Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 6 0 6 6 0 6 0 0 0 12 0 12 +a Used i n i t i a t i v e t o get back on route by t a k i n g down p o l e s and c o a s t i n g o r being able t o t u r n around. .2 0 2 2 0 2 +b Helped o t h e r o p e r a t o r get round b a r r i e r by running behind and low-e r i n g p o l e s of o t h e r bus which was c o a s t i n g around. 3 0 3 +e Helped f e l l o w o p e r a t o r who was stuck on s l i p p e r y road by throw-i n g spare c h a i n s under h i s t i r e . 1 0 1 +e Helped f e l l o w o p e r a t o r put up p o l e s . 3 0 3 1 0 1 AREA IV: C.R. No. 27 MAINTAINING FLOW OF TRAFFIC AND PASSENGERS V o l u n t a r y a c t i o n t o make sure t h a t 22s- § E £ § £22 TOTAL f l o w of t r a f f i c and passengers main- pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum t a i n e d ; r e r o u t e s t r a f f i c when nec-e s s a r y , and co-operates by ^working d i l i g e n t l y i n a rush p e r i o d ; makes sure t h a t passengers get t o d e s t i n a -t i o n . New c r i t i c a l behaviours 4 2 6 9 4 13 0 0 0 13 6 19 - a Took wrong r o u t e . 0 1 1 0 2 2 -b Stopped at wrong p l a c e at end of l i n e so that i t was d i f f i c u l t < f o r people to get a r i d e . 0 1 1 O i l J H +C L e t passengers get on t o next bus , when f o r c e d to s t o p . 1 0 1 +d Drove l o s t passenger home i n H middle of n i g h t a f t e r work. 1 0 1 +e V o l u n t a r i l y went to work and r e d i r e c t e d t r a f f i c a f t e r a c c i d e n t i n the l i n e . 1 0 1 2 0 2 +f V o l u n t a r i l y continued w i t h s e r -v i c e a f t e r he saw i t was neces-sary; eg. when r e l i e f d i d not show up. 1 0 1 5 0 5 * g Operators co-operated by l o a d i n g over red l i n e i n r u s h p e r i o d . 1 0 1 -h F a i l e d to ask people to move back on a crowded bus. O i l + i Operators were v e r y q u i c k i n l o a d i n g d u r i n g a rush p e r i o d . 1 0 1 AREA IV: C.R.No. 27 - continued OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 3 5 8 11 5 16 1 0 1 15 10 25 - a Took wrong route O i l 0 2 2 +c L e t passengers get on to next bus when he was f o r c e d t o stop. 1 0 1 1 0 1 +e V o l u n t a r i l y went t o work and r e -d i r e c t e d t r a f f i c a f t e r a c c i d e n t i n l i n e . 1 0 1 2 0 2 +f V o l u n t a r i l y continued w i t h s e r -v i c e when he saw i t was necessary; eg. when r e l i e f d i d not show up. 5 0 5 -h F a i l e d t o ask people to move back 0 1 1 + i R e c a l l e d bumps and rough spots i n fog and thereby able to s t a y on ro u t e . 1 0 1 - j Made passenger get o f f and walk. 0 1 1 -k L e f t bus f u l l o f people. 0 1 1 0 1 1 - 1 Ran o f f route i n f o g . 0 1 1 +m Was never stuck i n snow. 1 0 1 -n Ran past crowd he was supposed to p i c k up. 0 1 1 -o V o l u n t a r i l y l e f t l a t e t o l i g h t e n l o a d on bus behind him. 1 0 1 +p Was on way to garage, but gave bus to other o p e r a t o r who was i n an a c c i d e n t . 1 0 1 -q Stopped bus when empty to go i n t o cafe f o r c o f f e e . <> 0 1 1 * r Took passenger to end o f l i n e and back t o the r i g h t stop (had not c a l l e d passenger's s t o p ) . 1 0 1 ABBA IV; C. R. No. 28 KEEPING ON SCHEDULE Operator keeps on time and i f OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL he i s too slow he s a c r i f i c e s h i s pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum re c o v e r y time t o get back on schedule. New c r i t i c a l behaviours 10 10 10 7 8 15 0 0 0 7 18 25 - a Was "running sharp". 0 5 5 0 5 5 -b D e l i b e r a t e l y " l a i d down", i . e . dawdled. ' 0 5 5. • 0 3 3 -c Operator exerted h i m s e l f and got back on time or s a c r i f i c e d r e c o v e r y time t o get back on schedule. 7 0 7 Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 2 2 1 13 14 0 0 0 . 1 15 16 - a Was "running sharp." O i l 0 8 8 -b D e l i b e r a t e l y " l a i d down", i . e . dawdled. 0 1 1 0 5 5' -e Operator exerted h i m s e l f and got back on time o r s a c r i f i c e d r ecovery time to get back on schedule. 1 0 1 AREA IVt C.R. No. 29 ARRIVING AT BUS ON TIME Operator a r r i v e s on time at OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL the bus he i s supposed to d r i v e . p O S n Q g s u m p O S n Q g s u m p 0 S n e g s u m p O S n e g s u m New c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 3 - a Operator f o r g o t where he was supposed to p i c k up r e l i e f . 0 1 -b Operator d i d not get to h i s £3 v e h i c l e on time. M -c R e l i e f f a i l e d to show up. 0 2 Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 2 2 0 0 -b Operator d i d not get to h i s v e h i c l e i n time. 0 2 2 AREA V: RELATIONS WITH SUPERVISORS; C.R. No, 30 COMMUNICATING TO SUPERVISORS Informs s u p e r v i s o r s o r r a d i o con- OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL t r o l of t r o u b l e on l i n e o r w i t h pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum v e h i c l e ; makes suggestions t o im-prove s e r v i c e ; secures names and addresses of witnesses a f t e r an a c c i d e n t • New c r i t i c a l behaviours 9 1 10 4 3 7 0 0 0 13 4 17 +a Operator rep o r t e d t o p o l i c e about s u s p i c i o u s c h a r a c t e r s l e a v i n g bus. 1 0 1 *b Operator secured names and <j addresses a f t e r a c c i d e n t . 3 0 3 £ J +c Phoned c o n t r o l when man on bus i was c r i t i c a l l y i l l . 1 0 1 +d Informed e i t h e r s u p e r v i s o r o r v£ r a d i o c o n t r o l about t r o u b l e on l i n e . 2 0 2 4 0 4 -e F a i l e d t o inf o r m e i t h e r super-v i s o r or r a d i o c o n t r o l about t r o u b l e on l i n e . 0 3 3 -g Lax about r e p o r t i n g v e h i c l e d e f e c t s on v e h i c l e r e p o r t c a r d . O i l +h Operator suggested to s u p e r v i s o r how sch e d u l i n g could be improved. 1 0 1 + i Operators to3id each other o f d e s i r a b l e meets. 1 0 1 AREA V: C.R. No. 30 - con t i n u e d OPS SUPS PJJB TOTAL pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum Old c r i t i c a l b ehaviours 5 0 5 5 5 10 0 0 0 10 5 15 +b Secured names and addresses o f witnesses a f t e r a c c i d e n t . 1 0 1 +c Phoned c o n t r o l when man was c r i t i c a l l y i l l . 3 0 3 +d Informed e i t h e r s u p e r v i s o r or r a d i o c o n t r o l about t r o u b l e on l i n e . 1 0 1 2 0 2 -e F a i l e d t o i n f o r m e i t h e r super-v i s o r o r r a d i o c o n t r o l about t r o u b l e on l i n e . 0 3 3 - i Showed new o p e r a t o r t i m i n g p o i n t s on the r u n . 1 0 1 +j Gave f r e e r i d e t o r e g u l a r pas-senger who was broke, but made note of i t so t h a t he c o u l d e x p l a i n i n case t h e r e was a checker on board. 1 0 1 -k Misinformed s u p e r v i s o r about t r o u b l e on l i n e . 0 2 2 +1 Asked o p e r a t o r i n a c c i d e n t i f he needed any a s s i s t a n c e . 1 0 1 AREA V: C.R. No. 31 OBEYING COMMANDS Operator obeys d i r e c t command; OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL keeps temper even though super- pos heg sum pos neg sum pos nee sum pos neg sum v i s o r t e l l s him t o do something he does not l i k e ; o r able t o c a r r y out a d i f f i c u l t command; reads b u l l e t i n s p r o p e r l y . New c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 0 0 - a Raised v o i c e or swore at super-v i s o r ; ( u s u a l l y i n response t o a command). -b F a i l e d t o read b u l l e t i n s p r o p e r l y . < -c F a i l e d to obey a d i r e c t command. M +d Able to c a r r y out a d i f f i c u l t M command. ^ Old c r i t i c a l behaviours - a Raised v o i c e to or swore at s u p e r v i s o r ( u s u a l l y i n response to command). -c. F a i l e d t o obey d i r e c t command. -e Changed sub j e c t when.supervisor . c o u n s e l l i n g . +f Very c h e e r f u l about mistakes when s u p e r v i s o r c o u n s e l l i n g . 1 14 15 0 0 0 1 14 15 0 4 4 0 2 2 0 8 8 1 0 1 1 14 15 0 0 0 1 14 15 0 9 9 0 4 4 0 1 1 1 0 1 AREA V: C.R. No. 12 WORKING OVERTIME IN EMERGENCY Makes e x t r a t r i p at su g g e s t i o n °^ : ^PJ PUB TOTAL of s u p e r v i s o r i n emergency. pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum New c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 0 0 4 1 5 - a Operator r e f u s e d t o make e x t r a t r i p when s u p e r v i s o r suggested i t i n emergency. 0 1 1 < +b W i l l i n g l y d i d e x t r a run when asked to do so by s u p e r v i s o r . 4 0 4 H 00 Old c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 0 0 4 0 4 00 0 0 4 + b ' W i l l i n g l y d i d e x t r a t r i p when asked t o do so by s u p e r v i s o r . 4 0 4 AREA Vs C.R. No. 33 IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OPS SUPS PUB TOTAL Improves performance a f t e r — suggestions from s u p e r v i s o r . pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum pos neg sum New c r i t i c a l behaviours 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 +a Operator improved markedly a f t e r t r a i n e r pointed out h i s < f a u l t s . 1 0 1 u» Old c r i t i c a l behaviours O i l 1 0 1 • Q> 0 0 1 1 2 + a Operator improved markedly • a f t e r s u p e r v i s o r p o i n t e d put h i s f a u l t s . 1 0 1 -b Threatened t o f i g h t a f t e r another o p e r a t o r had p o i n t e d out he was " l a y i n g down." O i l 

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