Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of the German Lutheran and Catholic immigrants in Canada, formerly residing in Tzarist and Soviet… Heier, Edmund 1955

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1955_A8 H4 S9.pdf [ 10.74MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106339.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106339-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106339-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106339-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106339-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106339-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106339-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106339-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106339.ris

Full Text

A GERMAN  STUDY  OP THE  LUTHERAN AND CATHOLIC  FORMERLY  RESIDING  I N  IMMIGRANTS  TZARIST  I N  AND SOVIET  CANADA, RUSSIA  by  EDMUND  A  THESIS  SUBMITTED  THE  I N PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS  the  FULFILMENT  FOR THE DEGREE  MASTER  i n  HEIER  OF  OF  OF  ARTS  Department of  S l a v o n i c  We  accept  s t a n d a r d  t h i s  t h e s i s  r e q u i r e d  degree  o f  Members S l a v o n i c  THE  S t u d i e s  as  from  conforming  c a n d i d a t e s  MASTER  o f  the  OF  t o  f o r  ARTS•  Department  o f  S t u d i e s .  UNIVERSITY  OF B R I T I S H  A p r i l ,  1955  COLUMBIA  the the  A STUDY OF THE GERMAN LUTHERAN AND CATHOLIC IMMIGRANTS IN CANADA, FORMERLY RESIDING IN TZARIST AND SOVIET RUSSIA  ABSTRACT After Empress Katherine I I of Russia issued a Manifesto i n 1763,  inviting European settlers to Russia, a sub-  s t a n t i a l number of Germans immigrated and settled, with special privileges, on the l e f t and right hand banks of the lower Volga River. The Napoleonic wars temporarily stopped this f i r s t influx of Germans into Russia. With the beginning of the 19th century, a second immigration of Germans started to Russia, which resulted i n the foundation of numerous German settlements i n the Black Sea region. The high birth rate amongst the German settlers soon made a land shortage apparent with the result that s i s t e r colonies were founded i n Siberia and Central Asia. Although the German settlers were on a low level "culturally, they progressed economically and when compared to their Russian neighbors, the Germans were a prosperous group. The Revolution of 1917 i n Russia brought about tremendous changes i n the German colonies, nevertheless the colonists remained residing i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l settlements u n t i l World  2 War I I .  With the outbreak of the Second World War, the Volga  Germans were termed "unreliables" and were resettled to Siberia.  The Black Sea Germans, since that area was occupied by-  German forces,, were repatriated to Germany. As early as 1#74, when the German colonists* p r i v i leges were curtailed i n Russia, an immigration to overseas countries had. started.  The period from 1874 to World War I ,  marked their f i r s t immigration to Canada. As the RussianGermans were a rural people, they settled exclusively i n the three prairie provinces of Canada. They settled according to their religious f a i t h although their settlements i n Canada were sporadic when compared to the close, dense settlements i n Russia. The period between World War I and World War I I marked the second immigration of Russian-Germans to Canada. Very few of these immigrants became farmers, the majority of them settled i n the c i t i e s .  After World War I I the third im-  migration period started. These Russian-German immigrants were o'f the group who were resettled to Germany during the Second World War. The economic success i n Canada culturally elevated the entire Russian-German group. They were leaderless and lacked a national feeling.  These two factors caused the r a -  pid adoption of Canadian culture by the Russian-Germans. While the adult immigrants have only reached a l e v e l of  3 adjustment, their children, who are Canadian born and educated, no longer d i f f e r from any of t h e i r fellow Canadians.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish to express my sincere thanks to the members of the Slavonic Studies Department at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e i r numerous suggestions and advice. I am also indebted to the B r i t i s h Columbia Youth Foundation who by t'heir generosity have made the completion of t h i s thesis p o s s i b l e .  I owe much to those who have so w i l l i n g l y  furnished me with valuable information f o r t h i s work.  TABLE OP CONTENTS  PART I THE GERMANS IN RUSSIA PAGE ..1  Chapter I .  German Settlements In Russia I. S t a t i s t i c s and D i s t r i b u t i o n of German Settlements II. Settlement of the Volga Region I I I . Settlements near PetersburgLeningrad IV. Settlement of the Black Sea Region  Chapter I I .  General Development U n t i l World War 1 21 I. Land Question and Economic Development II. State Administration I I I . Self-Government i n the Colonies IV. Educational System V. R e l i g i o n i n the Colonies VI. Characteristics and Cultural Aspects VII. Internal Migration and S i s t e r Colonies  Chapter I I I . The Colonists Between the World Wars... I. World War I and the Imperial Ukas of 1915 II. The March Revolution of 1917 I I I . October Revolution and S e l f Determination IV. Economic Aspects V. R e l i g i o n i n the Colonies VI. German National Schools and Culture Chapter IV.  Resettlement and Repatriation During World War I I I. The Eve of World War I I II. Liquidation of the Volga German Republic I I I . Black Sea Colonies Under German Occupation IV. Repatriation from the German Occupied Territory  62  84  PART.II RUSSIAN-GERMANS IN CANADA PAGE  Chapter V.  Immigration into Canada. Canadian Immigration I. - • - Policy i n Brief Immigration into Canada 187^-191^ II. I I I . Second Immigration 1920-193^ IV. Third Immigration into Canada A f t e r World War I I  Chapter V I .  S t a t i s t i c s and D i s t r i b u t i o n of RussianGermans In Canada I. S t a t i s t i c s of Russian-Germans i n Canada II. D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Russian-Germans i n Canada  Chapter V I I .  Economic, S o c i a l , and Cultural Development.155 I. Economic Development II. Religion I I I . Education IV. Press and L i t e r a r y Publications V. German Societies i n Western Canada  129  Chapter VIII. Adjustment and Assimilation i n Canada......182'  ,187  Bibliography  TABLES Table I .  The O r i g i n a l Volga Colonies  Table I I .  General S t a t i s t i c s of the Black Sea Area  Table I I I .  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Religious the Black Sea Area  Table IV.  Colonies Pounded by Russian-Germans i n I896  Table V.  Immigration from Russia f o r the Years 1920-1929  Table VI.  Total Immigration from Russia according to Country of B i r t h and Racial Origin  Denominations i n  Table VII•  Odessa V i l l a g e School Attendance  MAPS Map I .  A.S.S.R. of the Volga Germans  Map I I .  Colonies i n the Black Sea Area  Map I I I .  Russian-German Colonies i n Western Canada  INTRODUCTION This d i s s e r t a t i o n i s an attempt to present the h i s tory of the German Lutheran and Catholic immigrants i n Canada who had formerly resided i n T z a r i s t and Soviet Russia. The Immediate purpose of this work, however,  i s t o determine  the present extent of adjustment or assimilation of these Russian-Germans i n Canada.  Religious groups such as the  Mennonltes, Hutterites, and other reformed sects, although they are Russian-Germans, have not been discussed i n t h i s work.  Extensive written research has already been executed  i n regard t o the mentioned r e l i g i o u s groups.  References have  been made to these groups only inasmuch as they had an immediate bearing on the main theme of t h i s study. The thesis consists of two Parts; Part I deals with the group i n Russia, Part I I deals with the group i n Canada. Part I contains the h i s t o r i c a l background of the Russian-Germans, with which knowledge we are enabled to have a greater insight i n t o t h e i r present behavior.  Part I I contains the  immigration of the Russian-Germans to Canada, t h e i r development In Canada, and t h e i r present status as Canadians. Throughout my work and research, I have been guided by Walter Kuhn's "theory of a language i s l a n d " (a minority;  ii group i n the midst of other nationals).  The theory i s a pro-  duct of a study of a l l the German minority groups i n the world and expounded i n h i s book e n t i t l e d , Deutsche Sprachlnselforschung. Geschichte, Aufgaben. Verfahren. The theory presents a pattern according to which a minority group develops.  As a substantial number of the same  ethnic group s e t t l e i n one area, they form a language i s l a n d . Economic success or f a i l u r e causes class i . e . r i c h and poor farmers. also emerges.  differentiations,  A class of workers and craftsmen  Later the group develops a class of i n t e l l i -  gentsia, consisting of teachers, pastors, doctors, e t c . Lastl y a c i t y group i s founded.  The foundation of a c i t y group  marks the c u l t u r a l advancement which i s obtained while drawing from the non-nationals.  I t i s this f i n a l state which  starts the process of assimilation within the Isolated language Island. The material used i n this study has been manifold. The h i s t o r i c a l background of the Russian-Germans has been obtained from l i t e r a t u r e .  Further h i s t o r y and development of  the group has been obtained by f i e l d work and personal contact with Russian-Germans who have recounted t h e i r past from Russia and t h e i r pioneering days i n Canada.  An exclusive  work about the Russian-Germans i n Canada has never been published i n Canada or abroad.  H i s t o r i c a l sketches of i n d i v i d -  ual colonies i n Canada were of extreme value.  The most  i l l  outstanding work i n which the Russian-Germans were extensivel y treated was Heinz Lehmann's Das Deutschtum In Westkanada. C. H. Dawson's book e n t i t l e d Group Settlement» Ethnic Communi t i e s i n Western Canada, was also of great value although he shows no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as to the o r i g i n of the Germans i n Canada.  PART I  THE GERMANS IN RUSSIA  CHAPTER I  GERMAN SETTLEMENTS IN RUSSIA I.  STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTION OF GERMAN SETTLEMENTS The Germans i n Russia d i d not belong to the numerous  national groups which were subjugated by force to the T z a r i s t regime, as were the peoples of the Caucasus, those of Central Asia, and many others.  As s e t t l e r s with tolerable r i g h t s ,  they were invited by the Imperial government f o r reasons of 18th and 19th century state p o l i c y , to s e t t l e i n the wild or p a r t i a l l y cultivated regions of Russia.  This l e d to numerous  closed German farm settlements. In addition to the German farmers, there was an extensive group of Germans who l i v e d i n the c i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y the main c i t i e s of European Russia during the 19th century. These people migrated  to Russia i n d i v i d u a l l y where s k i l l e d  services were In great demand, and most of them were to a greater or lesser degree absorbed by the Russian population. Before World War I almost two and a h a l f m i l l i o n Germans were resident i n the Russian Empire.  The separation  of the Western areas from Russia, i . e . the B a l t i c States, G a l l c i a , Bukovina and Bessarabia, a l l strongly German, r e duced the number according to the Soviet census i n 1926 to  2 1.,238,1*86. largest  The Germans were t h u s  n a t i o n a l group  classified  i n the S o v i e t Union.  as the t h i r t e e n t h Of these  1,-053,486  were c l a s s e d a s r u r a l a n d 184,769 a s u r b a n . From at d i f f e r e n t established These ly  1763  I850,  t o about  German  colonists  migrated  t i m e s a n d f r o m v a r i o u s a r e a s o f Germany a n d h a d the s o - c a l l e d  ' M u t t e r k o l o n l e n ' o r main  m a i n c o l o n i e s were f o u n d e d  f r o m Germany.  numerous s i s t e r  Only  later  by s e t t l e r s  colonies..  who came  direct-  i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y were  c o l o n i e s founded.  shows t h e f o l l o w i n g numbers  The S o v i e t  of colonists  census  o f 1926  f o r the v a r i o u s r e -  g i o n s '.^  1.  V o l g a German R e p u b l i c -  379,000.  2.  Germans i n t h e a d j a c e n t p r o v i n c e s o f A s t r a c h a n , S a r a t o v , S t a l i n g r a d , S a m a r a - 69,000.  3.  B l a c k S e a r e g i o n and Crimea  4.  Transcaucasus -  5.  Orenburg  6.  N o r t h Caucasus  7.  Siberia  8.  Kazakhstan -  -  -  437,000.  25,000.  10,500.^ -  69,000,**  (Omsk) -  36,000.^  51,000.  i!-  1 Mende v o n , G e r h a r d , D i e V o e l k e r d e r S o w j e t u n i o n , S c h n e i d e r V e r l a g , R e i c h e n a u , 1939, P.. 97 •  Rudolf  2 " C o l o n i s t s " was t h e common t e r m i n R u s s i a f o r t h e German settlers. 3 Mende v o n , o p . c i t . ,  p . 100.  4 T h e s e were s i s t e r c o l o n i e s from the main c o l o n i e s .  f o u n d e d b y Germans c o m i n g  3 P e r h a p s a more u s e f u l d i v i s i o n R u s s i a i s one made a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r  o f t h e Germans i n  religious  A l t h o u g h K a r l Stumpp's t a b l e ^ i s i n c o m p l e t e , f a i r picture  of the r e l i g i o u s  600,000  - two-fifths  o n e - f i f t h Mennonite.^ Hutterltes  and.other  a few thousand. a t i o n o f about tion;  about  Catholic,  To t h e s e reformed  i nthis  a r e a was  t w o - f i f t h s Lutheran and  t h r e e we have  t o add t h e  s e c t s , w h i c h amounted t o o n l y  The V o l g a Germans, w i t h a n a g g r e g a t e 554,818 i n 1910,  h a d a more u n e v e n  f o u r - f i f t h s were L u t h e r a n  A few thousand  i t g i v e s us a  groups i n the B l a c k S e a r e g i o n .  B e f o r e W o r l d War I , t h e number o f c o l o n i s t s about  denomination.  o f the reformed  popul-  distribu-  and o n e - f i f t h  Catholic.  group are i n c l u d e d w i t h the  Lutherans J  II.  SETTLEMENT OF THE VOLGA REGION I n t h e 16th  century a f t e r  the T a t a r s on the  were d e s t r o y e d a s a power, a c o n s t a n t e f f o r t by  the Russian  people. tling  government t o s e t t l e . t h i s  Thus we f i n d  Volga  was m a i n t a i n e d  a r e a w i t h t h e i r own  a c o n s i d e r a b l e group o f Ukranians  i n the lower Volga a r e a .  R u s s i a , made t h e o n l y a t t e m p t  set-  K a t h e r i n e I I , Empress o f to settle  these  vast regions  5 See Table I I I . 6 Stumpp, K a r l , D i e d e u t s c h e n K o l o n l e n im S c h w a r z m e e r g e b l e t . A u s l a n d und Heimat V e r l a g s A k t i e n g e s e l l s c h a f t , S t u t t g a r t , 1922, p . 36. 7 V e r b a n d d e u t s c h e r V e r e i n e l m A u s l a n d e e . V., W i r D e u t s c h e i n d e r Welt, Kommissionsverlag V e r l a g s a n s t a l t Otto S t o l l b e r g , B e r l i n g , 1940, p . 106.  4 with a non-Russian population.  Conscious of the advantages  of having Russia's unpopulated areas .cultivated and developed, she issued an Imperial Manifesto on the 4th of December, 1762.  In i t she invited West European settlement of these  arable steppes along the Volga River.  The Manifesto wag  looked upon as an unreliable document by those who might, have desired to migrate to Russia.  Since the document did not se-  cure the Immigrants* r i g h t s , they were f e a r f u l of becoming subjugated to the system of serfdom, which was at i t s peak at that time i n Russia.  The result was that the Empress i s -  sued on the 22nd of July, 1763, she promised the immigrants the c i t y or i n the country.  a  second Manifesto i n which  f u l l freedom to settle, either i n A number of p r i v i l e g e s were also  secured f o r the generations to come. The prospective s e t t l e r s were promised the following p r i v i l e g e s : 1. 2. 3.  F u l l r e l i g i o u s freedom. Exemption from taxes and other burdens f o r ten . years. Exemption from any kind of m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n services; however, the s e t t l e r s were welcome In the services.  4. A loan f o r building houses and other Instalments repayable free of interest a f t e r ten years. 5.  A grant of land of thirty, desjatins " per each family.  8 1 des.jatln equals I.09252 hectares or equals 1 acre.  0  O.370 desjatins  5 6.  Every family was permitted to b r i n g Its movable possessions as well as goods f o r market to the sum of three hundred rubles.  7. Those who desired to return to t h e i r native land had to repay f i r s t t h e i r debts to the government as well as taxes f o r three years.  9 (Only main points are mentioned from the Manifesto of 1763.) A f t e r the proclamation of the Manifesto a general agitation.was started by the diplomats and private agents of Katherlne.  Western Europe, and especially Germany, became  the r e c r u i t i n g f i e l d .  E s p e c i a l l y successful In this.project;  were the agents of Regensburg, Ulm and Frankfurt on the r i v e r Main. There were d i f f e r e n t reasons f o r the success of the emigrant  agents: 1.  The Seven Years' War devastated most of Western Germany, notably the palatinate and the Province of Hessen.  2. The despotic rule of the Dukes i n the century of absolution. 3. Religious intolerance. 4. The introduction of new prices i n general.  taxes and increase of  5. The severity with which minor crimes were punished. 6.  The general exhaustion of the c i t i z e n s .10  9 Langhans-Ratzeburg, Manfred, Die Wolgadeutschen. im OstEuropa: Verlag, B e r l i n W.35 und Koenigsberg, 1929, pp. 153r-157. 10 Brendel, Johannes, Aus deutschen Koloriien im Kutcherganer Geblet, Ausland und Heimat Verlags Aktiengesellschaft, S t u t t gart, 1930, pp. 5-15.  The desire to emigrate became so strong that the governments often issued prohibitions from, leaving, the Duchies, or were forced to create settlements f o r the d i s s a t i s f i e d inside Germany. There were 8,000 families with a t o t a l of 27,000 persons, who answered the c a l l of {Catherine and migrated to the Volga region within a period of four years, from 1763 to 1767.  11  The year 1?67, however, does not mark the end of  German migration into Russia; It continued u n t i l the second h a l f of the 18th century into the Black Sea region. Who were these people who l e f t Germany with the hope of f i n d i n g a better future i n the f a r - o f f land? ians and descendants  Histor-  of.the Volga group have described the  majority of "Katharine's pioneers" ..as the lowest class of the German people.  There were former convicts, ruined merchants  and craftsmen, o f f i c e r s and a r t i s t s , etc. - a i l people who had f a i l e d i n l i f e .  The least i n numbers among them were  those who were professional farmers.  Bonwetsch, however, d i s  putes this point and maintained that the majority were farmers.  His arguments were based on the S t a t i s t i c a l Report of  Count Orlov i n 1769 to the Empress.  12  11 Langhans-Ratzeburg, op. c i t . , p. 1. 12 Bonwetsch, Gerhard, Geschichte der deutschen Kolonlen an der Wolga. Verlag von I. Engelhorns Nachf, Stuttgart, 1919, p. 37-  7  We have only a very general knowledge of the o r i g i n of the Volga Germane, since available data f a i l s to give the exact points from which they emigrated.  I t i s established,  however, that most of the Duchies of Germany were represented and that they came preponderantly from the Hessen mountain side, Palatinate, Vogelsberg, Wetterau, Spesart and Rhoen, also from Wuerzburg, Bamberg and Bayreuth.  Larger emigra-  tions were also recorded from the provinces of Thuringla, Weimar-Eisenach and  Melningen.^  The route of migration of these people leads f i r s t to the so-called "meeting places" at Luebeck and Danzig, from there by sea to Orienbann near Petersburg and f i n a l l y by  two  d i f f e r e n t routes to the Volga: 1.  By land - Novgorod, Twer, Moscow, RJazan, Pensa to Petrovsk i n the Province of Saratov  2.  By water - Neva, Ladoga, Volga to-Saratov.-M*  As almost a l l pioneers, they too had to experience deep disappointment because a l l they found was  a vast area  of uncultivated land with neither houses, huts, nor implements to s t a r t the pioneer l i f e .  Many of the s e t t l e r s were  i l l and weak, thus they were u n f i t f o r hard labor such as i s demanded from the c o l o n i s t .  A f t e r having been convinced that  13 Important evidences to determine o r i g i n a l places of immigrants are language, place names, family names, and p a r t l y , also, the s t y l e of v i l l a g e s and houses. 14 Bonwetsch, op_. c i t . , pp. 2 9 - 3 1 .  8 here, too, prevailed the now proverbial saying, "By the sweat of thy brow shalt thou earn thy d a l l y bread", many returned to t h e i r land of o r i g i n ; others remained i n Russia only because they could not defray t h e i r t r a v e l l i n g  expenses.  The promised c a p i t a l of the Manifesto to be used f o r b u i l d i n g t h e i r houses was not at hand, they had to contrive implements and other instruments f o r themselves.  The severe  winter and surrounding nomadic people provided serious d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the colonists; worse, however, were the various epidemic diseases.  The Pugachev Rebellion of 1774 also l e f t  i t s traces of devastation i n the newly founded settlements. ^ 1  In spite of a l l these, they were not completely discouraged. They erected huts, which were soon transformed into wooden, houses.  Lumber was the best construction material on the  Volga, i n contrast with the South Russian custom of using clay f o r b u i l d i n g peasant houses. many found conditions much better. 1774,  Later immigrants from GerIn a l e t t e r dated Jan. 13,  written by a colonist i n Russia to his homeland, we read: We received everything....houses to l i v e i n , barns for' the crop, horses and wagons and everything which i s necessary f o r farming.1°  15 According to A.S .S .R. der Wolgadeutschen. Deutscher Staatsverlag, Engels, 1938, the colonists participated i n the Rebellion. Pushkin also mentions i n his Pugachevska.la Vost a n l j a that the colonists joined Pugachev and formed a r e g i ment of Hussars. 16 Bier, P. and Schick, A., Aus den Leidenstagen der deutschen Wolgakolonien. Druck der L.G. Wlttiehschen Hofbuchdruckerei, Darmstadt, 1922, pp. 2-10.  9 The colonies were established on both sides of the lower Volga River, k k colonies on the "Bergseite", Province of Saratov, and 59 colonies on the "Wiesenseite", Province of 17 Samara.  One colony was founded by French s e t t l e r s and  ed Rossoschi or Franzosen.  call-  In course of time i t was assimi-  lated by the surrounding German c o l o n i e s .  1 8  The Volga Germans  b u i l t t h e i r v i l l a g e s at a distance of 5 to 10 kilometers from each other.  In this instance, the names of the settlements  have no connection with the o r i g i n of the s e t t l e r s .  In a l -  most every case the colony received the name of i t s leader. Already In Luebeck the agents had appointed these heads, whose function was to keep order.  Upon a r r i v a l at the Volga  colonies, each leader assumed his place as head of a p a r t i c u l a r v i l l a g e , which thereafter was known by his name - so we f i n d such settlement names as Grimm, Balzar or Kraft.  In add-  i t i o n , each colony had i t s o f f i c i a l Russian name, received either from the Kontor "Guardian O f f i c e " or l a t e r In the second half of the 19th  century during the period of R u s s i f i -  19 cation. '  During the Soviet regime some of the colonies  were further renamed.  Thus we find names such as Engels,  Marx, and names of other leading communists. 17 See Map I and Table I. 18 Kuhn, Walter, Deutsche Sprachlnse1-forschung, Verlag: Guenther Wolff, Plauen 1. Vogtl,, 1939, p..223. 19 Langhans-Ratzeburg, op_. c i t . . pp.  5-20.  TABLE I  THE ORIGINAL VOLGA COLONIES Presented according to year of foundation and administration of that time, made up of Tables by Beratz, G., Die deutschen Kolonlen an der unteren Wolga In l h r e r Entstehung und Entwloklung. B e r l i n , 1928, pp. 28^291.  YEAR OP FOUNDATION  NUMBER OF COLONIES  1764  5* • • •  1765  • •  6  PROVINCE  COUNTY DISTRICT  .Saratov.......Kamyschin .Saratov  •'. .Kamyschin  .4  .Samara  Novousensk  1766  8  Saratov  Kamyschin  1766  11  Samarai  1766  .1  Samara  I765..... •  1767  r  I767.......  .3. . . .20.  1767  .21  1767  23  • •.. •.... .Saratov.  Novousensk Nikolajevsk Atkarsik  .Saratov...... .Kamyschin .Samara  Novousensk  Samara..... Nikola J e vsk  10 III.  SETTLEMENTS NEAR PETERSBURG-LENINGRAD The Germans near Petersburg-Leningrad consisted  predominantly of colonists who  l e f t the main route to the  Volga and settled around Petersburg-Leningrad where they founded 13 main colonies.  In the course of time, 43  sister  colonies appeared with an aggregate population of 21,790. Land holdings according to private s t a t i s t i c s amounted to about 45,ooo desjatins, an area which i s very l i k e l y too high. IV.  2 0  SETTLEMENT OP THE BLACK SEA REGION U n t i l 1788 the coast region of the Black Sea was i n  the hands of the Turks.  In 1788, a f t e r a six-month's siege,  the Russian Fleldmarshal Potemkin took the Fortress of Otchakov.  This marked the beginning of the Russian v i c t o r -  ies over the Turks.  And f i n a l l y , according to the Treaty of  Yassy i n 1790» the Turks had to c l e a r the Azov and Black Sea region.  In spite of the Russian v i c t o r y the Tatars, kinsmen  of the Turks, were not f u l l y subjugated and proved d i f f i c u l t e s p e c i a l l y on the Crimean Peninsula.  This provoked the Russ  ian government to s e t t l e the Crimean area with European s e t t l e r s , I.e. to create a wall against i n t e r n a l enemies.  20 Deutsches Ausland Iristitut, Per Wanderweg der Busslanddeutsohen, 'ff, Kbhlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart & B e r l i n , S t u t t gart, 1939, p.128.  11 At f i r s t s e t t l e r s from the Balkans, namely Bulgarians, were attracted to the newly opened land which was given the name "New Russia".  There were approximately 17.0,000  21 Bulgarians.  The next group were the Germans who were to  s e t t l e i n this most valuable area of f e r t i l e black s o i l . However, greater precautions were observed this time. . The government had r e a l i z e d that among the Volga Germans there were very few able men who were f i t f o r pioneering work and consequently became a burden on the state.  This caused  Tzar Alexander I of Russia to issue a decree on the 20th of February, 1804., This decree pointed out that among the Volga Germans there were very few u s e f u l elements.  On the  Volga i t was v i t a l to bring i n as many people as possible since the area was almost completely  unpopulated.  In "New Russia", already p a r t l y populated, i t was Important to s e t t l e a limited number of people who had a knowledge of farming, craftsmanship, etc. Thus, i f acceptance of foreigners was to be continued, they must be s e t t l e r s of good q u a l i t y .  In view exclusively was the settlement of  the area "New Russia" and since the crownlands were l i m i t e d , the area f o r settlement was to be selected before bringing i n settlers;, s p e c i a l attention was to be given to f r u i t growers, vine-dressers, cattle, arid sheep r a i s e r s .  Accepted,  also were to be v i l l a g e craftsmen such as t a i l o r s , shoemakers  21 Stumpp, opy c i t . , pp. 28-35.  12 carpenters and smiths. to  A l l other artisans who had nothing  contribute to the development of the countryside, were t o  be excluded. Each prospective s e t t l e r before immigration Into Russia had to f u l f i l l a l l obligations to his government, i . e . taxes, m i l i t a r y service, of  Each one had to be i n possession  money or property amounting to 300  gulden.  t h i s were to be rejected as immigrants,  Those l a c k i n g  as experience had  shown that poverty-stricken people had great d i f f i c u l t y In establishing themselves. families.  Immigrants were to be men with  2 2  A second great migration of Germans into Russia began about 1804 and lasted u n t i l the middle of the 19th ury. lar  cent-  Their reasons f o r abandoning.their homeland were s i m i to those of the Volga s e t t l e r s .  Upper Rhine were once more i n r u i n .  The provinces of the For over ten years war  had Interrupted any peaceful existence as Napoleon's army marched across Europe.  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , l e t t e r s from  German colonists i n Russia were i n c i r c u l a t i o n .  These pre-  sented a very a t t r a c t i v e picture of l i f e i n Russia,  The  Russian agents were s t i l l a g i t a t i n g f o r emigration.  And  l a s t l y from across the Rhine came streams of Alsatians who wandered through Germany into Russia - they, too, automatica l l y became r e c r u i t i n g agents.  22 Brendel, op_. c i t . ,  p. 13.  13 In addition to economic factors, r e l i g i o u s oppression was a prime consideration i n determining emigrationThis was especially true f o r the Mennonites of West Prussia and other reformed groups.  In the South-west  of Germany i t  was the Schwalkheim separatist group, that broke away from the  church because, of t h e i r extreme p l e t i s t i c views.  Seeing  i n the r e l i g i o u s Tzar Alexander, the founder of the thousand year kingdom, they emigrated between 1812 and.1817 to Russia, where they settled predominantly i n the  Caucasus.^  Year after.year the emigration into.Russia increased. The years 1808 an 1809 marked the highest emigration into Russia.  This was a mass migration from, the Province of Baden  which often depopulated whole areas.  Provinces along the  Rhine were not alone concerned i n this movement as.almost a l l Duchies of South-west  Germany were represented. Against  these facts the admonitions of the governments and t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s remained i n e f f i c a c i o u s .  On the contrary, i t serv-.  ed to create among the prospective emigrants a suspicion that the Regent was t r y i n g to deprive them of a prosperous future. Also, news items i n the popular d a l l y papers that the majori t y of emigrants had died or were l i v i n g i n misery, did not prevent the desire from growing i n these people to seek a new and better homeland.  Emigration d i f f i c u l t i e s became  more serious when the l o c a l administration suddenly demanded  23 Verband deutscher Vereine im Auslande e. V., op., c i t . . p p . 110-111.  Ik proper documents f o r leaving the country.. However, neither these requirements nor the threatened loss of c i t i z e n s h i p i n case an emigrant wished to return to Germany, could stop oh  t h e i r determination to go. The route of migration of the Black Sea colonists was the following: 1. The immigrants from Danzig and E l b l n g went through Koeningsberg, Memel, Riga and from there through Dubrovna to the Black Sea. 2. The immigrants from South-west  Germany took the  route from Ulm along the Danube through Vienna and Budapest as far.as Ismail i n Bessarabia and from there on land to Odessa.  Those destined f o r the Caucasus continued t h e i r  route to Cherson, Taganrog, Rostov, Mosdok to T i f l l s .  a) A  great number branched o f f i n Vienna and took.the land route through Radzwillov and from there to the Black Sea.. b) Another group which migrated into Russia In 1808 to 1809 chose t h e i r route through S i l e s i a , Warsaw, Grodno and then to the Black Sea r e g i o n . ^ 2  The Journey was made at the expense of the Russian government.  S i m i l a r procedures were maintained as with the  Volga Germans. Upon a r r i v a l at t h e i r destination they r e ceived the promised sums to b u i l d t h e i r houses and conditions  Zk Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , op. p i t . , p. 13. 25 Stumpp, op. c i t . . p. 32.  15 on the whole were much better than on the Volga.  The Black  Sea Germans had many craftsmen who were ready to start b u i l d ing houses.  The governor of Odessa at the time, the Due de  Richelieu, an opponent of Napoleon to whom the early coloni s t s owed much, went so f a r as t o found the so-called " c r a f t s manship colonies"near Odessa f o r the purpose of helping the s e t t l e r s with t h e i r b u i l d i n g . ^ 2  However, i n spite of the fact that the colonists i n the south found conditions much better, many of them disappeared i n the f i r s t years a f t e r settlement.  The despotic  rule of the l o c a l German administrators ? became f o r many 2  intolerable. Prom a general view on the map ® one can see that 2  they founded t h e i r colonies close to a r i v e r or i n a v a l l e y , always building, several colonies at the same time and estab- . l i s h i n g them exclusively according to r e l i g i o u s  denomination.  Thus we can speak of areas of group settlement,  Kutchurganer,  1  Beresan area, Choritza and others.  Only s i s t e r colonies  founded i n the second h a l f of the 19th of various f a i t h s .  century had s e t t l e r s  The names of the colonies i n the south  26 Lelbbrandt, Georg, Die deutschen Kolbnlen i n Cherson und Bessarablen. Ausland und Heimat Verlags - Aktienges.ellschaft, Stuttgart, 1926, introduction. 27 See section.on self-government, 28 See Map I I .  Chapter I I , i n f r a .  16 almost always coincided with the name of the place of t h e i r origin. A.  Province of Ekaterlnoslav The oldest colonies i n the Black Sea region are  those of the Mennonites.  In 1781 there wa6 already a colony  of Mennonites i n Gluchov, Province of Tchernlgov, who had migrated from Siebenbuergen, Rumania.  The mass migration of  Mennonites from West Prussia started In 1790, when large groups l e f t the areas of Danzig, E l b i n g and Marienburg f o r Russia.  They a l l s e t t l e d near Ghortlza on the lower right  bank of the Dniepr i n the Province of Ekaterlnoslav.  The co-  l o n i s t s near Mariupol migrated also from West Prussia but were of the Lutheran f a i t h .  Also s e t t l e r s from Pomerania,  Upper Bavaria and A u s t r i a i n 1789 founded the colonies of Yamburg and Kybalsk near Ekaterlnoslav.  To complete the im-  migration into the Province of Ekaterlnoslav we have to ment i o n the colonists from the Provinces of Baden and Hessen, who founded t h e i r colonies i n 1825 to 1826. ^ 2  B.  Province of Taurien - including Crimea In 1804 the area near Melitopol on the l e f t bank of  the  Dniepr was settled by Mennonites from-Prussia who i n the  course of time founded a system of 50 colonies.  In 1805 to  1806 South German s e t t l e r s arrived and established the  29 Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , op_. c i t . , pp. 128-132.  17 colonies near P r i s h i b on the north side of the Azov Sea.  In  the f o l l o w i n g year many other s e t t l e r s arrived and founded the  largest complex of 87 colonies called the Molotchna. A l -  most a l l r e l i g i o u s groups were represented i n this area; besides the Mennonites, Catholics and Lutherans, there were Quakers, Hutterites and other reformed sects.^°  The colonies  near Berdjansk were founded between 1820 and 1831 and were exclusively Swabiane. Simultaneously with the settlement of.the Dniepr area, that of the Crimean Peninsula took place.  In 1804 to  1805 the colonies Neusatz and Frledental near Simferopol were established.  These s e t t l e r s were predominantly fruit-growers  and vine-dressers who came from the Provinces of Wuertemberg, Alsace and P f a l z .  Swiss.immigrants i n 1805  t a l near Theodosia. 31 founded. C.  founded Zuerich-  On the whole, seven main colonies were  Province of Cherson O r i g i n a l l y i t was Swedish s e t t l e r s who founded, un-  der  Katherine I I , the f i r s t farm colonies near the Dniepr -  known as the "Old Sweden V i l l a g e " .  However, because of c l i -  matic conditions they soon l e f t the area.  In 1804 to 1805,  Swabian s e t t l e r s migrated to the same area and established  30 Deutsches Ausland I n s t l t u t , op_. c i t . , p. 31 Stumpp, op. c i t . . pp. 32-34.  131.  18 the colonies of Schlanzendorf, Klosterdorf and Muehlhausen. Prom 1804 to 1805, the Glueckstal and Grossliebental areas settled and contained a substantial number of colonies.  The  years 1808 to 1809 marked the founding of the Kutchurgan and Beresan d i s t r i c t s near Odessa.^  2  These s e t t l e r s migrated  from Alsace, Baden and P f a l z , with only a limited number from Prussia and Wuertemberg,-^  The s e t t l e r s i n the Province were  of Lutheran and Catholic f a i t h . D.  Bessarabia The settlement of Bessarabia by German colonists  started i n 1814 from central Poland.  O r i g i n a l l y these mig-  rated from Wuertemberg to Poland i n 1779  to 1806.  Here t h e i r  expectations had been so disappointed that many were e a s i l y provoked to migrate to the promised  land of the Tzar.  In  1815 to 1.817,' together with other Germans d i r e c t from Wuertemberg they founded the colonies of Tarutino, Kuhn, A r z l s , Brienne, Malojaroslavetz. These names r e c a l l b a t t l e s i t e s which became famous during the Napoleonic wars.  In the next  two decades Germans from various parts of Germany and Poland migrated to Bessarabia and founded Denwitz, Katzbach and P a r i s .  the colonies of Plotzk,  Sarata was founded between 1820  and 1822 by s e t t l e r s from Wuertemberg and by s e t t l e r s from the Black Sea area.  Almost a l l of the o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s were  32 See Map II and Table.II. 33 Stumpp., on. c i t . . pp. 30-37.  19  Lutherans by f a i t h . E.  34  South Caucasus In 1812 a group of 700 families from Wuertemberg  near Reutlingen and Ulm migrated into Russia. the South Caucasus.  Their aim was  Enroute through Odessa, 300 families  dropped out and founded the colony of Hoffnungstal about 80 kilometers north of Odessa.  However, about 100 families  from the v i c i n i t y of Odessa Joined the main body and migrated with them to the Caucasus, where they founded the colonies of Alexanderdorf, Katherlnenfeld, Marienfeld and E l i s a b e t stadt, and others near T l f l l s .  Out of eight main colonies  there were eventually another twenty-one s i s t e r colonies established.  Among these people there were also 700 of the  Schwaikhelm separatist group.  Before World War I, the Trans-  caucasus colonists had an aggregate population of 20,000 and held a land area of 75,000 d e s j a t i n s .  Most of them were vine-  dressers .-^ P.  Wolhynla The l a s t mass migration into Russia was that of the  Wolhynla Germans, who  came from Poland.  The actual migration  into Wolhynla started a f t e r the f i r s t P o l i s h insurrection i n  34 Leibbrandt, op_. c i t . . pp. 120-150. 35 Verband deutscher Vereine lm Auslande e. V., op. c i t . . pp. 106-114.  20 1831.  Also i n 1860 to 1863, •which marked the period of the  second P o l i s h insurrection, a group of 4-5,000 Germans l e f t Poland and s e t t l e d i n Wolhynla.  Many of them came from the  Lower V i s t u l a , S i l e s i a , and Congress Poland.  Here, too, we  deal with a group s i m i l a r to the Bessarabian Germans who also came from Poland but had immigrated from Germany a few de-. cades e a r l i e r .  According to the f i r s t Russian census i n ,1897  there were resident 171,331 Germans i n Wolhynla.  With the  exception of a few hundred Hutterltes the Wolhynla Germans 36 were a l l of the Lutheran f a i t h .  36 Deutsches Ausland I n s t l t u t , op_. c i t . , pp. 130-140.  TABLE I I  ORIGINAL  SETTLEMENTS  O FT H EBLACK  SEA AREA  C o m p i l e d a c c o r d i n g t oS t a t i s t i c s o f Stumpp, K a r l , D i edeutsohen K o l o n i e n i m S c h w a r z m e e r g e b i e t . A u s l a n d u n d Heimat V e r l a g s A k t i e n g e s e l l s c h a f t , S t u t t g a r t , 1922, p . 30.  YEAR OF FOUNDATION  .  PROVINCE  1782  C h e r s o n . . . . . . . . . . . S c h w e d e n  1789  E k a t e r i n o s l a v s k . . . J o s e f s t a l ,  1 7 9 0 . . . . . . . . . E k a t e r i n o s l a v s k . . 1804-05-10.. . T a u r i e n .  NUMBER O F COLONIES  AREA  D i s t r i c t . . . . . . e t c  . C h o r i t z a  C h e r s o n . .  M o l o t s c h n a j a . . . .  G l u e c k s t a l  1 8 0 5 . . . . . . . . . T a u r i e n .  . C r i m e a  1809.  . K u t c h u r g a n .  1809. 1 8 1 4 - 2 0 . . . . . 1 8 2 2 . .  . . C h e r s o n . . C h e r s o n .  .Beresan  . B e s s a r a b i a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T a u r i e n  B e r d j a n s k .  1 8 2 3 - 3 5 - 5 2 . . . E k a t e r i n o s l a v s k . . . M a r i u p o l TOTAL  .6.  2,356  3 . 1 8 .  1804-05..... . C h e r s o n . . . . . . . . . . . G r o s s l l e b e n t a l . . 1805.  NUMBER O F RESIDENTS  . . .77  ..17,169  .2,358..  ..7,068  . 8 , 4 0 8 . . . . . . . . . .  .39,418  .33,488..........169,898  11  11,902  6  .40,800  .7,999............30,542  .8.......... 6  LAND POSSESSED I N DESJATINS  .3,553  .10,737  7,373.  27,713  .13,226.  66 ^^6  25......... .24,06*6.  .139,929  w .13  t  ; 4 . . . . . . . 1 5 , 0 6 6 . . ; . . . . . ' . .  ••32. ..........209  . . 1 2 , 3 5 7 . .  ..9,139  • . ' . . . . . . . 5 8 , 2 2 6  1 2 8 , 1 5 2 . . . . . . ....613,994  CHAPTER I I  GENERAL DEVELOPMENT UNTIL WORLD WAR I I.  LAND QUESTION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The o r i g i n a l land granted to the Volga colonist was  30 desjatins per family. The land was not p r i v a t e l y owned but belonged to the community, thus resembling the Russian "Mir system" which was In practice during the time of the Volga settlement.  Every ten years the land was d i s t r i b u t e d  among a l l male-members of the community - women d i d not r e ceive any land.  The f a c t that the land was divided only am-  ong male persons resulted i n large f a m i l i e s , since many sons meant much land. dren.  Some families numbered ten to f i f t e e n c h i l -  The table below shows the rapid increase of Volga Ger-  mans. POPULATION INCREASE OF VOLGA GERMANS  1  YEAR  POPULATION  1 7 6 6 . . .  23,109  1 8 1 6 . .  61,143  1861 1 8 9 7 . . . 1914  p.  . . . 2 1 9 , 9 5 4 •  ...344,864 . . . 5 5 4 , 8 1 8  1 Verband deutscher Verelne im Ausland e. V., oj>. c i t . . 106.  22 This rapid increase of the Volga colonists and the r e s t r i c t i o n of expansion of community land due to the close l o c a t i o n of colonies, caused a d e f i n i t e land shortage even at the end of the f i r s t 50 years of settlement.  The r a p i d i t y with which  the land-allowance per person.was reduced can be seen from the following table: REDUCTION IN LAND GRANTS  2  YEAR  LAND PER MALE PERSON . . . . . . 1 5 . 5 desjatins  1789  10.4  1816......  1835*  •  H  5.6  ' "•  1850  3.8  "  1857....  3.2  •  I869  '.'  . . . . 1.5  B  In view of these facts the Volga Germans were f o r c ed to f i n d a means of existence f o r t h e i r surplus population. These colonists had been mainly occupied with farming, f r u i t growing and sheep-raising.  Now on the mountainside i n the  Province of Saratov a small i n d u s t r i a l area began to develop, mainly t e x t i l e manufacturing plants and m i l l s .  In 1860 In  the colony of Norka, there were 1,000 weaver looms i n operation.  The t e x t i l e industry had also began to develop on the  l e f t side,of the Volga. 800 workers.  Karamysh had employed as many as  Tobacco plantations were common and i n 1866  2 Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , op_. c i t . , p. 124.  23 3 there were 268,840 pud  4 of tobacco harvested.  A large num-  ber of the surplus population found employment there, thus forming a new s o c i a l class among the c o l o n i s t s . Others were r e s e t t l e d with the help of the main colonies on the newlygranted land i n the Province of Samara.  The land question  became even more acute i n the second h a l f of the 19th century, which led to mass migrations  to other provinces of  Russia; S i b e r i a and Central Asla.^ The land assigned to the colonists i n the Black Sea region was as the Imperial Government prescribed, community property.  However, contrary to the Volga system, the land  was  not p e r i o d i c a l l y divided among the adult male persons; i t  was  a l l o t t e d as hereditary property to each family.  There  one spoke of a " f u l l farm" (Wirtschaft) or a "half farm".  A  f u l l farm amounted to 60- desjatins, the o r i g i n a l amount of land granted to the colonists i n the Black Sea region, i . e . 6 twice as much as that received by the Volga Germans. The land belonging t o one family was inseparable, no d i v i s i o n among the sons was tolerated, and the youngest son was  e n t i t l e d to the whole farm.  Only when a younger son was  u n f i t to assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as h e i r , was provision  3 1 pud equals 16.38 kilograms. 4 Bonwetsch, op_. c i t . . pp. 102-103. 5 See section on migration within Russia, 6 Stumpp, op_. cit.,, pp. 38-46.  infra.  24  made t y  t h a t  was  an  at  s i m i l a r  e l d e r  the  t o  d i s p o s a l  the The  f a c t  b e t t e r  the be  farm  to  the  the of  V o l g a  p a r e n t s .  the  o f  and  Here,  t o o ,  Sea  l a n d l e s s  l a n d - s y s t e m  f a m i l i e s .  Germans  system  and  people  t a b l e  v e r y  INCREASE  OF  BLACK  SEA  However,  w o u l d  the  the  due and  i n c r e a s e  I n c r e a s e  YEAR  POPULATION  1820  55,000  the  community  o f  •  o n i s t s ) German.  by  was  s o l v e d  r e n t i n g  by  l a n d  too,  u s u a l l y  became  the  v a r i o u s  "Chutoras"  way were The  Verband 106.  or  7  282,862  524,321  problem  area,  l a n d ,  t h i s  7  h a v i n g  r e g i o n ,  GERMANS  1 9 1 4 . . . . ,  p .  by  i n the  r e c o r d e d ,  g i v e s  to  was  community  the  b e l o w  s i m i l a r  1897......  In  p o p u l a r  system  were i n  was  Germans. POPULATION  T h i s  a  was  a c c o m p l i s h e d the  p r o p e r -  p r a c t i c e  w h i c h  such  p r a c t i c e d  The i s  be  Movable  T h i s  e v e n t u a l l y  impoverishment.  the  a  c o u l d  t h a t  many  i n h e r i t o r .  m a i n t a i n i n g  from  o f  B l a c k  o f  development  h e r e d i t a r y  s i z e  the  advantage  u n d i v i d e d ,  saved  become  "Erdhof-system"-,  Germany. t h a t  son  founded  i n  an  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  d e u t s c h e r  the  a r e a of  V e r e i n e  from  l a n d  the  p r o p e r t y ( s m a l l  where  s m a l l  1m  b u y i n g  the  R u s s i a n o f  the  p o p u l a t i o n  e.  V . .  the  l a n d l o r d s . c o l o n i s t s .  s e t t l e m e n t s  i n d u s t r i e s ,  A u s l a n d  o u t s i d e  o f  c o l -  was  n o n -  such  as  f l o u r  op.  c i t . .  25 and o i l m i l l s , further absorbed the landless population. Many turned to s k i l l e d craftsmanship, which often resulted i n the foundations of small f a c t o r i e s .  Examples of such are  the wagon factory i n Selz near Odessa, and the Hoehn farm Implements factory In Odessa.  The largest starch factory i n  South Russia was founded i n Halbstadt. Stumpp maintains that the land which was acquired by the Black Sea colonists u n t i l World War I, exceeded the o r i g i n a l crown grants s i x times.  Thus one can compare  671,000 desjatins of o r i g i n a l crownland  grants with some 8  4,209,280 desjatins of acquired land by 1914.  Most of t h i s  l8,nd was bought from Russian landlords or generals who had received large areas of land a f t e r the l i b e r a t i o n of the Black Sea region from the Turks.  The percentage of colonists  and their land-holdings p r i o r to 1918, are Indicated below: COLONISTS LAND-HOLDINGS 9  GERMANS AMONG THE LOCAL POPULATION  GERMAN OWNED LAND  Province of Ekaterlnoslav - 9.0$... Province of Taurien  - 6.9$i  .25.5$ ..38.0$  D i s t r i c t of Taganrog..... - 3.5$  ,22.0$  D i s t r i c t of Simferopol... - 9.2$  77.8$  D i s t r i c t of Odessa  - 7.0$.  60.0$  8 Stumpp, op_. c i t . , pp. 4o-46. 9 Verband deutscher Vereine im Ausland e. V.; op. c i t . . pp. 108-109.  26 Although the colonista had no r e a l competition i n developing t h e i r economic p o s i t i o n , they made l i t t l e progress In t h e i r f i r s t 50 years of settlement.  This may be due to a  number of crop f a i l u r e s caused mainly by the s e t t l e r s ' lack of acquaintance with the new climate and s o i l .  Furthermore,  the colonist had no market f o r h i s farm products - he simply produced f o r his own needs. of the 19th serfs i n 1861  I t was  not u n t i l the second half  century a f t e r the emancipation of the Russian that any r e a l economic progress was  recorded.  Means of communication Improved, farm equipment could be  ob-  tained, and l a s t l y , the colonist i n the Black Sea region was allowed to dispose over his land. i n the Volga, however, was Agrarian reform i n  The community land system  only abolished a f t e r the Stolypin  1906.  From the two groups of c o l o n i s t s , those i n the Black Sea region were more advanced and enjoyed a higher economic standard than t h e i r Volga brothers i n the north.  The reason  f o r t h i s was the b e t t e r climate and s o i l conditions i n the south.  The prosperity i n the south was also due to the more  advantageous location of the colonies, i . e . c l o s e r to t r a d ing centers; furthermore, the colonists received twice as much land as those of the Volga; and l a s t l y , they had b e t t e r opportunities to obtain additional land f o r t h e i r surplus population.  Also, the d i f f e r e n t method of t i l l i n g the s o i l  (Dreifelder system) - crop rotation - had some bearing on t h e i r better y i e l d s .  27 A comparison  of the colonists with t h e i r Russian  neighbours i n respect to economic progress showed that the Russian farmers never reached the l e v e l of the c o l o n i s t s . These were not only free peasants i n a country where serfdom prevailed u n t i l 1861, but they were also blessed with the numerous concessions which the Imperial Government had bestowed upon them.  Such factors put the colonists automati-  c a l l y i n a more favourable p o s i t i o n which subsequently l e d to prosperity. The colonists were known as a d i l i g e n t , hard-working group who had started and completed t h e i r colonization process i n the best manner p o s s i b l e .  The foundation of more  than 200 colonies with possession of over two million. desjatins of land and an aggregate population of 550,000  10  be-  fore World War I on the Volga and the possession of four m i l l i o n desjatins of land and about 600,000  11  colonists with  a t o t a l of 237 settlements i n the Black Sea region, and also the foundation of numerous s i s t e r colonies In other regions of Russia, may well be described as a success.  Many colon-  izations i n the world had been started with a s i m i l a r c a l ibre of people, who met s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s and were i n the end equally successful.  10 Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , op_. c i t . , pp. 127-128, and Verband deutsoher Verelne im Ausland e. V., op. c i t . . pp. 106-108. 11 Stumpp, op. c i t . , p.36.  28 II.  STATE ADMINISTRATION Information i s extremely scarce regarding the  Russian State administration of the colonies i n the f i r s t 50 years a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l In Russia. fest of July 22nd, 1763,  According to the Mani-  there was a "Guardian Office" f o r  foreigners created i n the same month.  The o f f i c e was under  the presidency of Count Orlov i n Petersburg, and was known as the Vormundschaftskanzlel-Tutelkanzlei.  Count Orlov was  granted the authority of his state colleagues, i . e . that of a special ministry. The Guardian Office d i r e c t e d the settlement of the colonists and was under obligation to secure the p r i v i l e g e s and rights of the s e t t l e r s and to supply them with c a t t l e , farm implements and c a p i t a l to b u i l d t h e i r houses; f o r this purpose the Guardian Office received 200,000 rubles per year as long as the colonists required government assistance. According to Bauer, the expense of s e t t l i n g the Volga Germans amounted to 5.2 m i l l i o n rubles, a sum which was to be repaid i n the course of time by means of farm products. Katherine I I , reduced the sum i n 1782 to about 1.2 rubles.  However, million  1 2  12 Bauer, G., Geschlohte der deutschen Ansledler an der Wolga s.eit der Elnwanderung nach Russland b i s zur Elnfuehrung der allgemeinen Wehrpflicht 1762-1874. nach Gesetzlichen Owuellen und muendlichen Ueberlleferungen, Saratov, 1908, pp. 20-50.  29 For the purpose of better administration the area where colonists had s e t t l e d was  divided into d i s t r i c t s to  which s p e c i a l commissions were appointed.; Later, when the private colonies were dissolved which u n t i l then had been under the J u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e i r d i r e c t o r s , the number of d i s t r i c t s was  increased so that i n 1773  the Volga area  was  divided into 11 d i s t r i c t s (Kreis) with that number of commissioners.  Later In 1775  a f t e r the Pugachev u p r i s i n g and  the decline of the K i r g h i z r i o t s there were as many as d i s t r i c t s with an average of 3-15  13  colonies. -^ 1  As the Commissar.system proved to be very impractic a l due to the enormous distance between the Volga and Petersburg, the Imperial Government introduced a l o c a l center of administration i n 1766  - the Kontor of Saratov,. The Kontor  consisted of a Supreme Judge with two a s s i s t a n t s , a secretary and an i n t e r p r e t e r .  The Kontor was  to be only temporary  u n t i l such time as the colonists had accepted Russian ways. At the same time, however, the former Commissars were r e t a i n ed but were subordinated  to the Kontor.  This system of administration x*as applicable onlyy to the crown colonies - colonies founded d i r e c t by the Imperi a l Government, 41 i n number.  The remainder of the 104  or-  i g i n a l colonies were p r i v a t e l y sponsored by three companies. The colonist had signed a contract with these companies i n  13 Langhans-Ratzeburg, op_. c i t . , p.  3.  30 which the directors promised to s e t t l e them on the Volga, :  guard t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s and administer t h e i r colonies.  How-  ever, the colonists soon discovered that they were being deceived and measures were taken to abolish the private companies.  According to Langhans-Ratzeburg a l l private companies , 14 were abolished by 1774. A suitable time to incorporate the colonists into the general system of administration was apparent i n 1782 when the unitary p r o v i n c i a l government was introducedifor the whole of Russia.  The unique state administration of the  Volga Germans - the Kontor i n Saratov - was dissolved.  The  function of the Kontor was from then on i n the hands of the p r o v i n c i a l government.  The d i s t r i c t commissars were replaced  by the Russian "Zemski Ispravnik", who was responsible f o r carrying out the law of the government. The sudden incorporation of the c o l o n i s t s into the new Russian administration system caused a stagnation i n t h e i r development.  Tzar Paul I recognized t h i s and r e i n t r o -  duced the system of administration which was i n force from 1766-1782.  The Guardian Office and the Kontor i n Saratov,  not responsible to any p r o v i n c i a l government, were again the highest authority of state administration f o r the c o l o n i s t s . The o f f i c i a l language according to Langhans-Ratzeburg was  14 Langhans-Ratzeburg, op_. c i t . . pp. 10-20.  German; Beratz, however, maintains that i t was Russian.  5  Upon the a r r i v a l of the Black Sea colonists at the beginning of the 19th  century a s i m i l a r system of administra-  t i o n was put into e f f e c t .  There too the area populated by  s e t t l e r s was divided into d i s t r i c t s which were subordinated to a trusteeship (Puersorgekomitaet) having a function s i m i 16 l a r to that of the Kontor i n Saratov.  However, t h i s sy-  stem of administration lasted: only u n t i l 1866.  In that year  the Russian p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t state administration was f i n a l l y introduced as a permanent authority i n the German populated areas.  The Kontor's function and thatoof the  Fuereorgekomitaet  was from then on limited to church and ed-  ucational matters u n t i l the two o f f i c e s were completely abolished In 1&76.  17  Klaus sees i n this act a v i c t o r y h o s t i l e to the German colonists and speaks also of the breaking of a promise by the Russian government.  However, the c o l o n i s t s ' sy-  stem of administration was only created f o r a temporary period; furthermore, no promise concerning the administration . was ever made i n the Manifesto, hence from the point of view  15 Beratz, G., Die deutschen Kolonlen an der unteren Wolga In i h r e r Entstehung und Entwlcklung. B e r l i n , 1928, p. 97. 16 Leibbrandt, op. c i t . , p.  9.  17 Klaus, Alexander, Unsere Kolonlen. Verlag Odessaer Z e i t ung, Odessa, 1881, p. 184.  32 of state administration the a b o l i t i o n of the Kontor as w e l l as the Fuersorgekomitaet was J u s t i f i e d .  The new system had  In many ways a negative result as the colonists were subjugated to the p r o v i n c i a l law, regardless of any i n d i v i d u a l characteristics. III.  SE LP-GOVERNMENT IN THE COLONIES The basis of self-government was set out In the  imperial Manifesto of 1763*  Rights were granted the s e t t l e r s  to elect t h e i r l o c a l government.  Due to economic weakness  the colonies never a c t u a l l y reached a uniform system of administration.  Each colony or d i s t r i c t seemed to thresh out  i t s own system suited to Its p e c u l i a r needs, which often f o l lowed unwritten laws of the former homeland. . •••'Li:  L i t t l e Information i s available concerning these  l o c a l governments.  Johannes Brendel relates a number of i n -  cidents which r e f l e c t s the despotic power of the r u l e r s , i . e . the community elders (Dorfschulze). Prom documents, orders given by the i n d i v i d u a l administrators to the c o l o n i s t s , we 18 read, "I command.....1 forbid  Throughout these pa-  pers the personal ego p r e v a i l s , showing how a colony was a t the mercy of those i n authority. Only a f t e r Katherlne I I issued a number of i n s t r u c tions do we f i n d a more u n i f i e d system provided.  18 Brendel, op,, c i t . , pp. I5-I8.  The elder  33 of a colony was was  to be elected f o r a period of one year and  to rule to the best of his a b i l i t y .  He was  not only  en-  trusted with the administration but functioned also as a pol i c e o f f i c e r and was  able to s e t t l e matters of j u r i s d i c t i o n  as long as no serious crime was  involved.  No private buying  or s e l l i n g could be c a r r i e d out except with permission the e l d e r .  1 9  From the Manifesto we see that the  of  Imperial  Government denied the appointed Russian d i s t r i c t commissars the right to i n t e r f e r e i n the self-government of the colonists.  Indeed, the function of the commissar was  that of a  state inspector. A comparison of the c o l o n i s t self-government with that of the l o c a l Russian administration, shows that the sett l e r s were In a f a r more p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n than t h e i r Russian neighbors.  The Russian community administration con-  s i s t e d of a "Starosta", v i l l a g e elder or tax c o l l e c t o r , a "Sotnik", whose function was  and  that of a p o l i c e o f f i c e r .  An  elected responsible administration as such d i d not e x i s t . The peasants were thus constantly subjected to oppression extortion.  There was  and  no measure i n t h e i r system which could  protect them against u n j u s t i f i e d and irresponsible demands of the c o l l e c t o r s . A f t e r the Kontor i n Saratov was saw the necessity of Issuing new  reintroduced, Paul I  Instructions governing the  19 Langhans-Ratzeburg, op_. c i t . , pp.  3-39.  colonists.  A new, complete and uniform system of self-gov-  ernment was Introduced.  This functioned through two d i v i -  sions, the community meeting - a kind of v i l l a g e parliament and the elder with his o f f i c e (Dorfamt).  -  I n the community  meeting each family was represented by a male member. The meeting was called several times a year depending on the decisions which were to be made. The Dorfamt was elected by the community f o r two years.  The d i s t r i c t administration was  founded on a s i m i l a r basis to the community meeting, the "Oberschulze" was head of the d i s t r i c t and a l l v i l l a g e elders 20 were responsible to him. An attempted reconstruction of the self-government apparatus creates the impression that the state administrat i o n and the l o c a l administrations of the colonists ran i n two p a r a l l e l l i n e s .  However, from various reports and orders 21  quoted by Leibbrandt  I t Is obvious that both Schulze and  Oberschulze were obedient Saratov  servants of either the Kontor In  or the Fuersorgekomitaet i n the Black Sea region. The rule of Alexander I I brought a complete change  i n the self-government of the colonies. 18?1,  On the 4th of July*  the Colonial Codex was abolished and replaced by the  Landforms issued i n 1864.  From then on the s e t t l e r s were no  20 Langhans-Ratzeburg, op_. c i t . , pp. 15-18. 21 Leibbrandt,  op_. c i t . , introduction and appendix.  35 longer considered as a separate u n i t .  They were subject to  the general Russian laxf, whereby the o f f i c i a l Russian.  22  language was  The a b o l i t i o n of the laws of self-government  and  i t s replacement, by the general Russian law of administration was thus a breach of the p r i v i l e g e s o r i g i n a l l y granted i n the Manifesto of Katherine I I . Another breach of guarantee was  the right which was  so solemnly granted, of exemption from m i l i t a r y service. According to the Imperial reforms of 1874 the Russian n o b i l i t y as well as the colonists were subject to m i l i t a r y d r a f t .  On-  l y the Mennonites were exempted from service by the law of May 14th, 1775*  As p a c i f i s t s they were allowed to serve the 23  same length of time i n the c i v i l services, forestry, etc., instead of the m i l i t a r y service.  The reforms of 1874  caused  the f i r s t emigration of the colonists from Russia to North 24 and South America. IV. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM . I f we consider the c o l o n i s t s ' economic development In Russia as a success, we cannot say the same with respect to t h e i r educational progress.  Through diligence and endur-  ance they were able to reach material prosperity but they  22 Bonwetsch, op..cit.. pp. 104-110. 23 lag pp. 24  Kessler, Joseph A., Geschlchte der Dioezese Tyraspol. Vervon Rev. George Aberle, Dickinson, North Dakota, 1930, 224-227. For d e t a i l see Part I I , i n f r a .  36  were too m a t e r i a l i s t i c to be i n s p i r e d toward learning.  They  set no value on schooling and they were too avaricious to spend any money on education.  Land and property were a l l -  Important and this was t h e i r sole objective. According to Brendel, a community i n the Black Sea region consisted of about 90,per cent farmers and 10 per cent  2' other professions.  Only the l a t t e r class had any education. -  S i m i l a r conditions were recorded on the Volga. t i s t i c s of 1861  to 1863,  From the s t a -  we can see that only 7 per cent of  the colonists were able to read, 5 per cent were acquainted with mathematics, and only 9 to 12 per cent were able to read 26 the written texts. U n t i l World War I the colonists speak of a constant Intimate r e l a t i o n between church and school.  Teachers were  always selected by the pastors and the teachers usually acted as sextons of the church i n addition to the regular teaching d u t i e s .  The school, In f a c t , was a church school  i n which nothing else was taught but the ABC's and the B i b l e . Indeed these were the only school texts during the f i r s t years of settlement.  General enlightenment  50  or creation of  i n i t i a t i v e f o r self-education were not on the school program. Means to maintain the school and pay the teachers were raised by the community, while the pastor acted as school-inspector.  25 Brendel, op_. c i t . . pp. 46-47. 26 A.S.S.R. der Wolgadeutschen. op. c i t . , p. 39.  37 The teacher, or schoolmaster, as the colonist used to c a l l him, was  considered an important man by the very fact that  he worked i n association with the pastor, who was a highly respected man i n the community.  Although the colonists had  only popular schools and no i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher learning, they had great d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g teachers. Education was another aspect of consequently there was  no interference In the matter from  either the Kontor and Fuersorgekomitaet government.  self-government,  or from the Russian  Paul I, however, d i d confirm the pastor's super-  v i s i o n over the school.  Only at the close of the 19th  cent-  ury, as Imperial reforms c u r t a i l e d the c o l o n i s t s ' p r i v i l e g e s , d i d education come to be a concern of the Russian state. Central schools were established throughout  Russia.  Such  schools were also founded i n the area populated by the German s e t t l e r s .  In IQ56 a central school was established on  the Volga i n Katherinenstadt and a second school was l i s h e d i n 1866 at Lessnol-Karamysh (Grimm). ? 2  estab-  In the Black  Sea region the following areas had German c e n t r a l schools: Odessa, Grossliebental, Kutchurgan and Landau P r i s h i b , Molotschna and Sarata i n Bessarabia.  These came to a t o t a l of  twenty-two i n comparison to only two central schools on the Volga.  The f i r s t central school i n the Transcaucasus  was  established i n the Lutheran community of Helenendorf near  27 A.S.S.R. der Wolgadeutschen. op. c i t . , p. 40.  38 Tiflis,  28  s i m i l a r l y a school was founded i n the l a t t e r . These central schools provided a higher education  thus enabling the graduates to become teachers or o f f i c i a l s i n the v i l l a g e administrations.  In fact these schools l a i d  the basis of a v i l l a g e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a .  Brendel speaks of  the central schools as having more than f u l f i l l e d t h e i r purpose;, not only had they established an educated society In the v i l l a g e but they also prepared students f o r u n i v e r s i t y entrance.  There seems to have been no u n i f i e d standard of  education at the time.  According to Bishop Kessler almost  a l l central schools were located i n Lutheran communities. These were attended by students of various r e l i g i o u s denom-  29  inations.  The schools were supported s o l e l y by the c o l -  onists u n t i l they were Russianized a f t e r 1871. A f t e r graduation from the central schools a large number of c o l o n i s t s ' sons were sent to higher educational i n s t i t u t i o n s abroad.  The protestants e s p e c i a l l y , who never  founded a separate i n s t i t u t i o n to provide t r a i n i n g f o r t h e i r church leaders, were forced to send t h e i r students to the University of Dorpat i n Estonia, or to Germany.  A more f o r -  tunate solution i n t h i s respect was recorded by the Catholic sect.  In 1848 the Diocese of Tyraspol was founded and with  28 B o e l i t z , Otto, Das Grenz und Auslanddeutschtum. Druck und Verlag von R. Oldenbourg, Muenchen und B e r l i n , 1930, p. 142. 29 Kessler, oj>. c i t . . pp. 178-I79.  39 i t  the  seminary  p r i e s t h o o d a r y  i n  many  S a r a t o v  e d u c a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n the  was  the  M i n i s t r y  o f  o n l y  was  no  the  p r e s c r i b e d  t i o n  was  German.  s c h o o l  however  was  the  a  o f  c o l o n i e s .  from  under  The  the  the  The  The  s e m i n -  f o r  h i g h e r  M i n i s t r y  was  thus  language  e d u c a t i o n  the  o f  J u r i s d i c t i o n  seminary  r e l i g i o u s  entered  i n s t i t u t i o n  program.  nature as  i n  s t u d e n t s  i n t e r f e r e n c e  I n t e r i o r .  The  few  C a t h o l i c  i n s t i t u t i o n  any  one,  v e r y  t e a c h e r s  the  from  l i b e r a l  As  became  There as  1857.  i n  was  o f  free  o f  i n s t r u c -  g e n e r a l l y  i n s t i t u t i o n  t h e r e  a  was  a  30 s l i g h t  tendency  At i n  the  the  to  p r i e s t s  and  J .  K e s s l e r  o f  t r l c t  f r o m  soon  as  A .  e s t a b l i s h e d  s c h o o l s " .  Graduates  the  c e n t r a l  30  Kessler,  31  Ibid,  32  See  p p .  b y  B i s h o p  seminary  231.  Z e r r  F o u r  were  R u s s i a n  was  government  t e r  c e n t u r y  i t s  from  s c h o o l s .  u n t i l o f  system  i n  s o - c a l l e d these The  o f  them  i n s t r u c t o r s  the  i t s  c o l o n i s t s .  the  number  a b o l i t i o n  became  b i s h o p s  32  the  " o f f i c i a l  s c h o o l s  community  were  b y  b i s h o p s to  the  s u p r a .  and  d i s -  R u s s i a n  d i s t r i c t  p e r m i t t e d  shared  4-5-46.  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  p r o v i n c i a l  1866,  285-288. on  o f  K e s s l e r ,  a p p o i n t e d  i n t r o d u c e d  op_. c i t . , p p .  s e c t i o n  the  1  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  the  was  and  T y r a s p o l . ^  As  20th  the  g i v e n  1917,  of  o f  e x c l u s i v e l y descendants  graduated  R e v o l u t i o n  Diocese  were  s t a t i s t i c s  the  A .  s c h o l a s t i c i s m .  b e g i n n i n g  seminary  A c c o r d i n g of  toward  the  t o  e n -  expenses  40  necessary to support the school.  Besides the o f f i c i a l d i s -  t r i c t schools, the government established also the "ministeri a l schools".  Brendel claims that a m i n i s t e r i a l school In a  Russian community was  f u l l y supported by the government, where-  as the same school i n a colonist center was  to be  supported  33 by the colonists.  The program of these schools was  relat-  i v e l y wide and stimulated the desire f o r further education. Upon graduation the student could enter the fourth grade of a Russian Gymnasium. With the introduction of these various governmental schools a d e f i n i t e R u s s i f i c a t l o n process had started.  After  the Colonial Codex was abolished In 18?1, education which was u n t i l then a matter of self-government,  f e l l under the  J u r i s d i c t i o n of the Ministry of Education.  The  colonists*  schools were incorporated into the general Russian school system and thus made subject to Russian inspection. The l a n guage of i n s t r u c t i o n became Russian - only r e l i g i o n was to be taught i n the s e t t l e r s ' mother tongue.  A teacher had to be  i n possession of a teaching diploma and a c e r t i f i c a t e of p o l i t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y before being appointed. According to Brendel the teachers of Russian descent i n the German settlements amounted to 70 per cent, the teachers  of colonist descent only 30 per cent.  This percentage  was so because the Russian teachers usually had a better  33 Brendel, OJD. c i t . . pp. 54-55.  41  education.  They were graduates  of teaching seminaries  and  thus more r e a d i l y appointed than the colonists who had not  34 received any teachers  1  t r a i n i n g at a l l .  The process of R u s s l f i c a t i o n was not only noticeable i n education but also i n many other respects. o l i t i o n of the Colonial Codex, which resulted  The ab-  i n the curt-  ailment of the c o l o n i a l p r i v i l e g e s ; the use of Russian In the colonies as the o f f i c i a l language; and the renaming of the German settlements i n the Black Sea region i n I896, i . e . g i v ing them R u s s i a n . . n a m e s d o reveal a d e f i n i t e p o l i c y d i r e c ted toward R u s s i f i c a t i o n of the s e t t l e r s .  Due to the Insur-  rection of 1904-1905 the Russian government p e r i o d i c a l l y a l leviated the R u s s i f i c a t i o n p o l i c y and tolerated the e s t a b l i s h ing of German schools again, but soon also these schools were subjugated to the Russian language and the Russian school system. V.  RELIGION IN THE COLONIES The Manifesto of 1?63 promised the s e t t l e r s f u l l  r e l i g i o u s freedom.  They were allowed to b u i l d churches, but  the foundation of monasteries was prohibited. ning the government even provided the c a p i t a l .  In the beginThis i n c l u d -  ed funds to b u i l d churches and grants f o r pastors' s a l a r i e s .  34 Brendel, op., c i t . . pp. 54-55. 35 Handbuch des Deutschtums im Auslands. D i e t r i c h Reimer (Ernst Bohsen), B e r l i n , 1906, p. 184.  42 Later on the colonies had to support  their church leaders by  themselves.'^ As already pointed out, the colonists settled i n separate r e l i g i o u s communities.  Thus we f i n d d i s t i n c t s e t t l e -  ments of Lutherans, reformed groups, Roman Catholics or Mennonites.  Only the town of Katherinenstadt  ( l a t e r Marxstadt)  on the Yolga had a population of both Catholics and Protestants.  Because of these separated  communities, any close r e -  l a t i o n between the r e l i g i o u s groups was  impossible.  This  separation was also to avoid r e l i g i o u s f r i c t i o n among the sects, which would have been a certainty i n a mixed community.  However, due to the lack of Catholic p r i e s t s i n the  early years of settlement  a number of Catholics were convert-  ed to the Lutheran f a i t h .  This was  notably true In the Crimea  where the Catholic and Lutheran communities were located close to each other.  On one occasion, a former Catholic p r i e s t  Ignaz L i n d l advocated the Black Sea region colonists to convert to the Lutheran f a i t h .  With a small group of  converted  Lutherans, he moved to Bessarabia and helped found the  colony  of Sarata i n 1820 No r e l i g i o u s organization existed among the communi t i e s i n the f i r s t years a f t e r settlement. Katherine's  However a f t e r  annexation of eastern Poland the Bishopric of  36 Beratz, G.,  op. c i t . . p.  219.  37 Kessler, op. c i t . , pp. 22-24.  43 Mohilev was established and also included the German Catholic settlers.  Since the Consistorium of the Bishopric was too  f a r from the settlements the colonists received l i t t l e benef i t from i t .  The Lutheran sect had no higher church organi-  zation whatsoever.  Although Katherine I I permitted the e s t -  ablishment of a Lutheran Consistorium i n each province i n 1785, i t was not c a r r i e d out u n t i l 1810, so that each community was l e f t to i t s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . p l i c a b l e to the reformed  The same i s ap-  sects.^  In 1810 an administration center of a l l non-orthodox churches was established which f e l l under the J u r i s d i c t i o n of the Kultus Ministry i n 1818. This enabled the Lutheran Church to e s t a b l i s h an "Imperial General Cons1storium  B  f o r a l l Lutheran churches In Russia.  The General Gon-r  slstorlum was subdivided into eight Consistorlums which were located i n the centers of the main Lutheran settlements.  As  the Reformed groups and the Lutherans could not be united, the General Consistorium was l i m i t e d to the Lutheran sect. The system described above lasted only u n t i l 1832 when a l l Lutheran communities In Russia were divided i n t o two sections, with t h e i r Consistorlums i n Moscow and Petersburg.-' The Lutherans comprised  7  the largest group of set-,  t i e r s i n the Volga as w e l l as i n the Black Sea region.  38 Langhans-Ratzeburg, op_. c i t . . pp. 20-26. 39 Ibid, pp. 27-30.  Four-  44 f i f t h s of the Volga s e t t l e r s were Lutherans  ( t h i s includes a  few thousands of the reformed group) out of a t o t a l of about 550,000 before World War I . In the Black Sea region there was a t o t a l . o f 224,280 plus about 40,000 Wolhynla Germans who were a l l of the Lutheran f a i t h , except a few thousand Hutterites.*  0  With regard to Catholic Church administration i n the 19th  century, we must mention that the Catholic s e t t l e r s who  belonged  to the Archdiocese of Mohilev u n t i l 1848 were then  incorporated into the newly established Diocese of Tyraspol with i t s seat f i r s t i n Cherson, l a t e r Saratov, and i n 1917 i n Odessa. According to Bishop Kessler, Tzar Nicholas I v i s i t ed the Pope of reign XVI i n 1845 at which meeting negotiations f o r the foundation of the new diocese took place.  A papal  delegate was sent out to Russia who made a survey of a l l the colonies and determined  the boundary of the diocese.  Final-  l y i n 1848 the document (Urkunde) "Universalis E c c l e s i a cura" 41 was signed which l a i d the foundation f o r the new diocese. U n t i l 1860 the p r i e s t s among the colonists, were a l most a l l of P o l i s h o r i g i n who scarcely spoke the language of the c o l o n i s t s .  Thus, the s e t t l e r s were a c t u a l l y without  40 See Table I I I . 41 Kessler, op. c i t . , pp. 25-28.  45 leaders and received very l i t t l e benefit from the services of the P o l i s h p r i e s t s .  This period without leadership was  clear-  l y reflected i n the development of the educational standard. Even a f t e r the Catholic Seminary was established i n 1857, which produced teachers and leaders f o r the Catholics, they 42. 43 were unable to a t t a i n the l e v e l of the protestant group.  '  Only f o r a period of twenty years , from 1801 to 1820, were German Jesuits active i n the colonies. Since these Jesuits were only ten i n number and had to serve so great a populat i o n of c o l o n i s t s , they were unable to leave a deep impression of t h e i r teachings. With the establishment of the Seminary the numbers 44 of p r i e s t s were increased  and one could then speak of an  actual p a r i s h with a permanent p r i e s t .  A p a r i s h often had  several a f f i l i a t i o n s , and a few parishes made up a Dekanet. There were twelve of these i n the diocese.**-*  According to  the Catholic Encyclopedia the Diocese of Tyraspol was largest In the world i n area.  the  The Armenian Catholics i n the  42 Bonwetsch, op. c i t . , p. 87. 43 The protestant group devoted more attention to education and was thus more progressive. A s t r i k i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s fact i s that during the Soviet regime the majority of the teachers i n the Catholic communities were protectants. Simultaneously with t h e i r progress i n education, they drew from Russian culture at the expense of t h e i r own and i n consequence t h e i r national resistance was less than that of the conservative Catholics. 44 See section on education, supra. 45 Kessler, op_. c i t . , pp. 278-284.  k6 south of the Caucasus, or those i n the Crimea, d i d not belong to the diocese but formed a separate group.  The members of  the diocese were e x c l u s i v e l y German colonists with only a few hundreds of other n a t i o n a l i t i e s . Regardless  of what the r e l i g i o u s denomination may  have been, the colonists were ardent followers of t h e i r f a i t h and hence r e l i g i o u s inter-marriages were very rare Indeed. It was a serious offense not to attend church.  The Church  was the only form of organization and the pastor was thus the leader.  The Church provided the only form of r e l i e f from the  d a l l y work of the c o l o n i s t s .  They were extremely  t i v e i n t h e i r attitude toward t h e i r f a i t h .  conserva-  The unusually  high respect f o r the man of the chureh created an atmosphere of r e s t r a i n t between the pastor and parishioners, e s p e c i a l l y amongst the Catholics. The end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, as already stated, marked the period wherein the s e t t l e r s * p r i v i l e g e s were c u r t a i l e d .  However, the promised  non-interference p o l i c y of Katherine with regard to chureh matters was maintained u n t i l the Revolution of 71.  1917.  CHARACTERISTICS AND CULTURAL ASPECTS Prom the previous chapters one can see that the c o l -  onists' period of existence i n Russia was characterized on one hand by the economic, and on the other hand by the r e l i gious strength of the group.  TABLE I I I  DISTRIBUTION OP RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS IN THE BLACK SEA AREA Compiled  according t o S t a t i s t i c s  o f Stumpp, K a r l , D i e  dentschen Kolonlen im Schwarzmeergebiet, Ausland und Heimat Verlags Aktiengesellschaft, Stuttgart, 1922, p. 36.  PROVINCE  LUTHERANS  CATHOLICS  MENNONITES  Bessarabia  57,931  Cherson  66,663  99,072  Taurien  56,581..  27,050  50,293.. • • ..133,924  Ekaterlnoslav.. .26,811  48,109  48,290  ..123,160  13,927  13,879  .540  25,346  Don Region Kharkov  TOTAL  2,367  224,280  4,914  TOTAL 1911  2,617  62,845 3,578  ...1,719.  .169,313  *•6,703  195,641..... .104,370..... .524,291  47  U n t i l the end of the 19th century the colonists were almost completely Isolated from t h e i r o r i g i n a l homeland.  Due  to this i s o l a t i o n no c u l t u r a l contact could have been maintained, nor were there the learned people who would have looked to t h e i r homeland as a source of culture.  The c o l o n i s t s '  sole desire was to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r economical standard. a c t i v i t i e s were l i m i t e d to the t i l l i n g of the s o i l .  Their  Mind and  soul were occupied with the number of c a t t l e and horses. Their t i e s with the new homeland were loose.  Thus there was  the constant desire to emigrate which was inspired by l u s t for land. The colonists* l i f e was c o l o r l e s s .  They were con-  servative In t h e i r convictions, c l i n g i n g to the old t r a d i tions.  Lack of educated people deprived the s e t t l e r s of ec-  onomic, c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l organizations.  P o l i t i c a l and  general enlightenment were outside the scope of t h e i r lntex*est;  a book or newspaper was f o r the schoolmaster.  a strong b e l i e f i n God on whom they r e l i e d e n t i r e l y .  They had To the  colonist the church t i e was the strongest and often the only s p i r i t u a l requirement which released him from the duties of his  d a i l y existence. And as any i s o l a t e d group, as Walter  Kuhn maintained, t h e i r s p i r i t u a l nourishment  (Geistige Nahr-  ung) was drawn mainly from the B i b l e , hymnbooks, and calendars.  46  46 Kuhn, 0 £ . c i t . , pp. 332-333.  48  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of the average colonist was that he was a farmer, firm, steady and f u l l of enormous i n i t i a t i v e ; branded however with the deeply etched features of a troublesome past. h i s behavior.  A c e r t a i n slowness was to be seen i n  He was suspicious and envious however, there-  47 by cunning and s c o r n f u l .  God-fearing In i s o l a t i o n he be-  came naive and confiding towards the events outside of h i s own world. Although the colonists had almost completely l o s t the ties with t h e i r o r i g i n a l homeland f o r reasons as stated above, they nevertheless preserved what they had inherited from t h e i r forefathers.  The fact that they had founded pure-  l y German settlements isolated from a l l other n a t i o n a l i t i e s d i d enable them to preserve t h e i r national i d e n t i t y .  Many  customs and habits which were victims of modernization i n Germany remained unchanged In the colonies, so that a study of them would have been rewarding to the student of f o l k l o r e . Christmas and Easter were the most celebrated church festivals.  Numerous fetes were also observed of which  "Kirchweih-Kerva" and "Fastnacht  11  ;  were the most important.  Folksongs were verbally transmitted from generation to generation.  An intensive analysis of the folksong of the Russian-  Germans presents the gradual breakdown and change of the song; l i n e s have been dropped from the o r i g i n a l l y r i c s and there  47 Bonwetsch, op_. c i t . , p.  87.  are  o c c a s i o n a l l y o n l y  course The  o f  time  o r i g i n a l  presented H i g h  p r e s s i o n s . b o r r o w i n g of  adopted  context  by  German  were  the  i n d i v i d u a l  i s  s i n g e r .  r e m a i n i n g  complete o f t e n  U n i s o n  and  by  s i m i l a r  s i m i l a r i t y  from  other  the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the  of  I n  words  i n  i t s e l f .  of  s o u n d i n g  c o n t e x t  songs.  songs  song  w h i c h  u n c o n s c i o u s l y  U n i n t e l l i g i b l e  r e p l a c e d  verses  a  t h e r e f o r e  become  o f  as  verses  m i s r e -  S t a n d a r d  senseless  o f t e n  A l l these  l e d  e x -  t o  the  phenomena  a l s o o c c u r r e d i n  Germany, 48  but  among  the  The f u l l y  d i a l e c t s  d i a l e c t ,  Whereas  c o n i a n  German,  d i a l e c t s .  and  v a r i o u s  though  the  came  c e r t a i n  new  the  u r b a n  caused f e l t  them  the  spoke  of  i n  boots  those  adopt  48 Schuenemann, G . , Das R u s s l a n d . M u e n c h e n , 1923,  I n  C a t h o l i c s as  n o t a b l y shaped  the  among as  Low  spoke  the  R h e m l s h - F r a n the  L u t h e r -  s e t t l e r s  a f t e r  a f f e c t e d World  War  c o n s e r v a t i v e came  a d d i t i o n d r e s s ,  the  L i e d d e r p . 40.  were  W e s t - P r u s s i a n  and  who  R u s s i a n  d u r i n g  c o l o n i s t s  c u l t u r e  n o t a b l y  by  a c u t e .  from  community.  g e n e r a l l y  set  w o r n  one  a  w e l l  was  R u s s i a n  p o p u l a t i o n . to  as  d i a l e c t  more  e a r l y  c o l o n i e s ,  were  s t y l e  was  L u t h e r a n s  e x t e n t ,  c o l o n i s t s  R u s s i a n  and  some  i n f l u e n c e  m a i n t a i n  coat  I n  t o g e t h e r  a  by  Low Alemmaine  areas  t o  t i o n s  the  a  o n i s t s  t h i s  Mennonites  C a t h o l i c s ,  The  the  R u s s i a  spoken  The  South-West  to  i n  p r e s e r v e d .  German  ans  Germans  i n  w i n t e r .  deutschen  c o l -  I .  A l -  they  t r i e d  contact  c l i m a t i c i . e .  the  the  The  w i t h  c o n d i b i g  f u r  urban  K o l o n l s t e n  I n  50 Germans were Russified i n t h e i r moods but they s t i l l spoke the German language.  Because of this the urban German was  more ready to inter-marry with the native Russian.  The  vill-  age i n t e l l i g e n t s i a also tended to imitate Russian ways.  This  was usually the r e f l e c t i o n of a higher Russian educational institution. In  the f i r s t years of settlement the borrowing from  Russian culture was l i m i t e d to material c u l t u r a l forms. cording to Kuhn t h i s process a c t u a l l y works both ways.  AcA  certain exchange (Ausglelch) takes place between the i s o l a t ed language group and that of the native people.  But only  much l a t e r , a f t e r having been acquainted with the native people and a f t e r they are able to master the language of the hq  natives does a borrowing of s p i r i t u a l c u l t u r a l forms occur, ^ In  such a process f a i r y tales and proverbial sayings were  adopted.  In matters of f o l k music, there has always been a  tendency amongst the colonists of Eastern Europe to r e a d i l y accept the superiority of the native music, e s p e c i a l l y I f they have been l i v i n g amongst Ukrainians and Russians.  In  t h i s manner Russian and Ukrainian melodies of song and dance were w i l l i n g l y adopted.  The songs were adopted because of  t h e i r b e a u t i f u l melody, although the l y r i c was not understood. The influence of the Russian language was able since Russian was the language of the country.  49 Kuhn, op_. c i t . ,  pp. 298-299.  unavoidThe use  51 of o f f i c i a l Russian terms, expressions designating new types of f u r n i t u r e or clothing, f o r which no counterpart existed i n the d i a l e c t were common.  The use of the f i r s t name and  the father's name when addressing each other was s t r i k i n g as t h i s i s a way which i s exclusively Russian. In spite of t h i s influence of Russian culture, the average colonist had unconsciously maintained  his nationality.  As among other i s o l a t e d minority groups, the Church served as a great support to preserve t h i s national character.  Elemen-  tary schools were Church schools" and were supervised by the 0  pastors before the period of R u s s i f i c a t i o n at the close of the 19th century.  Religious ceremonies were presented i n German.  The church was the only form of organization amongst the c o l onists and held them together.  In i s o l a t i o n , the church thus  beoame a f a c s i m i l e of a national church, hovrever, there was no d e f i n i t e p o l i c y pursued that l e d to the preservation of t h e i r national i d e n t i t y .  I t was merely that deep desire to  keep what was handed down through t r a d i t i o n by t h e i r f o r e fathers.^  0  According to Kuhn, as the Isolated group begins to develop materially as well as s p i r i t u a l l y , and r e l i g i o u s pamphlets are replaced by news of the world, and as the people  50 The preservation of the national i d e n t i t y was aided by the natural separation from the natives as the colonists s e t t l e d i n purely separate r e l i g i o u s communities. The d i f f e r ence i n f a i t h s avoided inter-marriages and thereby also the association with the natives.  52 acquire a higher standard of l i v i n g , as well as draw t h e i r c u l t u r a l forms from non-nationals, then the isolated language island has reached a dangerous period, that of a s s i m i l a tion.  Only then, a powerful impulse from the outside can  re-awaken the national consciousness and r e - e s t a b l i s h the contact with the motherland as well as to secure future c u l t -  51  u r a l sources.  *  The group i n Russia never reached the l e v e l d e s c r i b ed by Kuhn.  The majority were s t i l l farmers l i v i n g i n t h e i r  own secluded world and thus they never reached the point of assimilation.  Nevertheless they d i d receive such an Impulse.  The d e f i n i t e R u s s i f i c a t i o n process at the end of the 19th century coupled with the antagonistic f e e l i n g following World War I, created a c e r t a i n German consciousness i n the group. However, as Germans who had no contact with Germany and had never been there, they became a unique group which had i n course of time coined i t s own form of culture.  As such the  group was never f u l l y accepted by the average German.  A fact  which manifested i t s e l f when part of the group was resettled to Germany during World War I I .  They spoke of another mem-  ber of the group as "one of ours", as the people of Alsace do who c a l l themselves neither German nor French hut A l s a t i a n s . #  #  #  51 Kuhn, 0 £ . c i t . , pp. 384-385.  #  #  53  L i t e r a r y publications amongst the s e t t l e r s were scarce.  52  In many of the calendars and magazines,  historical  sketches of i n d i v i d u a l colonies were published. Notable f o r that was the "Neuer Haus- und Landwirtschaftskalendar f u e r die  deutschen Ansiedler im suedlichen Russland".  In 1912,  a  noteworthy novel appeared anonymously on the Volga e n t i t l e d , Nor net lopper g gewa. which described the attitude of the 1  German colonist toward an I d e a l i s t young teacher with progres slve views. ^  Another publication which appeared on the V o l -  ga, was a c o l l e c t i o n of folksongs and childrens* poems of the Volga c o l o n i s t s , which was written by Goebel, Gottlieb; and Alexander Hunger and e n t i t l e d Fest und True, oder der K l r g l sen-Michel.  A l l this l i t e r a t u r e , including the h i s t o r i c a l  works, were issued i n Russia.  Only a f t e r World War I when  for the f i r s t time i n t h e i r history the colonists i n Russia attracted the attention of t h e i r o r i g i n a l homeland, d i d a 54 number of publications appear In Germany. The following l i s t contains calendars, newspapers,, magazines and h i s t o r i c a l works.  The dates of p u b l i c a t i o n  52 For l i t e r a r y publications a f t e r World War I, see Chapter III, i n f r a . ' 5 3 Luther, Arthur, "Deutsche Dichtung i n Russland", Der Auslanddeutsche. Jabrg. XII, No. 1 0 , Stuttgart, 1 9 2 9 , pp. 3 1 6 318.  54 In 1 9 1 4 there were a series of research works published f o r the f i r s t time by the newly founded " I n s t i t u t fuer auslandskunde und Auslanddeutschtum" i n Leipzig. The climax of research concern about the Germans i n Russia was reached i n Germany a f t e r 1 9 3 3 .  54 mark the period of prosperity whereas they ceased, publishing with the onset of World War I when they were prohibited. 55  A.  Calendars  1.  Amtskalender fuer evangelische Gelstliche In Russland. 1871-1914..  2.  C h r i s t l i c h e r Famlllenkalender, Semferopol, 1897.  3.  Per Wolgabote. a Calendar f o r German s e t t l e r s on the V o l ga, 1883-1906.  4.  Kalender der deutschen Kolonlen In Russland, Petersburg.  5.  Molotschnaer Volkskalender. f o r the German s e t t l e r s i n South Russia, 1881^1914.  6.  Neuer Haus- und Landwlrtschaftskalendar, f o r the German s e t t l e r s i n South Russia, 1865-1915.  7.  Wolgadeutscher Kalender. 1873-1915.  6.  Newspapers and Magazines  1.  Hausfreund. issued by Kanonikus Rudolf Relchert, Odessa, 1892-1906.  2.  Helmatglocken, Talovka, 1905,  3.  Klemens. a Catholic Weekly founded i n 1897, Saratov, publ i s h e d as a weekly u n t i l 1906 then issued as a supplement to the "Deutsche Rundschau" u n t i l 1914.  4.  Moskauer deutsche Zeltung. a weekly.  5»  Odessaer Zeltung. a d a i l y , 1865-1914; 1915-1918.  6.  St. Petersburger Zeltung. 1727-1915.  7.  Saratower deutsche Volkszeltung. Saratov.  56  a Lutheran weekly. .  55 Handbueh des Peutschtums im Auslande, op. c i t . , pp. 187-  188.  ,  56 Ibid.  :  55 8.  Unterhaltungsblatt, f o r the German s e t t l e r s i n South Russia, Odessa, 1825-1871.  C.  H i s t o r i c a l Books These works have been written by the descendants of the colonists and several of the books have been published abroad.5?  1.  Bauer, G., Geschlchte der deutschen Ansiedler an der Wolga s e i t Ihrer Einwanderung nach Russland b i s zur Einfuehrung der Allgemeinen Wehrpflicht, 1 7 6 6 - 1 8 7 4 .  2.  Beratz, Gottleib, Die deutschen Kolonlen an der Unteren Wolga i n Ihrer Entstehung und ersten Entwickelung, Saratov, 1914.  3.  Bonwetsch, Gerhard, Geschlchte der deutschen Kolonlen an der Wolga. Stuttgart, 1919. Kessler, Bishop Joseph A., Geschlchte der Dlozese Tyras-  4.  poj., Dickinson, North Dakota,  1930.  5.  Klaus, Alexander, Unsere Kolonlen. Odessa,  6.  Loebsack, Georg, Elnsam kaempft das Wolgalarid, L e i p z i g ,  1871.  1936. 7. 8.  Schenk, M. F., Geschlchte der deutsche Kolonlen i n Transkaukasien. 1 8 6 9 . Schleuning, Johannes, Die deutschen Kolonlen In Wolgageblet. 1919.  9.  Schleuning, Johannes, In Kampf und Todesnot. B e r l i n Chariot t e nburg, 1930.  10.  Stach Jakob, Das Deutschtum i n S l b i r l e n M i t t e l a s l e n und dem Fernen Osten. Stuttgart, 1939.  11.  Stumpp, Karl, Die deutschen Kolonlen im Schwarzmeergeblet. Stuttgart, 1922.  5 7 A great number of h i s t o r i c a l works and a r t i c l e s were publ i s h e d by the Mennonltes, but since the Mennonites and t h e i r l i t e r a r y works are well known, they s h a l l not be mentioned. here.  56 Numerous verbal stories which were never written down circulated amongst the c o l o n i s t s .  In the long winter  evenings these s t o r i e s were t o l d ; they a l l spoke of the c o l onists' past and t h e i r adventures i n the e a r l y days of s e t tlement.  S t y l i s t i c a l l y they were an adoption of Germanic  heroic poems which were brought by the early s e t t l e r s .  In  time the poems were l o c a l i z e d , i . e . the characters and heroes In the poems were replaced by l o c a l people. The yearly f e s t i v a l s held by the church choirs must be mentioned here as an important aspect of the c o l o n i s t s artistic activity.  1  Where c u l t u r a l l i f e was at best so r e -  s t r i c t e d , these r e l i g i o u s celebrations helped to supply an important need i n the community. VII.  INTERNAL MIGRATION AND SISTER COLONIES Perhaps no other national group i n the world was i n  such a constant uninterrupted movement as the Germans of Russia. 1763  The settlement of the mother colonies lasted from  u n t i l the middle of the 19th  century.  The Volga, Black  Sea region, Caucasus and Wolhynla were selected as settlement areas.  Almost simultaneously with the completion of the s e t -  tlement of the mother colonies, a new movement started into other areas of Russia.  Neither pressure nor oppression on  the part of the Russian government caused t h i s migration i n to i s o l a t e d d i s t r i c t s .  The apparent land problem and the i n -  herent urge of the colonists to acquire land, drove them to  57 spread out from every nucleus of settlement.  Heads of fami-  l i e s wished each son to have an area equal to h i s own.  There-  fore in.large families there was a constant search f o r new land. perty*  No opportunity was missed to enlarge holdings of proPrice differences helped i n this regard.  Settlers  sold t h e i r land when values were favorable and moved into distant areas where they could buy cheaply.  The natural de-  s i r e to own one's farm s o i l and the a c q u i s i t i v e nature of these colonists to possess cheap land and much of i t , sent them wandering from one d i s t r i c t into another.  The early mi-  gration had established mother colonies which soon were surrounded by s i s t e r colonies.  When a l l the available land was  taken, a migration eastward took place. According to Jakob Stach, as the colonists became subject to m i l i t a r y service and emigration abroad had started, large numbers of Mennonites from Molotsohna migrated to the newly acquired t e r r i t o r y i n Turkestan.  The majority of them  came from the Province of Taurien, l a t e r i n the 1890's they also came from the Volga.  The Governor of Turkestan promised  each person a sum of f i f t y rubles and exemption from taxes for eleven years.  The t o t a l of the s e t t l e r s who  accepted  CO  t h i s proposal was about 1,000.-^  From 1899  to 1901  an ex-  tensive number of colonists migrated from the.Province of Cherson i n Bessarabia to the area of Tashkent. 58 Stach, Jakob, Das Deutschtum In S l b l r l e n . Mittelaslen und dem Fernen Oaten, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1939, p. 43.  58 The colonies i n the Don area and North Caucasus were founded by Volga and Black Sea Germans, colonists s e t t l e d near Taganrog.  In the Don area the  Later after 1900, migra- .  tions from here to the North Caucasus and Central A s i a were recorded.  The foundation of the colonies i n the North Cauca-  sus followed the year I860, when Black Sea and Volga Germans s e t t l e d there.  These colonies were predominantly located  near Stavrograd, Vladikawkas  and Novorossljsk.  Before World  War I the number of colonies was over seventy-six with the same number of Chutoras  (smaller settlements) and an aggre-  gate population of 100,000.  As s i s t e r colonies they were  small i n comparison to the mother colonies and had populatcq ions of only 1,000 to 2,000 persons. ' -  The general migration to S i b e r i a at the beginning of the 20th century was due to two h i s t o r i c a l events i n Tzar— 1st  Russia: (a) the construction of the Trans-Siberian R a i l -  road; and (b) the Stolypin Agrarian Reform of 1906 which was  60 passed by the Duma i n 1910. The coming of the railway caused the resettlement of more than three and one half m i l l i o n people - even during the Russo-Japanese War 90,000 people were r e s e t t l e d i n S i b e r ia.^  1  The agrarian reform dissolved the "Mir system" whereby  59 B o e l i t z , op_. c i t • , p. 141. 60 Stumpp, op_. c i t . , p. 21. 61 Stach, op_. c i t . , p. 61.  59 the land was  community owned and was  p e r i o d i c a l l y divided  among the male members of the settlement.  (Note that only  the Black Sea Germans were not subject to the "Mir system".) The new  law freed the peasant from any o b l i g a t i o n towards the  community. ed.  He was  free to buy or s e l l land wherever he wish-  Furthermore, the land became h i s personal  possession.  This agrarian reform corrected the mistake of 1861,  whereby  the a b o l i t i o n of serfdom d i d not bring with i t the right of private ownership. The reform i n turn marked the biggest colonization period of the 20th century as the government made a number of s p e c i a l concessions to the prospective s e t t l e r f o r S i b e r ia.  Colonists were e n t i t l e d to f i f t e e n desjatins of land  sides a f a i r reduction f o r transportation, etc. ments brought i n s e t t l e r s from Bessarabia,  be-  These induce-  Cherson and  the  62 Volga.  A f t e r 1905  the following complexes of colonies were  founded i n S i b e r i a : In the area of Slavgorod  ; .118  colonies.  205  colonies.  In the area of Orenburg (European Russia)...... 22  colonies.  In the area of Omsk  In the area of Khmolinsk  42 colonies.  In the area of Semipalatlnsk (Central A s i a ) . . . . 64 colonies. Although the above figures only present were about 500  451  colonies, there  German colonies i n S i b e r i a before World War  62 Stach, op. c i t . . pp. 63-64.  I.  60 The colonists possessed  a t o t a l of 800,000 desjatins i n  land-holdings.^ Summing up the mother colonies and s i s t e r colonies i n Russia we see the following p i c t u r e :  out of 318 o r i g i n a l  mother colonies founded by German s e t t l e r s i n European Russia, there were 3,000 s i s t e r colonies established with 90,000 Chutoras'founded by the o r i g i n a l German s e t t l e r s . I n time they increased eighteen times, i . e . 1.6 m i l l i o n by World 6k  War I . To complete the migration of the German s e t t l e r s within Russia we must mention the l a s t migration during the Soviet regime.  During World War I when the Wolhynla Germans  were ordered to leave t h e i r homeland, an extensive number of them s e t t l e d i n the Par East of Russia.  In 1926 to 1929, the  period of c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n marked a migration from a l l German settled areas to the Far East.  The Soviet government granted  tax exemption and and other concessions to people who were ready to s e t t l e i n the Far East.  In t h i s way fourteen c o l -  onies were founded on the Amur and Ussuri Rivers by German settlers.^  During the Soviet regime, as the colonists were  ousted, there was also a great i n f l u x of Germans into the  63 Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , erg. c i t . . p. 135. 6k I b i d. 65 Quiring, Walter, "Die russlanddeutschen Fleuchtllnge i n China", Der Wanderweg der Russlanddeutschen. Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , Stuttgart, 1939, pp. 272-273.  61  c i t i e s , where they took employment as laborers and various skilled  crafts.  CHAPTER I I I  THE COLONISTS BETWEEN THE WORLD WARS I.  WORLD WAR I AND THE IMPERIAL UKAS OF 1915 The outbreak of World War I marked the beginning of  the most d i f f i c u l t period i n the h i s t o r y of the colonists. The planned Jubilee commemorating t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Russia had to be forgotten.  Instead of the j o y f u l f e s t i v a l s the pre-  v a i l i n g mood was sadness and disappointment. zens of Russia they were drafted  As f u l l  citi-  Into the army and had t o  f i g h t against t h e i r land of o r i g i n .  The antagonism e x i s t i n g  towards the colonists reached a climax i n the Ukas of 1915. The location of the German settlements, I.e. Wolhynla which was s t r a t e g i c a l l y important to Russia, l e d to a number of anti-German measures at the beginning of the war. The Ukas of I915 proclaimed the confiscation, with compensat i o n , of the entire German land-holdings along the P o l i s h border.  Within a few days they had to s t a r t t h e i r march t o -  wards S i b e r i a . beria. ions.  There were 180,000 people on the way to S i -  Diseases and starvation were t h e i r constant companThese measures were the more d r a s t i c as the entire  male population was f i g h t i n g , only women and children home.  1  1 Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , op_. c i t . . p. 26k.  63 In 1916  the Tzariat government decreed the expulsion  from t h e i r homes of the Volga Germans and those of the Black Sea region.  The decree, however, f e l l into abeyance with the:  overthrow of the T z a r l s t regime. Brest-Litovsk i n 1918, return to t h e i r homes.  Only a f t e r the Treaty of  were the Wolhynla Germans allowed to There they found a devastated area, a  r e f l e c t i o n of a raging b a t t l e - f i e l d . As these measures had been enforced, the T z a r i s t government could not expect any great l o y a l t y from the c o l onists.  Although individuals were i n the Western b a t t l e - f i e l d  against Germany, i t was the p o l i c y of the Russian government to have the colonists on the Turkish f r o n t .  Georg Loebsack  i n his heroic treatment of the Volga Germans, Elnsam kaempft das Wolgaland. maintains that at least 40,000 Volga Ge rmans p  had given t h e i r l i v e s at the Battle of Erserum.  Erserum,  near Trapesunt, became the cemetery of the colonists i n World War I . II.  THE MARCH REVOLUTION OF  1917  The March Revolution of 1917  seemed to have brought  better times as the p r o v i s i o n a l government restored c u l t u r a l and national self-determination.  They were to develop t h e i r  future n a t i o n a l i t y free from any pressure and force of the government.  A sudden desire f o r u n i t y prevailed amongst a l l  2 Loebsack, Georg, Elnsam kaempft das Wolgaland, R. Voeigtlaeder Verlag, Leipzig, 1 9 3 6 , p. 1 4 5 .  6k  the Germans i n Russia.  A strong u n i f i c a t i o n was craved by  the colonists i n order that their rights would be preserved i n case of need. In order to give t h i s new movement character and a uniform aim, Professor Llndemann, In accordance x-irith other leading colonists summoned representatives from the German settlements to Moscow.  The meeting took place i n A p r i l , the  20th to 23rd, 1917, under the chairmanship and Duma deputy Lutz.  of Prof. Llndemann  E i g h t y - s i x delegates from f i f t e e n Pro-  vinces had gathered f o r the f i r s t time i n order to defend the c o l o n i s t s ' cause i n Russia.  At t h i s Conference, resolutions  of immediate importance were thrashed out. Foremost amongst these was the demand f o r equal rights as Russian c i t i z e n s , the introduction of German In the c o l o n i s t s ' schools, the foundation of German newspapers, the foundation of a German Society i n Russia,^ and immediate help f o r the expelled Wolk hynia Germans. Before the proclamation of self-determination of the peoples In Russia by the p r o v i s i o n a l government on the 20th of March, 1917,  the Volga Germans had already founded a p r i -  vate executive f o r the purpose of combating the unfavorable measures undertaken against the c o l o n i s t s .  3 This Society had no p o l i t i c a l  This private  affiliations.  k Schleuning, Johannes, In Kampf und Todesnot. Bernard u. Graefe, Berlin-Charlottenburg, 1930, pp. 30-33.  65  executive was now augmented to an organized executive which soon c a l l e d a General Meeting i n A p r i l , 1917.  Three hundred  and eighty-six delegates from a l l the Volga colonist s e t t l e ments had gathered and elected a "Central Committee" with I t s seat i n Saratov.  Questions of economy and culture were to he  administered by this committee.  I t s primary aim, however,  was the establishment of autonomy f o r the Volga c o l o n i s t s . ^ From March u n t i l the October Revolution of 1917,  according  to Schleuning, there was an active p a r t i c i p a t i o n noticeable amongst a l l the people f o r the re-establishment-of the "Verlorenes Volksgut  11  (national character).  During this period  a German paper "Die Saratower deutsche Volkszeitung" was founded and numerous teachers* congresses were held by the Volga Germans. S i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d on by the Black Sea colonists.  At the end of March of 1917,  they had already  c a l l e d a Conference In Odessa f o r the purpose of founding a "Society of a l l Germans i n Russia".  Here, too, the r e s o l u -  tions of the Moscow Conference were adopted which were to be carried out under the auspices of the elected "Central Committee" with i t s seat i n Odessa.  A weekly magazine was  founded to promote the cause of the c o l o n i s t .  This magazine  was at f i r s t issued In Russian and l a t e r In the German language.  Contrary to the Volga Germans, the Black Sea colonist  5 Langhans-Ratzeburg, op_. c i t . , pp. 41-44.  66 did  not s t r i v e f o r autonomy due to the t e r r i t o r i a l distances  between the settlements. The Caucasian colonists who e s p e c i a l l y had to experience the antagonism of the T z a r i s t government, e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y welcomed the March Revolution.  As on the Volga and  Black Sea, they too c a l l e d a Congress i n T i f l i s .  Although  they were one of the poorer groups they were able to c o l l e c t enough funds to e s t a b l i s h a German hlghschool (Oberrealschule) i n Helendorf by the f a l l of 191?.  6  P a r a l l e l to the a c t i v i t i e s i n the mother colonies were those a c t i v i t i e s of the colonists i n S i b e r i a .  In Slav-  gorod there was a Congress c a l l e d whieh decided on the foundation of a German teachers' t r a i n i n g school.  The school was  7  ready f o r I t s opening by the f a l l of 1917.' However t h i s great enthusiasm f o r the purpose of r e e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r former status as a self-determined group, was of short duration.  The eight months from March u n t i l  October were not long.  The October Revolution and i t s con-  sequences brought even more destructive elements to the c o l onies.  The colonies were exposed to the anarchism of e i t h e r  the r e t r e a t i n g and r e s i s t i n g Imperial forces or the approaching troops of the new regime.  6 Schleuning, op_. c i t . , pp. 38-39. 7 Stach, op_. c i t . . pp. 130-150.  67  III*  OCTOBER REVOLUTION AND  SELF-DETERMINATION  The attitude towards the new Soviet regime was of resistance.  one  Only the poorer landless elements became f o l -  lowers of the Bolshevist system as they expected land from ft  the new government.  The colony of Balzer on the Volga show-  ed the greatest resistance towards the Bolshevists.  This r e -  sistance resulted i n an armed u p r i s i n g against the invading Red f o r c e s .  9  Even a f t e r the October Revolution of 19I7  when  the Bolshevists were dominating the Volga c i t i e s , the "Centr a l Committee" which was  elected during the period of the  p r o v i s i o n a l government was  s t i l l resisting.  1 0  This committee  called the Warenburg Conference i n February of 1918  as a pro-  test against the formation of l o c a l Soviets i n the town.  11  But with the increasing power of the l o c a l communi s t s , the "Central Committee" was  crushed and replaced by  "Commissariat of the Volga Germans".  the  The Commissariat had  the task of preparing f o r the coming Congress of the Soviets  8 Stumpp, op. c i t . , p. 9 Schleuning,  42.  op_. c i t . . p.  42.  10 "Nemcev Povolzja A.S.S.R.", Bol'sha.la Sovetskaja Enslkl o p e d l i a . Vol. 41, O.G.J.Z., R.S.F.S.R., Moskva, 1939, pp. 594-604. This a r t i c l e states that the Volga Germans were predominantly ardent followers of the communist idea, and that t h e i r contribution to the cause of the revolution was great. The a r t i c l e goes on to describe the heroic p a r t i c i pation of Volga German regiments against the invading troops of Denikin and Kolchak. 11 Langhans-Ratzeburg, op_. c i t . , p.  42.  68  of the Volga colonies and that of carrying out the decrees of the Soviet regime.  Preparation having been completed,  the f i r s t Soviet Congress of the Volga Germans was summoned  12 to Saratov by June of 1918.  I t was only In October of 1918  at the second Congress that the "Autonomous Workers' Commune of the Volga Germans" was proclaimed.  This was i n accordance  with the Soviet national p o l i c y which secured the right of self-determination to a l l the peoples of the U.S.S.R.  Now  a l l questions pertaining to economy, administration and c u l t ure were under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the elected "Soviet Congress" of the Autonomous Workers' Commune of the Volga Ger-. mans.^ The Treaty of Brest-Lltovsk even secured the right to the Volga Germans to emigrate to Germany.  German govern-  ment o f f i c i a l s arrived on the Volga to organize this emigrat i o n , but the collapse of Germanyin 1918 made a quick end to Ik this beginning.  In 1921,  a "Zentralkbraitee der Deutschen  aus Russland" was founded In Germany.  The organization un-  dertook the task of a s s i s t i n g the colonists to emigrate to overseas c o u n t r i e s . ^ 1  12 Gross, E., A.S .S .R. Nemcey Povolz.la. Izdanije "Nemgosizdata", Pokrovsk, 1926, p. 13 13 A.S.S.R. der Wolgadeutschen. op. c i t . , pp. 1-10. Ik Gross, op. c i t . , pp. 15-16. 15 "Zentralkomitee der Deutschen aus Russland", Per Auslanddeutsche. Jabrg. 10, No. 13, Stuttgart, 192?, pp."553-^-6?.  6  9  I t was only by 1924 that the Autonomous Workers' Commune was able to exist as a self-contained economical unit.  At that time i t was raised to the l e v e l of an "Auton-  omous Republic",  as part of the large Russian S o c i a l i s t Fed-  eration of Soviet Republics.  The  republic was  divided Into  16 fourteen counties  and had a national composition of: ...66.53$  Germans..........  21.1 $  Russians Ukranians  9.72$  Others  1.65$  The Black Sea colonist as contrasted to the Volga colonist had a d i f f e r e n t phase of development. the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk the Ukraine was  Following  occupied by the  German forces, so that the "Central Committee" founded during the p r o v i s i o n a l government i n Odessa was u n t i l the end of the German occupation, 1918.  able to function  i . e . November of  A f t e r the collapse of Germany and the subsequent r e -  treat of the troops from the Ukraine, the new Soviet regime was  able to paralyse the a c t i v i t i e s of the "Central Committee"  i n Odessa.  However the colonies around Odessa r e s i s t e d the  Soviet regime with an armed u p r i s i n g and were able to maint a i n t h e i r resistance f o r a period of two weeks. ''' 1  16 For d e t a i l s of administration see: Langhans-Ratzeburg, op. c i t . , and Gross, op_. c i t . 17 Schleuning,  op_. cit.., pp. 87-89.  70 Contrary to the Volga Germans, autonomy never was granted to the Black Sea Germans f o r reasons of t e r r i t o r i a l distances between the settlements. However they were organized into "National D i s t r i c t s " of which there were seventeen i n the entire U.S.S.R.  Administratively they belonged to the  p a r t i c u l a r province In which they were located.  Most of them  were named a f t e r leading German colonists such as, K a r l Leibknecht d i s t r i c t near Odessa, Ernst Thailmann d i s t r i c t i n the Donetz area, and Rosa Luxemburg d i s t r i c t near Dnepropetrovsk, 18 etc. IV.  ECONOMIC ASPECTS The four years of war, the October Revolution f o l -  lowed by the c i v i l war and the growing anarchism brought economical d i s a s t e r to Russia.  The constant occupation by  either the Soviet forces or the r e s i s t i n g T z a r i s t troops caused almost a complete impoverishment 1920.  of the colonies by  In addition to the e x i s t i n g impoverishment, Russia was  destined to endure i n 1921 history.  the greatest crop f a i l u r e In I t s  According to Ivan Herasimovich, the once so f e r t -  i l e s o i l near Mariupol returned only .05  of the o r i g i n a l seed  sown, and as a r e s u l t , by the winter of 1921  - 79^  of the  German colonists were subject to the great famine which was  18 Kolarz, Walter, Russia and her Colonies. George P h i l i p and Son Limited, London, 1952, p. 74, according to informat i o n from: Bartels, Bernhard, Die deutschen Bauern Suedrussland, Moscow, 1928.  71 accompanied by mass starvation and epidemics. The conditions amongst the Volga colonists were no less severe.  The s t a t i s t i c s below manifest the austerity of  the crop f a i l u r e and the subsequent drop i n population i n  1921. AMOUNT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS EXPORTED FROM THE AREA OF THE A.S.S.R. OF THE VOLGA GERMANS TO OTHER AREAS OF RUSSIA 2  In 1918..  18 m i l l i o n pud.  In 1919  ..12 m i l l i o n pud.  In 1920  6 m i l l i o n pud.  In 1921  1 m i l l i o n pud.  POPULATION OF THE AREA OF THE A.S.S.R. OF THE VOLGA GERMANS  21  In 1916  ....570,300 persons.  In 1 9 2 0 . . . . . . . . . In 1922.  660,841 persons. ..527,826 persons.  The loss of 141,000 people i n the area was due to starvation and dessertion into other areas of Russia. Through the immediate help of the International Red Cross and church organizations, as well as r e l a t i v e s abroad, conditions were a l l e v i a t e d by 1922.  Also the new Russian  19 Herasimovich, Ivan, Holod na Ukra.llnl. Vidavnitstvo 'Ukrajinske Slovo", B e r l i n , 1922, pp. 60-67. 20 Gross, op_. c i t . . pp. 22-38. 21 I b i d .  72 economic p o l i c y which guaranteed private enterprise at the beginning of the 1920»s helped to overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t time and many were again on t h e i r way to prosperity. But by 1925 finite.  the coming of c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n was  de-  This i n turn meant the loss of land which was by no  means compatible with the m a t e r i a l i s t i c mind of the c o l o n i s t . The expected economic i n s t a b i l i t y and the i n t e n s i f i e d f e a r of a possible r e v i v a l of the year of 1921, the lust to wander i n the c o l o n i s t .  again motivated  This period marked the  second great migration overseas which lasted u n t i l 1930  when  the Soviet government completely stopped the emigration of Russian c i t i z e n s .  A f t e r 1930  various i l l e g a l ways were con-  t r i v e d to leave Russia. The period of c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n also marked the expulsion of r i c h colonists (Kulaks) from the colonies.  The 1928  majority of these then moved into the c i t i e s .  Thus by  the A.S.S.R. could record the existence of 209  collective  farms.  Ten years l a t e r 99»9# of e l l farms were Incorporated  into Kolkhoses of Sovkhoses (state-owned f a r m s ) .  22  In addl- .  t i o n the Soviet Encyclopedia records a tremendous upswing i n industry and mechanization In the A.S.S.R. of the Volga Ger03  mans.Similar  statements i n regard to c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n can  be made about other German populated areas.  Only amongst the  22 A.S.S.R. der Wolgadeu t s che n. op. c i t . , pp. 30-33. 23 For d e t a i l see "Nemcev Povolzja A.S.S.R.", op_. cjlt.,  73 Germans In S i b e r i a was c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n introduced l a t e r . I t remains to mention that the famine of 1921 found a recurrence'in 1930-1931, when the crop f a i l u r e and addit i o n a l taxes deprived the people of Russia of t h e i r d a i l y bread.  At the close of the decade people had been reconciled  with t h e i r fate of being c o l l e c t i v e farmers and conditions were generally improved.  I t was World War I I which marked ah  end to t h i s period. V.  RELIGION IN THE COLONIES Soon a f t e r the October Revolution of 1917 the two  Lutheran Consistorlums i n Leningrad and Moscow were d i s s o l ved.  However the Lutheran Seminary i n Leningrad was s t i l l 2<  functioning u n t i l 1925«  From among forty pastors which  served one hundred and f i f t y Lutheran colonies on the Volga, only fourteen remained by 1926. fled  Sixteen r e t i r e d and the rest  abroad. S i m i l a r actions were undertaken against the Catholic  hierarchy.  Many p r i e s t s including Joseph A. Kessler, Bishop  of the Diocese of Tyraspol, were able to leave Russia before measures were undertaken against them.  The Catholic Seminary  i n Saratov was dissolved In 1918 and property confiscated.  24 Schleunlng, op_. c i t . . pp. 170-185. 25 Gross, op_, c i t . , p. 98.  74 Before the war each of the thirty-nine Catholic settlements had one p r i e s t and one cantor.  By 1926  there were nine vac-  ancies. ? 2  Although s t a t i s t i c a l information i s not available f o r the colonies i n the Ukraine and other areas, one can assume a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n regard to r e l i g i o u s matters.  Re-  l i g i o n as a whole was banned from the school and so were the teachers of r e l i g i o n . Isolated and without leadership, the i n d i v i d u a l pastors carried on with t h e i r work u n t i l 1937  when most of  them became victims of the great purges of 1936-1938 i n Soviet Russia.  Churches were closed and often transformed  Into dance or recreation h a l l s .  A v i v i d propaganda against  the Church as an i n s t i t u t i o n was  carried on by the younger  generation who were members of the "Society of the  Godless".  Their main organs of propaganda were the German weekly magazines j "Die Trommel - published In the A.S.S.R. of the V o l 0  ga Germans, "Die Trompete" - published i n the Ukraine,  and  "Neuland" a n t l r e l i g i o e s e Z e l t s c h r i f der Sowjetdeutsche - published i n the  Ukraine.  28  The l i t e r a t u r e published In the Soviet Union i n r e gard to the c o l o n i s t s ' attitude towards such measures i s  27  Gross, op. c i t . , p.  97.  28 Schleuning, op_. c i t . . p.  192.  75  s t r i k i n g l y contradictory when compared with the l i t e r a t u r e published abroad.  I n the Soviet p u b l i c a t i o n of E. Gross, he  stipulates that by 1926 the colonist had developed a negative attitude toward the church due to the enlightenment by the revolution and p a r t l y by the corrupted  clergy themselves. 9 2  Johannes Schleuning states exactly the opposite In his German publication.  I n spite of the intimidation practiced by the  Soviet government the majority of the s e t t l e r s remained a r dent followers of t h e i r r e l i g i o n .  I t was a f t e r a l l t h e i r  deeply rooted b e l i e f that had kept and served them during t h e i r h i s t o r i c period i n Russia.3° VI.  GERMAN NATIONAL SCHOOLS AND CULTURE According to the Soviet Constitution a l l people of  the U.S.S.R. had the r i g h t to national  schools:  A r t i c l e 121. Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to education. This r i g h t i s ensured by u n i v e r s a l and compulsory elementary education; by free education up to and including the seventh grade; by a system of state stipends f o r students of higher educational e s t a b l i s h ments who excel In t h e i r studies; by Ins t r u c t i o n i n schools being conducted i n the native language, and by the organization i n the f a c t o r i e s , state farms, machine and tractor stations, and c o l l e c t i v e farms of free vocational, technical and agronomic t r a i n i n g f o r the working people.31  29 Gross, op. c i t . , p. 99. 30 Schleuning, op., c i t . , p. 147. 31 Constitution of the U.S.S.R.. American Russian I n s t i t u t e , New York, 1950, p. 40.  76 I n  p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y  o f f i c i a l the  language  n o n - R u s s i a n  p o l i c y ,  the  c o n t r a r y the  development  the  p r o v i s i o n a l schools e r  to  N a t i o n a l The  of  i n  what  language  o f  I n  I n  German  i n  t o  such  S o v i e t  and  language  been  p a r t l y  s t a r t e d  a l l o f  the the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i n  On  and  l i t e r a -  meant  d u r i n g  o n l y the  n a t i o n a l  s c h o o l s  Germans  the  promoted  the  c o l o n i s t s '  became  i t  t h i s  granted  V o l g a  n a t i o n a l  i n t e n t i o n s .  U n i o n  a l s o  o n l y  the  S o v i e t  had  the  d e n a t i o n a l i z e  autonomy  t h e i r  was  to  the  who  A . S . S . R .  D i s t r i c t s ,  no  l i n g u a l  had  p e o p l e . the  had  language  means  A c c o r d i n g  e d u c a t i o n  government, i t s  l o c a t e d  e n t i r e  Germans  R u s s i a n  p r i n c i p a l  government  o f  c o n t i n u a t i o n  the  the  p o p u l a t i o n .  granted  F o r a  and  S o v i e t  i t  R u s s i a  o r  the  language  o f  the  c o l o n i e s  was  w h e t h -  I n  German  i n s t r u c t i o n . a l s o  G e r -  man.  S i m u l t a n e o u s l y f o u n d a t i o n  o f  more  w i t h  the  h i g h s c h o o l s ,  t e c h n i c a l  e d u c a t i o n a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s  s t a r t e d  the  o f  the  purpose  32 Kohn, Routledge 33 a  F o r  many  f i r s t  1938>  p e o p l e ,  language time  when  t o r y  t e a c h i n g  s i o n  of  l e a r n i n g stopped  the of and  t h e i r  the  S o v i e t of  was  i n  was by  a l l  the  the  o f  was  S i n c e o f  C y r i l l i c  the  who  down.  had  never And  L a t e r  d e c r e e  on  s c h o o l s , w o u l d  L a t i n  a l p h a b e t .  F o r  George  adopted.  i t  h i g h e r  t e a c h e r s ,  U n i o n .  the  the  c o l o n i e s .  German  n o n - R u s s i a n use  and  90-98.  w r i t t e n  necessary.  German,  s c h o o l s  nomads,  i s s u e d  of  German  S o v i e t p p .  the  government  a l p h a b e t s ,  r e p l a c e d  1933,  alphabet  f o l k l o r e  R u s s i a n  alphabet two  L a t i n  the l a c k  the  e s p e c i a l l y  the  i n  great  Hans, N a t i o n a l i s m i n & Sons L t d . , London,  w r i t t e n  the  combating  i n t r o d u c t i o n  had f o r  i n o b l i g a -  a  r e v i -  mean  s c r i p t  the  was  77 s e v e r a l  P e d a g o g i c a l  i n s t i t u t e s  was  o t h e r  t h a t  o n l y the  w i t h seven  creased the  to  g r e a t  z a t i o n .  the  t o r y the  known,  c a l l e d  a l l  E s p e c i a l  founded  the  t h e r e  the were  area  of  number  I n -  t w e n t y - s i x .  had  become  Thus  r e a l i -  S c h l e u n i n g ,  35  A . S . S . R .  i n  was  " T r a v e l l i n g and  the  M a r x s t a d t  on  l a r g e r  even  a  i n t o  were  the  the  groups", was  the  German  c o n s e r v a -  ( K a t h e r l n e n s t a d t )  museums  r e s e a r c h  p l a c e d  notable  I n  w i t h  a t t e n t i o n  p l a y  most  U k r a i n e .  n a t i o n a l  f o r  V o l g a  German o f  der  op_.  I n  R e p u b l i c the  I t s  c i t . .  became  U . S . S . R .  s c h o o l - b o o k s the  r e c e i v e d  34  s t r e s s  e s t a b l i s h e d ,  and  Germans  c a p i t a l  r e p u b l i c  the  s i m i l a r  founded.  n a t i o n a l  on A  c u l t u r e  e x i s t e n c e .  German  the  I n  l i f e  a s s o c i a t i o n  A l l the  ( E n g e l s ) ,  were  t o  r e c e i v e d  t h e a t r e s .  were  L i b r a r i e s  The  the  n a t i o n a l  into  came  gime.  i l l i t e r a c y  the  the  o f  S a r a t o v ,  I ,  i n  and  One  o f  War  1938  I n  hundred  a c t i v i t i e s  government.  s c h o o l s  V o l g a .  of  three  World  t e a c h e r s  Germans.  Wandertheater"  music  s c i e n t i f i c  t e r  U n i v e r s i t y  B e f o r e  l i q u i d a t e  c u l t u r a l  o f  were  b e i n g  a l s o  e s t a b l i s h e d .  35  "Deutsches towns  V o l g a  t o  the  seventy-one  thousand,  campaign  S o v i e t  they  and  were  w i t h  O d e s s a . ^  the  t h r e e  f o u n d a t i o n as  of  o f  The by  a f f i l i a t e d  hundred  A . S . S . R .  I n s t i t u t e s  A . S . S . R .  d u r i n g  were o f  the  own p u b l i s h i n g  p .  the  c u l t u r a l the  p r i n t e d  i n  op.  Germans,  house  i n  c i t . ,  p .  43.  r e -  P o k r o v s k  V o l g a  133.  Wolgadeutschen.  S o v i e t  c e n -  1922.  .  a f t e r Many  78  German papers and magazines (periodicals) were also Issued. Notable were the following: 1.  Unsere Wlrtschaft. an i l l u s t r a t e d weekly f o r the enlightenment of the r u r a l population i n matters of husbandry, technics and culture.  2.  Revolution und Kultur. a magazine i n p u b l i c a t i o n since 1933.30  3.  Naehrichten, a magazine and organ of the government of the A.S.S.R.  4. 5.  S e l t Bereit and Rote Fahne, were papers f o r the youth and were sent out to the distant German settlements i n the Soviet Union.  6.  Deutsche Zehtral Zeltung. printed i n Moscow.  7.  Zur neuen Schule a p e r i o d i c a l f o r teachers printed In Moscow.37 t  From amongst the o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i c a l publications by Germans i n the Soviet Union, some were the works of: 1.  E a r t e l s , B., Die deutschen Bauern i n Russland. Moscow,  ..  1928. 2.  "  Schmidt, D., 3tudien ueber Geschlchte der Wolgadeutschen I T e l l . Pokrovsk, 1930. The publications by the Volga German, George Dinges  and by the Russian, V i c t o r Schirmunski, were of great l i n g u i s t i c and f o l k l b r i s t i c Importance. studies i n Germany.  Both men completed t h e i r  Dinges was appointed Director of the  "Wolgadeutsches Zeritralmuseum" and l a t e r i n 1925  Director of  the "Research I n s t i t u t e f o r German D i a l e c t i c s " on the Volga. He was f i n a l l y made Rector of the newly founded "Deutsche  36 Kuhn, op_. c i t . , p. 124. 37 Gross, op_. c i t . . p.  107.  79 pe&agogische Hochschule" i n the c a p i t a l of the Volga Germans. His  work was devoted to the compilation of the Volga German  d i a l e c t s , the f o l k l o r e , the creation of a dictionary, and the f i r s t language Atlas of the Volga a r e a . ^  8  V i c t o r Schirmunski was a professor of Germanics and since 1929 Art  had been Head of the Department of Folklore and  at the University of Leningrad.  He devoted h i s research  to the studies of the German colonies i n Northern Russia, Ukraine, Crimea and the Caucasus. Die  His f i r s t publication was  deutschen Kolonlen i n der Ukraine. Moscow, 1928.  In h i s  second book, Volkskundllche Fox»schungen i n den deutschen Siedlungen der Sow.jet Union, he treats d i a l e c t s , folksongs, and h i s t o r y - a l l In a s i m i l a r manner. his  were also published i n the German p e r i o d i c a l "Teuthon-  ista". the  Numerous a r t i c l e s of  They were remarkable f o r the systematic t r e a t i s e of  development  of the new mixed d i a l e c t s among the Germans  i n Russia.39 The Conference of German teachers of the Soviet Union decided i n 1931  that the Gothic s c r i p t which was used  i n Germany at the time should no longer be used i n Soviet schools.  This attitude of abolishing a l l traces of Germany  was carried on to such an extent that the teachers' assembly recommended the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of German s p e l l i n g .  38 Kuhn, op., c i t * . p. 134. 39 I b i d .  Their  80  aim f o r t h i s was; the p r o v i s i o n of a p r o l e t a r i a n German language which s h a l l he I n t e l l i g i b l e to a l l , clear, concise, and natural.^° With the promotion of research into the c o l o n i s t s ' past, the granting of entire l i n g u a l autonomy, and the encouragement of national culture, one should a c t u a l l y expect a close t i e with the motherland.  Germany could have offered  much at t h i s time e s p e c i a l l y since the Germans i n Russia had not maintained the same c u l t u r a l l e v e l . cades behind i n progress  They were a few de^  of the people i n Germany.  Such t i e s  with Germany were not maintained nor tolerated by the Soviet regime.  Germany could not serve as an example to the Germans  In the Soviet Union. from Germany.  No school-books were to be imported  Only books printed i n the Republic  of the  A.S.S.R. of the Germans were to be used i n German schools. I t was therefore, the aim of the Soviet regime to create a communist German people within the U.S.S.R. with no c u l t u r a l association with Germany.  The culture being bestow-  ed on them i n t h e i r native language was thus to be a: culture national i n form, above a l l In language, but supra-national, S o c i a l i s t , or p r o l e t a r i a n In essence.^1 No secret was made of t h i s aim, f o r J . V. S t a l i n already said  UP.Kohh. op. o l t . . pp. 97-98. kl Ibid, p. 88.  81 In 1930: the period of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the prol e t a r i a t and of the b u i l d i n g of Socialism i n the Soviet Union i s the period of the flowering of the national c i v i l i z a t i o n , which while I n t r i n s i c a l l y S o c i a l i s t are national i n form.** 2  In 1938 the Soviet government had recognized that no matter how c l o s e l y the party had been supervising the execution of the Soviet national p o l i c y i t had created and encouraged " l o c a l and l i n g u i s t i c nationalism" by the very f a c t that l i n g u i s t i c autonomy had been granted to the minority groups.  To combat t h i s phenomena the Soviet Authority issued  a decree on March 13th,  1938,  on "obligatory teaching of  Russian I n a l l non-Russian national s c h o o l s " . ^ This measure was carried to such an extent that i n schools of German National D i s t r i c t s , Russian became the l a n guage of i n s t r u c t i o n and German was taught as a foreign language.  Thus the national was deprived of the very essence  which made him a member of that national group, namely of h i s language.****  The consequences of f n i s p o l i c y were soon  42 For d e t a i l e d account see S t a l i n , J . V., " P o l i t i c a l Report to the 16th Congress of the Communist Party of the Sovi e t Union, July 1930". Vsesoluznala Kommunistlcheskaia P a r t l a (B), New York City Workers' Library Publishers, 1930. 43 Kolarz, op., c i t . , pp. 17-18. 44 I t i s t h i s decree of 1938 and i t s p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n which i s a s t r i k i n g contradiction to A r t i c l e 121 of the Cons t i t u t i o n of the U.S.S.R. This a r t i c l e secures the right of national schools f o r a i r people of the U.S.S.R.  82 apparent - notably amongst the o l t y Germans who numbered about 50,000 i n Russia.  They were d i s t r i b u t e d as follows:  Moscow - 10,000, Leningrad - 15,000, Saratov - 20,000, and Odessa - 10,000.^5 In time the student began to master the Russian language.  Russian papers and books were his only sources f o r  reading.  The German papers and p e r i o d i c a l s had ceased pub-  lication.  No c u l t u r a l contact was maintained with Germany  f o r reasons as stated above.  Popular Russian songs were more  appealing to the student than the "obsolete" folksongs of h i s people.  I f he wished to be impressive, he spoke Russian to  his fellow member.  These and other,reasons are a l l signs  that the younger generation was r a p i d l y l o s i n g the c u l t u r a l niveau of an i s o l a t e d language Island and was r e a d i l y drawing from Russian culture.  The extent to which some of the c i t y  Germans had been assimilated into Russian ways i s seen from the quotation below.  A report on the repatriated Germans  from the Soviet Union during World War I I i n a Salzburg camp (Austria) states: There are many among them who can no longer speak German, but now are learning the German language with enthusiasm....^ From the above presentation we can conclude that during the  4-5 B o e l l t z , op_. c i t . , p. 142. 46 Schechtman, Joseph B . , European Population Transfers 1939-1945. Oxford University Press, New York, 1946, p. 212, according to the "Salzburger Zeitung", A p r i l 20th, 1944.  83 period of the Soviet regime the Germans i n Russia had matured as an i s o l a t e d language i s l a n d . ^  They had reached  t h e i r f i n a l state of development - that i s the formation of a substantial c i t y group.  Once t h i s c i t y group had been  formed the minority group no longer remained Isolated f o r I t then drew r a p i d l y from non-natlonal culture and was thus on the border-line of a s s i m i l a t i o n .  47 See introduction f o r Walter Kuhn's theory of the development of an Isolated language Island, supra.  CHAPTER IV  RESETTLEMENT AND REPATRIATION DURING WORLD WAR I I I.  THE EVE  OP WORLD WAR II  The outbreak of World War II caused the Soviet government to undertake s i m i l a r actions as the T z a r l s t ' s d i d during World War I.  Both wars brought a d r a s t i c change i n  the colonist's p o s i t i o n as c i t i z e n s of Russia,  The  differ-  ence, however, Is that World War I I and the subsequent p o l i c y caused by i t not only brought a resettlement  about but they  were expelled from the family of the Soviet people.  They  disappeared from a l l ethnigraphical and s t a t i s t i c a l r e f e r ences of the ethnic composition of the U.S.S.R.  1  The p o s i t i o n of the Germans i n the U.S.S.R, constantly fluctuated with the Soviet-German f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s at the close of the 1930*s.  The Soviet-German r e l a t i o n s had  grown so tense that any day war could be expected and thus the Germans In the Soviet Union were treated as associates of  1 The post-war Soviet Encyclopedia has completely Ignored the existence of Germans i n Russia e i t h e r past or present. In contrast, the Encyclopedia of 1939» devotes ten pages to a long h i s t o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the A.S.S.R. of the Volga Germans. I t praises t h e i r achievements and contributions to the construction of Socialism i n the U.S.S.R.  85 Germany. iet  During t h i s time they had l o s t f u l l status as Sov-  citizens.  O f f i c e r s of colonist descent were dismissed  from the Red Army as u n r e l i a b l e s . For s i m i l a r reasons the colonists had not been drafted i n t o the army since 1938, i n spite of the compulsory m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g which existed i n the U.S.S.R. The great purges of 1936-1938 also heavily affected the German group i n Russia. ian  Although they affected the Russ-  Just as much as the non-Russian, the l a t t e r suffered pro-  portionately more as the purges were directed against the i n t e l l i g e n t z i a - whose number was l i m i t e d . of two kinds.  The victims were  The f i r s t group Included people who had champ-  ioned the colonist cause during the T z a r i s t regime, the second and much smaller group were the people who were r a i s e d i n the Bolshevik s p i r i t and had become the leaders of the group during the Soviet regime.  Examples of the second group  were Prime Minister Welsch and President Luft of the A.S.S.R. of the Volga Germans.  Both these men were responsible f o r  previous purges but they were arrested i n October, 1937.  2  From the above factors one can conclude that the Germans d i d not occupy a favorable p o s i t i o n i n Russia at the eve of World War I I .  Close watch was held on them as the  German army crossed the Russian border.  From that moment the  Germans i n Russia were considered u n r e l i a b l e s .  2 Kolarz, op_. c i t . , p. 74.  86 II.  LIQUIDATION OF THE VOLGA GERMAN REPUBLIC The evacuation of the Volga Germans and with i t the  l i q u i d a t i o n of the A.S.S.R. of the Volga Germans, was caused by the pressure of the German army against Moscow.  Another  cause was the intention of making Kuibyshev, north-east of the Republic, the residence of the Soviet government and the administration center of the Volga-Ural defense region.3  In  order to carry out t h i s project, safety measures had to be undertaken against the sympathizing Volga Germans.  The de-  cree of August 28th, 1941, i n which the fate of the Volga Germans was sealed, accused the Volga Germans of sabotage and espionage.  Although the Soviet government had dealt with  them since 1917 on a purely class basis, no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s i n t h i s respect were made i n the decree.  Neither were the  members of the Communist Youth League nor the Party members excluded from deportation.  The s t a t i s t i c s below w i l l show  proportionately the number of Communist members as compared to the national composition of the A.S.S.R. i n 1930.^ TOTAL Population  . GERMANS  RUSSIANS'  OTHERS  580,000.....380,000......116,000.....67,600  Party Members.. ....2,372  927  ..967  478  The decree announcing the deportation of the entire Volga German population reads as follows:  3 Edelman, Maurice, How Russia Prepared. Penguin Books Inc., New York, 1942, pp. 32-37. 4 Kohn, op_. c i t . , p. 158.  87 According to r e l i a b l e information received by m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s , there are thousands and tens of thousands of d i v e r s i o n i s t s and spies among the German population of the Volga region who are prepared to cause explosions i n these regions at a s i g n a l from Germany. No Germans ( l i v i n g In the Volga d i s t r i c t s ) ever reported t o Soviet authori t i e s the presence of such great numbers of d i v e r s i o n i s t s and spies. Therefore, the German population of the Volga regions are covering up enemies of the Soviet people and the Soviet power. I f d i v e r s l o n l s t acts were t o take place under orders of Germany by German d i v e r s i o n i s t s and spies i n the Volga German republic or neighboring regions and there were bloodshed, the Soviet government, would be forced according to m a r t i a l law t o adopt measures of r e p r i s a l against v. the entire German population. In order to avoid such undesirable occurrences and to f o r e s t a l l serious bloodshed, the presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR has found i t necessary to r e s e t t l e the entire German population of the Volga regions under the condition that the r e s e t t l e r s are a l l o t t e d land and given state a i d to s e t t l e In new regions. Resettled Germans w i l l be given land In the Novo-Slbirsk and Omsk d i s t r i c t s , the Altay region, the Kazakstan Republic and neighboring l o c a l i t i e s r i c h In land. In connection with t h i s , the National Defense Council i s instructed to r e s e t t l e as soon as possible a l l Volga Germans, \*ho w i l l be given land estates i n new regions.5 The decree was soon followed by i t s execution, f o r already at the end of August, 1941: a mournful procession of refugees f i l l e d the roads leading to the railway stations of the Middle Volga, four hundred thousand of them carrying bedding, dragging domestic animals, the women weeping, a l l with the bitterness on t h e i r faces of those who have  5 Schechtman, op_. c i t . , p. 384, Times", September 9th, 1941.  according to the "New York  88 "been driven from t h e i r homes They were German refugees, the German s e t t l e r s of the German Autonomous Volga Republic, expelled by decree of the Soviet Government to S i beria.° L i t t l e authentic information i s available about the fate of the Volga Germans and that of the 100,000 Siberian Germans who had founded t h e i r s i s t e r colonies at the turn of the century.  However the existence of a number of German  c o l l e c t i v e farms bearing names as Rosa Luxemburg, Progress and Arbeiter were o f f i c i a l l y confirmed i n 1951 when over two dozen German c o l l e c t i v e farmers and t r a c t o r d r i v e r s of the Omsk Province were awarded medals f o r excellent work by the Supreme Soviet.7 III.  BLACK SEA COLONIES UNDER GERMAN OCCUPATION As the advancing German army approached the German  settlements i n the Ukraine, many of them were evacuated with the r e t r e a t i n g Red army.  In places where time d i d not permit  evacuations of the entire settlements only male persons were affected.  I n t h i s manner close to 200,000 Germans In the  Ukraine were evacuated by the Soviet authority.8 The Black Sea Germans which were not evacuated by the Soviet a u t h o r i t i e s , remained l i v i n g i n German occupied  6 Edelman, op_. c i t . , p. 31. 7 Kolarz, op., c i t . , p. 76. 8 Ibid, p. 75.  89 Ukraine, Crimea and North Caucasus, where they enjoyed a p r i vileged p o s i t i o n under the German authorities.- This was cont r a r y to the i n d i f f e r e n t attitude towards the colonists by the German occupational forces i n 1918.  During World War I I  they showed great concern In the Germans of Ukraine as a r e s u l t of the National S o c i a l i s t p o l i c y . There remained about 300,000 persons of the roughly 500,000 people before the war.  Due to t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d po-  s i t i o n they were soon able to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r private farms and businesses as contrasted to the Russian population, who Were not permitted to do so. Constructions of every sort were undertaken and there was no thought of ever leaving t h e i r settlements.  Within a short period, with the help of the German  authorities who were anxious to see a strong, healthy group of Germans, they were well on t h e i r way to prosperity. The German group of 135,000 i n the Romanian annexed T r a n s n i s t r i a , the area between the r i v e r s Dniester and Bug, had grown e s p e c i a l l y prosperous.  Although the t e r r i t o r y was  annexed by Romania, the Germans were under the protection and administration of the German "Volksdeutsche M i t t e l s t e l l e " 9 , which had i t s seat i n Landau the center of the German  9 This was an organization which was concerned with Germans abroad and founded f o r the purpose of carrying out National S o c i a l i s t p o l i c y which was "the u n i f i c a t i o n of a l l Germans". I t thus supervised the r e p a t r i a t i o n of German groups such as the B a l t i c and Bessarablan Germans, and the education of the newly gained Germans i n the National S o c i a l i s t s p i r i t .  90 colonies.  The t e r r i t o r y ' s r e v i v a l was not l i m i t e d only to  the economic f i e l d , f o r education received s i m i l a r attention. As many times before, German schools were founded i n the c o l onies and a German highschool i n Odessa.  There were also two  teachers* Seminaries established, one i n P r l s h i b , the other i n Selz.  In spite of the lack of p r i e s t s , r e l i g i o n found a  s i m i l a r r e v i v a l i n the colonies. I t was of great importance and the main concern of the Volksdeutsche  M i t t e l s t e l l e , that the younger generation  was trained i n the s p i r i t of national socialism.  For t h i s  purpose, youth leaders from Germany were sent to distant Russia where they organized the German youth, p a r a l l e l to the organization of the H i t l e r Youth i n Germany.  Several youth  t r a i n i n g camps were set up f o r the purpose of t r a i n i n g leaders from amongst the c o l o n i s t s .  As " f u l l " Germans, they were  also drafted i n t o the German army. S i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s were carried on i n a l l German colonies, while occupied by the German forces.  Only the Ger-  man retreat of 1943-1944 terminated t h i s r e v i v a l .  Contrary,  to expectation, the German authorities were faced with the sudden decision of r e p a t r i a t i n g the entire German population from t h e i r occupied t e r r i t o r i e s .  As previously the B a l t i c ,  the Bessarabian and the Bukovina Germans were repatriated, now, the entire population was to be r e s e t t l e d to Germany too. The settlement area selected f o r these repatriated Germans were the most eastern provinces of Germany.  91 IV.  REPATRIATION FROM THE GERMAN OCCUPIED TERRITORY P r i o r to the mass r e p a t r i a t i o n of the Black Sea  group i n 19^3, the German authorities had r e s e t t l e d some 3,800 Germans, mainly c i t y dwellers from the area of LeninIn 194-3 a second group was resettled - that of 10,500  grad.  persons from the area of Schitomir and 11,500 persons from the North Caucasus.  Both groups were transferred to the Gen-  e r a l Gouvernemente (German occupied t e r r i t o r y ) of Poland and Warthegau, the German annexed Province from Poland.^° The f i r s t mass transfer of the Volksdeutsche from the Ukraine started i n the f a l l of 1943 when the German army started i t s rapid retreat and simultaneously evacuated the German population.  This retreat affected the Germans, from  the Crimea, Mariupol and Melitopol, as well as urban dwellers from Zaporozhe and Nlkolaev.  Between the f a l l of 1943 and  the spring of March, 1944, 72,000 persons were on t h e i r march towards Germany from t h i s area.  The second group of 73,000,  which went on t h e i r Journey, were the Germans from the area of Dniepropetrovsk - from both sides of the r i v e r Dnieper. The t h i r d group, l a r g e l y r u r a l dwellers comprising a t o t a l of 44,600, l e f t Wolhynla between October, 1943, and A p r i l , of .  1944.  11  10 Schechtman, op_. c i t . , pp. 206-207, according to the "Ostdeutscher Beobachter", July 23rd, 1944. 11 Ibid, pp. 209-210, according to the "Ostdeutscher Beobachter". :  92 The l a s t and largest group was that of T r a n s n i s t r i a , amounting to a t o t a l of 135,000 persons, who l e f t t h e i r homes between March and A p r i l , 1944.  12  This transfer was the least  organized one as the rapidly advancing Russian forces caused chaos and panic among the concentrated masses at the crossing point on the Dniester.  In addition to t h i s , the roads were  blocked by the r e t r e a t i n g Romanian and German troops.  Many  of them had covered as much as 1,000 miles with horse and wagon and a f t e r a period of twelve or more weeks they f i n a l l y reached t h e i r place of destination which was the Warthegau. But hardly had they found accomodation i n the numerous t r a n s i t camps, then they again had to move on westwards Into Germany.  The Red army stood at the gate of Germany and  the breakdown of Germany was obvious.  In t h i s manner the  great resettlement scheme of the Third Reich was a complete failure.  The plan was to bring home a l l Germans to Germany,  and e s p e c i a l l y to form a s o l i d block of Germans against the S l a v i c peoples with the Germans who had withstood a s s i m i l a t i o n i n previous times i n other countries. The refuge from the Warthegau i n 1945 was an i n d i v i d u a l private task.• Unorganized, every one f l e d on his own means and i n every d i r e c t i o n into Germany.  As Germans from  abroad they were recognized by the authorities of H i t l e r , but  12 Schechtman, op_, c i t . , pp. 209-210. according to the "Ostdeutscher Beobacht e r*"," Ju l y 23rd, 1944.  93 as Germans who had been separated and i s o l a t e d from Germany f o r over one hundred years they were not f u l l y accepted withi n Germany by the average German.  Deeply disappointed about  the "Journey home to the Reich", coupled with the desire f o r one's own home, caused some to contact the Soviet Repatriating Authorities which not seldom resulted i n a transfer back to the Soviet Union.^3 homes was  Their hope to return to t h e i r former  only a mere i l l u s i o n . Contrary to the Mennonite group who were well organ-  ized and attended by UNRRA, l a t e r IRO (International Refugee Organization), the remainder, including Lutherans and Cathol i c s , were dispersed a l l over Germany as farm helpers and i n other occupations awaiting contact with t h e i r r e l a t i v e s and friends across the A t l a n t i c .  The period s t a r t i n g a f t e r World  War II u n t i l the present time, marked the t h i r d  immigration  period into Canada by Germans from Russia.  13 Such contacts were made by Russian-Germans i n the French, American and English occupied zones. Russian-Germans had been repatriated from the Russian occupied zone In 19^5.  PART I I  RUSSIAN-GERMANS IN CANADA  CHAPTER V IMMIGRATION INTO CANADA I.  CANADIAN IMMIGRATION POLICY IN BRIEF According to the B r i t i s h North American Act the laws  a f f e c t i n g immigration came under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Dominion Government.  However under the same a c t , the l e g i s l a -  ture of each province may pass laws which s h a l l be i n accord with any law of the Dominion  Government.  1  The basis f o r immigration and colonization of Western Canada was the Land Act of 1872 grants of homesteads.  which provided free  This system, which was so effeotive  i n the U.S.A., enabled the immigrant to purchase other Dominion lands i n addition to the free grants.  2  Due to poor  transportation f a c i l i t i e s this p o l i c y d i d not l i v e up to i t s expectations.  The migration to the west consisted largely  of Canadians from Eastern Canada.  1 Angus, H. F., "Canadian Immigration: Law and i t s Adminis t r a t i o n " , American Journal of International Law, The American S o c i e t y of International Law, Washington, 1934, pro. 74-  75.  2 England, Robert, The Colonization of Western Canada, P. S. King & Son Ltd., London, 1936, p. 5JT.  95 In 1882,  any railway company was  able to obtain land  north of the Canadian Pacific* Railway I f tracks were b u i l t and the area s e t t l e d by them within a period of f i v e years. But again, most of the companies f a i l e d to l i v e up to t h e i r obligations and brought few or no s e t t l e r s to the area.3 I t was  not u n t i l I896 that a new  directed the colonization of the west.  immigration p o l i c y  I t was  In that year  that the energetic C l i f f o r d S i f t o n became Minister of the Int e r i o r under S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r 8 government. 1  The  previous  p o l i c y of granting land as payment to railway companies f o r the construction of railway tracks, was way  the government was  abolished.  In t h i s  again able to dispose over large.areas  of land and grant s e t t l e r s one quarter of a section as homesteads. was  The keyword of C l i f f o r d S i f t o n ' s colonization p o l i c y  "settle".  The Immigrant was  to be kept In the area, h i s  l i v i n g conditions were to be made t o l e r a b l e , and he was supplied with railway f a c i l i t i e s . ^  to bV  Arrangements were made .  with shipping companies, such as the North A t l a n t i c Trading Company, to bring i n European farmers. agents was  set up a l l over Europe.  A net of r e c r u i t i n g  Many of them had to carry  on t h e i r work s e c r e t l y as European countries, e s p e c i a l l y Russia, prohibited immigration  of t h e i r subjects.  In.this  3 England, op. c i t . . pp.. 58-59. .k Dafoe, John W., C l i f f o r d S i f t o n i n Relation to his Time, The Macmillan Company Canada Limited, Toronto, 1931, pt>. 132-  136.  96 manner the p r a i r i e population was increased to 1,278,708 p e r sons i n the years 1900 to 1914.^ The post-war immigration was undertaken on a l i m i t ed scale as immigration fluctuated with the prosperity of Canada.  No.limitations were set i n regard to  from perferable countries.  immigrants  Some immigrants were allowed  from non-preferable countries and such were the  immigrants  from Russia.  from non-  The task of bringing i n immigrants  preferable countries, such as.Russia, was given to the r a i l way companies.  The Lutheran Immigration Board and the Catho  l i e Immigration Aid Society were r e l i g i o u s organizations which worked In conjunction with the railway companies and helped to cover costs of transportation.^ With the coming of the depression i n 1930, a d e f i n i t e change occurred i n the immigration p o l i c y of the Dominion.  An Order-in-Council dated March, 1931,  states:  Prom and a f t e r the 18th of March 1931 and u n t i l otherwise ordered, the landing i n Canada of immigrants of a l l classes and occupation i s hereby prohibited except as herei n a f t e r provided: The Immigration O f f i c e r i n charge may permit to land i n Canada any immigrant who otherwise complies with previous of the Immigrant Act, i f i t i s shown to his s a t i s f a c t i o n that such immigrant i s : 1. A B r i t i s h subject entering Canada d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y from Great B r i t a i n  5 England, op_. c i t . , pp. 66-71. 6 Ibid, p. 103.  97 or Commonwealth countries, who has s u f f i cient means to maintain himself u n t i l employment i s secured. 2. A United States c i t i z e n entering Canada from the U.S. who has s u f f i c i e n t means to maintain himself u n t i l employment i s secured. 3. The wife or unmarried c h i l d under eighteen years of age of any person l e g a l l y admitted to and r e s i d i n g i n Canada, who i s i n a p o s i t i o n to receive and care f o r his dependent. 4. An a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t having s u f f i cient means to farm i n Canada.? This p o l i c y had almost completely stopped immigration of Central Europeans during the years of depression.  This im-  migration which had been reduced to minor proportions r e v i t a l i z e d a f t e r the Second World War.  The following steps have  been taken by the Canadian Government i n regard to immigrat i o n p o l i c y since World War I I : A. The b a r r i e r s against B r i t i s h subjects, and U.S. c i t i z e n s had been r e duced to the bare minimum of good health and the absence of subversive p o l i t i c a l views. B. The l i s t of admissible r e l a t i v e s of l e g a l residents of Canada has been extended to Include everyone closer than a cousin,.. ... I t also includes persons engaged to marry the residents who make a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r admission. G. S p e c i a l provision has been made f o r the entrance of 30,000 persons who are not otherwise admissible from the Displaced Persons camps of Europe. (Each of these persons when established In Canada may then app l y i n turn f o r the admission of his or her relatives.8  7 Angus, op_. c i t . , pp. 82-85. 8 Keenleyside, H. L., Canadian Immigration P o l i c y . Univers i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1948, pp. 13-15.  98 I t was the Canadian Government which took the I n i t i a t i v e amongst overseas countries i n f i n d i n g a solution to the war refugees In Europe.  U n t i l March, 1949,  admitted more D.P.'s than a l l other non-European combined.9  Canada has countries  Great d i f f i c u l t i e s have been encountered i n  carrying out this task e s p e c i a l l y i n regard to transportation.  For the most part of 1947  the "Beaverbrae", a convert-  ed German war vessel, was the only ship which brought refugees from Germany to Canada.  Later conditions were Improved  as three more IRO ships were a i d i n g transportation. Other persons are admitted since an Order—In-Counc i l of June, 1950,  under the following terms: the person must  s a t i s f y the Minister that he i s a suitable immigrant and i s not undesirable owing to his p e c u l i a r customs, habits, e t c . This act P a r t i c u l a r l y opened the p o s s i b i l i t y of German c i t i zens to immigrate to Canada f r e e l y and has continued up to the present t i m e . II.  10  IMMIGRATION INTO CANADA 1874-1914 I t was economical and p o l i t i c a l reasons which caused  the emigration of colonists from Russia between the years of 1874  and 19l4.  The economical cause was the shortage of land.  9 The Canada Year Book. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , King'3 P r i n t e r and Controller of Stationary, Ottawa, 1950, p. 183. 10 Friedemann, Wolfgang G., German Immigration Into Canada. The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1952, p. 3.  99 There was not s u f f i c i e n t land In the o r i g i n a l colonies to support the large colonist families and although s i s t e r c o l onies were formed there was an extensive number of landless towards the end of the nineteenth e e n t u r y . began a gradual abolishment  11  In 1871 there  of the colonists p r i v i l e g e s which  constituted the p o l i t i c a l cause f o r emigration. t h i s year that t h e i r self-government  I t was  was discontinued and the  colonies were incorporated into the general Russian s t r a t i v e system.  In  admini-  12  The above action on the part of the Russian ment d i d not yet d i s t u r b the c o l o n i s t .  govern-  However the Imperial  Ukas of July, 1871, which proclaimed the coming m i l i t a r y service to Russian c i t i z e n s , caused a general d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n amongst the c o l o n i s t s .  This Ukas especially affected the r e -  l i g i o u s reformed groups as m i l i t a r y exemption was basis of t h e i r creed.  one of the  Already In I87I, the Mennonites sent  a delegation to Petersburg to p e t i t i o n f o r exemption from m i l i t a r y service.  Not awaiting a reply from the Imperial  Government, they prepared f o r e m i g r a t i o n . ^  For the other  r e l i g i o u s groups, the Ukas was also s u f f i c i e n t to consider emigration as the conditions i n the Russian army at the time were unendurable and the term of service lasted from ten to  11 See section on economics, Chapter I I , supra. 12 See section on administration, Chapter I I , supra. 13 Quiring, Walter, Russlanddeutsehe suchen elne HeJLmat, Verlag: Helnrich Schneider, Karlsruhe, 1938, pp. 10-11.  100 f i f t e e n years. Although the Catholics and Lutherans were not as organized as the Mennonites, they were just as eager to leave Russia.  The Mennonites had requested information about emi-  gration to Canada and from a l e t t e r dated 1872 by the B r i t i s h Consul Zohrab i n Berdjansk to E a r l Granville, B r i t i s h Foreign Secretary, we read the following regarding the c o l o n i s t s ' r e action to the Ukas: A period of ten years i s granted by t h i s Ukas to the Germans, dating from i t s issue, to e l e c t whether they submit to i t s conditions or quit the country......That part which marks m i l i t a r y service o b l i g a tory becomes law i n 1873 while the clause which makes the conscription compulsory on a l l classes w i l l come into force i n 1881 Further i n the Consul's l e t t e r we read: .....From what I have been able to learn, I doubt not the departure of the Mennonites would rapidly be followed by that of Germans of other denominations who are now, I am informed, watching the course pursued by the Mennonites with the object of following i t i f successful.1^ Following the above reasons f o r emigration was the d e f i n i t e R u s s i f i c a t i o n p o l i c y which has been described previously i n Part I .  S i m i l a r causes f o r emigration prevailed  amongst the Volga Germans.  In addition, the R u s s i f i c a t i o n  p o l i c y coincided with the years of drought In 1890-1891 on  Ik C o r e l l , Ernst, "Mennonlte Immigration into Manitoba", The Mennonite Quarterly Review, v o l . 11, Goshen, Indiana, July, 1937, PP. 196-227.  101 the Volga, which resulted i n a mass migration o v e r s e a s . ^ The causes f o r emigration of the Russian-German Lutherans and Catholics before World War I, can be summarized as follows: 1.  Land shortage amongst the Volga and Black Sea Germans.  2.  The Ukas of 1871 which stipulated m i l i t a r y s e r vice f o r the Germans.  3.  The R u s s i f i c a t i o n of schools and the abolishment of self-government.  k»  The f e a r of war a f t e r the Russo-Japanese War of  5.  The l e t t e r s from colonists i n America which praised the country.  6.  The propaganda of the U.S.A. and Canadian immigration agents.  7.  The granting of free homesteads by the U.S.A. and Canada which was s a t i s f y i n g to the c o l o n i s t s ' urge f o r land.  8.  The d e f i n i t e preparation f o r emigration by the Mennonites had Its e f f e c t on a l l other r e l i g i o u s groups.  *  1905.  »  «  •  *  An exact summary of emigration from Russia to the Americas as to t h e i r numbers as w e l l as o r i g i n i s p r a c t i c a l l y impossible to compile at the present time.  In most cases  the early s e t t l e r s d i d not keep any records nor were r a c i a l o r i g i n and n a t i o n a l i t y kept d i s t i n c t at the ports of entry.  15 Bonwetsch, op_. c i t . , p.  110.  102 I t  i s  c e r t a i n  R u s s i a  were  d i r e c t e d  At and  same  He a l  A m e r i c a .  1  Western  o f g r e a t  t o a  hard  o f emigrants  c e n t u r y  o f a  l i f e  t h e  P r a i r i e s  E u r o p e a n .  a p p e a l  f r o m  ^  o f t h e Canadian  who w a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  w a s accustomed  b u l k  o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h  t o t h e average were  t h e g r e a t  t o N o r t h  c o n d i t i o n s  c o n d i t i o n s  R u s s i a ,  t h a t  t h e c l o s e  economic  a p p e a l i n g  however,  c l i m a t i c  were  n o t  B u tthese  t o t h e German l a n d - h u n g r y  a n dp o s s e s s e d  v e r y  from  c o l o n i z e r . l i t t l e  c u l t u r -  demands.  The t l e  i  n Canada,  s e t t l e m e n t t o t a l  melnde, from  t o  Bonn,  R u s s i a  below  1 9 4 0 , p .  Canada  U.S.A  M e x i c o . . B r a z i l Paraguay. Uruguay A r g e n t i n a T o t a l . .  R u s s i a  i n t o  Land  t o immigrate  They  t h e years  members.  c o m p i l e d  u e b e r  i n overseas  1935:  between  7,000  a n dLutherans  Deutsche  from  t h e M e n n o n i t e s .  i n M a n i t o b a  T h eT a b l e  R i c h a r d ,  Germans  were  o f c l o s e  C a t h o l i c s  16  f i r s t  1  7  founded  2 8 1 , shows c o u n t r i e s ,  c l o s e d  Georg, V e r l a g  h a d a l r e a d y  a n d  M a i ,  d e r Buchge-  t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g  a  i m m i g r a t i o n o f  t h e U . S . P r a i r i e s  b y Wagner,  a  1 8 7 4 t o 1879 w i t h  A l t h o u g h  u n dM e e r .  a n d s e t -  o f  Germans  t o s t a t i s t i c s  o f  200,000 400,000 10,000 250,000 .4,000 .....2,500 ...150,000 ..17016.500  17 L e i b b r a n d t , Georg, "The E m i g r a t i o n o f t h e German Mennon i t e s from R u s s i a t o U . S . A . a n d Canada, 1873-1880", T h e M e n n o n l t e Q u a r t e r l y R e v i e w , v o l . 7, Goshen, I n d i a n a , 1933, o p . 5-41.  103 started i n 1873,^ I t was the Mennonite group which had succ e s s f u l l y established I t s e l f and thus proved the good farm p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the Canadian P r a i r i e s .  I t i s then due t o  t h e i r economic success that directed the Immigration of other r e l i g i o u s denominations to the Canadian P r a i r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y Saskatchewan. An immigration agency already existed In Odessa on the Black Sea before 1890 which provided prospective immigrants with assistance and information regarding immigration. The agency M i s t i e r of Bremen had a representative i n Odessa who provided tickets from Odessa to Winnipeg at the cost of one hundred and nine r u b l e s . T h e immigrants Journey to Canada was mainly through Hamburg, Antwerp and Bremen. The emigration of the Catholics and Lutherans was never r e a l l y a mass migration as i t was with the Mennonites who arrived In Canada by the hundreds.  The Lutheran and  Catholic emigration took place rather i n small groups of f i v e to ten f a m i l i e s and whose f i n a l destination was the Canadian P r a i r i e s as i t was f o r many others.  Saskatchewan became the  18 S a l l e t , Richard, "Russlanddeutsche Siedlungen i n den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika", Jahrbuch der Deutsch Amerlkanlsohen Hl3torlschen Gesellschaft von I l l i n o i s . v o l . 31, Chicago, 1931, pp. 5-127, gives an intensive presentation of the Lutheran and Catholic immigration into the U.S.A. 19 Metzger, H . , Qeschichtllcher Abrlss ueber die S t . PetersP f a r r e l zu Kronau. The Western P r i n t e r s Association Ltd., Reglna, Saskatchewan, 1930, p. 10.  104 center of t h e i r settlements. Although the immigration and with i t the foundation of s e t t l e m e n t s  20  was most active i n the f i r s t decade of the  twentieth century, nevertheless there were many settlements founded p r i o r to C l i f f o r d Siftori's immigration p o l i c y which started i n 1896.  According to Abele, the f i r s t German Cath-  21 o l i c s from Russia arrived In 1871 and s e t t l e d near Regina. The date 1871, however, seems to be i n contrast to the chrono l o g i c a l development of the emigration of the Germans from Russia. German Catholics from the south of Russia'are t r a c e able i n Saskatchewan since the 1880's.  They had founded the  colonies of Josephstal - 1886, S t . Peter - 1890 gonl),  2 2  New  (near B a l -  Kronau (Kronau) - 1892, Davln - 1890,  - 1891, 3 a l l south of Regina. 2  and Vibank  At .the same time many s e t t l e d  i n the at that time s t i l l small town of Regina.  In spite of  hardship, as w i l l be discussed l a t e r , the i n f l u x into these 20 The term "settlement" or "colony" i n Part I I , does not indicate a closed settlement, but rather a c e r t a i n farm d i s t r i c t . The name of the Post O f f i c e , Railway Station, or town which was founded l a t e r , was applied to the entire d i s trict. 21 Abele, Paul, F e s t s c h r i f t zur 25 .jaehrlgen Jubllaemsfeier der Gruendung der S t . Pauls-Kirohengemelnde In Vibank. Sask.". 12. June. 1929. The Western Printers Association Ltd., Regina, 1929, p. 6. 22 Metzer, ojo. c i t . . p. 8. 23 Abele, op_. c i t . , p. 6.  105 c o l o n i e s  c o n t i n u e d .  c o l o n i e s  were  founded  s u r v e y  i n  German  c o l o n i e s  regard,  B e s s a r a b i a  were  a l r e a d y  f i r s t  near  Langenburg.  s e t t l e m e n t S t a t i o n  o f  1 8 9 2 .  a d d i t i o n  we  are  l e s s  to  s e t t l e d  are  t h a n  numerous from  a l l  The  from  A the  C a t h o l i c s  r e p r e s e n t e d C a t h o l i c s  o t h e r  R u s s i a .  come  S e a .  the  W o l h y n l a .  d o m i n a n t l y  See  i n  the  T a b l e  I V  L u t h e r a n s I n from  the  was  from  B e r e s l n a  s e t t l e d  i n  as  t h e y  on  the  a  and  B l a c k  I n  A n o t h e r  A l b e r t a  i n  H i l l s  near  s e t t l e m e n t  S e a  s e t -  H o f f n u n g s t a l  B e s s a r a b i a .  R a b b i t  a l s o  the  1891  group  i n  the  the  R a i l w a y  founded  west  o f  h  was  a  tendency  the  from  the  w i t h  P o l a n d and  West  and  a  s t a t e s  o f  R u s s i a  i n  people  o f  s e t t l e d  Examples  o f  Saskatchewan.  Lutherans  have  e x t e n -  c i t i e s .  s t r o n g  c o l o n i s t s  w i t h  B u k o v l n a .  Edenwold  C a n a d i a n  1873,  s e t t l e from  s e t t l e m e n t s ,  These U . S .  to  L u t h e r a n s  Langenburg  numerous i n  o f 1891  f i n d  Lutherans  S t a r t i n g i n  2  there  f a i t h ,  o t h e r  s i v e l y  24  Crimea  R u s s i a  There  i n  f o r e g o i n g  a b l e  they  B l a c k  were  H e l m t h a l  S i n c e same  i n  They  from  N i s k u .  Wetaskiwih.  I n  t h a t  the  numbers  t h a t  C a t h o l i c s  on  group  Saskatchewan  Lutherans  the  seen  S e a .  i n  w i t h  i n  be  German  shows  Odessa the  a l s o  the  o r i g i n  and  t l e d  the  w i l l  by  s m a l l e r  The  of  t o near  from  B l a o k  I t  e m i g r a t i o n  a r r i v e d  M i c h i g a n ,  and  was  s e t t l e d  W i s c o n s i n  n o t i c e p r e and  106 Nebraska. ^ 2  Since 1890 they also emigrated to Canada i n t o  the Province of Alberta. was i n Wetaskiwln. Baptists.  The f i r s t community founded by them  Leduc was founded i n 1891 by Wolhynian  Ltitherort, Bashaw and E H e r s l i e were founded by  Wolhynlans i n the 1890's.  The colonies of Bruderheim, New  Sarepta and Bruderfeld were founded by Wolhynian Hutterites. Wolhynian Germans are also traceable i n Saskatchewan since 1892 - namely i n Regina, Rostern, Yorkton. Yellow Grass was founded by them In 1892.  They have further exten-  s i v e l y s e t t l e d i n K i p l i n g , Lemberg, LiptOn and Mossbank. Since 1898 Wolhynlans began to s e t t l e i n the neighborhood of the Mennonlte settlements i n Manitoba - i n Gretna, Morris, Brown, Morden, Friedensfeld near Steinbach.  They have f u r -  ther s e t t l e d east of Winnipeg where they have founded Gruenwald and Thalberg.26 The Volga German immigrants were fewer i n number than that of German immigrants from other areas of Russia. Their emigration was directed mainly to the U.S. where they s e t t l e d i n the states of Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado and inois.  2 7  I l l -  Nevertheless they also found t h e i r way to Canada.  As many of t h e i r kinsmen i n the U.S.,  they too had a tendency  25 S a l l e t , op_. c i t . , p. 8. 26 Lehmann, Heinz, Das Deutschtum i n Westkanada. Verlag Junker und Duenhaupt, B e r l i n , 1939, p. 70. 27 S a l l e t , op. c i t . , p. 3.  10? to  s e t t l e  ony  was  the  c i t i e s .  founded  a r r i v a l s n e a r  i n  s e t t l e d  Gruenwald t w e n t i e t h  b e l t  of  onies  i n  1893  i n  i n  I n  i n  manner  R i v e r s i d e and  and  I n  l a t e r  J o s e p h ' s  They  the  B e l s e k e r ,  S t .  Jagodnaja,  a  the  M a n i t o b a ;  c e n t u r y  N o r k a ,  on  T r o c h u ,  Saskatchewan.  of  such  came  f i r s t  i n  D u f f i e l d the  f i r s t  c o l o n y  K o l b ,  c o l -  C a l g a r y .  and  p r e d o m i n a n t l y  P o l j a n a ,  V o l g a  L a t e r  i n  A l b e r t a ;  decade  of  i n  the  d r y  f r o m  the  c o l -  P r e u s s ,  Brabander,  28 S c h i l l i n g  and  A l e x a n d e r d o r f  P r i o r i n t o  e f f e c t ,  g r a t i o n i n g  and  to  M r .  C l i f f o r d Eugo  the  the  V o l g a .  S l f t o n ' s  C a r s t e n s  c o l o n i z a t i o n  r e g a r d i n g  on  f o r  i m m i g r a t i o n  i n  the o f  i m m i g r a t i o n  h l a y e a r  A n n u a l 1896,  Germans  p o l i c y  Report s t a t e s  from  on the  R u s s i a :  I m m i g r a t i o n o f Germans from R u s s i a has f a l l e n o f f d u r i n g the p a s t season, w h i c h I t h i n k may p a r t l y be due t o causes a r i s i n g from the p a r t i a l f a i l u r e o f crops l a s t y e a r i n the new s e t t l e m e n t s i n A l b e r t a , but m a i n l y from R u s s i a h e r s e l f h a v i n g opened new l a r g e t e r r i t o r i e s f o r s e t t l e m e n t , to w h i c h she i s anxious to d i r e c t h e r e m i g r a t i o n and the c o n s e q u e n t r e l a x i n g o f some o f the opp r e s s i v e laws w h i c h i n the p a s t c h i e f l y I n duced the German c o l o n i s t s t o leave R u s s i a . S h o u l d she continue to improve h e r a t t i t u d e towards h e r German c o l o n i s t s we may not l o o k f o r a l a r g e I n c r e a s e I n Immig r a t i o n from R u s s i a , a l t h o u g h t h i s y e a r ' s f a v o u r a b l e crop throughout the German s e t t l e m e n t s w i l l no doubt be the means o f b r i n g i n g to us the f r i e n d s o f our good and numerous Russian-German s e t t l e r s , who have i n the p a s t y e a r been h e l d back by  28  Lehmann,  op_.  c i t . ,  p .  72.  coming Immif o l l o w -  TABLE IV  COLONIES FOUNDED BY BUSS I AN-GERMANS BY  1896  Compiled from the "Summary Statement" In the Annual Report of the Department of the I n t e r i o r f o r the Year 1895'. No. 13. Printed by S. E. Dawson, P r i n t e r to the Queen's most E x c e l lent Majesty, Ottawa, 1897, PP» 124-125.  NAME OF COLONY  NAME OF NEAREST RAILWAY STATION  Landshut  Langenburg, Sask.  Beresina  Langenburg, Sask  Hoff enthal. New Kronau Davin  .Langenburg, Sask.. .  Balgonl, Sask. Balgonl, Sask  NUMBER OF SETTLERS .110 220 .40 .180 130  St. Peter and St. Joseph,Balgonl, Sask  800  Yellow Grass  70  .Yellow Grass, Sask.  Leduc  Leduc, Alberta.  Wetaekivin, Red Deer Lake, Bears H i l l , , etc  Wetaskiwin, Alberta.....  Rabltt H i l l s .  Edmonton, Alberta.  650  . .1,350 .180  108 unfavourable #  reports. 9 2  *  #  #  •  In the f i r s t decade of the 20th century, when C l i f f o r d Sifton's p o l i c y had become a r e a l i z a t i o n , the a r r i v a l of Germans from Russia was at i t s peak.  Among the new  comers t h i s time, there were also Germans from the Caucasus, Crimea and S i b e r i a .  Numerous new colonies were founded by  them and many s e t t l e d i n the established colonies. However, immigration was and remained an Individual task.  They a r r i -  ved i n small groups of a few f a m i l i e s and often individuals who had escaped m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . ^  0  Since most of the Immi-  grants were not prosperous, t h e i r t r a v e l l i n g expenses were subsidized by r e l a t i v e s or friends who had been successful i n Canada.  The Canadian authorities also allowed them credit  f o r t r a v e l l i n g expenses as they allowed them s i m i l a r c r e d i t to obtain farm equipment. To complete the immigration picture before World War I, we have to mention the extensive i n f l u x from the U.S.A. Although immigration from the U.S. had taken place before  9 Annual Report of the Department of the I n t e r i o r f o r the Year 189oT No. 13 .""Printed by S. E. Dawson, P r i n t e r to the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, Ottawa, 1897, p. 119. 2  30 Pdchard S a l l e t reports that t h i s practice was assumed to such an extent that the colony of Kassel i n the Black Sea area which had a population of 2,000 was unable to present men f o r draft i n 1885. This phenomenon was more acute during the Russo-Japanese War i n 1904-1905.  109 1900,  i t l e d a l l other countries i n immigration to Canada  between the years of 1901 and 1909 immigrants.  with a t o t a l of 393,908.  The national composition of these immigrants, i n  addition to English-speaking, was Germans, Scandinavians, and others of non-English speaking races.31  The a t t r a c t i o n of  these s e t t l e r s was again^the cheap land which was no longer available i n the U.S.  Each person was allowed to take up a  homestead i n Western Canada at a cost of ten d o l l a r s and a so-called "pre-emption  claim" f o r three d o l l a r s an a c r e . 3  2  A  large number of these immigrants were Germans from Russia who had previously s e t t l e d In South and North Dakota, Montana and other states.  Among them were also some immigrants  second generation.  of the  They were a great asset to Canada as they  brought tfith them experience and t r a i n i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r a l purs u i t s i n North America.33  Many of them disposed over land or  other property before emigrating to Canada.  S a l l e t records  an i n d i v i d u a l case where a Black Sea German sold his land at McClusky, North Dakota, which amounted to 1,280  acres and  moved to Morse, Saskatchewan with a steam plough. bought new cheaper land.  The immigrants  There he  from the U.S. had an  average of $1,000 per person.34  31 Dillingham, W. P., The Immigration S i t u a t i o n i n Canada. The Immigration Commission (U.S.A.), Washington Government P r i n t i n g Office, Washington, 1910, p. 28. 32 S a l l e t , op_. c i t . , p. 22. 33 Dillingham, op. c i t . , p. 34 S a l l e t , op_. c i t . , p.  23.  33.  110 The colonies given below were either founded or predominantly s e t t l e d by Lutherans or Catholics from Russia i n the f i r s t decade of the 20th century.  In Saskatchewan the  settlement of the St. Peter's colony east of Saskatoon had started i n 1902 and St. Joseph's colony west of Saskatoon In 1905-1906.  Amongst them were the Russian-German Catholics  who had previously s e t t l e d i n the U.S. u l a r l y i n the l a t t e r colony.  We f i n d them p a r t i c -  Extensive advertising i n Russia  resulted i n : a large i n f l u x of Russian-Germans during 1908-1910 i n t o the Tramping Lake - Macklin, eastern part of the St. Joseph's colony.35  Further s e t t l e -  ments were founded by German Catholics In Saskatchewan at Odessa - 1901-1904, Selz - 1904. Sea.  36  A l l a n - 1903, Holdfast - 1905, and  These s e t t l e r s came exclusively from the Black  Kendal was founded i n 1901 by Catholics who were mostly  from the U.S.  S e t t l e r s from the Azov Sea area founded the  Catholic colony of Claybank i n 1904.3?  B l l l l m u n was founded  between 1910 and 1912 by Black Sea Germans. Lutherans from Bessarabia s e t t l e d i n M e l v i l l e , Kipl i n g and Zorra i n 1904.  Since 1908 they also s e t t l e d i n the  35 Dawson, C. H., Group Settlement. Macmillan Company of Canada, Toronto, 1936, pp. 275-276. 36 Gerein, Frank, History of Odessa. 1901-1954. Western Printers Association Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan, 1954, p. 10. 37-Lehmann, op_; c i t . , p. 195.  Ill dry belt of south Saskatchewan In S t . Bonnells, McEachern, Eatonla, and Bateman. Saskatchewan.  Wolhynla Germans s e t t l e d In Morse,  Among the s e t t l e r s In Alberta who had  founded  the Catholic colony near Spring Lake i n 1902, were many Black Sea Germans who had emigrated from the Dakotas and  Minnesota.  Freudental near Carbon i n Alberta was founded i n 1909 by Lutherans from the U.S., Black Sea. Odessa.38  but who had formerly come from the  The settlement i s named a f t e r t h e i r colony near In Manitoba further German farm d i s t r i c t s were  founded near Moosehorn, Camper, Grahamdale and F r i e d f e l d  be-  fore 1913.39 Immigration  continued u n t i l World War I but very few  new colonies were founded i n the l a s t three years before the war.  To a l l e v i a t e the c o l o n i s t s  1  beginning i n t h e i r newly  adopted country, the railway companies and the r e l i g i o u s organizations, such as the "Catholic Settlement Society", d i r ected them to the established colonies.40  Further assistance  by the Immigration Department I n cooperation with the various churches was  offered to the Immigrants and can be seen from  the following quotation: The Canadian steamship manifest con- . tains among other i n q u i r i e s a question r e l a t i v e to the r e l i g i o n of the Immigrant...  38 S a l l e t , oj>. c i t . , p. 67. 39 Lehmann, op_. c i t . . p. 107. kO Dawson, op., c i t . , p. 287.  112 ...The information, i t i s stated, i s gathered not "because the government lays any stress upon r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f or makes i t i n any sense a test of the a d m i s s i b i l i t y of the immigrant, but largely i n order to a s s i s t the churches i n work among those newly a r rived. A l i s t of a r r i v i n g immigrants, c l a s s i f i e d by t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f , and t h e i r destinations, Is furnished to the head of any r e l i g i o u s denomination requesting the same. Such church o f f i c i a l s are enabled i n t h i s way to n o t i f y church authorities i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s of the a r r i v a l of such immigrants, and i t i s said that much good r e s u l t s , not merely i n putting the new immigrants into better s o c i a l surroundings, but also i n the way of helping them to secure work.^-1 The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n compiling the exact number of Catholic and Lutheran Immigrants before World War I have a l ready been p a r t l y mentioned.  Although the Canadian Census  does not exactly present the number of immigrants, with which I am concerned, nevertheless the s t a t i s t i c s below w i l l  reveal  an o v e r a l l picture of the same. NUMBER OF TOTAL GERMANS IN WESTERN CANADA * 1  PROVINCES  2  1921  Manitoba  .19,444  Saskatchewan....  .68,202  Alberta.  •35,333  B r i t i s h Columbia  -•7.273  TOTAL...  130,252  41 Dillingham, op. c i t . . p. 59. 42 Census of Canada. 1921. V o l . I, Population. P r i n t e r to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, Ottawa, 1924, Table 24.  113 In r e a l i t y the t o t a l number of Germans must have been higher as many Germans from Eastern Europe (especially Germans from Russia) have d e f i n i t e l y confused r a c i a l o r i g i n and n a t i o n a l i t y and have stated t h e i r n a t i o n a l i t y father than,racial o r i g i n i n the Census.  Heinz Lehmann, who made the f i r s t survey  of a l l Germans In Canada, claimed that of the t o t a l Germans In Western Canada before World War I the German from Russia comprised the greatest proportion.  On the basis of available  material i n regard to the o r i g i n of the German pre-war immigrants, he arrived at the composition as stated below. ORIGIN OF GERMANS IN WESTERN CANADA^ Germans from Russia  ........ ,**4# 6%  Germans from Romania Germans from Austro-Eungary Germans from Germany  ...  .....18# .  ......  .,12%  Germans from the U.S.A..  ..18#  Germans from Ontario, and other countries  .2#  The preceding presentation of colonies and t h e i r s t a t i s t i c s i s by no means complete, neither are the s e t t l e ments exclusively founded by the people mentioned.  Presented  are rather the colonies predominantly founded by.either the one or the other group, such as by Catholics from the Black Sea or by Wolhynla Germans who are of Lutheran f a i t h .  The  d i f f i c u l t y i n t r a c i n g the s e t t l e r s o r i g i n as w e l l as the  k3 Lehmann, op_. c i t . , p. 93.  114  d e f i n i t e group who had founded the colony, i s created by the fact that a colony was usually s e t t l e d by people of the same f a i t h but who had come from d i f f e r e n t countries. In t h i s manner we have the colony of Vibank, Saskatchewan, which was f i r s t s e t t l e d by Black Sea Germans.  However i n the same year  Catholics from Banat, Romania also s e t t l e d there. Exactly the same phenomenon occurred with the Lutheran s e t t l e r s such as i n the colony of Edenwold we f i n d Germans from Bukovlna, Dobrudsha, South Russia and many other places.  In spite  of the various origins of the s e t t l e r s , t h e i r common language, f a i t h and equal c u l t u r a l niveau was s u f f i c i e n t to shape a u n i f i e d community. III.  SECOND IMMIGRATION 1920-1934 The outbreak of World War I ceased the immigration  of Russian-Germans into Canada. t e r i t e s who immigrated  An exception were 2,000 Hut-  from the U.S. during the war.  l i e v i n g i n supporting a war, they c o n f l i c t e d with the  Not  be-  U.S.  authorities, which resulted i n t h e i r e m i g r a t i o n . ^ The conditions amongst the colonists  i n Russia f o l -  lowing World War I and the Revolution have already been  44 The Hutterites, as the Mennonites, have founds t h e i r o r i gin i n the Anabaptist Movement of the 16th century. They are named a f t e r the founder of the sect, Jacob Huter, who was burned at the stake i n 1536 i n Insbruck. Persecuted, they emigrated to Bohemia and l a t e r i n t o Russia. As m i l i t a r y s e r vice became obligatory i n Russia, they emigrated to the U.S. i n 1&74. They d i f f e r from the Mennonites only i n t h e i r communal possessions.  115 d i s c u s s e d  i n  sons  t h a t  l e d  even  more  f o r c e f u l .  The  d e v a s t a t i o n  war,  l e d  to  the  c i v i l  w i t h  the  Chapter t o  I I I .  t h e i r  w h i c h  a t t i t u d e  The  e m i g r a t i o n  t o w a r d i n  the  by  t a x e s  as  w e l l  As  i n  o n l y  e f f i c i e n t  They  had  t o  Lutherans  v e r y  moment  cated  i n  economic f e r r e d " be  the  sent  a  were  as  I n  c o u n t r i e s  o f  the  where  d u r i n g c o u p l e d  e v e r y  was  r e a now  1921,  o f  i n c i t e d  urge  were  c o l o n i e s  one  t o  s t r e n g t h e n e d  e x e c u t i o n  Mennonites an  were  o r g a n i z e d  t o  and  o f  the  Canada  l a c k e d  i n t o  R u s s i a the  The  one o f  the  i n  most was  i t s e l f of  o r d e r  C a t h o l i c s  l e a d e r s h i p  a d j u s t e d  number  1920  i n  Canada  was  a g a i n  e m i g r a t i o n .  i m m i g r a t i o n became  i m m i g r a t i o n  a d d i t i o n  from  war,  o p p o r t u n i t i e s . ^  i m m i g r a t i o n  C a n a d i a n  c y c l e .  the  d i s o r g a n i z e d  The  the  p r a c t i c a l  d e l e g a t i o n  m a t t e r s  e c o n o m i c a l  U . S . S . R .  undertake  t o  i m m i g r a t i o n  the  at  the  c o m p l i f u r t h e r t o  the  " n o n - p r e -  immigrants  was  t o  l i m i t e d .  v i e w  the  f a c t  t h a t  Saskatchewan  were  of  farmers  i n  R u s s i a ,  P o l a n d ,  Canadian  45  i n  the  and  famine  t h i s  group  R u s s i a .  I n  have  as  o f  regime  times  when  c o m p l i c a t e d  new  p r e v i o u s  a l r e a d y  i n v e s t i g a t e  and  p o l i c y  before  g r e a t  1920*s  L a t e r  c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n  the  the  e m i g r a t i o n . i n c r e a s e d  p o l i t i c a l  S o c i e t y  p r e f e r e n c e  Lehmann,  op_.  of  Romania, o f  Germany  Saskatchewan  g i v e n  c i t . ,  t o  p .  German  114.  an  e x t e n s i v e  German  d e s c e n t ,  p r o p e r , asked  i n  e t c . , a  i m m i g r a n t s ,  number  of  coming the  from  German  memorandum i r r e g a r d l e s s  to o f  116 origin.  This p e t i t i o n was to he applicable to immigrants who  otherwise f u l f i l l e d the immigration requirements.  The memor-  andum was .supported by a l l German organizations and as such was presented f o r consideration to the Royal Commission of 46  Colonization and Settlement i n Saskatchewan.  I t i s not  known to what extent this exceptional document influenced further immigration of Germans from Eastern Europe. the  Canadian government  However,  came: to an agreement with the Cana-  dian National and Canadian P a c i f i c Railways to b r i n g i n a number of a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s from Russia.  S t r i c t medical as well  as c i v i l Inspection was to be carried out.  No f i n a n c i a l as-  sistance was offered to t h i s movement by the Canadian government. 47 The required v a l i d passport by the Canadian government, created further d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the Russian-Germans. On and a f t e r the 15th February, 1923, I t s h a l l be necessary as a condition to permission to land In Canada, that every Immigrant s h a l l be i n possession of a v a l i d passport issued i n and by the Government of the country of which such person i s a subjeot or c i t i z e n , such passport to be presented within one year of the date of i t s issue.48 Meanwhile the urge t o emigrate amongst the c o l o n i s t s , had  46 "Auslanddeutschtum", Der Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 13, No. 7, Deutsches Ausland I n s t l t u t , Stuttgart, 1930, pp. 230-231. 47 England, op_. c i t . . pp. 83-85. 48 England, Robert, The Central European Immigrant i n Canada. The Macmillan Company of Canada Ltd., Toronto, 1929, v. P.  23.  117 grown stronger f o r the New Economic P o l i c y period was  over  and they faced c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n at the end of the 1920*s.^9 The U.S.S.R., however, was not too eager to lose Its subjects. To c u r t a i l this sudden urge to leave the country, the Russian government demanded a fee of 200 rubles from every adult person that received a passport.^  0  In the hope to achieve a solution to t h e i r problem, there began an i n s t i n c t i v e movement without leadership to Moscow.  They were represented from a l l parts of Russia. The  main movement reached catastrophic measures by September of 1929, f o r nearly t h i r t e e n thousand colonists had gathered i n Moscow.^  1  They were weeks and months awaiting t h e i r emigra-  t i o n documents.5  2  A d i r e c t immigration from Moscow to Canada  was not permitted by Canadian authorities i n spite of the u r gent request of the r e l i g i o u s organizations. A long negotiation between German and U.S.S.R. authorities resulted l y i n the immigration of 5,700 persons to Germany.  final-  Settlement  i n over populated Germany was excluded right from the s t a r t . The accommodation offered i n the three camps of Prenzlau,  49 Quiring, op., c i t . . p. 108. 50 Schoeneich, Hans. Die l h r Helmatland v e r i l e s s e n . V e r l a g von P h l l i p p Reclam Jun., Leipzig, 1932, p. 75. 51 No o f f i c i a l number of the assembled colonists i n Moscow was ever published. Schoeneich, op. c i t . . p. 75, speaks of 10,000, Quiring, op., c i t . , p. 114, of 13,000, and Per Auslanddeutsche. of 20,000. 52 Quiring, op. c i t . , p. 114.  118 Hammerstein and Moelln was to be temporary u n t i l immigration to an overseas country was secured.  The r e l i g i o u s composition  of persons i n these camps was 3»885 Mennonites, 1,260 Lutherans, 468 Catholics, and 7 Advent lets.5-* The expenses of the refugees were p a r t l y carried by the German government and the organization "Brueder i n Not" (Brothers i n Need).  This organization was i n i t i a t e d by  President von Hindenburg, f o r the purpose of defraying the expenses f o r the refugees. ected.  More than 900,000 Marks were c o l l -  A considerable amount was repaid by the German r e l i g -  ious organizations i n North A m e r i c a . ^ When f i n a l l y i n 1930 emigration from Russia became an i m p o s s i b i l i t y , the colonists turned to other methods of escaping from Russia.  As early as 1928, individuals crossed  the border into Manchuria.  But when i n 1930 c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n  was also obvious In S i b e r i a , the number of refugees increased.  Walter Quiring speaks of a dramatic escape of a whole  v i l l a g e across the Amur r i v e r into Manchuria.  By night the  entire settlement of Schumanovka near the Amur55 crossed the  53 "Russlanddeutsche Bauern auf der Wanderung", Der Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 13, No. 3, Deutsehes Ausland I n s t l t u t , Stuttgart, 1930, pp. 76-77. 54 "Russlanddeutsche Bauern auf der Wanderung", Der Auslanddeutsche, Jahrg. 13, No. 23, Deutsehes Ausland I n s t l t u t , Stuttgart, 1930, pp. 810-811. 55 I t s h a l l be remembered that several German colonies were founded near the Amur and Ussurl r i v e r s .  119 frozen r i v e r .  Safely with f l f t y - s l x f u l l y packed sledges,  they arrived In Manchuria.  S i m i l a r escapes were also record-  ed from Turkestan i n t o China.  I n such a manner 1,066 r e f u -  gees had gathered i n Harbin, Manchuria, by the f a l l of 1951. Amongst these refugees were 550 Mennonites, 405 Lutherans, 50 Catholics, 44 Baptists and 7 o t h e r s . ^ With a few exceptions these refugees emigrated v i a Marseille to South America, as d i d the Lutheran group, or a r rived i n Germany.  By the f a l l of 1930, a t o t a l of 6,313  Russian-German refugees had assembled i n Germany.  According  to r e l i g i o u s denomination, these were - 4,300 Mennonites, 1,466 Lutherans, 483 Catholics, 51 Baptists, and 13 Adventists. Since the majority of the refugees were of the Mennonlte f a i t h , Bishop David Toews of Rosthern, Saskatchewan, became the spokesman of a l l the refugees.  However due to the  r i s i n g unemployment i n 1929, Premier Andersen of Saskatchewan as w e l l as the Premier of Alberta declined immigration of the entire group.  An agreement was reached whereby only r e -  l a t i v e s of well established c i t i z e n s were to be permitted entrance into Canada.5?  As a r e s u l t , 2,617 immigrated to Bra-  z i l , 1,576 to Paraguay, and 1,344 to Canada.  Prom among the  56 Quiring, op_. c i t . . pp. 151-159. 57 "Russlanddeutsche Bauern auf der Wanderung", Per Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 13, No. 9, Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , Stuttgart, 1930, pp. 292-294.  120 1,3^4 there were only about 200 Lutherans and Catholics.  A  further group of 500 who d i d not s a t i s f y the medical o f f i c ers,  remained i n Germany and were s e t t l e d In the Province of  Mecklenburg.58 Included i n the t o t a l of the Russian-German immigrants into Canada between the World Wars were over 20,000 Mennonites.-59  The number of Catholics and Lutherans had con-  siderably decreased i n comparison to t h e i r pre-war tion.  immigra-  In spite of the interest and e f f o r t by the Lutheran  and Catholic Immigration S o c i e t i e s , who have done good work i n l i n k i n g up the new comers with communities  of the same  f a i t h , they were unable to bring into Canada more than 10,000 Catholics and Lutherans.6°  Outstanding i n devoting t h e i r e f -  f o r t s to the Catholic and Lutheran immigration, were Father C. A. Kierdorf, 0. M. I.., who t r a v e l l e d to Europe twice f o r t h i s purpose,** and Director Harms of the Lutheran College i n 1  Saskatoon.  Alone t h e i r e f f o r t was not s u f f i c i e n t , f o r a un-  i f i e d organization amongst the Catholics and Lutherans i n Russia was missing and on the whole, however, they d i d not  58 Quiring, op_. c i t . , p. 115. 59 "Wanderungswesen", Der Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 15, No. 13/14, Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , Stuttgart, 1932, p. 391. 60 Lehmann, op., c i t . , p. 118. 61 "Rundschau", Per Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 11, No. 16, Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , Stuttgart, 1928, pp. 512-513.  121 u t i l i z e the emigration opportunities before the U.S.S.R. r e s t r i c t e d i t to n i l .  Most of them deceived themselves when  the New Economic P o l i c y (NEP) was  introduced i n 1921  gard to the free enterprise that was allowed.  i n re-  Later when  they r e a l i z e d that t h i s was only f o r a t r a n s i t l o n a r y period, i t was too l a t e .  The Russian r e s t r i c t i o n s of emigration co-  incided with the coming of the depression i n Canada when immigration was reduced to an i n s i g n i f i c a n t number. Table V presents the increase and decline of immigration from Russia.  I t w i l l be noted that u n t i l 1926  the  Canadian s t a t i s t i c s d i d not make any d i s t i n c t i o n between r a c i a l o r i g i n and country of b i r t h .  The s t a t i s t i c s of Germans  of r a c i a l o r i g i n would have no r e l a t i o n to the proper number of Russian-Germans since that would include Germans from Eastern Europe and Germany proper, therefore they are not presented.  The figures given are the t o t a l number of immigrants  born i n Russia, which d e f i n i t e l y includes the Germans.  From  these subtract the figures of the Russians by r a c i a l o r i g i n , which then would leave the estimated number of immigrants of German o r i g i n .  However, we must again Include Germans i n the  figure given f o r Russian n a t i o n a l i t y and r a c i a l o r i g i n as the Germans have confused t h e i r r a c i a l o r i g i n with t h e i r n a t i o n a l ity.  This figure i s the closest estimation which can be made  from o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e . New  colonies were not founded by Russian-Germans be-  tween the wars as some of the immigrants were directed to the  TABLE V  IMMIGRATION FROM RUSSIA FOR THE YEARS 1920-1929 This Table has been compiled according t o Canadian Census figures f o r the years of 1920 to 1929 from The Canada Year Books, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , King's P r i n t e r and Controller of Stationary, Ottawa, of the following years: 1920 - p . 121, 1924 - p. 170, 1926 - pp. 170-183, 1927-28 pp. 192-195, and 1929 - p. 187.  YEAR  IMMIGRANT ARRIVALS BORN IN RUSSIA  IMMIGRANT ARRIVALS OF RUSSIAN RACIAL ORIGIN  1920  .51  1921  1,077  1922  321  1923  *  .....222  1924  3,058  1925  5,411  1926. 1927  .7,382.  .1,092  6,935-  1928  .2,563  1929  .1,901.  1,296 •  .1,132 1,193  122 established communities.  Only a limited number found t h e i r  way to the newly opened t e r r i t o r y of the Peace River. A l though the majority of the new comers were farmers, only a few of them became r u r a l dwellers f o r i t was B r i t i s h subjects and those who had resided i n Canada f o r f i v e years, who were allowed to buy government l a n d s . ^  2  This resulted i n an ex-  tensive settlement of the new comers i n the c i t i e s where they became engaged i n seasonal work. IV  THIRD IMMIGRATION INTO CANADA - AFTER WORLD WAR  II  The t h i r d and perhaps the l a s t immigration period of Russian-Germans into Canada started In 1947  and has continued  u n t i l the present time.. I t had been mentioned already that t h e i r refuge from the Warthegau during the winter of 1944-45 to Western Germany was an Individual private task.  Unorgan-  ized, they arrived i n Western Germany from where t h e i r f o r e fathers had emigrated to Russia one hundred and f i f t y years ago.  Their a r r i v a l marked the end of the h i s t o r y of the  Russian-Germans f o r they no longer form a u n i f i e d group or community.  Dispersed, without contact with each other, they  were to be found i n every corner of Germany. The p o s i t i o n of the Russian-Germans i n post-war Germany can only be understood i n conjunction with the general refugee s i t u a t i o n .  The staggering number and the sudden  62 "Wanderungswesen", Der Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 14, No. Deutsehes Ausland I n s t l t u t , Stuttgart, 1931, p. 67.  2,  123 Influx of uprooted refugees from the Eastern Provinces of Germany had an u n s e t t l i n g effect on the natives of Western Germany.  The lack of accommodation f o r a l l of them c o n s t i t -  uted the most pressing and at the same time the most complex problem of post-war Germany.  The natives looked upon the im-  poverished refugees as undesirable intruders, e s p e c i a l l y upon those who  came from outside of Germany.  Coupled with the a t -  titude of the natives was the mass unemployment, which was at Its height, and made an i n d e f i n i t e stay i n Germany f o r them unendurable.  A return to Russia, where they expected to be  branded as t r a i t o r s , was excluded.  Nevertheless the deep d i s -  appointment i n Germany, the uncertain future, caused some to contact the Russian Repatriation Commission In Western Germany, which functioned u n t i l 19^9.  Their desire to return to  t h e i r former homes, which they expected, only remained a hope. Repatriation i n occupied Russian t e r r i t o r y of Russian-Germans, who were de Jure s t i l l U.S.S.R. c i t i z e n s , was carried out to the f u l l e s t extent.  unquestionably  As the Volga Germans,  they too were transported to S i b e r i a and Central A s i a . Being accustomed to deprivation, the remainder of the Russian-Germans d i d overcome the depressing f i r s t  two  years of post-war Germany easier than those refugees of Eastern Germany, who were used to a secure and well established existence.  Many were employed as farm helpers and i n other  employment, awaiting anxiously the contact with t h e i r r e l a t i v e s In America.  And r e l a t i v e s they all,had, f o r at some  12k time or another a r e l a t i v e had immigrated t o an overseas country.  I t was again the economic Insecurity arid the desire  f o r one's home that caused the u n i v e r s a l urge to immigrate t o America. An o f f i c i a l statement of the numbers of Russian-Germans In Western Germany was never Issued by the German authorities.  Nor was there an organization of Russian-Germans  that kept close s t a t i s t i c s of t h e i r numbers.  There remains  to mention, however, the a i d i n g o f f i c e s which were founded for the purpose of d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a r r i t a s g i f t s donated by t h e i r kinsmen abroad. r i a t e d , an estimated  Of the 350,000 Russian-Germans repatnumber of 100,000 resided i n West Ger-  many before immigration started to Canada. By 1947 most of them had established contact with t h e i r r e l a t i v e s i n America and had already Improved t h e i r mat e r i a l p o s i t i o n as they received generous g i f t s from abroad. An Immediate emigration to overseas countries was however not yet possible.  Being refugees of German descent, they d i d not  f a l l under the status of Displaced Persons and were thus excluded from any material assistance by the United Nations Rel i e f and Rehabllation Administration (UNRRA). At the foundation of the UNRRA, the function of which i s mere material assistance to refugees, a difference of opinion occurred as to what countries and people a s s i s t ance should be given.  The viewpoint  of the U.S.A. was that  125 any assistance should he denied to people who were members of the German nation as f a r as they were not victims of the Nat i o n a l i s t S o c i a l i s t regime. as the succeeding  This d e c i s i o n was of importance  organization of the International Refugee  Organization (IRO) pursued then the same p o l i c y .  According  to the statute of the IRO, i t i n the main distinguished two groups of refugees - a) those refugees whose nations were members of the United Nations and b) those refugees who were of German r a c i a l o r i g i n , who were usually members of German minority groups from Eastern European countries.  The l a t t e r  group d i d not f a l l under the J u r i s d i c t i o n of the IRO.^  It  s h a l l be noted that i n addition to material assistance the IRO offered protective service as w e l l as assistance f o r immigration to overseas countries. Since however, the majority of the German refugees had r e l a t i v e s i n Canada who were most w i l l i n g to defray the immigration expenses, the Canadian C h r i s t i a n Council f o r Resettlement  of Refugees was founded i n 194-7.  The organiza-  tion's task was to a i d i n l o c a t i n g and processing  overseas,  approved immigrants who were refugees i n occupied  territories  of A u s t r i a and Germany, but who d i d not come within the mandate of the IRO.  The group concerned with, as said, were a l l  German refugees from Eastern European countries, who because of events could not return to t h e i r former countries.  Canada  63 I n s t i t u t fuer Besatzungsfragen, Das DP - Problem. Verlag J . C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tueblngen, 1950, p. 164.  126 was  thus not only the f i r s t country to grant admittance to  Displaced Persons but also the f i r s t country to bring i n German  refugees.  The CCCRR was  a voluntary organization  consisted of the following membersj The  and  Catholic Immigration  Aid Society, The Canadian Mennonite Board of Colonization, The German Baptist Colonization and Immigration Society, Canadian Lutheran R e l i e f , The Suedeten Committee, and  The  The  64  Latvian R e l i e f Fund of Canada. The work of the Council was handled i n exactly the same manner as f o r approved immigrants coming within the mandate of the IRQ.  For t h i s purpose a screening camp was  ablished i n Hanover.  The screening i n this camp was  ted to German nationals.  est-  restric-  The prospective Immigrant not  only  had. to s a t i s f y the usual immigrant requirements but i n addit i o n had to have close r e l a t i v e s i n Canada who  were able to  secure accommodation and employment f o r at l e a s t one year. Further, the immigrant had to be an a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t .  Thus  only r u r a l dwellers i n Canada were enabled to bring t h e i r r e l a t i v e s to Canada.  Later i n 1950  an Order—ln-Councll  was  passed (as already Indicated), which enabled others who no r e l a t i v e s i n Canada to immigrate to this country. i s , however, a group of Russian-Germans i n Germany who  had  There are  either people In good p o s i t i o n or u n f i t f o r immigration f o r reasons of health and  age.  64 The Canada Year Book. 1950,  op_. c i t . . p.  183.  127 According to the Canadian Census of 1950, Canada granted admission to 98,057 Displaced Persons between A p r i l , 19^7,  and March, 1950.  This number included 55,075 Immi-  grants who had close r e l a t i v e s  l i v i n g i n Canada and 41,700  immigrants were admitted under the general Displaced Person movement.  The German immigrants were also Included i n the  Canadian s t a t i s t i c s as Displaced Persons. 10,651 of German r a c i a l o r i g i n . ^  Among them were  The number, however, seems  to be too low f o r we receive a d i f f e r e n t  composition accord-  ing to Table VI when attempting to compile the number of Russlan-German  immigrants.  I t must be kept i n mind when c a l -  culating, that the confusion of r a c i a l o r i g i n and was s t i l l apparent amongst the  nationality  Russian-Germans.  We thus have i n Table VI a t o t a l of 19,075 immigrants born i n Russia as compared to 6,738 immigrants of Russian r a c i a l origin.  In the" t o t a l of r a c i a l o r i g i n we can with cer-  tainty assume that there are a substantial number of Germans included.  To derive at an approximate number of Russian-Ger-  man Immigrants, we subtract the t o t a l of r a c i a l o r i g i n from the t o t a l born i n Russia and allow a few thousand f o r others born i n Russia such as the Ukranians, the remainder undoubtedly comprises the number of Russian-German ada.  immigrants i n Can-  This number would then be somewhat over 10,000.  65 The Canada Year Book. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , King's P r i n t e r and Controller of Stationary, Ottawa, 1951, p. 141. .  128 As a l l the Immigrants had to be farmers t h e i r place of destination was usually a r u r a l d i s t r i c t , however they never f u l l y settled there.  They lacked the means to obtain  t h e i r own farm and the c i t y offered better opportunities i n seasonal work. cities.  As a consequence the majority s e t t l e d i n the  TABLE VI  TOTAL IMMIGRATION PROM RUSSIA ACCORDING TO COUNTRY OP BIRTH AND RACIAL ORIGIN Table compiled from The Canada Year Books. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , King's P r i n t e r and Controller of Stationary, Ottawa, of the years, 1951 - PP- 145-147, 1952-53 - pp. 169170, and 1954 - p. 162.  YEAR  IMMIGRANT ARRIVALS BORN IN RUSSIA .  1947 1948...  ..870 . . . . . . . . 5,503  IMMIGRANT ARRIVALS OP RUSSIAN RACIAL ORIGIN  .293 .  1; 441  1949  ...3,401.  .....937  1950  .2,043.  .653  ..........4,489.  .2,305  1951. 1952..... TOTAL  .....2,769....... ..  19.075....  ...1,109 .6.738  CHAPTER VI STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTION OF RUSSIAN-GERMANS IN CANADA I  STATISTICS OF RUSSIAN-GERMANS IN CANADA The d i f f i c u l t y i n compiling the exact number of  Russian-Germans i n Ganada has been mentioned i n several cases. It s h a l l be mentioned once more i n greater d e t a i l , f o r i t i s Important to know why the o f f i c i a l number, calculated from the  Canadian Census, i s f a r below t h e i r actual number. Since 1871 the Canadian Census l i s t s the Canadian  residents according to r a c i a l o r i g i n , as such the person has to state the r a c i a l o r i g i n of the ancestors, i . e . that of the ancestral immigrant to Canada.  (A statement such as "Canad-  ian" or "American" i s not acceptable f o r r a c i a l  origin).  Theoretically then we should be able to compile the exact number of any minority group i n Canada - whether assimilated or not.  I n r e a l i t y we receive a.different p i c t u r e .  Only there  where r a c i a l o r i g i n and country of b i r t h and with I t nationa l i t y coincide, such as among German Immigrants from Germany proper, can we exactly state t h e i r s t a t i s t i c s .  1 Lehmann, op. c i t . , p. 130.  1  130 The s t a t i s t i c s f o r other minority groups, such as the Russian-Germans, can never he f u l l y calculated. The Russian-Germans as w e l l as other Germans from Eastern-European countries have f o r reasons as stated below often not distinguished r a c i a l o r i g i n and n a t i o n a l i t y .  This phenomen-  on occurred either unconsciously due to confusion of r a c i a l o r i g i n and n a t i o n a l i t y or Intentionally due to the attitude prevalent toward the German nationals during the World Wars. This fact i s manifested i n the d r a s t i c example of the Mennonites from Russia of whom 3,639 are l i s t e d under Russian r a c i a l o r i g i n i n the Census of 1941. rence was  2  This occur-  not only prevalent amongst the Mennonites but Just  the same amongst the Catholics and Lutherans, f o r the Census of 1941 states that 83,708 persons were of Russian r a c i a l orl g i n ^ and 46,302 persons spoke Russian as t h e i r mother tongue.**  The great difference between the preceding two  ures can be explained i n the following manner.  fig-  It is unlike-  l y that the difference of 37,406 had been f u l l y assimilated. Instead we subtract from the difference the 3,639 Mennonites l i s t e d under Russian r a c i a l o r i g i n , allow a few thousand f o r assimilated Russians and Ukranians born i n Russia, the  2 Census of Canada. 1 9 4 1 . V o l . 6 , Population, P r i n t e r to the King e Most Excellent Majesty, Ottawa, 1 9 4 6 , Table 5, 1  pp.  5 6 - 5 7 .  3 Ibid, Table 1 , pp. 2-3. 4 Ibid, Table 1 4 , p. 2 1 4  131 remainder would then undoubtedly comprise German Catholics and Lutherans from Russia that stated n a t i o n a l i t y rather than racial origin.  This argument i s a c t u a l l y applicable as s t a t -  ed above to any minority group i n Canada whose r a c i a l o r i g i n does not coincide with t h e i r former n a t i o n a l i t y . Since the 1920's the Canadian Census l i s t s the Canadian residents under mother tongue i n addition to the previous l i s t i n g of r a c i a l o r i g i n , country of b i r t h , and nationality.  Canada and South A f r i c a are the only two non-European  countries that l i s t t h e i r population according to such det a i l e d information.5  Due to t h i s d e t a i l and e s p e c i a l l y the  l i s t i n g of mother tongue, one should be enable to derive at a better judgement of a minority group i n Canada i n respect to the number of the group as w e l l as t h e i r extent of assimilation.  Due to the t r a n s i t i o n a r y period i n the a s s i m i l a t i o n  process, the r e l i a b i l i t y of the figure f o r mother tongue i s questionable.  In a group as the Russian-Germans who are de-  f i n i t e l y i n the process of a s s i m i l a t i o n , we f i n d several categories from a point of view of language: 1.  Those who s t i l l speak t h e i r mother tongue f l u e n t l y and speak very l i t t l e English.  2.  Those who speak German and E n g l i s h equally w e l l .  3.  Those who s t i l l understand but do not speak German anymore.  5 Kloss, Heinz, and Reimann, Katherine, S t a t i s t l s c h e s Handbuch der Volksdeutschen In Uebersee. Vertrauliche Schrtftenreihe Uebersee, P u b l l k a t l o n s s t e l l e Stuttgart-Hamburg, S t u t t gart, 1943, pp. 14-15.  132 This fact i s further complicated as German appears i n two forms - Standard German and the D i a l e c t i c German. So that many who do only speak a d i a l e c t do not state i t but rather state English as t h e i r mother tongue.  Prom the above, one  can see that a person f a l l i n g i n one of the categories i s o f ten confused as to what to state as t h e i r mother tongue. To derive, however, at an approximate number of Russian-German Lutherans and Catholics i n Western Canada, one may best calculate t h i s figure, from the s t a t i s t i c s on r e l i g ious denominations. GERMAN CATHOLICS AND LUTHERANS IN WESTERN CANADA  6  PROVINCES Manitoba  LUTHERANS  CATHOLICS  19,426  5,065  .  . . .54,691  Saskatchewan  41,585.  Alberta  2?,234  14,062  B r i t i s h Columbia........5,460  .5.411  TOTAL.  93,705... •  79,229  One may s a f e l y apply Heinz Lehmann's estimated percentage, which i s that 44$ of the t o t a l number of Germans i n Western Canada are Russian-Germans,''' to the t o t a l number of German Lutherans and Catholics In Western Canada.  This then would  result i n the approximate number of 41,230 Russian-German Lutherans and 34,860 Russian-German Catholics i n Western  6 Census of Canada. 1941. op. c i t . , Table 5, pp. 64-71. 7 Lehmann, op. c i t . , p. 93.  133 Canada.  In conclusion, neither o f f i c i a l statements nor p r l o  vate estimates such as Heinz Lehmann's or George Wagner's, who estimated the Russian-Germans In Canada at 200,000,9 give an exact number of the Russian-Germans i n Canada f o r reasons as stated above. II  DISTRIBUTION OF THE RUSSIAN-GERMANS IN CANADA It s h a l l be remembered that the colonists s e t t l e d i n  Russia according to r e l i g i o u s denomination, forming at the same time a s o l i d block of closed settlements averaging from one thousand to f i v e thousand people i n a colony. Upon a r r i v a l of the Russian-Germans i n North America, t h i s system of settlement was only maintained by the Mennonites i n Manitoba. But even they have abandoned this.system at present.  Another  attempt to form regular closed settlements a f t e r the pattern of the old settlements i n Russia was further t r i e d by the Black Sea Germans i n the Dakotas, and by Volga Germans i n Kansas.  Richard S a l l e t also mentions that even the weekly  markets, as they practiced i n Russia, had temporarily become a custom. An attempt by Lutherans and Catholics to s e t t l e i n Western Canada according to the pattern of settlement i n Russia i s not known.  Due to the system of homesteads t h i s  8 Wagner, Georg and Mai, Richard, op. c i t . , p. 281. 9 This includes a l l r e l i g i o u s denominations.  134  p a t t e r n  had  a c q u i r e  a  d e c i s i v e was  to  be  homestead measure  a g a i n  l a r g e  t o  -  an  a r e a  I n  by  r o l e  s e t t l e m e n t ,  o r i g i n  o f  The ed  f i r s t  The  homesteaders  o r  the  t r a c k s  t u r e . was  The  name  o r d i n a r i l y  s u c h  were  not  onies  p o p u l a t e d  changed and  t o  Speyer  V o l g a  was  to  a  t o  l a t e r  r a i l w a y  -  the  a  f o r m  o f  u s u a l l y  f o l l o w e d  the  t o  e n t i r e  farm  o f  the  s t a t i o n .  a  d e c i s i v e c o u n t r y  o f  t o  I n  n e a r  R a i l w a y  d i s t r i c t . I n  were  l i n e s f u -  S t a t i o n Where  R u s s i a ,  f r o m  S e v e r a l  c o l -  changes  o f  E l g i n h e l m  S c h u l t z  t o  Saskatchewan.  P r e l a t e , L i t t l e  A l b e r t a .  numerous The  homestead  the  undergone  Kronau,  s o - c a l l -  r a i l w a y  adopted.  Examples  the the  i n  or  c o l o n y  had  I .  i n  a  was  l o c a t e d  Sundence  l a i d  O f f i c e  came,  War  be  P o s t  name  a l l  were  t o  f r o m  the  Colony,  the  r e s u l t e d  the  were  e x c l u s i v e l y  p l a y e d as  the  r e l i g i o u s  d i s t r i c t s  almost  t o  d i s t r i c t  by  w h i c h  K a t h e r l n e n t a l  L e a d e r  farm  S t . . P e t e r ' s  assumed  n e a r e s t  World  farm  i s  tendency  m a i n t a i n e d .  Russian-Germans  d u r i n g  a  R u s s i a ,  p i c t u r e  expected  to  a  N e v e r t h e l e s s  i n  r e l i g i o n  not  s e t t l e r s  by  changed  O n l y c l o s e  the  Young, to  the  p r e s e n t ,  p a r t  n o t a b l y  were  a p p l i e d  where  name  o f  o f  the  w h i c h  s e t t l e m e n t s  system. where  i s  c l e a r - c u t  s e t t l e m e n t s ,  1  I n  s e v e r a l  w h i c h  was  however  kinsman.  p r e v i o u s l y  Because  a  a  was  homestead  S a s k a t o o n ,  s e t t l e r s  "scattered '  a  manner  o f  C a t h o l i c s .  the  to  up  as  t h i s  o f  s e t t l e d i n  take  example  east  There  adjacent  d e t e r m i n e d ,  d e n o m i n a t i o n . founded  abandoned.  p r a i r i e  b e g i n n i n g  of  towns such  founded a  town  135 s t a r t e d ed  a  w i t h  the  dominant  time  a  c e n t e r  d i s t r i c t  as  c h i l d r e n ,  and  A  were  o f  o f  t h i s  p r o v i n c e .  R u s s i a  s e t t l e d  P a r r i s h erans  have  Golden were  t h e r e ,  B a y , w h i c h  and F i s h  W i n n i p e g  and  was from  10  i n a r e  s o u t h  o f  s t a r t e d  b y  o f  o t h e r  areas  o p .  i n  c o n s u l t  t h e o f  o f  o f  R u s s i a ,  t h e r e a d i n g  Map I I I . )  o f  t o  t h e  B e a u s e j o u r ,  i n Brokenhead,  R i v e r  i n  settlement  s e t t l e d  159-160.  I896. I n  L u t h -  B a y a n d  s e t t l e m e n t s G r u e n w a l d ,  s e t t l e d  e a s t  Whitemouth, o f  these  L a t e r ,  these  J o s e p h ' s  Green  F u r t h e r  i n  from  F a t h e r s .  have  i n  founded  S t .  Oblate  L u t h e r a n s  were t h e r e  C a t h o l i c s  o f  i n  w h i c h  n e v e r  the  The  t h e  Russian-Germans  b y  W i n n i p e g  Germans  c i t . , p p .  number  W i n n i p e g  F a l l s .  t o  R e d R i v e r ,  b y  W i n n i p e g .  Other  the  t h e  were  and b e l o n g  east  o f  p o p u l a t i o n  ( i n  Mennonites  founded  area  town,  t h e  S e t t l e m e n t s  e a s t  t h e  W o l h y n l a  the  p l e a s e  s e r v e d  L a k e .  and Winnipeg  Lehmann,  i s  n o r t h - e a s t  T h a l b e r g  enburg,  farms  A n i n s i g n i f i c a n t  w h i c h  became  t h e i r  i n  p l a y same  The a c t i v i t i e s  s e t t l e m e n t s  i n W i n n i p e g  t h a t  t h e  l e a v i n g  L u t h e r a n  1879  A t  The  Chapter,  C a t h o l i c  town  w h i c h  town.  themselves  a n d  c h u r c h  t h e  s e t t l e m e n t s  s e t t l e d  founded  i n t h e  d i s t r i c t .  c o l o n i e s  1874  a n d  s e t t l e m e n t s .  around  M a n i t o b a -  t h e  s c h o o l  b u i l t  r e t i r e d ,  t h i s  R u r a l  a  e a r l y  e n t i r e  s e t t l i n g  L u t h e r a n  M a n i t o b a .  was  farmers  between  o n l y  t h e  t h e  B e s i d e s founded  o f  c o n c e n t r a t e d  r e m a i n d e r  P r o v i n c e  I n  s t o r e o f  were  i n c r e a s e d  the  r o l e  g e n e r a l  s u p p l y  b u i l d i n g  o f  O l d -  c o l o n i e s  Lutherans  c o l o n i e s  t o o .  1  0  136 North-west of Winnipeg, German Lutherans have s e t t l e d i n Moose Horn, Neuheim and Grahamdale along the railway l i n e leading to Gypsumville. The settlement began In 1911 and lasted u n t i l World War I . The s e t t l e r s were again predominantly from Wolhynla.  Other Wolhynla Germans have s e t -  t l e d In the v i c i n i t y west of the Manitoba Lake and have founded several German farm d i s t r i c t s . however came from G a l i c l a i n 1891»  The f i r s t  settlers  Only i n 1896 have Luther-  ans from Russia s e t t l e d In the area. Close to the Saskatchewan border a German farm d i s t r i c t was founded i n 1913 hy the name of F r i e d f e l d on the railway l i n e of Dauphin.  The s e t t l e r s were again immigrants  predominantly from Wolhynla.  Near Grandview another s e t t l e -  ment was founded at the turn of the century by Black Sea Germans from the area of Molotchna and by Wolhynla Germans.  11  The c i t y of Winnipeg had 12,170 persons of German r a c i a l o r i g i n according to the Census of 1941,  12  of which  9,166 s t i l l gave German as t h e i r mother tongue.^ the  12,170 could be c l a s s i f i e d as Russian-Germans.  Half of In 1884  a German Society (Deutsche Vereinigung) was already founded for  the purpose of a s s i s t i n g and advising the entire German  11 Lehmann, op. c i t . , pp. 161-162. 12 Census of Canada. 1941. op. c i t . , Table 22, p. 266. 13 I b i d.  137 immigrant  p o p u l a t i o n .  ^  The v a r i o u s  t h e i r  h e a d q u a r t e r s  1  a i d  s o c i e t i e s  h a d  war  and  s t i l l  do  a t  t h e  p r e s e n t  o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  as  i t  was  i n t h e  Church. and  1889,  I n  founded  Canada  -  P a s t o r  t h e  the  f i r s t  members  1904-1905, e r s .  The  however have  o f  number  a r e  B  P r o v i n c e  1  C a t h o l i c  up  and ( S t .  b y  t h e i r  o f  a f t e r  t h e i r  d i s t r i c t s ,  t h a t  was  a r r i v e d  community  J o s e p h ' s b y  t h e  whole  r e s i d e n c e  fewer  C h u r c h w h i c h  Russian-German On the  a r e  I n  Order  o f  C a t h o l i c s t h e  t h e  n o r t h  e n d  D r e l e i n l g numbers,  founded Oblate  I n  Germans  W i n n i p e g Western  i n  was  s t r o n g  t h e  I n i n  t h e  t h e  f i r s t  " E v a n g e l ! s c h l u t h r a s c h e n  a t t e n d e d  o f  B u t  L u t h e r a n  C a t h o l i c s ,  S t .  l i m i t e d .  t h e  i n F a t h -  P a r r i e h  i n  W i n n i p e g  o f  the  c i t y .  Saskatchewan  S e t t l e m e n t s  The  R e g i n a .  t h e  a n d a r e  t a k e n  founded  The  t i m e . r u r a l  i m m i g r a t i o n  i n W i n n i p e g  C . S c h m i e d e r  German  s t i l l - p r e s e n t  k e i t s k i r o h e " . ^ - 5 are  H .  r e l i g i o u s  o l d e s t  C a t h o l i c  Russian-^Germans  The a r e a  comprises P e t e r ' s  t h e  i s  i s  p o p u l a t e d  c o l o n i e s  community),  14 A n n u a l Report 8, P r i n t e r t o t h e 1886, p . 4 4 .  s e t t l e m e n t  o f  l o c a t e d b y  east  i n  and  Saskatchewan s o u t h - e a s t  a p p r o x i m a t e l y  B a l g o n i ,  V i b a n k ,  a r e a  5,000  Q u ' A p p e l l e ,  Odessa,  K e n d a l ,  o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e . Ojueen's Most E x c e T l e n t M a j e s t y ,  o f  Germans  K r o n a u  and  S e d l e y .  1 8 8 5 . N o . Ottawa,  15 R u c c l u s , M . , " D e u t s c h E v a n g e l l s c h e . A r b e i t i n K a n a d a " , D e r A u s l a n d d e u t s c h e . J a h r g . 13, N o . 1 8 , Deutsehes A u s l a n d I n s t l t u t , S t u t t g a r t , 1930, p p . 647-649.  138 The o l d e s t s e t t l e m e n t I s the c o l o n y o f J o s e p h s t a l e a s t of R e g i n a . and was  The  s e t t l e m e n t s t a r t e d i n 1896  near B a l g o n l  named a f t e r a c o l o n y i n R u s s i a , from where p a r t o f  the s e t t l e r s came.  The  c o l o n y was  f i r s t mentioned i n the  n u a l R e p o r t of t h e M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e i n  An-  1886.  T h i s c o l o n y has a p o p u l a t i o n o f n i n e t y - f i v e s o u l s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f one R u s s i a n f a m i l y t h e y a r e a l l Germans and speak the German language.16 I n 1888  a n o t h e r s m a l l e r c o l o n y e a s t of J o s e p h s t a l was  ed n e a r S o u t h Q u ' A p p e l l e .  I n the A n n u a l Report of the  partment o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the y e a r 1906  we  foundDe-  read:  T h i s c o l o n y was s t a r t e d i n 1888 and has s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d on account of nearness o f a r a i l w a y s t a t i o n . There are p r o b a b l y t h r e e hundred f a m i l i e s , e i g h t e e n hundred s o u l s i n the d i s t r i c t . F i v e s c h o o l s have been e s t a b l i s h e d and the d i s t r i c t i s gene r a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , many o f them i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r h o l d i n g s i n l a n d by purchase.17 I n 1890-1891 the f i r s t s e t t l e r s a r r i v e d i n D a v l n and Kronau.  The l a t t e r c o l o n y was  named a f t e r a s e t t l e m e n t  i n the B l a c k Sea a r e a f r o m where p a r t o f the s e t t l e r s nated.  I n 1890  origi-  t h r e e o t h e r c o l o n i e s were founded by C a t h o -  l i c s f r o m the B l a c k Sea, s o u t h of B a l g o n l , between the and Kronau s t a t i o n s .  The  Davln  colonies K a t h e r i n e n t a l , Rastadt,  16 A n n u a l Report of the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e . 1886. No. 12, P r i n t e r t o the Queen's Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , Ottawa, 1887, P. 75. 17 A n n u a l Report o f the Department of the I n t e r i o r . 1906. P a r t I I , No. 25, P r i n t e r t o the KlngTi" Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , Ottawa, 1907, p. 82.  139  and  S p e y e r  r e c a l l  s e t t l e r s  came.  m u n i t y .  R e v .  s e t t l e m e n t 1930 I n  i n  the  are  o f  a r e a  the  t r i c t  e s t a b l i s h e d  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n  same  was  too  c o n s t r u c t e d d i s t r i c t s t u r n  o f  s m a l l c l o s e  were  the  on  to  V i b a n k  was  A t  same  the  l o l a  have  from  a  t i o n  o f  bank  had  18  t i m e ,  s e t t l e d and  the  S t .  t h i s  s t a t i o n  M e t z g e r ,  op.,  the  i n  the  the  f i r s t  i n  The 1897  a  new  the  o t h e r  two  the i n  s e t t l e r s . was  u n -  s c h o o l  r e s u l t e d  d i s i n  1912,  by  s c h o o l  same  com-  w r i t t e n  f i r s t  w h i c h  the  o f  Rastadt  However,  by  I n  account was  c h u r c h  where  P e t e r ' s  w h i c h  of  1899*  i n  from  S t .  d e t a i l e d  1912.  I n  i n  S t .  Greek, 1891  i n  by  however, the  w r i t t e n P a u l ' s  the  o f  f o r  Germans  The the  the  the  w h i c h  manner  was  s c h o o l  c o l o n i e s  s e h o o l  p .  49*  P a u l ' s from  at  the  B y  the the  B l a c k Banat  o f  a r e a  d i s t r i c t s .  The  e s p e c i a l l y I t  i s  o f  Sea and  i s  the  the  1907.  d i s -  about  d i s t r i c t  J u b i l e e 1907  farm  community  I n f o r m a t i o n  V i b a n k  f a v o r a b l e i n  community  from  25th  P a r r i s h .  was  S t .  C a t h o l i c s  completed  c i t . .  P e t e r ' s  a r e a .  seven  a r e a was  new  c h u r c h .  the  Bone  e s t a b l i s h e d o f  the  a r e a  ®  o f  I n  a  r e p l a c e d  development  pamphlet  progress r a i l w a y  Many  founded  s e t t l e m e n t  was  e s t a b l i s h e d 1  i n t o  pamphlet  Rastadt  the  Sea  a n n i v e r s a r y  s c h o o l  and  c e n t u r y .  the  h i s  o f  I n  a  S o u t h - e a s t t r i c t  i n  completed  of  B l a e k  p r e s e n t s  c o n s t r u c t i o n  w h i c h was  the  comprised  4 0 t h  d e r t a k e n , was  i n  M e t z g e r  t h i s  h o n o r  1903  They H .  o f  names  G a l the  o b t a i n e d f o u n d a -  around  V i -  economic  a f t e r then  a r e a .  the  t h a t  the  140 town of V i b a n k  19  began i t s development.  Several stores,  which were the supply center f o r the entire d i s t r i c t were founded i n the following years.  In 1912 the school and  church were transferred from the open p r a i r i e into the newly founded town.  In course of time Vibank has further increased  i n respect to business a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as construction of new homes f o r r e t i r e d farmers.  The most notable construction  i n the town was that of the Holy Family Convent of the Ursal i n e Order i n 1923, which houses approximately f o r t y s i s t e r s . The s i s t e r s are extensively of Russian-German descent and are engaged i n teaching.20 At  the turn of the century the settlement area east  of Vibank was further expanded and resulted i n the foundation of the colonies of Odessa and Kendal.  The l a t t e r colony was  again named a f t e r the colony i n South Russia.  The s e t t l e r s  came predominantly from Russia but had s e t t l e d f i r s t i n the U.S.A. before they moved to Canada i n 1901. l i c a t i o n by Rev. F. Gerein, D.D.,  In a recent pub-  commemorating the 50th an-  niversary of the a r r i v a l of the f i r s t s e t t l e r s and the 40th anniversary of the founding of the Holy Family Parrish, we  19 The name of the town of Vibank has no bearing to the ori g i n of i t s s e t t l e r s . The name i s derived from the German word "Viehbank" meaning a c a t t l e market place. As the term "Viehbank" without "eh" produces i n English, as well as i n German, the same sound the two l e t t e r s were dropped and r e sulted i n the present s p e l l i n g of "Vibank". 20 Abele, op. c i t . . p. 22.  141 nave an Intensive account of the settlement and history of Odessa. The f i r s t s e t t l e r s of the Odessa d i s t r i c t arrived i n 1901,  However, the peak of settlement was reached i n 1903  and 1904,  when about s i x t y families had taken up homesteads  i n the area.  South of Odessa a small Catholic mission was  founded under the name of Blumenfeld.  However owing to i t s  l o c a t i o n and size the members were assigned to the parrishes of Odessa, Sedley and Vibank. The development of the town of Odessa started only a f t e r the completion of the Regina-Brandon railway - as i t was with the town of Vibank.  In 1911 a new school d i s t r i c t  was established i n the town i n addition to the three d i s t r i c t s already e x i s t i n g i n the area.  The present school In  Odessa i s served by the Ursallne S i s t e r s .  The most notable  event i n the town i s the recent completion of the Holy Family Church under the energetic leadership of the present pastor, Rev. F. Gerein, D.D.  The name of the d i s t r i c t of Odessa has  undergone some I n t e r e s t i n g changes.  U n t i l 1907  the d i s t r i c t  was known as S i b e l Plains a f t e r the f i r s t school In the area. In 1907 i t assumed the name of the newly founded Post O f f i c e , Magna. Valley.  In some c i r c l e s the d i s t r i c t was also known as Moser F i n a l l y In 1911 the present name of Odessa was g l v -  en to the town.  Jm  21 Gerein, pp. c i t . , p. 8.  ikz  The above described, settlement d i s t r i c t s , east of Regina, are divided Into seven Catholic parishes which are members of the Regina Archdiocese. diocesan p r i e s t s .  They are a l l served by  In these parishes a number of Lutherans  from south Russia have established themselves - notably In Kronau, Davin and Vibank. North-west of Langenburg, the Catholic community of Landshut was founded i n the 1880's.  The s e t t l e r s came pre-  dominantly from south Russia and Bavaria.  In the south of  Saskatchewan the colony of Maryland was founded by Catholics from the Banat.  However, they were soon Joined by Catholics  from the south of Russia.  The s e t t l e r s were from the colony  of Landau In the Black Sea area.  A smaller colony by the  name of Landau was founded south of Maryland. In 1902 the colony of Marienthal was founded close to the American border. U.S.  and Romania.  The s e t t l e r s came from Russia, the  Further west of Marienthal, homesteads  were taken up by Germans, which l e d to the foundation of Jakobsberg i n 1916.  S t i l l further west, the colony of Berg-  f e l d was founded by Germans from the Black Sea.  A larger  settlement, the colony of Claybank, was founded i n the south of the province i n 1904 by Germans from the Azov S e a .  22  Ger-  mans from other countries have s e t t l e d In the area a f t e r the war.  The s e t t l e r s of German o r i g i n number about s i x hundred  22 Lehmann, op_. c i t . , pp. 188-192.  143 persons.  Their school i s served by Ursaline s i s t e r s . North-west of Reglna, the colony of Holdfast was  founded between 1904 and 1908.  The s e t t l e r s again came pre-  dominantly from the Black Sea area i n Russia. Banat have also s e t t l e d i n the area.  Germans from  The f i r s t church  was  constructed i n 1910 f o r the close to one thousand persons of the colony.  Late i n 1920-1921 a larger church was b u i l t close  to the s t a t i o n . South-east  of Saskatoon, two other colonies were  founded close to the railway s t a t i o n of A l l a n . arrived predominantly  from the U.S.  The  settlers  and the south of Russia.  The farm d i s t r i c t s of A l l a n and S e l z have a population of approximately one thousand s e t t l e r s .  Selz i s named a f t e r a  colony i n the south of Russia from where the s e t t l e r s o r i g i nated.  The r e l i g i o u s service i s received from the Oblate  Fathers.  The economic development i n the two farm d i s t r i c t s  was extremely favorable i n the f i r s t years of settlement and i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n the construction of three churches, severa l schools, and two recreation h a l l s .  Here too, the Ursaline  s i s t e r s served as teachers. South of the South Saskatchewan River another large settlement area c a l l e d Happyland was founded by Black Sea Germans.  The i n f l u x i n t o this area, which i s p a r t l y dry b e l t ,  started i n 1908-1909.  Part of the s e t t l e r s had resided i n  Dobrudscha (Romania) f o r several years without f u l l y s e t t l i n g  there.  Bessarabian Germans have s e t t l e d near by and founded  the community of Krasna.  Further colonies were founded In  t h i s area by Black Sea and Dobrudscha Germans.  These colon-  ies  London, Rosen-  are P r e l a t e , Leader, Lancer, Josephtal, New  t h a l , Rastadt, Richmond, Blumenfeld, Speyer and Liebenthal. The area was  generally not as successful as others owing to  drought,and many moved to B r i t i s h Columbia.  S p i r i t u a l l y the  s e t t l e r s are looked a f t e r by the Oblate Fathers. S i s t e r s teach i n the schools.  Ursaline  At one time as many as f i v e  hundred families l i v e d i n t h i s  area. 3 2  In 1910-1912, German Catholics from the area of  Od-  essa i n Russia founded the colony of Billimun i n the dry belt of Saskatchewan.  This colony had an extremely  difficult  s t a r t as i t was more than f i f t y miles away from the nearest railway s t a t i o n . #  *  #  •  *  At the turn of the century the S t . Peter's colony, the most s o l i d closed German Catholic community, was founded east of Saskatoon.  The colony comprises  t l e d by Catholics.  There are only a few Lutherans scattered  In the c i t i e s of the colony.  f i f t y townships s e t -  The o r i g i n of t h i s larger c o l -  ony was due to the immigration and colonization p o l i c y of the Catholic clergy.  23  When the stream of s e t t l e r s poured across  Lehmann, op_. c i t . , p.  194.  145 the border to s e t t l e In Canada, the Benedictine Fathers **" be2  came aware of a new mission.  Their aim was to d i r e c t the  Catholic s e t t l e r s into one farm area as a s o l i d block of Catho l i c s to maintain t h e i r f a i t h . O.S.B., who  I t was P r i o r Bruno Doerfler,  set out to seek f o r new land f o r the German s e t -  t l e r s In 1902.  I t was the present St. Peter's colony that  was selected. More than 9,000 German farmers had settled i n t h i s area and were comprised  into twenty-six parishes. 5 2  The  name of the p a r i s h applied to the whole farm d i s t r i c t - notably; S t . Oswald, S t . Gregor, S t . Anthony, Engelsfeld, S t . Anna, S t . George, St. Bernard, S t . Joseph, St. John, St. Augustine, St. Scholastlca, St. Michael, St. Leo, Lady of Mt. Carmel, S t . Bruno, and St. Bonlfaee.26 The settlement started i n 1902 by Germans from the U.S.,  who were generally s e t t l e r s of some means.  mans from Russia also settled In the area.  Later, Ger-  The "Catholic  Settlement Society" was founded under the presidency of Mr. Lange In order to promote colonization i n t o the colony.  24 When Boniface Wimmer, O.S.B., landed i n America i n September of 1846, he had only a few students and a strong w i l l to transplant the Benedictine Order into the new world. Ten years l a t e r the Abbey of St. Vlnzenz i n Pennsylvania was founded and became so strong that the new Abbey of St. John was founded near St. Cloud on the M i s s i s s i p p i as well as the monastery at Cluny, I l l i n o i s . I t was the monastery at Cluny, that was transplanted to the St. Peter's colony In Saskatchewan, and unertook the s p i r i t u a l guidance of the colony. 25 Wagner, Georg and Mai, Richard, op_. c i t . . pp. 270-271. 26 "Rundschau", og. c i t . , pp. 512-513.  146 At the same time the German American Land Company was founded which entered into an agreement whereby a block of land amounting t o f i f t y townships was reserved.  Other land was  bought from the government and i n turn sold to the new s e t tlers.  By 1906 a l l free homesteads had been s e t t l e d . 7 2  A f t e r the usual drawbacks of a new settlement, prosperity came to the colony.  As i n previous settlements, here  too, the "scattered" settlement form p r e v a i l e d .  Concentrated  settlements were found only around the churches and l a t e r i n the various towns founded near the railway s t a t i o n s . As.. everywhere, the railway became the Impulse to a l l economical progress*  In this manner the c i t y of Humboldt became the ec-  onomic center of the colony because of i t s function as a railway d i v i s i o n a l point. It has a population of 1,899 persons and ranks f i f t h among the towns of Saskatchewan. An Imposing town h a l l , a new $15,000 skating-rink, 3 schools, 4 churches, a large h o s p i t a l , and a courthouse are the outstand; i n g buildings i n the community. Seventyf i v e business units draw trade within a r a dius of 20 miles.28 Out of the seventy-five business units, eighteen are by Germans.  operated  This proportion holds true throughout the colony.  Muenster, s i x miles east of Humboldt, i s the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l center of the colony.  The small monastery of Cluny,  2? Dawson, op_. c i t . , pp. 286-287. 28 Ibid, pp. 294-295.  147 I l l i n o i s was transplanted to Muenster by the Benedictine Order and there they b u i l t a Cathedral as well as a College. But, Muenster never f u l f i l l e d the expectations of the Order to become the commercial as well as r e l i g i o u s center.  Hum-  boldt, as mentioned, became the undisputed commercial center?^ The r e l i g i o u s guidance of the entire colony was l a i d upon the Benedictine Order by a papal d e c l a r a t i o n .  The mon-  astery grew with the colony and was elevated to an Abbey In 1911.  I t was f u r t h e r elevated to an "abbatia n u l l i u s " i n  1921 and received bishopric r i g h t s . 3 °  We have here an examp-  l e of a German Diocese i n Canada and i n the Benedictine Fathers a true example of the followers of the Orders of C l s t e r ciensium and Praemonstratensls, who were outstanding i n the colonization of Eastern Germany i n the 12th and 13th centuries.  *  #  *  «  #  The colonization of another large area by German Catholics was started i n 1904.  This colony, known as S t . J o -  seph's Colony, was located east of Saskatoon comprising seventy-seven townships, but, i t was not s o l i d Catholic as was S t . Peter's  Colony.  Before a l l the land was s e t t l e d In S t . Peter's c o l ony, Mr. Lange, President of the "Catholic Settlement Society"  29 Dawson, op., c i t . . p. 295. 30 Lehmann, op_. c i t . , p. 178.  148 had explored f o r land f o r another c o l o n y . ^  This time the  Order of the Oblate Fathers became Interested In this coloni z a t i o n and the "Catholic Colonization Society" was founded f o r the purpose of s e t t l i n g the area. rived In 1905.  The f i r s t s e t t l e r s a r -  The largest part of the s e t t l e r s came from  the south of Russia and from the Volga area.  Many of them  had previously s e t t l e d In the U.S.A. A large settlement of Germans from the States has been located In the Tramping Lake d i s t r i c t , I t i s expected t h e i r numbers w i l l be augmented t h i s f a l l by a thousand families, and as they have sold t h e i r land i n the U.S. they come equipped with money, good knowledge of the modern ways of farming and are inclined to be t h r i f t y and industrious.32 Germans from Germany proper and from the Banat also s e t t l e d there.  The Russian-Germans arrived predominantly i n I 9 O 8 -  1910 and s e t t l e d i n the western part of the colony.33 The economic development favorable as i n St. Peter's.  i n this colony was not as  The development  of trade cent-  ers shows the same trend of change as i n S t . Peter's colony, that i s from church v i l l a g e to commercial railway center. But as none of the main railway l i n e s ran through the colony, the colony has not developed a center l i k e Humboldt.  The  31 Dawson, op. c i t . , p. 287. 32 Annual Report on Immigration of the Department of the I n t e r i o r . 1905. Part I I , Government P r i n t i n g Bureau, Ottawa, 1906, p. 107. 33 Dawson, op. c i t . , p. 288.  149  commercial centers of t h i s colony are Kerrobert, Wilkie, Biggar and Macklin. ders of the  These centers are a l l located on the bor-  colony.34  The s e t t l e r s are s p i r i t u a l l y guided by the Oblate Fathers and reside i n the following communities; Leipzig, Handel, Revenue, Tramping Lake, Scott, Kerrobert, Salvador, Denzil, Grosswarder, St. Peter, and Macklin.  The S i s t e r s of  the Notre Dame Order teach i n the highschools of Leipzig, venue, Tramping Lake, and Macklin.  Re-  There are some Lutheran  communities within S t . Joseph's colony and are located i n Luseland and Wilkie.35  since 1930,  owing to crop f a i l u r e , o  many s e t t l e r s of the S t . Joseph's colony have migrated to B r i t i s h Columbia. 2  Lutheran  Settlements  In 1889,  the oldest Russian-German Lutheran s e t t l e -  ment was founded In Lahdshut near Langenberg.  Lutherans  from  other countries also s e t t l e d there simultaneously with the Black Sea Germans.  Hoffnungstal was  Bessarabia and G a l i c i a .  founded by Germans from  Bereslna was also founded i n 1889 by  Bessarablan and Wolhynian Germans. The colonies of Rurtnymede and Togo were founded i n 1904 and 1919 respectively by Volga Germans.  34 Dawson, op., c i t . , p.  298.  35 Lehmann, op. c i t . , p. 184.  These colonies  150 are located east of Yorkton and close to the Manitoba border - with a settlement of close to three hundred persons. s e t t l e r s of Togo had f o r some time resided i n the U.S.  The and  Winnipeg before f i n a l l y s e t t l i n g i n Togo. In Bessarabia.  1904  the f i r s t Germans arrived i n M e l v i l l e from  By World War I t h i s d i s t r i c t had been s e t t l e d by  a substantial group of German Lutherans. s e t t l e d i n Lipton i n 1907.  In 1905  Wolhynla Germans  Wolhynla Germans s e t t l e d  near Gansen, Volga Germans i n P r a i r i e Rose, and others i n Kandahar, south of Q u i l l Lake. Lutheran parish.-' In 1905,  The three colonies form  one  0  at the same time when the Catholic colonies  of A l l a n and Selz were founded, the Lutheran colony of Eigenheim (Young) was  s e t t l e d by Black Sea Germans.37  The Luther-  an colony of Luseland, located i n the center of the Catholic community of St. Joseph's colony, began i t s settlement i n 1908  by Lutherans from the U.S.  as well as Volga Germans.  North-west of the Mennonite settlement of Rosthern, the f i r s t settlement of Silvergrove began i n 1904 who  came from Germany proper.  main settlement was  36 Lehmann, pp. c i t . , p. 212.  However, i n I9H-1917, the  started by Black Sea Germans and by Ger-  mans from the Wolhynla.  37 Ibid, p.  by s e t t l e r s  210.  151 Lutherans have s e t t l e d and founded a few colonies i n the south-east part of the province.  Neu-Norka was  founded  by Volga Germans - which fact i s manifested by the colony's name. The s e t t l e r s began to a r r i v e as early as 1899.  Yellow  Grass was founded south-east of Regina by Wolhynla Germans. The f i r s t s e t t l e r s arrived i n 1900 and immediately before World War I the greatest bulk of immigrants had arrived i n the area.  The f i r s t Lutherans s e t t l e d i n Flowing Wells i n  1906 and they came from the Volga area i n Russia.  Just p r i o r  to World War I about t h i r t y f a m i l i e s s e t t l e d i n the area and they too were Volga Germans.  In 1908-1910 Volga Germans as  well as Wolhynla Germans s e t t l e d east of Herbert and other Volga Germans settled near the railway s t a t i o n of Morse between 1908-1912.3  fi  3  The City of Regina The Germans i n the c i t y of Regina have settled pre-  dominantly i n the eastern section of the town.  The majority  of them are Catholics and are members of e i t h e r St. Mary's p a r i s h or the L i t t l e Flower p a r i s h .  Those of Lutheran f a i t h  mostly belong to the "Lutherisohen Dreleingkeitsgemeinde". Since 1906, the community i s a member of the an Church.  American-Luther-  Others also belong to the Gnadengemeinde , which  i s the Missouri Synod.  n  H  According to the Census of 1941, Re-  gina had 7,428 Germans, of whom 4,830 stated t h e i r mother  38 Lehmann, op_. c i t . , p. 217.  152 tongue as German.39  Half of the 7,428 are Russian-Germans.  The number of Germans i n the c i t y increases as the farmers r e t i r e and s e t t l e i n the c i t y . C  The Province of A l b e r t a  1  Catholic Settlements From the previous section one can see that the Cath-  o l i c s have s e t t l e d predominantly i n the province of Saskatchewan.  Only very few colonies of Catholics from Russia were  founded i n Alberta.  The colony of Friedensthal i n the Peace  River d i s t r i c t was s e t t l e d by Germans from Germany proper and by Black Sea Germans. founded i n 1908  A number of Catholic colonies were  near Grassy Lake by Black Sea Germans.  These  colonies never had a German p r i e s t and so are at present a l most completely assimilated. The colony of Rosenheim, which i s a s i s t e r colony or rather a continuation of Saskatchewan's St. Joseph's colony, was s e t t l e d i n 1911. the s e t t l e r s .  There were many Russian-Germans amongst  The colony i s named a f t e r a colony on the V o l -  ga River i n Russia. A number of Lutherans and Catholics from the Black Sea area s e t t l e d i n the dry belt area north-east of Medicine Hat p r i o r to 1910.  In t h i s area the o r i g i n a l Catholic colony  39 Census of Canada. 1941. op. c i t . , Table 15,  pp. 254-255.  153 of Schuler i s to be found. milies.  The colony consisted of f o r t y f a -  In the early years the colony d i d not have a p r i e s t  and so i t has i n course of time been converted to the various religious sects which are predominantly found i n the area. 2  Lutheran Settlements In 1889  a German colony was founded south of Dunmore  In the south-east of the province.  The s e t t l e r s moved f u r t h -  er north In 1890-1891 due to repeated drought.  The Russian-  Germane amongst these s e t t l e r s founded a colony i n the Rabbit H i l l s by name of Heimthal, which was west of the railway s t a t i o n of Nlsku.  The colony of Lutherort was founded by Wol-  hynla Germans i n 1892-1893 north of Nlsku. Russian-Germans settled west of Wetaskiwln i n 1897. These s e t t l e r s came from the colony of Alt-Schwedendorf i n the south of Russia.^0  Wolhynla Germans s e t t l e d south-east  of Wetaskiwln and founded the colony of Bashaw. >In 1909 Russian-Germans from the Black Sea area, previously residing i n the U.S., immigrated heller. 3  to the colony of Preudental near Drum-  The colony i s named a f t e r the settlement In Russia.  The C i t i e s of Edmonton and Calgary The Germans i n Edmonton are predominantly of the Lu-  theran f a i t h .  Religiously they belong to the Missouri Synod  Uo Lehmann, op_. c i t . . p. 229.  154 and the majority of them are engaged as laborers. The Census of 1941 l i s t s 4,658 Germans In the c i t y of Edmonton, of whom 2,180 stated t h e i r mother tongue as German.41  As mentioned  before, Volga Germans settled i n Calgary i n 1893 In the sect i o n of B o u v i l l e .  They have founded the Riverside community.  The Census of 1941 shows the German population of Calgary to be 3,014, of whom 1,245 gave t h e i r mother tongue as German.42 D  The Province of B r i t i s h Columbia The Germans i n B r i t i s h Columbia are very few com-  pared to the numbers of them i n the p r a i r i e provinces. Between the World Wars, many Germans from the p r a i r i e provinces moved to B r i t i s h Columbia due to crop f a i l u r e s .  They s e t t l e d  notably i n the Okanagan Valley - Rutland and Kelowna - and are predominantly of the Catholic f a i t h .  Further, Russian-  Germans of Lutheran f a i t h have s e t t l e d i n Summerland.  How-  ever s o l i d settlements as i n the p r a i r i e s , were never founded. Direct immigration to B r i t i s h Columbia before World War I and during the depression was very seldom the case. l y occurred since World War I I .  This has on-  In Vancouver there are at  present two Lutheran communities and one Catholic community which have a substantial number of Russian-Germans as members.  41 Census of Canada. 1941. op. c i t . , Table 15, p.243, 42 Ibid, p. 241.  CHAPTER VII ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND  CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT  The presentation of these aspects i n t h i s chapter are not e x c l u s i v e l y applicable to Russian-Germans.  A distin-  guishable difference i n regard to economic, s o c i a l , and  cult-  u r a l development between Russian-Germans and other Eastern European Germans cannot always be effected as they were a l l at one c u l t u r a l l e v e l .  They had to undergo s i m i l a r forces  and were faced with the same b a r r i e r s In the e a r l y days of settlement.  The only difference that may be pointed out  t h e i r o r i g i n of country or the d i a l e c t spoken. common f a i t h and c u l t u r a l niveau was  was  But t h e i r  stronger and brought a-  bout a u n i f i e d community already i n the e a r l y days.  Thus  whatever i s said i s applicable also to other or rather to the entire community, unless s p e c i a l mention i s made. I  ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The largest proportion of Russian-German immigrants  i n Canada were farmers.  This professlon was  generally main-  tained upon settlement f o r to gain land was one of the primary causes f o r t h e i r immigration. a l s were poor.  The majority of the a r r i v -  The l i t t l e money they had received f o r t h e i r  156 property i n Russia was mostly consumed by t h e i r t r a v e l l i n g expenses.  The Russian-Germans, who had resided i n the U.S.  f o r sometime and migrated  Into the Canadian P r a i r i e s at the  turn of the century, possessed  large sums of money,  i n add-  i t i o n they were f a m i l i a r with the North American farming methods.  Their start was thus considerably e a s i e r than of those  who had come d i r e c t l y from Russia. The land acquired at a cheap rate by the early s e t t l e r s was i n many cases at a great distance from the railway lines.  They settled there because of the f e r t i l i t y of the.  s o i l and i n the hope of receiving a railway s t a t i o n In the near future.  I t was the long distance from the railway s t a -  t i o n that provided the greatest d i f f i c u l t y to the s e t t l e r s . For days they were on the road to and from the railway s t a t i o n with t h e i r supplies which consisted of construction materials, provisions, farm Implements, and household goods.  Their f i r s t  necessary farm implements were mostly acquired through c r e d i t that was r e a d i l y provided by the railway companies. An example that holds true f o r a l l pioneering i n the p r a i r i e provinces i s the information of the Russian-German, Mrs. U l l r i c h , about the beginning of the settlement of Young (Eigenheim): With how much great hope we l e f t our old homeland and how much disappointment we had to experience.....vast unpopulated areas onl y bushland The majority b u i l t huts made of earth, grass, and water. (A method r-used extensively In the south of Russia  157 where lumber was not r e a d i l y available.) Shingles f o r the roof had to be obtained 60 miles further north. A few men undertook t h i s journey, following the marks of the surveyors as there were no roads y e t . l The f i r s t y i e l d s of the farmers were often so low that the farmers had to look f o r a d d i t i o n a l Income.  This  additional Income was obtained e i t h e r by working on another farm or by working on the railway section. To earn a l i t t l e cash money they cut and hauled hay t o Indian Head, Qu'Appelle and even to Regina Some of the younger men hired out to farmers who had s e t t l e d e a r l i e r near the main l i n e of the C.P.R. at wages of about seventy-five cents a day.2 The d i f f i c u l t i e s of the e a r l i e r s e t t l e r s were f u r t h er complicated by the climatic conditions of the p r a i r i e provinces.  The p r a i r i e blizzards i n the winter which often  lasted f o r several days, were unbearable obstacles. Often the l i t t l e cottage which was h a l f b u i l t into the ground was snowed i n and had to be dug out by the neighbor.  In the summer the  extreme hot weather provided equal d i f f i c u l t i e s , as p r a i r i e f i r e s were not a rare event. To overcome a l l these obstacles and make an e x i s t ence possible i n the early days, a strong character of immeasurable endurance was demanded by the p r a i r i e .  The type  of people were to demand l i t t l e i n c u l t u r a l nourishment.  1 Lehmann, op_. c i t . , p. 24-9. 2 Gereln, op_. c i t . , p. S.  It  158  was thus the Eastern European, or t h e i r ancestors before, who had been w e l l versed i n colonization and therefore more readi l y suited f o r the Canadian P r a i r i e s than the Western European. The higher the c u l t u r a l standard the greater were h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s to adopt the land as his new home.  As pointed out i t  was mostly the land-hungry Eastern European that selected the p r a i r i e and has become successful i n the course of time. J u s t i f i a b l y we may attribute to them t h e i r share i n exploring and c u l t i v a t i n g the vast areas of Western Canada.  Each s e t -  t l e r i n h i s own way by overcoming the obstacles as presented, f u l f i l l e d h i s task as a pioneer.  The settlement according to  t h e i r f a i t h , kinship, and the assistance they gave one  anoth-  er, made the beginning considerably easier - i n fact only the early community l i f e , primitive and simple as i t was,  made i t  possible t o endure conditions. No matter how strong the desire was  to return to (  t h e i r former homes amongst the pioneers, the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s dream was seldom carried out.  The great distance and  the lack of means excluded the desired Journey. reconciled with t h e i r destiny of being pioneers.  They became A f t e r about  one to two years of settlement they began with the foundation of ed.  a church around which the community l i f e was to be centerSimultaneously with the church, the school found i t s or-  i g i n , which received the nature of a "Church school" as the pastor acted as the only teacher.  With the completion of  these two i n s t i t u t i o n s , the community was f u l l y established  159 and a greater sense of security and importance prevailed  am-  ongst the s e t t l e r s . The primitive conditions of l i v i n g , however, remained unchanged f o r several years to come.  Only a f t e r f i v e to s i x  years of settlement were the s e t t l e r s abandoning t h e i r f i r s t accommodations, i . e . the huts, and were constructing t h e i r f i r s t wooden and more elaborate homes. The dispensation of t h e i r f i r s t years was accepted for  the hope of a better future.  Real prosperity and economic  expansion i n general came with the completion of the various railway l i n e s .  We can safely say that the h i s t o r y of Western  Canada i s also the h i s t o r y of the p r a i r i e farmers i n Canada. The crop f a i l u r e to which the farmers had to submit affected the whole of Western Canada. dry  They were u s u a l l y caused by the  summers and early frosts and snow before the harvest was  completed.  Crop f a i l u r e s were further often caused by the  lack of knowledge of the farming methods of North America  and  the pursuance of European methods of husbandry. Their e f f o r t s were f i r s t r e a l l y rewarded during World War I when the p r a i r i e farmer recorded a miraculous y i e l d . This enabled them to defray t h e i r debts and Improve t h e i r farm implements as well as the expansion of t h e i r land possessions. Relative prosperity was  continued u n t i l 1929.  During t h i s  time the farmers began to speculate with t h e i r land - each one was to expand on c r e d i t .  This phenomena found i t s end i n the  160 collapse of the stock market i n 1929. The period a f t e r World War I, as we have seen, marked the second immigration of Russian-Germans.  Homesteads, how-  ever, were by that time ohly available i n the north of the p r a i r i e s where transportation was s t i l l inadequate.  I t was  therefore preferred to obtain land i n the older colonies mostly on c r e d i t .  Successive crop f a i l u r e s coupled with the  low prices of wheat prevented these people from f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r obligations and as expected they lost t h e i r possessions. Later Immigrants i n the 1930's were never able to obtain land. They started out as farm helpers and as many farmers, they, too, joined the great Influx into the c i t i e s at the height of the depression where they had to depend on r e l i e f .  This per-  iod also caused an extensive migration to B r i t i s h Columbia where they s e t t l e d In the Okanagan V a l l e y and other areas. Others sought a better future In the U.S. In many cases I t was only with the assistance of the government and the generous help from other eastern provinces of Canada that the farmers were able to remain on t h e i r farms. Although the Information obtained by Rev. P. Gerein i n his History of Odessa refers only to conditions of the period i n Odessa, i t may be s a f e l y applied to many other areas. .....other communities e s p e c i a l l y In Ontario, shipped carloads of vegetables, f r u i t s , f i s h and numberless bundles of clothes f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n here. Fortunately, the Governments and railways cooperated f o r transportation, f o r the l o c a l people could not have paid i t . .  161  ...Feed f o r the stock, clothes f o r the c h i l d ren, food f o r the family, - everything had to be sought from Government r e l i e f o f f i c i a l s . 3 The coming of World War I I , that created greater  em-  ployment p o s s i b i l i t i e s and raised the prices of farm products, revived prosperity again i n the communities.  Prosperity con-  tinued u n t i l 1949 when the p r a i r i e s again were haunted by successive crop f a i l u r e s .  However the extent of these  ures are by no means a p a r a l l e l to previous times. ers  fail-  The farm-  s t i l l consider themselves prosperous and well-to-do c i t i -  zens.  The early years of s u f f e r i n g and deprivation were w e l l  rewarded• The Canadian Immigration p o l i c y a f t e r World War I I directed the s e t t l e r s to the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s of Western Canada.  The immigrant had to be a farmer by profession and r e -  main on the farm f o r at least one year before migrating to other places.  At present, none of these immigrants have r e -  mained on the farm.  A survey i n the v i c i n i t y of Regina where  many Russian-Germans had arrived a f t e r World War I I , has shown that they took permanent residence i n the larger c i t i e s where they are engaged predominantly i n seasonal work.  Their  beginning i n Canada was by f a r more favorable than that of t h e i r r e l a t i v e s who had immigrated before and a f t e r World I.  War  Due to post-war expansion they were able to obtain w e l l -  paid Jobs.  Being accustomed to a w e l l economized household  3 Gerein, op., c i t . ,  p. !?•  162 that Is prevalent amongst the Russian-Germans, they were able to save large sums of money that would serve as a down-payment f o r t h e i r own home.  The  "newcomers  11  that have settled In Re-  gina, f o r example, have at present, with the exception of a few single i n d i v i d u a l s , f u l l y paid f o r the newly acquired  V  houses or are close to the completion of t h e i r payments.  It  i s due to t h i s great opportunity to acquire one's own home within a short period, that the newcomer often does not understand the hardship the early s e t t l e r s had to encounter. II  RELIGION The invariable  importance of r e l i g i o n i n the h i s t o r y  of the Russian-Germans has been referred to on previous occasions.  As i n Russia so i n Canada, r e l i g i o n received the  greatest consideration by the Immigrants i n s e l e c t i n g place of settlement.  their  In Canada, too, the church remained the  only organization of the Russian-Germans i n the early years. Even p r i o r to the turn of the century, the importance of r e l i g i o n was recognized by Canadian immigration  auth-  o r i t i e s , f o r a l i s t of a r r i v i n g immigrants c l a s s i f i e d by t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and t h e i r destinations was furnished to the head of any r e l i g i o u s denomination i f the same was  r  requested.4  Such church o f f i c i a l s were thus enabled to n o t i f y church autho r i t i e s i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s of the a r r i v a l of such  k See Chapter V f o r direct quotation, supra.  163  immigrants.  Indeed not long a f t e r the a r r i v a l of a group of  German immigrants,  church o f f i c i a l s , usually German-speaking,  became frequent v i s i t o r s .  Religious services were held i n  primitive conditions i n the home of one of the s e t t l e r s .  The  appointment of a permanent pastor t o a farm d i s t r i c t a f t e r about one to two years of settlement resulted i n the foundat i o n of a p a r i s h as w e l l as the construction of a church building.  Due t o the homestead system the existence of a s o l -  Id populated settlement was absent.  As a consequence, the  church was to be located i n the middle of the d i s t r i c t , I.e.' often i n the middle of the open p r a i r i e .  When possible, the  nearest railway s t a t i o n was preferred. Later at the turn of the century, which marked the foundation of numerous p r a i r i e towns,-5 the church was moved into town.  6  With the foundation of a parish, the establishment of a community was completed  f o r the church choir and church  school were simultaneously inaugurated.  As the pastors were  German, the service, the church administration and school were a l l maintained i n German.  Thus, the pastors became, as they  did i n Russia, the strongholds i n preserving the German language.  The Fathers of the Benedictine and Oblate Orders were  s t i l l born i n Germany as were the Pastors of the Lutheran groups; the American Lutheran Church and the Manitoba Synod.  5 See Chapter VI f o r foundation of the p r a i r i e town, supra. 6 Very few of these old churches are s t i l l i n use. were replaced by l a r g e r and more elaborate churches.  They  164  Consequently, both Lutherans and Catholics brought r e l i g i o n to t h e i r communities i n the German tongue. v a i l e d u n t i l World War  I.  This practice pre-  In communities which were not a t -  tended by German-speaking pastors, a more rapid a s s i m i l a t i o n was  noticeable.  Such was  the case with the settlement  of  Grassy Lake i n southern Alberta. A  Roman.Catholics The s p i r i t u a l guidance and organization of the Cath-  o l i c Germans i n the p r a i r i e s was  vigorously carried out by  the Order of the Oblate and Benedictine Fathers, as well as the numerous diocesan p r i e s t s . The diocesan p r i e s t s have at present a substantial number of Russian-German descendants In t h e i r ranks.  Other r e l i g i o u s as well as school services were  rendered notably by the Ursaline S i s t e r s and the S i s t e r s of the "Armen Schulschwester". A u n i f i e d organization of the.German Catholics  was  maintained i n the "Volksverein fuer die deutsch-canadischen Katholiken", a society which was S t . Joseph's Church i n Winnipeg.  founded i n 1909 The  i n the  "Volksverein...  0  had  spread to the entire p r a i r i e s and had established chapters i n a l l the l a r g e r Catholic communities.  The membership of the  "Volksverein..." had reached a number of 5,000 persons p r i o r to World War  II.  The  society's o r i g i n a l purpose was  mote c u l t u r a l aspects i n the community.  to pro-  P o l i t i c a l l y the  "Volksverein,,•" favored the L i b e r a l party, as the Catholics  165 t r a d i t i o n a l l y and s t i l l do.  In the 1920's, however, i t was  attempted to exert p o l i t i c a l influence upon the p r o v i n c i a l governments - notably i n respect t o the maintenance of the German tongue In schools. In the 1930*8 the "Volksverein..." again resumed the nature of a c u l t u r a l organization, which resulted i n the famous annual gatherings known as "Kathollkentagen . w  The nature  of these gatherings manifested I t s e l f i n an a r t i c l e of a German newspaper published i n Germany, the "Kolinische Volkszeitung" of November 15th, 1929.  In i t the "Volksverein...  H  was accused of not s u f f i c i e n t l y emphasizing the German cause: The general "Catholic Days" i n Regina missed the deeper emphasis on the cause of the German Catholics. A few points were mentioned only vaguely i n the debates. ...no r e a l des i r e f o r German subjects i n schools were demanded. The meeting of the C h r i s t i a n School Trustees avoided the use of the German lang-* uage and continued t h e i r discussion primarily i n the E n g l i s h tongue.7 The " Y o l k s v e r e i n . . w a s  also very active i n matters  of immigration under the leadership of R. Kierdorf, O.M.I. In 1928, between the 27th and 29th of June, there was a gene r a l meeting of the "Vblksverein..." under the presidency of F. J . Hauser i n connection with the celebration of the 25th Jubilee of the foundation of the St. Peter's Colony.  At t h i s  meeting i t was decided that a s p e c i a l e f f o r t be made to a s s i s t the immigration of Russian-Germans to Canada, due to the  7 Lehmann, op_. c i t . . p. 282.  166 conditions i n Russia which became continually worse.  8  Since  the conditions were such as they were, no notable r e s u l t s of t h i s e f f o r t were obtained.  Hatters of immigration were car-  r i e d out by the Catholic Immigration Aid Society a f t e r World War I I . The  coming of World War  of the "Volksverein.. .".  I I paralyzed the a c t i v i t i e s  The society was  completely d i s s o l v -  ed as were many other German organizations.9 I I , the "Volksverein..." was  A f t e r World  not revived nor are there  indications that such w i l l occur i n the future.  War  any  The active  members and leaders of the pre-war group are scattered and the younger generation are not Interested i n any segregated organization.  The functions of the "Volksverein..." are con-  tinued i n organizations such as the Holy Name Society, the Catholic Men's Club, and the Catholic Youth Organization, none of which are segregated organizations. Due the Province  to the substantial number of German Catholics i n of Saskatchewan and the great number of Canadian-  born German p r i e s t s , i t has been the constant desire of the older immigrants to see one of the German p r i e s t s appointed to a higher Catholic clergy p o s i t i o n such as Bishop. a l i z a t i o n of this desire was  The  re-  recently f u l f i l l e d when Bishop  Klein, a descendant of a Russian-German Black Sea family,  8 "Rundschau", op_. c i t . . pp. 512-513. 9 See section on s o c i e t i e s , i n f r a .  was  167 appointed Bishop of the Diocese of Saskatoon.  The older gen-  eration looked upon t h i s event with sentiment and s a t i s f a c t i o n , f o r i n t h i s appointment they saw the recognition of t h e i r equality with the Anglo-Canadian  group.  A request f o r information i n regard to o f f i c i a l German parishes i n the Catholic Dioceses of the p r a i r i e provinces has shown that there are no such parishes.  The Catholic  Church discourages national parishes (Canon 216) that they be t e r r i t o r i a l .  and prefers  However, b i l l n g u a l i s m i s s t i l l the  most common practice i n parishes where the German population i s i n the majority.  This holds true e s p e c i a l l y i n the r u r a l  d i s t r i c t s of the p r a i r i e s . B  1 0  Lutherans Although the Lutheran Church of Canada found i t s or-  i g i n i n Germany there are, at present, no t i e s with that country.  I t s membership, too, i s not limited only to that of  German nationals but also includes a substantial number of Scandinavians.  We thus may no longer consider the Lutheran  Church of Canada the "German National Church'' as i t i s often called.  The Lutheran Church's present r e l a t i o n with Germany  i s only i n the use of the German Lutheran B i b l e . The f i r s t German Lutheran community i n Western Canada was founded i n the "Evangelisch-lutherische D r e l e i n i g -  10 See section on press f o r Catholic papers, i n f r a .  168  keitsklrche*  1  In 1 8 8 9 by Pastor H. C. Schmleder, who had a r r i -  ved from Germany expressly f o r t h i s purpose.  Several other  pastors followed him and i n 1 8 9 7 the "Evangellsch-Lutherische Synode" of Manitoba and of other provinces was founded.  Later  the Synods of Missouri and Ohio, separately carried out extensive missionary work In Western Canada.  Among the pastors  were many s t i l l born i n Germany, which resulted i n the presentation of the service i n German*  Later, pastors born i n  the U.S. or Canada have received t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n American Seminaries service.  and prefer the English language i n presenting t h e i r  1 1  The above three mentioned Synods comprise a l l the German Lutherans  i n Western Canada.  Each of the Synods has  i t s own college; the, Manitoba Synod has a College i n Saskatoon, Sask.; the Ohio Synod has a College i n Regina, Sask.; and the Missouri Synod has a College i n Edmonton, A l b e r t a . The Manitoba Synod also has a Theological Seminary a f f i l i a t e d with i t s College.  The pastors of the Ohio and Missouri Synods  receive t h e i r t h e o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g i n the Seminaries U.S.  Each of the Synods also has i t s own youth organization  as well as a synodal church paper.  Examples of the paper are  the "Synodalboten" and the "Canadisch-Lutherische blatt".  11  i n the  1 2  Kirchen-  Due to the existence of three Synods, a certain  Ruccius, op_. c i t . , pp*  648-649.  12 See section on press f o r Lutheran papers,  infra.  169  r i v a l r y amongst them Is unavoidable.  But, Pastor M. Ruccius  sees no harm i n t h i s , f o r i n t h i s manner even the most distant 13  Lutherans are included i n Lutheran worship.• The Lutheran Immigration Aid Society was very active In matters of immigration a f t e r World War I and World War I I . P a r t i c u l a r l y active i n this organization, was Director Harms of the Lutheran College In Saskatoon. ** 1  «  *  *  *  #  While the e a r l i e r German pastors, both Lutheran and Catholic, were the preservers of the German tongue and German habits, i t i s the present younger generation of pastors that were born i n Canada and received t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n the E n g l i s h tongue, that are the greatest l i n k f o r a s s i m i l a t i o n .  Pacing  r e a l i t y , i . e . that the younger generation of German descent no longer speak the German tongue, the pastors themselves pref e r the usage of the English tongue.  Chureh choirs that at  one time exclusively sang i n German, have gradually adoped the English hymn.  I t i s here that the pastor often meets with  disagreement from the older German generation who were accustomed to the German hymn.  But i t i s the insight of the pastor  and his recognition of the fact that the community should  13  Ruccius. op. c i t . . pp.  647-649.  1 4 "Russlanddeutsche Bauern auf der Wanderung", op., c i t . , Jahrg. 1 3 , No. 9 , pp. 292-294, and Jahrg. 1 3 , No. 23, pp.  810-811.  170 become f u l l y Canadian, that makes him the undisputed leader of the community.  As such, he sets the standards and d i r e c t s  h i s parlshoners toward becoming f u l l y Canadian. Ill  EDUCATION According to the B r i t i s h North American Act, educa-  t i o n f e l l under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the provinces. sent a complete treatment  To pre-  of the educational development of  every province i n Western Canada, would lead us f a r from our present purpose.  Recorded below, are only the forces that  had an immediate bearing on the Germans and consequently  on  the Russian-Germans. The education of the children of the Russian-Gorman immigrants before the turn of the century i n the p r a i r i e s  was  carried out by the l o c a l pastors or by other individuals with some advanced education.  In the Manitoba School Act of  1897,  we read: where ten of the p u p i l s speak the French language (or any language other than English) as t h e i r native language, the teaching of such pupils s h a l l be conducted i n French (or such other language .....).15 This clause made the existence of the b i l i n g u a l school possi b l e u n t i l 1916  when the b i l i n g u a l system was  abolished.  Many  objections were raised by governmental o f f i c i a l s i n regard to  15 Sissons, C. 3., Bl-Lingual Schools In Canada. J . M. Dent & Sons Ltd., Toronto, 1917, pp. 117-118.  171 the lack of properly trained teachers that were able to teach under the b i l i n g u a l system.  The German Lutherans and espec-  i a l l y the Mennonites made extensive use of t h i s system as long as i t existed.  The abolishment  of the b i l i n g u a l system dur-  ing World War I caused considerable d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y amongst the Mennonites as the German tongue i s inseparable from and the only spoken medium f o r t h e i r r e l i g i o n . Contrary to Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta never adopted the b i l i n g u a l system.  The two provinces had s u f f i c -  ient time to learn the defect that can be caused by the b i l i n g u a l school system.  Instead the two provinces permitted  separate schools by law. However, the Ministry reserved the right to regulate the t r a i n i n g and examination of such separate I n s t i t u t i o n s .  of the teachers  Text books were also author-  ized by the P r o v i n c i a l Departments of Education.  Religious  Instructions were confined to the l a s t half hour of the day. A p r o v i s i o n f o r private and p a r o c h i a l schools was also made In the two provinces.  Both German Lutherans  made use of this opportunity.  and Catholics  From amongst the Lutherans, the  Missouri Synod was most active i n founding private country schools.  I n t h i s manner, the German schools of Stony P l a i n ,  Edmonton, and Wetaskiwln were founded.  These schools, too,  had to submit t o an annual Inspection by a regular school I n spector and prove that i t s standards were equal to those of of the p u b l i c schools.. As a matter of fact many German communities established private schools rather than  172 p u b l i c schools. Thus they were able to teach German as much as they l i k e d i n t h e i r schools and otherwise escape Irksome regulations. 1 6  The foundation of private schools had I t s l i m i t a t i o n s i n that f i n a n c i a l l y the i n s t i t u t i o n s had to be supported from private sources, i . e . the parents of the p u p i l s .  At the same  time, the parents were not exempt from the usual school tax. As a r e s u l t of this s i t u a t i o n , private schools were only poss i b l e where there was a s o l i d population of the same ethnic group.  This was the case i n the S t . Peter's colony i n Sask-  atchewan.  The b i l i n g u a l schools i n Manitoba were gradually  dissolved as were the private schools i n Alberta and Saskatchewan, l e a v i n g only a few exceptions. ? 1  The importance of education as a medium f o r assimil a t i o n of the non-Anglo-Canadian group was pointed out as early as World War I by several educational a u t h o r i t i e s . B i l i n g u a l and private schools i n which the mother tongue was emphasized was a d i r e c t b a r r i e r to the future a s s i m i l a t i o n of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group into Canadian l i f e . We must begin with the community and because the non-English s e t t l e r i s bound by customs and habits of the old country l i f e , we must s t a r t our work with the children.18  16 Sissons, op_. c i t . ,  p. 164.  17 Lehmann, op., c i t . , p. 344. 18 England, op., c i t . ,  p.  170.  173 A f t e r World War I, the p u b l i c schools became the r e gular schools i n the German populated d i s t r i c t s .  The  original  h a l f hour of r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n the mother tongue was f i n a l l y abolished i n Saskatchewan i n 1929*  The German Cath-  o l i c newspaper "Der Katholik" of 1929, records that the Saskatchewan P r o v i n c i a l Government passed a law whereby r e l i g i o u s instructions were to be taught only i n the E n g l i s h language. The occasion f o r the enactment of t h i s law was apparently due to the inquiry of a German school d i s t r i c t as to whether r e l i g i o u s instructions may be presented i n the German tongue. During the time of the L i b e r a l Government i n Saskatchewan, matters of language usage f o r r e l i g i o u s presentation remained untouched as r e l i g i o u s Instruction was not considered a part of the school curriculum.  The Conservative Government which  prohibited the use of the German tongue, based i t s authority on Paragraph 178 of the School Act which stated that E n g l i s h , with the exception of French, should be the only language of instruction.  The Conservative Government interpreted the  School Act to Include r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n as part of the school curriculum.  The "Volksverein..." was outraged and made  a general appeal to a l l Germans to combat t h i s a r b i t r a r y Interpretation of the law. ^ 1  With the exception of the above mentioned case, Engl i s h as the language of presentation i n schools was peacefully  19 "Auslanddeutschtum", Per Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 13, No. 3, Peutsches Ausland I n s t l t u t , Stuttgart, 1930, pp. 88-89.  174 accepted i n the German d i s t r i c t s .  The parents themselves r e -  cognized the importance of the language of t h e i r adopted country  and i t s usefulness i n the future of t h e i r children as Can-  adians,  With the adoption of English, the mother tongue became  neglected.  German, as spoken by the Russian-Germane, was a  d i a l e c t which had not progressed with the times.  Having been  educated i n English, the generation born i n Canada no doubt recognized the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e i r mother tongue. have become reluctant to speak the same.  Thus they  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  to hear so many say, "Yes, I speak German but i t i s what I have learned from my parents - a d i a l e c t " , when asked whether they speak German.  As the d i a l e c t was abandoned and E n g l i s h  adopted, the younger generation assumed a new culture which has led to t h e i r absorption into Canadian l i f e . ing  A f t e r a tour-  p r i e s t noted some twenty years ago that i n S t . Peter's  colony, German culture and language were disappearing, Abbot Gertken of Muenster, Saskatchewan r e p l i e d , " I t Is natural. It must come, what of i t . "  2 0  The great p o s s i b i l i t y f o r higher education was by no means ignored.  In a l l walks of l i f e today, we f i n d the Can-  adian-born descendants of Russian-German immigrants.  The s t a -  t i s t i c s i n Table VII, although l i m i t e d to the d i s t r i c t of Odessa, are t y p i c a l f o r many other Russian-German settlements, and do not d i f f e r from any other ethnic group i n Canada.  20 Dawson, op_. c i t . ,  p. 331.  TABLE VII  ODESSA VILLAGE SCHOOL ATTENDANCE Taken from Gerein, Prank, History of Odessa, 1901-1954. Western Printers Association Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan, 1954, Appendix I I I , p. 66. YEAR  GRADES VIII  1941... 1942 1943 1944 1945...... 1946...... 194?. 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952... 1953 1954  IX  X  XI  XII  . . . 9 * •. . . 7 . . . . . »3 •»»<. . . . 6  . . . « . . • » « • « . . 7 - . . . . . 4 . . •.. 8. • •. . . 3...<  ...5  4 . . . . •. 6.. < >. . 4 . . . . . . 8 . . . • . . . 4 • ••••••• • • • 7 •. • . . *3 * * >.. 5 • • ••. . 4 . » • . . . . 5 • ••• »«••-•'3* • .•. . 7. •. . . 4 . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . 2 4 . . . ..»2 * - * 4 . . ..2 . . • 7 . . 1 I » • 2 • * a • • • 7 * • . . •. . 4 .............7>.< . . . . . . . . . . . . » 9 * * . . . . ( . . • • • 7 • • •• •4 J? • • • . . . . 3 1 1 . . . . . i 4 . . . • • 6 • •« •• •6 • * • 1 . . . . . . . . .•.••3*.' . . 1 3 . . . • • • 7 * •. .•. .•4 * v * * ....5 > • • 6. *•*> . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . .. .. .. 75 .*• »1».«5•• •* * «. . . . 5 4... • • O • • • .< . . . 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 . . . . •. 3 * * •.. < 5 *.* 1 1 . . . ..•8.. . » 2 . . . *• • 2 • • •« ...2 1  #  GRADUATES FROM ODESSA SCHOOLS Priests. Deacons Sisters Nurses Student Nurses University Degrees Teachers.  *  ...4 2 9 .6 .3 12 23  175 IV  PRESS AND LITERARY PUBLICATIONS Soon a f t e r the a r r i v a l of the f i r s t German s e t t l e r s  i n Western Canada, the news-weekly "Der Nordwestern" was founded i n Winnipeg i n 1889. The paper also published a yearly Calendar.  Before the p u b l i c a t i o n of the German news-  paper "Der Courier", the "Der Nordwestern" was considered the leading paper i n Western Canada.  I t was subscribed to by both  Lutherans and Catholics although i t had a Lutheran f l a v o r i n g . The number of i t s present subscribers i s about 9,000. In 1907, the German news-weekly "Der Courier" was founded In Regina, Saskatchewan.  For a short duration during  World War I, the weekly was issued i n English.  Under the en-  ergetic editorship of B. Bott, the paper gradually assumed the leading p o s i t i o n amongst the German papers i n Western Canada. A p o s i t i o n which i t s t i l l maintains.  Under B. Bott, the "Der  Courier" was e d i t o r i a l l y Roman Catholic.  This i s understand-  able as Bott was also editor of the Catholic paper "Der Katho l i k " from 1924~to 1931.  The subscription l i s t f o r "Der  Courier" both past and present i s as follows: 1928 - 9,500j 1937 - 12,000; and 1954 - 14,600.  The number of subscribers  has increased i n recent years due to the new i n f l u x of German immigrants.  As the "Der Nordwestern", the "Der Courier"  i s also subscribed t o by both Lutherans and Catholics. Other r e l i g i o u s l y Independent newspapers were founded before World War I; "Der Deutsch-Canadier" In Calgary, Alberta  176 and the "Alberta Herold" i n Edmonton.  Due to the lack of f i -  nances, the p u b l i c a t i o n of the two papers was discontinued before the outbreak of World War I .  The p u b l i c a t i o n of the  "Alberta Herold" was resumed a f t e r World War I, however i t was again unable to subsist and amalgamated with the "Der Courier".  2  1  The "College Freund" was  notable amongst the  reli-  gious papers and was published by the Manitoba Synod Seminary i n Saskatoon sinoe 1903* alboten" since 1923.22  I t has been absorbed by the "SynodThe Missouri Synod has published the  following since the 1920»s; the "Canadisch-Lutherischen K i r c h enblatt", "Uneere Kirche", and the "Der Lutherlsche Missionar" which was l a t e r Issued as the "Der Lutherlsche Herold". An exclusive Catholic paper was the "Westkanada" which was founded i n 1907 and which ceased p u b l i c a t i o n with the coming of World War I.  The paper was considered the or-  gan of the Order of the Oblate Fathers (OMT).  Since then,  the Oblate Fathers p u b l i s h the "Der Marienbote" i n Battleford, Saskatchewan. ing  I t s present subscribers number 1,700.  Accord-  to the estimate of the editor, Bernhard von Fischbach,  O.M.I., there are about 1,300 Russian-Germans on the subscription l i s t .  The "Der Katholik" which existed from 1924 to  21 Lehmann, op,, c i t . ,  p. 332.  22 Kloss, Heinz, "Materialen zur Gesehichte der DeutschKanadischen Presse", Per Auslanddeutsohe. Jahrg. 11, Deutsehes Ausland I n s t l t u t , Stuttgart, 1928, pp. 382-384.  177 1931  had as many as 3,200 subscribers. Another notable Cath-  o l i c paper was the "St. Petersbote" published by the Order of the Benedictine Fathers (OSB), of Muenster, Saskatchewan. f i r s t paper was published February 11th,  1904.  f i r s t printed i n Winnipeg, l a t e r i n Muenster. and 1919  the paper was  issued i n E n g l i s h .  The  The paper was Between  In 1923  1918  a parallel  to the "St. Petersbote" the "St. Peter Messenger" appeared. Later It was  changed to the " P r a i r i e Messenger". 3 2  At pre-  sent, only the " P r a i r i e Messenger" i s published i n E n g l i s h . Numberous other German papers started p u b l i c a t i o n but were unable to exist f o r a long period of time as subscriptions were very low.  The present e x i s t i n g German papers In  Canada are exclusively read by the older generation - or r e cent immigrants who are not well versed In the E n g l i s h tongue. Although some of these papers are on a r e l a t i v e l y high e d i t o r i a l l e v e l , they are weeklies and thus bring belated news. #.  #  #  *  «  Almost nothing has been published i n the l i t e r a r y f i e l d by the entire Russian-German Lutheran and Catholic group i n Canada.  Their publications have been r e s t r i c t e d to a few  a r t i c l e s that have appeared i n the "Der Courier" and the Nordwestern".  "Der  Other publications have been h i s t o r i c a l sket-  ches of Individual colonies. The most recent and notable has  23 Kloss, op., c i t . . p.  384.  178 been that of a Russian-German descendant, Rev. Frank Gerein, D.D., e n t i t l e d History of Odessa.  The booklet contains a de-  t a i l e d description of the colony of Odessa, Saskatchewan which was founded by Russian-Germans.  A. F. Wanner, a Black Sea  German, published several a r t i c l e s and two pamphlets e n t i t l e d Untergehendes Volk and Volk auf dem Wege.  Both pamphlets con-  t a i n a short h i s t o r i c a l review of Russian-German colonies i n the Black Sea area as well as a few short s t o r i e s , the settings of which are the German colonies i n Russia. Kolonlen im Kutschurganer Johannes Brendel.  Aus Deutschen  Geblet i s a notable publication of  I t contains a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of l i f e  i n the Kutchurgan German settlement and a l i s t of the o r i g i n a l settlers.  His second work i s a c o l l e c t i o n of Russian-German  folksongs i n the U.S.A. and Canada. V.  GERMAN SOCIETIES IN WESTERN CANADA The f i r s t  German organization i n Western Canada was  founded as early as 1884. The. "Deutseher Vereinigung" was organized i n Winnipeg f o r the purpose of a s s i s t i n g and advising  newly-arrived immigrants. ^ 2  Later, the "Bund Deutseher  Vereine" was organized which incorporated several small organizations In Manitoba.  At the turn of the century, the "Edel-  weiss" Society was founded i n Edmonton and l a t e r the "Bund der Deutschen i n A l b e r t a " . At the same time, the "Deutsch  24 Annual Report of the Ministry of Agriculture. 1885. op. c i t . , p. 44.  179 Kanadischer P r o v i n c i a l Verband" waa founded i n Saskatchewan ^ 2  Numerous other l o c a l organizations were founded, however these predominantly represented the German elements from Germany proper.  The church remained the only form of organization a-  mongst the Russian-Germans a,s i t had i n Russia,  Only a f t e r  World War I, when the a c t i v i t i e s of the German societies reached t h e i r peak, d i d the Russian-Germans  begin to be active  i n the same. During World War I the organizations ceased t h e i r activities. revived.  A f t e r World War I , the Organizations were again  The German p e r i o d i c a l "Der Auslanddeutsche" of  1927,  reported that the "Deutsch-Kanadlscher National Verband" was founded i n Alberta.  In Edmonton, the Canadians of German o r -  i g i n were united, irregardless of r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l views, f o r the purpose of acting amongst the German elements and promoting p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e . It also undertook to urge a l l Germans who were q u a l i f i e d , to apply f o r t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p .  I t promoted the German tongue  amongst the younger generation.  In 1927,  the Edmonton chap-  t e r of the "Deutsch-Kanadlscher...." had 2,550 members. ^ 2  In other provinces, a r e v i v a l s i m i l a r to that of A l berta took place a f t e r World War I .  The "Deutsch-Kanadlscher  25 Lehmann, op. c i t . , p. 293* 26 "Auslanddeutschtum", Der Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 10, No. 12, Deutsehes Ausland I n s t l t u t , Stuttgart, 1927, p. 428.  180 Bund" of Manitoba was  founded and Included several smaller or-  ganizations such as the "Deutsche Sprachverelnigung", sephs Verein" and the "Deutseher H l l f s v e r e i n " .  "3t. Jo-  In Saskatchew-  an, the "Deutsch-Kanadlscher Verband" of Saskatchewan was revived i n 1928  i n addition to the "Volksvereih der deutsch-  Kanadlschen Katholiken".  The Province of B r i t i s h Columbia a l -  so p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the foundation of German clubs a f t e r World War I . time.  The  "Alpen Verein" has survived up to the present  Although there was a chapter of the NSDAP i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, the remainder of the German organizations  strictly  adhered to t h e i r c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes, A u n i f i e d organization of a l l the Germans i n Canada was  never achieved.  i n d i v i d u a l provinces.  The organizations were l i m i t e d to the The a c t i v i t i e s were climaxed  i n every  province by a yearly f e s t i v a l which was usually held i n the c a p i t a l of the province.  The programs of such f e s t i v a l s ,  known as the "Deutsche Tage", consisted of various  contests  i n singing and folk-dancing i n t h e i r native dress. With the onset of World War  I I , a l l German c u l t u r a l  a c t i v i t i e s and German organizations ceased to function.  A  r e v i v a l of the organizations Is not noticeable, although there are smaller l o c a l groups In Vancouver, Regina, and Winnipeg. These groups are concerned purely with recreation and sports a c t i v i t i e s and consist mainly of the recently arrived German immigrants, who  are the most active members.  181 U n i f i e d p o l i t i c a l Influence was never exercised by the German Lutherans  and Catholics i n Western Canada. The  number of representatives i n p r o v i n c i a l parliaments is.very low i n proportion to the t o t a l number of Germans i n Western Canada.  The r e l a t i v e l y low educational standard of the Ger-  27  man Immigrant from Eastern Europe, the language d i f f i c u l t i e s and t h e i r conservative nature, have kept them away from any notable p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s .  They have not even shown p a r t -  i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l administration.  The Russian-Germans have  been e s p e c i a l l y reluctant i n this respect.  However, i n a few  cases where a s o l i d population of Russian-Germans has been present, they have succeeded i n sending t h e i r representative to the p r o v i n c i a l parliament - f o r example, Anton Buck, who was M.L.A. f o r South Qu'Appelle i n Saskatchewan. In general, the Germans I n Western Canada and f o r that matter the Russian-Germans have favored the L i b e r a l Party federally.  Recent i n q u i r i e s i n Alberta and Saskatchewan how-  ever, have shown that there i s a tendency to vote f o r the present p r o v i n c i a l governments.  27 There have been several persons of influence, the most outstanding being L i e u t . Gov. G. Uhrich and several provinci a l representatives. These people, however, have been German and not Russian-German.  CHAPTER VIII ADJUSTMENT AND ASSIMILATION IN CANADA It w i l l be the theme i n t h i s concluding chapter t o e s t a b l i s h to what extent the Russian-German Immigrants and t h e i r descendants have become adjusted to and assimilated i n the  Canadian way of l i f e .  Some twenty-five years ago, Robert  England stated: In the sense i n which i t i s applied by many, there i s no such thing as a s s i m i l a t i o n . I f i t be taken t o mean s u f f i c i e n t s i m i l a r i t y of mental outlook to make cooperation f e a s i b l e , that i s about a l l we can do. We can never make a German an Anglo-Saxon any more than we can make an Englishman I r i s h . 1  As time as t h i s statement may be, i t i s also true that i t i s not  the object of Canadian p o l i c y t o make Anglo-Saxons  Immigrants. Canadians.  of the  I t i s the object to make them and t h e i r c h i l d r e n Otherwise, who then would be c a l l e d  Canadian?  We have noted that the average Russian-Germans were a r u r a l people, f u l l of enormous working i n i t i a t i v e . s p i r i t u a l l i f e was exhausted i n r e l i g i o n . t i e s were b r i s k .  Their  Religious a c t i v i -  Their l i t e r a t u r e consisted of the Bible,  Calendars and Hymnbooks.  Their p e r i o d i c a l s and papers were  1 England, pp. c i t . , p. 203.  183  devoted to r e l i g i o u s purposes.  The Church was the only form  of organization; the clergy was t h e i r leader. on a low niveau.  Education was  There were scarcely any well educated people  among them, thus there was no s p i r i t u a l contact with t h e i r motherland, nor any deeper knowledge of i t s c u l t u r e .  2  Yet In  essence they were Germans i n as much as they had preserved t h e i r language and fostered a culture of t h e i r own.  As such  they l i v e d i n Russia and continued to do so a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Canada. In Canada, we have further witnessed that with economic success the formation of a s o c i a l s t r a t a had started, which manifested i t s e l f i n the formation of numerous p r a i r i e towns.  The i n f l u x into bigger c i t i e s of those who had accum-  ulated a certain amount of wealth, and of those who had f a i l e d as farmers, was not a rare occurrence.  With t h i s i n f l u x and  with the Russian-German immigrants who had remained i n the c i t y a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l In Canada, the nucleus of a RussianGerman c i t y group was established.  In t h i s manner, the  Russian-Germans came to l i v e side by side with f u l l and the influence of the l a t t e r was soon apparent.  Canadians The c u l -  t u r a l value of the surrounding people and t h e i r language was learned and borrowed.  As expected this process of borrowing  proceeded with greater r a p i d i t y i n the c i t i e s than i t d i d i n the scattered p r a i r i e settlements.  2  Kuhn, op. c i t . , pp.  381-383.  In spite of this influence  184 that raised the general c u l t u r a l standard of the adult Russian-German immigrant, he nevertheless only became adjusted to the Canadian way of l i f e . old  He s t i l l has preserved many of h i s  habits and the d i a l e c t s t i l l serve him as h i s main lang-  uage.  A comparison of the newly arrived Russian-German immi-  grants with those of the pre-war era, r e f l e c t c l e a r l y the purely Canadian outlook of the l a t t e r . group to whom we may  It Is to this l a t t e r  apply the above quotation by Robert  England i n respect to a s s i m i l a t i o n . But i t i s the children of those, who exhausted  had at one  time  t h e i r s p i r i t u a l energy exclusively i n r e l i g i o u s ac-  t i v i t i e s , that have turned to worldly o u l t u r a l aspects.  Re-  l i g i o u s pamphlets become replaced by p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l reading.  Whether i n the c i t y or out i n the p r a i r i e , educa-  t i o n and culture became elevated i n the course of time. drew rapidly from Canadian culture.  They  The attendance of higher  educational i n s t i t u t i o n s by descendants of Russian-Germans i s not a rare occurrence any longer.  The standard demanded by  those that have been born and educated In Canada does not d i f f e r i n any respect from any other Canadian's. these Russian-German descendants that we may  I t i s to  safely say that  they have been f u l l y integrated and assimilated Into the Canadian way  of l i f e . A comparison of the. Russian-German group i n Canada  to t h e i r period In Russia, exhibits that already the second  185  generation i n Canada has with extreme r a p i d i t y undergone the process of a s s i m i l a t i o n .  In Russia, where the group resided  for over one hundred years, they faced a s s i m i l a t i o n only dur i n g the period of the Soviet regime.  The settlements i n  Russia were self-contained and on the whole s o l i d l y populated by t h e i r own group, thus a preservation of habits and age was more favorable than i n Canada.  langu-  In Canada, the e x i s t -  ence of scattered settlements and Its greater contact with the surrounding population made a preservation of t h e i r nat i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s less p o s s i b l e . However, the deeper forces of a s s i m i l a t i o n In Canada were the lack of c u l t u r a l leaders of the group and the lack of national f e e l i n g especially amongst the younger generation. Their forefathers had l e f t Germany f o r Russia some one hundred years ago - t h i s even p r i o r to t h e i r migration into Canada. Very l i t t l e had been preserved that was  German and that was  handed down from generation to generation.  A deeper know-  ledge of German culture was never apparent among the generat i o n born In Canada.  These s o c i a l l y elevated Russian-German  descendants have even consciously, as pointed out i n the previous chapter, abandoned t h e i r mother tongue, f o r i t was known to them only i n a d i a l e c t i c form.  They never f e l t as  Germans and they had l i t t l e i n common with Germany.  Their  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n World War II was done so without any s e n t i ments.  The success of t h e i r fathers i n t h e i r newly adopted  country caused an unconscious  affirmation f o r Canada amongst  186 the younger generation. F i n a l l y , t h i s rapid and peaceful a s s i m i l a t i o n i s expressed i n the attitude of the Russian-Germans themselves. Its essence i s expressed i n the simple yet true and v i t a l l y important statement formulated by P f e f f e r i In the loss of t h e i r national characterist i c s , they do not see an adjustment to a foreign nation, only a s t r i p p i n g off of old habits of the 'old w o r l d . They believe i n doing the same as the other nationals i . e . to create out of so many national groups a r e a l new nation. They believe i n forming a new type, such as Americans, Canadians, Aust r a l i a n s , e t c . For the sake of t h e i r c h i l d ren's future, they became f u l l c i t i z e n s In t h e i r new homeland. Thus they are w i l l i n g , with heaven and the new earth, to adopt the language of t h e i r new homeland, and forsake habits and customs that were once so dear.3 1  3 P f e f f e r , K a r l Heinz, "Deutsche Volksgruppe und Angelsaechslche Buergerliche Ge s e l l s c h a f f , Auslanddeutsche Volksforechung. Jahrg. 1937, Bd. 1, Ferdinand Enke Verlag, Stuttgart, 1937, p. 66.  BIBLIOGRAPHY This bibliography contains only the l i t e r a t u r e which has been used In the research f o r t h i s t h e s i s . books, p e r i o d i c a l s , magazines, encyclopedias,  I t includes  e t c . These  have been l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y according to author, otherwise according to the t i t l e of the book or a r t i c l e . Abele, Paul, F e s t s c h r i f t zur 25 jaehrlgen Jubllae'msfeler der Gruendung der S t . Pauls-Klrchengemelnde i n Vibank. Sask., June 12th. 1929. Western P r i n t e r s Association L t d . , Regina, Saskatchewan, 1929. Anderson, J.T.M., The Education of the New-Canadian. J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., London & Toronto, 1918. Anger, H., Die Deutschen i n S l b l r l e n . Ost-Europa Verlag, Berlln-Koenigsberg, 1930. Angus, H.F., "Canadian Immigration: Law and i t s Administration American Journal of International Law, V o l . 28, Published by The American Society of International Law, Washington,  1934.  Annual Report of the Department of Immigration and Colonizat i o n . 1918 to 1923. 1931 to 1936. P r i n t e r to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, Ottawa, 1919 to 1924, 1932 to  I937.  Annual Report of the Department of the I n t e r i o r f o r the Year 1896. N 0 . T 3 . Printed by S..E. Dawson, P r i n t e r to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, Ottawa, 1897. Annual Report of the Department of the I n t e r i o r . 1906. Part I I No. 25, P r i n t e r to the KingTs Most Excellent Majesty, Ottawa, 1907. Annual Report of the Ministry of A g r i c u l t u r e . 1885 & 1886. NO. ' 8 and No. 12, P r i n t e r to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, Ottawa, 1886 & I887.  188 Annual Report on Immigration of the Department of the I n t e r i o r . Part I I , 1901 to 1905, 1910 to 1917, Government P r i n t i n g Bureau, Ottawa, 1901 to 1918. A.S.S.R. der Wolgadeutschen. Polltlsch-oekonomlscher Abriss. Peutecher Staatsverlag, Engels, 193o\ Atlas of Canada. Department of the I n t e r i o r , Canada,  1915*  Atlas of Canada. Department of the I n t e r i o r , Canada,  1918,  "Auslanddeutschtum", Per Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 10, No. 12, Deutsehes Ausland I n s t l t u t , Stuttgart, 1927, p. 428. "Auslanddeutschtum", Der Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 13, No. 3, Deutsehes Ausland I n s t l t u t , Stuttgart, 1930, pp. 88-89. "Auslanddeutschtum". Per Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 13, No. 7, Peutsches Ausland I n s t l t u t , Stuttgart, 1930, pr>. 230-  231.  Bauer, G., Geschlchte der deutschen Ansledler an der- Wolga s e l t der Elnwanderung nach Russland b i s zur Elnfuehrung der allgemeinen Wehrpfllcht 1762-1874. Selbstverlag. Saratov, 1908. Beratz, G., Pie deutschen Kolonlen an der Unteren Wolga i n l h r e r Entstehung und Entwicklung. Im Ost-Europa Verlag, B e r l i n , 1928. Bier, F. and Schick, A., Aus den Leindenstagen der deutschen Wolgakolonlen. Pruck der L.G. Wittichschen Hofbuchdruckerei, Parmstadt, 1922. B o e l i t z , Otto, Pas Grenz und Auslanddeutschtum. Seine Geschlchte und seine Bedeutung. Pruck und Verlag von R. Oldenbourg, Muenchen und B e r l i n , 1930. Bonwetsch, Gerhard, Geschlchte der deutschen Kolonlen an der Wolga. Verlag von I . Engelhorns Nachf, Stuttgart, 1919. Brendel, Johannes, Aus deutschen Kolonlen im l£utschurganer Geblet. Ausland und Helmat Verlags Aktlengesellschaft, Stuttgart, 1930. Buettner, K., Pie Auswanderung aus Wuerttemberg. Geographlsche Studien Reihe A, Hefft 64/65, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1938. The Canada Year Book. 1921 to 1954. Pominlon Bureau of S t a t l s t l c s , King's or Queen's P r i n t e r and Controller of Stationary, Ottawa, 1921 to 1954.  189 Canadian Department of Mines and Resources, Rational Topographic Series. Survey and Mapping Branch, Ottawa, 1952. Census of Canada, 1921. V o l . 1, Population, P r i n t e r to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, Ottawa, 1924. Census of Canada. 1941. V o l . 6, Population, P r i n t e r to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, Ottawa, 1946. Constitution of the U.S.S.R.. American Russian I n s t i t u t i o n , New York, 1950. Dafoe, John W., C l i f f o r d S i f t o n i n Relation to his Time. The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, Toronto, 1931. Dawson, C.H., Group Settlement. Ethnic Communities i n Western Canada, The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, Toronto,  1936.  Dawson, C.H. and Younge, Eva R., Pioneering i n the P r a i r i e Provinces: The s o c i a l side of the settlement process. The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, Toronto, 194o. Dawson, C.H. and Murehie, R.W., The Settlement of the Peace River Country, The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, Toronto, 1934. Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , Per Wanderweg der Russlanddeutsohen, W. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1939, Pillingham, W.P., The Immigration S i t u a t i o n In Canada. The Immigration Commission (U.S.A.), Washington Government P r i n t i n g Office, Washington, 1910. Edelman, Maurice, How Russia Prepared. Penguin Books Inc., New York, 1942. England, Robert, The Colonization of Western Canada. P.S. King & Son Ltd., London, 1936. England, Robert, The Central European Immigrant In Canada. The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, Toronto, 1929. Friedemann, Wolfgang G., German Immigration Into Canada, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1952. Gerein, Frank, History of Odessa. 1901-1954. Western Printers Association Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan, 1954. Gibbon, John Murray, Canadian Mosaic. The making of a northern nation. McClelland and Stewart Ltd., Toronto, 1938.  190 arose, E., A.S.S.R. Nemoev Povolzja. Izdanije Pokrovsk, 1926.  "Nemgosizdata",  Handbuch des Dentschtums im Auslande, Adressbuch der deutschen Auslandschulen. D i e t r i c h Reimer (Ernst Bohsen), B e r l i n , I9O0". Hedges, James B., Building the Canadian West. The land and colonization p o l i c i e s of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. The Macmillan Co., New York, 1939. Herasimovich, Ivan, Holod na Ukra.llni. Vidavnitstvo "Ukrajlnske Slovo", B e r l i n , 1922. Herbermann, C.G., and Pace, E., "Tiraspol Diocese", The Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company, New York,  1912.  I n s t i t u t fuer Besatzungsfragen. Das DP - Problem. Verlag J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tuebingen, 1950. Keenleyside, H.L., Canadian Immigration P o l i c y . Publication of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1948. Kessler, Joseph Aloysius, Geschlchte der Dloezese Tyraspol. Verlag von Rev. George Aberle, Dickinson, North Dakota,  1930.  Klaus, Alexander, Unsere Kolonlen. Verlag Odessaer Zeitung, Odessa, 1881. Kloss, Heinz, "Materlalen zur Geschlchte der deutsch-kanadischen Presse", Der Auslanddeutsche, Jahrg. 11, Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , Stuttgart, 1928, pp. 382-384. Kloss, Heinz and Reimann, Katherine, S t a t i s t l s c h e s Handbuch der Volksdeutschen i n Uebersee. Vertraullche Bc'hrlftehrelhe Uebersee, Publlkat1onsstelle Stuttgart-Hamburg, Stuttgart, 1943. Kohn, Hans, Nationalism i n the Soviet Union. George Routledge & Sons Ltd., London, 1933. Kolarz, Walter, Russia and her Colonies. George P h i l i p and Son Limited, London, 1952. Krimm, Herbert, Das A n t l i t z der Vertrlebenen. Verlag von J.F. Steinkopf, Stuttgart, 1949. Kuhn, Walter, Deutsche Sprachlnsel-forschung, Geschlchte. Aufgaben. Verfahren. Verlag: Guenther Wolff, Plauen 1. Vogtl., 1939.  191 Langhans-Ratzeburg, Manfred, Die Wolgadeutschen. Ihr Staatsund Verwaltungsre cht i n Vergangenhelt and Gegenwart. Im Ost-Europa: Verlag, B e r l i n W. 35 und Koenigsberg, 1929. Lehmann, Heinz, Das Deutschtum i n Westkanada. Verlag Junker und Duenhaupt, B e r l i n , 1939. Lehmann, Heinz, Kanada, volksdeutsche Ahende. Heft 8, Verlag Volkhund f u e r d a s Deutschtum im Ausland, B e r l i n , 1938* Lehmann, Heinz, Zur Geschlchte des Deutschtums i n Kanada, Ausland und Helmat Verlags Aktiengesellschaft, Stuttgart,  1931v  V:  '.'  •  Leibbrandt, Georg, Die deutschen Kolonlen i n Cherson und Beasarablen. Ausland und Heimat Verlags, Aktiengesell* •; schaft, Stuttgart, 1926. Leibbrandt, Georg, "The Emigration of the German Mennonites from Russia to U.S.A. and Canada,' 1873-1880", Mennonlte Quarterly Review, V o l . 7, Goshen College, Goshen, Indiana, 1933, pp. 5-4l. Loebsack, Georg, Elnsam kaempft das Wolgaland, R. Voeigtlaeder Verlag, Leipzig, 1936. Luther, Arthur, "Deutsche Dichtung i n Russland", Der Auslanddeutsche . Jahrg. 12, No. 10, Deutsehes Ausland I n s t l t u t , Stuttgart, 1929, PP. 316-318. Matthals, F r l e d r i c h , Die deutschen Ansledlungen In Russland. Verlag von Hermann F r i e s , Leipzig, 1866. Mende von, Gerhard, Die Voelker der Sowjetunlon. Rudolf Schneider VerIag7"ReIchenauT~l939"^ Metzger, H., Geachlchtllcher Abriss ueber die S t . PetersP f a r r e l zu Kronau. Western Printers Association Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan, 1930. Morton, A.S. and Martin, C , History of P r a i r i e Settlement Dominion Lands P o l i c y . The Macmlllan Company of Canada Ltd., Toronto, 1938. "Nemcev Povolzja A.S.S.R. " , Bol'sha.1 a Sovetska.1 a Enslklopedl 1 a. Vol. 41, Moskva, O.G.J.Z., R.S.F.S.R., 1939, pp. 594-604. Neufeld, Gerda, Elnwanderung i n Kanada nach dem Krlege Dissertation, Friedrich-Wilhelms Unlversltaet, B e r l i n ,  1931.  Ottawa Government, S p e c i a l Report on the Foreign Born Popul a t i o n . Ottawa Government P r i n t i n g Bureau, Ottawa, 1915.  192 P f e f f e r , K a r l Heinz, "Deutsche Volksgruppe und angelsaechslche buergerliche Gesellschaft", Auslanddeutsche V o l k s f o r s C h ung. Jahrg. 1937, Bd. 1, Ferdinarel Enke Verlag, Stuttgart,  1937, PP. 65-68.  P f e f f e r , K a r l Heinz, "Zur Erforschung des kanadischen Peutschtums", Deutsehes Archly fuer Landes - u. Volksforschungi Jahrg. 3, No. 3/4, Verlag von S. H i r z e l , Leipzig, 1939,  pp. 686-696.  Ponten, Josef, Im Wolgaland, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart & B e r l i n , Stuttgart, 1933. Ponten, Josef, Die Vaeter zogen qus, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart & B e r l i n , .Stuttgart, 1934. Quiring, Walter, Russlanddeutsche suchen elne Helmat, Die deutsche Elnwanderung i n den paraguaylschen Chace., Verlag* Heinrich Schneider, Karlsruhe, 1938. Quiring, Walter, "Die russlanddeutschen Fleuchtllnge In China", Der Wanderweg der Russlanddeutschen. Deutsehes Ausland I n s t l t u t , Stuttgart, 1939, "op. 272-273. "Racial Origins and Nativity"of the Canadian People", Census Monograph No. 4, Reprinted from V o l . 12 of the Census of 1931, Ottawa, 1938, p. 2 9 . 9  Rennikov, A., Zoloto Relna, 0 Nemcakh v R o s s l i . Petrograd,  1915.  Ruccius, M., "Peutsch-evangellsche Arbeit In Kanada", Per Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg..13, No. 18, Peutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t e , S t u t t g a r t 1 9 3 0 , pp. 647-649. "Rundschau", Per Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 11, No. 16, Deutsehes Ausland I n s t l t u t , Stuttgart, 1928, pp. 512-513. "Russlanddeutsche Bauern.auf der Wanderung", Per Auslanddeutsche, Jahrg. 13, No. 3, pp. 76-77, No. 9, pp. 292294, No. 23, pp. 810-811, Peutsches Ausland In3tit'ut, Stuttgart, 1930. S a l l e t , Richard, "Russlanddeutavche Sledlungen i n den V e r e i n l g ten Staaten von Amerlka", Jahrbuch der Peutsch Amerlkanlschen Hlstorlschen Gesellschaft von I l l i n o i s . V o l . 31, Chicago, 1931, pp. 5-127. Schechtman, Joseph B., European Population Transfers. 19391945. Oxford University Press, New York, 1946. Schleuning, Johannes, In Kampf und Todesnot. Bernard u. Graefe, Berlin-Charlottenburg 1, 1930.  193 Schoeneich, Hans, Die l h r Helmatland v e r l l e s s e n . Wege und Schicksale deutseher Auswanderer, Verlag von P h i l l p p Reclam Jun., L e i p z i g , 1932. Schuenemann, G., Das Lied der deutschen Kolonisten In Russland, Verlag R. Oldenbourg, Huenchen, I923. Slssons, C.B.. Bl-Llngual Schools In Canada. J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., Toronto, 1917. Stach,.Jakob, Das Deutschtum In S l b l r l e n M l t t e l a s l e n und dem Fernen Osten von selnen Anfaengen b i s In die Gegenwart, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1939. S t a l i n J . V., " P o l i t i c a l Report to the 16th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, J u l y . 1930", Vsesoluznala Kommunls11cheskala P a r t i a (B), New York City Workers Library Publishers, New York, 1930. Strieker, Wllhelm, Die Deutschen Bauern i n Suedrussland. Deutsche Landbuchhandlung GMBH, B e r l i n , 1917, Stumpp, K a r l , Die deutschen Kolonlen im Schwarzmeergebiet. dem fruehen Neu-(Sued) Russland. Ausland und Heimat Verlags Aktlengesellschaft, Stuttgart, 1922. Timlin, Mabel F., Does Canada Need More People. Oxford Univers i t y Press, Toronto, 1951. Verband Deutseher Verelne im Auslande e. V., Wlr Deutsche In der Welt, Kommissionsverlag Verlagsanstalt Otto S t o l l b e r g , B e r l i n , 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942. Wagner, Georg, and Mai, Richard, Deutsche ueber Land und Meer. Verlag der Buchgemeinde, Bonn, 1940. "Wanderungswesen", Der Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 14, No.2, Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , Stuttgart, 1931, p. 67. "Wanderungswesen", Der Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 15, No. 13/14, Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t , Stuttgart, 1932, p. 391. Wanner, A.F., Untergehendes Volk. Im selbstverlag erschienen, Vancouver, 1946. Wehrenalp von, Erwin Barth, Deutsche i n Uebersee. Luehe & Co., Leipzig, 1939. Wimmer, Hermann, Die Deutschen i n Russland, Verlag von B.G. Teubner, Leipzig, 1847. "Wolgadeutsche Republik", Per Grosse Brockhaus. F.U. Brockhaus, Vol. 20, L e i p z i g , 1935, p. 438.  19k  Woltner, M., Daa wolgadeutsche Blldungswesen und die ruaslsche S c h u l n o l l t i k . Kommissionsverlag Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig, 1937, "Zentralkomitee der Deutschen aus Russland", Der Auslanddeutsche. Jahrg. 10, No. 13, Deutsches Ausland I n s t i t u t . Stuttgart, 1927, t>p. 463-467.  A. S. S./?. p l a c e •  OF THE VOLGA of  g e r m a n (ONLY  MAIN  orib.ntskti  GERMANS  (MAP  I)  on  s e t t l e m e n t s SETTLEMenTS  ME N ~Tl GN£D  )  SARATOV %MAHTEN8VRG  <  f \  r  i  r  \  \A//£SCNHU£:L  O.R  HANO  ""X  \ N  /  i /  COLONIES  IN  A  places  •  mother  O  mennonite  •  s i s t e r  SEA AREA  BLACK  THE  of  (MAPH)  orientation colonies colonies colonies  I \ \ I  I  X  %KROHSGARTe.M  C.XATERIA/OS LAV (DN/SPROPETROVSK}  MQAYBACSK  s /  S-f  »  " -  K  ,  i  MHERSON  c  \HORTITZA  DISTRICT  v. I  ..vr \Vr  9&ER600RF  0ERESAM,  -+NCUDORF  .1  DISTRICT CJPftlSCHIB  •  MASSEL*  GNAO&NFELO  +  DISTRICT  . SCHLAMGENDORF MNNOF.  DISTRICT GVCLPEA/C  <  [lOSTSROORF U T-  SCHWEOENOORF  1ERDTANSK  MELITOPOL  lERSON  ODESSA TAURIEN "AT£A -ALBA SCHA&OI  A  •  CRIMEA.; EVPATORI,  •  •  NEIL. BR UNA/  zoi/  5/5A  »  ,  "zurichtal.  RoSEA/TAL  BLACK SEA  KRONENTA  PRIEIOEWAL. £QVT«  SEVASTOPOL \lta  A,  ALEXANDERDORF EL/SA0£THTAL9 VKATHERINENFELO*  CAUCASUS,  • %MARl£NF£Ui ^T/FLlff ^  9AhfAI£fi/fel0 HELEMENDORF^  (MAPJU)  ALBERTA  SASKATCHEWAN  Russ- GERMAN COLONIES IN VIEST. A  PLACES  OF  O  CATHOLIC  COLONIES  •  LUTHERAN  COLONIES  •  REFORMED  COLONY  CANA  ORIENTATION  MANITOBA  {EDMONTON  / / /  \LUTH£fiO#T  HE/MTHAL  \ A  WETASK/INJA/  SILVERGROVE % BASHAW 1ST PETER'S COLONY  \ST. JOSEPH'S COLON Y^ ROSENHEIM  0  i  W/LKIEW^ REVENUE®  SASKATOON,  BRMN  OHUM8O\QT OMUEWSTER  [TRAMPING LAKE  FpEUDENTAL  \6YPSUMVILLJE  V2>  A DRUMMELL E/f  lEIGCNHEIMTMMtf**  \  'QUILL LAKES  MOO&EHORN  > R\(JNN YMEDE )\TOQO  %NEUH£IM _ % GRAHAM DALE  \ \  CALGARY  5A5  HOFFNUN6STAL* MELVILLE % UPTON% LANGENBURG OHOLOPAST RIMER  h  IQLEAOER Q PRELATES  <V  FRIEDFELD  \ 0 0 \NDSHUT  GRAN OWE W  ,  BEKESINA PISH LAh THAL8ERG  tASNAQ  LANCER HERBERT  O  SCHULER  >FLOW,A,  6  iMEDICINE LETHBRJBUL  HAT  w _ £Li  s  C^VS/WtfO  A GRASSY  REGINA  % ^ • MORSE  LAKE  *  ^  HRONAdO  GOLDEN fcy ElAY fj»  GO" "- PETER'S COMMUNITY Q  «l  ^KENDAL \  MORRIS  *NEU-NORKk O&ILLIMUN MARIENTHAL BERGFELbO 0 JAKOaSBE_f{t$ Q —  OMAR YLAND OLANDAU IS TE VAN  1RANDON  IINNIPEQ  t\  V  ^NWTEMOlfTH ^ OLDENBEAQ  BEAUSEJOUR  OVIBANK  ^YELLOW GRASS  GRUpNvi/LO ^  40  Q&ALGONIE&OSEPHSTAL) 57  . - J  BROK^NHEAi  \  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106339/manifest

Comment

Related Items