UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Studies in mink nutrition with special reference to supplementary protein sources Ebner, Kurt Euwald 1957

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STUDIES I N MINK NUTRITION WITH S P E C I A L REFERENCE TO SUPPLEMENTARY PROTEIN SOURCES by  KURT EUWALD EBNER &.S.A.  (Honours), U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1955  k- THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE I N AGRICULTURE i n the D i v i s i o n of Animal  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required  Science  as conforming  t othe  standard  Members o f t h e D i v i s i o n THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA April,  1957  ABSTRACT  v  The  primary objective  o f t h i s s t u d y was  h o r s e m e a t , w h a l e meat, c h i c k e n  w a s t e s and  t o compare  h e r r i n g as  supple-  mentary a n i m a l p r o t e i n s o u r c e s i n r a t i o n s f o r mink d u r i n g tenance, reproduction c a n n e d and  part  and  of the  growth.  Part  of the  r a t i o n s contained  main-  r a t i o n s were  a commercial  antiox-  idant . The  r e s u l t s of t h e m a i n t e n a n c e e x p e r i m e n t  'that t h e r e w e r e no  s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the r a t i o n s . *  I n the r e p r o d u c t i v e the  phase o f t h e  c a n n e d r a t i o n s had  whereas the t h a t was  indicated  experiment, the  mink r e c e i v i n g  almost complete r e p r o d u c t i v e  mink r e c e i v i n g the  f r o z e n r a t i o n s had  failure  a k i t crop  below average. • There were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  the g r o w t h phase o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . M e a t , W h a l e Meat and  rations containing  C h i c k e n Waste A w e r e s u p e r i o r  t a i n i n g C h i c k e n W a s t e B and two  The  c h i c k e n w a s t e s has  Herring.  The  been a t t r i b u t e d t o the v a r i a b i l i t y of  the  the  r a t i o n was  value,  p r o b a b l y due The  r a t i o n s had  no  kits.  The  below average performance not  i t s h i g h Net  due  of  to protein  Protein  of  Utilization  t o the r e s u l t s of o x i d a t i v e r a n c i d i t y .  a d d i t i o n of t h e  commercial antioxidant  s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e  d u r i n g m a i n t e n a n c e and the  Herring  q u a l i t y , as e v i d e n c e d by  but  conthe  The  inferior  to those  Horse  d i f f e r e n c e between  c o m p o s i t i o n of c h i c k e n w a s t e . mink r e c e i v i n g t h e  rations i n  reproduction  antioxidant failed  but  to  the  performance of the d i d r e t a r d the  t o prevent the  mink  growth  destruction  of of  thiamine i n the f r o z e n and canned r a t i o n s but d i d a f f o r d some p r o t e c t i o n f o r V i t a m i n A i n the canned r a t i o n s . The  Net P r o t e i n U t i l i z a t i o n v a l u e s f o r the f a t e x t r a c -  ted supplementary p r o t e i n sources d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . was the highest  and was f o l l o w e d  Herring  by Horse Meat and Whale Meat,  Chicken Waste A and Chicken Waste B. The  d i g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l s indicate l i t t l e  between the r a t i o n s except f o r f a t d i g e s t i b i l i t y . digestibility from v a r y i n g  differences The high f a t  suggests that mink can u t i l i z e high l e v e l s of f a t sources.  The low "carbohydrate" d i g e s t i b i l i t y  indi-  cates that mink may have d i f f i c u l t y i n u t i l i z i n g the c e r e a l p o r t i o n of t h e i r r a t i o n s . The ing  variability  i n feed  consumption of the mink r e c e i v -  the canned r a t i o n s was a t t r i b u t e d t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  d i g e s t i b l e energy contents of the r a t i o n s . r e l a t i n g feed various  R e g r e s s i o n equations  consumption t o body weight were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the  r a t i o n groups.  In presenting the  this  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  thesis in partial  advanced degree at the  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t it  freely  agree that for  available  the  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  permission for extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  D e p a r t m e n t o r by  fulfilment  be  s h a l l make  study.  I  the  gain  s h a l l not  Department  of  Head o f  for  written  Columbia,  my  financial  permission.  CX^/S/^A^^^Q^ S ZAJL^A^ZJZ.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r S, C a n a d a .  thesis  I t i s understood  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  further  copying of t h i s  that  be  University  Library  g r a n t e d by  his representative.  of  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The  w r i t e r w i s h e s t o t h a n k , Dean B l y t h e  E a g l e s , Chairman of t h e D i v i s i o n of A n i m a l S c i e n c e , for this  providing the f a c i l i t i e s  i n order t o conduct  experiment. Sincere thanks a r e expressed t o D r .  A.J.  Wood, P r o f e s s o r i n t h e D i v i s i o n o f A n i m a l  Science, for suggesting this direction,  p r o b l e m and h i s  a s s i s t a n c e and c r i t i c i s m d u r i n g t h e  course of t h i s t o D r . W.D.  study.  Thanks a r e a l s o  extended  K i t t s f o r h i s a d v i c e and c r i t i c i s m s .  Thanks a r e extended t o v a r i o u s s t u d e n t s who  assisted  i n t h e m i x i n g and c a n n i n g o f t h e  rations, i nparticular The w r i t e r  R . J . B o s e and C.B. B a i l e y .  also wish t o express  gratitude  t o Canada Mink B r e e d e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n f o r f i n a n c i a l assistance.  TABLE OF  CONTENTS PAGE  I. II.  The F o r m u l a t i o n and Rations 1. 2. 3. 5. 6.  III. IV. V.  Composition  of t h e  Experimental  Development of the C e r e a l P o r t i o n The S u p p l e m e n t a r y P r o t e i n S o u r c e s F o r m u l a t i o n of t h e B a s i c R a t i o n s D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l R a t i o n s Choice of t h e A n t i o x i d a n t f o r the Experimental Rations M i x i n g , C a n n i n g and S t o r a g e o f t h e Rations  5  ..  6 8 9 1M15 18  Experimental Design  19  Management  20  Experimental  21  1. 2.  21  3. h. 5. 6.  7. 8. 9.  VI.  1  Introduction  Summary  Maintenance A d e q u a c y o f t h e T h i a m i n e L e v e l i n a Canned Horsemeat R a t i o n Reproduction Growth Fur Q u a l i t y The D e s t r u c t i o n o f T h i a m i n e i n t h e Experimental Rations (a) Introduction ( b ) The E f f e c t o f P r o l o n g e d S t o r a g e a t O F . on t h e T h i a m i n e C o n t e n t of t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l R a t i o n s .. (c) The D e s t r u c t i o n o f T h i a m i n e B e t w e e n T h a w i n g and F e e d i n g .. D i g e s t i b i l i t y S t u d i e s on t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Rations The Net P r o t e i n U t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e Supplementary P r o t e i n s Sources The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n M a i n t e n a n c e F e e d C o n s u m p t i o n and B o d y W e i g h t i n A d u l t Mink  26 29 33 h2 ^2 h2 *+5 *+6 50 57 61  75  PAGE VII.  Appendices A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J.  VIII.  Maintenance Weight Data f o r t h e Female A d u l t Mink The H e r r i n g M i n k D u r i n g M a i n t e n a n c e .... B o d y . W e i g h t and F e e d C o n s u m p t i o n o f M a l e M i n k R e c e i v i n g a-Canned H o r s e Meat and Herring Ration R e p r o d u c t i o n and Ytfeaning D a t a f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups Growth D a t a f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups. T e s t f o r S i g n i f i c a n c e W i t h i n a G r o u p ... Procedure f o r Thiamine D e t e r m i n a t i o n s . . . D i g e s t i b i l i t y S t u d i e s on. t h e F r o z e n =.. Rations Wet P r o t e i n U t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e , . .* < Supplementary P r o t e i n s The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n F e e d C o n s u m p t i o n and B o d y W e i g h t  Bibliography  78 79 80 81 82 85 88 92 96 102  103  1  I.  Introduction Mink are the most important  animals r a i s e d f o r the p r o d u c t i o n i e n t p r o d u c t i o n i s contingent of f e e d .  of the  of f u r .  semi-domesticated  Economical and  effic-  upon maximum.production per u n i t  Large l i t t e r s , heavy weaning weights, continuous  r a p i d growth of k i t s make f o r p r o f i t and of adequate n u t r i t i o n .  Information  ments of mink are scanty and  are . l a r g e l y the  and  result  on the n u t r i t i o n a l r e q u i r e -  are i n a continuous  state,of r e v i s i o n  as more i n f o r m a t i o n becomes a v a i l a b l e . T h i s l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n stems, i n p a r t , from the r e cent d o m e s t i c a t i o n such as the dog  and  of t h i s s p e c i e s .  As w i t h other  carnivores,  c a t , there i s a s u r p r i s i n g d e a r t h  mation needed t o permit  of  infor-  f o r m u l a t i o n of adequate p r a c t i c a l r a t i o n s .  R e c e n t l y , The U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l has pared a Recommended N u t r i e n t Allowance f o r Minks ( 9 1 ) . incomplete  pre-  The  sections i n t h i s publication, further t e s t i f i e s  the inadequacy of our i n f o r m a t i o n t o d a t e .  The  present  many to  study  attempts t o extend our l i m i t e d knowledge of the n u t r i t i v e needs of t h i s animal.  Of n e c e s s i t y , some of the work; has had  of an e x p l o r a t o r y nature  t o be  i n the hope t h a t the r e s u l t s might  pro-  v i d e a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and u l t i m a t e l y l e a d t o a more p r e c i s e statement of the n u t r i t i v e needs of the mink. The d i e t mass and  of the mink i s normally  mixed as a s e m i - f l u i d  contains from 30-HO per cent dry matter.  been made to formulate  Attempts have  dry d i e t s but none have been developed  to  2 the  p o i n t that they w i l l  complete l i f e due  c y c l e (2*+,  s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r y a mink through i t s 25).  The  f a i l u r e s t o date may  have been  t o the l a c k of e s s e n t i a l unknown f a c t o r s such as those shown  t o be present  in liver  Little  and  hog  or no back-log of b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n  on the mink's n u t r i t i v e needs and sity,  has  had  (38).  mucosa  t o f o l l o w two  research  pathways.  i n t h i s f i e l d , of neces-  Investigations using  t h e t i c d i e t s are an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the of absolute  n u t r i t i v e needs.  t o be time consuming and  i s available  determination  However, such s t u d i e s are  expensive.  syn-  likely  There i s much t h a t can  be  l e a r n t of d i r e c t immediate b e n e f i t t o the i n d u s t r y from experiment a l work conducted on n a t u r a l d i e t a r i e s . The information  primary o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study has  been t o seek out  that would u l t i m a t e l y lead t o the r e s o l u t i o n of  problems created  by the d i m i n i s h i n g  raw  animal p r o t e i n .  has  been horse meat.  supply  and  the  increasing cost  of  In the p a s t , the main source of such p r o t e i n R a t i o n s formulated  w i t h a h i g h l e v e l of  meat have g i v e n f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s .  Recently,  this  mink  ranchers have been f o r c e d t o l o o k f o r a l t e r n a t i v e animal p r o t e i n sources because the d i m i n i s h i n g t o provide The  adequate s u p p l i e s  horse p o p u l a t i o n  has  been unable  of meat t o the expanding mink i n d u s t r y .  s u b s t i t u t e s used i n c l u d e whale meat, c h i c k e n wastes,  types of f i s h ,  t r i p e , lungs and  meat s c r a p s .  Little  various  information  i s a v a i l a b l e on the r e l a t i v e worth of these s u b s t i t u t e s i n comp a r i s o n t o horse meat and  thus the  primary o b j e c t i v e of t h i s  inves-  3 t i g a t i o n has been t o compare some of these  s u b s t i t u t e s w i t h horse  meat f o r maintenance, r e p r o d u c t i o n and growth of the mink. The wet d i e t s f e d t o mink present  chemical  problems t h a t are not encountered i n the d r y r a t i o n s for  other s p e c i e s .  high i n f a t .  formulated  I n a d d i t i o n , most mink r a t i o n s are r e l a t i v e l y  The f a t t y p o r t i o n s of meat and f i s h products  o x i d i z e d i n the presence of l a b i l e (27)  and m i c r o b i a l  which are capable  oxygen and form hydroperoxides  of o x i d i z i n g such v i t a m i n s  A s c o r b i c A c i d and B i o t i n (*+3j 6 1 ) .  become  as A, D, E,  I n r a t i o n s designed  to test  the r e l a t i v e worth of p r o t e i n s , the d e s t r u c t i o n of such m i c r o n u t r i e n t s might lead t o r e p r o d u c t i v e and growth f a i l u r e s t h a t could mistakenly  be a t t r i b u t e d t o inadequacy of the p r o t e i n s .  Support f o r t h i s view can be found at the p r a c t i c a l l e v e l where evidence  has been obtained  t o show t h a t these  o x i d a t i v e changes  may give r i s e t o a v a r i e t y of p a t h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n the mink, such as "yellow f a t d i s e a s e . "  (9)  Various Vitamin E  pre-  p a r a t i o n s are being used t o f o r t i f y mink c e r e a l s on the assumpt i o n t h a t they reduce the i n c i d e n c e of t h i s d i s e a s e .  The use of  V i t a m i n E f o r t h i s purpose has l e d t o c o n f u s i o n , f o r i t has not been p o s s i b l e t o demonstrate whether the added V i t a m i n E i s used as a v i t a m i n or as an a n t i o x i d a n t . (9) it  I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t  could be a c t i n g as a v i t a m i n because of the h i g h l e v e l of  supplementation.  I f the v i t a m i n i s s e r v i n g as an a n t i o x i d a n t i t  would seem more provident t o use one of the many cheaper commerc i a l antioxidants.  Thus, a second o b j e c t i v e of the present  work  If  has  been t o determine i f one  of the commercial a n t i o x i d a n t s  would  a f f o r d p r o t e c t i o n t o the l a b i l e n o n - p r o t e i n c o n s t i t u e n t s  of mink  r a t i o n s and  of  i n so doing i n d i r e c t l y a i d i n the  evaluation  the  proteins. The  problem of s p o i l a g e  complicate the e v a l u a t i o n The  normal wet  t e r i a l growth. and  of the  i s another f a c t o r which might p r o t e i n sources i n a wet  r a t i o n provides an e x c e l l e n t menstruum f o r bacSevere l o s s e s have been recorded from  botulism  such outbreaks have f r e q u e n t l y been a t t r i b u t e d t o the  b i a l contamination c a r r i e d by the animal p r o t e i n s o u r c e s . t h i s were the productive  case i n any  of the  or growth f a i l u r e due  to b a c t e r i a l a c t i v i t y  e f f o r t t o prevent such a c o m p l i c a t i o n  If  could  proteins.  In  an  a part of the r a t i o n s were  canned i n a manner s i m i l a r t o that used f o r commercial dog feeds.  micro-  p r o t e i n sources under t e s t , r e -  m i s t a k e n l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o an inadequacy of the  cat  ration.  and  5 II.  The  F o r m u l a t i o n and  Composition  of the E x p e r i m e n t a l R a t i o n s  There i s a g r e a t v a r i e t y of d i e t s f e d t o mink. most i m p o r t a n t  i n g r e d i e n t s used i n c l u d e f i s h , r e d meats,  cereals i n various proportions.  and  h i g h c o s t of h o r s e meat many r a n c h e r s a r e o m i t t i n g i t f r o m are u s i n g replacements,  p r o d u c t s , r a b b i t s , w h a l e meat and protein sources.  Day  (12)  i n Table  has r e c o r d e d  such as p o u l t r y by-  the s e a s o n a l  N o r t h W e s t and  U.S. Constituent  Pacific  Pelting  Fish Red M e a t s Beef or Pork L i v e r Cereals  t i o n s i n which  variation they are  pre-  I  S e a s o n a l V a r i a t i o n of Mink F e e d i n g  The  vegetable  I. Table  The  unavailability  o t h e r a n i m a l and  i n f e e d i n g programmes i n t h e P a c i f i c sented  t o the  liver  and  t h e i r r a t i o n s and  Due  The  Programmes  Northwest  t o Weaning  Weaning t o  Per Cent  Per  87 5 2 6  90 0 0 6  to 0 t o 75 t o 12 t o 15  Cent to to to to  g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i n g r e d i e n t s and t h e y a r e o f f e r e d makes i t d i f f i c u l t  Pelting  kO 25 10 25 the  propor-  to formulate  a representative ration. The sisted source.  experimental r a t i o n s developed  of a c e r e a l p o r t i o n , l i v e r W a t e r was  consistency.  added t o y i e l d  They d i f f e r from  and  for this  a supplementary  a feed having a  study  con-  protein  hamburger-like  the normal r a n c h mink r a t i o n s i n  6 t h a t a s i n g l e r a w s o u r c e o f p r o t e i n was u s e d i n s t e a d mixture.  The N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l Recommended  of t h e u s u a l Nutrient  R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r F o x e s and M i n k s (^-9) w e r e u s e d a s a g u i d e f o r the  formulation 1.  of the r a t i o n s .  Development of t h e C e r e a l The  Portion  N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l b a s i c c e r e a l m i x (H-9) was  used as a guide i n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e c e r e a l p o r t i o n of t h e r a t i o n s . Its  constituent composition  i s given i n Table Table  2.  2  N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l B a s i c C e r e a l M i x f o r Mink 1*+15.0 ^62.0 12.5 10. 20.8 ^5.9 20.9 12.5  Wheat ( c o o k e d , d r i e d ) Oatmeal, cooked Salt, iodized Bonemeal, steamed Limestone A l f a l f a Meal Yeast, Brewers Cod L i v e r O i l  2000.0 l b s . Several modifications f i n a l c e r e a l m i x was f o r m u l a t e d . oatmeal are d i f f i c u l t  i n Table  2.  Since  c o o k e d w h e a t and c o o k e d  t o o b t a i n i n t h i s a r e a , g r o u n d w h e a t and  oat g r o a t s were s u b s t i t u t e d . a Canadian counterpart  o f t h i s m i x w e r e made b e f o r e t h e  T a b l e 3 g i v e s w h a t m i g h t be t e r m e d  f o r the United  States  recommendation  given  7 Table  3  F i r s t R e v i s i o n o f t h e NRC C e r e a l M i x 1^-15.0 ^62.0 12.5 10.420.8 ^5.9 20.9 12.5  G r o u n d Wheat Oat G r o a t s Salt, iodized Bone M e a l , s t e a m e d Limestone A l f a l f a Meal Brewers Yeast F i s h O i l (1500 A )  ( *f00 D)  2000.0 l b s . Since the primary objective was  t o permit a comparison  was  necessary t o ensure  t i a l nutrients.  of the present  investigation  of t h e v a r i o u s raw p r o t e i n sources i t  an adequate supply of a l l t h e other  F o r t h i s reason the National Research  essen-  C o u n c i l (U*9)  t y p e c e r e a l m i x was f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d t o i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y o f common  f e e d i n g r e d i e n t s i n t h e hope t h a t t h e y w o u l d p r o v i d e  other v i t a m i n s . B-j_2 a n d f o l i c  The c e r e a l was s u p p l e m e n t e d  acid  these  with choline, Vitamin  s i n c e t h e r e have b e e n s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t t h e s e  v i t a m i n s m i g h t be r e q u i r e d a t h i g h e r l e v e l s i n d i e t s r i c h i n f a t . The selected  c o n s t i t u e n t c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e c e r e a l mix f i n a l l y  i sgiven i n T a b l e d . Table  h  Composition of t h eExperimental G r o u n d Wheat Oat G r o a t s F i s h M e a l - H e r r i n g - 70% S o y a B e a n M e a l - hy% Wheat B r a n Dehydrated Grass M e a l Dried Herring Solubles Brewers Yeast Limestone Iodized Salt F i s h O i l 0.500 A) (l+OO/D)  Cereal Mix 680 680 2^0 100 100 100 30 25 20 12.5 12.5  2000 l b s . Supplemented/Ton  800 gm. C h o l i n e C h l o r i d e (200 gm. C h o l i n e ) . * f l b s . P r o f a c t o r B (J+0 mg. V i t . B ) . 20 gm. P a r v o (600 mg. F o l i c A c i d ) . 1 2  8 The d r y m a t t e r c o n t e n t o f t h e c e r e a l m i x was 91.*+ p e r cent. 5.-9;  On a d r y w e i g h t and a s h 5 . 1 .  b a s i s t h e p e r c e n t p r o t e i n was 2 3 . 8 ; f a t  V a r i o u s r e f e r e n c e s - were c o n s u l t e d f o r t h e c a l -  c u l a t i o n of the proximate c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e c e r e a l mix (3, 2.  The S u p p l e m e n t a r y  Protein  M3,  ^9).  Sources  The m i n k i n d u s t r y i n C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s r e l a t i v e l y new and i t s e a r l y s u c c e s s was f o u n d e d s u p p l y of r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e h o r s e meat.  i n p a r t on a  For t h i s reason,  horse  meat h a s become t h e s t a n d a r d a n i m a l p r o t e i n s o u r c e o f t h e i n d u s t r y and  o t h e r p r o t e i n s o u r c e s a r e u s u a l l y compared r e l a t i v e  meat.  The s u p p l e m e n t a r y  proteins tested  i n this  t o horse  s t u d y , were  w h a l e m e a t , two t y p e s o f c h i c k e n w a s t e and w h o l e h e r r i n g . Waste B d i f f e r e d  f r o m C h i c k e n W a s t e A i n t h a t i t had t h e g a l l  b l a d d e r and a n a l p o r t i o n r e m o v e d f r o m t h e v i s c e r a . c h i c k e n w a s t e was the remainder was  Chicken  P a r t of the  o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y P o u l t r y F a r m and  from a l o c a l f i r m .  Round P a c i f i c  Coast F a l l H e r r i n g  obtained from a l o c a l f i s h r e d u c t i o n p l a n t .  Pacific  Coast  Sperm W h a l e meat o f t h e t y p e s o l d f o r m i n k f e e d i n g was u s e d . five  supplementary  p r o t e i n s o u r c e s were a n a l y z e d f o r d r y m a t t e r ,  f a t , a s h and p r o t e i n b y s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s was e n c o u n t e r e d tative  The  (1>+).  Great  difficulty  i n o b t a i n i n g samples w h i c h were t r u l y r e p r e s e n -  of these p r o d u c t s because of t h e i n h e r e n t v a r i a b i l i t y i n  their c o m p o s i t i o n . i n T a b l e 5.  The r e s u l t s  a n a l y s i s are presented  These v a l u e s were used f o r t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s  b a s i c r a t i o n s on t h e a s s u m p t i o n the average  of d u p l i c a t e  composition.  t h a t t h e y would  of t h e  be i n d i c a t i v e  of  9 5  Table  P a r t i a l Proximate Composition of the F i v e P r o t e i n Sources Per Protein Source  Cent of  Protein  Constituent  Fat  Ash  Dry Matter  Wet Basis  Dry Basis  Wet Basis  Dry Basis  Wet Basis  Dry Basis  Wet Basis  Dry Basis  H o r s e Meat  16.3  65.0  8.0  32.0  0.75  .3.0  25.0  100.0  W h a l e Meat  2h,0  80.0  5.1  17.0  O.87  2.9  30.0  100.0  Chicken A  17.2  Mf.O  17.2  Mf.O  3.9  10.0  39.0  100.0  Chicken B  15.9  V3.0  17.0  k6.0  3.6  9.8  37.0  100.0  Herring  17.9  69.0  5.5  21.0  2.3  8.8  26.0  100.0  3.  Formulation  of the Basic  Rations  F i v e b a s i c r a t i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d , five  supplementary p r o t e i n sources.  one f o r e a c h o f t h e  A n a t t e m p t was made t o f o r m -  u l a t e t h e r a t i o n s s o t h a t t h e y w o u l d be i s o c a l o r i c w i t h t o p r o t e i n , f a t , and c a r b o h y d r a t e .  respect  The a s h c o n t e n t was h e l d  con-  stant. The r a t i o n s c o n s i s t e d  of c e r e a l , l i v e r  and t h e  supple-  mentary p r o t e i n s o u r c e mixed t o a h a m b u r g e r - l i k e c o n s i s t e n c y water.  The N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l Recommended N u t r i e n t  ments f o r M i n k (k-9)  with  Require-  s t a t e t h a t t h e average d r y m a t t e r of a mink  r a t i o n i s 3^ p e r c e n t .  T h e y a l s o s u g g e s t a c e r e a l l e v e l o f 20 t o  30 p e r c e n t o f t h e w e t r a t i o n .  T a b l e 1 s u g g e s t s t h a t many m i n k  ranchers p r e f e r a lower c e r e a l l e v e l i n t h e i r r a t i o n s .  The one  10 c h o s e n f o r t h e f i v e b a s i c r a t i o n s was 22.5  per c e n t o f t h e wet  r a t i o n w h i c h i s 59 p e r c e n t o f t h e d r y r a t i o n when t h e d r y m a t t e r i s 3*+ P e r c e n t .  The c h o s e n c e r e a l l e v e l was t h e n t h e l o w e r  of t h e s u g g e s t e d  National Research Council  p e r c e n t , recommended maximum l e v e l the f i v e b a s i c r a t i o n s .  of l i v e r  range.  (*+9)  The 7  was c h o s e n f o r  Thus, t h e c e r e a l p o r t i o n and l i v e r  b e e n added a s a d e f i n i t e p e r c e n t a g e per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . from the supplementary  (^9)  limit  have  o f t h e d r y r a t i o n , 59 and 7  The r e m a i n d e r  of the d r y matter then  arose  p r o t e i n s o u r c e and a n y f a t o r b o n e m e a l  that  w e r e added t o b a l a n c e t h e r a t i o n s s o t h e y w o u l d have t h e same p e r centage  o f f a t , p r o t e i n and a s h . The N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l 16,  has recommended r a t i o n s t h a t c o n t a i n on a d r y w e i g h t H o w e l l (21) are  basis f o r maintenance,  22 and 28 p e r c e n t  reproduction  protein  and g r o w t h .  h a s shown t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l l e v e l s  t o o l o w f o r maximum g r o w t h  per c e n t on a d r y w e i g h t  basis  a n d s u g g e s t a p r o t e i n l e v e l o f 32 f o r t h e most e f f i c i e n t  Higher l e v e l s of p r o t e i n d i d not g i v e any g r e a t e r t e i n l e v e l o f 33 five  (^9)  growth.  growth.  A pro-  p e r c e n t o f t h e d r y r a t i o n was s e l e c t e d f o r t h e  basic r a t i o n s . A l l t h e r a t i o n s w e r e b a l a n c e d t o t h e 33  per cent  level  (dry basis) with the respective  ces.  Now t h e r a t i o n s had t h e same p r o t e i n c o n t e n t o n a d r y w e i g h t  basis  b u t had d i f f e r e n t p e r c e n t a g e s  due  supplementary  protein  protein sour-  o f f a t , a s h , and d r y m a t t e r  t o t h e v a r i a t i o n of t h e p r o x i m a t e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e s u p p l e -  mentary p r o t e i n sources  ( T a b l e 5).  C h i c k e n W a s t e B had t h e h i g h e s t  11 fat  percentage.  on a d r y w e i g h t  T h i s b a s i c r a t i o n t h e n c o n t a i n e d 21 p e r c e n t f a t basis.  A l l t h e o t h e r r a t i o n s were b a l a n c e d t o  t h i s l e v e l b y t h e a d d i t i o n o f D e v o n Deep F r y F a t ( a r e n d e r e d a n i m a l f a t used  f o r deep f r y i n g ) .  T h e o r e t i c a l l y , i t w o u l d have  b e e n d e s i r a b l e t o add h o r s e f a t t o t h e h o r s e r a t i o n s , c h i c k e n f a t t o t h e c h i c k e n r a t i o n s and s o on b u t t h i s S l i g h t adjustments  t o be i m p o s s i b l e .  had t o be made i n t h e amounts o f c e r e a l and  l i v e r t o r e t a i n t h e p r o t e i n percentage percentage  proved  t o be a d j u s t e d t o 21.  a t 33 and p e r m i t t h e f a t  I n a s i m i l a r manner t h e a s h c o n -  t e n t o f t h e r a t i o n s was a d j u s t e d b y t h e a d d i t i o n o f bone m e a l . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e r e s u l t i n g b a s i c r a t i o n s t h e n c o n t a i n e d on a dry weight  b a s i s 33  p e r c e n t p r o t e i n , 21 p e r c e n t f a t a n d 6.8 p e r  cent a s h . The c o n s t i t u e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i v e as m i x e d i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 6.  S i n c e t h e amount  basal rations  of feed r e q u i r e d  o v e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d was l a r g e , t h r e e s e p a r a t e w e r e made.  mixings  The q u a n t i t i e s o f i n g r e d i e n t s shown i n T a b l e 6 a r e  t h e amounts t h a t c o u l d be c o n v e n i e n t l y m i x e d a t one t i m e i n t h e feed mixer.  The amount o f w a t e r  b r i n g them t o a h a m b u r g e r - l i k e of t h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y  t h a t was added t o t h e r a t i o n s t o  consistency varied w i t h the nature  p r o t e i n s a n d was t h e r e f o r e n o t m e a s u r e d .  S i n c e t h e r a t i o n s were f u l l  fed t h i s v a r i a t i o n i n moisture  could not lead t o l i m i t i n g feed consumption higher levels  of water.  content  on r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g  12 I n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 6 a r e t h e a n a l y t i c a l p r o x i m a t e comp o s i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t and t h i r d r a t i o n m i x e s and t h e i r a v e r a g e s . The  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e computed and t h e a n a l y t i c a l c o m p o s i -  t i o n was  somewhat d i s a p p o i n t i n g  and c a n b e s t be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e  v a r i a b i l i t y i n the supplementary tent  of the whale  protein sources.  The  f a t con-  meat and c h i c k e n w a s t e r a t i o n s , by a c t u a l  y s i s , are lower than the a n t i c i p a t e d f a t c o n t e n t s .  anal-  I t then  f o l l o w s t h a t t h e a n a l y t i c a l v a l u e s f o r t h e s e p r o t e i n s o u r c e s as p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5 must have b e e n h i g h e r t h a n t h e a c t u a l a v e r age c o m p o s i t i o n and as a r e s u l t t h e m i x e d r a t i o n s had a l o w e r f a t content.  W e s t o c k (63)  c o n s i d e r e d whale  c e s t o have a f a t p e r c e n t a g e f r o m 10-11  meat f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o u r and a p r o t e i n  f r o m 77-83» when e x p r e s s e d on a d r y w e i g h t b a s i s . of t h e a c t u a l a n a l y s e s t h e w h a l e tained  17  percentage  On t h e  basis  meat u s e d f o r t h e r a t i o n s  p e r c e n t f a t w h i c h must have b e e n h i g h e r t h a n t h e  average f a t c o n t e n t .  I t i s regretable  o c c u r r e d b u t as p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d variable i n composition. tain a representative  that these  actual  discrepancies  these products are  highly  T h i s f a c t makes i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t  sample  con-  to  ob-  f o r a n a l y s i s w h i c h i s t y p i c a l of t h e  supplementary p r o t e i n sources. The describe  t e r m s u p p l e m e n t a r y p r o t e i n s o u r c e has b e e n u s e d  the a n i m a l p r o t e i n s .  The  r e a s o n f o r t h i s t e r m becomes  a p p a r e n t when t h e t o t a l p r o t e i n i n t h e r a t i o n a r i s i n g f r o m t h e ferent Vl.5  sources i s examined.  p e r c e n t was  to  Of t h e t o t a l p r o t e i n i n t h e r a t i o n  p r o v i d e d by t h e c e r e a l m i x , 1^.5  per c e n t  by  dif-  13  Table 6  Horse  Constituent Horse Meat Whale Meat Chicken A Chicken B Herring Liver Bone Meal Edible Fat Cereal Water  371  Whale  lbs. 238  Chicken A  lbs.  Chicken B -Herring  lbs.  352  376  lbs. 3 2 5  93 1*+  93 . 1 3  53 261  3 V 261  '  92  92  92  lbs.  8 5 2 5 7  259  *7 260  To bring r a t i o n to hamburger-!like consistency  Computed Proximate Composition: Protein % Fat % Ash %  Dry Weight Basis  3 2 . 9 2 1 . 0  3 3 . 2 2 1 . 2  3 2 . 9 2 1 . 0  3 3 . 0  3 3 . 2  2 0 . 9  2 1 . 2  6 . 7  6 . 8  6 . 7  6 . 7  6 . 8  -  A n a l y t i c a l Proximate Composition: Mix 1 Protein % Fat % Ash % Dry Matter %  3 3 . 7 2 3 . 0  3 ^ . 9 1 9 . 2  3 7 . 6 1 7 . 0  3 9 . 3 1 3 . 2  6 . 1  6 . 1  7 . 8  7 . 8  6 . 2  38.k  3 6 . 3  3H-.3  3 5 . 8  3 6 . 9  3 5 . 9 8 . 8  3 3 . 6  8 . 0  8 . 0  ^ 2 . 3  kl.O  3 9 .  h  3 1 . 7  2h.l  A n a l y t i c a l Proximate Composition: Mix 3 Protein Fat Ash Dry Matter  % % % %  3 6 . 0  3 6 . 8  1 9 . 0  1 7 . 2 6 . 6  6 . 3 3 8 . 5  if 3 . 0  lh.2  2 1 . 6 7 . 3 * 3 . 7  A n a l y t i c a l Proximate Composition: Average Mix 1 and 1 Protein Fat Ash . Dry Matter  % % % %  3H-.8  3 5 . 8  3 7 . 3  3 7 . 6  2 1 . 0  1 8 . 2  1 5 . 0  1 1 . 0  6 . 1 3 8 . 9  6 . 3 H-0i7  7 . 9  7 . 9  3 9 . 3  3 7 . 7  3 2 . 7 2 2 . 8 6 . 7 3 9 . 8  l i v e r and the remaining  per cent  by the animal p r o t e i n s o u r c e .  On t h i s b a s i s , the animal p r o t e i n s are considered mentary since they provided tein.  When the v a r i o u s  ance, r e p r o d u c t i o n  supple-  o n l y a f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l p r o -  animal p r o t e i n s are compared f o r mainten-  and growth of the mink, they c a n only be  compared on the b a s i s of t h e i r supplementary value be compared d i r e c t l y as p r o t e i n s . were t e s t e d  t o be  and cannot  I f the animal p r o t e i n s  sources  i n a s e m i - p u r i f i e d d i e t where they were the only  p r o t e i n source, then a comparison could be made between p r o t e i n s . In the present work the animal p r o t e i n s w i l l be compared on the b a s i s of t h e i r supplementary value  i n the r a t i o n .  D e s c r i p t i o n of the E x p e r i m e n t a l R a t i o n s The described. rived. two  formulation  of the f i v e b a s i c r a t i o n s has been  From each b a s i c r a t i o n f o u r d i s t i n c t r a t i o n s were de-  Two of these were stored as f r o z e n r a t i o n s and the other  were canned.  One of the f r o z e n r a t i o n s and one of the canned  r a t i o n s had a commercial a n t i o x i d a n t  added.  I n t o t a l , there were  20 d i s t i n c t r a t i o n s derived from the f i v e b a s i c r a t i o n s . venience each r a t i o n was g i v e n a d e s c r i p t i v e code. when d e s c r i b e d 7.  A l l rations  are r e f e r r e d by t h i s code which i s l i s t e d  For example, r a t i o n HAF-1 i s d e s c r i b e d  r a t i o n which c o n t a i n s  the a n t i o x i d a n t .  F o r con-  i n Table  as f r o z e n horse meat  15  Table 7 Ration Code HAF-1  WAF-5  CAAF-9  CBAF-13  FAF-17  HAC-2  WAC-6  CMC-10  CBAC-l^  FAC-18  HF-3  WF-7  CAF-11  CBF-15  FF-19  HC-^  WC-8  CAC-12  CBC-16  FC-20  HWCACB5.  FAFC-  Horse Meat Whale Meat Chicken Waste A Chicken Waste B  Herring Antioxidant Frozen Canned  Choice of the Antioxidant for the Experimental Rations There are a variety of antioxidants available for the  stabilization of fats in feeding stuffs.  The choice of an a n t i -  oxidant for a particular use is contingent upon a knowledge of the oxidative mechanism and the properties of the various a n t i oxidants and their combinations. Antioxidants are used extensively in a variety of products for the stabilization of fats from the deleterious of labile oxygen ( 6 , 8 , 2 8 , ^ l ) .  effects  Fats, in the presence of labile  oxygen undergo oxidation in two well defined phases ( 3 2 ) . In the f i r s t , or induction phase, there is no apparent evidence of oxidation as determinable by organoleptic or other tests for rancidity ( 1 9 , 3 0 , 3 1 , ^ 0 , 5 0 ) . In the second phase, the velocity of the reaction increases rapidly in a logarithmic manner.  Once this  phase has set i n , deterioration of the fat proceeds rapidly and rancidity can easily be detected by organoleptic means ( 3 2 ) .  16 The  l e n g t h of the i n d u c t i o n phase depends upon the amount of  natural occurring antioxidants  i n i t i a l l y present.  shown w i t h pure f a t t y a c i d s t h a t there When a n t i o x i d a n t s  are added t o a substance they lengthen the that there  p r e c i a b l e o x i d a t i v e r a n c i d i t y f o r an extended  frequently the  (32)  i s no i n d u c t i o n phase.  i n i t i a l i n d u c t i o n phase t o such an extent  The  I t has been  i s no ap-  period.  mechanism of o x i d a t i v e r a n c i d i t y has been reviewed  (6, 8, 22, 27, 30, 32).  I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d  o x i d a t i v e process i s a f r e e r a d i c a l r e a c t i o n .  are able t o c u r t a i l the f o r m a t i o n  that  Antioxidants  of f r e e r a d i c a l s and i n so  doing become o x i d i z e d themselves (hi). Antioxidants and  are of two g e n e r a l t y p e s ,  aromatic phenols  t h e i r d e r i v a t i v e s or aromatic amines and t h e i r d e r i v a t i v e s .  Both types are used e x t e n s i v e l y f o r the s t a b i l i z a t i o n of f a t s . Of the two g e n e r a l types, the aromatic phenols are more water s o l uable and are more a p p l i c a b l e t o a fat-water Most a n t i o x i d a n t s may l a t e r be added t o other been used i n fat-water in  system.  are used f o r s t a b i l i z i n g f a t s which products.  systems ( 8 , 3 2 ) .  Very few a n t i o x i d a n t s Evaluating  antioxidants  such products as meats, f i s h and c e r e a l s i s complicated  of the presence of other  appointing  because  components such as water and s a l t s which  may i n f l u e n c e the a c t i o n of the a n t i o x i d a n t . of using a n t i o x i d a n t s  have  To date the r e s u l t s  i n meats, f i s h and c e r e a l s have been d i s -  though some progress has been made i n some cases  (8).  17 In a r t i f i c a l fat-water systems, c i t r i c acid i s an exc e l l e n t synergist for such primary phenolic antioxidants as (8).  propyl gallate and butylated hydroxy-anisole and metal ions are powerful pro-oxidants a c t i v i t y to their metal scavenging  Most metals  and synergists owe t h e i r  powers.  They slow the o x i -  dative process by forming chelates with metal ions and thereby, greatly reducing their concentration. The antioxidant chosen for the experimental rations was Tenox VII, manufactured by the Eastman Kodak Company.  The com-  position of Tenox VII i s given i n Table 8 . Table 8 Composition of Tenox VII Constituent  Per Cent  Butylated Hydroxy-Anisole  28  Propyl Gallate  12  C i t r i c Acid  •  6  Mixed Glycerides  20  Propylene Glycol  3^  Butylated hydroxy-anisole  and propyl gallate are the  primary antioxidants and c i t r i c acid i s the synergist: .  Citric  acid, i n the presence of these two antioxidants i s a powerful acid synergist and has been used for a v a r i e t y of products ( 2 8 , 30).  The fact that c i t r i c acid i s water soluble and propyl  gallate i s s l i g h t l y water soluble aids i n the dispersion of the antioxidant to the fat-water i n t e r f a c e s . Since mink rations might be regarded  as a complicated  fat-water system, i t was f e l t  18 t h a t w i t h t h e knowledge a t hand, T e n o x V I I m i g h t adequate  antioxidant.  human and  a n i m a l use  The  fact  suggested  that that  i t has  s e r v e as  an  been approved  i t would  be  a safe  for  anti-  oxidant . The 0.05  manufacturers  o f T e n o x V I I recommend  per c e n t of t h e f a t c o n t e n t of t h e r a t i o n .  dation i s for fats the l e v e l  s h o u l d be  of the r a t i o n dispersion 6.  since  t o 0.1  increased i t might  M i x i n g , Canning  Cooperative  and  i n t h e wet Storage  r a t i o n s were mixed  a t New  Westminster,  were b l e n d e d commercial  mink r a t i o n s .  poured  (supplementary grinder  of the f a t c o n t e n t  to obtain a uniform rations.  of the R a t i o n s  at the P a c i f i c  Fur  B r i t i s h Columbia.  Breeders E i g h t e e n hours  i c e cold  but w o r k a b l e .  The  With  the mixer  over the m i x i n g protein  c e r e a l mix  cereal.  s o u r c e and  and  f o r mixing  meat  melted  fat  l i v e r ) were p a s s e d  through  t h e same t i m e  as t h e meat i n g r e d i e n t s u n t i l  the r a t i o n  had mix.  ( T a b l e 6)  were s u f f i c i e n t  been p r e v i o u s l y After  The  incorporated  ingredients f o r one into  one  The  half  m i x i n g , t h e r a t i o n s were s a c k e d  immediately f r o z e n i n the q u i c k f r e e z e .  -10°F.  listed  mix.  was  ingredients  Water was  consistency.  rations  b o n e m e a l were p l a c e d  i n motion, The  The  on t o p o f t h e m i x i n g m a c h i n e .  ration  at  that  situated  hamburger-like  and  recommen-  felt  i n a l a r g e m i x i n g machine n o r m a l l y u s e d  i n t o the mixer.  slowly  at  at  t o m i x i n g , t h e f r o z e n i n g r e d i e n t s were a l l o w e d t o thaw.  A t m i x i n g t i m e t h e y were s t i l l  first  This  i t was  per c e n t  be d i f f i c u l t  of the a n t i o x i d a n t  The  prior  added t o a d r y r a t i o n and  i t s use  added had  f o r one  a  basic  antioxidant  of the t o t a l  i n 50  a  pound  cereal  paper  T h e y were t h e n  bags  stored  19 Because were  mixed a t  of the  three  large  different  quantities times.  r e q u i r e d the  The f i r s t  rations  mix was  on D e c .  31,  1955s t h e s e c o n d mix was on June h, 1956 and t h e f i n a l mix was on S e p t .  2 1 , 1956. One h a l f  transferred were  to  canned.  E a c h r a t i o n mix r e q u i r e d a b o u t of t h e  frozen rations  The r a t i o n s were  mixed and p a c k e d by hand i n t o sealed  technical  U n i v e r s i t y where  r a t i o n s were  stored  at  for  supervisor  The r e m a i n d e r of the  20 ounce  m e c h a n i c a l l y and r e t o r t e d  mended by t h e  to  allowed  the  to  thaw f o r  cans.  were  B . C . where  The c a n s  2>>- h o u r s a t  they  2h h o u r s ,  re-  were  2H-0°F.  as  recom-  of the A m e r i c a n Can C o .  f r o z e n r a t i o n s were  t h e y were the  31 mix)  (Dec.  I m p e r i a l Cannery at S t e v e s t o n ,  hO man h o u r s .  stored  at  0°F.  transferred The canned  p r e v a i l i n g temperature  of t h e  mink  sheds. III.  Experimental Design I t was  intended  g r o u p s would c o n s i s t t e n f e m a l e s were two s i l v e b l u s way i t  consist  of the  achieve  five  was  not  experimental  and two male m i n k .  standards,  a d i s t r i b u t i o n of  industry.  laboratory i t  animals t o b r i n g a l l the  of  twenty  three  of c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o l o u r  t y p i c a l of the  of t h i s  each  of t e n a d u l t f e m a l e  w i t h males  was hoped t o  w h i c h were trol  to  that  possible  phases.  the  For reasons to  e x p e r i m e n t a l groups t o  pastels  colour  In  the  and this  phases  beyond t h e  obtain  The  con-  sufficient  number d e s i r e d .  20 I.V..  Management A l l the mink were v a c c i n a t e d a g i n s t distemper  to the experiment.  Each female r e c e i v e d one-half  prior  m l . and each  male one ml. of a l i v e v i r u s v a c c i n e . A l l the animals were housed i n the U n i v e r s i t y s e x p e r i 1  mental mink u n i t .  I t can be considered  t o by t o p i c a l of ranch  conditions. The to f e e d i n g .  f r o z e n r a t i o n s were s e t out t o thaw 2*+ hours p r i o r I f the r a t i o n s were too d r y , water was added  prior to feeding.  The canned r a t i o n s were f e d from a s p e c i a l l y  c o n s t r u c t e d nest box as designed technician.  T h i s permitted  the mink at a l l times.  by Mr. C. Harvey, s e n i o r animal  a 20 ounce can of feed t o be before  I n g e n e r a l , the females ate a can of  feed every three days and the males every two days. was experienced  No d i f f i c u l t y  i n f e e d i n g the mink from the cans and f o r the most  part there was v e r y l i t t l e  waste.  Animals were weighed at approximately on a s c a l e that was marked i n 20 gm. d i v i s i o n s . t u r e from t h i s weighing schedule and  just  pre-weaning p e r i o d .  monthly i n t e r v a l s The only depar-  occurred d u r i n g the g e s t a t i o n  21 V.  Experimental 1.  Maintenance The maintenance requirements of an animal encompasses  i t s need f o r energy and p r o t e i n f o r r e s p i r a t i o n , c i r c u l a t i o n of the b l o o d , d i g e s t i o n and other metabolic p r o c e s s e s , f o r the maintenance  of body temperature and the r e p a i r of worn out t i s s u e s  without causing an i n c r e a s e or decrease i n weight of the animal (2).  N u t r i e n t s i n excess of the maintenance  requirements are used  f o r p r o d u c t i v e purposes, such as, g a i n i n g weight i n the development  of a f o e t u s or the p r o d u c t i o n of m i l k and  A r a t i o n may  then be s a i d t o s a t i s f y the  young,  eggs.  maintenance  requirements i f i t maintains the animals weight d u r i n g a p e r i o d when the animal i s not engaged  i n any p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s .  mink t h i s period covers the w i n t e r months. was  Weight  In the  gained or l o s t  used as the c r i t e r i o n f o r measuring the maintenance  perfor-  mance of the v a r i o u s r a t i o n s . The maintenance 1956  period extended from J a n . 20 t o March 2 1 ,  s i n c e breeding began on March 1 5 .  recorded on Jan. 7 , on J a n . 2 0 ,  1956.  1956  The i n i t i a l weights were  and the experimental f e e d i n g commenced  The average weights and the net g a i n or l o s s  f o r the a d u l t female mink d u r i n g the maintenance  period are g i v e n  i n Appendix A f o r a l l the r a t i o n s , except those c o n t a i n i n g These w i l l be t r e a t e d i n a l a t e r  herring.  section.  The animals on a l l the r a t i o n s , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n ( C B A C - i 0 , showed a s l i g h t weight g a i n . L  In order t o e s t a b l i s h  22 d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s j e c t e d to an a n a l y s i s  treatments, the data were sub(16).  of v a r i a n c e  or l o s t f o r each r a t i o n group was  The  average weight gained  used as the v a r i a t e .  s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s f o r the maintenance period Table  The  re-  i s given i n  9. 9  Table Analysis  of Variance f o r the Maintenance  Source of E r r o r Canning  Interaction  (C.A.)  Interaction  (CP.)  Interaction  (A.P.)  1.11  8*fl  14-13  3  H-71  .55  H-788  160  ,.19  9.28  2577  Total  13606  15  Canning r e f e r s t o  .98  859  the canned r a t i o n s and  (no l e v e l of c a n n i n g ) . and  32H- -  .91 .38  Antioxidant  the f r o z e n  r e f e r s t o the  those w i t h no l e v e l of a n t i o x i d a n t .  r e f e r t o the r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g  F  .05  960 8U-1  Error  with antioxidant  P =  3 1 3 3  rations  Tabled  10.13 10.13 9.28 10.13 9.28  2879  (P)  F.  78H-  32h  (A)  M.S.  1 1  (C)  .Antioxidant Proteins  D.F.  Sums of Sauares  Period  the f i v e supplementary  rations Proteins  protein  sources. From the  analysis  c a l c u l a t e d F v a l u e s are  of v a r i a n c e  i t i s apparent t h a t a l l the  l e s s than t h e i r corresponding t a b l e d  which i n d i c a t e s that there are no  s t a t i s t i c a l differences  values  between  23 any  o f t h e t r e a t m e n t s f o r t h e a d u l t female mink d u r i n g  tenance p e r i o d .  According  t o B r o d y (11)  the main-  the maintenance  require-  ments, i n terms of d i g e s t i b l e n u t r i e n t s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y the  b a s a l energy r e q u i r e m e n t s , whereas the requirement f o r pro-  ductive Since  purposes are a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e times t h e b a s a l  t h e r a t i o n s were d e s i g n e d t o m a i n t a i n  rate, i ti s therefore the  twice  requirement.  a s a t i s f a c t o r y growth  not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d  no d i f f e r e n c e s  during  m a i n t e n a n c e phase o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e f r o z e n  and  t h e canned r a t i o n s .  H o w e v e r , i t was n o t e d t h a t  c e i v i n g t h e f r o z e n r a t i o n s were s l o w l y r e d u c i n g  t h e i r feed  t i o n n e a r t h e end o f t h e f i r s t r a t i o n m i x ( m i d d l e consumption increased  when t h e m i n k r e c e i v e d  ( J u n e 5).  second l o t of f e e d  This  c o n s u m p t i o n of a r a t i o n s t o r e d ature  may r e f l e c t  t h e f r e s h l y mixed  apparent d e c l i n e i n feed  ( s ) . For  section that thiamine i s destroyed  upon p r o l o n g e d  storage  a t 0°F.  h e r r i n g r a t i o n s , as m i x e d , were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y as  a maintenance d i e t f o r the a d u l t  female mink.  Feed  consumption  b e g a n t o d e c l i n e a f t e r two weeks and b y f o u r weeks i t was tically nil.  .Feed  f o r s e v e r a l months a t a l o w t e m p e r -  e x a m p l e , i t i s shown i n a l a t e r  The  consump-  of Hay).  t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f some n u t r i e n t  to a c e r t a i n extent  t h e mink r e -  The w e i g h t l o s s e s  i n T a b l e 2 H - , A p p e n d i x B. h e r r i n g r a t i o n s was 115  prac-  of t h e h e r r i n g groups are g i v e n  The a v e r a g e w e i g h t l o s s o f a l l t h e gm. p e r f e m a l e .  c a n n e d r a t i o n s was g r e a t e r  than that  The w e i g h t l o s s on t h e  on t h e f r o z e n r a t i o n s .  c o n s u m p t i o n was i m m e d i a t e l y r e s t o r e d when t h e m i n k w e r e  Feed  supplemented  2h w i t h a 1 per cent  aqueous s o l u t i o n o f a complete v i t a m i n m i x  (Nutritional Biochemical  Corporation Vitamin Mix).  I n order t o  d e t e r m i n e t h e l a c k i n g v i t a m i n , t h e mink f r o m t h e h e r r i n g groups w e r e r e a l l o c a t e d i n t o f o u r g r o u p s and r e c e i v e d t h e f o l l o w i n g v i t a m i n supplements i n t h e i r d r i n k i n g water from March 2 t o March 15,  1956:  Group Group Group Group  1 2 3 M- -  T h i a m i n : 2 mg. p e r d a y . F o l i c A c i d : 0.18 mg. p e r d a y . T h i a m i n e and F o l i c A c i d : l e v e l s o f Gp. 1 and 2 . One p e r c e n t a q u e o u s s o l u t i o n o f N.B.C. v i t a m i n mix.  E a c h m i n k was g i v e n 200 c c . o f e a c h s o l u t i o n p e r d a y . c c . of a 1 per cent  dred  contained  a q u e o u s N.B.C. v i t a m i n m i x s o l u t i o n  2 mg. o f t h i a m i n e Weight data  a n d 0 . 1 8 mg. o f f o l i c  and f e e d  v i t a m i n supplementation  treatment  acid.  c o n s u m p t i o n p r i o r t o and a f t e r  a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 2 5 , A p p e n d i x B.  Supplementation w i t h thiamine kedly increased  Two h u n -  and t h i a m i n e  plus f o l i c  a c i d mar-  t h e f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n and t h e w e i g h t gained  with folic  whereas  a c i d caused a decrease i n w e i g h t , though  f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n was i n c r e a s e d .  This l a t t e r  c o n s u m p t i o n may have b e e n due t o a c a r r y - o v e r  i n c r e a s e i n feed e f f e c t from  supple-  m e n t a t i o n b y t h e c o m p l e t e v i t a m i n m i x . The m i n k r e c e i v i n g t h e complete v i t a m i n mix a t f i r s t gain.  Their feed  lost  some w e i g h t b u t t h e n b e g a n t o  c o n s u m p t i o n was a l s o m a r k e d l y i n c r e a s e d . that thiamine  was t h e l i m i t i n g  From  the  a b o v e , i t was c o n c l u d e d  and  a c c o r d i n g l y a l l t h e m i n k on t h e f o u r h e r r i n g r a t i o n s r e c e i v e d  d a i l y , i n t h e i r d r i n k i n g w a t e r 2 mg. o f t h i a m i n e  vitamin  hydrochloride f o r  2  5  the remainder of the experiment.  26,  As e v i d e n c e d i n T a b l e  A p p e n d i x B, t h e m i n k on t h e h e r r i n g r a t i o n s , w i t h t h i a m i n e s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n , soon i n c r e a s e d weight.  t h e i r w e i g h t s above t h e i r  I t must be remembered  c o m p l i c a t e d by  initial  t h a t t h e l a s t w e i g h t shown may  be  pregnancy.  The f a i l u r e  of the h e r r i n g r a t i o n s w i t h o u t thiamine  s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e e n z y m e , t h i a m i n a s e , w h i c h h a s b e e n shown t o be p r e s e n t i n numerous (60).  of f i s h  T h i a m i n a s e i s more f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d i n t h e f r e s h w a t e r  f i s h than i n s a l t water f i s h .  (66)  T h i a m i n a s e has b e e n demon-  s t r a t e d t o be p r e s e n t i n A t l a n t i c h e r r i n g ring  species  (6*+)  but not i n B a l t i c  herring  strate thiaminase i n B a l t i c  (39).  (53)  and P a c i f i c  The f a i l u r e  her-  t o demon-  h e r r i n g may be due i n p a r t  t o the  c r u d e method u s e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h i a m i n e . Gats f e d a d i e t c o n t a i n i n g t y p i c a l thiamine deficiences  (5^).  s a l t water h e r r i n g develop Chastek P a r a l y s i s (a disease  i n m i n k and f o x e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f f i s h i n g t h i a m i n a s e ) has been produced i n mink f e d a d i e t 19 l b s . P a c i f i c C o a s t h e r r i n g and 16 l b s . o f w h e a t a l s o been produced i n mink f e d a d i e t c o n t a i n i n g Great Lake's h e r r i n g  (29).  One  i n v e s t i g a t o r (26)  contain-  containing  (65).  I t has  50 p e r c e n t o f could  only  d e m o n s t r a t e a 20 p e r c e n t l o s s o f t h i a m i n e u p o n r e f r i g e r a t e d storage of Great Lake's h e r r i n g d u r i n g t h i s c a s e t h e h e r r i n g had b e e n f i l l e t e d  a f i v e week p e r i o d . p r i o r t o s t o r a g e and  In since  thiaminase i s g e n e r a l l y absent from muscle but c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the v i s c e r e a l organs (60),  t h e m a j o r enzyme c o n t a i n i n g  material  26 w o u l d have b e e n r e m o v e d .  Thus, t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of  w o u l d be g r e a t l y r e d u c e d  in filleted  g r o u n d h e r r i n g where t h i a m i n a s e  thiamine  h e r r i n g as compared  i s evenly  distributed.  T h i a m i n e added t o t h e h e r r i n g r a t i o n s was stroyed.  t h i a m i n e was  When 9h,5 tified  meg.  present  i n any  c e n t o f t h e t h i a m i n e was It  has  c o n s u m p t i o n and  a t room t e m p e r a t u r e ,  forand  78.8  per  of  the  of t h i a m i n e h y d r o c h l o r i d e r e s t o r e d f e e d  b e e n shown t h a t t h i a m i n a s e  (55)*  The  not  in  i s destroyed  by  d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i a m i n e by  h y d r o l y s i s y i e l d i n g M—methyl-5-hydroxy  e t h y l t h i a z o l e and  2 methyl-H—amino-5-hydroxy  methyl  thiaminase methyl  pyrimidine  (66).  A d e q u a c y o f t h e T h i a m i n e L e v e l i n a Canned H o r s e m e a t R a t i o n The  a d u l t , female weight.  of  growth i n the mink r e c e i v i n g the h e r r i n g r a t i o n s .  peptic digestion an e n z y m a t i c  10).  of r a t i o n FAF-17  b e e n shown t h a t d a i l y s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n  t h e g u t f o r i t has  Table  f r o z e n and in  hours  gm.  destroyed.  (Table  d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i a m i n e t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e f e e d and  2.  de-  destroyed.  w i t h 2 mg.  d r i n k i n g water  is  of the canned r a t i o n s  p e l l e t s ,were m i x e d w i t h 10  rice  been c o m p l e t e l y  of t h i a m i n e h y d r o c h l o r i d e , i n the form  a l l o w e d t o i n c u b a t e f o r two  The  rapidly  A n a l y s i s of t h e h e r r i n g r a t i o n s f o r t h i a m i n e f o u r d a y s  a f t e r m i x i n g showed t h a t t h e v i t a m i n had No  to  results  of the maintenance experiment  mink f e d canned r a t i o n s w i l l 10  indicate  maintain their  compares the average t h i a m i n e c o n t e n t s  canned r a t i o n s .  body of  I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the thiamine  t h e c a n n e d r a t i o n s a r e much l o w e r  that  the levels  than the f r o z e n r a t i o n s .  27 T a b l e 10 A v e r a g e T h i a m i n e C o n t e n t o f . t h e F r o z e n a n d Canned Wet Basic Ration H o r s e Meat W h a l e Meat Chicken A & B Herring  Basic  Rations  Basis Canned mca/g m.  Frozen mcg./gm.  0.17 0.25 0.13 0.00  1.05 1.09 1.10 0.00  They a r e below t h o s e s u g g e s t e d by t h e N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l (^9) per  w h i c h i s 0 . 3 ^ meg. p e r gm. o f wet r a t i o n  ( d r y m a t t e r i s 3*+  cent). The f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t was d e s i g n e d t o e s t a b l i s h i f  t h e l e v e l o f t h i a m i n e i n a c a n n e d r a t i o n (HAC-^f) was s u f f i c i e n t (FC-20)  t o m a i n t a i n l a r g e a d u l t mink.  A canned h e r r i n g r a t i o n  was  o f t h e maintenance e x p e r i m e n t and  fed t o confirm the results  to investigate the possible thiamine reserves E i g h t m a t u r e a d u l t male m i n k w e r e f e d a c a n n e d h o r s e meat r a t i o n  o f a d u l t male  mink.  (*+ S t a n d a r d s and k M u t a n t s )  (HAC- *-) and a n o t h e r s i m i l a r 1  g r o u p were f e d a c a n n e d h e r r i n g r a t i o n ( F C - 2 0 ) f o r a p e r i o d  o f 11  weeks f r o m May 8 t o J u l y 2*f, 1 9 5 6 .  con-  s u m p t i o n were r e c o r d e d . was  Weekly w e i g h t s and f e e d  Each mink r e c e i v i n g t h e h e r r i n g  ration  a l l o w e d t o l o s e 200-300 gm. b e f o r e i t r e c e i v e d a d a i l y  supple-  ment o f 2 mg. o f t h i a m i n e h y d r o c h l o r i d e i n t h e d r i n k i n g w a t e r . A graphic record  o f t h e a v e r a g e w e i g h t and f e e d  consump-  t i o n f o r t h e t w o g r o u p s a r e r e c o r d e d i n F i g . 1 a n d 2 , A p p e n d i x C.  28 The  mink r e c e i v i n g the h e r r i n g r a t i o n s s u f f e r e d  l o s s e s d u r i n g the f i r s t a f t e r t h e t h i r d week.  slight  weight  two weeks b u t a p r e c i p i t o u s w e i g h t The w e i g h t l o s s was  decrease i n feed consumption.  loss  also paralleled  Shortly after  by  a  supplementation  w i t h t h i a m i n e t h e m i n k b e g a n t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r w e i g h t and f e e d consumption. the  first  S i n c e t h e w e i g h t l o s s e s were o n l y s l i g h t d u r i n g  two w e e k s i t w o u l d  mine r e s e r v e .  The  appear  sharp d e c l i n e  some  thia-  i n weight a f t e r the t h i r d  on a t h i a m i n e d e f i c i e n t d i e t w o u l d had  t h a t t h e m i n k had  week  i n d i c a t e t h a t the r e s e r v e s  been d e p l e t e d . In  g e n e r a l , t h e g r o u p f e d t h e h o r s e meat r a t i o n had  s l i g h t weight l o s s feed consumption I t would  appear  over the e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d .  paralleled  an i n c r e a s e  or d e c r e a s e  t h a t the mink r e c e i v i n g the canned  were a t t h e i r m a i n t e n a n c e had  calculated.  average d a i l y feed consumption  gm.  o f wet  was  1390  w e i g h t was  and  of body w e i g h t . h o r s e meat  gm.  of d r y f e e d .  The  The  average  i s .001  mg.  158  body w e i g h t body  N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l suggested  r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h i a m i n e C+9)  was  p e r m i n k was  thus t h e d a i l y t h i a m i n e i n t a k e per K i l o  .019mg.  Since  been r e c o r d e d the d a i l y t h i a m i n e i n t a k e  f e e d o r 60  gm.  expected,  r e q u i r e m e n t or s l i g h t l y below.  feed consumption The  As  a  daily  p e r gram o f d r y m a t t e r .  T h u s , t h e s u g g e s t e d r e q u i r e m e n t p e r K i l o b o d y w e i g h t i s .0V3  mg.  T h i s s u g g e s t e d d a i l y r e q u i r e m e n t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i c e t h e amount the  mink r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e canned  h o r s e meat r a t i o n .  s u g g e s t t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l (**9)  T h i s would  recommended  levels  29 are too high. of  The  approximately  present r e s u l t s  . 0 2 mg.  suggest  that a thiamine  per k i l o body w e i g h t  or  level  . 0 0 5 nig. p e r  pound o f f e e d as f e d c a n s u p p l y t h e m a i n t e n a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s a d u l t male m i n k . to v a l i d a t e t h i s  It i s realized  on t h i s  phase o f m i n k  3.  Reproduction  t h a t f u r t h e r work i s r e q u i r e d  Loeschke ( 3 7 ) i s c u r r e n t l y  suggestion.  t e n females  this  and  two m a l e s .  group f o r a l l matings.  season  some m a l e s f r o m  An  1956  The  breeding  t r e a t e d as a b r e e d i n g  attempt  was  T o w a r d s t h e end  t o handle  p e r i o d extended  w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e f e m a l e s  group  made t o s t a y w i t h i n of the  breeding  o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s had  where a w i t h i n g r o u p male f a i l e d torily.  working  nutrition.  E a c h e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p was of  for  t o be  h i s females  used  satisfac-  from March 1 5 t o A p r i l being bred  8, 15  between March  and M a r c h 2 5 . Though the f i r s t were b o r n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t wean t h e male k i t s  k i t s were b o r n  two w e e k s o f May.  a t ^ 0 0 gm.  and  2 2 the m a j o r i t y  on A p r i l  the female  I t was kits  intended  a t 3 0 0 gm.  to At  w e a n i n g , t h e k i t s w e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 weeks o l d . The  r e p r o d u c t i v e and w e a n i n g d a t a f o r t h e  g r o u p s a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x D. as t h e v a r i a t e i n t h e a n a l y s i s phase.  The  results  Kits  b o r n per female  experimental were used  of v a r i a n c e f o r the r e p r o d u c t i v e  of the a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d  i n Table  1 1 .  30 Table Analysis Source  of E r r o r  Canning  11  of V a r i a n c e f o r R e p r o d u c t i o n Sums o f Sauares  L\F,  M.S.  _,  21.7  1  21.7  20.7  7.71  (C)  Tabled F p =.05  O.if  1  O.lf  o.h  7.71  3.8  if  0.95  0.9  6.39  C.A.  1.6  1  1.6  1.5  7.71  CP.  3.8  if  0.95  0.9  6.39  A.P  3.3  h  0.8  0.8  6.39  Error  h.2  , h  Total  38.8  Antioxidant Proteins  (A)  (P)  1.05  19 '  F r o m t h e s e r e s u l t s i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t r e a t m e n t s e x c e p t f o r C a n n i n g The  r e p r o d u c t i v e performance  r a t i o n s was  inferior  r a t i o n s a t p = .05. w e r e b o r n f r o m 79  of t h e mink r e c e i v i n g  F r o m t h e m i n k on t h e c a n n e d r a t i o n s , 12  failure  T a b l e 12  r a t i o n s i n I.U.  kits  f e m a l e s b r e d , w h e r e a s , f r o m t h e m i n k on t h e bred.  of the canned r a t i o n s , can perhaps  b u t e d t o t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f some v i t a m i n ( s ) d u r i n g t h e process.  canned  t o t h a t of the mink r e c e i v i n g the f r o z e n  f r o z e n r a t i o n s 19H- k i t s w e r e b o r n f r o m 88 f e m a l e s The  the  (C).  presents the V i t a m i n A l e v e l s  p e r 100  gm.  of  ration.  of the  be  attri-  canning canned  31 Table 12 Vitamin A levels i n the Canned Rations Rations with Antioxidant  Rations without Antioxidant  HAC-2  930  WAC-6  2860  WC-8  ,9*0  CMC-10  6^5  CAC-12  785  CBAC-lM-  210  CBC-16  220  FAC-18  2230  FC-20  1250  Ave.  1375  I.U./100 gm.  HAC-^  h80  I.U./100  gm.  655  The maximum National Research Council requirements of Vitamin A are l*+0 I.U. per day. 150 gm.  (*+9)  Since a mink w i l l eat about  per day i t i s apparent that i t w i l l receive s u f f i c i e n t  Vitamin A from a l l of the canned r a t i o n s . It has been shown that the thiamine l e v e l i n the canned rations i s low when compared to the frozen rations (Table 10) and that the thiamine levels i n the canned rations are just barely s u f f i c i e n t to meet the maintenance requirement mink.  of adult male  It i s therefore probable that the thiamine levels i n the  canned rations are not s u f f i c i e n t for reproduction and  lactation.  There i s also the p o s s i b i l i t y of Vitamin E being destroyed during the canning process and since one of the primary functions of Vitamin E i s to ensure normal reproduction, a reduced have a very marked e f f e c t .  l e v e l would  32 Due t o t h e c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e difficulties  i n arranging  i n r e p r o d u c t i o n and d u e t o  f o r a d d i t i o n a l canning,  t h e canned  r a t i o n s were d i s c o n t i n u e d f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The  a v e r a g e number o f k i t s  t h e f r o z e n r a t i o n s was 2.2.  Enders  produced per female bred (15)  states that the United  S t a t e s N a t i o n a l a v e r a g e i n 19H-9 was 3.2 per f e m a l e .  An average o f 3 k i t s  From t h e c i t e d v a l u e s  on t h e f r o z e n r a t i o n s was b e l o w The and  was 2.8  mink were  frozen  stored, a p r a c t i c e which i s contrary t o normal ranch  s e c t i o n that there  upon prolonged f o r e probable  storage  Long s t o r a g e  i n a gradual  e n z y m a t i c and o x i d a t i v e p r o c e s s e s a later  good.  performance of t h e mink  r a t i o n s fed t o the experimental  zing temperatures r e s u l t  kits  average.  where t h e r a t i o n s a r e m i x e d d a i l y .  in  and i n 1950  p e r f e m a l e was c o n s i d e r e d  the reproductive  from  conditions  periods a t f r e e -  l o s s of n u t r i e n t s through  (8).  Itwill  i s considerable  be d e m o n s t r a t e d  loss of  at r e f r i g e r a t e d temperatures.  t h a t t h e poor r e p r o d u c t i v e  thiamine I t i s there-  performance o f t h e mink  r e c e i v i n g t h e f r o z e n r a t i o n s may have b e e n , i n p a r t , due t o l o s s e s of e s s e n t i a l n u t r i e n t s by s t o r a g e It  a t r e f r i g e r a t e d temperatures.  had b e e n hoped t h a t t h e a n t i o x i d a n t w o u l d h a v e a f f o r d e d  some  p r o t e c t i o n b u t t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s was t h e case. Other f a c t o r s such as over a g g r e s s i v e females, and  false  pregnancies,  f a t females w i l l  males,  sterile  d i s e a s e , weak s p e r m , l a c k o f o v u l a t i o n  a l s o reduce the average l i t t e r  size.  One  33 s u r v e y o r o f r a n c h o p e r a t i o n s (12) male t o 3.5  f o u n d a b r e e d i n g r a t i o o f one  f e m a l e s a s t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y r a t i o w h e r e a s  m a l e t o 5 f e m a l e s was  considered borderline.  one  Since the e x p e r i -  m e n t a l g r o u p s had one male a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 6 f e m a l e s t h i s  may  have b e e n a n o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h e l o w e r t h a n e x p e c t e d fecundity.  The f a c t t h a t t h e s e m i n k were h a n d l e d a s e x p e r i m e n t a l  a n i m a l s may have i n f l u e n c e d  t h e i r reproductive performance.  no s e l e c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d has been p o s s i b l e  i n the U n i v e r s i t y Unit t o t h i s  a l s o have b e e n a c o n t r i b u t i n g  days w i t h a range  as c o m p i l e d by E n d e r s  o f f6-6 + d a y s . L  (15)  fertility  time, t h i s  may  factor.  The a v e r a g e g e s t a t i o n p e r i o d f o r a l l ^.0  Since  1  53.^-  t h e m i n k was  The a v e r a g e g e s t a t i o n  i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 51 d a y s .  period  Ranges  from  37 t o 91 d a y s h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d t h o u g h t h e n o r m a l r a n g e i s f r o m k7  t o 75 d a y s .  The g e s t a t i o n p e r i o d  o f t h e m i n k on t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  r a t i o n s i s considered normal. k,  Gr owth F e m a l e m i n k , w i t h a s s o c i a t e d m a l e s f o r b r e e d i n g , have  b e e n m a i n t a i n e d s u c c e s s f u l l y on t h e v a r i o u s e x p e r i m e n t a l r a t i o n s . However, t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e  of t h e mink r e c e i v i n g t h e  c a n n e d r a t i o n s was e s s e n t i a l l y a c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e of k i t s  and t h e number  a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e m i n k f e d t h e f r o z e n r a t i o n s was  below  average.  As a r e s u l t , t h e number o f k i t s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e g r o w t h  p h a s e was  g r e a t l y r e d u c e d f r o m w h a t had b e e n a n t i c i p a t e d  o u t s e t of t h e e x p e r i m e n t .  at the  I t had b e e n hoped t o have a t l e a s t  10  3* male and 10 f e m a l e k i t s f o r e a c h e x p e r i m e n t a l r a t i o n .  Because  t h e r e d u c e d numbers a v a i l a b l e , 6 male and 6 f e m a l e k i t s  constituted  an e x p e r i m e n t a l group f o r the t e n d i f f e r e n t f r o z e n r a t i o n s . explained  As  p r e v i o u s l y , the canned r a t i o n s were not i n c l u d e d i n  t h e g r o w t h phase  of t h e e x p e r i m e n t .  A l l t h e k i t s w e r e weaned i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m J u n e 28 J u l y 6,  1956  w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y b e i n g weaned b e t w e e n J u n e 28  J u l y 3j  1956.  T h e y were f e d t h e r e s p e c t i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l  u n t i l Nov. H O O gm.  of  11,  1956.  I t had b e e n hoped  and t h e f e m a l e k i t s a t 300  gm.  and  rations  t o wean t h e male k i t s but because  to  at  of a d e l a y i n  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of n e s t - b o x e s the average weaning w e i g h t s were somewhat h i g h e r t h a n p l a n n e d . Where p o s s i b l e , 6 m a l e and 6 f e m a l e k i t s w e r e p l a c e d t h e same r a t i o n t h e i r m o t h e r s had r e c e i v e d b u t where t h i s not p o s s i b l e , because  of i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers, t h e y were  on  was chosen  f r o m a r a t i o n t h a t had t h e same s u p p l e m e n t a r y p r o t e i n s o u r c e . The m i n k w e r e w e i g h e d  at a p p r o x i m a t e l y monthly  over t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d i n o r d e r t o r e c o r d t h e i r The  intervals  progress.  a v e r a g e w e i g h t s o f t h e r a t i o n g r o u p s and t h e a v e r a g e w e i g h t  gained from weaning T a b l e 27,  Appendix The  t o m a t u r i t y f o r each group are p r e s e n t e d i n E.  average w e i g h t g a i n e d f o r each group between  i n g and m a t u r i t y was  u s e d as t h e v a r i a t e i n t h e a n a l y s i s  v a r i a n c e of t h e g r o w t h phase. presented i n Table  13.  The r e s u l t s  wean-  of  of t h i s a n a l y s i s  are  35 Table  D.F.  M.S,  l,58l,tf69  1  1,581,^69  2*f,221  1  2*f ,221  200,561  if  Source of E r r o r  Sums of Sauares  Sex  (S)  Antioxidants Proteins  H  (A)  (P)  Tabled F. p = .0? p = .<  7.7  21.2  10.8  7.7  21.2  50,l*f0  2 2 . i*  6.k  16.0  705.  S.A.  805  1  805  o.k  7.7  21.2  S.P.  65,713  h  16,^-28  7.3  6.h  16.0  A.P  25,W  6,369  2.8  6.V  16.0  Error  8,967  Total  1,907,215 The  2,2^2  19  r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s e v e r a l  between treatments.  course i s expected.  and  at p = .01  females which of  between the r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g  those that do not  f e r e n c e s between the  contain  i t . The  the  i n c l u s i o n of the There are  antioxidant  significant d i f -  and  Proteins  .01.  d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the groups composing the  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e antioxidants.  has  .05.  i s s i g n i f i c a n t at p = source  of e r r o r i n Table 13 are determined i n the f o l l o w i n g manner.  sex and  .05  antioxidant  supplementary p r o t e i n sources at p =  i n t e r a c t i o n between Sex The  the  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at p =  i n the r a t i o n s has depressed growth.  The  .01  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at p =  between the average gains of the males and  but not  differences  The  shown a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between  Since there  are  only two  sexes and  two  levels  36 of a n t i o x i d a n t one  with  t h i s was the  the  the  t o t a l g a i n s may  established  females ( s i g n i f i c a n t at  p =  that .01)  depressed growth ( s i g n i f i c a n t at The  analysis  The  the  and  with  the  required  for significance  i n A p p e n d i x F and T h e r e i s no  f r o m them the  may  at  the  lh  and  protein  but  cal-  means appear be  drawn.  Horse  these r a t i o n s t o the  as  Chicken  rations. of v a r i a n c e f o r t h e  i n A p p e n d i x F.  prepared to f a c i l i t a t e  b e t w e e n Sex  variate  dif-  receiv-  between the  superior  minimum s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a d i f f e r e n c e  was  mink  c o n c l u s i o n s may  g r o w t h phase a l s o  c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between Sex  action i s calculated  t h e r e are  d e t e r m i n e d by  two  p = .01  W a s t e B and  The  antioxidant  These c a l c u l a t i o n s  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t and  analysis  that  be  C h i c k e n Waste A r a t i o n s  Herring  the  g a i n s of the  a group are  The  that  following  significant difference  M e a t , W h a l e Meat and  m a l e s g a i n e d more t h a n  b e t w e e n any  (M.S.D.).  When  various supplementary  s i g n i f i c a n c e between the  minimum d i f f e r e n c e  other.  the  .05).  p =  various supplementary proteins  c u l a t i n g the  t o the  of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e s  f e r e n c e s of g a i n a s s o c i a t e d  i n g the  d i r e c t l y c o m p a r e d and  larger t o t a l gain i s superior  d o n e , i t was  sources.  be  Proteins.  the  and  Proteins  at  indip =  .05.  (M.S.D.) f o r t h i s i n t e r -  From these c a l c u l a t i o n s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e  Table  interaction  37 T a b l e Ih Comparison of t h e D i f f e r e n c e s i n G a i n due t o t h e Interaction  S e x and P r o t e i n s  Significance Ration-Sex  Horse Meat  a t p = .05 w i t h Whale Meat  Chicken Waste A  Chicken Waste B  Herring  Horse Meat-Females Horse Meat-Males  none none  less greater  none greater  none greater  none greater  Whale Meat-Females Whale Meat-Males  greater less  none none  none none  greater greater  greater greater  C h i c k e n A-Females C h i c k e n A-Males  none less  none none  none none  none greater  greater greater  C h i c k e n B-Females C h i c k e n B-Males  none . less  less less  none less  none none  none none  Herring-Females Herring-Males  none less  less less  less less  none none  none none  In t h i s  t a b l e , t h e t o t a l gaiis o f t h e males and f e m a l e s f o r  supplementary p r o t e i n  s o u r c e a r e compared f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e  each at p  t o t h e males and f e m a l e s of t h e o t h e r s u p p l e m e n t a r y p r o t e i n ces.  The f o l l o w i n g  T a b l e lk.  example e x p l a i n s t h e t e r m i n o l o g y used i n  When t h e C h i c k e n A - M a l e s a r e c o m p a r e d t o t h e m a l e s  on t h e o t h e r s u p p l e m e n t a r y p r o t e i n follows.  sources, the table  The t o t a l g a i n made b y t h e m a l e s r e c e i v i n g  A r a t i o n s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y by t h e m a l e s r e c e i v i n g  less  Herring rations  t h e H o r s e Meat r a t i o n s ,  but not s i g n i f i c a n t  by t h e m a l e s r e c e i v i n g  t h e Whale  i s read as the Chicken  ( l e s s ) t h a n t h e t o t a l g a i n made significantly  g r e a t e r than t h e t o t a l g a i n of t h e males r e c e i v i n g and  sour  the Chicken B  f r o m t h e g a i n ( n o n e ) mad  rations.  38 I n g e n e r a l , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s e x and i n d i c a t e s a p a r a l l e l i s m between the supplementary  proteins  protein  sources  but these d i f f e r e n c e s are g r e a t e r i n the males t h a n i n the I t would  females.  be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e m a l e s w o u l d  greater than i n the females the female  s i n c e a t any g i v e n t i m e a f t e r  i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y o l d e r t h a n t h e male (11).  be birth  In  o t h e r w o r d s , under t h e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t , f e m a l e s a t w e a n i n g had w h i l e t h e m a l e s had The  the groups In a l l  completed  results  p h a s e has i n d i c a t e d  37.5  completed  per cent of t h e i r f i n a l  o n l y 27  of t h e a n a l y s i s  per c e n t . of v a r i a n c e f o r the  growth  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the g a i n s of  r e c e i v i n g the d i f f e r e n t  supplementary  p r o b a b i l i t y the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the growth  m i n k on t h e v a r i o u s e x p e r i m e n t a l r a t i o n s may d i f f e r e n c e s encountered  i n mink-fed  v a r i a t i o n s i n growth r a t e s would  protein sources. r a t e s of t h e  be s i m i l a r  t o the  various ranch d i e t s .  These  occur s i n c e the r a t i o n s f e d t o  r a n c h m i n k u n d o u b t e d l y v a r y i n n u t r i t i v e v a l u e and d i f f e r e n c e s i n growth r a t e s would c u r v e s of each  weight  occur.  as a  result  I f the average  growth  of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r a t i o n s a r e p l o t t e d , t h e n t h e  s p r e a d i n w e i g h t s a t a n y g i v e n t i m e may v a r i a t i o n i n w e i g h t s t h a t might  be a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e  be e x p e c t e d i n r a n c h m i n k .  w e i g h t c u r v e s , one f o r t h e f e m a l e s , F i g . 3 , f o r the males, F i g . p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 27.  Appendix  Appendix  E , were p l o t t e d  E and  from the  These one  data  T h e s e c u r v e s show t h e m a g n i t u d e i n t h e  spread of w e i g h t a t any time a f t e r weaning.  As  the animals  grow  39 o l d e r and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n r a t i o n s becomes more t h e s p r e a d i n w e i g h t s become p r o g r e s s i v e l y l a r g e r . of t h e r a n c h m i n k i t i s d i f f i c u l t from inherent strains. strains  apparent  I n the case  t o segregate n u t r i t i o n a l e f f e c t s  d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mature weight  of the v a r i o u s  Such d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d i n geographic of w i l d mink.  Undoubtedly,  man h a s i n c r e a s e d  the v a r -  i a t i o n i n s i z e of r a n c h mink i n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s s e l e c t i o n p r e s sures f o r colour  p h a s e and p e l t q u a l i t y .  I t i s therefore  that these curves represent the v a r i a t i o n i n weight  felt  t h a t m i g h t be  expected f r o m r a n c h mink w h i c h a r e f e d d i e t s d i f f e r i n g  i n nutri-  t i v e v a l u e and a r i s i n g f r o m t h e v a r i o u s s t r a i n s . The r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g Waste A a r e s u p e r i o r Herring.  Gunn (17)  H o r s e M e a t , W h a l e Meat a n d C h i c k e n  t o those c o n t a i n i n g  C h i c k e n W a s t e B and  h a s c o m p a r e d W h a l e Meat a n d H o r s e Meat i n  d i e t s f o r g r o w i n g m i n k and f o u n d n o d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t o t a l gained from weaning t o m a t u r i t y .  weight  The p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s  a l s o i n d i c a t e no d i f f e r e n c e and s u g g e s t t h a t W h a l e Meat may s u b s t i t u t e d f o r H o r s e Meat on a d r y w e i g h t  be  basis.  The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two C h i c k e n W a s t e rations i s d i f f i c u l t differ  to explain.  i n one r e s p e c t ,  The two t y p e s o f C h i c k e n V/astes  C h i c k e n Waste A c o n t a i n s  the g a l l  and t h e a n a l p o r t i o n w h e r e a s C h i c k e n Waste B d o e s n o t . sults  o f t h e Net P r o t e i n U t i l i z a t i o n V a l u e s o f t h e  p r o t e i n s o u r c e s ( T a b l e 19)  bladder The r e -  supplementary  show t h a t C h i c k e n W a s t e A h a s a h i g h e r  v a l u e t h a n C h i c k e n Waste B w h i c h  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p r o t e i n of t h e  ho latter  i sinferior  t o the former.  In a l l probability the d i f f e r -  ence i n t h e N e t P r o t e i n U t i l i z a t i o n V a l u e s o f t h e C h i c k e n W a s t e s arose from the inherent product.  v a r i a b i l i t y i n the composition of t h i s  When compared t o t h e o t h e r  the H e r r i n g  r a t i o n groups, the gains of  g r o u p were l e s s b u t i t was c e r t a i n l y n o t d u e t o p r o -  t e i n of i n f e r i o r  quality.  z a t i o n experiment  19)  (Table  v a l u e , even higher  The r e s u l t s o f t h e N e t P r o t e i n show t h a t H e r r i n g  s i m i l a r r e s u l t s on c o m m e r c i a l h e r r i n g m e a l s . ance o f t h e H e r r i n g supply  has a l s o  obtained  The p o o r e r  perform-  r a t i o n s m i g h t be d u e t o a n i n s u f f i c i e n t  of thiamine though t h i s  were b e i n g  has t h e h i g h e s t  R o b e r t s o n (52)  than casein.  Utili-  seems r a t h e r  u n l i k e l y since  they  s u p p l e m e n t e d d a i l y o r i t m i g h t be d u e t o t h e f o r m a t i o n  of r a n c i d i t y i n t h e r a t i o n s i n c e h e r r i n g f a t i s e a s i l y o x i d i z e d . The VII,  growth d e p r e s s a n t e f f e c t o f t h e a n t i o x i d a n t , Tenox  w o u l d seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i t p o s s e s s e s some d e g r e e o f  toxicity.  The a n t i o x i d a n t  l e v e l f o r i t was f e l t  had b e e n added a t d o u b l e t h e recommended  that the d i s p e r s i o n of t h e a n t i o x i d a n t i n  a w e t r a t i o n m i g h t be p o o r . of a n a n t i o x i d a n t hydroxy-anisole, Tenox VII' .01$;  are:  and c i t r i c  The l e v e l a l l o w e d  t o fats containing  a mixture of butylated-  p r o p y l g a l l a t e and c i t r i c butylated  hydroxy-anisole,  a c i d , .005$ ( 8 ) .  acid  (components o f  .02$; p r o p y l g a l l a t e ,  The l e v e l o f T e n o x V I I  t o t h e r a t i o n s was .01% o f t h e f a t c o n t e n t . 8),  f o r the a d d i t i o n  added  From t h e c o m p o s i t i o n  of T e n o x V I I  (Table  t h e c o m p u t e d p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e component  antioxidants  added t o t h e f a t o f t h e r a t i o n w e r e  butylated  hydroxy-anisole, .006$.  .028$; p r o p y l g a l l a t e , .012$ a n d c i t r i c  A l l o f t h e s e were added a t l e v e l s s l i g h t l y h i g h e r  recommended f o r u s e i n s t a b i l i z i n g The  above v a l u e s  .' o f t h e f a t c o n t e n t high f a t diet w i l l if  acid,  refer  than  fats.  t o t h e a n t i o x i d a n t s as percentages  o f t h e r a t i o n and n o t o f t h e t o t a l r a t i o n . c o n t a i n more a n t i o x i d a n t t h a n a l o w f a t  A  diet  t h e p e r c e n t a g e of a n t i o x i d a n t i s based on t h e f a t c o n t e n t .  If  an a n i m a l consumes a d i e t c o n t a i n i n g 2 0 p e r c e n t f a t i t w i l l n o t r e c e i v e t w i c e a s much a n t i o x i d a n t a s i f i t w e r e c o n s u m i n g a d i e t c o n t a i n i n g 10 p e r c e n t f a t s i n c e t h e f o o d  consumption i s l e s s  on t h e h i g h f a t d i e t t h a n t h e l o w f a t d i e t . has  t o be u s e d i n e v a l u a t i n g d a t a  Some c a u t i o n  then  pertinent t o the t o x i c i t y of  antioxidants. When a d i e t c o n t a i n i n g 10 p e r c e n t f a t a n d 0.3 p e r c e n t butylated hydroxy-anisole of g r o w t h ( 2 0 ) .  was f e d t o r a t s  G r o w t h was a l s o d e p r e s s e d  d i e t which contained  t h e r e was a i nrats  depression  by feeding  1.17 p e r c e n t p r o p y l g a l l a t e , t h o u g h  a  other  e x p e r i m e n t s showed t h a t a s much a s 5 p e r c e n t was r e q u i r e d ( 3 * 0 . T h e r e w e r e no d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s p i g s o r dogs f e d a d i e t  on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f g u i n e a  c o n t a i n i n g 0.011 p e r c e n t p r o p y l  gallate  (3^). It  i s apparent that the l e v e l s of butylated  hydroxy-  a n i s o l e and p r o p y l g a l l a t e w h i c h c a u s e a g r o w t h d e p r e s s i o n r a t are higher The ther  than those causing  problem of t o x i c i t y study  i n order  a similar depression  i n the  i n t h e mink.  of a n t i o x i d a n t s f o r t h e mink r e q u i r e s  to establish  safe  levels.  fur-  h2 5.  Fur Quality No q u a n t i t a t i v e c o m p a r i s o n o f f u r q u a l i t y was made on  the mink r e c e i v i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r a t i o n s . number  At present, the  o f mink a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y i s r e l a t i v e l y  s m a l l and i n o r d e r  t o e n s u r e s u f f i c i e n t numbers f o r f u t u r e e x p e r i m e n t s females  and o n l y **1 f r o m a p o s s i b l e %  none o f t h e  m a l e s were p e l t e d .  In  g e n e r a l , t h e r e t a i n e d mink were o f a s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y t o t h o s e pelted and  s i n c e a s e l e c t i o n p r e s s u r e was e x e r t e d  pelt quality.  The p e l t s w e r e s c o r e d  w h e r e a v a l u e o f 1 was a p e l t 5 was i n f e r i o r .  On t h i s  i n favour  by an a r b i t r a r y  of size system  o f s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y and a v a l u e o f  system, t h e average score  of a l l the  p e l t s was 2.2 w h i c h i n d i c a t e s a p e l t q u a l i t y s l i g h t l y a b o v e t h e average.  F r o m t h e s m a l l number  of experimental animals  pelted,  no q u a n t i t a t i v e c o m p a r i s o n o f f u r q u a l i t y c o u l d be made t h o u g h t h e r e i s a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t f u r q u a l i t y c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a s average. 6.  The D e s t r u c t i o n o f T h i a m i n e i n t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l (a)  Introduction  S t u d i e s concerned  w i t h the d e s t r u c t i o n of vitamins  i n g t h e v a r i o u s p r o c e s s i n g and s t o r a g e s t a g e s are Important  of a feed  i n the f i n a l e v a l u a t i o n of i t s n u t r i t i o n a l  In t h i s regard, the d e s t r u c t i o n of thiamine p o r t a n t s i n c e one o f t h e f i r s t anorexia.  Rations  dur-  product adequacy.  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y im-  signs of a thiamine d e f i c i e n c y i s  When f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n i s d e c r e a s e d  by a l i m i t i n g  supply  o f t h i a m i n e , o t h e r v i t a m i n s a n d n u t r i e n t s may t h e n t o o become limiting.  *3 Losses  o f v i t a m i n s i n modern p r o c e s s i n g a n d s t o r a g e a r e  p r i m a r i l y due t o e n z y m e s , c h e m i c a l o x i d a t i o n a n d e x t r a c t i o n (H-3). The  most p r o m i n e n t  c h a n g e s i n a n i m a l , f i s h and d a i r y  stored f o r prolonged due  periods at r e f r i g e r a t e d  to oxidative rancidity  products  temperatures are  ( 8 , H-3).  Mapson (H-3), i n a r e v i e w , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was  little  change i n t h e v i t a m i n s o f t h e B g r o u p s when t h e y w e r e s t o r e d a t r e f r i g e r a t e d temperatures.  (36)  However, L e h r e r  r e p o r t e d a H-0  p e r c e n t l o s s o f t h i a m i n e i n p o r k c h o p s s t o r e d a t 0°F. f o r 6 months w h e r e a s L e e (33)  r e p o r t e d no l o s s o f t h i a m i n e i n pork  c h o p s s t o r e d a t 0°F. f o r 6 m o n t h s .  Lehrer  (35)  also reported a  50 p e r c e n t l o s s o f t h i a m i n e i n l a m b c h o p s s t o r e d f o r 6 months a t 0°F.  L i v e r s l i c e s s t o r e d f o r 2 months a t r e f r i g e r a t e d  a t u r e s l o s t 27 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r of p u b l i s h e d r e s u l t s refrigerated  thiamine.  The a p p a r e n t  on t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i a m i n e u p o n  temperconflict prolonged  s t o r a g e may be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t b y t h e method and  type of wrapping  used  f o r the stored product.  L e e (33)  demon-  s t r a t e d no t h i a m i n e l o s s i n p o r k c h o p s w r a p p e d i n 300 MSAT c e l l o phane and b u t c h e r s p a p e r . and  This type of wrapping  t h e r e f o r e does n o t a l l o w any a t m o s p h e r i c  i s vapour  proof  o x y g e n t o come i n  c o n t a c t w i t h t h e meat s u r f a c e a n d p r e s u m a b l y g r e a t l y r e d u c e s oxidative rancidity. or w h i c h  a r e used  Other wrappings  which  are not vapour  c a r e l e s s l y would a l l o w access  meat s u r f a c e and h e n c e e n c o u r a g e  oxidation.  any  proof  of oxygen t o t h e  Further evidence d a t i o n has been d e m o n s t r a t e d  that thiamine  i s d e s t r o y e d by  w i t h d i s t i l l e d water  oxi-  s o l u t i o n s of  t h i a m i n e w h i c h were s t o r e d i n s e a l e d ampoules f o r a y e a r . mine l o s s was  59 p e r c e n t b u t no l o s s o c c u r r e d when t h e a m p o u l e s  c o n t a i n e d a n a t m o s p h e r e o f n i t r o g e n (13). to  the thiamine  concluded  s o l u t i o n s decreased  A d d i t i o n of a n t i o x i d a n t s  the thiamine  t h a t t h e r e i s a marked  i n s t a b i l i t y of thiamine i n c e r t a i n p u r i f i e d s a t u r a t e d o i l , s u c h as l i n s e e d hydrogenated  vegetable  hydroquinnone, thiamine  diets  (62).  An u n -  o i l , was more d e l e t e r i o u s t h a n a  o i l and t h e a d d i t i o n o f a s c o r b i c a c i d  or  s e r v i n g as a n t i o x i d a n t s , i n c r e a s e d t h e s t a b i l i t y  (22).  This again i s evidence  s t r u c t i o n of thiamine. it  l o s s and i t was  t h a t o x y g e n was t h e d e s t r u c t i v e f a c t o r . I t has a l s o been d e m o n s t r a t e d  of  Thia-  has been d e m o n s t r a t e d  f o r an o x i d a t i v e de-  However, i n c e r t a i n t y p e s  of salt  mixtures  t h a t d i p o t a s s i u m phosphate i s c h i e f l y  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of thiamine because i t i s v e r y h y g r o s c o p i c and u p o n h y d r o l y s i s i s a l k a l i n e , i n which  thiamine i s very unstable Two  thiamine if  providing conditions  (62).  s e p a r a t e s t u d i e s w e r e made on t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f  i n the experimental f r o z e n r a t i o n s i n order t o e s t a b l i s h  t h e l o s s of t h i a m i n e  make t h i a m i n e  p r i o r t o e a t i n g w o u l d be g r e a t e n o u g h t o  a limiting factor  i n the r a t i o n s .  I n one  study,  t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i a m i n e was m e a s u r e d o v e r a f o u r month  storage  p e r i o d a t 0°F. w h i l e i n t h e o t h e r , t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i a m i n e  was  measured f r o m t h e t i m e t h e f r o z e n r a t i o n s were b e g i n n i n g t o thaw  *5 u n t i l t h e y were consumed by t h e m i n k .  These s t u d i e s were  d e s i g n e d t o show t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e l o s s o f t h i a m i n e and  t h e e f f e c t o f t h e a n t i o x i d a n t upon t h i a m i n e  storage  destruction.  The E f f e c t o f P r o l o n g e d S t o r a g e a t 0°F. o n t h e  (b)  Thiamine Content of t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Duplicate  thiamine  determinations  110 d a y s o f s t o r a g e  Frozen  a t 0°F. d u r i n g  Rations.  w e r e made on s a m p l e s  f r o z e n r a t i o n s a t © , 33»  from each of the experimental  Sept. 2 H - ,  upon  also  77 > and  t h e p e r i o d f r o m June 6 t o  1956. The t h i o c h r o m e p r o c e d u r e a s recommended b y t h e A s s o c -  i a t i o n of Vitamin of thiamine  C h e m i s t s , I n c . was u s e d f o r t h e  (1*+).  The m o d i f i c a t i o n s  o f t h e p r o c e d u r e and t h e  s a m p l i n g methods a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x Duplicate  G.  r e s u l t s , e x p r e s s e d a s meg.  gram o f d r y r a t i o n , a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 5 . c e n t d e s t r u c t i o n of t h i a m i n e period of storage thiamine  was 2 9 . 2 .  determination  of thiamine  per  The a v e r a g e p e r  f o r a l l t h e r a t i o n s o v e r t h e 110  The a v e r a g e p e r c e n t d e s t r u c t i o n o f  i n the r a t i o n s containing  t h e a n t i o x i d a n t was 30.2  as t h e a v e r a g e p e r c e n t d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i a m i n e c o n t a i n i n g no a n t i o x i d a n t was 2 8 . 2 .  upon t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of t h i a m i n e .  i n the r a t i o n s  any p r o t e c t i v e e f f e c t  The a p p a r e n t f a i l u r e  of the  a n t i o x i d a n t t o a f f o r d p r o t e c t i o n may be due t o t h e f a c t t h a t a c i d i s t h e o n l y w a t e r s o l u b l e component o f t h e a n t i o x i d a n t Since  the concentration  where-  T h e r e i s t h e n no e v i d e n c e  t o suggest that the a n t i o x i d a n t exerted  ture.  day  of c i t r i c  citric mix-  a c i d i n Tenox V I I i s o n l y  h6 6 per c e n t , the r e s u l t i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n of i t i n the water w o u l d be v e r y l o w and f o r t h i s r e a s o n may have b e e n  phase  insufficient  t o p e r m i t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i a m i n e , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e r e were some i n t e r f e r e n c e by t h e f o o d The  components.  H e r r i n g r a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d no t h i a m i n e  since i t  p r o b a b l y was d e s t r o y e d d u r i n g m i x i n g b y t h e e n z y m e , t h i a m i n a s e . At t h e time o f t h e f i r s t  a n a l y s i s , t h e r a t i o n s were o n l y seven  days o l d . ( c ) . The D e s t r u c t i o n o f T h i a m i n e B e t w e e n T h a w i n g and Feeding. A l l t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r a t i o n s f e d t o t h e mink a t t h i s t i m e w e r e f r o z e n and r e q u i r e d t h a w i n g i n g p r o c e s s , a t room t e m p e r a t u r e , t h e r a t i o n s were r e m i x e d mink were g i v e n a n e x c e s s remain  prior to feeding.  t o o k a b o u t 2h h o u r s  by hand t o e n s u r e  uniformity.  after  thawing.  f o r thiamine  I n order t o determine  given.  the thiamine loss beanalysed  a t 2h- h o u r i n t e r v a l s f o r a t h r e e d a y p e r i o d .  Table  from the study since they  16 shows t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i a m i n e  e x p e r i m e n t a l r a t i o n s between thawing vals.  I fthe  and consump-  and e a t i n g , s a m p l e s f r o m e a c h r a t i o n w e r e  h e r r i n g r a t i o n s were e x c l u d e d no t h i a m i n e .  which  T h u s , t h e maximum  t i m e t h e r a t i o n s had t o d e t e r i o r a t e b e t w e e n t h a w i n g  tween thawing  after  of feed, the r a t i o n s could conceivably  o n t h e w i r e 2h h o u r s  t i o n was *+8 h o u r s .  The t h a w -  The  contained i n the  and e a t i n g a t 2h h o u r  inter-  The p e r c e n t t h i a m i n e d e s t r u c t i o n f o r e a c h r a t i o n i s a l s o  *7 T a b l e 15 Thiamine L e v e l s  1  of t h eE x p e r i m e n t a l R a t i o n s  Refrigerated Rations HAF-1  HF-3  WAF-5  WF-7  CAAF-9  CAF-11  CBAF-13  CBF-15  FAF-17  June 6  July 9  A u g . 22  During  Storage S e p t . 2k  P e r Cent D e s t r u c t i o n  H-.7  k.k  3.1  2.9  k.7  k.5  3.3  2.9  5.9  k.6  3.5  3.5  5.9  k.6  3.5  3.k  3.9  3.1  H-.3  3.6  3.9  3.0  H-.3  3.6  5.7  k.Q  k.k  if.l  5.8  h.8  k.k  if.l  6.8  5.2  5.3  3.9  6.7  5.2  5.3  3.8  5.6  5.8  6.2  H-.9  5.7  6.1  6.2  k.9  5.5  5.2  k.Q  3.6  5.3  5.2  if.  8  3.7  5.3  k.7  *.3  3.8  5.6  5.1  if.if  3.9  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  38.3  if 1.6  7.7  28.7  if2.6  13.3  32.if  29. k  0.0 FF-19  0.0 0.0  1 E x p r e s s e d a s meg. t h i a m i n e p e r gm. o f d r y  ration.  1*8  Table The  Destruction  Ration  0hrs.  H&F-l  \ . 8  16  of T h i a m i n e B e t w e e n T h a w i n g and F e e d i n g  2h h r s .  ^8 h r s .  h.2  h.O  16.7  h.2  11.1  •  Per Cent  Destruction  HF-3  h.Q  h.5  WAF-5  k.2  h.O  3.7  12.5  WF-7  5.3  5.0  h.2  20.0  CAAF-9  h.Q  h.2  3.5  27.8  CAF-ll  5.6  5.3  5.0  9.8  CBAF-13  k.O  3.5  3.2  20.0  CBF-15  5.0  5.0  k.5  io.5  2 M i c r o g r a m s t h i a m i n e p e r gm. o f d r y r a t i o n . The  average  t h e r a t i o n s was 1 6 . 0 ;  per cent d e s t r u c t i o n of thiamine f o r a l l the average  mine i n t h e r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g average ing  per cent d e s t r u c t i o n of t h i a -  t h e a n t i o x i d a n t was 1 9 . 3  per cent d e s t r u c t i o n of t h i a m i n e i n t h e r a t i o n s  no a n t i o x i d a n t  was 1 2 . 8 .  T h e r e was no e v i d e n c e  t e c t i o n of t h i a m i n e by t h e a n t i o x i d a n t . containing  the antioxidant  the r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g  and t h e contain-  of any p r o -  Though t h e r a t i o n s  had a l a r g e r t h i a m i n e d e s t r u c t i o n  than  no a n t i o x i d a n t , t h e d i f f e r e n c e was n o t  significant. The  average  thiamine loss f o r a l l the r a t i o n s stored a t  0°F. f o r a f o u r month p e r i o d was 2 8 . 8  p e r c e n t and t h e a v e r a g e  t h i a m i n e l o s s f o r a l l t h e r a t i o n s between thawing  and  consumption  ^9 16.0  was  per c e n t .  from the period  A c c o r d i n g l y , the  i n i t i a l thiamine  and the  h0.2 per c e n t  content,  of  the  initial  per cent  for of  adult  females,  thiamine  the  The maximum a v e r a g e  It the  months  is  the  limiting nutrient  mine i n t h e  mine.  destroyed  thiamine  of  studies  c a n be  (13,  oxidative  an a n t i o x i d a n t .  f r e s h meats, and t h e r e  fish are  22)  by t h e  of  average assumed  rations for  should not  the  by  This, even  the  after  mink.  have  become  rations. destruction  that  shown t h a t  the  the  amount  exclusion  (28,  per  a minimum, O.lh mg.  of  The a p p l i c a t i o n o f  success  an  of t h i a -  antioxidant  the ^ d e s t r u c t i o n of  and p o u l t r y has n o t cases  destruc-  mg. p e r d a y .  on t h e  and t h a t  p e r gram  thiamine  If  adequate  indicate  have  at  frozen  i n preventing  meg.  per day i s  i n the  are  i n the  c a n be d e c r e a s e d  a d d i t i o n of  storage  the  be  t h i a m i n e recommended  0.1  levels  of  mink.  of  is  factor  effect  Investigations  thiamine  thiamine  experimental rations  had no b e n e f i c i a l  (8)  (^9)  suggested that  The r e s u l t s  of  The u p p e r l e v e l  of r e f r i g e r a t e d  therefore  the  grams o f d r y m a t t e r  National Research Council  four  for  3.9  thiamine  2.3 meg.  t h e n t h e y w o u l d consume  per d a y .  then suggests that  a maximum s t o r a g e  l e v e l was  and p r e s u m a b l y  60  c o n s u m p t i o n of  calculated  level.  gram o f d r y r a t i o n w o u l d be l e f t feed  to  loss,  and c o n s u m p t i o n would  i n i t i a l thiamine  of d r y r a t i o n ( T a b l e 15).  *f0.2  due  p e r i o d between t h a w i n g  The l o w e s t  t i o n was  average  generally ^1)  of  thia-  destruction thiamine  oxygen  or  the  antioxidants proved  and f a i l u r e  to  satisfactory (5,  18).  50 Perhaps the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of the a n t i o x i d a n t i n p r e v e n t i n g the  d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i a m i n e may he due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y the a n t i o x i d a n t or t o t h e low water  solubility  of T e n o x V I I i n t h e r a t i o n m i x t u r e . p o n e n t s may have r e n d e r e d 7.  of d i s p e r s i n g  of t h e components  The i n f l u e n c e o f f o o d  com-  the a n t i o x i d a n t i n e f f e c t i v e ( 8 ) .  D i g e s t i b i l i t y S t u d i e s on t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l R a t i o n s The t e r m  per cent d i g e s t i b i l i t y  as a p p l i e d t o a f e e d -  s t u f f r e f e r s t o t h a t percentage  of t h e f e e d s t u f f which  sorbed  (¥+).  from the s m a l l i n t e s t i n e  The u s u a l method i s t o  measure t h e t o t a l f e e d consumed and f a e c e s v o i d e d time i n t e r v a l .  The r a t i o  i s ab-  of t h e f e e d absorbed  over a d e f i n i t e  ( t o t a l feed  con-  sumed l e s s t h e f a e c a l l o s s ) t o t h e f e e d c o n s u m e d , e x p r e s s e d a percentage  i s t a k e n t o be t h e p e r c e n t d i g e s t i b i l i t y .  t e r m s h o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d  l a r g e l y a r i s i n g from  This  from t r u e d i g e s t i b i l i t y which  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e m e t a b o l i c p o r t i o n of t h e f a e c a l gastrointestinal secretions, cells  as  takes  output, of the  i n t e s t i n a l mucosa and i n t e s t i n a l m i c r o f l o r a ( 1 ) . The c o l l e c t i o n method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p e r c e n t d i gestibility  o f a n u t r i e n t i n v o l v e s t h e measurement o f t h e t o t a l  i n t a k e o f t h e n u t r i e n t and t h e t o t a l f a e c a l o u t p u t determined  time  interval.  over a p r e -  T h i s method i s l a b o u r i o u s and i n most  instances requires s p e c i a l apparatus.  A s i m p l e r and l e s s  time  c o n s u m i n g method b a s e d on t h e u s e o f c e r t a i n e x o g e n o u s o r i n d o genous i n d i c a t o r s has been proposed a s i m p l e c h e m i c a l compound  (M+).  such as chromic  The i n d i c a t o r may oxide which i s  be  51 indigestible  and  t o x i c t o the  a n i m a l and  uniform rate. at a low  the  per  The  pass t h r o u g h the  fed  f e e d and  t o the  animal.  faeces are  concentration  of the  cent d i g e s t i b i l i t y  f r o m the  r a t i o of t h e  nitrogen  i n the  f e e d and  f r o m the  feed  (M+).  may  be  the  digestibilities  mink r e c e i v i n g For  It w i l l the  example, the  t h a n the  digestibility  published  mink r e c e i v i n g  the  i n d i c a t o r to that  various  i n feed  nitrogen  a r i s e from to  the 20).  ate  more  These differences  establish  rations  i n order  to  consumption. studies  digestibility  d i g e s t i b i l i t y were d e t e r m i n e d f o r e a c h of the the  in  markedly (Table  possibly  c h r o m i c o x i d e as  with  f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n of  following digestibility  Total digestibility,  frozen r a t i o n s , using  concerned  specific nutrients  the  of  faeces r e s u l t i n g  then i n i t i a t e d  differences the  determined  C h i c k e n Waste r a t i o n s  c o e f f i c i e n t s of t h e  Accordingly,  digestibility  a l s o be  studies  and  faeces  H o r s e or Whale Meat r a t i o n s .  T h i s s t u d y was  attempt t o e x p l a i n the  The  may  of t h e  shown t h a t  feed  indicator.  f e e d and  same r a t i o i n t h e  i n f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n may  in digestibility.  initiated.  nitrogen,  different rations varied  mink r e c e i v i n g the  differences  the  be  the  a  A f t e r a c e r t a i n time  calculated.  of mink r a t i o n s  non-  t r a c t at  with  analysed f o r the  concentration  T h e r e have b e e n few  these r a t i o n s .  digestive  i n d i c a t o r i n the  of a s p e c i f i c n u t r i e n t , s u c h as  the  I n a d d i t i o n , i t must be  i n d i c a t o r i s mixed u n i f o r m l y  l e v e l and  i n t e r v a l the From the  non-absorbable.  10  and  were fat  experimental  indicator.  In  addition  52 " c a r b o h y d r a t e " d i g e s t i b i l i t y was c a l c u l a t e d  by assuming t h a t the  m i n e r a l c o n t e n t o f t h e r a t i o n was n o n - d i g e s t i b l e . The d e t a i l s of  t h e methods and t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r t h e f i f t y  a d u l t female  m i n k a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x H.  The a v e r a g e  total  d i g e s t i b i l i t y , n i t r o g e n d i g e s t i b i l i t y , f a t d i g e s t i b i l i t y and "carbohydrate" d i g e s t i b i l i t y w i t h t h e i r  standard d e v i a t i o n s are  17.  presented i n Table  Table  17  Per Cent T o t a l . N i t r o g e n . F a t and " C a r b o h y d r a t e " of Ration No. HAF-1 HF-3  71. k  WAF-5  63.5  WF-7  60.0  CAAF-9  the Frozen Experimental Rations  Total Digestibility 6h.5  61.0  €AF-11  60.9  CBAF-13  62.h  CBF-15  58.2  FAF-17  52.2  FF-19  60.6  Average  61.5  + + + + + + + + + +  Digestibilities  5.9  6.1+  Nitrogen Fat Digestibility Digestibility  73.8 77.7  1.7  75.0  k.9  71.2  6.3  69.3  5.1  68.8  2.7  68.1  3.3  69.6  5.3  60.0  9.7  72.0  5.1  70.6  +  + + + + + +  + + + +  6.6 8.0  91.5 9H-.5  6.8  87.2  8.3  83.^  8.9  81+.3  2.8  87.9  5.3  Qk.O  5.3  87.8  9.7  86. h  7.5  91.5  6.9  87.9  +  + + + + + + + + + +  1.8 1.1  "Carbohydrate" Digestibility  27.0 27.3  2.3  27.5  1.8  27.5  2.6  30.3  1.8  30.6  1.9  31.6  1.7  22.3  1.7  22.5  1.8  22.7  1.9  26.9  + + + + + + + + + +  k.7 k.k  3.3 3.5 »f.8 ^.3  1.8 2.0 k.7 5*5  + k.o  53 The " t " t e s t (16) was u s e d tween t h e r a t i o n s a t p = . 0 5 . with respect ference the  t o test the s i g n i f i c a n c e be-  When t h e r a t i o n s were  compared  t o t o t a l d i g e s t i b i l i t y , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  dif-  b e t w e e n r a t i o n H F - 3 and F A F - 1 7 b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n  o t h e r r a t i o n s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e r a t i o n s when t h e n i t r o g e n were compared.  digestibilities  H o w e v e r , when t h e f a t d i g e s t i b i l i t i e s were  com-  p a r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r a t i o n s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t w i t h one another a t p - .05. WF-7,  H A F - 1 w i t h WF-7 and C B A F - 1 3 ; H F - 3 w i t h  WAF-5,  C A A F - 9 , C A F - 1 1 , C B A F - 1 3 , C B F - 1 5 and F A F - 1 7 ; F F - 1 9 w i t h  C A A F - 9 , CBAF-13 a n d F A F - 1 7 .  O n l y CBAF-13 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  f e r e n t f r o m C B F - 1 5 when t h e " c a r b o h y d r a t e " d i g e s t i b i l i t i e s  WF-7, dif-  were  compared. In general, t o t a l d i g e s t i b i l i t y , nitrogen and  " c a r b o h y d r a t e " d i g e s t i b i l i t y were s i m i l a r f o r a l l t h e r a t i o n s  except f o r the few s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . fat  digestibility  digestibility  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n  b e t w e e n t h e r a t i o n s was g r e a t e r  and i n g e n e r a l  b o t h h o r s e meat r a t i o n s a n d t h e one h e r r i n g r a t i o n ( F A F - 1 9 ) had higher  f a td i g e s t i b i l i t i e s  than the others.  I t would  t o c o n c l u d e t h a t h o r s e f a t i s more e a s i l y d i g e s t e d  be e r r o n e o u s  than the other  f a t s s i n c e t h e f a t i n a n y one r a t i o n i s a c o m p o s i t e m i x t u r e o f the f a t d e r i v e d from the supplementary m i x and a n y added f a t .  T a b l e 18 r e l a t e s t h e p e r c e n t o f t h e f a t  d e r i v e d from t h e r a t i o n components. digestibility  protein source, the c e r e a l  I t i s apparent from t h e high  and t h e v a r i e t y o f t h e s o u r c e s o f f a t t h a t m i n k , i n  5^ g e n e r a l , have t h e a b i l i t y t o u t i l i z e f a t s w i t h g r e a t f a c i l i t y a n d by so d o i n g , t h e f a t p o r t i o n o f t h e d i e t c a n p r o v i d e t h e major p o r t i o n of the energy required  f o r maintenance.  Table Per  18  C e n t o f t h e F a t D e r i v e d f r o m t h e R a t i o n Components Rations  Component  Whale  Horse  H o r s e Meat  Chicken A  Chicken B  Herring  36.5 .7  W h a l e Meat  59.0  Chicken A  55.0  Chicken B  27.1  Herring  7.2  Liver Added  Fat  Cereal  3  3  9.9  8.3  13.5  6.5  39.8  71.9  8.2  16.5  19.1  22.9  31.5  15.3  100.0$  100.0$  100.0$  100.0$  100.0$  51.1  D e v o n Deep F r y F a t T h e r e a r e many f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g d i g e s t i b i l i t y  f i c i e n t s w h i c h make c o m p a r i s o n s d i f f i c u l t b e t w e e n (M+).  Crude f i b r e  trients.  apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y time of passage  investigations  tends t o lower the d i g e s t i b i l i t y  A s h o r t time of passage  coef-  of a l l nu-  of feed tends t o lower the  of a l l n u t r i e n t s .  I n t h i s respect, the  o f t h e m i n k i s e x t r e m e l y s h o r t and r a n g e s  from  55 lg- t o 2^- h o u r s  C+2)  w o u l d t e n d t o be  and c o n s e q u e n t l y  digestibility  reduced.  W o r t h e n (65)  f e d a r a t i o n t o mink w h i c h c o n t a i n e d  p a r t s o f h e r r i n g t o 16 p a r t s o f w h e a t and f o u n d d i g e s t i b i l i t y t o be 52.7 tibility  t o be 8 3 . 7  per cent.  The a v e r a g e t o t a l d i g e s t i b i l i t y  t o be 52.1 and of the present  p e r c e n t w h i c h was h i g h e r t h a n t h e  b y t h e above w o r k e r s .  T h i s i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h e  fact that their r a t i o n s contained very high l e v e l s c o n s e q u e n t l y were l e s s  f r o m 83.6  cent horse foxes  o f c e r e a l and  digestible.  Bernard  (7)  t o 90.6  p e r c e n t and t h e f a t d i g e s t i b i l i t y v a r i e d f r o m  t o 97.9  Qk.O  found  that the p r o t e i n d i g e s t i b i l i t y  ranged  p e r c e n t when m i n k were f e d d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g 75 p e r  meat.  McCay (H-5) c i t e s  t h a t t h e p r o t e i n d i g e s t e d by  on v a r i o u s d i e t s r a n g e d f r o m 71 t o 91 p e r c e n t .  a b o u t 80 p e r c e n t a series  total  M a d r a m o o t o o (U-2) u s e d t w o d i f f e r e n t  the t o t a l d i g e s t i b i l i t y  e x p e r i m e n t a l r a t i o n s was 6 l . 5 values cited  t h e average  19  p e r c e n t and t h e a v e r a g e n i t r o g e n d i g e s -  per cent.  c e r e a l r a t i o n s and f o u n d 60.2  coefficients  I n dogs,  o f t h e p r o t e i n i s d i g e s t e d i n a mixed f e e d .  o f 19 d i g e s t i b i l i t y  trials,  In  total digestibility varied  f r o m 53 t o Qk p e r c e n t ; p r o t e i n d i g e s t i b i l i t y v a r i e d f r o m 51 t o 80 p e r c e n t and f a t d i g e s t i b i l i t y  v a r i e d f r o m 66 t o 9k p e r c e n t .  I t i s evident from the d i g e s t i b i l i t y for  coefficients  cited  t h e m i n k , f o x and t h e d o g t h a t t h e r e i s g r e a t v a r i a b i l i t y i n  these  c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h i n t h e same s p e c i e s .  m a i n l y due t o v a r i a b i l i t y  i nration  These d i f f e r e n c e s a r e  composition.  When t h e a v e r a g e d i g e s t i b i l i t i e s  of the  experimental  r a t i o n s , a s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 7 , a r e compared t o t h o s e c i t e d f o r the  m i n k , d o g and t h e f o x , t h e a g r e e m e n t i s good e x c e p t f o r t h e  n i t r o g e n d i g e s t i b i l i t y w h i c h seems t o be somewhat l o w e r . haps t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n u t i l i z i n g p l a n t t h i s r e l a t i v e l y low nitrogen  Per-  p r o t e i n s would lead t o  digestibility.  The l o w " c a r b o h y d r a t e " d i g e s t i b i l i t y  suggests that t h e  m i n k h a s d i f f i c u l t y i n u t i l i z i n g " c a r b o h y d r a t e s " and i n p a r t i c u l a r , the c e r e a l p o r t i o n of the r a t i o n . contain high raising and  D r y d i e t s f o r mink w h i c h  p e r c e n t a g e s of c e r e a l have n o t proved s u c c e s s f u l f o r  commercial mink. (83,  h i sassociates  indigestible.  The m a i n d i f f i c u l t y , a c c o r d i n g 86)  to Kifer  i s t h a t such r a t i o n s a r e r e l a t i v e l y  Alberta ranchers  (63*)  claim that cooking r a t i o n s ,  which contain a high  percentage of c e r e a l , permits adequate growth  of c o m m e r c i a l m i n k .  T h e y c l a i m t h a t c o o k i n g t h e c e r e a l makes i t  more d i g e s t i b l e . tibility  of starch from various  cooking increases not is  However, B e r n a r d  increase  of cornstarch  apparent t h a t the problem of t h e u t i l i z a t i o n  digestibility  carbohydrases.  and c o r n b u t d i d It  o f c e r e a l s by  Because o f the r e l a t i v e l y  of c e r e a l s , an attempt i s being  laboratory, t o increase  that  o f s t a r c h f r o m wheat and o a t s .  mink r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r c a r e f u l s t u d y . low  i n a study of the d i g e s -  c e r e a l s f e d t o mink, found  the u t i l i z a t i o n  the d i g e s t i b i l i t y  (7)»  made i n t h i s  t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n by t h e use of c e r t a i n  57 8.  The N e t P r o t e i n U t i l i z a t i o n  of the Supplementary  Protein  Sources The p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f d i e t a r y p r o t e i n i s t o f u r n i s h a m i x t u r e o f amino a c i d s  of the proper p a t t e r n f o r the  of t i s s u e p r o t e i n s  The t h e o r e t i c a l minimum r e q u i r e m e n t o f  (1).  p r o t e i n i s t h e amount a c t u a l l y s t o r e d genous l o s s e s . to provide protein.  by t h e body p l u s  the  the endo-  The a c t u a l d i e t a r y r e q u i r e m e n t must be much  f o r digestive losses Digestibility  c o e f f i c i e n t s take i n t o account the The  v a l u e of a p r o t e i n a s s e s s e s the e f f i c i e n c y w i t h  absorbed amino a c i d s a r e u t i l i z e d  i n f o r m i n g body  It represents  the percentage of absorbed p r o t e i n t h a t  by  The t e r m n e t p r o t e i n u t i l i z a t i o n  t h e body.  higher  and t h e b i o l o g i c a l v a l u e o f t h e  due t o i n c o m p l e t e d i g e s t i o n o f t h e d i e t a r y p r o t e i n . logical  synthesis  losses  biowhich  protein. i s stored  or sometimes r e -  f e r r e d t o as n e t p r o t e i n v a l u e e m b o d i e s b o t h t h e d i g e s t i b i l i t y and  b i o l o g i c a l value of a d i e t a r y p r o t e i n i n t h a t  the  percentage of t h e i n g e s t e d  The n e t p r o t e i n v a l u e logical  value  protein that  i t represents  i s stored  (N.P.U.) i s t h e n t h e p r o d u c t  ( B . V . ) and t h e d i g e s t i b i l i t y  a species for  (56).  a t t e n t i o n because the d i g e s t i b i l i t y  have  received  of a p r o t e i n f o r  on a p a r t i c u l a r r a t i o n t e n d s t o be r e l a t i v e l y  each c l a s s of p r o t e i n s  tibility  of t h e b i o -  (D.) o f t h e p r o t e i n .  B i o l o g i c a l v a l u e m e a s u r e m e n t s on p r o t e i n s considerable  i n the body.  and i n s o f a r a s i s known t h e  of a p r o t e i n i s n o t r e l a t e d t o i t s amino a c i d  constant digescomposition  The b i o l o g i c v a l u e i s a d i r e c t m e a s u r e o f t h e a m i n o a c i d  composition.  58 T h e r e a r e numerous methods f o r m e a s u r i n g value  and  t h e s e have been r e v i e w e d r e c e n t l y (1,  biological  56)  but  the  basis  o f c o m p a r i s o n f o r a l l methods i s t h e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d ThomasM i t c h e l l procedure  (M+).  This  procedure i s tedious  and  time  s u m i n g i n t h a t i t r e q u i r e s numerous n i t r o g e n d e t e r m i n a t i o n s fore a value  is  Miller  and  Bender  s h o r t e n e d method f o r m e a s u r i n g n e t method c o m p a r e s f a v o u r a b l y  (H-7)  have p r o p o s e d a much  protein utilization.  classic  one  lies  i n the  number o f m e a s u r e m e n t s made o v e r a s h o r t e x p e r i m e n t a l  u r i n e and  e v a l u a t i o n of 3 p r o t e i n s b y t h e  of f o o d  r a t s i n v o l v e s 120  faeces  as w e l l as  3 food  method c a n  evaluate  analyses  terminations The  on t h e  a 7-10 The  net  day  B e n d e r method (H-7)  nitrogen stored  p e r i o d f o r w h i c h the  nitrogen stored  tween the  of  the  measurements  The  Miller 32  and  rats, 8  feed  d a y s and  nitrogen  de-  consists  essentially  i n a test  g r o u p of r a t s  over  t o t a l n i t r o g e n i n t a k e i s measured.  of the t e s t group i s the  t o t a l body n i t r o g e n of the  t r o l group f e d a n i t r o g e n f r e e d i e t . the  For  feed.  M l l e r and  of measuring the net  60  and  7 proteins, using of 10  small  Thomas-Mitchell  of 6 weeks.  c o n s u m p t i o n measurements i n a p e r i o d  The  period.  nitrogen estimations  consumption over a p e r i o d  B e n d e r (H-7)  Their  t o the Thomas-Mitchell procedure.  a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s method o v e r t h e  method w i t h 12  be-  obtained.  Recently  example, the  con-  difference  t e s t g r o u p and  be-  t h a t of a  A c o r r e c t i o n i s made f o r  c o n t r o l group i f the n i t r o g e n f r e e d i e t c o n t a i n s  traces  of  con-  59 nitrogen. tent  Body n i t r o g e n  of the  rats  is  determined  since M i l l e r  from the  and B e n d e r  (*+•?) have  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n body n i t r o g e n and body The n e t a p p l y i n g the  protein u t i l i z a t i o n  following  body w a t e r  con-  shown a h i g h  water.  (N.P.U.)  is  calculated  by  equation:  N.P.U.  = B -  (B  k  -  I ) k  I where  B and B  are t o t a l  k  body n i t r o g e n o f  p r o t e i n group r e s p e c t i v e l y , of  these  two  the  objectives  supplementary value  to maintenance, test the  proteins rations,  of the teins  five  of  o n l y made up it  is  the  to  g r o u p and n o n -  nitrogen  experiment test  of the  a r r i v e at  intake  total  any t r u e  of  supplementary  applicable  to  the  mink.  estimation  of  proteins  proteins.  the  values  liver  and  by t h e  rat  for  are a p p l i c a b l e  to  cereal of  the  of  the  values on  may n o t  the  pro-  Miller  protein  obtained  in  assessment  an assessment  The n e t  the  protein  protein u t i l i z a t i o n values  Generally, values i n the  respect  Since  p r o t e i n s o u r c e s were measured  may be a r g u e d t h a t  test  supplementary  p r o t e i n from the  C+7) i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t by these  to  with  mink.  p r o t e i n s o u r c e s were measured  supplied  was  proteins  s u p p l i e d by the  The n e t  amino a c i d s  and i t  this  various  associated  ration.  and B e n d e r method  rat  of  per cent  difficult  the  supplementary  five  the  r e p r o d u c t i o n and g r o w t h i n t h e  because of  the  the  amino a c i d complement  p o r t i o n of  are  k  test  groups.  One o f the  and I and I  the  the be  biological other  species  60 if  the p r o t e i n s  period.  The  a r e compared o v e r t h e same p h y s i o l o g i c a l  use  o f t h e mink as t h e t e s t a n i m a l w o u l d ,  age  of c o u r s e ,  be f a r t o o c o s t l y . The five  n e t p r o t e i n u t i l i z a t i o n v a l u e s (N.P.U.) f o r t h e  supplementary  p r o t e i n s o u r c e s and  casein  determined  by t h e M i l l e r and B e n d e r method  T a b l e 19.  The  d e t a i l s o f t h e method and  g i v e n i n Appendix  Net P r o t e i n U t i l i z a t i o n V a l u e s Supplementary Meat  the c a l c u l a t i o n are  Protein  .  19 of the Supplementary  .5^  C h i c k e n Waste A  A3  C h i c k e n Waste B  .33  Herring  .65  Casein  .61  C a s e i n (72)  .60  above v a l u e s f o r t h e n e t p r o t e i n u t i l i z a t i o n  the superior Horse  Proteins  N.P.U.  .5^  the supplementary  casein.  are presented i n  W h a l e Meat  The  was  (k6)  I. Table  Horse  as a c o n t r o l , as  p r o t e i n sources i n d i c a t e t h a t whole  of  herring  p r o t e i n f o r t h e r a t , e v e n more f a v o u r a b l e t h a n  meat and w h a l e meat a r e i d e n t i c a l b u t much l o w e r  than h e r r i n g ; the c h i c k e n wastes  A and B a r e t h e l o w e s t .  h o r s e meat and w h a l e meat a r e e s s e n t i a l l y m u s c l e  tissue  Both and  61 s i n c e t h e amino a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n (56)  similar  i t w o u l d be  and w h a l e meat s h o u l d  be  expected alike.  u s e d as t h e p r o t e i n s o u r c e  s k i n reduces  be  h i g h e r because the  expected  Both  b e c a u s e of t h e  feet present.  p r o t e i n s are p o o r l y u t i l i z e d  meat  I f t h e muscle of h e r r i n g were  the d i g e s t i b i l i t y .  w a s t e s a r e l o w as w o u l d be l a r g e amount o f h e a d s and  t h a t the v a l u e s f o r horse  i n s t e a d of w h o l e h e r r i n g , t h e  p r o t e i n u t i l i z a t i o n would s t i l l o f bone and  of muscle of a l l s p e c i e s i s  the  net  presence chicken  relatively  These f i b r o u s t y p e s  of  b y most s p e c i e s .  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e between the v a l u e s f o r t h e two f r o m one and  another  types  of c h i c k e n w a s t e s w h i c h o n l y  differ  i n t h a t C h i c k e n A d o e s n o t have t h e g a l l  a n a l p o r t i o n removed w h e r e a s C h i c k e n B d o e s .  bladder  The d i f f e r e n c e  i n t h e s e v a l u e s c a n b e s t be e x p l a i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e ability  of c o m p o s i t i o n  i m e n t was of the 9.  s i n c e the c h i c k e n waste used i n the  obtained from d i f f e r e n t  sources  at d i f f e r e n t  The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n M a i n t e n a n c e F e e d  times  like consistency.  The  r a t i o n w h i c h has  a hamburger-  normal p r a c t i c e i s t o feed the r a t i o n  t o p o f t h e w i r e c a g e and The  Consumption  Mink  M i n k a r e n o r m a l l y f e d a wet  and  and  exper-  year.  and B o d y W e i g h t i n A d u l t  teeth.  vari-  l e t t h e mink p u l l  at the r a t i o n w i t h i t s  m i n k o f t e n p u l l s more t h a n i t c a n e a t i n one  i n v a r i a b l y some of t h e r a t i o n d r o p s t h r o u g h  of the cage onto the g r o u n d . n e s t box w h e r e t h e y w i l l  on  the w i r e  Some m i n k p a c k t h e i r f e e d  bite bottom into  the  o f t e n l e a v e some on t h e b o t t o m of t h e  box.  62 If  t h e mink i s g i v e n an excess  w i r e t o d r y and h a r d e n .  o f f e e d , some w i l l be l e f t  It i sdifficult  u n l e s s t h e mink i s t a k e n f r o m t h e c a g e . over  an extended p e r i o d suggests  v a r i o u s c a u s e s may be f r o m 10-25 Accurate cult  t o remove  quantitatively  Practical  observations  that the feed l o s s from per cent  on t h e  these  of t h e f e e d o f f e r e d .  f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n d a t a f o r t h e mink a r e e x t r e m e l y  t o o b t a i n u n l e s s time consuming t e c h n i q u e s  such t e c h n i q u e s of a n i m a l s  a r e u s e d one i s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d  diffi-  a r e employed. i n t h e number  t h a t c a n be s t u d i e d a t a n y one t i m e . Since  experiment  one h a l f  of t h e r a t i o n s used f o r t h e maintenance  w e r e c a n n e d , t h e r e was a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e c o r d  c o n s u m p t i o n w i t h some d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y .  I t was s o o n  was l i t t l e  o r no w a s t a g e .  be r e c o r d e d  there  The d a i l y f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n c o u l d  by d a i l y w e i g h i n g  of the feed  on t h e c a n n e d r a t i o n s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h o s e  f r o m F e b . 25 t o M a r c h 1, r a t i o n s were e x c l u d e d  their  f o r a f i v e day period  The m i n k r e c e i v i n g t h e h e r r i n g previous t o  and a t t h i s t i m e t h e y w e r e r e g a i n i n g  For t h i s reason  the maintenance category.  mink)  mink r e c e i v i n g  s i n c e t h e y a l l had l o s t w e i g h t  supplementation  l o s t weight.  1956.  easily  cans.  D a i l y f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n f o r a l l t h e a d u l t m i n k (82  t h e canned h e r r i n g r a t i o n s , were r e c o r d e d  feed  observed  t h a t t h e m i n k a t e u n i f o r m l y i n t o t h e canned f e e d and t h a t  thiamine  If  t h e y had t o be e x c l u d e d  from  A f i v e d a y p e r i o d was s e l e c t e d f o r  r e c o r d i n g f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n i n t h e hope t h a t i t w o u l d p e r m i t assessment of the v a r i a b i l i t y  i n the d a i l y intake values.  some  63 I t was assumed t h a t t h e b o d y w e i g h t s o f t h e m i n k w o u l d not change over t h e s h o r t e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d and as a r e s u l t the mink were o n l y weighed The  results  a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e experiment.  of t h e maintenance  e x p e r i m e n t w h i c h showed n o s i g n i -  f i c a n t weight changes d u r i n g t h i s  period further validated  this  assumption. Since temperature tion  (57)  corded. was  c h a n g e s c a n i n f l u e n c e f e e d consump-  t h e d a i l y minimum and maximum t e m p e r a t u r e s w e r e r e The a v e r a g e minimum t e m p e r a t u r e  33.6°F. whereas t h e average  MD.^F.  over t h e f i v e day p e r i o d  maximum d a i l y t e m p e r a t u r e was  The s m a l l v a r i a t i o n i n t h e d a i l y t e m p e r a t u r e  e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d would i n t a k e t h a t might variable.  over t h e  reduce the day t o day v a r i a t i o n i n feed  have o c c u r r e d h a d t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s b e e n more  I t i s p e r t i n e n t t o r e c o r d t h a t t h e a n i m a l s n e s t boxes  w e r e bedded w i t h s h a v i n g s and h e n c e n o o p p o r t u n i t y was o f f e r e d t o produce  a nest.  More r e c e n t e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t f e e d  sumption i s markedly Feed  i n f l u e n c e d by n e s t i n g  2.1 per c e n t .  conditions.  c o n s u m p t i o n was r e c o r d e d on a w e t w e i g h t  s i n c e t h e d r y m a t t e r c o n t e n t o f t h e canned  con-  basis  r a t i o n s averaged  37.7 +  The e r r o r , i n w e i g h i n g a 1000 gm. m i n k i s a t l e a s t  2 p e r c e n t s i n c e t h e s c a l e u s e d was marked o f f i n 20 gm. d e viations . The  average  mink f o r each canned  d a i l y feed consumption r a t i o n i s given i n Table  of t h e average 20.  adult  6h 20  Table Average  D a i l y Feed Consumption of t h e A d u l t Mink Ave.  Ration  Feed  Gr oup  HAC-2  130  EC-k  121  929  WAC-6  13^  828  WC-8  130  903  CACA-10  163  913  CAC-12  165  803  CBAC-1>+  167  903  CBC-16  177  807  Average  lh8  880  The  feed consumption  w h a l e meat r a t i o n s  gm.  We  951 gm.  o f t h e m i n k o n t h e h o r s e meat a n d  a r e s i m i l a r and l o w e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e a n i -  m a l s on t h e c h i c k e n w a s t e r a t i o n s . the  Ave.  I t i s p e r t i n e n t t o note  that  a v e r a g e w e i g h t s o f t h e m i n k o n t h e h o r s e meat and t h e w h a l e  meat r a t i o n s  a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e on t h e c h i c k e n w a s t e  but t h e i r feed consumption  i s lower.  I f the rations  rations  were o f t h e  same n u t r i t i v e v a l u e , t h e m i n k w i t h t h e h i g h e r b o d y w e i g h t  would  be e x p e c t e d t o e a t s l i g h t l y more t h a n t h o s e o f l o w e r b o d y w e i g h t . T h u s , t h e r e i s a n i n d i c a t i o n f r o m T a b l e 20 t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r ences  i n the n u t r i t i v e value of the various r a t i o n s . The  method o f p r e s e n t i n g t h e f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n  T a b l e 20 d o e s n o t g i v e a n y r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f e e d  data i n  consumption  65 and b o d y w e i g h t n o r d o e s i t g i v e a n y i n d i c a t i o n o f v a r i a b i l i t y . I n order t o e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o o d consumption and b o d y w e i g h t , t h e a v e r a g e f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n f o r e a c h m i n k o v e r t h e f i v e d a y p e r i o d was p l o t t e d log-log  p a p e r as shown i n F i g . 5 .  aga.nst i t s b o d y w e i g h t on  The r e g r e s s i o n l i n e  f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n , i n g.m . t o b o d y w e i g h t i n gm. was by t h e method o f l e a s t  s q u a r e s f o r t h e 82 m i n k  relating  calculated  (11).  The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n and b o d y w e i g h t f o r a l l t h e m i n k i n t h e t r i a l may be e x p r e s s e d by t h e following  equation:  .ho F l = 9.97 W  ; + s  r  = 25.9$; - S  = 20.6$  r  where F l i s t h e f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n i n gm. and W i s b o d y w e i g h t i n gm.  .867.  The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t p =  R e g r e s s i o n l i n e s r e l a t i n g f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n t o body w e i g h t f o r t h e m i n k on t h e v a r i o u s s u p p l e m e n t a r y p r o t e i n were a l s o c a l c u l a t e d .  These e q u a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r s t a n d a r d e r r o r  of e s t i m a t e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e Table Relationship  groups  21. 21  B e t w e e n F e e d C o n s u m p t i o n and B o d y W e i g h t  Protein Source Rations H o r s e Meat H A C ^ H C - H -  Equation F l = 2.39 W*^8  +  )|)|  W h a l e Meat WAC-6; WC-8  F l =  6.69  w  *  CACA-10; C A C - 1 2 F l =  Chicken B  C B A C - 1 H - ; CBC-16 F l = 10.33  .ALL  ALL  r  +Sr =  2  21.8  +Sr = 1 8 . 8 $ ;  3 . 9 ^ W*^  Chicken A  S  Standard Error = 1 . 8 $ : - S r = 17.9$  W*^  +Sr =  0  21.8$  F l = 9.97 W* " +Sr = 2 5 . 9 $ F l = f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n i n gm. W = body w e i g h t i n gm. 14  0  -Sr  =  17.9$  -Sr  =  15.1$  -Sr  =  17.2$  -Sr  = 20.6$  66 The  errors i n d i c a t e that there c o n s u m p t i o n a t any by t h e  i n F i g . 5.  t h a t the mink were e a t i n g out d a i l y t h e r e was  on t h e  the  f o l l o w i n g day  v i o u s day.  I t was  and  the  out  Another point t o consider t h o u g h t h e y were  is  checked  t h a t a m i n k m i g h t have b e e n w i t h -  period.  As  a r e s u l t the  feed  w o u l d be  considerably higher  consumption t h a n the  pre-  by a v e r a g i n g  the  feed  consumption over  in the  period. The  the feed  i s a l s o bourne  hoped t h a t t h i s d a i l y f l u c t u a t i o n c o u l d ,  p a r t , be e l i m i n a t e d f i v e day  standard  f l u c t u a t i o n i n feed  This  of c a n s and  possibility  for a short  with their  i s considerable  g i v e n body w e i g h t .  spread of p o i n t s  out f e e d  i n T a b l e 21  regression lines  exponent f o r body w e i g h t of the  equation  relating  consumption of a l l the mink t o t h e i r body w e i g h t i s e x p o n e n t s of t h e b o d y w e i g h t s f o r t h e  p r o t e i n s o u r c e s r a n g e f r o m ,h0  to  .58  (Table  equations 21).  The  R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l N u t r i e n t R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r F o x e s and  of  .hO  the  National (*+9)  Minks  have a s u g g e s t e d d r y m a t t e r i n t a k e f o r m a t u r e m i n k on a m a i n tenance d i e t .  Their  suggested d r y matter i n t a k e i s presented  A p p e n d i x J , T a b l e 31 The i n t a k e was mendation. - Sr  = 5.9$  one  Table  33.  regression line relating  calculated The  f o r the  b o d y w e i g h t and  F l = ^.33  W  ,1+2  ; + Sr  where F l i s t h e d r y m a t t e r i n t a k e i n gm'.  calculated  dry  National Research Council's  r e g r e s s i o n l i n e was  b o d y w e i g h t i n gm. the  and  experimental  data  (Table  21)  matter recom-  =  and W  T h e i r exponent i s i n c l o s e agreement from the  in  6.3$; is  with which  the  67 r e l a t e s the feed consumption their  body w e i g h t s .  The  of a l l  exponent  the e x p e r i m e n t a l mink t o  obtained from a l l the  m e n t a l mink s u g g e s t t h a t f o r a d u l t mature d i e t , a 100 HO  m i n k on a  experi-  maintenance  p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n body w e i g h t s h o u l d l e a d t o a  per cent i n c r e a s e i n f e e d consumption.  The  exponents  obtained f o r the v a r i o u s e x p e r i m e n t a l r a t i o n s range from .58.  I t i s apparent that f u r t h e r  s t u d i e s on t h e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t r e s u l t s c a n be Brody  (11)  c i t e s w o r k i n w h i c h i t was  c o n s u m p t i o n v a r i e d as t h e .50 domestic f o w l s , presumably  .Ho  to  relationship  b e t w e e n f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n and b o d y w e i g h t a r e r e q u i r e d sound  of W  b e f o r e any  offered.  found that feed  power o f b o d y w e i g h t i n n o n - l a y i n g  on a m a i n t e n a n c e  diet.  He  comments  t h a t t h e s e r e s u l t s have t o be c o n f i r m e d b e f o r e t h e y c a n be t e d and he s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e x p e c t e d e x p o n e n t  s h o u l d be  accep-  .70,  •  s i n c e f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n s h o u l d be t h e same f u n c t i o n o f b o d y w e i g h t as b a s a l  metabolism. Kansky  (23)  has shown t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  t h e d r y m a t t e r i n t a k e and b o d y w e i g h t i s DM  = .17  w h e r e DM  S h o r t h o r n cows  i s the d r y matter i n t a k e  and W i s t h e b o d y w e i g h t i n l b s . the feed consumption  o f mature  of mature  R e c a l c u l a t i o n of Stephenson's  Stephenson  beaver d a t a (59)  (59)  between  of g r a s s i n l b s . has  on two d i f f e r e n t  measured rations.  f o r h i s normal animals  gave t h e f o l l o w i n g r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s r e l a t i n g f e e d i n t a k e t o b o d y weight.  68 • The R e l a t i o n s h i p  Fig. ? Between  Feed  and Body W e i g h t  Consumption  69 For Fl No.  = 17.7 8,  W  , 9  20H,  h i s r a t i o n No. °;  + Sr = 15.3$;  the r e g r e s s i o n  - S r = 11.5$  the regression  - S r = 12.2$  l i n e was  F l = 20.6  were used i n b o t h t r i a l s .  + Sr = 13.0$;  W ?; 7  i n gm.  T h u s , two d i f f e r e n t e x p o n e n t s  of a n i m a l s two d i f f e r e n t r a t i o n s .  the  i n n u t r i t i v e value since w h e r e a s R a t i o n 8 was  factory  and  W  E s s e n t i a l l y t h e same a n i m a l s  b o d y w e i g h t were d e r i v e d f r o m f e e d i n g two n e a r l y  differed  was  and f o r h i s r a t i o n  where F l i s t h e d a i l y f e e d i n t a k e  i s t h e body w e i g h t i n pounds.  line  identical  These r a t i o n s  groups  presumably  r a t i o n 20*+ p r o v e d  adequate  of  unsatis-  f o r the maintenance  of  beaver. The  exponent  of body w e i g h t i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n  between  f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n and b o d y w e i g h t has b e e n shown t o v a r y c o n siderably. is  The  biological significance  not understood.  (59)  The  suggest f u r t h e r  permit an adequate  p r e s e n t r e s u l t s and t h o s e o f  of d i g e s t i b l e  the  trials  canned  possible  ories  t o e s t i m a t e the  c a l o r i e s f r o m t h e r a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n and  were p e r f o r m e d  rations.  I t may  studies.  The  on t h e f r o z e n r a t i o n s  be a r g u e d t h a t  Canning  c o u l d make t h e c e r e a l  digest-  and n o t  the d i g e s t i b l e  per gram o f d r y m a t t e r s h o u l d be h i g h e r i n t h e  rations.  between  consumption.  v a l u e s obtained i n the d i g e s t i b i l i t y  ibility  Stephenson  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i s necessary i n order t o  I n t h e p r e s e n t w o r k i t was  the  differences  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  body w e i g h t and f e e d  intake  of t h e s e  portion  on  cal-  canned  more d i g e s t i b l e  70 and  hence i n c r e a s e t h e d i g e s t i b l e  This reasoning i s supported  energy  content  of t h e  ration.  by r e p o r t s f r o m A l b e r t a r a n c h e r s  who  have b e e n a b l e t o r a i s e m i n k s u c c e s s f u l l y on d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g a h i g h percentage  15  q u e s t i o n of c o o k i n g c e r e a l s f o r mink i s t h e n s t i l l  of  order t o c a l c u l a t e  calories  from Table  6.  (11);  P r o t e i n ^.0  The  Cal./gm.  presented Table  22  The  C a l . / g m . ; and  digestible Calories 22  i n Table  p e r gm.  f o r each r a t i o n group.  per  17 were  from  were u s e d  Carbohydrate  of d r y r a t i o n  are the t o t a l d a i l y i n t a k e of d i g e s t i b l e  i n Table The  group tends  calories for  t o be  similar.  The  The  horse and  meat r a t i o n s  as a r e s u l t t h e f e e d  This data suggests  i n t a k e i s g o v e r n e d by t h e d i g e s t i b l e the v a r i a t i o n s  a r e due  to this  con-  r e v e r s a l i s t r u e w i t h the c h i c k e n waste  r e s u l t feed consumption i s h i g h .  20  ration  have a h i g h  r a t i o n s i n t h a t t h e y have a l o w c a l o r i c v a l u e p e r gm.  Table  re-  d a i l y i n t a k e of d i g e s t i b l e C a l o r i e s f o r each  i s lower.  r a t i o n s and  in  20.  d i g e s t i b l e c a l o r i c v a l u e p e r gm. sumption  are  A l s o presented  e a c h r a t i o n g r o u p whose a v e r a g e d a i l y f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n was corded  gm.  used.  taken  f o l l o w i n g values f o r d i g e s t i b l e energy C a l . / g m . ; F a t 9.0  The  debatable.  a v e r a g e p e r c e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e r a t i o n s was  Table  ^.0  the d i g e s t i b l e  r a t i o n , the average d i g e s t i b i l i t i e s  The  minutes  l b s . pressure does not i n c r e a s e the d i g e s t i b i l i t y .  In  (70)  However, Madramootoo  shown w i t h two d i f f e r e n t r a t i o n s t h a t c o o k i n g f o r 30  has at  of cooked c e r e a l (63).  c a l o r i c content  and  as  that feed of  the  of f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n as p r e s e n t e d  difference.  a  in  .  7 1  Table Digestible  C a l o r i e s per Gram o f D r y M a t t e r Ration  Group  22  Digestible  for  Groups  Cal./gm.  Daily Digestible  H o r s e Meat  3.21  152  Whale Meat  2.87  1H-3  C h i c k e n Waste A  2.68  166  C h i c k e n Waste B  2.2h  lh$  Herr ing  3 • Oh  152 -  Ave.  Another the  s t u d y of f e e d  15,  1956.  In t h i s  week were r e c o r d e d f o r Herring erage J.  c o n s u m p t i o n of  canned r a t i o n s was made d u r i n g  to A p r i l  g r o u p s were  weekly"feed  The a v e r a g e  from the  consumption i s  number of  The  d a i l y intake  dry  matter  intake  ories  and t h e  estimation  cans  intake of f e e d  feed  consumed At t h i s  consumed, of  the  per  time  the  The a v -  3*+, A p p e n d i x  p e r mink was  C a l o r i e s was  calculated  the  number of  canned  calculated  C a l o r i e s per gm.  rations. from  the  of d r y  22.  of t h e  s h o u l d be a n e s t i m a t i o n  of  content  digestible  i n Table  receiving  a s i x week p e r i o d f r o m M a r . 6  recorded i n Table  d r y matter  of d i g e s t i b l e  presented This  cans  Calories  10.8  d a i l y with thiamine.  d a i l y d r y matter  average  mink  r a t i o n groups.  supplemented  mink p e r g r o u p and t h e  r a t i o n as  study,  a l l the  the  of  d a i l y intake the  of d i g e s t i b l e  digestible  Cal-  energy r e q u i r e d  72 t o m a i n t a i n a n a v e r a g e m i n k (The m i n k were i n t h e r a t i o o f 5 f e m a l e s t o one m a l e ) .  An e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r  d i g e s t i b l e C a l o r i e s may d e s c r i b e d by B r o d y  be made f r o m a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s  (11).  The  maintenance  as  energy i n d i g e s t i b l e  C a l o r i e s t e n d s t o be t w i c e t h e b a s a l e n e r g y a s c a l c u l a t e d  from  • 73 B.M.  = W*  where B.M.  i s t h e b a s a l e n e r g y i n C a l o r i e s and W i s  body w e i g h t i n K i l o g r a m s .  I n order t o f a c i l i t a t e  this  l a t i o n t h e mean b o d y w e i g h t s f o r e a c h r a t i o n g r o u p w e r e ded.  T h i s c a l c u l a t i o n and t h e one m e n t i o n e d  The m i n k was  151  = 70.5  - 7.9.  The 152  - 10.8  In a l l  ( T a b l e 22).  per five  The  agree  i s excellent.  cases, the recorded d a i l y intake  C a l o r i e s p e r m i n k was  of d i g e s t i b l e  g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t computed f r o m t h e o r y .  On t h e a v e r a g e , t h e m i n k r e c e i v e d e t i c a l value.  Calories  con-  .  same v a l u e , as c o m p u t e d f r o m t h e  ment b e t w e e n t h e s e two t r i a l s  16.7  per c e n t above t h e  theor-  However, the t h e o r e t i c a l v a l u e does not t a k e  a c c o u n t any energy r e q u i r e d f o r a c t i v i t y . f o r a c t i v i t y i s a b o u t 10 allowance would  the c a l o r i c  energy  average d a i l y i n t a k e of d i g e s t i b l e C a l o r i e s  d a y f e e d i n g t r i a l was  very active.  recor-  above a r e p r e s e n t e d  i n T a b l e 23 w h i c h c o m p a r e s t h e c a l c u l a t e d d i g e s t i b l e sumed t o t h a t d e r i v e d f r o m t w i c e B.M.  calcu-  into  A normal allowance  per c e n t of t h e c a l o r i c  i n t a k e but  this  p r o b a b l y be t o o l o w f o r t h e m i n k s i n c e i t i s  A more r e a s o n a b l e v a l u e w o u l d intake.  be 15  per cent of  I f t h i s a s s u m p t i o n were c o r r e c t , t h e n t h e  e x p e r i m e n t a l m i n k were c o n s u m i n g  s u f f i c i e n t C a l o r i e s t o meet  t h e i r energy requirements f o r maintenance  and  activity.  73 An e s t i m a t i o n of t h e d a i l y i n t a k e of d i g e s t i b l e o r i e s f o r a 1000  gm. m i n k may be c a l c u l a t e d .  The d a i l y  feed  c o n s u m p t i o n was computed f r o m t h e e q u a t i o n r e l a t i n g f e e d s u m p t i o n t o body w e i g h t feed  o r 62.3  matter  gm.  of d r y m a t t e r ,  i n the feed.  dry matter  i s 2.81  ( T a b l e 21).  T h i s was  a s s u m i n g 37.7  165  gm.  Cal-  con-  o f wet  per cent d r y  The a v e r a g e d i g e s t i b l e C a l o r i e s p e r gm. Calories.  Then t h e e s t i m a t e d d a i l y  of d i g e s t i b l e C a l o r i e s f o r a 1000 It i s realized  gm. m i n k w o u l d be  that the c a l c u l a t i o n s  intake  175.  performed i n t h i s  s e c t i o n a r e s u b j e c t t o e r r o r b e c a u s e o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s made but  they are only intended  t o o f f e r an a p p r o x i m a t i o n  s t u d i e s on t h e e n e r g e t i c s o f m i n k n u t r i t i o n a r e  of  until  initiated.  7k  Table  C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e Consumed  Canned R a t i o n Group  Per Cent Dry Matter  Digestible  Ave. Dry Matter Consumed p e r d a y  H o r s e Meat  39.5  k5.k  - 2.7  Whale Meat  38.5  52.k  ± 8.2  Chicken A  37.7  59.2  Chicken B  35.0  Herring  39.8  9  F r o m 2 t i m e s B.M.  = 70.5W  .73  23  Calories  t o t h e Computed C a l o r i e s  G r o u p Mean Body W e i g h t  Ave. D i g e s t i b l e C a l . Consumed p e r d a y  ^Computed D i g . C a l . f o r Maintenance  lk6  130  826  150  120  - k.2  77k  159  117"  62.7  - 11.1  932  _+0  134-  53.3  - k.l  916  162  130  827  151 -  gm.  899  f o r Maintenance  gm.  7.9  75  VI.  Summary The  primary objective  h o r s e meat, whale  of t h i s  s t u d y was  t o compare  m e a t , two t y p e s o f c h i c k e n w a s t e  and  herring  as s u p p l e m e n t a r y a n i m a l p r o t e i n s o u r c e s i n r a t i o n s f o r m i n k d u r i n g m a i n t e n a n c e , r e p r o d u c t i o n and g r o w t h . r a t i o n s were canned  Part  i n an a t t e m p t t o p r e v e n t m i c r o b i a l  Another part, contained a commercial a n t i o x i d a n t t h a t i t would  1.  of the  prevent oxidative  i n t h e hope  rancidity.  The  e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s may  One  hundred  and  spoilage.  be s u m m a r i z e d  as  follows:  s e v e n t y one f e m a l e m i n k o f a s s o r t e d  c o l o u r phases were f e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e tenance p e r i o d . any o f t h e 2.  T h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s  between  rations. I n the r e p r o d u c t i v e  r e c e i v i n g the canned failure.  main-  phase  of the e x p e r i m e n t , the mink  r a t i o n s had e s s e n t i a l l y c o m p l e t e  reproductive  Only 1 2 k i t s were b o r n f r o m 7 9 f e m a l e s b r e d .  From the  mink r e c e i v i n g t h e f r o z e n r a t i o n s , 1 9 ^ k i t s were b o r n f r o m 8 8 females bred. mal.  The  The  average  average  of 2 . 2 k i t s  p e r f e m a l e was  below  g e s t a t i o n p e r i o d f o r a l l t h e m i n k was  53 -  nor^.0  days. 3.  S i x t y f e m a l e and 6 0 m a l e k i t s w e r e f e d t h e  r a t i o n s d u r i n g the growth phase.  The  frozen  rations containing  Horse  M e a t , W h a l e Meat and C h i c k e n W a s t e A were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s u p e r i o r to  t h o s e c o n t a i n i n g C h i c k e n W a s t e B and H e r r i n g a t p = . 0 1 .  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two c h i c k e n wastes has b e e n a t t r i b u t e d  The to  76 the v a r i a b i l i t y average due  of t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of c h i c k e n w a s t e s .  performance  o f t h e m i n k on t h e H e r r i n g r a t i o n s was  t o p r o t e i n of i n f e r i o r  q u a l i t y , as e v i d e n c e d  P r o t e i n U t i l i z a t i o n v a l u e , b u t p r o b a b l y due oxidative  The  t o the r e s u l t s  Net  of  a n t i o x i d a n t depressed  growth  of the k i t s .  This some  toxicity.  5.  The  average  r a t i o n s d u r i n g a 110 percentage  r a t i o n s and did  not  by i t s h i g h  t h a t at the l e v e l used, the a n t i o x i d a n t possessed  d e g r e e of  average  below  rancidity.  k. suggests  The  percentage day  of t h i a m i n e d e s t r o y e d i n t h e  s t o r a g e p e r i o d a t 0°F.  was  29.2.  of t h i a m i n e d e s t r o y e d between t h a w i n g  subsequent  consumption  was  16.0.  The the  The a n t i o x i d a n t  not p r o t e c t the d e s t r u c t i o n of t h i a m i n e i n e i t h e r  of t h e s e  two  trials. 6.  The  average  per cent d i g e s t i b i l i t y f o r v a r i o u s r a t i o n  components were d e t e r m i n e d a d u l t female  by t h e c h r o m i c  o x i d e method f o r  mink r e c e i v i n g t h e f r o z e n r a t i o n s .  Digestibility  Class  Per Cent  They were:  Digestibility  Total  61.5  -  5.1  Nitrogen  70.6  -  6.9  Fat  87.9  -  1.9  it C a r b o h y d r a t e "  26.9  -  >+.0  7.  The  supplementary  50  Net P r o t e i n U t i l i z a t i o n v a l u e s of t h e f a t e x t r a c t e d p r o t e i n s o u r c e s were d e t e r m i n e d  i n o r d e r t o have  an  77 assessment of t h e i r  8.  amino a c i d  composition.  Horse  Meat  .5H  Whale  Meat  .5*  C h i c k e n Waste A  .>+3  C h i c k e n Waste B  .33  Herring  .65  The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n and b o d y  w e i g h t f o r a l l t h e mink r e c e i v i n g Fl  They were:  = 9.97  W  ,If0  t h e canned  rations  was:  w h e r e F l i s t h e f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n i n gm. and W i s  t h e b o d y w e i g h t i n gm.  Regression  e q u a t i o n s were a l s o  deter-  mined f o r t h e o t h e r r a t i o n g r o u p s . 9. ceiving in  The v a r i a b i l i t y t h e canned  i n f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n of t h e mink r e -  r a t i o n s was a t t r i b u t e d  the d i g e s t i b l e energy contents  daily digestible Calories gm. was c a l c u l a t e d  t o the  of t h e r a t i o n s .  differences The  average  f o r m i n k whose a v e r a g e w e i g h t was  t o be 151  -  7.9.  827  78 Appendix A Maintenance Ration  No. o f Females  k  W e i g h t D a t a F o r The F e m a l e A d u l t  Mink  A v e . Wt. Jan.6  A v e . Wt, Gained  A v e . Wt. Feb.20  A v e . Wt. M a r . 21  HAF-1  9  792  801  860  68  HAC-2  10  756  799  779  23  HF-3  10  762  875  796  3  9  712  770  7 5 L  33  WAF-5  10  711  696  7^0  29  Y/AC-6  10  717  802  811  9  WF-7  9  768  702  807  39  WC-8  10  732  7^9  7*+3  11  CAAF-9  10  7^8  708  752  h  CAAC-10  8  70h  7k3  709  5  CAF-11  9  705  711  78  CAC-12  7  788  771  81^-  26  CBAF-13  8  829  796  829  0  CBAC-lif  8  835  806  816  -19  CBF-15  8  789  769  832  h-3  CBC-16  7  783  761  79^  11  758  766  788  30  HC-H-  Ave. or Total  k  l 2 k  A l l w e i g h t s a r e i n gm.  L  k  L  79  79 Appendix B The H e r r i n g M i n k D u r i n g M a i n t e n a n c e T a b l e 2k Ration  Wo. o f Females  FAF-17 FAC-18 FF-19 FC-20  8 8 8 5  Ave. I n i t i a l Wt.  A v e . o r T o t a l 29  A v e . Wt. Mar.2  A v e . Wt. Loss  815 gm. 87*+ 899 858  80k gm. ?kl 839 60k  11 gm. 133 60 25k  862  7^7  115  T a b l e 25 Weight D a t a and Feed Consumption A f t e r V i t a m i n S u p p l e m e n t a t i o n S u p p l e m e n t F e m a l e s A v e . Wt. D a t a - g m s . ^ A v e . F e e d i n Gms. p e r D a y Mar.2 Mar.10 Mar.15 P r i o r V i t a m i n s A f t e r V i t a m i n s Thiamine F o l i c & B]_ Folic 1% W.B.C. 5  9 6 8 6  721 7k3 7k0 870  7k9 788 693 805  791  823 68k 837  132 13k 157 15k  15 62 58 60  M i n k o n Canned R a t i o n s O n l y T a b l e 26 Average Weight o f H e r r i n g Female  Mink  Ration  J a n . 20  Mar. 2  A p r i l 15  FAF-17 FAC-18 FF-19 FC-20  815 gm. 87k  80k gm. 7kl  951 gm. 879  858  60k  899  839  995 875  80  Appendix C Mean Body Weight and Feed Consumption of Male Mink Receiving a Canned Horse Meat and Herring Ration Fig.  1  The Horse Meat Group  ihOO  _ 1500  1300 -  . 1000  c  •H  co  •H -P  Weeks  a  OT  o o  Fig. 2  T3 <D O)  The Herring Group  P>4  1600  03 Q)  IkOO wt;  1200  - 1000 Feed  t  t  .  Began Thiamine 0  6  Weeks  8  1  .10  500  81 Appendix D Reproduction and Yifeaning Data for the Experimental Groups Ration  Total Females  Females Littered  HAF-1  9  if  8  2  0.9  0.2  HAC-2  10  2  •  0  0.0  0.0  HF-3  9  6  13  7  l A  0.8  HC-^f  8  0  0  0  WAF-5  10  WAC-6  9  1  WF-7  9  WC-8 CAAF-9  Kits Kits Born Weaned  2  Kits Born per Female  0.0  Kits Weaned per F<  0.0  5  0.5  0.5  1  1  0.1  0.1  6  39  30  .3  3.3  10  0  0  0  0.0  0.0  10  7  22  18  2.2  1.8  CAAC-10  8  0  0  0  0.0  0.0  CAF-11  9  12  6  1.3  0.7  CAC-12  7  0  0  0  0.0  0.0  CBAF-13  8  5  30  27  3.8  3.  CBAC-l*f  8  0  0  0  0.0  . 0.0  CBF-15  8  5  28  27  3.5  3A  CBC-16  7  0  0  0  0.0  0.0  FAF-17  8  3  13  2  1.6  0.3  FAC-18  8  11  »f  l.h  0.5  FF-19  8  if  2h  2L  2.8  3.0  FC-20  if  1  0  0.0  0.0  1.2  0.9  Total or Ave. 5  167  k  •> *  206  5  153  7 Kits were used for enzyme studies  k  L  82 Appendix E Growth Data f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l  Groups  T a b l e 27 Average W e i g h t s - o f t h e Mink D u r i n g  Growth  Females Ration  No,  June 28  HAF-1 HF-3 WAF-5 WF-7 CAAF-9 CAF-11 CBAF-13 CBF-15 FAF-17 FF-19  •6 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 5 6  39>+ 3 0 333 3^7 351 3W 3 0  Ave.  58  July l k  5 0 92 L97 537 518  July _J_Z_  6k0  Aug. J L Z -  S e p t . Nov. 28 11 84o 933 933 1100 973 1012 927 9^0 968 823  880 953 1003 1120 1007 102 8^7 9M 928 853  531 613 670 773 656 684507  9 5  956  597  1697 1952 1447 1760 1690 1607 1450 1503 l4l7 1333  1294 l422 1065 1344 1244 1206 1020 1046 967 987  1512 1585  1159  set  $  368  5*+2 567 568 502  583  698 687 7 0 790 71G 697 723 730 730 627  359  526  630  713  k  L  k  k  607 627 663 620 620 6L7  L  k  k  Total Gain  III 485  Males HAF-1 HF-3 WAF-5 WF-7 CAAF-9 CAF-11 CBAF-13 CBF-15 FAF-17 FF-19 Ave.  6  6 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3  >+03 530 382 416 446 4oi y30 457 1+50 347  693 856 602 685 727 638 733 728 723 527  920 1088 ,793 943 900 853 900 913 890 707  1180 1306 997 1230 1126 IO67 1023 1124 1085 807  56  426  691  891  1095  A l l w e i g h t s a r e i n grams  1 15 89 33 2 1397 1587 1533 1487 1460 1413 1537 1280  83 Appendix E Growth Data f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Fig.. Average Growth Curve  Groups  3 of t h e Female  Kits  1200  1000  .  800  -  B  G  •H -P X! M •H CD  o  600  PQ  !+00  200  0  3  0  D  90  O  Days A f t e r  Weaning  120  84Appendix E Growth Data f o r the E x p e r i m e n t a l Average Growth Curve of the Male  Groups Kits  85 Appendix F Test F o r S i g n i f i c a n c e Within 1.  Proteins The a n a l y s i s  there  a Group  aredifferences  protein sources. culated  of variance  f o r growth has i n d i c a t e d  that  i n g a i n due t o t h e d i f f e r e n t s u p p l e m e n t a r y  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  by a m o d i f i c a t i o n  of the " t " t e s t .  may be c a l -  Now " t " i s e q u a l t o s  "t"  = D where D i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t w o means a n d SE SE i s t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r b e t w e e n t h e t w o means. The S t a n d a r d E r r o r b e t w e e n t w o means i n a v a r i a n c e the  square r o o t  analysis i s :  of E r r o r Variance  (2)  No. o f v a r i a t e s e n t e r i n g  one mean  Now t h e minimum d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a n y t w o v a r i a t e means for  required  s i g n i f i c a n c e = M.S.D. w h i c h i s e q u a l t o : .  M.S.D. =  Error Variance  (2)  times " t " @  No. o f v a r i a t e s e n t e r i n g  one mean  p = .05 o f e r r o r d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m , derived  from the " t " expression  ^ h i s expression i s  where D = ( t ) S E .  Any d i f f e r -  e n c e b e t w e e n means w h i c h i s l a r g e r t h a n t h e c a l c u l a t e d M.S.D. w i l l t h e n have s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e p = . 0 5 l e v e l . lation  i s a p p l i c a b l e t o any l e v e l For  This  calcu-  o f p.  t h e p r o t e i n s , M.S.D. i s e q u a l t o :  M.S.D. = s q . r o o t  o f 22*+2^ (2)  = 3 3 . 5 (H.6) = 15H gm.  t i m e s " t " @ p = .01 f o r h d . f .  86 The mean g a i n s f o r t h e f i v e  supplementary p r o t e i n groups 965 gm. 963 9H-B 786 729  Horse Whale Chicken A Chicken B Herring  b e t w e e n H o r s e and W h a l e i s 2 gm.; H o r s e a n d  The mean d i f f e r e n c e C h i c k e n A i s 17  gm.; H o r s e a n d C h i c k e n B i s 179  gm.; and H o r s e  and H e r r i n g  i s 236  gm.; W h a l e a n d C h i c k e n B i s 177  and H e r r i n g  i s 23H  gm.  and C h i c k e n B i s 162  gm.; C h i c k e n A and H e r r i n g  the  means a t p = 2.  t h a n 15*+  greater  gm.; W h a l e  The mean d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n C h i c k e n A  mean d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n C h i c k e n B a n d H e r r i n g difference  were:  i s 2 1 9 gm.  i s 57 gm.  gm. i n d i c a t e s s i g n i f i c a n c e  The  A mean between  .01.  I n t e r a c t i o n between S e x and P r o t e i n s The M.S.D. f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n S e x a n d P r o t e i n s  a t p = .05  was c a l c u l a t e d  t o be 132  gm.  The mean g a i n s f o r t h e  f e m a l e s and m a l e s r e c e i v i n g d i f f e r e n t s u p p l e m e n t a r y p r o t e i n sources  were:  Horse Whale Chicken A Chicken B Herring For W h a l e i s 150 B i s 63  Females  Males  572 722 670 539 H83  1358 gm. 1205 1225 1033 977  gm.  t h e f e m a l e s t h e mean d i f f e r e n c e gm.; H o r s e and C h i c k e n A i s 98  gm.; H o r s e a n d H e r r i n g  i s 89  gm.  between Horse and  gm.; H o r s e a n d C h i c k e n  The mean d i f f e r e n c e  87 between Whale 183 gm.; Whale  and C h i c k e n A i s 52 gm.; Whale i s 239 gm.  and H e r r i n g  and C h i c k e n B i s  The mean d i f f e r e n c e b e -  t w e e n C h i c k e n A and C h i c k e n B i s 131 gm.; C h i c k e n A and H e r r i n g is  I87  is  56 gm.  gm.  The mean d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n C h i c k e n B and H e r r i n g  F o r t h e m a l e s t h e mean d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n H o r s e and Whale  i s 153 gm.; H o r s e and C h i c k e n A i s 133 gm.; H o r s e and  C h i c k e n B i s 325 gm.; H o r s e and H e r r i n g d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n Whale  i s H-79 gm.  The mean  and C h i c k e n A i s 20 gm.; Whale a n d  C h i c k e n B i s 172 gm.; W h a l e  and H e r r i n g  i s 228 gm.  The mean  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n C h i c k e n A and C h i c k e n B i s 192 gm.; A and H e r r i n g  i s 2H8 gm.  B and H e r r i n g  i s 56 gm.  Chicken  The mean d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n C h i c k e n  F o r s i g n i f i c a n c e b e t w e e n t h e means o f a n y t w o r a t i o n s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e must be g r e a t e r t h a n 132 gms.  88 Appendix G Procedure  f o r Thiamine  Determinations  T h e r e a r e many methods f o r t h e a s s a y may be c l a s s i f i e d p h y s i c a l methods.  which  i n t o a n i m a l , m i c r o b i o l o g i c a l , c h e m i c a l and The a n i m a l methods a r e t e d i o u s and t h e r e -  sults vary considerably. more r a p i d  of thiamine  and a c c u r a t e  dency f o r substances  The m i c r o b i o l o g i c a l methods a r e much but t h e main disadvantage  i s the ten-  other than thiamine t o respond  i n t h e same  way a s t h e v i t a m i n , and a s a r e s u l t t h e v a l u e s may be h i g h . C o r r e c t i o n b l a n k s have i m p r o v e d t h e s e methods c o n s i d e r a b l y b u t t h e methods a r e n o t t o o a p p l i c a b l e f o r r o u t i n e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s . Chemical  a n a l y s i s are considered  t o be more a p p l i c a b l e t o r o u t i n e  d e t e r m i n a t i o n s t h a n most o t h e r m e t h o d s .  The two m a i n  methods a r e b a s e d on'colourimetry and f l o u r i m e t r y .  The  f l u o r i m e t r i c method i s more w i d e l y a p p l i c a b l e t o f o o d s products  than a r e t h e c o l o r m e t r i c methods.  b a s e d on s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r s , solutions  thiochrome and f e e d  P h y s i c a l methods,  a r e o n l y used f o r r e l a t i v e l y  pure  of t h i a m i n e . The method c h o s e n f o r t h e a s s a y  of t h i a m i n e , as r e c o m -  mended b y t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f V i t a m i n C h e m i s t s , chrome p r o c e d u r e and  chemical  was t h e t h i o -  because of i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y t o feed  i t s ease f o r r o u t i n e a n a l y s e s w h i c h o c c u r r e d  monthly time  intervals.  products  from weekly t o  89 The reference (1)  procedure followed  (1*+)  except f o r the  flourescense  p u r i f i e d i n the  (5D  isobutyl alcohol. distilled  I s o b u t y l a l c o h o l was  After f i l t r a t i o n ,  i n an a l l g l a s s d i s t i l l i n g  b o i l i n g b e t w e e n 105-108°C. was (2)  (a)  Extraction  The  fluorometric  by t h i o c h r o m e . ment was  the  m i x t u r e was 100  ml.  of  a p p a r a t u s and  was  the f r a c t i o n  collected.  t o c o n t a i n 20  For  routine  h a l f as  t o 60  As meg.  flourescence  t h a t the  s e n s i t i v e as  Beckman, M o d e l  the  flourometers  recom-  initial  of t h i a m i n e i n s t e a d  t h i a m i n e c o n t e n t of the  sample s i z e , t h e  of t h e  of 10  rations.  hydrolysis.  The  B e c a u s e of  A f t e r enzymatic h y d r o l y s i s , the t u b e s and  then  meg.  an  was  the the  e x t e n d e d f r o m 30  e n z y m a t i c h y d r o l y s i s was  i n plastic centrifuge  t o 30  and  minutes i n o r d e r t o ensure complete s o l u t i o n of the  f o r m s of t h i a m i n e .  sample  sample s i z e  flourometer  a c i d h y d r o l y s i s was  produced attach-  a consequence, the  insensitivity  DU  flourometric  t h i a m i n e a n a l y s i s on t h e r a t i o n s t h e  b e c a u s e of t h e  initial  attachment f o r the  established  procedure.  had  trifuged  then  isobutyl alcohol  used t o measure the  I t was  a b o u t one  mend f o r t h e  larger  The  dried  Procedure  S p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r was  V?  •  f o l l o w i n g manner  5 grams of N o r i t p e r  shaken f o r f i v e minutes w i t h  low  modifications:  shaking w i t h anhydrous sodium s u l f a t e .  gm.  the  Reagents  t o remove any  30  i d e n t i c a l to that i n  following  I s o b u t y l a l c o h o l was  by  was  to  various  over-night  e x t r a c t s were filtered.  cen-  '90 (b)  Purification  No c h a n g e s w e r e made i n t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e b u t some t e c h n i q u e s the  are worth noting.  To a v o i d b a n d i n g w h i l e  a d s o r p t i o n columns t h e f o l l o w i n g technique  factory. serted  was f o u n d  satis-  A s m a l l wad o f g l a s s w o o l and a s m a l l c o r k w e r e i n -  i n t o t h e s m a l l end o f t h e c o l u m n .  W i t h t h e column  t o one i n c h f r o m t h e t o p w i t h d i s t i l l e d w a t e r , a c t i v a t e d was  s l o w l y added w h i l e  was  stirred vigorously with a s t i r r i n g rod.  stirring avoid  filling  enabled  the water-decalso  the decalso  to settle  mixture  filled decalso  i n t h e column  The  continuous  at a uniform  r a t e and t h u s  banding. I t was e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t p u r i f i c a t i o n b y t h e c o l u m n s _n  was  necessary.  thiamine  The t e s t t h i a m i n e  hydrochloride  100 c c . w i t h d i s t i l l e d  s o l u t i o n contained  p e r m l . a n d was p r e p a r e d  5 x 10  'gm.  by d i l u t i n g t o  water, 10.0 m l . of i n t e r m e d i a t e  s o l u t i o n p l u s 75 m l . o f 0 . I N H2SOL and 5 m l . o f S o d i u m  thiamine Acetate  solution. S m a l l , f u n n e l s , made f r o m t e s t t u b e s , w e r e u s e d t o collect  t h e K C l e l u t a t e f r o m t h e c o l u m n s i n t o t h e 25 m l . v o l u -  metric f l a s k s .  The u s e o f t h e s e  funnels  mation of a i r traps i n t h e v o l u m e t r i c (c) Ten  Conversion  the f o r -  flasks.  t o Thiochrome  m l . o f t h e a c i d K C l e l u t a t e and 5 m l . o f a l k a l i n e  f e r r i c y a n i d e were used f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n higher  prevented  relative concentration  of thiochrome.  The  o f f e r r i c y a n i d e was u s e d i n o r d e r  91 to  e n s u r e t h e complete c o n v e r s i o n o f t h i a m i n e  amount of t h i o c h r o m e  t o be  insensitivity  flourometer.  (d)  of the  o x i d i z e d was  (3)  and  Spectrophotometer  t h e s e n s i t i v i t y knob s e t a t  500  gm.  f r o m a b l o c k of f e e d i n the f e e d  utilizing  the  0.1.  of sample were t a k e n  randomly  storage r e f r i g e r a t o r .  c u t i n t o s m a l l p i e c e s w i t h a k n i f e and  samples were a n a l y z e d  u s u a l l y w i t h i n 5 per cent  i n d u p l i c a t e and of one  another.  The  then ground  a H o b a r t meat g r i n d e r f r o m w h i c h t h e assay s a m p l e s w e r e All  the  Sample P r e p a r a t i o n Approximately  s a m p l e was  b e c a u s e of  m e a s u r e d by t h e f l o u o r o m e t r i c a t t a c h -  ment o f t h e Beckman, M o d e l DU filters  larger  The  Measurement of Thiochrome  T h i o c h r o m e was  proper  t o thiochrome.  the assays  taken. were  in  92 Appendix  H  D i g e s t i h j L i t v S t u d i e s on t h e F r o z e n R a t i o n s  (1)  M e t h o d s and M a t e r i a l s F i v e a d u l t female mink from each o f t h e t e n f r o z e n  rations  ( T a b l e 7) were f e d f o r a 3 d a y p e r i o d  ( J u l y 22-25,  1956)  t h e i r r e g u l a r r a t i o n s w h i c h c o n t a i n e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y hO mg. o f c h r o m i c o x i d e p e r gm. o f d r y r a t i o n . mixed  The c h r o m i c o x i d e was  i n t o a 3 d a y f e e d s u p p l y by means o f a H o b a r t m i x e r  a uniform green colour r e s u l t e d . the r e f r i g e r a t o r  until  The f e e d was k e p t c h i l l e d i n  between f e e d i n g and j u s t p r i o r t o f e e d i n g , t h e  f e e d was r e - m i x e d t o e n s u r e u n i f o r m d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e i n d i c a t o r . The f a e c e s w e r e c o l l e c t e d the mink cages.  on wax p a p e r w h i c h was p l a c e d  A t t h e end o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d ,  below  samples  of f e e d and f a e c e s w e r e c o l l e c t e d , d r i e d a t 100°C. f o r hQ h o u r s and t h e n g r o u n d  i n a W i l e y M i l l , u s i n g t h e hO mesh s c r e e n .  The  s a m p l e s were s t o r e d i n t i g h t l y s t o p p e r e d b o t t l e s u n t i l a n a l y z e d . (2)  Chemical Procedures B o t h W o r t h e n (65)  a n d Madramootoo  (*+2)  have shown  t h a t t h e c h r o m i c o x i d e method i s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e digestibility  o f m i n k r a t i o n s and t h a t t h e method i s c o m p a r a b l e  t o t h e t o t a l c o l l e c t i o n method.  Chromic  o x i d e i n t h e f e e d and  f a e c e s was d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e method a s d e s c r i b e d b y B o l i n T h i s method h a s b e e n u s e d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h e A n i m a l  (10).  Nutrition  Laboratory, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n studying the  93 digestibility The  o f a w h e a t - h e r r i n g r a t i o n when f e d t o m i n k  Coleman spectrophotometer  was u s e d  (65).  i n preparing a standard  c u r v e b e t w e e n t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f 0.2 t o 0.14 mg. o f c h r o m i c oxide per m l . of s o l u t i o n . between t h e l o g a r i t h i m centration  of chromic  A straight line  relationship  o f t h e p e r c e n t t r a n s m i s s i o n and t h e c o n oxide.  N i t r o g e n i n t h e f e e d a n d f a e c e s were d e t e r m i n e d a s t a n d a r d method (46).  (4).  total digestibility, nitrogen digestibility,  The p e r c e n t fat  digestibility  " c a r b o h y d r a t e " d i g e s t i b i l i t y f o r each mink appears The  t o t a l d i g e s t i b i l i t y may be c a l c u l a t e d  data so obtained.  by  F a t i n t h e f e e d a n d f a e c e s was d e t e r -  mined b y t h e method d e s c r i b e d b y B a i l e y  and  existed  F o r convenience  the following  i n Table  28.  from the  f o r m u l a was  derived. Per Cent T o t a l D i g e s t i b i l i t y 100  ( 1 - per cent C r e t i n feed per c e n t Cr203in f a e c e s )  The  individual nitrogen digestibilities  m i n k c a n be c a l c u l a t e d for  =  m i n k No. 1 ( T a b l e  as f o l l o w s :  f o r each  A sample c a l c u l a t i o n i s g i v e n  28).  1 gm. f e e d h a s 0 . 0 4 6 5 gm. N = 0.041 gm. Cr203 1 gm. f a e c e s h a s 0 . 0 3 5 2 gm. N = O.OI38 gm. C r . 0 3 2  F o r 1 gm. C r 2 0 ^  i n t h e f e e d t h e r e i s 0.0465 = 1 1 . 3 4 gm. N 0.041  F o r 1 gm. C r 2 0 3 i n f a e c e s t h e r e i s 0.0352 = 2.55 gm. N 0.0138 N i t r o g e n A b s o r b e d = 11.34-2.55 = 8.79 gm. N P e r c e n t n i t r o g e n d i g e s t e d = 8.79(100) = 77.5 p e r c e n t . 11.34  94 The f o l l o w i n g nitrogen Per  d e r i v e d f o r m u l a c a n be used  fet'djgsstibility  nitrogen  was  calculated  some e x p l a n a t i o n .  When a r a t i o n i s  proximate c o m p o s i t i o n ,  6.25), fat extract.  or e t h e r In t h i s  the  extract,  study the  and n i t r o g e n f r e e  since  t h e s e two a r e c h i e f l y s t u d y was done  r a t i o n was  assumed  low,  viewed  water,  same manner  ash,  study  on t h e are  fibre  the  extract  terms  basis  composed  purpose  of  protein  (Nitrogen  to  the  Since  ash content  from the  per c e n t  digestibility,  digestibility,  n i t r o g e n as d e s c r i b e d  of  of  the  a s h was  calculating  the  per  cent  "Carbohydrate" d i g e s t i b i l i t y  t h e n be c a l c u l a t e d  free  analysis  of c a r b o h y d r a t e s .  of  its  and n i t r o g e n  of a proximate  per c e n t d i g e s t i b i l i t y the  requires  term "carbohydrate" r e f e r s  "carbohydrate" d i g e s t i b i l i t y .  fat  in this  on mature a d u l t mink and t h e  t o be z e r o f o r  cent feed  i n the  main c o n s t i t u e n t s  fibre  the  the  digestibility.  The t e r m " c a r b o h y d r a t e " u s e d  this  directly  = (1 - J N i n f a e c e s . % Cr?0^ i n feed)100 % Cr2 0 3 i n f a e c e s % N i n f e e d  cent n i t r o g e n d i g e s t e d  the  give  digested.  The as  to  total digestibility,  per c e n t feed  i n the  following  fat  can  nitrogen  and t h e  per  formula:  "Carbohydrate" D i g e s t i b i l i t y = Per cent t o t a l d i g e s t i b i l i t y  -  f{%  feed  fat)(fat  digestibility)  100 plus  (% Feed N i t r o g e n ) ( 6 . 2 5 ) ( N i t r o g e n  digestibility)1  100 A sample  c a l c u l a t i o n f o r mink N o .  1  is:  "Carbohydrate" D i g e s t i b i l i t y =  70.3 - [ ( 1 7 . 3 ) ( 9 2 . 2 ) plus 100  ( 4 . 7 ) ( 6 . 2 5 ) ( 7 7 . 5 ) ] = 3 1 . 5 per c e n t . 100  Table Total Digestibility. Ration  Per Mink P e r Cent Per Cent No. F a e c a l N F a t F a e c a l F e e d  1 2 3  HAF-1  HF-3  WAF-5  WF-7  CAAF-9  Nitrogen D i g e s t i b i l i t y .  h 5  25 26 27 28 30 H-9  50 51 52 53 73 7k 75 77 79 97 98 99 100 101  CAF-11 120  121 122 12h 125  CBAF-131H-5 lk6 lh7 IkQ lk9  CBF-15 169  170 171 172 173 FAF-17 196 198 199 200 201 FF-19 217 218 219 220 221  3,5  1:1  3.k k.7 k.2 k.l  .3 .0 3.1 k.5 3.3 3.3 2.7 2.2 k.l k.6  3.6 3.8 2.8 3.0 2.9 k.6 5.3 k.5 3.8 3.9 k.5 3.7 k.O 3.8  £1  k.6 k.6 k.5  3.8 k.5 3.9  k.l k.7 k.9 2.9  3.9 2.7 3.0 2.6  k.3 2.6  k.5 k.O k.Q  2.9 k.5 3.5 5.2 3-3 2.8  k.2  5.8 7.2 k.l 3.3  k.5 k.9  3.8  k.5 5.5  3.5  k.Q k.Q  1.8  k.5  4 2.5 2  3.5  I'l 3.8 If.l  5.1 5.0 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.9 k.Q 3.3 3.7 6.0 l\l  k.3  3.5 3.5 k.3 5.3  Cent Per Cent F a e c e s C2O3  Cr?03  k.l k.l k.l k.l k.l k.2 k.2 k.2 k.2 k.2 k.9 k.9 k.9 k.9 k.9 k.O k.O k.O k.O k.O k.k k.k k.k k.k k.k k.l k.l k.l k.l k.l k.7 k.7 k.7 k.7 k.7 k.6 k.6 k.6 k.6k.6 k.5 k.5 ^  k.5 k.2 k.2 k.2 k.2 k.2  13.8 13.7 11.1 10.1 10.2 10.6 17.5 13.9 18.6 15.8 13.9 10.9 13.1 12.6 13.8 11.8 8.8 10.3 9.0 10.7 lk.6 9.6 11. k 11.6 10.3 9.6 11.9 12.6 9.3 9.8 12. k 11.6 12.1 12.6 lk.1 10.9 12.1 11.5 11.0 9.9 8.6 9.7 10.9 10.0 8.3 11.6 13.2 13. k 7.7 9.7  28  Fat Digestibility  . and " C a r b o h y d r a t e D i g e s t i b i l i t y "  Per Cent P e r Cent P e r Cent T o t a l Nitrogen Feed N Feed F a t D i g e s t i b i l i t y D i g e s t i b i l i t y  k.7 k.7 k.7 k.7 k.7  5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3  k.9 k.9 ^ . 9  k.9 k.9  5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7  k.6 k.6 k.6 k.6 k.6 k.k k.k k.k k.k k.k  17.3 17.3 17.3 17.3 17.3 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.5  15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2  9.7 9.7 9.7 9.7  .9.7 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 lk.5 lk.5 lk.5 lk.5 lk.5 19.8 19.8 19.8  19.8 19.8  70.3 70.1  63.I  59. k  59.8 60. U76.0 69.8  77.k 73.k 6k.5  65.0 62.6 6l.l  6k.5  66.1  5k.5  61.2 55.6 62.6 69.9  5k.2 61. k $2.1 57.3 57.3 65.5 67.5  55.9 58.2 62.1 59.5 61.2 62.7 66.7 57.8 62.0 60.0 58.2 53.5  k7.7 53.6  58.7 6.0 63.8 68.2 68.7  k5.k 56.7  77.5  79.0 6k.O 70.0 78.5 68.6 82.8 69.6 83.O  Qk.5 67.7  69.5 75.1  Qk.2  73.2 59.6 72.6 71.2 79.5 82.5  7k.3 65.6 61.0 63.2 67. k  73.0 70.2 67.2 66.2 72.6 59.2 68.2 67.7 71.7 66.6 7k.6  68.9 71.6 66.5  k6.3 k9.9 7k.l  61.5 68.3 75.0 81.8 81.6  k7.l 7k.k  for Individual  Fat Digestibility  92.2 93.1 89.7 93.2 89.5 92.9 93.6  9k.9 96.7 9k.3  89.9 82.6 82.0 89. k 92.0 Q6.k 80.2 86.8 82.1 81.6 89.1 77.3 81.9 93.0 80.2 89.3 92.3 88.6 86.8 82.H 85.6 83.3 80.2 81.3  Q9.k Q9.k  90.if  89.6 87.2 82.if 88.1 88.6 82.9 87.9 8if.3 92.1 9k.k 9k.5  88.1 88A  Mink  Calculated "CHO" D i g e s t i b i l i t y  31.5 30.8 28.8 22.7 21.2 19.6  30.3 28.2 31.3 27.0 30.3 31.3 27.3 23.7  2k.9 32.6  26.1 27.9 23.3 27.7 3^.5 22.6 32.3 33.3 29.0  27.3 33.5 36.7 26.2 29.3 29. k 31.6 30.6 32.2 3H-.0 22.7 23.9 2if.l 21.6 19.3 21.6 26.5 25. k 2k.6 lk.2 25.0 27.0 27.6  15.0 18.7  96 Appendix I The Net P r o t e i n U t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e S u p p l e m e n t a r y (1.)  Preparation  of t h e  Proteins  Samples  A b o u t 1000 gm.  of e a c h p r o t e i n sample were d r i e d a t  60°C. i n a t u n n e l d r i e r .  E a c h s a m p l e was  p i e c e s , wrapped  p a p e r and c h e e s e c l o t h and  in filter  then broken i n t o f i n e extracted  ten times w i t h ethylene d i c h l o r i d e i n the large f a t e x t r a c t o r (12 h o u r s ) . since  The f a t was removed  t o ensure a u n i f o r m  the proteins v a r i e d i n t h e i r f a t content.  sample  The  samples  were a i r d r i e d and t h e n g r o u n d i n t o a f i n e powder i n a W i l e y hammer m i l l .  Duplicate  samples of each p r o t e i n s o u r c e were  a n a l y z e d f o r p r o t e i n (N x 6 . 2 5 ) ) by a s t a n d a r d method  (k6).  The a v e r a g e r e s u l t s o f t h e p e r c e n t p r o t e i n o f t h e f a t e x t r a c t e d supplementary p r o t e i n s o u r c e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 29. Table  29  Average Per Cent P r o t e i n of the F a t E x t r a c t e d P r o t e i n Source  P r o t e i n Sources  Per Cent  Protein  H o r s e Meat  82.2  W h a l e Meat  86.6  C h i c k e n Waste A  67.1  C h i c k e n Waste B  59. V  Herring  79.7  Casein (Vitamin  Free)  91.0  97 (2.)  Method o f A s s a y The  the  method o f a s s a y i n g t h e n e t p r o t e i n u t i l i z a t i o n o f  supplementary p r o t e i n sources  Miller  (47)  and B e n d e r  Wistar Rat.  Details  i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e method o f  as m o d i f i e d by Robertson  (52)  for the  o f t h e method a r e d e s c r i b e d u n d e r E x p e r i -  mental. (3.)  Experimental (a)  Animals The  r a t s used were o f t h e W i s t a r  s t r a i n whichware  weaned a t 20 d a y s and f e d f o r a week p r i o r t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t Each e x p e r i m e n t a l group c o n s i s t e d of 3  a stock r a t i o n .  whose i n i t i a l w e i g h t s i n i t i a l weights  females  w e r e b e t w e e n 65-70 gm. a n d 3 m a l e s whose  w e r e b e t w e e n 6 5 - 7 0 gm.  of a l l t h e g r o u p s w e r e b a l a n c e d  The t o t a l i n i t i a l  weights  w i t h r e s p e c t t o one a n o t h e r .  There were 7 e x p e r i m e n t a l groups o f r a t s ; the f i v e  on  one g r o u p f o r e a c h o f  s u p p l e m e n t a r y p r o t e i n s t o be t e s t e d , one g r o u p on a  known p r o t e i n , c a s e i n , t o s e r v e a s a c o n t r o l and one g r o u p on a non-protein d i e t .  The a n i m a l s w e r e h o u s e d i n i n d i v i d u a l  and w e r e p r o v i d e d w i t h f r e s h w a t e r (b)  daily.  Rations The  Miller  and B e n d e r a s s a y method (47)  p r o t e i n s t o be f e d a t t h e 10 p e r c e n t  test  requires the  l e v e l i n a common  non-protein basal r a t i o n which i s f e d t o the non-protein The  composition  Table  30.  pans  group.  of t h e n o n - p r o t e i n b a s a l r a t i o n i s g i v e n i n  98  Table Composition  30  of the Non-Protein B a s a l R a t i o n  Lard  22.3  Corn S t a r c h  61.2  Sucrose  7.5  V i t a m i n M i x (NBC)  1.5  Salts  ( U . S . P . No. 2)  7.5  100.0  gm.  Each e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of the n o n - p r o t e i n d i e t , was w i t h the respective (c)  a d j u s t e d t o t h e 10 p e r c e n t p r o t e i n  protein  source,  Procedure E a c h e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p was f e d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  for  level  seven days.  Weight gained  o r l o s t and t o t a l f e e d  t i o n were r e c o r d e d f o r e a c h r a t .  diet  consump-  A t t h e end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  p e r i o d , t h e r a t s w e r e k i l l e d w i t h c h l o r o f o r m and t h e  abdominal,  t h o r a c i c and c r a n i a l c a v i t i e s were opened b y i n c i s i o n w i t h scissors.  The r a t s w e r e t h e n d r i e d  i n the t u n n e l d r i e r  a t 105 d e g . C. f o r 48  i n order t o determine  body water  The n i t r o g e n c o n t e n t o f t h e r a t i o n s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d method  (46).  content. by a s t a n d a r d  F i n a l weight, i n i t i a l weight, dry weight,  n i t r o g e n , feed consumption,  hours  body  per c e n t n i t r o g e n of t h e r a t i o n s  group t o t a l s are g i v e n i n Table  31.  and  99 (d)  Calculations B o d y n i t r o g e n was c a l c u l a t e d  tent  of the r a t s .  Miller  from t h e body water  and B e n d e r (47)  con-  have shown a h i g h  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n b o d y n i t r o g e n and b o d y w a t e r f o r r a t s o f t h e hooded s t r a i n w h i c h were f r o m 33-57 d a y s o l d . R o b e r t s o n has v e r i f i e d  (52)  t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h eW i s t a r r a t by d e t e r m i n i n g  t h e n i t r o g e n t o w a t e r r a t i o i n 33 r a t s whose w e i g h t s  ranged  f r o m 40-100 gm. and d e v e l o p e d t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n f o r t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f body n i t r o g e n f r o m body w a t e r . y = 27.89 x  1  + S  r  = 3.74$  - S  r  =  ,  0  7  7  y = mg. b o d y  nitrogen  x = gm. b o d y w a t e r  3.61$  P r o m t h e above e q u a t i o n t h e b o d y n i t r o g e n o f e a c h r a t was c a l culated.  The n e t p r o t e i n u t i l i z a t i o n  (N.P.U.) was d e t e r m i n e d  f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n a s p r e s e n t e d by M i l l e r  and B e n d e r (47).  N.P.U. = B - ( B - 1^) k  I B and B  k  a r e t h e t o t a l body n i t r o g e n o f t h e a n i m a l s on t h e t e s t  and n o n - p r o t e i n d i e t s r e s p e c t i v e l y , and I and I i n t a k e o f t h e two g r o u p s .  k  are the nitrogen  100 T a b l e 31 D a t a F o r Net P r o t e i n Protein Source Horse Meat  Rat No.  If  9fcN = 1 . 6 5  2 f 3 f,88 4 m  5 m 6 m  Utilization  Final Wt. Gm.  Initial Wt. Gm.  69 82  £ 63 62 71 70 68  75  V  87 86  5  Dry Wt. Gm.  Body Nitrogen mg.  Feed Consumption Gm.  22 28 23 23  1758 2037 1959  35  28  28  399  Total Whale Meat t/oN = 1.60  1 2 3 4 "5 6  f f f m' m m  76 80 83 83 77 81  63 67 65 69 67 70  24  27 27 26 25 25  401  Total Chicken Waste A  96N = 1.50  1 2 3 4  I  f f f m m m  74 P 67 76 ll  65 62 62 69 65 73  24  25  20  23  23 28  396 ,  Total Chicken Waste B 9*>N = 1.75  1 2 3 4 5 6  f f f m m m  74 75 67 76 77 86  62 62 69 65 73 396  Total 7  f = female  88  m = male  Calculations  26 24 25 27 23 24  52  2037 2244  2203  46 49 54 58  12238  294  1959 2000 2123 2163 1959 2123  43  48  54 50 49 59  12327  303  1880 1880 1758 2000 2037 2123  58 49 53 43  II678  306  1758 1923 1553 1837 2037 2366  58 49 53  11477  306  49 54  49 54  101 Table  Protein Source  Rat No.  Herring F^W = 1 . 6 0  1 2 3 4 5 6  f f f m m m  Final Wt. Gm. 80 84 74  85 77 92  Total  9fcN = 1.60  1 2 3 4 5 6  f f f m m m  69 83 80 86 81 88  Dry Wt. Gm  Body Nitrogen  f  6 5 66  23 27 2 4  71  28  2163 2163 1880 2163  72  23 28  2037 2449  60  62  12855  60 65 63 65 63 77  20 27 26 27 26 26  1837 2123 2037 2 2 4 4 2080  2366  NonProtein  0.00  1 f 2 f 3  f  4 m 4 m 4 m  54 59 56 59 62 64  61 66 63 67 70 71 398  Feed Consumption Gm.  49 4 8  47 54 46 56  300 46  56 48  60 52 42  304  393  Total  Total  Initial Wt. Gm.  396  Casein  Q6N- =  3 1 (Continued)  16 17 16 16 19 19  1556 1469 1596 1596 2101  43 23 25 31 36 38  9718  196  1400  102 Appendix J The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n F e e d C o n s u m p t i o n a n d B o d y W e i g h t Table  ^2  National Research Council D a i l y Dry Matter Intake f o r (11)  M i n k on a M a i n t e n a n c e D i e t Wt. Under-lbs. lbs. Over l b s .  lbs.  Food l b s .  Wt. l b s .  .18  1.5 1.5 - 2.0 2.0  2.0 2.0 - 3.0 3.0  .19 .20  Food l b s . .15  .16  .17  T a b l e 32 was r e c a l c u l a t e d t o g i v e a n a v e r a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n body w e i g h t and d r y m a t t e r i n t a k e and t h i s i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 33. T a b l e 33 Computed N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l R e l a t i o n s h i p B o d y W e i g h t and F e e d Wt.  lbs.  Between  Intake  Food l b s .  1.5 1.75 2.0 2.5 3.0  .15  .16-  .175 .19 .20  T a b l e 34 W e e k l y F e e d C o n s u m p t i o n o f M i n k o n t h e Canned Horse Meat  Week 1 2 3 4 5  6  Ave.  Whale  T23T  T24T"  30 c a n s 35  38 40  34 34  41 32 45  36 33  37.7  1  51  2 . 0 5 41.7±6.40  Chicken Waste A (19) 3  k  36 38 41 40 40 3-82*2.73  Rations  Chicken Yfaste B  Herring (17)  Tl9) 32 40  25  42 42  27  27  52 52  33 32  30  43.3*7.66  The a v e r a g e w e i g h t o f one c a n o f f e e d was 548 gm. b r a c k e t s a r e t h e number o f m i n k p e r g r o u p .  29.0*2.23  The numbers i n  103 VIII.  Bibliography  1.  A l l i s o n , J.B., R e v s . , 3_,  2.  A s h t o n , W.M., E l e m e n t s o f A n i m a l N u t r i t i o n , G r i f f e n , 120, 1 9 5 0 .  3.  B a c h a r a d , A . L . , and R e n d l e , L o n d o n , 19H-6.  h.  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