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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Word discrimination and spelling : an experimental study Mason, Geoffrey Pliny 1955

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WORD DISCRIMINATION AND SPELLING: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY by GEOFFREY PLINY MASON  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of P h i l o s o p h y and P s y c h o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r t h e degree o f MASTER OF ARTS.  Members o f t h e Department o f P h i l o s o p h y and P s y c h o l o g y THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1955  ABSTRACT WORD DISCRIMINATION AND SPELLING-:  AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY  by GEOFFREY PLINY MASON Introduction In 1922, Gates o b t a i n e d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r » . 55_ between s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y and a speeded t e s t measuring the a b i l i t y to discriminate words.  This  Gates  differences  between p a i r e d  study r e s u l t s from Gates' f i n d i n g and i s  d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s . 1  small Part  I i s concerned w i t h  checking  r e s u l t s and d e t e r m i n i n g i f the speed f a c t o r i s  e s s e n t i a l f o r the word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  test.  Part I I  examines the f e a s i b i l i t y , a t the Grade V I l e v e l , o f employing d r i l l exercises Part  i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  as an a i d t o s p e l l i n g .  I T e s t s o f s p e l l i n g , mental a b i l i t y and word  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n were g i v e n t o 211 p u p i l s i n a J u n i o r  High  S c h o o l i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia i n the t h i r d week o f Grade V I I .  The word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  t e s t was g i v e n speeded  w i t h a one minute time l i m i t , and unspeeded w i t h a f o u r minute l i m i t .  The c o r r e l a t i o n between the speeded  discrimination  t e s t r e s u l t s and s p e l l i n g was almost i d e n t i c a l  to t h a t  o b t a i n e d by Gates t h i r t y - t h r e e y e a r s ago.  The c o r r e l -  a t i o n between the word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t unspeeded and s p e l l i n g was low a t x- $_ = .18, though s t i l l 0  s  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l  of c o n f i d e n c e . M e n t a l age c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s p e l l i n g r « ,66 and w i t h word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  speeded r -= .41.  A first  order c o r r e l a t i o n  between word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n speeded and s p e l l i n g , w i t h mental age  held  c o n s t a n t , gave r  l  23  = .40.  Separate c o r r e l a t i o n s computed f o r boys and g i r l s revealed  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  coefficients.  Part II Thirty-two d r i l l  sheets i n v o l v i n g e x e r c i s e s i n word  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n were used w i t h an e x p e r i m e n t a l group of 107 i n Grade V I .  These d r i l l s were s t a r t e d - a t the end  and were conducted  d a i l y f o r the f i r s t  of September  two weeks, t h r e e  times  weekly f o r f o u r weeks, and twice weekly f o r f i v e weeks. completion  of the d r i l l  e x e r c i s e s i t was  found  pupils  After  t h a t , i n both  word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and s p e l l i n g , the e x p e r i m e n t a l group had made g a i n s , s i g n i f i c a n t , a t the .01 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e , over a c o n t r o l group of 97 p u p i l s .  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t the d r i l l e x e r c i s e s  i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n were done d u r i n g p a r t of the s c h o o l time a l l o t t e d t o s p e l l i n g , so t h a t , i n e f f e c t , the e x p e r i m e n t a l group r e c e i v e d one  t h i r d l e s s s p e l l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g the e l e v e n  week e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d than d i d the c o n t r o l group. Conclusions The  a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between  words i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y and i s r  measured more e f f e c t i v e l y by a speeded t e s t . I t i s suggested  t h a t the inadequate d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  a b i l i t y when d e a l i n g w i t h word forms shown by the weaker s p e l l e r s is  a result  of i n s u f f i c i e n t emphasis on t h i s s k i l l ,  when l e a r n i n g t o r e a d .  possibly  I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t most o f the  students  examined by t h i s study c o u l d have d e r i v e d b e n e f i t from e x e r c i s e s i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e g i n n i n g , p r o b a b l y , i n the p r i m a r y F i n a l l y , as the i n i t i a l  grades.  s p e l l i n g achievement of the  e x p e r i m e n t a l group compared f a v o u r a b l y w i t h P r o v i n c i a l norms and norms o b t a i n e d from drill  the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the  e x e r c i s e s have v e r y wide  applicability.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I. II. III. IV.  V.  PAGE INTRODUCTION  1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  h  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  19  PART I  21  P l a n o f t h e Study  21  D e s c r i p t i o n of the Tests  21  R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e t e s t s used  21  Administration of the test?. . . . . . . . .  22  S t a t i s t i c a l treatment o f r e s u l t s  23 25  RESULTS Discussion of Results  VI.  VII.  •  27 35  PART I I Plan of the study  35  Instruments used  35  Experimental design.  36 38  RESULTS Discussion of Results.  VIII.  . . . . . .  CONCLUSIONS  • .  REFERENCES APPENDIX A  39 45 W  Examples o f Instruments used  h$  iii APPENDIX B  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s  of Various  T e s t S c o r e s f o r Study I . . . , APPENDIX C  T a b l e o f Raw S c o r e s f o r Study I I . ,  APPENDIX D  D r i l l Exercises  ,  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.  PAGE C o r r e l a t i o n s o f S p e l l i n g and Reading w i t h Other V a r i a b l e s  II.  (Gates)  Word P e r c e p t i o n A b i l i t y o f Deaf C h i l d r e n (Gates and Chase) .  III.  -29  P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n s Using D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded, S p e l l i n g , M e n t a l Age. A l l S t u d e n t s  VIII.  28  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Between C e r t a i n V a r i a b l e s . Boys and G i r l s S e p a r a t e l y  VII.  15  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Between C e r t a i n V a r i a b l e s . A l l Students  VI.  13  C o e f f i c i e n t s of C o r r e l a t i o n of Perception T e s t s w i t h S p e l l i n g i n Grades IV and V ( R i l e y )  V.  10  C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Some T e s t s o f V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n and A s s o c i a t i v e L e a r n i n g (Gates)  IV.  7  30  P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n s Using D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded, S p e l l i n g , M e n t a l Age. Boys and G i r l s Separately. .  IX.  Some F r e q u e n c i e s f o r Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g , and S p e l l i n g and M e n t a l Age . . .  X.  31  32  Some F r e q u e n c i e s f o r Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g , and Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and M e n t a l Age.  33  V  TABLE XI.  PAGE Performance on the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g T e s t s f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and end o f t h e e l e v e n week e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . . . hO  XII.  Average Improvement i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g o f H i g h , M i d d l e and Low Groups Formed on t h e B a s i s o f the O r i g i n a l Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t  XIII.  . *+l  F r e q u e n c i e s Above and Below t h e Means of Improvement i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group . . . .  ^2  Chapter I . INTRODUCTION  • S p e l l i n g and r e a d i n g a r e h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s so t h a t most good r e a d e r s a r e good s p e l l e r s and most good s p e l l e r s a r e good r e a d e r s .  They each depend on  a h i g h degree o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s s k i l l s common t o b o t h o f them, a l t h o u g h each s k i l l v a r i e s i n i t s i m p o r t a n c e f r o m t h e one s u b j e c t t o t h e o t h e r . When a c h i l d i s f i r s t l e a r n i n g t o r e a d h i s t e a c h e r p r e s e n t s h i m w i t h a word t h e components o f w h i c h he may be u n a b l e t o i d e n t i f y .  I f t h e word i s p r e s e n t e d  t o h i m a g a i n he may r e c o g n i z e i t on t h e b a s i s o f i t s g e n e r a l shape o r c o n f i g u r a t i o n .  T h i s method o f e x p o s i n g  a b e g i n n i n g r e a d e r t o a word w h i c h he l e a r n s by i t s shape has been d e s i g n a t e d  t h e 'look and s a y ' method, and has  proved v a l u a b l e i n i n t r o d u c i n g a c h i l d t o r e a d i n g . I f t h e c h i l d , h a v i n g l e a r n e d t h e shape o f t h e f i r s t word, i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a word o f s i m i l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n he may confuse  i t w i t h t h e f i r s t because  ha has n o t y e t l e a r n e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e two words.  Many c h i l d r e n ,  a p p a r e n t l y w i t h l i t t l e i n s t r u c t i o n from t h e t e a c h e r , r a p i d l y pass f r o m t h i s i n i t i a l stage and b e g i n t o l o o k c a r e f u l l y n o t o n l y a t t h e g e n e r a l shape b u t a l s o a t t h e  - 2 i n t e r n a l components o f the c o n f i g u r a t i o n . They a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g i n what way from t h a t .  t h i s word d i f f e r s  I n s h o r t , they a r e o b s e r v i n g t h e i r words w i t h  discrimination. To o t h e r c h i l d r e n t h i s a b i l i t y does not appear to  come r e a d i l y .  They depend l a r g e l y on the f i r s t  and l a t e r the f i r s t s y l l a b l e o f the word.  letter  Perhaps,  the  f i n a l l e t t e r or s y l l a b l e i s a l s o added t o t h e i r a r e a o f discrimination.  Thus armed w i t h a n o t i o n o f the g e n e r a l  shape o f a f a i r number o f words and t h e i r b e g i n n i n g s endings  the c h i l d i s a b l e t o read w i t h f a i r  and  proficiency  by u s i n g the c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s p r o v i d e d by the r e a d i n g material.  T h i s l e v e l c o u l d be termed the p a r t i a l  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s t a g e i n the approach t o words.  Normally,  the c h i l d p r o g r e s s e s from t h i s l e v e l o f p a r t i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t o a more complete r e c o g n i t i o n o f the word, and t h e n as r e a d i n g speed d e v e l o p s he r e v e r t s s l o w l y t o p a r t i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n again. I t may  r e a d i l y be seen, however, t h a t c o n t e x t u a l  c l u e s and p a r t i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e i n a d e q u a t e the c h i l d ' s s p e l l i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s .  f o r meeting  When he s p e l l s he must  reproduce more t h a n b e g i n n i n g and end p l u s a g e n e r a l i d e a o f the shape o f the word.  The need f o r a c c u r a t e  and  p r e c i s e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f the t o t a l word i s f u n d a m e n t a l t o good s p e l l i n g . d i f f i c u l t i e s may  I t i s suggested  h e r e t h a t some s p e l l i n g  be due t o l a c k o f p r o g r e s s beyond the  - 3 i n i t i a l p a r t i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s t a g e o f word r e c o g n i t i o n . I n o t h e r words, t h e c h i l d has never l e a r n e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e a l l t h e components o f a word he m i s - s p e l l s . There i s c o n s t a n t r e p e t i t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e l a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s o f t h e need f o r emphasis on v i s u a l imagery I n t h e t e a c h i n g o f s p e l l i n g . Although  t h e r e have been s e v e r a l s t u d i e s on c o n g e n i t a l  defects affecting v i s u a l perception,  disabilities  r e s u l t i n g f r o m f a u l t y l e a r n i n g have been l a r g e l y  ignored.  Chapter I I . BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  I n 1 9 ^ 9 , N i c h o l s ( 9 ) p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e on t h e analysis  of s p e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s .  In a battery of f i v e  t e s t s o f h e r own c o m p o s i t i o n she p l a c e d a t e s t o f v i s u a l discrimination  of small differences  between words,  j u s t i f y i n g i t s i n c l u s i o n by t h e s t a t e m e n t , "Research r e v e a l e d no d i s a g r e e m e n t among t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . "  Fourteen  s t u d i e s a r e quoted i n s u p p o r t o f t h e o t h e r f o u r t e s t s i n the  battery. A search of the l i t e r a t u r e f o r the ' a u t h o r i t i e s '  on t h e type o f v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  used i n N i c h o l ' s  test  r e v e a l e d two e x p e r i m e n t e r s , A r t h u r I . Gates and S i s t e r Mary (of the V i s i t a t i o n ) R i l e y . In 1 9 2 2 , relationship  Gates ( 1 ) commenced h i s s t u d i e s on t h e  between v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n and r e a d i n g and  spelling ability.  He employed a s e r i e s o f t e n tesrts  utilizing different visual stimuli.  Test 1 consisted of  f i f t y p a i r s o f drawings o f v a r i o u s g e o m e t r i c forms.  In  h a l f t h e i t e m s b o t h p a r t s o f t h e p a i r were i d e n t i c a l whereas i n t h e o t h e r h a l f t h e components were d i s s i m i l a r . The  p u p i l s were r e q u i r e d t o p u t a c r o s s a f t e r each p a i r  of d i s s i m i l a r forms.  Three more t e s t s s i m i l a r l y  c o n s t r u c t e d r e q u i r e d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between p a i r e d groups of d i g i t s , p a i r e d nonsense s y l l a b l e s , and p a i r e d  real  - 5 words.  This l a s t t e s t c o n s i s t e d o f a meaningful  word  e i t h e r r e p e a t e d o r d i s t o r t e d i n some manner, f o r example, behind, bekind.  T e s t number 5 r e q u i r e d t h e p u p i l t o  s e l e c t from s e v e r a l s i m i l a r geometric match a g i v e n d e s i g n .  T e s t s 6,  d e s i g n s one t o  7> and 8 r e q u i r e d  c a n c e l l i n g o f a l l t h e A ' s , t h e 2's and 3's, and t h e K's and I ' s from s e v e r a l hundred l e t t e r s and d i g i t s i n groups o f f i v e o r s i x .  The two r e m a i n i n g  arranged  tests  i n v o l v e d t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e c o r r e c t form o f a word, i n t e s t 9 when p l a c e d among i n c o r r e c t f o r m s , and i n t e s t 10 f r o m c o n t i n u o u s r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . Gates used 135 p u p i l s i n grades I I I t o V I I I i n t h i s study.  H i s a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s among  d i f f e r e n t t e s t s would i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t o f a g e n e r a l perceptual a b i l i t y .  Eight of the t e s t s y i e l d e d low or  n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h b o t h s p e l l i n g and r e a d i n g . average of t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s was .23.  The  T h i s l e d Gates  t o s t a t e t h a t , " t h e r e does n o t appear t o be any s u c h t h i n g as ' g e n e r a l v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . '  Rather  there are  a b i l i t i e s t o p e r c e i v e words, d i g i t s , g e o m e t r i c a l f i g u r e s , e t c . , each o f w h i c h i s r e l a t i v e l y independent o f o t h e r abilities."  (1,pp.28-29)  The two t e s t s employing p e r c e p t i o n o f words yielded quite different results.  The a b i l i t y t o r e a c t t o  word d i f f e r e n c e s c o r r e l a t e d r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l y w i t h  - 6 s p e l l i n g and r e a d i n g .  The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h e t e s t s  are shown i n T a b l e 1. The  a b i l i t y to recognize the c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g of  a word among i n c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g s ( t e s t 9) c o r r e l a t e d TS+.47 w i t h both t h e word p e r c e p t i o n t e s t and r e a d i n g , r « . 5 3 w i t h p r o o f r e a d i n g , and r=+.32 w i t h nonsense +  syllables. meaningful  A b i l i t y t o d e t e c t m i s - s p e l l i n g s i n connected m a t e r i a l ( t e s t 10)  c o r r e l a t e d r=+. 56 w i t h t h e  word t e s t , and r « + . 3 5 w i t h t h e nonsense s y l l a b l e s . c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the non-verbal  The  t e s t s w i t h both r e c o g n i t i o n  s p e l l i n g and p r o o f r e a d i n g were l o w , r a n g i n g from -*.08 v.17.  to  P a r t i a l and m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s r e v e a l e d a f a c t o r  common t o a l l p e r c e p t i o n t e s t s i n v o l v i n g words s u f f i c i e n t t o produce f a i r l y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n among them. common f a c t o r Gates h y p o t h e s i z e d  This  as t h e a b i l i t y t o  p e r c e i v e c l e a r l y t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f words. (l.P-37) I n 1926  Gates and Chase (3)  p u b l i s h e d a study o f  the s p e l l i n g performance o f f o r t y - f i v e deaf c h i l d r e n i n an i n s t i t u t i o n i n New York.  The r e s u l t s o f t h e P i n t n e r  Non-Language T e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t these deaf p u p i l s were but s l i g h t l y lower i n i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a n normal i n d i v i d u a l s of corresponding  age. The Burgess Reading T e s t was a l s o  g i v e n and showed a s i x t o e i g h t year r e t a r d a t i o n i n each i n s t i t u t i o n grade, f o r example, i n Grade X I B t h e average c h r o n o l o g i c a l age was 18.1  and t h e average r e a d i n g age  10.0.  T a b l e C o r r e l a t i o n s r  i s  the  ( A f t e r  mean  Gates  o f o f  S p e l l i n g the  r ' s  1.  and  Reading  f o r  Grades  (l,pp.30-3D)  w i t h I I I  S p e l l i n g  Other  to  V a r i a b l e s ,  V I I I .  Reading  T e s t  9  T e s t  1.  S m a l l  d i f f e r e n c e s  i n  drawings  - . 0 4  + .05  + .01  + .15  2.  S m a l l  d i f f e r e n c e s  i n  d i g i t s  -.05  +  + .10  + .09  3.  S m a l l  d i f f e r e n c e s  i n  nonsense  +.35  + .27  +.32  +.35  4.  S m a l l  d i f f e r e n c e s  i n  words  +.55  + .39  +.47  +.56  5.  C a n c e l l i n g  geometric  drawings  + .14  + .16  + .13  + .17  6.  C a n c e l l i n g  A ' s  +.17  +  .14  +.13  +.16  7.  C a n c e l l i n g  K ' s  and  I ' s  + .04  + .04  +.17  +.09  8.  C a n c e l l i n g  2's  and  3's  + .03  t . l l  +.08  9.  R e c o g n i t i o n  + .63  + .47  -  +.11  10.  P r o o f - r e a d i n g  + .39  + .45  +.53  o f  c o r r e c t  words  s p e l l i n g  .14  +.53  - 8 A l i s t o f 36 words from t h e Ayres-Buckingham S p e l l i n g S c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d and r e v e a l e d  t h a t t h e average  r e t a r d a t i o n i n s p e l l i n g was about h a l f o f t h e r e t a r d a t i o n i n reading.  F u r t h e r , when compared w i t h normal c h i l d r e n t h e  deaf c h i l d r e n f a r e x c e l l e d , i n s p e l l i n g , p u p i l s of equal reading a b i l i t y .  A second t e s t o f s p e l l i n g r e c o g n i t i o n i n  w h i c h t h e p u p i l was r e q u i r e d  t o s e l e c t the c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g  from f i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a l s o i n d i c a t e d , w i t h r e a d i n g constant, the deaf c h i l d r e n ' s children.  held  s u p e r i o r i t y over normal  A t h i r d t e s t r e q u i r i n g the s p e l l i n g of s i x t e e n  concrete objects  f o r example, h a t c h e t , b i c y c l e , s o l d i e r ,  p r e s e n t e d b o t h w i t h t h e l i p s and by means o f a drawing yielded similar results. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e deaf c h i l d r e n p o s s e s s , i n comparison w i t h t h e i r o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c  abilities  and w i t h t h e achievement o f normal c h i l d r e n o f e q u i v a l e n t reading s k i l l ,  superior  spelling ability.  Gates assumed  t h a t t h i s s u p e r i o r performance o f t h e deaf c h i l d r e n was due t o h a b i t s t h e y had formed o f making a c a r e f u l v i s u a l s t u d y o f a word. and  The d e a f , b e i n g u n a b l e t o t h i n k f i r s t o f t h e sounds  t h e n r e c a l l a c o m b i n a t i o n o f l e t t e r s t o r e p r e s e n t them,  r e l i e d l a r g e l y on t h e r e c a l l o f t h e v i s u a l appearance o f t h e word. To t e s t h i s h y p o t h e s i s Gates t h e n conducted two experiments employing d e a f c h i l d r e n and mormal c o n t r o l s . f i r s t required  The  t h e c h i l d r e n t o s t u d y f o r one minute words t h a t  - 9 -  they had p r e v i o u s l y m i s - s p e l l e d hy o b s e r v i n g t h e p r i n t e d words on a page.  S p e l l i n g a l o u d o r w r i t i n g them was p r o h i b i t e d .  The deaf a c q u i r e d t h e s p e l l i n g o f 4 words on a n average w h i l e normal l e a r n e d 2.4.  T h i s was, i n Gates'  judgement,  evidence  t h a t t h e deaf have a sharp p e r c e p t i o n o f word forms w h i c h i s utilized i nlearning to spell. The second experiment  employed two t e s t s o f word  p e r c e p t i o n a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h r e e groups o f deaf c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r i n g reading experience.  The f i r s t , known as t h e "Word  S e l e c t i o n T e s t " , measured t h e speed and a c c u r a c y w i t h w h i c h a p e r s o n c a n p e r c e i v e an i s o l a t e d word and i m m e d i a t e l y perceive i t again i n the midst of s e v e r a l other very words.  similar  The o t h e r t e s t , known as t h e "Word P e r c e p t i o n Same  D i f f e r e n t T e s t " , was T e s t 4 i n Gates' 1922 s t u d y ( 1 ) .  The  r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2. These r e s u l t s a r e s t r i k i n g .  The deaf group 1 who  were r e a d i n g a t t h e f i r s t grade l e v e l , and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d have had l i t t l e r e a d i n g e x p e r i e n c e , shows a word p e r c e p t i o n a b i l i t y on t h e Same D i f f e r e n c e T e s t as g r e a t as t h a t o f normal c h i l d r e n o f 16.5 y e a r s . Gates concludes  The o t h e r groups show s i m i l a r  results.  t h a t t h e r e c a n be no doubt about t h e  e x t r a o r d i n a r y word p e r c e p t i o n a b i l i t y o f t h e deaf p u p i l s w h i c h he a t t r i b u t e s p r i m a r i l y t o a p e c u l i a r l y  effective  type o f p e r c e i v i n g , o r r e a c t i n g v i s u a l l y , t o words. Templin,  (12) u s i n g s e v e n t y - e i g h t h e a r i n g ,  seventy-  Table  2.  Word P e r c e p t i o n A b i l i t y o f Deaf C h i l d r e n .  Reading Age  Spelling Age  From Gates and Chase.  Word S e l e c t i o n Age  (3,p298)  Word Perception Same D i f f e r e n c e Age  Deaf Group  Actual Age  1.  13.6  6.9  11.2  12.4  16.5"  2.  14.2  8.1  11.6  12.4  16.0  3.  16.4  8.4  12.6  15.5  17.7  - 11 e i g h t hard o f h e a r i n g , and s e v e n t y - e i g h t d e a f p u p i l s , found t h a t t h e d e a f m i s - s p e l l e d about h a l f as many words as t h e hard o f h e a r i n g , and about o n e - t h i r d as many as t h e normal hearing p u p i l s .  The p e r c e n t a g e o f e r r o r s on t h e more and  l e s s f r e q u e n t l y used words was s i m i l a r i n a l l t h e t h r e e groups. I n a n o t h e r s t u d y Gates (2)  gave t e s t s o f v i s u a l  p e r c e p t i o n and a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g t o 310 c h i l d r e n i n grades I t o V I . H i s t e s t s o f v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n ' were s i m i l a r t o those employed i n p r e v i o u s  s t u d i e s and c o n s i s t e d o f  words, d i g i t s , g e o m e t r i c d e s i g n s , and drawings o f common objects.  When t h e v a r i o u s t e s t s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g i t was found t h a t those t e s t s u s i n g words produced s u b s t a n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s w h i l e t h e o t h e r t e s t s y i e l d e d low c o r r e l a t i o n s .  The r e s u l t s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 3»  When t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e was removed by p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between s p e l l i n g and word p e r c e p t i o n remained r e l a t i v e l y h i g h a t r According  3= .5+ +. +,  1  2  1  t o G a t e s , due t o t h e l o w c o r r e l a t i o n o f b o t h  i n t e l l i g e n c e and word p e r c e p t i o n w i t h age i n these  groups,  the p a r t i a l l i n g o u t o f an age f a c t o r would r e s u l t i n a s c a r c e l y p e r c e p t i b l e decrease i n t h i s c o e f f i c i e n t . correlation of i n t e l l i g e n c e with spelling after out word p e r c e p t i o n was  3= +.31.  The  partialling  I t would appear,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t word p e r c e p t i o n i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s p e l l i n g than i s i n t e l l i g e n c e .  - 12 Gates a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d learning.  two t e s t s o f a s s o c i a t i v e  I n t h e f i r s t t e s t a g e o m e t r i c d e s i g n was  v i s u a l l y a t t h e same time as a spoken word.  presented  Later the  s u b j e c t was r e q u i r e d t o produce t h e word when shown t h e d e s i g n . The  second t e s t r e q u i r e d t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f a nonsense word  presented  v i s u a l l y w i t h a geometric design.  The c o r r e l a t i o n s  o f t h e s e t e s t s o f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h r e a d i n g , s p e l l i n g , and word p e r c e p t i o n averaged r= +.10,  r= +.23> and r«  +.20  respectively. The  study o f S i s t e r Mary R i l e y (11)  was concerned  w i t h t h e measurement o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f p e r c e p t i o n i n r e a d i n g and  spelling.  Nine t e s t s o f v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n were employed.  Test 1 consisted of f i f t y items.  Each i t e m was  made up o f f o u r groups o f l e t t e r s , each n o n s e n s i c a l as a w h o l e , but c o n t a i n i n g a m e a n i n g f u l word common t o t h e f o u r .  The  common word was t o be e x t r a c t e d and w r i t t e n a t t h e end o f t h e line.  T e s t 2 c o n s i s t e d o f groups o f f i v e words o f w h i c h two  were t h e same and a l l s i m i l a r i n c o n f i g u r a t i o n ^ , b e g i n n i n g o r ending.  The t a s k was t o s e l e c t one o f t h e l a s t f o u r w h i c h was  i d e n t i c a l to the f i r s t .  T e s t s 3»  and 5 were t h e same as  T e s t 2 e x c e p t t h a t d i g i t s , n o n - s y l l a b i c l e t t e r groups, and drawings were used.  T e s t 6 was modelled on G a t e s ' Word  P e r c e p t i o n Same D i f f e r e n t T e s t .  T e s t s 7>  8 and 9 were t h e  same as T e s t 6 e x c e p t t h a t d i g i t s , n o n - s y l l a b i c l e t t e r and drawings were used.  Table h gives the c o r r e l a t i o n  c o e f f i c i e n t s corrected f o r attenuation.  groups,  Table 3  C o r r e l a t i o n s o f some t e s t s o f v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n and a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g . (Compiled from Gates. (2) )  P a i r s o f words and s p e l l i n g S e l e c t i o n o f words and s p e l l i n g  +.60 + .54  P a i r s o f drawings  +.27  Pairs of d i g i t s  +.37  S e l e c t i o n of figures  +.08  -14 As may be seen f r o m T a b l e 3j T e s t 6 has t h e h i g h e s t c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h s p e l l i n g f o l l o w e d by T e s t s 2, 1, 4, and 8 i n that order.  T e s t s 6 and 2 u t i l i z e d words, T e s t 1 words  among nonsense words, and T e s t s 4 and 8 used l e t t e r All  groups.  t e s t s i n v o l v i n g words or l e t t e r groups have a s u b s t a n t i a l  c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s p e l l i n g but i t i s n o t i c e a b l e that the c o r r e l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s as t h e t e s t uses items w h i c h approach t r u e words. The  technique  of p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n i n d i c a t e d that  T e s t s 2, 4 and 6 measured e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r s i n r e a d i n g and spelling.  T e s t s 1 and 8 c o n t a i n elements w h i c h a r e common t o  these two s u b j e c t s b u t t o a l e s s e r degree.  T e s t s 3> 7> 5 and  9 had no n o t i c e a b l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e c o r r e l a t i o n . ( I l , p 3 5 ) These r e s u l t s s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o n f i r m G a t e s ' f i n d i n g s that the s k i l l involved i n the a b i l i t y t o perceive  small  d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a i r e d words i s a major f a c t o r i n s p e l l i n g ability.  Gates had no e q u i v a l e n t o f T e s t s 2 and 4 above, b u t  the s k i l l i n v o l v e d may be r e g a r d e d as a p p r o x i m a t e l y  t h e same.  T e s t 2 i n v o l v e s t h e comparison o f a word w i t h f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s which n e c e s s i t a t e s a s e r i e s of p a i r e d comparisons, and T e s t 2 a s i m i l a r t a s k b u t w i t h l e t t e r groups d e f y i n g pronunciation. The  a b i l i t y t o perceive non-verbal  items such as  d i g i t s and d e s i g n s was found i n t h i s s t u d y t o have no appreciable a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the a b i l i t y to s p e l l c o r r e c t l y . This a l s o confirms Gates' e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s .  T a b l e 4. Coefficients of Correlation (corrected f o r attenuation) of Perception T e s t s w i t h S p e l l i n g i n Grades IV and V. Taken f r o m R i l e y . (11,pp.29-30)  Perception Test  Average o f c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h two s p e l l i n g t e s t s Grade IV Grade V  Intelligence Grade IV  Grade V  1  + .538  + .658  + .38O  + .3+4  2  + .735  + .557  + .33^  + .278  3 4  + .337  + .277  + .207  + .167  + .565  +•.507  + .3W  + .280  5  t  .029  + .005  + .082  + .041  6  + .714  + i778  + .330  + .289  7  + .307  + .212  + .213  + .033  8  + .336  + .603  + .181  + .354  9  + .353  + .112  + .329  + .198  - 16  -  Hartman, (*+) u s i n g s i x t y - t h r e e c o l l e g e  students  i n t h r e e groups t a k e n f r o m the c e n t r e and b o t h ends of a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y , found t h a t of f i v e p e r c e p t u a l t e s t s o n l y one d i f f e r e n t i a t e d amongst the groups.  T h i s t e s t i n v o l v e d t a c h i s t o s c o p i c one  three  second  exposures o f u n u s u a l words such as ageratum, Caedmon, and gneiss.  During  the p e r i o d between exposures the  w r o t e the word seen.  Hartman concluded  subjects  t h a t 'good s p e l l e r s  p e r c e i v e t o t a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of the v e r b a l s o r t w i t h g r e a t e r f a c i l i t y t h a n o t h e r s ' and  that 'spelling a b i l i t y i s  e s s e n t i a l l y a c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n ; w i t h normal s u b j e c t s p e r i p h e r a l f a c t o r s of an o p t i c a l or r e t i n a l n a t u r e  are  inconsequential.' N i c h o l s (9) attempted an a n a l y s i s of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y by t e s t s of p r o o f r e a d i n g , word meaning, h a n d w r i t i n g , v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . R e m e d i a l d e v i c e s were t h e n employed f o r a p e r i o d of f o u r months.  The  work f o r the improvement of v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of f l a s h c a r d d r i l l and l i s t s of words.  s e l e c t i o n of rhyming words f r o m  A s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n was  recorded  on  the  s p e l l i n g achievement t e s t a l t h o u g h , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , no c o n t r o l group was  reported.  Whether or not any one p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the g a i n i n s p e l l i n g achievement c a n n o t , o f c o u r s e , be determined f r o m t h i s  study.  Hudson and T o l e r (6) r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t  spelling  - 17 g a i n s by a group o f two hundred and f i f t y - n i n e p u p i l s i n grades I V , V and V I a f t e r e f f o r t s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l p a t t e r n s  o f words.  D u r i n g a p e r i o d o f f o u r months d r i l l was conducted w i t h weak s p e l l e r s outside of the regular s p e l l i n g lessons exercises  on t h e  i n D u r e l l and S u l l i v a n ' s ' B u i l d i n g Word Power' and  •Ready t o R e a d . 1  A major p a r t o f t h e s e e x e r c i s e s  involve  v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f some s o r t , and about o n e - f o u r t h r e q u i r e t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between words.  T h i s s t u d y i s noteworthy as an a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p  a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by r e t u r n i n g t o fundamental e x e r c i s e s .  I t i s r e g r e t t a b l e t h a t the a u t h o r s  d i d n o t see f i t t o r e p o r t a c o n t r o l group and t h a t t h e i r s p e l l i n g t e s t s c o n s i s t e d o f words w h i c h , by t h e i r own a d m i s s i o n , were ' r e a s o n a b l y  phonetic . 1  A r e c e n t s t u d y by T e m p l i n (13)  u s i n g f o u r t h grade  p u p i l s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e a b i l i t y o f upper and l o w e r d e v i a t e s p e l l i n g groups t o i d e n t i f y sounds i n known words, and a d i f f e r e n c e , s i g n i f i c a n t a t o n l y t h e l e v e l of confidence, u s i n g nonsense words.  .20  i n f a v o u r o f t h e s u p e r i o r s p e l l e r s when A sound d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t measuring  a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e consonant sounds a l s o f a i l e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e good and poor s p e l l i n g groups.  (13,p4W T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e f i n d i n g s o f Mack t h a t  auditory  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the s p e l l i n g  - 18 a b i l i t y o f grade V p u p i l s . a b i l i t y , w h i c h she d e f i n e d  Mack a l s o found t h a t p h o n e t i c as t h e a b i l i t y t o sound word  elements and unknown words, was a more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t h a n v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as measured  by f l a s h c a r d s .  However,  t h e r e was a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = +.595 between h e r p h o n i c s and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t s , (7»P«47) w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t v i s u a l f a c t o r s were perhaps i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g the p h o n i c s t e s t r e s u l t s .  Summary There a r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o s u c c e s s f u l s p e l l i n g achievement.  Undoubtedly one o f t h e  most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e f a c t o r s i s t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n words. discovered  No s t u d y has been  i n the l i t e r a t u r e which attempts t o determine  the e f f e c t on subsequent s p e l l i n g achievement o f s e p a r a t e d r i l l on e x e r c i s e s i n t e n d e d t o d e v e l o p t h i s ability.  discriminatory  Chapter I I I . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  A review of the research i n the area of s p e l l i n g d i s a b i l i t y suggests t h e importance f o r good s p e l l i n g o f a s p e c i a l kind of v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , that of being able t o d i s c r i m i n a t e s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between words. of  the studies t o deal s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h i s  appeared  Since the l a s t problem  t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s ago, and s i n c e t h e r e has been  c o n t i n u a l emphasis f o r t h e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s o f t h e need for  t h e c a r e f u l v i s u a l s t u d y o f words, one may doubt i f t h i s  l a c k o f d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a b i l i t y s t i l l e x i s t s as a major f a c t o r i n poor s p e l l i n g .  The Hudson and T o l e r s t u d y ,  c o u p l e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by Mack and by T e m p l i n , would s u g g e s t , however, t h a t poor s p e l l e r s s t i l l  resist  attempts t o g e t them t o v i s u a l i z e words and r e l y  largely  i n s t e a d on p h o n i c  ability.  I t w i l l a l s o be noted t h a t t h e t e s t s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f words used by Gates and R i l e y were h i g h l y speeded.  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e t e s t s suggests t h a t speed o f  r e a d i n g would be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g  results,  a l t h o u g h speed o f p e r c e p t i o n i s n o t u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h good s p e l l i n g .  The e x t e n t t o w h i c h speed i s a f a c t o r i n  t h e s e t e s t s deserves  examination.  The. purpose o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o  - 20  -  d e t e r m i n e whether v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n o f words, as measured byG a t e s , i s s t i l l a major f a c t o r  i n s p e l l i n g d i s a b i l i t y , and i f  i t i s , whether o r n o t a n y t h i n g c a n be a c h i e v e d by a t t a c k i n g the problem d i r e c t l y and s e p a r a t e l y f r o m s p e l l i n g  instruction.  I n summary, t h i s s t u d y i s a t t e m p t i n g t o answer t h e following 1.  four questions:  I s poor word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  factor  as measured by Gates a major  i n s p e l l i n g d i s a b i l i t y amongst t h o s e p u p i l s  examined  by t h i s s t u d y ? 2.  Would r e d u c i n g t h e speed f a c t o r  the  test of discrimination  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  o f s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between words  s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h i s t e s t and spelling ability? 3.  I s t h i s word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  t a u g h t e a s i l y as an i s o l a t e d  s k i l l a s k i l l t h a t c a n be  process?  h.  I f t h i s word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  its  development i n an i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t i n an improvement i n  s k i l l i s e a s i l y acquired  will  his spelling a b i l i t y ? The  s t u d y thus r e s o l v e s i t s e l f i n t o two p a r t s .  Study I w i l l be concerned w i t h r e p e a t i n g some o f t h e work o f Gates and R i l e y on t h e one t e s t o f t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  of  s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between words t o see i f t h e i r f i n d i n g s  still  a p p l y , and a l s o w i t h examining t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f speed as a factor  i n this test.  S t u d y I I w i l l examine t h e f e a s i b i l i t y  of employing d r i l l e x e r c i s e s i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n remedial s p e l l i n g  technique.  as a  Chapter  17.  PLAN OF STUDY I  The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t i n g between a t e s t o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n small differences  of  between words and a s t a n d a r d i z e d s p e l l i n g  t e s t g i v e n t o s t u d e n t s i n the f i r s t month of Grade V I I , and t o d i s c o v e r i f t h e speed f a c t o r i n the t e s t has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the r e s u l t s Description  discrimination obtained.  of the T e s t s .  As G a t e s ' o r i g i n a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n i t s e n t i r e t y , two new  t e s t i s no  forms were c o n s t r u c t e d  the b a s i s o f the examples g i v e n i n h i s 'Psychology Reading and S p e l l i n g * .  (l,p.21)  longer on  of  These forms were d e s i g n a t e d  Form 1 and Form 2. The  s p e l l i n g t e s t c o n s i s t e d of words numbered s i x  t o f i f t y - f i v e i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t  Spelling  L i s t , Form S. M e n t a l Age was  measured by the Henraon-Nelson T e s t  of Mental A b i l i t y , Elementary School Examinations  f o r Grades  I I I t o V I I I , Form A. Examples of these i n s t r u m e n t s  are given i n  Appendix A. R e l i a b i l i t y of the T e s t s Used. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n e s t i m a t e d i n two ways.  test  was  R e t e s t on Form 1 a f t e r two weeks  - 22 (N = 40) gave r = ••'.90.  R e l i a b i l i t y by e q u i v a l e n t forms (Forms  1 and 2) gave r = + .86 (N = 37). Due  t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n s c o r e on  second two forms g i v e n i n c l o s e s u c c e s s i o n , the of the e q u i v a l e n t forms was  the  reliability  o b t a i n e d a f t e r a t h r e e minute  p r a c t i c e on a t h i r d s i m i l a r f o r m .  The l a r g e e f f e c t of  p r a c t i c e f o r the f i r s t h a l f minute or so was  thus a p p l i e d t o  both forms. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the M e t r o p o l i t a n S p e l l i n g  List  f o r Grade V, w h i c h c o n t a i n s f o r t y of the f i f t y words used f o r Grade V I I , u s i n g s p l i t h a l v e s and c o r r e c t e d by the SpearmanBrown Formula i s r e p o r t e d i n the t e s t manual (8,p.10) as r =+.933 (W= 350). i s not  The r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the Grade V I  list  given. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the Henmon-Nelson T e s t of M e n t a l  A b i l i t y , Elementary School Examination,  Form A, u s i n g  split  h a l v e s and c o r r e c t e d by the Spearman-Brown Formula i s r e p o r t e d i n the t e s t manual (5>p.D as r =*.879 f o r Grade V I I . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the T e s t s . The  t e s t i n g was  done over a f o u r t e e n day p e r i o d  b e g i n n i n g a t t h e end of September i n the t h i r d week of the s c h o o l y e a r , t o a group of 110 boys and 101 g i r l s i n Grade V I I of a J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. The d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t s were g i v e n a t the b e g i n n i n g and end o f the p e r i o d and the S p e l l i n g t e s t and d u r i n g f i v e days i n the  middle.  t e s t of M e n t a l A b i l i t y  - 23 The  -  f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t  c o n s i s t e d of Form 1 g i v e n under the same c o n d i t i o n s as G a t e s ' t e s t , i . e . , w i t h a one minute time l i m i t , f o l l o w e d by Form 2 w i t h a f o u r minute time l i m i t .  A l l s t u d e n t s were a b l e  complete the t e s t w i t h i n the l a t t e r l i m i t . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n Form 2 was  I n the second  g i v e n a one minute l i m i t  f o l l o w e d by Form 1 w i t h a f o u r minute l i m i t . the D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Speeded and  Statistical  obtained  The  and scores  for  the D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test  Unspeeded ( f o u r minute l i m i t ) were o b t a i n e d r e s p e c t i v e scores  to  by adding  the  a t each s i t t i n g .  Treatment o f R e s u l t s .  As s c a t t e r diagrams p l o t t i n g the s c o r e s o f S p e l l i n g , M e n t a l Age,  the  and Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded t e s t s  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d e p a r t u r e f r o m h o m o c e d a s t i c i t y , P e a r s o n P r o d u c t Moment r was  the  used f o r i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n  between t h e s e t e s t s . The  t e s t of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded produced  a g r e a t l y n e g a t i v e l y skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n .  T h i s skewing i s  b e l i e v e d t o be a f u n c t i o n of i n a d e q u a t e measurement i n t h a t , w i t h o n l y two t h e r e was  s i t t i n g s of f i f t y items each and no speed f a c t o r ,  i n s u f f i c i e n t top t o the t e s t .  I t i s assumed,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e t e s t of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded measures an a b i l i t y t h a t i s n o r m a l l y  distributed.  The  scores  f r o m t h i s t e s t were d i c h o t o m i z e d c l o s e t o the median so scores other.  82  t o 97  formed one  B i s e r i a l r was  group and  scores  98  t o 100  used t o c o r r e l a t e the Word  that  the  - 2h D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded t e s t w i t h t h e o t h e r t e s t s . F i r s t o r d e r p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were  between  obtained  t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded, M e n t a l Age, and  Spelling test  scores.  C o r r e l a t i o n s were computed s e p a r a t e l y as w e l l as combined f o r boys and g i r l s t o d i s c o v e r d i f f e r e n c e s were a p p a r e n t between them.  i f any l a r g e The f r e q u e n c y  d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the s c o r e s f o r a l l t e s t s a r e g i v e n i n Appendix B.  Chapter V. RESULTS OF STUDY I  The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e s c o r e s on t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded T e s t , Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded T e s t , S p e l l i n g T e s t , and T e s t o f M e n t a l A b i l i t y c a l c u l a t e d f i r s t f o r a l l s t u d e n t s and t h e n f o r boys and g i r l s s e p a r a t e l y a r e g i v e n i n t a b l e s V t o V I I I , (pp.28-31). The c o r r e l a t i o n o f Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded w i t h S p e l l i n g was r r + .54 w h i c h i s almost I d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o b t a i n e d by Gates i n 1922.  (l,p.7)  The Word  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Speeded a l s o c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Age r = +• A l . However, S p e l l i n g c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  Mental Mental  Age r , s •"•+ . 6 6 s o t h a t a f i r s t o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n between Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and M e n t a l Age w i t h S p e l l i n g h e l d c o n s t a n t gave 1*12.3  =  +  A  f i r s t order c o r r e l a t i o n  between Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g w i t h M e n t a l Age h e l d c o n s t a n t gave r  12.3  = +• .40.  The c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t g i v e n speeded and unspeeded was l o w a t r ^ j _  s  = + «30.  As t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Unspeeded and M e n t a l Age ( r ^ g • + .08)  was n o t  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0, h o l d i n g M e n t a l Age c o n s t a n t i n a c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s c o r e s on t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Speeded and the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Unspeeded would n o t a l t e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e c o r r e l a t i o n  - 26 of r £ b  g  r + .30*  Discrimination  The c o r r e l a t i o n between Word Unspeeded and S p e l l i n g was v e r y l o w , b u t  s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0 a t t h e .05 of c o n f i d e n c e a t r ^  g  z+  level  .18.  The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n i s between S p e l l i n g and M e n t a l Age o f r = t .66.  A f t e r p a r t i a l l i n g out the  e f f e c t o f Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  Speeded t h e c o r r e l a t i o n  remains a t r r + •57 which i s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t between Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  Speeded and S p e l l i n g .  When Table.-VI i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e i s found t o .1  be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  between t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r boys and g i r l s a t t h e  .05  l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e when t e s t e d by t h e z' t r a n s f o r m a t i o n for differences  between r ' s .  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s c a t t e r diagrams i n A p p e n d i x B (pp.57 and 63)  shows t h a t t h e chances a r e  a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e t o two t h a t a s c o r e i n t h e lower h a l f on t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  T e s t Speeded w i l l be accompanied  by a s c o r e i n t h e lower h a l f i n S p e l l i n g .  However,, t h e  chances a r e a l s o a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e t o two t h a t a s c o r e i n the lower h a l f i n t h e S p e l l i n g w i l l be accompanied by a s c o r e i n t h e lower h a l f o f t h e M e n t a l Age d i s t r i b u t i o n . The f r e q u e n c i e s a r e shown i n T a b l e I X . Ifi t h e l o w e s t t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e s c o r e s on t h e  - 27 Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Speeded a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e chances a r e over f i v e t o one t h a t a s c o r e w i l l be accompanied by a S p e l l i n g s c o r e i n the bottom h a l f .  The l o w e s t f o u r p e r c e n t  of s c o r e s on t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Speeded accompanied S p e l l i n g s c o r e s w h i c h were a l l i n the bottom t h i r t y p e r c e n t , and M e n t a l Age s c o r e s w h i c h had an a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e t o one chance o f b e i n g i n the bottom h a l f . ( T a b l e X.)  The  l o w e s t two p e r c e n t on the D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Speeded were i n the l o w e s t f i f t e e n p e r c e n t i n S p e l l i n g and percent i n Mental  eleven  Age.  D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d between Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g o f r = + .54 i s almost i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o b t a i n e d by Gates i n 1922. e f f e c t of M e n t a l Age was dropped t o r = t  e l i m i n a t e d the  When the  correlation  .40.  E l i m i n a t i n g the speed f a c t o r by g i v i n g the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t unspeeded reduced S p e l l i n g to r  b  i  g  from 0 a t t h e .05 w i t h M e n t a l Age  =+ .18  i t s correlation with  which i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e and i t s c o r r e l a t i o n to r ^  i g  = + .08  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from  w h i c h i s not  statistically  0.  I t appears n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t o g i v e t h e Word P e r c e p t i o n T e s t speeded i f a c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h S p e l l i n g s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 A l t h o u g h M e n t a l Age may  l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e i s t o be o b t a i n e d . e x p l a i n p a r t o f the speed f a c t o r  T a b l e V. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s * between c e r t a i n A l l Students. N 211.  variables.  =  o •H +> -O CO CD G T3 •H CD 0) •H P,  00  fl  0  f-t m  o f l co £> •H Q  Discrimination Speeded  r  Discrimination Unspeeded  <D bO <J  •H r-4 H 0)  iH cd -P  CO  S  CD  ft  _ = + .30  r = + . 54  M D 1 S  r^.,„ = + .18  r = + A l  1  iv., s +  b i s  b l s  Spelling  .08  2  r = +• .66  C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s g i v e n i n Tables V t o V I I I a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d .  1  S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05  l e v e l of confidence.  ?  Not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  Table V I . I n t e r c o r r e l a t l o n s between c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s . Boys. N = 110. Girls. N = 101. C  o  O •H +> t 3 CO CD C "O •H Q> 9 CO •H P,  •H  -p  CO  a •a  •H  co  s •o  CO CO  p.  Discrimination Speeded  Discrimination Unspeeded  Spelling  M e n t a l Age  r  r  b  ±  bis =  C  •H H i—I CO Pi CO  p  to •H Q  03 CO •H Q  f  -  .54  r  r  r +  -p C S  BOYS r = + .54  3 6  = t .20  r = +  CD bO  00  bls =  +  -  r = + .39  r  b  i  s  .45  1 1  .24  r z t .60  bis •2 = + .16  r * +  r  s  + .76  GIRLS 1 S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05  l e v e l of confidence.  o ^Not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  -  30  -  Table V I I . P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n s u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : 1. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded 2. Spelling 3. M e n t a l Age A l l S t u d e n t s . N = 211.  r  f  l2.3  .40 2  r  r  Not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  13.2  r  +  .08  s  +  .57  23.1  significant.  - 31 -  Table V I I I . . Partial  C o r r e l a t i o n s u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : 1. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded 2. Spelling 3. M e n t a l Age Boys. N 110. Girls. N • 101. s  BOYS  r  r  l2.3 =  +  '13.2 =  +  23.1 = +  GIRLS  *  a  3 8  r  9  r  +  13.2 • ~ -  o l f  '23.1 = * -  M  Not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  l2.3 =  significant.  7 0  - 32 -  Table IX. Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Speeded and S p e l l i n g . Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Speeded. Lower Upper Spelling  50%  Upper  32  50% Lower  73  S p e l l i n g and M e n t a l Age. Spelling. Lower Upper Mental Age  31  50% Lower  7h  50%  Upper.  - 33 -  T a b l e X. Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Speeded and S p e l l i n g . Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Speeded, Lower Upper Spelling  Upper  3  50% Lower  17  Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Speeded, Lower  Upper  Upper Spelling  3C$ Lower  Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Speeded and M e n t a l Age. Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Speeded. Lower Upper Mental Age  1.5  50% Lower  7.5  h%  Upper  - 34 involved  -  i n g i v i n g the Word P e r c e p t i o n T e s t speeded,  r e s i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n o f r z+.40 a f t e r the e l i m i n a t i o n  the of  M e n t a l Age would suggest t h a t good s p e l l e r s tend a l s o t o be r a p i d p e r c e i v e r s  of words.  As suggested e a r l i e r , t h i s r a p i d compared t o t h a t o f poor s p e l l e r s , may  perception  be due t o a f a c i l i t y  developed by good s p e l l e r s f o r v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n the components of a word c o n f i g u r a t i o n . forced  of  The poor s p e l l e r s ,  by the t e s t t o make comparisons and thus examine the  d e t a i l s of the words p r e s e n t e d , a r e r e l a t i v e l y s l o w a t an unaccustomed t a s k .  Chapter V I . PLAN OF STUDY I I  Having c o n f i r m e d G a t e s to  1  f i n d i n g s t h a t the  ability  d i s c r i m i n a t e s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between words i s  s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y , the purpose o f t h i s p a r t of the s t u d y i s t o a s c e r t a i n whether or not word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s k i l l may  be t a u g h t e a s i l y as  this  an  i s o l a t e d p r o c e s s , and f u r t h e r , i f t h i s s k i l l i s e a s i l y a c q u i r e d , whether or not t h e r e w i l l be a c o r r e s p o n d i n g improvement i n s p e l l i n g  ability.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l group c o n s i s t e d of 107  students  i n f o u r Grade V I c l a s s e s i n an elementary s c h o o l i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. of  The c o n t r o l group was  formed  97 s t u d e n t s from t h r e e Grade V I c l a s s e s t a k e n from t h r e e  elementary s c h o o l s drawing from p o p u l a t i o n s of a s i m i l a r socio-economic group was  l e v e l t o t h a t from w h i c h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  drawn.  Instruments  Used.  The Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t , forms 1 and 2, t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n P a r t I of t h i s s t u d y . l i m i t was  was  A one minute time  imposed. The s p e l l i n g t e s t s c o n s i s t e d of words numbered  6 t o 55  i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t S p e l l i n g  Forms S and R.  List,  Form S of t h i s t e s t was used i n P a r t I .  Both  - 36  -  t e s t s a r e g i v e n i n Appendix A. The d r i l l sheets used a r e shown i n A p p e n d i x D. The s i x t e e n sheets a r e n o t numbered and were g i v e n t w i c e , the f i r s t b e i n g g i v e n a g a i n as number 17, t h e second a g a i n as 18,  and so on, making a t o t a l o f 32  Experimental  sheets.  Design.  The Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t Form 1,  and t h e  M e t r o p o l i t a n S p e l l i n g T e s t , Form S, were g i v e n t o b o t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f t h r e e days at  t h e end o f September.  F o l l o w i n g the t e s t i n g p e r i o d the  e x p e r i m e n t a l group d r i l l e d on e x e r c i s e s i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e manner d e t a i l e d below f o r a p e r i o d o f e l e v e n weeks. A t t h e end o f t h i s time b o t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups were g i v e n t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t , Form 2,  and  the M e t r o p o l i t a n S p e l l i n g T e s t , Form R, d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f t h r e e days. The d r i l l s were a t a l l times t r e a t e d s o l e l y as e x e r c i s e s i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . of r i g h t o r wrong s p e l l i n g r a i s e d .  A t no time was t h e q u e s t i o n The s t u d e n t s ' t a s k  e s s e n t i a l l y was t o see whether or n o t one group o f l e t t e r s d i f f e r e d from another  group.  No d e f i n i t e time l i m i t was p l a c e d on d o i n g t h e d r i l l s h e e t u n t i l t h e l a s t f o u r weeks, a l t h o u g h t h e s t u d e n t s were encouraged t o work as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e .  I t was  found t h a t a f t e r t h e f i r s t two or t h r e e a t t e m p t s , t h e d r i l l  - 37 s h e e t c o u l d be completed and marked by a l l s t u d e n t s e x c e p t f o r the v e r y slowest, i n t e n minutes.  S t u d e n t s marked  t h e i r own papers from answers c a l l e d by t h e t e a c h e r , and then inspected t h e i r mistakes.  The two or t h r e e p u p i l s who  were u n a b l e t o complete t h e d r i l l s h e e t handed i n an incomplete exercise. The t e n minutes r e q u i r e d f o r a d r i l l p e r i o d was t a k e n from t h e r e g u l a r s p e l l i n g p e r i o d o f t h e day.  Thus,  w h i l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group was d o i n g e x e r c i s e s i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , the c o n t r o l group was r e c e i v i n g r e g u l a r spelling  instruction. The d r i l l s were conducted d a i l y f o r t h e f i r s t  two  weeks, t h r e e times weekly f o r t h e n e x t f o u r weeks, and t w i c e weekly f o r t h e l a s t f i v e weeks.  During the l a s t f o u r  weeks time l i m i t s were i n t r o d u c e d as an a i d t o m o t i v a t i o n . The d r i l l s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , were w e l l r e c e i v e d t h r o u g h o u t the e l e v e n weeks by t h e s t u d e n t s who a l l appeared d o i n g them.  to enjoy  Chapter V I I . RESULTS OF STUDY I I  The r e s u l t s o f t h e i n i t i a l t e s t i n g w i t h t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t , Form 1 and t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n S p e l l i n g •Test, Form S, and t h e f i n a l t e s t i n g w i t h t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t , Form 2, and t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n S p e l l i n g T e s t , Form R, a r e s u p p l i e d i n T a b l e X I .  A t a b l e o f raw  s c o r e s i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x C. The mean s c o r e by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group o f 28.4-3 on Form 2 o f t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t a g a i n s t 24.55 on Form 1 shows a mean i n c r e a s e o f 3*88.  T h i s mean  improvement o f 3.88 compared t o t h a t o f 1.79 by t h e c o n t r o l i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e w i t h a t r a t i o of 2.75. The mean Improvement on t h e S p e l l i n g T e s t o f 3.89 f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group compared t o t h a t o f 2.27 for  t h e c o n t r o l , i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f  c o n f i d e n c e w i t h a t r a t i o o f 2.75. The e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups were each b r o k e n i n t o sub-groups on t h e b a s i s o f s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on the f i r s t Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t .  The i n c r e a s e s o b t a i n e d  by t h e t o p and bottom q u a r t e r s and t h e m i d d l e  fifty  p e r c e n t oh b o t h Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g a r e g i v e n i n Table X I I .  - 39 -  The c o r r e l a t i o n between i n c r e a s e s oh t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t and t h e S p e l l i n g T e s t was i n v e s t i g a t e d . B o t h d i s t r i b u t i o n s were d i c h o t o m i z e d a t t h e mean and a c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e computed. Table X I I I .  The f r e q u e n c i e s a r e g i v e n i n  A tetrachoric c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n ,  o b t a i n e d by u s i n g these f r e q u e n c i e s and t h e C o s i n e - p i f o r m u l a , was r  z + .19 w h i c h i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  d i f f e r e n t from 0. Discussion of R e s u l t s . A l t h o u g h t h e g a i n i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n made by the E x p e r i m e n t a l Group was more t h a n t w i c e t h a t made by t h e C o n t r o l t h e two groups were e q u a l i n t h i s s k i l l a t t h e end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d .  Whether t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l  Group would have passed t h e C o n t r o l w i t h f u r t h e r p r a c t i c e "or  whether a l i m i t f o r t h i s age had been reached  i n d i c a t e d by t h e r e s u l t s .  i s not  The l a r g e r i n c r e a s e by t h e  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group may be due, i n p a r t , t o t h e i r weakness i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  initial  However, a f t e r t a k i n g  i n t o account t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f r a i s i n g a mean o f 26.77 t o 28.56 and a mean of  24.55 t o 28.43  i t would appear s a f e t o assume t h a t t h e  performing of the d r i l l exercises r e s u l t e d i n a greater g a i n by t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group t h a n might o t h e r w i s e have, been expected. In  s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group showed  Table X I . Performance on t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g T e s t s f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups a t the b e g i n n i n g and end o f t h e e l e v e n week e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Mean Score Toon Form 1  Mean Score on Form 2  Mean Improvement Form 2 minus Form 1  107  24.55  28.43  3.88  3.80  97  26.77  28.56  1.79  3.25  Standard deviation of I n d i v i d u a l Improvement  Number i n Sample Experimental Control  Spelling  Standard deviation of I n d i v i d u a l Improvement  Number i n Sample  Mean Score on Form S  Mean Score on Form R  Mean Improvement Form R minus Form S  Experimental  107  26.23  30.12  3-89  4.57  Control  • 97  27.40  29.67  2.27  3.85  Table X I I . Mean Improvement i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g o f h i g h , middle* and low groups formed on t h e b a s i s o f the o r i g i n a l Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t .  Highest Quarter Word D i s c r . Experimental Control  Middle Half  S p e l l i n g Word D i s c r .  Lowest Quarter  Spelling  Word D i s e r .  Spelling  2.9  4.4  4.0  4.0  4.4  3.if  .8  2.1  2.2  2.5  1.9  2.4  Table X I I I . F r e q u e n c i e s above and below t h e means o f Improvement i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group.  Above t h e Mean Improvement for Spelling  Above t h e Mean I n c r e a s e f o r Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  Below t h e Mean Improvement for Spelling  33  25  22  27  Below t h e Mean I n c r e a s e f o r Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  - 43 at  t h e b e g i n n i n g a mean o f 1.17  words l e s s t h a n t h e C o n t r o l  but a f i n a l mean o f .45 words g r e a t e r t h a n the C o n t r o l .  When  the raw s c o r e s a r e c o n v e r t e d t o t h e age e q u i v a l e n t s i n t h e T e s t Manual, (8)  i t i s found t h a t t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group  made s p e l l i n g g a i n s o f s i x months w h i l e t h e C o n t r o l made a t h r e e month's g a i n . The E x p e r i m e n t a l Group thus made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n b o t h word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and s p e l l i n g over t h e experimental period.  The c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s e two  s e t s o f g a i n s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0.  It is  p o s s i b l e t h a t the d r i l l exercises a s s i s t e d a v a r i e t y of s p e l l i n g weaknesses, and t h a t l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y o c c u r r e d w i t h o u t b e i n g accompanied by s i m i l a r increases i n rapid  discrimination.  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e h i g h , m i d d l e and l o w sub-groups o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group on Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a b i l i t y shows no marked g a i n by any sub-group i n comparison w i t h t h e o t h e r s .  The g a i n s by t h e sub-groups  over t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e group i n t h e C o n t r o l show t h a t w h i l e the t h r e e groups made s i m i l a r g a i n s i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n the v a r i a t i o n i n s p e l l i n g g a i n s from h i g h t o l o w was pronounced a t 2.3>  1.5,  and 1.0. r e s p e c t i v e l y .  T h i s would  suggest t h a t most o f t h e c h i l d r e n t e s t e d , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r l e v e l o f word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , c a n b e n e f i t from t h e d r i l l e x e r c i s e s by an i n c r e a s e i n s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y .  The  -  1+4  -  r e s u l t s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e t h a t the amount o f s p e l l i n g improvement as a r e s u l t o f t h e d r i l l e x e r c i s e s d i r e c t l y t o the a b i l i t y f o r word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n possessed.  I n o t h e r words, t h e g r e a t e r  i s related already  the i n i t i a l  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s k i l l , w i t h i n t h e range measured i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e g r e a t e r may be the expected s p e l l i n g improvement as a r e s u l t o f t h e t h i r t y - t w o d r i l l  exercises.  Chapter  VIII.  CONCLUSIONS  The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d a r e f u r t h e r c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h e f i n d i n g s o f R i c e , (10) n e a r l y s i x t y y e a r s ago, t h a t t h e l e v e l o f s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y i s not r e l a t e d t o the time on s p e l l i n g i n the c l a s s r o o m .  spent  The e x p e r i m e n t a l group  d u r i n g the e l e v e n week d r i l l p e r i o d spent o n e - t h i r d l e s s time on s p e l l i n g t h a n d i d the c o n t r o l group, y e t made s p e l l i n g g a i n s double t o t h o s e of the c o n t r o l .  I n s t e a d of  r e c e i v i n g normal s p e l l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n t h e y were d e v e l o p i n g a s k i l l w h i c h appears t o be fundamental  t o good s p e l l i n g .  The s c h o o l from w h i c h the e x p e r i m e n t a l group chosen has had an achievement r e c o r d on annual t e s t s the p a s t s i x y e a r s c l o s e t o the c i t y average.  As  was  over  the  norms f o r the c i t y on b o t h r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g compare f a v o u r a b l y t o t h o s e of the P r o v i n c e and t o norms o b t a i n e d from the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r e i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r assuming t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l group had r e c e i v e d up t o the t i m e t h a t the s t u d y was  begun, a t l e a s t adequate i n s t r u c t i o n by  P r o v i n c i a l s t a n d a r d s i n those s u b j e c t s ,  I t i s probable,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a v e r y l a r g e number of c h i l d r e n a t t h e Grade V I l e v e l c o u l d d e r i v e b e n e f i t from the d r i l l e x e r c i s e s . The t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n assumed here i s t h a t the l a c k of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a b i l i t y when d e a l i n g w i t h word forms  - 46  -  i n Grade V I i s a r e s u l t of i n s u f f i c i e n t emphasis  on t h i s  s k i l l i n the p r i m a r y g r a d e s , w h i c h assumes, of c o u r s e , t h a t the  s k i l l c o u l d be developed a t an e a r l y age. I t would appear n e c e s s a r y , as a t e s t of t h i s  h y p o t h e s i s , t o embark on a l o n g term s t u d y i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s in  the p r i m a r y grades a r e g i v e n e x e r c i s e s i n word  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and a r e t h e n f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h s c h o o l t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t of t h i s s k i l l on subsequent  spelling  achievement. Other f a c t o r s such as the permanence o f t h i s word d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a b i l i t y when once developed t o a h i g h l e v e l , the l i m i t s o f t h i s a b i l i t y a t v a r i o u s ages, and t h e o p t i m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of d r i l l s b o t h w i t h i n a grade and f r o m grade t o grade must be l e f t f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s .  - 47 REFERENCES 1  G a t e s , A . I . , The p s y c h o l o g y of r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o d i s a b i l i t y . Columbia U n i v . C o n t r . Educ. 1922, No. 129, 10b pp. 1  2  G a t e s , A r t h u r I . , A s t u d y of the r o l e of v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , i n t e l l i g e n c e , and c e r t a i n a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g , J . educ, P s y c h o l . . 1926,  17, 433-W.  3  G a t e s , A r t h u r I . and Chase, E s t h e r H., Methods and 'theories of l e a r n i n g t o s p e l l t e s t e d by s t u d i e s o f d e a f c h i l d r e n , J . educ. P s y c h o l . , 1926, 17, 289-3OO.  4  Hartman, George W., The r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y f a c t o r s i n s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y , J . educ. P s y c h o l . . 1931, 22, 691-699.  5  Henmon-Nelson t e s t s of m e n t a l a b i l i t y . Teacher's manual f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l e x a m i n a t i o n f o r grades I I I t o V I I I . Forms A. B and C. Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1946. 4 pp.  6  Hudson, J e s s H. and T o l e r , L o l a , I n s t r u c t i o n i n a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as a means of i m p r o v i n g s p e l l i n g , Elem. Sch. J . . 1949, 49, 466-469.  7  Mack, E s t h e r , An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the importance o f v a r i o u s word a n a l y s i s a b i l i t i e s i n r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g achievement, ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n B o s t o n U n i v . , 1952).  8  M e t r o p o l i t a n achievement t e s t s . Manual f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e B a t t e r y - p a r t i a l . Forms R. S. T. U. and V. World Book Company, 1946\ 10 pp.  9  N i c h o l s , Augusta M., The a n a l y s i s and s p e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , Elem. Sch.  50, 154-161.  correction of J . . 1949,  10  R i c e , Joseph M., The f u t i l i t y of the s p e l l i n g g r i n d , Forum. 1897, 23: 63-172, *K)9-4l9.  11  R i l e y , S i s t e r Mary (of the V i s i t a t i o n ) , V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n i n r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g : a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . C a t h o l i c U n i v . A m e r i c a Educ. Res. B u l l . I V , 1929, N o . l .  - 48 12  T e m p l i n , M i l d r e d C. A., Comparison o f s p e l l i n g achievement o f normal and d e f e c t i v e h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s , J . educ. P s y c h o l . 1948, 39, 339-346. f  13  T e m p l i n , M i l d r e d C , P h o n i c knowledge and i t s r e l a t i o n t o the s p e l l i n g and r e a d i n g achievement of f o u r t h grade p u p i l s , J . educ. Res.. Feb., 1954.  - 4-9 -  APPENDIX A Page 1.  Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t , Forms A and B  2.  Directions f o r Administering  50  t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 51  Test 3.  M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t s S p e l l i n g  List,  Forms S and R h.  The Henmon-Nelson T e s t s o f M e n t a l A b i l i t y , Form A  53 55  - 50 1 2  I  5  he in to if at  ho ni to of at  6 big say 7 8 elf l ot 9 10 f r y  big sey olf let fry  Form 2  1 2  I  be me on up or  6 7 8 9 10  rib bar one set lag  bo me no uy or rib ban one sit lag  11 12  11 15  star rich corn shoe diet  satr rech cron shoe diet  11 12 13 14 15  scar read corn able lake  16 17 18 19 20  above blaze equal scold lemon  above bloze equal scolt • lemen  16 17 18 19 20  about beach refer shock meant  21 22 23 24 25  abound parrot beauty barber access  21 22 23 24 25  meadow bitter banana absent school  26 27 28 29 30  awkward furious license battery gallant  26 27 28 29 30  sparrow haughty anybody barrier acquaint  sperrow haughty anybody barrier acquairt  31 32 33 3+ 35  boundary disgrace singular medicine argument  31 32 33 34 35  eastern marriage sickness champion calandar  eastren marniage sickness champian calendar  36 37 38 39 40  education candidate slaughter companion difficult  36 37 38 39 40  objection cathedral abundance carpenter ignorance  41 42 43 4H 45  commercial brightness particular victorious obligation  41 42 43 44 45  background yourselves permission unpleasant ambassador  46 47 48 49 50  unconscious . unconscious measurement measurement celebration celebration performanse performance imagination imagimation  46 47 48 49 50  accomodated unfortunate certificate distinguish combination  abourd parrot beuaty barber acsess awkwrad furoius license battery gallant boundray disgrase singular medecine argumant education canditade slaughler companion difficult commercial brightness particular victarious obilagtion  sacr raed corm able lake about baech r e f en shock meart meadom bitter banona absent shcool  _ _  objection cathedarl aburdance carpenter ignornace backgrourd yourselves permission unpleasent ambassodar accomodated unfortunate cetrificate distinguist combimation  -  51  -  D i r e c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t . Speeded. See t h a t a l l t h e s t u d e n t s have a p e n c i l . Say? " T h i s i s a s h o r t t e s t t h a t you w i l l n o t f i n d v e r y h a r d . When t h e page i s p l a c e d on your.desk you a r e t o l e a v e i t l y i n g f a c e downwards and w r i t e your name on t h e back.  Do n o t t u r n t h e paper o v e r . "  G i v e o u t t h e papers f a c e downwards w i t h t h e t o p o f t h e l i s t away f r o m t h e s t u d e n t . Say,  " T h i s i s a t e s t t o see how w e l l y o u l o o k a t words. When you a r e t o l d t o t u r n your paper over you w i l l p a i r s o f words s i d e by s i d e l i k e  find  this."  W r i t e on t h e b l a c k b o a r d  Say,  cat  cot  and  and  ran  rat  " I f t h e words o f t h e p a i r a r e t h e same you a r e t o p u t a check.  I f they a r e d i f f e r e n t you a r e t o p u t a c r o s s . "  P o i n t t o t h e l i n e a f t e r t h e f i r s t p a i r on t h e b l a c k b o a r d . "What do we p u t h e r e ? " "That i s c o r r e c t .  Pause.  We p u t a c r o s s because t h e y a r e  different." P o i n t t o t h e l i n e a f t e r t h e second p a i r . "Correct.  "What do we p u t  here?"  Pause.  A check because they a r e t h e  same."  Point t o the l i n e a f t e r the t h i r d  pair.  - 52 "And h e r e ? "  Pause.  "Correct.  A cross  because  they a r e d i f f e r e n t . " "Take your p e n c i l i n one hand and h o l d the bottom o f your paper r e a d y t o t u r n over and b e g i n .  You w i l l  be g i v e n j u s t one minute t o do as many as y o u c a n . Are y o u r e a d y ?  Go!"  Time e x a c t l y 60 seconds.  Say, "Stop, p e n c i l s down."  C o l l e c t the papers.  Unspeeded. I f t h e t e s t i s t o be f o l l o w e d by t h e o t h e r form unspeeded g i v e o u t t h e papers as b e f o r e . Say, " T h i s i s e x a c t l y t h e same k i n d o f t e s t t h a t you have j u s t done b u t t h i s time you w i l l be g i v e n f o u r times as l o n g t o do i t .  A r e you r e a d y ?  Begin."  Time h m i n u t e s . Say, "Stop, p e n c i l s down," and t h e n c o l l e c t t h e p a p e r s .  - 53 -  METROPOLITAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS SPELLING LIST - FORM S  1. 2. 3.  4.  5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.  14.  15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.  24.  25.  want would mouth coast making uncle drew fair lesson raise lamb beet wedding learning colored heavy biggest measure manager breakfast toward advertise happened remember advised  26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 3*. 35. 36. 38.  & 41. 42.  44. 45.  46.  47.  48.  49. 50.  neighbor easily doubtful barley pitcher customer hymn blizzard successful introductory disappointment journal registration edition sincerely probably sensible tragedy opportunity annual appreciating vulgar faculty alcohol ambitious  - 54 METROPOLITAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS SPELLING LIST - FORM R  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 14.  15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.  25.  because s o r r y wrote c u t t i n g c o s t h o l d walked stood does begun excuse s o r e thread l i s t e n promise w o r s t garage  26. 27.  c e l l a r c e r t a i n l y  29.  p a t i e n t  28. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 3  ?'  36. 37. 38. 39.  i n s t r u c t o r nephew envelope enemies source g r a d u a l l y r e s p o n s e s e s s i o n campaign  41.  engineer l e g i s l a t i o n s u p e r i n t e n d e n t  42.  d e l i c i o u s  40.  guide o u r s e l v e s d i f f e r e n t k n o t  \3. 44. 45.  l i b r a r y  47.  screw d e c i d e a g a i n s t  c e l e b r a t e  46. 48.  49. 50.  enormous p p s e  h y s i c a l r i o r i n c e r i t y x t e n s i o n  s i m i l a r n e c e s s i t y immediate  - 56 APPENDIX B Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f V a r i o u s T e s t Scores f o r Study I PAGE D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g - A l l s t u d e n t s  57  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g - Boys  58  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g - G i r l s  59  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and M e n t a l Age - A l l s t u d e n t s  60  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded - Boys  61  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded - G i r l s  62  S p e l l i n g and M e n t a l Age - A l l s t u d e n t s  63  S p e l l i n g and M e n t a l Age - Boys  64  S p e l l i n g and M e n t a l Age - G i r l s  65  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded and S p e l l i n g - Boys, G i r l s and A l l s t u d e n t s  66  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded and M e n t a l Age - B o y s , G i r l s and A l l s t u d e n t s  67  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded - Boys D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded - G i r l s D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded - A l l s t u d e n t s  68  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Raw Scores on t h e T e s t s o f Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g . A l l S t u d e n t s . N = 211  Spelling 48-50 45-47 42-44 39-41 36-38 33-35 30-32 27-29 24-26 21-23 18-20 15-17 12-14 9-11 6-8  Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 36-38 39-41 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 54-56 57-59 60-62 63-65 66-68 69-71 72-74 75-77 l 2 2 1 2  n  1 1 1 1  2  3  1 2 1  1 1 2 1 3 1 5 2  3 22 3 2 3 3 1  1 1 1 3 44 4 1 4 1 2  2  1  1  1 1 1 2 3 22 1 1 1 5 2  1 l 3 3 7 7 7 3 2 2 2 1  3  5  4 3 3 5 3 2 1  1 2 3 2  1 3 4 5  3 5 3 2  51  2 2  1  1  1  1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1  3 1 1  ^} ^  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Raw S c o r e s on t h e T e s t s o f Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g . Boys. N r 110.  Spelling 48-50 45-47 42-44 •39-41 36-38 33-35 30-32 27-29 24-26 21-23 18-20 15-17 12-14 9-11 6- 8  Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 36-38 39-41 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 54-56 57-59 60-62 63-65 66-68 69-71 72-74 75-77  1 1 1  1  3  1 1 1 2 1 1 1  4  1 1 2 11 3 1 3 2  2 2 1 1 2 1 2  1  1  2  1  •  1 1 2 1 1 1  1  3 1 1  1  1 1 2  3 2  3 2 3 2 2  1 1 2 4  1 1 1 2 1 1 2  2 1  1  1  1  2 1 1 1  1 1 1  00  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Raw Scores on t h e T e s t s o f Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g . Girls. N 101. =  Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 36-38 39-41 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 54-56 57-59 60-62 63-65 66-68 69-71 72-74 75-77 Spelling 48-50 45-47 42-44 39-41 36-38 33-35 30-32 27-29 24-26 21-23 18-20 15-17 12-14 9-11 6-8  ' 1 1 1  1 2 2  1  1  1  1  2 1 1  1 2 2 3 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 3 1  1 2  1 1 3 5 4 1 2 2 1  1 3 2 1 1 2 1 1  1 2 2 1 2  1 3 2 4 4 1  1  2  1 1  1 1  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Haw Scores on t h e Tests' o f Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and M e n t a l Age. A l l S t u d e n t s . N = 211 Months of M.A. 216-221 210-215 204-209 198-203 192-197 186-191 180-185 174-179 168-173 162-167 156-161 150-155  Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 36-38 39-41 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 54-56 57-59 60-62 63-65 66-68 69-71 72-74 75-77  1  144-149  138-143 132-137 126-131 120-125 114^119  1  1 1  2  1 1  3 3  1  1 1 1  1  1  2 1 2 2 3 2 1 3 3 2  3 5 2 1 1 2 5 1  1 l 3  2 4 2 2 2 1 2 2 1  2 2 5 1 5 l 3 1  •1 1 1 1 6 8 3 3 4 1 3  2 2 2 2 2 3 5 3 2 2 1  1 2 1 1  I 2 1 2 1  2 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 1  2  1 2  1  1  1 1  2  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Raw Scores on the Tester o f Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and M e n t a l Age. Boys. N 110. =  Months Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' r of 36-38 39-41 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 54-56 57-59 60-62 63-65 66-68 69-71 72-74 75-77 M.A. 216-221 1 210-215 1 204-209 1 1 2 1 198-203 1 1 1 192-197 1 1 186-191 1 1 1 1 1 180-185 2 1 3 2 1 174-179 1 2 •2 4 1 2 3 4 2 168-173 1 1 2 2 2 162-167 3 1 2 1 1 3 1 156-161 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 150-155 1 1 1 1 2 1 144-149 1 2 4 2 1 138-143 1 2 1 1 1 132-137 1 1 2 1 1 126-131 1 1 120-125 114-119 -  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Raw Scores on t h e T e s t o f Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and M e n t a l Age. G i r l s . N - 101. Months Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . of 36-38 39-41 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 54-56 57-59 60-62 63-65 66-68 69-71 72-74 75-77 M.A. 216-221 2 210-215 1 1 204-209 1 1 198-203 1 1 1 192-197 1 2 1 1 2 186-191 * 2 1 1 180-185 2 2 3 2 3 1 174-179 1 1 1 3 5 2 1 168-173 2 2 3 1 2 1 1 °> 162-167 2 2 2 1 1 1 156-161 1 1 3 2 1 150-155 2 1 2 1 1 2 144-149 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 138-143 1 1 2 1 132-137 2 126-131 1 1 120-125 114-119 1  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Raw S c o r e s on t h e S p e l l i n g and M e n t a l Age. A l l S t u d e n t s . N = 211. Months of M.A. 216-221 210-215 204-209 198-203 192-197 186-191 180-185 174-179 168-173 162-167 156-161 150-155 1L&-149 131-143 132-137 126-131 120-125 114-119  68  911  1214  17  20  1 1  1 2 2 1  1 1  1  1 2 1  5  l  1  3  I  1  2123  2 1 1 2 2 3 1 2 1  Spelling 24- 2726 29  2 3 3 1 1 2 1  1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2  3032  2 1 6 1 4 1 3  3335  1 1 2 4 8 3 3 2 6 2 1  3638 1 2 2 1 4 5 7 1 1  Test  3941 1  42H4  4547  1 1 1 2 2 1  2 2  3 1 4  3 4 1 2  1 3 6 2 3 1 1  2  48^ 50 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ON  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Raw Scores on the S p e l l i n g T e s t and M e n t a l Age. Boys. N 110. =  Months of M.A. 216-221 210-215 204-209 198-203 192-197 186-191 180-185 174-179 168-173 162-167 156-161 150-155  68  911  1514 17  1820  2123  1 1  1 1  144-149  138-143 132-137 126-131 120-125 114-119  12-  2 1  1  1  1  2  1 1 3 2 3  1  2 .1 1 2  1 2 1  Spelling  24- 27- 3026 29 32  1 3 1 1 1  1  1 2  1  1  4  3 1 2  3335  1 2  1  1 1 2 5 1 2 3 2  3638  39-  1 2 1  1  2  1  1  2 2  1  2 2 2  41  42- 45- 48-  >+4  1  47  2  1 1 3 1  50  1 1 1 1  ON  F  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Raw Scores on the S p e l l i n g T e s t and M e n t a l Age. G i r l s . N = 101. Months of M.A. 216-221 210-215 204-209 198-203 192-197 186-191 180-185 174-179 168-173 162-167 156-161 150-155 144-149 138-143 132-137 126-131 120-125 114-119  68  911  12- 1514 17  1820  1123  Spelling 24- 2726 29  1 1  1 1  1 1 1  2 1 1 1 1  2 1 1  1 2  3032  1 1 2 1 3 1 1  3335  1 2 3 2 2 3 1  3638  2 1 2 3 5 1 1  3941  1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2  4244  .2 2 3 1 .2 1 1  47 1 1 3 2  48^ 50 2 2 1 1 1  1 ON VJ\  1  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S p e l l i n g Scores w i t h Scores on t h e T e s t o f Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded d i c h o t o m i z e d a t t h e Mean. f - number o f cases above t h e mean f . = t o t a l number o f cases P t Spelling  Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  f  48-50 45-47 42-44 39-41 36-38 33-35  30-32 27-29 24-26 21-23 18-20  15-17  12-14 9-11 6- 8  BOYS N = 110 ft p 4 4  3  4 4 4  7  4  6  4  6  3 9 8 9 19 8 10 7  GIRLS N = 101 f  P  7 7 7 6 5 6 5  1 4  4 1 1 1  0  12 2 3 5 0  2 0 0 0 0 0  53  110  50  11  f  t  7 7 12  ALL STUDENTS N - 211 t P f  f  11  4  10 11 10 9 13 9 7 8 8  1 1  1 1 1 0  101  103  11  15 14  10  4  6  6 0 3  4  11 10 21 • 19 24 33 18 14  13 15 18 2 6 6 1  211  i  ON ON  1  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M e n t a l Age w i t h s c o r e s on t h e T e s t o f Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded d i c h o t o m i z e d a t t h e Mean. f^. a t o t a l number o f cases f p s number o f cases above t h e mean Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  M.A. in Months  BOYS N = 110 f  216-221 210-215 204-209 198-203 192-197 186-191 180-185 174-179 168-173 162-3.67 156-161 150-155 144-149 138-143 132-137 126-131 120-125 114-119  P 0 1 4 3 2 3 4 7 4 3 1 4 6 4 3 0 0 0  f  1 1 7 3 2 5 9 21 8 12 8 9 10 6 6 2 0 0  GIRLS N = 101 ft P  2 2 2 3 3 1 9 5 6 5 4 4 4 2 0 0 0 0  2 2 2 3 7 4 12 14 12 8 8 9 8 5 2 2 0 1  ALL STUDENTS t P f  f  2 3 6 6 5 4 13 12 10 8 5 8 10 6 3 0 0 0  3 3 9 6 9 9 21 35 20 20 16 18 18 11 8 4 0 1  ON >0  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Scores on t h e T e s t o f Word . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded w i t h Scores on t h e T e s t o f Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded d i c h o t o m i z e d a t t h e Mean, f p & number o f cases above t h e mean f ^ r t o t a l number o f cases Word Discr. Speeded  Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded f  75-77 72-74 69-71 66-68 63-65 60-62 57-59 54-56 51-53 48-50  45-47 42-44 39-41  36-38  BOYS N = 110 t P 0 1 1 3 3 5 8 10 14 8 6 12 3 9 2 11 4 15 1 15 0 8 l 4 0 2 0 1 f  GIRLS N r 101 t p 4 4 3 3 10 15 5 8 7 12 12 20 2 11 3 12 5 ' 8 1 3 1 3 0 0 0 1 0 1 f  f  ALL STUDENTS p 4 4 13 13 15 18 5 5 9 2 1 f  l  0 0  f  t  5 6 20 18 26 32 20 23 23  18 11 4 3 2  -  69  -  APPENDIX C  T a b l e o f Raw S c o r e s f o r Study I I  - 70  -  Table o f Raw Scores f o r S t u d y I I . Raw s c o r e s on t h e Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t , Forms 1 and 2, and t h e S p e l l i n g T e s t , Forms S and R. E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Form 1 Form 2  Spelling Form S Form R  1.  25  28  37  39  2.  22  25  34  38  3.  24  38  40  44  4.  25  30  38  43  5.  23  29  34  37  6.  25  29  26  35  7.  22  28  32  37  8.  24  37  43  9.  25  25  26  31  10.  25  31  37  41  11.  23  33  43  45  12.  29  35  35  39  13.  25  28  43  45  14.  30  28  33  41  15.  30  34  33  36  16.  22  29  27  41  17.  26  30  39  40  18.  30  36  43  45  19.  29  38  35  39  20.  21  25  25  30  21.  26  30  27  43  .  ko  -  71  -  Form 1  Form 2  Form S  Form R  22.  27  35  37  39  23-  28  35  38  44  24.  26  30  33  39  25,  20  25  27  3^  26.  30  44  41  41  27.  25  32  35  41  28.  25  30  41  40  29.  23  29  *3  42  30.  20  32  41  42  31.  21  27  28  36  32.  20  23  19  20  33".  33  32  28  38  3*.  25  36  27  33  35.  20  25  22  22  36.  23  28  24  25  37.  25  28  21  35  38.  29  31  36  37  39.  30  31  32  37  40.  28  29  29  3+  41.  25  31  20  27  42.  27  28  23  35  *3.  25  26  30  38  44.  24  26  21  28  45.  26  28  33  36  46.  29  36  35  40  ,  - 72 Form  1  Form  2  Form  S  Form  47.  25  33  35  42  48.  19  25  23  30  49.  25  21  31  38  50.  26  26  23  23  51.  29  36  34  37  52.  24  28  19  28  53.  25  28  20  20  54.  24  29  27  35  55.  27  31  43  47  56,  29  30  30  39  57,  25  25  16  23  58.  25  29  21  23  59.  26  26  24  27  60.  23  31  26  36  61.  24  23  13  12  62.  29  30  14  23  63.  24  31  27  29  64.  19  30  34  36  65.  32  27  31  36  66.  20  25  25  29  67.  16  23  22  .30  68.  25  27  28  31  69.  25  24  24  31  70.  17  13  8  13  71.  22  26  24  28  R  73  -  Form 1  Form 2  Form S  Form R  72.  29  3^  38  3^  73.  16  19  20  18  74.  24  30  17  25  75.  26  30  15  3>+  76.  24  29  11  20  77.  29  31  15  23  78.  22  23  18  29  79.  25  36  20  24  80.  29  28  23  36  81.  22  20  15  16  82.  24  25  18  20  83.  23  29  20  20  84.  21  23  23  26  85.  24  22  22  26  86.  23  23  19  17  87.  26  24  22  19  88.  16  23  16  21  89.  25  30  23  20  90 .  20  22  3  5  91.  25  24  23  18  92.  25  29  20  15  93.  20  21  10  10  94.  21  31  31  31  95.  23  29  30  37  96.  27  30  32  27  - 7h Form 1  Form 2  Form S  Form B  97.  22  26  21  22  98.  26  30  13  13  99.  23  25  15  16  100.  26  29  24  26  101.  22  24  10  5  102.  22  25  10  13  103.  21  29  17  16  104.  21  26  16  18  105.  30  27  14  11  106.  28  29  16  21  107.  27  27  31  33  - 75 C o n t r o l Group Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Form 1 Form 2  Spelling Form R Form S  1.  24  24  11  14  2.  29  28  3^  35  3-  37  3+  42  ko  4.  23  26  26  30  5.  26  29  19  27  6.  29  29  26  20  7.  31  36  25  22  8.  31  28  30  33  9.  24  25  28  31  10.  31  33  22  27  11.  33  35  31  39  12.  28  31  19  25  13.  27  28  19  25  14.  33  3*f  44  *3  28  29  23  17  16.  3*  37  42  40  17.  31  31  31  35  18.  20  23  31  30  31  3^  17  14  20.  29  28  26  27  21.  29  31  28  22.  28  20  26  29  23.  3H-  37  30  27  15.  '  1  38  Form 1  Form 2  Form S  Form R  24.  32  31  37  39  25.  25  28  15  15  26.  29  27  27  29  27.  21  31  29  23  28.  28  31  37  39  29.  30  31  35  36  30.  28  31  38  43  31.  34  33  30  37  32.  24  31  35  39  33.  24  29  36  37  34.  23  25  31  27  35.  24  22  28  24  36.  28  37  33  34  37.  26  32  42  42  38.  28  28  21  27  39.  29  37  29  31  40.  30  29  35  40  41.  32  37  49  49  42.  29  29  29  24  43.  25  26  19  19  44.  19  23  25  30  45.  30  30  40  40  46.  27  30  17  21  47.  24  24  21  24  48.  26  34  19  23  77  Form 1  Form 2  Form S  Form R  49.'  26  30  31  37  50.  30  3^  41  47  51.  26  26  32  35  52.  26  28  31  32  53.  23  24  24  31  54.  27  33  37  37  55.  25  29  20  21  56.  22  23  28  26  57.  22  25  29  30  58.  30  31  31  30  59.  25  31  21  25  60.  24  32  45  39  61.  22  27  19  26  62.  24  28  27  30  63.  33  38  36  36  64.  23  24  28  29  65.  31  31  20  19  66.  24  22  31  35  67.  26  25  30  3h  68.  21  21  4  7  69.  19  24  15  14  70.  21  24  17  19  71.  28  29  35  40  72.  30  32  30  42  73.  27  32  37  40  •  78  Form 1  Form 2  Form S  Form R  74.  22  24  29  32  75.  20  20  27  30  76.  28  27  19  29  77.  23  24  10  1  78.  21  26  28  33  79.  26  29  33  36  80.  21  20  7  7  81.  25  27  28  38  82.  21  20  33  35  83.  24  23  18  25  84.  32  36  35  36  85.  26  30  36  37  86.  30  25  43  43  87.  37  34  31  33  88,  24  22  13  22  89.  28  23  7  10  90.  18  18  10  14  91.  26  29  35  36  92,  23  22  11  21  93.  33  29  25  31  94.  29  31  20  22  95.  26  30  25  30  96.  31  33  26  30  97.  23  22  20  24  3.  -  79  -  APPENDIX D  Drill  exercises  I f the words arc thci same out a chock, I f they aro d i f f e r e n t put cross, 26  U n d e r l i n e the w o r d ( s ) i n the row which i s the Same as the f i r s t word. disrate disrate disrote distore disrate enfraino i n f r a m c infarme enframe enfarmc marocain m a r c a i n marocan m a c o r a i n marocain g r a p n e l g a r p n o l garnp'el g r a h p e l ' g r a p n e l marist marits morist n a r i s t marist rumiiier runner rammer rummer rumher s l u i c e shuicc siluice s l i c e s i u i s e grandeur grander g a m d e r gradeur grandeur hamster hamter lipmster ham'ser hamster margay marguy magray margay margey tangram tamgran tbngram tarigram tanrgam ruminant ruminate inanimate ruminant dissertate disertate' disservatc d i s s e r t a t e g r a n g e r i z e g r a n g e r i z e grangariz'e g r a n g e r i s e marmoreal mamoreal mamereal marmoreal  27 mrthrn 1 28 gnrgng 2 29 prdmnr 3 30 speces 4 31 bolsam 5 _ 32 ocscnl 6 33 cttwnd 7 34 prfuse 8 35 tinbrline 9 36 dtneatcd lo" .37 t l r g p h l y 11 • 38 p t a r m i g n 12 • 39 economic 13 g r a y l i n g 14 — 40 40 s t a t i o n s s t a t i o n s 15 ' U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which have g o o d e t i c g e o d i t e c 16 ____ the same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word. a i r p h o t o aerplioto 17 41 t e a r s t a r e s t r e e s r a t as r a t e s template t e n p l a t e 18 42 dates asked s t e a d tedes s t e d s p r o g r e s s p o r g r e s s 19 43 lamps p l a n s sampe palms snaps c o o r d i n a t e cpordnate 20_ 44 gates stage egets s t a g s a t e r g geographer gdogapher 21_ 45 skate takes aslces s t a k e k a s t s r e v e r s i o n s r e v r e s i o n s 22 c o n f l u e n c e c o n f l u e n c e 23 F l a s h Cards p r e d i c t i n g p r o d e c t i n g 24 _ 46 r e g u l a t e r e d r a f t r e g u l a r c a l c u l a t e d c a l c u l a t e d 25 47 crew cress brew 48 e l e v a t i o n e l e v a t o r e l e v a t e 49 deck dock duck 50 t y p i s t typo tying  nrthrn frngng prdmnt spoccs balsam occsnl cttnwd prfusc tiabrline dlneated tlgrphly ptarmign economic grayling  —  1  t  >  t  t  a  I f t h e words, a r e t h e same U n d e r l i n e t h e w o r d ( s ) i n t h e row p u t a check. I f t h e y a r e w h i c h i s t h e same a s t h e f i r s ^ word. d i f f e r e n t put a cross 26, • f i c t i o n f a c t i o n f i x i o n f i s s i o n f i c t i o n jremy jremy 1 27, l o g i c a l l o g a c a l l o g i c a l l o g i c o l l a g i c a l 28, p r e c i s e p r e s i s e p r e s i c e p r e c i s e p e r c i s e tzndo tzndu 2 29, c l i m a t e c l e m a t e c l i m a t e c l i m e t e c l i m a t e kblar klbar 3 . 30, a f f e c t s a f l e c t s o f f e c t s a f f e c t s a f f a c t s hyxur hxyur 4 .31, e x p e c t o r a t e e x p e c t a r o t e e x p e c t o r a t e expectaaate frtng ftrng 5 ____ 32 mausoleum mausoleum mausaleum mausoleum operas ppreas 6 33 parenchyma parenchmya praenchyma parenchyma permit premit 7 34 r e a n i m a t e r e a n i m a t e r e a m i n a t e r e a n i m a t e nature nature 8 ^ 35 S c o t t i c i z e s c o t t i c i z e S c a t t i c i z e S c o t t i c i z e behoves behaves 9 36 f o s t e r a g e f o t s e r a g e f o s t e r a g e x o o t e r a g e c l o s e l y . c l o s l e y 10 37 l e n t i c u l a r l i r i t i c u l a r l e n t i c u l e r l e n t i c u l a r q u a l i t y q u a l i t y 11 " 38 k h i d m u t g a r k h i d m u t g a r k h u d m i t g a r k h i d m u t g a r p r o j e c t s p r o g e c t s 12 39 s a l v a r s a n s a l v e r s a r i s a l v a r s a n s o l v a r s a n beyond beynod 13 40 q u a t e r n i t y p a t e r n i t y q u a t a n i t y q u a t e r n i t y various vorious 14 b a l a n c e b a l a n c e 15 — U n d e r l i n e t h e w o r d ( s ) i n t h e row w h i c h have p r e c l u d e p r e l c u d e 16 —- the same l e t t e r s as t h e f i r s t word. m u s c u l a r m u s c u l a r 17 41, r a n k naslc k r o n n a r k anak r e s i s t e d r e s i t s e d 18 42. d u s t suds s a t s stud dots t r e s t l e s t r e s t l e s 19 43. mean amen mane name moan V i r g i n i a V i r g i h i e 20 44. done nebo dena node Done o r i g i n a l o r i g i n a l 21 e t a n 45. n o t e onot tone oter i n c i d e n t i r i s i d e n t 22 p e c u l i a r p e c u i i e r 23 F l a s h Cards f o u r t e e n f o u r t e e n 24 damper damage damning g r a d u a t e g a r d u a t e 25 gauge • guard gaud active actress actors harm hart harsh escapade e s c a l a t o r escape i  U n d e r l i n e t h e w p r d ( s ) i n t h e row I f t h o words a r c t h e same w h i c h i s t h e same as t h e f i r s t word. p u t a check. I f t h e y a r e d i f f e r e n t p u t a c r o s s . 26 auk awlc euk auk a k u 27. owl o u l o w l w o l olw grebe gerbe 1 28. t e r n t r e i i t u r n term t e r n petrel petrol 2 29. murrc marrd murro merre marre billed billed 3 30. c i d e r i c d e r e i d r c e i l o r e i d e r gannet gennet 4 31. v e c r y n e e r y v e a r y v e e r y y e r e y heron heroin 5 32. s t i l t s t a l t s t i l t s t l i t s t i l t egret erget 6 ^ 35. s n i p e s n i f o s i n p e snepe s n i p e brant barnt 7 34. soras saros soros soras saras scaup scuap 8 ____ 35. q u a i l q u i a l q u a i l quait quael pelican pelicon 9 36. a vocot avacet avocot avocet avecet f r i g a t e f r i g a t e 10 __ 37. j aeger jaeger geajer jaegre jaegor b i t t e r n b i t t e r m 11 38o w i l l e t w c l l i t w i l l e s w i l l e t w i l l i t m a l l a r d m a l l e r d 12 39, p l o v e r p l o u r e p l o v e r p l o v e r p o l l e r g a d w a l l g o d w a l l 13 40. g r o u s e g r u o s c g o r u s e g r a u s e g r o u s e widgeon p i d g e o n 14 , v u l t u r e v u l t u r e 15 U n d e r l i n e t h e w o r d ( s ) i n t h e row w h i c h h a s t h e goshawk gashawk 16 same l e t t e r s i n i t as t h o f i r s t word. immature i m n a t u r o 17 41. pram p a r n ramp maps amps f l a m i n g o flamengo 18 42. t a l e s l a t o s a s t a l s l a t e s e a t s c a r a c a r a c a r o c a r a 19 43. l a n c e n a c a l c l e a n n a n e l e a n e l g y r f a l c o n g r y f a l c o n 20 " 44. t e a r s s t a r e r a t e s s t e e r t a r e s cormorant c o r m o r o n t 21, " 45. r a i l s a i l e r l a i r s i l s o r l a r a s h a r l e q u i n h a r l i q u i n 22 merganser merganswr 23 P l a s h Cards goosander g o s a n d e r 24 _ 46. p o e t p o e t r y p o e t i c dovd.tcb.er d o w i t c h r e 25 47. s c r a p e shape s h a r e 48. stomach sljomata stomp 49. wading waddle w a i t i n g 50. a r t i c l e a r t i f i c e r a r t i s t s i  I f t h o words a r e t h e same U n d e r l i n e t h e \7ord(s) i n t h e fcow put a check. I f they are ' w h i c h 3\s t h e same as t h e f i r s t w o r d . different put a cross. 26. morass marpss morpss morass marass effort effrot 1 27. t r e p a n t r e p o n t c r p a n trep'en t r e p a n centre center 2 28. v e r t e x y e t r e x v e r t e x y e s t o x v e r t e c frozen frozen 3 29. t r e b l e t r u b l e t r c b e l t e r b l o t r e b l e please plaese 4 30. i n d a b a i n b a d a endaba i n d a b a i d n a b a report reprot 5 3,1. v e c t o r s e c t o r v i c t o r v e c t o r v e c t o r public pulbic 6 32. d i v i n i z e d i v i n i s e d i v i n i z e ' d i v i n i z e storage storogo 7 _ 33. p o r t a m e n t o p o r t o m o n t o p a r t a m e n t o p o r t a m e n t o trouble troubel 8 _ 34. m y r i o r a m a m r y i d r a m a m y r i o r a n a m y r i o r a m a history histrey 9 ~ 35. s i m u l a c r u m s i m a l u c r u m s i i m l a c r u m s i n u l a c r u m campaign campagn 10~" 36. v i d e l i c e t v i d e l i c e t v e d i l e c e t v i d c l i s e t complete c o m p c l t o 11 37. i n c e n d i a r y i n c e n d a i r y i n s e n d i a r y i n c e n d i a r y " v i c t u a l l e r vitcu'ailer v i c t a u l l e r v i c t u a l l e r provost provost 12 ^ 38 l i c o r i c e l i c o r i c e 13 39 i n s u f f l a t e i n s a f f l a t e i n s u f f l a c e i n s u f f l a t e d e l e g a t e d e l e g a t e 14 40 • h y s t e r e s i s h y s t e r e s i s h y s t o r e s i s hysteresis o f f i c i a l o f f i s i a l 15 U n d e r l i n e t h e word( s ) i n t h e row w h i c h preamble p f o a m b e l 16 have t h e same l e t t e r s as t h e f i r s t word. a d v o c a t e a b v o c a t o 17 _ 41. p a r t r a p s trap' r a r t a p t s h i s t o r i c h i s t i r o c 18 42. l o a f a f a l o f l e o a f s f o a l c d n v e t t o c o r v e t t e 19 j _ _ 43. m i l e elem m e e l l i m e i l i n s s a t e l l i t e s a t e l i t e 20 44. s t a r e r a t e s s t a e s s a s t e t a r e s committee c o m i t t e e 21 , p a r a l y z e s p a r a y l z o s 22 45. v o t e s t e v e s s t e e v t e o s t s t o v e ^ e f f i c i e n c y e f f i c i e n c y 23 " p r o s e c u t o r p r o s e c u t o r 24 . ' F l a s h C a r d s c r i m i n a l l y c r i n i t i a l l y 25_ 46. c o i n s c o i l s c o r n s 47. p i e r p i e r c e p i e c e 48. c o r n e t c o r o n e t cprm 49. b a r b e r b a r t e r b a r k e r 50. p a t i e n t p a t i e n c e p a t e n t n  1  t  i—  t  [  i  i  I f tlio words a r e the same put a check. I f t h e y a r e d i f f e r e n t put a c r o s s . bcraa bema 1 join jion 2 leuc leac 3 jepr jopr 4 mddo mddo 5 sable salbe 6 tauto tuato 7 l a t h i l a t h i 8 __ gkeit kgeit 9 f a i l l f a i l l 10 expand expend 11 t r e p a n t r a p e n 12 p u r f l e p a r f l e 13 delves d e l v e s 14 shrimp shrimp 15 u n c t i o n a n c t i o n 16 bunkums bunkums 17 _ p a r e s i s p a r e s i s 18 s h u f f l e c h u f f l o 19 _ uncurb uncrub 20 P a r i s i a n ' p a r i s i a n 21 s w a s t i k a s w a t s i k a 22 whinibrel whimbrel 23 p a r a s i t e p a r i s i t e 24 b a c i l l u s b a c i l l u s 25 t  U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which i s the same as the f i r s t word, 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.  general genral genarel general gercnal expects e x p i c t s expectse e x p e t c s e x p e c t s c o n c e r t s c p n c r e t s c a n c o r t s c o c n e r t s ''concerts p a t t e r n s p a t t r e n s p a t t e r n s p e t t a n i s p'ote'erns rhythmic rliymthic rhythmic ryhthmic emphasis emphasis emphesis emhpasis rational rationel ratoinal rational clothing clothing clathing clothing teachers teachres taechers teachers exercise exersise exercise exrecise formation formotion farmation formation instincts intsincts instincts insticnts fortunate portunate f o r t a n a t e fortunate societies socities soceities societies encourage encoarage encourage i n c o u r a g e  U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which have the same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45.  said risk post react revel  doas serk sapt actor valer  siod rikr pats troec lever  dais kfis step ecrbt reels  ands skor pets cater level  P l a s h Cards 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.  curtains audition cushions maternal weaving  cartons captains auditorium auditors cushat custodion mathematical m a t e r i a l wearing weaning  I f t h e words a r o t h e same U n d e r l i n e t h e w o r d ( s ) i n t h e row p u t a check. I f t h e y a r c w h i c h i s t h e same as t h e f i r s t word. d i f f e r e n t put a cross. 26. fundament fandament fundment fundament beamy beamy 1 27. l i c e n t i a t e l i s e n t i a t e l i c e n t i a t e l i c e n s i a t c cinder sinder 2 28. m o s q u i t o m o s q u i t o m d s q i u t o mosquto except exsept 3 29. n o n p a r e i l n o n p c r e i l n o n p a r c i l l n o n p a r e i l h a n k e r hauler e 4 30. o c t e n n i a l o c t e n n i e l o t c c n n i a l o c t e n n i a l razzia, r a z z i a 5 31. p r e p e n s e perpe'nsc p r e p c r s e ' p r e p e n s e superb supreb 6 32. s c a g l i o l a s c a g l i o l a s a r g l i o l a s c a g l i o l a faille faille 7 33. t a s i m c t e r . t a t i m c t c r t a s i m o t r c t a s i m e t o r p a r s e c pars.ee 8 34. d e t a i n e r r e t a i n e r d e t a i n e d d e t a i n e r thatch thotch 9 35. g r o t e s q u e g r p t o q s u c g r o t e s q u e g r o s e s q u e , f l i n c h f i l n c h 10 36. h a l c y o n h a c l y o n h a c l y e n h a l c y o n f l e x u o s e f l c x u o s e 11 37. h a c h u r c s h a c h u r e s h a c h o r o s haqhure i r o n i c o n i r i n e c o n 12 38. ppopanax opoponax opopanax ppoqanax n a i n s o o k mainsook 13 , 39. r e c o n d i t e r e c a n d i t e r c c o n d i l e r e c o n d i t e 40. r o u n d e l a y r o a n d c l a y r o u n d e l a y s b u n d c l a y m y s t i c a l m y s t i c o l 14 n o v e r c a l n o v e r c a l 15 — U n d e r l i n e t h e w o r d ( s ) i n t h e row w h i c h h a s r e a f f i r m r o o f f i r m 16 —- t h e same l e t t e r s i n i t as t h e f i r s t word. t e r r a p i n t e r a r p i n 17 41. s c a l e l a c e s l a k e s c a l c e s l a r e monopoly monopoly 18 4 2 . t a s t e a s t e d t a l e s estas' S t a t e r e g i s t r y r e g i t e r y 19 t a n i s t r y t o n i s t r y 2.0* ^ 4 3 . cheqp heaps peach capes eachs 44, pai-sc r o p e s r e d p s s p e a r s p a r e tmshntber tmshmter 21 45. b r u s h s h u r c u s h e r rhueb shrub whypfzyg w h y p f z y g 22 p r t y p h y d priryphyd 23 — F l a s h C a r d s d s c n t n p s d s c n t n g s 24 46. t h r o w n throne f lown r h y h y t h r r h y h y t h r 25 47. a c t i n g orator actors 48. c l o t h e s cloths clefts 49. s u f f i x suffice supple 50. m i s t y messed missed i  ;  <  i f the words a r e the s ame ;rat a check.. I f they are d i f f e r e n t put a c r o s s .  U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which i s t h e same as the f i r s t word,  26. l a b o u r l a b e l ha'bour t a i l o r labour 27. crowd ambx amdx 1 . ___ crowed c r o w l crowd cross 28. c i v i c • ' , c i v i t r i v i c civil civic vrso vsro 2. 29. n i n e t y ' ; n i n t y n i n e t y n i n e l y n intey bldm bldm 3. frxp autumn artumn 30. autumn aulumn- autumn fxrp 4. lpqh aypli 3 1 . zygh zygh zgyh lpqh 5. aygl rssh 32. r s s h rsrh rssb srrh caves cares 6. ___ abab babe baba 33. abab • abob lungs lungs 7. cytf ctpf etyf ctyf 34. c t y f s o o j a s b o j a 8. l p q n l p q r l p q n hp qn l qpn 35. laird laird 9. lemonade lenomade leminade lemonade^ 36. squet squat 10. parties pasties 37. p a r t i e s p r a t i e s lentqh 11. length plafyul prayful 38. p l a y f u l rodeos rodoes 12. playful mildew 39. mildew tomato tomato 1 3 . ; midlew rneldew jacket hoarse 14. 40. j a c k e t jackey jacket hoarse h o r s e s 1 5 . houses U n u e r l i n e the word'C s ) i n the row which has the zoondin so or d i n 16. __ same l e t t e r s i n it..as the f i r s t word. c a n a l i e c a i i a l i e 17. __ alxo lexa xele lxex i&norpy i n g o r p y 16. __ 41. a x l e gone snagnags t a l p e r c t a l p e r e 19. __ 42. sung guns irech roe ch chore .froward forward 2 0 i ~ richo 43. c h o i r hear deaf read dere accuracy a c c u r a c y 2 1 . _44. dear cafe lace fece i n t e r n a l i n f e r n a l 22. fare 45. f a c e obedient o b e d i e n t . 2 3 . — F l a c h Cards U n d e r l i n e t h e word shown on d e c i s i o n d e r i s i o n 24. m i s t a t e s mistakes 25. — t h e c a r d . protect prefect — 46. p e r f e c t bud&e badger 47. badge loving having 48. l o v e l y wherefore 49. t h e r e f o r e thereby jockey jacket 50. j a c k s  P u t a check i f the words the s a m e Pttt a c r o s s i f the^words are d i f f e r e n t , prmjs neswe xrobts jenck't" ltjvh 82:ji XI3147  prmjs newse frobst jenckt ltjvh 82;ji xfil47  .**.•,•• f  1, ••• 2. j _ 3, 4.. 5. 6. _ J 7. 8,  . .  ??;-.! ??..-l 9. 82156 82516 10, •' c e r e a l c e r e a l 11, catsup c a s t u p 12. tendon t e n d o n 13. c a u l k s c u a l k s 14. s i m u r g simung 15. c a n i c i d e c a n i s i d e 16. s i n a p i s m s i n a p i s m 17. t r a n s a c t t r a n s a c t 18. ^ r a i l l e r y r a i l l e r y 19. c o n s t a n t c o n a s t n t 20. c a t a c l y s m c a t a c l y s m 21. . i n c o g n i t o i n c o n g i t o 22. p a r c e n a r y p a r c e n e r y 23, r e b e l l i o n r e b e l l i o n 24." s e t a c e o u s s a t e c e o u s 25. 1  U n d e r l i n e the w o r d ( s ) i n the row w h i c h i s the same as t h e f i r s t word, 26... 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 54. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.  l a b o u r " l a b o r " labrruT' • l a b u o r l a b o u r weekend weakend wae'kend weekend weeke::. factory factroy factery faccory factory e r r a n d s e r r a n d s e r r e n d s e r r a r d s erands h o l i d a y holoday h o l i d a y h o l i d a y h a l i d a y p r s n r x j p s r n r x j p'rsnrxj p r r r i s x j p r s n r x : frdjmsc frjdinse frdjsme xdrjmse frdjmsc Iwsncsw lvra.se sw lwsncws lswnesw lwsriesw n a m i g r n n a m i g s n n'amigrn n a m g i r n n b m i g r n dnsmthy dnsmthy dnmsthy dnsmhty dnsmtliy actors acters atcors actors actoss b a n j o b a j n o b a n j o bangd b i n j o fairly fairly frally fairty fiarly lilacs lalics l i l a s c lolacs lilacs needle ndelds hoodie needle reddle 1  Underline has  the  41. 42. 43. 44. 45.  sobs rate robe snap spat  the w o r d ( s ) i n t h e row w h i c h as t h e f i r s t word.  same l e t t e r s  so so tear bear apst taps  sobe arts bore spns art p  boss rats bes6 pnsii pats  F l a s h Cards 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.  stage stags crowd croTm festivity foster axiom axle avenge averse  stages crowed festival axes avenue  ebos tare beot pans stps  P u t a check i f t h e words a r e t h e same. P u t a c r o s s i f the words a r e d i f f e r e n t . redx sdru into fstf hols x??;o 95178  rehx s^dru unto ftsf hols x?';?o 95178  1. 2. 3. 4. 5  -  '.  6. 7. 8. U..-4. U'r4: 9. B:B:s B::Bs 10. cavort c a v r o t 11. badger badger 12. Ansae Aanac 13 k ___ z e n i t h z e n i t h 14, _____ Soong soong 15. b i v o u a c b i v u o a c 16. ___ c a l i p e r c a l l i p e r 17. .. b e g u i l e b e g u i l e 18. . z i n g a r o z i n g o r a 19. suffix suffix 20. a t a r a x i a a t a r a x i a 21. b e l l a d o n n a belladomma 22., b e l e m r i i t e b e l e n m i t e 23,] c a t a c l y s m c a t a d l y s m 24.] oapitol capital 25.,  U n d e r l i n e t h e w o r d ( s ) i n t h e row w h i c h i s t h e same a s t h e f i r s t word.  26. a c c o u n t a c c o s t amount a c c ount recount 27. badge bodge badger bagde badge 28. c a n a l b a n a l c a n a l canal canel 29. damage damaje damege danage damage 30. eager eager eagar eager a e g e r 31. p r s p h p s r p h qrsph prsph p r s p l 32. exnmb exmmb exiimb exxmb exnmb 33. dwsni b w s n i dswni dwnsi dwsni 34. h g g s a l g g s a h g g s a hggso h g g s a 35. d s s r t d s r s t d s s t s d s s r t b s s r t 36. t a r g e t tagre-t t a r g e t t e r g e t t a r g e t 37. b l o u s e b l o o s e b l u o s e b l o u r e b l o u s e 38. b l u f f b r u f f b l a f f bluff blurf 39. avenue avenue a v e r u e anevue avenue 40. c o i n s c i o n s c o i n s c o i v s c o i n r U n d e r l i n e t h e word( s ) i n t h e row w h i c h has t h d same l e t t e r s as t h e f i r s t word. 41. 42. 45. 44. 45.  east west tons swig lake  seat stem tost givrt kate  team estu nuts wigs kale  teas stew snow swag aetk  star sewr nots wsit ekat  F l a s h Cards 46. c h o r e chair choir 47. b a n d a i d bandage b a n d i t s 48. s e t t l e r s s e t t e r s s i t t e r s 49. m a r p o l c maple people 50. s i n sen sun son.  I f tho words are the put a chock. I f they d i f f e r e n t put a cross spsta sptsa 1, xsrml xzrinl 2• fympl fynpl trpsh trpsh 4, ardho arbho 5. "blamed blpmed 6. police poiise 7 . denied deneid 8. school s h c o o l 9. lawyer laywer 10. w r i t t e n w r i t t e n 11, n e g l e c t n e l g e c t 12, p e d d l e r p e r d l e r 13. d i s m i s s d i s m i s s 14. t a n g l e d t a n g l e d 15. s t r u g g l e s t r a g g l e 16. i n c i d e n t i n c i d e n t 17. s e v e r i t y s e v r i t e y 18. special special 19, fortify fotrify 20. c u l p a b l e c u p l a l d o 21. d i v i d e n d d i v i d i h d 22. f u n c t i o n f u n c t i o n 23. c a r d i g a n c a r d i g e n 24. remnants remnants 25.  2  U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which i s the same as the f i r s t word.  26. 27. 28. .29. 30,. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.  loafers laofers loafer ldofers loafers capsule caspule capsule c'apsole cap'suto college colicjo c a l l e g e college' c p l l i g e burnish burnish burnesh btunish burnish private pirvate privetc privase private psychiatry psychietry pyschiatry psychiatry decorators d i c t a t o r s decorators derocaiprs appliances applainces appriances appliances alteration atlcration alteration alteration mortgaging mprgtaging mostgaging mortgaging vclhoascl vaihoasel volhaoscl vclhoasel trubickno trubickno tribuclmo trubickno subloxsup su'blpsxup subloxsup sublzxsup f r o w a r d i t forward!t frowordit f r o w a r d i t lychmpny pychmnpy pylchpmy lychmpny 1  U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which has same l e t t e r s i n i t as the f i r s t word, 41. rooms 42. d u s t y 43. f i l e r 44. dears 45. t r a c e r Plash 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.  stoor moors mpots styda dyurt study slifc lefor lifer roads dares reads retract carter crcsta  Cards.  massage message mortgage personnel prisoner personal insulation insolvent insulate p r e c i p i t a t e p r e c i p i c e preceptor rounder r o u n d e l roundly  tho  I f the words.^are the same TIndejilijie.^ih^ p u t a ..check. I f t h e y a r e w h i c h i s the-same as the f i r s t word.•• d i f f e r e n t p u t a cross., 26. famous f a v o r s f o r m e r famous f arous27. d e c i d e •' d e r i d e b e c i d e decode d e c i d e s k t o s h t o 1. 28. ymbl ymdl 2. a p p l i e s a p p l i e s a p p e a r s a p p l i e d appeals29. compute c o m p i l e compact compute compote nvxg nvxg 3. 30. r e p r e s s . e x p r e s s r e g r e s s r e p e r s s r e p r e s s f c u q f c w q 4;" 31. l d n x ldnx lbnx rjlk rjik 5, -fcdnx ldnr 32. a f g r u cf grn c f g r u c f g r u ,cf y r u niqjha mqjha 6. 33. hzbqV hzaqw hzaqw ihzagw • Izaqw gnter- gri'ter .7. 34. vmsuo. vmsuo vnsuo rmsuo • vmsua dfqhs dtqhs 8. ~ 35. lexyf lcxyt lcxyt lexyf lcrgf i g k l n i g l k n - 9. _ 36. c a v o r t c a v r o t c a v e r t c a v o r t c o v o r t puywj ' quywj 10 _ 37. choctaw chotcaw choetaw chootaw* choctow bread breed""11. 38. b a l l o o n b a l o o n balloon bafloon dalloon -doubt doubt 12. 39.. p r o s i f y p r i s o f y p rotify prosily prosify spear spaer. .13."] 40. h y d r a t e h d y r a t e h y drate hydarte hydrete fried _ fried 14. [ • t i l t s - t i t l s ' 15. ] U n d e r l i n e t h e w o r d i n t h e row w h i c h has t h e beyond • beyond 16." same l e t t e r s i n i t as the f i r s t word. s t a t e s s t a t u s 17. manual manual 18. 41. a b l e lade elf a bale blue symbol symbol 19. 42. r o a d r'ada r a d o oads addo reflex r e f l u x .20. 43. time t i e n mete e m i t mice haycock 4,4. t r a p part harp rap$ rate f o s d i l y f o n d i l y 22. 45. s t o p pest rost past post grourds grounds 23. P l a s h C a r d s ^..Underline the v/ord shown on m e a r k i n m a e r k i r i 24-._. 'the c a r d . clipqer c l i q p e r 25. 46. b r o a d bread breed 47. l i m p lamp lump ampere amber 48. anger cheatah cheateh 49. c h e e t a h c l i u r r c hurt c h u r l 50 o 1  —  U n d e r l i n e t h e w o r d ( s ) i n t h e row I f t h e words a r e t h e same w h i c h i s t h e same as t h e f i r s i word, put a check. I f they a r e d i f f e r e n t put a cross. 26. d o m e s t i c d o m i c i l e d o m e s t i c d o m i s t e c demostic 27 d i s t r i c t d i t s r i c t d i t r i s c t d i s t r i c t d i s t r i c t stany stnay 1 28 c l i m a t e s c l i m e t e s c l o m a t e s c l i n a t c s c l i m a t e s kbndo kbndo 2 29 m a i n t a i n m u o n t a i n m o u n t a i n m a i n t a i n mountaim fuhxt fuiht 3 30 d i v i s i o n d i v i t i o n d i v e s i o n d e V i s i o n d i v i s i o n rebuq. rubeg 4 31 c o n c r e t e c o n c r a t e c o h c e r t e c o n c r e t s d o n c r e t e crsyt cryst 5 32 d i s p o s a l d i p s p s a l d i s p a s a l d i s p d s p l d i s p o s a l zluby zluby 6 33 g r a n t i n g g r e a t i n g g a r n t i n g g r a n t i n g g r a s t i n g Paris paris 7 34 i r r i g a t i o n i r i g a t i o n i r r i g o t i o n i r r i g a t i o n howig howeg 8 35 d r a u g h t i n g d r a u g h t i n g d r a g h t i n g draughting s e r v i c e s e r v i s e 9 ____ 36 s t r u c t u r e s s t r u c t u r e s t r u t c u r e s s t r u c t u r e s r e t u r n s f e t r u n s 10 37 engineer engineer enginers engineer m i n e r a l m i n e r a l 11 , 38 a vailable avalable available avalaible c o n c e r n comcern 12 39 community c p m u n i t y c o m h u n i t y community o r d e r l y o r d r e l y 13 40 t e c h n i c a l t e c h i n c a l t e c h n i c a l t c c h n i c o l i n d e x e d endexed 14 q u i c k l y qiu'ckly 15 U n d e r l i n e t h e w o r d ( s ) i n t h e row w h i c h have a d a p t e r a d o p t e r 16 the same l e t t e r s as t h e f i r s t word. measure maesure 17 41 c a r e s r a c e s r c c e s s c a r e s c a c e a t t r i t i o n a t t r i t o h IS 42 march armcs chase charm rameh l o c a t i o n s l o c t i o i i s 19 43 s t r a p p a r t s r a p e t t a s p s t r a p s b a l a n c i n g b a l a c i r i g 20 44 s t r u n g rungs t r u n s t ruteng grunts d i r e c t i v e d i r c e t i y e 21 leader loader dealer dared r a d e r l r e g r e t t e d r e g r e t t e d 22 c e r t i f i e d c e r t i f i e d 23. P l a s h Cards f o r e s h o r e f o r e s h a r e 24. 46 suite suet suit competent compatent 25_ 47 crowd crowed crowded 48 bunk bank bulk 49 pierce pier 'piece 50 travellers travels travelling i  4  5  If-the-'TT-ords- are the same put a check. If' they are d i f f e r e n t put a c r o s s . thmb thnb 1. ___ htst htst 2. flng flng 3, pspq ppsq 4. trml tsml 6. hares h a i r s 6. sears saers 7. garve 8. grave 9. hate a hates ganes 10. sanies l o v i n g l o v i n g 11. _____ h e a r t s h e f a t s 12. r e s u l t r u s u l t 13. f o r c e s f o r c e s 14. n a t u r e mature 15, n o t a b l e n o t a b l y 16. ' f a s t e n s f a t s e n s 17. _____ h i p h o c k h o p h i c k 18. lectsom l a c t s o m 19. p o r t i o n p o r t o i n 20^ c a n a r i e s c a r a n i e s 21. f i g h t i n g f i h g t i n g 22. b l a s t o c k b r a s t o c k 23, ___ f a n f a r e s f a r f a r e s 24. l e x i c o n s l i x e c o n s 25.  'Underline, the w o r d ( s ) the row which i s the same as the f i r s ^ word. 2 6. oxygen 27. p i e c e s 28. powder 29. carbon 30 . b o t t l e 31. warmer 32. element 33. s c i e n c e 34. t u r b i n e 35. q u i z z e s 36. summary 37. p h y s i c s 38. expands 39. f i r e m e n 40. d e n s i t y  pxigen oxygm oxygen oxgyen pieces peices pieses pieoee pwpder power powder powber carbon carron casbon carbon b attle bittle bottle botlte warmer warner 7/amrer warmes e l i m e n t element o l e m i n t elenemt science sceince science sciocne tusbine turbise trubine turbine q u i s s c s quizzes' qiuzze's q u i z s o s summory sammury sunmary summary physics psysics physics phyiscs e x p l a i n s enpands expands errands f i r e m a n foremen f i r e m e n f i t e m c n densuty d e n s i t y d e s n i t y d e n s t i y  U n d e r l i n e tho word(s) i n the row which have the same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word. 41. rank 42. • l o s e 43. bore 44. l e a k 45. to-gt Flash  knot oslo orbs alex ests  ncnk sela orba kale sets  nank sole lobe koal tsse  Cards.  46. p e r s o n 47. month 48. curve 49 survey 50. e x p l o r e r 0  nark esot robe kear stet  prison mouth curse scurvy exporter  parson mirth carve surly explores  I f the words are the same  put a check.  d i f f e r e n t put  U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which i s the same as the f i r s t word.  I f they a r c a cross.  whose whose 1 forty froty 2 , light light 3 locks losks 4 apply aplly 5 regular regular 6 conduct condust 7 janitor janitor 8 elicits clecits 9 . u s u a l l y u s u a l l y 10 9825841 9825841 11 7x2v68? 7ic2v86? 12 IvIlvIMCVll MMMCV1S 13 ??J3::.M ? ? f i : : U 14 4ytzyag 4tyzyng 15 Canadian Canadian 16 r e t u r n e d r e t u r n e d 17 f u n c t i o n f a n c t i o n 18 . averages avareges 19 i n d i c a t e i n d i c a l e 20 technique t o c h i n que 21 m a t e r i a l s m a t e r i a l s 22 s i x t e e n t h s i x t c a n t h 23 cooperate cooporate 24 secondary sccondory 25  26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.  circle sircle curclc circle cicle engine engcnc engine engine engine guests geusts guests gaests gucrts gadget gudget g a d j e t g a d g i t gadget f i b r e s f i b r e s s f i b r e s fabres f i b e r s manatee matinee monatee manatee podagra padogra podagra podagra r c b o a n t r c b p a n t rcdoant rcbaont niobium noibium niobium n i o b i u n e r r a t i c erar'tic e r r i t i c e r r a t i c h y d r a u l i c h y d a u l i c hydaulec h y d r a u l i c passerine passerine pasteririe passarine rufcscent tofuscent refucsent rufescent xenolasia xenelacia xenolasia xenalasia sphygmus shpygmiis sphygmas sphygmus  U n d e r l i n e the ¥\rord^in the row which has the same l e t t e r s ' i n i t as the f i r s t word, 41. 42. 43.44.  parish strath verbal eschew  45.  cabana macaba nacaba banana bacaca  Flash  shiper thirst braval swecha  phiras siraph sparir thats thrats trasrh laverb blarer bavrel shewca chewes cashew  cards  46. rough tough dough 47o s t i f f n e s s s t i l l n e s s s i l l i n e s s 48. s c r a t c h scene screen 49. f u r n a c e f o r e s t furry 50. t a b l e s p o o n t a b l e c l o t h t a b l i n g  I f tho words a r c tho samo put a check. I f they are d i f f e r e n t put a c r o s s . 1 2 3 4 5  U n d e r l i n e t h e w o r d ( s ) i n t h e row w h i c h i s t h e same as t h e f i r s t word. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.  genius genius infect insect m o r b i d mordib saggar sagger thatch thacth 6 wizier wizier 7 despot dopsot a s s a i l a z f c a i l 8 ____ mandarin mandrin 9 mandate maridrato 10 actavus a c t a v u s 11 tourney j o u r n e y 12 s p l e n i u s s p l e n i u s 13 e n t e l l u s e n t e r l u s 14 g r e y c i n g g r a ^ c i n g 15 ____ s i n f o n i a s o n f i n i a 16 c o l c o t h a r c o l c o h a r 17, , . g r a p h i u r o ^ a r p h i u r e 18 s a c r a r i u m s a c r a r i u m 19 t o u r m a l i n t o u m r a l i n 20 b o u l e v a r d b u o l e v a r d 21 p h a l a n g e a l p h a l a n g e a l 22 n y c t a l o p i a n ^ t c a l p p i a 23] o b s e q u i o u s o b s e q u i o u s 2\~"~ g a l i m a t i a s g a l i m a t i u s 25__ r  parity praity parety p a t i t y parity s h e r b e t s h c r b i x s h e r b e t shrebe't s h e r d o t ululate alulatc ulluatc ululate ulaiate gracile grasile gracile gracite gracile f c l i c i d c folocido f c l i c i d e f i l i c i d e filccklo apricot apircot apricet apricat apricot linguist lenguist linguist lignuist linguist d i g r a p h d i g r a p h d i g a r p h dograph d i g r p p h sinology sinolagy silonogy sniology siDlogy s i n e c u r e s i n i c u r e s e n i c u r o s i n e c u r e s^inoDruc tarsier trasier tarseir tarsior tarcier brinjal brinjal birnjai brcnjal brinjal l o r i k e e t l o r i k e a t l o r i k e e t l a r i k e e t .Lirokeot meerkat moarket meorket mereket k e e r k a t n a v i c e r t n i v a c e r t n a v i c o r t n a v i c r o t naVicnrt U n d e r l i n e - t h e w o r d ( s ) i n the.row whioh have t h o same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word.  41. 42. 43. 44. 45.  ream mate r a c e mare harm p o s t s t o p sops t o p s osps meat tame team atom mate r a c e s c a r e s sauce a c r e s s c a r e serve rover verso erses csrvs  Flash. Cards 46. m i n s t e r m i n i s t e r m i n s t r e l 47. h e r d h e a r d h e r b 48. h e a l i n g h e a t i n g h a t i n g 49. r e m a i n remove remark 50. m i s s i o n misuse m i s t y  I f t h e words a r e t h e same U n d e r l i n e t h e w o r d ( s ) i n t h e row w h i c h i s t h e same as t h e f i r s t ' w o r d . p u t a c h e c k . I f t h e y are d i f f e r e n t p u t a c r o s s 26 f a b l e t a b l e f a l l e f a b l e f o b l e 27 g a l l e o n g a l l e o n g a l e o n g a l l o n g e l l e n expsnt exspnt 1 prncpl 28 l i b r a r y l i b a r y l i b r e r y l i b r a r y l i r b r a r y prrcpl 2 clmss 29 b i p l a n e b i p l a n b i l p a n o b l i p a n e b i p l a n e crlnss 3 spcimn spcinm 4 30 i g l o o i l g o o e l g o o i g l a o i g l o c chclte chclte 5 31 coupe cuope coupe c'oope coupe vnilla 32 s u r g e o n s u r g o e n s i r g e o n s u r j e o n s u r g e o n vnilla 6 essntl 33 i s t h m u s i t h s m u s i s t h n u s i s t h m a s i s t h m u s esnstl 7 drwnng 34 p a t r i o t p a t r i o t p o t r i a t p a r t r i o t p a t i o t drnwng 8 accrty 35 a n c i e n t a n s i e n t a c i e n t a n c e n t a n c i e n t accrly 9 lbrdor 36 nosegay n o s g a y n o s g o y n o s e g a y noscjgoy ldrbor 10 tbrcls \ tbrcls 11 [| 37 c o n c e i t c o n c i e t c o n s c t e c o n s c i t c o n c e i t ptflln ptfttn 12 " \ 38 o y s t e r o s y t e r o y t s e r o y s t e r o y s t o r dctnry ' 39 avenue avnue avneue avenue avanue d t c n r y 13 dcsstd d c s t t d 14 " ' 40 c o n c i s e c o n s i s e c o n s i c e c o n c i c e c o n c i s e r t c u l a t g r t c a l a t g 15_ U n d e r l i n e t h e w o r d ( s ) i n t h e row w h i c h have i n t e r s t c i n t e r s t s 16_ the same l e t t e r s as t h e f i r s t word. s c h l r m r n s c h l r u i r m 17.. cowrdice cwrdice 18^ \ 41 s t o p s t o p e s p o s t s p a s s t t a p e s m a i n t i v e n m i n t i v e 19_ \ 42 s a l o n l o n e s s l o n e s o a l s l o a n s 43 l u r c h c h u r l r u r c h r a l c h c r a h l p r d c a d j v p r d c a d j t 2<f ' c o n t r a s t c o n t r s t 21~ \ 44 t r i e s r e s t s r i t e s t i r e s s i t e s 45 r e a d s d r e e s d a r e s d o e r s d e a r s t i m i d i t y t i m i d i t y 22\ heroine heroin 23" F l a s h Cards. immaculate i m m c u l a t e 24 - 46 t o b a c c o t o g e t h e r tomorrow murderous murderus 25" - 47 postman p o s t b o x p o s t c a r d 48 t h e r e theme t h e a t r e 49 d i n n e r " d i n i n g d i n e r 50 o r c h e s t r a t e o r c h e s t r a o r c h i d s t  THE  Practice Exercise 1. Boys like to play: 1 ball, 2 state, 3 dust, 4 never,  CLAPP-YOUNG S E L F - M A R K I N G TESTS  5 blue .* \ .' EE Which word tells what it is boys like to play? " ball" is the right answer. What is the number of the word "ball"? The number is " 1."' Make a mark like this X in the square that contains the 1. Practice Exercise 2. Iam downtown. A word for the blank is:  Patented March 19,1929. Also Licensed under U.S. Patent 1,686,628  Edited by Frank L. Clapp, Professor of Education . University of Wisconsin  THE HENMON-NELSON TESTS OF M E N T A L A B I L I T Y - F o r m A Elementary School Examination . Grades 3-8 By V. A. C. Henmon, Ph.D., Chairman of the Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin,.and M. J. Nelson, Ph.D., Dean of the Faculty, Iowa State Teachers College Copyright, 1931, by V. A. C. Henmon and M . J. Nelson  EEE  1 able, 2 see, 3 country, 4 going, 5 color E [2] H E E Mark in the square that you think should be marked. You should have % marked in the square numbered 4. ' Practice Exercise 3.  30,  4^7,5 []  [__] is to E3 as O  is to: 1 Z \ , .2 •  ,  ED E E HE  What is the number of the right answer? The answer, of course, is number 3, since a square is to a smaller square as a circle is to a smaller circle. Make your mark in the square numbered 3. DIRECTIONS TO THE STUDENT: The three Practice Exercises in the next column During the test, if youfindthat you have made a mistake and marked in the wrong square, do not erase your mark, but simply draw a circle at the right are given so that you may see how to do the test. around it and then mark in the right square.  B o s t o n <N e wY o r k . C h i c a g o  H O U G H T O N MIFFLIN COMPANY  Dallas . Atlanta ; SanFranci  PRINTED IN T H E U.S.A.  1.  What day comes next after Tuesday? . 1 Saturday, 2 Thursday, 3 Wednesday, 4 Monday, 5 Sunday. EEEHE The butcher sells: 1 beef, 2 cedar, 3 pencils, 4 glasses, 03 5rye , EEEHE A table always has: 1 drawers, 2 legs, 3 cloth, 4 coverings, 5 paint .• EE-EES » 4. Tiny means: 1 great, 2 old, 3 sorry, 4 safe, 5 small.. E E E H E Which one of the numbers below is the smallest? (1) 3817, (2) 5639, (3) 9211,- (4) 6537, (5) 2743 EEEHE This.... the coldest day of the year. Which word should bein the blank: 1 can, 2 is, 3 not, 4 day, 5 may EEEHE Velvet is a kind of: 1 deed, 2 cloth, 3 brush, 4 picture, 5 leather :.... E E E H E < 8. The mother bird was . . . . her young. A word for the blank is: 1 looking, 2 needy, 3 stupid, 4 careful, 5 feed-  HEEBH  ing  9. Which one of these numbers is the largest? (1) 42316, (2) 17989, (3) 26895, (4) 37897, (5) 5575510. Which word does not belong with the others? 1 north, 2 south, 3 west, 4night, 5 east 11. Joy means the same as: 1 sleep, 2 happiness, 3 sorrow, 4 help, 5 noise 12. There was no ..... of a storm. A word for the blank is: 1 sign, 2 school, 3 house, 4 after, 5 sea #13. Which word does not belong with the others? 1 apple, •3 2 pear, 3 screech, 4 peach, 5 plum S 14. When he awoke he was . . . . to find his dog gone. A word for the blank is: 1 noticed, 2 sincere, 3 portly, 4 before, 5 surprised  EEEEE EEEHE EEEEE EEEHE EEEHE EEEHE  15. Which word does not belong with the others? 1 pen, 2 rock, 3 paper, 4 ink, 5 pencil EEEHE 16. At a dinner there is always: 1 a tablecloth, 2 cutlery, 3 company, 4merriment, 5 food EEEEE 17, The high . . . . were rugged and bare. A word for the blank is: 1 valleys, 2 seas, 3 mountains, 4 lights, 5 storms '. .-...EEEEE 18. Which word does not belong with the others? 1 Monday, 2 April, 3 January, 4 May, 5 June EE SHE 19. Which of these words comes first in the dictionary? 1 apple, 2 long, 3 winter, 4 snow, 5 peach EEEHE 20. A sheet of music always has: 1 rhythm, 2 words, 3 notes, 4covers, 5players EEEEE § 21. The days are long in summer and . . . . in winter. Which word should be in the blank: 1 very, 2 short, 3.long, •S 02 4 almost, 5 snow EEEEE 22. Which word does not belong with the others? 2 after, 3 before, 4 into, 5 snow  1 in,  EEEHE  23. Large means the same as: 1 top, 2 long, 3 wide, 4 great, 5 striking... .EEEEE 24. Which of the following is the shortest time? 1 second, 2 hour, 3 century,. 4 month, 5 week EEEEE 25. Which word does not belong with the others? 1 orange, 2 red, 3 green, 4 circle, 5 black EEEEE 26. Which month comes just before March? 1 April, 2 September, 3 May, 4 February, 5 August. EEEEE 27. Toe is to foot as finger is to: 1 shoe, 2 cap, 3 knee, 4 hand, 5 a r m . . . . . . . . . EEEEE 28. Which one of these numbers is next to the largest? (l) 84972, (2) 75643, (3) 12761, (4) 37654, (5) 29654 E E E E E . 29. From the distance came the . . . . of children singing. A word for the blank is: 1 silence, 2 sight, 3 happiness, 4 purpose, 5 sound EEEHE 30. Which of these words comes last in the dictionary? 1 night, 2 perhaps, 3 after, 4 yes, 5 apron 31. The most important difference between a watch and a clock is that a watch: 1 runs faster, 2 is smaller, 3 ticks louder, 4 is gold, 5 costs more.. .32. Bird is to feathers as fish is to: 1 scales, 2 tails, 3 song, 4 beak, 5 mouth 33. A fire always has: 1 wood, 2 coal, 3 gas, 4 warmth,  EEEEE EEEEE  5 furnace EEEEE 34. The most important difference between a door and a • window is that a window: 1 is larger, 2 is stronger, 3 will always admit light, 4 isn't necessary, 5 is heavier.. E E E E E 35. Which word does not belong with the others? 1 cup, 2teaspoon, 3 knife, 4fork, 5tablespoon 36. Nations have armies' to: 1 march in parades, 2 sail their ships, 3 protect their people, 4 help on farms, 5 wear uniforms  EEEEE EEEEE  37. To recover means to: 1 turn, 2 lead, 3 press, 4 inspect, 5 regain : EE BEE 38. Artist is to picture as author is to: 1 brush, 2 inventor, 3 building, 4 book, 5 shop EEEEE 39. If the letters e l i c a d e t were arranged properly, they would spell: 1 elucidate, 2 dedicate, 3 elegance, 4 elevate, 5 delicate EEEEE 40.. Apple is to tree as currant is to: 1 bush, 2 thorn, 3 juice, 4 eat, 5 peach 41. 8652476394278459328497543 In these numbers, how many 4's come just before a 9? 1 one, 2 two, 3 three, 4 four, 5 five  EEEEE'  42. If these words were arranged to make a good sentence, with what letter would the second word begin? to like girls with play dolls It, 2g, 31, 4w, 5 p  EEEEE  Go on to the next column without stopping. 187 » 11 i 62  EEEHE  EEEEE  Do not open the Answer Booklet. Turn over and start to do Exercise No. 43 immediately.  43. If the letters s a h n e t were arranged properly, they  67. '"When the lion withdraws, the hyenas play" means  would spell: 1 salute, 2 nature, 3 hasten, 4 eastern,  .'  BBBBB  44. Night is the opposite of: 1 week, 2 day, 3 dark,- 4 evening, 5 morning 45 freight carry mail and trains.  about .the same as: 1 The lazy person has no legs. 2 M a n amasses and time disperses. 3 H e who eats alone, coughs alone. 4 Birds of a feather flock together. 5 When the cat's away, the mice will play  SlSflS  5 target  If these words ~were  68. fruit children good cereals are for and  BBBBB  fj B [s] JJj B  3 cousin, 4 brother, 5 son  1 fruit, 2 children, 3 good, 4 cereals,  the second word?  5 and  4 pay, 5 ever.  47. If the letters n e a g g e were arranged properly, they  BBBBB  ...,  BB'BBB 70. 3 is to C as Zl is to: 1W, 2 CZ , 31 1, 4 PI, 5 C BBBBB :  5 gauge  .71. Which word does not,belong with the others?  48 9286397542863295162783572 I n this number, how many 9's are followed by a 2? 1 one, 2 two, 3 three, 4 four, 5 five  BBBBB  49. T o tour is to make a: 1 promise, 2 dwelling, 3 journey, 4 foundation,  5  BBBBB  success  50 8564283978524935824385928 In this number, how many 8's come just before 5? 1 one, 2 two, 3 three,  4 four, 5 five : B S S E B 51. Tuesday is to "week as March is to: 1 April, 2 year,  2 Paul, 3 Lucy, 4 Janet, 5 Edith  72. staff bread the life called is of  2  74.  U  is to  n  as  is to:  5}  52. A lease usually means a: 1 loss, 2 recess, 3 contract,  would spell: 1 molest, 2 blooms, 3 blossom, 4 observe,  5 lovable..  54. 8269372840698274283665284 I n this number, how many 2's come just before 8? 1 one, 2 two, 3 three,  UJ0000  five..'.  1 pepper,  BBBBB  M y father is her  UJBBHB  son's: 1 grandfather, 2 uncle, 3 father, 4 cousin, 5 greatuncle  3n,  4  in,  BBBBB  is not: 1 homelike,  BBBBBi  BSBHB  3 light, 4 liquid, 5 good 59. 65435278451652872357625485 I n this number, how many 5's are followed by a 2? 1 one, 2 two, 3 three,  4 four, 5 five  60. A vertebrate always has: 1 legs, 2 toes, 3 arms, 4 teeth,  5 backbone 61. Masculine is the opposite of: 1 bitter, 2 easy, 3 inimical, 4 sturdy, 5 feminine 62. "If a camel gets his nose in the tent, his body will soon  BBBBB BBBBB BBBBB BBBBB BBBBB BBBBB  Go on to next column without 64. A coward always lacks: 1 friends, 2 the courage, 3 purpose,  4 length,  stopping.  65; O 66. minutes 4.enemies, 5arranged first U iletter s tohour to ofOasD 5make the sense make first a good word? ian s to: sixty sentence, 1 lO, m,If 2 h, what these 2f1, 3 a,would 4words s, 35 0be y ,were theBBBBB  BBBBB BBBBB  3 haughty, 4 mild, 5 ill 79.  ""I  is to  as  F~  2~^, 3F",  is to: 1  4CZ,  BBBBB  5E 80. A creditor always has: 1 a debtor, 2 money, 3 loans,  4 bonds, 5 a bank 81.  _3  is to  •  I as E_ is to:  BBBBB  1l_,  2_D,  3 L ,  4_3,  BBBBB  5l_ 82. A road always has: 1 dust, 2 gravel, 3 cement, 4 grass,  .. BBBBB  5 dimensions 83. L U is to U  as [ T l is to:  1W, 2{Ts,  30 , 4 n ,  5LJ  follow" means "about the same as: 1 Things passed should not be mentioned. 2 Poverty and anger do not agree. 3 Give him an inch and he'll take a mile. 4 Know thyself. 5 He wears a veil upon a veil 63. The father of my mother's father is my: 1 uncle, 2 grand-  father, 3 great-grandfather, 4 great-great-grandfather,  3 intermission,  78. Add is to subtract as humble is to: 1 rich, 2 happy,  58. T o serve as a drink a substance must be: 1 cool. 2 hot,  5 great-uncle  which  2 opposite,  1 beginning, 5 moisture  57. 6295374825639824538653794 In this number, how many 5's come just before a 3? 1 one, 2 two, 3 three,  4four, 5 five  that  iO, 2r^,  77. A drizzling rain fell without . . . . A word for the blank is:  B B 0 0 0  T  •  BBBBB BBBBB  BBBBB 76. £± is to a as O is to: lD, 2O, 3O, 4P, 5 0 BBBBB  53. If the letters s 1 0 mo b s were arranged properly, they  56. The daughter of my father has a son.  If these words were  2 familiar, 3 similar, 4 automatic, 5 permanent  4 blossom, 5 pattern  -v2cloves, 3 ginger, 4flour, 5 cinnamon  BBBBB  73. Expand is the opposite of: 1 intake, 2 propound, 3 contract, 4 impound, 5 dead  75. Temporary means  55. Which word does not belong with the 'others?  1 Ida,  arranged to make a good sentence, what would be the word after "of"? 1 staff, bread, 3 the, 4 life, 5 called  UJ 0 0 B 0  3 week, 4 winter, 5 night  4 four-. 5  BBBBB  69. Tall is to short as day is to: 1 long, 2 night, 3 week,  L  would spell: 1 agrees, 2 garden, 3 neglect, 4 engage,  If these words  were arranged to make a good sentence, what would be  arranged to make a good sentence, what would be the last letter of the first word? 1 s, 2 y, 3 1, 4 t, 5 c  46. The son of my father's brother is m y ; 1 aunt, 2 nephew,  BBBBB  84. "Trees often transplanted seldom prosper" means  about the same as: 1 Hearsay is half lies. 2 A rolling stone gathers no moss. 3 Dance and you pay the piper. 4 Slow work produces fine goods. 5 Great artists have no country  .,  BBBBB BBBBB  85. T o insinuate is to: 1 devise, The 2 err, 3 convict, 4 hint, End. Look back over  4petit,  2D,  48,  your  work.  BBBBB BBBBB BBBBB  5 officiate 86. 87. 89. 88. w 90. Accumulate Energetic 3 same are no Superfluous "Occasions, forceful, dissipate, ambiguous, roses dreary. isas: tobefore O 1means 4 Opportunity 4as is 3 happy, like is trust, It's swine. the the about clouds no iopposite 5 aopposite use tbrave sew 5o5knocks the rSoon pass succinct to l Dhammer of: same , of: ripe, away" but 11 nice, as: soon once. cold 3means 10 2rotten sorry, certain, iron. ,accommodate, 2 Rainy about 24sleepy, 2Strew 500 essential, days the  

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