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Word discrimination and spelling : an experimental study Mason, Geoffrey Pliny 1955

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WORD DISCRIMINATION AND SPELLING: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY by GEOFFREY PLINY MASON A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Philosophy and Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r the degree of MASTER OF ARTS. Members of the Department of Philosophy and Psychology THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1955 ABSTRACT WORD DISCRIMINATION AND SPELLING-: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY by GEOFFREY PLINY MASON Introduction In 1922, Gates obtained a c o r r e l a t i o n of r » . 55_ between s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y and a speeded te s t measuring the a b i l i t y to discriminate small differences between pa i r e d words. This study r e s u l t s from Gates' f i n d i n g and i s divided i n t o two p a r t s . Part I i s concerned with checking Gates 1 r e s u l t s and determining i f the speed f a c t o r i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the word di s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t . Part I I examines the f e a s i b i l i t y , at the Grade VI l e v e l , of employing d r i l l exercises i n word disc r i m i n a t i o n as an a i d to s p e l l i n g . Part I Tests of s p e l l i n g , mental a b i l i t y and word di s c r i m i n a t i o n were given to 211 pupi l s i n a Junior High School i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia i n the t h i r d week of Grade VII. The word di s c r i m i n a t i o n test was given speeded with a one minute time l i m i t , and unspeeded with a four minute l i m i t . The c o r r e l a t i o n between the speeded di s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t r e s u l t s and s p e l l i n g was almost i d e n t i c a l to that obtained by Gates t h i r t y - t h r e e years ago. The c o r r e l -a t i o n between the word di s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t unspeeded and s p e l l i n g was low at x-0$_s = .18, though s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. Mental age correlated with s p e l l i n g r « ,66 and with word di s c r i m i n a t i o n speeded r -= .41. A f i r s t order c o r r e l a t i o n between word di s c r i m i n a t i o n speeded and s p e l l i n g , with mental age h e l d constant, gave r l 2 3 = .40. Separate c o r r e l a t i o n s computed for boys and g i r l s revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the corresponding c o e f f i c i e n t s . Part I I Thirty-two d r i l l sheets i n v o l v i n g exercises i n word dis c r i m i n a t i o n were used with an experimental group of 107 p u p i l s i n Grade VI. These d r i l l s were started-at the end of September and were conducted d a i l y f o r the f i r s t two weeks, three times weekly f o r four weeks, and twice weekly f o r f i v e weeks. A f t e r completion of the d r i l l exercises i t was found that, i n both word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and s p e l l i n g , the experimental group had made gains, s i g n i f i c a n t , at the .01 l e v e l of confidence, over a c o n t r o l group of 97 p u p i l s . I t should be noted that the d r i l l exercises i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n were done during part of the school time a l l o t t e d to s p e l l i n g , so that, i n e f f e c t , the experimental group received one t h i r d l e s s s p e l l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n during the eleven week experimental period than did the c o n t r o l group. Conclusions The a b i l i t y to discriminate small differences between words i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y and i s r measured more e f f e c t i v e l y by a speeded t e s t . I t i s suggested that the inadequate discriminatory a b i l i t y when dealing with word forms shown by the weaker s p e l l e r s i s a r e s u l t of i n s u f f i c i e n t emphasis on t h i s s k i l l , p o s s i b l y when learning to read. I t i s evident that most of the students examined by t h i s study could have derived b e n e f i t from exercises i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n beginning, probably, i n the primary grades. F i n a l l y , as the i n i t i a l s p e l l i n g achievement of the experimental group compared favourably with P r o v i n c i a l norms and norms obtained from the United States, i t i s p o s s i b l e that the d r i l l exercises have very wide a p p l i c a b i l i t y . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 I I . BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY h I I I . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 19 IV. PART I 21 P l a n of the Study 21 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Tests 21 R e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t s used 21 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t ? . . . . . . . . . 22 S t a t i s t i c a l treatment of r e s u l t s . . . . . . 23 V. RESULTS 25 D i s c u s s i o n of Results • 27 VI. PART I I 35 P l a n of the study 35 Instruments used 35 Experimental design. 36 V I I . RESULTS 38 D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s . • 39 V I I I . CONCLUSIONS . 45 REFERENCES W APPENDIX A Examples of Instruments used h$ i i i APPENDIX B Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of Various Test Scores f o r Study I . . . , APPENDIX C Table of Raw Scores f o r Study I I . , APPENDIX D D r i l l E x e r c i s e s , LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. C o r r e l a t i o n s of S p e l l i n g and Reading w i t h Other V a r i a b l e s (Gates) 7 I I . Word Perception A b i l i t y of Deaf C h i l d r e n (Gates and Chase) . 10 I I I . C o r r e l a t i o n s of Some Tests of V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n and A s s o c i a t i v e Learning (Gates) 13 IV. C o e f f i c i e n t s of C o r r e l a t i o n of P e r c e p t i o n Tests w i t h S p e l l i n g i n Grades IV and V ( R i l e y ) 15 V. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Between C e r t a i n V a r i a b l e s . A l l Students 28 V I . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Between C e r t a i n V a r i a b l e s . Boys and G i r l s S eparately -29 V I I . P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n s Using D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded, S p e l l i n g , Mental Age. A l l Students 30 V I I I . P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n s Using D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded, S p e l l i n g , Mental Age. Boys and G i r l s Separately. . 31 IX. Some Frequencies f o r Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g , and S p e l l i n g and Mental Age . . . 32 X. Some Frequencies f o r Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g , and Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and Mental Age. 33 V TABLE PAGE X I . Performance on the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g Tests f o r the Experimental and C o n t r o l Groups at the beginning and end of the eleven week experimental p e r i o d . . . hO X I I . Average Improvement i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g of High, Middle and Low Groups Formed on the Basis of the O r i g i n a l Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test . *+l X I I I . Frequencies Above and Below the Means of Improvement i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g f o r the Experimental Group . . . . ^2 Chapter I . INTRODUCTION • S p e l l i n g and reading are h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d subjects so tha t most good readers are good s p e l l e r s and most good s p e l l e r s are good readers. They each depend on a high degree of i n t e g r a t i o n of va r i o u s s k i l l s common t o both of them, although each s k i l l v a r i e s i n i t s importance from the one subject to the other. When a c h i l d i s f i r s t l e a r n i n g to read h i s teacher presents him w i t h a word the components of which he may be unable to i d e n t i f y . I f the word i s presented to him again he may recognize i t on the ba s i s of i t s general shape or c o n f i g u r a t i o n . This method of exposing a beginning reader to a word which he le a r n s by i t s shape has been designated the 'look and say' method, and has proved v a l u a b l e i n i n t r o d u c i n g a c h i l d to reading. I f the c h i l d , having learned the shape of the f i r s t word, i s presented w i t h a word of s i m i l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n he may confuse i t w i t h the f i r s t because ha has not yet learned to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e s of the two words. Many c h i l d r e n , apparently w i t h l i t t l e i n s t r u c t i o n from the teacher, r a p i d l y pass from t h i s i n i t i a l stage and begin to look c a r e f u l l y not only at the general shape but a l s o at the - 2 -i n t e r n a l components of the c o n f i g u r a t i o n . They are i n t e r e s t e d i n determining i n what way t h i s word d i f f e r s from t h a t . I n s h o r t , they are observing t h e i r words w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . To other c h i l d r e n t h i s a b i l i t y does not appear to come r e a d i l y . They depend l a r g e l y on the f i r s t l e t t e r and l a t e r the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of the word. Perhaps, the f i n a l l e t t e r or s y l l a b l e i s a l s o added to t h e i r area of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Thus armed w i t h a n o t i o n of the general shape of a f a i r number of words and t h e i r beginnings and endings the c h i l d i s able to read w i t h f a i r p r o f i c i e n c y by u s i n g the c o n t e x t u a l clues provided by the reading m a t e r i a l . This l e v e l could be termed the p a r t i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n stage i n the approach to words. Normally, the c h i l d progresses from t h i s l e v e l of p a r t i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n to a more complete r e c o g n i t i o n of the word, and then as reading speed develops he r e v e r t s s l o w l y t o p a r t i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n again. I t may r e a d i l y be seen, however, t h a t c o n t e x t u a l clues and p a r t i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n are inadequate f o r meeting the c h i l d ' s s p e l l i n g requirements. When he s p e l l s he must reproduce more than beginning and end plus a general i d e a of the shape of the word. The need f o r accurate and p r e c i s e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of the t o t a l word i s fundamental t o good s p e l l i n g . I t i s suggested here t h a t some s p e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s may be due to l a c k of progress beyond the - 3 -i n i t i a l p a r t i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n stage of word r e c o g n i t i o n . I n other words, the c h i l d has never learned to d i f f e r e n t i a t e a l l the components of a word he m i s - s p e l l s . There i s constant r e p e t i t i o n throughout the l i t e r a t u r e of the l a s t twenty-five years of the need f o r emphasis on v i s u a l imagery I n the teaching of s p e l l i n g . Although there have been s e v e r a l s t u d i e s on c o n g e n i t a l d e f e c t s a f f e c t i n g v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , d i s a b i l i t i e s r e s u l t i n g from f a u l t y l e a r n i n g have been l a r g e l y ignored. Chapter I I . BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY In 1 9 ^ 9 , N i c h o l s ( 9 ) published an a r t i c l e on the a n a l y s i s of s p e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . I n a b a t t e r y of f i v e t e s t s of her own composition she placed a t e s t of v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of small d i f f e r e n c e s between words, j u s t i f y i n g i t s i n c l u s i o n by the statement, "Research revealed no disagreement among the a u t h o r i t i e s . " Fourteen s t u d i e s are quoted i n support of the other f o u r t e s t s i n the b a t t e r y . A search of the l i t e r a t u r e f o r the ' a u t h o r i t i e s ' on the type of v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n used i n N i c h o l ' s t e s t r evealed two experimenters, Arthur I . Gates and S i s t e r Mary (of the V i s i t a t i o n ) R i l e y . I n 1 9 2 2 , Gates ( 1 ) commenced h i s s t u d i e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n and reading and s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y . He employed a s e r i e s of ten tesrts u t i l i z i n g d i f f e r e n t v i s u a l s t i m u l i . Test 1 c o n s i s t e d of f i f t y p a i r s of drawings of v a r i o u s geometric forms. I n h a l f the items both p a r t s of the p a i r were i d e n t i c a l whereas i n the other h a l f the components were d i s s i m i l a r . The p u p i l s were re q u i r e d t o put a cross a f t e r each p a i r of d i s s i m i l a r forms. Three more t e s t s s i m i l a r l y constructed r e q u i r e d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between p a i r e d groups of d i g i t s , p a i r e d nonsense s y l l a b l e s , and p a i r e d r e a l - 5 -words. This l a s t t e s t c o n s i s t e d of a meaningful word e i t h e r repeated or d i s t o r t e d i n some manner, f o r example, behind, bekind. Test number 5 r e q u i r e d the p u p i l t o s e l e c t from s e v e r a l s i m i l a r geometric designs one to match a given design. Tests 6, 7> and 8 r e q u i r e d c a n c e l l i n g of a l l the A's, the 2's and 3's, and the K's and I's from s e v e r a l hundred l e t t e r s and d i g i t s arranged i n groups of f i v e or s i x . The two remaining t e s t s i n v o l v e d the a b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h the c o r r e c t form of a word, i n t e s t 9 when placed among i n c o r r e c t forms, and i n t e s t 10 from continuous reading m a t e r i a l . Gates used 135 p u p i l s i n grades I I I t o V I I I i n t h i s study. His assumption was t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s among d i f f e r e n t t e s t s would i n d i c a t e the extent of a general p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y . E i g h t of the t e s t s y i e l d e d low or negative c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h both s p e l l i n g and rea d i n g . The average of the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s was .23. This l e d Gates to s t a t e t h a t , "there does not appear to be any such t h i n g as 'general v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . ' Rather there are a b i l i t i e s to per c e i v e words, d i g i t s , geometrical f i g u r e s , e t c . , each of which i s r e l a t i v e l y independent of other a b i l i t i e s . " (1,pp.28-29) The two t e s t s employing p e r c e p t i o n of words y i e l d e d q u i t e d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . The a b i l i t y t o r e a c t t o word d i f f e r e n c e s c o r r e l a t e d r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l y w i t h - 6 -s p e l l i n g and reading. The r e s u l t s obtained from the t e s t s are shown i n Table 1. The a b i l i t y to recognize the c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g of a word among i n c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g s ( t e s t 9) c o r r e l a t e d TS+.47 w i t h both the word p e r c e p t i o n t e s t and r e a d i n g , r « + . 5 3 w i t h proof r e a d i n g , and r=+.32 w i t h nonsense s y l l a b l e s . A b i l i t y t o detect m i s - s p e l l i n g s i n connected meaningful m a t e r i a l ( t e s t 10) c o r r e l a t e d r=+. 56 w i t h the word t e s t , and r« + . 3 5 w i t h the nonsense s y l l a b l e s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s of the non-verbal t e s t s w i t h both r e c o g n i t i o n s p e l l i n g and proof reading were low, ranging from -*.08 t o v.17. P a r t i a l and m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s revealed a f a c t o r common to a l l p e r c e p t i o n t e s t s i n v o l v i n g words s u f f i c i e n t to produce f a i r l y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n among them. This common f a c t o r Gates hypothesized as the a b i l i t y t o per c e i v e c l e a r l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f eatures of words. (l.P - 3 7 ) In 1926 Gates and Chase (3) published a study of the s p e l l i n g performance of f o r t y - f i v e deaf c h i l d r e n i n an i n s t i t u t i o n i n New York. The r e s u l t s of the P i n t n e r Non-Language Tests i n d i c a t e d that these deaf p u p i l s were but s l i g h t l y lower i n i n t e l l i g e n c e than normal i n d i v i d u a l s of corresponding age. The Burgess Reading Test was a l s o given and showed a s i x t o e i g h t year r e t a r d a t i o n i n each i n s t i t u t i o n grade, f o r example, i n Grade XI B the average c h r o n o l o g i c a l age was 18.1 and the average reading age 10.0. T a b l e 1. C o r r e l a t i o n s o f S p e l l i n g a n d R e a d i n g w i t h O t h e r V a r i a b l e s , r i s t h e m e a n o f t h e r ' s f o r G r a d e s I I I t o V I I I . ( A f t e r G a t e s ( l , p p . 3 0 - 3 D ) S p e l l i n g R e a d i n g T e s t 9 T e s t 1. S m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n d r a w i n g s - . 0 4 + .05 + .01 + .15 2. S m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i g i t s -.05 + . 1 4 + .10 + .09 3. S m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n n o n s e n s e w o r d s +.35 + .27 +.32 +.35 4. S m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n w o r d s +.55 + .39 +.47 +.56 5. C a n c e l l i n g g e o m e t r i c d r a w i n g s + . 1 4 + .16 + .13 + .17 6. C a n c e l l i n g A ' s +.17 + . 1 4 +.13 +.16 7. C a n c e l l i n g K ' s a n d I ' s + . 0 4 + . 0 4 +.17 +.09 8. C a n c e l l i n g 2 ' s a n d 3 ' s + .03 t . l l +.08 +.11 9. R e c o g n i t i o n o f c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g + .63 + .47 - +.53 10. P r o o f - r e a d i n g + .39 + .45 +.53 - 8 -A l i s t of 36 words from the Ayres-Buckingham S p e l l i n g Scale was administered and revealed that the average r e t a r d a t i o n i n s p e l l i n g was about h a l f of the r e t a r d a t i o n i n reading. F u r t h e r , when compared w i t h normal c h i l d r e n the deaf c h i l d r e n f a r e x c e l l e d , i n s p e l l i n g , p u p i l s of equal reading a b i l i t y . A second t e s t of s p e l l i n g r e c o g n i t i o n i n which the p u p i l was r e q u i r e d to s e l e c t the c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g from f i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a l s o i n d i c a t e d , w i t h reading held constant, the deaf c h i l d r e n ' s s u p e r i o r i t y over normal c h i l d r e n . A t h i r d t e s t r e q u i r i n g the s p e l l i n g of s i x t e e n concrete objects f o r example, hatchet, b i c y c l e , s o l d i e r , presented both w i t h the l i p s and by means of a drawing y i e l d e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the deaf c h i l d r e n possess, i n comparison w i t h t h e i r other l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s and w i t h the achievement of normal c h i l d r e n of equi v a l e n t reading s k i l l , s u perior s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y . Gates assumed that t h i s s u p e r i o r performance of the deaf c h i l d r e n was due to h a b i t s they had formed of making a c a r e f u l v i s u a l study of a word. The deaf, being unable to t h i n k f i r s t of the sounds and then r e c a l l a combination of l e t t e r s to represent them, r e l i e d l a r g e l y on the r e c a l l of the v i s u a l appearance of the word. To t e s t h i s hypothesis Gates then conducted two experiments employing deaf c h i l d r e n and mormal c o n t r o l s . The f i r s t r e q u i r e d the c h i l d r e n to study f o r one minute words th a t - 9 -they had p r e v i o u s l y m i s - s p e l l e d hy observing the p r i n t e d words on a page. S p e l l i n g aloud or w r i t i n g them was p r o h i b i t e d . The deaf acquired the s p e l l i n g of 4 words on an average w h i l e normal learned 2.4. This was, i n Gates' judgement, evidence that the deaf have a sharp p e r c e p t i o n of word forms which i s u t i l i z e d i n l e a r n i n g to s p e l l . The second experiment employed two t e s t s of word pe r c e p t i o n administered to three groups of deaf c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r i n g reading experience. The f i r s t , known as the "Word S e l e c t i o n Test", measured the speed and accuracy w i t h which a person can perceive an i s o l a t e d word and immediately perceive i t again i n the midst of s e v e r a l other very s i m i l a r words. The other t e s t , known as the "Word P e r c e p t i o n Same D i f f e r e n t Test", was Test 4 i n Gates' 1922 study (1). The r e s u l t s are presented i n Table 2. These r e s u l t s are s t r i k i n g . The deaf group 1 who were reading at the f i r s t grade l e v e l , and t h e r e f o r e could have had l i t t l e reading experience, shows a word p e r c e p t i o n a b i l i t y on the Same D i f f e r e n c e Test as great as tha t of normal c h i l d r e n of 16.5 years. The other groups show s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . Gates concludes that there can be no doubt about the ex t r a o r d i n a r y word p e r c e p t i o n a b i l i t y of the deaf p u p i l s which he a t t r i b u t e s p r i m a r i l y to a p e c u l i a r l y e f f e c t i v e type of p e r c e i v i n g , or r e a c t i n g v i s u a l l y , to words. Templin, (12) using seventy-eight h e a r i n g , seventy-Table 2. Word Per c e p t i o n A b i l i t y of Deaf C h i l d r e n . From Gates and Chase. (3,p298) Word Perception Deaf A c t u a l Reading S p e l l i n g Word S e l e c t i o n Same D i f f e r e n c e Group Age Age Age Age Age 1. 13.6 6.9 11.2 12.4 16.5" 2. 14.2 8.1 11.6 12.4 16.0 3. 16.4 8.4 12.6 15.5 17.7 - 11 -e i g h t hard of hearing, and seventy-eight deaf p u p i l s , found that the deaf m i s - s p e l l e d about h a l f as many words as the hard of hea r i n g , and about one-third as many as the normal hearing p u p i l s . The percentage of e r r o r s on the more and l e s s f r e q u e n t l y used words was s i m i l a r i n a l l the three groups. In another study Gates (2) gave t e s t s of v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n and a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g to 310 c h i l d r e n i n grades I to V I . His t e s t s of v i s u a l perception' were s i m i l a r to those employed i n previous s t u d i e s and co n s i s t e d of words, d i g i t s , geometric designs, and drawings of common obj e c t s . When the various t e s t s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h reading and s p e l l i n g i t was found t h a t those t e s t s using words produced s u b s t a n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s w h i l e the other t e s t s y i e l d e d low c o r r e l a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s are given i n Table 3» When the i n f l u e n c e of i n t e l l i g e n c e was removed by p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n the c o r r e l a t i o n between s p e l l i n g and word p e r c e p t i o n remained r e l a t i v e l y high at r 1 2 3= +,.5+1+. According t o Gates, due to the low c o r r e l a t i o n of both i n t e l l i g e n c e and word p e r c e p t i o n w i t h age i n these groups, the p a r t i a l l i n g out of an age f a c t o r would r e s u l t i n a s c a r c e l y p e r c e p t i b l e decrease i n t h i s c o e f f i c i e n t . The c o r r e l a t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h s p e l l i n g a f t e r p a r t i a l l i n g out word p e r c e p t i o n was 3= +.31. I t would appear, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t word p e r c e p t i o n i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to s p e l l i n g than i s i n t e l l i g e n c e . - 12 -Gates a l s o administered two t e s t s of a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g . I n the f i r s t t e s t a geometric design was presented v i s u a l l y at the same time as a spoken word. Later the subject was required to produce the word when shown the design. The second t e s t r e q u i r e d the a s s o c i a t i o n of a nonsense word presented v i s u a l l y w i t h a geometric design. The c o r r e l a t i o n s of these t e s t s of a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h r e a d i n g , s p e l l i n g , and word p e r c e p t i o n averaged r= +.10, r= +.23> and r« +.20 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The study of S i s t e r Mary R i l e y (11) was concerned w i t h the measurement of the f u n c t i o n of p e r c e p t i o n i n reading and s p e l l i n g . Nine t e s t s of v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n were employed. Test 1 c o n s i s t e d of f i f t y items. Each item was made up of four groups of l e t t e r s , each n o n s e n s i c a l as a whole, but c o n t a i n i n g a meaningful word common to the f o u r . The common word was t o be extracted and w r i t t e n at the end of the l i n e . Test 2 c o n s i s t e d of groups of f i v e words of which two were the same and a l l s i m i l a r i n configuration^, beginning or ending. The task was to s e l e c t one of the l a s t f o u r which was i d e n t i c a l to the f i r s t . Tests 3» and 5 were the same as Test 2 except t h a t d i g i t s , n o n - s y l l a b i c l e t t e r groups, and drawings were used. Test 6 was modelled on Gates' Word Pe r c e p t i o n Same D i f f e r e n t Test. Tests 7> 8 and 9 were the same as Test 6 except t h a t d i g i t s , n o n - s y l l a b i c l e t t e r groups, and drawings were used. Table h gives the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s corrected f o r a t t e n u a t i o n . Table 3 C o r r e l a t i o n s of some t e s t s of v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n and a s s o c i a t i v e l e a r n i n g . (Compiled from Gates. (2) ) P a i r s of words and s p e l l i n g +.60 S e l e c t i o n of words and s p e l l i n g + .54 P a i r s of drawings +.27 P a i r s of d i g i t s +.37 S e l e c t i o n of f i g u r e s +.08 -14 -As may be seen from Table 3j Test 6 has the highest c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h s p e l l i n g followed by Tests 2, 1, 4, and 8 i n t h a t order. Tests 6 and 2 u t i l i z e d words, Test 1 words among nonsense words, and Tests 4 and 8 used l e t t e r groups. A l l t e s t s i n v o l v i n g words or l e t t e r groups have a s u b s t a n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s p e l l i n g but i t i s n o t i c e a b l e t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n increases as the t e s t uses items which approach true words. The technique of p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t Tests 2, 4 and 6 measured e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r s i n reading and s p e l l i n g . Tests 1 and 8 c o n t a i n elements which are common t o these two subjects but to a l e s s e r degree. Tests 3> 7> 5 and 9 had no n o t i c e a b l e i n f l u e n c e on the correlation.(Il,p35) These r e s u l t s s u b s t a n t i a l l y confirm Gates' f i n d i n g s that the s k i l l i n v o l v e d i n the a b i l i t y to perceive s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n paired words i s a major f a c t o r i n s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y . Gates had no equi v a l e n t of Tests 2 and 4 above, but the s k i l l i n v o l v e d may be regarded as approximately the same. Test 2 i n v o l v e s the comparison of a word w i t h four a l t e r n a t i v e s which n e c e s s i t a t e s a s e r i e s of pai r e d comparisons, and Test 2 a s i m i l a r task but w i t h l e t t e r groups d e f y i n g p r o n u n c i a t i o n . The a b i l i t y to perceive non-verbal items such as d i g i t s and designs was found i n t h i s study to have no appreciable a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the a b i l i t y to s p e l l c o r r e c t l y . This a l s o confirms Gates' e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s . Table 4. C o e f f i c i e n t s of C o r r e l a t i o n (corrected f o r attenuation) of Perc e p t i o n Tests w i t h S p e l l i n g i n Grades IV and V. Taken from R i l e y . (11,pp.29-30) P e r c e p t i o n Average of c o r r e l a t i o n s I n t e l l i g e n c e Test w i t h two s p e l l i n g t e s t s Grade IV Grade V Grade IV Grade V 1 + .538 + .658 + .38O + .3+4 2 + .735 + .557 + .33^  + .278 3 + .337 + .277 + .207 + .167 4 + .565 +•.507 + . 3 W + .280 5 t .029 + .005 + .082 + .041 6 + .714 + i778 + .330 + .289 7 + .307 + .212 + .213 + .033 8 + .336 + .603 + .181 + .354 9 + .353 + .112 + .329 + .198 - 16 -Hartman, (*+) using s i x t y - t h r e e c o l l e g e students i n three groups taken from the centre and both ends of a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y , found t h a t of f i v e p e r c e p t u a l t e s t s only one d i f f e r e n t i a t e d amongst the three groups. This t e s t i n v o l v e d t a c h i s t o s c o p i c one second exposures of unusual words such as ageratum, Caedmon, and gneiss. During the period between exposures the subjects wrote the word seen. Hartman concluded that 'good s p e l l e r s p e rceive t o t a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of the v e r b a l s o r t w i t h greater f a c i l i t y than others' and t h a t ' s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n ; w i t h normal subjects p e r i p h e r a l f a c t o r s of an o p t i c a l or r e t i n a l nature are i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l . ' N i c h o l s (9) attempted an a n a l y s i s of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y by t e s t s of p r o o f r e a d i n g , word meaning, handwriting, v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Remedial devices were then employed f o r a p e r i o d of f o u r months. The work f o r the improvement of v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of f l a s h card d r i l l and s e l e c t i o n of rhyming words from l i s t s of words. A s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n was recorded on the s p e l l i n g achievement t e s t although, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , no c o n t r o l group was reported. Whether or not any one p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t e d to the g a i n i n s p e l l i n g achievement cannot, of course, be determined from t h i s study. Hudson and Toler (6) reported s i g n i f i c a n t s p e l l i n g - 17 -gains by a group of two hundred and f i f t y - n i n e p u p i l s i n grades IV, V and VI a f t e r e f f o r t s to increase t h e i r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l patterns of words. During a p e r i o d of four months d r i l l was conducted w i t h weak s p e l l e r s outside of the r e g u l a r s p e l l i n g lessons on the exercis e s i n D u r e l l and S u l l i v a n ' s ' B u i l d i n g Word Power' and •Ready to Read 1. A major p a r t of these e x e r c i s e s i n v o l v e v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of some s o r t , and about one-fourth r e q u i r e the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of sm a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between words. This study i s noteworthy as an attempt to develop a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by r e t u r n i n g to fundamental e x e r c i s e s . I t i s r e g r e t t a b l e t h a t the authors d i d not see f i t to r e p o r t a c o n t r o l group and that t h e i r s p e l l i n g t e s t s c o n s i s t e d of words which, by t h e i r own admission, were 'reasonably p h o n e t i c 1 . A recent study by Templin (13) using f o u r t h grade p u p i l s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the a b i l i t y of upper and lower de v i a t e s p e l l i n g groups to i d e n t i f y sounds i n known words, and a d i f f e r e n c e , s i g n i f i c a n t a t only the .20 l e v e l of confidence, i n favour of the su p e r i o r s p e l l e r s when using nonsense words. A sound d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t measuring a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e consonant sounds a l s o f a i l e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the good and poor s p e l l i n g groups. (13,p4W This supports the f i n d i n g s of Mack t h a t a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the s p e l l i n g - 18 -a b i l i t y of grade V p u p i l s . Mack a l s o found th a t phonetic a b i l i t y , which she defined as the a b i l i t y to sound word elements and unknown words, was a more important f a c t o r than v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as measured by f l a s h cards. However, there was a c o r r e l a t i o n of r = +.595 between her phonics and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t s , (7»P«47) which suggests tha t v i s u a l f a c t o r s were perhaps important i n determining the phonics t e s t r e s u l t s . Summary There are s e v e r a l f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e to s u c c e s s f u l s p e l l i n g achievement. Undoubtedly one of the most important of these f a c t o r s i s the a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e small d i f f e r e n c e s i n words. No study has been discovered i n the l i t e r a t u r e which attempts to determine the e f f e c t on subsequent s p e l l i n g achievement of separate d r i l l on ex e r c i s e s intended to develop t h i s d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a b i l i t y . Chapter I I I . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM A review of the research i n the area of s p e l l i n g d i s a b i l i t y suggests the importance f o r good s p e l l i n g of a s p e c i a l k i n d of v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , t h a t of being able to d i s c r i m i n a t e s m all d i f f e r e n c e s between words. Since the l a s t of the st u d i e s to dea l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h i s problem appeared twenty-five years ago, and sin c e there has been c o n t i n u a l emphasis f o r the l a s t t h i r t y years of the need f o r the c a r e f u l v i s u a l study of words, one may doubt i f t h i s l a c k of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a b i l i t y s t i l l e x i s t s as a major f a c t o r i n poor s p e l l i n g . The Hudson and To l e r study, coupled w i t h the r e s u l t s obtained by Mack and by Templin, would suggest, however, that poor s p e l l e r s s t i l l r e s i s t attempts to get them to v i s u a l i z e words and r e l y l a r g e l y i n s t e a d on phonic a b i l i t y . I t w i l l a l s o be noted t h a t the t e s t s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of words used by Gates and R i l e y were h i g h l y speeded. An examination of these t e s t s suggests t h a t speed of reading would be an important f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g r e s u l t s , although speed of p e r c e p t i o n i s not u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h good s p e l l i n g . The extent to which speed i s a f a c t o r i n these t e s t s deserves examination. The. purpose of t h i s study, t h e r e f o r e , i s t o - 20 -determine whether v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n of words, as measured by-Gates, i s s t i l l a major f a c t o r i n s p e l l i n g d i s a b i l i t y , and i f i t i s , whether or not anything can be achieved by a t t a c k i n g the problem d i r e c t l y and se p a r a t e l y from s p e l l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . In summary, t h i s study i s attempting to answer the f o l l o w i n g four questions: 1. Is poor word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as measured by Gates a major f a c t o r i n s p e l l i n g d i s a b i l i t y amongst those p u p i l s examined by t h i s study? 2. Would reducing the speed f a c t o r i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of sm a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between words s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the c o r r e l a t i o n between t h i s t e s t and s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y ? 3 . Is t h i s word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s k i l l a s k i l l t h a t can be taught e a s i l y as an i s o l a t e d process? h. I f t h i s word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s k i l l i s e a s i l y acquired w i l l i t s development i n an i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t i n an improvement i n h i s s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y ? The study thus r e s o l v e s i t s e l f i n t o two p a r t s . Study I w i l l be concerned w i t h r e p e a t i n g some of the work of Gates and R i l e y on the one t e s t of the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of sma l l d i f f e r e n c e s between words to see i f t h e i r f i n d i n g s s t i l l apply, and a l s o w i t h examining the importance of speed as a f a c t o r i n t h i s t e s t . Study I I w i l l examine the f e a s i b i l i t y of employing d r i l l e x e r c i s e s i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as a remedial s p e l l i n g technique. Chapter 17. PLAN OF STUDY I The purpose of t h i s study i s to determine the c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t i n g between a t e s t of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of small d i f f e r e n c e s between words and a standardized s p e l l i n g t e s t g i v e n to students i n the f i r s t month of Grade V I I , and t o d i s c o v e r i f the speed f a c t o r i n the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the r e s u l t s obtained. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Tests. As Gates' o r i g i n a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t i s no longer a v a i l a b l e i n i t s e n t i r e t y , two new forms were constructed on the basis of the examples given i n h i s 'Psychology of Reading and S p e l l i n g * . (l,p.21) These forms were designated Form 1 and Form 2. The s p e l l i n g t e s t c o n s i s t e d of words numbered s i x to f i f t y - f i v e i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test S p e l l i n g L i s t , Form S. Mental Age was measured by the Henraon-Nelson Test of Mental A b i l i t y , Elementary School Examinations f o r Grades I I I to V I I I , Form A. Examples of these instruments are given i n Appendix A. R e l i a b i l i t y of the Tests Used. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t was estimated i n two ways. Retest on Form 1 a f t e r two weeks - 22 -(N = 40) gave r = ••'.90. R e l i a b i l i t y by equivalent forms (Forms 1 and 2) gave r = + .86 (N = 37). Due to a considerable increase i n score on the second two forms given i n c l o s e succession, the r e l i a b i l i t y of the e q u i v a l e n t forms was obtained a f t e r a three minute p r a c t i c e on a t h i r d s i m i l a r form. The l a r g e e f f e c t of p r a c t i c e f o r the f i r s t h a l f minute or so was thus a p p l i e d to both forms. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the M e t r o p o l i t a n S p e l l i n g L i s t f o r Grade V, which contains f o r t y of the f i f t y words used f o r Grade V I I , using s p l i t halves and c o r r e c t e d by the Spearman-Brown Formula i s reported i n the t e s t manual (8,p.10) as r =+.933 (W= 350). The r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the Grade V I l i s t i s not given. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental A b i l i t y , Elementary School Examination, Form A, u s i n g s p l i t halves and c o r r e c t e d by the Spearman-Brown Formula i s reported i n the t e s t manual (5>p.D as r =*.879 f o r Grade V I I . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Tests. The t e s t i n g was done over a fourt e e n day p e r i o d beginning at the end of September i n the t h i r d week of the school year, to a group of 110 boys and 101 g i r l s i n Grade V I I of a Ju n i o r High School i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. The d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t s were given at the beginning and end of the p e r i o d and the S p e l l i n g t e s t and t e s t of Mental A b i l i t y during f i v e days i n the middle. - 23 -The f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test co n s i s t e d of Form 1 given under the same co n d i t i o n s as Gates' t e s t , i . e . , w i t h a one minute time l i m i t , f o llowed by Form 2 w i t h a f o u r minute time l i m i t . A l l students were able to complete the t e s t w i t h i n the l a t t e r l i m i t . In the second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n Form 2 was given a one minute l i m i t and followed by Form 1 w i t h a four minute l i m i t . The scores f o r the D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded and the D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Unspeeded (four minute l i m i t ) were obtained by adding the r e s p e c t i v e scores obtained a t each s i t t i n g . S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment of R e s u l t s . As s c a t t e r diagrams p l o t t i n g the scores of the S p e l l i n g , Mental Age, and Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded t e s t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t departure from homocedasticity, the Pearson Product Moment r was used f o r i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between these t e s t s . The t e s t of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded produced a g r e a t l y n e g a t i v e l y skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n . This skewing i s b e l i e v e d to be a f u n c t i o n of inadequate measurement i n t h a t , w i t h only two s i t t i n g s of f i f t y items each and no speed f a c t o r , there was i n s u f f i c i e n t top t o the t e s t . I t i s assumed, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the t e s t of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded measures an a b i l i t y t h a t i s normally d i s t r i b u t e d . The scores from t h i s t e s t were dichotomized c l o s e t o the median so t h a t scores 82 to 97 formed one group and scores 98 to 100 the other. B i s e r i a l r was used to c o r r e l a t e the Word - 2h -D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded t e s t w i t h the other t e s t s . F i r s t order p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were obtained between the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded, Mental Age, and S p e l l i n g t e s t scores. C o r r e l a t i o n s were computed s e p a r a t e l y as w e l l as combined f o r boys and g i r l s to di s c o v e r i f any l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s were apparent between them. The frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the scores f o r a l l t e s t s are given i n Appendix B. Chapter V. RESULTS OF STUDY I The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the scores on the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded Test, Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded Test, S p e l l i n g Test, and Test of Mental A b i l i t y -c a l c u l a t e d f i r s t f o r a l l students and then f o r boys and g i r l s s e p a r a t e l y are given i n ta b l e s V t o V I I I , (pp.28-31). The c o r r e l a t i o n of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded w i t h S p e l l i n g was r r + .54 which i s almost I d e n t i c a l to that obtained by Gates i n 1922. (l,p . 7 ) The Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded a l s o c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Mental Age r = +• A l . However, S p e l l i n g c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Mental Age r , s •"•+ . 6 6 so that a f i r s t order c o r r e l a t i o n between Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and Mental Age w i t h S p e l l i n g held constant gave 1*12.3 = + A f i r s t order c o r r e l a t i o n between Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g w i t h Mental Age held constant gave r = +• .40. 12.3 The c o r r e l a t i o n between the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test given speeded and unspeeded was low at r ^ j _ s = + «30. As the c o r r e l a t i o n between the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Unspeeded and Mental Age ( r ^ g • + .08) was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0, h o l d i n g Mental Age constant i n a c o r r e l a t i o n between the scores on the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded and the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Unspeeded would not a l t e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y the c o r r e l a t i o n - 26 -of r b £ g r + .30* The c o r r e l a t i o n between Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded and S p e l l i n g was very low, but s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0 at the .05 l e v e l of confidence at r ^ g z+ .18. The highest c o r r e l a t i o n i s between S p e l l i n g and Mental Age of r = t .66. A f t e r p a r t i a l l i n g out the e f f e c t of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded the c o r r e l a t i o n remains at r r + •57 which i s higher than t h a t between Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g . When Table.-VI i s considered there i s found to .1 be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the corresponding c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r boys and g i r l s at the .05 l e v e l of confidence when tested by the z' tra n s f o r m a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between r ' s . An examination of the s c a t t e r diagrams i n Appendix B (pp.57 and 63) shows tha t the chances are approximately f i v e to two that a score i n the lower h a l f on the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded w i l l be accompanied by a score i n the lower h a l f i n S p e l l i n g . However,, the chances are a l s o approximately f i v e to two t h a t a score i n the lower h a l f i n the S p e l l i n g w i l l be accompanied by a score i n the lower h a l f of the Mental Age d i s t r i b u t i o n . The frequencies are shown i n Table IX. Ifi the lowest ten percent of the scores on the - 27 -Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded are considered the chances are over f i v e to one that a score w i l l be accompanied by a S p e l l i n g score i n the bottom h a l f . The lowest four percent of scores on the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded accompanied S p e l l i n g scores which were a l l i n the bottom t h i r t y percent, and Mental Age scores which had an approximately f i v e to one chance of being i n the bottom h a l f . (Table X.) The lowest two percent on the D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded were i n the lowest f i f t e e n percent i n S p e l l i n g and eleven percent i n Mental Age. D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n obtained between Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g of r = + .54 i s almost i d e n t i c a l to t h a t obtained by Gates i n 1922. When the e f f e c t of Mental Age was e l i m i n a t e d the c o r r e l a t i o n dropped to r = t .40. E l i m i n a t i n g the speed f a c t o r by g i v i n g the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t unspeeded reduced i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h S p e l l i n g to r b i g =+ .18 which i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0 a t the .05 l e v e l of confidence and i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h Mental Age to r ^ i g = + .08 which i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0. I t appears necessary, t h e r e f o r e , to give the Word Perception Test speeded i f a c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h S p e l l i n g s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence i s to be obtained. Although Mental Age may e x p l a i n p a r t of the speed f a c t o r Table V. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s * between c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s . A l l Students. N = 211. o • H +> -O <D CO CD bO G T3 00 <J •H CD fl 0 0) • H i H • H P , r-4 cd f-t m H - P o f l 0) co £ > ft CD • H CO S Q D i s c r i m i n a t i o n r M _ = + .30 r = + . 54 r = + A l Speeded D 1 S 1 2 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n r^ .,„ = + .18 iv., s + .08 Unspeeded b i s b l s S p e l l i n g r = +• .66 C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s given i n Tables V to V I I I are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d . 1 ? S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. Not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Table V I . I n t e r c o r r e l a t l o n s between c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s . Boys. N = 110. G i r l s . N = 101. o • H -p CO a • H s •a co •o CO CO p. 03 CO • H Q C O • H +> t 3 CO CD C "O •H Q> 9 CO •H P , to p • H Q 00 C • H H i—I CO P i CO CD bO -p C S D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded r b i s = f - 3 6 BOYS r = + . 5 4 r * + . 4 5 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n r b ± = t .20 Unspeeded r b l s = + - 1 1 S p e l l i n g r = + . 5 4 r r + .24 b i s r z t .60 • 2 Mental Age r = + .39 r b i s = + .16 r s + .76 GIRLS 1 o S i g n i f i c a n t at the . 0 5 l e v e l of confidence. ^Not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . - 30 -Table V I I . P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n s using the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : 1. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded 2. S p e l l i n g 3. Mental Age A l l Students. N = 211. r l 2 . 3 r 1 3 . 2 r 2 3 . 1 Not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . f .40 2 r + .08 s + .57 - 31 -Table V I I I . . P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n s using the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : 1. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded 2. S p e l l i n g 3. Mental Age Boys. N s 110. G i r l s . N • 101. BOYS GIRLS r l2 .3 = + * 3 8 r l2 .3 = + '13.2 = + a 9 r13.2 • ~ - o l f r23.1 = + M '23.1 = * - 7 0 Not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . - 32 -Table IX. Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded and S p e l l i n g . Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded. Lower Upper 50% Upper S p e l l i n g 50% Lower 32 73 S p e l l i n g and Mental Age. S p e l l i n g . Lower Upper. 50% Mental Age Upper 50% Lower 31 7h - 3 3 -Table X. Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded and S p e l l i n g . Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded, Lower Upper Upper 3 S p e l l i n g 50% Lower 17 Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded, Lower Upper Upper S p e l l i n g 3C$ Lower Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded and Mental Age. Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Speeded. Lower Upper h% Mental Age Upper 50% Lower 1.5 7.5 - 34 -i n v o l v e d i n g i v i n g the Word Pe r c e p t i o n Test speeded, the r e s i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n of r z+.40 a f t e r the e l i m i n a t i o n of Mental Age would suggest th a t good s p e l l e r s tend a l s o t o be r a p i d p e r c e i v e r s of words. As suggested e a r l i e r , t h i s r a p i d p e r c e p t i o n compared to t h a t of poor s p e l l e r s , may be due to a f a c i l i t y developed by good s p e l l e r s f o r v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of the components of a word c o n f i g u r a t i o n . The poor s p e l l e r s , forced by the t e s t to make comparisons and thus examine the d e t a i l s of the words presented, are r e l a t i v e l y slow at an unaccustomed task. Chapter V I . PLAN OF STUDY I I Having confirmed Gates 1 f i n d i n g s that the a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between words i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y , the purpose of t h i s p a r t of the study i s to a s c e r t a i n whether or not t h i s word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s k i l l may be taught e a s i l y as an i s o l a t e d process, and f u r t h e r , i f t h i s s k i l l i s e a s i l y acquired, whether or not there w i l l be a corresponding improvement i n s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y . The experimental group c o n s i s t e d of 107 students i n four Grade VI c l a s s e s i n an elementary school i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. The c o n t r o l group was formed of 97 students from three Grade VI c l a s s e s taken from three elementary schools drawing from populations of a s i m i l a r socio-economic l e v e l to t h a t from which the experimental group was drawn. Instruments Used. The Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test, forms 1 and 2, was t h a t described i n Part I of t h i s study. A one minute time l i m i t was imposed. The s p e l l i n g t e s t s c o n s i s t e d of words numbered 6 to 55 i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test S p e l l i n g L i s t , Forms S and R. Form S of t h i s t e s t was used i n P a r t I . Both - 36 -t e s t s are given i n Appendix A. The d r i l l sheets used are shown i n Appendix D. The s i x t e e n sheets are not numbered and were given t w i c e , the f i r s t being given again as number 17, the second again as 18, and so on, making a t o t a l of 32 sheets. Experimental Design. The Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test Form 1, and the M e t r o p o l i t a n S p e l l i n g Test, Form S, were given to both the experimental and c o n t r o l groups during a pe r i o d of three days at the end of September. F o l l o w i n g the t e s t i n g p e r i o d the experimental group d r i l l e d on e x e r c i s e s i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the manner d e t a i l e d below f o r a p e r i o d of eleven weeks. At the end of t h i s time both the experimental and c o n t r o l groups were given the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test, Form 2, and the M e t r o p o l i t a n S p e l l i n g Test, Form R, during a p e r i o d of three days. The d r i l l s were at a l l times t r e a t e d s o l e l y as exercises i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . At no time was the qu e s t i o n of r i g h t or wrong s p e l l i n g r a i s e d . The students' task e s s e n t i a l l y was to see whether or not one group of l e t t e r s d i f f e r e d from another group. No d e f i n i t e time l i m i t was placed on doing the d r i l l sheet u n t i l the l a s t f o u r weeks, although the students were encouraged to work as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . I t was found t h a t a f t e r the f i r s t two or three attempts, the d r i l l - 37 -sheet could be completed and marked by a l l students except f o r the very slowest, i n ten minutes. Students marked t h e i r own papers from answers c a l l e d by the teacher, and then inspected t h e i r mistakes. The two or three p u p i l s who were unable to complete the d r i l l sheet handed i n an incomplete e x e r c i s e . The ten minutes r e q u i r e d f o r a d r i l l period was taken from the r e g u l a r s p e l l i n g period of the day. Thus, wh i l e the experimental group was doing e x e r c i s e s i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , the c o n t r o l group was r e c e i v i n g r e g u l a r s p e l l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . The d r i l l s were conducted d a i l y f o r the f i r s t two weeks, three times weekly f o r the next four weeks, and twice weekly f o r the l a s t f i v e weeks. During the l a s t f o u r weeks time l i m i t s were introduced as an a i d to m o t i v a t i o n . The d r i l l s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , were w e l l r e c e i v e d throughout the eleven weeks by the students who a l l appeared to enjoy doing them. Chapter V I I . RESULTS OF STUDY I I The r e s u l t s of the i n i t i a l t e s t i n g w i t h the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t , Form 1 and the M e t r o p o l i t a n S p e l l i n g •Test, Form S, and the f i n a l t e s t i n g w i t h the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test, Form 2, and the M e t r o p o l i t a n S p e l l i n g Test, Form R, are supplie d i n Table X I . A t a b l e of raw scores i s given i n Appendix C. The mean score by the experimental group of 28.4-3 on Form 2 of the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test a g a i n s t 24.55 on Form 1 shows a mean increase of 3*88. This mean improvement of 3.88 compared to tha t of 1.79 by the c o n t r o l i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l of confidence w i t h a t r a t i o of 2.75. The mean Improvement on the S p e l l i n g Test of 3.89 f o r the experimental group compared to t h a t of 2.27 f o r the c o n t r o l , i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence w i t h a t r a t i o of 2.75. The experimental and c o n t r o l groups were each broken i n t o sub-groups on the ba s i s of scores obtained on the f i r s t Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test. The increases obtained by the top and bottom quarters and the middle f i f t y percent oh both Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g are given i n Table X I I . - 39 -The c o r r e l a t i o n between increases oh the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test and the S p e l l i n g Test was i n v e s t i g a t e d . Both d i s t r i b u t i o n s were dichotomized at the mean and a contingency t a b l e computed. The frequencies are given i n Table X I I I . A t e t r a c h o r i c c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n , obtained by using these frequencies and the Co s i n e - p i formula, was r z + .19 which i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0. D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s . Although the g a i n i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n made by the Experimental Group was more than twice t h a t made by the C o n t r o l the two groups were equal i n t h i s s k i l l a t the end of the experimental p e r i o d . Whether the Experimental Group would have passed the C o n t r o l w i t h f u r t h e r p r a c t i c e "or whether a l i m i t f o r t h i s age had been reached i s not i n d i c a t e d by the r e s u l t s . The l a r g e r i n crease by the Experimental Group may be due, i n p a r t , to t h e i r i n i t i a l weakness i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . However, a f t e r t a k i n g i n t o account the p o s s i b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d i f f i c u l t y of r a i s i n g a mean of 26.77 to 28.56 and a mean of 24.55 t o 28.43 i t would appear safe to assume t h a t the performing of the d r i l l e x e r c i s e s r e s u l t e d i n a greater g a i n by the Experimental Group than might otherwise have, been expected. In s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y the Experimental Group showed Table X I . Performance on the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g Tests f o r the Experimental and Co n t r o l Groups at the beginning and end of the eleven week experimental p e r i o d . Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Number i n Sample Mean Score Toon Form 1 Mean Score on Form 2 Mean Improvement Form 2 minus Form 1 Standard d e v i a t i o n of I n d i v i d u a l Improvement Experimental C o n t r o l 107 97 24.55 26.77 28.43 28.56 3.88 1.79 3.80 3.25 Experimental C o n t r o l Number i n Sample S p e l l i n g Mean Score on Form S Mean Score on Form R Mean Improvement Form R minus Form S Standard d e v i a t i o n of I n d i v i d u a l Improvement 107 • 97 26.23 27.40 30.12 29.67 3-89 2.27 4.57 3.85 Table X I I . Mean Improvement i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g of hig h , middle* and low groups formed on the basis of the o r i g i n a l Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test. Highest Quarter Middle H a l f Lowest Quarter Word D i s c r . S p e l l i n g Word D i s c r . S p e l l i n g Word Di s e r . S p e l l i n g 2.9 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.4 3.if .8 2.1 2.2 2.5 1.9 2.4 Experimental C o n t r o l Table X I I I . Frequencies above and below the means of Improvement i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and S p e l l i n g f o r the Experimental Group. Above the Mean Improvement Below the Mean Improvement f o r S p e l l i n g f o r S p e l l i n g Above the Mean Increase f o r Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 33 25 Below the Mean Increase f o r Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 22 27 - 43 -a t the beginning a mean of 1.17 words l e s s than the C o n t r o l but a f i n a l mean of .45 words greater than the C o n t r o l . When the raw scores are converted to the age equivalents i n the Test Manual, (8) i t i s found t h a t the Experimental Group made s p e l l i n g gains of s i x months w h i l e the C o n t r o l made a three month's gain. The Experimental Group thus made s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n both word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and s p e l l i n g over the experimental p e r i o d . The c o r r e l a t i o n between these two sets of gains was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the d r i l l e x e r c i s e s a s s i s t e d a v a r i e t y of s p e l l i n g weaknesses, and tha t l a r g e increases i n s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y occurred without being accompanied by s i m i l a r increases i n r a p i d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . An examination of the progress of the h i g h , middle and low sub-groups of the Experimental Group on Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a b i l i t y shows no marked gai n by any sub-group i n comparison w i t h the others. The gains by the sub-groups over t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e group i n the C o n t r o l show that w h i l e the three groups made s i m i l a r gains i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n the v a r i a t i o n i n s p e l l i n g gains from h i g h to low was pronounced at 2.3> 1.5, and 1.0. r e s p e c t i v e l y . This would suggest t h a t most of the c h i l d r e n t e s t e d , i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r l e v e l of word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , can b e n e f i t from the d r i l l e x e r c i s e s by an increase i n s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y . The - 1+4 -r e s u l t s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e that the amount of s p e l l i n g improvement as a r e s u l t of the d r i l l e x e r c i s e s i s r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to the a b i l i t y f o r word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n already possessed. I n other words, the greater the i n i t i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s k i l l , w i t h i n the range measured i n t h i s study, the greater may be the expected s p e l l i n g improvement as a r e s u l t of the t h i r t y - t w o d r i l l e x e r c i s e s . Chapter V I I I . CONCLUSIONS The r e s u l t s obtained are f u r t h e r c o n f i r m a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s of R i c e , (10) n e a r l y s i x t y years ago, t h a t the l e v e l of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y i s not r e l a t e d t o the time spent on s p e l l i n g i n the classroom. The experimental group during the eleven week d r i l l p e r i o d spent one-third l e s s time on s p e l l i n g than d i d the c o n t r o l group, yet made s p e l l i n g gains double to those of the c o n t r o l . Instead of r e c e i v i n g normal s p e l l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n they were developing a s k i l l which appears to be fundamental to good s p e l l i n g . The school from which the experimental group was chosen has had an achievement record on annual t e s t s over the past s i x years c l o s e to the c i t y average. As the norms f o r the c i t y on both reading and s p e l l i n g compare favourably to those of the Province and to norms obtained from the United S t a t e s , there i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r assuming that the experimental group had r e c e i v e d up to the time t h a t the study was begun, at l e a s t adequate i n s t r u c t i o n by P r o v i n c i a l standards i n those s u b j e c t s , I t i s probable, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a very l a r g e number of c h i l d r e n at the Grade VI l e v e l could d e r i v e b e n e f i t from the d r i l l e x e r c i s e s . The t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n assumed here i s t h a t the l a c k of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a b i l i t y when d e a l i n g w i t h word forms - 46 -i n Grade VI i s a r e s u l t of i n s u f f i c i e n t emphasis on t h i s s k i l l i n the primary grades, which assumes, of course, t h a t the s k i l l could be developed at an e a r l y age. I t would appear necessary, as a t e s t of t h i s hypothesis, to embark on a long term study i n which students i n the primary grades are given e x e r c i s e s i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and are then followed through school to assess the e f f e c t of t h i s s k i l l on subsequent s p e l l i n g achievement. Other f a c t o r s such as the permanence of t h i s word d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a b i l i t y when once developed t o a h i g h l e v e l , the l i m i t s of t h i s a b i l i t y at various ages, and the optimal d i s t r i b u t i o n of d r i l l s both w i t h i n a grade and from grade t o grade must be l e f t f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s . - 47 -REFERENCES 1 Gates, A.I . , The psychology of reading and s p e l l i n g w i t h s p e c i a l reference to d i s a b i l i t y . Columbia Univ. Contr. Educ. 1922, No. 129, 10b1 pp. 2 Gates, Arthur I . , A study of the r o l e of v i s u a l perception, i n t e l l i g e n c e , and c e r t a i n a s s o c i a t i v e processes i n reading and s p e l l i n g , J . educ, Psy c h o l . . 1926, 17, 433-W. 3 Gates, Arthur I. and Chase, Esther H., Methods and 'theories of l e a r n i n g to s p e l l tested by studie s of deaf c h i l d r e n , J . educ. P s y c h o l . , 1926, 17, 289-3OO. 4 Hartman, George W., The r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y f a c t o r s i n s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y , J . educ. Ps y c h o l . . 1931, 22, 691-699. 5 Henmon-Nelson t e s t s of mental a b i l i t y . Teacher's manual f o r elementary school examination f o r grades I I I to  V I I I . Forms A. B and C. Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1946. 4 pp. 6 Hudson, Jess H. and T o l e r , L o l a , I n s t r u c t i o n i n a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as a means of improving s p e l l i n g , Elem. Sch. J . . 1949, 49, 466-469. 7 Mack, Esther, An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the importance of var i o u s word a n a l y s i s a b i l i t i e s i n reading and s p e l l i n g achievement, (Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n Boston Univ., 1952). 8 M e t r o p o l i t a n achievement t e s t s . Manual f o r intermediate B a t t e r y - p a r t i a l . Forms R. S. T. U. and V. World Book Company, 1946\ 10 pp. 9 N i c h o l s , Augusta M., The a n a l y s i s and c o r r e c t i o n of s p e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , Elem. Sch. J . . 1949, 50, 154-161. 10 R i c e , Joseph M., The f u t i l i t y of the s p e l l i n g g r i n d , Forum. 1897, 23: 63-172, *K)9-4l9. 11 R i l e y , S i s t e r Mary (of the V i s i t a t i o n ) , V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n i n reading and s p e l l i n g : a s t a t i s t i c a l  a n a l y s i s . C a t h o l i c Univ. America Educ. Res. B u l l . IV, 1929, No.l. - 48 -12 Templin, Mildred C. A., Comparison of s p e l l i n g achievement of normal and d e f e c t i v e hearing s u b j e c t s , J . educ. P s y c h o l . f 1948, 39, 339-346. 13 Templin, Mi l d r e d C , Phonic knowledge and i t s r e l a t i o n to the s p e l l i n g and reading achievement of f o u r t h grade p u p i l s , J . educ. Res.. Feb., 1954. - 4-9 -APPENDIX A Page 1. Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test, Forms A and B 50 2. D i r e c t i o n s f o r Administering the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test 51 3. M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Tests S p e l l i n g L i s t , Forms S and R 53 h. The Henmon-Nelson Tests of Mental A b i l i t y , Form A 55 - 50 - Form 2 1 2 I 5 6 7 8 9 he i n to i f a t b i g say e l f l o t ho n i to of at 10 f r y 11 s t a r 12 r i c h corn shoe 15 d i e t 11 b i g sey o l f l e t f r y s a t r rech cron shoe d i e t 16 above above 17 blaze bloze 18 equal equal 19 s c o l d s c o l t 20 lemon • lemen 21 abound abourd 22 p a r r o t p a r r o t 23 beauty beuaty 24 barber barber 25 access acsess 26 awkward awkwrad 27 f u r i o u s f u r o i u s 28 l i c e n s e l i c e n s e 29 b a t t e r y b a t t e r y 30 g a l l a n t g a l l a n t 31 boundary boundray 32 d i s g r a c e disgrase 33 s i n g u l a r s i n g u l a r 3+ medicine medecine 35 argument argumant 36 education 37 candidate 38 slaughter 39 companion 40 d i f f i c u l t 41 commercial 42 brightness 43 p a r t i c u l a r 4H v i c t o r i o u s 45 o b l i g a t i o n 46 unconscious 47 measurement 48 c e l e b r a t i o n 49 performance 50 imagination education canditade s l a u g h l e r companion d i f f i c u l t commercial brightness p a r t i c u l a r v i c t a r i o u s o b i l a g t i o n . unconscious measurement c e l e b r a t i o n performanse imagimation 1 2 I 6 7 8 9 10 be me on up or r i b bar one set l a g bo me no uy or 11 scar 12 read 13 corn 14 able 15 lake 16 about 17 beach 18 r e f e r 19 shock 20 meant 21 meadow 22 b i t t e r 23 banana 24 absent 25 school r i b ban one s i t l a g sacr raed corm able lake about baech r e f en shock meart meadom b i t t e r banona absent shcool 26 sparrow sperrow 27 haughty haughty 28 anybody anybody 29 b a r r i e r b a r r i e r 30 acquaint a c q u a i r t 31 eastern 32 marriage 33 sickness 34 champion 35 calandar 36 o b j e c t i o n 37 c a t h e d r a l 38 abundance 39 carpenter 40 ignorance 41 background 42 yourselves 43 permission 44 unpleasant 45 ambassador eastren marniage sickness champian _ calendar _ o b j e c t i o n c a t h e d a r l aburdance carpenter ignornace backgrourd yourselves permission unpleasent ambassodar 46 accomodated 47 unfortunate 48 c e r t i f i c a t e 49 d i s t i n g u i s h 50 combination accomodated unfortunate c e t r i f i c a t e d i s t i n g u i s t combimation - 51 -D i r e c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test. Speeded. See that a l l the students have a p e n c i l . Say? "This i s a short t e s t t h a t you w i l l not f i n d very hard. When the page i s placed on your.desk you are to leave i t l y i n g face downwards and w r i t e your name on the back. Do not t u r n the paper over." Give out the papers face downwards w i t h the top of the l i s t away from the student. Say, "This i s a t e s t to see how w e l l you look at words. When you are t o l d to t u r n your paper over you w i l l f i n d p a i r s of words side by side l i k e t h i s . " Write on the blackboard cat cot and and ra n r a t Say, " I f the words of the p a i r are the same you are to put a check. I f they are d i f f e r e n t you are to put a c r o s s . " P o i n t to the l i n e a f t e r the f i r s t p a i r on the blackboard. "What do we put here?" Pause. "That i s c o r r e c t . We put a cross because they are d i f f e r e n t . " P o i n t to the l i n e a f t e r the second p a i r . "What do we put here?" Pause. "Correct. A check because they are the same." P o i n t to the l i n e a f t e r the t h i r d p a i r . - 52 -"And here?" Pause. "Correct. A cross because they are d i f f e r e n t . " "Take your p e n c i l i n one hand and hold the bottom of your paper ready to t u r n over and begin. You w i l l be given j u s t one minute to do as many as you can. Are you ready? Go!" Time e x a c t l y 60 seconds. Say, "Stop, p e n c i l s down." C o l l e c t the papers. Unspeeded. I f the t e s t i s to be fol l o w e d by the other form unspeeded give out the papers as before. Say, "This i s e x a c t l y the same ki n d of t e s t t h a t you have j u s t done but t h i s time you w i l l be given four times as long to do i t . Are you ready? Begin." Time h minutes. Say, "Stop, p e n c i l s down," and then c o l l e c t the papers. - 53 -METROPOLITAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS SPELLING LIST - FORM S 1. want 26. neighbor 2. would 27. e a s i l y 3. mouth 28. d o u b t f u l 4. coast 29. b a r l e y 5. making 30. p i t c h e r 6. uncle 31. customer 7. drew 32. hymn 8. f a i r 33. b l i z z a r d 9. l e s s o n 3*. s u c c e s s f u l 10. r a i s e 35. i n t r o d u c t o r y 11. lamb 36. disappointment 12. beet j o u r n a l wedding 38. r e g i s t r a t i o n 14. l e a r n i n g & e d i t i o n 15. colored s i n c e r e l y 16. heavy 41. probably 17. biggest 42. s e n s i b l e 18. measure tragedy 19. manager 44. 45. opportunity 20. b r e a k f a s t annual 21. toward 46. a p p r e c i a t i n g 22. a d v e r t i s e 47. v u l g a r 23. happened 48. f a c u l t y 24. remember 49. a l c o h o l 25. advised 50. ambitious - 54 -METROPOLITAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS SPELLING LIST - FORM R 1. b e c a u s e 26. c e l l a r 2. s o r r y 2 7 . c e r t a i n l y 3. w r o t e 28. c e l e b r a t e 4. c u t t i n g 2 9 . p a t i e n t 5. c o s t 30. i n s t r u c t o r 6. h o l d 31. n e p h e w 7. w a l k e d 32. e n v e l o p e 8. s t o o d 33. e n e m i e s 9. d o e s 34. s o u r c e 10. b e g u n 3 ? ' g r a d u a l l y 11. e x c u s e 36. r e s p o n s e 12. s o r e 37. s e s s i o n t h r e a d 38. c a m p a i g n 1 4 . l i s t e n 39. e n g i n e e r 15. p r o m i s e 4 0 . l e g i s l a t i o n 16. w o r s t 4 1 . s u p e r i n t e n d e n t 17. g a r a g e 4 2 . d e l i c i o u s 18. g u i d e \3. e n o r m o u s 19. o u r s e l v e s 44. p h y s i c a l 20. d i f f e r e n t 45. p r i o r 21. k n o t 4 6 . s i n c e r i t y 22. l i b r a r y 47. e x t e n s i o n 23. s c r e w 4 8 . s i m i l a r 2 4 . d e c i d e 49. n e c e s s i t y 25. a g a i n s t 50. i m m e d i a t e - 56 -APPENDIX B Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of Various Test Scores f o r Study I PAGE D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g - A l l students 57 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g - Boys 58 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g - G i r l s 59 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and Mental Age - A l l students 60 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded - Boys 61 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded - G i r l s 62 S p e l l i n g and Mental Age - A l l students 63 S p e l l i n g and Mental Age - Boys 64 S p e l l i n g and Mental Age - G i r l s 65 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded and S p e l l i n g - Boys, G i r l s and A l l students 66 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded and Mental Age - Boys, G i r l s and A l l students 67 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded - Boys D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded - G i r l s D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded - A l l students 68 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Raw Scores on the Tests of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g . A l l Students. N = 211 Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 36-38 39-41 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 54-56 57-59 60-62 63-65 66-68 69-71 72-74 75-77 S p e l l i n g 48-50 45-47 42-44 39-41 36-38 33-35 2 2 2 4 2 7 5 3 5 1 }^ 30-32 n ^ 27-29 24-26 1 21-23 18-20 1 3 15-17 12-14 9-11 1 2 6-8 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 l 1 1 l 2 3 1 1 1 3 4 3 4 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 5 1 1 2 1 3 3 3 7 3 1 1   2 4 2 7 5 3 5 1 1 1 3 4 1 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 4 1 2 1 5 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 5 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Raw Scores on the Tests of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g . Boys. N r 110. Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 36-38 39-41 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 54-56 57-59 60-62 63-65 66-68 69-71 72-74 75-77 S p e l l i n g 48-50 45-47 42-44 •39-41 36-38 33-35 30-32 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 00 27-29 24-26 1 21-23 18-20 1 3 15-17 12-14 9-11 1 1 6- 8 2 1 1 1 1 4 • 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 3 4 2 1 1  1 1 1 1 2  2 3 1 2 1 3 1 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Raw Scores on the Tests of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and S p e l l i n g . G i r l s . N = 101. Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 36-38 39-41 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 54-56 57-59 60-62 63-65 66-68 69-71 72-74 75-77 S p e l l i n g 48-50 45-47 42-44 39-41 36-38 33-35 30-32 27-29 24-26 21-23 18-20 15-17 12-14 9-11 1 6-8 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 ' 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 2 3 5 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 1 4 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Haw Scores on the Tests' of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and Mental Age. A l l Students. N = 211 Months Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . of 36-38 39-41 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 54-56 57-59 60-62 63-65 66-68 69-71 72-74 75-77 M.A. 216-221 210-215 204-209 198-203 192-197 186-191 180-185 174-179 168-173 162-167 156-161 150-155 144-149 138-143 1 132-137 126-131 1 2 120-125 114^119 1 • 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 l 2 2 1 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 3 2 6 2 I 3 1 3 2 5 2 5 8 2 3 1 3 2 4 3 3 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 3 5 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 5 3 1 1 1 2 2 l 4 2 2 1 2 1 3 3 5 1 2 3 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Raw Scores on the Tester of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and Mental Age. Boys. N = 110. Months Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' r of 36-38 39-41 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 54-56 57-59 60-62 63-65 66-68 69-71 72-74 75-77 M.A. 216-221 1 -210-215 1 204-209 1 1 2 1 198-203 1 1 1 192-197 1 1 186-191 1 1 1 1 1 180-185 2 1 3 2 1 174-179 1 2 • 2 4 1 2 3 4 2 168-173 1 1 2 2 2 162-167 3 1 2 1 1 3 1 156-161 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 150-155 1 1 1 1 2 1 144-149 1 2 4 2 1 138-143 1 2 1 1 1 132-137 1 1 2 1 1 126-131 1 1 120-125 114-119 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Raw Scores on the Test of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Speeded and Mental Age. G i r l s . N - 101. Months Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . of 36-38 39-41 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 54-56 57-59 60-62 63-65 66-68 69-71 72-74 75-77 M.A. 216-221 2 210-215 - 1 1 204-209 1 1 198-203 1 1 1 192-197 1 2 1 1 2 186-191 * 2 1 1 180-185 2 2 3 2 3 174-179 1 1 1 3 5 2 1 168-173 2 2 3 1 2 1 1 °> 162-167 2 2 2 1 1 156-161 1 1 3 2 1 1 150-155 2 1 2 1 1 2 144-149 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 138-143 1 1 2 1 132-137 2 126-131 1 1 120-125 114-119 1 1 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Raw Scores on the S p e l l i n g Test and Mental Age. A l l Students. N = 211. Months of 6- 9- 12-M.A. 8 11 14 216-221 210-215 204-209 198-203 192-197 186-191 180-185 1 174-179 168-173 162-167 1 1 156-161 150-155 1 1L&-149 131-143 1 132-137 2 2 126-131 2 1 120-125 114-119 1 17 20 1 1 5 l 3 1 I 1 S p e l l i n g 42- 45- 48^ 21- 24- 27- 30- 33- 36- 39-23 26 29 32 35 38 41 H4 47 50 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 4 4 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 6 8 5 1 6 1 1 3 1 1 3 7 2 1 1 3 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 1 4 2 1 2 6 1 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 ON Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Raw Scores on the S p e l l i n g Test and Mental Age. Boys. N = 110. Months S p e l l i n g of 6- 9- 12- 15- 18- 21- 24- 27- 30- 33- 36- 39- 42- 45- 48-M.A. 8 11 14 17 20 23 26 29 32 35 38 41 >+4 47 50 216-221 1 210-215 1 204-209 2 1 2 2 198-203 1 1 1 192-197 1 1 186-191 1 1 1 1 1 180-185 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 174-179 2 3 2 4 5 2 3 168-173 1 .1 1 1 2 1 1 162-167 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 F 156-161 3 1 2 2 150-155 1 1 2 1 1 3 144-149 1 2 2 1 2 2 138-143 3 1 2 132-137 2 1 2 1 126-131 1 1 120-125 114-119 ON Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Raw Scores on the S p e l l i n g Test and Mental Age. G i r l s . N = 101. Months of 6- 9- 12- 15- 18-M.A. 8 11 14 17 20 216-221 210-215 204-209 198-203 192-197 186-191 180-185 174-179 168-173 162-167 156-161 2 150-155 1 144-149 1 138-143 1 1 132-137 1 1 126-131 1 1 120-125 114-119 1 S p e l l i n g 11- 24- 27-23 26 29 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 30- 33- 36- 39- 42- 48^ 32 35 38 41 44 47 50 2 2 1 1 .2 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 3 1 1 1 2 5 1 ON 3 2 1 . 2 VJ\ 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n of S p e l l i n g Scores w i t h Scores on the Test of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded dichotomized at the Mean. f - number of cases above the mean f. = t o t a l number of cases P t S p e l l i n g 48-50 45-47 42-44 39-41 36-38 33-35 30-32 27-29 24-26 21-23 18-20 15-17 12-14 9-11 6- 8 Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n BOYS N = 110 GIRLS N = 101 ALL STUDENTS N - 211 f p f t f P f t fP f t 4 4 7 7 11 11 3 3 7 7 10 10 i 4 9 7 12 11 21 ON 4 8 6 11 10 • 19 ON 4 9 5 15 9 24 1 7 19 6 14 13 33 4 8 5 10 9 18 6 10 1 4 7 14 4 7 4 6 8 13 6 11 2 4 8 15 4 12 0 6 4 18 1 2 0 0 1 2 1 3 0 3 1 6 1 5 0 1 1 6 0 0 0 1 0 1 53 110 50 101 103 211 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Mental Age w i t h scores on the Test of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded dichotomized at the Mean. fp s number of cases above the mean f^. a t o t a l number of cases M.A. i n Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Months BOYS N = 110 GIRLS N = 101 ALL STUDENTS f P f P f t f P f t 216-221 0 1 2 2 2 3 210-215 1 1 2 2 3 3 204-209 4 7 2 2 6 9 198-203 3 3 3 3 6 6 192-197 2 2 3 7 5 9 186-191 3 5 1 4 4 9 180-185 4 9 9 12 13 21 174-179 7 21 5 14 12 35 168-173 4 8 6 12 10 20 162-3.67 3 12 5 8 8 20 156-161 1 8 4 8 5 16 150-155 4 9 4 9 8 18 144-149 6 10 4 8 10 18 138-143 4 6 2 5 6 11 132-137 3 6 0 2 3 8 126-131 0 2 0 2 0 4 120-125 0 0 0 0 0 0 114-119 0 0 0 1 0 1 ON >0 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Scores on the Test of Word .Discrimination Speeded w i t h Scores on the Test of Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded dichotomized at the Mean, fp & number of cases above the mean f ^ r t o t a l number of cases Word D i s c r . Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Unspeeded Speeded BOYS N = 110 GIRLS N r 101 ALL STUDENTS f P f t f p f t f p f t 75-77 0 1 4 4 4 5 72-74 1 3 3 3 4 6 69-71 3 5 10 15 13 20 66-68 8 10 5 8 13 18 63-65 8 1 4 7 12 15 26 60-62 6 12 12 20 18 32 57-59 3 9 2 11 5 20 54-56 2 11 3 12 5 23 51-53 4 15 5 ' 8 9 2 3 48-50 1 15 1 3 2 18 45-47 0 8 1 3 1 11 42-44 l 4 0 0 l 4 39-41 0 2 0 1 0 3 36-38 0 1 0 1 0 2 - 69 -APPENDIX C Table of Raw Scores f o r Study I I - 70 -Table of Raw Scores f o r Study I I . Raw scores on the Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test, Forms 1 and 2, and the S p e l l i n g Test, Forms S and R. Experimental Group Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n S p e l l i n g Form 1 Form 2 Form S Form R 1. 25 28 37 39 2. 22 25 34 38 3. 2 4 38 4 0 44 4. 25 30 38 43 5. 23 29 34 37 6. 25 29 26 35 7. 22 28 32 37 8. 24 37 43 . ko 9. 25 25 26 31 10. 25 31 37 4 1 11. 23 33 43 45 12. 29 35 35 39 13. 25 28 43 45 1 4 . 30 28 33 4 1 15. 30 34 33 36 16. 22 2 9 2 7 4 1 17. 26 30 39 4 0 18. 30 36 43 45 19. 2 9 38 35 39 20. 21 25 25 30 21. 26 30 27 43 - 71 -Form 1 Form 2 Form S Form R 22. 27 35 37 39 23- 28 35 38 44 24. 26 30 33 39 25, 20 25 27 3^ 26. 30 44 41 41 27. 25 32 35 41 28. 25 30 41 40 29. 23 29 *3 42 30. 20 32 41 42 31. 21 27 , 28 36 32. 20 23 19 20 33". 33 32 28 38 3*. 25 36 27 33 35. 20 25 22 22 36. 23 28 24 25 37. 25 28 21 35 38. 29 31 36 37 39. 30 31 32 37 40. 28 29 29 3+ 41. 25 31 20 27 42. 27 28 23 35 *3. 25 26 30 38 44. 24 26 21 28 45. 26 28 33 36 46. 29 36 35 40 - 72 -F o r m 1 F o r m 2 F o r m S F o r m R 47. 25 33 35 42 4 8 . 19 25 23 30 49. 25 21 31 38 50. 26 26 23 23 51. 29 36 34 37 52. 2 4 28 19 28 53. 25 28 20 20 54. 2 4 29 2 7 35 55. 2 7 31 43 47 56, 2 9 30 30 39 57, 25 25 16 23 58. 25 2 9 21 23 59. 26 26 24 2 7 60. 23 31 26 36 61. 2 4 23 13 12 62. 2 9 30 1 4 23 63. 2 4 31 2 7 29 6 4 . 19 30 34 36 65. 32 2 7 31 36 66. 20 25 25 29 67. 1 6 23 22 .30 68. 25 2 7 28 31 69. 25 2 4 24 31 70. 17 13 8 13 71. 22 26 2 4 28 Form 1 Form 2 72. 29 3^ 73. 16 19 74. 24 30 75. 26 30 76. 24 29 77. 29 31 78. 22 23 79. 25 36 80. 29 28 81. 22 20 82. 24 25 83. 23 29 84. 21 23 85. 24 22 86. 23 23 87. 26 24 88. 16 23 89. 25 30 90 . 20 22 91. 25 24 92. 25 29 93. 20 21 94. 21 31 95. 23 29 96. 27 30 73 -Form S Form R 38 3^ 20 18 17 25 15 3>+ 11 20 15 23 18 29 20 24 23 36 15 16 18 20 20 20 23 26 22 26 19 17 22 19 16 21 23 20 3 5 23 18 20 15 10 10 31 31 30 37 32 27 - 7h -Form 1 Form 2 Form S Form B 97. 22 26 21 22 98. 26 30 13 13 99. 23 25 15 16 100. 26 29 24 26 101. 22 24 10 5 102. 22 25 10 13 103. 21 29 17 16 104. 21 26 16 18 105. 30 27 14 11 106. 28 29 16 21 107. 27 27 31 33 - 75 -C o n t r o l Group Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n S p e l l i n g Form 1 Form 2 Form S Form R 1. 24 24 11 14 2. 29 28 3^  35 3- 37 3+ 42 ko 4. 23 26 26 30 5. 26 29 19 27 6. 29 29 26 20 7. 31 36 25 22 8. 31 28 30 33 9. 24 25 28 31 10. 31 33 22 27 11. 33 35 31 39 12. 28 31 19 25 13. 27 28 19 25 14. 33 3*f 44 *3 15. ' 28 29 23 17 16. 31* 37 42 40 17. 31 31 31 35 18. 20 23 31 30 31 3^  17 14 20. 29 28 26 27 21. 29 38 31 28 22. 28 20 26 29 23. 3H- 37 30 27 Form 1 Form 2 Form S Form R 24. 32 31 37 39 25. 25 28 15 15 26. 29 27 27 29 27. 21 31 29 23 28. 28 31 37 39 29. 30 31 35 36 30. 28 31 38 43 31. 34 33 30 37 32. 24 31 35 39 33. 24 29 36 37 34. 23 25 31 27 35. 24 22 28 24 36. 28 37 33 34 37. 26 32 42 42 38. 28 28 21 27 39. 29 37 29 31 40. 30 29 35 40 41. 32 37 49 49 42. 29 29 29 24 43. 25 26 19 19 44. 19 23 25 30 45. 30 30 40 40 46. 27 30 17 21 47. 24 24 21 24 48. 26 34 19 23 77 Form 1 Form 2 Form S Form R 49.' 26 30 31 37 50. 30 3^ 41 47 51. 26 26 32 35 52. 26 • 28 31 32 53. 23 24 24 31 54. 27 33 37 37 55. 25 29 20 21 56. 22 23 28 26 57. 22 25 29 30 58. 30 31 31 30 59. 25 31 21 25 60. 24 32 45 39 61. 22 27 19 26 62. 24 28 27 30 63. 33 38 36 36 64. 23 24 28 29 65. 31 31 20 19 66. 24 22 31 35 67. 26 25 30 3h 68. 21 21 4 7 69. 19 24 15 14 70. 21 24 17 19 71. 28 29 35 40 72. 30 32 30 42 73. 27 32 37 40 78 Form 1 Form 2 Form S Form R 74. 22 24 29 32 75. 20 20 27 30 76. 28 27 19 29 77. 23 24 10 13. 78. 21 26 28 33 79. 26 29 33 36 80. 21 20 7 7 81. 25 27 28 38 82. 21 20 33 35 83. 24 23 18 25 84. 32 36 35 36 85. 26 30 36 37 86. 30 25 43 43 87. 37 34 31 33 88, 24 22 13 22 89. 28 23 7 10 90. 18 18 10 14 91. 26 29 35 36 92, 23 22 11 21 93. 33 29 25 31 94. 29 31 20 22 95. 26 30 25 30 96. 31 33 26 30 97. 23 22 20 24 - 7 9 -APPENDIX D D r i l l e x e r c i s e s I f the words out a chock, d i f f e r e n t put nrthrn frngng arc I f thci same they aro cross, 26 27 28 prdmnt spoccs balsam occsnl cttnwd prfusc tiabrline dlneated mrthrn 1 gnrgng 2 prdmnr 3 speces 4 bolsam 5 —_ ocscnl 6 cttwnd 7 prfuse 8 tinbrline 9 dtneatcd lo" t l g r p h l y t l r g p h l y 11 ptarmign ptarmign 12 economic economic 13 grayling g r ayling 14 t stations stations 15 goodetic geoditec 16 airphoto aerplioto 17 template tenplate 18 progress porgress 19 coordinate cpordnate 20_ geographer gdogapher 21>_ reversions revresions 22 confluence confluence 23 t p r e d i c t i n g prodecting 24t a _ calculated c a l c u l a t e d 25 Underline the word(s) i n the row which i s the Same as the f i r s t word. disrate d i s r a t e disrote distore disrate enfraino inframc infarme enframe enfarmc marocain marcain marocan macorain marocain 29 grapnel garpnol garnp'el grahpel' grapnel 30 marist marits morist n a r i s t marist rumiiier runner rammer rummer rumher s l u i c e shuicc siluice s l i c e s i u i s e grandeur grander gamder gradeur grandeur hamster hamter lipmster ham'ser hamster margay marguy magray margay margey tangram tamgran tbngram tarigram tanrgam ruminant ruminate 1 inanimate ruminant di s s e r t a t e disertate' disservatc d i s s e r t a t e 31 32 33 34 35 36 .37 • 38 • 39 40 grangerize grangerize grangariz'e grangerise —  marmoreal mamoreal mamereal marmoreal ' Underline the word(s) i n the row which have ____ the same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word. 41 tears 42 dates 43 lamps 44 gates 45 skate tares asked plans stage takes trees stead sampe egets aslces ra t as tedes palms stags stake rates steds snaps aterg kasts Flash Cards 46 regulate r e d r a f t regular 47 crew cress brew 48 e l e v a t i o n elevator elevate 49 deck dock duck 50 t y p i s t typo t y i n g I f the words, are the put a check. I f they d i f f e r e n t put a cr o s s same U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row are which i s the same as the f i r s ^ word. jremy jremy 1 tzndo tzndu 2 k b l a r k l b a r 3 . hyxur hxyur 4 f r t n g f t r n g 5 ____ operas ppreas 6 i permit premit 7 nature nature 8 ^ behoves behaves 9 c l o s e l y . c l o s l e y 10 q u a l i t y q u a l i t y 11 p r o j e c t s progects 12 beyond beynod 13 v a r i o u s v o r i o u s 14 balance balance 15 preclude prelcude 16 muscular muscular 17 r e s i s t e d r e s i t s e d 18 t r e s t l e s t r e s t l e s 19 V i r g i n i a V i r g i h i e 20 o r i g i n a l o r i g i n a l 21 i n c i d e n t i r i s i d e n t 22 p e c u l i a r p e c u i i e r 23 fo u r t e e n f o u r t e e n 24 graduate garduate 25 26, • f i c t i o n f a c t i o n f i x i o n f i s s i o n f i c t i o n 27, l o g i c a l l o g a c a l l o g i c a l l o g i c o l l a g i c a l 28, p r e c i s e p r e s i s e p r e s i c e p r e c i s e p e r c i s e 29, c l i m a t e clemate c l i m a t e c l i m e t e c l i m a t e 30, a f f e c t s a f l e c t s o f f e c t s a f f e c t s a f f a c t s .31, expectorate expectarote expectorate expectaaate 32 mausoleum mausoleum mausaleum mausoleum 33 parenchyma parenchmya praenchyma parenchyma 34 reanimate reanimate reaminate reanimate 35 S c o t t i c i z e s c o t t i c i z e S c a t t i c i z e S c o t t i c i z e 36 f o s t e r a g e f o t s e r a g e f o s t e r a g e xooterage 37 l e n t i c u l a r l i r i t i c u l a r l e n t i c u l e r l e n t i c u l a r " 38 khidmutgar khidmutgar khudmitgar khidmutgar 39 s a l v a r s a n s a l v e r s a r i s a l v a r s a n s o l v a r s a n 40 q u a t e r n i t y p a t e r n i t y q u a t a n i t y q u a t e r n i t y — U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which have —- the same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word. 41, rank naslc k r o n nark anak 42. dust suds s a t s s t u d 43. mean amen mane name 44. done nebo etan dots moan dena node 45. note Done onot tone oter F l a s h Cards damage gauge • a c t r e s s h a r t escapade damning guard a c t i v e harm e s c a l a t o r damper gaud a c t o r s harsh escape 27. 28. I f tho words arc the same put a check. I f they are d i f f e r e n t put a c r o s s . 26 grebe gerbe 1 p e t r e l p e t r o l 2 b i l l e d b i l l e d 3 gannet gennet 4 heron h e r o i n 5 egret erget 6 ^ brant barnt 7 scaup scuap 8 ____ p e l i c a n p e l i c o n 9 f r i g a t e f r i g a t e 10 __ b i t t e r n b i t t e r m 11 m a l l a r d m a l l e r d 12 gadwall godwall 13 widgeon pidgeon 14 , v u l t u r e v u l t u r e 15 goshawk gashawk 16 immature imnaturo 17 flamingo flamengo 18 car a c a r a c a r o c a r a 19 g y r f a l c o n g r y f a l c o n 20 cormorant cormoront 21, i h a r l e q u i n h a r l i q u i n 22 merganser merganswr 23 goosander gosander 24 _  dovd.tcb.er dowitchre 25 U n d e r l i n e the wprd(s) i n the row which i s the same as the f i r s t word. auk awlc euk auk aku owl o u l owl wol olw t e r n t r e i i t u r n term t e r n 29. murrc marrd murro merre marre 30. c i d e r i c d e r e i d r c e i l o r e i d e r 31. v e c r y neery veary veery y e r e y 32. s t i l t s t a l t s t i l t s t l i t s t i l t 35. snipe s n i f o sinpe snepe snipe 34. soras saros soros soras saras 35. q u a i l q u i a l q u a i l q u a i t quael 36. avocot avacet avocot avocet avecet 37. jaeger jaeger g e a j e r jaegre jaegor 38o w i l l e t w c l l i t w i l l e s w i l l e t w i l l i t 39, p l o v e r p l o u r e p l o v e r p l o v e r p o l l e r 40. grouse gruosc goruse grause grouse U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which has the same l e t t e r s i n i t as tho f i r s t word. 41. pram parn ramp maps amps 42. t a l e s l a t o s a s t a l s l a t e seats 43. lance n a c a l c l e a n n a n e l e a n e l " 44. t e a r s s t a r e r a t e s s t e e r t a r e s " 45. r a i l s a i l e r l a i r s i l s o r l a r a s P l a s h Cards 46. poet p o e t r y p o e t i c 47. scrape shape share 48. stomach sljomata stomp 49. wading waddle w a i t i n g 50. a r t i c l e a r t i f i c e r a r t i s t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I f tho words are the same put a check. I f they are d i f f e r e n t put a c r o s s . e f f o r t e f f r o t centre center f r o z e n f r o z e n please p l a e s e r e p o r t r e p r o t p u b l i c p u l b i c storage storogo _ t r o u b l e t r o u b e l 8 _ h i s t o r y h i s t r e y 9 ~ campaign campagn 10~" complete compclto 11 provost p r o v o s t 12 ^ 38 l i c o r i c e l i c o r i c e 13 39 delegate delegate 14 40 o f f i c i a l o f f i s i a l 15 preamble pfoambel 16 t advocate abvocato 17 i —_ h i s t o r i c h i s t i r o c 18 t cdnvetto c o r v e t t e 19 j _ _ s a t e l l i t e s a t e l i t e 20 committee comittee 21 , p a r a l y z e s p a r a y l z o s 22 ^ e f f i c i e n c y e f f i c i e n c y 23 "pr o s e c u t o r p r o s e c u t o r 24[.i ' c r i m i n a l l y c r i n i t i a l l y 25_ i U n d e r l i n e the \7ord(s) i n the fcow ' which 3\s the same as the f i r s t word. 26. morass marpss morpss morass marass 27. trepan trepon t c r p a n trep'en t r e p a n 28. v e r t e x y e t r e x v e r t e x y e s t o x v e r t e c 29. t r e b l e t r u b l e t r c b e l t e r b l o t r e b l e 30. indaba inbada endaba indaba idnaba 3,1. v e c t o r s e c t o r v i c t o r v e c t o r v e c t o r 32. d i v i n i z e d i v i n i s e d i v i n i z e ' d i v i n i z e 33. portamento portomonto partamento portamento 34. myriorama mryidrama myriorana myriorama 35. simulacrum simalucrum s i i m l a c r u m sinulacrum 36. v i d e l i c e t v i d e l i c e t v e d i l e c e t v i d c l i s e t 37. i n c e n d i a r y i n c e n d a i r y i n s e n d i a r y i n c e n d i a r y " n v i c t u a l l e r v i t c u ' a i l e r v i c t a u l l e r v i c t u a l l e r i n s u f f l a t e i n s a f f l a t e i n s u f f l a c e i n s u f f l a t e • h y s t e r e s i s h y s t e r e s i s h y s t o r e s i s hysteresis U n d e r l i n e the word( s) i n the 1 row which have the same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word. 41. p a r t raps trap' r a r t apts 42. l o a f a f a l o f l e oafs f o a l 43. m i l e elem meel lime i l i n s 44. s t a r e r a t e s staes saste t a r e s 45. votes teves s t e e v t e o s t stove F l a s h Cards 46. c o i n s c o i l s corns 47. p i e r p i e r c e p i e c e 48. cornet coronet cprm 49. barber b a r t e r b a r k e r 50. p a t i e n t p a t i e n c e p a t e n t I f tlio words are the same put a check. I f they are d i f f e r e n t put a cross. bcraa bema 1 j o i n j i o n 2 leuc leac 3 jepr jopr 4 mddo mddo 5 sable salbe 6 tauto tuato 7 l a t h i l a t h i 8 __t gkeit kgeit 9 f a i l l f a i l l 10 expand expend 11 trepan trapen 12 pu r f l e p a r f l e 13 delves delves 14 shrimp shrimp 15 unction anction 16 bunkums bunkums 17 _ paresis paresis 18 shuffle c h u f f l o 19 _ uncurb uncrub 20 P a r i s i a n ' p a r i s i a n 21 swastika swatsika 22 whinibrel whimbrel 23 parasite p a r i s i t e 24 b a c i l l u s b a c i l l u s 25 Underline the word(s) i n the row which i s the same as the f i r s t word, 26. general genral genarel general gercnal 27. expects expicts expectse expetcs expects 28. concerts cpncrets cancorts cocnerts ''concerts 29. patterns pattrens patterns pettanis p'ote'erns 30. rhythmic rliymthic rhythmic ryhthmic 31. emphasis emphasis emphesis emhpasis 32. r a t i o n a l r a t i o n e l r a t o i n a l r a t i o n a l 33. c l o t h i n g c l o t h i n g c l a t h i n g c l o t h i n g 34. teachers teachres taechers teachers 35. exercise exersise exercise exrecise 36. formation formotion farmation formation 37. i n s t i n c t s i n t s i n c t s i n s t i n c t s i n s t i c n t s 38. fortunate portunate fortanate fortunate 39. s o c i e t i e s s o c i t i e s s o c e i t i e s s o c i e t i e s 40. encourage encoarage encourage incourage Underline the word(s) i n the row which have the same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word. 41. said doas siod dais ands 42. r i s k serk r i k r k f i s skor 43. post sapt pats step pets 44. react actor troec ecrbt cater 45. r e v e l v a l e r lever r e e l s l e v e l Plash Cards 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. curtains a u d i t i o n cushions maternal weaving cartons captains auditorium auditors cushat custodion mathematical material wearing weaning I f the words aro the same put a check. I f they arc d i f f e r e n t put a c r o s s . U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which i s the same as the f i r s t word. beamy beamy 1 ci n d e r s i n d e r 2 except exsept 3 hanker hauler e 4 r a z z i a , r a z z i a 5 superb supreb 6 f a i l l e f a i l l e 7 parsec pars.ee 8 th a t c h t h o t c h 9 , f l i n c h f i l n c h 10 f l e x u o s e f l c x u o s e 11 i r o n i c o n i r i n e c o n 12 nainsook mainsook 13 m y s t i c a l m y s t i c o l 14 n o v e r c a l n o v e r c a l 15 r e a f f i r m r o o f f i r m 16 t e r r a p i n t e r a r p i n 17 monopoly monopoly 18 r e g i s t r y r e g i t e r y 19 t a n i s t r y t o n i s t r y 2.0* tmshntber tmshmter 21 whypfzyg whypfzyg 22 prtyphyd priryphyd 23 dscntnps dscntngs 24 rhyhythr r h y h y t h r 25 26. fundament fandament fundment fundament 27. l i c e n t i a t e l i s e n t i a t e l i c e n t i a t e l i c e n s i a t c 28. mosquito mosquito mdsqiuto mosquto 29. n o n p a r e i l n o n p c r e i l n o n p a r c i l l n o n p a r e i l 30. o c t e n n i a l o c t e n n i e l o t c c n n i a l o c t e n n i a l 31. prepense perpe'nsc prepcrse' prepense 32. s c a g l i o l a s c a g l i o l a s a r g l i o l a s c a g l i o l a 33. tasimcter. t a t i m c t c r t a s i m o t r c t a s i m e t o r 34. d e t a i n e r r e t a i n e r detained d e t a i n e r 35. grotesque grptoqsuc grotesque grosesque 36. h a l c y o n h a c l y o n h a c l y e n h a l c y o n 37. hachurcs hachures hachoros haqhure 38. ppopanax opoponax opopanax ppoqanax , 39. r e c o n d i t e r e c a n d i t e r c c o n d i l e r e c o n d i t e i 40. roundelay roandclay roundelay sbundclay — U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which has —- the same l e t t e r s i n i t as the f i r s t word. 41. s c a l e l a c e s l a k e s c a l c e s l a r e ; 42. t a s t e a s t e d t a l e s estas' State ^ 4 3 . cheqp heaps peach capes eachs < 44, pai-sc ropes redps spear spare 45. brush shurc usher rhueb shrub — F l a s h Cards 46. thrown 47. a c t i n g 48. c l o t h e s 49. s u f f i x 50. m i s t y throne a c t o r s c l o t h s s u f f i c e messed f lown o r a t o r c l e f t s supple missed if the words are the s ;rat a check.. I f they d i f f e r e n t put a cross. ame Underline the word(s) i n the row are which i s the same as the f i r s t word, ambx amdx 1 . ___ vrso vsro 2. bldm bldm 3. fxrp 4. lpqh 5. cares 6. ___ lungs 7. sboja 8. l a i r d 9. squat 10. lentqh 11. rodoes 12. tomato 13. ; hoarse 14. horses 15. zoondin so or din 16. __ canalie caiialie 17. __ i&norpy ingorpy 16. __ talperc talpere 19. __ .froward forward 20i ~ accuracy accuracy 21. i n t e r n a l i n f e r n a l 22. obedient obedient.23. decision d e r i s i o n 24. mistates mistakes 25. frxp lpqh caves lungs sooja l a i r d squet length rodeos tomato hoarse houses 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. labour crowd c i v i c • ninety autumn zygh rssh abab • ct y f lpqn a y g l l a b e l crowed ',civit '; n i n t y artumn aypli rssh abob c y t f lpqr lemonade lenomade p a r t i e s p r a t i e s p l a y f u l p l a f y u l mildew mildew jacket jacket ha'bour t a i l o r labour crowl crowd cross r i v i c c i v i l c i v i c ninety n i n e l y nintey autumn aulumn- autumn srr h abab ctpf lpqn Unuerline the word'C s) same l e t t e r s i n it..as zygh zgyh rs r h rssb babe baba etyf c t y f hp qn lqpn leminade lemonade^ p a r t i e s p a s t i e s p r a y f u l p l a y f u l midlew rneldew jackey jacket i n the row which has the the f i r s t word. 41. a x l e 42. sung 43. choir _44. dear 45. face xele snag-roe ch read fare alxo guns ric h o dere lace lxex nags chore deaf fece lexa gone i r e c h hear cafe — F l a c h Cards Underline the word shown on — t h e card. — 46. p e r f e c t 47. badge 48. l o v e l y 49. therefore-50. jacks protect bud&e loving wherefore jockey prefect badger having thereby jacket Put a check i f the words the same Pttt a c r o s s i f the^words are d i f f e r e n t , prmjs prmjs 1, ••• neswe newse 2. j _ xrobts f r o b s t 3, jenck't" j e n c k t 4.. l t j v h l t j v h 5. 8 2 : j i 8 2 ; j i 6. _ J XI3147 xfil47 7 . .**.•,•• f 8, . . ??;-.! ??..-l 9. 82156 82516 10, •' c e r e a l c e r e a l 11, catsup castup 12. tendon tendon 13. caulks c u a l k s 14. simurg simung 15. c a n i c i d e 1 c a n i s i d e 16. sinapism sinapism 17. t r a n s a c t t r a n s a c t 18. ^ r a i l l e r y r a i l l e r y 19. constant conastnt 20. cataclysm cataclysm 21. .incognito i n c o n g i t o 22. parcenary parcenery 23, r e b e l l i o n r e b e l l i o n 24." setaceous sateceous 25. U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which i s the same as the f i r s t word, 26... labour" l a b o r " labrruT' • l a b u o r l a b o u r 27. weekend weakend wae'kend weekend weeke::.1 28. f a c t o r y f a c t r o y f a c t e r y f a c c o r y f a c t o r y 29. errands errands errends e r r a r d s erands 30. h o l i d a y holoday h o l i d a y h o l i d a y h a l i d a y 31. p r s n r x j p s r n r x j p'rsnrxj p r r r i s x j p r s n r x : 32. frdjmsc frjdinse frdjsme xdrjmse frdjmsc 33. Iwsncsw lvra.se sw lwsncws lswnesw lwsriesw 54. namigrn namigsn n'amigrn namgirn nbmigrn 35. dnsmthy dnsmthy dnmsthy dnsmhty dnsmtliy 36. a c t o r s a c t e r s a t c o r s a c t o r s actoss 37. banjo bajno banjo bangd b i n j o 38. f a i r l y f a i r l y f r a l l y f a i r t y f i a r l y 39. l i l a c s l a l i c s l i l a s c l o l a c s l i l a c s 40. needle ndelds hoodie needle r e d d l e U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which has the same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word. 41. sobs so so sobe boss ebos 42. r a t e t e a r a r t s r a t s t a r e 43. robe bear bore bes6 beot 44. snap apst spns pnsii pans 45. spat taps p a r t p a t s s t p s F l a s h Cards 46. stage stags stages 47. crowd c r o T m crowed 48. f e s t i v i t y f o s t e r f e s t i v a l 49. axiom a x l e axes 50. avenge averse avenue Put a check i f the words the same. Put a cross i f words are d i f f e r e n t . are U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row the which i s the same as the f i r s t word. redx sdru i n t o f s t f h o l s x??;o 95178 rehx s^dru unto f t s f h o l s x?';?o 95178 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 - '. 6. 7. 8. U..-4. U'r4: 9. B:B:s B::Bs 10. cavort c a v r o t 11. badger badger 12. Ansae Aanac 13 k ___ z e n i t h z e n i t h 14, _____ Soong soong 15. bivouac bivuoac 16. ___ c a l i p e r c a l l i p e r 17. .. b e g u i l e b e g u i l e 18. . zingaro z i n g o r a 19. s u f f i x s u f f i x 20. a t a r a x i a a t a r a x i a 21. belladonna belladomma 22., belemriite belenmite 23,] cataclysm catadlysm 24.] o a p i t o l c a p i t a l 25., 26. account accost amount acc 27. badge bodge badger bagde 28. c a n a l banal c a n a l c a n a l 29. damage damaje damege danage 30. eager eager eagar eager 31. prsph psrph qrsph prsph 32. exnmb exmmb exiimb exxmb 33. dwsni bwsni dswni dwnsi 34. hggsa l g g s a hggsa hggso 35. d s s r t d s r s t d s s t s d s s r t 36. t a r g e t tagre-t t a r g e t t e r g e t 37. blouse bloose bluose b l o u r e 38. b l u f f b r u f f b l a f f b l u f f 39. avenue avenue averue anevue 40. c o i n s c i o n s c o i n s c o i v s U n d e r l i n e the word( s) i n the row which has thd same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word. 41. east seat team teas s t a r 42. west stem e s t u stew sewr 45. tons t o s t nuts snow nots 44. swig givrt wigs swag w s i t 45. l a k e kate k a l e aetk ekat F l a s h Cards 46. chore c h a i r c h o i r 47. bandaid bandage b a n d i t s 48. s e t t l e r s s e t t e r s s i t t e r s 49. marpolc maple people 50. s i n sen sun son. ount recount badge c a n e l damage aeger p r s p l exnmb dwsni hggsa b s s r t t a r g e t blouse b l u r f avenue c o i n r I f tho words are the put a chock. I f they d i f f e r e n t put a cross spsta xsrml fympl trpsh ardho "blamed p o l i c e denied school lawyer wri t t e n written 11, neglect nelgect 12, peddler perdler 13. dismiss dismiss 14. tangled tangled 15. struggle straggle 16. incident incident 17. s e v e r i t y s e v r i t e y 18. s p e c i a l s p e c i a l 19, f o r t i f y f o t r i f y 20. culpable cuplaldo 21. dividend d i v i d i h d 22. function f u n c t i o n 23. cardigan cardigen 24. remnants remnants 25. sptsa 1, xzrinl 2• f y n p l trpsh 4, arbho 5. blpmed 6. p o i i s e 7 . deneid 8. shcool 9. laywer 10. 2 Underline the word(s) i n the row which i s the same as the f i r s t word. 26. l o a f e r s l a o f e r s l o a f e r l d o f e r s l o a f e r s 27. capsule caspule capsule c'apsole cap'suto 28. college c o l i c j o callege college' c p l l i g e .29. burnish burnish burnesh btunish burnish 30,. p r i v a t e p i r v a t e p r i v e t c privase p r i v a t e 31. psychiatry psychietry pyschiatry 1 psychiatry 32. decorators d i c t a t o r s decorators derocaiprs 33. appliances applainces appriances appliances 34. a l t e r a t i o n a t l c r a t i o n a l t e r a t i o n a l t e r a t i o n 35. mortgaging mprgtaging mostgaging mortgaging 36. v c l h o a s c l vaihoasel v o l h a o s c l v c l h o a s e l 37. trubickno trubickno tribuclmo trubickno 38. subloxsup su'blpsxup subloxsup sublzxsup 39. frowardit forward!t frowordit frowardit 40. lychmpny pychmnpy pylchpmy lychmpny Underline the word(s) i n the row which has tho same l e t t e r s i n i t as the f i r s t word, 41. rooms stoor moors mpots 42. dusty styda dyurt study 43. f i l e r s l i f c l e f o r l i f e r 44. dears roads dares reads 45. tracer r e t r a c t c a r t e r c r c s t a Plash Cards. 46. massage message mortgage 47. personnel prisoner personal 48. i n s u l a t i o n insolvent i n s u l a t e 49. p r e c i p i t a t e p r e c i p i c e preceptor 50. rounder roundel roundly I f the words.^are the same put a ..check. I f t h e y are T I n d e j i l i j i e . ^ i h ^ which i s the-same as the f i r s t 1 word.•• d i f f e r e n t put a cross., skto shto 1. ymbl ymdl 2. nvxg nvxg 3. f c u q fcwq 4;" r j l k r j i k 5, niqjha mqjha 6. gnter- gri'ter .7. — dfqhs dtqhs 8. ~ i g k l n i g l k n - 9. _ puywj ' quywj 10 _ bread breed""11. -doubt doubt 12. spear spaer. .13."] f r i e d _ f r i e d 14. [ • t i l t s - t i t l s ' 15. ] beyond • beyond 16." s t a t e s s t a t u s 17. manual manual 18. symbol symbol 19. r e f l e x r e f l u x .20. haycock f o s d i l y grourds mearkin c l i p q e r 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.. 40. famous decide •' a p p l i e s compute repress. ldnx c f g r u hzaqw vmsuo. l c x y t c a v o r t f a v o r s deride a p p l i e s compile express l d n r ,cf y r u ihzagw • vmsuo l e x y f c a v r o t former becide appears compact r e g r e s s -fcdnx c f g r u Izaqw rmsuo • l c r g f c a v e r t famous decode f arous-decide a p p l i e d appeals-compute compote reperss r e p r e s s ldnx a f g r u hzbqV vmsua l e x y f c a v o r t lbnx c f grn hzaqw vnsuo l c x y t c o v o r t choctaw chotcaw choetaw chootaw* choctow b a l l o o n baloon b a l l o o n b a f l o o n d a l l o o n p r o s i f y p r i s o f y p r o t i f y p r o s i l y p r o s i f y hydrate hdyrate hydrate hydarte hydrete U n d e r l i n e the word i n the row which has same l e t t e r s i n i t as the f i r s t word. the f o n d i l y 22. grounds 23. maerkiri 24-._. c l i q p e r 25. 41. able blue b a l e lade e l f a 42. road addo oads rado r'ada 43. time mice emit t i e n mete 4,4. t r a p r a t e p a r t rap$ harp 45. stop pest r o s t p a s t post P l a s h Cards ^ ..Underline the v/ord shown on 'the c a r d . 46. broad 47. 48. 49. 50 o limp anger cheetah c l i u r r bread lump amber cheateh c h u r l breed lamp ampere cheatah c h u r t I f the words are the same put a check. I f they are d i f f e r e n t put a c r o s s . stany stnay 1 kbndo kbndo 2 fuh x t f u i h t 3 rebuq. rubeg 4 c r s y t c r y s t 5 zl u b y z l u b y 6 P a r i s p a r i s 7 howig howeg 8 i s e r v i c e s e r v i s e 9 ____ r e t u r n s f e t r u n s 10 m i n e r a l m i n e r a l 11 , concern comcern 12 o r d e r l y o r d r e l y 13 indexed endexed 14 q u i c k l y qiu'ckly 15 adapter adopter 16 measure maesure 17 a t t r i t i o n a t t r i t o h IS l o c a t i o n s l o c t i o i i s 19 b a l a n c i n g b a l a c i r i g 20 d i r e c t i v e d i r c e t i y e 21 r e g r e t t e d r e g r e t t e d 22 4 5 c e r t i f i e d c e r t i f i e d 23. foreshore f o r e s h a r e 24. competent compatent 25_ U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which i s the same as the f i r s i word, 26. domestic d o m i c i l e domestic domistec demostic 27 d i s t r i c t d i t s r i c t d i t r i s c t d i s t r i c t d i s t r i c t 28 c l i m a t e s c l i m e t e s clomates c l i n a t c s c l i m a t e s 29 m a i n t a i n muontain mountain m a i n t a i n mountaim 30 d i v i s i o n d i v i t i o n d i v e s i o n d e V i s i o n d i v i s i o n 31 concrete concrate cohcerte concrets doncrete 32 d i s p o s a l d i p s p s a l d i s p a s a l d i s p d s p l d i s p o s a l 33 g r a n t i n g g r e a t i n g g a r n t i n g g r a n t i n g g r a s t i n g 34 i r r i g a t i o n i r i g a t i o n i r r i g o t i o n i r r i g a t i o n 35 draughting draughting d r a g h t i n g draughting 36 s t r u c t u r e s s t r u c t u r e s t r u t c u r e s s t r u c t u r e s 37 engineer engineer enginers engineer 38 a v a i l a b l e a v a l a b l e a v a i l a b l e a v a l a i b l e 39 community cpmunity comhunity community 40 t e c h n i c a l t e c h i n c a l t e c h n i c a l t c c h n i c o l U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which have the same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word. 41 42 43 44 cares races r c c e s scare scace march armcs chase charm rameh s t r a p p a r t s rapet tasps t r a p s strung rungs t r u n s t ruteng grunts l e a d e r l o a d e r d e a l e r dared r a d e r l P l a s h Cards 46 s u i t s u i t e suet 47 crowd crowed crowded 48 bunk bank bulk 49 p i e r c e p i e r 'piece 50 t r a v e l l e r s t r a v e l s t r a v e l l i n g grave hate a sanies If-the-'TT-ords- are the same put a check. If' they are d i f f e r e n t put a cross. thmb thnb 1. ___ h t s t h t s t 2. f l n g f l n g 3, pspq ppsq 4. trml tsml 6. hares h a i r s 6. sears saers 7. garve 8. hates 9. ganes 10. loving loving 11. _____ hearts hefats 12. r e s u l t r u s u l t 13. forces forces 14. nature mature 15, notable notably 16. ' fastens fatsens 17. _____ hiphock hophick 18. lectsom lactsom 19. portion p o r t o i n 20^ canaries caranies 21. f i g h t i n g f i h g t i n g 22. blastock brastock 23, ___ fanfares f a r f a r e s 24. lexicons lixecons 25. 'Underline, the word(s) the row which i s the same as the f i r s ^ word. 2 6. oxygen 27. pieces 28. powder 29. carbon 30 .bottle 31. warmer pxigen peices pwpder carron b i t t l e warmer oxygm pieses power casbon b o t t l e warner oxygen pieoee powder carbon b o t l t e 7/amrer oxgyen pieces powber carbon b a t t l e warmes 32. element eliment element olemint elenemt 33. science science sceince science sciocne 34. turbine tusbine turbise trubine turbine 35. quizzes quisscs quizzes' qiuzze's quizsos 36. summary summory sammury sunmary summary 37. physics physics psysics physics phyiscs 38. expands explains enpands expands errands 39. firemen fireman foremen firemen fitemcn 40. density densuty density desnity denstiy Underline tho word(s) i n the row which have the same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word. 41. rank knot nark ncnk nank 42. • lose oslo esot s e l a sole 43. bore orbs robe orba lobe 44. leak alex kear kale koal 45. to-gt ests s t e t sets tsse Flash Cards. 46. person 47. month 48. curve 49 0 survey 50. explorer p r i s o n mouth curse scurvy exporter parson mirth carve s u r l y explores I f the words are the same put a check. I f they arc d i f f e r e n t put a cross. whose whose 1 f o r t y f r o t y 2 , l i g h t l i g h t 3 locks losks 4 apply aplly 5 regular regular 6 conduct condust 7 j a n i t o r j a n i t o r 8 e l i c i t s c l e c i t s 9 . u s u a l l y u s u a l l y 10 9825841 9825841 11 7x2v68? 7ic2v86? 12 IvIlvIMCVll MMMCV1S 13 ??J3::.M ??fi::U 14 4ytzyag 4tyzyng 15 Canadian Canadian 16 returned returned 17 function f a n c t i o n 18 . averages avareges 19 indicate i n d i c a l e 20 technique tochin que 21 materials materials 22 sixteenth sixtcanth 23 cooperate cooporate 24 secondary sccondory 25 Underline the word(s) i n the row which i s the same as the f i r s t word. 26. c i r c l e s i r c l e c u r c l c c i r c l e c i c l e 27. engine engcnc engine engine engine 28. guests geusts guests gaests gucrts 29. gadget gudget gadjet gadgit gadget 30. f i b r e s f i b r e s s f i b r e s fabres f i b e r s 31. manatee matinee monatee manatee 32. podagra padogra podagra podagra 33. rcboant rcbpant rcdoant rcbaont 34. niobium noibium niobium niobiun 35. e r r a t i c erar'tic e r r i t i c e r r a t i c 36. hydraulic hydaulic hydaulec hydraulic 37. passerine passerine pasteririe passarine 38. rufcscent tofuscent refucsent rufescent 39. xenolasia xenelacia xenolasia xenalasia 40. sphygmus shpygmiis sphygmas sphygmus Underline the ¥\rord^in the row which has the same letters' i n i t as the f i r s t word, 41. p a r i s h shiper phiras siraph s p a r i r 42. s t r a t h t h i r s t thats thrats trasrh 43.- v e r b a l braval laverb b l a r e r bavrel 44. eschew swecha shewca chewes cashew 45. cabana macaba nacaba banana bacaca Flash cards 46. rough tough dough 47o s t i f f n e s s s t i l l n e s s s i l l i n e s s 48. scratch scene screen 49. furnace f o r e s t f u r r y 50. tablespoon t a b l e c l o t h t a b l i n g I f tho words arc tho samo put a check. I f they are d i f f e r e n t put a c r o s s . genius i n f e c t morbid saggar t h a t c h w i z i e r despot a s s a i l genius i n s e c t mordib sagger t h a c t h 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 w i z i e r dopsot a z f c a i l ____ mandarin mandrin 9 mandate maridrato 10 actavus actavus tourney journey s p l e n i u s s p l e n i u s e n t e l l u s e n t e r l u s 11 12 13 14 g r e y c i n g g r a ^ c i n g 15 ____ s i n f o n i a s o n f i n i a 16 c o l c o t h a r c o l c o h a r 17, , . graphiuro ^ a r p h i u r e 18 sacrarium sacrarium 19 t o u r m a l i n t o u m r a l i n 20 boulevard buolevard 21 phalangeal p h a l a n g e a l 22 r n y c t a l o p i a n ^ t c a l p p i a 23] obsequious obsequious 2\ g a l i m a t i a s g a l i m a t i u s 25__ U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which i s the same as the f i r s t word. 26. p a r i t y p r a i t y p a r e t y p a t i t y p a r i t y 27. sherbet s h c r b i x sherbet shrebe't sherdot 28. u l u l a t e a l u l a t c u l l u a t c u l u l a t e u l a i a t e 29. g r a c i l e g r a s i l e g r a c i l e g r a c i t e g r a c i l e 30. f c l i c i d c f o l o c i d o f c l i c i d e f i l i c i d e f i l c c k l o 31. a p r i c o t a p i r c o t a p r i c e t a p r i c a t a p r i c o t 32. l i n g u i s t l e n g u i s t l i n g u i s t l i g n u i s t l i n g u i s t 33. digraph digraph digarph dograph digrpph 34. s i n o l o g y s i n o l a g y s i l o n o g y s n i o l o g y s i D l o g y 35. s i n e c u r e s i n i c u r e s e nicuro s i n e c u r e s^inoDruc 36. t a r s i e r t r a s i e r t a r s e i r t a r s i o r t a r c i e r 37. b r i n j a l b r i n j a l b i r n j a i b r c n j a l b r i n j a l 38. l o r i k e e t l o r i k e a t l o r i k e e t l a r i k e e t .Lirokeot 39. meerkat moarket meorket mereket k e e r k a t 40. n a v i c e r t n i v a c e r t n a v i c o r t n a v i c r o t naVicnrt Underline- the word(s) i n the.row whioh have tho same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word. 41. ream mate race mare harm 42. post stop sops tops osps 43. meat tame team atom mate 44. races cares sauce acres scare 45. serve r o v e r verso erses c s r v s ~"~ Flash. Cards 46. minster m i n i s t e r m i n s t r e l 47. herd heard herb 48. h e a l i n g h e a t i n g h a t i n g 49. remain remove remark 50. m i s s i o n misuse m i s t y I f the words are the put a check. I f they d i f f e r e n t put a cro s s expsnt p r n c p l c l m s s spcimn c h c l t e v n i l l a e s s n t l drwnng a c c r t y l b r d o r t b r c l s p t f l l n d c t n r y d c s s t d exspnt p r r c p l c r l n s s spcinm c h c l t e v n i l l a e s n s t l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 drnwng 8 t a c c r l y 9 l d r b o r 10 t b r c l s 11 [| p t f t t n 12 " dtc n r y 13 d c s t t d 14 " r t c u l a t g r t c a l a t g 15_ i n t e r s t c i n t e r s t s 16_ schlrmrn schlruirm 17.. cowrdice cwrdice 18^ main t i v e nmintive 19_ prdcadjv p r d c a d j t 2<f c o n t r a s t c o n t r s t 21~ t i m i d i t y t i m i d i t y 22\ h e r o i n e h e r o i n 23" immaculate immculate murderous murderus same U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row are which i s the same as the f i r s t ' w o r d . 26 f a b l e t a b l e f a l l e f a b l e f o b l e 27 g a l l e o n g a l l e o n galeon g a l l o n g e l l e n 28 l i b r a r y l i b a r y l i b r e r y l i b r a r y l i r b r a r y 29 b i p l a n e b i p l a n b i l p a n o b l i p a n e b i p l a n e 30 i g l o o i l g o o elgoo i g l a o i g l o c 31 coupe cuope coupe c'oope coupe 32 surgeon surgoen s i r g e o n s u r j e o n surgeon 33 isthmus ithsmus i s t h n u s isthmas isthmus 34 p a t r i o t p a t r i o t p o t r i a t p a r t r i o t p a t i o t 35 a n c i e n t a n s i e n t a c i e n t ancent a n c i e n t 36 nosegay nosgay nosgoy nosegay noscjgoy \ 37 c o n c e i t c o n c i e t conscte c o n s c i t c o n c e i t \ 38 o y s t e r o s y t e r o y t s e r o y s t e r o y s t o r ' 39 avenue avnue avneue avenue avanue ' 40 concise c o n s i s e c o n s i c e concice c o n c i s e U n d e r l i n e the word(s) i n the row which have the same l e t t e r s as the f i r s t word. \ 41 stops topes posts p a s s t tapes \ 42 s a l o n lones slone s o a l s loans ' 43 l u r c h c h u r l r u r c h r a l c h c r a h l \ 44 t r i e s r e s t s r i t e s t i r e s s i t e s 45 reads drees dares doers dears 24 25" F l a s h Cards. - 46 tobacco together tomorrow - 47 postman postbox p o s t c a r d 48 there theme t h e a t r e 49 dinner "dining d i n e r 50 o r c h e s t r a t e o r c h e s t r a o r c h i d s T H E C L A P P - Y O U N G S E L F - M A R K I N G T E S T S Patented March 19,1929. Also Licensed under U.S. Patent 1,686,628 Edited by Frank L. Clapp, Professor of Education . University of Wisconsin THE HENMON-NELSON TESTS OF M E N T A L ABILITY-Form A Elementary School Examination . Grades 3-8 By V. A. C. Henmon, Ph.D., Chairman of the Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin,.and M. J. Nelson, Ph.D., Dean of the Faculty, Iowa State Teachers College Copyright, 1931, by V. A. C. Henmon and M. J. Nelson DIRECTIONS TO THE STUDENT: The three Practice Exercises in the next column at the right are given so that you may see how to do the test. Practice Exercise 1. Boys like to play: 1 ball, 2 state, 3 dust, 4 never, 5 blue .* \ .' E E E E E Which word tells what it is boys like to play? " ball" is the right answer. What is the number of the word "ball"? The number is " 1."' Make a mark like this X in the square that contains the 1. Practice Exercise 2. Iam downtown. A word for the blank is: 1 able, 2 see, 3 country, 4 going, 5 color E [2] H E E Mark in the square that you think should be marked. You should have % marked in the square numbered 4. ' Practice Exercise 3. [__] is to E3 as O is to: 1 Z \ , .2 • , 30, 4^7, 5[] ED EE HE What is the number of the right answer? The answer, of course, is num-ber 3, since a square is to a smaller square as a circle is to a smaller circle. Make your mark in the square numbered 3. During the test, if you find that you have made a mistake and marked in the wrong square, do not erase your mark, but simply draw a circle around it and then mark in the right square. B o s t o n < N e w Y o r k . C h i c a g o H O U G H T O N MIFFLIN COMPANY D a l l a s . A t l a n t a ; S a n F r a n c i s c o P R I N T E D I N T H E U . S . A . 1. 03 » 4. < 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. #13. •3 S 14. 15. 16. 17, 18. 19. 20. § 21. •S 02 22. What day comes next after Tuesday? . 1 Saturday, 2 Thursday, 3 Wednesday, 4 Monday, 5 Sunday. E E E H E The butcher sells: 1 beef, 2 cedar, 3 pencils, 4 glasses, 5rye , E E E H E A table always has: 1 drawers, 2 legs, 3 cloth, 4 cover-ings, 5 paint .• E E - E E S Tiny means: 1 great, 2 old, 3 sorry, 4 safe, 5 small.. E E E H E Which one of the numbers below is the smallest? (1) 3817, (2) 5639, (3) 9211,- (4) 6537, (5) 2743 E E E H E This.... the coldest day of the year. Which word should bein the blank: 1 can, 2 is, 3 not, 4 day, 5 may E E E H E Velvet is a kind of: 1 deed, 2 cloth, 3 brush, 4 picture, 5 leather :.... E E E H E The mother bird was . . . . her young. A word for the blank is: 1 looking, 2 needy, 3 stupid, 4 careful, 5 feed-ing H E E B H Which one of these numbers is the largest? (1) 42316, (2) 17989, (3) 26895, (4) 37897, (5) 55755- E E E E E Which word does not belong with the others? 1 north, 2 south, 3 west, 4night, 5 east E E E H E Joy means the same as: 1 sleep, 2 happiness, 3 sorrow, 4 help, 5 noise E E E E E There was no .. . . . of a storm. A word for the blank is: 1 sign, 2 school, 3 house, 4 after, 5 sea E E E H E Which word does not belong with the others? 1 apple, 2 pear, 3 screech, 4 peach, 5 plum E E E H E When he awoke he was . . . . to find his dog gone. A word for the blank is: 1 noticed, 2 sincere, 3 portly, 4 before, 5 surprised E E E H E Which word does not belong with the others? 1 pen, 2 rock, 3 paper, 4 ink, 5 pencil E E E H E At a dinner there is always: 1 a tablecloth, 2 cutlery, 3 company, 4merriment, 5 food E E E E E The high . . . . were rugged and bare. A word for the blank is: 1 valleys, 2 seas, 3 mountains, 4 lights, 5 storms '. . - . . . E E E E E Which word does not belong with the others? 1 Monday, 2 April, 3 January, 4 May, 5 June E E S H E Which of these words comes first in the dictionary? 1 apple, 2 long, 3 winter, 4 snow, 5 peach E E E H E A sheet of music always has: 1 rhythm, 2 words, 3 notes, 4covers, 5players E E E E E The days are long in summer and . . . . in winter. Which word should be in the blank: 1 very, 2 short, 3.long, 4 almost, 5 snow E E E E E Which word does not belong with the others? 1 in, 2 after, 3 before, 4 into, 5 snow E E E H E Go on to the next column without stopping. 187 » 11 i 62 23. Large means the same as: 1 top, 2 long, 3 wide, 4 great, 5 striking... .- E E E E E 24. Which of the following is the shortest time? 1 second, 2 hour, 3 century,. 4 month, 5 week E E E E E 25. Which word does not belong with the others? 1 orange, 2 red, 3 green, 4 circle, 5 black E E E E E 26. Which month comes just before March? 1 April, 2 September, 3 May, 4 February, 5 August. E E E E E 27. Toe is to foot as finger is to: 1 shoe, 2 cap, 3 knee, 4 hand, 5 a r m . . . . . . . . . E E E E E 28. Which one of these numbers is next to the largest? (l) 84972, (2) 75643, (3) 12761, (4) 37654, (5) 29654 E E E E E . 29. From the distance came the . . . . of children singing. A word for the blank is: 1 silence, 2 sight, 3 happiness, 4 purpose, 5 sound E E E H E 30. Which of these words comes last in the dictionary? 1 night, 2 perhaps, 3 after, 4 yes, 5 apron E E E H E 31. The most important difference between a watch and a clock is that a watch: 1 runs faster, 2 is smaller, 3 ticks louder, 4 is gold, 5 costs more.. .- E E E E E 32. Bird is to feathers as fish is to: 1 scales, 2 tails, 3 song, 4 beak, 5 mouth E E E E E 33. A fire always has: 1 wood, 2 coal, 3 gas, 4 warmth, 5 furnace E E E E E 34. The most important difference between a door and a • window is that a window: 1 is larger, 2 is stronger, 3 will always admit light, 4 isn't necessary, 5 is heavier.. E E E E E 35. Which word does not belong with the others? 1 cup, 2teaspoon, 3 knife, 4fork, 5tablespoon E E E E E 36. Nations have armies' to: 1 march in parades, 2 sail their ships, 3 protect their people, 4 help on farms, 5 wear uniforms E E E E E 37. To recover means to: 1 turn, 2 lead, 3 press, 4 inspect, 5 regain : E E B E E 38. Artist is to picture as author is to: 1 brush, 2 inventor, 3 building, 4 book, 5 shop E E E E E 39. If the letters e l i c a d e t were arranged properly, they would spell: 1 elucidate, 2 dedicate, 3 elegance, 4 elevate, 5 delicate E E E E E 40.. Apple is to tree as currant is to: 1 bush, 2 thorn, 3 juice, 4 eat, 5 peach E E E E E 41. 8652476394278459328497543 In these numbers, how many 4's come just before a 9? 1 one, 2 two, 3 three, 4 four, 5 five E E E E E ' 42. If these words were arranged to make a good sentence, with what letter would the second word begin? to like girls with play dolls It, 2g, 31, 4w, 5p E E E E E Do not open the Answer Booklet. Turn over and start to do Exercise No. 43 immediately. 43. If the letters s a h n e t were arranged properly, they would spell: 1 salute, 2 nature, 3 hasten, 4 eastern, 5 target S l S f l S 44. Night is the opposite of: 1 week, 2 day, 3 dark,- 4 even-ing, 5 morning .' BBBBB 45 freight carry mail and trains. If these words ~were arranged to make a good sentence, what would be the last letter of the first word? 1 s, 2 y, 3 1, 4 t, 5 c BBBBB 46. The son of my father's brother is my; 1 aunt, 2 nephew, 3 cousin, 4 brother, 5 son Lfj B [s ] JJj B 47. If the letters n e a g g e were arranged properly, they would spell: 1 agrees, 2 garden, 3 neglect, 4 engage, 5 gauge B:B'BBB 48 9286397542863295162783572 In this number, how many 9's are followed by a 2? 1 one, 2 two, 3 three, 4 four, 5 five BBBBB 49. To tour is to make a: 1 promise, 2 dwelling, 3 journey, 4 foundation, 5 success BBBBB 50 8564283978524935824385928 In this number, how many 8's come just before 5? 1 one, 2 two, 3 three, 4 four, 5 five : B S S E B 51. Tuesday is to "week as March is to: 1 April, 2 year, 3 week, 4 winter, 5 night UJ 0 0 B 0 52. A lease usually means a: 1 loss, 2 recess, 3 contract, 4 blossom, 5 pattern BBBBB 53. If the letters s 1 0 mo b s were arranged properly, they would spell: 1 molest, 2 blooms, 3 blossom, 4 observe, 5 lovable.. UJ0000 54. 8269372840698274283665284 In this number, how many 2's come just before 8? 1 one, 2 two, 3 three, 4 four-. 5 five..'. BBBBB 55. Which word does not belong with the 'others? 1 pepper, -v2cloves, 3 ginger, 4flour, 5 cinnamon T B B 0 0 0 56. The daughter of my father has a son. M y father is her son's: 1 grandfather, 2 uncle, 3 father, 4 cousin, 5 great-uncle • UJBBHB 57. 6295374825639824538653794 In this number, how many 5's come just before a 3? 1 one, 2 two, 3 three, 4four, 5 five BSBHB 58. To serve as a drink a substance must be: 1 cool. 2 hot, 3 light, 4 liquid, 5 good BBBBB 59. 65435278451652872357625485 In this number, how many 5's are followed by a 2? 1 one, 2 two, 3 three, 4 four, 5 five BBBBB 60. A vertebrate always has: 1 legs, 2 toes, 3 arms, 4 teeth, 5 backbone BBBBB 61. Masculine is the opposite of: 1 bitter, 2 easy, 3 inimical, 4 sturdy, 5 feminine BBBBB 62. "If a camel gets his nose in the tent, his body will soon follow" means "about the same as: 1 Things passed should not be mentioned. 2 Poverty and anger do not agree. 3 Give him an inch and he'll take a mile. 4 Know thyself. 5 He wears a veil upon a veil BBBBB 63. The father of my mother's father is my: 1 uncle, 2 grand-father, 3 great-grandfather, 4 great-great-grandfather, 5 great-uncle BBBBB 64. A coward always lacks: 1 friends, 2 courage, 3 purpose, 4.enemies, 5 sense BBBBB 65; mi utes hour make an sixty If these words were arrang d t  make a good sentence, w at would be the first lett r f the first w rd? 1 m, 2 h, 3 a, 4 s, 5 y 6. O is to O D is to: lO, 2f1, 3 0 ,5 UGo on to the next column without stopping. 67. '"When the lion withdraws, the hyenas play" means about .the same as: 1 The lazy person has no legs. 2 M a n amasses and time disperses. 3 He who eats alone, coughs alone. 4 Birds of a feather flock together. 5 When the cat's away, the mice will play BBBBB 68. fruit children good cereals are for and If these words were arranged to make a good sentence, what would be the second word? 1 fruit, 2 children, 3 good, 4 cereals, 5 and BBBBB 69. Tall is to short as day is to: 1 long, 2 night, 3 week, 4 pay, 5 ever. ..., BBBBB 70. 3 is to C as Zl is to: 1 W , 2 CZ , 31 1, 4 PI, 5 C BBBBB .71. Which word does not,belong with the others? 1 Ida, 2 Paul, 3 Lucy, 4 Janet, 5 Edith BBBBB 72. staff bread the life called is of If these words were arranged to make a good sentence, what would be the word after "of"? 1 staff, 2 bread, 3 the, 4 life, 5 called BBBBB 73. Expand is the opposite of: 1 intake, 2 propound, 3 con-tract, 4 impound, 5 dead BBBBB 74. U is to n as is to: iO, 2r^, 3n, 4 in, 5 } BBBBB 75. Temporary means that which is not: 1 homelike, 2 familiar, 3 similar, 4 automatic, 5 permanent BBBBBi 76. £± is to a as O is to: lD, 2O, 3O, 4P, 5 0 BBBBB 77. A drizzling rain fell without . . . . A word for the blank is: 1 beginning, 2 opposite, 3 intermission, 4 length, 5 moisture BBBBB 78. Add is to subtract as humble is to: 1 rich, 2 happy, 3 haughty, 4 mild, 5 ill BBBBB 79. ""I is to as F~ is to: 1 2~^, 3F", 4 C Z , 5E BBBBB 80. A creditor always has: 1 a debtor, 2 money, 3 loans, 4 bonds, 5 a bank • BBBBB 81. _3 is to I as E_ is to: 1 l _ , 2_D, 3 L , 4_3, 5 l _ BBBBB 82. A road always has: 1 dust, 2 gravel, 3 cement, 4 grass, 5 dimensions .-. BBBBB 83. L U is to U as [ T l is to: 1W, 2{Ts, 3 0 , 4 n , 5 L J BBBBB 84. "Trees often transplanted seldom prosper" means about the same as: 1 Hearsay is half lies. 2 A rolling stone gathers no moss. 3 Dance and you pay the piper. 4 Slow work produces fine goods. 5 Great artists have no country ., BBBBB 85. To insinuate is to: 1 devise, 2 err, 3 convict, 4 hint, 5 officiate BBBBB 86. w is to O as i a t o r l D , 2D, 3 0 , 48, 500  7 Accumulate i  the opp site of: 1 nice, 2 accommodate, 3 dis ipate, 4 trust, 5 sew 8 Energetic means about th  same as: 1 sorry, 2 sleepy fo ful, 4 happy brav9 "Occasions, like cl d rpas away" means about thsame : 1 Oppor unity knocks but once. 2 R iny ys are dr ary. 3 It'  n  se t h mer cold i on. 4 Strewno ro  b fore swine. 5 Soon ripe, soon r tten90 Sup fl ous is the o posite of: ce tain, 2 ss ntial, ambiguous, 4 tit, 5 u cinct BBBBBThe End. Look back over your work. 

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