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A study of pedogenesis in the Rocky Mountain Trench region of South-Eastern British Columbia Darcel, Francis Clift 1957

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A STUDY OF PEDOGENESIS IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN TRENCH REGION OF SOUTH-EASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA FRANCIS CLEFT DARCEL B. Sc. (Hons.), University of Reading, 1948 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the Department of SOIL SCIENCE We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Apr i l , 1957 - i v -ABSTRACT A study was undertaken of the pedogenesis of a Brown Wooded,' a Grey Wooded and a Podzolized Grey Wooded s o i l developed over the highly calcareous Wycliffe t i l l i n the southern portion of the Rocky Mountain Trench, British Columbia, The investigation was divided into three phases. These were a study of the t i l l at the three sites, i t s genetic relationship to the solum and the relative degree of s o i l formation and weathering i n the three profiles. Analyses included mechanical analyses using the hydrometer and pipette procedures, p l a s t i c i t y measurements and s o i l reaction. Car-bonates were measured by the gravimetric loss of carbon dioxide, exchangeable cations by ammonium acetate extraction and free iron by Mackenzie's dithionite technique. Samples of the clay fraction were separated by sedimentation, cleaned of sesquioxide coatings by Mackenzie's method, and analyzed for t otal chemical composition. Piper's sodium carbonate fusion and Corey and Jackson's hydrofluoric acid procedure were used to bring the clay into solution, Ferron and Tiron reagents were used for the spectrophotometric analysis of iron and aluminum and iron and titanium, respectively. S i l i c a was determined gravimetrically by Piper's method. Calcium and magnesium were found by the versenate technique of Cheng and Bray after the removal of interfering heavy metals with sodium diethyl thiocarbamate. Potassium was analyzed with a Perkin-Elmer flame photo-meter. Other tests on the clay included determinations of the cation exchange capacity by Mackenzie's micro-Kjeldahl technique, X-ray diffraction patterns and dehydration curves. -V-A mineralogical study was made of the very fine sand fraction. •A method was devised for counting the magnetite grains i n samples of from 1,000 to 2,000Cheavy minerals using a magnetized needle. It was found that although there was considerable variation i n the t i l l at the three sites, particularly i n mechanical composition, there were similarities i n the mineralogical composition of the fine sand and clay fractions. Indeed, no satisfactory basis could be found for subdividing the t i l l into two types. Variations down the profile of the relative abundance and com-position of the coarse fraction, the shape of the summation percen-tage curves and the proportion of magnetite i n the heavy minerals of the very fine sand indicated that the Wycliffe profile was composite while the Kinbasket was an A-B-C profile. The possibility was also noted that the loho profile could also be composite. The main s o i l formation processes were studied, including de-calcification and the movement of iron, organic matter, bases and clay. Results show that most s o i l development has taken place i n Podzolized Grey Wooded profile, with somewhat less i n the Grey Wooded s o i l and least i n the Brown Wooded. Mineralogical studies of the very fine sand and clay fractions, however, indicate that there has not been appreciable weathering of the mineral constituents even i n the intensely leached A 0 horizon of the Podzolized Grey Wooded S o i l . In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of . the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree th a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of _.^il„.sP^nce__ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date April. 17, 1957. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This study was made possible by a grant from the Canadian Department of Agriculture during the summer of 1956. Particular acknowledgement i s offered to Dr. C. A. Rowles, Professor and Chairman of the Department of S o i l Science, The University of Brit i s h Columbia, for suggesting the nature of the research, for assistance and encouragement during i t s progress, and for placing the f a c i l i t i e s of the Department at the writer 1s disposal. The helpful suggestions of Dr. J,C. Clark, Department of So i l Science, and members of the So i l Survey Division, Experimental Farms Service, are also gratefully acknowledged. Especial thanks are due to members of the Department of Geology and Geography; i n particular, Dr. R. M. Thompson for the X-ray analyses, Dr. W. H, Matthews and Dr. R. E. Delavault for assistance with the mineralogical study, and Miss C, A, Cross for the spectros-copic analyses. The writer would also l i k e to express his gratitude to Dr, J, J, R, Campbell of the Department of Dairying for the use of the Beckman DU spectrophotometer. - i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION SECTION I - LITERATURE REVIEW 1 I - DESCRIPTION OF SOILS 1 (1) CLIMATE AND VEGETATION 1 (2) GEOLOGY 2 (3) SOIL PROFILE DESCRIPTIONS 3 Wycliffe Series 4 Kinbasket Series 5 Yoho Series 6 I I - CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PODZOLIZED SOILS 7 (1) CLASSIFICATION 7 (2) BROWN WOODED SOILS 8 (3) GREY WOODED SOILS .. 10 (4) PODZOLIZED GREY WOODED SOILS 12 (5) INTER - RELATION OF SOILS. 12 I I I - CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHING THE ORIGIN OF GLACIAL SOILS 15 IV - PROFILE DEVELOPMENT AND DEGREE OF WEATHERING 15 (1) . LEACHING OF CALCIUM CARBONATE 15 (2) MIGRATION OF IRON 16 (3) MOVEMENT OF BASES 17 (4) MOVEMENT OF ORGANIC MATTER 18 (5) ELUVIATION OF CLAY 19 (6) DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE 20 (7) DEGREE OF WEATHERING IN SAND FRACTION 21 (8) DEGREE OF WEATHERING OF CLAY MINERALS 21 V - SOIL MINERAL WEATHERING IN NORTH AMERICA 24 SECTION I I - A DESCRIPTION AND DISCUSSION OF METHODS 27 I _ FINE SOIL 27 (1) MECHANICAL ANALYSES 27 (2) PLASTICITY 28 (3) ORGANIC. MATTER 28 (4) OTHER PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 28 (5) SOIL REACTION 28 (6) CARBONATES 29 (7) EXCHANGEABLE BASES 30 (8) FREE IRON OXIDES 32 - i i i -Page I I _ T O T A L C L A Y 32 (1) T O T A L C H E M I C A L A N A L Y S E S 32 (2) C A T I O N E X C H A N G E C A P A C I T Y 34 (3) X - R A Y D I F F R A C T I O N P A T T E R N S 34 (4) D E H Y D R A T I O N C U R V E S 35 i n _ M I N E R A L O G I C A L . : E X A M I N A T I O N 36 S E C T I O N I I I - R E S U L T S A N D D I S C U S S I O N 37 I _ T H E N A T U R E A N D C O M P O S I T I O N O F T H E U N D E R L Y I N G T I L L 37 (1) C O A R S E F R A C T I O N 37 (2) S A N D F R A C T I O N 38 (3) C A R B O N A T E S 39 (4) C L A Y F R A C T I O N 40 (5) P H Y S I C A L P R O P E R T I E S 41 (6) S U R F A C E A L T E R A T I O N OF T H E T I L L 41 I I _ G E N E T I C R E L A T I O N S H I P S OF T H E T I L L A N D S O L U M 43 I I I - S O I L M A T U R I T Y A N D W E A T H E R I N G 46 (1) L E A C H I N G OF C A L C I U M C A R B O N A T E 46 (2) MOVEMENT OF F R E E . I R O N O X I D E S 47 (3) D I S T R I B U T I O N OF O R G A N I C M A T T E R A N D ' E X C H A N G E A B L E B A S E S 49 (4) A C C U M U L A T I O N OF S I L T A N D C L A Y 50 (5) S O I L S T R U C T U R E 52 (6) W E A T H E R I N G O F S A N D F R A C T I O N 53 (7) W E A T H E R I N G OF C L A Y 54 S E C T I O N I V - C O N C L U S I O N S 56 A P P E N D I X I - A N A L Y S I S O F T H E F I N E S O I L F R A C T I O N I - M E C H A N I C A L C O M P O S I T I O N 57 I I - SUMMATION P E R C E N T A G E C U R V E S I I I - P H Y S I C A L AND C H E M I C A L P R O P E R T I E S 58 A P P E N D I X I I - A N A L Y S I S O F T H E T O T A L C L A Y I - C H E M I C A L A N A L Y S I S 59 I I - D E H Y D R A T I O N C U R V E S I I I - X - R A Y D I F F R A C T I O N P A T T E R N S 60, 6 l , 62, 63 A P P E N D I X I I I - D I S T R I B U T I O N O F M A G N E T I T E I N T H E H E A V Y M I N E R A L F R A C T I O N •. 64 L I T E R A T U R E C I T E D 65-74 INTRODUCTION Recent s o i l researches i n the southern portion of the Rocky Mountain Trench region of Briti s h Columbia have shown the presence of soils with related but not completely understood genesis and proper-ties (Lindsay, 1954J Kelley, 1955). Three of these s o i l s , the Wycliffe, Kinbasket and Yoho series (Kelley, 1955* 1956), were selected for special study with a view to determining: (1) The similarity, or otherwise, of the t i l l i n the three profiles. (2) The relationship of the underlying t i l l to the solum. (3) The relative stages of s o i l formation and weathering i n the different horizons of the three profiles. To provide answers to these questions samples were obtained from the three soils and used i n a series of physical and chemical laboratory studies. These studies and their interpretation are the basis for this thesis. LITERATURE REVIEW I - DESCRIPTION OF SOILS (1) CLIMATE AND VEGETATION Meteorological data i s available for Cranbrook and Golden and may be taken as indicative of the climatic environment of the Wycliffe and Yoho profiles, respectively. Intermediate values probably apply for the Kinbasket site. Average annual r a i n f a l l figures for Cranbrook and Golden are 14 inches and 18 inches, respectively, and of these totals 4.0 inches and 4.5 inches f a l l i n summer (Brink, 1948). The Precipitation Effectiveness Indices are 41 and 56 for these stations. Average annual a i r temperatures are very similar, varying from 41°F. at Cranbrook to 39°F. at Golden with an average yearly maximum of 41° to 52° and minimum of 27° to 28°. Figures for the number of frost-free days per annum at Cranbrook are variously given as 77 days (Connor, 1949) and 82 days (Brink,' 1948) with an average of 148 days above 26°F. Golden has from 90 to 96 frost-free days; frequently, there i s frost every month of the year.1 There are a relatively large number of freezes and thaws per annum. Unpublished data collected by Dr. W, H. Mathews shows that the a i r temperature dropped below 28°F. and rose above 33°F. Obviously, there have been changes i n climate since the soil s were deposited. Pollen studies i n eastern Washington indicate a xerothermic stage about 6,000 years ago (Hansen, 1947, 1955)j a less well defined warm-dry period also occurred farther north, even extending into southeast Alaska and the Yukon. - 1 -- 2 -Douglas f i r and lodgepole pine occur i n relatively open stands i n the three areas although the main species at the Wycliffe site was ponderosa pine. This species was much more abundant i n the past throughout the area as shown by the prevalence of i t s pollen i n peat bogs(Hansen, 1955). (2) GEOLOGY During the Wisconsin glaciation the main accumulation of ice i n the area was i n the western section of the Purcell and Selkirk ranges. A break-through of ice down the Spillimacheen Valley into the Trench fed a glacier 5*000 feet thick and 12 miles wide at the 49th pa r a l l e l . On i t s retreat, Wycliffe t i l l , sorted by melt-water, was uncovered (Kelley and Sprout, 1955). However, i t i s probable that some of the t i l l was derived from source rocks farther north. Schofield (1915) described the Wycliffe t i l l as a greyish-white, strongly calcareous mixture of s i l t , g r i t , gravel, stones and boulders in varying amounts but with very l i t t l e clay. The material was compressed and cemented when dry but soft when wet. The beds varied i n thickness up to 50 feet. I f the t i l l was derived from ice formed i n the Purcell Range area material from the following geological formations can be expected i n the t i l l (Walker, 1926; Rice, 1936, 1937). The Purcell Series of Pre-Cambrian age consist chiefly of slates, shales, a r g i l l i t e s , quart-zite and a large proportion of variously coloured magnesium limestone. The Windermere series overlying the Purcell comprise quartzite and limestone shale conglomerate, multi-coloured shale and blue-grey crystalline or semi-crystalline grey magnesium limestone, together with successions of calcareous shales and argillaceous limestone, and - 3 -grade upwards into blue-grey limestone. These rocks under-lie black shale and interbedded mud rock and bluish limestone and argillaceous sandstone of the Glenogle shale and the crystalline magnesium limestone of the Beaverfoot-Brisco for-mation. Also of interest are the Mezozoic granite stocks of Horsethief Creek i n the Purcells. Intrusions caused contact metamorphism with the formation of quartz mica schists and chlorite. Rocks of these types were subjected to varying degrees of mechanical degradation during transportation. The Wycliffe and Kinbasket series are believed to have developed over the Wycliffe t i l l (Kelley, 1955). The Yoho series (then called the Flatbow) was also thought to have developed on the same parent material although recently (Kelley, 1956) the series was related to Cedrus t i l l , derived largely from the Ordovician McKay formation, a relatively thick series of fossiliferous limestone and shale strata. Kelley described this material as soft, whitish calcareous s i l t to s i l t y clay shale. (3) SOIL PROFILE DESCRIPTIONS The Wycliffe, Kinbasket and Yoho series were selected as representatives of the Brown Wooded, Grey Wooded and Podzolized Grey Wooded s o i l groups developed over similar material. The location of the three sites i s shown on the following map. m l W y c l i f f e s i l t l o a m Q 50 m i s . a 2 K i n b a s k e t s i l t l o a m • 3 Yoho s i l t loam - 4 -Wycliffe S i l t Loam The Wycliffe series occurs chiefly along the west side of the Rocky Mountain Trench between Canal Flats and Forster Creek (Kelley, 1956); to the north, the series grades into the Kinbasket series. The s o i l profile under study was sited about one mile south-east of Kimberly airport, near Cranbrook. The main features of the f i e l d description (McKeague, 1955) are given below. Horizon Depth (ins.) Description Organic horizon - mull. i - 3 Light yellow brown s i l t loam. No stones. 3 - 6 J light yellow brown s i l t loam. No stones. h 6| •- 10 Pale brown s i l t loam; soft; granular. \ 10-14 Light grey s i l t loam; hard, light grey nodules; some stones. Weakly blocky. \ 14-19 White loam; stony t i l l . Dead root mat, D 19 T White, weakly cemented, stony t i l l . A These horizons are better designated as the A - Q and A-NOTE: The designations Ajj_ and A 1 2 are more satisfactory because s o i l forming processes are at a minimum i n this p r o f i l e . - 5 -Kinbasket S i l t Loam The profile under study was sited two miles north of North Vermilion Creek, about one mile off the highway between Edgewater and Brisco, on a gently sloping "bench". The s o i l horizons were as follows: Horizon Depth, (ins.) Description % 1 -. 0 Partly decomposed needles, twigs, etc. (mor). A21 0 -•3k Pinkish - grey (dry), light yellowish brown (moist), soft s i l t loam. Strongly platy. A22 3k - I k Similar; friable crumb structure B21 I k - 9k Pale brown (dry), brown (wet) clay loam. Fairly hard, moderately blocky. B22 9k ^ Ilk Light yellowish brown (dry), brown (wet) clay loam. Hard; angular blocky. C l IS - 27 Light grey (dry), pale olive (wet) s i l t loam. Compact; hard. Dead root mat* °2 27 + White (dry), pale olive (wet) s i l t loam. Weakly cemented; very hard. - 6 -Yoho S i l t Loam , The Yoho series occurs only i n the northern reaches of the Rocky Mountain Trench on undulating to steeply r o l l i n g morainal topography. The profile was located about 15 miles north of Golden, sampled and described by T. G. Arscott (1956). Horizon Depth (ins.) Description A Q 4 - 0 Partly decomposed organic layer (mor). A 2 p 0 - 2g White to light (dry) grey sandy loam. Single grain. B21p - 7h Strong brown (dry) loam. Weak crumb structure. B22p ^2 - U s Yellowish red to reddish yellow s i l t y clay loam. A2gW l i s - 15 Light yellowish brown (dry) s i l t loam to s i l t y clay loam. Medium sub-angular blocky. B ? ^ 15 - 20 Light olive brown (dry) clay. Medium to large sub-angular blocky. Cg^ j 20 t Light olive brown (dry) clay loam t i l l . C Stony t i l l . - 7 -II CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PODZOLIZED SOILS (1) CLASSIFICATION Originally, the criterium for podzolization i n soils was the presence of an ash-coloured layer i n the profile (Aarnio, 1915). Later, the term was broadened to include profiles with a lighter coloured horizon underlain by a B horizon of darker and/or stronger colour. (Hallsworth, Costin and Gibbons, 1953). Joffe (1949) stated that the B horizon i s characterized by a relatively low s i l i c a content, high sesquioxides, and an increase i n base content relative to the A 2 horizon; i.e. the eluviation of bases and iron and aluminum compounds. The clay and organic matter contents of the B are also high relative to the A horizon and there i s usually more structure development. The National So i l Survey Committee of Canada (1955) classified soils showing varying degrees of podzolization as follows: CATEGORY V - Class 3 (Podzolic s o i l s ) . 1. Grey-brown Podzolic 2. Grey-wooded. 3. Humus podzols. 4. Podzols (orstein). 5. Podzols (orterde). CATEGORY XV These major divisions were subdivided again i n Category I I I into the modal s o i l and various intergrades. The separation of the "podzolic" soils into Grey-brown Podzolic and Grey-wooded soils depends mainly on the nature of the surface horizon (A-j_ - mull or A Q - mor). They are alike i n that clay accumu-lation i s the dominant process i n the B . - 8 -The Forested Brown soils (Glass 4) are also of interest i n this study. They are characterized by an Aj_ or A Q and a colour and/or structure B horizon but •„ lack a distinct eluvial A 2 horizon. The major s o i l -forming processes are variable; the upper horizons are weathered but there i s no translocation of sesquioxides, organic matter or clay. Indeed, decalcification i s the dominant process. The class i s sub-divided as shown below: Calcareous parent material 1. Brown Forest - mull A-j_ 2. Brown-wooded - A Q ; A]_ very thin or absent. Non-calcareous parent material 3. Brown Podzolic 4. Shotty Brown (2) BROWN WOODED SOILS Krusekopf (1925) regarded the "brown" soils of the North Central States as a regional s o i l belt between the grey forest and podzol soils to the north and the yellow and grey soils to the south. Tyulin (1930) described them as "concealed podzols" with very l i t t l e movement of sesquioxides and no translocation of clay. Ramann (1928) discussed the distribution of "brown earths" i n relation to climate. He stressed the influence of the parent rock on the s o i l properties and stated that the lack of readily dispersed humus bodies was due to the alkaline reaction of the s o i l . The ascent of ground waters during dry periods was also shown to be a possible factor i n the genesis of the brown earths. - 9 -Tamm (.1930-) associated the brown earths of Sweden with beech forest and attributed them to the relatively high calcium oxide content of the ash of this tree (2.46^) compared with the much lower content for pine (.59%). Tamm differentiated the climatic type developed on soils poor i n lime and the acclimatic type on parent rock high i n calcium. This latter type corresponds with the Brown Forest Brown-wooded s o i l groups. There was no general tendency to podzolization; rather the reverse (Tamm, 1932). Lundblad (1934) compared the changes i n reaction, loss on ignition, and acid-oxalate extracted s i l i c a , iron and manganese down the profile of the Brown Earths and the podzol. In later ivork (1936), he studied the distribution of sesquioxides, base exchange values, iso-electric point, ultimate pH, exchange acidity and dye adsorption. Profile characteristics believed to characterize the Brown-wooded s o i l group are the leaching of free lime to 6 inches and Tyulin's original c r i t e r i a of no eluviation of clay or sesquioxide. Other profile features are a thick granular A_, l i t t l e or no A2 and a strong structural B. Leahey (1953) described a Brown-wooded s o i l i n the Hay d i s t r i c t of Alberta at latitude 60° N. developed on s i l t y clay alluvium. Free lime was leached to 9 inches and there was some loss of organic matter. In the profile examined by Lindsay (1954) over s i l t y clay loam, carbonate had leached to 6 inches and there was slight B development (colour and consistence). There was also some translocation of organic matter with 2.88 per cent i n the A and 1.76 per cent i n the B horizon. Some movement of clay was also indicated as there was a 7 per cent increase between the A 2 and the B but this was somewhat offset by the fact that the A 2 was only 1 inch thick. The main area of occurrence of Brown-wooded soils i n British Columbia i s i n the northern part of the Rocky Mountain Trench with some i n the southern portion of the Kootenay River Valley. In a l l , there are about 5,170,000 acres i n British Columbia (Rowles, Farstad and Laird, 1956). The soils occur under considerable variations of climate and under a vegetation of white and black spruce, lodgepole pine, aspen, willow and birch. Rowles, Farstad and Laird (1956) i n British Columbia described the B 2 as a yellow-brown to brown mineral horizon, slightly acid to strongly alkaline v(pH 5.5 - 8.0), rarely over 14 inches thick. The group i s considered immature i n British Columbia because i t always occurs on calcareous parent material. • (3) GREY WOODED SOILS Wyatt and Newton's paper (1928) i s one of the earliest on what are now known as Grey-wooded so i l s . Soils of t h i s type were described by them as "podzol-like". Joffe (1937) described this group as i t occurred i n New Jersey. Thorp and Smith (1949) defined the characteristics of the group. They were shown to be well developed, well drained soils with moderately thin AQ horizons over bleached A 2 and brown, more clayey, blocky or nuciform B horizons, grading into lighter coloured more friable and C horizons. The A2 i s 4 inches to 16 inches thick i n some parts of Alberta and Montana (Williams and Bowser, 1952)j indeed, i t seems to be twice as thick as the A 2 of the podzol. The structure of the A 2 i s usually platy (Williams and Bowser, 1952). These workers also pointed out that the B 2 horizon has more clay than either the A or C horizons and has moderately to strongly developed - 1 1 -blocky structure. They also noted the frequent occurrence of a lime horizon i n the C horizon with neutral to slightly acid s o i l above. The group has been correlated with Stebutt's grey forest soils of Russia and they seem to be very similar to the "podzols" of Glinka and de Sigmond. Stobbe and Leahey (1947) pointed out the widespread distribution of the Grey-wooded soils across the prairies, Central British Columbia and the clay belt of Northern Ontario. E l l i s (1938) described the group i n Northwest Manitoba; Leahey (1946) i n the North West Territories; Odynsky and Newton (1950) i n Alberta and Kelley and Farstad (1946)> Grey-wooded soils i n British Columbia. Recent studies include the work of Holt and McMillar (1956) i n Minnesota; Wilde, Voight and Pierce (1954) i n the Algoma District of Alberta, and Moss and St. Arnauld (1955) on similar soils i n Saskat-chewan. Podzolization i s believed to be the dominant process i n spite of the development of Grey-wooded soils on highly calcareous parent material (Moss, 1930: Farstad and Leahey, 1949) . There i s free car-bonate i n the solum, basic reaction and a slight unsaturation of the base exchange (Moss, 1938) . Wilde, Voight and Pierce (1954) attributed podzolization to fungal activity rather than the leachate from the near-neutral leaf l i t t e r . Evidence of clay eluviation was noted by Leahey. Lindsay (1954) found a relatively high clay content i n the °f the Kinbasket series. However, i t seems that the leaching of iron and aluminum i s considerably more extensive than the eluviation of clay i n spite of the upper horizon frequently being alkaline (Nygard, - 12 -McMillar and Holt, 1952; Gallagher and Walsh, 1942) . S i l i c a also seems _ to be leached. Other features noted by Moss and St. Amauld were the accumulation of s i l t i n the A horizon and nitrogen i n the B. The strong structural development i n the B has been noted. One theory of i t s formation i s that penetrating roots cause the loss of calcium carbonate; the subsequent reduction i n volume contributes to the development of nutty structure (Wilde et a l . , 1954) . (4) PODZOLIZED GREY - WOODED SOILS Nygard et a l . (1952) described Podzolized Grey-wooded soil s i n North Minnesota, Odynsky and Newton (1950) i n Alberta, and Farstad and Laird (1954) i n British Columbia. In British Columbia Podzolized Grey-wooded soils occur chiefly along the Hart Highway from Parsnip River to Prince George, along some river valleys i n the Peace River area and i n the Rocky Mountain Trench as far south as Golden (Rowles, Farstad and Laird, 1956) . In the typical profile there i s a thick AQ of undecomposed organic matter and a highly leached, light grey, strongly acid A ^ above a thick strong brown with an accumulation of iron and organic matter. This horizon grades below through a greyish, s l i g h t l y acid horizon into a brown secondary B of clay and sesquioxi.de accumulation above highly calcareous parent material* The s o i l i s usually associated with sandy and gravelly deposits. (5) INTER - RELATION OF SOILS Cline (1949) showed evidence of a continuous geographic sequence of - 1 3 -Brown Wooded, Grey Wooded, Grey Wooded Brown Podzolic intergrade, Podzolized Grey Wooded and Podzol on calcareous parent material. Williams and Bowser (1952) stated that the Grey Wooded soils of Montana and parts of Alberta graded into Degraded Chernozem on one side and Brown Podzolic on the other. Holt and McMillar (1956) identified a series of Podzol, Brown Podzolic, Grey Brown Podzolic and Grey Wooded soils on glacial d r i f t . Moss and St. Arnauld (1955) stated that of the s o i l groups, the Grey Brown Podzolic was most similar to the Grey Wooded. Kelley (1956), following up the work of Lindsay ( l 9 5 4 ) j suggested the following sequence for soils developed over calcareous parent material i n the Rocky Mountain Trench: Dark Brown soils under stunted grass i n the most arid areas; Brown Wooded soils under Ponderosa pine and grass with slightly more r a i n f a l l ; Grey Wooded soils and then Podzols under increasingly heavier r a i n f a l l . Indeed, he regarded the Brown Wooded s o i l as a weakly developed Grey Wooded profile. In the Brown Wooded and Grey Wooded soils examined by Leahey i n Alberta, free lime was leached to 9 inches i n the Brown Wooded compared with 14 inches i n the Grey Wooded. The B^a horizon l i e s at usually 24 inches to 40 inches i n the Rocky Mountain Trench (Farstad and Leahey, 1949) . Per cent base saturation i s highest i n the Brown Wooded and lowest i n Podzolized Grey Wooded (Lindsay, 1954) . There i s least movement of s i l i c a i n the Brown Wooded (lindsay, 1954 ) . The widest spread i n s i l i c a content i s between the A 2 and B 2 of the Podzolized Grey Wooded and i t i s i n this s o i l group that there i s the maximum movement of clay. - 14 -I I I - CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHING THE ORIGIN OF GLACIAL SOILS Boulders and stones can be moved great distances by gl a c i a l action; during transport they are subjected to varying degrees of abrasion, often with the formation of relatively f l a t surfaces and sharp angles (F l i n t , 1947) . Softer rocks such as shale, limestone and dolomite, are broken down by abrasion more rapidly than chert, which i s a relatively hard rock, A study of the coarse fraction, therefore, may indicate the source of the material and the method of transport. The comparative study of the mineral composition of the fine or very fine sand appears to be the most satisfactory method for establishing the source of different parent materials (Smithson, 1953; Smithson, 1956) , The usual procedure i s to separate out the heavy minerals with bromoform or tetrabromethane (Twenhofel and Tyler, 1941; Jeffries and Jackson, 1949) and determine the proportion of accessory minerals relatively resistant to weathering such as zircon, garnet, tourmaline and r u t i l e (Jeffries and Jackson, 1947) . Magnetite i s also relatively resistant. It i s a common accessory mineral i n igneous rocks and metamorphic limestones and has the advantage that i t can be separated magnetically (Duchaufour, 1955) . Again, i t s formation as an oxidation product i n the zone of weathering i s known to be rare (Palache, Beman and Frondel, 1944) . Another line of approach, particularly with parent materials low i n heavy minerals, i s a study of the s i l i c a particles (Smithson, 1956) . The examination of the clay fraction can also help to establish the origin of gl a c i a l material i n Canada since i t has been shown that the clay minerals have remained almost unaltered since deposition (Ehrlich and Rice, 1955) . As an example, the predominance of i l l i t i c type clay minerals could indicate that the clay fraction was formed by the mechanical - 15 -abrasion of limestone and shale; these rocks are relatively easily broken down and usually have a high i l l i t e content (Robbins and Keller, 1952; Grim, 1953; Keller, 1956; Nelson, 1956) . Similar methods can be used to determine the relationship of the solum to the underlying material. Marked dissimilarity i n the relative abundance of stones and differences i n summation percentage curves and heavy mineral content have been suggested as useful c r i t e r i a for de-positions! differences. Marshall (1940) suggested, as tests for the absence of depositional variation, that the relative proportion of highly resistant minerals should be the same throughout the profile and, similarly, that there should be no changes with depth i n the particle size d i s t r i -bution of a given resistant mineral. The weathering out of the less resistant minerals, however, influences the distribution of heavy minerals down the profile (Jeffries and Jackson, 1949) . Heavy mineral studies were used by Carroll (1944) for recognizing the parentage of some Australian s o i l s . IV - PROFILE DEVELOPMENT AND DEGREE OF WEATHERING (1) LEACHING OF CALCIUM CARBONATE The leaching of calcium carbonate i s one of the f i r s t pedogenic processes (Jackson, Hseung et a l . , 1952) . Dolomite, i f present, i s also leached although at a somewhat slower rate because of i t s lower s o l u b i l i t y i n water, especially i n s o i l water with dissolved carbon dioxide (Chillingar, rate 1956) . The solution/of carbonates i s also a function of particle size; v. hence, i t can be expected that particles i n the clay fraction w i l l be leached f i r s t while carbonates i n the coarse skeleton w i l l survive u n t i l a later stage of weathering. The carbonates taken into solution are often deposited lower i n the - 16 -profile i n a B_ horizon. This i s particularly evident i n Grey-wooded Ca soils and to a less marked extent i n Brown-wooded (Lindsay, 1954). The depth of leaching of carbonates i s of interest but, because of i t s wide v a r i a b i l i t y from one site to the next, i t i s probably of l i t t l e significance. It has already been mentioned that decalcification i s believed to be the dominant process i n the Brown-wooded s o i l s . In the Grey-wooded s o i l s , however, the solum has been leached free of carbonates except for the BQ& accumulation zone. (2) MIGRATION OF IRON The migration of iron has been the subject of considerable research, particularly the mechanisms responsible for i t s movement. A series of papers have been published recently by Bloomfield on the part played by water extracts of fallen leaves on the reduction and solution of iron (Bloomfield, 1953 > 1954* 1955, 1956) and similar studies have been conducted by McGill workers (Lutwick, Coldwell and DeLong, 1952: DeLong and Schnitzer, 1955; Schnitzer and DeLong, 1955). The sesquioxide content has been used to indicate the degree of leaching; Joffe (1949) suggested the use of the silica-sesquioxide ratio of the A 2 horizon as an index of weathering. Sesquioxides tend to accumu-late i n the B horizon during s o i l formation, especially iron compounds and sometimes aluminum. However, alumina i s known to occur only i n minor amounts i n the soils under study and so w i l l not be considered further. Although the movement of iron i s generally down the profile i t may also seggregate out i n the form of concretions and nodules i n both the A and B horizons, often i n association with varying amounts of organic matter and manganese (Winters, 1938; Joffe, 1949). In podzol profiles such concretionary forms usually occur i n the bottom of the A ? horizon - 17 -and the top of the B. The content of free iron oxides down the profile i s of more signi-ficance than the t o t a l iron content. It has been shown i n studies with podzol soils that the free iron i s often over 50 per cent of the t o t a l iron content and that the ratio of free to t o t a l iron decreases with depth (Coppenet and Helias, 1956). Possibly of significance were the observations of Swenson and Riecken (1955) that free iron tended to accumulate i n the c20 p. fraction i n the A and upper B horizons and that movement of iron into the clay l a t t i c e was most pronounced i n the B horizon, particularly i n the very fine clay fraction (^ ©.2 p.). Also of interest i s the free iron oxide i n close association with the clay particles. Jackson, Tyler et al.,(l948) suggested that hematite monolayers form as a result of weathering but i t i s also possible that the iron coatings may be formed by the migration of iron towards the clay fraction. Another possibility i s that iron oxides may form part of the clay fraction themselves (Martin, Torrence and Bushnell, 1952). Research has also been directed towards improved techniques for extracting the free iron with the minimum attack of s o i l minerals. Methods which have proved most successful make use of sodium thiosulphite as a reducing agent for the iron (Aguilera and Jackson, 1953J MacKenzie, 1954j Stace 1956). -(3) MOVEMENT OF BASES The leaching of bases from the solum and their replacement by hydrogen ion i s a normal process i n s o i l development. In the presence of calcium carbonate and dolomite leaching w i l l be almost completely res-tricted to calcium and magnesium ions and the s o i l colloids w i l l remain 100 per cent base saturated. This state i s indicated by a neutral or - 18 -slightly alkaline s o i l reaction (Yaalon, 1955). Hydrogen ions, therefore, w i l l only enter the exchange complex when most of the carbonates have been leached. Calcium, magnesium and potassium from the clay minerals then enter exchange reactions and are continuously replaced by hydrogen with the resultant degradation of the clay minerals (Jackson, Hseung et a l . , 1952). At the same time, s o i l minerals i n the s i l t and sand fractions are also broken down, once the protecting effect of calcium carbonate i s removed (Yaalon, 1955), with the release of bases into the s o i l solution. Some indication of the release of bases can be obtained from an interpretation of the exchangeable cations although these figures are almost meaningless i n the presence of free calcium carbonate. Acid reaction values indicate the replacement of bases by hydrogen ions. • (4) MOVEMENT OF ORGANIC MATTER The movement of organic matter down the profile has been shown by numerous workers to be a normal pedogenic process (joffe, 1949). The literature on s o i l organic matter i s expanding rapidly and the reader i s referred to the review by Bremner (1956). Recent research of possible significance i n relation to i t s movement during podzolization i s that of Ambrozh (1955) who found that the fulvic acid fraction of humus predominated over the humic acid fraction i n podzol soils and that there was more "mobile" than "bound" humus. This might be related to Kononova's finding (Kononova, 1956) that humic acids were only slightly condensed i n podzol soils compared with a high degree of condensation i n chernozem so i l s . The properties of the surface organic matter, either mull or mor, might well be examined i n relation to profile development. Indeed, the - 19 -presence of mull or mor i s the main distinguishing criterion of the Brown Forest and Brown-wooded soils (National S o i l Survey Committee, 1955). However, i t appears from the recent work of Handley (1954)> that the con-ditions under which mull or mor form are not clearly defined. Both forms can occur over calcareous rocks and both types can be present under the same climatic conditions; again, there seems to be a ready interchange-a b i l i t y with change of vegetation. Handly suggested that the main d i f f e r -ences between the formation of the two types were that i n mor tannin-like substances protected the more resistant mesophyl whereas mull consisted of relatively stabilized protein. (5) ELUVIATION OF CLAY Clay may accumulate i n the B horizon as a result of i t s eluviation from the A horizon or from i t s formation i n s i t u by weathering, or by a combination of both processes (Joffe, 1949). Studies of mineral weathering (Ehrlich and Rice, 1955) minimize the second possibly, at least i n some Canadian soils. Adams and Matelski (1955) noted evidence of eluviation of clay. Its migration has been demonstrated by i t s optical orientation after de-position (Brewer, 1956). Strong orientation was noted i n soils with few but relatively large channels, possibly under somewhat similar conditions to the Grey-wooded B horizon. Tamm (1950) has shown that the deposition of colloids f i r s t takes place deep i n the profile and that the B horizon builds upwards. Con-tinued deposition was attributed partly to reduction of permeability. - 20 -(6) DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE No clearly defined relationship can be seen between the degree of structure development of the various horizons i n a s o i l profile and the maturity of the s o i l . This i s possibly because several factors contribute to the genesis of s o i l structure including biotic factors, organic matter, clay, free iron oxides and the content of bases. The literature i n this f i e l d i s extensive (Frei, 1950). It i s f e l t , however, that i f the factors responsible for the development of s o i l structure are similar i n two related soils then d i f -ferences i n degree of development should reflect a difference i n maturity. This might account for the relatively weakly developed structure i n Brown-wooded soils compared with strong structural development i n Grey-wooded soils (Lindsay, 1954). - 21 -(7) DEGREE OF WEATHERING IN SAND FRACTION The degree of weathering has been related to the relative proportion of resistant heavy minerals (Marshall, 1940; Jeffries and Jackson, 1949) . Smithson's s t a b i l i t y series (Smithson, 1950) i s of interest i n this respect. Graham (1953) related the degree of weathering i n some Australian soils to the presence or absence of gibbsite, and amount of ferromagnesiums and ferrocalciums and the percentage of feldspar. Horneblende, augite, epidote and chlorite and other relatively easily weathered minerals were shown to be present under conditions of moderate to low weathering. Adams and Matelski (1955) studied the distribution of heavy minerals i n the sand and s i l t fractions i n the Scott s i l t loam i n Nebraska. Of particular interest was the finding that there was a considerable difference i n the proportions of various minerals,such as horneblende and zircon, i n the very fine sand and s i l t fractions. Indeed, there were from two to three times more amphiboles i n the very fine sand than i n the s i l t . The distribution of zircon was different with the largest percentage i n the coarse s i l t . This work emphasizes the necessity of using the same size grade and, i f possible, studying several size fractions. (8) DEGREE OF WEATHERING OF CLAY MINERALS Clay mineral studies can also be used to help elucidate the degree of s o i l weathering. Total chemical analyses are of some value, parti-cularly i n relation to chemical alteration within the clay fraction. However, the use of such analysis i s limited owing to the wide variation i n chemical composition of the clay minerals and also "because the clay fraction contains more than one mineral species i n variable amounts. - 22 Indeed, clay size particles of other minerals such as quartz,, .sesquiqxides and calcite, can occur i n appreciable proportions (Martin, Torrence and Bushnell, 1952). The presence of minerals other than true clay minerals i n the clay fraction i s worthy of further mention. Quartz seems to be of almost general occurrence i n the clay fraction although usually i n minor amounts. Martin, Torrence and Bushnell (1952) found less than 10 per cent of quartz i n the coarse clay fraction (2u - lu) of some Southern New York soils a l -though i t did not occur i n the fine clay; similarly, the quartz content of the fine clay was low i n soils examined by Coleman and Jackson (1946) and Coleman, Jackson and Mehlich (1950). These findings are i n accord with the suggestion of Jackson, Hseung et a l . (1952) that quartz weathers more rapidly than the clay minerals and that i t s rate of solution i s a function of particle size; hence i t i s more l i k e l y to occur i n the coarse clay and s i l t fractions. This point i s considered later i n relation to the weathering of i l l i t e . Calcite w i l l also occur i n the clay fraction of calcareous soils and i n the Bg a horizons of solums otherwise leached free of carbonates. Normally, i t i s removed by acid treatment prior to mineralogical examination of the clay fraction. Hematite was described as abundant i n the clay fraction of soils i n the Western United States (Coleman, Jackson and Mehlich, 1950). This mineral was particularly concentrated i n the fine clay with less i n the coarse fraction. A similar distribution was noted for gibbsite. Martin, Torrence and Bushnell (1952) made similar observations, providing further evidence for Jackson and Hseung's hypothesis that hematite and gibbsite are very resistant to weathering. Since an i l l i t i c type clay mineral was found to predominate i n the clay fraction of the soils under study i t i s thought relative to discuss findings on the structure and weathering of the i l l i t e clays i n some d e t a i l . The structure of i l l i t e clay minerals was recently investigated by Bell (1952). It was suggested that the mica-like minerals were formed by the incomplete extraction of alkalis from the micas leaving the original structure unchanged. The i l l i t e s i n general have less potassium and more water than mica and there i s only half as much substitution of aluminium for s i l i c o n by isomorphous replacement. Magnesium and iron can substitute for aluminum i n octahedral co-ordination. The charge deficiency i s balanced by potassium ions f i t t i n g i n holes i n adjacent hexagonal siloxane layers (Grim, 1953). Chemical analyses of i l l i t e minerals have been published by Grim, Lamarand, . Bradley (1937), Grim and Rowland (1941), MacKenzie et a l . (1947). Jackson, Hseung and collaborators (1952) investigated the chemical weathering of the mica-like clay minerals. The main findings were a de-crease i n intensity and a broadened angle of basal reflection, the appear-o o ance of basal spacings intermediate between 10 A and 18 A , an increase i n internal surface, less potassium but more water and/or hydroxyl than theoretical and lower cation exchange values. The f i r s t finding was explained by a decreased number of COL diffracting planes of 10 A° spacing. The intermediate spacings have been interpreted as "mixed" lattices (Pauling, 1930), par t i a l expansion of the latti c e (Jackson and Hellman, 1942) and interstratification (Nagelschmidt, 1944). Alternating i l l i t e and montmorillonite spacings may also be responsible (Jackson and Hellman, 1942). The theory was advanced that the micas weather along preferential weathering planes and that alternate interplanes weather more easily than the remaining interplanes, possibly as a result of the pairing of - 24 -dioctahedral layers. Potassium i s released from the preferential weathering planes, the driving force being the entrance of water and cations such as the hydrogen ion and, according to Barshad (1948), the hydrated calcium and magnesium ions. Loss of potash may also be favoured by the oxidation of ferrous to fer r i c with the consequent reduction i n the negative charge. Other weathering reactions are believed to be hydroxylation with the replacement of the potassium by hydrogen, de-alumination and de-si l i c a t i o n (Jackson, Hseung et a l . , 1952) . However, i l l i t e and muscovite are thought to be relatively stable although not as stable as kaolinite and montmorillonite. They occur i n Stage 7 of Jackson's weathering sequence (Jackson, Tyler et a l . , 1948) ; i.e., they are more stable than the feldspars and even quartz. As evidence that i l l i t e follows quartz i t was stated that mica persists i n increasing ratio to quartz as the particle size decreases. This s t a b i l i t y was attributed to the layer of aluminum ions beneath the si l i c o n ions i n the s i l i c a sheet. Lattice factors were said to be more important than specific surface i n relation to s t a b i l i t y after Stage 7 i n the weathering sequence. V - SOIL MINERAL WEATHERING IN NORTH AMERICA Research i n the United States has provided considerable evidence for weathering i n the s o i l profile. Nikiforoff and Drosdoff (1943) found strong decomposition of minerals such as bi o t i t e , orthoclase, albite and the amphiboles i n the s i l t of both the B and the Ag horizons of the Dayton s i l t loam of California. Similarly, i n the Scott s i l t loam of Nebraska, Adams and Matelski (1955) found indications of weathering to the B^  at 76 inches with the most intense weathering i n the lower Ag and the upper B2 (15 to 34 inches depth). The heavy mineral distribution showed - 25 -that the coarse s i l t fraction was more weathered than the very fine sand. Both investigations also showed that there was appreciable alteration in the clay fraction. Nikiforoff and Drosdoff propounded that much of the clay was broken down i n the A 2 and that there was an accumulation of secondary clay i n the B horizon, largely through the decomposition of s i l t i n s i t u . Adams and Matelski also suggested that clay was formed i n the B although there was also considerable evidence of eluviation. An indication of intense weathering i n the podzol A 2 was Tedrow's finding that the clay content of this horizon was higher i n quartz than the B and C horizons (.Tedrow, 1954). Some recent findings on the weathering of clay derived from Late Wisconsin t i l l are of interest. Murray and Leininger (1956) i n Indiana found that montmorillonite type minerals were dominant i n the weathered s o i l although the relatively unweathered t i l l contained largely i l l i t e and chlorite. Important factors were believed to be the oxidation of iron i n the lat t i c e and the leaching of magnesium and potassium. Similarly, Whittig and Jackson (1956), working with a Brown Podzolic and a Brown Forest s o i l i n Wisconsin, found that i l l i t e and chlorite had weathered to vermiculite and montmorillonite near the surface. Indeed, i n the Brown Forest profile, the montmorillonite content i n the fine clay increased from 5 per cent i n the C to 44 per cent i n the A^ with a corresponding decrease i n chlorite from 11 per cent to almost n i l . Similarly, Tamura (1956) found a s t a t i s t i c a l correlation between the change i n apparent diffraction spacings as a result of weathering and sample depth for randomly interstratified vermiculite and i l l i t e i n Connecticut. However, there appears to have been very l i t t l e weathering of soils i n Canada. Ehrlich and Rice (1955) and Ehrlich, Rice and E l l i s (1957) noted the relative uniform distribution of montmorillonite and i l l i t e down - 26 -the profiles of podzolized soils i n Manitoba and concluded that these clay-minerals were v i r t u a l l y unchanged since the time of deposition during glaciation. Even i n the A 2 of a podzol, weathering was negligible i n both the sand and clay fractions (Ehrlich, Chapman and Rice, 1957). The low degree of mineral weathering i n Canadian soils can be a t t r i -buted to several factors. Some of these" factors were pointed out by Ehrlich and Rice (1955). Perhaps the most important i s the time factor; s o i l weathering processes have only been i n effect since the time of glaciation some 11,000 years ago (Antevs, 1945s F l i n t , 1947). Again, a relatively cool dry climate and prolonged periods of freezing tend to inhibit s o i l weathering agencies. The climate might have been even drier, although perhaps warmer, during the xerothermic period following glaciation, as suggested by Hansen (1955). Another important factor i s the presence of calcium carbonate, since Yaalon (1955) has shown that there can be practically no weathering of clay minerals u n t i l a l l the carbonates have been leached. - 27 -SECTION I I A DESCRIPTION AND DISCUSSION OF METHODS The location of the sampling sites and the more important f i e l d characteristics of the three profiles have already been described* For the laboratory study of these soils ,. samples were collected from each horizon. Each sample was thoroughly mixed by shaking i n a large cylindrical container prior to sieving through 5 mm and 2 mm sieves. The coarse fraction held on the 2 mm sieve and the fine s o i l passing through this sieve were examined separately. The very fine sand (250 - 300 mesh) and t o t a l clay fractions (2 mm) were separated from the fine s o i l fraction for further study. The study of the coarse fraction was restricted to i t s deter-mination by weight as a percentage of the t o t a l s o i l and the identi-fication of the rocks by visual inspection and the use of hydrochloric acid for distinguishing limestone and dolomite. A number of tests were conducted on the fine s o i l and t o t a l clay as well as a mineralogical study of the very fine sand. These tests are described below with some discussion as to their significance where necessary. I - FINE SOIL (1) MECHANICAL ANALYSIS Well mixed samples of 2 mm sieved material were used for mechani-cal analysis using a hydrometer calibrated by Day's method (Day, 1950) for the Wycliffe and Kinbasket profiles and the pipette method of Kilmer and Alexander (1949) for the Yoho s o i l since much less material was available. Preliminary treatment with 6 per cent hydrogen peroxide and 2 N hydrochloric acid was used to remove organic matter, carbonates and at least some of the sesquioxides. The clay fraction was retained - 28 -for further study. The sand fraction was collected on a 300 mesh sieve and sub-sequently separated into size grades using a nest of sieves with openings of 0.5 mm, 80 mesh, 150 mesh and 250 mesh. These fractions were weighed and the results used with the data obtained from the hydrometer and pipette analyses for the construction of summation percentage (accumulation) curves. The sand separates were examined with a microscope and the very fine sand fraction ( 250 mesh) set aside for mineralogical study. (2) PLASTICITY Pla s t i c i t y measurements of the upper and lower plastic limits were made by the standard A.S.T.M. procedure (A.S.T.M., 1950). Values for the upper l i q u i d l i m i t and the pl a s t i c i t y index were plotted i n relation to Casagrande's "line A" (Casagrande, 1947; Burmister, 1950j U. S. Army, 1953) for the interpretation of the plastic properties. (3) ORGANIC MATTER Organic matter was determined by the modification of Walkley's rapid method (1947) as described i n the Salinity Handbook. (4) OTHER PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Physical properties such as apparent and real specific gravities and tension table, porous plate and wilting point measurements were investigated by McKeague (1955) and Arscott (1956) and were not re-peated. (5) SOIL REACTION Soi l reaction of non-calcareous samples was measured on 1: 2.5 s o i l - water mixtures which had been stirred several times during a - 29 -period of two hoursj a Beckman pH meter was used with i t s calomel electrode i n the relatively clear supernatant solution and the glass electrode i n the s o i l suspension below. The calcareous samples were treated differently as Turner and Clark (1956) have shown that the pH of s o i l systems containing free calcium carbonate depend largely on the par t i a l pressure of carbon dioxide; these workers found that e q u i l i -brium was reached by aerating the s o i l - water mixture with clean a i r for 48 hours. In the present study 1: 5 s o i l - water mixtures were used, aerated for two days and the pH measured immediately, followed by the versenate t i t r a t i o n of soluble calcium i n a f i l t e r e d or centrifuged aliquot. Even these pH values are not as accurate as perhaps desirable (pH being a logarithmic measurement) owing to insensitivity and tendency to d r i f t i n the pH meter. Measurements with a meter accurate to .01 of a pH unit would have been more satisfactory. (6) CARBONATES The gravimetric loss of carbon dioxide was measured from 1 or 2 gram samples treated with 3 N HC1 i n l i g h t l y stoppered 50 ml. Erlenmeyer flasks (U.S.D.A. Salinity Handbook, 1954). This method was used because the high content of calcium carbonate i n most samples caused appreciable change i n weight; the simplicity of apparatus com-pared with that for a manometric method, such as that of Martin and Reeve (1955), was also i n i t s favour. The data for carbon dioxide loss was converted into calcium carbonate equivalent by multiplying by a factor of 2.274. Some estimate of the relative amount of dolomite was obtained by combining the data for the gravimetric loss of carbon dioxide with figures obtained for calcium and magnesium after treating the s o i l - 30 -with aqua regia. It was considered that this treatment released a l l the magnesium from the dolomite and from 0 to 100 per cent of the combined magnesium i n the clay. No allowance was made for the magnesium originating from the solution of ferromagnesium minerals. It was then assumed that a l l the calcium was i n the form of calcium carbonate and that the rest of the carbonate, measured by the loss of C0£ , was combined with magnesium carbonate i n the form of dolomite. The per-centage of calcium carbonate equivalent to the magnesium carbonate was then subtracted from the figure for t o t a l calcium carbonate. Any magnesium i n excess of that required to form dolomite was calculated i n terms of magnesium hydroxide as this compound i s believed to be the most stable form l i k e l y to be present i n s o i l s . However, these values are only very rough estimates as they include a l l the errors and the values are probably high owing to the magnesium dissolved from the f erromagne siums. (7) EXCHANGEABLE BASES Exchangeable calcium, magnesium and potassium were determined i n a neutral N ammonium acetate extract from 5 grams of s o i l obtained by Bower, Reitemeier and Fireman's method (1952). Organic matter and ammonium acetate were removed by evaporation with aqua regia. Aliquots of a .2 N n i t r i c acid solution were titrated for calcium and magnesium with versenate (Cheng and Bray, 1951). The versenate method was used because of i t s rapidity. Some trouble was experienced i n the calcium t i t r a t i o n with murexide indicator because of the slow change i n colour at the end point. There was l i t t l e trouble from interfering ions and these could be avoided by taking a smaller aliquot i f necessary. Another aliquot was analyzed for potassium with a Perkin - Elmer flame photometer using 25 p.p.m. lithium as internal standard after - 31 -centrifuging out calcium as the oxalate. This was necessary since i t has been found that large amounts of calcium depress the luminosity of potassium (Toth and Prince, 1949J Pienaar, Lotz and Pigget, 1955). The accurate measurement of the exchangeable bases i s particularly difficult,however, i n the presence of calcium carbonate. Ammonium acetate was used as i n the standard procedure although i t was realized that this extractant dissolves appreciable quantities of calcium carbonate and causes serious errors i n the measurement of exchangeable calcium. Other factors which w i l l also affect the other exchangeable cations, are the masking effect of calcium carbonate on the exchange positions (Thompson, 1953) and the finding of Chapman and Kelley (1930) that as long as calcium ions are i n solution quantitative replacement by monovalent ammonium ions i s not possible. A more satisfactory method i s the preliminary leaching with .5 N or 1 N acetic acid followed by ammonium acetate extraction (Thompson, 1953). Mehlich (1948, 1953) used barium chloride buffered to pH 8.1 with triethanolamine as the extractant as this has l i t t l e solvent action on calcium carbonate. Soils high i n carbonate were f i r s t boiled with 2 N ammonium chloride (Mehlich, 1948). Tucker (1954) leached calcareous s o i l with N ammonium chloride i n 60 per cent ethyl alcohol adjusted to pH 8.1 and found that the results agreed well with those obtained by Hissink's method. In a recent method (Tobia and Milad, 1956) the extractant i s .2 N potassium chloride brought to equilibrium with solid calcium carbonate. Metson (1956) varied the procedure according to the percentage of calcium carbonate. Since research i s s t i l l needed i n this f i e l d and the exchangeable cation content i s of l i t t l e significance i n the pedogenesis of these - 32 -soils this aspect of the study was not investigated further, (8) FREE IRON OXIDES The distribution of free iron oxides down the three profiles was also determined. The iron was extracted by several alternate washings with very fresh sodium thiosulphite (dithionite) solution and .05 N hydrochloric acid followed by two f i n a l washings with N sodium chloride (MacKenzie, 1954). The iron taken into solution was analyzed by the Ferron method (Davenport, 1949). How effective this method of extraction i s i n the presence of large quantities of calcium carbonate i s worthy of further study. Another factor which should be taken into account i s that some horizons contained nodules which were probably relatively high i n iron oxide. It i s quite possible that the standardized procedure for extracting the free iron only pa r t i a l l y extracted the iron i n the nodules (Robichet, 1955). Again, some nodules were larger than 2 mm and were taken out with the gravel. II - TOTAL CLAY (1) TOTAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Carefully weighed samples of oven-dried extracted clay (material .002 mm) were analyzed for t o t a l chemical composition using both sodium carbonate fusion and hydrofluoric acid digestion. Piper's macro-method using 1 gram of material (Piper, 1950) was used for the sodium carbonate fusion of most samples and a simplification (Miller, 1956) of Corey and Jackson's micro-method (1953) for the hydrofluoric acid digestion of .1 gram. In this modification the material i s treated with 1 ml. 1:1 n i t r i c acid, .5 ml. 60 per cent perchloric acid and 5 ml. 48 per cent hydrofluoric acid and heated on a sand bath - 33 -at 120 C. When solution i s complete the digest i s evaporated to dryness and taken up i n .2 N n i t r i c acid. Iron, aluminum, titanium, calcium and magnesium were analyzed i n the sodium carbonate solution and potassium i n the hydrofluoric. The two digests were necessary partly because potassium cannot be determined by the flame method i n the presence of large amounts of sodium and also too because of the danger of v o l a t i l i -zation at the temperature of fusion. The sodium content could not be analyzed owing to contamination with sodium during pretreatment, but this was not important as the sodium content of these soils i s known to be low (Kelley, 1955). Iron and aluminum were analyzed i n the same aliquot using the Ferron spectrophotometric method of Davenport (1949) using wave lengths of 600 mu and 370 mu, respectively. Similarly, iron and titanium were complexed with Tiron (Yoe and Armstrong, 1947). In this method the intensity of the colour of the iron complex i s measured at 565 mn, the colour destroyed with dithionite and the colour intensity of the titanium complex read at 400 ran. The method was adapted for use with the Beckman DU spectrophotometer. Iron determined by Ferron and Tiron checked satisfactorily. Cheng and Bray's method (1951) was used i n the analysis of calcium and magnesium after complexing interfering metals (especially iron) with sodium diethyl thiocarbonate and extracting the complex with iso-amyl alcohol (Cheng, Melsted and Bray, 1953). Potassium was determined i n a 0.2 N n i t r i c acid solution of the residue from the hydrofluoric acid treatment using a Perkins and Elmer Model 146 flame photometer and 25 p.p.m. lithium as internal standard. The interference effect of calcium was disregarded as this element was less than 100 p.p.m. i n the f i n a l solution. - 34 -S i l i c a was found gravimetrically i n the sodium carbonate solution using Piper's method. Total sesquioxides were also measured gravi-metrically for a number of samples as a check on the colorimetric analyses. Air-dry moisture was measured on the samples taken for analysis o by weighing before and after oven drying at 105 C. (2) CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY Cation exchange capacity of the t o t a l clay samples were obtained by Mackenzie's micro-Kjeldahl method (Mackenzie, 1951). This method involved six extractions with neutral normal ammonium acetate using a wrist action shaker, several washings with 95 per cent ethyl alcohol and the steam d i s t i l l a t i o n of adsorbed ammonia after i t s release with 50 per cent sodium hydroxide. The ammonia was collected i n 4 per cent boric acid and titrated with .007 N sulphuric acid using a mixed i n -dicator. (3) X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERNS X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained using powdered hydrogen clay samples i n a Picker X-ray Corporation apparatus with iron radiation and an MnO f i l t e r . Unfortunately, i t was d i f f i c u l t to distinguish between i l l i t e and muscovite, which have very similar diffraction patterns and to estimate the amount of quartz i n the clay fraction, since even 2 per cent to 5 per cent of quartz can give strong diffraction lines. This can be seen from the diffraction pattern of the standard sample of Fithian i l l i t e which contains a low percentage of quartz. However, more complete information could have been obtained using recently developed techniques and equipment some of which are described below. - 35 -Indeed, the most f r u i t f u l line of clay analysis seems to be in the f i e l d of X-ray diffraction studies, particularly as a means of identifying the particular minerals involved (Milne and Warshaw,' 1956). Considerable research has been directed towards sample preparation i n order to obtain the maximum information from the diffraction data. Useful advances i n this f i e l d were made by Jackson and Hellman (1942), MacEwan (1949), Brown (1953), Greene-Kelly (1953) and Milne and Warshaw (1956). Most of this work was directed towards positively distinguishing the i l l i t i c and montmorillonoid minerals; kaolinite being relatively easily identified. Probably of interest i n future work i s the finding of Milne and Warshaw that relative humidity has a marked influence on the spacing and intensity of the basal diffraction peaks. Wet a i r was found even more satisfactory than glycerol or ethyl glycol i n the interpretation of patterns from montmorillonite-illite mixtures and dry a i r could be used as a substitute for heat treatment. (4) DEHYDRATION CURVES Dehydration curves were obtained on two samples (Kinbasket B 2 2 and C horizons) to check the X-ray findings. Material was heated i n platinum crucibles and the loss of weight measured after intervals of 48 hours at 100°C. increments up to 800°C, following the work of Grim, Bray and Bradley (1937) and the findings of Roy (1949) i n relation to the gradual loss of moisture from muscovite over a prolonged period of heating. Unfortunately, changes i n weight may also result from other reactions, such as the oxidation of iron compounds and the v o l a t i l i -zation of potassium. A marked loss of weight between 400°C. and 600°C. i s nevertheless a good indication of the presence of i l l i t i c type clay minerals. - 36 -II I - KCNERALOGICAL ANALYSES The mineralogical examination of the very fine sand fraction was. undertaken i n an attempt to correlate s o i l horizons and to estimate the degree of weathering. The heavy fraction was separated out from 0.5 to 1.0 grams of very fine sand with s-tetrabromethane (Twenhofel and Tyler, 1941), the specific gravity of which was found to be 2.94 using a pycnometer bottle. A representative portion of the heavy minerals was mounted i n Canada balsam and examined with a petrological microscope. An attempt was made to count horneblende crystals but this was found to be im-practicable. Another portion was placed on 1 mm squared graph paper under a low powered binocular microscope and the particles of magnetite picked off and counted using magnetized needle. The other heavy minerals, usually between 1,000 and 2,000, were also counted and the percentage of magnetite obtained on the basis of the t o t a l number of heavy minerals. A spectrographs analysis was also made of fine sand and very fine fractions using a Hilger spectrograph as an additional aid to the study. - 37 -SECTION I I I RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The detailed results of this study are given i n the Appendices. These results are discussed below under three main headings: The Nature and Composition of the Underlying T i l l Genetic Relationships of the T i l l and Solum Soil Maturity and Weathering I - THE NATURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE UNDERLYING TILL (1) COARSE FRACTION The relative abundance of gravel and stones i n the t i l l underlying the three profiles was measured as a percentage by weight of the t o t a l s o i l . These values are shown i n Table I of Appendix I. The coarse skeleton material was most abundant i n the t i l l below the Wycliffe profile (38.8 per cent) and least prevalent i n the Kinbasket C horizon (7.2 per cent)j the Yoho C was intermediate with 16.2 per cent a l -though this value may not be significant because of much smaller quantity of material sampled. The coarse skeleton of the t i l l underlying the Wycliffe profile consisted predominantly of black chert and variably coloured fine grained quartzite (white, green, red and black). There were also some smaller stones of shale, a coarse grained quartzite, some highly calcareous rock and medium grey dolomitic material. Of interest was the observation that many of the fragments had rounded edges suggesting the possibility of movement by water although the presence of flattened surfaces indicated glacial transport. - 38 -On the other hand, the coarse skeleton of the t i l l i n the Kinbasket profile was more homogeneous, uniform and angular. At once obvious was the thick platy form of some of the dark grey fragments, a feature either of original bedding or glacial action. Most of these fragments effervesced and disintegrated with either dilute or concen-trated hydrochloric acid, indicating variably dolomitized limestone. Also present were smaller fragments of white and pale brown fine grained quartzite, a coarse grained quartzite and minor amounts of shale. Only a small amount of coarse skeleton was available for inspection from the Yoho s i t e . One of the larger stones., l.inch to 2 inches across, with flattened surfaces, was of interest as i t was identified as dolomite with fine criss-crossing carbonate veinlets, very similar to materials occurring i n the Windermere series. Some f a i r l y large fragments of pure white calcite were also present. (2) SAND FRACTION The t o t a l carbonate-free sand content was highest i n the Kinbasket t i l l (47 per cent), somewhat lower i n the Yoho (34.6 per cent) and lowest i n the Wycliffe (27 per cent). The percentage of very fine sand and s i l t was about the same i n the Wycliffe and Yoho materials (39 to 42 per cent) although the clay content was materially higher i n the former (34 percent compared with 24 per cent); the Kinbasket C was low i n both s i l t and clay. The accumulation curves show approxi-mately the same pattern, however, indicating a similar mode of deposition (See Appendix I ) . In appearance, the carbonate-free sand fraction of the t i l l at the three sites was very similar. The larger angular fragments consis-ted mainly of chert and quartzite; the Yoho material seemed to have the largest proportion of larger fragments followed by the Wycliffe. The finer fraction ( < 1 5 0 mesh) xras well speckled ..with black particles, particularly i n the Wycliffe. Indeed, a large proportion of the heavy minerals i n the 80 - 1^0 mesh fraction were magnetic as well as many of the larger grains. Similarly, magnetite was more prevalent i n the heavy mineral fraction of the very fine sand of the wycliffe material. The lowest proportion of magnetic particles was found i n the Yoho s o i l (Appendix I I I ) , Micaceous minerals were also i n evidence, especially i n the fine sand at the Yoho site, less so i n the Kinbasket and least i n the Wycliffe. Relatively unweathered ferro—magnesium minerals were noted i n the very fine sand fraction. (3) CARBONATES Perhaps the most interesting feature of the t i l l was the high content of carbonates i n amorphous or finely crystalline form,' ranging from 20.6 per cent as calcium carbonate i n the Kinbasket t i l l to 36,2 per cent i n the Wycliffe (See Table I i n Appendix I ) , However, a f a i r l y high proportion of dolomite was also indicated, particularly i n the Kinbasket C horizon ( i . e . , 12 per cent calcite; 8 per cent dolomite). The ratio between calcite and dolomite was wider i n the Yoho material (27 per cent and 5 per cent, respectively). Although these figures for the proportions of calcite and dolo-mite are only approximate i t i s evident that dolomitized limestone must be present; partly because magnesium limestone forms one of the source rocks and also because dolomite was identified i n the gravel.' - 40 -(4) CLAY FRACTION Analysis of the clay fraction showed i t to be relatively high i n s i l i c a (40 per cent to 43 per cent) for i l l i t i c type clay when com-pared with published analyses such as those given by Grim (1951). The alumina content ranged from 22 per cent to 26 per cent and f e r r i c oxide from 5 per cent to 8 per cent (See Appendix I I ) . The magnesia content was relatively constant at the three sites (4.3 to 4.9 per cent) with more variation i n the content of calcium oxide (0.8 per cent to 5.5 per cent); the low value for the Kinbasket may be correlated with the lesser amount of calcium carbonate at this s i t e . X-ray diffraction and dehydration studies showed that the clay fraction i s composed of i l l i t e , quartz and possibly some muscovite. This finding was supported by the relatively low values for loss of moisture at 100°C. ( l per cent to 2 per cent) and exchange capacities of 17 to 22 milli-equivalents per 100 grams. Indeed, these values, and the sharp diffraction lines indicated a high degree of c r y s t a l l i n i t y with a correspondingly low surface area and possibly a moderate amount of muscovite. Dehydration studies of the clay fraction of the Kin-basket C horizon, however, showed a f a i r l y well marked loss of weight between 400°C. and 600°C. which indicated i l l i t e rather than the gradual loss of moisture expected from muscovite (Grim, Bray and Bradley, 1937). The chemical composition of the clay i s very similar at the three sites; indeed, i t i s very probable that the clay i s v i r t u a l l y the same as that present i n situ i n the shales and other sedimentary rocks from which the t i l l was derived. I l l i t e i s , i n fact, the major clay constituent of shales and limestones (Grim, 1953). - U -It i s suggested that this clay was released by mechanical degradation during glacial transport, particularly from the relatively soft shales. It i s perhaps significant i n this respect, that very l i t t l e shale was found i n the coarse fraction of the t i l l . Possibly, there was some comminution of the clay particles themselves since a high proportion of the clay i s i n the form of fine clay. ( 5 ) PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Soil physical properties studied by McKeague and Arscott show relatively low values for t o t a l porosity and percentage of macro-pores (responsible for drainage and high apparent specific gravity figures) indicating a dense, compact structure. This was borne out by permeability measurements; indeed, the t i l l under the Kinbasket was almost impermeable and nearly so at the other sites. This dense structure and low permeability can be partly attributed to the close packing effect of the finer particles f i l l i n g i n the interstices between the larger ones (Burmister, 1954J Lambe, 1954). ( 6 ) SURFACE ALTERATION OF THE TILL The surface of the t i l l (the D^ , C^  and C^ horizons, respectively) has been weathered to a variable depth of up to 9 inches. The most obvious effect of s o i l formation i s an improvement of s o i l structure as indicated by increased macro-pore space, decreased apparent specific gravity, a rise i n both the plastic limits and an increase i n the organic matter content (Appendix I ) . The small changes i n the size distribution of. the mineral fraction, the carbonate content and the chemical com-position of the clay fraction are not considered significant except,' possib*Ly, the slight increase i n s i l i c a . Values for exchange capacity of the clay are very similar to those obtained with the unweathered - i m -material below indicating no change i n surface area as a result of mechanical degradation. The "BQa" horizon of the Kinbasket series was identified i n the f i e l d by i t s light yellow colour and well developed structure. In the profile examined there was a material reduction i n t o t a l sand content and an increase i n clay, possibly due to a sorting effect during deposition. However, the characteristics of the clay fraction, such as chemical composition and cation exchange capacity, are more similar to those of the C horizon than they are to the rest of the B horizon. It i s concluded that the major difference between the t i l l at the three sites i s the relative abundance of gravel and stones. At the Wycliffe site there i s evidence of abrasion by running water while the high angularity of the fragments at the Kinbasket and Yoho sites indicate glacial movement only. Chert, dolomitized limestone and quartzites were the principal rock types. Chert and quartzite seemed to be most abundant i n the Wycliffe profile with limestone and dolomitized limestone predominating in the underlying t i l l of the other two sites. These observations may be related to the distance of the t i l l from the source rocks. Since the Wycliffe material i s probably furthest from the source of the t i l l i t s coarse fraction was subjected to relatively more abrasion during gla c i a l transport, resulting i n the survival of quartzite while softer rocks, such as the limestones, were broken down to finer particles. Other features of interest were the presence of magnetite and muscovite i n the sand fraction. Magnetite was most abundant i n the very fine sand fraction of the Wycliffe; i n comparison, mica seemed to be relatively more prevalent i n the Yoho. There did not appear to be - 43 -any real difference i n the heavy mineral suites, however, and the clay minerals were very similar as shown by X-ray and chemical analysis. In view of the heterogeneous nature of t i l l , material from other sites should be examined before any bases can be established for differentiating Cedrus and Wycliffe t i l l s . I I - GENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF THE TILL AND SOLUM An attempt was made to relate the underlying t i l l to the solum largely by means of heavy mineral analysis. Magnetite was used as the indicator mineral as i t was relatively abundant, has a high resistance to weathering and i s not normally formed by pedogenic processes. I t could also be readily identified with the help of a magnetized needle. Tourmaline,- zircon or r u t i l e might perhaps have been more satisfactory but were not used because of the infrequency of their occurrence and the d i f f i c u l t y of identification i n the very fine sand fraction. The source of the magnetite i s probably as an accessory mineral i n the igneous rocks of the area, such as the granite of the Purcells; i t may also originate i n metamorphic limestone, A count was made of magnetite grains i n the heavy mineral fraction of the very fine sand i n several horizons of each profile,' Between 1,000 and 2,000 heavy mineral particles were counted i n each separate.: Wide differences i n the proportion of magnetite to t o t a l heavy minerals were found i n the solum of the Wycliffe and the podzolized horizons of the Yoho compared with the underlying material (Appendix I I I ) ; these differences suggested variations i n deposition. On the other hand, the proportion was f a i r l y uniform down the profile of the Kinbasket s i l t loam indicating an A-B-C pro f i l e . - 44 -Indeed, McKeague regarded the underlying t i l l of the Wycliffe as the D rather than the C horizon. An obvious feature i s the marked change from the gravelly t i l l to the almost stone-free s i l t . There i s also a marked difference i n the shape of the accumulation curves of the A and B horizons and the t i l l ; the texture of the solum l i e s largely i n the s i l t range compared with the more uniform size d i s t r i -bution of the t i l l . ' The quartz grains of the very fine sand fraction also appeared to be more rounded i n the B horizon than i n the D; possibly indicating that the material forming the solum had been trans-ported by wind. Spectrographic analyses were made of the fine sand from the B and D horizons. Unfortunately, no significant differences in trace metals could be detected. There i s also the possibility of depositional differences between the A and B horizons. The magnetite count of the A-^ , horizon was 4.61 per cent compared., with 1.32 per cent i n the B^ and 5.54 per cent i n the D horizon (Appendix I I I ) . Additional evidence i s the presence of a higher proportion of s i l i c a i n the t o t a l clay of the A horizon ' compared with the B (Appendix I I ) . These differences are more than can be expected from the weathering of a relatively immature s o i l and also point to depositional variations. The magnetite content was five times as high i n the very fine sand of the podzolized A and B horizons of the Yoho profile compared with the grey-wooded lower section of the profile. I t has already been suggested that this i s possibly due to selective weathering of less resistant heavy minerals. There was a f a i r l y large amount of - 45 -horneblende i n the horizon, however, which appeared to be l i t t l e weathered as indicated by the clean crystal surfaces. Unfortunately, this may not be a f a i r criterion, as horneblende i s known to weather internally followed by the complete collapse and disappearance of the crystal. Indeed, a rough count of the horneblende crystals indicated a lower content of horneblende i n the A2p horizon compared with the C horizon but many more would have to be counted before a s t a t i s t i c a l relationship could be obtained. Even then, such evidence could not be taken as conclusive proof because of the possibility of differences i n i n i t i a l content of horneblende. The problem was also investigated by spectrographic analysis. Iron, titanium, manganese and potassium were higher i n the t o t a l very fine sand fraction of the Yoho k0 compared with the C horizon. The iron can be attributed to the magnetite as well as hematite and possibly limonitej the titanium to minerals such as ilmenite, r u t i l e and sphenej the manganese to i t s association with magnetite and other forms; potassium to i t s presence i n micas and feldspars. Magnesium was relatively high i n both samples and can be attributed largely to the relative abundance of ferromagnesiums. Zirconium lines were not seen i n the spectrum. These differences are of interest but s t i l l do not prove whether the podzolized solum of the Yoho s o i l i s derived from the s o i l below or i s a depositional feature. There i s also the possi b i l i t y that i t could be a combination of both factors; v i z ; deposition at an early stage i n s o i l formation followed by intensive leaching. - 46 -III - SOIL MATURITT AND WEATHERING ( 1 ) LEACHING OF CALCIUM CARBONATE There has been some movement of carbonates i n the Wycliffe profile (Appendix I ) . Free carbonates were found close to the s o i l surface but the percentages were much lower i n the A than i n the B horizon. The zone of maximum accumulation of carbonates was i n the B^ and possibly the D-^  horizons. In the Kinbasket profile the solum was leached of lime to the bottom of the B.^ horizon at l l g inches except for a slight trace i n the A2]_. There was a sharp change below to the BQ& horizon with nearly 20 per cent of calcium carbonate. Analyses indicated that there was no dolomite i n this horizon although possibly from 2 to 3 per cent of magnesium hydroxide. The Yoho profile was leached to the bottom of the horizon; only 1 per cent of calcite was found i n the B ^ although possibly there was from 2 to 3 per cent of magnesium hydroxide. Calcite was most abundant i n the C^ horizon (37 per cent); probably this i s the main horizon of accumulation although some of the calcite may be residual as there was also a significant amount of dolomite present,' - 47 -(2) MOVEMENT OF FREE IRON OXIDES The distribution of free iron down the three profiles i s of interest i n relation t© .soil formation.' The percentage of free iron i n the Wycliffe profile, calculated as f e r r i c oxide (Fe20^) ranged from 0.9 per cent i n the B3 to 1.8 per cent i n the A-j_2 compared with the 0.6 per cent i n the t i l l below (Appendix I ) . Segregation of iron into f a i r l y soft nodules was noted in the coarse sand size fraction i n the A-^ 2; some of these may not have been dissolved by the thiosulphite treatment; hence the free iron content may be somewhat higher than that reported with a maximum of just over 2 per cent i n the B compared with 0.8 per cent i n the A 2p 1 per cent i n the A22 and 0*7 Pe*" c e n t i n the t i l l . Again, there seemed to be segregation i n the A horizon. A few dark red-brown nodules were noted i n the coarse sand fraction of the A2^ and some larger brownish-yellow nodules amongst the fine gravel of the A 2 2. These larger nodules were stained dark brown inside; they were non-magnetic, non-calcareous, and could be broken down into very fine grained material. Very probably the free iron content of the A horizon i s higher than the values found by analysis. Some of the smaller nodules may not have been completely dissolved by the thiosulphite - hydrochloric acid treatment and those larger than 2 mm had been separated out prior to treatment. The values obtained for free iron down the Yoho profile by the standard procedure are of interest. The biggest variation occurred between the A 0 and the B (0.3 per cent and 1.2 per cent, respectively). <sp p Indeed, the A~ was the typical "ash" colour of the true podzol. Very <cp similar values of just over 1 per cent were obtained for the A 2g W and the B-,. , almost twice the content of the C_„ and the C horizons. Again, nodules were prevalent. Bright red medium to small nodules occurred i n the sand fraction of the A2p; similarly, the Bp sand was - 48 -f u l l of reddish-brown nodules. X-ray analysis indicated the presence of limonite associated with quartz and perhaps micaj some of the particles were magnetic. Some of the free iron i s closely associated with the clay particles. It was not removed by preliminary treatment with 2 N hydrochloric acid for the removal of carbonates although i t was brought into solution with sodium dithionite. The percentages of free iron oxide obtained i n this manner may have some significance both i n the movement of iron down the profile and the weathering of clay minerals. The relatively uniform values of between 2.40 per cent and 3.10 per cent free F&2®3 for the Wycliffe solum (Appendix I I ) , except for the low value obtained for the An clay, may indicate both l i t t l e iron movement and a similar degree of weathering down the profile. These figures were even more constant than those for t o t a l free iron. The highest percentage was obtained i n the D horizon although the t o t a l free iron was low. The wider range i n percentages of free iron i n the Kinbasket folloiirs the same trend as values for to t a l free iron with maximum amounts i n the B horizon. This distribution might be the result of more intense weathering i n the B, (discussed below), the i l l u v i a t i o n of iron, a larger surface area of particles or iron oxide occurring i n clay size particles. The lowest values for percentage of iron were found i n the A2p and the A2gw of the Yoho profile with much larger amounts i n the two B horizons, particularly the B . This iron distribution suggests leaching and deposition, especially i n the A_ , i n which the t o t a l free iron was also very low. Possibly of significance i s the similarity of free iron content attached to the clay particles i n the underlying t i l l at the three sites. - 49 -It can perhaps be assumed that this i s the product of weathering since the movement of iron i n the t i l l i s probably negligible. This i s supported by the observation that the t o t a l free iron content of the t i l l i s relatively low; hence much of the iron i s tightly associated with the clay fraction. I t i s evident that there has been a maximum amount of movement of iron in the podzolized horizons of the Yoho s o i l since particularly low values were obtained for total free iron and "tightly-bound" free iron oxide i n the A2p horizon compared with the Bp horizon. The ratio between the t o t a l free iron of the A~ and-B horizon was 1: 4.5. This suggests that the process of podzolization i s well developed i n this profile. In the Kinbasket profile, however, the ratio for t o t a l free iron between the A 2 2 and B 2 2 horizons was narrower (about 1: 2) although the percentage of free iron was twice as high as i n the Yoho Bp. In the Wycliffe there was no appreciable difference i n content between the ^12 ^ e B 4 ' -^dicating practically no movement of iron. (3) DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC MATTER AND EXCHANGEABLE BASES The distribution of organic matter i n the three profiles i s of interest i n relation to s o i l formation. Values for percentages of or-ganic matter (Appendix I) indicate that there has been l i t t l e movement down the Kinbasket profile and even less i n the Wycliffe. Considerably more movement has taken place i n the Yoho s o i l , particularly from the A2p horizon. This was shown by the grey colour of this horizon and i t s low content of organic matter (0.8 per cent) compared with that of the Bp horizon (2.0 per cent). It i s apparent from an inspection of the pH changes down the - 50 -profiles of the Brown Wooded(Wycliffe) and Grey Wooded (Kinbasket) soils that the exchange complex i s 100 per cent base saturated in the solum of the Brown Wooded s o i l although somewhat less so i n the A and B horizons of the Grey Wooded (Appendix I, page 58) . Relatively low pH values, ranging from 5.1 i n the Agp to 5.9 i n the (the horizon), and low values for exchangeable calcium were obtained i n the podzolized upper horizons of the Podzolized Grey Wooded profile. Of interest i s the rapid rise of pH from 5.9 i n the Agg^ to 8.1 i n the Bg^ horizon immediately below, indicating a carbonate accumulation zone. Maximum movement of organic matter and bases has occurred i n the Podzolized Grey Wooded s o i l and the least i n the Brown Wooded profile. In the Grey Wooded s o i l there has been appreciable leaching of bases but l i t t l e migration of organic matter. (4) ACCUMULATION OF SILT AND CLAY It i s apparent from the mechanical analysis of the Brown Wooded s o i l under study that there has been no significant movement of clay through the solum. In the Grey Wooded s o i l (Kinbasket s i l t loam), however, i t i s evident that both the s i l t and clay contents are higher i n the B horizon than either the A or C horizons. On the basis of mineralogical studies and the distribution and composition of the coarse skeleton there i s no reason to suspect the presence of a composite profile; i t would .. appear that either the finer fraction has moved down from the A horizon or has been formed i j i s itu at the expense of the fine sand. It i s men-tioned elsewhere that the fine sand and clay are v i r t u a l l y unweathered; - 51 -hence the second hypothesis i s untenable. The eluviation of clay from the A horizon i s one of the c r i t e r i a for identifying a Grey Wooded s o i l . Its occurrence i n the Kinbasket series was noted previously by Lindsay (1954). Visual indications of clay movement down the profiles of some Grey Wooded soils of the Peace River area have been observed by members of the Dominion S o i l Survey Division (personal communication). The well marked structural development of the Grey Wooded B horizon obviously provides many fine cracks and channels for the downward movement of clay as a suspension in percolating water. There also seems to have been some movement of s i l t and clay i n the Podzolized Grey Wooded profile, particularly from the and Bp horizons i t appears that most of the s i l t and clay has moved thro.ugh to the B ^ horizon. Even i n this horizon, the accumulation of finer particles of clay i s slight compared with the s i l t and clay contents of the C and the horizons; this can possibly be attributed to a lower i n i t i a l content of s i l t and clay i n the parent material compared with that of the Kinbasket s i l t loam. - 52 -( 5 ) SOIL STRUCTURE Field examination of the three profiles showed that maximum structural development was attained i n the B horizon of the Kinbasket profile ^with somewhat less i n the and &2gw horizons of the Yoho s o i l . Structural changes i n the solum were least pronounced i n the Wycliffe profile and most marked i n the Yoho; i n this profile there was a change in, structure from "single grain" i n the A2p to "medium to large subangular blocky" i n the (Arscott, 1956). Total pore space determinations of the A and B horizons down to the horizon of lime accumulation indicated a slight increase (from 51.4 per cent to 62.3 percent) down the solum of the Wycliffe profile although this trend was reversed i n the Kinbasket (53.2 per cent to 43.2 per cent). The figures obtained for the A£p and the Bp of the Kinbasket also showed a slight reduction of porosity with depth (76.5 per cent to 63.2 per cent) although there i s a sharp change below to the more compact &2gw* The measurements of t o t a l pore space indicate a well marked structure i n the solum of the Brown Wooded and Grey Wooded soils and similarly i n the Grey Wooded horizons of the Podzolized Grey Wooded s o i l . The f i e l d descriptions are more indicative of the degree of structure development. It has already been suggested that for closely related soils the stage of maturity of the profile may be related to structure. The - 53 -strong structural development i n the B^ of the Kinbasket and the Bgy. of the Yoho s o i l can be regarded, therefore, as additional evidence of the immaturity of the Wycliffe profile because of i t s relatively weakly developed structure. (6) WEATHERING OF SAND FRACTION The weathering of the very fine sand fraction has been shown to be a good index of weathering, particularly i n the heavy mineral fraction. An examination of slides of the heavy minerals (above 2.94 specific gravity) showed that most of the grains were l i t t l e weathered; even crystals of horneblende, a mineral which has l i t t l e resistance to weathering, had clean, relatively unweathered surfaces, as already described. The proportion of magnetite on a basis of the t o t a l number of grains of heavy minerals i n the very fine sand was f a i r l y constant down the Kinbasket profile indicating relatively l i t t l e weathering even i n the A horizon. Although there was more magnetite i n the A^ of the Wycliffe compared with the this i s probably due to a depositional difference rather than a weathering effect. More significance has been attached to the difference i n magnetite content between the podzolized horizons of the Yoho s i l t loam and the underlying grey wooded horizons. Titanium, manganese and potassium were also higher i n the than the C horizon. The possi b i l i t y that this may be due to either a depositional effect or to weathering has already been mentioned. The observation of very l i t t l e weathering i s i n agreement with the findings of other mineral studies across Canada. Particularly of interest i s the fact that there was very l i t t l e weathering of s o i l minerals even i n the k0 horizon of a podzol developed on well-drained - 54 -glacial t i l l i n Manitoba (Ehlich, Chapman and Rice, 1957). Indeed, no weathering trend could be found even with the feldspars. (7) WEATHERING OF CLAY X-ray diffraction patterns show that the clay fractions consist mainly of i l l i t e with some quartz and muscovite. The patterns were very similar to that given by a standard sample of i l l i t e from Fithian, I l l i n o i s . Some weathering was indicated by the rather diffuse diffraction lines obtained for clay samples from the solum compared with the relatively sharp lines for the t i l l (Jackson, Hseung et a l . , 1952). However, i t i s evident that there has been l i t t l e structural alteration i n the clay minerals, even i n the acid horizons of the Podzolized Grey Wooded s o i l . Cation exchange studies indicated that the main effect was an increase i n surface area. This theory i s also supported by the finding that there i s only a slight loss of combined potassium from the clay of the A and B horizons of thethree soi l s compared with i t s content i n the parent t i l l . Indeed, only minor amounts of potassium have moved into positions available for exchange as indicated by the low values for exchangeable potassium. However, weathering has resulted i n some changes within the clay fraction. Decalcification has obviously occurred resulting i n the leaching of calcite from the clay fraction and i t s secondary deposition lower i n the profile, particularly i n the Grey Wooded s o i l . There are marked changes i n the calcium content of the clay down the profile with highest values i n the t i l l . Similarly, there i s some loss of magnesium but to a lesser extent i n accordance with the tightness of binding of the two ions. Lattice iron shows some tendency to be - 55 -higher i n the B horizon but this may not be significant although i t agrees with the finding of Swenson and Riecken (1955) for Loess s o i l s . The iron oxide coating the clay particles, resistant to attack by 2 N hydrochloric acid, i s of some interest. The largest amount (5 per cent to 6 per cent) was found i n the B£2 horizon of the Grey Wooded s o i l ; l a t t i c e iron was also highest i n this horizon. This i s perhaps related to the suggestion of Jackson and Tyler (1948) that hematite monolayers are formed by the weathering of clay minerals under conditions of good oxidation, particularly with very fine particles. I f this occurs i n the soils under study i t would indicate that there has been some sur-face weathering of the clay particles, particularly i n the B horizon of the Grey Wooded s o i l . It must be remembered, however, that some of these iron coatings may be iron that has moved towards the clay from the rest of the s o i l system. There i s also the possibility that iron oxide minerals i n the clay fraction i t s e l f were dissolved by the dithionite treatment. SECTION IV CONCLUSIONS The main conclusions to be drawn from thi s .study are as follows: (1) Although there are differences i n the t i l l underlying the three s o i l s , particularly i n mechanical composition, the similarities i n carbonate content, mineral composition and general lack of weathering, do not j u s t i f y the separation of the material into Wycliffe and Cedrus t i l l s . (2) The t i l l underlying the solum of the Wycliffe s i l t loam, at least i n the profile under study, i s a D horizon rather than the parent material. This conclusion i s based largely on the wide d i f -ference i n mechanical composition, the X-ray patterns, composition and exchange capacity of the clay, and the content of heavy minerals. There i s some doubt as to the parent material of the podzolized horizons of the Yoho s i l t loam on the basis of differences i n the percentage of magnetite i n the heavy mineral fraction of the very fine sand. A more extensive study with other profiles of the same s o i l i s called for to elucidate this problem. (3) Profile development has been largely restricted to the leaching of carbonates and bases, the movement of iron and the eluviation of fine particles. There has been only slight movement of organic matter except i n the podzolized horizons of the Podzolized Grey Wooded profile. Maximum profile development has occurred i n the Podzolized Grey Wooded s o i l and the minimum i n the Brown Wooded s o i l . (4) The s o i l minerals i n the very fine sand and clay fractions are relatively unweathered even i n the A2p horizon i n which the maximum amount of leaching has taken place. APPENDIX I I. MECHANICAL COMPOSITION WYCLIFFE KINBASKET YOHO HORIZON DEPTH COARSE (inches) SKELETON (per cent t o t a l wt.) MECHANICAL ANALYSES t CALCIUM ORGANIC MATTER Percentage organic matter free, acid extracted, CARBONATE PERCENTAGE oven dry s o i l . EQUIVALENT oven dry s o i l _ , . T T r (CO, loss) Fraction IV 2 Fractions 1 & I I 2mm — .02mm Fraction I I I .02mm -•002mm. .002mm .001mm A l l | - 0 - 1 2 . 2 64 . 8 23 . 0 13 . 0 3 . 71 4 . 0 2 A 1 2 4-3 3 . 7 17 . 5 6 5 . 5 17 . 0 8 . 8 0.93 1 .30 *3 6|-10 1 .1 12.8 7 3 . 4 13 . 8 6 . 5 24 . 2 1 .50 B 4 10 -14 - 18 . 0 6 7 . 0 15 . 0 11 .5 3 7 . 2 1 .41 ° 1 14-19 6 . 9 14 . 0 4 7 . 0 3 9 . 0 2 7 . 0 40 . 5 1 .81 D 19 • 3 8 . 8 26.6 3 9 . 1 3 4 . 3 2 5 . 0 3 6 . 2 0 . 72 A 2 1 0-34 11 .0 40 . 5 3 9 . 3 2 0 . 2 13 . 5 - 1.73 A 2 2 34-74 6 . 8 3 6 . 0 3 8 . 4 25.6 19 . 5 - 1 .40 B 2 1 7*-9i 8 . 1 3 6 . 8 23 . 2 40 . 0 3 1 . 5 - 1.50 *22 9 4 - U 4 6 . 0 3 6 . 2 2 0 . 6 4 3 . 2 3 4 . 0 - 1.47 SCa 11^-18 9.5 3 4 . 8 30 . 5 3 4 . 7 28 . 0 16 .8 0.99 Cl 18-27 4 . 6 5 3 . 8 26.5 19 . 7 1 1 .0 20.3 1 .24 C 27 + 7 . 2 4 7 . 0 28 . 5 24 . 5 18 . 5 20.6 0.53 ^ p 0-24 2.6 3 9 . 0 49.6 11.4 9 . 7 - 0 .80 24-ii4 8 . 0 4 2 . 2 . 4 2 . 9 14 . 9 7 .6 - 2 . 0 2 A 2gw 114-15 4 . 3 3 6 . 0 4 6 . 4 17 . 6 8 .7 - 1.10 Bgw 15-20 6 .5 29 . 0 4 8 . 4 22 .6 14 . 2 1.05 1 .18 Ggw 20 + 5.3 4 3 . 4 3 5 . 4 21 .2 1 2 . 0 41 .9 1.89 C 16 .2 3 4 . 6 41.7 '23.7 13.7 3 5 .1 0 . 6 0 I t ft Size limits using International System, 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 •O'l 01* 1 |:l|t±HHS YOHO SILT LOAM - S OK PERCENTAGE 80 £ 70 u 60 § /// //// l l l l i i -A gp h o r i z o n Bp horizon — A P horizon B g w horizon C hlorizon 0001 .001 .10 1.0 mm. E f f e c t i v e diameter I I I . PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES HORIZON PH AIR-DRY MOISTURE Plastic limit PLASTICITY Liquid Plastic limit index EXCHANGEABLE BASES Milli-equivalents per 100 grams oven-dry s o i l . FREE IRON OXIDE Percent Fe20^ I Ca** Mg K* air-dry s o i l A l l 8.1 3.73 46.4 47.0 0.6 (24.4) 2.48 1.50 1.48 A12 7.9 2.72 23.3 31.5 4.2 (16.0) 1.85 1.47 1.01 WYCLIFFE *3 B 4 8.1 8.1 2.53 1.71 33.4 35.5 36.3 42.3 2.9 6.8 (42.1) (42.4) 2.25 2.46 0.43 0.50 0.90 1.33 % 8.3 1.05 22.9 26.1 3.2 (40.1) 1.85 0.13 0.55 D 8.2 0.61 10.3 14.1 3.8 (35.5) 1.25 0.08 0.70 A21 7.5 2.22 21.6 27.7 6.1 9.04 1.86 0.10 0.83 A22 6.4 2.02 18.7 22.6 3.9 9.54 3.62 0.22 1.08 B21 6.5 3.05 17.7 25.2 7.5 8.74 3.64 0.35 2.04 KINBASKET B22 6.5 2.48 17.1 27.5 10.4 10.15 4.95 0.33 2.01 BCa 8.1 1.02 15.2 22.2 7.0 (32.3) 4.14 0.04 1.07 Cl 8.1 0.83 13.3 18.6 5.3 (32.0) 4.23 - 0.92 C 8.1 0.66 6.2 14.6 8.4 (32.0) 4.20 - 0.69 A 2 P 5.1 1.97 4.5 - - 4.69 1.33 - 0.29 % 5.7 3.42 35.3 37.5 2.2 1.34 2.05 mm 1.17 YOHO A2gw Bgw 5.9 8.1 0.98 2.26 18.1 14.8 22.9 31.0 4.8 6.2 4.66 (19.6) 3.34 3.33 - 1.08 1.01 Ggw 8.1 1.00 24.0 29.9 5.9 (34.2) 3.18 - 0.54 C 8.1 0.49 16.0 21.2 5.2 (33.2) 3.01 - 0.58 NOTE: Figures i n parentheses have l i t t l e meaning owing to solution of calcium carbonate by ammonium acetate. APPENDIX I I TOTAL CLAY ANALYSIS WYCLIFFE KINBASKET YOHO HORIZON CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY m.e./lOO g. AIR-DRY MOISTURE per cent oven dry Si0 2 TOTAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (per cent oven-dry soil) Fe 203 A I 2 O 3 T ]o 2 CaO MgO K 2 0 F e2 °3 COATING per cent weight A n 41.7 6.5 60.5 4.30 L4 .7 .29 .33 0.84 3.57 1.43 A12 55.6 6.7 53.4 6.41 18.6 .37 .14 2.40 3 .40 3.10 *3 54.2 5 .4 34.4 7.30 25.8 .25 ( 1 3 . 5 ) * 2.54 3.07 2.40 B 4 57.3 5.4 31.9 6.33 19.3 .26 (15.9)+ 3 .04 3.48 2.47 D l 16.3 1.9 49.1 5.23 18.0 .24 9.6 4.51 4.52 2.58 D 23.1 1.1 43.6 5.32 22.1 .17 4.4 4 .79 4.52 3.26 A21 18.8 1.5 56.6 5.30 25.5 .34 .24 1.68 4.49 3 . 0 4 A22 29.6 3 . 5 55.5 7.97 20.1 .40 .14 1.74 4.50 4.36 hi 35.9 3.1 51.0 9.22 26.6 .28 .10 2.18 4.57 6.40 B22 37.5 3.2 49.9 9.58 28.4 .31 .19 2.44 4 .44 5.17 BCa 17.7 1.5 38.0 8.00 26 .6 .17 .25 3.62 5.74 4.68 Cl 17.5 1.7 49.0 8.15 20.8 .42 .40 4.36 5.67 2.30 C 17.8 1.9 40.8 8.08 25.7 .30 .84 4.33 5.32 3 .44 V 21.5 .02 Bp* 30.4 • 2.4 - 4.83 19.1 .58 1.14 3.06 3.85 2.81 A2gw * 15.3 1.4 - 6 .37 20.5 .49 .35 3 .57 5.48 .36 28.4 3.1 - 7.78 22.8 .34 .60 2.78 5.65 4.58 23.9 1.3 47.7 7.63 23.6 .32 2.68 4.11 5.30 3 .64 C 29.4 2.1 41.1 7.71 25.2 .37 5.51 4 .88 4.91 3.66 High values may be due to incomplete removal of calcite. Insufficient material for sodium carbonate fusion. i sO i i l i l i A P P E N D I X I I X - R A Y D I F F R A C T I O N P A T T E R N S (1) W Y C L I F F E kj2 H O R I Z O N (2) W Y C L I F F E B. H O R I Z O N (3) W Y C L I F F E DJL H O R I Z O N -61-X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERNS (4) KINBASKET A 2 1 HORIZON (5) KINBASKET B22 HORIZON (6) KINBASKET C HORIZON -62-X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERNS -63-X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERNS (10) FITHIAN ILLITE w4 (11) QUARTZ -64-APPENDIX I I I ^DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETITE IN THE HEAVY MINERAL FRACTION OF THE VERY FINE SAND. HORIZON NO. MAGNETITE NO. GRAINS PERCENTAGE OF GRAINS COUNTED MAGNETITE WYCLIFFE A 1 2 83 1802 4.61 B 4 26 1974 1.32 D 66 1564 5.55 KINBASKET A 2 1 57 2023 2.81 B^ 48 1636 2.94 C 41 1564 2.62 YOHO A_ 114 1324 8.62 2p B p 281 2470 11.4 Bgw H 743 1.48 C 8 773 1.03 - 6 5 -LITERATURE CITED 1 . Aarnio, B. 1913 The precipitation of iron i n podzol s o i l s , Inst. Mitt. Bodenk 3 : 131 . 2 . Adams, J. E, j Matelski, R. 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