UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Carlyle's idea of God and man's destiny Farquharson, Robert Howard 1956

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1956_A8 F2 C2.pdf [ 8.22MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106290.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106290-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106290-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106290-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106290-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106290-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106290-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106290-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106290.ris

Full Text

CARLYLE S IDEA OF GOD AND MAN'S DESTINY 1  by ROBERT HOWARD FARQUHARSON  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of English  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d from c a n d i d a t e s f o r the degree o f MASTER OF ARTS.  Members o f the Department o f E n g l i s h  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1956  CARLYLE'S IDEA OF GOD  AND  MAN'S DESTINY  ABSTRACT  Among c r i t i c s there has been considerable divergence of opinion on almost a l l aspects of Carlyle's writings.  This contradiction and con-  fusion can be traced i n part to the f a c t that Carlyle's stand has  an  emotional and personal basis which makes an objective assessment of the  man  d i f f i c u l t , and i n part to the fact that most c r i t i c s have taken Carlyle's theories s i n g l y with no understanding of the one c e n t r a l theory upon which a l l others depend.  This thesis i s an attempt to draw together the scattered  parts of t h i s c e n t r a l theory and to show that C a r l y l e had a u n i f i e d and cons i s t e n t philosophy with i t as a core. Basic to C a r l y l e ' s philosophy Divine Idea) who  i s the concept of a God  (or  has infused the p h y s i c a l universe with moral force.  The  p h y s i c a l universe i s therefore a complex of forces, moral force o r i g i n a t i n g with God,  and immoral or amoral forces a r i s i n g from the material nature of  the universe.  The tendency i n the resultant struggle of these forces i s  always towards good and God since only acts which agree with the divine Laws of Nature can survive. divine soul.  Man,  too, i s a physical being imbued with a  I t i s the nature of the soul to worship God i n a l l h i s mani-  festations and to seek t r u t h and j u s t i c e .  A Selbst-todtung,  p a r t i a l a n n i h i l a t i o n of s e l f , i s required to free man  that i s , a  from h i s material  desires and to turn his energies to the service of his s p i r i t u a l s e l f and of God. Because a l l men  are joined by a common brotherhood i n  God,  ii intercourse between them i s marked by a sense of j u s t i c e and a f f e c t i o n a t e loyalty. self.  And i n society man  finds scope f o r the f u l l development of him-  The.core of a society i s a hierarchy on which a l l men  are ranked,  t h e i r p o s i t i o n on the hierarchy being determined by the extent to which they understand God's plan f o r the universe and work to further that plan. who  Those  see the plan most c l e a r l y and work most e f f e c t i v e l y are the Heroes.  Work here means acting according to the Divine Plan to bring order out of chaos, and i s , i n this sense, a form of worship. In our universe the struggle of the i d e a l to manifest i t s e l f i n the actual r e s u l t s i n constant change, but throughout the change, whatever of good has been discovered by one to the next because the soul of man  generation i s preserved and passed on prefers good and abhors e v i l .  i s the agent of h i s t o r i c a l change, but God, i s the f i r s t cause. study of the men  Thus  acting through the soul of  man,  The study of history must therefore begin with the  involved, but f i n a l explanation of history l i e s with  I t i s the o f f i c e of the a r t i s t - h i s t o r i a n to show how out of chaos and how  man  God.  order has been created  i d e a l s have gradually got themselves  recognized.  Some c r i t i c s have changed that i n l a t e r l i f e C a r l y l e made judgements and held opinions completely contradictory to his e a r l i e r opinions. P a r t i c u l a r l y , i t i s charged that he took an i l l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l  stand, that  he became an admirer of successful power, and that he turned against common man.  the  whether these charges are true or not, the opinions upon which  they are based are derived from the same philosophy which C a r l y l e delineated i n Sartor Resartus. when he s a i d that, young man  I t i s the claim of t h i s thesis that Harrold was r i g h t "By the autumn of 1834,  the struggling, s e l f - t o r t u r i n g  of 181? had fashioned f o r himself a f a i r l y consistent  philosophy  iii  of l i f e , "  1  and, furthermore, that Carlyle p e r s i s t e d i n t h i s philosophy to  the end.  1  Carlyle and German Thought, New Haven, Yale University Press, 193k,  p.2  Table  of Contents  Chapter I  Introduction  page  1  Chapter I I  Carlyle's Cosmic View  page  22  page  61  1. 2. 3. Chapter I I I ,  Chapter IV  Man i n the World and Among h i s Fellows 1. 2. 3. U. 5.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p of man to man The relationship o f man to society Carlyle's hierarchy o f human worth The doctrine o f Heroworship The doctrine of Work  Carlyle's View o f History 1. 2. 3. U.  Chapter V  Carlyle's God or Divine Idea and the Laws of Nature The r e l a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l universe t o God The r e l a t i o n o f man to God  The dualism of Ideal and Actual The nature o f h i s t o r i c a l change Man as the agent of change History as the record o f a divine process  Conclusion - The Question of the Two Carlyles 1. 2.  page 1 0 0  page  1^8  Charges o f i l l i b e r a l ! t y and misanthropy i n the l a t e r C a r l y l e Consistency i n Carlyle's philosophy  Bibliography  page 1 5 7  Chapter I Introduction  Throughout the w i n t e r o f 1880-1881 the 85 y e a r o l d Thomas C a r l y l e had been s t e a d i l y f a i l i n g . he  died.  There was  On February 5,  1881,  an immediate o f f e r o f b u r i a l i n Westminster  Abbey, but Froude, r e s p e c t i n g C a r l y l e ' s own  wishes, d e c l i n e d  and made the l o n g , sad t r i p to E c c l e f e c h a n  to bury h i s f r i e n d  beside h i s f a t h e r and mother.  Then he r e t u r n e d  to London to  b e g i n his-work as l i t e r a r y executor to one  o f the most  men  Shortly thereafter  i n the-history of English l i t e r a t u r e .  vigorous  the Reminiscences appeared, and w i t h t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n broke a storm o f  controversy. The  to a q u e s t i o n  i s s u e i n the q u a r r e l t h a t f o l l o w e d b o i l e d down  o f C a r l y l e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and  character.  o f C a r l y l e ' s admirers Froude's e d i t i n g o v e r s t r e s s e d t a b i l i t y o f the man  and h i s d e f e c t s as a husband.  the q u i e t f a i t h t h a t he was  presenting  t r u t h could not h u r t a t r u e man,  the  that  to r e c a n t , but  about h i s next work, the L i f e o f C a r l y l e .  irri-  Froude, i n  the t r u t h , and  refused  To some  the  set  The more ardent  C a r l y l e admirers, however, unable to t o l e r a t e the thought o f any blemish i n t h e i r hero, would n o t . r e s t .  C.E.  Norton  l i s h e d a r i v a l v e r s i o n o f the Reminiscences. g r a v e l y t h a t he had  pub-  noting  c o r r e c t e d i n the f i r s t f i v e pages o f the Froude  e d i t i o n more than 130  e r r o r s i n punctuation,  use o f c a p i t a l s , '  2 q u o t a t i o n marks, and  the l i k e .  Alexander C a r l y l e came from  Canada to spend a good p a r t o f h i s l i f e uncle of the stigma Froude had wrote a long and rambling  t r y i n g to c l e a r h i s  put upon him.  biography, p u t t i n g  i n the most f a v o u r a b l e p o s s i b l e l i g h t and ever o f Froude he The  And  D.A.  Wilson  C a r l y l e always  s l y l y r e f u t i n g what-  could.  argument was,  i n i t s way,  p e t t y , and i t was  2 c a r r i e d on i n a p e t t y f a s h i o n . C a r l y l e and i n h i s own people were w i l l i n g  I n the end, Froude*s f a i t h i n  e d i t o r i a l judgment was  to accept  t h a t i n a man  i d e a l o f j u s t i c e , i r r i t a b i l i t y was him human.  alities —  so devoted to an  seem, the i s s u e  be-  f o r at bottom i t i s a q u e s t i o n o f person-  the p e r s o n a l i t y of the c r i t i c i n r e a c t i o n to the  p e r s o n a l i t y o f C a r l y l e , or r a t h e r , w i t h what the c r i t i c x  Most  merely the f l a w t h a t proved  Yet, p e t t y as i t a t f i r s t may  comes a v i t a l one,  justified.  imagines  C.E. Norton, " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , i n Thomas C a r l y l e , Reminscences. London, Macmillan, 1887, v o l . 1, p. v i i .  2 To r e a l i z e the p e t t i n e s s o f the method o f argument, we need c o n s i d e r o n l y the h i s t o r y of the phrase "gey i l l to d e a l wi'". I t was a phrase o f t e n used by C a r l y l e i n h i s f a m i l y l e t t e r s with r e f e r e n c e to h i m s e l f . Froude p i c k e d out the phrase, amended i t to "gey i l l to l i v e wi'", and used i t to s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s c l a i m t h a t even the C a r l y l e f a m i l y found Thomas a d i f f i c u l t person. Norton o b j e c t e d t h a t Froude, i n changing " d e a l " to " l i v e " had completely changed the meaning o f the phrase; he a l s o o b j e c t e d t h a t Froude harped on the i n c o r r e c t v e r s i o n , " r e p e a t i n g i t a t l e a s t s i x times i n the course o f h i s n a r r a t i o n . " ( L e t t e r s o f Thomas C a r l y l e . Macmillan, 1888, v o l . I , pp. 44-45n75 Later D.A. Wilson made a cunning a t t a c k on the same p o i n t . Without mentioning the c o n t r o v e r s y c e n t e r i n g around the phrase, he devoted a page o f h i s C a r l y l e biography to an e x p l a n a t i o n o f i t s o r i g i n and i t s p l a c e as a f a m i l y joke among the C a r l y l e s , conc l u d i n g with the remark t h a t i t would be "... m i s l e a d i n g to a stranger." ( C a r l y l e t i l l M a r r i a g e . London, Kegan P a u l , 1923, p. 198.);  3 Carlyle's personality and  p e r s u a s i o n was  to have been.  p e r s o n a l and  So much o f C a r l y l e ' s  so much o f h i s appeal e m o t i o n a l  that a c r i t i c ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n depends g r e a t l y personally  f e e l s about the man  power  Carlyle.  As  on how  he  a result,  few  c r i t i c s have been a b l e to w r i t e o b j e c t i v e l y about C a r l y l e . Thus, though the Froude c o n t r o v e r s y d i e d away, i t had  the e f f e c t of s h i f t i n g i n t e r e s t from the works to the  Moreover, i t foreshadowed i n the the p a t t e r n o f much of the  f e r o c i t y of i t s  partisanship  subsequent c r i t i c i s m o f C a r l y l e ,  p a t t e r n wherein a c r i t i c v o l u n t a r i l y or i n v o l u n t a r i l y himself taking MacCunn has  sides  man.  e i t h e r f o r or a g a i n s t C a r l y l e .  s u c c i n c t l y summed up  a  finds John  the r e s u l t o f t h i s  partisan-  ship: . . . when f r i e n d l y [ h i s readers] are content to take C a r l y l e as a man o f i n t u i t i o n s — i n t u i t i o n s as abrupt and unconsecutive as those o f the Hebrew prophets to whom, and not without j u s t i f i c a t i o n , they are wont to l i k e n him; and when u n f r i e n d l y they are not without a l e a n i n g towards t h a t c r i t i c o f The Sun who wrote down , ' S a r t o r Resartus' as 'a heap of c l o t t e d nonsense'. To  see  to what extremes of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  these ;two:. views can  l e a d we  the L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets. who  knew C a r l y l e  need o n l y compare two  The  either  of  estimates  of  f i r s t i s by Henry L a r k i n ,  a  man  personally:  And so we l e a v e the L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets. The s i n c e r e s t u t t e r a n c e s of a compassionate, stormf u l , and courageous h e a r t , s i n c e L u t h e r stood b e f o r e the D i e t o f Worms. As the days r o l l on, and our t r o u b l e s i n c r e a s e , they w i l l become more and more c r e d i b l e . They w i l l work t h e i r own appointed work, i n s p i t e o f a l l g a i n s a y i n g . They  "The Anti-Democratic R a d i c a l i s m of Thomas C a r l y l e " , i n R a d i c a l T h i n k e r s , London, Edward A r n o l d , 1910, p. 141-.  Six  A w i l l c a r r y t h e i r God's message as f a r as i t w i l l go, — 'and, what i s a g r e a t advantage too, no farther'. The  following, representative  w r i t t e n i n 1927  of the a n t i - C a r l y l e view,  was  by Norwood Young:  So ended L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets. They began w i t h inhumanity and concluded w i t h the narrowest Puritanism. They denounced a l l mankind, from B l a c k Quashee to Jenny Lind.*To one man,  a f r i e n d , the L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets mean courage,  s i n c e r i t y , compassion.  To another they are inhuman.  judgments are extreme, and  they are so opposed t h a t i t i s d i f f i -  c u l t to b e l i e v e t h a t these two o f the same work.  We  Both  men  are attempting an assessment  can o n l y take i t t h a t the two  opinions  are completely s u b j e c t i v e , more h e l p f u l f o r t h a t they r e v e a l about Henry L a r k i n and Norwood Young than f o r what they  tell  about Thomas C a r l y l e . Most l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s have been the centre o f some s o r t of controversy,  but few have been i n t e r p r e t e d i n so  completely a c o n t r a d i c t o r y manner on a l l p o i n t s o f t h e i r w r i t i n g . With C a r l y l e , so many opposing views have been put forward w i t h regard  to what he was  and what he wrote t h a t i t i s  impossible  to get from a c r i t i c a l work a t r u e p i c t u r e o f the man his  meaning.  A b r i e f glance a t a few o p i n i o n s  t e n t to which i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and f u s e d and  or o f  r e v e a l s the  assessment o f C a r l y l e are  excon-  contradictory.  C a r l y l e and the Open S e c r e t o f h i s L i f e . London, Kegan P a u l , 1886, p.278C a r l y l e . H i s R i s e and F a l l .  London, Duckworth, 1927,  p.  255-  5 On such a seemingly simple q u e s t i o n as "Does C a r l y l e b e l i e v e i n a l i f e a f t e r death?" we Bentley stating categorically:  can f i n d  Eric  "As a mature man £Carlyle] had  no b e l i e f i n the i m m o r t a l i t y of the human soul''.^  Larkin,  on  the o t h e r hand, w r i t e s w i t h equal assurance t h a t C a r l y l e had ". . . a n  i n a r t i c u l a t e b e l i e f i n the i n f i n i t e l y j u s t 'Most  High God'  . . . and i n an I n d i v i d u a l I m m o r t a l i t y " .  2 Norwood  Young notes t h a t C a r l y l e expressed many times i n h i s l e t t e r s the b e l i e f t h a t members o f h i s f a m i l y would meet a g a i n a f t e r 3  death.  Young a l s o quotes Masson, who  saying:  "He  grave".  4  knew C a r l y l e w e l l ,  as  l i k e d to t h i n k t h a t there i s a l i f e beyond the  O b v i o u s l y the c r i t i c s cannot h e l p us h e r e .  would know how  I f we  C a r l y l e f e l t about i m m o r t a l i t y we must go to  C a r l y l e ' s works and d i s c o v e r the answer f o r o u r s e l v e s . C a r l y l e ' s work i n German l i t e r a t u r e was  once con-  s i d e r e d one o f h i s main c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the development o f E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e and p h i l o s p h y .  But was he r e a l l y  England's  d i s c o v e r e r and grand p a t r o n o f Goethe and the German t r a n s c e n d e n t a l ! sts?  H e n s e l , a German author, t h i n k s he  was:  1  The C u l t o f the Superman. London, Robert H a l e , 1947 p. 39.  2  L a r k i n , op_. c i t . .  ^  Cf D.A. W i l s o n , C a r l y l e to the French R e v o l u t i o n . London, Kegan Paul.1924, p. 1557 From a l e t t e r to h i s s i s t e r J e a n on the death o f a f a v o u r i t e s i s t e r Margaret: "I t r u s t t h a t the Almighty may one day r e s t o r e here to us and us to her . . . ."  4  (1944-),  p. 355*  David Masson, C a r l y l e , P e r s o n a l l y and i n h i s W r i t i n g . 1885, p. 92. Quoted i n Young, op., c i t . . p. 314.  v  6 E i n g r o s s e r T e i l s e i n e r Wirkasmkeit bestand j a d a r i n , s e i n e L a n d e s l e u t e auf d i e grossen deutschen G e i s t e s h e l d e n aufmerksam zu machen, ihnen zu zeigen, dass i n diesem udeutschen M y s t i k e r n " Schatze verborgen s e i e n , ohne d i e auch England n i c h t w e i t e r f o r t l e b e n kbnne. E r war der Wegweiser i n das g e l o b t e L a n d . 1  L a r k i n c l a i m s t h a t C a r l y l e , d e p r i v e d of h i s German masters, c o u l d never have r i s e n to h i s t r u e i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a t u r e and 2 moral s t r e n g t h .  On the o t h e r hand, C.E. Vaughan c l a i m s  C a r l y l e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f K a n t i a n p h i l o s o p h y was a ". . . t r a v e s t y o f the o r i g i n a l " ^ , w h i l e B e n t l e y c a l l s  Carlyle  ". . . a mere e x p r o p r i a t o r i n t h i s t e r r i t o r y " , and Young 4  a s s e r t s C a r l y l e n e i t h e r understood l e c t u a l sympathies n e c e s s a r y  Goethe nor had the i n t e l -  t o understanding  s t a t e s b a l d l y t h a t C a r l y l e ' s acquaintance was almost  him.  Hill  Shine  w i t h German p h i l o s o p h y  s o l e l y second-hand: The more one s t u d i e s C a r l y l e ' s connection w i t h German p h i l o s o p h y , the more e v i d e n t i t becomes t h a t C a r l y l e read l i t t l e i n the primary sources and t h a t he d e r i v e d much o f t h i s p h i l o s o p h y from secondary o r p o p u l a r s o u r c e s . 0  During C a r l y l e ' s l i f e - t i m e t h e r e had been c o n s i d e r a b l e t a l k o f the s u p e r i o r n o b i l i t y and m o r a l i t y o f l i f e i n the  -  P a u l H e n s e l , Thomas C a r l y l e , S t u t t g a r t , Frommann, 1902, p.210.  2  Open S e c r e t , p.9.  •3  C a r l y l e and h i s German M a s t e r s . 1910, quoted I n Young, ap_. c i t . p. 100.  4  C u l t , p.49.  L  R i s e and F a l l , pp. 64-65' 6 ''Carlyle and the German P h i l o s o p h y ftob&em during the Year 1826-27", P u b l i c a t i o n s o f the Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n v o l . 50 (1935), p.812-  7 days b e f o r e the advent o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n had brought upon the world the h y p o c r i s y and m a t e r i a l i s m o f civilization.  present-day  C a r l y l e h i m s e l f wrote a good d e a l about the  e a r l i e r p e r i o d s o f h i s t o r y and made much o f the times o f Odin, Mohamet, and Abbot Samson.  Did he then j o i n the Romantics i n  y e a r n i n g f o r the r e t u r n o f those e a r l i e r days?  One  writer  answers t h i s q u e s t i o n w i t h a p o s i t i v e "Yes" accounting  for his  answer by saying; C a r l y l e * s p r e f e r e n c e f o r the past to the p r e s e n t i s connected w i t h h i s hero-worship. The p a s t was the time o f heavy f i s t s , and i t was a l s o the time o f i n d i v i d u a l predominance, w h i l e the tendency o f • progress i s to r a i s e the g e n e r a l l e v e l o f humanity.1 The  c o n t r a r y view i s expressed  by P a u l H e n s e l , among others:  Es ware aber durchaus v e r k e h r t , w o l l t e man nach s o l c h e r A'usserungen C a r l y l e zu einem b l i n d e n Bewunderer des M i t t e l a l t e r s stempeln. Fur i n n war d i e Vergangeheit hiemals Gegenwart i n dem S i n n , dass er an S t e l l e der Gegenwart gewunscht h a t t e , d i e Vergangeheit zu setzen. Man kann i h n i n s o f e r n a l l e r d i n g s einen Romantiker nennen, a l s e r s i c h k l a r bewusst war, dass vergangene Weltanschauung, vergangene I d e a l e wohl im G e i s t wJeier l e b e n d i g gemacht werden k&mien, und d i e s war f u r i h n sogar. eine der Hauptaufgaben der - Geschinhtsschreibung. Doch b l i e b er e i n Mann der W i r k l i c h k e i t i n dem S i n n , dass er aXT'e? Versuche, e i n e vergangene Weltanschauung i n s w i r k l i c h e Leben wieder zuruckzufiihren f u r einen Anachronismus, f u r d i e schlimmste Versundigung wider den G e i s t der G e s c h i c h t e hlelt. (  Once a g a i n there i s no agreement among the men  who  To answer t h i s q u e s t i o n too, we must t r u s t our own  w r i t e books. resources  " C a r l y l e ' s E a r l y K i n g s o f Norway", The N a t i o n , v o l . 23 (21 September, 1376), p. 185. H e n s e l , Thomas C a r l y l e . p.  14-2.  3 r a t h e r than  critics. I t has been common t o c a l l C a r l y l e a prophet  —  an O l d Testament prophet a c c o r d i n g t o many. . Y e t as e a r l y as 1  1897 H.D. T r a i l i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Centenary E d i t i o n o f C a r l y l e ' s works maintained t h a t he was . . . a prophet who had n  perished"  2  w h i l e on the o t h e r hand David Gascoyne, w r i t i n g i n  1 9 5 2 , c a l l e d C a r l y l e " . . . o u r g r e a t n a t i o n a l prophet, . . . a w r i t e r who i s s t i l l f u l l o f import t o l i v i n g men and women." Turning t o a broader and more important a s p e c t o f the man, we might ask where h i s s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l sympathies l a y . "With Labour'." c r y the L a b o u r i t e s , remembering h i s b i t t e r  fights  w i t h L a i s s e z - f a i r e , h i s impassioned p l e a f o r those i n the poorhouses,  and h i s famous s l o g a n , "A f a i r day's wages f o r a f a i r  day's work."  4  Y e t , a g e n e r a t i o n e a r l i e r , Mr. L a r k i n had been  C f . J u l i a n Symons, Thomas C a r l y l e . London, G o l l a n c z , 1952, p.160. ". . . the mantle o f an O l d Testament prophet worn by a man with.the V i s u a l sense o f a g r e a t p a i n t e r . " A l s o , John MacCunn, pja. c i t . . p . 1 4 1 . See u l t r a , p.2>r ^  I n P a s t and P r e s e n t , London, Chapman H a l l , 1897, p. 14-,  3  Thomas C a r l y l e . Supplement t o B r i t i s h Book Mews; London, Longmans, Green, 1952, p.8  No. 23,  4  A Thomas C a r l y l e , P a s t and P r e s e n t . London, Chapman and H a l l , 1897, p.18. I n t h i s t h e s i s a l l r e f e r e n c e t o C a r l y l e ' s works i s t o t h i s , the Centenary e d i t i o n , except t h a t the MacMechan e d i t i o n o f Heroes has been used. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f those who s t r e s s C a r l y l e ' s a f f i n i t y w i t h t h e i d e a l s o f the Labour Movement; "More t r u l y than Ruskin i s C a r l y l e the p a r e n t o f B r i t i s h Socialism and the f o r e r u n n e r o f the Labour Movement." (Mary Agnes Hamilton, Thomas C a r l y l e . 1926, quoted i n Young, R i s e andJEall. p.370) ""Almost a l l E n g l i s h S o c i a l i s t s have r e c e i v e d t h e i r f i r s t d e c i s i v e impetus towards S o c i a l i s m from the w r i t i n g s o f C a r l y l e , M i l l , Ruskin, Henry George." (Bernstein, My Years o f ExlUftS. 1920, quoted i n Young, R i s e and F a l l , p.370). :  9 sure t h a t " C a r l y l e was and  the best and  i n d u s t r i a l a r i s t o c r a c i e s j had  t r u e s t f r i e n d [our  ever had..  MacCunn, t r y i n g  1  to f i t C a r l y l e i n t o the N i n e t e e n t h century p o l i t i c a l f i n d s t h a t "he ordinary to f i l l  Tory, nor Whig, nor  The  2  one  thing  orthodox i n h i s p o l i t i c a l  o f the  ( i n the be made  'Devil's  t h a t emerges here i s that  I n r e c e n t years t h e r e has  Carlyle  thinking.  been c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s -  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f C a r l y l e ' s thought to F a s c i s t  and N a z i t h e o r i e s . the  Radical  o f f i c e admirably i n a l l these p a r t i e s as  c e r t a i n l y not  cussion  scene,  sense of the word), except indeed as he may  advocate'." was  i s neither  landed  H.J.C. G r i e r s o n  was  the  first  d o c t r i n a l s i m i l a r i t i e s when, as e a r l y as 1933,  to p o i n t he  out  chose  as  h i s t o p i c f o r the Adamson L e c t u r e to the U n i v e r s i t y o f Manchester " C a r l y l e and H i t l e r " .  Shortly  thereafter  t h e r e appeared i n  the  Saturday Review of L i t e r a t u r e an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " C a r l y l e  rules  the R e i c h " , wherein Joseph Baker E l l i s  need  stated baldly:  an i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t e r to i n t r o d u c e us movement H i t l e r r e p r e s e n t s . Wright, w r i t i n g  decade l a t e r g i v e s h i s a r t i c l e on C r i s i s " the  s u b - t i t l e "Another God  1  0?en S e c r e t , p.  2  Six Radical  3  V o l . 10,  4  V o l . 38  no.  " C a r l y l e and  C.  the  Present  f o r the N a z i P a n t h e o n " .  14,2.  9 (November, 1933), p.  (18 June, 194-3), pp.  And.  the  j o u r n a l Commonweal a  361.  T h i n k e r s , p.  to H i t l e r and  C a r l y l e i s the man."3  i n the Roman C a t h o l i c  "We  291.  219-220.  4  10 B e r t r a n d R u s s e l i n h i s essay "The A n c e s t r y of Fascism"  finds  both N i e t z s c h e and C a r l y l e i n the N a z i f a m i l y tree.^" T h i s charge C a r l y l e ' s d i s c i p l e s cannot a l l o w to go unanswered.  David Gascoyne s t r i k e s out a g a i n s t those  would put C a r l y l e on the N a z i r o s t e r when he  who  says:  One o f the most frequent o f modern misunderstandings o f C a r l y l e i s the i d e a t h a t , because he was one o f the c r i t i c s o f Democracy and an admirer o f Heroes, he must have been one o f the t h i n k e r s who prepared the way f o r T o t a l i t a r i a n ism, along w i t h Houston Stewart Chamberlain and the Comte de Gobineau. T h i s i s a d i s g r a c e f u l misunderstanding and c o u l d o n l y have grown so common i n a s o c i e t y which had ceased to know any l o n g e r what i t means to b e l i e v e i n anything h i g h e r t h a n ^ s e l f - i n t e r e s t and the n e c e s s i t y f o r compromise. A s i m i l a r o p i n i o n i s o f f e r e d by E r i c B e n t l e y : C a r l y l e and N i e t z s c h e i n t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y p o l i t i c s have been u s e f u l to the German governments i n search o f a u t h o r i t i e s to impress the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . . . [but) i f H i t l e r h i m s e l f i s i n d e b t e d to l i t e r a t u r e i t i s more probably to the paranoiac wild-west s t o r i e s o f K a r l May . . . than to the r a t h e r more advanced thought o f C a r l y l e and N i e t z s c h e . A l f r e d Rosenberg has, o f course, been c l o s e to H i t l e r , but h i s debt to C a r l y l e and N i e t z s c h e i s amost n i l . ^ E r n s t C a s s i r e r a l s o o b j e c t s to the attempt  to make C a r l y l e a  prophet o f Nazism: . . . I cannot accept the judgment I f i n d i n r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t . What C a r l y l e meant by 'heroism* or ' l e a d e r s h i p ' was by no means the  1  See B e n t l e y , C u l t , p.  250.  2  Gascoyne, op_. c i t . . p.  11.  3  C u l t , p.  247.  11 same as what we of fascism.  f i n d i n our modern t h e o r i e s  And one f i n a l o p i n i o n on the s u b j e c t , t h i s one enough from the man  who  surprisingly  f i r s t p o i n t e d out the a f f i n i t y between  C a r l y l e and H i t l e r : ... i t i s absurd o r u n j u s t to suggest t h a t C a r l y l e ever came to such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r i g h t w i t h might as i s f r a n k l y accepted by a N i e t z s c h e or a H i t l e r f o r a S t a l i n . 2  One  o f C a r l y l e ' s admirers, F r e d e r i c k Roe,  f a r from  seeing him as a prophet o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m , f i n d s i n passages of Carlyle " . . .  the v e r y essence o f democratic d o c t r i n e ,  f a i t h i n the worth o f the i n d i v i d u a l i r r e s p e c t i v e o f rank i n the power o f e d u c a t i o n to awaken and develop that Roe  — and  worth.  goes on to develop t h i s l i b e r a l v e i n o f thought i n the  f o l l o w i n g manner: C a r l y l e ' s democracy goes even f u r t h e r . He was a v i g o r o u s and l i f e - l o n g champion o f three g r e a t p r i n c i p l e s which u n d e r l i e modern progress and which were e s t a b l i s h e d o n l y a f t e r prolonged p o p u l a r s t r u g g l e ; — the r i g h t o f p r i v a t e judgment as won by the P r o t e s t a n t Reformation, the r i g h t of a people to r e v o l t a g a i n s t prolonged o p r e s s i o n , and the r i g h t o f t o o l s to him who can use them . . . ."4The well-known p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t , F.J.C. Hearnshaw, would n o t o n l y deny t h a t C a r l y l e had any sympathy f o r democratic  York, 1955  govern-  1  The Myth o f S t a t e . Doubleday, New p.270.  (copyright  2  H.J.C. G r i e r s o n , "Thomas C a r l y l e " , i n Proceedings o f the B r i t i s h Academy. 194-0, London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , p.321  3  The S o c i a l P h i l o s o p h y o f C a r l y l e and R u s k i n . New H a r c o u r t Brace, 1921, p.75,  4  Loc. c i t .  York,  194-6),  T  12 ment —  "He  [Carlyle) a r d e n t l y b e l i e v e d i n government o f the  people f o r the people but not by. the p e o p l e "  1  —  but would a l s o  deny t h a t C a r l y l e had any understanding o f democratic f o r he wrote q u i t e b l u n t l y : l i b e r t y at  all."  doctrines,  " C a r l y l e d i d not b e l i e v e i n  2  E a r l i e r an anonymous w r i t e r i n The N a t i o n had gone much f u r t h e r than t h i s and s a i d " I t was  i m p o s s i b l e f o r him to  be a l i b e r a l , f o r he had a profound d i s b e l i e f i n man." charge here i s more than i l l l b e r a l i t y , anthropy.  i t i s complete  Y e t L e i g h Hunt once s a i d o f C a r l y l e :  The  3  mis-  "I b e l i e v e  t h a t what Mr. C a r l y l e l i k e s b e t t e r than h i s f a u l t f i n d i n g , w i t h a l l i t s eloquence, i s the f a c e o f any human c r e a t u r e t h a t l o o k s s u f f e r i n g and l o v i n g and s i n c e r e . " at  4  I n the l a s t two q u o t a t i o n s  l e a s t , we have a d e f i n i t e r e f l e c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l p r e j u d i c e ,  a n t i p a t h y on the p a r t of the w r i t e r i n The N a t i o n — his  entire a r t i c l e i s very b i t t e r —  L e i g h Hunt who  f o r y e a r s was  the tone of  sympathy on the p a r t o f  a neighbour o f the C a r l y l e s i n  Chelsea. We  may  w e l l conclude t h i s survey o f C a r l y l e  c r i t i c i s m w i t h an examination o f judgments o f C a r l y l e as an historian.  H i s t o r y was  v e r y important to C a r l y l e .  much o f h i s energy to the study and w r i t i n g o f i t .  1  He  devoted  Moncure  "Thomas C a r l y l e " , i n The S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Ideas o f Some R e p r e s e n t a t i v e T h i n k e r s o f the V i c t o r i a n Age. London, Harrap, 1932, p.4-7.  2  Loc. c i t .  3  "Thomas C a r l y l e " , v o l . 32  4  Quoted i n Gascoyne, op., c i t . .  (17 February, 1881), p.110. p.8.  13 Conway c a l l e d C a r l y l e ". . . a g r e a t h i s t o r i a n —  one who, o f  a l l l i v i n g men, perhaps, has most p r o f o u n d l y s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l minds and c h a r a c t e r s t o events o f w o r l d wide import.""*'  We must remember, however, t h a t Conway ( a l -  though he s i d e d w i t h Froude i n the Reminiscences was  a thoroughgoing  Carlyle disciple.  controversy)  Norwood Young, whom we  have by t h i s time come t o r e c o g n i z e as a man not p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y or  p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i n tune w i t h the C a r l y l e s p i r i t , makes t h i s  sweeping condemnation o f C a r l y l e ' s H i s t o r y o f the French Revolution;  3  C a r l y l e ' s view o f the R e v o l u t i o n i s mistaken from beginning t o end, because he was i n c a p a b l e of f r e e i n g h i m s e l f from a c q u i r e d c o n v i c t i o n s , and was t h e r e f o r e unable t o see the f a c t s as they were . . . . The reader who d e s i r e s t o o b t a i n a t r u e account o f what a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d ^ should a v o i d C a r l y l e ' s dramatic moving p i c t u r e .  Quite the o p p o s i t e view i s taken, however, by G.M. T r e v e l y a n . W r i t i n g on the o c c a s i o n o f the opening o f the C a r l y l e house i n Chelsea he s a i d : I t i s , s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Mr. Morse Stephens, who has spent years i n studying the l a t e s t m a t e r i a l of French R e v o l u t i o n h i s t o r y , who knows as i n t i m a t e l y as any man the exact n a t u r e o f the mistakes i n t o which C a r l y l e f e l l , s t i l l consents to speak o f him as 'a g r e a t h i s t o r i a n , ' and as one who, when he e r r e d , e r r e d 'not w i l f u l l y but from the s c a n t i n e s s o f the i n f o r m a t i o n a t h i s disposal!'»3  1 2  3  "Thomas C a r l y l e " , Harpers, v o l . 23 (May,  1881), p.888.  R i s e and F a l l , p.147, " C a r l y l e as an H i s t o r i a n " , N i n e t e e n t h Century, v o l . 66  (1899), p.4-93J  A t the same time, however, T r e v e l y a n has to admit t h a t  "...  there are h i s t o r i a n s who  CF.  c o n s i d e r him no h i s t o r i a n . " ^  H a r r o l d , though perhaps h i m s e l f no h i s t o r i a n , i s among those who  would bar C a r l y l e from the brotherhood, h i s view being  t h a t , " I n s t e a d o f c o n s i d e r i n g C a r l y l e as a s c i e n t i f i c we may  more p r o p e r l y regard him as an  artist*"  historian  2  By " s c i e n t i f i c h i s t b r i a n " I take i t H a r r o l d means one o f two  things —  e i t h e r an h i s t o r i a n who  accepts the  c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t p h i l o s o p h y o f Newtonian p h y s i c s and a p p l i e s i t to h i s study o f h i s t o r y , or an h i s t o r i a n who in a scientifically with s c i e n t i f i c  thorough manner and who  objectivity.  does h i s r e s e a r c h presents h i s f a c t s  Since " h i s t o r i a n " i n the  latter  sense i s more n e a r l y the o p p o s i t e o f " a r t i s t " , I suppose H a r r o l d ' s o b j e c t i o n to c a l l i n g  Carlyle a "scientific  i s based on the b e l i e f t h a t C a r l y l e d i d not c a r r y out r e s e a r c h or present h i s f a c t s o b j e c t i v e l y . the r e s e a r c h , H a r r o l d h i m s e l f has admitted graph  historian" proper  But w i t h r e g a r d to t h a t "every p a r a -  £in the French R e v o l u t i o n ] c o n t a i n i n g an h i s t o r i c a l  i s the product o f a number o f m u t u a l l y c o n f i r m i n g  fact  sources."3  John N i c h o l , too, speaks of the "admirable c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s " w i t h which C a r l y l e undertook " . . .  the accumulation o f d e t a i l s ,  the wearisome c o m p i l a t i o n o f f a c t s , weighing  1  Nineteenth Century, v o l . 66  (1899), p.  of previous  493.  2  " C a r l y l e ' s G e n e r a l Method i n the French R e v o l u t i o n , " PMLA. v o l . 63 (1928), p.1150.  3  I b i d . , p.1152.  15 c r i t i c i s m , the s i f t i n g chaff."1  o f g r a i n s o f wheat from the b u s h e l s o f  C a r l y l e h i m s e l f did much t o propagate t h i s  f o r he spoke o f t e n o f the drudgery o f h i s h i s t o r i c a l But Norwood Young s c o f f s a t such p r o t e s t a t i o n s ,  belief, labours.  saying:  The complaints [ o f t e d i o u s research] a r e extravagant and the statements erroneous. C a r l y l e s c l a i m to be the f i r s t a c t u a l reader o f Cromwell's speeches i s r i d i c u l o u s u n l e s s , indeed, t h e r e i s some magic i n the word ' a c t u a l . ' 1  I f we t u r n to the g r e a t and f i n a l q u e s t i o n : t r y i n g to say?  we f i n d the same u n c e r t a i n t y .  2  What was C a r l y l e After Carlyle's  death o v e r a l l assessments o f him appeared w i t h every eulogy. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to see how f a r a p a r t ments a r e .  some o f these  assess-  To the o b i t u a r y - w r i t e r i n the Annual R e g i s t e r the  k e r n e l o f h i s philosophy  was " . . . t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n , Reform  o r B a l l o t B i l l s , s t a t u t o r y measures o f s o c i a l improvement o f any k i n d would do o f themselves next t o no good . . . . "  3  True, C a r l y l e l a i d about o f t e n and w i t h heavy sword a g a i n s t the f u t i l i t y of parliamentary but i t i s going o f h i s thought — philosophy.  too f a r —  reform  as a cure f o r a l l our i l l s ,  and n e g l e c t i n g too many o t h e r  lines  t o c a l l t h i s b e l i e f the kernel- o f h i s  And beyond t h i s assessment there s t i l l  l i e s un-  answered the q u e s t i o n as t o why he d i s t r u s t e d b a l l o t boxes and elections.  1  Thomas C a r l y l e . i n The E n g l i s h Men o f L e t t e r s S e r i e s . London, M a c m i l l a n , 1909, p. 166.  2  R i s e and F a l l , pp.207-208.  3  Annual R e g i s t e r . 1881, London, R i v i n g t o n , p.101.  16 Dean S t a n l e y , the Canon o f Westminster Abbey had  proposed t h a t C a r l y l e be b u r i e d  had  to be  i n the Abbey and  who  who  now  s a t i s f i e d with a funeral oration instead of a f u n e r a l ,  d e l i v e r e d h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the whole purpose o f C a r l y l e ' s life  from h i s p u l p i t on Sunday, February 6,  1888:  The whole framework and f a b r i c o f h i s mind was b u i l t up on the b e l i e f t h a t there are not many wise, not many n o b l e minds, not many d e s t i n e d by the Supreme R u l e r o f the u n i v e r s e to r u l e t h e i r fellows . . . . T h i s was h i s d o c t r i n e o f the work o f heroes; t h i s , r i g h t or wrong, was the mission of h i s l i f e . * Once again, as i n the o p i n i o n t r u t h i n t h i s assessment. basic  "doctrines",  d o c t r i n e o f Heroes i s indeed  But  f a b r i c o f h i s mind nor  i t were, where should we  And  The  to C a r l y l e ' s thought.  work and  j u s t g i v e n above, t h e r e i s some  i t i s not  the whole frame-  the m i s s i o n o f h i s l i f e .  f i n d place  f o r the o t h e r C a r l y l e  those o f S i l e n c e , o f Work, o f Might and  Dean S t a n l e y ' s mention o f a "Supreme R u l e r " h i n t s  t h e r e i s i n C a r l y l e something o r some one some one  more  If  Right? that  beyond the heor,  ultimate.  J u l i a n Symons takes q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t approach. A c c o r d i n g to him,  C a r l y l e ' s work was  ".  . .a  life-long  struggle  to e x p e l w i t h the magic o f dogma the hydra-headed monster o f doubt." the man  This  s o r t o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , an attempt to  i n terms o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  common w i t h r e s p e c t o f the  to C a r l y l e .  c o n f l i c t , has  been v e r y  I t begins w i t h an  s t e r n r e l i g i o n o f C a r l y l e ' s childhood  and  explain  examination  goes on to a  1  Quoted i n Henry J . N i c o l l , Thomas C a r l y l e . London, Ward Lock, n.d., p.249.  2  Thomas C a r l y l e . p.31..  and  17 catalogue o f the doubts and torments t h a t beset a one-time b e l i e v e r who  i s exposed to the c o l d l o g i c o f a g n o s t i c i s m .  Here Symons stops. his  l i f e was  torments. l a s t i n g Yea view he all,  To him,  a l l t h a t C a r l y l e d i d throughout  done i n an attempt to r e s o l v e these doubts  Apparently J u l i a n Symons does not take the o f S a r t o r Resartus  to be f i n a l .  cannot o f course f i n d anything  and  Ever-  I f this i s his  p o s i t i v e i n C a r l y l e at  and he must r e g a r d a l l t h a t came a f t e r S a r t o r e i t h e r as  v a l i a n t attempts a t s e l f - c o n v e r s i o n o r as out-and-out h y p o c r i s y . I n such a view there i s l i t t l e o f worth to be found  i n Carlyle,  u n l e s s the reader h i m s e l f be t r o u b l e d by the "hydra-headed monster o f doubt" and All  seek here p e r s o n a l s o l a c e .  three of these e v a l u a t i o n s have some t r u t h i n  them, but none c o n t a i n s the whole t r u t h — taken together. one  We  nor do a l l o f them  must have some broader b a s i s f o r judgment,  t h a t takes i n t o account more than o n l y the  i d e a s , o r the d o c t r i n e o f heroes, l i g o u s problems.  political  or C a r l y l e s personal re1  H.J.C. G r i e r s o n comes n e a r e r to the whole  meaning o f C a r l y l e when he  says:  Whatever one may t h i n k o f C a r l y l e s c o n c l u s i o n s , the a b e r r a t i o n s o f h i s l a s t angry pamphlets, h i s p a s s i o n f o r o r d e r a t ehe expense o f l i b e r t y , his vindication o f might by some u l t i m a t e bel i e f i n r i g h t i n the long run, one w i l l do him an i n j u s t i c e i f one i g n o r e s the f a c t t h a t t h i s , j u s t i c e , was h i s g o a l . 1  "Thomas C a r l y l e " , Proceedings 19AO. p. 312,  o f the B r i t i s h Academy.  18 J u s t i c e was indeed C a r l y l e ' s g o a l throughout h i s l i f e and i n a l l he wrote.  Y e t how much i s here unsaid*.  What s o r t o f  j u s t i c e i s i t t h a t the negroes o f America should be  enslaved?  That Governor Eyre should be rewarded f o r executing the b l a c k s who opposed him?  These a r e t h i n g s C a r l y l e approved o f .  i s then j u s t i c e ?  What  I t would seem t o be a t h i n g o f a thousand  shapes, and G r i e r s o n o f f e r s us no h e l p i n f i n d i n g the Carlyfean form o f i t .  Here, t o o , there a r e questions l e f t unanswered.  How can we r e c o g n i z e j u s t i c e ?  Why should we week j u s t i c e ?  Or i s i t the u l t i m a t e t h i n g f o r which there i s no why? Taken a l l i n a l l , then, we can f i n d o n l y i n the ctiticism of Carlyle. religion i s flatly  confusion  What one man has to say about h i s  c o n t r a d i c t e d by another.  would c a l l him a misanthrope, another  One a u t h o r i t y  a p h i l a n t h r o p i s t . To  some h i s t o r i a n s he i s an h i s t o r i a n , to o t h e r s , an a r t i s t . we read i n one p l a c e t h a t he i s a prophet to  n e g l e c t , we read i n a n o t h e r  has vanished u t t e r l y .  our age cannot a f f o r d  t h a t the value o f h i s message  As f o r h i s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  h e r e we have wide c h o i c e .  If  ideas  —  He i s e i t h e r a L a b o u r i t e o r an  a r i s t o c r a t , a humanist o r a N a z i , depending upon the p e r s o n a l p r e j u d i c e o r p a r t i a l i t y o f the c r i t i c . C a r l y l e ' s f r i e n d s , i n attempting  to i n v a l i d a t e  the a c c u s a t i o n s o f h i s f o e s , u s u a l l y make the charge t h a t the f o e s have n o t read C a r l y l e . and the reasons  To some extent t h i s i s probably  f o r the n e g l e c t a r e not hard to f i n d .  true,  The  s i z e o f t h e C a r l y l e canon i s i t s e l f f r i g h t e n i n g and much i n i t d e a l s w i t h matters no longer o f c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t . unusual  Carlyle's  s t y l e p r o b a b l y p l a y s a p a r t as w e l l i n the r e l u c t a n c e  19 of  present-day readers to t a c k l e him.  But a more important  reason stems from the Froude c o n t r o v e r s y . Froude hinted a t C a r l y l e ' s i r a s c i b i l i t y of  the man  From the time  that  and impotence the  became more important than the works.  study  David Gascoyne  has t h i s to say w i t h r e g a r d to both C a r l y l e and Ruskin: i n t e r e s t s modern c r i t i c s  "What  seems to be f a r l e s s what they had  say than the u n s u c c e s s f u l n a t u r e o f t h e i r  marriages."  to  1  Along w i t h the charge o f not having read C a r l y l e goes the charge o f not h a v i n g understood him. MacCunn, defending C a r l y l e a g a i n s t those who  Thus, John s c o f f t h a t he  preached a g o s p e l o f work and d i d n o t h i n g h i m s e l f , a d v i s e s that " . . .  his critics 2  gospel a r i g h t . "  should l e a r n to i n t e r p r e t  that  Good a d v i c e , too, i f understanding  achieved by one who  can be  i s not i n t e l l e c t u a l l y or p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y  i n the C a r l y l e a n camp.  But i s i t p o s s i b l e f o r one who  is  completely out o f tune w i t h the s e m i - m y s t i c a l m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o u s earnestness of C a r l y l e to i n t e r p r e t any  Carlylean  gospel aright?  S u r e l y t h e r e i s some n e u t r a l ground where  an o b s e r v e r can  stand and take an o b j e c t i v e l o o k a t C a r l y l e .  S u r e l y i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r even a h o s t i l e c r i t i c to comprehend i n t e l l e c t u a l l y what he does not e m o t i o n a l l y a c c e p t . c o r o l l a r y must a l s o s t a n d . willing  But  The a r d e n t f o l l o w e r must be e q u a l l y  to make c o n c e s s i o n s , to r e c o g n i z e i n h i s hero  both  weaknesses and e r r o r s o f judgment whenever an i m p a r t i a l d e t e c t s them.  What i s needed then i s an unbiased,  Gascoyne, op. c i t . . p. Six  8.  R a d i c a l T h i n k e r s , p.  the  161  r  logic  objective  20 approach to C a r l y l e . One  As y e t , no one has p r o v i d e d  t h i n g more i s needed —  this.  an approach which  t r e a t s C a r l y l e as a whole, not as a number o f u n r e l a t e d t h e o r i e s or d o c t r i n e s . f o c u s s e d o n l y on one  Too much o f C a r l y l e a n c r i t i c i s m has  aspect o f the man  —  the hero  theory  has been a f a v o u r i t e t o p i c f o r t h i s type of a p p r o a c h . is.not f a i r  It  1  to C a r l y l e to c o n s i d e r , say, h i s theory o f the  hero a p a r t from h i s theory o f might and r i g h t . fair  been  Nor  is i t  to c o n s i d e r e i t h e r o f them a p a r t from h i s d o c t r i n e o f  work or o f s i l e n c e , nor to c o n s i d e r any o t h e r aspect o f h i s work a p a r t from h i s t o t a l p h i l o s o p h y . c r i t i c s who as l i t t l e elephant.  Small wonder t h a t  l o o k a t C a r l y l e i n t h i s piecemeal  agreement as the s,ix- b l i n d men  who  f a s h i o n come to i n v e s t i g a t e d the  C a r l y l e , cut up i n t h i s manner, bears as  little  resemblance to the t r u e C a r l y l e as the q u a r t e r e d "beef the beast from which i t came. may  The blood and  does to  sinews o f the p a r t s  be the same as those o f the whole, but the form, and  s e q u e n t l y the meaning, are e n t i r e l y We  con-  different.  can o n l y come to a true understanding  of Carlyle  through an o b j e c t i v e view o f h i s t o t a l p h i l o s o p h y .  In t h i s  t h e s i s I propose to attempt j u s t such an approach.  I n the  inter-  e s t s o f o b j e c t i v i t y I w i l l d i s r e g a r d as much as p o s s i b l e the  Among the books which d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h i s a s p e c t o f C a r l y l e ' s p h i l o s o p h y may be l i s t e d : E r i c B e n t l e y , A Century of Hero-Worship The C u l t o f the Superman H.J.C. G r i e r s o n , C a r l y l e and H i t l e r B.H. Lehman, C a r l y l e ' s Theory o f the Hero  21 man  h i m s e l f and c o n c e n t r a t e upon h i s w r i t i n g s , drawing  them w i t h as much l o g i c and as l i t t l e p a r t i a l i t y mysticism and  the emotionalism  o u t l i n e o f the cosmic  from  as the  o f h i s work w i l l a l l o w an  p l a n which i s the o a s i s f o r a l l  C a r l y l e ' s o t h e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e n e t s and f o r a l l h i s judgments and o p i n i o n s . I t w i l l be the f u l l purpose and  scope o f t h i s  t h e s i s to go on from an o u t l i n e o f C a r l y l e ' s cosmic view to an examination  o f the v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s t h a t grow out o f i t  the theory of might and r i g h t , the theory o f l o v e and the theory o f work and  silence.  and examine them i n the l i g h t how  —  worship,  I w i l l then t u r n to the h i s t o r i e s  o f "--arljile's p h i l o s o p h y , showing  t h e i r content and tone are governed by the a p p l i c a t i o n o f  the C a r l y l e a n scheme o f the u n i v e r s e .  F i n a l l y I w i l l consider  the weakness o f the whole system, attempting terms o f the  to e x p l a i n i n  system and of i t s weaknesses those judgments and  o p i n i o n s which h i s f r i e n d s c o n s i d e r to be a b e r r a t i o n s and which to h i s enemies are examples o f h i s sourness and  misanthropy.  Chapter I I C a r l y l e ' s Cosmic View  I n d e a l i n g with C a r l y l e w e must r e a l i z e from 1  outset  t h a t he had,  i n h i s own  mind at l e a s t , a complete  harmonious view o f the u n i v e r s e . i n t e l l e c t and  He was  extreme earnestness, and  a man  of  or t h a t he u t t e r e d o p i n i o n s There i s one  standard  f u l l y and  throughout h i s work.  spontaneously  i n a h a s t y , i l l - c o n s i d e r e d manner.  u n i f y i n g i d e a which t i e s  Unfortunately  explicitly  idle  a g a i n s t which he measures a l l problems  and makes a l l judgments, one a l l t h a t he wrote.  and  considerable  i t i s therefore  to imagine t h a t he made h i s judgments l i g h t l y and  the  together  t h i s u n i f y i n g i d e a was  set out, but was  never  scattered i n pieces  S a r t o r Resartus i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l  i n h e l p i n g us grasp C a r l y l e ' s p h i l o s o p h y  s i n c e i t i s both  account o f the e v o l u t i o n o f C a r l y l e ' s t h i n k i n g and o f the broad o u t l i n e o f h i s thought.  an  a delineation  C a r l y l e himself  remarked  o f t h i s book: I t c o n t a i n s more o f my o p i n i o n s on A r t , P o l i t i c s , R e l i g i o n , Heaven, E a r t h , and A i r , than a l l the t h i n g s I have y e t w r i t t e n . And  the o p i n i o n s  the o p i n i o n s  expressed i n S a r t o r i n 1830  were s u b s t a n t i a l l y  o f the weary sage o f Chelsea i n 1870.  d e t a i l or i n a p p l i c a t i o n does the p h i l o s o p h y  Only i n  of the mature  C a r l y l e d i f f e r from t h a t of S a r t o r R e s a r t u s .  1  I n a l e t t e r to Mr. F r a s e r quoted i n C.E. Norton, ed., L e t t e r s o f Thomas C a r l y l e . London, Macmillan, 1888, v o l . 2::, p. 105. 22  23 Without an awareness o f C a r l y l e ' s cosmic view and without an understanding of i t no t r u e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f him o r o f anything  he wrote i s p o s s i b l e .  The reader must always bear  i n mind that a l l judgments he u t t e r s have been a r r i v e d a t , n o t through pragmatic c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the immediate f a c t s o f the case, but through c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f these f a c t s i n r e l a t i o n to C a r l y l e ' s i d e a o f the u l t i m a t e d e s t i n y and purpose o f mankind and  of the u n i v e r s e .  One o f C a r l y l e ' s schoolmasters once  s a i d o f him t h a t he l o v e d earnestness more than t r u t h and to some extent  this i s true.  So earnest  i s he t h a t he l o o k s a t a  matter as small as the r e n t i n g o f a farm o r as l a r g e as the making o f a c o n s t i t u t i o n w i t h the same ponderous r e f e r e n c e t o h i s i d e a o f u n i v e r s a l good and j u s t i c e .  Thus when he supports  Governor Eyre i t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t h a t we examine the f a c t s o f the Jamaica case and condemn o r condone C a r l y l e i n the l i g h t o f these f a c t s alone.  We must consider  t h a t he was  think-  i n g i n terms t h a t f a r outreached the shores o f the colony o f Jamaica.  He was t h i n k i n g o f the e f f e c t o f the Governor's  a c t i o n s on the p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g  o f the n a t i v e s , but he was  t h i n k i n g too o f the e f f e c t on the s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g whole u n i v e r s e .  o f the  I t was not t h a t C a r l y l e had no sympathy f o r  the b l a c k s of Jamaica, but t h a t t h i s sympathy was  subordinated  to a v i s i o n of mankind as a n o b l e and h e r o i c c r e a t u r e o f God r a t h e r than as the p i t i a b l e ward o f a sweetly benign government. An e x p l a n a t i o n  o f t h i s v i s i o n must begin w i t h an examination o f  C a r l y l e ' s concept o f God. C r i t i c s have o f t e n t r i e d to f i n d the r o o t s o f  24 C a r l y l e ' s thought i n Fichfe, i n Kant, i n N o v a l i s , i n R i c h t e r . Undoubtedly  each of these has done something  to b r i n g to the  s u r f a c e an understanding and a sympathy t h a t was C a r l y l e , but t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n f u t i l i t y seeking sources.  latent i n  ^  i n t h i s game o f  C a r l y l e h i m s e l f wrote i n  1830:  I have now almost done w i t h the Germans. Having s e i z e d t h e i r o p i n i o n s , I must now t u r n me to i n q u i r e how t r u e are they? That t r u t h i s i n them, no lover? o f T r u t h w i l l doubt; but how much? And a f t e r a l l , one needs an i n t e l l e c t u a l Scheme (or ground p l a n o f the Universe) drawn w i t h one's own i n s t r u m e n t s . On  the b a s i s of t h i s statement I dare to o v e r l o o k i n f l u e n c e s  and  sources. At b e s t , o p i n i o n s reached i n t h i s matter are mere speculation.  And what does i t matter whether C a r l y l e ' s  moral  bent comes from h i s reading i n Kant, from r e a d i n g about Kant, or  from h i s C a l v i n i s t i c home-background, as long as we  realize  t h a t i t i s there?  For an understanding o f C a r l y l e i t i s not  important t h a t we  t r a c e h i s p h i l o s o p h y to i t s sources, but i t  i s important t h a t we know what h i s p h i l o s o p h y Carlyle himself  proposed  (through T e u f e l s d r o c k h )  a "high P l a t o n i c mysticism" as "perhaps 2 of  h i s nature."  platonism i s not. of  was.  the fundamental  The m y s t i c i s m i s perhaps  q u e s t i o n a b l e , but the  C a r l y l e ' s p h i l o s o p h y begins w i t h the  some Supreme Being to whom a l l mankind, a l l worlds,  t h e i r being.  element  concept owe  Sometimes C a r l y l e borrows F i c h t e ' s term " D i v i n e  Idea" t o name t h i s concept;  more o f t e n he p r e f e r s the  term  Quoted from C a r l y l e ' s Two Notebooks i n H i l l Shine, C a r l y l e and the a l n t Simonians. B a l t i m o r e , John Hcjkins P r e s s , 194-1, P»7. b  S a r t o r , p. 52 •  25 he l e a r n e d a t the E c c l e f e c h a n f i r e s i d e , God.  In  this  l a t t e r case, however, i t i s the name o n l y t h a t he p r e f e r s . C a r l y l e ' s God  has n e i t h e r the savagely  the Old Testament God, Testament one, God  r e t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e of  the f o r g i v i n g benevolence o f the  nor the anthropomorphism o f e i t h e r .  i s true s p i r i t and  true i d e a .  As  s p i r i t he  f u l l y grasped by a f i n i t e mind, but o n l y d i m l y through f i n i t e  New  Carlyle's  cannot be perceived  manifestations.  In C a r l y l e ' s s p e c u l a t i v e system t h i s God  or  D i v i n e Idea i s the u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y which l i e s behind a l l appearances.  Our Here and Now  are o n l y small  circumscribed  f r a c t i o n s o f an i n f i n i t u d e o f spaee and an e t e r n i t y o f time, and  are t h e r e f o r e o f no g r e a t importance i n the t o t a l scheme o f  things.  The  e n t i r e p h y s i c a l world  i s merely an  imperfect  m a n i f e s t a t i o n a t the human l e v e l o f the u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y , is,  o f God.  "Where now,"  asks C a r l y l e , d i s m i s s i n g  centuries with a magnificent  that  our  sweep o f h i s hand,  i s Alexander o f Macedon: does the s t e e l Host t h a t y e l l e d i n f i e r c e b a t t l e - s h o u t s a t I s s u s and A r b e l a , remain behind him; or have they a l l vani s h e d u t t e r l y even a s perturbed G o b l i n s must? Napoleon too, and h i s Moscow R e t r e a t s and A u s t e r l i t z Campaigns! Was i t a l l other than the v e r i e s t S p e c t r e hunt; which has now, w i t h i t s howling tumult t h a t made n i g h t hideous, f l i t t e d away? We  must recognize  t h a t our minds, i n c a p a b l e o f comprehending  I n f i n i t y or E t e r n i t y , much l e s s God,  the c r e a t o r o f Time and  Space, come to l o o k upon the l i m i t s o f a few 1 S a r t o r , p.  211-  thousand square  26 m i l e s o f space and a few thousand To C a r l y l e , our Here and Now  years of time as  reality.  are merely " s u p e r f i c i a l  terrextial  adhesions to thought .... the Canvas ... whereon a l l our Dreams and L i f e - V i s i o n s are p a i n t e d . "  1  u n i v e r s a l Here, and e v e r l a s t i n g There i s l i t t l e  God, Now.  t h a t can he s a i d i n words about  s p i r i t and t h e r e f o r e C a r l y l e can t e l l the nature o f h i s God.  God  however, e x i s t s i n a  us v e r y l i t t l e  i s , o f course, p e r f e c t ,  a  about and  . . . throughout the whole world o f man, i n a l l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s and performances o f h i s n a t u r e , outward and inward, p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l , the P e r f e c t the G r e a t , i s a mystery to i t s e l f , knows not i t s e l f . D e s p i t e t h i s mystery,  however, C a r l y l e i s sure o f one  God  i s aware o f h i s u n i v e r s e and  its  welfare:  thing  —  takes an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n  " The ALMIGHTY MAKER i s not l i k e a  clockmaker  t h a t once, i n the o l d immemorial ages, having made h i s Horologue 3  of  a Universe, s i t s ever s i n c e and sees i t go."  Moreover, God's i n t e r e s t i n h i s u n i v e r s e i s marked by an extreme morality.  In " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , C a r l y l e i d e n t i f i e s morality with  the D i v i n e Idea, s a y i n g , " . . .  the name o f the I n f i n i t e i s GOOD,  i s GOD'.'.'  4  As f a r as we  and our world are concerned,  the moral  S a r t o r , pp. 42-4-3. ^"Chartism", C r i t i c a l and M i s c e l l a n e o u s Essays, v o l . 4->  3  P a s t and Present, p.  14-7.  ^ " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , E s s a y s , v o l . 3>  p.  43.  P.  16.  27 n a t u r e o f the I n f i n i t e i s s e t out i n what C a r l y l e i s p l e a s e d to  c a l i the "Laws o f N a t u r e " .  1  When C a r l y l e f i n d s something to  he condemned, i t i s because i t i s c o n t r a r y t o the Laws o f Nature,  and c o n v e r s e l y , whatever he commends i s commended  because i t agrees w i t h the Laws o f Mature.  These laws a r e  t h e r e f o r e c e n t r a l to h i s theory, the touchstone f o r a l l h i s judgments.  Y e t he cannot  t e l l us what they, a r e , f o r they a r e  c o n t a i n e d i n "... a Volume w r i t t e n i n c e l e s t i a l h i e r o g l y p h s , in  the t r u e S a c r e d - w r i t i n g ; Prophets a r e happy t h a t they can 2  read here.a l i n e and t h e r e a l i n e . " S i n c e the Laws o f Nature a r e so d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c o v e r i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t from c e n t u r y to century a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Laws w i l l be common among men. Even the a b l e s t prophet w i l l i n a d v e r t e n t l y a l l o w h i s own experience and t r a d i t i o n to c o l o u r h i s r e a d i n g o f the s a c r e d rules.  And t h i s i s as i t should be;  that s m a l l p o r t i o n o f  God's i n f i n i t e t r u t h which r o u g h l y s a t i s f i e d the Arab tribesman and enabled him t o l i v e w> u l d n o t s u f f i c e f o r a p o l i s h e d European c i t y - d w e l l e r .  But the t r u t h t h a t i s d i s c o v e r e d by one  g e n e r a t i o n i s passed on to the next, and the t r u t h t h a t i s d i s covered i n one c u l t u r e spreads t o another so t h a t s l o w l y and i F o r a f u l l study o f C a r l y l e ' s use o f the "Laws o f Nature" see Wm. Taggart, C a r l y l e ' s H a n d l i n g o f the 'Laws o f Nature' Concept, unpublished t h e s i s , M o n t r e a l , M c G i l l ^ U n i v e r s i t y , 1952. S a r t o r , p. 204-205.  28 i m p e r f e c t l y man  comes to know h i s a l l o t m e n t  of e t e r n a l t r u t h .  But never can he know i t p e r f e c t l y , f o r "Truth',' i n t h e words o f S c h i l l e r , 'Immer w i r d , n i e 1 s t , never i s , i s always a - b e i n g . " That i s , t r u t h as man and  the Laws of ^ a t u r e One  Nature, and  knows i t i s always a-being. are u n a l t e r a b l e  and  In God,  h i n t C a r l y l e does g i v e us about the Laws o f  o f the h i g h e s t o r d e r .  I n P a s t and Present he  precepts  states that  " J u s t i c e and Reverence are the e v e r l a s t i n g c e n t r a l law 2  of  In other p l a c e s he o f t e n equates j u s t i c e  to goodness, but he i s s t i l l f a c e d w i t h the task, i f he do i t , o f t e l l i n g us what j u s t i c e i s .  as w e l l as someone to be r e v e r e d . s h i p must be postponed u n t i l we  will  Reverence i s a r a t h e r  d i f f e r e n t matter, f o r i t r e q u i r e s someone to do  man  truth  permanent.  t h a t i s t h a t they are a t bottom moral  t h i s Universe."  1  the  revering  Discussion of this  relation-  come to examine the p l a c e  of  i n the C a r l y l e a n scheme. A fundamental p a r t o f C a r l y l e ' s cosmic view I s  the theory  t h a t these Laws o f Mature cannot be  w i t h impunity. peatedly  Everywhere throughout h i s works C a r l y l e r e -  a s s e r t s t h a t "The  fulfilled.  contravened  Laws o f Nature w i l l have themselves  That i s a t h i n g c e r t a i n to me."  3  The  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , E s s a y s , v o l . 3, p. 38 Throughout t h i s t h e s i s i t a l i c s w i t h i n q u o t a t i o n s are C a r l y l e ' s and not mine. 2 Past 3  and P r e s e n t , p.  I b i d . . p.  274-  110.  f a c t that  this  from C a r l y l e  29 aspect  o f C a r l y l e ' s t o t a l theory  i n d i c a t e s i t s importance. speculation — i t s e l f done.  i s repeated and  stressed  Here i s the p i v o t a l p o i n t o f C a r l y l e ' s  on t h i s e a r t h , j u s t i c e must be done, w i l l have That i t w i l l be done a t once, we  cannot expect;  t h a t i t w i l l be done e v e n t u a l l y , we  cannot doubt.  to contravene the Laws of Mature —  Carlyle i s continually  warning about forged notes and offender  and  f a l s e kings  —  I t i s possible  but f o r  the  f o r h i s schemes there i s e v e n t u a l floom and o b l i v i o n :  " T h i s U n i v e r s e has  i t s Laws.  I f we walk according  to the  Law,  "1 the Law-maker w i l l b e f r i e n d us, i f not, n o t . as t h a t .  The  with respect  Laws of Nature are the w i l l o f God, to the behaviour o f a man,  to the behaviour o f a s o c i e t y . who  I t i s as not  but a l s o w i t h  only respect  J u s t as the i n d i v i d u a l person  a c t s c o n t r a r y to the Laws w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be f o r c e d  r e t u r n to the r i g h t way  simple  or. to disappear,  to  so a s o c i e t y must a l s o  conduct i t s e l f i n accordance with; the Laws, or i t too  will  disappear; Nature's Laws, I must repeat, are e t e r n a l ; her s t i l l small v o i c e speaking from the innermost h e a r t o f us, s h a l l not, under t e r r i b l e p e n a l t i e s be d i s r e g a r d e d . No man can depart from the t r u t h without danger to h i m s e l f ; no ong m i l l i o n o f men; no twenty-seven M i l l i o n s o f men. C a r l y l e does not g e n e r a l l y emphasize the " t e r r i b l e p e n a l t i e s " mentioned i n t h i s passage. ing  o f a man  Past  speaks o f the  or a s o c i e t y o f those elements which o f f e n d  Laws o f Mature he  1  U s u a l l y when he  i n d i c a t e s t h a t God  and Present, p.  25.  i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n  purgthe  30 punishing  the t r a n s g r e s s o r , but o n l y i n p u t t i n g h i s  back i n order. ence.  He  s e t s about doing t h i s i n e x a l t e d  I n the process the v i o l a t o r w i l l c e r t a i n l y  indifferdisappear;  perhaps s o c i e t y as a whole may  s u f f e r , perhaps some  may  symbol f o r the purging  be h u r t —  C a r l y l e ' s usual  i s f i r e and f i r e i s n o t o r i o u s l y i n s e n s i b l e to g u i l t innocence —  but  universe  innocents element and  s o c i e t y as a whole b e n e f i t s .  I n terms o f a u n i v e r s a l scheme t h i s b e l i e f i n an inexorable  purging  m e l i o r a t i o n and with C a r l y l e .  and  c o r r e c t i v e agent leads to a sense o f  optimism t h a t few have p r e v i o u s l y  connected  J u s t i c e must p r e v a i l because the C a r l y l e a n  i s i n h i s C a r l y l e a n heaven.  "How  God  i n d e s t r u c t i b l y the Good  grows and propagates i t s e l f , " w r i t e s C a r l y l e i n S a r t o r , "even among the weedy entanglements o f E v i l . " course, there i s accompanying the growth and good the d e s t r u c t i o n and unjust  And,  1  propagation of  disappearance o f e v i l .  S i n c e what i s  does not meet the requirements o f the Laws o f Nature,  i t w i l l have to go.  A l i e i s doomed from the day  A f a l s e a c t w i l l show i t s e l f to be f a l s e and w i l l perish. day  of i t s b i r t h . eventually  A sham r u l e r or a h o l l o w system o f government w i l l  r e v e a l i t s emptiness and w i l l fade from the Not  one  earth.  o n l y are whole systems doomed i f they do  not  conform to the j u s t laws o f the u n i v e r s e ,  but every system i s  continuously  and  all  s u b j e c t to a g r a d u a l  t h a t i s dead, e v i l , or u n j u s t  manner a system which grew up 1  of  S a r t o r , p.  79*  sifting  s o r t i n g whereby  i n i t i s c u l l e d out.  to f i t one  In  this  s i t u a t i o n i s adapted  31 to  f i t a d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n , and thus i t i s kept a l i v e as  long as i t conforms to the Laws o f Nature.  C a r l y l e repeat-  e d l y c i t e s C h r i s t i a n i t y as a system which, because o f the t r u t h i n i t , has p e r s i s t e d f o r two thousand y e a r s , a l l the while, shedding those a c c i d e n t s o f i t s being which proved false.  "Truth and J u s t i c e alone  ed' and preserved,"  are capable  o f being  wrote C a r l y l e , meaning t h a t o n l y  'conservthose  p h i l o s o p h i e s , customs, t r a d i t i o n s , and i n s t i t u t i o n s which h e l d t r u t h and j u s t i c e i n them c o u l d c a r r y on from age to age. T h i s g r a d u a l and c o n t i n u a l purging quiet business.  i s a slow and  I t goes on m y s t i c a l l y , almost a u t o m a t i c a l l y ,  as long as T r u t h and J u s t i c e have the upper hand i n the running of universal a f f a i r s . i n j u s t i c e should  I f , however, sham, h y p o c r i s y ,  unveracity,  s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n to g a i n c o n t r o l and t o  break through Nature's laws a t every p o i n t , then s w i f t and v i o l e n t measures are necessary, flames,  French-revolutions  and "Nature b u r s t up i n f i r e -  and s u c h - l i k e , p r o c l a i m i n g  t e r r i b l e v e r a c i t y t h a t f o r g e d notes are f o r g e d . "  1  with  I t should be  noted t h a t i n the C a r l y l e a n system i n j u s t i c e and u n v e r a c i t y cannot p o s s i b l y g a i n c o n t r o l o f anything p e r i o d s o f time.  T h e i r attempts to do so have a l l the f u t i l i t y  o f Satan's was a g a i n s t God. by d e f i n i t i o n , And  1  f o r more than l i m i t e d  I n both cases  the p r o t a g o n i s t i s ,  almighty. so i t i s t h a t however g l o o m i l y C a r l y l e p a i n t e d  Thomas C a r l y l e , On Heroes. Hero-Worship. and the H o e r o i c i n H i s t o r y , ed. A. MacMechan, Boston, Ginn, 1901, p. 58. A l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s to Heroes a r e to t h i s e d i t i o n .  32 V i c t o r i a n England  and i t s p l i g h t , he c o u l d n e v e r t h e l e s s see a  l i g h t o f hope burning a t the end o f the dark c o r r i d o r .  He be-  l i e v e d t h a t men were s l o w l y l e a r n i n g t o read the volume o f nature and were t h e r e f o r e s l o w l y improving  their l o t .  More-  over, s i n c e o n l y the i n s t i t u t i o n s and i d e a s s u r v i v e d which were i n harmony with the Laws o f Nature,  t h e r e was i n the v e r y  passing o f time a process tending t o betterment ment.  and improve-  I t i s on t h i s note o f optimism t h a t the otherwise  book, P a s t and Present,  dismal  ends:  As dark misery s e t t l e s down on refuges o f l i e s f a l l i n p i e c e s the h e a r t s o f men, now a t l a s t w i l l t u r n to refuges o f t r u t h . s t a r s shine out again, so soon enough.  us, and our one a f t e r one, grown s e r i o u s , The e t e r n a l as i t i s dark  1  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " too —  i n the main a gloomy essay wherein i s  p a i n t e d a thoroughly d e p r e s s i n g p i c t u r e o f V i c t o r i a n and i t s f u t u r e —  England  c o n t a i n s a s i m i l a r note o f hope:  Deep and sad as i s our f e e l i n g t h a t we stand yet i n the b o d e f u l N i g h t ; e q u a l l y deep, i n d e s t r u c t a b l e i s our assurance t h a t Morning w i l l not f a i l . Nay, a l r e a d y , as we l o o k round, s t r e a k s o f a day s p r i n g are i n the e a s t ; i t i s dawning; when the time s h a l l be f u l f i l l e d , i t w i l l be day.2 I t was on the b a s i s o f these c o n f i d e n t and sanguine  prophecies  t h a t M i l l once wrote to a f r i e n d about C a r l y l e : . . . he d i f f e r s from most men, who see as much as he does i n t o the d e f e c t s o f the age,  1  Past and P r e s e n t , p. 294.  2  Essays, v o l . 3, p. 37.  33 by a circumstance g r e a t l y to h i s advantage i n my e s t i m a t i o n , t h a t he l o o k s f o r a safe l a n d i n g b e f o r e and not behind; he sees t h a t i f we could o n l y r e p l a c e t h i n g s as they once were, we should o n l y r e t a r d the f i n a l i s s u e , as we should i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y go on j u s t as we then d i d , and a r r i v e a t the v e r y p l a c e where we now stand. 1  Two  o b j e c t i o n s to C a r l y l e ' s theory o f m e l i o r a t i o n  come immediately to mind. and i f God  i s Good, why  F i r s t , i f t h i s i s God's u n i v e r s e  i s e v i l allowed?  Second, i f the  evil  t h a t i s abroad among us i s doomed no matter what i s done o r not done a g a i n s t i t , why  should we worry about i t ?  Why  should  a d y s p e p t i c Scot w r i t e thousands o f words about a world t o t t e r i n g on the b r i n k o f N i a g a r a world  i f he i s convinced  that  the  cannot i n any event plunge i n t o the w h i r l p o o l below?  We  can t u r n at once to c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the f i r s t o b j e c t i o n , d e f e r r i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the second t i l l ready to l o o k a t the p l a c e o f man The  first  universe.  and  t h a t i t should t h e r e f o r e be  C a r l y l e ' s answer to t h i s o b j e c t i o n i s t h a t w h i l e  i s God's world, i t i s not God. p h y s i c a l world  God  i s s p i r i t and i d e a j  i s merely a t a c t i l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s  perthis the spirit,  a complex o f s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s a t work i n a m a t e r i a l medium. It  should be noted h e r e t h a t w h i l e C a r l y l e uses the term  " p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e " to denote t a c t i l e and v i s i b l e o b j e c t s o f  1  Quoted i n Roe,  2  S a r t o r , pp.  43,  are  q u e s t i o n above came from the assumption  t h a t t h i s i s God's world fect.  i n the  the time when we  C a r l y l e and Ruskin. 150.  p.  45n  34 the world about us, he i n c l u d e s w i t h i n the term such nonp h y s i c a l phenomena as t r a d i t i o n s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , and r e l i g i o n s ,  philosophies,  since they a r e a l s o human attempts a t e x p r e s s -  i o n o f the Q i v i n e Idea. Because the world i s p h y s i c a l i t i s i m p e r f e c t , c h a o t i c , and, i n p a r t , e v i l . C a r l y l e ' s view.  There i s n o t h i n g p a n t h e i s t i c i n  The world i s not God, but merely a phenomenon  i n time and space which a t once r e v e a l s to us and v e i l s us the n a t u r e o f the fiivine, Idea i t bodies f o r t h .  from  More than  once C a r l y l e quotes the E a r t h - S p i r i t o f Goethe's F a u s t : e a r t h i s the l i v i n g v i s i b l e garment o f G o d .  1  this  Through the  magnificence and beauty o f our world, God's goodness i s r e vealed.  The s u p e r f i c i a l i t i e s , p r a c t i c a l i t i e s , and shows o f  our world c o n c e a l —  from common eyes p a r t i c u l a r l y —  i t y t h a t l i e s beneath them.  the r e a l -  Man must h i m s e l f be w o r s h i p f u l  and l o v i n g i n o r d e r t o see t h a t : . . . through every s t a r , through every g r a s s b l a d e , and most through every L i v i n g S o u l , the g l o r y o f a present God s t i l l beams. But Nature, which i s the Time-vesture o f God, and r e v e a l s Him to the wise, h i d e s Him from the f o o l i s h . 2  Such a view as t h i s l e a d s n a t u r a l l y t o a scorn o f material things.  "The world I s n o t REAL," says C a r l y l e , " I s  a t bottom N o t h i n g . "  3  S i m i l a r l y , t o Teufelsdrockhr, a drawing  room w i t h i t s B r u s s e l s c a r p e t s and p i e r g l a s s e s i s o n l y a section of i n f i n i t e  space, and the s t a r o f a l o r d has f o r him  1  S a r t o r , pp. 43, 150.  2  I b i d . . p. 210.  3  Heroes, p. 79.  35 no g r e a t e r i n t r i n s i c worth than the buttons on a clown* s f r o c k , f o r he has  "...  as s p i r i t . "  the humour of l o o k i n g a t a l l m a t e r i a l  The h i g h e s t  1  duchess i s to be honoured, not  her M a l i n e s l a c e s , but f o r the goodness t h a t i s w i t h i n The  l o r d ' s s t a r , the duchess's l a c e s —  consigns to h i s Sham world. Things" but are no  the b e s e t t i n g  true worship.  s i n of h i s generation  s p i r i t u a l to m a t e r i a l values  and  procession  Carlyle  considers  that i t i s turning  from  t h a t a consequent f a l s i t y i s  Cant, "speech f o r the purpose o f con-  c e a l i n g thought," has heart  her.  these t h i n g s C a r l y l e  r e a l t h i n g s , j u s t as the p a p a l  pervading a l l l i f e .  for  They are p a r t o f the "Show o f  i s a form o f worship but i s no it  things  replaced  the rude, t r u e language o f  t a l k i n g to another; dilleitan.tis.m has  cash-wages have r e p l a c e d p e r s o n a l  replaced  one  devotion;  loyalties.  Yet much as C a r l y l e d e s p i s e s  the p h y s i c a l world  because i t obscures man's r e c o g n i t i o n o f r e a l i t y , he must a l s o honour i t f o r what i t r e v e a l s .  Much as he  scorns the p h y s i c a l  world f o r i t s shams, he must y e t revere i t f o r the d i v i n i t y i t contains.  The  world about us i s the o n l y book wherein we  f i n i t e creatures do.  can read what God  I t behoves us,  i s and what he would have us  t h e r e f o r e , to l o o k c a r e f u l l y to t h i s world,  to study i t ,  and  the past and  comparing i t with the present  good and  evil,  to l e a r n from i t G o d s l e s s o n .  1  S a r t o r , p.  1  j u s t i c e and  perpetuated i n the  23•  poor  we  By l o o k i n g  at  can d i s t i n g u i s h  i n j u s t i c e , f o r good and  justice  systems t h a t s u r v i v e , w h i l e e v i l and i n -  are  ( 36 j u s t i c e are i n those  t h i n g s t h a t have passed away.  I t i s from  t h i s p a r t o f h i s theory t h a t C a r l y l e got h i s deep r e s p e c t f o r h i s t o r y and the study o f h i s t o r y . One more p o i n t must he brought out i n c o n s i d e r i n g God's r e l a t i o n to the u n i v e r s e . world i s c h a o t i c —  According  to C a r l y l e , our  a Phantasmagoria i s h i s u s u a l word f o r I t .  I n t h i s world, f o r c e s seem to be a c t i n g a t  cross-purposes,  l i g h t n e s s and darkness are i n e x t r i c a b l y i n t e r t w i n e d so t h a t i t seems i m p o s s i b l e  to separate  them.  the r e a l , j u s t i c e and i n j u s t i c e — into a rolling  Good and e v i l ,  the sham and  a l l are juinbled together  s w e l l i n g mass, a w i l d and d e s o l a t e waste-land  o f semi-darkness.  Y e t God's p l a n i s one o f o r d e r ,  says  C a r l y l e . Remember t h a t the e n l i g h t e n e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f Weissnichtwo had appointed f e s s o r o f Things i n G e n e r a l  Teufelsdrockh'' P r o -  i n the hope t h a t " . . . the task o f  bodying somewhat f o r t h again from such Chaos might be, even slightly, facilitated."!  H i s own age and h i s own country were  p a r t i c u l a r l y c h a o t i c , thought C a r l y l e , and he f e l t i t h i s duty as a prophet and as one t h a t saw the D i v i n e P l a n to s t e e r h i s people back to the path o f God and o r d e r . The  chaffls comes o n l y from the i m p e r f e c t i o n o f the  m a t e r i a l medium i n which the s p i r i t makes i t s e l f known to the senses.  To prove t h a t God's w i l l towards o r d e r i s making i t -  s e l f f e l t , Carlyle points f i r s t  to the c i t i e s , b r i d g e s , and  roads t h a t men have brought to the d e s o l a t e l a n d ; then he  1  S a r t o r , p. i.3-  37 p o i n t s to the laws and p a r l i a m e n t s which have taken over from the c l u b and s t r o n g - r i g h t - a r m r u l e o f the cave-man day; f i n a l l y he p o i n t s to the worship o f good t h a t has grown s t r o n g e r and more r e c o g n i z a b l e from the days o f Odin to the time o f Christ.  The tendency,  says C a r l y l e , has been, from the beginn-  i n g o f the u n i v e r s e , toward o r d e r , away from chaos.  But we  must be ever wary to see these b u i l d i n g s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , and f a i t h s as s i g n s and symbols f i t fit  for eternity.  f o r our day, though i n no way  They a r e n o t to be c o n s i d e r e d permanent  o n l y the D i v i n e Idea i s permanent.  We must be w i l l i n g  —  to d i s -  c a r d any p l a n o r arrangement i f the s p i r i t goes out o f i t . There i s ever the danger t h a t man w i l l s e t up a parliament and then l i e i d l y back expecting, h i s machinery  to take from h i s  shoulders a l l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l i v i n g . I n the p h y s i c a l world we have c o n t i n u a l change  —  the r e s u l t o f the e f f o r t s o f the i d e a l to m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n the a c t u a l .  I t need n o t bother us, however, t h a t the t h i n g s  about us a r e a l l t r a n s i e n t and mutable;  the t r u e s p i r i t t h a t i s  i n them i s immutable and has an e x i s t e n c e a p a r t from the p h y s i c a l o b j e c t t h a t , a t t h i s moment and i n t h i s p l a c e , b o d i e s it  forth: . . . Where does your accumulated A g r i c u l t u r a l , M e t a l l u r g i c , and o t h e r Manufacturing SKILL l i e warehoused? I t t r a n s m i t s i t s e l f on the atmospheric a i r , on the sun's r a y s (by Hearing and V i s i o n ) ; i t i s a thing a e r i f o r m , impalpable, o f q u i t e s p i r i t u a l s o r t . I n l i k e manner, ask me not, Where a r e the LAWS; where i s the GOVERNMENT? I n v a i n w i l t thou go to Schonbrunn, to Downing S t r e e t , to the P a l a i s Bourbon: thou  38 f i n d e s t there n o t h i n g but b r i c k o r stone houses, and some bundles o f Paper t i e d w i t h tape. Where, then, i s t h a t same c u n n i n g l y - d e v i s e d almighty GOVERNMENT o f t h e i r s to be l a i n hands on? Everywhere, y e t nowhere: seen o n l y i n i t s works, t h i s too i s a t h i n g a e r i f o r m , i n v i s i b l e ; o r , i f you w i l l , m y s t i c and m i r a c u l o u s . So s p i r i t u a l ( g e i s t i g ) i s our whole d a i l y L i f e . i So s p i r i t u a l indeed i s our whole d a i l y l i f e t h a t C a r l y l e  can  f i n d no cause to mourn the p a s s i n g o f any o f the v i s i b l e t h i n g s i n our world. of  They are merely  the D i v i n g Idea.  emblems of the s p i r i t  and  force  What though Greek c i v i l i z a t i o n and Roman  c u l t u r e have disappeared?  I t i s merely t h e i r e x t e r n a l g l o r i e s  t h a t have gone; t h e i r t r u e g l o r y l i v e s on f o r e v e r : The t r u e Past d e p a r t s n o t , nothing t h a t was worthy i n the P a s t d e p a r t s ; no T r u t h o r Goodness r e a l i z e d by man ever d i e s , o r can d i e ; but i s a l l s t i l l here, and r e c o g n i z e d or not, l i v e s and works through e n d l e s s change. 2  In  C a r l y l e ' s scheme the p h y s i c a l world i s important  o n l y because i t i s the medium through which the s p i r i t to m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n a sensory manner. unimportant,  strives  Matter i n i t s e l f i s  f o r i t ". . . e x i s t s o n l y s p i r i t u a l l y , and to  r e p r e s e n t some Idea and to body i t f o r t h . "  3  O f t e n enough  C a r l y l e disregards entirely those t h i n g s which we  see about  us  and c o n s i d e r s the u n i v e r s e t o be ". . . but an i n f i n i t e Complex o f F o r c e s ; t h o u s a n d f o l d , from G r a v i t a t i o n up to Thought and Will."  4  I t i s a c u r i o u s use o f the term " f o r c e " , t h i s  1  S a r t o r , p.  2  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " Essays, v o l . 3, p.  3  S a r t o r , p.  4  one.  137. 38.  57.  French R e v o l u t i o n , v o l . 2, p. 102. Necklace", E s s a y s , v o l . 3, p. 338.  See a l s o "Diamond  39 F o r c e , a c c o r d i n g to C a r l y l e , pervades every o b j e c t o f the physical universe.  I f a drop o f water f a l l s to the ground, i t  does not l i e t h e r e , but i s whisked m y s t e r i o u s l y away to a t r o p i c ocean o r the North P o l e .  The withered l e a f i s not dead, but  has a f o r c e i n i t ,  e l s e hc-vi- c o u l d i t r o t ? "  "...  1  Tradition  and memory each have a f o r c e t h a t causes us to a c t i n a way  and i t i s through  the a c t i v i t y of these forces, t h a t the  goodness and j u s t i c e o f the past continue to e x e r t influences.  certain  their  D i s r e g a r d i n g the e x t e r n a l a c c i d e n t s i n which these  a c t i v i t i e s are c l o t h e d we have a view o f the u n i v e r s e as a S h o r e l e s s Fountain-ocean o f F o r c e , o f power to do: wherein F o r c e r o l l s and c i r c l e s , b i l l o w i n g , many-streamed, harmonious; wide as Immensity, deep as E t e r n i t y ; b e a u t i f u l and t e r r i b l e , not to be comprehended: t h i s i s what man names E x i s t e n c e and Universe; t h i s t h o u s a n d - t i n t e d Flame-image, a t once v e i l and r e v e l a t i o n , r e f l e x such as he, i n h i s , poor b r a i n and h e a r t , can p a i n t o f One Unnameable, d w e l l i n g in inaccessible l i g h t l From beyond the S t a r g a l a x i e s , from b e f o r e the Beginning o f Days, i t b i l l o w s and r o l l s . 2  Even as the p h y s i c a l world i s a complex o f f o r c e s working out an e t e r n a l d e s i g n , so man God  and  i s an a p p a r i t i o n made by  through which God's p l a n w i l l be f u r t h e r e d .  Each o f us  i s a s p i r i t i n a c o r p o r e a l form, a s o u l rendered v i s i b l e . o f us can say: breathed  "I have the miraculous  i n t o me by Almighty God.  a god-given  breath of L i f e i n  I have a f f e c t i o n s ,  c a p a b i l i t y to be and to do."  S a r t o r , p.  56.  French R e v o l u t i o n , v o l . 2, p. "Chartism", Essays, v o l . 4,  p.  102. 163.  3  Each me,  thoughts,  The f i r s t p r o o f o f  40 the d i v i n e o r i g i n o f man C a r l y l e f i n d s i n the a f f e c t i o n t h a t one  man holds f o r another.  He d i s c o v e r s among a l l men a  shared o r u n i v e r s a l anthropomorphism, a l o v e t h a t b i n d s one human t o h i s f e l l o w s .  "Ye have compassion on one another. . . .  T h i s i s a great d i r e c t thought, a glance a t f i r s t very f a c t of t h i n g s . "  1  hand i n t o the  I t i s from our common' parentage i n God  t h a t t h i s a f f e c t i o n s p r i n g s ; we a r e indeed a l l b r o t h e r s . I t w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d philosophy  t h a t t h i s aspect  moulded h i s view o f biography.  of Carlyle's  Because he thought  t h a t the compassion t h a t one man showed f o r another was proof o f the d i v i n e o r i g i n o f mankind, C a r l y l e looked  upon small  acts  o f compassion and a f f e c t i o n as r e v e l a t o r y o f the man h i m s e l f , o r r a t h e r , and t h i s i s i n the end the same t h i n g , as r e v e l a t o r y o f the amount o f godhead i n the man. biographies,  As a r e s u l t , i n a l l h i s  he tends to g i v e unusual s t r e s s to such small and  seemingly unimportant i n c i d e n t s as r e v e a l i n h i s s u b j e c t an open and a l o v i n g h e a r t .  He i s much impressed w i t h B o s w e l l ' s  c h r o n i c l e o f Johnson's d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s and i t i s t h e r e f o r e r e l e v a n t to l o o k f o r a moment a t the i n c i d e n t from B o s w e l l ' s L i f e o f Johnston t h a t he chooses to quote i n h i s essay on biography: B o s w e l l r e l a t e s t h i s i n i t s e l f s m a l l e s t and poorest o f occurrences: 'As we walked along the S t r a n d t o n i g h t , arm i n arm, a woman o f the town a c c o s t e d us i n the u s u a l e n t i c i n g manner. "No, no, my g i r l , " s a i d Johnson, " i t won't do." He, however, d i d not t r e a t Buer w i t h h a r s h ness; and we t a l k e d o f the wrteched l i f e o f  1  Heroes, p. 7 9 .  41 such women.* Strange power o f R e a l i t y l Not even t h i s p o o r e s t o f o c c u r r e n c e s , but now, a f t e r seventy years a r e come and gone, has a meaning f o r u s . 1  I t may be charged t h a t C a r l y l e i n h i s own b i o g r a p h i e s l a i d undue emphasis on j u s t such i n c i d e n t s as t h i s , but i t must a l s o be admitted t h a t h i s t h e o r y o f biography l e d him to be one o f the f i r s t  to r e c o g n i z e the worth o f B o s w e l l as a b i o -  grapher. A second and a s t r o n g e r demonstration o f the d i v i n i t y t h a t i s w i t h i n us C a r l y l e f i n d s i n the f a c t t h a t we worship.  I n Heroes C a r l y l e makes much o f the f a c t t h a t men  have from the beginning o f time f e l t and u n c o n s c i o u s l y known t h a t t h e r e i s something  above and beyond themselves, a some-  t h i n g m y s t e r i o u s l y connected with themselves.  And, j u s t as  m y s t e r i o u s l y , they have f e l t moved to worship t h i s  something.  God made h i m s e l f known to the rude pagans o f the n o r t h as to the  wold Arabs o f the south.  True he was known t o each i n a  d i f f e r e n t way, but he was a t bottom  the same God.  An e l e v a t e d  and e x a l t e d v e r s i o n o f t h a t u n i v e r s a l anthropomorphism  which  enables one man to r e c o g n i z e another as h i s b r o t h e r , enables man t o p e r c e i v e h i s God and t o worship him. Man i s p r o p e r l y , then, a s p i r i t whose home i s i n God  and who, f o r the b r i e f p e r i o d o f h i s s o j o u r n upon e a r t h ,  i s connected by i n v i s i b l e bonds t o a l l o t h e r men. the  But j u s t as  s p i r i t contained i n the p h y s i c a l world i s obscured by the  matter e n c l o s i n g i t , so man f i n d s h i s s p i r i t trammeled and  "Biography", Essays, v o l . 3, p. 56«-  .X  42 c o n f i n e d by the needs and d e s i r e s o f h i s p h y s i c a l s e l f . distracting —  and t h e r e f o r e most d i s t a s t e f u l s i n c e i t l e a d s  the s p i r i t away from the worship o f i t s maker — yearning  f o r happiness on t h i s e a r t h .  completeness of God.  i s the human  Happiness i s not  p o s s i b l e because t r u e happiness can be found f e c t i o n and  Most  Searching  o n l y i n the  f o r happiness i s  f u t i l e and l e a d s o n l y to g r e a t e r unhappiness, s i n c e the must end i n f a i l u r e .  per-  search  Moreover, searching f o r happiness i n t h i s  e a r t h i s immoral s i n c e i t i n t e r f e r e s with the search f o r  God.  Here i s the b a s i s f o r C a r l y l e ' s g r e a t contempt f o r the Benthamites and  their doctrines.  put upon the attainment  The  emphasis t h a t Bentham  o f happiness was  anathema to C a r l y l e .  He f e l t t h a t the whole Benthamite theory was  aimed o n l y a t  securing through m a t e r i a l comfort  and w e l l - b e i n g the g r e a t e s t  p o s s i b l e measure o f happiness and  contentment on t h i s e a r t h .  Repeatedly  C a r l y l e explodes  a g a i n s t t h i s view:  W i l l the whole Finance M i n s t e r s and U p h o l s t e r e r s and C o n f e c t i o n e r s o f modern Europe undertake, i n j o i n t - s t o c k company, to make one Shoeblack HAPPY? They cannot accomplish i t , above an hour or two; f o r the Shoeblack a l s o has a S o u l •quite o t h e r than h i s Stomach; and would r e q u i r e , i f you c o n s i d e r i t , f o r h i s permanent s a t i s f a c t i o n and s a t u r a t i o n , simply t h i s a l l o t m e n t , no more, and no l e s s : God's i n f i n i t e U n i v e r s e a l together to h i m s e l f , t h e r e i n to enjoy i n f i n i t e l y , and f i l l every wish as f a s t as i t r o s e . l T h i s i s merely a restatement  o f the age-old precept t h a t  does not l i v e by bread a l o n e , but with C a r l y l e i t takes  man on  g r e a t e r than u s u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e because o f the earnestness  1  S a r t o r , p.  152.  of  A3 his  view.  I t i s n o t enough t h a t man should be aware o f h i s  s o u l ; C a r l y l e would have him c o n t i n u a l l y f i l l e d w i t h and awe before t h i s d i v i n i t y t h a t i s w i t h i n him,  reverence  w i t h torment  and f e a r t h a t he i s n o t t r e a t i n g i t as i t would be t r e a t e d , w i t h l o v e and gladness t h a t i t i s there a t a l l . Worse t o C a r l y l e than the unhappiness o f s e a r c h i n g for  s a t i s f a c t i o n i s the s t a g n a t i o n o f imagining t h a t we have  found i t .  Nothing  i s more d e s p i c a b l e than the smugness and  complacency o f s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n .  "To me," says C a r l y l e ,  through the mouth o f T e u f e l s d r S c k h n , nothing seems more n a t u r a l than t h a t the Son o f Man, y/hen such God-given mandate f i r s t p r o p h e t i c a l l y s t i r s w i t h i n him, and the C l a y must now be vanquished o r vanquish, — should be c a r r i e d o f the s p i r i t i n t o grim S o l i t u d e s , and there f r o n t i n g the Tempter to grimmest b a t t l e w i t h him; d e f i a n t l y s e t t i n g him a t naught, t i l l he y i e l d and f l y . Name i t as we choose: w i t h o r without v i s i b l e D e v i l , whether i n the n a t u r a l Desert o f rocks and sands, o r i n the populous moral Desert o f s e l f i s h n e s s and baseness, — to such Temptation are we a l l called. Unhappy i f we are not! Unhappy i f we are but Half-men, i n whom that d i v i n e handwriting has never b l a z e d f o r t h , a l l - s u b d u i n g , i n t r u e . sun-splendour; but q u i v e r s d u b i o u s l y amid meaner l i g h t s ; o r smoulders i n d u l l p a i n , i n darkness, under e a r t h l y vapoursi1 If,  i n a s u r f e i t o f w o r l d l y goods, we l i e back and imagine  that  we have e v e r y t h i n g we want and need, we are no l o n g e r men, b u t half-men, stomachs b e r e f t o f s o u l s .  (For C a r l y l e the stomach  i s t h e u s u a l symbol f o r human d e s i r e s which can be f u l f i l l e d by the p h y s i c a l world, j u s t as cookery i s h i s symbol f o r a l l  1  S a r t o r , p. 147 »  44 the l i f e - p r o c e s s e s which c o n t r i b u t e to the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f these d e s i r e s . ) lot  God o n l y i s p e r f e c t and complete.  I t i s man's  to seek ever the p e r f e c t i o n o f God though he knows  w e l l that, he can never f i n d i t .  full  To C a r l y l e i t i s immoral f o r  any man to stop searching f o r God and s t r u g g l i n g to do h i s w i l l . Are we then to conclude t h a t C a r l y l e would a l l o w no happiness i n t h i s world? r i g h t to a gallows-noose  He once exclaimed t h a t man had more about h i s neck than to happiness.  C a r l y l e does a l l o w a degree o f happiness.  Yet  S i n c e d i s c o n t e n t and  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n come from l o o k i n g to t h i s world f o r h a p p i n e s s , s a t i s f a c t i o n and contentment t h i s world.  w i l l come from l o o k i n g away from  F o r t h i s " l o o k i n g away" C a r l y l e has a term —  ed i n t h i s i n s t a n c e from Geothe and N o v a l i s — self-annihilation.  borrow-  Selbsttffdtung o r  S e l b s t t o d t u n g C a r l y l e c a l l s the f i r s t  pre-  l i m i n a r y moral a c t , the a c t from which a l l m o r a l i t y s p r i n g s . Thus, f o r example, does T e u f e l s d r o c k h , t o r t u r e d and toaanented by t h a t f o o l i s h precept "Know t h y s e l f " , f o r g e t h i m s e l f , a n n i h i l a t e his  S e l f , and w i t h " . . . mind's eye now unsealed, and i t s hands  ungyved,"  1  r i s e from the E v e r l a s t i n g No to the E v e r l a s t i n g Yea.  He throws o f f the egoism o f concern w i t h s e l f , o f i n q u i r i n g as to his  own e x i s t e n c e , o f seeking h i s own happiness, and f i n d s t h e r e -  by a measure o f comfort and assurance, and a t the same time, that g r e a t moral t r u t h , t h a t t h i s i s God's world: Sweeter than Dayspring to the Shipwrecked i n Nova Zerabla: ah, l i k e the mother* s v o i c e to h e r l i t t l e c h i l d that s t r a y s , bewildered, weeping, i n unknown tumults; l i k e s o f t s t r a i n i n g s o f c e l e s t i a l music to my too-exasperated h e a r t , came t h a t 1  S a r t o r , p.  149.  45 E v a n g e l . The U n i v e r s e i s not dead and demoniacal, a charnelhouse o f s p e c t r e s , but g o d l i k e , and my Father' s'.l All  t h a t i s s e l f - r e g a r d i n g and  selfishly  i n our l i v e s must be put away so t h a t the s p i r i t above the c i r c u l a t i o n s o f every-day l i f e  which t h r o t t l e the  jealousy —  s o u l o f man.  We  soar  free  are f r e e d from  a l l those p e r s o n a l  emotions  are f r e e d too from the use-  l e s s , self-conscious scrutiny of ourselves a t t e n t i o n s to the w o r l d and  can  t h a t have h i t h e r t o  bound i t . With the a n n i h i l a t i o n o f s e l f we envy, anger, h a t r e d ,  personal  to God.  The  and  can t u r n  s o u l can  then  our penetrate,  to the extent which i t i s f r e e d , beyond the phantasmagoria gloom t h a t surround i t and the Laws -of Nature. perception  —  and  can p e r c e i v e ,  though s t i l l  P r o p o r t i o n a l to the p e n e t r a t i o n  to the  subsequent r i g h t a c t i v i t y —  happiness t h a t r e s u l t s from the d e n i a l of s e l f .  todtune can be o n l y p a r t i a l . i t would mean f u l l  mean the end o f l i f e logically  P e r f e c t d e n i a l of s e l f ,  r e a l i z a t i o n o f the  dimly, and i s the  I t can,  course, at best be o n l y a p a r t i a l happiness, f o r the  and  of  Selbstthough  s p i r i t w i t h i n , would a l s o  f o r the body without.  Thus i t f o l l o w s  that: . . . the Dead are a l l h o l y , even they t h a t were base and wicked w h i l e a l i v e . T h e i r baseness and wickedness was not They, was but the heavy and unmanageable Environment t h a t l a y round them, w i t h which they fought u n p r e v a i l i n g l y : they (the e t h e r e a l god-given f o r c e t h a t was i n them, and was. t h e i r S e l f ) have now s h u f f l e d o f f t h a t heavy Environment and are now f r e e and pure.2  S a r t o r , p.  150.  "Biography", E s s a y s , v o l . 3, p.  56..  46 More important  than the degree o f happiness  obtained  through S a l b s t t o d t u n g i s the degree o f p e r c e p t i o n i t g i v e s i n t o the Laws o f Nature.  The more completely the work and  purpose  o f our l i v e s are turned from the s e l f i s h and.the p e t t y , the more f u l l y we  come i n t u i t i v e l y to an awareness o f God  and h i s p l a n .  T h i s awareness i s dependent upon not o n l y the degree to which the s p i r i t has been f r e e d from p h y s i c a l entanglement, but  also  to the amount of i n t u i t i o n w i t h which the person has been endowed.  C a r l y l e uses the word " i n t u i t i o n "  m y s t i c a l a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e what one  to d e s i g n a t e a  should do.  s p i r i t u a l communication system between God it  i s a human f a c u l t y f a r more important  and man  I t i s the and as  to C a r l y l e than  such the  f a c u l t y of reason: . . . O f t e n by some winged word, winged as the t h u n d e r b o l t , o f a L u t h e r , a Napoleon, a Goethe, s h a l l we see the d i f f i c u l t y s p l i t asunder and i t s s e c r e t l a i d bare; w h i l e the I r r e f r a g a b l e , w i t h a l l h i s l o g i c a l t o o l s , hews a t i t , and hovers round i t , and f i n d s i t on a l l hands too hard f o r him.l Briefly,  s u c c i n c t l y , C a r l y l e ' s motto i n t h i s matter i s :  ". . . i t i s the h e a r t always t h a t sees, b e f o r e the head see . . . . "  2  I f we  accept t h a t God  a physical manifestation of this  i s s p i r i t and t h a t man  is  s p i r i t , , we must of course  accept t h a t t h e r e w i l l be some mysterious S i n c e God  can  and unseen agency  linking  the two.  i s u l t i m a t e and a l l - k n o w i n g , i n -  tuition  sent by him i s s u p e r i o r to reason which i s o n l y the  1  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , E s s a y s , v o l . 3, p.  2  "Chartism", Essays, v o l . A, p.  I48.  6.  47 product o f a f i n i t e mind d e a l i n g w i t h f i n i t e  experiences.  J u s t as C a r l y l e b e l i e v e d t h a t the o b j e c t s o f the v i s i b l e world had t h e i r r e a l e x i s t e n c e o n l y i n the s p i r i t and f o r c e which they harboured,  so he c o n s i d e r e d man to have h i s  t r u e being o n l y i n the spark o f d i v i n i t y which was h i s s o u l . We would expect, then, t h a t C a r l y l e would l a y l i t t l e upon human b e i n g s , j u s t as he put l i t t l e of  the p h y s i c a l world.  worth  s t o r e by the t r e a s u r e s  To some extent t h i s i s indeed the case.  Once, commenting on Dr. Johnson sea-Etching among c o f f i n s f o r a ghost, C a r l y l e remarked:  "The good Doctor was a ghost, as  a c t u a l and a u t h e n t i c as h e a r t c o u l d w i s h . "  1  To C a r l y l e we a r e  a l l ghosts and s p e c t r e s who appear f o r ah i n s t a n t i n body form, then fade a g a i n i n t o a i r and i n v i s i b i l i t y . a .thousand m i l l i o n o f us ". . . walking noontide;  And though t h e r e be  the E a r t h openly a t  some h a l f - h u n d r e d have vanished from i t , some h a l f -  hundred a r i s e n i n i t , ere thy;" watch t i c k s o n c e . "  Thus, t o  2  C a r l y l e , t h i n k i n g i n terms o f e t e r n i t y and i n f i n i t y , little ten  t h a t Governor Eyre should murder a few b l a c k s o r t h a t  thousand o r a hundred thousand should p e r i s h i n the F r e n c h  R e v o l u t i o n as long as the U n i v e r s e to  i t meant  - was brought  somewhat back  o r d e r i n the procjess. However, C a r l y l e does n o t always h o l d t h i s  o p i n i o n o f the v a l u e o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  J u s t as he r e v e r e d the  p h y s i c a l world as a r e v e l a t i o n o f the d i v i n e w i l l ,  S a r t o r , p. 211' Loc. c i t .  light  so he r e v e r e s  48 the human body as the r e c e p t a c l e o f the s p i r i t o f God.  Speak-  i n g o f t h e worship and awe w i t h which Abbot Samson uncovered the body o f S t . Edmund, C a r l y l e  asks:  Who knows how to reverence the Body o f Man? I t I s the most reverend phenomenon under t h i s Sun. F o r the h i g h e s t God dwells v i s i b l e i n t h a t mystic unfathomable V i s i b i l i t y , which c a l l s I t s e l f »I» on the E a r t h . He then goes on to quote N o v a l i s : Bending over men . . . i s a reverence done t o t h i s R e v e l a t i o n i n the F l e s h . We touch Heaven when we l a y our hand on a human Body. 1  G r e a t l y as C a r l y l e reveres the human body, note t h a t the reason always i s t h a t i t i s a " R e v e l a t i o n i n the F l e s h " and t h a t the h i g h e s t God dwells v i s i b l e i n i t ;  never does he  worship o r honour the human body o r the human l i f e f o r i t s e l f and as a t h i n g a p a r t from the godhead i t c o n t a i n s . So f a r we have c o n s i d e r e d S e l b s t t o d t u n g o n l y as the process by which a man who i s tormenting  h i m s e l f w i t h ques-  t i o n s as to the purpose o f h i s own e x i s t e n c e i s turned from t h i s u s e l e s s i n t r o v e r s i o n through r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s i n s i g n i f i c a n c e and unimportance r e l a t i v e t o t h e u n i v e r s e and to God.  But c o n s i d e r how the Promethean o r F a u s t i a n man, the  man who w i l l r e c o g n i z e no bounds q r l i m i t s to h i s freedom. w i l l not acknowledge t h a t he i s s u b s e r v i e n t to any God o r D i v i n e Idea, and t h e r e f o r e he denies the s p i r i t u a l p a r t o f  Past and P r e s e n t , p.  124  f  He  49 h i m s e l f , what t o C a r l y l e i s the o n l y r e a l and l i v i n g of himself.  part  Here t h e r e must he a pruning back o f t h i s  t h a t i s growing  anarchically i n a l l directions,  self  ^here must  be r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t man cannot measure h i m s e l f w i t h t h e gods. And  i f our Prometheus ask "Why not?' What d i s t i n g u i s h e s men  from gods?" we can f i n d the answer where C a r l y l e found i t , i n Goethe: Was u n t e r s c h e i d e t G 6 t t e r von Menschen? Dass v i e l e Wellen Von jenen wandeln, E i n ewiger Strom: Uns hebt d i e W e l l e , V e r s c h l i n g t d i e Welle, Und w i r v e r s i n k e n . E i n k l e i n e r Ring Begrenzt unser Leben, Und v i e l e Geschlechter Reinen s i c h dauernd An i h r e s Daseins Unendliche K e t t e . (Die Grenzen d e r Menschheit.) With Goethe C a r l y l e i n s i s t s r e p e a t e d l y t h a t t h e r e a r e bounds to human e x i s t e n c e , and w i t h Goethe he sees as the f i r s t o f t h i s the f a c t t h a t upon a l l humans i s l a i d to d i e .  proof  the n e c e s s i t y  Here i s the most unavoidable and undeniable p r o o f t h a t  man i s not a f r e e Having  agent. f o r c e d acceptance o f t h i s l i m i t upon the  Promethean man, C a r l y l e then goes on to o u t l i n e o t h e r l i m i t s o f mankind.  Foremost among these i s the l i m i t s e t by man's God-  g i v e n sense o f duty.  C a r l y l e p o s t u l a t e s t h a t each man h a s ,  as a b a s i c component o f the d i v i n i t y which he i n h e r i t s , a sense  50 of  r i g h t and wrong, together w i t h a compelling urge to do  what i s r i g h t and to a v o i d what i s wrong. of  Each man does n o t ,  course, see h i s duty w i t h t h e same c l a r i t y , hut each,  whether he be enmeshed i n i n t r o v e r t e d contemplation o r blown up w i t h a F a u s t i a n sense o f h i s own importance,  feels that  mysterious power urging him to l o o k to what he should do. Thus, Teufelsdrttckh, caught  i n the s c e p t i c i s m and d e n i a l o f  the E v e r l a s t i n g No, w r i t e s t h a t : . . . i n s p i t e ©f a l l M o t i v e - g r i n d e r s , and Mechanical Profit-and-Loss P h i l o s o p h i e s , with the s i c k ophthalmia and h a l l u c i n a t i o n they had brought on, was the I n f i n i t e Nature o f Duty s t i l l d i m l y present to me: l i v i n g without God i n t h e world, of God's l i g h t I was not u t t e r l y b e r e f t ; i f my as y e t s e a l e d eyes, w i t h t h e i r unspeakable l o n g i n g , c o u l d nowhere see Him, n e v e r t h e l e s s i n my h e a r t He was p r e s e n t , and H i s heaven-written Law s t i l l stood l e g i b l e and s a c r e d t h e r e . 1  L a t e r , i n Past of  and P r e s e n t . C a r l y l e p i c k s up the v e r y words  T e u f e l s d r o c k h t o d e c l a r e t h a t " t h i s same 'sense o f the  I n f i n i t e Nature o f Duty' i s the c e n t r a l p a r t o f a l l w i t h us; a r a y as o f E t e r n i t y and I m m o r t a l i t y , immured i n dusky many2 c o l o u r e d Time." to  I t i s because we a r e connected  spiritually  the D i v i n e and the I n f i n i t e t h a t we r e c o g n i z e u n c o n s c i o u s l y  what we should do and f e e l compelled to do I t .  And i n s o f a r  as we obey our sense o f duty our freedom i s a g a i n l i m i t e d . A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f mankind l i e s i n the i m p e r f e c t i o n o f human i n t e l l e c t . S a r t o r , p. 131. Past and P r e s e n t . jS. 109.  To understand why C a r l y l e  51 f e l t as v i o l e n t l y as he d i d on t h i s p o i n t we must f i r s t  look  a b i t a t the p h i l o s o p h i c a l background o f h i s time.  Carlyle s  g e n e r a t i o n and  boundaries  the one  o f human understanding C e l e s t e had  preceding  i t had pushed the  a long way.  L a p l a c e i n h i s MecHanique  c h a r t e d the s t a r s and was  courses with u n e r r i n g accuracy.  a b l e to p r e d i c t t h e i r  Moreover, i n h i s  Exposition  du Systerne du Monde he had attempted an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the o r i g i n s o f our p l a n e t a r y system. t h e i r d i s c i p l e s had  put forward  Adam Smith, David R i c a r d o , t h e o r i e s of p o l i t i c a l economy  which e x p l a i n e d w i t h i r r e f u t a b l e l o g i c why I r e l a n d were s t a r v i n g and  amd  the peasants o f  the poor o f England i n r e v o l t .  Lamarck, with h i s t h e o r y t b a t l i f e may o u s l y from the i n t e r a c t i o n o f heat and  have o r i g i n a t e d spontanee l e c t r i c i t y , had d e a l t  a sore blow to the r e l i g i o u s view o f c r e a t i o n ; w h i l e a t the same time, Erasmus Darwin was even more h e r e t i c a l  p r e p a r i n g the minds of  i d e a s of h i s b r i l l i a n t  t h i n k e r s f o r the  grandson.  I n consequence o f these apparent v i c t o r i e s o f the human i n t e l l e c t , and b o l s t e r e d i n i t s optimism by the s i g h t o f f a c t o r i e s and r a i l w a y s — environment — overthrowing The  symbolic  o f man's conquest o f h i s  the n i n e t e e n t h century was i t s s p i r i t u a l gods and  q u e s t i o n o f whether a t h i n g was  i n an a b s o l u t e sense, was  w e l l on the way  to  a c c e p t i n g p h y s i c a l ones. good or bad,  true or f a l s e  becoming one o f whether, i n a  p r a c t i c a l sense i t worked or n o t .  I t was  o f view which caused A l b e r t Schweitzer  t h i s switch i n p o i n t  to condemn the n i n e t e e n t h -  52 century  completely: R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the decay o f c i v i l i z a t i o n l i e s a t the door of n i n e t e e n t h century p h i l o sophy. I t d i d not understand how to keep a l i v e the coraern for. c i v i l i z a t i o n which e x i s t e d i n the p e r i o d o f the Enlightenment. I t should have r e c o g n i z e d i t s t a s k as being the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the work i n elemental t h i n k i n g about e t h i c s and a t t i t u d e toward l i f e , which was l e f t incomplete by the e i g h t e e n t h century. Instead of t h a t , i t l o s t i t s e l f during the n i n e t e e n t h century more and more deeply i n the unelemental. I t renounced i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h man's n a t u r a l search f o r a view o f l i f e , and became merely a s c i e n c e o f the h i s t o r y o f p h i l o s o p h y . I t provided . i t s e l f with a p o i n t o f view out of a combination o f h i s t o r y and n a t u r a l s c i e n c e . T h i s , however, turned out to be q u i t e l i f e l e s s , a n d , f a i l e d t o p r e s e r v e any concern f o r c i v i l i z a t i o n . It  i s not t r u e , o f course, t h a t everyone i n £he  teenth century f a i l e d i n t h i s concern. concerned  h i m s e l f almost  C a r l y l e , f o r one,  s o l e l y with t h i s trend.  He  exploded  v i o l e n t l y a g a i n s t s c i e n c e and the m e c h a n i s t i c view o f the He was  not a t a l l impressed  world.  t h a t L a p l a c e had p l o t t e d every  What does i t p r o f i t us, he c r i e d , " . . . of  t h e i r Whereabout; t h e i r How,  nine-  t h a t we  t h e i r Why,  can now  star.  prate  t h e i r What being h i d  2 from us i n the s i g n l e s s Inane?"  P o l i t i c a l economy he named a  d i s m a l , gloomy s c i e n c e which t r i e s to e x p l a i n the deep a f f e c t i o n by which one h e a r t feeds on another Bentham's t h e o r i e s he  through dry  c a l l e d a p r o f i t - a n d - l o s s p h i l o s o p h y which  attempted to reduce l i v i n g to bookkeeping. any God  statistics.  "There i s no  longer  f o r us." c r i e d C a r l y l e , God's Laws are become a Greatest-Happiness P r i n c i p l e , a P a r l i a m e n t a r y Expedience: the  A l b e r t Schweitzer, The ^ecay and R e s t o r a t i o n o f C i v i l i z a t i o n , quoted: i n Out of My L i f e and Thought. New York, Mentor, 1953, p. 154--155. S a r t o r , p.  205.  53 Heavens o v e r a r c h us o n l y as an A s t r o n o m i c a l Time-Keeper; a b u t t f o r H e r s c h e l - t e l e s c o p e s to shoot s c i e n c e a t , to shoot s e n t i m e n t a l i t i e s a t ; — i n our o l d and o l d Jonson's d i a l e c t , man has l o s t the s o u l out o f him; and now, a f t e r t h e due p e r i o d , — begins to f i n d the want o f i t I For C a r l y l e , no human e x p l a n a t i o n o f the u n i v e r s e was p o s s i b l e , nor should any be attempted . 1  "Doth n o t t h y cow c a l v e , doth  not t h y b u l l gender?" he asked,  "Thou, t h y s e l f , wert thou 2  not born, w i l t thou not d i e ? E x p l a i n me a l l t h i s  . . . ."  C a r l y l e was sure t h a t , while man's reason c o u l d not u n r a v e l a l l the l a s t s e c r e t s o f the u n i v e r s e , h i s f a i t h c o u l d accept them a l l . more important  F a i t h and b e l i e v i n g a r e t h e r e f o r e  t o C a r l y l e than knowledge and reason.  On t h i s  p o i n t he i s most emphatic. I n Heroes he wrote: A man l i v e s by b e l i e v i n g something, n o t by debating and arguing about many t h i n g s . A sad case f o r him when a l l he can manage to b e l i e v e i s something he can b u t t o n i n h i s pocket, and w i t h one or the o t h e r organ eat and d i g e s t ! Lower than t h a t he w i l l n o t get.-* B e l i e v i n g i s i n t e n d e d by C a r l y l e t o be the supreme a c t o f F a i t h , the E v e r l a s t i n g Yea. acceptance  I t i s i n f a c t the e t h i c a l  o f the world and a f f i r m a t i o n o f the creed t h a t a  d i v i n e and moral w i l l i s a t work w i t h i n i t —  indeed, r u l e s i t  wholly. A c c o r d i n g to the C a r l y l e way o f t h i n k i n g , l i f e out t h i s f a i t h i s i m p o s s i b l e .  A man who t r u s t s h i s reason  alone and seeks through i t l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the  1 S a r t o r , p. 136-137. 2  I b i d . . p. 55.  3 Heroes, p. 201.  with-  mysteries  54 of  life  and death, good and e v i l , freedom and n e c e s s i t y , f a l l s  at  once i n t o doubt, and from t h e r e i n t o s c e p t i c i s m , and e v e n t u a l l y  into denial.  A t t h i s p o i n t , denying what f o r C a r l y l e i s the  purpose o f l i f e , he has no motive to l i v e and w i l l no l o n g e r live —  t h a t i s , w i l l no l o n g e r work a t what he should work a t .  A l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n o f C a r l y l e s theory o f work w i l l  justify  1  our equating working with  living.  C a r l y l e ' s f e a r o f s c e p t i c i s m i s a t the back:of many o f h i s p r e j u d i c e s and o p i n i o n s .  Thus he hated Methodism  because he c o n s i d e r e d i t to be ". . . a d i s e a s e d i n t r o s p e c t i o n and h o r r i b l e r e s t l e s s doubt ... . w i t h i t s eyes turned f o r e v e r on i t s own n a v e l . "  1  Methodism could n o t o f f e r the guidance  a r e l i g i o n should because i t was too busy w i t h i t s a g o n i z i n g i n q u i r i e s about i t s e l f .  S i m i l a r l y Carlyle d i s l i k e d  Voltaire  because the l a t t e r ' s f r e e - t h i n k i n g p h i l o s o p h y denied God. V o l t a i r e ' s a n t i - C h r i s t i a n r a t i o n a l i s m was ". . . o n l y a t o r c h f o r b u r n i n g , no hammer f o r b u i l d i n g . " s i n c e i t i s an attempt  Metaphysical  theorizing,  to f i n d e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r what C a r l y l e  c o n s i d e r s t o be i n e x p l i c a b l e , i s a l s o on h i s l i s t o f s u s p i c i o u s activities.  A l l s p e c u l a t i v e t h i n k i n g which does n o t s t a r t  the premise  "This i s God's world" i s u s e l e s s and negative'.  from  To be f a i r to C a r l y l e , we must r e c o g n i z e t h a t he does not completely deny the power o f the human mind. c o n s i d e r i n g metaphysics produced  he admits  Even i n  t h a t ". . . i f they have  no A f f i r m a t i o n , they have d e s t r o y e d much Negation."  1  Past and ^ r e s e n t , p. 117*  2  S a r t o r , p. 154-155.  ^ " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , E s s a y s , v o l . 3 , p. 40>.  3  55 S t a t i s t i c a l i n q u i r i e s i n t o the s t a t e o f l a b o u r e r s i n England ". . . w i s e l y gone i n t o . . . w i l l y i e l d r e s u l t s worth somet h i n g , not n o t h i n g . " astronomical  1  He  even makes a show o f approving  s t u d i e s by c l a i m i n g t h a t the l e c a n i q u e  Laplace's  Celeste  2 ". . . i s as p r e c i o u s  to me  as to another."  But we  are  ever  c o u n s e l l e d to remember* .one t h i n g : "Logic i s good, but i t i s not the b e s t . " does not  C a r l y l e the i d e a l i s t i s always p a r t r e a l i s t .  3  suggest t h a t a l l s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y and  s p e c u l a t i o n should be recognized,  metaphysical  stopped, but o n l y t h a t t h e i r l i m i t s  and t h a t there be no e f f o r t  He  to have them  be  supplant  f a i t h i n the D i v i n e Idea. While the man  o f no f a i t h i s l i m i t e d and  confined  always t o d e a l i n g with p e t t y things i n the p h y s i c a l world, the man  of f a i t h gains by h i s acceptance o f God  almost u n l i m i t e d . absolute he  Secure i n the knowledge that there i s an  r i g h t and wrong and  t h a t he i n t u i t i v e l y knows them,  can work f r e e l y and with f e r v o u r a t what he  as h i s duty.  He  a power  recognizes  cannot read the u l t i m a t e s e c r e t s o f  u n i v e r s e , but he can accomplish  much, f o r none o f h i s energy  i s wasted i n u s e l e s s argument or c r i n g i n g doubt; working with the power of God Nature. God  the  i n accordance wilh  a l l of i t i s the Laws of  More than t h a t , he a c q u i r e s through h i s acceptance o f  a power beyond l o g i c a l comprehension.  " F a i t h i s the one  n e e d f u l , " says C a r l y l e , . .. . with i t martyrs, otherwise weak, can c h e e r f u l l y ensure the shame and the c r o s s ;  L  "Chartism",  Essays. v o l . . .4* P..J-.26,  2  S a r t o r , p. 205*.  3 " C h a r a c t e r i s e " P-  6,  thing  56 and without i t W o r l d l i n g s puke-up t h e i r s i c k e x i s t e n c e , by s u i c i d e , i n the midst o f l u x u r y . Once we have made a c o n f e s s i o n o f f a i t h and ed the l i m i t s o f mankind we freewill.  immediately  who  who  deny h i s f r e e w i l l ? i t up h i m s e l f .  to do thus and  In Sartor. Teufelsdrockh,  but  to say t h a t  so i s s u r e l y to  C a r l y l e r e c o g n i z e d the problem and  c h i l d h o o d , humorously notes  brought  s o l i l o q u i z i n g on h i s  t h a t ". . . F r e e w i l l came o f t e n i n  p a i n f u l c o l l i s i o n w i t h N e c e s s i t y , so t h a t my A few  has not, i n  to a D i v i n e Idea,  w i l l r a t h e r remain a law unto h i m s e l f ; and  n e c e s s i t y i s l a i d upon a man  accept-  f a c e the q u e s t i o n o f  S u r e l y freedom l i e s w i t h the man  e f f e c t , taken an oath o f subservience  1  tears  flowed."  chapters l a t e r C a r l y l e h i m s e l f s u c c i n c t l y sets out  2  the  problem: ' Our l i f e i s compassed round w i t h N e c e s s i t y ; y e t i s the meaning o f L i f e no o t h e r than Freedom, than V o l u n t a r y F o r c e : thus we have a warfare. 3  The probably  problem i s a p e r e n n i a l one,  and one which has  been at the r o o t of more t h e o l o g i c a l d i s p u t e s than  other.  The C h r i s t i a n church has  "In Thy  s e r v i c e p e r f e c t freedom, God."  v e r y s i m i l a r way.  s o l v e d i t w i t h the  formula  C a r l y l e solves i t i n a  "Love not p l e a s u r e ; l o v e God,"  " T h i s i s the E v e r l a s t i n g Yea,  any  says  he.  wherein a l l c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s  s o l v e d ; wherein whoso walks and works, i t i s w e l l w i t h him."4  1  S a r t o r , p.  129•  2  I b i d - , P.  78.  3  I b i d . . p.  153.  4  I b i d . , p.  153,  57 F o r C a r l y l e i t i s no paradox t h a t freedom comes w i t h acceptance o f d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y . a f r e e - t h i n k e r , who s e t above him,  He who  i n s i s t s upon being  denies t h a t there i s any  i s a c t u a l l y the  s l a v e o f a thousand gods —  above a l l o f an a g o n i z i n g  his  whims and  and  a c o n t i n u a l u n s a t i s f y i n g s t r i v i n g which w i l l not l e t him On  and  f o r c e or power  own  rest.  desires —  the  the other hand, he who  l i m i t s o f mankind has  b e l i e v e s and  recognizes  freedom w i t h i n those l i m i t s .  as a m o r t a l man  he  b e l i e f s , he has  what amounts to p e r f e c t and  doubt  And,  the since  cannot escape those l i m i t s whatever h i s  A f u r t h e r aspect  absolute  of the d i v i n i t y i n man  freedom. is reflect-  ed i n the f a c t t h a t he wonders about the world around  him.  Wonder, as C a r l y l e uses the term, i s not mere c u r i o s i t y , but i s r a t h e r the awe  one  f e e l s when one  sees a b e a u t i f u l ' s u n s e t  r e a l i z e s that some f o r c e ordered i t to be — s e l f nightly with glorious v a r i e t y . opposes a m e c h a n i s t i c  to repeat i t -  Wonder, l i k e  view of the world or any  does not allow f o r mystery. ".  and  faith,  theory  W i t h C a r l y l e , as w i t h  . . that p r o g r e s s o f Science  which  Teufelsdr'6ckh,  which i s to d e s t r o y Wonder, and  i n i t s p l a c e s u b s t i t u t e M e n s u r a t i o n and Numeration, f i n d s favour."  1  Wonder i n t h i s sense, f a r from being  f a c t o r i n the e x i s t e n c e and  development o f man,  beginning o f a d e l i m i t i n g process.  to p e r c e i v e  S a r t o r , p.  small  a limiting i s rather  the  I t p l a y s an important r o l e  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f God man  and  to man,  f o r i t enables  the d i v i n e i d e a a work i n the p h y s i c a l world.  53.  58 Without wonder man  i s no b e t t e r than a machine.  tt  The  man  who  cannot wonder", says C a r l y l e , who does not h a b i t u a l l y wonder (and w o r s h i p ) , were he P r e s i d e n t o f innumerable Royal S o c i e t i e s , and c a r r i e d the whole M^canique C e l d s t e and Hegel's P h i l o s o p h y , and the epitome o f a l l L a b o r a t o r i e s and O b s e r v a t o r i e s w i t h t h e i r r e s u l t s i n h i s s i n g l e head — i s but a p a i r o f s p e c t a c l e s behind which there i s no Eye. 1  Wonder i s , o f course, no the p r o c e s s i t begins stop here.  end  i n i t s e l f , nor  From the wonder and  aroused by the s i g h t of a l l t h a t i s b e a u t i f u l and heaven and  e a r t h we  are moved f i r s t  does awe  awful i n  to f e a r from whence  we  come to a humble r e v e r e n c e , not of the phenomenon i t s e l f , o f the power that caused i t : and of worship".  2  so wonder becomes "the  but  basis  Wonder i s the s o u l ' s mysterious r e c o g n i t i o n o f  i t s a f f i n i t y w i t h the divine: f o r c e l y i n g behind n a t u r a l phenonomena.  Worship i s the  sensible utterance  of t h i s  non-  sensible recognition. To p r i m i t i v e man The  worship came e a s i l y and n a t u r a l l y .  s h i n i n g f o r t h o f a s t a r was  standable t h i n g and he modern man, a s t a r has no l o n g e r  to him  a g r e a t and  un-under-  f e l l i n s u p p l i c a t i o n before Canopus.  worship i s more d i f f i c u l t f o r the  shining f o r t h of  become a matter o f s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n and a bold miracle.  upon the u n i v e r s e ,  1  S a r t o r , p.  2  I b i d . , p.  54* 53.  Our  To  eyes no l o n g e r l o o k  but l o o k r a t h e r f o r e x p l a n a t i o n  is  directly i n theories  59 o f l i g h t propagation and e v o l u t i o n , w h i l e "To the w i l d deeph e a r t e d man a l l was y e t new, n o t v e i l e d under names and formulas; i t stood f l a s h i n g i n on him t h e r e , b e a u t i f u l , unspeakable."  awful,  1  R e l i g i o n i s to C a r l y l e a f o r m a l i z e d , dogmatized v a r i e t y o f worship.  I t begins because man, s t r i v i n g to a l i g n  h i m s e l f with the d i v i n e , y e t l i m i t e d by h i s f i n i t e  nature,  found h i m s e l f f o r c e d t o choosle a p a r t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a whole and to worship he c o u l d n o t name.  a symbol i n p l a c e o f the g r e a t n e s s which The choice o f a symbol i s n o t so important  as the a c t o f worshipping: The r u d e s t heathen t h a t worshipped Canopus, o r the Caabah B l a c k - s t o n e , he . . . was s u p e r i o r to the horse t h a t worshipped n o t h i n g . 2  Y e t symbols a r e important too, f o r they, being more i d e a than o b j e c t , are the h i g h e s t attempt through the f i n i t e .  o f man to express the i n f i n i t e  The t r u e s t symbol o f a man i s h i s l i f e  and works, f o r here i s ". . . a symbolic R e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and making v i s i b l e , o f the C e l e s t i a l i n v i s i b l e F o r c e t h a t i s i n him."  3  I n the b e g i n n i n g , says C a r l y l e , " R e l i g i o n was everywhere".^  Pagan r e l i g i o n s worshipped s p i r i t s i n every wind  and t r e e and saw the w i l l o f God i n the f l i g h t o f b i r d s . A l though to us Paganism i s " . . . a b e w i l d e r i n g , i n e x t r i c a b l e  1  Heroes, p. 7.  2  I b i d , p. 139.  3  French R e v o l u t i o n , v o l . 2, p. 4-7.  4  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , Essays, v o l . 3, p. 15*  60 jungle of delusions, covering ity,  falsehood,  the whole f i e l d of L i f e , "  t h a t i t looked  world.  confusions,  and  absurdities,  i t d i d have t h i s  1  with wonder, reverence, and worship on  becomes more complex —  Gradually  to t h i n k about i t s e l f and not  the  symptoms o f decay.  r e l i g i o n i s nobler  the form o f worship  a sure s i g n that the r e l i g i o n has  gun  about God  —  than Paganism because i t has  substituted  channels o f worship, and  f e e l s that  showing signs o f decay.  set to work upon r e l i g i o n ,  e v e n t e u l l y obscuring  the p r i m i t i v e  quite  forgotten.  symbols came to be venerated f o r themselves and was  brought o u r s e l v e s  i s the maker o f the u n i v e r s e  and  generation  o f us, has  to God.  t h a t i t s host acknowledge and worship God But  two  4.  God,  who  and  growth r e q u i r e s  s t r i v e to a c t  t h i n g s come between man  f u l f i l l m e n t of the needs o f h i s s o u l —  Heroes, p.  have  implanted i n each  human a soul t h a t f o r i t s proper nourii shment and  1  we  to the p o i n t o f understanding C a r l y l e ' s  view of the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f h i s own  to h i s w i l l .  the  neglected.  I n t r a c i n g C a r l y l e ' s system of p h i l o s o p h y  according  Philosophy  Thirty-nine A r t i c l e s ,  the s p i r i t o r i g i n a l l y worshipped was  animus which they once represented  now  the  s p l i t t i n g i t into sects, setting  f a i t h w i t h such terms as Puseyism and  R i t u a l and  are  While C a r l y l e h o l d s t h a t the C h r i s t i a n  C h r i s t i a n i t y o f h i s day was  till  be-  and h e r e i n  h o l i n e s s and m o r a l i t y f o r f o r c e , he n e v e r t h e l e s s  up  the  C a r l y l e b e l i e v e s that a l l r e l i g i o n s i n t h e i r beginnings  have t h i s s i n c e r i t y o f b e l i e f .  had  superior-  and  the  h i s b o d i l y d e s i r e , which  61 he must renounce, and the v a i n s t r i v i n g s o f h i s i n t e l l e c t ,  which  he must acknowledge to be i m p e r f e c t . With r e s p e c t to h i s own  generation Carlyle f e l t  that  humanity had never been so f a r from God.  A certain doctrine of  " e n l i g h t e n e d s e l f i s h n e s s " was  to seek s a t i s f a c t i o n  coaxing man  o f h i s p h y s i c a l d e s i r e s w h i l e the progress o f s c i e n c e was ing of  offer-  him more and more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l u x u r i o u s g r a t i f i c a t i o n those d e s i r e s .  electricity  At the same time, s c i e n t i s t s were suggesting  as the p r o g e n i t o r of the world, and C h a r t i s t s were,  o f f e r i n g the b a l l o t box as i t s s a v i o u r .  Man  was  p o i n t o f g r a s p i n g these m a t e r i a l l u x u r i e s , these  on the v e r y . rational  e x p l a n a t i o n s , and these u n i v e r s a l panaceas, and o f t u r n i n g h i s back on God.  To C a r l y l e , man  was  on the b r i n k o f N i a g a r a ,  C a r l y l e made i t h i s l i f e ' s work to t r y to prevent humanity going over the edge.  and from  Chapter I I I Man  i n the World and among h i s F e l l o w s  What C a r l y l e c o u l d do i n a g e n e r a l way a v e r t the danger t h a t he saw,  he d i d .  That i s , he  to t r y to preached  i n c e s s a n t l y f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n o f s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s . t r i e d as w e l l to o f f e r more p r a c t i c a l h e l p .  He  But  he  a p p l i e d the  p h i l o s o p h y o u t l i n e d i n the preceding chapter to l i f e and came up w i t h c e r t a i n d i c t a which he intended should h e l p guide who  d i d not see as c l e a r l y as he d i d what was  r e q u i r e d o f them.  C r i t i c s and commentators s i n c e C a r l y l e have g i v e n these names — example — developed  those  dicta  the d o c t r i n e o f s i l e n c e , the d o c t r i n e o f work, f o r and have spoken o f them as though C a r l y l e them f u l l y and  he never d i d .  had  s e t them out f o r m a l l y , something which  I t w i l l be the purpose o f t h i s chapter to out-  l i n e the two most important o f these t h e o r i e s , the t h e o r y o f heroes and the theory o f work, and to show how the b a s i c C a r l y l e p h i l o s o p h y .  they d e r i v e from  But b e f o r e t h i s i s begun, i t w i l l  be n e c e s s a r y f o r us to l o o k b r i e f l y a t C a r l y l e ' s concept o f the p l a c e of the i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y . C a r l y l e ' s view o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f man men  goes back to h i s concept of man  as a s p i r i t bound by i n -  v i s i b l e s p i r i t u a l bonds to a l l other men. p r a c t i c a l arrangement by which one man not v e r y important to C a r l y l e .  to o t h e r  Because o f t h i s ,  the  binds another t o him i s  Only i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f how  important he c o n s i d e r e d these p r a c t i c a l arrangements can  un-  62 C a r l y l e ' s a t t i t u d e towards s l a v e r y , reflected i n the commentary on the American C i v i l War,  be  following  understood:  P e t e r o f the North (to P a u l o f the South) " P a u l , you unaccountable scoundrel, I f i n d you h i r e your s e r v a n t s f o r l i f e , not by the month or year as I do'. You are going s t r a i g h t to H e l l , you !" Paul. "Good words, Peter*, the r i s k i s my own; I am w i l l i n g to take the r i s k . H i r e you your s e r v a n t s by the month o r day, and get s t r a i g h t to Heaven; l e a v e me to my own method." Peter. "No, I won't. I w i l l beat your b r a i n s out f i r s t ! " (And i s t r y i n g d r e a d f u l l y ever s i n c e , but cannot y e t manage i t . ) 1  It  i s the  s p i r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f man  o f s o u l s , that counts f o r C a r l y l e . owner i s p r o p e r l y little  the  interaction  I f the h e a r t o f the  slave-  d i s p o s e d toward h i s s l a v e s , then i t matters  that t h e i r p h y s i c a l freedom i s c u r t a i l e d .  t h a t Gurth's l e a t h e r no was  to man,  c o l l a r r e p r e s e n t e d no  imprisoned h i s s p i r i t .  Carlyle  felt  slavery, f o r I t i n  J u s t as C a r l y l e o b j e c t e d  that  g e n e r a t i o n looked at the p h y s i c a l world o n l y as a machine to investigated its He  scientifically,  f a i t h i n science  so he  the checking and  putting a l l  balancing  a l l goes by s e l f - i n t e r e s t  of greedy k n a v e r i e s , and  that  there i s n o t h i n g d i v i n e whatever i n the a s s o c i a t i o n o f men" modern e r r o r more d e s p i c a b l e r i g h t to people c a l l e d  1  2  "The vol.  than t h a t o f a s c r i b i n g  2  divine  kings.  American I l i a d i n a N u t s h e l l " , Macmillan's Magazine, 8 (August, 1863), p. 301.  ' Heroes, p. 228*  be  i n i t s approach to p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  c o n s i d e r e d the view t h a t " . . .  and  f e l t t h a t i t was  his  a  63 The emotional tone o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f man to man i s , when the s p i r i t i s a l l o w e d to express i t s e l f t r u l y , one of  a f f e c t i o n and spapathy,  s i n c e ". . . a c e r t a i n  orthodox  Anthropomorphism connects my Me w i t h a l l - Thees i n bonds o f Love".  1  I t i s understood, o f course, t h a t i n our i m p e r f e c t  world, baser impulses i n t e r f e r e and o t h e r emotional tones r e s u l t , but i n Past and P r e s e n t C a r l y l e s e t out h i s i d e a l of  view  the bond between man and man: . . . men.' s h e a r t s ought not to be s e t a g a i n s t one another; but s e t w i t h one another, and a l l a g a i n s t the E v i l t h i n g o n l y . Men's s o u l s ought to be l e f t to see c l e a r l y ; n o t j a u n d i c e d , b l i n d e d , t w i s t e d a l l awry, by revenge, mutual abhorrence, and the l i k e . 2  C a r l y l e does n o t g r e a t l y s t r e s s h i s i d e a o f l o v e , nor does he expand i t o r e x p l a i n i t .  I t i s obvious, however,  from what we can see i n h i s w r i t i n g s and from what we have a l ready seen i n h i s p h i l o s o p h y , t h a t i t i s an impersonal form o f l o v e that he means —  and t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n hardness i n i t .  Moreover, l o v e i s n o t the o n l y emotion i n v o l v e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of .•.•man to--man. - 'There a r e other f a c e t s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y duty and obedience, to be c o n s i d e r e d , so t h a t C a r l y l e does n o t advocate .pure human!tarianism  or philanthropy.  Thus w h i l e he r e p e a t e d l y p l e a d s the cause o f the s t a r v i n g peasants o f I r e l a n d and the unemployed l a b o u r e r s o f England, he does n o t show the same sympathy f o r the s l a v e s o f the West Indies.  The I r i s h peasants and the E n g l i s h l a b o u r e r s a r e w i l l -  1  S a r t o r , p. 107.  2  P a s t and P r e s e n t , p. 17.  64 i n g to do t h e i r duty i f o n l y t h e i r l e a d e r s w i l l a l l o w i t , the b l a c k s l a v e s r e f u s e to' do  while  the work t h a t i s p r o v i d e d f o r  them. Although l o v e as an emotion i s not g r e a t l y emphasized i n the C a r l y l e a n system, as an a t t i t u d e which c o l o u r s man's view o f the world  around him  i t i s very important.  Since  love  i s the outward r e c o g n i t i o n o f the s p i r i t u a l bond which b i n d s man  to man,  man.  i t determines how  he w i l l a c t toward h i s f e l l o w  In t h i s sense, then, i t i s the beginning  do good, not because we  We  are t r y i n g to p r o v i d e happiness f o r our-  s e l v e s (as Bentham would have i t ) , whom we  of m o r a l i t y .  but because the man  with  are d e a l i n g i s our b r o t h e r , a p a r t o f o u r s e l v e s .  M o r a l i t y thus understood i s a p e r s o n a l t h i n g , y e t I t i s the beginning  of a l l m o r a l i t y f o r i t l e a d s us to a c t i n a  o f l o v e f o r the good o f a l l mankind, and he who  works c o n t i n u a l l y i n Thus does f a i t h ,  i s ".  . .  well-doing".1 the p o s i t i v e acceptance o f a world  d i v i n e l y d i r e c t e d , move through f e a r and and l o v e , and  the good man  spirit  reverence  emerge e v e n t u a l l y as m o r a l i t y .  The  l o g i c a l , r a t i o n a l once we have taken the i n i t i a l b e l i e v i n g i n the D i v i n e Idea and  to worship process i s  step, t h a t o f  the Laws o f Nature.  For  C a r l y l e there i s no achievement p o s s i b l e except through  this  process: I say t h i s i s y e t the o n l y t r u e m o r a l i t y "known. A man i s r i g h t and i n v i n c i b l e , v i r t u o u s and on the road towards conquest, p r e c i s e l y w h i l e he j o i n s h i m s e l f to the great deep Law o f the World, i n s p i t e o f a l l s u p e r f i c i a l laws, temporary appearances, p r o f i t - a n d - l o s s c a l c u l a t i o n s ; he i s " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , Essays,  v o l . 3, p. 7«  65 v i c t o r i o u s w h i l e he co-operates w i t h t h a t g r e a t c e n t r a l Law, not v i c t o r i o u s o t h e r w i s e .  1  I n the C a r l y l e a n scheme i t i s not o n l y a c t i v i t y o f which we  s h a l l have more to say l a t e r —  man's f a i t h and l o v e .  —  t h a t d e r i v e s from  I n h i s essay on "Biography" he wrote:  "A loving, h e a r t i s the beginning o f a l l knowledge", i n .Heroes, he expanded t h i s  2  and  later,  idea:  . . . without m o r a l i t y , i n t e l l e c t were imp o s s i b l e f o r [man]: a thoroughly immoral man c o u l d not know anything a t a l l . - To know a t h i n g , what we can c a l l knowing, a man must f i r s t l o v e the t h i n g , sympathize w i t h i t : t h a t i s , be v i r t u o u s l y r e l a t e d to i t . I f he have not j u s t i c e to put down h i s own s e l f i s h ness a t every t u r n . . . how s h a l l he know? . . . Nature, w i t h her t r u t h , remains to the bad, to the s e l f i s h and the p u s i l l a n i m o u s f o r ever a. s e a l e d book. What such can know o f Nature i s mean, s u p e r f i c i a l , s m a l l ; f o r the uses o f the day merely . . . We  can see here more c l e a r l y what C a r l y l e means when he  knowledge without l o v e i s i m p o s s i b l e .  says  Remembering t h a t he  c a l l e d h i s p h i l o s o p h y a " P l a t o n i c mysticism", we w i l l  has  realize  t h a t C a r l y l e ' s concept o f knowing means the r e c o g n i t i o n i n the m a t e r i a l and a c t u a l world of the i d e a l world t h a t l i e s it.  Without  behind  t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n there can be no c o g n i t i o n .  And  the r e c o g n i t i o n can come o n l y as a consequence o f the e n t i r e f a i t h - l o v e p r o c e s s , so t h a t the knower i s i n moral  sympathy  w i t h whatever he would know. Any  attempt  1  Heroes,  2  E s s a y s , v o l . 3, p.  3  Heroes,  a t knowledge which does not begin w i t h  p. 65*p.  122,  57.  66 acceptance o f the D i v i n e Idea and the Laws o f Nature i s doomed to f a i l u r e .  The g r e a t douhter, D e s c a r t e s , who  started  h i m s e l f w i t h the f i r s t premise "Cogito ergo sum",  was  from complete  anathema to C a r l y l e , f o r "thought without reverence i s b a r r e n , perhaps p o i s o n o u s " .  1  Thus, f o r example, H i t l e r , beginning w i t h  the dictum "I am God", 2 lacking i n morality;  went on to d e v i s e a p h i l o s o p h y completely and the p o i s o n t h a t h i s e g o t i s t i c a l ,  i r r e v e r e n t thought generated we a l l know. The i n f l u e n c e o f l o v e and o f the knowledge t h a t i t b r i n g s i s not, however, l i m i t e d to the i n t e l l e c t u a l o f man.  A l l t h a t a man  i s dependent  activities  does o r t h i n k s , a l l t h a t he hopes to do,  upon h i s sympathetic awareness o f the r e a l i t y  l i e s hidden w i t h i n a c t u a l i t y .  that  The poet o r a r t i s t , attempting  to p o r t r a y i n a p a r t i c u l a r experience something  of universal  s i g n i f i c a n c e must be a b l e to see through to r e a l i t y , must have ". . . a n  open l o v i n g h e a r t . . . t h a t opens the whole mind,  quickens every f a c u l t y o f the i n t e l l e c t to do i t s f i t work, that o f knowing; and therefrom, by sure consequence, uttering forth."^  of v i v i d l y  When the a r t i s t f e e l s i m s p i r e d i n t h i s  manner, when he f e e l s i n harmonious and sympathetic u n i o n w i t h 1  S a r t o r , p.  2  See Herman Rauschning, H i t l e r Speaks. London, Thornton B u t t e r worth, 1939. "Where should we be i f we had formal s c r u p l e s . I simply d i s r e g a r d these t h i n g s . " (p. 107) "I have no s c r u p l e s . " (p. 15) "There i s no such t h i n g as T r u t h , e i t h e r i n the moral o r the s c i e n t i f i c sense . . . . Conscience i s a Jewish i n v e n t i o n . I t i s a blemish, l i k e c i r c u m c i s i b : n . " (p. 220)  3  54,  "Biography", E s s a y s , v o l . 3, p. 57.  67 h i s subject,  then h i s work becomes a symbol i n which we  cern E t e r n i t y l o o k i n g  through Time".  1  An a r t i s t l a c k i n g t h i s  a f f i n i t y with nature can do nothing worthy "How  can we  y e t see and  "dis-  o f the name o f a r t .  sing and p a i n t . " c r i e s C a r l y l e , "when we do not believe?"  2  Because C a r l y l e o f t e n expressed extravagant admira t i o n f o r the a r t i s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y the poet, i t i s worthwhile to d i g r e s s here f o r a moment to examine h i s a t t i t u d e the poet.  towards  To C a r l y l e the duty o f the poet i s to p r e s e n t the  i d e a l i n terms o f the a c t u a l , that i s , to r e v e a l to the common man  the d i v i n e mystery which l i e s a t the bottom o f appearances.  I t was  a poet, says C a r l y l e , who  f i r s t l o o k e d i n awe  a t the  beauty o f the s t a r s , d i v i n e d t h e i r s e c r e t , and passed i t on to h i s weak-eyed f e l l o w .  I n t h i s view, " . . .  l i t e r a t u r e i s but  a branch o f r e l i g i o n " , - and the poet i s a prophet.  This  latter  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n C a r l y l e d e l i g h t s to r e i n f o r c e w i t h the observat i o n t h a t " i n some o l d languages  . . . the t i t l e s are synonymous;  Vates means both Prophet and Poet."&  He has r e c o u r s e a g a i n to  t h i s d o u b t f u l procedure o f arguing e t y m o l o g i c a l l y  when he  points  1  S a r t o r , p.  2  Froude, L i f e , v o l . 2, p. 299. Quoted i n Roe, op. c i t . , p. 61. Roe uses the q u o t a t i o n to support h i s statement t h a t "Poetry, l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , a r t , and p h i l o s o p h y must g i v e way to more p r e s s i n g i s s u e s " — the more p r e s s i n g i s s u e s being the problems o f s o c i e t y . Here i s a good example o f an author c o m p l e t e l y m i s i n t e r p r e t i n g C a r l y l e because he does not understand C a r l y l e ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l system. Seeing and b e l i e v i n g are the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r s i n g i n g and p a i n t i n g , not demands f o r practical activity.  3  4  178•  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , E s s a y s , v o l . 3, p. Heroes, p. 91»  23.  68 out the .Scots word f o r poet i s "maker" and the Anglo-saxon scop  (from gcyppan - to c r e a t e ) —  both words which prove  to  C a r l y l e t h a t the rude shap.ers of our language r e c o g n i z e d the poet's c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the c r e a t o r . If  a l l poets were as aware o f theernrrnaaiesy of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are C a r l y l e i s , how have been w r i t t e n l Goethe:  1  little  their  o f our p o e t r y would  F o r , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t C a r l y l e . quotes  "The B e a u t i f u l i s h i g h e r than the Good; the B e a u t i f u l  o i n c l u d e s the Good",  i t i s obvious  t h a t C a r l y l e would never  approve o f a work o f a r t , however b e a u t i f u l ' i t might i n i t s e l f be, u n l e s s he c o n s i d e r e d i t to be to some extent a bodying of  the d i v i n e Idea.  forth  C a r l y l e ' s monumental and moral i d e a o f  beauty partakes o f l i t t l e  o f the grace and d e l i c a c y o f a Goethe  lyric. S i n c e the poet o r a r t i s t puts i n t o h i s work a l l o f r e a l i t y t h a t he can grasp and express, so h i s work r e v e a l s t o the observer how  deeply the poet or a r t i s t has p e n e t r a t e d beyond  the e x t e r n a l appearance of t h i n g s .  But  t h i s i s t r u e , not o n l y  x  C a r l y l e f r e q u e n t l y uses e t y m o l o g i c a l argument to support h i s case, but o f t e n i n a manner more s e n t i m e n t a l than s c i e n t i f i c , as when he r e l a t e s Kcoaig (king) to kpnnen ( t o be able) to prove t h a t r o y a l t y was o r i g i n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a b i l i t y . The two words have, i n f a c t , no e t y m o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n . Upon another o c c a s i o n , C a r l y l e d e r i v e s " l o r d " from "law-ward" to show t h a t n o b i l i t y was o r i g i n a l l y bestowed upon those who were p r o t e c t o r s of the s p i r i t u a l good o f the community. A c t u a l l y , t h i s reasoning proves the l o r d to be the g u a r d i a n of the most b a s i c of m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s , f o r the term i s d e r i v ed from the Anglo-saxon h l a f o r d . guardian of the l o a f .  2  Heroes, p.  93.  69 of  the poet o r the a r t i s t , but o f every man.  a man  Everything that  does, every thought, he u t t e r s , r e v e a l s something  o f him-  s e l f and o f h i s v i t a l r e l a t i o n t o the u n i v e r s e . You may see how a man would f i g h t , by the way i n which he s i n g s ; h i s courage or h i s want o f courage, i s v i s i b l e i n the word he u t t e r s , i n the o p i n i o n he has formed, no l e s s than i n the s t r o k e he s t r i k e s . He i s one; and preaches the same S e l f abroad i n a l l these ways. 1  Note the harmony that i s here.  The l o v e t h a t a man  shows when  he s i n g s w i l l a l s o be e v i d e n t when he cooks a meal o r tends h i s garden.  The man  who  l o o k s w i t h open l o v i n g h e a r t on the w o r l d  about him and p e n e t r a t e s i t s s e c r e t s can develop h i s f u l l in  a l l i t s aspects.  way,  tempered  self  Love and knowledge have, i n some mysterious  a l l h i s h a b i t s , making i t p o s s i b l e f o r him to grow  harmoniously and to expand h i s being f u l l y i n t o a l l c o r n e r s . But t h e r e i s a l i m i t , and a r a t h e r narrow one,to development  o f man  alone.  Man  the  was not meant to l i v e a l o n e , nor  can he express h i m s e l f f u l l y u n l e s s he have the f r a t e r n i t y o f h i s f e l l o w s to spark h i s e f f o r t s . s e l f alone. the  The d u t i e s o f man  are not to him-  That says C a r l y l e , makes but the f i r s t  table of  laws, and to the f i r s t T a b l e i s now superadded a Second, w i t h the d u t i e s o f man to Neighbour; whereby a l s o the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the F i r s t now assumes i t s true importance. 2  It  i s i n s o c i e t y , not i n the s o l i t a r y s t a t e o f man,  has i t s f u l l p l a y .  Only when a man's a c t i o n s e x e r t t h e i r  Heroes, p. 122 * 2  that m o r a l i t y  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , E s s a y s , v o l . 3, p. 11»  force  70 on another man  can the good o r bad o f them be  The h e r m i t , be he ever so devout, himself. ing.  judged. cannot  complete  H i s a c t i o n s , be they good o r bad, have l i t t l e mean-  H i s thoughts and m e d i t a t i o n , be they ever so p i o u s ,  r a t t l e empty i n h i s h u t , and i n the end evaporate i n t o the a i r . But i n socjefcy a man's thoughts f i n d acceptance i n o t h e r minds. "The  l i g h t n i n g - s p a r k o f Thought", say C a r l y l e , generated, o r say r a t h e r heaven-kindled, i n the s o l i t a r y mind, awakens i t s express l i k e n e s s i n another mind, i n a thousand o t h e r minds, and a l l blaze-up t o g e t h e r i n a combined f i r e ; r e v e r b e r a t e d from mind to mind, f e d a l s o w i t h f r e s h f u e l i n each, i t a c q u i r e s i n c a l c u l a b l e new l i g h t as Thought, i n c a l c u l a b l e new heat as c o n v e r t e d i n t o Action. By and by a common s t o r e o f thought can accumulate, and be t r a n s m i t t e d as an e v e r l a s t i n g possession: Literature . . . Politie . . . Religion. 1  What one man  has thought, whatever good he has done, what s m a l l  p i e c e o f God's t r u t h he has been a b l e to d i v i n e — p r e s e r v e d , i n degree  this a l li s  as i t m e r i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n , i n the minds  and h e a r t s o f h i s neighbours  and o f the g e n e r a t i o n s t h a t  Thus i s s o c i e t y a r e c e p t a c l e f o r t r u t h , a storehouse g u a r d i a n of good.  follow.  and  Whatsoever o f u n t r u t h i t meets i t w i l l  soon  d'iS:0:a;;r.d.". ;  The i n d i v i d u a l not o n l y c o n t r i b u t e s to s o c i e t y , he r e c e i v e s from i t as w e l l .  When man  j o i n s h i m s e l f to  but  man,  s o u l r e a c t s w i t h s o u l to p r o v i d e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r thought^ and guidance f o r a c t i v i t y ,  1  {n some mysterious way  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , E s s a y s , v o l . 3, p.  li-  the good t h a t  has  71 Issued from one s o u l i s taken up by the next so t h a t : . . . the l i g h t spreads; a l l human soulsL, never so bedarkened, l o v e l i g h t ; l i g h t once k i n d l e d spreads t i l l a l l i s luminous.1 Darkness may, o f course, spread i n l i k e manner, but we have seen e a r l i e r t h a t i t cannot l a s t , f o r the s o u l o f man i n t u i t i v e l y r e c o g n i z e s good and p r e f e r s i t . Because s o c i e t y i n i t s l i t e r a t u r e , p o l i t i e s , and r e l i g i o n s p r e s e r v e s and p e r p e t u a t e s whatever i t s members have c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t , i t soon takes on a c h a r a c t e r and s p i r i t o f its  own, wherein  i s r e f l e c t e d a l l the t r u t h i t has accumulated,  as w e l l as whatever o f u n t r u t h i t f o r the moment holds.  Thus,  every S o c i e t y , every P o l i t y , has a s p i r i t u a l p r i n c i p l e , i s the embodiment, t e n t a t i v e and more o r l e s s complete o f an Idea . . . . T h i s Idea . . . i s p r o p e r l y the S o u l o f the S t a t e , i t s L i f e ; mysterious, as o t h e r forms o f L i f e , and l i k e these working s e c r e t l y , and i n depth beyond t h a t o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 2  S o c i e t y has become a new, a c o l l e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l . of  Each member  s o c i e t y shares the c o r p o r a t e s o u l c o f the s t a t e t o which he  belongs and e n t e r s i n t o the l a r g e r , a l l - e m b r a c i n g l i f e o f society.  I n so doing he e n l a r g e s h i s i n d i v i d u a l s o u l , g i v e s  meaning to h i s a c t i v i t i e s , and doubles and t r e b l e s t h e scope and v a l u e o f h i s l i f e . So f a r i n t h i s chapter we have concerned  ourselves  w i t h the p l a c e o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y and w i t h h i s p e r s o n a l development w i t h i n i t s bounds.  L e t us t u r n now to c o n s i d e r a t i o n  1  P a s t and P r e s e n t , p. 36.  2  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , Essays, v o l .  3,  pp.  13-14,  72 of  the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f man t o man.  Here C a r l y l e puts one r u l e  above a l l o t h e r s : Nakedness, hunger, d i s t r e s s o f a l l k i n d s , death i t s e l f , have been c h e e r f u l l y s u f f e r e d when the heart i s r i g h t . I t i s the f e e l i n g o f i n j u s t i c e t h a t i s i n s u p p o r t a b l e to a l l men. The b r u t a l e s t b l a c k A f r i c a n cannot bear t h a t he should be used u n j u s t l y . No man can bear i t , o r ought to bear it. A deeper law than any parchment law whatsoever, a law w r i t t e n d i r e c t by the hand o f God i n the inmost being o f man, i n c e s s a n t l y p r o t e s t s against i t . 1  To the q u e s t i o n "What i s t h i s i n s u p p o r t a b l e i n j u s t i c e ? " he answers merely t h a t i t i s another name f o r d i s o r d e r , f o r the u n v e r a c i t y t h a t v e r a c i o u s n a t u r e r e j e c t s and disowns. not  much h e l p .  A b e t t e r c l u e t o C a r l y l e ' s meaning l i e s i n the  phrase "when the h e a r t was r i g h t " . sorrow we can bear.  P h y s i c a l p a i n , unhappiness,  These a r e n o t i n j u s t i c e s , but merely the  sorrows t h a t go to make up l i f e , his  This i s  f o r , as C a r l y l e once wrote t o  brother Alex: . . . t h e r e i s a r o o t o f b i t t e r n e s s i n the bottom o f our cup which a l l the honey i n the E a r t h cannot h i d e from an experienced p a l a t e . Happy he who can l e a r n t o d r i n k i t without wincing'. H a p p i e r and w i s e r who can see t h a t i n t h i s v e r y b i t t e r n e s s t h e r e i s a medicine f o r h i s S o u l , f a r b e t t e r than the b i t t e r n e s s o f g e n t i a n o r bark o r any o f J a c k ' s many b i t t e r s f o r h i s body. 2  .Man i s formed f o r sorrow. i n him.  Unhappiness  The d r o o l i n g i d i o t i s happy.  complacent f o o l i s happy.  i s the s i g n o f g r e a t n e s s The p u r b l i n d , smug,  B u t the i n t e l l i g e n t and a l e r t man  who f e e l s the s p i r i t w i t h i n him hampered and h i n d e r e d s t r i v e s  1  2  "Chartism", E s s a y s , v o l . 4 , pp. I 4 4 - I 4 5 . Quoted i n L e t t e r s o f Thomas C a r l y l e . ed. C.E. Norton, London Macmillan, 1888, v o l . 1, p. 22. L e t t e r dated January 11, 1827.  73 ever to b r i n g h i s own b i t o f d i v i n i t y to p e r f e c t i o n , knowing f u l l w e l l from the o u t s e t t h i s world. him  that p e r f e c t i o n i s n o t p o s s i b l e i n  There can be no s a t i s f a c t i o n o r happiness f o r  on t h i s e a r t h .  He w i l l bear h i s unhappiness w i t h  stoic  r e s i g n a t i o n and w i t h what comfort he can draw from the thought that i t i s n o b l e r  and b e t t e r to be unhappy w i t h a s o u l than to  be happy without one.  But the p a i n o f the s o u l , the smart and  stigma o f the moral s e l f cannot and ought n o t to be borne q u i e t l y . The  honest man accused o f dishonesty,  the l o v i n g h e a r t  o f misanthropy, the wise man f o r c e d to obey the f o o l , i n g l a b o u r e r denied the r i g h t t o work — to b r i n g angry t e a r s t o the eyes.  accused the w i l l -  these a r e i n j u s t i c e s  F o r these the s u f f e r e r must  have h i s revenge; the e n t i r e world grants him t h a t , f o r i t i s a v i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s own worth and o f a l l human d i g n i t y . J u s t i c e t o C a r l y l e does n o t i n c l u d e the i d e a a l l men a r e equal, o r even born equal. opposite  I n f a c t , q u i t e the  i s , i n the C a r l y l e a n view, a j u s t arrangement.  postulates  that  Carlyle  t h a t tfeere i s a complete h i e r a r c h y i n mankind w i t h  the most g o d l i k e o f men on top and l e a d i n g down to the p r i m i t i v e , uncultured  men o f n a t i v e t r i b e s —  symbol f o r t h i s c l a s s —  'black Quashee' i s C a r l y l e ' s  on the bottom.  "Recognized o r n o t " ,  says C a r l y l e , "a man has h i s s u p e r i o r s , a r e g u l a r  hierarchy  above him; extending up, degree above degree, to Heaven i t s e l f and God the Maker . . . .' The  1  !l  p r i n c i p l e upon which arrangement o f men w i t h i n  "Chartism", Essays, v o l . 4 , p. 189-  74 the h i e r a r c h y i s dependent w i l l become cle.ar i f we h i e r a r c h y and comment on the c l a s s e s occupying l e v e l s of i t . we  the v a r i o u s  At the bottom o f the l a d d e r we have a c l a s s whom  can c a l l " s l a v e s " .  to men,  examine the  By  s l a v e s , C a r l y l e does not mean s l a v e s  but r a t h e r s l a v e s to the d e v i l .  He who  does not b e l i e v e  t h a t t h e r e i s a moral w i l l a t work i n the u n i v e r s e and ?/ho does not a c t a c c o r d i n g l y i s a s l a v e .  W i t h i n t h i s category  the f e l o n s and c r i m i n a l s imprisoned  fall a l l  i n the country's g'eo.ls.  They have demonstrated t h a t they cannot walk a c c o r d i n g to the laws o f Nature.  T h e i r s o u l s are enslaved, are not f r e e to  i n harmony w i t h the s o u l s of o t h e r men, giving  or to e n t e r the  join  light-  communion o f s o c i e t y , f a r l e s s to p e n e t r a t e the m y s t e r i e s  o f the D i v i n e Idea.  When C a r l y l e c o n s i d e r s c r i m i n a l o f f e n d e r s  h i s C a l v i n i s t i c u p b r i n g i n g comes to the f o r e and he sympathy or understanding  f o r them.  shom s no r  I n "Model P r i s o n s " he  wrote: Does the C h r i s t i a n or any o t h e r r e l i g i o n p r e s c r i b e a l o v e o f scoundrels then? I hope i t p r e s c r i b e s a h e a l t h y h a t r e d o f scoundrels . . . . Just hatred o f s c o u n d r e l s , I say; f i x e d , i r r e c o n c i l a b l e , i n exorable enmity to the enemies of God: t h i s , and no:t. l o v e f o r them, and i n c e s s a n t whitewashing, and d r e s s i n g and c o c k e r i n g o f them must, i f you l o o k i n t o i t , be the backbone o f any human r e l i g i o n whatsoever.! D e s p i t e the harshness  of t h i s passage, i t s t i l l h o l d s t h a t  C a r l y l e consigns these f e l o n s to the dungeon o f h i s tower to God,  not because they have o f f e n d e d h i s C a l v i n i s t i c  but because they o f a l l men  are f a r t h e s t from  1  70.  Latter-Day Pamphlets, p.  God.  conscience,  75 We have a l r e a d y h i n t e d t h a t C a r l y l e had a new d e f i n i t i o n o f s l a v e and s l a v e r y . o f the Latter-Day  I n "Parliaments",  Pamphlets, he wrote:  i n Heaven f o r a man."!  number VI  "Slave o r f r e e i s s e t t l e d  Some o f C a r l y l e ' s a t t a c k e r s took t h i s  l i t e r a l l y and understood C a r l y l e to mean t h a t the b l a c k s o f Jamaica were p r e d e s t i n e d  to wear chains and the l a b o u r e r s o f  England denied by heaven the r i g h t to v o t e .  That no i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n c o u l d be f a r t h e r from the mark we can see by r e a d i n g the r e s t o f the sentence:  "Slave o r f r e e i s s e t t l e d i n Heaven  f o r a man; a c t s o f p a r l i a m e n t  attempting  to s e t t l e i t on e a r t h  f o r him, sometimes make a sad work o f i t . "  We have a l r e a d y  seen  t h a t the term ' s l a v e ' as used by C a r l y l e must be understood as a form o f s p i r i t u a l , n o t p h y s i c a l s l a v e r y . ing  Parliaments^  attempt-  to l a b e l t h i s man s l a v e o r t h a t man f r e e , l o o k to a man's  pocket-book o r h i s parentage and d e c l a r e him f r e e i f he has property  to the extent o f so many thousand pounds, s l a v e i f h i s  parents were b l a c k and i n d e n t u r e d .  But heaven, l o o k i n g t o a  man's s o u l , g i v e s knowledge t o the 1'ov.ing h e a r t and freedom to the man who b e l i e v e s . g i f t s are withheld. petty.  From the man who does n o t b e l i e v e  H i s thought i s narrow and h i s  these  attainments  Thus does heaven s e t t l e the matter o f s l a v e o r f r e e .  C a r l y l e c o u l d w e l l imagine a man worth a m i l l i o n pounds as the lowest  s l a v e o f a l l and the negro, bound f o r l i f e ,  as a f r e e man.  I n the d i s c u s s i o n o f h i e r a r c h y we have used the term ' c l a s s ' and spoken o f these  1  Latter-Day  c l a s s e s as occupying  Pamphlets, p. 248.  the v a r i o u s  76 rungs o f a l a d d e r o r l e v e l s o f a tower l e a d i n g up to God. Okctually the h i e r a r c h y concept ought continuum  to he understood as a  wherein s l a v e merges i n t o f r e e with a continuous  g r a d a t i o n upward without d i s t i n c t b r a c k e t s to accommodate c l a s s e s . Thus among the f r e e s o u l s there are those who  are f r e e r  than  o t h e r s , t h e i r rank i n the h i e r a r c h y depending  i n each case upon  the knowledge they have, the a b i l i t y they possess, the m o r a l i t y of  t h e i r actions —  r e v e r e God  i n s h o r t , upon the degree i n which they  and f o l l o w the Laws o f Nature. At  aristocracy.  the top o f the h i e r a r c h y -Carlyle p l a c e s an I n t h i s c l a s s he i n c l u d e s those who  most  clearly  see God's p l a n f o r the u n i v e r s e and work most e f f e c t i v e l y to c a r r y i t out. of  J u s t as some c r i t i c s  the term ' s l a v e r y ' l i t e r a l l y ,  i n t e r p r e t e d C a r l y l e ' s use  so they have understood him to  mean by ' a r i s t o c r a c y ' the peerage o f England, o r , what i s l i t t l e b e t t e r , those who  have been s u c c e s s f u l i n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f  m a t e r i a l wealth or of temporal power.  Noble t i t l e s  Carlyle  r e s p e c t s o n l y i f the b e a r e r s o f the t i t l e s prove themselves be n o b l e . In  Mere p o s s e s s i o n o f the t i t l e  the pamphlet 'Downing S t r e e t ' he wrote:  Honourable ary  means l i t t l e  to C a r l y l e .  "Lord Tommy and  the  J a c k are n o t a whit b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d f o r P a r l i a m e n t -  d u t i e s , to say n o t h i n g of S e c r e t a r y d u t i e s , than p l a i n  and J a c k . " ! ability,  to  Tom  N o b i l i t y d i d , o f course, a t one time c o i n c i d e w i t h  so t h a t the f e u d a l l o r d s o f England " . . .  were 'a  V i r t u a l i t y p e r f e c t e d i n t o an A c t u a l i t y ' r e a l l y to an a s t o n i s h i n g extent".  2  In f e u d a l days a rough l a w l e s s n e s s pervaded  1  L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets,  p. 117«  2  P a s t and P r e s e n t , p.  245.  the  77 l a n d , and a c h i v a l r o u s s o u l coupled with a strong r i g h t was  needed to f a s h i o n order from the chaos.  The man  j u d i c i o u s l y e x e r c i s e d h i s strong r i g h t arm was  chaos was  century  a new  who  the t r u e  c r a t o f h i s day and he j u s t l y earned h i s t i t l e . nineteenth  But  i n the  t h r e a t e n i n g God's ordered  universe.  mid-  form o f  Whereas the and p i l l a g i n g ,  they were r i c k - b u r n i n g s , Manchester i n s u r r e c t i o n s , and  now  Peterloos.  combat these d i s o r d e r s a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f a r i s t o c r a c y w i l l  have to be found. it  aristo-  i l l b e s e t the n a t i o n and a new  symptoms o f d i s o r d e r had once been p l u n d e r i n g  To  arm  should be  I n Past and P r e s e n t . C a r l y l e suggests where  sought: The main substance o f t h i s immense Problem o f O r g a n i z i n g Labour, and f i r s t o f a l l o f Managing the Working C l a s s e s , w i l l , i t i s v e r y c l e a r , have to be s o l v e d by those who stand p r a c t i c a l l y i n the middle of i t , by those who themselves work and p r e s i d e over work.l  I n t h i s new  e r a the l e a d e r s o f i n d u s t r y must r e p l a c e the  o f armies.  But  first  leaders  the c a p t a i n s o f i n d u s t r y , as C a r l y l e dubs  them, must l o o k i n t o t h e i r s o u l s and d i s c o v e r there something o t h e r than " . . .  v u l t u r o u s hunger, f o r f i n e wines, v a l e t  r e p u t a t i o n and g i l t  carriages".  the c h i v a l r y o f work, f a r n o b l e r , c h i v a l r y of f i g h t i n g . not w i t h penny one  They must become imihued w i t h says C a r l y l e , than the o l d e r  They must bind t h e i r workers to them,  six-penny c o n t r a c t s which are broken as soon as a seveni s o f f e r e d , but with a f e u d a l l o y a l t y which connects  heart with heart.  I f they do a l l t h i s , they are t r u e members o f  1  Past and Present,  2  I b i d . . p.  p. 271 ,  272.  V  78 the a r i s t o c r a c y . But of industry —  the new  a r i s t o c r a c y i s not l i m i t e d to  captains  they are to be r e s p o n s i b l e i n the main f o r en-  s u r i n g that the thousands now are g i v e n work to do and  u n j u s t l y enslaved  food to eat.  i n workhouses  There i s as w e l l a  g e n e r a l a r i s t o c r a c y whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to l e a d a l l men i n t u r n to be l e d by God.  T h i s C a r l y l e names the ' A r i s t o c r a c y  o f T a l e n t ' , a c o l l e c t i o n o f the w i s e s t and n o b l e s t men the l a n d , ". . . a The  c o r p o r a t i o n o f the Best,, o f the  problem o f f i n d i n g  c r a c y , indeed o f f i n d i n g one's own difficult wise a man  one.  and  Bravest".  the members o f t h i s  1  aristo-  p l a c e i n the h i e r a r c h y , i s a  Yet i t i s a problem t h a t must be  does not r e c o g n i z e who  in a l l  solved;  other-  i s b e t t e r than he i s and  can-  not know what example he ought to f o l l o w o r whom he ought to lead. God,  F o r t u n a t e l y , j u s t as the s o u l d o f man  n a t u r a l l y worships  s o ' i t n a t u r a l l y worships the g o d l i k e i n man.  nature  o f men,  i n every  love t h e i r Best; recognize  " I t i s of  time", C a r l y l e h o l d s , " t o honour  to know no l i m i t s i n honouring them".*"  the g o d l i k e i n o t h e r men  g o d l i k e t h a t we have i n o u r s e l v e s . l e t t e r w r i t t e n to C a r l y l e i n one t h e i r c o u r t s h i p , expressed  and We  i n s t r i c t p r o p o r t i o n to  the  Jane Welsh C a r l y l e , In a  o f the u n c e r t a i n moments o f  t h i s i d e a more c l e a r l y than her hus-  band ever d i d : One l o v e s you, as Madame de S t a e l s a i d o f Wecker, i n p r o p o r t i o n to the i d e a s and sentiments which "Chartism", Loc. c i t .  the  Essays, v o l . 4, p.  160.  79 are i n o n e s e l f ; a c c o r d i n g as my mind e n l a r g e s and my h e a r t improves, I become capable of comprehending the goodness and greatness which are i n you, and my a f f e c t i o n f o r .you i n c r e a s e s . 1 S i n c e the heroes a man i o n o f h i s own about a man man  chooses are a d i r e c t  ambitions and i d e a l s , we  express-.  can t e l l a good d e a l  by l o o k i n g a t the t h i n g s he honours.  "Show me  you honour", says C a r l y l e to the p o p u l a t i o n o f  the  England.  "I know by t h a t symptom, b e t t e r than by any o t h e r , what k i n d o f a man  you are y o u r s e l f . "  symbols he w i l l worship h i s c h o i c e o f the men to s o c i e t y . who  And  2  J u s t as a man's c h o i c e o f the  r e v e a l s h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to God,  he w i l l worship  so  reveals h i s relationship  thus i s h i s p l a c e i n the h i e r a r c h y s e t .  Those  reverence t r u e greatness above a l l e l s e are themselves  s h o r t o f true g r e a t n e s s , whereas " . . . c a r r i e d away by quacks are themselves spirit".  3  people  capable o f being  of p a r t i a l l y  Coming down the l a d d e r from God,  just  a man  untrue finds his  n i c h e e x a c t l y a t t h a t p o i n t where he ceases to g i v e honour. I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a l l men lear. and a t o t h e r times to be l e d . t h r a l l ' o f c e r t a i n men,  r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h i s c e r t a i n man  Quoted i n D.A. Paul,' p. 374-.  _is f o r e v e r the  born master o f c e r t a i n o t h e r men,  equal o f c e r t a i n o t h e r s . . . . "^  1  "Man  sometimes to  J u s t how  i t i s that a  'born born man  i s h i s l e a d e r or what i t i s  W i l s o n , C a r l y l e t i l l M a r r i a g e . London, Kegan  2  "Hudson's Statue", L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets, p.  3  "Chartism", Essays, v o l . 4> P«  4  Past and P r e s e n t , p.  251.  151*  255.  80 t h a t makes him g i v e honour t o h i s l e a d e r C a r l y l e cannot say, for  "...  a l l a u t h o r i t y i s m y s t i c i n i t s c o n d i t i o n , and  comes 'by the grace o f God.'  Y e t we do s ±  recognize  our l e a d -  e r and f o l l o w him. C a r l y l e sees::his h i e r a r c h y as a c h a i n o f command, each member o f i t obeying the man  above him and demanding  obedience from the man below him. C a r l y l e i s emphatic.  On the matter o f obedience  I n 'Chartism' he s t a t e d : "No man but i s  2 bound i n d e f e a s i b l y w i t h a l l f o r c e s o f o b l i g a t i o n , t o obey," again i n Past  and P r e s e n t:  i s necessitated  "Man,  l i t t l e as he may  to obey h i s s u p e r i o r s . "  a p p l i e s throughout the h i e r a r c h y .  3  suppose i t ,  T h i s r u l e o f obedience  The lowest man on e a r t h must  obey, or be made t o obey, a l l above him, and the h i g h e s t  man  on e a r t h must bow down, " . . . w i t h awe unspeakable, before Higher one i n Heaven."^  The lowest man  can be f o r c e d by  and gaols to obey, and s i n c e h i s i s an i n f e r i o r harm i s done.  and  s o u l , no  a  chains great  But i t i s most important t h a t the "highest man i n  the h i e r a r c h y reverence and obey h i s s u p e r i o r , t h a t i s , God, f o r ". . . whoso cannot obey, cannot be f r e e , s t i l l he t h a t i s the i n f e r i o r o f n o t h i n g , the equal o f n o t h i n g . " ^  l e s s bear r u l e :  can be the s u p e r i o r o f n o t h i n g ,  I t i s by making h i s w i l l  subservient  to the w i l l o f God t h a t our n o b l e l e a d e r r e c e i v e s d i r e c t i o n , and 1  2  French Revolution, Essays, v o l . 3,  v o l . 2, p. 2 #  p. 189»  3 Past and P r e s e n t , p. 4 S a r t o r , p. 79. 5  I h l d . . p.  200.  24I,  81 i t i s through h i s f a i t h his  i n a d i v i n e m o r a l i t y t h a t he r e c e i v e s  freedom and h i s m y s t i c a b i l i t y to command. There i s i n a l l t h a t has been s a i d a c e r t a i n f l a v o u r  of p r e d e s t i n a t i o n — man  man  must obey o t h e r s .  i s the born t h r a l l o f c e r t a i n  man,  C a r l y l e r e c o g n i z e s t h i s I n h i s system  but he does not see i t as a f a u l t .  Each of us i n h i s n i c h e i n  the h i e r a r c h y i s doing G o d s w i l l to the b e s t o f h i s a b i l i t y ; 1  each, having r e c o g n i z e d h i s g e n e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s , t h a t i s , those common to a l l mankind, as w e l l as h i s own  particular  l i m i t a t i o n s , w i l l s t r i v e to do t h e work g i v e n him Such i s the o r d e r God  to  do.  has o r d a i n e d f o r the world;  I f p r e c i s e l y the Wisest Man were a t the top of s o c i e t y and the n e x t - w i s e s t next, and so on t i l l we reached the Demerara Nigger (from whom downwards, through the h o r s e , e t c . , there i s no q u e s t i o n h i t h e r t o ) , then were t h i s a p e r f e c t world, the extreme maximum o f wisdom produced i n i t . In  such a p e r f e c t world i t i s no h a r d s h i p f o r a man  t o obey.  Indeed, s i n c e he l o v e s and honours h i s b e t t e r s , then i t f o l l o w s t h a t he w i l l obey them, not o n l y w i l l i n g l y , but with h e a r t - f e l t l o y a l t y .  joyfully,  C a r l y l e h o l d s t h a t " I t i s not  Mechanism, but by R e l i g i o n ; not by S e l f - i n t e r e s t , but 2 L o y a l t y , t h a t men  are governed or  by  by  governable."  H e r e i n l i e s C a r l y l e ' s g r e a t a n t i p a t h y f o r what he has named the "cash-nexus." C a r l y l e ' s England  a new  and an e n t i r e l y new  I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has brought  k i n d of employer, a new  k i n d o f employee,  k i n d o f employer-employee r e l a t i o n s h i p .  "Nigger Question", E s s a y s , v o l . 4 ,  p.  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , E s s a y s , v o l . 3, p.  361. 4l»  to  82 Once the  swineherd had l o y a l l y tended h i s master's p i g s , g r a t e f u l  f o r the food, c l o t h i n g , and  s h e l t e r p r o v i d e d f o r him.  s t o n e c a r v e r w i l l i n g l y worked overtime, the word overtime,  The  indeed, d i d not know  to f a s h i o n another g l e e f u l gargoyle f o r  a Gothic cathedral.  But now,  says  Carlyle:  . . . a l l human dues and r e c i p r o c i t i e s have been f u l l y changed Into one g r e a t due o f cash payment; and man's duty to man reduces i t s e l f to handing over to him c e r t a i n metal cojtois or covenanted moneywages, and then shoving him out o f doors; and man's duty to God becomes a cant, a doubt, a dim i n a n i t y , a 'pleasure o f v i r t u e ' or s u c h l i k e ; and the t h i n g a man does i n f i n i t e l y f e a r (the r e a l H e l l o f a man) i s , ' t h a t he do not make enough money and advance h i m s e l f . . . . 1 , 1  The workers o f England And  are no l o n g e r happy to serve t h e i r masters.  Carlyfe i s . sure t h a t no i n c r e a s e i n wages can make them happy,  f o r " l o v e o f man  cannot be bought by cash-payments; and  without  2 l o v e men  cannot endure t o g e t h e r . "  o f u n r e s t among the workers C a r l y l e  As a s o l u t i o n to the problem i n s i s t s t h a t employers must  a c t j u s t l y toward t h e i r employees so t h a t the employees'  loyalties  are t o t h e i r employers and t h e i r sympathies with the work t h a t i s g i v e n them to do.  Then t h e i r h e a r t s w i l l work w i t h  their  hands i n a j o y f u l performance o f duty. The way to perform man  and  i n which a man  i t , marks a f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n between the  free  the s l a v e . The f r e e man C a r l y l e d e f i n e s as: he who i s l o y a l to the ^aws of t h i s U n i v e r s e ; who i n h i s h e a r t sees and knows a c r o s s a l l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , t h a t i n j u s t i c e cannot b e f a l l  Past and P r e s e n t , p. 2  performs h i s work, o r r e f u s e s  I b i d . . p.  272,  67,  83 him here; t h a t except by s l o t h and cowardly f a l s i t y e v i l i s not p o s s i b l e h e r e . The f i r s t symptom o f such a man i s not t h a t he r e s i s t s and r e b e l s , but t h a t he obeys. When a man But  the  d e s i r e s to do what he has  s l a v e r e s i s t s and  rebels.  worship he i s denied wisdom and  to do, he i s a f r e e  man.  Because he l a c k s manful  understanding.  He  i s con-  demned never to understand the Laws o f Nature; he i s p  appointed "not And  to command, but  to obey i n t h i s w o r l d . " "  since he w i l l not obey c h e e r f u l l y , he must be f o r c e d  obey, t h a t i s , he must be  enslaved.  I t happens, of course, i n t h i s imperfect o f ours, fit  that power f a l l s i n t o the hands o f men  to command,  '^hls s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i s one  that.man can know.  to  who  o f the  world are  not  saddest  I n " J e s u i t i s m " , the l a s t of the L a t t e r -  Day  Pamphlets, he wrote: "Obedience i s good and  but  i f i t be obedience to what i s wrong and  indispensable;  false, —  good  Heavens, there i s no name f o r such a depth o f human cowardice 3 and  calamity  idea:  . . . ."  Or again,  i n Heroes, we  "There i s no a c t more moral between men  and  obedience.  due  . . . . "^  Woe  to him  N e i t h e r God  2  3  "Parliaments", I b i d . . p.  nor man  will  s u f f e r a sham l e a d e r  L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets, p.  251.  249.  " J e s u i t i s m " , L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets, p.  4 Heroes, p.  228,  than that of r u l e  t h a t claims obedience when i t i s not  to h o l d o f f i c e f o r l o n g . 1  f i n d the same  308,  84 The  f a l s e a r i s t o c r a t or the f o r g e d k i n g o f f e n d s  because he b r i n g s not order but d i s o r d e r , and he o f f e n d s because he puts an u n j u s t c l a i m upon h i s a l l e g i a n c e . such  man  In  cases, r e s i s t a n c e to the l e a d e r becomes a deeper law o f  o r d e r than obedience, The men who  God  and French R e v o l u t i o n s  result.  a t the v e r y top of the h i e r a r c h y , those  s i t a t the f e e t o f God,  C a r l y l e c a l l s heroes.  i s the g r e a t e s t of g r e a t men.  The  hero  I n a l l a s p e c t s o f h i s being  he  approaches p e r f e c t i o n . He i s : the wise man, the man w i t h the g i f t o f method, of f a i t h f u l n e s s and v a l o u r , a l l o f which are the b a s i s of wisdom; who has i n s i g h t i n t o what i s what, i n t o what w i l l f o l l o w out o f what, the eye to see and the hand to do; who i s f i t to a d m i n i s t e r , to d i r e c t , and g u i d i n g l y command: he i s the strong man. H i s muscles and bones are no s t r o n g e r than ours; but h i s s o u l i s s t r o n g e r , h i s s o u l i s w i s e r , c l e a r e r , — i s b e t t e r and n o b l e r , f o r t h a t i s , has been and ever w i l l be, the r o o t o f a l l c l e a r n e s s worthy o f the name. F i r s t among the a t t r i b u t e s o f the hero i s i n t e l l e c t or i n s i g h t —  they a r e the same t h i n g to C a r l y l e .  q u a l i t y he d e f i n e s as ". . . the discernment order . . . .  This  o f order i n d i s -  the d i s c o v e r y o f the w i l l o f Nature,  o f God's  w i l l ; - the beginning o f the c a p a b i l i t y to walk a c c o r d i n g to 2  that."  I n o t h e r words, i n t e l l e c t  i s the f a c u l t y o f the  hero t h a t puts him i n vita, r a p p o r t with the D i v i n e i d e a and r e v e a l s t o him God's p l a n f o r the Universe.  The hero i s not  m i s l e d by f a l s e t h e o r i e s , nor do formulas, names, or customs 1  "Chartism", Essays, v o l . 4,  2  I b i d . . p.  194^  p.  147,  85 h i d e r e a l i t y from him. Always he l o o k s through and sees what i s t r u e .  appearances  Any man may, a t odd moments, have c l e a r  i n s i g h t i n t o God's p l a n , may perform here and t h e r e c e r t a i n a c t s w i t h the burning c o n v i c t i o n t h a t he i s doing r i g h t  ( which  c o n v i c t i o n does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y make them r i g h t though i t w i l l excuse many e r r o r s ) , but to the g r e a t man t h i s  conviction  i s always p r e s e n t , pushing i t s e l f i n upon him w i t h an earnestness that w i l l  n o t be denied. With t h i s v i v i d consciousness o f what has to be  done i n t h i s world, the hero i s n o t merely a man who can l e a d , he i s one who must l e a d .  N e c e s s i t y i s l a i d upon a l e s s e r  man to r e c o g n i z e h i s duty; n e c e s s i t y i s l a i d upon t h e hero to do h i s duty.  And he does i t j u s t l y , commanding without  favour, showing no p a r t i a l i t y ,  rewarding a c t s which a r e good,  but s w i f t to p u n i s h when punishment i s r e q u i r e d . The truehero cannot w i l l i n g l y do wrong, f o r ". . . a l l t a l e n t , a l l i n t e l l e c t , i s i n the f i r s t p l a c e moral. . ." But s i n c e the t r u l y h e r o i c i s i n God a l o n e , we can expect our human heroes to make some m i s t a k e s .  T h i s i s not too important, however.  "On t h e whole", says C a r l y l e , "we tend to make too much o f 2 faults."  I f remorse  and repentance f o l l o w the hero's s i n s , the  hero i s then g r e a t e r f o r haying f a l l e n . 1 "Chartism", E s s a y s . v o l . 4-> p. 14-7. 2  Heroes, p. 53.  And i t i s a f u r t h e r mark  86 o f the hero t h a t he i s always i n good f a i t h ,  s i n c e r e , t h a t he always a c t s  even when he e r r s .  Speaking of  Mohammed, C a r l y l e  says: We w i l l not p r a i s e [his] moral p r e c e p t s as always of the s u p e r f i n e s t s o r t ; y e t i t can he s a i d t h e r e i s always a tendency to good i n them; t h a t they are the t r u e d i c t a t e s of a,heart aiming toward what i s j u s t and t r u e . Only l o v e and you can do as you p l e a s e , s a i d S t . Augustine, and C a r l y l e ' s heroes are h e r o i c p r e c i s e l y because  they do  love.  A f u r t h e r q u a l i t y o f the hero i s t h a t he i s humble w i t h r e s p e c t to h i s own  desires:  "...  your t r u e  h e r o , your t r u e Roland, i s ever unconscious t h a t he i s a hero; t h i s i s a condition of a l l greatness."  H u m i l i t y i s what we  shou Id  expect o f the hero, f o r he r e a l i z e s more c l e a r l y than any o t h e r t h a t h i s s t r e n g t h i s not t r u l y h i s , but God's.  Moreover  he i s humble because he has g i v e n over h i s s e l f , and c r a t e d h i m s e l f to the s e r v i c e o f God. h i s Selbsttodtung. "There never was  conse-  H i s greatness began w i t h  As C a r l y l e once wrote to h i s mother:  a w i s e r d o c t r i n e than t h a t o f C h r i s t i a n  h u m i l i t y , c o n s i d e r e d as a c o r r e c t i v e f o r the coarse u n r u l y 3  s e l f i s h n e s s of men's n a t u r e s . "  The man  s e l f i s h ambition i s not g r e a t , but s m a l l .  who  i s motivated by  He l i v e s i n misery  because he i s not everywhere acknowledged and adored. anxious, i n s e c u r e , and  jealous.  works forward, but because  He i s  E a g e r l y he t r i e s to push h i s  they were done t o f u r t h e r , not the  D i v i n e P l a n , but t h e i r wretched  author, they are p e t t y and  Heroes, p. 8 4 , "Diamond Necklace", E s s a y s . v o l s 3 , p. 327»  2  3  Quoted i n D.A.  W i l s o n , C a r l y l e t i l l M a r r i a g e . London, Kegan  . a u l . 192/.. n. inc. p  87 o f no  use. There i s , however, another k i n d of ambition,  that C a r l y l e has i n g r e a t men  c a l l e d l a u d a b l e and i n d i s p e n s a b l e .  one  I t arises  from t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n o f the f a c t t h a t they  do c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t other.men cannot do.  can  The hero i s , a f t e r  a l l , G o d s most honoured emissary, and he has the r i g h t to be 1  proud,  though without h a u g h t i n e s s , o f h i s worth.  i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the g r e a t man,  Such ambition  f o r i t f o r c e s him  move forward and take up the work he can do.  to  To decide  about ambition, says C a r l y e , . . . whether i t i s bad or n o t , you have two t h i n g s to take i n t o view. Not the coveting of p l a c e a l o n e , but the f i t n e s s o f the man f o r the p l a c e withal.:! t h a t i s the q u e s t i o n . Perhaps the p l a c e was h i s ; perhaps he had a n a t u r a l r i g h t , and even o b l i g a t i o n , to seek the p l a c e ! 1  T h i s r i g h t f u l ambition i n g r e a t men sense of duty that a l l men  have.  i s another aspect o f the  I t i s moreover the source o f  the d i g n i t y which l e n d s weight to h i s commands, and f i d e n c e which assures o f t h e i r being obeyed.  the  con-  I t enables him  to  take up h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s secure i n the humble c o n f i d e n c e t h a t , w i t h God's h e l p , he w i l l d i s c h a r g e them w e l l . When i n I84O C a r l y l e d e l i v e r e d h i s s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e s on Heroes and Heroworship he put a pagan d i v i n i t y , a n o n - C h r i s t i a n prophet, l i t e r a r y men, them 'Heroes'1  and two He  a c o l l e c t i o n o f men  two poets, two  r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i n t o one bag and  saw n o t h i n g outrageous i n t o one  three  labelled  i n b r i n g i n g so d i v e r s e  category because he saw them a l l as  being e s s e n t i a l l y the same man.  Heroes, p. 258 »  reforming p r i e s t s ,  I n the l e c t u r e "Hero as Poet"  he  88 stated: The Hero can be Poet, Prophet, K i n g , P r i e s t , or what you w i l l , a c c o r d i n g to the k i n d o f world he f i n d s h i m s e l f born i n t o . I confess I have no n o t i o n o f a t r u l y g r e a t man who c o u l d not be a l l s o r t s of men. C a r l y l e means t h i s to be taken q u i t e l i t e r a l l y . believes  He  firmly  t h a t Wolfe could have w r i t t e n Gray's E l e g y , t h a t Burns  might have been as s u c c e s s f u l a p o l i t i c i a n as Mirabeau, t h a t Napoleon would have been a d e e p - s t r i k i n g poet. Shakespeare, "one  knows not what he 2  And  as f o r  could not have made, i n  the supreme degree." It  seems to be a f a c t t h a t there i s no  ness which does not the D i v i n e .  somewhere a l l y  i t s e l f mysteriously  with  I n the C a r l y l e a n scheme t h i s a l l i a n c e w i t h  D i v i n e means t h a t the g r e a t man upon the world  around him  r e v e a l e d to him.  the  l o o k s with open l o v i n g h e a r t  and f i n d s the s e c r e t p l a n of D i v i n e Nature  From t h i s r e v e l a t i o n he draws s t r e n g t h  a c q u i r e s knowledge which are t h e n turned duty l i e s next to hand. lar  true great-  and  to the doing o f whatever  Thus i t i s not the g r e a t man's p a r t i c u -  t a l e n t s t h a t determine h i s f u t u r e , but  the  circumstances  i n which he f i n d s h i m s e l f . C a r l y l e does admit t h a t there are a p t i t u d e s , t h a t a l l g r e a t men  a r e not made i n the  argues t h a t although are i n f i n i t e l y circumstances Heroes, p. 2  Loc. c i t .  But  there are v a r i e t i e s o f a p t i t u d e s ,  more o f circumstances, t h a t decide how 90.  same mould.  and he  there  and i t i s u s u a l l y the  a g r e a t man's, or any man's,  89 t a l e n t s w i l l be used.  I n support o f t h i s argument he g i v e s a  neat analogy: . . . i f , as Addison complain, you sometimes see a s t r e e t p o r t e r s t a g g e r i n g under h i s l o a d on s p i n d l e - s h a n k s , and near a t hand a t a i l o r w i t h the frame o f Samson h a n d l i n g a b i t o f c l o t h and a small Whitechapel needle-, — i t cannot be cons i d e r e d t h a t aptitude o f Nature alone has been c o n s u l t e d here e i t h e r ! So f a r we have had a good d e a l to say about the hero, but what o f the worship o f heroes?  We have a l r e a d y  t h a t C a r l y l e h o l d s worship to be an a t t i t u d e n a t u r a l to and one t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s him from b e a s t s .  seen  man,  Whether a man i s  s t r u c k s i l e n t by the beauty o f a f l o w e r o r awed by the f e r o c i t y o f a stormy sea, i t i s the same t h i n g — b e f o r e some r e v e l a t i o n o f God.  he i s r e v e r e n t  When to the power and beauty o f  God as r e v e a l e d i n n a t u r e we add the m o r a l i t y , h u m i l i t y , s i n c e r i t y , and wisdom o f the hero we have t r u l y the o b j e c t on t h i s e a r t h most worthy o f our worship.  Here i s d i v i n i t y  a r t i c u l a t e and a c t i v e , as n e a r l y f i n i t e as our f i n i t e can ever know.  senses  T h e r e f o r e the t r u e hero i s to be worshipped  w i t h a f e r v o u r almost e q u a l to that demanded i n the worship o f God  himself. Nor can t h i s worship be d e n i e d .  For C a r l y l e i t i s  the very essence o f heroworship t h a t i t ".. . endures w h i l e men  endure."  Heroworship, because i t i s e v e r l a s t i n g ,  i s the f o u n d a t i o n o f s o c i e t y .  Heroes, p. 91» 2  I b i d . . p. 16 .  forever  However decadent o r d i s s i p a t e d  a s t a t e may become, however mean and base i t s f a i t h may i n s i c k times be, y e t i t i s e v e n t u a l l y saved and brought t o h e a l t h again by t h i s one f a c t , the common man w i l l seek out and worship the man o f s u p e r i o r t a l e n t s .  " I n no time  whatsoever", says C a r l y l e , "can they e n t i r e l y e r a d i c a t e out o f l i v i n g men's h e a r t s a c e r t a i n a l t o g e t h e r p e c u l i a r reverence f o r Great Men; genuine a d m i r a t i o n , however dim and p e r v e r t e d  loyalty,  i t may b e . "  adoration,  1  Man has not o n l y the i n b o r n , i n d e s t r u c t i b l e d e s i r e to worship g r e a t men and t o be l e d by them, but a l s o the undeniable r i g h t to h e r o i c l e a d e r s h i p .  Because the l e a d e r  s h i p o f the hero means not o n l y good government, but a l s o the way t o God, C a r l y l e f e e l s  that:  S u r e l y , o f a l l ' r i g h t s o f man', t h i s r i g h t o f the i g n o r a n t man to be guided by the w i s e r , to be, g e n t l y o r f o r c i b l y , h e l d i n the t r u e course by him, i s the i n d i s p u t a b l e s t . . . . I f Freedom*>have any meaning, i t means enjoyment o f t h i s r i g h t , wherein a l l other r i g h t s a r e enjoyed. I n p o s i t i n g the ' r i g h t ' o f the i g n o r a n t  to be guided  'forcibly  by t h e hero and i n g i v i n g even q u a l i f i e d p r a i s e t o 'perverted' heroworship. C a r l y l e p l a y e d i n t o t h e hands o f those who would make him an a p o s t l e o f f a s c i s m .  T o t a l d i c t a t o r s h i p i n the  H i t l e r f a s h i o n i s a danger C a r l y l e c o u l d not have  foreseen;  y e t even i f he had, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t he would have r e v i s e d h i s opinions.  F o r the h e r o i c and heroworship, p r o p e r l y  understood, have i n them a strong  core o f m o r a l i t y and j u s t i c e  Heroes, p. 16* "Chartism", Essays,  v o l . 4, p. 157-158.  91 which would exclude the N a z i movement w h o l l y . It to  i s not g i v e n to every man  reverence a hero.  The o r d i n a r y man  to know how  who  rightly  has never f e l t h i m s e l f  t o r t u r e d with doubts can never understand how  much o f h i m s e l f  L u t h e r had t o put down, had' to a n n i h i l a t e , b e f o r e he  found  the courage to stand sweating  b e f o r e the D i e t a t Worms and  say: "I cannot  r e c a n t a n y t h i n g , f o r to go  and I w i l l not  a g a i n s t conscience i s n e i t h e r r i g h t nor s a f e . Amen."  Nor  1  can the i n d u s t r i a l i s t who  to  me.  counts h i s worth i n  f a c t o r i e s and d o l l a r s of p r o f i t understand reverence f o r l i f e which enabled, nay,  God h e l p  p r o p e r l y the  forced Albert  Schweitzer  g i v e up a s u c c e s s f u l m u s i c a l and academic c a r e e r i n o r d e r to  serve i n the l o n e l i n e s s o f A f r i c a .  We have seen p r e v i o u s l y  t h a t C a r l y l e f e e l s t h a t "Only the man  of worth can r e c o g n i z e  o worth i n men."  But to the  man  whose s o u l i s not  completely  b l i n d and dark, i n whom some s m a l l -Idea o f worth s t i l l glows, there w i l l come, perhaps s l o w l y , the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t : G r e a t men are the F i r e - p i l l a r s i n t h i s dark p i l g r i m a g e o f mankind [who] stand as heavenly S i g n s , e v e r l i v l n g witnesses o f what has been, p r o p h e t i c tokens o f what may s t i l l be, the r e v e a l e d , embodied P o s s i b i l i t i e s o f human nature. 3  In  consequence o f r e c o g n i z i n g the g r e a t n e s s o f the hero,  lower man  i s himself elevated.  "Does not every t r u e man",  C a r l y l e , " f e e l t h a t he i s h i m s e l f made h i g h e r by doing  Roland H. B a i n t o n , Here I stand. New (Copyright 1950) p. "New  York, Mentor,  Downing S t r e e t " , L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets, p.  " S c h i l l e r " , Essays, v o l . 2, p. 166-167.  I4I,  the asks  reverence  1955  92 to what i s r e a l l y above him? and  11  The common man takes i n s p i r a t i o n  example from the hero and, though he i s not h i m s e l f  o f greatness,  capable  he i s j o i n e d i n r e l i g i o u s l o y a l t y to the g r e a t  man, and thus i s made g r e a t e r h i m s e l f . hero he becomes h i m s e l f  I n g i v i n g homage t o a  to some degree h e r o i c .  A l l goodness, a l l greatness t h a t i s i n t h e hero, o r i n any other man f o r t h a t matter, i s t r a c e a b l e to the f a c t he b e l i e v e s .  that  But merely to b e l i e v e , o r to make a d e c l a r a t i o n  o f b e l i e f , i s n o t enough.  The t e s t and measurement o f b e l i e f  l i e s i n . the w i l l i n g n e s s to a c t ; o r , as C a r l y l e puts i t , " . . . C o n v i c t i o n , were i t never so e x c e l l e n t , i s w o r t h l e s s t i l l i t convert  i t s e l f i n t o Conduct."  A man's tongue can l a y c l a i m to  a l l noble b e l i e f s , but i t i s h i s deeds t h a t revea}. h i s convictions.  true  Even C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e w i t h i t s creed o f j u s t i f i c a -  t i o n by f a i t h i n s i s t s upon the o v e r t a c t to g i v e meaning to t h e inner  belief: What doth i t p r o f i t , my b r e t h r e n , though a man say he h a t h f a i t h , and have n o t works? can f a i t h save him? I f a brother o r s i s t e r be naked and d e s t i t u t e o f d a i l y food, And one o f you say unto them, Depart i n peace, be ye warmed and f i l l e d ; n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g ye g i v e them not those t h i n g s which a r e n e e d f u l t o the body; what doth i t p r o f i t ? Even so f a i t h , i f i t has n o t works, i s dead, being alone. (James, I I , 14 -17)  1  2  Heroes, p. 17• S a r t o r , p. 156 »  93 S i m i l a r l y Goethe's F a u s t , attempting a t r a n s l a t i o n o f B i b l e , d i s c a r d s i n t u r n 'word', 'thought', and t r a n s l a t i o n f o r the Greek l o g o s , and  the  'power', as  s e t t l e s f i n a l l y and  firm-  l y upon 'deed': In the beginning was We  the  deed.  1  have come, of course, to C a r l y l e ' s d o c t r i n e  of  work-Bssk.  Man  he i s .  cannot by i n t r o s p e c t i o n or by anguished searching  his  He  must work, says C a r l y l e , to show what k i n d o f  s o u l come to know h i m s e l f .  m i r r o r wherein the and  spirit first  But h i s works " . . .  of  the  sees i t s n a t u r a l l i n e a m e n t s " ,  by working, doing what he i s best a b l e to do,  to know h i m s e l f and  are  man  to show h i m s e l f  o n l y i n a c t i n g out what i s i n him  to o t h e r s .  t h a t a man  a man  2  comes  Moreover, i t i s  develops  himself  fully:  1  J.W. Goethe, Faust, ed. C a l v i n Thomas, New York, Heath, 1892, pp. 56-57. Geschrieben s t e h t : nim Anfang was das WortI" H i e r stock' i c h schonii Wer h i l f t mir w e i t e r f o r t ? I c h k a m d a s Wort so hoch unm8glicih schatzen, I c h muss es anders l i b e r s e t z e n , Wennich vom G e i s t e r e c h t e r l e u c h t e t b i n . Geschrieben s t e h t : im Anfang war der S i n n . Bedenke wohl d i e e r s t e Z e i l e , Dass deine Feder s i c h n i g h t u b e r r e i l e ! 1 s t es der S i n n , der a l l e s w i r k t and s c h a f f t ? Es s o l l t e stehen: im Anfang war d i e K r a f t I Doch, auch indem i c h d i e s e s •niederschreibe, Schon warnt mich was, dass i c h dabei n i c h t b l e i b e . M i r h i l f t der G e i s t ! Auf einmal s e h ' i c h Rath Und s c h r e i b e g e t r o s t : im Anfang war d i e That!  2  S a r t o r , p.  132,  94 A man p e r f e c t s h i m s e l f hy working. F o u l j u n g l e s are c l e a r e d away, f a i r s e e d f i e l d s r i s e i n s t e a d , and s t a t e l y c i t i e s : and w i t h a l the man h i m s e l f ceases to be a j u n g l e and .a f o u l unwholesome d e s e r t thereby.I I n the C a r l y l e a n scheme, however, the doctrine:, o f work Includes i m p l i c a t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s much broader than merely the development o f the i n d i v i d u a l . raised —  and d i d not answer —  Earlier  the q u e s t i o n as to why  we man  s h o u l d . f r e t h i m s e l f w i t h the f i g h t a g a i n s t e v i l i f , as C a r l y l e b e l i e v e d , good was, triumph.  We  i n the v e r y n a t u r e o f t h i n g s , bound to  get a h i n t o f the answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n i n the  c o l l o q u y from Rushworth which C a r l y l e set on the t i t l e - p a g e o f the L a t t e r - D a y  Pamphlets:  Then s a i d h i s L o r d s h i p , 'Well, God mend a l l ' . ' — 'Way, by God, Donald, we must h e l p him to mend i t I ' s a i d the o t h e r . To expand t h i s h i n t i n t o a f u l l e x p l a n a t i o n o f C a r l y l e ' s  theory  of work we must go back to hisi concept o f the u n i v e r s e as a chaos wherein d i v i n i t y l i e s hidden.  I t i s God's p l a n t h a t the  chaos be ordered so t h a t the d i v i n i t y be r e v e a l e d . o r d e r i n g i s done, not through but by man,  the d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n o f  God,  c r e a t i o n o f o r d e r out o f chaos i s important  i s , i n f a c t , the o n l y work a man and p e r e n n i a l .  1  the  h i s missionary of order. The  impassioned  And  has to do.  I t i s urgent work  T h e r e f o r e C a r l y l e exhorts h i s fellowmen w i t h  earnestness  to take up t h e i r  Past and P r e s e n t , p., 196.  work,  tools:  95 Be no l o n g e r a Chaos, but a World, o r even Worldkin. Produce! Produce! Were i t but the p i t i f u l l e s t i n f i n i t e s i m a l f r a c t i o n o f a Product, produce i t i n God's name! ' T i s the utmost thou h a s t i n thee: o u t w i t h i t , then. Up, up! Whatsoever they hand f i n d e t h to do, do i t w i t h t h y whole might. Work w h i l e i t i s c a l l e d Today; f o r the N i g h t cometh, wherein no man can work.l Wheresoever thou f i n d e s t D i s o r d e r , there i s they e t e r n a l enemy; a t t a c k him s w i f t l y , subdue him; make Order o f him, the s u b j e c t n o t o f Chaos, but of I n t e l l i g e n c e , D i v i n i t y and Thee! . . . But above a l l , where thou f i n d e s t Ignorance, S t u p i d i t y , Brute-mindedness . . . smite i t w i s e l y , unw e a r i e d l y , and r e s t n o t w h i l e thou l i v e s t and i t lives.2 As t o what terms ' d i s o r d e r ' and 'order' mean i n a p r a c t i c a l sense, C a r l y l e i s f o r once q u i t e d e f i n i t e . d i s o r d e r can be symbolized  by a weed.  On the lowest  level  I n c l e a r i n g i t t o make  way f o r a blade o f g r a s s , o r d e r has been c r e a t e d .  Disorder  g i v e s way to o r d e r when a j u n g l e i s c l e a r e d and a c i t y e r e c t e d . On a much h i g h e r l e v e l there i s the f i g h t a g a i n s t disorder. chaotic.  spiritual  I n t h i s realm, doubt, s c e p t i c i s m , and egoism are He who shows the way to b e l i e f i n God and to l o y a l  d e v o t i o n to the g o d l i k e i n men i s b r i n g i n g divine, l i g h t to the c h a o t i c darkness.  Teufelsdr&ckh  g i v e s r e c o g n i t i o n t o the two  c a t e g o r i e s o f work, and i n d i c a t e s which i s the more worthy, when he  says: Two men do I honour and no t h i r d . F i r s t the t o i l worn Craftsman t h a t w i t h earth-made Implement l a b o r i o u s l y conquers the E a r t h , and makes h e r man's . . . . A second man I honour, and s t i l l more h i g h l y : Him who i s seen t o i l i n g f o r the  1  S a r t o r , p. 157#  2  P a s t and P r e s e n t , p. 200.,  96 s p i r i t u a l l y i n d i s p e n s a b l e : not d a i l y bread, but the bread o f L i f e ; . . . not e a r t h l y Craftsman o n l y , but i n s p i r e d Thinker, who with heavenmade Implement conquers Heaven f o r usI . . . These two, i n a l l t h e i r degrees, I honour.1 In the scheme o f t h i n g s t h a t t h i s view o f the proposes e v i l p l a y s an important  part.  f i e l d o f e v i l t h a t the good o f man  world  I t i s o n l y i n the wide  gets a chance to show i t s e l f .  I n a world of i m p e r f e c t i o n doubt and d i s o r d e r are necessary the raw m a t e r i a l s w i t h which a man  as  works to show h i s worth.-  C a r l y l e , f a r from c a s t i n g doubt out o f the world, c r i e s t h a t it  i s the sine qua non  o f human e x i s t e n c e :  . . . p r o p e r l y , Doubt i s the i n d i s p e n s a b l e , i n e x h a u s t i b l e m a t e r i a l whereon A c t i o n works, which A c t i o n has to f a s h i o n i n t o C e r t a i n t y and R e a l i t y ; o n l y on a canvas o f Darkness, such i s man's way o f being, could the many-coloured p i c t u r e o f our L i f e p a i n t i t s e l f and s h i n e . 2  More than t h a t , e v i l his  and  chaos p r o v i d e  scope f o r man  to e x e r c i s e  freewill: . . . E v i l , what we c a l l E v i l , must e x i s t * w h i l e man e x i s t s : E v i l , i n the widest sense we can g i v e i t , i s p r e c i s e l y the dark, d i s o r d e r e d m a t e r i a l out of which man's F r e e w i l l has to c r e a t e an e d i f i c e o f o r d e r and Good.3  Man  can choose f o r h i m s e l f whether he d i s r e g a r d the s t e r n Yioice  o f duty t h a t i s i n him  and wallow i n u s e l e s s p l e a s u r e ,  or  whether he e l e c t to seek the good which i s hidden i n the universe.  I f he chooses the f i r s t way  1  S a r t o r , pp.  2  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , Essays,  3  I b i d . , p.  o f l i f e , he has no f r e e -  181-182.  28-,  v o l . 3, p.  26.  97 dom  more.  vagrant  His l i f e ,  as we have seen e a r l i e r , w i l l he bound by-  whims o r wasted i n u s e l e s s doubt.  I f he  chooses the  second, he can work f r e e l y at whatever he i s able to do. a d i t c h e r and  d e l v e r he  and puddle; and opposite;"  1  can " . . .  As  e x t i n g u i s h many a t h i s t l e  so l e a v e a l i t t l e  order where he found  the  o r he can, i f h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s l i e t h e r e , work i n  the s p i r i t u a l realm and do t h i n g s o f unspeakable g r e a t n e s s . e i t h e r case,  the man  who  has  laboured  In  to b r i n g o r d e r out of ohaos  has done t r u e work. It  i s one  of the a t t r i b u t e s o f t r u e work t h a t i t can  never p e r i s h or be d e s t r o y e d .  On  the o t h e r hand, f a l s e work,  l i k e a l l f a l s e t h i n g s , w i l l l i v e out i t s appointed v a n i s h u t t e r l y from t h i s e a r t h . u n i v e r s e i s slowly being order.  I t f o l l o w s , then, t h a t  taking p l a c e throughout the course  it  cannot be  the  changed from a chaos to a kingdom o f  C a r l y l e b e l i e v e s t h a t such a change has  h i m s e l f the progress  hour then  of h i s t o r y .  a c t u a l l y been L e t him  describe  t h a t man's labours have thus f a r wrought  said better: Sovereigns d i e and • Sovereig„n-t.l.e-s: a l l d i e s and i s f o r a time o n l y . . . . And yet w i t h a l has there not been r e a l i z e d somewhat? Consider (to go no f u r t h e r ) these strong S t o n e - e d i f i c e s , and what they h o l d ! . . . Stone towers frown a l o f t ; l o n g - l a s t i n g , grim with a thousand y e a r s . C a t h e d r a l s are there, and a Creed (or a memory o f a Creed) i n them; P a l a c e s and a S t a t e and Law. Thou seest the Smoke-vapour; unextinguished B r e a t h as o f a l i v i n g t h i n g . Labour's thousand hammers r i n g on a n v i l s : a l s o a more miraculous Labour works n o i s e l e s s l y , not w i t h the Hand, but w i t h the Thought. How have cunning workmen i n  1  S a r t o r , p.  95.  —  98 a l l c r a f t s , w i t h t h e i r cunning head and r i g h t hand, tamed the f o u r elements to he t h e i r m i n i s t e r s ; yoking the Winds to t h e i r Seac h a r i o t , making the very s t a r s t h e i r n a u t i c a l Timepiece; — and w r i t t e n and c o l l e c t e d a B i b l i o t h e q u e du R o i ; among whose hooks i s the Hebrew Book! A wondrous race o f c r e a t u r e s : these have been r e a l i z e d , and what a s k i l l i s i n these. C a l l n o t the P a s t Time, w i t h a l l i t s confused wretchedness, a l o s t o n e . l And  l o o k i n g i n t o the f u t u r e , C a r l y l e sees t h a t the c o n t i n u e d  i n c r e a s e o f order, t o g e t h e r w i t h the concomiltlant f a l l i n g away o f d i s o r d e r , can e v e n t u a l l y b r i n g about a minor millennium: Sooty H e l l o f mutiny and savagery and d e s p a i r can, by man's energy, be made a k i n d o f Heaven; c l e a r e d o f i t s soot, o f i t s mutiny, o f i t s need to m u t i n y . 2  One  l a s t thought  on C a r l y l e ' s p h i l o s o p h y o f work.  C a r l y l e c o n s i d e r s the work a man does to be the most s i n c e r e expression of h i s b e l i e f .  The worker who a c t s to b r i n g about  f u l f i l l m e n t o f the D i v i n e P l a n , i n s o f a r as t h a t i s p o s s i b l e i n t h i s i m p e r f e c t m a t e r i a l world, i s l o o k i n g up to God and f o l l o w ing, h i s w i l l .  T h e r e f o r e , "True work i s w o r s h i p , "  worker becomes, i n p a r t , a poet and a p r i e s t . solemn view the r i g h t o f every man to worship i s a sacred one and cannot be denied him.  and every  In Carlyle's through working  I t grieved Carlyle  t h a t thousands o f workers a r e i d l e i n England, r i g h t to work and so to worship.  3  deprived o f t h e i r  He seldom r e f e r s to a work-  house without c a l l i n g i t a b a s t i l l e to i n d i c a t e t h a t those w i t h i n are imprisoned, a c t u a l l y enslaved, because they are n o t g i v e n  French R e v o l u t i o n , v o l . 1, pp. 7-8. Past and P r e s e n t , p. 298. I b i d . . p. 205.  99 work to do.  Work i n the C a r l y l e a n system i s not merely what a  man does f o r e i g h t hours a day i n o r d e r to earn h i s d a i l y bread; i t i s h i s r e l i g i o n .  Chapter IV C a r l y l e ' s View of H i s t o r y I n c o n s i d e r i n g the worth of work,  Carlyle  makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between s p i r i t u a l work and m a t e r i a l work, always s e t t i n g  the former above the  latter.  But though there i s a d i f f e r e n c e  i n v a l u e or  there i s no d i f f e r e n c e  Energy expended  either  i n kind.  the s p i r i t u a l or the m a t e r i a l realm i s  t o one cause,  nature, i s  that i s , of  in  dedicated  the attempt to mould the a c t u a l w o r l d  a c c o r d i n g to the i d e a l one; and t r u e work, its  degree,  concerned w i t h two t h i n g s ,  whatever man and God,  the needs of p r a c t i c a l i t y and the  necessity  ideality. The p h i l o s o p h y of Hinduism focuses a l l  a t t e n t i o n upon a s p i r i t u a l w o r l d .  its  So vehemently and  w i t h such c o n v i c t i o n does the Hindu m y s t i c deny the e x i s t e n c e of the a c t u a l w o r l d t h a t he e v e n t u a l l y becomes oblivious 6f i t . is  conscious  When he s i t s upon h i s s p i k e d bed he  n e i t h e r of s p i k e s nor of h i s body.  0n  the other hand, r a t i o n a l i s m , u t i l i t a r i a n i s m , and pragmatism ignore or deny the e x i s t e n c e of the s p i r i t u a l world.  These p h i l o s o p h i e s  sent d i c t a .  have no time f o r  To them, f u n c t i o n i s  heaven-  the t e s t of worth,  and whatever works, i n a s t r i c t l y p r a c t i c a l sense,  100  is  101 right.  C a r l y l e ' s p h i l o s o p h y denies n e i t h e r  s p i r i t u a l nor the m a t e r i a l w o r l d . t h a t he i n s i s t s t h a t the r e a l 'ich , 1  the  D e s p i t e the  *Jch' i s  fact  the s p i r i t u a l  he never denies the e x i s t e n c e of the a c t u a l  one, and never begrudges to keep i t a l i v e .  it  the bread and m i l k needed  The p h y s i c a l s e l f  o n l y as a r e c e p t a c l e  i s necessary,  f o r the s p i r i t u a l s e l f ,  but  not also  as the p r o t a g o n i s t which keeps the s p i r i t u a l s e l f  alive.  The p h y s i c a l world i s an e q u a l l y i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t of the C a r l y l e a n system.  Carlyle,  "...though a Sanscullotist,  l i k e TeufelsdrBckh,  i s no A d a m i t e . . . . "  sees a l l too c l e a r l y the n e c e s s i t y o f  He  1  clothes.  A summary of the C a r l y l e a n system might w e l l be t h a t i t p o s t u l a t e s recognizes as i t s  the e x i s t e n c e of an i d e a l w o r l d ,  the e x i s t e n c e o f the a c t u a l w o r l d , and has .  e n t i r e purpose c o n s i d e r a t i o n of how these two  can c o - e x i s t — w i t h the a l l - i m p o r t a n t r i d e r t h a t  the  a c t u a l world must always be g i v i n g way to the i d e a l . A l l i n a l l , C a r l y l e shows a remarkable t o l e r a n c e f o r the i m p e r f e c t i o n s of the a c t u a l .  He holds  the i d e a l t o be " . . . a n i m p o s s i b l e s t a t e of b e i n g ,  yet  ever the g o a l towards which our a c t u a l s t a t e of being  S a r t o r , p . 47.  strives.  Matter i s not a medium conducive to  n A  the  growth of s p i r i t , yet " . . . t h e I d e a l always has to grew i n the H e a l , and to seek i t s bed and board t h e r e , i n a very sorry way."  2  often  The i d e a l , independent of bed  and b o a r d , i s found o n l y on the stage or i n f i c t i o n , and he who expects to f i n d p u r e , unconfined s p i r i t i n t h i s world i s bound to be d i s a p p o i n t e d . To a v o i d disappointment we must r e a l i z e the a c t u a l and the i d e a l rub along together uncertain,  ever-changing way.  the s p i r i t u a l s i d e of l i f e , realize  that  i n an  Much as C a r l y l e esteems  he i s p r a c t i c a l enough to  that; Ideas must ever l i e a long way o f f ; and we w i l l r i g h t t h a n k f u l l y content o u r s e l v e s w i t h any not i n t o l e r a b l e a p p r o x i m a t i o n thereto]3  T h i s world i s not God's i n f i n i t e w o r l d .  Here we must  limp a l o n g ,  s u f f e r i n g the shortcomings i n h e r e n t i n  and m a t t e r ,  yet s t r u g g l i n g ever t o r i d the world of  Imperfections  and a p p r o x i m a t i o n s .  Above a l l , man must  not be d i s h e a r t e n e d when he d i s c o v e r s he i s  flesh  s t r i v i n g for is unattainable.  t h a t the  ideal  The s t r u g g l e  must  continue,  f o r " . . . i m p e r f e c t Human S o c i e t y holds  itself  together,  and f i n d s i t s p l a c e under the Sun, i n v i r t u e  1 " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " E s s a y s , v o l . 3» P« ®« Past and P r e s e n t , 3 Heroes, p .  226.  p.  57.  103 s i m p l y of some a p p r o x i m a t i o n to p e r f e c t i o n being a c t u a l l y made and put i n t o p r a c t i c e . Carlyle is  n l  g e n e r a l l y thought of as a man of  v i o l e n t o p i n i o n , one whose l i k e s and d i s l i k e s seldom tempered w i t h p a t i e n c e or t o l e r a n c e . is  were The t r u t h  t h a t h i s r e a l i s t i c view of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the i d e a l and the a c t u a l o f t e n l e d him to express a moderate o p i n i o n w i t h r e g a r d to i n s t i t u t i o n s  and t r a d i t i o n s  o f which he d i d not w h o l e h e a r t e d l y a p p r o v e .  Thus,  example, as v i o l e n t l y as he a t t a c k e d the s o c i a l  conditions  o f n i n e t e e n t h - e e n t u r y E n g l a n d , he d i d n o t g o t o t h e o f a F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n as the b e s t way of p u t t i n g right.  for  extreme things  The s i t u a t i o n was not so bad t h a t a l l must be  done away w i t h : S o c i a l anomalies a r e ' t h i n g s to be defended, t h i n g s to be amended; and i n a l l p l a c e s and t h i n g s , s h o r t o f the P i t I t s e l f , there i s some admixture of worth and good. Room f o r extenuation, f o r p i t y , for p a t i e n c e . 2  He i s w i l l i n g to g i v e man-made i n s t i t u t i o n s  t h e i r due.  He admits t h a t "Parliaments and the C o u r t s of Westminster are venerable...."3  C a r l y l e i s w i l l i n g to put up w i t h  some approximations as the b e s t compromise between i d e a l and a c t u a l p o s s i b l e a t t h i s time, but he l i v e s  - P a s t and P r e s e n t , 2  "Chartism,*  1  almost  p . 20.  E s s a y s , v o l . 4, p p . 136-137.  3 P a s t and P r e s e n t s p . 9.  104  In t e r r o r o f man  f o r g e t t i n g t h a t as time moves on h i s  compromises mast he r e v i s e d . In  c o n s i d e r i n g the a c t u a l world, C a r l y l e takes  i n t o account i t s temporal as w e l l as i t s s p a t i a l imperfections. the  problems  The problems  o f one g e n e r a t i o n a r e not  o f the next, and the s o l u t i o n s o f one  g e n e r a t i o n w i l l not do f o r the next. a t i o n must f a s h i o n i t s own Moreover,  Thus each gener-  approximation t o the i d e a l *  the i d e a l s r e c o g n i z e d by each g e n e r a t i o n w i l l  change f o r : By the Laws o f Nature... a l l manner of I d e a l s have t h e i r f a t a l l i m i t s and l o t ; t h e i r a p p o i n t e d p e r i o d s of youth, of maturity, or p e r f e c t i o n , o f d e c l i n e , d e g r a d a t i o n , and f i n a l death and disappearance• The v e r y T r u t h has t o change i t s v e s t u r e from time t o time; and be b o r n a g a i n . 1  2  Note t h a t i t i s not t r u t h t h a t changes, but the v e s t u r e of new  truth.  God's t r u t h i s immutable,  but " . . . i n every  g e n e r a t i o n i t w i l l m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n a new  dialect"^  conformable t o the understanding of t h a t g e n e r a t i o n . The s t r u g g l e o f t r u t h t o get i t s e l f r e c o g n i z e d i n s p i t e o f the machinations of i t s arch-enemies  time  and space r e s u l t s i n a w o r l d o f c o n s t a n t change and adjustment.  " A l l t h i n g s a r e i n r e v o l u t i o n , " says C a r l y l e ,  P a s t and P r e s e n t , p. 57 • F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , v o l . 1, p. Heroes, p.  180.  228.  105  11  I n change from moment t o moment, which becomes  from epoch to e p o c h . "  1  sensible  From the moment of i t s  first  i n c e p t i o n a work of a r t , a system of p o l i t y , or a d o c t r i n e of r e l i g i o n grows towards i t s  death.  This  change, f a r from being a s o r r y m a t t e r , i s a c t u a l l y the s i g n of p r o g r e s s , f o r i t i s  "...the  p r o d u c t simply of  i n c r e a s e d r e s o u r c e s which the o l d methods can no l o n g e r administer."  In i t s  6  youth a system i s  t r u t h and d i s p e l l i n g d a r k n e s s . is  spreading  its  When the t r u t h t h a t  i n i t has been accepted by a l l who have eome i n  contact with i t  the system i s a t i t s  f u l l power.  a t t h a t v e r y i n s t a n t i t begins t o l o s e poteney, can no l o n g e r make a p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to society.  Yet for  it  that  The s t a t e now has a p o r t i o n of God's t r u t h  e q u a l t o t h a t i n the system;  i t i s i n consequence a  more p e r f e c t age than the one which produced the and i t must now e v o l v e a system conformable,.to more e n l i g h t e n e d  system,  its  ideas.  An epoch, when i t no l o n g e r answers t o Ideas of an age,  the  g r a d u a l l y g i v e s way t o the n e x t .  the death o f an epoch may a l s o come, not because system no l o n g e r measures up t o the t r u t h of  F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , v o l . 1,  p.  But the  its  211  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " E s s a y s , v o l . 3,  p.  39.  106  g e n e r a t i o n , bat because I t no longer measures up to God's truth,  to the Laws of N a t u r e .  C o n s i d e r a system wherein  the r i g h t to r u l e has somehow f a l l e n , not t o the w i s e s t and n o b l e s t ,  but to the f a l s e  l e a d e r s become e g o t i s t i c a l  and i n s i n c e r e .  and r u l e f o r the  The greater  g l o r y of themselves r a t h e r than f o r the f u r t h e r a n c e of God's p l a n .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p of man t o master,  o f being marked by l o y a l obedienee, of I n j u s t i c e . w i l l tolerate  Instead  i s marred by f e e l i n g s  At some p o i n t fciere the God I n man r e b e l s , i n j u s t i c e no l o n g e r , and i n one  move, w i t h f o r c e and bloodshed i f n e c e s s a r y ,  convulsive makes an  end of one system and i n s t a l l s a new. C a r l y l e sees the t r a n s i t i o n from one epoeh to the n e x t ,  whether i t be abrupt or g r a d u a l , as a  palingenesis  or 'Phoenix D e a t h - B i r t h .  one system i s  1  The death of  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the b i r t h of the  But when we speak of the  next.  ' d e a t h ' of an epoch or  we must not understand thereby i t s  complete  system,  obliteration.  " L i t t l e knowest thou of the burning of a World - P h o e n i x , " says C a r l y l e ,  "who f a n c i e s t  t h a t she must f i r s t  burn-  o u t , and l i e as dead as a cinereous heap; and therefrom the young one s t a r t - u p as by a m i r a c l e , and f l y ward." system,  1  heaven-  Palingenesia i s  the r e j u v e n a t i o n of the o l d  a metempsychosis  whereby the s o u l ,of the o l d  Sartor, pp. 194-195.  107 system i s  taken over by the new and i s  re-incarnated  as a f a i r e r r e v e l a t i o n of the t r u t h . Thus do the epochs of h i s t o r y f o l l o w another.  one  When gunpowder rendered the f e u d a l l o r d and  h i s c a s t l e o b s o l e t e , f e u d a l i s m as a system had to  go.  But t h a t p a r t of i t  t h a t accorded w i t h the Laws o f  Nature d i d not go.  F e u d a l i s m l e f t behind i d e a l s  bravery,  loyalty,  courtesy.  n o b i l i t y , honour, c h i v a l r y , and  These t h i n g s ,  because they were the God-  approved p a r t of f e u d a l i s m , d i d not d i e . superseded paganism because i t attune  Christianity  o f f e r e d a m o r a l i t y more  to the needs of the w o r l d .  of h o l i n e s s f o r worship of f o r e e ,  It  substituted  concepts of reverence and w o r s h i p .  it  monarchy prove i t s e l f  worship  but i t absorbed and  perpetuated the t r u e p a r t of paganism* t h a t i s ,  polities,  of  If,  the  i n the realm of  u n f i t to govern,  then  too w i l l have to go — perhaps i n the f i r e of a  French R e v o l u t i o n .  But once, a g a i n , what i s  j u s t and  t r u e w i l l s u r v i v e , f o r " S a n s c u l l o t i s m w i l l burn much; but what i s  incombustible i t  cannot  burn."  1  These unburnable elements of a system a r e designated  by C a r l y l e as " s e l e c t a d o p t a b l i t i e s "  "organic f i l a m e n t s . " those tenuous,  or  The terms are meant to express  i n v i s i b l e connections  which l i n k man  F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , v o l . 1, p . 2 1 3 .  108  to man and g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n .  From the  time  when p r e h i s t o r i c man grunted h i s f i r s t s y l l a b l e a t h i n thread has r u n unbroken through a l l the f i r e s and cataclysms of h i s t o r y , g a t h e r i n g and guarding each improvement i n the a r t of communication up to moment when a w i r e l e s s the w o r l d .  the  apparatus sent a v o i c e around  Without t h a t f i r s t g r u n t , p r e s e r v e d and  improved, r a d i o would be i m p o s s i b l e ;  Had not some  savage made a hammer, Wren c o u l d never have b u i l t S t . Paul's.  Or c o n s i d e r the development of our laws.  From  the f i r s t crude code of the t r i b e , through Mosaic law to Roman law to the common law of today, what a h i s t o r y there!  Each g e n e r a t i o n s e l e c t s from i t s  whatever i t nucleus,  can adopt, r e f i n e s  then passes i t  s t a t u t o r y good s l o w l y It filaments  on.  legal  is  heritage  and improves upon t h i s  Thus i s our s t o r e  of  increased.  i s as i m p o s s i b l e f o r these o r g a n i c  to be broken as  h i m s e l f o f f from h i s f e l l o w s .  is  f o r one man to  cut  The E n g l i s h men who  came to the New World put two thousands m i l e s of water between themselves and t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s .  They c a l l e d  themselves Americans and t r i e d to cut w i t h a sword every tie  t h a t bound them to the E n g l i s h .  Despite a l l  this,  they s t i l l l i v e d i n houses i n s t e a d of caves,  and ate  w i t h a k n i f e and f o r k i n s t e a d of w i t h t h e i r  fingers.  Some l i t t l e memory of another time and p l a c e remained.  109 And how much more of the s p i r i t u a l memory remained, of Magna C a r t a , Habeas Corpus, and freedom o f every  sort,  o f j u s t i c e and G o d - f i l l e d worship? F o l l o w i n g out h i s theory of s e l e c t a d o p t abilities belief  and o r g a n i c f i l a m e n t s  C a r l y l e comes to  t h a t " . . . t h e t r u e P a s t departs n o t , "  'true past'  C a r l y l e means a l l t h a t i s  By  1  good, good i n  the moral as w e l l as i n the p r a c t i c a l s e n s e . easy enough to b e l i e v e  the  t h a t man p r e s e r v e s  It  is  and passes on  any knowledge t h a t serves him i n the p r a c t i c a l manner. There are v e r y few l o s t a r t s i n the h i s t o r y of the w o r l d . That the same i s  t r u e of moral good i s a r a t h e r more  doubtful claim.  Yet t h i s  i s C a r l y l e ' s stand:  T r u t h or Goodness r e a l i z e d by man ever d i e s ,  "No or can d i e ;  but i s a l l s t i l l h e r e , a n d , r e c o g n i z e d or n o t , and works through e n d l e s s c h a n g e s . " h i s t o r y the a c c i d e n t s  2  lives  I n the course of  and t r i v i a l i t i e s whieh attended  upon the d i s c o v e r y of a e e r t a i n p o r t i o n of t r u t h drop away, but the t r u t h i t s e l f , continues  in a l l its  generations. itself  distilled,  essential  At the same time,  being i n t o a l l  edited,  future  the bad, having proved  to be u s e l e s s and unadoptable,  the next g e n e r a t i o n .  refined,  Is d i s c a r d e d by  I n eonsequence of t h i s  evolutionary  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " E s s a y s , v o l . 3» p« Loc.  cit.  38.  110 p r o c e s s , present-day  England  can be c o n s i d e r e d  "...  the summary of what has been found of wise, and and accordant w i t h God's T r u t h , i n a l l the of E n g l i s h Men."  noble,  generations  1  Not o n l y i s the p o s i t i v i s t i c t h e o r y of h i s t o r y o u t l i n e d above o v e r t l y expressed  both i n  P a s t and P r e s e n t and i n " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " but i t i s the c o v e r t theme of each of C a r l y l e ' s h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Norwood Young quotes Wickstead: medieval  t h i n k e r ... t h e r e was  development of the world as we was  "To  the  r e a l l y no p r o g r e s s i v e conceive i t .  History  r a t h e r a h i s t o r y o f c o r r u p t i o n and a f a l l i n g away  than a h i s t o r y of p r o g r e s s , " and remarks t h a t "These were the d o c t r i n e s of C a r l y l e who  remained a c h i l d  the M i d d l e Ages.'  has read  even without  the  12  To anyone who  of  Carlyle,  ' l o v i n g h e a r t ' t h a t he i n s i s t s i s  n e c e s s a r y f o r understanding,  t h e r e i s no hope of  comprehending t h i s o p i n i o n .  C a r l y l e sees h i s t o r y as  e v o l u t i o n and p r o g r e s s , a constant m e l i o r a t i o n . wonders i f Young ever r e a d the c o n c l u d i n g thought the " I n a u g u r a l Address:"  l e t t h a t be my  of  "Work, and d e s p a i r not:  Wir h e l s s e n eucfa h o f f e n , 'We —  One  b i d you be of hope!'  l a s t word."^  And  1  P a s t and P r e s e n t , p.  2  R i s e and" F a l l , p.  3 Essays, v o l . 4, p.  these a r e , a p a r t  133.  109. 482.  an  Ill from two s h o r t essays and the E a r l y Kings of Norway fragment,  the l a s t words of C a r l y l e ,  r e p r e s e n t the earnest  c o u n s e l of a  Moreover, they seventy-one-year:?  o l d man to a new g e n e r a t i o n about to take up the responsibilities  he i s  and i n such a c a s e ,  l a y i n g down.  At such a t i m e ,  s u r e l y Young would not m a i n t a i n t h a t  the p e s s i m i s t was merely mouthing o p t i m i s t i c  sentiments?  Because C a r l y l e takes h i s t o r i c a l change t o be the r e s u l t of the i d e a l attempting to manifest  Itself  i n the a c t u a l , he must always f a c e the q u e s t i o n as "how f a r such i d e a l s  to  can be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o p r a c t i c e ,  and a t what p o i n t our impatience w i t h t h e i r n o n - i n t r o d u c t i o n ought to b e g i n . "  1  Although he i s  on the s i d e of change and b e r a t e s past,  a t the same t i m e ,  generally  those who mourn the  he counsels  against  overhasty  a c t i o n i n the d i s c a r d i n g of any i n s t i t u t i o n or custom. Caught as he always i s  i n the dualism of the i d e a l and  the a c t u a l , he warns the world to  'ca  1  canny:'  A l l g r e a t Peoples are c o n s e r v a t i v e ; slow to b e l i e v e i n n o v e l t i e s ; p a t i e n t of much e r r o r i n a c t u a l i t i e s ; • * : : d e e p l y and f o r e v e r c e r t a i n of the greatness t h a t i s i n Law, i n Custom once solemnly e s t a b l i s h e d , and now long r e c o g n i z e d as j u s t and f i n a l . T r u e , © R a d i c a l Reformer, t h e r e i s no Custom t h a t c a n , p r o p e r l y s p e a k i n g , be f i n a l ; none. And yet thou s e e s t Customs which i n a l l c i v i l i z e d c o u n t r i e s , a r e accounted f i n a l ; nay, under the Old-Roman name of Mores, are accounted M o r a l i t y ,  Heroes, p .  176.  112  V i r t u e , Laws of God H i m s e l f . Such, I assure t h e e , not a few of them a r e ; such almost a l l of them once w e r e . l G o d - i n s p i r e d laws have been e m p i r i c a l l y d i s c o v e r e d by p a s t g e n e r a t i o n s and have, f o r v e r y good r e a s o n , become the custom f o r human b e h a v i o u r .  What a waste i t would  be i f each g e n e r a t i o n turned i t s back on a l l the wisdom the p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n had p a i n f u l l y c o l l e c t e d and began to b u i l d up i t s m o r a l i t y a g a i n from the c r u d e s t b e g i n n i n g s . I t would be as i f the Eastcheap c l e r k spent a l l h i s  time  checking the r e a d y - r e c k o n e r p r o v i d e d by the f i r m and never got around t o doing h i s a c c o u n t s .  It is  most  important t h a t we go s l o w l y w i t h the immediate p a s t we are too c l o s e to i t  t o see i t  clearly.  It is  for  only  w i t h the o b j e c t i v i t y and p e r s p e c t i v e a c q u i r e d through. time t h a t s o c i e t y  s o r t s out the good from the b a d ,  t r u e from the t r i v i a l , of the  the  and d i s c o v e r s the o r g a n i c f i l a m e n t s  past. I n the C a r l y l e a n view of h i s t o r y t h e r e i s a  p e r i o d i c i t y d i s c e r n i b l e v e r y s i m i l a r t o .that proposed by the S a i n t - S i m o n i a n s .  Saint-Simony's, p h i l o s o p h y of  h i s t o r y r e g a r d s s o c i a l development as a s e r i e s of p e r i o d i c m u t a t i o n s , each marked* by two epoehs — an o r g a n i c epoch, which i s essentially  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b e l i e f  religious directive principle,  P a s t and P r e s e n t , p i 163  and a  i n an critical  113  epoch) c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s b e l i e f and a t t a c k s upon the directive principle.  T r a n s i t i o n between epochs i s  g r a d u a l and r e s u l t s i n t h e p a l e n g e n e t i c emergence of a new  o r g a n i c epoch which c a r r i e s forward a l l the p e r -  f e c t i o n of p r e v i o u s epochs and i n c r e a s e s t h i s f e c t i o n as i t can, t i l l  i t i n t u r n , being no  perlonger  a b l e to c o n t r i b u t e p o s i t i v e l y to s o c i e t y , i s a t t a c k e d , and f i n a l l y  denied. During  a Saint-Simom  1  the years I83O-I834 Gustave d ' E l e h t h a l ,  d i s c i p l e , had  supplied C a r l y l e with copies  o f the movement's t r a c t s and pamphlets.  Carlyle  was  s u f f i c i e n t l y I n t e r e s t e d i n the group t o undertake a t r a n s l a t i o n of the Nouveau C h r i s t i a n l s m e , Saint-Simone's l a s t work, but he asked under h i s name.  He  t h a t the t r a n s l a t i o n not appear  o b j e c t e d I n c r e a s i n g l y t o the movement's  r e l i g i o u s bent, and by 1834  he was  no l o n g e r i n touch  w i t h the group. Even though C a r l y l e approved of the S a i n t Simonian concept  t h a t p e r i o d s of f i r m b e l i e f and  positive  a c t i v i t y a l t e r n a t e w i t h p e r i o d s of d e n i a l and a n a r c h i c , n e g a t i v e a c t i v i t y , he does not h i m s e l f accept more than the s u p e r f i c i a l framework of t h i s view —  and t h a t o n l y  F o r a s u c c i n c t summary of the S a i n t - S i m o n i a n theory of h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d i c i t y see H i l l Shine. C a r l y l e and the Saint-Simoniaris. B a l t i m o r e , Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941, pp. 39-40. 1  114 i n a g e n e r a l way.  The Saint-Simonians  i n s i s t e d upon an  o r g a n i c epoch being o r g a n i z e d about one c e n t r a l i d e a which i s accepted by the e n t i r e s t a t e .  C a r l y l e pays  l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o the d e l i n e a t i o n o f o r g a n i c or c r i t i c a l epochs, and consequently  does n o t h o l d t h a t  the l i f e t i m e o f a b e l i e f i s c o n f i n e d t o a s e t h i s t o r i c a l period.  C a t h o l i c i s m has l a s t e d two mdjllenhfta, says  C a r l y l e , and w i l l l a s t another  two, or two thousand, so  long as t h e r e i s t r u t h i n I t .  World h i s t o r y , f a r from  being a neat sequence o f epochs, i s By v e r y nature ... a l a b y r i n t h and chaos; ... an a b a t i s o f t r e e s and brushwood, a , world-wide j u n g l e , at, onee growing, and d y i n g . Under"the green f o l i a g e and blossoming f r u i t - t r e e s o f Today, there l i e , r o t t i n g slower or f a s t e r , the f o r e s t s of a l l other Years and Days. Some have r o t t e d f a s t , p l a n t s o f annual growth, and a r e long s i n c e gone t o i n o r g a n i c mould; others a r e l i k e the a l o e , growths t h a t l a s t a thousand or t h r e e thousand y e a r s . You w i l l f i n d them i n a l l stages of decay and p r e s e r v a t i o n ; down deep t o the beginnings o f the H i s t o r y o f Man.+ D e s p i t e the c a r e f u l argument o f H i l l Shine i n h i s book C a r l y l e and the Saint-Simonians.  we must agree w i t h  Rene Wellek t h a t t o t h e q u e s t i o n " I s t h e r e a fundamental a f f i n i t y between C a r l y l e ' s theory o f h i s t o r y and t h a t of  the Saint-Slmonians?"  i n the n e g a t i v e . "  1  2  the answer "...must be w h o l l y . < ..  " A n t i - D r y a s d u s t , " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Cromwell, p. 7»  " C a r l y l e and the P h i l o s o p h y j © f H i s t o r y , " P h i l o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 3 , no. 1 (January, 1944), p. 56. 2  115 C a r l y l e does not see h i s t o r y as a process as simply e x p l a i n e d or as r i g i d l y bound as the theory of the S a i n t - S i m o n i a n s would have i t .  cyclical F o r the  same r e a s o n he does not h o l d w i t h the n a r r a t i v e or cause-and-effect  p h i l o s o p h y of h i s t o r y .  Narrative  views h i s t o r y as one occurrence f o l l o w i n g  another,  w h i l e the a c t u a l event p r o b a b l y c o n s i s t e d  of a group of  simultaneous  and i n t e r a c t i n g i n c i d e n t s .  Even the  attempt to see h i s t o r y as a n a r r a t i v e w i t h one event connected to the next as cause and e f f e c t i s not for  enough,  _ A c t u a l events are nowise so s i m p l y r e l a t e d to each other as parent and o f f s p r i n g a r e ; every s i n g l e event i s the o f f s p r i n g not of one, but of a l l other e v e n t s , p r i o r or contemporaneous, and w i l l i n i t s t u r n combine w i t h a l l others to g i v e b i r t h to new . . . . 1  I n C a r l y l e ' s p h i l o s o p h y the f i n a l  explanation  of an h i s t o r i c a l event, as f a r as e x p l a n a t i o n i s l i e s not i n the event,, but i n the man. h i s t o r y as he sees i t  is  possible,  The course of  the r e s u l t of men a c t i n g  a c c o r d i n g to the Laws of N a t u r e .  Thus, when the world  system departs from the Laws of Nature a man or mob of men a c t s to c o r r e e t the a b e r r a t i o n because men cannot bear i n j u s t i c e .  C o n t i n u a l change takes p l a c e because  the s o u l of man i s duty-bound to s t r i v e  1  continually  "On H i s t o r y , " E s s a y s , v o l . 2,  p.  88.  116  after  t r u t h and the f u l f i l l m e n t  change i s increase  The  e v o l u t i o n a r y and marked by a c o n t i n u a l of good because men's s o u l s l o v e good and  abhor e v i l . all  of God's p l a n .  An epoch ends because men have absorbed  the t r u t h t h a t the epoch has to o f f e r .  man a c t s and h i s t o r y i s  In short,  made.  H e r e i n l i e s the b a s i s of C a r l y l e ' s view of h i s t o r y as " . . . t h e essence of innumerable B i o g r a p h i e s . " I n any h i s t o r i c a l event a man i s  concerned,  and the  event can be understood o n l y i n terms of the man or men who engineered  it.  We ought not to understand from  t h i s t h a t e v e r y t h i n g a man does i s h i s t o r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t . It  i s not biography but the essence of biography t h a t  goes to make up h i s t o r y .  Ordinary b i o g r a p h y c o n s i s t s  o f a r e c i t a l of the e x t e r n a l f a c t s of a man's l i f e date and p l a c e of b i r t h , so on, t i l l  c h i l d h o o d and e a r l y y e a r s ,  our s u b j e c t be l a i d under a s l a b of  l i m e s t o n e i n the north-west yard.  corner of the p a r i s h c h u r c h -  The essence of biography concerns  the t r u e b i o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n , i n that b a t t l e  itself  with into  how d i d he comport h i m -  of l i g h t a g a i n s t  darkness which  life?  1  and  local  none of these f a c t s except as they d i r e c t l y enter  self  —  "Biography," E s s a y s ,  vol.  3, p.4-7.  is  117 It is  obvious t h a t h i s t o r y i n human terms  i s a complex m a t t e r .  C a r l y l e has a l r e a d y t o l d us  we cannot know o u r s e l v e s .  that  How much more d i f f i c u l t i s  to know another p e r s o n , perhaps a man of another  it  century?  The f a c t s t h a t are to be known about him are e n d l e s s , and the f o r c e s  t h a t a r e a t work w i t h i n him are  and deeply h i d d e n .  devious  Yet to understand the event we must  understand the man as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e .  We must know,  not o n l y whether h i s b r e a k f a s t egg was cooked to  his  l i k i n g on t h a t day, but a l s o w i t h what reverence  or  l a c k of reverence he looked upon h i s fellowmen,  upon the  w o r l d , and upon God. I n order to understand the man i t w i l l be necessary see  "...not  o n l y to see  i n t o him, but even to  out of him to view the worid a l t o g e t h e r  views i t . "  as he  No l e s s an a u t h o r i t y than G . M. T r e v e l y a n  1  a t t e s t s to the f a c t t h a t t h i s  is actually Carlyle's  method of approaching h i s t o r y and to the success w i t h which he does  it:  I t i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e t h a t ^the h l s t o r i a s ? should understand the prime motive f o r c e t h a t caused the a c t i o n s of which he takes account. Now C a r l y l e has an u n r i v a l l e d i n s t i n c t f o r the d e t e c t i o n of men's inmost motives. H i s p e c u l i a r method i s to w r i t e h i s t o r y from the i n s i d e of the a c t o r s . 2  • "Biography," E s s a y s , v o l . 3 ,  " C a r l y l e as an H i s t o r i a n , " Nineteenth C e n t u r y , 66 (1899), p . 499. 2  vol.  p . 44.  118 The v i v i d n e s s  of C a r l y l e s h i s t o r i e s 1  d i r e c t l y from h i s a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c approach to He r e a l i z e s  stems  history.  t h a t i n order t o make h i s r e a d e r s u n d e r -  stand the h i s t o r i c a l event, he must h r i n g the h i s t o r i c a l man hack t o l i f e . is  He r e a l i z e s ,  too,  how d i f f i c u l t  it  to overcome the time and d i s t a n c e  t h a t separate  even  one g e n e r a t i o n from i t s ineffectual  fathers.  "How p a l e ,  thin,  do the g r e a t f i g u r e s we w o u l d " f a i n summon  from H i s t o r y r i s e before us 1  11  he once e x c l a i m e d ,  " S c a r c e l y as p a l p a b l e men does out utmost e f f o r t them f o r t h . . . . " slips  To r e v i t a l i z e  i n r e v e a l i n g anecdote,  d i r e c t speech, all,  1  or dwells  body  these p a l e shapes,  he  turns now and a g a i n t o  on p e r s o n a l appearance.  Above  he attempts to overcome time by u s i n g the common  elements o f humanity to l i n k the p a s t to the To C a r l y l e , long ago,  present.  h i s t o r y i s not a d r y r e c i t a l of what happened  but a drama a c t e d out by people who ate and  s l e p t and worked much as we do today.  It is  by  emphasizing the human s i d e of the scene t h a t he the monastery l i f e  recreates  of Bury S t . Edmund's:  Dim, as through a long v i s t a of Seven C e n t u r i e s , dim and v e r y strange looks t h a t m o n k - l i f e t o u s ; the e v e r - s u r p r i s i n g circumstance t h i s , That I t i s a f a c t and no dream, t h a t we see i t t h e r e , . and gaze i n t o the v e r y eyes of I t ? I Smoke r i s e s d a i l y from those c u l i n a r y c h i m n e y - t h r o a t s ; there are l i v i n g human beings t h e r e , who chant,  " S c h i l l e r , " E s s a y s , v o l . 2 , p . 166  119 l o u d - b r a y i n g , t h e i r m a t i n s , nones, v e s p e r s ; awakening echoes, not to the b o d i l y ear a l o n e . . . . B e l l s c l a n g out: on g r e a t o c c a s i o n s , a l l the b e l l s . We have P r o c e s s i o n s , P r e a c h i n g s , F e s t i v a l s , Christmas P l a y s , M y s t e r i e s shown i n the Churchyard, a t which l a t t e r the Townsfolk sometimes quarrel. 1  Again,  i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the v i s i t  the Abbey, there i s  the same awe and d e l i g h t  r e a l i z a t i o n that h i s t o r y i s things,  of King John to  but of l i v i n g  the s t o r y ,  i n the  not of dead  people:  F o r King L a c k l a n d was t h e r e , v e r i l y he; and d i d l e a v e these t r e d e c i m s t e r l i n g ! ! , i f nothing more, and d i d l i v e and l o o k i n one way or the o t h e r , and a whole world was l i v i n g and l o o k i n g along w i t h him!"2 A king with his entire retinue,  c l e a n i n g out the l a r d e r ,  emptying the c e l l a r — and l e a v e t h i r t e e n pence t o say a mass f o r him! a l l are o u t r a g e d .  Jocelin, Carlyle,  and r e a d e r ,  However, "We of course s a i d our mass  f o r him, having covenanted to do i t , impartial posterity  sterling  — but  let  judge w i t h what degree of  fervour."3  Even when we have s a i d t h a t C a r l y l e ' s approach to h i s t o r y i s a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c , we have not s a i d a l l . I f h i s t o r y were n o t h i n g more than the s t o r y of the human race,  then the course of h i s t o r y c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d ,  Past and P r e s e n t , Ibid.,  p. 46.  3 ibid.,  p. 4 5 .  2  pp.  62-63.  as  120 Toynbee has done I t , l o g i c a l pressures.  I n terms of economic and  socio-  C a r l y l e Is aware of these  and of t h e i r e f f e c t on h i s t o r y .  pressures  F o r example,  he  often  s t a t e s t h a t the economic o p p r e s s i o n of the lower  classes  was one of the main causes of the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . ^ And c e r t a i n l y i n h i s own day, he r e c o g n i z e s "...  that  the new omnipotence of the steam-engine i s  hewing  asunder q u i t e other mountains than the p h y s i c a l . He i s more aware than most of h i s  m 2  contemporaries of  the  depth of the u n r e s t t h a t expanding i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has brought to B r i t a i n .  Yet s o c i a l u n r e s t i s  to C a r l y l e  merely symptomatic of a hidden d i s e a s e and a deeper wrong, and i s not i n i t s e l f the forming o f h i s t o r y . nineteenth  the a l l - i m p o r t a n t f o r c e  To him, England i n the m i d -  century stands on the b r i n k of N i a g a r a .  he c o n s i d e r e d t h a t s o c i o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e might be f o r c e t h a t would push her o v e r , would he not any e f f o r t afoot  in  to m e l i o r a t e t h a t f o r c e ?  the  welcome  There were moves  to improve the l o t of the wage-earner  reform-bills,  If  — chartism,  and the New Lanark M i l l s of Robert Owen.  Of a l l these moves C a r l y l e was contemptuous.  There was  f o r him a deeper p r i n c i p l e a t work i n h i s t o r y than the p l a e a t i n g of a mob.  H i s p h i l o s o p h y of h i s t o r y  " C h a r t i s m , " E s s a y s , v o l . 4, p . Freneh R e v o l u t i o n , v o l . 3» PP. H5» 202. 1  2  is  149.  " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " E s s a y s , v o l . 3,  p.  39.  121 s o c i o l o g i c a l o n l y i n s o f a r as a c t s whieh seem to improve the l o t o f humanity c o i n c i d e w i t h a c t s which f u r t h e r the D i v i n e P l a n .  Sometimes  the two do c o i n c i d e ,  the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , where the perverseness  as  in  of  the  system has been purged by the a c t i o n of the mob.  At  other t i m e s ,  f o r example,  i n the f o r c i b l e q u e l l i n g of  the Jamaica u p r i s i n g by Governor E y r e ,  it  is  the mob  t h a t i s purged. I n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s ,  C a r l y l e ' s concept  h i s t o r y d i s c a r d s both l o g i c a l c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t  explan-  a t i o n and s o c i o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n — though uses both when i t sees f i t theory.  — i n favour of a d i v i n a t o r y  men concerned may throw some l i g h t on an event, Even the s i m p l e s t  no matter how t h o r o u g h l y i t  i n c i d e n t of  for Carlyle,  the  mystery  history,  has been i n v e s t i g a t e d ,  s t i l l an element of the unknown about i t . lies,  It  While examination of causes and study of  s t i l l remains.  of  has  And t h e r e i n  p r o o f t h a t God has been a t work,  not by d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n , through h i s agent man.  but n o n e t h e l e s s  mysteriously,  The t r u e e x p l a n a t i o n of  history  l i e s w i t h God. Carlyle realizes explanation.  Indeed,  that this  that i s  i s r e a l l y no  the v e r y p o i n t he wishes  to make — t h a t h i s t o r y i s an i n s c r u t a b l e book which "...  ean be f u l l y i n t e r p r e t e d by no m a n . "  1  A worthwhile  "On H i s t o r y , " E s s a y s , v o l . 2, p . 90  122 h i s t o r i a n w i l l go as f a r as he can w i t h h i s s t o r y , he w i l l acknowledge t h a t no human knows the f u l l or meaning of the e v e n t .  then  cause  Attempts have been made t o  w r i t e h i s t o r i e s without t a k i n g God i n t o a c c o u n t . A g a i n s t these C a r l y l e warns e a r n e s t l y : You may read v e r y ingenious and v e r y e l e v e r / H i s t o r y / b o o k s , by men whom i t would be the h e i g h t of i n s o l e n c e i n me t o d© other than express my r e s p e c t f o r . But t h e i r p o s i t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y sceptical. God and the G o d l i k e , as our f a t h e r s would have s a i d , has f a l l e n a s l e e p f o r them, and p l a y s no p a r t i n t h e i r h i s t o r i e s . . . . A man u n h a p p i l y i n t h a t c o n d i t i o n w i l l make but a temporary e x p l a n a t i o n of a n y t h i n g : — i n s h o r t , you w i l l not be a b l e , I b e l i e v e , by a i d of these men, to understand how t h i s I s l a n d came t o by what i t i s . 1  J u s t as he shook h i s head a t the s c i e n t i s t s  who would  e x p l a i n the wonder out of the u n i v e r s e , so he r e j e c t e d  2 those "cause and e f f e c t s p e c u l a t o r s "  who would e x p l a i n  the mystery out of h i s t o r y . In h i s own h i s t o r i e s C a r l y l e tended t o de-emphasize the most apparent e x p l a n a t i o n s and to emphasize or even, exaggerate i n the c a s e .  the I n e x p l i c a b l e element  I n consequence of t h i s tendency he d e l i g h t s  i n showing how from some s l i g h t cause a d i r e event can spring,  or how a strange c o n c a t e n a t i o n l i n k s one a c t i o n  "Inaugural A d d r e s s , " E s s a y s , v o l . pp.  4,  462-463. 2  "On H i s t o r y , " E s s a y s , v o l . 2,  p.  90.  123 to another t o produce an unforeseeable  result.  "Might i t n o t b e , " C a r l y l e once s p e c u l a t e d ,  "that  because F a t h e r Noah took the l i b e r t y o f , s a y , r i n s i n g out h i s w i n e - v a t , drowned?"  h i s Ark was f l o a t e d  o f f and a w o r l d  He sees the f l i g h t o f the King o f F r a n c e  1  thwarted by a n odd s e r i e s o f a c c i d e n t s . and a m i l i t a r y e s c o r t of  A new c a r r i a g e  l i m i t the entourage  only s i x t y - n i n e miles after  to a f l i g h t  twenty-two hours o f  continuous t r a v e l l i n g ; a t Sainte-Menehould Postmaster Drouet happens t o be on the s t r e e t ,  happens t o be  s u f f e r i n g from c h o l e r a so t h a t h i s f a c u l t i e s happens t o r e c o g n i z e  a r e sharpened,  the r o y a l p a r t y and happens t o be  the man who w i l l do something about i t ; and young Boullle,  who was t o have p r o v i d e d the r e l i e f horses a t  Varennes, happens t o have f a l l e n a s l e e p . u n e x p l a i n a b l e sequence of c o i n c i d e n c e s ,  But f o r t h i s says C a r l y l e ,  K i n g L o u i s would have got away, and the whole course of F r e n c h h i s t o r y would have been Or a g a i n , a f t e r  different.  2  the Tennis Court Oath has  been g i v e n the King d i s m i s s e s the S t a t e s - G e n e r a l . King and h i s r e t i n u e ,  The  the nobles and c l e r g y f i l e o u t .  The T h i r d E s t a t e stands i r r e s o l u t e and u n c e r t a i n , and they t o o , " . . . m i g h t v e r y n a t u r a l l y have g l i d e d o f f :  * "Diamond N e c k l a c e , " E s s a y s , v o l . 3, p . 363. 2  F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , v o l . 2, p p . 169-181.  124  and the whole course of European h i s t o r y have been d i f f e r e n t " had not G a b r i e l l e Honore Mlrabeau been there and l i f t e d up h i s  lion-voice.  1  The r o l e of chance and c o i n c i d e n c e holds an i n o r d i n a t e f a s c i n a t i o n f o r C a r l y l e .  i n history It  is  g e n e r a l l y h e l d t h a t the growth of the p a r l i a m e n t a r y system r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r impetus from the f a c t  t h a t a man  came to the throne of England who d i d not speak E n g l i s h ; and t h a t man came to be k i n g merely by v i r t u e of "...  being b o r n under such and such a b e d t e s t e r . " 2  An A u s t r i a n archduke i s a s s a s s i n a t e d world i s plunged i n t o war.  i n S e r b i a and the  C a r l y l e , before  looking  f u r t h e r f o r the cause of i t a l l , would p r o b a b l y shake h i s head i n wonder and muse,  "On what Damocles h a i r s  does the judgement-sword hang over t h i s Earth!"  distracted  3  I n the "Diamond Necklace" C a r l y l e examines even more mysterious area of h i s t o r i c a l  concatenation,  one wherein the c o n n e c t i o n i s not a p p a r e n t , but and h i d d e n . essay,  H i s whole purpose i n t h i s  short  devious  story,  or n o v e l — one h a r d l y knows how to term i t  to show how a f o o l i s h ambassador i n Vienna and a  F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , v o l . 4, 2  Sartor, p.  an  p.  —  is  foolish  165*  38.  3 "Diamond N e c k l a c e , " E s s a y s , v o l . 3, p ,  362,  125 jeweler  i n Paris,  " . . . a l l uncommunicating, wide  asunder as the P o l e s ,  a r e h o u r l y f o r g i n g f o r each  other the wonderfulest them t o g e t h e r ,  hook-and-eye; which w i l l hook  one day, — i n t o a r t i f i c i a l  f o r the astonishment  of m a n k i n d ,  111  Siamese-Twins,  H a r k i n g hack to  h i s i d e a t h a t the w o r l d i s a chaos of  interacting  forces,  C a r l y l e maintains t h a t the jeweler Boehmer's  work i s  taken i n t o t h i s  chaos, by odd c o i n c i d e n c e  f i n d s t h e r e a f f i n i t y w i t h the work of two r a s c a l l y courtiers,  two d e c e i t f u l women, a l o v e - s i c k  cardinal,  and a p h i l a n d e r i n g queen, and emerges e v e n t u a l l y as a p i e c e of v i l l a i n y which foreshadows  the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n .  No amount of l o g i c or c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t e x p l a i n the mystery out of t h i s much l e s s chance, getting  s p e c u l a t i o n can  s l i g h t event.  How  t h e n , has the godless h i s t o r i a n of  to the bottom of a g r e a t e r h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t . Because C a r l y l e regards h i s t o r y as d i v i n e l y  directed,  the study of h i s t o r y i s f o r him almost  sacred as the study of the B i b l e to a p r i e s t . u l t i m a t e d e f i n i t i o n of h i s t o r y he set i n Sartor:  as  His  forth rhetorically  "Is not Man's H i s t o r y , and Men's H i s t o r y , a  perpetual Evangel?"  2  We can c o n s i d e r t h i s  u l t i m a t e d e f i n i t i o n of h i s t o r y because  it  to be h i s includes  1  "Diamond Necklaae" E s s a y s , v o l .  2  Sartor, p.  202.  3,  PP-  in  338-339.  126 I t h i s other d e f i n i t i o n s ,  the phrase  'man's  history'  r e p r e s e n t i n g the d e f i n i t i o n of h i s t o r y as the of innumerable b i o g r a p h i e s ,  and the phrase  essence  'men's h i s t o r y '  r e p r e s e n t i n g the view t h a t we have yet to examine, is,  t h a t h i s t o r y Is the biography of g r e a t men.  what i s brings?  the  'evangel,'  It is  the g l a d t i d i n g s ,  simply t h i s :  that  And  history  t h i s w o r l d under God's  guidance and by man's e f f o r t s  is perfectible.  saw i n the study of h i s t o r y c o r r o b o r a t i o n of complete  that  Carlyle his  philosophy. I n h i s " I n a u g u r a l Address" a t Edinburgh  University,  C a r l y l e enjoins  the students t o be  diligent,  above a l l , to f i n d an area of study which they c o u l d make t h e i r own.  And the o n l y area he  recommends to them i s of a l l s t u d i e s . " !  history,  History is  specifically  " . . . the most  profitable  the study of paramount  v i r t u e to the young because i t i s "the L e t t e r of Instructions,  which the o l d generations  humously t r a n s m i t to the n e w . . . . "  w r i t e and p o s t -  While other  historians  t u r n to the p a s t to draw morals from the mistakes man has made, C a r l y l e looks to the past to draw guidance from the progress  t h a t God has made.  I n h i s t o r y he  sees "Philosophy t e a c h i n g by e x p e r i e n c e . " ^  i n the  • "On H i s t o r y A g a i n , " E s s a y s , v o l . 3> P« 2  Loc.  cit.  3 "On H i s t o r y , " E s s a y s , v o l . 2 , p .  85.  opening  167.  127 pages ©f h i s f i r s t h i s t o r i c a l work, C a r l y l e  tells  e x a c t l y what the reader ought to l e a r n from h i s t o r y : How . . . I d e a l s do r e a l i z e themselves; and grow wondrously, from amid the incongruous, e v e r - f l u c t u a t i n g chaos of the A c t u a l : t h i s i s what W o r l d h i s t o r y , i f i t teach a n y t h i n g , has t o teach u s , 1  I n C a r l y l e ' s view,  the h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r  on the f o r m i d a b l e task of t r a c i n g t h a t wondrous of i d e a l s .  Actually Carlyle divides  i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , historian-artist.  takes  growth  historiographers  the h i s t o r i a n - a r t i s a n and the  The a r t i s a n i s a pedant and a d r y a s d u s t ,  an h i s t o r i a n o n l y i n the narrow, v u l g a r sense. mere c h r o n i c l e r of o c c u r r e n c e s ,  He i s a  a man who " . . . l a b o u r s  m e c h a n i c a l l y i n a department without an eye f o r the Whole, not f e e l i n g  t h a t there i s a W h o l e , "  Stonehenge, c a l c u l a t e to the p l a i n ,  2  He w i l l measure up  the t o t a l tonnage of stone brought  and r e c o n s t r u c t f o r you, i n t h i r t y quarto  pages w i t h working drawings,  the methods by which men  without machines managed i t s  erection.  The a r t i s t - h i s t o r i a n however, "...  a man who  informs and ennobles the humblest department w i t h  an Idea of the Whole, and h a b i t u a l l y knows t h a t o n l y i n  F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , v o l . 1, "On H i s t o r y , " E s s a y s ,  p.  v o l . 2,  10. p.  90.  128 the Whole Is the P a r t i a l to be t r u l y d i s c e r n e d , " ! w i l l see  the one f a e t about Stonehenge  meaningful,  that i s ,  that i s  still  t h a t men c e n t u r i e s ago worshipped  something above themselves w i t h a d e v o t i o n so s t r o n g t h a t they sweated and even d i e d to e r e c t a symbol of t h e i r worship. Stonehenge  Save t h i s one f a c t ,  a l l e l s e about  deserves to be f o r g o t t e n — must be  so t h a t " . . . t h e P r e s e n t i s not n e e d l e s s l y  trammelled  w i t h the P a s t ; / b u t 7 o n l y grows out of i t , whose r o o t s are not i n t e r t a n g l e d w i t h i t s  forgotten,  l i k e a Tree, branches, but  2 l i e peaceable underground." C o n t i n u i n g h i s :&ma'ge: - of h i s t o r y being a t r e e r o o t e d i n the p a s t ,  C a r l y l e defines  h i s t o r i a n as one who has  the.ability  the  artist-  . . . t o d i s t i n g u i s h w e l l what does s t i l l r e a c h to the s u r f a c e , and i s a l i v e and f r o n d e n t f o r us; and what reaches no longer to the s u r f a c e , but moulders safe underground, never to send f o r t h l e a v e s or f r u i t f o r mankind any more.3  The whole business  of the t r u e h i s t o r i a n l i e s i n  selecting  c e r t a i n t h i n g s to be f o r g o t t e n and c e r t a i n others to be remembered.  His i s  t h e r e f o r e a twofold r o l e .  must he f e r r e t out the o r g a n i c f i l a m e n t s  Not o n l y  that run  throughout s o c i e t y and do h i s b i t to p r e s e r v e them, but  + "On H i s t o r y " E s s a y s , v o l . 2, 2  Sartor, p. 3 6 .  3 Cromwell, p .  ?•  p.  90.  129  a l s o he must decide what Is mere a c c i d e n t and dead triviality.  And t h i s he must d e c e n t l y b u r y . I n t h i s view,  i s p a r t of the t a l e n t  f o r g e t t i n g as much as remembering  of the a r t i s t - h i s t o r i a n , f o r  f o r g e t t i n g and remembering, l i k e Bay and N i g h t , and indeed l i k e a l l other C o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n t h i s strange d u a l i s t i c L i f e o f o u r s , are n e c e s s a r y f o r each o t h e r ' s e x i s t e n c e : Oblivion i s the dark page, whereon Memory w r i t e s her l i g h t - b e a m c h a r a c t e r s , and makes them l e g i b l e ; were i t a l l l i g h t n o t h i n g c o u l d be r e a d t h e r e , any more than i f i t were a l l d a r k n e s s . 1  I t i s o n l y by pruning away the unnecessary and unimportant foliage  t h a t the h i s t o r i a n can r e v e a l the strong main  trunk.  Working i n the immediate p a s t the h i s t o r i a n  w i l l cut s p a r i n g l y , f o r he cannot judge too w e l l whether or not a branch be dead to u s . he w i l l prune h e a v i l y so t h a t ,  But i n the d i s t a n t  past  a l t h o u g h the h i s t o r y of  George the F o u r t h w i l l occupy volumes, a few pages w i l l suffice  to t e l l a l l t h a t i s a l i v e to us from the time of  A l f r e d the G r e a t . S i n c e the c r i t e r i o n C a r l y l e uses f o r  deter-  mining whether an occurrence should be remembered or f o r g o t t e n i s whether i t i s a l i v e to us,  i t w i l l be  worthwhile to l o o k f o r a moment to the t h i n g s  Carlyle  h i m s e l f marks f o r f o r g e t t i n g or remembering to see  if a  "On H i s t o r y A g a i n , " E s s a y s , v o l . 3 , P» 173  130  clearer understanding of the criterion emerges. The things consigned to oblivion are the things historians once doted on, lists of battles, catalogues of prime ministers and their cabinets, accounts of their debates. "What good is i t to me," cried Carlyle, ...that a man named George the Third was born and bred up, and a man named Geroge the Second died; that Walpole, and the Pelhams, and Chatham, and Rockingham, and Shelburne, and North, with their Coalition or their Separation Ministries, a l l ousted one another. Battles and war-tumults . . . pass away like tavern-brawls....Laws themselves, political Constitutions, are not our Life, but only the house wherein our Life is l e d . 1  2  These are representative of the dead facts that have no place in a true history.  What Carlyle wants to see  preserved in history are the accounts of how our l i f e came to be what i t is today.  To do this, history must  t e l l the story of: Phoenician mariners, of Italian masons and Saxon metallurgists, of philosophers, alchymists, prophets, and a l l the long-' forgotten train of artists and artisans; who from the first have been jointly teaching us how to think and how to act, how to rule over spiritual and over physical Nature.3 We recognize these things as Carlyle's organic filaments. The historian, in showing how our present has grown out "Boswell's Life of Johnson," Essays, vol. 3 , See also "On History," Essays, vol. 2, pp. 91-92. 1  p.  80.  2  "On History," Essays, vol. 2, p. 86.  3  Ibid., pp.  86-87.  131  of the p a s t , has t r a c e d t h e g r a d u a l growth o f i d e a l s i n the a c t u a l ; and he teaches, by showing us the experiences o f the p a s t , how the C a r l y l e a n p h i l o s o p h y has been f u l f i l l i n g  i t s e l f and how i t can continue t o  do s o . C a r i y l e ' s b i o g r a p h i c a l approach t o h i s t o r y coupled w i t h h i s t h e o r y o f h i s t o r y as the t r a c i n g o f the growth o f i d e a s l e a d s him t o d e f i n e h i s t o r y as being ".. but the Biography  o f Great Men."  u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t e r i t i c s who understand  1  It is  neither Cariyle's  t h e o r y o f heroes nor h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y have made a good d e a l o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . have understood biographies —  These people  C a r l y l e t o mean t h a t a c o l l e c t i o n o f and by t h i s they do n o t mean a c o l l e c t i o n  of b i o g r a p h i e s i n the C a r l y l e manner — a l l history texts.  s h o u l d supplant  Actually, Carlyle, s t i l l  intent  upon t r a c i n g the growth o f i d e a l s , i s i n t e r e s t e d i n g r e a t men because they have been the guardians o f i d e a s and the sources o f i d e a l s f o r t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n .  In  Sartor Carlyle stated: Great Men a r e the I n s p i r e d (speaking and a c t i n g ) Texts o f t h a t d i v i n e :Book o f R e v e l a t i o n s , whereof a Chapter i s completed from epoch t o epoch, and by some named History. 2  The g r e a t man has been more important  Heroes. p. 33* S a r t o r , p. 142.  than h i s f e l l o w s  132 in the moulding of his times.  His thoughts have formed  its philosophy and his actions have guided its course. He is the spirit of his age in microcosm.  In him the  essence of the times is most available, clustered about one central core and relatively uncluttered with extraneous activity.  It Is in consideration of this  that Carlyle claims that " . . . the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here;" and this view 1  is an extension, not a contradiction, of Cariyle's larger view of history as the story of the development of ideals. A very brief glance at Cariyle's French Revolution and Cromwell will, show how his philosophy directly affected his efforts as an historian. He saw the French Revolution as a. God-inspired re-routing of an aberrant world.  To justify this view Carlyle had to  show the Ancieri Regime as being wicked, hollow, specious, 2  and false,  and the lower classes as being naked, hungry,  and oppressed.3  in Cariyle's interpretation, the  revolution arose entirely from this single cause — the system of France had strayed from the Divine Plan and was Heroes, p. 1. French Revolution, vol. 1, pp. 10-11; vol. 3, p. 202. 2  3 ibid., vol. 3, p. 115, passim. Cf. "Chartism," Essays, vol. 4, p. 149.  133  now being purged and set right.  Because the revolu-  tionaries were God's missionaries of order, Carlyle has to show them as honest, just, and sincere, " . . . a genuine outburst of nature."  1  He therefore glosses over the  brutality of the mob, and emphasizes its morality. He makes no comment when the revolutionaries, having promised DeLaunay, commandant of the Bastille, immunity, butcher him; he shakes his head sadly over the guilotining, but claims that i t was necessary.  On the other hand,  he takes considerable time to t e l l how the mob returns three sacks of money taken from the Hotel-de-Ville during a mob raid, and how the patriots, having rescued eleven gardes"francaise imprisoned for not firing on the crowd,, and finding they have inadvertently brought out a twelfth imprisoned for a c i v i l offence, return him to prison. There is some justification, then, for calling the French Revolution Carlyle's didactic novel.  It is  didactic because i t frankly sets out to show that hypocrisy and injustice will be set down by sincerity and justice; i t is a novel because i t adjusts history to make i t f i t this moral.  Carlyle has to write his novel as a history  because "fiction . . . partakes of the nature of lying" and Carlyle could not l i e .  1  2  French Revolution, vol. 1, p. 251. "Biographyi" Es~says. vol. 3, p. 49.  2  134  A similar philosophical flavouring i s detectable  i n Cromwell's L e t t e r s and Speeches.  The  P u r i t a n R e v o l t C a r l y l e sees as "... the armed Appeal of Puritanism  t o the I n v i s i b l e God of Heaven a g a i n s t  many v e r y v i s i b l e D e v i l s , "  1  and an attempt "... t o  b r i n g the D i v i n e Law o f the B i b l e i n t o a c t u a l p r a c t i c e o i n men's a f f a i r s on the E a r t h . . . . " Revolution, wrong —  i t has d i v i n e s a n c t i o n , and thus can do no  o r , a t l e a s t , whatever wrong i t does i n excusable  on the double count o f being  n e c e s s a r y t o r i d the world  o f a g r e a t e r wrong, and o f being j u s t i c e and r i g h t . and  L i k e the F r e n c h  done i n a s p i r i t o f  Thus C a r l y l e ' s e d i t i n g o f the l e t t e r s  h i s commentary must show t h a t , i f Cromwell's conduct  i n Ireland i s b r u t a l , i t i s nevertheless just.  n e c e s s a r y and  Cromwell h i m s e l f was persuaded t h a t the v i o l e n t  a c t i o n he took t o q u i e t I r e l a n d was: ... a r i g h t e o u s judgement o f God upon these barbarous wretches, who have imbrued t h e i r hands i n so much b l o o d ; and t h a t i t /Would7tend t o prevent the e f f u s i o n o f blood f o r the f u t u r e . 3  To which p e r s u a s i o n  C a r l y l e g i v e s approving emphasis:  T e r r i b l e Surgery t h i s : but i s i t Surgery and"Judgement, or a t r o c i o u s murder merely? That i s a q u e s t i o n which should be asked  Cromwell, v o l . 1, p. 41. 2  I b i d . , v o l . 2, p. 169.  3 Cromwell, v o l . 2, p. 60.  135 and answered. O l i v e r Cromwell d i d b e l i e v e i n God's Judgements; and d i d not b e l i e v e i n the rose-water p l a n of Surgery; — which, i n f a c t , i s t h i s E d i t o r ' s case t o o . l And Revolution  j u s t as he shows the mob  t o be f i t agents of the d i v i n e w i l l ,  shows Cromwell t o be a t r u e hero. shown t h a t Cromwell has  F i r s t we  whereupon C a r l y l e i n t e r j e c t s , "Do the a i r and  nammer of i t , my  upon one  as my  he  of a hero.  says Cromwell;  you mark t h a t ,  and  honourable f r i e n d s J'"  1  of the numerous occasions when Cromwell  g i v e s a l l c r e d i t f o r h i s success to God, remarks:  so  must be  the h u m i l i t y r e q u i r e d  " I c a l l e d not myself to t h i s p l a c e , "  And  i n the F r e n c h  "There i s a S e l b s t t o d t u n g .  f r i e n d Novalis  ealls  Carlyle  a killing  pointedly  of S e l f ,  it...."3  Cromwell, l i k e a l l t r u e heroes, though humble b e f o r e God, men.  i s capable of d e c i s i v e a c t i o n among  To demonstrate t h i s C a r l y l e must make much of  Cromwell's vigorous a d m i n i s t r a t i v e to make d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s and c e l e r i t y and  determination.  reforms, h i s  to c a r r y them out  s t e r n d i s m i s s a l of the Rump P a r l i a m e n t , not  Cromwell, v o l . 2,  p.  Cromwell, v o l , 3» >P» 121.  with  When C a r l y l e i s f i n i s h e d  d e s c r i b i n g the f i n a n c i a l reforms of Cromwell,  3 I b i d . , p.  ability  51• 132.  the  to mention  136 the m a r t i a l successes I n I r e l a n d , we a r e t h o r o u g h l y convinced t h a t i n the Lord P r o t e c t o r we  have a hero  t h a t knows h i s work and does i t . C a r i y l e ' s Cromwell has as w e l l the h i g h moral sense of a t r u e hero.  I n the name of God  he has  stormed  the g a r r i s o n a t Tredah and k i l l e d almost every defender. Then, w i t h a sense of j u s t i c e almost i r o n i c , he hangs two o f h i s own men  f o r plundering against his orders.  Or a g a i n , as busy as the L o r d P r o t e c t o r i s , he s t i l l  has  time t o ensure t h a t the amnesty granted Humphrey Hooke i s honoured,  1  or to remonstrate a g a i n s t the h a r s h judge-  ment passed on one James N a y l e r , whose o n l y crime  was  t h a t he imagined h i m s e l f t o he the r e - i n c a r n a t i o n of Christ.  2  I t i s j u s t by r e l a t i n g such l i t t l e  incidents  as these t h a t C a r l y l e puts h i s r e a d e r s i n s i d e the l o o k i n g out w i t h the eyes o f the man,  man,  so t h a t i n the end  the r e a d e r i s convinced by the sum of a l l the i n c i d e n t s t h a t the man was  as C a r l y l e has p o r t r a y e d him.  To prove t h a t Cromwell, f o r c e when i t was who  n e c e s s a r y , was  though he c o u l d use  i n t r u t h a moderate  d i s l i k e d v i o l e n c e , C a r l y l e never omits a l e t t e r  which o f f e r s q u a r t e r or t r e a t y to a b e s i e g e d town.  Cromwell,  v o l . 2,  I b i d . , v o l . 4, pp.  p.  175. 17ff.  man  137  Indeed, in telling of the siege of Wexford, Carlyle prints, one after the other, six letters from Cromwell offering terms to the beleaguered garrison.  1  From beginning to end, Carlyle is Intent upon making his reader see Cromwell as Carlyle sees him. And though none of his historical heroes were perfect, i t seems to be Cromwell who is nearest perfect.  "I  have asked myself," says Carlyle, i f anywhere in Modern European History, or even in Ancient Asiatic, there was found a man practising this mean World's affairs with a heart more filled by the Idea of the Highest? 2  Carlyle holds that during the Protectorate England came close to setting up the rule of God on earth, for " . . . nothing that was contrary to the laws of Heaven was allowed to live by Oliver."  3  Holding  also that an artist-historian has the right to select his facts according to his philosophy, he feels himself justified in arranging Cromwell's experiences to preach the Carlylean scheme.  Cromwell, vol. 2, pp. 66ff. 2  Ibid., vol. 2, p. 175.  3  "Inaugural Address," Essays, vol. 4, p. 460.  Chapter V The Question of the Two C a r l y l e s I n 1919  G . M. T r e v e l y a n p u b l i s h e d h i s  R e c r e a t i o n s of an H i s t o r i a n ,  i n one chapter of which,  e n t i t l e d "The Two C a r l y l e s , " he wrote: We who t r u l y l o v e d him have long ago e l e v e n our C a r l y l e i n twain and thrown away the worser h a l f o f h i s d o c t r i n e , have s t r o n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d S a r t o r , the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , and P a s t and P r e s e n t from those most e n t e r t a i n i n g but immoral works of h i s o l d age, , F r e d e r i c k and L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets. From 1919  on the idea t h a t the s u c c e s s f u l  Sage of Chelsea was,  and admired  as t h i n k e r and as man, completely  a p a r t from the rude but s i n c e r e E c e l e f e e h a n  peasant  2 gained favour w i t h many C a r l y l e s c h o l a r s .  x  o  London, N e l s o n ,  1919,  pp.  Though the  192-193.  •  Norwood Young i n 1927: "The m y s t i c had become an exponent of R e a l p o l l t l k . The C r a i g e n p u t t b c k s p i r i t u a l i s t was transformed i n t o a Cheyne Row m a t e r i a l i s t . Love was thrown a s i d e f o r Power." ( R i s e and F a l l , p . 367.) E r i e B e n t l e y i n 1944: "It i s n a t u r a l that C a r l y l e should a t f i r s t be a t home w i t h men l i k e Cromwell who combined w o r l d l y power w i t h s p i r i t u a l f a i t h , but i n c r e a s i n g l y we have seen, C a r i y l e ' s heroes were of another k i d n e y : Governor E y r e , B i s m a r c k , and F r e d e r i c k the G r e a t . " ( C u l t of the Superman, p . 53.) David Gascoyne i n 1952: " T h e r e ' a r e two C a r l y l e s almost i n d u b i t a b l y as there a r e two H e g e l s , two Wordsworths." (Thomas C a r l y l e , p . 9.) J u l i a n Symons i n 1952: " C a r i y l e ' s views changed from . . . a generous view of human p o t e n t i a l i t i e s i n t o the v i c a r i o u s , s a d i s t i c l u s t f o r power of a d i s a p p o i n t e d  138  as  139 date f o r the supposed metamorphosis i s s e t by some as 1845,  others imagine i t t o have o c c u r r e d when he l e f t  S c o t l a n d (1834), and s t i l l others put i t around the date o f the L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets (1850).  The exact  date does not matter; t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t  general  agreement t h a t we may s e t t l e on the p e r i o d between P a s t and P r e s e n t  (1843)  and the L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets  as marking the death o f one C a r l y l e and the b i r t h o f the other.  The e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the complete change a r e g i v e n  v a r i o u s l y as C a r l y l e ' s s u c c e s s , failure,  4  3  h i s disappointment and  S or merely t h a t he l e f t S c o t l a n d . ?  But the disagreement w i t h r e g a r d t o dates and causes i s unimportant, i f t h e r e i s agreement on the more important p a r t o f the m a t t e r , t h a t i s , on the d i s t i n c t i o n s of c h a r a c t e r t h a t mark the new C a r l y l e from the o l d . And t h e r e i s , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , such agreement. The f i r s t charge i s t h a t C a r l y l e a f t e r 18431850 i s p o l i t i c a l l y i l l i b e r a l i n t h a t he opposes a l l l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t would improve the l o t o f the l a b o u r e r  man." (Thomas C a r l y l e .  London, G o l l a n e z , p . 295.)  Times L i t e r a r y Supplement i n 1956: " I t i s o f course t r u e t h a t a f t e r 1845 . . . C a r l y l e . . . b e c a m e an a p o l o g i s t f o r t h e m a i l e d f i s t . " (London, 3 F e b r u a r y , 1956, p . 61.)  3 T r e v e l y a n , pj>. c i t . . p . 195.  4 Symons, op_. c i t . . p . 295. ^ Young, op,, c i t . . p . 367.  140 and the wage-earner.  The second charge is that he has  become a champion of the aristocracy and an admirer of physical force.  The final charge is that he has  exchanged a generous and loving view of mankind for a sour and misanthropic hatred of every human face. Bisecting a man so that you can explain ©pinions or actions that are not accounted for by your understanding of the man as a whole Is a very neat solution to the problem.  A l l the good things are the  work of Dr. Jekyll, 'the very pink of proprieties,' and a l l the bad things the work of the 'really damnable' Mr. Hyde.  It is, as I say, a very neat solution, but  It Is most unnatural.  So few men are truly schizophrenic.  In Cariyle's case the affair is complicated by the fact that the simple and loving Carlyle of Ecclefeehan, having been killed off to make way for' the embittered author of the Latter-Day Pamphlets, must be revived to write the Life of Sterling, put away again while the second Carlyle produces.' Frederick.' then exhumed to give his 'Inaugural Address' at Edinburgh.  Really, i t remains  a problem to know which Carlyle died on February 5, 1881. There is nevertheless sufficient evidence in support of a moderate version of the Trevelyan dichotomy to warrant its being examined.  Since most followers of  the two-Carlyles school take Latter-Dav Pamphlets as  14-1 representative of the new Carlyle, i t were well to start the examination there. Latter-Day Pamphlets is a series of discourses upon topical and occasional matters.  The pamphlets  appeared in 1850 when Carlyle was fifty-five years old. Thus i t cannot he considered that these are the peevish opinions of an old man, although i t is well to remember that Carlyle, not knowing that he had thirty-one years of life ahead of him, probably had in mind that he was entering upon his own latter days.  It is far more  likely that he saw his pamphlets as exhortations of the prophet of doom. They must have been written immediately after the year of revolutions, at a time when i t seemed, to Carlyle at least, that mob rule, i f not complete anarchy, was on the march in Europe.  What better time  to cry with Job: I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth? The day of judgement was drawing ever nearer. Throughout the seventeen years since Sartor Carlyle had been pleading with the people of England to follow God and godlike men. Thus far his words seemed to have had no effect. Da v Pamphlets is going to be one last plea.  Latter-  To be  heard now in this desperate hour i t must be louder and more startling than a l l the other exhortations.  It must  say something that will make even the dullest-witted sit  142  up and listen.  And i t did.  Even Carlyle, who ordinarily  delighted in his own hyperbole and chuckled at the extravagance of his own opinions, was sufficiently distressed about this plea to call i t "...an alarming set of pamphlets."  1  The tone of the Latter-Dav Pamphlets  is earnest and anxious with a violence born of despair. But what of their content and their relation to the new Carlyle?  The first charge, that of political  illiberality, arises from the denunciation of democracy found scattered throughout the pamphlets, particularly in "Present Time" and "Parliaments." In opposing the reform bills and other liberal and radical movements, Carlyle was being true to the philosophy ©f life outlined in the preceding chapters.  Since the end of government is  " . . . to guide men in such a way, and ourselves in sueh a way, as the Maker of men, whose eye is upon us, will sanction at the Great Day," therefore the selection of leaders is " . . . the most important social feat a body of men can d o . . . . "  3  But Carlyle has no faith in the  ballot-box as»a method of selecting our leaders.  x  "Jesuitism," Latter-Day Pamphlets. ,p. 295. Past and Presents p. 167.  3  Since a  ibid., p. 82.  143 man g i v e s honour t o o t h e r s o n l y as he has honour i n h i m s e l f , each man w i l l tend t o choose as h i s l e a d e r the one next above him i n C a r l y l e ' s h i e r a r c h y .  I n a demo-  c r a t i c e l e c t i o n where each man's vote has e q u a l worth r e g a r d l e s s of the worth o f t h e man, the m a j o r i t y o f the votes w i l l f a l l upon t h a t man who stands a t the p o i n t j u s t above f i f t y p e r c e n t o f h i s fellowmen.  But  s i n c e the b u l k o f humanity i s on the lower l e v e l s o f the h i e r a r c h y w i t h p r o p o r t i o n a l l y fewer men i n the upper  degrees,  the l e a d e r chosen by democratic b a l l o t w i l l be, measured a g a i n s t the a b s o l u t e s c a l e o f the h i e r a r c h y , l e s s mediocre.  than  " I f o f t e n men nine a r e r e c o g n i z a b l e as f o o l s , "  c r i e s C a r l y l e , "... how, i n the name o f wonder, w i l l you ever g e t a b a l l o t - b o x t o g r i n d you out a wisdom from the votes o f these teii men?"-1  the democratic  Often enough the weakness o f  system has been demonstrated by the  v i c t o r y a t the p o l l s o f a dog, a horse, or a n o n - e x i s t e n t human, but C a r l y l e adds the c l i n c h i n g example when he t e l l s o f a c e r t a i n people who, asked two  t o e l e c t which o f  condemned" p r i s o n e r s should be s e t f r e e , "... clamorously  voted by overwhelming m a j o r i t y , 'Not he; Barabbas, n o t heJ i l l To the gallow and the cross w i t h himJ Is  our manj"  Barabbas  2  D i s t r u s t o f the vox p o p u l i and o f government  " P a r l i a m e n t s , " Latter-Day Pamphlets, p.  238.  "Present Time," L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets, p. 33.  144  by the mob  i s not unique t o the new  S i r Thomas Browne i n 1642,  Carlyle.  Said  " I f there be any among  common o b j e c t s of h a t r e d I do contemn and  those  laugh a t , i t  i s t h a t g r e a t enemy of Reason, V i r t u e , and R e l i g i o n , the M u l t i t u d e . . . ."•  L  country we  More r e c e n t l y , and  have heard the  i n our  own  opinion:  Democracy, as A r i s t o t l e knew, i s a dangerous k i n d of government. The s o c i e t y t h a t supports i t l i v e s always on the b r i n k of d i c t a t o r s h i p from which i t i s saved o n l y by c u l t i v a t i n g a k i n d of f l u i d and v o l u n t a r y a r i s t o c r a c y ; an admission t h a t freedom and e q u a l i t y are best maintained by the f u l l e s t r e c o g n i t i o n of n a t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and the most complete u t i l i z a t i o n of n a t u r a l g i f t s . 2  W e l l , S i r Thomas, Dr. Neatby, and  the new  e n t i t l e d to t h e i r o p i n i o n s , and we d i s c o v e r how  C a r l y l e are  are not t r y i n g  much r i g h t there i s i n them.  to  Rather  we a r e I n t e r e s t e d t o know whether the d e n u n c i a t i o n democracy i n the Latter-Dav  Pamphlets i s a  which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the new  C a r l y l e from the o l d .  t h a t end,  characteristic  l e t us l i s t e n t o one more v o i c e on the  "Democracy, take i t where you w i l l i n our  To subject:  Europe,.is  found but as a r e g u l a t e d method of r e b e l l i o n and  ...."3  of  S i n c e t h i s i s the v o i c e of C a r l y l e i n  1839  abrogation we  .can  " R e l i g i o M e d i c i , " In Works of S i r Thomas Browne, ed. G e o f f r e y Keynes, London, Faber and Gwyer, 1928, v o l . 1, p. 73.  2  H i l d a Neatby, So L i t t l e f o r the Mind, Toronto, C l a r k e and Unwin, 1953, pp. 48-49. 3 "Chartism,"  Essays,  v o l . 4,  p.  159.  145 hardly accept that p o l i t i c a l  illiherality is a  unique t o C a r l y l e a f t e r the 1843-1850 p e r i o d .  trait Nor i s  i t based on a p h i l o s o p h y e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the p h i l o s o p h y o f the e a r l i e r  Carlyle.  The second d i f f e r e n t i a which marks the  new  C a r l y l e from the o l d a r i s e s i n p a r t from the c l a i m t h a t the l a t e r C a r l y l e f o r s o o k h i s own a r i s t o c r a t s w i t h whom he was  now  c l a s s i n favour of the on i n t i m a t e terms.  The t h i n k i n g behind t h i s c l a i m goes something  like  this:  as a young and unknown s c h o l a r s u f f e r i n g from an empty purse and a common a n c e s t r y , C a r l y l e i s envious of the wealthy and t i t l e d , and a l l o w s h i s envy t o show as contempt; but once he has gained fame and has become i n t i m a t e w i t h the a r i s t o c r a t i c he switches h i s a l l e g i a n c e from h i s peasant peers to h i s new  and t i t l e d  friends.  As evidence t o back t h i s c l a i m some c r i t i c s make much of  the f a c t t h a t i n h i s t r a i n of heroes from Burns  through Cromwell and on t o F r e d e r i c k a g r a d u a l ascent i n power, s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e , and b i r t h i s t o be "His  seen.  circumstances," says Osbert B u r d e t t , "... had  altered,  and so h i s heroes, b e i n g p r o j e c t i o n s of h i m s e l f , were similarly  transformed."  1  I t i s t r u e t h a t i n the " I n a u g u r a l Address" and i n "Hudson's S t a t u e " C a r l y l e puts forward the i d e a  x  1930,  p.  28?.  The Two  C a r l v l e s . London, Faber and Faber,  146 that the nobility of England had a right to their exalted position, but he bases this claim on the theory that " . . . real heroic merit more or less was actually the origin of peerages," and that heroic breeding through 1  the centuries has to some extent preserved the valiant wisdom of the first baron.  But at the same time, and  in that same essay on Hudson's statue, his cry is that England needs " . . . a new real Aristocracy of fact, instead of the extinct imaginary one of t i t l e . "  3  The one point  of the Chartist programme that Carlyle supports is the abolition of the property qualification for members of parliament, and his reason for this stand is that he feels that "In the lowest broad strata of the population, equally as in the highest and narrowest, are produced men of every kind of g e n i u s . T h e Carlyle of Chelsea is choosing his heroes just as he did in Ecclefechan, purely by reference to their heroic qualities, to their powers of intellect, their degree of understanding of the Laws of Nature, and without regard to their social position or rank. The second charge against Carlyle includes 1  "Hudson's Statue," Latter-Day Pamphlets, p. 283.  2  "Inaugural Address," Essays, vol. 4, p. 463.  3 "Hudson's Statue," Latter-Day Pamphlets, p. 263. * "Downing Street," Latter-Day Pamphlets, p. 119.  147 a l s o the a c c u s a t i o n t h a t ,  after deserting  the cause of  the common man, he has turned to a worship of power.  The evidence  successful  o f f e r e d i n support of t h i s  charge  l i e s i n the c l a i m t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l y C a r i y l e ' s heroes — Cromwell, Governor E y r e , F r e d e r i c k , Bismarck — had become men of s u c c e s s f u l  f o r c e and t h a t h i s w r i t i n g s had  become a p a n e g y r i c o f power. is  I f t h i s be t r u e ,  then here  indeed an a b e r r a t i o n from the p h i l o s o p h y we have o u t l i n e d . As f o r the charge t h a t C a r i y l e ' s heroes  become i n c r e a s i n g l y s u c c e s s f u l , that t h i s  the answer can only be  i s what we should e x p e c t .  It  is foolish  to  t h i n k t h a t C a r l y l e should w r i t e a six-volume h i s t o r y of an h e r o i c but unknown b u t t e r - m e r c h a n t . no one would be i n t e r e s t e d ;  F o r one t h i n g ,  what A r i s t o t l e had to  say  about the t r a g i c hero a p p l i e s  to the C a r l y l e a n hero  The hero must have s u f f i c i e n t  s t a t u r e and p o s i t i o n  warrant the a t t e n t i o n t h a t i s being p a i d him.  too. to  Moreover,  no butter-merchant c o u l d be a t r u e h e r o , f o r p o s s e s s i o n of h e r o i c q u a l i t i e s  i s not enough.  do something w i t h h i s g i f t s .  And i f  merchant a c t e d h e r o i c a l l y — w e l l , butter-merchant.  the h e r o i c b u t t e r -  he would not d i e a  I t was thus unavoidable t h a t C a r i y l e ' s  heroes should be s u c c e s s f u l But i t  The possessor must  men.  cannot be t r u t h f u l l y s a i d t h a t  honoured these men because they were s u c c e s s f u l  Carlyle exponents  148 of Realpolitik. Carlyle supported Governor Eyre because he felt the Governor was " . . . a just, humane and valiant man, faithful to his trust everywhere, and with no ordinary faculty for executing them."  1  Rightly or  wrongly, he thought Governor Eyre's position to be analogous to that of a ship's captain who, discovering a fire in his powder-room, puts in one or two buckets of water too many to quench i t .  The extra water may have 2  damaged some of the cargo, but i t has saved the ship. Carlyle saw Eyre as a second Warren Hastings, and his work on the Eyre Committee was undertaken, not in defence of a' brutal colonial policy, although he would not in some instances shrink from that, but to prevent the Government from persecuting one of its faithful servants. Just as Carlyle saw Cromwell and the French revolutionaries  as emissaries of God sweeping an  accumulation of chaos from the world, so he saw Frederick the Great in the same way.  Let one quotation from that  massive work testify to this fact: Readers ask rather: 'And had Friedrich no feeling about Poland itself, then, and this atrocious partitioning of the poor country?' Apparently none whatever; — unless i t might be that Deliverance from Anarchy, Pestilence.', Famine, and Pigs eating your dead bodies, would be a  x  Henry J . Nicoll, Thomas Carlyle. p. 204.  J . A. Froude, Thomas Carlyle. A History of his Life in London. London, Longmans Green, vol. 2, p. 328. 2  149  manifest advantage t o Poland, while i t i s the one way of saving Europe from War. I I t i s prohahle t h a t the h i s t o r i c a l F r e d e r i c k and h e r o i c F r e d e r i c k of C a r l y l e are not i d e n t i c a l . himself  seems to have e v e n t u a l l y come to the  t h a t "...  he had  Great."  Whether he was  2  Carlyle  conclusion  been mistaken about F r e d e r i c k mistaken or not,  the  the  the fact  remains t h a t i n h i s h i s t o r y he i s g l o s s i n g over r a t h e r than g l o r i f y i n g F r e d e r i c k ' s show of p h y s i c a l f o r c e , presenting  and  the King as an agent of D i v i n e W i l l r a t h e r  than as a p r a c t i t i o n e r of M a c h i a v e l l i a n power. p o i n t the stand of F r e d e r i c k Roe  On  i s moderate and  this  wholly  tenable: ".ii i t i s to be remembered i n the f i r s t p l a c e t h a t he never claimed p e r f e c t i o n f o r any of h i s h i s t o r i c a l heroes, whose s t r e n g t h s u f f e r e d , he thought, by j u s t _ i n so much as i t was an i g n o b l e s t r e n g t h .  J  C a r l y l e may  be emphasizing more than p r e v i o u s l y  the  a b i l i t y of h i s heroes t o do the work t h a t l i e s a t hand, but h i s frame of r e f e r e n c e  is s t i l l  the D i v i n e P l a n  and  f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which marks the  new  the Laws of Nature. The  C a r l y l e from the o l d i s t h a t whereas the C a r l y l e of  • F r e d e r i c k , v o l . 8,  p.  115.  quoted from M ncure Conway i n Young, R i s e and F a l l , p. 311. 2  0  3  C a r l y l e and Ruskin. p.  98.  150 S a r t o r and P a s t and P r e s e n t has a s i n c e r e sympathy f o r the common man, has not. defended  the C a r l y l e of L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets  The charges under t h i s heading a r e t h a t s l a v e r y , t h a t he was  o f Jamaica, and t h a t he was  he  contemptuous of the  negroes  u t t e r l y without sympathy  f o r the imprisoned c r i m i n a l s of England.  We  have a l r e a d y  seen t h a t the concept of s l a v e r y t h a t he defends i s w h o l l y a s p i r i t u a l one.  With r e g a r d t o p h y s i c a l s l a v e r y  his attitude i s : I f buying B l a c k w a r - c a p t i v e s i n A f r i c a and b r i n g i n g them over to the Sugar I s l a n d s f o r s a l e a g a i n be, as I t h i n k i t i s , a c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o the Laws of t h i s U n i v e r s e , l e t us h e a r t i l y pray Heaven t o end the p r a c t i c e ; l e t us o u r s e l v e s help Heaven to end i t , , wherever the o p p o r t u n i t y i s , g i v e n . x  F u l l y understood i n terms of h i s h i e r a r c h y t h e o r y and h i s eoncept of s p i r i t u a l freedom, C a r l y l e ' s view's  on  s l a v e r y a r e not n e a r l y as harsh as they would a t f i r s t seem. A s i m i l a r understanding of h i s a t t i t u d e towards Jamaican negroes and E n g l i s h p r i s o n e r s would go f a r t o v i t i a t e the c l a i m t h a t L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets i s a h e a r t l e s s a t t a c k <on humanity.  However, i t i s not our purpose  t o defend the i d e a s of the pamphlets,  here  but o n l y t o show  t h a t these i d e a s have t h e i r r o o t s i n the same p h i l o s o p h i c a l  "Nigger Question," Essays, v o l . 4, p.  381.  151 system as the ideas of the e a r l i e r C a r l y l e ,  Although  C a r l y l e has o f t e n h e l d out f o r a community of men h e l d t o g e t h e r by t i e s of l o v e and l o y a l t y , he denies t h i s view when he c o n s i d e r s the  criminal:  To guide s c o u n d r e l s by ' l o v e ' ; t h a t i s a f a l s e woof, I take i t , a method t h a t w i l l not h o l d t o g e t h e r ; h a r d l y f o r the flower of men w i l l l o v e a l o n e do; and f o r the sediment and s c o u n d r e l i s m of men i t has not even a chance to d o . l These p r i s o n e r s have had a chance to choose what r o l e they w i l l p l a y i n the w o r l d .  Because they have chosen  to work, not f o r God and o r d e r , but f o r the D e v i l and chaos,  they have put themselves  of l o v e .  o u t s i d e the community  I n h i s essay "Model P r i s o n s " C a r l y l e  t h a t John Howard's 'rose-water p h i l a n t h r o p y '  objects  i s being  wasted on r o t t e n m a t e r i a l w h i l e t h i r t y - t h o u s a n d honest needlewomen go hungry and i d l e . f a t h e r than c u r e :  He a d v i s e s p r e v e n t i o n  "Let us t o the w e l l - h e a d s ,  t o the c h i e f f o u n t a i n s of these waters of and t h e r e s t r i k e home and d i g . "  2  I  say;  bitterness;  In advising that  the  energy and money spent t o make l i f e p l e a s a n t e r f o r agents o f the d e v i l he used Instead t o p r o v i d e work f o r workers who are i d l e because no work i s g i v e n them t o do, the new C a r l y l e cannot be s a i d to be d e v i a t i n g  "Model P r i s o n s , " L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets, p . 2  Ibid.,  p.  86.  56  152 from the p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e o l d C a r l y l e . H i s contempt f o r the negroes turns out t o be r e a l l y no contempt a t a l l .  To the q u e s t i o n whether he  hates Quashee, the b l a c k s l a v e o f Jamaica, "No;  he answers,  except when the s o u l i s k i l l e d out o f him, I  d e c i d e d l y l i k e poor Quashee."  1  The c r i m i n a l o f England,  who has a l r e a d y denied h i m s e l f the sacred r i g h t t o work, C a r l y l e d i d a c t i v e l y hate. s t i l l hope.  But f o r Quashee t h e r e i s  The d e v i l i s a t h i s elbow, and the negro  i s v e r y tempted t o j o i n the i d l e r s and watch "... the f r u i t f u l e s t r e g i o n o f the e a r t h going back t o j u n g l e round  him."  Jamaica  2  To rescue these b l a c k s from the d e v i l , and  from chaos t h e r e i s o n l y one hope now:  d i v i n e r i g h t o f being compelled  ( i f 'permitted  not answer) t o do the work they a r e appointed  "... the 1  will  for..."  3  Once a g a i n , C a r l y l e ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s o p i n i o n s l i e s i n h i s t h e o r y o f work and h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f a Divine Plan. But a l t h o u g h the d e c i s i o n s made by C a r l y l e i n h i s l a t e r years a r e s t i l l made w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o h i s one p h i l o s o p h i c a l system, i t may w e l l be t h a t the judgements t u r n out t o be somewhat s t e r n e r because o f  1 "Nigger Question," Essays, v o l . 4, p. 357. 2  3  I b i d . , p. 356. i b i d . , p. 357.  153 a d i f f e r e n t emphasis i n a p p l y i n g  the system.  was  younger C a r l y l e dwelt longer  on the g e n t l e r s i d e of  his  beliefs.  l o v e , God  and  The world was man  f a r from p e r f e c t , but,  would e v e n t u a l l y improve i t .  y e t , w i t h i n h i s l i f e t i m e he had l i t t l e progress,  with  And  seen d i s h e a r t e n i n g l y  so t h a t he began to emphasize more the  p r i v i l e g e f o r c e has enough.  When he  Old age,  of t a k i n g over t i l l  poor h e a l t h , and  l o v e be  strong  the earnest f e e l i n g  t h a t t h i n g s were c l o s i n g i n , combined t o make him more c r o t c h e t y and more b i t t e r i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of h i s theories. The any  of  i d e a l i s t i c system, i s t h a t i t presupposes t h e - i d e a l  arbiter. why  c h i e f f a u l t of C a r i y l e ' s system, as  C a r l y l e r e a l i z e d t h i s , of course, and  that  Is  he s e t s T e u f e l s d r & c k h a p a r t from the a c t u a l w o r l d .  There i s symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the f a c t t h a t young Diogenes does n o t know h i s parents or where he came from, in  the f a c t ' t h a t the e v e r l a s t i n g yea  on a mountain w i t h Blumina and T e u f e l s d r B c k h ' s one p e r s o n a l and  comes to him  Towgood (symbolic  high of  c o l l e c t i o n w i t h mankind)  a l l the farm houses of the d i s t r i c t spread out  toys below him,  and  i n the f a c t t h a t the o l d  like  professor  f i n a l l y s e t t l e s i n a g a r r e t i n the t a l l e s t b u i l d i n g of t h a t Everyman-town of Weissnichtwo, from whence he looks down a l o o f on a l l the world. and  A l l this is well  good i n the i d e a l i t y of l i t e r a t u r e , but  in life  154 the world i s always w i t h us, and C a r l y l e cannot expected  be  to be as a l o o f and o b j e c t i v e as T e u f e l s d r o c k h .  The p e r s o n a l and  s u b j e c t i v e are bound to  creep i n .  Thus, w h i l e the g o a l C a r l y l e had i n view  was  always marked by the h i g h e s t m o r a l i t y , as E r n s t C a s s i r e r r e a l i z e d when he s a i d t h a t , "Heroworship always meant to  him the worship  of a moral f o r c e , "  1  we are n e v e r t h e l e s s  l e f t w i t h the q u e s t i o n as t o what i s a 'moral f o r c e . ' C a r l y l e would answer t h a t he knows i n t u i t i v e l y whether a f o r c e i s moral or immoral.  And  i f we  are s u s p i c i o u s of  i n t u i t i o n , he g i v e s us h i s t h e o d i c y as guide: f o r c e i s one And how  t h a t p r e v a i l s i f we  long must one wait?  a moral  'await the i s s u e . *  C e r t a i n l y l o n g e r than  C a r l y l e w a i t s b e f o r e he decides t h a t Bismark ... i s not a person of 'Napoleonic i d e a s ' but of i d e a s q u i t e s u p e r i o r t o Napoleonic, shows no i n v i n c i b l e ' l u s t f o r t e r r i t o r y nor i s tormented w i t h v u l g a r ambition, , e t c , but has aims v e r y f a r beyond t h a t sphere; i n f a c t seems t o be s t r i v i n g w i t h strong f a c u l t y , by p a t i e n t , grand and s u c c e s s f u l s t e p s , towards.an o b j e c t b e n e f i c i a l t o Germans and to a l l other men. 1  2  He f i n d s some time l a t e r t h a t h i s ' i n t u i t i v e ' r e c o g n i t i o n of Bismark as a moral f o r c e has been q u i t e i n e r r o r .  3  C a r l y l e ' s p h i l o s o p h y i s a l l the more prone t o  Myth of S t a t e , p.  278.  I n a l e t t e r t o the Times. London, 18 I87O, c i t e d i n Young, R i s e and F a l l , p. 309. 2  3  Young, R i s e and F a l l *  p.  312.  November,  155 e r r o r because i t i s a p e r s o n a l s u b j e c t i v e one,  the  product of h i s f e e l i n g s r a t h e r than of h i s i n t e l l e c t . H i s system banned polemics and l o g i c and i n s i s t e d upon the acceptance on f a i t h o f c e r t a i n b a s i c premises: God and the D i v i n e Idea, the Laws of Nature and concomitant a b s o l u t e s of m o r a l i t y and each man  their  j u s t i c e , and i n  a s o u l or s p i r i t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the a b i l i t y  t o d i s t i n g u i s h r i g h t from wrong, i n t u i t i v e p r e f e r e n c e f o r r i g h t , arid a sense of duty which l e a d s man and develop h i m s e l f .  t o work  P r e s s e d f o r a d e f i n i t i o n of h i s  terms or e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s concepts, C a r l y l e shrugs h i s shoulders.  w  l have no pocket d e f i n i t i o n of j u s t i c e , "••-  he says b l a n d l y .  And i n h i s o l d age he adds, "If- the  t r u t h i s i n my books i t w i l l be found out i n due  time."  2  C a r l y l e d i d not s e t out h i s p h i l o s o p h y as a f o r m a l system because he conceived i t p o e t i c a l l y r a t h e r than s c i e n t i f i c a l l y or l o g i c a l l y . to note t h a t a l l h i s ' t e c h n i c a l a r e borrowed:  1  I t i s interesting philosophical  p a l i n g e n e s i a from H e r d e r  3  or from the  Saint-Simonlans, " D i v i n e Idea from F i c h t e , 4  1  terms  Entsagung  "Model P r i s o n s , " L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets,  p.  73.  C. E. Norton, " R e c o l l e c t i o n s of C a r l y l e , " The New P r i n c e t o n Review. J u l y , 1886, Quoted i n D. A. W i l s o n , C a r l y l e t i l l Marriage, p. 315. 2  Wellek, P h i l o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 23, (January, 194-4), p. 5T. 3  Shine, C a r l y l e and the S a i n t - S i m o n i a n s . 24. 4  p. 75,  n.  no.  1  156 from Goethe, S e l b a t t S d t u n g from N o v a l i s ; w h i l e h i s own  terms are n o n - t e c h n i c a l —  Hero, Dryasdust,  symbolic, not exact:  S a n s c u l l o t i s m , Rose-water p h i l a n t h r o p y .  H i s genius l a y , not i n a c c u r a t e and exact a n a l y s i s of a s i t u a t i o n , hut i n dramatic g e n e r a l i z a t i o n .  Carlyle's  l i v e l y d e s c r i p t i o n of l i f e i n Bury S t . Edmund's, f o r example, so engages the reader t h a t he soon swallows C a r l y l e ' s idea t h a t Abbot Samson i s an i d e a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , and, what i s more, t h a t the e n t i r e p a s t has a of  s p i r i t t h a t the p r e s e n t has While  sincerity  lost.  i t cannot he denied t h a t C a r l y l e some-  times e r r e d i n h i s judgements, i t should be noted t h a t the e r r o r s can never be imputed t o a base or d e s i r e i n the man  himself.  H i s f a u l t s are  selfish  chargeable*  not to the p e t t y f a i l i n g s of o r d i n a r y humanity, hut t o an o v e r - e a r n e s t z e a l i n the cause of God.  Torquemada,  too,  hut f o r him  was  God was  over-zealous i n the cause of God, the C a t h o l i c Church, and perhaps,  F o r C a r l y l e , God d o c t r i n e , and his  cause,  Torquemada too.  i s pure s p i r i t bound by no  the cause of God,  which C a r l y l e has made  i s always good i n the h i g h e s t and  sense.  o  mortal  broadest  Bibliography Primary Sources C a r l y l e , Thomas, "The American I l i a d i n a N u t s h e l l , " ^Macmillans Magazine, v o l . 8 (August, I863), p . 301. ........ C r i t i c a l and M i s c e l l a n e o u s E s s a y s . London, Chapman and H a l l , 1899, 4 v o l s . (H. D. T r a i l l , ed., The Works o f Thomas C a r l v l e . Centenary e d i t i o n , v o l s . 26-30.) , The F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . London, Chapman and H a l l , 1896, 3 v o l s . (Centenary e d i t i o n , v o l s . 2-4.) , H i s t o r y o f F r e d e r i c k the Second. London, Chapman and H a l l , 1899, 8 vols-. (Centenary e d i t i o n , v o l s . 12-19.) , L a t t e r - D a y Pamphlets. London, Chapman and H a l l , 1898. (Centenary e d i t i o n , v o l . 20.) , L e t t e r s of Thomas Carlyle'. ed. C. E . Norton, London, Macmillan, 1888, 4 v o l s • ........ O l i v e r Cromwell's L e t t e r s and Speeches w i t h E l u c i d a t i o n s . London. Chapman and H a l l . 1897. 4 v o l s . (Centenary e d i t i o n , v o l . 6 - 9 . ) , On Heroes, Heroworship and the H e r o i c i n H i s t o r y . ed. A r c h i b a l d MacMechan, Boston, Ginn, 1901. , P a s t and P r e s e n t . London, Chapman and H a l l , 1897. (Centenary e d i t i o n , v o l . 10.) , Reminiscences, ed. J . A. Froude, London, Longmans, Green, 1881, 2 v o l s . , Reminiscences, ed. C. E . Norton, London, Macmillan, 1887, 2 v o l s . , S a r t o r R e s a r t u s . London, Chapman and H a l l , 1896. (Centenary e d i t i o n , v o l . 1.) Secondary  Sources  Books Allingham, W i l l i a m , A D i a r y , London, Macmillan, .1907. B a i n t o n , Roland H., Here I Stand. New York, Mentor, 1955 ( C o p y r i g h t 1950).  157  158 Benda, J u l i e n , Kant. London, C a s s e l l ,  1942.  B e n t l e y , E r i c , The C u l t of the Superman. Robert Hale, 1947 ( C o p y r i g h t 1944)  London,  Browne, Thomas, " R e l i g i o M e d i c i , " i n Works of Thomas Browne, ed. G e o f f r e y Keynes, London, Faber and Gwyer, 1928, v o l . 1, pp. 1-98. B u r d e t t , Osbert, The Two C a r I v i e s . London. Faber and Faber, 1930. G a s s i r e r , E r n s t , The Myth of S t a t e . New York,. Doubleday and Company, 1955. F l e h t e , Johann G o t t l i e b , D i e Bestimmune des Menschen. L e i p z i g , P h i l l i p Reelam V e r l a g , 1879. " Frpude, J . A., Thomas C a r l y l e : a H i s t o r y of the F i r s t ' F o r t y Years o f h i s L i f e . London, Longmans, Green, ....... Thomas C a r l y l e : h i s L i f e i n London. London, Longmans, Green, 1884. G a r n e t t , R i c h a r d , L i f e of Thomas C a r l y l e . London, --.-Walter S c o t t , 1887. H a r r o l d , C. F.. C a r l y l e and German Thought. New Haven. Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1934 ( Y a l e S t u d i e s I n * - - E n g l i s h , no. 82). Hearnshaw, F. J . C , "Thomas C a r l y l e , " i n The S o c i a l - a n d " P o l i t i c a l Ideas of Some R e p r e s e n t a t i v e T h i n k e r s of the V i c t o r i a n Age, London, Harrap, 1 9 3 , pp. 31-52. 2  S e n s e l j P a u l , Thomas C a r l y l e , S t u t t g a r t , F r . Frommanns V e r l a g , 1902. Larking Henry, C a r l y l e and the Open S e c r e t o f h i s L i f e . • London, Kegan P a u l , Trench, 1886. MacCunn, John, "The A n t i - d e m o c r a t i c R a d i c a l i s m of Thomas C a r l y l e , " i n S i x R a d i c a l T h i n k e r s . London, Edward Arnold, 1910. Neatby, H i l d a , So L i t t l e f o r the Mind, Toronto, C l a r k e Unwin, 1953. " Neff, Emery, C a r l y l e and M i l l . An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o V i c t o r i a n Thought. New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1926.  159 N i c h o l , John, Thomas C a r l y l e , London, Macmillan, 1894. (John Morley, ed., E n g l i s h Men o f L e t t e r s ) N i c o l l , Henry J . , Thomas C a r l y l e . London, Ward and Lock, n.d. Rauschning, Herman, H i t l e r Sneaks. London, Thronton, Butterworth, 1939. Roe, F . W., The S o c i a l P h i l o s o p h y o f C a r l y l e and R a s k i n . New York, H a r c o u r t Brace, 1921. Schweitzer, A l b e r t , Out o f my L i f e and Thought. New York, Mentor, 1 9 5 3 . • Shine, H i l l , C a r l y l e and the S a l n t - S i m o n l a n s . B a l t i m o r e , Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1941. Taggart, W i l l i a m . C a r l y l e ' s Handling o f the 'Laws o f Nature' Concept, unpublished t h e s i s , M o n t r e a l , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1952. "Thomas C a r l y l e , " Annual R e g i s t e r . London, R i v i n g t o n ,  1881, pp. 99-101.  1949.  V i e t o r , K a r l , Goethe. Bern, A. Francke AG V e r l a g ,  Wilson, D a v i d - A l e c , L i f e o f Thomas C a r l y l e . London, Kegan P a u l , Trench, Trubner and Company, 1923-1934, 6 vols. Young,'Norwood, C a r l y l e , H i s R i s e and F a l l , Duckworth, 1927.  London,  A r t i c l e s i n P e r i o d i c a l s and J o u r n a l s B e n t l e y , E r i c , "Modern Hero-worship; Notes on C a r l y l e , N i e t z s c h e , and S t e f a n George," Sewanee Review, Summer, 1944, pp. 441-456. "The C a r l y l e a n V i s i o n , " Times L i t e r a r y Supplement London, 3 February, 1956, pp. 61-62.  f  " C a r i y l e ' s E a r l y Kings o f Norway." The N a t i o n ,  v o l . 23 (May, 1881), pp. W^%W.  Conway, Moneure, "Thomas C a r l y l e , " Harpers, v o l . 23,  (May, 1881), pp. 888-912.  160 Grierson, H . J . C , "Scott and C a r l y l e , " Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1928, v o l . 12, pp. 80-111. , "Thomas C a r l y l e , " Proceedings of the B r i t i s h Academy, 1940. London, Oxford University Press, PP. 301-325. Harrold, C . F . , "Carlyle on Kant," P h i l o l o g i c a l Quarterly, v o l . 7, (October, 1928), pp. 345-357. , "Carlyle and the Mystic T r a d i t i o n , " Catholic World, v o l . 142 (October, 1935), pp. 45-4*T , "Carlyle's General Method i n the French Revolution." Publications of the Modern Language Association, v o l . 43 (1928), pp. 1150-1169. ........  "The M y s t i c a l Element i n C a r l y l e , " Modern  Philology, v o l . 29 (May, 1932), pp. A-59-WT* i, "The Nature of C a r l y l e ' s Calvinism." Studies i n Philology, v o l . 33, no. 3 (July, 1 9 3 © ) , pp. 475-486. Moore, C a r l i s l e , " C a r l y l e ' s Diamond Necklace," Publications of the Modern Language Association, v o l . 58, (June, 1943), pp. 537-557. " ' Murphy, E l l a M . , "Carlyle and the Saint-Simonians," Studies i n Philology, v o l . 33, no. 1 (January, 1936), pp. 93-118. Schapiro, J . S . , "Thomas C a r l y l e , Prophet of Fascism," Journal of Modern H i s t o r y , v o l . 17, no. 2 (June, 1945), pp. 97-115. Shine, H i l l , "Carlyle and the German Philosophy Problem During the Year 1826-27," Publications of the Modern Language Association, v o l . 50. no. 3 (September, 1935), PP. 8O7-827. Stewart, H . L . , " C a r l y l e ' s Conception of H i s t o r y , " P o l i t i c a l Science Quarterly, v o l . 32, no. 4 (December, 1917), pp. 570-5o9. "Thomas C a r l y l e , " The Nation, v o l . 32, no. 8l6 (17 February, 1881), pp. 109-110. Trevelyan, G. M . , "Carlyle as an H i s t o r i a n , " Nineteenth Century; v o l . 46, no. 271 (September, 1899), pp. 493-503.  Venables, G. S., " C a r l y l e i n S o c i e t y and a t Home," F o r t n i g h t l y Review, v o l . 33, no. 197 (1 May 1883), PP. 622-642. Wellek, Rene, " C a r l y l e and the P h i l o s o p h y of H i s t o r y , P h i l o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 3 , no. 1 (January, 1944), pp. 55-76.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106290/manifest

Comment

Related Items