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Children in commercial boarding homes : a survey of wards of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver… Wick, Lawrence Bernard 1956

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CHILDREN IK COMMERCIAL BOARDING HOMES A Survey of Wards of th© Children fs A i d Society o f Vancouver l i v i n g i n these units i n October 295**o by LAURENCE BERNARD WICK Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment o f the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School o f S o c i a l Vferk Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree o f Master: o f Soeial. Work School o f S o c i a l Work 1956 The University o f B r i t i s h Columbia ABSTRACT This study i s p a r t o f a survey o f the wards o f the Children's A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver, B* C* who were not i n f o s t e r homes on October 31, 19*fe. Fourteen wards, ranging i n age from f o u r t e e n to nineteen y e a r s , were r e s i d e n t i n commercial boarding homes* Agency p o l i c y recommends the l i m i t i n g o f the use o f commercial boarding homes to the o c c a s i o n a l placement o f a boy o r g i r l over the age o f eighteen years who i s s e l f - s u p p o r t -ing and s u f f i c i e n t l y mature to meet the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f such a settingo A c c o r d i n g l y , the purpose o f t h i s study i s to determine why the commercial boarding homes were being used f o r these p a r t i c u l a r wards and to what extent the needs o f these wards were being mete i n f o r m a t i o n gathered from the records o f the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r parents was summarized and ta b u l a t e d f o r the purpose o f study and d e s c r i p t i o n * This m a t e r i a l was examined to determine whether there was any cor*, r e l a t i o n between the c h i l d r e n ' s pre-admission care and t h e i r subsequent adjustment i n f o s t e r and group homes and t h e i r l a t e r placement i n commercial boarding homes. Case i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f three o f the wards were used I n order to elaborate on t h e i r developmental experiences and adjustment i n v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s * These cases were t y p i c a l i n i l l u s t r a t i n g the u n s e t t l e d e a r l y l i v e s experienced by mos t o f t h i s group and the e f f e c t o f these experiences i n preventing them from a d j u s t i n g to the demands o f a f o s t e r home and, I n some cases, o f group homes* F u r t h e r emphasis was gi v e n to the harmful e f f e c t o f continued f o s t e r home replacement* I n summary, the study o f t h i s group o f wards p o i n t e d out the great need f o r a r e c e i v i n g home f o r a l l c h i l d r e n on admission to care f o r the purposes o f fam-i l i a r i z a t i o n , d iagnosis and pl a n n i n g * I n order to a v o i d the use o f commercial boarding homes arid to meet the needs o f those c h i l d r e n who are unable t o a d j u s t i n f o s t e r homos, a v a r i e t y o f g r o u p - l i v i n g residences should be developed. A treatment home i s an urgent n e c e s s i t y to a s s i s t d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n w h i l e they are s t i l l young enough to be helped. I n g e n e r a l , g r e a t e r resources are r e q u i r e d f o r p r e v e n t i v e work with c h i l d r e n while s t i l l i n t h e i r own homes as w e l l as f o r the improvement o f the s e r v i c e s to the c h i l d r e n a f t e r t h e i r admission i n t o eare. I i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I H i s t o r i c a l Development o f C h i l d Care S e r v i c e s Page The e a r l y developments I n c h i l d care s e r v i c e s I n Great B r i t a i n , the; U n i t e d S t a t e s and On t a r i o . The developments o f f o s t e r home programs and g r e a t e r p u b l i c f i n a n c i n g i n Western Canada. The Child r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver. The needs o f c h i l d r e n and the as© o f the commercial boarding home as a placement resource. The scope and method o f the study. ••«.<>• •• •<,.<>..... 1 Chapter I I A Survey o f Fourteen Wards R e s i d i n g i n Commercial Boarding Homes Family background and car© o f wards p r i o r t o admission. Adjustment o f the wards w h i l e I n car e . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by the agency i n meeting the needs o f these wards- w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r -ence to the use o f commercial boarding homes f o r p l a c e -dent. • eo»e«o*«*o<>»«o«»«s«cio6* *o»o»ooo»»»o« o 21 Chapter I I I Three Case I l l u s t r a t i o n s frsm the Survey o f Fourteen ¥ards A boy who entered the agency's care a t ten months and l a t e r experienced a d i f f i c u l t s e r i e s o f replacements • A c h i l d who f a i l e d to a d j u s t i n e i t h e r a f o s t e r home o r group home. A c h i l d who f a i l e d to adj u s t to a f o s t e r home s e t t i n g but adjusted to the group home s e t t i n g . Chapter IV Observations and Recommendations Summary o f f i n d i n g s and the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r -t h e r s e r v i c e s . The need f o r a v a r i e t y o f placement r e -sources § R e c e i v i n g Home and D i a g n o s t i c Centre. Boys' and G i r l s * Residences o r Group Homes. Treatment Home f o r d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . Conclusion. 75 Appendices s A. Tab u l a t i o n o f data from the ease r e c o r d s . B. Tab u l a t i o n o f data (continued). C. Case summaries f o r each o f the fo u r t e e n wards showing pre-admission experiences and reasons f o r admission i n t o c a r e . D. Assessment o f the adjustment o f tho wards. I l l TABLES IN THE TEXT Table I Table I I Table I I I Table IV Table V Table VI Page M a r i t a l Status o f Parents a t Time o f Wards Admission ter Care 21* C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Wards according to Type o f D i s a b l i n g Factor present i n Family Background • 26 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Ages o f Wards a t time o f Admission to pare •.•o*««.»« 30 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Iferds by Years i n Care and Number o f S o c i a l Workers • 3>b Age o f Wards a t Time o f the Surveyo.. 38 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Factors P r e j u d i c i a l to S u c c e s s f u l Placement i n the E i g h t Commercial Boarding Homes **3 AGKNOWtEDQEMENTSj I wish to express my gratitude to Miss Dorothy L. Coombe, Executive Director of the Children's A i d Society or Vancouver for making avai l a b l e the case material f o r this study. I wish also to thank Miss Marjorie J . Smith and Mr. B. Wheeler o f the; School o f S o c i a l Work, u n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and Mr. John L« Sanders o f the Children's Aid Society, f o r the i r many h e l p f u l suggestions and encouragement CHILDREN IH COMMERCIAL BOARDING HOMES A Survey o f Wards o f the Children's A i d Society o f Vancouver l i v i n g i n these units i n Oetooer 1 9 5 * » 1 CHAPTER I HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OP CHILD CARE SERVICES Modern concern f o r the welfa r e o f our c h i l d -r e n r e f l e c t s our r e c o g n i t i o n of the p r e v e n t i v e aspect o f good c h i l d - c a r e s e r v i c e s . We recognize t h a t the f u t u r e h e a l t h o f our s o c i e t y i s being p a r t i a l l y determined by the welfare of our c h i l d r e n o f today. We are p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned wi t h the c h i l d ' s formative years as a member of the f a m i l y u n i t . The enlightened community makes pro-v i s i o n s to strengthen and support the f a m i l y u n i t a g a i n s t the hazards of i l l h e a l t h , unemployment and various n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s . As the community progresses economically we should expect a s i m i l a r Improvement I n s o c i a l standards generally,, However, there Is not always a corresponding development of the sense of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , so t h a t a gap e x i s t s between what Is known p r o f e s s i o n a l l y about the needs o f c h i l d r e n on the one hand, and the community's resources and the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e given on the o t h e r . The gap Is r e g r e t t a b l e f o r s o c i e t y has no greater resource - 2 -than i t s c h i l d r e n . E a r l v Developments i n C h i l d Care S e r v i c e s The c h i l d w elfare movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia has developed along the l i n e s of the e a r l i e r movements f o r c h i l d care i n Great B r i t a i n , the United s t a t e s and the ol d e r province of Ontario. F o l l o w i n g the c o n f i s c a t i o n o f church p r o p e r t y i n England during the r e i g n of Henry V I I I i n the 16th Century the Church was no longer able to provide f o r the needs of the poor and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The f i r s t Poor Law made no s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r the care o f c h i l d r e n . However, the E l i z a b e t h a n Poor Law of l601 out-l i n e d p r o v i s i o n s f o r indenture p r a c t i c e o f a p p r e n t i c i n g c h i l d r e n to a craftsman and f o r the care of d e s t i t u t e 1 c h i l d r e n i n almshouses. In c o n t r a s t to t h i s development of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r dependent c h i l d r e n the American trend was towards the use of indenture i n the p r i v a t e t r a n s f e r of guardianship to another person who assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c h i l d ' s care I n r e t u r n f o r the c h i l d ' s s e r v i c e s . The most s i g n i f i -cant new development was the establishment o f the New York C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y by Mr. Charles L o r i n g Brace i n 1853. The p r a c t i c e of f o s t e r home placement of c h i l d r e n was begun a t t h i s time and e v e n t u a l l y became the main method 1 Mackay, Thomas, A H i s t o r y o f The E n g l i s h Poor Law, B.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, I899. of care f o r dependent c h i l d r e n , Legjtglatipn, f o r C h i l d P r o t e c t i p n i n Great B r i t a i n and the United States during the 1 9 t h Century, l e g i s l a t i o n was enacted to p r o t e c t the p h y s i c a l l y abused and young c h i l d from sentence under a d u l t c r i m i n a l law. These I n d u s t r i a l Schools or Reformatory Acts were a step towards l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the s p e c i a l needs of c h i l d r e n . The "Act to Render Reformatory and I n d u s t r i a l Schools i n Scotland More A v a i l a b l e f o r the B e n e f i t of Vagrant C h i l d r e n " of 185*+- was the f i r s t l e g i s l a t i v e a c t to s p e l l out'the need f o r p r o t e c t i v e care f o r the neglected c h i l d who was without proper care and guardianship, and who could be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the delinquent and who was 1 not n e c e s s a r i l y a pauper. The f i r s t Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n f o l l o w e d t h i s p a t t e r n i n the enactment of the Ontario Act of 1893, "An Act f o r the Prevention of C r u e l t y to and - , . • . . , 2 . , . . , . . B e t t e r P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n " . This a c t s e t the precedent f o r the appointment of a P r o v i n c i a l Superintendent of Neglected C h i l d r e n td a s s i s t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n from c r u e l t y , and to perform other d u t i e s of i n s p e c t i o n , keeping r e c o r d s , v i s i t i n g boarding 1 1 ? and 1 8 V i c t o r i a , C. 7h, 1 8 5 ^ . 2 S t a t u t e s of Ontario, I 8 9 3 , C. h$. homes* et c e t e r a . In a d d i t i o n to l e g a l i z i n g the c u r t a i l -ment of p a r e n t a l r i g h t s when the we l f a r e of the c h i l d n e c e s s i t a t e d t h i s , the Act marked the beginnings of j u v e n i l e court l e g i s l a t i o n i n I t s p r o v i s i o n f o r commissions to hear j u v e n i l e offenders apart from a d u l t c o u r t s . In c o n t r a s t to the United s t a t e s and Great B r i t a i n , the f i r s t Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n made p r o v i s i o n f o r the placement of dependent c h i l d r e n I n s u i t a b l e f a m i l y homes under a w r i t t e n c o n t r a c t , as w e l l as f o r b i n d i n g them out as apprentices* Other provinces have f o l l o w e d the trend o r i g i n -ated by t h i s Ontario l e g i s l a t i o n . They have, however, found i t necessary to l e g i s l a t e f o r the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare ( o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d Superintendent of Neglected C h i l d r e n ) to e x e r c i s e the powers of a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y i n the areas where there was no s o c i e t y . In the more populous areas of Ontario and the l a r g e r c i t i e s o f Western Canada c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s have c a r r i e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o t e c t i v e work, but i n the Western provinces the government has g r a d u a l l y assumed the l a r g e r share I n d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n and care i n the o u t l y i n g areas. In A l b e r t a t h i s p a t t e r n has l e d to the l o s s o f the voluntary-agency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the o r i g i n a l Ontario p l a n w i t h the establishment of l o c a l governmental u n i t s i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , i n Saskatchewan, l e g i s l a t i o n - 5 -of 19h6 provided that a l l neglected children were to be made wards of the Minister of S o c i a l Welfare, and gave the minister regulatory power over a l l children's a i d s o c i e t i e s to the point of approving the appointment of the super-intendent and the s o c i a l workers of such s o c i e t i e s . The B r i t i s h Columbia Act of 1901, "The Children's Protection Act", maintained Canadian practice within the t r a d i t i o n of English law by empowering the state to assume guardianship of children i n need of protection. I t arranged f o r the appointment of a Superintendent of Neglected C h i l d -ren to carry out the administrative functions of such r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t authorized the setting up of children's a i d s o c i e t i e s composed of voluntary groups of private c i t i z e n s Incorporated under a charter f o r the purpose of providing guardianship and care to children committed to 2 them by the courts. However, no s a t i s f a c t o r y f i n a n c i a l p rovision was made f o r discharging these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . By an amendment of 1910 the courts could order the muni-c i p a l i t y i n which the c h i l d had residence to assume the costs f o r the c h i l d ' s care and issue an order against the parents f o r reimbursement of the municipality. In addition to the measure of public respon-s i b i l i t y expressed i n the form of a government appointed Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare with supervisory and reg-1 Statutes of Saskatchewan, 19**6 C. 91. 2 Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1901, C. 9. u l a t i n g d u t i e s over the whole f i e l d o f c h i l d w e l f a r e , the greater p a r t of the f i n a n c i n g o f such s e r v i c e s has a l s o become a p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . With the great extension o f p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s during the past decade, the f i e l d of c h i l d - c a r e s e r v i c e s has expanded from the e a r l i e r narrower f i e l d o f p r o t e c t i o n of neglected c h i l d r e n , to that of the pre v e n t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s which f o s t e r n e g l e c t . There i s , i n a d d i t i o n to the P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t , l e g i s l a t i o n under the "Adoption A c t " , the " C h i l d r e n o f Unmarried Parents A c t " , the "Mother's Allowance A c t " , the " J u v e n i l e Courts Act" and the Acts r e l a t i n g to the establishment of I n d u s t r i a l Schools f o r boys and g i r l s , a l l d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h c h i l d - c a r e s e r v i c e s i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Adoption Act of 1920 vested powers I n the Supreme Court and delegated s p e c i a l d u t i e s to the Superin-tendent of C h i l d Welfare, whereby the Supreme Court can be p e t i t i o n e d to t r a n s f e r the guardianship o f a c h i l d from l the n a t u r a l parent to adopting parent or parents. An amendment of March 1953 has made i t p o s s i b l e f o r the adopted c h i l d to have the same status toward h i s adopting parents, •• • • < 2 as w e l l as t h e i r k i n , as I f he had been born i n the f a m i l y . 1 Adoption A c t , 1920 2 Adoption A c t , R .o.B.C. S e c t i o n 10, 1953 - 7 -The C h i l d r e n of Unmarried Parents Act, 1 9 2 2 , gave to the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare the duty o f p r o v i d i n g a measure of p r o t e c t i o n f o r every c h i l d born out o f wedlock and the a u t h o r i t y to take proceedings under the A ct i n order to provide f o r the best i n t e r e s t s of the 1 c h i l d . The-Mother's Allowance A ct permits the Super-intendent of Welfare to make f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r c h i l d -r e n under 16 years of age^(which can be extended up to 18 years i f a t t e n d i n g school) to enable them to remain under the personal care o f t h e i r mother i n t h e i r n a t u r a l home, when the f a t h e r i s dead, d i v o r c e d , has deserted o r i s 2 t o t a l l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d . The J u v e n i l e Courts A c t provides f o r the establishment of J u v e n i l e Courts wherever the F e d e r a l 3 " J u v e n i l e Delinquents Act" i s brought i n t o f o r c e , rPhe Children/s. Aid, spcjety, of Vancouver, British CoXumbja At the beginning of t h i s century there was a growing awareness on the p a r t o f the people o f Vancouver of the f a i l u r e to provide p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n . In 1901 the L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women of Vancouver prepared a p e t i t i o n which was presented to the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e 1 C h i l d r e n of Unmarried Parents A c t , 1922. 2 Mother's Allowance A c t , 1937« 3 J u v e n i l e Courts A c t , 1910. - 8 -by Captain Tatlow, M.L .A. for Vancouver. This eventually le d to the enactment of the much-needed Children's protection Act and l a t e r to the establishment of the Children's A i d Society of Vancouver. The f i r s t c h i l d made a ward of t h i s Society was a young g i r l who was l i v i n g i n the Alexandra Orphanage and whose mother was a l c o h o l i c and b r u t a l . Her p l i g h t served as the main impetus to action to have l e g i s -l a t i o n passed permitting the removal of custody from natural parents. The early years of the society were d i f f i c u l t ones i n which childre n from a l l over the province were committed by the courts to the care of the Society with 1 l i t t l e f i n a n c i a l support from the government. I t was not u n t i l 1909 that the P r o v i n c i a l Legislature passed an amendment to the Protection of Children's Act enabling magistrates to award the sum Of one d o l l a r and f i f t y cents a week for the care of wards,, th i s f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y being borne by the area In which the c h i l d had l e g a l r e s i -dence. In the period up to 1926 children made wards Of the Society were housed i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l settings of the Alexandra Orphanage and Salvation Army Refugee Home and f i n a l l y i n the Wall S t r e e t Home. The use of the i n -s t i t u t i o n was intended to be only f o r temporary care while the c h i l d was being prepared f o r placement i n a p r i v a t e home. The number for whom suitable "adoption" homes could 1 Angus, Anne Margaret. Children's Aid Society of Vanepuver, 190], - 19U be found continued to be l e s s than the number committed to the care o f the So c i e t y . The Wall S t r e e t Home became badly overcrowded and c o n s t i t u t e d the main f i n a n c i a l problem of the S o c i e t y . Except f o r some i n s t a n c e s , n o t a b l y i n the care of i n f a n t s , no payments f o r maintenance were made f o r f o s t e r home care. A l l such free-home placements were considered as "adoption" homes, since the c h i l d was con-sid e r e d adopted i f the f a m i l y d i d hot r e t u r n him to the agency as u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . The p e r i o d from the beginning of the F i r s t World War u n t i l 1926 was a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t time f o r the S o c i e t y . A f t e r 1909 the S o c i e t y r e c e i v e d the s m a l l sum o f $ 1 . 5 0 per ward f o r t h e i r weekly maintenance as mentioned above. The balance o f costs had to be met t y v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s from p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s . Under the pressure Of t h i s constant problem of securing s u f f i c i e n t funds to provide f o r those c h i l d r e n a l r e a d y i n care, the S o c i e t y was unable to extend i t s s e r v i c e , or to c a r r y out any s a t i s f a c t o r y program of prevention of f a m i l y breakup. In 1923 an amendment to the I n f a n t s Act in c r e a s e d the maintenance r a t e p a i d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y , c i t y govern-ment, or p r o v i n c e , to the r a t e of three d o l l a r s per ward per week. With c h i l d r e n being committed from a l l p a r t s o f the province the f i n a n c i a l problem of the S o c i e t y continued - 10 -to remain a se r i o u s one. The B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d Welfare Survey o f 1926 - 27 was prompted by growing awareness of the u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y s t a t e o f the c h i l d - w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . The Committee conducting t i l l s survey r e a l i z e d the impossible task which the S o c i e t y |aced i n t r y i n g to meet t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s ' w i t h such l i m i t e d ^ r e s o u r c e s . I n the f i n a l r e p o r t recommendations \xere made f o r ( 1 ) the appointment o f a capable a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r to c a r r y out the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the agency} ( 2 ) the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n f i e l d s e r v i c e ; the o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n i n connection w i t h f r e e home placement} the establishment of a boarding home system} the development of baby care. With the c a r r y i n g out o f these recommendations the main framework f o r modern c h i l d - c a r e s e r v i c e s i n Van-couver was e s t a b l i s h e d . The new superintendent o f the S o c i e t y , Miss Laura Ho l l a n d , and her two a s s i s t a n t s s e t about immediately to move the c h i l d r e n from the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g of the W a l l S t r e e t Home to c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d p r i v a t e homes. A t the Annual Meeting of the S o c i e t y l h 1930 Miss H o l l a n d s t a t e d , "A v i s i t o r ( s o c i a l worker) can onl y adequately supervise 3 5 t o 50 c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes ....At the present time each of the So c i e t y ' s v i s i t o r s i s t Report of the B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d Welfare Survey  i n i t i a t e d by the S e r v i c e Clubs of Vancouver C l t y f f 1927. The B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d Welfare Jurvey Committee, Vancouver, B. C. 1927. - ir-r e s p o n s i b l e f o r approximately 80 c h i l d r e n , and during the coming year i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t a t l e a s t one more worker be added to the s t a f f , i f we are to measure up to a minimum standard"., I n the l i g h t of t h i s statement, one might wonder what progress the S o c i e t y has made during the past quarter century, since the present average case l o a d o f the f i e l d -s e r v i c e s t a f f i s not f a r below the 80 which, i n 1930, was considered the l i m i t i f even a minimum standard o f s e r v i c e was to be maintained. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t many other changes have made t h i s mere comparison of numbers an i n a c c u r a t e measure of the adequacy o f s e r v i c e , but i t does i n d i c a t e t h a t i n s p i t e of the tremendous increase i n our na t i o n ' s wealth and our general acceptance of the importance of good c h i l d - c a r e p r a c t i c e s , the S o c i e t y has been unable to f i n a n c e the increase i n s t a f f r e q u i r e d to lower the i n d i v i d u a l case l o a d and so improve the stiandard o f s e r v i c e . One of the p r o g r e s s i v e steps r e s u l t i n g from the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the S o c i e t y was the I n s t i t u t i o n of a comprehensive program of pre v e n t i v e f a m i l y casework. As a r e s u l t , a greater number o f instances of poor c h i l d care were i n v e s t i g a t e d , and a gre a t e r number of c h i l d r e n were given a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e i r own home r a t h e r than having to be brought i n t o care. F i n a n c i a l r e l i e f f o r the S o c i e t y was gained through the acceptance by the Province i n 1930, and the C i t y of Vancouver i n 1931, of f u l l f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r - 12 -the maintenance o f wards. The costs of pr e v e n t i v e f a m i l y casework s e r v i c e s , p r o t e c t i v e work, and non-ward care placement are s t i l l dependent i n the area of Greater Van-couver upon the v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s made through the , Community Chest*, The greater p r o p o r t i o n of funds of the S o c i e t y , however, are re c e i v e d from the maintenance costs which are c o l l e c t e d from the m u n i c i p a l i t y , a i t y , or pro-v i n c i a l area i n which the c h i l d had residence. I n the year 19$k the f i n a n c i n g of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y was i n s t i t u t e d among va r i o u s sources i n the f o l l o w i n g r a t i o s i Community Chest 15#5 Vancouver C i t y 37#» Other m u n i c i p a i -1 i t i e s 12#j Province of B r i t i s h Columbia 3^5 Others 2$, Since the greater p r o p o r t i o n of f i n a n c i n g i s p u b l i c , there has been considerable questioning of the present d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d care as between p r i v a t e and p u b l i c agencies. Now tha t there i s a general acceptance by the s t a t e of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g an a l l -i n c l u s i v e program c a t e r i n g to the needs o f c h i l d r e n , the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s might w e l l consider the p o s s i -b i l i t y of t u r n i n g t h e i r wealth of experience, f a c i l i t i e s , and v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s to such tasks as the i n s t i t u t i n g o f needed s e r v i c e s i n the treatment of d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , research and other s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s . 1 5lrd Annual Report, C h i l d r e n ' s A i d o o c i e t v of Vancouver,. 3.3 The C h i l d r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t y of Vancouver i s attempting i n the best way i t can, w i t h the l i m i t e d resources a t i t s d i s p o s a l , to meet the needs o f c h i l d r e n i n the C i t y of Vancouver. A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p i c t u r e o f the v a r i e t y o f c h i l d - c a r e s e r v i c e s which the S o c i e t y renders may be obtained from the numbers o f c h i l d r e n i n v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s who were given some form of s e r v i c e I n the year 1951*. There were *f£l5 c h i l d r e n i n the homes of t h e i r f a m i l i e s f o r whom some e f f o r t was made towards Improving t h e i r care. ; During the year, 2^38 c h i l d r e n were cared f o r i n a f o s t e r home s e t t i n g , and ip26 c h i l d r e n were given care i n an adoptive home s e t t i n g . Contact was made w i t h p r i v a t e boarding homes i n regard to the w e l f a r e of 300 c h i l d r e n . With a d d i t i o n a l care to seven Jewish Overseas c h i l d r e n , a t o t a l of 79h86 c h i l d r e n were given some a s s i s t a n c e by the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y during '1 195^. With so much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o be met p a r t i a l l y by v o l u n t a r y p r i v a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s c o l l e c t e d through the Community Chest and C o u n c i l , i t i s remarkable t h a t the c h i l d - c a r i n g s e r v i c e I s as good as i t i s . The Needs of C h i l d r e n The primary f u n c t i o n of c h i l d - w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i s to ensure th a t the needs of a l l c h i l d r e n are being met. Included among these are needs o f a p h y s i c a l nature such as f o r food, c l o t h i n g , warmth, s h e l t e r and medical c a r e , as w e l l 1 ^ r d Annual Report. C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, fir 0* 19??. - lh as the l e s s t a n g i b l e but e q u a l l y important need f o r l o v e , a f f e c t i o n and guidance. Normal c h i l d development i s dependent upon the atmosphere of\ s e c u r i t y which the c h i l d can experience only i f these needs are being met. S a t i s -f a c t o r y progress from one stage of h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l development to the next depends upon such h e a l t h f u l i n f l u e n c e s as can come only from the s e c u r i t y of a l o v i n g and understanding f a m i l y group. F a i l u r e to experience t h i s support delays o r hinders the s a t i s f a c t o r y emotional dev-elopment necessary f o r s u c c e s s f u l adjustment i n the home and community. The insecure and maladjusted a d u l t i s u s u a l l y the product of a childhood i n which the necessary elements of p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , a f f e c t i o n and guidance have been l a c k i n g during p a r t or most of childhood. The modern emphasis on the pre v e n t i o n of con-d i t i o n s which l e a d to n e g l e c t of c h i l d r e n i s based on the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the needs of the c h i l d are best met as a member of h i s n a t u r a l f a m i l y u n i t . P r e s e r v a t i o n of the f a m i l y r e q u i r e s a broad w e l f a r e program of adequate unem-ployment insurance, workmen's compensation, mother's allowance, s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s to a s s i s t i n preventing the k i n d of f a m i l y d i s i n t e g r a t i o n caused by f i n a n c i a l need.. Strengthening of the i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y a l s o r e q u i r e s adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r such s e r v i c e s as homemaker, - 1 5 -temporary non-ward care of the c h i l d r e n and supportive casework during periods of stress. In addition, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of community services of a health, educational, s p i r i t u a l , counselling, and r e c r e a t i o n a l nature are im-portant i n r e l a t i o n to the support, which the family can receive from ;the community i n general. ,. When a l l forms of support f a i l to maintain the health of the natural family or when there i s abuse, neglect or abandonment of a serious nature, the c h i l d must be placed i n a substitute home. In t h i s province during the early days of child-care services the main resource f o r the care of dependent c h i l d r e n was an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g because of the lack of finances and,organization required to place c h i l d r e n i n suitable private homes. After 1927 f o s t e r home placement became the accepted pract i c e . In the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia a c h i l d committed to the care of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare remains a ward u n t i l the age of twenty-one years unless he i s adopted, returned to the care of h i s natural parents, or i n the case of,a female ward, Is married. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s care and supervision remains with the supervising, agency or the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare. The Pro-tecti o n of Children Act (1901) f o r B r i t i s h Columbia was revised i n 19*f8 so as to make f o s t e r home placement an e x p l i c i t part of o f f i c i a l child-care p o l i c y . - 16 -If the Judge commits a c h i l d to a children's aid society pursuant to the provisions of th i s section, the society s h a l l receive the c h i l d into i t s custody and s h a l l make arrange-ments as soon as may be for*the placement of the c h i l d i n a fo s t e r home. This stress on the importance of f o s t e r home care i s further emphasized by the placing of the following l i m i t a t i o n on i n s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r wards: No c h i l d s h a l l be maintained by a society elsewhere than i n a f o s t e r home f o r a period exceeding s i x months, except with the written consent of the Superintendent who may at any time withdraw h i s consent. Foster home care i s an attempt to meet the needs of children f o r physical care, a f f e c t i o n and guidance In a normal family setting with substitute parents. To leave his own family i s always a very d i f f i c u l t and frightening experience f o r any c h i l d . ^ I t may be very damaging emotionally to a c h i l d even though the natural family would seem to have offered very l i t t l e . The emphasis i n modern c h i l d -welfare services i s to work with the parents on the plan f o r removal whether the plan Is fo r temporary or permanent care. Every e f f o r t i s made, to help the parents provide f o r the c h i l d ' s needs In h i s own home and f a i l i n g t h i s , to help the parents accept the need f o r other care and to a s s i s t i n the preparation of the c h i l d f o r placement, i n adjustment i n the f o s t e r home,, and i n planning f o r possible 1 R.S.B.C. c. h?9 s. 8(12) 19^ *8 2 Ibid. - 17 -r e t u r n of the c h i l d t o h i s home a t some l a t e r date. Where there i s l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y of the c h i l d ' s eventual r e t u r n , or no l i k e l i h o o d of f r u i t f u l contact a t any time I i i the f u t u r e , the p l a n i s u s u a l l y f o r adoption of the c h i l d . The Use o f Commercial Boarding Homest The use o f commercial boarding homes by the Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver f o r the"placement of adolescents has g e n e r a l l y been as a l a s t r e s o r t and i n a time of emergency. The f o s t e r home, group home or sub-s i d i z e d boarding home are accepted forms of care f o r wards of the C h i l d r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t y and the use of each i s d e t e r -mined by the s p e c i a l needs o f the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . With the i n c r e a s i n g s c a r c i t y o f a v a i l a b l e f o s t e r homes, the commercial boarding home was f i r s t used f o r adolescent boys who were so r e b e l l i o u s i n the f o s t e r home s e t t i n g t h a t ho f o s t e r parent could c o n t r o l them. Se v e r a l f a c t o r s have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the continued and increased use of these homes. I t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to l o c a t e s u f f i c i e n t f o s t e r parents w i l l i n g and able to provide f o r o v e r l y aggressive Or otherwise maladjusted adolescents. Experience has shown t h a t the f o s t e r home placement of such adolescents has been a f a c t o r . i n u p s e t t i n g the adjustment of other f o s t e r c h i l d r e n and i n the withdrawal by some f o s t e r parents from the agency s e r v i c e . Since f o s t e r home p l a c e -ment i n v o l v e s the b u i l d i n g of a p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p , i t a l s o presents the c h i l d w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of again - 18 experiencing the harmful e f f e c t of r e j e c t i o n and d e s e r t i o n when the f o s t e r parents request replacement. For one reason or another some adolescents have made a more s a t i s -f a c t o r y adjustment i n commercial boarding homes. The commercial boarding homes do not provide a supervised s e t t i n g and laek many other elements which could be'..con-sidered'as d e s i r a b l e i n the care of the adolescent. However u n t i l ' there are a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e such as s u b s i d i z e d boarding or group homes, i t seems probable t h a t the com-m e r c i a l boarding homes w i l l continue to be used by the Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y to meet the needs o f adolescents who f o r v a r i o u s reasons cannot a d j u s t i n a f o s t e r , home. The S e t t i n g of the Study: Newspaper p u b l i c i t y regarding the imprisonment of a ward o f the C h i l d r e n ^ A i d S o c i e t y on a drug charge, a f t e r being apprehended i n a Vancouver h o t e l , brought a t t e n t i o n to the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of wards who were not l i v i n g i n f o s t e r homes, A survey, undertaken i n October 195ft, of the whereabouts of a l l wards of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver revealed that of the 1,120 wards i n care 211 c h i l d r e n were l i v i n g o u t s i d e f o s t e r homes. These c h i l d r e n were found to be r e s i d e n t i n group or sub-s i d i z e d boarding homes, i n c o r r e c t i o n a l or h o s p i t a l i n -s t i t u t i o n s or i n commercial boarding homesj others had become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g and a number were c l a s s i f i e d as " l o s t " . These s e v e r a l groups, c l a s s i f i e d according to the - 19 nature of the placement a t the time of the survey, form the subject o f separate s t u d i e s . The present study con- . cerns the f o u r t e e n wards ( t h i r t e e n boys and one gin) known to be l i v i n g i n commercial boarding homes on October 31» 195W The Scope and Method of the Studva M a t e r i a l f o r the study was obtained from the Soc i e t y ' s case records of the fou r t e e n wards and of t h e i r parents and f o s t e r parents. Examination of the re c o r d s , i n conj u n c t i o n w i t h a knowledge of the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , i n d i c a t e d the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e of p a r t i c u l a r items o f in f o r m a t i o n and these have been summarized and tabulated 1 under a p p r p r i a t e headings f o r each of the wards. This i n f o r m a t i o n i s examined i n Chapters I I and I I I w i t h a view to determining the reasons why these p a r t i c u l a r wards were placed i n commercial boarding homes and the extent to which t h e i r needs were being met by such a placement. In Chapter I I the adjustment of the wards i s considered. Summary methods of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n have been developed i n order to analyse and compare the data, and the p o s s i b i l i t y I s explored of e s t a b l i s h i n g some c o r r e l a t i o n between the c h i l d r e n ' s pre-admission care, t h e i r ages and problems a t admission, and the q u a l i t y of t h e i r adjustment w h i l e i n the care of the agency. The s u i t a b i l i t y o f the 1 Apprendices 1 and 2, p a r t i c u l a r commercial boarding homes being used by the fourt e e n wards i s a l s o considered i n Chapter 11^ , In Chapter I I I the c a s e - i l l u s t r a t i o n method , i s used to t r a c e the development o f three wards, thereby i n d i c a t i n g the probable causes of the success or f a i l u r e of these wards i n f o s t e r homes and; the problems c o n f r o n t i n g the agency i n meeting the needs of c h i l d r e n who have been so badlLy damaged by an u n s e t t l e d e a r l y f a m i l y l i f e * Con-c l u s i o n s a r i s i n g out of Chapters I I and I I I are summarized, i n Chapter IV w i t h recommendations as to p o s s i b l e improve- , ments i n the case work s e r v i c e s and resources f o r the care of dependent c h i l d r e n . CHAPTER I I A SURVEY OF WARDS IN COMMERCIAL BOARDING HOMES For v a r i o u s reasons f o s t e r homes f a i l to meet the needs o f many adolescents. Most c h i l d r e n are unprepared immediately to t r a n s f e r t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e to s u b s t i t u t e f o s t e r parents because of t h e i r c o n f l i c t over l o y a l t y to t h e i r . n a t u r a l parents. In many instances one or both parents remain i n the p i c t u r e , and c o n f l i c t s a r i s e around the l o y a l t i e s , and i n t e r e s t s o f parents, f o s t e r parents and f o s t e r c h i l d . Adjustment i n a new f o s t e r home i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t f o r an o l d e r adolescent who i s i n the p o s i t i o n of attempting to develop independence and break the t i e s to the p a r e n t a l f i g u r e , . Many who have f a i l e d to s e t t l e i n a f o s t e r home s e t t i n g might have e v e n t u a l l y been able to do so i f they had f i r s t been placed i n t o a r e c e i v i n g home a t the time o f coming i n t o care while a study was made of t h e i r background, a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the agency was b u i l t up, and a compre-hensive d i a g n o s i s was made of the needs of the c h i l d and many problems surrounding h i s coming i n t o care. There are, however, among' those adolescents who have s u f f e r e d n e g l e c t and r e j e c t i o n from one or both parents over a p e r i o d of ye a r s , a number who are f r e q u e n t l y completely unable to accept f o s t e r home p l a c e -- 22 -ment even a f t e r an extended p e r i o d of placement i n an Impersonalized s e t t i n g s To attempt one f o s t e r home p l a c e -ment Immediately a f t e r another when an adolescent f a i l s to ad j u s t i n a f o s t e r home i s f r e q u e n t l y a damaging experience since such moves are seen as f u r t h e r r e j e c t i o n . The commercial boarding home has one f a c t o r f a v o r i n g the placement of adolescents i n tha t i t does not u s u a l l y p l a c e them i n the c o n f l i c t i n g p o s i t i o n of having to accept s u b s t i t u t e parents. There a r e , however, so many needs of the adolescent which are not met i n these homes t h a t t h i s one advantage i s almost completely n u l l i f i e d . The commercial boarding homes f a i l to meet the needs of adolescents f o r sympathetic support, s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance, and because of t h i s the agency has always s t r e s s e d t h e i r use only as a l a s t r e s o r t . In the agency policy-manual o u t l i n i n g the use of the commercial boarding home two l i m i t a t i o n s are l i s t e d under the heading o f "Placement Requirements": 1. A. commercial boarding home should be used only f o r the placement of o l d e r c h i l d r e n who are i n school or employed and who ar© s u f f i c i e n t l y adjusted to handle the freedom and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of such a l i v i n g arrange-ment. 2., C h i l d r e n placed i n commercial boarding homes should be 18 years of age or o l d e r . There i s one main reason why the agency con-tinu e s to pl a c e adolescents i n commercial boarding homes and th a t i s that there are i n s u f f i c i e n t r e c e i v i n g homes, n© - 2 3 -s e n i o r boys' residence (group home) or treatment home .a v a i l a b l e , , I t has only been si n c e January 1953 t h a t the commercial boarding homes have been used f o r more than the o c c a s i o n a l temporary placement of adolescents. At t h a t time the number/of adolescents i n care had exceeded the number o f a v a i l a b l e f o s t e r homes t o the p o i n t where s e v e r a l were being housed i n sm a l l h o t e l s on what were o r i g i n a l l y intended to be temporary placements. Furthermore, the s i t u a t i o n e x i s t e d then, as I t does a t present, i n which . many f o s t e r homes prepared to accept adolescents, were f i l l e d to the.point where overcrowding, i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the success of the placement ©f these who might otherwise have s e t t l e d . In the remainder ©f t h i s chapter and i n Chapter I I I the data r e l a t i n g t© the fo u r t e e n wards wh© were r e s i d e n t I n commercial boarding homes on October 31, 1 9 ^ w i l l be examined/with p a r t i c u l a r reference tos (a) f a m i l y background and experience before admission to car©; (b) problems while i n care and the r o l e of the agency and the f o s t e r home placement i n h e l p i n g the c h i l d toward s a t i s f a c t o r y a d j u s t -ment; (©) degree of personal and s o c i a l adjustment a t t a i n e d a t the time of placement i n th© commercial boarding home and the s u i t a b i l i t y of t h i s k i n d of placement f o r the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the c h i l d r e n . The analysis of the material w i l l be c a r r i e d oat with the two major questions i n minds (1) Could these children have benefited from fo s t e r home placement i f given adequate diagnosis, planning and services? (2) Was the nature of th e i r problems and situations such that t h e i r needs could not be met through ordinary f o s t e r home care? Family Background and Care of Wards p r i o r to Admission Information recorded i n the agency's f i l e s on the wards and their parents reveals a uniform p i c t u r e of unsettled pre-admission care. (See Appendix C) Table 1. M a r i t a l Status of Parents at time of Wards Admission to Care Ma r i t a l Status Number o f Pf Parent ; Families, , Mother alone - unmarried 3 Mother alone - separated 1 Father alone - separated 2 Father alone - widowed 1 Natural father and stepmother 6 Natural mother and stepfather 1 Total lh A summary of the marital status of the parents of the wards reveals that i n the case of the ten f a m i l i e s where the parents were married at the time of the b i r t h of the ward, a l l had been either widowed, separated or divorced by the time of the ch i l d ' s admission to care. Of the four couples who were already divorced, and the two couples whose - 25 -divorce was granted after the children's' admission to .care, a l l except the father of ward # 7 remarried. / Accordingly, a l l the wards at admission came from either a partial family (unmarried mother) ar a broken family, while for a large number of the group there was a common-law parent or step-parent present in the home situation. A l l these wards, therefore, suffered from the handicap of haying experienced the loss and rejection of at least one parent before the f i n a l separation at the time of admission into care. This loss of the love of the parents associated with these acts of separation, and the usual guilt feelings which this arouses, exert a disturbing emotional influence on the child which must be dealt with before he i s ready to accept substitute parents. The carry-over into adolescense of unresolved elements from earlier stages of emotional development i s especially important i n the case of children of such unsettled family backgrounds. The unsettling effect of being committed to care during adolescense, together with the normal increased stresses of that age, v i r t u a l l y precludes the poss i b i l i t y of successful, immediate placement i n a foster home* When the pre-admission care and experiences of the wards are summarized as i n Appendix C i t i s apparent that a l l the wards have been subjected to one or more dis-abling influences during their formative years. Those factors i n the children's situations which manifestly militate against a satisfactory personal and social adjustment have been c l a s s i f i e d under several,broad headings and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n among the fourteen wards i s shown In Table 2. Table 2. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Wards According to Type of Disabling Factor present i n Family Background Disabling Factor (a) Total Number . . \ of Wards Unmarried mother/father unknown 1 Desertion 7 Medical Incapacity U Moral Incapacity 5 Physical 111 Treatment 5 Chronic F r i c t i o n 2 Overt Rejection 10 Substitute Parents i n Private Placements 8 (a) See Appendix C f o r items included under the d i f f e r e n t catagorieso ' Private placement with r e l a t i v e s or.strangers i s a common experience among t h i s group of wards, eight of them haying had from one to ten or more, placements before being admitted into care 8 .Desertion and moral incapacity. of the parents also,rank high i n frequency of occurence with overt r e j e c t i o n , chronic f r i c t i o n and physical 111 treatment being present i n seventeen of the cases» , If the number of disabling factors present i n the family background i s t o t a l l e d f o r each ward, we have the following revealing groupings: one disabling f a c t o r f o r wards #2, 5, 7 two disabling f a c t o r s f o r wards 3, M-three disabling factors f o r wards 6, 10, 13, lh four disabling f a c t o r s f o r wards 9, 11 f i v e d isabling factors f o r wards 1, 6, 12 - 27 r \ . '• When the above data are related to the subsequent careers of the children a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n emerges. between the frequency i n occurrence of the dis a b l i n g factors and the d i f f i c u l t i e s , i n adjustment and development.experienced by the wards. , Those wards, #'s 2, ?, and 7> who experienced only one of the main disabling influences p r i o r to admission were the only three of the group who could be considered 1 r e l a t i v e l y well adjusted at the time of t h i s survey. A l l those who experienced two or more disabling influences had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f o s t e r home adjustment. As w i l l be seen under the discussion of adjustment of wards while i n care, only one out of the f i v e who experienced h or 5 of the disabling influences, did not go on to, committal to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School. This Ward, #9, was able to benefit from placement i n a group home (the Boys' Receiving Home) and so was able to avoid further deterioration. The other four were too disturbed to s e t t l e even i n a group home as was evident i n .their running away and committing further delinquent acts. The c o r r e l a t i o n between the un s e t t l i n g early family experiences and the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n l a t e r adjustment Is understandable as we l l as apparent. I f the c h i l d f a i l s to have h i s physical and emotional needs met he w i l l be unable to gain the security necessary to develop inner I See Appendix D f o r discussion of the c r i t e r i a used i n rating adjustment. -28 -s t r e n g t h s and so t o m o d i f y h i s d e s i r e s i n t o s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e c h a n n e l s . A n x i e t y and i n s e c u r i t y a r i s i n g o u t o f l a c k o f l o v e and p r o t e c t i o n d u r i n g t h e e a r l y c r u c i a l s t a g e s o f development w i l l h i n d e r the development o f f e e l i n g s o f s e l f -w o r t h and i n h i b i t t h e c h i l d ' s n o r m al e m o t i o n a l development. S i m i l a r l y the l a c k o f an adequate f a t h e r and mother f i g u r e makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the c h i l d t o i d e n t i f y w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e p a r e n t as a symbol o f a c c e p t a b l e s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . The a f f e c t s o f d e s e r t i o n , r e j e c t i o n , p r i v a t e p l a c e m e n t and p h y s i c a l i l l t r e a t m e n t a r e a l l t h r e a t e n i n g t o the b a s i c f e e l i n g s o f s e c u r i t y s i n c e they s y m b o l i z e the w i t h -d r a w a l o f l o v e and a f f e c t i o n from the c h i l d . I n any s t a g e o f development t h e s e a c t s o f s e p a r a t i o n and r e j e c t i o n a r e d i s a s t r o u s i n t h e i r d e l a y i n g , o r p r e v e n t i n g o f , normal p s y c h o -s o c i a l development. The l a c k o f n o r m a l , h e a l t h y f a m i l y I n f l u e n c e s i n t h e f a m i l i e s where: the p a r e n t s a r e m o r a l l y i n c a p a b l e o r i n c o n s t a n t f r i c t i o n i s c o n f u s i n g as w e l l as f r i g h t e n i n g t o t h e c h i l d . The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f the p r e - a d m i s s i o n c a r e o f t h i s group i s one o f l a c k o f s e c u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y . W i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n o f how u p s e t t i n g and c o n f u s i n g the many d i s r u p t i n g and d i s a b l i n g i n f l u e n c e s would be t o any c h i l d , i t i s t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f the wards s t u d i e d would n o t be p r e p a r e d to a c c e p t s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s o r t o a d j u s t t o t h e demands o f a f o s t e r home. - 29 Reasons f o r Admission to Care Consideration was given to the reasons f o r admission to care since these are usually i n d i c a t i v e of the pre-admission care given to the wards and of the element of re j e c t i o n with which the c h i l d ' s committal Is invested. In f i v e of the cases the parents were unwilling to provide further care, and i n f i v e others they were either i l l or incapable of caring f o r the children. In the remaining four cases the one parent having custody of the c h i l d was either 1 i l l or incapable as well as unwilling to provide care. The large proportion of this group i n which there i s r e j e c t i o n or unwillingness on the' part of the parent to provide for the c h i l d ' s care i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the harmful experience to which the majority have been subjected.^ Considering the f a c t that normal healthy, p h y s i c a l , mental and s o c i a l development i s dependent on a home atmos-phere of a f f e c t i o n and se c u r i t y , i t i s obvious that many of t h i s group w i l l have entered the agency care with i n -complete s a t i s f a c t i o n of their basic emotional and 'affactional needs, and requiring an extended period i n a much more' protected setting than the average f o s t e r home can provide. 1 Summarized from data included i n Appendix D. Table 3. Admission to Care Age at Admission Number of Wards Under seven years 2 Seven years to ten years h Eleven years to fourteen years 6 Over fourteen years 2 Total lh A l l except two of the fourteen wards entered the care of the agency a f t e r the age of seven years. Four came into care between the ages of seven and ten years and the remainder were admitted sometime a f t e r t h e i r eleventh birthday. Of the group of twelve who were admitted a f t e r the age of seven years, nine exhibited the behavior problems l i s t e d at admission (See Appendix B). Of the three f o r whom there were no problems l i s t e d at admission, one began ex-h i b i t i n g problem behavior soon a f t e r admission* I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that those who exhibited behavior problems at the time of admission into care were also the ones who had experienced a r e l a t i v e l y large number of disabling influences i n t h e i r pre-admission care. This disturbed behavior was not only a r e s u l t of t h e i r unsettled family l i v i n g , but also i n some cases p r e c i p i t a t e d the f i n a l r e j e c t i o n by the parents with r e f u s a l to provide further f o r t h e i r care. Adjustment of the Wards while In Care An evaluation of the fo s t e r home placement history of the fourteen wards i n t h i s survey revealed the foliowing3i two made a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment i n f o s t e r homes. These two included ward # £ who was admitted to care at ten months of age and ward # 2 who was f a i r l y w e l l adjusted and was not ex h i b i t i n g any problem behavior at admission. Three had made only a f a i r adjustment i n f o s t e r homes (wards #. h9 ?, and 1*0 § three made a good adjustment i i i the Boys' Receiving Home af t e r f a i l i n g to s e t t l e In foster homes (wards # 3, 10 and 13) J f i v e f a i l e d to adjust i n either setting (wards # 1 , 6, 8, 11 and 12) , and were committed to a correctional setting} and eight f a i l e d to make even a f a i r adjustment i n foster homes. Further examination of the information available regarding the eight who f a i l e d to adjust i n fo s t e r homss suggested a tentative c o r r e l a t i o n between the number of disabling influences, the age at admission and the problems exhibited at admission, and the subsequent a b i l i t y to adjust i n the various settings. 1 One of the wards, # 7 a g i r l aged 17 years, was only b r i e f l y i n care and was placed d i r e c t l y i n a commercial boarding home. Her period i n care was too b r i e f f o r atiy evaluation of adjustment to be made. - 32 -T h r e e , ffar&s who B e n e f i t e d f r o m R e c e i v i n g Home P l a c e m e n t D e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n i n g t h o s e w a r d s who f a i l e d t o s e t t l e i n f o s t e r homes b u t s e t t l e d i n t h e B o y s ' S e c e i v i n g Home i s s e t o u t b e l o w s W a r d A g e a t N o . o f P r o b l e m s N u m b e r o f T i m e i n # ' A d m l s - D i s a b l i n g a t P o s t e r B o y s ' s i o n I n f l u e n c e s A d m i s s i o n Home P l a c e - R e c e i v i n g ' P r i o r t o m e n t s Home A d m i s s i o n . 10 9k 3 N o n e 6 2 y e a r s 13 9t 3 L y i n g , s t e a l i n g , I 2 i " d i s o b e d i e n c e 3 11 2 L y i n g , s t e a l i n g , 1 3£ M n e r v o u s n e s s . T h e s e w a r d s c o u l d n o t b e e x p e c t e d t o s e t t l e w i t h i m m e d i a t e p l a c e m e n t i n t o f o s t e r h o m e s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a g e a t a d m i s s i o n , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y h a d e x p e r i e n c e d s e v e r a l d i s a b l i n g i n f l u e n c e s i n p r e - a d m i s s i o n c a r e , a n d t h a t two w e r e e x h i b i t i n g p r o b l e m b e h a v i o r a t a d m i s s i o n ( w a r d s # 3 a n d 13). A l t h o u g h w a r d # 10 w e n t t h r o u g h s i x f o s t e r h o m e s i n a f o u r y e a r p e r i o d , h e d i d s e t t l e a n d m a k e p r o g r e s s d u r i n g h i s two y e a r s t a y a t t h e B o y s ' R e c e i v i n g H o m e . T h e o t h e r two a l s o made s i m i l a r p r o g r e s s d u r i n g t h e i r s t a y a t t h e R e c e i v i n g Home i n s p i t e o f t h e u p s e t s t a t e t h e y w e r e i n a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i r f i r s t p l a c e m e n t i n t h e R e c e i v i n g H o m e . Five Wards who F a i l e d to Adjust i n Either Foster Homes? or th,e, Receiving. H p m e . " Ward # Humber of Problems No* of Place-Disabling at Foster ments Influences Admi s s ion Home i n Boys* Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n s : Committals p r i o r to Place- Receiv-8 5 - 3 none lh 3 2 - BIB 1 l l i truancy, l y i n g * h 1 BIS • ,. running away 11 12 h s t e a l i n g , l y i n g , run-ning away 3 2 2 - BIS Oakalla Penitentiary 6 12£ 5 s t e a l i n g , l y i n g 7 2 3 - BIS Oakalla 12 lh 5 s t e a l i n g , running away 3 1 BIS Oakalla The above summary shows four wards who f a i l e d to adjust i n either f o s t e r homes or the Boys 1 Receiving Home. A l l were eventually committed to. a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that they are among the group who experienced the largest number of pre-admission disabling influences. They also exhibited the most severe behavior problems at admission, made the poorest f o s t e r home adjust-ment and ran away from the Boys' Receiving Home before committal to the Boys' In d u s t r i a l School and Oakalla. Four were admitted to care during adolescence. The f i f t h ward (ward # 8 ) , who was admitted to care at the age of f i v e years was. s o d i s t u r b e d e m o t i o n a l l y , by th© time, he was. r e p l a c e d f r o m h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home a t t h e age o f e l e v e n y e a r s , t h a t he f a i l e d t o a d j u s t i n t h i r t e e n o t h e r f o s t e r homes i n w h i c h h e was p l a c e d i n t h e n e x t two y e a r s b e f o r e b e i n g c o m m i t t e d t o t h e B o y s ' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l o h a c h a r g e o f i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y . I f t h e agency h a d c a r r i e d o u t a d e q u a t e d i a g n o s i s , and a l s o had t h e r e s o u r c e s t o i m p l e m e n t t h e r e q u i r e d t r e a t -ment p l a n , t h e y w o u l d n o t have p l a c e d any o f t h i s most d i s -t u r b e d group i n t o a f o s t e r home w i t h o u t a p r e l i m i n a r y p e r i o d i n a c o n t r o l l e d t r e a t m e n t s e t t i n g . Many a u t h o r i t i e s who have worked w i t h d i s t u r b e d a d o l e s c e n t s w o u l d q u e s t i o n , w h e t h e r t h e y s h o u l d e v e r be p l a c e d I n a f o s t e r home s e t t i n g . The c a s e r e c o r d s o f t h i s g r o u p o f wards w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t e v e n t h e b e s t f o s t e r home w o u l d f a i l t o meet t h e i r h e e d s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : a ) The s e v e r e t e s t i n g w h i c h t h e s e i n s e c u r e c h i l d r e n p l a c e d u p o n f o s t e r p a r e n t s . . b ) The many c o n f l i c t s a r o u n d p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s and s i b l i n g r i v a l r y w h i c h t h e s e a d o l e s c e n t s p o s s e s s e d b e - 1 c a u s e o f t h e i r u n h a p p y , i n s e c u r e e a r l y y e a r s . e ) The p a t t e r n o f d e l i n q u e n t o r p r o b l e m b e -h a v i o r t h a t i s so u p s e t t i n g t o f o s t e r p a r e n t s , f o s t e r f a m i l i e s and t h e c o m m u n i t y . d ) The s e v e r e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r o s e o u t o f t h e i r p a s t u n s t a b l e and u p s e t t i n g f a m i l y l i v e s . - 3>+-Table h0 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Wards by Years i n Care m d Number of S o c i a l Workers Ward # Years i n Number o f Care S o c i a l Workers 7 l A 1 12 3 3 11 h 3 lh h 5 3 h 1 5 6 10 13 5* 10 &k 6 2 7, if 7i 10 8 10 8 9 10 9 5 17 13 A l l wards averaged c l o s e to one s o c i a l worker f o r every year i n care. The exception was ward # 6 who had ten workers over a p e r i o d o f f i v e and one h a l f y e a r s . This frequent change of workers i s a s i g n i f -i c a n t f a c t o r i n r e l a t i o n to a group o f adolescent boys such as these. Without e x c e p t i o n , a l l have experienced r e j e c t i o n from one or both parents or on the p a r t o f f o s t e r parents. To c h i l d r e n subjected to such damaging emotional experiences the importance of a c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h some a d u l t cannot be over-emphasized. However c a r e f u l the p r e p a r a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be, numerous and frequent changes of workers o n l y serve to i n c r e a s e the c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s o f r e j e c t i o n , i n s e c u r i t y and h e l p l e s s n e s s . - 3 5 -\ r . IJse of the:Commercial Boarding Home as a Placement Resource. Reason, f p r Placeman^ and Length of Placemen^, . > Of the group o f fo u r t e e n wards, twelve had been i n t h e i r present commercial boarding home f o r a p e r i o d 1 of l e s s than one and one h a l f months. Of the remaining two boys, ward # 5 had been i n his,commercial boarding home f o r three and one h a l f months and ward # 1 f o r a p e r i o d of f i v e and one h a l f months. S e v e r a l reasons have accounted f o r t h e i r p l a c e -ment a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e i n commercial boarding homes and f o r the b r i e f p e r i o d they had been i n them. Ward # I s had refused to consider another f o s t e r home a f t e r he was asked to move from h i s l a s t f o s t e r home. He had spent three and one h a l f months i n t h i s com-m e r c i a l boarding home but two weeks a f t e r the survey date he was committed to Oak a l l a f o r car t h e f t . Ward # 2s had come from h i s country f o s t e r home to attend the Vancouver A r t s School one and one h a l f months before* There were no f o s t e r homes a v a i l a b l e f o r a boy of h i s age a t t h i s time. Wards # 3> 10 and 13* had gone d i r e c t l y to the commercial boarding home where they had been f o r tha past month a f t e r r e t u r n i n g from Army Cadet; Camp i n Vernon, B. C, They were not returned to the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home 1 As of October 31, 1 9 5 1 * . - 36 -as t h e i r vacancies were r e q u i r e d f o r younger boys. P o s t e r home placement was not considered because o f past experiences. Ward # hi had been i n t h i s commercial boarding home on l y twenty days and had been i n two other commercial boarding homes but was placed i n t h i s one on h i s r e t u r n from an unauthorized h i t c h - h i k i n g t r i p he had made t o t r y and l o c a t e h i s mother I n Ontario. Ward # 5s had been i n t h i s commercial boarding home f o r three and one h a l f months. He had l o c a t e d t h i s home h i m s e l f and had been paying h i s own board u n t i l he was l a i d o f f employment a few weeks before. He had had var i o u s jobs i n logging camps and had been s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g f o r most of the previous year. Ward #6: had been i n h i s commercial boarding home f o r o n l y the past one and one h a l f months as he had v o l u n t a r i l y discharged h i m s e l f from Crease C l i n i c a t t h a t time* He would not consider f o s t e r home placement. Ward # 7 « had o n l y been i n her commercial boarding home f o r one month as she had found i t on her own a f t e r r e t u r n i n g from a runaway w i t h a boy f r i e n d to Eastern Canada. She was I n the care of the agency f o r a few months before being returned to her mother. She would not consider a f o s t e r home placement. Ward #8: had on l y been I n h i s commercial boarding home f o r the previous ten days and had been h e l d the previous week i n Ward R o f the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l f o r mental obs e r v a t i o n . He was committed to Essondale e l e v e n -37 -days l a t e r . Ward # 9s had been i n h i s commercial boarding home f o r one month and had been moved there from the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home because of h i s age and the need of the Boys' Home f o r younger boys. No s u i t a b l e f o s t e r home was a v a i a b l e f o r a boy o f h i s age. Ward #11: had on l y been i n h i s commercial boarding home f o r the previous two days, having come d i r e c t l y from the p e n i t e n t i a r y . No s u i t a b l e f o s t e r home was a v a i l a b l e f o r a boy pf h i s age. . Ward # 1*+: had been i n h i s commercial boarding home f o r the previous month a f t e r being returned from a runaway from a country f o s t e r home to Saskatchewan. There were no s u i t a b l e f o s t e r homes a v a i l a b l e . Of the three c o m p a r l t l v e l y w e l l adjusted i n t h i s group o f fourteen wards (wards # 2 , 5, and the g i r l ward # 7)» wards # 5 and 7 had l o c a t e d t h e i r commercial boarding home on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . The remainder o f the group r e q u i r e d a super-v i s e d s e t t i n g but there were no f o s t e r homes a v a i l a b l e which c o u l d cope w i t h t h e i r behavior. As poi n t e d out i n other s e c t i o n s , most of t h i s group could not have had t h e i r needs met i n a f o s t e r home s e t t i n g . However, the agency would have considered p l a c i n g most of them I n f o s t e r homes r a t h e r than commercial boarding homes i f such f o s t e r homes had been a v a i l a b l e . Table 5. Age of Wards a t Time of the Survey (October 31. 1 9 ^ ) : Age o f Ward Number of Wards 3.1* years 1 1 15 * 1 16 " h 17 " 5 18 " 2 19 n 1 A t the time o f the survey the age o f the wards r e s i d e n t i n commercial boarding homes ranged from f o u r t e e n years to nineteen years* Pour were s i x t e e n years o l d and f i v e were seventeen years o l d , so t h a t n i n e of the f o u r t e e n were i n the s i x t e e n to seventeen years age-range. Ward # 8 was a w a i t i n g admission to the P r o -v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l and was only f o u r t e e n years o l d . Ward # 13 was o n l y f i f t e e n years o l d and had r r e c e n t l y moved from the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home where he had been a r e s i d e n t f o r two and one h a l f years. Wards # 5 and 6 were eighteen years o l d and ward #2, who was a t t e n d -i n g A r t s School, was £ged nineteen years. I n e v a l u a t i n g the placement o f these wards i n a commercial boarding home i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r age, i t must be remembered th a t the m a j o r i t y are boys who have had such an u n s e t t l e d and unhappy e a r l y l i f e t h a t they have been too insecure to develop the degree of m a t u r i t y which one would expect to f i n d i n the average boy o f comparable - 39> age. Xn view of the f a c t t h a t the average c h i l d of a normal f a m i l y would not be encouraged to move i n t o such an unsupervised s e t t i n g a t the age of s i x t e e n or seventeen years, even I f he had the s e c u r i t y of steady employment, i t I s unfortunate that a recognized c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n agency should f i n d i t necessary to use such s e t t i n g s f o r c h i l d r e n who are so d i s t u r b e d as to r e q u i r e more, r a t h e r than l e s s , s u p e r v i s i o n than the average c h i l d of t h e i r age* I t i s noteworthy t h a t i n every case the other occupants o f these commercial boarding homes were o l d e r . EWlpyment, H i s t o r y aa an J^jc^t^ o f A ^ s t m e n J A t the time of t h i s survey a l l of the group were depending upon the agency f o r room and board as a l l were unemployed except ward # 2, who was a t t e n d i n g A r t s School. Although ward # 5 was unemployed a t the time o f the survey, he was to be r e c a l l e d to h i s former employment w i t h a beam f a b r i c a t i n g company as soon as f u r t h e r c o n t r a c t s were r e c e i v e d . With the exception of wards #2, 5 and the g i r l ward # 7, a l l the group had had a poor employment record as f a r as part-time jobs. Of t h i s group onl y ward # 10 and ward # 13 could be considered even f a i r r i s k s f o r hol d i n g employment. Wards #1, 3>8> 9 and 12 were par-t i c u l a r l y poor r i s k s i n securing employment because o f t h e i r exaggerated sense of i n f e r i o r i t y and h e l p l e s s n e s s . Wards # h and l * f could not be expected to h o l d any employ-- f o -ment which placed more than a minimum of demands upon them because of t h e i r b o r d e r l i n e i n t e l l i g e n c e and l a c k of c o n t r o l s . Wards # 3» 6 , 11 and 12 were p a r t i c u l a r l y poor r i s k s i n maintaining any employment because o f t h e i r h o s t i l i t y to anyone i n a u t h o r i t y and t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o put up w i t h f r u s t r a t i o n * I t i s t y p i c a l of a l l c h i l d r e n who have been deprived of the s e c u r i t y o f l o v i n g and supportive parents to l a c k the i n n e r strength r e q u i r e d to t o l e r a t e f r u s t r a t i o n and to delay i m m e d i a t e ; g r a t i f i c a t i o n f o r the sake of some long-term good* These c h i l d r e n have s u f f e r e d from emotional d e p r i v a t i o n and are Unable to give to ot h e r s . This i n a b i l i t y to give i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r poor performance i n the employment s e t t i n g * I t i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o accept the d i r e c t i n g a u t h o r i t y of the employer or s u p e r v i s -i n g foreman. This i n a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n i n the employment s e t t i n g i s apparent i n the work record of a l l the wards except wards # 2. and ?, and the g i r l # 7. For most of t h i s group to o b t a i n and ma i n t a i n employment would r e q u i r e c l o s e and supportive s u p e r v i s i o n i n the form o f making c e r t a i n t h a t they were to work on time, i n g i v i n g constant encouragement and d i r e c t i o n , and i n h e l p i n g w i t h budget-planning* Obviously the m a j o r i t y i n commercial boarding homes were not r e c e i v i n g t h i s support. - hi -D e s c r i p t i v e M a t e r i a l on the Commercial Boarding Homes i n Use a t the Time of the Survey Of the e i g h t commercial hoarding: homes used by the fo u r t e e n wards i n t h i s study, one had two wards? another had three wards5 and another had f o u r wards? w h i l e the remaining f i v e had one ward eaeh. Of the e i g h t commercial boarding homes, three are operated by married couples w i t h c h i l d r e n ? two by widows without c h i l d r e n ? w h i l e one i s operated by an unmarried man and an a s s i s t a n t , 1 The A commercial boarding home was a b i g three s t o r y reconverted residence i n the F a i r v i e w d i s t r i c t . There were f o u r wards i n t h i s home and from ten to twelve older" men. The l a n d l o r d operated the house and cooked the meals w i t h the help of one e l d e r l y man as an a s s i s t a n t . The B commercial boarding home was operated by . a married couple.. He worked a t steady employment elsewhere He was a recent immigrant from Europe and had married a Tfidow w i t h two c h i l d r e n (a boy o f f i v e and a g i r l o f e i g h t ) by her f i r s t marriage. They had as boarders ward # 2 wh© attended A r t s School and a s p i n s t e r o f t h i r t y . The C commercial boarding home was operated by a widow w i t h a boy of t h i r t e e n and a g i r l of f i f t e e n years. 1 The code l e t t e r s by which the v a r i o u s commercial boarding homes are I d e n t i f i e d i n Appendix B. - 1+2 -The maternal grandfather a l s o l i v e d i n , the home. There were two of the wards i n t h i s home (wards # 3 and 9). The D commercial boarding home was operated by a married couple w i t h no c h i l d r e n * There were no other boarders a t the time of t h i s study. The E commercial boarding home was operated by a widow. There were from t h i r t e e n to f o u r t e e n other boarders i n t h i s home *»- men of v a r i o u s ages who worked a t v a r i o u s jobs* The P commercial boarding home f o r g i r l s was operated by a widow i n the West End re g i o n of Vancouver, There were from s i x to e i g h t other g i r l s I n t h i s home. The G commercial boarding home was operated by a married couple w i t h two c h i l d r e n (a boy o f seven and a g i r l of s i x ) * There were three wards I n t h i s home and from f o u r to s i x o l d e r men of v a r i o u s ages. The H commercial boarding home was operated by a widow w i t h two c h i l d r e n . There were from f o u r t o s i x other o l d e r men boarding. The S u i t a b i l i t y of the Commercial Boarding Homes In assessing the degree to which the needs o f the wards were being met I n the commercial boarding homes, i t was found necessary to adopt a negative approach. The agency used the commercial boarding home only out o f ne-c e s s i t y and a l l s u p e r v i s i n g x-rorkers were unhappy w i t h the u n s u l t a b i l i t y o f such homes f o r the placement o f adolescents. - if3 -Therefore, the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f these homes were l a r g e l y i n terms o f the degree to which they were l e a s t l i k e the average commercial hoarding home. . The c h a r t below l i s t s the seven main u n d e s i r a b l e f a c t o r s i n r e l a t i o n to the placement o f adolescents t h a t are found I n the average commercial boarding home, operated on the b a s i s o f ach i e v i n g the g r e a t e s t f i n a n c i a l remuneration a t the l e a s t o u t l a y o f c a p i t a l and the l e a s t expenditure o f energy. If such f a c t o r s were d e s c r i p t i v e o f the commercial boarding homes used I n t h i s study t h i s was noted on the c h a r t . Table V I . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Factors P r e j u d i c i a l to S u c c e s s f u l Placement i n the Eight Commercial Boarding Homes. Unfavorable Factors Commercial Boarding Homes (a) . . . A B C D E F G H T o t a l Lack o f s u p e r v i s i o n x x X x X x 6 U n f r i e n d l y ( l a c k o f x : r x 2 sympathy) Poor P h y s i c a l p l a n t x x x x x X 6 Poor Housing area x x 2 Main m o t i v a t i o n X X s X x x 6 f i n a n c i a l Unsuitable companions x x 2 Lack o f understanding x X X x x 5? Ca) I d e n t i f i e d by code l e t t e r s see Appendix B The.lack of s u p e r v i s i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y Ira-, portant f o r the m a j o r i t y of t h i s group s i n c e they are immature, in s e c u r e and l a r g e l y unable to s e t l i m i t s f o r themselves. Most of them d r i f t e a s i l y i n t o the company o f other inadequate I n d i v i d u a l s . They must be awakened i n the moning and s e t out i n time to begin employment arid need support and encouragement to look a f t e r t h e i r personal h e a l t h , appearance and f i n a n c e s . Only two of the e i g h t commercial boarding homes gave s u p e r v i s i o n which could be considered adequate* The c o l d u n f r i e n d l y atmosphere of the commercial boarding home i s e s p e c i a l l y oppressive to most o f t h i s group of adolescents who are so inadequat s o c i a l l y * Their many experiences of d e p r i v a t i o n and r e j e c t i o n have l e f t many w i t h a low sense of personal worth and a l a c k o f a sense of belonging. They r e q u i r e more support than the average adolescent, who has been brought up i n a secure f a m i l y , to move i n t o s a t i s f a c t o r y contacts w i t h others o f h i s age group. The common complaint of t h i s group i s t h a t the commercial boarding.home i s " l o n e l y " , "barren" and "there i s nothing to do". Although o n l y two of the e i g h t commercial boarding homes could be l i s t e d as completely l a c k i n g i n warmth, i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t even the best was l a c k i n g i n p r o v i d i n g as f r i e n d l y and homelike an atmosphere as should be d e s i r a b l e . Hie run down nature of the commercial boarding home b u i l d i n g i t s e l f i s o f t e n depressing w i t h i t s shabby e x t e r i o r , dark, dingy hallways and s m a l l dreary bedrooms. Frequently there i s l i t t l e or no r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l area as the l i v i n g r o o m area i s s m a l l , dingy or s o l e l y f o r the use of the l a n d l o r d . With o n l y the f o u r bare w a l l s o f a bedroom there i s l i t t l e Inducement f o r an adolescent "to stay o f f the s t r e e t s a t n i g h t " * S i x of the e i g h t commercial boarding homes were b u i l d i n g s which were of t h i s run down, over-crowded character* Many commercial boarding homes are i n the run down, slum-OLike areas o f town although o n l y two o f the e i g h t commercial boarding homes i n t h i s survey were i n such areas. These areas are l a c k i n g i n playgrounds, r e c r e a t i o n a l r e -sources and are g e n e r a l l y Inhabited by a l a r g e number o f inadequate i n d i v i d u a l s of immoral or c r i m i n a l nature. The f a c t t h a t the main m o t i v a t i o n o f the l a n d -l o r d or landlady i s f i n a n c i a l i s i n d i c a t i v e i n i t s e l f o f the disadvantage of such a s e t t i n g f o r the placement o f adolescents. In a l l but two of the e i g h t commercial board-i n g homes t h i s could be considered the main m o t i v a t i o n . Unsuitable companions i n the commercial boarding homes i s "typical of many of these homes, although o n l y two of t h i s survey were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y because of this.. These two had from ten to twelve other boarders of v a r i o u s ages and of unknown charac t e r . I n every case the other occupants were o l d e r . One of these homes a l s o had f o u r of our wards as boarders. - >+6 -In each case e v a l u a t i o n of the.home i n c l u d e d an assessment of the emotional and moral support which was l i k e l y to be given to the adolescent ward. This would be determined mainly by the character o f the l a n d l o r d and landlady who, i n the i d e a l s e t t i n g , would give a f f e c t i o n , guidance and support, depending upon the needs of the p a r t i c u l a r adolescent. Only three of the group of e i g h t could be c l a s s i f i e d as g i v i n g even a minimum of understand-i n g and moral support. As seen i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the pre-admission care and placement h i s t o r y , t h i s group was made up o f immature, unhappy and inadequate youngsters* They are l a c k i n g i n confidence, In s o c i a l s k i l l s , i n education and trade s k i l l s , i n a sense of belonging and of s e l f - w o r t h and i n a b i l i t y to s e t l i m i t s f o r themselves. They r e q u i r e more r a t h e r than l e s s guidance from a d u l t s than the average adolescent of t h e i r own age. The m a j o r i t y of t h i s group have t r i e d and f a i l e d t o secure such help i n the f o s t e r home s e t t i n g . To develop i n t o adequate members of the community they need an extended p e r i o d i n a supervised s e t t i n g w i t h s k i l l e d a d u l t s who can give tbem the r e q u i r e d support and guidance. Even the best of the commercial boarding homes i n t h i s study f a i l to begin to approach the l e v e l of s e r v i c e which should he considered a minimum. CHAPTER I I I CASE ILLUSTRATIONS FROM THE GROUP OF FOURTEEN WARDS The three cases chosen i l l u s t r a t e some of the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s which e f f e c t the development of many c h i l d r e n who come Into the care o f a c h i l d r e n ' s p r o t e c t i v e agency when the n a t u r a l f a m i l y f a i l s to meet t h e i r needs. More p a r t i c u l a r l y , the h i s t o r i e s o f these three c h i l d r e n , both before and d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f care, exemplify t y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n s found among the group who are placed I n commercial boarding homes. These three cases ares Ward 4 58 A boy who came i n t o the care of the agency as an i n f a n t o f ten months but whose f o s t e r f a m i l y broke up when he was aged seven and a h a l f years. This case i l l u s t r a t e s the harmful and u p s e t t i n g nature o f immediate replacement i n t o another f o s t e r home. I t p o i n t s up the r e s u l t s of the l a c k of adequate di a g n o s i s and p l a n -ning f o r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , and of the l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t f o s t e r homes or group home resources. I t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s how important the f i r s t few years of f a m i l y l i v i n g are i n the p s y c h o - s o c i a l development of the c h i l d . In t h i s case the boy e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e s i n another f o s t e r home and makes a f a i r l y adequate adjustment. This i s i n con-t r a s t to the m a j o r i t y of the r e s t of the wards i n t h i s survey who experienced very U p s e t t i n g e a r l y f a m i l y ex-k8 -periences and were unable to r e l a t e to f o s t e r parents. Ward # 6 s A boy o f twelve and one h a l f years of age who enters the care of the agency duri n g h i s a d o l -escence, f a i l s to a d j u s t i n f o s t e r homes or the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home, and i s committed t o the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School on three occasions* This case i s t y p i c a l of three or f o u r more of the wards i n t h i s survey i n the degree o f disturbance which i t shows r e s u l t i n g from a l o n g , u p s e t t i n g f a m i l y experience of r e j e c t i o n , n e g l e c t and desertion.. The amount of c o n f l i c t around p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s and l a c k o f f e e l i n g s of s e c u r i t y and worth i s excessive i n the case of t h i s ward. He cannot accept f o s t e r parents because of h i s unhappy r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s n a t u r a l parents. He i s too insecure and demanding to accept group c o n t r o l s or g a i n acceptance by h i s peers. Even the c o r r e c t i o n a l s e t t i n g was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y because of the l a c k of segregation and the l a c k of an i n t e n s i v e treatment program. This case i s an example of the four or f i v e of t h i s group who should have secured help i n a treatment home s e t t i n g a t an e a r l i e r age, or a t l e a s t a t the time of admission. Ward # A boy who comes i n t o care d u r i n g h i s l a t e l a t e n c y or e a r l y adolescent stage o f psychosexual development a t the age of ten and one h a l f y e a r s , f a i l s t o ad j u s t i n a f o s t e r home but makes some progress i n the Boys* R e c e i v i n g Home, This case i s t y p i c a l of three i n t h i s survey group who f a i l e d to a d j u s t i n f o s t e r homes but - h9 -d i d make a good adjustment i n the group-home s e t t i n g of the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home, This case i l l u s t r a t e s how a long s e r i e s of pre-admission placements, r e j e c t i o n and d e s e r t i o n had l e d to confusion and i n s e c u r i t y and the e x h i b i t i n g of problem behavior of s t e a l i n g and l y i n g . F o s t e r home placement f a i l e d to l e s s e n h i s c o n f l i c t s , but i n the group-home s e t t i n g he was able to t e s t without being r e j e c t e d , could b e t t e r accept l i m i t s placed on him, and responded p o s i t i v e l y to group i n f l u e n c e s and the gr e a t e r permanency of the home, A l was born I n March 1936, of an unmarried mother who was mentally d e f e c t i v e . Her parents r e p o r t e d t h a t she was mentally retarded as the r e s u l t o f an a t t a c k o f s p i n a l m e n i n g i t i s when a c h i l d . The mother was l a t e r s t e r i l i z e d w i t h the encouragement of her parents. A l was placed i n a p r i v a t e boarding home d i r -e c t l y from the h o s p i t a l , the p l a n being t h a t the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r would a s s i s t i n payments f o r h i s care. The f a t h e r was a carpenter of almost twice the mother's age who was unemployed f o r a long p e r i o d of time and so was unable to pay f o r A l ' s maintenance. When the p r i v a t e boarding home mother no longer r e c e i v e d payments from the maternal grandparents she n o t i f i e d them th a t she would not keep A l and so the grandparents requested t h a t the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y assume guardianship. He was ther e f o r e admitted to care a t ten months of age. Since the adoption p o l i c y of the agency a t t h a t time d i d not approve of adoption placement of babies o f mentally d e f e c t i v e parents, A l was placed i n a f o s t e r home on a long term, i n d e f i n i t e b a s i s . A l spent s i x and one h a l f years i n t h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home. The s t a b i l i t y which t h i s home o f f e r e d him i s i n c o n t r a s t to the u n s e t t l e d f a m i l y l i f e of the m a j o r i t y of the group who subsequently found t h e i r way to commercial boarding homes. I t would seem t h a t i t was the s t r e n g t h which he gained during these formative years which sus^> t a i n e d him through the u n s e t t l e d p e r i o d which he experienced a f t e r the age of seven and a h a l f years. The records f o r t h i s p e r i o d , however, describe h i s slow mental development. He appeared h e a l t h y but had a " d u l l expression". During h i s e a r l y years he experienced some d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t o n s i l s , adenoids and c o l d s . A t the age of f i v e y e a r s , A l was admitted t o h o s p i t a l f o r the removal of h i s t o n s i l s and adenoids. In August of 19^1, a t the age of f i v e and one h a l f y e a r s , the f i l e s t a t e s J " A l i s an a f f e c t i o n a t e l i t t l e boy and f o s t e r parents are i n c l i n e d to t r e a t him a l i t t l e too much as i f he vrere s t i l l a baby". At the age of almost s i x years, he was placed t e m p o r a r i l y w i t h a widow f o s t e r parent w h i l e the f o s t e r mother spent two months i n h o s p i t a l f o r treatment on her h i p . The t r a n s f e r summary on f i l e a t t h i s time Informed the new worker f o r A l that A l had r e c e i v e d good care and - 51 -training i n h i s f o s t e r home since admission, but that they were i n c l i n e d to baby him. He was described as appearing to be "a l i t t l e below normal i n mentality. He i s not able to understand that f o s t e r parents are not h i s own parents". The new worker described him as "a happy youngster, well behaved but too dependent on foster parents'*. A l began school at the age of s i x and one h a l f years. A new worker took oyer A l at this time and remained hisTvWorker for the next four d i f f i c u l t years of replace-ments. His school standing was D, but he was described as "not working to capacity". On February 2, 19^3. the day aft e r Al's seventh birthday, the f o s t e r mother came to the agency to state that the foster father had left her to l i v e with another woman. During the next two months the f o s t e r parents attempted to r e e s t a b l i s h t h e i r marriage, but when separation became f i n a l , the foster mother asked f o r replacement of A l . The foster mother was extremely fond of A l but f e l t she could not o f f e r him much. The records stateds " A l seems quite attached to th i s family and i t i s f e l t that i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a home where he w i l l settle down and be as contented as he i s a t present." Second f o s t e r home placement at the age of seven and one h a l f yearss On June 7» 19^3 A l was admitted to the Vancouver General Hospital f o r possible mastoid condition. He was discharged f i v e days l a t e r and taken to h i s f i r s t replacement into another fo s t e r home, A l r e -fused to go into the new fos t e r homej stating that h i s former f o s t e r mother would not know where he was staying* He was taken back to his f i r s t f o s t e r parents who t r i e d to explain that they could no longer look a f t e r him and wanted him to go to h i s new fo s t e r home*. The records would seem to indicate a quick adjustment i n thi s new home* A month a f t e r replacement an o f f i c e v i s i t was arranged f o r A l and his f i r s t f o s t e r mother, A l repeated Grade IB and h i s report i n October of 19^3 described him as " l i s t l e s s , dreaming, inattentive and not working to capacity". The next month the f o s t e r mother reported he complained of pains i n h i s r i g h t leg and h i s side. The next month there were the f i r s t reports from school of petty thievery by A l . During Christmas his f i r s t f o s t e r mother v i s i t e d a f t e r A l had gone to sleep, kissed him and c r i e d , but did not wake him. The c h i l d was frequently 111 with colds and ear trouble that winder. On May of 19h*+9 at the age of eight yesars, A l was tested by the Bureau of Measurements and his I,Q» was determined to be 58, He was therefore put i n Special Glass, In December of 19^f, a t the age of eight years ten months, A l was admitted again to the Vancouver General for removal of h i s t o n s i l s and adenoids. Later that month,?, hi s f o s t e r mother became i l l and was h o s p i t a l i z e d . On December 29, 1 9 ^ , at the age of eight years ten months, he - 53 -vas moved to h i s t h i r d f o s t e r home,, A i e x h i b i t e d odd behavior a t n i g h t s and t h i s worried the new f o s t e r mother. His worker had d i f f i c u l t y i n convincing A l t h a t he could not r e t u r n to h i s second f o s t e r home as he continued to request to r e t u r n there because he d i d not l i k e h i s new f o s t e r home* On A p r i l *fth, a f t e r three months of p l a c e -ment, AI ran away to r e l a t i v e s of h i s second f o s t e r parents. He continued to f i n d i t hard to accept the f a c t t h a t he could not r e t u r n to h i s second f o s t e r home and continued to be unhappy w i t h h i s t h i r d f o s t e r home. Hi«s second f o s t e r f a t h e r a l s o explained why they could not take him back wh i l e the f o s t e r mother was i n h o s p i t a l . On A p r i l 13» 19^5 a t the age of nine years one month, A l was moved to h i s f o u r t h f o s t e r home. The f o s t e r parents took an immediate l i k i n g to A l but were worried about h i s queer behavior and " s p e l l s " . The f o s t e r mother described h i s wandering around a t n i g h t , groaning a t n i g h t and making p e c u l i a r noises by day. The school t e s t i n g s t a t e d h i s I.Q. r a t i n g had gone down to between 58 and 53* Seven days a f t e r h i s placement he was moved to the Receiv-ing Home f o r o b s e r v a t i o n . This p e r i o d p r i o r to placement i n the R e c e i v i n g Home i s t y p i c a l of the damaging e f f e c t of replacement on a c h i l d who i s upset and f r i g h t e n e d by the l o s s or r e j e c t i o n o f h i s s u b s t i t u t e parents. His r e g r e s s i o n under the s t r a i n o f t h i s f e a r of r e j e c t i o n and l o s s i s evident i n the r e p o r t s - -o f the school arid f o s t e r parents. The school r e p o r t a t t h i s time s t a t e d t h a t A l was " I r r e s p o n s i b l e , d e s t r u c t i v e and unreasonably w i l f u l ! " * He was an e x c e p t i o n a l l y slow p u p i l w i t h a ve r y l i m i t e d power of co n c e n t r a t i o n . He had a poor a t t i t u d e to work. He resented d i s c i p l i n e and o c c a s i o n a l l y staged a tantrum i n which he would k i c k , h i t back and be most Impertinent. During the f o u r months stay i n the R e c e i v i n g Home A l made steady improvement. He was described as having " l o s t h i s r a t h e r f r i g h t e n e d , worried expression which he has had f o r so l o n g , and seems to be much more a t ease". How-ever, he ran away from the R e c e i v i n g Home to h i s second f o s t e r home and they agreed l a t e r to take him back. He made good progress I n t h i s home and the school r e p o r t now s t a t e d he was working to c a p a c i t y . A f t e r approximately e i g h t months the f o s t e r parents n o t i f i e d the agency t h a t they had bought a small s t o r e with two s m a l l rooms and so would not be able to keep A l and the other boy i n the home. A l was replaced I n h i s f i f t h f o s t e r home a t the age of ten years and one month. He had been seen a t the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c w h i l e a t the Receiving Home and they had recommended f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n regarding h i s l e g d i f f i c u l t i e s and pains i n h i s s i d e . L a t e r examination i n h o s p i t a l revealed no p h y s i c a l b a s i s f o r the complaints. A l had begun to d e t e r i o r a t e a g a i n when he was moved f o r the second time from the second s e t o f f o s t e r - 55 -parents. The new f o s t e r p a rents, h i s f i f t h , found him very l i k a b l e and obedient a t the s t a r t , but when he began t e s t i n g them they became wor r i e d . He tes t e d more s e v e r e l y than on previous occasions which i s t y p i c a l of the c h i l d who i s being f r e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e d . One example was h i s r e f u s a l to go to bed u n t i l everyone e l s e had done so. The school teacher's r e p o r t a t t h i s time s t a t e d . " A l has been v e r y upset since moving from h i s former f o s t e r home and has shown a great d e a l of nervousness". The f o s t e r parents then asked t h a t A l be moved from the home because o f h i s upset behavior. He had been I n t h i s home f o r three months during which time the f o s t e r parents had wavered between g i v i n g him up and keeping him permanently. In h i s s i x t h f o s t e r home A l again made a strong attempt to make attachments. Although t h i s home was a very long way from a s p e c i a l - c l a s s s c h o o l , I t was decided to keep him I n s p e c i a l c l a s s . H is teacher r e p o r t e d , "He even f i n d s i t a st r u g g l e to keep up I n s p e c i a l c l a s s . H i s I.Q. i s 53 and he i s the l e a s t hopeful o f the c h i l d r e n . " A l l i k e d t h i s home and there was no d i f f i c u l t y regarding going to bed. He continued to request v i s i t s w i t h h i s second f o s t e r mother and these were arranged a t the o f f i c e . During the past t r y i n g f o u r y e a r s , A l had had : the same worker. This was probably o f great help to A l i n s u s t a i n i n g him through the numerous changes i n f o s t e r homes. - 56 -A t t h i s time, however, the worker l e f t the agency and there began a p e r i o d w i t h changing workers. A l ' s new f o s t e r mother began t a l k i n g o f r e -placement a f t e r e i g h t months as he d i d not seem to be p r o -g r e s s i n g and vas too much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Various other reasons were g i v e n , such as the d i s t a n c e to school and the coming of her parents to l i v e I n the home, as reasons f o r replacement. F i n a l l y when A l threw a stone a t h i s f o s t e r mother i n s t e a d o f p u t t i n g i t down as she t o l d him t o , she asked f o r h i s immediate replacement. He was moved t o h i s seventh f o s t e r home a t the end of June of 19^7 a t the age of eleven years f o u r months* A l spent the next f i v e years i n t h i s f o s t e r home. The f o s t e r parents were long-experienced ones, who were known to be v e r y accepting of backward c h i l d r e n but who d i d have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h o l d e r teenagers. By l a t e f a l l A l ' s Improvement was evidenced by a s u r p r i s i n g im-provement i n h i s I.Q. r a t i n g which had now r i s e n to 85, w h i l e h i s achievement q u o t i e n t had r i s e n from 113 to lMf* He was seen again a t the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c a f t e r s i x months i n t h i s home, and t e s t e d i n the slow-normal to normal group. A f t e r one year i n t h i s home he was d e s c r i b e d by h i s teacher as "without doubt the most i n t e l l i g e n t o f the c h i l d r e n i n the S p e c i a l C l a s s " . The teacher s t a t e d he had improved tremendously s i n c e going t o h i s l a s t f o s t e r - 57 -horne*:^ I t I s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t during the u n s e t t l e d p e r i o d between the breaking up of h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home a t the age of s i x years u n t i l the s e t t l i n g I n h i s seventh home a t the age of eleven y e a r s , h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t had d e t e r i o r a t e d to a l e v e l where the s p e c i a l c l a s s teachers and the Bureau of Measurement s e r i o u s l y questioned h i s c a p a c i t y to b e n e f i t from school,, This i s i n c o n t r a s t to the school r e p o r t o f J u l y loJ*9 which s t a t e d t h a t he was now so b r i g h t t h a t he was no longer a t s p e c i a l - c l a s s l e v e l . A f t e r s e v e r a l years d i f f i c u l t i e s arose between A l and h i s f o s t e r mother as he began to r e s o r t t o f a i r l y normal adolescent r e b e l l i o n and independence. He remained i n the home u n t i l the combination o f Al»s "cheekiness" and the poor h e a l t i i o f the f o s t e r mother l e d to plans f o r r e -placement. A t the age o f s i x t e e n years he was moved t o h i s l a s t f o s t e r home i n which he made a good adjustment w h i l e talking a vocational" course i n cooking. He then l e f t f o r employment i n log g i n g camps and was unemployed a t the time when t h i s study was made. He was re-employed w i t h h i s former employer s h o r t l y a f t e r t h a t date and again became s e l f -supporting . A l I s a boy i n which the pre-admission care u n t i l the age of ten months i n a p r i v a t e boarding home may have been l a c k i n g i n stimulus to more r a p i d development o f h i s mental a b i l i t i e s . Whether t h i s i s true or no t , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t 58 the a f f e c t i o n and s e c u r i t y to the p o i n t of o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n which A l experienced during h i s : placement i n h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home u n t i l the age of seven y e a r s , l a i d the b a s i s f o r the str e n g t h which e v e n t u a l l y c a r r i e d him through the d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d of r e j e c t i o n s and replacements which he experienced f o r the next f o u r years. The e a r l y p e r i o d o f r e l a t i v e calm and s e c u r i t y enabled A l to progress f a v o r a b l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y , during the most Important formative years. This i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o the un-c e r t a i n t y , r e j e c t i o n and general unhappiness which was experienced by the remainder o f t h i s group, whose n a t u r a l f a m i l i e s broke down over a longer p e r i o d of time and a t a l a t e r time. A l * s problems i n care began a f t e r the breakup of h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home a t the age o f seven years. The agency endeavoured i n every way to support him and h i s f o s t e r parents towards s u c c e s s f u l readjustment. Although an intermediate placement i n a Receiving Home a f t e r h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home broke up might have served to ease the break and to have made e a s i e r h i s move i n t o the second f o s t e r homej I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t such a r e c e i v i n g home placement a f t e r the break-up o f h i s second f o s t e r home was a r e a l n e c e s s i t y . C a r e f u l planning a t t h i s time, based on sound d i a g n o s i s and e v a l u a t i o n , would have helped A l to de a l w i t h the confusion and r e j e c t i o n which he was then experiencing and might a l s o have avoided the subsequent d i s r u p t i v e and unhappy experiences o f f u r t h e r f o s t e r home - 59 -r r e j e c t i o n s , escape i n t o psychosomatic i l l n e s s e s and w i t h -drawal i n the school s e t t i n g . Although the use of the R e c e i v i n g Home a f t e r the f a i l u r e o f h i s f o u r t h f o s t e r home permitted A l to r e g a i n some of h i s sense of s e c u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y , the records do not i n d i c a t e t h a t any attempt was made to take advantage of t h a t p e r i o d to help A l d e a l w i t h the confusion he must have had a t t h a t time as to who h i s parents or f o s t e r parents were, and why he could not be w i t h them. A l l h i s replacements to t h i s date had been c a r r i e d out without s a t i s f a c t o r y p r e -p a r a t i o n , e x p l a n a t i o n , pre-placement v i s i t i n g or s a t i s f a c t o r y long-term pl a n n i n g . The s t o r y reflects.-the too o f t e n r e -peated p a t t e r n of the overtaxed worker iwho r e p l a c e s the c h i l d oh an emergency b a s i s i n the o n l y home a v a i l a b l e , or i n one of the few homes a v a i l a b l e a t the moment, i n the hope t h a t e v e n t u a l l y the c h i l d w i l l s e t t l e . The f o l l y o f t h i s procedure of c o n t i n u a l replacement may be b e t t e r appreciated when i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t , as i n the case o f A l , the t e s t i n g o f each new f o s t e r parent becomes more exaggerated as one set o f f o s t e r parents i s replaced by another. Each r e j e c t i o n serves to i n c r e a s e the amount of evidence o f acceptance andi l o v e which the c h i l d demands as pro6f t h a t these new f o s t e r parents w i l l not a l s o l e t him down. The nature o f A l r s e a r l y development would i n d i c a t e t h a t he had gained s u f f i c i e n t p h y s i c a l and emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n s to be able t o b e n e f i t from the f o s t e r home s i t -nation. However, the .use of a receiving home,, together with adequate diagnosis, planning and treatment before i further replacement, may have saved t h i s boy the long and, no doubt, damaging period of replacements. Had t h i s pattern of continual replacements continued f o r a further period beyond h i s eleventh year, i t i s quite possible that a serious pattern of maladjustment would have become established concurrent with the usual more demanding period of adolescence. A l did eventually make as good a personal and s o c i a l adjustment as might be expected of a boy of hi s a b i l i t y . He had located the commercial boarding home he x was l i v i n g i n at the time of t h i s survey, was reasonably happy with h i s l o t , had a good a t t i t u d e to the agency and a good sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and again became s e l f -supporting shortly a f t e r the survey. Case 2 : A bov requiring intensive help i n a treatment .getting, Joe i s an example of a boy who, entering the care of the Children's Aid Society during adolescence i s so con-fused i n h i s feelings towards parental f i g u r e s , and so h o s t i l e to any di r e c t i n g adult, that i t i s v i r t u a l l y im-possible to hold him eithe r i n a foster home or a group-l i v i n g home. His pattern p a r a l l e l s that of wards # 1, 11 and lh i n that they were s i m i l a r l y admitted during t h e i r early adolescence or adolescent age and were i n such a confused state as to their feelings towards t h e i r parents that they were unable to s e t t l e i n a fost e r home and eventually - 6 1 -went on to c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s * The reasons f o r Joe's confused and d i s t u r b e d s t a t e by the time t h a t he was admitted to care a t the age o f twelve and one h a l f years emerge c l e a r l y from a study o f h i s f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n and h i s unhappy experiences before admission. The f a t h e r f i r s t contacted our agency when Joe was eleven years o l d to s t a t e t h a t he wished to "get r i d o f Joe because he had always been a behavior problem w i t h h i s l y i n g , s t e a l i n g and f i g h t i n g . At t h a t time h i s mother stat e d t h a t she was planning to leave her husband because he had been running around w i t h other women f o r the p a s t f i v e y ears. She put a l l the blame on her husband f o r Joe's poor behavior because he always c o n t r a d i c t e d her a u t h o r i t y so that there was always Inconsistency or no l i m i t s a t a l l f o r Joe, The f a t h e r a l s o admitted t h a t f o r the l a s t three years Joe and h i s b r o t h e r , Jack, had been l e f t alone most of the time w h i l e the parents went t h e i r separate ways. The f a t h e r was l a t e r sentenced to a month i n j a i l f o r bootlegging and the mother deserted w i t h another man.. The boys then experienced a year o f frequent moves to the grandmother and t o s e v e r a l p r i v a t e boarding homes. The r e a l damage to Joe, however, had come about much e a r l i e r through the r e j e c t i o n on the p a r t of both parents i n f a v o r of h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r , Jack, who was a model boy I n both appearance and behavior. An intense s i b l i n g r i v a l r y had been aggravating Joe's f e e l i n g s of l a c k of worth and l a c k of s e c u r i t y . Joe's intense f e e l i n g s towards h i s brother 62 -J are evident I n the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t from the case records* ^During t h i s v i s i t Joe expressed great h o s t i l i t y and f e e l -i n g towards a l l h i s f a m i l y , and daring t h i s d i s c u s s i o n showed great t e n s i o n i n a l l he d i d and s a i d . He hated both h i s parents? they beat him up. H i s f a t h e r and mother were so good to Jack? they took him (Jack) everywhere w h i l e he stayed a t home. He remembers once when h i s f a t h e r r e a l l y beat him upj how Jack stayed i n the k i t c h e n laughing a t him and d r i n k i n g a b o t t l e o f pop. He s a i d h i s mother was always a f t e r him or k i c k e d him out". When Joe and h i s brother came i n t o care they e x h i b i t e d such h o s t i l i t y to one another t h a t the f o s t e r parents i n s i s t e d Joe be moved by the second day. He went through three other f o s t e r homes and summer camp i n the next month and a h a l f because of his. u n c o n t r o l l a b l e behavior. He spent almost a year i n h i s f i f t h f o s t e r home, but i t was a stormy placement i n which a student worker was almost always on hand to support Joe i n the f o s t e r home and i n the school.. Although t h i s was an unusual f o s t e r home to the e x t e n t t h a t the f o s t e r parents put up w i t h such a constant t u r m o i l , I t was not s a t i s f a c t o r y i n other r e s p e c t s . Joe h i m s e l f l a t e r s t a t e d he l i k e d t h i s home "because she (the f o s t e r mother) l e t me do J u s t as I l i k e d " . F i n a l l y the f o s t e r parents s t a t e d they could o n l y "put up" w i t h Joe u n t i l the end o f the school term. One o f the d i s r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e s a f f e c t i n g Joe's adjustment i n a f o s t e r home was the constant, d i s -t u r b i n g i n t e r f e r e n c e on the p a r t o f h i s f a t h e r , I t was impossible to g a i n cooperation from the f a t h e r and i t was imp o s s i b l e , and probably not advi s a b l e from a treatment p o i n t o f view, to break the boy's compelling d e s i r e to seek out h i s f a t h e r . However, the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the f a t h e r to Joe was an unhealthy one. The f a t h e r had always boasted t h a t Joe could beat up any other boy o f h i s age. He had always t o l d Joe "the world owes you a l i v i n g - - get I t " , He had always encouraged the brothers to r e s i s t a u t h o r i t y . He h i m s e l f was l i k e an adolescent i n h i s a r r o -gance, h i s f l a s h y d r e s s , h i s o s t e n t a t i o n o f gaudy, gadget decorated c a r s , h i s aggressive and i n s o l e n t manner and h i s h o s t i l i t y to a l l i n a u t h o r i t y . On one occasions he t e l e -phoned the agency and the case record r e p o r t s the f o l l o w i n g : "He f e l t t h a t the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y was going to have t h e i r hands f u l l w i t h Joe, Father i m p l i e d t h a t s i n c e he had not been able to do anything, nobody would, but d i d say t h a t perhaps the agency c o u l d s t r a i g h t e n Joe out. Father s a i d t h a t he had t r i e d everything and even gave Joe a beating almost every n i g h t " . The case r e c o r d i n d i c a t e s i n c i d e n t a f t e r i n c i d e n t i n which the f a t h e r a c t s out the p a r t o f the " b i g shot** before Joe and h i s brother and behaves I n a way to upset Joe I n h i s f o s t e r home. The workers b e l i e v e d t h a t the f a t h e r f e l t g u i l t y about f a i l i n g to keep the boys "under h i s thumb" and so could not a l l o w the agency t o help the boys achieve s e c u r i t y and make - 6*+ -attachments to f o s t e r p a r ents. When Joe was moved to the Boys* Receiving Home he spent a stormy month durin g which he c o n s t a n t l y r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t r o u t i n e s and r u l e s * He was c o n t i n u a l l y i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the other boys. Joe i s an example o f a boy who i s too u n s e t t l e d to b e n e f i t from a group home. He Was s t i l l a t the stage where he r e q u i r e d help on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s i n , f o r example, a treatment home or a s u b s i d i z e d boarding home where he could be helped to work out h i s c o n f l i c t s and f e a r s around the r e j e c t i o n and abuse o f h i s parents. A f t e r one month i n the R e c e i v i n g Home, Joe was placed i n the Vancouver Detention Home charged w i t h accom-panying another boy from the Rec e i v i n g Home on s e v e r a l i n c i d e n t s o f breaking i n t o s t o r e s and t h i e v i n g * Joe had been seen a t the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c a f t e r about s i x months i n car e , and the C l i n i c was used on many occasions on a c o n s u l t a t i v e b a s i s during the next three years. On the b a s i s o f "the d e c i s i o n s of a conference h e l d a t t h i s time, the Court agreed to p r o b a t i o n and replacement i n the Receiving Home. Joe continued to c a r r y on i n an unmanageable way, truanted and f i n a l l y r a n away to the I n t e r i o r w i t h another boy, s t o l e a car and was returned to the Detention Home. He was committed to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School a t the age of f o u r t e e n y e a r s . During the next two years Joe w&s committed to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School on two more occasions.. He spent - 65 -seven months on the f i r s t committal, and then spent two months In a foster home of his own choosing before being recommitted f o r another seven months on a charge of breaking and entering. On release he spent s i x months i n the home of the f i r s t social' worker Joe had had at the agency. Although this was a period i n which Joe made further pro-gress h i s replacement was f i n a l l y decided upon because of increasingly unmanageable behavior and the pregnancy of the f o s t e r mother. After a four month period during which Joe was f i r e d from several Jobs i n town and from one in* a mining camp, and was evicted from two rooming houses and the home o f h i s grandmother, he was committed to the Indus-t r i a l School for the t h i r d time on a charge of car th e f t . A f t e r a period of f i v e months he was released to f i n d employment i n a soft-drink plant. He l a t e r went through several Jobs, each of which he held only b r i e f l y , as he would leave i n a huff or be f i r e d f o r f i g h t i n g . Within a period of eight months he passed through several commercial boarding homes, at l e a s t eight rooming houses, and four hotels before being placed i n the Detention Home on a charge of vagrancy. Two weeks af t e r being released from here he was again charged with car th e f t and sentenced to s i x months i n Oakalla. His release from Oakalla was made conditional on his voluntarily,entering Crease C l i n i c , which he di d , but he l e f t a f t e r ten days with the C l i n i c reporting they could not help him. He spent the next two - 66 -i and a h a l f months I n the commercial hoarding home he was i n a t the time o f t h i s survey. S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s time Joe•s case was the subject Of a s p e c i a l study h e l d as p a r t o f a Study I n s t i t -ute a t a P r o v i n c i a l P r o b a t i o n Branch Conference. I n t h i s study the workers from the i n t e r e s t e d agencies, i . e . t h e : , Chi l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , the Vancouver Detention Home, the P r o b a t i o n Department, and the Boys* I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , a l l presented r e p o r t s on the work which they had done w i t h Joe, The p i c t u r e was one of a constant attempt to giv e support to Joe i n h e l p i n g him accept the l i m i t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d o f him, and to work out a happier r e l a t i o n s h i p towards a d u l t s and to l i v e w i t h h i s c o n f l i c t i n g f e e l i n g s about h i s p a r e n t s . The general consensus o f o p i n i o n was tha t a t admission to care of the Chi l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y Joe was not i n a p o s i t i o n to b e n e f i t from f o s t e r home placement si n c e h i s main need was to work out h i s f e e l i n g s towards h i s parents. Through the use o f the c o r r e c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s Joe was g r a d u a l l y helped to accept more f r u s t r a t i o n s and the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by s o c i e t y . There: were many setbacks, however, because of the many changes o f workers and settings», and the l a c k of c o n t r o l s and resources, Joe could not be g i v e n the p r o t e c t i o n o r the su p e r v i s i o n that he r e q u i r e d e i t h e r i n the f o s t e r homes, c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o r commercial boarding homes. - 67 -H i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s peers w i l l always be s t r a i n e d because of h i s exaggerated need to prove h i s own wortho His r e l a t i o n s h i p with a u t h o r i t y - f i g u r e s , such as the p o l i c e and employers, w i l l always be stormy because o f h i s c o n f l i c t -i n g f e e l i n g s around h i s f a t h e r . H is l i f e i n general i s an unhappy t u r m o i l because o f h i s i n a b i l i t y to withstand f r u s t r a t i o n and h i s p e r s i s t e n t l y ambivalent f e e l i n g s towards "mother persons" and h i s u n s a t i s f i e d need f o r dependency. Accurate diagnosis a t the time o f admission o f the extent and nature o f t h i s boy's disturbance would have i n d i c a t e d that h i s needs could not be met by any of the resources o f the agency o r o f the community. The ver y nature of a f o s t e r home, w i t h i t s s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s , would aggravate the c o n f l i c t which t h i s boy had around p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s . Even the o r d i n a r y group or r e c e i v i n g home would have d i f f i c u l t y i n h e l p i n g t h i s boy I n view o f h i s i n a b i l i t y to accept group c o n t r o l s or to achieve status i n an o r d i n a r y group o f boys o f h i s own age. The commercial boarding home was an unhappy s e t t i n g f o r Joe sin c e he was always c l a s h i n g w i t h both the l a n d l a d i e s and.the other boarders. Joe could make quick f r i e n d s by h i s outgoing, s o l i c i t o u s manner, but he soon i s o l a t e d h i m s e l f by h i s s e n s i t i v i t y to c r i t i c i s m , h i s aggressive s t r i v i n g s to p l a y the p a r t o f the "wise guy", h i s boastfulness and h i s v i o l e n t temper. The commercial boarding home a l s o f a i l e d to provide the l i m i t a t i o n s and - 68 p r o t e c t i o n which Joe needed. This was shown v e r y c l e a r l y during the p e r i o d before Joe's l a s t r e t u r n to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School and O a k a l l a . As he was e j e c t e d from one commercial boarding home and rooming house a f t e r another he became more aggressive and unreasonable i n the employment s i t u a t i o n and had to seek out more d i s r e p u t a b l e characters to g a i n some s o r t o f acceptance u n t i l , i t would seem, he had to r e s o r t to car t h e f t to stop t h i s continuous c i r c u i t o u s path o f r e j e c t i o n s . Joe might have been prevented from d e t e r i o r -a t i n g to the degree which he d i d i f he could have been placed from the time o f admission i n a l e s s c o n f l i c t -arousing s e t t i n g than a f o s t e r home, a s e t t i n g i n which contacts w i t h the f a t h e r could have been c o n t r o l l e d and l i m i t a t i o n s could have been balanced w i t h a f f e c t i o n and acceptance. A good s u b s i d i z e d boarding home w i t h good p s y c h i a t r i c s u p e r v i s i o n might have helped t h i s boy a t admission but i d e a l l y he should have had i n t e n s i v e p s y c h i a t r i c help i n a treatment-home s e t t i n g before eventual placement i n a s u b s i d i z e d boarding home or a g r o u p - l i v i n g home. • 69 -Case %s An adolescent boy who was helped by a grotto- home placement Ward # 3 was chosen as a case i l l u s t r a t i o n because h i s case I s t y p i c a l o f many boys who enter care during e a r l y adolescence and who are p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y un-s u i t e d f o r Immediate f o s t e r home placement, Ben was born i n 1938 i n t o what i s reported to have been a comparatively happy home. I t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t Ben experienced a s a t i s f a c t o r y e a r l y l i f e u n t i l the age o f three years, a t which time h i s mother d i e d w h i l e h i s f a t h e r was away i n the armed s e r v i c e s . From t h i s time on h i s l i f e was u n s e t t l e d and l a c k i n g i n s e c u r i t y . He spent the next two years with a neighbor and then one year w i t h an aunt. A t the age o f seven years he came w i t h h i s s i s t e r and f a t h e r to t h i s province where he was p l a c e d p r i -v a t e l y while h i s f a t h e r made monthly v i s i t s . The next year he and h i s s i s t e r were moved to another home. From the age o f e i g h t u n t i l age ten Ben and h i s s i s t e r l i v e d w i t h the f a t h e r , but they then moved to Vancouver and Ben and h i s s i s t e r were again placed i n a p r i v a t e boarding home. A f t e r s i x months the p r i v a t e boarding home mother asked f o r replacement as Ben had been " l y i n g and s t e a l i n g almost c o n s t a n t l y " . He was admitted to the agency's care i n the sp r i n g of 19^ 9 a t the age of eleven years. - 70 On admission Ben was placed immediately i n t o a f o s t e r home o f a long-experienced f o s t e r mother who was "q u i t e s t r i c t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y not too a f f e c t i o n a t e , but qu i t e understanding and capable". During the f i r s t year i n t h i s f o s t e r home there were minor i n c i d e n t s o f s t e a l i n g from s t o r e s and some l y i n g . Ben vo i c e d h i s disappointment a t not having been contacted by h i s f a t h e r , but h i s f a t h e r could not be l o c a t e d a t t h a t time. Ben made some t i e to the f o s t e r f a t h e r and the case record reported* "Mrs. E. s a i d that Ben i s Mr.E.'s pe t . Mr. E. i s very fond o f him"'. Three months l a t e r the f o s t e r f a t h e r d i e d . When the two other boys i n t h i s home were moved Ben showed i n c r e a s e d a n x i e t y . H is f o s t e r mother had f r e q u e n t l y used the t h r e a t ©f removal to. discourage Ben's delinquency. A t t h i s time Ben rs school adjustment d e t e r i o r a t e d r a p i d l y . There were v i o l e n t outbursts o f temper and complete u n w i l l i n g n e s s to conform to school r e g u l a t i o n s . Ben was moved i n t o s p e c i a l c l a s s but s t i l l f a i l e d to s e t t l e , , complained o f h i s teachers, and was f i n a l l y e x p e l l e d as unmanageable. Placement i n a r e c e i v i n g home a t admission f o r the purpose o f di a g n o s i s would probably have discovered Ben's d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i n g to female f i g u r e s and have helped him keep up a contact w i t h h i s f a t h e r . Ben made some approach towards a male worker during h i s stay i n h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home, but was completely uncooperative w i t h the next female worker. Some ex p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i n a b i l i t y t o r e -- 71 -l a t e to female f i g u r e s may .be found i n the d e s e r t i o n o f h i s mother through death when he was three years o l d . Further h o s t i l i t y was probably b u i l t up through the many experiences o f r e j e c t i o n and d e s e r t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the frequent changes of home:3 i n h i s e a r l i e r l i f e . I n h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home i n the agency's care, the f o s t e r mother accentuated h i s f e e l i n g s o f i n s e c u r i t y by threatening to have him replaced when he was caught a t s t e a l i n g or l y i n g . When the new female worker attempted to help Ben continue a t school he refused to see her as she a l s o represented a u t h o r i t y . Ben had r e s i s t e d placement and c r i e d when r e -moved from the p r i v a t e boarding home he was i n a t the time o f entering care, and again r e s i s t e d the move from h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home to the Boys' Receiving Home a t the age of t h i r t e e n years. Ben found i t d i f f i c u l t to a d j u s t to the r u l e s of the Receiving Home and g r o u p - l i f e experience. He com-p l a i n e d of being "picked on" by the other boys. He had frequent outburst o f temper agai n s t the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the home, the r e g u l a t i o n s o f the school and the punishment of other boys. He x*as able to continue, however, by being able to go a t any time to h i s new male worker w i t h whom he could discharge some of h i s h o s t i l i t y I n outbursts and long t a l k s and then r e c e i v e support and encouragement to c a r r y on. Ben made slow but steady progress when new house parents came to the R e c e i v i n g Home. He formed a good r e l a t i o n s h i p with both and the improvement i n Ben was remarkable. There was a d e c l i n e i n h i s outbursts a g a i n s t authority,, and i n delinquent behavior. The worker recorded the f o l l o w i n g % nBen began to r e l a t e w e l l w i t h the house f a t h e r and h i s t r o u b l e w i t h a u t h o r i t y began to l e s s e n . He then was able to move very c l o s e l y to the housemother. Here, he re c e i v e d a good d e a l o f a f f e c t i o n and a t t e n t i o n which he had missed p r e v i o u s l y . Over a p e r i o d o f two months, Ben changed completely. He was happier, made f r i e n d s more e a s i l y , was cooperative and h e l p f u l around the home"• The house parents again l e f t the agency and Ben regressed to h i s former p a t t e r n of temper outbursts and s t e a l i n g . The worker and the J u v e n i l e Court a u t h o r i t i e s put greater pressure on him to conform and there was a slow improvement as Ben began to r e l a t e to the new house parents. The l e a v i n g o f the former house parents had represented another d e s e r t i o n by a mother f i g u r e as w e l l as a f a t h e r f i g u r e . I t was not as serious,; hovrever "as the breakup of a f o s t e r home would have been, s i n c e Ben d i d not a l s o have to r e a d j u s t to a hew sch o o l , a new home s e t t i n g , a new worker and new f r i e n d s . He was beginning to g a i n from the l i m i t a t i o n s and c o n t r o l s which the R e c e i v i n g Home presented. H i s own pr e c a r i o u s c o n t r o l over h i s impulses was strengthened by the consistency o f the R e c e i v i n g Home's - 73 -r u l e s , the support of h i s worker and the group sense of; belonging which the Home prov i d e d . During the next year Ben made p a r t i c u l a r l y good progress, i n which the s e r v i c e s o f a student who worked c l o s e l y w i t h the agency on an evening groupwork program, u s i n g the f a c i l i t i e s o f the Home and the nearby neighbor-hood-house gym and woodwork shop, undoubtedly played a p a r t . A f t e r two years i n the Home the record summary sta t e s ? "Ben has continued h i s progress i n the R e c e i v i n g Home i n recent months. He has not been any k i n d o f be-hav i o r problem and h i s temper outbursts have ended. He has become more o f a "lea d i n g c i t i z e n " i n the home and somewhat o f a s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e . This i s indeed a new r o l e f o r Ben". During the next year he made f u r t h e r progress as an outstanding member o f Army Cadets. H i s school be-hav i o r continued to improve although h i s teachers remarked upon h i s l a c k o f respect f o r p r o p e r t y . When he returned a t the end o f summer from army c a d e t - t r a i n i n g , he was pla c e d a t the age o f s i x t e e n years i n a commercial boarding home as the Rec e i v i n g Home was u r g e n t l y needed f o r the placement o f more upset boys and Ben was by now co n s i d e r a b l y o l d e r than the others i n the Home* He f a i l e d to make a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment i n the f i r s t commercial boarding home because o f h i s i n a b i l i t y to get along w i t h the other boy i n the home. He was placed i n a second commercial -7h -boarding home where he s e t t l e d b e t t e r but continued to have d i f f i c u l t y securing employment. He had, i n the mean-time, broken Into a coca-cola dispenser and was placed on pro b a t i o n . The placement h i s t o r y o f Ben i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by a boy who has been c o n s i d e r a b l y d i s t u r b e d by an u n s e t t l e d e a r l y l i f e I n attempting to s a t i s f y h i s emotional needs and to a d j u s t to a f o s t e r home. The Receiving Home served as a treatment home i n p r o v i d i n g the p r o t e c t i v e s e t t i n g where he could t e s t without being e x p e l l e d , and could r e c e i v e the acceptance and support he needed to meet the l i m i t a t i o n s and demands o f s c h o o l , community and f a m i l y l i v i n g . This h i s t o r y a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the need f o r a group home o r s u b s i d i z e d boarding home f o r o l d e r boys to a i d i n the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d when they are moving out from a f o s t e r o r r e c e i v i n g home and s t i l l need some support and s u p e r v i s i o n u n t i l employment has been secured and they are ready to meet the demands of complete independence. Ben had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n moving d i r e c t l y from the p r o t e c t e d s e t t i n g o f the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home to the unsupervised s e t t i n g o f a commercial boarding home. This p a t t e r n of having d i f f i c u l t y I n moving Into the v i r t u a l l y unprotected and unsupervised s e t t i n g of a commercial boarding home was repeated i n the case of the m a j o r i t y o f the boys i n t h i s study who moved from f o s t e r homes and the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home to a commercial boarding home. CHAPTER IV OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The survey of the past and present adjustment of the fourteen wards of the Children's A i d Society of Vancouver re s i d i n g i n commercial boarding homes has r e -vealed the u n s u i t a b i l i t y of this form of sett i n g for these wards. The nature of these homes i s such that even a well adjusted adolescent with a stable family background would f i n d l i v i n g i n them d i f f i c u l t . The majority of the wards resident i n these homes had experienced such unsettled l i v e s with their own parents and i n fost e r homes that they were even l e s s able to cope with the demands of such a setting and the resulting lack of supervision, support and guidance*. The care which chi l d - c a r i n g agencies are giving to dependent children i s not commensurate with the general welfare l e v e l of our society. I t would seem that there i s general acceptance of the importance and necessity f o r a comprehensive program f o r the meeting of children's needs, not only because these are considered the ri g h t s of a l l children, but also because without proper care during the formative years they may become a greater p u b l i c burden as future Inmates of prisons and hospitals* We are a wealthy 76 nation, and yet we are f a l l i n g to provide s a t i s f a c t o r y child-care services for want merely of adequate resources.-The use o f the commercial boarding homes by the Children's Aid Society i s only one example of the numerous expedients to which child-caring agencies have to r e s o r t because o f the l i m i t e d funds at t h e i r disposal 1}' unhappily these ex-pedients are always to the detriment of the c h i l d r e n . The Heed for a Variety of Placement Resources I t i s noteworthy that a l l the wards studied were placed d i r e c t l y Into f o s t e r homes on coming i n t o care. In view of the family history, the nature of the pre-admission care, and their behavior problems at admission I t can only be assumed that either (a) there was a lack o f study, diagnosis and planning at admission, or/and (b) there were no resources available at the time other than the f o s t e r homes i n which they were placed. For example, i n the case of ward # 12 of this survey, the agency was able to l e a r n of the background, the behavior and problems of this boy before they placed him, since i t was a period of several weeks af t e r the court d e c i s i o n f o r committal before a fo s t e r home was located. The f a c t i s that what-ever the agency diagnosed In regard to his needs or de-termlried as the necessary plan of treatment, there was, i n a c t u a l i t y , no choice available o f suitable f o s t e r homes, nor of any other placement resource, nor were the case loads low enough to give the boy and f o s t e r parents the casework support required f o r successful placement. In the - 77 * case o f the m a j o r i t y , even l e s s was known o f the background a t admission so tha t the i n i t i a l placement could o n l y be haphazard a t the very b e s t . Furthermore, i n s p i t e o f the aggressive and h o s t i l e behavior o f a l a r g e number o f th© wards I n t h i s study, there was no a l t e r n a t i v e i n most cases but to p l a c e them i n another f o s t e r home or commit them to the I n d u s t r i a l School a f t e r the breakdown o f one f o s t e r home placement* Three were e v e n t u a l l y helped by residence I n the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Homet but the number o f boys which t h i s home can accomodate i s o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f the number r e q u i r i n g placement i n i t * Replacement i n another f o s t e r home Is a l o s i n g b a t t l e o Each replacement Increases the c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s o f r e j e c t i o n and i n s e c u r i t y , increases the s e v e r i t y o f h i s t e s t i n g and increases the b a r r i e r a g a i n s t the help which might have been g i v e n him* The unhappy experience o f the f o s t e r parents discourages them from p r o v i d i n g a home f o r another c h i l d and a l s o discourages o t h e r p r o s -p e c t i v e f o s t e r parents I n t&e community* The problem i s one not o n l y ©f l i m i t e d p l a c e -ment resources but a l s o o f l i m i t e d casework s e r v i c e s which I n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l workers,can g i v e to each ease* The non-i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the s o c i a l worker except a t times o f emergency i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the support which was given to the wards and the f o s t e r parents i n t h i s study. Too h i g h case loads together w i t h low s a l a r i e s have discouraged many 78 workers from longer s e r v i c e i n the agency so tha t t h i s turnover i s one a d d i t i o n a l d i s r u p t i n g f a c t o r tending to i n c r e a s e the i n s e c u r i t y 1 and confusion o f wards• Here again, the l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t resources i s not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the concern which s o c i e t y expresses i n the welfare o f I t s c h i l d r e n . An. Receiving Hftme and PjJafinp'SMfr,, Centre,., The most conspicuous need which emerges from the present study Is f o r an i n d u c t i o n centre f o r the p l a c e , ment of a l l c h i l d r e n a t admission to care and f o r r e a s s e s s -ment between placements. I n t h i s c e t r e study, d i a g n o s i s and planning would be c a r r i e d out f o r the purpose o f assuring the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s f u l i n i t i a l placement. The placement would be planned to s u i t the needs o f the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d according to h i s p h y s i c a l , mental and emotional development. This would Involve a c a r e f u l assessment o f h i s n a t u r a l f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , h i s psycho-sexual development, h i s ego and superego s t r e n g t h s , and, from t h i s , h i s needs f o r support and treatment. A. d e c i s i o n would then be made as to whether f o s t e r home, adoptive home or i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment would be the most appropriate.. This process would help to minimize the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u r t h e r damage to the c h i l d a r i s i n g out o f the r e j e c t i o n and u p s e t t i n g experience o f replacement. A p e r i o d i n such a n e u t r a l s e t t i n g i s important moreover, to enable the c h i l d to a d j u s t to the l o s s o f h i s f a m i l y and to the acceptance o f s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s . A t the time of coming i n t o c a r e , each c h i l d would be given acceptance, - 79 -support and help with his c o n f l i c t i n g feelings around parental r e j e c t i o n and the sense of g u i l t associated with this break. Such a setting would f a c i l i t a t e contact with the natural family and r e l a t i v e s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard to the possible return of the c h i l d to his natural parents, as well as to the nature of the parental contacts which might be encouraged. There would be a planned and prepared movement towards the new setting of a foster home,, adoptive home o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l home i n accordance with the diagnosis, A rela t i o n s h i p of confidence between the c h i l d and the s o c i a l worker and the agency as a whole would be b u i l t up at this time to a s s i s t the c h i l d i n moving towards accepting sub-s t i t u t e parents. The s o c i a l worker would then act as a bridge between the c h i l d 1 s own parent or parents and his new substitute parents. This includes working with both the natural and f o s t e r parents as a means of helping the c h i l d adjust i n the new setting and accept placement. I t requires working with the natural parent to accept the best possible plan for the c h i l d , and supporting the foster parents i n understanding and accepting the ch i l d ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n placement and his ambivalent feelings and l o y a l t i e s to his own parents and s i b l i n g s , Pre-rplacement v i s i t s to the prospective f o s t e r home (or adoptive home) could be carried out i n order to lessen the child' s fears of the new setting and to observe whether there are the necessary beginnings of the parent-- 8 0 -c h i l d l o v e and acceptance. I n t h i s p r e p a r a t i o n o f the c h i l d f o r the move towards h i s new parents the support of the n a t u r a l parents should he e n l i s t e d whenever pos-s i b l e , e s p e c i a l l y where the p l a n i s f o r eventual r e t u r n to the n a t u r a l p a r e n t ; The i n s t i t u t i o n a l resources o f the Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n c l u d e , i n a c t u a l i t y , three R e c e i v i n g Homes. There i s the 59th Avenue Receiving Home, w i t h accommodation f o r twelve boys and g i r l s under t e n years o f age; the Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home f o r ten boys o f eleven to f o u r t e e n years? and the G i r l s ' R e c e i v i n g Home f o r t e n g i r l s over the age o f eleven years., These homes, however, are o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y used as r e c e i v i n g homes and are used Instead c h i e f l y as h o l d i n g u n i t s f o r c h i l d r e n unable to s e t t l e i n a f o s t e r home s e t t i n g . The 59th Avenue Re c e i v i n g Home more f r e -quently serves the f u n c t i o n o f a true r e c e i v i n g home i n t h a t I t i s used f o r some emergency i n i t i a l placements, whi l e there i s some movement o f the c h i l d r e n back i n t o f o s t e r home placement. As a r u l e , however, the homes are being used mostly as long-term, i n d e f i n i t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l homes where some treatment p l a n i s attempted to reduce the disturbance o f the c h i l d r e n p l a c e d there. The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f new admissions to the Children's A i d S o c i e t y are pl a c e d d i r e c t l y i n t o f o s t e r homes,, the g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f them being admitted on an emergency b a s i s and Immediately p l a c e d i n one o f the - 8 l ^  few f o s t e r homes a v a i l a b l e a t the time* The l a c k o f any-true receiving-home arrangement f o r new admissions i s pos-s i b l y the most se r i o u s l a c k , and the most s i g n i f i c a n t s i n g l e f a c t o r , c o n t r i b u t i n g to the numerous replacements and the establishment o f more f i x e d p a t t e r n s o f disturbance i n c h i l d r e n admitted to c a r e . What t h i s costs I n e x t r a agency time i n v o l v e d i n replacement and i n c o n t i n u i n g damage to dependent c h i l d r e n i s a f a c t o r too s e r i o u s to Ignore. I t Is a tragedy how so many c h i l d r e n ar© pe r -manently damaged by the haphazard i n i t i a l placement and con t i n u i n g replacements simply because o f t h i s l a c k o f resources. B. Boys* and G i r l s ' Residences o r Group Homes. Although the establishment o f a comprehensive d i a g n o s t i c admission centre i s p o s s i b l y the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e s e r v i c e r e q u i r e d a t present, there i s a l s o a g r e a t need f o r a v a r i e t y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s f o r those c h i l d r e n who are unable to have t h e i r needs met i n f o s t e r homes. The use o f commercial boarding homes f o r t h i s purpose I s inexcusable f o r the reason t h a t the care which these homes provide i s on a l e v e l with what might be l e g a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as p a r e n t a l n e g l e c t . The present Boys' R e c e i v i n g Home and G i r l s ' R e ceiving Home are examples o f the form o f group home which Is r e q u i r e d f o r the various age groups. S?ince the needs of c h i l d r e n v a r y as to' age, i n t e r e s t , and p s y c h o ^ s o c i a l - 82 -development, a v a r i e t y o f s e t t i n g s are r e q u i r e d , to i n -clude (a) separate r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s f o r c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t age range and d i f f e r e n t stages o f development, (b) group homes f o r •working boys and g i r l s as d i s t i n c t from those a t t e n d i n g schools C h i l d r e n admitted.to care during adolescence w i l l f r e q u e n t l y not be able to a d j u s t i n a f o s t e r home, s i n c e the n a t u r a l a d o l e s c e n t - s t r i v i n g f o r independence from p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s i s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the f o s t e r p a r e n t s ' wish t o r e c e i v e the adolescent as a member o f the familyo Group homes w i t h s k i l l f u l house parents do not p r e c i p i t a t e to the same extent f u r t h e r c o n f l i c t i n g f e e l i n g s I n the c h i l d around the l o s s o r r e j e c t i o n of h i s parents* Group homes provide a f a r more s a t i s f a c t o r y s e t t i n g f o r working w i t h some n a t u r a l p a r e n t s . There i s f r e q u e n t l y not the c l a s h o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s , nor the c o n f l i c t of l o y a l t i e s which occurs when some c h i l d r e n are p l a c e d i n f o s t e r homes. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l form o f care does not present as threatening a s i t u a t i o n to the parent o r c h i l d as t h a t o f having s u b s t i t u t e f o s t e r parents succeed where the n a t u r a l parents have f a i l e d , nor does i t so o b v i o u s l y take the p l a c e o f the n a t u r a l parents i n the a f f e c t i o n s o f the c h i l d r e n . Group homes a l s o provide a p r o t e c t i v e s e t t i n g f o r the c h i l d who has experienced a long s e r i e s o f r e j e c t -ions and who has f e l t deeply the i n s e c u r i t y o f change o f , - 83 -homes ana" p a r e n t s . Even when house parents are. r e p l a c e d there i s a t l e a s t , t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f the same home, school and f o s t e r s i b l i n g s . Through the group home there Is greater c o n t r o l o f the resources and circumstances which can be used f o r the treatment needs o f the c h i l d . House parents can be chosen who possess s p e c i a l t a l e n t s , t r a i n i n g and a b i l i t y , and who can co-operate w i t h the agency and other s e r v i c e s i n t e g r a l to the treatment p l a n . p. S u b s i d i z e d Bpflrdans, Bbmeg 3 Such homes are needed f o r the placement o f a r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll number o f c h i l d r e n who cannot a d j u s t to the p a r e n t a l demands o f a f o s t e r home and are a l s o not secure enough to f u n c t i o n i n a group. The subsidy, moreover, i s a means to encourage f o s t e r parents o f ex* c e p t i o n a l a b i l i t y to give care to c h i l d r e n w i t h s p e c i a l needs., such as the handicapped c h i l d . E x t r a remuneration to c e r t a i n homes i s now being g i v e n i n the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t such compensation i s r e q u i r e d where the Impersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p o f f e r s l e s s s a t i s f a c t i o n and o f t e n p l a c e s g r e a t e r demands on the houseparents. D r Treatment Home fop Di s t u r b e d Qhjldrenx The study o f the f o u r t e e n wards r e s i d e n t i n commercial boarding homes revealed t h a t a t l e a s t f o u r had been v i c t i m i z e d by such traumatic experiences over such a long time before admission to care that they r e q u i r e d the help which o n l y a treatment home could g i v e . They were aggressive, h o s t i l e , delinquent and gi v e n to repeated - 8h -absconding, so that, neither a f o s t e r home nor the Boys Receiving Home was able to cope with t h e i r behavior• They were a l l committed to the Boys* .Industrial School at one period, or another but t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n could hot provide the segregation or treatment program and f a c i l i t i e s necessary to help, such boys. : The present problem of Inadequate placement resources i s one which faces a l l the chi l d - c a r i n g agencies In this Province* I t Is a serious and Increasing problem* The increased urbanization of the lower mainland with I t s smaller family houses i s a main causative f a c t o r In the r e l a t i v e decrease o f available f o s t e r homes* The growing need for more i n s t i t u t i o n a l centres as outlined In ;this chapter presents problems of financing which may be incapable o f re s o l u t i o n under the present d i v i s i o n of administrative functions*. Since the increasing urbanization w i l l serve to i n t e n s i f y the discrepancy be*, tween the demands on child-welfare services and the funds a v a i l a b l e , a change i n function and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s Cl e a r l y indicated. One possible s o l u t i o n may f i e with the presentation of. the true s i t u a t i o n to the p u b l i c with the object of tr a n s f e r r i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o v e r f a l l c h i l d protection to the p r o v i n c i a l Government. With the Government responsible f o r the maintenance o f basic c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s , the resources o f the Children's A i d Society could be applied to the task of carrying out much-. - 8 5 -needed research into the meeting of the s p e c i a l needs• o f children. The administration and operation of group homes, treatment homes and s p e c i a l i z e d diagnostic centres could serve as the "basis for these pioneering operations Into improved child-welfare programs. In sp i t e o f the f a i l u r e s revealed i n this study i n meeting the needs of many of the wards, I t must be remembered that this group; i s composed, l a r g e l y of adolescents who. were greatly damaged before admission. They represent the group which the Children's Aid Society Is p a r t i c u l a r l y unable to a s s i s t because of i t s l i m i t e d resources. There were remarkably few instances i n the records which would suggest anything worse than the human f a i l u r e of not being able to do* any more f o r the c l i e n t than the resources permitted. There were, on the other hand, many instances In which the agency's adminis-t r a t i v e and social-work staff,- as well as the f o s t e r , parents,, gave f a r more time and energy than was demanded of them as p a r t of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l duties or of the f o s t e r home contract. Nevertheless, u n t i l more funds are made available to provide f o r smaller case loads, more foster homes and i n s t i t u t i o n a l settings, 'together with Improved diagnostic and admission practices,, and u n t i l more comprehensive welfare services are provided to o f f s e t the causes of dependency, i t i s probable that the commercial boarding home w i l l continue to be used f o r want of any better a l t e r n a t i v e . 86 Appendix A The following appendix was obtained from the case records of the fourteen wards and t h e i r parents con-sidered i n this study* An explanation o f the headings follows: Code Number (C.N.) — Code number used to i d e n t i f y th© casa or c h i l d . Age (A. ) Age of the c h i l d i n years at the time o f admission to the care of the Society. S i b l i n g s ($•) — Number of children o f the mother. Number o f S i b l i n g s In Care (#S. i n C.) ^  Number o f sib-, l i n g s i n the care of the agency. Age and Race o f Mother (A. and R. Mother) — Age and race ' or n a t i o n a l i t y of mother. The age i s as o f Oct-ober 31, 195V Where mother Is dead th i s i s thus indicated — (dd*)* The following abbreviations are used to designate various n a t i o n a l i t i e s . . Am* — American Pr. — French Aust. — A u s t r i a n In. — Indian (North American) Can. — Canadian I r . — I r i s h Ch. — Chinese P h i l . — P h i l l i p ino Eng. — English Sco. — Scotch Number o f S o c i a l Workers (# S.W.) — Number o f s o c i a l workers the c h i l d has had since coming into care* Length of Time In Commercial Boarding Home (L.T. i n C.B.H.) Length o f time In months which the c h i l d had spent i n the commercial boarding home which he was i n at the time of the survey,, School Grade Achieved (Sl.G.Aeh.) — Grade which.child had reached at the time o f leaving school* B.C. i s abbreviation far S p e c i a l Class* Code Number of Commercial Boarding Home (C.N. of C.B.H.) The cod© number used for purpose o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n this study* Number of Wards •(# o f Wards) The number of wards r e -sidlng i n the i n d i v i d u a l commercial boarding homes at the time o f the survey.. - 87 Appendix A (cont.) wnrnftfti* in the Household (# i n Ho) — Number of people ether m T S a n wards also residing in the commercial boarding home. Appendix A J.H. A. S. # s. A. and R. Mother A. and H. Father ; -M.S. # S.W. i n C.B.H. S.O. C.N. of Aeh. C.B.H. # of Wards' # i n Ha 1 n i 0 0 dd. Ind.Phil. 32 Ch. U.M. 5 5| mo. 6 A 4 12 2 12 7 2 on. Ind. un. , Sco.Eng. Sep. 5 1§ mo. 12 B 1 5 3 11 1 1 dd. Can. 62 Eng. w. 4 1§ mo. 7 S.C. c 2 4 4 9i 2 2 37 Tin. 41 Eng. Div. 10 h mo. S.C. K 4 12 5 5/6 1 0 40 Can. 59 Sco. U.M. 13 3i mo. 8 S.C. D 1 2 6 12| 1 0 39 Eng. 40 Sco. I T . Sep. 10 i j mo. 7 . E 1 15 7 17 1 1 42 Am. 47 Can. Div. 1 1 mo. 11 F 1 7 8 4 1 1 37 I p. Sco. 44 Ir.Eng. Div. 8 \ mo. 5 A 4 12 9 7 2 Ad. 36 Fr.Eng.39 Eng. Sep. 9 1 mo. 5 C 2 4 10 91 2 0 35 Eng. 40 Eng. Div. 6 1 mo. 7 0 3 9 11 12 6 1 40 Eng. 44 Auat. Div. 3 1/15 mo. 6 G 3 9 12 14 0 0 38 Pr.Can.52 Ir. U.M. 3 1% mo. 7 H 1 8 13 9h 3 3 34 Eng. 40 Sco.Eng. Sep. 5 1 mo. 7 G 3 9 14 12 5 3 44 Eng. 41 Ir. Sep. 5 1 mo. s .c . A 12 8 9 Appendix B The f o l l o w i n g appendix i s made tip, o f a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from the case records o f the f c u r t e e n wards and t h e i r parents considered i n t h i s study. An e x p l a n a t i o n o f the a d d i t i o n a l headings f o l l o w s s Present Age (P.A.) — present age r e f e r s to the age o f the wards i n t h i s study^ ©n October 31, 1 9 5 V R e f e r r e d By (Ref, by) Indicates the person who f i r s t approached the Children's A i d S o c i e t y regarding the need f o r the assumption o f the care of the c h i l d by the S o c i e t y * Mo. — Mother P.H.N.— P u b l i c H e a l t h Nurse Pa. • -- Father . S..W.B. — S o c i a l Welfare Branch Neigh. Neighbours Pre-Admlssion Placements' (pre-Ad. P l a c e . ) , N u m b e r o f placements o f the c h i l d i n p r i v a t e homes o t h e r . than i n the home o f h i s n a t u r a l parents before admission to the care o f the S o c i e t y . Number o f Fo s t e r Home Placements (F.H.) — T o t a l number o f f o s t e r homes which the c h i l d was p l a c e d i n dur i n g h i s p e r i o d I n care. Number p f Re c e i v i n g Hpme Placement^,; (R.H.) T o t a l number o f times i n which the c h i l d was piaeed I n a R e c e i v i n g Home o f the S o c i e t y . Number o f Committals to C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s (Co. In.) To t a l number o f committals o f the c h i l d t» Cor-r e c t i o n a l , I n s t i t u t i o n s . By -f» Boys 1 Indus t r i a l S chool 0. <•»- O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm P. — P e n i t e n t i a r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Appendix B C.N, Age at P.A, Problems at Admission AdmiB. Bef. Seasons for Admission Pre Ho. of Placements by ad. F.H. B.H. Co.In. Place. 5 8 9 4 10 13 1 3 Z 11 5/6 5 7 9 | 11* 11 12 12 14 12 18 14 I? 17 16 15 17 16 19 16 16 0 0 Cries easily* obstinate Borderline I.Q,stealing temper* unmanageable Lying* stealing* diso-bedient Truant* stealing* running away* hostile Lying* stealing* nervous Sunning away* stealing* lying* hostile* truant Borderline I»C>» eneuretic* running away Mo, U.M. mentally deficient 0 Fa. Mo. deserted; fa, and 1 stepme. i l l Mo, Fa. deserted; mo. I l l 3 vith T.B.• Inadequate Fa. Pts. div.; stepmo, u n v i l l - 0 ing to care; unmanageable P.H.H, Stepmo, rejecting* alcoholic pts. divorced y Fa. Pts. separated; c / l wife 3 quarrelling; rejecting P.H.H, U.M. deserted; abused by 2 grandmo,; behavior problem S.W.B. Mo. dd.; fa. f a i l i n g to 4 provide Mo. Ille g . t mo. separated; 0 unable to provide S.W.Bo Pts, divorced* remarried 4 pts, rejecting* boy un-manageable P,H,H, Mo, deserted; neglect; 0 brutal f a . 8 1 0 14 3 2 - B . 6 4 0 6 1 4 1 4 2 1 1 1 B. 0 B.. 0. P. Appendix B (Continued) CH* Age at P»A* Problems at Admission Admis0 Hef. Seasons for A dralssion Pre. No. of Placements by ad. F.H. B.H. Co.In. Place. 6 12| 18 lying* stealing* un-manageable 12 14 17 Stealing, running away 17 17 Pa* Pts. divorced; fa. 5 f a i l i n g to provide Neigh. I7.ni. deserted; stepmo. 10 Police alcoholic* moron; fa. brutal, alcoholic; behavior, problem Self Pts. divorced; pts*. 0 unwilling to provide 2 3 - B. 0. 1 B. 0. 0 0 - 92 - • Appendix C Snpimayv of Pre-Admission Experiences of the Fourteen Wards -Including Reason for. Admission Ward 1 Born of common-lav union, deserted by mother. Father unable to provide proper care and child placed vith grandmother who is physically pun-i t i v e towards child. One other private place-ment. Child running away, stealing and general behavior problem. 2 Born of unmarried mother who later married man other than ehild 1s father and subsequently separated. Mother unable to care for the ehild. 3 Born of legal marriage. Mother died when child aged three. Father unable to provide care. Placed privately i n four different homes. Private boarding home parents find boy unmanage-able. h Born of legal marriage. Mother deserts and parents subsequently divorced. Father remarries and child l i v i n g with father and stepmother. Stepmother finds boy of borderline intelligence and unmanageable. 5 Bern of unmarried mother who was mentally defective. Admitted to care when mother's parents w i l l no longer pay for Infantas; dare i n private boarding home. 6 Born of legal marriage. Father brutally pun-ativej child neglected by parents In favor of ; brothers. Both parents promiscuous, constant f r i c t i o n leading to separation. Neither parent willing to provide care a plaeed privately i n five different homes. Child lying,, stealing, unmanageable. 7 Born of legal marriage, parents divorced. Neither parent willing to provide care. 8 Born of legal marriage. Child plaeed with grandparents by mother who established common-law relationship with another man while father overseas. Father i l l and unable to provide ear©. Appendix C (conto) Ward 9 Born of l e g a l marriage. Father deserts. Mother i l l and promiscuous j unable to provide care. Placed p r i v a t e l y i n four d i f f e r e n t homes. 10 Bom o f l e g a l marriage. Mother r e j e c t i n g o f Chil d and a l c o h o l i c . Parents divorced and subsequently remarried. Neither parent w i l l -ing to provide care. C h i l d placed p r i v a t e l y i n three d i f f e r e n t homes. 11 Born o f l e g a l marriage. Parents divorced and remarried. C h i l d l i v e s f o r period o f time with each parent but neither w i l l i n g to care per-manently for him. Natural father and step fattier physically, p u n i t i v e . Placed p r i v a t e l y i n four d i f f e r e n t homes. 12 Born ©f common-law union. Mother deserts c h i l d and marries another man. Father a l c o h o l i c and p h y s i c a l l y punitive towards c h i l d . Marries woman who Is a moron and p r o s t i t u t i n g and r e -jecting of the c h i l d . Placed p r i v a t e l y i n ,ten or more d i f f e r e n t homes. 13 Bom o f l e g a l marriage. Mother deserts and father enters into common-law re l a t i o n s h i p with another woman. Stepmother r e j e c t i n g o f c h i l d . Placed p r i v a t e l y In three d i f f e r e n t homes. l*f Bom of l e g a l marriage. Mother deserts $ father b r u t a l l y punitive and n e g l e c t f u l . C h i l d o f borderline i n t e l l i g e n c e and unmanageable. Appendix D Adjustment? of fthe S u c c e s s f u l adolescent adjustment vas considered under s i x main factors and the fourteen wards were then evaluated i n respect to each. The- factors of good adolescent adjustment were l i s t e d ass 1) a b i l i t y to deal adequately with d a i l y frustrations. 2) a b i l i t y to set l i m i t s for themselves or to accept l i m i t s set down by adults i n r e l a t i o n to l a t e hours, companions, leisure time a c t i v i t i e s , et cetera. 3) adequate feelings of belonging, confidence and self-worth. h) a b i l i t y to relate to adults and to achieve status with their peers i n s o c i a l l y acceptable ways. 5) satisfactory i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with their own sex, : including satisfactory adjustment In heterosexual social relations with their respective age groups i n s o c i a l l y acceptable community a c t i v i t i e s . 6) normal progress i n handling their c o n f l i c t -ing and ambivalent feelings as to their adolescent strivings for independence and their continued need for some: depen-dence on a supportive adult. Mien the wards i n this survey were rated In respect to these conditions of successful adjustment, i t was found that only two (wards # 2 and # 5) rated well on a l l , 9 5 -A p p e n d i x D ( c o n t . ) t h e g i r l (ward # 7) r a t e d w e l l o n m o s t o f the c o n d i t i o n s b u t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f the g r o u p were f a l l i n g t o r a t e s a t i s -f a c t o r i l y o n any o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s . 1 G f the e l e v e n o f t h e group who h a d f a i l e d t o make a good a d j u s t m e n t , a l l were l a c k i n g i n a d e q u a t e f e e l -i n g s o f s e l f - w o r t h y b e l o n g i n g and c o n f i d e n c e . M o s t o f them h a d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i n g t o a d u l t s and i n g a i n -i n g s t a t u s w i t h t h e i r p e e r s i n s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e w a y s . Many were somewhat c o n f u s e d i n t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s as e v i d e n c e d i n t h e i r p o o r s u p e r e g o c o n t r o l s as shown i n t h e h i g h r a t e o f a n t i - s o c i a l o r d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o r . M o s t o f them h a d f a i l e d 1 to move i n t o s a t i s f a c t o r y h e t e r o s e x u a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n community a c t i v i t i e s . The l a c k o f a b i l i t y t o d e a l a d e q u a t e l y w i t h d a i l y f r u s t -r a t i o n s and t o s e t e r a c c e p t l i m i t s was t y p i c a l o f a l l t h i s g r o u p and was e v i d e n c e d i n t h e i r d i s r u p t i v e d a i l y l i v i n g and i n t h e i r f a i l u r e t o s e c u r e and m a i n t a i n e m p l o y -m e n t . 96 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bojpjcs s Angus. Anne Margaret, Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B.C-, 1901 - 1951. F i f t i e t h Anniversary. B i l l i n g ton, A., Group Work Pr a c t i c e i n a Receiving Home f o r Bovs, Master of S o c i a l Vfcrk Thesis, University o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I953» Langdale, Arthur L e s l i e , How Foster Children Tarn Out. Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University Of B r i t i s h Columbia,, 1951 • Redl, F r i t z and Wlneman, David, Children Who Hate T The Free Press, 1951. Reed, George A.. The Placement o f Adolescent Boys, Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University o f B r i t i s h C o l -umbia, 1953* Reid, Joseph H» and Hagan. Helen R*. Residential Treatment  of Emotionally Disturbed Children - A Descriptive Study. C h i l d Welfare League o f America Inc., New York, 1952. Articles. Bishopp. Grace I., "The Role e f Case Work i n I n s t i t u t i o n a l Service for Adolescents". Child Welfare League of America, Inc. September l 9^ 3 » Canadian Welfare Couneil, "Child Protection i n Canada" T Ottawa, 195*»> G r i f f i t h s , Margaret H., "The Ch i l d Faces Placement", The Canadian Welfare Council, 19**o« Hacher, F.J. and Cell e r d , E.R., "Freedom and Authority i n Adolescence". American Journal o f Ortho-Psychiatry, Vol. XV, October* 19M, p.676. Hutchinson, Dorothy. "The Parent C h i l d Relationship as a Faetor In Chi l d Placement", The Family, V o l . XXVII, No. 2, A p r i l , I9w, p. MR-- 97 * Lourie, Normaft) V. and Behulman, Rena, "The Role of the Residential S t a f f In Residential Treatment** American Journal of Ortho-Psychiatry, V o l . XXII, 1952, p>. 789» Ross, Helen. "The Caseworker and the Adolescent^ The Family, Vol. 82, Number 7. November, l'W• The B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d Welfare Survey Committee, "Report of the B r i t i s h Columbia Ch i l d Welfare Survey, 1927. The I l l i n o i s Children's Home and Aid Society, "Plans f a r an-Institution for the Treafoiftpt nf 3 ^ ^ ™ ^ ^ Disturbed Children", Chicago, I l l i n o i s , l9*+6. WUlner, H i l t o n . "An I n s t i t u t i o n a l Approach te> the Parent-C h i l d Relationship", Child Welfare League o f America,, New York, January, 1955» 

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