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Rehabilitation of the handicapped : a comparative study of the rehabilitation programmes of the Department… Watson, Hartley William 1956

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The present concept of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n evolved during and a f t e r World War I I but had i t s basic r o o t s i n the programmes a r i s i n g out of World War I . Both wars dramatized the age o l d concept that men and women can surmount seemingly insuOerable l i m i t a t i o n s , l i v e u s e f u l s a t i s f y i n g l i v e s , and make important c o n t r i -butions t o s o c i e t y . The remarkable advances made i n know-ledge and p r a c t i c e s i n the medical, s o c i a l and v o c a t i o n a l aspects of adjustment have made i t p o s s i b l e f o r l a r g e numbers of the handicapped p o p u l a t i o n t o take t h e i r r i g h t -f u l place i n the community. I t i s proposed, i n t h i s study, t o examine the v a r i o u s aspects of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and then to compare two r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programmes, one f o r the war i n -jured and the other f o r the i n d u s t r i a l l y i n j u r e d w i t h a view t o determining how e f f e c t i v e l y these aspects are a p p l i e d and c a r r i e d out. There are many d e f i n i t i o n s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Webster's d i c t i o n a r y defines i t as the process of r e s t o r i n g to a s t a t e of p h y s i c a l , mental and moral h e a l t h through ( 2 ) treatment and t r a i n i n g . The Montreal Hehab.ilitation Survey Committee, i n d e f i n i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , s t a t e s ; "Vocational aad employment r e h a b i l i t a t i o n are recognized as a sound economic investment. The i n t e r - r e l a t i o n of the two i s such, th e t a proper d e f i n i t i o n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n must i n c l u d e the t o t a l process which i s to develop and r e -st o r e the hendicapped i n d i v i d u a l to the f u l l e s t p h y s i c a l , a e n t a l , psycho-social» v o c a t i o n a l , and economic usefulness of which he i s capable, w i t h i n the r e s t r i c t i o n s inherent i n h i s environment." 1 Thie d e f i n i t i o n , i n l i n e w i t h many others of & s i m i l a r n ature, appears to pl a c e the emphasis upon p h y s i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n with i n c i d e n t a l emphesis upon the s o o i a l phase. There i s en immediate apparent f a i l u r e to v i e ^ the i n d i v i d u a l s s e whole. Although, a t times, we t r e a t the i n d i v i d u a l as e s e r i e s o f separate s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s or f u n c t i o n s , he i s a psychophysical e n t i t y . Mind and body cannot be divorc e d from the neea o f meeting each problem with which i t i s faced i n an i n t e g r a t e d way. The i n d i v i d u a l does not merely use h i s r e s i d u a l normal c a p a c i t i e s to solve h i s s p e c i f i c problems. The s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i s the dynamic e c t i o a t?hich i s the product of the whole mind-body s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n . P h y s i c a l examination sad v o c a t i o n a l t e s t i n g serve a d e f i n i t e purpose but they w i l l not determine the way the whole person meets h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l , v o c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l requirements. S o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s inherent i n every phase 1. The Montreal R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Survey Committee, fie-establisft-raent of Disabled Persona. Sun L i f e Assurance Company of Canada, Montreal, 1949. p.19. ( 3 ) o f th© i n d i v i d u a l ' s adjustment. S p i r i t u a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n too, mu@t: have i t s p l a c e . Elements of a R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Programme. (a) The R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Process The humanitarian aspects of a s s i s t i n g the handi-capped t o l i v e u s e f u l , happy l i v e s , a t t h e i r highest p o t e n t i a l i s s e l f e v i d e n t . The economic p r o d u c t i v i t y of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n must a l s o be u t i l i z e d f o r there i s a l i m i t t o the burden a working p o p u l a t i o n can c a r r y . I t has been estimated t h a t 97 percent of d i s a b l e d persons can be r e h a b i l i t a t e d to the p o i n t where they can l e a d u s e f u l l i v e s and t h a t 30 percent of the handicapped can be r e h a b i l i t a t e d i n t o employment through the e f f e c t i v e use o f up to date community s e r v i c e s and e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . The United S t a t e s N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n l i s t s , i n a r e p o r t submitted by the Committee on the Process of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g f i v e p r i n c i p l e s of the process.1 ( i ) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n should begin a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e moment a f t e r r e c o g n i t i o n of the ex-i s t e n c e o f a c o n t i n u i n g d i s a b i l i t y . ( i i ) Before r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are i n s t i t u t e d an examination by a p h y s i c i a n , competent l a the area of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s d i s a b i l i t y , should be made. I n the case of m u l t i p l e d i s a b i l i t i e s , e examinations by p h y s i c i a n s , competent i n the r e s p e c t i v e areas, are i n d i c a t e d . ( l i i ) R e h a b i l l t a t l o a should be an i n d i v i d u a l i s e d process and a i l m e d i c a l , s o c i a l , and v o c a t i o n a l diagnoses and a c t i v i t i e s should be d i r e c t e d toward the adjustment of the i n d i v i d u a l as a 1. N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l oa R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . "Report of the Comaittee  on the Processed of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Hew York, December,1954 p.2. (4) t o t a l person. The d i s a b l e d person should par-t i c i p a t e i n a l l planning and u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n s . ( i v ) P s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment, mental and s p i r i t u a l h e a l t h are e s s e n t i a l p r e - r e q u i s i t e s to s u c c e s s f u l p h y s i c a l , ' s o o i a l and economic r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . (v) All p r o f e s s i o n a l workers concerned w i t h any o f the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n processes should take respon-s i b i l i t y f o r I d e n t i f y i n g problems which r e q u i r e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and f o r a s k i n g the ap-p r o p r i a t e r e f e r r a l . Sach p r o f e s s i o n a l worker should a ct as a s p e c i a l i s t w i t h i n the s k i l l s of h i s p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d and recognize the I n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n a l groups without confusing t a e i r f u n c t i o n s . The C o u n c i l d i v i d e s the process i n t o three f i e l d s : I n the medical f i e l d the p h y s i c i a n assumes l e a d e r s h i p and the s t a f f Includes a nurse, p h y s i c a l therapist,, o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a p i s t , p h y s i c a l education worker, d e n t i s t , medical s o c i a l worker, and p s y c h o l o g i s t . The a o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t ' f i e l d , i n which the s o o i a l worker assumes l e a d e r s h i p , bases i t s »crk on the diagnosis and r e -commendations of the p h y s i c i a n . The s o c i a l worker's a c t i -v i t i e s a re supplemented by the s e r v i c e s o f the p s y c h o l o g i s t , the guidance c o u n s e l l o r , the v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r , the teacher o f s p e c i a l c l a s s e s , and the teacher of s p e c i a l s k i l l s . The v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d i n which the v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r assumes l e a d e r s h i p , bases i t s ®ork on the diagnoses and r e -commendations of tne p h y s i c i a n . The v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r ' s a c t i v i t i e s are supplemented by the s o c i a l worker, psycho-l o g i s t , v o c a t i o n a l teacher, s h e l t e r e d workshop s u p e r v i s o r , v o c a t i o n a l school teacher, placement agent and the " f o l l o w up" f i e l d agent.1 1* N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on S e n a b i l l t a t i o n op c i t p.2 The f o l l o w i n g have been summarized i n the Background Data f o r the n a t i o n a l Conference on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , as succes-s i v e steps from o r i g i n a l c l i e n t contact to f i n a l e s t a b l i s h -meat In the community,-1' {a) R e g i s t r a t i o n sad R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Counselli&g. (b) E v a l u a t i o n 1. Medical Diagnosis S. P s y c a e - a o c l e l E v a l u a t i o n 3* Stftuea t i o n a i *Voea t i o n a l ~gaployaent E v a l u a t i o n . (0) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n ($) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Programme |e) Establishment i n Community ( f ) Follow up. i n i n d u s t r i a l and war i n j u r y the i n d i v i d u a l must, of n e c e s s i t y , r e c e i v e h o s p i t a l i s a t i o n end treatment before he I s able t o see any r e h a b i l i t a t i o n worker* However, as f a r aa r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s concerned, the steps i n the process would be s i m i l a r . Besides the p r i n c i p l e s l i s t e d above, these steps i n v o l v e many p r i n c i p l e s inherent i n s o c i a l casework* C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y must be maintained I n regard to any d i s c l o s u r e s which the c l i e n t mekcs. In the past, i t has been customary V* and o f t e n necessary 1 to segregate d i s a b l e d persons p e r -manently or f o r long periods of time. D i s a b l e d persons, as others, are whole people and I n d i v i d u a l o with n a t i v e and c u l t u r a l l y acquired a b i l i t i e s , and should be r e h a b i l i t a t e d as such i n t o the communities i n which they l e v e . R e h a b i l i -t a t i o n must be based on sound medical procedures. S o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l snd employment r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r e o u i r e personnel f a m i l i a r v?ith the whole process, s k i l l e d In t h e i r 1. Background Data f o r " t h e tfatloncl' Conference on R e h s b i l l -, t a t i o n , The Rehab111totIon of D i s a b l e d Persons,Toronto 195.1,. p.6. ' • p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e areas &n6 experienced i n teas work t e c h -niques. <b) H e h a b i l i t a t i o n a e r y l e e s : M e d i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i ^ s should provide a c o r r e c t d i a g n o s i s as t o the health and p h y s i c a l competence of the i n d i v i d u a l . l a oases of c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f p a t i e n t s where p h y s i o s ! r e h a b i l i t a t i o n I s h i g h l y s p e c i a l i s e d and l o n g teria d a i l y t r a i n i n g i s r e q u i r e d i n h o s p i t a l , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i o e s should be provided simultaneously. P h y s i c a l r e -s t o r a t i o n s e r v i c e s should a l s o be provided f o r those who . need t o overcome or m i t i g a t e phyoio-1 disablements. T r a i n i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i o e s should i n c l u d e a u t h o r i t a t i v e e v a l u -a t i o n f o r sound planning u s u a l l y provided bjr a p s y c h o l o g i s t . M e a i c . l s u p e r v i s i o n of e l l t r a i n i n g , by q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s , Is necessary and a l l e u r r i o u l a aust meet accepted standards In order fchet t r a i n e e s can be t r a n s f e r r e d t o v o c a t i o n a l schools as soon as they are q u a l i f i e d . Commercial education, general c r a f t s , trades end academic education should be i n -eluded i n t r a i n i n g . Shops, set up f o r t r a i n i n g , can a l s o be used f o r work therapy ana employment. Another p o s s i b i l i t y would be a method of t r y i n g out d i s a b l e d t r a i n e e s In v o c a t i o n a l and employment s i t u a t i o n s . Baplo^ment r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are of s p e c i a l importance t o the handicapped as w e l l as the employers. The high turnover of some handicapped workers e&nnot be ignored* ouraged t o tcdee v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , They should be eneosr<: • r e t r a i n i n g , o r s h e l t e r e d employment. These workshops would provide aa opportunity to maintain accepted standards of employment aad more emportaat, provide <sork they are capable of aad w i t h pay eojameusurute w i t h t h e i r *ork c o n t r i b u t i o n . These workshops would provide both permanent und t r a n s i t o r y employment, f r a n s i t o r y employment should be provided f o r those iv i t b d e b i l i t a t i n g diseases and t&ose r e c o v e r i n g from such ailments as t u b e r c u l o s i s or a c a r d i a c c o n d i t i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e l y employment say be provided by employers who are reimbursed f o r t r a i n i n g workers u n t i l the necessary s k i l l s snd e f f i c i e n c y are acqui r e d . The greatest need i s t o p r o t e c t the worker from e x p l o i t a t i o n . S p e c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are e s s e n t i a l t o any comprehensive programs of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e i s e s s e n t i a l f o r those who are unable t o use p u b l i c conveyances. P r o a t n e t i e s e r v i c e s are r e q u i r e d f o r any pro-gramme ^here orthopedic treatment i s i n v o l v e d . R e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s are v a l u a b l e as a treatment and t r a i n i n g device f o r the d i s a b l e d . I t l a e s s e n t i a l t h a t s e r v i c e s a l s o be provided t o those who are no longer i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . This i n v o l v e s the n e c e s s i t y of working w i t h community agencies. Q u a l i f i e d s t a f f are req u i r e d t o g i v e d i r e c t i o n t o a l l members or the community who come i n t o contact w i t h the d i s a b l e d person. (c) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Personnel Personnel and t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s determine the scope and q u a l i t y of performance. I n c e r t a i n areas of r e -( 8 ) h a b l l i t a t i o n where e s t a b l i s h e d p r o f e s s i o n a l people such aa p h y s i c i a n s , nurses, occupational t h e r a p i s t s , p n y s i o a l t h e r a p i s t s , s o c i a l workers and teachers are employed, the standards of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . These -people r e c e i v e a d e f i n i t e p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n •shich must meet d e f i n i t e standards. I n most cases, they have r e c e i v e d i n t e r n s h i p or f i e l d s?ork experience under expert s u p e r v i s i o n . I a other areas where few q u a l i f i e d workers e x i s t e d aad t h e s e r v i c e s f o r c e r t a i n types of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n workers were In demand, personnel were r e c r u i t e d t o i i l l requirements. T h e i r d u t i e s o f t e a f e l l across s e v e r a l are^s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n * s e r v i c e . As a r e s u l t there haa been no accepted ed u c a t i o n a l or experience c r i t e r i a f o r those c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of workers as compared t o those s e t up f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel. These people have learned t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e s through experience, s p e c i a l eourses of study, i n s t i t u t e s Lhd i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . The t r a i n i n g and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of personnel In the r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n f i e l d s are matters that r e q u i r e f u r t h e r study and recommendation. As the f u n c t i o n s of these personnel o f t e n vary from, programme to programme, the- s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s of such workers need c l a r i f i c a t i o n f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes. Another e s s e n t i a l of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n worker i s that he can p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h and share h i s knowledge w i t h o t h e r s . G a r l o i n e E l l e d g e e x p l a i n s t h i s q u i t e c l e a r l y . . (9) "TetiEiwork i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s created throuj&h toe mutual understanding generated by two or more persons o f f e r i n g d i f f e r e n t , though r e l a t e d s e r -v i c e s to the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a p h y s i c a l i m p a i r -ment. T h i s understanding steias from two sources; one, r e c o g n i t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r area of compe-tence f o r whioh t r a i n i n g and experience have pre-pared the given expert to o f f e r s p e c i f i c r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n s e r v i c e s j and t«o, knowledge, understanding and apprSoristiou of the v&lua that s e r v i c e s by other experts my have f o r fche i n d i v i d u a l i n ter&s of b i s t c t & l r e s t o r a t i o n . Teamwork i s spontaneous under such circumstances. I t can be enriched through p a t t e r n s of working together such as i a r e g u l a r conferences, but i t cannot be produced by v i r t u e of the f a c t t h a t v a r i o u s experts are housed under th® SUM r o o f . " (d} R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Maintenance Allowances and A u x i l i a r y A l a s . I n order that c l i e n t s can t>ake advantage of the s e r v i c e of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme i t i s b a s i c that some form of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e should be provided. This should i n c l u d e t r a i n i n g allowances and oa*h benefits..* T r a i n i n g allowances are basic f o r any r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme and the t r a i n e e ' s dependents must a l s o be maintained i f t h e programme l a t o be s u c c e s s f u l , f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e Is a y a r d s t i c k t o measure the extent to which s e r v i c e s can be used. Both the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s and the v/orktaans Compensation Board make p r o v i s i o n f o r t r a i n i n g and maintenance of the d i s a b l e d . These w i l l bo d i scussed i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. Problems of the d i s a b l e d . (a) E x t e r n a l Adjustment. A l l of the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped have problems to 1. S l l e d g e C*H. The R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f the P a t i e n t , s o c i a l  oa&ework i a Medicine. T.P. Lippencott Company. Montreal. 1948, p.85. (10) lileofc as fciioy attempt t o a d j u s t t n e l r l i m i t e d equipment to th© demands of l i v i n g i n a s o o i a l environment. These ad-justments may be c l a s s i f i e d as e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l . Ex-t e r n a l adjustment has h i s t o r i c a l l y been very d i f f i c u l t * P r i m i t i v e mix s a e r i f i o e a the c r i p p l e d and d i s a b l e d f o r t h e good of the group and, although p u b l i c an£ p r i v a t e e f f o r t s have isiproved the s t a t u s of the d i s a b l e d , such of the h i s -t o r i c a l repugnance and d i s t a s t e s t i l l e x i s t s . The d i s a b l e d , the c r i p p l e d and the deformed have been condemned' as un-prod u c t i v e and useless burdens. Ssployers o f t e n have r a t i o n a l i z e d t h e i r p r e j u d i c i a l f e e l i n g s on economic grounds. Employment of the d i s a b l e d reduces p r o d u c t i v i t y , the d i s a b l e d person vdth U n i t e d p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s i s aore accident prone, and f i n a l l y , i n case of i n j u r y , the employer w i l l i&ve t o bear the c o s t of aggravation of the previous i n j u r y . The f i r s t two have no v a l i d i t y i n f a c t . The employer has been protected from the t h i r d f e a r by the second i n j u r y fund i n the workmen's Compensation Acts and, i n case of veterans, the pensioner's d i s a b i l i t y i s reassessed i n oase of aggravation. The d i s a b l e d , fro© the standpoint of f u n c t i o n a l ad-justment, are o f t e n d i v i d e d i n t o three groups. The p r o d u c t i v e , p a r t i a l l y productive and bedridden. A l l these groups must become adjusted to t h e i r environment. The adjustment of veterans of World War % and the development of job a n a l y s i s and d i s a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s which arose out o f the s?ork of the Department of S o l d i e r s C i v i l Re-establishment d i r e c t l y a f t e r (11) the war added great impetus t o the p u b l i c acceptance of the war and i n d u s t r i a l l y i n j u r e d i n Canada. Despite the use of a l l r e sources, sosie eases are considered s o c i a l l y i a o p e r u b l e and from the common sense viewpoint, must be accepted as such by s o e i a l workers and other r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c i a l s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , the i n j u r e d worker aiid the d i s a b l e d veteran are faced w i t h proble&s i n v o l v i n g l i t i g a t i o n con-ce r n i n g c l a i m s f o r d i s a b i l i t y . These o f t e n take stonths t o a d j u d i c a t e w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the foremost tbough of the handicapped i n d i v i d u a l i s whether h i s c l & i a m i l l be accepted or not. Another d i s t r i c t i n g o b s t a c l e to the handicapped i s the amount of time which he twist spend wandering froia one o f f i c i a l t o another, a l l of which appears f r u i t l e s s and t i a e -vsastlng. The i n d u s t r i a l worker, perhaps, has a g r e a t e r f e e l i n g of f r u s t r a t i o n I n t h i s regard than the d i s a b l e d v e t e r a n . The v e t e r a n , as a r u l e , through h i s s e r v i c e e x p e r i -ences, has become more adjusted t o such procedures. Members of the d i s a b l e d man's family.and community most a l s o adjust t o h i s handicap. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n worker i s o f t e n e s s e n t i a l . His l i m i t a t i o n s are o f t e n not accepted w i t h the r e s u l t that he v s i l l attempt t o keep up t o the former l e v e l o f h i s s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s or may withdraw e n t i r e l y fro® a c t i v i t i e s of any s o r t . On the other hand he asay be overproteeted and l o s e the independence which he has once had and which i n most instances i s e s s e n t i a l t o h i s s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment. ( 1 8 ) (b) I n t e r n a l Aa.1uqtJa.ent. The d i s a b l e d t h e a s s l v a s , r e a c t i n many v a r i e d ^ays t o t h e i r handicaps. Reactions w i l l depend upon the t o t a l l i f e experiences, the type of d i s a b i l i t y , the circumstances which brought &oeut the d i s a b i l i t y , baa a t t i t u d e of r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s and above a l l , upon h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional and personal a t t r i b u t e s which he has brought i n t o t h e new experience. ?ae ultia&t© success of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n pro-cess depends upon the i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f . A nature i n d i v i d u a l who has learned t o face other problems w i l l l i k e l y meet a d i s a b i l i t y d i r e c t l y , H@ w i l l accept the new l i m i t a t i o n , take advantage of resources, and i n soxae oases reach a stage of m a t u r i t y which he might have otherwise never a t t a i n e d . On the other hand the immature I n d i v i d u a l may develop an a t -t i t u d e of b e l l i g e r e n c e to p r o t e c t h i m s e l f f r o a p i t y and c r i t i c i s m . The only way he can defend himself i s t o f i g h t . Another may become overdependent and remain a complete i n -v a l i d . Another *aay seek t o deny t h a t he i s not p h y s i c a l l y p e r f e c t . In some oases he ssay succeed but i n most oases the i n d i v i d u a l f a l l s and o f t e n develops another handicap t o a c t as a c r u t c h f o r the f i r s t . I t I s w e l l f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n worker t o remember that eaoh i n d i v i d u a l has a breaking point and may develop problems vshich he cannot faoe without h e l p . In some cases, he may r e q u i r e only f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o h e l p him over the f i r s t h u r d l e . I n o t h e r s , he w i l l r e q u i r e constant support to h i s strengths t o help him over succeeding h u r d l e s . (13) (o) S p e c i a l Problems of Veterans, The veteran aas handicaps t o overeojne which the c i v i l i a n does not encounter. tfar, w ith i t s m i l i t a r y need f o r obedience t o orders and i t s frequent s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f s e l f d i r e c t i o n and lndepanddont t h i n k i n g o f f e r s l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e t o the a&olesesnt t o complete emancipation. $he temptation Is o f t e n present t o y i e l d t o an e x t e r n a l dependency. The serviceman's l o a s of i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f t e n «as eumpsnauted by a f e e l i n g of belonging and r e a l i s a t i o n of acceptance which he may never have r e c e i v e d i n c i v i l i a n l i f e * D e m o b i l i s a t i o n brought a f e e l i n g of i n s e c u r i t y as he had to f i n d new groups and other f i g u r e s upon v&lch t o f a s t e n h i s l o y a l t i e s , the serviceman, turned c i v i l i a n , hud t o overcome f e e l i n g of aggressiveness vshioh m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t y had i n s t i l l e d i n him. I n the m a j o r i t y of cases the progress of adjustment me one of. gradual movement, f i r s t to veterans o r g a n i z a t i o n s and afterwards to acceptance of h i s own community and s o o i a l l i f e . . fhe veteran develops a brusquenesa and & c a l l o u s n e s s t o faoe the r e a l i t i e s of war ?/h!eh, t o h i s f a m i l y and h i s f r i e n d s , o f t e n appear as a hardness and i&aiunity t o human love and s u f f e r i n g . The d i s a b l e d v e t e r a n , on the other hand, has i n h i s periods of iss&ediate h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , a f o o l i n g of acceptance from h i s community and aa a r e s u l t of h i s p r o x i m i t y t o other d i s a b l e d men, a f e e l i n g of belonging which the i n j u r e d worker r a r e l y has. For example i n Canada as a r e s u l t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n immediately a f t e r rtorld War I , the amputee of World War I I was v i s i t e d by an o f f i c e r of the 114) War Amputations of Canada and subsequently raade a member. (d) Casework wi t h the D i s a b l e d . The case merger.,'with h i s Knowledge end under-standing of humaa behaviour, h i s a b i l i t y t o perceive the hidden reason, f e e l i n g , strengths and weaknesses sftich the i n d i v i d u a l b r i n g s i n t o the p r o b l e a , has the a b i l i t y to help the i n d i v i d u a l In h i s p s y c h o - s o c i a l adjustment, fhe case worker, % i t h h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l can a l s o help the d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l t o help h i a s e l f , r e s o l v e h i s f e a r s , s o r t out h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s and cose to g r i p s w i t h h i s problem. Ho can i n t e r p r e t t h e s i t u a t i o n to the f a m i l y ami the comsaunity and knows the way i n which a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e can most e f -f e c t i v e l y help h i s c l i e n t . The ease worker should, w i t h h i s knowledge of i n d i v i d u a l , group and community behavdous, work w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l , s t e p by step i f necessary, through medical treatment, t r a i n i n g , and placement. Canadian Programmes. A great number of agencies i n Canada are a c t i v e , both d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y , t o p r o v i d e s e r v i o e s f o r the handicapped. F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l governments p a r t i c i p a t e through the d i r e c t p r o v i s i o n s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e e r v i c e s by o f f e r i n g grants In a i d t o d i f f e r e n t agencies, and through the p r o v i s i o n of supporting h e a l t h and welfare s e r v i c e s . .4 l a r g e number of v o l u n t a r y agencies ao&pls&ent and supplement p u b l i c e f f o r t by a wide range of s e r v i c e s t h a t touch every aspect of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process. The ( is) Canadian p a t t e r n has bean f o r theso p r i v a t e agencies to develop a programme f o r s p e c i f i c types of d i s a b i l i t i e s such as those r e s u l t i n g from t u b e r c u l o s i s , p o l l o i a y e l i t l s , a l c o -h o l i s m , m u l t i p l e s c l e r o s i s , c e r e b r a l p a l s y , p a r a p l e g i a , heart d i s o r d e r s , otmoer ond a r t h r i t i s , a n d rheumatism. These programmes a r e administered and financed f o r the moat, p a r t by p r i v a t e p h i l a n t h r o p i c s o c i e t i e s a s s i s t e d by p u b l i c grants In a i d . Examples or such s o c i e t i e s are the Canadian n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r the B l i n d , the Canadian A r t h r i t i c and Hheuiaatisa S o c i e t y , the Toronto S o c i e t y f o r C r i p p l e d C i v i l i a n s , and the Western S o c i e t y f o r P h y s i c a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n a t Vancouver. Other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as the Vancouver C o u n c i l f o r the puidanee of the Handicapped and the Montreal Advisory C o u a c i l f o r the B&ndie&pped, c a r r y out Important survey and p u b l i c i t y work. The f e d e r a l government, u n l i k e the governments of Hew Zealand and B r i t a i n , has no comprehensive l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r the handicapped vdtb the exception or the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s . The Department o f N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare administer the N a t i o n a l Health Grant Programme end annual grants are made t o a number of agencies concerned vith r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The department of Labour a t e l n l s t e r s v a r i o u s types of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t s . & general employment s e r v i c e f o r d i s a b l e d persons i s provided through the S p e c i a l Placements D i v i s i o n of the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e . In the past year, pensions f o r ( 1 6 ) the t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d person bav,e been Inaugurated, S p e c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are provided f o r s p e c i f i c oases by p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l governments i n Canada. In Saskatchewan and B r i t i s h Columbia, compulsory h o s p i t a l insurance prograjastes cover a l s o s t the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n . S p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n i n other provinces is zaaue f o r h o s p i t a l i -z a t i o n , comprehensive medical and s u r g i c a l care and c e r t a i n other h e a l t h s e r v i c e s f o r r e c i p i e n t s o f some pensions and a s s i s t a n c e programmes. Saskatchewan i s the only province w i t h a c i v i l i a n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program© i n Canada. B r i t i s h Columbia has enacted s o c i a l w e l f a r e l e g i s l a t i o n which permits the development of such a programs. However, i n p r o p t i c e , p u b l i c welfare o f f i c i a l s u t i l i z e e x i s t i n g p r i v a t e agency r e -sources r a t h e r than develop new f a c i l i t i e s to meat t h e i r requirements. 1'hrougnout Canada, g e n e r a l l y , «torkfi8ns( Com-pensation Boards have been concerned w i t h the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the i n j u r e d workaen. The i n t e n s i t y of the programme v a r i e s from province to province. The riethod of S & u d y A Dominion R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Coordinator and t e n P r o v i n c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Coordinators have been appointed w i t h i n the past two yea r s . The B r i t i s h Columbia programme i s showing progress i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n and the estb&lish&ent of new f a c i l i t i e s through the cooperation of l o c a l agencies. The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme haa been i n the process of growth f o r aany y e a r s . The Department has had access to a l a r g e amount of p u b l i c monies t o f i n a n c e & M c a r r y out a Canada wide programme. The workmen's Ooiapeasation Board of B r i t i s h Columbia's program&e has been i n e x i s t e n c e f o r a s h o r t e r p e r i o d of time aad t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s are l i m i t e d as they are d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l a r g e number of employers throughout the province. The h i s t o r y and philosophy of these t^o agencies w i l l be reviewed i n Chapter I I . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of comparing the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programmes of these two l a r g e agencies r e v e a l s s e v e r a l o b s t a o l e s . One disadvantage i s that the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s has a great amount of l e g i s -l a t i o n end medical and other f a c i l i t i e s w h i l e the Wor&ae.n*s Compensation Board has a s c a r c i t y of l e g i s l a t i o n and fens medical or other f a c i l i t i e s . Another disadvantage i n com-p a r i n g programmes was the i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the vtork&an's Compensation Board f i l e s . Arrangements were made t h a t case summaries \sould be prepared as they were requested. Non-medical aspects of the general r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are coordinated by the Veterans Welfare O f f i c e r i n the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s acd by the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n O f f i c e r s I n the Workmen's Compensation Board. I n t h i s t h e s i s i t i s proposed t o compare the broad r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme of these two r e s p e c t i v e branches. (18) The f o u r ©laments of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programed have been s t a t e d as, the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process, £shabili- . t a t i o n s e r v i c e s , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n personnel, and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n flteintename allowance© and a u x i l i a r y a i d s . As the Dopatiasnt o f Veterans A f f a i r s programs i s o u t l i n e d i n the l a r g e number of a c t s and r e g u l a t i o n s , th© p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n aa i t p e r t a i n s to the four elements w i l l be' i n v e s t i g a t e d i n Ohapter I I I . I n instances where tho l i t e r a t u r e doas not r e v e a l the Workman's Compensation Board approach, tho i n f o r -station w i l l be obtained froia the a p p r o p r i a t e o f f i c i a l s . T h i s t h e , w i l l i n c l u d e a d i s c u s s i o n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ( a e d i o a l , v o c a t i o n a l and employment), and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n allowances and a u x i l i a r y a i d s . As i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l government l e g l s l a t & o n , s e t t i n g up new depatinents or u n i t e , each agency I s u&vsn a u t h o r i t y t o acquire p s r s o n n s l t o c a r r y out t h e i r prograiase. 3*ae nmabsr and q u a l i t y o f the personnel are l e f t to the d i s c r e t i o n of a design&ted a u t h o r i t y . Personnel w i l l only ba mentioned as they r e l a t e t o soma p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e and t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ana t o t a l d u t i e s w i l l not be di s c u s s e d . The remaining alament i s the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process, which mora or l e s s r e f l e c t s tho s e r v i c e s which are a v a i l a b l e to the i n j u r e d veteran or workman from the t i n s of h o s p i t a l i -z a t i o n u n t i l ha i s s u c c e s s f u l l y r o - e s t a b l i s h e d i n h i s coia&unity. The process, as o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r In t h i s chapter w i l l for© U S ) the basio o u t l i n e f o r tho i n v e s t i g a t i o n of these s e r v i c e s i n Chapter IV. A number of cases w i t h f a i r l y s i m i l a r i n j u r i e s w i l l be used t o compare the depth and breadth of s e r v i c e of each agency i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . Some of the p r i n c i p a l p o i n t s of l e g i s l a t i o n and of s e r v i c e s w i l l be reviewed i n Chapter V. An attempt w i l l be made t o determine the d i r e c t i o n which development of r e s -p e c t i v e agencies amy t.ke i n tho f u t u r e and some points w i l l be d i s c u s s e d which may be considered i n approaching f u r t h e r study i n these r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programmes. (20) THE H I S T O R Y - A N D PHILOSOPHY OF T B B W O R K M E N »-S COMPENSATION BOAKD O F B R I T I S H C O L O M B I A AND OF W I S DEPARTMENT O F V B T E R A U S APE&IBS The department; or Veterans A f f a i r s (a) I n t r o d u c t i o n P r i o r to World War I , Canada's a t t i t u d e toward veterans, whether d i s a b l e d or otherwise, was i n f l u e n c e d by B r i t i s h thought ^ n f ' a c t i o n and the c e n t u r i e s o l d custom of g i v i n g l a n d grants to veterans. Mendicancy and p a t r o n i z i n g c h a r i t y was, as a r u l e , t h e s o l d i e r ' s l o t a f t e r h i s days Of usefulness were over, Tha d i s c h a r g e d - s o I M o r was the . l o c a l community's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , : p r o v i d e d by- fcner Poor Law prac-t i c e s • •i The f i r s t acknowledgement t h a t the s t a t e should - \ be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r veterans of wars was i n England inhere Chelsea H o s p i t a l f o r Old S o l d i e r s was founded by Charles I I i n 1632 t o please a whim of,one of h i a m i s t r e s s e s . C h a r i t a b l e , appeals were made t o a i d the d i s a b l e d and the needy dependents!!' of the s o l d i e r s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of funds was place i n the v hands of p r i v a t e agencies under r o y a l pat&pnage. The Canadian p a t t e r n hud s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Land grants were d i s t r i b u t e d and v o l u n t a r y a i d was expected to fflggt;.needy cases. Pensions were granted where the d i s -a b i l i t y c o u l d be d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d to a c t i v e s e r v i c e . These, on the whole, were q u i t e inadequate and c o u l d be ad-jus t e d at any time. Often the veteran's income was used as (21) a yard s t i c k of pension adjustment. Canada assumed l i t t l e • ••••• • jr •" r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Boer War veterans other than bjl g i v i n g . them land g r a n t s . Boer War pensions were pai d by t h e - B r i t i s h Government. Canada, between the »ar of 1812 and World $ar I , had been i n v o l v e d i n minor m i l i t a r y campaigns where very s m a l l numbers of s o l d i e r s were concerned and w i t h i t s dominently a g r i c u l t u r a l economy, the country absorbed the discharged s o l d i e r s without d i f f i c u l t y . I n e v a l u a t i n g t h i s e a r l y a t t i t u d e , I t should a l s o be considered that no count-r i e s had %6y.sound programme of c i v i l i a n re-establishment. The t r a i n i n g of i n d u s t r i a l c r i p p l e s had reached i t s g r e a t e s t development i n Belgium. There were a very s m a l l number of schools i n H o l l a n d , the United States and England. The great advances i n medicine, s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and v o c a t i o n a l programmes were s t i l l t o come* (b) The Impact of World War I I n august 1914, the f i r s t Canadians were being m o b i l i z e d and r e a d i e d t o go overseas t o f i n i s h the war by. Christmas* The i n i t i a l t h i n k i n g of government p o l i c y can best be judged by the a t t i t u d e t o s o l d i e r ' s dependents*, The p r i v a t e was p a i d a d o l l a r a day and h i o w i f e r e c e i v e d only twenty d o l l a r s a month* The Canadian P a t r i o t i c Fund which" was modelled a f t e r the South A f r i c a n Fund of the Boer War disbursed twenty-fiSe m i l l i o n d o l l a r s between li>14 and 1917 ; (22) to supplement ina&euate, s t a t e support f o r needy s o l d i e r s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The government p a i d c i v i l servants t h e i r r e g u l a r s a l a r i e s to encourage e n l i s t m e n t . As the years dragged by and the wounded began to r e t u r n and the l a r g e number of c a s u a l t i e s brought-about growing demands f o r r e -c r u i t s , t h e Canadian government was oompelled by p u b l i c o p i n i o n and p o l i t i c a l Expediency to take more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f a m i l i e s of s e r v i c e men and f o r the returnedv- 4soldiers. P o l i t i c a l pressure which waned on the p&it of the c i v i l i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the t w e n t i e s , was taken up by veterans o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the Canadian Legion. The r e s u l t has been t h a t the government has reviewed veteran's l e g i s l a t i o n q u i t e o f t e n through the years and brought i n new l e g i s l a t i o n t o cope w i t h changing s i t u a t i o n s . (c) The M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l Commission , The Depatment of M i l i t i a and Defence was respon-s i b l e f o r the discharged s o l d i e r at the outbreak of World War I . A committee from t h i s department was appointed t o provide care and treatment f a c i l i t i e s f o r the s o l d i e r discharged from a c t i v e s e r v i c e . I n June, 1915, the M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l Commission was created t o take overthe h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n - . o f wounded and d i s a b l e d e x - s o l d i e r s . The Commission's powers were increased i n 1916 t o give a u t h o r i t y t o e s t a b l i s h and administer a l l necessary h o s p i t a l s . An e a r l y r e p o r t of the commission urged the establishment of a comprehensive system ( 2 3 ) of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , A great step forward was made when the government .determined t h a t t t i a prograuuae should he under c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y e.nd not l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as previous programmes had been. S o l d i e r ' s Aid Coia&isalons were estab-l i s h e d i n eaoh province t o supplement the J e d e r a l Government programme. The (jonmission appointed a v o c a t i o n a l s e c r e t a r y i n 1018 and began experimental v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t s . L a t e r , in June of t h o same year, t h e coszaia3ion was gi v e n th© a u t h o r i t y t o t r a i n , a f t e r d i s c h a r g e , mens ho were so d i s a b l e d by war.'service t h a t they c o u l d not f o l l o w t h e i r former occupation. The i n i t i a l p l a n was t o g i v e t r a i n i n g i n c u r a t i v e work and i n d u s t r i a l r e t r a i n i n g simultaneously w h i l e p a t i e n t s were c o n v a l e s c i n g . This mixing o f c l a s s e s l e d t o s e r i o u s misunderstanding about the work, amonj the men, the d o c t o r s , and the i n s t r u c t o r s . The work was then d i v i d e d I n t o two branches - tho c u r a t i v e work and the i n -d u s t r i a l r e - t r a i n i n g . The c u r a t i v e work was t o take place w h i l e the men were i n h o s p i t a l and under the d i r e c t i o n of do c t o r s . I n d u s t r i a l r e - t r a i n i n g was to take pli±ce a f t e r discharge and a f t e r medical treatment ceased. I n i n d u s t r i a l r e - t r a i n i n g , men were t o be students and not p a t i e n t s . Doctors were t o be a d v i s o r s and not i n c o n t r o l of the d i r e c t i o n of the work. The d i r e c t o r of t r a i n i n g summarized p o l i c y changes. (34) In 1917: . 1. To make a sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between occupational therapy and i n d u s t r i a l r e - t r a i h i n g . 2. To introduce the a p p r e o t i c e s h i p system i n t o i n -d u s t r i a l r e - t r a i n i n g . 3. To a i d t h i s purpose, the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a system of i n d u s t r i a l surveys oi' employers. 4. To make occupational therapy i n the h o s p i t a l s compulsory, provided the doctors concurred i n each case. 5* To Increase the number of returned s o l d i e r s on the s t a f f and t o introduce a l a r g e number of men of the executive s t a f f w i t h i n d u s t r i a l experience. 6« To i n t e r v i e w a l l men i n the I n v a l i d e d s e c t i o n before discharged i n regard t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o c a r r y on i n c i v i l l i f e . 7. To introduce measures to see t h a t a l l men already discharged through the i n v a l i d e d / s e c t i o n , were communicated w i t h e i t h e r by l e t t e i ; personal i n -t e r v i e w , or through t h e t r a v e l l i n g v i s i t o r s of the Pension Board. I n t he d i v i s i o n between treatment and t r a i n i n g may be seen the beginnings of i n d u s t r i a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , t r a i n i n g , and an understanding o f the, l i m i t s of occupational therapy, v o c a t i o n a l guidance and occu p a t i o n a l survey. A s c a l e of pay and allowances was provided so chat the men and t h e i r de-pendents c o u l d be p r o p e r l y maintained. (d) The Depatment of S o l d i e r s C i v i l Re-establi3hment E a r l y i n 1918 an Order i n C o u n c i l (PC 4S£1) was passed changing the name of the M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l s Commission to the I n v a l i d e d 8 o l d i e r 3 Commission and c r e a t i n g a new Depart -, , ., ., j 1.Segsworth, W.ff. B e t r a i h l n g Canada's Disabled Sold&ers. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1920. p. 15. (25) ment of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment, A v o c a t i o n a l branon was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the new -department which took over the e x i s t i n g t r a i n i n g programme. The changes and growth i n 1918 may be s t a t e d a3 f o l l o w s ; 1* The i n s t i t u t i o n of the f o l l o w up and a f t e r care s e c t i o n . 2. The i n t r o d u o a t i o n of a s m a l l amount of s o c i a l s e r v i c e work. 3. . The p r o v i s i o n of medical treatment f o r men t a k i n g i n d u s t r i a l r e t r a i n i n g . 4. The o r g a n i s a t i o n of S t a t i s t i c s and Cost s e c t i o n s . 5. The c r e a t i o n of a s e c t i o n f o r the B l i n d . 6. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of ward occupations as a separate and d i s t i n c t branch of the work. 7* The c r e a t i o n of a research s e c t i o n . Here are found the r e c o g n i t i o n of research, the n e c e s s i t y of s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t r o l , the need f o r f o l l o w up and a f t e r care work when t r a i n e e s entered i n d u s t r y , and the neoessity of s o c i a l s e r v i c e v i s i t a t i o n i n h o s p i t a l f o r tli e p e r i o d of vo-c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . H o r The v o c a t i o n a l branch was d i v i d e d i n t o three p a r t s . Ward occupations, done hymen confined t o w^rds, was designed f o r i t s mental and p h y s i c a l c u r a t i v e v a l u e . Women were t r a i n e d , through departmental arrangements, f o r t h i s work and i t was administered by them under medical d i r e c t i o n * C u r a t i v e workshops had the same general purpose as word occupations but the work was h e a v i e r . The I n d i v i d u a l ' s work toleranoe and TT Segsworth, W . B . op c i t p. I S , 2. England R. Discharged. Toronto, The MacMillan Co. of Canada L i m i t e d , 1943, p.166. (26) c o m p a t i b i l i t y was sometimes.tested by moving him from one occupation t o another. I n d u s t r i a l r e t r a i n i n g was conducted e n t i r e l y a f t e r discharge. Only those men, who had d i s -a b i l i t i e s a r i s i n g d i r e c t l y f rcka war s e r v i c e and which pre-vented 'them from f o l l o w i n g t h e i r prewar occupation, were e l i g i b l e f o r such t r a i n i n g . D i s t r i c t v o c a t i o n a l o f f i c e r s were given freedom of a c t i o n as t r a i n i n g h<id t o be adapted t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . Every d i s a b l e d man who was discharged was t o be inte r v i e w e d by a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the department. T r a i n i n g was not compulsory and a man's choice was not r e s t r i c t e d unless i t was "obviously a bad one". The i n t e r v i e w e r , "the man who co u l d best understand these men and get t h e i r con-f i d e n c e , was the one who has him s e l f a t some time a c t u a l l y earned h i s d a i l y wage a t some heavy occupation*" " I t was a l s o considered a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l by a l l the men o f the s t a f f of the department t h ^ t the Interviewer at l e a s t i f none other, must be a returned man, as he was the only one who could t a l k to th© man being i n t e r v i e w e d on ®ns§g.ual foot i n g . t t 2 Thus there was the r e c o g n i t i o n of c l i e n t a<ilS determination and the misquided o f f i c i a l b e l i e f that only an ex- s e r v i c e man c*n understand another. The i n t e r v i e w e r s were d i v i d e d i n t o v a r i o u s o l i a s s i f l c a t i o n s and placed accord-i n g l y * T r a i n i n g was provided by promoting t he i n t e r v i e w e r through these d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s . I f he was looked upon as a 1. Segsworth op c i t p.24-29 2. Segsworth I b i d p. 53-54 (27) • f i r s t c l a s s i n t e r v i e w e r * , he was placed o n - i n d u s t r i a l survey work to get f i r s t hand job i n f o r m a t i o n . He al30 had t o study the s c h o o l system t o become f a m i l i & r with courses and methods* The i n t e r v i e w e r WKS a l s o t o l e a r n a great d e a l about d i s a b i l i t i P r o v i s i o n wau a l s o made f o r f o l l o w up s e r v i c e s I n order that the i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d be given encouragement and advice i n h i s f i n a l step of v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Besides p e r s o n a l , medical, t r a i n i n g and placement s e r v i c e s the Depatment had c-.rried on w i t h the manufacture and maintenance of orthopaedic and s u r g i o a l appliances which had begun under the o l d - M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l Commissions. The Department of £.ivil Re-estabiisnment t r a i n e d 43,000 d i s a b l e d s o l d i e r s and those who werej minors on en l i s t m e n t , at a const of |43,000,000 or about #1,000 per man. I n a d d i t i o n to the above programme, there were the r e g u l a r b e n e f i t s as s u p p l i e d by V/ar Se r v i c e G r a t u i t y and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e in s e t t l i n g on l a n d . I n 1919, C i v i l S e r v i c e p r e f e r e n c e l was granted. (e) S p e c i a l Programmes f o r the B l i n d and the Tuberoulosis  P a t i e n t . Perhaps the most comprehensive programme a r i s i n g from r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures of World War I was that o f t r e a t -ment f o r the b l i n d . The method, which was employed at S t , Dunstans i n England under S i r Ar t h u r Pearson, was i n i t i a t e d i n Canada e a r l y i n 1918 under the l e a d e r s h i p of Captain E.A. Baker (now Lieutenant Colonel Baker) himself a graduate of T7 The veteran was r e q u i r e d to pass whatever examiha,ti'on~was set before the preference became o p e r a t i v e . (28) the E n g l i s h School. This man was In charge of the o v e r a l l programme f o r the b l i n d throughout the-country. The f i r s t r e turned b l i n d e d s o l d i e r s together w i t h c i v i l i a n b l i n d , formed the Canadian N a t i o n a l i n s i t u t e f o r the B l i n d and the Department of C i v i l ae-establishment t r a i n e d t h e i r b l i n d i n the f a c i l i t i e s provided by t h i s new i n s t i t u t i o n . Under t h i s progranime the b l i n d ware t r a i n e d by other b l i n d i n s t r u c t o r s . Those b l i n d i n s t r u c t o r s are I n v a l u a b l e . I f the man recog-n i z e s the f a c t t h a t the I n d i v i d u a l g i v i n g the I n s t r u c t i o n was but r e c e n t l y i n the same p o s i t i o n as he h i m s e l f , he r e a l i z e s that the i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be p r a c t i c a b l e and a l s o that he i s not being usked to do something t h a t has not been done before by those l a b o u r i n g under the same handicap. A l s o by e r r a d i c a t i n g the term ' a f f l i c t i o n * and impressing each man w i t h the ddea that he;has but t o overcome a handicap which has been imposed, a more c h e e r f u l and ambitious bearing i s 1 '• • induced. As w e l l as a work programme, r e c r e a t i o n and s p o r t s were emphasized i n order that the man oould become more s e l f r e l i a n t and c o n f i d e n t . The. i n t r o d u c t i o n of ward occupations to tuber-c u l o s i s s a n a t o r i a was pioneered by the Department of S o l d i e r s * C i v i l Re-establishment and i t was recognized as of great t h e r a -p e u t i c value and copied by many c i v i l i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s . The l o c a t i o n of the Department's Sanatoria a l s o r e f u t e d many of the o l d e s t a b l i s h e d t h e o r i e s that c e r t a i n a l t i t u d e s and 1.- Segsworth, op o i t p. 131. (39) remoteness from water were necessary f o r improvement or cure of t u b e r c u l o s i s . Their i n c e n t i v e a l s o allowed the inaugera-t i o n and establishment of new forms of treatment. ( f ) The Canadian Pension Commission The.Board of Pension Commissioners were another body which was c r e a t e d by l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1916. O r i g i n a l l y , they d e a l t with a number of orders i n c o u n c i l and r e g u l a t i o n s * I n 1919 these measures, w i t h adaptions and a d d i t i o n s were i n -corporated i n a s t a t u t u e e n t i t l e d *The Pension A c t . " The Board of three Commissioners had s o l e a u t h o r i t y t o determine pension entitlement and aominster the a c t . In 1920, Returned S o l d i e r s Insurance was inaugerated t o cover the case of the v e t e r a n who was considered a poor r i s k f o r insurance companies* Approximately twenty-nine thousand took advantage of the insurance p l a n . The p l a n was supervised by the Board of Pension Commissioners. I n 1921 the Pension Board o r g a n i z a t i o n was absorbed by the Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment. Various changes were made i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h i s Board i n the f o l l o w i n g years but i t has always r e t a i n e d i t s own i d e n t i t y a t the l o c a l l e v e l and has been d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o some high o f f i c i a l i n the department t o which i t has been attached. At the moment i t i s known as the Canadian Pension Commission and i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o the deputy m i n i s t e r . (30) (g) The S o l d i e r s ' Settlement Board of Canada Another government agency u h i c h d e a l t d i r e c t l y w i t h re-establlshment was the S o l d i e r s 1 Settlement Board o f Canada. Two of i t s p r i n c i p l e s of p o l i c y were: "to s e t t l e on the la n d s o l d i e r c i t i z e n s whose best i n t e r e s t w i l l be served by engaging i n farming" and "to provide such guidance and a s s i s t a n c e as may be h e l p f u l t o the s e t t l e r ' s wife and f a m i l y i n the development of the home and the economic and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , as a f a c t o r i n the success of the s e t t l e r . " 1 Some handicapped veterans were s e t t l e d on farms. The re p o r t s t a t e s t h a t a s o l d i e r s o o t i e r w i t h a l e g o f f above the knee was making a suooess of farming and explained "the human element i s one of the c h i e f f a o t o r s which made one man succeed where another would f a i l . ' * 2 In s p i t e of t h i s philosophy the p r o p o r t i o n of m i s f i t s s e t t l e d on farms was too hig h . The hi g h p r o p o r t i o n of marginal and submarginal farms bought during a p e r i o d of i n f l a t i o n f o l l o w e d by the impact of the Immediate post-war depression, proved too great a handicap f o r many s e t t l e r s d e s p i t e v a r i o u s l e g i s l a t i v e measures of a remedial nature. This S o l d i e r s ' Settlement Board of Canada operated under s e v e r a l departments of government i n c l u d i n g the Department of Immigration and C o l o n i z a t i o n and the Department of Mines and Resources. 1. Canada, Report of the S o l d i e r Settlement Board of Canada. Ottawa, Kings P r i n t e s s , March 31, 1921. p. 151 2. I b i d p. 155 3. Woods W.8. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Ottawa, Queens P r i n t e r , 1953.p.139 (31) (h) The Formation of the Department of Pensions and  National, H e a l t h . Some of the main departments of government which d e a l t w i t h veteran's problems have bsen mentioned. However, i t oan e a s i l y be seen that such a l a r g e e n t e r p r i s e i n v o l v e s a l l departments' of government tuy'jvarying degrees. The work of the Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l H e-establisljraent diminished as- the e x-service man g r a d u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f i n c i v i l i a n l i f e . At the samelAiae, however,.veteran's o r g a n i z a t i o n s became more a c t i v e and the pressures of these groups f o r c e d the government to a c o n t i n u a l review and r e v i s i o n o f p o l i c y . I n 1922, the R a l s t o n Commis-s i o n was appointed and the work of t h i s commission over a two year p e r i o d formed t h e basis of a great deal of f u t u r e government l e g i s l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d s of t r e a t -ment and pensions. I n 1924, an Order i n C o u n c i l (PG16541) provided quarters and maintenance f o r i n d i g e n t pensioners. In 1925, the f i r s t mention of the word r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n appears. The government s t a f f e d l o c a l committees of prominent c i t i z e n s i n various c i t i e s o f the country. These committees d e a l t w i t h those veterans whom i t had been im-p o s s i b l e to p l a c e . "The aim of the committee i s t o send the r i g h t man, one whose d i s a b i l i t y w i l l not prevent him from earning f u l l wages w i t h a s h o r t time. Therefore t r a i n i n g , h a b i t s and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have a d i s t i n c t bearing upon h i s permanent placement."1 1. Canada S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Ke-establishment, Annual Beport, Ottawa Kings P r i n t e r , 1925, p.19. (32) l a Toronto, 250 suoh men were p l a c e , two t h i r d s of these 1 placements were considered psrcianent. I n 1928 the Depart-ment of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment was absorbed i n t o tho new Department of Pensions and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h . ( i ) The V e t e r a n s ' Bureau I n 1930, as a r e s u l t of veteran unrest regarding pension entitlement,, a Veterans' Bureau was e s t a b l i s h e d to a s s i s t a p p l i c a n t s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e i r elaims* This i s an independent branch over which the Canadian Pension Commission has no a u t h o r i t y . Th© pension advocates, u s u a l l y t r a i n e d lawyers, are d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o the c h e l f advocate I n Ottawa. The veteran has the a u t h o r i t y to choose h i s own advoeate i f he so d e s i r e s . The Canadian Legion maintains pension adjustment o f f i c e r s f o r t h i s purpose across the country. The pension advocate i s I n change of procedure Vshich i s based upon tv*o broad p r i n c i p l e s : "that complete and i n t e l l i g e n t p r e p a r a t i o n of the case I n the f i r s t i n stance under expert guidance would enable j u d i c i a l d i s p o s a l t o be made of i t more e f f e c t i v e l y than when evidence i s submitted piecemeal and that p r i o r t o li e a r i n g by an Appeal Board, a d e t a i l e d summary of the evidence r e l a t i n g to h i s c l a i m would be r e q u i r e d to s a t i s f y h i mself t h a t a l l the m a t e r i a l he wished to have considered i s contained i n the summary and to so c e r t i f y , thus b r i n g i n g about s u b s t a n t i a l f i n a l i t y . " 2 { j ) The Inauguration of War Veterans' Allowanoe In 1930, as a r e s u l t of Canadian Legion pressure and government i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the War Veterans' Allowance 1. Canada S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment, op c i t p*19 2* Woods V/.8* op c i t p.411 (33) Act was passed by parliament. The purpose of the Aot, t o b r i n g a new form of s o o i a l s e c u r i t y t o veterans, was unique i n i t s conception. Dr. King o u t l i n e d t h i s i n i n t r o d u c i n g B i l l 19 t o the House of Commons. n the l e g i s l a t i o n contemplates the removal of the t o t a l l y and permanently unemployable veteran from the labour market re g a r d l e s s of age. I n other c o u n t r i e s the p r a c t i c e had been t o place such veterans i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . The e f f e c t of the proposed measure would be t o maintain the man i n h i s home surroundings, which, besides being more conducive t o h i s happiness, would permit him t o r e t a i n h i s s e l f respect and i n -dependence;5*! The v e t e r a n who had seen s e r v i c e i n a th e a t r e of war was e l i g i b l e f o r a s s i s t a n c e , an a c t u a l extension of Old Age Pension, at the age of s i x t y or before that age i f he was permanently unemployable. The r e c i p i e n t ' s 1 e l i g i b i l i t y i s adj u d i c a t e d at the l o c a l l e v e l and he has the r i g h t to ap-peal any d e c i s i o n t o the a/ar Veterans' Allowance Board at Ottawa. The pensioner was, from 1923, e n t i t l e d t o unemploy-ment a s s i s t a n e e H o augment h i s pension i f i t was inadequate f o r maintenance. vs'ar Veterans' Allowance, with i t s amendments has proven I t s worth and .carried out the o b l i g a t i o n of the government i n regard t o necessitous cases. However, the problem f o r those f i t and able to work but without means, which was brought about by tne depression, remained to be s o l v e d . I n 1938 the Veterans' A s s i s t a n c e Commission was e s t a b l i s h e d fco help s o l v e the problem. 3ome of the e a r l i e r 1. Canadian Parliament, House of Commons, O f f i c i a l Report of  Debates c i t e d l a the Legionary, The Canadian Legion, . March 4, 1930. p. 12 (34) ventures which had been dropped soon a f t e r World War I , were begun once again and new ones were s t a r t e d . These included l o c a l committees, p r o b a t i p n a l t r a i n i n g , workshops, t o o l s and equipment l o a n s . The Corps of Commissioners, establishment of c o l o n i e s of s m a l l holdings and encouragement of employers . t o place veterans were a l s o i n c l u d e d . This work was good but perhaps i t s g r e a t e s t accomplishment was t o underline some of the 'might have beens* of 1918 - 1922; the i n a b i l i t y t o push the t r a i n i n g t o aore e f f e c t i v e s k i l l s and the r e s t r i c t i o n of t r a i n i n g t o minors end the d i s a b l e d , the tendency t o a r r e s t f a c i l i t i e s from 1920 onwards, and the l a c k . o f p r o v i s i o n f o r c o n t i n u a t i o n of interrup.ted education. I n 1937, there were s t i l l 34,000 veterans unemployed. This amounted t o from three t o f i v e percent of the t o t a l e n l i s t e d e x p e d i t i o n a r y f o r c e of 800,000 men. Well over ninety percent of the f o r c e had been r e - e s t a b l i s h e d de'spite tho speed of d e m o b i l i s a t i o n and the s i z e of the f o r c e In p r o p o r t i o n to the male working p o p u l a t i o n at thnt time. These.measures help a i d the un-employed and u n s k i l l e d veteran but the unemployment problem u I t s e l f was not solved u n t i l the outbreak of World $ar I I . (k) World Hax II, 1939 The experiences of World War I l e d t o an appoint-ment of a s p e c i a l cabinet committee "to consider the problems a r i s i n g from the d e m o b i l i z a t i o n ' o f members of the armed fo r c e s l e s s than three months a f t e r the outbreak of war." The prob-lem was not- one of c r e a t i n g sonething out of nothing but of expanding, and improving " e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s and e x i s t i n g 3 e g i s l a t i o n . " 1 In 1944, the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s .was e s t a b l i s h e d , and t h i s department as f a r as p o s s i b l e administered a l l veterans l e g i s l a t i o n . Parliamentary com-mitt e e s on veterans a f f a i r s met i n annual s e s s i o n p r a c t i c a l l y every year s i n c e the outbreak of war w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t, there has been constant amendments and changes l a veteran . l e g i s l a t i o n t o meat new problems and changing c o n d i t i o n s . Appendix A i n d i c a t e s the programme provided f o r the.World War I veteran and shows by way of comparison the p r i n c i p l e which guided the l e g i s l a t i o n o£|the World War I I programme. Most of these p r i n c i p l e s ware enacted i n t o law and many of them w i l l be discussed i n succeeding chapters* Ma&or l . A . Dunlop, the organizer and f i r s t d i r e c t o r of Casualty'..Rehabilitation l i s t e d the f o i l i n g as s e r v i c e s which should be provided.' 8 Xi Medical treatment to reduce the d i s a b i l i t y of I t s • . minimum* . 2* P r o v i s i o n of a r t i f i c i a l appliances such as l i m b s , braces and a i d s f o r the purpose of r e s t o r i n g so f a r aa p o s s i b l e , l o s t c a p a c i t i e s * 3* F i n a n c i a l p r o t e c t i o n during the adjustment p e r i o d . 4* General c o u n s e l l i n g and v o c a t i o n a l guidance l o r the obvious purpose of a s s i s t i n g the d i s a b l e d person t o s e l e c t the job which Is most s u i t a b l e . -The ob-j e c t i v e s of c o u n s e l l i n g f o r the d i s a b l e d might w e l l be defined as " a s s i s t i n g the. d i s a b l e d t o s e l e c t , prepare f o r , enter i n t o and succeed i n a wholly s u i t a b l e occupation." R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the department l i t e r a t u r e , is. emphasized as a combined operation of a l l the 1 . Canada, Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s , The Veterans* Charter Canada. 1 9 4 6 , Ottawa, Hings P r i n t e r , 1 9 4 7 , p. 290 2 . C o u n c i l f o r Guidance of Handicapped. F i r s t Annual ConfeiPTjn. ence mimeopgraphed, Vancouver, 1946, p. 9 (36) workers who come i n t o contact w i t h the veteran. The p h i l o - . aophy of the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s i s stated, i n the foreword of a b r i e f by Mr. R.W* Abraham, a subsequent D i r e c t o r of Casualty R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , t o h i s D i s t r i c t Superintendents. "Wo r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme i s complete or s a t i s f a c t o r y unless i t i s set up t o meet the needs of the whole man. I t i s not a good r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme un-l e s s , along w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s medical needs, h i s personal, e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and work problems are f u l l y recognized aa e s s e n t i a l needs and given equal a t t e n t i o n . " i Since.the formation of the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s , numerous a c t s have been passed t o meet w i t h changes sin c e the war. Personnel have been h i r e d and t r a i n e d where necessary t o f i l l every phase of a most comprehensive r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n programme. Many of the a c t s which were passed a f t e r World War I I have elapsed, e s p e c i a l l y i n regard t o the veteran who d i d not s u f f e r d i s a b i l i t y from war i n j u r i e s . The department's welfare o f f i c e r s who are i n charge of the non-medical part of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n prooess are i n v e s t i -g a t i n g community resources to a greater extent than ever before to b r i n g t r a i n i n g and placement f a c i l i t i e s to those veterans'whether d i s a b l e d or not, mho cannot q u a l i f y under e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , f o r necessary s e r v i c e s . 1. Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s , Welfare Programme f o r  Disabled Veterans. 1950 (37) The Workmen's Compensation Board of B r i t i s h Columbia. (a) O r i g i n s of Workmen's Compensation. Before Workmen's Compensation, the worker's r i g h t t o o b t a i n indemnity f o r i n d u s t r i a l i n j u r y and wage l o s s de-pended upon h i s b r i n g i n g a case before t h e ' c o u r t s . Only the i n j u r e d worker himself had any l e g a l c l a i m . I f he d i e d , h i s s u r v i v o r s and dependents had no basis f o r l e g a l a c t i o n . Common lew r u l e s o r i g i n a t e d during the p r e - i n d u s t r i a l era i n England. At Common Law, because of the i m p l i e d term of s e r v i c e , an employee assumes the r i s k I n c i d e n t a l to employ-ment. The employee has no r i g h t of a c t i o n against h i s employer because of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . I f the employer neglects t o take reasonable care and then t h i s breach of duty causes personal i n j u r y t o the employee, cause of a c t i o n f o r damages a r i s e s . The e s s e n t i a l elements of p r o f f f o r such an a c t i o n are a breaeh of the l e g a l duty owed to the employees by the employer and p r o f f that the breach of t h i s duty was the e f f e c t i v e cause of the i n j u r y and.that damage r e s u l t e d . The employers' defences u s u a l l y were t h a t he took every reasonable care and precaution r e q u i r e d by him under the circumstances. The employer may a l l e g e t h a t the employee was a l s o g u i l t y of negligence. I f the employer can sub-s t a n t i a t e t h i s c l a i m t o any degree he escapes any l a b i l i t y i n regard t o h i s own negligence, another recourse t o the employer was the d o c t r i n e of common employment. 1'hls defence (38) a r i s e s when an employee i s i n j u r e d by the negligence of a f e l l o w employee. I f the employer can prove t h a t he has taken reasonable care t o s e l e c t pi*oper and competent- em-ployees he eannot be- h e l d l i a b l e . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d that i n l e s s than 30 per-cent of cases i n which i n j u r y oecured was the employer found l i a b l e . 1 , The remaining cases had to r e l y upon some form o f p u b l i c a i d . The great number of aecide&ts and the r e s u l t i n g s o e i a l unrest s l o w l y brought about s o c i a l reform. The Factory Acts of Great B r i t a i n i n the 1,early nineteenth eentnry were the f i r s t step i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , from t h i s e a r l y beginning laws which were designed to make places safe and healthy became widespread. Implcyer L i a b i l i t y Acts made t h e i r appearance. I M S modified to some ext e n t , the assumption of r i s k d o c t r i n e i n c l u d i n g t h e ^ f e l l o w servant ru&e, but the workman s t i l l had t o prove negligence cn the p a r t of h i s employer before he cou l d c o l l e c t damages. The f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s of Workmen's Compensation were adapted on P r u s s i a n r a i l r o a d s In 1838. In 1884, a general compensation b i l l was passed i n the German l e g i s l a t u r e . The German p l a n c a l l e d f o r employers t o pay part of the c o s t s and c e l l e d f o r h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The coverage was broad and compulsory and provided f o r non p r o f i t mutual employers* insurance funds. The B r i t i s h plan was f i r s t en-acted i n 1897 and broadened through amendments i n 1900 and 1. Sloan O.M. The aferkmena* Compensation Board. V i c t o r i a Kings P r i n t e r s , 1942, p. 18 (39) 1906.. This plan was e l e c t i v e ana l e f t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o the court and insurance was c a r r i e d by p r i v a t e f i r m s * The next step i n the development was to s h i f t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the groups i n the community which purchased the goods. I n other words, the cos t of i n j u r y and wage l o s s came to b© re-* garded as a. d i r e c t c o s t of production and was passed on t o • the community. This new idea of c o l l e c t i v e l i a b i l i t y swept away the common law n e c e s s i t y of proving negligence as a pre-r e q u i s i t e t o recovery. An e n t i r e l y new concept arose; l i a b i l i t y without f a u l t . The workmen rec e i v e compensation based upon t h e i r previous and f u t u r e wage earning c a p a c i t y and other f a c t o r s . Workmen's-Compensation i s an insurance devised to make good the l o s s of wages as this r e s u l t of i n j u r y and t o spread the economic l o s s over l a r g e p u b l i c groups. '(b) Some Systems of-Workmen's •Compensation Any study of Workmen's Compensation performance i s concerned w i t h two f a c t o r s , the c o n d i t i o n of the laws and th© appropriateness or adequacy of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r -rangements. The purpose of Workmen's Compensation laws i s simple but t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has become the moat complex i n the f i e l d of labour l e g i s l a t i o n . Many a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s have be)sf,B9B so involved, in'.paper work that they hav/e l e f t the improvements of law In other hands. (4$) The B r i t i s h system, as o u t l i n e d i n the N a t i o n a l Insurance ( I n d u s t r i a l I n j u r i e s ) Aet, 1946, gives coverage to most c i v i l i a n employees. An accident a r i s i n g i n the coarse of employment i s deemed, on the absence of evidence t o the c o n t r a r y , t o have a r i s e n out of tha t employment. Claims are processed a t a l o c a l o f f i c e and appeals may be made t o a L o c a l Appeal T r i b u n a l or to a newly created o f f i c e r known as th© I n d u s t r i a l I n j u r i e s Commissioner, The worker s t i l l r e t a i n s the. r i g h t t o appeal to the cour t s but t h i s r i g h t , of s u i t i s a d d i t i o n a l to what he re c e i v e s as compensation. However, court d e c i s i o n s appear to have given l i t t l e ad-vantage to the employee. Scalers and Somers quote a r e p o r t i n 'Workmen•s C ompens a 11 on'; " I t appears then, t h a t f e a r s which have been expressed that s o e i a l insurance l e g i s l a t i o n would unduly weight the s c a l e s i n tho employees' favour have been ground-l e s s . Our f l e x i b l e co/umon-law system has r e s t o r e d the balance between an injureds'' lew and an. i n j u r e r s ' law without undue d i f f i c u l t y . " 1 The American States have copied the B r i t i s h system to a larg e extent and a l l but Nevada and Utah allow appeal to the c o u r t s . The oldest system i n the United States and the one which i s i n fo r c e i n most of the States i s c a l l e d the Agreement System. I n t h i s system the employer or insurance c a r r i e r proposes a settlement and, I f accepted, be signs an agreement and payment begins a f t e r a presumptive commission approval; I f the case I s contested the commission in v e s t ! - • gates. Appeal can be made to a court of law* '1'his system has been subject t o abuse as the workman i s l i k e l y i n need 1. Somers H.M. and Somers A.R. Workmen's Compensation, $ew York, John ;Uiey and Sons I n c . 1954, p. 308 (41) and w i l l accept the p r o f f e r e d settlement r a t h e r than take the matter to the c o u r t s . The D i r e c t Payment System was inaugerated i n Wisconsin. The employer or c a r r i e r i s ex-pected to begin payment on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . This lessens the co s t of paper work f o r the commission. Th© amount of payment of compensation i s not b i n d i n g and may be appealed t o the commission w i t h i n a s t a t e d time. Kew. York has adopted a Hearing System which means tha t every case must be heard b a t r i h u n a l . L i t i g a t i o n proceedings o f t e n p i l e up and the burden of hearing minor cases o f t e n leads to l e s s time being spent on the i&o$& s e r i o u s ones, (0) The Ontario System The present system which e x i s t s i n most Canadian provinces has been patterned a f t e r the Ontario Act o$1914. '^his a c t i n c l u d e d three f e a t u r e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Canadian Lews,'1' (1) The establishment of a s p e c i f i c fund, b u i l d up from c o n t r i b u t i o n s or assessments from employers. ( i i) A d m i n i s t r a t i o n by a more or l e s s independent government appointed beard (the government being the province i n Canada). ( i i i ) £'he c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l groups ticcording t o t h e i r degree of danger or hazard and appropriate g r a d a t i o n of premiums p a i d . The Canadian plan then i s t o merge the administ-r a t i v e and j u d i c i a l bodies commonly c a l l e d the Board. S i r W i l l i a m Meredith's, then Chief J u s t i c e of O n t a r i o , g u i d i n g 1. Marsh L*C, Report on S o o i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada, Ottawa Kings P r i n t e r , 194S, p* 58* (42) p r i n c i p l e i n forming the Act was "to get r i d of the m&sance^,. of l i t i g a t i o n " and "to have s w i f t j u s t i c e meted out t o the great body of men." Safeguards against a r b i t r a r y administ-r a t i o n have been found i n l e g i s l a t i v e i n q u i r i e s and i n v e s t i -t g a t l o n s . This i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s und the Board's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the 'Accident Fund', set up f o r compen-s a t i o n purposes, a l l o w e a r l y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e e t i v i t i e s . There i s no delay f o r c t f s t l y c ourt l i t i g a t i o n . Ontario has l e d the r e s t of the Provinces i n t h i s regard and e s t a b l i s h e d a com-prehensive r e h a b i l i t a t i o n center.and-curative programme t o reduce the p e r i o d of temporary d i s a b i l i t y and a l s o minimize r e s i d u a l permanent d i s a b i l i t y . I n i t i a l claims a r e handled by a claims o f f i c e r . The chairman of the claims s e c t i o n only deals w i t h disputed c l a i m s . The g r e a t e s t change s i n c e the •inauguration of the Act i n Ontario came i n 1951, when a r e -view board was e s t a b l i s h e d . This board i s drawn from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s r e g u l a r personnel and c o n s i s t s of a doctor, a lawyer and a man who had had long experience w i t h claims work. . I f the claimant i s not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n i n h i s case, h© Is g i v e n the opportunity t o present h i s own s t o r y . He may b r i n g In any one he l i k e s i n c l u d i n g a lawyer. The employer may a l s o a t t e n d . F i n a l appeal can be fcade- t o the Wor<caen's Compensation Beard i t s e l f . The Ontario Act had advantages and disadvantages. The philosophy of the law and the o r g a n i z a t i o n and procedures o (43) of the a d m i n i s t e r i n g agency are a l l e f f e c t i v e l y d i r e c t e d toward One major o b j e c t i v e , the f a l l e s t p o s s i b l e r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n of the worker and h i s prompt r e t u r n to work, wi t h assurance of'adequate maintenance f o r himself and f a m i l y . The expense and o b s t r u c t i o n of l i t i g a t i o n w i t h i n a. compen-s a t i o n system have been s u c c e s s f u l l y removed. iSmployers get insurance at c o s t . C r i t i c s contend that cash b e n e f i t s are law, that the p a r t i e s do not have adequate l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n against a r b i t r a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s , that the mono-p o l i s t i c AQCtident Fund i s s o c i a l i s t i c , and t h a t t h e r e i s an inadequate a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n of preventive measures.1 (d} Development of Workmen's Compensation i n . B r i t i s h . Columbia. P r i o r to 1891, the workman i n B r i t i s h Columbia was only p r o t e c t e d , by h i s common law r i g h t of a c t i o n . " I n t h a t year the "Employers L i a b i l i t y A c t " was passed i n the usual ***** form and w i t h l i k e e f f e c t . I n 1902, the f i r s t Workmen's Compensation Act was passed. The e f f e c t w§s to make the employer l i a b l e t o pay compensation on a s t a t u t o r y s c a l e to an i n j u r e d workman. I n 1917, the Pineo Report recommended changes which were patterned a f t e r the Ontario Act of 1914. The f o l l o w i n g year, a new Workmen's Compensation Aot was passed which l a i d down many basic p a t t e r n s . There was pro-v i s i o n f o r a three member Workmen's Compensation Board. The chairman was a lawyer. One member was w e l l versed In labour l e g i s l a t i o n and the remaining member was concerned p r i m a r i l y 1. Somers and Somers, op c i t p. 317, w i t h e * f a t y r e g u l a t i o n s und accident prevention. The ad-m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n s of the Board were organized i n t o s i x s e c t i o n s : the claims d i v i s i o n s , medical d i v i s i o n , assessment d i v i s i o n ( i n c l u d i n g a u d i t i n g dlvislonj ' 7'^accounting, actuarial and s t a t i s t i c a l d i v i s i o n , l e g a l d i v i s i o n and accident pre-v e n t i o n and f i r s t a i d . The Board was gi v e n powers to a d j u d i -cate a i l claims and the powers of the Supreme Court i n regard t o witnesses and I n q u i r i e s and t h e i r d e c i s i o n was bi n d i n g i n a l l cases* A more a p p r e h e n s i v e system of compensation and allowances t o dependents was inaugurated. Medical treatment was a l s o provided. The Act a l s o set up f o u r degrees i f d i s -a b i l i t y : permanent t o t a l d i s a b i l i t y , permanent p a r t i a l d i s -a b i l i t y , temporary t o t a l d i s a b i l i t y and temporary p a r t i a l d i s a b i l i t y . Total, d i s a b i l i t y was declared to mean the i n -a b i l i t y due t o I n j u r y , to eaisn any wt*ge a t any t r a d e , A S long as t h i s c o n d i t i o n e x i s t e d , the i n j u r e d workman r e c i e v e d 66 2/3 per eent of h i s average earnings. P a r t i a l d i s a b i l i t y meant that the i n j u r e d worker was s t i l l able t o earn wages at some trade and c a l l i n g . The i n j u r e d workman was then e n t i t l e d to r e c e i v e 66 2/3 per cent of the d i f f e r e n c e be-tween h i s o l d wages and new. Chief J u s t i c e i i l o a n has made two exhaustive i n -q u i r i e s i n t o Workmen's Compensation l e g i s l a t i o n i n B.C*j one i n 1942 and the other i n 1952* Many of h i s recommendations have been enacted i n t o law. The t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d workman i s (45) now e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i v e 75 per cent of h i s average wage x r a t h e r than 66 2 / 5 mentioned above. The reason f o r the 75 per cent payment r a t h e r than 100 per cent would appear t o r e s t upon the r a t i o of s u c c e s s f u l common law a c t i o n s as com-pared with, the coverage r e c e i v e d by the workmen o f today. C h i e f J u s t i c e Sloan i n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s point s t a t e d : "Without l o s i n g s i g h t of the h i s t o r i c a l background, perhaps the whole question may be r e s o l v e d i n t o an i n q u i r y t o determinewhat measure of compensation should be adequate f o r the support of the i n j u r e d employee and h i s dependents which at.the same time would not be so high as to encourage malingering nor one which would impose too o n e r o u ^ a burden upon the employer and In t u r n , upon the consumer ".of h i s goods." 2 Payment f o r a permanent p a r t i a l d i s a b i l i t y i s now made according t o a set r a t i n g s c a l e . C h i e f J u s t i c e Sloan recommended t h a t the Board employes pension advocate w i t h d u t i e s s i m i l a r to those i n D.V.A. This recommendation has not been c a r r i e d out i n p r a c t i c e * 1. S e c t i o n 27 of the Workmen's Compensation Act defines average earnings: The average earnings and earning c a p a c i t y of a workman s h a l l . b e determined w i t h reference to the average earnings and earning c a p a c i t y at the time of the accident and may be c a l c u l a t e d upon the d a i l y , weekly or monthly wages or other r e g u l a r remuneration which the workman was r e c e i v i n g at the time of the a c c i d e n t , or upon the average y e a r l y earning c a p a c i t y of the workman a t the time of the a c c i d e n t , as may appear to the Board best t o represent' the a c t u a l l o s s of earnings s u f f e r e d by the workman by reason of the i n j u r y but not so as i n any oase t o exceed the r a t e of four thousand d o l l a r s per year: Provided t h a t where owing t o the shortness of time during which the work-man was i n the employ of h i s employer or i n any employment or the easual nature of h i s employment or the terms of i t , i t i s i n e q u i t a b l e to compute average earnings i n the manner hereinbefore d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s ubsection: regard may be had t o the average d a i l y weekly, or monthly amount which, as shown by.the records of the Board, was being earned during one or more years or other pe r i o d previous t o the accident by a person In the same or s i m i l a r grade or c l a s s of employment. 2* Sloan op c i t , p. 61. ( 4 6 ) (e) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Workmen's Compensation R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the I n j u r e d workman has f o l l o w e d the leads of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the i n j u r e d v e t e r a n . I n Great B r i t a i n , the l e g i s l a t i o n brought i n by the recent Labour Government entrusted r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of a l l e l i g i b l e personnel whether m i l i t a r y or c i v i l i a n to the M i n i s t r y of Labour and N a t i o n a l SeSviee. The M i n i s t e r has a u t h o r i t y t o draw up s p e c i a l programmes f o r t r a i n i n g i n j u r e d workers. The worker i s r e q u i r e d to undertake r e h a b i l i t a t i o n wherever a p p r o p r i a t e , on p a i n of f o r f e i t i n g h i s cash b e n e f i t s . The Amercian r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n programme f o r i n d u s t r i a l workers i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h the Federal O f f i c e of V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Tnis i s a j o i n t Federal State programme but i t < * s t i l l reaohed an inadequate p r o p o r t i o n of the i n d u s t r i a l l y i n j u r e d , i n -c l u d i n g compensation recipients."-* - Dr. K e s s l e r i n d i s c u s s i n g the American Programme s t a t e s : " I t I s obvious that r e h a b i l i t a t i o n depends I n l a r g e measure on th© aims and purposes of Workmen's Com-pensation and the e f f i c i e n c y w i t h which i t Is ad-m i n i s t e r e d * Present p r a c t i c e s are l i m i t e d by s e l f i s h s h o r t s i g h t e d a t t i t u d e s , by excessive l i t i g a t i o n , by f a i l u r e t o d i r e c t the I n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s t o -ward t r u l y v a l i d g o a l s , Canada has pointed the way. Can we f o l l o w the same course? s Ontario, perhaps, has the model upon which Work-men's Compensation r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n Canada i s based. At Malton, near Toronto, they have e l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n which .. s t a r t s w i t h I n - p a t i e n t treatment and c a r r i e s out many aspects of a f u l l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme. F o l l o w i n g C h i e f J u s t i c e Sloan's recommendations of 1 9 4 2 , the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e 1. Somers and Somers op c i t p. 255 2. K e s s l e r H,, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the P h y s i c a l l y Handicapped, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , P r e s s , 1953, p. 55 (47} amended the Act t o allow f o r v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f a c i l i -t i e s . S e c t i o n 17 of the Act s t a t e s : To a i d i n g e t t i n g I n j u r e d workmen baok to work and t o a s s i s t I n l e s s e n i n g or removing any handicap r e -s u l t i n g from t h e i r i n j u r i e s , the Board may take such measures and make such expenditures from the Accident Fund as i t may deem necessary or expedient, regard-l e s s of the date on which such workmen f i r s t became e n t i t l e d to compensation." The amount which the Board had t o work w i t h was f i r s t , l i m i t e d t o f75,000. : There i s no l i m i t at present. Mr, Humphries was appointed the f i r s t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r i n 1943. The concept of I n d u s t r i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n formulated In 1937 by the B r i t i s h M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n s and Trades Union Congress was aooepted as the best method. 1 (a) F u n c t i o n a l treatment I n h o s p i t a l wards by r e g u l a r e x e r c i s e . (b) Treatment i n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n centres by p h y s i c a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s designed t o overcome r e -s i d u a l disuse changes, r e s t o r e the confidence of p a t i e n t s i n t h e i r recovery and t o bridge the gap between the e x o r c i s e s of a f r a c t u r e ward and the s t r e s s e s of normal work. (o) V o c a t i o n a l r e t r a i n i n g f o r a s m a l l p o r t i o n of men whose d i s a b i l i t y I s permanent. Hot excluding C h i e f J u s t i c e Sloan's comprehensive rep o r t of 1952, when he devoted a great d e a l of study to the p h y s i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l aspects of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , l i t t l e mention i s made, i n any of the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e of s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . There I s no mention of any s e r v i c e s provided f o r t h i s adjustment other than that inherent I n the v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g process. Mr* Humphries s t a t e s ; . "Along with every p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y there i s a mental i n j u r y . I am not suggesting of course, that i n every accident case the p a t i e n t beoomes a mental problem, 1. P r i t c h a r d C.V/., Y/orkmen's Compensation Board of B r i t i s h Columbia, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Department, mmeographed. 1954, p. 1. (48) but i n the m a j o r i t y of severe eases, a mental ad-justment must be made and, i n making that adjustment, the s u f f e r e r s of i n d u s t r i a l a ccidents need help t o r e g a i n t h e i r morale, j u s t as they need the s e r v i c e s o f th© doctor t o help them p h y s i c a l l y . " 1 1. C o u n c i l f o r Guidance of Handicapped, F i r s t Annual Conference mimeographed, Vancouver, 1946, p.26 (49 ) CHAPTER 1I| LEGISLATIVE PROVISIOf© F O E fflSB&BILITATIOM OF THE DlPATiTMElT OF VBT1M83' AFFAIRS Affi) THE WORKUPS CcnPSKSATION BOAKD I n t r o d u c t i o n The p r i n c i p a l l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s of the De-partment of Veterans A f f a i r s were o r i g i n a l l y i n the Veterans Charter with accompanying r e g u l a t i o n s . The l e g i s l a t i o n has been reviewed and amended through the years and f o r purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , t h e l & t e r a c t s and r e g u l a t i o n s have been used. I t should be r e a l i s e d that many of these are outdated as they have d e f i n i t e time l i m i t a t i o n s as from the date of disch a r g e . These have expired f o r the m a j o r i t y o f World War I I and s p e c i a l Force veterans. However many of the r e g u l a t i o n s s t i l l apply t o d i s a b l e d veterans. The workmen's Compensation Board have only the ?/orkmen»s Compensation Act and the pampMets which they g i v e t o workmen, employers and p h y s i c i a n s f o r r e f e r e n c e . The Information f o r the comparison has been obtained from various sources. As has been s t a t e d , the b a s i s f o r comparison of l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l be tho two elements of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n : r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s ( a e d l c a l , t r a i n i n g arid employment) and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n maintenance allowances and a u z i l i a r y a i d s . I n order t o measure these elements e f f e c t i v e l y the study has been l i m i t e d to those whose e l e g l b i l l t y has been e s t a b l i s h e d . (1) D i s a b l e d Veteran Defined G e n e r a l l y i n peace time, an i n d i v i d u a l who i s (30) s e r v i n g In the f o r c e s , i n c l u d i n g the non-permanent army m i l i t i a , i s e n t i t l e d to f i l e an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a pension, i f he has s u f f e r e d an i n j u r y due d i r e c t l y to m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . For example, i f a hand grenade blew up and fragments h i t him, he would be e n t i t l e d to c l a i m pension. During war time, t h i s e n t i t l e m e n t to c l a i m has been extended t o cover any i n j u r y , disease or aggravation which was i n c u r r e d during s e r v i c e , provided the i n d i v i d u a l had volunteered f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s l e g i s l a t i o n r e -f e r s to overseas s e r v i c e or s e r v i c e i c a th e a t r e of war. This meaning and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has v a r i e d according to d i f f e r e n t wars i n which Canada has p a r t i c i p a t e d , but general-l y i t r e f e r s to an area where the i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d r e c e i v e i n j u r y , f a t a l or otherwise as a r e s u l t of enemy a c t i o n . For example, Great B r i t a i n was not a theatre of War during World War I but was i n World War I I . However i f the veteran sus-t a i n e d i n j u r y or contracted disease d i r e c t l y by a h o s t i l e a ct of the enemy i t would be considered overseas s e r v i c e . C i v i l i a n s , such as Corps of Canadian F i r e F i g h t e r s f o r s e r v i c e i n the United Kingdom, A i r Raid Precautions Workers, A u x i l i a r y S e r v i c e s Personnel, Canadian C i v i l i a n a i r crew of the Royal A i r Force Transport Command, and Merchant Seamen or fishermen, were also e n t i t l e d to c l a i m c e r t a i n b e n e f i t s under the Pension A c t . Entitlement dependedl<upon t h e i r area of s e r v i c e i n 3ome instances and whether such i n j u r i e s were the r e s u l t of enemy a c t i o n i n others. These (51) are a c t u a l l y s p e c i a l oases and i n order to consider the widest l e g i s l a t i o n , only d i s a b i l i t i e s which arose while the i n -di v i d u a l was on active service, i n one of the armed forces i w i l l be considered i n t h i s t h e s i s . (2) Disabled Workman Defined Under the provisions of the Workmen's Compensation Act, industries are divided into d i f f e r e n t classes such as lumbering, mining and manufacturing. This grouping i a mostly according to the type of work and r i s k envolved. Perhaps for ease of payment and because they are Canada-wide employers eachirailway company and i t s subsidiaries have a separate class-. Every employer or group of workmen who applies may at the d i s c r e t i o n of the Board be admitted to a s p e c i f i c c l a s s . Employers contribute into an "Accident Fund" from which com-pensation claims and other outlays are paid. The workman engaged i n the industries covered by the Act i s protected from personal injury by accident a r i s i n g out of and i n the course of, employment. Some i n d u s t r i a l diseases such as s i l i c o s i s acquired i n mining or c e r t a i n other industries are treated as i f the happening were an ac-cident. Nurses, and other employees of p r o v i n c i a l aided hos-p i t a l s , are e n t i t l e d to compensation f o r pulmonary tuber-c u l o s i s i f they were free from i t on entering employment. Persons, whose employment i s of a casual nature and a g r i -c u l t u r a l workers, are not covered as a r u l e . (52) Ho compensation, other than medical a i d i s payable f o r the f i r s t three days e x c l u s i v e of h o l i d a y s . I f the d i s -a b i l i t y i s more than s i x days' d u r a t i o n , compensation i s payable from the date of d i s a b i l i t y upon r e c e i p t of a doctor's progress r e p o r t . Any d i s a b l e d workman i s e n t i t l e d to medical r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Any d i s a b l e d workman may r e c e i v e counsel-l i n g by the Boards' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r s and the per-manently d i s a b l e d workman may be g i v e n a course of t r a i n i n g under the A c t , Sometimes t r a i n i n g w i l l a l s o be given to cases such as d e r m a t i t i s . Therefore t o consider r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n i n i t s broadest aspects as s u p p l i e d by the Board, only the permanently d i s a b l e d workman w i l l be considered. I n most cases e l i g i b i l i t y I s only given t o workmen'^ working w i t h i n the province. Exceptions are when the c h i e f place of business of the employer i s w i t h i n . t h e province and the residence and the usual place of employment of the work-man are also i n the province. The workman must have been p r e v i o u s l y employed f o r a d e f i n i t e p e r i o d of time, by the same employer w i t h i n the province* Workmen who work oa v e h i c l e s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n such as r a i l w a y s or t r u c k s are covered i f t h e i r work i s performed both w i t h i n and without the province. Medical R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e r v i c e s The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s Act (ft.S.C.1952, Chapter 80) provides that the M i n i s t e r , w i t h the approval of the Governor - In - C o u n c i l can make such r e g u l a t i o n s and p r o v i s i o n s as he deems necessary to provide f o r the care, (53) treatment and t r a i n i n g of anyone who i s e l i g i b l e . The Workmen's Compensation Act provides broad basis f o r treatment of the injured workman, which i s undoubtedly further defined i n the Board's regulations. (1) Veterans Treatment Regulations Treatment f a c i l i t i e s are provided under d i f f e r e n t sections of these Regulations and these should be consulted for s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s . Some of the more pertinent sections or parts of sections which deal with the disabled veteran are l i s t e d below. For reasons of brevity some sections are sum-marized. 2 (e) "Treatment means medical, surgical and dental treatment and includes the supply and maintenance of prosthetic appliances." 3. Subject to these regulations, examination, treatment and domiciliary care aagr be provided to a veteran or other person i n hos p i t a l or elsewhere under the supervision of a licensed medical or dental p r a c t i t i o n e r approved by the Department. 5. Treatment may be given to a veteran f o r a service d i s a b i l i t y . The disabled veteran (and other veterans depending upon the i r area of service) i s also e n t i t l e d to medical ser-vices f o r non-pensionable d i s a b i l i t i e s . For the mo3t part such service is provided on a means test basis. Some of the sections are summarized as folbws: 9. A man or a woman i s e n t i t l e d to medical t r e a t -ment f o r 12 months provided a p p l i c a t i o n i s made within a c e r t a i n period of time a f t e r discharge. 10. Treatment i s generally provided for those under-going academic or vocational t r a i n i n g under the Veterans R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act and who require treatment for their r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . (54) 12 Treatment may be given to a War Veteran's Allowance r e c i p i e n t ( A d i s a b l e d pensioner i s e n t i t l e d to War Veterans Allowance on a means t e s t b a s i s . He i s e n t i t l e d to b i s home and $2000 I f be i s married or lias a recognized dependent or flOOO i s he i s s i n g l e . The r e c i p i e n t must bp over 60 years of age i f a male vete r a n or , ^  over 55 i f a female v e t e r a n , tfar Veterans Allowance can be granted under these ages i f the i n d i v i d u a l i s considered unemployable. Monthly income must not exceed #70 f o r a s i n g l e man or #120 f o r a married man.) 13. Medical treatment i s provided on a means t e s t b a s i s ( C a l c u l a t i o n s are based on adjusted income.) 14. P s y c h i a t r i c treatment i s provided on the same b a s i s as #13. Some of the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s provide f o r domici-l i a r y care on a means t e s t b a s i s , h o s p i t a l comforts and t r a v e l -l i n g expenses. Payment i s a l s o provided f o r escorts and f o r l o s s of wages whi l e t r a v e l l i n g to r e p o r t f o r treatment. 31,32,33,34. These s e c t i o n s i n general set up allowances f o r a l l c l a s s e s of veterans w h i l e r e c e i v i n g t r e a t -ment. The veteran who i s r e c e i v i n g treatment f o r d i s a b i l i t y i s allowed an aaount equal to a 100 per sent pension f o r him-s e l f and h i s dependents l e s s $15 per month. I f he i s hos-p i t a l i z e d f o r a non-pensionable d i s a b i l i t y , under s e c t i o n 10 or post discharge treatment, he i s e n t i t l e d , a f t e r de-ductions f o r income from any other sources, to #50 per month w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l allowance at the f o l l o w i n g r a t e s : Wife, or person i n l i e u of w i f e , $40 per month Parent $25 per month 1st C h i l d §18 per month 2nd C h i l d |14 per month 3rd C h i l d §12 per month 4,5,6th C h i l d $10 per month I f the man has no dependents he re c e i v e d $20 per month and the balance a v a i l a b l e on discharge. The d i s a b l e d veteran thus r e c e i v e s h o s p i t a l t r e a t -ment f o r h i s pensionable d i s a b i l i t y at any time. #hile Appendix B ( 5 5 ) undergoing treatment, he and h i s dependents are e n t i t l e d to 100 per cent pension r a t e s l e s s §15 per month. He i s e n t i t l e d to treatment on a, means t e s t b a s i s i n a wide b a s i s as provided under War Veterans Allowance and under a much narrower b a s i s under s e c t i o n 13. 1 His dependents r e c e i v e an allowance i f he i s i n r e c e i p t of War Veterans Allowance but none i s provided under s e c t i o n 13. The veteran i s e n t i t l e d to treatment i f he Is t a k i n g an approved course of t r a i n i n g and h i s dependents r e c e i v e an allowance w h i l e he i s i n h o s p i t a l . (2) M e d i c a l Pare i n Workmen's Compensation The l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s of the Workmen's Com-pensation Act f o r medical s e r v i c e s are not as d e t a i l e d as those of the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s , The p r i n c i p a l s e c t i o n o f the Act s t a t e s : 25 (1) i n a d d i t i o n to other compensation provided by t h i s p a r t , the Board s h a l l have a u t h o r i t y to f u r n i s h or provide f o r the i n j u r e d workman such m e d i c a l , s u r g i c a l , h o s p i t a l , and. other t r e a t -ment, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , n u r s i n g , medicines, crutches and apparatus i n c l u d i n g a r t i f i c i a l members, as i t may deem reasonable and necessary at the time of the i n j u r y , and there a f t e r during the d i s -a b i l i t y to cure and r e l i e v e from the e f f e c t s of the i n j u r y , and the Board s h a l l have f u l l power to adopt r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h respect to f u r n i s h i n g medical a i d to i n j u r e d workmen;.en-t i t l e d t h e r e t o and f o r the payment .thereof. The. Board may make a d a i l y allowance t o an i n j u r e d workman f o r h i s subsistence when, under i t ' s d i r e c t i o n , he i s undergoing treatment a t a, place other than the place wherein he r e s i d e s and con-t i n u e s to support and maintain h i s p l a c e of r e -sidence. The power of the Board to make a d a i l y allowance f o r subsistence under t h i s s e c t i o n s h a l l extend to any Injured workman who r e c e i v e s com-pensation r e g a r d l e s s of the date on which he f i r s t became e n t i t l e d to compensation. (06) The remaining s u b s e c t i o n s which deal w i t h m e d i c a l a i d p r o v i d e f o r payment of emergency treatment, Board r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e x i s t i n g plans of medical a i d , s e l e c t i o n of a p h y s i c i a n and replacement of a r t i f i c i a l members. The Board a l l o w s the work-man to use a p h y s i c i a n or a q u a l i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r . Under the A c t , a q u a l i f i e d p r a c t i o n e r means a person r e g i s t e r e d under the n C h i r a p o d y A c t " , the C h i r o p r a c t i c A c t " , the " D e n t i s t r y A c t " , or the "Naturopathic P h y s i c i a n s Aet?V Thus the d i s a b l e d workman i s e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i v e any r e c o g n i z e d form o f treatment f o r h i s d i s a b i l i t y . T r e a t -ment i n t h i s r e g a r d i s wider than t h a t a l l o w e d to the d i s -a b l e d v e t e r a n . The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s does not as a r u l e r e c o g n i z e c h i r o p o d i s t s , c h i r o p r a c t o r s or naturopaths. Another advantage the Workmants Compensation Board o f f e r s the i n j u r e d workman i s the c h o i c e of d o c t o r . (3) M e d i c a l Care A i d s the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Process In comparing the medical r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and c o n s i d e r i n g the f u n c t i o n s of the two agencies, the Work-men's Compensation Board cannot g i v e any medical s e r v i c e s on a means t e s t b a s i s as the Department o f Veterans A f f a i r s does. Any such m e d i c a l care t o the i n j u r e d workman must be p r o v i d e d by m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l governments. However, during any type of t r a i n i n g c e r t a i n m e d i c a l needs, such as d e n t a l and eye c a r e , a r i s e which are necessary f o r the p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o f the i n d i v i d u a l and w i l l I n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e h i s achievement. Although occurence may be low, (57} c e r t a i n a c c i d e n t s happen i n t r a i n i n g and i t i s f e a s i b l e t h a t these could be covered by extending Workmen's Compensation p r i v i l e g e s t o those i n t r a i n i n g who had no e x i s t i n g coverage. rlhe cost of such coverage would, from Department of Veterans A f f a i r s experience be r e l a t i v e l y low. Mr. Wood s t a t e s : 1 The Act provided that veteran t r a i n e e s i n v o c a t i o n a l courses were to be regarded as government employees f o r the purpose of compensation i n ease of acc i d e n t s which were a t t r i b u t a b l e to approved t r a i n i n g programmes. F o r t u n a t e l y , very few accident s occurred t o veterans wh i l e undergoing v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g vut there were s e v e r a l cases r e s u l t i n g i n minor temporary d i s a b i l i -t i e s and one or two which r e s u l t e d i n permanent d i s -a b i l i t e s * 0 n e veteran l o s t h i s s i g h t as a r e s u l t of a l a b o r a t o r y e x p l o s i o n . The advantage of such a procedure would r e l i e v e the I n d i v i d u a l of a great deal of expense and of worry and undoubtedly hasten the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process. T r a i n i n g R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e r v i c e s T r a i n i n g i s very o f t e n an e s s e n t i a l i f the d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l i s to become e s t a b l i s h e d i n the community once ag a i n . The department of Veterans A f f a i r s and the Workmen(s Compensation Board both provide t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n v o c a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l and academic f i e l d s . The l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s of the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s i s again very extensive w h i l e that of the Workmen's Compensation Board Is almost e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g . (1) The Veterans R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act The Veteran under the War S e r v i c e Grants Act(R.iS . c . 1952, Chapter 289) was granted a g r a t u i t y of approximately §7.50 f o r every t h i r t y days of s e r v i c e with an. a d d i t i o n a l sum Woods W.S., op c i t p.100 (58) of twenty-five cents f o r every day he was overseas. In addition to t h i s , every member of the forces who served over-seas was granted the extra sum of seven days pay and a l -lowances for every s i x months spent overseas. This gratuity was not meant for any s p e c i f i c purpose but was paid to tho veteran as soon as his a p p l i c a t i o n was processed a f t e r d i s -charge. He-establishment credit,; however, was set up f o r the purpose of aiding the veteran 'to return to e i w l l i a n l i f e and the scale of c r e d i t s was usually e^ual to that of the g r a t u i t y . This amount was designed to s p e c i f i c a l l y help the veteran become established i n c i v i l i a n l i f e . In l i e u of t h i s the veteran could choose to take educational, vocational or technical t r a i n i n g benefits or to take land under the Veterans Land Act. The Veterans R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act (R.S.C.,1952,Chapter 281) provides the broad base for which the veteran can use his re-establishment c r e d i t s or accept training.. Some of the most important sections are summarized belowt 8. Technical or vocational t r a i n i n g can be provided for a veteran i f application i s made within twelve months a f t e r discharge or i f he has been h o s p i t a l -ized, the time i s extended accordingly. The t r a i n i n g period i s f o r only twelve months except i n s p e c i a l cases. Training allowances are paid. 9. The veteran can continue or commence academic t r a i n i n g under s i m i l a r circumstances. The period of time which the minister w i l l pay allowances i s equal to the period of service. The allowances may be extended over t h i s time l i m i t i f the veteran i s doing well i n his classes. Allowances may be can-c e l l e d I f the veterans f a i l i n more than one sup-plementary exam. ( 5 9 ) 11. The same provisions are provided to a veteran taking post graduate t r a i n i n g . 13. Correspondence courses may be purchased f o r the veteran i f the course i s necessary for his com-plete r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and i s related to the oc-cupation i n which he i s employed. 14. I f an allowance i s paid under section 8 , 9 , o r l l , the minister can pay t u i t i o n fees, student fees and a t h l e t i c fees or other necessary charges or costs. Special t u i t i o n and tr a i n i n g may also be provided for veterans who are under treatment in hospitals or si m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s under auth-o r i t y of the department. Courses can be provided for academic or therapeutic reasons. The depart-ment may pay u n i v e r s i t i e s up to 0150 per student and they may also provide loans to u n i v e r s i t i e s to a i d student veterans to meet emergencies, 15. Where in the opinion of the Minister, a pensioner requires t r a i n i n g or re t r a i n i n g by reason of an increase in his pensionable or non-pensionable d i s a b i l i t i e s , the Minister may, pursuant to r e -gulations made in that behalf, p r o v i d e — t r a i n i n g or r e t r a i n i n g and pay allowances. The War Service Grant Act provides also thet r e -establishment c r e d i t s may be used to provide books, tools, and other equipment i f the veteran does not qualify under sections 6,9,or 11 of the Rehab i l i t a t i o n Act, Training on the job i s one of the oldest types of t r a i n i n g attempted by the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s . Mr. Wood comments "The experience of World War I had already demonstrated the dangers and weaknesses of this system and greater was taken to safeguard the i n t e r e s t s of the trainee without unduly disturbing established procedures or antagonizing employers. Many excellent plans were found to be in. operation but siany new schemes had to be devised to meet the peculiar needs of veterans, p a r t i c u l a r l y those with severe handicaps. 1 * Woods W.S., op c i t , ps.87 - 88 (60) Some of the c o n d i t i o n s or safeguards which are deemed necessary to ensure the success of on the j o b t r a i n i n g i n a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme are: (a) t r a i n i n g to terminate in a s p e c i f i e d s u i t a b l e job w ith the employer-trainer. (b) a p r e s c r i b e d t r a i n i n g p e r i o d with a schedule of the s k i l l s end operations to be l e a r n e d . (c) a p r e s c r i b e d graduated schedule of wage r a t e s . (d) w%ge r a t e s to be a t best as high as those p a i d to non veterans under s i m i l a r circumstances and t e r m i n a l r a t e to be adequate to meet the needs of the t r a i n e e . (e) p e r i o d i c i n s p e c t i o n v i s i t s by a competent f i e l d o f f i c e r f a m i l i a r with the cconditions and requirements of the t r a i n i n g programme. The veteran as i t may be seen can take advantage of a wide range of t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s which i n c l u d e v o c a t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l and academic courses. He must take advantage of these o p p o r t u n i t i e s soon a f t e r discharge. I f he i s doing w e l l i n hisncourses he w i l l be approved f o r a longer period of time, even i f h i s c r e d i t s are elapsed. Under the d i f f e r e n t bene-v o l e n t funds to which the veteran may apply on a means t e s t b a s i s , f e e s can be p a i d f o r any course up to a d e f i n i t e amount i f such a course w i l l a i d in the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the veteran. He may r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g o utside of Canada; i f he resumes a ,eourse at the same u n i v e r s i t y as he was a t t e n d i n g p r i o r to going i n t o s e r v i c e ; i f the course i s not provided i n Canada; i f the t r a i n i n g i s necessary to complete a course or i f he i s s e r i o u s l y d i s a b l e d , and i n the o p i n i o n of the M i n i s t e r , h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r e q u i r e s t r a i n i n g outside of Canada. The d i s a b l e d pensioner i s e n t i t l e d to a l l these b e n e f i t s and r e t r a i n i n g a t any time i f he cannot c a r r y on with h i s former occupation. He must, however, have had an increase (61) i n h i s pensionable or non pensionable d i s a b i l i t y . I f the Vet-eran i s h o s p i t a l i z e d , he may r e c e i v e correspondence courses and i n s t r u c t i o n i f they are of t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e . (2) T r a i n i n g Regulations and B e n e f i t s of the Workmen's  Compensation Board. . The permanently d i s a b l e d workman i s e n t i t l e d to many t r a i n i n g b e n e f i t s . However these are not s p e l l e d out i n any l e g i s l a t i v e m a t e r i a l and each case i s considered i n -d i v i d u a l l y . The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r s o f the Workmen's Compensation Board present t h e i r recommendation to the Board f o r i t s approval. Some of the b e n e f i t s are s t a t e d i n the minutes of the Board but these were not a v a i l a b l e f o r p e r u s a l . Some i n d i c a t i o n of the a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n to the i n -jured workman i s s t a t e d i n the T h i r t y - e i g h t h Annual Report(1954) of the Workmenfs Compensation Board and some too of the per-t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s quoted below, "When a workman's remaining impairment i s such that r e -employment at- h i s accustomed work i s d i f f i c u l t of Im-possible,, i t i s sometimes necessary to a s s i s t him i n a c q u i r i n g new s k i l l s and a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of employ-ment . Last year 604 workmen were considered f o r v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Of t h a t number, 199 were deemed accept-able f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and were a s s i s t e d i n r e t u r n i n g ; to employment s u i t e d to t h e i r Impaired c o n d i t i o n . Others were under c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t the end of 1954, A s s i s t a n c e was given to a t o t a l of 183 workmentin f i n d i n g employment of nature i n d i c a t e d by the d i s a -b i l i t i e s . S i x t e e n other impaired workmen were a s s i s t e d i n undertaking businesses under t h e i r o^n management. V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was given to 176 Impaired workmen so that they might change to such occupations as earpentry, d i e s e l and automotive or mechanical work, the metal trades, cooking, draughting, shoe r e p a i r i n g , b a r bering and other occupations. Those who accepted t r a i n i n g f o r book keeping and time-keeping were (62) e encouraged to take f i r s t - a i d courses i n a d d i t i o n to equip them f o r employment where f i r s t - a i d work i s r e q u i r e d . Kine men and women were accepted f o r academic or p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and a s s i s t e d f i n a n c i a l l y i n pursuing t h e i r s t u d i e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and other academic i n s t i t u t i o n s . " From d i s c u s s i o n s with the Workmen"s Compensation Board r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c i a l s , i t would appear that a l l compensation f i l e s r e l a t i n g to the permanently d i s a b l e d are screened and s e r v i c e s are given i f i i n d i c a t e d . In regard to correspondence courses w h i l e i n h o s p i t a l , they are of the o p i n i o n t h a t since very few o f them are completed that they are of l i t t l e academic value* Therefore, they seldom r e -commend such courses, However, they w i l l recommend and pay f o r courses f o r t h e r a p e u t i c reasons. In regard to r e t r a i n i n g they expressed the o p i n i o n that they would review the case and submit a p l a n f o r the approval of the Board. Perhaps few occasions of such need have occurred and no c l e a r p & l i e y developed. T r a i n i n g on the job i s provided along the seme l i n e s as that of the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s . V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s not given to any one o u t s i d e the province. Academic courses may be given o u t s i d e the pro-vince a t the d i s c r e t i o n of the Board. The l a c k of exact l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s makes any comparison of l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d , d i f f i c u l t . However, i t would appear that the same type and range of t r a i n i n g i s provided by both agencies. A c l e a r e r d e f i n i t i o n of the pos-s i b l e b e n e f i t s may provide a much wider b a s i s f o r the p a r t i -c i p a t i o n of the i n j u r e d workman i n h i s own r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p (63) I programme. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' should be a r i g h t hot a p r i v i -l e g e . I t seems that the worker's area of choice would be l i m i t e d by h i s comprehension of the inf o r m a t i o n whieh the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r s suggest to him. These suggestions no doubt r e f l e c t the o f f i c e r s * i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n -d i v i d u a l ' s needs. However, i f the workman i s aware of h i s r i g h t s by law, he i s able to p a r t i c i p a t e on a more equal f o o t i n g with the o f f i c e r and there would be l i t t l e danger t h a t h i s b a s i c r i g h t o f s e l f determination w i l l hot be taken from him, Any plan of course would have to be ap-proved by the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r . Employment R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e r v i c e s I t l a very d i f f i c u l t to l e g i s l a t e d i s a b l e d I n -d i v i d u a l s i n t o any employment. The f i r s t r e q u i s i t e i s p u b l i c acceptance. The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s took advantage of p u b l i c f e e l i n g f o r the d i s a b l e d veteran and provided f o r a c e r t a i n degree o f job, income and home s e c u r i t y . The Canadian p u b l i c on the whole has not accep-ted the d i s a b l e d workmen to the same degree. 11) L e g i s l a t i v e Employment B e n e f i t s f o r Veterans The s u c c e s s f u l re-establishment o f the veteran i n c i v i l i a n l i f e was the goal of a l l veterans* l e g i s l a t i o n . Some A c t s were s p e c i f i c a l l y enaeted to a i d the veteran to r e t u r n to h i s o l d employment, f i n d new employment or es-t a b l i s h a business. (64) The War S e r v i c e Grants Act a l s o provided that re-establishment c r e d i t s could be used f o r working c a p i t a l , the purchase of t o o l s or equipment or the purchase of a b business not exceeding two-thirds of the d i f f e r e n c e be-tween the purchase p r i c e and any indebtedness i n c u r r e d f o r the purpose of the purchase of such business, i f the payment of such d i f f e r e n c e s e n t i t l e d the purchaser to immediate possession. The Veterans Business and P r o f e s -s i o n a l lioans Act(R.S.C. 1958, Chapter 278) f u r t h e r de-f i n e d these p r o v i s i o n s and guaranteed the loans made from the bank. The veteran a l s o r e c e i v e d p r i o r i t y i n r e t u r n i n g to h i s former job. This was provided under the Rein-statement i n C i v i l Employment Act (R.S.C, Chapter 289), S e c t i o n 5 i n part s t a t e s : ( 5 ) I t i s the duty of an employer by whom a person accepted f o r s e r v i c e i n H i s Majesty's Forces was employed when accepted f o r -such s e r v i c e , to - r e i n s t a t e him i n employment a t the ter m i n a t i o n of h i s s e r v i c e such occupation and p o s i t i o n as a would be c o n s i s t e n t with the true i n t e n t and pur-pose of t h i s A c t - — The s e e t i o n continues to make p r o v i s i o n to guarantee h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h the p r o v i s i o n that h i s s e r v i c e time should be considered i n regard to s e n i o r i t y . T h i s A c t , on the whole, was quite s u c c e s s f u l i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to l e g i s l a t e people i n t o j o b s . The weight of p u b l i c opinion was sueh, that the p r o v i s i o n s of the Act were adhered to more as the r e s u l t of p u b l i c f e e l i n g (65) than the p r o v i s i o n s of the Act i t s e l f . A l l veterans ape giben p r i o r i t y f o r C i v i l S e r v i c e posts under the C i v i l S e r v i c e Act (R.S.C.1952, Chapter 48). The f i r s t to be placed on the l i s t of s u c c e s s f u l competitors* are to be d i s a b i l i t y pensioners who saw s e r v i c e i n World War I and World War II* These are to be f o l l o w e d by those who have seen s e r v i c e i n World War I I . Both groups must have l o s t c a p a c i t y f o r p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n from causes a t t r i b u t a b l e to s e r v i c e . They a l s o have to be declared u n f i t f o r p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n to an extent which makes them u n f i t , e f f i c i e n t l y to pursue the avocations whieh they were pursuing before the war and who have not been s u c c e s s f u l l y r e - e s t a b l i s h e d In some other a v o c a t i o n . A f t e r the d i s a b l e d pensioners, veterans and widows of veterans were given p r i o r i t y . Age l i m i t s and p h y s i c a l requirements were waived i f the veteran was considered to be i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n to do the job and to be able to do so f o r a considerable p e r i o d a f t e r h i s appointment* The Unemployment Insurance. Act (R»S.C. 1952, Chap-t e r 273) a l s o gave insurance b e n e f i t s to veterans. The general p r i n c i p a l i s stated i n s e c t i o n s 102 and 103 of the A c t . S e c t i o n 10S s t a t e s t h a t the S o r l d War I I veteran, i f he was employed f o r a p e r i o d o f t f i f t e e n ?<reeks in- any IS months, would be e n t i t l e d to r e c e i v e unemployment insurance f o r t h i s p e r i o d p l u s the t o t a l time of h i s s e r v i c e since the inauguration on the Act on the 30th day of June 1941. Parliament would pay ( 6 6 ) the appropriate monies i n t o the fund. The r a t e of payment would be according to the average c o n t r i b u t i o n s which the veteran made i n t o the fund f o r the f i f t e e n weeks which he was employed. These Out of Work Allowances were pai d to the World War I I veteran f o r a maximum of 52 weeks w i t h i n 18 months of discharge from the f o r c e s or from treatment. In no case was the l e n g t h of time to exceed the p e r i o d of s e r v i c e . However, under the Veterans B e n e f i t Aet (R .S.C.1953 -54, Chapter 85 as amended by R.S.C. 1955, Chapter 43) the need f o r t h i s has d i s -appeared. The former member of the f o r c e s , depending upon c e r t a i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i s e n t i t l e d to unemployment b e n e f i t s upon discharge. S e c t i o n 12 of t h i s Act o u t l i n e s the pro-cedure. Veterans are c l a s s i f i e d according to time and area of s e r v i d e . Notwithstanding t h i s p e r i o d of s e r v i c e , a s u f f i c i e n t amount i s deposited to provide f o r 90 days b e n e f i t . Thus there was l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s f o r the veteran to r e t u r n to h i s former job.' The veteran was a l s o given p r i o r i t y f o r c i v i l s e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s . The discharged veteran was auto-m a t i c a l l y covered f o r unemployment insurance. The veteran need use only the minimum of h i s p r i v a t e resources i n l o c a t i n g em- , ployment or s u s t a i n i n g himself while unemployed. (2) The Veterans Land Act and other B e n e f i t s . A f t e r World War I I the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s set up l e g i s l a t i o n under the Veterans Land Act whereby q u a l i f i e d veterans can o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e , to s e t t l e on the l a n d as f u l l (67) time farmers or part time farmers(small holders) or to be-come commercial fishermen. S p e c i a l a i d was given t o Indian s e t t l e r s on I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s * The veteran must be mar-r i e d and h i s experience, s t a b i l i t y , f i n a n c i a l resources and h i s p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s are a l l assessed. H i s re-establishment c r e d i t s must be i n t a c t . There i s no minimum s i z e r e q u i r e d f o r f u l l time farming. A s m a l l holding must c o n s i s t of a minimum of two acres where the value of the land and the cost of a s u i t a b l e water supply i s i n excess of $500 per acre; or three acres i f i t i s §500 per acre of l e s s . The K;, veteran who i s i n r e c e i p t of a d i s a b i l i t y pension of 50 per cent or more doe3 not have to meet t h i s requirement. There i s no minimum s i z e f o r a property to be used f o r a commer-c i a l f i s h i n g establishment. As the Act i s q u i t e l e n g t h y , a summary of the A c t , as o u t l i n e d i n a booklet e n t i t l e d ffhe Veteran's Land Act w i l l be presented r a t h e r than l i s t s p e c i f i c s e c t i o n s of the A c t . For f u l l time farming, a s s i s t a n c e up to #6000 i s granted to purchase land and b u i l d i n g s , b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , l i v e s t o c k and farm equipment. Not more th a t |1200 of t h i s amount, however, may be used f o r l i v e s t o c k and farm equipment. Ad-d i t i o n a l land g e n e r a l l y can be obtained up to #3000. The veteran must make a down payment of 10$ f o r the amount author-i z e d f o r the purchase of l a n d , b u i l d i n g s and permanent im-provements. The down payment f o r the a d d i t i o n a l l o a n i s one d o l l a r f o r each two d o l l a r s boranswed. The veteran i n a d d i t i o n {68} to the down payment, must repay two-thirds of the cost of the land, buildings and permanent improvements over a period of time not exceeding 25 years with i n t e r e s t at 3$$. The remaining 23 1/3% plus any amount authorized f o r stock and equipment i s i n the nature of a conditional grant i s not r e -payable i f the veteran f u l f i l l s the terms of his contract f o r ten years. The ad d i t i o n a l loan with interest at 5 per cent over a period not exceeding 25 years i s f u l l y repayable. Part time farmers or small holders receive somewhat s i m i l a r benefits. v Although assistance is. home construction cannot be considered employment r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , provisions are made under the Veteran's Land Aet i n t h i s regard and w i l l be d i s -cussed at t h i s point. The veteran must have d e f i n i t e q u a l i f i -cations, one of which i s _ t h a t he has not used his re-estab-lishment c r e d i t s to attend university for more than nine months. Any l o t , suitable f o r a single, family dwelling, i s acceptable i f approved by the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation* F i n a n c i a l assistance siay be approved up to 85 per cent of the market value of the land, as estimeated by the Director, the amount of loan(mortgage) whioh Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation has approved or f8000 which-ever i s the lea s t * Assistance i s made available, i n the form of progress payments as the house Is constructed. The yearly sum-which i s required to carry the loan and pay taxes must not exceed 23 per cent of the veteran's annual income. The (69) veteran must turn over t i t l e to a l o t worth at least $800 or pay the difference to the dire c t o r i n cash i f the value of the l o t i s less than $800. I f the. loan i s not.enough to meet the value of the house, the veteran must pay the d i f f e r -ence i n oash to the director before the construction con-t r a c t Is signed. At the conclusion of the construction con-t r a c t , the advances are consolidated into a f u l l y repayable, 25 year mortgage i n favor of Central Mortgage and Housing . Corporation or an approved tender. The Interest rate i s the one i n effect under the national Housing Act. In order that the veteran who returned t o a business or profession or farm or began these ventures a f t e r discharge, the department set up Awaiting Returns Allowances. The prupose being to a s s i s t In the maintenance of the veteran and his family i n the early stages of the venture when t h i s revenue was i n s u f f i c i e n t . These allowances were set up under the Veteran's Reha b i l i t a t i o n Act and are on a means test basis. 7 (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, where a veteran engages on his own account i n any busi-, ness and awaiting returns therefrom, the Minister may pay to him an allowance for a period not ex-ceeding the veteran's period of service or twelve months, whichever i s the l e s s . These allowances are paid at the rate of $50 f o r a single man with no dependents, #70 f o r a man and wife, $82 f o r a married veteran with one c h i l d , $94 I f he has two ch i l d r e n , $104 f o r three and .$6 more f o r each c h i l d up to s i x . '£'he veteran could also use his re-establishment c r e d i t f o r payment of premiums for Veteran's Insurance or {705 C i v i l Service Insurance. He could also use then to pay con-tr i b u t i o n s to the C i v i l Service Superannuation Act i n res-pect of his- service i n the C i v i l Service p r i o r to becoming a contributor under that Act. Purchase of annuities under the Government Annuity Act was also allowed. Re-establishment c r e d i t s allow the disabled veteran to take advantage of such programmes as establishing h i s ©an business, Veteran's Land Act and others. He receives unem-ployment insurance for a period of time equal to his service time. He i s also to be given an opportunity to return to h i s former employment. The disabled veteran receives s p e c i a l consideration on a l l c i v i l services appointments I f h© cannot continue h i s pre-war occupation. Immediately a f t e r the war,-he was given p r i o r i t y i n any job whioh came t o the attention of the National Employment Service. {3} Imployment Opportunities for the Disabled Workman. The disabled workman has no l e g i s l a t i v e provisions gi v i n g him any advantage i n fi n d i n g employment. *he rehabi-l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r s of the Workman's Compensation Board v i s i t former employers and seek the a i d of trade unions i n an at-tempt to get the Injured workman new employment. A workman may have his compensation payments committed i n order that he can get enough money to e s t a b l i s h himself i n a new busi-ness. For example, when an Injured workman i s trained as a shoe repairer, he often i s unable to compete In regular pro-duction l i n e companies. However he may be able to successfully (71) e s t a b l i s h a neighbourhood store.- order to get the neces-sary funds, so much i 3 taken from h i s pension and he-uses t h i s sum under the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r s guidance to es-t a b l i s h h i mself i n business. The B r i t i s h Government has d e f i n i t e l e g i s l a t i o n t o provide employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the handicapped. The D i s a b l e d Persons(Employment} A c t , 1944 places an o b l i g a t i o n on every employer of twenty or: more work-people to employ a quota of r e g i s t e r e d d i s a b l e d per-sons. Any employer who I s not employing h i s f u l l quota of d i s a b l e d persons may not engage any person, other than a r e g i s t e r e d d i s a b l e d person, except under a permit issued by the M i n i s t r y of % b o u r and N a t i o n a l S e r v i c e , u n t i l h i s quota i s complete.; An employer may not discharge a r e g i s t e r e d d i s a b l e d person without reasonable cause i>f such discharge would l e a v e him . below h i s quota. The p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s Act operate c o n c u r r e n t l y with the voluntary-King's R o l l Scheme. The Kings R o l l Scheme, brought i n t o being a f t e r the 1914,-19l8 War., encourages the employment of Ex-. S e r v i c e men who are i n r e c e i p t of d i s a b i l i t y pensions . i n respee.t>of s e r v i c e i n that.War. Imployers who undertake to employ an agreed p r o p o r t i o n of such d i s a b l e d e x - s e r v i c e men .are e n r o l l e d on the King's N a t i o n a l R o l l . The p r o p o r t i o n Is u s u a l l y 5$ of the t o t a l s t a f f employed provided s u f f i c i e n t e l i g i b l e ex-s e r v i c e men are a v a i l a b l e . 1 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , th© M i n i s t e r of Labour and n a t i o n a l S e r v i c e has the a u t h o r i t y " t o designate c e r t a i n c l a s s e s of employment which are p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r d i s a b l e d persons, f u t u r e vacancies are then reserved f o r r e g i s t e r e d d i s a b l e d persons. S u c h designated jobs i n c l u d e ear parking attendant and passenger e l e v a t o r operator. The B r i t i s h also. <-ha:v-e .sheltered workshops f o r those who cannot T~. P u b l i c S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Handbook of Information on S e r v i c e s provided by the S t a t e . London. The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , 1951, p.96. (72) compete i n ordinary i n d u s t r y . While, i t may be d i f f i c u l t to enforce such l e g i s -l a t i o n , i t would, on the other hand, be an a i d i n any form of s o c i a l a c t i o n . The l e g i s l a t i o n of the D.V..A. and p u b l i c f e e l i n g at the end of World War I I would i n d i c a t e what could be done. There appears to be no reason -why such l e g i s l a t i o n could not be e f f e c t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, ojr 1/if that i s con- •, ; I . ' i > • t • • ' s t i t u t i o n a l l y imoossible,, by the Federal Government. Such • i -l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t a i n was probably hastened by the large" number of war d i s a b i l i t i e s , and i s u n l i k e l y to appear i n Canada unless mush pressure Is brought to bear upon the governments concerned. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Maintenance Allowances and A u x i l i a r y Aids One way of measuring the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of any r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n programme can be seen i n the f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y which i t gives the veteran and h i s f a m i l y . Both agencies pro-vide compensation f o r d i s a b i l i t y , allowances while t r a i n i n g and pensions to widows and other dependents. The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s a l s o has other b e n e f i t s which Make the r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n of the veteran comparatively e a s i e r than that of the workmen. (1) Pension Allowances Pension Allowances are the basic f i n a n c i a l r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n measure i n both the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s and the Workmen's Compensation Board. Both pensions are r a t e d (73) according to a d i s a b i l i t y scale. A comparison of some of the basic rates follow. Table I A Comparison of Some Basic D i s a b i l i t y Rates D i s a b i l i t y D, V. A • W.C,B. Arm at shoulder 80 76 S t i f f ^houlder 20 40 Index Finger 10 3.5 Leg at hip 80 85 Leg at knee 60 66.5 Eyes-total blindness 100 100 Byes-one enucleated 40 18 Eyes-one bl i n d 30 16 Deafness-bath ears 80 53 No attempt w i l l be made to compare the rates as the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s l i s t i s not a v a i l a b l e . It would appeal* that the rates on the whole, are f a i r l y equal. The veterans rate of pension are set up i n Schedule A of the Pension Act*1 and are payable according to the per-centage ratings, ^ome of the conditions of payment under the Act are: 13(a) pension s h a l l be awarded i n accordance with the rates set out i n Schedule A to or i n respect of members of the forces when the injury of disease or aggravation thereof r e s u l t i n g in the di s -a b i l i t y i n respect of which the app l i c a t i o n for pension i s isade was att r i b u t a b l e to or v»'as i n -curred during such m i l i t a r y service. Thus the veteran and his family receive allowance according to the per centage of his d i s a b i l i t y . Temporary and permanent pensions are awarded under the Act: 29 (1)Temporary pensions, subject from time to time to 1. Source: Sloan G.M. op c i t p.154 Consultation with d i f f e r e n t Department of Veterans A f f a i r s patients(The D.V.A. have never published such information. During the present s i t t i n g of Parliament, this authority has been granted.). (74) review and medical re-examination, s h a l l he awarded or continued as lo n g as the d i s a b i l i t y remains changeable i n extent. (2) Permanent pensions s h a l l be awarded, or pension s h a l l be continued permanently, whenever the d i s -a b i l i t y i s or becomes, apparently permanent i n ex-t e n t ; but i f i t subsequently appears that such a d i s a b i l i t y has changed i n extent the pension s h a l l be adjusted a c c o r d i n g l y . The pensioner's r i g h t to work without any e f f e c t on pension i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d ; 24(4) Ho deduction s h a l l be made from the pension of any member of the f o r c e s owing to h i s having under-taken work or p e r f e c t e d h i m s e l f i n some for® of Industry. t r a v e l l i n g , subsistence allowances and l o s s of wages are p a i d to the pensioner when he i s r e q u i r e d to be m e d i c a l l y r e -examined by the Canadian Pension Commission. Generally the wif!e and the c h i l d r e n Of the veteran r e c e i v e an allowance as lo n g as they are maintained by him. A c h i l d under s e c t i o n 2(d) of the Act i s defined: 2 ( d ) " C h i l d " means a l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d of a member of the f o r c e s whether such c h i l d i s born before or a f t e r the award of pension; and * c h i l d * a l s o i n c l u d e s h i s s t e p c h i l d , h i s adopted c h i l d , h i s f o s t e r c h i l d , or h i s i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d . C h i l d r e n allowances are p a i d according to Schedule A. S e c t i o n 26(1) of the Act i n part s t a t e s : 26(1) Ko pension s h a l l be p a i d to or i n respect of a c h i l d who, i f a boy, i s over the age of s i x t e e n years, or i f a g i r l i s over seventeen y e a r s . Exceptions are granted i f the c h i l d i s p h y s i c a l l y or mentally i n f i r m but such i n f i r m i t y must occur before the c h i l d i s twenty one years o f age. The ehilafe allowance i s a l s o p a i d up to the TT Appendix B ( 7 5 | age of twenty-one years i f the c h i l d i s t a k i n g a course of i n -s t r u c t i o n . Pension allowances a r e a l s o granted to a pensioner's dependent parents i f he helped maintain them a t the time o f enlistment o r i s he l p i n g to support them when they have be-come i n c a p a c i t a t e d . I x t r s allowances are granted to a pensioner i f he i s considered h e l p l e s s or f o r wear and t e a r on c l o t h i n g . 30(1) A member of the f o r c e s who i s t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d and h e l p l e s s , whether e n t i t l e d to a pension of c l a s s one or a lower c l a s s , and who i s , i n a d d i t i o n , i n need of attendance, i s e n t i t l e d , i f he i s not cared f o r under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s i n a h o s p i t a l , to an a d d i t i o n to h i s pension, sub-j e c t to review from time to time, of an amount i i i the d i s c r e t i o n of the Commission of not l e s s than f o u r hundred and ei g h t y d o l l a r s per annum and not exceeding fourteen hundred d o l l a r s per annum. This allowance can be p a i d to most bedridden cases and some major amputation cases. The reason f o r payment may not a r i s e d i r e c t l y from a d i s a b i l i t y but the r e c i p i e n t must be i n r e -c e i p t of a pension. 30 ( 2 ) A member of the f o r c e s i n r e c e i p t of a pension on account of an amputation of a l e g above a Symes* amputation i s e n t i t l e d to an allowance on account of wear and tear of c l o t h i n g , of seventy-two d o l l a r s per annum; and a member of the f o r c e s i n r e c e i p t of pen-, s i o n on account of an amputation a t or above the w r i s t i s e n t i t l e d to an allowance on account o f wear and tea r of clothing, oof t h i r t y d o l l a r s per annum. An allowance up to seventy-two d o l l a r s per year may be granted by the Commission f o r wear and te a r of c l o t h i n g f o r any other p r o s t h e s i s . The r a t e of pension which the workman r e c e i v e s i s governed by the schedule of percentages of impairment of earning (76) c a p a c i t y and are payable during the l i f e t i m e of the wo-rkman-. This i s covered i n p a r t i n s e e t i o n 21 of the Workmen's Com-pensation A c t . 21(1) Where permanent t o t a l d i s a b i l i t y r e s u l t s from the i n j u r y , the compensation s h a l l be a p e r i o d i c a l payment to the i n j u r e d workman equal i n amount to s e v e n t y - f i v e per centum of h i s average earnings, and s h a l l be payable during the l i f e t i m e of the workman. (2) The compensation awarded under t h i s s e c t i o n s h a l l not be l e s s then an amount equal to twenty-five d o l l a r s per week, unless the workmen's average earnings are l e s s than t w e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r s per week, i n which oese he s h a l l l r e e e i v e compensation i n an amount equal to h i s average earnings. The Act's d e f i n i t i o n of average earnings has been quoted i n Chapter I . In general* they r e f e r to the average y e a r l y earnings or whet could be considered y e a r l y earnings i f i n -j u r y had not occurred. In case of young i n d i v i d u a l s , low earnings because of age, w i l l a l s o be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I f doubt a r i s e s , reference i s sometimes made to other i n d i v i -duals average earnings i n a elmlfir c l a s s of employment. The maximum earnings are set a t $4000. In general then, an i n d i v i d u a l who i s e n t i t l e d to r e c e i v e a 100 per cent t o t a l permanent d i s a b i l i t y pension, can r e c e i v e a maximum of 75 per cent of |400© or 13000 per annum. The .minimum g e n e r a l l y , a t the r a t e of $25 per week, would be $1300 per annum. There i s no allowance f o r de-pendents. Although there i s no d e f i n i t e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n , the I n j u r e d workman, i f he i s a p a r a p l e g i c or a quaduaplegic (77) can r e c e i v e nursing a s s i s t a n c e on a p p l i c a t i o n to the Board. This allowance may be p a i d to a w i f e , o r d e r l y or nurse a t the r a t e of $1.50 per day which amounts to $557.50 per year. The Workman's Compensation Board does not provide any a l -lowance f o r wear and t e a r on c l o t h i n g . The veteran pension system appears to t r e a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a2iike w i t h the only deference being to rank and number of dependents. The workman's Compensation Board's system of pension i s based upon what the i n d i v i d u a l was earning a t the time o f i n j u r y . Each system has apparent ad-vantages i n i t s own p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d and no attempt w i l l be made to determine which 13 the b e t t e r system In t h i s study. In comparing allowances, f o r the rank of Major (army) and below, the 100 per cent veteran pensioner r e -c e i v e s |1500 i f s i n g l e which I s |200 over the general Work-man's Compensation Board minimum. To approach the Workman's Compensation Board maximum t h i s c l a s s of veteran would have to be married and supporting seven c h i l d r e n . The veteran's helplessness allowance i s a v a i l a b l e to many more veterans than the Workmens Compensation n u r s i n g allowance i s to work-men. This veterans allowance may vary from |480 t o $1400 wh i l e the maximum Workman's Compensation allowance I s $547.50 per year. There i s no question t h a t the Veterans* Allowance i s more adequate but on the other hadd, t o t a l payments are d i f f i c u l t to compare. (78) In eases of Imprisonment, both the Canadian Pension Commission or the Workman's Compensation Board may suspend payment or make the payments d i r e c t l y to dependents, i n e i t h e r agency, i f the pensioner appears incapable- o f spending h i s pension i n the proper manner to maintain and provide f o r h i s f a m i l y , the agency may a dm M a t e r the pension. The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s pension a l s o has the added advantage that from time to time the schedules are r e v i s e d according to the cost of l i v i n g and any increase a p p l i e s to a l l veterans i n r e c e i p t of pension. The r a t e o f pension I s a l s o increased p e r i o d i c a l l y by 10 per cent r a i s e s up to 80 per cent i f the veteran i s over 50 and r e c e i v e s a 50 per cent pension or more. The Workmen's Compensation Board payments on the other hand are more subject to seasonal chang.es. The workman i n j u r e d i n the depression years, w i l l r e c e i v e f a r l e s s than a s i m i l a r l y i n j u r e d workman of today. The Board has made attempts to b r i n g some r e l i e f th these cases but t h e i r r a t e of pension i s s t i l l q u i t e low by com-p a r i s o n to today's r a t e of compensation. (2) T r a i n i n g Allowances Veteran pension payments are payable at a l l times during t r a i n i n g . Whether the pensioner i s s i n g l e with no dependents or married, he r e c e i v e s h i s b a s i c $60 a month t r a i n i n g allowance. The payment of allowances to dependents i s s e t down i n the Veterans R e h a b i l i t a t i o n R egulations. {79} 8 ( 8 } Where a pensioner i s e n t i t l e d to an allowance under s e c t i o n 8fr9H or 11 of the A c t , he s h a l l be e n t i t l e d to an allowance f o r h i s dependents only to the ex-te n t that the pension payments f o r such dependents are l e s s than the allowance provided by the A c t . The b a s i c t r a i n i n g monthly r a t e s a f t e r the I n i t i a l f 6 0 . are |30 f o r the w i f e , §10 f o r the f i r s t c h i l d , |14 f o r the second c h i l d and f l O f o r each c h i l d up to and i n c l u d i n g the s i x t h c h i l d , A 100 per cent pensioner would t h e r e f o r e r e c e i v e no t r a i n i n g allowance f o r dependents. A 40 per cent pensioner who i s married with one c h i l d would r e c e i v e $18 t r a i n i n g allowance f o r h i s u i f e , who should a l r e a d y be r e c e i v i n g |18 under Schedule A of the Pension Act and |10 f o r h i s c h i l d who would be r e c e i v i n g |8. The Veterans R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act s t a t e s : {,17} In determining the amount of an allowance to be pa i d to a veteran under t h i s A c t , the M i n i s t e r may r d . i take i n t o account any p r o s p e c t i v e wages, s a l a r y , pension or other income of the veteran, and h i s dependents, i f any, f o r the p e r i o d with respect to which the allowance i s or may be p a i d . At f i r s t , attempts were made to e s t a b l i s h a r b i t r a r y maximum amounts which could be earned but methods of checking such f i g u r e s became burdensome and I t was d i f f i c u l t to work out an e q u i t a b l e 'system of deductions. Under an M i n i s t e r i a l Order dated November 19,1954, no deductions are made exeept i f the veteran r e c e i v e s income from h i s programme by way of employer-trainer, s c h o l a r s h i p , bursary, g r a n t - i n - a i d , leave w i t h pay, or other such income. The t r a i n i n g allowance i n such circumstances I s reduced by the amount by which such income exceeds $75 per month. Teachers who take courses (80) during vacation time have the same computation made against t h e i r seasonal wage. A self-employed veteran may have his allowances reduced to zero. Other expenses were allowed under sections IS and 13 of the Veterans Reha b i l i t a t i o n Regulations; (12) A veteran who Is l i v i n g away from his usual plaee of residence i n pursuing a course under section 8, 9, or 11 of the Act and Is receiving an allowance f o r dependents may be paid en a d d i t i o n a l allowance of £ 5 a week or the actual cost of such transportation, whichever i s the l e s s e r . Training allowances granted by the Workmen"s Compensation Board are subject to the amount of compensation paid to the work-men! In some cases where the amount of compensation i s un-decided the workman may receive the maximum compensation of |250 per month. The single man may be paid up to 0125. per month. The married man cen receive an extra |50 per month and the single men $35 per month i f they are maintaining a separate domicile. Apparently there i s l i t t l e question about t h i s allowance being paid f o r vocational t r a i n i n g but there i s no d e f i n i t e p o l i c y i n regard to academic t r a i n i n g . The granting of such allowances to begin with, i s dependent to a great extent upon the goal of the injured man p r i o r to his accident and the amount of academic training he has already had* Allowances may be paid f o r a short period and then h i s pension commuted i f he desires further a i d . Each case i s i n -dependent and i s considered on i t s own merits. In t r a i n i n g on the job allowances, both agencies follow the seme p r i n c i p l e s . They both apparently pay up to (31) an amount which the man would o r d i n a r i l y r e c e i v e a t the job. Th i s amount i s only paid f o r a s p e c i f i c l e n g t h of time. Once a g a i n , because of the v a r i e d approach and the l a c k of d e f i n i t e Workmen's Compensation Board r e g u l a t i o n s , any comparison of t r a i n i n g allowances i s qu i t e d i f f i c u l t . D i s r e g a r d i n g the extra d o m i c i l i a r y and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n expenses which each agency pays i n v a r y i n g degrees, the 100.per cent s i n g l e Department of Veterans A f f a i r s pensioner could r e c e i v e f l S S per mo nth.-pension and allowance; the same st a t u s o f "if-., -workman could r e c e i v e f125 per month unless h i s c l a i m i s not f i n a l i z e d when:he may r e c e i v e $250. G e n e r a l l y a mean would be reached when the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s pensioner s u f f e r s from about a 50 percent d i s a b i l i t y . Below t h i s per-centage, the i n j u r e d workman would appear ,t© have an advan-tage i n t o t a l b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d . A comparison of the ma r r i e d T : man's allowances would depend upon the number of c h i l d r e n and the percentage.of d i s a b i l i t y . ( 3 ) Widows and,Dependents Allowances These*benefits are a l s o d i f f i c u l t to app r a i s e . « general tha workman's widow r e c e i v e s an allowance i f h i s accident i s f a t a l or h i s death i s d i r e c t l y due to h i s com-pensatable disability. The veteran's widow on the other hand, has these b e n e f i t s p l u s the b e n e f i t of a widow's allowance i f her husband has been i n r e c e i p t of a pension of over 50 per cent. The workman can t h e r e f o r e g i v e l i t t l e thought to these b e n e f i t s i n p r o v i d i n g f o r the f u t u r e s e c u r i t y o f h i s (32) family, while some disabled veterans entire scheme of rehabi-l i t a t i o n can be affeoted by the benefits which ne knows his family can receive. The widow of tho voteran i s generally e n t i t l e d to o l a i a f o r pension, i f she was resldeing with the veteran and being maintained by him, at the time of death and the rates 1 are aet out i n Schedule B . Ia respect to service rendered during World T.Var I or during World War I I : 13 (B) pensions s h a l l be awarded i n accordance with the rates aet out i n Schedule B i n respect of members of the forces who havs died when the injury or d i s -ease or aggravation thereof r e s u l t i n g i n death i n re-spect of which the ap p l i c a t i o n f o r pension i s made, was at t r i b u t a b l e to or was incurred during such m i l i -tary service. Subject to ce r t a i n marriage deadlines, these amounts are payable i f the veteran was receiving a 50 per cent pension or more #f,,.if he died from his pensionable condition. The Act states: , : 36(3) Subject as i n t h i s Act otherwise provided, the widow of a member of the forces who was, at the time ©f his death i n receipt of a pension i n any of the classes, one to.eleven, i n c l u s i v e mentioned i n Schedule A or who died while on the strength of the Department for treatment and but for h i s death would have been i n receipt of pension i n one of the said classes, Is e n t i t l e d to a pension as I f he had died on service whether his death was att r i b u t a b l e to his service or not. The Workmen's Compensation Board on the other hand only pays compensation to dependents i f the workman died from i n j u r i e s a t t r i b u t a b l e to his "accident"'. 18(2) where death r e s u l t s from i n j u r y , compen-sation. u{iall be paid to the dependents of the deceased workman as follows: 1. Appendix C (83) (a.,)' when the dependent i s a widow or an i n v a l i d •' widower without any; dependent childre n a montly payment of seventy-five do l l a r s during the l&fe of the surviving spouse: (to) where the dependents are a widow or an i n -v a l i d widower and one or more ohildren, a montly payment of seventy-five do l l a r s fo r each c h i l d .under the age of sixteen, years and for each i n v a l i d c h i l d over that age, together with-a. monthly payment of • twenty-f i v e d o l l a r s f o r each o h i l d while regularly attending an academic, technical or voca-t i o n a l school between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years. (o) where the dependents are chil d r e n , there being no dependent.widow or i n v a l i d widower, a monthly payment of t h i r t y d o l l a r s to each c h i l d under th© age of eighteen years and to eaoh c h i l d over that aga, buo such monthly payment, except i n the case of an i n v a l i d c h i l d unable to attend 3chool, s h a l l be reduced by two do l l a r s and f i f t y cents while such c h i l d i s not attending an academic, technical or vocational school between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years. The remaining sub-sections deal with allowances to other dependents and i n general are about the same as the Depart-ment of Veterans A f f a i r s regulations which-allow some pay-ments In c e r t a i n cases. Both agencies allow payments to a woman whom the deceased presented as h i s wife f o r a oertain period of time, usually seven years. The Workmen's Compensation Board appears to take the broad inte r p r e t a t i o n of a c h i l d as adopted by the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s and which was mentioned previously i n pension allowances. Both agencies pay the widow an amount equal to $1200 i n the oase of remarriage. In these eases, payments on behalf of the c h i l d r e n are continued by both agencies. - In comparing the benefits i f a ease of death, the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s pays $100 a month to the widow, (84) #20 f o r f i r s t o h i l d , §15 f o r the t h i r d and $12 f o r each a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d . The Workman•a Compensation Board pays $75 a month t o the widow and $25 f o r each c h i l d . The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s payments g i v e the advantage t o the widow who has l e s s than three c h i l d r e n and the Workman's Compensation t o the widow w i t h more than three c h i l d r e n . S i m i l a r l y w i t h payment t o orphans, the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s pay $40 f o r the f i r s t c h i l d as against 030 g e n e r a l l y , f o r the Workmans Compensation hut the t h i r d c h i l d under the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s r e g u l a t i o n s i s e n t i t l e d t o $24 w h i l e the payment of the Workman's Compensation Board remains at |30. The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s regu-l a t i o n s provide payment t o c h i l d r e n up to the age of .17 f o r g i r l s and 16 f o r boys. The Workmen's Compensation Board pays up to the age of 16 i n both casea. Vlhere the o h i l d r e n are a t t e n d i n g school the V/orioaen's Compensation Board pays up t o 18 years of age w h i l e the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s l e g i s l a t i o n provides f o r payment up to 21. Both agencies provide payment to c h i l d r e n over the age l i m i t I f they are p h y s i c a l l y or mentally i n f i r m . The great advantage of the Department, of Veterans A f f a i r s r e g u l a t i o n s i s that allowances are paid t o dependents I f the pensioner was i n r e c e i p t of a 50 per cent pension or above i r r e g a r d l e s s i f death r e s u l t e d from I n j u r i e s a t t r i b u -t a b l e to a pensionable d i s a b i l i t y or;not. While the amount of pension does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t the widow w i l l not (85) have f i n a n c i a l need, her basic requirements w i l l be met. Such a veteran, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l not have t o g i v e the same thought t o the s e c u r i t y of h i s f a m i l y as the workman. He may, i f nedessary, spend h i s t o t a l pension and wages on the immediate welf a r e of h i s f a m i l y , being assured that they w i l l have some means of support i n ca«e of h i s death. Such a b e n e f i t may a l s o r e f l e c t on h i s t r a i n i n g programme. The veteran eould conceivable take a more extensive programme or eould he s a t i s f i e d w i t h e. lower paying job than a workman i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . The f i n a n c i a l aspect of r e h a b i -l i t a t i o n employment would be of l e s s concern t o him. These dependents allowances are p a i d by the Dep-artment of Veterans A f f a i r s t o the e n t i t l e d r e c i p i e n t s r e -gardless of where they l i v e . The Workmen's Compensation Board, on the other hand, may vary t h e i r allowances depending upon the l i v i n g standards of the country i n whioh they r e -s i d e . Sub-section 13(2) i n p a r t s t a t e s " t h a t th© Board may: 18(2) n award J t ^ c i i l e s s e r sum by way. of compensation as, according t o the c o n d i t i o n s and cost of l i v i n g i n the place of residence of such dependents, w i l l , In the o p i n i o n ©f the Board, maintain them i n a l i k e degree of comfort as dependents of the same o l a s s r e s i d i n g i n the Dominion and r e c e i v i n g the f u l l compensation authorized by t h i s Act would enjoy: There may be acme j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n such a procedure i f the Board could a l l o w a higher sum t o those l i v i n g i n ^ countries such && the United States 'which has a higher standard of l i v i n g than Canada. ( 4 ) Other B e n e f i t s Both agencies provide f o r the b u r i a l expense. The (85) Workmen's Compensation Board provides suoh expenses i n case of a f a t a l a c c i d e n t . They w i l l pay up t o .$250. The Depart- *; ment of Veterans A f f a i r s w i l l pay suoh expenses f o r any pen-si o n e r on a means t e s t b a s i s . They w i l l pay up to $185. The Workmen's Compensation Board has few other b e n e f i t s and i t i s i n t h i s area that the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s and even the p r o v i n c i a l governments provide f r i n g e b e n e f i t s which help c e r t a i n pensioners a great d e a l , a l l of which may hav© some i n f l u e n c e upon the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the pensioner i s e n t i t l e d .to a War Veteran Allowance' on a means Teat b a s i s . I f the veteran has been i n r e c e i p t of l e a s than a SO per cent pension, h i s widow may apply f o r a widow's allowance under t h i s Act as a s i n g l e v e t e r a n . I f she has any o h i l d r e n , she r e c e i v e d the same b e n e f i t s as the unmarried veteran w i t h c h i l d r e n . These r a t e s have been mentioned p r e v i o u s l y . . The widow of the veteran has, as s t a t e d before, a c e r t a i n s p e c i a l c i v i l s e r v i c e r a t i n g . The veteran's de-pendents are a l s o e n t i t l e d t o apply f o r h i s war s e r v i c e ''gratuities.^-: and re-establishment c r e d i t s If. they have not been used. These are l i m i t e d and granted on a means t e s t b a s i s i f they a i d i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process. The V-otorans Insurance Act (R.3.C.' 1952, Chapter 538) allow the veteran or h i s widow to acquire up to f10,000 of insurance without c o n s i d e r a t i o n . o f h i s or her medical .diagnosis. (87) Payment i s made only on the death of the Insured and there are c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s i n regard t o payment i f death occurs before the i n s t a l l m e n t s are p a i d . Under the C h i l d r e n of War Dead (Education A s s i s t a n c e ) Act (R.S.C. 1958-53 Chapter 27) the c h i l d of a veteran who was r e c e i v i n g alldwaho.es udder Schedule B of the Pension Act may apply f o r a s s i s t a n c e . 3. Th© M i n i s t e r &ay,, i n .accordance w i t h t h i a Act and the r e g u l a t i o n s , (a) mafes allowances t o or i n respect of students t o enable them t o continue, w i t h i n an educational i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e i r education or i n s t r u c t i o n , beyond m a t r i c u l a t i o n , secondary school graduation (b) or equivalent education: and pay th© whole or In part the oost of such education or i n s t r u c t i o n . 4. ( 1 ) The amount of the allowances t h a t may be p a i d to or i n .respect of a student s h a l l be a monthly allowance of twenty-five d o l l a r s d uring the p e r i o d i n which the student pursues a f u l l time course of.study i n an educational i n s t i t u t i o n , but the t o t a l p e r i o d for.whioh an allowance may be paid t o or i n respect of a student under t h i s Act s h a l l not exceed f o u r academic years or t h i r t y - s i x mouths, whichever l a the l e s s e r . The student must have s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s and have no more than one supplementary examination. No allowance i s p a i d a f t e r the student reaches 25 years of age. The t o t a l - amount which can be apid i n any one year i s #500. Thia means that any c h i l d - of a deceased veteran who i s r e c e i v i n g allowance under the Pension Act Is e n t i t l e d t o apply f o r e d u c a t i o n a l benefits.beyond the m a t r i c u l a t i o n l e v e l . These b e n e f i t s m y i n c l u d e the cost of t u i t i o n plus a monthly allowance of 25 dolla r s . . (88) . The p r o v i n c i a l government i n B r i t i s h Columbia a l s o waives age l i m i t a t i o n s i n c e r t a i n cases where veterans seek employemta i n the p r o v i n c i a l c i v i l s e r v i c e . They provide a sma l l fund f o r returned s o l d i e r s * c h i l d r e n on a means t e s t b a s i s . A l l of the p r o v i n c i a l gas taxes ( 9 cents) i s refunded to anyone who i s r e c e i v i n g a 1 0 0 per cent d i s a b i l i t y pension or has l o s t a limb while s e r v i n g i n Her Majesty's f o r c e s . They a l s o provide a f r e e motor v e h i c l e l i c e n c e t o any veteran who i s i n r e c e i p t of 1 0 0 per cent pension through a c t i v e s e r v i c e . Thus i t may be seen that the d i s a b l e d veteran has many avenues t o t u r n on i n case of need. C e r t a i n other f r i n g e b e n e f i t s are provided which on the whole make h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n from a f i n a n c i a l , t r a i n i n g and employment aspect much simpler than t h a t of a workman. Summary The l a c k of l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s or Board r e -g u l a t i o n s i n many area3 make comparison d i f f i c u l t . The d i s -abled workman and the d i s a b l e d veteran are both e n t i t l e d t o madieai treatment f o r t h e i r compensable or pensionable d i s -a b i l i t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n the d i s a b l e d veteran i s e n t i t l e d t o treatment o l r non-pensionable d i s a b i l i t i e s , under d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of the veterans Treatment Regulations, on a means t e s t b a s i s . M e d i c a l treatment i s granted f o r a l i m i t e d time f o r those veterans t a k i n g t r a i n i n g . ( 8 9 ) I n comparing the t r a i n i n g and employment b e n e f i t s i t should be remembered t h a t the veteran r s l l e a on h i s r e -establishment c r e d i t s . These are not provided by the Work-men's Compensation Bottrd. .Both the d i s a b l e d veteran and workman ar© e n t i t l e d t o academic, v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g and t o . t r a i n i n g b e n e f i t s . The d i s a b l e d veteran, i n a d d i t i o n , i s d e f i n i t e l y e n t i t l e d t o r e t r a i n i n g i f h i s pen-s i o n a b l e ot non pensionable d i s a b i l i t y Increases t o the ex-te n t that he cannot c a r r y on with h i s v o c a t i o n . The workman may only have suoh b e n e f i t s i f h i s compensable d i s a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e s but t h i s I s not c l e a r l y s t a t e d . The veteran had the r i g h t t o c l a i m h i s o l d job on discharge. The d i s a b l e d veteran has top p r i o r i t y on c i v i l s e r v i c e jobs. He can use h i s c r e d i t s t o purchase land or a business or f o r v a r i o u s other reasons. The pensionable b e n e f i t s are approximately the same and both pay about s i m i l a r allowances t o dependents i n case death oooura from a pensionable or compensable d i s a b i l i t y . The great advantage i s that the dependents of the veteran who was i n r e c e i p t of a 50 per cent pension or more are e n t i t l e d to allowances whether death occured from a pensionable d i s -a b i l i t y or not. Entitlement f o r War Veterans Allowance i f h i s d i s -a b i l i t y pension i s w i t h i n the l l s i s s provided, e l i g i b i l i t y of h i s widow f o r widow's allowance under the same a c t , (90) educational b e n e f i t s f o r b i s s u r v i v i n g c h i l d r e n , benevolent fund resources as w e l l as some p r o v i n c i a l and municipa a i d s , make the veteran's r e h a b i l i t a t i o n problem much e a s i e r from an eoojaoxaic point of view. The Welfare O f f i c e r has many more resources t o draw on and help him r e h a b i l i t a t e the veteran than the ' R e h a b i l i t a t i o n O f f i c e r has t o help the workman. (91) C H A P T E R IT T U B REHABILITATION -SERVICES OP THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERAN'S  AFFAIRS AHD T H E WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION BOARD. Introduction - The measurement of services i n any agency i s a d i f f i c u l t task. Results could not be measured as the f i l e s of the Workmen's Compensation Board were not a v a i l a b l e . Another d i f f i c u l t y i n such an approach would be the invest-i g a t i o n of enough oases to provide a good sample. Such i n -v e s t i g a t i o n would of course involve the l o c a t i o n and pos-s i b l e interview of cases which had been r e h a b i l i t a t e d over a number of years. As stated previously the approach to the evalua-t i o n of services w i l l be made f i r s t , by discussing the f a c i -l i t i e s i n which they operate and secondly by describing them as- they bring service to the i n d i v i d u a l i n the rehabi-l i t a t i o n process: r e g i s t r a t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n counsel-l i n g , medioal diagnosis and evaluation, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n plan psychosocial evaluation, educational, vocational and em-ployment evaluation, establishment i n the community and c l o s -ure and follow-up. The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s have, due to public f e e l i n g toward the veteran, more resources to purchase and s t a f f & c i l i t i e s than have the tforkmen's Compensation Board. Also as a r e s u l t of t h i s f e e l i n g the public perhaps /""~f92) cooperate more f u l l y w i t h the veteran's c o u n s e l l o r than t h a t of the workman. F a c i l i t i e s and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Department of Veterans  A f f a i r s The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s , beoause of i t s s i z e and area of s e r v i c e s , i s a complex o r g a n i z a t i o n . A c h a r t , Figure I , i n d i c a t i n g the executive, branch and adminl| s t r a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n at the head o f f i c e l e v e l i s shown on the succeeding page. Although a l l branches play t h e i r p a r t i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process, the two p r i n c i p a l branches are those of w e l f a r e and treatment s e r v i c e s . (1) Treatment S e r v i c e s The nerve centre of treatment s e r v i c e s of the De-partment of Veterans A f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia l a Shaugh-nessy H o s p i t a l a t 50th and L a u r e l i n Vancouver. The main b u i l d i n g serves as a d i a g n o s t i c , o b s e r v a t i o n a l and treatment centre f o r the m a j o r i t y of acute cases. S p e o i a l cases ar© sometimes r e f e r r e d t o other I n s i t i t u t i o n s or f a c i l i t i e s . Treatment a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e s are a l s o housed i n t h i s b u i l d i n g , Situated'on the same graounda i f the Jean Matheson Memorial P a v i l i o n or Chest U n i t which provides h o s p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r chest diseases and some f a c i l i t i e s f o r the study of various a l l e r g i e s . The 'Extension?* i s a l s o c l o s e to the . m a i n ^ j j ^ ^ i t a l . These huts provide f a c i l i t i e s f o r bed-s i d e n u rsing bare f o r ohronio cases of o l d e r veterans r e -q u i r i n g d o m i c i l i a r y treatment. The Canadian Pension Com-D E P A R T M E N T 0 F V E T E B A N S A F F A I R S EXECUTIVE, BRANCH AND ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION AT HEAD OFFICE APPENDIX "A" File 113-5-1-2 (ADM 1) 1-5-52 M I N I S T E R FUNCTIONALLY CANADIAN PENSION COMMISSION FOH ADM. SERVICES DEPUTY MINISTER POLICY VETERAN'S WELFARE SERVICES BRANCH FOR ADM. SERVICES T CHIEF OF INFORMATION ASSISTANT DEPUTY MINISTER INSPECTION STAFF POLICY TREATMENT SERVICES BRANCH ADM, FOR SERVICES jjRVI POLICY PROSTHETIC SERVICES BRANCH FOR ADM. SERVICES TORAT DIREC E OF PERSONNEL ft ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 1. PERSONNEL DIVISION 2. CENTRAL REGISTRY DIVISION 3. WAR SERVICE RECORDS DIVISION U. OFFICE SERVICES DIVISION DEPARTMENTAL SECRETARY POLICY VETERAN'S BUREAU BRANCH FOR ADM. SERVICES fiBX FUNCTIONALLY WAR VETERANS ALLOWANCE BOARD FOR A n n . M j w v m E S POLICY VETERAN'S INSURANCE BRANCH • FOR ADM- S] |ER£ I££SL POLICY VETERAN'S LAND ACT ft SOLDIERS SETTLE-MENT BOARD BRANCH FOR tiw flrjVTfiga DIRECTORATE OF FINANCE. PURCHASING- AND STORES 1. ESTIMATES AND FINANCIAL CONTROL DIVISION 2. RESEARCH ft STATISTICS DIVISION 3. PURCHASING DIVISION (INCL CMS) STORES ft EQUIPMENT DIVISION 5.STATIONERY ft OFFICE SUPPLIES DIVISION DIRECTORATE OF L E f l A I . H E H V T C F . f l 1.PROFESSIONAL LEGAL STAFF DIVISION 2.INVESTIGATIONS ft SPECIAL INCIDENTS DIVISION DIRECTORATE OF E N G T N E E R T W r t A f f r n w w n r n T T n M * T n » M g « n r L.ENGINEERING SERVICES DIVISION 2.ACCOMMODATION DIVISION J.MOTOR TRANSPORT DIVISION F i g u r e 1. mission, the Veterans Bureau and the in - h o s p i t a l Welfare Services a l l have t h e i r o f f i c e s i n the 'Extension*. Hyoroft, located near 16th and G r a n v i l l e , i s the former home of the l a t e Senator A* 0. MoRae and provides nursing care f a c i l i t i e s for ambultory older veterans re-quiring domiciliary treatment. The George Derby Health and Occupational Centre, situated near Burnaby Lake i n South burnaby was designed as a convalescent centre for Shaugh-nessy Hospital cases. Trained physiotherapists and remedial t r a i n i n g Instructors work under medical d i r e c t i o n towards physical r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Group exercises. directed sports a c t i v i t i e s and handicrafts are also provided. Immediately a f t e r World War II t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n was used p r i n c i p a l l y f o r casualties and besides tho f a c i l i t i e s outlined above, provided a variety of t r a i n i n g opportunities. Commercial, vocational and academic courses were given to a large number of veterans. To-day the need for such s p e c i a l i z e d centre i s gradually disappearing. Physical convalescent care i s s t i l l provided but the t r a i n i n g f a c i i i u i e a have been greatly reduced. The most ambulatory of the veterans receiving domi c i l i a r y oar© are now ho s p i t a l i z e d there. F a c i l i t i e s i n any one of these I n s t i t u t i o n s are often used by tnose h o s p i t a l i -zed In another. Besides the veterans who are i n the Departmental Hospital, treatment services are responsible f o r veterans who are receiving treatment i n other hospitals f o r any d l 3 -(94 ) a b i l i t y f o r which" they have e n t i t l e m e n t . These cases are g e n e r a l l y only t r e a t e d l o c a l l y when i l l n e s s p r o h i b i t s moving them or the ser v i o e s which they r e q u i r e are adequate a t the l o c a l l e v e l and the cost of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n would not be j u s t i f i e d . , The ^treatment s e r v i c e team Includes, the doctor, p s y c h i a t r i s t , nurse, p h y s i c a l t h e r a p i s t , o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a -p i s t , the p h y s i c a l education worker, the d e n t i a t , the medical s o c i a l worker, t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t s , the Red Cross A r t s and C r a f t s department. I n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g may a l s o be i n -cluded under these s e r v i o e s , although the s u p e r v i s o r of i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g I s a Welfare O f f i c e r , The s t a f f of t h i s department are a l l c l a s s e d as c a s u a l employees although many have been employed f o r years. F a c i l i t i e s of t h i s de-partment i n c l u d e , a speech t h e r a p i s t , an aphasis t h e r a p i s t , and i n s t r u c t o r s i n wood and metal work, a r t , photography, and v o c a t i o n a l , commercial and academic correspondence courses. An attempt Is made t o provide p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n a few v o c a t i o n a l courses as w e l l as f a i r l y complete I n s t r u c t i o n i n commercial and academic s u b j e c t s . Ho attempt w i l l be made to assess the area of work covered by these many people. 2, Welfare S e r v i o e s Veterans Welfare Servioes have as a r e s u l t of changing needs, been re-organlzed s i n c e ¥/orld War I I . Im-mediately af t e i . the War, the a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s branch were d i r e c t e d toward a d v i s i n g and h e l p i n g the veteran back t o c i v i l i a n l i f e . S t a f f s were departmentalized i n t o s p e c i a l branches d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c areas of l e g i s l a t i o n . As the r ( 9 5 ) years passed the veteran's needs changed t o c o u n s e l l i n g and guidance f o r d i f f i c u l t i e s which he was encountering i n c i v i -l i a n l i f e . The ageing World War I veteran increased the demand f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and processing f o r War Veterans Allowance and d o m i c i l i a r y c a r e . The work of the s p e c i a l i z e d departments are how .often handled by one man as a part of a much broader job. Many of the men who were formerly doing s p e c i a l i z e d work are now d o i n g general c o u n s e l l i n g d e a l i n g w i t h a l l matters of l e g i s l a t i o n and of s e r v i c e . The men g i v i n g t h i s s e r v i c e and. the higher a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s of the branch are c a l l e d Veterans Welfare O f f i c e r s . These o f f i c e r s are c l a s s e d according to d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The '©hanging o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h the r e f o c u s i n g of needs, from the i n j u r e d veteran i n h o s p i t a l to the i n j u r e d veteran i n the community I s a handicap i n comparing s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d t o the war c a s u a l t y and t o the i n d u s t r i a l c a s u a l t y . I f heavy.war c a s u a l t i e s occurred again, the o r g a n i z a t i o n would undoubtedly be changed to :ja^j*vthese needs. For the purposes of t h i s study, t h e ; e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s of the De-partment of Veterans A f f a i r s w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d . I t should a l s o be.stated t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n v a r i e s at the l o c a l l e v e l depending upon the s i z e o f s t a f f which i s determined by the area to be covered and the number of cases w i t h i n that a r e a . Welfare Services have three p r i n c i p a l l i n e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n at the l o c a l l e v e l : the War Veterans Allowance (96) s e c t i o n , the c a s u a l t y s e c t i o n , and the general s e r v i c e s e c t i o n The c a s u a l t y s e c t i o n serves a l l h o s p i t a l oases and veterans i n the Vancouver-area who require r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . The- general s e r v i c e s e c t i o n i s housed at- the main Department of Veterans A f f a i r s o f f i c e s at 1231 Haro S t r e e t , Vancouver.-This s e c t i o n answers a l l o f f i c e i n q u i r i e s and i s a l s o the headquarters f o r urban (Vancouver) and f i e l d s e r v i c e . There Is a c e r t a i n amount of overlapping of t e r r i t o r y i n the Van-couver area. Urban and f i e l d o f f i c e r s may v i s i t c e r t a i n h o s p i t a l oases. F i e l d o f f i c e r s are a s s i g n e d . s p e c i f i c areas throughout the. province. They v i s i t these areas p e r i o d i c a l l y . On cases, demanding, i n s t a n t a t t e n t i o n , they are prepared t o leave t h e i r o f f i c e s i n Vancouver on 84 hours n o t i c e . There l a a s u b - d i s t r i c t o f f i c e In V i c t o r i a which serves the Van-couver I s l a n d area. Welfare S e r v i c e s i n Vancouver are d i r e o t e d by a Superintendent of Welfare S e r v i c e s who i s r e -s p o n s i b l e to both the D i s t r i c t A d m i n i s t r a t o r and to the D i r e c t o r General of Welfare S e r v i c e s i n Ottawa. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , Welfare O f f i c e r s are graded. The lower grades p r i n c i p a l l y c a r r y on i n v e s t i g a t i o n work, f i l i n g applications,*'make- i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w s and r e -f e r r a l s and other minor s e r v i o e s . The Welfare O f f i c e r s , Grades I I I and above are assigned to give extensive counsel-l i n g and guidance. Most of the f i e l d and h o s p i t a l o f f i c e r s are In t h i s category. The s e n i o r o f f i c e r s are u s u a l l y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e aad supervisory c a p a c i t i e s . ^ (97) 3 . S o e i a l •vV'ork and the Department of .Veterans ..Affairs. H i s t o r i c a l l y the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s has always r e c o g n i z e d the c o n t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l workers. Im-m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g World War I , t r a i n i n g cases which gave some I n d i c a t i o n t h a t t r a i n i n g was being hampered by domes-t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s , were r e f e r r e d t o s o c i a l s e r v i c e workers f o r I n v e s t i g a t i o n . Hurses were t r a i n e d i n some s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s i n order t h a t wider s e r v i c e c o u l d b© offered t o t u b e r c u l a r , raental and other p a t i e n t s who spent l o n g p e r i o d s c o n v a l e s c i n g i n t h e i r one homes. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s were a l s o done.by these workers. Between the wars t h e r e appears t o be l i t t l e r e c o r d of s o c i a l workers i n the department. Th© development of s o c i a l work a f t e r World War I I f o l l o w e d the p a t t e r n inaugurated d u r i n g the war. C o l o n e l S u t t o n who had developed the army programme i n v e s t i g a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r workers i n the department,. He reeommended t h a t s o c i a l workers should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (a) medical s o c i a l s e r v i c e i n h o s p i t a l s and c l i n i c s t o meet the needs of treatment s e r v i c e s ; (b ) a r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e which would main-t a i n l i a s o n w i t h s o c i a l agencies i n the community i n order t h a t s o c i a l problems ev i d e n t i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n branch c o u l d be p r o p e r l y d e a l t w i t h ; (c) an i n v e s t i g a t i o n s e c t i o n , which would take i n a l l departmental i n v e s t i g a t o r s and p l a c e them under the s u p e r v i s i o n of a s o c i a l worker. Var i o u s methods of o r g a n i z a t i o n were attempted d u r i n g the i n t e r v e n i n g years s i n c e the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the department. M e d i c a l (98) s o c i a l workers have mainly been under treatment s e r v i c e s . The S o c i a l 1 S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n which deals w i t h r e f e r r a l s has been under, d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r i t i e s . The fu n c t i o n s of t h i s department were l i m i t e d i n 1947; Mr* ftoods sums up the 1 reasons: '''•'•'••'''. However, .';when the bulk of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n work was completed, the veterans coming t o the department ' brought more d i f f i c u l t s o c i a l problems, w i t h the r e s u l t that t h e work of t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n was r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g w h i l e t h e work of the counsel-l o r s and welfare o f f i c e r s was decreasing. C a r r i e d to I t s u l t i m a t e c o n c l u s i o n t h i s p o l i c y would have meant that c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h overseas s e r v i c e , and a l s o w i t h ,>^ :pe,ri©ace i n t h e department, would be r e -leased, .while,I on t h e other hand, t h e S o e i a l Service D i v i s i o n would be adding t o i t s s t a f f , persons w i t h -out s e r v i c e experience or any knowledge of depart-mental procedure. I t was evident therefore,. t h a t i t was impossible t o c a r r y out the p o l i c y even i f a s u f f i c i e n t number of t r a i n e d s o c i a l workers had been a v a i l a b l e . 1 1 Today, i t would appear t h a t there are-many t r a i n e d s o c i a l workers who have had overseas experience. The moot question would appear t o be one of departmental experience and knowledge•'as •••compared and co n t r a s t e d with p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g . However, i n l i n e with"the above reasoning, the ; f u n c t i o n s of t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e department' were l i m i t e d an&'aany of t h e i r d u t i e s weref, absorbed by ex-panding welfare"-..services. - The S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n i s at the moment, under the d i r e c t i o n of Welfare-Services and t h e i r p o l i c y i s based-ohvth© f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . (a) T h o s o c i a l workers In the department should be con s u l t a n t s t o veterans welfare o f f i c e r s and not n e c e s s a r i l y deal w i t h s o c i a l problems at f i r s t •-bandy .• 1. Woods 0*S*';.o;p c i t - j f p. 312-313. 2. Woods OiS. op c i t 1 ' p..3.13 ( 9 9 ) (b) The"" s o c i a l workers should operate a teaching programme, w i t h the objects of improving a l l •welfare s e r v i c e s s t a f f . (d) The s o c i a l workers should maintain l i a s o n w i t h community agencies and undertake a d i r e c t case work s e r v i c e where the problem was of concern only to the department. This type of s e r v i c e was not t o be given on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . The S o c i a l S e r v i c e d i v i s i o n a l s o has s p e c i f i c d u t i e s In respect t o the Assistance Fund provided under the War Veterans Allowance Act and they a l s o provide s p e c i a l s e r v i c e t o the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence. These i n c l u d e r e p o r t s on home circumstances, and i n v o l v e contacts w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y a l l community resources. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and F a c i l i t i e s of the Workmen's Compensation  Board. The f a c i l i t i e s of the Workmen's Compensation Board have grown t o meet expanding needs. They are i n a continued process of expansion. The eight main departments, which have p r e v i o u s l y been mentioned are d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the Board, through the Board Seo r e t a r t y who a c t s as a c o o r d i n a t o r . These d i v i s i o n s are housed i n two l a r g e modern b u i l d i n g s on the south s i d e of 37th avenue, at Heather S t r e e t i n Vancouver. The p r i n c i p a l o f f i c e s are housed i n the b u i l d i n g t o the west w h i l e the l a r g e modern r e h a b i l i t a t i o n centre occupies the b u i l d i n g across the s t r e e t , This centre Is under the d i r e c t i o n of a doctor and s u p p l i e s treatment on an o u t - p a t i e n t b a s i s . There i s physiotherapy of a l l k i n d s . L i g h t and medium occupational therapy i s a l s o provided. The (100) workman comes f o r treatment f o r d e f i n i t e periods of time and may be directed to a vocational school for t r a i n i n g f o r the balance of the day. Their Impressive f a c i l i t i e s are directed toward the rapid physical r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the ambulatory workman. As f a r as can be determined, a new p r a c t i c a l idea In occupational therapy i n B.C. i s directed by Miss I n g l i s i n a large basement room. Patient s are assigned to her department, on a l i m i t e d basis and en attempt i s made to assess the a b i l i t y of the workman to do a job. The job may oe his old one but also may be a new one. Tests are designed f o r s p e c i f i c d i s -a b i l i t i e s . Miss I n g l i s , the therapist, has broken jobs down into c e r t a i n amounts of movement involving such items as walking, standing, turning, sitting., twisting, crawling, pusing, p u l l i n g , reaching, working speed and climbing. The patient's former job or new job i s analyzed at the i n i t i a l interview according to the above items. An attempt i s made to have him duplicate these movements i n equal amounts of reproductive and creative work, The f a c i l i t i e s are of neces-s i t y l i m i t e d but include a ramp, a wheelbarrow, logs, saws, hammers, stones to shovel, rough ground on whioh to work. Apparently patients w i l l accept the analysis and i n some cases the patient i s quite prepared to give up a job he has done for years on the basis of the t e s t . Plana are being formalized to add outdoor te s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s to those already i n existence. (101) (1) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Beigfc tment. of the Workmen's Compensation  Board. •. This department i s housed i n the large o f f i c e b u i l -ding. These i s . a R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Off icer,,: who i s the lead, of the department, aiid four r e h a b i l i t a t i o n counsellors who work under him. The four work out of the main o f f i c e s and serve the Vancouver area j o i n t l y . Monthly t r i p s are made to Van-couver Island by one o f f i c e r , while one other o f f i c e r makes sem-annual t r i p s throughout the i n t e r i o r . Sometimes spe c i a l t r a i p s w i l l be made for s p e c i f i c cases i f the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n problem i s urgent. The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n counsellor w i l l i n -terview a case;.,:;;-.forward his recommendation ,tp the head of the department who i n turn w i l l forward i t . t o the Board for a f i n a l decision. :i Comparison of Adminatration and F a c i l i t i e s . • The difference i n service makes any comparison : d i f f i c u l t . The. veteran served by the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s has had ;.hospitalization for his traumatic i n j u r y . He has, i f i n the army and seriously injured,' gone through the following steps: stretcher, regimental aid post, advance dressing s t a t i o n , casualty c l e a r i n g s t a t i o n , f i e l d h o s p i t a l , base-hospital ^ h o s p i t a l ship, m i l i t a r y h o s p i t a l , and f i n a l l y . Department of Veterans A f f a i r s hospita-* with, perhaps a number of-ambulances, plane.and t r a i n t r i p s as well., The De-partaeat of Veterans A f f a i r s f a c i l i t i e s whioh are described deal only with the .man'as he may arrive i n a Department of Veterans M € a i r s hospital today for further treatment or on (102) an emergency b a s i s . The workman, when i n j u r e d , i s seen by a f i r s t a i d man and then, i f necessary, tran s p o r t e d t o the nearest h o s p i t a l . Some emergency cases may be flown d i r e c t l y to Vancouver. The «'orxuaen's Compensation Board f a c i l i t i e s whieh are described deal w i t h the man from h i s place of i n -j u r y . The'injured veteran of the l e s t war might not have seen a Department of Veterans A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l anywhere from two months t o a year a f t e r he was Injured * h i l e the i n j u r e d workman may be seen hours a f t e r i n j u r y . I t would seem t h a t s i n c e the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s o f f e r s medical s e r -v i c e s I n a h o s p i t a l which Is recognised t o be as modern as any l a the province, the f a c i l i t i e s f o r medical oars must, on the whole be b e t t e r than those o f f e r e d by the Workman's Com-pensation Board, f a c i l i t i e s must be l i m i t e d i n smaller h o s p i t a l s . Such items as i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g can be of-fe r e d i n a s e t t i n g such as Shaughnesay where a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous group i s o b t a i n a b l e . I t would be reasonable to assume that i n t e r - p r o f e s s l o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p could be e a s i l y f o s t e r e d i n a s e t t i n g where a l l members of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n team are employees of a s i n g l e employer and.are housed i n the same general area. I n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , i t would appear that the physiotherapy and occupational therapy departments are more funowiwnal .in-the f a c i l i t i e s of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n centre of the Workmen's Compensation Board. However, the d i f f e r e n c e i n f u n c t i o n between a h o s p i t a l and a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n centre f o r b i d an accurate comparison i n a study of t h i s s o r t . (103) Records of the•Two-Agencies. The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n department of the Workmen's Compensation Board and the Casualty Section of Welfare Ser-vices are but parts of a much larger establishment. There-fore, records i n both departments must be kept apart from the central f i l i n g system, The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s has a d i s t r i c t f i l e for each i n d i v i d u a l , In addition to t h i s , there are separate medical", p$sp}Matricy"Sceial .work,...and. welfare f i l e s when' required. Many branches keep card systems and other forms of records. The Workmen's Compensation Board's p r i n c i p a l f i l e has three sections, medical, correspondence and accounts. Separate departments may keep card systems and plade summaries In the p r i n c i p a l f i l e . This i s the policy followed by the Rehabi l i t a t i o n Department of the Workman's Compensation Board. In studying the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process, i t has therefore been impossible to review a l l cards and separate f i l e s . The Rehabilitation, o f f i c e r s of the Workman's Com-pensation Board wrote t h e i r summaries from t h e i r own f i l e s . The i n d i v i d u a l Department of Veterans A f f a i r s D i s t r i c t o f f i c e f i l e s were perused as well ae the welfare and medical s o o i a l work f i l e s . Therefore no attempt w i l l be made to assess the amount or value of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and other professional services, r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to the physical r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In both agencies i t would appear that the services are available and therefore used to best ad-vantage. (104) The R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Process of the Two Agencies, In order to compare th i s process, cases have-been picked from each agency to show some of the various types of injury and the oreadth and depth of service offered to these cases. Because of the d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g a l l records of r e f e r r a l i n these cases, the medical programme has on the whole, been omitted. Each agency hes the viewpoint that the, doctor i s the ultimate authority i n any programme. The ser-vice of a l l other members of the rehabilitation, team i s re-quired but the doc tor*s decision determines the tempo of the whole process. Mo authority opposes t h i s basic Idea. The p r i n c i p a l contact with eaoh agency has been with their respective ' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' departments. The basic problem of these departments i a to implement services to hasten the process of t h e i r respective c l i e n t s returning to gainful employment afte r i n j u r y . Therefore the focus i s toward the vocational and .social aspects of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In gathering the cases In Appendix D, i t was found'that the f i l e s of the Workmen's Compensation Board are not avai l a b l e to. anyone outside the agency so the summaries were written out by t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r s . These summaries were written according to guide headings of a p r o v i s i o n a l schedule given to them to determine what information i^ould be a v a i l -able. These V -lings stressed tha vocational and s o c i a l as \vell as the medical aspects of the cases. I t was emphasised that the eases should coyer, as f a r as possible, t h e i r t o t a l f~ (105) services. However, medical information was quite spotty and has mostly been omitted i n e d i t i n g the oases. An attempt has been made to r e t a i n the 'thinking' of the writer i n eaoh case.. In choosing the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s cases, an attempt was made to. hav« the i n j u r i e s as s i m i l a r as possible to"the workmen's Compensation Board cases and to select those oases whioh gave the widest area of s e r v i c e . These cases were picked at random as i t was impossible to review hundreds of oases; However, i n discussing the cases, i t was f e l t that on the whole, they give f a i r l y compre-hensive pictures of the width of programme offered by the respective agencies. It i s d i f f i c u l t to attempt to narrow down the veterans' programme to apply only to disabled veterans when the t o t a l services deal with so many classes of veterans^ The cases i n Appendix D should be read at t h i s time as many points of s i m i l a r i t y w i l l be omitted and only some of the diverging points discussed.- It should be eiaphasiaed again that the cases have not been chosen to measure r e s u l t . They have.been picked to show the widest area of programme. In cases of si m i l a r d i s a b i l i t y i t must be remembered t.,at i n -d i v i d u a l differences f o r b i d measuring of p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e s . By seeing a l l eases as. part of a whole, a comprehensive p i c -ture may be obtained. jr doe) • ( 1 ) R e g i s t r a t i o n and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C o u n s e l l i n g ; ' r The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n departments of both agencies r e g i s t e r " a l l cuses i n which they f e e l t h e i r s e r v i c e s may be r e q u i r e d by the d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l to r e - e s t a b l i s h himself i n a c t i v e • employment. The Workmen's'Compensation' Board-re-view a l l f i l e s which are r e f e r r e d t o them. They peruse a l l f i l e s where there Is any i n d i c a t i o n that t h e i r s e r v i c e s are s r e q u i r e d . Cards and records are kept' f o r any case i n which/ a permanent d i s a b i l i t y i s shown and a i d r e q u i r e d i n p l a c i n g the man i n a job. The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s auto-m a t i c a l l y r e g i s t e r s any veteran who has a d i s a b i l i t y of 25 per cent or over as w e l l as any others where there i s an i n -d i c a t i o n that s e r v i c e s may be r e q u i r e d . I t I s p o s s i b l e t h a t the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s would reach more people.' The c a s u a l t y r e g i s t r a t i o n form (R.S.C.I) of the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s and t h e i r record sheets (R.C.S.3) are shown in Appendix E. The Workmen's Compensation Board's r e h a b i l i t a t i o n summary sheet; t r a i n i n g reoonaendution sheet; and t h e i r - r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n c l osure form are also•shown i n Appendix B. An examination of these sheets r e v e a l t h a t although d i f f e r e n t data are gathered that they are q u i t e comprehensive and undoubtedly cover the areas which are of p a r t i c u l a r importance to each aganey. The :;olioy of both departments i s t o reach the man in h o s p i t a l as soon as circumstances allow.' They r e a l i s e that, an explanation of p o l i c y and b e n e f i t s i s a. great morale booster. The war amputation case was met by an amputation (107) welfare o f f l o o r outside of H a l i f a x harbour. He came out I n the p i l o t boat and v i s i t e d a i l amputation oases before the h o s p i t a l s h i p docked. However, s e r v i c e s d i r e c t l y a f t e r the war were l i m i t e d by l a c k of s t a f f and the l a r g e number of men r e q u i r i n g h e l p . To-day, any veteran r e c e i v i n g treatment i s seen as soon as p o s s i b l e . P r i o r i t y i s gen t o c a s u a l t y r e -g i s t r a n t s . The veteran i s seen as o f t e n as i s necessary from t h i s moment u n t i l he i s f i r m l y -established i n a job In c i v i -l i a n l i f e . The p o l i c y of the Workmen's Compensation Board i s much the same. However, as many of t h e i r oases r e c e i v e treatment i n h o s p i t a l s throughout the pro v i n c e , h o s p i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g would be l i m i t e d . They make an attempt to see a l l major oases and o f f e r s e r v i c e u n t i l the man i s success-f u l l y employed. Other oases are seen at va r i o u s stages of p h y s i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Each agency appears ot have a d i f f e r e n t approach i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward the needs of tho i n d i v i d u a l i n the c o u n s e l l i n g process. The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s i n -v e s t i g a t e a l l f a c e t s of the vete.ra.as r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and face h o s t i l i t y and antagonism i n attempting t o u i d the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s t o t a l adjustments The Workmen's Compensation Board do not i n v e s t i g a t e the- s o c i a l adjustment to the same extent. A case which appears to point t h i e d i f f e r e n c e out i s oase 7 as compared to cases E and H. In case 7, the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n O f f i c e r recognized the need as one of a d j u s t -ment t o h i s i l l n e s s and t o h i s s o c i a l group. The man sought (108) employment i n h i s own community but was not s u c c e s s f u l u n t i l he oam© to Vaneouwer to have h i s p r o s t h e s i s r e p a i r e d and r e -ce i v e d help; from the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n O f f i c e r - o f the Workmen's Compensation Board. The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s , as i n -d i c a t e d i n the p a r t i c u l a r cases of• 1 and H, f o l l o w t h e i r c l i e n t s back to the community and i n the face of o p p o s i t i o n attempt t o b r i n g a i d t o the man. Some i n d i v i d u a l s may be able t o r e t u r n t o ask f o r help a f t e r such expression of h o s t i l i t y but these cases i n d i c a t e t h a t mental and s o c i a l breakdown can be pre-vented by t a k i n g the o f f e r of help** t o the I n d i v i d u a l i n h i s . own surroundings. .The .Int e r e s t , understanding;.and encourage-ment given t o these people enable them t o f i n d t h e i r own way t o a s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The i n t e r v i e w i n g f a c i l i t i e s of the iforkmen's Compen-s a t i o n Board and the Welfare o f f i c e s of the Department of -Veterans A f f a i r s are not good. The veteran must wait i n a h a l l o u tside the o f f i c e s . He i s interviewed In o f f i c e s . which are u s u a l l y used by two Welfare O f f i c e r s . However,.it may be p o s s i b l e f o r the Welfare Q f f l c a r to soout around and f i n d an o f f i c e which i s vacant. The f a c i l i t i e s of the Work-men's Compensation are i n one l a r g e room. The head of'the department has a p r i v a t e o f f i c e . The desk of the R e h a b i l i -t a t i o n O f f i c e r s , tho c l e r i c a l s t a f f and a bench upon which the c l i e n t s wait are i n one l a r g e room. The i n d i v i d u a l must f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to d i s c l o s e i n f o r m a t i o n where he i s . l i k e l y t o be over heard by another veteran or workman or by another agency o f f i c i a l . The c o u n s e l l o r i n each instance must a l s o (109) f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o concentrate and g i v e the maximum help to h i s , c l i e n t i n such an atmosphere. (2) Medical Diagnosis and E v a l u a t i o n Since the p o l i c y of both agencies i s q u i t e s t r i c t in.regard, t o pension payment, a graat deal of a t t e n t i o n i s paid to an accurate d i a g n o s i s . The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s employ s p e c i a l i s t s who can be consulted on a l l im-portant eases. The doctors of the ./orkmen's Compensation Board c a r e f u l l y review th© statement from the workman's p r i v a t e doctor. The man, on h i s recommendation or on t h e i r own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e f e r the oase to a s p e c i a l i s t . In regard t o treatment, both agencies appear t o provide the best that i s a v a i l a b l e . The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s have most of these f a c i l i t i e s In t h e i r own I n s i t u t i o a . The . Workmen's Compensation Board must r e l y on l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s which may be inadequate. They w i l l , however, t r a n s f e r cases to h o s p i t a l which have b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s . Most of t h e i r p araplegic and double amputation oases are r e f e r r e d to' a s p e c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c e n t r e . A l l cases who can p r o f i t by the f a c i l i t i e s of t h e i r own r e h a b i l i t a t i o n centre may be t r a n s f e r r e d t o Vancouver. They have t h e i r own s t a f f f of p h y s i o t h e r a p i s t s t r e a t i n g •tforknen's Compensation Board oases i n h o s p i t a l s i n the Vancouver area. However, th© c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and tho vastness of The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s f a c i l i t i e s a l l o w the depart-ment to supply s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s whioh are not always a v a i l a b l e to th© i n j u r e d workman. Medical s p e c i a l i s t s , s p e c i a l t e c h -(110) nicians as well as such professional people as medical s o c i a l workers and psychologists are regularly employed i n Shaughnessy Hospital. These people are available i n the large c i t y hos-p i t a l s but few are employed i n hospitals throughout the pro-vince. At Shaughnessy Hospital a s t a f f of medical s o c i a l workers take r e f e r r a l s from doctors, other s t a f f , outside i n the chest u n i t . The p s y c h i a t r i s t often requests a s o c i a l h i s t o r y or inves t i g a t i o n of a s p e c i a l problem. The s o c i a l worker may investigate any i n d i v i d u a l or family who has a general welfare problem^ emotional problem connected with t h e i r i l l n e s s , or any other emotional or s o c i a l problem* During t h i s process the worker w i l l confer with the doctor, v i s i t the family, contact the community i n which he resides or contact other welfare organizations, I f matters of addit-i o n a l f i n a n c i a l assistance or other welfare assistance are required. A review of the Department o'f Veterans A f f a i r s cases indicate some of the work performed by the medical ' s o c i a l worker. Perhaps the best example of casework i s case I. With oasework help, the woman was able to take an in t e r e s t i n her family, adopt new interests i n the home and f i n a l l y accept treatment i n another i n s t i t u t i o n . The services are used by many, as the annual report states that the number 1 of d a i l y Interviews averaged 116 per worker for year 1954. 1. Canada, Report of the Work of the Department of Veterans  Affairs,' Pttawa. Queens Pr i n t e r , 1955, p.27 (Ill) The p s y c h o l o g i s t may be consulted by the doctor or other s t a f f members i n regard to psychometric t e s t i n g and asses-sment. P r o s t h e t i c s e r v i c e s , pension advocates and employees of the Canadian Pension Commission are i n the h o s p i t a l area and a l l of the veterans' queries can be answered by the r e -spo n s i b l e department i n a r e l a t i v e l y short p e r i o d of time. The f a c i l i t i e s which are a v a i l a b l e t o the workman w i l l depend upon what h o s p i t a l he i s i n . T h i s i n t u r n w i l l depend upon the place of accident and the nature of h i s i n -j u r i e s . The workman i s always moved to a h o s p i t a l where h i s p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s e s w i l l r e c e i v e adequate treatment. Often the need f o r s p e c i a l i s t s such as medical s o c i a l workers or p s y c h i a t r i s t s i s not i n d i c a t e d by the degree of treatment r e -qu i r e d . In regard t o p s y c h i a t r i o treatment, both agencies reoognize the r i g h t to treatment only I f the c o n d i t i o n was aggravated or began w i t h a recognized i n j u r t y or disease. How-ever, i n assessing the c o n d i t i o n , th© Board, on the advice of the man's attending p h y s i c i a n , may request p s y c h i a t r i c con-s u l t a t i o n . Department of Veterans A f f a i r s d o c t o r s , on the other hand can r e f e r p r a c t i c a l l y any ease t o p s y c h i a t r y as a matter of course. The quotdd oases do not n e c e s s a r i l y g i v e an accurate e s t i m a t i o n , but f i v e of the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s cases were r e f e r r e d to p s y c h i a t r y . Case 10 would appear t o be an e x c e l l e n t example of a case where p o s s i b l y a medical s o o i a l worker or p s y c h i a t r i c r e f e r r a l may be of (112) some benefit. Of course, i t i s recognized, the c l i e n t would have to cooperate i n the process. Th© advantages of profess-i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t s are obvious. Both agencies have the understanding that the doc-tors are i n complete control of the physical aspect of rehabi-l i t a t i o n . The • r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' o f f i c i a l s of the agencies consult the doctor i n regard to any patient who i s i n h o s p i t a l . The Workmen's Compensation Board o f f i c i a l must often know whether the man can return to his former employment before he i s e n t i t l e d to the service of the Board's r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme. Department of Veterans A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s must consult the doctor f o r the same reason. I f there i s a pen-sion aggravation, the man may be retrained. The o f f i o e r s of both agencies must know the diagnosis and prognosis of the patient's d i s a b i l i t y . Their whole programme i s geared to these f a c t o r s . Both agencies employ physiotherapists and occupational therapists to a i d i n diagnosis and treatment. Although the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s have some f a c i -l i t i e s to measure required movements i n regard to job place-ment, they do not appear to have any equal to those of the Workmen's Compensation Board. (3) Psycho-social Evaluation The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r s of the Workmen's Com-pensation Board and the welfare o f f i o e r s of the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s are both aware of the s o c i a l problems underlying r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . A review of the oases w i l l In-dicate that they gather the same basic information. There (113) i s a d i f f e r e n c e , probably e v o l v i n g from the h i s t o r i c a l de-velopment of each agency, i n the e v a l u a t i o n of these prob-lems as they may c o n t r i b u t e t o the maladjustment of the i n -d i v i d u a l and h i s f a m i l y . H i s t o r i c a l l y , the workman i s I n -sured i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o the amount of s a l a r y which he earns. His f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are not considered unless f a t a l i n j u r y r e s u l t s . The Workmen's Compensation Board do v i s i t the f a t a l l y on occasion, but t h e i r p r i n c i p a l i n t e r e s t i s i n the workman. The veteran, on the other hand, has always been considered as a p a r t of the whole as f a r as he and h i s f a m i l y are concerned. Since World War I , he has been e n t i t l e d t o an allowance f o r dependents wh i l e i n s e r -v i c e and a l s o an allowance f o r dependents i f he i s i n r e c e i p t of a d i s a b i l i t y pension. A l l allowances and b e n e f i t s of the department recognize the f a c t t h a t the married man has g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and pay him a c c o r d i n g l y . They, t h e r e f o r e , have always been concerned w i t h f a m i l y u n i t . Perhaps, immediately a f t e r World War I , i n common w i t h the philosophy of the time, they were more i n t e r e s t e d i n i n v e s t i -g a t i n g Whether r e g u l a t i o n s were being f o l l o w e d than i n t r y i n g to h e l p the f a m i l y . However the department has kept pace w i t h the changing philosophy and while t h e i r p r i n c i p a l focus i s upon the veteran they see him as part of a f a m i l y u n i t . A good i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s i s the a s s i s t a n c e they gave the veterans i n b r i n g i n g t h e i r f a m i l i e s from Europe. There can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t i n j u r y w i l l c r e a t e problems i n a f a m i l y . Economic problems are iapparent and (114) recognized by both agencies as they both provide pension and attempt to get the man a job. The emotional problems which arise a f t e r a lengthy period of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , the loss of limb, sight or a c t i v i t y can ben seen just as r e a d i l y a f t e r consideration. The normal and mature family may have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y but the immature and maladjusted family w i l l have the greatest d i f f i c u l t y In making an adjustment. I t i s t h i s c l a s s that would undoubtedly need a i d and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Chief Justice Sloan i n his l a s t report, might well have been speaking of s o c i a l problems rather than neurosis and the case 1 f o r a i d with s o c i a l problems could rest on th© sume argument. " I w i l l be noted from the foregoing authorities that under section 7 of the Act, an incapacitating neurosis occasioned by physical injury or even by shock alone i s deemed to be compensable as a 'personal injury by accident*. There seems to me to be a sound founda-t i o n f o r that opinion ( i f I may say so, with deference), because i n my view any other conclusion can only be supported on the theory that compensation should be paid to those men who were, before the injury, perfect specimens of humanity, both p h y s i c a l l y and mentally, and must be refused those who, when employed, suf-fered hidden weaknessess i n t h e i r physical and mental makeup so that f o r them the accident was not the d i r e c t cause of t h e i r incapacity but merely the 'oc-casion' or the 'exciting' or ' p r e c i p i t a t i n g ' cause of i t . Such a theory has no place i n compensation law as I understand i t . " "The benefits of eompensation are not l i m i t e d to the normal man but are a v a i l a b l e to any man who suffers - 'personal injury by accident' within the wide i n t e r -pretation of which 'accident' i s susceptible under the Act ."It i s my view, then, i t has been a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y de-cided that d i s a b l i n g neurosis whether caused d i r e c t l y by accident, 'occasioned', 'excited', 'precipitated', or 'contributed to' by the accident, i s a personal injury by aocldent within the meaning of section 7 of the Act and such i s compensable." T. Sloan G.M. op c i t p.87-88 /"^ (115) I f the eases I n Appendix D are used f o r an i n -d i c a t i o n of f a m i l y concern, i t may be seem t h a t , aside from the a i d given t o the c l i e n t s by the Medic a l S o c i a l S e r v i c e and the S o o i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , the welfar e o f f i c e r s v i s i t e d f i v e of the veterans I n t h e i r homes. The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r s of the Workmen's Compensation Board v i s i t e d the p a r a p l e g i c s . However, only two of t h e i r other oases were married. Both agencies appear t o do a great deal of e x c e l -l e n t work wi t h p a r a p l e g i c s . The advantages of home v i s i t s can be seen i n the E ease. Surely Mrs. E. would have become discouraged and l e f t her husband I f she had not f e l t t h a t others were t r y i n g to help him. Again, v i s i t s t o the home of the H. f a m i l y helped the d i s t r e s s e d man r e a l i z e t h a t the department was a c t u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s present f a m i l y . The C. case i s an e x c e l l e n t example of how the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s acts as the major r e h a b i l i t a t i o n co-or d i n a t o r u n t i l the veteran i s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . R e f e r r a l s were made t o the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Branch and vs/ere fo l l o w e d up u n t i l the ease was c l o s e d . V i s i t s by we l f a r e o f f i c e r s and s o c i a l workers must a l s o have encouraged t h i s f a m i l y i n t o doing b e t t e r t h i n g s . The Workmen's Compensation Board v i s i t S o o i a l Welfare Branches on r u r a l v i s i t s and r e f e r anyone who wishes i t t o the proper agency. The e f f o r t which i s made to prepare the i n d i v i d u a l f o r r e f e r r a l or how f a r the r e f e r r a l i s f o l l o w e d up i s not known. I n a s s e s s i n g the p s y c h e - s o c i a l adjustment of the i n d i c i d u a l , both agencies are aware of the same general areas (116) but the d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n the approaoh t o the problem. The question would appear to be i f the Workmen's Compensation Board should widen i t s viewpoint from seeing the workman as not only an i n d i v i d u a l but a l s o a member of a group u s u a l l y centred i n h i s f a m i l y and a l s o a member of the community i n which he l i v e s . Treatment mu3t be g i v e n f o r a l l phases. (4) E d u c a t i o n a l , V o c a t i o n a l and Employment E v a l u a t i o n . • I t i s i n these areas that the programmes of the two agencies are very s i m i l a r . The Department of Veterans S f f a i r s has mora p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s than the Workmen's Compensation Board. One of the major Items In t h i s regard I s i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g which has been mentioned p r e v i o u s l y . These courses and v a r i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n are g i v e n f o r t h e r a p e u t i o , e x p l o r a t o r y and i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t . Perhaps the best i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s i s case A. where the v e t e r a n was s u p p l i e d w i t h t e x t books, t u t o r and p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t o r i n gardening. Other examples are case D. where the woman was given a i d i n short s t o r y w r i t i n g , case B where even though the man d i d not complete any course, h i s i n t e r e s t was observed, ease G where the man's i n t e r e s t i n woodwork was u t i l i z e d and temporary progress made. Another e x c e l l e n t example i s Case 4; although t h i s man was a workman, the f a c i l i t i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g department of the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s were made a v a i l a b l e t o him. Workmen's Compensation Board o f f i c i a l s w i l l approve of correspondence courses and h i r e i n s t r u c t o r s i n some cases. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t an i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programme co u l d f i t i n t o the o v e r - a l l programme of the (117) r e h a b i l i t a t i o n oentre. A l a r g e homogeneous group could be formed than p o s s i b l e i n a general h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g . Regular classroom hours could be inaugurated and f i t t e d i n t o the physiotherapy and occupational therapy t i m e t a b l e . Both agencies have the same t r a i n i n g programme f a c i l i t i e s , academic, v o c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g on the j o b . The o f f i c e r s of both agencies keep up to date on employment op-p o r t u n i t i e s and are aware of most job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The Workmen's Compensation Board more than the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s , appear to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of a man being place on a s p e c i f i c job w i t h a s p e c i f i c company, before t r a i n i n g a man. Thi3 may be due to a wider awareness of union demands and pay s c a l e s . This may be necessary as they are doing more i n i t i a l p l a c i n g a f t e r i n j u r y than the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s at the moment. An example of t h i s i s case 7 where the Rehabi-l i t a t i o n O f f i c e r made s p e c i a l arrangements w i t h the union and employer. Both agencies make use of p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g and assessment whenever there i s any doubt of the f e a s i b i l i t y of a proposed programme. Many r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c i a l s use the t e s t s as an e x t r a prop i n g e t t i n g t h e i r programme approved. Both agencies w i l l use short p e r M s of employment f o r periods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t e s t i n g . The Workmen's Compensation Board have t h e i r o c cupational or f i t n e s s t e s t i n g technique which must be h e l p f u l i n many cases and eould w e l l be copied by any r e h a b i l i t a t i o n agenoy. The Department of Veterans /"' (118) A f f a i r s has . s p e c i a l placement o f f i c e r s who work c l o s e l y w i t h the N a t i o n a l Employemtn S e r v i c e i n p l a c i n g veterans. Most oases are r e f e r r e d t o these o f f i c e r s f o r placement. Some s p e c i a l cases are placed by I n d i c i d u a l Welfare O f f i c e r s . These o f f i o e r s are w e l l informed as to most job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . This task i n Workmen's Compensation I s performed by the E e h a b i l i t a t i o n O f f i o e r s besides t h e i r other d u t i e s . ( 5 ) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Plan and Programme* A r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n does not n e c e s s a r i l y come a f t e r a l l of th© above steps* I t i s dynamic and begins as soon as the man sees the f i r s t a i d attendant or the s t r e t c h e r -bearer. I t w i l l eveolve from h i s past experiences and the people who he meets, from h i s medioal r e c o r d , diagnosis and prognosis and from h i s work aad edu c a t i o n a l al8U>Tf£. and from the o p p o r t u n i t i e s which e x i s t i n the .community i n wnich he resides.;'' Most of the i n d i v i d u a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the plan have been mentioned. Both agencies, respect the r i g h t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and i n most eases the man's own plans are i n v e s t i g a t e d c a r e f u l l y before he i s encouraged to t h i n k of something e l s e . A review of any of the ases of e i t h e r agency w i l l i n d i c a t e that the c l i e n t s were never f o r c e d i n t o any p l a n . Circumstances might f o r c e them to take a c e r t a i n course but the choice i s t h e i r own. For example, many veterans immediately f o l l o w i n g the war b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r f a m i l y r e -(119) s p o n s i b l l i t l e s were too great t o be adequately covered by t r a i n i n g allowances. Therefore, they sought ©mployasaiit or took short v o c a t i o n a l oourses r a t h e r than the extended u n i v e r s i t y course. The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme i s dependent upon f a c i l i t i e s and l e g i s l a t i o n . These have already been d i s -cussed. A review of the oases w i l l i n d i c a t e how the pro-gramme i s implemented. In most eases, the I n d i v i d u a l Welfare O f f i c e r or R e h a b i l i t a t i o n O f f i c e r can c a r r y a programme t o r e l a t i v e completion* However, i n oases where the expenditure of money i s i n v o l v e d , the Workmen's Compensation Board cases must be approved by the Board, w h i l e i n Department of Veterans A f f a i r s oases, approval g e n e r a l l y has t o come from Ottawa. (6) Establishment i n the Community This one area i n which the Workmen's Compensation Board faces a great handicap i n comparison t o the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s . I n most communities, a f t e r the war, an empty sleeve or pant l e g , a p a i r of crutch e s , or a s l i n g were considered marks of courage which, i n many cases, they were and the community r e f l e c t e d the country's a t t i t u d e and attempted to help i n every way they c o u l d . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , housing and other such committees were begun. The Canadian Legion became the watchdog over l e g i s l a t i v e and other help f o r veterans. Welfare o f f i c e r s spoke to community groups and a great deal of time and money were spent on a d v e r t i s i n g and ( 1 2 0 ) extorting the community to employ the handicapped veteran. Veteran o f f i c e r s are employed i n a l l o f f i c e s of the National Employment ^Service to see that veterans receive preference i n some Jobs. They are also required to know the veteran l e g i s -l a t i o n , i n order that they can counsel him. Most of Depart-ment of Veterans A f f a i r s eases show how the Welfare O f f i c e r used any one or a l l of these resources. Gases D . and K i n -dieate perhaps the widest use of these community resources. The Workmen's Compensation Board are well aware of community resources. Probably from the point of view of public f e e l i n g and the fac t that unions are on the whole, interested i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , the Workmen's Compensation Board have a weapon to arouse public f e e l i n g and support which i n time may approaoh that of the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s . Cases 4 , ?, and 8 give good examples of the Workmen's Compensation Board approach and indicate a comprehensive view of community resources i n regard to placement. The area whioh the Workmen's Compensation Board appears to touch very l i t t l e i s that of s o o i a l adjustment. This has already been discussed under psycho-social evaluation and need not be repeated. Although some agencies see the advantage of sheltered workshop employment, the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s does not see any great advantage as they are only maintaining those which were i n existence p r i o r to World War I I . (121) Mr. Woods comments: "On the other hand It must be acknowledged that these workshops did not, except i n a small percentage of cases, r e s u l t i n the veteran becoming re-established i n normal employment * That i s , they did not achieve t h e i r basic objective of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The shops, naturally, could aot of f e r the wide variety of em-ployment neoessary to appeal to the aptitudes of a l l t h e i r employees, some of whom were tempermentally unsulted to the work available and would have been happier i n some other type of employment. Then many of them did not f e e l that they were p u l l i n g t h e i r : weight, and the f a c t that the shops were, .subsidized made them f e e l that p h y s i c a l l y they could no longer compete i n the open labour market and thi s of course did not improve t h e i r morale. This experience however, brought the department to the r e a l i z a t i o n that the disabled veteran would be fa r happier and h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n more completely achieved, i f he could be trained to do a job i n c i v i l l i f e where his d i s a b i l i t y constituted so hand-icap; where he could work on terms of equality with those around him, p u l l his own weight, stand on his own feet and require the sympathy or influence of no one* It has been proved that t h i s can be done, la r g e l y as a r e s u l t of experience with the workshops, and a new concept of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was born.3-The Workmen's Compensation Board probably adopt much the same at t i t u d e . B r i t a i n has a much wider approach to the question of sheltered workshops. The Disabled Persons (Employment Act 1944) gave the Minister of Labour authority to make necessary arrangements f o r providing sheltered employment. This could be supplied i n fa c t o r i e s or workshops or within homes f o r severely disabled persons. The Minister could make grants to voluntary undertakings or l o c a l authorities employing severely disabled persons. Hon p r o f i t making public com-panies eould also be formed to provide sheltered employment fo r severely disabled. 1. Woods O.S., op c i t p.361 - 382 (122) The answer t o s h e l t e r e d employment may be somewhere i n between these two o p i n i o n s . The i n d i v i d u a l s who r e q u i r e s p e c i a l medical a t t e n t i o n or expect s u p e r v i s i o n such as e p i l e p t i c s may p r o f i t by such a scheme. M e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d a l s o f e a s i b l y p r o f i t by s h e l t e r e d workshop employment. (7) C l o s u r e and Follow-up Both agenoles have d i f f e r e n t means of c l o s i n g cases,. The i n d i v i d u a l i s observed i n employment and c l o s u r e i s based upon t h i s adjustment. The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s , w i l l not c l o s e cases unless the s o c i a l adjustment of the i n -d i v i d u a l i s s a t i s f a c t o r y . The Workmen's Compensation Board's p o l i c y i s t o observe the i n d i v i d u a l f o r approximately one to two months and i f he seems t o be a d j u s t i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y on the job they w i l l c l o s e the c a s e . The maximum r e s i d u a l d i s -a b i l i t y cases may be kept open f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d * Both agencies c l o s e oases as not f e a s i b l e , i f the p h y s i c a l h a n d i -cap i s suoh as t o make any p o s s i b i l i t y of employment p r a c t i -c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . They w i l l a l s o c l o s e cases i f t h e r e i s an I n d i c a t i o n of mental i l l h e a l t h whioh would p l a c e a r e -s t r i c t i o n on the p o s s i b i l i t y of placement. The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s have a f o l l o w up s e r v i c e approximately s i x months a f t e r a c l o s u r e o f the c a s e . T h i s may be f o l l o w e d by r e g u l a r or s p o r a d i c f o l l o w ups. P e r i o d i -c a l l y , d i f f e r e n t groups of f i l e s are reviewed and r e g u l a r l y f o l l o w e d up. Follow up s e r v i c e w i l l be of a v a r i e d n a t u r e . In some oases the f i l e may be reviewed and i n others a (1B3) q u e s t i o n a i r e i s sent* I t Is claimed that over an 80 per cent response i s re c e i v e d * I f there i s any i n d i c a t i o n that servioes may be r e q u i r e d , the man may be c a l l e d i n f o r an i n t e r v i e w or a Welfare O f f i c e r may go t o seeh i a . I f the man moves t o another Department of Veterans A f f a i r s d i s t r i c t I n Canada, h i s case i s always t r a n s f e r r e d on an open b a s i s and the mat-t e r of c l o s u r e i s l e f t t o the new d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . The Workmen's Compensation Board f o l l o w s up some of t h e i r maximum r e s i d u a l d i s a b i l i t y case3 but they, on the whole, d e s i r e and encourage the worker t o contact them I f there i s any change i n h i s progress. They do maintain a sustained i n t e r e s t i n the workman upon such c o n t a c t s . One of t h e i r s t a t e d reasons f o r t h i s approach i s the f e a r t h a t the workman may use them as a c r u t c h and depend upon them to solve a l l t h e i r problems. Summary The f a c i l i t i e s of the Drpartment of Veterans A f f a i r s are much l a r g e r than those of the Workmen's Compensa-t i o n Board. The s i z e o f the f a c i l i t i e s and th© number of eases t h a t are handled all o w the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s t o have a wider range of s e r v i c e s w i t h i n I t s own establishment. Many s p e c i a l i s t s are r e g u l a r l y employed. The Workmen's Compensation Board h i r e s p e c i a l i s t s such as p s y c h i a t r i s t s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s on a oasual b a s i s . These s p e c i a l i s t s would not be a v a i l a b l e i n o u t l y i n g h o s p i t a l x . (124) / However one advantage of treatment i n an outlying hospital Is that i n most cases the patient w i l l be close to his family. Medical treatment would appear to be much the same under both programmes. The underlying philosophy of eaoh agency i s basic i n attempting to understand t h e i r approach to the i n d i v i d u a l i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process. The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s i s set up to serve the veteran alone and therefore they take t h e i r services to the veterans. The Workmen's Compensation Board on the other hand i3 set up to serve both the employer and the employee and are therefore perhaps more d o l l a r conscious. This may be r e f l e c t e d i n the faot that the expenses of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n department has only exceeded the $ 7 5 , 0 0 0 maximum by $ 3 , 0 0 0 since the c e i l i n g was removed. The psycho-social area i s to a considerable extent neglected by the Workmen's Compensation Board. The medical s o o i a l worker, the worker i n the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n and the Welfare Of f i c e r s of the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s a l l investigate t h i s area. Training and placement provisions of the two agencies are muoh the same. The Workmen's Compensation Board h..s per-haps a better physical evaluative programme i n t h e i r occupa-t i o n a l f i t n e s s tests while the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s have an I n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programme to evaluate the i n t e r e s t , and actual mental capacity of the i n d i v i d u a l . (125) j i i Closure procedures are approximately the same i n ooth agencies while the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s has a more extensive follow up procedure. (126) .CHAPTJ& ? • A PLAK FOB BSaABira|fAl*lOW l a t r o d u c t i e a T h i s t h e s i s has attempted to compare the r e h a b i -l i t a t i o n programmes of the Workmen's Compensation Board and the Department o f Veterans A f f a i r s . I n Chapter I I I the general l e g i s l a t i v e framework and p r o v i s i o n s were di s c u s s e d , l a Chapter IV the s e r v i c e s of th© two programmes ©ere i n -v e s t i g a t e d from the p o i n t o f v i e n of the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e p r o -c e s s . An attempt w i l l be made t o summarize some of the most important items In t h i s chapter, as they r e f e r to the e l e -ments of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I . The f u t u r e outlook of the two agencies .and. soae p o i n t s t h a t say be i n v e s t i g a t e d f u r t h e r w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d . The Elements of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n (1) The R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Process The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of t h i s process was presented i n Chapter IV. From r e g i s t r a t i o n to f o l l o w up, th® Depart-ment of Veterans A f f a i r s appear to have a more comprehensive programme than t h a t of the iorkmen's Compensation Board. The most important area «hioh gives c r e d i b i l i t y f o r t h i s p o i n t i s t h a t the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s i n v e s t i g a t e s the p s y c h o - s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n problem. A case 13 not c l o s e d u n t i l they are assured t h a t the veteran I s f u n c t i o n i n g as a member of th© community. There l a no i n -d i c a t i o n t h a t the Workmen's Compensation Board i n v e s t i g a t e s (127) the p s y c h o - s o c i a l area to the same extent, (2) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e r v l o e s ( M e d i c a l * T r a i n i n g and Employment These aspects were discussed both under l e g i s l a t i o n and s e r v i c e s . The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s have more p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s then the Workmen's Compensation Board. However, the l e t t e r ' s H e h & b i l i t a t i o n Centre would appear to g i v e adequate and comparable medical eare. A l l veteran students who q u a l i f y f o r t r a i n i n g are e n t i t l e d to l i m i t e d medical treatment. Both agencies seem to provide the same t r a i n i n g schemes; academic, v o c a t i o n a l , and t r a i n i n g on the job. The remaining b e n e f i t f o r the d i s a b l e d veteran i n the employment f i e l d i s the p r i o r i t y he may e x e r c i s e i n F e d e r a l C i v i l S e r v i c e employment* The veteran i s e n t i t l e d to use such a preference only once unless h i s d i s a b i l i t y i n -creases to such en extent that he cannot carry on w i t h h i s former occupation. The Workmen's Compensation Act provides the Board* with p r a c t i c a l l y u n l i m i t e d powers i n regard to l e g i s l a t i o n . The Board, of n e c e s s i t y , d e f i n e d these areas by r e g u l a t i o n s . I t i s conceivable that some booklet, such as the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s p u b l i s h r e g u l a r l y * o u t l i n i n g the exact b e n e f i t s and allowances which the workmen can expect would be of great value i n h e l p i n g the i n j u r e d workman p a r t i c i p a t e i n h i s own r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Such p u b l i c a t i o n s would also be of great b e n e f i t to any research and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s programme. (12©) (3) R e h abill te t i oa gprseaoel. Sine©' ©any of the medical aspects of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n • »ere ignored, the d i s c u s s i o n o f personnel have centered'©bout the .Welfare O f f i c e r on the one tend sad the B e h a b i l i t a t i o n O f f i c e r or co u n s e l l o r on the other. They aot as the ooor* . d i a e t o r s ©nd director® of the non-medical aspects of r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e agencies. Ko attempt was ma<te to i n v e s t i g a t e what s p e c i e ! Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s should be r e q u i r e d . A greet d e a l of emphasis i n both age&oiea i s placed upon p r a c t i c a l experience i n v a r i o u s efe.ployment.9 -aa w e l l as ex-perience i a working with people* l o n e of the Behebll.it©tion O f f i c e r s or Welfare O f f i c e r s have formal s o c i a l wo'rfc t r a i n i n g , although some have u n i v e r s i t y degrees* l a s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g courses ere c a r r i e d out p e r i o d i c a l l y i n both agencies,' The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s have ce se con-ferences I n v o l v i n g ©11 or some of the f o l l o w i n g ; doctor, p s y c h i a t r i s t , s o e i a l worker, p s y c h o l o g i s t , -tad welfare o f f i c e r . The f a c i l i t i e s of tho Workmen*® Compensation Board would not all o w t h i s s s mmj of t h e i r a p a e i a l i a t a are felrsd p r i v a t e l y . I t would be impossible to get these people together f o r many conference®. The B a h a M l l t e t l o a O f f i c e r say however* contact many of these s p e c i a l l a t a i n d i v i d u a l l y . (4) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Maintenance Allowances and. A u x i l i a r y , Aide These allowances end e l d s were diaousaad i a Chapter I I I . Both agencies base the degree of d i s a b i l i t y upon a per-centage r a t i n g s c a l e . The workmen then r e c e i v e t h i s percentage (IS©) o f fate averegd wage which may vary from a low of $1300 t o a high of |0OOO». The veteran*© pension i s based upon 'the percentage d i s a b i l i t y . . He a l s o r e c e i v e d the same percentage allowance f o r h i s w i f e and children.(See Appendix B). la comparing theae percentages as w e l l .as t r a i n i n g allowances and 'Widows ©ad orphans pension, i t - c a n be seen th&t they very according to percentage d i s a b i l i t y end number of dependents. A workman r e c e i v i n g a 10 per cent d i s a b i l i t y coupessetion . . w i l l r e c e i v e a higher allowance than the veteran I n the- seme c l a s s , on the oths r bend the veteran r e c e i v i n g a 90 per cent d i s a b i l i t y pension g e n e r a l l y w i l l r e c e i v e more then the-com-parable s t a t u s - o f workmen• The g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n i n the' allowances i s the e n t i t l e m e n t of widows and dependants to an allowance. Both agencies pay an allowance i f death r e -s u l t s from i n j u r y or disease to «hich th© man MA entitlement' f o r treatment, The widow and th© dependents of a veteran are e n t i t l e d to ©a allowance i f the veteran rma in r e c e i p t of a 50 per cent d i s a b i l i t y pension or more, no matter whet the cause of deeth. Some o f the ©dvanteges which the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s . h a v e besides those l i s t e d above ©re l e g i s -l a t i v e a i d s suoh as the S e r v i c e Benevolent funds, -far Veterans Allowances, Re-©stabllohment C r e d i t s , War S e r v i c e G r a t u i t i e s end other which are granted t o e wider c l a s s of veteran then Just tha disabled*. The Veterans Bureau safeguards the I n -d i v i d u a l r i g h t to pension e n t i t l e m e n t . C e r t a i n employment (130) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were sot ©side f o r - t h a World f a r I I d i s a b l e d veteran. P r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l - p r o v i s i o n s a l s o make the l o t of the v o t e r s n e a s i e r and the r o l e of th® Welfare O f f i c e r a l s o auoh s i m p l e r , ' The p r i n c i p a l disadvantages of the Workmen's Com-pensation Board appear to b© the l a c k of published r e g u l a -t i o n s and the l a c k of psyc h o - s o c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , The P s y c h o s o c i a l Approach to ffehabilitatioa3-(A) Emotions! Reactions x In Chapter I much of t h i s ares was covered i n d i s -cussing the problems of th© d i s a b l e d , end the s p e c i a l problems of veterans but f o r c l a r i t y some of the more important p o i n t s m i l be reviewed at t h i s time. People reeot d i f f e r e n t l y to i l l n e s s and d i s a b i l i t y . However i t can be considered to be a .negative* f r u s t r a t i n g end a n x i e t y provoking event. I t represents en a t t a c k by a h o s t i l e unknown f o r c e . The c o n t r o l which the i n d i v i d u a l has had i n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s l a l o s t . The f e m i l y income and the r e f o r e the standard of l i v i n g , may be e f f e c t e d . Indebt-edness may s t a l k the f a m i l y * Pension or compensation i s o f t e n not adequate to meet the ex t r a expenses of i l l n e s s even though one member i s i n h o s p i t a l . D i s a b i l i t y o f t e n means that the f a m i l y w i l l be separstsd f o r long p e r i o d s of time. D i s a b i l i t y a l s o -means acc e p t i n g b e w i l d e r i n g and f r i g h t e n i n g » • Tl Js'br "£\iv^i£eY "informs iXoa on " t h i s subject the reader i s re» f a r r e d to the f o l l o w i n g t e x t s . Dunbar, Flanders.. M*D. .Mind and Body,Random House,Sew York,l@47 Robinson, G.C. The - f f i t l m t 1 W b ' far§oa,Th@ Goaaonwealth Fund m ' Mew York, 1939 Thorton -T, The, S o o i a l Component i n Me d i c a l Care. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press',*flew Tork, 1937. ' (131) medical procedures tmm unitno«a impersonal experts.: Thusrdn a d d i t i o n to p h y s i c a l symptoms, the i n -d i v i d u a l has emotional r e a c t i o n s . The more mature can •tend more f r u s t r a t i o n than the immature. Often i f there i s a strong emotional component In I l l n e s s * the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l not r e g a i n a s t a t e of w e l l being u n t i l he hes made an attempt to re-adapt himself to th© t o t a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n . , i n many l l lnasaaa the mind and body appear inseparable and must be tr e a t e d as a u n i t . Sometimes on© can be heeled without tree t i n g the other tern i n most cases both must be trea t e d , . Tha i n d i v i d u a l my only get b e t t e r i f he can understand and believe" that he can f©ce the problems which he must face i n the outside' world. A s i c k person o f t e n b u i l d s up defences a g a i n s t g e t t i n g w i l l * He i s using- them to p r o t e c t h i m s e l f • from something which i s dangerous to him. Often any attempt to s t r i p the I n d i v i d u a l of these p r o t e c t i o n s by d i r e c t a t t a c k can r e s u l t only i n g r e a t e r a n x i e t y a n i © more extensive de-f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n . (B) The Family; Component o f . ' I l l n e s s The recognized s o c i a l u n i t of our s o c i e t y l a the f a m i l y . To g a i n a s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n of needs and s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a l l f a f i i i y members, each member should c o n t r i b u t e to the Strength of the others end aseh should d e r i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n from the i n t e r p l a y of the o t h e r s . . The f a m i l y balsace i s In a .precarious p o s i t i o n as i t i s dependent upon the human element. Events from without or w i t h i n can b r i n g s t r e s s e s (138) and ©train© upon the fer a l l y which appear unbearable. Death or i n j u r y have repareu&dlo&s upon e l l .stem©era* Tensions mount and there ar® feme? s a t i s f a c t i o n s . There are s u b t l y i r r i t a t i n g and h o s t i l e occurences which may cause one member of the f a m i l y to "beeossa mora: upset and the whole c h i i n of r e a c t i o n s I s set o f f again, i f t e a ss siege of i l l n e s s may r e s u l t from such a compound r e a c t i o n and may be compered to fam i l y . d i s t u r b a n c e s brought about by a communicable disease. (0) gflyefaoaqaial frmtmnt To t r e a t a p a t i e n t , hi® t o t a l s i t u a t i o n siust be considered, f a m i l y dynaaloe as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l dyaastlea may cause or extend e peri o d of i l l n e s s . The concept of i n -t e r a c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l and s o o i a l f o r c e s has l e d to the team approach i n stoat h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g s . The"sooial worker w i l l c o n t r i b u t e s o c i a l f i n d i n g s end s o c i a l treatment, i n much the sesme manner any r e h a b i l i t a t i o n plan must 0011 eider s o e i a l f i n d i n g s and i f necessary s o c i a l treatment. Man i s o f t e n s a i d to be a product of h i s h e r e d i t y and environment , How he aet d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the peat may i n d i c a t e hois w a l l he w i l l meet them i n the f u t u r e . A doctor w i l l not g i v e a di a g n o s i s unless he takes & medical h i s t o r y . The v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r w i l l aot help a c l i e n t unless he asks him questions i a regard to q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and past ex-p e r i e n c e s , So one can t r e a t the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n without o b t a i n i n g a s o c i e l h i s t o r y , A s o c i a l h i s t o r y v s i l l o n l y contain (10$) infcassation which is useful i n • h e l p i n t t h e : e l l e n t . Besides the mml i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m s t i o a © social history .should include details of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p b y s i e a l , a a o t l o u a l aad cultural footers whioh feev® influenced his growth* .treatment of a soeial situation often varies in length. It may involve h e l p i n g a family. t o f ind Wetter l i v i n g quarters to protect a siofc person's health. It may Involve long hours of tr#a%* ae»t'.by; & highly t r a i n e d p:sy oh i a t r 1st* The Fu&ure Outlook for R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ©ervioes of the Two Agencies The history of the1 two agencies has been discussed perlodtoeily throughout the previous chapters and l i t t l e of i t w i l l be repoat-ed* The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s Approach has been, i n the process of evolution for the past f o r t y year's. Thoir modern team approaoh has been reached agter years of .experimentstion and public pressuro. The fortes-en's Compensation Beard R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Department has been in existence for s l ight ly ©vor II y e a r s . About one h a l f o f those years were years when job© sere p lent i fu l and t r a i n i n g specialists scarce or th© post-war yesrs when vettraas bed a l l Job pr ior i ty and were using most of the training f a c i l i t i e s . They appear to be a s k i n g slow but steady progress towards -a , broader r e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme which w i l l approach that of th© Department; of Veterans Af fa ir s , A look into the future would indicate that i f economic conditions remain as they are, then the ac t iv i t i e s (1S4) of Welfare S e r v i c e s of the Department, of Veterans A f f a i r s w i l l have l e v e l l e d o f f and t h a t they w i l l l i k e l y d e c l i n e i n pr o p o r t i o n to the aging veteran - pop u l a t i o n * • I t would appear that t h e i r energies K i l l be d i r e c t e d toward the veteran i n th® community and, i f ho i s not e n t i t l e d to l e g i s l a t i v e . b e n e f i t s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n of community resources to meet h i e s o o i a l and economic needs,, Tteey w i l l r e t a i n I n v e s t i g a t i o n and r e p o r t f a c i l i t i e s f o r Ear V@ter.uns Allowance r e c i p i e n t s and thorn who apply f o r d o m i c i l i a r y cere. .The Workmen's Compensation Board ba t h a other hand, with'- tha growing I n * d o a t r l a l l s a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia and the newer ideas on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , w i l l undoubtedly expand t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the. Ontario Workmen's Compensation Board w i l l be discussed In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . The Ontario.Workmen's Compensation^Board's n e h f a b i l l t a t l o n . There I s l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e on th© subject and the in f o r m a t i o n which f o l l o w s l a taken.from a U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto p u b l i c a t i o n . * The Workmen's Compensation Board of Ontario has an i n p a t i e n t medical r e h a b i l i t a t i o n centre s i t u a t e d a t Halt o n which operates f o r p a t i e n t s a l l over the province* Ho a c t i v e surgery i s given and the s e r v i c e i n c l u d e s : a The g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e p h y s i c a l r e s t o r a t i o n of th© p a t i e n t i n the sho r t e s t p o s s i b l e time; the adjustment of the p a t i e n t to r e s i d u a l handicaps and to the use of ap-p l i a n c e s , such aa p r o s t h e s i s and braess. 1. T h e ' u n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, Workmen's Compensation i n O n t a r i o , The Separtmant of p u b l i c Heal'itt 'Administration,' 'Toronto,''1935 (133) •"" the aaaiot&aoe'ef the patient to develop hi® own 9 strength and existing s k i l l s , so that he may undertake full:*tl&e' productive eaployaeat oa discharge from the Centre, ' Certein eases, espacially lack ©nd shoulder i n j u r i e s , ere admitted for an assessment of the nature aha extent of the d i s a b i l i t y . A f t e r assessment they say be kept for further rehabil i tat ion treatment, discharged for ©otive surgery or rated f o r permanent d i s a b i l i t y * i*he fa s i l l ties' provide torn for §18 patients, 191 are »©a*«ffiouiaat or 'hospital - eases! the rattainder are ambulant oases. The f a c i l i t i e s of the B*<5, Board eould be isaglaed to fee cojsjparah.le for the majority of th© ambulant case a but ao resident f a c i l i t i e s or hospital fa-ell 1 t i e s exist , A separate r e h a b i l i t a t i o n Halt of the Department ef K e a a e t l i t s t i o n i a at Mai tea. It -is headed by oa® Hehabllitetion O f f i c e r and included two rehabil i tat ion a s s i s t © n ^ s , - l-he main Department i s situated at Toronto and t h e i r work consists of two kinds: (1) vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ©ad {2} psycho-social rehabi l i tat ion. About half of the re -habi l i tat ion offlcero ere university trained socle! workers. One of these i s a medical r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of f icer , a trained medical social worker who deals with selected eases pre* seating medieal-sociel problem®» Sgaeh of these o f f i c e r ® report direct ly to a Casework Supervisor of a Placement Supervisor depending upon the problem concerned. The Department ia headed by a 0hiaf K e b o M l l t a t l o a Officer who supervises the Department ana deals with problem cases referred to bin by the two super-visors or by the others. (136) Aithough the pTimTT -fametion i s to a s s i s t the Job placement'of the patient,/ additional- f u n c t i o n s 'include; (a) the r e a s s u r i n g end c o u n s e l l i n g of the p a t i e n t , (b) pro* •vision of--information about the Aot, (e) v o c a t i o n a l guidance and tmr arrangement for v o c a t i o n a l training, These f u n c t i o n s are much the saae aa'these ef the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n O f f i c e r s of the B r i t i s h Columbia Board* The greatest d i f f e r e n c e i s i n staff i t s e l f ana the stated over'* a l l function of psycho* s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , - If one-haIf the s t a f f are t r a i n e d s o c i a l workers .heeded by a casework sup e r v i s o r , and the other half placement.worker© headed by a placement o f f i o e r , i t must be.concluded t h a t there is about •equal emphasis upon 'vocational and psyoho*seolei. r e h a b i l i t a t i o n * .Thai ayetea would appear to have advantages even ovar the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s System. "The Department of Teterana Affaire have t r a i n e d caseworkers a v a i l a b l e f o r apeclfie d u t i e s o r on a c o n s u l t a t i v e b a a i a , The advantages of wording, on the same typw o f oases would give each the advantage of-sore a p p r e c i a t i o n and under-standing of the others p o i n t of vie**. D i s c u s s i o n between •placement* o f f i c e r and 'casework* o f f i o e r c o u l d be of mutual t r a i n i n g b e n e f i t , the a b i l i t y of c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r own department on a casework b a s i s must "also' add a feeling- of • e q u a l i t y end unifiestion ©f purpose to'a programme. Casework would more than l i k e l y take the form ef lieeon with com* munity agencies and d i r e c t ease «ork s e r v i c e where the matter i s only the concern of the department. This s e r v i c e wool 6 probably not be given on a.-long term'baels, ' am BOBS FfflBtg that BftQuXd.be Considered,, i n a R e h a b i l i t a t i o n grogrsmme. fa© f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s do flot n e c e s s a r i l y a r i s e or occur i n tha %m programmes s t u d i e d but could be su b j e c t s around -whioh f u r t h e r study and i n v e s t i g a t i o n could ba made* (X) D e f i n i t i o n The most common d e f i n i t i o n of rehabi l i tat ion aa s t a t e d i n Chapter I l a that i t must i n c l u d e the t o t a l p r o -sees, ^ h i e h is»Mt© develop and r e s t o r e the d i s a b l e d i n -d i v i d u a l to the f u l l e s t p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o - s o c i a l , v o c a t i o n a l aad eeoneaio usefulness of whieh h% is capable, w i t h i n the r e -s t r i c t i o n s inherent i n h i s environment," A r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme to be couplet© must, therefore, have two ©bj@efc.ivea (1) to develop and (2) to r e s t o r e . Some programmes consider the r e s t o r a t i o n of the i n -d i v i d u a l (s c a p a c i t y aa s u f f i c i e n t aad s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n without i n v e s t i g a t i n g th© p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r development o f th© individual beyond the. p o i n t of r e s t o r a t i o n . I t -would be impossible to develop every i n d i v i d u a l to h i s maximum c a p a c i t y and l i k e l y i mpossible to carry out an oxtnesive programme without government support, Kowever, e l l agencies should b© aware o f tha d i f f e r e n c e between s u c c e s s f u l l y , r r e s t o r e d ' and s u c c e s s f u l l y ' r e h a b i l i t a t e d ' . j2) Areas of•Coapetenoe The areas which one s p e c i a l i s t t r e a t s i n a r e h a b i -l i t a t i o n tea® o f t e n overlap i n t o the areas i n whieh another (130) member is bet ter q u a l i f i e s to g ive ae r r l ee . I t i d sometimes questionable i f a l l members are %were and appreciative of the area® of competence of other specialists &ad th© part which they can contribute, for example a doctor Is not l ike ly to be a a e u e l l f i e d as a social worker to treet the social s i tua-t ion, The welfare off icer ie sacra qualified to deal with l e g i s l a t i o n than, either the doctor m the social worker. Borne, forma of treatment are psychoanalysis-, hypo-therapy* psychotherapy, social e^seisork, and counselling. Counsell ing alone la often divided into the fo l lowing par ts : '-Wa-dlrdetivej psyenoaogisal* p a s t o r © ! , vocat ional and educa-tional* Many of these areas overlap bat.there are special ists in every area t?ho are* fatter qualif ied by experience ©nd training to give help in the particular f i e l d . This is a point which may be overlooked, Th© answer probably lim In the l a ok of refinement of s k i l l s and competency i n any- area , (8) .Hsferre.l .aad Oo-ar&inatlon Anyone who approaches an agency for help is a person in need. If the agency i a not able to meet that need then i t has the obligation to direct the individual to the agency which can give him help* A telephone ca l l to a member of the agency end a time for appointment w i l l help the in-dividual spproaeh the agency. If one agency i s dealing with an individual i a one area of need and referral i e aad® to another ageaoy for help la another are®, then one of the agen-cies should take the responsibi l i ty of coordinating the (139) progr&aae and fGrowing I t up* This would appear to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of th© cgeaey with tha primary i n t e r e s t . . In every case thn f i r s t agcnoy should r e a l i z e the aeoeeeity o f proper p r e p a r a t i o n - o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' ' f a r r e f e r r a l * {-41 gjaploytaent Aaaeaaaent and I n s t i t u t i o n a l T r a l a i a ^ S x p l e r a t o r y work t e r eventual- plseeaeat i s aa e s s e n t i a l f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The place o f suoh e x p l o r a t i o n s i s l a a h o s p i t a l or e i a v s l e a e e n t - c e n t r e . The time i s f r o a the aotaant the p a t i e n t begins recovery u n t i l he i s s u c c e s s f u l l y plaeed. i t -would, appear t h a t a combination o f f i t n e s s a s s e s s -ment as p r a c t i c e d fey the Occupation®! therapy Department e t th® Workman's Compensation Board and i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g -as p r a o t i e e d by th© Depertaent of f o t e r a n s A f f a i r s - at shaugh-nessy H o s p i t a l would be i d e a l f o r a- f u l l assessment. Th© f i t n e s s assessment would i n d i c a t e whether the i n d i v i d u a l could go beck to h i s o l d job or what o p p o r t u n i t i e s he has to f i l l a new job from a p h y s i c a l point of vies?. The i n s t i t u -t i o n a l t r a i n i n g prograane would i n d i c a t e what h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s were from an educational and mental viewpoint. The programmes that, are p r a c t i c e d by each agency a t the moment would not be adequate. The Workmen's Coapenaatioa Board i s i n the process of expansion. The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s appears to be i n the process of l e v e l i n g o f f a f t e r the i a a e d i a t e p o s t -wor peak, The f a c i l i t i e s f o r such a progresaae would have to ba q u i t e l a r g e . Suoh a programme would r e q u i r e u n i t a r y d i r e c t i o n aad could than probably branch out Into i t s eeapoaent p a r t s of assessment. (140) (• S?;.Ee.!Bordtaig--and' S u p e r v i s i o n ; la a e h a b l l l t a t l o n V . f a a. case- h i s t o r i e s . - .and ttur e i a m i n e t l o a ©f .some ' yeeerds of. the two a g e a e l e e - w o u l d a p p e a r - t o ' - i n d i c a t e a lack of. general uniformity ta say one age&cy. Seme, records'-appear s u i t e . g e e d while ©there a p p e a r t© be-somewhat to© factual from a social casework p o i n t , of - v i e w , • • Perhaps 5 ' one of the g r e a t e s t h a n d i c a p s i n - this a r e s , i s the l a c k o f a g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s , of s k i l l r e p a i r e d f o r such rehab i l i t s t i o n work* ferfeapa a s a d e v e l o p i n g p r o f e s s i o n , t h e y e r e b'ecemeing mere aware ef r e c o r d i n g and the a d v a n t a g e s of s k i l l e d - s u p e r v i s i o n * (6) Xttterpre.taMe-h o f Injury to its@. family f r a u a i s . t i e i n j u r y i s d i f f e r e n t ' ' ' t h a n . d i s e a s e , i n . most eases of disease the family has © c e s s i o n to prepare i t s e l f for some e v e n t u a l i t y * I n eases ©f injury, the family has net been prepared. The news of the injury i t s e l f la often g i v e n i a a n unthinking manner. F o r example, d u r i n g t h e w a r , many t e l e g r a m s were d e l i v e r e d w i t h o u t to© much t h o u g h t on what effect such news-would have on the receiver. However this i s d i f f i c u l t t© overcome as the news i s often given by a variety ©f people ranging from a neighbour to a s i n i s t e r o r policeman* T h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i n j u r y t o t h e f a m i l y i s most, i m p e r t e s t * ' Tiey must knew the l i m i t a t i o n s a n d new requirements which w i l l be placed upan them. They have the right t© ©x«* p e e t help i n m a k i n g a d j u s t m e n t s to meet new s i t u a t i o n s which aa i n j u r y imposes upon them. ( 1 4 1 ) The d1 f f l e n i t y In cuch an approach vjould -be to distinguish between.the piece which the i n j u r y hae on-the problea sad the piece where other personality- weaknesses bring about the p.roblea f k cerreot answer could not always bs found ss ths i n t e r p l a y of many force© b r i n g shout personal reaction* It i s 'in t h i s a r t s that "a- s o c i a l hi star?'and s t i l l e d d i agnosis ivould be r;*oct u s e f u l * (7) Group Work m& Soaaualty organization ,1a-Behabllttation P r o f e s s i o n s ! group.work end community organisation have not been used by many Canadian agencies i n the r e h e b i l i -tatioa f i e l d , dkroup work would appsar to be most u s e f u l i n the area of aeeeptiag handles pa, of soeiei o r i e n t a t i o n and of job i n v e s t i g a t i o n - end analysis* . Seaaunity organisation would be effective i n g a i n i n g ooaanaity acceptance aad help for th© disabled* However# the s c a r c i t y of such specialized workera inaka such a wide scales approach p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o ssible, Qonaluslon Rehabilitation of the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped from an i n d u s t r i a l or war i n j u r y i s only one aspect of r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n . However, i t i s a very i n v o l v e d and complicated pro-cess and i n a study of t h i s type many important, .facets of aa e n t i r e p r o g r e s s must fe® omitted. The l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s aad the general approach of giving service within the rehabi-l i t a t i o n process alone has been discussed i n comparing the two programmes. The q u a l i f i c a t i o n ond development of per-sonal have on the whole, been omitted. Aselgnaeat of cases am and the s i s® of caseloads tea not been aontioaed, Ko attempt nee been aaae 'to - see.sure -'client esoveaent or to formulats cr i t er ia for rehabilitation, Ifeere are aeay arees for further •study ^nd evaluation,- These ages el as are a we re that concepts sad methods of rehsib.tlitQ.tion ere constantly changing and that constant research, both ffroa within ana without i s es-sential i n giving thoir cl ients tat aaxlsrcun service with tha f a c i l i t i e s , personnel aad resources available* ' 4143) A-doHipMr&fton of the m$m mm l m m m i m m i m yronetefte e**A the p Fapiselpie® AAeyteA f w m$ mgreane o f M I A war I I * m X* ?*ttele»e. and heeyttei t re^tsent f e r theee wee then***A weehAe #t AS.Aae#§ t a r i n g t h e i r @#.fvtd% «*a ee&eiea* far the dependent* o f tfcos© who died* i , foeetle&el tsmihtisg ey siodeat hei$' fey University t f e i f t i a g fm theee mm® m® d i s a b i l i t y prevented turn. i@iiwn®§ i i n i f $we* v i e * * eeetiyetlefi ana f o r theee who J©la®A the ?©#©©$- ee-Mao*** tegethey-with lebt*» f*y toeie of tradd* ' a . & eiethitis; nii©«*ae© ef l i s * 4*. & m* eeyvl-ee gyetiilty sedeet dimensione ^eyefele deoev&lag te the length a i d eeite of teyVieeV " A s ing le v«teye&»-*egd*dleee eh* eefved throughout the e&b.lre aatapeiga e i t h :M years i s f ranee and Belgian ee«dd dree- a » i* j r l»« o f gdso* end i f ' S« fi»e&*lel mmimmm in e e t t l i f t g ©a t i t for theee * . t h tut tteeeeseyy e*eerlettse» Thie wan i n the netiiye e f © l ean , f u l l y rephiftbl**- *&& rd^y-tag*- i n the east ef yayobaeed lenA.» » 4e* p o s i t ef 10 per eeat ef t i e pttyehaee p r i e s . a* Am, eyoeytealty t© buy gettsrhed g e l d i e r * * iaeareaee* ieesu.®© e f the yrejaiaae t h i n eae no y ^ t l e t t l e r e t t r a e t i e a e*ee$t t e . t se e u t e i r ^ l n © ! r i s k * ?* A preference i n tit© O l v l l gervlee« f h i a e g u e l l f l e A pre* foron©© under ehieh the veteyea wee required t© :©ee# whet fever exesa&etien* mm ee* before tins preferesee &ss«iie #ye*etlvet a) © ei&tnin-a a i l e r o n e© ©f $&S* h) a grata!ty e l t h © ®&iii««s ef $489 i f e-ltbo&t .de^ eadeiite»«ad -a) aa eps»rta&lty to ©«i»® «eae? to s e t t l e m the lead* i f q u a l i f i e d * a t s &iam^*mim&S!' 1 * they ehouid b® -given e elethlag eileeeaee; l a en asMHeit that here eeae #el*%te» te flte e^ ®% of th* new e«tflt ef elefe#s the? SN?mld -need* i * 1*hey eheulA fee t i v e a e eeeh ®ran t f i f « l y t h e ecmlmleat -ef e few w^eia p a y , to g i v e the® so ©pp©rtua£ty te ta&e'e tm% ®i th t h e i r people ^ni l© hee©»ing evlenteA to the' f u t u r e * s* ftiey ehe^lA *• f e i A e « e * eefvlee : g » t u i t y heeee eeea the lehgth e f eetviee and tse s©»@ i h «hleh tfe.«y eetteA# 4* i f they d i d net ts-fe© t r&ia ine o r e w i l thesieelvee ef land set* llenehts heoeflle tliey a tea ld he given e e red l t ee^iveiese %e the eeyviee i r a t u i t y t© eeelet thea i n ?ehftbilit&ttaa t h e i r n ® » s ©aA lives.*. i . 9hey ehetilA be glveh m © ^ © - r t w i t y te tetm t r s i a i i i i . e t e i t h e r e tsafl* m it&fe&sitMl level t t i e ieagt& of auea t*alMa# ®^ .©« . t e l s t i i to- fUe pm&M ef tnai* aa**!*** ' @# S&ejr afetKdd be $rotaeta6 a&elaai ©leteesa, eeeideat, ear un-ajglofat t t f#r the firis-t after leaving tti© ftaMea* tnia M a g tae f*teniU*attnn | » r or '«ae.ye*r of jr«s4|&iijs©a%,» Mlew-aeess imrtsg ae&ia&i treatment -and -ttaeaileyaeat benefite '.an-o-ti&a be paid during- eu*B- aattid-dav,. vV-ftt«vl*4aa afeettiLa rer a system «f. e£i0»aa«e* v&lla awtiitlog tetatai to fitew v a t ^ i i p « i $ a # e C i » ®m *0Wie«# tnd&u&isg |e«ai»@-i • pefedia®:'.saea ts&e a a ta«p eeeoae i*.?ti#ir tlas e» ge*vta* elwtM be aantttad *a -esfleyiieat un-de*' t i * mm§laymen* TJMttrene* A-ee, 1040 • »al@h •»* aaftetad l a .•' mw ea-see daring thai* apaeaae- m servlee*. m& t i t ©overn* stoaid .pa? tualr pr#al«» £@r «ae ferind: ef tiel» aapvtaa,' .#* provided tvitfe f l a i a e t t l :mip %V settle on ta«" l@a# i f sxpes?ieii$ed la' faraiagj or in tae aliarnativa i f tm $®mmmm%- 'm^lmmm *® *eqatff-e & eaali balding tnst «#«M ; • Uva&I&aftdV 1©* I f taejr l e f t pars&aen-t anp&ayiaeat to eallet, taey should -be' eatitiad- to- t»l^»«a%«aeal i i i tnai* tmmr ©eaiaiea* pisaing-tite* l a « gntte* #r seniority* *to#, in a® laaa ftdva&teg«a«B #aalU«& mm &«d i f met aallgtod* ' • 11* Saey an&iftld.-be given- nrefeteaae- in tne 01 vU s@rvi.ee alalia* to -tfeat extended to veteran* a?'World far x* I I . f i e f .ah«t!& be- glvaa- t r e f , t a ref*r#si t o J#ba 'by the of flees ttte national $a$ioy»ent aerviea. 13. j,oa»e asoald be s>rovl4#a ftt « lew rat© e f interaat - to tneae mm eacpied. i n buainaa-a #t © nrafsaaiea on fi.eir e « mmmt* 14*. #»©4el t«e4U«&«a anealfi t» «•«- up t » f i s t *«ii«*fe&e mplty*-m&m &>£ i&mlm&Xv 4i#a'&i«i v#«#»ea. and alee f o r tne older ' . fet'e-raa eao oerifcd *a 'fene fet-e^a-Onard aad oilier -aerfleaa #s%ftblls&»atf t'btesnie #f •»feeiel,e»peri#af®> age mm everieeis.'#i« 11. & fetereae l^Burea©© ae««f^e .aneuld be ^ rerided» e l a i t e t e tle,l#twaei M l 4 t « n ( mmmmm em^etei for tiie t i i t w a i . ef :mmm mt> i « «b@tf i s * « m * #wn$aii m mpm%mm ^im t l * • letter fttm&d eeefe to iat l#©te> ' 1@-, .Finale ^ t e i^sa rAom-ld be treated oa teraa of equality with -mi® mtmm® l a tn« aattar of « l l naaafita- mm, mtm of-i,ile«meea patd taavaundat* flie'ditafeled wetera»t in addltiaii t e a i l tfea fer<sgeias 'aheald be en* t i t l e s to . s f e ^ ^ e**aaaaaUem f^ .r-' -Wt »«rv|:«© r e l t t t i vilei'bi,lit|#e aad-to traate^nt wltfe eeananaetlon for suefe diaaniiitiaa at tuy tine during oia-Ufa* It further #gree€ tlfflt traiai-B$- anattld be » d e awailanie t# i i a m a 'wiaet Ipst©. %»a -to t&a *fele*^eiied veteran* -tnat « »peeiai frsfeteaee in t»e §ivil aervi.ee aaata t i e ©tdi.».»r weterana* prefereisee- enenld be .hl.a end tfeat a anaaial aeettea ef tb® 'da»artttia«t eat ®p t# «aal#t i n tile .eaplepaenttl ( 1 4 5 ) A£F»f>I3£ 0 •®msmm A; ©ff T&© t eaMea Aet ft.8»^li@S* 0*838 £»4) aaak of gtat.iag of fiM&er. of tardea Seal© It® pm §... ets Lieuteaaat ConBUfcndartHeval} » ^ J e r ( £ r j a y i » Seaedroa t.eadey(dlr)! *ead a l l reefed sad y etians 'below. .••.«•*»««..••»•»•*•••••«,•• Ooaawader (Sera i J t3»leuteaeatw8oloael ( i r s f ) f l a g <Soaaaa<tar<EM.r)•«»*• *• • •***•* . . . . * • • eaatei&fneval) ,$©l©ael (Arair) 9§y©mp Oaatala Cteea&e&are aad alga** yaak«|Wairal) !. tIy'igadi.ei?'f Srigadier-aenera l ami htg&eridrsy j A i r Ooa^sodere aad h l g h e r t A i r ? • « • • • • • » , » . • • • • • Above yanke-Addit ioaai aeaelea f o r Ha r r i ed ' ?e of tli© ff©r©ee.#•••«*•«••••»*«*•#*•*•.* Addi t i ona l eeaeiea fey ealld*o& fey above Seeead © h i l d « , • • • • • « . » • • . • • « • • * * • • « • . . • • • Baaa e&bee<jpeat ©fetid aa ed&i t leae i • • •*• •« l tS®#.@0 if§§o#e>o 1»S$0# • S i f 0 0 . 0 0 $40:«O0-fi40'*.9d i@o..o® 144*00 ffeie Schedule hm been r a n add i a o r g * * to areaea* l a monegeable feyat* fae pension Aet aaould be consulted for tae eeaeiete e©nedule. SCHEDULE B of The Pension Act Scale of Pensions f o r Deaths Hate per Annum Orphan c h i l d o r orphan b r o t h e r G h i l d or o r s i s t e r Hank or Hating o f Member of Forces Widow Dependent Dependent or the parent Brother c h i l d of or s i s t e r a widow i n r e c e i p t of a pension under s e c t i o n 11. | ots f c t s f c t s f c t s . Lieutenant(Haval.) ,Gaptain{Ar®y) ^ F l i g h t L i e u t e n a n t f A i r ) ,& a l l r a t i n g s below...... 1200.00 *90Q«°Q "  Lieut.Com. (Haval)^a;j. ( A m y ) ^ ^1,008.00 Commander(Naval^ L i e u t . Colonel (Army), Wing . ' Qoinaander(Air) ........ 1248.00 ng48,Q0 Capt(Mavai)Coi.(Army)aroup S a p t ( A i r ) . , . . , 1512,00 *I5J2.00 Commodore & Higher (Naval) B r i g & Higher (Army) ! ' • A i r Commodore & H i g h e r ( A i r j . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2160.00 *2160.0Q . A d d i t i o n a l pension f o r c h i l d r e n or dependent : brothers or s i s t e r s f o r above ranks..! c h i l d . . . . . . . . . . * 240.00 *480.00 2nd c h i l d . . . . . . . . i i * 180.00 *360.00 _________ Bach subsequent efaild a d d i t i o n a l . .... * 144.00 *388..Q0 ^Pensions awarded to parents or brothers and s i s t e r s may be l a s s than than these amounts i n accordance with the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t . mmm,M Xa 1®&S> the mviemh was e&$l©yed m a ®mm$&3? fedggSag eaajtasy* %bea he era* aaltiftatag: a titae-is a ehaia- ;br@1» mm tae -lead f e l l ©ff the t r a i t aa* r e l i e d p a r t l y ever a i a * ?ha w l f M 's?a#£e&e& « t t « » eg** aeaad fraGtUFG^ of bets logs aa* a i s I o e a U o a of the ri^i).t eakle* A i the %lm of tae aeei&e&t> the as* we* a gg year ©id e&#terser, married- »'lta e&e t M k , aad emeleyed f o r %«e ye&ra -#ltii b&# seas *aa&e>pe?» Ka a*&-g$&*g 4 edae&tiea i a %**eiee bat aaald a g i t e a * $a§li@&. %aa ©aiy fejea'of eafclejr&e&t **# m&l$ma, fea#* *&* t£at ef l e i i i a g . £» wa-iei- he &a&. been e®$>leye#. aaaaooai&jr $&til» • tho ti&e of tae aeetaaat* I t via® aaa-ea&ai? for tag jUtfft l e i to be re&eved $ iaaaaa below tae 3$-®ge aa a r e s u l t of itofaetiea* the a@a*a ai&tery aaawa a i a t© a&ve baaa a rather d l f f i e u i t aad teagajeaaatai' jaatlaat* a* was *$£©&*«#©* f r o s Iteapt-t a l to a*g heme* ' lgear ifee ead of -the' ye%r the m a turned as ©a ale ' v e l l t i o a a t v t a * v«d«i* tend f f f l e e aawra ft© mw^aaa l a tee aeg&dal de$&r%&$at reeeivi&g w#sitsea| tsgti& $tg aa* a l i a i r e f to -g»-. &eag tfee £o£&ai§i*ig febrieuiry. eee#i*se a l e wife s w a&^eatlgg a gaeead g f t i l * * t a l e t l a e fee. datt&d- aalwfc f a i r l y well. a l e &reg-%ae&ls aad a l e tl&g loss claim waa f i n a l i s e d aad aeaeioa applied-, jfttriag treataeat aad the i e a f l t s i l i a a t l e a - aajfiod title aa* «te* 9&g¥a* to be a very d&fftguit aaft taa$a«^aat:al. -aafe&emt ag* aaeaa* eafereis* Mptilo&ee Iti iise bag* e&baa&ieg« issrlaf t u e j n i r i e i moat&e&ei above bid* «etjfe* Mas :wt§ aaafaaaaadr jftr'aa blag to a l a * by t&e r e a a b i i l t e -bigg ef f l e e r regaggiag eagiggraaab* He .aaowed, go tabftga* i t i a f&adiag a 4©b bat jrrataaatijr- ta^dsaataa. that' fete • ae&aieii be eesmated so taat ae coulti go into baslaesa,. i i a requests mere, aet gr&ated aad his f i l e -,WA& olos«d shertly a f t e r as- a fceeult of ale- irreaf-eaelble «tetleaa». ed. «t taa W#§-*B* i f f l ee aee i e f aaalataaaa* l e aad aairgya l a f ee t l e a of t.ae r i g a t aakla aa<^  e-ftet $aa^e*aaf*4 t i«ea t«ea t a below-taa^lbaaa ep»re« iea m i serf'araadi* BeMb. l l i t i&t iea m& agaia •eetabiisaed aad -ala ae&taa aXter tae •aaara-tiea tae wer&^aa wte eeaaliered aedlesi l ly f i t f o r seme il&Ht e®|>ley^eat aad adder&lia&ly, hi® ajtaia f a t t4«a X&m m& aa dw&«tg. *«ia «#e fcm&d by taa ^ ^ - S a b a b U i t a t l a a t f f i e e r * He atartad aarlc efeeftly aftaf tata.aaa aaaaad ^©.flufied w. a l e |eb me- i t iuye i fed aittiag at a beaea ^erkiisg « i t a (148) te t i$e tim $ehah$nh&**ett $ f f ie#r the- gerftea fi»|»*in*at i*a&aae$ to- new .the. itajftte* Is s*e3*aaaia& and hae fceea iafesged eaeje tJUat '' thit& Ms afegreaa i s •e^biafaeteigr and as lent- a* this-.seeaa uj» the mm ssi- l l he jnefattheahijr ea^e?ed« the «e»k* luga hiaieeif mmm: ebee*f end a t i t ie f l e d .end fee* hf©m$ht Ms f e & i l f tee l i f e mi th his* aae* h l # job* f i l l s - i f jreer t© he a .feff $le%-s$nt and eeeeet1** e t i f e iHtfeee* I d "hie iadu& ferial h&e'ta«?f he has*, hewwet eevetal aret i a a * • ela&&e aeat ©f ahfeh *##e fa*? haefc i r * -$>aet * e e f r • h i l e e g a ^ f e d i n a l e e a l <alae» the & e f tiKMHBS&etleA wm re£ay&ad to ae e e i e l i e t e far the d ©r s roahlte of further traetaeatt he the 9*848* e . i ia ie fee- fa ja io* -hut .wee .teedeitted t© h e e ^ i t e l . ehar i i f i^-e..Ie eddeJE^eht further e$e3%tia&& aad dtteeiied-; M the '^©rker aad the- ,$#© ateeahia* aa* f etieaed* **e a t e t u i t e f -the i n j u r y i t vm& -jinheedihi'e b.a eeaatdif ' the fdfaa* edeujHktieiit. so ae*efe.l .eiew tipeleiag e e e a i h l l i t i e e were #aaleaped. • 4t t h i e the- deebo* a&viaed-aehd a i ^ £ e t b e f e - h f add e*etaiee a t the wf#*t* a i i & l e ami i t wee aet -aht&l jffe$e*be*' that he _ tree eeaeidefed feed? for " >* thd 'aerhdf eaf te$ed a a l i g h t .fa*> add had: ;t© .aera^hate th ie job f e f further teat aad i n $mmt$ i t s s the m®mm jpetafaed te- the tehahil.ilMit.iea •i&g&«&f&t and- adtieed the© that he f e l t gftet he .*ae agaid feadf f e f aa«av the -daetefa agreed a aa* j©b was then feaad h f the- y#MMi i t&t i#a , of Mee** lata*- «#d the f a a d the aaMMga&eist l aa t l td ted ' a * a&ath traiaiag«ea#tha«4eh g&a&» "the 'f*S*B* few the wmmMMm 'ef-'the iie&$& aa a- t r i a l the edfteef ehefc aft aebibdde fef1 the ©©©UfaslOh i t t*ed aaeald ha aeatiaaed fef « fafthe* id-the aala^f-aad ihereealag this aaata hy a© the we»her*e 'v-eMe-1# the- hadfaaf .laereaead*. • . near the- ead ef fehruary the f » s . B . f a h a h i i i t e t i e a aff:ts©# tf-laited. 'the ffeaiaee end i s d ny-erf feaaea- to be* Meve that, the efimageeteah aae working, ©at ie the aatta* fae t i ea ef hath the n^tat^iae«t tad the m0®$-m» flMt ' a a f i f e r t a 84 r e a r hM» a l a g X e ^ ^ e ^ s ^ a e * 9a*a&Utft> ede:te£aad a r^eajKahia e ^ u t a i l e a of a i h fi&gere aad .oa**, of h i a - t h a j a h « f • hie. l # f t. h&M* w h i l e a a e r e h i a g a l e f g e aet o f afee.hlae eaaera- f o f a, earae- a o t m i " eeiaeejif * S a r i & g h i e h e s ^ t a i i s s e t i e a . , o # # 0 * 8 * r e h a b i l i t a t t a * * o f f l o a f f i e i t e d 'hi® aaaitlf- hat node l i t t l e eiN!*e?eed a® t h e &aa h a d l i t t l e . e f . a e Idea o f a h a h he ttae l a t e r a a M l i h f e * t h o f a * w o * The &©$a#ti&eat f e l t t h a t b e a i ^ h e t g g evtatusl a iatoiiai i i t i a &©as@ fejNk&aee ttm sould he hie swe? hat $h©& t h i s aaa. eaggeeted-f ©l&Sjsaat f i a t i f f e * f e e e d to e e a i i i e r lt« iowetet he. gea , l heaaii to that euit&bl© e a ^ i a ^ a a a t he f e a a d ®sd f i a a l l j r ' e e h a d f o r a ' e e a > n e a t a t i e a l a efdef ' -to, go. late b a a i g e e e e f hi® &m* fhie f egtaeat me- r e f e a a d m t h e a » e e a e e t a . did aet le©& f^ t e a v * able* the e-iaiAaat mm eatced f e » a eearae- i a be^fclwei&ag bat b e f o r e t h i e $©aid be a r t e d g a d he d e e i d e d oa dsM^i$l* f a l a * a e a3»-ieaed-f although aot i r i e a e d v»ry 'fa*ea«abie.» : ©a the e a a d i t i e a that i f t h e i a a t i ^ i e f aaa aot sat i s f i e d with .the a r e g r e a g 'thai the ©©us?©© would he> d l e e o s t i a t t e d * .. The w e x i e f e t u e i t t e hi© a s a i a l a g a j ^ a d i a g a s t r o , d i t t o e t e f ' f e i g h t , aad f iaiahed the e e a f a e a£tfe high h e a a a f e « He t h e n a t e f t a d - a d v h a i t h aa e a g i a a a & l & g ,firay aa a <jraft»* -with aheg. h d e e e a t baa- f e a f d * - . ' i i v ' i a h e d to v i s i t r e * l&t|v© l a the i - d t e r i e r aad t h e f|g& $?ea£.eed hi® j a b feaeh wiefe fee r a t w a & O a d he e e a a r e d a a e t h a f j a b whom he oeeiej Met. aad i a e e J & J h a a f & o f a d f i l t h this- iim* & soe* I ^ J ? 0|ldj I B J * * * ^ * ^ w i a r i B J B a L * * * ^t'v*'«*^a*: f a b i l a t e r a l f f « » l aa)aat#fci©a a h a he a e e I M jMae&th later'hdv.aaa'aeiiti .ta.tfte S e h a h l l l t a t i a i . g e e i e t y for #bfele-al ^ehab'iiitatioa aal hy. «N&f etaytiisg oh, hi® walfciag ©sreteie-ai• & r e a r l a b e f * he. ws^.^alfeihi: 'aitheut hie e e a e a aad-- j^eaeated &© . a h r e l e & i f e l M k h i M t a t i e a ajMh&eau ' '. ' f h i a , ierfeer had attsaded .j&ehool t a ' O t « @ hut h a d a e t a r aaed a i d J^isital . e a a a e d t i a g at tat thia.*- i e -aan raaaeitt#> • a M e * a h e a afof'ead'had regejN^ihg fn$m® et taiefaaat. . i d . »#©'i» »fied a i t h tho -he t a H e d h e e l ^ a e h i ' a g eeur:^®^ifh a e a e t f f a * a r i t i a g ia^t^uertida.* fhia i a g t r a a t l e a . g i r e a at- i&auih:-Haa'df S a a a i t a l - - ih-the X a d t i t a t i e h a l f3?aiaiai :l^pftgie.Bt ^heire he -ana ahi# t o to- mm ^©odf©i»Mai i a .the **ahaea* e a SB / s i Si — : d t - t h i a - t s a a - a a y e f a l e h h e f J d h ' s a e d i b i l i t i - e a a e r t b a i a g iated'tigftted- hut the a a a a l i A aeeiied' the most f e r e a r a b i a . * -fhei?ef#te-» the.laaage*?- of the ee$$ear wee a f f r e e e h e d . add f i » * a i l f the ' O'eatfghf d e e i d e d t a g i r o the'".aaa a ' d h g a d a * " Binm t h i e %%m® a w*$&* aojeatukatloa km bae worker i s mw ooAbeat aad i a him. to feiqr a ea?-|©b for good- afgAftaxgr #8- • fftt*. .91 e&l ld rea , attfafoired w e r e l a g of &$g&* •18a0: fiaeaer e i a l a broke aad releaised. the oloog ^ai#U ' s i t ai& la- baa .bao£ e$ia&i&$ a l a eerabral oojs&aafticN&t aaa&p 'iaoaratioaO} fra«'t«tv4a r i be aad a tvaojoabiii l e a ioa to tae e@rtl©&i are© Of bfea apiaa*. &fter aevoYol aajdifed O f $^e i t a* t&ab io i i ami. aad aalt*aa*a %vm%mm a t the INs&bl i i ba t i oa $eab*a* aoeo* t#ery • foj» a pje^p&e&i#lf • tita.- ataa «*» aiaobe#$ae. to a4£ hm&* Se &gd bea-a, ^ o v t&ea wita' braeefs aaa- a %aeeie!i®ir# l e w « l # o paid a tJUw lose oia&a, IB a&At&s when ae aa* aaatrd*: . $U3?t&s, t&e «b*y i a aeep i t a l ae aaa aaea . f e a e a i l i t a t i e a *££4e#? bat faamtieael ©#aa$ei l$a§ t$$ dopi to a mia.imi!M a a t i i ad-naa l a tg&* HioiiabiSitatioR S«at*Oi b io a e e l a l adj,aatjiaat «a» good} a io wife aaa very itolgftti tad oatieofe «aa a a a l t i v a i •At ttae tisas e f tno aoaidaat- too mm aad feoeft a parbmer i a tao iofi&liig aaapaajp aad aad 'beea i a t a* habi t ' ©f ac t ing ooaaafolaX a$eet$iaj|t8 to do t h e i r ©'lit aow-faa we*tsab*a i a t e i l i ^ e a e e aad edaeetioaai 'doa^aataa bast.be eesiM &e t i l i wgfffe* iaaeeiacieatiy, taore* fore i be aaa aa*a$3,ea i a a odtwwaaloJL elaaa 'aaa ©a l i a s t i l l a pabiaab i a the i e a & b l l i b & t l e a $eabre lie s tudied eaeaga boekkeeflaf b . # ; e « % i e bin to -rabata t o tiio eempaay i n aa e&eeatite dapae£ip~* • f a i e aaa m v&ff ©at i s fa - s ie r f arri>ag@* aaat aa .'tflie oeure# aab aalfr &fe fatiare ettp&apiaaai bat a l t o f i l l e d &ie apart t l a© a t tae He&tre wi th a ^©rtfetwaile divereiea*' ftta o.iaJMaaat. ao« ooadiMibiog a pm^mmivw aftft-bad£iw89 aad. f r o v i i i a s . *ety- adefaateiy few a i ^ gaea. mmm$f fai® 1® 'year o ld l o g i o r tfaa l a j a r ea i a tae- baok tUioa a laf a l t a e a f i i ^ m i i t i e esfXI-iii. ia *tri*a n&»f Ho s a f f e r e i ootdfo book and i a t e r a s l l n | # i e s r e e ^ l t i a ^ i a f a r ^ f l e i l a altfe aaa^ploto meter pmmlf&t® e f a i l mme-klM of i ae iew^t- extremit ies aad taa pe iv l e tm&&& - ©a© year la$#v« the gatioat aa.#. t raas^erre i t e a apaalA). i e a e b i i l t e t i « > a i e ^ t r e to W i t94taiaa i a € l l ferjts of r ^ t a M i l t » t i e a i a e l a t i i i i . imif*emr%.« Ho m& f i l i ea a i&aa • i o t a baaio for aear ly- t^ree yeare aad taoa awarded 4 1$$$ aeae£oa-» (161) . • • - 3 t t f f l Q $ s t a ? at the gaiMfeiHtablag -goatta* efforta taera mad© ta determine wast type of gopfc taie.msa, t*iiM(tfbB%SbJtt uti saw* inotMrn** $fca psyeaologiat #aa interviewed bale 4&& felt that 'be wsa ' faaotiaalng at h&Mml%m i e b o l wbaa compared aite taa geaaaal pabii©*- l i s r&a§e m® &%m Xm ©a the lieeM&ie&l Aptieade taa%'*b*oi» iaolu&ed &otor eaiU#- tiaaal aesaSty* aw&ea&iiaa f a g i i i b p aaebagioojL i&feraablo*.* ©a. &t#e&an~ i o e l a&^mh&mim.- t»a' ©Heat ais© f e i l vary- law. $©w@v©r, ©a tea later Yga£g**ggg Seeapa tb*~ aigalf l eant score aaa ^ebanleai* ;faa aogatltigbib atblbb&e- «aa probably a ft* salt-of feat? ©f axpoaape*. $aa psyeteeieiisi aiaa f ©i t that tfeg ©sly e a i t a b l s type of work ao&ta ba benah i a t a l v i s g a jPa-aabitJtbe- fuaebioa* M s sbested a aaaaiaafabjte- aaaiax bagdioap a© i*© appeared bo b© ineapablo of friendship an* beaded to Wvery eealtgg&ta $$& fait that aa bad fe» go-sources to dpaa ©a taaide or out» Hail© ta<* © i l e s t ga* #t i l l aa ia*aabi«ab at t a g M & b l i l t a t i o a Centre a period of «o*b: try-oat aaa oaggeaeoft • i a - a repair faata&gr* Eo'aga e t l l i , ga t a l i fciaie*4Qgr aage* ©aaatioa at t a l e ti&e* fbie u^atiofagbovjr feaoaagg ©f tee c l ient*® pa?**®*! problems i&dl&digg .p&patoal d i s a b i l i t y gag • a© aaad every a sou so to ataa #©rk so bb©. plea «aa gbaaa* ©aeai-After tbid* baa agpttap- $bt aarrted•and om apeag&!. M a tine at &©aa aariag .fop a&a «tf**a ©alMrea* fbie le nob very gagiaJag-tagp bo h i a aad every effort viXt be g&dg to find ©aitabie aaplojpaaat f o r bis aboa i f be ggppoaggaa m a alaabto" desire to work* In tbie ease a l l ©©WiMby fae l l i t le f which gagg appXleable- «©pe ut i l ised, ®to ooa'ial aarko*a nde i a d i v i g * -aalL aaetaajeagga ©a tbie m m a«d lie m& geea. by two psyeaolo-gi*ta« He w i l l aeed ©lot of fartber ooabiderablaa before 'reto&iilbmtioa aab beea effeetet m tie is a t i l l aaderg^is social eat pby$le&i ret4|a#tiseat ^bd la beadle^ed by Ilia trltlidpaala$ tobdeboie®1 aad a fttbdlf low aaatallty* Qm& ^daaarp #7 fbis year ©id leg^ei* aaa a track by e fal i isB tree end ©etereiy-' injured, l i e peatt^tiag d i e a b l l i t i e ® mm® « le f t , ^bove aaba aapttbabioa». a .?igab Mlow knee aapababiaa^ a left ab©ve«»elb©w amputatioa &ad e. right. braanlaXt piexab l e s l e a » Ifter aaay -aoabaa of notpitallsatiea^ tfee ^trker aaa dieobofged bo baa teaablilt&t-lea eestre abara aaveral o l i a i e g . aara aoXd aad aaara be mM pgyoboaatt'laally tabbed* g'a praetiesl f o e a t l o a a l Idoa a«g fartbsoeibg* - » r i a g tbg rebabilittttiea fregram be m& paid f u l l t iae»l#s© $at& bie peag(i©a usee aaerdad* 1 Ik rehabiiltatiea effi&er $mm %m exiled' ©a tbi© mm fre^eatiy darlag aaapitaAlaatdoay ogabaJLoaoapjBO aad pbyble^l f b t p a l a i i i g ^ off aria® ^dtiee aaa efieoarege«ieat.i up MB ~mm%® dad $taiaiag hlia h&gaeif feg-M a mtm& t o d e e i a l ahd i e d d a t f l d l l ift . ,* gaaa-'tjjjte th© o f t i e or f a a i i i a y i s e i hi-iet'olf e £ t h a i l aeadoilg e f th© aji%l©ai% aiateff ' l a 'p$e$e&etie& fief a -ealhaale f f ^ h i l i * t a t i e g |frdgrag>.*<. 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(,'18* J . fa® ©lala&a& f e l l Swm the >te> at 4 ffeigftb -ee?*" 0HMri»elalag a freetared peltPle. ifb-iie ia. h a a p i i e l th© elided diepieared aa'aeate pepehoeia beeaae ?ielet# JjstejHraaaed hf <& 'pa;^helealet # after- th® pellee -aad r e e t r a i a * ag h i a * aad theaee ra&eted to the Siestal ieifplt&X* a f t e r a l * tieefta ha tvee diUKi*>er&e& • aad the** follow* ed a fear mo&th .period ef papetetfierap? at $*c*8« f a e l i i t l e e daria® whioh tins© he at 111 displayed a l g a * of: tttatai aoa* fualea add eeatalaiaed- that hie eeek wae at 111 a a l a f u l ^ *?peat* aaat w i € ls©o^ttaa©d efcerdij' eft®** end' h© dlj&i&read*. • I t wa& fooosateiided to the f o ^ h i h l l l t a t i e a d e p a r t * stat at thie eelat that he ee eeaieted l a f i a d l a g aaltahld-eaplopaaat» 'Sis l a d a a t f l a l aad aoeial hietepf eeaaid^ afed l a d#sl§aifs§. aa epp3&^>lete .*rehdhilitatlea eregraa* S?h© e i a l a a a t * * ^ deadhara i r i e b * teapevejte&t eaft &phriagla§ t f tho iaeJe * f •ee$lej«eitb $he& he teeehad t h l a eetaibrf after-leavi&g d $eoi |eb s i t heae aeeupitf * add th© laeft of « * * eegaitloa % tfee ffcede f M o a of h i a dead d a a l i f l e e t i e a i dleeppelated- aad fsmebrated- h l a asd mhea he ate Sugared ho aae helil^pereat ©ad aaeeopereti?** K i t h t h i e i a $ia$> tho i i e h a h l l i t a t i a j a itepepajaoati: with ia®dio^l aaffatal# de-cided that efflhleyiaeab eea- the e a a v e * t o hie l&jaedlata '•• pgwhieae* the r o h a h i l l t a t l e a e f f l e e t eappoaohed a f a o t e t f emaegep ana ho lattedlateip -offered f e l l eeaaer*tiea, aad " east© f o r t h ttlti, a&'epeaiag with &©o& pa?; aMoa e e e a r l t f •'" eat e$ale?ee haaafita* fhe worisiba. f l a t l y - rafoaed thie joh hefdatrer aa I t was oat ef towa* Hose aeefcs l a t e r -the a^peftaeat feaad a a e a i t i e h l a © i e e e l eeaatfae'tiaft f i » aad f e l l e e ep report? ear* aahlefaetarf a n t i i ' t h e mm aad eiaaed* -to© &*a»erjr #10-^aar e M * aia*ried. eiafawst - i ^odMred la*' riai . 1 1 are t e heeo&e l a d a a t r l a l l f h i iad . aaa avarded 1 1 ^ * 1 0 ® © aad eveataallf a IS -per eeae1 pea* alea:<, j»lee tho ftoord© aha* h^a% ho had* eeireral' atetlaea e l a i i a i a t a l r i e g - h i e hfea* te»iag th@ aerlea .af o l ia lo^ l teahe at i* :a.li.* to ddteraiiaje th# aetaal eaas!^ of hiladaeaa- a aplaal t«p was d©3!i# mM ohor&ly a f t e r the elaiaaat eeiBplalhed of a had haeit.» the i.i^ B * - previdad a thrae mm%U eearea •* fhara aafd' ffeejgedfc diadaadleaa i'tg«r« »s aaaa hr ap e e i a l i a t a hat aa^ thafa aaa l i t t l e aa^ eei&eiit«. 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Hie teida hothar a t tijtaa aad &s eea^laiaa of hem^aehos o f two -ar three ftoara daratiaa^ ho edatrola hr m& of eaplrlh;* tho man had a frade WX- edaoatlaa and h i e i a * dee t r i a l Ma-tarp age Pearled*- Eg was m m in haapltal hy tho «edle«i e e e l a l m$km tho wrot« a ae e l a l History for mtmx-®i-%® j>$#eM«tef« S t had mtao tmm aaaa* hi® km& inJtgy hat. &ftor. 'jgedieel reaeaaxaaee he d id net *e%alre a n y fejH&ey eayehi&ttle• ©Jp aeaiai. :ae*J^heia.» • j f t«r - .Mo eeaslea e^hltleaeh :h « s eatahllahed ae«d h* a welfare e f f i q e r * • refefrlea; to the sooial reaard ti® f eead that th®. ©a©. osrollod -ih t»». sale eerrdspeadeije-e courses. - I t «eaj* alee asted that tho $ £ 0 $ © n a i l ' h a t l*&oari;eeaXp a&th hia riifht har*&• JMthdP •alegjUMtl wsw-me&t,,, e&d m eiedtiaatieh -add .'ahaattatlda tha*a «ae a daaaod i w haahkaa&ara« i h i a aaa -aa* ia'.aa a a t i t a fced££t$$epia& aeopaa*. «tth t r e l i i i a g a l l * ated*-. • *h«h ho had tre a h i a with- add f©rtiy a i " f g e e t i i ^ tights ftia ailaaaaad was aaaaaadad'aad to. aee ih& isaifa«a -of fleaf* . lEfce o f f l e e r oadaadilad ant hia eJ&leeeaea aaa fe*laeta*ed aua h© fh© piaeeaast o f f l e e ? ; .fit f i r e t attempted 1© plaee a l h -tho @ l * i l S e f t l e e hat a# ho- eeeatag aae, r e a d i l y i ho sidaad ad a aageaiieaae folio® up a ittdleeded that tho m& aaa a t i l l eapieyed. and « ffre hada aaje e&aaed* c&ee &Mmm&3' £1 ye&re Of m§® a t the t i e * of *£aai^r$e* Ho i o i&- .aeaaiat of © oaaaiaa-fat 1 a t i ^ t a t l a a of f i s h f l e g bale* the jtaaa aad. 4 ^ vehet' vweada i a hath mm* Ho. aaa haapitallaad for adae t i n e a f t e r h ia retura t o geaada aaa *** f i t t e d m aitftitfieiai le«> -t^tafaa epdaft tho -yeare prim to the waf l a - t a f i a a a 4 .0*0*. He had fceea^aarried- erepeeae &ts$ was aha father of tad dhlldre-tt* -St. %m ajMMwi- aeaietaaaa- i h hfiaajUi hid-wife add' f a M l y to ajk&ede* i l h a t * ee*'-epee£*& io$ii$io%j,«o epe*leiaa;. f a r tfela ^hd'it applied to a i l aaepeeae f e j s i i l e e . e f tataraaa.*}' ' Gtt-their e r^iedi hare- th© irataraa.&ld fiot-follow adnria* add aajFanttaad. a «ysMo^ oottngO' l& & fadert'erda* Ho fFapKad-'ht tariaaa J'aaa i n tho. iMtdlaitf hah « u add hdaaaaafal .ia'iialdlag' any -of thie** • Jk# e readlt. of -the. i a r s a jtefaeate. oa his oreperhr^ h i s aeaaeaal ea$lo$ftBahh» -m& the .»aar eead^itaaa of tho Isoi^o for winter reeideaae, ho m® .aaahid- da i i t i^ tMh.M^h^to- heeihh- #ts-adiri@ f e f f a a i l f * the ehi i d r a n .hedejui i l l ®hd .ipe^aired aadla'«i t r e a t * iseB-t*" -W» -redalved ai4 thro«j§h tho <ir@y ho©o?oiomt -faad^ fho fi&eial I w r l i t Mdlalea af' tht Wal-fare sejfe-ieea eeittaet.* tfd'the i f e r l a i e l a i ' s o e i a l i e l f a r e . irs^ o h • and aa'had thea)--»t*-ineeet£a)»te tho de*e* 4» % m®y&% aa aaarAeaay'araat aasa. © l o t M s i aafa e»#$Hed -to'''tho- fa*ily« Oleee.-eeaiiaei--aaa 'hiiatdided 'hatweea .-tiia' folf&r© d e r t l e e a t laelad-ia$ %h$-$eelal #o^e i«» tho welfare tfff leer-aad -the • ereic iaeiel' a e a l i i iwirhaia, *«stii the aitaetioa he#*a to latrots*. i » ' «ii # • the gpgiai. goptiga.I&iriaiag tot $S ooabaobs «sit t o * aaifgpo g f f i g a ? afeeai m jaaay* A total. gf If. ietaapg wore- ttpittes a ft paaa* period i s re^&rd. t© tfrb'faaii? gibaatiesv ,fae above p£oaagg oGattajaed for ©j&eat © ye&P* 1$ ba© mmtttoXm* baa welfare © f f l e e r b&d ooataataa patioa* @4£$l©y©f.s out oegg afi&Pat&d ©a a aaeaaaai baaia* f ina l ly* *J*g iatapaa w@. ajtaaea a i t a a Petagaaa orgaaiagtiba-* f b© agpfc Of a alaptoai aabape aad tao man hm gajatiaed bag** t© asgg* Wlm gmm of t a r ait* l a l t i a i © t a t a o t «&# g&aa -© l o a e d . fa© ms&, olaaa t h a i tiaa$ ga© pafaaaod M© Ha# tfotailialBMst gpedity i a gpdep to $oa&if$r fop ta© ?©t©ma% ftega ggb* follow .tip iaolb&taa bftab iae si&a l e aabi*fig& a l b a a i a fob aad ba&b b i s » t e y baa inajpoaaaJl* . f i l e aaa waa over «0 paapa of age at f i e bl&© of ......... diaobepga* H e ' i s in-peoaip* of £@0 dioaHiitp pea-elba for a. aajraglagio gaggibigg paga&tiiig fgaa a pioaa agaaa* He aiga gogaivaa aeijaXeaaaaite gi&agagag at tie- rat© ©f £&§0g per paap* aa-priaa. aad b&d two abiidpeg at baa t i a a of tag aaoidaat* fbe.reeori laal&ftga* ta&b tne patopag was of aoat ttaaaavaaaa- «&&. gad a .p&aaaiag p@r#emlity* jfcpiap- to a a i i a t * m a t .aa aapiapea i a a- o i a a i o a i oapaaitp* fa© a n aag-— *~ \ t a r l M bio l a i t i m l period of ao a p i t a i i a a t l o a * " r iatapviaaad beta be aad o i a wife g o a i a i biebegp for papoai&bpigel Je .gap g l f b g e l e© t r i e aaoate' therapy aad ©tber ggyabiabPlg kelp, l e aad a i d wife aop© aaan sporadically i a tagepg to tpegtaaab but pea problem apoaa« fb© aaifgpe off leer ew ig&a&aa eeea afbap t a i a aaaidaat aad worked a t t a a i a for m&f paapa* ifiaa ® f f i e e r f i r s t assisted baa feadlp' i a a b i a i a i b g a %tm aoae© mM l b iaetisillas-.a belep&oae* M®m pMatab.iiaoaaat ere* d i t a HOPO aaaa to pajpapaad' f i r a i t i r ^ * 'fae jaaa aagaa to m a aajsa i a i t i a i aaaatioa of e a t i t i a a o a t i a regard to tag ®m®& agaidaai &M gga Mas ®ae l^?jaat#d -%r Vatapaga aii» • atiaaaa for- a e&opt papiaa-' of time*, lat i t ieaeat «ap © B -ta iae i i a da© tiaa.* gaoovapp «sio terp a l a a aad i t ' aaa' a\te# tare© ir©ar« from tae bi&e of iatavp ;taet tae s^a, begaa to g-paa .may tagapea© i a tae goj»ft,« fa© welfare of f leer taag' btlpsd felia ••oatai.a a id 1® M'slag gpaoifia gaaagaa to. a ia fega»a.ag tgat a aaaaiob&tP o o ^ d bo osad* A aoa^ooapalilt* i b t | i a a papiag: |gb «a© 'foaad- f o p Ma«. Ke aaa tpaaspopt'ed to b i d &lfi©@ of ^©ri aag baele- to goapitai.fot' © aggri petioi* f t & t a i l y be bagag to -go b^ae patgar tb&a to.tae 'ggbpita'i« l a tb# gAa-abiaa tbe « i f e , b e d pttpebaaad a aaP and aaaid d r i t a aer gwibaad to «gpg» fbe wtMsre of f leer aaaiatag baa yaberoa t© ©b^ .tola ag 'giiaaaaga for aaap e^d tear ©a eiotaiag.* gftpg g W baa **aa- .aa* f i a&l iy '*loa*4 V : fa© «f*l£ap© atffiaep 1# v$t&- &a* a ^*ai**p ©atlooJt ©a l i f e ae* • ana i s i$ a ad^dartftgat*.. @os8i4Q$i8a tbst too frog&osi© of tb&e oos© «**' extpelwaly- ©oo* £*# aavegai sreap*» tb* • reeo^epy i a peaap&abla* •fbie ia.da* 2A?**ijr to ts© © e l l e a b ' b * a & * * * * by t&# goobbfSi ***»*«# •feeapibal sbbiPf^ otoa^bianai bb**»piai*$ .arte * * * o*afb*» iaablta* .&*©*& b^aiiila** Oa$tp&x @toPt*a*e ftoasiag gc&papati&a* b&* oap&eyapa .aad iwigy ©tb.©r> i&©l©Jia$ bi# mn fajaiip*.* f&e sateim* oiftaa baa bees.' aaapitaXisea f o r Abort pari*** eat i a . do-lag well at a l * Job*. &!&© ©a© of »ia *bi&dpaa.j|aa 'ba«a armatet .on ©•Homage ^ b i l © aa&*?b*|gi*$ vocatioaai tato***a*#. fbJUs m a waa Si? ye&r# of ef © at tne t&*» of aia dl**ba$*e« Be was i a peaaipb af a M l dlsaai&ife? poaaiaa for- aa ©14 beae l a l a r y . He wa« aaprlo* .laaKJoietoiy after, a i * diaeiiajBsa frem tap aapfioa* aa*. ai* p©*©$bablli@b» ' jeeab' apadib* to atffieat tMsiPePoitp* Jia bad aobtpjkatad, isle siaa mm a*j&tf •* to. -boa $b#st f a i t a*d re-ceived aoaa.atspgevp aad. a period of prescribed .post* Be *&* aeea by a. s a a i a i * * P S * P «b* **b*app* aaaa #©©iei b i s * * ©ry|. papt *p *ai*a .iadibabo* tfest baa vabapa* bad beam ad*- • opted' "by en eXdetly aoapia aHan. be aaa i a the iabonap period of dae^iopaea*-*. He- m& broaffet ap i o a ©trie-tip p * l i*t*as *jbi* .«*#< a a i i * i * oaapiball &fti boa Pagaia* rebaMiib&tloa **f& *se- deae by tbe welfare off leer* fb® pabioab *aa *i*£*«4 v*# fpa%****iy by a i i «***•?* ©f ta© baa* *** iiffarobb ***** Were *i**& t o a i a by tbe payeb©A©*iebs#-f a * aaU*ab to tt© ©©ael&Moii. baa* <m attempt ©t • aeaplob* Ada ff»$?*r»liy *a*pae- $©uld .b© tea bars ©s bis a**ibb 4,. flie i a i b i a i p r ^ a o a i i tm» yarded aa*. fib© mm ww« deemed- bnk*apiapabla aa* iPMted t*p;?*boraa la .411©*ii'a.aeet f * i * *a*ibiajaa»* to gaaaioa bai dtaaibdliia baa* r^daeod • t© a i i ; | , ' #jt diaa-ban*© t i e aaa pab^aod to hie aaaa. l a e aaali.' interior toa**' "I®" t&m& part tine a^pXeittaa't i a a $apa$&, 1© ma© .Piaiba* by bpp ^ a i ^ t p a offieer r e g i l a r l f #b© p*pia*i*ailp' Pipiaad ba* i i t t r i e t * fb#- m%&rm bee&ae »p«s *i**abiafi«a a** i a a *fe©p$-< j&Pi** of bla* mm ad*--atitb** ** * pbp*lsiabp4a- abbpi'tai e#^ia. pia*.a* ©a aap fpi*awsia*a Aii-oaaaaa*' f b i * aaa aa* aft**- 'beea * * i b * *atae*niabia to tae a*p*pbo**b m4 mi&m «**•«* tbe# for n®lp. dm a i * diaob«p*o fpon tbe a * * t * i instibttbiaa taey -daaidfid" to e©&©e&tr&t© ©a ' a i a aad be sea eeea by a apaalai taaa abaa' titay uiaitad M a apaa« faa .Habiaaai impi@y»at aerviee •sea© of bb© '*a**di*tt l#*ai d* pap«o**ai a*p* &lm bPoagfrt ioto baa pl®a. ma Vafihha teehaieai Joh# ware iareatlgated* the fiteth fonad e & f l e f t i s t : aa- sa ifeft*eJM*eaiett«a. ja^eawrap ho was ea&fcia -to h e l d -thie '.|efe hat. wee released., ae appealed hy the aelf&ro O f f i o e r «l*h tho efcpier e#, ueiiowin^ that • cite jefc was fcelag-deae e#ay with* • fh© deaeetle e i t e e t l e a «a« & $ 0 © & i a g a a l t e atreiaed geihg en., fhe a i f e ' had. faaad ssorii and- «ma e,eita at her -haaaaod fo r <«i&iEg so fee atteapte to flad-ateedy egpiepejeht* ah© aa*'theft daea; &M glvea aupport' i a hhr d l t f i e a l t eale* the f o u l l y aad pepaaeded t o a*?e to fejteaaper aad a t e i h h i e a l Joh foaad fa?- tho- aasu. He wee r e l i e v e d of thie- aad 414 aot appeal to tho depaitJieat of help* la* feat ho hee ealdea haph a&f epp ei&taeaae arfaaajed alth'veifepe a f f i e i a i a * th.® deparhafedt aee l o s t eaataet $ifch hi® hut hip ta&ireet «eei&e hsa deterjaiaed that the $a& hee. aeeepted a a p a i t i a a with a i a s a * e l e e t r l e a l f#aeara ha& &etred to eeahera .<taaade« fh© eeae has heen elated* t h i e feaa aea - t i yeafe o f age at the t l s o o f M a .„ » i a i h f l a a iaeluded rlgfet l o g o f f ttala* th©' tooo,* r i g h t ar& o f f ahofo th© alhe*. aa a « l l aa other l a * -l a^ ieer - He peeeieee «. l d § £ peaaleh. aa well as helpleaa&ees allaaaaea'* 'He aaa a a r r i e d a h i l e etapseaa hut- d i d not hate' hhf''ehliftraaft tttoia veteran h o i a grade % adheatloa M $?e#h~ ed f o r a faa' ydepe as a palatafi>« 8a «gs Jte&pitallae4 far- a yeaf l h i ea td ra daaeda hoforo a& t i & i to the eaaat fox- f i a a l " »*e$ea&* file «ae aj iad'fidtad aitfe epaetheeia.- t h i s laftieated a dealt* f o r la^tpehdaht.aetiaa aad • i heapitallaatieii' tree eeflp&aaed ho had etteegpted to f l a t ee-tarel |ohs o& M s mn+ $& dise&argo* the plaeaaeat offioer- e f tho- fio* paptaieat ja&de s e v e r a l shtei&sphe t o f i a t i % job fo r hist l a h ie a i d eeajpa&y* fh^y had a#- peal tied, at tho -saiaeat ^hioh • ^ p o a r i t to s a t i s f y fcoth the- ^ihi thtm®olv#s.* ifp'-aaa p l i a a d l a a o l v . i i a e f t l e a |oh & i torohon^is^a hat h@- -aad' tho' pledageah o f f i oe r at i l l -»io- .repeated atteapta t o ^ a ' | o h «ith -taa o i ^ fljae* maie l iy th® m&'» d l t m h i l i t y to the easte^t lehepe they aedepted him aa a „ ileaaan'fep' t h e i r fire)*- Ho ha® reeattdd' tepp other feeip* f^Uaa*dp 'iadiaatea that JJO haa pee a i r e d ad^aaeaaeata w i th th# f irm* ' fho d e e i a l Ssff ioo a iv ' i s ie i* helped hrlhd t h i e m&i& .«lfe t o Oaaada s few y@@ro after«-adtlaed the «lifa of f i f h t * l h ^eajePd -to' peaaleft &m Aaiaheae.aed f o r t h t ehllfifeA turn I© i a l t i a i l y :r^oei¥@d a aa*!* $m®%m for a a iaa? .aiisaeat • b&t epe^tag&X&jr. ^ranted: & f a i l $i«aaiJLity Baaaxaa fo r io'M,ig©.|i}#@;^ |.a»- $aa aad Tr©ia$b##**©& aaa t r a i l e d aa a'ebMfctaa paaaaar s f t e r felt brotber bad baaa 3 e l U # l a adbida* He a&a uaebl© to ©©mflet© M a brs ia lag* Be l l b e d wit© aitm o t s e r who although -©oastetatly barabiag aim for sob werisi^a, always ©laoea tbe blama f e r l i s d i e a b i U t j r **©d» b i s aojwiaa ' l i f e * $a*?e -a** fcjfcdiaabloa* tiii&b d i d -aa* »a»e aoaid bb aai ieft a vjail ed|buat*a paraoaaJlibp a r i o r t o aaa placed l a a aaatai. boeo&bai. f o r a. s i l a t e l y f e l t o i a g . 4is© a a r $ e . tgaea a© l e f t tmm a* ^wsa glaaad i a a job of' a&aiaiai *©a | r©aa ib l l i t f bat tal# aaa boa- eeaf&ssi-ag tern ' la- s i s ajnuibea war ^ababaa'a 4I-loi**ib-e <as b e l l i ^laeafioyable-. 'J^s&l ly a£fca? a great dee! o f effort- by tba ad^aaatbf t&© ttabagaa aad m.%tt'lm^n% • fo r ts-is &#ist®i eoadibioa* the- walfa*? - M t a l a aaa $yp©radiesliy over tbs yaa**-« Be «aa aaaa isor® F < ^ i & r i y aaaa b l e oaaaloa ' grabbed be fee* aaaa a re i l t ter@d. a aaa« 4a a t t e s t M « made to lateraab k%®. | m '#©©&w&iaf l a baa &&siitstl©i&&l tr®i&in§ #&©© bat •&ft©r tbat i a i b i a i *$$*aamm* f o r oae %&Xt day ft© t i t -aot ret.&Pa*- S e m e blaibad aa toi® «&ad aa atbeapt a&aa-b? se t -h:im |ab«J?»abad 1b iMdaara l a t b e baaaaaab of b i s borne.. |itee#w©rfe e$p*asrod ba be b i s -$aly ia&apadb ©#$r tbe • y©&riu,5" i e v3#ibea ©a da tara i oeoitiioas- mat avaabuejUy-xab«&siaa t a l l y t o ba* ifiabibabioaaJL tmxn%n& aopfKaaaa to £ i a i a a a • ©of f aa t a b l e aaiaft be ted mmh e c r l l e r . - -fai© aa© aigeoatiaaed e t boa eisd of a «ee&» Mem© v l a i t * gat* a© i&d&o&biaa of aragpaaa aad ttfeaa t&a ifo*tiow: aaayjf-lalitad t M t baa .aaa,a.babaviaap aae «u»b baab ba' abiaald mmXm t^effetaeat tbe welfare o f f i e r f lexed a i t t /df ®b -^ bpsa^ijfrted. b M t © - b o # f i t a l * fbe ^eif^r®-'of f l e e r ##$^®f# Io -aaba l^eea 'bia oeafitteat aad be «©ala baJMs urns aabbi iffabtabueaaoa. rrea. blta ia^ vagapd to b i s f ©©llngu about bbo b o ^ p l t s l «orl;d* fa© aod ia l werSter a lao aa* t b i a aea- bat ber i a * b f « f i a g a mm- -e l l e a r n e d ©at wbli© i a b©#.|3itai f a Pvgava t o ^ y e i t o r l © - mi®$ml* mthm aaa i a t ® n r i » e d , i a ajg- abbaa^b to ^©t# ber ^ .©^ uai t ra taadi i ig of b-©^ tfee a iaa t .feelp ifta" aabiaab. a t &o©e. .Itdagtay. eoa#araaoaa were bold, a ibb t^e"^elf%re offfioete* foar d i g e w e l ^ a of fe^is problem a&a> -a^aajgaaabt of assbaai ob leo t l foar . -0aaa ^aanapy 8 • •' . - fb ia pateipaa « t s mm yaajfa or ago a t t b « b iaa t f .diao&argb* S© iMei^ed a, aaaaiob fo r a foot- aad beok i n | a r y , • oaab: i a j a ry m y bairo bad aoaa baaia ia hswteria»<- ^hs m$t had fceeii-fta$r£ed aad.litfftd etth M s t l l f e f a * a year, alien ha exalte .jre&a&y "tfhey had eejwdMihed ' aad ho fUieer-- has been- &>i* i a dataid a w w o e . Sale has aat)&. -a abati.t»\saaa ©otp'so of aaxlefcy to &u&» Sta aaa ii»«d l a .eea&oa lei* i^i«tiaaaXilp« iffcta j*a& wee eaoloyed for- aaay foots aa aa eeheaitt&ti* p r i o r t o ealiatJeetih-.r He aaespeehedly appeared i a a %aeo^€^. $ele&& e i t y f r o a fcfte .e&ati as 4 tori3 ftagr XI **e# i & l e h aaa not eaee-eetfaliy pehe^Xiteted* Se aad'Ma f o a i i y awr* aeea eoaeiet«oiiy hy the aaifare' e f f i e e r oa h i t hateler H e l t a to the t a r r i i a f y * j&j&da tfte-.-tatefaa hu& eaaiaaed part- of hi® pmmtm to hie aifa.j aaa aaa' e a i l t l a d . t a oohtisw*© to f e e e i r a t h i s deapihe the '*etafaae a i t t a t dehejielatleh of the preeedtire* $he man developed a f o a l i n g of pereeootlea aad iraeed a l l t hie %&©h to h i s &&Fly aerriage* $o aaa angry that t h * aepara&e&h should adeparh h i a legal. *lfe« So' pefoaod &o daka o&y l a a tmylns |oh or to ta&e treetaaat i a heepital hee&gae of the faar f&«' f 0 * 1 3 ^ aedld. hot ha eupperted* l a did hot fdafe to a&ho any ioeal. a-ldftae f o r . honoflta heaeaaa h l a dejaeefcie alt&atlei, a i ^ t be repealed* • Bd awete le&tepe t o attt&opieiee aaflhQ that BO ono aet&d hai»-aad eaa$&&glagg of hi© aaaaiaaahla aeaditlett* • £$peeiel awatlfig of tho ffiohahiiitatlaa Seerd of tho §o$ ef esaat §aos*e hold to t r y add aalve tha aitaattaJt* i i l e t t e r o f a father • :ha«ah aatapa aaa ee&t a&d the jgea- 'faapaodod aifch aa • equally h&iter''lather*, the walfata e f f i a a f peja*rged that I t aheald t i * a tarpdajg. aalat aa I t mm tho f i r s t l o i t e r ehiee a$eise of .p$aae. r&thor- ihaa his aadlaeX eehditio&* $he offioar. g a n g e d a hettep ssottei Of flaaaaiag th« hea* aad-tha c&$© m& referred to a s p t e i a l <%t%%mm 'fahahilitaHaa a a a a i t t a t m mkl m tho- l o a a l • 'araaah &t tho daaadlaet' I*ogiom« ffe-et© .alaaa mm a a r r i a d out by 'tht^d a a f t l a a so tha « a ®mM hot aaaah to ©iiyofi© frost %ha.&aM?*i$ea&«- la- tsrlad 'a $&m$ a*ariad of aapisoyMaht aa a tiis$*&©.#$or aad f i r a t a i d attaadoht^ Ho did aot woris' to© at t||# aat tha h@#i far'faada faroad hisj t© r e a a l a at i t load •oaoogh.for Ma; t o r a a l i h a that ha had oara-m^.oooiar iaofeito&t 'that ha h®<! 'haliavad aoaaibla .adth hid iajitrad hao-i?*. Tho waifftifa of f l o o r hallavad that tho aaa'* a graat m®& m® f a r a fa«j^y « M a hoa® add tn&ts aa aooa. aa a loh oaald ha. foaad t th® ^ahlam o f his reootar-f -aall .»?aaal?a i t a a i f A vaaaaay aaaaj*od i a a hraaah of ^»aaridtaat o f l^ahlia '^ OfMo aad the $a& epplled f e r the-,aaal.tie»# fe «tee eoaeated aad he hma heeomo.aa -a^Beaelte -eafloyoo add a is^feer ef the eeiwtfialtf« Utn r a l a t l a a a with th® Iftareirad grehtlf« 58e aaeeeted tho «.eifafe of f l o o r s liahataat -add hedeajo aeejeeratlte e M meadljr« fhe o«se aea elajiad tee yeara ajftier Io aaa a r l i f l a a l l y r esiatefad* follow, aa f i l a a r aflead ladieote that the oah dee i n r*$&pd to; ai« Mete.. H© ajHtftiib •ef 9ieAiefr« $* hm &m p#&tbi©s§. m&-hm *ea* psoaoaa** Mm applied. tor a peeeiva* aai& In ata *PO*£t4 8aa* ia«&ry ; .Sat* ^ aaaaa as8 baa* tdorfctfig a f e d e r a l depart* seat I*, tb© fiapta: treat ter^itoriee/ aaaa as© ©aataatea polio, was taeajftappa* t© a b e e f i t a i ei$©et ooaplaboly *** «*a :** yearn *f= ag* at. baa tlaa© a f aa?- a e s a i t a * £*aabl*g» :8g* wae gepp&aA t© a pg*e**a ©f world i&r it as* aa* t|e. aat$»*p of te© eg4&dp*a* fa© patieat m® very de:®*' postest a*..aa* .aa* * l * a y * aa** attempts to *aabp$% ber ©a* g-j^aptg&i pr#vl©esly 'aa* be illaee& .yvaaXuda* ber from aat* la g tabes? aea&l aaaa*?.* So* bad baaa ©aeap&ad by aaaapabloaai. bgapopp aad wa* a*.ea by laatitatiaaajk. bta i t t i a * iasfraetor® a.® gaa'aoa igtagoabe* .ia a r i b i a g *b*apb ©tori©©.* #aa ©eat aa?*pa£. ©f i $ g * * to- paftfcugep* t a t tgapaag* palaetad* fbe sbgriaa a #efiaite l o g g i a * f o r a r e t t r a to f a s t i y iif*.»•. fbi.i- -aatiogg' b»a referre d to tae a e d l a s l gggial gap* to & peyebiatrl© report. * eeei&l History «?«* abbal**** A* f i r e t abe ©©aid gat taite to tbe worker bat faeed age mil* mm ao* d i d apaaic aaa «*uld aet dlaoas* ber' family l i f e at e l l . * abortly a f t e r • 3?§fe©l r e p a i r mm mm performed on ana baa«l »it& baa i%: a** aoald de a a**a better |*b of a******* am lobar*** ia. t b i * bis* warsa-v able to bge ***** *p*a*: Jiere f r e e l y ©f ber f a a l i p gap. ©wa ejboat retmi*aiaf to ber aog* m a hbiMsaaiPa* f i n a l l y , a&* via&baa' ber -aft** wbers a g*ba*Jca*g*gt by a aepv£ea ©14b j was eptplopad* .Vieito-'ssppg ©aXy " .oat for.® «b@rt aapiaa of ties© beeves'of ber wi**& ©agdltioa* •** f i r s t aa* ;aaa agabl* to *nm$g a i t * . ber •&&aa©&©©p»r» 'tb© ®o©i<al. ^ ©r&©r» b©w©v.©r» «se able b* *§** ber baai ti«i« v^as aa-bvai .|*a3rO**y §a4 witb ©a*-a*in^*aaaa* «*© laava**** ber i**op*at i a otaap .aotJierly: aa* w ifely -datiaa* f'laelly #ae mo able t o abbaad. s o e i e i avaata i a i#ib*. ber ii&sbiisd* • f M © ©aee ee^ld aot be a a t P i * * tareafb a# t*a de-poapoaaibiiiby • eadad aad tfea pabieat was braa**: to «a©tbe«* ia*tiLt*bi*tt for- $ar-tber tre^taeat* ©a • tb# a a * i a l sorter a**a**' tha ©&JMS af as f * l i * * * i -"fae tre^tmeat p i a * ba-la* f©p©«©d aa* t b a i of ©ffeeing t a l a sabiaat ©trea^ aappaatlva - paaeaark l b m m&mvmp t o .help toot fyaeliea. ©ae© a*p* ©a a a***OJia'blp' *d**.aaba l e v e l w i t b l a . . a*r faaaiiy ©©aateliatiea^ tbe pao© to ba lasJL*« a*** by tbe pabiaai'** a£*bea t aaada to aaga m of ^be beip ©f la p * * * * mm J&VWfflX 1 . . . . . Faf }® X§§ #*..,W*#.B* JteftaatlHattaa Sajawy S&eet \fm* Id? • ...•••1Mi*B. l e a a M l i t a t i a a Bepastaeat ^ r a i s i n g fieaoaae&datloa S&eet» £ega 16S . . . . . . i f B e t a a i l l i a t i e t t f l e a a s e J m u fag© 169 .....£.?.iu ftaaaaltp l l e g i s t p a t i e A tarn* f«sg<<» .170 • ReaaHUt at laa' Hlit©a?|r' ,-' ' THE WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION ACT BRITISH COLUMBIA R E H A B I L I T A T I O N S U M M A R Y S H E E T C L A I M No . D A T E REF. BY I N T E R V I E W E D B Y C L A I M A N T ' S N A M E D A T E OF B I R T H ADDRESS P L A C E OF B IRTH M A R I T A L S T A T U S DEPTS. P H O N E O C C U P A T I O N E M P L O Y E R I N D U S T R Y ADDRESS C L A S S No . E M P L O Y E R C O N T A C T T I M E E M P L O Y E D W A G E S D A T E OF A C C I D E N T A W A R D DISABIL ITY C A U S E A R T I F I C I A L A P P L I A N C E S USED M E D I C A L REC. A T T E N D I N G P H Y S I C I A N E D U C A T I O N HE IGHT W E I G H T P H Y S I C A L C O N D I T I O N C L U B S , A S S O C I A T I O N S , U N I O N M I L I T A R Y SERVICE REGT. No . D .V .A . P E N S I O N E M P L O Y E R S I N D U S T R I A L H ISTORY O C C U P A T I O N PERIOD E M P L O Y E D T Y P E OF E M P L O Y M E N T PREFERRED A N D W H Y (Over) R E H A B I L I T A T E D D A T E C O M M E N C E D W O R K E M P L O Y E R ADDRESS O C C U P A T I O N W A G E C L A S S No . N O T R E H A B I L I T A T E D R E A S O N D A T E C A S E CLOSED WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION ACT BRITISH COLUMBIA REHABILITATION DEPARTMENT TRAINING RECOMMENDATION SHEET NAME OF CLAIMANT: CLAIM No. ADDRESS: TYPE OF TRAINING:  TRAINING INSTITUTION OR EMPLOYER: ADDRESS: TUITION FEE:  ASSISTANCE ALLOWANCE: SUBSISTENCE ALLOWANCE:  TRAVELLING ALLOWANCE:  DATE OF COMMENCEMENT:  DURATION OF COURSE: DATE OF REVIEW: COUNSELLOR'S RECOMMENDATION: I" AUTHORITY RECOMMENDED BY DATE APPROVED BY Form 118 REHABILITATION CLOSURE NAME ADDRESS FORMER EMPLOYER ADDRESS DISABILITY PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL CLAIM NO. OCCUPATION RATE OF PAY AWARD AGE PRESENT EMPLOYER ADDRESS DATE OF COMMENCEMENT OCCUPATION RATE OF PAY TRAINING AGENCY COURSE DURATION TUITION FEES/SUPPLIES ASSISTANCE ALLOWANCE _ SUBSISTANCE ALLOWANCE TRAVELLING ALLOWANCE _ TOTAL COMPLETED(Yec (No COMMUTATION REHABILITATION SUMMARY REHABILITATION OFFICER CHIEF REHABILITATION OFFICER FOR FURTHER PARTICULARS PLEASE SEE REHABILITATION FILE, CASUALTY REGISTRATION FORM DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VA-WS 29 IRC3 i REV. 1-32) WELFARE SERVICES DISTRICT. 1 BR. OF SERVICE 2. ENLISTED D. M. YR. 3. DISCHARGED D. M. YR. 4. REASON FOR DISCHARGE > 5. SERVICE IN MONTHS W.W.I CAN. o/s W. W.II CAN. O/S SUBSEQUENT CAN. O/S FORCE 6 SERVICE QUALIFICATIONS 7 BORN D. M. YR. 8. SEX M. • F. • 9. HEIGHT FT. INS. 10. WEIGHT LBS. 11 MARITAL STATUS 12. CHILDREN 13. OTHER DEPENDENTS 14 EDUCATION GR. 15. YRS. TECH. SCHOOL 16. UNIVERSITY YRS. 17. OTHER 18 QUALIFICATIONS (INCL. LANGUAGES) 19 DISABILITIES 20 DISABILITY CODE 21. DATE D. M. YR. 22 P. O. W. 23. PROSTHESIS 24. ATTITUDE TO DISABILITY ON REGISTRATION 25. ATTITUDE TO DISABILITY ON CLOSURE 26. PENSION t 27. % DISABLED 28. * PENSIONED " 29. HELPLESSNESS ALLOWANCE S 30 BENEFITS H #2 #3 #4 #5 RE-EST. CREDIT V. L. A. 31 EMPLOYER ON ENLISTMENT 32. ADDRESS 33. EMPLOYMENT ON ENLISTMENT 34. WAGES PER WEEK $ 35 MAJOR VOCATIONAL EXPERIENCE 36 ADDRESS 37. TELEPHONE No. 38 ADDRESS 39. TELEPHONE No. 40 ADDRESS 41. TELEPHONE No. D. CONTACT 4 3 WITH D. 42. STATUS M. M. YR. YR. 1. UNCLASSIFIED 1. REGISTRANT 2. TREATMENT 2. TRAINER 3. TRAINING 3. PREV. EMPLOYER 4. C O N V A L E S C E N T 4. EMPLOYER S. READY FOR EMPLOYMENT 5. OTHER 6. EMPLOYED RANK P. O. W. REG.T. NO. NAME. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 C L O S U R E STATUS 21. E M P L O Y E D 22. S E L F EMPLOYED 23. W . V . A. 25. CIVIL SERVICE 26. OTHER 31. NOT FEASIBLE 35. C E A S E S REGISTRY & DEAD COMMENTS: J O B ON C L O S U R E S A L A R Y PER WK. $ E M P L O Y E R D A T E C L O S E D D. M. YR. ' APPROVED D. S. C . W. FOLLOW UP D . M . Y R . V E R Y G O O D G O O D F A I R P O O R A D J U S T M E N T M A D E C A S E R E - O P E N E D COMMENTS: SIGNATURE SHEET NO. R E H A B I L I T A T I O N H I S T O R Y F O R M NAME H E Q T ' L N O . P E N S I O N N o . D A T E CLOSURE STATUS DATE CLOSED SEE OVER S I G N A T U R E WD—31 (RCS-3) (in) Blledga,• Caroline IT., The igaabl l l tat toa of. the/.gatlBB-t,. Philadelphia, tipplnoot't* 194.9. ' ' ' 1 f a i l and, flaaert«.. Blatbarigafo 4'. Cj^ aB»ttj»jry. m OorapiSSSnS?^oane'da Liattad, ls4'3,V r**" England* Hooar-t» • Oanadiea la»aatiab.lishpent leaafita_ fay ygt@yaaa» 1?ai?eat^T''^'^^lJ*ai' 'i$$^&nf'"&f ^anaSa'^HfItCT-1$'44 HSJsiiton, 33en&eth IU, O o a a g e l l l ^ rfche .Handieapped ia. the  Banebill tation Proees®7"li£mr joM'aaaaid FrasiaV £$s$'.J' ' ™ lew Tosfe» Caluab 16' W i v e r s i i y Press, 1953 . Pratt?, faorge- SC.» Sal&lag ' .^..giyillaat .ProbX.fma of ..Bff. 1 a&jiaatiaaat*- Raw i a l i F f T T ^ ^ Samara H.MV &M Sdajers ,• Wor&aaa*a comp&asati o.a, Hew Tone* Jaha Wiley ema* Soaae" "XR9*>' I 9 S 4 . • tlpham,' frasees, A Byaa%ie,ir4^r^aah to...Xllaeas, Hew Yarle, Family S a m o a iissoiifi^ffi Arti. cla®«. Boeassea.'fee ti. .fatelleatioaa.»:,, „&$a to,tag • Background Bate for aba National ©oafarena© aa ga-h a b i l i t a t l o a , gas Hehaaiiitatl.aa : ag ,-Bi,aaplffft Paraoa,-^, f Groat©.* 1051. "' €ansid(8j Stepartiaaat of Soldiers* G i v i i Be-eat&blishiaent, Aa^ual fjepart, Ottawa, King® P r i n t e r ® , I M S . Oladea., Flareao©,- w$be saaial Service Dlviaiaa of tfca Sapattaeat at-Vatarane* Affairs* JCts Origin, getting* and Fuaetloa a ataiy based on tae Division in the B*0* M a t r i e t , "unpabliahed Haatar's of $&alal Work Thesis,' University of B r i t i s h ' Oalusibla # Oaaodat. Baasrtmant of ?#tataae* A f f a i r s , Tm .yeteraag* GharJeTj. Ottawa, Klags Priatsr , X94d» Gane&a Baaart. o,f the ffpl&ler Settlama&t.Bear.d.af ffa&a&a*. Ottawa, siaga Frlntara* Marab »i» l & s i * iimi B i b l i o g r a p h y , cont'd Canadian parliament, House of Commons, o f f i c i a l Report of Debates c i t e d i n the Legionary, The Ganadian Legion March 4y, 1930*.. C o u n c i l f o r Guidance of Handicapped, F i r s t Annual Conference (mimeographed) Vancouver,. 19.46-* Department of Veterans'' Jiff airs* Welfare .prografflflie ..foir' Disabled' Veterans.-, (mimeographed), 1950* ' ! " : ' Marsh L.Q,,, Report on S o c i a l s e c u r i t y f o r Canada, Ottawa, ' Kfings P r i n t e r , 1945. ;:; • • — - - * • n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Beport of the Coiamittee on the Processes of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ^ New Yorfc, Decemberji'954. P r i t c h a r d C.W., Workmen^s Compensation Board of B r i t i s h Columbia, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Department,(mimeographed), 1954 Segsworth W.S., He t r a i n i n g Canada? , aDisabled S o l d i e r s , Ottawa, Kings P r i n t e r . " 1 ! '-' Sloan G...M., The forlmen's Coiapensation Board, V i c t o r i a , K ings P r i n t e r , 1942 - 195S, . * "~ ; The Montreal R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Survey Committee* Se,*e8tabllshiaent  of D i s a b l e d Persons, Montreal, Sun L i f e Assurance Company of Canada, 1940. * U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, Workmergs Coiapensation i n Ontario, Toronto* The Department of P u b l i c .Health A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1955. Woods W.Si R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Ottawa* Queens P r i n t e r , 1955. 

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