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Job evaluation in social work : an analysis, description, and classification of social work positions… MacDonald, Robert Wesley 1956

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JOB EVALUATION IN SOCIAL WORK An A n a l y s i s , D e s c r i p t i o n , and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S o c i a l Work P o s i t i o n s Based on a Study of Worker A c t i v i t i e s i n the Vancouver C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , 1 9 5 £ . by ROBERT WESLEY MCDONALD Thesis Submitted I n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree of Master o f S o o i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work 1 9 5 6 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s under-stood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Dopartmont of £ t r e ^ t ^ Vi/c^iJl The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date ficJZ&^ /£-1 /fSt TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n and Research Design ........... 1 Chapter 2 . H i s t o r y of Job E v a l u a t i o n E a r l y job p r i c i n g methods. Development of job e v a l u a t i o n i n North America. Current methods of job e v a l u a t i o n and t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y to s o c i a l work. Ranking o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method. F a c t o r comparison method * P o i n t r a t i n g system .. * 6 Chapter 3. S o c i a l Work aa an I n s t i t u t i o n . Occupation. and P r o f e s s i o n . The Content o f S o c i a l Work as" Revealed i n Current Theory and Prac t i c e " Some d i f f e r e n c e s between s o c i a l work and other occupational groups. S o c i a l work as an I n s t i t u t i o n . , S o c i a l work as an occ u p a t i o n a l r o l e . S o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l ranks o r l e v e l s i n s o c i a l w o r k . A c t i v i t i e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r j s u p e r v i s o r , and worker as, described: i n l i t e r a t u r e and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e job d e s c r i p t i o n s . Role of s o c i a l work'and s o c i a l workers i n a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of a c t i v i t i e s performed duri n g f i s c a l year 19S>M*££« •.. 26 Chapter^. Time Study of .Worker Act i v l t i e a' i n the C h i l d Guidaiiee C l i n i c . C l a s s i f i c a t l g h o f Jobs by R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and S k i l l s Required Method of the time s t u d y . l i m i t a t i o n s i n the s i g n i -f i c a n c e of the time study. D i f f e r e n c e s l h k i n d s of a c t i v i t i e s a t var i o u s Job l e v e l s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s at Various job l e v e l s . .Differences i n degree of s k i l l f o r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s a t v a r i o u s job l e v e l s . D e s c r i p t i o n s f o r . t h e c l a s s e s . Assigning,the c l a s s l f i e a t i o h g to appropriate pay g r a d e s — g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s . 52 Chapter F i n d i n g s and I m p l i c a t i o n s Summary of f i n d i n g s . F actors l i m i t i n g a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the present study to other s e t t i n g s . R e l a t i n g s o c i a l work c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s to other ©cCupatiohaT groups. General I m p l i c a t i o n s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r agencies. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l work education. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . Suggestions f o r f u t u r e research. .............................................. 91 * i i i -AppendicesJ A. Sample C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Questionnaire. B. Suggested R a t i n g Scale f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l Employees. 6. Sample Job S e e c r l p t l o h s from Representative Agencies. D. Job A n a l y s i s Schedule I . E. Job A n a l y s i s Schedule I I I , M iscellaneous A c t i v i t i e s . F. T y p i c a l Day - T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c Supervisor. G. B i b l i o g r a p h y . TABLES IN THE TEXT Table Page . 1* C o r r e l a t i o n s obtained beWeen r a t i n g s on se l e c t e d items and t o t a l p o i n t r a t i n g s f o r approximately 400 s a l a r y jobs 24 2. Summary of a c t i v i t i e s o f S o c i a l Service Department C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , Vancouver, A p r i l 1 s t , 1954, to March 31st, 1955 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3. Summary of time d i s t r i b u t i o n of usual s o c i a l work du t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r each s t a f f group of the C l i n i c , A p r i l , 1955 60*61 4. Summary of time d i s t r i b u t i o n of u s u a l s o c i a l work d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s by major areas of a c t i v i t y f o r each s t a f f group of the Department, A p r i l , 1955 •••• ... 62 5. Three major areas of f u n c t i o n f o r each s t a f f group of th© Department, 1955 63 6. B a t i o of s u p e r v i s i o n time received to performance time of v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s expressed In percent-ages ........ ^ 64 7. Focus o f a c t i v i t y i n percentages f o r each s t a f f group * •.. *........................... 65 8. Proposed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r s o c i a l workers.. 88 ABSTRACT Current s t u d i e s o f s o c i a l work education have stimulated i n t e r e s t i n the a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n o f what s o c i a l workers a c t u a l l y do. What a c t i v i t i e s and s e r -v i c e s do s o c i a l workers perform? By whom are these a c t i v i t i e s u s u a l l y performed, i . e . , Worker-f s u p e r v i s o r o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r ? What s k i l l s are re q u i r e d t o perform these a c t i v i t i e s ade-quately? What extent o r degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s i n v o l v e d i n each a c t i v i t y at the v a r i o u s job l e v e l s of worker, s u p e r v i s o r , a d m i n i s t r a t o r . The present study i s designed to t e s t the a p p l i c -a b i l i t y of i n d u s t r i a l Job e v a l u a t i o n techniques to p r o f e s s i o n a l social work i n an attempt to answer the questions posed, A survey of the current l i t e r a t u r e i n s o c i a l work and o f current methods o f job e v a l u a t i o n suggests t h a t the " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r t method of job e v a l u a t i o n i s most appropriate t o the f i e l d o f s o c i a l work. S o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s nine broad areas of f u n c t i o n o r a c t i v i t i e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers. While each of these areas i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y assumed to be assigned t o s p e c i f i c Job l e v e l s , f u r t h e r study of a s p e c i f i c agency (Vancouver, C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department) i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l workers have -some degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r each area of a c t i v i t y . A n a l y s i s of each worker's a c t i v i t i e s i n u n i t s of f i v e minutes: of time f o r a two week-period provides a measure of the degree of s k i l l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e q u i r e d o f s t a f f a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s . F i n d i n g s of t h i s time study are then used to Sort out job c l a s s e s , to desc r i b e these c l a s s e s , and t o suggest a c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n scheme a p p l i c a b l e t o any s e t t i n g employing s o c i a l workers. The f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers r e q u i r e some measure o f S k i l l i n each o f the f o l l o w i n g areas o f a c t i v i t y : A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , C o n s u l t a t i v e , Supervisory, D i r e c t S e r v i c e , P r o f e s s i o n a l Education, Community R e l a t i o n s , S t a f f Development, Programme Development, Research, Major determinants of c l a s s appear t o be the extent of work which i s subject to review by others and the degree o f knowledge and a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d i n f i e l d s other than the major area of f u n c t i o n . The process o f job a n a l y s i s , d e s c r i p t i o n and c l a s -s i f i c a t i o n as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s study i s an e s s e n t i a l step f o r a l l agencies to take i n measuring* d e l e g a t i n g and i n t e r * p r e t i n g the work of the agency. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme proposed should enable comparison of s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s I n a v a r i e t y o f s e t t i n g s . At the same time, i t o f f e r s a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n t o the dilemma o f a p r o f e s s i o n which seeks to achieve p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r status but o f f e r s v e r y l i m i t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s , f o r the d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r a c t i t i o n e r to enhance h i s earnings without assumiag a t r a d i t i o n a l l y h i g h e r rank of su p e r v i s o r o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r . •9- V l -AC1^ 0WI£DGEME!NT I would l i k e t o express my appreciat ion t o Mr. W. Dixon and Dr. Leonard C. Marah of the School of S o c i a l Work f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e guidance I n the fo r m u l a t i o n and completion of the present study. To Dr. U.P. Byrne, D i r e c t o r of C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s * t o M i s a A.K. C a r r o l l , P r o v i n c i a l Supervisor of P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work,; and to the s t a f f of the Vancouver C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c * 1 express, a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r cooperation* i n t e r e s t and encouragement which made t h i s study p o s s i b l e . , Of p a r t i c u l a r a s s i s t a n c e i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme and;in the i n i t i a l d r a f t of t h i s study were Mr. Bruno Peterson* Personnel D i r e c t o r , C i t y of Vancouver, Mr* Hugh A. Maclaran of Oyama* B r i t i s h Columbia, and Mr. Harry Itakow of Vancouver* B r i t i s h .Columbia* ... * v i i JOB EVALUATION IN SOCIAL WORK An A n a l y s i s * D e s c r i p t i o n , and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S o c i a l Work P o s i t i o n s Baaed on a Study of Werker A c t i v i t i e s i n th© Vancouver C M l d Guidance C l i n i c * 1 9 5 5 . CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH DESIGN During th© tw e n t i e t h century, manual, c l e r i c a l , and t e c h n i c a l workers have taken great s t r i d e s i n s t r i v i n g f o r an e q u i t a b l e and o b j e c t i v e method of e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r work. P r o f e s s i o n a l workers have focused p r i m a r i l y on d e f i n i t i o n o r improvement of s k i l l s , techniques, and methods, w i t h the goals o f improved standards of p r a c t i c e and con-comitant improved s e r v i c e s to c l i e n t e l e . Because of t h i s , the s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n s (e.g., C l e r g y , law, medicine, nurs-i n g , s o c i a l work) have e s t a b l i s h e d the value of t h e i r s e r -v i c e s to t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . But, u n l i k e manual, c l e r i c a l , and t e c h n i c a l workers, the p r o f e s s i o n o f s o c i a l work does not seem to have developed an o b j e c t i v e method f o r as s e s s i n g the worth of i t s s e r v i c e s w i t h i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e or agency, i . e . t o the employer. Industry has recognized wage and s a l a r y adminis-t r a t i o n as an i n t e g r a l f u n c t i o n o f business a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and has taken steps to develop s c i e n t i f i c methods f o r i t s measurement. I n the concern f o r d e f i n i t i o n and improvement of s e r v i c e s j d e l i n e a t i o n of areas o f competency! c l a r i f i c a t i o n of methods and techniques; and measurement o f r e s u l t s ; s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n has neglected t o study i t s r e s p o n s i b i l -i t i e s w i t h i n the framework of p o s i t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by - 2 -employers Because of t h i s there are many d i s c r e p a n c i e s I n the concept of the s o c i a l worker's r o l e as seen by boards or c i v i l s e r v i c e commissions, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p r a c t i t i o n e r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , schools of s o c i a l work, c l i e n t s , and the general p u b l i c who u s u a l l y support the p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l work w i t h i n agency s t r u c t u r e s . At mid-century, the p r o f e s s i o n of s o c i a l work had begun to focus on the r o l e of the s o c i a l worker as seen i n 1 » c u r r e n t agency p r a c t i c e . At the same time, the "base, «2 s k i l l s , and r e l a t i o n to other f i e l d s " of s o c i a l work as a pr o f e s s i o n * began t o emerge i n c l e a r e r i d e n t i t y . Jane Boey, i n 1950, commented: The problems c o n f r o n t i n g f u l l e r r e c o g n i t i o n of s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n undoubtedly w i l l d i s -solve when we are able to answer the questi o n , 'What i s our Job?* i n terms t h a t can be r e a d i l y understood by the p u b l i c . 3 To make t h i s question researchable i t might be f u r t h e r s t r u c t u r e d as f o l l o w s : 1. What a c t i v i t i e s end s e r v i c e s do s o c i a l workers perform (a) i n any s e t t i n g employing S o c i a l workers, See Berkraian, Tessie D., P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l Workers i n P s y c h i a t r i c H o s p i t a l s and C l i n i c s . American A s s o c i a t i o n of P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Workers, Inc., New York, 1953. H o l l i s , Ernest V. and A l i c e L. T a y l o r , (Abridgement of) S o c i a l Work Education i n the United S t a t e s . American Assoc-i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers, New York, 1952. 2 Hoey, Jane M., " S o c i a l Work: I t s Base, S k i l l s and R e l a t i o n to Other F i e l d s , " S o e i a l Casework. December, 1950, pp. 399-410. 3 I b i d . . p. 399. and (b) by whom ar© these a c t i v i t i e s u s u a l l y per-formed* i . e . , worker, s u p e r v i s o r , or a d m i n i s t r a t o r ? 2. What s k i l l s and degrees of s k i l l are r e q u i r e d (a) to perform these a c t i v i t i e s adequately and th e r e f o r e (b) what s k i l l s are re q u i r e d o f s o c i a l workers In various job l e v e l s such as worker, s u p e r v i s o r , adminis-t r a t o r ? 3. What extent or degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (a) i s i n v o l v e d i n each a c t i v i t y , and t h e r e f o r e (b) i s assigned t o each of the v a r i o u s job l e v e l s ? Both p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have sought answers to s i m i l a r questions p e r t a i n i n g t o other o c c u p a t i o n a l groups. I n so doing, these o r g a n i z a t i o n s have developed techniques and methods f o r a n a l y s i n g , d e s c r i b i n g , and e v a l u a t i n g the content of j o b s . I n d u s t r y and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can perhaps a i d ua i n attempts to r e l a t e s o c i a l work to other occupations. Therefore, a f u r t h e r question i s posed. 4. I s there a method of job e v a l u a t i o n which w i l l (a) enable v a l i d comparisons between v a r i o u s s o c i a l work jobs and between s o c i a l work and other occupat-i o n a l groups* and which w i l l (b) make a o c i a l work more understandable not o n l y to s o c i a l work employers but a l s o t o other o c c u p a t i o n a l groups? The present study I s an e x p l o r a t o r y one designed to t e s t the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of i n d u s t r i a l job e v a l u a t i o n t e c h -niques i n an attempt t o answer the f i r s t three questions c i t e d * I n Chapter 2 some of the advantages and 1 I m i t a t i o n s of Job e v a l u a t i o n techniques are examined as they p e r t a i n to S o c i a l work. The " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " method I s s e l e c t e d as b e s t - s u i t e d to a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n of s o c i a l work Jobs. Chapter 3 presents, i n broad p e r s p e c t i v e , some of the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work as an i n s t i t u t i o n , as a p r o f e s s i o n , and as an occ u p a t i o n a l group. A c t i v i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of s o c i a l workers i n t r a d i t i o n a l job l e v e l s (worker, s u p e r v i s o r , a d m i n i s t r a t o r ) , as p r e s e n t l y o u t l i n e d i n eurrent l i t e r a t u r e and current job d e s c r i p t i o n s compiled by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e employers, are reviewed. F i n a l l y , the a c t i v i t i e s of s o o i a l workers i n a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g are analysed from the viewpoint o f f u n c t i o n s and s e r v i c e s defined by the :employer. I n order to measure the degree o f s k i l l s r e q u i r e d of and the extent of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c a r r i e d by s o c i a l workers i n a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g , a time study of a c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s I s presented i n Chapter i+» F i n d i n g s of the time study are used to formulate new job d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r the s e t t i n g and t o p o s t u l a t e a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r e v a l u a t -i n g s o c i a l work jobs In any s e t t i n g . Chapter 4 thus i l l u s t r a t e s the process i n v o l v e d i n job e v a l u a t i o n w i t h i n an agency s t r u c t -ure. Chapter 5> comments on the a p p l i c a b i l i t y , of the c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n scheme proposed, t o other s e t t i n g s and presents f i n d i n g s and i m p l i c a t i o n s of the study f o r s o c i a l agencies, s o c i a l work education* and the p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . The setting: chosen f o r t h i s study i s the Vancouver C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as the C l i n i c and the Department r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . T h i s s e t t i n g was chosen because of the d e s i r e of the s t a f f to analyse, measure, and evaluate the Job of s o c i a l workers. T h e i r d e s i r e was motivated by the need to i n c r e a s e e f f i c i e n c y of o p e r a t i o n through improved s t r u c t u r i n g o f the Department and through study of the f l o w of work. Moreover, the s t a f f wished to have more accurate d e s c r i p t i o n of the work of the Department as w e l l as of eaoh p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the Department. The s p e c i f i c focus of the study i s on the a n a l y s i s , d e s c r i p t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n of s o c i a l casework p o s i t i o n s , Although the w r i t e r i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t the Job c l a s s e s suggested i n Chapter ij. are a p p l i c a b l e i n p r i n c i p l e to other areas of s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e , the scope of the present study does not permit v a l i d a t i o n of t h i s o p i n i o n . CHAPTER 2 HISTORY OP JOB EVALUATION Job e v a l u a t i o n may be defined a s : ...the study of the content of each job, without regard to p e r s o n a l i t i e s , t o e s t a b l i s h o b j e c t i v e l y the, r e l a t i v e worth of one job to another w i t h i n a giv e n p l a n t . I t I s ... a y a r d s t i c k by which each d i s t i n c t job i n a p l a n t i s m e t h o d i c a l l y analyzed to e s t a b l i s h I t s p o s i t i o n and r e l a t i o n s to a l l other . job-rungs on the occ u p a t i o n a l l a d d e r of the company. ^-As such, job e v a l u a t i o n cannot be achieved by f i a t of manage-ment or employer, o r by decree of some r e g u l a t o r y body but must be achieved by a process of j o i n t study by employer and employee. Present day job e v a l u a t i o n seeks to answer three b a s i c questions. 1) What are the d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d In the job? 2) What s k i l l s or q u a l i f i c a t i o n s does the job r e q u i r e of the employee f i l l i n g I t ? 3) What I s the job worth i n r e l a t i o n to other jobs? O b j e c t i v e techniques and methods f o r answering these questions have been developed l a r g e l y because of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n on the pa r t of employer and employee. These d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s were a r e s u l t of inadequate methods f o r p r i c i n g jobs (such as by f i a t or decree of management or of a r e g u l a t o r y body), and i n c o n s i s -tent or i n d e f e n s i b l e wage r a t e s which were the r e s u l t s of such inadequate job p r i c i n g methods. What were some of these e a r l y p r i c i n g methods? How have they c o n t r i b u t e d to present ^ War Manpower Commission: "Job E v a l u a t i o n " * B u l l e t i n prepared by the Tec h n i c a l D i v i s i o n , United States C o n c i l i a t i o n S e r v i c e , Department of Labor, Washington, D.C, November, 19kh» Job e v a l u a t i o n methods? E a r l y Job P r i c i n g Methods The process of s e t t i n g some value on a Job to be done has been p r a c t i c e d ever s i n c e man began to s e l l h i s l a b o r . Por c e n t u r i e s , t h i s process was e s s e n t i a l l y a r b i t r a r y and u n i l a t e r a l . The freeman of the Feudal era, perhaps one of the f i r s t to work f o r h i r e , was c e r t a i n l y aware th a t h i s l a b o r was o f Value, but he had no v o i c e i n determining the goods or wages exchanged f o r h i s s e r v i c e s . The employer determined the job to be done, the person he wished to employ, and the wage, to be p a i d . Even the journeyman or apprentice of the Middle Ages had no v o i c e i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s job o r i n the determination o f h i s wage which was f i x e d by r e g u l a t i o n o f the c r a f t or g u i l d . P r i o r to the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , the determination of worth of any job, or the wage to be p a i d , was almost s o l e l y a problem of f l a t o r decree vested l h a master o r a r e g u l a t o r y body. The advent of the f a c t o r y system and consequent t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes of the I n d u s t r i a l Age brought i n t o job e v a l u a t i o n the market f a c t o r of supply and demand. I n d i v i d u a l b a r g a i n i n g and e v a l u a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s work output became prime f a c t o r s i n p r i c i n g work assignments. But the employer s t i l l determined the job to be done, and s t i l l maintained the r i g h t t o set the value or wage f o r each job. The wage was s e c o n d a r i l y determined by the amount of work done by the worker i n a given p e r i o d of time. The p r a c t i c e o f paying the worker oh the b a s i s of the number of "pieces 1 1 of work completed, thus introduced i n t o Job p r i c i n g the f a c t o r s of frequency of d u t i e s t o be performed, and personal or i n d i v i d u a l performance. C o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , minimum wage l e g i s l a t i o n , and r e g u l a t o r y bodies determining c o n d i t i o n s of work, were l a t e r f o r c e s which attempted to make Job p r i c i n g an e q u i t -able and o b j e c t i v e process embodying study of jobs as to "market" v a l u e , nature, extent and frequency of d u t i e s t o be performed, and the degree of s k i l l and e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o perform the d u t i e s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The piece-work system of wage determination f o r c e d workers to band together i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e f o r b e t t e r compensation. In the l a t e 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s t h i s took form as a s t r u g g l e f o r adequate minimum wage l e v e l s which c o u l d be earned i n reasonable working hours by a reasonable degree of e f f o r t , w i t h i n reasonable p h y s i c a l surroundings. Development of Job E v a l u a t i o n i n North America^ In North America, the United States F e d e r a l Gov-ernment has assumed l e a d e r s h i p i n developing e q u i t a b l e means of job p r i c i n g . As e a r l y as l 8 £ 3 , the U n i t e d States — - — — •„,•• - — — — — • — ~ — — — : — 1 — For a more d e t a i l e d presentation" see: Jones, P h i l i p W,, P r a c t i c a l Job E v a l u a t i o n . John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1948, pp. 1-28; see a l s o C i v i l S e r v i c e Assembly. P o s i t i o n C l a s s i f I c a t i o n i n the P u b l i c S e r v i c e . Report of a committee, Israar Baruch, Chairman, Chicago, 1941, PP. 7*31; and Mosher, W i l l i a m E., J . Donald K i n g s l e y , and 0. Glenn S t a h l , P u b l i c Personnel A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Harper & Brothers P u b l i s h e r s , New York, T h i r d E d i t i o n , 1950, pp. 201-240. - 9 -Congress passed l e g i s l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h i n g f o u r grades of c l e r k s , p r e s c r i b i n g c e r t a i n r a t e s of wages f o r each grade. At that time the Congress r e i t e r a t e d the p o l i c y o f equal pay f o r equal work and the p o l i c y of c o o r d i n a t i o n of depart-mental pay schedules which were f i r s t endorsed by a Senate r e s o l u t i o n i n 1838* The l e g i s l a t i o n f a i l e d to remove i n e q u a l i t i e s i n the f e d e r a l wage s t r u c t u r e because no c e n t r a l i z i n g agency or c i v i l s e r v i c e commission was estab-l i s h e d to c a r r y out the s t a t e d p o l i c y . However, the l e g i s -l a t i o n was an attempt at job a n a l y s i s even though such a n a l y s i s d i d not conclude i n p r o v i s i o n of e q u i t a b l e or con-s i s t e n t wage r a t e s w i t h i n departments o f the government. Since the t u r n of the century three concurrent f o r c e s have given impetus t o the job e v a l u a t i o n movement. Government, i n d u s t r y , and l a b o r by mid-century had accepted the need f o r o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f jobs. Only the tech-niques, methods and scope o f job e v a l u a t i o n remain contentious areas or p o i n t s of disagreement* Three broad, d i s t i n c t , y e t concomitant f a c t o r s motivated the f o r c e s o f government, i n d u s t r y and l a b o r . F i r s t was the growth o f the m e r i t p r i n c i p l e i n c i v i l s e r v i c e appointments and m e r i t r a t i n g i n promotions. I f appointments and promotions were to be based upon m e r i t , I t was Incumbent on the government agencies to define d u t i e s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Coupled w i t h t h i s I n the U n i t e d States was the reform movement o f 1910 to 1930 which swept through f e d e r a l , s t a t e , and m u n i c i p a l bureau-c r a c i e s w i t h the reformer*s p l a t f o r m of e f f i c i e n c y and - 10 economy. Und e r l y i n g t h i s p l a t f o r m was the d e s i r e t o e s t -a b l i s h more d i r e c t c o n t r o l by l e g i s l a t i v e personnel over executive f u n c t i o n s . P o s i t i v e aspects of t h i s "reformation" were the focus on f l o w of work, l i n e a r d e l e g a t i o n of auth-o r i t y , and c e n t r a l i z e d f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l . The l a t t e r p r i n c i p l e s o f management would be meaningless without uniform job terminology and p o s i t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s of d u t i e s delegated. The m e r i t p r i n c i p l e was a happy s o l u t i o n t o the problems of p o l i t i c a l patronage i n r a n k - a n d * f i l e p o s i t i o n s i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e . ^ The second f a c t o r which i n s p i r e d the job e v a l u a t -i o n movement was the r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f the United States w i t h i n the past century. Industry saw i n o b j e c t i v e job a n a l y s i s the means of increased e f f i c i e n c y and in c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n . Prom 1920 to 19l|l» American i n d u s t r y changed from craftsman-focused to product-focused o r g a n i z a t i o n . The flow of work concept i n i n d u s t r y developed and f l o u r i s h e d aa time and motion s t u d i e s produced seemingly endless improvements o f assembly-line or mass p r o d u c t i o n . I n d u s t r i a l management soon found t h a t a n a l y s i s o f work fl o w had other f a r - r e a c h i n g b e n e f i t s . Notable among these b e n e f i t s was the systematic o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the s p e c i f i c t a s k s and steps w i t h i n the p o s i t i o n of each worker i n the i n d u s t r y . This job a n a l y s i s i n i n d u s t r y moved r a p i d l y i n t o s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n 6 During the f i s c a l year of 1 9 5 0 , 1,722 ,345 of 1,950,^90 or 8 8 . 3 $ of a l l U.S. Fed. Gov't, c i v i l s e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s were subject t o m e r i t examinations f o r appointment, as quoted i n P u b l i c Personnel A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , op. c i t . . p. 27. - 11 -o f p o s i t i o n s , d e s c r i p t i o n o f d u t i e s and t a s k s and then t o e q u a l i z a t i o n o f pay through e v a l u a t i o n of the importance of each p o s i t i o n i n manufacture of the end product. The t h i r d f a c t o r which motivated acceptance of the job e v a l u a t i o n movement was th© widespread achievement by l a b o r groups of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . I n p u b l i c organiza-t i o n s , l a b o r pressured governments f o r more e q u i t a b l e wage a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h a d u a l form o f equal pay f o r equal work and promotion based on s e n i o r i t y and m e r i t . I n p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y , l a b o r bore the brunt o f the " e f f i c i e n c y e x p e r t s 1 " e f f o r t s to increase p r o d u c t i v i t y through the re - e n g i n e e r i n g of jobs. Labor's s u s p i c i o n of and d i s t a s t e f o r the time and motion s t u d i e s and assembly-line d e l e g a t i o n of tasks and steps i s epitomized by Charles Chaplin I n the movie "Modem Times'" ( I 9 3 6 ) . The work o f the management engineer undeniably brought r a p i d i n c r e a s e s i n p r o d u c t i v i t y , p r o s p e r i t y and l i v i n g standards. Despite t h i s , the i n d i v i d u a l l a b o r e r or craftsman could not help but see the r e s u l t s as somehow derive d through a "cheaper by the dozen" e x p l o i t a t i o n o f h i s p r o d u c t i v i t y . With p o s i t i o n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and subsequent job e v a l u a t i o n p l a n s , l a b o r saw job e v a l u a t i o n as manage-ment's attempt t o circumvent c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . But i n the s t r u g g l e f o r s a l a r y r e c o g n i t i o n f o r increased p r o d u c t i v i t y , the c r a f t unions or g u i l d s were f o r c e d to develop v e r t i c a l unions which could encompass a l l t r a d e s , c r a f t s and employees w i t h i n the e n t i r e personnel of a f a c t o r y - 12 or i n d u s t r y . Now c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g was w i t h i n the scope of a l l employees r a t h e r than the s p e c i a l i z e d few. Moreover* c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g f o r c e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e value o f a l l jobs w i t h i n any one shop. Thus i n t e r n a l consistency o f pay r a t e s assumed importance as w e l l ae e x t e r n a l consistency (or comparison of p r e v a i l i n g r a t e s w i t h those i n other o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) . Proper job d e s c r i p t i o n s were of f u r t h e r advantage to a l l concerned i n that they f a c i l i t a t e d j ob-to-job comparisons b o t h i n t e r -n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y . S i g n i f i c a n t m i l e p o s t s i n the development of job e v a l u a t i o n i n the United States were: 1912 - F i r s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p l a n adopted by the C i t y o f Chicago. 1923 - C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Act - U.S. F e d e r a l Government e s t a b l i s h e d a c e n t r a l Personnel C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of grouping p o s i t i o n s i n t o c l a s s e s on the b a s i s o f d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and of equal pay f o r equal work r e g a r d l e s s o f sex. 191+9 - U.S. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Act of 1923 r e p l a c e d by the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Act o f 1 9 4 9 , Major p r o v i s i o n s i n c l u d e d (a) establishment of job e v a l u a t i o n standards assigned to the C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission while c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s was l e f t w i t h departments and agencies (b) establishment o f two schedules o f pay grades; one f o r c r a f t s and p r o t e c t i v e and c u s t o d i a l jobs and another f o r a l l other c l a s s e s of employment ( c o n s i s t i n g of eighteen - 13 -pay grades and termed the "General Schedule"). The f i n a l Impetus t o job e v a l u a t i o n came w i t h World War I I . The f r a n t i c scramble f o r manpower and con-sequent n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n t r o l on p r i c e s and wages, f o r c e d the u n i t e d States Government to assume l e a d e r s h i p i n e s t -a b l i s h i n g an o b j e c t i v e method f o r determining the r e l a t i v e worth o f jobs as w e l l as f o r p r o v i d i n g a sound process f o r wage and s a l a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The method s e l e c t e d and p u b l i c i z e d was tha t of job e v a l u a t i o n . The f e d e r a l govern-ment undertook to acquaint i t s C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r s , es w e l l as l a b o r and management g e n e r a l l y , w i t h e x i s t i n g techniques f o r job e v a l u a t i o n . This b r i e f h i s t o r y would be incomplete i f i t d i d not acknowledge the debt o f a l l occupations to the s c i e n t i f i c management movement i n c l a r i f y i n g , a n a l y s i n g , d e s c r i b i n g and e v a l u a t i n g the phenomenon of work* The c a t a l y s t , i f not the a c t i v e agent, i n the t w e n t i e t h century growth o f job a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n was the management engineer. The second decade of t h i s century saw the development and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e , a p t i t u d e and v o c a t i o n a l guidance t e s t s by American p s y c h o l o g i s t s . S p e c i f i c use was made of these t e s t s d u r i n g the f i r s t World War, Industry was quick t o use such t e s t i n g f o r recruitment and s e l e c t i o n of s t a f f . Studies of time and motion, e f f i c i e n c y , f a t i g u e , and o f m e r i t r a t i n g were only developed and r e f i n e d as personnel management achieved i d e n t i t y . I n c a r r y i n g job a n a l y s i s from p o s i t i o n - Ik -s p e c i f i c a t i o n or d e s c r i p t i o n to the l o g i c a l step of e v a l -7 u a t i o n , 1 personnel roajiegement attempted to i d e n t i f y con-s t i t u e n t or component f a c t o r s i n Jobs. Current Methods o f Job E v a l u a t i o n and T h e i r A p p l i c a b i l i t y t o  S o c i a l Work One of the e a r l i e s t recorded attempts to f i n d common denominators i n a group of jobs, appeared i n 1926. In h i s book, M e r r i l l L o t t helped to p o p u l a r i z e job e v a l -u a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , h i s w r i t i n g was i n d i c a t i v e o f a r e -f o c u s i n g of i n d u s t r y and l a b o r from the p r i c i n g of Jobs to the study of Job content. The horse and c a r t began t o assume t h e i r c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n s . L e t t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n was t i m e l y i n that i t seemed to present t o both employer and employee a sound b a s i s f o r wege determination. Included i n f a c t o r s o f any job as l i s t e d by L o t t , were the f o l l o w i n g : 1, Time r e q u i r e d to become h i g h l y s k i l l e d i n an ope r a t i o n , 2, Time r e q u i r e d f o r a s k i l l e d person t o adapt h i m s e l f to h i s employer's needs, 3, Number of men i n the occupation - the labor supply. ' Mosher, K i n g s l e y and S t a h l , op. clt.» p. 210, comment that "...In government the chronology was g e n e r a l l y Just the r e v e r s e . The f i r s t emphasis was on pay....Only i n recent years have other uses of job evalu a t i o n . . . a s a v i t a l technique and source of data I n o r g a n i z a t i o n and procedures improvement, i n t r a i n i n g , e t c , been developed i n the p u b l i c s e r v i c e . " 8 L o t t , M e r r i l l R., Wage Scales and Job E v a l u a t i o n , Ronald Pre s s , New York, 1926. L o t t ' s l i s t c o r r e l a t e s c l o s e l y w i t h the f a c t o r s of S k i l l , R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , E f f o r t Demanded, and Working Con d i t i o n s , which are b a s i c t o a l l f a c t o r comparison and p o i n t r a t i n g - 1 5 -* k- P o s s i b i l i t y o f an employee l o c a t i n g w i t h another company and s t i l l commanding a s i m i l a r earning c a p a c i t y . $. Education r e q u i r e d f o r the occupation. 6. P r e v a i l i n g r a t e of pey i n the community. 7. Degree of s k i l l , manual d e x t e r i t y , and accuracy r e q u i r e d . 8. New problems and the v a r i e t y o f the work. 9 . Money value of the p a r t s worked upon. « 1 0 . Dependence upon honesty and p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y . 1 1 . Working c o n d i t i o n s . 1 2 . Exposure to a c c i d e n t hazards, 1 3 . Exposure to h e a l t h hazards, l i j . , P h y s i c a l e f f o r t . 1 5 . Monotony o f the work. * The Items marked by a s t e r i s k s represent p e r s o n a l requirements r a t h e r than job requirements. I n t h a t r e s p e c t , the l i s t o f f a c t o r s Includes aspects of r a t i n g the I n d i v i d u a l employee on the job as he performs i t . Job e v a l u a t i o n proper, concerns I t s e l f p r i m a r i l y w i t h the study o f the job content and the a s s i g n i n g o f a p r i c e t o the job rather than as s e s s i n g the work of the employee on the job ( c f . M e r i t r a t i n g ) . So much b l e n d i n g o f o r i g i n a l methods or techniques of job e v a l u a t i o n has occurred that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to s o r t out d i s t i n c t methods. Proponents of any one method tend, however, to endow t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r method w i t h a t t r i b u t e s o f : s c i e n c e ; o b j e c t i v i t y ; completeness; or p r a c t i c a l i t y , depend-i n g on the method. Study of v a r i o u s plans used i n government methods described i n ensuing pages. Worthy of note I s that L o t t was q u i t e cognizant of market c o n d i t i o n s i n e v a l u a t i n g jobs, e.g. f a c t o r s 3 , and 6 . the l a b o r supply, and the pre<-v a i l i n g wage r a t e , were considered as determinants of the value o f th© Job, -16 -and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e v e a l s aspects of two or more methods i n each Instance despite the predominance of one method* I n essenee there are two methods of job e v a l u a t i o n . These stem from the p o i n t of view taken i n a p p r a i s i n g jobs. F i r s t , one might survey jobs from the viewpoint of the s t a t u s of the i n d i v i d u a l s r e q u i r e d by management f o r t h e i r job pur-poses. The "rank" or stat u s o f the job i s then vested i n the i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than i n the p o s i t i o n . Duties and respon-s i b i l i t i e s assigned are based on the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l ^ n o t on the b a s i s o f the f u n c t i o n of the p o s i t i o n w i t h i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i e r a r c h y . The reader w i l l recognize the rank concept as that used almost u n i v e r s a l l y by the armed s e r v i c e s o f both United States and Canada dur-i n g the two v*orld wars. Proponents of the rank concept s t r e s s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y which i t gives t o an organ-i z a t i o n and thus the f e a s i b i l i t y of long-range program or p o l i c y p l a n n i n g . P o l i c y , procedure and f u n c t i o n are determined f o r each task w i t h i n each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t . The a l t e r n a t i v e l i e s i n having tasks assigned to u n i t s on the b a s i s of the pre-determined f u n c t i o n of the u n i t and completed through recognised p r o c e d u r a l channels which have a l s o been pre-determined or de f i n e d on the b a a l s of f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o o v e r - a l l f u n c t i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The l a t t e r i s the essenee of the " p o s i t i o n " concept i n Job e v a l u a t i o n which seeks to analyze, describe and evaluate the demands of the - 17 -p o s i t i o n r e g a r d l e s s of the rank or personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 9 of any incumbent i n the p o s i t i o n . As p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d , Job e v a l u a t i o n proper con-cerns i t s e l f w i t h e v a l u a t i o n o f p o s i t i o n s r a t h e r than w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s . Common techniques are r a n k i n g or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; f a c t o r comparison; and p o i n t r a t i n g . Each of these w i l l be s t u d i e d w i t h i l l u s t r a t i v e examples of t h e i r use as a p p l i e d t o s o c i a l work, These techniques a l l depend on a c a r e f u l I n i t i a l a n a l y s i s of i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s ; a d e t a i l e d w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n of the d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of each p o s i t i o n ; a job to job comparison t o determine r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y and importance of jobs under study; establishment o f l e v e l s or steps of r e l a t i v e Importance; and grouping of s i m i l a r jobs i n t o these l e v e l s or steps which u s u a l l y are r e l a t e d t o pay grades. Ranking or C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Method A l l p o s i t i o n s are s t u d i e d ^ and w r i t t e n up. Then the d e s c r i p t i o n s are used to s o r t out t y p i c a l " j o b s " or 9 Both concepts are extremes or i d e a l s , Armed f o r c e s , gov-ernment and i n d u s t r y i l l u s t r a t e examples o f b o t h concepts a l -though the rank concept tends to be a p p l i e d more f r e q u e n t l y t o s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r m i l i t a r y personnel where s t a t u s of the i n d i v i d u a l i s s t r e s s e d . Since World War I I , both Canada and the U n i t e d States have i n s t i t u t e d some measure of p o s i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n i n t h e i r armed s e r v i c e s . Most noteworthy amongst these i s the United States Navy p o s i t i o n e v a l u a t i o n p l a n . (See Ash, P h i l i p . "A S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of the Navy's Method of P o s i t i o n E v a l u a t i o n , " P u b l l o Personnel  Review, V o l . 1 1 , No. 3 , J u l y , 1 9 5 0 . 1 0 I n i t i a l study or "job a n a l y s i s " u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e or schedule form completed by worker and super-v i s o r ; or i n t e r v i e w by personnel consultant or time study; or a combination o f these. In l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s the ques-t i o n n a i r e method i s almost u n i v e r s a l l y used* d e s p i t e i t s - 18 " c l a s s e s " I n v o l v i n g s i m i l a r d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The c l a s s e s may be f u r t h e r grouped i n t o "grades" each of which c o n s i s t s of a v a r i e t y of c l a s s e s , e.g., S o c i a l Worker-..I, Engineer I , Teacher I , f o r which one pay range or grade i s assigned. An a d d i t i o n a l s o r t i n g i s o f t e n made ( f o r depart-mental use) i n t o " s e r i e s " which c o n s i s t o f c l o s e l y r e l a t e d p o s i t i o n s In one o c c u p a t i o n a l group such as S o c i a l Work S e r i e s , Engineering S e r i e s , e t cetera. For example, the U.S. C i v i l Service General Schedule c o n s i s t s of eighteen pay grades f o r a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . P r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s are c l a s s i f i e d according to l e v e l s of r e s p o n s i b i -l i t y comparison w i t h other o c c u p a t i o n a l groups under the General Schedule and assigned to appropriate pay grades w i t h i n the eighteen grades. But a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s are d e s c r i b e d and grouped as c l a s s e s o f the " s o c i a l work s e r i e s " f o r other job a n a l y s i s purposes. The c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n o r r a n k i n g o f jobs may be done by e v a l u a t i n g s e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n the job or by comparison i n t o t o o f one job t o another. The r a n k i n g o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n technique i s the one c u r r e n t l y used i n e v a l u a t i n g almost a l l c i v i l s e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s . V a l i d i t y o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h i s technique i s dependent on the thoroughness and accuracy o f the p r e l i m i n -ary job d e s c r i p t i o n s as w e l l as on the degree o f o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p ersonnel. Most proneness to d i s t o r t e d or inadequate i n f o r m a t i o n on which t o base any subsequent job d e s c r i p t i o n s or e v a l u a t i o n p l a n (See Appendix A f o r t y p i c a l job a n a l y s i s questionnaire.) - 19 -p r i v a t e l y financed s o c i a l agencies use some form o f c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n i n e v a l u a t i n g p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r organization."*"" 1" Factor Comparison Method F o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f Jobs and p o s i t i o n s , elements or f a c t o r s common to a l l Jobs are care-f u l l y d e f i n e d i n w r i t i n g * Such f a c t o r s may number anywhere from two to t h i r t y depending on the scope of the Jobs s t u d i e d . Common f a c t o r s i n c l u d e : s k i l l r e q u i r e d ; r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; e f f o r t demanded; and working c o n d i t i o n s . (Sub-factors of these are l i s t e d and def i n e d i n va r i o u s ways.) The next step I s to s e l e c t some twenty or t h i r t y "key Jobs". These u s u a l l y are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l e x i s t i n g pay grades and t h e i r wages are agreed by both management and l a b o r t o be f a i r l y r e l a t e d t o one another. Each key job i s w r i t t e n up f a c t o r by f a c t o r . From these job analyses, i t i s decided how much o f the current wage f o r each job i s being p a i d f o r each f a c t o r . These f a c t o r breakdowns are then used as a scale a g a i n s t which the money value of every f a c t o r of every other job i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n may be judged or measured. F i n a l l y , the sum o f the f a c t o r values thus assigned to a job represents the evaluated wage o f t h a t Job under the e x i s t i n g 1 1 Some w r i t e r s d i s t i n g u i s h between "ranking" and " c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n " , d e f i n i n g the former as a ra n k i n g of Jobs i n a se q u e n t i a l order o f whole j o b s , and the l a t t e r as s o r t i n g whole jobs i n t o pre-determined grades or c l a s s e s . Current usage, however, i n d i c a t e s both methods are used simultaneously w i t h one o r more f a c t o r s determining the grade o r c l a s s . 20 -wage agreement. The f a c t o r comparison system i s used by many l a r g e p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i e s (e.g. Revere Copper and Br a s s , S h e l l O i l and United States S t e e l ) . A n i n e - f a c t o r system has a l s o been used by the B.C. C i v i l Service Commission i n e v a l u a t i n g some senior a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . An e x c e l l e n t example of the f a c t o r comparison method a p p l i e d t o a s o c i a l work Job was 12 completed by an employee committee i n 1954* F o l l o w i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s by f a c t o r o f twenty p o s i t i o n s c l a s -s i f i e d as S o c i a l Worker Grade I I (Province o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a , Department of H e a l t h and Welfare, S o e i a l Welfare Branch), the committee presented a n i n e - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of ; the Job of a S o c i a l Worker Grade I I . ^ T h e i r a n a l y s i s presents f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l which could be used t o assess the wage value of the S o c i a l Worker Grade I I job. However» despite the c a r e f u l examination o f each f a c t o r as a p p l i e d to the Job, the r e s u l t a n t Job a n a l y s i s , or job write-up i s ob v i o u s l y w r i t t e n by s o c i a l workers,. Using the same f a c t u a l d a t a , and r a t i n g each f a c t o r I n accord w i t h p r e v i o u s l y agreed upon f a c t o r s , i t I s safe t o say t h a t there would be a d i f f e r e n c e I n the write-up and I n the f i n a l e v a l -u a t i o n had t h i s a n a l y s i s been completed by any other group. This i s a weakness inherent i n a l l job e v a l u a t i o n techniques. 12 S o c i a l Welfare Branch, S o c i a l Workers* S a l a r i e s Com-m i t t e e , B r i e f on Job A n a l y s i s ; S a l a r y Anomalies; Problems of  S t a f f i n g , B.C. Government Employees* A s s o c i a t i o n , Vancouver, 1954* (Mlmeo.). 1 3 i b i d . * PP. 3-5* - 21 I t should be c o n s t a n t l y noted t h a t the process encompasses many judgmental f a c e t s which tend to v i t i a t e a gainst any claims of s c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y . P o i n t R a t i n g System The p o i n t system uses job f a c t o r s as i n the f a c t o r -comparison system but the f a c t o r value of each Job i s a r r i v e d at d i f f e r e n t l y . Instead o f measuring f a c t o r values against the p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d y a r d s t i c k of the key j o b s , standardized p o i n t values are set f o r the v a r y i n g amounts or degrees o f each f a c t o r r e q u i r e d by any job. The f a c t o r s are then weighted according t o t h e i r general importance, then subdivided i n t o degrees. To evaluate a Job by the p o i n t system, the p o i n t value of each f a c t o r (according t o the degree r e q u i r e d f o r the job studied) I s set down or s e l e c t e d . The p o i n t e v a l u a t i o n o r t o t a l p o i n t s f o r a l l f a c t o r s i s then used as the i n d i c a t o r f o r where the Job f a l l s on the pay grade s c a l e . This system i s used by many f i r m s i n c l u d i n g General E l e c t r i c , General Foods, and Westinghouse E l e c t r i c . P u b l i c s e r v i c e s a l s o use the p o i n t system, e.g. Uni t e d States Navy, and l o c a l l y , the B.C. C i v i l Service Commission ( f o r c l e r i c a l workers o n l y ) . The committee p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d * ^ adopted the p o i n t r a t i n g scale f o r c l e r i c a l workers used by the B.C. C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission t o i l l u s t r a t e how such a scale could be used to evaluate p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l and c l e r i c a l por.ttions, (See Appendix B*) ^ S o c i a l Workers» S a l a r i e s Committee, op, c i t . . pp. 5-6. -• 22 -I f agreement could be e s t a b l i s h e d as t o f a c t o r s t o be s t u d i e d , weights t o be assigned and d e f i n i t i o n o f degrees of each f a c t o r , then such a r a t i n g s c a l e could be used to e s t a b l i s h e q u i t y o f pay r a t e s amongst v a r i o u s c l a s s e s o f employees. However, such agreement and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i s not u n i v e r s a l l y d e s i r e d by a l l trades and p r o f e s s i o n s . Indeed, the p o i n t system h i g h l i g h t s a l l the flaws which c r i t i c s ^ c l a i m e x i s t i n p o s i t i o n e v a l u a t i o n . The more mechanized, standardized or r o u t i n i z e d the Job, the e a s i e r i t i s to measure. When the output or end product i s measurable, the steps and stages o f work performed are i d e n t i f i a b l e . But, when the end product i s a s e r v i c e which may or may not achieve b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s , how are q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of work to be measured, l e t alone weighted, i n r e l a t i o n t o other job f a c t o r s ? T e c h n i c a l p e r f e c t i o n of job e v a l u a t i o n systems i s o f l e s s importance than the d e s i r e of employees to have a workable p l a n . Occupational groups which are unorganized or weakly organized tend to be served b e t t e r than s t r o n g l y organized groups by f a c t o r comparison or p o i n t techniques i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r Jobs. Job e v a l u a t i o n i s s t i l l e s s e n t i a l l y a t o o l of management. Unions, t h e r e f o r e , s t i l l c l i n g t o t h e i r power i n p r i c i n g jobs through c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , A p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n i s o f f e r e d i f s k i l l , Job c o n d i t i o n s and b a r g a i n i n g power are considered as b a s i c job * M i l l e t t , John D, , Management i n the P u b l i c S e r v i c e , the  Quest f o r E f f e c t i v e Performance, McGraw-Hill Book Go * Inc,, New York, 1954* (espec. Chapter 131. - 23 -f a c t o r s . 17 Recent studi e s by T i f f i n and others have demon-s t r a t e d the v a l i d i t y of u s i n g two-factor comparisons I n e v a l u a t i n g jobs r a t h e r than u s i n g a more complex l i s t ©f f a c t o r s . The h i g h degree of c o r r e l a t i o n i n s i n g l e or two-f a c t o r versus m u l t i - f a c t o r e v a l u a t i o n techniques makes the t y p i c a l p o i n t system or f a c t o r comparison techniques appear a questionable expense. (See Table 1, p. 21*.) As a general guide to the comparative usefulness of the above four methods o f job e v a l u a t i o n i t i s h e l p f u l to review the pur-pose u n d e r l y i n g job e v a l u a t i o n , Ismar Baruch o u t l i n e s the r a t i o n a l e ; , ...(a) so t h a t the I m p o s s i b i l i t y of understanding an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d mass of i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s gives way t o the f e a s i b i l i t y o f understanding a much sma l l e r number of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c l a s s e s o f p o s i t i o n s ; (b) so that p o s i t i o n s which should be t r e a t e d a l i k e when personnel p o l i c i e s , problems, or a c t i o n s , are under c o n s i d e r a t i o n can e a s i l y b© I d e n t i f i e d as members of a group, thus making i t p o s s i b l e t o d e a l w i t h p o s i t i o n s i n l i k e groups r a t h e r than as an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d mass; and (c) so t h a t , by emphasis on an i m p a r t i a l , s c i e n t i f i c approach a p u r e l y p e r s o n a l i z e d treatment Of work and pay problems can be avoided i n f a v o r of safeguards a g a i n s t f a v o r i t i s m and procedures f o r f a i r and e q u i t a b l e treatment.1° 1 6 K e r r , C l a r k and L l o y d H. F i s h e r , " E f f e c t of Environment and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n on Job E v a l u a t i o n , Some Precepts and Caveats," In Readings I n Personnel A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . P a u l P i g o r s and Charles W, Myers, eds,, McGraw-Hill Book Co, Inc., Hew York, 191*8, pp. 387-390, T i f f i n , Joseph, I n d u s t r i a l Psychology, P r e n t i G e - H a l l , Inc., New York, 191*7. Baruch, Ismar, "Basic Aspects o f P o s i t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , " P u b l i c Personnel Review. V o l , 2 (October, 191*0), p, 1, - 2k -Table 1, C o r r e l a t i o n s Obtained between Ratings on S e l e c t e d Items and T o t a l P o i n t Ratings f o r Approximately UOO Salary Jobs C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h T o t a l . Selected Scale Items P o i n t s Based on 11 Items .93 Experience p l u s complexity of d u t i e s . . .96 , Experience p l u s complexity of d u t i e s .98 Source: T i f f i n , J . f I n d u s t r i a l Psychology, op. c i t . , p. 388. These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that? (1) the r a t i n g s from a shortened system c o r r e l a t e very h i g h l y w i t h the r a t -ings of longer systems, (2) the f i n d i n g s are e s s e n t i a l l y the same f o r shop jobs and s a l a r i e d j o b s , (3) the e f f e c t of shortening the system i s the same f o r p o i n t systems and f o r f a c t o r comparison system, and (ij.} the r a t i n g s obtained from a suggested s i m p l i f i e d system have h i g h e r r e l i a b i l i t y than those r e s u l t i n g from a longer system. In the l i g h t o f these f i n d i n g s , i t i s probably advisable t o make greater use o f systems of job e v a l -u a t i o n that are c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e r than many of those i n current use,i° Each of the purposes c i t e d by Baruch can be met by the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method of job e v a l u a t i o n . Moreover, on t h i s method i s the one most f r e q u e n t l y used, most easy t o e s t a b l i s h , most amenable to change and thus most f l e x i b l e to x y T i f f i n , op. , c i t . , p. 393. 20 In m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , s t a t e s , n a t i o n a l governments, c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Horth America, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method i s most f r e q u e n t l y used, although the p o i n t and f a c t o r compar-i s o n are the most widely used plans I n i n d u s t r i a l o r ganiza-t i o n s . See S p r l e g e l , W i l l i a m , and E. Lanham, Personnel Studies S e r i e s , A u s t i n , Texas, Bureau of Business Research, The U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, 1951» e t . seq.. - 25 -administer. I n B r i t i s h Columbia, the P r o v i n c i a l Government, Community Chest and Cou n c i l o f Greater Vancouver and l o c a l o f f i c e s of the Fe d e r a l Government use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f jobs. The C i t y o f Vancouver uses a c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n p l a n p l u s a m o d i f i e d p o i n t r a t i n g system t o deter*-mine pay grades. One outstanding proponent o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method summarizes very a p t l y the strengths and l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s method. The p r i n c i p a l d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n stem from i t s l a c k o f p r e c i s i o n * This has tempted many t e c h n i c i a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Ind u s t r y , to seek comfort i n systems which r e l y h e a v i l y on mathematical weighting and s c o r i n g to compare job w i t h job or job w i t h c l a s s * But no one has yet been able to e l i m i n a t e the need f o r s u b j e c t i v e judgment-d i s c r i m i n a t i n g 9 broad-gauged, l o g i c a l judgment, b u t , nev e r t h e l e s s , human, f a l l i b l e judgment-*-in a r r i v i n g at reasonable, e q u i t a b l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Ho c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n p l a n i s operated without some misunderstand-ings and disagreements among employees, operating s u p e r v i s o r s , and job e v a l u a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s . Where a p l a n i s operated most s u c c e s s f u l l y there I s l i k e l y t o be considerable common understanding and p a r t i c i p a t i o n among a l l these p a r t i e s t o the process. This c a l l s f o r common t r a i n i n g i n aims and methods; i t a l s o p o i n t s up the usefulness of ad v i s o r y and a p p e l l a t e boards made up net o n l y of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i c i a n s but of workers end le a d e r s i n the occupation In quest i o n , »Ivory tower* c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , keeping i t a mystery f o r an anointed few* cannot win the acceptance necessary to i m p a r t i a l , honest job a n a l y s i s and ev a l u a t i o n , 2 1 With c o n s i d e r a t i o n of v a r i o u s viewpoints i n analys-i n g s o c i a l work jobs and i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g achieve-ment o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s by s o c i a l work, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method appears the most s u i t a b l e means f o r d e s c r i b i n g what i t Is t h a t s o c i a l workers do. Mosher, K i n g s l e y and S t a h l , op. c i t . , p. 238 CHAPTER 3 SOCIAL WORK AS AN INSTITUTION, OCCUPATION, AND PROFESSION—THE CONTENT OF SOCIAL WORK AS REVEALED IN CURRENT THEORY AND PRACTICE i n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , most s o c i a l workers employed i n l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s would not p r o f e s s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s or ev a l u a t i o n s of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . In most Instances, the s o c i a l worker employees haVe no aware-ness o f the method by which t h e i r p o s i t i o n s have been evaluated and i n many l o c a l s e t t i n g s , the Incumbents of s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s would not recognize the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s w r i t t e n as pp job d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the work they p e r f o r m . c The i m p l i c a t i o n intended i n the above statements i s not that employers have I n c o r r e c t l y or inadequately c l a s s i f i e d s o c i a l work jobs. Rather, the w r i t e r i m p l i e s t h a t s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n has not adequately described i t s g o a l s , s k i l l s , a c t i v i t i e s and s e r v i c e s i n terminology which i s a p p l i c a b l e to job des-c r i p t i o n and job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Moreover, as a weakly-organized occupation, s o c i a l workers as a p r o f e s s i o n a l group have not a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d I n the d e s c r i p t i o n and c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n o f the d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s they assume as i n d i v i d u a l employees. To make e f f e c t i v e use of Job evalua-t i o n methods s o c i a l workers need to be conversant w i t h these See Appendix C f o r sample Job d e s c r i p t i o n s from r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s employing s o c i a l workers* - 27 -methods. But more important i s that s o c i a l workers need to be aware of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o c i a l work which are d i f -f e r e n t from Industry and other o c c u p a t i o n a l groups and be capable of e n u n c i a t i n g these d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of s o c i a l work jobs. Some D i f f e r e n c e s between S o c i a l Work and Other Occupational 23 Groups Adequate e v a l u a t i o n o f s o c i a l work Jobs cannot be achieved without understanding of (a) s o c i a l work as an I n s t i t u t i o n , (b) s o c i a l work as an occupational r o l e 2 ^ i n s p e c i f i c l o c a l e s and s e t t i n g s , and (c) s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that may or may not be congruent w i t h current p r a c t i c e s of " s o c i a l workers." The concept of measuring what a Job demands must encompass more than the employer's d e s c r i p t i o n of what he wants done i n the v a r i o u s steps and stages of p r o c e s s i n g h i s product. Attempts J Further reference t o t h i s aspect of the present study may be found i n : Atwater, P i e r c e , Problems o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i n S o c i a l Work» Univ. of Minnesota P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1 9 4 0 ; S t r e e t , Elwood, A Handbook f o r S o c i a l Agency A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Harper and B r o t h e r s , New York, 1947J Bowers, Swithun, "The Nature and D e f i n i t i o n of S o c i a l Casework, Par t I I I , " S o c i a l Casework, V o l . XXX, No* 10 (1949); K i d n e l g h , John C , "The Quest f o r Competence i n Welfare A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " S o c i a l  S e r v i c e Review. V o l . XXIV, June 1 9 5 0 ; WItmer, H.. S o c i a l  Work: An A n a l y s i s of a S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n . F a r r a r and Rine-h a r t Inc., New York, 1 9 4 2 . . ^ Analyses o f jobs or work from the s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view of " r o l e " assumed by the worker throws a p a r t i c u l a r l y searching l i g h t on current p r a c t i c e s of job evaluation.- See, f o r example, the d i f f e r e n c e s between des c r i b e d r o l e , i d e a l r o l e and a c t u a l r o l e i n the job o f a Charge Nurse i n Stanton, A l f r e d H., and M o r r i s S. Schwartz, The Mental H o s p i t a l , B a s i c Books Inc., New York, 1 9 5 4 , P» l5o"« - 28 -to apply current job e v a l u a t i o n methods t o s o c i a l work jobs I l l u s t r a t e that a n a l y s i s of a job has to i n c l u d e many v a r i a n t p o i n t s o f view. These may i n c l u d e , f o r example: 1) What q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of output does the employer demand? 2) What p h y s i c a l , mental, emotional and s p i r i t u a l demands does the employer's goal place on such employee? 3) What degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n does the employee have i n determining the p o l i c i e s , procedures and goals of the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f whieh he i s a component p a r t ? 4) Whet demands does the employee b r i n g to beer on the employer regarding p o l i c y , procedure and goals through the a c t i v i t y of employee unions, trade standards, p r o f e s s i o n a l codes, e d u c a t i o n a l standards, or other forms of r e g u l a t i n g job p r a c t i c e (e.g. l i c e n s i n g , c e r t i f i c a t i o n , e t cete r a ) ? 5) What degree o f i n f l u e n c e has the consumer i n < d e f i n i n g and r e g u l a t i n g the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of the product? Present job e v a l u a t i o n methods, because of t h e i r preoccupation w i t h the p o s i t i o n concept, analyze jobs only from the viewpoint o f questions 1) and 2) above. Because of t h i s , present e v a l u a t i o n s tend to g i v e a non-dynamic ^ The consumer i n s o c i a l work may be both c l i e n t and/or the general p u b l i c who through e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s or agency boards may be the f i n a l a r b i t e r i n determining a community's w i l l i n g n e s s to extend s e r v i c e s or t o Improve performance standards through work r e v i s i o n . - 29 -p i c t u r e of i s o l a t e d jobs. A r e a l i s t i c , dynamic p i c t u r e can be found by c o n s i d e r i n g the p o s i t i o n and the employee i n a c t i o n i n the process, and i n the s t r u c t u r e , o f both f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n . To o b t a i n t h i s p i c t u r e , the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , i n d u s t r y , and personnel manage-ment w i l l have to coordinate t h e i r e f f o r t s i n examining Jobs from the p o i n t s o f view l i s t e d above. S o c i a l work i s o n l y one o f many occupations caught between the S c y l l a o f the rank concept and the Charybdis of the p o s i t i o n concept. S o c i a l Work As A S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n As a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , s o c i a l work concerns i t s e l f w i t h the goal of Improving adjustment between i n d i -v i d u a l s and groups and t h e i r environment* In so doing, s o c i a l work f u n c t i o n s through e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s of gov-ernment and v a r i o u s v o l u n t a r y agencies* S o c i a l work and s o c i a l workers thereby become i d e n t i f i e d * i n the mind and eyes o f the p u b l i c , w i t h the programs and goals of agencies. The d i s p a r a t e f u n c t i o n o f s o e i a l work as an i n s t i t u t i o n and s o c i a l workers as p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s i s neglected i f " s o c i a l work" i s considered as synonymous w i t h " s o c i a l agency." 2 7 S o c i a l work as an i n s t i t u t i o n has four broad 2 o Stanton and Schwartz, op* c i t . * an e x c e l l e n t a n a l y s i s o f the r o l e s played by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p s y c h i a t r i c i l l n e s s and treatment i n a mental h o s p i t a l . 2 7 c f . S t r e e t , Elwood, An Handbook f o r S o c i a l Agency Adminis-t r a t i o n . " Harper and B r o t h e r s , Hew York, 1 9 4 7 . "A s o c i a l agency i s a group a c t i v i t y . . . .management must c a r r y the whole p o l i c y -making and o p e r a t i n g p e r s o n n e l , as w e l l as the constituency of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , along with i t i n thought and a c t i o n w i t h and f o r the community," p. 434* - 30 -functions} (a) developing, t e s t i n g and r e f i n i n g methodology; (b) c o n t r o l l i n g or r e g u l a t i n g p r a c t i c e o f i t s membership; (c) r e c r u i t i n g f u r t h e r members; (d) promoting development o f agencies and promoting improvement of standards w i t h i n agen-c i e s . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r these f u n c t i o n s i s n e i t h e r c l e a r l y defined nor c l e a r l y a l l o c a t e d t o the f i e l d s of s o c i a l work 28 education, the p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the agencies. Each o f these f i e l d s has a stake and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the f u n c t i o n s of s o c i a l work. Each of these f i e l d s has a unique focus o f i n t e r e s t , p o i n t of view,, or b i a s i n s o c i a l work. Yet each f i e l d i s composed of s o c i a l workers, many of whom are a c t i v e i n each o f the three f i e l d s , and most of whom are a c t i v e i n a t l e a s t two o f three f i e l d s — t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l organ-i z a t i o n s and the agencies. S o c i a l work cannot be separated i n t o " t h e o r e t i c a l " and " a p p l i e d " f i e l d s . Nor can i t be con-s i d e r e d s o l e l y i n terms o f "labor f o r c e , " "employees" and employers." With c l a r i f i c a t i o n and expanded development i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work education (and p o s s i b l y w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g number o f s o c i a l workers i n p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e ) * s o c i a l work w i l l achieve p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s . S o c i a l workers w i l l then be h i r e d as p r a c t i t i o n e r s — r e c o g n i z e d as equipped to handle a v a r i e t y o f a s s i g n m e n t s — r a t h e r than as employees to f i l l predetermined p o s i t i o n s to which employers a s s i g n — — ^ _ •.„•, , . , - . , - • — 1 •••• — ! ~ ~ e f . H o l l i s and T a y l o r , op. c i t . . e s p e c i a l l y Chapter I I , "The Scope and Status of S o c i a l Work"and Chapter V I I I , "Educational R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of S o c i a l Work Or g a n i z a t i o n s . " - 31 -29 tasks circumscribed as t o scope and method t o be f o l l o w e d . I n p r a c t i c e , management determines the f u n c t i o n s t r u c t u r e , and s e r v i c e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n o r agency. I n ageneies, however, management does not u s u a l l y s p e c i f y or define the methods and techniques by which f u n c t i o n and s e r -v i c e s w i l l be c a r r i e d out. To t h i s extent then, s o c i a l work i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e i n v o l v e s d e s c r i p t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of jobs according t o b o t h the rank and p o s i t i o n concepts. This can l e a d t o c o n f l i c t i n the job as management sees i t i n terms of l e g i s l a t i o n or t a n g i b l e s e r v i c e s to be administered as opposed t o the s o c i a l worker's concept of a p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y t o be c a r r i e d out u s i n g the l e g i s l a t i o n or t a n g i b l e s e r v i c e as a t o o l . I n e v a l u a t i n g s o c i a l work jobs who I s to say, f o r example, which I s more important: R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l o c a t i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and safeguarding the agency against fraud? or mainten-ance of an adequate l e v e l of adjustment economically, p h y s i c a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y ? 3 0 There are many d i f f e r e n c e s between i n d u s t r y and s o c i a l work. Most outstanding of these i s t h a t i n d u s t r y e x i s t s as a p r o f i t - m a k i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . S o c i a l work i s a ^ T h i s , the reader w i l l recognize as a re-statement of the rank vs. p o s i t i o n concept. The w r i t e r ' s b i a s i s to advocate an amalgamation o f these two concepts I n e v a l u a t i o n of s o c i a l work jobs. I n essence, t h i s I s e x e m p l i f i e d by the Job c l a s s e s prop-osed i n the F.S.A.A. study* C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f P r o f e s s i o n a l  P o s i t i o n s I n P r i v a t e Family Agencies» F.S.A.A., New York, 191*6. 3® This d i f f e r e n c e i n viewpoint and focus can be avoided when the philosophy* f u n c t i o n and s e r v i c e s of the agency are s p e l l e d out. Where these c o n f l i c t w i t h the standards of the p r o f e s s i o n , the p r o f e s s i o n must educate. But the agency a d m i n i s t r a t o r and the s o c i a l worker as employee should s t i l l adhere to e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s o u t l i n i n g the standard expected by the agency. - 32 -c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n . The raw m a t e r i a l , assembly l i n e or process, the f i n i s h e d product and the consumer are r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e concepts i n i n d u s t r y . I n s o c i a l work, the c l i e n t i s the raw m a t e r i a l ; the s o c i a l worker, the assembly b e l t ; agency o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , f u n c t i o n s and s e r v i c e s are the process and the community of agency supporters i s the consumer. Any e v a l u a t i o n of s o c i a l work jobs should begin w i t h an a n a l y s i s from the viewpoint of c l i e n t , worker, employer and consumer. Any e v a l u a t i o n should be j o i n t l y under-taken so t h a t the viewpoints o f board or government, admin-i s t r a t o r and employee are a l l considered. S o c i a l work as an oc c u p a t i o n a l r o l e has c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which should be noted before attempting to descr i b e and evaluate s o c i a l work jobs. Prom the f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s , s o c i a l work careers can be seen as b o t h b u r e a u c r a t i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l — b o t h c l o s e d and open-ended. Since s o c i a l workers are almost u n i v e r s a l l y employees, s o c i a l work careers are p r i m a r i l y b u r e a u c r a t i c . However, since s o c i a l work as such has a p r o f e s s i o n a l base of knowledge and method, s o c i a l work careers can be regarded as e s s e n t i a l l y open-ended o r p r a c t i t i o n e r - f o c u s e d i n scope f o r advancement. R a m i f i c a t i o n s and complications of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c are soon ev i d e n t when we consider the many d i s c r e t e r o l e s a s o c i a l worker may p l a y . He may be employer or employee; s u p e r v i s o r , adminis-t r a t o r or worker; board member, c i t i z e n and employee (and therefore producer and consumer); s p e c i a l i s t or general p r a c t i t i o n e r . The many r o l e s the s o c i a l worker p l a y s I n - 33 -h i s d i r e c t s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n , e.g., f a t h e r , mother, s i b l i n g , c o u n s e l l o r , supporter, c l a r i f i e r , et c e t e r a , are w e l l known to the reader. Within one day, the s o c i a l worker may p l a y a m u l t i p l i c i t y of r o l e s w i t h i n the scope of h i s job. One o f the most incompatible s e t o f r o l e s played I s that o f p r a c t i t -i o ner and supervisee-^ 1 which stems from the t r a d i t i o n a l worker-supervisor r e l a t i o n s h i p i n s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . In the w o r k e r - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p , the worker p l a y s an a c t i v e , p r a c t i t i o n e r r o l e . Yet I n the s u p e r v i s o r y f u n c t i o n the worker i s expected t o p l a y a l e a r n e r or student, submissive, employee r o l e . One f u r t h e r aspect of o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i s found i n examining s o c i a l worker a c t i v i t i e s i n seemingly s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n s . Por example, two s o c i a l workers may be employed as "Intake workers" i n s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g s . In one s e t t i n g , intake may be considered as concluded once e l i g i b i l i t y f o r s e r v i c e i s e s t a b l i s h e d and the a p p l i c a t i o n form f o r s e r v i c e i s completed. I n the other s e t t i n g , i n t a k e may be considered as concluded once c e r t a i n d i a g n o s t i c m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g t o the c l i e n t ' s problem i s e l i c i t e d and a t e n t a t i v e p l a n of ser-v i c e i s o u t l i n e d . I n the f i r s t s e t t i n g the s o c i a l worker may be expected to p l a y a c l e r k i n g r o l e . In the second s e t t i n g the worker may be expected to p l a y an i n i t i a t i n g , e n a b l i n g r o l e . An analogy i n Industry may be seen i n comparing the 31 A r e v e a l i n g commentary on the r e a c t i o n of the worker to these incompatible r o l e s i s found i n Babcock, C h a r l o t t e * " S o c i a l Work As Work," S o c i a l Casework. December, 1953* -3k -r o l e of the garage mechanic who l i s t s the customer 's requests f o r s e r v i c e o r complaints regarding h i s car and the mechanic operating a multi-purpose machine designed to check a v a r i e t y of items p e r t a i n i n g t o car performance* Both systems o f "Intake" have obvious advantages* I n each example the employees perform the same f u n c t i o n . I n each a c e r t a i n degree of s k i l l i s assumed. But i n each the two employees perform d i f f e r e n t r o l e s . Although t h e i r s k i l l s and t r a i n i n g may be i d e n t i c a l , t h e i r focus o f I n t e r e s t and p r e s c r i b e d a t t i t u d e s to the c l i e n t are d i f f e r e n t . He-engineering or s t r u c t u r i n g of jobs i n both i n d u s t r y and s o c i a l work may make p o s s i b l e an increase i n e f f i c i e n c y and a decrease I n the degree of s k i l l r e q u i r e d . I n such i n s t a n c e s , the job should be des-c r i b e d as l e s s s k i l l e d i n nature. S i m i l a r l y , because a. job appears to be of a s o c i a l work nature, i t i s not mandatory th a t a t r a i n e d s o c i a l worker f i l l that job. Many tasks i n s o c i a l work can be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y handled by means of the employer i n s t r u c t i n g the employee as t o methods and techniques t o be a p p l i e d and s u p e r v i s i n g the employee's progress i n a p p l y i n g techniques. However* such jobs should be so des-c r i b e d . The f a c t that non-graduates and graduates are a c t i v e l y employed i n s i m i l a r s o c i a l work Jobs does not imply t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s not e s s e n t i a l f o r p r a c t i c e . More f r e q u e n t l y i t i m p l i e s that the employer's concept of the r o l e to be played i s that e f a t r a i n e e . Or, the I m p l i c -a t i o n may be t h a t u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of t r a i n e d s t a f f n e c e s s i t a t e s c o n s i d e r i n g the job from the p o s i t i o n concept r a t h e r than - 35 -the r a n k i - 3 I n e i t h e r Instance, the s o c i a l worker's a t t i t u d e s t o the r o l e he I s expected t o p l a y w i l l b© d i f f e r e n t * S o c i a l Work As A P r o f e s s i o n In e v a l u a t i n g s o c i a l work jobs i t i s important a l s o to understand the p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e which s o c i a l workers are expected to p l a y both w i t h i n and outside of the agency s t r u c t u r e . Although s o c i a l work co n s i d e r s I t s e l f as a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , i t does not have the s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of other p r o f e s s i o n s . Although most s o c i a l workers consider themselves as p r o f e s s i o n a l s they do not as an o c c u p a t i o n a l group meet the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c h a r acter-33 i s t i c of p r o f e s s i o n s . The H o l l i S - T a y l o r r e p o r t h i g h l i g h t e d these comments on the p r o f e s s i o n a l nature of s o c i a l work by posing a s e r i e s o f questions under the g e n e r a l heading, "Does s o c i a l work meet I t s p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? " By t h e i r c r i t e r i a : I n such i n s t a n c e s , the w r i t e r i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t employers should (a) circumscribe the nature o f assignments made to the incumbent of the p o s i t i o n (b) provide r e q u i r e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n methods and techniques t o be used i n complet-i n g assignments (c) s t a t e unequivoeably that the p o s i t i o n was f i l l e d by a non-graduate s o c i a l worker because of un-a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r a i n e d personnel and (d) make i t c l e a r to a l l concerned that the f u n c t i o n of the agency demanded that the p o s i t i o n be f i l l e d t o ensure c o n t i n u i t y of s e r v i c e . To do otherwise i s t o d i l u t e the q u a l i t y of agency s e r v i c e and create confusion In the p u b l i c mind as t o the r o l e o f the t r a i n e d s o c i a l worker. H o l l i s and T a y l o r , op. c i t . - 36 -....only the hard, core of s o e i a l work i n the u n i t e d States can be s a i d t o have a t t a i n e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y pro-f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s . The l a r g e r segment of s o c i a l work i s on the way to becoming a p r o f e s s i o n , b u t . . . i t i s not yet i n a l l r e s p e c t s at t h i s stage o f development.34 e v a l u a t i o n , however, the present study assumes that s o c i a l work i e a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n and occupation and t h a t s o c i a l workers are p r o f e s s i o n a l persons. As an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n , t h i s study accepts the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of a p r o f e s s i o n a l : ... (a) any employee engaged i n work (1) predominantly i n t e l l e c t u a l and v a r i e d i n character as opposed to r o u t i n e mental, manual, mechanical, or p h y s i c a l work; ( i i ) i n v o l v i n g the c o n s i s t e n t e x e r c i s e o f d i s c r e t i o n and judgment i n i t s performance; ( i i i ) of such a char-acter t h a t the output produced or the r e s u l t s accom-p l i s h e d cannot be standardized i n r e l a t i o n t o a given p e r i o d o f time; ( i v ) r e q u i r i n g knowledge o f an advanced type i n a f i e l d of science or l e a r n i n g c u s t o m a r i l y r e q u i r e d by a prolonged course of s p e c i a l i z e d i n t e l -l e c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n and study i n an i n s t i t u t i o n o f higher l e a r n i n g or a h o s p i t a l , as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a general academic education or from an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p or from t r a i n i n g i n the performance of r o u t i n e mental* manual, or p h y s i c a l processes; or (b) any employee, who (1) has completed the courses of s p e c i a l i z e d I n t e l l e c t -u a l i n s t r u c t i o n and study described i n clause ( i v ) of paragraph ( a ) , and ( i i ) i s performing r e l a t e d work under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l person to q u a l i f y h i m s e l f to become a p r o f e s s i o n a l employee as d e f i n e d i n s o e i a l workers; both i n c l u s i v e and e x c l u s i v e i n n a t u r e , For the purposes o f job a n a l y s i s , d e s c r i p t i o n and A d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l work acceptable t o a l l 3k Told p. 11. " T a f t - K a r t l e y A c t , " P u b l i c Law Ho. 101. 80th Congress, 1st Session. 19lt7. Government of the United States of America, U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D.C, 3 7 -has yet t o be developed. For present purposes i t s u f f i c e s t o describe c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of th© content o f s o c i a l work as a p p l i c a b l e to t r a i n i n g f o r , or p r a c t i c e i n any o f the f i e l d s or s e t t i n g s of s o c i a l work. Such a d e s c r i p t i o n o f b a s i c and generic content was l i s t e d by Florence Day i n 36 1948* 1. A philosophy which sees i n d i v i d u a l welfare as both the purpose and the t e s t of s o c i a l w e l f a r e . 2. A p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e which combines s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t w i t h d e d i c a t i o n t o the people and purposes i t serves. 3. A knowledge o f the dynamic f o r c e s i n human beings and i n s o c i a l forms and i n t h e i r mutual i n t e r a c t i o n , 4* Methods and s k i l l s whereby the p r o f e s s i o n a l person can help the ne e d f u l t o b e t t e r u t i l i z e h i s own powers or h i s s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , or to p r o t e c t the person who l a c k s a b i l i t y t o make productive use o f h i s s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n * I f we add t o t h i s l i s t one f u r t h e r generic a t t r i -bute, we have a sound framework f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g job des-c r i p t i o n s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n s o c i a l work. 5, A knowledge o f * and a t t i t u d e toward, the t o t a l f i e l d of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s viewed h i s t o r i c a l l y and i n the present, t h a t f u r t h e r s e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n , and c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the e v o l v i n g of s o c i a l welfare programs,37 As a p p l i e d to job a n a l y s i s , the f i r s t two charac-t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s ; the l a s t t h r e e , q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n terms o f knowledge and a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d . I n c o n s i d e r i n g f u r t h e r the "what" of s o c i a l work, some refine-? ment o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of f i e l d must be assumed. Thus, the - 5 0 Day, Florence R., "Current Developments i n Graduate Curriculum," J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Casework, November, 1948. 3 7 Smalley, Ruth B.., "Can We Reconcile Generic Education and S p e c i a l i z e d P r a c t i c e ? " , J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l  Work. V o l . X X I I I , No* 4 , June, 1954* - 38 -w r i t e r s e l e c t s the f i e l d of s o c i a l casework and the w i d e l y accepted d e f i n i t i o n o f Swithun Bowers, 3^ S o c i a l casework I s an a r t i n which knowledge of the science o f human r e l a t i o n s and s k i l l i n r e l a t i o n s h i p are used to m o b i l i z e c a p a c i t i e s i n the i n d i v i d u a l and resources i n the community appropriate f o r b e t t e r adjustment between the c l i e n t and a l l or any p a r t o f h i s t o t a l environment. In t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , Father Bowers has e a p s u l l z e d not o n l y the "what" but a l s o the "how" and "why" of s o c i a l casework. The d e f i n i t i o n thus lends i t s e l f w e l l t o Job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n from the viewpoint of s o c i a l work as an i n s t i t u t i o n and s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n . F i e l d s or S e t t i n g s i n which Social.Workers P r a c t i c e D e l i n e a t i o n o f the s e t t i n g s I n which t h i s a r t i s p r a c t i s e d i s e s s e n t i a l to t r a n s l a t e the d e f i n i t i o n i n t o operating process. Hoey 3^ suggests t h a t s o c i a l work as an e n t i t y operates i n three ways: (1) I t operates alone i n an agency or i n s t i t u t i o n devoted to p r o v i d i n g one or more s o c i a l s e r v i c e s to i n d i v i d u a l s and groups; (2) I t operates as p a r t of a team i n a cooperative r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h members of other p r o f e s s i o n s to provide a co-ordinated and balanced m u l t i - s e r v i c e program t o I n d i v i d u a l s and groups; and (3) I t operates I n an a u x i l i a r y c a p a c i t y i n support of another type of s e r v i c e t o i n d i v i d u a l s or groups. Hoey contends that i n o p e r a t i n g i n any one o f these ways, s o c i a l work has a common base of purpose method and s k i l l * 36 Bowers, Swithun, "The Nature and D e f i n i t i o n o f S o c i a l Casework," Par t I I I , J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Casework, Volume XXX, No. 10, Dec. 191*9, p. 1*17.. Hoey, Jane H., op* c i t . . p. i*°3 39 -Further d e l i n e a t i o n o f these s e t t i n g s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Jobs tends only to l i m i t m o b i l i t y of p e r s o n n e l . By d e s c r i b -i n g s o c i a l work, f o r example* i n terms o f ! C h i l d Welfare; Family Welfare; P s y c h i a t r i c Social,Work; Modical S o c i a l Work; P r o b a t i o n ; P u b l i c Welfare, e t c e t e r a , we f a l l i n t o the e r r o r of presuming s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , knowledge, and s k i l l s r f o r each s e t t i n g . From a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p o i n t o f view, jobs are u s u a l l y analyzed as t o b a s i c education, s k i l l s , knowledge, and a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d to q u a l i f y f o r a / p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n , and as t o experience or l e a r n i n g time on the job r e q u i r e d f o r the employee to meet the s p e c i a l requirements of the s e t t i n g * The w r i t e r f a v o r s the concept of a generic base and approach to s o c i a l work (a) t o enable and f a c i l i t a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n i n the f u l l meaning of the word^°; (b) t o f a c i l i t a t e m o b i l i t y o f per-sonnel; (c) to enable the p r o f e s s i o n t o meet i t s broad pro-f e s s i o n a l goals as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n ; (d) "to promote a c t i v i t i e s appropriate t o strengthening and u n i f y i n g the s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n as a whole; and (e) t o promote the sound and continuous development of the various areas of s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e whereby the p r o f e s s i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o l i l the meeting o f p a r t i c u l a r aspects of human needs." I f we ^° See d e f i n i t i o n p. 36 from T a f t - H a r t l e y A c t , See a l s o c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d i n H o l l i s and T a y l o r , op. c i t , . pp, 10-11. •^1 "Plan f o r a Single Hew Or g a n i z a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers," prepared by the Temporary I n t e r - A s s o c i a t i o n C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Work Membership O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Dec. 1952? p. 18. - 4o -o are to develop appropriate s p e c i a l i s a t i o n s i n s o c i a l work, we must f i r s t d e f i n e and agree on the b a s i c content, method, techniques, s k i l l s and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which con-s t i t u t e the broad, general and primary a t t r i b u t e s of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker* T r a d i t i o n a l Occupational ffanks o r L e v e l s i n S o c i a l Work Current theory and p r a c t i c e I n d i c a t e a t a c i t acceptance of three b a s i c processes i n s o c i a l work, via,*,, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , and d i r e c t s e r v i c e . These i n t u r n u s u a l l y become synonymous w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t o r , superr v i s o r , caseworker. So f i r m l y f i x e d i s t h i s rank concept t h a t agencies are u s u a l l y amazed t o d i s c o v e r , u s u a l l y through time s t u d i e s , what i t s v a r i o u s ranks of employees are a c t u a l l y doing. Despite the i d e a l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l s t a f f i n each o f the three processes, job d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t e n do not in c l u d e reference t o the d u t i e s or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f s t a f f members t h e r e i n . ^ 3 t £ h i 9 i m p l i e s l a c k o f awareness of the degree • up ' : •:'•—*r— ! —: ! : : ' ' • — • — " — * — ! — ££* G o c k e r i l l , Eleanor, "Methods Used by the Casework F a c u l t y t o Factor Out and Teach B a s i c Concepts i n S o c i a l Casework," Workshop V I , 1st Annual Meeting, Council of S o e i a l Work Education, S t , L o u i s * Mo, Jan. 1953*. "Since the u l t i m a t e purpose o f the generic i s to enable us t o move to a greater degree of s p e c i f i c i t y , we should perhaps, take a more c r i t i c a l l o o k a t what appears to be a n , , . i n c r e a s i n g degree of enthusiasm f o r the attainment o f the generic as an end i n i t s e l f i n s o e i a l work p r a c t i c e . Perhaps a b a s i c prob-lem here i s one o f v i e w i n g concepts as ends i n themselves r a t h e r than r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t they are e s s e n t i a l l y t o o l s , " 4 3 s c e copies o f job d e s c r i p t i o n s o f represehtatsye agen-c i e s . Appendix C. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of d u t i e s and r e s -p o n s i b i l i t i e s according to t r a d i t i o n a l ranks or l e v e l s i s presented i n the Report of the J o i n t Committee on S o c i a l Work  Education* "Report o f Sub-Committee on Job A n a l y s i s , " Van- " couver, B.C., November, 1955, Mimeo* - kl -of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of each rank i n the c a r r y i n g out o f these processes. Throe a d d i t i o n a l processes are commonly di s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . These are education, c o n s u l t a t i o n , and research. U s u a l l y such processes are p i c t u r e d as f u n c t i o n s o f the agency as such, o r as r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of one or other of the rank s , I.e., they are not thought of u s u a l l y as synonymous w i t h "teacher," " c o n s u l t a n t , " and "research worker." The Job a n a l y s t would study agency p r a c t i c e to see whether there were s u f f i c i e n t a c t i v i t i e s I d e n t i f i a b l e as these separate processes o r f u n c t i o n s * Then he would describe these as a t t r i b u t e s or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a c e r t a i n rank. Or, he would a l l o c a t e them t o c o n s t i t u t e a p o s i t i o n (depending on whether the rank o r p o s i t i o n concept i s used as the method o f c l a s s i f y i n g ) . For present purposes, i t i s noted that there I s a growing tendency w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n to consider education, c o n s u l t a t i o n and researc h as both agency f u n c t i o n s and s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e . ^ -A c t i v i t i e s of A d m i n i s t r a t o r , Supervisor, and Worker as  Described i n L i t e r a t u r e and Repre a e n t a t i ye Job D e s c r i p t i o n s The r o l e , d u t i e s , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the t r a d i t i o n a l ranks, as p o s t u l a t e d by s o c i a l work education, the p r o f e s s i o n , and agencies may be analyzed aa - 1*2 -1*5 fOllOWS! A. R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 1. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 2 . Supervisory 3. C o n s u l t a t i v e ' 1*. D i r e c t s e r v i c e ( U s u a l l y s p e c i f i e d as t o focus a n d " s e t t i n g as, e.g., casework, groupwork, inter-group work and as e.g., c l i e n t or pat-i e n t s e r v i c e s ) 5. Community education 6. P r o f e s s i o n a l education 7. S t a f f development 8. Program development 9 . Research B, Areas of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Presumed A p p l i c a b l e t o Bach Rank ( i ) A d m i n i s t r a t o r - General r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the o v e r a l l s e r v i c e s to c l i e n t s w i t h i n the agency or u n i t administeredj u s u a l l y considered to have p a r t i c i p a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n a l l areas except where s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n i s assigned as a s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n . U s u a l l y does aot have p a r t i c i p a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n 1*. D i r e c t S e r v i c e . - " i r r " — • ~ — :— 1 ~ — 1 " ~ — 1 — ~ ^ Based on study of job d e s c r i p t i o n s from U.S. F e d e r a l Gov-ernment, Oregon S t a t e , C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e , and C i t y o f Vancouver, a l s o based on review o f r e l a t e d s t u d i e s . Berkman, op. c i t . B H o l l i s and T a y l o r , op,, c i t . , J o i n t Committee on S o c i a l Work Education, pp. c i t . , Family S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n of Ameriea, C i a a s i f i c a t i o n o f P r o f e s s i o n a l P o s i t i o n s i n P r i v a t e Family  Agencies, New York, 191*6, and Hoi comb, Emerson, "An A n a l y s i s of the Supervisory Job." S o c i a l Casework, March, 1 9 5 6 . - 43 -( i i ) Supervisor •» G e n e r a l l y considered to "oversee" item 4» ( D i r e c t Service) and thus t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r standards of s e r v i c e . A l s o g e n e r a l l y assumed to have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r adherence to agency f u n c t i o n (items 1 . and 2 . ) * A l s o u s u a l l y assumed t o have major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n education, s t a f f development and c o n s u l t -a t i o n (items 6 . , J.„ and 3-) and shared or minor r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n study, review, and assessment of program o f agency o r u n i t (items 8 . , 9 . , and 1 . ) . ( i l l ) Worker * U s u a l l y considered as r e s p o n s i b l e "... to render a p p r o p r i a t e , . . s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s to c l i e n t s w i t h i n the f u n c t i o n s and p o l i c i e s of h i s employing Agency; and to a s s i s t t h a t Agency i n f u l l e r understand-i n g of c l i e n t needs so that i t s p o l i c i e s may be I n c r e a s i n g l y h e l p f u l to c l i e n t s . " ^ Major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t e m 4* r e c i p i e n t -p a r t i c i p a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under items 2 . and 7* and shared to minor resp o n s i b -i l i t y under items 8 . , 9 . » and 1 . O c c a s i o n a l l y s p e c i a l * major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y J o i n t Committee on S.W. Educ'n., op. c i t , , p. 4« In a s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n as e.g. any one of items 3., 5 . , 6,, 8., 9., depending on experience ( s e n i o r i t y and t r a i n i n g ) of the worker and scope of agency s e r v i c e . The above schedule provides a guide o n l y , to a n a l y s i s of what s o c i a l workers do. Coupled w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s o c i a l work as described e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, the o u t l i n e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s can be used to con* s t r u c t a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p l a n f o r s o c i a l work. However, such a p l a n would be l i m i t e d i n value unless I t was based on a n a l y s i s of jobs that are a c t u a l l y being performed a t a s p e c i f i e d time and s e t t i n g . Role of S o c i a l Work and S o c i a l Workers i n a S p e c i f i c S e t t i n g In order to analyze s o c i a l work Jobs one must analyze the Job of the t o t a l i t y of s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s c o n s t i t u t i n g the agency or u n i t s t u d i e d . I n order to des-c r i b e and c l a s s i f y the v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s i n t h i s s e t t i n g , i t I s necessary to study the purpose, philosophy, s t r u c t u r e , f u n c t i o n s and s e r v i c e s o f the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c as a t o t a l i t y . 2 4 , 7 M a t e r i a l presented I s from a d r a f t of a procedural manual f o r the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department of the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , Sept. 1 9 5 5 . « i*5 -CHILD GUIDANCE CLINICS  PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEFINITION AND PURPOSE; The C.G.C. may be de f i n e d as a community agency I n which s p e c i a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n s combine t h e i r knowledge and attempt to employ the resources of the community t o meet the prob-lems o f c h i l d r e n who are p o o r l y adjusted t o t h e i r environ-ment and/or have u n s a t i s f i e d i n n e r needs. Ch i l d r e n ' s maladjustments may be expressed i n u n d e s i r a b l e h a b i t s o r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , unacceptable behaviour o r i n a b i l i t y to cope w i t h s o c i a l o r s c h o l a s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s . C h i l d r e n seen by C.G.C.»s i n c l u d e those who are the reepon-s i b i l l t y of C h i l d or Family Welfare Agencies, e.g., when these agencies are concerned about the emotional .consequences of placement because of dependency, broken homes and i l l e g -i t i m a c y . P a t i e n t s a l s o i n c l u d e c h i l d r e n who have s o e i a l and emotional problems beoause o f r e t a r d a t i o n i n i n t e l l e c t -u a l development o r because of p h y s i c a l handicap. The s e r v i c e s o f the C.G.C. are c a r r i e d out by teams c o n s i s t -i n g of p s y c h i a t r i s t , p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l workers, psycho-l o g i s t s and p u b l i c h e a l t h nurse. ADMINISTRATION; The C.G.C, i s one u n i t of the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H e a l t h Ser-v i c e which operates under the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary's Depart-ment. Each u n i t of the Mental H e a l t h S e r v i c e s has a C l i n i c a l D i r e c t o r who i s re s p o n s i b l e to the D i r e c t o r of Mental Health S e r v i c e s . The D i r e c t o r of C.G.•s has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the S t a t i o n a r y C l i n i c s i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , as w e l l as f o r the T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s on Vancouver I s l a n d arid the Main-l a n d . A l l s t a f f w i t h the exception o f S o c i a l Workers are appointed by the C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission to the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary's Department. S o c i a l Workers are appointed by the Commission to the S o c i a l Welfare Branch. S o c i a l Welfare Branch I s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the Department of Hea l t h and Welfare. S o c i a l Workers w i t h i n the C l i n i c are r e s p o n s i b l e through t h e i r Casework Supervisors t o the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department Supervisor. The Department Supervisor, i n t u r n , i s admin-i s t r a t i v e l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the C l i n i c D i r e c t o r and to the P r o v i n c i a l Supervisor of P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work. The P r o v i n c i a l Supervisor, i n t u r n , i s r e s p o n s i b l e to the D i r e c t o r of Mental H e a l t h S e r v i c e s , and through the D i r e c t o r of Welfare, the P r o v i n c i a l Supervisor i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Deputy M i n i s t e r of H e a l t h and Welfare. W i t h i n the Heelal Service Department, the stj^uetur-ing of s t a f f and s e r v i c e s i s as f o l l o w s : (a) Departmental Supervisor (h) Four One r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Intake and B r i e f S e r v i c e S e c t i o n and,Supervision of f i v e caseworkers assigned to t h a t s e c t i o n * One Casework s u p e r v i s o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Continued' Services S e c t i o n e n d f o r s i x s o c i a l workers assigned to th a t s e c t i o n . One Casework S u p e r v i s o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r S o c i a l Work Ser v i c e s on T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s . One casework s u p e r v i s o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the Student U n i t and f o r s u p e r v i s i o n o f s o e i a l work students i n t r a i n i n g . FUNCTIONS M B SERVICES: S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department p a r t i e i p a t e s i n each o f the f o l l o w -i n g f u n c t i o n s and Ser v i c e s w i t h major emphasis on D i r e c t Serviee o r C l i n i c Treatment Cases. The primary f u n c t i o n of the C.©.C.*s i s that of.study and treatment of c h i l d r e n . I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s broad f u n c t i o n , C l i n i c s a l s o have respon-s i b i l i t y i n s 1 . O r i e n t a t i o n : (a) of i n d i v i d u a l s I n t e r e s t e d i n the work of the C l i n i c and i n l e a r n i n g about Mental H e a l t h P r i n -c i p l e s l.-e* - nurses* s o c i a l workers*, Various • students, doctors* teachers, mental h e a l t h co-: o r d i n a t o r s , e t c . (b) Mu^is)it'-'gj^u|>lt''in''-^ie c l l n i o takesT-'"r^lii^ifib^itfjr, f d F ' a r i e ^ M t i ( ^ ; ' d ' f medical* n u r s i n g , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , teaching and s o c i a l work students. 2. Community Education ••'":".'"•.•.''.:•.•" Through such media as l e c t u r e s , t a l k s , f i l m s and case t^^*$j»l^it^^£'Oiijgt:' •iatfi*"" -:03dyBEtfe--- .'SfeAiC^ - c a r r y oi i t a f u n c t i o n of promotion of Mental H e a l t h P r i n c i p l e s w i t h such-groups as P.T.A.»e, parent's groups* s e r v i c e c l u b s , i h i t i t u t e i * eto*',^  . 3. ProfoSsidna'i J^uoa-t i o n ^'^jb^:|eSi^'1rhe- ;,'^Il^d' S t a f f a l s o g i v e s l e c t u r e s or case p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o Student groups at the U.B.C. schools o f education, medicine, "social work arid n u r s i n g . C l i n i c S t a f f g i v e t a l k s as w e l l as o r i e n t a t i o n to a f f i l i a t e ' nurses from v a r i o u s • c i l ^ v h o s p i t a l a . " One sup e r v i s o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n of graduate -4? •* s o c i a l work students from U.B.C. School o f S o c i a l Work. Ij.. Community Orga n i s a t i o n C l i n i c S t a f f p a r t i c i p a t e s i n other agency committees Concerned w i t h development o f s e r v i c e s , i . e . (a) Community Committee a such as Community Chest and Co u n c i l v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s . (b) C l i n i c Staff a l s o partieipates on executive o r ad v i s o r y boards of other groups such as C.N.I.B., C.P.A., A s s o c i a t i o n s of Vancouver and B.C. Cerebral P a l s y Committee of C h i l d r e n 8 s H o s p i t a l , C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver (Family and C h i l d Committee), C r i p p l e d C h i l d r e n ' s R e g i s t r y ( H e d i c a l Advisory P a n e l ) * Greater Vancouver H e a l t h League* N a t i o n a l V o c a t i o n a l Guidance A ^ j t o e i a t i o n * P u b l i c H e a l t h Nursing A d v i s o r y Committees, S t . Christopher*s School f o r Boys, St. Euphrasia's School (Convent o f the Good Shepherd), U.B.C. School of S o c i a l Work, Advisory Committee on Research. 5. Research P a r t i c i p a t i o n (a) The C l i n i c a t present conducts r e s e a r c h of the - f o l l o w i n g nature : ( 1 ) O p e r a t i o n a l Research ( 1 1 ) Case Flow ( 1 1 1 ) Extent of S e r v i c e s (IV) % t a n t i t y ©f S e r v i c e . (b) The C l i n i c p a r t i c i p a t e i J i n res e a r c h conducted by others. ( 1 ) S o c i a l Work Students ( 1 1 ) U.B.C. N e u r o l o g i c a l Research Dept. ( I l l ) p s y c h o l o g i s t Students (IV) Grease C l i n i c Dept. o f Neurology (V) Community Chest and C o u n c i l * .. e.gi S e r v i c e s t o C h i l d r e n Survey ( 1 9 5 5 ) . TYPE OF SERVICES TO INDIVIDUAL PATIENTS. 1 . D l a i m o s t l c S e r v i c e . The c l i n i c o f f e r s f u l l c l i n i c a l examination of a c h i l d to s o c i a l and h e a l t h agencies Working w i t h him and h i s f a m i l y o r gnardians. T h i s e n t a i l s the f o l l o w i n g procedures: (a) A developmental S o c i a l h i s t o r y i s prepared by the Worker p r e s e n t i n g the case. - 48 -(b) P s y c h o l o g i c a l examination i n c l u d i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e , p e r s o n a l i t y , and other p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e a t s as Ind i c a t e d by the n e e d s of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d i s conducted by the c l i n i c p s y c h o l o g i s t . (c) P h y s i c a l examination I s done by the c l i n i c psy-c h i a t r i s t and nurse, (d) P s y c h i a t r i c Interviews w i t h the p a t i e n t and a l s o parents o r guardians are c a r r i e d out by c l i n i c p s y c h i a t r i s t . (e) A conference i s h e l d f o l l o w i n g examination attended by the c l i n i c team and the worker r e f e r r i n g the case as w e l l as other p r o f e s s i o n a l people concerned* such as school nurse, s o c i a l worker, teacher, o r doctor. The person r e f e r r i n g the case takes respon-s i b i l i t y f o r arranging the attendance o f a l l but the c l i n i c team a t the conference. I n the conference the c l i n i c a l d i a g n o s i s and recom-mendations f o r treatment are gi v e n and discussed i n terms of the t o t a l needs of the p a t i e n t and the resources o f the agency and community. 2. C o n s u l t a t i v e S e r v i c e (a) A c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e i s one i n which a conference I s requested w i t h the p s y c h i a t r i s t and other members of the c l i n i c team when t h i s conference i s not immediately preceded by c l i n i c a l examination of the patient„ The p a t i e n t discussed may never have been seen by the c l i n i c or may have been examined on a previous occasion. When a worker r e q u i r e s such c o n s u l t a t i o n she prepares a s o c i a l h i s t o r y o r summary and arranges an appointment time at the c l i n i c . I f the worker r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r h e l p w i t h t h i s case, she may r e t u r n to c l i n i c as o f t e n as she requests, f o r d i s c u t s i o n * (b) F o l l o w i n g a c o n s u l t i n g conference the person p r e -se n t i n g the case a t c l i n i c w i l l submit t o c l i n i c minutes of the conference i n d u p l i c a t e . (c) C o n s u l t a t i o n by m a l l . D i s t r i c t s o c i a l workers o r p u b l i c h e a l t h nurses may w r i t e t o the P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c f o r such guidance, e n c l o s i n g the h i s t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n . The team w i l l d i s c u s s the case and the p s y c h i a t r i s t w i l l w r i t e back t h e i r t h i n k i n g and recommendations. (d) Four copies o f h i s t o r y o r snmmary are r e q u i r e d i n the same way as w i t h f u l l examination* - 1+9 -3. Co»opera:tlye Case8 When a case i s presented at c l i n i c i n which the deMaion of the vmtewmm && that i»tensive psy-c h i a t r i c treatment or casework should be done by c l i n i c personnel while the r e f e r r i n g worker i s also carrying on agency service, t h i s case i s known as • a • dofeopor-at iv© • case * • The • Child Guidance - C l i n i c i s then the major agency and w i l l take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r forwarding information to the agency and con-? s u i t froquontly with them i n regard to t h e i r j o i n t . a c t i v i t y . 4» Re-»Examihation (a) When a re-exaraihatlon of patient i s indicated the patient and the family should be piropared as f o r the i n i t i a l examination. (b) This examination e n t a i l s the same procedure as out-l i n e d under 1. Diagnostic Services. (c) Four copies of SUPPLEMENTARY HISTORIES f o r * complete cases should be submitted as a sTiniDiary of contact •• from the time of b r i e f examination. 5. S i r e c t Service or ^ C l i n i c . ^ f t ^ i : - - '• A c l i n i c treatment case i s one i n which the C l i n i c f&im f u l l r e s p o n l l b l l i ^ r i n treatment services. Policy and Procedure regarding these cases i s detailed l a t e r i n t h i s report. fflOTL\L^:CLlNIM8 "' •"< 'v "V ' '••" The C.0.C.*s o f f e r wide, and extensive Diagnostic and Consult-* ative Services to every area i n the Province of B.C. D e t a i l s •Of' Policy' &ad- Procedure :'r«garding"'Travelling. 'Clinics, are covered, i n the Social^W"^^ of t h e 1soction df t h i s manual: pertaining'to'C.G.C* are obtain* able through the Vancouver C l i n i c * 1*55 W. 13th Avenue* Vancouver. S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis of A c t i v i t i e s Performed During F i s c a l Year* 1951t«55 Although the Scope of t h i s Study does not permit a d e t a i l e d quantitative analysis Of a c t i v i t i e s performed by the various l e v e l s of casework s t a f f according to the functions outlined, some general measure by p a r t i c u l a r functions i s detailed i n Table 2, (p. 50). Tabl© 2 . Summary o f A c t i v i t i e s of S o e i a l S e r v i c e Department. C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . Vancouver. A p r i l 1 s t . 195ii to March 31st, 1955. A c t i v i t y No. o f S t a f f Performing A c t i v i t y Y e a r l y T o t a l Av. P e r A c t i v i t i e s S t a f f Member -Adm. Sup.Wkrs. 1. O r i e n t a t i o n s - no. of persons o r i e n t e d 1 4 2 125" 18 2 . 3 . Community Education ) Lay and p r o f . P r o f e s s i o n a l Education) Group Sessions ) ) ) 1 3 ) 2 ) ) ) 48 ) ) 8 4- Community Or g a n i z a t i o n Meetings 1 2 15 ••; .-: 5-5 . Programme & S t a f f Dev't. Meetings (Meeting attendance per worker) 1 4 9 168 67 6* S u p e r v i s i o n p e r i o d s r e c e i v e d 1 k 13 1 704 39 7> C o n s u l t a t i v e i e a s e s o f ot h e r agencies 1 2 7 783 78 8 . D i r e c t Servlce-caseS —1 1 9 4 7 5 4 8 2 o 1 Includes 4 students. 2 Case count I s based on u n i t o f a c h i l d - average caseload per worker each month was 2 0 . Source: Annual and Monthly s t a t i s t i c s of the S o c i a l Service Department, Vancouver C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , 1 9 5 4 - 1 9 5 5 . *» 51 This t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t s o c i a l workers a t the C l i n i c p a r t i c i p a t e i n almost a l l f u n c t i o n s of the Depart* ment. Exceptions, w i t h i n the f i s c a l year studied,' a p p l i e d to the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Supervisor* and the Casework Super* v i s o r s i n the D i r e c t S e r v i c e and Community Orga n i z a t i o n ' a c t i v i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The s u p e r v i s o r s 1 a c t i v i t i e s Were mainly i n S u p e r v i s i o n ; Programme and S t a f f Development; O r i e n t a t i o n s ; and Community and P r o f e s s i o n a l Education. The workers' a c t i v i t i e s were mainly i n D i r e c t S e r v i c e ; Super-v i s i o n (Received); Programme and S t a f f Development; and C o n s u l t a t i v e ; although a minimum.of two workers p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l l e i g h t a c t i v i t i e s f o r which s t a t i s t i c s were a v a i l a b l e . These p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s show d i f f e r e n c e s between the c o n s u l t a t i v e , community and p r o f e s s i o n a l education r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c a r r i e d and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s presumed appropriate to the worker.^"® The a c t u a l degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c a r r i e d i n each a c t i v i t y cannot be measured without a time study of worker a c t i v i t i e s . Using an out-l i n e of a c t i v i t i e s performed by the v a r i o u s l e v e l s as a guide, a d e t a i l e d record of a c t u a l d u t i e s performed i n u n i t s of not l e s s than f i v e minutes w i l l be compiled i n Chapter 4* H o p e f u l l y , the q u a n t i t a t i v e measure of a c t i v -i t i e s performed w i l l provide m a t e r i a l to d e l i n e a t e degrees of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s k i l l r e q u i r e d of s o c i a l workers of v a r i o u s ranks or i n v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s . 4 5 of. p. 4 3 . CHAPTER $ IT TIME STUDY OP WORKER ACTIVITIES IN THE CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC^CLASSIFICATION OF JOBS BY RESPONSIBILITIES AND SKILLS REQUIRED Method of the Time Study The purpose of the time study ( i . e . to t e s t accuracy of e x i s t i n g job d e s c r i p t i o n s i n the C l i n i c j to analyze the flow of works and to describe a c t i v i t i e s and s e r v i c e s of the department), was discussed i n three s t a f f meetings. I t was decided t h a t an open schedule or notebook form o f study should be used. A previous time study con» ducted i n the C l i n i c i n 1954 a&d been s t r u c t u r e d t o record time according to p r e d e t e r m i n e d f u n c t i o n s . ^ Despite d e f i n i t i o n s of these f u n c t i o n s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s v a r i e d . The Study a l s o represented a forced d i s t r i b u t i o n which tended to v a l i d a t e the job d e s c r i p t i o n s but d i d not c l a r i f y the degree of s k i l l or of worker r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e q u i r e d . The Second study method was p r e - t e s t e d by one s u p e r v i s o r , one Intake Section worker and on© Continued S e r v i c e S e c t i o n worker. For one week each of these employees recorded t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n as detached a manner as necessary to show: (a) e x a c t l y what was done? (b) why the i n d i v i d u a l concerned, ^ A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Supervisory, C o n s u l t a t i v e , Caseload, E d u c a t i o n a l * S t a f f Development, Research* Miscellaneous (Coffee, T r a v e l l i n g , C h a t t i n g * Unaccounted f o r ) . - 53 * r a t h e r than someone e l s e , performed the a c t i v i t y ; and (c) the general purpose of the a c t i v i t y . F o l l o w i n g t h i s " t r i a l run," mimeographed schedules"* 0 were drawn up t o he used by each worker. Although the schedules were u s e f u l as i n s t r u c t i o n sheets as to mode of re c o r d i n g to be done, only f o u r of the fourteen s t a f f members recorded t h e i r time on schedule forms. The m a j o r i t y used a notebook which they c a r r i e d w i t h them. M o b i l i t y of S t a f f d u r i n g the day made the notebook the most p r a c t i c a l form of r e c o r d i n g . A c t i v i t i e s reported by the s t a f f were sorted i n i t i a l l y Into broad headings. A f u r t h e r s o r t i n g e s t a b l i s h e d one o r more sub*headings f o r each major grouping. By t h i s technique, stages and ot h e r aspects o f each a c t i v i t y could be i d e n t i f i e d without n e c e s s i t a t i n g a for c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of time. Nevertheless, the e x i s t i n g Job d e s c r i p t i o n s based on the major headings p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d d i d tend t o Inf l u e n c e the t o t a l s t a f f i n r e c o r d i n g a c t i v i t i e s I n terms of t h e i r job d e s c r i p t i o n s . A f u r t h e r Skewing tendency was the r e s u l t o f the study i t s e l f . The n e c e s s i t y to account f o r and record every f l v e - m l n u t e - u n i t of a working day tends to increase e f f i c i e n c y ( i f not anxiety) i n employees. To overcome the p o s s i b l e i n e x a c t i t u d e s i n d i s t r i b u t i o n of time would r e q u i r e a stop-watch technique. The obvious advantages of t o t a l s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n measuring t h e i r own job J u s t i f i e s the approach used i n t h e ' C l i n i c time study. See Appendix P. The study was conducted d u r i n g the l a s t week of March and the f i r s t week of A p r i l , 1 9 5 5 . T h i s time was chosen because month-end, year-end, and beginhing-of-the-Week a c t i v i t i e s would thereby be i n c l u d e d . By so doing, a measure o f the time i n c e r t a i n i n f r e q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s was obtained. But the amounts of time recorded were d i s -p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h f o r c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s which are e s s e n t i a l l y monthly, semi-annual and annual i n nature. T h i s * n a t u r a l l y , meant t h a t other a c t i v i t i e s were d i s p r o p -o r t i o n a t e l y low. A c t i v i t i e s whieh were of these c a t e g o r i e s Included: monthly and annual s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s ; p e r i o d i c s t a f f r e p o r t s as to attendance, l e a v e , c a r usage, et c e t e r a ; research; case r e c o r d i n g ; and to a minor extent, casework Interviews* Adjustments were made by e s t i m a t i n g the time f o r u n i t s of these a c t i v i t i e s ; p r o j e c t i n g t h i s time on an annual b a s i s u s i n g the s t a t i s t i c s f o r the previous f i s c a l year to o b t a i n the number of such a c t i v i t i e s ; then d i v i d e i n g t h i s amount of time by 12 to giv e an estimated monthly time. Por example, i n - p e r s o n - i n t e r v l e w s were estimated as one hour i n l e n g t h ; telephone-interviews as twelve minutes 5 1 e f . H i l l , John 6., and Ralph Ormsby, Cost A n a l y s i s Method f o r Casework Agencies. Family S e r v i c e Agency, P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1953. Perhaps the most v a l i d method of time study i s t h a t used by the P h i l a d e l p h i a c o s t - a n a l y s i s Study. I n t h i s agency* a random sample of employee days d u r i n g one year i s the b a s i s f o r determining days oh which c e r t a i n em-ployees record t h e i r time. Any other method n e c e s s i t a t e s adjustments based on average numbers ef a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the f u l l year. The pre*determined c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s to be measured i s h e l p f u l i n the c o m p i l a t i o n of r e s u l t s i f the a c t i v i t i e s l i s t I s i n c l u s i v e i n nature and c a r e f u l l y defined. - 5 5 * i i i l e n g t h . The t o t a l i n t e r v i e w s of each k i n d f o r a year ( f o r each o f 4 groups of employees) were then m u l t i p l i e d fey the time per i n t e r v i e w . The r e s u l t d i v i d e d by twelve was used as the estimated i n t e r v i e w time f o r the group of employees concerned. The time f o r a l l other recorded a c t i v i t i e s was then m u l t i p l i e d by 2 . 1 5 to o b t a i n the monthly time f o r each. A l l times were then computed i i i tip percentages. Comparison of the time d i s t r i b u t i o n of the super-v i s o r y group (S.W. Grade IV) and the worker group (S.W. Grade I I I ) w i t h time d i s t r i b u t i o n reported f o r s i m i l a r groups In two previous studies'* 3 I n d i c a t e d t h a t these groups were engaged In i d e n t i c a l k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s . A h i g h degree of c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s a l s o i n the percentages o f time per a c t i v i t y reported by both s u p e r v i s o r y groups as w e l l as by both worker groups. This represents a t e s t of standard-i z a t i o n o r a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the f u n c t i o n a l headings more than a t e s t of v a l i d i t y f o r the time study presented h e r e i n . The percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n shown here appears to be v a l i d from the viewpoint of t o t a l annual a c t i v i t i e s . However* i t i s noted t h a t the time spent i n r e c o r d i n g appears q u i t e l o w — 6 , 4 $ f o r the worker group. The range v a r i e d from 0 to 2 0 $ . ^ 2 Hot© that overtime and absence due to i l l n e s s were not recorded i n t h i s Study, t h e r e f o r e a l l percentages are computed i n terms of standard working hours. . 5 3 V e c i c , C , The S t a f f Development Program of the S o c i a l  Welfare,Branch. V o l . I I . Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis* U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia., 1 9 5 4 * ^ d S o c i a l Worker's S a l a r i e s Committee, op. c i t . . p. 1 4 . Much of the r e c o r d i n g time appears to occur i n overtime hours and a t s l a c k periods or p r e - h o l i d a y i n t e r v a l s . A more accurate f i g u r e of 11$ of work time I s suggested by study o f three workers whose r e c o r d i n g was c o n s t a n t l y kept up-to-date. Table 3 presents a d e t a i l e d sxraaiary of the time study f i n d i n g s . Table 1+ shows the time d i s t r i b u t i o n of major a c t i v i t i e s by worker l e v e l s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e super* v i s o r , s u p e r v i s o r , t r a v e l l i n g s u p e r v i s o r , and worker. Miscellaneous a c t i v i t i e s f o r each of these employee groups are presented i n Appendices. E, P , G, and H. The c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n t i t l e s f o r these employees were> Supervisor of Welfare, Grade I ; S o c i a l Worker Grade IV (Casework Super-v i s o r ) | S o c i a l Worker Grade IV (Casework S u p e r v i s o r , T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s ) j and S o c i a l Worker, Grade I I I (Psy?\ c h l a t r i c ) . Two employees of the C l i n i c w i t h o n l y one year of post-graduate s o e i a l work t r a i n i n g were c l a s s i f i e d as S o c i a l Worker, Grade I I . These c l a s s t i t l e s are s p e c i f i e d i n the time study t a b l e s as: Sup. Gr.I j S.W. Gr. I V j S.W. IV, Tray.; and S.W. I I I . L i m i t a t i o n a i n the S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Time Study The range of times reported i n the v a r i o u s a c t i -v i t i e s by each of these c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s was averaged f o r " I T P i l l e d p o s i t i o n s as of A p r i l , 1955 were: 1 department s u p e r v i s o r ; \ casework s u p e r v i s o r s , 1 f o r each of Intake and B r i e f Services S e c t i o n , Continued Services S e c t i o n , Student U n i t , T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s ; 9 caseworkers (3 i n the Intake S e c t i o n ; 6 i n the Continued S e r v i c e s S e c t i o n ). - 57 -p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n so doing, some i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s between p o s i t i o n s i n the sarae c l a s s do not appear* However, i n the i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s the range of time per a c t i v i t y and the extent of time spent i n each of the major areas of a c t i v i t y d i d not vary s u f f i c i e n t l y w i t h i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n group to merit a d d i t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Two exceptions to t h i s are found. 1) In the T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c p o s i t i o n , S.W. Gr. IV, the a c t i v i t i e s * d i s t r i b u t i o n was e x t e n s i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from the three other p o s i t i o n s c l a s s e d as S.W. Gr. IV. 2) In one d i r e c t casework p o s i t i o n * the incumbent had o n l y one year of post-graduate t r a i n i n g and had no previous experience. For t h i s employee, the a c t i v i t i e s ' d i s t r i b u t i o n d i f f e r e d e x t e n s i v e l y from other p o s i t i o n s of S.W. Gr. I l l and the other S.W. Gr. I I p o s i t i o n , where the incumbent had f o u r years of experience f o l l o w i n g graduation. The areas that d i f f e r e d are shown below w i t h the time spent by the others groiiped as S.W. <Jr. I l l , shown i n b r a c k e t s . 2. C o n s u l t a t i v e .0 (9.0$) 3. ( f ) R e c e i v i n g s u p e r v i s i o n 9.2$ (5.2$) 4. (b) Recording of d i r e c t casework 10.i|$ (6.4$) '(c) C o n f e r r i n g on assigned (1) Casework 1.8$ (1.3$) (11) With other p r o f e s s i o n s 7.7$ (6.4$) 5. P r o f e s s i o n a l Education 0 ( .3$) 6. Community R e l a t i o n s ^ (a) Community education 0 ( .5$) (b) P a r t i c i p a t i n g w i t h community committees 0 ( .3$) Because C l i n i c p o l i c y i s to h i r e only s t a f f w i t h two years of post-graduate t r a i n i n g , the f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s and des-c r i p t i o n of t h i s p o s i t i o n i s not p e r t i n e n t to the present study. General p o l i c y of the C l i n i c i s to delegate to a l l s o c i a l workers a degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n each of the f u n c t i o n s o r areas of a c t i v i t y of the S o c i a l S ervice Depart-ment. The m a t e r i a l presented i n the time study t a b l e s y shows only the time d i s t r i b u t i o n of areas of a c t i v i t y . The f i n d i n g s do not define o r imply adequacy of performance i n any of these a c t i v i t i e s . Time spent i n an a c t i v i t y does not n e c e s s a r i l y measure the o v e r - a l l importance of t h a t task to the agency. Nor does time spent have a necessary p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the degree of s k i l l r e q u i r e d to perform the task adequately. Although the d i s t r i b u t i o n of time shown i n the t a b l e s meets standards and s e r v i c e demands of the agency i n question* the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s might vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h a t of other agencies. F o r example, the percentage of time spent i n a c t i v i t i e s termed a d m i n i s t r a t i v e may appear h i g h f o r a l l c l a s s e s . In the C l i n i c , a major r o l e i s played by the S o c i a l Service Department ( h e r e a f t e r c a l l e d the Department) i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the flow of work through scheduling o f appointments> conferences, et c e t e r a , w i t h other d i s c i -p l i n e s . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g s on proced-ures and f l o w from a p p l i c a t i o n t o d i a g n o s t i c conference to r 59 -continued s e r v i c e n e c e s s i t a t e s a good deal of planning and o r g a n i z i n g by a l l s t a f f . Delegation w i t h i n the depart-ment o f a u t h o r i t y by s e c t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e s u n i t , as w e l l as worker, s u p e r v i s i o n by the casework Supervisors. I n the T r a v e l l i n g s u p ervisory job, a major p o r t i o n of time i s spent on scheduling c l i n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the timetable of a t y p i c a l day. (Appendix J.) F u r t h e r Study as to the e f f i c i e n c y of operation was planned to t e s t the need f o r more c l i n i c a l s t a f f to handle some of the scheduling and o r g a n i z i n g of work w i t h i n the Department. D i f f e r e n c e s i n Kind of A c t i v i t i e s a t Various Job Le v e l s (Tables k, and 5) E x i s t i n g job t i t l e s or ranks I n d i c a t e d general d i f f e r e n c e s i n major areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but do not I n d i c a t e the v a r i e t y or complexity of d u t i e s c a r r i e d by a l l three c l a s s e s . In any one day, the s o e i a l worker might be Involved i n as many as 28 d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s * a l l of which r e q u i r e a v a r i e t y of r o l e s , s k i l l s , and respon-s i b i l i t i e s . Whereas In business o r g a n i z a t i o n s many t r a n -s a c t i o n s , u n i t s of a c t i v i t y , or s e r v i c e might be concluded i n one day, s o c i a l work u s u a l l y measures i t s u n i t s of a c t i v i t y w i t h c l i e n t s i n terms of weeks, months and yea r s . There are many periods of covering-the-same-material i n i n t e r v i e w s . Many steps o f a c t i v i t y are, of n e c e s s i t y , 55 Although the major d i r e c t r o l e i n continued s e r v i c e IS assigned t© s o c i a l workers I n the C l i n i c , a complete team i s assigned a t p o i n t of Intake on every case, w i t h the p s y c h i a t r i s t being the head of the team. Table 3. Summary of Time D i s t r i b u t i o n of Usual S o c i a l Work  Duties and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r Bach S t a f f Group  of the C l i n i c . A p r i l 1955. ! Item of A c t i v i t y Per Cent of T o t a l Monthly Time supT s.w. iv sTfT Gr. I Gr. IV (Trav.) G r . I I I 1. ADMINISTRATIVE (a) Planning, Organizing, scheduling and check-i n g o f work assigned to s e l f and others (b) Conferring and c o n s u l t i n g w i t h o f f i c i a l s of other departments (e) C o n f e r r i n g and c o n s u l t i n g w i t h o f f i c i a l s of o u t s i d e agencies (d) Formula t i n g p o l i c y and procedure (or a d v i s i n g on t h i s ) {e) Recording and r e p o r t i n g on t o t a l work load assigned S u b - t o t a l % 9.6 6.4 3.2 5.2. 6.6 10.2 1.9 1.9 1,6 4,8 31.0 s C T * 12.8 3,8 9.0 1.3 3.8 3EZ 4-5 .6 .3 .3 1.2 773" o> Q 2. CONSULTATIVE -(a). Answering e n q u i r i e s * studying reeords, par-t i c i p a t i n g i n c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e to other agencies 3.8 3. SUPERVISORY -(a) Conferences w i t h supervisees (b) Record reading (e) Attending team conferences on l o a d assigned •(d) Attending casework conferences on load assigned (e) R a t i n g performance and e v a l u a t i n g p r o f , dev't. of supervisees S u b - t o t a l 14-7 1.3 3.8 1.3 1 22 ± 23.1 12.8 1,9 1.3 10.8 .9 ToTT .9 Table 3 » (Continued) ~" ' P e r Cent o f T o t a l Monthly Time Sup. S.W. S.W.IV S.W. - • Item o f A c t i v i t y ^ Gr. I Gr.IV (Trav.) G r . I I I f ) R e c e i v i n g s u p e r v i s i o n 2.0 4 . 1 3 . 6 5.2 jlRECT SERVICES " •' '- ' ~ " - • , ••• (a) Casework i n t e r v i e w s 1 . 9 3 . 8 11.5 3 8 . 6 (b) Reeerding o f d i r e e l casework s e r v i c e s . 3 "~3 2 . 6 6.4 (c) C o n f e r r i n g on assigned caseload: * - 1 . 3 (1) Casework; ( i i ) With other p r o f e a s l o n s ' 6.4 (d) &roup"work s e r v i c e s t o paitlents o r r e l a t i v e s * J* ' (e) Recording o f d i r e c t group work e e r v i c e s * .  . ./• ^ ^-Z .-Suh- t C t a l 2 . 2 l u l l h . 1 5 2 . 7 . P R O F E S S I O N A L jtiamaid - ~*" Lec^u^es. C a ^ 2.6 1.3 1.3 *-3 6. COMMUNITY RELATIONS " ~ • (a) Commnnity education, PTA»S & other l a y groups 3.2 •* 1.9 .5 (b) P a r t i c i p a t i n g W i t h community committees re dev*t. of s e r v i c e s 3.2 ?* .• • .3 (c) Working w i t h community resources on be h a l f of assigned cases : - ...... .••.-,-,„ . 1.6. . . _ - -• S u b f t o t a l 6.4 .0 1.9 2X* 7 » STAFF DEVELOPMENT - Thru' meetings & committees 6.4 6,4 1.9 4^ 5 8 . PROGRAM DEV'T. (a) W i t h i n department 4.5 3 .6 .6 1.9 (b) W i t h i n t o t a l agency 4.5 1.3 . 9 •» ' Subr»total ~ 9.0 k . 9 1.5 1.9 9 . RESEARCH - Oper a t i o n a l and o r i g i n a l 1.3 1.3 1.3, TT 10.OTHER - (a) T r a v e l l i n g 1.3 .6 4-5 2.6 Cb J Reading p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e 2.0 2.0 .6 1.3 (c) P e r i o d i c s t a f f r e p o r t s ; attendance, l e a v e , c a r usage, e t c . .6 .6 .6 ... "-". , S u b - t o t a l 3 . 9 3 . 2 5.7 3 . 9 •(d) M l s c e l l a n e o i i s (See Schedule I I I - ' Appendices E-H) 9.0 9.2 4.1 11.9 TOTALS 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source: Job A n a l y s i s Schedules I and I I I , C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , Vancouver, 1955. «*• 62 * Table i*» Summary of Time D i s t r i b u t i o n of Usual S o c i a l Work Duties and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  by Major Areas of A c t i v i t y f o r Each S t a f f Group of the Department. A p r i l 1955 """ S t a f f Groups A c t i v i t y Sup. Gr. I S.W. Gr. TV s.w.rv Trav. S.W. G r . I I I 1. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e % 31.0 % 20.it 30.7 7.0 2. Co n s u l t a t i v e • • 3.8 . .5 . 23.1 9.0 •IT 2it.ii. a8.7 l i t . l t 6.1 it. D i r e c t Services 2.2 l u l l i t . l 52.7 $- P r o f e s s i o n a l Education 2.6 1.3 1.1 .3 6. Community R e l a t i o n s 6.it ..0 1.9 2.1}. J- S t a f f Development 6.it 6.it 1.9 . a . 5 8... Program Development 9.0 it.9 1.5 1.9 Research 1.3 1.3 1.3 .3 10 .Other 12.9 12.it 9 .8 15.8 TOTALS 100.0$ 100.0$ 100.0$ 100.0$ I n c l u d i n g Item 3(f) "Receiving S u p e r v i s i o n . " Source: Table 3, pp. 60*61, • 63 • Table 5. Three. Mai or Areas of l e c t i o n f o r Each S t a f f Group of the D e p a r t m e n t ! ; ; S t a f f Groups Areas o f Function Sup, Gr. I S.W, S.W.IV S.W.Gr. Gr. IV Trav. I l l 1. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e • -X'. X X X 2. C o n s u l t a t i v e X X Supervisory ......... x;... , : x D i r e c t S e r v i c e s X X Pr o f e s s i o n a l . E d u c a t i o n 6. Community R e l a t i o n s 7f S t a f f Development X 8. Program Development X Research E x c l u d i n g "Miscellaneous" Source: Table 3. 61* Table 6. R a t i o o f S u p e r v i s i o n Time Received to  Performance Time of Various Functions  Expressed i n Percentages f o r Each S t a f f  Group of the Department R a t i o Item Sup. Gr. 1 • S.W. Gr.IV S.W.IV Trav, S.W. G r . l l l S u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d to t o t a l work time 2% 3.6% $.2% S u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d to major area of f u n c t i o n 6.1$ 9.2% 1 1 . 7 $ 9.8% S u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d to 2 major areas of f u n c t i o n 3.7% 6.3% 6.7% 8.1$ S u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d to 3 major areas o f f u n c t i o n 3.2% S.7% $.3% 7M E x c l u d i n g miscellaneous a c t i v i t i e s . Source: Table 3. f a b l e 7 . Focus of A c t i v i t y i n Percentages  f o r Each S t a f f Group Focus of A c t i v i t y S t a f f Group C l i e n t Other Contacts Dept. Con-* t a c t s S t a f f Contacts Non-Community Personal Contacts A c t i v i t i e s Suo. Gr. 1 % 1.9 l l t . 7 30.2 • % 16.0 37.2 S.W. Gr. IV 3.8 8,7 ii0.it 3.7 it3.it S.¥. IV.Trav. 11 . 5 i t . 7 6.1 35. 3 1 it2.it S.W. Gr. I I I . , 38.6 7.0 12.9 12.0 29 . 5 1 2 3 . 1 $ c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e to other agencies on T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s , 2 Items c l a s s i f i e d under each heading are as foll o x * s J C l i e n t Contact -M a ) Other Department Contacts # l. ( b ) ... 3,(c) ... 4 . ( c ) - . ( i i ) ... 8 . ( b ) . S t a f f Contacts -3 . (a) (d) (e) ( f ) ... i t . ( c ) - ( I ) *.* 7 . . . . 8 . (a) Community Contacts 1. Cc) 2. ... 5 . ... 6. (a) (b) (c) Non»?ersonal A c t i v i t i e s l . ( a ) (d) (e) ... 3.(b) ... i*.(b) ... 9. ... 10. (a) (b) (c) (d) Source: Table 3 . * 66 * r e p e t i t i o u s , as, f o r example, preparing a playroom f o r a p l a y i n t e r v i e w w i t h a c h i l d , conducting the i n t e r v i e w , c l e a n -i n g up* preparing the playroom f o r another i n t e r v i e w , et cetera.**^ However, i n general terms, the time study shows that the department s u p e r v i s o r was mainly i n v o l v e d i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and supe r v i s o r y d u t i e s * Supervisors were p r i m a r i l y i n v o l v e d i n s u p e r v i s i o n * Workers were p r i m a r i l y engaged i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The exception to t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n I s the p o s i t i o n o f T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s Supervisor. I n t h i s p o s i t i o n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were prim* a r i l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e - c o n s u l t a t i v e * The time study suggests t h i s p o s i t i o n i s not p r o p e r l y c l a s s i f i e d . From the time d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h i s p o s i t i o n would seem b e t t e r c l a s s i f i e d as a s e n i o r caseworker p o s i t i o n o r sen i o r s u p e r v i s o r (ease consultant) p o s i t i o n . Some a c t i v i t i e s which appear t o be common to a l l job l e v e l s d i f f e r w i d e l y i n the extent and k i n d of respon-s i b i l i t y and s k i l l r e q u i r e d . For example* community r e l a t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l education and c o n s u l t a t i v e respon-s i b i l i t i e s are assigned to s t a f f according t o amount of experience, i n t e r e s t and personal s k i l l s . G e n e r a l l y , a l l S t a f f In the worker c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a f t e r s i x months to one year on s t a f f , are expected to p a r t i c i p a t e In the c o n s u l t -a t i v e r o l e e i t h e r as duty-work one*half to one day per week or as the s o c i a l work r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n team Conferences on 56 c f ^ the r o l e of a housewife. oases of other agencies. However* the department s u p e r v i s o r was u s u a l l y Involved i n the more complex case s i t u a t i o n s or In those i n v o l v i n g questions of department o r c l i n i c a l p o l i c y . I n t r a v e l l i n g c l i n i c cases, the t r a v e l l i n g s u p e r v i s o r had educative r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n regard to workers p r e s e n t i n g cases f o r examination o r c o n s u l t a t i o n , whereas In most other c o n s u l t a t i v e case conferences the c l i n i c worker's respon-s i b i l i t y was considered l e s s e r i n degree of a u t h o r i t y or s k i l l r e q u i r e d . I n community r e l a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s , the case-work Supervisors were not Involved a t the time o f the study, p r i m a r i l y because both were r e c e n t l y appointed. O r d i n a r i l y t h i s f u n c t i o n would be considered as one to be c a r r i e d by s u p e r v i s o r s or s e n i o r workers. D i f f e r e n c e s i n Degree of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Various A c t i v i t i e s  at Various Job L e v e l s . Tables .3. It. and 5v D i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between job l e v e l and degrees of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y appear In A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , P r o f e s s i o n a l Education,. .Program development, and Research a c t i v i t i e s * Inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p s between job l e v e l and degree of respon-57 s i b i l i t y appear i n S u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d . D i r e c t s e r v i c e s * Recording and C o n f e r r i n g or a t t e n d i n g conferences on assigned l o a d . 57 These a c t i v i t i e s p e r t a i n more to the degree of s k i l l r e q u i r e d i n performing t a s k s . Hence these are discussed more f u l l y i n ensuing pages. *• 68 * One major determinant of c l a s s l e v e l , which, does not appear d i r e c t l y i n the time study, i s the scope of a c t i v i t i e s (or t o t a l work) supervised. Other major deter« minants of c l a s s l e v e l ar© revealed I n Tables 6 and 7. D i f f e r e n c e s i n Degree of S k i l l f o r V a r i o u s A c t i v i t i e s at  Various Job Levels S k i l l requirements f o r the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s are e s s e n t i a l l y pragmatic assumptions. For -example.,, by C l i n i c Standards, a f t e r s i x months to one year experience, a l l workers are assumed to have necessary s k i l l s to p a r t i -c i p a t e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l education and community r e l a t i o n s ; a f t e r three years the worker i s presumed to have developed y 58 s k i l l s necessary f o r s u p e r v i s i o n of other workers. However, Tables 1 and 2 i n d i c a t e t h a t a c t i v i t i e s of a group, i n t e r -group, e d u c a t i o n a l , o r research nature increase according to Job rank. A l s o , the percentage of a c t i v i t i e s o utside the major f u n c t i o n increase w i t h job rank. From t h i s we can deduce t h a t s k i l l r e q u ired (knowledge and a b i l i t i e s ) , in-* creases w i t h job ranks. Knowledge of f i e l d s of group work, community o r g a n i z a t i o n , education and research p l u s a b i l i t y to apply t h i s knowledge, are thus r e q u i r e d i n v a r y i n g degrees by a l l workers according to rank. These s k i l l s a r e , of course, i n a d d i t i o n to s k i l l s r e q u i r e d i n the major f u n c t i o n of each rank* i . e . , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c o n s u l t a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , ^ M e r i t r a t i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n are, of course, used i n assessing s k i l l of the i n d i v i d u a l employee. We are more concerned her© w i t h d e f i n i n g a b s t r a c t s k i l l r e q u i r e d f o r performance of a c t i v i t i e s . 69 -and casework. Two f u r t h e r s k i l l determinants of Job rank are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Tables 6 and 7. F i r s t , the r a t i o of super* v i s i o n r e c e i v e d to major areas of f u n c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t independence of work, or i n i t i a t i v e r e q u i r e d , v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h job rank. Second, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r contacts out-Side the C l i n i c and outside the Department increase w i t h job ranks. Exceptions to t h i s are t h a t (a) the T r a v e l l i n g super-v i s o r has the l e a s t contact w i t h other Department s t a f f according t o Table 5>j and (b) the s u p e r v i s o r rank has l e a s t c ontacts outside the C l i n i c . However* under Items 1.(bj and 1. (c) of Table 3» the extent of o u t s i d e contacts i n v o l v -i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y increases d i r e c t l y from worker to Department s u p e r v i s o r . Nevertheless, again a l l s t a f f are expected to have considerable a b i l i t y I n r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h other p r o f e s s i o n a l s on s t a f f or o u t s i d e , w i t h o f f i c i a l s of other agencies* and w i t h the general p u b l i c . D i r e c t c l i e n t contact decreases w i t h Increase i n job rank, i m p l y i n g t h a t the d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s are r e q u i r e d more at the worker l e v e l than other l e v e l s . S t a f f contacts and non-personal a c t i v i t i e s are numerous f o r a l l ranks, i m p l y i n g again the agency focus on team oper a t i o n as w e l l as on procedural flow o f work. Major determinants of job l e v e l t h u s appear to be: A, - Degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n these f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s : 1.) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 70 * 2. ) P r o f e s s i o n a l education 3. ) Program Development I*.) Research £.) S u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d 6. ) D i r e c t s e r v i c e s 7. ) Con f e r r i n g or attending conferences on assigned load 8. ) Scope of a c t i v i t i e s supervised B. •* Knowledge and A b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d 1. ) I n f i e l d s other than major area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 2. ) P a r t i c u l a r l y i n group work, Inter-. group work* education* and research 3. ) A b i l i t y to work independently 1*.) A b i l i t y t o represent Agency or Depart-ment e f f e c t i v e l y i n outside c o n t a c t s , Using these determinants suggests establishment of f o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n the Department; department super-v i s o r , case consultant ( t r a v e l l i n g S u p e r v i s o r ) , case super-v i s o r , and case worker. D e s c r i p t i o n s f o r the Glasses By u s i n g the major determinants plus the o u t l i n e of Department f u n c t i o n s , the f o u r c l a s s e s can now be described according t o : D i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s of the c l a s s ; Duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (or T y p i c a l t a s k s ) ; D e s i r a b l e knowledge, a b i l i t i e s and personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; Education and - 71 -experience r e q u i r e d . Former c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t i t l e s f o r each c l a s s are s t a t e d i n b r a c k e t s . JOB CLASSIFICATION^ 9  SOCIAL WORK SERIES  PROPOSED REVISIONS TO PRESENT JOB DESCRIPTIONS This s e r i e s i n c l u d e s a l l c l a s s e s of p o s i t i o n s the d u t i e s of which are to advise on, a d m i n i s t e r , s u p e r v i s e , o r perform work i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s o e i a l work Serv i c e to i n d i v i d u a l s o r f a m i l i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a spec-i a l i z e d branch of s o c i a l work such as medical s o c i a l work, p s y c h i a t r i c s o e i a l work, pa r o l e or probation s o c i a l work, c h i l d w e l f a r e , o r p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . This S e r i e s i s composed of groups of c l a s s e s * each group having a common background of d u t i e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s requirements, but d i f f e r i n g i n the spec-i a l i z e d branch of S o c i a l work performed as i n d i c a t e d by the a d j e c t i v e f o l l o w i n g the o v e r - a l l c l a s s t i t l e . P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work i s defined as the S o c i a l work undertaken by i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i r e c t and r e s p o n s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p s y c h i a t r y . P s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e s occur i n h o s p i t a l s o r c l i n i c s , or under other psy-c h i a t r i c auspices, the e s s e n t i a l purpose of which i s to serve I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h mental o r emotional d i s t u r b a n c e s . Explanatory Statement: The o b j e c t i v e o f s o c i a l work i s to prevent the break-down o f i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and communities and to strengthen the a b i l i t y of people to work out t h e i r own S o l u t i o n s and to develop t h e i r own c a p a c i t i e s and l a t e n t powers f o r s o c i a l adjustment. To g i v e h e l p and s e r v i c e So t h a t both i n d i v i d u a l s and communities d e r i v e the utmost i n b e n e f i t s r e q u i r e s the a p p l i c a t i o n not only of know-ledge and human understanding, but a l s o of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s acquired through p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r S o c i a l work. SOCIAL WORKER I I I { P s y c h i a t r i c ) ( S o c i a l Worker I I d i f f e r s In (a) the amount of s u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d (b) r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s assumed - u s u a l l y do not i n c l u d e c o n s u l t a t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l and community education f u n c t i o n s . ) Prepared by a s t a f f committee of the Department, A p r i l and May, 1955. - 72 D e f i n i t i o n : T h i s i s the beginning grade In the S o c i a l Work -P s y c h i a t r i c ( c l a s s ) . Incumbents i n these p o s i t i o n s perform p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work w i t h p a t i e n t s and r e l a t i v e s i n a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l or c l i n i c , r e q u i r i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e s k i l l i n understanding, c o n t r o l l i n g and d i r e c t i n g of i n t e r -personal i n t e r v i e w s . S o c i a l Workers i n these p o s i t i o n s are under the immediate s u p e r v i s i o n of the next h i g h e r grade of S o c i a l Worker IV ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) . DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: 1. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e : 1. Caseload Management * (a) The c a r r y i n g out of r o u t i n e d u t i e s ( u s u a l l y one day per week) which i n v o l v e s : ( i ) Supplying i n f o r m a t i o n to i n q u i r i n g agencies, and ( i i ) D e a l i n g w i t h i n i t i a l p e rsonal o r telephone (applications f o r c l i n i c s e r v i c e I n c l u d i n g screening and r e f e r r a l of cases, (b) Reporting t o S o c i a l Worker Grade IV on a l l aspects of work i n c l u d i n g monthly c o m p i l a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l data. (c) F u l f i l l i n g a c o - o r d i n a t i n g , i n t e g r a t i v e and enabling r o l e both w i t h other p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s and w i t h c l i e n t s . 2. C o n t r i b u t i n g t o the planning and development of agency s e r v i c e through s t a f f meetings, committees and s u p e r v i s i o n , 3. P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n by s e r v i n g , as assigned, on appropriate community and agency committees as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and the C l i n i c . I I . Supervisory R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : S o c i a l Workers i n t h i s p o s i t i o n have the respon-s i b i l i t i e s of a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the supervisory process making c o n s t r u c t i v e use of s u p e r v i s i o n , to develop i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s and department se r -v i c e s . I I I . C o n s u l t a t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : 1. C o n t r i b u t i n g to f i n d i n g s , e v a l u a t i o n , diagnoses, and treatment recommendations of C l i n i c team i n cases brought by other agencies. * 73 -2. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s and resources r e l a t i n g to Mental H e a l t h needs of f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n . 3. Recording m a t e r i a l p e r t i n e n t to casework planning. 4 . Answering e n q u i r i e s from other agencies regarding closed cases. IV. Caseload R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : 1. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r caseload c a r r y i n g of d i r e c t s e r v i c e cases as assigned. T h i s i n v o l v e s the g i v i n g of case-work s e r v i c e s i n ; (a) The Intake and B r i e f S e r v i c e s S e c t i o n which i n v o l v e s the s o c i a l worker In one of h i s recognized s k i l l s and most time-consuming r o l e s . Cases w i t h i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n v o l v e i n t a k e , d i a g n o s t i c and b r i e f s e r v i c e s and i n c l u d e major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r screening and r e f e r r a l i n C l i n i c a l s e t t i n g s . (b) The Continued Service S e c t i o n which e n t a i l s casework treatment to implement team recommend-a t i o n s . Prom 20 to 25 such cases are c a r r i e d by workers of t h i s s e c t i o n d u r i n g a month, I n v o l v i n g s e r v i c e s to from 25 to 30 a d u l t s and 15 to 20 c h i l d r e n . A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of these c l i e n t s r e c e i v e i n t e n s i v e h e l p I n v o l v i n g one, two o r three i n t e r v i e w s per week i n each case. 2. Close c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h s c h o o l s , other S o c i a l agen-c i e s and other community resources as a p a r t of over-a l l Casework process as d i a g n o s t i c a l l y i n d i c a t e d . 3. C a l l i n g f u l l team conferences or arranging Consult-a t i o n s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l team members as r e q u i r e d by casework progress i n i n d i v i d u a l Cases. I4.. Taking of minutes of team conferences and c o n s u l t a t -i o n w i t h S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to S o c i a l work p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 5. Study and o r g a n i z a t i o n of work, p r e p a r a t i o n o f s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s o r summaries f o r team p r e s e n t a t i o n . 6. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l d i a g n o s i s and casework p l a n . 7. C o n t r i b u t i n g to team t h i n k i n g , planning e x p l o r a t i o n , f i n d i n g s * d i a g n o s i s and treatment recommendations. 8. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f i n d i n g s and recommendations to c l i e n t s , and to other agencies. 7k 9. Recording of casework on a l l cases* V. E d u c a t i o n a l and I n t e r p r e t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; 1 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some edu c a t i o n a l and i n t e r p r e t i v e work to other p r o f e s s i o n a l and t o community groups. T h i s i n -cludes speaking t o parent groups, h i g h school guidance c l a s s e s , v o c a t i o n a l conferences and ot h e r groups as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and the C l i n i c * . ' • • VI* S t a f f Development R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : C r e a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s t a f f development through c o n t r i b u t i o n to s t a f f meeting, study, d i s c u s s i o n , committee work and other p r o j e c t s . V I I . Research R e s p o n S l b l l l t i e a ? R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l research i s shared by the s o c i a l work s t a f f at'.- a l l l e v e l s , through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any surveys o r research p r o j e c t s undertaken by the C l i n i c S o c i a l S ervice Department, by the C l i n i c as a whole, by the s o c i a l Welfare Branch, the Mental H e a l t h S e r v i c e s , o r Department o f Hea l t h and Welfare. QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE P r e f e r a b l y completion of a M,S>¥* degree course i n recognized School o f S o c i a l Work. Knowledges, a b i l i t i e s * - ; and other q u a l i t i e s : <• Good knowledge of the methods, techniques, p r i n c i p l e s , procedures and p r a c t i c e s of so^^^ s p e c i a l -i z e d knowledge of t h e o r i e s , p r a c t i c e s , and techniques of th a t branch of S o c i a l work i n d i c a t e d by the t i t l e o f the c l a s s ; considerable s k i l l i n the. a p p l i c a t i o n o f such knowledges; knowledge and understanding o f the program o f the agency and the scope of the s e r v i c e rendered; knowledge of community resources and how t o u t i l i z e > th#m e f f e c t i ^ o l y ' l proven a b i l i t y to make accurate d e c i s i o n s upon own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t o o u t l i n e and prepare r e p o r t s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ; a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h other p r o f e s s i o n a l groups I n work w i t h pat-l e n t s * c l i e n t s * and t h e i r f a m i l i e s ; a b i l i t y t o e x e r c i s e t a c t , i n i t i a t i v e * and good judgment when d e a l i n g w i t h people; as re q u i r e d * a b i l i t y to prepare r e p o r t s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e use or f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . SOCIAL WORKER GRADE k ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) D e f i n i t i o n ; S o c i a l Worker Grade Ij. r e f e r s to p o s i t i o n s of Casework Supervisor, which represent the f i r s t s u p e r v i s o r y l e v e l i n the S o c i a l Work S e r i e s . Common to a l l p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s grade i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; 1. f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a s e c t i o n o r u n i t of a S o c i a l Service Department of a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l o r c l i n i c , w i t h e r alone o r w i t h the as s i s t a n c e of a few lower-grade s o c i a l workers,and/or 2. f o r s u p e r v i s i o n , as a casework s u p e r v i s o r , of a few s o c i a l workers of lower-grade assigned to the s e c t i o n . Incumbents of these p o s i t i o n s perform work under the gen-e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f a departmental s u p e r v i s o r (Supervisor Grade I , or S o c i a l Worker Grade V - P s y c h i a t r i c ) . DUTIES AHD RESPONSIBILITIES t Common to a l l p o s i t i o n s of t h i s grade are the f o l l o w i n g : 1* A d m i n i s t r a t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : 1. S e c t i o n and Caseload Management -(a) Ensuring e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by supervisees of s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s to p a t i e n t s and r e l a t i v e s . (b) I n s t r u c t i n g new employees I n r e g u l a t i o n s and pro-cedures bearing on S o c i a l work p r a c t i c e w i t h i n the p a r t i c u l a r h o s p i t a l or c l i n i c ; r a t i n g the e f f i c i e n c y of workers supervised; completing p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n s of supervisees. (c) S p e c i f y i n g work assignments to be undertaken by supervisees, and ensuring steady f l o w of work. (d) Promoting and ma i n t a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l standards of Se r v i c e , f o r example by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work a s s o c i a t i o n s and community s o c i a l agencies. (e) Studying s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e s , methods and p o l i c i e s , w i t h a view to recommending, i n i t i a t i n g and e f f e c t i n g changes t h a t w i l l r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y . 2. Sharing In f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c i e s and procedures of the S o c i a l Service Department and of the h o s p i t a l or c l i n i c as a whole; ensuring the c a r r y i n g out of p o l i c i e s and procedures i n areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y assigned. 3. P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n inter-agency c o n f e r r i n g on p o l i c y ; I n t e r p r e t i n g f u n c t i o n s and s e r v i c e s of the S o c i a l Service Department to other agencies; promoting co-o r d i n a t i o n of community s e r v i c e s on behalf of caseload supervised. 4. Reporting t o and informing the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department sup e r v i s o r w i t h r e s p e c t to c a r r y i n g out of r e s p o n s i b -i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g compiling and raalntaing records of a c t i v i t i e s , r e p o r t s , and monthly s t a t i s t i c a l summaries. Work i s performed under the general d i r e c t i o n of S o c i a l Worker Grade V I I ( P r o v i n c i a l Supervisor of P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work) where there I s no h i g h e r grade s o c i a l worker i n the s e t t i n g . Supervisory R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; 1. Supervising one to f i v e s o c i a l workers of lower grades (Grade i l l and o c c a s i o n a l l y Grade I I ) ; s u c h s u p e r v i s i o n c o n s i s t s o f ; (a) Guiding i n d i v i d u a l workers i n casework methods and p r a c t i c e s i n v o l v i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n w i t h them of cases c a r r i e d . (b) Teaching of casework and I n t e r v i e w i n g s k i l l s i n p s y c h i a t r i c s e t t i n g ; h e l p i n g w i t h e v a l u a t i o n of each case i n the l i g h t of causative f a c t o r s and w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n o f s o c i a l h i s t o r y and s o c i a l d i a g n o s i s of problems presented by the c l i e n t . (c) I n t e r p r e t i n g general p o l i c y , o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n s of c l i n i c s and the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department w i t h i n the c l i n i c . (d) Helping the worker l e a r n h i s r o l e i n team con-ferences as w e l l as h i s r o l e In u s i n g team f i n d i n g s i n follow*up work. (e) G i v i n g d i r e c t i o n to the worker on contacts w i t h outside agencies which are of a c o n s u l t a t i v e nature. ( f ) P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n conferences on the worker's cases where these i n v o l v e deep-seated p s y c h i a t r i c prob-lems or where they i n v o l v e inter-agency p o l i c i e s and procedures. 2. I n s u r i n g adequate casework coverage on cases assigned to workers. T h i s i n c l u d e s : (a) Examining case records; process and summary rec o r d i n g . (b) Reviewing the worker's monthly s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t of s e r v i c e s given. (c) E v a l u a t i n g the p r o f e s s i o n a l performance of super-v i s e e s . The casework s u p e r v i s o r thus has respon-s i b i l i t y f o r the nature, q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f Services rendered by the worker he supervises and f o r the s k i l l i n method employed by the worker i n these case-work s e r v i c e s . * 77 I I I . C o n s u l t a t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d i a g n o s t i c and c o n s u l t a t i v e conferences p a r t i c u l a r l y i n cases where the p a t i e n t i s not examined at the c l i n i c hut a s o c i a l h i s t o r y i s presented "by the agency requesting c o n s u l t a t i o n on d i a g n o s i s and t r e a t -ment of deep-seated p s y c h i a t r i c problems. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I s a l s o taken f o r r e c o r d i n g of m a t e r i a l p e r t i n e n t to casework planning. XV. Casework R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s I C a r r y i n g of a few treatment cases other d u t i e s p e r m i t t i n g . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n caSes c a r r i e d IS s i m i l a r to t h a t of S o c i a l Worker Crade I I I . V. E d u c a t i o n a l and I n t e r p r e t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : 1. P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n teaching programmes, o r i e n t a t i o n s , l e c t u r e s and d i s c u s s i o n s j g i v i n g l e a d e r s h i p i n prom-o t i n g C l i n i c s e r v i c e s and mental h e a l t h p r i n c i p l e s . 2. P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community groups and committees. V I . S t a f f and Program Development R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : C o n t r i b u t i n g through s t a f f meetings. Supervisors' meetings, and S t a f f committees, to development of s t a f f and s e r v i c e s . V I I . Research R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : C o n t r i b u t i n g to and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n any surveys and research a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g s or Mental He a l t h S e r v i c e s o r S o c i a l Welfare Branch, e t c , DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF POSITIONS WITHIN THIS GRADE (At C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c - Vancouver) A. S o c i a l Worker Grade IV ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) - Supervisor of Intake  and B r i e f Services S e c t i o n : 1. The d i s t i n c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h i s p o s i t i o n i s the procedural d i r e c t i o n of a l l s t a f f engaged i n h a n d l i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r s e r v i c e and the casework s u p e r v i s i o n of a few (1 to 5) s o c i a l workers r e s p o n s i b l e f o r caseload c a r r y i n g on an Intake and b r i e f s e r v i c e b a s i s , 2. P a r t i c i p a t i n g In frequent conferences and c o n s u l t -a t i o n s w i t h o f f i c i a l s of other departments w i t h regard to p o l i c y , procedure and implementation of team recommendations on cases c a r r i e d w i t h i n the Intake S e c t i o n . - 7® -3. M a i n t a i n i n g and c i r c u l a t i n g to a l l departments through the S o c i a l Service Department s u p e r v i s o r , s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s p e r t a i n i n g t o case f l o w during the i n t a k e and d i a g n o s t i c study p e r i o d . ij.. Handling a p p l i c a t i o n s or i n t a k e i n unusual or emergent s i t u a t i o n s . B. S o c i a l Worker Grade IV ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) - Supervisor of  Continued S e r v i c e s S e c t i o n ; 1. The d i s t i n c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h i s p o s i t i o n Is the casework s u p e r v i s i o n of a few (1 to 5) s o c i a l workers of lower grades (Grade I I or I I I ) In methods and p r a c t i c e s r e q u i r e d to c a r r y out plans of long-term casework treatment (approximately f o u r to eighteen months) i n v o l v i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the lower grade s o e i a l workers and examining records compiled by them. 2. P a r t i c i p a t i n g I n frequent casework conferences and d i s -cussions w i t h other casework s u p e r v i s o r s and workers around the Implementation of C l i n i c team recommendations on t r a n s f e r of cases to the s e c t i o n or u n i t f o r case-work treatment. 3. C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h other u n i t s u p e r v i s o r s and department, supervisor, regarding assignments and f l o w of work between u n i t s , and regarding cases c a r r i e d by one u n i t f o r which another u n i t has o v e r - a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . C. S o c i a l Worker Grade IV ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) - Casework Supervisor  Student U n i t . D i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s p o s i t i o n a r e : 1. Ensuring a v a l i d e d u c a t i o n a l experience a t a proper l e v e l f o r a graduate student, 2. S e l e c t i n g S u i t a b l e cases from both Intake and Continued Service Sections f o r assignment to students. 3. M a i n t a i n i n g e f f e c t i v e working r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the School of S o c i a l Work f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n o f c l a s s work and f i e l d p r a c t i c e j and to p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h other F i e l d Supervisors to promote v a l i d p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , 1*. Supervi3ory R e a p b n a i b i l 111es: (a) S u p e r v i s i n g about f o u r graduate s o c i a l work students. (b) An a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s p o s i t i o n l i e s - 79 -i n th© added teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to enable the student to i n t e g r a t e t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge gained from c l a s s work and the r e a l s i t u a t i o n w i t h the c l i e n t . A more d e t a i l e d and i n t e n s i v e e v a l -u a t i v e process pervades the work In t h i s p o s i t i o n n e c e s s i t a t i n g p e r i o d i c r e p o r t i n g to the School of S o c i a l Work and c o n f e r r i n g w i t h the F a c u l t y Con-s u l t a n t around the l e a r n i n g * performance and progress of the student. E d u c a t i o n a l and I n t e r p r e t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : ta) In a d d i t i o n to u s u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s * t h i s p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s preparing and e d i t i n g of case m a t e r i a l s f o r teaching purposes. D. S o c i a l Worker Grade TV ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) , - Casework Supervisor  T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s The d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of t h i s p o s i t i o n a re: (a) the l a r g e volume of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a case consultant c a p a c i t y ; (b) the l a r g e volume of work of an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , i n t e g r a t i v e and c o o r d i n a t i n g nature; and (c) the very extensive area covered by the T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d i s t i n c t i v e to t h i s p o s i t i o n a l s d i n c l u d e : I . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : 1. Arranging C l i n i c s - Discussion* arrangement and correspondence w i t h personnel i n the F i e l d S e r v i c e s regarding C l i n i c f u n c t i o n , a v a i l a b l e dates f o r C l i n i c s * types of cases accepted by the C l i n i c , and the general p r e p a r a t i o n f o r such C l i n i c s . 2. Organizing Services to c l i e n t s on T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s i n c l u d i n g planning and scheduling of team a c t i v i t i e s , and promoting f l o w of work. Includes a c t i v i t i e s of a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s nature. 3. M a i n t a i n i n g l i a i s o n w i t h and encouraging cooperation of a l l e x i s t i n g community Se r v i c e s i n the f i e l d Such as schools* h e a l t h and welfare agencies* and other community groups. I I . Supervisory R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : D i s c u s s i n g cases w i t h Supervisors and workers i n the F i e l d s e r v i c e s (both S o c i a l Welfare Branch and P u b l i c Health Nurses) to promote implementation of recommend-a t i o n s . Further d i s c u s s i o n may alSo be requested through the F i e l d Supervisors on a c o n t i n u i n g case, and t h i s may be handled through correspondence. * 80 I I I . C o n s u l t a t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; 1. D i s c u s s i n g of previous cases examined by the C l i n i c , w i t h workers ( P u b l i c H e a l t h and S o c i a l W e l f a r e ) . P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n implementation o f f u r t h e r t r e a t * raent, and e v a l u a t i n g progress, and work done to date, 2, Recording m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d to previous cases, w i t h a view to present and f u t u r e research. IV. Caseload R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; I n t e r v i e w i n g parents; r e l a t i v e s or f r i e n d of p a t i e n t s ; p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t e s ; e t c . to c l a r i f y problems and to procure data f o r immediate use of the T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c team i n e v a l u a t i n g and diagnosing problems presented, i n c l u d e s r e c o r d i n g of these i n t e r v i e w s . V. Other: T r a v e l l i n g to a l l areas of the province i n v o l v i n g extensive and frequent t r i p s by various modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , q u i t e o f t e n outside of r e g u l a r working hours. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and Experience; ( f o r S o c i a l Worker Grade IV -P s y c h i a t r i c ) 1. P r e f e r a b l y graduation w i t h a degree of Master of S o c i a l Work from a recognized School of S o c i a l Work. 2. Several years experience i n a p o s i t i o n of S o c i a l Worker Grade I I I ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) or i n work c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the d u t i e s to be performed. D e s i r a b l e Knowledges. A b i l i t i e s and other Q u a l i t i e s : Sound knowledge of the dynamics of human behavior; very good knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s * t h e o r i e s , methods, techniques, and p r a c t i c e s of S o e i a l work; good general knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e of s u p e r v i s i o n ; considerable S p e c i a l i z e d knowledge of c o l l a b o r a t i v e work w i t h other p r o f e s s i o n a l employees i n a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l o r c l i n i c ; marked s k i l l i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of such knowledges. Good knowledge and understanding of S o c i a l Welfare Branch's and Mental Health S e r v i c e s * programs and the scope of the s e r v i c e s rendered; good knowledge of a v a i l a b l e community resources and how to u t i l i z e them e f f e c t i v e l y ; a b i l i t y to make accurate d e c i s i o n s upon own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and to o u t l i n e and prepare r e p o r t s of I n v e s t i g a t i o n s ; a b i l i t y to analyze, e v a l u a t e , and make accurate d e c i s i o n s from s o c i a l data assembled; a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h other p r o f e s s i o n a l groups In work w i t h p a t i e n t s , c l i e n t s , t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and community agencies; demonstrated a b i l i t y to meet and deal w i t h people e f f e c t i v e l y ; as r e q u i r e d * a b i l i t y f o r o r g a n i z i n g , planning, and c o o r d i n a t i n g the s o c i a l work a c t i v i t i e s o f a program of l i m i t e d scope; as r e q u i r e d , general a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y and a b i l i t y to supervise and t r a i n lower-grade s o c i a l workers; a b i l i t y to evaluate work o f others. SOCIAL WORKER GRADE V ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) -( P r e s e n t l y - Supervisor of Welfare. Grade I) D e f i n i t i o n : The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S o c i a l Worker Grade V represents the f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e Supervisory l e v e l i n the s o c i a l work s e r i e s . P o s i t i o n s at t h i s l e v e l I n p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work t y p i c a l l y Involve r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o r g a n i z i n g , a d m i n i s t e r i n g , and c o o r d i n a t i n g the S o c i a l work and casework program at a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l or c l i n i c having a l a r g e o r very l a r g e volume of s o c i a l work a c t i v i t i e s . Work i s performed under the general d i r e c t i o n of the c h i e f medical o r c l i n i c a l d i r e c t o r and i s subject to the r e g u l a t i o n s of and procedural d i r e c t i o n from a hi g h e r grade s o c i a l worker i n the c e n t r a l o f f i c e of the agency. ( S o c i a l Worker Grade V I I p r e s e n t l y Supervisor of Welfare Grade I I I -P r o v i n c i a l Supervisor of P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work.) D i s t i n c t i v e Features of t h i s P o s i t i o n i n the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c -I . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : 1.- Consulting and informing P r o v i n c i a l Supervisor around s t a f f and p o l i c y matters, needs w i t h i n the depart-ment and development o f s e r v i c e s . Consulting and s u p e r v i s i n g s t a f f i n these matters. Includes r e p o r t s , s t a t i s t i c s , e s t i m a t i o n of needs, working out of sched-u l e s and r o u t i n e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n working out measures to improve the standard of work. 2. Informing and c o n s u l t i n g w i t h the c l i n i c a l d i r e c t o r on questions o f p o l i c y and S o c i a l s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . 3. Ensuring the c a r r y i n g out of p o l i c i e s and procedures w i t h regard to the f u n c t i o n of the S o c i a l Service Department, It. P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o l i c y f o r the c l i n i c as a whole as w e l l as f o r the S o c i a l Service Department. I n t e r - c o n f e r r i n g on Inter-agency p o l i c y and procedure. I n t e r p r e t i n g c l i n i c f u n c t i o n . 82 -c o o r d i n a t i n g p o l i c y and a c t i v i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to other community s e r v i c e s . $. Consulting w i t h heads of departments and other team members w i t h regard to ease problems and c o o r d i n a t i o n of work. Promoting the i n t e g r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n of team operations. 6. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n t e g r a t i n g Student U n i t work of the C l i n i c w i t h the School of S o c i a l Work* U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 7. O v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h a n n e l l i n g of case assignments* I I . Supervisory R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : S u p e r v i s i n g f o u r casework supervisors around a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i c y matters* h a n d l i n g of s t a f f problems, casework methods and s k i l l s and major problems o f Case h a n d l i n g . E v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r work. I I I . C o n s u l t a t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : P a r t i c i p a t i n g In d i a g n o s t i c and c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e Where r e q u i r e d , or t o keep i n touch With s e r v i c e s being g i v e n . IV. Caseload R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : Handling o c c a s i o n a l b r i e f s e r v i c e f o r S p e c i a l reason. V. E d u c a t i o n a l and i n t e r p r e t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n teaching programs and o r i e n t a t i o n * I n t e r p r e t i n g c l i n i c s e r v i c e s and mental h e a l t h p r i n -c i p l e s to p r o f e s s i o n a l and community groups. P a r t i c i -p a t i n g i n community committees. VI. S t a f f and Program Development R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : Guiding s t a f f on program t o be fo l l o w e d to a f f o r d con-tinuous p r o f e s s i o n a l progress to the s t a f f s o c i a l workers and t o the program of the department. V I I . Research R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 2 Planning* suggesting, promoting and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n research a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the use and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of researc h f i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g to the S o c i a l S ervice Department. - 83 -Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and Experience: 1* P r e f e r a b l y graduation w i t h the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work from a U n i v e r s i t y of recognized standing. 2. Several years experience as a S o c i a l Worker Grade IV ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) ; or s e v e r a l years experience i n work of equivalent r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the d u t i e s to be performed. D e s i r a b l e Knowledges. A b i l i t i e s and Other Q u a l i t i e s : Sound knowledge of the dynamics of human behavior; thorough knowledge of th© p r i n c i p l e s , t h e o r i e s * methods, techniques, and p r a c t i c e s of s o c i a l work; sound knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e of s u p e r v i s i o n ; considerable s p e c i a l i z e d know-ledge of c o l l a b o r a t i v e work w i t h other p r o f e s s i o n a l employees i n a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l or c l i n i c ; general knowledge of group process and the dynamics of group behavior as r e l a t e d to s t a f f development and s t a f f d i r e c t i o n ; c o n siderable s k i l l i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f these knowledges* Very good knowledge and understanding of the agency's program and th© scope of the s e r v i c e rendered; very good knowledge of a v a i l a b l e community resources and how to u t i l i z e them e f f e c t i v e l y ; demonstrated a b i l i t y to work c o o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h other p r o f e s s i o n a l groups i n work w i t h c l i e n t s or p a t i e n t s , t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and community agencies, as w e l l as f o r i n t e r -p r e t i n g and d i s c u s s i n g the agency's p o l i c i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s ; demonstrated a b i l i t y t o w r i t e , analyze, o r evaluate r e p o r t s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and to make accurate d e c i s i o n s upon own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; demonstrated a b i l i t y to meet and d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y * r i t h people; demonstrated a b i l i t y to prepare t e c h -n i c a l and i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e p o r t s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e us© and f o r p u b l i c a t i o n ; general a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y , and a b i l i t y to develop working plans and to organize, d i r e c t , c oordinate, supervise and evaluate the work of a s t a f f of lower-grade s o c i a l workers. A s s i g n i n g the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s to Appropriate Pay Grades -General P r i n c i p l e s Having described th© c l a s s e s i n terms of t h e i r d i s -t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s , i t i s now necessary to e s t a b l i s h the value of these jobs r e l a t i v e to on© another. I n t e r n a l consistency of pay grades i s essen-t i a l before c o n s i d e r i n g the value of jobs In one s e t t i n g i n - 84 -comparison with value (wage rates) elsewhere. In pra c t i c e , the determination of i n t e r n a l and external consistency of wage rates usually involves a form of job evaluation plus c o l l e c t i v e bargaining between employer and employee. Because of t h i s , only general p r i n c i p l e s which are applicable to the present f i e l d of enquiry w i l l b© presented, I o attempt IS made to suggest what the actual wage rates f o r the classes should be, 1 . Pay grades should be stated as salary ranges from minimum to maximum over a stated period of time, 2. Provision should be made f o r regular pay i n c r e -ments within the grades. Increments should be based on a merit r a t i n g or professional evaluation of i n d i v i d u a l per-formance i n the p o s i t i o n and class concerned. 3. Tho number of steps within each pay grade should be determined by the number of years of experience necessary to achieve pr o f i c i e n c y within the cl a s s . 4. The number of steps within each grade should also be s u f f i c i e n t to permit employees to remain i n a p a r t i c u l a r class with opportunities f o r further salary increments over a Substantial period of years. 5. Provision should be made f o r equating additional t r a i n i n g to additional years of experience i n order to promote the development of increasing numbers of practitioners, within each class S p e c i a l i z a t i o n . One year of graduate t r a i n i n g might be considered, f o r example, as the equivalent of two years experience. Any employee who takes additional t r a i n i n g i n h i s c l a s s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , e.g., D i r e c t s e r v i c e s , s u p e r v i s i o n , teaching, research, pr a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , should r e c e i v e a one-step s a l a r y increase f o r the time spent studying w h i l e on leave o f absence and a one-step s a l a r y increase f o r the a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g completed. In p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b s , s k i l l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f a c t o r s are e s s e n t i a l l y measures of the incumbents of p o s i -t i o n s r a t h e r than a measure of job demands. U n t i l stages or degrees of s k i l l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y are defined and r e f i n e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e , S k i l l f a c t o r s p a r t i c u l a r l y w i l l have to be measured i n terms of knowledge and a b i l i t i e s based on 61 the u s u a l t r a i n i n g and experience estimated to o b t a i n these. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f a c t o r s r e q u i r e f u r t h e r study i n order to e s t a b l i s h proper pay grades which w i l l equate p o s i t i o n s and c l a s s e s of s i m i l a r degrees of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A compromise pay grade pla n i s p r e s e n t l y required which w i l l a l l o w over-l a p p i n g between Classes. T h i s * i n t u r n , w i l l promote p r a c t -i t i o n e r s k i l l s * thus making the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p l a n more open-ended i n accord w i t h a m e r i t - r a t i n g plan of increased Casework, Group work, and Community o r g a n i z a t i o n , are included i n t h i s term as used here. 6 1 c f . E. E p l e r , " P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e Employees: T h e i r Education." S o c i a l S e c u r i t y B u l l e t i n . Feb. 1952, Federal S e c u r i t y Agency, Washington, D.C, U.S.A., " P r o f e s s i o n a l education and experience do not...guarantee s k i l l i n d e a l i n g w i t h the c o m p l e x i t i e s of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n h e l p i n g people to become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , and i n meeting c o n s t r u c t -i v e l y the many problems i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p u b l i c a s -s i s t a n c e . In g e n e r a l , however, the b e t t e r educated workers, and those w i t h the most p e r t i n e n t experience can be assumed to have the g r e a t e s t s k i l l . . . . " p . 3 . - 86 pay over 1 an e n t i r e career span. The a l t e r n a t i v e s are (a) to provide f i x e d ranks of worker, s u p e r v i s o r , a d m i n i s t r a t o r , teacher, w i t h l i m i t e d range of steps or wide rang© of steps and (b) to provide f i x e d p o s i t i o n s l a b e l l e d , according to the f i e l d of d i r e c t s e r v i c e appropriate to the p o s i t i o n , e.g., p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l worker, c h i l d placement supervisor* Intake s u p e r v i s o r , f a m i l y s e r v i c e worker, d i s t r i c t s e c r e t a r y , et c e t e r a . I n t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e , pay grade steps are u s u a l l y l i m i t e d i n number because of the tendency to c o n s i d e r the p o s i t i o n as one of s p e c i a l i z e d S k i l l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A t the same time, t h i s tendency u s u a l l y leads to requests f o r r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n whenever d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are changed or whenever the incumbent reaches the top step of the pay grade. The f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e tends to l i m i t m o b i l i t y of s t a f f and at the same time perpetuates the "c a s t e " system which d e n i g r a t e s the r o l e of the d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r a c t i t i o n e r . Unless s o c i a l work can re-emphasize the importance of the d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r a c t i t i o n e r , employers and gene r a l p u b l i c w i l l never recognize s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n . Moreover, i f we are to consider s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n , and simultaneously consider the r o l e of the S o c i a l agency as both the f i e l d of oper a t i o n f o r the i n s t i -t u t i o n of s o c i a l work and as an employer, then a blend of the rank and p o s i t i o n concepts must be maintained i n s e t t i n g a value on the v a r i o u s job c l a s s e s . - 87 -With the foregoing p r i n c i p l e s i n mind, gr a d a t i o n o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l e v e l s i s proposed i n Table 8, p. 88. In the scheme proposed, there i s a combination of rank and p o s i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . P r o v i s i o n i s made f o r s o c i a l workers w i s h i n g to remain i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r a c t i c e , to do so without l o s s i n pay or s t a t u s . At the same time, prov-i s i o n i s made f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n by f u n c t i o n , i n d i r e c t 62 s e r v i c e , s u p e r v i s i o n , t eaching, and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Pro-j e c t i o n of each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n according to steps w i t h i n pay grades provides f o r career o p p o r t u n i t i e s , w i t h i n a d e s i g -nated area of f u n c t i o n , ranging from 22 to 26 years. Major Class determinants i n the scheme are the degrees of s k i l l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y inherent I n each c l a s s . For example, S.W* I represents the beginning grade of s o c i a l worker w i t h one year of post-graduate t r a i n i n g , S.W. I I represents the beginning s o c i a l worker w i t h two years of post-graduate t r a i n i n g . Each successive c l a s s I s baaed on a minimum of two years post-graduate t r a i n i n g . Throughout the Scheme one year of academic t r a i n i n g i s assumed as the equivalent of two years experience on the Job. Other d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r a c t i t i o n e r and p o s i t i o n f u n c t i o n grades are assumed on the b a s i s of years of experience necessary to perform c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s adequately. Thus, a f t e r three years experience as S.W. I I (or one year experience p l u s one year of s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g ) , a s o c i a l worker might be "6^  ' 1 1 "' 1 - ... i • i I n c l u d i n g Case work, Group work, and Community organ-i z a t i o n . Table 8 . Proposed C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme f a r S o c i a l Workers CLASSIFICATION TITLES 1 P r a c t i t i o n e r o r S D i r e c t S e r v i c e T Grades E ' P S.W.I (B.S.W.) S I 2 S.W.II (M.S.W.) P o s i t i o n Function Grades 3 4 5 3 Sup. I S.W.V.or S.W.VI or Sup.II S.W.VII o r 6 4 1 Research (Teacher- Admin. I 1 9 7 2 4 2 2 2 10 8 3 5 3 3 3 I 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 S.W.rv o r 3 Sup* I S.W.V.or S.W.VI or Sup.II 1 Research (Teacher-S.W.Ill 2 Worker (Consultant) 6 1 3 1 1 7 2 2 2 8 3 5 3 3 9 6 4 10 6 7 8 f> 6 5 6 7 9 7 7 8 10 8 8 9 11 9 9 10 12 10 10 11 13 11 11 12 I k 12 12 13 15 13 13 14 % 15 15 15 S.W.VIII * o r Adm.II Co 1 S.W.IX or CO 2 A d m i n . I l l I' 3 l 4 2 5 3 6 7 5 8 6 9 7 10 8 11 9 12 10 13 11 14 12 . 15 13 15 1 Each step represents one year w i t h i n the grade. • 89 * r e c l a s s i f i e d to S.W. IV should such a p o s i t i o n be a v a i l * a b le. Gr, a f t e r f i v e years experience (or three years experience p l u s one year of s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g ) * as S*W. I I * a s o c i a l Worker would be e l i g i b l e f o r r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as S.W.; I I I i n v o l v i n g a g r e a t e r degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s ^ ^ o r might be r e c l a s s i f i e d as S.W. VI or V I I should such a p o s i t i o n be a v a i l a b l e , The l a t t e r f i v e grades of the Scheme, i . e . , S.W.V, S.W. V I , S.W. V I I , S.W.VIII, and S.W. IX, would each i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n an agency. S.W. V I I and S.W. V I I I r e s p e c t i v e l y would i n v o l v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r an agency o f s e v e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s w i t h i n one s e t t i n g , and f o r s e v e r a l sub-agencies de-c e n t r a l i z e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y . K e * e l a s s ; l f i e a t i o n o r promotion w i t h i n a c l a s s ! -f i c a t i o n should be based on a merit r a t i n g of the worker's performance o r on p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e * c l a s s i f i c a t i o n from d i r e c t s e r v i c e grades to p o s i t i o n f u n c t i o n grades, a form of p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n seems e s s e n t i a l . At present, i t i s assumed i n s o o i a l work p r a c t i c e that a beginning worker r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n number of years of experience on the job before being q u a l i f i e d f o r p o s i t i o n s of h i g h e r rank. Such an assumption i m p l i e s a judgment that 63 T r a n s f e r from one grade to another should be considered as a promotion i n v o l v i n g a pay increase thus a r e -c l a s s i f i c a t i o n from S.W.II f o r a worker i n step 6 o f that pay grade t o S.W. I l l would mean the worker should be paid as S.W. I l l a t step 2 of that range. - 90 * there are (legreeil o f e k i l l n e c e s s a r i l y Inherent I n Senior ranks, which can only be learned w i t h i n the scope o f the agency* Whether t h i s i s tr u e or not, has not been examined. The present study, however, i n d i c a t e s t h a t some measure of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y I s c a r r i e d by a l l s o c i a l workers i n a l l areas of f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the Vancouver C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . Since i t .ii'; o n l y the extent t o whioh each area i s emphasized and each S t a f f member i s employed t h a t w i l l vary from agency t o agency, and sin c e a l l agencies p a r t i c i p a t e i n tome measure i n each ar e a , l b would f o l l o w t h a t a l l s o c i a l workers r e q u i r e gome measure of s k i l l i n each area i f they are t o be considered as p r o f e s s i o n a l s r a t h e r than as t e c h n i c i a n s . CHAPTER V FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS SUBiroary of Findings This study represents a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n of what s o c i a l workers do. Using job e v a l u a t i o n process, s p e c i f i c a l l y the p o s i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method, cu r r e n t theory and p r a c t i c e i n s o c i a l casework have been examined. This has revealed broad areas of a c t i v i t i e s or f u n c t i o n s g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to S o c i a l work p r a c t i c e i n any s e t t i n g , v i z . , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c o n s u l t a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , d i r e c t s e r v i c e * community education* p r o f e s s i o n a l education, program development* s t a f f development* and r e s e a r c h , T r a d i t i o n a l t h i n k i n g and c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e tend to a s s i g n each of these a c t i v i t i e s aS a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to S p e c i f i c ranks. G e n e r a l l y , the a d m i n i s t r a t o r IS considered to have o v e r - a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s of h i s agency. The s u p e r v i s o r I s considered to haVe r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c o n s u l t a t i v e , and teaching nature. The worker i s considered p r i m a r i l y aS a d i r e c t Service p r a c t i t i o n e r . I n Chapters 2 and 3* examination of the p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l workers i n the C l i n i c r e v e a l s , however, t h a t a l l s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t e In a l l areas of the Department's f u n c t i o n . Whether t h i s s e t t i n g i s unique i n t h i s respect i s beyond the Scope of t h i s t h e s i s to study. - 92 -/ j I n any ©vent, i n t h i s s e t t i n g * aa i n the Berkman study, s o e i a l workers of a l l ranks were found a c t i v e i n a i l the broad areas Of a c t i v i t i e s o r f u n c t i o n s c i t e d . T h i s suggests t h a t areas of a c t i v i t y do not c o n s t i t u t e determinants of c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s . The extent of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the major a c t i v i t i e s and the degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n each major a c t i v i t y v a r i e s w i t h the rank of the employee. Thus each rank has an i d e n t i -f i a b l e major area of a c t i v i t y . However, beyond t h i s , each rank a l s o spends anywher© from 1*7• 3 P©** cent to 69 per cent of time I n a c t i v i t i e s other than the major area. I f i t i s assumed t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n time i s devoted to the employee's major area of a c t i v i t y , i t would appear t h a t f o r a great p a r t of the time, the s t a f f does not share r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Sim-i l a r l y , the v a r i e t y and degree of s k i l l s r e q u i r e d i s great f o r a l l s t a f f . Although major determinants of c l a s s were found ( v i z . , the extent of work which i s subject to review by others and the degree o f knowledge and a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d i n f i e l d s other than the major area of f u n c t i o n ) , i t I s apparent that broad areas of knowledge and a b i l i t y are assumed to be commonly acquired by a l l p r a c t i t i o n e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f rank. Post-graduate t r a i n i n g i n S o c i a l work i n c l u d e s courses i n f i e l d s of p r a c t i c e ; (e*g. M e d i c a l s o c i a l work, C h i l d Welfare, P u b l i c Welfare, P s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work, 6k' 1 " ' " ' ' ' '"' '' ' " , ' " " ' '•''"""" '"' '•' '' — P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l Workers i n P s y c h i a t r i c H o s p i t a l s and C l i n i c s , op. b i t . - 93 -et c e t e r a ) j I n processes (e.g. casework, group work, community o r g a n i z a t i o n , research)} and i n f u n c t i o n (e.g. a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , as f u n c t i o n s delegated to s p e c i f i e d ranks or broader study of agency f u n c t i o n s i n the va r i o u s areas of p r a c t i c e ) . Emphasis and focus o f d i f f e r e n t schools of s o c i a l work determine which courses are s t r e s s e d . S i m i l a r l y , agency focus plus the s k i l l s , i n t e r e s t s and u n i t y of agency personnel, determine which a c t i v i t i e s or f u n c t i o n s of the agency w i l l be st r e s s e d . However, i f s o c i a l work has a generic base, and i f s o c i a l Work employees of an agency have the Same extent of p r o f e s s i o n a l education, then agencies Should deploy s t a f f i n a l l areas of f u n c t i o n , Th© l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r assignment i s e v a l u a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l employee»-hla S k i l l s (knowledge and a b i l i t i e s ) , i n t e r e s t s and ye a r s of experience. Th© Job d e s c r i p t i o n s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme proposed In t h i s Study f a c i l i t a t e the f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e use of the s k i l l s and experience of a l l s t a f f . P r o v i s i o n by schools of s o c i a l work of a t h i r d year of advanced t r a i n i n g o r of two years of advanced study toward a doctorate degree suggest tha t agency c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s need t o recognize s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e as w e l l aS i n t r a d i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n f u n c t i o n s . To do so i s to enhance the stat u s of the p r a c t i t i o n e r by equating d i r e c t Service p o s i t i o n s w i t h those o f other ranks where the extent of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and years of exper-ience r e q u i r e d to develop p r o f i c i e n c y are S i m i l a r . - 9 k -F a c t o r s L i m i t i n g the A p p l i c a b i l i t y of the Present Stud? to  Other S e t t i n g s The process of a n a l y z i n g , d e s c r i b i n g and e v a l u a t i n g s o c i a l work jobs, as i l l u s t r a t e d here by study of a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g , i s a p p l i c a b l e to o ther s e t t i n g s . Both the job d e s c r i p -t i o n s and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme proposed i n t h i s study are, i n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , a l s o a p p l i c a b l e to other s e t t i n g s . However, other agencies u s i n g the process described h e r e i n , may f i n d d i f f e r e n c e s i n areas of a c t i v i t y o r f u n c t i o n s t r e s s e d by t h e i r agency. Thus, d i f f e r e n c e s i n deployment of s t a f f may a l s o occur. I n the C l i n i c s e t t i n g there i s a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Since the C l i n i c i s a medical agency, the Department has l i m i t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t o t a l agency f u n c t i o n . At the Same time, Since the C l i n i c i s team-oriented i n o p e r a t i o n , each s o c i a l worker has extensive r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r planning, Coordinat-i n g , and I n t e g r a t i n g h i s work i n r e l a t i o n to (a) o ther departments (b) o ther team members. The C l i n i c c o n s i s t s of both formal or l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e by departments and Informal or s t a f f S t r u c t u r e by teams i n S p e c i f i c case assignments. This S t r u c t u r e i m p l i e s n e c e s s i t y f o r S o c i a l workers to have a c l e a r understanding of t h e i r p r a c t i t i o n e r r o l e s and t h e i r department r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . However, t h i s I s essen-t i a l l y a re-statement of the p r i n c i p l e , v i z . , t h a t a l l s o c i a l workers should be f a m i l i a r w i t h both the rank and p o s i t i o n - 95 -corieepts of t h e i r r o l e w i t h i n any agency s e t t i n g . More impor-tan t i n the C l i n i c i s t h a t the degree of treatment respon-s i b i l i t y assigned to each worker I s much l e s s than the degree assigned to workers In s o e i a l agency s e t t i n g s . However, here again, the degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y assigned w i t h i n the scope of the Department I s s i m i l a r to the degree of respon-s i b i l i t y c a r r i e d by workers i n a s o c i a l agency s e t t i n g , A f u r t h e r f a c e t of d i f f e r e n c e between the S e t t i n g of t h i s Study and other s e t t i n g s i s apparent i n the s t r e s s on c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s , v i z . , (a) community and p r o f e s s i o n a l edu-c a t i o n , (b) s t a f f development, and g e n e r a l l y (c) the non-personal a c t i v i t i e s . The f i r s t i s a major f u n c t i o n or s p e c i f i c focus of C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s . The l a t t e r are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the d u a l r o l e r e q u i r e d of the s o e i a l worker i n the C l i n i c s e t t i n g , i . e . , p r a c t i t i o n e r and depart-ment employee. To what extent these three f u n c t i o n s are stressed i n n o n - c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g s i s not p r e s e n t l y known. R e l a t i n g S o c i a l Work C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s to Other Occupational  Groups Some of the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r o f e s s i o n a l S o c i a l work have been discussed e a r l i e r (Chapter 3). Exam-i n a t i o n of methods of job e v a l u a t i o n (Chapter 2) r e v e a l s f o u r broad f a c t o r s a p p l i c a b l e to a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n of manual, See Table 7, p. 6 5 , f o r l i s t of "non-personal a c t i v i t i e s . " c l e r i c a l and t e c h n i c a l j o b s 0 0 r e g a r d l e s s of whether the f a c t o r comparison, p o i n t r a t i n g , ranking, or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method I s used. T i f f i n 6 7 and others have demonstrated that s i m p l i f i e d one, o r two-factor comparisons between jobs achieve f i n a l e v a l u a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o m u l t i - f a c t o r Comparisons. The present Study r e v e a l s t h a t the two f a c t o r s of s k i l l r e q u i r e d and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s assigned are S u f f i c i e n t to evaluate d i f -ferences i n job c l a s s e s w i t h i n a s e r i e s o f s o c i a l work jobs. The w r i t e r suggests t h a t the above f a c t o r s would a l s o be suf-f i c i e n t t o enable v a l i d comparisons between a s e r i e s of S o c i a l work jobs and any other t e c h n i c a l or p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r i e s . Such comparisons would pre-Suppose d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n of s e r i e s of jobs w i t h i n other o c c u p a t i o n a l groups. To enable V a l i d comparisons between s o c i a l work and other occupations, s e v e r a l Sub-factors of s k i l l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n S o e i a l work jobs r e q u i r e considerable f u r t h e r study. S k i l l requirements are p r i m a r i l y determined by the adequacy of performance desired* I f the agency i s focused on the use o f agency f u n c t i o n i n meeting a s o c i a l need or problem then adequacy of performance i s r e l a t e d to the use of f u n c t i o n i n meeting the need or problem presented. I f the agency i s U \ ' 1 -.. - • ——"." -; "' :- ; ' " 1 - -——— S k i l l - t r a i n i n g and experience r e q u i r e d j R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) E f f o r t Required - mental, p h y s i c a l and emotionalj and Working Conditions - unusual hazards or deterrents., ° 7 I n d u s t r i a l Psychology, OP. c i t . . pp. 383-393. See a l s o p. 2k of present study, * 97 * focused on d i a g n o s t i c assessment of need, then adequacy of -performance i s r e l a t e d t o the m o t i v a t i o n and c a p a c i t y of the c l i e n t and to th© opportunity provided to the c l i e n t by agency 68 worker and agency f u n c t i o n . Opportunity provided to c l i e n -t e l e depends on: (a) the scope o f agency s e r v i c e s and f u n c t i o n , (b) the scope of supervisory and c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s to agency employees*, and. (c) the extent of t r a i n i n g * experience* and personal s k i l l i n r e l a t i o n s h i p * of agenoy employees, (d) the c a p a c i t y and am e n a b i l i t y of p h y s i c a l * economic and f a m i l y environment to support the c l i e n t . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s assigned* or the degrees of r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y i m p l i c i t i n s o c i a l work j o b s , s i m i l a r l y i n v o l v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that are not e a s i l y measured. I n assessing the complexity of a Job we must consider the f o l l o w i n g : (a) What i s the shape or c o n d i t i o n of the raw m a t e r i a l ( i * e , the need* problem,, o r c o n d i t i o n of the c l i e n t on a p p l i c a t i o n and the m o t i v a t i o n and c a p a c i t y of the client)?,-•• (b) What i s the extent of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of process and the d e t a i l of i n s t r u c t i o n s (tho extent to which methods and techniques s p e c i f y step*by-step work w i t h the o l i e n t ) ? (c) What i s the degree of change r e q u i r e d between the i n i t i a l and t e r m i n a l stages i n processing (the aim or f u n c t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , the opportunity f o r s e r v i c e a f f o r d e d R i p p l e , L i l i a n , " M o t i v a t i o n , Capacity and Opportunity as Related t o the Use of Casework S e r v i c e : P l a n of Study," The S o c i a l Service Review* June, 1 9 5 5 , pp. 173-193. - 98 -by the o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the m o t i v a t i o n and c a p a c i t y o f the c l i e n t ) ? (d) What i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of e r r o r during job process (the degree of c o n s u l t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e and the degree of super-v i s i o n exercised* p l u s the degree of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of process)? Consider the d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between "squaring up" lumber stock and making a cabinet from the stock-*between determining e l i g i b i l i t y f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s * tance and completing an adoption placement. In each i n s t a n c e , the f o u r questions c i t e d above should be the guide i n d e t e r * mining the r e l a t i v e c o m p l e x i t i e s of these tasks* Applying the f o u r questions to s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s r a i s e s more questions than the p r o f e s s i o n i s p r e s e n t l y able to answer. A f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n In comparisons between s o c i a l work and manual, c l e r i c a l , , and t e c h n i c a l groups, i s t h a t S o c i a l work has people as I t s "raw m a t e r i a l " and "end product," Inherent i n S o c i a l work philosophy i s the r i g h t of t h i s mat* e r i a l to determine i t s own ends. In i n d u s t r y , the m a t e r i a l I s p a s s i v e , i n e r t , conducive to change, I n s o c i a l work, the c l i e n t i s an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t , at times r e s i s t a n t to change, at times both d e s i r o u s of and r e s i s t a n t to change. A p o s s i b l e analogy l i e s In v i s u a l i z i n g the s o c i a l worker as the assembly b e l t whose s k i l l s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p h e l p the c l i e n t to achieve the d e s i r e d g o a l . - 99 -In I n d ustry, management and the consumer determines what the end product s h a l l be. In s o c i a l work, the c l i e n t i s both consumer ( r e c i p i e n t of s e r v i c e ) and end product. Manage-ment i n s o c i a l work r a r e l y ever sees e i t h e r the "raw m a t e r i a l " or the "end product" of b e t t e r - a d j u s t e d i n d i v l d u a l ( s ) or com-munity. Nor i s i t easy to describe simply, the process(es) which e f f e c t change between a p p l i c a t i o n and t e r m i n a t i o n . Thus present comparisons between s o c i a l work and jobs i n v o l v -i n g non-personal products u s u a l l y f a i l to see the c l i e n t as an a c t i v e - r e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n a h e l p i n g process. Rather than p e r m i t t i n g these complications to over-whelm and immobilize i t , s o c i a l work must continue to d e s c r i b e , analyze, and evaluate how i t discharges i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the betterment of i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y . Using the s p e c i f i c medium of job e v a l u a t i o n , s o c i a l work must d e s c r i b e i t s s k i l l s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s I n terms and s i t u a t i o n s com-parable t o other occupations. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method and process as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s study provides a v e h i c l e f o r comparisons between s e t t i n g s and between o c c u p a t i o n a l groups or s e r i e s of job c l a s s e s . Such e v a l u a t i o n must, however* be done as a shared p r o j e c t of management and l a b o r , employer and employee, boards or c i v i l s e r v i c e commissions and p r a c t i t i o n e r s . General I m p l i c a t i o n s Before s o c i a l work i s adequately valued by employers and the general p u b l i c * i t must f u r t h e r examine i t s b a s i c tenets and f u r t h e r s p e c i f y I t s processes. Norma of psycho-- 100 -s o c i a l adjustment or adaptation, d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r i e s or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and c r i t e r i a f o r determining the e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l work processes, must "be developed. The o n l y v a l i d b a s i s f o r a n a l y z i n g what s o c i a l work, should or does do i s that of s o c i a l heed of the i n d i v i d u a l , group(s), or community to be served. D e f i n i t i o n of the r o l e to be played by the s o c i a l worker as enable.? and p a r t i c i p a n t i n meeting v a r i o u s s o c i a l needs w i l l f u r t h e r o b j e c t i f y the processes of casework, group work, community o r g a n i z a t i o n , and s o c i a l research. C r i t e r i a of n o r m a l i t y or standard ranges of d e v i a t i o n p r e d i c a t e the n e c e s s i t y f o r acceptance of need of I n d i v i d u a l s or groups f o r h e l p , a m e l i o r a t i o n o r change. Such acceptance must i n v o l v e more than worker and c l i e n t . Communities and agency management must a l s o recognize norms of behavior and adjustment of i n d i v i d u a l s to s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Agency programs are i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r degree of r e c o g n i t i o n and acceptance of s o c i a l need. F u n c t i o n , s t r u c t u r e , q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s provided, a l l r e f l e c t the awareness and acceptance by the agency of S o e i a l need. To improve or change any one of these aspects of agency a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , r e q u i r e s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s of present e f f o r t s by present s t a f f w i t h i n e x i s t i n g agency a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . Agency s t r u c t u r e should f a c i -l i t a t e communication and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e f f o r t s and r e s u l t s . Current ranking concepts of a d m i n i s t r a t o r , s u p e r v i s o r , worker, c l i e n t , overlook the p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e to be played by the 101 -s o c i a l worker* as a member of community. Instead, such concepts tend to p o r t r a y the s o c i a l worker as the servant o r handmaiden of the community, dependent upon the acceptance, c h a r i t y , wisdom, and m a t u r i t y of the upper c l a s s , i n meeting s o e i a l need. S i m i l a r l y the concept of p r a c t i t i o n e r and c l i e n t over-looks the n e c e s s i t y of agency and community acceptance of s o c i a l need. St r u c t u r e becomes r i g i d when i t i s not geared to dynamic awareness of s o c i a l need by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n agency p r a c t i c e . S t r u c t u r e i s r i g i d when i t does not f a c i l i t a t e accurate communication and knowledge of the impact of s e r v i c e s rendered oh the need to be met. Th© general p u b l i c * boards of p r i v a t e agencies, and governments ar© i n t e r e s t e d i n what I s done. They want and need to know what t a n g i b l e or v i s i b l e e f f e c t s occur through, or as a concomitant r e s u l t of what i s done. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Agencies This study I l l u s t r a t e s the process of job e v a l u a t i o n u s i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method i n a manner which i s a p p l i c a b l e to any agency s e t t i n g . Review of c u r r e n t methods of e v a l u a t i n g and p r i c i n g s o c i a l work jobs r e v e a l s that present job des-c r i p t i o n s g i v e an inadequate p i c t u r e of the work of the agency and i t s employees. More accurate and standardized job d e s c r i p t i o n s are e s s e n t i a l t o agencies, s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n , and S o c i a l work education. In a n a l y z i n g jobs we might w e l l begin by a s k i n g : "Who i s the agency?" "How w e l l -- 102 -prepared I s i t (are they) to assess s o e i a l needs?" "How w e l l -equipped i s the agency to c a r r y out s e r v i c e s a p p ropriate to meeting s o c i a l needs?" "In what way does i t d e l i n e a t e respon-s i b i l i t y f o r c a r r y i n g out i t s s e r v i c e s or a c t i v i t i e s ? " The process of job a n a l y s i s , d e s c r i p t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chapter k i s an e s s e n t i a l f i r s t step f o r agencies to take i n measuring, d e l e g a t i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g the vrork of the agency. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme proposed should make i t p o s s i b l e to compare s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s i n a v a r i e t y of s e t t i n g s . At the same time i t o f f e r s a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n to the dilemma of a p r o f e s s i o n which seeks to achieve pro-f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s t a t u s but o f f e r s very l i m i t e d p o s s i -b i l i t i e s f o r the d i r e c t Service p r a c t i t i o n e r to enhance h i s earnings without assuming a t r a d i t i o n a l l y h i g h e r rank of s u p e r v i s o r or a d m i n i s t r a t o r or assuming a p a r t i c u l a r l y spec-i a l i z e d or s i n g l e f u n c t i o n p o s i t i o n which l i m i t s both h i s m o b i l i t y and h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l Work Education Both the t h e o r e t i c a l and time analyses of the s o e i a l worker's job i n d i c a t e a wide v a r i e t y of s k i l l s i s r e q u i r e d to c a r r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l a r g e number of f u n c t i o n s . Two a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r t r a i n i n g appear. E i t h e r s o c i a l workers are to be t r a i n e d as t e c h n i c i a n s , s k i l l e d only i n one area of a c t i v i t y o r p o s s i b l y i n one stage of that a c t i v i t y . Or s o e i a l workers are to be t r a i n e d as p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s 103 -concerned w i t h standards, techniques, and r e s u l t s , and able to perform a v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y . The w r i t e r f a v o r s the l a t t e r t r a i n i n g p l a n . To be e f f e c t i v e , such a plan must comprise a b a s i c c u r r i c u l u m of at l e a s t two years d u r a t i o n . The present compromise of a one year o r a two year course serves only to confuse the p u b l i c and employers as to what is- proper p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work. Meeting agency demands f o r more and more s t a f f by p r o v i s i o n o f a one year degree course provides agencies w i t h t e c h n i c i a n s , and at the same time negates the value of a two year t r a i n i n g course. Agencies employing the B*.S,W. worker u s u a l l y a s s i g n him to a s i n g l e - f u n c t i o n p o s i t i o n which i n v o l v e s d u t i e s l i m i t e d to one sphere of s o c i a l work. The concept of the p r a c t i t i o n e r , s k i l l e d i n a v a r i e t y of methods, able t o work i n any s e t t i n g then i s seen by the agencies as an u n r e a l i s t i c i d e a l , o r at l e a s t as a concept not a p p l i c a b l e to t h e i r agency. But no p r o f e s s i o n a l person merely f i l l s a p o s i t i o n i n an agency. The p r o f e s s i o n a l i s a c t i v e l y concerned w i t h a l l aspects Of s o c i a l need and s o c i a l betterment. To be e f f e c t i v e l y So, r e q u i r e s at l e a s t two years of graduate t r a i n i n g . Any agency t h a t professes to meet s o c i a l need must t a c i t l y recognize t h a t i t r e q u i r e s h i g h l y s k i l l e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s to achieve the agency g o a l . I f the goal i s merely to a l l e v i a t e d i s t r e s s then the p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t -i o n e r I s best used i n a d i a g n o s t i c f u n c t i o n r a t h e r than as a * 10k c l e r k o r t e c h n i c i a n . I f s o c i a l work education should comprise two years of graduate t r a i n i n g , what then, should the c u r r i c u l u m content be? Prom t h i s Study, I t i s apparent t h a t s o c i a l workers regardless,,of rank o r p o s i t i o n are engaged i n a l l of the t r a d i t i o n a l S p e c i a l processes of s o c i a l work, i . e . case work, group work, community o r g a n i z a t i o n * research. They are a l s o i n v o l v e d i n f u n c t i o n s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , super-v i s i o n , c o n s u l t a t i o n and teaching. Yet, t r a d i t i o n a l l y , s o c i a l work education, i n Canada, has provided f o r s p e c i a l i s a t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n e i t h e r casework o r group work. At the same time, courses I n community o r g a n i z a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , and adminis-t r a t i o n are u s u a l l y p a r t of a two-year c u r r i c u l u m . But; I these areas of content are u s u a l l y considered along w i t h super-v i s i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n * as areas r e q u i r i n g a t h i r d year o r doctorate program before s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . The present study emphasizes the need f o r a c u r r i c u l u m which provides a t l e a s t basic o r i n t r o d u c t o r y courses i n a l l these areas of process and f u n c t i o n . I f s o c i a l work gives s e r v i c e s through agencies to i n d i v i d u a l s , groups, and communities, then s o c i a l workers need to be taught the processes of case work, group work and community o r g a n i z a t i o n . A s i m i l a r o bservation a r i s e s from 69 TeSSie Berkraan's study* Although schools o f S o c i a l work now o f f e r Some theory of group behavior to caseworkers i n t r a i n i n g the schools g e n e r a l l y have not i n t e g r a t e d classroom o v Lay, Madeleine, "Some I m p l i c a t i o n s o f This Research f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l Education for P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work*" i n P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l Workers. op. c i t . . p. I l k . - io5 -teaching arid f i e l d i n s t r u c t i o n to combine i n the l e a r n i n g experience s k i l l s i n both processes.... An i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m preparing students t o work w i t h both i n d i v i d u a l s and groups c a l l s f o r e x p e r i * , mentation i n the near f u t u r e . To prepare s o c i a l workers e x c l u s i v e l y f o r group work or casework, as I s done c u r r e n t l y , may be outmoded i n the l i g h t of the changing demands of p r a c t i c e . Th© present study a l s o shows t h a t s o c i a l workers are r e q u i r e d to u t i l i z e p r i n c i p l e s of community o r g a n i z a t i o n even though t h e i r t r a i n i n g probably focused on the casework or group work process. As w i t h teaching* a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n , increased knowledge and S k i l l i n community organ* i z a t i o n can be developed i n advanced education, but o r i e n t a t i o n t o these processes i s e s s e n t i a l i n the e a r l y p e r i o d o f training. 7 0 I n order to cover these broad areas* s o c i a l work schools might use case or group examples or s i t u a t i o n s as teaching m a t e r i a l to be analyzed from the viewpoint o f d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r a c t i c e , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and Supervisory s k i l l s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and a p p l i c a b i l i t y of research techniques to Study and s o l u t i o n of the problem presented. An a d j u n c t i v e but more comprehensive proposal f o r generic S o c i a l Work education i s o f f e r e d i n the H o l l l s - T a y l o r r e p o r t . 7 ^ There, the authors suggest r e v i s i o n s i n under-graduate c u r r i c u l a p l u s a f i r s t - y e a r b a s i c c u r r i c u l u m composed of f o u r comprehensive areas of Study s 1. A comprehensive course c o n s i s t i n g of s e l e c t e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s c a l c u l a t e d to broaden and deepen understanding and c a p a c i t y to cope w i t h 7 0 I b i d . , pp. I l i * * l l 5 . 7 * S o c i a l Work Education, bp, c i t . * 106 * s o c i a l process and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to s o c i a l w e l f a r e . . . . 2. A comprehensive course which combines b i o p s y c h o S o c i a l m a t e r i a l i n t o teaching u n i t s focused on developing p r o f e s s i o n a l S o c i a l work knowledge, s k i l l , and a t t i -tude f o r f a c e - t o - f a c e work w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s * groups , and communities. 3, A comprehensive course, composed of teaching u n i t s * which present e i t h e r i n h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , or Current S o c i o l o g i c a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n , the theory and p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n , i t s p h i l o * Sophy and ethics,and i t s r e l a t i o n to other p r o f e s -s i o n s and to S o c i e t y i n general. k. A comprehensive course composed of teaching u n i t s focused on p r o v i d i n g beginners w i t h a working know-ledge of the p r o f e s s i o n as r e f l e c t e d i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s o c i a l work o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , f i n a n c e , personnel,,and i n p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , and community organization.7 2 H o l l i s and T a y l o r f u r t h e r suggest t h a t such a c u r * r i c u l u m f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s would be supplemented by a second year o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S u p e r v i s i o n * teaching* and research. The most compelling reason f o r undertaking the f o u r S p e c i a l i z a t i o n s f o r t h w i t h i s to prevent a f u r t h e r -going o f separate ways by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , s u p e r v i s o r s * teachers* r e s e a r c h e r s , and p r a c t i t i o n e r s . I t i s of paramount importance f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t o r and the research worker to be more c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d p r o f e s -s i o n a l l y w i t h others i n the groups J u s t named. Because of the nature of t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p * the p r o f e s s i o n cannot a f f o r d to continue I t s present p r a c t i c e of denying them membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s because they have not completed a program of education designed f o r a p r a c t i t i o n e r and which c o n t r i b u t e s o n l y m a r g i n a l l y t o the f u n c t i o n s they perform f o r the profession.73 The w r i t e r accepts the need f o r S p e c i a l i z a t i o n s i n these f i e l d s . At the same time* the w r i t e r agrees that s e t t i n g s f o r p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l work do not c o n s t i t u t e 72 m d t t p. 3 i . — — — - — -73 H o l l i s and T a y l o r * op. c i t . . p. 33. * 107 -s p e c i a l i z e d areas of knowledge and a b i l i t y . The assumption i s t h a t a s o c i a l worker employs, or should employ s i m i l a r p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s under defined circumstances regardless, o f whether he i s engaged i n a p r i v a t e group,work or casework agency, or i s employed by the c o u r t s , an i n d u s t r i a l c o r p o r a t i o n , a l a b o r union, a f e d e r a l agency, or a. ..welfare Popart-' raent.74 . However, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to r e t a i n the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s i n d i r e c t , s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s * The core of any p r o f e s s i o n i s found i n I t s d i r e c t s e r v i c e to people by I t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , t e a c h i n g , and research, are essential s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s to meet the demands of agency p o s i * tIons and growth of p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge. But these must be complemented by continued s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r a c t i t i o n e r s who can achieve S i m i l a r s t a t u s and f i n a n c i a l reward by advancing t h e i r t r a i n i n g . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s The Job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme proposed I n t h i s study would, i f adopted by agencies, a i d i n recruitment^and r e t e n t i o n o f q u a l i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s * But such a sehem© w i l l o n l y be adopted i f p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s continue t h e i r e f f o r t s t o r a i s e standards of p r a c t i c e and to achieve b a r g a i n -i n g r i g h t s . Community education and s o c i a l a c t i o n can a i d i n a c h i e v i n g community r e c o g n i t i o n of the r o l e o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker. However, the p r o f e s s i o n must take an a c t i v e r o l e With employers i n d e s c r i b i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g and p r i c i n g ^ I b i d . . p. 2 9 , • ' ' •* 108 s o c i a l work jobs. The scheme proposed here lends I t s e l f to the p o s s i b l e c e r t i f i c a t i o n of S o c i a l workers accor d i n g to t h e i r t r a i n i n g and experience. L o c a l l y , the p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n needs f i r s t to e s t a b l i s h s o l i d a r i t y . Then e f f o r t s to achieve p a r i t y of wages may be rewarded i f the process o f job a n a l y s i s described h e r e i n i s promoted by the a s s o c i a t i o n . As a long-range g o a l * c e r t i f i c a t i o n , o r l i c e n s i n g , o f s o c i a l workers may be f a c i l i t a t e d by a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r s o c i a l Work jobs based upon the p r i n c i p l e s of t h i s study. Suggestions f o r Future Research Throughout t h i s study, references have been made to f u r t h e r Studies r e q u i r e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , three major areas of research should be rewarding. 1. Time and Cost a n a l y s i s Studies can f a c i l i t a t e job e v a l u a t i o n and simultaneously provide i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o c i a l work to the general p u b l i c and other p r o f e s s i o n s . As an a d j u n c t i v e v a l u e , such s t u d i e s are rewarding through the i n f o r m a t i o n they provide f o r improvement of e f f i c i e n c y of agency a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 2. A s o c i o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d study o f the r o l e o f the s o c i a l Worker as a community member, p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t -i t i o n e r , employer, and employee, would provide i n v a l u a b l e f i n d i n g s f o r s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e , s o c i a l work education, and f o r s o c i a l workers. * 109 * 3* F u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n , t e s t i n g and v a l i d a t i o n o f assumed premises, concepts, techniques, and methods would g r e a t l y enhance the s c i e n t i f i c base of th© a r t of s o c i a l work. As a p r e l i m i n a r y attempt to d e s c r i b e the "what" of s o c i a l Work, t h i s Study p r i m a r i l y focused on i l l u s t r a t i n g the process of job e v a l u a t i o n as i t p e r t a i n e d to s o c i a l work In a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g . Much f u r t h e r Study and a c t i o n Is essen-t i a l I f w© are to use f u l l y , job e v a l u a t i o n methods as developed by Industry. With f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h as Suggested above, S o c i a l work can make a S i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i n d u s t r i a l job e v a l u a t i o n through the s o c i a l Worker* s unique focus and understanding of the p e r s o n a l i t y and r o l e requirements of the employee w i t h i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . R i p p l e , L i l i a n , O P . c i t * 110 -APPENDIX A  SAMPLE CLASSIFICATION QUESTIONNAIRE n Pers. 10 Name (Do Not Write Here) (Last) CITY OF VANCOUVER PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT (First) (Middle) Department .. Payroll Title CLASSIFICATION QUESTIONNAIRE 2. Place of Work or Headquarters 4. Division, Section, or Other Unit of Dept. 6. Working Title (Do Not Write Here) Regular daily hours of work. From. m. to_ m. Hours per week-If your job is part time, seasonal, intermittent, for a limited term, or otherwise not continuous, please explain.. This is the most important part of the Form: Describe below in detail the kind of work you do. Use your own words and make your description so plain that any one reading it can understand exactly what you do. Either by using hours, days, fractions, or percentages show how your whole working time is used. If you are temporarily filling a position other than your regular one, indicate your present temporary work as well as your regular work. Fill in and attach additional sheets if necessary. TIME WORK (Leave Blank) 0. Summarize the major responsibilities of your work. [T. Give name and title of person who is your immediate super>isor. (Do Not Write Below This Line) 12. List all equipment operated or used by you in doing your work , r > Describe fully in what detail assignments of work are made to you, stating what form (such as penciled lay-out, rough draft, etc.) your work is in when it comes to you. Describe fully v/hat kind of decisions have already been made when the work comes to you, and what decisions are left to you 4. Give- name and title of person (or persons) who checks or reviews your work ... What is the nature and extent of the check or review? .5. If you supervise five or less employees, give their names and titles. If you supervise more than five employees, simply give the name of the unit and number of employees supervised I certify that I have read the instructions, that the foregoing answers are my own, and to the best of my knowledge are accurate and complete. Date Signed (Employee)  (TO BE FILLED IN BY IMMEDIATE SUPERVISOR) 5. Are the above statements of the employee accurate and complete? (Indicate any inaccuracies or incomplete items) 7. Give your idea of the essential nature of the work, the responsibilities of the position, and the supervision it requires. 8. Indicate the qualifications which you think should be required in filling a future vacancy in this position. Keep in mind the reasonable needs of the position itself rather than the qualifications of the individual who now occupies it. A . Does job require more than ability to read and write B. Education and Special Training: Years and kind__ C. Experience: Years and kind . D. Licenses or certificates required E. What physical qualifications, kinds of knowledge, abilities, or skills should a person filling this position possess? 9. If the position requires any typing or stenography, fill out the following: Is It Incidental or Important? Per Cent of Employee's Working Time Devoted to Each Typing: Stenography: Date Signed (Immediate Supervisor) (TO BE FILLED IN BY DEPARTMENT HEAD) Comment on the above statements of the employee, and of the supervisor. Indicate any inaccuracies. Date. Signed. (Department Head) Form Pers. 20 CITY OF VANCOUVER PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT INSTRUCTIONS A N D SUGGESTIONS FOR FILLING O U T T H E CLASSIFICATION QUESTIONNAIRE What the Classification Surrey Is. This is a job inventory. It Is not concerned with your ability on the job or with your qualifications. The kind of work you do, and the responsibilities of your position, are the things to be shown on the classification questionnaire. This survey is simply an analysis of the duties and responsibilities of positions In the classified service of the city in order to develop a classification plan. This plan will consist of grouping together all positions having substantially similar duties and responsibilities. The classification plan will be used as the basis for a sound employment system and fair compensation standards. It is essential that the plan be accurate. Therefore, detailed and exact knowledge of the duties and responsibilities of each position is necessary. You are asked to fill In the classification questionnaire because you know the exact duties you perform and your responsibilities. Do not copy other people's answers even though their work Is the same as your own. We want your own statement. Ask your immediate superior to explain questions you do not understand, but use your own words In answering all questions. SUGGESTIONS TO EMPLOYEES Read these Instructions carefully. Write your answers on the yellow sheet. See that they are correct and complete. Then type your answers on the green and white sheets. Use the Green for the Original and the White for the Carbon Copy. Sign and return the typewritten forms to your immediate superior within five days. Keep the yellow sheet. If you cannot type yourself, write your answers on the yellow sheet and return the questionnaire to your lmmedite superior for typing within five days. He will return the typed questionnaire to you for review, dating, and signature. Then return the two typed copies to him and keep the yellow sheet. Read the following explanation for each item just before answering the questions: Item 1—Give your last name first, then your first name, then your middle name or initial. Indicate whether Mr., Mrs., or Miss. Item 2—The place where you work should be indicated by room number and building, or street address. Item 3—Enter name of department, such as "Health Department" or "Fire Department," etc. Item 4—Enter name of departmental subdivision, such as "Communicable Diseases" or "Sewer Maintenance," etc. Item 5—Give your present official title as carried on the payroll. If you do not know, ask your immediate superior. Item 6—Write here the name you and your fellow workers use for your Job. i Item 7—(Enter your regular hours for starting and stopping work, your total number of hours worked per week. If you work Hifferent shifts, or have one shift one week and another the next, explain, using the margin If necessary. Item 8—Your work may be for two hours a day, three days a week, two weeks per month, or four months per year. Or, your appointment may be for a term of six months. If on call, so state. If your work periods are irregular in any way, explain and, if possible, give the reason. Item 9—This is the most important question on the form. Be specific; do not use general phrases. Each kind of work that you do should be carefully explained. The task which you consider most important should be given first, followed by the less important work, until the least important is described. If your work varies from season to season or at specific times, dutieB should be grouped together according to such periods. Give your complete work assignments over a long enough period of time to picture your job as a whole. If one kind of work takes one-half your time, say so. If another kind takes one day a month, say that. You may prefer to show the time spent on different duties in percentages or fractions, such as, for example, 75% of your time, or one-third of the year. Use whatever method you think will give a clear understanding of how you spend your working time, but be sure to show how much time is used for each of the various types of work you do. If you are performing duties other than those of your usual position, describe both. In describing the temporary work you are doing, you should give the name of the person you are replacing, how long you have been filling in for him, how long you expect to continue doing so, and the reason, such as, for example, vacation, sick leave, etc. If necessary for a full explanation of your job, attach copies of forms used, being careful to explain how each is used and what entries you make, but do not attach copies unless you think they are needed to describe your work. Examples of work In different fields are given below as a guide to the kind of statements wanted. Do not copy these exam-ples—use your own words. Ordinarily it will take all the space provided on the questionnaire to tell what you do. If you do not have enough space, attach additional sheets. EXAMPLES IN THE LABOR FIELD (Skilled and Unskilled) 2 months: I dig trenches with pick and shovel. Mr. Brown, my boss, tells me where to dig and when to stop. 1 month: I fill wheel barrows with sand or gravel and take it to the concrete mixer. I tamp concrete after it Is poured into forms. 1 month: Etc. I ride a ten ton flat bed truck and help load and unload bags of cement, heavy rock, reinforcing steel etc. We generally haul from the warehouse yards to maintenance or construction jobs. I wash the truck . . . etc. 3 months: 1 month: 2 months: Hoisting work with a two or three drum hoist. (Vacation relief.) Pile driving for retaining walls, excavations, and foundations. Sometimes I . . . etc. EXAMPLES IN THE CLERICAL AND RELATED FIELDS Average 4 hrs. per day: •2 hrs.: 1 nr.: Etc. I type vouchers in duplicate to accompany Invoices, after they have been approved by Mr. Jones and extensions checked by Miss Smith. I type reports from rough pencil copy. I also . . . etc. 2 days: 1 day: Etc. I file purchase orders chronologically and by department and vendor. I sort and distribute letters. 10%: 5%: Etc. I take dictation from Mr. Brown, including letters, memoranda, but Miss White takes all his engineering dictation. I file . . . etc. I EXAMPLE IN THE ENGINEERING FIELD 6 months: I lay out and trace plan-profile sheets for street Improvements. I reduce survey notes, balance traverses, and plot maps from the field books brought In by the field survey parties, also plot cross-sections and planlmeter for cut and fill areas. 2 months: Etc. I draft . . . etc. EXAMPLE IN THE ACCOUNTING FIELD 10%: I supervise three clerks assigned to the cost accounting system for street and lane construction and maintenance. 10%: I assemble Job record reports, post to summary sheets, and do other routine work. 5%: I tabulate and prove material for weekly, monthly and annual reports. 2%: Etc. I compile . . . etc. EXAMPLE IN THE JANITORIAL FIELD 1/2 day: Washing floors, walls, windows and woodwork by hand. 1/3 day: Polishing metal; waxing and polishing floors with a polishing machine: EXAMPLE IN THE FIRE FIGHTING FIELD 90%: I am In charge of a ladder company during the day shift. I also have charge of the station premises. I conduct roll call, Inspect tho men, and maintain discipline while I am on duty, etc. 10%: At a fire I decide . . . etc. Item 10—This question applies chiefly to employees whose duties and responsibilities are not clearly defined by regulations, well-established office procedures, or standard practices of a trade or craft. In answering it, summarize concisely what you con-sider to be the essential nature and degree of your responsibilities. It may be responsibility: for doing what you are told to do In workman-like manner; for journeyman work on assignment; for some highly skilled operations; for some type of technical or professional work; or directing operations of a particular office. Are your responsibilities limited to carrying out instructions or are they for planning work, making final decisions, for supervision, or technical or professional work? Item 11—Give the name and title of your immediate superior, the person to whom you look for orders, advice, or decisions. If you are not sure who your superior is, say so. If there is more than one, explain so that those reading your statement will know whether you work for one person part of the time and another the rest of the time, or whether you work for two or three persons. Item 12—List here all equipment, machinery, tools, office appliances, or other, devices which you use or operate. Use trade-names if you wish. Item 13—Exactly what instructions and directions does your superior give you? What problems does he refer to you? You may have had instructions only when you were new on the job. You may have received special instructions with every new task. Describe the type of instructions you have received. Item 14—Does anyone check or review your work? If so, give his name and title, and tell what kind of check Is made: Is it a mathematical check, an Inspection of quality, a review of your judgment, or what? Maybe your work is such that there is an automatic continuous check of your actions. , Item 15—If you have five enxpioyees or less under your supervision, give their names and titles. If you have more than five, simply give the name of the unit or section involved and the number of employees. SUGGESTIONS TO IMMEDIATE SUPERIORS Method for Distributing and Reviewing the Classification Questionnaires. You are being supplied with a complete set of classification questionnaires for each employee under your supervision. These sets will consist of a green, a white, and a yellow questionnaire, and a copy of these instructions. Give each employee a set of classification questionnaires and instructions. Ask employees who have access to typewriters to work out their answers on the yellow sheet, type them on the green and white sheets, and return the signed typewritten copies to you within five days. Ask those employees who cannot type their own, to write their answers on the yellow sheet and return the complete set to you within five days, for typing. The Green is the Original and the White the Carbon Copy. When typed, return all three copies to the employees. Have the green and white copies reviewed, dated, signed, and returned to you. Go over each signed questionnaire carefully to see that they are accurate and complete. You should fill out Items 16 to 19, inclusive, on the questionnaire forms of only those employees whom you directly supervise. A department head should not fill in these items for employees whom he directs through a sub-executive but only for those to whom he assigns work directly. In all instances, the department head, or a representative designated by him, should look over both the employees' and their sup-eriors' statements and indicate under Item 20 any inaccuracies found. Neither the superior nor the department head, however, should make any alteration or change in the statements made by a subordinate. If there is a regular position under you which is temporarily vacant, or if an employee is not available to fill out the ques-tionnaire, please make up and fill out the form yourself for that position, as accurately as possible. The fact that an employee did not fill out the form and the reason for such omission, should be clearly indicated. Suggestions for Filling Out Items 16 to 20. Item 16—Do not change the employee's statement or influence his answers. Read them through and then give your opinion of their accuracy. Is it a good description of the position? Has he neglected to give a full picture of his duties and responsibilities? Has he overstated or understated them? Has he put emphasis on the wrong points? Answer this question in detail. Item 17—Sum up what you consider to be the distinguishing features of the employee's job. What do you expect of it? What supervision and direction does it get? What check and review is provided? What is the essential nature of the duties and responsibilities? Is it a beginning or an advanced job? If you have a number of positions under you which are practically identical, it will be sufficient to answer Items 16 to 19 fully for one such position only, and then refer to such answers on the other questionnaires. You can merely state "Same as John Doe." Item 18—With full consideration of the duties and responsibilities of this position, tell what kind of person you would choose for the position if it were to become vacant. What must he know? Of what basic subjects, procedures, principles, laws, or regu-lations must he have a knowledge? Must the knowledge be thorough or is a general knowledge or familiarity sufficient? Be aai specific as possible. Item 19—If the job involves any typing or dictation, even if merely incidental, answer this item. If not, write "None." Item 20—If the department head does not sign the green copy personally, his designated representative should sign his sup-erior's name and place his own name or initials immediately underneath. Upon completion by department head, green sheet should be sent via mail or messenger to the Personnel Dept., Room 210, City Hall, Vancouver, B.C. One copy is retained by the department for Its use and reference. t I l l * APPENDIX B * SUGGESTED RATING SCALE FOR PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYEES INTRODUCTION * The p o i n t r a t i n g system used by the B.C. C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission to evaluate stenographic and c l e r i c a l p o s i -t i o n s was adapted t© apply t© the p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l f i e l d . These two schedules are a l i k e i n the t o t a l p o i n t s allotted to the f o u r major e v a l u a t i o n f a c t o r s : F a c t o r C l e r i c a l E v a l u a t i o n Scale g of T o t a l P o i n t s P r o f e s s i o n a l j of E v a l u a t i o n " ffotal  Scale P o i n t s S k i l l 2150 R e s p o n s i b i l i t y 1925 Job Conditions lj.75 E f f o r t 450 3 8 . 5 $ 9 , 9 5 2150 1950 45o 39$ 9$ 9% However* there are d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s u b d i v i s i o n s under the f i r s t two headings, as f o l l o w s ! Major F a c t o r S k i l l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Sub-factors C l e r i c a l Scale T r a i n i n g Experience I n i t i a t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r money Contacts S u p e r v i s i o n given A, SKILL Sub»factors P r o f e s s i o n a l Scale Education Experience Complexity of th© job. S u p e r v i s i o n received, R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e r r o r and c o n f i d -e n t i a l i t y . Contacts Supervisory r e s -p o n s i b i l i t i e s . POINT VALUE I , T r a i n i n g * What b a s i c f o r m a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i s the employee expected to b r i n g w i t h him to the job* over and above h i g h school education? 1. LesS than two years of t r a i n i n g 2 . Two years of u n i v e r s i t y , o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t i n n i g h t * trade, extension o r correspondence school courses, o r Two to f o u r years of p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g on the job 125 S.W. I I . 175 112 * 3 . More than two, but not more than f o u r years of s p e c i a l i z e d formal Education c u l m i n a t i n g i n a q u a l i f y i n g examination, ©r More than f o u r years of p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g on the job 2?£ 4. More than f o u r , but not more than s i x years of s p e c i a l i z e d formal e d u c a t i o n c u l m i n a t i n g i n a q u a l i f y i n g examination M 0re than s i x , but not mere than e i g h t years o f S p e c i a l i z e d formal education, c u l m i n a t i n g i n a q u a l i f y i n g examination 6 . More than eight years of S p e c i a l i z e d formal education, Culminating i n a l i c e n s i n g o r c e r t i f y i n g examination 700 I I . Experience - Over and above b a s i c f o r m a l i z e d t r a i n i n g , how much experience i n r e l a t e d work i s necessary i n order to a s s i m i l a t e knowledge r e q u i r e d to perform the Job? 1. Mere than three months, but not more than 12 months 100 2. More than one year, but not more than three years 200 3 . More than three y e a r s , but not more than f i v e years 300 S.W.II. k. More than f i v e years, but not more than seven years kOO 5. More than seven y e a r s , but not more than ten years f?0G 6. More than ten years 700 I I I . Complexity of Work » What c a p a c i t y f o r resource-f u l n e s s , judgment, and creatlvehesS does t h i s job r e q u i r e of the employee? 1. Duties are c l e a r l y p r e s c r i b e d by standard p r a c t i c e but r e q u i r e a b i l i t y to use s e v e r a l procedures and to make minor d e c i s i o n s I n v o l v -i n g Seme judgment. 200 -.113-2. Duties i n v o l v e an i n t e n s i v e knowledge of a r e s * t r i e t e d f i e l d and r e q u i r e the a b i l i t y to use a wide range of procedures and the a n a l y s i s of f a c t s to determine what a c t i o n , w i t h i n the l i m i t s of standard p r a c t i c e , should be taken 2j?0 3 . A b i l i t y to work independently towards general r e s u l t s , d e v i s i n g new methods, and adapting standard procedures to meet new c o n d i t i o n s . D e c i s i o n s are based l a r g e l y on precedent and branch p o l i c y . 300 S.W.II k . A b i l i t y to work on h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l o r i n v o l v e d p r o j e c t s , p r e s e n t i n g new o r c o n s t a n t l y changing problems. A b i l i t y to evaluate complex f a c t o r s , and t© make d e c i s i o n s not c l e a r l y based on pre-cedent and p o l i c y . 350 5. A b i l i t y to p l a n and co-ordinate th© Work and procedures o f Several o f f i c e s , i n accordance l a r g e l y w i t h p o l i c y and precedent, i n c l u d i n g personnel d e c i s i o n s kOO 6. A b i l i t y to pla n and co*ordinate the v a r i o u s aspects of work i n a l a r g e branch w i t h many o f f i c e s and to g i v e advice w i t h respect t o the need f o r changing p o l i c y when necessary k£o 7. A b i l i t y to i n t e g r a t e the work of s e v e r a l branches, to See t h a t th© work i s C a r r i e d ©Ut e f f i c i e n t l y , and to give advice w i t h respect to the need f o r changing p o l i c y . 5>00 IV. S u p e r v i s i o n - How c l o s e l y i s the work supervised? 1 . Under general s u p e r v i s i o n , where standard p r a c t i c e enables the employee to proceed alone on work, r e f e r r i n g questionable cases to s u p e r v i s o r , who Is r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e 100 2. Under d i r e c t i o n , where a d e f i n i t e o b j e c t i v e i s set up and the employee plans and arranges h i s own work, r e f e r r i n g questionable Cases to s u p e r v i s o r , who may be only i n t e r m i t t e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . 1J?Q S.W.II 3 . Under general d i r e c t i o n * working from p o l i c i e s and general o b j e c t i v e s . R a r e l y r e f e r s s p e c i f i c cases to s u p e r i o r u n l e s s c l a r i f i c a t i o n s o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of branch p o l i c y i s i n v o l v e d . 200 I l k * k. under a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d l r e c t i e n * s e t t i n g up own Standards -'of performance. V i r t u a l l y s e l f ^  s u p e r v i s i o n . B , REspQHaiBiXiifms. I . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y r©r E r r o r * What i s the opp o r t u n i t y and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y f o r and the probS.ble e f f e c t ( i n terms of human w e l f a r e , property, o r f i n a n c i a l l o s s ) ©f e r r o r s i n t h i s job? What r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s there f o r safeguarding c o n f i d e n t i a l data? 1. E r r o r s are u s u a l l y detected i n succeeding ©per-a t i o n s and are confined t o a S i n g l e department * C o r r e c t i o n i n v o l v e s some t r o u b l e i n back* checking by e t h e r s . M t t i e o r no c o n f i d e n t i a l data i n v o l v e d . 2. E r r o r s may have Serious r e s u l t s w i t h i n the Branch* i n v o l v i n g l e s s o r hold-up of product-i o n * waste o f m a t e r i a l , damage to equipment, o r f i n a n c i a l l o s s . Much of work not Subject to v e r i f i c a t i o n o r check. Duties may i n c l u d e reeommendfetlonS r e h i r i n g and f i r i n g of Sub* or d i n a t e personnel. D i s c l o s u r e of c o n f i d e n t i a l data may have an adverse e f f e c t upon other employees, 3. E r r o r s i n judgment o r S k i l l o r breaches of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y are d i f f i c u l t t o detect and may adversely a f f e c t outside r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the branch. They may v i t a l l y a f f e c t the we l f a r e of i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s , o r i n v o l v e s e r i o u s property or f i n a n c i a l l o s s . k, E r r o r s o r breach ©f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y may i n v o l v e major property o r f i n a n c i a l l e s s , o r v i t a l l y a f f e c t th© w e l f a r e of considerable numbers of people and may r e s u l t i n adverse p u b l i c comment. Duties may Involve the p r e p a r a t i o n of da t a on which a d m i n i s t r a t i o n baSes important d e c i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g S e l e c t i o n , promotion, and d i s m i s s a l of key personnel. J>. E r r o r s may r e s u l t i n l o s s of l i f e . D uties • i n * Volve the p r e p a r a t i o n ©f data on 'which manage* ment bases v i t a l d e c i s i o n s , o r the a u t h o r i z a -t i o n of very l a r g e expenditures o r ensuring t h a t others safe guard c o n f i d e n t i a l data. * 115 * I I . CONTACTS - What r e s p o n s i b i l i t y goes w i t h t h i s job f o r d e a l i n g w i t h , g i v i n g s e r v i c e t o , o r i n f l u e n c i n g , other people through c o r -respondence and personal i n t e r v i e w ? 1. L i t t l e o r no contact except With immediate a s s o c i a t e s and own s u p e r v i s o r 100 2 . Contacts w i t h other persons w i t h i n the department on r o u t i n e matters, or o c c a s i o n a l o u t s i d e con* t a c t s , f u r n i s h i n g or o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y 225 3 . Frequent o u t s i d e or i n s i d e c o n t a c t s , f u r n i s h i n g or o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n or r e p o r t s , and r e q u i -i n g t a c t to avoid f r i c t i o n . 350 i i . Frequent outside and i n s i d e c o n t a c t s , i n v o l v i n g non^routine i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , o f branch p o l i c y , I t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Other branches: i t i n v o l v e s i n f l u e n c i n g others i n a v a r i e t y of matters r e l a t e d to the f u n c t i o n end business of the branch, and r e q u i r e s considerable t a c t and understanding. 4 7 5 5 . Outside and i n s i d e contacts r e q u i r i n g a h i g h degree of t a c t , judgment, s e n s i t i v i t y , and the a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e people w i t h regard to v i t a l and i n t i m a t e aspects of t h e i r l i v e s . 600 S.W.II I I I . S u p e r v i s i o n *• What i s the degree o r k i n d of s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Involved i n t h i s job? 0 S.W,II 1. Requires the s u p e r v i s i o n of one or two other employees who f o l l o w w e l l defined methods of procedure. 125 2 . Requires the S u p e r v i s i o n of one or two o t h e r employees whose work IS not a l t o g e t h e r r o u t i n e and which may occasion unusual or v a r y i n g methods of procedure, 175 3 . Requires the s u p e r v i s i o n of a f a i r l y l a r g e number of employees i n a s e c t i o n who f o l l o w w e l l defined methods of procedure. 225 4* Requires the s u p e r v i s i o n o f a f a i r l y l a r g e number of employees i n a s e c t i o n whose work , i s not a l t o g e t h e r r o u t i n e and which may occasion unusual ©r v a r y i n g methods of procedure. 300 116 -5 . Requires the s u p e r v i s i o n of a l a r g e number of employees o r s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s of employees, c o - o r d i n a t i n g the procedures. These employees do not in c l u d e t e c h n i c a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l workers, 375 6 . Requires the Su p e r v i s i o n of a l a r g e number of employees i n One o r two l o c a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t e c h n i c a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l workers. , 450 7 . Requires the s u p e r v i s i o n of a l a r g e number of employees i n Several l o c a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t e c h n i c a l or p r o f e s s i o n a l employees. 550 Q. Requires the Su p e r v i s i o n of a l a r g e number of ' w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d employees i n c l u d i n g t e c h n i c a l Or p r o f e s s i o n a l employees. 650 C. JOB CONBITIQHS - Does t h i s job i n v o l v e c o n d i t i o n s ." '' ; ' . beyond tho employees c o n t r o l which makes i t l e s s agreeable than i s t y p i c a l of the Se r v i c e . Consider such f a c t o r s as absence from home, contact w i t h people who are men-t a l l y d i s t u r b e d or p h y s i c a l l y i l l , exposure to undue n o i s e , dust, heat, c o l d , fumes, use of I n j u r i o u s chemicals, o r p h y s i c a l discomfort. 1. Usual offic© working c o n d i t i o n s 2 . „ Good working c o n d i t i o n s . Duties Involve occas-i o n a l exposure to a s i n g l e disagreeable c o n d i t i o n . 3 . Somewhat disagreeable c o n d i t i o n s (as above) but not continuous"exposure I f s e v e r a l of these f a c t o r s ar© present, 4 . Continuous exposure to s e v e r a l disagreeable f a c t o r s , geographic i s o l a t i o n , o r o c c a s i o n a l exposure to hazardous working c o n d i t i o n s . 5 . Continuous exposure to hazardous working c o n d i t i o n s , such a s i s i n v o l v e d i n work w i t h persons i n f e c t e d w i t h a contagious disease, D. EFFORT - Does t h i s job r e q u i r e an e x c e p t i o n a l degree of mlnd-eye-Co«*ordination, sustained a l e r t -ness, ©motional s t r a i n , o r c a p a c i t y t o Work under pressure? 5o i 5 o 250 S.W.II 35o 4 5 0 «• 117 * 1. Plow' of work and nature of d u t i e s r e q u i r e only normal mental o r v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n , o r emotional s t r a i n . 75 2. Plow o f work and nature o f d u t i e s p e r i o d i c a l l y r e q u i r e employee to work under considerable pressure, i n v o l v i n g mental c o n c e n t r a t i o n , o r emotional s t r a i n 175 3. Sustained periods o f pressure, a l e r t n e s s , mental con c e n t r a t i o n * o r emotional s t r a i n * 300 S.W.II k. Job Involves continuous pressure o r emotional s t r a i n , or r e q u i r e s an e x c e p t i o n a l degree o f mental c o n c e n t r a t i o n o r a l e r t n e s s . Maximum P o i n t s * S o c i a l Worker I I Source: S o c i a l Welfare Branch S o c i a l Workers* S a l a r i e s Committee, B r i e f to the B*0. P r o v i n c i a l government. A p r i l . 195k. ( M i m e o . ) ! ! ! - 118 -APPENDIX C SAMPLE JOB DESCRIPTIONS PROM . REPRESENTATIVE AOENCIES C i t y of Vancouver B«C. P r o v i n c i a l Government, S o c i a l Welfare Branch Oregon S t a t e , u n i t e d States o f America C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e , U n i t e d States of America * 119 * C i t y of Vancouver Class Ho.307 Class S p e c i f i c a t i o n PROBATION OFFICER I 1. ffature. and Scope o f Work This i s s o c i a l w e l f a r e x*ork of an i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l and c o r r e c t i o n a l n a ture. An employee of t h i s c l a s s I s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s u p e r v i s i o n and c o u n s e l l i n g of j u v e n i l e delinquents and p r e d e l i n q u e n t s , and f o r performing the v a r i o u s d u t i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o the c i t y p r o b a t i o n program as determined by the J u v e n i l e Court. Considerable judgment and independence of a c t i o n are r e q u i r e d i n t h i s work as d e t a i l e d investigations must be made of a l l environmental f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g each case and considerable d i a g n o s t i c reasoning must be employed i n determining e f f e c t i v e c o r r e c t i v e measures f o r S o c i a l l y * maladjusted j u v e n i l e s . S u p e r v i s i o n and advice on d i f f i c u l t caSeS are r e c e i v e d from a s u p e r i o r who. reviews ' a l l work r e p o r t s . 2. I l l u s t r a t i v e Examples of.Work Interviews j u v e n i l e delinquents or p r e - d e l l n q u e n t s , parents, teachers., and other i n t e r e s t e d persons s© t h a t each case may be viewed i n i t s true p e r s p e c t i v e . Checks the records of s o c i a l agencies and the P o l i c e Department f o r p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on a wide v a r i e t y e f j u v e n i l e delinquency cases. Writes summaries on any case as r e q u i r e d by the judge and submits*a W r i t t e n r e p o r t . Prepares s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s on j u v -e n i l e cases and attends conferences at th© C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . Transports delinquents t o t r a i n s , boats, the I n d u s t r i a l School, o r other I n s t i t u t i o n s . A s s i s t s probationers to secure S u i t a b l e employment. Serves summonses on offenders to appear i n the J u v e n i l e C o u r t . " ' " Arranges f o r s u i t a b l e h o s p i t a l care, o p e r a t i o n s , d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n , and other s e r v i c e s f o r c e r t a i n p r o b a t i o n e r s . V i s i t s cases committed to i n d u s t r i a l schools o r other i n s t i t u t i o n s to maintain c o n t i n u i t y o f contact. Acts as o f f i c e r of th© court when so d e t a i l e d . Cooperates i n v a r i o u s ways w i t h other s o c i a l agencies i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to reduce delinquency and g i v e s l e a d e r s h i p on Various community p r o j e c t s p e r t a i n i n g to l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s . 3. Required Knowledges. A b i l i t i e s and S k i l l s Extensive knowledge of j u v e n i l e behaviour problems and methods of t r e a t i n g them. - 120 -Thorough knowledge of a l l laws arid r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o the work of the J u v e n i l e Court., Thorough knowledge o f i n t e r v i e w techniques and case h i s t o r y methods. Working knowledge of the Work done by p o l i c e * s o c i a l workers, h e a l t h department* and other agencies i n t e r e s t e d i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e . Thorough knowledge of the geography and s t r e e t l o c a t i o n s i n Vancouver c i t y and the employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r people under l e g a l s u p e r v i s i o n . Working knowledge o f c o u r t procedure. A b i l i t y t o secure e f f e c t i v e cooperation from Community agencies and o f f i c i a l s . D i a g n o s t i c s k i l l i n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d work w i t h maladjusted c h i l d r e n * adolescents, and a d u l t s . k* D e s i r a b l e T r a i n i n g and Experience Senior m a t r i c u l a t i o n and a course i n s o c i a l work w i t h some f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e — p r e f e r a b l y u n i v e r s i t y graduation w i t h major Courses i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e ; or an eq u i v a l e n t combination of t r a i n i n g and experience. 5. Required Lice n s e s . C e r t i f i c a t e s , and R e g i s t r a t i o n s Hone. * 121 *• PROylHCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA GROUT "PR" PRQFESSlOlfAk Cl a s s 12 m S o c i j ^ o a f t c a l and FsycholQgle&i • SOCIAL WORKER* Grade k ( S o c i a l Welfare Branch) C h a r a c t e r i a t i c B o f P o s i t i o n : • Under d i r e c t i o n * to superyiso and d l r e d t the work of S o c i a l Workers who may be s t a f f members, u n i v e r s i t y students, in*S©ryioe t r a i n i n g students, o r Students from r e l a t e d f i e l d s of work, f o r the purpose of a c h i e v i n g g r e a t e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s • iaiEdLI?i&»ft^ L^ " '.4a: the s e r v i c e -given to the p u b l i c and e v a l u a t -i n g the a b i l i t y o f I n d i v i d u a l S o c i a l Workers and t r a i n e e s . o r To a s s i s t the D i r e c t o r s o f Treataaeht a t the Boys* and G i r l s ! i h d u # t r i a l Schools i n the d i r e c t i o n ©f the d i a g n o s t i c and c l a d ! i f i e a t l e n s e r v i c e s w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n s ! to a s s i s t w i t h the development o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l , group work, s t a f f t r a i n i n g ^ r e l i g i o u s , v o c a t i o n a l * e d u c a t i o n a l , p r e - r e l e a s e , i n t e n s i v e treatment, and i n d i v i d u a l and group therapy programmes; to a s s i s t w i t h f o r m u l a t i o n of recommendations on admission and discharge ef boys i n need of guidance} to perfdria r e l a t e d d u t i e s af• r ^ u l r e d i Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s R e q u i r M t 1. Education and S p e c i a l i z e d Knowledge *- •  A Bachelor of S o c i a l Work degree* o r completion of a s p e c i a l student course i n S o c i a l Work a t a U n i v e r s i t y o f recognized standing* o r completion o f the I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g Course j a working knowledge o f a l l Acts and Re g u l a t i o n s per-t a i n i n g t o the work of the Branch* 2. Experience *• Several y e a r s 1 experience i n work r e l a t e d t o the d u t i e s to be performed. 3« S p e o l a l l z a d A b i l i t i e s and S k i l l s * Tact; Sound judgment j a b i l i t y to m a i n t a i n an o b j e c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n people and a demenitrated or p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t y to work w i t h theis; a b i l i t y to withstand the t a k i n g of l o n g t r i p s by v a r i o u s modes of t r a n S p o ^ a t i o n and on f o o t ; a b i l i t y t© . i n t e r p r e t the Aots and Regulations to th© general p u b l i c ; a b l * l i t y t o supervise a sm a l l s t a f f o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers and t r a i n e e s . - 122 * OREGON STATE . CASEWORKER I I , DISTINGUISHING FEATURES.OF WORK TM s i s s k i l l e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e work i n s t u d y i n g and d e t e r -mining upon s o c i a l needs of e l i g i b i l i t y of persons r e q u i r i n g p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s * Work of these employees i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the relatively wide scope of S o c i a l s e r v i c e s Which are conducted, g r e a t e r Independence of p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i o n under which employees work and by the performance of the more troublesome o r problematic case work. The type of case load which i s c a r r i e d u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s v a r i e d c a t e g o r i e s but. may be l i m i t e d t o s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n a s i n g l e type o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e . Work n e c e s s i t a t e s a p p l i c a t i o n of experienced judgment i n meeting case problems, and replacements or vacancies are f i l l e d by workers who have gained such knowledge through experience under p r o f e s s i o n a l s u p e r v i s o r s or by formal t r a i n i n g p l u s a c t u a l experience. The work i n c l u d e s frequent contacts w i t h other agency workers and the employee i s c a l l e d upon to g i v e the problem i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s i n many cases. Case r e p o r t s and work methods and techniques are s u b j e c t to review by a Superior o r adminis-t r a t o r , although employees conduct many phases of t h e i r work without c l o s e review. EXAMPLES L0F WORK (Any one p o s i t i o n may not i n c l u d e a l l of the d u t i e s l i s t e d nor.do the l i s t e d examples i n c l u d e a l l tasks which may be found i n p o s i t i o n s of t h i s c l a s s . ) A s s i s t s a p p l i c a n t s and r e c i p i e n t s , i n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e , i n the s o l u t i o n o f p e r s o n a l , f a m i l y f i n a n c e , and o t h e r problems and gives s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to a l l e v i a t i n g p o t e n t i a l l y bad s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s or attempting to c o r r e c t such problems as they have developed. I n v e s t i g a t e s e l i g i b i l i t y of a p p l i c a n t s f o r v a r i o u s types of p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g the i n t e r v i e w i n g of a p p l i c a n t s , r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s * and o t h e r s . A s s i s t s i n the o u t - p a t i e n t a c t i v i t i e s of a h o s p i t a l by working w i t h p a t i e n t s and p h y s i c i a n s , i n t e r p r e t i n g s o c i a l data and attempting to p r o p e r l y a d j u s t p a t i e n t s i n the h o s p i t a l o r a f t e r discharge. Takes W r i t t e n a p p l i c a t i o n s . I n c l u d i n g S o c i a l h i s t o r y d a t a , of persons seeking p u b l i c welfare s e r v i c e s and serves as s p e c i a l i n t a k e worker i n the i n i t i a l p rocessing o f persons'seeking h e l p . Checks Various p u b l i c records i n Securing necessary data i n c l u d -i n g t a x records, b i r t h and death re c o r d s , residence and other i n f o r m a t i o n necessary f o r case determinations. - 123 * Prepares complete w r i t t e n r e p o r t s c o v e r i n g Information developed i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n or r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Serves as case reviewer, a n a l y z i n g case methods o f Selected cases and recommending f u r t h e r a c t i o n . O c c a s i o n a l l y makes pre-plaoement s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n , c h i l d -ren* S f a m i l i e s , f o s t e r homes, and Tinder s u p e r v i s i o n uses other sources i n developing necessary c h i l d case i n f o r m -' a t i o n . " O c c a s i o n a l l y a s s i s t s p r o f e s s i o n a l Supervisors i n the r e h a b i l -i t a t i o n of mal-adjusted C h i l d r e n , and c h i l d r e n needing medical or mental care or treatment. Advises and a s s i s t s case workers where problem cases a r i s e which r e q u i r e more experienced judgment o r s k i l l . Performs r e l a t e d work as r e q u i r e d . DESIRABLE KNOWLEDGES. SKILLS AND ABILITIES Thorough knowledge of case work methods and techniques and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l cases. Working, knowledge of f e d e r a l and s t a t e laws and r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to p u b l i c w e l f a r e and a s s i s t a n c e programs. Working knowledge of the Sources f o r o b t a i n i n g case data, and a b i l i t y to develop p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n from such sources under d i f f i c u l t c o n d i t i o n s . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h -'basic p r i n c i p l e s o f economics ^  Sociology * psychology and other s o e i a l sciences and of c u r r e n t s o c i a l and economic trends. F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h names and f u n c t i o n s of other Welfare agencies, both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e . A b i l i t y to w r i t e e f f e c t i v e case h i s t o r i e s and r e l a t e d r e p o r t s * A p p r e c i a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l and environmental problems a r i s i n g i n connection w i t h case work, and a b i l i t y to d e a l w i t h these problems w i t h good judgment. MINIMUM EXPERIENCE AND TRAINING (The f o l l o w i n g statement rep*" resents the minimum experience and t r a i n i n g Standards which w i l l be used to admit or r e j e c t a p p l i c a n t s f o r t e s t s . ) One year of f u l l - t i m e p a i d experience w i t h i n the past ten years i n w e l f a r e , education, p u b l i c h e a l t h , or other p u b l i c s e r v i c e workj and graduation from a f o u r year c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y , supplemented by one year o f graduate t r a i n i n g i n an approved school of s o c i a l Work or e q u i v a l e n t t r a i n i n g through experience under p r o f e s s i o n a l guidancej or any e q u i v a l e n t combination o f experience and t r a i n i n g . * 12l| # CALIFORNIA STATE PERSONNEL BOARD s p e c i f i c a t i o n f o r the CODE # 986? c l a s s of E s t a b l i s h e d : 1931 Revised: , 9/19/52 T i t l e , Changed: 9/19/52 SUPERVISING PSYCHIATRIC SOCIAL WORKER I D e f i n i t i o n : Under general d i r e c t i o n , to provide s u p e r v i s i o n to p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l workers working w i t h and on b e h a l f o f m e n t a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d or mentally d e f i c i e n t pat-i e n t s and t h e i r r e l a t i v e s i n a State mental i n s t i t u t i o n o r c l i n i c o r In an assigned area and where there I s no h i g h e r l e v e l p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work s u p e r v i s o r , t o p l a n , o r g a n i s e , and d i r e c t the p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work program; and to do other work as r e q u i r e d . D i s t i n g u i s h i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i o s : The c l a s s of Supervising P i y c M I i s the f i r s t s upervisory l e v e l i n the p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l worker s e r i e s . Employees In the c l a s s supervise a s t a f f of J u n i o r and Senior P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Workers and c l e r i c a l personnel, and where there I s no h i g h e r l e v e l p s y c h i a t r i c S o e i a l work s u p e r v i s o r , p l a n , organize and d i r e c t the p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work program. Employees In the next lew©** class of, fenier Psychiatric S o c i a l Worker p e r s o n a l l y c a r r y a caseload r e q u i r i n g the more d i f f i c u l t and r e s p o n s i b l e casework* but normally do not super-vis© other caseworkers. Employees i n th© next h i g h e r c l a s s o f S u p e r v i s i n g P s y c h i a -t r i c S o c i a l Worker I I are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d i r e c t i n g the psy* e h l a t r l c s o c i a l work program i n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g casework supervision- i n State mental f a c i l i t i e s e t h e r than the Lot Angeles and San FranciBco area o f f i c e s , where the number of s o c i a l workers J u s t i f i e s more than one s u p e r v i s i n g s o c i a l worker. T y p i c a l Tasks: Provides s u p e r v i s i o n t o a p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work s t a f f ; i n an.assigned area o r i n an i n s t i t u t i o n or c l i n i c f o r the mentally and emotionally d i s t u r b e d or mentally d e f i c i e n t hav-i n g no h i g h e r l e v e l p s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l work Supervisor, p l a n s , organizes* and d i r e c t s the p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work program; assigns cases and counsels S o c i a l workers on casework problems; maintains adherence to s o c i a l work p o l i c i e s o f the department; conducts s t a f f meetings; t r a i n s s t a f f , evaluates s t a f f perform^ ance and takes o r recommends appropriate a c t i o n ; supervises - 125 * the t r a i n i n g of p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work students} p e r s o n a l l y performs o r supervises research r e l a t i n g to p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work; p a r t i c i p a t e s i n s t a f f conferences} a s s i s t s i n the development of e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l work procedures} works w i t h mental f a c i l i t y and departmental a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f o r the pur-pose of improving p o l i c i e s and procedures as they r e l a t e to the s o c i a l work program} e s t a b l i s h e s and maintains cooperative working r e l a t i o n s w i t h community agencies} a s s i s t s i n the development of programs of community p l a n n i n g , education, and c o n s u l t a t i o n i n mental health} develops and d i r e c t s a boarding home program f o r the area and arranges f o r placements of p a t i e n t s on leave of absence} addresses groups on the psy-c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work program} d i c t a t e s correspondence and prepares r e p o r t s . Minimum Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t E i t h e r 1 Experience % Two years of experience as a Senior P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Worker i n the C a l i f o r n i a s t a t e Service} and Education: Completion of a two-year graduate c u r r i c u l u m i n s o c i a l work i n a recognized school of s o c i a l work* or I I Experience: Pour years of f u l l - t i m e paid experience i n p s y c h i a t r i c s o e i a l work, a t l e a s t one year of which must have been as a s o c i a l work Supervisor and a t l e a s t two years of which must have been i n a c h i l d guidance or p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c * i n a p s y c h i a t r i c extramural program*, i n a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l , or i n a p s y c h i a t r i c department of a h o s p i t a l } and Education: Completion of a two-year graduate c u r r i c u l u m i n p s y c h i a t r i c s o e i a l work i n a recognized school of s o c i a l work, or I I I Experience: Ply© years of full*tim© p a i d experience i n p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work, at l e a s t one year of which must have been as a s o c i a l work s u p e r v i s o r and a t l e a s t two years o f which must have been In a c h i l d guidance c r p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c , i n a p s y c h i a t r i c extramural program, i n a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l , o r i n a p s y c h i a t r i c department of a h o s p i t a l } and Education: Completion of a two-year graduate c u r r i c u l u m i n s o c i a l work i n a recognized School o f s o c i a l work. In a p p r a i s i n g experience, more weight w i l l be g i v e n t o the breadth of p e r t i n e n t experience and the evidence of the candidate* s a b i l i t y t o accept and f u l f i l l i n e r e a s * i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than to the l e n g t h o f h i s experience. and Knowledges and a b i l i t i e s : Thorough knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s , procedures, techniques, t r e n d s , and * 126 l i t e r a t u r e of s o c i a l work w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work; thorough knowledge o f ecffiirsunlty o r g a n i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s ; wide knowledge, o f and a b i l i t y to apply the p r i n c i p l e s of mental h e a l t h education; wide knowledge of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l aspects of mental and emotional, disturbances and mental d e f i c i e n c y j general knowledge of the scope and a c t i v i t i e s of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e h e a l t h and wel f a r e agencies; general knowledge of the c u r r e n t trends i n mental hygiene* p u b l i c h e a l t h and p u b l i c w e l f a r e and of F e d e r a l and St a t e programs i n these f i e l d s ; general knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s o f s u p e r v i s i o n , and a b i l i t y t o supervise others; to evaluate t h e i r work, and to g i v e i n -s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ; a b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h and maintain e f f e c t i v e working r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h those contacted i n the work; a b i l i t y to secure accurate S o c i a l data, to record such data s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , t o w r i t e c l e a r , accurate and concise r e p o r t s , and to i n t e r p r e t • s t a t i s t i c a l data; a b i l i t y t o develop and d i r e c t a boarding home program f o r ' p a t i e n t s and s k i l l i n arranging placements f o r p a t i e n t s on leave of absence; a b i l i t y to g i v e f i e l d work t r a i n i n g to p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work students} a b i l i t y to analyze S i t u a t i o n s a c c u r a t e l y and to adopt an e f f e c t i v e course of a c t i o n ; a b i l i t y to Speak and w r i t e e f f e c t i v e l y . and S p e c i a l p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; Ah objectiy© ;and sympathetic understanding "of the m e n t a l l y o r emotionally d i s t u r b e d o r mentally d e f i c i e n t j t o l e r -ance, t a c t , and emotional s t a b i l i t y . Monthly Compensation: #kj6 k£8 ij.81 505 530 1/54 Work Week Group kC * 12? -APPENDIX D JOB ANALYSIS SCHEDULE I J O B A N A L Y S I S Schedule I SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT Time Study - Chronological Record of Activities NAME; OFFICE; . SECTION; DATE; EXPLANATION; Include a l l activities using as many lines for each as are necessary to explain what you did, why you did i t (rather than someone else) and what the general purpose of the activity i s . Use units of five minutes or more. Total work day is 435 minutes. ACTIVITY TIME OF DAY TIME IN MINUTES E.G.»s. —-.Planning and o r g a n i z i n g work f o r the day-«thlngs to be done, people to be seen,&c 8:30-8:50 20 P r e p a r a t i o n f o r i n t e r v i e w — f i n d i n g an o f f i c * ^ettinpr m a t e r i a l s readv-^reviewins previous n o t e s — o r i g i n s c l i e n t t o the o f f i c e 8:50*9:00 10 nr.nrhjf.tlrirj Intake interview-~-to determine flUHWUf^nf c l i e n t f o r s e r v i c e * - a b i l i t y of c l i e n t to use s e r v i c e and e x p l a i n c l i n i c f u n c t i p n s and procedures 9:00*10:00 60 W r i t i n e up notes of i n t e r v i e w f o r d i c t a t i o n tr, nt-.Ann—Choking f a c t u a l data on face sheet 10:00-10:15 15 Coffee break 10:15*10:30 15 Attfindlnfj plannine conference to determine procedure of d i a g n o s t i c study on case presented by myself as Intake worker^-sug^ g e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n 1 would gather and when i t would be ready i n form of s o c i a l •h1ntr.ro and s o c i a l d i a g n o s i s 10:30*10:55 25 • - 128 *• APPENDIX g JOB ANALYSIS .SCHEDULE I I I  MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES <* 129 * JOB ANALYSIS Schedule I I I OFFICE; C h i l d Guidance C l i n i e DEPARTMENT: S o c i a l S e r v i c e L i s t of A c t i v i t i e s Not i n c l u d e d I n Job D e s c r i p t i o n s , Showing I m p l i c a t i o n s Re Working Conditions and S t a f f Shortages Item of A c t i v i t y Per Cent of T o t a l Time Shortage o f L i m i t a t i o n I n d i c a t e d SECTION: Dep't. Supervisor F i l i n g j d i s t r i b u t i n g f i l e s , memos e t c , (1 h r per wk.) 2.7$ Dep»t.Steno & 1 f i l e & message c l e r k Changing O f f i c e , c h a t t i n g (1 h r . per wk.) 2. 7$ Overcrowding 3.6# ~» Coffee break (1 1/3 h r . per wk.) TOTAL , , • 9. SECTION: S.W, 'era Or. IV (Av. per wkr.) Delivering'memos, f i l e s , e t c . R e g i s t e r i n g and f i l i n g new cases Looking f o r f i l e s Shortage of (1 1/3 h r . per wk,) 3.6$ c l e r i c a l s t a f f Looking f o r o f f i c e space* changing o f f i c e s , and c h a t t i n g (3/k hrs. per wk.) 2. Overcrowding, l a c k of i n t e r v i e w i n g space Coffee break (1 1/3 h r s . per wk.) ^ TOTAL 9.2% * 130 JOB ANALYSIS Schedule I I I OFFICE: C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c DEPARTMENT: S o c i a l S e r v i c e L i s t of A c t i v i t i e s Not Included i n Job D e s c r i p t i o n s , Showing I m p l i c a t i o n s Re Working Conditions and S t a f f Shortages Item of A c t i v i t y Per Cent of T o t a l Time Coffee break (1 h r . per wk.) 2.Q% Sub-Total h.i# T r a v e l l i n g time not i n c l u d e d 16.0$ i n u s u a l working time (av. 2$ h r s . per mo.) . TOTAL 20.1% SECTION: S.W.*ers G r . I I and I I I (Av. per wkr.) D e l i v e r i n g f i l e s , memos* s u p p l i e s , e t c . j l o o k i n g f o r f i l e s (3Ai- h r s . per wk.) Looking f o r o f f i c e i n t e r v i e w i n g Space; moving from o f f i c e to o f f i c e ; c h a t t i n g (2t h r s . per wk.) Coffee break (1 1/3 hrs.per wk.) TOTAL 2.1$ 6.2$ Shortage of L i m i t a t i o n I n d i c a t e d SECTION: S.W. Gr. IV. Trav. C l i n i c s * Looking f o r o f f i c e o r d i c t a t i n g space, p i c k i n g up; d e l i v e r i n g and d i s t r i b * u t i n g f i l e s (§• h r . per wk.) 1.3$ Overcrowding at s t a t i o n -ary c l i n i c Shortage of c l e r i c a l s t a f f oyercrowdihg* l a c k of space so basement and h a l l s are used 11." 131 * APPENDIX P TYPICAL DAY—TRAVELLING CLINIC SUPERVISOR 132 -JOB ANALYSIS Schedule I NAME: OFFICE: V. CGC. SECTION: Tr. C l . . • ^~ Time of Time i n . A c t i v i t y Day Minutes TYPICAL DAY ON TRAVELLING CLINIC OP ONLY ONE PARENT WITH EACH CHILD. Get d a i l y schedules organized and p l a n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e s t of team 09.00-09.15 15 Check over h i s t o r i e s p r i o r to Interviews 09.15 -09.30 15 I n t e r v i e w parent o f f i r s t c h i l d 09.30-10.00 30 Interview parent of second c h i l d 10.00-10.30 30 Discuss i n t e r v i e w s With doctor and ps y c h o l o g i s t i f a v a i l a b l e 10.30-10.k5 15 F i l l out index forms and face sheets lO.45-ll.3O 45 Discuss Follow-up r e p o r t s w i t h nurse . o r s o e i a l worker '• LUNCH Arrange Schedules f o r afternoon 11.30-12.00 12.00-01.30 01.30*01.45 30 :«i>—• 15 Cheek h i s t o r i e s p r i o r to i n t e r v i e w s 01.45-02.00 15 I n t e r v i e w parent of f i r s t c h i l d 02,00-02.30 30 I n t e r v i e w parent of second c h i l d 02 .30*03.00 30 Discuss i n t e r v i e w s w i t h doctor & psych. 03.00-03.15 15 F i n i s h face sheets, index forms and w r i t e up notes f o r conferences 03.15-04.00 45 Contact s o c i a l workers, nurses & school teachers regarding past cases(follow-up) 04.00-04.30 30 Conferences en d a i l y c l i n i c s Follow*Up notes as a r u l e are completed a f t e r conferences as there i s Seldom time 04 . 3 0-06 . 3 0 120 during the day to complete them. T r a v e l l i n g time i s not considered here. * 133 «* APPENDIX G » BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Atwater, P i e r c e , Problems of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota Pr e s s , M i nneapolis, 1940. Benge, Eugene J . * Samuel L.H. Burk, and Edward N. Hay, Manual of Job E v a l u a t i o n , Harper & B r o t h e r s , New York, 1 9 4 1 . Berkman, Tessie D., P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l Workers i n P s y c h i a t r i c H o s p i t a l s and C l i n i c s . American A s s o c i a t i o n of P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Workers, Inc* * New York, 1953* C i v i l Service Assembly, P o s i t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the P u b l i c S e r v i c e . 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