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Job evaluation in social work : an analysis, description, and classification of social work positions… MacDonald, Robert Wesley 1956

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JOB EVALUATION I N SOCIAL WORK An A n a l y s i s , D e s c r i p t i o n , and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S o c i a l Work P o s i t i o n s Based on a Study o f Worker A c t i v i t i e s i n t h e Vancouver C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , 1 9 5 £ .  by  ROBERT WESLEY MCDONALD  Thesis Submitted I n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d f o r t h e degree o f M a s t e r o f S o o i a l Work  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work 1956  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  In presenting  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  I further  copying o f t h i s  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head of my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  I t i s under-  stood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r financial  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  permission.  Dopartmont o f  £tre^t^  Vi/c^iJl  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  ficJZ&^  /£-  1  /fSt  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS Page  Chapter 1.  I n t r o d u c t i o n and R e s e a r c h D e s i g n ...........  Chapter 2 .  H i s t o r y o f Job E v a l u a t i o n  E a r l y j o b p r i c i n g methods. Development o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . C u r r e n t methods o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n and t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o s o c i a l work. R a n k i n g o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method. F a c t o r comparison method * P o i n t r a t i n g system .. * Chapter 3.  1  6  S o c i a l Work aa an I n s t i t u t i o n . O c c u p a t i o n . and P r o f e s s i o n . The Content o f S o c i a l Work as" R e v e a l e d i n C u r r e n t Theory and P r a c t i c e "  Some d i f f e r e n c e s between s o c i a l work and o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s . S o c i a l work as an I n s t i t u t i o n . , S o c i a l work as an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e . S o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l occupational ranks o r l e v e l s i n socialwork. A c t i v i t i e s of administratorj supervisor, and worker as, d e s c r i b e d : i n l i t e r a t u r e and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s . R o l e o f s o c i a l work'and s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n a specific setting. S t a t i s t i c a l analysis of a c t i v i t i e s performed d u r i n g f i s c a l y e a r 19S>M*££« •.. 26 C h a p t e r ^ . Time Study o f .Worker A c t i v l t i e a' i n t h e C h i l d Guidaiiee C l i n i c . C l a s s i f i c a t l g h o f Jobs by R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and S k i l l s R e q u i r e d Method o f t h e time s t u d y . l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e time s t u d y . D i f f e r e n c e s l h k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s a t v a r i o u s Job l e v e l s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r various a c t i v i t i e s a t Various job l e v e l s . . D i f f e r e n c e s i n degree o f s k i l l f o r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s at various job levels. Descriptions for.the classes. Assigning,the c l a s s l f i e a t i o h g t o appropriate pay g r a d e s — g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s . Chapter  52  F i n d i n g s and I m p l i c a t i o n s  Summary o f f i n d i n g s . F a c t o r s l i m i t i n g a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the present study t o other s e t t i n g s . R e l a t i n g s o c i a l work c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t o o t h e r ©cCupatiohaT groups. General I m p l i c a t i o n s . Implications f o r agencies. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . Suggestions f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . .............................................. 91  * iii  -  AppendicesJ A. B. 6. D. E. F. G.  Sample C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Suggested R a t i n g S c a l e f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l Employees. Sample Job S e e c r l p t l o h s from R e p r e s e n t a t i v e A g e n c i e s . Job A n a l y s i s Schedule I . Job A n a l y s i s Schedule I I I , M i s c e l l a n e o u s A c t i v i t i e s . T y p i c a l Day - T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c S u p e r v i s o r . Bibliography.  TABLES IN THE TEXT Table 1*  2.  Page . C o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d b e W e e n r a t i n g s on s e l e c t e d i t e m s and t o t a l p o i n t r a t i n g s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 400 s a l a r y j o b s  24  Summary o f a c t i v i t i e s o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , Vancouver, A p r i l 1 s t , 1954, t o March 31st, 1955 ..... .... . . . . . . . . . 50  3. Summary o f time d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u s u a l s o c i a l work d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r each s t a f f group o f t h e C l i n i c , A p r i l , 1955  60*61  4. Summary o f t i m e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u s u a l s o c i a l work d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s b y m a j o r a r e a s o f a c t i v i t y f o r each s t a f f group o f t h e Department, A p r i l , 1955 •••• ...  62  5. Three major a r e a s o f f u n c t i o n f o r each s t a f f group o f th© Department, 1955  63  6. B a t i o o f s u p e r v i s i o n time r e c e i v e d t o performance time o f v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s expressed I n percentages ........ ^  64  7. Focus o f a c t i v i t y i n p e r c e n t a g e s f o r each s t a f f group * •.. *...........................  65  8. Proposed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s . .  88  ABSTRACT C u r r e n t s t u d i e s o f s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n have s t i m u l a t e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n o f what s o c i a l w o r k e r s a c t u a l l y do. What a c t i v i t i e s and s e r v i c e s do s o c i a l w o r k e r s perform? By whom a r e t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s u s u a l l y p e r f o r m e d , i . e . , Worker- s u p e r v i s o r o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r ? What s k i l l s a r e r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s adeq u a t e l y ? What e x t e n t o r degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s i n v o l v e d i n each a c t i v i t y a t t h e v a r i o u s j o b l e v e l s o f worker, supervisor, a d m i n i s t r a t o r . f  The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s d e s i g n e d t o t e s t t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l Job e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work i n an attempt to answer t h e q u e s t i o n s posed, A s u r v e y o f t h e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e i n s o c i a l work and o f c u r r e n t methods o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n suggests t h a t t h e " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n i s most a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l work. S o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s n i n e b r o a d areas o f f u n c t i o n o r a c t i v i t i e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s . W h i l e each o f t h e s e a r e a s i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y assumed t o be a s s i g n e d t o s p e c i f i c Job l e v e l s , f u r t h e r study o f a s p e c i f i c agency (Vancouver, C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department) i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l w o r k e r s have -some degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r each a r e a o f a c t i v i t y . A n a l y s i s o f each w o r k e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n u n i t s o f f i v e minutes: o f time f o r a two w e e k - p e r i o d p r o v i d e s a measure o f t h e degree o f s k i l l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e q u i r e d o f s t a f f a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s . F i n d i n g s o f t h i s time s t u d y a r e t h e n used t o S o r t o u t j o b c l a s s e s , t o d e s c r i b e t h e s e c l a s s e s , and t o suggest a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme a p p l i c a b l e t o any s e t t i n g employing s o c i a l workers. r t  The f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s r e q u i r e some measure o f S k i l l i n each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g areas o f a c t i v i t y : A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Consultative, Supervisory, D i r e c t S e r v i c e , P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n , Community R e l a t i o n s , S t a f f Development, Programme Development, R e s e a r c h , M a j o r d e t e r m i n a n t s o f c l a s s appear t o be t h e e x t e n t o f work w h i c h i s s u b j e c t t o r e v i e w b y o t h e r s and t h e degree o f knowledge and a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d i n f i e l d s o t h e r t h a n t h e m a j o r a r e a o f f u n c t i o n . The p r o c e s s o f j o b a n a l y s i s , d e s c r i p t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s an e s s e n t i a l s t e p f o r a l l a g e n c i e s t o t a k e i n measuring* d e l e g a t i n g and i n t e r * p r e t i n g t h e work o f t h e agency. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme proposed s h o u l d e n a b l e comparison o f s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s I n a v a r i e t y o f s e t t i n g s . A t t h e same t i m e , i t o f f e r s a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e dilemma o f a p r o f e s s i o n w h i c h seeks t o a c h i e v e professional p r a c t i t i o n e r status but o f f e r s very l i m i t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s , f o r t h e d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r a c t i t i o n e r t o enhance h i s e a r n i n g s w i t h o u t assumiag a t r a d i t i o n a l l y h i g h e r r a n k o f supervisor or administrator.  •9-  Vl-  AC1^0WI£DGEME!NT  I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Mr. W. D i x o n and Dr. Leonard C. Marah o f t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e guidance I n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . To Dr. U.P. B y r n e , D i r e c t o r o f C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s * t o M i s a A.K. C a r r o l l , P r o v i n c i a l S u p e r v i s o r o f P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work,; and t o t h e s t a f f o f t h e Vancouver C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c * 1 express, a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n * i n t e r e s t and encouragement w h i c h made t h i s study p o s s i b l e . , Of p a r t i c u l a r a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme a n d ; i n t h e i n i t i a l d r a f t o f t h i s study were Mr. Bruno P e t e r s o n * P e r s o n n e l D i r e c t o r , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , Mr* Hugh A. M a c l a r a n o f Oyama* B r i t i s h Columbia, and Mr. H a r r y Itakow o f Vancouver* B r i t i s h .Columbia* ...  * v i i  JOB EVALUATION I N SOCIAL WORK An A n a l y s i s * D e s c r i p t i o n , and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S o c i a l Work P o s i t i o n s Baaed on a Study o f Werker A c t i v i t i e s i n th© Vancouver C M l d Guidance C l i n i c * 1 9 5 5 .  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH DESIGN  D u r i n g th© t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , manual, c l e r i c a l , and  t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s have t a k e n g r e a t s t r i d e s i n s t r i v i n g  f o r an e q u i t a b l e and o b j e c t i v e method o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r work.  P r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s have f o c u s e d p r i m a r i l y on  d e f i n i t i o n o r improvement o f s k i l l s , t e c h n i q u e s , and methods, w i t h t h e g o a l s o f improved s t a n d a r d s o f p r a c t i c e and c o n c o m i t a n t improved s e r v i c e s t o c l i e n t e l e . the s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n s  Because o f t h i s ,  (e.g., Clergy, law, medicine, n u r s -  i n g , s o c i a l work) have e s t a b l i s h e d t h e v a l u e o f t h e i r s e r vices to their clientele.  B u t , u n l i k e manual, c l e r i c a l , and  t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s , t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f s o c i a l work does n o t seem t o have developed an o b j e c t i v e method f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e w o r t h o f i t s s e r v i c e s w i t h i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o r agency, i . e . t o t h e employer. I n d u s t r y has recognized  wage and s a l a r y a d m i n i s -  t r a t i o n as an i n t e g r a l f u n c t i o n o f b u s i n e s s  administration  and h a s t a k e n s t e p s t o d e v e l o p s c i e n t i f i c methods f o r i t s measurement.  I n t h e c o n c e r n f o r d e f i n i t i o n and improvement  o f s e r v i c e s j d e l i n e a t i o n o f a r e a s o f competency! c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f methods and t e c h n i q u e s ; and measurement o f r e s u l t s ; s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n h a s n e g l e c t e d  t o study i t s r e s p o n s i b i l -  i t i e s w i t h i n t h e framework o f p o s i t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d b y  - 2 -  employers  Because o f t h i s t h e r e a r e many d i s c r e p a n c i e s I n  the concept o f t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r ' s r o l e a s seen b y b o a r d s o r c i v i l s e r v i c e commissions, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p r a c t i t i o n e r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , s c h o o l s o f s o c i a l work, c l i e n t s , and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c who u s u a l l y s u p p o r t t h e p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l work w i t h i n agency  structures.  A t m i d - c e n t u r y , t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f s o c i a l work h a d begun t o f o c u s on t h e r o l e o f t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r a s seen i n c u r r e n t agency p r a c t i c e .  1  »  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e "base, «2  s k i l l s , and r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r f i e l d s "  o f s o c i a l work a s a  p r o f e s s i o n * began t o emerge i n c l e a r e r i d e n t i t y .  Jane  Boey, i n 1950, commented: The problems c o n f r o n t i n g f u l l e r r e c o g n i t i o n o f s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n u n d o u b t e d l y w i l l d i s s o l v e when we a r e a b l e t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n , 'What i s o u r Job?* i n terms t h a t c a n be r e a d i l y u n d e r s t o o d by t h e p u b l i c . 3 To make t h i s q u e s t i o n  r e s e a r c h a b l e i t m i g h t be  f u r t h e r s t r u c t u r e d as f o l l o w s : 1.  What a c t i v i t i e s end s e r v i c e s do s o c i a l w o r k e r s  perform (a) i n any s e t t i n g employing S o c i a l w o r k e r s , See Berkraian, T e s s i e D., P r a c t i c e o f S o c i a l Workers i n P s y c h i a t r i c H o s p i t a l s and C l i n i c s . A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Workers, I n c . , New Y o r k , 1953. H o l l i s , E r n e s t V. and A l i c e L. T a y l o r , (Abridgement o f ) S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . American A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers, New Y o r k , 1952. Hoey, Jane M., " S o c i a l Work: I t s Base, S k i l l s and R e l a t i o n t o Other F i e l d s , " S o e i a l Casework. December, 1950, 2  pp. 3  399-410.  I b i d . . p. 399.  and (b) by whom ar© t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s u s u a l l y p e r formed* i . e . , w o r k e r , s u p e r v i s o r , o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r ? 2.  What s k i l l s and d e g r e e s o f s k i l l a r e r e q u i r e d (a) t o p e r f o r m t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a d e q u a t e l y and  therefore  (b) what s k i l l s a r e r e q u i r e d o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s  In v a r i o u s j o b l e v e l s such as w o r k e r , s u p e r v i s o r ,  adminis-  trator? 3.  What e x t e n t o r degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (a) i s i n v o l v e d i n each a c t i v i t y , and t h e r e f o r e (b) i s a s s i g n e d  t o each o f t h e v a r i o u s j o b l e v e l s ?  B o t h p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have sought answers t o s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l groups.  I n so d o i n g ,  these o r g a n i z a t i o n s have  developed t e c h n i q u e s and methods f o r a n a l y s i n g , d e s c r i b i n g , and  evaluating the content o f jobs.  I n d u s t r y and p u b l i c  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can perhaps a i d ua i n a t t e m p t s t o r e l a t e s o c i a l work t o o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s .  Therefore,  a further  question  i s posed. 4.  I s t h e r e a method o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n w h i c h w i l l (a) e n a b l e v a l i d comparisons between v a r i o u s  s o c i a l work j o b s and between s o c i a l work and o t h e r  occupat-  i o n a l g r o u p s * and w h i c h w i l l (b) make a o c i a l work more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e n o t o n l y t o s o c i a l work employers b u t a l s o t o o t h e r groups?  occupational  The p r e s e n t s t u d y I s an e x p l o r a t o r y  one d e s i g n e d  to t e s t the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of i n d u s t r i a l job evaluation n i q u e s i n an attempt t o answer t h e f i r s t t h r e e cited*  tech-  questions  I n Chapter 2 some o f t h e advantages and 1 I m i t a t i o n s  o f Job e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e examined a s t h e y p e r t a i n t o S o c i a l work.  The " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " method I s s e l e c t e d as  b e s t - s u i t e d t o a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n o f s o c i a l work Jobs. Chapter 3 p r e s e n t s , characteristics  i n broad p e r s p e c t i v e ,  o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work a s an i n s t i t u t i o n ,  as a p r o f e s s i o n , and as an o c c u p a t i o n a l and  some o f t h e u n i q u e  group.  Activities  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f s o c i a l workers i n t r a d i t i o n a l job  levels  (worker, s u p e r v i s o r , a d m i n i s t r a t o r ) , a s p r e s e n t l y  o u t l i n e d i n eurrent  l i t e r a t u r e and c u r r e n t  job descriptions  c o m p i l e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e employers, a r e r e v i e w e d . F i n a l l y , the a c t i v i t i e s o f s o o i a l w o r k e r s i n a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g a r e a n a l y s e d f r o m t h e v i e w p o i n t o f f u n c t i o n s and s e r v i c e s by t h e :employer.  defined  I n o r d e r t o measure t h e degree o f s k i l l s  r e q u i r e d o f and t h e e x t e n t o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c a r r i e d s o c i a l workers i n a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g , a c t i v i t i e s I s p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter i+»  by  a time s t u d y o f a c t u a l Findings  o f t h e time  s t u d y a r e u s e d t o f o r m u l a t e new j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r t h e s e t t i n g and t o p o s t u l a t e a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r e v a l u a t i n g s o c i a l work j o b s I n any s e t t i n g .  Chapter 4 thus i l l u s t r a t e s  the p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n j o b e v a l u a t i o n w i t h i n a n agency ure.  struct-  Chapter 5> comments on t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y , o f t h e c l a s s i -  f i c a t i o n scheme proposed, t o o t h e r s e t t i n g s and p r e s e n t s f i n d i n g s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y f o r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s ,  s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n * and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l  association.  The s e t t i n g : chosen f o r t h i s s t u d y i s the Vancouver C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department  (hereafter  r e f e r r e d t o as t h e C l i n i c and the Department r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . T h i s s e t t i n g was chosen because o f t h e d e s i r e o f the s t a f f t o a n a l y s e , measure, and e v a l u a t e t h e Job o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s . T h e i r d e s i r e was m o t i v a t e d by the need t o i n c r e a s e  efficiency  o f o p e r a t i o n t h r o u g h improved s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e Department and t h r o u g h s t u d y o f t h e f l o w o f work.  Moreover, t h e s t a f f  w i s h e d t o have more a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e work o f t h e Department as w e l l as o f eaoh p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e Department. The s p e c i f i c f o c u s o f t h e study i s on the a n a l y s i s , d e s c r i p t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n  o f s o c i a l casework p o s i t i o n s ,  Although the w r i t e r i s o f the o p i n i o n  t h a t t h e Job  classes  suggested i n C h a p t e r ij. a r e a p p l i c a b l e  i n p r i n c i p l e to other  a r e a s o f s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e , t h e scope o f t h e p r e s e n t study does n o t p e r m i t v a l i d a t i o n o f t h i s  opinion.  CHAPTER 2 HISTORY OP JOB EVALUATION  Job e v a l u a t i o n may be d e f i n e d a s : ...the s t u d y o f t h e c o n t e n t o f each j o b , w i t h o u t regard t o p e r s o n a l i t i e s , t o e s t a b l i s h o b j e c t i v e l y the, r e l a t i v e w o r t h o f one j o b t o a n o t h e r w i t h i n a g i v e n p l a n t . I t I s ... a y a r d s t i c k by w h i c h each d i s t i n c t job i n a p l a n t i s methodically analyzed t o e s t a b l i s h I t s p o s i t i o n and r e l a t i o n s t o a l l o t h e r . j o b - r u n g s on t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l l a d d e r o f t h e company. ^As such, j o b e v a l u a t i o n cannot be a c h i e v e d b y f i a t o f management o r employer, o r b y d e c r e e o f some r e g u l a t o r y body b u t must be a c h i e v e d b y a p r o c e s s o f j o i n t s t u d y by employer and employee. P r e s e n t day j o b e v a l u a t i o n s e e k s t o answer t h r e e basic questions.  1) What a r e t h e d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  involved I n the job?  2) What s k i l l s o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s does  the j o b r e q u i r e o f t h e employee f i l l i n g I t ? job worth i n r e l a t i o n t o other jobs?  3) What I s t h e  Objective  techniques  and methods f o r a n s w e r i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s have been d e v e l o p e d l a r g e l y because o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f employer and employee.  These d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s were a r e s u l t o f  i n a d e q u a t e methods f o r p r i c i n g j o b s (such as by f i a t o r decree o f management o r o f a r e g u l a t o r y b o d y ) , and i n c o n s i s t e n t o r i n d e f e n s i b l e wage r a t e s w h i c h were t h e r e s u l t s o f such i n a d e q u a t e j o b p r i c i n g methods. e a r l y p r i c i n g methods?  What were some o f t h e s e  How have t h e y c o n t r i b u t e d t o p r e s e n t  ^ War Manpower Commission: "Job E v a l u a t i o n " * B u l l e t i n p r e p a r e d by t h e T e c h n i c a l D i v i s i o n , U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n c i l i a t i o n S e r v i c e , Department o f L a b o r , Washington, D.C, November, 19kh»  Job  e v a l u a t i o n methods?  E a r l y Job  P r i c i n g Methods The  done has labor.  p r o c e s s of s e t t i n g some v a l u e on a Job  been p r a c t i c e d Por  centuries,  and u n i l a t e r a l .  The  e v e r s i n c e man  began t o s e l l  t h i s p r o c e s s was  essentially  o f V a l u e , but he had  and  o f the M i d d l e Ages had  no v o i c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g The  one  the  employer  Even the journeyman o r a p p r e n t i c e  no v o i c e i n the d e s c r i p t i o n  j o b o r i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h i s wage w h i c h was o f the c r a f t o r g u i l d .  P r i o r t o the  R e v o l u t i o n , the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f w o r t h o f any wage t o be  arbitrary  job t o be done, the p e r s o n he w i s h e d t o employ,  the wage, t o be p a i d .  regulation  his  c e r t a i n l y aware t h a t h i s  goods o r wages exchanged f o r h i s s e r v i c e s . determined the  be  freeman of the F e u d a l e r a , perhaps  o f the f i r s t t o work f o r h i r e , was l a b o r was  to  p a i d , was  of  his  fixed  by  Industrial  job, or  almost s o l e l y a problem of f l a t  the or  decree v e s t e d l h a m a s t e r o r a r e g u l a t o r y body. The technological  advent o f the f a c t o r y system and changes o f the  I n d u s t r i a l Age  brought i n t o  j o b e v a l u a t i o n the market f a c t o r o f s u p p l y and I n d i v i d u a l b a r g a i n i n g and  e v a l u a t i o n o f the  consequent  demand.  individual's  work o u t p u t became prime f a c t o r s i n p r i c i n g work a s s i g n m e n t s . But  the employer s t i l l determined the j o b t o be done,  and  s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d the r i g h t t o s e t the v a l u e o r wage f o r each j o b .  The  wage was  s e c o n d a r i l y d e t e r m i n e d by  the  o f work done by the w o r k e r i n a g i v e n p e r i o d o f t i m e .  amount The  p r a c t i c e of paying of "pieces  11  the w o r k e r oh the b a s i s o f the number  o f work completed, t h u s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o  p r i c i n g t h e f a c t o r s o f f r e q u e n c y o f d u t i e s t o be  Job  performed,  and p e r s o n a l o r i n d i v i d u a l performance. C o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , minimum wage l e g i s l a t i o n , and r e g u l a t o r y b o d i e s d e t e r m i n i n g  c o n d i t i o n s o f work, were  l a t e r f o r c e s w h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o make Job p r i c i n g an e q u i t a b l e and o b j e c t i v e p r o c e s s embodying s t u d y o f j o b s as "market" v a l u e , n a t u r e ,  to  e x t e n t and f r e q u e n c y of d u t i e s t o  be p e r f o r m e d , and the degree o f s k i l l and t o perform the d u t i e s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . system o f wage d e t e r m i n a t i o n  The  effort required piece-work  f o r c e d w o r k e r s t o band  i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e f o r b e t t e r compensation.  In the  together late  1 9 t h and e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r i e s t h i s took f o r m as a s t r u g g l e f o r adequate minimum wage l e v e l s w h i c h c o u l d be e a r n e d i n r e a s o n a b l e w o r k i n g h o u r s by a r e a s o n a b l e degree o f w i t h i n reasonable p h y s i c a l  effort,  surroundings.  Development o f Job E v a l u a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a ^ I n N o r t h A m e r i c a , the U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l Government has assumed l e a d e r s h i p i n d e v e l o p i n g means o f j o b p r i c i n g .  —-——  •„,••  -  equitable  As e a r l y as l 8 £ 3 , the U n i t e d  ——  States  ——•—~———:— — 1  F o r a more d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n " s e e : J o n e s , P h i l i p W,, P r a c t i c a l Job E v a l u a t i o n . John W i l e y & Sons I n c . , New Y o r k , 1948, pp. 1-28; see a l s o C i v i l S e r v i c e Assembly. P o s i t i o n C l a s s i f I c a t i o n i n the P u b l i c S e r v i c e . R e p o r t o f a committee, Israar B a r u c h , Chairman, C h i c a g o , 1941, PP. 7*31; and Mosher, W i l l i a m E., J . Donald K i n g s l e y , and 0. G l e n n S t a h l , P u b l i c P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , New Y o r k , T h i r d E d i t i o n , 1950, pp. 201-240.  - 9 Congress p a s s e d l e g i s l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h i n g f o u r grades o f c l e r k s , p r e s c r i b i n g c e r t a i n r a t e s o f wages f o r e a c h grade. A t t h a t t i m e t h e Congress r e i t e r a t e d the p o l i c y o f e q u a l pay f o r e q u a l work and the p o l i c y o f c o o r d i n a t i o n of d e p a r t m e n t a l pay s c h e d u l e s which were f i r s t endorsed by a Senate r e s o l u t i o n i n 1838*  The l e g i s l a t i o n f a i l e d t o remove  i n e q u a l i t i e s i n the f e d e r a l wage s t r u c t u r e because  no  c e n t r a l i z i n g agency o r c i v i l s e r v i c e commission was e s t a b l i s h e d t o c a r r y out the s t a t e d p o l i c y .  However, t h e l e g i s -  l a t i o n was an attempt a t j o b a n a l y s i s even though s u c h a n a l y s i s d i d not conclude i n p r o v i s i o n o f e q u i t a b l e o r cons i s t e n t wage r a t e s w i t h i n departments o f the  government.  Since the t u r n of the century three concurrent f o r c e s have g i v e n impetus t o the job e v a l u a t i o n movement. Government, i n d u s t r y , and l a b o r by m i d - c e n t u r y had a c c e p t e d the  need f o r o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f j o b s .  Only t h e t e c h -  n i q u e s , methods and scope o f job e v a l u a t i o n r e m a i n c o n t e n t i o u s a r e a s o r p o i n t s o f disagreement*  Three b r o a d , d i s t i n c t , y e t  concomitant f a c t o r s m o t i v a t e d t h e f o r c e s o f i n d u s t r y and l a b o r .  government,  F i r s t was t h e growth o f t h e m e r i t  p r i n c i p l e i n c i v i l s e r v i c e appointments and m e r i t r a t i n g i n promotions.  I f appointments and p r o m o t i o n s were t o be  based upon m e r i t , I t was Incumbent on t h e government a g e n c i e s to the  d e f i n e d u t i e s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  Coupled w i t h t h i s I n  U n i t e d S t a t e s was the r e f o r m movement o f 1910 t o 1930  w h i c h swept t h r o u g h f e d e r a l , s t a t e , and m u n i c i p a l bureauc r a c i e s w i t h the r e f o r m e r * s p l a t f o r m o f e f f i c i e n c y and  - 10 economy.  Underlying  t h i s p l a t f o r m was t h e d e s i r e t o e s t -  a b l i s h more d i r e c t c o n t r o l by l e g i s l a t i v e p e r s o n n e l o v e r executive functions.  P o s i t i v e aspects of t h i s  "reformation"  were t h e f o c u s on f l o w o f work, l i n e a r d e l e g a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , and c e n t r a l i z e d f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l .  The l a t t e r  p r i n c i p l e s o f management would be m e a n i n g l e s s w i t h o u t u n i f o r m j o b t e r m i n o l o g y and p o s i t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f d u t i e s delegated.  The m e r i t p r i n c i p l e was a happy s o l u t i o n t o t h e  p r o b l e m s o f p o l i t i c a l patronage i n r a n k - a n d * f i l e p o s i t i o n s i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e . ^ The second f a c t o r w h i c h i n s p i r e d the j o b e v a l u a t i o n movement was t h e r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f the U n i t e d States w i t h i n the past century.  Industry  job a n a l y s i s t h e means o f i n c r e a s e d production.  saw i n o b j e c t i v e  e f f i c i e n c y and i n c r e a s e d  Prom 1920 t o 19l|l» A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r y changed  from craftsman-focused t o product-focused o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The  f l o w o f work concept i n i n d u s t r y d e v e l o p e d and f l o u r i s h e d aa time and m o t i o n s t u d i e s p r o d u c e d s e e m i n g l y e n d l e s s improvements o f a s s e m b l y - l i n e  o r mass p r o d u c t i o n .  Industrial  management soon found t h a t a n a l y s i s o f work f l o w h a d o t h e r far-reaching benefits. the s y s t e m a t i c  Notable among t h e s e b e n e f i t s was  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c t a s k s and s t e p s  w i t h i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f e a c h worker i n t h e i n d u s t r y .  This  job a n a l y s i s i n i n d u s t r y moved r a p i d l y i n t o s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n D u r i n g t h e f i s c a l y e a r o f 1 9 5 0 , 1 , 7 2 2 , 3 4 5 o f 1,950,^90 or 8 8 . 3 $ o f a l l U.S. Fed. Gov't, c i v i l s e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s were s u b j e c t t o m e r i t e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r a p p o i n t m e n t , as q u o t e d i n P u b l i c P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , op. c i t . . p. 27. 6  - 11 o f p o s i t i o n s , d e s c r i p t i o n o f d u t i e s and t a s k s and t h e n t o e q u a l i z a t i o n o f pay t h r o u g h e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e importance o f each p o s i t i o n i n manufacture o f t h e end p r o d u c t . The  t h i r d f a c t o r which motivated  acceptance o f t h e  j o b e v a l u a t i o n movement was th© w i d e s p r e a d achievement by l a b o r groups o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  I n public organiza-  t i o n s , l a b o r p r e s s u r e d governments f o r more e q u i t a b l e wage a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h a d u a l form o f e q u a l pay f o r e q u a l work and p r o m o t i o n b a s e d on s e n i o r i t y and m e r i t .  In private  i n d u s t r y , l a b o r bore the brunt o f the " e f f i c i e n c y  experts " 1  e f f o r t s t o increase p r o d u c t i v i t y through the re-engineering of jobs.  L a b o r ' s s u s p i c i o n o f and d i s t a s t e f o r t h e time and  m o t i o n s t u d i e s and a s s e m b l y - l i n e d e l e g a t i o n o f t a s k s and s t e p s i s e p i t o m i z e d by C h a r l e s C h a p l i n I n t h e movie "Modem Times'" ( I 9 3 6 ) . The work o f the management e n g i n e e r  undeniably  brought r a p i d i n c r e a s e s i n p r o d u c t i v i t y , p r o s p e r i t y and l i v i n g standards. craftsman  Despite t h i s , the i n d i v i d u a l l a b o r e r or  c o u l d n o t h e l p b u t s e e the r e s u l t s as somehow  d e r i v e d t h r o u g h a "cheaper by t h e dozen" e x p l o i t a t i o n o f h i s productivity.  W i t h p o s i t i o n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and subsequent  job e v a l u a t i o n p l a n s , l a b o r saw j o b e v a l u a t i o n as management's attempt t o c i r c u m v e n t  collective bargaining.  But  i n the struggle f o r s a l a r y r e c o g n i t i o n f o r increased p r o d u c t i v i t y , t h e c r a f t u n i o n s o r g u i l d s were f o r c e d t o d e v e l o p v e r t i c a l u n i o n s w h i c h c o u l d encompass a l l t r a d e s , c r a f t s and employees w i t h i n t h e e n t i r e p e r s o n n e l o f a f a c t o r y  -  or i n d u s t r y .  Now  12  c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g was  w i t h i n the  scope o f a l l employees r a t h e r t h a n the s p e c i a l i z e d few. Moreover* c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g f o r c e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f a l l j o b s w i t h i n any one  shop.  the  Thus  i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f pay r a t e s assumed i m p o r t a n c e as w e l l ae e x t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( o r comparison o f p r e v a i l i n g r a t e s w i t h those i n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) .  Proper  job  d e s c r i p t i o n s were o f f u r t h e r advantage t o a l l concerned i n t h a t t h e y f a c i l i t a t e d j o b - t o - j o b comparisons b o t h i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y . S i g n i f i c a n t m i l e p o s t s i n t h e development o f  job  e v a l u a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s were: 1912 - F i r s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p l a n adopted by  the  C i t y o f Chicago. 1923  - C l a s s i f i c a t i o n A c t - U.S.  established a c e n t r a l Personnel  F e d e r a l Government  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board c l e a r l y  e s t a b l i s h i n g the p r i n c i p l e s o f g r o u p i n g p o s i t i o n s i n t o c l a s s e s on the b a s i s o f d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and o f e q u a l for  e q u a l work r e g a r d l e s s o f 191+9  - U.S.  sex.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n A c t o f 1923  the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n A c t o f 1 9 4 9 ,  r e p l a c e d by  Major p r o v i s i o n s i n c l u d e d  (a) e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f job e v a l u a t i o n a s s i g n e d t o the C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission w h i l e o f i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s was  standards classification  l e f t w i t h departments and  (b) e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f two s c h e d u l e s o f pay one f o r c r a f t s and p r o t e c t i v e and c u s t o d i a l j o b s and for  pay  a l l o t h e r c l a s s e s o f employment ( c o n s i s t i n g o f  agencies  grades; another eighteen  - 13 pay  grades and termed t h e " G e n e r a l S c h e d u l e " ) . The  f i n a l Impetus t o j o b e v a l u a t i o n came w i t h  World War I I .  The f r a n t i c scramble f o r manpower and con-  sequent n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n t r o l on p r i c e s and wages, f o r c e d the u n i t e d S t a t e s Government t o assume l e a d e r s h i p i n e s t a b l i s h i n g an o b j e c t i v e method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  the r e l a t i v e  w o r t h o f j o b s a s w e l l a s f o r p r o v i d i n g a sound p r o c e s s f o r wage and s a l a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  The method s e l e c t e d and  p u b l i c i z e d was t h a t o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n . ment u n d e r t o o k t o a c q u a i n t  The f e d e r a l g o v e r n -  i t s C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r s , es w e l l  as l a b o r and management g e n e r a l l y , w i t h e x i s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r job evaluation. T h i s b r i e f h i s t o r y would be i n c o m p l e t e i f i t d i d not acknowledge the d e b t o f a l l o c c u p a t i o n s t o t h e s c i e n t i f i c management movement i n c l a r i f y i n g , a n a l y s i n g , d e s c r i b i n g and e v a l u a t i n g t h e phenomenon o f work*  The c a t a l y s t , i f n o t t h e  a c t i v e agent, i n t h e t w e n t i e t h century  growth o f j o b a n a l y s i s  and e v a l u a t i o n was t h e management e n g i n e e r . of t h i s c e n t u r y  The second decade  saw t h e development and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f  i n t e l l i g e n c e , a p t i t u d e and v o c a t i o n a l guidance t e s t s by American p s y c h o l o g i s t s .  S p e c i f i c use was made o f these  t e s t s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t World War, such t e s t i n g f o r r e c r u i t m e n t  I n d u s t r y was q u i c k t o u s e  and s e l e c t i o n o f s t a f f .  Studies  o f time and m o t i o n , e f f i c i e n c y , f a t i g u e , and o f m e r i t r a t i n g were o n l y d e v e l o p e d and r e f i n e d as p e r s o n n e l management achieved i d e n t i t y .  I n c a r r y i n g job a n a l y s i s from p o s i t i o n  - Ik s p e c i f i c a t i o n o r d e s c r i p t i o n t o t h e l o g i c a l step o f e v a l 7 uation,  1  p e r s o n n e l roajiegement a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y con-  s t i t u e n t o r component f a c t o r s i n Jobs. C u r r e n t Methods o f Job E v a l u a t i o n and T h e i r A p p l i c a b i l i t y t o S o c i a l Work One o f the e a r l i e s t r e c o r d e d a t t e m p t s t o f i n d common denominators i n a group o f j o b s , appeared i n 1926. I n h i s book, M e r r i l l L o t t h e l p e d t o p o p u l a r i z e uation.  job eval-  S p e c i f i c a l l y , h i s w r i t i n g was i n d i c a t i v e o f a r e -  f o c u s i n g o f i n d u s t r y and l a b o r f r o m t h e p r i c i n g o f Jobs t o t h e study o f Job c o n t e n t .  The h o r s e and c a r t began t o assume  their correct positions.  L e t t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n was t i m e l y i n  t h a t i t seemed t o p r e s e n t t o b o t h employer and employee a sound b a s i s f o r wege d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  Included  i n factors of  any j o b a s l i s t e d b y L o t t , were t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1,  Time r e q u i r e d t o become h i g h l y s k i l l e d i n a n operation,  2,  Time r e q u i r e d f o r a s k i l l e d p e r s o n t o adapt h i m s e l f t o h i s employer's needs,  3,  Number o f men i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n supply.  - the labor  ' Mosher, K i n g s l e y and S t a h l , op. clt.» p. 210, comment t h a t " . . . I n government t h e c h r o n o l o g y was g e n e r a l l y J u s t the r e v e r s e . The f i r s t emphasis was on pay....Only i n r e c e n t y e a r s have o t h e r uses o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n . . . a s a v i t a l t e c h n i q u e and source of data I n o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r o c e d u r e s improvement, i n t r a i n i n g , e t c , b e e n d e v e l o p e d i n t h e p u b l i c service." 8 L o t t , M e r r i l l R., Wage S c a l e s and Job E v a l u a t i o n , R o n a l d P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1926. L o t t ' s l i s t c o r r e l a t e s c l o s e l y with the f a c t o r s of S k i l l , R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , E f f o r t Demanded, and Working C o n d i t i o n s , which a r e b a s i c t o a l l f a c t o r comparison and p o i n t r a t i n g  -15  *  «  -  k-  P o s s i b i l i t y o f an employee l o c a t i n g w i t h a n o t h e r company and s t i l l commanding a s i m i l a r earning capacity.  $.  E d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r the  6.  P r e v a i l i n g r a t e of pey  7.  Degree o f s k i l l , manual d e x t e r i t y , and required.  8.  New  9.  Money v a l u e o f t h e p a r t s worked upon.  occupation.  i n the community. accuracy  problems and t h e v a r i e t y o f the work.  10.  Dependence upon h o n e s t y and p e r s o n a l  11.  Working c o n d i t i o n s .  12.  Exposure t o a c c i d e n t h a z a r d s ,  13.  Exposure to h e a l t h h a z a r d s ,  lij.,  Physical effort.  15.  Monotony o f t h e work.  integrity.  * The Items marked by a s t e r i s k s r e p r e s e n t p e r s o n a l requirements r a t h e r than job requirements. I n t h a t r e s p e c t , the l i s t o f f a c t o r s I n c l u d e s a s p e c t s o f r a t i n g t h e I n d i v i d u a l employee on the job as he p e r f o r m s i t . Job e v a l u a t i o n p r o p e r , concerns I t s e l f p r i m a r i l y w i t h the s t u d y o f the job c o n t e n t and the a s s i g n i n g o f a p r i c e t o the j o b r a t h e r t h a n a s s e s s i n g the work of the employee on the job ( c f . M e r i t r a t i n g ) . So much b l e n d i n g o f o r i g i n a l methods o r t e c h n i q u e s o f job e v a l u a t i o n has o c c u r r e d out d i s t i n c t methods.  that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to s o r t  P r o p o n e n t s o f any one method  tend,  however, t o endow t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r method w i t h a t t r i b u t e s o f : s c i e n c e ; o b j e c t i v i t y ; c o m p l e t e n e s s ; o r p r a c t i c a l i t y , depending  on the method.  Study of v a r i o u s p l a n s u s e d i n government  methods d e s c r i b e d i n e n s u i n g pages. Worthy of note I s t h a t L o t t was q u i t e c o g n i z a n t o f market c o n d i t i o n s i n e v a l u a t i n g j o b s , e.g. f a c t o r s 3 , and 6 . t h e l a b o r s u p p l y , and the pre<v a i l i n g wage r a t e , were c o n s i d e r e d as d e t e r m i n a n t s o f the v a l u e o f th© Job,  -16 -  and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e v e a l s a s p e c t s o f two o r more methods i n e a c h I n s t a n c e d e s p i t e t h e predominance o f one method* I n essenee t h e r e a r e two methods o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n . These stem from t h e p o i n t o f view t a k e n i n a p p r a i s i n g F i r s t , one m i g h t s u r v e y j o b s from t h e v i e w p o i n t  jobs.  o f the s t a t u s  o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s r e q u i r e d b y management f o r t h e i r j o b p u r poses.  The "rank" o r s t a t u s o f the j o b i s t h e n v e s t e d  i n d i v i d u a l rather than i n the p o s i t i o n . s i b i l i t i e s assigned  i n the  D u t i e s and r e s p o n -  are b a s e d on the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and a b i l i t y  o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ^ n o t o n t h e b a s i s o f the f u n c t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n w i t h i n an administrative hierarchy. recognize  The r e a d e r w i l l  t h e r a n k concept a s t h a t used almost u n i v e r s a l l y  by t h e armed s e r v i c e s o f b o t h U n i t e d i n g t h e two v*orld wars.  S t a t e s and Canada d u r -  P r o p o n e n t s o f the r a n k concept s t r e s s  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y w h i c h i t g i v e s t o an organi z a t i o n and t h u s t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f l o n g - r a n g e program o r p o l i c y planning.  P o l i c y , procedure and f u n c t i o n a r e d e t e r m i n e d  f o r e a c h t a s k w i t h i n e a c h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t . The a l t e r n a t i v e l i e s i n having tasks assigned  t o u n i t s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r e -  d e t e r m i n e d f u n c t i o n o f t h e u n i t and completed t h r o u g h recognised  procedural  c h a n n e l s w h i c h have a l s o been p r e -  d e t e r m i n e d o r d e f i n e d on t h e b a a l s o f f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o o v e r - a l l f u n c t i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The l a t t e r i s the  essenee o f the " p o s i t i o n " concept i n Job e v a l u a t i o n w h i c h seeks t o a n a l y z e , d e s c r i b e and e v a l u a t e  t h e demands o f t h e  - 17 p o s i t i o n r e g a r d l e s s o f the r a n k o r p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 9 of any  incumbent i n the p o s i t i o n . As p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d , Job e v a l u a t i o n p r o p e r con-  cerns i t s e l f w i t h e v a l u a t i o n o f p o s i t i o n s r a t h e r than w i t h individuals.  Common t e c h n i q u e s are r a n k i n g or  f a c t o r comparison; and p o i n t r a t i n g .  classification;  Each o f t h e s e w i l l  be  s t u d i e d w i t h i l l u s t r a t i v e examples o f t h e i r use as a p p l i e d t o s o c i a l work,  These t e c h n i q u e s a l l depend on a c a r e f u l I n i t i a l  a n a l y s i s of i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s ; a d e t a i l e d w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n o f the d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f e a c h p o s i t i o n ; a job job comparison t o determine r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y and o f j o b s under s t u d y ; e s t a b l i s h m e n t r e l a t i v e Importance; and  to  importance  o f l e v e l s or steps  of  g r o u p i n g o f s i m i l a r j o b s i n t o these  l e v e l s o r s t e p s w h i c h u s u a l l y are r e l a t e d t o pay  grades.  R a n k i n g o r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Method A l l p o s i t i o n s are s t u d i e d ^ and w r i t t e n up.  Then  the d e s c r i p t i o n s are u s e d t o s o r t out t y p i c a l " j o b s " o r 9 B o t h concepts are extremes o r i d e a l s , Armed f o r c e s , government and i n d u s t r y i l l u s t r a t e examples o f b o t h c o n c e p t s a l though the rank concept t e n d s t o be a p p l i e d more f r e q u e n t l y t o s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l where s t a t u s o f the i n d i v i d u a l i s s t r e s s e d . S i n c e World War I I , b o t h Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s have i n s t i t u t e d some measure o f p o s i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n i n t h e i r armed s e r v i c e s . Most n o t e w o r t h y amongst t h e s e i s the U n i t e d S t a t e s Navy p o s i t i o n e v a l u a t i o n p l a n . (See Ash, P h i l i p . "A S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of the Navy's Method o f P o s i t i o n E v a l u a t i o n , " P u b l l o P e r s o n n e l Review, V o l . 11, No. 3 , J u l y , 1 9 5 0 . I n i t i a l s t u d y o r "job a n a l y s i s " u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r s c h e d u l e form completed by worker and superv i s o r ; o r i n t e r v i e w by p e r s o n n e l c o n s u l t a n t o r time s t u d y ; or a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e . In l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s the quest i o n n a i r e method i s a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l l y used* d e s p i t e i t s 1 0  -  18  " c l a s s e s " I n v o l v i n g s i m i l a r d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The c l a s s e s may be f u r t h e r grouped i n t o " g r a d e s " e a c h o f w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f a v a r i e t y o f c l a s s e s , e.g., S o c i a l Worker-..I, E n g i n e e r I , Teacher I , f o r w h i c h one pay range o r grade i s assigned.  An a d d i t i o n a l s o r t i n g i s o f t e n made ( f o r d e p a r t -  m e n t a l use) i n t o " s e r i e s " w h i c h c o n s i s t o f c l o s e l y r e l a t e d p o s i t i o n s I n one o c c u p a t i o n a l  group s u c h as S o c i a l Work  Series, Engineering Series, et cetera. U.S.  F o r example, the  C i v i l S e r v i c e G e n e r a l Schedule c o n s i s t s o f e i g h t e e n p a y  grades f o r a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  P r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work  p o s i t i o n s are c l a s s i f i e d according to l e v e l s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y comparison w i t h o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l  groups under t h e  G e n e r a l Schedule and a s s i g n e d t o a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h i n the e i g h t e e n grades. p o s i t i o n s are described  pay g r a d e s  B u t a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work  and grouped a s c l a s s e s o f the " s o c i a l  work s e r i e s " f o r o t h e r job a n a l y s i s p u r p o s e s . The  classifica-  t i o n o r r a n k i n g o f j o b s may be done by e v a l u a t i n g  several  f a c t o r s i n the j o b o r by c o m p a r i s o n i n t o t o o f one j o b t o another. The r a n k i n g o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e i s t h e one c u r r e n t l y used i n e v a l u a t i n g a l m o s t a l l c i v i l s e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s . V a l i d i t y o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s dependent on t h e thoroughness and a c c u r a c y o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s a s w e l l as on t h e degree o f o b j e c t i v i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l .  Most  proneness t o d i s t o r t e d o r i n a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n o n which t o base any subsequent j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s o r e v a l u a t i o n p l a n (See Appendix A f o r t y p i c a l j o b a n a l y s i s questionnaire.)  - 19 -  p r i v a t e l y f i n a n c e d s o c i a l a g e n c i e s use some form o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n e v a l u a t i n g p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r organization."*"" " 1  F a c t o r Comparison Method F o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f Jobs and p o s i t i o n s , elements o r f a c t o r s common t o a l l Jobs a r e c a r e f u l l y defined i nw r i t i n g *  Such f a c t o r s may number anywhere  from two t o t h i r t y depending on t h e scope o f t h e Jobs s t u d i e d . Common f a c t o r s i n c l u d e : s k i l l r e q u i r e d ; r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; e f f o r t demanded; and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  (Sub-factors o f  t h e s e a r e l i s t e d and d e f i n e d i n v a r i o u s ways.)  The n e x t  I s t o s e l e c t some twenty o r t h i r t y "key Jobs".  These  step  u s u a l l y a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l e x i s t i n g pay grades and t h e i r wages a r e a g r e e d b y b o t h management and l a b o r t o b e f a i r l y r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r . f a c t o r by f a c t o r .  Each key j o b i s w r i t t e n up  From these j o b a n a l y s e s , i t i s d e c i d e d  how much o f t h e c u r r e n t wage f o r e a c h j o b i s b e i n g p a i d f o r each f a c t o r .  These f a c t o r breakdowns a r e t h e n used as a  s c a l e a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e money v a l u e o f e v e r y f a c t o r o f e v e r y o t h e r j o b i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n may be judged o r measured. F i n a l l y , t h e sum o f t h e f a c t o r v a l u e s t h u s a s s i g n e d represents  the e v a l u a t e d  to a job  wage o f t h a t Job under t h e e x i s t i n g  Some w r i t e r s d i s t i n g u i s h between " r a n k i n g " and " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , d e f i n i n g t h e former a s a r a n k i n g o f Jobs i n a s e q u e n t i a l order o f whole j o b s , and t h e l a t t e r a s s o r t i n g whole j o b s i n t o p r e - d e t e r m i n e d grades o r c l a s s e s . C u r r e n t usage, however, i n d i c a t e s b o t h methods a r e u s e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h one o r more f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e grade o r c l a s s . 1  1  20 wage agreement. The  f a c t o r comparison system i s u s e d b y many l a r g e  p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i e s ( e . g . Revere Copper and B r a s s , and U n i t e d  States S t e e l ) .  Shell Oil  A n i n e - f a c t o r system h a s a l s o been  used by t h e B.C. C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission i n e v a l u a t i n g senior administrative p o s i t i o n s .  some  An e x c e l l e n t example o f t h e  f a c t o r comparison method a p p l i e d t o a s o c i a l work Job was 12  completed by an employee committee i n 1954*  Following a  d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s by f a c t o r o f twenty p o s i t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d as S o c i a l Worker Grade I I ( P r o v i n c e bia,  o f B r i t i s h Colum-  Department o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , S o e i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h ) ,  the committee p r e s e n t e d a n i n e - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f ; t h e Job o f a S o c i a l Worker Grade I I . ^ Their a n a l y s i s presents f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l which could be used t o a s s e s s t h e wage v a l u e o f t h e S o c i a l Worker Grade I I job.  However» d e s p i t e t h e c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f e a c h f a c t o r  as a p p l i e d t o t h e J o b , t h e r e s u l t a n t Job a n a l y s i s , o r j o b w r i t e - u p i s o b v i o u s l y w r i t t e n by s o c i a l workers,.  Using the  same f a c t u a l d a t a , and r a t i n g each f a c t o r I n a c c o r d p r e v i o u s l y agreed upon f a c t o r s ,  with  i t I s safe t o say that  there  would be a d i f f e r e n c e I n t h e w r i t e - u p and I n t h e f i n a l e v a l u a t i o n had t h i s a n a l y s i s b e e n completed b y any o t h e r group. T h i s i s a weakness i n h e r e n t i n a l l j o b e v a l u a t i o n  techniques.  12  S o c i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h , S o c i a l Workers* S a l a r i e s Comm i t t e e , B r i e f on Job A n a l y s i s ; S a l a r y A n o m a l i e s ; Problems o f S t a f f i n g , B.C. Government Employees* A s s o c i a t i o n , Vancouver, 1954* (Mlmeo.). 1 3  i b i d . * PP. 3-5*  - 21 I t s h o u l d be c o n s t a n t l y n o t e d t h a t t h e p r o c e s s encompasses many j u d g m e n t a l f a c e t s w h i c h t e n d t o v i t i a t e a g a i n s t any claims of s c i e n t i f i c Point Rating  objectivity.  System  The p o i n t system u s e s j o b f a c t o r s a s i n t h e f a c t o r comparison system b u t t h e f a c t o r v a l u e o f each Job i s arrived at differently.  Instead o f measuring f a c t o r values  a g a i n s t t h e p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d y a r d s t i c k o f t h e key j o b s , s t a n d a r d i z e d p o i n t v a l u e s a r e s e t f o r t h e v a r y i n g amounts o r degrees o f e a c h f a c t o r r e q u i r e d b y any j o b .  The f a c t o r s  are t h e n w e i g h t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r g e n e r a l i m p o r t a n c e , then subdivided i n t o degrees.  To e v a l u a t e  a Job by t h e p o i n t  system, t h e p o i n t v a l u e o f e a c h f a c t o r ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e degree r e q u i r e d f o r t h e j o b s t u d i e d ) I s s e t down o r s e l e c t e d . The p o i n t e v a l u a t i o n o r t o t a l p o i n t s f o r a l l f a c t o r s i s t h e n used as t h e i n d i c a t o r f o r where t h e Job f a l l s on t h e p a y grade s c a l e .  T h i s system i s u s e d b y many f i r m s i n c l u d i n g  G e n e r a l E l e c t r i c , G e n e r a l Foods, and Westinghouse  Electric.  P u b l i c s e r v i c e s a l s o u s e the p o i n t system, e.g. U n i t e d  States  Navy, and l o c a l l y , t h e B.C. C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission ( f o r c l e r i c a l workers o n l y ) .  The committee p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d * ^  adopted t h e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e f o r c l e r i c a l workers u s e d b y the B.C.  C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission t o i l l u s t r a t e how such a  s c a l e c o u l d be u s e d t o e v a l u a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l and c l e r i c a l p o r . t t i o n s , (See Appendix B*) ^  S o c i a l Workers» S a l a r i e s Committee, op, c i t . . p p . 5-6.  -• 22 If  agreement c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d as t o f a c t o r s t o  be s t u d i e d , w e i g h t s t o be a s s i g n e d and d e f i n i t i o n o f degrees o f e a c h f a c t o r , t h e n s u c h a r a t i n g s c a l e c o u l d be u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h e q u i t y o f pay r a t e s amongst v a r i o u s c l a s s e s o f employees.  However, such agreement and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i s  n o t u n i v e r s a l l y d e s i r e d by a l l t r a d e s and p r o f e s s i o n s . Indeed, t h e p o i n t system h i g h l i g h t s a l l the f l a w s which c r i t i c s ^ c l a i m e x i s t i n p o s i t i o n e v a l u a t i o n . more mechanized, s t a n d a r d i z e d e a s i e r i t i s t o measure.  The  o r r o u t i n i z e d the Job, the  When t h e o u t p u t o r end p r o d u c t i s  m e a s u r a b l e , the s t e p s and s t a g e s o f work p e r f o r m e d are identifiable.  B u t , when t h e end p r o d u c t i s a s e r v i c e which  may o r may not a c h i e v e b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s , how a r e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f work to be measured, l e t alone w e i g h t e d , i n r e l a t i o n t o other job f a c t o r s ?  T e c h n i c a l p e r f e c t i o n of j o b  e v a l u a t i o n systems i s o f l e s s importance t h a n t h e d e s i r e o f employees t o have a workable p l a n .  O c c u p a t i o n a l groups  which  are u n o r g a n i z e d o r w e a k l y o r g a n i z e d t e n d t o be s e r v e d b e t t e r t h a n s t r o n g l y o r g a n i z e d groups by f a c t o r comparison o r p o i n t t e c h n i q u e s i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r Jobs. e s s e n t i a l l y a t o o l o f management.  Job e v a l u a t i o n i s s t i l l  Unions, therefore,  still  c l i n g t o t h e i r power i n p r i c i n g j o b s t h r o u g h c o l l e c t i v e bargaining,  A p a r t i a l solution i s offered i f s k i l l ,  Job  c o n d i t i o n s and b a r g a i n i n g power a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s b a s i c j o b * M i l l e t t , John D, , Management i n the P u b l i c S e r v i c e , t h e Quest f o r E f f e c t i v e P e r f o r m a n c e , M c G r a w - H i l l Book Go * I n c , , New Y o r k , 1954* ( e s p e c . Chapter 131.  - 23 factors. Recent s t u d i e s by T i f f i n  17  and o t h e r s have demon-  s t r a t e d the v a l i d i t y o f u s i n g t w o - f a c t o r  comparisons I n  e v a l u a t i n g j o b s r a t h e r t h a n u s i n g a more complex l i s t ©f factors.  The h i g h degree o f c o r r e l a t i o n i n s i n g l e o r two-  f a c t o r v e r s u s m u l t i - f a c t o r e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s makes t h e t y p i c a l p o i n t system o r f a c t o r comparison t e c h n i q u e s appear a questionable  expense.  (See Table 1, p. 21*.)  As a g e n e r a l g u i d e t o t h e comparative  usefulness  o f t h e above f o u r methods o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n i t i s h e l p f u l t o r e v i e w t h e pur-pose u n d e r l y i n g  job e v a l u a t i o n ,  Ismar  B a r u c h o u t l i n e s the r a t i o n a l e ; , ...(a) so t h a t t h e I m p o s s i b i l i t y o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d mass o f i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s g i v e s way t o t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a much s m a l l e r number o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c l a s s e s o f p o s i t i o n s ; (b) so t h a t p o s i t i o n s w h i c h s h o u l d be t r e a t e d a l i k e when p e r s o n n e l p o l i c i e s , p r o b l e m s , o r a c t i o n s , a r e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n c a n e a s i l y b© I d e n t i f i e d as members o f a group, t h u s m a k i n g i t p o s s i b l e t o d e a l w i t h p o s i t i o n s i n l i k e groups r a t h e r t h a n as an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d mass; and ( c ) so t h a t , b y emphasis on an i m p a r t i a l , s c i e n t i f i c approach a p u r e l y p e r s o n a l i z e d t r e a t m e n t Of work and pay problems c a n be a v o i d e d i n f a v o r o f s a f e g u a r d s a g a i n s t f a v o r i t i s m and p r o c e d u r e s f o r f a i r and e q u i t a b l e treatment.1° K e r r , C l a r k and L l o y d H. F i s h e r , " E f f e c t o f Environment and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o n Job E v a l u a t i o n , Some P r e c e p t s and C a v e a t s , " I n Readings I n P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . P a u l P i g o r s and C h a r l e s W, M y e r s , e d s , , M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co, I n c . , Hew Y o r k , 191*8, p p . 387-390, 1 6  T i f f i n , Joseph, I n d u s t r i a l Psychology, P r e n t i G e - H a l l , I n c . , New Y o r k , 191*7. B a r u c h , Ismar, " B a s i c A s p e c t s o f P o s i t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , " P u b l i c P e r s o n n e l Review. V o l , 2 ( O c t o b e r , 191*0), p , 1,  -  Table 1,  2k  -  C o r r e l a t i o n s O b t a i n e d between R a t i n g s on S e l e c t e d Items and T o t a l P o i n t R a t i n g s f o r A p p r o x i m a t e l y UOO S a l a r y Jobs Correlation with Total . P o i n t s Based on 11 Items  S e l e c t e d S c a l e Items  Experience p l u s complexity Experience p l u s complexity  Source: T i f f i n , J .  f  .93 .96  of d u t i e s . . of d u t i e s  ,  .98  I n d u s t r i a l P s y c h o l o g y , op. c i t . , p.  388.  These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t ? (1) the r a t i n g s f r o m a s h o r t e n e d system c o r r e l a t e v e r y h i g h l y w i t h t h e r a t i n g s o f l o n g e r s y s t e m s , (2) the f i n d i n g s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y the same f o r shop j o b s and s a l a r i e d j o b s , (3) the e f f e c t o f s h o r t e n i n g t h e system i s the same f o r p o i n t systems and f o r f a c t o r comparison system, and (ij.} the r a t i n g s o b t a i n e d from a suggested s i m p l i f i e d system have h i g h e r r e l i a b i l i t y t h a n t h o s e r e s u l t i n g f r o m a l o n g e r system. I n the l i g h t o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s , i t i s p r o b a b l y a d v i s a b l e t o make g r e a t e r use o f systems of j o b e v a l u a t i o n t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e r t h a n many of t h o s e i n c u r r e n t use,i° Each o f the p u r p o s e s c i t e d by B a r u c h can be by the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method of j o b e v a l u a t i o n .  met  Moreover,  on  t h i s method i s the one most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d ,  most e a s y t o  e s t a b l i s h , most amenable t o change and t h u s most f l e x i b l e T i f f i n , op. , c i t . , p. 393.  to  x y  20  I n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , s t a t e s , n a t i o n a l governments, c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n H o r t h A m e r i c a , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method i s most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d , a l t h o u g h the p o i n t and f a c t o r compari s o n are the most w i d e l y used p l a n s I n i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . See S p r l e g e l , W i l l i a m , and E. Lanham, P e r s o n n e l S t u d i e s S e r i e s , A u s t i n , Texas, B u r e a u o f B u s i n e s s R e s e a r c h , The U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, 1951» e t . s e q . .  -  administer.  25 -  I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government,  Community Chest and C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r Vancouver and l o c a l o f f i c e s o f the F e d e r a l Government use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r evaluation o f jobs.  The C i t y o f Vancouver uses a c l a s s i -  f i c a t i o n p l a n p l u s a m o d i f i e d p o i n t r a t i n g system t o deter*mine p a y grades. One o u t s t a n d i n g p r o p o n e n t o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method summarizes v e r y a p t l y t h e s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s method. The p r i n c i p a l d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d b y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n stem f r o m i t s l a c k o f p r e c i s i o n * T h i s h a s tempted many t e c h n i c i a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n I n d u s t r y , t o seek comfort i n systems which r e l y h e a v i l y on m a t h e m a t i c a l w e i g h t i n g and s c o r i n g t o compare j o b w i t h j o b o r j o b w i t h c l a s s * B u t no one has y e t b e e n a b l e t o e l i m i n a t e t h e need f o r s u b j e c t i v e j u d g m e n t d i s c r i m i n a t i n g broad-gauged, l o g i c a l judgment, b u t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , human, f a l l i b l e judgment-*-in a r r i v i n g a t r e a s o n a b l e , e q u i t a b l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Ho c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p l a n i s o p e r a t e d w i t h o u t some m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and disagreements among employees, o p e r a t i n g s u p e r v i s o r s , and j o b e v a l u a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s . Where a p l a n i s o p e r a t e d most s u c c e s s f u l l y t h e r e I s l i k e l y t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e common u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i o n among a l l t h e s e p a r t i e s t o t h e p r o c e s s . T h i s c a l l s f o r common t r a i n i n g i n aims and methods; i t a l s o p o i n t s up t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f a d v i s o r y and a p p e l l a t e b o a r d s made up n e t o n l y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i c i a n s b u t o f workers end l e a d e r s i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n I n q u e s t i o n , »Ivory tower* c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , k e e p i n g i t a m y s t e r y f o r an a n o i n t e d few* cannot w i n t h e acceptance n e c e s s a r y t o i m p a r t i a l , h o n e s t j o b a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n , 2 1 9  With c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s v i e w p o i n t s i n a n a l y s i n g s o c i a l work j o b s and i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f i n c r e a s i n g a c h i e v e ment o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s b y s o c i a l work, t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method appears t h e most s u i t a b l e means f o r d e s c r i b i n g what i t I s t h a t s o c i a l w o r k e r s do. Mosher, K i n g s l e y and S t a h l , op. c i t . , p . 238  CHAPTER 3 SOCIAL WORK AS AN INSTITUTION, OCCUPATION, AND PROFESSION—THE CONTENT OF SOCIAL WORK AS REVEALED I N CURRENT THEORY AND PRACTICE  i n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , most s o c i a l w o r k e r s employed i n l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s  would not p r o f e s s  satisfaction  with e x i s t i n g descriptions or evaluations o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . I n most I n s t a n c e s ,  t h e s o c i a l worker employees haVe no aware-  n e s s o f the method b y w h i c h t h e i r p o s i t i o n s have b e e n and  evaluated  i n many l o c a l s e t t i n g s , t h e Incumbents o f s o c i a l work  p o s i t i o n s would not r e c o g n i z e  the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  w r i t t e n as  pp  job d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the work t h e y p e r f o r m .  c  The i m p l i c a t i o n  i n t e n d e d i n the above s t a t e m e n t s i s not t h a t employers have I n c o r r e c t l y o r inadequately  c l a s s i f i e d s o c i a l work j o b s .  R a t h e r , the w r i t e r i m p l i e s t h a t s o c i a l work a s a p r o f e s s i o n has not a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e d and  i t s goals, s k i l l s , a c t i v i t i e s  s e r v i c e s i n t e r m i n o l o g y w h i c h i s a p p l i c a b l e t o job des-  c r i p t i o n and organized  job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  occupation,  Moreover, as a weakly-  s o c i a l workers a s a p r o f e s s i o n a l group  have n o t a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d I n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n and  classi-  f i c a t i o n o f the d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h e y assume a s i n d i v i d u a l employees.  To make e f f e c t i v e use o f Job  evalua-  t i o n methods s o c i a l w o r k e r s need t o b e c o n v e r s a n t w i t h t h e s e See Appendix C f o r sample Job d e s c r i p t i o n s from r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s e m p l o y i n g s o c i a l workers*  - 27 methods.  B u t more i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t s o c i a l w o r k e r s need t o  be aware o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o c i a l work w h i c h a r e  dif-  f e r e n t f r o m I n d u s t r y and o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l groups and capable o f e n u n c i a t i n g t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms o f  be social  work j o b s . Some D i f f e r e n c e s between S o c i a l Work and Other  Occupational  23 Groups Adequate e v a l u a t i o n o f s o c i a l work Jobs cannot achieved  without  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f (a) s o c i a l work as  be  an  I n s t i t u t i o n , (b) s o c i a l work a s an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e ^ i n 2  s p e c i f i c l o c a l e s and  s e t t i n g s , and  (c) s o c i a l work as a  p r o f e s s i o n w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t may  or may  not  be  congruent w i t h c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s o f " s o c i a l w o r k e r s . "  The  concept o f m e a s u r i n g what a Job demands must encompass more t h a n t h e employer's d e s c r i p t i o n o f what he wants done i n the v a r i o u s s t e p s and  stages of p r o c e s s i n g h i s product.  Attempts  F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s a s p e c t o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y may be f o u n d i n : A t w a t e r , P i e r c e , Problems o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n S o c i a l Work» U n i v . o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1940; S t r e e t , Elwood, A Handbook f o r S o c i a l Agency A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Harper and B r o t h e r s , New Y o r k , 1947J Bowers, S w i t h u n , "The N a t u r e and D e f i n i t i o n o f S o c i a l Casework, P a r t I I I , " S o c i a l Casework, V o l . XXX, No* 10 (1949); K i d n e l g h , J o h n C , "The Quest f o r Competence i n W e l f a r e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " S o c i a l S e r v i c e Review. V o l . XXIV, June 1 9 5 0 ; WItmer, H.. S o c i a l Work: An A n a l y s i s o f a S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n . F a r r a r and R i n e h a r t I n c . , New Y o r k , 1 9 4 2 . . J  ^ A n a l y s e s o f j o b s o r work f r o m the s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t of v i e w o f " r o l e " assumed by the worker throws a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e a r c h i n g l i g h t on c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s o f job e v a l u a t i o n . - See, f o r example, the d i f f e r e n c e s between d e s c r i b e d r o l e , i d e a l r o l e and a c t u a l r o l e i n the j o b o f a Charge Nurse i n S t a n t o n , A l f r e d H., and M o r r i s S. Schwartz, The M e n t a l H o s p i t a l , B a s i c Books I n c . , New Y o r k , 1954, P» l5o"«  -  28 -  t o a p p l y c u r r e n t j o b e v a l u a t i o n methods t o s o c i a l work j o b s I l l u s t r a t e t h a t a n a l y s i s o f a j o b h a s t o i n c l u d e many v a r i a n t p o i n t s o f view.  These may i n c l u d e , f o r example:  1) What q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f o u t p u t does t h e employer demand? 2) What p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l , e m o t i o n a l and s p i r i t u a l demands does t h e employer's g o a l p l a c e on such employee? 3) What degree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n does t h e employee have i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o l i c i e s , p r o c e d u r e s  and g o a l s o f t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w h i e h he i s a component p a r t ? 4) Whet demands does t h e employee b r i n g t o b e e r on the employer r e g a r d i n g p o l i c y , p r o c e d u r e  and g o a l s t h r o u g h t h e  a c t i v i t y o f employee u n i o n s , t r a d e s t a n d a r d s , p r o f e s s i o n a l codes, e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , o r o t h e r forms o f r e g u l a t i n g job p r a c t i c e ( e . g . l i c e n s i n g , c e r t i f i c a t i o n , e t c e t e r a ) ? 5) What degree o f i n f l u e n c e has t h e consumer i n <  d e f i n i n g and r e g u l a t i n g t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f t h e product? P r e s e n t job e v a l u a t i o n methods, because o f t h e i r preoccupation w i t h the p o s i t i o n concept, analyze jobs only f r o m t h e v i e w p o i n t o f q u e s t i o n s 1) and 2) above.  Because  o f t h i s , p r e s e n t e v a l u a t i o n s t e n d t o g i v e a non-dynamic ^ The consumer i n s o c i a l work may be b o t h c l i e n t and/or the g e n e r a l p u b l i c who through e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o r agency b o a r d s may be t h e f i n a l a r b i t e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g a community's w i l l i n g n e s s t o extend s e r v i c e s o r t o Improve performance s t a n d a r d s through work r e v i s i o n .  -  p i c t u r e of i s o l a t e d jobs.  29  -  A r e a l i s t i c , dynamic p i c t u r e  can  be f o u n d by c o n s i d e r i n g the p o s i t i o n and t h e employee i n a c t i o n i n the p r o c e s s , and i n the s t r u c t u r e , o f b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n . To o b t a i n t h i s p i c t u r e , t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , i n d u s t r y , and p e r s o n n e l management w i l l have t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s i n e x a m i n i n g from t h e p o i n t s o f v i e w l i s t e d above.  Jobs  S o c i a l work i s o n l y  one o f many o c c u p a t i o n s caught between t h e S c y l l a o f the rank concept and the C h a r y b d i s o f the p o s i t i o n c o n c e p t . S o c i a l Work As A S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n As a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , s o c i a l work concerns i t s e l f w i t h the g o a l o f I m p r o v i n g a d j u s t m e n t between i n d i v i d u a l s and groups and t h e i r environment*  I n so d o i n g ,  s o c i a l work f u n c t i o n s t h r o u g h e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s o f government and v a r i o u s v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s *  S o c i a l work and  s o c i a l workers t h e r e b y become i d e n t i f i e d * i n t h e mind and eyes o f t h e p u b l i c , w i t h t h e programs and g o a l s o f a g e n c i e s . The d i s p a r a t e f u n c t i o n o f s o e i a l work as an i n s t i t u t i o n and s o c i a l workers as p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s i s n e g l e c t e d i f " s o c i a l work" i s c o n s i d e r e d as synonymous w i t h agency."  27  "social  S o c i a l work as an i n s t i t u t i o n has f o u r b r o a d  S t a n t o n and S c h w a r t z , op* c i t . * an e x c e l l e n t a n a l y s i s o f the r o l e s p l a y e d by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p s y c h i a t r i c i l l n e s s and t r e a t m e n t i n a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l . 2 o  c f . S t r e e t , Elwood, An Handbook f o r S o c i a l Agency A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " Harper and B r o t h e r s , Hew Y o r k , 1 9 4 7 . "A s o c i a l agency i s a group a c t i v i t y . . . .management must c a r r y the whole p o l i c y making and o p e r a t i n g p e r s o n n e l , as w e l l as the c o n s t i t u e n c y o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h i t i n thought and a c t i o n w i t h and f o r the community," p. 434* 2 7  - 30 functions}  (a) d e v e l o p i n g ,  t e s t i n g and r e f i n i n g methodology;  (b) c o n t r o l l i n g o r r e g u l a t i n g p r a c t i c e o f i t s membership; (c) r e c r u i t i n g f u r t h e r members; (d) p r o m o t i n g development o f a g e n c i e s and p r o m o t i n g improvement o f s t a n d a r d s w i t h i n agencies.  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r these functions i s n e i t h e r c l e a r l y  defined nor  c l e a r l y a l l o c a t e d t o t h e f i e l d s o f s o c i a l work 28  education,  the p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s  and the  agencies.  Each o f t h e s e f i e l d s h a s a s t a k e a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e f u n c t i o n s o f s o c i a l work.  Each o f t h e s e f i e l d s has a u n i q u e  f o c u s o f i n t e r e s t , p o i n t o f view,, o r b i a s i n s o c i a l work. Yet each f i e l d i s composed o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s , many o f whom are a c t i v e i n each o f t h e t h r e e f i e l d s , and most o f whom a r e a c t i v e i n a t l e a s t two o f t h r e e f i e l d s — t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l organi z a t i o n s and the a g e n c i e s .  S o c i a l work cannot be s e p a r a t e d  i n t o " t h e o r e t i c a l " and " a p p l i e d " f i e l d s .  Nor c a n i t be con-  s i d e r e d s o l e l y i n terms o f " l a b o r f o r c e , " "employees" and employers."  W i t h c l a r i f i c a t i o n and expanded development i n  the f i e l d o f s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n (and p o s s i b l y w i t h a n i n c r e a s i n g number o f s o c i a l workers i n p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e ) * s o c i a l work w i l l a c h i e v e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s .  S o c i a l workers  w i l l t h e n be h i r e d as p r a c t i t i o n e r s — r e c o g n i z e d a s equipped t o h a n d l e a v a r i e t y o f a s s i g n m e n t s — r a t h e r t h a n a s employees t o f i l l p r e d e t e r m i n e d p o s i t i o n s t o w h i c h employers —  —  ^  _  •.„•,  ,.,  -.,-  •  —  1  ••••  assign —  !  e f . H o l l i s and T a y l o r , op. c i t . . e s p e c i a l l y Chapter I I , "The Scope and S t a t u s o f S o c i a l Work"and Chapter V I I I , " E d u c a t i o n a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f S o c i a l Work O r g a n i z a t i o n s . "  ~  ~  - 31 tasks circumscribed  as t o scope a n d method t o be f o l l o w e d .  29  I n p r a c t i c e , management d e t e r m i n e s the f u n c t i o n s t r u c t u r e , and s e r v i c e s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n o r agency.  In  a g e n e i e s , however, management does n o t u s u a l l y s p e c i f y o r d e f i n e t h e methods and t e c h n i q u e s b y w h i c h f u n c t i o n and s e r v i c e s w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t .  To t h i s e x t e n t  t h e n , s o c i a l work  i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e i n v o l v e s d e s c r i p t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f jobs a c c o r d i n g t o b o t h t h e r a n k and p o s i t i o n c o n c e p t s .  This  can l e a d t o c o n f l i c t i n t h e j o b as management s e e s i t i n t e r m s of l e g i s l a t i o n o r t a n g i b l e s e r v i c e s t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d  as  opposed t o the s o c i a l worker's concept o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o be c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i o n o r t a n g i b l e s e r v i c e as a t o o l .  I n e v a l u a t i n g s o c i a l work j o b s who I s t o  say, f o r example, which I s more i m p o r t a n t : Responsibility for allocating f i n a n c i a l assistance and s a f e g u a r d i n g t h e agency a g a i n s t f r a u d ? o r maintenance o f an adequate l e v e l o f a d j u s t m e n t e c o n o m i c a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y ? 3 0 There a r e many d i f f e r e n c e s between i n d u s t r y and s o c i a l work.  Most o u t s t a n d i n g  e x i s t s as a p r o f i t - m a k i n g  o f these i s t h a t  institution.  industry  S o c i a l work i s a  ^ T h i s , t h e r e a d e r w i l l r e c o g n i z e as a r e - s t a t e m e n t o f t h e r a n k v s . p o s i t i o n c o n c e p t . The w r i t e r ' s b i a s i s t o advocate an amalgamation o f these two c o n c e p t s I n e v a l u a t i o n o f s o c i a l work j o b s . I n e s s e n c e , t h i s I s e x e m p l i f i e d b y t h e Job c l a s s e s p r o p osed i n t h e F.S.A.A. study* C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f P r o f e s s i o n a l P o s i t i o n s I n P r i v a t e F a m i l y Agencies» F.S.A.A., New Y o r k , 191*6. 3® T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n v i e w p o i n t and f o c u s c a n be a v o i d e d when the p h i l o s o p h y * f u n c t i o n and s e r v i c e s o f t h e agency a r e s p e l l e d o u t . Where t h e s e c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n , the p r o f e s s i o n must e d u c a t e . B u t t h e agency a d m i n i s t r a t o r and the s o c i a l worker as employee s h o u l d s t i l l adhere t o e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s o u t l i n i n g the s t a n d a r d e x p e c t e d b y the agency.  - 32 -  charitable i n s t i t u t i o n . process,  The raw m a t e r i a l , assembly l i n e o r  the f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t and t h e consumer a r e r e a d i l y  i d e n t i f i a b l e concepts i n i n d u s t r y .  I n s o c i a l work, t h e c l i e n t  i s t h e raw m a t e r i a l ; t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r , t h e assembly b e l t ; agency o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , f u n c t i o n s and s e r v i c e s a r e the p r o c e s s and t h e community o f agency s u p p o r t e r s consumer.  i s the  Any e v a l u a t i o n o f s o c i a l work j o b s should  begin  w i t h an a n a l y s i s f r o m t h e v i e w p o i n t o f c l i e n t , w o r k e r , employer and consumer.  Any e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d be j o i n t l y under-  t a k e n so t h a t the v i e w p o i n t s o f b o a r d o r government, admini s t r a t o r and employee a r e a l l c o n s i d e r e d . S o c i a l work a s a n o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e has c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h s h o u l d be n o t e d b e f o r e d e s c r i b e and e v a l u a t e  s o c i a l work j o b s .  attempting t o  Prom t h e f o r e g o i n g  a n a l y s i s , s o c i a l work c a r e e r s can be seen a s b o t h b u r e a u c r a t i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l — b o t h c l o s e d and open-ended.  Since  social  workers a r e a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l l y employees, s o c i a l work c a r e e r s are p r i m a r i l y b u r e a u c r a t i c .  However, s i n c e s o c i a l work as  s u c h has a p r o f e s s i o n a l base o f knowledge and method, s o c i a l work c a r e e r s c a n be r e g a r d e d as e s s e n t i a l l y open-ended o r p r a c t i t i o n e r - f o c u s e d i n scope f o r advancement. and  Ramifications  c o m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a r e soon e v i d e n t  when we c o n s i d e r t h e many d i s c r e t e r o l e s a s o c i a l worker may play.  He may be employer o r employee; s u p e r v i s o r ,  adminis-  t r a t o r o r w o r k e r ; b o a r d member, c i t i z e n and employee (and t h e r e f o r e producer and consumer); s p e c i a l i s t o r g e n e r a l practitioner.  The many r o l e s t h e s o c i a l worker p l a y s I n  -  his  33  d i r e c t s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n , e.g.,  counsellor, supporter, t o the r e a d e r .  clarifier,  W i t h i n one  day,  -  f a t h e r , mother, s i b l i n g , e t c e t e r a , are w e l l known  the s o c i a l worker may  play  a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f r o l e s w i t h i n the scope o f h i s j o b . the most i n c o m p a t i b l e i o n e r and  supervisee-^  set of r o l e s played Is that of 1  w h i c h stems from the  One  of  practit-  traditional  w o r k e r - s u p e r v i s o r r e l a t i o n s h i p i n s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . I n the w o r k e r - c l i e n t practitioner role.  r e l a t i o n s h i p , the worker p l a y s an a c t i v e , Y e t I n the s u p e r v i s o r y  f u n c t i o n the  worker  i s e x p e c t e d t o p l a y a l e a r n e r o r s t u d e n t , s u b m i s s i v e , employee role. One  f u r t h e r aspect of occupational  r o l e i s found  i n e x a m i n i n g s o c i a l worker a c t i v i t i e s i n s e e m i n g l y s i m i l a r positions.  Por example, two  s o c i a l workers may  as " I n t a k e w o r k e r s " i n s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g s . i n t a k e may  be  considered  be  I n one  employed setting,  as c o n c l u d e d once e l i g i b i l i t y  for  s e r v i c e i s e s t a b l i s h e d and the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m f o r s e r v i c e i s completed.  I n the o t h e r s e t t i n g , i n t a k e may  be  considered  as c o n c l u d e d once c e r t a i n d i a g n o s t i c m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g t o the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m i s e l i c i t e d and vice i s outlined. may  a t e n t a t i v e p l a n of  I n t h e f i r s t s e t t i n g the  be e x p e c t e d t o p l a y a c l e r k i n g r o l e .  the worker may role.  s o c i a l worker  I n the second s e t t i n g  be e x p e c t e d t o p l a y an i n i t i a t i n g ,  An analogy i n I n d u s t r y may  ser-  enabling  be s e e n i n comparing the  31 A r e v e a l i n g commentary on t h e r e a c t i o n o f the worker t o these i n c o m p a t i b l e r o l e s i s found i n Babcock, C h a r l o t t e * " S o c i a l Work As Work," S o c i a l Casework. December, 1 9 5 3 *  -3k  -  r o l e o f t h e garage mechanic who l i s t s t h e customer 's r e q u e s t s for  s e r v i c e o r c o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g h i s c a r and t h e mechanic  operating  a m u l t i - p u r p o s e machine d e s i g n e d t o check a v a r i e t y  of i t e m s p e r t a i n i n g t o c a r performance* B o t h systems o f " I n t a k e " have obvious advantages*  I n e a c h example t h e  employees p e r f o r m t h e same f u n c t i o n . of s k i l l i s assumed. different roles.  I n e a c h a c e r t a i n degree  B u t i n e a c h t h e two employees p e r f o r m  A l t h o u g h t h e i r s k i l l s and t r a i n i n g may be  i d e n t i c a l , t h e i r f o c u s o f I n t e r e s t and p r e s c r i b e d a t t i t u d e s to the c l i e n t are d i f f e r e n t . He-engineering o r s t r u c t u r i n g o f j o b s i n b o t h i n d u s t r y and s o c i a l work may make p o s s i b l e an i n c r e a s e i n e f f i c i e n c y and a d e c r e a s e I n t h e degree o f s k i l l required.  I n such i n s t a n c e s , t h e j o b s h o u l d be d e s -  c r i b e d as l e s s s k i l l e d i n n a t u r e .  S i m i l a r l y , because a. job  appears t o be o f a s o c i a l work n a t u r e , i t i s n o t mandatory t h a t a t r a i n e d s o c i a l worker f i l l  that job.  Many t a s k s i n  s o c i a l work c a n be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y h a n d l e d b y means o f t h e employer i n s t r u c t i n g t h e employee a s t o methods and t e c h n i q u e s t o be a p p l i e d and s u p e r v i s i n g t h e employee's p r o g r e s s i n a p p l y i n g t e c h n i q u e s . However* such j o b s s h o u l d be so described.  The f a c t t h a t non-graduates and g r a d u a t e s a r e  a c t i v e l y employed  i n s i m i l a r s o c i a l work Jobs does n o t i m p l y  that professional t r a i n i n g i s not e s s e n t i a l f o r p r a c t i c e . More f r e q u e n t l y i t i m p l i e s t h a t t h e employer's concept o f the r o l e t o be p l a y e d i s t h a t e f a t r a i n e e .  Or, t h e I m p l i c -  a t i o n may be t h a t u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r a i n e d s t a f f  necessitates  c o n s i d e r i n g t h e job f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n concept r a t h e r t h a n  the r a n k i -  3  35  -  I n e i t h e r I n s t a n c e , the s o c i a l worker's a t t i t u d e s  t o t h e r o l e he I s e x p e c t e d t o p l a y w i l l b© d i f f e r e n t * S o c i a l Work As A  Profession  I n e v a l u a t i n g s o c i a l work j o b s i t i s i m p o r t a n t a l s o t o u n d e r s t a n d the p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e which s o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o p l a y b o t h w i t h i n and o u t s i d e o f the agency structure.  A l t h o u g h s o c i a l work c o n s i d e r s I t s e l f as a  p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , i t does not have the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of other professions. workers c o n s i d e r  status  A l t h o u g h most s o c i a l  themselves as p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h e y do  a s an o c c u p a t i o n a l group meet the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 33 i s t i c of professions.  The  HolliS-Taylor report  not character-  highlighted  these comments on the p r o f e s s i o n a l n a t u r e o f s o c i a l work by posing a s e r i e s of questions  under the g e n e r a l h e a d i n g , "Does  s o c i a l work meet I t s p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? "  By  their  criteria: I n such i n s t a n c e s , the w r i t e r i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t employers s h o u l d (a) c i r c u m s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e o f assignments made to the incumbent o f the p o s i t i o n (b) p r o v i d e r e q u i r e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n methods and t e c h n i q u e s t o be u s e d i n completi n g assignments ( c ) s t a t e u n e q u i v o e a b l y t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n was f i l l e d by a non-graduate s o c i a l worker because o f una v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l and (d) make i t c l e a r t o a l l c o n c e r n e d t h a t the f u n c t i o n o f t h e agency demanded t h a t the p o s i t i o n be f i l l e d t o ensure c o n t i n u i t y o f s e r v i c e . To do o t h e r w i s e i s t o d i l u t e the q u a l i t y of agency s e r v i c e and c r e a t e c o n f u s i o n I n the p u b l i c mind as t o the r o l e o f t h e t r a i n e d s o c i a l worker. H o l l i s and T a y l o r , op. c i t .  -  36  -  . . . . o n l y the hard, core o f s o e i a l work i n the u n i t e d S t a t e s can be s a i d t o have a t t a i n e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s . The l a r g e r segment o f s o c i a l work i s on the way t o becoming a p r o f e s s i o n , b u t . . . i t i s n o t y e t i n a l l r e s p e c t s a t t h i s s t a g e o f development.34 F o r the p u r p o s e s o f job a n a l y s i s , d e s c r i p t i o n e v a l u a t i o n , however, the p r e s e n t s t u d y assumes t h a t work i e a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n and s o c i a l workers a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s .  As an  and  social that  operational  d e f i n i t i o n , t h i s study a c c e p t s the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f a professional: ... (a) any employee engaged i n work (1) p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n t e l l e c t u a l and v a r i e d i n c h a r a c t e r as opposed t o r o u t i n e m e n t a l , manual, m e c h a n i c a l , o r p h y s i c a l work; ( i i ) i n v o l v i n g the c o n s i s t e n t e x e r c i s e o f d i s c r e t i o n and judgment i n i t s p e r f o r m a n c e ; ( i i i ) o f such a c h a r a c t e r t h a t the o u t p u t p r o d u c e d o r the r e s u l t s accomp l i s h e d cannot be s t a n d a r d i z e d i n r e l a t i o n t o a g i v e n p e r i o d o f t i m e ; ( i v ) r e q u i r i n g knowledge o f an advanced type i n a f i e l d of s c i e n c e o r l e a r n i n g c u s t o m a r i l y r e q u i r e d by a p r o l o n g e d course o f s p e c i a l i z e d i n t e l l e c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n and s t u d y i n an i n s t i t u t i o n o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g o r a h o s p i t a l , as d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m a g e n e r a l academic e d u c a t i o n or from an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p or f r o m t r a i n i n g i n the performance o f r o u t i n e m e n t a l * manual, or p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s ; o r (b) any employee, who (1) has completed the c o u r s e s o f s p e c i a l i z e d I n t e l l e c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n and study d e s c r i b e d i n c l a u s e ( i v ) o f p a r a g r a p h ( a ) , and ( i i ) i s p e r f o r m i n g r e l a t e d work under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n t o q u a l i f y h i m s e l f t o become a p r o f e s s i o n a l employee as d e f i n e d i n A d e f i n i t i o n o f s o c i a l work a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l s o e i a l w o r k e r s ; b o t h i n c l u s i v e and 3k  Told  p.  exclusive i n nature,  11.  " T a f t - K a r t l e y A c t , " P u b l i c Law Ho. 101. 8 0 t h Congress , 1 s t S e s s i o n . 19lt7. Government o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D.C,  37  has y e t t o be d e v e l o p e d . to describe  -  For present purposes i t s u f f i c e s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th© c o n t e n t o f s o c i a l work  as a p p l i c a b l e t o t r a i n i n g f o r , o r p r a c t i c e i n any o f t h e f i e l d s o r s e t t i n g s o f s o c i a l work. b a s i c and g e n e r i c  Such a d e s c r i p t i o n o f  c o n t e n t was l i s t e d by F l o r e n c e  Day i n  36 1948*  1. A p h i l o s o p h y which sees i n d i v i d u a l w e l f a r e as b o t h t h e purpose and t h e t e s t o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e . 2. A p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e which combines s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t w i t h d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e p e o p l e and purposes i t serves. 3. A knowledge o f t h e dynamic f o r c e s i n human b e i n g s and i n s o c i a l f o r m s and i n t h e i r m u t u a l i n t e r a c t i o n , 4* Methods and s k i l l s whereby t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n can h e l p t h e n e e d f u l t o b e t t e r u t i l i z e h i s own powers or h i s s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , o r t o p r o t e c t t h e p e r s o n who l a c k s a b i l i t y t o make p r o d u c t i v e u s e o f h i s social situation* I f we add t o t h i s l i s t one f u r t h e r g e n e r i c  attri-  b u t e , we have a sound framework f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g j o b desc r i p t i o n s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n s o c i a l work. 5, A knowledge o f * and a t t i t u d e t o w a r d , t h e t o t a l f i e l d o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s viewed h i s t o r i c a l l y and i n the p r e s e n t , t h a t f u r t h e r s e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n , and c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e e v o l v i n g o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e programs,37 As a p p l i e d t o j o b a n a l y s i s , t h e f i r s t two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s describe personal q u a l i t i e s ; the l a s t  three,  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n terms o f knowledge and a b i l i t i e s  required.  I n c o n s i d e r i n g f u r t h e r t h e "what" o f s o c i a l work, some refine-? ment o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f f i e l d must be assumed.  Thus, t h e  - Day, F l o r e n c e R., " C u r r e n t Developments i n Graduate C u r r i c u l u m , " J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Casework, November, 1948. 50  S m a l l e y , R u t h B.., "Can We R e c o n c i l e G e n e r i c E d u c a t i o n and S p e c i a l i z e d P r a c t i c e ? " , J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work. V o l . X X I I I , No* 4 , J u n e , 1954* 3 7  - 38  -  w r i t e r s e l e c t s the f i e l d of s o c i a l casework and the  widely  accepted d e f i n i t i o n of Swithun Bowers, ^ 3  S o c i a l casework I s an a r t i n w h i c h knowledge o f the s c i e n c e o f human r e l a t i o n s and s k i l l i n r e l a t i o n s h i p are used t o m o b i l i z e c a p a c i t i e s i n the i n d i v i d u a l and r e s o u r c e s i n the community a p p r o p r i a t e f o r b e t t e r adjustment between the c l i e n t and a l l o r any p a r t o f h i s t o t a l environment. I n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , F a t h e r Bowers has the "what" but a l s o the "how"  and  "why"  eapsullzed not  only  o f s o c i a l casework.  The d e f i n i t i o n t h u s l e n d s i t s e l f w e l l t o Job  classification  from the v i e w p o i n t of s o c i a l work as an i n s t i t u t i o n  and  s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n . F i e l d s or S e t t i n g s i n w h i c h S o c i a l . W o r k e r s  Practice  D e l i n e a t i o n o f the s e t t i n g s I n w h i c h t h i s a r t i s p r a c t i s e d i s e s s e n t i a l to t r a n s l a t e the d e f i n i t i o n i n t o operating process. e n t i t y operates  H o e y ^ s u g g e s t s t h a t s o c i a l work as 3  an  i n t h r e e ways:  (1) I t o p e r a t e s a l o n e i n an agency o r i n s t i t u t i o n d e v o t e d t o p r o v i d i n g one o r more s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s ; (2) I t o p e r a t e s as p a r t o f a team i n a c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h members o f o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s t o p r o v i d e a c o - o r d i n a t e d and b a l a n c e d m u l t i - s e r v i c e program t o I n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s ; and (3) I t o p e r a t e s I n an a u x i l i a r y c a p a c i t y i n support o f another t y p e o f s e r v i c e t o i n d i v i d u a l s or g r o u p s . Hoey contends t h a t i n o p e r a t i n g i n any one o f t h e s e ways, s o c i a l work has a common base o f purpose method and  skill*  36 Bowers, S w i t h u n , "The Nature and D e f i n i t i o n o f S o c i a l Casework," P a r t I I I , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Casework, Volume XXX, No. 10, Dec. 191*9, p. 1*17.. Hoey, Jane H.,  op* c i t . . p. i*°3  39 Further d e l i n e a t i o n o f these s e t t i n g s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Jobs t e n d s o n l y t o l i m i t m o b i l i t y o f p e r s o n n e l . ing  By d e s c r i b -  s o c i a l work, f o r example* i n terms o f ! C h i l d  Family Welfare; P s y c h i a t r i c Social,Work; Modical  Welfare; Social  Work; P r o b a t i o n ; P u b l i c W e l f a r e , e t c e t e r a , we f a l l i n t o t h e e r r o r o f p r e s u m i n g s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , knowledge, and  skills  r  for  each s e t t i n g .  From a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p o i n t o f v i e w , j o b s  are u s u a l l y analyzed  as t o b a s i c e d u c a t i o n ,  s k i l l s , knowledge,  and a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d t o q u a l i f y f o r a / p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n , and as t o e x p e r i e n c e for  o r l e a r n i n g time o n t h e j o b r e q u i r e d  the employee t o meet t h e s p e c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f  setting*  The  the  w r i t e r f a v o r s t h e concept of a g e n e r i c b a s e  and approach t o s o c i a l work (a) t o enable and  facilitate  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n i n the  full  meaning o f the word^°; (b) t o f a c i l i t a t e m o b i l i t y o f  per-  s o n n e l ; (c) t o e n a b l e the p r o f e s s i o n t o meet i t s b r o a d p r o f e s s i o n a l g o a l s as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n ; (d) " t o promote a c t i v i t i e s appropriate  t o s t r e n g t h e n i n g and u n i f y i n g the  s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n as a whole; and  (e) t o promote the  sound and c o n t i n u o u s development o f the v a r i o u s a r e a s o f s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e whereby t h e p r o f e s s i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o lil  the m e e t i n g o f p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f human needs." ^° See d e f i n i t i o n p. 36 f r o m T a f t - H a r t l e y A c t , See c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d i n H o l l i s and T a y l o r , op. c i t , . pp,  I f we also  10-11.  ^•1 " P l a n f o r a S i n g l e Hew O r g a n i z a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers," p r e p a r e d b y the Temporary I n t e r - A s s o c i a t i o n C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l Work Membership O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Dec. 1952? p . 1 8 .  - 4o -  o  are t o develop  a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i a l i s a t i o n s i n s o c i a l work,  we must f i r s t d e f i n e and agree on the b a s i c c o n t e n t , method, t e c h n i q u e s , s k i l l s and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h cons t i t u t e the b r o a d , g e n e r a l and p r i m a r y a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker* T r a d i t i o n a l O c c u p a t i o n a l ffanks o r L e v e l s i n S o c i a l Work C u r r e n t t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e I n d i c a t e a t a c i t acceptance  o f t h r e e b a s i c p r o c e s s e s i n s o c i a l work, via,*,,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , and d i r e c t s e r v i c e .  These i n  t u r n u s u a l l y become synonymous w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t o r , s u p e r r v i s o r , caseworker.  So f i r m l y f i x e d i s t h i s rank concept  that  a g e n c i e s a r e u s u a l l y amazed t o d i s c o v e r , u s u a l l y t h r o u g h  time  s t u d i e s , what i t s v a r i o u s r a n k s o f employees a r e doing.  actually  D e s p i t e the i d e a l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l s t a f f i n  each o f the t h r e e p r o c e s s e s , j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t e n do  not  include reference t o the d u t i e s or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f  staff  members t h e r e i n . ^ •  up  '  :  3 t £ h i 9  •:'•—*r—  i m p l i e s l a c k o f awareness o f t h e degree !  —: :' ' !:  •  —•  — " — * — — !  ££* G o c k e r i l l , E l e a n o r , "Methods Used by the Casework F a c u l t y t o F a c t o r Out and Teach B a s i c Concepts i n S o c i a l Casework," Workshop V I , 1st A n n u a l M e e t i n g , C o u n c i l o f S o e i a l Work E d u c a t i o n , S t , L o u i s * Mo, J a n . 1953*. "Since the u l t i m a t e purpose o f t h e g e n e r i c i s t o e n a b l e us t o move to a g r e a t e r degree o f s p e c i f i c i t y , we s h o u l d p e r h a p s , t a k e a more c r i t i c a l l o o k a t what appears t o be a n , , . i n c r e a s i n g degree of enthusiasm f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f the g e n e r i c as an end i n i t s e l f i n s o e i a l work p r a c t i c e . Perhaps a b a s i c p r o b lem h e r e i s one o f v i e w i n g concepts as ends i n themselves r a t h e r t h a n r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e y are e s s e n t i a l l y t o o l s , " 4 3 s c c o p i e s o f job d e s c r i p t i o n s o f r e p r e s e h t a t s y e agenc i e s . Appendix C. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l r a n k s or l e v e l s i s p r e s e n t e d i n the Report o f the J o i n t Committee on S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n * "Report o f Sub-Committee on Job A n a l y s i s , " Van" c o u v e r , B.C., November, 1955, Mimeo* e  - kl o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f each r a n k i n the c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h e s e processes. Throe a d d i t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s a r e commonly d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . research.  These are e d u c a t i o n , c o n s u l t a t i o n , and  U s u a l l y such p r o c e s s e s a r e p i c t u r e d as f u n c t i o n s  o f t h e agency as s u c h , o r as r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f one o r o t h e r o f the r a n k s , I . e . , t h e y a r e n o t thought  o f u s u a l l y as  synonymous w i t h " t e a c h e r , " " c o n s u l t a n t , " and " r e s e a r c h worker."  The Job a n a l y s t would study agency p r a c t i c e t o  see whether t h e r e were s u f f i c i e n t a c t i v i t i e s as these s e p a r a t e p r o c e s s e s o r f u n c t i o n s *  Identifiable  Then he would  d e s c r i b e these as a t t r i b u t e s o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a c e r t a i n rank.  Or, he would a l l o c a t e them t o c o n s t i t u t e a p o s i t i o n  (depending  on whether t h e r a n k o r p o s i t i o n concept  as t h e method o f c l a s s i f y i n g ) .  i s used  For present purposes,  i t is  n o t e d t h a t t h e r e I s a growing tendency w i t h i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n t o c o n s i d e r e d u c a t i o n , c o n s u l t a t i o n and r e s e a r c h as b o t h agency f u n c t i o n s and s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e . ^  -  A c t i v i t i e s o f A d m i n i s t r a t o r , S u p e r v i s o r , and Worker as D e s c r i b e d i n L i t e r a t u r e and Repre a e n t a t i ye Job D e s c r i p t i o n s The r o l e , d u t i e s , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l r a n k s , as p o s t u l a t e d by s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n , the p r o f e s s i o n , and a g e n c i e s may be a n a l y z e d aa  -  1*2  -  1*5  fOllOWS!  A. R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 1.  Administrative  2.  Supervisory  3.  Consultative  1*.  D i r e c t s e r v i c e ( U s u a l l y s p e c i f i e d as t o f o c u s  '  a n d " s e t t i n g as, e.g., casework, groupwork, inter-group ient  B,  work and as e.g., c l i e n t o r p a t -  services)  5.  Community  education  6.  Professional  7.  S t a f f development  8.  Program development  9.  Research  education  A r e a s o f R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Presumed A p p l i c a b l e t o Bach Rank (i)  Administrator  - General r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the  o v e r a l l s e r v i c e s t o c l i e n t s w i t h i n the agency or u n i t administeredj  u s u a l l y considered  to  have p a r t i c i p a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n a l l a r e a s e x c e p t where s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n i s a s s i g n e d  as  a s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n . U s u a l l y does a o t have p a r t i c i p a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n 1*. D i r e c t  Service.  -"irr "—• ~— :— ~— " ~— —~ ^ B a s e d on s t u d y o f j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s from U.S. F e d e r a l Government, Oregon S t a t e , C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e , and C i t y o f Vancouver, a l s o b a s e d on r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d s t u d i e s . Berkman, op. c i t . H o l l i s and T a y l o r , op,, c i t . , J o i n t Committee on S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n , pp. c i t . , F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i e a , C i a a s i f i c a t i o n o f P r o f e s s i o n a l P o s i t i o n s i n P r i v a t e Family A g e n c i e s , New Y o r k , 191*6, and H o i comb, Emerson, "An A n a l y s i s o f t h e S u p e r v i s o r y J o b . " S o c i a l Casework, March, 1 9 5 6 . 1  1  1  B  - 43  (ii)  -  S u p e r v i s o r •» G e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o " o v e r s e e " i t e m 4» ( D i r e c t S e r v i c e ) and t h u s t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t a n d a r d s o f service.  A l s o g e n e r a l l y assumed t o have  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r adherence t o agency f u n c t i o n ( i t e m s 1.  and 2 . ) *  Also usually  assumed t o have m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n e d u c a t i o n , s t a f f development and c o n s u l t a t i o n (items  6.,  J.„ and 3-)  and  o r minor r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n s t u d y ,  shared  review,  and assessment o f program o f agency o r u n i t (items 8 . , 9 . , (ill)  and  1.).  Worker * U s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d as r e s p o n s i b l e "... t o r e n d e r a p p r o p r i a t e , . . s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s t o c l i e n t s w i t h i n the f u n c t i o n s and p o l i c i e s o f h i s e m p l o y i n g Agency; and t o a s s i s t t h a t Agency i n f u l l e r  understand-  i n g o f c l i e n t needs so t h a t i t s p o l i c i e s may be I n c r e a s i n g l y h e l p f u l t o c l i e n t s . " ^ M a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t e m 4*  recipient-  p a r t i c i p a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under items 2 . and 7* and shared t o m i n o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under items 8 . , 9.»  and  1.  O c c a s i o n a l l y s p e c i a l * major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y J o i n t Committee on S.W.  Educ'n., op. c i t , , p. 4«  I n a s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n as e.g. any one i t e m s 3.,  5.,  6,,  8.,  9.,  of  depending on  e x p e r i e n c e ( s e n i o r i t y and t r a i n i n g ) o f t h e worker and scope o f agency  service.  The above s c h e d u l e p r o v i d e s a g u i d e o n l y , t o a n a l y s i s o f what s o c i a l w o r k e r s do.  Coupled w i t h the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o c i a l work as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , the o u t l i n e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s can be used t o con* s t r u c t a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p l a n f o r s o c i a l work.  However,  such a p l a n would be l i m i t e d i n v a l u e u n l e s s I t was  based  on a n a l y s i s o f j o b s t h a t a r e a c t u a l l y b e i n g performed a s p e c i f i e d time and  at  setting.  R o l e o f S o c i a l Work and S o c i a l Workers i n a S p e c i f i c  Setting  I n o r d e r t o a n a l y z e s o c i a l work Jobs one must a n a l y z e t h e Job o f t h e t o t a l i t y o f s o c i a l work c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e agency o r u n i t s t u d i e d . c r i b e and c l a s s i f y t h e v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s  positions  I n o r d e r t o desi n this setting,  i t I s necessary to study the purpose, p h i l o s o p h y , functions totality.  structure,  and s e r v i c e s o f t h e C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c as a 2 4 , 7  M a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d I s from a d r a f t o f a p r o c e d u r a l manual f o r the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department o f the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , Sept. 1 9 5 5 .  « i*5 CHILD GUIDANCE CLINICS PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEFINITION AND PURPOSE; The C.G.C. may be d e f i n e d as a community agency I n w h i c h s p e c i a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n s combine t h e i r knowledge and attempt t o employ t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e community t o meet t h e p r o b lems o f c h i l d r e n who a r e p o o r l y a d j u s t e d t o t h e i r e n v i r o n ment and/or have u n s a t i s f i e d i n n e r needs. C h i l d r e n ' s m a l a d j u s t m e n t s may be expressed i n u n d e s i r a b l e h a b i t s o r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , unacceptable behaviour o r i n a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h s o c i a l o r s c h o l a s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s . C h i l d r e n seen by C.G.C.»s i n c l u d e t h o s e who a r e t h e r e e p o n s i b i l l t y o f C h i l d o r F a m i l y W e l f a r e A g e n c i e s , e.g., when these a g e n c i e s a r e concerned about t h e e m o t i o n a l .consequences o f placement because o f dependency, b r o k e n homes and i l l e g i t i m a c y . P a t i e n t s a l s o i n c l u d e c h i l d r e n who have s o e i a l and e m o t i o n a l problems beoause o f r e t a r d a t i o n i n i n t e l l e c t u a l development o r because o f p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p . The s e r v i c e s o f t h e C.G.C. a r e c a r r i e d o u t b y teams c o n s i s t i n g o f p s y c h i a t r i s t , p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l workers, psychol o g i s t s and p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e . ADMINISTRATION; The C.G.C, i s one u n i t o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e w h i c h o p e r a t e s under t h e P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s D e p a r t ment. Each u n i t o f t h e M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s h a s a C l i n i c a l D i r e c t o r who i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e D i r e c t o r o f M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s . The D i r e c t o r o f C.G.•s h a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e S t a t i o n a r y C l i n i c s i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , as w e l l as f o r t h e T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s on Vancouver I s l a n d arid t h e M a i n l a n d . A l l s t a f f w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers a r e a p p o i n t e d b y t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s Department. S o c i a l Workers a r e a p p o i n t e d b y t h e Commission t o t h e S o c i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h . S o c i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h I s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e Department o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e . S o c i a l Workers w i t h i n t h e C l i n i c a r e r e s p o n s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e i r Casework S u p e r v i s o r s t o t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department S u p e r v i s o r . The Department S u p e r v i s o r , i n t u r n , i s admini s t r a t i v e l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e C l i n i c D i r e c t o r and t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l S u p e r v i s o r o f P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work. The P r o v i n c i a l Supervisor, i n t u r n , i s responsible t o the D i r e c t o r o f M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s , and t h r o u g h t h e D i r e c t o r of Welfare, the P r o v i n c i a l Supervisor i s responsible t o the Deputy M i n i s t e r o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e .  W i t h i n t h e Heelal S e r v i c e Department, t h e stj^uetur-ing o f s t a f f and s e r v i c e s i s a s f o l l o w s : (a) D e p a r t m e n t a l S u p e r v i s o r  (h) Four  One r e s p o n s i b l e f o r I n t a k e and B r i e f Service Section and,Supervision o f f i v e caseworkers assigned t o t h a t section* One Casework s u p e r v i s o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Continued' S e r v i c e s S e c t i o n e n d f o r s i x s o c i a l workers assigned t o that s e c t i o n . One Casework S u p e r v i s o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r S o c i a l Work S e r v i c e s o n T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s . One casework s u p e r v i s o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the S t u d e n t U n i t and f o r s u p e r v i s i o n o f s o e i a l work s t u d e n t s i n t r a i n i n g .  FUNCTIONS M B SERVICES: S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department p a r t i e i p a t e s i n each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s and S e r v i c e s w i t h m a j o r emphasis o n D i r e c t S e r v i e e o r C l i n i c Treatment Cases. The p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f t h e C.©.C.*s i s t h a t o f . s t u d y and t r e a t m e n t o f c h i l d r e n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s b r o a d f u n c t i o n , C l i n i c s a l s o have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ins 1.  Orientation (a) o f i n d i v i d u a l s I n t e r e s t e d i n t h e work o f t h e C l i n i c and i n l e a r n i n g about M e n t a l H e a l t h P r i n c i p l e s l.-e* - n u r s e s * s o c i a l workers*, V a r i o u s • students, doctors* teachers, mental h e a l t h c o ordinators, etc. :  :  (b) Mu^is)it'-'gj^u|>lt''in''-^ie c l l n i o takesT-'"r^lii^ifib^itfjr, fdF'arie^Mti(^ 'd'f medical* nursing, p s y c h o l o g i c a l , t e a c h i n g and s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s . ;  2.  Community E d u c a t i o n ••'":".'"•.•.''.:•.•" Through s u c h media a s l e c t u r e s , t a l k s , f i l m s and c a s e t^^*$j»l^it^^£'Oiijgt:' •iatfi*"" -03dyBEtfe--- .'SfeAiC^- c a r r y o i i t a f u n c t i o n o f p r o m o t i o n o f M e n t a l H e a l t h P r i n c i p l e s w i t h suchgroups a s P.T.A.»e, p a r e n t ' s groups* s e r v i c e c l u b s , i h i t i t u t e i * eto*',^ . :  3.  P r o f o S s i d n a ' iJ^uoa-t i o n ^'^jb^:|eSi^'1rhe- ,'^Il^d' S t a f f a l s o g i v e s l e c t u r e s o r case p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o Student groups a t t h e U.B.C. s c h o o l s o f e d u c a t i o n , m e d i c i n e , " s o c i a l work arid n u r s i n g . C l i n i c S t a f f give t a l k s as w e l l as o r i e n t a t i o n t o a f f i l i a t e ' n u r s e s from v a r i o u s • c i l ^ v h o s p i t a l a . " One supervisor i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n o f graduate ;  - 4 ? •* s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s f r o m U.B.C. School o f S o c i a l Work. Ij..  Community O r g a n i s a t i o n C l i n i c S t a f f p a r t i c i p a t e s i n o t h e r agency committees Concerned w i t h development o f s e r v i c e s , i . e . (a) Community Committee a such a s Community Chest and Council various divisions. (b) C l i n i c S t a f f a l s o partieipates on e x e c u t i v e o r a d v i s o r y b o a r d s o f o t h e r groups s u c h a s C.N.I.B., C.P.A., A s s o c i a t i o n s o f Vancouver and B.C. C e r e b r a l P a l s y Committee o f C h i l d r e n s H o s p i t a l , C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver ( F a m i l y and C h i l d Committee), C r i p p l e d C h i l d r e n ' s R e g i s t r y ( H e d i c a l Advisory P a n e l ) * G r e a t e r Vancouver H e a l t h League* N a t i o n a l V o c a t i o n a l Guidance A ^ j t o e i a t i o n * P u b l i c H e a l t h N u r s i n g A d v i s o r y Committees, S t . C h r i s t o p h e r * s S c h o o l f o r Boys, S t . E u p h r a s i a ' s S c h o o l (Convent o f t h e Good Shepherd), U.B.C. S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, A d v i s o r y Committee on Research. 8  5.  Research P a r t i c i p a t i o n (a) The C l i n i c a t p r e s e n t c o n d u c t s r e s e a r c h o f t h e - f o l l o w i n g nature : ( 1 ) Operational Research ( 1 1 ) Case Flow ( 1 1 1 ) Extent of Services (IV) % t a n t i t y ©f S e r v i c e . (b) The C l i n i c p a r t i c i p a t e i J i n r e s e a r c h conducted by o t h e r s . ( 1 ) S o c i a l Work S t u d e n t s ( 1 1 ) U.B.C. N e u r o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h Dept. ( I l l ) p s y c h o l o g i s t Students (IV) Grease C l i n i c Dept. o f N e u r o l o g y (V) Community Chest and C o u n c i l * ... e . g i S e r v i c e s t o C h i l d r e n Survey ( 1 9 5 5 ) .  TYPE OF SERVICES TO INDIVIDUAL PATIENTS. 1.  D l a i m o s t l c S e r v i c e . The c l i n i c o f f e r s f u l l c l i n i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f a c h i l d t o s o c i a l and h e a l t h a g e n c i e s Working w i t h h i m and h i s f a m i l y o r g n a r d i a n s . This e n t a i l s the f o l l o w i n g procedures: (a) A d e v e l o p m e n t a l S o c i a l h i s t o r y i s p r e p a r e d b y t h e Worker p r e s e n t i n g t h e c a s e .  - 48 (b) P s y c h o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n i n c l u d i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e , p e r s o n a l i t y , and o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e a t s a s Indicated by the n e e d s o f the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d i s conducted b y t h e c l i n i c p s y c h o l o g i s t . (c)  P h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n I s done b y t h e c l i n i c c h i a t r i s t and n u r s e ,  psy-  (d) P s y c h i a t r i c I n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e p a t i e n t and a l s o parents o r guardians a r e c a r r i e d out by c l i n i c psychiatrist. (e) A c o n f e r e n c e i s h e l d f o l l o w i n g e x a m i n a t i o n a t t e n d e d by t h e c l i n i c team and t h e worker r e f e r r i n g t h e case as w e l l a s o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e concerned* such a s s c h o o l n u r s e , s o c i a l w o r k e r , t e a c h e r , o r d o c t o r . The p e r s o n r e f e r r i n g t h e case t a k e s respons i b i l i t y f o r a r r a n g i n g t h e attendance o f a l l but the c l i n i c team a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e . I n t h e c o n f e r e n c e t h e c l i n i c a l d i a g n o s i s and recommendations f o r t r e a t m e n t a r e g i v e n and d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f t h e t o t a l needs o f t h e p a t i e n t and t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e agency and community. 2.  Consultative Service (a) A c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e i s one i n w h i c h a c o n f e r e n c e I s r e q u e s t e d w i t h t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t and o t h e r members o f t h e c l i n i c team when t h i s c o n f e r e n c e i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y preceded b y c l i n i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e patient„ The p a t i e n t d i s c u s s e d may n e v e r have been seen b y t h e c l i n i c o r may have been examined on a p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n . When a worker r e q u i r e s s u c h c o n s u l t a t i o n she p r e p a r e s a s o c i a l h i s t o r y o r summary and a r r a n g e s an appointment t i m e a t t h e c l i n i c . I f t h e w o r k e r r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r h e l p w i t h t h i s c a s e , she may r e t u r n t o c l i n i c as o f t e n a s she r e q u e s t s , f o r discutsion* (b)  F o l l o w i n g a c o n s u l t i n g conference the person p r e s e n t i n g t h e case a t c l i n i c w i l l submit t o c l i n i c minutes o f t h e conference i n d u p l i c a t e .  (c)  C o n s u l t a t i o n by m a l l . D i s t r i c t s o c i a l w o r k e r s o r p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s may w r i t e t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c f o r such g u i d a n c e , e n c l o s i n g t h e h i s t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n . The team w i l l d i s c u s s t h e case and t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t w i l l w r i t e back t h e i r t h i n k i n g and recommendations.  (d) F o u r c o p i e s o f h i s t o r y o r snmmary a r e r e q u i r e d i n t h e same way a s w i t h f u l l e x a m i n a t i o n *  - 1+9 3. Co»opera:tlye Case8 When a case i s presented a t c l i n i c i n which the d e M a i o n o f the vmtewmm && t h a t i»tensive psyc h i a t r i c treatment o r casework should be done by c l i n i c p e r s o n n e l w h i l e the r e f e r r i n g worker i s a l s o c a r r y i n g on agency s e r v i c e , t h i s case i s known as • a • dofeopor-at iv© • case * • The • C h i l d Guidance - C l i n i c i s then the major agency and w i l l take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f o r w a r d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o the agency and con-? s u i t f r o q u o n t l y w i t h them i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r j o i n t . activity. 4»  Re-»Examihation (a) When a re-exaraihatlon o f p a t i e n t i s i n d i c a t e d the p a t i e n t and the f a m i l y should be piropared a s f o r the i n i t i a l examination. (b) T h i s examination e n t a i l s the same procedure l i n e d under 1. D i a g n o s t i c S e r v i c e s .  as o u t -  (c)  Four c o p i e s o f SUPPLEMENTARY HISTORIES f o r * complete cases should be submitted as a sTiniDiary o f c o n t a c t •• from the time o f b r i e f examination.  5.  S i r e c t Service or ^ C l i n i c . ^ f t A c l i n i c treatment case i s one f&im full responllblli^r P o l i c y and Procedure r e g a r d i n g detailed l a t e r i n this report.  fflOTL\L^ CLlNIM8 :  ^ i : - - '• i n which the C l i n i c i n treatment s e r v i c e s . these c a s e s i s  "'  •"< ' "V ' '••" v  The C.0.C.*s o f f e r wide, and e x t e n s i v e D i a g n o s t i c and Consult-* a t i v e S e r v i c e s t o every a r e a i n the P r o v i n c e o f B.C. D e t a i l s •Of' P o l i c y ' &ad- Procedure :'r«garding"'Travelling. 'Clinics, are covered, i n the Social^W"^^ of t h e s o c t i o n d f t h i s manual: pertaining'to'C.G.C* are o b t a i n * a b l e through the Vancouver C l i n i c * 1*55 W. 13th Avenue* Vancouver. 1  S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f A c t i v i t i e s Performed Year*  During  Fiscal  Although the Scope o f t h i s Study does n o t  permit  1951t«55  a d e t a i l e d q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s Of a c t i v i t i e s performed the v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f casework s t a f f a c c o r d i n g t o the f u n c t i o n s o u t l i n e d , some g e n e r a l measure by f u n c t i o n s i s d e t a i l e d i n T a b l e 2,  (p.  50).  particular  by  Tabl© 2 .  Summary o f A c t i v i t i e s o f S o e i a l S e r v i c e Department. C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . Vancouver. A p r i l 1 s t . 195ii t o March 3 1 s t , 1955.  Yearly Total Av. P e r Activi ties Staff Member -  No. o f Staff Performing Activity  Activity  Adm. Sup.Wkrs. 1. O r i e n t a t i o n s - no. o f p e r s o n s o r i e n t e d 2.  Community E d u c a t i o n  ) Lay and p r o f .  3 . P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n ) Group S e s s i o n s 4-  Community O r g a n i z a t i o n M e e t i n g s  ) ) )  1  4  2  1  3  2 2  15  ••;  4  9  168  ) 1  6* S u p e r v i s i o n p e r i o d s r e c e i v e d  1  k  13  7> C o n s u l t a t i v e i e a s e s o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s  1  2  8.  —  1  1  )  1  )  )  1  D i r e c t Servlce-caseS  )  48  5 . Programme & S t a f f Dev't. M e e t i n g s  ( M e e t i n g a t t e n d a n c e p e r worker)  18  125"  8 .-: 567  704  39  7  783  78  9  475  48  1  o  )  2  Includes 4 students.  Case count I s based on u n i t o f a c h i l d - average c a s e l o a d p e r worker each month was 2 0 . 2  S o u r c e : A n n u a l and M o n t h l y s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, Vancouver C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , 1 9 5 4 - 1 9 5 5 .  *»  51  This t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t s o c i a l workers a t  the  C l i n i c p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l m o s t a l l f u n c t i o n s o f the D e p a r t * ment.  Exceptions,  w i t h i n the f i s c a l y e a r s t u d i e d , ' a p p l i e d  to the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Supervisor* v i s o r s i n t h e D i r e c t S e r v i c e and 'activities respectively.  The  and  the Casework Super*  Community  supervisors  1  Were m a i n l y i n S u p e r v i s i o n ; Programme and O r i e n t a t i o n s ; and  Organization activities S t a f f Development;  Community and P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n .  The  w o r k e r s ' a c t i v i t i e s were m a i n l y i n D i r e c t S e r v i c e ; Superv i s i o n ( R e c e i v e d ) ; Programme and  S t a f f Development;  and  C o n s u l t a t i v e ; a l t h o u g h a minimum.of two w o r k e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l l e i g h t a c t i v i t i e s f o r w h i c h s t a t i s t i c s were a v a i l a b l e . These p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s show d i f f e r e n c e s between the c o n s u l t a t i v e , community and education  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c a r r i e d and  presumed a p p r o p r i a t e  t o t h e worker.^"®  professional the  responsibilities  The  a c t u a l degree o f  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c a r r i e d i n each a c t i v i t y cannot be measured w i t h o u t a time s t u d y o f w o r k e r a c t i v i t i e s .  U s i n g an  out-  l i n e o f a c t i v i t i e s performed by the v a r i o u s l e v e l s as  a  g u i d e , a d e t a i l e d r e c o r d o f a c t u a l d u t i e s performed i n u n i t s o f not l e s s than f i v e m i n u t e s w i l l be c o m p i l e d i n C h a p t e r 4*  Hopefully,  the q u a n t i t a t i v e measure o f a c t i v -  i t i e s performed w i l l p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l t o d e l i n e a t e d e g r e e s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  s k i l l r e q u i r e d of s o c i a l workers of  v a r i o u s ranks or i n v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s .  4 5  of. p.  43.  CHAPTER $  IT  TIME STUDY OP WORKER ACTIVITIES IN  THE  CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC^CLASSIFICATION OF JOBS BY RESPONSIBILITIES AND  SKILLS REQUIRED  Method o f the Time Study The purpose o f t h e time s t u d y ( i . e . t o t e s t a c c u r a c y o f e x i s t i n g j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s i n the C l i n i c j t o a n a l y z e the f l o w o f works and t o d e s c r i b e a c t i v i t i e s  and  s e r v i c e s o f the d e p a r t m e n t ) , was d i s c u s s e d i n t h r e e s t a f f meetings.  I t was d e c i d e d t h a t an open s c h e d u l e o r notebook  f o r m o f study s h o u l d be u s e d . ducted i n the C l i n i c i n 1954  a  A p r e v i o u s time s t u d y con» &d  been s t r u c t u r e d t o r e c o r d  time a c c o r d i n g t o p r e d e t e r m i n e d f u n c t i o n s . ^  Despite  d e f i n i t i o n s of these f u n c t i o n s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s v a r i e d . The Study a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d a f o r c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n  which  tended t o v a l i d a t e t h e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s b u t d i d n o t  clarify  the degree o f s k i l l o r o f w o r k e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e q u i r e d . The Second s t u d y method was p r e - t e s t e d by one s u p e r v i s o r , one I n t a k e S e c t i o n worker and on© worker.  Continued S e r v i c e S e c t i o n  F o r one week each o f t h e s e employees r e c o r d e d  their  a c t i v i t i e s i n as detached a manner as n e c e s s a r y t o show: (a) e x a c t l y what was done? (b) why  the i n d i v i d u a l  concerned,  ^ A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Supervisory, C o n s u l t a t i v e , Caseload, E d u c a t i o n a l * S t a f f Development, Research* M i s c e l l a n e o u s ( C o f f e e , T r a v e l l i n g , C h a t t i n g * Unaccounted f o r ) .  - 53 * r a t h e r t h a n someone e l s e , performed t h e a c t i v i t y ; and ( c ) the g e n e r a l purpose o f t h e a c t i v i t y .  Following this  " t r i a l r u n , " mimeographed schedules"* were drawn up t o he 0  used by each w o r k e r .  A l t h o u g h t h e s c h e d u l e s were u s e f u l  as i n s t r u c t i o n s h e e t s as t o mode o f r e c o r d i n g t o be done, o n l y f o u r o f t h e f o u r t e e n s t a f f members r e c o r d e d t h e i r time on s c h e d u l e forms.  The m a j o r i t y used a notebook w h i c h  they c a r r i e d w i t h them.  M o b i l i t y o f S t a f f d u r i n g t h e day  made t h e notebook t h e most p r a c t i c a l f o r m o f r e c o r d i n g . A c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d b y t h e s t a f f were s o r t e d i n i t i a l l y Into broad headings.  A further sorting established  one o r more sub*headings f o r each m a j o r g r o u p i n g .  By t h i s  t e c h n i q u e , s t a g e s and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f each a c t i v i t y c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h o u t n e c e s s i t a t i n g a f o r c e d of time.  distribution  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e e x i s t i n g J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s based  on t h e m a j o r h e a d i n g s p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d d i d t e n d t o I n f l u e n c e t h e t o t a l s t a f f i n r e c o r d i n g a c t i v i t i e s I n terms o f t h e i r job d e s c r i p t i o n s .  A f u r t h e r Skewing tendency was t h e  r e s u l t o f the study i t s e l f .  The n e c e s s i t y t o a c c o u n t f o r  and r e c o r d e v e r y f l v e - m l n u t e - u n i t o f a w o r k i n g day tends t o i n c r e a s e e f f i c i e n c y ( i f n o t a n x i e t y ) i n employees.  To  overcome t h e p o s s i b l e i n e x a c t i t u d e s i n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t i m e would r e q u i r e a s t o p - w a t c h t e c h n i q u e . The o b v i o u s advantages o f t o t a l s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m e a s u r i n g t h e i r own j o b J u s t i f i e s t h e approach u s e d i n t h e ' C l i n i c time s t u d y . See Appendix P.  The s t u d y was conducted d u r i n g t h e l a s t week o f March and t h e f i r s t week o f A p r i l , 1 9 5 5 .  T h i s t i m e was  chosen because month-end, y e a r - e n d , and b e g i n h i n g - o f - t h e Week a c t i v i t i e s would t h e r e b y be i n c l u d e d . a measure o f t h e time i n c e r t a i n i n f r e q u e n t  By so d o i n g , activities  was o b t a i n e d . B u t t h e amounts o f time r e c o r d e d were d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h f o r c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s which are e s s e n t i a l l y m o n t h l y , semi-annual and a n n u a l i n n a t u r e . T h i s * n a t u r a l l y , meant t h a t o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s were d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y low. Included:  A c t i v i t i e s w h i e h were o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s  m o n t h l y and a n n u a l s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s ; p e r i o d i c  s t a f f r e p o r t s a s t o a t t e n d a n c e , l e a v e , c a r usage, e t c e t e r a ; r e s e a r c h ; case r e c o r d i n g ; and t o a minor e x t e n t , casework Interviews* for  A d j u s t m e n t s were made by e s t i m a t i n g t h e time  u n i t s o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s ; p r o j e c t i n g t h i s time on an  annual b a s i s u s i n g the s t a t i s t i c s f o r the previous f i s c a l y e a r t o o b t a i n t h e number o f such a c t i v i t i e s ; t h e n d i v i d e ing  t h i s amount o f t i m e b y 12 t o g i v e an e s t i m a t e d monthly  time.  P o r example, i n - p e r s o n - i n t e r v l e w s were e s t i m a t e d a s  one h o u r i n l e n g t h ; t e l e p h o n e - i n t e r v i e w s a s t w e l v e m i n u t e s e f . H i l l , John 6., and R a l p h Ormsby, Cost A n a l y s i s Method f o r Casework A g e n c i e s . F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1953. Perhaps t h e most v a l i d method o f time s t u d y i s t h a t used by t h e P h i l a d e l p h i a c o s t - a n a l y s i s Study. I n t h i s agency* a random sample o f employee days d u r i n g one y e a r i s t h e b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g days oh w h i c h c e r t a i n emp l o y e e s r e c o r d t h e i r t i m e . Any o t h e r method n e c e s s i t a t e s a d j u s t m e n t s based on average numbers e f a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the f u l l y e a r . The p r e * d e t e r m i n e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s t o be measured i s h e l p f u l i n t h e c o m p i l a t i o n of r e s u l t s i f t h e a c t i v i t i e s l i s t I s i n c l u s i v e i n n a t u r e and c a r e f u l l y d e f i n e d . 5 1  -  iii length.  55  *  The t o t a l i n t e r v i e w s o f each k i n d f o r a y e a r  ( f o r each o f 4 groups o f employees) were then m u l t i p l i e d fey t h e t i m e p e r i n t e r v i e w .  The r e s u l t d i v i d e d by t w e l v e  was used as the e s t i m a t e d i n t e r v i e w time f o r the group o f employees concerned.  The time f o r a l l o t h e r r e c o r d e d  a c t i v i t i e s was then m u l t i p l i e d by 2 . 1 5 monthly time f o r each.  to o b t a i n the  A l l t i m e s were t h e n computed i i i  tip  percentages. Comparison v i s o r y group  (S.W.  o f the t i m e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s u p e r -  Grade IV) and the w o r k e r group  (S.W.  Grade I I I ) w i t h time d i s t r i b u t i o n r e p o r t e d f o r s i m i l a r groups I n two p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ' *  3  I n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e groups  were engaged I n i d e n t i c a l k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s .  A h i g h degree  o f c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s a l s o i n the p e r c e n t a g e s o f time p e r a c t i v i t y r e p o r t e d by b o t h s u p e r v i s o r y groups as w e l l as by b o t h w o r k e r groups.  This represents a test of standard-  i z a t i o n o r a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the f u n c t i o n a l h e a d i n g s more t h a n a t e s t o f v a l i d i t y f o r t h e time s t u d y p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n . The p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n shown h e r e appears t o be  valid  f r o m t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t o t a l a n n u a l a c t i v i t i e s . However* i t i s n o t e d t h a t the t i m e spent i n r e c o r d i n g appears q u i t e 6 , 4 $ f o r t h e w o r k e r group. ^  low—  The range v a r i e d f r o m 0 t o 2 0 $ .  Hot© t h a t o v e r t i m e and absence due t o i l l n e s s were n o t r e c o r d e d i n t h i s Study, t h e r e f o r e a l l p e r c e n t a g e s a r e computed i n terms o f s t a n d a r d w o r k i n g h o u r s . 2  . 5 3 V e c i c , C , The S t a f f Development Program o f t h e S o c i a l W e l f a r e , B r a n c h . V o l . I I . M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s * U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia., 1 9 5 4 * ^ d S o c i a l Worker's S a l a r i e s Committee, op. c i t . . p. 1 4 .  Much o f t h e r e c o r d i n g time appears t o o c c u r i n o v e r t i m e h o u r s and a t s l a c k p e r i o d s o r p r e - h o l i d a y i n t e r v a l s .  A  more a c c u r a t e f i g u r e o f 11$ o f work t i m e I s suggested by s t u d y o f t h r e e w o r k e r s whose r e c o r d i n g was c o n s t a n t l y k e p t up-to-date. T a b l e 3 p r e s e n t s a d e t a i l e d sxraaiary o f t h e time study f i n d i n g s .  T a b l e 1+ shows t h e time d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  major a c t i v i t i e s by w o r k e r l e v e l s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p e r * v i s o r , s u p e r v i s o r , t r a v e l l i n g s u p e r v i s o r , and  worker.  M i s c e l l a n e o u s a c t i v i t i e s f o r each o f t h e s e employee groups a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Appendices. E, P , G, and H.  The  classifi-  c a t i o n t i t l e s f o r t h e s e employees were> S u p e r v i s o r o f W e l f a r e , Grade I ; S o c i a l Worker Grade IV (Casework Superv i s o r ) | S o c i a l Worker Grade IV (Casework S u p e r v i s o r , T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s ) j and S o c i a l Worker, Grade I I I (Psy?\ chlatric).  Two  employees o f t h e C l i n i c w i t h o n l y one y e a r  o f p o s t - g r a d u a t e s o e i a l work t r a i n i n g were c l a s s i f i e d  as  S o c i a l Worker, Grade I I . These c l a s s t i t l e s a r e s p e c i f i e d i n the t i m e s t u d y t a b l e s a s : Sup. G r . I j S.W. S.W.  Gr. I V j  I V , T r a y . ; and S.W. I I I .  L i m i t a t i o n a i n the S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Time Study The range o f t i m e s r e p o r t e d i n t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s by each o f t h e s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s was averaged f o r "IT P i l l e d p o s i t i o n s as o f A p r i l , 1955 were: 1 department s u p e r v i s o r ; \ casework s u p e r v i s o r s , 1 f o r each o f I n t a k e and B r i e f S e r v i c e s S e c t i o n , Continued S e r v i c e s S e c t i o n , Student U n i t , T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s ; 9 caseworkers (3 i n t h e I n t a k e S e c t i o n ; 6 i n t h e C o n t i n u e d S e r v i c e s S e c t i o n ).  -  presentation.  57 -  I n so d o i n g , some i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s  between p o s i t i o n s i n the sarae c l a s s do n o t appear* However, i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s the range o f time p e r a c t i v i t y and t h e e x t e n t o f time spent i n each o f the m a j o r areas o f a c t i v i t y d i d n o t v a r y s u f f i c i e n t l y w i t h i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n group t o m e r i t a d d i t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . t o t h i s a r e found.  Two e x c e p t i o n s  1) I n the T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c  position,  S.W. Gr. IV, the a c t i v i t i e s * d i s t r i b u t i o n was e x t e n s i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from the t h r e e o t h e r p o s i t i o n s c l a s s e d a s S.W. Gr. IV.  2) I n one d i r e c t casework p o s i t i o n * t h e incumbent  had o n l y one y e a r o f p o s t - g r a d u a t e previous experience.  t r a i n i n g and had no  F o r t h i s employee, the a c t i v i t i e s '  d i s t r i b u t i o n d i f f e r e d e x t e n s i v e l y from o t h e r p o s i t i o n s o f S.W. Gr. I l l and the o t h e r S.W. Gr. I I p o s i t i o n , where t h e incumbent had f o u r y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e f o l l o w i n g g r a d u a t i o n . The a r e a s t h a t d i f f e r e d a r e shown below w i t h the time  spent  by t h e o t h e r s groiiped a s S.W. <Jr. I l l ,  shown i n b r a c k e t s .  2.  Consultative  .0  (9.0$)  3.  (f) Receiving supervision  9.2$  (5.2$)  4.  (b) R e c o r d i n g o f d i r e c t casework 10.i|$  (6.4$)  '(c) C o n f e r r i n g on a s s i g n e d  5. 6.  (1) Casework With o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s P r o f e s s i o n a l Education Community R e l a t i o n s (a) Community e d u c a t i o n  (11)  (b) P a r t i c i p a t i n g w i t h community committees  1.8$  7.7$ 0  (1.3$)  (6.4$)  0  ( .3$) ^ ( .5$)  0  ( .3$)  Because C l i n i c p o l i c y i s t o h i r e o n l y s t a f f w i t h two y e a r s o f p o s t - g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g , the f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s and  des-  c r i p t i o n o f t h i s p o s i t i o n i s n o t p e r t i n e n t t o the p r e s e n t study.  G e n e r a l p o l i c y o f the C l i n i c i s t o d e l e g a t e t o a l l  s o c i a l workers a degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n each o f the f u n c t i o n s o r areas of a c t i v i t y of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department. The m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n the time s t u d y t a b l e s shows o n l y t h e time d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a r e a s o f a c t i v i t y .  The  f i n d i n g s do n o t d e f i n e o r i m p l y adequacy o f performance  in  any o f these a c t i v i t i e s .  y  Time s p e n t i n an a c t i v i t y does  n o t n e c e s s a r i l y measure t h e o v e r - a l l importance o f t h a t t a s k t o the agency.  Nor does time spent have a n e c e s s a r y  p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e degree o f s k i l l r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m the t a s k a d e q u a t e l y .  A l t h o u g h the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  t i m e shown i n t h e t a b l e s meets s t a n d a r d s and s e r v i c e demands o f t h e agency i n q u e s t i o n * the p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s might v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h a t o f o t h e r agencies. F o r example, the p e r c e n t a g e o f time spent i n a c t i v i t i e s termed a d m i n i s t r a t i v e may classes.  appear h i g h f o r a l l  I n t h e C l i n i c , a major r o l e i s p l a y e d by the  S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department ( h e r e a f t e r c a l l e d t h e Department) in facilitating appointments> plines.  the f l o w o f work t h r o u g h s c h e d u l i n g o f  conferences, et c e t e r a , w i t h other d i s c i -  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g s on p r o c e d -  u r e s and f l o w from a p p l i c a t i o n t o d i a g n o s t i c c o n f e r e n c e t o  r  59  -  c o n t i n u e d s e r v i c e n e c e s s i t a t e s a good d e a l o f p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z i n g by a l l s t a f f .  Delegation w i t h i n the depart-  ment o f a u t h o r i t y by s e c t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e s u n i t , as w e l l as w o r k e r , s u p e r v i s i o n by t h e casework S u p e r v i s o r s .  In  the T r a v e l l i n g s u p e r v i s o r y j o b , a m a j o r p o r t i o n o f time i s spent on s c h e d u l i n g c l i n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e t i m e t a b l e o f a t y p i c a l day. (Appendix J.)  Further  Study a s t o t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f o p e r a t i o n was planned t o t e s t t h e need f o r more c l i n i c a l s t a f f t o h a n d l e some o f t h e s c h e d u l i n g and o r g a n i z i n g o f work w i t h i n t h e Department. D i f f e r e n c e s i n Kind o f A c t i v i t i e s a t Various Job L e v e l s k, and 5 )  (Tables  E x i s t i n g j o b t i t l e s o r ranks I n d i c a t e d g e n e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n m a j o r a r e a s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y b u t do n o t I n d i c a t e t h e v a r i e t y o r c o m p l e x i t y o f d u t i e s c a r r i e d by a l l three classes.  I n any one day, t h e s o e i a l worker m i g h t  be I n v o l v e d i n a s many a s 28 d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s * a l l o f w h i c h r e q u i r e a v a r i e t y o f r o l e s , s k i l l s , and r e s p o n sibilities.  Whereas I n b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s many t r a n -  s a c t i o n s , u n i t s o f a c t i v i t y , o r s e r v i c e might be c o n c l u d e d i n one day, s o c i a l work u s u a l l y measures i t s u n i t s o f a c t i v i t y w i t h c l i e n t s i n terms o f weeks, months and y e a r s . There a r e many p e r i o d s o f c o v e r i n g - t h e - s a m e - m a t e r i a l i n interviews.  Many s t e p s o f a c t i v i t y a r e , o f n e c e s s i t y ,  55 A l t h o u g h t h e major d i r e c t r o l e i n c o n t i n u e d s e r v i c e IS a s s i g n e d t© s o c i a l w o r k e r s I n t h e C l i n i c , a complete team i s a s s i g n e d a t p o i n t o f I n t a k e on every c a s e , w i t h the p s y c h i a t r i s t b e i n g t h e head o f t h e team.  T a b l e 3.  Summary o f Time D i s t r i b u t i o n o f U s u a l S o c i a l Work D u t i e s and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r Bach S t a f f Group o f t h e C l i n i c . A p r i l 1955. !  Item o f  Activity  1. ADMINISTRATIVE (a) P l a n n i n g , O r g a n i z i n g , s c h e d u l i n g and checki n g o f work a s s i g n e d t o s e l f and o t h e r s (b) C o n f e r r i n g and c o n s u l t i n g w i t h o f f i c i a l s o f o t h e r departments (e) C o n f e r r i n g and c o n s u l t i n g w i t h o f f i c i a l s o f outside agencies (d) F o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y and procedure ( o r a d v i s i n g on t h i s ) {e) R e c o r d i n g and r e p o r t i n g on t o t a l work l o a d assigned Sub-total 2. CONSULTATIVE (a). A n s w e r i n g e n q u i r i e s * s t u d y i n g r e e o r d s , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c o n s u l t a t i v e service to other agencies 3. SUPERVISORY (a) Conferences w i t h s u p e r v i s e e s (b) R e c o r d r e a d i n g (e) A t t e n d i n g team c o n f e r e n c e s on l o a d a s s i g n e d •(d) A t t e n d i n g casework c o n f e r e n c e s on l o a d assigned (e) R a t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e and e v a l u a t i n g p r o f , dev't. of supervisees Sub-total  P e r Cent o f T o t a l M o n t h l y Time supT s.w. i v sTfT Gr. I Gr. IV (Trav.) Gr.III  *  % 9.6  10.2  12.8  4-5  6.4  1.9  3,8  .6  3.2  1.9  9.0  .3  5.2.  1,6  1.3  .3  4,8 sCT  3.8  1.2 773"  10.8  .9  6.6 31.0  3EZ  3.8 14-7 1.3 3.8  23.1 12.8  1.3  1,9  1 22  ±  1.3  ToTT  .9  o> Q  Table 3 » (Continued) ~"  '  P e r Cent o f T o t a l M o n t h l y Time Sup. S.W. S.W.IV S.W. - • Gr. I Gr.IV (Trav.) Gr.III 2.0 4.1 3.6 5.2 " •' '- ' ~ " •• , ••• 1.9 3.8 11.5 38.6 .3 "~3 2.6 6.4 * 1.3 ' 6.4 * J* ' * .. . ./• ^^-Z .2.2 l u l lh.1 52.7  Item o f A c t i v i t y ^ f) Receivingsupervision j l R E C T SERVICES (a) Casework i n t e r v i e w s (b) R e e e r d i n g o f d i r e e l casework s e r v i c e s (c) C o n f e r r i n g on assigned caseload: (1) Casework; ( i i ) W i t h o t h e r p r o f e a s l o n s (d) &roup"work s e r v i c e s t o p a i t l e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s (e) R e c o r d i n g o f d i r e c t group work e e r v i c e s Suh-tCtal .  6.  7» 8. 9.  PROFESSIONAL  jtiamaid  -  ~*"  Lec^u^es. C a ^ COMMUNITY RELATIONS " ~ • (a) Commnnity e d u c a t i o n , PTA»S & o t h e r l a y groups (b) P a r t i c i p a t i n g W i t h community committees r e dev*t. o f s e r v i c e s (c) Working w i t h community r e s o u r c e s on b e h a l f o f assigned cases : .. _ -• Subftotal STAFF DEVELOPMENT - T h r u ' m e e t i n g s & committees PROGRAM DEV'T. (a) W i t h i n department (b) W i t h i n t o t a l agency ' Subr»total ~ RESEARCH - O p e r a t i o n a l and o r i g i n a l  10.OTHER - ( a ) T r a v e l l i n g Cb J R e a d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e (c) P e r i o d i c s t a f f r e p o r t s ; a t t e n d a n c e , l e a v e , c a r usage, e t c . , Sub-total •(d) M l s c e l l a n e o i i s (See Schedule I I I A p p e n d i c e s E-H) TOTALS Source:  2.6  1.3  3.2  •*  3.2  ?*  1.3  *-3  1.9  .5 .• •  - ...... .••.-,-,„ 6.4 .0 6.4 6,4 4.5 3.6 4.5 1.3 9.0 k.9 1.3 1.3  1.9 1.9 .6 .9 1.5 1.3,  . 1.6. 2X* 4^5 1.9 •» 1.9 TT 2.6 1.3  1.3 2.0  .6 2.0  4-5 .6  .6 3.9  .6 3.2 ' 9.2  .6 5.7  9.0 100.0  100.0  .3  4.1 100.0  J o b A n a l y s i s S c h e d u l e s I and I I I , C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , Vancouver,  ...  "-". 3.9 11.9 100.0  1955.  «*• 62 * T a b l e i*»  Summary o f Time D i s t r i b u t i o n o f U s u a l S o c i a l Work D u t i e s and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s by M a j o r A r e a s o f A c t i v i t y f o r E a c h S t a f f Group o f t h e Department. A p r i l 1955 """  Activity  Sup. Gr. I  %  1. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  31.0  2. C o n s u l t a t i v e  • • 3.8  •IT  it. D i r e c t  $-  Services  Professional  Education  6. Community R e l a t i o n s J-  S t a f f Development  8... Program Development  Research 10 .Other  TOTALS  %  20.it . .5 .  S.W. Gr.III  30.7  7.0  23.1  9.0  2it.ii.  a8.7  lit.lt  6.1  2.2  lul  lit.l  52.7  2.6  1.3  1.1  .3  6.it  ..0  1.9  2.1}.  6.it  6.it  1.9  . a.5  9.0  it.9  1.5  1.3  1.3  1.3  12.9  12.it  9.8  100.0$  I n c l u d i n g Item 3 ( f ) " R e c e i v i n g  S o u r c e : T a b l e 3,  S t a f f Groups S.W. s.w.rv Gr. TV Trav.  pp. 60*61,  100.0$ 100.0$  Supervision."  1.9  .3 15.8  100.0$  • 63 •  T a b l e 5.  Three. Mai o r A r e a s o f l e c t i o n f o r Each S t a f f Group o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t ! ; ;  Areas o f Function  Sup, Gr. I  1. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  • -X'.  S t a f f Groups S.W, S.W.IV S.W.Gr. Gr. IV Trav. I l l X  2. C o n s u l t a t i v e  ......... x;...  Supervisory  Professional.Education  6. Community R e l a t i o n s  8. Program Development  X  Research Excluding  "Miscellaneous"  S o u r c e : T a b l e 3.  X  X  X  X  X  X  ,: x  Direct Services  7f S t a f f Development  X  61*  T a b l e 6.  Ratio  R a t i o o f S u p e r v i s i o n Time R e c e i v e d t o Performance Time o f V a r i o u s F u n c t i o n s Expressed i n Percentages f o r Each S t a f f Group o f t h e Department  Item  Supervision received t o t o t a l work time  Sup. • S.W. Gr. 1 Gr.IV  2%  S.W.IV Trav,  3.6%  S.W. Gr.lll  $.2%  Supervision received to major area of f u n c t i o n  6.1$  9.2%  Supervision received to 2 major areas of f u n c t i o n  3.7%  6.3%  6.7%  8.1$  Supervision received to 3 major areas o f f u n c t i o n  3.2%  S.7%  $.3%  7M  Excluding miscellaneous a c t i v i t i e s .  Source: T a b l e 3.  11.7$  9.8%  f a b l e 7.  Focus o f A c t i v i t y i n P e r c e n t a g e s f o r E a c h S t a f f Group  Focus o f A c t i v i t y Staff  Group  C l i e n t Other C o n t a c t s Dept. Con-* tacts %  NonCommunity P e r s o n a l Staff Activities Contacts Contacts •%  30.2  Suo. G r . 1  1.9  llt.7  S.W. G r . I V  3.8  8,7  ii0.it  3.7  it. 7  6.1  35. 3  S.¥. I V . T r a v .  11.5  S.W. G r . I I I . , 38.6  7.0  37.2  16.0  it3.it 1  12.0  12.9  2 3 . 1 $ c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s on Clinics, 1  2  it2.it 29.5 Travelling  Items c l a s s i f i e d under e a c h h e a d i n g a r e as f o l l o x * s J  C l i e n t Contact Ma) Other Department C o n t a c t s # l.(b) Staff 3.  ... 3 , ( c ) ... 4 . ( c ) - . ( i i ) ... 8 . ( b ) .  Contacts (a) (d) (e) ( f ) ... i t . ( c ) - ( I ) *.* 7 .  . . . 8 . (a)  Community C o n t a c t s 1. Cc)  2. ... 5 . ... 6. (a) (b) ( c )  Non»?ersonal A c t i v i t i e s l.(a) Source:  (d) (e) ... 3.(b) ... i*.(b) ... 9. ... 10. (a) (b) ( c ) (d) Table 3 .  * 66 * r e p e t i t i o u s , a s , f o r example, p r e p a r i n g  a playroom f o r a  play interview w i t h a c h i l d , conducting the interview, cleaning  up* p r e p a r i n g t h e playroom f o r a n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w , e t  cetera.**^  However, i n g e n e r a l  terms, t h e time s t u d y shows  t h a t t h e department s u p e r v i s o r was m a i n l y i n v o l v e d i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r y d u t i e s * primarily involved i n supervision*  Supervisors  were  Workers were p r i m a r i l y  engaged i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  The e x c e p t i o n  to t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n I s the p o s i t i o n o f T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s Supervisor.  I n t h i s p o s i t i o n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were p r i m *  a r i l y administrative-consultative*  The t i m e s t u d y s u g g e s t s  this position i s not properly c l a s s i f i e d .  From t h e time  d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h i s p o s i t i o n would seem b e t t e r c l a s s i f i e d a s a s e n i o r caseworker p o s i t i o n o r s e n i o r s u p e r v i s o r  (ease  consultant) p o s i t i o n . Some a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h appear t o be common t o a l l j o b l e v e l s d i f f e r w i d e l y i n t h e e x t e n t and k i n d o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s k i l l r e q u i r e d .  F o r example* community  r e l a t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l education s i b i l i t i e s are assigned experience,  and c o n s u l t a t i v e r e s p o n -  t o s t a f f according  i n t e r e s t and p e r s o n a l  skills.  t o amount o f Generally, a l l  S t a f f I n t h e w o r k e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a f t e r s i x months t o one y e a r on s t a f f , a r e expected t o p a r t i c i p a t e I n t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e r o l e e i t h e r a s duty-work o n e * h a l f  t o one day p e r week  o r as t h e s o c i a l work r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n team C o n f e r e n c e s on 56  c f ^ the r o l e o f a h o u s e w i f e .  oases o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s .  However* the department s u p e r v i s o r  was u s u a l l y I n v o l v e d i n the more complex case s i t u a t i o n s o r In  those i n v o l v i n g q u e s t i o n s o f department o r c l i n i c a l  policy.  In  t r a v e l l i n g c l i n i c c a s e s , the t r a v e l l i n g s u p e r v i s o r had  educative r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n regard to workers p r e s e n t i n g c a s e s f o r e x a m i n a t i o n o r c o n s u l t a t i o n , whereas I n most o t h e r c o n s u l t a t i v e case c o n f e r e n c e s s i b i l i t y was  the c l i n i c w o r k e r ' s r e s p o n -  c o n s i d e r e d l e s s e r i n degree o f a u t h o r i t y o r  s k i l l required.  I n community r e l a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s , the c a s e -  work S u p e r v i s o r s were n o t I n v o l v e d a t t h e time o f the p r i m a r i l y because b o t h were r e c e n t l y a p p o i n t e d .  study,  Ordinarily  t h i s f u n c t i o n would be c o n s i d e r e d as one t o be c a r r i e d  by  s u p e r v i s o r s or s e n i o r workers. D i f f e r e n c e s i n Degree o f R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r V a r i o u s A c t i v i t i e s at  V a r i o u s Job L e v e l s . T a b l e s .3. It. and  5v  D i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between j o b l e v e l and  degrees  o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y appear I n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , P r o f e s s i o n a l Education,. .Program development, and Research  activities*  I n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between j o b l e v e l and degree o f  respon-  57  s i b i l i t y appear i n Supervision r e c e i v e d .  Direct services*  R e c o r d i n g and C o n f e r r i n g o r a t t e n d i n g c o n f e r e n c e s  on  assigned load. 57 These a c t i v i t i e s p e r t a i n more t o the degree o f s k i l l r e q u i r e d i n p e r f o r m i n g t a s k s . Hence these a r e d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y i n e n s u i n g pages.  *• 68 * One m a j o r d e t e r m i n a n t o f c l a s s l e v e l , which, does n o t a p p e a r d i r e c t l y i n t h e t i m e s t u d y , i s t h e scope o f a c t i v i t i e s ( o r t o t a l work) s u p e r v i s e d .  Other m a j o r deter«  m i n a n t s o f c l a s s l e v e l ar© r e v e a l e d I n T a b l e s 6 and 7. D i f f e r e n c e s i n Degree o f S k i l l f o r V a r i o u s A c t i v i t i e s a t Various  Job Levels S k i l l requirements f o r the v a r i o u s  are e s s e n t i a l l y p r a g m a t i c a s s u m p t i o n s .  activities  F o r -example.,, by  C l i n i c S t a n d a r d s , a f t e r s i x months t o one y e a r  experience,  a l l w o r k e r s a r e assumed t o have n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s t o p a r t i cipate i n p r o f e s s i o n a l education  and community r e l a t i o n s ;  a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s t h e worker i s presumed t o have developed  y  58 s k i l l s necessary f o r s u p e r v i s i o n o f other workers.  However,  T a b l e s 1 and 2 i n d i c a t e t h a t a c t i v i t i e s o f a g r o u p , i n t e r group, e d u c a t i o n a l , o r r e s e a r c h n a t u r e i n c r e a s e t o Job r a n k .  A l s o , the percentage o f a c t i v i t i e s  the m a j o r f u n c t i o n i n c r e a s e w i t h j o b r a n k . deduce t h a t s k i l l r e q u i r e d creases w i t h job ranks.  according outside  From t h i s we can  (knowledge and a b i l i t i e s ) , in-*  Knowledge o f f i e l d s o f group work,  community o r g a n i z a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n  and r e s e a r c h p l u s  ability  t o a p p l y t h i s knowledge, a r e t h u s r e q u i r e d i n v a r y i n g degrees by a l l w o r k e r s a c c o r d i n g  t o rank.  These s k i l l s a r e , o f  course, i n a d d i t i o n to s k i l l s required i n the major f u n c t i o n o f each rank* i . e . , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c o n s u l t a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , ^ M e r i t r a t i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n a r e , o f c o u r s e , u s e d i n a s s e s s i n g s k i l l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l employee. We a r e more concerned her© w i t h d e f i n i n g a b s t r a c t s k i l l r e q u i r e d f o r performance o f a c t i v i t i e s .  69 and  -  casework. Two  f u r t h e r s k i l l determinants  i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e s 6 and 7.  o f Job r a n k are  F i r s t , the r a t i o o f  super*  v i s i o n r e c e i v e d to major areas of f u n c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t independence o f work, o r i n i t i a t i v e r e q u i r e d , v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h job rank.  Second, t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n t a c t s  out-  S i d e the C l i n i c and o u t s i d e the Department i n c r e a s e w i t h j o b ranks.  Exceptions  t o t h i s are t h a t (a) the T r a v e l l i n g super-  v i s o r has the l e a s t c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r Department s t a f f a c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e 5>j and  (b) the s u p e r v i s o r rank has  c o n t a c t s o u t s i d e the C l i n i c .  least  However* u n d e r Items 1.(bj  and 1. (c) o f T a b l e 3» the e x t e n t o f o u t s i d e c o n t a c t s i n v o l v ing a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y increases d i r e c t l y from w o r k e r t o Department s u p e r v i s o r .  Nevertheless, again a l l  s t a f f are e x p e c t e d t o have c o n s i d e r a b l e a b i l i t y I n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s on s t a f f o r o u t s i d e , w i t h o f f i c i a l s of other agencies*  and w i t h the g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  D i r e c t c l i e n t contact decreases w i t h Increase i n job rank, i m p l y i n g t h a t the d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s are r e q u i r e d more a t the w o r k e r l e v e l t h a n o t h e r l e v e l s .  Staff contacts  and n o n - p e r s o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e numerous f o r a l l r a n k s , i m p l y i n g a g a i n the agency f o c u s on team o p e r a t i o n as w e l l as on p r o c e d u r a l f l o w o f work. Major determinants be:  o f j o b l e v e l t h u s appear t o  A, - Degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e s e f u n c t i o n s  and a c t i v i t i e s :  1.)  Administrative  70  *  2. ) P r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n 3. ) Program Development I*.)  Research  £.)  Supervision received  6. ) D i r e c t s e r v i c e s 7. ) C o n f e r r i n g o r a t t e n d i n g on a s s i g n e d  conferences  load  8. ) Scope o f a c t i v i t i e s s u p e r v i s e d B. •* Knowledge and A b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d 1. ) I n f i e l d s o t h e r t h a n m a j o r a r e a o f responsibility 2. ) P a r t i c u l a r l y i n group work, I n t e r - . group work* e d u c a t i o n * and 3. ) A b i l i t y t o work  research  independently  1*.) A b i l i t y t o r e p r e s e n t Agency o r D e p a r t ment e f f e c t i v e l y i n o u t s i d e c o n t a c t s , Using these determinants  suggests  establishment  o f f o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n the Department; department v i s o r , case c o n s u l t a n t ( t r a v e l l i n g S u p e r v i s o r ) , c a s e  supersuper-  v i s o r , and case w o r k e r . D e s c r i p t i o n s f o r the  Glasses  By u s i n g t h e major d e t e r m i n a n t s  p l u s the o u t l i n e  o f Department f u n c t i o n s , t h e f o u r c l a s s e s can now  be  a c c o r d i n g t o : D i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s o f the c l a s s ; and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  described Duties  ( o r T y p i c a l t a s k s ) ; D e s i r a b l e knowledge,  a b i l i t i e s and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ;  Education  and  - 71  experience required.  -  Former c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t i t l e s f o r each  c l a s s are stated i n brackets. JOB CLASSIFICATION^  9  SOCIAL WORK SERIES PROPOSED REVISIONS TO PRESENT JOB DESCRIPTIONS This s e r i e s i n c l u d e s a l l c l a s s e s o f p o s i t i o n s the d u t i e s o f w h i c h a r e t o a d v i s e on, a d m i n i s t e r , s u p e r v i s e , o r p e r f o r m work i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s o e i a l work S e r v i c e t o i n d i v i d u a l s o r f a m i l i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a speci a l i z e d b r a n c h o f s o c i a l work such as m e d i c a l s o c i a l work, p s y c h i a t r i c s o e i a l work, p a r o l e o r p r o b a t i o n s o c i a l work, c h i l d welfare, or public assistance. T h i s S e r i e s i s composed o f groups o f c l a s s e s * each group h a v i n g a common background o f d u t i e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e m e n t s , b u t d i f f e r i n g i n t h e s p e c i a l i z e d b r a n c h o f S o c i a l work performed as i n d i c a t e d by t h e a d j e c t i v e f o l l o w i n g the o v e r - a l l c l a s s t i t l e . P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work i s d e f i n e d as t h e S o c i a l work u n d e r t a k e n b y i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i r e c t and r e s p o n s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p s y c h i a t r y . P s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e s occur i n h o s p i t a l s o r c l i n i c s , o r under other psyc h i a t r i c a u s p i c e s , t h e e s s e n t i a l purpose o f w h i c h i s t o serve I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h mental o r emotional disturbances. E x p l a n a t o r y Statement: The o b j e c t i v e o f s o c i a l work i s t o p r e v e n t t h e break-down o f i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and communities and t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e a b i l i t y o f p e o p l e t o work out t h e i r own S o l u t i o n s and t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own c a p a c i t i e s and l a t e n t powers f o r s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . To g i v e h e l p and s e r v i c e So t h a t b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s and communities d e r i v e t h e utmost i n b e n e f i t s r e q u i r e s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n n o t o n l y o f knowl e d g e and human u n d e r s t a n d i n g , b u t a l s o o f t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r S o c i a l work. SOCIAL WORKER I I I { P s y c h i a t r i c ) ( S o c i a l Worker I I d i f f e r s I n (a) t h e amount o f s u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d (b) r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s assumed - u s u a l l y do n o t i n c l u d e c o n s u l t a t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l and community e d u c a t i o n functions.) P r e p a r e d by a s t a f f committee o f the Department, A p r i l and May, 1 9 5 5 .  -  72  Definition: T h i s i s t h e b e g i n n i n g grade I n t h e S o c i a l Work P s y c h i a t r i c ( c l a s s ) . Incumbents i n these p o s i t i o n s p e r f o r m p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work w i t h p a t i e n t s and r e l a t i v e s i n a psychiatric h o s p i t a l or c l i n i c , requiring considerable s k i l l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c o n t r o l l i n g and d i r e c t i n g o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . S o c i a l Workers i n t h e s e p o s i t i o n s a r e u n d e r t h e immediate s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e n e x t h i g h e r grade o f S o c i a l Worker IV ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) . DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: 1.  Administrative: 1. C a s e l o a d Management * (a) The c a r r y i n g o u t o f r o u t i n e d u t i e s ( u s u a l l y one day p e r week) w h i c h i n v o l v e s : ( i ) Supplying information t o i n q u i r i n g a g e n c i e s , and ( i i ) Dealing w i t h i n i t i a l personal o r telephone (applications f o r c l i n i c service Including s c r e e n i n g and r e f e r r a l o f c a s e s , (b) R e p o r t i n g t o S o c i a l Worker Grade IV on a l l a s p e c t s o f work i n c l u d i n g m o n t h l y c o m p i l a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a . (c) F u l f i l l i n g a c o - o r d i n a t i n g , i n t e g r a t i v e and enabling r o l e both with other p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s and w i t h c l i e n t s .  II.  2.  C o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e p l a n n i n g and development o f agency s e r v i c e t h r o u g h s t a f f m e e t i n g s , committees and s u p e r v i s i o n ,  3.  P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n b y s e r v i n g , as a s s i g n e d , on a p p r o p r i a t e community and agency committees a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and the C l i n i c .  Supervisory  Responsibilities:  S o c i a l Workers i n t h i s p o s i t i o n have t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the supervisory p r o c e s s making c o n s t r u c t i v e use o f s u p e r v i s i o n , t o d e v e l o p i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s and department s e r vices. III.  Consultative R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : 1.  Contributing t o f i n d i n g s , evaluation, diagnoses, and t r e a t m e n t recommendations o f C l i n i c team i n c a s e s b r o u g h t by o t h e r a g e n c i e s .  * 73 2.  -  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s r e l a t i n g t o M e n t a l H e a l t h needs o f f a m i l i e s and children.  3. R e c o r d i n g m a t e r i a l p e r t i n e n t t o casework 4. IV.  Answering e n q u i r i e s f r o m o t h e r a g e n c i e s closed cases.  planning. regarding  Caseload R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : 1. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a s e l o a d c a r r y i n g o f d i r e c t s e r v i c e c a s e s as a s s i g n e d . T h i s i n v o l v e s the g i v i n g o f c a s e work s e r v i c e s i n ; (a) The I n t a k e and B r i e f S e r v i c e s S e c t i o n w h i c h i n v o l v e s the s o c i a l w o r k e r I n one o f h i s r e c o g n i z e d s k i l l s and most time-consuming r o l e s . Cases w i t h i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n v o l v e i n t a k e , d i a g n o s t i c and b r i e f s e r v i c e s and i n c l u d e major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s c r e e n i n g and r e f e r r a l i n Clinical settings. (b) The Continued S e r v i c e S e c t i o n w h i c h e n t a i l s casework t r e a t m e n t t o implement team recommenda t i o n s . Prom 20 t o 25 such c a s e s a r e c a r r i e d by w o r k e r s o f t h i s s e c t i o n d u r i n g a month, I n v o l v i n g s e r v i c e s t o f r o m 25 t o 30 a d u l t s and 15 t o 20 c h i l d r e n . A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e c l i e n t s r e c e i v e i n t e n s i v e h e l p I n v o l v i n g one, two o r t h r e e i n t e r v i e w s p e r week i n each c a s e . 2.  C l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h s c h o o l s , o t h e r S o c i a l agenc i e s and o t h e r community r e s o u r c e s as a p a r t o f o v e r a l l Casework p r o c e s s as d i a g n o s t i c a l l y i n d i c a t e d .  3. C a l l i n g f u l l team c o n f e r e n c e s o r a r r a n g i n g C o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l team members as r e q u i r e d by casework p r o g r e s s i n i n d i v i d u a l Cases. I4.. T a k i n g o f m i n u t e s o f team c o n f e r e n c e s and c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o S o c i a l work p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 5.  Study and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f work, p r e p a r a t i o n o f h i s t o r i e s o r summaries f o r team p r e s e n t a t i o n .  6. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l d i a g n o s i s and  social  casework p l a n .  7. C o n t r i b u t i n g t o team t h i n k i n g , p l a n n i n g e x p l o r a t i o n , f i n d i n g s * d i a g n o s i s and t r e a t m e n t recommendations. 8. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f i n d i n g s and recommendations t o c l i e n t s , and t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s .  7k 9. V.  R e c o r d i n g o f casework on a l l cases*  E d u c a t i o n a l and I n t e r p r e t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ;  1  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some e d u c a t i o n a l and i n t e r p r e t i v e work t o o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l and t o community groups. T h i s i n c l u d e s s p e a k i n g t o p a r e n t groups, h i g h s c h o o l guidance c l a s s e s , v o c a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s and o t h e r g r o u p s a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and t h e Clinic* . ' •• VI*  S t a f f Development R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : C r e a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s t a f f development t h r o u g h c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s t a f f meeting, study, d i s c u s s i o n , committee work and o t h e r p r o j e c t s .  VII.  Research  ResponSlbllltiea?  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l r e s e a r c h i s shared by t h e s o c i a l work s t a f f at'.- a l l l e v e l s , t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any s u r v e y s o r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n b y t h e C l i n i c S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, by t h e C l i n i c as a whole, by the s o c i a l Welfare Branch, t h e Mental H e a l t h S e r v i c e s , o r Department o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e . QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE P r e f e r a b l y c o m p l e t i o n o f a M,S>¥* degree c o u r s e i n r e c o g n i z e d S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work. Knowledges, a b i l i t i e s * - ; and o t h e r q u a l i t i e s : <• Good knowledge o f t h e methods, t e c h n i q u e s , p r i n c i p l e s , p r o c e d u r e s and p r a c t i c e s o f so^^^ speciali z e d knowledge o f t h e o r i e s , p r a c t i c e s , and t e c h n i q u e s o f t h a t b r a n c h o f S o c i a l work i n d i c a t e d b y t h e t i t l e o f t h e c l a s s ; c o n s i d e r a b l e s k i l l i n the. a p p l i c a t i o n o f such knowledges; knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e program o f t h e agency and the scope o f t h e s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d ; knowledge o f community r e s o u r c e s and how t o u t i l i z e > th#m e f f e c t i ^ o l y ' l p r o v e n a b i l i t y t o make a c c u r a t e d e c i s i o n s upon own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t o o u t l i n e and p r e p a r e r e p o r t s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ; a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l groups I n work w i t h p a t l e n t s * c l i e n t s * and t h e i r f a m i l i e s ; a b i l i t y t o e x e r c i s e t a c t , i n i t i a t i v e * and good judgment when d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e ; a s r e q u i r e d * a b i l i t y t o p r e p a r e r e p o r t s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e use or f o r publication.  SOCIAL WORKER GRADE k ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) Definition; S o c i a l Worker Grade Ij. r e f e r s t o p o s i t i o n s o f Casework Supervisor, which represent the f i r s t supervisory l e v e l i n the S o c i a l Work S e r i e s . Common t o a l l p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s grade i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; 1. f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a s e c t i o n o r u n i t o f a S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department o f a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l o r c l i n i c , w i t h e r a l o n e o r w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a few l o w e r grade s o c i a l w o r k e r s , a n d / o r 2. f o r s u p e r v i s i o n , as a casework s u p e r v i s o r , o f a few s o c i a l workers o f lower-grade assigned t o t h e s e c t i o n . Incumbents o f these p o s i t i o n s p e r f o r m work u n d e r t h e gene r a l d i r e c t i o n o f a d e p a r t m e n t a l s u p e r v i s o r ( S u p e r v i s o r Grade I , o r S o c i a l Worker Grade V - P s y c h i a t r i c ) . DUTIES AHD RESPONSIBILITIES t Common t o a l l p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s grade a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1* A d m i n i s t r a t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : 1. S e c t i o n and Caseload Management (a) E n s u r i n g e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b y s u p e r v i s e e s o f s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s t o p a t i e n t s and r e l a t i v e s . (b) I n s t r u c t i n g new employees I n r e g u l a t i o n s and p r o cedures b e a r i n g on S o c i a l work p r a c t i c e w i t h i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r h o s p i t a l o r c l i n i c ; r a t i n g the e f f i c i e n c y of workers supervised; completing p r o f e s s i o n a l evaluations o f supervisees. (c) S p e c i f y i n g work assignments t o be u n d e r t a k e n b y s u p e r v i s e e s , and e n s u r i n g s t e a d y f l o w o f work. (d) P r o m o t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s o f S e r v i c e , f o r example b y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work a s s o c i a t i o n s and community s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . (e) S t u d y i n g s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e s , methods and p o l i c i e s , w i t h a v i e w t o recommending, i n i t i a t i n g and e f f e c t i n g changes t h a t w i l l r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y . 2. S h a r i n g I n f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and o f the h o s p i t a l o r c l i n i c as a w h o l e ; e n s u r i n g t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f p o l i c i e s and procedures i n areas o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y assigned. 3. P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i n t e r - a g e n c y c o n f e r r i n g on p o l i c y ; I n t e r p r e t i n g f u n c t i o n s and s e r v i c e s o f t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s ; p r o m o t i n g c o o r d i n a t i o n o f community s e r v i c e s on b e h a l f o f c a s e l o a d  supervised. 4. R e p o r t i n g t o and i n f o r m i n g t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department s u p e r v i s o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o c a r r y i n g out o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g c o m p i l i n g and raalntaing r e c o r d s o f a c t i v i t i e s , r e p o r t s , and m o n t h l y s t a t i s t i c a l summaries. Work i s performed u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f S o c i a l Worker Grade V I I ( P r o v i n c i a l S u p e r v i s o r o f P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work) where t h e r e I s no h i g h e r grade s o c i a l worker i n the s e t t i n g . Supervisory  Responsibilities;  1. S u p e r v i s i n g one t o f i v e s o c i a l w o r k e r s o f l o w e r grades (Grade i l l and o c c a s i o n a l l y Grade I I ) ; s u c h s u p e r v i s i o n consists of; (a) G u i d i n g i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r s i n casework methods and p r a c t i c e s i n v o l v i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n w i t h them o f c a s e s c a r r i e d . (b) T e a c h i n g o f casework and I n t e r v i e w i n g s k i l l s i n p s y c h i a t r i c s e t t i n g ; h e l p i n g w i t h e v a l u a t i o n of each case i n the l i g h t of c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r s and w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n o f s o c i a l h i s t o r y and s o c i a l d i a g n o s i s o f problems p r e s e n t e d by the c l i e n t . (c) I n t e r p r e t i n g g e n e r a l p o l i c y , o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n s o f c l i n i c s and t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department w i t h i n the c l i n i c . (d) H e l p i n g the w o r k e r l e a r n h i s r o l e i n team c o n f e r e n c e s as w e l l as h i s r o l e I n u s i n g team f i n d i n g s i n f o l l o w * u p work. (e) G i v i n g d i r e c t i o n t o the w o r k e r on c o n t a c t s w i t h o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s w h i c h are o f a c o n s u l t a t i v e n a t u r e . ( f ) P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c o n f e r e n c e s on the w o r k e r ' s c a s e s where t h e s e i n v o l v e deep-seated p s y c h i a t r i c p r o b lems o r where t h e y i n v o l v e i n t e r - a g e n c y p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s . 2. I n s u r i n g adequate casework coverage on c a s e s a s s i g n e d to workers. This i n c l u d e s : (a) E x a m i n i n g case r e c o r d s ; p r o c e s s and summary recording. (b) R e v i e w i n g the w o r k e r ' s m o n t h l y s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t of s e r v i c e s given. (c) E v a l u a t i n g the p r o f e s s i o n a l performance o f superv i s e e s . The casework s u p e r v i s o r t h u s has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e n a t u r e , q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f S e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d by the w o r k e r he s u p e r v i s e s and f o r the s k i l l i n method employed by the w o r k e r i n t h e s e case-work s e r v i c e s .  *  77  I I I . Consultative R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d i a g n o s t i c and c o n s u l t a t i v e c o n f e r e n c e s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n cases where the p a t i e n t i s n o t examined a t the c l i n i c h u t a s o c i a l h i s t o r y i s p r e s e n t e d "by t h e agency r e q u e s t i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n on d i a g n o s i s and t r e a t ment o f deep-seated p s y c h i a t r i c p r o b l e m s . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I s also taken f o r recording of m a t e r i a l p e r t i n e n t to casework p l a n n i n g . XV.  Casework R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s I C a r r y i n g o f a few t r e a t m e n t cases o t h e r d u t i e s p e r m i t t i n g . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n caSes c a r r i e d IS s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f S o c i a l Worker Crade I I I .  V.  E d u c a t i o n a l and  Interpretive Responsibilities:  1. P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t e a c h i n g programmes, o r i e n t a t i o n s , l e c t u r e s and d i s c u s s i o n s j g i v i n g l e a d e r s h i p i n promo t i n g C l i n i c s e r v i c e s and m e n t a l h e a l t h p r i n c i p l e s . 2. P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community groups and VI.  committees.  S t a f f and Program Development R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : C o n t r i b u t i n g through s t a f f meetings. Supervisors' m e e t i n g s , and S t a f f committees, t o development o f s t a f f and s e r v i c e s .  VII.  Research R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : C o n t r i b u t i n g t o and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n any s u r v e y s and research a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g s or Mental Health Services or S o c i a l Welfare Branch, e t c ,  DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF POSITIONS WITHIN THIS GRADE (At C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c - Vancouver) A.  S o c i a l Worker Grade IV ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) - S u p e r v i s o r and B r i e f S e r v i c e s S e c t i o n :  of  Intake  1. The d i s t i n c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h i s p o s i t i o n i s the p r o c e d u r a l d i r e c t i o n o f a l l s t a f f engaged i n h a n d l i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r s e r v i c e and the casework s u p e r v i s i o n o f a few (1 t o 5) s o c i a l w o r k e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a s e l o a d c a r r y i n g on an I n t a k e and b r i e f s e r v i c e b a s i s , 2.  P a r t i c i p a t i n g I n f r e q u e n t c o n f e r e n c e s and c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h o f f i c i a l s o f o t h e r departments w i t h r e g a r d t o p o l i c y , p r o c e d u r e and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f team recommendations on c a s e s c a r r i e d w i t h i n the I n t a k e Section.  - 7® 3.  -  M a i n t a i n i n g and c i r c u l a t i n g t o a l l departments t h r o u g h the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department s u p e r v i s o r , s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s p e r t a i n i n g t o case f l o w d u r i n g the i n t a k e and d i a g n o s t i c study p e r i o d .  ij.. H a n d l i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s o r i n t a k e i n u n u s u a l o r emergent situations. B.  S o c i a l Worker Grade IV ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) - S u p e r v i s o r Continued S e r v i c e s S e c t i o n ; 1.  of  The d i s t i n c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h i s p o s i t i o n I s t h e casework s u p e r v i s i o n o f a few (1 t o 5) s o c i a l w o r k e r s o f l o w e r g r a d e s (Grade I I o r I I I ) I n methods and p r a c t i c e s r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y out p l a n s o f l o n g - t e r m casework t r e a t m e n t ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r t o e i g h t e e n months) i n v o l v i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the l o w e r grade s o e i a l w o r k e r s and examining r e c o r d s c o m p i l e d by them.  2. P a r t i c i p a t i n g I n f r e q u e n t casework c o n f e r e n c e s and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h o t h e r casework s u p e r v i s o r s and w o r k e r s around the I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f C l i n i c team recommendations on t r a n s f e r o f cases t o the s e c t i o n o r u n i t f o r c a s e work t r e a t m e n t . 3.  C.  C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r u n i t s u p e r v i s o r s and department, s u p e r v i s o r , r e g a r d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s and f l o w o f work between u n i t s , and r e g a r d i n g c a s e s c a r r i e d by one u n i t f o r w h i c h a n o t h e r u n i t has o v e r - a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  S o c i a l Worker Grade IV ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) - Casework Student U n i t .  Supervisor  D i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s p o s i t i o n are: 1. E n s u r i n g a v a l i d e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e l e v e l f o r a graduate student,  at a proper  2. S e l e c t i n g S u i t a b l e c a s e s f r o m b o t h I n t a k e and S e r v i c e S e c t i o n s f o r assignment t o s t u d e n t s .  Continued  3. M a i n t a i n i n g e f f e c t i v e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the School o f S o c i a l Work f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n o f c l a s s work and f i e l d p r a c t i c e j and t o p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h o t h e r F i e l d S u p e r v i s o r s t o promote v a l i d p r o f e s s i o n a l training, 1*. S u p e r v i 3 o r y R e a p b n a i b i l 111es: (a) S u p e r v i s i n g about f o u r g r a d u a t e s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s . (b) An a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s p o s i t i o n l i e s  - 79  -  i n th© added t e a c h i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e n a b l e the s t u d e n t t o i n t e g r a t e t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge g a i n e d from c l a s s work and t h e r e a l s i t u a t i o n w i t h the c l i e n t . A more d e t a i l e d and i n t e n s i v e e v a l u a t i v e p r o c e s s p e r v a d e s t h e work I n t h i s p o s i t i o n n e c e s s i t a t i n g p e r i o d i c r e p o r t i n g t o the School o f S o c i a l Work and c o n f e r r i n g w i t h t h e F a c u l t y Cons u l t a n t around the l e a r n i n g * performance and progress o f the student. E d u c a t i o n a l and I n t e r p r e t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : ta) I n a d d i t i o n t o u s u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s * t h i s p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s p r e p a r i n g and e d i t i n g o f case m a t e r i a l s f o r t e a c h i n g p u r p o s e s . D. S o c i a l Worker Grade TV ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) , - Casework S u p e r v i s o r Travelling Clinics The d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h i s p o s i t i o n a r e : (a) the l a r g e volume o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a case consultant capacity; (b) t h e l a r g e volume o f work o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , i n t e g r a t i v e and c o o r d i n a t i n g n a t u r e ; and (c) the v e r y e x t e n s i v e a r e a covered by t h e T r a v e l l i n g Clinics. R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d i s t i n c t i v e to t h i s p o s i t i o n alsd i n c l u d e : I.  II.  Administrative Responsibilities: 1.  A r r a n g i n g C l i n i c s - D i s c u s s i o n * arrangement and correspondence w i t h p e r s o n n e l i n t h e F i e l d S e r v i c e s regarding C l i n i c f u n c t i o n , a v a i l a b l e dates f o r C l i n i c s * t y p e s o f c a s e s accepted b y t h e C l i n i c , and the g e n e r a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r such C l i n i c s .  2.  O r g a n i z i n g S e r v i c e s t o c l i e n t s on T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c s i n c l u d i n g p l a n n i n g and s c h e d u l i n g o f team a c t i v i t i e s , and p r o m o t i n g f l o w o f work. I n c l u d e s a c t i v i t i e s o f a public r e l a t i o n s nature.  3.  M a i n t a i n i n g l i a i s o n w i t h and e n c o u r a g i n g c o o p e r a t i o n o f a l l e x i s t i n g community S e r v i c e s i n t h e f i e l d Such as s c h o o l s * h e a l t h and w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s * and o t h e r community groups.  Supervisory  Responsibilities:  D i s c u s s i n g c a s e s w i t h S u p e r v i s o r s and w o r k e r s i n t h e F i e l d s e r v i c e s ( b o t h S o c i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h and P u b l i c H e a l t h Nurses) t o promote i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f recommenda t i o n s . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n may a l S o be r e q u e s t e d t h r o u g h the F i e l d S u p e r v i s o r s on a c o n t i n u i n g c a s e , and t h i s may be h a n d l e d t h r o u g h correspondence.  * 80 I I I . Consultative Responsibilities; 1.  D i s c u s s i n g o f p r e v i o u s c a s e s examined by the C l i n i c , w i t h w o r k e r s ( P u b l i c H e a l t h and S o c i a l W e l f a r e ) . P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n implementation o f f u r t h e r t r e a t * raent, and e v a l u a t i n g p r o g r e s s , and work done t o d a t e ,  2,  Recording m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d to previous cases, w i t h a view t o p r e s e n t and f u t u r e r e s e a r c h .  IV. Caseload  Responsibilities;  Interviewing parents; r e l a t i v e s or f r i e n d of p a t i e n t s ; p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t e s ; e t c . t o c l a r i f y problems and t o p r o c u r e d a t a f o r immediate use o f the T r a v e l l i n g C l i n i c team i n e v a l u a t i n g and d i a g n o s i n g problems p r e s e n t e d , i n c l u d e s r e c o r d i n g of these i n t e r v i e w s . V.  Other: T r a v e l l i n g t o a l l a r e a s o f the p r o v i n c e i n v o l v i n g e x t e n s i v e and f r e q u e n t t r i p s by v a r i o u s modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , q u i t e o f t e n outside of r e g u l a r working hours.  Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and E x p e r i e n c e ; ( f o r S o c i a l Worker Grade IV Psychiatric) 1. P r e f e r a b l y g r a d u a t i o n w i t h a degree o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work f r o m a r e c o g n i z e d S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work. 2. S e v e r a l y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n a p o s i t i o n o f S o c i a l Worker Grade I I I ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) o r i n work c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the d u t i e s t o be p e r f o r m e d . D e s i r a b l e Knowledges. A b i l i t i e s and o t h e r Q u a l i t i e s : Sound knowledge o f the dynamics o f human b e h a v i o r ; v e r y good knowledge o f the p r i n c i p l e s * t h e o r i e s , methods, t e c h n i q u e s , and p r a c t i c e s o f S o e i a l work; good g e n e r a l knowledge o f the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e o f s u p e r v i s i o n ; c o n s i d e r a b l e S p e c i a l i z e d knowledge o f c o l l a b o r a t i v e work w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l employees i n a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l o r c l i n i c ; marked s k i l l i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f such knowledges. Good knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e Branch's and M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s * programs and the scope o f the s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d ; good knowledge o f a v a i l a b l e community r e s o u r c e s and how t o u t i l i z e them e f f e c t i v e l y ; a b i l i t y t o make a c c u r a t e d e c i s i o n s upon own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t o o u t l i n e and prepare r e p o r t s o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s ; a b i l i t y t o a n a l y z e , e v a l u a t e , and make a c c u r a t e d e c i s i o n s from s o c i a l d a t a assembled; a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l  groups I n work w i t h p a t i e n t s , c l i e n t s , t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and community a g e n c i e s ; demonstrated a b i l i t y t o meet and d e a l w i t h p e o p l e e f f e c t i v e l y ; as r e q u i r e d * a b i l i t y f o r o r g a n i z i n g , p l a n n i n g , and c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e s o c i a l work a c t i v i t i e s o f a program o f l i m i t e d scope; as r e q u i r e d , g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y and a b i l i t y t o s u p e r v i s e and t r a i n lower-grade s o c i a l w o r k e r s ; a b i l i t y t o e v a l u a t e work o f o t h e r s . SOCIAL WORKER GRADE V ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) ( P r e s e n t l y - S u p e r v i s o r o f W e l f a r e . Grade I ) Definition: The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S o c i a l Worker Grade V r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e S u p e r v i s o r y l e v e l i n t h e s o c i a l work s e r i e s . P o s i t i o n s a t t h i s l e v e l I n p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work t y p i c a l l y Involve r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r organizing, administering, and c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e S o c i a l work and casework program a t a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l or c l i n i c having a large o r very large volume o f s o c i a l work a c t i v i t i e s . Work i s performed under t h e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c h i e f m e d i c a l o r c l i n i c a l d i r e c t o r and i s s u b j e c t t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f and p r o c e d u r a l d i r e c t i o n f r o m a h i g h e r grade s o c i a l w o r k e r i n t h e c e n t r a l o f f i c e o f t h e agency. ( S o c i a l Worker Grade V I I p r e s e n t l y S u p e r v i s o r o f W e l f a r e Grade I I I P r o v i n c i a l S u p e r v i s o r o f P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work.) D i s t i n c t i v e F e a t u r e s o f t h i s P o s i t i o n i n t h e C h i l d Guidance Clinic I.  Administrative R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : 1.-  C o n s u l t i n g and i n f o r m i n g P r o v i n c i a l S u p e r v i s o r around s t a f f and p o l i c y m a t t e r s , needs w i t h i n t h e d e p a r t ment and development o f s e r v i c e s . C o n s u l t i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g s t a f f i n these matters. Includes r e p o r t s , s t a t i s t i c s , e s t i m a t i o n o f needs, w o r k i n g o u t o f s c h e d u l e s and r o u t i n e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n w o r k i n g o u t measures t o improve t h e s t a n d a r d o f work.  2.  I n f o r m i n g and c o n s u l t i n g w i t h t h e c l i n i c a l d i r e c t o r on q u e s t i o n s o f p o l i c y and S o c i a l s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s .  3.  E n s u r i n g t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s w i t h regard t o the f u n c t i o n o f the S o c i a l Service Department,  It.  P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the formulation o f p o l i c y f o r the c l i n i c as a whole as w e l l a s f o r t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department. I n t e r - c o n f e r r i n g on I n t e r - a g e n c y p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e . I n t e r p r e t i n g c l i n i c f u n c t i o n .  82 c o o r d i n a t i n g p o l i c y and a c t i v i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r community s e r v i c e s .  II.  $.  C o n s u l t i n g w i t h heads o f departments and o t h e r team members w i t h r e g a r d t o ease problems and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f work. P r o m o t i n g t h e i n t e g r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f team o p e r a t i o n s .  6.  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n t e g r a t i n g S t u d e n t U n i t work o f the C l i n i c w i t h t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work* U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  7.  O v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h a n n e l l i n g o f case assignments*  Supervisory  Responsibilities:  S u p e r v i s i n g f o u r casework s u p e r v i s o r s around a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i c y m a t t e r s * h a n d l i n g o f s t a f f p r o b l e m s , casework methods and s k i l l s and m a j o r problems o f Case h a n d l i n g . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r work. III.  Consultative  Responsibilities:  P a r t i c i p a t i n g I n d i a g n o s t i c and c o n s u l t a t i v e service Where r e q u i r e d , o r t o keep i n t o u c h W i t h s e r v i c e s b e i n g given. IV.  Caseload  Responsibilities:  Handling occasional b r i e f service V.  E d u c a t i o n a l and i n t e r p r e t i v e  f o r Special  reason.  Responsibilities:  P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t e a c h i n g programs and o r i e n t a t i o n * I n t e r p r e t i n g c l i n i c s e r v i c e s and m e n t a l h e a l t h p r i n c i p l e s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l and community g r o u p s . P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community committees. VI.  S t a f f and Program Development R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : G u i d i n g s t a f f on program t o be f o l l o w e d t o a f f o r d continuous professional progress t o the s t a f f s o c i a l w o r k e r s and t o t h e program o f t h e department.  VII.  Research R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 2 P l a n n i n g * s u g g e s t i n g , p r o m o t i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n research a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the use and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g t o t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department.  - 83 Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and  Experience:  1*  P r e f e r a b l y g r a d u a t i o n w i t h the degree o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work from a U n i v e r s i t y o f r e c o g n i z e d s t a n d i n g .  2.  S e v e r a l y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e as a S o c i a l Worker Grade IV ( P s y c h i a t r i c ) ; o r s e v e r a l y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n work o f e q u i v a l e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the d u t i e s t o be performed.  D e s i r a b l e Knowledges. A b i l i t i e s and Other Q u a l i t i e s : Sound knowledge o f the dynamics o f human b e h a v i o r ; thorough knowledge o f th© p r i n c i p l e s , t h e o r i e s * methods, t e c h n i q u e s , and p r a c t i c e s o f s o c i a l work; sound knowledge o f the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e o f s u p e r v i s i o n ; c o n s i d e r a b l e s p e c i a l i z e d knowl e d g e o f c o l l a b o r a t i v e work w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l employees i n a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l o r c l i n i c ; g e n e r a l knowledge o f group p r o c e s s and the dynamics o f group b e h a v i o r as r e l a t e d to s t a f f development and s t a f f d i r e c t i o n ; c o n s i d e r a b l e s k i l l i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e knowledges* V e r y good knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the agency's program and th© scope o f the s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d ; v e r y good knowledge o f a v a i l a b l e community r e s o u r c e s and how t o u t i l i z e them e f f e c t i v e l y ; demonstrated a b i l i t y t o work c o o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l groups i n work w i t h c l i e n t s o r p a t i e n t s , t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and community a g e n c i e s , as w e l l as f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g and d i s c u s s i n g the agency's p o l i c i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s ; demonstrated a b i l i t y t o w r i t e , a n a l y z e , o r e v a l u a t e r e p o r t s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and t o make a c c u r a t e d e c i s i o n s upon own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; demonstrated a b i l i t y t o meet and d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y * r i t h p e o p l e ; demonstrated a b i l i t y t o p r e p a r e t e c h n i c a l and i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e p o r t s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e us© and f o r p u b l i c a t i o n ; g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y , and a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p w o r k i n g p l a n s and t o o r g a n i z e , d i r e c t , c o o r d i n a t e , s u p e r v i s e and e v a l u a t e the work o f a s t a f f o f l o w e r - g r a d e s o c i a l workers. A s s i g n i n g t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t o A p p r o p r i a t e Pay Grades General  Principles H a v i n g d e s c r i b e d th©  c l a s s e s i n terms o f t h e i r d i s -  t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s ,  i t is  now n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h the v a l u e o f these j o b s r e l a t i v e to on©  another.  I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f pay g r a d e s i s e s s e n -  t i a l b e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e v a l u e o f j o b s I n one  setting i n  - 84 comparison w i t h v a l u e (wage r a t e s ) elsewhere.  In practice,  the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f wage r a t e s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s a form o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n p l u s c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g between employer and employee. Because o f t h i s , o n l y g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s which a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o the p r e s e n t f i e l d o f enquiry w i l l b© p r e s e n t e d ,  I o attempt IS  made t o suggest what the a c t u a l wage r a t e s f o r the c l a s s e s should be, 1.  Pay grades  should be s t a t e d as s a l a r y  ranges  from minimum t o maximum over a s t a t e d p e r i o d o f time, 2.  P r o v i s i o n should be made f o r r e g u l a r pay i n c r e -  ments w i t h i n the grades.  Increments should be based  on a  m e r i t r a t i n g o r p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l performance i n the p o s i t i o n and c l a s s 3. be determined  concerned.  Tho number o f steps w i t h i n each pay grade should by t h e number o f years o f experience n e c e s s a r y  to achieve p r o f i c i e n c y w i t h i n the c l a s s . 4. The number o f steps w i t h i n each grade should a l s o be s u f f i c i e n t to permit employees t o remain i n a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r s a l a r y increments over a Substantial period of years. 5.  P r o v i s i o n should be made f o r equating a d d i t i o n a l  t r a i n i n g t o a d d i t i o n a l y e a r s o f experience i n o r d e r to promote the development o f i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s , w i t h i n each c l a s s S p e c i a l i z a t i o n .  One y e a r o f graduate  t r a i n i n g might  be c o n s i d e r e d , f o r example, as the e q u i v a l e n t o f two years experience.  Any employee who takes a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n h i s  c l a s s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , e.g.,  Direct services,  supervision,  t e a c h i n g , r e s e a r c h , p r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , should r e c e i v e a s t e p s a l a r y i n c r e a s e f o r the time spent s t u d y i n g w h i l e  oneon  l e a v e o f absence and a o n e - s t e p s a l a r y i n c r e a s e f o r the a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g completed. I n p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b s , s k i l l and  responsibility  f a c t o r s are e s s e n t i a l l y measures o f t h e incumbents o f p o s i t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n a measure o f job demands. U n t i l s t a g e s o r degrees o f s k i l l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e d e f i n e d and  refined  i n p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e , S k i l l f a c t o r s p a r t i c u l a r l y w i l l have t o be measured i n terms o f knowledge and a b i l i t i e s based  on 61  the u s u a l t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e e s t i m a t e d  to obtain  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f a c t o r s r e q u i r e f u r t h e r study i n o r d e r  these. to  e s t a b l i s h p r o p e r pay grades w h i c h w i l l equate p o s i t i o n s c l a s s e s o f s i m i l a r degrees o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  and  A compromise  pay grade p l a n i s p r e s e n t l y r e q u i r e d w h i c h w i l l a l l o w o v e r l a p p i n g between C l a s s e s .  T h i s * i n t u r n , w i l l promote p r a c t -  i t i o n e r s k i l l s * t h u s making the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p l a n more open-ended i n a c c o r d w i t h a m e r i t - r a t i n g p l a n o f i n c r e a s e d Casework, Group work, and Community o r g a n i z a t i o n , are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s term as used h e r e . c f . E. E p l e r , " P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e Employees: T h e i r E d u c a t i o n . " S o c i a l S e c u r i t y B u l l e t i n . Feb. 1952, Federal S e c u r i t y Agency, Washington, D.C, U.S.A., " P r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e do n o t . . . g u a r a n t e e s k i l l i n d e a l i n g w i t h the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n h e l p i n g people t o become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , and i n m e e t i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e l y the many problems i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . I n g e n e r a l , however, the b e t t e r educated w o r k e r s , and t h o s e w i t h the most p e r t i n e n t e x p e r i e n c e can be assumed t o have the g r e a t e s t s k i l l . . . . " p . 3 . 6 1  - 86  pay over an e n t i r e c a r e e r span. The a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e (a) t o 1  provide f i x e d ranks o f worker, s u p e r v i s o r , a d m i n i s t r a t o r , t e a c h e r , w i t h l i m i t e d range o f s t e p s o r wide rang© o f s t e p s and (b) t o p r o v i d e f i x e d p o s i t i o n s l a b e l l e d , a c c o r d i n g to  the f i e l d  e.g.,  of d i r e c t s e r v i c e appropriate to the p o s i t i o n ,  p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l w o r k e r , c h i l d placement s u p e r v i s o r *  Intake s u p e r v i s o r , f a m i l y s e r v i c e worker, d i s t r i c t et c e t e r a .  secretary,  I n t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e , pay grade s t e p s a r e u s u a l l y  l i m i t e d i n number because o f t h e tendency t o c o n s i d e r t h e p o s i t i o n as one o f s p e c i a l i z e d S k i l l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  At  the same t i m e , t h i s tendency u s u a l l y l e a d s t o r e q u e s t s f o r r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n whenever d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e changed o r whenever t h e incumbent r e a c h e s t h e t o p s t e p o f t h e pay grade.  The f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e t e n d s t o l i m i t m o b i l i t y o f  s t a f f and a t t h e same time p e r p e t u a t e s t h e " c a s t e " system which d e n i g r a t e s the r o l e of the d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r a c t i t i o n e r . U n l e s s s o c i a l work can re-emphasize t h e importance  of the  d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r a c t i t i o n e r , employers and g e n e r a l p u b l i c w i l l n e v e r r e c o g n i z e s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n . Moreover, i f we a r e t o c o n s i d e r s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n , and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c o n s i d e r t h e r o l e o f t h e S o c i a l agency as b o t h t h e f i e l d  of operation f o r the i n s t i -  t u t i o n o f s o c i a l work and as an employer, then a b l e n d o f t h e rank and p o s i t i o n concepts must be m a i n t a i n e d v a l u e on t h e v a r i o u s j o b c l a s s e s .  i n setting a  - 87 W i t h t h e f o r e g o i n g p r i n c i p l e s i n mind, g r a d a t i o n o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l e v e l s i s proposed i n T a b l e 8, p. 88. I n t h e scheme proposed, t h e r e i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f r a n k and position classification.  P r o v i s i o n i s made f o r s o c i a l  w o r k e r s w i s h i n g t o remain i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r a c t i c e , t o do so w i t h o u t l o s s i n pay o r s t a t u s .  A t t h e same t i m e , p r o v -  i s i o n i s made f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n by f u n c t i o n , i n d i r e c t 62 service,  s u p e r v i s i o n , t e a c h i n g , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Pro-  j e c t i o n o f each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o s t e p s w i t h i n pay grades p r o v i d e s f o r c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s , w i t h i n a d e s i g n a t e d a r e a o f f u n c t i o n , r a n g i n g from 22 t o 26 y e a r s .  Major  C l a s s d e t e r m i n a n t s i n t h e scheme a r e t h e degrees o f s k i l l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n h e r e n t I n each c l a s s .  F o r example,  S.W* I r e p r e s e n t s t h e b e g i n n i n g grade o f s o c i a l w o r k e r w i t h one y e a r o f p o s t - g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g , S.W. I I r e p r e s e n t s t h e b e g i n n i n g s o c i a l w o r k e r w i t h two y e a r s o f p o s t - g r a d u a t e training.  Each s u c c e s s i v e c l a s s I s baaed on a minimum o f  two y e a r s p o s t - g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g .  Throughout t h e Scheme  one y e a r o f academic t r a i n i n g i s assumed as t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f two y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e on t h e Job.  Other d i f f e r e n c e s between  the p r a c t i t i o n e r and p o s i t i o n f u n c t i o n grades a r e assumed on the b a s i s o f years o f experience necessary t o perform c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s adequately.  Thus, a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s  e x p e r i e n c e as S.W. I I ( o r one y e a r e x p e r i e n c e p l u s one y e a r o f s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g ) , a s o c i a l worker might be "6^ I n c l u d i n g Case work, Group work, and Community o r g a n ization. '  1  1  "'  1  -  ...  i  •  i  T a b l e 8 . Proposed C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme f a r S o c i a l Workers  1  S T E P S  CLASSIFICATION TITLES  Practitioner or Direct Service Grades ' S.W.I (B.S.W.) I 2 S.W.II (M.S.W.) 3  4 5 6  9 10  1 2 33  4 6 7 87 8 9 10  S.W.Ill 1 2 32 3  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13  14 15  P o s i t i o n F u n c t i o n Grades  S.W.rv o r S.W.V.or S.W.VI o r Sup.II S.W.V.or S.W.VI o r Sup.II S.W.VII o r Research (Teacher-  Sup* Sup. I I 1 21 3  4 5  5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13  Ik  15  Research Worker 1 2 2 3 3  f>  ((TeacherConsultant) 1 2 32 3 4  5  6 7 8 9 10  6 7 8 9 10  12  13  12 13  15  15  11  %  11  Admin. I 1 2 3 I  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13  S.W.VIII o r Adm.II 1 S.W.IX o r 2 Admin.Ill l 3  4  5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13  14  . 15  2 3  5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13  15 1 E a c h s t e p r e p r e s e n t s one y e a r w i t h i n t h e g r a d e .  *  Co CO  I'  • 89 * r e c l a s s i f i e d t o S.W. able.  IV s h o u l d such a p o s i t i o n be a v a i l *  Gr, a f t e r f i v e years experience ( o r three  years  e x p e r i e n c e p l u s one y e a r o f s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g ) * as  S*W.  I I * a s o c i a l Worker would be e l i g i b l e f o r r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as S.W.; I I I i n v o l v i n g a g r e a t e r degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s ^ ^ o r m i g h t be r e c l a s s i f i e d as VI o r V I I  should such a p o s i t i o n be a v a i l a b l e ,  S.W.  The l a t t e r  f i v e g r a d e s o f t h e Scheme, i . e . , S.W.V, S.W. V I , S.W. V I I , S.W.VIII, and S.W.  I X , would each i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r a b l e  p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n an agency. V I I and S.W.  V I I I r e s p e c t i v e l y would i n v o l v e  resS.W.  administrative  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r an agency o f s e v e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s w i t h i n one s e t t i n g , and f o r s e v e r a l s u b - a g e n c i e s decentralized geographically  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y .  K e * e l a s s ; l f i e a t i o n o r promotion w i t h i n a c l a s s ! f i c a t i o n s h o u l d be based on a m e r i t r a t i n g o f t h e w o r k e r ' s performance o r on p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e * c l a s s i f i c a t i o n from d i r e c t s e r v i c e grades t o p o s i t i o n f u n c t i o n grades, a form of p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n  seems  e s s e n t i a l . A t p r e s e n t , i t i s assumed i n s o o i a l work p r a c t i c e t h a t a b e g i n n i n g w o r k e r r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e on t h e j o b b e f o r e b e i n g q u a l i f i e d f o r p o s i t i o n s of higher  rank. Such an assumption i m p l i e s a judgment t h a t  63 T r a n s f e r from one grade t o a n o t h e r s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a p r o m o t i o n i n v o l v i n g a pay i n c r e a s e t h u s a r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f r o m S.W.II f o r a w o r k e r i n s t e p 6 o f t h a t pay grade t o S.W. I l l would mean t h e w o r k e r s h o u l d be p a i d as S.W. I l l a t s t e p 2 o f t h a t range.  - 90 * t h e r e a r e (legreeil o f e k i l l n e c e s s a r i l y I n h e r e n t I n S e n i o r r a n k s , w h i c h c a n o n l y be l e a r n e d w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h e agency* Whether t h i s i s t r u e o r n o t , h a s n o t been examined. The p r e s e n t s t u d y , however, i n d i c a t e s t h a t some measure o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y I s c a r r i e d by a l l s o c i a l workers i n a l l areas o f f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e Vancouver C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . S i n c e i t .ii'; o n l y t h e e x t e n t t o w h i o h each a r e a i s emphasized and each S t a f f member i s employed t h a t w i l l v a r y f r o m agency t o agency, and s i n c e a l l a g e n c i e s p a r t i c i p a t e i n tome measure i n each a r e a , l b would f o l l o w t h a t a l l s o c i a l w o r k e r s r e q u i r e gome measure o f s k i l l i n each a r e a i f t h e y a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d technicians.  as p r o f e s s i o n a l s r a t h e r than as  CHAPTER V FINDINGS AND  SUBiroary  of  IMPLICATIONS  Findings This study represents  a preliminary analysis  d e s c r i p t i o n o f what s o c i a l w o r k e r s do. process,  Using job  and  evaluation  s p e c i f i c a l l y the p o s i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method,  c u r r e n t t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n s o c i a l casework have been examined.  T h i s has r e v e a l e d b r o a d a r e a s o f a c t i v i t i e s  or  f u n c t i o n s g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o S o c i a l work p r a c t i c e i n any s e t t i n g , v i z . , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c o n s u l t a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , d i r e c t s e r v i c e * community e d u c a t i o n *  professional  program development* s t a f f development* and T r a d i t i o n a l t h i n k i n g and  education,  research,  c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e tend t o  assign  each o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s aS a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o S p e c i f i c ranks.  G e n e r a l l y , the a d m i n i s t r a t o r IS c o n s i d e r e d  o v e r - a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s f u n c t i o n s o f h i s agency.  The  t o have and  supervisor I s considered  to  haVe r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c o n s u l t a t i v e , and  teaching nature.  The w o r k e r i s c o n s i d e r e d  primarily  aS a d i r e c t S e r v i c e p r a c t i t i o n e r . I n C h a p t e r s 2 and e x a m i n a t i o n o f the p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n the  3* Clinic  r e v e a l s , however, t h a t a l l s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t e I n a l l areas o f the Department's f u n c t i o n .  Whether t h i s s e t t i n g i s u n i q u e  i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s beyond t h e Scope o f t h i s t h e s i s t o s t u d y .  - 92 /j  I n any ©vent, i n t h i s s e t t i n g * aa i n t h e Berkman  study,  s o e i a l w o r k e r s o f a l l r a n k s were found a c t i v e i n a i l t h e b r o a d a r e a s Of a c t i v i t i e s o r f u n c t i o n s c i t e d .  T h i s suggests  t h a t a r e a s o f a c t i v i t y do n o t c o n s t i t u t e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s . The e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e major a c t i v i t i e s and t h e degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n each m a j o r a c t i v i t y v a r i e s w i t h t h e r a n k o f t h e employee.  Thus each rank h a s an i d e n t i -  f i a b l e major area o f a c t i v i t y .  However, beyond t h i s ,  each  rank a l s o spends anywher© f r o m 1*7• 3 P©** cent t o 69 p e r c e n t o f time I n a c t i v i t i e s o t h e r t h a n t h e m a j o r a r e a .  Ifi t is  assumed t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n t i m e i s devoted t o t h e employee's m a j o r a r e a o f a c t i v i t y , i t would appear t h a t f o r a g r e a t p a r t o f t h e t i m e , t h e s t a f f does n o t share r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  Sim-  i l a r l y , t h e v a r i e t y and degree o f s k i l l s r e q u i r e d i s g r e a t for a l l staff.  A l t h o u g h m a j o r d e t e r m i n a n t s o f c l a s s were  found ( v i z . , t h e e x t e n t o f work w h i c h i s s u b j e c t t o r e v i e w b y o t h e r s and t h e degree o f knowledge and a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d i n f i e l d s o t h e r than t h e m a j o r a r e a o f f u n c t i o n ) , i t I s apparent t h a t b r o a d a r e a s o f knowledge and a b i l i t y a r e assumed t o be commonly a c q u i r e d b y a l l p r a c t i t i o n e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f r a n k . P o s t - g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g i n S o c i a l work i n c l u d e s c o u r s e s i n f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e ; ( e * g . M e d i c a l s o c i a l work, C h i l d W e l f a r e , P u b l i c W e l f a r e , P s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work, 6k'  1  "  '"  '  ' ' '"'  '' ' " , '  " " ' '•''"""" '"' '•'  ''  P r a c t i c e o f S o c i a l Workers i n P s y c h i a t r i c H o s p i t a l s and C l i n i c s , op. b i t .  —  - 93 e t c e t e r a ) j I n p r o c e s s e s (e.g. casework, group work, community o r g a n i z a t i o n , r e s e a r c h ) } and i n f u n c t i o n (e.g.  administration,  s u p e r v i s i o n , as f u n c t i o n s d e l e g a t e d t o s p e c i f i e d r a n k s o r b r o a d e r study o f agency f u n c t i o n s i n t h e v a r i o u s a r e a s o f practice).  Emphasis and f o c u s o f d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s  work determine w h i c h c o u r s e s a r e s t r e s s e d .  of social  S i m i l a r l y , agency  f o c u s p l u s t h e s k i l l s , i n t e r e s t s and u n i t y o f agency  personnel,  d e t e r m i n e w h i c h a c t i v i t i e s o r f u n c t i o n s o f t h e agency w i l l be stressed.  However, i f s o c i a l work h a s a g e n e r i c b a s e , and i f  s o c i a l Work employees o f an agency have t h e Same e x t e n t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l education,  t h e n a g e n c i e s Should d e p l o y s t a f f i n  a l l areas o f f u n c t i o n ,  Th© l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r assignment i s  e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l employee»-hla S k i l l s  (knowledge  and a b i l i t i e s ) , i n t e r e s t s and y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e . Th© Job d e s c r i p t i o n s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme proposed I n t h i s Study f a c i l i t a t e t h e f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e u s e o f t h e s k i l l s and e x p e r i e n c e o f a l l s t a f f . P r o v i s i o n b y s c h o o l s o f s o c i a l work o f a t h i r d y e a r o f advanced t r a i n i n g o r o f two y e a r s o f advanced s t u d y toward a d o c t o r a t e  degree suggest  t h a t agency c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s need t o r e c o g n i z e  specializations  i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e as w e l l aS i n t r a d i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n f u n c t i o n s . To do so i s t o enhance t h e s t a t u s o f t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r by e q u a t i n g d i r e c t S e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s w i t h those o f o t h e r r a n k s where t h e e x t e n t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and y e a r s o f e x p e r ience required t o develop p r o f i c i e n c y are S i m i l a r .  -  9k  -  F a c t o r s L i m i t i n g t h e A p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the P r e s e n t Stud? t o Other S e t t i n g s The  p r o c e s s o f a n a l y z i n g , d e s c r i b i n g and  evaluating  s o c i a l work j o b s , as i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e by s t u d y o f a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g , i s a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r s e t t i n g s . B o t h the j o b t i o n s and  descrip-  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme proposed i n t h i s s t u d y a r e ,  i n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r s e t t i n g s . However, o t h e r a g e n c i e s u s i n g the p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d may  f i n d d i f f e r e n c e s i n areas of a c t i v i t y o r f u n c t i o n  by t h e i r agency. may  herein,  Thus, d i f f e r e n c e s i n deployment o f  stressed staff  also occur. I n the C l i n i c s e t t i n g t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t  i n administrative responsibility.  difference  S i n c e the C l i n i c i s a  m e d i c a l agency, the Department has l i m i t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t o t a l agency f u n c t i o n . A t the Same t i m e , S i n c e the C l i n i c i s t e a m - o r i e n t e d i n o p e r a t i o n , w o r k e r has i n g , and  extensive  each s o c i a l  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r planning,  Coordinat-  I n t e g r a t i n g h i s work i n r e l a t i o n t o (a) o t h e r  departments (b) o t h e r team members. The  C l i n i c consists of both  f o r m a l o r l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e by departments and  Informal  or  s t a f f S t r u c t u r e by teams i n S p e c i f i c case a s s i g n m e n t s . This Structure i m p l i e s n e c e s s i t y f o r S o c i a l workers t o have a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r p r a c t i t i o n e r r o l e s t h e i r department r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  and  However, t h i s I s e s s e n -  t i a l l y a r e - s t a t e m e n t o f the p r i n c i p l e , v i z . , t h a t a l l s o c i a l w o r k e r s s h o u l d be f a m i l i a r w i t h b o t h t h e r a n k and  position  - 95  -  corieepts o f t h e i r r o l e w i t h i n any agency s e t t i n g .  More impor-  t a n t i n the C l i n i c i s t h a t the degree o f t r e a t m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s s i g n e d t o each w o r k e r I s much l e s s t h a n the degree a s s i g n e d t o w o r k e r s I n s o e i a l agency s e t t i n g s .  However, h e r e  a g a i n , the degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s s i g n e d w i t h i n  the  scope o f the Department I s s i m i l a r t o the degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c a r r i e d by workers i n a s o c i a l agency s e t t i n g , A f u r t h e r f a c e t o f d i f f e r e n c e between the S e t t i n g o f t h i s Study and  o t h e r s e t t i n g s i s a p p a r e n t i n the s t r e s s  on  c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s , v i z . , (a) community and p r o f e s s i o n a l educ a t i o n , (b) s t a f f development, and g e n e r a l l y personal  activities.  The  (c) the  f i r s t i s a major f u n c t i o n  s p e c i f i c f o c u s o f C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s . The  latter  nonor are  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the d u a l r o l e r e q u i r e d o f the s o e i a l worker i n the C l i n i c s e t t i n g , i . e . , p r a c t i t i o n e r and  depart-  ment employee.  are  To what e x t e n t these t h r e e f u n c t i o n s  s t r e s s e d i n n o n - c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g s i s n o t p r e s e n t l y known. R e l a t i n g S o c i a l Work C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t o Other O c c u p a t i o n a l Groups Some o f the u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S o c i a l work have been d i s c u s s e d  e a r l i e r ( C h a p t e r 3 ) . Exam-  i n a t i o n o f methods o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n  ( C h a p t e r 2) r e v e a l s  broad f a c t o r s a p p l i c a b l e t o a n a l y s i s and See T a b l e 7, p. 6 5 , activities."  professional  four  e v a l u a t i o n o f manual,  f o r l i s t of "non-personal  c l e r i c a l and  technical j o b s  0 0  regardless  o f whether  f a c t o r comparison, p o i n t r a t i n g , r a n k i n g , method I s u s e d . s i m p l i f i e d one,  Tiffin  6 7  and  classification  o t h e r s have demonstrated  that  o r t w o - f a c t o r comparisons between j o b s a c h i e v e  f i n a l evaluations  s i m i l a r t o m u l t i - f a c t o r Comparisons.  p r e s e n t Study r e v e a l s t h a t the two and  or  the  f a c t o r s of s k i l l  The  required  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s assigned are S u f f i c i e n t to evaluate d i f -  f e r e n c e s i n j o b c l a s s e s w i t h i n a s e r i e s o f s o c i a l work j o b s . The  w r i t e r s u g g e s t s t h a t the above f a c t o r s would a l s o be  f i c i e n t t o enable v a l i d comparisons between a s e r i e s o f work j o b s and  any  sufSocial  o t h e r t e c h n i c a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r i e s . Such  comparisons would pre-Suppose d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s and of s e r i e s of jobs w i t h i n other occupational V a l i d comparisons between s o c i a l work and s e v e r a l S u b - f a c t o r s o f s k i l l and work j o b s r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e  description  groups.  To  enable  other occupations,  responsibility i n Soeial  f u r t h e r study.  S k i l l r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e p r i m a r i l y d e t e r m i n e d by adequacy o f performance d e s i r e d *  the  I f the agency i s f o c u s e d  on  the use o f agency f u n c t i o n i n m e e t i n g a s o c i a l need o r problem then adequacy o f performance i s r e l a t e d t o the use  of  function  i n m e e t i n g the need o r problem p r e s e n t e d . I f the agency i s  U \ ' -.. - • ——"." - "' - ' " 1  ;  :  ;  1  - -———  S k i l l - t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e d j R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) E f f o r t R e q u i r e d - m e n t a l , p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l j and Working C o n d i t i o n s - u n u s u a l h a z a r d s o r deterrents., ° I n d u s t r i a l P s y c h o l o g y , OP. c i t . . pp. 3 8 3 - 3 9 3 . See a l s o p. 2k o f p r e s e n t s t u d y , 7  * 97  *  f o c u s e d on d i a g n o s t i c assessment o f need, t h e n adequacy o f performance i s r e l a t e d t o t h e m o t i v a t i o n and c a p a c i t y o f t h e c l i e n t and t o th© o p p o r t u n i t y 68 worker and agency f u n c t i o n .  provided Opportunity  t o t h e c l i e n t by agency provided  to clien-  t e l e depends o n : (a) t h e scope o f agency s e r v i c e s and f u n c t i o n , (b) t h e scope o f s u p e r v i s o r y and c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s t o agency employees*, and. (c) t h e e x t e n t o f t r a i n i n g * e x p e r i e n c e *  and p e r s o n a l  s k i l l i n r e l a t i o n s h i p * o f agenoy employees, (d) t h e c a p a c i t y and a m e n a b i l i t y o f p h y s i c a l * economic and f a m i l y environment t o s u p p o r t t h e c l i e n t . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s assigned*  o r t h e degrees o f r e s -  p o n s i b i l i t y i m p l i c i t i n s o c i a l work j o b s , s i m i l a r l y  involve  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t a r e n o t e a s i l y measured. I n a s s e s s i n g the c o m p l e x i t y (a)  o f a Job we must c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g :  What i s t h e shape o r c o n d i t i o n o f t h e raw m a t e r i a l (i*e,  t h e need* problem,, o r c o n d i t i o n o f t h e c l i e n t on  a p p l i c a t i o n and t h e m o t i v a t i o n and c a p a c i t y o f t h e client)?,-•• (b) What i s t h e e x t e n t o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f p r o c e s s and t h e d e t a i l o f i n s t r u c t i o n s ( t h o e x t e n t t o w h i c h methods and t e c h n i q u e s s p e c i f y s t e p * b y - s t e p work w i t h t h e o l i e n t ) ? (c)  What i s t h e degree o f change r e q u i r e d between t h e i n i t i a l and t e r m i n a l s t a g e s i n p r o c e s s i n g  (the aim o r f u n c t i o n  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , the opportunity f o r s e r v i c e afforded R i p p l e , L i l i a n , " M o t i v a t i o n , C a p a c i t y and O p p o r t u n i t y as R e l a t e d t o t h e Use o f Casework S e r v i c e : P l a n o f Study," The S o c i a l S e r v i c e Review* June, 1 9 5 5 , pp. 173-193.  -  by the o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the (d)  -  98  the m o t i v a t i o n and  capacity  of  client)?  What i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e r r o r d u r i n g job p r o c e s s (the degree o f c o n s u l t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e and  the degree o f s u p e r -  v i s i o n e x e r c i s e d * p l u s the degree o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f process)? C o n s i d e r the d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between " s q u a r i n g up"  lumber s t o c k and making a c a b i n e t f r o m the  stock-*between d e t e r m i n i n g t a n c e and  eligibility for financial assis*  c o m p l e t i n g an a d o p t i o n placement.  the f o u r q u e s t i o n s  I n each i n s t a n c e ,  c i t e d above s h o u l d be the g u i d e i n d e t e r *  m i n i n g the r e l a t i v e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f these t a s k s * four questions  Applying  t o s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s r a i s e s more  the  questions  t h a n the p r o f e s s i o n i s p r e s e n t l y a b l e t o answer. A f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n I n comparisons between s o c i a l work and manual, c l e r i c a l , , and  t e c h n i c a l groups, i s t h a t  S o c i a l work has p e o p l e as I t s "raw  m a t e r i a l " and  I n h e r e n t i n S o c i a l work p h i l o s o p h y  i s the r i g h t o f t h i s mat*  e r i a l t o determine i t s own  ends.  "end  product,"  I n i n d u s t r y , the m a t e r i a l  I s p a s s i v e , i n e r t , c o n d u c i v e t o change,  I n s o c i a l work, the  c l i e n t i s an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t , a t t i m e s r e s i s t a n t t o change, a t t i m e s b o t h d e s i r o u s o f and r e s i s t a n t t o change.  A possible  a n a l o g y l i e s I n v i s u a l i z i n g the s o c i a l w o r k e r as the assembly b e l t whose s k i l l s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p h e l p the c l i e n t t o a c h i e v e the d e s i r e d  goal.  - 99  In  -  I n d u s t r y , management and the consumer  determines  what t h e end p r o d u c t s h a l l be. I n s o c i a l work, t h e c l i e n t i s b o t h consumer ( r e c i p i e n t o f s e r v i c e ) and end p r o d u c t .  Manage-  ment i n s o c i a l work r a r e l y e v e r sees e i t h e r t h e "raw m a t e r i a l " o r t h e "end p r o d u c t " o f b e t t e r - a d j u s t e d i n d i v l d u a l ( s ) o r community.  Nor i s i t easy t o d e s c r i b e s i m p l y , t h e p r o c e s s ( e s )  w h i c h e f f e c t change between a p p l i c a t i o n and t e r m i n a t i o n . Thus p r e s e n t comparisons between s o c i a l work and j o b s i n v o l v ing  non-personal  p r o d u c t s u s u a l l y f a i l t o see t h e c l i e n t a s an  active-reactive p a r t i c i p a n t i n a helping process. R a t h e r than p e r m i t t i n g t h e s e c o m p l i c a t i o n s t o o v e r whelm and i m m o b i l i z e i t , s o c i a l work must c o n t i n u e t o d e s c r i b e , a n a l y z e , and e v a l u a t e how i t d i s c h a r g e s i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for  the betterment  o f i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y . U s i n g t h e  s p e c i f i c medium o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n , s o c i a l work must d e s c r i b e its  s k i l l s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s I n terms and s i t u a t i o n s com-  parable t o other occupations.  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method and  p r o c e s s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s a v e h i c l e f o r comparisons between s e t t i n g s and between o c c u p a t i o n a l groups o r s e r i e s o f j o b c l a s s e s . Such e v a l u a t i o n must, however* be done as a shared p r o j e c t o f management and l a b o r , employer and employee, b o a r d s o r c i v i l  s e r v i c e commissions and p r a c t i t i o n e r s .  General I m p l i c a t i o n s B e f o r e s o c i a l work i s a d e q u a t e l y v a l u e d by employers and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c * i t must f u r t h e r examine i t s b a s i c t e n e t s and f u r t h e r s p e c i f y I t s p r o c e s s e s . Norma o f p s y c h o -  - 100  -  s o c i a l adjustment o r a d a p t a t i o n , d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r i e s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and  c r i t e r i a f o r determining  s o c i a l work p r o c e s s e s ,  must "be d e v e l o p e d . The  or  the e f f e c t s o f only v a l i d  basis  f o r a n a l y z i n g what s o c i a l work, should o r does do i s t h a t o f s o c i a l heed o f the i n d i v i d u a l , g r o u p ( s ) , served.  o r community t o be  D e f i n i t i o n o f the r o l e t o be p l a y e d by the  w o r k e r as enable.? and  p a r t i c i p a n t i n meeting various  social social  needs w i l l f u r t h e r o b j e c t i f y the p r o c e s s e s o f casework, group work, community o r g a n i z a t i o n , and  social  research.  C r i t e r i a of n o r m a l i t y or standard  ranges of d e v i a t i o n  p r e d i c a t e the n e c e s s i t y f o r a c c e p t a n c e o f need o f I n d i v i d u a l s o r groups f o r h e l p , a m e l i o r a t i o n o r change. Such a c c e p t a n c e must i n v o l v e more t h a n w o r k e r and  c l i e n t . Communities and  management must a l s o r e c o g n i z e norms o f b e h a v i o r and  agency  adjustment  o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Agency programs a r e i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r degree o f r e c o g n i t i o n and a c c e p t a n c e o f s o c i a l need. F u n c t i o n , services provided,  s t r u c t u r e , q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f  a l l r e f l e c t the awareness and  acceptance  by the agency of S o e i a l need. To improve o r change any one  o f these a s p e c t s o f  agency a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , r e q u i r e s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s o f p r e s e n t e f f o r t s by p r e s e n t s t a f f w i t h i n e x i s t i n g agency a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . Agency s t r u c t u r e s h o u l d l i t a t e communication and  faci-  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e f f o r t s and r e s u l t s .  Current ranking concepts of a d m i n i s t r a t o r , s u p e r v i s o r , worker, c l i e n t , overlook  t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e t o be p l a y e d by  the  101  -  s o c i a l worker* as a member o f community. I n s t e a d , such c o n c e p t s tend t o p o r t r a y the s o c i a l w o r k e r as t h e s e r v a n t o r handmaiden o f the community, dependent upon the a c c e p t a n c e , c h a r i t y , wisdom, and m a t u r i t y o f t h e upper c l a s s , i n m e e t i n g s o e i a l need.  S i m i l a r l y t h e concept o f p r a c t i t i o n e r and c l i e n t o v e r -  l o o k s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f agency and community a c c e p t a n c e o f s o c i a l need. S t r u c t u r e becomes r i g i d when i t i s n o t geared t o dynamic awareness o f s o c i a l need by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n agency practice.  S t r u c t u r e i s r i g i d when i t does n o t f a c i l i t a t e  a c c u r a t e communication and knowledge o f the i m p a c t o f s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d oh the need t o be met. Th© g e n e r a l p u b l i c * b o a r d s of p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s , and governments ar© i n t e r e s t e d i n what I s done.  They want and need t o know what t a n g i b l e o r v i s i b l e  e f f e c t s o c c u r t h r o u g h , o r as a c o n c o m i t a n t r e s u l t o f what i s done. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Agencies T h i s study I l l u s t r a t e s the process o f job e v a l u a t i o n u s i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method i n a manner w h i c h i s a p p l i c a b l e t o any agency s e t t i n g . Review o f c u r r e n t methods o f e v a l u a t i n g and p r i c i n g s o c i a l work j o b s r e v e a l s t h a t p r e s e n t j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e an i n a d e q u a t e p i c t u r e o f the work o f t h e agency and i t s employees.  More a c c u r a t e and s t a n d a r d i z e d j o b  d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o a g e n c i e s , s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n , and S o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n . I n a n a l y z i n g j o b s we might w e l l b e g i n by a s k i n g : "Who  i s t h e agency?" "How  well-  - 102  -  p r e p a r e d I s i t (are they) t o a s s e s s s o e i a l n e e d s ? " "How  well-  equipped i s the agency t o c a r r y out  s e r v i c e s a p p r o p r i a t e to  m e e t i n g s o c i a l n e e d s ? " " I n what way  does i t d e l i n e a t e  s i b i l i t y f o r c a r r y i n g out  i t s services  p r o c e s s o f j o b a n a l y s i s , d e s c r i p t i o n and  respon-  or a c t i v i t i e s ? "  The  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as  i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chapter k i s an e s s e n t i a l f i r s t s t e p f o r a g e n c i e s t o t a k e i n m e a s u r i n g , d e l e g a t i n g and vrork o f the agency. make i t p o s s i b l e of s e t t i n g s .  The  interpreting  the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme proposed s h o u l d  t o compare s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s  i n a variety  At the same time i t o f f e r s a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n  to the dilemma o f a p r o f e s s i o n  w h i c h seeks t o a c h i e v e p r o -  f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s t a t u s but  offers very l i m i t e d  possi-  b i l i t i e s f o r the d i r e c t S e r v i c e p r a c t i t i o n e r t o enhance h i s e a r n i n g s w i t h o u t assuming a t r a d i t i o n a l l y h i g h e r r a n k o f supervisor or administrator i a l i z e d or s i n g l e function  o r assuming a p a r t i c u l a r l y s p e c p o s i t i o n which l i m i t s both h i s  m o b i l i t y and h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l Implications  contribution.  f o r S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n  B o t h the  t h e o r e t i c a l and  t i m e a n a l y s e s o f the  soeial  w o r k e r ' s job i n d i c a t e a w i d e v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s i s r e q u i r e d c a r r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l a r g e number o f f u n c t i o n s . a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r t r a i n i n g appear. to be t r a i n e d as t e c h n i c i a n s , a c t i v i t y or possibly  i n one  Two  E i t h e r s o c i a l workers  s k i l l e d o n l y i n one  to  are  area of  stage o f t h a t a c t i v i t y . Or  s o e i a l w o r k e r s are t o be t r a i n e d as p r o f e s s i o n a l  practitioners  103 concerned w i t h s t a n d a r d s , t e c h n i q u e s , and r e s u l t s , and a b l e to perform a v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y . f a v o r s the l a t t e r t r a i n i n g p l a n .  The w r i t e r  To be e f f e c t i v e , such a  p l a n must comprise a b a s i c c u r r i c u l u m o f a t l e a s t two y e a r s duration.  The p r e s e n t compromise o f a one y e a r o r a two  y e a r c o u r s e s e r v e s o n l y t o c o n f u s e t h e p u b l i c and  employers  as t o what is- p r o p e r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work.  M e e t i n g agency demands f o r more and more s t a f f by  p r o v i s i o n o f a one y e a r degree c o u r s e p r o v i d e s a g e n c i e s w i t h t e c h n i c i a n s , and a t the same time n e g a t e s the v a l u e o f a year t r a i n i n g course.  two  A g e n c i e s employing the B*.S,W. w o r k e r  u s u a l l y a s s i g n him t o a s i n g l e - f u n c t i o n p o s i t i o n w h i c h i n v o l v e s d u t i e s l i m i t e d t o one sphere o f s o c i a l work.  The  concept o f t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r , s k i l l e d i n a v a r i e t y o f methods, a b l e t o work i n any s e t t i n g t h e n i s seen by t h e a g e n c i e s as an u n r e a l i s t i c i d e a l , o r a t l e a s t as a concept n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r agency.  But no p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n m e r e l y f i l l s  a  p o s i t i o n i n an agency. The p r o f e s s i o n a l i s a c t i v e l y concerned w i t h a l l a s p e c t s Of s o c i a l need and s o c i a l b e t t e r m e n t . To be e f f e c t i v e l y So, r e q u i r e s a t l e a s t two y e a r s o f g r a d u a t e training.  Any agency t h a t p r o f e s s e s t o meet s o c i a l need  must t a c i t l y r e c o g n i z e t h a t i t r e q u i r e s h i g h l y p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o a c h i e v e the agency g o a l .  skilled  I f the g o a l i s  m e r e l y t o a l l e v i a t e d i s t r e s s then t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r I s b e s t used i n a d i a g n o s t i c f u n c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n as a  * 10k clerk or technician. I f s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d comprise two y e a r s o f graduate t r a i n i n g , what t h e n , s h o u l d t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t be? Prom t h i s Study, I t i s apparent t h a t s o c i a l workers r e g a r d l e s s , , o f r a n k o r p o s i t i o n a r e engaged i n a l l o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l S p e c i a l p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i a l work, i . e . case work, group work, community o r g a n i z a t i o n * r e s e a r c h . They a r e a l s o i n v o l v e d i n f u n c t i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , c o n s u l t a t i o n and t e a c h i n g .  Yet, t r a d i t i o n a l l y ,  social  work e d u c a t i o n , i n Canada, h a s p r o v i d e d f o r s p e c i a l i s a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t i n e i t h e r casework o r group work.  A t t h e same t i m e ,  c o u r s e s I n community o r g a n i z a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e u s u a l l y p a r t o f a two-year c u r r i c u l u m .  But; I t h e s e  a r e a s o f c o n t e n t a r e u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h superv i s i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n * a s a r e a s r e q u i r i n g a t h i r d y e a r o r d o c t o r a t e program b e f o r e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .  The p r e s e n t s t u d y  emphasizes t h e need f o r a c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h p r o v i d e s a t l e a s t basic o r i n t r o d u c t o r y courses i n a l l these areas o f process and f u n c t i o n .  I f s o c i a l work g i v e s s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h a g e n c i e s  t o i n d i v i d u a l s , g r o u p s , and communities,  then s o c i a l  workers  need t o be t a u g h t t h e p r o c e s s e s o f case work, group work and community o r g a n i z a t i o n .  A s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n a r i s e s from 69  TeSSie Berkraan's s t u d y * A l t h o u g h s c h o o l s o f S o c i a l work now o f f e r Some t h e o r y o f group b e h a v i o r t o caseworkers i n t r a i n i n g the s c h o o l s g e n e r a l l y have n o t i n t e g r a t e d c l a s s r o o m Lay, M a d e l e i n e , "Some I m p l i c a t i o n s o f T h i s R e s e a r c h f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n f o r P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work*" i n P r a c t i c e o f S o c i a l Workers. op. c i t . . p. I l k . o v  - io5 t e a c h i n g arid f i e l d i n s t r u c t i o n t o combine i n t h e l e a r n i n g experience s k i l l s i n both processes.... An i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m p r e p a r i n g s t u d e n t s t o work w i t h b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s and groups c a l l s f o r e x p e r i * , m e n t a t i o n i n the n e a r f u t u r e . To p r e p a r e s o c i a l w o r k e r s e x c l u s i v e l y f o r group work o r casework, as I s done c u r r e n t l y , may be outmoded i n the l i g h t o f the changing demands o f p r a c t i c e . Th© p r e s e n t study a l s o shows t h a t s o c i a l  workers  a r e r e q u i r e d t o u t i l i z e p r i n c i p l e s o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n even though t h e i r t r a i n i n g p r o b a b l y f o c u s e d on t h e casework o r group work p r o c e s s . As w i t h t e a c h i n g * a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n , i n c r e a s e d knowledge and S k i l l i n community o r g a n * i z a t i o n can be developed i n advanced e d u c a t i o n , b u t o r i e n t a t i o n t o these processes i s e s s e n t i a l i n the e a r l y period of training.70 I n o r d e r t o c o v e r t h e s e b r o a d a r e a s * s o c i a l work s c h o o l s m i g h t use case o r group examples o r s i t u a t i o n s as t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l to be a n a l y z e d from t h e v i e w p o i n t o f d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r a c t i c e , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and S u p e r v i s o r y s k i l l s and  responsibilities,  and a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s t o Study and of  the problem  solution  presented.  An a d j u n c t i v e b u t more comprehensive p r o p o s a l f o r g e n e r i c S o c i a l Work e d u c a t i o n i s o f f e r e d i n the H o l l l s - T a y l o r report. ^ 7  There, the a u t h o r s suggest r e v i s i o n s i n under-  graduate c u r r i c u l a p l u s a f i r s t - y e a r b a s i c c u r r i c u l u m composed of f o u r comprehensive a r e a s o f Study s 1. A comprehensive c o u r s e c o n s i s t i n g o f s e l e c t e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s c a l c u l a t e d t o broaden and deepen u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c a p a c i t y t o cope w i t h 7 0  7  *  I b i d . , pp.  Ili**ll5.  S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n , bp, c i t .  * 106  *  s o c i a l p r o c e s s and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to s o c i a l welfare.... A comprehensive c o u r s e w h i c h combines b i o p s y c h o S o c i a l m a t e r i a l i n t o t e a c h i n g u n i t s f o c u s e d on d e v e l o p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l S o c i a l work knowledge, s k i l l , and a t t i tude f o r f a c e - t o - f a c e work w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s * groups and communities. A comprehensive c o u r s e , composed o f t e a c h i n g u n i t s * which present e i t h e r i n h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , or C u r r e n t S o c i o l o g i c a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n , the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n , i t s p h i l o * Sophy and e t h i c s , a n d i t s r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s and t o S o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . A comprehensive c o u r s e composed o f t e a c h i n g u n i t s f o c u s e d on p r o v i d i n g b e g i n n e r s w i t h a w o r k i n g knowl e d g e o f the p r o f e s s i o n as r e f l e c t e d i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s o c i a l work o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , f i n a n c e , personnel,,and i n p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , and community o r g a n i z a t i o n . 7 2  2.  , 3,  k.  H o l l i s and T a y l o r f u r t h e r s u g g e s t t h a t s u c h a c u r * r i c u l u m f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s would be supplemented by a second year of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n administration, Supervision* t e a c h i n g * and  research.  The most c o m p e l l i n g r e a s o n f o r u n d e r t a k i n g the f o u r S p e c i a l i z a t i o n s f o r t h w i t h i s to prevent a f u r t h e r g o i n g o f s e p a r a t e ways by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , s u p e r v i s o r s * t e a c h e r s * r e s e a r c h e r s , and p r a c t i t i o n e r s . I t i s o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r and t h e r e s e a r c h worker t o be more c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l l y w i t h o t h e r s i n the groups J u s t named. Because o f the n a t u r e o f t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p * the p r o f e s s i o n cannot a f f o r d t o c o n t i n u e I t s p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e o f d e n y i n g them membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s because they have n o t completed a program o f e d u c a t i o n d e s i g n e d f o r a p r a c t i t i o n e r and w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s o n l y m a r g i n a l l y t o t h e f u n c t i o n s they perform f o r the profession.73 The w r i t e r a c c e p t s i n these f i e l d s .  the need f o r S p e c i a l i z a t i o n s  A t the same t i m e * the w r i t e r a g r e e s t h a t  s e t t i n g s f o r p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l work do n o t c o n s t i t u t e 72  m  d  t  t  p.  3i.  — — — -  73 H o l l i s and T a y l o r * op. c i t . . p.  33.  —  -  * 107  -  s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a s o f knowledge and  ability.  The assumption i s t h a t a s o c i a l w o r k e r employs, o r s h o u l d employ s i m i l a r p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s u n d e r d e f i n e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e g a r d l e s s , o f whether he i s engaged i n a p r i v a t e group,work o r casework agency, o r i s employed by the c o u r t s , an i n d u s t r i a l c o r p o r a t i o n , a l a b o r u n i o n , a f e d e r a l agency, o r a. . . w e l f a r e Popart-' raent.74 . However, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o r e t a i n the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s i n direct,service functions*  The  c o r e o f any p r o f e s s i o n i s  found i n I t s d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o p e o p l e by I t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , t e a c h i n g , and  research,  are  essential s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s t o meet the demands o f agency p o s i * t I o n s and  growth o f p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge.  But t h e s e must  be complemented by c o n t i n u e d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r a c t i t i o n e r s who  can a c h i e v e S i m i l a r s t a t u s and  financial  reward by a d v a n c i n g t h e i r t r a i n i n g . Implications for Professional The J o b  Associations  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme proposed I n t h i s  s t u d y would, i f adopted by a g e n c i e s , a i d i n r e c r u i t m e n t ^ a n d retention of q u a l i f i e d professionals*  But  such a sehem© w i l l  o n l y be adopted i f p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s c o n t i n u e t h e i r e f f o r t s t o r a i s e s t a n d a r d s o f p r a c t i c e and ing  rights.  to achieve bargain-  Community e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l a c t i o n can a i d i n  a c h i e v i n g community r e c o g n i t i o n o f the r o l e o f the s o c i a l worker.  professional  However, the p r o f e s s i o n must t a k e an a c t i v e  r o l e W i t h employers i n d e s c r i b i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g and p r i c i n g ^  I b i d . . p.  2  9  ,  •  '  '  •* 108 s o c i a l work j o b s .  The  scheme proposed h e r e l e n d s I t s e l f  t o the p o s s i b l e c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f S o c i a l w o r k e r s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r t r a i n i n g and  experience.  L o c a l l y , the p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n needs f i r s t to e s t a b l i s h s o l i d a r i t y . o f wages may  Then e f f o r t s t o a c h i e v e  parity  be rewarded i f the p r o c e s s o f j o b a n a l y s i s  d e s c r i b e d h e r e i n i s promoted by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n .  As a l o n g -  range g o a l * c e r t i f i c a t i o n , o r l i c e n s i n g , o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s  may  be f a c i l i t a t e d by a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r s o c i a l Work j o b s based upon t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h i s Suggestions f o r Future  study.  Research  Throughout t h i s s t u d y , r e f e r e n c e s have been made t o f u r t h e r Studies required. o f r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be  S p e c i f i c a l l y , three major areas  rewarding.  1. Time and Cost a n a l y s i s S t u d i e s can  facilitate  j o b e v a l u a t i o n and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p r o v i d e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s o c i a l work t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s . an a d j u n c t i v e v a l u e , such s t u d i e s a r e r e w a r d i n g t h r o u g h  As the  i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y p r o v i d e f o r improvement o f e f f i c i e n c y o f agency a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 2. A s o c i o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d s t u d y o f the r o l e o f the s o c i a l Worker as a community member, p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r , employer, and employee, would p r o v i d e i n v a l u a b l e f i n d i n g s f o r s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e , s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n , and f o r s o c i a l  workers.  * 109  3*  *  F u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n , t e s t i n g and v a l i d a t i o n o f  assumed p r e m i s e s , c o n c e p t s , t e c h n i q u e s ,  and methods would  g r e a t l y enhance the s c i e n t i f i c base o f th©  a r t of  social  work. As a p r e l i m i n a r y a t t e m p t t o d e s c r i b e t h e "what" o f s o c i a l Work, t h i s Study p r i m a r i l y f o c u s e d on  illustrating  t h e p r o c e s s o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n as i t p e r t a i n e d t o s o c i a l work In a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g . t i a l I f w©  are t o use  by I n d u s t r y .  Much f u r t h e r Study and a c t i o n I s e s s e n -  f u l l y , j o b e v a l u a t i o n methods as d e v e l o p e d  W i t h f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h as Suggested above, S o c i a l  work can make a S i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i n d u s t r i a l e v a l u a t i o n t h r o u g h the s o c i a l Worker* s u n i q u e f o c u s  job  and  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y and r o l e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f employee w i t h i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e .  Ripple, L i l i a n , O P . c i t  the  * 110 -  APPENDIX A SAMPLE CLASSIFICATION QUESTIONNAIRE  n Pers. 10  CITY OF VANCOUVER PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT  (Do Not Write Here)  (Do Not Write Here)  CLASSIFICATION Name  (Last)  2. Place of Work  (Middle)  (First)  or Headquarters  Department .. Payroll Title Regular daily hours of work. From.  QUESTIONNAIRE  4.  Division, Section, or Other Unit of Dept.  6.  Working Title  m. Hours per week-  m. to_  If your job is part time, seasonal, intermittent, for a limited term, or otherwise not continuous, please explain..  This is the most important part of the Form: Describe below in detail the kind of work you do. Use your own words and make your description so plain that any one reading it can understand exactly what you do. Either by using hours, days, fractions, or percentages show how your whole working time is used. If you are temporarily filling a position other than your regular one, indicate your present temporary work as well as your regular work. Fill in and attach additional sheets if necessary.  TIME  WORK  0. Summarize the major responsibilities of your work.  [T.  Give name and title of person who is your immediate super>isor. (Do Not Write Below This Line)  (Leave Blank)  12. List all equipment operated or used by you in doing your work  ,r>  Describe fully in what detail assignments of work are made to you, stating what form (such as penciled lay-out, rough draft, etc.) your work is in when it comes to you. Describe fully v/hat kind of decisions have already been made when the work comes to you, and what decisions are left to you  4. Give- name and title of person (or persons) who checks or reviews your work ... What is the nature and extent of the check or review?  .5. If you supervise five or less employees, give their names and titles. and number of employees supervised  If you supervise more than five employees, simply give the name of the unit  I certify that I have read the instructions, that the foregoing answers are my own, and to the best of my knowledge are accurate and complete. Date  Signed  (Employee)  (TO BE FILLED IN BY IMMEDIATE SUPERVISOR) 5. Are the above statements of the employee accurate and complete?  (Indicate any inaccuracies or incomplete items)  7. Give your idea of the essential nature of the work, the responsibilities of the position, and the supervision it requires.  8. Indicate the qualifications which you think should be required in filling a future vacancy in this position. Keep in mind the reasonable needs of the position itself rather than the qualifications of the individual who now occupies it. A . Does job require more than ability to read and write B. Education and Special Training: Years and kind__ C.  Experience: Years and kind  .  D.  Licenses or certificates required  E.  What physical qualifications, kinds of knowledge, abilities, or skills should a person filling this position possess?  9. If the position requires any typing or stenography, fill out the following: Per Cent of Employee's Working Time Devoted to Each  Is It Incidental or Important? Typing: Stenography:  Date  Signed  (Immediate Supervisor)  (TO BE FILLED IN BY DEPARTMENT HEAD) Comment on the above statements of the employee, and of the supervisor.  Date.  Indicate any inaccuracies.  Signed.  (Department Head)  CITY OF VANCOUVER PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT  Form Pers. 20  FOR  I N S T R U C T I O N S A N D SUGGESTIONS FILLING O U T T H E CLASSIFICATION QUESTIONNAIRE  What the Classification Surrey Is. This is a job inventory. It Is not concerned with your ability on the job or with your qualifications. The kind of work you do, and the responsibilities of your position, are the things to be shown on the classification questionnaire. This survey is simply an analysis of the duties and responsibilities of positions In the classified service of the city in order to develop a classification plan. This plan will consist of grouping together all positions having substantially similar duties and responsibilities. The classification plan will be used as the basis for a sound employment system and fair compensation standards. It is essential that the plan be accurate. Therefore, detailed and exact knowledge of the duties and responsibilities of each position is necessary. You are asked to fill In the classification questionnaire because you know the exact duties you perform and your responsibilities. Do not copy other people's answers even though their work Is the same as your own. We want your own statement. Ask your immediate superior to explain questions you do not understand, but use your own words In answering all questions. SUGGESTIONS TO EMPLOYEES Read these Instructions carefully. Write your answers on the yellow sheet. See that they are correct and complete. Then type your answers on the green and white sheets. Use the Green for the Original and the White for the Carbon Copy. Sign and return the typewritten forms to your immediate superior within five days. Keep the yellow sheet. If you cannot type yourself, write your answers on the yellow sheet and return the questionnaire to your lmmedite superior for typing within five days. He will return the typed questionnaire to you for review, dating, and signature. Then return the two typed copies to him and keep the yellow sheet. Read the following explanation for each item just before answering the questions: Item 1—Give your last name first, then your first name, then your middle name or initial. Indicate whether Mr., Mrs., or Miss. Item 2—The place where you work should be indicated by room number and building, or street address. Item 3—Enter name of department, such as "Health Department" or "Fire Department," etc. Item 4—Enter name of departmental subdivision, such as "Communicable Diseases" or "Sewer Maintenance," etc. Item 5—Give your present official title as carried on the payroll. If you do not know, ask your immediate superior. Item 6—Write here the name you and your fellow workers use for your Job. i Item 7—(Enter your regular hours for starting and stopping work, your total number of hours worked per week. If you work Hifferent shifts, or have one shift one week and another the next, explain, using the margin If necessary. Item 8—Your work may be for two hours a day, three days a week, two weeks per month, or four months per year. Or, your appointment may be for a term of six months. If on call, so state. If your work periods are irregular in any way, explain and, if possible, give the reason. Item 9—This is the most important question on the form. Be specific; do not use general phrases. Each kind of work that you do should be carefully explained. The task which you consider most important should be given first, followed by the less important work, until the least important is described. If your work varies from season to season or at specific times, dutieB should be grouped together according to such periods. Give your complete work assignments over a long enough period of time to picture your job as a whole. If one kind of work takes one-half your time, say so. If another kind takes one day a month, say that. You may prefer to show the time spent on different duties in percentages or fractions, such as, for example, 75% of your time, or one-third of the year. Use whatever method you think will give a clear understanding of how you spend your working time, but be sure to show how much time is used for each of the various types of work you do. If you are performing duties other than those of your usual position, describe both. In describing the temporary work you are doing, you should give the name of the person you are replacing, how long you have been filling in for him, how long you expect to continue doing so, and the reason, such as, for example, vacation, sick leave, etc. If necessary for a full explanation of your job, attach copies of forms used, being careful to explain how each is used and what entries you make, but do not attach copies unless you think they are needed to describe your work. Examples of work In different fields are given below as a guide to the kind of statements wanted. Do not copy these examples—use your own words. Ordinarily it will take all the space provided on the questionnaire to tell what you do. If you do not have enough space, attach additional sheets. EXAMPLES IN THE LABOR FIELD (Skilled and Unskilled) 2 months: 1 month: 1 month: Etc.  I dig trenches with pick and shovel. Mr. Brown, my boss, tells me where to dig and when to stop. I fill wheel barrows with sand or gravel and take it to the concrete mixer. I tamp concrete after it Is poured into forms. I ride a ten ton flat bed truck and help load and unload bags of cement, heavy rock, reinforcing steel etc. We generally haul from the warehouse yards to maintenance or construction jobs. I wash the truck . . . etc.  3 months: 1 month: 2 months:  Hoisting work with a two or three drum hoist. (Vacation relief.) Pile driving for retaining walls, excavations, and foundations. Sometimes I . . . etc.  EXAMPLES IN THE CLERICAL AND RELATED FIELDS Average 4 hrs. per day: •2 hrs.: 1 nr.: Etc.  I type vouchers in duplicate to accompany Invoices, after they have been approved by Mr. Jones and extensions checked by Miss Smith.  2 days: 1 day: Etc.  I file purchase orders chronologically and by department and vendor. I sort and distribute letters.  10%: 5%: Etc.  I take dictation from Mr. Brown, including letters, memoranda, but Miss White takes all his engineering dictation. I file . . . etc.  I type reports from rough pencil copy. I also . . . etc.  I E X A M P L E IN THE ENGINEERING FIELD 6 months: 2 months: Etc.  I lay out and trace plan-profile sheets for street Improvements. I reduce survey notes, balance traverses, and plot maps from the field books brought In by the field survey parties, also plot cross-sections and planlmeter for cut and fill areas. I draft . . . etc.  EXAMPLE IN THE ACCOUNTING FIELD 10%: 10%: 5%: 2%: Etc.  I I I I  supervise three clerks assigned to the cost accounting system for street and lane construction and maintenance. assemble Job record reports, post to summary sheets, and do other routine work. tabulate and prove material for weekly, monthly and annual reports. compile . . . etc.  EXAMPLE IN THE JANITORIAL FIELD 1/2 day: 1/3 day:  Washing floors, walls, windows and woodwork by hand. Polishing metal; waxing and polishing floors with a polishing machine:  EXAMPLE IN THE FIRE FIGHTING FIELD 90%: 10%:  I am In charge of a ladder company during the day shift. men, and maintain discipline while I am on duty, etc. At a fire I decide . . . etc.  I also have charge of the station premises. I conduct roll call, Inspect tho  Item 10—This question applies chiefly to employees whose duties and responsibilities are not clearly defined by regulations, well-established office procedures, or standard practices of a trade or craft. In answering it, summarize concisely what you consider to be the essential nature and degree of your responsibilities. It may be responsibility: for doing what you are told to do In workman-like manner; for journeyman work on assignment; for some highly skilled operations; for some type of technical or professional work; or directing operations of a particular office. Are your responsibilities limited to carrying out instructions or are they for planning work, making final decisions, for supervision, or technical or professional work? Item 11—Give the name and title of your immediate superior, the person to whom you look for orders, advice, or decisions. If you are not sure who your superior is, say so. If there is more than one, explain so that those reading your statement will know whether you work for one person part of the time and another the rest of the time, or whether you work for two or three persons. Item 12—List here all equipment, machinery, tools, office appliances, or other, devices which you use or operate. names if you wish.  Use trade-  Item 13—Exactly what instructions and directions does your superior give you? What problems does he refer to you? You may have had instructions only when you were new on the job. You may have received special instructions with every new task. Describe the type of instructions you have received. Item 14—Does anyone check or review your work? If so, give his name and title, and tell what kind of check Is made: Is it a mathematical check, an Inspection of quality, a review of your judgment, or what? Maybe your work is such that there is an automatic continuous check of your actions. , Item 15—If you have five enxpioyees or less under your supervision, give their names and titles. simply give the name of the unit or section involved and the number of employees.  If you have more than five,  SUGGESTIONS TO IMMEDIATE SUPERIORS Method for Distributing and Reviewing the Classification Questionnaires. You are being supplied with a complete set of classification questionnaires for each employee under your supervision. These sets will consist of a green, a white, and a yellow questionnaire, and a copy of these instructions. Give each employee a set of classification questionnaires and instructions. Ask employees who have access to typewriters to work out their answers on the yellow sheet, type them on the green and white sheets, and return the signed typewritten copies to you within five days. Ask those employees who cannot type their own, to write their answers on the yellow sheet and return the complete set to you within five days, for typing. The Green is the Original and the White the Carbon Copy. When typed, return all three copies to the employees. Have the green and white copies reviewed, dated, signed, and returned to you. Go over each signed questionnaire carefully to see that they are accurate and complete. You should fill out Items 16 to 19, inclusive, on the questionnaire forms of only those employees whom you directly supervise. A department head should not fill in these items for employees whom he directs through a sub-executive but only for those to whom he assigns work directly. In all instances, the department head, or a representative designated by him, should look over both the employees' and their superiors' statements and indicate under Item 20 any inaccuracies found. Neither the superior nor the department head, however, should make any alteration or change in the statements made by a subordinate. If there is a regular position under you which is temporarily vacant, or if an employee is not available to fill out the questionnaire, please make up and fill out the form yourself for that position, as accurately as possible. The fact that an employee did not fill out the form and the reason for such omission, should be clearly indicated.  Suggestions for Filling Out Items 16 to 20. Item 16—Do not change the employee's statement or influence his answers. Read them through and then give your opinion of their accuracy. Is it a good description of the position? Has he neglected to give a full picture of his duties and responsibilities? Has he overstated or understated them? Has he put emphasis on the wrong points? Answer this question in detail. Item 17—Sum up what you consider to be the distinguishing features of the employee's job. What do you expect of it? What supervision and direction does it get? What check and review is provided? What is the essential nature of the duties and responsibilities? Is it a beginning or an advanced job? If you have a number of positions under you which are practically identical, it will be sufficient to answer Items 16 to 19 fully for one such position only, and then refer to such answers on the other questionnaires. You can merely state "Same as John Doe." Item 18—With full consideration of the duties and responsibilities of this position, tell what kind of person you would choose for the position if it were to become vacant. What must he know? Of what basic subjects, procedures, principles, laws, or regulations must he have a knowledge? Must the knowledge be thorough or is a general knowledge or familiarity sufficient? Be aai specific as possible. Item 19—If the job involves any typing or dictation, even if merely incidental, answer this item.  If not, write "None."  Item 20—If the department head does not sign the green copy personally, his designated representative should sign his superior's name and place his own name or initials immediately underneath. Upon completion by department head, green sheet should be sent via mail or messenger to the Personnel Dept., Room 210, City Hall, Vancouver, B.C. One copy is retained by the department for Its use and reference.  t  Ill  *  APPENDIX B * SUGGESTED RATING SCALE FOR PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYEES INTRODUCTION * The p o i n t r a t i n g system u s e d by t h e B.C. C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission t o e v a l u a t e s t e n o g r a p h i c and c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s was adapted t© a p p l y t© t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l f i e l d . These two s c h e d u l e s a r e a l i k e i n t h e t o t a l p o i n t s allotted t o the four major e v a l u a t i o n f a c t o r s : Clerical Evaluation Scale  Factor  Skill Responsibility Job C o n d i t i o n s Effort  2150 1925 lj.75 450  g of  Total Points 38.5$ 9 , 9 5  Professional j of Evaluation " ffotal Scale Points 2150 1950  39$ 9$ 9%  45o  However* t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s u b d i v i s i o n s u n d e r t h e f i r s t two h e a d i n g s , a s f o l l o w s ! Major Factor  Sub-factors C l e r i c a l Scale  Sub»factors P r o f e s s i o n a l Scale  Skill  Training Experience Initiative  Education Experience C o m p l e x i t y o f th© job. Supervision received,  Responsibility  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r money Contacts Supervision given  Responsibility f o r e r r o r and c o n f i d entiality. Contacts Supervisory responsibilities.  A, SKILL  POINT VALUE  I , T r a i n i n g * What b a s i c f o r m a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i s t h e employee expected t o b r i n g w i t h him t o t h e j o b * o v e r and above h i g h school education? 1. LesS than two y e a r s o f t r a i n i n g 2.  Two y e a r s o f u n i v e r s i t y , o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t i n n i g h t * t r a d e , e x t e n s i o n o r correspondence school courses, o r Two t o f o u r y e a r s o f p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g on the j o b  125 S.W. I I .  175  112 * 3 . More t h a n two, b u t n o t more than f o u r y e a r s of s p e c i a l i z e d formal Education culminating i n a q u a l i f y i n g e x a m i n a t i o n , ©r More t h a n f o u r y e a r s o f p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g on t h e j o b  2?£  4. More than f o u r , b u t n o t more t h a n s i x y e a r s of s p e c i a l i z e d formal e d u c a t i o n c u l m i n a t i n g i n a q u a l i f y i n g examination M r e t h a n s i x , b u t n o t mere t h a n e i g h t y e a r s of Specialized formal education, culminating i n a q u a l i f y i n g examination 0  6 . More t h a n e i g h t y e a r s o f S p e c i a l i z e d f o r m a l education, Culminating i n a l i c e n s i n g o r c e r t i f y i n g examination  700  I I . E x p e r i e n c e - Over and above b a s i c f o r m a l i z e d t r a i n i n g , how much e x p e r i e n c e i n r e l a t e d work i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o a s s i m i l a t e knowledge r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m t h e Job? 1. Mere t h a n t h r e e months, b u t n o t more t h a n 12 months  100  2. More than one y e a r , b u t n o t more t h a n t h r e e years  200  3 . More than t h r e e y e a r s , b u t n o t more than f i v e years  300 S.W.II.  k. More t h a n f i v e y e a r s , b u t n o t more t h a n seven y e a r s  kOO  5. More t h a n seven y e a r s , b u t n o t more t h a n ten years 6. More than t e n y e a r s  f?0G 700  I I I . C o m p l e x i t y o f Work » What c a p a c i t y f o r r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s , judgment, and c r e a t l v e h e s S does t h i s j o b r e q u i r e o f t h e employee? 1. D u t i e s a r e c l e a r l y p r e s c r i b e d b y s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e but require a b i l i t y t o use several p r o c e d u r e s and t o make m i n o r d e c i s i o n s I n v o l v i n g Seme judgment. 200  -.113-  2. D u t i e s i n v o l v e an i n t e n s i v e knowledge o f a r e s * t r i e t e d f i e l d and r e q u i r e t h e a b i l i t y t o u s e a wide range o f p r o c e d u r e s and t h e a n a l y s i s o f f a c t s t o d e t e r m i n e what a c t i o n , w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e , s h o u l d be taken  2j?0  3 . A b i l i t y t o work i n d e p e n d e n t l y towards g e n e r a l r e s u l t s , d e v i s i n g new methods, and a d a p t i n g s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s t o meet new c o n d i t i o n s . D e c i s i o n s a r e based l a r g e l y on p r e c e d e n t and branch p o l i c y .  300 S.W.II  k . A b i l i t y t o work on h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l o r i n v o l v e d p r o j e c t s , p r e s e n t i n g new o r c o n s t a n t l y changing problems. A b i l i t y t o e v a l u a t e complex f a c t o r s , and t© make d e c i s i o n s n o t c l e a r l y based on p r e cedent and p o l i c y .  350  5. A b i l i t y t o p l a n and c o - o r d i n a t e th© Work and p r o c e d u r e s o f S e v e r a l o f f i c e s , i n accordance l a r g e l y w i t h p o l i c y and p r e c e d e n t , i n c l u d i n g personnel d e c i s i o n s  kOO  6. A b i l i t y t o p l a n and c o * o r d i n a t e t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f work i n a l a r g e b r a n c h w i t h many o f f i c e s and t o g i v e a d v i c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e need f o r changing p o l i c y when n e c e s s a r y  k£o  7. A b i l i t y t o i n t e g r a t e t h e work o f s e v e r a l b r a n c h e s , to See t h a t th© work i s C a r r i e d ©Ut e f f i c i e n t l y , and t o g i v e a d v i c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e need f o r changing p o l i c y . 5>00 IV. S u p e r v i s i o n - How c l o s e l y i s t h e work  supervised?  1 . Under g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n , where s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e e n a b l e s t h e employee t o proceed a l o n e on work, r e f e r r i n g q u e s t i o n a b l e c a s e s t o s u p e r v i s o r , who Is r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e 100 2. Under d i r e c t i o n , where a d e f i n i t e o b j e c t i v e i s s e t up and t h e employee p l a n s and a r r a n g e s h i s own work, r e f e r r i n g q u e s t i o n a b l e Cases t o s u p e r v i s o r , who may be o n l y i n t e r m i t t e n t l y available.  1J?Q S.W.II  3 . Under g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n * w o r k i n g f r o m p o l i c i e s and g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s . R a r e l y r e f e r s s p e c i f i c cases t o s u p e r i o r unless c l a r i f i c a t i o n s o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of branch p o l i c y i s involved.  200  Ilk * k. under a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d l r e c t i e n * s e t t i n g u p own S t a n d a r d s -'of performance. V i r t u a l l y s e l f ^ supervision.  B , REspQHaiBiXiifms. I . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y r©r E r r o r * What i s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y f o r and t h e probS.ble e f f e c t ( i n terms o f human w e l f a r e , property, o r f i n a n c i a l loss) ©f e r r o r s i n t h i s j o b ? What r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s there f o r safeguarding c o n f i d e n t i a l data? 1. E r r o r s a r e u s u a l l y d e t e c t e d i n s u c c e e d i n g ©pera t i o n s and a r e c o n f i n e d t o a S i n g l e department * C o r r e c t i o n i n v o l v e s some t r o u b l e i n b a c k * c h e c k i n g b y e t h e r s . M t t i e o r no c o n f i d e n t i a l data involved. 2. E r r o r s may have S e r i o u s r e s u l t s w i t h i n t h e Branch* i n v o l v i n g l e s s o r h o l d - u p o f p r o d u c t i o n * waste o f m a t e r i a l , damage t o equipment, o r f i n a n c i a l l o s s . Much o f work n o t S u b j e c t t o v e r i f i c a t i o n o r check. D u t i e s may i n c l u d e reeommendfetlonS r e h i r i n g and f i r i n g o f Sub* ordinate personnel. D i s c l o s u r e of c o n f i d e n t i a l d a t a may have an a d v e r s e e f f e c t upon o t h e r employees, 3.  E r r o r s i n judgment o r S k i l l o r b r e a c h e s o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e c t and may a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t o u t s i d e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e b r a n c h . They may v i t a l l y a f f e c t t h e welfare of i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s , or involve serious property or f i n a n c i a l l o s s .  k, E r r o r s o r b r e a c h ©f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y may i n v o l v e major p r o p e r t y o r f i n a n c i a l l e s s , o r v i t a l l y a f f e c t th© w e l f a r e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e numbers o f p e o p l e and may r e s u l t i n a d v e r s e p u b l i c comment. D u t i e s may I n v o l v e the p r e p a r a t i o n o f d a t a on w h i c h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n baSes i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g S e l e c t i o n , p r o m o t i o n , and d i s m i s s a l of key personnel. J>. E r r o r s may r e s u l t i n l o s s o f l i f e . D u t i e s • i n * V o l v e t h e p r e p a r a t i o n ©f d a t a on 'which manage* ment b a s e s v i t a l d e c i s i o n s , o r t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f very large expenditures o r ensuring t h a t o t h e r s s a f e guard c o n f i d e n t i a l d a t a .  * 115  *  I I . CONTACTS - What r e s p o n s i b i l i t y goes w i t h t h i s j o b for dealing with, giving service to, or i n f l u e n c i n g , other people through c o r respondence and p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w ? 1.  L i t t l e o r no c o n t a c t except W i t h immediate a s s o c i a t e s and own s u p e r v i s o r  2.  C o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r persons w i t h i n the department on r o u t i n e m a t t e r s , o r o c c a s i o n a l o u t s i d e con* t a c t s , f u r n i s h i n g or obtaining information only 225  100  3 . Frequent o u t s i d e or i n s i d e c o n t a c t s , f u r n i s h i n g o r o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o r r e p o r t s , and r e q u i ing t a c t to avoid f r i c t i o n .  350  i i . F r e q u e n t o u t s i d e and i n s i d e c o n t a c t s , i n v o l v i n g non^routine interpretation, of branch p o l i c y , I t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Other b r a n c h e s : i t i n v o l v e s i n f l u e n c i n g others i n a v a r i e t y of matters r e l a t e d t o the f u n c t i o n end b u s i n e s s o f the b r a n c h , and r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e t a c t and understanding.  475  5.  O u t s i d e and i n s i d e c o n t a c t s r e q u i r i n g a h i g h degree o f t a c t , judgment, s e n s i t i v i t y , and the a b i l i t y to i n f l u e n c e people w i t h regard to v i t a l and i n t i m a t e a s p e c t s o f t h e i r l i v e s .  I I I . S u p e r v i s i o n *• What i s the degree o r k i n d o f supervisory r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Involved i n t h i s job? 1.  2.  600 S.W.II  0 S.W,II  R e q u i r e s the s u p e r v i s i o n o f one o r two o t h e r employees who f o l l o w w e l l d e f i n e d methods o f procedure.  125  R e q u i r e s the S u p e r v i s i o n o f one o r two o t h e r employees whose work I S n o t a l t o g e t h e r r o u t i n e and w h i c h may o c c a s i o n u n u s u a l o r v a r y i n g methods of procedure,  175  3 . R e q u i r e s the s u p e r v i s i o n o f a f a i r l y l a r g e number o f employees i n a s e c t i o n who f o l l o w w e l l d e f i n e d methods o f p r o c e d u r e .  225  4* R e q u i r e s the s u p e r v i s i o n o f a f a i r l y l a r g e number o f employees i n a s e c t i o n whose work , i s n o t a l t o g e t h e r r o u t i n e and which may occasion u n u s u a l ©r v a r y i n g methods o f p r o c e d u r e .  300  116  5.  6.  -  R e q u i r e s t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a l a r g e number o f employees o r s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s o f employees, c o - o r d i n a t i n g the p r o c e d u r e s . These employees do n o t i n c l u d e t e c h n i c a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s ,  375  R e q u i r e s t h e S u p e r v i s i o n o f a l a r g e number o f employees i n One o r two l o c a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t e c h n i c a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l workers.  , 450  7 . R e q u i r e s t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a l a r g e number o f employees i n S e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t e c h n i c a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l employees.  550  Q. R e q u i r e s t h e S u p e r v i s i o n o f a l a r g e number o f ' w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d employees i n c l u d i n g t e c h n i c a l Or p r o f e s s i o n a l employees.  650  C. JOB CONBITIQHS - Does t h i s j o b i n v o l v e c o n d i t i o n s ." '' ' . beyond t h o employees c o n t r o l w h i c h makes i t l e s s a g r e e a b l e t h a n i s t y p i c a l of the Service. Consider such f a c t o r s a s absence f r o m home, c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e who a r e ment a l l y disturbed or p h y s i c a l l y i l l , exposure t o undue n o i s e , d u s t , h e a t , c o l d , fumes, u s e o f I n j u r i o u s chemicals, o r p h y s i c a l discomfort. ;  1. U s u a l offic© w o r k i n g  conditions  2 . „ Good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . D u t i e s I n v o l v e i o n a l exposure t o a s i n g l e d i s a g r e e a b l e condition. 3.  4.  5.  5o  occasi5o  Somewhat d i s a g r e e a b l e c o n d i t i o n s ( a s above) but n o t continuous"exposure I f s e v e r a l o f these f a c t o r s ar© p r e s e n t ,  250  Continuous exposure t o s e v e r a l d i s a g r e e a b l e f a c t o r s , geographic i s o l a t i o n , o r o c c a s i o n a l exposure t o h a z a r d o u s w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  35o  Continuous exposure t o h a z a r d o u s w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , such a s i s i n v o l v e d i n work w i t h persons i n f e c t e d w i t h a contagious disease,  450  D. EFFORT - Does t h i s j o b r e q u i r e an e x c e p t i o n a l degree o f mlnd-eye-Co«*ordination, s u s t a i n e d a l e r t n e s s , ©motional s t r a i n , o r c a p a c i t y t o Work under pressure?  S.W.II  «• 117 * 1.  Plow' o f work and n a t u r e o f d u t i e s r e q u i r e o n l y n o r m a l mental o r v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n , o r e m o t i o n a l strain.  2. Plow o f work and n a t u r e o f d u t i e s p e r i o d i c a l l y r e q u i r e employee t o work under c o n s i d e r a b l e pressure, i n v o l v i n g mental c o n c e n t r a t i o n , o r emotional s t r a i n 3. S u s t a i n e d p e r i o d s o f p r e s s u r e , a l e r t n e s s , mental concentration* o r emotional s t r a i n *  75  175 300 S.W.II  k. J o b I n v o l v e s c o n t i n u o u s p r e s s u r e o r e m o t i o n a l s t r a i n , o r r e q u i r e s an e x c e p t i o n a l degree o f mental concentration o r a l e r t n e s s . Maximum P o i n t s * S o c i a l Worker I I Source: S o c i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h S o c i a l Workers* S a l a r i e s Committee, B r i e f t o t h e B*0. P r o v i n c i a l government. A p r i l . 195k. ( M i m e o . ) !  !  !  - 118 -  APPENDIX C SAMPLE JOB DESCRIPTIONS PROM . REPRESENTATIVE AOENCIES  C i t y o f Vancouver B«C. P r o v i n c i a l Government, S o c i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h Oregon S t a t e , u n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a C a l i f o r n i a State, United States o f America  * 119  *  C i t y o f Vancouver Class S p e c i f i c a t i o n  C l a s s Ho.307  PROBATION OFFICER I 1. ffature. and Scope o f Work T h i s i s s o c i a l w e l f a r e x*ork o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l and c o r r e c t i o n a l n a t u r e . An employee o f t h i s c l a s s I s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s u p e r v i s i o n and c o u n s e l l i n g o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s and p r e d e l i n q u e n t s , and f o r p e r f o r m i n g t h e v a r i o u s d u t i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o the c i t y p r o b a t i o n program as d e t e r m i n e d by t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t . C o n s i d e r a b l e judgment and independence o f a c t i o n a r e r e q u i r e d i n t h i s work a s d e t a i l e d investigations must be made o f a l l e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g each c a s e and c o n s i d e r a b l e d i a g n o s t i c r e a s o n i n g must be employed i n d e t e r m i n i n g e f f e c t i v e c o r r e c t i v e measures f o r S o c i a l l y * m a l a d j u s t e d j u v e n i l e s . S u p e r v i s i o n and a d v i c e on d i f f i c u l t caSeS a r e r e c e i v e d f r o m a s u p e r i o r who. r e v i e w s ' a l l work r e p o r t s . 2.  I l l u s t r a t i v e Examples of.Work  Interviews juvenile delinquents or pre-dellnquents, p a r e n t s , teachers., and o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s s© t h a t e a c h case may be viewed i n i t s t r u e p e r s p e c t i v e . Checks t h e r e c o r d s o f s o c i a l a g e n c i e s and t h e P o l i c e Department f o r p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on a w i d e v a r i e t y e f j u v e n i l e delinquency cases. W r i t e s summaries on any c a s e as r e q u i r e d by t h e judge and s u b m i t s * a W r i t t e n r e p o r t . P r e p a r e s s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s on j u v e n i l e cases and a t t e n d s c o n f e r e n c e s a t th© C h i l d Guidance Clinic. Transports d e l i n q u e n t s t o t r a i n s , boats, the I n d u s t r i a l School, o r other I n s t i t u t i o n s . A s s i s t s p r o b a t i o n e r s t o s e c u r e S u i t a b l e employment. S e r v e s summonses on o f f e n d e r s t o appear i n t h e J u v e n i l e Court."' " Arranges f o r s u i t a b l e h o s p i t a l care, operations, d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n , and o t h e r s e r v i c e s f o r c e r t a i n p r o b a t i o n e r s . V i s i t s cases committed t o i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l s o r o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s to maintain c o n t i n u i t y of contact. A c t s as o f f i c e r o f th© c o u r t when so d e t a i l e d . Cooperates i n v a r i o u s ways w i t h o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o reduce d e l i n q u e n c y and g i v e s l e a d e r s h i p on V a r i o u s community p r o j e c t s p e r t a i n i n g t o l e i s u r e - t i m e activities. 3. R e q u i r e d Knowledges. A b i l i t i e s and  Skills  Extensive knowledge o f j u v e n i l e b e h a v i o u r problems and methods o f t r e a t i n g them.  - 120 Thorough knowledge o f a l l laws arid r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e work o f t h e J u v e n i l e Court., Thorough knowledge o f i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e s and c a s e h i s t o r y methods. W o r k i n g knowledge o f t h e Work done b y p o l i c e * s o c i a l w o r k e r s , h e a l t h department* and o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n t e r e s t e d i n public welfare. Thorough knowledge o f t h e geography and s t r e e t l o c a t i o n s i n Vancouver c i t y and t h e employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p e o p l e under l e g a l s u p e r v i s i o n . Working knowledge o f c o u r t p r o c e d u r e . A b i l i t y t o s e c u r e e f f e c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n f r o m Community a g e n c i e s and o f f i c i a l s . D i a g n o s t i c s k i l l i n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d work w i t h m a l a d j u s t e d c h i l d r e n * a d o l e s c e n t s , and a d u l t s . k* D e s i r a b l e T r a i n i n g and E x p e r i e n c e S e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n and a c o u r s e i n s o c i a l work w i t h some f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e — p r e f e r a b l y u n i v e r s i t y graduation w i t h major Courses i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e ; o r an e q u i v a l e n t c o m b i n a t i o n o f t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e . 5.  R e q u i r e d L i c e n s e s . C e r t i f i c a t e s , and R e g i s t r a t i o n s Hone.  * 121 *• PROylHCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA GROUT "PR" PRQFESSlOlfAk C l a s s 12 m S o c i j ^ o a f t c a l and F s y c h o l Q g l e & i • SOCIAL WORKER* Grade k  ( S o c i a l W e l f a r e Branch)  CharacteriaticB o f Position: • Under d i r e c t i o n * t o s u p e r y i s o and d l r e d t t h e work o f S o c i a l Workers who may be s t a f f members, u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , in*S©ryioe t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s , o r S t u d e n t s f r o m r e l a t e d f i e l d s o f work, f o r t h e purpose o f a c h i e v i n g g r e a t e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s • iaiEdLI?i&»ft^L^" '.4a: t h e s e r v i c e - g i v e n t o t h e p u b l i c and e v a l u a t i n g t h e a b i l i t y o f I n d i v i d u a l S o c i a l Workers and t r a i n e e s . or To a s s i s t t h e D i r e c t o r s o f Treataaeht a t t h e Boys* and G i r l s ! i h d u # t r i a l S c h o o l s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n ©f t h e d i a g n o s t i c and c l a d ! i f i e a t l e n s e r v i c e s w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s ! t o a s s i s t w i t h t h e development o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l , group work, s t a f f training^ religious, vocational* educational, pre-release, i n t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t , and i n d i v i d u a l and group t h e r a p y programmes; to a s s i s t w i t h f o r m u l a t i o n o f recommendations on a d m i s s i o n and d i s c h a r g e e f b o y s i n need o f guidance} t o p e r f d r i a r e l a t e d d u t i e s af• r ^ u l r e d i Qualifications RequirMt 1. E d u c a t i o n and S p e c i a l i z e d Knowledge *- •• A B a c h e l o r o f S o c i a l Work degree* o r c o m p l e t i o n o f a s p e c i a l s t u d e n t course i n S o c i a l Work a t a U n i v e r s i t y o f recognized standing* o r completion o f the In-Service T r a i n i n g Course j a w o r k i n g knowledge o f a l l A c t s and R e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e work o f t h e Branch* 2. E x p e r i e n c e *• Several years t o b e performed.  1  e x p e r i e n c e i n work r e l a t e d t o t h e d u t i e s  3« S p e o l a l l z a d A b i l i t i e s and S k i l l s * T a c t ; Sound judgment j a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n a n o b j e c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n p e o p l e and a d e m e n i t r a t e d o r p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t y t o work w i t h theis; a b i l i t y t o w i t h s t a n d t h e t a k i n g o f l o n g t r i p s by v a r i o u s modes o f t r a n S p o ^ a t i o n and on f o o t ; a b i l i t y t© . i n t e r p r e t t h e A o t s and R e g u l a t i o n s t o th© g e n e r a l p u b l i c ; a b l * l i t y t o supervise a s m a l l s t a f f o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers and t r a i n e e s .  - 122 * OREGON STATE  .  CASEWORKER I I , DISTINGUISHING FEATURES.OF WORK T M s i s s k i l l e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e work i n s t u d y i n g and d e t e r m i n i n g upon s o c i a l needs o f e l i g i b i l i t y o f p e r s o n s r e q u i r i n g public welfare services* Work o f t h e s e employees i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y the r e l a t i v e l y wide scope o f S o c i a l s e r v i c e s Which a r e c o n d u c t e d , g r e a t e r Independence o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i o n u n d e r w h i c h employees work and b y the performance o f the more troublesome o r p r o b l e m a t i c case work. The t y p e o f case l o a d w h i c h i s c a r r i e d u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s v a r i e d c a t e g o r i e s but. may be l i m i t e d t o s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n a s i n g l e t y p e o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e . Work n e c e s s i t a t e s a p p l i c a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e d judgment i n m e e t i n g case p r o b l e m s , and r e p l a c e m e n t s o r v a c a n c i e s a r e f i l l e d b y w o r k e r s who have g a i n e d such knowledge t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e u n d e r p r o f e s s i o n a l supervisors or by formal t r a i n i n g plus a c t u a l experience. The work i n c l u d e s f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r agency w o r k e r s and the employee i s c a l l e d upon t o g i v e the p r o b l e m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n many c a s e s . Case r e p o r t s and work methods and t e c h n i q u e s are s u b j e c t t o r e v i e w b y a S u p e r i o r o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r , a l t h o u g h employees conduct many phases o f t h e i r work without close review. EXAMPLES 0F WORK (Any one p o s i t i o n may n o t i n c l u d e a l l o f the d u t i e s l i s t e d n o r . d o the l i s t e d examples i n c l u d e a l l t a s k s w h i c h may be f o u n d i n p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s c l a s s . ) L  A s s i s t s a p p l i c a n t s and r e c i p i e n t s , i n s o f a r a s p o s s i b l e , i n the s o l u t i o n o f p e r s o n a l , f a m i l y f i n a n c e , and o t h e r problems and g i v e s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o a l l e v i a t i n g p o t e n t i a l l y bad s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s o r a t t e m p t i n g t o c o r r e c t such problems as t h e y have d e v e l o p e d . Investigates e l i g i b i l i t y o f a p p l i c a n t s f o r various types o f p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g the i n t e r v i e w i n g o f a p p l i c a n t s , r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s * and o t h e r s . A s s i s t s i n the o u t - p a t i e n t a c t i v i t i e s o f a h o s p i t a l b y w o r k i n g w i t h p a t i e n t s and p h y s i c i a n s , i n t e r p r e t i n g s o c i a l d a t a and a t t e m p t i n g to p r o p e r l y a d j u s t p a t i e n t s i n t h e h o s p i t a l o r a f t e r discharge. Takes W r i t t e n a p p l i c a t i o n s . I n c l u d i n g S o c i a l h i s t o r y d a t a , o f p e r s o n s s e e k i n g p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and s e r v e s a s s p e c i a l i n t a k e worker i n the i n i t i a l processing o f persons'seeking help. Checks V a r i o u s p u b l i c r e c o r d s i n S e c u r i n g n e c e s s a r y d a t a i n c l u d i n g t a x r e c o r d s , b i r t h and d e a t h r e c o r d s , r e s i d e n c e and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r case d e t e r m i n a t i o n s .  - 123  *  P r e p a r e s complete w r i t t e n r e p o r t s c o v e r i n g I n f o r m a t i o n developed i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o r r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Serves as case r e v i e w e r , a n a l y z i n g case methods o f S e l e c t e d c a s e s and recommending f u r t h e r a c t i o n . O c c a s i o n a l l y makes pre-plaoement s t u d i e s o f c h i l d r e n , c h i l d ren* S f a m i l i e s , f o s t e r homes, and Tinder s u p e r v i s i o n u s e s o t h e r s o u r c e s i n d e v e l o p i n g n e c e s s a r y c h i l d case i n f o r m ' ation." O c c a s i o n a l l y a s s i s t s p r o f e s s i o n a l S u p e r v i s o r s i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f m a l - a d j u s t e d C h i l d r e n , and c h i l d r e n n e e d i n g medical o r mental care or treatment. A d v i s e s and a s s i s t s case workers where problem c a s e s a r i s e w h i c h r e q u i r e more e x p e r i e n c e d judgment o r s k i l l . Performs r e l a t e d work as r e q u i r e d . DESIRABLE KNOWLEDGES. SKILLS AND  ABILITIES  Thorough knowledge o f case work methods and t e c h n i q u e s and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l cases. Working, knowledge o f f e d e r a l and s t a t e laws and r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o p u b l i c w e l f a r e and a s s i s t a n c e programs. Working knowledge o f t h e Sources f o r o b t a i n i n g c a s e d a t a , and a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m such sources under d i f f i c u l t c o n d i t i o n s . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h - ' b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f economics ^ S o c i o l o g y * p s y c h o l o g y and o t h e r s o e i a l s c i e n c e s and o f c u r r e n t s o c i a l and economic t r e n d s . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h names and f u n c t i o n s o f o t h e r W e l f a r e a g e n c i e s , b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e . A b i l i t y t o w r i t e e f f e c t i v e case h i s t o r i e s and r e l a t e d r e p o r t s * A p p r e c i a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems a r i s i n g i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h case work, and a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e problems w i t h good judgment. MINIMUM EXPERIENCE AND TRAINING (The f o l l o w i n g statement r e p * " r e s e n t s t h e minimum e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g S t a n d a r d s w h i c h w i l l be used t o admit o r r e j e c t a p p l i c a n t s f o r t e s t s . ) One y e a r o f f u l l - t i m e p a i d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s i n w e l f a r e , education, p u b l i c h e a l t h , or other p u b l i c service w o r k j and g r a d u a t i o n from a f o u r y e a r c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y , supplemented by one y e a r o f g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g i n an approved s c h o o l o f s o c i a l Work o r e q u i v a l e n t t r a i n i n g t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e u n d e r p r o f e s s i o n a l g u i d a n c e j o r any e q u i v a l e n t c o m b i n a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g .  *  12l|  #  CALIFORNIA STATE PERSONNEL BOARD s p e c i f i c a t i o n f o r the c l a s s of  CODE # 986? E s t a b l i s h e d : 1931 Revised: , 9/19/52 Title  Changed:  ,  9/19/52  SUPERVISING PSYCHIATRIC SOCIAL WORKER I Definition: Under g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n , t o p r o v i d e s u p e r v i s i o n t o p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l w o r k e r s w o r k i n g w i t h and on b e h a l f o f m e n t a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d or m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t p a t i e n t s and t h e i r r e l a t i v e s i n a S t a t e m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n o r c l i n i c o r I n an a s s i g n e d a r e a and where t h e r e I s no h i g h e r l e v e l p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work s u p e r v i s o r , t o p l a n , o r g a n i s e , and d i r e c t t h e p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work program; and t o do o t h e r work as r e q u i r e d . Distinguishing Characteristios: The c l a s s o f Supervising P i y c M I is the f i r s t s u p e r v i s o r y l e v e l i n the p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l worker s e r i e s . Employees I n t h e c l a s s s u p e r v i s e a s t a f f o f J u n i o r and S e n i o r P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Workers and c l e r i c a l p e r s o n n e l , and where t h e r e I s no h i g h e r l e v e l p s y c h i a t r i c S o e i a l work s u p e r v i s o r , p l a n , o r g a n i z e and d i r e c t t h e p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work program. Employees I n t h e n e x t lew©** c l a s s of, f e n i e r Psychiatric S o c i a l Worker p e r s o n a l l y c a r r y a c a s e l o a d r e q u i r i n g t h e more d i f f i c u l t and r e s p o n s i b l e casework* b u t n o r m a l l y do n o t s u p e r vis© o t h e r c a s e w o r k e r s . Employees i n th© n e x t h i g h e r c l a s s o f S u p e r v i s i n g P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Worker I I a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d i r e c t i n g t h e p s y * e h l a t r l c s o c i a l work program i n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g casework supervision- i n State mental f a c i l i t i e s e t h e r than the L o t A n g e l e s and San F r a n c i B c o a r e a o f f i c e s , where the number o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s J u s t i f i e s more t h a n one s u p e r v i s i n g s o c i a l w o r k e r . Typical  Tasks:  P r o v i d e s s u p e r v i s i o n t o a p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work s t a f f ; i n a n . a s s i g n e d a r e a o r i n an i n s t i t u t i o n o r c l i n i c f o r t h e m e n t a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d o r m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t h a v i n g no h i g h e r l e v e l p s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l work S u p e r v i s o r , p l a n s , o r g a n i z e s * and d i r e c t s t h e p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work program; a s s i g n s c a s e s and c o u n s e l s S o c i a l w o r k e r s on casework p r o b l e m s ; m a i n t a i n s adherence t o s o c i a l work p o l i c i e s o f t h e department; conducts s t a f f m e e t i n g s ; t r a i n s s t a f f , e v a l u a t e s s t a f f p e r f o r m ^ ance and t a k e s o r recommends a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n ; s u p e r v i s e s  - 125  *  t h e t r a i n i n g o f p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s } p e r s o n a l l y performs o r s u p e r v i s e s r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work; p a r t i c i p a t e s i n s t a f f c o n f e r e n c e s } a s s i s t s i n the development o f e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l work p r o c e d u r e s } works w i t h m e n t a l f a c i l i t y and d e p a r t m e n t a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f o r t h e p u r pose o f i m p r o v i n g p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s as t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e s o c i a l work program} e s t a b l i s h e s and m a i n t a i n s c o o p e r a t i v e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h community a g e n c i e s } a s s i s t s i n t h e development o f programs o f community p l a n n i n g , e d u c a t i o n , and c o n s u l t a t i o n i n m e n t a l h e a l t h } d e v e l o p s and d i r e c t s a b o a r d i n g home program f o r t h e a r e a and a r r a n g e s f o r placements o f p a t i e n t s on l e a v e o f absence} a d d r e s s e s groups on t h e p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work program} d i c t a t e s correspondence and prepares r e p o r t s . Minimum Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t Either 1 E x p e r i e n c e % Two y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e as a S e n i o r P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Worker i n t h e C a l i f o r n i a s t a t e S e r v i c e } and E d u c a t i o n : Completion o f a two-year g r a d u a t e c u r r i c u l u m i n s o c i a l work i n a r e c o g n i z e d s c h o o l o f s o c i a l work* or I I Experience: Pour years of f u l l - t i m e paid experience i n p s y c h i a t r i c s o e i a l work, a t l e a s t one y e a r o f w h i c h must have been a s a s o c i a l work S u p e r v i s o r and a t l e a s t two y e a r s o f w h i c h must have been i n a c h i l d guidance o r p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c * i n a p s y c h i a t r i c e x t r a m u r a l program*, i n a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l , o r i n a p s y c h i a t r i c department o f a h o s p i t a l } and E d u c a t i o n : Completion o f a two-year g r a d u a t e c u r r i c u l u m i n p s y c h i a t r i c s o e i a l work i n a r e c o g n i z e d s c h o o l o f s o c i a l work, or I I I E x p e r i e n c e : Ply© y e a r s o f full*tim© p a i d e x p e r i e n c e i n p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work, a t l e a s t one y e a r o f w h i c h must have been as a s o c i a l work s u p e r v i s o r and a t l e a s t two y e a r s o f w h i c h must have been I n a c h i l d guidance c r p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c , i n a p s y c h i a t r i c e x t r a m u r a l program, i n a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l , o r i n a p s y c h i a t r i c department o f a h o s p i t a l } and E d u c a t i o n : C o m p l e t i o n o f a two-year g r a d u a t e c u r r i c u l u m i n s o c i a l work i n a r e c o g n i z e d S c h o o l o f s o c i a l work. I n a p p r a i s i n g e x p e r i e n c e , more w e i g h t w i l l be g i v e n t o t h e b r e a d t h o f p e r t i n e n t e x p e r i e n c e and t h e e v i d e n c e o f the c a n d i d a t e * s a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t and f u l f i l l i n e r e a s * i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than t o t h e l e n g t h o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e . and Knowledges and a b i l i t i e s : Thorough knowledge o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s , p r o c e d u r e s , t e c h n i q u e s , t r e n d s , and  * 126 l i t e r a t u r e o f s o c i a l work w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work; t h o r o u g h knowledge o f ecffiirsunlty o r g a n i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s ; w i d e knowledge, o f and a b i l i t y t o a p p l y t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f m e n t a l h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n ; wide knowledge o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f m e n t a l and emotional, d i s t u r b a n c e s and m e n t a l d e f i c i e n c y j g e n e r a l knowledge o f t h e scope and a c t i v i t i e s o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e h e a l t h and w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s ; g e n e r a l knowledge o f t h e c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n m e n t a l h y g i e n e * p u b l i c h e a l t h and p u b l i c w e l f a r e and o f F e d e r a l and S t a t e programs i n t h e s e f i e l d s ; g e n e r a l knowledge o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s o f s u p e r v i s i o n , and a b i l i t y t o s u p e r v i s e o t h e r s ; t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r work, and t o g i v e i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ; a b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n e f f e c t i v e working r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h those contacted i n t h e work; a b i l i t y t o secure a c c u r a t e S o c i a l d a t a , t o r e c o r d such d a t a s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , t o w r i t e c l e a r , a c c u r a t e and c o n c i s e r e p o r t s , and t o i n t e r p r e t • s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a ; a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p and d i r e c t a b o a r d i n g home program f o r ' p a t i e n t s and s k i l l i n a r r a n g i n g placements f o r p a t i e n t s on l e a v e o f absence; a b i l i t y t o g i v e f i e l d work t r a i n i n g t o p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s } a b i l i t y t o a n a l y z e S i t u a t i o n s a c c u r a t e l y and t o adopt a n e f f e c t i v e course o f a c t i o n ; a b i l i t y t o Speak and w r i t e effectively. and Special personal sympathetic emotionally ance, t a c t ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; Ah objectiy© ;and understanding "of t h e m e n t a l l y o r disturbed o r mentally d e f i c i e n t j t o l e r and e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y .  M o n t h l y Compensation: #kj6 Work Week Group kC  k£8  ij.81 505  530  1/54  * 12? -  APPENDIX D JOB ANALYSIS SCHEDULE I  JOB  A N A L Y S I S  Schedule I SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT Time Study - Chronological Record of A c t i v i t i e s NAME; EXPLANATION;  OFFICE;  .  SECTION;  DATE;  Include a l l a c t i v i t i e s using as many l i n e s f o r each as are necessary to explain what you did, why you did i t (rather than someone else) and what the general purpose of the a c t i v i t y i s . Use units of f i v e minutes or more.  Total work day i s 435 minutes.  ACTIVITY  TIME OF DAY  E.G.»s. —-.Planning and o r g a n i z i n g work f o r t h e day-«thlngs t o be done, p e o p l e t o be seen,&c  TIME IN MINUTES  8:30-8:50  20  8:50*9:00  10  9:00*10:00  60  10:00-10:15 10:15*10:30  15 15  10:30*10:55  25  Preparation f o r i n t e r v i e w — f i n d i n g an o f f i c * ^ettinpr m a t e r i a l s r e a d v - ^ r e v i e w i n s p r e v i o u s n o t e s — o r i g i n s c l i e n t t o the o f f i c e nr.nrhjf.tlrirj Intake i n t e r v i e w - ~ - t o flUHWUf^nf  determine  client f o r service*-ability  of c l i e n t t o u s e s e r v i c e and e x p l a i n f u n c t i p n s and p r o c e d u r e s  clinic  W r i t i n e up notes o f i n t e r v i e w f o r d i c t a t i o n tr, nt-.Ann—Choking f a c t u a l d a t a on f a c e sheet Coffee break Attfindlnfj p l a n n i n e c o n f e r e n c e t o d e t e r m i n e p r o c e d u r e o f d i a g n o s t i c s t u d y on case presented by myself as Intake worker^-sug^ g e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n 1 would g a t h e r and when i t would be r e a d y i n f o r m o f s o c i a l •h1ntr.ro and s o c i a l d i a g n o s i s  •  - 128 *•  APPENDIX g JOB ANALYSIS .SCHEDULE I I I MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES  <* 129 * JOB ANALYSIS Schedule I I I OFFICE;  C h i l d Guidance C l i n i e  DEPARTMENT: S o c i a l S e r v i c e  L i s t o f A c t i v i t i e s Not i n c l u d e d I n J o b D e s c r i p t i o n s , Showing I m p l i c a t i o n s Re Working C o n d i t i o n s and S t a f f S h o r t a g e s  P e r Cent of T o t a l Time  Item o f A c t i v i t y  SECTION: Dep't.  Shortage o f Limitation Indicated  Supervisor  F i l i n g j d i s t r i b u t i n g f i l e s , memos e t c , (1 h r p e r wk.)  2.7$  Changing O f f i c e , c h a t t i n g (1 h r . p e r wk.)  2. 7$  Coffee break  3.6#  (1 1/3 h r . p e r wk.) TOTAL  ,,  Dep»t.Steno & 1 file & message clerk Overcrowding ~»  • 9.  SECTION: S.W, ' e r a Or. I V (Av. p e r wkr.) Delivering'memos, f i l e s , e t c . R e g i s t e r i n g and f i l i n g new c a s e s Looking f o r f i l e s (1 1/3 h r . p e r wk,)  3.6$  Shortage o f clerical staff  L o o k i n g f o r o f f i c e space* c h a n g i n g o f f i c e s , and c h a t t i n g (3/k hrs. p e r wk.)  2.  Overcrowding, lack of interviewing space  Coffee break  (1 1/3 h r s . p e r wk.) TOTAL  ^ 9.2%  * 130 JOB ANALYSIS Schedule I I I OFFICE: C h i l d Guidance  Clinic  DEPARTMENT: S o c i a l S e r v i c e  L i s t o f A c t i v i t i e s Not I n c l u d e d i n J o b D e s c r i p t i o n s , Showing I m p l i c a t i o n s Re Working C o n d i t i o n s and S t a f f S h o r t a g e s  P e r Cent of T o t a l Time  Item o f A c t i v i t y  Shortage o f Limitation Indicated  SECTION: S.W. Gr. I V . T r a v . C l i n i c s * L o o k i n g f o r o f f i c e o r d i c t a t i n g space, p i c k i n g u p ; d e l i v e r i n g and d i s t r i b * u t i n g f i l e s (§• h r . p e r wk.)  1.3$  C o f f e e b r e a k (1 h r . p e r wk.)  2.Q%  Sub-Total T r a v e l l i n g time n o t i n c l u d e d i n u s u a l w o r k i n g time .  (av. 2$ h r s . p e r mo.) TOTAL  Overcrowding at s t a t i o n ary c l i n i c  h.i# 16.0$  20.1%  SECTION: S.W.*ers G r . I I and I I I (Av. p e r wkr.) D e l i v e r i n g f i l e s , memos* s u p p l i e s , etc.j looking f o r f i l e s (3Ai- h r s . p e r wk.) Looking f o r o f f i c e interviewing Space; moving f r o m o f f i c e t o office; chatting (2t h r s . p e r wk.)  2.1$  6.2$  C o f f e e b r e a k (1 1/3 h r s . p e r wk.) TOTAL  11."  Shortage o f clerical staff oyercrowdihg* l a c k o f space so basement and h a l l s a r e used  131 *  APPENDIX P TYPICAL DAY—TRAVELLING CLINIC SUPERVISOR  132 JOB ANALYSIS Schedule  I  NAME: .  OFFICE: V. CGC.  .  •  SECTION: T r . C l .  ^~ Activity  Time o f Day  Time i n Minutes  TYPICAL DAY ON TRAVELLING CLINIC OP ONLY ONE PARENT WITH EACH CHILD. Get d a i l y s c h e d u l e s o r g a n i z e d and p l a n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e s t o f team  09.00-09.15  15  Check o v e r h i s t o r i e s p r i o r t o I n t e r v i e w s  09.15-09.30  15  Interview parent o f f i r s t  09.30-10.00  30  I n t e r v i e w p a r e n t o f second c h i l d  10.00-10.30  30  D i s c u s s i n t e r v i e w s W i t h d o c t o r and psychologist i f available  10.30-10.k5  15  F i l l o u t i n d e x forms and f a c e s h e e t s  lO.45-ll.3O  45  Discuss Follow-up r e p o r t s w i t h nurse . o r s o e i a l worker '• LUNCH Arrange Schedules f o r a f t e r n o o n  11.30-12.00 12.00-01.30 01.30*01.45  «i>—•  Cheek h i s t o r i e s p r i o r t o i n t e r v i e w s  01.45-02.00  15  Interview parent o f f i r s t c h i l d  02,00-02.30  30  I n t e r v i e w p a r e n t o f second c h i l d  02.30*03.00  30  D i s c u s s i n t e r v i e w s w i t h d o c t o r & psych.  03.00-03.15  15  F i n i s h f a c e s h e e t s , i n d e x forms and w r i t e up n o t e s f o r c o n f e r e n c e s  03.15-04.00  45  Contact s o c i a l workers, nurses & s c h o o l teachers regarding past cases(follow-up) Conferences en d a i l y c l i n i c s  04.00-04.30 04.30-06.30  30  child  F o l l o w * U p n o t e s a s a r u l e a r e completed a f t e r c o n f e r e n c e s as t h e r e i s Seldom time d u r i n g t h e day t o complete them. Travelling  time i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d h e r e .  30 :  15  120  * 133 «*  APPENDIX G » BIBLIOGRAPHY Books A t w a t e r , P i e r c e , Problems o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1940. Benge, Eugene J . * Samuel L.H. Burk, and Edward N. Hay, Manual o f Job E v a l u a t i o n , H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s , New Y o r k ,  1941.  Berkman, T e s s i e D., P r a c t i c e o f S o c i a l Workers i n P s y c h i a t r i c H o s p i t a l s and C l i n i c s . American A s s o c i a t i o n o f P s y c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Workers, I n c * * New Y o r k , 1953* C i v i l S e r v i c e Assembly, P o s i t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c S e r v i c e . R e p o r t t o the Assembly by t h e Committee on P o s i t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c S e r v i c e , Ismar B a r u c h , Chairman, C h i c a g o , 1941• Family Service A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Prof e s s i o n a l P o s i t i o n s i n P r i v a t e F a m i l y A g e n c i e s . New Y o r k . 19U6/ Scope and Methods Of the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency. New York," 1953. ' "~ F o l l e t t , Mary P., Dynamic A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t h e c o l l e c t e d papers o f Mary P a r k e r F o l l e t t ed. by H.C. M e t c a l f and L, Uswick* H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s , New Y o r k , 1 9 4 2 . H i l l , John G,, and R a l p h Ormsby, Cost A n a l y s i s Method f o r Casework A g e n c i e s . 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