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Water relations in the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island McMinn, Robert Gordon 1957

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Faculty of Graduate Studies PROGRAMME OF THE F I N A L O R A L E X A M I N A T I O N F O R T H E D E G R E E O F D O C T O R O F P H I L O S O P H Y of ROBERT GORDON McMINN B.A., University of British Columbia M.S., State College of Washington THURSDAY, APRIL 4th, 1957, at 2:00 P.M. IN ROOM 33, BIOLOGY BUILDING COMMITTEE IN CHARGE DEAN G. M. SHRUM, Chairman T. M. C. TAYLOR C. A. ROWLES V. J. KRAJINA I. McT. COWAN D. J. WORT P. G. HADDOCK G. S. ALLEN H. B. HAWTHORN External Examiner — DR. R. F. DAUBENMIRE, Professor, State College of Washington W A T E R R E L A T I O N S I N T H E D O U G L A S - F I R R E G I O N O N V A N C O U V E R I S L A N D ABSTRACT In an evaluation of the role of water relations in forest distribution and growth in the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island, a section of the Nanaimo River Valley, lying from five to twelve miles inland from the east coast, was chosen as a suitable study area to exemplify conditions in the central mountains and on the eastern side of southern Vancouver Island. The study was conducted in mature stands typical of the principal forest associations found within the range of climates, topographies and soils represented in this area. The vegetation and soils of twenty-four quarter-acre plots were analysed in order to characterize stands and relate such characteristics to the influence of water relations. The soil moisture regimes and microclimates of each plot were defined by measuring soil moisture levels, precipitation beneath the tree canopy, evaporation rates, and soil and air temperatures. Variation in soil moisture contents was followed over a thirty-month period from July, 1951, to November, 1953, and precipitation and maximum/ mimimum temperatures at various open stations were measured at monthly intervals from June, 1951, until December, 1956, in order to delineate climatic variations with-in the study area. It was concluded that variation in soil moisture regimes was a most significant factor in the differentiation of sites. In moist, relatively nutritive soils Pseudotsuga menziesii so completely dominated Tsuga beterophylla that the latter species was restricted to the secondary canopy and formed only a small proportion of stand volume. In strongly leached soils the growth of both Pseudotsuga and Tsuga was impaired and even at maturity trees were smaller than in more nutritive soils. Where strongly leached soils were moist throughout the growing season, Tsuga could complete with Pseudotsuga on nearly equal terms and both species reached the upper tree canopy. In droughty, leached soils the growth of Tsuga was more impaired than the growth of Pseudotsuga and Tsuga formed small to negligible proportions of stand volume. Thuja plicata appeared in the upper tree canopy only in moist to very wet, relatively nutritive soils. The dominant influence in the geographical location of the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island was its rainshadow climate. Within this region of low summer rainfall Pseudotsuga dominated other species on nearly all sites. In wetter climates, outside pronounced rainshadow areas, stands dominated by Pseudotsuga were confined to moist, relatively nutritive soils. Within any climatic area topo-graphic position and concomitant climatic and edaphic influences largely differ-entiated sites. Site differentiation followed a definite catenary sequence, which regulated the sequence of forest associations on sidehills. Differences in local topography, aspect, soil depth and soil texture, however, sometimes caused variation from the typical arrangements. PUBLICATIONS The vegetation of a burn near Blaney Lake, British Columbia. Ecology 32:135-140. 1951. The role of soil drought in the distribution of vegetation in the northern Rocky Mountains. Ecology 33: 1-15. 1952. The root system of second-growth Douglas fir. Canada Agriculture, Forest Biology Div., Bi-Monthly Progr. Rept. 11:3. 1955. Studies on the root ecology of healthy and pole blight affected white pine. Canada Agriculture, Forest Biology Div., Bi-Monthly Progr. Rept. 12:3. 1956. GRADUATE STUDIES Field of Study: Botany Taxonomy of Higher Plants T. M. C. Taylor Forest Associations V. J. Krajina Problems in Plant Ecology V. J. Krajina and R. W. Pillsbury Problems in Plant Physiology D. J. Wort Other Studies: Colloid Chemistry M. KirscH Soil Genesis, Morphology and Classification C. A. Rowles Advanced Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils C. A. Rowles Advanced Silvics and Silviculture G. S. Allen WATER RELATIONS IN THE DOUGLAS-FIR REGION ON VANCOUVER ISLAND by ROBERT GORDON McMINN A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FDLFILMMT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the Department of BIOLOGY AND BOTANY We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1957 i i ABSTRACT In an evaluation of the role of water relations in forest distribution and growth in the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island, a section of the Nanaimo River Valley, lying from five to twelve miles inland from the east coast, was chosen as a suitable study area to exemplify conditions in the central mountains and on the eastern side of southern Vancouver Island. The study was conducted in mature stands typical of the principal forest associat-ions found within the range of climates, topographies and soils represented in this area. The vegetation and so i l s of twenty-four, quarter-acre plots were analysed in order to characterize stands and relate such characteristics to the influence of water relations. The s o i l moisture regimes and microclimates of each plot were defined by measuring s o i l moisture levels, precipitation beneath the tree canopy, evaporation rates and s o i l and a i r temperatures. Variation i n s o i l moisture contents was followed over a thirty-month period from July, 1951 to November, 1953, and precipitation and maximum/minimum temperatures at various open stations were measured at monthly intervals from June, 1951 u n t i l December, 1956 in order to delineate climatic variations within the study area. It was concluded that variation in s o i l moisture regimes was a most significant factor in the differentiation of sites. In moist, relatively nutritive soils Pseudotsuga menziesii so completely dominated Tsuga  heterophylla that the latter species was restricted to the secondary canopy and formed only a small proportion of stand volume. In strongly leached soils, the growth of Pseudotsuga and Tsuga was impaired, so that trees of both species were smaller than in more nutritive s o i l s . Where strongly i i i leached soils were moist throughout the growing season, Tsuga could compete with Pseudotsuga on nearly equal terms and both species reached the upper tree canopy. In droughty, leached soils the growth of Tsuga was more impaired than the growth of Pseudotsuga. and Tsuga formed small to negligible proportions of stand volume. Thuja plicata appeared in the upper tree canopy only on moist to very wet, relatively nutritive sites. The dominant influence in the geographical location of the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island appears to be its rainshadow climate. Within this region of low summer rainfall Pseudotsuga can dominate other species on nearly all sites. In wetter climates, outside pronounced rainshadow areas, stands dominated by Pseudotsuga are evidently confined to moist, relatively nutritive sites. Within the different climatic areas encountered, topographic position and concomitant climatic and edaphic influences would seem largely responsible for site differentiation. Such site differentiation followed a definite catenary sequence, which regulated the sequence of forest associations on hillsides. Differences in local topography, aspect, parent material, soil texture and soil depth, however, may cause variation from the typical arrangements. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representative. I t i s under-stood that copying or publication of thi s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Biology and Botany The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver Canada. Date 4 April 1957  v i i i AC^ OTW^ GMENTS The writer wishes to thank the many individuals and organisations who have helped in the completion of this study. Those who assisted include Dr. V. Krajina, to whom special thanks are due for his advice and encouragement; Dr. A. H. Hutchinson, formerly Head of the Department of Biology and Botany, University of B r i t i s h Columbia; Dr. T. M. C. Taylor, Head of the Department of Biology and Botany, University of Br i t i s h Columbia; Dr. G. Allen, Dean of the Faculty of Forestry and Dr. C. Rowles, Head of the Department of Soils, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, as members of the thesis committee; Mr. F. D. Mulholland, formerly Chief Forester, Canadian Western Lumber Company; Dr. R. E. Foster, Officer-in-Charge of the Pathology Unit and other members of the Forest Biology Laboratory, Victoria, B. C ; Mr. W. H. Mackie, Meteorologist-in-Charge, Gonzales Observatory, Victoria, B. C ; Department of Veterans' Affairs, Vancouver, B. C ; The National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario; Alaska Pine Company, Ltd., Vancouver, B. C ; British Columbia Electric Company, Ltd., Vancouver, B. C ; British Columbia Forest Products Company, Ltd., Vancouver, B. C ; Bri t i s h Columbia Sugar Refining Company, Ltd., Vancouver, B. C ; Empress Manufacturing Company, Ltd., Vancouver, B. C ; Miss M. A. Allen; Mr. W. Arlidge; Dr. T. C. Brayshaw; Mr. R. B. Dickens; Mr. L. Farstad; Mr. T. Lord; Mrs. G. M. McMinn; Mrs. R. G. McMinn; Mr. D. Mueller-Dombois; Mr. F. Rayer; Mr. R. Schmidt; Mr. R. H. Spilsbury; Dr. A. Szczawinski; Mr. G. Tilser; Dr. W. G. Wellington; Dr. D. J. Wort and many others who have made various contributions. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. STUDY AREA. 2 III. METHODS Selection of Plots 10 Climate 10 Vegetation 14 Soils 17 Weather and Microclimate 18 Soil moisture 20 IV. RESULTS Climate 24 Vegetation 32 Soils 49 Weather 66 Microclimate 68 Soil moisture . . 76 V. DISCUSSION - 86 Factors regulating Soil Moisture Regimes 88 The role of Soil Moisture Regimes 94 Forest Distribution in the Douglas-fir Region . . . 103 VI. SUMMARY 108 VII. REFERENCES 110 VIII. PLATES AND "FIGURES Plate I., Figure 1. Map of Study Area 3 Plate II., Figures 2-7. Stands of various forest associations in the Nanaimo River Valley . . 5 Plate EL, Figures 8-13. Stands of various forest associations in the Nanaimo River Valley . . 6 Plate IV., Figures 14 and 15. Forest Association Catena in the Nanaimo River Valley 9 Plate V., Figures 16 and 17. Field equipment . . . . 13 Plate VI., Figure 18. Location of Weather Stations . 27 Plate VII., Figure 19. Soil Prof iles 50 Plate VIII., Figure 20. , Precipitation and Depth of Available Water 78 V TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued IX. TABLES Page Table 1. Locations of Plots analysed in the study of Water Relations in the Douglas-fir Region . . 12 Table 2. Climate of the Nanaimo River Valley compared with other stations on Vancouver Island . . . 26 Table 3. Total Estimate Analysis of the Pseudotsuga  menziesii - Pinus contorta - Gaultheria  shallon - Peltigera canina - Peltigera  aphthosa association plots 34 Table 4. Total Estimate Analysis of the Pseudotsuga  menziesii - Gaultheria shallon and the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla -Gaultheria shallon association plots . . . . 35 Table 5. Total Estimate Analysis of the Pseudotsuga  menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla - Hylocomium  splendens - Eurhynchium oreganum association plots 36 Table 6. Total Estimate Analysis of the Pseudotsuga  menziesii - Thuja plicata - Polystichum  muniturn association plots 37 Table 7. Total Estimate Analysis of the Thuja plicata -Lysiohitum americanum association plots . . . 38 Table 8. Mensuration Analysis of the Pseudotsuga  menziesii - Pinus contorta - Gaultheria  shallon - Peltigera canina - Peltigera  aphthosa association plots 39 Table 9. Mensuration Analysis of the Pseudotsuga  menziesii - Gaultheria shallon and the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla -Gaultheria shallon association plots . . . . 40 Table 10. Mensuration Analysis of the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla - Hylocomium splendens - Eurhynchium oreganum association plots 41 Table 11. Mensuration Analysis of the Pseudotsuga  menziesii - Thuja plicata - Polystichum  munitum association plots 42 Table 12. Mensuration Analysis of the Thuja plicata -Lyslehitum americanum association plots . . . 43 vi TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued Page IX. Table 13. Description, pH, and Organic and Clay con-tents of typical Soil Profiles from the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots 51 Table 14. Description, pH, and Organic and Clay "con-tents of typical Soil Profiles from the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria and the Pseudotsuga -Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots . . . . 55 Table 15. Description, pH, and Organic and Clay con-tents of typical Soil Profiles from the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium -Eurhynchium association plots 57 Table 16. Description, pH, and Organic and Clay con-tents of typical Soil Profiles from the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association plots . 60 Table 17. Description, pH, and Clay contents of typical Soil Profiles from the Thuja -Lysichiturn association 65 Table 18. Monthly Precipitation at Stations adjacent to Plots Sampled for Soil Moisture, 1951 - 1953 (in cm.) 67 Table 19. Average Monthly Precipitation and Interception in Plots Sampled for Soil Moisture, 1951 -1953 (cm.) 69 Table 20. Average relative Monthly Evaporation at Open Stations and in Plots Sampled for Soil Moisture, 1951.-.1952 75 Table 21. Monthly Values of Available Soil Moisture in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Pelt ig era association plots, 1951 - 1953 77 Table 22. Monthly values of Available Soil Moistures in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria and the Pseudotsuga -Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots, 1951 - 1953 80 Table 23. Monthly values of Available Soil Moisture in the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium -Eurhynchium association plots, 1951 - 1953 . 83 v i i TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued Page IX. Table 24. Monthly values of Available Soil Moistures in the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association plots 84 Table 25. Monthly values of Available Soil Moisture in the Thuja - Lyslchitum association plots . . 87 X. APPENDICES Appendix I. Climatic Records. Appendix IT. Plant List. Appendix m . Particle Size Distribution in Soils. Appendix IV". Weather and Microclimatic Records. Appendix V. Soil Moisture Records. INTRODCIGTION It has long been recognized that water relations influence the distri-bution of natural vegetation. Schimper (1903) was one of the first to acknowledge water as a predominant factor. The classifications of Cajander (1926), Sukatchev (1928), Braun-Blanquet (1928), Weaver and Clements (1929), Wilde (1933), Krajina and Domin (1933), Dansereau (1946), Hills (1952) and many others have emphasized the importance of soil moisture in the distri-bution of forest types. The role of seasonal variation has also been re-cognized and a number of investigations have followed seasonal changes in forest stands. Hanson (1924) and Pearson (1931) have followed seasonal trends in various forests types of the southeastern United States and Weaver (1917) has studied others in the northwest. Haig et al. (1941) have shown how natural regeneration in white pine stands in Idaho was affected by sea-sonal occurrences of soil drought. McMinn (1952) has demonstrated differences in the time of onset of soil drought among different associations in the northern Rocky Mountains. Gaiser (1952) has reported seasonal differences in available moisture in some forest soils in Ohio, and Fraser (1954, 1956) has studied fluctuations in the water table of birch stands in Ontario. These and other studies have demonstrated that variations in plant distribu-tion and growth are related to seasonal variation of available soil moisture. ' During an investigation of the forest communities of coastal British Columbia, Krajina (1952) noted that water relations appeared to be one of the major factors controlling the distribution of Douglas-fir associations. The objective of the present study, initiated in 1951 at the suggestion of Dr. Krajina, has been to evaluate the role of water relations in forest distribution and growth in the Douglas-fir region of Vancouver Island. 2 STUDY AREA The study was carried out in the Nanaimo River Valley, some eight miles south west of Nanaimo, British Columbia, on timberland within the Forest Man-agement Licence of the Canadian Western Lumber Company (Fig. 1). The Nanaimo River is one of a series of easterly flowing streams (including the Cowichan, Chemainus, Englishman and Q,ualicum Rivers) which arise in the cen-tral.Jheight of land forming the backbone of Vancouver Island. Their drain-age basins constitute one of the principal Douglas-fir logging areas in British Columbia. The portion of the valley in which the study area was located lies between five and twelve miles from the east coast (49°5'N and 125°25' to 05'W). In the study area the valley floor drops gradually from 1000 feet above sea level at the western end to 600 feet in the eastern end. West of Second Lake the valley is less than half a mile wide, with the sides rising steeply more than 2000 feet. Many of the peaks are over 4000 feet high. The tributary creeks fall rapidly and their valleys are steep sided and narrow. To the east of First Lake the valley spreads out, and the sides of the land masses rise less steeply. The valley of Deadwood Creek (north fork of the Nanaimo River), in which some of the plots were located, is over one mile wide and the valley floor is relatively level. This condition is typical of the eastern coastal belt of Vancouver Island. lit. Hooker (4144 ft.) and lit. de Cosmos (4444 ft.) mark the eastern end of the ridges which flank the narrow western portion of the valley. Cloud masses coming from the west, following the normal storm tracks, commonly de-scend after passing these peaks, resulting in the plots located to the east of them receiving a lower rainfall than the more westerly plots. The east-erly plots were in a climatic zone corresponding to the lowland coastal belt of PLATE I, Figure 1 PLATE I. Map of Study Area Figure 1. Map of the Nanaimo Lakes showing the location of plots. eastern Vancouver Island, while the westerly plots were under conditions more typical of the higher land of the central land mass. The vegetation of the region has been analysed by Krajina (1952) and classified into forest associations. Much of the study area was covered by stands in which Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel)Franco (Douglas f i r ) 1 was predominant, although Thuja plicata D.Don (western redcedar) was dominant in one association and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. (western hemlock) was codominant in another. Six associations were studied: 1. Pseudotsuga menziesii - Pinus contorta *• Gaultheria shallon -Peltigera canina - Peltigera aphthosa association. (Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera or Douglas-fir - salal -lichen association) (Fig. 2). 2. Pseudotsuga menziesii - Gaultheria shallon association. (Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria or Douglas fir - salal association) (Fig. 3). 3. Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla - Hylocomium splendens -Eurhynchium oreganum association. (Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium or Douglas-fir -hemlock - moss association). This association occurred as a subassociation typicum, in which the ground cover was a luxuriant carpet of moss (Fig. 4) and a sub-association nudum where the ground was almost bare (Fig. 5). The species epithet menziesii has been used in the present study on the basis of a summary of the nomenclature of Douglas-fir made by Krajina (1956). Authorities for other specific names are given in the check list included in Appendix II. 5 PLATE II, Figures 2 - 7 PLATS II. Stands of various forest associations in the Nanaimo River Valley. Figure 2. The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association (Plot L3). The meter stick is marked in decimeters. Figure 3. The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association (Plot G6). Figure 4. The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (Plot MS). Subassociation typicum. Figure 5. The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (Plot M5). Subassociation nudum. Figure 6 . The Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association (Plot PI). Figure 7. The Thuja - Lysichitum association (Plot Ly3). ) 6 PLATE III, Figures 8-13 PLATE III. Stands of various River valley. forest associations in the Nanaimo Figure 8. The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association (Plot Gl). Figure 9. The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (Plot Ml), showing the large Tsuga (by meter stick) of this stand at the western end of the study area. Figure 10. The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association (Plot G6). Figure 11. The Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association (Plot P4). Figure 12. The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association (Plot 15), showing the canopy of dominant and co-dominant trees. Figure 13. The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (Plot M5)7 showing small Tsuga of the secondary canopy below the upper canopy formed by the dominant and codominant trees. 7 4. Pseudotsuga menziesii - Thuja piicata - Polystichum munitum association. (Pseudotsuga - Poiystichum or Douglas-fir - swordfern association) (Fig. 6). 5. Thuja plicata - Lysichitum americanum association . (Thuja - Lysichitum or cedar - skunk cabbage association) (Fig. 7) . 6. Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla - Gaultheria shallon association. (Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria or Douglas-fir - hemlock - salal association) (Fig. 8). In an idealized catenary sequence (Fig. 15) the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria - Peltigera association occurs on the ridge top, the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria association on the upper slope, the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium  Eurhynchium association at midslope, the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association on the lower slope and valley floor and the Thuja - Lysichitum association in swampy (but not stagnant) areas of the bottomland. Such a catenary sequence is typical of the Douglas-fir zone on the eastern side of Vancouver Island. This zone may be defined as the one in which Pseudotsuga associations predom-inate on essentially al l sites. The upper altitudinal limit of the Douglas-fir zone at the eastern end of the study area was well over 2000 feet. In the western end, the Douglas-fir zone was depressed below 2000 feet, and western hemlock was codominant at higher altitudes. The extent to which slopes were covered by the different members of this catenary sequence varied considerably. The range of Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria -Peltigera stands differed with aspect, spreading farther down south slopes than north slopes. The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association, representing 8 the climatic climax of the region, covered the largest area. The Pseudotsuga -Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association was represented in some cases by only a short transition zone or was largely absent, particularly on southern aspects. The Pseudotsuga - Polysbichum association was by no means univer-sal even on well drained valley floors. Much of this land was variously occupied by Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera and Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria stands, reflecting different soil depths and textures. The Thuja -Lysichiturn association was also found on gently sloping hillsides where streamlets spread out to form damp areas. A mosiac distribution was common in such areas, accompanying slight, but sufficient, soil profile differences. On steep slopes rock outcroppings also caused patchy distribution. Other associations than those studied were also present. For example, Arctostaphylos uva-ursl occurred on treeless outcrops, Sphagnum spp. in stagnant swamps and a Thuja - Abies - Adiantum association on occasionally flooded alluvial benches. Tsuga heterophylla and Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes stands occurred altitudinally above the typical sequence of Douglas-fir stands. The associations studied represented typical members of the catenary sequence in the Douglas-fir zone of Vancouver Island, and included some of the major commercial timber types of the Douglas-fir region. Most of the soils of the Nanaimo River Valley have been developed from varying depths of glacial t i l l and outwash. Near the ridge tops the overlay is thin, resulting in shallow profiles, often less than two feet down to the bed-rock. In many relatively level areas similar shallow profiles have been developed, with rooting depth restricted by ortstein layers. Elsewhere on slopes the depth of weathered material is greater and near the base of side-hills profiles over five feet deep were encountered. In these profiles root penetration was often terminated at deeper levels by dense soils with higher PLATE IV, Figures 14 and 15 Forest Association Catena in the Nanaimo River Valley Forest association catena in the Valley area, showing the increase in tree heights from the upper to the lower slopes. Diagram of the forest association catena, showing the relative position of the various members. to follow page 9 14 T H U J A -LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION P S E U D O T S U G A -POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION P S E U D O T S U G A -T S U G A -H Y L O C O M I U M A S S O C I A T I O N P S E U D O T S U G A -G A U L T H E R I A A S S O C I A T I O N P S E U D O T S U G A -G A U L T H E R I A -P E L T I G E R A A S S O C I A T I O N FOREST ASSOC1 AT ION CATENA NANAIMO RIVER VALLEY T h u j a p l i c a t a L ytichttvm amgriconum I P s t u d o t s u g c ¥ I ma n i l * si) Tsuga hotorophylla Pino* contorta Polystichum munitum - ^ Goultharia **Sur thoiion fietor-ve offoct/vo 1 sot/ 4 Opt It 15 r*4 10 clay contents than those of the upper horizons. Recent alluvium provided the parent material in some parts of the wider valley floors. Soils devel-oped from alluvium consisted of varying depths of stratified sand and gravel, often underlain or interspersed with beds of river cobbles. Most of the up-land soils belonged to the Podzol and Brown Podzolic Great Soils Groups, with some Gleisolic and Hydromorphic soils occurring at the foot of slopes and on the valley floor. METHODS SELECTION OF PLOTS Groups of stands, representing the mature condition of the associations, were selected at various locations along the valley (Fig. 1, Table l ) . In this way advantage could be taken of the range of climatic conditions present to compare stands of the same association under different climatic conditions and to compare different associations under similar conditions* As stands were to be visited at frequent intervals accessibility was important and limited the study to areas serviced by logging roads. Some of the groups (Fourth Lake and Wolf Mountain) were in strict catenary sequence, but in other cases stands in this sequence were not accessible. At Echo Mountain and Valley, where a few stands did not follow the typical altitudinal series, and at Upper and Lower Deadwood, where all stands were essentially at the same altitude, other variables such as aspect, local topography and soil depths acted as compensating factors. The study was carried out on quarter-acre plots located in typical parts of the stands. CLIMATE Precipitation and maximum/minimum temperatures were recorded as a measure 11 of the climates of the six localities in which the plots were grouped. Re-cording stations were maintained in open areas adjacent to the plots. Inexpensive raingauges were constructed using 105 oz. cans as collect-ing funnels, soldered to 4 gal. cans as reservoirs (Fig. 16). The orifice area of such gauges was 184 sq. cm. The reservoirs had sufficient storage capacity for all water collected between measurements. Evaporation from the reservoirs was restricted by floating kerosene on the stared water. Measure-ments were made by pouring the water from the reservoirs into a plastic grad» uate, calibrated to read in centimeters of precipitation. The gauges were placed in small pits, with the orifices just above ground level. During the winter additional sleeves were inserted into the collecting funnels to prevent snow from drifting into the gauges. Unfortunately these sleeves probably re-sulted in some inaccuracies in precipitation measurement at the windier loca-tions due to turbulence caused by the extra height of the orifice above the ground. A portable gasoline stove was used to melt the ice and snow which accumulated in the reservoirs during the winter months (Fig. 16). Six's type thermometers were used to record maximum and minimum temp-eratures. The thermometers were enclosed in standard Stevenson screens dur-ing 1955 and 1956. Prior to these being available, the thermometers were housed in shelters made by opening out one side and louvering the top of 105 oz. cans (Fig. 16). Thermometer bulbs were located one meter above the ground. Although the minimum temperatures recorded by the thermometers in the cans were comparable to those in the screens, the maximum readings were often considerably higher for the same period. Therefore, the only maximum readings incorporated in the results were those recorded in the screens. Monthly records were maintained from June, 1951 until December, 1956 to obtain average values for each station. Data for other stations on Vancouver 12 TABLE 1. LOCATIONS OF PLOTS ANALYSED IN THE STUDY OF WATER RELATIONS IN THE DOUGLAS FIR REGION Plot Locality Lat.N Long.W Alt. Exposure Slope O I O I f t . o PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION L 5 Wolf Mountain 49 06 124 0 7 1 0 0 0 SSW 20 L4 Deadwood Creek (lower) 49 0 7 124 0 9 7 5 0 E 0 - 1 5 L3 Deadwood Creek (lower) 49 07 124 0 9 740 SE 2 L2 Valley 49 0 5 124 1 6 7 5 0 1 SSW 0-25 LI Fourth Lake 4 9 0 5 . 124 24 1 5 7 0 NW 0-5 PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION G 5 Wolf Mountain 49 0 6 124 0 7 880 SW 10 G4 Deadwood Creek (lower) 4 9 0 7 124 08 720 SW 12 G 6 Deadwood Creek (upper) 4 9 08 124 10 810 E 5 G3 Valley 4 9 0 5 124 18 870 N 20 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION Gl Fourth Lake 49 0 5 124 24 1420 NW 20 G2 Echo Mountain 49 07 124 20 1700 wsw 20 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION M5 Wolf Mountain 49 06 124 0 7 810 SSW 10 M2 Echo Mountain 49 0 6 124 20 1600 SW 20 M4 Deadwood Creek (lower) 4 9 0 7 124 08 7 0 0 SW 4 M3 Valley 4 9 0 5 124 1 7 850 NE 25 Ml Fourth Lake 4 9 0 5 124 24 1080 NW 2 5 PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION P 4 Deadwood Creek (upper) 4 9 08 124 1 0 840 NE 2 PI Fourth Lake 49 0 5 124 24 1 0 5 0 NW 20 P2 Echo Mountain 49 06 124 20 1410 SW 10 P5 Wolf Mountain 49 06 124 0 7 7 6 0 SW 5 P3 Valley 4 9 0 5 124 17 640 — 0 THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION j Ly3 Wolf Mountain 4 9 0 6 124 0 7 7 7 0 SW 3 Ly2 Deadwood Creek 49 08 124 10 830 NE 2 Lyl Echo Mountain 49 06 124 20 1450 SW 10 PLATE V, Figures 16 and 17 PIATE V Field equipment. Figure 16. Equipment used in recording climatic data: A -raingauges, B - snow funnel, 0 - plastic graduate, D - Stevenson screen, E - Thermometer shelter made from can, F - location of thermometer to record s o i l surface temperatures. Figure 17. Soil moisture unit installation: A - rotary selector switch, B - resistance units buried in side of p i t . to follow page 13 Island and the adjacent mainland of British Columbia (Fig. 18) were obtained from the published records of the Meteorological Division of the Department of Transport (Canada), Department of Agriculture (Province of British Columbia), and from records taken by the British Columbia Forest Products Ltd., Nitinat Camp, B.C. VEGETATION The trees and subordinate plants were analyzed to show the vegetational characteristics of each plot. A total estimate analysis was made to record all the plants included in the tree, shrub, herb and moss layers and in the corticolous and lignicolous communities. The most common plants of the tree, shrub, herb, and moss layers were also evaluated by mensurational analyses, using the methods which most readily characterized them. The following data were recorded for each plot at the time the analysis was made: Date Analysed. Altitude. Exposure. Slope. Wind exposure (according to a scale of increasing exposure: o, (*), •(•), (!), !, !(!), !! ). The various vegetation layers were designated by the following letters: Al dominant and codominant tree canopy. A3 intermediate and suppressed tree layer. Bl tall shrub layer (bulk of foliage more than 1.5 m.high). B2 low shrub layer. . C herb layer. D moss, liverwort and lichen layer (with those growing on the ground differentiated from those en decaying wood and on the bark of trees within 2 m. of the ground line). The abundance and percentage of cover of species in the various layers were estimated according to the eleven grade scale of Krajina and Domin (1933), in preference to the original six grade scale of Braun-Blanquet (1928), as the former allowed greater accuracy of evaluation. The interpre-tations of the scale values are: * solitary, with small dominance. 1 seldom, with small dominance. 2 very scattered, with small dominance. 3 scattered, with small dominance. 4 often, with 1/20 dominance. 5 often, with 1/5 dominance. 6 any number, with 1/4 to 1/3 dominance. 7 any number, with 1/3 to 1/2 dominance. 8 any number, with 1/2 to 3/4 dominance. 9 any number, with dominance more than 3/4, but less than complete. 10 any number, with complete dominance. These values were applied to each species in each layer in which i t occurred. Values representing vitality were added to the total estimate value as an index, according to the following scale: 0 germinating, but not surviving, of ephemeral occurrence. 1 feeble, but able to survive. 2 strong, but not reaching maximum vigour. 3 well developed, with maximum vigour and development normally found in the species. The tree layer was characterized by measurement of the height and age of representative trees of each species and the diameter at breast height of a l l trees larger than four inches. Prom these data the average height of dominants and codominants was calculated by averaging the height of the upper fifty-five percent of trees, heights having been obtained from a height/diameter curve constructed for each species on each plot. Site index for Douglas-fir was de-termined from the curves given by McArdle and Meyer (1949). Volumes per acre were derived from various volume tables used by the Research Division of the British Columbia Forest Service. The number of trees per acre, average diame-ter and basal area were also calculated. The density of the shrub layer was determined by line interception (Canfield 1941). Ten lines, 50 feet long, approximately 6 feet apart, were run across each plot just above the level of the shrubs. The length of line covered by a vertical projection of the leaf surfaces was recorded and data summarised as percentage of interception. The average height of bushes crossed by the line was noted. Large leaved harbaceous plants, such as Lysichitum americanum and the larger ferns, were also measured by this method. In the case of ferns such as Polystichum muniturn, the length of line covered by a circle described around the clump was recorded as the amount of inter-ception. The line interception method involved some personal interpretation, particularly with higher bushes, because the line should always have been viewed directly from above to judge accurately the length intercepted. How-ever, the additonal accuracy gained by the use of a plumb line did not appear to warrant the extra time involved. The plants of the herb layer were evaluated by the frequency method (Raunkiaer 1943, Braun-Blanquet 1951). The size of the frequency frame (2 25 dm) was gauged so that a reasonable number of species f e l l within each frame. The frame was too small to describe accurately the frequency of occur-rence of such large herbs as Polystichum muniturn and Lysichktum americanum which were, therefore, also evaluated by line interception. Eighty to one hundred frames per plot were tallied. The frames were set 5 feet apart along the lines used for the line interception tallies. Results were expressed as the percentage of frames in which a species occurred. The mosses and lichens growing on the ground were evaluated by the point frequency method (Levy and Madden 1933). A ten-point frame, one decimeter square constructed from 10-guage steel wire, was moved along the tape used for line interception at 5-foot intervals. The species in contact with each point was recorded at the eighty to one hundred spots on which the frame was set. Results were expressed as the percentage of ground covered by the various species encountered. 17 SOILS Soil profile characteristics, the amount of stones and gravel, and the texture and organic content of the fine soil were studied as the principal soil properties determining water storage capacity. The description of soil profiles was based on the terminology of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Survey Manual (Handbook No.18, 1951), with the use of additional terms for organic layers and soils given by Hoover and Lunt (1952) and Wilde (1954). In addition to field descriptions, soil monoliths from eleven typical profiles were treated with vinylite resin (Smith and Moodie 1947) and preserved for laboratory examination. The particle size classes used in this study were based on those of the International Scale (Soil Survey Manual 1951). These classes were: more than 25 mm. - stones and coarse gravel 25 - 5 mm. - medium gravel 5 - 2 mm. - fine gravel 2 - .02 mm. - sand .02 - .002 mm. - silt less than - .002 mm. - clay The proportions by volume of stones and coarse gravel, medium gravel, and the 5 mm. fraction were determined by analysing soil blocks of known size. The soil from blocks 20 cm. by 50 cm. by 20 cm. deep was separated by sieving and the volume of each fraction measured by displacement of water. Pore space was estimated by subtracting the volume of mineral soil (i.e. volume of water displaced) from the original volume of the block (20,000 ml.). Soil blocks were removed by two decimeter intervals down to the hardpan or to a depth of one meter which covered the normal root zone in most profiles. One series of determinations was made on each plot. Measurements were made at the end of the summer when soils were dry, facilitating field sieving and reducing error in pore space estimation resulting from an apparent increase in mineral soil volume attributable to soil moisture. Wet soils from certain profiles v . - . 18 were allowed to air dry before sieving. The proportions by weight of the fractions larger than 2 mm. were de-termined by sieving. A mechanical analysis of the 2 mm. fraction was made by the hydrometer method, according to the procedure prescribed by the American Society for Testing Materials (1944). In the determination of the volume weight of the 25 mm. soil fraction, the volume occupied by a sample was found by pouring enough dry sand into a plastic bag to f i l l the hole left by excavating the sample. The volume of the sand was measured in a graduate and the weight of soil found on oven drying. Sample weight was divided by sample volume to obtain volume weight and the values for each decimeter depth interval were averaged for five pits on each plot. Concretions were common in many soils. Samples of the medium and fine gravel fractions were heated in a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and potassium dichromate to reduce them to simple mineral particles. The residual material greater than 5 or 2 mm. (the lower limits of the medium and fine gravel fractions) was separated by sieving and the weight determined after oven drying. Results were expressed as the proportions of the gravel fractions which were actually composed of gravel particles and the proportions which were constituted of concretions of finer materials. Organic matter content was determined by the wet combustion method, as outlined in the Sampling Procedures and Methods of Analysis for Forest Soils (Forest Soils Committee of the Douglas-fir Region 1953). Determinations of pH were made using sieved, air-dried soils, rewetted to a saturated paste (Richards 1954). Measurements were made with a Beckmaa N-2 glass electrode pH meter. WEATHER AND MICROCLIMATE Measurements of precipitation, evaporation and temperature were taken 19 to evaluate the microclimate of plots and record seasonal variations. The amount of precipitation reaching the ground within a plot was measured using four raingauges per plot. The gauges used on the plots were made from two 105-oz. cans soldered together, giving a total capacity of 35 cm. of rain-f a l l . This amount proved inadequate during certain wet months, necessitating some interpolation of results. Seasonal variation was recorded by measure-ments at weekly intervals during the summer of 1951, twice monthly in the summer of 1952 and monthly during other periods of the study. Plot records were ter-minated in November 1953. Nine additional gauges were placed on four of the Wolf Mountain plots during part of the study. These gauges were used as a check on the adequacy of four gauges for measurement of the precipitation penetrating the canopy. Average rainfall reaching the gauges within the plots was subtracted from total rainfall measured at adjacent open stations outside stands to obtain the amounts intercepted. Results were expressed as the per-centage of total rainfall which failed to reach the ground. Water reaching the ground by running down tree trunks was not measured because none was pre-sent during the summer which appeared to be the only season in which interception played a prominent part in influencing soil moisture contents. Porous porcelain atmometers (Livingston 1935) were used to measure evap-oration at three open stations and within the subordinate vegetation of each plot* Measurements were made at 5 cm. and 100 cm. above the ground* A mercury valve, held in place by lambs wool plugs was incorporated with each at-mometer to prevent entrance of rainwater (Daubenmire 1947). On the Fourth Lake and Wolf Mountain plots black bulb atmometers were placed alongside the 5-cm. white bulbs to compare the radiant energy reaching ground level on the different plots. Readings of evaporation were taken at weekly intervals June through September 1951 and twice monthly May through September 1952. The atmometers were standardised in the customary manner (Daubenmire 1947), correction co-20 efficients being obtained by comparison with standard bulbs supplied by Mrs. Burton E. Livingston. Air temperatures on the Wolf Mountain and Fourth Lake plots were measured with Six's type maximum/minimum thermometers placed one meter above the ground. Monthly records were taken June through October 1953. Soil surface temperatures on each plot and at adjacent open stations were also measured with Six's type thermometers. The thermometers were buried with the tops of the bulbs approximately one-half of one centimeter beneath the soil surface. This placed them within the l i t t e r layer in most cases. Readings were taken weekly June through September 1951, twice monthly May through Sept-eu*er 1952 and monthly during other periods of the study. Plot records were terminated in November 1953, although measurements at the open stations were continued until November 1955. Soil temperatures were measured whenever soil moisture was sampled. During the direct sampling soil temperatures were measured by inserting a thermometer into the side of the pits at various depths (5, 15, 30, 60, 80 and 100 cm.). The thermometer was enclosed in a pointed armoured case for pro-tection. Thermistors were incorporated with the fibreglas soil moisture units used for soil moisture determination (Colman and Hendrix 1949). Readings were interpreted from the calibration curves constructed for each thermistor. Soil temperatures were taken semi-monthly June through December 1951 and monthly from May 1952 until November 1953. SOIL MOISTURE Soil moistures were determined both by direct and indirect sampling methodSo Samples for direct measurement were obtained by digging pits because the soils of most plots were stony and samplers could not be used. Sampling 31 was by decimeter intervals down to the hardpan or to a depth of one meter. Pits were refilled on completion of sampling, with the exception of one pit on each pot which was left open to observe fluctuations in the level of any water table that might be present. Moisture contents were determined by oven drying the 5 mm. fraction of these samples at 105°C» and results were expressed as a percentage of dry weight. During part of the study a 4 mm. wire mesh screen was used for sieving the field samples. The effect of this variation in sieve size on moisture values was unimportant. Fiberglas electrical resistance units were selected for indirect measure-ments because they were supplied with thermistors enabling temperature measure-ments to be made at the same time as moisture readings (Colman and Hendrix 1949). The meter used with these units was also more convenient to operate than those used with other types of units. It has been shown that electrical resistance units are sensitive over a wide range of soil moistures (Kelley et al 1946), and that the fiberglas units have as good a range of sensitivity and accuracy of response as other types of units (Palplant and Lull 1953). Since this study was conducted in leached soils, no complication through the effects of salt concentration in the soil solution was anticipated. The units were inserted into the side of pits at depths of approximately 5, 15, 30, 50, 80 and 120 cm. where profiles were deep enough, or down to the hardpan in shallower soils. The leads from the units were connected to a rotary selector switch enabling rapid measurement of moisture and temperature values (Fig. 17). One bank of units was placed on each plot. Although i t has been recommended that units be calibrated in undisturbed soils (Hendrix and Colman 1951), the 5 mm. soil fraction was used in this study because of the difficulty of obtaining undisturbed samples in the gravelly soils encountered and because the major emphasis was on variation in available moisture. 22 Wilting percentage is more closely related to texture and organic content than to structure. Sieved samples also had greater uniformity because variation in the coarse gravel content of unsieved samples disproportionately influenced their dry weight and therefore moisture percentage. Several methods of calibration were tested. It was found that although calibration took longer, there was a more even distribution of moisture in closed containers than in screen boxes, such as those used by Kelley (1944). The units were calibrated in small cans (1 x 1 x 2 in.), f i l l e d with soil from the locations where the units had been buried. Drying was earried out at 100°F. Following an equilibration period at 60°F., the cans were weighed and the corres-ponding resistances measured. A drying cycle of six readings from saturation to below wilting percentage occupied about two weeks, with an average of five dry-ing cycles per unit being needed for good calibration. Percentage moisture was calculated on the basis of the oven dry weight of soil, determined at the end of the calibration period. Calibration curves were plotted for each unit. The original units used during the field study were accidentally destroyed before moisture calibration had been undertaken. Calibration was done on new units, using the soil in which the originals had been embedded in the field. Ten units from this new lot were tested to find the variability that might be expected among units. Calibration curves for each of these units were deter-mined in the same sample soil. Although variation was appreciable (4 to 10 percent) at the higher moisture percentages, variation near wilting percentage was less than one percent. Variation among the higher values was probably largely attributable to the effects of structure and packing, noted by Hendrix and Colman (1951). It was therefore assumed that the calibration curves ob-tained using the substitute units could be applied to the field readings* Field readings were corrected for temperature before the corresponding moisture 23 percentages were interpreted. The 15-atmosphere percentage was used as an indirect measurement of wilting percentage (Richards and Weaver 1943). Direct measurements using sunflowers (Briggs and Shantz 1912, Daubenmire 1947) were not made because in many of the soils sampled sunflower root growth was too poor to obtain satis-factory results. The procedure was also considered too lengthy for the num-ber of samples involved. The 1/3-atmosphere percentage was determined as a measure of field capacity (Richards and Weaver 1944). Although no laboratory procedure using sieved soils can be entirely accurate because field capacity is largely dependent on soils structure, the l/3-atmosphere percentage appeared to be a convenient value to indicate when soils were nearing saturation. Values obtained by this method usually corresponded to field moisture contents after soils had drained to field capacity following heavy rainfall. Wilting percentages (15-atmosphere percentages) and field capacities (l/3-atmosphere percentages) were determined with a pressure membrane apparatus. The procedures followed were similar to those outlined by Richards (1954), ex-cept that extractions were made on the 5 ram. soil fraction using a Visking membrane at both pressures. Extractions at the higher pressure (220 p.s.i.) were made for 24 hours, by which time water was no longer expressed. Organic layers required 48 hours or longer. Samples extracted at the lower pressure (5 p.s.i.) also required 48 hours before equilibrium was reached. A standard sample of known soil moisture constants was included with each batch of samples. With variations of less than 2 percent in the standard value, a correction fac-tor was applied to the values for the samples. Where the variation was great-er a new extraction was made. Wilting percentages were determined from subsamples of all the samples dug for direct measurement and all the soils surrounding resistance units. Field 24 capacity was determined for very wet samples. Available moisture was calcu-lated by subtracting wilting percentage from field moisture and the presence of gravitational water was noted in those samples which were above field capacity. The depth of available water in the profile was calculated by multiphying soil depth (excluding the amount occupied by stones and coarse gravel) by the volume weight of the 25 mm. fraction and the percentage of available moisture. It was assumed that the water held by the gravel of the 5-25 mm. fraction was negligible. Seasonal variations in available moisture were followed for a thirty-month period. Each plot was sampled nine times by direct measurement between June 1951 and September 1952. Readings of the resistance units were made from Octo-ber 1952 until November 1953. RESULTS CLIMATE Precipitation. Mean annual precipitation for the period 1952 to 1956 decreased from west to east in the study area, the Fourth Lake station receiving 107 inches, the Valley station 77 inches and the Deadwood Creek station 54 inches (Table 2). This trend paralleled that shown by other stations on Vancouver Island in com-parable locations. During the same period an average of 121 inches was recorded at Nitinat Camp in the central mountains, 88 inches at Cowichan Lake further east and 43 inches at Duncan near the east coast (Fig. 18). Annual precipita-tion in the western part of the central mountain range was similar to that re-ceived on the west coast (e.g. Pachena Point 125 in.). The pattern of de-creasing rainfall from west to east occurred because the prevailing rainbearing winds were westerly and the central mountains caused a rainshadow on their lee-ward side. This rainshadow effect became intensified towards the east coast of 25 the Island and was continued onto the adjacent mainland of British Columbia. Total rainfall during the summer months (June, July, August) of 1951 to 1956 averaged 5.9 inches at Fourth Lake, 4.7 inches at the Valley station and 3.2 inches at Deadwood Creek, again showing an intensification of the rain-shadow effect towards the eastern end of the study area. The same trend may be noted from the averages for Nitinat Camp, Cowichan Lake and Duncan (Table 2). However, in summer the rainshadow area was displaced further to the west, with Nitinat Camp receiving l i t t l e more than half the rainfall measured at Pachena Point (Table 2.). This displacement occurred because during periods of light rainfall clouds coming from the west dropped most of their moisture on the western coastal belt, leaving only a small proportion to f a l l farther east. In high rainfall periods a larger amount of moisture s t i l l remained after the clouds had passed the coastal belt and the western part of the central mountains received as much precipitation as the west coast. Thus, although annual rain-f a l l at the western end of the study area was comparable to the wet climate of the west coast outside the rainshadow area, during the growing season even the westerly plots were within the rainshadow area. A comparison of the precipitation recorded at the station on the valley floor and another 250 feet higher up an adjacent sidehill in the Valley area showed that rainfall increased with altitude. The mean annual precipitation was 78 inches on the valley floor compared with 85 inches at the upper station. In summer the average was 4.7 inches at the lower station and 5.0 inches at the upper station. Records from another pair of stations on Echo Mountain also showed the same trend (Appendix IV). The importance of local rainshadows in modifying such trends was, however, shown by the records for the Valley and Echo Mountain stations. Although the latter was 750 feet higher i t received much the same summer rainfall (4.7 inches at Valley, 4.8 inches at Echo Mountain) and the difference in rainfall over the entire year was only ten inches. The 26 TABLE 2. THE CLIMATE OF THE NANAIKO RIVER VALLEX COMPARED WITH OTHER STATIONS Oil VANCOUVER ISLAM STATION LOCATION PEEC1PITATI0N (inches) TEHPERATORE 1°?) S U H E E R * W N T E R ' POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION1 ail 3 s 3s § i 11 a o> S 3 3 i § s •g •c s. c i i I'd s i i n Is ad S i NANA1U0 RIVER Deedeood Creek 49 07 124 09 750 54 3.2 . 87 49 15 36 -Valley 49 05 124 17 650 77 4.7 88 49 16 36 -Echo Mountain 49 06 124 20 1400 88 4.8 84 40 18 28 -fourth Lake 49 05 124 24 1000 107 5.9 88 48 15 . 34 , • EAST COAST Victoria' 48 31 123 25 • 730 35 3.0 83 38 25 25 274 Duncan - 48 47 123 43 • 28 43 3.2 93 48 20 33 156 Caasldy 49 04 123 54 104 40 3.2 85 44 18 32 182' Cumberland 49 39 125 01 523 58 4.5 88 48 20 35 •154 CENTRAL MOUNTAINS Cowiohan Lake 48 49 124 08 580 88 5.2 85 44 18 30 174 Nitinat Camp 48 55 124 29 560 121 6.0 BEST COAST Paohena Point 48 43 125 06 150 125 10.4 70 28 24 26 196 Eatevan Point 49 23 126 32 21 121 10.9 68 26 25 24 227 i 54 7 26 13 50 26 14 54 23 12 52 25 13 52 24 12 50 41 11 SO* 10 72 T 10 87* 8 17 16 25 13 30 11 42 9 24 24 10 42 11 44 I?" 97 87 1 After Thorntheaite (1948). 1 Summer - June, July, August. J Winter - December, January, February. * T-E - Thermal efficiency. 5 Surplus and deficiency calculated using potential evapotranspiration for Cassldy. * Surplus and deficiency calculated using potential evapotranspiration for Albernl. 'Surplus and deficiency calculated using potential evapotranspiration for Cumberland. 6 Surplus and deficiency calculated using potential evapotranspiration for Cowichan Lake. 'Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (Little Saanich fountain]. B Lady smith. u Surplus and deficiency calculated using potential evapotranspiration for Cowichan Lake. PLATE 71, Figure 18 PLATE "71 • Location of weather stations. Figure 18. Location of weather stations on Vancouver Island and the coastal mainland of British Columbia Echo Mountain station was located on the leeward side of Tangle Mountain (Fig. 1). Within the rainshadow area, precipitation decreased from north to south as well as from west to east (Table 2). At the Valley station, which was some eight miles from the east coast, summer rainfall was much the same as at Cumberland only three miles inland, but thirty minutes latitude (35 miles) farther north. However, this trend from north to south was less predictable than the west to east trend. Parksville, for example, averaged a lower annual rainfall than Cassidy to the south and for the period 1952 to 1956 Duncan re-ceived less rainfall than Cassidy to the north, even though the average rain-f a l l at Cassidy is greater than at Duncan. Topographic features which cause local rainshadows and variations in the distribution of weather systems bring about deviations from the general trends. TEMPERATURE High maxima in summer, low minima in winter and a wide range of temper-atures during both seasons were recorded at a l l the stations in the study area. The values recorded were comparable to those measured at other stations of the eastern coastal belt and central mountains of Vancouver Island (Table 2). Such temperature regimes are characteristic of the "continental" climate of in-land areas and coastal belts where offshore winds are prevalent. By contrast, the stations of the west coast had lower summer maxima, higher winter minima and smaller ranges, characteristic of ••maritime" climates where the moderating in-fluence of the sea is carried inland by frequent onshore winds (Sanderson 1948). Temperatures at Victoria, at the southern end of the eastern coastal belt, are also moderated because of the prevalence of onshore winds (Chapman 1952). Summer temperatures on the east coast and in the central mountains were, there-fore, fairly warm compared with those on the west coast, the difference in mean temperatures being 4 to 8°F. (Appendix I). This difference is even more pronounced when mean maximum temperatures were compared (13° - 15°F.). Summer maxima recorded at the Echo Mountain station were lower than . those measured at other stations in the study area. Winter minima were also higher and the range of temperatures smaller. The lower maximum temperatures were presumably partly attributable to the greater altitude of this station. However, the higher minima and smaller range would indicate that the station was also situated in the thermal belt* Extreme temperatures, particularly minimum temperatures, are moderated in the thermal belt because accumulations of cold air occur less readily at midslope than on the valley floor (Daubenmire 1947). In the Valley area the smaller mean monthly range of temperatures at the side-h i l l station, compared with those recorded on the valley floor, clearly demon-strated this feature. In summer the monthly range was 43°F. on the sidehill and 47°F. on the valley floor, whereas in winter i t was 28°F. on the sidehill and 35°F. on the valley floor. However, minor variations also occurred between stations at the same altitude. Minima at the Cabin station were consistently one or two degrees lower than at the Deadwood Creek station less than one mile away across relatively level terrain (Appendix I). Local differences in air drainage were probably responsible for such variations. The best measure of the length of growing season for native vegetation is the calendar of phonological events. From the data recorded on such occur-rences as the appearance and increase in size of new Polystichum fronds and the yellowing and f a l l of Aohlys leaves in the autumn, i t was apparent that the growing season in the study area extended from early May until mid October. It was also noted that similar events in spring on the Fourth Lake plots were a week to- two weeks later than at the eastern end of the valley. Variation in response of individual species and edotypes would, of course, result in 30 d i f f e r e n c e i n t he l eng ths of t h e i r growing p e r i o d s . The l e n g t h o f the f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d i s another commonly used measure o f the l e n g t h o f the growing season . The l e n g t h of t h i s pe r iod may serve t o i l l u s t r a t e v a r i o u s trends found on Vancouver I s l a n d , even though i t has more d i r e c t s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r c u l t i v a t e d t r o p i c a l p l a n t s g rowing beyond t h e i r n a t -u r a l range than i t does f o r v e g e t a t i o n n a t i v e t o temperate r e g i o n s . The s t a t i o n s w i t h a mar i t ime c l i m a t e , such as Pachena P o i n t and V i c t o r i a , have a much l o n g e r f r o s t f r e e pe r iod than those o f t he east coas t and c e n t r a l mount-a i n s w i t h t h e i r c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e (Connor 1949) . On the east coas t t he more n o r t h e r l y s t a t i o n s have a shor t e r f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d than do s t a t i o n s f a r t h e r s o u t h . The s t a t i o n s i n the c e n t r a l mountains may a l s o have a shor t f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d . Duncan, however, i l l u s t r a t e s how l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s may cause d e v i a t i o n f rom these t r e n d s . The Duncan s t a t i o n , b e i n g l o c a t e d i n a f r o s t - p o c k e t a r ea , has an average f r o s t - f r e e season of 156 days , b a r e l y l onge r than the 154 days recorded a t Cumberland, f i f t y - f i v e minutes l a t i t u d e (60 m i l e s ) f a r t h e r n o r t h and 500 f ee t h ighe r i n e l e v a t i o n . The f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d at Cowichan Lake of 175 days i s p robab ly l o n g e r than many i n l a n d p o i n t s because of t he p r o x i m i t y o f the r eco rd ing s t a t i o n t o t h e L a k e . S i n c e d a i l y temperature r e c o r d s were not t aken a t the s t a t i o n s i n the study a rea i t was not p o s s i b l e to compare l eng ths of f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d s . A comparison of the average number o f months w i t h monthly minimum tempera-tu re s g rea t e r than 3 2 ° F . shows t ha t t he s t a t i o n s on the v a l l e y f l o o r averaged 3 l / 2 t o 4 1/2, whereas t h e Echo Mounta in stat ion, i n t h e thermal b e l t , averaged 5 months. Dur ing the same p e r i o d other s t a t i o n s i n t h e c e n t r a l mountains and on t he eas t coast averaged 3 3/4 t o 4 3/4 months. The s t a t i o n s of t he west coas t and V i c t o r i a average 5 1/2 to 7 months, i n d i c a -t i v e o f t h e i r mar i t ime c l i m a t e s . 31 Another indication of the relative climates of the various stations in the Nanaimo River Valley was the depth and duration of the snow pack. Cold temperatures and precipitation controlled snow depth, while warm temperatures affected its duration. For the period 1952 to 1956 the average maximum depth of the snow pack at Fourth Lake was 38 inches, at the Valley station i t was 19 inches and 8 inches at Deadwood Creek. In the winters of 1951/52 and 1953/54, snow remained at Fourth Lake and Echo Mountain into April, by which time the ground was only partially covered in the Valley area and was clear at Deadwood Creek. In 1956 even at the end of March the snow pack was s t i l l at its maxi-mum of from 5 to 6 feet at Fourth Lake and from 3 to 4 feet on Echo Mountain, but i t was only 6 inches deep at the Valley station, and the Deadwood Creek area was largely free from snow. From the available data i t may be seen that the study area was influenced by a continental type of climate with relatively warm summers. There was an increase in length of the growing season from west to east paralleling the in-crease from the central mountains to the east coast and from north to south. WATER BALANCE Average annual thermal efficiencies, calculated according to the potential evapotranspiration formula proposed by Thornthwaite (Thornthwaite and Mather 1955) were similar for various stations on Vancouver Island (Table 2). It may be noted, however, that average summer thermal efficiencies were greater at the east coast and central mountain stations than at the west coast stations. The summer percentages were therefore greater at the stations with a continental climate (50 percent or more) than at the stations of the west coast with a mari-time climate (42 to 44 percent). Using Thornthwaite's concept that water balances (surpluses and defic-iencies) may be determined by subtracting potential evapotranspiration from precipitation, i t can be seen that the potential surpluses and deficiencies at various stations on Vancouver Island were chiefly dependent on rainfall d i s t r i -bution because most stations had rather similar potential evapotranspirations (thermal efficiencies). As potential evapotranspirations at the stations of the east coast and central mountains were much alike, i t may be assumed that the values for the stations in the Nanaimo River Valley would not differ greatly from those of other stations with similar climates, where mean deaily temperatures have been recorded. Such values were therefore used to determine water balances in the study area. The largest potential surpluses and the smallest potential deficiencies occurred at Fourth Lake (Table 2 and Appendix I). Potential sur-pluses decreased and potential deficiencies increased further east. These trends paralleled those from west to east and north to south present among other stations on Vancouver Island. The increased deficiencies in the rainshadow areas were also partly attributable to their increased summer potential evap-otranspirations • VEGETATION Pseudotsuga menziesii - Pinus contorta - Gaultheria shallon - Peltigera  canina - Peltigera aphthosa association Pseudotsuga menziesii was the main component of the tree layers, with other species forming a negligible proportion of the stands studied (Tables 3 and 8). Even at maturity, however, the average height of the dominant and co-dominant Pseudotsuga was l i t t l e more than 100 f t . and average diameter at breast height only 18 inches. Despite the fairly large number of stems per acre, the small stature of the trees resulted in small basal areas and volumes per acre. In the Fourth Lake plot (Ll) volume per acre was further decreased by the pre-sence of openings caused by rock outcrops. The Valley plot (L2), situated on a small ridge at the side of the valley floor, had a somewhat higher site index than normal for the association, and this was reflected in the larger basal area 33 and volume per acre. Pinus contorta was occasionally present in the lower tree layer (e.g. Plot L3) of mature stands, but it was more commonly present as clumps or scattered individuals a few inches in diameter and from twenty to forty feet high. Tsuga heterophylla was uncommon in the tree layer, occurring mostly in groups with individuals up to 40 ft. high. Pinus monticola. though infrequent, occurred more often in this association than in others. Low, scattered Gaultheria shallon was the predominant plant of the shrub layer. Local concentrations of Tsuga heterophylla, four or five feet high, were present on some plots, particularly at the western end of the valley. Pseudotsuga menziesii was also present in the shrub layer on the Wolf Mountain plot (L5). Arctostaphyllos Columbiana was a characteristic, though infrequent, shrub, occurring mostly in the more open parts of stands. The most common species of the herb layer were Linnaea borealis, Chimaphila umbellata. Goodyera oblongifolia, Mahonia nervosa and Arctostaphyllos  uva-ursi. Boschniakia hookeri was also a constant component. Pseudotsuga seedlings were scattered throughout, with seedlings of other species being rare. The most common species among the mosses of the moss-lichen layer were Hylocomium splendens and Eurhynchium oreganum, with Camptothecium megaptilum,  Galliergonella schreberi. Polytrichum spp. and Rhacomitrium spp., mosses characteristic of the association, forming extensive patches in some plots. Lichens, such as Oladonia spp., Peltigera spp. and Stereocaulon spp. were also common on the ground. Other lichens, particularly Alectoria spp. Usnea plicata,  Sphaerophorus globosus, Cetraria spp. and Lobaria oregana, on the bark of trees, were a very conspicuous feature of the association. Pseudotsuga menziesii - Gaultheria shallon association Pseudotsuga menziesii was again the predominant species of the tree layer, with the dominants and codominants averaging from 147 to 175 ft. 34 TABLE 3; TOTAL ESTIMATE ANALYSIS OP TVS P5KUP0T8U0A UEHZIES11 - PIHUS  COHTOHTA - GAULTHERIA SHALLOW - PELTIGERA CAH1HA - PELTIGERA APHTHOSA ASSOCIATION PLOTS PLOT L5 PLOT U PLOT L3 PLOT L2 PLOT U 0«t« Bwlyawl 10 Ju i» '52 5 11 July'31 19 JWM ' 52 2 Aug'53 Altltuda (ft .) 1000 750 740 750 1570 Iipoaur. SSI I S* ss . • Slop. 20° 0 - 1 5 " 2" 0 - 25° 0 • 5° Hod M p o a u . * f + • +(+) I SB* SB» £]» sa» .£ 4« 3)» 4}» j?W C 30). 35* 35* 35* 25* D 30* 30* 60* 50* 25* Pseudotsuga neoslesli A2 Paaudotauga eeaftieail Pinus contorts Pious aootioole Tsuga hetaropaylle B l Tauga hetarophyll* Paaudotauga aanaiesil Ploua contorta Pima aoutleola B2 Gaultbaria ahalloa Pinua contorta Arctostapbyloa coluablaaa Paaudotauga • •na iaa l i Sa i l s eitchansis Tauga beteropnylla rioua aoDtioola, Yacdnlua pan i fo l lua Thuja plloata Bosa gyanocerpa Vacciniua aeabranaceua Abies granule Gaultheria aaallon Llnnaea boraalla Arotostapbylo* uva-ural l l lo t ropa virgata Slaraoiua elbiflorun Bosehniakle hookari Goodyare oblooglfolia Chlaaphila uabellata Vacoinlua par?ifallua Fastuca occidentalis Kabonla nervoaa Manoala aqulfollua Viola orbiculata Pyrola pict* var. dantata Apocynun androaaaalfoliua Paaudotauga aanaiesil Bubus v l t l f o l l u a •onotropa latisquaaa Chlaaphlla Benalesil Syopnorl c&rpo* aiollia Achlya t r ipbyl la Ptarldiua aquillnua Trientalia l a t i f o i l a Thuja plicata Pinua aonticola Polyaticbua aualtua Tauga beUrophylle Vacoinlua •eaDranaceua Pious contorta Boaa gyanooarpa Vacciniua alaskaaase Llatara cordata Bplloblun panlculatua Faatuca subulate Taius o r o l f o l l e Caapanula aooulari L i l l u a coluabianua Pyrola braoteata Calypso bulboaa Poly podium vulgar* Pyrola picta var. oreaata Maloa diveralf a l i a Vacciniua oval l fol lua PLOT L3 L2 U 1 7 l 7* 7 1 r +1 r 2' 3' I 1 r 21 2* -2 l 3 1 3' -2* - 21 7> 7 l lx 7" 6' - +' + ' - + 1 - + 1 - -1 3* 2 ' * + - • < +i 2 ' 1* 2 1 3* *•' * i' ..' : : :* : +* +* • * 2 a 3 l 3' K K K < 3 l a i ji 1 1 *• *^ K l\ 1 *t 4 1 3 1 4 • 2 1 l 1 D (on ground) ByloootiluB aplendeos Eurnynchiua oraganua Caaptothsciua oagaptllua Dioraaua acopariua Paltigara aphthosa Peltigera eanlna Paltigara polydaetyle Polytrichua junlparlnuB ePolytricb.ua p i l l ferua CaHlorgooella aohrabarl lulacoanlUB eadrogynua •Bhaooaitriua oanascaoa aBbaooaltriUB hetorostichua Bbacoaitriua lanuglooaua Cladonla grao l l la Cladonla aylvatica. Cladonla furcata Cladonla ranglfarioa Cladonla f iabriata Cladonla b a l l l d l f l o r a aCladanla pyxldata Cladonla v a r t l c l l l a t a Cladonla unciall a Cladonla aquaaoaa Cladonla daganarans Staraocaulon paaobala 3taraocaulon tooantoaua Dioranua Xuacasoana Pllophoron oaraolus Pllophoron H a l l l i Br/ua pallana Paaudotauga aanaiaail BoTtldiopala robuata BbTtidladalpbua trlquatrua Bhjtldiadalpbua loraua aBartraada poolforala •Paaudlaotnaalua atolonlfarua Dicranua atrlotua Dioraaua bonjaanil Oloranoaaiaia olrrhata •Mnlua aplnuloaua Tauga bataropn/lla D (on decaying wood) Dicranua tuacaaoans Hypnua cirolnala lulaconniua androgynua Cladonla pyzldata Surnynohlun oragaoua Byloooalua aplandana Paltigara aphtboaa Cladonla graol l la Cladonla ba l l l d l f l o r a Cladonla f iabriata Cladonla nacilsnta Cladonla aquaaoaa Cladonla v a r t l o i l l a t a Cladonla aubsquaaoaa Cladonla furcata Paltigara aanlna Dicranua atrlotua Paaudlaotbaolua stolonlfarua Soapanla bolandari Bbytldiadalphus loraua Bhytldiadalphua trlquatrua i n t l t r i e h l a cuxtipaodul* Calliargooalla aohrabarl Polytriohua Junlparlnua Capbalosla lauoantba Capbaloala oadla Dioraaua asoparlua Dloranoaalsla oirrbata Plagiothaciua dontloulatua Lophooolaa hatarophyli* Blapharoatoaa trlcbopbjilua Oobrolaebia tartaraa Protoeocoua v l r i d i a L$ L4 L3 L2 U 3 1 U1 ^ C i\ 4 1 4' 4 1 i>\ 2) y 3> 3X 32 y K 3\ K K 2\ 2> 3 > 2 i 2t 2 i 2* 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 - - l l 3 1 3 s 2 1 3^ +• l a 3 3 h 2> 1* y 2 1 l ' -I 1 l 1 + a 2 J 2* 2 s l 1 1 I 1 + » . - 2 i -2* 21 +1 I 1 \ \ +1 *l A> r r i1 +: i • * TJ 2 5 -+ * +» i J 3 ^ 2 - - 3> +' +> * J - 2 1 + +a t> 2 1 1 l 1 - - I 1 +: D (on traaa) On PsEnDOToDGl HEHZIGS21 alaotoria aaraantoaa Sphaarophorus globoaua Paxaalla phyaodaa Catrarla laouooaa Catraxla glauoa Catrarla acutata Haphromopala c t l i a r i a Bypnus olrcinala Cladonla aacllenta Alaotoria oragana Uactora Jubata . Ocnrolashia upaallanaio Lobaila oragaaa Danaa plicata Latbaxia vulplaa -Dioraaua fuacaaeana Dioranua atrlotua Cladonla furcata ayaoblaatufl aangulnarlua ayooblaatua alpinua Oohrolaenla tartaraa I n l aj.fti.nl um andfOgyPUM Dioranovolaia clrrnata -RurhyncM.ua oraganua Partusaria aablgaos i.5 U -3 12 U 3 J * ' 3\ l ! 5^ 2 1^  1 J 2 3* 3 j 2 1 l 1 2 a 2 1 l 1 2 1 3 3 2 a 2 1 -. - 3> . 3^ 1 J I S l a -2 1 2 J - 2* l ' + 1 I 1 2 a 2 l 3 ? 2 J 2 1 l l - 2 J • * +* - - 2 J - 1» 1* - -2 l I 1 1* 2 s 2 l - ll 2 1 -l 3 Graphls ap. - - • on PIuTC CONTORT! l 1 Paralalia phyaodaa I 1 - •Catrarla glauoa l l • J l l 2* Catrarla laouooaa + 1 i l a c t o r i a aaraantoaa + a * -alactoria Jubata -alaotoria oragaaa * * * -Hypnua olrcinala * - Danaa pl icata * * - Cladonla aacilanta * -- Partusaria aablgaos - + 1 - •Myooblaatus aangulnarlua - +3 • a -Catrarla acutata --Surhyncblua oragaoua - --Dicranua str lctua - * Cronartlua oarEoaasll - 2 1 on TSDGA BBTEBOPHXLU Paxaalla phyaodaa Lobaria oragaaa Catrarla glauoa -Surbyncbiua oraganua Byloooaiua aplandana Paaudisotbeoiua stolonlfarua Frul laa la nlsquallaaaia F t l l i d i u a callfornlcua Poralla naTicularla oa PIHUS M0HT1CCLA Catrarla lacunoaa •Catrarla glauoa Catrarla acutata Raphroaopaia o l l l a x i a •Lobaria oragana Hypnua olrcinala Paraella phyaodaa Sphaarophorus globoaua Cladonla aacilanta alactoria jubata Alactoria oragaaa -Dioraaua fusoaaoana XurhyncblUB oraganua Alactoria saraantosa Partusaria oultlpunata -Frul laa la olaquallanala - - 1' •* I 1 -Tba aaln ouaaral i o aacb column ia tha tota l estimate value for aaoh apacies, based on a seala froa > to 10. Tha lodai rapraaaota the v i t a l i t y , on a scale t'roa 0 to 3. Interpretation of eyabolsi a Largely on exposed rook and stones. " Largely on dead branches - Largely at tba basas of traaa 35 T A B L E 4 : TOTAL ESTIMATE ANALYSIS OF THE PSEUDOTSUGA M B H Z I B S I I - OAULTHBRIA  SHALLOW AND THE PSEUDOTSUOA H B M Z 1 B S U - ISUOA HETEROPHYLLA - GAULTHERIA  SHALLOW ASSOCIATION PLOTS Dat* analysed A l t i t u d e ( f l . ) Exposure S l o p * Wind exposure C o v s n A l PSSUDOTSUGi • GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT 0) PLOT 04 PLOT 06 PLOT 03 13 i U f ' 5 2 6 June'52 11 Aug"52 880 SW 10° 3S« 25» 720 S t 12° <2I<« Z K S10 rS)w 35* 18 Aug'52 870 11 20° + aw 35< 30* P3MD0T3UGA - TSUGA -GAULTH&KIA ASS'H. PLOT 01 . PLOT 02 2 Aug'53 12 J i O j ' 2 1 H 2 0 1700 35K Pa audo tsuga aenmiaei i Tsuga hatarophjrlla A2 Fsaudotsuge M D I I M U Tsuga heteropt iv l la Thuja p l i c a t e Pinus a o n t i e o l * Chaaaecy parts nootkatensia B I Tsuga he t s rophy l l a Thuja p l i o a t a Ps*udo tsuga M D k l M l i Pioua aon t l oo l a Chaae*ayparia nootkatenaie Bolodiscus d i s c o l o r Abies grandl* Abies e n a n U l s Pinus 0 0 0 t o r t * B2 Gaul to* r i * • h a l l o o Vaoalniua p a r * I f o i l ua Thuja p l i c a t e Tsuga b e t e r o p h / l l * B O M gyanocarpa Psaudotsug* a e n x i e a i l Ab le* grandl a Chaasaoyparia 'nootkatensia Pinus a o n t i e o l * vaoc in lua aaabrenaceua Yaealnlua o v a l i f o l i u a Aulas a a a b l l l a Holodlsouo d i s c o l o r G a u l U i s r l a s h a l l o n Hahonla nervosa Ii i rtnae* b o r s a l l a 7acoiniua p a r v l x o l l u a Chlaaphi la umbellate Boschniak la hooka r l Goody* r* oblong I f o U a AlXotropa v i i g a t a Achlya t r i p h y l l * Bubus v i t i f o l i u s Po ly s t i chua auni tua P t e r i d i u a aquillmiB Boss gynnooarpa C o i a a p h i l * a e n s l e s i l Syaphorloerpoa a o l l l a Tsuga be te rophyl la Veco ln lua o v a l i f o l i u a Vacoin iua aewraneoeun P y r o l a p l a t * P y r o l a braatceta Bolodlaoua d i s c o l o r Gau l tua r l e or a t H o l l a Lonieere « p . Paatuaa ooo lden ta l l a Adenoonulon bloolor V i o l a o r b l o u l a t a C o r e l l o r h i s a aaoulata Veeeiniua aleakaense ft 3* 3? 3 " 3 * 5* 4* 3 l 3 1 3* 2 l 3 1 •< 11 C (oontlnuad) T r i a n t a l i s l a t i f o l i e Rypoohaerle r ad ioe ta Chaaaeajparis noctkatanals Pinus aon t l oo l a T r i l l i u a ovetua L l s t a r a cordate Polypodlua vu lgar* D (on ground) Hyloooalua splandans Kurhyiichiua oraganua Bhyt idiadelphua lo raus Rhr t ld lada lphua t r i que t rua R h y t l d l o p s i s robusta Caaptotheoiua aagep t i lua •Dioraaua asopariua aDiarenua fuaoascaaa • P o l y t r l a h u a jun ipa r inua e P a l t l g a r * aphthosa Hypnun o l r o i n a l e P l ag io thea iua d s n t i c u l a t u n Bhaooa i t r iua heteroat lahua Mniua punotatua alfnlun a * n a i * s l l Clao podium o r l o p i f o l i u * •Psaudisothaoiu* s t o l o a i f e r u a aPi lophoron h«i Pa sudo tsuga n e r n l e s i i Tsuga h a t a r o p h y l l * Thuja p l i c a t e D (on decaying wood) Hyloooaiua apisodana Eurhynohiua oraganua Soapanla bo landar i Dioranua fusoaaoans Dicranua acopariua Hjpnua o i r a i n a l a Hniua punotatua Caphaloaia aadia Clad0ni» a a o i l a n t a Ba j t id l ads lphus lo raus Paaudisothaoiua a t o l o n i f a r u a P l ag lo tbao lua undulatua Hhxt ld lopa io robusta l oaadoph l l a s r i o s t o r u a P t l l i d l u a puloharr iaua Scapanla uabrosa L a p i d o s i a raptans Aulaooanlua androgynua Caljrpogaia t r iohoaan ia Tsuga ha ta rophy l l a Paaudotauga a s n s l a s i i Thuja p l i o a t a D (on t r a a bark) on P5EUD0T3DGA IIENZIESII Dioranua fusosacens Sphaarophnrus globosus BJpnun o l r o i n a l a Cladonla a a o i l a n t a C a t r a r i a laounoaa C s t r a r i a a out a t* Haphroaopsis c d l i a r i s P a r a a l i a phjrsodss Oehrolaohla pal laaoans SB o. 3 05 04 G6 03 3 s 1* 5 3 5 1 2 ' +* 1° 2° 2 ' , 2 ' 2 1 +* l 1 I 1 0 (oontlnuad) Soapanla bo landar i P t l l i d l u a pu lens r r iaua Aulaooanlua androgjrnua -Eurnrnohlua oraganua -Faeudlaothaolua s t o l o n l f a r u a t l a c t n r i a aaraantoaa a l a o t o r i a Jubata Dioranua s t r l a t u a Dioranua soopariua ahTt id iadalpbus lo raus H/ooblastus sanguinarlus Cladonla suosquaaosa Cladonla b a l l i d l f l o r a P a r t u s a r i a aablgans Graphis s c r i p t * on PIHDo HOBTICOU Hypnua o l r o i n a l a P a r a a l l a pbjrsodas Dioranua fusoasoana Sphasrophorua globosua ^ C a t r a r i a laeunoaa Naphroaopsla o i l i a r i a Cladonla a a o i l a n t a Ochrolaehia pal lasoans P t i l l d i u a pu l sha r r i aua L o b a r i a oregana P a r t u s a r i a aablgans BhTtldladalphua lo raus Hj loooaiua aplandana -Eu in /noh iua oraganua on TSUGA HEH80FH2LLA grpoua oiroinala Cladonla a a o i l a n t a C a t r a r i a laounoaa Nsphroaopsia o l l i a r i o P a r t u s a r i a aablgans Soapanla bolandar i P a r a a l i a phjsodaa Dioranua fusMSoans Sphaarophorua globosua Oohrolaohia pallasoans Thalotraaa lapadinua -Eurn/nohlun oraganua -Psaudiaotbaoiua stolonUTsrua - B y l o c o a i u a splandana L o b a r i a oragana Kjoobloatus sangulnaxius RhTtldiadalpbus lo raus A l a o t o r i a t . on THUJA PUCATA Cladonla a a o i l a n t a L o b a r i a oragana •Hypnua o l r o i n a l a Dioranua fusoasoans 3phaarophorus globosua P a r a a l l a pbjsodss Ochrolaehia pal lasoans Soapanla bolandar i Thalo t raaa lapadinua lurhrDohiua oreganua Psaudiaotbaoiua s t o l o o l f a r u a BhjTtidladalpliua lo raus H/ loooaiua splandana A l a o t o r i a aaraantoaa Hyooblastus sanguinarlus i i 1 I 151 i E 3 SIS PLOT PLOT 05 G4 06 03 01 G2 Tha aa in nuaaral i n aaoh coluan i s tha t o t a l a s t i a a t e * a l u * f o r aaeh spaoias , Lasad on a s e a l * f roa + to 10, Tha indax repraaauts tba v i t a l i t y , on a sea l s f roa 0 to 3 . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n oT syaoolst a Large ly on exposed rook and stones. - Large ly at t h* bases ot t r a s s . 36 'TABLE 51 TOTAL BST1MATS ANALY8I8 Of THE P8EUD0T81)0A MET.Z1E8II - jSWiA HJTEHOPHYLLA - HYLOCOMIUM SPLlPiDgHB - EURHYPCHI1W OREOUCPM ASSOCIATION PLOTS PLOT U9 PLOT K2 PUT H I PLOT 113 PLOT H I Dtta l u l r t o d . 10 Jiu.*52 19 JunV52 5 JIUM '32 11 J u l / ' S l 2 AUA-'53 U t l t u c i . (rt.) 810 1600 TOO 650 1080 XipotUK SSI st sa KB w Slop. - 10° 20° *° 25° 25° Wind .zpoaur. + • (•) (•) Co t .n A l 60*} 75*1 60*1 12 10*80* 5*|e0* 20* 85* A3 40*J 5*J 50*J £ "?}•» ?}» C 5* 5* 5* D 10* it 60* • • 60*1 60(1 15*75* 20*(85* 20*J 30*j ?}* 5* 5* 70* 35* Paaudotauga M o i i u U Tauga heterophyUa Pinua aontleola Paaudotauga M I I M U Tauga heterophylla Thuja plloata A3 Tauga batamphylle Thuja plloata Paaudotauga -".f*"<1 iblaa graadla B l Tauga na^ropfaylla Thuja plloata iblaa graadla B2 Tauga neterophylla Thuja plloata Gaultheria ahalloa H5 8 J Vacoinlua parvlf o l lm Bubo* apaatabU iblaa graadla flilaajftlla aainlaall •aboala nervoaa Llanaea boraalla Viola orblculata Pyrola pleta Pyrola braotaata Monotropa unlflora •oQOtropa latlaqueaa L i s t e n oordata Corallorhita aaoulata 'Vacoinlua parvlfollua ry,* M p h i i f uBballata Ichlya t r ipby l l a Ooadyara oblanglfolia •Qanltherla ahalloa Polyaticbua aunltua T r l U l u a ovatua Trianta l i* l a t l f o l l a TlaraUa trlf o l l a t * T l a r a l l a laelnlata i l l o t ropa vlrgata eropbyllua aeer i i v i t i f o l l u a 6 1 2 ' C (continued) 6 1 Ptaridlua aqullinua 6 ' Boaa gyanooarpa Claytonia a ih i rice Gallus t r i f lo rua Dicentra foragea 4 l Broaua vulgaria 5 1 Bleehnua apicant + ' Synphorloarpoa albua Taooiniua alaakaensa Malioa aa l th i l 3 * Carex leetopoda 3 ' Paaudotauga Benaleail 4 1 *Tsuga hsteropbylla Thuja plloata Abie* graadla Pinua aontloola 1' D (on ground) - Hylocoadua aplandana Euxhynchlua oragaaua BhytidiadelpbuS loreua I 1 Bhytldladalpbua triquetrua 1' Bhytldlopsls robuata 2' ftnlua apinuloaua 2 1 Plagiotheeiua alegar* - Caaptothaoiua aagantllua - «Paeudlsotbaolua •tolanlforua Polyporua acbaainitali Amanita ap. Sparaaale radloata Dioraaua fuaoeecens 2* Atricbua wnd\rt pt-"a 3 1 Plagloohlla aaplanloldea 4 1 eClaopodlua oriaplfoliua 2 1 Batarocladlua procuabenJ - Paaudotauga aaaaiesll t l Tauga beteropbylla • ' Thuja plloata iblaa graadla i lmia rubra 3 2 0 (on decayed aood) 3 L Hypnua olrolaale 2 ' Cephaloaia asdla 1 1 Scapanla bolandarl 3 ' Dioraaua fuaoaacana - Lepldoala raptaaa V Lophooolaa heterophylla - Hciua punctatua BhyUdladalphua loreua - Burhynehlua oraganua • J Hyloeead.ua aplandana • P t l l l d i u a puloaerrlaua BleeanUa lat lfrcna Callpogala trlohoaania D (on decayed wood} oost.) -Cladonla aacilanta Frul lanla nlaquallonala Paaudlaothaolua otoloalfarua Caphaloaia lauaantna Icaadophila ericatorua •Antl t r lahla ourtlpaodula Hnlua aplnuloeua Tauga heterophyUa Paaudotauga aenalaall Protoeocoua v i r i d l a D (on traaa) . JJ -Hypnua cire l a ale + ' - Dicranua fuaeaaoaaa +o - -Scapanla bolandarl Frul laaia niaquallanala Cladonla aaollasta •Paaudlaotbaeiua otoloniferua 7 3 5 1 -Kurhynohlua oragaaua 5) 51 Paraalla phyaodaa 5> l 1 Catrarla glauca Spbaarophorua globedua l 1 Protococcua v i r l d i o on TSOGa 1VB0FB1LU -BypauB olrolnala Dicranua fuacaaoana Scapanla bolandarl "Frullaaia nlaquellonals Cladonla aacilanta apaeadlaothaelua atolonlferua -lurhynchiua oraganua Paraalla physodaa Spbaaropborus globoaua Kycoblaatua aanguinaxiua Partuaaxia aablgena Byloooalua aplendeaa Lophooolaa heterophylla Tbelotraaa lapadlaua P t l l l d i u a puloherrlaua on THUJA P U C i t i -Hypuua olroiaale -Dioraaua fuaoaacana Frul laaia niaquallanala dadoala aaoilanta "PaeudlaotbaolUB atolonlferua -lurhynohlua oraganua ' Paraalla phyaodaa Spbaarophorua globoaua Hyooblaatua aaagulnaxiufl -Byloooalua aplandana P tUld luo puloharrlaua i n t i t r i c h i a curtlpsnduLe 3 >\ 1* 3 ? ** 3* l 1 3 1 Tba aain mineral In each ooluaa U tba tota l e e t i a a f value interpretation of aynbola. for aaob species, baaed on a Mala f r o . + to 10. U r , o i y o n „poaed rook and atonaa. * a iad.« r ap rwnta tba v i t a l i t y , on a aoala froa 0 to 3 . i ^ S^Sg^ood. " Largely on dead brancbea. - Largely at the baaea of the traaa. • Surviving on fal len trunks and brancbea. 37 TABLE 6 1 TOTAL BST1UATB ANALYSIS 0? THE PSEUD OT SUP A HBBZIBBII - THUJA £ u £ a 1 a ~ POLYSTICHUM OTHITDsl ASSOCIATION PLOTS PLOT P i PLOT PI PLOT P2 PLOT P5 Dsts analyssd Altitude (ft .) bposurs Slop* Wind exposure Co**r A l A2 A3 22 J U M ' 5 2 2 Aug'53 1050 760 a ' n a r 2' 2 0 ° 10 ' * • • • 5* SO* 1.}* 65« 2 0 * 70*1 2 0 * 7 5 * 10 » J 5 0 * 1 2 * 21 JiU»'52 20 J W 5 2 20 Jut» 'S2 6 4 0 0 ° M 70*1 28-» 60* 5* 65* W * J 1,}** 70* 7* 70* 10* 75* J O * J " S I * 00* 15* 70* 15* Psaudotsug* asoslsall 42 Pssudotsug* B*DB1C*11 Toug* hstsroptayll* Thuja plicat* i b l * * grandla « Tsug* bstsroptayll* Tbnjs plicat* Able* grendls Aoar aacrophyllua Tsuga hatarophyll* Pssudotsog* Bsml*sil B2 Tsuga hat*rophyLI*. Thuja plloat* B s u gymnocarpa Bubus spaotabllls Vaooinlua pervlf o l lua Abies grandl* PLOT P i PI P2 P5 P3 A 5 8* 8 ' 8 J 8* l 1 5 3 3* 3* • l + > + > 1> 3 ' 3 ' 3 ' 0 Polystiohua sunitua . 73 6 3 6 5* Tlax*11* t r i f o l l a t a 2 1 21 4 s 3* 6 J Achlya t r iphyl la 3 1 i1 5* 2X 6 1 Oallua Xrtf lorua 3 l 3 * 21 2 5 T r i l l i u a ovatua 1* 2 l 2l l l 2 l Tlerel la laoiniat* 1* - A 1 2 1 3 l AUryriu* f i l lx - fea ina - • 2 l 1' l 1 Aduooaulon bloolor" - 2* • ' 3 1 Dryopteri* *, - ++ + 1 l l Claytoula a ib l r l ca l 1 l 1 2 1 -Straptopus aaplexlfcllus 1* - + ' l 1 Fcstuo* subulat* - - - 1' l 1 • s i l o * eubul*t* I 1 . Care* baodaraoail - • 1* Cartz lsptopoda - - • 1* 2 1 Blsohnua apiaant - - 3 1 5* -Scabuous pubsns - - • ' -Dlc*otra foraos* - - - +' a*boni* nervosa - 2X 2 l 3* Llnaaaa borealis - 3* 3* 1* i l Viola orbloulata l l l 1 3* + i Trtaotalls l a t l f o l l a - l 1 2 1 I 1 2 ! Lusul* parviflor* - , 1' Chlaaphila seniles 11 - 2 1 l 1 • * Chlaaphila uabsllat* - + l l 1 -Bubus v l t i f o l l o * - +' • ' Bubus air a l l s - - • • Dlsporua oraganua - + ' - I 1 Vaooinlua parvifollua - 1' -Vtcoisiua alssxaa&s* - l 1 -Boaa gyanooerp* - - -"Ooodyara colonglfol l* - + 1 -Adlantua psdatua - +' - I ' Vsratrua M o a a e n o l t i i l - + 1' + 1 + 1 Circa** paolfloa - - + 1 *x l 1 Circa** alplrsa - - - l 1 -*Geult&erl* ahallon - I 1 2 l 2 1 -V i o l * glabella - l 1 - I 1 Sreaua vulgaris +1 - * 4* 2* C (oontlnuad) Caapacula sooularl Ptarldlua aqulllnua Konotrop* unlflora Listers oaurln* Sailaclna s tel late Maiwtheaun dllatatua Oaaorhlsa chil*n*i* Bubua speotoblll i Ranunculus bcnCwdil Callus apazlD* H l t s l l * oralis Lyaiobltua aaericanus Stachya o l l i a t a Clycaria nsrrosa S t s l l a r l * orispa Bubus lauoodarals *Hleraoiua s lblf lorus Psaudotsug* aeDales11 Tsuga hataronhyUa Thuja plloat* Able* grandl* D (on ground) EurhyDOnlua oregaoua Mnlua inslgn* Holua B s n a i a s i i Hyloooalua splsndsns finytldl*d*J.pnus lor*us Bfaytldlopsis robusta Holua punotatua Conoosphslua oonlaua KurbyDchlua s t o s U t i i ' Plagloonlla ssplaololdas Plagiothaoiua undulatua Titrlanua undulatua Boytidlsdalphus trtqustrus Polyporus sohvslnl ts l i Psaudotsug* aeni las i l Tsuga heterophylla Thuja plloat* Abias grandls Acer aacrophyllua D (oo daoaylng wood) Lapldotia reptans Hnlua punotatua Mnlua splsulosua Plagiothaoiua dentlculatua Icaadophlla arlcetorua Elooardla latiXrons - Calypogsl* trlcnostanla Xurhynchlua or*g*nu* Hyloooalua splandans BhyUdlsdelphuS loraus PssudisotbsolUB stolonlrsrua Cspbslosi* aadia Csphsloai* 1sueantha Soapanla bolsndsrl Dioranua fusoesosns Hypnua clreinale Dioranua soopsxiua Rhytidladalpnus triquetrua Poaas apluatua PLOT P4 PI P2 P5 P4 PI P2 P5 P3 l 1 1' 2 1 5 1 22 3 , 5* C + i « .1 4 ' 4 1 • l + ' 4 3 5l 1" l 1 3 1 2X - l l 2 a -• l 1 l 1 - -- • • l -2* - - -• - - l 1 -- I 1 - - --- - lx - 22 + 12* 1* 1° 2° 2* 2° 2° 2 ' 2° -2° 2° 2* 1 2° - - - 2* 2* +* " +* l 1 l 1 2 1 2 ' l l +' 1* 2 1 i1 • » l 1 - • + 1l 1 - - 1* 2 1 3 J l 1 2 5 l 1 +' 2! *,J lhy?Siipats* robust* P t l l i d l u a pulcbarrlaua Plaglotbsolua undulatua -Ant l t r iou l* aurtlpsndula Cladonla aaoilcnt* Lophoools* haUropbyll* Plsurooooous v l r l d i a Tsuga hatarophyll* Thuja plloat* Psaudotsug* aaasisail Abies grandls D (on tr*a bark) 00 PSEDEOTSUGA MENZIESU Pssudlsotbsolua atolonlfsrua Hypnua olroinala Dioranua fusossosns Soapanla bolandari Hyloooaiua splsndsns Cladonla aaoilant* Psras l i* phyaod** Plsuroeooou* v l r l d l * Plagiothaoiua a l eg ana Spbasropborus glooosus on TSCGA ELTiSOFHXLLA Psaudlsothsolua stolonlfsrua Porella navloulsrls Heckara douglasli Prullanla nlaquaUenals Badula ooaplanat* Hynua olroinala Pic ranua Tusossoaas lUir&yDoUua orsganua Cladonla asoilant* Thalotraaa lapadinua Psras l i* ph/aodss Sphasropboru* globosua P t l l i d lua pulohsrrlaua Bbytldladslpnua loraus Pieurococcus T l r l d i s 1* I 1 Pssudisothsaiua stolonilerua + ' I 1 • J Por*U* OCTiealaria - - •> Bsokar* douglasli - - - - •* Prullanla also.usl*&sls I 1 - - -Badula ooaplanat* - - - -Badula bolandari - - - -Bypnua olrolnal* - I 1 I 1 -Scapanla bolandsrl - • ' • J - • Dioranua fusossosns - 2X + - • Cladonla a*ell*nt* l l -Eurnyneblua orsganua - - l 1 -Spbasropborua globosus - 1* - • -, P t l l i d l u a pulohsrriaua - - - -Lobaria oragona - • * +1 Lobaria pulannsrls - - - • +1 Lobaria sntbrspsis - • * -on ABIES GBAHD1S Pssudlsotbsolua stolonlfsrua Porsl ls nsrleulsxls Hseksra douglaail Dioranua fuscascens Eurbjncblua orsg*nsa CIadonis aaoilent* Plaglotbsolua dentlculatua' Plaglotbsolua slsgsns Hypnua o l rc ins l* Scapanla bolandsrl 2 ' Th* aaln nuaeral In eaob ooluan i s tha tota l astlaata valu* for each spsolss, based on * scale froa + to 10. The index represents the v i t a l i t y , on a soalo froa 0 to 3. Interpretation of symbols• + On a i M r s l s o i l of s l n d t h r o a s . * Largely on decaying «ood. - Largely a t the bases of t b a t r e s s . 38 TABLE 7: TOTAL ESTIMATE ANALYSIS OF THE THUJA P L I C A T A - LYSICHITOM AMERICANUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS PLOT Ly3 PLOT Lj2 PLOT Itf l o a t . analysed 10 Juae>52 21 Juae '52 19 Juns '52 A l t i t u d e ( f t . ) 770 830 u s o Exposure S I HE S I Slope 3 ° 2° 10° Wind Exposure (•) (•) (•) Corer A l 50*1 ao*) A0*| A2 15*165* 10*t50* 10*50* A3 LO*J it) lot) £ > * 1 s > » SW 70* 85* 80* 60* 50* 60* PLOT Ly3 Ly2 L j l PLOT Ly3 Ly2 L / l PLOT L/3 Ly2 L y l 11 Thuja p l i c a t a Paaudotauga aena i ea l i Tauga heterophylla Pinua aont leola Abios grandls 12 Thuja plicate, Tsuga heterophylla A3 Thuja p l i c a t a Tauga heterophylla B l Oplopenax norridus Tauga heterophylla i l h u j e p l l oa t a JGtubus apeotabl l la B2 *Tsuga heterophylla xGaultherla ahal lon xBubua spee t eb i l i s xBubua laucodarmla XThuJa p l l o a t a iVace in lun pa rv l f o i l u a xVaoc in iu i alaekaensla Spiraea douglaa l l Lys iohi tUB americanum Veratrun M c h B c h o l t s i i Cireaea p a c l f i c a M l t e l l a ova l l a Oenanthe sarmentoaa Cardamino angulata Varooica aaericana Stochys o l U a t a a a l a n t h e n u a d l l a t e t u n K ^ B n i i m nosohatufl T l a r a U a t r i f o l i a t e C la j t on i a a i b l r l c a Gal lua t r i f l o r u n T l a r c l l a l a e l n l a t a i t h y r i u a f t l l i - f e a i n a Care* leptopoda Lusula p a r v i f l o r a Dryopter la l l i ineeana Galium b o r e a l a Bpl lob iua adenocaulon id lan tun padatua L i s t e r a c o n v a l l e r i o i d e e V i o l a g l a b e l l a Streptopua a a p l e i i f o l i u o I 1 3 ' 3 1 2 1 l 1 3 1 It 3 1 2 1 3* I 1 l 1 3 C (continued) Kquiaetun ar?ense C l y c e r l a s t r i a t a V i o l a o rb lcu la t a xfilechnun aplcant lAchlye t r i p b y l l a T r i l l i u m ovatua xVacciniua p a r v l f o i l am aCaultberia sha l lon iBubus s p e c t a b i l i s •Ooodyera oblong i f o l i a zPolys t lchua Bunltua X a a h o n i a nervosa XAdenocaulon b l c o l o r xBubus n i v a l i s ••Listera cordata T h u j a p l l oa t a XRubus v i t i f o l l u a xp ter id iua aqu l l inua D (on ground) Mniua punotatua Eurhynchiun a t o k e s l i Braehytheciua wasUrgtoiiianua Conoeephalun eonicuo Unlua atenslesil P a l l i a colunbiana Mniua inaigne Hicca rd ia l a t i f r o n a P l a g i o o h i l a asp lenic ices Chlloflcypbufl r i v u l a r i a Pogonatua a lplnua i t r l c h U B ) undulatun xHylocoalua splendens xEurhynchiuo oreganun xPeeudlsotheciua s to lon i fa rus xplagiotheoiun denticulatuD jPlagio thec iuB undulatun xTauga heterophyl la xPseudotsuga a e n i i e s i i xAbies graadla JtThuja p l i c a t a D (on decaying wood) Cephaloaia sedle Calypogola t r ichoaania Knlun punotatua Scapanla bolanderi" -fiyloaoaiuo splendens Eurhychiuai oraganua Dicranua fuscescana L e p i d o i i a reptans Bh^ id lade lphus l o r e us Mniua spinulosun Plagiotheeiua dant lculatua Hypnua o i r c i n a l s D (continued) Cladonla aao i la i 2» 2 1 3 3 i> 3 ' • > 2 ' 1* 2* l 1 1* l l 1* I 1 l 1 2* 2 1 1' l 1 1 7* 4> 5! 3 ! l 1 21 aaol len ta anlua oena laa l l +^ P a l t i g a r a canina + Hookerla luoana • 1 Scapanla uabrosa Bbyt id iopeia robust* •Paoudlsotheciua a to lonl farua 3 2 "Backera douglaa l l + 1 + 1 • P o r e l l a M v i e u l a r l s • ' •Lobar ia oragona spbaaropborus globoaua " i n t i t r i c h i a curt ipandula " F r a i l aula n lequal lena i f " t Thuja p l i c a t a 1* 1 Tsuga heterophyl la 1 1 Paaudotauga ceoa i ea i i 0 (on tree bark) on THUJA PUC&I& , 1 Uypnun o l r c i n a l a 1 2 Dicranua fuscasans 2 1 Cladonla a a n i l a c t a 1 1 } "Paeudisothaoiua a to lonl farua 2 1 Scapanla bolandarl l 1 F r u l l a n l a nisquaUanflia -Pa raa l l a phyaodaa - + 1 Cat ra r l a leounosa Spbaeropborua globosus Ochrolaohla paleacane H/ooblaatus saxgulnarlua Bhytidladelpbus lor*us Badula bolanderl Backera douglaa l l + 1 on TSUGA UEn£OPHILLA x 1 Uypnun o l r c i n a l a 2 2 "Psaudisotbeciua e to lonl ferua U 2 Soapania bolandar l + | f r u l l a n l a n laqua l lans l s 1 Dicranua fuscoscans Badula bolanderl +* Cladonla aao l len ta 1' -Byloceolun splaadana +j •SurhyncnluB oragonun 1 Ca t ra r l a laoonoaa Sphaerophorua globosus Ifycoblastus sangulnarius * 2 P o r e l l a nav l cu l a r l a 1 i n t i t r i c h i a curt ipandula * x on PSKUDCTSDGi HEHZ1B311 Hypnua c i r e l n a l a *^ 01cranun fuscasotni * y Cladonla aaol len ta * i Scapanla bolandarl Dicranua a t r l o t u a Plaiiroooocus v l r l d l s l 1 2 T 2* 3 ' l 2 1 The aaln nuaaral In each coluan l a the t o t a l aat laate value f o r each species , based on a scale f r c a • to 10. The index represents the v i t a l i t y , on a scale f roa 0 to 3 . In terpre ta t ion of Synbolai + On a l n e r a l s o i l o f windtnroa-a. a L a r g a l j on dead branches. - Largely a t tba bases of the t rees . • Surv iv ing on f a l l e n trunks and branches. a Largely on hiianocks and banks at tba edge of the eaap. T A B L S 6 : MBNSURATION A N A L Y S I S 07 THE PSEUDOTSUGA M E N Z I E S I I • P I N U S  COMIORTA - GAULTHERIA SHALLON - P E L T I G E R A CANINA - P E L T I G E R A APHTHOSA ASSOCIATION PLOTS Loca t ion Date analysed (1952) Stand age t y r o . ) S i t e index ( f o r Pseudotsuga) PLOT L5 Wolf l i t . 11 Aug. 210 90 PLOT U PLOT L3 PLOT L2 PLOT U Deadwood Deadwood V a l l e y Four th L a . U Aug. 14 Aug. 17 J u l y 18 J u l y PLOT L5 PLOT U LOT L3 TREE LAXER Pseudotsuga mene les i l A v . h t . , dom. A eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per acre Average diameter ( i n . ) Basa l area ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e ) Pinus con tor ta A v . b t . , don. & eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per acre Average diameter ( i n . ) Basa l area ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . i t . / a c r e ) Tsuga he te rophy l l a A v . h t . , dom. A eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per acre Average diameter ( i n . ) Basa l area ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e ) Pinus e o o t i c o l a A v . b t . , dom. & eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per acre Average diameter ( i n . ) Basal area ( a q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e ) SHRUB LAIER (Line i n t e r cep t ) G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n Tsuga he te rophy l l a Mahonia nervosa Pseudotsuga menz lo s l i Pinus mont ico la Arctoatephylos uve -u ra l Aretes taphyloa oolumbiana Thuja p l i c a t e Vaccinlum meobranaceum Abies grandis Pinus con tor ta 106 U O 17 250 250 80 95 108 18 210 6,860 67 A 8 1 AO 35 1 1 1 3 260 99 160 16 260 9 , U 0 250 90 116 152 19 360 13,730 33 + 3 1 1 1 60 8 10 A U O 61 20 9 8 200 38 3 1 250 67 92 19 185 5,600 24 6 BBSB LAIEh (Frequenoy) G a u l t b e r l a s h a l l o n Linnaee bo rea l i a Chimaphila umbellate Coodyera o b l o n g l f o l l a Boschn iak l a hooaerl mahonia nervosa Pseudotsuga menaleoi l Arctoatephylos u v e - u r s i Fastuca o c c l d e n t a l i s Vaccinlum p a r v l f o l l u a P y r o l a p i c t a A l l o t r o p a v i r g a t e Hierooium a l b i f l o r u a Apocynum androsaea l fo l lu i Chimaphila mens l e s l l Ushonla aqul fo l lum V i o l a o r b l c u l a t a P te r ld lum aqullinua T r i a n t e l i a l a U f o l l a Aohlys t r i p h y l l a ttslus d i v e r o i f o l i a Pinus DOOtleola. Vaooioluo aembranaceum Eosa gymnoearpa Symphorlcmrpoa Campanula s c o u l e r l P y r o l a breoteata Vaooinlua o v a l l f o l i u m Tauga h e t e r o p h y l l a Bubus v l t l f o l l u d Bromus v u l g a r i s 13 29 11 3 11 9 1 13 A 1 11 7 6 mOSS . uCHSi LAZES (Po in t frequency) Eurhynchium oreganuo Hylooomlua splendena Bhyt ld lade lpbus t r i q u e t r u s Rhyt ld ladelphus lo reua Dlcrmnum scoparlum Camptotheolum megapti lua P e l t l g e r e oanlna P e l t i g e r e epbthose C a l l l e r g o n e l l a sohreber l Dicranum fusceaoens Po ly t r l cbum Juniperlnum Cladonla s y l v a t l c a Cledonia g r a o l l i s Cladonla squamosa Cladonla fu rca te Cladonla b e l l i d l f l o r a Q a d c n i a maci len ta Cladonla f i m b r i a t e .Rbacomitrium lanuginoaum Rhacomltrium canescens Rhacoo i t r iun heteroatlchum Aulacoonium androgynum Bryum .pal lens Stereceaulon tooentoaua Stereooaulon pascbale 19 1 2 97 A 35 17 3 5 19 15 3 92 AO 40 A 7 20 9 U A 2 1 23 23 2 + 2 1 1 1 9 84 26 10 2 5 21 22 17 74 21 9 1 1 1 A 5 ^measurements made on e l l t rees above a minimum diameter (et breast height) of A inchee TABLE 9 : MENSURATION ANALYSIS OF THE PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII . GAULTHERIA  SHALLON AMD THE PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII - TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA - GAULTHERIA  SHALLON ASSOCIATION PLOTS PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA PSEUDCTSUGA - TSUGA - PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA -ASSOCIATION GAULTHERIA ASSOC'N. ASSOCIATION GAULTHERIA ASSOCH. PLOT G5 PLOT 04 PLOT 06 PLOT G3 PLOT 01 PLOT G2 PLOT G5 PLOT G4 PLOT G6 PLOT Q3 PLOT Gl PLOT C2 Location Bolf Ht. Deadwood Deadwood Valley fourth Lk. Eoho Ht. HERB LASER (Frequenoy) Data analysed (1952) 11 Aug. 13 Aug. 8 Aug. 16 Aug. 19 July 21 July Gaultheria shallon 89 78 83 71 76 76 Llanaea borealia 11 1 9 10 50 5 Stand aga (yrs.) 210 280 290 230 240 260 Mahonia nervosa 47 10 U 7 15 -Chimaphila unbellata 16 10 1 - 9 6 Sits Index 130 UO 120 140 90 60 Vaccinlum parvlfolium - - . 1 - 12 26 (for Paeudotsue-a) BoschnlaJca hookerl 6 1 1 - - 1 Good/era oblongifolia - - - - 6 5 Achlys triphylla 56 31 H 29 2 -THEE LATER1 Rubus vitifollus 11 6 1 6 - -Rosa gymnooarpa 1 4 - 1 - -Paeudotsuga aenaleall Chimaphila menaiesll 2 1 1 - 1 -Av.ht. , don. ft oodosi. (ft.) 147 175 148 169 110 77 Symphorioarpos mollis 4 1 - - - -Traoa par aore 100 108 104 64 172 104 Pteridlum aqulllnum 2 - - 1 - -Average dlsxeter (In.) 22 27 26 28 17 14 Polystlohum munitum - - - 10 - -Basal area (sq.ft./acre} 300 470 410 280 300 130 Vacolnlum membranaceum - - - - - 5 Volume (ou.ft./aore) 13,800 24,120 19,180 14,490 11,250 3,550 Vacolnlum ovalif ollum - - - - - 2 Gaultheria ovatlfolla - - • - - 2 Tsuga heterophylla Tsuga heterophylla - - - - - 1 Av.ht., dom. & oodon. (ft.) 73 57 66 88 71 70 Pyrola bracteata - 1 - - - -Trees per aore 12 8 40 16 32 120 Hypochaeris radlcata - 1 - - - -Average diameter (lo.) 10 6 10 11 10 12 Adenocaulon bloolor 1 - - - - -Basal area (sq.ft./aore) 9 2 24 12 17 120 Viola orbiculata 1 - - - - -Volume (ou.ft./aore) 300 43 690 410 520 3,140 Corallorhisa maculate 1 - - - - -Trientslis latifolle 1 - - - - -Thuja pllcata Av.ht., don. & oodom. (ft.) - 52 74 60 74 64 Trees per aore - 4 28 12 36 24 . MOSS - LICHEN LAXER (Point frequenoy) Average diameter ( I D . ) - 9 10 11 14 9 fiaaal area (ou.ft./aore) - 2 16 7 44 12 Hylocomium splendens 1 15 15 16 16 23 Volume (ou.ft./aore) - 38 470 170 1,300 340 Eurhynchium oreganum 22 + 13 10 4 + Rhytldladelphus loreus - - - 2 5 5 Pinus montloola CamptotheolUB megaptilum • - - - 1 1 Av.ht., dom. & oodom. (ft.) - - 134 - - - Rhytidlopsls robusta - - - - 1 12 Treea per aore - - 4 - - - Flaglotheoiun undulatum - - - + -Average diameter (In.) - - 20 - - - Dicranua scoparlum - - - + - + Basal area (sq.ft./aore) - - 9 - - - Pseudiaotheolun stoloniferum + - - - • Volume (ou.ft./aore) - - 400 - - - Paeudotsuga menziesii + SHRUB LATER (Line Intercept) Gaultheria shallon 59 41 64 31 50 36 Mahonia nervoaa 4 1 - + - • Polystlohum munitum - - 5 - --Measurements made on a l l trees above a minimum diameter (at breast height) of 4 inches. O TABLE 10s UBN8URATI0H ANALYSIS 0? THE PflBUDOTSUOA MENZIBBII - TSUOA mmmm - HYLOCOMIUM 8PLBHDBH8 - EURHYMCHIUM ORBOAtWM ASSOCIATION PLOTS L o c a t i o n Data a n a l y s e d (1952) Stand age ( y r s . ) S i t e i n d e x ( f o r Paeudotsuga) THEE L A I E H 1 Pseudotsuga a e n t i e s i i A v . h t . , doa . & eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per ac re Average d iamete r ( i n . ) B a s a l a rea ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e ) Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a A v . h t . , dom. & eodom. ( f t . ) Trees pe r ac re Average d iamete r ( i n . ) B a s a l a rea ( a q . i t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e ) Thu ja p l i c a t e A v . h t . , dom. & eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per ac re Average d iameter ( i n . ) B a s a l a rea ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e ) P i o u s m o n t l o o l a A v . h t . , doa . & eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per ac re Average d iameter ( i n . ) B a s a l a rea ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e ) A b i e s g r a n d i s A v . h t . , dom. & eodom. ( f t . ) 77 Trees per ac re 12 Average d iamete r ( i n . ) 8 B a s a l a rea ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) U Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e ) H O PLOT US PLOT H2 PLOT Hi PLOT «3 PLOT Ul Bol f l it . Echo m. Deadwood Valley Fourth L 1 Aug. 21 July 13 Aug. 16 Aug. 17 July ao 260 290 290 260 170 170 130 130 120 199 209 158 157 L U SO 72 96 84 68 33 37 26 23 22 SOO 550 380 270 210 28,540 31,950 17,960 13,230 9,410 65 87 85 86 136 96 52 176 88 64 7 10 9 10 18 26 28 92 50 U O 770 990 3,770 1,900 7,420 _ 107 101 78 85 - 16 12 12 56 - U 13 13 H - 20 13 11 68 830 $40 360 2,380 _ _ 160 _ - - - 8 -- - 24 -- - - 26 -- - - 1,290 -PLOT H5 SHRTJB LAXEB (Line Intercept) Polystlohum aunituo • Oeultheria •hal loo Mahonia nervosa Tsuga heterophylla HEBB LAXE8 (frequency) Calaapoila aent iea l l mahonia nervoaa 1 L i n n — borealia Vio la o r t l c u l a U 1 Pyrola plot* Achlys t r i p h y l l a Gaultheria shallon Goodyera oolong i f o i l s 2 Vaooinlua parv I f o l l u a Chlaaphila umbellate Tr ienta l l s l a t l f o l i a Fastuca aubulata 2 Pseudotsuga seniles11 T i a r e l l a t r i f o l i a t e Carex leptopoda 1 Polyatichum aunitua Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a Texus brev i fo l ia Sparaseis r a d i e a t a UCSi - LICHEN LATCh ( P o i n t f requency) Eurhynohium oreganum 3 H y l o o o a i u a splendens 2 R h y t i d i a d e l p h u s l o r e us R h y t i d i a d e l p h u s t r i q u e t r u s R h y t l d i o p s i s robus t a P l a g i o t h e c i u m e legan t Pseudiso theolum s t o l o n i f e r u m 1 Camptothecium megaptllum Dio ranua fuscescens Pseudotsuga m e n a i e s l l He te roc iad ium procur rens Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a * Thuja p l i c a t a PLOT 'Measurements made on a l l t r e e s above a minimum diameter (b reas t h e i g h t ) o f 4 i nches TABLE 11: MENSURATION ANALYSIS OF THE PSEUDOTSUGA UEHZ1ESI] - THUJA  PLICATA - POLYSTICHUM IIUNITOM ASSOCIATION PLOTS PLOT P4 PLOT PI PLOT P2 PLOT P5 PLOT p; Location Deadwood Fourth Lk. Echo lit. Wolf Ut. Valley Date analysed (1952) 8 Aug. 18 Aug. 20 Aug. 6 Aug. 17 Aug, Stand age (yrs.) 280 260 260 210 250 Site index 200 160 200 180 200 (f or Pseudotsuga) TREE LAKE 1 Pseudotsuga mengiesii Av.ht., dom. & codom. (ft.) 248 199 244 218 233 Trees per acre 44 40 52 56 64 Average diameter (in.) 48 36 42 39 37 Basal area (sq.ft./aore) 570 280 440 490 500 Volwne (cu.ft./acre) 38,180 16,840 33,560 29,200 32,060 Thuja plicata Av.ht., dom. & codom. (ft.) 140 137 178 148 50 Trees per acre 12 12 12 12 4 Average diameter (in.) 34 31 25 29 7 Basal area (sq.ft./acre) 78 77 50 56 1 Volume (cu.ft./acre) 2,710 3,410 2,830 2,660 24 Tsuga heterophylla Av.ht., dom. & codom. (ft.) 76 106 83 111 96 Trees per acre 52 76 28 44 24 Average diameter (in.) 10 13. 10 11 11 Basal area (sq.ft./acre) 31 94 15 35 16 Volume (cu.ft./acre) 1,280 4,460 550 1,630 620 Abies grandls Av.ht., dom. & codom. (ft.) - - - 118 77 Trees per acre - - - 28 8 Average diameter (in.) - - - 13 9 Basal area (sq.ft./acre) - - - 35 4 Volume (cu.ft./acre) 1,740 62 SHRUB LAYER (Line intercept) Polystichum munitum 33 40 21 20 18 Tsuga heterophylla - 1 4 - 2 Mahonia nervosa • + - 1 1 Thuja plicata - • 1 + -Athyrium fillx-femina 1 - + - -Blechnum splcant - - 1 - -Lyslchitua amerlcanun - - - + -Pterldium aquilinum - - - + -Pseudotsuga menelesil - - + - -Gaultheria shallon - + - - -'Measurements made on a l l trees above a ndnimum diameter (at breat height) of 4 inches. PLOT P4 PLOT PI PLOT P2 PLOT P5 PLOT P3 HERB LAYER (Frequency) Polystichum munitum 29 u 6 20 10 Tiarella trifoliate 22 12 58 30 91 Achlya tripbylla 24 25 48 13 65 Tiarella laoiniata 1 - 39 8 30 T r i l l i ma ova turn - 1 1 1 5 athyriuin fllix-femlna 2 • - 2 4 -Melica subulate - - 1 3 1 Adenocaulon bicolor - - 5 - 37 Dryopteris linnaeana 27 - - - 1 Blechnum spicant - - 4 10 -Viola orbiculata - 1 25 - -Galium t r i f l e rum 8 - 17 - -Carex hendersonii 1 - - - 9 Claytonia sibirica - - - 4 -Disporum oreganum - - - - 2 Streptopua amplexifolius - - - 1 -Mahonie nervosa - 4 9 17 19 Llnnaea borealis - 34 54 - -Vaccinlum parvlfoilurn - 4 2 - 1 Luzula parviflora 1 - - 1 4 Trientalis l a t l f o l l a - - 10 - 2 Bromus vulgaris - - - . - 17 Campanula scoulerl - 1 - - 6 Abies grandls - - - 1 2 Hcnotropa uniflora 1 - - 1 -Rubus vitifollus - 1 - - 1 Rosa gymnooarpa - - - - 4 Chimaphila umbellate - - 4 - -Chimaphila menziesii - 1 - - -Pteridlum aquilinum - - - 3 -Vaccinlum alaskaense - - 2 - -Thuja plicata - - 2 - -Viola glabella - - 1 Listera cordate - - - 1 Tsuga heterophylla - 1 - - -Pseudotsuga menslesii * 1 MOSS - LICHEN LASER (Point frequency) EurhychiuiD oreganum 2 9 3 8 9 Hylocomium splendens 10 + + 2 1 Rhytidiadelphus loreus - 1 - + Milium insigne 4 - * 1 3 Mniua menaiesli - - + 1 • Rhytidiopsis rebusta - + - -Plagiotheeiua undulatum - + • Plagiochila aepleniolnes + Paeudiaothecium atoloniferum • - • • Pseudotsuga men ale a i l - - - -Abies grandls * • CO TABLE 12: MENSURATIOM ANALYSIS 07 THE THUJA PLICAT A - LYSICHITUM  AtmHMCAMUil ASSOCIATION PLOTS Location Date analysed (1952) Stand age ( j rs . ) S i te indei (for Pseudotsuga) 1 TREE LAYLR Thuja plicate Av.h t . , doa. & codoa. (ft .) Trees per acre Average diameter ( I D . ) Basal area (sq.ft./acre) Voluxe (cu.ft./acre) 2 Pseudotsuga measles 11 Av.h t . . doa. tt eodom. (ft .) Trees per acre Average diameter ( in . ) Basal area (sq.ft./acre) Volume (cu.ft./acre) Tsuga heterophylla Av.ht . . doa.i eodom. (f t . ) Trees per acre Average diameter ( in.) Basal area (sq.ft./acre) Volume (cu.ft./acre) PLOT Ly3 PLOT Ly2 PLOT L y l PLOT Ly3 PLOT Ly2 PLOT L y l Wolf Ht. Deadwood Echo Ht. A b A b A b 11 lug . 8 Aug. 20 July HERB LAYER (continued) 210 280 260 Hi t e l l e ovalia 3 25 . _ Viola orbloulata - 3 35 -150 190 170 Viola g label la - - 28 7 Listere cordata - - 16 -Atbyrium f i l ix- femina - l l - * Stachys c i l i a t a 3 - - -Oeoantce aannentosa - 3 - -Dryopteri* linnaeana - 3 - -Eplloblua adenocaulon - 3 - -125 68 196 177 Carex leptopoda - - 3 -68 60 Thuja pl icate - - 3 -38 30 25 Polystichum munitum - - 3 -7*7 366 220 Cardamirte angulata - 2 - -41,960 22,030 12,400 Galium boreale - 2 - -Uaianthemum dilatatum - 2 . - - -Clrcaea pael i ica - - 1 -183 230 206 Veratrum eachscholtsil 2 5 16 7 8 16 16 Tia re l l a t r i f o l i a t e 3 12 AO 11 36 AO 46 36 Tla re l l a l ac in ia ta 3 5 9 3 14 72 190 120 Streptopua amplexlfollus 7 2 5 -3,680 11,680 6,700 Achlys t r i phy l l a 2 5 - 57 Blechnum apicant 5 14 2 5 5 50 Vaccinlum parvifolium 5 5 - -71 132 186 Gaultheria shallon 8 40 - - -60 48 12 Adenocaulon bicolor - - 5 14 11 H 26 Ruous v l t i f o l i u a 3 5 - - -48 83 56 Goodyera oulonglfolia - - - 7 1,364 4,320 3,610 Lusula parvlf lora - - 3 7 SHRUB LAXEfl (Line intercept) A B A Lyslchltua americanum A9 10 46 Oplopanax horrid ua - 5A Athyrlua f i l ix-femina - 6 Rubus spectabilis - + Blechnum apicant 3 9 5 Polystichum munitum 1 1 Adiantum pedatum -Gaultheria shallon 2 12 Thuja plicate + HERB LAXEH (Frequency) Lysichitum americanum 76 12 42 Claytonia a i b i r l c a 22 2 Galium triflorum 13 - 12 16 3 A B 73 L l + 32 1 10 54 11 28 MOSS - LICHEN LAXER (Point frequency) Malum punctatum Eurhynchium atokesii Braohytheoium washingtonianum Conocephalum conicua P e l l i a oolumbiana minium mensiesii Knium lnslgne Hookerialucens Plagiochl la aspleoioides Chilosoyphus r ivu la r i s Thuja plioata Plaglotheoium denticulatum Eurhynchium orsganua Hylocomium splendens Pseudisotheoium stoloniferum Plsgiotheoium undulatum 36 1 19 + 50 -16 + 12 - 11 1 14 1 2 - 7 -1 - + - 3 -1 - 3 - 1 -3 - 1 - - -+ - 2 - - -1 - - - - -+ - - - - -- - - - -+ - - • • -+ + + • - -2 10 - - - -- 5 2 - -- 1 - - - -- - - 1 - -Steasuremeots made on al l trees above a ainiaua diameter (breast height) of 4 inches tfv ^Pseudotuga occurs on the margins only. t £ •"Occurrence In the swamp Occurrence on the banks and hummocks. 44 (Tables 4 and 9). The site index for Pseudotsuga of 120 to 140 was considerably higher than the index for the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera stands (70 to 90). Basal areas and volume were also greater, even though there were fewer trees per acre. Tsuga heterophylla was constantly present in the lower tree layer, but i t made up l i t t l e of the volume of the plots studied. Thuja plicata was present in most plots, but again sizes and volumes were small. The Gaultheria shallon of the stands of this association was considerably taller (one meter or more) and much denser than that in the previous association. Other shrubs were uncommon. Herb layers were characterized by poor species representation and low cover value. The most common plants of the herb layer of the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria - Peltigera association were also the most common ones of this assoc-iation, but their frequency was lower. This lower frequency was largely attributable to the greater density of Gaultheria. The presence of Polystichum  munitum in the Valley plot (G3) and Achlys triphylla in the Wolf Mountain plot (G5) both being species which occurred more characteristically in the Pseudotsuga -Polystichum association, was reflected in the higher average tree heights and site indices on these plots. Lichens were largely absent from the ground layer, occurring mostly on stones or rock outcrops when present. Lichens on the bark of trees were less common, whereas mosses were somewhat more common than in the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria - Peltigera association. Hylocomium splendens and Eurhynchium  oreganum were the prominent mosses of the moss-lichen layer and they covered the ground to the almost complete exclusion of other species. Tree seedlings rarely survived the first growing season. Pseudotsuga menaiesii - Tsuga heterophylla - Gaultheria shallon association In stands of this association Tsuga heterophylla was frequently as common in the upper tree layer as Pseudotsuga (Tables 4 and 9), with the average height of both trees being rather low (e.g. Plot G2, 70 f t . for Tsuga and 77 f t . for Pseudotsuga). The Fourth Lake plot (Gl) represented an intermediate situ-ation, being at a lower elevation than the Echo Mountain plot. Site index for Pseudotsuga and volumes per acre were low on both plots, although in the Fourth Lake plot the frequency of Tsuga was less than average for the association, re-sulting in a higher volume for Pseudotsuga. The presence of Chamaecyparis nootkatensis and Abies amabilis in the tree and shrub layers of the Echo Mountain plot showed its affinity with the altitudinal zone above that of the Pseudotsuga forests. The Gaultheria shallon of these stands was shorter and less dense than in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria plots. Vaocinium membranaceum was another species of the shrub layer which was characteristic of higher altitudes, as was the Gaultheria ovatifolia of the herb layer. Most of the other plants of the herb layer were common to both associations. In the moss-lichen layer, apart from Hylocomium splendens. which was the predominant moss, Eurhynchium oreganum, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, and Khytidiopsis  robusta were common, with the latter species being another characteristic of higher altitudes. Tree seedlings had poor vitality. Both mosses and lichens were present on the bark of trees, with Dicranum  fuscescens and Sphaerophorus globosus being common on the boles, and particularly on the Echo Mountain plot, Lobaria oregana being conspicuous on both living and dead branches. Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla - Hylocomium 'splendens - Eurhynchium  oreganum association The average height of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Tables 5 and 10) in the subassociation nudum plots (199 f t . to 209 ft.) was considerably greater than 46 in the typicum plots (144 f t . to 158 f t . ) . Basal areas and volumes per acre were likewise much greater. In most plots Tsuga heterophylla formed a second-ary canopy with average heights from 70 to 130 f t . lower than the dominant and codominant Pseudotsuga (Fig. 13). Although the number of Tsuga was similar or greater, their volume formed only a small part of the stand. However, in the Fourth Lake plot (Ml) (Fig. 9) the height, diameter and volume o f Tsuga was nearly comparable with that of Pseudotsuga. indicating the affinity of this stand with those of the west coast, where Tsuga may be predominant. The number and volume of Thuja plicata was mostly small, even though in the Fourth Lake plot i t was more frequent and constituted 13 percent of the volume of the stand. The subordinate vegetation of this association was characterized by an almost complete absence of conspicuous shrubs and herbs. Such plants as Chimaphila menziesii, Pyrola picta, Monotropa uniflora, M. latisquamea.  Listera cordata, Viola orbiculata and Corallorhiza maculata, characteristic species of the association, were present, but their cover value was small. Stunted Gaultheria shallon. Polystichum munitum and Achlys triphylla. characteristic of other associations, occurred locally and presumably reflected minor variations in edaphic factors. Occasional small Tsuga heterophylla and Taxus brevifolia were also present in some plots. In the subassociation nudum plots the forest floor was essentially bare. Hylocomium splendens and Eurhynchium oreganum formed an almost complete green, mossy carpet in stands of the subassociation typicum, with Rhytidiadelphus  loreus also being common in the Valley plot (M3). On decaying wood, such characteristic species as Hypnum circinale, Cephalozia media and Scapanla  bolanderl were present. Conspicuous epiphytic lichens were absent from the lower bole of trees, but bryophytes such as Hypnum circinale, Dicranum fuscescens and Scapania bolanderl were quite common. Pseudotsuga menziesii - Thuja plicata - Polystichum munitum association Pseudotsuga menziesii attained its maximum height and diameter in stands of this association. In three of the plots studied site index was over 200 (Tables 6 and 11). Tree heights and site index of the Fourth Lake plot (PI) were lower than average because the plot was situated toward the upper margin of the stand. The setting on the lower slope, below the plot, which had been logged prior to this study, had larger stump diameters and a higher site in-dex (Krajina and Spilsbury 1950: Plot 64). Although the number of Thuja  plicata was not great, Thuja was the tallest species of the secondary canopy, with average diameters being fairly large. Tsuga heterophylla was more nu-merous and formed a secondary canopy below the level of most of the Thuja. The average diameter of Tsuga. however, was small resulting in small basal areas and volumes, although in the Fourth Lake plot the species was somewhat more numerous than in other plots. The Wolf Mountain plot (P5) was the only plot with any appreciable volume of Abies grandls. Shrubby plants had l i t t l e cover value in the shrub layer. The clumps of Polystichum munitum were commonly 80 cm. high and dominated the subordinate vegetation. Other ferns, such as Blechnum spicant (Plot P5), Dryopteris  linnaeana (Plot P4) and Athyrium filix-femina (Plot P2) were common on some plots. Achlys tripbylla was one of the most conspicuous herbs of this assoc-iation, with the Valley plot (P3) representing a subtype in which Achlys was more common even than Polystichum. Typical development of the mature stage of this association included numerous herbaceous plants, with Tiarella  trifollata, T. laeiniata, Trillium oyatum, Adenocaulon bieolor, Galium  triflorum, Claytonia sibirica and Dryopteris linnaeana being some of the characteristic species which were present on the plots studied. 48 Mlnum insigne and M. menziesii. among the mosses characteristic of the association, were present on the ground. Gn decaying wood such typical bryophytes as Lepidozia reptans, Maiurn punctatum, M. spinulosum and Plagiothecium  denticulatum were recorded. The characteristic epiphytic species, including Pseudisothecium stoloniferum, Porella navicularis. Neekera douglasii, and Frullania ni squallens is.were most abundant on Thuja. Abies grandis and Acer  macrophyllum. Thuja plieata - Lysichitum americanum association The trees in stands of this association occurred on the banks and hum-mocks which bordered the swampy areas. Thuja plicata was the dominant speeies of the tree layer. Average diameter ranged from 25 to 38 inches and average height from 125 to 196 f t . (Tables 7 and 12). Pseudotsuga menziesii was restricted to the drier marginal areas, but individual trees reached good heights and diameters. In the lower altitude plots (Ly2, Ly3) Tsuga  heterophylla was present only in the secondary canopy, but on Echo Mountain (Plot Lyl) there were a few t a l l trees with large diameters. Where a con-siderable proportion of the plot consisted of swampy areas stocking was fairly low, although this was partially compensated by the large volume of individual trees. Gaultheria shallon was quite abundant in the l i t t e r and decayed wood of the banks. Other plants which were largely restricted to the banks in-cluded Blechnum spicant. Adlantum pedatum. Achlys triphylla. Tiarella spp., Hylocomium splendens and Eurhynchium oreganum. with Cephalozia media,  Calypogeia trichomanis, Mnium punctatum and Scapanla bolanderl occurring on decaying wood. The species more characteristic of the association were found most frequently in the swampy areas. The most conspicuous of these was Lysichitum americanum, which dominated the swamps during the growing season. Other characteristic herbaceous plants growing between and beneath the large Lystichitum leaves included Veratrum eschscholtzii. Circaea pacifica. Mitella ovalis and Oenanthe sarmentosa. with Claytonia sibirica. Galium  triflorum. Tiarella trifoliata and other herbs,which also occurred in the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association, being quite frequent. The surface of the muck in the swampy areas was densely covered by bryophytes, the most com-mon of which were Mnium punctatum, Eurhynchium stokesii, Brachythecium  Washington!anum and Conocephalum conicum. Corticolous plants on the boles of trees were similar to those in the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association stands. SOILS Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association The plots of this association were located on sidehills (Plots Ll and L5) on a low ridge (Plot L2) and on nearly level ground (Plots L3 and L4). Soil profiles were mostly shallow, with rooting being restricted by a hardpan or bedrock at 50 to 70 cm. (Table 13, Fig. 19 A and C). Effective soil volume was further reduced by the presence of stones and clinker-like con-cretions. Soil moisture was largely provided by precipitation because the topographic location of the stands limited addition by ground water movement. Most profiles had a shallow l i t t e r layer (Ao)» since conditions for accumulation were not favourable in these open stands. The leached layer (Ag) was commonly less than 2 cm. deep and was sometimes barely discernable. The shallow l i t t e r layer and droughty nature of the soil presumably moderated the intensity of leaching and profile differentiation. In some areas (e.g. on Plot L3) the upper 20 cm. of the profile consisted of a rubble of angular cobbles. Here the Ag horizon was usually deeper than average, as were the F 50 PLATE VII, Figure 19 Soil Profiles. Typical soil profiles from various associations in the Nanaimo River Valley; the scale is marked in decimeters. The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association (Plot II, Fourth lake). The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association (Plot Gl, Echo Mountain). The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera assoc-iation (Plot 12, Deadwood Creek). The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association (Plot G6, Deadwood Creek). The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (Plot M5, Wolf Mountain). The Pseudotsuga -1 Polystichum association (Plot PI, Fourth Lake.) The Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association (Plot P3, Valley). The Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association (Plot P2, Echo Mountain). The Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association (Plot P5, Wolf Mountain). = The Thuja - Lysichitum association (Plot Ly3, Wolf Mountain). XABLS 1 3 : DESCRIPTION, p H , AMD OROANIC AND CLAY CONTENTS 0? TYPICAL SOIL PR07IUS PROM I R S PSMD0T8U0A - QAULTSBBIA - PHLIIOBRA ASSOCIATION PLOTS 51 Depth Description pH Organic Clay (cm.) content content PLOT L$ (Wolf Ht . ) Ao F 2-1 Vary dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed U t t e r H 1-0 Black (10TH 2 / l ) granular to f e l t y mor; roots common 0-1 Oray (5Y 6 / l ) sandy loam, often poorly defined; weak f ine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e . B 1-10 Light yel lowish brown (10YR 6/4) gravel ly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak f ine subangular blocky etrueture; very f r i a b l e : numerous shotty concretions, with yel lowish red (5TR 5 / 8 ) coatings; l i g h t , dappled, strong brown (7.513 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; / roots common 6 . 0 4.3 6 B 10-20 Pale o l i v e (5Y 6 / 3 ) gravel ly sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak f lna subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; snotty concretions; occasional pale o l i v e (5Y 6 / 3 ) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with yellowish red (5YR 5 / 8 ) s t a in ing ; dappled, strong brown (7.5TR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; scattered yellow (2.5Y 7 / 6 ) and blue (5.0B 7/2) speckl ing; roots common . . . 5*9 3,4 8 B 20-45 P e l * yellow (5T 7/3) gravel ly sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak f ine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; snotty concretions; l i g h t o l i v e gray (5Y 6 / 2 ) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions becoming more comnon; dappled, strong brown (7.5TR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; roots moderately conmon 6 . 0 2.0 11 B 4 5-70 ,Light o l i v e gray (5Y 6/2) gravel ly sandy loam, with numerous angular cobbles; weak f ine sub-angular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; numerous c l i n k e r - l i k e concretions; dappled, yel lowish red (5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings on gravel and shot; roota sparse, although fine roots comnon above the o r t s t e ln layer 6 . 1 2.0 11 Ortateln 70- Olive gray (5Y 5 / 2 ) gravel ly sandy loan; i r regu la r th ick pla ty s tructure; cemented; reddish yellow (5YR 6 / 8 ) s t a in ing , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the upper part ; roots absent 6 . 2 1.4 6 PLOT LA (Lower Deadwood) Ao F 3-2 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 5.5 H 2-0 Black (10YR 2 / l ) granular to f e l t y mor; roots comnon 5 . 8 * 2 0-2 Oray ( 5 1 6 / 1 ) sandy loam, somewhat discontinuous, but up to 3 cm. th ick among surface cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i ab le *. 5 > 6 7.6 7 B 2 - 1 0 Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) gravel ly sandy loan, with scattered angular cobbles; weak f ine sub-angular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions, with yel lowish red (5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings; l i g h t , dappled, strong brown (7.5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common . . . 5*7 3.0 7 B 10-20 Light yel lowish brown (10YH 6 / 4 ) gravel ly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles, weak f ine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; dappled, strong brown (7.5TR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; scattered yel lowish red (5YR 4 / 6 ) and blue (5.0B ?/2) speckl ing; roots common . . 5 . 5 3.4 6 B 20-40 Pale brown (10XR 6 / 3 ) gravel ly sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak f ine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; pale o l i v e (51 6 / 3 ) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with yel lowish red (5YR 5 / 8 ) s t a in ing ; dappled, strong brown (7.5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; roots moderately common 5,8 2.1 8 B 4 0-70 Light yel lowish brown (2.5Y.6 /4) gravel ly sandy loam, with numerous angular cobbles: weak f ine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e , becoming weakly cemented with increasing depth; numerous o l i v e gray (5Y 6 / 2 ) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions; dappled, yel lowish red (5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; roots sparse, although fine roots common above the o r t s t e ln layer 6 . 0 2.0 9 Orts teln 70- Gray brown (2.5Y 5 / 2 ) g ravel ly sandy loam; Irregular th ick pla ty structure; cemented; reddish yel low s t a in ing , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the upper part ; roots absent 6 . 2 1.0 7 PLOT L3 (Lower Deadwood) Ao F 3-2 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 4.9 H 2-0 Black (10YR 2 / l ) granular to f e l t y mor, up to 4 cm. th ick among surface cobbles; roots common . . . . 5.0 Az 0-2 Gray (5Y 6 / l ) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i ab le 4.9 6 . 4 11 B 2 - 1 0 Brown (10YR 5/3) gravel ly sandy loan, with angular cobbles, i n places very numerous; weak fine subangular blocky structure; loose; numerous shotty concretions, with yel lowish red (5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings; l i g h t , dappled, strong brown ( 7 . 5 Y R 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; roots common . . . 5.7 3,6 8 B 10-20 Light yel lowish brown (10YR 6 / 4 ) gravel ly sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak f ine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; dappled, strong brown (7>5XR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; roots common 5*6 2.8 7 B 20-55 Pale brown (10YR 6 / 3 ) gravel ly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; dappled, strong brown (?.5*R 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; roots moderately common . ' 5.7 2.1 5 B 5 5-70 Pale o l i v e (5YR 6 / 3 ) gravel ly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky s t ructure; very f r i a b l e , becoming weakly cemented with Increasing depth; numerous l i g h t o l i v e gray (5Y 6 / 2 ) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with yel lowish red (5YR 5 / 8 ) s ta in ing; dappled yel lowish red (5TR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots sparse, although f ine roots common above the o r t s t e ln layer 5*9 1.9 6 Orts te ln 7 0 - Light o l ive gray (5T 6 / 2 ) g ravel ly sandy loam; Irregular th ick platy structure; cemented; reddish yellow (5YR 6 / 8 ) s t a in ing , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the upper part ; roots absent 6 . 2 1.1 4 PLOT L2 (Valley) Ao F 2-1 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r - -H 1-0 Black (10TR 2 / l ) granular to f e l ty mor; roota common 5.1 A£ 0-1 Gray (5Y 6 / l ) sandy loam, often poorly defined, but up to 2 cm. th ick among surface cobbles; weak f ine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e 5*4 3.6 B 1-10 Brown (10YR 5 / 3 ) gravel ly sandy loam, with ''scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions, with strong brown (7.5TR 5 - 6 ) coatings; l i g h t , dappled, strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common 5 . 4 3.4 7 B 10 - 2 0 Yellowish brown (10YB 5/4) gravel ly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak f ine sub-angular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; dappled, reddish yellow (5TR 6 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; roots common 5*6 2.3 8 B 20-40 Light yel lowish brown (10YR 6 / 4 ) gravel ly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; occasional l i g h t brownish gray (2.5Y 6 / 2 ) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with yel lowish red (5TR 5 / 8 ) s t a in ing ; dappled, reddish yellow (5YR 6 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; roota sparse 5.7 2,2 7 B 40-55 Light yel lowish brown (10YR 6 / 4 ) gravel ly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular block? structure; very f r i a b l e , becoming weakly cemented with Increasing depth; shotty concretions; numerous c l i n k e r - l i k e concretions; dappled, reddish yellow (5IK 6 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; roots sparse, although f ine-roots common above the or ta te ln layer . . 5 . 5 2.8 J Ortsteln 55- Light o l ive gray (5Y 6 / 2 ) gravel ly sandy loam; i r regu la r th ick pla ty structure; cemented; reddish yellow (51 6 / 8 ) s t a in ing , p a r t i c u l a r l y In the upper part ; roots absent 6 . 0 1.1 6 PLOT L l (Fourth Lk . ) Ao F 2-1 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r H 1 - 0 Black (10YR 2 / l ) f e l t y mor; roots common 4.9 A 2 0-2 Light gray (5Y ? / l ) loan, varying from less than 1 cm. to 5 cm- thick among surface cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; roots common 4.5 14.0 B 2-20 Red (2.5YR 4 / 6 ) gravel ly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions, with yel lowish red (5TR 5 / 8 ) coatings; dappled, yel lowish red (5YR 5 / 6 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; roots common 5 . 1 3 , 5 5 B 20-35 Yellowish red (5YR 5 / 6 ) g ravel ly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; dappled yel lowish red (5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; roota moderately common 5,2 4,4 6 B 35-55 Reddish yellow (5YR 6 / 5 ) gravel ly sandy loam; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; dappled reddish yellow (5YH 6 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel ; scattered, faint blue (7.5 5G 7/2) mott l ing; roots sparse, although numerous on rock surface, commonly forming a mat; f ine dead roots present 5 . 3 5.5 5 D 5 5 - Rock; seepage water occasions 11/present and H layers above. Such areas supported a luxuriant growth of mosses, particularly Hylocomium splendens. and lichens were largely confined to protruding stones. Soil colours were mostly pale, with light yellowish browns predom-inating. In the Fourth Lake plot (II), however, yellowish red was common. The soil texture of most horizons was a gravelly sandy loam, and in most plots the 2 mm. fraction constituted less than half the 25 mm. fraction. Plot Ll was an exception, with the 2 mm. fraction forming from 60 to 70 per-cent of the 25 mm. fraction in the upper 20 cm. (Appendix III). Stones and angular cobbles were common. Structure was weakly defined and a l l layers down to the hardpan were very friable. Shotty concretions were numerous, especially in plot Ll, where from 50 to 80 percent of the 2-5 mm. fraction was actually composed of concretions. Large irregular clinker-like concretions (with average diameters up to 10 em.) were frequent in many profiles. In the lower portion of profiles on the Wolf Mountin plot (L5), such concretions occupied a large proportion of the soil volume. Mottling was essentially absent and the reddish yellow stains on the gravel and concretions were usually faint. Profiles commonly merged through a weakly cemented zone into an ortstein layer. The ortstein layers of ce-mented, olive gray sand and gravel had a weakly platy structure, with some yellowish red staining apparent. The pH of a l l horizons was acid. Most roots were concentrated in the mineral soil near the surface of the profile. There was limited root pentration of the upper hardpan layer, with a mat of roots above the ortstein and bedrock being common. The soils of Plot Ll were comparable with those included in the Quinsam series and the soils of Plots L2, L3, L4 and L5 resembled those described as the Shawnigan series on Vancouver Island (Farstad 1957). Pseudotsuga - Qaultlieria association Plots were located on level ground (Plot G6), on gentle slopes (Plots G4 and G5) and at midslope on a steep sidehill (Plot G3). Soil depths were commonly somewhat greater than in stands of the previous assoc-iation, with the hardpan layer 90 cm. or more from the surface. (Table 14; Fig. 19 D). Stones and angular cobbles, however, frequently occupied from 10 to 40 percent of soil volume. Soil moisture was again largely derived from rainfall, although most of the plots received some moisture by lateral movement of ground water. The l i t t e r layer (Ao)» which varied from 3 to 6 cm. in depth, was composed of both granular and felty mors, the latter being more common among surface cobbles. The leached horizon (A2) was normally well defined, a l -though i t rarely exceeded 2 cm., except among surface cobbles. Surface horizons were commonly brown, merging through pale brown to yellowish brown, the predominant colour of the greater proportion of most profiles. A l l horizons had a gravelly sandy loam texture, with the 2 mm. fraction consti-tuting about half of the 25 mm. fraction. The fine subangular blocky structure was weakly defined and a l l soils were very friable. Shotty con-cretions were common, particularly in Plot G6, where concretions made up to 40 to 75 percent of the 2-5 mm. fraction. Clinker-like concretions were also common, again particularly on Plot G6. Faint mottling was present in the lower portions of some profiles. The dappled, reddish yellow coatings on cobbles and gravel were slightly stronger than in the profiles of the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association. A weakly cemented zone was normally present above the ortstein, although in most of the pits dug on Plot G5 no ortstein was encountered within 100 cm. of the surface. In Plot G3 the profile was commonly abruptly terminated by the presence of bed-54 rock at 65 cm. A l l horizons were acid. It was notable, however, that in Plot G4, which had a relatively high site index (140) for the association, a l l pH values for the mineral soil below the Ag layer were greater than 6.2. Roots occurred most frequently in the upper mineral layers, although there was also a network of roots in the felty mor. A root mat was commonly present above the hardpan or bedrock. The profiles of Plots G4, G5 and G6 were comparable with those des-cribed for the Shawnigan series, whereas the profiles on Plot G3 more closely resembled the Sproat series (Farstad 1957). Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association Both plots of this association were on the upper slope of sidehills. In most pits soil depth was less than 80em»> with a considerable proportion of the soil volume being occupied by stones, particularly in Plot Gl (Table 14; Fig. 19 B). Ground water movement supplemented soil moisture from rainfall during part of the year. Litter layers (Ao) were deep, consisting of 2 cm. of partially decom-posed needles above 3 cm. or more of very dark brown to black felty mor, which was densely interwoven with roots. In some places there were layers of l i t t e r and well rotted wood up to 15 cm. deep. The leached horizon (Ag) was well defined, the upper portion of which frequently appeared to be composed of bleached organie material. In most profiles browns and yellowish and reddish browns predominated with additional colour being supplied by the prominent reddish yellow coatings on the gravel and concretions. <Soil textures were gravelly sandy loams. Concretions both shotty and clinker-like, were quite numerous. In some pits the solum merged through a zone of fractured rock into the bedrock, but more frequently there was a sharp break between B and D horizons. A l l horizons were acid, with the pH of the Ao and Ag horizons of TABLE 141 DESCRIPTION, pH, AND ORGANIC AND CLAY CONTENTS OF TYPICAL SOIL PROFILES FROM THE PSEUPOISnHA - QAULIHERIA AND THE P8BID0T8H0A - IBUOA -GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS 55 PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION Depth Desc r ip t ion ph Organic Clay (cm.) content content it) (*> A . r 3.5-2 H 2-0 A 2 0-1 B 1-10 B 10-20 B 20-W) B 1 0 - 6 0 B 60-80 PLOT OU (Lover Deadwood) Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Black (10TB 2/1) granular mor; roots numerous Gray brown (10TE 5/2) g r a v e l l y l o a n , often poor ly def ined; weak f i n e aubangular b locky s t ruc tu re ; very f r i a b l e 5 . J 3.0 I t L igh t y e l l o w i s h brown (10IR 6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, wi th sca t te red angular cobbles ; weak f ine subangular b locky s t ruc tu re ; very f r i a b l e ; d i f f u s e , reddish ye l low (7.5TR 6/6) coat ings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots common 6.2 1.8 7 Brown (lOfR 5/3) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, wi th scat tered angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular blocky s t ruc tu re ; very f r i a b l e ; numerous ahotty concre t ions , wi th reddish ye l l ow (7.5XR 6/6 coat ings ; dappled, reddish ye l low (7.5TB 6/8) coat ings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roo ts common 6.3 1.5 5 L i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (10TR 6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i th scat tered angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular b locky s t ruc ture ; very f r i a b l e ; shot ty concret ions common; dappled, reddish ye l l ow (7.5TR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots moderately common . 6.2 1.6 5 Ligh t y e l l o w i s h brown ( 2 . 5 r 6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, wi th scat tered angular cobbles; weak f ine subangular b locky s t ruc ture ; very f r i a b l e ; shot ty concret ions common; dappled, reddish ye l l ow (7.513* 6/8) coat ings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots moderately common 6.6 0.8 2 Pale o l i v e (51 6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, wi th scat tered angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular b locky s t ruc tu re ; f r i a b l e to weakly cemented towards the o r t s t e i n l a y e r ; shot ty concre t ions ; l i g h t o l i v e gray ( 5 T 6/2) c l i n k e r - l i k e concret ions, w i th reddish ye l low (7.5TB 6/8) s t a i n i n g becoming more frequent wi th increas ing depth; dappled, reddish ye l low coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots sparse, but f i n e roots common Just above the o r t s t e i n 6 .^4 0 .9 2 O r t s t e i n 80- L igh t o l i v e gray (5T 6/2) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; i r r e g u l a r t h i c k p l a t y s t ruc tu re ; cemented; redd ish-ye l low (5TR 6/8) s t a i n i n g , prominent i n the upper p o r t i o n ; roo ts absent, except near the upper surface ' 6.5 0.4 4 PLOT 06 (Upper Deadwood) Ao ? 4 -2 Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r t H 2-0 Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) f e l t y mor; roo ts common 5.2 A 2 0-1 Dark gray (10TR 4 / l ) sandy l o a n ; t h i c k e r among surface cobbles; weak f i n e subangular b locky s t ruc tu re : very f r i a b l e ; roo ts common 4 .8 2.9 7 B 1-10 Brown (10TR 5/3) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i th sca t te red angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular blocky s t ruc tu re ; very f r i a b l e ; numerous shot ty concre t ions , wi th reddish ye l l ow (7«5YB 6/6) coat ings ; dappled, reddish ye l low (7 .5TB 6/6) coat ings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots common 5*7 2 .7 5 B 10-25 Pale brown (10TB 6/3) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i th sca t te red angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular blocky s t ruc tu re ; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concret ions very numerous; dappled, reddish ye l low (7.5TB 6/6) coat ings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots common 5*7 2.6 4 B 25-50' L i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (2.5T 6/4) g r a v e l l y loam, wi th angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular b locky s t r u c t u r e ; very f r i a b l e ; numerous shot ty concre t ions ; l i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (2 .5? 6/4) c l i n k e r - l i k e concre t ions , wi th reddish y e l l o w (7«5Tfl 6/8) s t a i n i n g ; dappled, s trong brown (7 .5TB 5/8) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots moderately common 5*9 2*5 10 B 50-80 Pale o l i v e (5T 6/3) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, wi th scat tered angular cobbles; weak f ine subangular b locky s t ruc tu re ; f i r m to weakly cemented with inc reas ing depth; c l i n k e r - l i k e concret ions common, becoming numerous towards the o r t s t e i n l a y e r ; dappled, reddish ye l low (5IR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and g rave l ; reddish ye l low (5TR 6/8) s t a i n i n g common above the o r t s t e i n ; roo ts sparse, but f i n e roots common Just above the o r t s t e i n 6.2 1.5 9 O r t s t e i n 80- O l i v e gray (51 5/2) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; i r r e g u l a r t h i c k p l a t y s t ruc tu re ; cemented; y e l l o w i s h red (5TB 5/8) s t a i n i n g , prominent i n the upper p o r t i o n ; roots absent 6 .5 . 0.6 5 PLOT 05 (Wolf H t . ) AO ? > 2 Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 5-9 H 2-0 Black (10TR 2/1) granular mor; roots numerous 5 .7 A 2 0-0.5 Dark gray (10TR 4/1) sandy l o a n , often poor ly def ined , but up t o 2 cm t h i c k i n p laces ; weak f i n e subangular b locky s t ruc tu re ; very f r i a b l e 5*3 6 .5 10 B 0.5-10 Pa le brown (10TB 6/3) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i th scat tered angular cobbles , weak f i n e subangular b locky s t ruc tu re ; very f r i a b l e ; shot ty concre t ions ; f a i n t , reddish ye l l ow (7.5TR 6/6) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roo ts common - . . - - - 5 .7 2.8 8 B 10-20 Te l lowlsh brown (10TB 5/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak f i n e subangular blocky s t ruc tu re ; very f r i a b l e ; sho t ty concre t ions ; d i f f u s e , reddish ye l l ow (7 .5YB 6/6) coat ings on g r a v e l ; roots common 6.0 2.1 13 B 20-45 L i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (10YB 6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak f i n e subangular b locky s t ruc tu re ; f r i a b l e ; shot ty concre t ions ; occas iona l l i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (2 .5? 6/4) c l i n k e r - l l k e conc re t ions , w i t h f a i n t , reddish ye l low (7>5TB 6/6) s t a i n i n g ; d i f f u s e , reddish ye l low (7.5TR 6/6) coat ings on g r a v e l ; roots moderately common , 6.2 1.5 10 B 45-65 L igh t brownish ye l l ow (10TB 6/5) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, wi th angular cobbles and sca t te red stones; weak f i n e subangular blocky s t ruc tu re ; very f r i a b l e ; ahotty concre t ions ; occas iona l c l i n k e r -l i k e concre t ions ; d i f f u s e , reddish ye l low (7.5TB 6/8) coat ings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots sparse 6.4 1,0 7 B 65-100 Te l lowlsh brown (10TB 5/6) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with angular cobbles and stones; weak f i n e subangular b locky s t ruc tu re ; very f r i a b l e , d i f f u s e , reddish ye l l ow (7.5TR 6/8) coat ings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots sparse 6.*. 2 .0 ( In some places the root zone was terminated by an o r t s t e i n l a y e r a t 90-100 cm.) .PLOT 03 (Va l l ey ) A O ? - 6-5 Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 5.1 H 5-0 Very dark brown (10YB 2/2) f e l t y mor, up t o 10 cm. t h i c k among surface stones and angular cobbles , elsewhere commonly granular mor 2 cm. t h i c k ; roots common 5 .0 A 2 0-6 Qray (10TR 6 / l ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, among surface stones and angular cobbles , elsewhere 1-2 cm. t h i c k ; weak f ine subangular b locky s t ruc tu re ; very f r i a b l e ; roots common 4 .5 2.8 7 B 6-10 Brown (7.5TB 5/4) g r a v e l l y sandy l o a n , with numerous angular cobbles and atones; weak f ine subangular b locky s t ruc tu re ; very f r i a b l e ; shot ty concre t ions ; dappled, s t rong brown (7.5TB 5 /8) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roo ts common 5*1 3>5 5 B 10-35 L igh t brown (7.5TR 6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, wi th numerous angular cobbles; weak f ine sub-angular b locky s t ruc tu re ; very f r i a b l e ; shot ty concre t ions ; dappled, s t rong brown (7.5TB 5/3) « coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; occas iona l patches of reddish brown (5TB 5/4) sandy loam; sca t te red c l u s t e r s o f pale o l i v e (51 6/3) c l i n k e r - l i k e concre t ions , w i th y e l l o w i s h red (5TB 5 /8) s t a i n i n g ; roots moderately common 5.3 3.5 5 B 35-65 Te l lowlsh brown (10TB 5/6) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, wi th angular cobbles; weak f ine subangular b locky s t ruc tu re ; loose ; f e i n t , s t rong brown (7.5TB 5/6) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roo ts moderately common • 6.1 3.8 7 D 65- Rock; normally with a w e l l def ined boundary between s o i l and rock ( In some places the root tone was terminated by an o r t s t e i n layer) 56 TABLE 14 - Continued PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION pH Organic Horizon Depth Description content (cm.) (*> PLOT 02 (Echo Mt.) Ao F 5-3 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) partially decomposed litter H 3-0 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1) felty mor; roots forming dense network 4.6 A2 0-4 Light gray (10YR ?/l) gravelly sandy loam, in places up to 10 cm. thick among surface cobbles; upper part often including bleached humus; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions; roots numerous 2.7 B 4-35 Strong brown (7.5YH 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions common, sometimes with heavy red (2.5XR 4/8) coatings; dappled, yellowish red (5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; scattered, faint, yellowish red (5IR 5/8) mottling; roots common . 5-5 3*5 B 35-55 Tellovish brown (10IR 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions common; dappled, faint, reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots moderately common 5«7 2.5 B 55-75 Light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) gravelly sandy loam, with numerous angular cobbles and rock fragments; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; dappled, faint, reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots sparse 5*4 2.7 D 75- Rock; fine soil merges into bedrock through a zone of fractured rock, with soil between rock fragments; roots sparse •• (In some places the root zone was terminated by an ortstein layer) PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Ao F 5-3 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) partially decomposed litter 5-1* H 3-0 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10TR 2/1) felty mor; often up to 10 cm. thick among surface cobbles and stones; roots numerous 5*0 A2 0-7 Light gray (10TR 7/0 gravelly sandy loam, in places up to 15 cm. thick; usually among surface cobbles but elsewhere 2 cm. thick; upper part infiltrated with dark organic matter and bleached humus; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions; roots common . . . . 5.4 6.2 B 7-20 Pale brawn (107R 6/3) gravelly sandy loam, with numerous angular cobbles and stones; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions common; dappled, reddish yellow (5TR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common 5*0 2.8 B 20-30 Reddish brown (5YR 5/4) gravelly sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; numerous shotty concretions, with reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) coatings; dappled, reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common 5*1 6.2 B 30-50 Reddish yellow (7.5IR 6/6) gravelly sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions; dappled, yellowish red (5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common . . 5*3 5*2 B 50-60 Yellowish brown (10TR 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, with numerous angular cobbles and stones; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions; scattered light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6-4) clinker-like concretions, with heavy, yellowish red (5TR 5/8) staining; heavy, dappled reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common 5*2 3.8 B 60-70 Dark yellowish brown (10TR 4/4) gravelly loam, with numerous angular cobbles; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure; friable; numerous heavily stained clinker-like con-cretions; dappled, reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) coatings on stones and cobbles; scattered faint, yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottling; roots common, including some blackened decayed roots 5*1 6.0 D 70- Rock; roots numerous on rock surface, frequently forming a mat; seepage water commonly present . . . TABLE U l DESCRIPTION, pg , AND OROANIC AND CLAY CONTENTS 07 TYPICAL BOIL PROFILES FROM THE PBEUDOTBuOA - TBUOA - HYLOCOMIuTI - EURHYNCHIOII ASSOCIATION PLOTS 57 Horiion Depth pH Organic Clay (cm.) Description content content (*) (*> PLOT M5 (Wblf Mt.) Ao T 2-1 Vary dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 5*5 H 1-0 Black (10TB 2 / l ) duff mul l ; roots moderately common • 5*5 - — A l 0-1 Very dark brown (10R 2/2) loam; weak crumb structure; f r i a b l e ; roota moderately common . . 5*7 12.0 10 B 1-10 Red (2*5TR 4/6) loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; shotty concretions, with yellowish red (5YR 5/6) coatings; diffuse, yellowish red coatings on gravel; roota common *~ 6*4 . 3 .0 8 B 10-20 Yellowish red (5IK 4/6) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; numerous ahotty concretions; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) coatings on gravel and shot; roots common 6.5 2.4 4 B 20-45 Yellowish red (5YR 5/6) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; numerous ahotty l concretions; yellowish red (5TR 5/6) coatings on gravel and shot; roota moderately common 6.4 2 .1 8 B 45-70 Yellowiah brown (10YR 5/8) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le shotty concretions; scattered, red (2.5TR 5/6) coatings on gravel; roots moderately common 6 .1 2*5 7 B 70-100 Light, o l ive brown (2.51 5/4) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le to firm; red (2.5YR 5/8) coating* on gravel and scattered red staining above compact horison below; fa int ; b lu ish (7.5B0 7/2) cast and weak, red mottling; roots sparse, although some fine roots present Just above the compact horison 6.3 1*4 i D IOO-13O Pale o l ive (5Y 6/4) sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; f irm to weakly cemented; compact; diffuse, red (2.5YR 5/8) coatings on gravel; red staining and mottling; roots absent . . . 6.1 0.5 9 PLOT K2 (Echo Ht . ) Ao 7 2-1 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 5 .2 B 1-0 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) f e l ty mor; roots moderately common 5*3 A2 0-1 Dark gray (10YB 4 / l ) sandy loam, i n places poorly defined; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r iable 5*7 5*7 11 B 1-20 Yellowish red (5YR 5/8) gravelly sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; ahotty concretions common; dappled, strong brown (7t5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and snot; roota common 5*6 2 .7 B 20-40 Yellowish red (5TR 5/8) gravelly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular . . blocky structure; f r i ab le ; ahotty concretions; strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles gravel and shot; roots common ; 5«9 2.2 10 B 40-75 Strong brown (7.5YH 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; "Shotty concretions; strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and shot; roots sparse .' 5 .9 1.3 11 B (Q) 75-100 Yellowish brown (10XR 5/6) gravelly sandy clay loam, with stones and angular cobbles; medium sub-angular blocky structure; f i rm; strong brown (7-5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; faint b lu i sh (7.5BO 7/2) mottling; roots sparse 5-7_ 2 .1 23 PLOT K4 (Lower Deadwood) ao F 3-2 Very dark brown (10ZR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r x. 5.3 H 2-0 Black (10YR 2 / l ) f e l t y mor; roota .common 5.5 A? 0-1 Oray (10YR 5 / l ) sandy loam, often th in but we l l defined; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i ab le '. 5.6 3 .2 5 B 1-10 Brown (7.5YR 5/4) gravelly loamy sand, with angular cobbles; weak subangular blocky structure; very f r i ab le ; numerous ahotty concratlona; f a in t , strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and shot; roots common 6 .0 2.0 6 B 10-20 Yellowish brown (10TH 5/4) gravelly loamy sand, scattered cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i ab le ; numerous shotty concretions; fa in t , strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and shot; roots common 6.0 1.3 5 B 20-40 Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, scattered cobbles and stones; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions common; l i gh t yellowish brown (2.5T 6/4) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with fa in t , strong brown (7-5YR 5/8) s ta ining; fa in t , strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and shot; very s l ight b lu ish (7*5BO 7/2) mottling; roots moderately common 6.0 1.3 2 B 40-70 Yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) gravelly loamy sand, scattered cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i ab le ; shotty and c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions common; f a in t , strong brown (7-5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and shot; roots sparse 6.7 1.1 3 B 70-100 Light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) gravelly loamy sand, with cobbles; very weak granular structure; loose; cobbles and gravel la rgely unstained; roota sparse . 6 .2 1.0 5 PLOT H3 (Valley) Ao F 3-2 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 5.3 a 2-0 Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) to black (10YR 2 / l ) f e l ty mor; roots moderately common 5.2 A2 0-2 Oray (10YR 5 / l ) sandy loam, up to 10 em. thick among surface stones; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r iable 5 .0 3.8 6 B 2-20 Brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly sandy loam, with numerous angular cobbles and stones; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i ab le ; shotty concretions common; fa in t , strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and shot; roots common . . . . . 5.5 5.1 7 B 20-45 Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i ab le ; shotty concretions; occasional, 'pale o l ive (5YR 6/3) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with yellowish red (5YB 5/6) s taining; dappled, strong brown (?.5YR 5/8) coatings on cobblesand gravel; roots moderately common 5.3 4.3 4 B 45-75 Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) gravelly loamy sand, with angular cobbles: weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; shotty concretions; c l i n k e r - l i k e concretions more common; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots sparse 5.8 2.6 4 B 75-100 Yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) gravelly loamy sand, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; becoming weakly cemented; shotty concretions; c l i n k e r - l i k e concretions nearly continuous; strong brown (7.5*R 5/8) coatings and mottling; faint b lu ish (7.5BO 7/2) mottling; roots sparse 5.4 4.0 5 Ortsteln 100- Olive gray (5Y 5/2) gravelly sandy loam; Irregular thick platy structure; cemented; yellowish red (5YR 4/8) s taining; no roots - - • - ' PLOT HI (Fourth Ik.) Ao T 7-5 Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 4 .7 g 5-0 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10YR 2 / l ) f e l ty mor; roots numerous 4.2 (In places the surface horlaon consisted of up to 15 cm. of decayed wood) A , 0-6 Light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) sandy loam, up to 15 cm. thick under decayed wood; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i ab le ; roots common 4.3 2.1 10 B 6-6.5 Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) loam, discontinuous B 6.5-20 Reddish brown (5YR 5/4) gravel ly sandy loam, with angular cobbles and stones; weak fine subangular < blocky structure; very f r i ab le ; ahotty concretions with yellowish red (5YR 5/8) coatings; dappled, yellowish red (5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common 5.3 3 .4 5 B 20-40 Reddish brown (5YR 5/4) gravel ly sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; ahotty concretions common; occasional l igh t yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with heavy, yellowish red (5YR 4/6) s taining; heavy, dappled, reddish yellow (5YR 6/6) staining on cobbles and gravel; roots common 5.3 4.0 10 B 40-65 Brown (7.5YR 5/4) gravelly sandy loam, with angular cobbles and stones; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; shotty concretions; c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions more common; heavy, dappled, yellowish red (5IR 5/8) staining on cobbles and gravel; faint bluish (7.5BO 7/2) mottling; roots moderately common 5.3 3.8 9 B 65-90 Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, with angular cobbles and stones; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure; f r iab le ; shotty concretions; c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions numerous; heavy, dappled, yellowish red (5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and grave}; scattered bluish (7.5B0 7/2) mottling; roots sparse, although fine roots common above or ts te ln layer 5.7 1.2 11 Ortsteln 90- Olive gray (5Y 5/2) gravelly sandy loam; i r regular thick platy structure; cemented; yellowish red (5YR 4/8) s taining; no roots Plot G2 as low as 4.6. There was commonly a dense network of roots in the upper portion of the profile, with the roots of Tsuga and Thuja being con-centrated in the Ao and Ag layers. Normally there was also a concentration of fine roots in the moist zone above the bedrock. The profiles of these plots were comparable to those described for the Quinsam series (Farstad) (1957). Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association Plots Ml and M3 of the subassociation typicum were on sidehills, whereas Plot M4 was in a small gully. Plot M5 of the subassociation nudum was on a gentle slope and Plot M2 on a steeper sidehill. Average soil depth was from 80 to 100 cm., with the root zone being terminated in most cases by a compact soil layer or by ortstein (Table 15). Stones were fre-quent in most plots. In Plots Ml, M3 and parts of M4 30 to 40 percent of the soil volume consisted of material over 25 mm. in diameter. The soil of Plot M5, however, was largely composed of material less than 2 mm. in di-ameter (Fig. 18 E). Lateral movement of ground water was evident in Plots Ml, M2 and M3 during a considerable portion of the year. Litter layers (Ao) in the subassociation typicum plots consisted of from one to two centimeters of very dark brown to black felty mor. Deep H layers were common among surface stones. Leached horizons (Ag) were well defined in most profiles and varied from a few millimeters to more than 6 cm. deep in Plot Ml. The H layer in Plot M5 of the subassociation nudum con-sisted of a shallow layer of black duff mull above a layer of very dark brown loam (Ai), which had a weak crumb structure. No Ag was encountered in Plot M5, and in Plot M2 there was only a poorly defined leached layer. The upper profiles of Plots M3 and M4 were brown, merging to yellow-ish brown with increasing depth. Soils in Plot Ml were more highly coloured The upper portion of the profiles was reddish brown, and yellowish red coat-ings on the gravel and ccmcietions were prominent throughout. Shotty con-cretions were common in a l l plots, and clinker-like concretions were very common in Plot Ml and in Plot M3, where they constituted a major proportion of the soil volume in the lower part of the profile. In these two plots soil textures were gravelly sandy loams, with the 2 mm. fraction forming only 30 to 40 percent of the 25 mm. fraction. An ortstein layer of cemented sand and gravel, with an irregular platy structure, was present at 80 to 100 cm. in Plots Ml and M3. The soil of Plot M4 consisted largely of coarse out-wash material, and soil textures were normally gravelly loamy sands. A layer of raw gravel and rounded cobbles was commonly present at the bottom of the profile. The profile in Plot M5 was composed of a deep deposit of fine, yellow-ish red, outwash material above a compact layer of pale olive sandy loam. This compact layer served to restrict root penetration and downward movement of soil water. In Plot M2 the lower part of the profile in many places con-sisted of a faintly mottled gravelly sandy clay loam layer. Values of pH 6 and above were common in the mineral soils of Plots M4 and M5. The other plots in the western end of the valley had lower values, with a pH of 4.2 being recorded for the H layer of Plot Ml. Most roots were found in the upper part of the mineral soil, although Tsuga roots were large-ly restricted to the Ao and A2 horizons and there was some concentration of roots above the ortstein in Plots Ml and MS. The profiles of Plot Ml resembled those described for the Stamp series (Farstad 1957). Profiles developed from coarse materials on Plot M2 were also comparable with those of the Stamp series, but in some parts of the plot the parent materials were finer and these profiles more closely TABLE 16: DESCRIPTION, pH, AND ORGANIC AND CLAY CONTENTS OF TYPICAL SOIL gQ PROFILES FROM THE PS8UD0T8U0A - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS Horlson Depth (en.) Description pH Orftnic Clay content content (#> (*) PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood) Ao F 3-2 Very dark brown (10TR 2/2) pa r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 5 .5 H 2-0 Black (10TB 2 / l ) granular nor: roote common 5.2 A l 0-1 Black (IOTA 2 / l ) sandy loam, somewhat discontinuous; crumb structure; f r iab le ; roots numerous . . . . B 1-10 Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) gravelly sandy loam, with occasional rounded cobbles; weak fine sub-angular blocky structure; f r iab le ; scattered shotty concretions; scattered, fa in t , strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles; roots common . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • < • • • • o . j o.O 7 B 10-20 Tellowlsh brown (10TR 5/6) sandy loam, with occasional rounded gravel*and cobbles; weak fine sub-angular blocky structure; f r iab le ; scattered shotty concretions; scattered, fa in t , strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles; roots common 6,3 8 B 20-40 Tellowlsh brown (10TR 5/8) sandy loam, with occasional rounded gravel and cobbles; vory weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r iab le ; scattered shotty concretions; scattered, fa in t , strong brown (7.5TB 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common 6.1 2.6 8 B 40-50 Oray and brown sand, rounded gravel and cobbles; single grain structure; loose, scattered, fa in t , strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots sparse B 50-75 Strong brown (7.5TB 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, with scattered rounded coarse gravel and cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i ab le ; scattered fa in t , strong, brown (7-5TR 5/6) coatings on cobbles and gravelj roots moderately common 6.4 3.5 10 B 75-100 Tellowlsh brown (10TR 5/8) gravelly loamy sand, with scattered rounded coarse gravel and cobbles; very weak fine subangular blocky structure; scattered fa in t , strong brown (7-5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots sparse 6.3 3>0 5 B IOO-130 Light yellowish brown (2*51 6/4) gravelly loamy sand, with scattered rounded coarse gravel and cobbles; very weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r iab le ; scattered, fa in t , strong brown (7-5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots very sparse 6.2 3.7 6 PLOT PI (Fourth Lk. ) Ao F 4-3 Very dark brown (10TR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 5-0 H 3-0 Very dark brown (10TR 2/2) f e l ty mor; roots common 4.5 A 2 0-1 Reddish brown (5TR 5/3) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; shotty concretions; roots common; merging into the next horlson B 1-4 Yellowish red (5TR 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, often discontinuous, weak fine'subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; numerous shotty concretions, with heavy, yellowish red (5TR 5/8) coatings; roots common ....... ..4,....,,.... ............. .......... - - — B 4-20 Tellowiah red (5TR 4/6) gravelly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure; f r iab le ; numerous shotty concretions; scattered reddish yellow (5TB 6/8) coatings on gravel and shot; roots common 5*3 2.6 5 B 20-1.5 strong brown (7.5TR 5/6) gravelly loam; with scattered angular cobbles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable) shotty concretions; scattered reddish yellow (5TR 6/8) coatings on gravel and shot; roots moderately common 5 .6 3.4 15 B 45.75 Tellowlsh brown (10TB 5/6) gravelly loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak median subangular blocky structure1 f r iab le ; diffuse reddish yellow (5TR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common 5.6 2.5 13 B 75-100 Yellowish brown (10TB 5/8) gravelly loam, with scattered stones and angular cobbles; weak medium to coarse subangulan blocky structure; firm; fa in t , dappled, yellowish red (5YB 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots sparse 5 .9 0.7 13 B 100-120 Light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) gravelly loam, with stones and angular cobbles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; s l i gh t ly p l a s t i c ; very f i rm; dappled, yellowish red (5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel1 roots sparse 5 .6 0.6 _ 22 PLOT P2 (Bcbo Rt . ) Ao F 8-6 Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) pa r t i a l l y decomposed U t t e r 5 > B 6-0 Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) f e l ty mor; often including dark reddish brown (2.5TB 3/4) woody peat from decayed logs; where peat absent humus about 2 cm. deep; roots common 5.4 A 2 0-1 Dark reddish gray (5TR 4/2) loam; under peaty decayed wood, this horlson may be up to 10 cm. th ick; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; roots common B 1-3 Dark red (2.5TR 3/6) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; shotty concretions with heavy, red (2.5TB 5/8) coatings; dappled, yellowish red (5TS 5/6) coatings on gravel; roots numsrous . . . B 3-10 Bed (2.5TB 4/8) sandy loam; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure; numsrous shotty concretions; yellowish red (5TB 5/8) coatings on gravel and shot; roots common . . . . . . . . . . B 10-20 Tellowiah red (5TB 4/8) sandy loam; weak fine to medium rabengular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; numsrous shotty concretions; yellowish red (5TB 5/8) coatings on gravel and shot; roots common . , B 20-50 Tellowiah red (5TB 4/8) sandy loam; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure 1 f r iab le ; shotty concretions; yellowish red (5TB 5/8) coatings on gravel and shot; roots moderately B 50-75 Red (2.5TB 4/6) sandy loam; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; shotty concretions; diffuse yellowish red (5TR 5/8) coatings on gravel; roots sparse; th is horizon i s commonly below the water table . . . . v . • Ortstein 75- Olive gray (5T 5/2) sandy loam; irregular thick platy structure; cemented; prominently mottled with yellowish red (5TR 5/6) o n exposure to a i r ; roots absent Very dark brown (10TR 2/z) pa r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) f e l t y mor; roots common . Black (10TR 2 / l ) granular duff mall ; roots common Dork gray broim (10TR 4/2) loam, often discontinuous and poorly defined; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; roots common , Dark reddish brown (5TB 3/2) loan, often discontinuous) weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r iab le ; roots common Dark red (2.5TB 3/6) sandy loam; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; numerous shotty concretions, with yellowish red (5TR 5/8) coatings; roots numerous Bed (2.5TB 4/8) sandy loam; weak fins to medium subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; numerous shotty concretions, with yellowish red coatings; roots common . . . Tellowlsh red (5TR 5/6) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r iab le ; shotty concretions common; roots common Tellowlsh brown (10TB 5/6) gravelly sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r iab le ; occasional shotty concretion with bright,yellowish red (5TR 5/8) coatings; scattered, faint , yellowish red (5TB 5/8) coatings on gravel; scattered, d i s t i n c t , yellowish red (STB 5/8) mottling; roots sparse Light o l ive grey (51 6/2) gravelly sandy loam, with occasional rounded cobbles; fine to medium subangular blocky structure; firm; compact; gleyed; scattered faint yellowish red (5TR 5/8) coatings on gravel; occasional yellowish red (5TR 5/8) mottling; roots very sparse Very dark brown (10TR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r . . . . . Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) duff mull; roots common Black (10TR 2 / l ) loam; weak fine to medium crumb structure; f r iab le ; roots common Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) loom; fine subangular blocky structure; f r iab le ; occasional shotty concretions; roots common . Dark brown (10TR 3/3) loom; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r iable ; occasional ahotty concretions; roots common Dark yellowish brown (10TB 4/4) sandy loam; very weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r iab le ; roots common \ . , Tellowiah brown (10TR 5/6) sandy loam; very weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i ab le , with bands of loose sand; roots moderately common Dark yellowish brown (10TB 4/4) loom; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r iab le ; roots (Probably the upper part or a buried profi le) Tellowisb brown (10TR 5/8) sandy loam; very weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r iab le ; roots moderately common Light grey and brown raw r iver gravel and sand; single grain structure; loose; occasional, l i g h t , dappled, strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on gravel; roots very sparse PLOT P5 (yoir I K . AO F 3-2 Hi 2-1 H2 1-0 A2 0-1 B 1-2 B . 2-10 B 10-25 B 25-fcO W-70 a 70-100 PLOT P3 ( V . H . 7 ) u> r 1.5-0.5 H 0.5-0 »1 0-2 B 2-3 B 3-8 B 8-20 B 20-50 B 50-70 B 70-95 0 95-120 5.6 1.1 5 5.9 1.7 9 6.1 1.6 13 6.0 1.5 13 6.1 1.9 13 6.0 2.6 9 6.2 - 2 . 8 8 6.1 3.2 7 6.1 1.3 8 6.5 0.1 7 5.1 5.2 ' 5.6 "•5 10 5 . » 2.1 7 6.2 2.6 6 6.0 3.3 9 6.1 1.6 1* resembled the liberal series. The soils of Plot M3 were comparable with the Sproat series, while those of Plot M4 were similar to the Qualicum series. Plot M5 was somewhat like the Royston series. Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association The topographic locations and soil profiles of the stands of this association varied considerably (Table 16.). Plot P4 was on mixed outwash material in the bottom of a wide U-shaped valley. Plot PI was towards the base of a steep sidehill and Plots P2 and P5 were on gentle slopes. Plot P3 was on a sandy river terrace. Escept in the plots with a high water table (Plots P2 and P5), soil volume available for rooting was good, be-cause profiles were deep and not excessively stony. Lateral movement of ground water was prominent in Plots PI, P2 and P5, but in Plot P4 the water table was normally more than 100 cm. from the surface, and in Plot P3 there was no evidence of a water table within the upper 100 cm. of the profile. Plot P4, which had the largest tree volume per acre of any of the plots studied, uses typical of stands of the association growing on fertile soils under moderately dry climatic conditions. The Ao layer consisted of one centimeter of partially decomposed needles, beneath wb.ich.vias a layer of black loam, with a crumb structure. No Ag horizon was present, though under decaying wood there was some bleaching of materials. The remainder of the profile consisted of gravelly sandy loam, with layers of gravel and cobbles being present throughout the profile (Fig. 16). Soil structure was very weakly developed and a l l layers varied from friable to loose. Concretions were uncommon. There were some faint brown coatings on the gravel and cobbles, but there was l i t t l e sign of mottling. The pH of a l l mineral horizons was above 6. Fine roots, especially of the subordinate vegetation, were very common in the A horizon, with the majority of rooting being near the surface. Pseudotsuga roots also reached considerable depths. The profiles of this plot resembled those described for the Qualicum series, a l -though the soil colours were somewhat darker, showing their affinity to the Somas series (Farstad 1957). Although Plot PI was towards the upper margin of the site, the profile was typical for stands of the association developed on sidehills under moist climatic conditions. (Fig. 19 F). The H layer consisted of some 3 cm. of very dark brown felty mor, in which roots were common. The Ag, although well defined, was a shallow layer of reddish brown sandy loam, indicating that leaching of surface layers was not complete. The upper B horizon, which corresponded to the Bg of the typical podzol profile, was a yellowish red, gravelly sandy loam, with numerous heavily stained shotty concretions. Shotty concretions were also common in the remainder of the profile. The B horizon merged from a yellowish red gravelly sandy loam to a pale yellowish brown gravelly loam at 100 cm. Yellowish red coatings on the angular cobbles and gravel were prominent. The lower portion of the profile had a clay con-tent of 22 percent so that when this layer was wet i t had a slightly plastic consistency and a firm consistency at lower moisture contents. There was some bluish mottling in this zone. A pH of 4.5 was measured in the H layer and values in the mineral soil were a l l below pH 6. Roots were concentra-ted towards the upper part of the profile and were quite sparse in the dense gravelly loam at the bottom of the profile. Profiles on this plot resembled those described for the Stamp series (Farstad 1957). The AQ horizon in Plot P2 was commonly up to 10 cm. deep, much of i t being made up of woody peat from decayed logs (Fig. 19 H). Elsewhere the H layer consisted of 2 cm. of very dark brown felty mor. The A2 was a dark reddish gray loam, usually conspicuously streaked with brown stains. The B horizon directly under the A2, again appeared to correspond to the B2 of a typical podzol and consisted of a shallow layer of dark red sandy loam with numerous heavily coated shotty concretions. The remainder of the B horizon varied from red to yellowish red sandy loam. The presence of fine gravel and shotty concretions gave the profile a porous structure. Although in most profiles examined the water table was commonly less than 40 cm. from the surface there was no evidence of gray gleization. The lack of gray colour probably resulted from the ease with which ground water moved through these porous profiles, and in this feature profiles resembled those described for the Bowser series (Farstad 1957). The pH of the upper horizons varied from 5.4 to 5.9, reflecting the more extreme leaching conditions at this altitude (1400 f t . ) . Deeper horizons had values above pH 6.0. The soil zone com-monly terminated in an ortstein layer at 75 cm., although in a l l the pits excavated there was no root penetration to this depth. Rooting of a l l species was very shallow. In Plot P5 the Ao horizon was usually shallower than in Plot P2 (Fig. 19 I). It normally consisted of an B^  layer of very dark brown felty mor, with a black B^  layer of granular duff mull beneath. Wood peat was also present in some areas. The Ag horizon was a dark gray brown loam, which was often discontinuous and poorly defined. The upper B hori-zon consisted of a somewhat discontinuous dark reddish brown layer below the A2, beneath which was a dark red sandy loam layer. These layers had numerous heavily coated shotty concretions, and coatings were common on the gravel. The majority of roots were concentrated in and above the upper B horizon. The remainder of the profile, which was commonly below the water table, merged from a yellowish red sandy loam, through a yellowish brown gravelly sandy loam to a gleyed, light olive gray loamy gravel. This gleyed layer was rarely above the water table. The pH of a l l mineral lay-64 ers was above 6. These profiles resembled those of the Puntledge series in consisting of a shallow loamy deposit overlying an impervious layer (Farstad 1957). This impervious layer caused a high water table. The H layer in Plot P3 consisted of a thin layer of very dark brown duff mull (Fig. 19 G). This was followed by a shallow &x horizon of black loam, with a crumb structure. The upper B horizon consisted of a very dark brown loam, with a fine subangular blocky structure and friable consistency. Shotty concretions were present in this region. The remainder of the B horizon consisted of dark brown to yellowish brown sandy loam, with very weak structure. There were occasional bands of darker material, indicating the presence of buried profiles. The B horizon was underlain by a bed of raw gravel and river cobbles, which occurred at various depths in the sampling pits, the average being 95 cm. The B horizon was largely free from gravel and cobbles, and the 2 mm. fraction constituted nearly 100 percent of the 25 mm. fraction in most samples. Boots, though more common in the upper profile, extended to the gravel layer. Soils of this plot corresponded to those described as the Chemainus series (Farstad 1957). Thuja - Lysichitum association Profiles in the swampy areas of this association consisted of varying depths of black muck, underlain by olive gray, gleyed, sandy loam (Table 17; Fig. 19 J). Between the muck and the gleyed layer there was commonly a narrow transition zone of gray, mucky sandy loam, indicating an area with intense gleization conditions. The gleyed layers were usually heavily infiltrated with organic matter, causing brown staining. On exposure to air some reddish and bluish mottling was evident. In Plot Lyl the gleyed layer was fairly gravelly, but in the other plots i t was largely devoid of coarse particles in the upper profile. Most roots were confined to the muck layer, hut Lysichitum roots were fairly common in the gleyed layer. 65 TABLE 17: DESCRIPTION, pH, AND CLAY CONTENTS OF TYPICAL SOIL PROFILES FROM THE THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION. D o s c r i p t i o n pK C l a y Depth c o n t e n t (cm.) (36) PLOT Ly3 (Wolf M t . ) A - SWAMP 0 - 1 Moss and d e b r i s ( n e e d l e s , t w i g s , wood f ragments) 1- 20 B l a c k muck; wa te r l e v e l v a r y i n g from 0 t o 10 em. below t he moss l a y e r 5*6 20-23 O l i v e g ray (5Y 4 / 2 ) mucky sandy loam; f i r m ; compact; r o o t s sparse ( m o s t l y L y s i c h i t u m ) ' 23-35+ O l i v e g ray (5Y 5 /2 ) g l e y e d sandy loam; p l a s t i c ; s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; f i r m , compact; h a r d when d r y ; brown and y e l l o w i s h r e d m o t t l i n g ( f a i n t b e f o r e exposure t o a i r ) ; r o o t s absent 6 .6 14 B - BANKS AND HUMMOCKS 0 - 1 P a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 1- 2 V e r y dark brown (10IR 2 /2 ) f e l t y mor 2 - 10 Dark r e d (2 .5YR 3/6) f i b r o u s p e a t , c o n t a i n i n g t w i g and wood f ragments ; r o o t s f o r m i n g a dense network . 4 . 2 20-40 V e r y dark brown (10YR 2/2) t o b l a c k muck; r o o t s spa r se 4 0 - O l i v e g ray (51 5/2 t o 4 / 2 ) g l e y e d g r a v e l l y sandy loam; upper p o r t i o n h e a v i l y I n f i l t r a t e d w i t h muck; s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c ; s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; f i r m ; compact; ha rd when d r y ; wate r commonly r u n n i n g ove r the s u r f a c e 6 ,8 PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) A - SWAMP 0 - 1 Mo3 3 and d e b r i s 1- 20 B l a c k muck; wa te r l e v e l v a r y i n g from 0 t o 20 cm. be low t h e moss l a y e r 5*2 20-30 B l a c k muck, somewhat more compact t han above 5*5 30- O l i v e g ray (51 5 / 2 ) g l e y e d g r a v e l l y sandy loam; p l a s t i c ; s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; f i r m ; compact; ha rd when d r y ; r o o t s absent A* - MARGIN OF SWAMP 0 - 1 P a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 4 . 7 1- 10 V e r y dusky r e d (10R 2 /2 ) greasy pea t ; r o o t s modera te ly common 4 . 8 10-20 B l a c k muck; r o o t s modera te ly common 5*2 20-30 O l i v e g ray (5T 5 / 2 ) g l e y e d sandy l oam, h e a v i l y i n f i l t r a t e d w i t h da rk brown (7 .5YR 3/2) o r g a n i c m a t t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y a l o n g r o o t c h a n n e l s ; p l a s t i c ; s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; f i r m ; compact; r o o t s moderate-l y common ( m o s t l y L y s i c h i t u m ) : water commonly r u n n i n g ove r t he s u r f a c e 5*8 7 30-80 O l i v e g ray (5Y 5/2) g l e y e d sandy loam; p l a s t i c , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; f i r m ; compact; h a r d when d r y ; r o o t s becoming v e r y spa r se w i t h i n c r e a s i n g depth B - BANKS AND HUMMOCKS 0 - 1 P a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 1- 2 Dark r e d d i s h brown (2 .5TR 2 /4 ) f e l t y mor 2 - 10 V e r y dusky r e d (10R 2 /2 ) f i b r o u s pea t ; r o o t s fo rming dense network 4 . 7 10-20 R e d d i s h b l a c k (10R 2 / l ) g r e a s y pea t ; r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous, c o n t a i n i n g few r e c o g n i z a b l e f r a g -ments; r o o t s f o r m i n g dense network 4 . 9 20-30 A i r space sometimes p r e s e n t . 30-50 O l i v e g r a y (5Y 5 /2 ) g l e y e d g r a v e l l y sandy loam; upper p o r t i o n I n f i l t r a t e d w i t h o r g a n i c ma t t e r ; f i r m ; s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; compact; h a r d when d r y ; r o o t s absen t ; water commonly r u n n i n g ove r t he s u r f a c e 5*7 PLOT L y l (Echo M t . ) A - SWAMP 0- 1 Moss and d e b r i s 1- 20 Gray brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy l o a m , w i t h numerous fragments o f o r g a n i c d e b r i s ; s t r u c t u r e l e s s ; f r i a b l e ; r o o t s modera te ly common; water l e v e l from 0 t o 10 cm. below t he moss l a y e r 5.8 20- O l i v e g ray (5Y 5/2) g l eyed g r a v e l l y sandy loam; p l a s t i c ; s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; f i r m ; compact; h a r d when d r y ; r o o t s absent . . . . . . . . . . B - BANKS AND HUMMOCKS 0 - 1 P a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 1- 2 V e r y dark brown (lOYfi 2/2) f e l t y mor 4 . 4 2- 10 Dark r e d d i s h brown (2.5YR 2 /4 ) f i b r o u s pea t ; r o o t s numerous 4 . 6 10-30 B l a c k rauck; r o o t s common 5«5 30-40 L i g h t b r o w n i s h gray (2.5Y 6/2) g l eyed sandy loam; upper p o r t i o n h e a v i l y i n f i l t r a t e d w i t h v e r y dark brown (10YK 2/2) o r g a n i c ma t t e r ; s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c ; f i r m ; s l i g h t l y ha rd when d r y ; r o o t s s p a r s e ; wa te r commonly r u n n i n g over t he s u r f a c e 5*9 5 40-50 O l i v e gray (5Y 5/2) g l eyed g r a v e l l y sandy c l a y loam; s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c ; s t i c k y ; f i r m ; compact; ha rd when d r y ; r o o t s absent 6.0 22 The surface of the banks and hummocks surrounding the swampy areas was covered by partially decomposed lit t e r and a layer of very dark brown felty mor. These layers were followed by reddish brown to dark brown fibrous peat, interwoven by a dense network of Thuja roots. In some areas there was a layer of greasy peat beneath the fibrous peat, but in most cases the fibrous peat became moister with depth and merged into a black muck layer overlaying an olive gray, gleyed, gravelly sandy loam layer. Tree roots were concentrated in the peat and muck layers and rarely penetrated the water table above the gleyed layer. WEATHER Weather patterns in the Nanaimo River Yalley during the years 1951 to 1953 were in accordance with the climatic averages for the region. Rainfall was light during each growing season and winter months were wet. In 1951 rainfall was in fact below average April, through August, increasing the normal seasonal drought. Low rainfalls were recorded at a l l stations in the study area (Table 18), as was true of other stations on Vancouver Island. Cassidy, for example, on the east coast received only 2.88 inches compared with an average of 10.75 inches for this period and Nitinat Camp in the central mountains received 6.60 inches compared with an average of 16.44 inches. In 1952, spring and early summer rainfall was average, but the summer drought extended later into the autumn than usual. Rainfall at Deadwood Creek for September and October was 1.3 inches compared with an average of 7.5 inches and even at Fourth Lake rainfall for these months was only 5.0 inches compared with an average of 16.4 inches. A similar autumn dry spell was recorded at other stations in the central mountains and on the east coast. Spring and summer rainfall in 1953 was l i t t l e different from the climatic averages, although in June there was some variation in the TABLE 18. MONTHLY PRECIPITATION AT STATIONS ADJACENT TO 67 PLOTS SAMPLED FOB SOIL MOISTURE, 1951-1993 (in ea.) JAN FEB MAR APE MAI JUH JUL AUG SEP OCT MOV DSC 1951 BOLF MOUNTAIN (Ly3f P5, M5, 05, L5) 1.1 0.4 1.8 8.9 19.0 a.8 17.7 LOVER DEADWOOD (M4, G4) 1.1 0.4 1.8 9.7 19.0 a.8 18.0 (L3, U) 1.1 0.4 1.3 9.5 17.2 21.0 17.8 UPPER DEADWOOD (Ly2, P4, 06) 1.1 0.5 2.3 9.7 17.3 20.5 17.0 VALLEY Valley floor (P3, L2) - - - - 1.0 0.4 0.6 12.2 23.6 33.0" 17.0 Sldehlll (M3, G3) . . . . . o.5 0 > 6 JJ.O 26.1 38.0" 21.8 ECHO MOUNTAIN Midslope (Lyl, P2, M2) - - - - - 0.9 0.6 0.3 14.2 28.1 39.0" 19.2 Upper Slope (C2) . . . . . 0.8 0.5 15.0 29.2 40.0" 21.2 FOURTH LAKE Valley floor (PI, Ml) . . . . . 0.9 0.3 1.0 15.2 28.0 42.0" 26.8 Ridge (Gl, Ll) 1.0 0.4 1.0 17.5 30.0 45.0» 27.0 1952 WOLF MOUNTAIN (Ly3, P5, M5, G5, L5) 26.0" 16.0" 7.01" 8.0» 2.6 2.6 0.7 . 2.2 1.0 2.4 10.8 33.8 LOWER DEADWOOD (M4, G4) 26.0" 16.0" 7.0' 8.0' 2.8 2.5 0.8 3.1 1.0 2.4 10.9 35.0 (L3, U) 26.0" 16.0" 7.0' 8.0' 2.3 2.2 0.7 2.3 1.1 2.4 11.2 33.0 UPPER DEADWOOD • , (Ly2, P4, 06) 26.0" 16.0" 5.5' 6.5' 3.1 3.2 0.8 3.1 1.1 3.8 8.0 30.0 VALLEY Valley floor (P3, L2) 33.0" 22.0" 11.0' 13.0' 3.2 4.1 , 1.0 4.4 2.1 4.7 20.8 43.0 Sldehlll (M3, 03) 35.0." 23.0" H.O' 16.0' 3.3 4.7 1.1 4.3 2.7 5.4 21.2 52.0" ECHO MOUNTAIN Midslope (Lyl, P2, M2) 36.0" 28.0" 14.0" 16.0' 4.0 5.8 0.9 4.6 3.1 6.2 23.0 47.0 Upper slope (M2) 41.0" 32.0" 16.0" 18.0" 3.9 6.0 1.0 4.8 3.9 6.8 FOURTH LAKE Valley floor (PI, Ml) 46.0' 34.0' 17.0' 21.0' 4-5 8.0 1.0 7.0 4-4 8.3 23.0 60.0" Ridge (Gl, Ll) 51.0" 36.0" 18.0" 22.0" 4.8 8.5 1.2 7.4 4.6 8.3 24-0 62.0" 1953 WOLF MOUNTAIN (Ly3, P5, M5, G5, L5) 47.0 10.3 10.3 5.5 3.1 5.0 2.6 1.8 9.5 8.5 26.7 16.8 LOWER DEADWOOD (M4, G4) 47.0 11.5 10.4 5.2 3.0 4.2 2.0 1.7 10.2 10.0 (L3, L4) 48.0 11.6 9.9 5.3 2.6 3.6 2.0 2.5 10.1 8.9 26.7 17.6 UPPER DEADWOOD (Ly2, P4, 06) 45.0 10.4 10.2 4.8 3.1 4.8 2.6 3.9 10.2 9.9 27.0 19.0 VALLEY Valley floor (P3, L2) 55.0 13.6 19.0 6.4 4.8 5.1 5.0 5.2 13.3 19.4 47.0 27.0 Sldehlll (M3, G3) 71.0" 15.2 20.5 7.5 4.7 4.9 5.5 4.5 15.0 21.2 51.0 32.0 ECHO MOUNTAIN Midslope (Lyl, P2, M2) 72.0" 15.3 18.1 8.3 4.8 3.4 6.0 5.0 14.5 23.6 50.5 32.0 Upper slope (G2) FOURTH LAKE Valley floor (PI, Ridge (Gl, Ll) 83.0" 16.0 26.0 7.2 8.5 3.0 5.3 9.1 17.4 33.1 Valley floor (PI, Ml) 80.0" 15.7 24.0 5.6 7.6 2.3 4.3 9.0 16.4 32.1 65.0" 41.0 1 Interpolated from 2 month reoord * Raingauge overflowed) value estimated. customary trend from west to east. Somewhat more rainfall was recorded at the eastern end of the study area than at the western end. Such deviations could be caused by variations in the direction of rain bearing winds. Dif-ferent topographic features might then cause local rain-shadows or downpowers in unusual places. During the summer dry periods of 1951 and 1952 mean daily and mean maximum temperatures were fairly high, accentuating the normal summer drought. The winter of 1951/19.52 was coldlwith considerable snowfall from December to March. During the winter of 1952/1953 temperatures were more moderate and most of the precipitation f e l l as rain. Precipitation during December 1952 and January 1953 was unusually heavy with Deadwood Creek re-ceiving 31.9 inches compared with an average of 20.6 inches and Echo Mountain 47.8 inches compared with an average of 29.1 inches. Similarly Cassidy re-ceived 23.60 inches compared with an average of 14.16 inches and Nitinat Camp 59.35 inches compared with 34.07 inches. Other winter precipitation values from 1951 to 1953 showed l i t t l e deviation from the climatic averages. MICROCLIMATE Precipitation and Interception A comparison of the average amounts collected in the four plot raingauges with the averages obtained using the additional nine check gauges showed the four gauges to be a satisfactory measure of the amount of rainfall penetrating tree canopies (Appendix IV). The percentage of interception by the tree canopy varied with stand density, amount and kind of precipitation, and season. Similar variations have been recorded in other studies (Geiger 1950). The highest mean annual interception occurred in Pseudotsuga - Polystichum stands, IABLB 19: AVERAGE MONTHLY PRECIPITATION -ABB IHTBROBPTIOH IB PLOTS 8AHPLBO FOR SOIL M0I8TUHB, 1951-1953 (en.) JAN FEB lUfi APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGEBA ASSOCIATION JAB FEB MAR APR HAY JOB JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC PSEPDOTSUCA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOT L5 {Wolf Mt.) PLOT H5 (Wolf Ht.) Preclpltation(ca) 32.7 10.7 5.5 4.4 1.5 1.5 0.7 0.9 4.9 8.0 10.8 18.2 100 3.1 Preoipitation(cm) 25.7 8.6 4.0 3.1 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.4 3.7 5.1 7.4 18.4 78 1.9 Interceptlon($) 11 20 34 36 45 50 67 54 35 34 36 28 37 57 Interception ($) 29 36 51 55 79 73 68 82 60 56 57 28 M 56 74 PLOT U (Deadwood) PLOT H2 (Echo Ht.) Precipitation(cn) 32.5 11.8 7.0 5.2 1.3 1.3 0.5 1.2 6.1 8.4 13.2 20.8 t 109 3.0 Preoipltation(ca) 46.2 20.0 12.5 8.7 2.1 1.9 1.5 2.1 7.2 14.3 24.6 26.7 E 169 5.5 InterceptionOC) 17 14 17 21 28 37 43 39 21 9 18 20 V 24 40 Interne ptionftt) 18 18 29 31 51 48 49 54 40 27 20 19 U 34 50 PLOT L3 (Deadwood) PLOT M4 (Deadwood) Preolpltation(ca) 30.3 10.7 6.0 4.5 1.5 1.5 0.5 1.3 5.5 7.2 11.5 19.4 E 100 3.3 Preeipitation(eB) 29.6 9.9 6.0 4.3 1.5 1.3 0.6 0.8 5.7 7.9 12.6 21.6 E 102 2.7 lnterceptlon(£) 19 22 28 32 36 39 51 35 31 21 28 26 M 31 42 Interception(£) 19 26 31 34 49 56 49 63 34 27 25 20 . M 36 56 PLOT L2 (Valley) PLOT M3 (Valley) Precipitatlon(co) 38.0 12.2 L0.4 6.5 2.5 2.3 1.9 2.1 7.1 12.3 20.7 25.5 Z 141 6.3 Prcolpitation(sn) 47.7 15.7 14.8 9.0 2.6 2.1 1.8 3.6 8.0 16.5 27.3 37.3 C 186 7.5 Interception (9() 17 32 31 32 36 33 17 36 30 24 24 18 M 28 29 Interception{$) 12 17 15 24 35 43 39 47 28 14 8 10 II 24 43 PLOT Ll (Fourth Lk.) PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) Preoipitatlon(cm) 57.2 20.9 19.6 12.7 4.8 2.8 1.9 4.9 10.7 20.4 28.2 36.7 t 221 9.6 Freoipltatlon(ca) 57.0 17.0 18.1 11.9 4.2 2.6 1.6 4.6 10.6 21.3 31.1 37.6 E 217 8.8 Interception($) 16 18 11 13 28 39 28 10 21 15 16 20 II 20 26 Interception(J() 11 12 10 11 33 u 23 37 18 8 4 11 M 18 34 MEAN INTERCEPTION 16 21 24 27 35 39 41 35 27 a 25 22 M 28 39 MEAN INTERCEPTION 18 22 27 31 49 52 45 56 36 26 27 18 M 34 51 PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT G5 ("olf Mt.) Precipitation(ca) Interception (Jt) PLOT G4 (Deadwood) Preclpitetlon(ca) Interceptloo(£) PLOT G6 (Deadwood) Preolpitatlon(ca) Interception(%) PLOT G3 (Valley) Preolpitation(oa) Interceptlon(g) 31.0 10.5 5.6 4.7 1.5 1.6 0.8 0.9 5.1 7.2 10.9 20.9 E-101 3.3 16 21 35 39 47 47 41 56 33 '32 36 19 M 35 48 30.6 10.7 6.0 4.8 1.5 1.1 0.5 0.7 5.0 6.9 10.5 22.0 E 100 2.3 17 22 31 35 48 59 56 69 41 36 37 18 II 40 61 33.4 12.4 6.2 4.9 1.9 1.7 0.7 1.9 5.5 7.6 11.7 19.6 E 107 4.3 10 15 18 L4 37 43 49 37 34 27 15 20 H 27 43 43.2 14.1 13.7 9.3 3.0 2.3 4.0 3.1 9.4 15.4 26.3 31.8 E 176 9.4 2024202027394I5514IOI215 H 2 5 45 MEAN INTERCEPTION 16 21 26 27 40 47 47 54 30 26 25 18 . M 31 49 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Preaipitatlon(ca) 60.4 22.5 20.7 11.9 6.0 3.8 2.0 4.9 12.0 21.4 32.7 36.2 E 234 10.7 Interception(%) 11 13 16 15 10 27 21 29 11 9 5 22 M 16 26 PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.) Preoipitetlon(ca) 50.2 20.3 15.0 11.5 2.8 2.6 1.8 2.7 8.9 17.1 28.5 28.6 E 190 7.1 Interceptlon(i() 15 20 19 20 38 34 37 30 27 17 10 16 M 29 34 MEAN INTERCEPTION 13 17 18 18 24 30 29 29 19 13 7 19 M 20 30 1 SuajBori June, July, Auguat 2 Total 3 Hun 23.5 37 7.4 42 3.2 57 52.0 17.7 16.1 10.6 20 28 22 21 PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOT P4 (Deadwood) Preoipitatlon(cm) Interceptlon(f) PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.) Preolpltatlon(cm) Interception^) PLOT P2 (Echo .Mt.) Preol pi tation(ca) Interception (jj) PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt.) Preolpltation(co) Interceptlon($) PLOT F3 (Valley) Precipitatlon(cffl) InterceptionOE) 2.6 54 MEAN INTERCEPTION 0.9 1.2 0.6 1.4 4.5 6.6 7.1 14.5 69 63 59 53 52 36 50 41 3.7 2.2 1.5 4.3 9.5 19.2-27.1 33.0 39 48 21 41 27 18 17 23 3.2 2.5 2.0 2.8 9.3 17.4 40.0 30.5 28 28 23- 17 20 11 10 9 1.1 1.2 0.8 0.5 4.9 6.3 10.0 21.7 61 59 64 72 43 44 44 20 1.8 1.9 1.4 3.0 6.8 12.7 18.7 25.0 55 45 42 58 34 23 30 20 23 28 33 37 51 49 42 48 35 26 30 23 45.5 16.4 13.5 19 21 15 28.7 10.3 22 21 5.3 37 9.8 18 3.9 44 36.0 13.3 10.1 10.5 19 25 34 46 THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION 73 3.2 51 58 197 8.0 27 37 192 7.3 18 23 95 2.5 44 65 141 6.3 36 48 M 35 46 PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) Preolpitation(cffl) 29.1 10.0 5.6 4.5 1.6 2.1 0.9 1.0 5.3 7.2 10.6 a . 6 n 99 4.0 InterceptlonOE) a 23 34 33 33 36 30 50 34 30 36 18 M 32 39 PLOT Ly2 (Deadwood) Freoipltatlon(aa) 26.1 9.1 4.0 3.2 1.1 1.2 0.6 1.7 5.0 7.1 10.2 15.4 t 85 3.5 Interception OE) 28 31 46 44 64 57 .60 45 45 32 29 39 M 43 54 PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) Frecipltation(cm) 41.7 15.2 12.4 8.7 3.3 2.4 1.9 2.6 8.5 16.3 27.8 27.9 E 169 6.9 Interception(jC) 26 26 23 26 25 33 30 a a 15 11 18 M 23 28 MEAN INTERCEPTION 25 27 34 35 41 42 40 38 33 26 25 25 M 33 40 to where crowns were large and the canopy was dense (Table 19). Plots PI and P2 had below average values because of low stocking. The lowest mean annual interception was in the open stands of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera associations. In these stands erowns were small and there were few trees below the main canopy. Other associations had intermediate interception values. Interception was greater in summer than winter months. With low rainfall a large proportion of the rain from individual showers was needed to wet the tree needles before any could penetrate the canopy and the high summer temperatures and low humidities caused rapid evaporation. In the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum plots the average interception during the summer was 46 percent compared with an annual average of 35 percent. During light showers interceptions as high as 90 to 100 percent were recorded (Appendix 17). With heavy rains the amount intercepted was commonly less than 20 percent and in some of the more open stands values were as low as 5 percent. It was noted that there were high percentages of interception with light snowfalls, for much of the snow which lodged on the tree branches evaporated before i t had an opportunity to reach the ground. Even late in winter, snow depth beneath the trees was less than in adjacent open areas. Air Temperature Air temperatures reflected the moderating influence of stand density and the cooling effect of moist soils. Thus the highest monthly maximum temperatures measured were in the relatively open Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria -Peltigera plots and the lowest recorded were in the dense Pseudotsuga -Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium and Pseudotsuga - Polystichum plots and the moist Thuja Q Lysichitum plots (Appendix IV). Temperature differences between corresponding Fourth Lake and Wolf Mountain plots were inconsistent. In the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria -Peltigera association maxima at Fourth Lake during June and August (76°F. and 87°F.) were lower than at Wolf Mountain (82°F. and 90°F.j, although the reverse was the case in July. In the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium and Pseudotsuga - Polystichum associations the Fourth Lake plots were warmer than their Wolf Mountain counterparts, possibly because the former were less dense and closer to cutover areas. The Fourth Lake Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria plot, however, had lower maxima than the Wolf Mountain Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria plot. These plots had comparable stand densities, but the former was towards the top of a north slope and the latter was at the base of a southwest slope. Soil Surface Temperature Soil surface temperatures also reflected the moderating influence of greater stand density. The lowest summer mean monthly maxima occurred in the Thuja - Lysichitum and Pseudotsuga - Polystichum associations(65°F. and 72°F.), whereas the highest were in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association (111°F.) (Appendix IV). The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria -Peltigera stands were the only ones where monthly value as high as 120°F. were recorded in undisturbed-soils, although in July 1953 a temperature of 135°F. was recorded on Plot G4, which had been swept by a ground fire the previous f a l l . The effect of the tree canopy in reducing the range of temperatures was also apparent. The widest average monthly ranges recorded were at the open stations outside forest stands. Differences in minima among stands were slight, although again the relatively open Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria -Peltigera stands generally had the lowest minimum temperatures and the widest ranges. There was also a relation between stand density and the rate of temperature increase in spring. The more open stands warmed more quickly than the denser and moister stands. More frequent observations than monthly records would have been nec-essary to determine the length of time soil surfaces remained frozen. Monthly minimum temperatures of 32°F. and lower were recorded on a l l plots during the winter of 1952/1953 when snow cover was light and discontinuous. However, frozen ground was only occasionally encountered and infiltration was apparently not prevented for high moisture contents were recorded in the upper soil layers. During the winter of 1951/1952 snow covered the ground on a l l plots for considerable periods. Although monthly minimum tempera-tures of 320F. were recorded in most plots, i t was noted that under the snow at the time these records were taken temperatures were above freezing and the ground was not frozen. Therefore, even -though infiltration of fresh precipitation was restricted for the duration of the snow pack, soils were not frozen when the snow began to melt in the spring. Monthly records were also insufficiently frequent to show adequately differences among stands of the same association. It was, however, appar-ent that the soil surfaces of stands in the western end of the study area were cooler and warmed up more slowly in the spring than equivalent stands further east. Soil surfaces at higher altitudes andon north slopes were also cooler and warmed up later than those in comparable plots at lower a l -titudes and on south slopes. Soil Temperature During the summer, average soil temperatures were highest in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera plots, with values decreasing in the other association with increasing stand density (Appendix IV). The soils of plots at higher altitudes and at the western end of the valley were cooler than their lower and more easterly counterparts. Similarly the soils of those plots of the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association with high water tables (Plots P2 and P5) were cooler than the soils in other stands of the association. The highest temperatures recorded occurred in the upper layers during early September. Temperatures of the deeper layers, however, continued to rise into October. In the autumn of 1953 inversion of the gradient with depth had occurred by October 1, while in 1952, when September and October were warm and dry, the inversion was not recorded until the end of the month. During the winter, soil temperatures at a depth of 50 cm. did not f a l l below 38°F., except for a few of the higher altitude plots. Therefore i t is likely that moisture uptake, though retarded, would not have been pre-vented in deep-rooted species. In the upper layers, however, temperatures ranged from 34° to 38°E. during the winter and early spring. Freezing or near freezing temperatures were recorded in a l l plots (except in the swampy areas of Thuja - Lysichitum association) at a depth of one centimeter. In those plots measured in early January 1952 (Plots M2 and P4) frost extended to a depth of 10 cm., but in the milder winter of 1952/53 temperatures below 34°F. were infrequent, even at a depth of 5 cm. Soil temperatures started to rise again in March and the normal grad-ient of decreasing temperature with increasing depth became reestablished during April. The soils of the denser associations, as in the case of sur-face temperatures, warmed up more slowly than the soils of the more open stands. Earlier warming in the more easterly stands was also noted. Evaporation Within the forest stands evaporation rates at one meter above the ground were highest in the open Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera assoc-iation and lowest in the moist Thuja - Lysichitum association (Table 20). The rates in the other associations f e l l between, for evaporation rates de-creased with increased stand density. Evaporation at the open stations was always more rapid than under the tree canopies. Exposure to wind also played a prominent part in controlling water losses from the atmometers. The Echo Mountain station, located on a shoul-der which was freely exposed to wind movement, had the highest evaporation rates among the open stations. Plot PI was exposed to abnormal air move-ment because of its proximity to the cutover. Evaporation rates on this plot were higher than average for the association. The plots at higher altitudes commonly had lower evaporation rates than equivalent plots at lower altitudes. The rates on Plot LL were nor-mally lower than on other plots of the same association at lower altitudes. The effects of shrubby and herbaceous vegetation on evaporation rates were reflected more closely by the losses from bulbs at 5 cm. above the ground than by those at one meter. Thus, although the rates at one meter in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria stands were greater than those in the denser Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium stands, at 5 cm. the reverse was true. This reduction in rate was presumably due largely to the influ-ence of Gaultheria shallon. Humidity beneath the Gaultheria bushes would be raised both on account of their transpiration and because they obstructed air movement. In the latter association there was an almost complete lack of subordinate vegetation. The effect of surface soil moisture content was also seen by the rates in the Plot P2, which were lower than average for the association. Surface soils on this plot were usually moist and there was a well developed herb layer. The highest evaporation rates occurred in July, with the rates in August being only slightly lower. In both months the rates during the first TABLE 20. AVERAGE RELATIVE MONTHLY EVAPORATION AT OPEN STATIONS AND Hi PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE, 1951-1952 JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPT. AVERAGE Height above ground (em) 100 10 100 10 100 10 100 10 100 1 0 CABIN _ 3 0 _ 72 53 _ 34 _ 47 ECHO MOUNTAIN 41 _ 100 _ 72 - 43 - 64 FOURTH LAKE - 36 - 87 - 61 - 36 - 5 0 PSEUDOTSUGA -T— GAULTHER •IA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOT L5 5 5 32 74 49 61 40 49 31 60 38 PLOT LU 5 * 37 78 5 5 67 48 57 42 64 45 PLOT L 3 46 31 5 8 40 48 33 42 2 6 48 .32" PLOT L2 55 3 2 68 47 59 42 42 28 56 37 PLOT Ll 5 0 35 64 5 2 55 46 3 6 3 0 5 1 41 AVERAGE 5 2 34 68 49 5 8 42 45 31 ) 56 39 PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT Q5 39 20 53 28 43 2 3 33 15 42 21 PLOT 04 46 2 7 6 5 40 5 0 33 36 2 3 49 3 1 PLOT 06 43 21 49 2 5 3 8 2 0 2 6 16 39 40 PLOT G3 27 7 0 34 59 3 0 38 18 5 5 27 AVERAGE 46' 24 59 32 47 2 6 33 18 46 25 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION -PLOT Gl 33 12 42 21 3 7 13 2 6 11 34 14 PLOT G2 36 18 46 27 41 24 34 18 39 22 AVERAGE y* 15 44 24 3 9 19 3 0 14 37 18 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOT M5 36 2 3 5 0 33 41 26 32 21 40 26 PLOT M2 36 24 48 3 6 43 32 36 25 41 29 PLOT m 41 27 57 44 46 35 35 25 45 33 PLOT M3 44 34 60 40 48 35 36 35 47 33 PLOT Ml 3 4 23 48 35 39 2 9 25 18 36 26 AVERAGE 38 2 6 53 38 4 3 31 33 2 3 42 29 PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PL0TT4 33 22 42 31 36 27 38 27 37 27 PLOT PI 33 1 6 5 0 28 41 2 3 27 14 38 20 PLOT P2 31 15 .41 21 3 5 19 2 6 11 33 16 PLOT P5 35 17 39 27 32 22 24 15 32 20 PLOT P3 37 17 44 28 37 24 2 3 13 35 20 AVERAGE 34 17 43 27 36 23 28 16 3 5 21 THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOT Ly3 28 8 37 12 28 9 21 6 28 9 PLOT Ly2 29 9 42 15 34 12 32 11 34 12 PLOT Lyl 28 10 38 14 34 1 3 25 8 31 11 AVERAGE 28 9 39 14 3 2 11 26 9 31 11 Average evaporation (In ml.) was divided by the largest monthly value (Echo Mountain) July) reduoing amounts to relative values. naif of the month were almost double those of the second half. During the latter periods there was rainfall and more cloudy days occurred. Relative Evaporation between Black and White Bulb Atmometers A comparison of relative evaporation rates from the black and white bulb atmometers indicated that greater insolation reached the ground of open stands such as Plot Ll than penetrated the dense canopies of stands like Plot P5 (Appendix IV). The same trend was shown among the various stands of the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association. Plot P2, which was fairly open, showed the greatest relative differences. The dense Plot P5 showed the least differences and Plot PI was intermediate. Small percentage in-creases in black bulb rates were also recorded in the dense Pseudotsuga -Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium plots. The values from the open stations, however, showed some inconsistencies. At Nanaimo, during August 1952, more than 60 percent of the hours of bright sunshine occurred in the first half of the month (Meteorological Division, Canada, Department of Transport, 1952), yet in the study area the relative difference between the rates for black and white bulbs during this period was half that of the latter period. It would seem that during periods of warm dry weather when rates were high, radiant energy had a relatively smaller influence on evaporation rates than i t did in damp weather. Never-theless, when compared during the same periods, the percentage increases did form a measure of the differences in amounts of insolation reaching the ground of various plots. SOIL MOISTURE Considerable variations in available soil moisture were encountered. The differences were both seasonal and between plots. In the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera plots, depletion of soil 77 TABLE 21l MONTHLY V i L O B S Or AVAILABLB SOIL MOISTURE III THE PBEHJOTBUOA,-OAULTHBRIA - PBLTIQBBA ASSOCIATIOH PLOTS, 1951-1953. ( P e r c e n t a g e by w e i g h t o f t he 5 ran s o i l f r a c t i o n ) 1951 1953 JOL AUO SBP OCT NOT D2C JAN FEB MAR APR MAT JUN JDL AOO SBP OCT NOV DBC JAM FSB MAR APR MAX JOB JUL ADO SBP OCT HOV PLOT 15 (Wolf K t . ) AO 0 0.10 + 10-20 1 20-JO <• J0-40 2 40-50 3 50-60 1 60-70 2 70-80 2 80-90 ^ 90-100 2 0 0 _ r 90 - - 85 0 + 0 0 + + 13 - 12 9 4 2 2 1 0 3 20' 14 13 12 13 15 11 12 It it 16 12 1 + 17 - 13 - 8 3 1 2 + 2 2 6 9 24' 24' 20" 17' 13 10 3 2 3 13 1 + + 1 12 10 9 8 - -6 7 5 5 + 2 1 1 0 0 2 2 K 7 11' 11' 8 8 7 It 2 2 3 8 + 1 9 8 - - 7 5 1 1 •*• -t + 11 9 5 6 1 - - 3 2 14' 14' 12 9 11 13' 7 6 3 2 16' 7 1 5 1 2 "I 9 - - - _6 6 1 2 2 2 16' ij' 10 10 11" 7 6 J 3 17' 8 PLOT IA (Loner Deadwood) AO 0 0 - - 185 70 0 0 0 0-10 3 + 18 9 - 32 11 + + 3 10-20 1 1 15 - 13 - - - 25 3 It 2 • 20-30 1 2 15 - 12 - 13 6 2 1 30-40 2 + 15 - 13 - 16 6 2 2 + 40-50 2 1 17 3 - 16 6 + 2 * 50-60 3 1 13 4 - - - 13 6 1 60-70 J 1 lit 6 - 13 ~7 2 2 0 70-80 + I? . 6 - - 7 - 2 T 80-90 - - "T 13 5 5 - 1 + 90-100 2 17' o 13' 7 18' 18' 16' 24' 17' 12' 15' 15' 16' 10 2 2 0 4 4 4 2 I J ' 221 PLOT L3 (Lower Deadwood) A O 0 0 0-10 2 • 18 10-20 2 - 1 14 20-30 1 - 1 13 30-40 1 - 1 14 40-50 1 - 1 12 50-60 0 - 1 12 60-70 0 - 1 15 70-80 - - - .3 80-90 - - 8 90-100 195 - 140 120 0 0 35 14 - 15 8 2 0 0 2 5 27' 32' 32' 22 22 28' 15 20 0 + 2 22 13 - 15 5 2 1 3 20 23' 23' 22 18 20 21 17 17 7 6 25" 23' 11 11 8 - -- 13 - 13 - 11 5 6 6 2 3 3 + + 1 + 1 1 1 20' 22' 24' 17 13 14 15 12 11 1 1 23' 18 5 6 11 - 15 • 3 5 6 6 1 • • 1 -2 _8 12' 11 11 .2 10 -5 -Z J -2 14' 12' ~i - - •% J. 7 1 _2 " I PLOT U (Vel ley) Ao 0 0-10 2 10-20 1 20-30 1 30-40 1 40-50 1 50-60 2 60-70 "2 70-80 80-90 90-100 PLOT L l (Fourth L k . ) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 1 S o i l p i t ntinber: 1 16 120 4 25 • 19' 1 17' 1 18' + 23' 4 - 140 - 160 6 0 0 0 - 20' - - - 17 18 2 1 3 5 24' 23' 21 ' 20 16 18 17 12 18 4 5 20' 21 - 14 - 12 18 2 2 + 5 21' 20' 17' 15 13 14 14 12 15 6 5 6 19 - 14 - 11 11 7 1 3 1 1 2 3 5 6 19' 1 J ' 14' 11' 12 12 10 9 4 2 4 16 6 3 ~I 4 ' 7 T l -* J t -i ii' 23' 14' 1? 12 12 3. _8 2 1 13 0 - 40 195 - 205 7 5 28' - 30' 7 4 29' - 28' 9 2 23 - 33' 11 1 26' - 37' 11 2 49' 190 V>0 120 26 12 25 5 18 18 20' 21 18 17 21 - 22 0 0 3 5 4 10 4 19 4 22 6 20 6 26 5 30 _6 28 10 11 14 33' 26 31' 25 27 26 28' 23 16 31' 27 15 28 12 24' 22' 24- 20 20 20 21' 18 13 17 15 14 22 11 20' 23' 20' 17 18 17 18 17 11 12 13 10 20 8 36' 34' 34' 30' 30' 32' 31 ' 29' 13 29 21 34' 32 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 1 S o i l p i t s 1-11 wore o M a s u r o d g r a v l a e t r i e a l l y ; p i t s 1-3 and 7-11 w i t h i n the f i r s t ten d a / s of the month, and p i t a <t and 5 during the l a s t ton days. S o i l p i t 12 was measured e l e c t r o a e t r i e a l l y on the f i r s t da? . each 9 0 1 1 t h . ' Grav i t a t iona l water preaent (greater than f i e l d capac i ty ) . = Bedrock • C i rca w i l t i n g percentage. — Or ts te ln 0 Less than w i l t i n g percentage, ••- Compact s o i l tone PLATE VIII, Figure PLATE VTII. Precipitation and Depth of Available Water Figure 20. Average monthly precipitation and depth of available water in the whole profile and the upper 30 cm. of plots sampled for soil moisture, 1951 to 1953. (The heavily cross-hatched por-tion between the soil moisture curves indicates the depth of water within the upper 30 cm. of the profile and the lightly cross-hatched portion the depth in the remainder of the profile). LONGITUDE ALTITUOE ASSOCIATION PSEUDOTSUGA-GAULTHEBIA-PELTIGERA W O L F M O U N T A I N I24»07'W 760-1000 If. MONTH JFHAUJJASOHO D E A D W O O D (LOWER) I24"08'W 700-79011. MONTH J FMAHJJ ASONO PSEUDOTSUGA-TSUGA-GAULTHERIA a. Ill o 4 0 - 1 PSEUDOTSUGA-GAULTHERIA - « 0 - i PSEUDOTSUGA-TSUGA -HYLOCOMIUM PSEUOOTSUGA-POLYSTICHUM D E A D W O O D (UPPER) I24«I0'W 810-840 ft. MONTH JPHAHJJASO NO V A L L E Y I24"I7'W 640-S70ft. MONTH JFHAUJ J ASOHD E C H O F O U R T H M O U N T A I N L A K E (24*20'W I24*24'W 1410-1700 II. 1050-1570 It. MONTH ^ MONTH J F MAIM J AS OND J FHA IIJ J ASO HP - 1 3 - 1 0 - 5 - O moisture reserves began in May and continued throughout the growing season (Table 21; Fig. 20). Available soil moisture in the Wolf Mountain (L5), Deadwood Creek (L3 and L4) and Valley (L2) plots was reduced to very small amounts at a l l depths by July In both 1951 and 1952, and although 1953 was somewhat wetter, low percentages were recorded in August. At Fourth Lake (Plot Ll) however, moisture deficiencies were less marked. Appreciable reduction of soil moisture did not occur until August, and even in the dry years of 1951 and 1952 pronounced soil drought was not evident below the surface layers. In the easterly plots •litter layers remained dry most of the summer, but at Fourth Lake even these layers were not reduced below wilting percentage for such a long period. Thus, rainfall in late August and early September 1951 was sufficient to wet the litter layers of the westerly plots (Ll, L2), but i t was not adequate to increase available moisture contents in the easterly plots. Similarly in 1952, l i t t e r layers at Fourth Lake s t i l l contained available moisture into early July, while none was present in the other plots. In the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria plots,since soil moisture reserves were somewhat greater than in the previous association, available water was not depleted so early in the season. Marked reductions were evident by July, and amounts of available water remained small until replenished by the autumnal rains. As in the previous association, litter: layers re-mained below wilting percentage during much of the growing season. The importance of vegetation in moisture depletion was made evident by the results from Plots G4 and G6. In the autumn of 1952, these plots were swept by ground fires which removed a l l the subordinate vegetation and on Plot G6 killed some trees. Although in the previous growing seasons soil moisture reduction had been as great as in Plots G3 and G5, in 1953 moisture depletion was small in the disturbed plots. 80 TABLB 22t MONTHLY VALUES 0 1 AVAILABLE 801L MOISTURE IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA -GAULTHERIA AND THE PSEUDOTSUGA - T3UGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 ( P e r c e n t a g e by w e i g h t o f the 5 mm s o i l f r a c t i o n ) PSEUDOT5U0A - OA'JLTHgRIA ASSOCIATION DEPTH JUL AI10 SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN PLOT 05 (tfclf Mt.) FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JtTN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV AO 0 0 0 - - 165 - - 70 125 25 0 30 0-10 3 6 l l 21 - 17 9 18 3 + 1 0 2 31' 17' lit 13 15 16' lit 16' 10 + 29' 25 10-20 3 3 2 15 - 14 6 11 1 + 1 1 + 17 20' 20' 17 IB 19 17 19 12 2 21' 20 20-30 it 2 1 13 - 10 6 10 3 2 1 10' 13' 30-40 it 2 1 11 9 5 10 1 2 + 1 + 9 9 8 9 8 8 6 2 8 8 40-50 5 3 1 10 9 3 7 1 2 + 50-60 4 3 1 9 6 It 10 2 1 4 3 11' 15' 15' 10 10 11' 6 10 6 It 3 9 60-70 3 3 3 7 - _5 - It 7 l l 2 1 70-80 It 3 2 9 5 J 7 It 1 - 1 + 5 19' 18' 13' 11 12' 9 11 5 3 10 80-fKI It 2 1 5 8 6 2 90-100 5 2 2 6 9 7 2 PLOT 0* (Lower DMdmod) Ao 0 0 0 125 - 200 - . 150 50 0 0-10 2 1 1 18 - 14 - 18 19 1 10-20 2 2 1 15 - 15 - . - - 14 9 3 20-30 2 3 • 14 - in 10 7 2 30-40 3 1 1 15 - 14 10 8 3 40-50 2 + + 13 - 16 9 8 2 50-60 1 1 + 11 - 21' - 11 12 3 60-70 2 0 3 12 - 18- - - 16' 14 2 70-80 _! 2 0 19/ - 21' - 13' •<s 1 80-90 - 2 -3 6 - 15' - 23 1 ground f i r e 4 + 14 18' 18' 13 15 15 l l 11 9 7 19' 16 +• + + - 15 20' 19' 16 18' 17' 16 15 12 8 20' 19 + - - 19' 21 ' 22' 21 ' 22 ' 18 13 l l 9 4 22' 20 ground 0 f i r e + 7 7 19 21' 18 18 19 20' 18 19 16 18 23' 20 + + 6 6 16 22' 18' 16 16 16 15 16 13 15 21' 17 1 5 5 1J ' 21 ' 17' 12 13 13 13 11 11 10 13 14 2 1 3 4 11 13' 11 10 11 11 10 10 10 10 12' 11 PLOT 06 (Upper SMdwood) 0 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 PLOT 03 (Val ley) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-64 90-100 23 17 19 17 11 11 15 17' 20' ~9 400 24' 17 20' 17 18' 19' 19' 19' 17 17 16 8' re-15 210 190 15 15 18 12 11 12 11 9 11 10 11 12 12 13 U "9" 0 - 25 210 - 180 - - - 155 145 100 • - 13 22 - 29' - - 18 18 11 3 + 21 - 25" - - 15 17 7 5 1 21 - 17' - - 14 16 7 it 2 22 - 17' - 7 10 8 7 4 18 - I S 1 - 8 J 6 •3 8 - 5 10 - 13' - "3 - 50 3 4 3 4 3 7 8 12 34 30' 24' 19 21 ' 20 17 17 13 8 9 27 2 6 53 ' 45 ' 33' 25 26' 25 21 13 17 1 1 33 3 12 25' 24' 19' 16 19' 17" 16 11 15 2 19" 22 3 24' 22' 24' 24' 20 23 ' 21 21 13 16 2 22' 25 — ~ — : = — — PSBUUUTSUUA - TSUGA - OAULTHBRIA ASSOCIATION PLOT 01 ( P o o r U L k . ) Ao 25 4 6 12 11 14 20' -18' -29' -0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 16 50' 31' W - 245 - 31 - 25 - 22 - 18 260 180 135 25' 8 19 20' 42 ' 20 23' 16' 28 38' t 29' 44 ' - g' - 25' - 36' - 2' 0 25 4 13 7 17 3 22 3 14 4 15 4 3 6 -6 29' 24' 24' 20 23 23 24' 18 8 6 17 30' 23 9 32' 30' 31' 22 25 21 25 20 14 11 18 5 22 9 8 15' 13' 11 11 11 12' 12' 10 10 12' 1 13 8 11 17' 13' 12 12 13' 13' 12 10 10 15' 11 13 9 20' 17' 17' 15 16' 16' 16' 16' 13 13 17' 18' 17 _ — _ I _ — PLOT 02 (Echo Mt . ) AO 1 - 70 240 140 66 0 12 0-10 2 4 9 - 350 - - . 30 21 7 + 5 8 27' 22 26' 19 22 21 24' 19 16 17 16 27' 23 10-20 5 3 15 - 20' - - - 18 14 6 • 7 7 8 15' 20' 13 13 13 13 12 10 11 9 17' 15 20-30 6 3 14 - 17 . 16 13 8 3 7 13 30-40 7 1 15 - 15 - 14 16 8 5 11 0 15' 14' 15' 11 12' 11 13' 12' 11 12' 10 13' 40-50 7 2 13 - 18' - - 13 13 8 •- - • 50-60 8 2 14 - 21 ' - - 12 13 12 - 6 60-70 70-80 7 8 4 - 5 14' 11' - 24' - - - J 13 19' 22 ~i _ 10 5 16! 16' 16' ~ 13 13 13 14 14 12 14 7 16' 15 80-90 8 6 13' . . . . . . . 18' . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ 90-100 - 2 20' 1 S o i l p i t ™* 12 number: 1 2 3 4 - 5 6 - 7 9, 10 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 • S o i l p i t s 1-11 were measured g r e » i n a t r i c a l l y ; p i t s 1-3. 6 and 7-11 wi th in the f i r s t ton days of the month, p i t s 4 and 5 during the l a s t ten days. S o i l p i t 12 was measured e l e e t r o n e t r l c a l l y on the f i r s t day 'o f each month. 1 Orav l ta t iona l water present (greater than f i e l d capac i ty ) . «- Ci rca w i l t i n g percentage. 0 Less than w i l t i n g percentage. = Bedrock — Orts te in Compact s o i l layer During late autumn, after periods of heavy rainfall, high moisture percentages were recorded and temporary water tables above the hardpans were common. When Plot G6 was sampled in early December 1951, this water table was 10 cm. deep. On sampling in early January 1952, by which time snow had covered the ground for some two weeks, there was no gravitational water above the hardpan and the percentages of a l l layers were lower. It was apparent that further addition of water was prevented by the blanket of snow. In these gravelly soils drainage quickly removed excess water, even though the plot was on an almost level bench. In the winter of 1952/1953 such perched water tables were present more continuously, for there was l i t t l e snow or frozen soil to r estrict infiltration of rainfall. In the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria plots moisture values were in the upper part of the available range for much of the growing season. Available moisture was even present in the litter layers during considerable periods in summer. Low values, particularly in the upper 20 cm., were re-corded in July 1951 and August 1952, but periods with small amounts of available moisture were of relatively short duration. On Plot Gl, which was on a 20° slope, gravitational water flowed over the bedrock until July. In the subassociation typicum plots of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga -Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association available water was largely exhausted from the surface layers of the more easterly plots (M3 and M4) during the summers of 1951 and 1952. Moisture in the deeper layers was also reduced to small amounts in the latter part of the growing season. This reduction was quite marked in Plot M4. In the Fourth Lake plot (Ml), depletions were less pronounced and of shorter duration. Litter layers were below wilting percentage much of the growing season in the easterly plots, but at Fourth Lake available water was present even in these layers during most months. Moisture depletion was less severe in a l l layers during 1953. 82 In the subassociation nudum plots of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga -Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association soil moisture deficiencies were not pronounced, although low values were recorded in the surface layers at the end of the unusually prolonged summer drought of 1952. During the spring and autumn, gravitational water was present above the clayloam layer at the base of the profile in Plot M2. Depletion of soil moisture reserves during the growing season was therefore delayed by the addition of seepage water early in the season. Ground water flow, however, was absent during the summer. Also, when the plot was sampled in early January 1952, two weeks after heavy snow cover restricted further infiltration, no gravitational water was present to a depth of 100 cm., even though water had been encountered three weeks earlier before the snow blanket was complete. Accumulations of water did occur in an open ob-servation pit on Plot M5 after prolonged autumnal rains in 1951, but nor-mally the soils on this plot were well drained for a depth of one meter or more. The deep, fine textured soils of this plot provided good moisture reserves, and these delayed moisture depletions until late in the growing season. In the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum plots considerable depths of avail-able water were present in m03t plots at a l l seasons, and very low moisture values were uncommon. High water tables and seepage water, present in four of the plots, contributed to these favourable moisture conditions. There was relatively l i t t l e fluctuation in the height of the water table in an observation pit on Plot P2. The level of the water was common-ly only 40 cm., below the soil surface, although in the later summer of 1952 i t dropped to 50 cm. and during the winter i t sometimes rose to within 20 cm. of the surface. This high water table maintained even the upper 83 TABLB 23: MONTHLY. VALUES 07 AVAILABLE SOIL MOISTURB IB THE PmrmnTBnni . I8UQA - HYLOCOMIUl . BOHHYHCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1933 (Percentage by weight of the 5 mm soli fraction) 1952 DEPTH JUL AUO SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUO SEP OCT (cm.) PLOT M5 (Wolf H t . ) AO 3 60 0 120 - 65 . . . - 30 90 0 0 0 0-10 15 11 3 18 - 17 - - - - 14 25 6 9 6 10-20 16 12 5 18 - 16 - - 10 22 7 11 6 1 20-30 8 16 7 21 - 19 - 9 18 10 13 6 30-40 14 18 5 23 - IB. - - 11 16 10 ' 14 6 9 40-50 22' 17 7 17 - 19 - - 16 16 6 15 7 50-60 18 20 8 22 - 18 - - _ - 14' 16 4 16 7 60-70 15 19 7 24 - 23 . . . - 12 12 6 15 6 9 70-80 15 19 8 25' - 16 - - 20' 17 5 19 4 80-90 11 21 7 25' 7 ' - - 24' 13 6 20 4 14 90-100 11 21 6 19 8 - - 38' 10 6 26 5 120 14 1953 PLOT M2 (Echo Mt . ) AO 35 - 0 270 - 270 _ - 140 85 45 0 80 0-10 9 4 12 - 20' 16 - - .16 5 6 9 15 10-20 9 3 14 - 20' 14 - 14 5 4 10 11 20-30 7 3 13 - 20' 15 - - 16 7 4 7 10 30-40 9 • - 4 12 - 20' 14 - 15 10 5 7 11 40-50 9 •3 14 - 19' 15 - - 13 7 6 7 11 50-60 6 3 15 - 16' 15 • - 13 9 7 7 15 60-70 9 5 15 - 16' 16 - . - 14 11 7 10 19 70-80 8 5 16 - 15 15 - - 15" 13 6 11 il 80-90 10 2 14' - 16' 16' - - 17' 15 6 11 17 90-100 9 3 10 - 20' 19' - - 21 ' - 7 10 12 15 10 18' 17 17 16 16 14 24' 27' 23 21 20 19 17 32' 22' 28 20' 12 19' 16 13 14 18 15 2 12' 7 9 ' 9 ' 7 8 8 7 8 7 7 16' 10' 2 3 9 12' 11 9 10 10 9 9 9 8 10 12" 2 2 9 ' 10' 9 ' 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 8 9 ' 5 6 10' 10' 10' 9 9 9 8 7 7 7 6 9 19' 19' 20' 17' 18' 16 17' 16 16 14 18' 20' PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) AO •f 0 0 - - 250 0-10 2 3 + 16 - 28' 10-20 4 3 3 15 - 12 20-30 5 2 3 15 - 10 30-40 3 3 2 15 - 11 40-50 4 3 3 14 7 50-60 5 3 3 12 9 60-70 4 3 2 7 8 70-80 3 4 3 7 8 80-90 1 4 2 7 6' 90-100 6 1 1 10 - 5' PLOT 113 (Val ley) AO 0 + - - 130 0-10 2 1 23 - 19 10-20 3 2 13 - 20 20-30 4 3 13 - 19 30-40 3 3 15 - 19 40-50 4 4 17 - 21 50-60 4 4 17 - 11 60-70 4 6 16 - 11 70-80 6 5 16 - 12 80-90 8 16 - 13' 90-100 - 11 18' - 13' PLOT Ml (Fourth Lake) AO 37 65 - - 185 0-10 11 + - - 27 10-20 12 3 21 - 25 20-30 12 4 22' - 25' 30-40 14 .5 21' - 21 40-50 15 3 19' - 26' 50-60 15 -5 18' - 22' 60-70 16 5 20' - 21' 70-80 13 7 23' - 20' 80-90 14 14 3 ' . _ =j 90-100 17 10 23' 1 S o l i p i t number: 1 2 3 4 5 10 2 3 3 4 3 4 6 3 3 6 190 90. 37 20 17 16 13 10 13' 16' 135 225 20 20 135 100 35 0 15 23 12 1 12 11 12 6 13 13 9 5 16 13 8 7 15 13 8 8 18 12 12 5 17 10 11 4 17' 1 9 "6 4 H' ' \ r i M 4 _ 6 12' - 4 ground f i r e 25 7 5 18' 6 6 14 9 15 19' 11' 16' 13 16 7 8 15 16' 19 22' 21' 19 20' 14 7 21 ' 5 . 19 22' 20' 14' 13 12 14' 17' 13 12 12 18 10' 17' 19 19 18 17 21" 21' 5 12' 19 11 23' 17' 17' 15 13 15 14 13 21 11 14 34' 30' 14' 12' 26' 23' 22' 14 14 14 14 14 13 14 15' 16' 15' 10 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 1 S o i l p i t a 1-11 were measured g rav lme t r i ca l ly ; p i t s 1-3. 6 and 7-11 wi th in the f i r s t ten days of the month, and p i t s 4 and 5 during the Last ten days. S o i l p i t 12 was measured e l ec t romet r i ca l ly on the f i r s t day of each month. ' G rav i t a t i ona l water present (greater than f i e l d capac i ty ) . • C i r c a w i l t i n g percentage. 0 Less than w i l t i n g percentage. Bedrock Or ts te in Compact s o i l tone 84 TABLE 2 4 : MONTHLY VALUES OF A V A I L A B L E SOIL MOISTURE I N THE PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 ( P e r c e n t a g e by w e i g h t o f the 5 mm s o i l f r a c t i o n ) 1953 DEPTH JUL AUG SBP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JON JUL AUG SEf (CO.) PLOT PI* (Upper Deadwood) AO 50 0 92 - 120 - - - - 60 40 60 0 0 0-10 32 9 44 - 65' 44 25 3 1 10-20 12 - 12 10 - 65' 50 - 19 12 25 4 4 20-30 7 6 24 - 51' 52 11 31 21 3 7 30-00 15 5 12 - 46 ' 37 7 13 25 2 3 40-50 32 8 50 - 21 51' - 9 8 25 3 3 50-60 - - 14 36 - &! 21 - 20 8 25 5 3 60-70 33 9 30 ' - 16 11 10 13 5 3 70-80 24 8 37 - 51' 17 - 23 35 8 5 3 80-90 18 - 12 36 - 19' - - 16 38 5 21 3 90-100 21 9 35 - 21' - - 12 18 . 9 14 28 ground f i r e PLOT PI (Fourth Lake) AO 0 - 110 _ - 180 0-10 7 4 21 - 22' 10-20 9 - 12 20 - 22' 20-30 8 - 14 22' - 21' 30 -40 12 9 30' - 20' 40-50 11 8 27' - 18' 50-60 7 8 27' - 21' 60-70 7 8 33' - 26' 70-80 11 6 31' - 22' 80-90 8' 6 31' - 24' 90-100 11 8 - 21' 160 140 135 29' 25 22 21 20' PLOT P2 (Echo Mt . ) AO - -0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 110 26 25 23 55 140 21 215 56' 33' 39 38' 230 25" 40" 19 19 19 - 21 - 24 - 16 - 18' - 19' 150 160 7 11 9 10 14 12 10 9 5 6 11 16 17 17 12 "7 7 23 26 165 15 56 22' 12 101' 10 29 19' 18 24' 12 28' 26' 19' 21' S& 3V 29' 23' 24' - 26' -36' 0 35' - 38' 33' 23 28 29 31' 36' 37' 20 35' 29 0 + 16 23 29 27 37 36 37 37 30 16 14 28 4 3 16 37' 36 33 35 36 36 35 29 19 17 36 + + 8 12' 15' 11 12* 11 11 10 6 4 3 11 4 4 - 24 27' 25 26' 26' 24 22 19 9 5 25 4 4 10 19' 23' 17 22' 22' 19' 16 13 5 5 20' 5 18' 16 16 15 16 16 16 14 10 7 11 8 16 11 12 38' 27' 17 19 19 23' 38' 38' 23' 20 11 29' 8 6 34' 34' 31 33 33 34' 32 27 21 17 6 34' 10 12 13' 13' 12 11 12 10 11 10 10 10 6 13' 18 20' 20' 20' 20' 20' 20' 20' 20' 20' 19 20' 10 20' 6 9 13' 13' 14' 8 8 10' 10' 9 12' 14' 11 15' 15' 16' 16' 12 12 13' 13' 13' 13' 15' - -12 20' 20' 20' 19' 19' 19' 19' 19' 19' 19' 20' - -24' 24' 24' 24' 23' 24' 23' 24' 24' 24' 24' 24' - -PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt.) AO 120 40 30 _ -135 - 120 150 180 0 0-10 18 7 15 29 - 29 - 18 88 185 13 10-20 35 11 18 29 - 22 - 20 40' 42 9 20-30 18 14 16 31' - " - - 22' 32 24' 21 30-40 12' 18 28 - 30' - - 23" I f f 18 40-50 13' 13 21 24' - 28' - - 28' - 14' i ' i 50-60 12 13 22' - - 15' - - 7 60-70 11 13 11' - i& - -70-80 - 13' 10 80-90 - 12' 8 90-100 - 11' 8 PLOT P3 (Val ley) 36 0-10 10-20 20-30 30 -40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 125 1 S o l i p i t number: 11 30 27 17 13 11 4 _ - 24 _ - 50 45 0 0 30 5 22 - 20 - - 20 24 21 16 13 4 13 - 18 - - 13 24 15 5 12 5 19 - 16 - 10 22 10 11 8 3 17 - 11 - - 20 30 8 23 6 2 19 - 11 - - 24 32 7 12 4 4 20 - 14 - - 32 24 7 6 3 1 13 - 24' - - 18 32 7 15 5 2 12 - 12 - 8 15 6 7 3 3 8 7' - 5 25 5 3 2 2 5 7' 4 18 3 6 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 16 26' 26' 25' 25' 25' 23 25' 25' 24 12 23 26' 5 10 27' 28' 27' 26 27' 25 27' 27' 26 17 27' 27' 6 5 23' 23' 23' 20' 20' 17 20' 20' 19' 14 18' 20' 5 5 14' 17' 17' 17' 17' 7 15' 15' 13 10 16' 17' 6 7 12' 12' 12' 12' 12' 6 13' 13' 12' 11 ' 12' 13' 0 + 22' 24' 22' 20 20 20 19 19 17 17 4 24' 13 18 19' 18 19' 18 18 18 18 18 16 18 21' + 1 17 20 21 20 21 21 20 19 19 17 18 21 1 1 25 26 30' 28 29 29 29 29 28 23 21 31' 2 2 13 18 21' 18 18 19 17 17 15 10 8 20 1 1 11 24' 24' 22 24' 24' 23' 22 20 11 9 24' 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 1 S o i l p i t s 1-11 wore measured g r a v i m s t r i c a l l y ; p i t s 1-3, 6 and 7-11 w i t h i n the f i r s t ten day a of the month, and p i t s -V and 5 during the l a s t ten days. S o i l p i t 12 was measured e l ec t rome t r i ca l ly on the f i r s t day of each month. ' G rav i t a t i ona l water present (greater than f i e l d capac i ty ) . Or ta te ln * C i r c a w i l t i n g percentage. -.- Compact s o i l layer 0 Less than w i l t i n g percentage. w W a t e r table layers of the mineral soil continuously damp, and moisture values in the lit t e r layer were above wilting percentage most of the growing season. The observation pit, however, being towards the edge of a slight depress-ion, represented a moister part of the stand. Although the water table on Plot P5 dropped 100 cm. below the ground line during the latter part of the summer, even the upper layers of the soil profile remained moist. At other seasons, observations on an open pit showed the water table to fluctuate at a depth of 40 cm. below the soil surface. At the end of January 1953, after prolonged precipitation, the level rose to within 10 cm. of the top of the pit. On plot Pi water was present in an observation pit at most periods except late summer and early autumn. Normally this water flowed over the compact soil zone of the lower profile, some 80 cm. from the surface. In early spring and late autumn, however, i t was frequently higher. During a wet spell in late December 1952, for example, water overflowed from the pit, even though the plot was on a 20° slope. The only occasion on which a water table was encountered on Plot P4 was in early December 1951 following heavy rainfall in November. Water flowed into the sampling pit at 60 cm. from the surface. When the same pit was resampled in early January, about two weeks after winter snowfall prevented further infiltration, no ground water occurred within 100 cm. of the soil surface. Although some supplementary soil water may have been provided by seepage on Plot P4, both Plots P3 and P4 were largely dependent on rainfall for the maintainance of soil moisture reserves. During 1952, these reserves were depleted to fairly low levels by the extension of the normal drought into autumn. Moisture deficiencies were quite marked in Plot P3 during October and November 1952. In other years the autumnal 86 rains replenished reserves before deficiencies became pronounced. In the swampy areas of the Thuja - lysichitum plots the water table was close to the surface at a l l seasons. This water table was perched above the gley layer. Late in the summer water levels dropped 10 or 15 cm., but the muck layer remained saturated. On the banks at the margins of these swamps the l i t t e r layers on Plots Ly2 and Ly3 dried out in late summer. On Plot Lyl, however, avail-able moisture was always recorded in the l i t t e r layer. The upper portions of the peaty layers showed some moisture deficiencies during the summer, but they did not drop below wilting percentage. During much of the year the water table remained above the gleyed gravel layer beneath the peat, although in Plot Lyl the water level did drop 10 to 20 cm. below the gravel surface in late summer. The lower peat layers, however, were always moist even in summer and they were often saturated during the winter. DISCUSSION In most temperate regions differences among soil moisture regimes are the most critical aspect of water relations that determine tree growth. It has been shown that even seedlings can withstand atmospheric drought i f their roots are supplied with adequate moisture (Daubenmire 1943). In certain cases atmospheric humidity can be important for seedling survival and may control forest distribution, as in the case of the California red-woods (Cooper 1917). Elsewhere soil moisture appears to be the most sig-nificant factor, with variations in atmospheric humidity only modifying the differences imposed by soil moisture regimes. In the study area several factors were regulatory among the different regimes. The coincidence of these different regimes with various forest associations suggested that soil moisture did, in fact, play an important role in forest distribution and TABLE 25: MONTHLY VALUES OF AVAILABLE SOIL MOISTURE IN THE THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1955 (Percentage by weight) 87 1951 DEPTH (cm.) 1952 JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) A (SWAMP) 0-10 670' 1501 490' 565' 10-20 330' 510' 20-30 - 590' - -B (BANK) L 10 0 - 190 2-10 270 291' 0 110 10-20 _40£' "421 250' 370' 20-30 - - 220' 380' 30-40 - - 110' 40-50 - - _ 50-60 - - - -680' 210' 540' 640' 550' 640' 205' - 156' 32 140 - 0 0 200' 175' 0 110 160' 345' 410' 460' 375' 220' -255J 25£' 485' 245' PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) A (SWAMP) 0-10 10-20 A* L 2-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 640' 360' 250' 620' 500* 330 157 175 .84 700' 485' 530' *n 60' 69' 68 • 70' 88' 810' 450' 540' 400' "76' 20' S 600' 640' 635' 520' 500' - 370' 350' 130 3W' 35 150 505' 335" 380' 305' 380' 420' 300' 70' 180' 140' i&O' 276' 60' "llf- "#' ~W 99' 77' "87' 69' 60' 60' B (BANK) L 0 2-10 60 10-20 85 20-30 81 30-40 40-50 0 150 - 2 2 0 - 170 160 _ 0 0 150 155 70 - 175 150 - 20 *»5 5 350' 110 90 - - - 275' - $kz 200 145 65 4901 330' J20' 295' 48.' 16b' - - -PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) A (SWAMP) 0-10 - - 305' 245' 10-20 - - 710' 20-30 - - .430' B (BANK) L -2-10 22 - 30 10-20 200' - 40 20-30 315' - 120 30-40 " - ' t - 370' 40-50 - -1 Soil pit number: 1 2 3 110' 140 130 290' "96' - 300 80 - "276"' 245 320' 207' 28' 22 • 180 170 281' i'4'3' 335' 217' 181 • 3 90 200 5 250' 216' 165 246' 184' 492' 33' 490' 26' -9 10 11 * Margin of swamp. 1 Soil pita 1-11 were measured gravlmetrically, pits 1-3 and 7-11 within the first ten days of the month, and pits 4 and 5 during the last ten days. ' Gravitational water present (greater than l/3 atmosphere capacity). 0 Less than wilting percentage. Gleyed gravel Layer. Water table. growth in the Douglas-fir region. FACTORS REGUIATING SOIL MOISTURE REGIMES Soil moisture regimes were controlled by the factors affecting soil water storage capacity, moisture depletion and replenishment, and soil drainage. Since most soils in the study area were coarse textured and had low organic matter contents, variations in the amount of water that could be held within the available range were limited. Differences in water storage capacities were largely determined by soil depth and the proportions of stones, gravel and concretions. Profiles in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria -Peltigera plots were shallow and in many cases the bulk of their soil volume was composed of coarse materials. Such profiles had storage capacities as low as 10 to 15 cm. of water (Fig. 20). The soils of some plots of the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association, on the other hand, had storage capac-ities of 25 to 30 cm. of water, because profiles were deeper and their gravel and stone contents were lower. Storage capacities of other soils were intermediate. According to Thornthwaite and Hare (1955) variations in the amount of radiant energy reaching the vegetative cover of the earth's surface are more important in controlling evapotranspiration than differences in the vegetation itself. Data presented by Zahner (1955) and others lend support to this contention. Since in the study area a l l stands (with the exception of the Thuja - Lysichitum association) were fully stocked, and both the principal trees were conifers (Pseudotsuga and Tsuga), i t is possible that differences in crown sizes between the various plots had l i t t l e bearing on rates of soil moisture extraction. Variations in rooting habits, on the other hand, may have had more pronounced effects. Soil moisture below the surface layers was available only to deep rooted species. Examination of profiles showed that Pseudotsuga was the only species with an appreciable number of roots in the deeper layers. This species could, therefore, extract moisture from a greater soil volume than others, such as Tsuga and Thuja, which were more shallow rooted, although even with Pseudotsuga the majority of mycorrhizal roots were concentrated in the surface layers (McMinn 1955). If a l l species had been shallow rooted the amount of utilizable moisture storage capacity would have been smaller. It may be assumed that the highest transpiration rates, and hence the greatest demands upon soil moisture reserves occurred when evaporation rates from the atmometers were highest, even though atmometers are dispro-portionately sensitive to wind movement (Briggs and Shantz 1917). In the study area the largest amounts were evaporated in July and August. The rates at the open stations in July were double those in June. Evaporation rates were lower during rainy periods. Such periods would not only reduce transpiration losses by lowering vapour pressure deficits, but they pro-bably made moisture directly available to the plants through uptake by foliage (Breazeale et al. 1950, Stone and Fowells 1955). Water uptake by roots is affected by soil temperatures, with rates being reduced by both low and high values (Kramer 1949). In the study area, soil temperatures in winter were sufficiently low that rates of mois-ture uptake would have been reduced. However, soil moistures were rarely below field capacity in that season, so reduced rates of uptake were of no benefit in conserving moisture. Transpiration rates would also normally have been sufficiently low that removal of water by the vegetation could have played l i t t l e part in alleviation of any moisture excesses. Only soil surface temperatures reached high enough values (over 90°F.) to be inhibitory to moisture uptake. Any reduction in moisture losses that might have resulted would have been more than offset by evaporation losses from this layer. Losses by evaporation influenced depths of available water, both by direct evaporation of moisture and by drying exposed soils below their wilting percentages. Even more precipitation was needed to replenish such desiccated layers -than would have been required had no evaporation losses occurred. Reduction of soil moisture by evaporation was presumably great-est in the less dense stands where the largest amounts of evaporation occurred from the atmometers 5 cm. above ground level. Evaporation losses were small in stands with dense subordinate vegetation, but as was shown by the results from Plots G4 and G6 after the fire, transpiration losses . from these plants more than offset any reductions. Evaporation,losses in early summer on the higher altitude and westerly plots were also smaller, than they were in plots of the same association at lower altitudes and farther east. Replenishment of water losses was mainly by precipitation and ground water movement. Rainfall during the growing season was light. At the eastern end of the study area average rainfall for the months of June, July and August was 8 cm. and even at the western end i t was only 15 cm. The effectiveness of these small amounts in supplying soil moisture was reduced by interception. Average interception values for the summers of 1951 to 1953 ranged from 26 to 74 percent. The amounts actually reaching the soil were further reduced by absorption in the l i t t e r layers. These normally had dried below wilting percentage by the end of June in those plots with adverse moisture regimes. 91 Utter layers were capable of absorbing from one half to one centimeter of water before infiltration into the mineral soil could take place. In the summers of 1951 and 1952 the plots east of Second Lake re-ceived less than 2.5 cm. of rainfall in any one month. As these small amounts were subjected to maximum interception by the tree canopy and ab-sorption by the litter layers, additions to soil moisture reserves were negligible. The westerly plots on the other hand received from 4 to 8 cm. in June and August 1952, which was sufficient to add some moisture to the mineral soil. Additions during other summer months were negligible. Even in 1953, when summer rainfall was slightly higher, replenishment of soil moisture reserves by rainfall during the growing season was very limited. It would seem probable that in rainshadow areas, such as the Nanaimo River Yalley, precipitation during the growing season is just as important in reducing transpiration losses and adding moisture by foliage uptake as i t is in replenishment of soil moisture reserves. During wetter summers than those of 1951 to 1953, however, additions to soil moisture by rainfall might be more appreciable. Soil moisture reserves were normally replenished by the autumnal rains which began during September. Average rainfall for the period September through November was from 36 to 70 cm., which was adequate to recharge storage capacities. In some years, however, summer moisture deficiencies might extend well into the autumn. For example, in the autumn of 1952, rainfall was abnormally light. The stations east of Second Lake received only 3.5 cm. before mid-November. La those soils where moisture reserves had been exhausted, a l l layers were not recharged to field capacity until the latter part of the month. Moisture reserves in the westerly plots, on the other hand, were mostly replenished by early November because autumnal rain in this area, though light, was somewhat greater than farther east, and moisture reserves had not been so fully depleted. However, even in some westerly plots, such as P3, which was entirely dependent on rainfall for moisture recharge, only the upper layers had been brought to field cap-acity by November 1, and a l l layers were not replenished until later in the month (Table 24). In other years, such as 1953, September rainfall was sufficiently high to bring a l l plots to field capacity by the end of the month. In winter the maximum depth of the snow pack was quite variable. During the years 1951 to 1956 i t ranged from one to six feet on the valley floor at Fourth Lake and from a few inches to two feet east of Second Lake. The duration of the snow pack, and hence the period during which i t supplied melt-water was also quite variable. At lower altitudes, l i t t l e snow re-mained on the easterly plots by the end of March, although in the more westerly plots the ground was often not clear until May. At higher a l t i -tudes in the western end of the study area snow was often present into July and supplied seepage moisture well into the growing season. Spring rain-f a l l on the westerly plots was heavier than on those further east. Even in years with a small snow pack, rainfall in the more westerly plots main-tained soils near field capacity during late spring and early summer. Whether soil moisture reserves received supplementary water through ground water movement depended on the topographic position of the plot, the topography of the surrounding areas and the location in the study area. Essentially no supplementary water was added to moisture reserves in those plots located on ridge tops, benches and other level areas which were separ-ated from seepage water moving down the sidehills. The amount and duration of additions to plots situated on slopes depended on the extent of the slope 93 above the plot and whether the plot was located on a convex or concave portion. Particularly in the western end of the study area, where upper slopes received considerable snowfall, seepage moisture was present for much of the growing season on plots located towards the base of long slopes. Most slopes, however, were not entirely smooth. Sidehills were commonly differentiated into convex and concave portions by the presence of small ridges and depressions which ran both up and down and across the slope. Movement of seepage water ceased on convex portions of sidehills fairly early in the growing season, but ground water movement in the concave parts often continued for the entire summer. Internal drainage in most profiles was rapid. In addition to being coarse textured, many soils had numerous concretions which helped to make profiles porous. Dovmward movement of water, however, was commonly re-stricted by the presence of bedrock, ortstein or compact, gleyed layers from two to five feet beneath the surface. Accumulations of water occurred above these layers at the base of profiles. Relief on many plots was such that these accumulations drained rapidly when further additions of water were prevented. This rapid removal of ground water was shown on Plots G6 and M2 by the absence of a water table in January 1952 after snow cover blocked further infiltration. In other cases, such as on Plot PI, additions of seepage water were sufficiently sustained that water tables remained for much of the year. In depressions, like those in which the plots of the Thuja - Lysichitum association were located, drainage was restricted enough for water tables to remain high during the entire year. In these areas the ground water was not stagnant, but in some depressions drainage was so completely impeded that Sphagnum swamps had developed. THE ROLE OF SOIL MOISTURE REGIMES Soil moisture may limit plant growth either because i t is deficient or because it is in excess. When plants are not supplied with sufficient water, nutrient uptake and the normal processes of metabolism are restricted. Excess moisture is usually at the expense of soil air. Without adequate aeration nutrient uptake by the roots of most mesophytes is interrupted and toxic compounds may be produced as the products of anaerobic respiration, either by the plants themselves or by soil microorganisms (Kramer 1949). Although i t is generally accepted that plants cannot obtain water fast enough nor easily enough to maintain normal growth when soil moisture is reduced to permanent wilting percentage, opinion varies on whether water is equally available over the entire range between field capacity and wilting percentage (Veihmeyer and Hendrickson 1950). Hendrickson and Veihmeyer (1942) have termed the water between field capacity and permanent wilting percentage as "readily available moisture" and state that there is no differ-ence in the rate of soil moisture extraction within this range. They con-sidered that with the plants and soils they have studied no one moisture con-tent could be termed optimum for plant growth. Richards and Wadleigh (1952) on the other hand conclude that: "From the irrigation and soil moisture experiments mentioned in the foregoing sections i t is apparent that there is considerable evidence that significant differences in growth rates occur along with varying degrees of moisture depletion within the so-called available soil-moisture range . . . Throughout the moisture-depletion process the soil-moisture stress increases continuously, and much experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that the growth rate of various plants decreases markedly in the available soil-moisture range " However, the greatest reduction in the availability of moisture is likely to occur close to the wilting percentage because in most soils change in moisture tension with variation in moisture content is curvilinear (Wadleigh 1950). Especially in coarse textured soils, there is usually l i t t l e change in tension 95 even when two-thirds of the available moisture has been depleted, but as wilting percentage is approached there is a large increase in moisture ten-sion with reduction in moisture content. Moisture deficits within the plants of the study area were therefore unlikely to be severe until soil moisture contents approached wilting percentage. Since tree growth and distribution is influenced by soil nutrient regimes as well as by soil moisture regimes, it was considered desirable to have some measure of the nutrient status of the plots in which water relations were being studied. In humid temperate climates, such as that of the coastal regions of British Columbia, there is a correlation between pH and the degree of soil leaching and base saturation, even though such correlation may not be exact (Lutz and Chandler 1946, Daubenmire 1947, Webster 1951). Soil pH values are used to suggest the degree of leaching and nutrient status of each plot. Various plants have different degrees of tolerance to extreme con-ditions, with some plants being excluded by drought or flooding and others by deficiencies of certain nutrients. In natural plant communities, growth and distribution are further affected by competition, for although environ-mental factors may not be sufficiently extreme to prevent growth, the less vigourously growing plants may be suppressed by those better able to grow under the conditions prevailing. Soil moisture regimes are but one factor in the environmental complex modifying plant growth and distribution (Billings 1952), but in the study area the marked differences in moisture regimes can be related to the distribution of the various forest associations. Pronounced soil moisture deficiencies occurred in the lower altitude Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera plots. The reduction of so i l moisture to the wilting range during a considerable portion of the growing season apparently restricted the growth of Pseudotsuga, giving the association a low site index (70 to 90). The height and density of Gaultheria shallon in the shrub layer was also low. Such deficiencies, particularly in the surface layers, resulted in the poor growth of mosses and higher plants of the ground cover, and permitted the development of lichens able to withstand periods of desiccation. Tsuga and Thuja were largely absent from the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria « Peltigera association. Both species are shallow rooted. Their growth and even survival on a site subject to soil drought, particular-ly in the surface layers, would not be as good as that of Pseudotsuga. The latter, being more deep rooted, could draw moisture from greater depths. It was noted that by the year following the dry autumn of 1952 some of the small Tsuga growing in clumps on the Fourth Lake plot had died. Soil mois-ture deficiencies at Fourth Lake, however, were not nearly so marked as in the other plots. The occurrence of occasional soil drought (such as in the years 1951 and 1952) nevertheless, appeared to be sufficient to favour lichens and xeric mosses and restrict the density of other plants in the subord-inate layers. The growth of Pseudotsuga was also poorer on Plot Ll than in other stands of the association. This reduction was consistent with the poor rates in other plots at the western end of the study area which had highly leached, acidic soils. In the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria plots moisture deficiencies were also pronounced, although usually soils did not approach the wilting range as early in the growing season as in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera plots. The site index for Pseudotsuga (120 to 140) and the increased height and density of Gaultheria shallon reflected this improvement. PJith an increase in density of the tree canopy and shrub layer, the soil surface received less insolation and was less subject to prolonged desi-ccation. A dense layer of the shade tolerant mosses Hylocomium splendens and Eurhynchium oreganum, which was present in a l l stands, prevented the establishment or survival of lichens and the greater abundance of xeric mosses. The soil moisture deficiencies which did occur and the lack of ability of Tsuga to compete with Pseudotsuga on such sites were apparently sufficient to prevent Tsuga from reaching large sizes in this association. In Plot G3 the presence of Polystichum munitum indicated some addition of moisture and amelioration of leaching conditions by seepage water. Soil leaching was largely unrelieved by ground water movement in the other plots. In the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria plots depletion of soil moisture was not as pronounced as in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria plots. Moisture was reduced to fairly low levels by midsummer in the dry years of 1951 and 1952, with values within the wilting range being recorded on Plot G2. On Plot Gl, however, seepage water in the lower portion of the pro-f i l e maintained moisture at high levels into July, and even in 1952 autumn-al rains recharged the surface layers earlier than in plots farther east. Poor growth of Pseudotsuga accompanied the moisture deficiencies and highly leached soils of the plots in this association. On Plot G2, where the site index for Pseudotsuga was only 70, the average height and volume of Tsuga nearly equalled that of the stunted Pseudotsuga. The site index for Pseudotsuga of 90 on Plot Gl was somewhat greater and Tsuga was not abundant. This plot was transitional between conditions equally favour-able for either Tsuga or Pseudotsuga. However, even at similar elevations, Tsuga was more abundant on other parts of this slope, indicating that circumstances at the time of stand establishment (e.g. availability of seed) in large measure controlled species representation. In Plots M3 and M4 of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium -Eurhynchium association (subassociation typicum) soil moistures were re-i • duced to low values for considerable periods during the growing season. The site index for Pseudotsuga of 130; reflected these droughty periods and the growth of Tsuga in the lower canopy was poor (average height 86 ft.}. Gaultheria shallon was rare on both plots, so that a continuous green carpet of Hylocomium and Eurhynchium formed virtually the only plant cover of the subordinate layers. The absence of Gaultheria on these sites, despite their strongly leached surface layers, presented an interesting problem in plant dis t r i -bution. On Plot M3 seepage moisture, a normal feature of Pseudotsuga -Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium stands was present in deeper layers during a considerable portion of the year. However, the very coarse nature of the soil prevented much supplement to soil moisture reserves in the surface layers and even in the lower profile drainage was sufficiently rapid that the beneficial influence of seepage moisture was less than might be expected in a plot midway down a long slope. Growth of the tree layer was conse-quently poor, although on this north slope conditions for the establishment of a two-layered canopy of Pseudotsuga and Tsuga were favourable enough for stand density to be moderately high. It would appear that the habitat provided by the surface layers of mineral soil, when coupled with the light intensities prevalent in this stand, was sufficiently unfavourable for Gaultheria to impair its ability to survive. More shade tolerant oxylo-phytes (acidophiles), such as Hylocomium and Eurhynchium could flourish on the l i t t e r layer. The leached nature of the surface layers, on the other hand, excluded shade-tolerant species of the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association. After logging, adjacent areas did support Gaultheria growth, although the shrubs were not really vigourous. The hollow in which Plot M4 was located also appeared to provide the necessary conditions for the establishment of Tsuga reproduction. However, the coarse droughty soil did not favour Tsuga growth and Pseudotsuga formed the upper tree canopy, even though heights and diameters were no better than in the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria association. The density of the tree canopy, together with the droughty soil, appeared sufficient to exclude Gaultheria. Moisture deficiencies on Plot Ml at Fourth Lake were less pronounced. Low moisture values were recorded in September in the dry summers of 1951 and 1952, but soil moisture was not reduced to the wilting range for any extended periods. The Ag horizon on this plot was deep and very acid (pH 4.3), indicating a highly leached surface soil. Under such poor nu-tritive conditions the stature of Pseudotsuga (average height 144 f t . , average diameter 22 in.) was as poor as in the more droughty plots farther east. Tsuga. on the other hand, benefitting from the improved soil moisture regime, was able to compete with Pseudotsuga on more equal terms (average height 136 f t . , average diameter 18 inches). Soil moisture deficiencies were infrequent in the subassociation nudum plots of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium assoc-iation, even though surface layers on Plot M5 were depleted of available moisture during the dry autumn of 1952 and each year moisture reserves in a l l layers were low by the end of the growing season. Although there was l i t t l e evidence of seepage water movement on Plot M5 leaching was not pro-nounced. The surface horizon consisted of duff mull and no Ag was present. The dry climate and fine texture of the soil presumably helped to retard leaching of nutrients. Seepage moisture on Plot M2 apparently moved more slowly through the soil than on Plot M3, where drainage was accelerated by the preponderance of coarse material in the profile. Even though Plot M2 was in a wet climate, leaching of nutrients must have been retarded or ameliorated, for the As layer was poorly developed. Growth of Pseudotsuga on both plots of this subassociation was very good (site index 170) when compared with the more highly leached and often droughty soils of the sub-association typicum plots (site index 120 - 130). Despite this improve-ment in soil moisture conditions, Tsuga was so completely dominated by Pseudotsuga that the average height of Tsuga was no greater than on Plots M3 and M4. The low abundance of oxylophytes, such as Hylocomium splendens. was another indication that surface layers were weakly leached and i t also showed the affinity of this subassociation with the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association. On Echo Mountain, the site index for Pseudotsuga (170) in the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium plot was in marked contrast to the index (70) in the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria plot. The diff-erence in altitude between the two plots was only 100 feet. Such disparity in site quality was largely attributable to the location of the latter plot (G2) on a convex portion of the slope, while the former plot (M2) was in a concave part. The acidity (pH 4.6) and depth (4 cm.) of the Ag horizon on Plot G2 showed its soils to be more highly leached than those on Plot M2, where the Ag horizon had a pH of 5.7 and its depth was rarely more than 1 cm. Growth of both species was poor in such highly leached soils as those of Plot G2. The growth of Pseudotsuga, however, was so impaired that Tsuga could compete with i t on nearly equal terms, even though the soils of Plot G2 did not remain as moist as those, of Plot M2. On Plot M2 Pseudotsuga completely dominated Tsuga, indicating that Pseudotsuga can grow well in wet climates when the leaching action of rainfall is counteracted by seepage moisture. Such site differentiation was quite prominent on Echo Mountain, with the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association being confined to the troughs between the ridges. At higher elevations these ridges were covered by the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association and at lower altitudes by the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association. In most plots of the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association soil moist-ure was rarely reduced to the wilting range. The presence of seepage moisture and high water tables maintained soil moisture high in the avail-able moisture range most of the growing season and counteracted the leaching influence of rainfall. Such moist and relatively nutritive soils resulted in Pseudotsuga reaching its maximum size in this association, and i t was the predominant tree in Pseudotsuga - Polystichum stands under a l l the climatic conditions represented within the study area. Although the average height of Tsuga (76 to 111 ft.) was greater in these stands than in most of the other plots in the 3tudy area, i t was s t i l l less than halfithat of Pseudotsuga (199 to 248 ft., site index 160 to 200). In most stands of this association Thuja surpassed Tsuga, for average heights ranged from 137 to 178 f t . Even larger Thu.la were common in the moist Thuja - Lysichitum plots, where the pH of the water and mineral soils was greater than 6. In the droughty and more highly leached soils of the other associations growth of Thuja was poor. Polystichum. Achlys. Tiarella. Trillium. Adenocaulon. Disporum and other ferns and herbs were the characteristic cover of the subordinate layers growing in the moist and weakly acidic soils of the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum plots. Gaultheria shallon, abundant in leached soils, did not occur on mineral material in these plots. In the moss layer Hylocomium and Eurhynchium had low abundance, and mosses such as Mnium insigne. which grow where the surface soil is not strongly leached, were locally common. Plot P3 in the Valley area represented a separate subassociation. In this plot seepage or ground water played l i t t l e part in water or nutrient regimes. Growth-water was entirely supplied by rainfall, with the deep sandy profiles storing reserve moisture. In most years this reserve was sufficient to provide readily available moisture throughout the growing season, although with prolonged droughts, such as in the autumn of 1952, moisture was reduced to the wilting range. Nutrient conditions favourable for the growth of Pseudotsuga were provided by the varied alluvial deposits which formed the parent material. That leaching had not progressed far was shown by the presence of the duff mull and layers. The predominance of Achlys over Polystichum in the subordinate layer reflected the droughtier nature of the plot and was used to differentiate the site as the Achlys subassociation (Krajina 1952). Ln most areas oxylophytes were not abun-dant, but on some hummocks and benches, which may have been composed of somewhat coarser materials than surrounding areas, leaching of surface layers had taken place. Such areas supported the growth of oxylophytes such as Hylocomium splendens and Mahonia nervosa, and in some cases Gaultheria shallon had spread beyond the decaying wood, which was its nor-mal habitat when i t did occur in Pseudotsuga - Polystichum stands. In the swampy areas of the Thuja - Lysichitum plots the water table was too high for tree growth. Although this high water table resulted in the trees of the surrounding areas being shallow rooted, fluctuations of the water table were sufficiently small that moisture deficiencies were very slight, even though the surface layers of the marginal hummocks showed some desiccation by late summer in the plots east of Second Lake. The height reached by Thuja in these stands was second only to those measured in stands of the Thuja - Abies - Adiantum association (Krajina 1952). Large Pseudotsuga were also present on the marginal areas and the tallest Tsuga trees encountered in the present study (average height 186 ft.) occurred at the edges of the Echo Mountain plot. This stand was suffic-iently open for a l l three species (Pseudotsuga, Thuja and Tsuga) to utilize these moist, relatively nutritive soil conditions to attain large sizes and reach the dominant canopy. Many of the herbs and bryophytes of the swampy 103 areas were restricted, to such wet sites, although a few, such as Claytonia  sibirica and Tiarella trifoliata were also common in the Pseudotsuga -Polystichum plots. FOREST DISTRIBUTION IN TBE DOUGLAS-FIR REGION It may be concluded that the forest associations of the study area are referable to four principal habitats, with the following correlation between site and association: Very wet, relatively nutritive sites (alpha gley soils ): Thuja - Lysichitum association. Wet to moist, relatively nutritive sites (beta gley soils): Pseudotsuga -Polystichum association and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (subassociation nudum)• Moist, strongly leached sites (gamma gley soils): Pseudotsuga - Tsuga  Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (subassociation typicum) and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association. Droughty, strongly leached sites: Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga  Gaultheria - Peltigera associations. Environmental conditions between any such characterization of sites inevitably intergrade.- However, since the competitive ability of plants growing under suboptimal conditions is impaired, ecotones between associ-ations are commonly narrow compared with the areas covered by their typical development. This division of sites may be taken, therefore, as the basis for a consideration of the role of water relations in forest distribution in the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island. It is apparent that Pseudotsuga, Tsuga and Thuja can a l l make good growth on weakly acidic, relatively nutritive sites. However, where these sites are wet, only marginal areas can support tree growth, and even though According to a terminology for hydromorphic soils advanced by Wilde (1940). a l l three species did reach large sizes at maturity in some plots, such saturated soils are suboptimal. The best growth of Pseudotsuga is to be found on moist, relatively nutritive sites. Although Tsuga may develop into fairly large trees at maturity on these sites, Pseudotsuga can appar-ently dominate Tsuga by attaining larger size. Tsuga therefore remains restricted to the secondary canopy when both species are represented in the stand. While Thuja does not reach the uppermost tree canopy when in com-petition with Pseudotsuga on moist, relatively nutritive sites, i t can attain fairly large sizes. Its best growth, however, is made in wet, or at least periodically flooded, relatively nutritive soils (Krajina 1952). The growth of a l l three tree species is evidently impaired in highly acidic soils. In climates where such soils remain moist throughout the growing season, leaching is apparently sufficiently intense for the growth rate of Pseudotsuga to be reduced enough for Tsuga to compete with i t on nearly equal terms. Consequently, in mature stands on moist, strongly leached sites both species may occur in the upper canopy. On the other hand, in droughty soils the growth of Tsuga is even more impaired than that of Pseudotsuga. Tsuga therefore remains limited to the secondary canopy and forms small to negligible proportions of stand volumes on strongly leached sites in rainshadow areas where soil moisture deficiencies are a characteristic feature. Thuja is also restricted to the secondary canopy in highly acidic soils, whether these are moist or droughty, for the species appears to be vigourous only in relatively nutritive soils. The subordinate vegetation of the Douglas-fir region may be readily divided into plants characteristic of highly acidic soils and those re-stricted to more weakly acidic soils (Krajina 1952). Gaultheria shallon and Hylocomium splendens are the most ubiquitous oxylophytes of the ground cover in both moist and droughty, strongly leached soils. Growth, however, is usually more vigourous on less droughty sites, which differentiates the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association from the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria -Peltigera association. Both species are present when the density of the tree canopy is low, whether this low density is caused by soils being very droughty or very highly leached. It would seem, however, that where stand density is high and there is some amelioration of leaching in subsurface layers, Gaultheria becomes less frequent while Hylocomium remains abundant. These factors would appear to form the basis of site differentiation between the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium -Eurhynchium associations. The subordinate vegetation of relatively nutri-tive sites is characterised by the absence of oxylophytes and the presence of various plants, such as Polystichum munitum and Achlys triphylla whose distribution is limited to moist or wet, weakly leached soils, and Lysichitum americanum which is restricted to very wet, essentially unleached soils. In the subassociation nudum stands of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga -Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association the infrequency of both oxylophytes and subordinates plants characteristic of more nutritive sites, suggests that leaching in the upper profile is only partially ameliorated. However, the ability of Pseudotsuga to dominate Tsuga in this association would seem to reflect more favourable moisture and nutrient conditions in subsurface layers. The dominant influence differentiating the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island appears to be its rainshadow climate. Within this rain-shadow region, summer rainfall is light and upland soils were seen to be droughty. Therefore, since Pseudotsuga can dominate other species both on moist, relatively nutritive sites and on strongly leached sites when these are droughty, this species is the predominant tree on most sites in the rainshadow region on the eastern side of Vancouver Island. Other rain-shadow regions in coastal British Columbia where Douglas-fir forests have been found to predominate, include the head of some coastal inlets, such as the vicinities of Alberni and Kemano, the coastal mainland in the Powell River district, and the Pemberton Meadows area of the Coast Mountains (Schmidt 1957). It is apparent that outside such summer drought regions, stands domin-ated by Pseudotsuga are restricted to moist, relatively nutritive sites. Where strongly leached soils are normally moist throughout the growing season Tsuga may codominate with Pseudotsuga. This restriction of associations dominated by Pseudotsuga to relatively nutritive soils in wet climates also suggests one aspect of the altitudinal limitation of the Douglas-fir zone on eastern Vancouver Island. At higher elevations, soils in which leaching is ameliorated are presumably infrequent, not only because leaching condit-ions are more intense than at lower altitudes since rainfall is usually higher, summers are shorter, soils are moister and cooler, and l i t t e r layers deeper, but also because most slopes are too short for the accumulation of base saturated seepage water. In such intensely leached soils Pseudotsuga appears to lose its competitive advantage over other species. Another factor influencing the predominance of Pseudotsuga in rain-shadow climates has been the relative frequency of forest fires in such regions (Schmidt 1957). Pseudotsuga regenerates most readily when sites have been cleared by fires or logging. Some regeneration was noted in the droughty, open stands of the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Pelgeria association, and even stands of the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association may eventually become uneven-aged when openings are formed by overmature trees dropping out (Krajina 1952). However, Pseudotsuga regeneration was not apparent in the denser stands of moister sites. Re-establishment of Pseudotsuga on such sites has evidently been dependent on their denudation by fire. The widespread occurrence of Douglas-fir forests on Vancouver Island has undoubtedly been favoured by the former prevalence of forest fires. The ubiquity of such fires was evident in the study area, where a l l the plots investigated were established following fires some 220 to 280 years ago. However, while fire may be necessary for the establishment of Pseudotsuga stands in wet climates and on moist, relatively nutritive sites, i t would seem that stands of the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera associations can maintain themselves without the intervention of fire on droughty sites in rainshadow regions. The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association may therefore be considered as the climatic climax in such regions (Krajina 1952). Within the various climatic areas encountered, topographic position and the concomitant climatic and edaphic factors associated with that position are evidently the major influences differentiating sites. Site differentiation on hillsides follows a catenary sequence. In regions with dry summers, droughty, strongly leached sites are typically situated at the top of slopes and wet, relatively nutritive sites are located at their bases. Other sites are intermediate. This distribution of sites controls the sequence of stands forming the forest association catena typical of the eastern portion of the Nanaimo River Valley (Plate IV). A similar correlation between site and Douglas-fir associations has been reported from Washington and Oregon (Becking 1956). In climates with wetter summers, moist rather than droughty, strongly leached sites commonly occupy upper slopes. The sequence on the lower slopes appears similar to that found in drier climates. However, since soil moisture and nutrient regimes are influenced by local topography, aspect, parent mater-i a l , soil depth and soil texture, variations in these factors may cause deviations from such typical catenary arrangements of stands. SUMMARY 1. From this study of water relations in the JJouglas-fir region on Vancouver Island, it was concluded that variation in soil moisture regimes is a most significant factor in site differentiation and forest distribution. 2. It was apparent that on relatively nutritive sites Pseudotsuga, Tsuga and Thuja can al l attain large size by maturity. Only the margins of very wet, relatively nutritive sites are able to support tree growth and a l l species reach larger sizes on less saturated soils. The best growth of Pseudotsuga can be found on moist, relatively nutritive sites. On such sites Pseudotsuga is capable of attaining larger size than Tsuga, so that in stands stocked with both species, Tsuga is so com-pletely dominated by Pseudotsuga that i t remains restricted to the secondary canopy. Thuja attains maximum vigour on moist to wet, relatively nutritive sites. 3. It was also apparent that on strongly leached sites, the growth of both Pseudotsuga and Tsuga is impaired, so that both species were smaller than on more nutritive sites. Where strongly leached soils are moist throughout the growing season, it would seem that Tsuga can compete with Pseudotsuga on nearly equal terms and both species may reach the upper tree canopy. On droughty, strongly leached soils the growth of Tsuga is evidently more impaired than the growth of Pseudotsuga. In stands stocked 109 with. both, species, Tsuga is again restricted to the secondary canopy and forms small to negligible proportions of stand volume. Thuja appears restricted to the secondary canopy in highly acidic soils, whether these are moist or droughty. 4. Since the distribution of plants in the subordinate vegetation layers are similarly differentiated by variations in site quality, the forest associations of the study area are refer-able to the following principal habitats: Thuja - Lysichitum association on very wet, ralatively nutritive sites; Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga -Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (subassociation nudum) on wet to moist, relatively nutritive sites; Pseudotsuga -Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (subassociation typicum) and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association on moist, strongly leached sites; and Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera associations on droughty, strongly leached sites. 5. The dominant influence in the geographical location of the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island is its rainshadow climate. Within this region of low summer rainfall, Pseudotsuga may dominate other species on nearly a l l sites. 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Thornthwaite, C. W., and J. R. Mather. 1955. The water balance. Drexel Inst. Technology, Lab. Climatology, Pubis. Climatology 8 (1). 104 p. Veihmeyer, F. J., and A. H. Hendrickson. 1950. Soil moisture in relation to plant growth. Ann.' Rev. Plant Physiol. 1: 285-304. Wadleigh, C. H. 1955. Soil moisture in relation to plant growth. In "Water", U. S. Dept. Agr., Yearbook of Agr. 1955: 358-361. Weaver, J. E. 1917. A study of the vegetaioh of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho. Univ. Studies, Univ. Neb. 17: 1-114. Weaver, J. E., and F. E. Clements, 1929. Plant ecology. McGraw-Hill New York. 2nd ed. 1938. 601 p. Webster, G. R. 1951. Base saturation studies of some Vancouver Island soils, and a method for estimating lime requirement.. Univ. . Brit. Col. M. S. A. Thesis. 87 p. Wilde, S. A. 1933. The relation of soils and forest vegetation of the Lake States region. Ecology 14: 94-105. ——— . 1940. Classification of gley soils for the purpose of forest . management and reforestation. Ecology 21: 34-44. ———. 1954. Forest humus: its genetic classification. Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci., Arts and Letters. 43: 137-163. Zahner, R. 1955. -Soil water depletion by pine and hardwood stands during a dry season. Forest Sci. 1: 258-264. APIENDICES Climatic Records. Plant l i s t . Particle Size Distribution in Soils. Weather and Microclimatic Records. Soil Moisture Records. APPENDIX I. CLIMATIC RECORDS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Table 1. Monthly precipitation, at various stations in the Nanaimo River Valley, 1951-1956 (Inches) 1 Table 2. Monthly precipitation at various stations in the Nanaimo River Valley, 1951-1956 (cm.) 3 Table 3. Monthly maiimum and minimum temperatures at various stations in the Nanaimo River Valley, 1952-1956 (°F) 4 Table 4. Average values for precipitation and temperature at various stations on Vancouver Island . . . . . . . . 5 Figure 1. Precipitation and potential evapotranspiration at various stations on Vancouver Island and the coastal mainland of British Columbia 6 TABIE 1. MONTHLY PRECIPITATION AT VARIOUS STATIONS IN THE NANAIMO RIVER VALLEY, 1951-1956 (inches) TOTAL JAN FEB MAR APR MAY TUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANN.SUM. CABIN 1952 - - 1.1 1.0 0.3 0.9 0.4 0.9 3.8 13.8 - 2.1 1953 17.1 3.5 3.6 2.0 0.9 1.4 0.4 0.7 4.4 3.9, 10.6 6.3 55 2.6 1954 13.4 15.3 2.7 3.7 0.5 1.4 0.8 2.2 2.4 3.8 13.1 7.4 67 4.4 1955 4.0 3.1 2.8 5.6 0.9 2.2 2.1 0.1 1.5 7.0 12.4 7.9 50 4.4 1956 15.3 3.3 6.7 0.5 0.7 3.6 0.3 0.5 2.6 9.5 2.8 9.2 55 4.4 Average 12.4 6.3 3.9 2.9 0.8 1.9 0.8 0.9 2.3 5.0 8.5 8.9 55 3.6 WOLF MOUNTAIN 1951 - - - - 0.4 0.2 0.7 3.5 7.5 8.6 7.0 - 1.3 1952 10.2" 6-3" 2.7' 1.0 1.0 0.3 0.9 0.4 0.9 4.2 13.3 44 2.2 1953 IS.5. 4.0. 4.0 2.2 1.2 2.0 1.0 0.7 3.7 3.3 10.5 6.6 58 3.7 1954 14.6 15.7 2.4 3.7 0.7 1.2 0.8 2.1 2.3 3.6 12.2 7.5 67 4.2 1955 4.2 3.1 2.6 5.7 1.1 2.0 2.2 0.1 1.4 6.5 12.0 8.5 49 4.3 Average 11.9 7.3 2.9 3.7 1.0 1.3 0.9 0.9 2.3 4.4 9.5 8.6 55 3.2 LOWER DEADWOOD (L3) 1951 - ••> mm 0.4 0.2 0.5 3.7 6.8 8.3 7.0 - 1.1 1952 10.2" 6.3" 2.7' 3.1* 0.9 0^9 0.3 0.9 0.4 0.9 4.4 13.0 44 2.0 1953 18.9. 4.6 3.9 2.1 1.0 2.4 0.8 1.0 4.0 3.5 10.5 6.9 59 3.2 1954 11.0 13.0 3.1 4.2 1.5 1.7 1.0 2.1 2.4 3.6 12.9 8.1 65 4.8 1955 3.7 2.5 2.5 5.6 1.0 1.6 1.8 0.1 1.2 6.9 12.2 8.7 48 3.6 1956-; 15.3 3.1 6.5 0.7 0.4 3.6 0.3 0.4 2.8 8.9 2.3 9.0" 57 4.3 Average 11.8 5.9 3.7 3.1 1.0 1.9 0.7 0.8 2.4 5.1 8.4 8.8. 54 3.2 VALLEY - Valley Floor (P3) 1951 «•* «•» - - - 0.4 0.2 0.2 4.8 9.3 13.0" 6.7 - 0.8 1952 13.0" 8.7" 4.3« 5.1' 1.3 1.6 0.4 1.7 0.8 1.8 8.2-16.9 64 3.7 1953 21.6. 5.3. 7.5 2.5 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 8.8 7.6 18.5 10.6 87 6.0 1954 11.8 18.1 3.7 5.7 0.8 2.0 1.9 2.4 3.3 6.9 22.8 16.5 96 6.4 1955 5.0 4.6 3.8 7.5 1.3 2.0 2.8 0.1 2.2 11.8 16.2 8.4 66 4.9 1956 22.4 8.7 14.2 0.3 0.5 5.3 0.8 0.3 4.5 13.4 4.3 12.1 87 6.4 Average 14.3 9.1 ft.7 4.2 1.2 2.2 1.3 1.1 3.5 8.5 13.8 11.9 78 4.7 TABLE 1 - Continued TOTAL . JAN FSB MAR AIR MAY . JUN JUL v AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANN.SUM. VALLEY - Sldehlll (M3) 1951 - -. mm • 0.4 0.2 0.2 5.1 10.3 15.0" 8.6 - 0.8 1952 13.8" 9.0" 5.5' 6.3' 1.3 1.8 0.4 1.8 1.1 2.1 8.3 20.5" 72 4.1 1953 27.9- 6.0, 8.1 2.9 1.8 1.9 2.2 1.8 5.9 8.3 20.1 12.6 100 5.9 1954 13.8 22.0 3.9 6.1 0.5 2.2 2.2 2.4 3.4 7.7 22.8 18.1 105 6.9 1955 5.7 5.5 3.9 8.0 1.8 2.4 2.7 T 2.7 13.2 17.9 11.0 75 5.2 1956 7.8 9.8 15.7 0.4 0.6 5.9 1.1 0.4 4.8 14.6 4.5 13.7 79 7.4 Average 13.8 10.5 7.4 4.7 1.2 2.4 1.5 1.1 3.8 9.4 14.8 14.1 85 5.0 ECHO MOUNTAIN 1951 - - - - 0.3 0.2 0.1 5.6 11.1 15.3" 7.6 •* 0.7 1952 14.2" 11.0" 5.5' 6.3' 1.6 2.3 0.3 1.8 1.2 2.4 9.0. 18.5 74 4.4 1953 28.3 6.0 7.1 3.3 1.9 1.3 2.4 2.0 5.7 9.3 19.9 12.6 100 5.7 1954 16.5 24.0 4.3 7.3 0.9 2.7 1.8 2.1 3.3 8.3 22.4 16.9 111 6.6 1955 6.2 5.3 4.4 7.8 1.7 1.8 2.7 T 1.8 13.5 18.3 9.4" 73 4.6 1956 15.0 6.7 15.0" 1.5 0.5 5.8 0.6 0.4 6.4 11.8 4.0 13.8 81 6.0 Average 16.0 10.6 7.3 5.2 1.3 2.4 1.3 1.1 4.0 9.4 14.8 13.1 88 4.8 FOURTH LAKE 1951 - - - 0.3 0.1 0.4 6.0 11.0 16.5" 10.5 0.9 1952 18.1' 13.4» 6.7' 8.3» 1.8 3.1 0.4 2.7 1.7 3.3 9.0 23.6" 92 6.3 1953 31.5 6.2 9.4 2.2 3.0 0.9 1.7 3.5 6.4 12.6 25.6 16.1. 119 6.1 1954 20.1 26.8 4.8 8.7 0.7 3.1 2.7 2.5 4.4 10.5 28.7 20.1 133 8.3 1955 6.9 5.5 4.8 8.9 1.8 1.7 3.5 0.1 2.7 16.0 19.7 11.0 83 5.4 1956 21.2 11.4 16.5" 1.0 1.4 7.5 0.8 0.2 7.6 16.5 6.8 16.1 107 8.5 Average 19.6 12.7 8.4 5.8 1.7 2.8 1.5 1.6 4.8 11.6 17.7 16.2 107 5.9 Summer: total for June, July, August. Interpolated from two month record. Raingauge overflowed, value estimated. Trace. APPENDIX I. TABLE 2. MONTHLY PRECIPITATION AT VARIOUS STATIONSIN THE NANAIMO RIVER VALLEY, 1951-1956 (era.) 3 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUO SEP OCT NOV 1951 • WOLF MT. - - - - - 1.1 0.4 1.8 8.9 19.0 21.8 DEADWOOD (Lower ;L3) - - 1.1 0.4 1.3 9.5 17.2 21.0 VALLEY (valley floor;P3) - .* - 1.0 0.4 0.6 12.2 23.6 33.0" VALLEY (sidehill; M3) - - - - 1.0 0.5 0.5 13.0 26.1 38.0? ECHO MT. 1 midslope) - - 0.9 0.6 0.3 14.2 28.1 39.0«? FOURTH LK, (valley floor) 1952 — mm — 0.9 0.3 1.0 15.2 28.0 42.0" CABIN - - mm 2.7 2.5 0.7 2.2 1.0 2.4 9.6 WOLF MT. 26.0W 16.0" 7.0' 8.0* 2.6 2.6 0.7 2.2 1.0 2.4 10.8 DEADWOOD 26.0" 16.0" 7.0* 8.0* 2.3 2.3 0.7 2.3 1.1 2.4 11^2 VALLEY (Pi 33.0" 22.0" 11.0*13.0* 3.2 4.1 1.0 4.4 2.1 4.7 20.8 VALLEY (M 35.0" 23.0" 14.0*16.0* 3.3 4.7 1.1 4.7 2.7 5.4 21.2 ECHO MT. 36.0" 28.0" 14.0»16.0' 4.0 5.8 0.9 4.6 3.1 6.2 23.0 FOURTH IE . 46.0* 34.0* 17.0'21.0* 4.5 8.0 1.0 7.0 4.4 8.3 23.0 1953 CABIN 43.5 9.0 9.1 5.2 2.3 3.7 1.1 1.8 10.3 9.9 27.0 WOLF MT. 47.0 10.3 10.3 5.5 3.1 5.0 2.6 1.8 9.5 8.5 26.7 DEADWOOD 43.0 U.6 9.9 5.3 2.6 3.6 2,0 2.5 10.1 8.9 26.7 VALLEY (P I 55.0 13.6 19.0 6.4 4.8 5.1 5.0 5.2 13.3 19.4 47.0 VALLEY (M I 71.0" 15.2 20.5 7.5 4 i 7 4.8 4.9 5.5 4.5 15.0 21.2 51.0 ECHO MT.. 72.0? 15.3 18.1 8.3 3.4 6.0 5.0 14.5 23.6 50.5 FOURTH LK 80.O? 15.7 24.0 5.6 7.6 2.3 4.3 9.0 16.4 32.1 65.0" CABIN WOLF MT. DEADWOOD VALLEY (P VALLEY (M ECHO MT". FOURTH LK CABIN WOLF MT. DEADWOOD VALLEY (P VALLEY (M ECHO MT. FOURTH LK CABIN DEADWOOD VALLEY (P VALLEY (M ECHO MT. FOURTH LK 1954 34.0 37.0* 28.0* -30.0 35.0* 42.0* 51.0* 1955 10.2 10.6 9.5 12.8 14.5 15.7 17.5 1956 38.9 38.9 56.9 19.8 38.1 53.9 39.0 40,0' 33.0* 46.0 56.0* 61.0* 68.0* 6.8 6.2 9.5 9.3 7.8 10.8 9.4 14.5 10.0*15.4 11.0 18.6 12.2 22.0 1.4 1.7 3.8 2.0 1.2 2.4 1.7 3.6 3.2 4.4 5.1 5.7 6.8 7.9 2.0 2.0 2.5 4.9 5.6 4.7 7.0 5.6 5.4 5.3 6.2 6.2 5.4 6.4 6.0 5.8 6.1 8.5 8.6 8.5 11.3 9.8 9.1 9.2 17.6 19.7 21.1 26.8 DEC 17.7 17.8 33.4 31.0 32.9 58.0 58.0 57.0 73.0 35.0 33.8 33.0 43.0 52.0" 47.0-60.0" 16.1 16.8 17.6 27.0 32.0 32.0 18.7 19.0 20.5 42.0 46.0 43.0 51.0 8.0 7.2 14.3 2.4 5.6 5.4 0.3 3.9 17.7 31.4 20.0 7.9 6.7 14.5 2.8 5.1 5.6 0.3 3.7 16.6 30.4 21.5 6.5 6.4 14.3 2.5 4.1 4.7 0.3 3.2 17.6 30.9 22.0 11.8 9.6 19.1 3.3 5.0 7.2 0.3 5.7 29.9 41.3 21.4 14.1 10.0 20.4 4.7 6.0 7.0 0.1 6.9 33.5 45.4 28.0 13.4 11.2 19.8 4.3 4.7 6.8 0.1 4.6 34.2 46.6 24.0" 13.9 12.3 22.7 4.5 4.4 8.9 0.4 7.0 40.6 50.0 28.0. 8.4 7.9 22.1 24.9 17.1 28.5 17.1 16.5 36.1 39.9 33.1 41.9 1.3 1.8 0.8 1.2 3.8 2.5 1.8 1.2 9.2 9.2 1.3 13.5 1.5 15.0 1.3 14.7 3.6 19.1 0.7 0.7 2.1 2.6 1.5 2.0 1.3 1.2 0.8 1.2 1.1 0.6 6.6 24.0 7.1 23.S 7.0 11.4 12.2 16.2 19.6 22.6 34.0 37.0 30.0 41.7 5.8 10.9 11.5 11.1 17.6 22.5 30.9 34.9 35.0 40.5 'Interpolated from two month record. " Raingauge overflowed, estimated. APPENDIX I. 4 TABLE 3. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES AT VARIOUS STATIONS IN THE NANAIMO RIVER VALLEY 1952-1956 (°F) JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC CABIN 1952 Minimum - ' - - - - - - 42 38 34 20 22 1953 Minimum 24 25 24 21 28 33 38 40 30 26 23 21 1954 Minimum -2 12 9 15 19 30 34 34 26 24 27 19 1955 Maximum - - - - - 91 85 87 95 67 55 42 Minimum 26 15 2 20 25 35 38 34 28 25 -1 0 1956 Maximum 46 44 59 78 88 74 96 90 82 70 55 50 Minimum 5 5 9 23 36 32 36 38 30 22 18 18 DEADWOOD CREEK 1953 Minimum 36 40 39 33 30 27 25 1954 Minimum 5 - 10 20 20 36 33 40 26 24 27 19 1955 Maximum mm - - - - 92 87 88 93 68 55 44 Minimum 26 21 5 24 29 39 40 37 30 28 4 /•6 1956 Maximum 46 45 59 78 90 70 96 91 82 73 58 51 Mini™™ 12 8 12 26 34 34 41 39 31 26 23 18 VALLEY (valley floor) 1953 Minimum 35 43 45 38 32 28 28 1954 Minimum 4 18 18 25 26 38 43 45 34 30 29 22 1955 Maximum 90 88 86 96 70 59 44 Minimum 30 18 7 28 35 39 42 40 32 30 4 6 1956 Maximum 41 44 54 72 88 13 97 94 84 76 56 52 Minimum 9 7 13 28 37 36 41 38 36 26 19 21 VALLEY (sidehill) 1954 Mj Ti^tBtiyfi - - - mm - - 44 47 30 30 28 22 1955 Maximum m - - - - 90 85 85 90 62 54 42 Minimum 30 20 8 28 32 42 45 44 38 31 10 15 1956 Maximum 41 43 47 78 91 70 99 90 80 65 52 50 Minimum 11 10 16 26 38 42 45 44 40 29 27 19 ECHO MOUNTAIN 1952 Minimum 38 32 22 26 1953 Minimum 26 26 27 30 34 40 46 47 40 40 28 30 1954 Minimum •9 mm 18 26 30 38 43 45 34 30 29 22 1955 Maximum - - - - m 87 82 84 89 64 56 40 Minimum 30 18 30 28 35 43 44 44 38 30 10 14 1956 Maximum 39 40 42 1 69 84 68 93 89 82 72 55 50 12 10 24 27 37 39 44 48 38 30 26 18 FOURTH LAKE 1952 Minimum 39 33 23 28 1953 Minimum 23 23 23 25 31 36 42 43 35 32 30 28 1954 Minimum 6 - 17 22 28 36 41 43 28 28 28 19 1955 Maximum 89 88 89 96 67 56 40 Minimum 26 16 -1 24 30 40 42 40 32 28 6 10 1956 Maximum 39 43 46 60 88 70 97 93 85 72 53 43 Minimum 4 5 23 22 36, 38 40 38 34 25 25 20 5 APPENDIX I. TABLE 4. AvERAGE VALUES FOR PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS STATIONS ON VANCOUVER ISLAND PRECIPITATION TEMPERATURE (inches) (°F) G Summer Winter Ann. Sum. Daily Monthly Daily Monthly mean max. max. range mean min. min. range Cumberland 58 5.3 61.0 75 90 50 37.0 28 16 38 Cassidy 42 3.2 59.6 74 85 45 37.0 29 16 36 Duncan 39 3.3 63.6 76 91 49 39.6 30 17 37 Victoria 3 36 2.8 62.6 70 82 35 40.6 34 24 26 Cowichan Lake 73 4.0 61.3 74 87 47 38.0 29 17 31 Nitinat Camp 113 5.8 - - - - - - - -Pachena Point 109 9.3 55.0 61 72 30 42.3 35 25 27 Bstevan Point 109 10.2 55.6 61 68 24 42.3 35 26 26 Summer: June, July, August. Winter: December, January, February. Domini oii Astr ©physical Laboratory, Little Saanich Mountain. APPENDIX I. 6 Figure 1. Precipitation and potential evapotranspiration at various stations on Vancouver Island and the coastal mainland of British Columbia. Relative water balances are shown by the areas enclosed by the two curves; potential deficiencies are represented by the areas enclosed by the precipitation and potential evapo-transpiration curves during the summer months, and potential surpluses by the areas enclosed during the winter months. It may be seen that deficiencies decreased from east to west in the study area (Deadwood Creek to Fourth Lake), while precipitation increased. Similarly there was a decrease in deficiencies froa south to north on the east coast (Duncan to Port Hardy) and in the central mountains (Shawn!gan Lake to Nitinat Camp). Other stations in rainshadow areas with marked summer deficiencies included Victoria and Nanaimo on the Island and Pemberton Meadows and Powell River on the mainland. There were large surpluses and l i t t l e or no deficiencies at the stations on the west coast of Vancouver Island (Pacheaa Point and Estevan Point), and on the north coast of the mainland (Bella Bella). APPENDIX I. to follow page 6 JFM AMJ JA SOND DEADWOOD CREEK Annual T-E Susaar T-K Sua.T-E (*> 9urr lu« DafJclar.cy JFMAMJJASOND VALLEY JF MAM J J A SOND ECHO *\ MOUNTAIN / x Annual T-E aissar T-E Sua.T-E (*) Surplus D»flclancy JFMAMJJASOND •FOURTH LAKE ; Annual T-K ' aintr T-S \ aua.T-E {%) I aurplua I Dariclancy « « 25| 48? 67 • DUNCAN Am.j'al t - E 2( Suwtar T-E 11 SUB.T-K (<) 5C Suir -u" s -Daflclflncy 11 CASSIDY Annual T-E Sumner T-E 3ua. (JE) Surplua Oaftclancy CUMBERLAND PORT HARDY SHAWNIGAN LAKE Annual T-E Skiu«r T-K Suo.T-E l*S Surrlua D»f)cl«ncy ALBERNI Annual r-E 2* Cunaer r -E 1* aia.T-E <*J 52 aurrlua « Daflcl.ni e I I I I I VICTORIA Anr.ua 1 T-E 26 Suaaar T-E 1? Sua.T-E «) 50 Surplua 17 Daf le l inc* 16 PEMBERTON MEADOWS Annual T-E S u u t r T-E £ u a . T - I (J) Surplua NANAIMO Annual r-E S u u t r T-E Sua.T-E if) JutTlua Saflclar.cy POWELL RIVER Annual T-E Suoner T-E Sua.T-E <«) 5ur[lua Daflelenej PACHENA / \ POINT I Annual T-E iJ '.Suaaar T-E 10' 18ua.T-E <*) 42 surrlua 64 Dan clancy 1 \ ESTEVAN / POINT \ Annual T-E •fcSuaaar T-E n u a . T - I (Jt) Surplua Daflclansy BELLA BELLA Annual T-E Suaaar T-E Sua.T-E (Jt) * surplua \ .Dtf lc lenoy V ' Precipitation PMantiol •* asotr an a plr a lion I-L - Tn»r»*l *iiial«ftoy (aTtir Tborntm.«it«) Sua.T-L - Itxraal rttltimnoj -J|U», Jul / , AltfUJt. Surplui - PoU014*1 aurplua (In.). Dariolancy - PoWoUkl ttoflelano/ (la.)-1 T-E for uaajldy. 2 T-E for Al l *ml . 3 I-L for OiaMrlarei. * T-t for Coslchaj. L u * • * T-E for Ocaan Fall* • JFMAMJJASOND JFMAMJJASOND JFMAMJJASOND FIG.I. Precipitation and potential evapotranspiration at various stations on Vancouver Island and the coastal mainland of British Columbia. APPENDIX II PLANT LIST l TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHECK LIST OF SPECIES 1 REFERENCES 6 APPENDIX u . 1 CHECK LIST OF SPECIES FOUND IN THE PLOTS TREES Abies aaabilis (Dougl.) Forbes Abies grandls Lindl. Acer macrophyllum Pursh Alnus rubra Bong. Chamaeeyparis nootkatensis (D.Don ) Spach Mains dlTer s i f o l l a (Bong.) Roam. Pinos contorta jLoud. Pinus montleola Dougl. Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco U P . t a x l f o l l a (Poiret) Britten )) Taxus brevifollg. Nutt. Thuja plicata D.Don Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. SHRUBS Arctostaphylos eolumbiana Piper Aretoataphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprang. Gaultheria ovatifolla A. Gray Gaaltherla shallon Pursh Holodiscas discolor (Pursh) Maxim. Lonicsra sp. Mahonia aqulfolium (Pursh) Nutt. Mahonia nervosa "*?Pursh) Nutt. Oplopanax horrldus (J.E. Smith) Miq. Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. Rubus leucodermis Dougl. Rub us nivalis Dougl. Rubus spectabilis Pursh Rubua vitifolius Cham. & Sehlecht. Salix sltchensls Sanson Salix seooleriana Barrett Sambucus pubens Michx. (( S. Call!carpa Greene J) Spiraea""douglasii Hook. Symphorlcarpos albus (L.) Blake Symphoriearpoa mollis Nutt. Vaccinlum alaskaense Howell Vaccinlum meiabranaceiim Dougl. (.( V. macrophyllum (Hook.) Piper )) Vaccinlum ovalifolium JJB. Smith Vaccinlum parvifolinm J.E. Smith APPENDIX II. 2 VASCULAR HERBS Achlya triphylla ( Smith) DC. Adenocaulon,bicolor Hook . Adiantum pedatum L. AUotrona virgata Torr. & Gray Apocynum androsaemifolium L. Athyrlum filix-femiaa*^?L:) Roth Blechnum spioant (LT. J JB, Smith Boschnlakja hooker! Walp. U B. strobilacea Gray )) Bromua vulgaris (Hook.) Shear Calypso bulbosa (L.) Salisb. Campanula sooulerl Hook. Oardamine angulata Hook. Carex henderaonii Bailey Carex leptopoda Mack. Chimaphila menziesii (R.Br.) Spreng. Chlaaphila umbellata (L.) Nutt. Circaea alpina L. Circaea paclfloa Aschers. & Magnus. Claytbnia siblrlca L. Corallorhiza maculata Raf. Danthonia sp. Dieentra formosa Andr. Disporum oreganum (S.Wat3.) Benth. & Hook. Dryopteria linnaeana C.Ghr. Epilobium adenocaulon Haussk. Epilobium paniculatum Nutt. Equisetum arvense L. Eestuca oocidentalis Hook. Festaca subulata Trin. (( including F. subuliflora Scribn. )) Galium aparine LT "' Galium boreale L. Galium triflorum Michx. Glyceria striata (lam.) Hitchk. (.(. G. nervate (Willd.) Trin. )) Ctoodyera oblonglfolia Raf. (TG. declpiens (Hook.) F.T. Hubbard)) Hieraclum albiflornm Hook. Hypoohaeris radieata L. Lllium columbiannm Hanson Linnaea borealis L. listera canrina Piper Listera convallarloides (SwO Torr. Listera cordata"rlL.) R.Brk Luzula parviflora (Ehrh.) Desv. Lysichitum americanum Hulten & St. John Malanthemum dilatatum (Wood) Abrams Melica smithii (Porter) Vasey Melica subulata (Qriseb.) Scribn. APPENDIX II. 3 Mimulus moschatus Dougl. Mitella oralis Greene Monotropa Latisquama (Rydb.) Hulten Montropa uniflora L. Oamoiruiza oallenals Hook. & Am. (( 0. nada Torr. )) Polypodium vulgare L. Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) Presl Pterldium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Pyrola bracteata Hook. Pyrola plcta Smith TT including P. aphylla Smith )) Ranunculus bongardil Greene Smllaclna atellata (I.) Desf. var. sessillfolla (Baker) Henderson (( S. sessillfolla (Baker) Nutt. )) Staehys clliata Dougl. Stellarla erlspa Cham. & Schl. Streptopua amplexlfollus (L.) DC. Tiarella laelnlata Hook. Tiarella trifoliata L. Trientalls latifolla Hook. Trillium ovatum Pursh Veratrum esehscholtzll A. Gray Veronica amerlcana (Raf.) Schweln. Viola glabella Nutt. Viola orbiculata Geyer H V. sarmentosa Dougl. var. orbiculata (Geyer) A.Gray)) BRYOPHYTES Antitrichia curtipendula "(Hedw.) Brid. Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) Beauv. Aulacomnium androgynum Schw. Bartramla pcaalformis Hedw. Blepharistoma triohophyllum (L.) Dumort. Braehythecium washingtonlanum Eaton Bryum pallens Swartz Calliergonella Sehreberl (Bruch & Schimper) Grout Calypogeia trichomanis (L.) Corda Camptotheolom megaptllum Sull. Cephalozia leucantha Spruce Cephalozia media Lindb. Chiloscyphua rlvularls (Schrad.) Loeske Claopodium crisplfolium (Hook.) R. & C. Dlcranoweiaia cirrhata (Hedw.) Lindb. Dicranum bonjeanii DeNot. Dicranum fuseescens Turn. Dicranum scoparium Hedw. Dicranum strictum Schleich. Eurhynchium oreganum (Sull.) Lesquerelle 4 James Eurhynchium stokesil (Turn.) Bruch & Schimp. APPENDIX II. 4 Frullanla niaqnallensis Soil. Heterocladium proeurrena Lesq. & James Hookeria Xucens (Brid.) Smith Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Brueh & Schimp. Hypnum circinale Hook. Lepidozia reptans (L.) Dumort. Lophooolea heterophylla (Schrad.) Dumort. Mnium lnslgne Mitt. Mai urn menziesii (Hook.) C.M. Mnium punotatua Hedw. . Malum splnulosum Brueh & Schimp. Heekera douglaaii Hook. Pellia columbiana Krajina & Brayshaw Plaglochila asplenioides (L.) Dumort. Plagiotheeium denticulaturn (Hedw.) Brueh & Schimp. Plaglotheoium elegans (Hook.) Sull. Plagiotheeium undulatum (Hedw.) Brueh & Schimp. Pogonatum alpinum (Hedw.) Roehl. Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. Polytrichum p l l l f eram Hedw. Pore 11a navicalaris (L & L.) Lindl. Pseudiaothecium stoloaiferum (Hook.) Grout Ptilidlam calif or ni cum (Aust.) Tj. & C. PtHldiam-pulcherrimum (Web.) Hampe Hadula bolanderi Gottache Rhacomitrlum canescens Brid. Rhacomltrium heterostichum (Hedw.) Brid. Rhacomitrlum lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. Rlccardia latifrons Lindb. Rhytidiadelphus loreos (Hedw.) Warnst. Rhytldiadelphas trlcmetrns (Hedw.) Warnst. Rhytididiopsis robusta (Hook.) Broth. Soapanla bolanderi Aust. Scapania umbrosa (Schrad.) Dumort. LICHENS Alectoria jnbata (L.) Ach. Alectoria oregana Tuck. Alectoria sarmentosa Ach. Cetraria, glauca (L.) Ach. Cetraria lacunosa Ach. Cetraria scutata (Wulf.) Poetsoh. TT£. saeplncola (Ehrh.) Ach. )) Cladonla bellldiflora (Ach.) Schaer. Cladonla degenerans (Floerke) Sprang. Cladonla fimbriate (L.) Fries Cladonla fareata (Hods.) Schrad. Cladonla gracilis (L.) Willd. Cladonia macilenta Hoffm. Cladonla pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. APPENDIX I I . S Cladonla rangiferina (L.) Web. Cladonla squamosa'~TScop. j Hoffm. Cladonla subsquamosa (Nyl.) Wainio Cladonla sylvatlca (L.) Hoffm. Cladonla nnclalla (L.) .Web. Cladonla verticlllata Hoffm. Graphls aorlpta (L.) Ach. Graphls sp. IcmadopMla erloetorum (%.) Zahlbr. Letharia vulpine (L .T Hue , Lobaria oregana (Tuck.) Muell Lobaria pulmoBarla (L.) Hoffm. Mycoblastus sangulnarlus ..(L.) Norm. Nephrcmopsis cll i a r l s (Ach.) Hue Ochroleehia tartarea (L.) Mass. Ochrolechia uppsaliensls (L.) Mass. Parmella physodes (L.) Ach. Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Ach. Peltigera canina (L.) Willd. Peltigera polydactyla (Neck.) Hoffm. Pertusaria ambigens (Nyl.) Tuck. Pertusaria multlpuncta (Turn.) Nyl. Pllophoron cereolus TAch.) Th .Pr. Pllophoron haIlil (Tuck.) Wainio Sphaerophorua globosus (Huds.) Wainio Stereocaulon paschale (I».) Hoffm. Stereocaulon tomentosum Fries Stlota anthraspia Ach; Thelotrema lepadinum Ach. Usnea plicata (L.) Wigg. FUNGI Amanita sp. Cronartlum harkneasli Meineeke Femes applanatua (Pers.) G i l l . (( Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. )') Polyporua schweinltzil Fries Sparassis radicata Weir ALGAE Protocoecua vlridls C.A.Agardn The original specimens of plants found on the plots were accidentally destroyed by fire before they were placed on f i l e in the Herbarium of the Biology and Botany Department, University of British Columbia. APPENDIX II. 6 REFERENCES USED IN THE COMPILATION OF THE CHECK LIST Abrams, L., 1940. Illustrated flora of the Pacific States. Vol. 1. Stanford University Press. 1944. Illustrated flora of the Pacific States. Vol.2. Stanford University Press. 1951. Illustrated flora of the Pacific States. Vol. 3. Stanford University Press. Broun, M. 1933. Index to North American ferns. Published by the author. Camp, W. H., H. W. Rickett, & C. A. Weatherby. 1947. International Rules of botanical nomenclature. Brittonia 6: 1 - 120. Conard, H. S. 1944. How to know the mosses. Wm. 0. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa. Eastham, J. W. 1947. Supplement to 'Flora of southern British Columbia' (J.E.Henry). British Columbia Provincial Museum Special Pub. No. 1. Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of Botany, Bd. 8. American Book Co., New York. Fink, B., 1935. The Lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Mich. Gleason, H. A. 1952. The new Britten and Brown Illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Vol. 1. New York Botanical Gardens. 1952. The new Britten and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States ana adjacent Canada. Vol. 2. New York Botanical Gardens. . 1952. The new Britten and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Vol. 3. New York Botanical Gardens. Grout, A.J. (Ed.) Moss flora of North America. Vol, 1. Publ> by the Ed. Newfane, Vt. — — . Moss flora of North America. Vol. 2. Publ. by the Ed. Newfane, Vt. — — . Moss flora of North America. Vol. 3. Publ. by the Ed. Newfane, Vt. APPENDIX II. 7> Henry, J . K. 1915 Flora of southern British Columbia. W. J. Gage & Co., Toronto, Ont. Hitchcock, A. S. 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Ed. 2., revised by Agnes Chase. U. S. Dept. Agric. Misc. Publ. No. 200. Howard, G. E. 1950. Lichens of the State of Washington. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Wash. Hulten, E. 1941. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 1. Lund University, Sweden. . 1942. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 2. Lund University, Sweden. , 1943. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 3. Lund University, Sweden. # 1944. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 4. Lund University, Sweden. . 1945. Flora of Alaska.and the Yukon. Vol. 5. Lund University, Sweden. . 1946. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 6. Lund University, Sweden. . 1947. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 7. Lund University, Sweden. . 1948, Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 8. Lund University, Sweden. . 1949. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 9. Lund University, Sweden. 1950. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 10. Lund University, Sweden. Lanjouw, J, 1952. International code of botanical nomenclature adopted by the seventh International Botanical Congress, Stockholm, July, 1950. International Bureau of Plant taxonomy and Nomenclature, 106, lange Nlewstraat, Utrecht, Netherlands. Little, E. L. 1953. Check l i s t of native and naturalized trees of the united States (including Alaska). U. S. Dept. A g r i c , Agric. Handbook No. 41. 472 p. Maooun, J , , & N, G. Kingberg. 1892. Catalogue of Canadian plants. Part VI., Muscl. Geol. & Nat'l Hist. Survey of Canada. Maeoun, J . 1902. Catalogue of Canadian plants, Part VII, Lichens & Hepaticae. Geol. Survey of Canada. APPENDIX II. Peck, M. E. 1941 A Manual of the higher plants of Oregon. Binfords & Mort, Portland, Oregon. St. John, H. 1937. Flora of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho. Students Book Corp'n, Pullman, Wash. APPENDIX III. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Table 1. Particle size distribution in soils from the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots . . . . . . . . 1 Table 2. Particle size distribution in soils from the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots . . . . . . 2 Table 3. Particle size distribution in soil3 from the Pseudotsuga -Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association plots . . . 3 Table 4. Particle size distribution in soil3 from the Pseudotsuga -Polystichum association plots 4 Table 5. Average volume weights of the 25 mm. soil fraction at various depths in plots sampled for moisture 5 APPENDIX III. 1 TABLE 1. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHBRTA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS BY WEIGHT (#) BY VOLUME (#) 25mm 2 mm 2-5mm 5-25mm fraction fraction fraction fraction Whole soil DEPTH <2 2-5 5-25 1 2 s V n 4 <5 5-25 >25 (cm.) mm. mm. Turn , T 3 'a U o S mm . mm. mm. & •H CO H # « § o g o PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) UJ V o «t»* 00 o 09 1-10 34 18 48 76 18 6 40 60 40 60 22 20 24 10-20 37 22 41 80 12 8 21 79 36 64 26 20 24 20-45 43 16 41 77 12 11 31 69 9 91 27 19 30 45-70 29 18 53 74 15 11 16 84 6 94 20 23 40 ortstein 37 15 48 76 16 8 19 81 13 87 - - — PLOT L4 (Deadwood) Ag 46 1-10 33 10-20 34 20-45 34 45-70 38 ortstein 42 PLOT L3 (Deadwood) A 2 37, 1-10 32 10-20 44 20-55 44 55-70 37 ortstein 50 PLOT L2 (Valley) A 2 43 1-10 37 10-20 41 20-40 37 40-55 32 ortstein 46 16 38 73 20 21 46 73 20 22 44 73 21 21 45 75 17 16 56 76 15 13 45 80 13 10 53 69 20 18 50 73 19 15 41 74 19 16 40 79 16 18 45 82 12 18 32 83 13 11 47 70 18 14 49 70 23 23 36 74 18 20 43 77 16 16 52 77 20 12 42 80 14 7 11 89 9 7 42 58 5 6 38 62 6 8 50 50 18 9 32 68 35 7 29 71 53 11 12 88 3 8 41 59 7 7 34 66 4 5 47 53 15 6 46 54 31 4 33 67 21 12 24 76 10 7 21 79 18 8 24 76 15 7 42 58 29 3 40 60 45 6 36 64 21 91 -95 27 23 10 94 30 24 10 82 21 25 23 65 19 25 30 47 - - -97 - - -93 20 20 23 96 27 18 23 85 32 29 8 69 33 29 8 79 -90 -82 27 24 7 85 36 20 7 71 26 20 10 55 21 23 17 79 - - -PLOT L l (Fourth Lake) A2 72 10 18 64 23 13 79 21 9 91 - - -2-20 64 10 26 60 35 5 53 47 13 87 32 11 9 20-35 59 13 28 60 34 6 70 30 IS 82 34 13 5 35-55 44 25 31 76 19 5 69 31 42 58 31 15 5 0.02 - 2mm fraction 2 0.002 - 0.02mm fraction 3 less than 0.002mm fraction 4 shotty and clinker-like concretions. APPENDIX III. 2 TABLE £. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA -GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS BY WEIGHT BY VOLUME 25ram 2mm 2—5mm 5-2 5mm fraction fraction fraction fraction Whole soil DEPTH (cm.) PLOT G5 ( A 2 0.5-10 10-20 20-45 45-65 65-80 80-100 <2 2-5 5-25 mm. mm. mm. 1 2 -p H •H CO a I o 09 U a> 2 a a o O 43 PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION Jolf Mt.) j 59 19 22 74 16 10 - - - -50 21 29 76 15 8 27 73 14 86 47 19 34 76 11 13 27 73 14 86 53 19 28 78 12 10 27 73 13 87 52 17 31 83 10 7 25 75 12 88 33 18 49 - - - 19 81 11 89 25 IS 57 - - - - - -<5 5^ 25 '25 mm. mm. mm. 36 14 15 33 17 15 45 17 1 39 18 3 24 23 21 17 24 35 PLOT G4 (Deadwood) A 2 59 18 23 85 4 1-10 48 23 28 76 17 10-20 42 21 37 78 17 20-40 53 21 26 81 14 40-60 59 17 24 97 1 60-80 60 14 26 96 2 ortsteln 59 14 27 87 9 JDT G6 (Deadwood) A * 69 13 18 73 20 1-10 41 32 27 63 32 10-25 41 34 25 64 32 25-50 48 29 23 64 26 50-70 41 17 42 73 17 ortsteln 44 15 41 84 11 LOT G3 (Valley) A2 55 5 40 74 19 6-10 54 13 33 67 28 10-35 49 13 38 72 23 35-65 36 15 49 81 12 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA PLOT Gl (Fourth Lake) A 2 51 15 34 61 24 7-20 49 10 41 69 25 20-30 33 16 51 64 31 30-50 31 17 54 70 25 50-60 34 14 52 70 25 60-70 35 13 52 73 18 11 55 45 24 76 - mm -7 17 83 15 85 35 14 8 5 50 50 20 80 35 20 8 5 16 84 24 76 39 14 7 2 45 55 13 87 40 13 17 2 51 49 24 76 39 14 17 4 37 63 15 85 • mm — 7 42 53 27 73 mm m 5 77 23 40 60 35 13 16 4 75 25 36 64 36 12 16 10 73 27 52 48 35 10 25 9 50 50 38 62 30 22 12 5 7 23 77 13 87 mm mm 5 23 77 IS 82 13 6 59 5 30 70 15 85 19 12 45 7 26 74 17 83 20 20 23 • GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION 15 53 47 23 77 _ _ mm 6 58 42 30 70 9 7 61 5 68 32 40 60 13 13 43 5 20 80 22 78 12 15 40 5 38 62 35 65 16 18 40 9 22 78 37 63 18 20 40 1 APPENDIX III. TABLE 2 - Continued PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.} A 2 82 6 12 74 18 8 36 64 27 73 4-35 57 16 27 69 20 11 40 60 27 73 33 12 12 35-55 37 12 51 80 11 9 37 63 16 84 28 29 13 55-75 34 14 52 77 15 8 12 88 7 93 26 29 22 0.02«2mm fraction 2 0.002-0.02mm fraction 3 less than 0.002mm fraction 4 shotty and clinker-like concretions. TABLE 3. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA -TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS By WEIGHT (%) By VOLUME {%) 25mm 2mm 2—5mm 5—25mm fraction fraction fraction fraction Whole soil DEPTH <2 2 :-5 5-25 1 2 3 4 09 4 • 03 ^5 5-25 >25 (cm.) mm. mm. . mm. s i 8 u o <D mm. mm. mm. •H IA © g O g o (Wolf Mt.) u* o •§ o 43 ,. -09 PLOT M5 Ai 84 10 6 68 22 10 45 55 33 67 - m -1-10 73 17 10 67 25 8 33 67 38 62 40 5 -10-20 74 IS 8 69 27 4 43 52 37 63 41 4 -20-40 78 15 7 72 20 8 43 57 53 47 41 3 -40*70 77 15 8 71 22 7 29 71 37 63 48 4 -70-100 90 7 3 68 31 1 16 84 10 90 55 2 PLOT M2 (Echo Mt.) A2 59 11 30 71 IS 11 21 79 16 84 - - mm 1-20 46 14 40 - - - 34 66 17 83 23 16 21 20-40 47 15 38 74 16 10 29 71 12 88 30 19 8 40-75 43 17 35 77 12 11 25 75 17 83 28 15 9 75-100 77 17 6 63 14 23 28 72 16 84 33 3 21 PLOT M4 (Deadwood) A 2 44 13 43 76 19 5 29 71 10 90 mm - -1-10 53 23 24 83 11 6 45 55 29 71 35 11 20 10-20 55 20 25 86 9 5 41 59 28 72 43 14 10 20-40 60 15 25 87 11 2 44 56 41 59 43 16 5 40-70 75 14 11 97 + 3 56 44 33 67 54 7 11 70-100 33 16 51 93 3 5 10 90 2 98 31 32 10 PLOT M3 (Valley) •' A 2 61 8 31 73 21 6 30 70 4 96 mm mm 2-20 32 19 49 82 11 7 34 66 13 87 14 13 39 20-45 29 16 55 84 12 4 19 81 9 91 IS 22 34 45-75 27 13 55 87 9 4 22 78 8 92 21 26 23 75-100 28 15 57 87 8 5 22 78 18 82 27 35 8 APPENDIX III. TABLE 3 - Continued PLOT Ml (Fourth Lake) H 72 6 22 70 20 10 40 60 23 77 mm mm _ 6-2© 39 IS 43 69 26 5 27 73 6 94 23 15 27 20*40 34 23 43 77 13 10 51 69 13 87 23 17 21 40-65 26 13 56 79 12 9 17 83 12 88 17 21 28 65-90 57 13 30 69 20 11 33 62 33 67 24 14 30 0.02-2mm fraction 2 0.002-0.02mm fraction 3 less than 0.002mm fraction 4 shotty and clinker-like concretions. TABLE 4. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS By WEIGHT (0) By VOLUME (£) 25mm 2mm 2-5mm 5-2 5mm fraction fraction fraction fraction Whole soil DEPTH ^2 2-5 5-25 1 •a 2 » 3 .4 U 01 U fi> ^5 5-25 s>25 (cm.) mm. mm. mm. tree f-l •rt to § % © H 9 ° O 4» O (0 mm. mm. mm. tree o w o +•* n PLOT P4 (Deadwood) 1-10 60 12 28 70 23 7 11 89 2 98 20 8 8 10-20 99 1 + 67 25 8 9 81 2 93 55 + 8 20-40 97 2 1 67 25 8 11 89 2 98 52 1 10 40-50 - - - - - - mm ** mm 20 38 23 50-75 31 15 54 70 20 10 12 88 2 98 26 31 10 75-100 44 18 38 87 8 5 3 97 2 98 31 19 12 100-130 38 21 41 85 9 6 8 92 3 97 30 20 6 PLOT PI (Fourth Lake) 1-20 55 15 30 61 34 5 50 50 45 55 36 16 9 20-45 40 21 39 59 26 15 69 31 30 70 31 19 9 45-75 54 16 30 63 24 13 50 50 16 84 29 12 15 75-100 64 11 25 62 25 13 12 78 11 89 42 14 16 100-120 68 10 22 55 23 22 24 76 7 93 43 12 16 PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) 1*3 - - - 63 32 5 - - - - 26 12 5 3-10 57 11 32 77 14 9 27 73 44 56 26 12 5 10-20 60 11 29 71 16 13 39 61 43 57 27 11 5 20-50 68 10 22 70 17 13 26 74 38 62 41 12 8 50-65 64 10 26 73 14 13 19 81 16 84 39 14 8 PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt.) 2«10 62 18 20 69 22 9 51 49 28 72 41 11 1 10-25 54 16 30 74 18 8 47 53 40 60 37 16 1 25-40 58 16 26 76 17 7 32 68 26 74 36 12 1 40-70 70 16 14 77 15 8 8 92 4 96 39 6 11 70-100 39 16 45 76 15 7 3 97 1 99 31 26 11 APPENDIX III. TABLE 4 - Continued PLOT P3 (Valley) 3*8 98 1 + 62 28 10 75 25 30 70 38 +• -8-20 95 3 3 76 17 7 1 99 6 94 37 3 -20-40 100 + - 74 20 6 60 40 - - 40 -40-70 100 + - 69 22 9 53 47 - - 45 - -70-95 100 + - 82 14 4 7 91 - - 49 - -95-100 1 99 1 99 18 20 40 1 0.02-2mm fraction 2 0.002-0.02mm fraction 3 less than .002mm fraction 4 snotty and clinker-like concretions. TABLE 5. AVERAGE VOLUME WEIGHTS 07 THE 25mm SOIL FRACTION AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA -PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOT L5 PLOT L4 PLOT L3 PLOT L2 PL0T~L1 Ao 0.34 0.23 0.16 0.13 0.17 1-10 em. 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.3 10-20 em. 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.3 20-40 em. 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.4 1.3 40-60 em. 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.4 1.3 60-80 cm. 1.9 1.7 1.9 1.5 1.3 80-100cm. - - - -PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT G5 PLOT 04 PLOT G6 PLOT G3 Ao 0.12 0.18 0.12 0.18 1-10 cm. 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.3 10-20 cm. 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 20-40 cm. 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6 40-60 cm., 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.6 60-80 cm. 1.6 1.* 1.7 -80-100cm. 1.7 1.3 - mm PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT Gl PLOT G2 Ao 0.12 0.10 1-10 cm. 1.2 1.3 10-20 cm. 1.2 1.3 20-40 cm. 1.2 1.3 40-60 cm. 1.5 1.3 60-80 em. 1.7 -80-100cm. - -APPENDIX III. TABLE 5 - Continued 6 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - BYLOCOMIUM - BPHBTNCHIUM ASSOCIATION Ao PLOT 115 PLOT M2 PLOT M4 PLOT 1S3 PLOT Ml 1-10 cm. 0.26 0.15 - 0.15 0.12 10-20 cm. 1.2 1.3 1.6 1.2 1.3 20-40 cm. 1.2 1.3 1.7 1.2 1.3 40-60 cm. 1.2 1.4 1.8 1.6 1.3 60-80 cm. 1.4 1.3 1.9 1.6 1.4 80-100 cm. 1.4 1.3 1.9 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.9 1.8 mm PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOT P4 PLOT PI PLOT P2 PLOT P5 PLOT P3 AO 0.3 0.19 0.2 0.26 0.6 1-10 cm. 0.8 1.5 1.1 1.4 1.0 10-20 cm. 1.6 1.5 1.1 1.4 1.1 20-40 em. 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.0 40-60 em. 2.0 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.2 50-60 em. 1.7 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.2 60-80 em. 1.5 1.8 - 1.8 1.3 80-lOOcm. 1.4 1.8 - - 1.7 THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOT Ly3 PLOT Ly2 A (swamp) 1-10 cm. (muck) 10-20 cm. (muck) 0.15 0.4 1.4 20-30 cm. (gleyed) B (Banks and hummocks) L (litter) 0.15 1-10 cm;(peat) , 0.12 10-20 cm.(peat) 0.15 20-30 cm.(muck) ^ 0.2 30-40 em.(gleyed) 1.8 1 2 3 gleyed gravelly loss gleyed sandy loss gleyed muck 0.18 0.4 0.9 A (swamp) 1-10 cm. (muck) 10-20 cm. (muck) 20-30 cm. (gleyed) A z (margin of swamp) L (litter) 1-10 cm.(peat) 10-20 cm. (muck) 20-30 cm.(gleyed)^ 30-40 cm.(gleyed)2 40-50 cm.(gleyed) B (Banks and hummocks) L (litter) 0.16 1-10 cm.(peat) 0.15 10-20 cm.(peat) 0.15 20-30 em.(muck) °-4 30-40 cm.(gleyed)1 I.* PLOT Lyl i3 0.3 1-10 (muck) 10-20 (muck)3 0.4 20-30 (gleyed)1 1.0 B (Banks and hummocks) 0.12 L (Litter) 0.14 0.15 1-10 (peat) 0.15 0.3 £0-20 (peat) 0.20 0.4 20-30 (muck) 0.4 0.8 30-40 (gleyed) 1.7 0.9 40-50 (gleyed) 1.7 APPENDIX IT. WEATHER AND MICROCLIMATE RECORDS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A. WEATHER ON VANCOUVER ISLAND Table 1. Precipitation at various stations on Vancouver Island 1951-1953 (inches) 1 B. PRECIPITATION AND INTERCEPTION Table 2. Precipitation and interception on plots of the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association, June 1951 to October 1954 (cm.) 7 2 Table 3. Precipitation and interception on plots of the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga -Gaultheria association, June 1951 to October 1953 (cm.) '••.».• • • • • • • ' 3 Table 4. Precipitation and interception on plots of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association, June 1951 to October 1953 (cm.) . 5 Table 5. Precipitation and interoeption on plots of the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association, June 1951 to October 1953 (cm.) 7~ 7 Table 6. Precipitation and interception on plots of the Thuja - Lysichitum association, June 1951 to October 1953 (cm.) 9 0. TEMPERATURE Table 7, Monthly maximum, minimum and mean air temperatures in plots sampled for soil moisture, 1953 (°F) . 10 Table 8. Monthly maximum, minimum and mean soil surface temperatures in plots sampled for soil moisture, 1951-1953 (°F) 11 Table 9. Monthly maximum and minimum soil surface tempera-tures at open stations adjacent to plots sampled for soil moisture, 1952-1955 (°F) . . . . . . . 12 Table 10. Monthly maximum and minimum soil surface tempera-tures in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots, 1951-1953. (°F) "~. . . . . . 14 APPENDIX IV. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS * Continued TEMPERATURE - Continued Page Table 11. Monthly naximum and minimum soil surface temperatures in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria & Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots, 1951-1953 (OF) *T 15 Table 12. Monthly maximum and iminimum so i l surface temperatures in the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association plots, 1951^1953 (°F) 1? Table 13. Monthly maximum and minimum soil surface temperatures in the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association plots, 1951-1953 (°F) IS Table 14. Monthly maximum and minimum soil surface temperatures in the Thuja - Lysichitum association plots. 1951-1953 (°F) . . . 19 Table 15. Average quarterly soil temperatures at various depths in plots sampled for soil moisture, 1951-1953 (°F) . . . . . 20 Table 16. Monthly values of soil temperature at various depths i n the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots, 1951-1953T(^F) . . . . . . . . 22 Table 17. Monthly values of soil temperature at various depths in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots, 1951-1953 (9F) T T T 23 Table 18. Monthly values of soil temperature at various depths in the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - -Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association plots, 1951-1953 1%) 25 Table 19. Monthly values of soil temperature at various depths in the Pseudotsuga - Polystlohum association plots, 1951-1953 (°F) 26 Table 20. Monthly values of soil temperature at various depths in the Thuja - Lysichitum association plots, 1951-1953 . . . 27 D. EVAPORATION Table 21. Evaporation from Livingston atmometers i a the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots, 1951-1952 (ml.) 28 Table 22. Evaporation from Livingston atmometers in the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria -and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria associa-tion plots, 1951-1952 (mTT) 29 Table 23. Evaporation from Livingston atmometers in the Pseudotsuga  Tsuga - Hylocomium - Barhynohlam association plots, 1951-1952 (ml.) . 30 APPENDIX 17. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued EVAPORATION - Continued Page Table 24. Evaporation from Livingston atmometers in the Pseudotsuga^ Polystichum association plots, 1951-52 (ml.) . . . . . 31 Table 25. Evaporation from Livingston atmometers in the Thuja -Lysichitum association plots, 1951-1952 (ml.) 32 Table 26. Percentage increase in evaporation from black bulb atmometers compared with adjacent white bulb atmometers at open stations and i n plots sampled for soil moisture, 1951-1952 32 1 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 1. PRECIPITATION AT VARIOUS STATIONS ON VANCOUVER ISLAND, 1951-53 (inches) JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC EAST COAST CUMBERLAND 1951 11,2 6.7 4.2 1,4 2.0 0.4 1.0 0.2 2.1 7.0 13.1 4.4 1952 8,7 8.5 5.1 5,0 1.7 1.4 0.2 1.3 0.5 0.9 8.1 16.7 1953 14.6 4.7 7.4 1.8 2.7 2.1 1.0 3.7 3.6 4.8 14.8 5.6 Average 11.5 6.7 5.5 2,8 2.1 1.3 0.7 1.7 2.1 4.2 12.0 8.9 Long term average 7.4 6.5 4.6 3.3 2.2 2.2 1.6 1.4 2.7 6.8 8.2 10.6 CASSIDY 1951 9.6 4.7 4,0 1.1 1.3 0.3 0.1 0.6 2.3 8.2 7.9 6.9 1952 7.1 4.5 2.3 3.5 1.4 1.4 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.7 2.8 10.2 1953 13.4 2,8 2.8 1.9 0.1 1.4 0.6 0.5 3.8 2.3 7.6 5.5 Average 10.3 4.0 3,0 2.2 1.2 1.0 0.3 0.6 2.3 3.7 6.1 7.5 Long term average 7.1 5.7 3.3 2.4 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.6 3.5 7.8 7.1 CENTRAL MOUNTAINS COWIGHAN LAKE 1951 15.1 10.7 6.4 2.1 2.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 5.0 10.4 13.7 6.4 1952 15.1 8.6 6.1 5.8 1.9 2.1 0.4 2.0 1.2 2.6 5.6 19.4 1953 29.7 5.5 8.3 2.8 2.7 1.2 1.1 2.2 6.6 8.7 15.9 13.8 Average 20.0 8.3 6.9 3.6 2.3 1.2 0.6 1.5 4.3 7.2 11.7 16.5 Long term average 10.3 8.8 7.8 5.1 2.8 1.8 1.1 1.1 3.0 8.1 9.6 13.7 NITINAT CAMP 1951 20.9 14.0 7.1 1.8 3.5 0.8 0.3 0.3 7.8 11.6 18.0 8.9 1952 17.8 14.0 6.2 7.2 2.1 2.5 0.4 2.0 1.8 3.4 8.8 27.1 1953 32.4 10.0 10.8 3.0 2.9 0.9 1.8 2,9 8.2 14.5 25.5 17.9 Average 23.7 12.7 8.1 4.0 2.8 1.4 0.8 1.7 5.9 9.8 17.4 17.9 Long term average 15.2 14.7 8.5 7.2 3.1 2.1 2.0 2.1 5.1 22.3 13.9 APPENDIX IV. 2 TABLE 2. PRECIPITATION AND INTERCEPTION ON PLOTS CQ? THE PSEUDOTSUGA -GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION, June 1951 to October 1953 (in cm)1 1951 ID M 0> O. O O OJ |s rH PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm)-0 T T 0.5 T 0.2 Interception (%) \- +99 +99 37 +99 67 PLOT 14 (Deadwood) — "* Precipitation (em) 0 0.2 - 0 0 0.9 Interception (%) . - 50 ' - - - 31 PLOT L3 (Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) 0 0.1 0 0 1.0 Interception (#) - 75 - - - 23 PLOT L2 (Valley) Precipitation (cm) 0 0.3 - 0 0 0.4 Interception (#) - 25 - 33 PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation (cm) 0 0.2 - 0 0 0.4 Interception (#) - 50 - - - 60 1952 _ m as . H , <q • § <o to «o §1 Si 11131^2^ 131^  PLOT L5 -Pptn. (cm) 36.0 11.0 1.5 0.7 0.6 0 0.4 0 2 Ppth. (check) - - - - 0.6 - 0.4 0 Inept. (#) 14 27 42 46 54 - 43 -PLOT L4 Pptn. (cm) 34.0 12.5 1.8 1.0 0.6 0 0.6 0 Inept. {$>) 19 17 22 29 25 - 14 -PLOT L3 Pptn. (cm) 32.0 11.0 1.6 0.9 0.5 0 0.6 0 Iacpt.{%) 24 27 30 36 38 - 14 -PLOT L2 J -Pptn. (cm) 35+ 15.5 2.0 2.2 0.4 0 0.8 0 Inept. {%) - 35 37 31 56 - 20 -PLOT L l Pptn. (cm) 68+ 35.0 3.3 4.9 1.3 0 1.0 0 Inept. (%) 22 12 31 27 28 - 17 -0.5 0 6.7 17.8 15.7 13.5 44 - 16 6 26 24 0.7 0 7.6 14.4 17.7 12.8 30 - 11 16 16 28 0.6 0 7.2 12.6 15.1 11.3 "40 15 27 28 36 0.5 0 8.8 17.6 27.0 12.8 67 - IS 25 18 25 1.6 0 12.0 24.6 35£ 19.1 43 IS 18 22 29 3 H O H tun Q i ran H H O H 1.2 0.3 T 1.2 6.1 29.0 1.3 0.4 T 1.1 5.9 23.0 41 60 - 54 45 32 2.0 0.6 T 2.3 8.8 28.9 13 45 - 4 21 12 1.3 0.5 T 2.0 7.9 27.6 43 55 - 17 29 16 2.8 1.0 T 3.3 14.4 38.2 36 47 +99 30 31 11 6.9 2.8 0.5 6.8 21.5 54.3 7 20 55 18 10 12 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 2 - Continued 3 1953 JAN FEB MAR APR MAT JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 43.0 8.0 6.0 3.0 1.6 2.8 1.1 0.7 7.2 5.0 Precipitation (check) - 7.6 Interception (%) 9 26 42 45 48 44 53 61 24 41 PLOT L4 (Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) 44.0 10.6 8.2 3.9 1.7 2.2 0.7 0.7 9.5 8.4 Interception (#) 8 9 17 26 35 39 65 72 6 6 PLOT L3 (Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) 40.8 9.2 7.0 3.3 1.5 2.7 0.7 1.5 8.1 7.1 Interception (#) 15 21 29 38 42 25 65 40 20 20 PLOT L2 (Valley) Precipitation (cm) 53.0 9.0 13.6 4.5 3.1 3.6 4.7 3.1 10.9 16.1 Interception (#) 4 34 28 30 35 29 6 40 18 17 PLOT XI (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation (cm) 35+ 13.8 23.3 6.1 6.4 1.8 4.4 7.5 - 29.9 Interception (#) - 14 10 15 25 40 17 18 - 10 1 Precipitation values are the average collection from 4 gauges within a quarter acre plot; Interception is the percentage of precipitation record-ed at the adjacent open station (Table 18) not reaching the plot gauges. 2 Check precipitation values are the collections from 13 gauges: the percent-age interception is based on these values for the period the checks were maintained. T Trace. TABLE 3. PRECIPITATION AND INTERCEPTION ON PLOTS OF THE PSEUDOTSUGA -GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION, June 1951 to October 1953 (in cm.) 1 PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION 1951 4 m m s a B § si B | i f s S i l g * >>? 8 $ O H S H P H PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 0 0.1 0 0.4 T 0.3 0 0.5 0 6.3 14.2 15.5 14.4 Interception (#) - 75 100 50 +99 50 - 44 - 21 25 30 19 PLOT G4 (Lower Deadwood) . ~* Precipitation (em) 0 0.2 T 0.5 T 0.2 0 0.5 0 5.9 12.2 13.0 13.7 Interception (0) - 60 +99 44 +99 60 44 - 33 36 40 24 PLOT G6 (Upper Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) 0 0.2 - - - 1.6 0 0.6 0 6.8 12.9 16.2 11.4 Interception (#) 60 - - 30 - 33 23 25 21 33 PLOT G3 (Valley) Precipitation (cm) 0 T - - - T Q 1.0 0 11.2 22.0 35.0 16.4 Interception {<$>) - 90 - - - +99 - 33 - 3 16 8 25 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 3 - Continued 1952 MAY 1-31 JUN 1-16 o to p<o JUL 1-16 FJrH AUG 1-16 H SEP 16-30 OCT 1-31 t o fc>eo c H > to IH PLOT G5 Pptn.(em) 33.4 10.3 1.5 0.8 0.6 0 0.5 0 1.3 0.4 T 1.2 6.3 30.3 Pptn (check) - - - 0.6 0 0.6 0 1.3 0.4 T 1.4 6.3 27.4 Inept.(#) 20 31 42 38 54 - 14 - 41 60 +99 42 42 19 PLOT G4 Pptn.(cm) 1.5 0.7 0.2 0 0.4 0 1.1 0.3 - - 7.1 30.3 Inept.(%) 46 59 75 - 50 - 64 70 - - 35 13 PLOT G6 Pptn.(cm) 39.6 10.8 1.7 0.9 0.7 0 0.5 0 1.6 0.4 T 2.0 7.3 27.9 Inept. {%) 6 10 45 47 53 - 37 - 48 64 +99 37 9 7 PLOT 03 ' Pptn.(cm) 38.5 24.0 1.6 3.1 0.6 0 0.9 0 3.8 1.8 0.1 4.7 17.7 14.2 Inept. (#) 34 20 51 14 45 - 18 r 19 25 67 13 17 10 1953 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 41.3 8.2 6.3 2.9 1.5 3.0 1.7 0.6 8.2 6.0 Precipitation (check) - 7.9 Interception (%) 12 23 39 47 52 40 35 67 14 29 PLOT G4 (Lower Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) 40.5 8.6 7.2 3.1 1.5 1.8 0.8 0.3 8.3 7.0 Interception (#) 14 25 31 40 50 57 60 82 19 30 PLOT G6 (Upper Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) 42.5 9.9 7.5 3.9 2.2 2.8 1.3 2.6 8.8 8.0 Interception (%) 6 5 26 19 29 42 50 33 14 19 PLOT G3 (Valley) Precipitation (cm) 66.3 13.1 16.3 5.9 4.5 2.7 7.2 2.4 14.0 19.4 Interception (%) 7 14 20 21 4 45 47 7 2 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION 1951 •BS 5 ? ^ 5 < i ^ J 3 ^ I f 14 |£ i f §4, .§4, BH PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation (cm) 0 0.3 0 - - 0.4 0 1.7 0 14.5 24.1 42+ 18.0 Interception (#) - 25 - - - 60 - 39 - 2 27 7 33 PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 0 0.5 0 - - 0.3 0 1.5 0 10.7 24.8 36+ 37.3 Interception (#) - - 37 - - - 40 - 25 - 18 15 10 18 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 3 - Continued 1952 sB sS a1? R ? B? a? a? g« e.s e»§ ^« o3 H rH rH rH PLOT 01 Pptn.(cm) 71+ Inept. {%) 18 PLOT 02 Pptn. (cm) 58+ Inept.(#) 2*1 1953 JAN FEB MAR APR MAT JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation(cm) 79+ 14.6 23.4 6.6 7,8 2.1 5.0 7.6 16.0 31.8 Interception (#) 5 9 10 8 8 30 6 16 8 4 PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.) ' Precipitation (cm) - - - - - - - -Interception {%) - - - - - -31.0 4.2 7.3 1.5 0 0.8 0 6.6 2.9 0.9 8.0 23.4 54.4 22 12 — 17 - 33 11 17 IS 4 3 IS 27+ 2.1 3.4 0.9 0 0.5 0 3.6 1.8 0.3 5.3 - mm 21 46 28 51 ; - 50 - 25 38 70 22 - mm 1 Precipitation values are the average collection fa?om 4 gauges within a quarter acre plot; interception is the percentage of precipitation recorded at the adjacent open station (Table IS) not reaching the plot gauges. 2 Check precipitation values are the collections from 13 gauges; the percentage interception is based on these values for the period the checks were maintained. T Trace. TABLE 4. PRECIPITATION AND INTERCEPTION ON PLOTS OF THE PSEUDOTSUGA -TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION June 1951 to October 1953 (in cm.)1 1951 JO OJ O* O Cft Ol C- S _ OJ J c5 to o j o j o . o H P * PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt) Preoipitation(cm) 0 T 0 0,3 T 0.1 0 0.3 0 5.0 Interception {%) - +99 100 62 +99 83 - 67 - 37 PLOT M2 (EehO Mt.) Precipitationfam) 0 0.3 - - - 0.1 0 0.8 0 9.7 Interception"(#) - 62 - - - 67 - 50 - 23 PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) \ Preclpitation(cm) 0 0.1^ T 0.5 T 0.3 0 0.5 0 7.9 Interception (%>) - 75 +99 44 +99 30 - 44 - 10 PLOT M3 (Valley) Preoipitation(cm) 0 0.1 - - - T 0 0.9 0 10.4 Interception (#) - 80 - - - +99 - 40 - 10 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation(cm) 0 0.2 - - - 0.2 0 1.6 0 12.2 Interception {%) - 35 - - 80 - 6 - 10 i f a n m 11.8 11.0 13.1 33 50 26 20.3 30.7 15.5 26 a i 19 15.3 17.7 13.1 19 19 27 24.6 35+ 18.7 6 ~8 14 26.4 35+ 82.2 6 18 APPENDIX 17. TABLE 4 - Continued 6 1952 6* - * ° 3 iS 1? F I H 8 .£ rf.lt S H 6 1 ftH ft I tr«» J»» oca « O W «0 tO tO tO to tO H O PLOT M5 Pptn. (cm) 29.9 8.8 0.6 0.3 0.1 0 0.3 0 0.4 T 0 0.9 3.5 25.1 2Pptn. (check) - - - - 0.2 0 0.4 0 0.6 T 0 1.0 3.8 23.8 Inept. (%) 29 41 77 77 85 - 43 - 73 +99 100 58 65 30 PLOT M2. ~ Pptn. (cm) 61+ 20+ 1.5 2.7 0.6 0 0.5 0 3.1 1.1 T 4.4 -Inept. '(£) 5 33 62 43 45 - 44 - 33 56 +99 29 PLOT M4 "" Pptn.(cm) - - 1.1 0.9 0.3 0 0.5 0 1.2 0.3 0 1.7 7.5 30.2 Inept. (#) - - 61 47 62 - 37 - 61 70 100 29 31 14 PLOT M3 Pptn.(cm) 47+ 23.8 1.7 2.1 0.4 0 0.9 0 3.8 1.5 T 3.9 19.6 56.2 Inept. (#) 19 21 43 42 64 - 18 - 19 37 +99 28 8 PLOT Ml ~" Pptn.(cm) - 70+ 2.6 5.6 0.9 0 0.7 0 6.5 2.3 0.3 7.2 22.3 58.4 Inept. [%) - - 42 16 31 - 30 - 7 30 73 12 3 3 1953 JAN FEB MAR APE MAT JDN JUL AUG- SEP OCT PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 33.0 5.9 4.0 1.6^  0.6 1.7 1.0 0.1 - 2.4 Precipitation(check) - 5.8 - - -Interception (#) 30 44 61 71 81 66 62 94 - 72 PLOT M2 (Echo Mt.) Precipitation (cm) - - - - - - - - - -Interception (%) - - - - - - - - - -PLOT MS (Lower:i)eadwood) Precipitation (cm) 43.3 8.9 7.6 3.5 1.9 2.4 1.3 0.5 8.4 6.6 Interception (#) 8 23 27 33 37 43 35 71 18 34 PLOT MS (Valley). Precipitation (cm) 67+ 12.9 18.6 5.4 3.6 3.4 4.5 3.4 11.4 19.3 Interception {%) ~6 15 9 28 23 31 18 24 24 9 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation (cm) 55+ 14.7 22.8 4.9 5.8 0.9 4.0 7.0 15.5 30.4 Interception (#) - 6 5 12 24 61 7 22 5 5 1 Precipitation values are the average collection from 4 gauges within a quarter aore plot; interception is the percentage of precipitation recorded at the adjacent open station (Table 18) not reaching the plot gauges. 2 Check precipitation values are the collection from 13 gauges; the percentage _ interception is based on these values for the period the checks were maintained, Traoe. APPENDIX IV. 7 TABLE 5. PRECIPITATION AND INTERCEPTION ON PLOTS OF THE PSEUDOTSUGA -POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION, June 1951 to October 1953 (in cm.) 1 1951 : toot a> o> ^  c- H n w . t o o> CM CM J , rt tfi CM _CM _^ CU O H &l r j Q PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood) Precipitation (em) Interception (%) PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation (cm) Interception {%) PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) Precipitation (cm) Interception (#) PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) Interception (#) PLOT P3 (Valiey) Precipitation (cm) Interception 0 0.1 - 1.4 0 0.2 0 6.6 U . l 10.3 8.4 - 80 - - 39 78 - 26 36 50 51 0 0.2 mm _ _ 0.2 0 1.3 0 10.8 23.3"35+ 18.0 - 33 - - 80 - • 24 - 20 20 17 33 0 0.5 _ _ 0.4 0 1.1 0 12.1 25.6 35+ 16.6 - 17 - - - 20 • - 31 4 9 10 14 0 T T 0.3 T 0.4 0 0.5 0 6.4 13.6 15.214.0 - +99 +99 56 +99 33 r 56 - 20 28 30 21 0 0.1 _ T 0 0.7 0 8.5 19.3 23.3 32.2 mm 75 - +99 - 53 mm 21 IS 29 28 1952 Si MAY 1-31 JUN 1-16 0S-9I NOT ^Ppln^tcm) 21.7 5.8 1.1 0.6 0.3 Inept. (#) 43 52 65 65 80 PLOT PI -Pptn.(em) mm 63+ 2.5 4.7 0.6 Inept. {<$>) mm 44 30 50 PLOT P2 Pptn.(cm) 42.7 23.7 2.3 3.6 0.9 Inept. (#) 33 21 42 23 18 PLOT P5 „ Pptn.(cm) 33+ 10.3 1.2 0.6 0.4 Pptn.(check) rf:. - - mm 0.3 Inept. {<$>) 21 31 54 54 77 PLOT P3 Pptn.(cm) 42.3 14.8 1.3 1.8 0.3 Inept.(#) 23 38 59 44 67 H i-l O •O tO ._ tO «© to i-l O H H j | d>H cb i cui-i cu i into t>5 o ** H K H <{H 81 H O H S Z 5 H O H 0 0.4 0 1.1 0.1 T 2.0 3.9 20.7 - 50 - 65 91 +80 37 51 31 0 0.9 0 5.6 2.1 0.3 6.4 19.2 48.1 - 10 - 20 36 73 23 17 20 0 0.6 0 4.1 1.6 0.2 5.4 - 33 - 11 36 67 13 mm mm 0 0.4 0 0.6 0.1 T 1.2 4.8 29.3 0 0.4 0 0.6 0.1 T 1.1 4.5 26.9 mm 43 - 73 90 +80 54 58 20 0 0.8 0 2.8 1.0 0 3.2 14.2 37.9 • 20 • 36 47 100 32 32 12 APPENDIZ IV. TABLE 5 - Continued 8 1953 JAN FEB MAR APR MAX JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT l 33.5 6.5 3.5 2.1 0.8 2.2 1.4 1.8 6.7 6.6 26 37 66 56 74 54 46 54 34 35 35+ 11.5 19.4 4.3 5.0 0.8 3.4 7.0 13.9 29.0 27 19 23 34 65 21 23 15 10 36.0 8.0 5.9 2.3 1.0 2.2 1.3 0.3 7.8 m 4.3 23 22 43 58 68 56 50 83 18 49 9.8 13.3 2.9 2.3 3.2 3.4 3.2 10.1 15.7 "2 28 30 55 52 37 32 38 24 19 1 PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood)Precipitation (cm) Interception (%) PLOT P i (Fourth Lake) Precipitation (em) Interception (#) PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) Precipitation (em) Interception ($) PLOT P 5 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) Interception (#) PLOT P3 (Valley) Precipitation (cm) Interception (#) Precipitation values are the average collection from 4 gauges within a quarter acre plot; interception is the percentage of precipitation recorded at the adjacent open station (Table 13) not reaching the plot gauges. 0 Check precipitation values are the collection from 13 gauges; the percentage interception is based on these values for the period the cheeks were main-tained. Trace> APPENDIX IV. 9 TABLE 6. PRECIPITATION AND INTERCEPTION ON PLOTS OF THE THUJA -LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION, June 1951 to October 1953 (in cm.) 1 1951 men cn in CM o> BS-S? H i 5 |JL PLOT Ly3 (Wolf MtJ Precipitation (cm) 0 0,2 0.1 0.6 Interception (#) - 50 50 25 PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) 0 0.1 Interception (#) - 80 PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 0 0.4 Interception {$>) 44 o 8 A 3 H o» CM po «aJOJ o»« CMg M i o 83 SEP 10-17 SEP 17 -OCT 1 OCT 1-31 ^ © O 1 H BA T 0.4 0 0.3 0 6.4 14.2 15.2 12.9 +99 33 - 61 - 20 25 30 27 1.5 0 0.3 0 6.8 12.7 15.1 7.4 - 35 - 66 - 23 27 26 56 _ 0.5 0 0.9 0 10.3 22.7 34± 14.4 - 17 - 44 - 18 19 12 25 1952 H _«g ,<P .» t«q » <^o 8 H o H W g H g | J H J l rtH d I OiH O j l E4(0 t> tO O tO +» + ^+ g H . K H F » H F J H M ^ H gjH H H O H g r l q H PLOT Ly3 Incp.(#) 26 29 38 31 38 - 14 - 50 70 +80 37 43 10 PLOT Ly2 Pptn. (em) 28.5 7.8 1. Inep.($) 32 35 61 59 58 - 50 - 45 82 +80 37 32 32 PLOT Lyl Incp.($) 38 32 30 PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 39.0 Interception (#) 17 PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) 34.3 Interception ($} 24 PLOT Lyl Precipitation (cm) Interception i$) 0.9 0.8 0 0.6 0 1.1 0.3 T 1.5 0.7 0.6 0 0.4 0 1.7 0.2 T 2.0 3.1 0.9 0 0.7 0 3.4 1.7 0.3 5.3 34 18 - 22 - 25 32 50 14 1953 FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT 8.2 6.3 3.4 1.6 4.2 1.9 0.7 8.8 6.0 20 39 38 48 16 27 61 7 29 7.3 4.4 2.2 1.0 2.1 1.3 1.8 7.7 6.7 30 57 54 68 56 50 54 25 32 Precipitation values are the average collection from 4 gauges within a quarter acre plot; interception is the percentage of precipitation recorded at the adjacent open station (Table 18) not reaching the plot gauges. T Trace. TABLE 7. MONTHLY MAXIMUM, MINIMUM AND MEAN AIR TEMPERATURES IN PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE, 1953 (°Fp\ JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. Max (Ma) Min Max (Mn) Min Max (Mn) Min Max (Mn) Min Max (Mn) Min PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASS'N PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) 8B (64) 45 92 (72 ) 51 90 (71) 52 - 44 - - -PLOT L l (Fourth Lk) 76 (53) 40 97 (72) 46 87 (68) 48 82 ( 61) 40 63 (49) 35 PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASS'N PLOT 05 (Wolf Mt.) 78 (61) 43 91 (70) 49 86 ( 68) 60 - - - - - -PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASS'N PLOT 01 (Fourth Lk.) 75 ( 57) 39 90 ( 63 ) 45 82 ( 64) 46 79 ( 60) 40 62 (48 ) 33 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM ASS'N PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) 72 (58) 44 84 (67) 50 82 (67) 51 78 (60) 42 64 (52) 40 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) 76 (57) 38 90 (69) 47 84 (69) 53 80 (61) 42 66 (51) 36 PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASS'N PLOT F5 (Wolf Mt.) 72 ( 57 ) 42 84 ( 67) 49 82 ( 66) 50 79 ( 61) 42 66 ( 52) 39 PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.) 76 (59) 42 90 (69) 47 86 (67) 43 80 (61) 42 60 (43) 36 THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASS'N PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) 74 (57 ) 39 84 (66) 47 82 (65) 48 78 (60) 41 - -1 Measured at one meter above the ground. APPENDIX IV. 11 TABLB 3. AVERAGE. QUARTERLY MAXIMUM, MINIMUM AND MEAN SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE 1951-53 (°F) SPRING2 SUMMER3 AUTUMN4 WINTER5 Max (Mn) Min Max (Mn) Min Max (Mn) Min Max (Mn) Min OPEN STATIONS Cabin 84 (57) 30 102 (70) 39 63 (44) 25 46 (36) 25 Lower Deadwood 97 (S3) 29 119 (79) 40 74 (51) 28 50 (38) 26 Valley 83 (56) 30 86 (64) 42 64 (46) 28 44 (38) 31 Echo Mt. 83 (56) 30 103 (72) 41 63 (46) 28 52 (40) 28 Fourth Lk. 89 (60) 30 121 (79) 33 74 (51) 28 46 (38) 29 Average 87 (58) 30 106 (73) 40 67 (47) 27 43 (33) 28 PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTBERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) 90 (62) 34 108 (78) 49 61 (47) 33 57 (44) 30 PLOT 14 (Deadwood) 97 (68) 39 121 (85) 48 64 (49) 33 57 (44) 30 PLOT L3 (Deadwood) 87 (62) 33 105 (76) 47 57 (45) 33 52 (42) 32 PLOT L2 (Valley) 97 (68) 39 112 (81) 49 56 (45) 34 51 (41) 32 PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) 89 (63) 37 108 (77) 46 54 (44) 34 47 (33) 29 Average 92 (65) 37 111 (79) 48 58 (46) 33 53 (42) 31 PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt.) 74 (57) 41 87 (69) 50 51 (43) 36 48 (40) 33 PLOT G4 (Deadwood) 89 (63) 37 101 (75) 43 53 (44) 34 52 (41) 31 PLOT G6 (Deadwood) 78 (58) 38 84 (67) 49 49 (42) 35 48 (40) 32 PLOT 03 (Valley) 63 (51) 39 71 (61) 50 51 (43) 36 41 (36) 32 Average 76 (57) 39 86 (68) 49 51 (43) 35 47 (39) 32 PSEUDOTSUGA- TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) 66 (51) 37 73 (60) 47 49 (41) 33 42 (37) 32 PLOT 02 (Echo Mt.) 70 (55) 40 94 (70) 46 43 (41) 33 - • - . -Average 63 (53) 38 83 (64) 46 49 (41) 33 42 (37) 32 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) 61 (50) 39 76 (62) 43 50 (42) 35 46 (39) 32 PLOT M2 (Echo Mt.) 63 (52) 41 72 (60) 48 49 (41) 34 - . - . . -PLOT M4 (Deadwood) 69 (53) 38 80 (65) 49 50 (42) 34 51 (41) 31 PLOT M3 (Valley) 62 (50) 38 76 (63) 50 49 (42) 35 43 (37) 32 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) 62 (49) 36 78 (63) 47 49 (42) 34 43 (37) 32 Average 63 (51) 33 76 (62) 48 50 (42) 34 46 (39) 32 PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOT P4 (Deadwood) 59 (49) 39 70 (59) 47 50 (42) 33 43 (40) 32 PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.) 59 (43) 38 72 (60) 43 51 (43) 34 42 (37) 32 PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) 62 (51) 40 71 (60) 43 50 (42) 34 mm - -- -PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt.) 66 (52) 39 73 (61) 49 51 (43) 35 47 (39) 31 PLOT P3 (Valley) 63 (50) 37 73 (60) 48 48 (41) 34 45 (33) 32 Average 60 (49) 38 72 (60) 48 50 (42) 34 45 (38) 32 / APPENDIX IV. TABLE 8 - Continued 12 SPRING- SUMMER AUTUMN WINTER Max (Mn) Min Max (Mn) Min Max (Mn) Min Max (Mn) Min THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOT Ly3 (WOlf Mt.) 57 (4B) 39 66 ( 58) 50 48 (42 ) 35 45 (33) 31 PLOT Ly2 (Deadwood) 55 (47) 40 63 (55) 47 49 (42) 35 43 (38) 33 PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) 62 (51) 40 65 (56) 48 48 (41) 34 . . . Average 58 (49) 40 65 (56) 43 43 (42) 35 44 (38) 32 1 Surface temperature measurements were made approximately 5mm.below the surface of the l i t t e r layer. 2 Measurements were made early in April, May and June. 3 Measurements were made early in July, August and September. 4 Measurements were made early in October, November and December. 5 Measurements were made early in January, February and March. TABLE 9. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES AT OPEN STATIONS ADJACENT TO PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE 1952-55 { ° F ) 1 1952 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG- SEP 06T NOV DEC CABIN Maximum - - - - - - - - 95 75 54 56 Minimum - - - - - - - - 40 50 20 22 ECHO MOUNTAIN Maximum - - - - - - - 108 103 80 62 Minimum - - - - - - - 46 40 32 22 -FOURTH LAKE Maximum - - - - - 116 104 82 58 43 Minimum - - - - - - - 44 39 32 26 30 1953 CABIN Maximum . . . 30 144 111 117 112 105 72 55 46 Minimum - 22 26 32 35 44 41 34 32 32 28 VALLEY Maximum - - - - - - - - - - 56 45 Minimum - - - - - - - - 32 30 ECHO MOUNTAIN Maximum - 58 70 68 90 96 112 109 100 73 56 48 Minimum - 27 24 30 32 40 48 45 42 33 31 30 FOURTH LAKE Maximum - 56 68 - 84 112 128 116 106 76 53 46 Minimum - 26 22 25 31 36 40 42 33 31 32 31 13 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 9 - Continued 1954 JAN FEB MAR APE MAT JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC CABIN Maximum 50 53 66 98 110 107 106 76 62 58 47 Minimum - 25 19 28 30 34 41 46 26 28 30 22 LOWER DEADWOOD Maximum 42 65 74 116 110 118 124 98 80 56 52 Minimum - 28 20 30 28 36 42 44 30 30 29 28 VALLEY Maximum - 33 62 76 105 88 91 92 73 64 55 47 Minimum - 32 28 28 26 35 42 45 30 30 32 24 ECHO MOUNTAIN Maximum 52 59 68 95 98 108 106 90 70 72 53 Minimum - 30 23 28 30 37 42 46 32 30 30 24 FOURTH LAKE Maximum - 36 59 74 108 117 132 127 94 72 - 45 Minimum - 32 17 26 28 35 39 42 26 26 - 30 1955 CABIN . Maximum 48 43 54 76 102 129 102 89 96 62 55 Minimum 32 22 26 30 29 39 44 38 32 32 8 LOWER DEADWOOD Maximum 54 60 72 102 109 124 128 124 122 80 56 Minimum 30 23 25 28 29 40 43 39 34 32 17 VALLEY Maximum 48 48 56 79 92 98 80 82 98 66 55 Minimum 32 28 28 32 33 43 47 44 34 32 16 ECHO MOUNTAIN Maximum 54 56 62 77 96 105 118 114 114 74 64 Minimum 30 24 26 30 30 42 42 42 35 30 8 FOURTH LAKE Maximum 46 53 52 74 111 118 134 121 130 72 55 Minimum 36 27 34 24 32 32 44 44 34 36 8 Measurements were made at approximately 5mm. below the soil surface in mineral so i l , within the first few days of each month. APPENDIX IV. 14 TABLE 10. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (°F). 1951 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) Maximum - - - - 4 92 110 106 106 71 50 45 Minimum - - - - . - ' 51 51 50 43 34 32 31 PLOT L4 (Lower Deadwood) Maximum - - - - 100 124 - 115 84 54 45 Minimum - - - - - 50 51 5 2 4 6 35 3 2 3 1 PLOT L3 (Lower Deadwood) Maximum. - - - - - 88 107 - 88 66 53 47 Minimum - - - - - 50 51 50 48 34 32 30 PLOT L2 (Valley) Maximum - - - - - 99 113 - 116 67 52 42 Minimum . . . . . 50 49 50 43 35 34 32 PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) j Maximum - - - - 94 112 - 92 66 47 40 Minimum - - - 48 148 50 44 33 32 32 1952 PLOT L5 Maximum Minimum PLOT L4 Maximum Minimum PLOT L3 MaTlmnm PLOT L2 f^aTj Ttmm PLOT L l Minimum 53 - 84 94 97 121 122 88 98 58 53 30 - 31 35 43 49 50 45 39 30 31 56 - 81 103 106 125 120 109 98 60 50 32 - 33 36 43 47 49 50 39 30 31 44 - 77 100 98 120 124 100 76 56 43 30 - 32 33 42 46 48 43 38 30 31 47 - 82 102 96 123 112 106 80 51 45 31 - 32 38 44 50 51 48 40 32 32 - - 58 101 91 123 121 93 72 68 33 32 34 42 46 48 42 37 29 32 1953 PLOT L5 Maximum IB] n-JTnrmi PLOT L4 Maximum Minimum PLOT L3 Maximum Minimum PLOT L2 PLOT L l n-tranyn 54 70 75 100 103 124 112 84 -30 30 30 38 46 50 52 45 -68 - 80 111 107 136 116 125 82 30 30 33 40 42 47 48 44 38 52 53 64 100 104 112 103 95 64 32 32 32 40 42 47 46 43 37 52 59 32 32 83 110 110 107 68 46 50 52 47 40 42 60 69 109 96 128 106 100 63 30 28 32 36 42 48 49 42 37 15 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 11. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (°F) PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 1951 PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt.) Maximum - - - - - 72 86 88 82 56 47 42 Minimum - - - - - - 52 50 48 36 35 32 PLOT G4 (Lower Deadwood) Maximum - - - - - 65 85 91 69 60 47 43 Minimum - - - - - 42 50 52 49 38 34 32 PLOT G6 (Upper Deadwood) Maximum - - - - - 74 79 77 68 56 45 40 Minimum - - - - - - 50 5 2 4 8 3 8 3 4 33 PLOT G3 (Valley) Maximum - - - - - 66 70 72 68 57 45 39 Minimum - - - - - ^ 52 52 48 37 35 34 1952 PLOT G5 Maximum - 42 - - 84 80 101 92 70 64 50 47 Minimum - 31 - - 47 46 49 51 48 40 33 34 PLOT G4 Maximum - - - - 104 98 108 110 88 -Minimum - . . . 36 42 46 49 46 - -PLOT G6 Maximum - 36 - 55 78 77 99 80 79 62 48 46 Minimum - 32 - 33 36 44 48 51 46 41 32 34 PLOT G3 Maximum - 34 - 52 66 68 76 80 62 58 50 58 Minimum - 32 - 33 38 44 49 52 43 44 32 32 1953 PLOT G5 Maximum - 50 48 62 82 78 83 102 79 58 - -Minimum - 32 34 33 40 46 54 52 48 44 - -PLOT G4 Maximum - 50 64 75 100 106 135 118 110 -68 - -Minimum 30 30 32 37 44 43 50 42 34 - -PLOT G6 Maximum - 48 50 70 86 94 108 93 76 58 Minimum - 32 32 32 40 44 50 50 46 38 - -PLOT 05 Maximum - 42 45 54 68 68 73 68 65 55 - -Minimum - 32 33 32 42 45 51 53 46 44 - -16 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 11 - Continued PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GATJLTHEglA. ASSOCIATION JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUM JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 1951 PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Maximum - - - - - 68 72 74 69 58 44 37 Minimum - - - - - 47 43 48 46 34 32 33 PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.) Maximum - - - - - 70 106 - 101 60 48 35 Minimum - - - - - 46 47 48 44 33 33 32 1952 PLOT Gl Maximum - - - 57 70 70 74 78 63 74 52 36 Minimum - - - 33 34 40 46 50 44 38 29 32 PLOT G2 1 Maximum - - - 49 70 69 94 118 95 64 Minimum - - - 33 36 42 45 43 44 38 1953 PLOT Gl Maximum - 44 46 56 66 80 76 82 67 56 Minimum - 32 32 32 38 40 43 50 42 38 PLOT G2 Maximum - - - - - - - - - - -Minimum - - - - - - - - - - - -APPENDIX IV. TABLE 12. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURMMCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS 1951 TAN FEB MAR APR MAY TUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt) Maximum - - - - - 73 88 77 72 64 47 35 Minimum - - - - - - 51 5 0 4 8 37 34 30 PLOT M2 (Echo Mt) Maximum - - - - - 65 77 - 64 57 45 37 Minimum - - - - - 4 3 50 5 0 4 6 36 32 33 PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) Maximum - - - - - 62 68 67 65 58 45 43 Minimum - - - - - - 52 53 50 39 34 30 PLOT M3 (Valley) Maximum - 70 80 - 68 56 46 40 Minimum - - - - - - 5 2 51 43 36 34 32 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk) Maximum - - - - - 62 76 - 68 57 43 40 Minimum - - - - - 47 49 5 1 4 6 36 3 4 3 2 1952 PLOT M5 Maximum - 41 - 54 62 68 73 76 70 63 50 47 Minimum - 30 - 33 37 42 49 49 49 42 32 31 PLOT M2 Maximum - - - 43 64 62 81 73 64 62 Minimum - - - 33 36 42 46 50 46 40 PLOT M4 Maximum 65 66 80 79 63 Minimum - - - - 36 43 47 50 48 - -PLOT M3 I Maximum - - - 52 70 70 86 87 65 61 50 44 Minimum - - - 32 36 42 52 50 4842 30 32 PLOT Ml Maximum - - - 37 72 61 83 100 63 76 50 33 Minimum - - 32 34 41 46 49 44 40 30 32 1953 PLOT M5 Maximum - 50 52 52 62 68 76 7 5 8 0 58 -Minimum - 32 32 33 42 46 52 42 46 42 -PLOT M2 frfayjimim — - - - . . . - - - - -Minimum - - - - - - -PLOT M4 Maximum - 62 62 68 83 - 110 90 98 58 -Minimum - 30 32 32 38 - 48 50 46 38 -PLOT M3 Maximum 43 45 50 64 66 80 70 68 55 Minimum - 32 32 33 40 40 50 52 45 41 PLOT Ml Maximum 42 48 54 64 66 82 75 76 56 Minimum - 32 32 32 37 38 48 48 43 37 -APPENDIX IV. TABLE 13. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (°F) JAN EBB MR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood) - — — - 60 67 68 66 57 44 42 Minimum 49 49 50 46 34 33 28 PLOT PI (Fourth Lk) Maximum 60 70 mm 67 57 43 43 Minimum 48 49 50 48 36 34 32 PLOT P2 (Echo Mt .) Maximum 64 76 - 66 56 45 39 Minimum mm mm mm - «. 48 50 50 146 36 34 32 PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt \ Maximum 65 74 70 66 58 46 -Minimum 51 49 43 34 34 -PLOT P3 (Valley) Maximum 68 78 m 31 57 45 37 Minimum 49 43 45 35 34 28 1952 PLOT P4 Maximum 42 — 55 61 60 72 73 68 62 50 46 Minimum - 28 - 32 37 42 46 43 44 33 32 32 PLOT PI MftT-lTTiyiTTl mm - 40 62 60 78 76 64 79 50 42 Minimum - - - 32 35 42 46 49 45 40 32 30 PLOT P2 Maximum mm - — 54 70 68 72 77 68 62 - mm Minimum - - - 32 36 43 48 50 44 40 - -PLOT P5 Maximum mm a* - 56 mm 73 86 76 66 63 50 47 Minimum mm - - 32 34 44 48 50 46 42 32 32 PLOT P3 Maximum mm mm 60 65 64 69 75 66 60 50 42 Minimum m - 28 35 38 46 48 46 40 31 32 1953 PLOT P4 Maximum - 47 52 62 67 76 74 68 53 - -Minimum - 32 33 33 40 44 50 50 44 40 -PLOT PI Maximum mm 42 45 49 66 68 88 70 65 56 - -Minimum - 32 32 33 38 40 50 50 46 40 mm -PLOT PB Maximum Minimum PLOT P5 Maximum - 50 48 54 74 76 - 70 70 58 - -Minimum - 30 33 32 40 46 50 50 45 42 - -PLOT P3 Maximum mm 44 49 57 65 72 70 68 68 55 - a* Minimum - 32 32 32 38 41 58 47 46 40 -APPENDIX 17. TABLE 14. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN THE THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (°F) JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT N07 DEC 1951 PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) Maximum - - - - - 62 68 63 61 55 44 -Minimum - - - - - 49 52 50 68 37 33 -PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) Maximum - - - - - 66 65 63 61 - - 40 Minimum - - - - - 48 50 51 42 - - 32 PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) Maximum .- - - » - 60 75 - 64 59 44 33 Minimum - - - - - 43 49 50 4 6 3 4 3 2 32 1952 PLOT Ly3 Maximum - - - 53 55 61 70 68 60 56 49 46 Minimum - - - 3 2 3 3 4 2 43 52 4 8 4 4 3 3 3 2 PLOT Ly2 Maximum - 40 - 50 55 56 63 65 63 58 50 46 Minimum - 32 - 32 36 4 3 4 6 4 8 4 4 3 8 3 2 33 PLOT Lyl Maximum - - - 56 64 57 66 68 60 53 Minimum - - - 32 36 42 47 50 46 40 - -1953 PLOT Ly3 Maximum - 50 46 53 60 62 73 70 63 - - -Minimum - 32 28 34 40 45 51 54 46 - - -PLOT Ly2 Maximum - 43 44 50 52 61 65 60 60 54 - -Minimum - 32 34 36 40 43 48 50 47 42 - -PLOY Lyl Minimum -Surface temperature measurements were made approximately 5 mm. below the surface of the muck in a swampy part of the plot. TABLB 15. AVERAGE QUARTERLY SOIL TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IE PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE, 1951-1953 (°F) PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOT SPRING1 5 cm, 15 cm. 50 cm. g SUMMER 5 cm. 15 em. 50 cm. 3 AUTUMN 5 em. 15 cm. 50 cm. 4 WINTER 5 am. 15 cm. 50 cm. ANNUAL 5 cm. 15 cm. 50 cm. PSEUDOTSUGA -GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PSEUDOTSUGA - PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA TSUGA GAULTHERIA HYLOCOMIUM ASSOCIATION L5 L4 L3 L2 L l AV. G5 04 G6 G3 AV. Gl G2 AV M5 M2 M4 M3 Ml AV, 47 48 47 43 42 47 45 47 46 44 45 40 43 41 46 42 47 43 42 44 44 45 46 46 42 45 45 47 45 43 45 41 41 41 44 42 43 43 41 44 45 45 45 45 42 45 44 46 44 44 44 41 42 42 44 41 45 42 41 43 58 59 57 62 57 59 57 57 58 57 57 55 54 54 56 54 58 55 55 56 57 58 57 61 56 53 56 59 56 55 56 54 53 54 55 54 56 54 53 55 56 56 55 56 53 55 53 56 54 54 54 52 52 52 54 51 55 52 51 53 46 45 45 46 43 45 45 44 44 45 45 46 44 45 45 42 44 45 44 44 45 47 47 47 44 46 47 46 47 45 46 44 45 45 46 44 47 46 44 45 50 49 47 48 47 48 47 47 49 49 48 47 46 46 48 47 46 47 44 46 36 36 36 35 35 36 36 34 38 35 36 35 34 35 37 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 38 37 38 36 37 36 35 36 37 36 38 36 35 36 39 39 37 33 38 33 40 39 41 40 40 33 33 33 40 33 39 37 37 38 47 47 46 48 44 46 46 46 46 45 46 44 44 44 46 44 46 45 44 45 45 47 46 47 44 46 46 47 47 45 46 44 44 44 46 44 46 45 44 45 47 47 46 47 45 47 46 47 47 47 47 45 44 44 47 44 46 46 43 45 1 Temperatures measured in early April, May and June. 2 Temperatures measured in early July, August and September. 3 Temperatures measured in early October, November and December. Temperatures measured in early January, February and March. A3 O TABLE 15 - Continued PSEUDOTSUGA -POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION 1 PLOT P4 PI P2 P5 P3 AV SPRING 5 cm. 45 41 43 45 45 44 15 cm. 42 41 43 44 44 43 50 cm. 42 41 41 44 42 42 SUMMER 5 cm. 56 55 52 56 58 56 15 cm. 55 54 52 54 56 54 50 em. 52 51 50 52 53 52 AUTUMN 5 cm. 44 44 46 44 47 45 15 cm. 46 44 47 45 48 46 50 om. 49 48 49 47 48 43 WINTER 5 cm. 35 35 36 36 35 35 15 cm. 36 37 38 36 36 37 50 cm. 39 38 40 40 i 37 39 ANNUAL 5 cm. 45 44 44 45 46 45 15 cm. 45 44 45 45 46 45 50 cm. 45 45 45 46 45 45 Swamp: Bank: Swamp: Bank: Swamp: Bank: Swamp: Bank: Bank: THUJA -LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION Ly3 Ly2 Lyl AV. 10 cm. 45 41 45 44 5 cm. 46 42 44 44 25 cm. 45 43 43 44 10 cm. 54 52 i 531 53 5 cm. 57 55 55 t 56 25 cm. 54 49 53 52 10 cm. 42 45 42 43 5 cm. 45 41 43 43 25 cm. 43 44 45 45 10 cm. 36 36 35 36 5 cm. 37 35 36 36 25 cm. 39 33 37 33 10 om. 44 44 44 44 5 cm. 46 43 45 45 25 cm. 47 43 45 45 22 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 16. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN THE, . PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (**) 1951 1952 1953 DEPTH D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N (cm.) . PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) •ii " " '" " S la C A X 5 7 4 5 3 9 3 7 43 37 42 50 55 58 61 59 53 43 10 34 - - - - 44 52 59 60 52 5 ? 4 6 36 36 38 35 33 46 50 54 58 57 51 46 20 36 - - - - 44 51 57 60 53 40 37 - - - - 44 50 57 58 53 60 - - - - - 43 49 55 57 -80 39 - - - - - - 53 - -100 - 5 2 - -PLOT L4 (Lower Deadwood) 1 3 1 - - - _ 4 4 - - 60 57 10 34 - - - - 43 - 59 60 56 20 37 - - - - 43 - 58 61 56 40 38 - - - - 43 - 60 60 57 60 - - - - - 44 - 54 57 56 80 38 - - - - - - - 57 55 100 - - - - - - - - - -58 52 40 40 38 38 40 46 52 55 58 58 54 52 58 53 42 41 39 40 41 45 51 53 58 56 57 53 56 53 43 40 39 40 42 45 51 52 56 56 57 53 57 43 37 38 42 35 40 52 57 59 59 58 53 50 56 45 37 38 39 36 40 49 52 58 60 57 55 51 56 48 40 40 38 37 40 48 52 55 57 58 56 50 56 49 42 41 38 40 41 46 51 53 55 56 55 51 PLOT L3 (Lower Deadwood) 1 33 - - - - 44 51 58 57 54 10 34 - - - - 44 52 56 58 53 20 - - - - - 4 4 52 55 59 53 58 43 30 38 42 35 40 52 57 59 .59 58 53 50 57 45 37 37 39 36 40 49 52 58 60 57 55 51 56 48 38 38 38 37 40 48 52 55 57 58 56 50 40 - - - - - 44 52 53 58 53 60 - - - - - 43 50 52 56 54 56 49 40 41 38 40 41 46 51 53 55 56 55 51 80 35 - - - - - 49 50 55 5 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -100 - - - - - - - - 5 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -PLOT L2 (Valley) in" S ~ " " " !t 5f ^  61 44 36 36 40 35 43 49 54 52 65 68 56 49 on St " ~ " " S S S RJ S 60 45 36 36 43 6 43 43 52 56 2 68 54 50 2 0 3 5 - - - - 47 54 57 62 07 5 ? 4 Q 3 Q 3 g 4 Q 3 g 4 0 4 7 5 2 54 59 62 51 52 40 57 - - - - ~ j?2 i 4 ^ 56 53 43 40 40 40 41 44 50 52 57 58 57 52 60 - - - - - - 51 53 - 56 80 - - - - - - 5 0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -100 - - - - - - 4 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) 1 33+ - - - - 42 52 59 58 55 5 6 4 4 3 3 38 38 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 7 60 47 44 i? It " " " "* 4 ? 53 2 5 I 55 45 34 40 38 34 36 43 46 53 58 58 49 47 20 36 - - - - 40 48 52 58 57 40 37 - - .1 - 39 50 57 55 5 5 4 9 3 8 4 0 3 8 3 5 3 8 4 4 4 9 5 2 5 8 5 7 5 2 4 9 60 39 - - - - 38 4 7 - 55 53 5 5 4 9 4 1 4 4 3 7 3 7 3 7 4 1 4 3 5 0 55 55 52 49 80 - - - - - - - -54 53 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -APPENDIX IV". 23 TABLE 17. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN THE. PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA -TSUGA.•*GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (°F) PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION 1951 ± 1952 . 1953 DEPTH D J F 1 i A M J J A S (em) PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt) 1 33 - - - - 46 52 59 53 52 10 36 - - - - 45 51 57 57 53 20 37 - - - - 45 51 56 56 53 40 59 - - - - 44 49 54 56 53 60 54 mm 80 40 - - - - 44 47 52 53 100 O N D J F M A M J J A S O 56 43 39 40 40 39 40 46 51 53 57 58 51 49 55 49 40 42 42 40 42 42 49 50 55 55 53 49 53 49 42 41 41 41 41 44 49 50 53 55 53 49 52 50 43 43 41 41 41 44 43 50 52 54 53 51 PLOT 04 (Lower Deadwood) 1 34 _ _ - - 46 56 60 63 56 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -i? " " " * 4 5 5 5 5 7 6? 5 5 5 5 - 34 38 41 35 42 50 56 59 63 60 55 47 20 38 - - - - 44 54 55 59 55 5 7 . 3 ? 3 9 gg g 7 ^  4 9 gg g ? 6 2 6 0 53 49 40 40 - - - - 43 51 53 57 53 $0 - - - - - 43 50 52 55 53 57 - 43 40 40 40 43 45 51 53 58 60 59 50 30 41 - - - - - 49 52 55 52 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -PLOT G6 (Upper Deadwood) 1 35 - - - - 43 - 56 60 57 10 40 - - - - 42 - 52 58 55 20 - - - - - 42 - 52 57 55 40 42 — — — — 42 — 50 55 53 60 - - - - - 42 . 49 - 53 55 49 43 40 40 40 42 44 49 51 55 56 55 51 80 4 4 - - - - - - 49 - 5 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -57 42 30 38 42 35 39 51 54 60 57 60 51 47 57 45 36 37 39 36 39 47 51 55 53 60 55 49 56 48 39 39 39 39 40 47 51 54 57 59 56 50 PLOT 03 (Valley) 1 32 - - - - 43 51 55 64 57 10 35 - - - - 42 50 52 61 56 5 4 4 7 3 8 3 7 3 9 3 7 3 9 4 4 4 7 54 56 60 53 47 20 37 - - - - 43 50 51 60 55 53.46 37 35 38 37 37 43 47 52 54 57 50 47 40 39 - - - - 42 43 51 59 55 55 49 41 37 39 39 39 44 49 53 55 56 55 49 6 0 - - - _ - - - - 59 55 54 50 43 40 40 40 40 44 48 50 54 55 55 50 80 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -100 ------------------------24 APPENDIX 17. TABLE 17 - Continued PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION 1951 1952 ; 1955 .  DEPTH D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N (cm) PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk) 1 34 - - - - 35 47 52 56 55 10 34 - - - - 36 47 51 59 55 5 5 4 3 3 5 3 8 3 7 3 5 3 6 4 3 4 5 5 3 5 5 5 7 4 9 4 9 20 36 - - - - 37 47 50 57 54 5 4 4 5 3 6 3 9 3 8 3 5 3 6 4 3 4? 52 54 55 48 48 40 3? . - . . 33 45 49 56 53 53 48 39 40 38 38 38 42 47 51 54 56 50 49 60 - - - - - - . - 53 52 54 49 42 42 38 38 38 42 46 49 53 54 51 49 80 38 - - - - - - -53 . 52 51 43 44 38 38 38 42 46 43 51 53 52 49 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -PLOT 02 (Echo Mt.) , i ?- " " " " t J ™ tl 53 42 34 34 35 33 34 42 49 51 55 57 45 44 10 57 - - - - 42 49 50 57 50 20 - - - - - 42 47 43 55 51 54 44 36 33 31 34 36 44 42 51 54 55 49 47 40 33 - - - . 40 46 47 53 50 55 43 39 37 36 35 38 45 48 50 55 55 50 43 60 - - - - - 40 43 47 - 5052 49 424038383842 47 49 52 53 5248 80 4 0 - - - - - - - - -100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -25 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 18. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM -EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 ("F) 1951 1952 1953 DEPTH D J F M A M J J A S (cm.) PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) 1 32 - - - - 4 8 5 2 60 58 52 10 34 - - - - 45 50 56 58 53 20 36 - - - - 44 49 53 57 53 40 37 - - - - 44 47 53 55 53 60 - - - - - 43 46 50 53 53 80 40 - - - - 42 46 49 51 52 100 - - - - - 4 2 - 46 50 52 120 - - - - - - - - - -PLOT M2 (EohoMt.) 1 32 32 - - - 42 51 53 65 54 10 35 32 - - - 42 51 53 57 53 20 - 35 - - - 41 50 49 55 53 40 38 36 - - - 39. 47 47 54 53 60 - - - - - 39 45 46 51 52 80 41 - - - - 39 44 46 50 50 100 - - - - - 39 - 45 48 49 PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) 1 32 - - - - 43 54 55 62 56 10 35 - - - - 43 51 54 59 55 20 36 - - - - 42 50 53 59 55 40 38 - - - - 43 50 52 57 55 60 - - - - - 42 48 51 55 54 80 40 - - - - 42 - 50 55 53 100 - - - - - - - 50 - 53 0 N D F M A M J 1 J A S 0 N 55 46 37 37 43 34 40 46 49 54 57 58 53 46 56 47 38 38 40 36 39 45 47 54 56 57 54 47 56 50 38 38 40 38 41 44 43 52 56 57 56 50 54. 50 42 42 42 42 42 45 48 50 54 54 56 50 52 49 45 42 42 42 42 44 47 47 52 54 56 51 48 46 44 50 40 40 40 40 44 44 48 50 54 43 54 44 36 34 39 34 34 44 44 52 54 52 45 44 54 44 36 34 39 34 35 44 44 52 54 56 47 45 53 46 40 35 38 37 43 46 50 53 53 50.48 53 48 43 38 33 37 38 41 45 48 52 53 52 48 51 49 45 41 39 39 39 41 43 47 51 51 52 47 38 37 44 34 39 52 57 60 60 59 51 44 mm mm 37 37 40 36 40 48 51 56 59 58 51 49 - - 38 38 40 33 41 46 51 54 58 57 51 49 — — 41 40 40 40 41 46 49 53 58 57 54 49 PLOT M3 (Valley) 1 32 - - - - 44 54 63 60 53 10 35 - - - - 44 50 54 61 53 54 48 37 37 40 37 38 44 47 52 54 58 51 48 20 35 - - - - 44 49 53 59 53 54 48 38 37 39 39 39 43 48 51 54 58 51 43 40 36 - - - - 43 49 53 56 53 5 4 49 38 33 39 38 38 44 42 51 54 56 51 49 60 - - - - - 42 48 51 53 53 5 5 49 42 39 39 39 59 42 47 49 53 56 53 49 80 40 - - - - 42 48 50 52 - 51 50 43 40 40 40 40 43 47 48 52 56 52 50 100 - - - - - - 4 8 - 5 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - ' - -PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) 1 10 32 - - -34 - - -- 42 - 38 53 50 58 50 63 55 57 54 53 44 35 35 39 36 36 43 46 49 54 56 48 48 20 40 34 - - -36 - - -- 38 - 37 43 47 50 48 55 52 54 53 54 45 37 34 37 37 37 43 46 50 54 56 52 47 39 36 37 37 37 42 46 50 .53 54 50 51 50 50 60 - - - - - 38 44 47 51 52 52 48 41 37 37 37 38 41 45 46 52 52 52 43 80 100 50 48 43 43 38 38 38 40 43 46 50 51 51 50 26 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 19. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (OF) 1951 1952 " 1953 DEPTH. D J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J JA S 0 N (cm) PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood) 1 33 32 - - - 40 — — 58 55 59 39 32 39 43 33 43 51 51 56 55 57 54 47 10 38 32 - — mm 40 mm ' mm 58 53 20 40 34 - mm 41 mm mm 58 53 57 45 33 40 41 36 38 46 48 53 56 57 54 43 40 42 36 - - - 41 - 50 56 - 57 45 38 41 39 33 39 45 49 51 55 56 55 49 60 42 38 - mm mm 42 - 47 54 - 56 46 45 45 40 39 40 45 46 48 53 54 55 43 80 4 3 — - mm — 41 - 45 51 55 49 100 50 53 56 49 43 43 42 39 40 43 45 47 53 54 120 - - - - - - - - - mm 50 43 44 44 43 40 40 41 43, 44 48 55 50 46 PLOT PI (Fourth Lk) 1 32 - - - mm 42 51 57 59 57 54 42 33 39 39 34 35 .42 44 52 53 57 47 47 10 34 - - — mm 38 47 52 57 55 20 36 - - mm mm 38 47 50 57 54 54 44 35 39 39 36 36 44 47 52, 54 56 49 49 40 38 - - - mm 38 45 49 55 53 53 46 37 40 33 33 38 43 47 50 53 54 50 48 60 - - - — mm 33 44 48 54 52 52 49 42 39 39 38 39 39 45 47 51 52 52 49 80 44 48 52 52 52 49 44 39 39 39 39 40 45 47 51 52 52 49 100 43 - 52 51 PLOT P2 (Echo Mt) 1 32 - - _ 46 49 43 57 51 10 36 - - — m 43 47 49 55 53 53 46 46 33 40 37 33 43 46 50 53 54 mm mm 20 mm mm 42 45 48 54 53 57 51 49 40 41 38 39 44 46 49 54 53 mm mm 40 41 - - m. mm 40 44 47 52 52 52 50 43 40 40 39 40 42 45 46 52 52 - -60 — mm 40 44- 46 50 52 52 50 50 40 40 33 40 41 44 46 52 52 mm mm 80 100 PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt) 1 31 - - - - 50 51 59 60 53 10 34 - - - - 44 50 54 57 53 20 35 - - - - 43 47 51 55 53 40 38 - - - - 42 43 50 55 53 60 - - - - - 42 - 49. - 52 80 - - - - - - - - - 5 2 PLOT P3 (Valley) 1 32 - - - - 45 55 58 64 52 10 34 - - - - 44 54 55 61 53 20 34 - - - - 44 53 52 59 53 40 36 - - - - 41 49 50 56 53 60 - - - - - 41 47 49 54 55 80 33 - - - - 41 46 48 53 51 100 - - - - - - 46 43 51 51 125 - - - - - - - - - -54 46 37 40 41 37 40 45 50 54 59 57 50 46 55 47 36 39 40 36 40 45 43 52 56 57 50 43 54 48 40 41 41 40 41 44 49 51 55 56 51 49 53 49 43 41 41 41 43 44 47 47 53 53 53 49 50 49 45 43 42 42 42 43 47 i 47 52 52 52 49 58 40 33 33 38 36 37 46 48 54 59 65 56 46 55 44 34 36 33 36 33 44 48 53 57 60 59 48 55 44 37 37 37 37 37 43 48 52 56 59 60 43 54 48 41 37 37 37 33 43 46' 50 55 58 61 48 52 49 47 42 33 33 39 41 45 47 53 56 58 49 50 48 43 41 39 33 38 40 43 46 51 53 56 48 27 APPENDIX 17. TABLE 20. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN THE THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-53 (°F) 1951 1952 1953 DEPTH D J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S O N (cm.) PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) A(SWAMP) 10 3 4 - - - - 45 49 5258 52 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -B (BANE) 1 32 - - - - 44 51 61 60 53 10 34 - - - - 48 50 56 87753 54 4 8 38 38 41 36 41 46 50 55 59 59 50 47 2 Z•: : : : t % % It S 5 6 5 2 4 3 4 3 4 1 4 1 4 3 4 6 5 0 5 2 5 6 5 8 5 0 5 0 60 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) A (SWAMP) 10 41 - - - - 40 - 52 52 52 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -A (SWAMP - margin) 1 35 - - - - 41 50 53 57 53 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -10 38 - - - - 40 47 52 57 52 60 46 39 40 42 36 39 45 43 54 56 58 61 48 20 40 - - - - 40 46 50 56 - 63 49 40 40 41 40 41 44 49 50 54 56 62 47 40 41 - - - - 40 45 49 5852 - - - - - - - - - - -60 4 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -B (BANC) 1 3 4 _ _ _ _ 4 0 - 59 57 53 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -10 3 8 - - - - - - 53 56 52 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -20 40 - - - - 41 - 50 52 51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -40 44 - - - - 42 - 45 47 48 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -60 PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) A (SWAMP) 10 - - - - - 445250 57 52 - - - - - - - - - - - -B (BANE) 11 Is : : : : % % S £ » 5 2 4 5 3 9 3 8 3 7 3 6 3 9 4 5 4 7 5 2 5 4 5 9 % i l l 1 1 £ ; l « £ 5 « * « ^ w M t t - " « » " " 60 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -28 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 21. EVAPORATION FROM LIVINGSTON ATMOMETERS IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1952 (ce.) 1951 Height above JUN JUN 25- JUL 9- AUG AUG AUG AUG 29- SEP SEP ground 18-25 JUL 9 AUG 8 8-13 13-20 20-29 SEP < L 4-10 10-U PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt) / 100 cm. 301 502 1023 85 224 259 166 162 239 10 cm. 100 289 675 54 123 154 100 mm _ PLOT L 4 (Deadwood) 100 cm. 384 ... . . . ... 1651 119 88 211 10 cm. - ... ... .. • - 85 85 146 PLOT L s (Deadwood) 100 cm. 275 332 . . . . . . . . . 1239 92 88 145 10 cm. 188 275 •. . . . . . . . 855 63 49 90 PLOT Ig (Valley) 100 cm. 286 448 ... • •» ... 1544 • • • - 198 10 cm. 209 310 . . . ... . . . 1108 • * • 167 132 PLOT L x (Fourth Lk) 100 cm. 297 438 . . . ... . . . 1524 • • • 243 198 10 cm. 225 349 ... ... . . . — • • • 201 147 1952 JUN JUN JUL JUL AUG AUG SEP SEP 1-16 16-30 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-30 PLOT L 5 (Wolf Mt) 100 cm. 274 160 655 396 571 274 331 342 10 cm. 132 143 441 282 414 178 220 232 PLOT L. (Deadwood) 100 cm. 333 248 808 471 689 268 356 294 10 cm. 249 557 339 495 195 245 -PLOT I*. (Deadwood) 100 cm. 267 183 531 336 459 191 221 214 10 cm. 164 78 368 243 321 169 137 133 PLOT Lg (Bailey) 100 cm. 266 259 614 363 mm 208 259 270 10 cm. 160 179 425 252 - - 176 183 PLOT L x (Fourth Lk) 100 cm. 175 182 555 327 555 129 198 171 10 cm. 83 144 478 281 475 98 140 182 - Atmometer broken, reading lost. ... Reading not taken until next record date. 29 APPENDIX IT. TABLE 22. EVAPORATION FROM LIVINGSTON ATMOMETERS IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA -TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS 1951-1952 Tic.) PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION 1951 Height above JUN JUN 25- JUL 9- AUG ground 18-25 JUL 9 AUG 8 8-13 PLOT Gg (Wolf Mt) 100 cm. 208 328 733 58 10 cm. 108 174 - 31 PLOT G. (Deadwood) 100 em. 232 328 695 50 147 193 100 93 127 10 cm. 131 232 367 46 89 108 62 50 93 PLOT Gg (Deadwood) 100 cm.. 258 351 e • • * * • • • • 976 74 62 101 10 em. 110 180 • • • • e • • • • 548 51 39 63 PLOT G„ (Valley) 100 cm. 300 462 • • • • • • • • • 1571 • • e 246 177 10 cm. 139 212 e • • • • • • • • - • • • - 77 1952 JUS JUN JUL JUL AUG AUG SEP SEP 1-16 16-30 1-16 : L6-31 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-30 PLOT Gg (Wolf Mt) 100 em. 198 152 475 280 429 175 222 241 10 em. 97 73 262 150 247 85 104 mm PLOT G 4 (Deadwood) J 100 em.. 333 213 760 380 566 232 302 -10 cm. 216 154 455 270 409 162 201 -PLOT G 6 (Deadwood) 100 cm. 196 119 478 289 393 109 169 208 10 cm. 87 61 237 137 210 38 68 133 PLOT G 3 (Valley) 100 cm. 219 211 669 363 574 176 2 14 214 10 em. 82 97 343 - 351 70 117 105 AUG AUG AUG 29- SEP SEP 13-20 20-29 SEP 4 4-10 10-17 \ 154 185 - 108 158-77 - - 41 73 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION 1951 JUN JUN 25- JUL 9- AUG AUG AUG AUG 29- SEP SEP 18-25 JUL 9 AUG 8 8-13 13-20 20-29 SEP 4 4-10 10-17 PLOT G» (Fourth Lk) ( 100 em. 201 301 1034 ... 177 135 110 cm. 86 140 507 ... -94 62 PLOT G 2 (Echo Mt.) 100 cm. 207 306 1049 ... 207 161 10 cm. 122 168 - ... 115 84 30 APPENDIX IY. TABLE 22 - Continued 1952 JDN , JUN JUL JUL AUG AUG SEP SEP 1-16 16-30 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-30 PLOT &i (Fourth Lk.) 100 cm. 118 145 374 194 382 53 99 164 10 cm. 7 34 197 100 65 15 23 58 PLOT Og (Echo Mt) 100 cm. 139 139 430 232 441 116 170 232 10 em. 68 72 278 152 297 53 76 125 - Atmometer broken, reading lost. ... Reading not taken until next record date. .. TABLE 23. EVAPORATION FROM LIVINGSTON ATMOMETERS IN TEE PSEUDOTSUGA TSUGA - jgLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION.PLOTS, 1951-52 (ce.) Height above 1$U$ JUN 25-> JUL 9-' AUG AUG AUG AUG 29- SEP SEP ground 18-25 JUL 9 AUG 8 8-13 13-20 20-29 SEP 4 4-10 10-17 PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt) 100 cm. 208 309 694 58 131 170 104 103 147 10 cm. 108 212 432. 39 77 96 62 62 92 PLOT M2 (Echo Mt) 100 cm. 213 324 • • • • • • • • » 1032 e v e , 209 164 10 cm. 155 252 • • • e • e • • • • • • • • • . 155 109 PLOT M4 (Deadwood) 100 cm. 207 289 - 33 120 174 93 85 139 10 cm. 147 - 463 31 89 123 62 54 77 PLOT M3 (Valley) 100 cm. 239 366 • • • ... • • • - • • • 204 170 10 cm. 176 268 • • • ... e • • 849 • • • 141 115 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk) 100 cm. 208 327 • • • ... • • • 1116 e e • 173 123 10 cm. 154 235 • • e ... • • • 808 • « • 135 85 1952 i JUN JUN JUL JUL AUG AUG SEP SEP 1-16 16-30 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-30 PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt) 100 cm. 184 161 446 277 392 184 219 223 10 cm. 103 104 301 185 278 123 150 162 PLOT M2 (Echo Mt) 100 cm. 145 145 460 245 453 122 188 268 10 cm. 84 96 334 169 346 73 119 192 PLOT M4 (Deadwood) 100 em. 316' 193 633 328 546 223 293 -10 cm. 235 147 509 266 436 177 232 -PLOT M3 (Valley) .100 cm. 197 201 503 279 488 155 205 -10 cm. 135 154 397 216 397 104 142 185 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk) 100 cm. 123 119 427 254 431 34 107 154 10 cm. 69 38 296 215 323 23 61 150 - Atmometer broken, reading lost. ... Reading not taken until next record date. APPENDIX IV. TABLE 24. EVAPORATION FROM LIVINGSTON ATMOMETERS IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-52 (cc) 1951 Height above JUN JUN 25 JUL 9- AUG AUG AUG AUG 29- SEP SEP ground 18-25 JUL 9 AUG 8 8-13 13-20 20-29 SEP 4 4-10 10-11 PLOT P4 (Deadwood) 100 cm. 206 268 ... ... ... 895 69 73 126 10 cm. 145 214 ... ... ... 728 65 57 96 PLOT PI (Fourth Lk) 100 cm. 223 334 ... ... ... 1153 • • • 208 131 10 cm. 107 165 ... ... ... 613 • * • 111 61 PLOT P2 (Echo Mt) 100 cm. 193 347 ... ... ... 942 • • • 170 135 10 em. 100 154 ... ... ... 525 • • • 77 69 PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt) 100 cm. 177 270 - 42 116 100 77 81 -10 em. 85 - 355 39 77 93 54 46 -PLOT P3 (Valley) 100 cm. 192 269 • • e • • • • • • 992 • • • - 100 10 cm. 99 — • • • • • • • * • 766 • • • — • 61 1952 JUN JUN JUL JUL AUG AUG ' SEP SEP 1*16 16-30 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-30 PLOT P4 (Beadwodd) 100 cm., 167 114 403 251 372 129 182 253 10 cm. 95 57 268 160 241 91 114 160 PLOT PI (Fourth Lk) 100 cm. 114 114 457 251 427 68 106 144 10 cm. 45 53 271 153 271 19 45 72 PLOT P2 (Echo Mt) 100 cm. 107 107 353 200 362 77 115 165 10 cm. 42 42 183 95 210 19 33 72 PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt) 100 cm. 153 127 403 232 356 155 186 182 10 em. 86 65 246 134 227 88 111 107 PLOT P3 (Valley) 100 cm. 134 169 431 234 451 103 130 115 10 cm. 76 80 236 121 251 41 64 60 - Atmometer broken, reading lost. ... Reading not taken until next record date. APPENDIX IV; TABLE 25. EVAPORATION FROM LIVINGSTON ATMOMETERS IN THE THUJA  LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1952 (cc) 1951 Height above JUN JUN 25- JUL 9- AUG AUG AUG AUG 29- SEP SEP ground 18-25 JUL 9 AUG 8 8-13 13-20 20-29 SEP 4 4-10 10-17 PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) -100 cm. 154 232 521 39 100 89 69 66 100 10 cm. 46 - - 11 31 35 19 19 31 PLOT Ly2 (Deadwood) 100 cm. 208 289 ... • • • • e • - 69 62 96 10 cm. 55 94 ... • • • • m • 273 23 16 27 PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) 100. cm. 162 255 ... • • • • • * 888 • • e 158 127 10 cm. 78 101 ... • • * • • • 310 • • • 43 39 1952 JUN JUN JUL JUL AUG AUG SEP SEP 1-16 16-30 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-31 l r16 16-30 PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) 100 cm. 130 92 334 200 300 115 150 146 10 cm. 35 22 103 57 84 33 45 53 PLOT Ly2 (Deadwood) 100 cm. 164 118 401 271 351 114 164 229 10 cm. 58 37 155 96 142 33 67 117 PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) 100 cm. 103 111 357 196 353 88 126 173 10 em. 45 33 145 68 143 42 45 61 - Atmometer broken, reading lost. ,.. Reading not taken until next record date. TABLE 26. PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN EVAPORATION FROM BIACK BULB ATMOMETERS COMPARED WITH ADJACENT WHITE BULB ATMOMETERS AT OPEN STATIONS AND IN PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE, 1951-52 JUNE AUGUST SEPTEMBER AVERAGE JULY 1-16 16-30 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-30 OPEN STATIONS (1952) OPEN Cabin - . 67 28 74 33 64 54 40 51 -Echo Mt. - - 30 24 31 63 53 54 42 -Fourth Lk. - 55 30 37 28 69 15 28 37 -PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) 1951 1952 6 0 -PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) 1952 - 5 20 — 13 4 7 15 9 mm 3 3 26 2 6 6 12 30 17 46 31 22 24 65 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 26 - Continued. 33 PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT G5 (WolfMtTl 1951 - - 10 1952 37 22 12 28 17 19 PLOT G4 (Lower Deadwood) 1951 - - 4, 22 13 17 5 8 1 6 9 18 12 35 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk) 1952 12 8 8 25 27 PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.) 1952 - 14 7 14 12 19 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM ASSOCIATION PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) 1951 - 0 1952 8 4 2 6 PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) 1951 - .' -PLOT M2 (Echo Mt.,) 1952 2 1 3 6 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) 1952 0 , 0 1 0 PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.) 1952 11 2 0 6 PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) 1952 26 17 20 8 PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt.) 1951 1952 6 1 4 1 THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.)~ 1951 - - -1952 8 4 4 7 PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) 1952 2 21 0 19 30 19 18 6 IS 49 12 29 5 18 6 5 7 mm 4 3 3 0 4 8 10 4 5 15 8 -2 1 . 5 0 2 5 0 30 0 4 4 11 1 21 35 7 8 22 8 21 29 11 17 40 0 20 20 2 10 . 3 1 mm 2 3 6 9 30 21 26 21 9 1 0 0 4 8 1 0 2 2 6 16 APPENDIX V. SOIL MOISTURE RECORDS TABLE OF CONTENTS A. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL MOISTURE Page Table 1. Monthly values of soil moisture in the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots, 1951 to 1953 1 Table 2. Monthly values of soil moisture in the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots, 1951 to 1953 3 Table 3. Monthly values of soil moisture in the Pseudotsuga -Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association plots, 1951 to 1953 7 Table 4. Monthly values of soil moisture in the Pseudotsuga -Polystichum association plots, 1951 to 1953 . . . 9 Table 5. Monthly values of soil moisture in the Thuja -.Lysichitum association plots, 1951 to 1953 . . . 12 B. WILTING PERCENTAGES Table 6. Wilting percentage of soils from the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots . . . . 14 Table 7. Wilting percentage of soils from the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots 15 Table 8. Wilting percentage of soils from the Pseudotsuga-Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association plots, 17 Table 9. Wilting percentage of soils from the Pseudotsuga -Polystichum association plots 18 Table 10. Wilting percentage of soils from the Thuja -Lysichitum association plots 20 APPENDIX V. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued C. FIELD CAPACITY Page Table 11. Field capacity of soils from the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria - -Peltigera association plots 21 Table 12. Field capacity of soils from the Pseudotsuga -Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots . 22 Table 13. Field capacity of soils from the Pseudotsuga -Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association plots . 24 Table 14. Field capacity of soils from the Pseudotsuga -Polystichum association plots 25 Table 15. Field capacity of soils from the Thuja - Lysichitum association plots 27 APPENDIX T. TABLE 1. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL MOISTURE IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA -GAULTHERIA -.PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 1 Gravimetric Measurement Soil pit: 1 2 3 1951 4 5 6 7 8 9 1952 10 11 JUL AUG SEP OCT DEC JAN MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP DEPTH (cm.) PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) Ao 11 IB 23 - 140 - 130 60 35 35 24 0-10 5 5 7 17 17 - 14 9 11 3 7 10-20 6 6 5 19 18 - 12 9 6 8 5 20*30 5 6 5 16 13 - 10 10 6 6 4 30-40 7 5 5 17 11 - 11 11 6 7 4 40-50 8 5 5 13 11 mm 10 11 5 7 4 50-60 6 5 5 15 13 m 9 11 5 6 mm 60-70 8 7 6 13 13 mm 9 12 5 - -70-80 8 10 6 12 13 mm mm - 6 - -80-90 6 - - - 13 - - mm 6 - -90-100 5 - - mm 14 - mm - 5 - -PLOT L4 (Lover Deadwood) Ao . 20 - 27 - - - 260 170 50 28 70 0-10 11 mm 7 24 16 - 43 17 9 8 9 10-20 7 mm 7 21 19 - 36 12 9 8 7 20-30 7 - 7 21 18 - 21 12 9 8 6 30-40 8 mm 6 21 18 - 23 12 8 8 7 40-50 7 mm 6 23 7 - 23 12 8 7 7 50-60 3 mm 6 19 8 mm 18 12 10 6 7 60-70 8 - 6 19 10 - 18 13 8 7 6 70-80 mm mm 5 20 10 - 13 - 7 6 80-90 mm - 5 17 9 - mm 10 mm 5 5 90-100 - - - 18 11 - - - - 5 PLOT L 3 (Lower Deadwood) Ao 41 - 27 - 280 mm 220 220 50 30 110 0-10 7 - 5 24 21 - 26 15 8 6 6 10-20 7 mm 5 20 20 - 25 12 8 7 6 20-30 5 - 5 13 17 - 24 12 8 7 6 30-40 5 - 5 19 16 mm 24 12 9 6 6 40-50 5 mm 5 17 12 mm 21 11 8 6 6 50-60 5 - 5 16 9 mm 16 8 12 6 5 60-70 5 - 5 19 9 - 21 10 12 6 5 70-80 mm - ee> 13 11 - - 7 14 6 4 80-90 - - - 11 - •* - - 12 6 ma 90-100 mm - mm 11 - - mm - - 5 •-Percentage by weight of the 5 mm. soil fraction. APPENDIX 7. 2 TABLE 1 - Continued. Soil pit: 1 2 3 1951 4 5 6 7 8 9 1952 10 11 DEPTH JUL AUG SEP OCT-DEC JAN - MAT JUN JUL AUG SEP (em.) • \, PLOT L 2 (Valley) Ao 30 - 46 170 190 - 220 51 42 24 60 o-io 7 - 13 30 26 - 28 27 9 7 9 10-20 6 — 7 24 19 - 23 26 8 7 7 20-30 6 - 7 22 19 — 21 18 8 8 9 30-40 6 — 7 23 20 • - 14 8 8 9 40-50 6 - 7 28 20 - - 12 8 8 10 50-60 7 - 9 11 15 mm - 13 10 m 10 60-70 7 - 7 11 - - — 16 -— mm 11 70-80 - - — - - - — 16 — mm mm 80-90 - - • - - - 17 - _ mm 90-100 - - - - - - 18 - - -PLOT L x (Fourth Lk.) Ao 19 . — 85 240 270 - 260 230 ISO 27 60 0-10 15 — 13 37 39 - 40 24 34 12 10 10-20 14 - 12 39 40 32 17 30 15 20 20-30 16 - 10 32 46 - 37 37 29 16 31 30-40 19 - 10 36 48 Mt 34 58 32 IS 36 40-50 21 - 13 56 mm 35 mm 33 22 32 50-60 - - 23 mm - - 44 mm 37 20 40 60-70 17 50 70-80 16 46 80-90 36 90-100 Electrometric Measurement Soil pit: 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 12 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 12 12 12 1952 1953  DEPTH OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAT JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV (em.) PLOT L 5 (Wolf Mt.) 5 5 9 26 20 19 18 19 21 17 18 10 10 22 18 15 8 8 12 15 30 30 26 23 19 16 9 8 9 19 30 8 8 10 13 17 17 14 14 13 10 8 8 9 14 55 9 8 20 20 18 15 17 19 13 12 9 8 22 13 70 10 10 10 24 21 18 IS 19 15 14 13 11 25 16 •LOT L A (Lover Deadwood) 5 8 9 24 25 23 22 24 24 21 16 9 9 9 9 15 7 7 21 24 19 IS 20 20 16 13 6 5 12 21 30 13 14 25 31 21 21 22 26 16 15 13 11 11 29 50 7 7 23 25 23 21 22 23 17 14 9 8 21 22 3 APPENDIX V. TABUS 1 - Continued Soil pit: 12 12 12 12 13 12 IE 18 12 12 12 12 12 12 1952 1953  DEPTH OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JDN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV (em.) PLOT L3 (Lower Deadwood) 5 9 12 34 39 39 29 29 35 22 27 6 7 9 29 15 10 27 30 30 29 25 27 28 24 24 14 13 32 30 30 8 27 29 31 24 20 21 22 19 18 8 8 30 25 60 9 14 18 17 17 15 15 16 15 13 9 9 20 IB PLOT L2 (Valley) > 5 15 34 33 31 30 26 28 27 22 28 14 15 30 31 15 11 27 26 23 21 19 20 20 18 21 12 11 12 25 30 11 12 25 21 20 17 18 18 16 15 10 8 10 22 55 10 11 21 29 20 18 18 18 15 14 12 9 11 19 PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) 5 24 43 36 41 35 37 36 38 33 26 41 37 25 38 15 22 34 32 34 30 30 30 31 28 23 27 25 24 32 30 22 31 34 31 28 29 28 29 28 22 23 24 21 31 50 22 50 48 48 44 44 26 45 43 27 43 35 48 46 TABLE 2. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL MOISTURE IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA -GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 1 PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION Gravimetric Measurement Soil pit: 1 2 3 1951 4 5 6 7 8 9 1952 10 11 DEPTH JUL AUG SEP OCT -DEC JAN - MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP (cm.) „ PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt .) Ao 38 42 49 - 270 - 130 230 110 57 110 0-10 7 11 11 26 23 - 15 23 9 5 9 10-20 7 7 7 19 20 - 12 17 8 6 7 20-30 8 7 6 17 16 •— 12 16 8 7 7 30-40 8 7 5 15 14 - 10 17 6 7 6 40-50 9 6 5 14 13 - 7 15 7 7 6 50-60 8 6 5 13 9 - 7 18 8 5 6 60-70 7 6 6 11 8 - 7 14 9 6 5 70-80 7 6 5 13 8 mm 8 14 9 6 -80-90 7 5 5 8 - mm 11 15 10 6 -90-100 9 5 5 9 - mm 12 15 11 5 mm Percentage by weight of the 5 mm. soil fraction. APPENDIX V. 4 TABLE 2 - Continued Soil pit: 1 2 3 4 1951 5 6 7 8 9 1952 10 11 DEPTH JUL AUG SEP OCT - DEC JAN - MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP (cm.) PLOT 04 (Lover Deadwood) AO 31 44 45 210 280 - 230 140 61 31 100 0-10 7 6 6 23 21 • - 25 27 7 7 12 10-20 7 7 6 20 21 - 20 16 8 6 8 20-30 6 8 5 18 20 - 17 15 7 7 7 30-40 7 6 6 18 20 - 16 16 7 7 7 40-50 6 5 5 16 22 - 17 15 8 7 8 50-60 5 5 4 14 26 mm 16 20 8 6 8 60-70 6 5 6 15 25 - 21 22 8 5 6 70-80 5 6 5 23 26 - 18 17 6 5 6 80-90 mm 6 8 8 17 «• 30 6 - 6 90-100 - 5 - 12 - mm mm \ m 6 - -PLOT 06 (Upper Deadwood) Ao 75 - 43 - 500 m 300 300 130 48 70 0-10 9 - 8 28 31 24 23 24 14 8 7 10-20 10 - 10 22 27 24 24 23 11 10 8 20-30 11 - 10 24 25 24 17 22 12 9 8 30-40 13 —a 9 22 26 24 19 16 12 8 8 40-50 14 - 10 16 26. 23 17 17 13 8 8 50-60 12 - 6 16 19 21 16 20 12 6 9 60-70 10 - 7 20 25 21 16 21 10 7 7 70-80 10 - 8 21 - 22 16 15 10 6 6 80-90 - - 8 24 - 20 16 - 12 - 5 90-100 - - 9 12 - - 16 mm - - -PLOT 03 (Valley) Ao 45 - 100 290 240 - 230 230 ISO - 130 0-10 5 - 29 27 56 - 25 23 17 7 13 10-20 9 - 5 26 30 - 21 22 12 6 9 20-30 11 - 6 27 22 - 22 22 11 7 12 30-40 10 - 7 28 22 - 14 14 12 6 10 40-50 13 - 9 22 23 12 17 11 5 13 50-60 10 - 13 14 17 - - - - 6 IS 60-70 - - 9 - - - - - - 9 11 70-80 9 mm 80-90 8 -90-100 APPENDIX V. TABLE 2 - Continued Eleetrometrie Measurement Soil pit: 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 1952 1)955 " DEPTH OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV (cm.) ;:;v' PLOT Gg (Wolf Mt.) 8 4 7 36 22 19 18 20 21 19 21 15 5 34 30 15 7 6 23 26 26 23 24 25 23 25 18 8 27 26 32 7 6 16 19 15 15 14 15 14 14 18 8 14 14 55 8 7 15 19 19 14 14 15 10 14 10 8 7 13 75 8 7 12 26 25 20 18 19 16 18 12 10 mm 17 *LOT OTA (Lover Deadwood) 15 - - 22. 26 26 21 23 23 19 19 17 15 27 24 28 - - 22 27 26 23 25 24 23 22 19 15 27 26 70 - 26 28 29 28 29 25 20 18 16 11 29 27 flLOT Gfi (Upper Deadwood) 5 b 14 14 26 28 25 25 26 27 25 26 23 25 30 27 18 16 16 26 32 28 26 26 26 25 26 23 25 31 27 35 16 16 26 32 28 23 24 24 24 22 22 21 24 25 60 9 10 17 19 17 16 17 17 16 16 16 16 18 17 5 20 35 50 15 19 41 37 31 26 28 27 24 24 20 15 16 34 15 19 66 58 46 38 39 33 34 26 30 14 14 46 13 22 35 34 29 26 29 27 26 21 25 12 29 32 12 33 31 33 33 29 32 30 30 22 25 11 31 34 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION Gravimetric Measurement Soil pit: 1 2 3 1951 4 5 6 7 8 9 1952 10 11 DEPTH JUL AUG SEP OCT - DSC JAN - MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP I cm.; PLOT G, (Fourth Lk.) AO X 80 mm mm - en 350 310 220 34 HO 0-10 8 - 115 36 330 - 30 38 23 11 23 10*20 11 29 58 39 - 32 78 26 14 32 20-30 17 - 12 40 30 — 38 46 40 12 34 30-40 18 - 13 87 31 mm 58 - 40 11 28 40-50 21 - 15 - 30 - 61 - 43 12 27 50-60 27 - 16 — 31 mm - - 11 33 60-70 25 - 10 - 32 mm - -* 11 mm 70*80 37 - •* mm 37 - - — mm 14 -30*90 37 - mm mm 50 mm - - *"* - -90-100 mm - - - 54 - mm - - -APPENDIX V. 6 TABLE 2 - continued Soil pit: 1 2 3 1951 4 5 6 7 8 9 1952 10 11 DEPTH JUL AUO SEP OCT -DEC JAN-MAY JUN JUL AUO SEP (cm.) PLOT (Echo Mt.) Ao 54 •* 130 310 mm mm 310 240 136 56 102 0-10 7 - 9 20 450 mm 33 26 12 5 13 10-20 10 mm 8 20 28 - 28 19 10 6 14 20-30 12 - 9 19 24 — 25 19 12 9 15 30-40 12 mm 8 19 22 — 22 19 12 16 20 40-50 12 - 7 18 26 - 19 20 12 — -50-60 12 — 7 19 30 ' - IS 20 13 - 16 60-70 10 - 9 19 32 - 11 20 32 - 18 70-80 12 - 11 15 - - - 26 11 — _ 80-90 12 - 10 18 - - 25 - — — 90-100 - - 11 25 - - - 22 - - — Electrometric Measurement Soil pit: 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 1952 1953 DEPTH OCT NOT DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUO SEP OCT NOT (cm.) PLOT Gi (Fourth Lk.) 5 14 37 32, 32 28 31 31 32 26 16 14 25 38 31 15 19 42 40 41 32 33 31 35 30 24 21 23 15 32 30 19 18 25 23 21 21 21 22 22 20 20 22 11 23 50 17 20 26 22 21 21 22 22 21 19 19 24 20 22 70 18 29 26 26 24 25 25 25 25 22 22 26 27 26 PLOT GP (Echo Mt.) 6 13 32 27 31 24 27 26 29 24 21 22 21 32 23 20 15 16 23 28 21 21 21 21 20 18 19 17 25 23 35 7 22 21 22 18 19 18 20 19 18 19 17 20 20 70 11 22 22 22 19 19 19 20 20 18 20 13 22 21 APPENDIX V. TABLE Z. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL MOISTURE IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA  TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 A Gravimetric Measurement Soil pit: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1951 1952 DEPTH JUL AUG SEP OCT -DEC JAN -MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP (cm.) PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) Ao 33 120 19 190 110 - 90 180 22 34 57 0-10 21 17 10 24 25 - 24 35 13 17 14 10-20 22 18 11 24 23 - 20 31 15 19 15 20-30 14 23 13 28 27 - 19 25 17 21 15 30-40 20 25 12 30 25 — 21 23 17 23 14 40-50 27 24 14 24 26 - 25 23 11 23 15 50-60 23 27 15 29 25 - 23 22 9; 23 15 60-70 19 25 14 30 29 - 19 17 11 23 14 70-80 19 26 15 31 22 - 28 21 9 27 10 80-90 14 26 14 31 10 mm 33 17 10 28 9 90-100 17 25 12 25 11 - 48 13 11 34 8 PLOT MP (Echo Mt.) A o ^ 65 . - 75 310 340 - 220 175 130 50 150 0-10 14 - 10 18 27 23 21 8 12 15 21 10-20 16 - 10 19 27 21 23 8 12 16 18 20-30 15 - 9 19 26 21 23 11 10 13 19 30-40 16 mm 10 IS 26 20 22 15 11 13 22 40-50 16 mm 9 21 25 21 20 16 12 12 22 50-60 12 - 10 21 23 22 20 17 13 12 27 60-70 15 - 12 21 25 23 21 IS 14 16 36 70-80 13 - 10 22 23 23 24 19 14 18 32 80-90 15 - 6 22 24 24 25 20 15 18 33 90-100 14 - 8 IS 26 25 31 mm 15 16 28 PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) Ao 59 47 45 mm 350 - 220 130 80 33 150 0-10 6 8 7 21 35 - 26 11 9 10 9 10-20 8 8 9 20 19 - 15 9 9 8 8 20-30 9 7 9 20 16 - 11 9 9 8 6 30-40 7 8 8 19 17 - 12 10 10 9 5 40-50 8 8 9 IS 16 - 11 10 6 9 4 50-60 10 9 9 16 14 - 9 13 10 10 4 60-70 8 9 7 10 11 — 7 15 12 13 4 70-80 7 9 8 10 11 - 8 17 5 13 4 80-90 4 9 7 10 9 - 6 16 5 13 4 90-100 10 5 5 14 8 - - IS 11 11 4 Percentage by weight of the 5 mm. soil fraction. APPENDIX Y. TABLE 3 - Continued 8 Soil pit: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1951 l __ 1958_ DEPTH JUL AUG SEP OCT - DEC JAN -MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP (em.) PLOT M3(Talley) Ao 20 - 75 - 200 - 210 170 110 50 -0-10 7 - 8 29 25 - 21 27 19 6 10 10-20 8 - 9 19 26 - 20 16 17 12 11 20-30 9 mm 9 18 26 - 20 19 15 11 11 30-40 8 mm 9 19 26 - 23 18 14 14 12 40-50 9 mm 11 21 30 - 23 17 14 14 13 50-60 9 - 10 21 16 - 27 16 17 11 13 60-70 9 m 11 20 15 - 25 14 16 8 12 70-80 11 - 11 20 16 - 25 15 10 8 -80-90 - — 15 20 17 - 15 20 - 10 90-100 - mm 18 22 17 - 17 24 - 9 -PLOT M X (Fourth Lk.) Ao 87 . - 140 - 280 mm 290 240 300 - 110 0-10 17 - 6 - 33 - 107 28 27 56 17 10-20 20 - 10 30 32 - 43 25 27 12 16 20-30 20 - 13 29 35 mm 30 22 22 14 12 30-40 22 e » 13 27 32 - 28 20 21 17 13 40-50 23 - 11 26 37 - 28 23 22 19 11 50-60 23 - 12 25 31 *• 23 24 21 21 14 60-70 24 12 27 30 - 18 22 20 20 14 70-80 21 - 15 31 30 mm 20 27 22 20 16 80-90 23 - 21 31 - mm 22 mm 28 - 21 90-100 27 mm 18 33 mm — e» mm 26 — — Electrometric Measurement Soil pit: 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 1952 1953 DEPTH OCT NOT DEC JAN FEB MAR APE MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOT (em.) PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) 5 8 8 23 31 30 25 27 31 25 30 22 16 20 31 15 10 10 19 24 30 23 23 25 21 23 20 17 28 26 30 16 15 18 21 28 25 24 24 23 22 21 12 23 29 60 16 15 15 31 34 30 29 28 27 26 24 11 20 21 70 21 20 20 39 39 39 33 37 35 35 32 14 23 25 120 20 19 18 27 28 29 29 29 27 26 24 13 21 21 PLOT M2 (Echo Mt.) 5 9 19 14 16 16 14 15 15 14 15 14 14 23 17 15 11 12 18 21 20 18 19 19 18 18 18 17 19 21 30 10 10 17 13 17 16 16 16 15 15 15 15 16 17 50 14 15 19 19 19 IB 18 13 17 16 16 16 15 18 90 18 26 31 31 32 29 30 28 29 28 28 26 30 32 9 APPENDIX V. TABLE 3 - Continued Soil pit: 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 1952 1953 DEPTH OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV (cm.) PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood 5 - 27 26 25 21 25 25 20 23 18 18 27 25 18 - 18 19 19 15 16 17 15 16 14 14 19 18 30 mo 20 23 24 21 22 23 22 23 17 19 24 24 58 mi* 30 33 32 30 31 31 30 30 29 28 32 32 PLOT M3 (Valley) 10 10 25 25 21 21 21 21 22 21 25 19 15 12 26 20 13 12 20 13 12 12 13 14 13 14 11 11 18 14 30 13 12 27 26 25 25 25 26 27 27 25 22 27 26 60 12 28 26 20 19 18 20 23 19 18 18 15 26 22 80 12 22 15 13 12 12 12 12 14 14 14 13 13 14 SLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) 8 20 39 33 25 25 28 28 33 33 25 27 37 40 36 20 19 14 21 21 21 21 21 22 21 20 21 23 24 22 35 23 31 25 25 23 21 22 23 22 21 22 24 27 25 60 30 34 31 30 22 22 22 22 22 21 22 23 24 23 90 22 30 22 21 19 19 19 19 19 18 18 22 22 23 TABLE 4. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL MOISTURE IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA -POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 V Gravimetric Measurement Soil pit: 1 2 3 1951 4 5 6 7 8 9 1952 10 11 DEPTH JUL AUG SEP OCT - JAN - MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP (cm.) PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood) Ao 80. - 47 120 150 - 130 150 120 43 33 0-10 45 - 24 55 79 58 - « 34 8 4 10-20 17 - 20 16 79 64 24 16 36 9 15 20-30 11 mm 11 28 67 68 15 33 34 8 16 30-40 21 mm 10 16 57 48 10 13 36 6 8 40-50 41 - 13 62 33 63 12 13 39 7 7 50-60 - mm 25 47 35 29 27 12 38 9 7 60-70 45 - 15 40 51 23 14 15 21 12 7 70-80 33 - 15 47 60 26 31 46 14 9 7 80-90 26 - IS 46 - 27 21 49 9 30 7 90-100 29 - 14 43 30 16 27 13 26 43 Percentage by weight of the 5 mm. soil fraction. APPENDIX Y. TABUS 4 - Continued Soil pit: 1951 1952 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 DEPTH JUL AUG SEP OCT - DEC JAN -MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP (cm.) PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.) Ao 35 .- 170 - 280 mm 250 250 220 45 66 0-10 15 - 14 26 30 - 35 31 29 19 18 10-20 18 mm 21 26 30 - 32 33 31 22 18 20-30 20 mm 24 33 30 - 28 30 26 17 -30-40 24 - 23 45 28 - 27 30 24 20 22 40-50 26 mm 23 43 28 - 31 31 22 17 30 50-60 23 - 23 46 32 - -, 34 25 20 31 60-70 21 - 22 52 37 - - 39 22 24 31 70-80 21 - 18 46 36 - ' mm 29 19 23 23 80-90 18 - 16 46 37 - - 31 18 22 15 90-100 23 - 17 - 36 - - 28 16 19 15 PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) Ao - . - 130 200 - - 230 250 - 80 110 0-10 160 - 40 280 290 - 30 37 230 90 78 10-20 35 - 73 64 31 - 29 15 124 14 44 20-30 35 - 57 39 50 - 32 23 32 17 39 30-40 35 - 45 49 - - 38 25 29 23 51 40-50 43 - 46 47 - mm 35 29 22 23 53 50-60 mm - 48 46 - - 36 30 31 22 -60-70 - - - 32 - - - 36 - 27 -70-80 PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt.) Ao 150 100 90 - 220 - 160 260 280 38 48 0-10 26 14 24 37 35 mm 24 110 270 19 14 10-20 44 17 26 37 29 mm 27 '* 47 56 19 14 20-30 22 20 25 33 42 mm 28 29 34 29 14 30-40 18 23 33 40 37 - 29 18 28 25 15 40-50 IS 18 29 30 36 - 34 - 20 19 15 50-60 15 15 19 26 m - 21 mm - 13 13 60-70 - 15 19 14 - - 22 - mm 14 13 70-80 - 15 14 15 80-90 - 14 12 23 90-100 - 14 11 19 PLOT P3 (Valley) Ao 44 0-10 26 10-20 33 20-30 31 30-40 22 40-50 17 50-60 15 60-70 25 70-80 24 80-90 16 90-100 9 18 - 48 - 90 100 42 60 54 14 33 25 28 33 31 23 29 12 18 27 - 18 32 23 13 22 12 25 21 - 13 28 16 16 16 8 22 16 - 25 37 13 33 15 7 24 14 mm 29 38 10 16 10 9 25 19 - 38 32 10 7 7 3 16 28 - 24 37 9 19 11 5 15 14 - 11 18 8 10 9 5 10 9 — 7 31 7 5 4 5 7 9 - 6 21 5 9 4 APPENDIX V. TABLE 4 - Continued Electrometric Measurement Soil pit: 1 2 1 2 1 2 12 12 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 12 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1952 1955 DEPTH OCT NOV DEC JAN EBB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG- SEP OCT NOV (cm.) PLOT P A (Upper Deadwood) 5 5 46 - . 49 44 34 39 40 42 47 48 31 46 40 15 13 13 29 36 42 40 50 49 50 50 43 29 27 41 52 18 17 30 51 50 47 49 50 50 49 43 43 31 50 58 5 5 13 17 20 16 17 16 16 15 11 9 8 16 85 15 15 - 35 38 36 37 37 35 33 30 20 16 36 120 9 9 15 24 28 22 27 27 24 21 18 10 10 25 PLOT Pi (Fourth Lk.) 6 ^ . ' 13 26 24 24 23 24 24 24 22 IS 15 19 16 24 15 27 28 54 43 33 35 35 39 54 54 39 36 27 45 35 23 21 49 49 46 48 48 49 47 42 36 32 21 49 60 23 25 26 26 25 24 25 23 24 23 23 23 29 26 86 29 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 30 31 21 31 PLOT Po (Echo Mt.) 5 12 15 19 19 20 14 14 16 16 15 18 20 - mm 15 18 22 22 23 23 19 19 20 20 20 20 22 • mm 30 19 27 27 27 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 - -50 32 32 32 32 31 32 31 32 32 32 32 32 - -PLOT P 5 (Wolf Mt.) 5 8 23 33 33 32 32 32 30 32 32 31 19 30 33 15 13 18 35 36 35 34 35 35 35 35 34 25 35 35 30 14 13 31 31 31 28 28 25 28 28 27 22 26 28 55 10 10 19 22 22 22 22 12 20 20 IS 15 21 22 80 9 10 15 15 15 15 15 9 16 16 15 14 15 16 PLOT P 3 (Valley) 5 10 13 35 37 35 33 33 33 32 32 30 30 17 17 18 10 23 28 29 28 29 28 28 28 28 28 26 28 31 30 10 11 27 30 31 30 31 31 30 29 29 27 28 31 55 10 10 34 35 39 37 38 33 33 33 37 32 30 40 85 7 7 IS 23 26 23 23 24 22 22 20 15 13 25 125 7 7 17 30 30 28 30 30 29 28 26 17 15 30 APPENDIX V. TABLB 5. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL MOISTURE IN THE THUJA -LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953"! Gravimetric Measurement Soil pit: 1 2 3 1951 4 5 6 7 8 9 1952 10 11 DEPTH JUL AUG SEP OCT -DEC JAN - MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP (cm.) PLOT Lys (Wolf Mt.) A (SWAMP) 0-10 760 220 560 650 760 «» 620 710 630 730 270 10-20 *• 400 640 - mm m - - - 200 20-30 «• 680 41 B (BANK) L 90 70 - 260 m - 230 mm - 43 56 2-10 330 325 6 210 310 — 280 250 30 200 270 10-20 430 48 430 460 610 - 440 430 560 470 320 20-30 - e» 250 470 40 - 450 50 290 580 280 30-40 - mm 39 130 - - 90 90 70 220 690 40-50 22 340 50-60 12 PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) A (SWAMP) 0-10 720 m 690 760 870 - 680 710 710 580 570 10-20 m - 560 - - mm - 390 A (SWAMP - margin) L .- 390 570 540 - 450 240 440 130 250 2-10 420 e» 180 600 610 - 570 420 470 360 450 10-20 280 m 200 390 440 - 430 330 120 240 170 20-30 210 m 10© 130 410 m 180 300 70 100 80 30-40 mm 72 70 90 m 130 68 80 70 70 40-50 - mm mm 80 31 m m 110 90 - -50-60 - - - 80 - - - - - - -60-70 - - mm 80 - - - - e» - mm 70-80 - 100 mm - •mt - - - -B (BANE) L 60 «• 91 250 320 - 870 270 - 60 47 2-10 145 mm 230 240 150 «• 265 250 110 130 90 10-20 160 mm 450 200 180 m 360 280 240 130 120 20-30 100 - 570 420 300 — 270 330 240 230 gap 30-40 - - mm 575 170 - •* 410 200 200 40-50 340 Percent by weight* APPENDIX V. TABLE 5 - Continued Soil pit: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1951 1952 DEPTH JUL AUG SEP OCT - DEC JAN - MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP (cm.) PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) A (SWAMP) 0-10 . - 335 270 130 - 230 190 430 230 200 10-20 mm tm 760 - - mm - - - — -20-30 - 470 - - - - - - - -B (BANE) L 360 270 - 43 190 2-10 92 - 110 200 330 - 400 260 300 90 310 10-20 250 - 120 200 110 - 240 310 250 250 270 20-30 350 - 190 320 300 - 33 160 220 520 41 30-40 - 400 100 - - 28 - - 520 32 40-50 — - 47 - — . - — — — 460 46 Electrometrie Measurement Soil pit: 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 1952 1953 DEPTH OCT N07 DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV (cm.) PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) B (BANK) 5 120 160 120 110 110 115 120 105 130 125 145 - -30 160 160 155 165 155 150 155 85 155 155 165 mm mm mm PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) A (SWAMP - margin) 10 165 185 185 185 175 175 180 180 180 175 175 175 170 170 25 145 150 160 195 150 150 150 150 150 155 160 160 170 165 PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) B (BANK) 5 380 135 270 190 160 130 175 225 265 325 325 315 360 320 25 150 205 240 225 210 210 225 230 245 245 260 270 260 260 APPENDIX V. TABLE 6. WILTING- PERCENTAGE OF SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS DEPTH Soil (cm.) 1 2 3 4 5 PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) Ao 21 75 40 - 50 0-10 5 5 7 4 5 10-20 5 5 5 2 5 20-50 5 5 5 4 4 50-40 5 5 4 7 3 40-50 5 5 4 4 3 50-60 5 5 5 4 4 60-70 6 6 5 4 4 70-80 6 5 4 4 4 30-90 5 - - - 3 90-100 3 - - mm 3 PLOT L4 (Lower Deadwood) Ao 85 mm 33 - -0*10 8 mm 7 6 7 10-20 6 - 6 6 6 20-30 6 - 5 6 6 30-40 6 - 6 6 5 40-50 5 mm 5 6 4 50-60 5 mm 5 6 4 60-70 5 - 5 6 4 70-80 - mm 5 5 4 80-90 - - 4 4 4 90-100 mm mm mm 4 4 PLOT L3 (Lower Deadwood) ' AO 80 - 80 85 0-10 5 - 5 6 7 10-20 5 - 4 6 7 20-30 4 - 4 5 6 30-40 4 - 4 5 5 40-50 4 - 4 5 4 50-60 6 - 4 4 4 60-70 8 mm 4 4 3 70-80 - - - 4 3 80-90 - mm - 3 mm 90-100 - mm mm 3 -PLOT L2 (Talley) AO 55 - 30 50 50 0-10 5 mm 9 5 6 10-20 5 - 7 5 5 20-30 5 - 6 5 5 30-40 5 - 6 5 5 40-50 5 — 7 5 5 50-60 5 - 5 2 4 60-70 5 - 5 3 -70-80 mm - - mm -80-90 - - - - -90-100 m. - - -pit number 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 _ 45 130 35 90 75 55 - 5 5 9 6 6 6 - 4 6 5 6 5 6 - 4 5 6 5 5 - 4 6 4 6 5 o - 3 6 4 6 4 /» - 4 5 4 5 - 6 - 3 6 4 - mm 8 mm mm mm - 4 4 4 mm -mm 75 100 65 80 85 mm 11 6 9 8 6 7 - 11 9 5 6 7 8 - 8 6 7 7 6 - 7 6 6 6 7 7 - 7 6 8 5 7 mm 5 6 7 5 7 7 - 5 6 6 5 7 -- - 6 - • 5 5 --5 mm 4 5 I..5 mm 80 100 65 90 75 - 11 7 6 8 7 7 mm 10 7 6 6 6 7 - 11 7 6 7 6 - 11 6 6 6 5 7 mm 10 5 5 5 5 - 5 5 6 5 5 g - 6 5 6 6 4 - - 3 7 5 3 -- - - 5 4 - mm — — - 3 mm-mm 60 45 70 80 80 - 11 9 7 6 6 10 - 11 8 6 5 7 6 mm 10 7 7 7 7 6 mm - 7 5 7 6 - mm 6 5 7 6 - mm 6 6 mm 7 6 - mm 7 - mm 9 - - 7 - - - — - - 6 - - - -•* - 6 - - - mm APPENDIX 7. TABLE 6 - Continued DEPTH Soil pit number (em.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) Ao 32 - 43 45 65 - 70 90 60 70 75 0*10 8 - 8 9 9 - 14 12 9 9 5 10*20 7 - 8 10 12 mm 14 12 12 11 10 20-30 7 - 8 9 12 - 17 19 12 12 12 30-40 8 - 9 10 11 - 16 9 11 14 14 40*50 10 - 11 7 m - 14 — 11 16 12 50-60 - - 17 - - - 12 — 13 14 14 60-70 12 20 70-80 — - 10 18 80-90 - - - e» - - mm m 16 90-100 - - - - - - mm - -Percentage by weight of water retained by the 5 mm, soil fraction against a pressure of 15 atmospheres. TABLE 7. WILTING PERCENTAGE OF SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA -TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS* PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION DEPTH (cm.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt.) Ao 75 85 60 - 105 - 60 105 85 110 80 0-10 4 5 7 0 6 - 6 ,5 6 5 8 10-20 4 4 5 4 6 - 6 6 7 6 6 20-30 4 5 5 4 6 mm 6 6 5 5 6 30-40 4 5 4 4 5 - 5 7 5 5 6 40-50 4 3 4 4 4 - 4 8 6 5 6 50-60 4 3 4 4 3 - 3 8 6 4 6 60-70 4 3 3 4 3 - 3 7 5 4 4 70-80 3 3 3 4 3 - 3 7 5 5 -80-90 3 3 4 3 mm - 4 7 4 4 -90-100 4 3 3 3 - mm 4 6 4 3 -PLOT G4 (Lower Deadwood) Ao 42 85 80 85 80 - 80 90 80 90 65 0-10 5 5 5 5 7 - 7 8 6 5 8 10-20 5 5 5 5 6 - 6 7 5 6 8 20-30 4 5 5 4 6 - 7 8 5 7 7 30-40 4 5 5 3 6 - 6 8 4 7 7 40*50 4 5 5 3 6 - 8 7 6 6 8 50*60 4 4 4 3 5 5 8 5 5 8 60-70 4 6 3 3 5 - 5 8 6 4 6 70-80 4 4 4 4 5 mm 5 9 5 4 6 80-90 - 4 5 2 2 - - 7 5 - 6 90-100 mm 4 - 3 - - - mm 4 mm -APPENDIX V. TABLE 7 - Continued DEPTH Soil pit number (cm.) 1 2 3'' 4 5 6 7? 8 9 ID: 1 1 1 2 PLOT G 6 (Upper Deadwood) Ao 7 5 - 7 0 - 1 0 0 - 9 0 1 1 0 7 5 9 0 9 0 _ 0 - 1 0 6 - 7 5 7 7 8 9 6 6 7 7 1 0 - 2 0 6 - 7 5 7 7 6 1 1 6 7 8 1 0 2 0 - 3 0 6 - 7 5 7 7 6 1 0 7 6 8 3 0 - 4 0 6 - 7 5 7 7 8 7 6 6 7 1 1 4 0 - 5 0 5 - 7 5 7 7 6 7 6 6 7 5 0 - 6 0 5 - 5 5 6 6 5 8 5 4 7 e 6 0 - 7 0 5 - 5 5 6 6 5 8 5 4 6 O 7 0 - 8 0 4 - 6 4 - 6 4 6 4 5 6 — 8 0 - 9 0 - 6 4 - 5 5 - 4 . 4 9 0 - 1 0 0 - 7 3 - - 4 mm - - mm -PLOT 0 3 (Valley) Ao 7 5 - 7 5 8 0 6 0 - 7 5 8 5 8 0 8 0 8 0 -0 - 1 0 5 - 1 6 5 7 - 7 5 6 4 9 7 1 0 - 2 0 6 - 5 5 5 - 6 5 5 3 5 1 3 2 0 - 3 0 6 - 5 6 . 5 - 8 6 4 4 5 3 0 - 4 0 4 0 - 5 0 6 -6 -5 5 6 4 5 5 —» 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 1 0 5 0 - 6 0 4 - 5 4 4 - - - — j 4 8 9 6 0 - 7 0 mm mm 4 - - - - - 5 4 _ 7 0 - 8 0 - - - - - _ — — 5 mm _ 8 0 - 9 0 - - - - - - - — 5 mm _ PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Ao 5 5 9 0 1 3 0 8 5 8 5 8 5 -0 - 1 0 4 - 7 5 2 0 8 5 —• 5 3 0 4 7 1 0 8 1 0 - 2 0 5 - 7 8 8 - 1 2 3 6 6 ' 7 1 5 1 0 2 0 - 3 0 5 - 7 9 5 - 1 5 3 0 1 2 9 1 2 3 0 - 4 0 7 •- 9 1 6 9 - 2 0 - 1 1 8 1 4 1 0 4 0 - 5 0 7 - 1 0 - 1 2 - 1 7 • a 1 1 8 1 2 Q 5 0 - 6 0 7 - 1 0 - 1 2 - - mm mm 7 1 4 V 6 0 - 7 0 7 - 6 - 1 2 - - - - 8 -7 0 - 8 0 8 mm • - 1 2 - - - - 8 - 9 8 0 - 9 0 8 9 0 - 1 0 0 PLOT 0 2 (Echo Ht.) AO 5 3 - 6 0 7 0 - - 9 0 1 0 0 7 0 7 5 9 0 mm 0 - 1 0 5 - 5 1 1 1 0 0 - 8 5 5 5 8 5 1 0 - 2 0 5 - 5 5 8 1 0 5 4 6 7 Q 2 0 - 3 0 6 - 6 5 7 9 6 4 6 8 O 3 0 - 4 0 5 - 7 4 7 - 8 3 4 1 1 9 7 4 0 - 5 0 5 - 4 4 8 mm 6 7 4 - 7 5 0 - 6 0 4 - 4 4 9 - 6 7 6 - 1 0 6 0 - 7 0 3 mm 5 4 8, - 3 7 1 0 mm 8 7 0 - 8 0 4 - 6 4 - - 7 3 am - 6 8 0 - 9 0 4 - 6 4 - - — 7 - - mm -9 0 - 1 0 0 - — 8 5 - mm - 6 - - - -APPENDIX 7. TABLE 8. WILTING PERCENTAGE OF SOUS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA  TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS DEPTH Soil pit number (cm.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PLOT M5 (wolf at ;"),'" Ao 35 60 35 70 45 mm 60 90 65 85 60 _ 0-10 6 6 7 6 8 mm 10 10 7 8 8 8 10-20 6 6 6 6 7 - 10 9 8 8 9 9 20-30 6 7 6 7 8 - 10 7 7 8 9 30-40 6 7 7 7 7 - 10 7 7 9 8 7 40-50 5 7 7 7 7 - 9 7 5 8 8 50-60 5 7 7 7 7 - 9 6 5 7 8 60-70 4 6 7 6 6 - 7 5 5 8 8 i 70-80 4 7 7 6 6 - 8 4 4 8 6 80-90 3 5 7 6 3 - 9 4 4 8 5 90-100 3 4 6 6 3 - 10 3 5 8 3 7 6 PLOT M2 (Echo Mt.) Ao 30 90 70 70 - 80 90 85 90 70 — 0-10 5 - 6 6 7 7 5 3 6 6 6 7 10-20 7 mm 7 5 7 7 9 3 8 6 7 9 20-30 8 - 6 6 6 6 7 4 6 6 9 8 30-40 7 *• 6 6 6 6 7 5 6 6 11 40-50 7 - 6 7 6 6 7 9 6 5 11 Q 50-60 6 em 7 6 7 7 7 8 6 5 12 .7 60-70 6 - 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 6 17 70-80 5 mm 5 6 8 8 9 6 8 7 15 80-90 5 mm 4 8 8 8 8 5 9 7 16 12 90-100 5 - 5 8 6 6 10 - 8 6 16 PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) Ao 60 70 70 100 mm 80 90 70 85 75 -0-10 4 5 7 5 7 - 9 6 7 6 9 7 10-20 4 5 6 5 7 mm 7 6 6 6 6 8 20-30 4 5 6 5 6 - 5 4 6 6 5 8 30-40 4 5 6 4 6 - 5 5 6 7 4 7 40-50 4 5 6 4 9 - 4 5 3 7 4 50-60 5 6 6 4 5 - 3 7 6 6 3 60*70 4 6 5 3 3 - 3 7 6 8 3 X X 70-80 4 5 5 3 3 • - 3 8 2 9 3 -80-90 3 5 5 3 3 2 7 2 8 2 -90-100 4 4 4 4 3 - - 7 5 6 2 -PLOT M3 (7alley) Ao 75 - 75 - 70 - 75 70 75 80 90 -0-10 5 mm 7 6 6 mm 6 4 7 5 7 7 10-20 5 - 7 6 6 - 8 5 5 6 6 20-30 5 - 6 5 r 7 - 7 6 6 6 8 6 30-40 5 mm 6 4 7 7 5 6 7 7 6 40-50 5 - 7 4 9 - 8 4 6 6 6 50-60 5 mm 6 4 5 - 9 4 5 6 6 6 60-70 5 - 5 4 4 - 8 4 5 4 6 70-80 5 - 6 4 4 - 8 6 4 4 - O 80-90 - - 7 4 4 - 5 9 mm 4 - o 90-100 - - 7 4 4 mm 5 10 5 — APPENDIX V. TABLE 3 - Continued IS DEPTH (cm.) 1 2 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lake) Soil pit number 3 4 5 6 8 10 11 12 Ao 50 - . 75 - 95 100 105 75 mm 85 0-10 6 mm 6 - 6 - 17 8 7 105 10 10-20 8 7 9 7 mm 6 10 8 5 11 20-30 8 - 9 7 10 mm 10 9 7 6 13 30-40 8 — 8 6 11 m 11 7 6 7 12 40-50 8 8 7 11 'X 12 8 6 9 11 50-60 8 mt 7 7 9 mm 10 9 5 10 10 60-70 8 - 7 7 9 mm 8 3 5 10 10 70-30 8 - 8 8 10 mm 7 9 5 10 10 80-90 9 mm 7 8 - mm 6 mm 10 _ 13 90-100 10 mm 8 10 - - mm m 11 M it 8 8 14 Percentage by weight of water retained by the 5 mm. so i l fraction against a pressure of 15 atmospheres. TABLE 9. WILTING PERCENTAGE OF SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA -POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS** DEPTH Soil pit number (cm.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PLOT P 4 (Upper Deadwood) Ao 30 50 28 30 - - 110 60 70 75 mm 0-10 13 mm 15 11 14 14 70 9 9 5 3 11 10-20 5 mm 8 6 14 14 5 4 11 5 11 13 20-30 4 mm 5 4 16 16 4 7 13 5 9 14 30-40 6 5 4 11 11 3 5 11 4 5 40-50 9 mm IS, 12 12 12 5 5 14 4 4 50-60 7 • 11 11 8 8 7 4 13 4 4 9 60-70 12 mm 6 10 7 7 3 5 8 7 4 70*80 9 mm 7 10 9 9 8 11 6 4 4 80-90 8 - 6 10 mm 8 5 11 4 9 4 ii -90-100 8 mm 5 8 mm 9 4 9 4 12 15 120 i s PLOT PT. (Fourth Lk.) Ao 40 - 60 mm 100 - 90 110 85 65 85 -0-10 8 - 10 5 8 - 6 6 7 13 13 8 10-20 9 — 9 6 8 mm 6 12 12 14 12 16 20-30 12 - 10 11 9 mm 9 11 12 10 13 15 30-40 12 mm 14 15 8 mm 11 11 11 9 11 40-50 15 - 15 16 10 mm 11 12 11 8 14 13 50-60 16 mm 15 19 11 - - 13 11 10 14 60*70 14 mm 14 19 11 mm mm 15 10 10 14 70-80 10 - 12 15 14 - - 15 8 11 11 11 80-90 10 mm 10 15 15 - - 13 9 12 8 90-100 12 mm 9 - 15 - - 9 8 10 8 APPENDIX V. TABLE 9 - Continued DEPTH Soil pit number (cm.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) Ao mm mm 75 60 - - 80 90 mm 80 85 -0-10 50 mm 19 65 60 - 7 11 65 75 22 6 10-20 9 mm 18 8 6 mm 7 3 23 4 15 7 20-30 10 mm 16 6 1© mm 13 5 8 5 11 7 30-40 12 mm 10 10 - - 12 6 8 5 15 '/ 40-50 10 mm 9 9 - mm 9 7 5 5 13 50-60 8 - 9 8 - - 7 7 7 5 mm 8 60-70 mm - - 5 - mm mm 10 - 5 mm -70-80 80-90 90-100 PLOT P 5 (Wolf Mt.) AO 30 60 60 - 85 - 40 110 100 55 90 mm 0-10 8 7 9 8 6 - 6 22 85 6 11 7 10-20 9 6 8 8 7 «e> 7 7 14 10 10 8 20-30 4 6 9 7 8 - 6 6 10 8 10 8 30-40 6 5 10 7 7 - 6 4 8 7 U 40-50 5 5 8 6 8 - 6 - 6 8 9 5 50-60 4 3 6 4 - mm 6 - - 6 7 60-70 — 4 6 3 - 4 - mm 4 6 70-80 mm 2 4 6 3 80-90 *» 2 4 — 5 90-100 - 3 3 5 mm PLOT Pg (Valley) Ao 8 . - 14 - 24 - 40 55 70 85 24 -0-10 15 mm 9 11 5 ma 8 9 10 7 16 13 10-20 3 mm 8 5 9 mm 5 8 8 8 10 10 20*30 4 mm 7 6 5 - 3 6 6 5 8 10 30>40 5 mm 5 5 5 mm 5 7 5 10 9 40-50 4 m 5 5 3 - 5 6 3 4 6 50-60 4 - 5 5 5 - 6 8 3 1 4 g 60-70 4 - 2 3 4 - 6 5 2 4 6 mw 70-80 4 - 3 3 2 - 3 3 2 3 6 80-90 4 mm 2 2 2 mm 2 6 2 3 2 B 90-100 3 - 3 2 2 mm 2 3 2 3 2 5 1 2 5 - - - - - - - - - - - 6 Percentage by weight of water retained by the 5 mm.. so i l fraction against a pressure of 15 atmospheres. APPENDIX V.ui 20 TABLE 10. WILTING- PERCENTAGE OF SOILS FROM THE THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS 1 DEPTH Soil pit number (cm.) 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) A (SWAMP) 0-10 90 70 70 85 80 mm 8% 7© 80 90 65 -10-20 - 70 130 • m - mm — - 44 -20*30 * 90 - — _ mm — — _ mm 9 _ B(BANK) L 80 80 - 70 - - 90 mm - 90 120 m 2-10 60 34 ISO 100 100 - 80 75 110 90 no 120 10-20 25 6 90 90 90 - 95 70 100 95 100 20-30 - - 30 90 8 mm 95 9 36 95 35 -30-40 - mm 7 20 - - 12 10 12 30 70 80 40-50 8 50 _ 50-60 - - - - - - mm - - - 3 -PLOT Ly« (Upper Deadwood) A (SWAMP) 0-10 80 - 70 60 60 •* 80 70 75 60 70 -10-20 mm mm 60 - _ - — _ - _ 20 _ A (SWAMP - margin) L mm - 60 85 90 - 100 110 100 95 100 -2-10 60 mm 23 70 70 - 65 85 90 55 70 A A 10-20 30 - 25 38 40 mm 60 30 so 60 30 42 20-30 15 - 16 14 40 - 20 24 10 . 13 11 30-40 mm - 11 10 12 - 15 8 12 10 10 go 40-50 - mm - 11 11 - - 11 13 - mm 50-60 mm - - 12 - - mm - - - - mm 60-70 - - - 10 - - - - - - - m 70-80 - - - 12 - - mm - - - - m B (BANK) L 80 - 100 100 100 - 100 110 - 90 100 -2-10 85 - 80 85 80 - 90 100 90 85 85 -10-20 75 - 100 90 90 - 85 80 95 85 55 -20-30 19 - 80 90 90 mm 26 85 80 75 -30-40 - . - 55 50 - - 35 50 17 -40-50 - - - - - - - - - - 50 -PLOT Lyi (Echo Mt.) A (SWAMP) 0-10 - mm 30 25 25 mm 21 19 95 13 19 -10-20 - 50 20-30 - - 40 - - - - - - - - - -B (BANK) L mm mm - - - - 115 90 - 40 100 -2-10 70 - 80 60 80 mm 80 90 100 85 60 90 10-20 50 - 80 70 30 mm 33 29 34 85 24 20-30 35 mm 70 30 30 — 5 17 36 28 8 -30-40 mm m» 30 10 mm - 6 - •* 30 6 36 40-50 - - 6 45 10 -Percentage by weight of water retained against a pressure of 15 atmospheres. APPENDIX V. TABLE 11. FIELD CAPACITY GF SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA -GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS 1 DEPTH (cm.) 1 2 PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50*60 60-70 70-30 80-90 90-100 PLOT L4 (Lower Deadwood) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 -PLOT L3 (Lower Deadwood) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-^00 PLOT L2 (Valley) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 Soil pit number 5 6 7 8 30 23 21 19 15 13 11 13 13 13 11 12 13 12 14 31 21 15 14 21 19 19 19 19 16 20 9 10 11 12 22 21 14 18 18 23 19 21 21 31 29 25 17 30 21 19 20 APPENDIX V . TABLE 11 - Continued DEPTH Soil pit number (cm.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 SLOT L l (Fourth. Lk.) Ao • • • • . . . -0-10 31 31 • * . . • 37 10-20 34 35 * • • . . . 30 20-30 32 41 ™ • 38 . . . 29 30-40 . 34 40 34 27 . . . 40-50 43 37 - - 34 - 33 37 50-60 44 - - - 32 - 35 -60-70 - - - - - - - - - . 70-80 - - - - - - - -80-90 - - - - . 90-100 - -"^Percentage by weight of water retained by the 5 mm. soil fraction against a pressure of 1/3 atmosphere. .Value not determined. TABLE 12. FIELD CAPACITY OF SOILS FROM THE PSEPDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION DEPTH (cm.) 1 PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt.) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 Soil pit number 3 4 5 6 7 22 19 11 8 9 10 11 12 20 25 15 14 18 PLOT G4 (Lower Deadwood) Ao 0-10 10*20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 16 14 15 15 22 22 20 21 15 17 16 15 13 23 23 25 APPENDIX V. DEPTH TABLE 12 - Continued Soil pit number (em.) • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PLOT G6 (Upper Deadwood) Ao . . ' • mm 0-10 - 25 24 10-20 - 24 24 20-30 - 24 24 30-40 - 24 24 40-50 - 23 23 50-60 - . 20 20 60-70 - 20 17 17 70-80 - 20 - 20 80-90 - - 20 - 21 90-100 - - • 16 - • . — — PLOT G3 (Valley) Ao - • • -0-10 - • 34 10-20 # - • 26 a* 20-30 - • 21 -30-40 30 21 mm 40-50 28 20 - . 24 50-60 - 14 16 - mm mm 60-70 - mm - - - -70-80 10 11 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Ao 0-10 - m m • - 26 33 • 10-20 - . 42 e - 30 68 • • 20-30 - 33 • - 34 45 • 30-40 - • 2 7 • - 42 - 35 40-50 22 - mm 30 - 40 mm 35 50-60 22 - 31 - — - • 60-70 22 - e> 31 - — mm . — 70-80 24 mm - 31 mm mm — - m 80-90 19 - mm mm 34 - - - — — 90-100 PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.) Ao mm 99 — • • • • • 0-10 - • mm • • • • • 10-20 mm 27 • * • • 20-30 - 24 27 • • 30-40 - 22 mm • • • • 40-50 - 24 mm • • — • 50-60 • - . 19 28 - 21 23 22 - • 60-70 # - . 12 28 mm 13 23 35 — 70-80 - 9 - mm - 23 15 - -80-90 m - . 10 - - - 23 — — — 90-100 mm - . 13 - - - 20 - — — 12 26 26 24 17 27 33 26 30 31 32 21 21 24 27 21 18 20 APPENDIX V. TABLE 13. FIELD CAPACITY OP SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA -TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS1 DEPTH ( c a n . ) 1 2 PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) Soil pit number 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 PLOT M3 (Valley) 30 19 11 8 6 Ao # mm 0-10 • - - ' 21 13 10-20 • - 29 -20-30 • - * - . 26 30-40 • - -40-50 * — 33 -50-60 • - - 27 60-70 • - mm 25 . 19 70-30 • - . 20 16 - 22 - 18 80-90 - - . 21 16 - 13 90-100 - - . 16 14 - 13 . - -AO • • • mm 0-10 # • • • «_ 10-20 • • mm 20-30 • • 30 mm 30-40 30 m „ 40-50 • • m 50-60 • • m 60-70 30 29 20 70-80 . 30 22 _ 26 80-90 . 28 6 — 27 90-100 . 27 15 27 120-PLOT M2 (Echo Mt.) Ao . — • e • - . . . . 0-10 - e • 23 23 • . . . 10-20 • ** • • 23 21 . . . . 20-30 • *" e • 23 21 . . . . 30-40 • ** . 22 23 20 . . . . 40-50 e ** . 21 22 21 . . . . 50-60 e - • • 22 22 . . . . . 60-70 • ** . 21 22 23 22 . . . . 70-80 • "* . 22 23 23 23 19 80-90 • . 16 22 22 22 20 . 90-100 • ** . IB 19 19 20 - . . ; APPENDIX V. TABLE 13 - Continued DEPTH Soil pit number (cm.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) Ao # - mm • - # • - • u . — 0-10 1 * - 42 mm m # . 33 10-20 mm 30 32 - m . 21 20-30 - . 28 31 - m 9 # 30-40 - . 26 34 - # • 23 40-50 - 24 32 - # 50-60 - 24 25 - 23 29 * 22 60-70 - 24 25 - 22 23 70-80 . - . 25 21 - 19 24 22 # 80-90 28 - 25 - - 16 - 27 • 22 90-100 52 - . 28 - - - - 26 Percentage by weight of water retained by the 5 mm. soil fraction against a pressure of 1/3 atmosphere. . Value not determined. TABLE 14. FIELD CAPACITY OF SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA  POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS"1"" DEPTH Soil pit number (em.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood) Ao - • • - -6-10 • 53 58 . 40 10-20 - • 64 64 . . . 5 0 20-30 - 35 66 68 * * * C t \ 30-40 - e 48 43 50 40-50 62 - 62 56 56 50-60 - • 27 29 * * * Ifi 60-70 • - • 25 25 A O 70-80 33 - 47 30 30 • • * Sft 80-90 mm • mm 24 90-100 - • mm 26 . . . 120 PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.) Ao . - , mm • mm . • 0-10 mm 28 28 - 27 . 24 10-20 mm 32 28 - 26 . 36 20-30 - 30 29 - 24 30 . . • 30-40 - 28 24 - 21 e . 48 40-50 — 37 24 - 21 e 50-60 — # 37 20 - mm • \ \ 25 60-70 45 41 25 - - • 70-80 22 - . 43 27 - 29 80-90 16 - 33 38 25 - mm 30 . 30 90-100 24 - 33 - 26 —» - 27 APPENDIX V. TABLE 14 - Continued DEPTH Soil pit number (em.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) Ao - - e e • • • mm 0-10 • - 40 • e 30 • • e 80 15 10-20 • - 44 44 30 - ' 28 - 70 20 44 20 20-30 • - 45 34 28 - 30 30 25 22 30 25 30-40 42 - 30 49 - - 30 24 23 20 34 40-50 36 mm 28 27 - - 22 22 13 20 38 O A 50-60 - - 32 30 Ml - 15 22 15 19 29 60-70 - - - 14 - - a . 26 - 23 70-80 80-90 90-100 PLOT PS (Wolf Mt.) Ao 0-10 30 • 39 • - 25 e • e 31 10-20 45 • 39 31 - 30 32 • • 34 20-30 25 . 39 32 34 - 25 24 30 e 30-40 16 27 55 31 29 mm 25 21 28 28 40-50 14 27 43 19 27 - 20 - 1* 19 50-60 12 22 22 16 mm - 17 - «•> 13 18 60-70 •» 18 19 12 m 15 - m 13 # 70-80 mm 14 14 m 80*90 - 10 13 25 90-100 9 11 - - - mm - - - 20 -PLOT P3 (Valley) Ao .m - . -0-10 - 25 - 33 10-20 - 27 - 19 9 po 20-30 - 31 21 - 9 # ao 30-40 - 16 - w 33 m 31 40-50 14 - 9 m # 50-60 - 28 19 - 9 # 33 60-70 - 27 mm 26 37 70-80 — 14 T # 60-90 10 7 m 24 90-100 - * 7 - 21 m 125 - - 28 ^Percentage by weight of water retained by the 5 mm. soil fraction against a pressure of 1/3 atmosphere. . Value not determined. APPENDIX V. TABLE 15. FIELD CAPACITY OF SOILS FROM THE THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS DEPTH Soil pit number (cm.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt J A (SWAMP) 0-10 . . 160 . . . 175 160 250 . 110 10-20 - . - - - - - .- - 1 0 5 20-30 - . - - - - - - - - 3 6 -B (BANE) L 310 2-10 330 110 . . . - 160 310 250 . 300 10-20 330 36 . 265 . - 170 130 200 220 20-30 - - 101 230 . - 200 58 110 240 240 30-40 - - 30 90 - - 44 38 40 65 250 40-50 - - - - - - - - - 1 8 . 50-60 - - - - - - - -220 PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) A (SWAMP) 0-10 • - • • • - 180 123 e 35 • -10-20 mm e - - mm - - - • ' -A (SWAMP) L - - e • e mm 235 340 320 • -0-10 • m • 170 . - 115 160 180 • no 10-20 105 - 225 150 . — 130 77 130 e 20*30 75 - 190 73 80 80 60 • 180 30-40 - - 48 49 . - 77 45 45 • mm 40-50 mm - mm • e - - 63 •a mm -50-60 - - mm 58 - mm - - - - mm -60-70 - - - • - mm - - - - -70-80 - - - 60 - - - - - mm mm B (BANE) L a. e e • mm 270 245 - 300 m 2-10 • — • • • mm 245 300 260 m -10-20 220 - 205 180 - 250 280 195 140 • -20-30 • - 240 215 - 125 200 • • mm -30-40 - - - 165 . - - 165 • 90 - -40-50 • CP PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) A (SWAMP) 0-10 - - 100 • * eat 90 80 115 48 . -10-20 - - 135 - - - - - - -20-30 — • B (BANE) L - — — - - • • - 115 mm 2-10 — . — 140 205 230 180 240 10-20 130 - . 220 - 90 100 100 220 100 20-30 180 - 270 86 - 27 66 105 70 30-40 - 135 41 - - 22 - mm • e mm 40-50 mm - 31 - mm - - - 105 . -

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