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Water relations in the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island McMinn, Robert Gordon 1957

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Faculty of Graduate Studies  PROGRAMME OF THE  F I N A L F O R  O R A L  E X A M I N A T I O N  T H E D E G R E E O F  D O C T O R  O F P H I L O S O P H Y  of  ROBERT GORDON  McMINN  B.A., University of British Columbia M.S., State College of Washington  T H U R S D A Y , APRIL 4th, 1957, at 2:00 P.M. IN R O O M 33, BIOLOGY BUILDING COMMITTEE IN CHARGE DEAN G. M . SHRUM, Chairman T. V. D. G.  M . C. TAYLOR J. KRAJINA J. WORT S. ALLEN  C. A. ROWLES I. McT. COWAN P. G. HADDOCK H . B. H A W T H O R N  External Examiner — DR. R. F. DAUBENMIRE, Professor, State College of Washington  WATER  RELATIONS O N  I N T H E DOUGLAS-FIR  VANCOUVER  REGION  ISLAND  ABSTRACT  In an evaluation of the role of water relations in forest distribution and growth in the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island, a section of the Nanaimo River Valley, lying from five to twelve miles inland from the east coast, was chosen as a suitable study area to exemplify conditions in the central mountains and on the eastern side of southern Vancouver Island. The study was conducted in mature stands typical of the principal forest associations found within the range of climates, topographies and soils represented in this area. The vegetation and soils of twenty-four quarter-acre plots were analysed in order to characterize stands and relate such characteristics to the influence of water relations. The soil moisture regimes and microclimates of each plot were defined by measuring soil moisture levels, precipitation beneath the tree canopy, evaporation rates, and soil and air temperatures. Variation in soil moisture contents was followed over a thirtymonth period from July, 1951, to November, 1953, and precipitation and maximum/ mimimum temperatures at various open stations were measured at monthly intervals from June, 1951, until December, 1956, in order to delineate climatic variations within the study area. It was concluded that variation in soil moisture regimes was a most significant factor in the differentiation of sites. In moist, relatively nutritive soils Pseudotsuga menziesii so completely dominated Tsuga beterophylla that the latter species was restricted to the secondary canopy and formed only a small proportion of stand volume. In strongly leached soils the growth of both Pseudotsuga and Tsuga was impaired and even at maturity trees were smaller than in more nutritive soils. Where strongly leached soils were moist throughout the growing season, Tsuga could complete with Pseudotsuga on nearly equal terms and both species reached the upper tree canopy. In droughty, leached soils the growth of Tsuga was more impaired than the growth of Pseudotsuga and Tsuga formed small to negligible proportions of stand volume. Thuja plicata appeared in the upper tree canopy only in moist to very wet, relatively nutritive soils. The dominant influence in the geographical location of the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island was its rainshadow climate. Within this region of low summer rainfall Pseudotsuga dominated other species on nearly all sites. In wetter climates, outside pronounced rainshadow areas, stands dominated by Pseudotsuga were confined to moist, relatively nutritive soils. Within any climatic area topographic position and concomitant climatic and edaphic influences largely differentiated sites. Site differentiation followed a definite catenary sequence, which regulated the sequence of forest associations on sidehills. Differences in local topography, aspect, soil depth and soil texture, however, sometimes caused variation from the typical arrangements.  PUBLICATIONS The vegetation of a burn near Blaney Lake, British Columbia. Ecology 32:135-140. 1951. The role of soil drought in the distribution of vegetation in the northern Rocky Mountains. Ecology 33: 1-15. 1952. The root system of second-growth Douglas fir. Canada Agriculture, Forest Biology Div., Bi-Monthly Progr. Rept. 11:3. 1955. Studies on the root ecology of healthy and pole blight affected white pine. Canada Agriculture, Forest Biology Div., Bi-Monthly Progr. Rept. 12:3. 1956.  GRADUATE STUDIES Field of Study: Botany  T. M. C. Taylor  Taxonomy of Higher Plants Forest Associations Problems in Plant Ecology  V. J. Krajina V. J. Krajina and R. W. Pillsbury  Problems in Plant Physiology  D. J. Wort  Other Studies: Colloid Chemistry  M. KirscH  Soil Genesis, Morphology and Classification  C. A. Rowles  Advanced Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils  C. A. Rowles  Advanced Silvics and Silviculture  G. S. Allen  WATER RELATIONS IN THE DOUGLAS-FIR REGION ON VANCOUVER ISLAND  by  ROBERT  GORDON McMINN  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FDLFILMMT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in the Department of BIOLOGY AND BOTANY We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1957  ii ABSTRACT In an evaluation of the r o l e of water r e l a t i o n s i n f o r e s t d i s t r i b u t i o n and growth i n the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island, a section of the Nanaimo River Valley, l y i n g from f i v e to twelve miles inland from the east coast, was chosen as a suitable study area to exemplify central  conditions i n the  mountains and on the eastern side of southern Vancouver Island.  study was  conducted i n mature stands t y p i c a l of the p r i n c i p a l forest associat-  ions found within the range of climates, topographies and s o i l s represented t h i s area. analysed  The  in  The vegetation and s o i l s of twenty-four, quarter-acre p l o t s were  i n order to characterize stands and r e l a t e such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to  the influence of water r e l a t i o n s .  The s o i l moisture regimes and  microclimates  of each plot were defined by measuring s o i l moisture l e v e l s , p r e c i p i t a t i o n beneath the t r e e canopy, evaporation  rates and s o i l and a i r temperatures.  Variation i n s o i l moisture contents was from July, 1951 temperatures at  to November, 1953,  followed over a thirty-month  period  and p r e c i p i t a t i o n and maximum/minimum  various open stations were measured at monthly i n t e r v a l s from  June, 1951 u n t i l December, 1956  i n order to delineate c l i m a t i c variations  within the study area. It was  concluded that v a r i a t i o n i n s o i l moisture regimes was  s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of s i t e s .  a most  In moist, r e l a t i v e l y  n u t r i t i v e s o i l s Pseudotsuga menziesii so completely dominated Tsuga heterophylla that the l a t t e r species was r e s t r i c t e d to the secondary canopy and formed only a small proportion of stand volume. s o i l s , the growth of Pseudotsuga and Tsuga was  In strongly leached  impaired,  both species were smaller than i n more n u t r i t i v e s o i l s .  so that trees of Where strongly  iii leached soils were moist throughout the growing season, Tsuga could compete with Pseudotsuga on nearly equal terms and both species reached the upper tree canopy.  In droughty, leached soils the growth of Tsuga was more  impaired than the growth of Pseudotsuga. and Tsuga formed small to negligible proportions of stand volume.  Thuja plicata appeared in the upper tree canopy  only on moist to very wet, relatively nutritive sites. The dominant influence in the geographical location of the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island appears to be its rainshadow climate.  Within this  region of low summer rainfall Pseudotsuga can dominate other species on nearly a l l sites.  In wetter climates, outside pronounced rainshadow areas, stands  dominated by Pseudotsuga are evidently confined to moist, relatively nutritive sites.  Within the different climatic areas encountered, topographic position  and concomitant climatic and edaphic influences would seem largely responsible for site differentiation.  Such site differentiation followed a definite  catenary sequence, which regulated the sequence of forest associations on hillsides.  Differences in local topography, aspect, parent material, soil  texture and soil depth, however, may cause variation from the typical arrangements.  In p r e s e n t i n g the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h it  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  freely  Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . stood that financial  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  permission.  Department o f Biology and Botany The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver Canada. Date  I t i s under-  4 April 1957  Columbia,  viii  AC^OTW^GMENTS  The writer wishes to thank the many individuals and organisations who have helped i n the completion  of t h i s study.  Those who assisted  include Dr. V. Krajina, to whom special thanks are due for h i s advice and encouragement;  Dr. A. H. Hutchinson, formerly Head of the Department of  Biology and Botany, University of B r i t i s h Columbia;  Dr. T. M. C. Taylor,  Head of the Department of Biology and Botany, University of B r i t i s h Columbia;  Dr. G. A l l e n , Dean of the Faculty of Forestry and Dr. C. Rowles,  Head of the Department of S o i l s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, as members of the thesis committee;  Mr. F. D. Mulholland,  Canadian Western Lumber Company;  formerly Chief Forester,  Dr. R. E. Foster, Officer-in-Charge of  the Pathology Unit and other members of the Forest Biology V i c t o r i a , B. C ; Observatory, B. C ;  Mr. W. H. Mackie, Meteorologist-in-Charge,  V i c t o r i a , B. C ;  Company, Ltd., Vancouver, B. C ;  B. C ;  Vancouver,  Alaska Pine  B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company, Ltd.,  B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Products Company, Ltd., Vancouver,  B r i t i s h Columbia Sugar Refining Company, Ltd., Vancouver, B.  Empress Manufacturing Mr. W. A r l i d g e ; Mr. T. Lord; Dombois;  Gonzales  Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s ,  The National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario;  Vancouver, B. C ;  Laboratory,  Company, Ltd., Vancouver, B. C ;  Dr. T. C. Brayshaw;  Mrs. G. M. McMinn;  Mr. F. Rayer;  Dr. A. Szczawinski;  Mr. R. Schmidt;  Mr. G. T i l s e r ;  Miss M. A. A l l e n ;  Mr. R. B. Dickens;  Mrs. R. G. McMinn;  C;  Mr. L. Farstad;  Mr. D. Mueller-  Mr. R. H. Spilsbury;  Dr. W. G. Wellington;  and many others who have made various contributions.  Dr. D. J . Wort  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. II. III.  IV.  INTRODUCTION  1  STUDY AREA.  2  METHODS Selection of Plots Climate Vegetation Soils Weather and Microclimate Soil moisture  10 10 14 17 18 20  RESULTS Climate  24  Vegetation  32  Soils Weather Microclimate Soil moisture . . V.  VI. VII. VIII.  49 66 68 76  DISCUSSION Factors regulating Soil Moisture Regimes The role of Soil Moisture Regimes Forest Distribution in the Douglas-fir Region . . .  86 88 94 103  SUMMARY  108  REFERENCES  110  PLATES AND "FIGURES Plate I., Figure 1. Map of Study Area  3  Plate II., Figures 2 - 7 . Stands of various forest associations in the Nanaimo River Valley . .  5  Plate E L , Figures 8-13. Stands of various forest associations in the Nanaimo River Valley . .  6  Plate IV., Figures 14 and 15.  Forest Association  Catena in the Nanaimo River Valley Plate V., Figures 16 and 17.  9  Field equipment . . . .  Plate VI., Figure 18.  Location of Weather Stations  Plate VII., Figure 19.  Soil Prof iles  Plate VIII., Figure 20. , Precipitation and Depth of Available Water  .  13 27 50 78  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS IX.  Continued  TABLES Table Table Table  Table  Table  Table  Table Table  Table  Page 1. 2. 3.  4.  5.  6.  7. 8.  9.  Table 10.  Table 11.  Table 12.  Locations of Plots analysed in the study of Water Relations in the Douglas-fir Region . .  12  Climate of the Nanaimo River Valley compared with other stations on Vancouver Island . . .  26  Total Estimate Analysis of the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Pinus contorta - Gaultheria shallon - Peltigera canina - Peltigera aphthosa association plots  34  Total Estimate Analysis of the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Gaultheria shallon and the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla Gaultheria shallon association plots . . . .  35  Total Estimate Analysis of the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla - Hylocomium splendens - Eurhynchium oreganum association plots  36  Total Estimate Analysis of the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Thuja plicata - Polystichum muniturn association plots  37  Total Estimate Analysis of the Thuja plicata Lysiohitum americanum association plots . . .  38  Mensuration Analysis of the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Pinus contorta - Gaultheria shallon - Peltigera canina - Peltigera aphthosa association plots  39  Mensuration Analysis of the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Gaultheria shallon and the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla Gaultheria shallon association plots . . . .  40  Mensuration Analysis of the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla - Hylocomium splendens - Eurhynchium oreganum association plots  41  Mensuration Analysis of the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Thuja plicata - Polystichum munitum association plots  42  Mensuration Analysis of the Thuja plicata Lyslehitum americanum association plots . . .  43  vi  TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued IX.  Table 13.  Table 14.  Table 15.  Table 16.  Table 17.  Table 18.  Table 19.  Table 20.  Table 21.  Description, pH, and Organic and Clay contents of typical Soil Profiles from the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots  Page  51  Description, pH, and Organic and Clay "contents of typical Soil Profiles from the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria and the Pseudotsuga Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots . . . .  55  Description, pH, and Organic and Clay contents of typical Soil Profiles from the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium Eurhynchium association plots  57  Description, pH, and Organic and Clay contents of typical Soil Profiles from the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association plots .  60  Description, pH, and Clay contents of typical Soil Profiles from the Thuja Lysichiturn association  65  Monthly Precipitation at Stations adjacent to Plots Sampled for Soil Moisture, 1951 - 1953 (in cm.)  67  Average Monthly Precipitation and Interception in Plots Sampled for Soil Moisture, 1951 1953 (cm.)  69  Average relative Monthly Evaporation at Open Stations and in Plots Sampled for Soil Moisture, 1951.-.1952  75  Monthly Values of Available Soil Moisture in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Pelt ig era association plots, 1951 - 1953  77  Table 22.  Monthly values of Available Soil Moistures in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria and the Pseudotsuga Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots, 1951 - 1953 80  Table 23.  Monthly values of Available Soil Moisture in the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium Eurhynchium association plots, 1951 - 1953 .  83  vii TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued  Page IX.  Table 24.  Table 25. X.  Monthly values of Available Soil Moistures in the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association plots  84  Monthly values of Available Soil Moisture in the Thuja - Lyslchitum association plots . .  87  APPENDICES Appendix I.  Climatic Records.  Appendix IT. Plant List. Appendix m .  Particle Size Distribution in Soils.  Appendix IV". Weather and Microclimatic Records. Appendix V. Soil Moisture Records.  INTRODCIGTION It has long been recognized that water relations influence the distribution of natural vegetation.  Schimper (1903) was one of the first to  acknowledge water as a predominant factor.  The classifications of Cajander  (1926), Sukatchev (1928), Braun-Blanquet (1928), Weaver and Clements (1929), Wilde (1933), Krajina and Domin (1933), Dansereau (1946), Hills (1952) and many others have emphasized the importance of soil moisture in the distribution of forest types.  The role of seasonal variation has also been re-  cognized and a number of investigations have followed seasonal changes in forest stands.  Hanson (1924) and Pearson (1931) have followed seasonal  trends in various forests types of the southeastern United States and Weaver (1917) has studied others in the northwest.  Haig et a l . (1941) have shown  how natural regeneration in white pine stands in Idaho was affected by seasonal occurrences of soil drought.  McMinn (1952) has demonstrated differences  in the time of onset of soil drought among different associations in the northern Rocky Mountains.  Gaiser (1952) has reported seasonal differences  in available moisture in some forest soils in Ohio, and Fraser (1954, 1956) has studied fluctuations in the water table of birch stands in Ontario. These and other studies have demonstrated that variations in plant distribution and growth are related to seasonal variation of available soil moisture. '  During an investigation of the forest communities of coastal British Columbia, Krajina (1952) noted that water relations appeared to be one of the major factors controlling the distribution of Douglas-fir associations. The objective of the present study, initiated in 1951 at the suggestion of Dr. Krajina, has been to evaluate the role of water relations in forest distribution and growth in the Douglas-fir region of Vancouver Island.  2  STUDY AREA The study was carried out in the Nanaimo River Valley, some eight miles south west of Nanaimo, British Columbia, on timberland within the Forest Management Licence of the Canadian Western Lumber Company (Fig. 1).  The  Nanaimo River is one of a series of easterly flowing streams (including the Cowichan, Chemainus, Englishman and Q,ualicum Rivers) which arise in the central.Jheight of land forming the backbone of Vancouver Island.  Their drain-  age basins constitute one of the principal Douglas-fir logging areas in British Columbia.  The portion of the valley in which the study area was  located lies between five and twelve miles from the east coast (49°5'N and 125°25' to 05'W). In the study area the valley floor drops gradually from 1000 feet above sea level at the western end to 600 feet in the eastern end.  West of  Second Lake the valley is less than half a mile wide, with the sides rising steeply more than 2000 feet.  Many of the peaks are over 4000 feet high.  The tributary creeks fall rapidly and their valleys are steep sided and narrow.  To the east of First Lake the valley spreads out, and the sides of  the land masses rise less steeply.  The valley of Deadwood Creek (north  fork of the Nanaimo River), in which some of the plots were located, is over one mile wide and the valley floor is relatively level.  This condition is  typical of the eastern coastal belt of Vancouver Island. lit. Hooker (4144 ft.) and lit. de Cosmos (4444 ft.) mark the eastern end of the ridges which flank the narrow western portion of the valley.  Cloud  masses coming from the west, following the normal storm tracks, commonly descend after passing these peaks, resulting in the plots located to the east of them receiving a lower rainfall than the more westerly plots. The easterly plots were in a climatic zone corresponding to the lowland coastal belt of  PLATE I, Figure 1  PLATE  I.  Figure 1.  Map of Study Area Map of the Nanaimo Lakes showing the location of plots.  eastern Vancouver Island, while the westerly plots were under conditions more typical of the higher land of the central land mass. The vegetation of the region has been analysed by Krajina (1952) and classified into forest associations.  Much of the study area was covered  by stands in which Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel)Franco (Douglas f i r )  1  was  predominant, although Thuja plicata D.Don (western redcedar) was dominant in one association and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. (western hemlock) was codominant in another. 1.  Six associations were studied:  Pseudotsuga menziesii - Pinus contorta *• Gaultheria shallon Peltigera canina - Peltigera aphthosa association. (Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera or Douglas-fir - salal lichen association)  2.  (Fig. 2).  Pseudotsuga menziesii - Gaultheria shallon association. (Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria or Douglas fir - salal association) (Fig. 3).  3.  Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla - Hylocomium splendens Eurhynchium oreganum association. (Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium or Douglas-fir hemlock - moss association). This association occurred as a subassociation typicum, in which the ground cover was a luxuriant carpet of moss (Fig. 4) and a subassociation nudum where the ground was almost bare (Fig. 5).  The species epithet menziesii has been used in the present study on the basis of a summary of the nomenclature of Douglas-fir made by Krajina (1956). Authorities for other specific names are given in the check l i s t included in Appendix II.  5  PLATE II, Figures 2 - 7  PLATS II.  Stands of various forest associations in the Nanaimo River Valley.  Figure 2.  The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association (Plot L3). The meter stick is marked in decimeters.  Figure 3.  The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association (Plot G6).  Figure 4.  The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (Plot MS). Subassociation typicum.  Figure 5.  The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (Plot M5). Subassociation nudum.  Figure 6 .  The Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association (Plot PI).  Figure 7.  The Thuja - Lysichitum association (Plot Ly3).  )  6  PLATE  III, Figures  8-13  PLATE III.  Stands of various forest associations in the Nanaimo River valley.  Figure 8.  The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association (Plot Gl).  Figure 9.  The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (Plot Ml), showing the large Tsuga (by meter stick) of this stand at the western end of the study area.  Figure 10.  The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association (Plot G6).  Figure 11.  The Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association (Plot P4).  Figure 12.  The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association (Plot 15), showing the canopy of dominant and codominant trees.  Figure 13.  The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (Plot M5)7 showing small Tsuga of the secondary canopy below the upper canopy formed by the dominant and codominant trees.  7 4.  Pseudotsuga menziesii - Thuja piicata - Polystichum munitum association. (Pseudotsuga - Poiystichum or Douglas-fir - swordfern association) (Fig. 6).  5.  Thuja plicata - Lysichitum americanum association . (Thuja - Lysichitum or cedar - skunk cabbage association) (Fig. 7) .  6.  Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla - Gaultheria shallon association. (Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria or Douglas-fir - hemlock - salal association) (Fig. 8). In an idealized catenary sequence (Fig. 15) the Pseudotsuga -  Gaultheria - Peltigera association occurs on the ridge top, the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria association on the upper slope, the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium Eurhynchium association at midslope, the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association on the lower slope and valley floor and the Thuja - Lysichitum association in swampy (but not stagnant) areas of the bottomland.  Such a catenary sequence  is typical of the Douglas-fir zone on the eastern side of Vancouver Island. This zone may be defined as the one in which Pseudotsuga associations predominate on essentially a l l sites.  The upper altitudinal limit of the Douglas-  fir zone at the eastern end of the study area was well over 2000 feet.  In  the western end, the Douglas-fir zone was depressed below 2000 feet, and western hemlock was codominant at higher altitudes. The extent to which slopes were covered by the different members of this catenary sequence varied considerably.  The range of Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria -  Peltigera stands differed with aspect, spreading farther down south slopes than north slopes.  The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association, representing  8 the climatic climax of the region, covered the largest area.  The Pseudotsuga -  Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association was represented in some cases by only a short transition zone or was largely absent, particularly on southern aspects.  The Pseudotsuga - Polysbichum association was by no means univer-  sal even on well drained valley floors.  Much of this land was variously  occupied by Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera and Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria stands, reflecting different soil depths and textures.  The Thuja -  Lysichiturn association was also found on gently sloping hillsides where streamlets spread out to form damp areas.  A mosiac distribution was common  in such areas, accompanying slight, but sufficient, soil profile differences. On steep slopes rock outcroppings also caused patchy distribution. Other associations than those studied were also present.  For example,  Arctostaphylos uva-ursl occurred on treeless outcrops, Sphagnum spp. in stagnant swamps and a Thuja - Abies - Adiantum association on occasionally flooded alluvial benches.  Tsuga heterophylla and Abies amabilis (Dougl.)  Forbes stands occurred altitudinally above the typical sequence of Douglasf i r stands.  The associations studied represented typical members of the  catenary sequence in the Douglas-fir zone of Vancouver Island, and included some of the major commercial timber types of the Douglas-fir region. Most of the soils of the Nanaimo River Valley have been developed from varying depths of glacial t i l l and outwash.  Near the ridge tops the overlay  is thin, resulting in shallow profiles, often less than two feet down to the bed-rock.  In many relatively level areas similar shallow profiles have been  developed, with rooting depth restricted by ortstein layers.  Elsewhere on  slopes the depth of weathered material is greater and near the base of sidehills profiles over five feet deep were encountered.  In these profiles root  penetration was often terminated at deeper levels by dense soils with higher  PLATE IV, Figures 14 and 15  Forest Association Catena in the Nanaimo River Valley Forest association catena in the Valley area, showing the increase in tree heights from the upper to the lower slopes. Diagram of the forest association catena, showing the relative position of the various members.  to  follow page 9  14 THUJALYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION  PSEUDOTSUGAPOLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION  PSEUDOTSUGATSUGA -  PSEUDOTSUGAGAULTHERIA  HYLOCOMIUM  ASSOCIATION  ASSOC1  GAULTHERIAPELTIGERA  ASSOCIATION  FOREST  PSEUDOTSUGA-  ASSOCIATION  AT ION  CATENA  NANAIMO RIVER VALLEY  Thuja p l i c a t a  L  ytichttvm amgriconum  I I  P s t u d o t s u g c ma n i l *  si)  Polystichum munitum  ¥  Tsuga hotorophylla  - ^ Goultharia **Sur thoiion  Pino* contorta  1  fietor-ve offoct/vo sot/ 4 Opt It  15 r*4  10 clay contents than those of the upper horizons.  Recent alluvium provided  the parent material in some parts of the wider valley floors.  Soils devel-  oped from alluvium consisted of varying depths of stratified sand and gravel, often underlain or interspersed with beds of river cobbles.  Most of the up-  land soils belonged to the Podzol and Brown Podzolic Great Soils Groups, with some Gleisolic and Hydromorphic soils occurring at the foot of slopes and on the valley floor.  METHODS SELECTION OF PLOTS Groups of stands, representing the mature condition of the associations, were selected at various locations along the valley (Fig. 1, Table l ) .  In  this way advantage could be taken of the range of climatic conditions present to compare stands of the same association under different climatic conditions and to compare different associations under similar conditions*  As stands  were to be visited at frequent intervals accessibility was important and limited the study to areas serviced by logging roads.  Some of the groups  (Fourth Lake and Wolf Mountain) were in strict catenary sequence, but in other cases stands in this sequence were not accessible.  At Echo Mountain  and Valley, where a few stands did not follow the typical altitudinal series, and at Upper and Lower Deadwood, where a l l stands were essentially at the same altitude, other variables such as aspect, local topography and soil depths acted as compensating factors.  The study was carried out on quarter-acre  plots located in typical parts of the stands. CLIMATE Precipitation and maximum/minimum temperatures were recorded as a measure  11 of the climates of the six localities in which the plots were grouped.  Re-  cording stations were maintained in open areas adjacent to the plots. Inexpensive raingauges were constructed using 105 oz. cans as collecting funnels, soldered to 4 gal. cans as reservoirs (Fig. 16). area of such gauges was 184 sq. cm.  The orifice  The reservoirs had sufficient storage  capacity for all water collected between measurements.  Evaporation from the  reservoirs was restricted by floating kerosene on the stared water.  Measure-  ments were made by pouring the water from the reservoirs into a plastic grad» uate, calibrated to read in centimeters of precipitation.  The gauges were  placed in small pits, with the orifices just above ground level.  During the  winter additional sleeves were inserted into the collecting funnels to prevent snow from drifting into the gauges.  Unfortunately these sleeves probably re-  sulted in some inaccuracies in precipitation measurement at the windier locations due to turbulence caused by the extra height of the orifice above the ground.  A portable gasoline stove was used to melt the ice and snow which  accumulated in the reservoirs during the winter months (Fig. 16). Six's type thermometers were used to record maximum and minimum temperatures.  The thermometers were enclosed in standard Stevenson screens dur-  ing 1955 and 1956.  Prior to these being available, the thermometers were  housed in shelters made by opening out one side and louvering the top of 105 oz. cans (Fig. 16). ground.  Thermometer bulbs were located one meter above the  Although the minimum temperatures recorded by the thermometers in  the cans were comparable to those in the screens, the maximum readings were often considerably higher for the same period.  Therefore, the only maximum  readings incorporated in the results were those recorded in the screens. Monthly records were maintained from June, 1951 until December, 1956 to obtain average values for each station.  Data for other stations on Vancouver  12  TABLE 1.  LOCATIONS OF PLOTS ANALYSED IN THE STUDY OF WATER RELATIONS IN THE DOUGLAS FIR REGION  Plot L o c a l i t y  Lat.N O  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA L5 L4 L3 L2 LI  Wolf Mountain Deadwood Creek (lower) Deadwood Creek (lower) Valley Fourth Lake  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA G5 G4 G6 G3  I  Long.W O  49 06 49 0 7 49 07  49  05  4 9  0 5 .  124 0 7 124 0 9 124 0 9 124 1 6 124 24  49  0 6  4 9  07  4 9  08  4 9  05  124 0 7 124 08 124 10 124 18  ASSOCIATION  Gl G2  49 0 5 49 07  Fourth Lake Echo Mountain  124 24 124 20  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM  P4 PI P2 P5 P3  Wolf Mountain Echo Mountain Deadwood Creek (lower) Valley Fourth Lake  j Ly3 Ly2 Lyl  1000 750  740 750  1  1570  SSW E SE SSW NW  20 0-15  2 0-25  0-5  49 06 49 0 6 4 9  07  4 9  05  4 9  05  880 720 810 870  1420 1700  SW SW E N  NW  wsw  10 12  5  20  20 20  ASSOCIATION  124 0 7 124 20 124 08 124 1 7 124 24  810 1600 700  850 1080  SSW SW SW NE NW  10 20  NE NW SW SW  2 20 10  4  25 25  ASSOCIATION  Deadwood Creek (upper) Fourth Lake Echo Mountain Wolf Mountain Valley  THUJA - LYSICHITUM  Slope o  ASSOCIATION  Wolf Mountain Deadwood Creek (lower) Deadwood Creek (upper) Valley  PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM  A l t . Exposure ft.  ASSOCIATION  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA  M5 M2 M4 M3 Ml  I  08 49 0 5 49 06 49 06 4 9  4 9  05  4 9  06  124 1 0 124 24 124 20 124 0 7 124 17  840 1050  1410 760  640  —  5 0  ASSOCIATION  Wolf Mountain Deadwood Creek Echo Mountain  49 08 49 06  124 0 7 124 10 124 20  770  830 1450  SW NE SW  3  2 10  PLATE  V, Figures 16 and 17  PIATE V  Field equipment.  Figure 16.  Equipment used in recording climatic data: A raingauges, B - snow funnel, 0 - plastic graduate, D - Stevenson screen, E - Thermometer shelter made from can, F - location of thermometer to record s o i l surface temperatures.  Figure  17.  Soil moisture unit installation:  A - rotary  selector switch, B - resistance units buried i n side of p i t .  to follow page 13  Island and the adjacent mainland of British Columbia (Fig. 18) were obtained from the published records of the Meteorological Division of the Department of Transport (Canada), Department of Agriculture (Province of British Columbia), and from records taken by the British Columbia Forest Products Ltd., Nitinat Camp, B.C. VEGETATION The trees and subordinate plants were analyzed to show the vegetational characteristics of each plot.  A total estimate analysis was made to record  a l l the plants included in the tree, shrub, herb and moss layers and in the corticolous and lignicolous communities.  The most common plants of the tree,  shrub, herb, and moss layers were also evaluated by mensurational analyses, using the methods which most readily characterized them. The following data were recorded for each plot at the time the analysis was made: Date Analysed. Altitude. Exposure. Slope. Wind exposure (according to a scale of increasing exposure: o, (*), •(•), (!), !, !(!), !! ). The various vegetation layers were designated by the following letters: Al dominant and codominant tree canopy. A3 intermediate and suppressed tree layer. Bl t a l l shrub layer (bulk of foliage more than 1.5 m.high). B2 low shrub layer. . C D  herb layer. moss, liverwort and lichen layer (with those growing on the ground differentiated from those en decaying wood and on the bark of trees within 2 m. of the ground line).  The abundance and percentage of cover of species in the various layers were estimated according to the eleven grade scale of Krajina and Domin (1933), in preference to the original six grade scale of Braun-Blanquet  (1928), as the former allowed greater accuracy of evaluation.  The interpre-  tations of the scale values are: * 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  solitary, with small dominance. seldom, with small dominance. very scattered, with small dominance. scattered, with small dominance. often, with 1/20 dominance. often, with 1/5 dominance. any number, with 1/4 to 1/3 dominance. any number, with 1/3 to 1/2 dominance. any number, with 1/2 to 3/4 dominance. any number, with dominance more than 3/4, but less than complete. any number, with complete dominance.  These values were applied to each species in each layer in which i t occurred. Values representing v i t a l i t y were added to the total estimate value as an index, according to the following scale: 0 1 2 3  germinating, but not surviving, of ephemeral occurrence. feeble, but able to survive. strong, but not reaching maximum vigour. well developed, with maximum vigour and development normally found in the species.  The tree layer was characterized by measurement of the height and age of representative trees of each species and the diameter at breast height of a l l trees larger than four inches.  Prom these data the average height of dominants  and codominants was calculated by averaging the height of the upper f i f t y - f i v e percent of trees, heights having been obtained from a height/diameter curve constructed for each species on each plot.  Site index for Douglas-fir was de-  termined from the curves given by McArdle and Meyer (1949).  Volumes per acre  were derived from various volume tables used by the Research Division of the British Columbia Forest Service.  The number of trees per acre, average diame-  ter and basal area were also calculated. The density of the shrub layer was determined by line interception (Canfield 1941).  Ten lines, 50 feet long, approximately 6 feet apart, were  run across each plot just above the level of the shrubs.  The length of line  covered by a vertical projection of the leaf surfaces was recorded and data summarised as percentage of interception. crossed by the line was noted.  The average height of bushes  Large leaved harbaceous plants, such as  Lysichitum americanum and the larger ferns, were also measured by this method. In the case of ferns such as Polystichum muniturn, the length of line covered by a circle described around the clump was recorded as the amount of interception.  The line interception method involved some personal interpretation,  particularly with higher bushes, because the line should always have been viewed directly from above to judge accurately the length intercepted.  How-  ever, the additonal accuracy gained by the use of a plumb line did not appear to warrant the extra time involved. The plants of the herb layer were evaluated by the frequency method (Raunkiaer 1943, Braun-Blanquet 1951).  The size of the frequency frame  (2 25 dm) was gauged so that a reasonable number of species f e l l within each frame.  The frame was too small to describe accurately the frequency of occur-  rence of such large herbs as Polystichum muniturn and Lysichktum americanum which were, therefore, also evaluated by line interception. hundred frames per plot were t a l l i e d .  Eighty to one  The frames were set 5 feet apart along  the lines used for the line interception t a l l i e s .  Results were expressed as  the percentage of frames in which a species occurred. The mosses and lichens growing on the ground were evaluated by the point frequency method (Levy and Madden 1933).  A ten-point frame, one decimeter  square constructed from 10-guage steel wire, was moved along the tape used for line interception at 5-foot intervals.  The species in contact with each point  was recorded at the eighty to one hundred spots on which the frame was set. Results were expressed as the percentage of ground covered by the various species encountered.  17 SOILS  Soil profile characteristics, the amount of stones and gravel, and the texture and organic content of the fine soil were studied as the principal soil properties determining water storage capacity. The description of soil profiles was based on the terminology of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Survey Manual (Handbook No.18, 1951), with the use of additional terms for organic layers and soils given by Hoover and Lunt (1952) and Wilde (1954).  In addition to field descriptions, soil monoliths  from eleven typical profiles were treated with vinylite resin (Smith and Moodie 1947) and preserved for laboratory examination. The particle size classes used in this study were based on those of the International Scale (Soil Survey Manual 1951). more than 25 5 2 .02 less than -  25 mm. 5 mm. 2 mm. .02 mm. .002 mm. .002 mm.  -  These classes were:  stones and coarse gravel medium gravel fine gravel sand silt clay  The proportions by volume of stones and coarse gravel, medium gravel, and the 5 mm. fraction were determined by analysing soil blocks of known size. The soil from blocks 20 cm. by 50 cm. by 20 cm. deep was separated by sieving and the volume of each fraction measured by displacement of water.  Pore space  was estimated by subtracting the volume of mineral soil (i.e. volume of water displaced) from the original volume of the block (20,000 ml.).  Soil blocks  were removed by two decimeter intervals down to the hardpan or to a depth of one meter which covered the normal root zone in most profiles. determinations was made on each plot.  One series of  Measurements were made at the end of  the summer when soils were dry, facilitating field sieving and reducing error in pore space estimation resulting from an apparent increase in mineral soil volume attributable to soil moisture.  Wet soils from certain profiles v . - .  18 were allowed to a i r dry before sieving. The proportions by weight of the fractions larger than 2 mm. were determined by sieving.  A mechanical analysis of the 2 mm. fraction was made by  the hydrometer method, according to the procedure prescribed by the American Society for Testing Materials (1944). In the determination of the volume weight of the 25 mm. s o i l fraction, the volume occupied by a sample was found by pouring enough dry sand into a plastic bag to f i l l the hole l e f t by excavating the sample.  The volume of the  sand was measured in a graduate and the weight of s o i l found on oven drying. Sample weight was divided by sample volume to obtain volume weight and the values for each decimeter depth interval were averaged for five pits on each plot. Concretions were common in many soils.  Samples of the medium and fine  gravel fractions were heated in a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and potassium dichromate to reduce them to simple mineral particles. material greater than 5 or 2 mm.  The residual  (the lower limits of the medium and fine  gravel fractions) was separated by sieving and the weight determined after oven drying.  Results were expressed as the proportions of the gravel fractions  which were actually composed of gravel particles and the proportions which were constituted of concretions of finer materials. Organic matter content was determined by the wet combustion method, as outlined in the Sampling Procedures and Methods of Analysis for Forest Soils (Forest Soils Committee of the Douglas-fir Region 1953). Determinations of pH were made using sieved, air-dried soils, rewetted to a saturated paste (Richards 1954).  Measurements were made with a Beckmaa  N-2 glass electrode pH meter. WEATHER AND MICROCLIMATE Measurements of precipitation, evaporation and temperature were taken  19 to evaluate the microclimate of plots and record seasonal variations. The amount of precipitation reaching the ground within a plot was measured using four raingauges per plot.  The gauges used on the plots were made from  two 105-oz. cans soldered together, giving a total capacity of 35 cm. of rainfall.  This amount proved inadequate during certain wet months, necessitating  some interpolation of results.  Seasonal variation was recorded by measure-  ments at weekly intervals during the summer of 1951, twice monthly in the summer of 1952 and monthly during other periods of the study. minated in November 1953.  Plot records were ter-  Nine additional gauges were placed on four of the  Wolf Mountain plots during part of the study.  These gauges were used as a  check on the adequacy of four gauges for measurement of the precipitation penetrating the canopy.  Average r a i n f a l l reaching the gauges within the plots  was subtracted from total r a i n f a l l measured at adjacent open stations outside stands to obtain the amounts intercepted.  Results were expressed as the per-  centage of total r a i n f a l l which failed to reach the ground.  Water reaching  the ground by running down tree trunks was not measured because none was present during the summer which appeared to be the only season in which interception played a prominent part in influencing s o i l moisture contents. Porous porcelain atmometers (Livingston 1935) were used to measure evaporation at three open stations and within the subordinate vegetation of each plot*  Measurements were made at 5 cm. and 100 cm. above the ground*  A  mercury valve, held in place by lambs wool plugs was incorporated with each atmometer to prevent entrance of rainwater (Daubenmire 1947).  On the Fourth Lake  and Wolf Mountain plots black bulb atmometers were placed alongside the 5-cm. white bulbs to compare the radiant energy reaching ground level on the different plots.  Readings of evaporation were taken at weekly intervals June through  September 1951 and twice monthly May through September 1952.  The atmometers  were standardised in the customary manner (Daubenmire 1947), correction co-  20 efficients being obtained by comparison with standard bulbs supplied by Mrs. Burton E. Livingston. Air temperatures on the Wolf Mountain and Fourth Lake plots were measured with Six's type maximum/minimum thermometers placed one meter above the ground. Monthly records were taken June through October 1953. Soil surface temperatures on each plot and at adjacent open stations were also measured with Six's type thermometers.  The thermometers were buried with  the tops of the bulbs approximately one-half of one centimeter beneath the s o i l surface.  This placed them within the l i t t e r layer in most cases.  Readings  were taken weekly June through September 1951, twice monthly May through Septeu*er 1952 and monthly during other periods of the study.  Plot records were  terminated in November 1953, although measurements at the open stations were continued until November 1955. Soil temperatures were measured whenever s o i l moisture was sampled. During the direct sampling s o i l temperatures were measured by inserting a thermometer into the side of the pits at various depths (5, 15, 30, 60, 80 and 100 cm.). tection.  The thermometer was enclosed in a pointed armoured case for proThermistors were incorporated with the fibreglas s o i l moisture units  used for s o i l moisture determination (Colman and Hendrix 1949).  Readings were  interpreted from the calibration curves constructed for each thermistor.  Soil  temperatures were taken semi-monthly June through December 1951 and monthly from May 1952 until November 1953. SOIL MOISTURE Soil moistures were determined both by direct and indirect sampling methodSo  Samples f o r direct measurement were obtained by digging pits because the soils of most plots were stony and samplers could not be used.  Sampling  31 was by decimeter intervals down to the hardpan or to a depth of one meter. Pits were r e f i l l e d on completion of sampling, with the exception of one p i t on each pot which was l e f t open to observe fluctuations in the level of any water table that might be present.  Moisture contents were determined by oven drying  the 5 mm. fraction of these samples at 105°C» and results were expressed as a percentage of dry weight.  During part of the study a 4 mm. wire mesh screen  was used for sieving the f i e l d samples.  The effect of this variation in sieve  size on moisture values was unimportant. Fiberglas electrical resistance units were selected for indirect measurements because they were supplied with thermistors enabling temperature measurements to be made at the same time as moisture readings (Colman and Hendrix 1949). The meter used with these units was also more convenient to operate than those used with other types of units.  It has been shown that electrical resistance  units are sensitive over a wide range of s o i l moistures (Kelley et a l 1946), and that the fiberglas units have as good a range of sensitivity and accuracy of response as other types of units (Palplant and L u l l 1953).  Since this study  was conducted in leached soils, no complication through the effects of salt concentration i n the s o i l solution was anticipated.  The units were inserted  into the side of pits at depths of approximately 5, 15, 30, 50, 80 and 120 cm. where profiles were deep enough, or down to the hardpan i n shallower s o i l s . The leads from the units were connected to a rotary selector switch enabling rapid measurement of moisture and temperature values (Fig. 17).  One bank of  units was placed on each plot. Although i t has been recommended that units be calibrated in undisturbed soils (Hendrix and Colman 1951), the 5 mm.  s o i l fraction was used in this study  because of the d i f f i c u l t y of obtaining undisturbed samples in the gravelly soils encountered and because the major emphasis was on variation in available moisture.  22 Wilting percentage i s more closely related to texture and organic content than to structure.  Sieved samples also had greater uniformity because variation  in the coarse gravel content of unsieved samples disproportionately influenced their dry weight and therefore moisture percentage. Several methods of calibration were tested.  It was found that although  calibration took longer, there was a more even distribution of moisture i n closed containers than i n screen boxes, such as those used by Kelley (1944). The units were calibrated i n small cans (1 x 1 x 2 in.), f i l l e d with s o i l from the locations where the units had been buried.  Drying was earried out at 100°F.  Following an equilibration period at 60°F., the cans were weighed and the corresponding resistances measured.  A drying cycle of six readings from saturation to  below wilting percentage occupied about two weeks, with an average of five drying cycles per unit being needed for good calibration.  Percentage moisture was  calculated on the basis of the oven dry weight of s o i l , determined at the end of the calibration period.  Calibration curves were plotted for each unit.  The original units used during the field study were accidentally destroyed before moisture calibration had been undertaken.  Calibration was done on new  units, using the s o i l i n which the originals had been embedded i n the f i e l d . Ten units from this new l o t were tested to find the variability that might be expected among units.  Calibration curves for each of these units were deter-  mined in the same sample s o i l .  Although variation was appreciable (4 to 10  percent) at the higher moisture percentages, variation near wilting percentage was less than one percent.  Variation among the higher values was probably  largely attributable to the effects of structure and packing, noted by Hendrix and Colman (1951).  It was therefore assumed that the calibration curves ob-  tained using the substitute units could be applied to the f i e l d readings* Field readings were corrected for temperature before the corresponding moisture  23 percentages were interpreted. The 15-atmosphere percentage was used as an indirect measurement of wilting percentage (Richards and Weaver 1943).  Direct measurements using  sunflowers (Briggs and Shantz 1912, Daubenmire 1947) were not made because in many of the soils sampled sunflower root growth was too poor to obtain satisfactory results.  The procedure was also considered too lengthy for the num-  ber of samples involved.  The 1/3-atmosphere percentage was determined as a  measure of field capacity (Richards and Weaver 1944).  Although no laboratory  procedure using sieved soils can be entirely accurate because field capacity is largely dependent on soils structure, the l/3-atmosphere percentage appeared to be a convenient value to indicate when soils were nearing saturation. Values obtained by this method usually corresponded to field moisture contents after soils had drained to field capacity following heavy rainfall. Wilting percentages (15-atmosphere percentages) and field capacities (l/3-atmosphere percentages) were determined with a pressure membrane apparatus. The procedures followed were similar to those outlined by Richards (1954), except that extractions were made on the 5ram.soil fraction using a Visking membrane at both pressures.  Extractions at the higher pressure (220 p.s.i.)  were made for 24 hours, by which time water was no longer expressed. layers required 48 hours or longer.  Organic  Samples extracted at the lower pressure  (5 p.s.i.) also required 48 hours before equilibrium was reached.  A standard  sample of known soil moisture constants was included with each batch of samples. With variations of less than 2 percent in the standard value, a correction factor was applied to the values for the samples.  Where the variation was great-  er a new extraction was made. Wilting percentages were determined from subsamples of a l l the samples dug for direct measurement and a l l the soils surrounding resistance units. Field  24 capacity was determined for very wet samples.  Available moisture was calcu-  lated by subtracting wilting percentage from field moisture and the presence of gravitational water was noted in those samples which were above f i e l d capacity. The depth of available water in the profile was calculated by multiphying  soil  depth (excluding the amount occupied by stones and coarse gravel) by the volume weight of the 25 mm.  fraction and the percentage of available moisture.  assumed that the water held by the gravel of the 5-25 mm.  It was  fraction was negligible.  Seasonal variations i n available moisture were followed for a thirty-month period.  Each plot was sampled nine times by direct measurement between June  1951 and September 1952.  Readings of the resistance units were made from Octo-  ber 1952 until November 1953.  RESULTS CLIMATE Precipitation. Mean annual precipitation for the period 1952 to 1956 decreased from west to east i n the study area, the Fourth Lake station receiving 107 inches, the Valley station 77 inches and the Deadwood Creek station 54 inches (Table 2). This trend paralleled that shown by other stations on Vancouver Island in comparable locations.  During the same period an average of 121 inches was  recorded  at Nitinat Camp i n the central mountains, 88 inches at Cowichan Lake further east and 43 inches at Duncan near the east coast (Fig. 18).  Annual precipita-  tion in the western part of the central mountain range was similar to that received on the west coast (e.g. Pachena Point 125 in.).  The pattern of de-  creasing r a i n f a l l from west to east occurred because the prevailing rainbearing winds were westerly and the central mountains caused a rainshadow on their leeward side.  This rainshadow effect became intensified towards the east coast of  25 the Island and was continued onto the adjacent mainland of British Columbia. Total r a i n f a l l during the summer months (June, July, August) of 1951 to 1956 averaged 5.9 inches at Fourth Lake, 4.7 inches at the Valley station and 3.2 inches at Deadwood Creek, again showing an intensification of the rainshadow effect towards the eastern end of the study area.  The same trend may  be noted from the averages for Nitinat Camp, Cowichan Lake and Duncan (Table 2). However, i n summer the rainshadow area was displaced further to the west, with Nitinat Camp receiving l i t t l e more than half the r a i n f a l l measured at Pachena Point (Table 2.).  This displacement occurred because during periods of light  r a i n f a l l clouds coming from the west dropped most of their moisture on the western coastal belt, leaving only a small proportion to f a l l farther east. In high r a i n f a l l periods a larger amount of moisture s t i l l remained after the clouds had passed the coastal belt and the western part of the central mountains received as much precipitation as the west coast.  Thus, although annual rain-  f a l l at the western end of the study area was comparable to the wet climate of the west coast outside the rainshadow area, during the growing season even the westerly plots were within the rainshadow area. A comparison of the precipitation recorded at the station on the valley floor and another 250 feet higher up an adjacent s i d e h i l l i n the Valley area showed that r a i n f a l l increased with altitude.  The mean annual precipitation  was 78 inches on the valley floor compared with 85 inches at the upper station. In summer the average was 4.7 inches at the lower station and 5.0 inches at the upper station.  Records from another pair of stations on Echo Mountain also  showed the same trend (Appendix IV).  The importance of local rainshadows i n  modifying such trends was, however, shown by the records for the Valley and Echo Mountain stations.  Although the latter was 750 feet higher i t received  much the same summer r a i n f a l l (4.7 inches at Valley, 4.8 inches at Echo Mountain) and the difference in r a i n f a l l over the entire year was only ten inches.  The  26 TABLE 2. THE CLIMATE OF THE NANAIKO RIVER VALLEX COMPARED WITH OTHER STATIONS Oil VANCOUVER  LOCATION  STATION  ISLAM POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION 1  TEHPERATORE  PEEC1PITATI0N (inches)  1°?) SUHEER*  WNTER'  •g •c s.  a o>  3 s 3s § i 11  ail NANA1U0  S  3  s  3i §s  07 05 06 05  124 124 124 124  09 17 20 24  48 31 48 47 49 04 49 39  123 123 123 125  • 730 25 28 43 • 104 54 01 523  48 49 48 55  124 08 124 29  580 560  48 43  125 06 126 32  150 21  49 49 49 49  750 650 1400 1000  -  41  3.2 . 4.7 4.8 5.9  87 88 84 88  49 49 40 48  15 16 18  15 .  36 36 28 34  35 43 40 58  3.0 3.2 3.2 4.5  83 93 85 88  38 48 44  48  25 20 18 20  33 32 35  274 156 182' •154  26 26 23 25  13 14 12 13  50 54 52 52  121  88  5.2 6.0  85  44  18  30  174  24  12  50  125 121  10.4 10.9  70 68  28 26  24 25  26 24  196 227  24 24  10 11  42 44  54 77 88 107  ,  iin  Is ad S i  I'd  RIVER  Deedeood Creek Valley Echo Mountain fourth Lake  c  ii  i  SO* 72 87* T  •  11 10 10 8  EAST COAST Victoria' Duncan Caasldy Cumberland  25  17 25  13 11  42  9  CENTRAL MOUNTAINS Cowiohan Lake Nitinat Camp  I?" 97  BEST COAST Paohena Point Eatevan Point  49 23  After Thorntheaite (1948). Summer - June, July, August. Winter - December, January, February. * T-E - Thermal efficiency. Surplus and deficiency calculated using potential evapotranspiration * Surplus and deficiency calculated using potential evapotranspiration 'Surplus and deficiency calculated using potential evapotranspiration Surplus and deficiency calculated using potential evapotranspiration 'Dominion Astrophysical Observatory ( L i t t l e Saanich fountain]. Lady smith. Surplus and deficiency calculated using potential evapotranspiration  1  1  J  5  6  for for for for  Cassldy. Albernl. Cumberland. Cowichan Lake.  B  u  f o r Cowichan Lake.  54  7  16  30  87  PLATE  71, Figure 18  PLATE "71 •  Location of weather stations.  Figure 18.  Location of weather stations on Vancouver Island and the coastal mainland of British Columbia  Echo Mountain station was located on the leeward side of Tangle Mountain (Fig. 1). Within the rainshadow area, precipitation decreased from north to south as well as from west to east (Table 2).  At the Valley station, which was  some eight miles from the east coast, summer r a i n f a l l was much the same as at Cumberland only three miles inland, but thirty minutes latitude (35 miles) farther north.  However, this trend from north to south was less predictable  than the west to east trend.  Parksville, for example, averaged a lower annual  r a i n f a l l than Cassidy to the south and for the period 1952 to 1956 Duncan received less r a i n f a l l than Cassidy to the north, even though the average rainf a l l at Cassidy i s greater than at Duncan.  Topographic features which cause  local rainshadows and variations in the distribution of weather systems bring about deviations from the general trends. TEMPERATURE High maxima in summer, low minima in winter and a wide range of temperatures during both seasons were recorded at a l l the stations in the study area. The values recorded were comparable to those measured at other stations of the eastern coastal belt and central mountains of Vancouver Island (Table 2). Such temperature regimes are characteristic of the "continental" climate of i n land areas and coastal belts where offshore winds are prevalent.  By contrast,  the stations of the west coast had lower summer maxima, higher winter minima and smaller ranges, characteristic of ••maritime" climates where the moderating i n fluence of the sea i s carried inland by frequent onshore winds (Sanderson 1948). Temperatures at Victoria, at the southern end of the eastern coastal belt, are also moderated because of the prevalence of onshore winds (Chapman 1952). Summer temperatures on the east coast and in the central mountains were, therefore, f a i r l y warm compared with those on the west coast, the difference i n  mean temperatures being 4 to 8°F. (Appendix I).  This difference i s even more  pronounced when mean maximum temperatures were compared (13° - 15°F.). Summer maxima recorded at the Echo Mountain station were lower than . those measured at other stations in the study area. higher and the range of temperatures smaller.  Winter minima were also  The lower maximum temperatures  were presumably partly attributable to the greater altitude of this station. However, the higher minima and smaller range would indicate that the station was also situated in the thermal belt*  Extreme temperatures, particularly minimum  temperatures, are moderated i n the thermal belt because accumulations of cold air occur less readily at midslope than on the valley floor (Daubenmire 1947). In the Valley area the smaller mean monthly range of temperatures at the sideh i l l station, compared with those recorded on the valley floor, clearly demonstrated this feature.  In summer the monthly range was 43°F. on the s i d e h i l l and  47°F. on the valley floor, whereas in winter i t was 28°F. on the s i d e h i l l and 35°F. on the valley floor.  However, minor variations also occurred between  stations at the same altitude.  Minima at the Cabin station were consistently  one or two degrees lower than at the Deadwood Creek station less than one mile away across relatively level terrain (Appendix I).  Local differences i n air  drainage were probably responsible for such variations. The best measure of the length of growing season for native vegetation is the calendar of phonological events.  From the data recorded on such occur-  rences as the appearance and increase in size of new Polystichum fronds and the yellowing and f a l l of Aohlys leaves in the autumn, i t was apparent that the growing season i n the study area extended from early May until mid October. It was also noted that similar events in spring on the Fourth Lake plots were a week to- two weeks later than at the eastern end of the valley.  Variation  in response of individual species and edotypes would, of course, result i n  30 d i f f e r e n c e i n the lengths of t h e i r growing p e r i o d s . The l e n g t h o f t h e f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d i s a n o t h e r commonly used measure o f t h e l e n g t h o f the g r o w i n g s e a s o n .  The l e n g t h o f t h i s p e r i o d may s e r v e t o  i l l u s t r a t e v a r i o u s t r e n d s found on Vancouver I s l a n d , even t h o u g h i t has more d i r e c t s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r c u l t i v a t e d t r o p i c a l p l a n t s g r o w i n g beyond t h e i r n a t u r a l r a n g e than i t does f o r v e g e t a t i o n n a t i v e t o temperate r e g i o n s .  The  s t a t i o n s w i t h a m a r i t i m e c l i m a t e , such as Pachena P o i n t and V i c t o r i a , have a much l o n g e r f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d t h a n t h o s e o f t h e e a s t c o a s t and c e n t r a l mounta i n s w i t h t h e i r c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e (Connor 1 9 4 9 ) .  On t h e e a s t c o a s t  the  more n o r t h e r l y s t a t i o n s have a s h o r t e r f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d t h a n do s t a t i o n s farther south.  The s t a t i o n s i n t h e c e n t r a l mountains may a l s o have a s h o r t  frost-free period.  Duncan, however, i l l u s t r a t e s how l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s may  cause d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e s e t r e n d s .  The Duncan s t a t i o n , b e i n g l o c a t e d i n a  f r o s t - p o c k e t a r e a , has an average f r o s t - f r e e  season of 156 d a y s , b a r e l y l o n g e r  t h a n t h e 154 days r e c o r d e d a t Cumberland, f i f t y - f i v e m i n u t e s l a t i t u d e m i l e s ) f a r t h e r n o r t h and 500 f e e t h i g h e r i n e l e v a t i o n .  The  (60  frost-free  p e r i o d a t Cowichan Lake o f 175 days i s p r o b a b l y l o n g e r t h a n many i n l a n d p o i n t s b e c a u s e of t h e p r o x i m i t y o f the r e c o r d i n g s t a t i o n t o t h e L a k e . S i n c e d a i l y temperature r e c o r d s were not t a k e n a t t h e s t a t i o n s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o compare l e n g t h s of f r o s t - f r e e  periods.  A comparison o f t h e average number o f months w i t h m o n t h l y minimum t e m p e r a t u r e s g r e a t e r t h a n 3 2 ° F . shows t h a t t h e  s t a t i o n s on t h e v a l l e y f l o o r  averaged  3 l / 2 t o 4 1 / 2 , whereas t h e Echo M o u n t a i n s t a t i o n , i n t h e t h e r m a l b e l t , averaged 5 months.  D u r i n g the same p e r i o d o t h e r s t a t i o n s i n t h e  mountains and on t h e e a s t c o a s t averaged 3 3 / 4 t o 4 3 / 4 months. s t a t i o n s of t h e west c o a s t and V i c t o r i a average 5 1/2 t o 7 months, t i v e of t h e i r maritime climates.  central The indica-  31 Another indication of the relative climates of the various stations i n the Nanaimo River Valley was the depth and duration of the snow pack.  Cold  temperatures and precipitation controlled snow depth, while warm temperatures affected i t s duration.  For the period 1952 to 1956 the average maximum depth  of the snow pack at Fourth Lake was 38 inches, at the Valley station i t was 19 inches and 8 inches at Deadwood Creek.  In the winters of 1951/52 and 1953/54,  snow remained at Fourth Lake and Echo Mountain into April, by which time the ground was only partially covered i n the Valley area and was clear at Deadwood Creek.  In 1956 even at the end of March the snow pack was s t i l l at i t s maxi-  mum of from 5 to 6 feet at Fourth Lake and from 3 to 4 feet on Echo Mountain, but i t was only 6 inches deep at the Valley station, and the Deadwood Creek area was largely free from snow. From the available data i t may be seen that the study area was influenced by a continental type of climate with relatively warm summers.  There was an  increase i n length of the growing season from west to east paralleling the i n crease from the central mountains to the east coast and from north to south. WATER BALANCE Average annual thermal efficiencies, calculated according to the potential evapotranspiration formula proposed by Thornthwaite (Thornthwaite and Mather 1955) were similar for various stations on Vancouver Island (Table 2).  It may  be noted, however, that average summer thermal efficiencies were greater at the east coast and central mountain stations than at the west coast stations.  The  summer percentages were therefore greater at the stations with a continental climate (50 percent or more) than at the stations of the west coast with a maritime climate (42 to 44 percent). Using Thornthwaite's concept that water balances (surpluses and deficiencies) may be determined by subtracting potential evapotranspiration from  precipitation, i t can be seen that the potential surpluses and deficiencies at various stations on Vancouver Island were chiefly dependent on r a i n f a l l d i s t r i bution because most stations had rather similar potential evapotranspirations (thermal efficiencies).  As potential evapotranspirations at the stations of the  east coast and central mountains were much alike, i t may be assumed that the values for the stations in the Nanaimo River Valley would not differ greatly from those of other stations with similar climates, where mean deaily temperatures have been recorded. in the study area.  Such values were therefore used to determine water balances The largest potential surpluses and the smallest potential  deficiencies occurred at Fourth Lake (Table 2 and Appendix I ) .  Potential sur-  pluses decreased and potential deficiencies increased further east.  These  trends paralleled those from west to east and north to south present among other stations on Vancouver Island.  The increased deficiencies in the rainshadow  areas were also partly attributable to their increased summer potential evapotranspirations • VEGETATION Pseudotsuga menziesii - Pinus contorta - Gaultheria shallon - Peltigera canina - Peltigera aphthosa association Pseudotsuga menziesii was the main component of the tree layers, with other species forming a negligible proportion of the stands studied (Tables 3 and 8).  Even at maturity, however, the average height of the dominant and co-  dominant Pseudotsuga was l i t t l e more than 100 f t . and average diameter at breast height only 18 inches.  Despite the f a i r l y large number of stems per acre, the  small stature of the trees resulted in small basal areas and volumes per acre. In the Fourth Lake plot (Ll) volume per acre was further decreased by the presence of openings caused by rock outcrops.  The Valley plot (L2), situated on  a small ridge at the side of the valley floor, had a somewhat higher site index than normal for the association, and this was reflected in the larger basal area  33 and volume per acre.  Pinus contorta was occasionally present in the lower  tree layer (e.g. Plot L3) of mature stands, but i t was more commonly present as clumps or scattered individuals a few inches in diameter and from twenty to forty feet high.  Tsuga heterophylla was uncommon in the tree layer, occurring  mostly in groups with individuals up to 40 f t . high.  Pinus monticola. though  infrequent, occurred more often in this association than in others. Low, scattered Gaultheria shallon was the predominant plant of the shrub layer.  Local concentrations of Tsuga heterophylla, four or five feet high,  were present on some plots, particularly at the western end of the valley. Pseudotsuga menziesii was also present in the shrub layer on the Wolf Mountain plot (L5).  Arctostaphyllos Columbiana was a characteristic, though infrequent,  shrub, occurring mostly in the more open parts of stands. The most common species of the herb layer were Linnaea borealis, Chimaphila umbellata. Goodyera oblongifolia, Mahonia nervosa and Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi.  Boschniakia hookeri was also a constant component.  Pseudotsuga  seedlings were scattered throughout, with seedlings of other species being rare. The most common species among the mosses of the moss-lichen layer were Hylocomium splendens and Eurhynchium oreganum, with Camptothecium megaptilum, Galliergonella schreberi. Polytrichum spp. and Rhacomitrium spp., mosses characteristic of the association, forming extensive patches in some plots. Lichens, such as Oladonia spp., Peltigera spp. and Stereocaulon spp. were also common on the ground.  Other lichens, particularly Alectoria spp. Usnea plicata,  Sphaerophorus globosus, Cetraria spp. and Lobaria oregana, on the bark of trees, were a very conspicuous feature of the association. Pseudotsuga menziesii - Gaultheria shallon association Pseudotsuga menziesii was again the predominant species of the tree layer, with the dominants and codominants averaging from 147 to 175 f t .  34 TABLE 3;  TOTAL ESTIMATE ANALYSIS OP TVS  P5KUP0T8U0A UEHZIES11 - PIHUS  COHTOHTA - GAULTHERIA SHALLOW - PELTIGERA CAH1HA - PELTIGERA APHTHOSA ASSOCIATION PLOTS  PLOT L5  0«t« Bwlyawl Altltuda (ft.) Iipoaur. Slop. Hod  10 J u i » ' 5 2 5 1000 750 SSI I 20° 0-15" *f  Mpoau.  .£  PLOT U  4«  PLOT L3  11 July'31 740 S* 2"  +  SB*  PLOT L2  PLOT U  19 J W M ' 5 2 750 ss. 0 - 25°  2 Aug'53 1570 • 0 • 5°  •  +(+)  I  SB» £]» sa»  4}» j?W  3)»  C  30).  35*  35*  35*  25*  D  30*  30*  60*  50*  25*  PLOT L3 Pseudotsuga neoslesli  L2  7  1  L$  U  7*  l  7  1  A2 Paaudotauga eeaftieail Pinus contorts Pious aootioole Tsuga hetaropaylle Bl Tauga hetarophyll* Paaudotauga aanaiesil Ploua contorta P i m a aoutleola B2 Gaultbaria ahalloa Pinua contorta Arctostapbyloa coluablaaa Paaudotauga • • n a i a a l i S a i l s eitchansis Tauga beteropnylla rioua aoDtioola, Yacdnlua p a n i f o l l u a Thuja plloata Bosa gyanocerpa Vacciniua aeabranaceua Abies granule  Gaultheria aaallon Llnnaea boraalla Arotostapbylo* uva-ural l l l o t r o p a virgata Slaraoiua elbiflorun Bosehniakle hookari Goodyare oblooglfolia Chlaaphila uabellata Vacoinlua par?ifallua Fastuca occidentalis Kabonla nervoaa Manoala aqulfollua V i o l a orbiculata Pyrola pict* var. dantata Apocynun androaaaalfoliua Paaudotauga aanaiesil Bubus v l t l f o l l u a •onotropa latisquaaa Chlaaphlla Benalesil Syopnorl c&rpo* aiollia Achlya t r i p b y l l a Ptarldiua aquillnua Trientalia l a t i f o i l a Thuja p l i c a t a Pinua aonticola Polyaticbua aualtua Tauga beUrophylle Vacoinlua •eaDranaceua Pious contorta Boaa gyanooarpa Vacciniua alaskaaase L l a t a r a cordata Bplloblun panlculatua Faatuca subulate Taius o r o l f o l l e Caapanula aooulari L i l l u a coluabianua Pyrola braoteata Calypso bulboaa Poly podium vulgar* Pyrola p i c t a var. oreaata Maloa d i v e r a l f a l i a Vacciniua o v a l l f o l l u a  r I  1  2  l  + r 3  1  7  l  r  2  1  2*  >  7  -  2*  -  l  7"  6'  * -  + •< 1* *  -  2  x  +'  + 3*  2' 2' 3*  1  1  -  1  +i 2  *•'  +  i' ..' :  :  :* :  +*  2 3 3'  +*  a l  •*  K K K < 3  l  *•  1  K \ l  4  1  l  ji  i  a  1  2  3'  -  +'  1  2' 1  3'  3  1  1  1  1  *^  *t 4  •  1  D (on ground) ByloootiluB aplendeos Eurnynchiua oraganua Caaptothsciua oagaptllua Dioraaua acopariua Paltigara aphthosa Peltigera eanlna Paltigara polydaetyle Polytrichua junlparlnuB ePolytricb.ua p i l l f e r u a CaHlorgooella aohrabarl lulacoanlUB eadrogynua •Bhaooaitriua oanascaoa aBbaooaltriUB hetorostichua Bbacoaitriua lanuglooaua Cladonla g r a o l l l a Cladonla a y l v a t i c a . Cladonla furcata Cladonla ranglfarioa Cladonla f i a b r i a t a Cladonla b a l l l d l f l o r a aCladanla pyxldata Cladonla v a r t l c l l l a t a Cladonla u n c i a l l a Cladonla aquaaoaa Cladonla daganarans Staraocaulon paaobala 3taraocaulon tooantoaua Dioranua Xuacasoana Pllophoron oaraolus Pllophoron H a l l l i Br/ua pallana Paaudotauga aanaiaail BoTtldiopala robuata BbTtidladalpbua trlquatrua Bhjtldiadalpbua loraua aBartraada poolforala •Paaudlaotnaalua atolonlfarua Dicranua atrlotua Dioraaua bonjaanil Oloranoaaiaia olrrhata •Mnlua aplnuloaua Tauga bataropn/lla D (on decaying wood) Dicranua tuacaaoans Hypnua c i r o l n a l a lulaconniua androgynua Cladonla pyzldata Surnynohlun oragaoua Byloooalua aplandana Paltigara aphtboaa Cladonla g r a o l l l a Cladonla b a l l l d l f l o r a Cladonla f i a b r i a t a Cladonla nacilsnta Cladonla aquaaoaa Cladonla v a r t l o i l l a t a Cladonla aubsquaaoaa Cladonla furcata Paltigara aanlna Dicranua atrlotua Paaudlaotbaolua stolonlfarua Soapanla bolandari Bbytldiadalphus loraua Bhytldiadalphua trlquatrua i n t l t r i e h l a cuxtipaodul* Calliargooalla aohrabarl Polytriohua Junlparlnua Capbalosla lauoantba Capbaloala oadla Dioraaua asoparlua Dloranoaalsla oirrbata Plagiothaciua dontloulatua Lophooolaa hatarophyli* Blapharoatoaa trlcbopbjilua Oobrolaebia tartaraa Protoeocoua v l r i d i a  Tba aaln ouaaral i o aacb column i a tha t o t a l estimate value for aaoh apacies, based on a seala froa > to 10. Tha lodai rapraaaota the v i t a l i t y , on a scale t'roa 0 to 3.  L4  3 4 y  L3  U 4'  1 1  3  1  >  3  ^ 4 X  L2 1  3  2  U  C i>\  y  i\ 2)  K \ K K\ 3  2  >  2  3  >  2  2*  2  1  +• 1*  3 l y I 2  1  2* »  +  a  1 s  .  \  i  2 3 3 2 l l  2  t  i 2  2 2  1  s  1 l  h  3  l ' + 1  1 1  a  1  -  2 l 3^ 2> 2  1  1  J  I -  i  2  2*  2  \  +1 *l  +  1  r ri  1  1  I  1  1  A>  +: i  D (on traaa) On PsEnDOToDGl HEHZIGS21 alaotoria aaraantoaa Sphaarophorus globoaua Paxaalla phyaodaa Catrarla laouooaa Catraxla glauoa Catrarla acutata Haphromopala c t l i a r i a Bypnus o l r c i n a l a Cladonla aacllenta Alaotoria oragana U a c t o r a Jubata . Ocnrolashia upaallanaio Lobaila oragaaa Danaa p l i c a t a Latbaxia vulplaa -Dioraaua fuacaaeana Dioranua atrlotua Cladonla furcata ayaoblaatufl aangulnarlua ayooblaatua alpinua Oohrolaenla tartaraa  i.5 3 2 2 2  U J  .  1 2 l'  1 1  J 1  -3  *' 1^ l 3  1 2 2  1  3  S  J 1 ?  3* 2 2  J 2 a  l -  a  I  1  2 -  I  l  1  .  2 l 1*  2* 2 2 -  1* l  2 2  J  +* 1»  a  l  3  l  l  1  -2* * *  -  •*  T  J  *  +  »  +  -  -  +> +a  *  l  1  2 iJ J  t> -  -  3  2  3>  +'  2  +  2 -  -  5  ^  I  1  1  1  1  +  :  on PIuTC CONTORT! Paralalia phyaodaa •Catrarla glauoa Catrarla laouooaa i l a c t o r i a aaraantoaa - a l a c t o r i a Jubata alaotoria oragaaa -Hypnua o l r c i n a l a Danaa p l i c a t a Cladonla aacilanta Partusaria aablgaos •Myooblaatus aangulnarlua -Catrarla acutata -Surhyncblua oragaoua -Dicranua s t r l c t u a Cronartlua oarEoaasll on TSDGA BBTEBOPHXLU Paxaalla phyaodaa Lobaria oragaaa Catrarla glauoa -Surbyncbiua oraganua Byloooaiua aplandana Paaudisotbeoiua stolonlfarua F r u l l a a l a nlsquallaaaia F t l l i d i u a callfornlcua Poralla naTicularla oa PIHUS M0HT1CCLA Catrarla lacunoaa •Catrarla glauoa Catrarla acutata Raphroaopaia o l l l a x i a •Lobaria oragana Hypnua o l r c i n a l a Paraella phyaodaa Sphaarophorus globoaua Cladonla aacilanta a l a c t o r i a jubata Alactoria oragaaa -Dioraaua fusoaaoana XurhyncblUB oraganua Alactoria saraantosa Partusaria oultlpunata - F r u l l a a l a olaquallanala  Interpretation of eyabolsi a Largely on exposed rook and stones. " Largely on dead branches - Largely at tba basas of traaa  1  l  l  * * * *  -  -  I  -  I  + +  •*  •  s 1  1' 1  •  l  J  l  1 a  -  *  * + +  -  1 3  •  a  *  2  3  ^  2  l  2 2 -  J  1  I n l aj.fti.nl um andfOgyPUM  Dioranovolaia clrrnata -RurhyncM.ua oraganua Partusaria aablgaos Graphls ap.  1  1  l  • * -  3j l -  1  a  3  I  U  l ! 5^  >  -  2 + 3  12  3\  1  -  2 -  J  l  35  TABLE 4 :  TOTAL E S T I M A T E A N A L Y S I S OF T H E  SHALLOW  AND T H E  SHALLOW  Wind Covsn  ASSOCIATION  PLOT 04  PLOT 06  PLOT 03  11 Aug"52 880  13 i U f ' 5 2 720 St 12°  6 June'52 S10  18 Aug'52 870 11 20° +  10°  exposure Al  PLOTS  PLOT 0 )  SW  3S«  <2I<«  rS)w  OAULTHBRIA  I S U O A HETEROPHYLLA - GAULTHERIA  ASSOCIATION  PSSUDOTSUGi • GAULTHERIA  Dat* analysed Altitude ( f l . ) Exposure Slop*  PSEUDOTSUGA M B H Z I B S I I -  PSEUDOTSUOA H B M Z 1 B S U -  P3MD0T3UGA - TSUGA GAULTH&KIA A S S ' H . PLOT 01 . PLOT 02 2 Aug'53 H20  12 J i O j ' 2 1 1700  aw 35<  25»  ZK  35*  35K  30*  ft  i ii 1  SB  15 1 SIS  I  E 3  o. 3  PLOT  C (oontlnuad) Triantalis l a t i f o l i e Rypoohaerle r a d i o e t a Chaaaeajparis noctkatanals Pinus aontloola T r i l l i u a ovetua L l s t a r a cordate Polypodlua vulgar*  Pa audo t s u g a a e n m i a e i i Tsuga hatarophjrlla A2 Fsaudotsuge M D I I M U Tsuga h e t e r o p t i v l l a Thuja p l i c a t e Pinus a o n t i e o l * Chaaaecy p a r t s n o o t k a t e n s i a  BI  Tsuga h e t s r o p h y l l a Thuja p l i o a t a Ps*udo tsuga M D k l M l i Pioua a o n t l o o l a Chaae*ayparia nootkatenaie Bolodiscus d i s c o l o r Abies grandl* Abies e n a n U l s Pinus 000tort* B2 Gaul t o * r i * • h a l l o o V a o a l n i u a p a r * I f o i l ua Thuja p l i c a t e Tsuga b e t e r o p h / l l * B O M gyanocarpa Psaudotsug* a e n x i e a i l Able* grandl a Chaasaoyparia ' n o o t k a t e n s i a Pinus a o n t i e o l * v a o c i n l u a aaabrenaceua Yaealnlua o v a l i f o l i u a Aulas a a a b l l l a Holodlsouo d i s c o l o r  GaulUisrla shallon Hahonla nervosa Iii rtnae* b o r s a l l a 7acoiniua p a r v l x o l l u a Chlaaphila umbellate B o s c h n i a k l a hooka r l Goody* r * oblong I f o U a AlXotropa v i i g a t a Achlya t r i p h y l l * Bubus v i t i f o l i u s Polystichua aunitua P t e r i d i u a aquillmiB Boss gynnooarpa Coiaaphil* aenslesil Syaphorloerpoa a o l l l a Tsuga b e t e r o p h y l l a Vecolnlua o v a l i f o l i u a V a c o i n i u a aewraneoeun Pyrola plat* Pyrola braatceta Bolodlaoua d i s c o l o r G a u l t u a r l e or a t H o l l a Lonieere « p . Paatuaa o o o l d e n t a l l a Adenoonulon bloolor Viola orbloulata C o r e l l o r h i s a aaoulata V e e e i n i u a aleakaense  3*  3? 3"  5*  3 3*  4*  l  •<  2  l  3 3  1 1  1  1  3*  05  04  G6 03  D (on ground) H y l o o o a l u a splandans K u r h y i i c h i u a oraganua Bhytidiadelphua loraus Rhrtldladalphua triquetrua R h y t l d l o p s i s robusta Caaptotheoiua a a g e p t i l u a •Dioraaua asopariua aDiarenua fuaoascaaa •Polytrlahua juniparinua e P a l t l g a r * aphthosa Hypnun o l r o i n a l e Plagiotheaiua dsnticulatun Bhaooaitriua heteroatlahua Mniua punotatua alfnlun a * n a i * s l l C l a o podium o r l o p i f o l i u * •Psaudisothaoiu* stoloaiferua a P i l o p h o r o n h«i Pa sudo t s u g a n e r n l e s i i Tsuga h a t a r o p h y l l * Thuja p l i c a t e D ( o n d e c a y i n g wood) H y l o o o a i u a apisodana Eurhynohiua oraganua Soapanla b o l a n d a r i D i o r a n u a fusoaaoans Dicranua acopariua Hjpnua o i r a i n a l a Hniua punotatua Caphaloaia aadia Clad0ni» a a o i l a n t a Bajtidladslphus loraus Paaudisothaoiua a t o l o n i f a r u a P l a g l o t b a o l u a undulatua Hhxtldlopaio robusta loaadophlla sriostorua P t l l i d l u a puloharriaua S c a p a n l a uabrosa L a p i d o s i a raptans A u l a o o a n l u a androgynua Caljrpogaia t r i o h o a a n i a Tsuga h a t a r o p h y l l a Paaudotauga a s n s l a s i i Thuja p l i o a t a D (on t r a a bark) on P5EUD0T3DGA IIENZIESII D i o r a n u a fusosacens Sphaarophnrus g l o b o s u s BJpnun o l r o i n a l a Cladonla aaoilanta C a t r a r i a laounoaa C s t r a r i a a out a t * Haphroaopsis c d l i a r i s P a r a a l i a phjrsodss Oehrolaohla pallaaoans  5  3  2' 1°  5  1  +* 2°  0 (oontlnuad) Soapanla b o l a n d a r i P t l l i d l u a pulensrriaua A u l a o o a n l u a androgjrnua - E u r n r n o h l u a oraganua -Faeudlaothaolua s t o l o n l f a r u a t l a c t n r i a aaraantoaa a l a o t o r i a Jubata Dioranua s t r l a t u a Dioranua soopariua ahTtidiadalpbus loraus H/ooblastus sanguinarlus C l a d o n l a suosquaaosa Cladonla b a l l i d l f l o r a P a r t u s a r i a aablgans Graphis s c r i p t * on PIHDo HOBTICOU Hypnua o l r o i n a l a P a r a a l l a pbjrsodas D i o r a n u a fusoasoana Sphasrophorua globosua ^ C a t r a r i a laeunoaa Naphroaopsla o i l i a r i a Cladonla a a o i l a n t a Ochrolaehia pallasoans P t i l l d i u a pulsharriaua L o b a r i a oregana P a r t u s a r i a aablgans BhTtldladalphua loraus H j l o o o a i u a aplandana - E u i n / n o h i u a oraganua on TSUGA HEH80FH2LLA  3  s  2' , 2 ' 2 +* l I 1  1  1*  1  grpoua oiroinala  Cladonla aaoilanta C a t r a r i a laounoaa Nsphroaopsia o l l i a r i o P a r t u s a r i a aablgans Soapanla b o l a n d a r i P a r a a l i a phjsodaa D i o r a n u a fusMSoans Sphaarophorua globosua Oohrolaohia pallasoans Thalotraaa lapadinua - E u r n / n o h l u n oraganua -Psaudiaotbaoiua stolonUTsrua - B y l o c o a i u a splandana L o b a r i a oragana Kjoobloatus sangulnaxius RhTtldiadalpbus loraus Alaotoria t . on THUJA PUCATA Cladonla aaoilanta L o b a r i a oragana •Hypnua o l r o i n a l a D i o r a n u a fusoasoans 3phaarophorus globosua P a r a a l l a pbjsodss Ochrolaehia pallasoans Soapanla b o l a n d a r i Thalotraaa lapadinua lurhrDohiua oreganua Psaudiaotbaoiua s t o l o o l f a r u a BhjTtidladalpliua l o r a u s H / l o o o a i u a splandana A l a o t o r i a aaraantoaa Hyooblastus s a n g u i n a r l u s  Interpretation Tha a a i n n u a a r a l i n aaoh coluan i s t h a t o t a l a s t i a a t e * a l u * f o r aaeh s p a o i a s , Lasad on a s e a l * f r o a + t o 1 0 , Tha i n d a x repraaauts t b a v i t a l i t y , on a s e a l s f r o a 0 t o 3 .  oT s y a o o l s t  a L a r g e l y on exposed rook and s t o n e s . - L a r g e l y at t h * bases ot t r a s s .  05 G4  06  PLOT 03  01 G2  36  'TABLE 51  TOTAL BST1MATS ANALY8I8 Of THE P8EUD0T81)0A MET.Z1E8II - jSWiA  HJTEHOPHYLLA - HYLOCOMIUM SPLlPiDgHB - EURHYPCHI1W OREOUCPM ASSOCIATION PLOTS  PLOT U9 Dtta l u l r t o d . U t l t u c i . (rt.) XipotUK Slop. Wind .zpoaur. Cot.n  H5  Paaudotauga M o i i u U Tauga heterophyUa Pinua aontleola  8  6 6'  J  1  4 5 +'  Paaudotauga M I I M U Tauga heterophylla Thuja plloata  l  1  A3  3* 3' 4  Tauga batamphylle Thuja plloata Paaudotauga -".f*"<1 i b l a a graadla Bl Tauga na^ropfaylla Thuja plloata i b l a a graadla B2 Tauga neterophylla Thuja plloata Gaultheria ahalloa Vacoinlua parvlf o l l m Bubo* apaatabU i b l a a graadla  flilaajftlla aainlaall •aboala nervoaa Llanaea boraalla V i o l a orblculata Pyrola pleta Pyrola braotaata Monotropa unlflora •oQOtropa latlaqueaa L i s t e n oordata Corallorhita aaoulata 'Vacoinlua parvlfollua ry,* M p h i i f uBballata Ichlya t r i p b y l l a Ooadyara oblanglfolia •Qanltherla ahalloa Polyaticbua aunltua T r l U l u a ovatua Triantali* l a t l f o l l a TlaraUa trlfollat* Tlaralla laelnlata i l l o t r o p a vlrgata aeer i eropbyllua i vitifollua  1  6  1  2'  1' I 1' 2' 2 1  1  2* 3 4 2 t • ' 1  1  1  l  3 3 2' 1 3' V 2  L  1  •  J  10 Jiu.*52 810 SSI 10° +  Al 12 A3  60*} 10*80* 40*J  £  "?}•»  PLOT K2 19 JunV52 1600 st 20° • (•) 75*1  5*|e0* 5*J  PUT H I 5 JIUM'32 TOO sa *° (•) 60*1 20* 85* 50*J  PLOT 113  PLOT H I  11 J u l / ' S l 650 KB 25°  2 AUA-'53 1080 w 25°  •  •  60*1  60(1  20*J  30*j  15*75*  20*(85*  ?}*  ?}»  C  5*  5*  5*  5*  5*  D  10*  it  60*  70*  35*  C (continued) Ptaridlua aqullinua Boaa gyanooarpa Claytonia a i h i rice Gallus t r i f l o r u a Dicentra foragea Broaua vulgaria Bleehnua apicant Synphorloarpoa albua Taooiniua alaakaensa Malioa a a l t h i l Carex leetopoda Paaudotauga Benaleail *Tsuga hsteropbylla Thuja plloata Abie* graadla Pinua aontloola  D (on ground) Hylocoadua aplandana Euxhynchlua oragaaua BhytidiadelpbuS loreua Bhytldladalpbua triquetrua Bhytldlopsls robuata ftnlua apinuloaua Plagiotheeiua alegar* Caaptothaoiua aagantllua «Paeudlsotbaolua •tolanlforua Polyporua acbaainitali Amanita ap. Sparaaale radloata Dioraaua fuaoeecens Atricbua wnd\rt p -"a Plagloohlla aaplanloldea eClaopodlua o r i a p l f o l i u a Batarocladlua procuabenJ Paaudotauga aaaaiesll Tauga beteropbylla Thuja p l l o a t a i b l a a graadla i l m i a rubra  D (on decayed wood} oost.) -Cladonla aacilanta F r u l l a n l a nlaquallonala Paaudlaothaolua otoloalfarua Caphaloaia lauaantna Icaadophila ericatorua • A n t l t r l a h l a ourtlpaodula Hnlua aplnuloeua Tauga heterophyUa Paaudotauga aenalaall Protoeocoua v i r i d l a D (on traaa) ' +o  -  7 5) 5>  5 51 l  +  3  1  1  l  1  on THUJA P U C i t i -Hypuua olroiaale -Dioraaua fuaoaacana F r u l l a a i a niaquallanala dadoala aaoilanta "PaeudlaotbaolUB atolonlferua -lurhynohlua oraganua ' Paraalla phyaodaa Spbaarophorua globoaua Hyooblaatua aaagulnaxiufl -Byloooalua aplandana P t U l d l u o puloharrlaua i n t i t r i c h i a curtlpsnduLe  0 (on decayed aood) Hypnua olrolaale Cephaloaia asdla Scapanla bolandarl Dioraaua fuaoaacana Lepldoala raptaaa Lophooolaa heterophylla Hciua punctatua BhyUdladalphua loreua Burhynehlua oraganua Hyloeead.ua aplandana • P t l l l d i u a puloaerrlaua BleeanUa l a t l f r c n a Callpogala trlohoaania  * a i a d . « r a p r w n t a tba v i t a l i t y , on a aoala froa 0 to 3 .  3 >\  1*  on TSOGa 1 V B 0 F B 1 L U -BypauB o l r o l n a l a Dicranua fuacaaoana Scapanla bolandarl "Frullaaia nlaquellonals Cladonla aacilanta apaeadlaothaelua atolonlferua -lurhynchiua oraganua Paraalla physodaa Spbaaropborus globoaua Kycoblaatua aanguinaxiua Partuaaxia aablgena Byloooalua aplendeaa Lophooolaa heterophylla Tbelotraaa lapadlaua P t l l l d i u a puloherrlaua  t  Tba aain mineral In each ooluaa U tba t o t a l e e t i a a f value f o r aaob species, baaed on a M a l a f r o . + t o 10.  . JJ  -Hypnua c i r e l a ale Dicranua fuaeaaoaaa -Scapanla bolandarl F r u l l a a i a niaquallanala Cladonla aaollasta •Paaudlaotbaeiua otoloniferua -Kurhynohlua oragaaua Paraalla phyaodaa Catrarla glauca Spbaarophorua globedua Protococcua v i r l d i o  3?  3* 1  l  3  interpretation of aynbola. , „ p o a e d rook and atonaa. U  i  r  o  i  y  o  n  ^ S^Sg^ood.  " Largely on dead brancbea. - Largely at the baaea of the traaa. • Surviving on f a l l e n trunks and brancbea.  1  **  37 TABLE 6 1  TOTAL BST1UATB ANALYSIS 0? THE PSEUD OT SUP A HBBZIBBII - THUJA £ u £ a 1 a ~ POLYSTICHUM OTHITDsl ASSOCIATION PLOTS  PLOT P i Dsts analyssd Altitude ( f t . ) bposurs Slop* Wind exposure Co**r A l A2 A3  22 J U M ' 5 2  a 2'  PLOT PI 2 Aug'53  1050  '  PLOT P5 20 J W 5 2 760  n  ar  20°  10'  •  * 5* SO*  PLOT P2 21 JiU»'52  70*1  20* 75* 10»J  1.}* 65«  50*  20*  12*  •  Psaudotsug* asoslsall  A  42 Pssudotsug* Toug* hstsroptayll* Thuja plicat* i b l * * grandla  l •  B*DB1C*11  1  P2  P5 P3  8*  8'  8  5 +>  3* +>  3* 1>  3  l  8*  J  «  Tsug* bstsroptayll* Tbnjs plicat* Able* grendls Aoar aacrophyllua Tsuga hatarophyll* Pssudotsog* Bsml*sil B2 Tsuga hat*rophyLI*. Thuja plloat* B s u gymnocarpa Bubus spaotabllls Vaooinlua pervlf o l l u a Abies grandl* 0 Polystiohua sunitua . Tlax*11* t r i f o l l a t a Achlya t r i p h y l l a Oallua Xrtf lorua T r i l l i u a ovatua T l e r e l l a laoiniat* AUryriu* f i l l x - f e a i n a Aduooaulon bloolor" Dryopteri* Claytoula a i b l r l c a Straptopus aaplexlfcllus Fcstuo* subulat* • s i l o * eubul*t* Care* baodaraoail Cartz lsptopoda Blsohnua apiaant Scabuous pubsns Dlc*otra foraos* a*boni* nervosa Llnaaaa borealis Viola orbloulata Trtaotalls l a t l f o l l a Lusul* parviflor* Chlaaphila seniles 11 * Chlaaphila uabsllat* Bubus v l t i f o l l o * Bubus air a l l s Dlsporua oraganua Vaooinlua parvifollua Vtcoisiua alssxaa&s* Boaa gyanooerp* "Ooodyara colonglfoll* Adlantua psdatua Vsratrua M o a a e n o l t i i l Circa** paolfloa Circa** alplrsa *Geult&erl* ahallon V i o l * glabella Sreaua vulgaris  3'  7 2 3 3 1* 1* 3  1  1  3'  6 2 i  3 1  1  4 5* s  l  2  *, l  1  1*  l I  1  *l  2 A 2 2* ++ 1  l  -2  X  l l  1  -,  2 l +' 1  +  -  --  l  -  1  I  +  1  l  1  -  5* 6 6 2 2 3  +  l  l  l  1  X 1  l  1  •'  1  +'  •  1* 1* 5*  1  .  3  1  6 3* 2 2 l 2 1' 1  1  -  3*  3'  2 l 1'  l  •  l  -  3  l  •  -  1  2 3* 3* 2 1' l l l  1  1  •+''  3* 1* i I +  1  +' 1'  -  +  +' 1  + 1  -2 *  l  1  1  5 l  l  l  1  3  1  2  70* 10* 75* JO*J  60* 5* 65* W*J  70*1  1,}**  " S I *  28-»  70*  00*  70*  15*  15*  7*  i  l  2  •  •  -  I  !  -  -  1  x  l  1  2  1  -  1  -  + *  4*  I'  +1  l  I  C (oontlnuad) Caapacula sooularl Ptarldlua aqulllnua Konotrop* unlflora Listers oaurln* Sailaclna s t e l l a t e Maiwtheaun dllatatua Oaaorhlsa chil*n*i* Bubua speotobllli Ranunculus bcnCwdil Callus apazlD* H l t s l l * oralis Lyaiobltua aaericanus Stachya o l l i a t a Clycaria nsrrosa S t s l l a r l * orispa Bubus lauoodarals *Hleraoiua s l b l f l o r u s Psaudotsug* aeDales11 Tsuga hataronhyUa Thuja plloat* Able* grandl* D (on ground) EurhyDOnlua oregaoua Mnlua inslgn* Holua B s n a i a s i i Hyloooalua splsndsns finytldl*d*J.pnus lor*us Bfaytldlopsis robusta Holua punotatua Conoosphslua oonlaua KurbyDchlua s t o s U t i i ' Plagloonlla ssplaololdas Plagiothaoiua undulatua T i t r l a n u a undulatua Boytidlsdalphus trtqustrus Polyporus s o h v s l n l t s l i Psaudotsug* a e n i l a s i l Tsuga heterophylla Thuja plloat* Abias grandls Acer aacrophyllua  P4  PI  P2  P4  P5  1  D (oo daoaylng wood) Lapldotia reptans Hnlua punotatua Mnlua splsulosua Plagiothaoiua dentlculatua Icaadophlla arlcetorua Elooardla latiXrons - Calypogsl* trlcnostanla Xurhynchlua or*g*nu* Hyloooalua splandans BhyUdlsdelphuS loraus PssudisotbsolUB stolonlrsrua Cspbslosi* aadia Csphsloai* 1sueantha Soapanla bolsndsrl Dioranua fusoesosns Hypnua clreinale Dioranua soopsxiua Rhytidladalpnus triquetrua Poaas apluatua  1  2*  Th* aaln nuaeral In eaob ooluan i s tha t o t a l astlaata valu* for each spsolss, based on * scale froa + to 10. The index represents the v i t a l i t y , on a soalo froa 0 to 3 .  PI  P2  P5  lhy?Siipats* robust* P t l l i d l u a pulcbarrlaua Plaglotbsolua undulatua A n t l t r i o u l * aurtlpsndula Cladonla aaoilcnt* Lophoools* haUropbyll* Plsurooooous v l r l d i a Tsuga hatarophyll* Thuja plloat* Psaudotsug* aaasisail Abies grandls l  2 C 1  5  l  -•  5 i •l 1" l l 1  +  l  1  •  -  -  -  I  •  -  -  2* 2° 2°  -  +*  1  1* 2° 2°  -  1'  1  2  «.  2  1  +' l 1  2  l  a  1  •  l  3, 4' 4 3  5* 4  -  -  -  2*  -  l  -  -  -  2  l  l  1  1  l + 2* x  2 2° 2° 1 2*  2  1  -  2° 2* +*  "  +'  l  1  l  1  2 1* 1  -  2' 2  •»  + 1*  2  1  l l 2! 1 1  3  l i  l  1  1  1  -  X  -  1  -  1° 2' 2*  1  3  1  J  2 +' *,  5  J  P3  1* I 1  D (on tr*a bark) 00 PSEDEOTSUGA MENZIESU Pssudlsotbsolua atolonlfsrua Hypnua olroinala Dioranua fusossosns Soapanla bolandari Hyloooaiua splsndsns Cladonla aaoilant* P s r a s l i * phyaod** Plsuroeooou* v l r l d l * Plagiothaoiua al eg ana Spbasropborus glooosus  1  -  -  1  +'  J  •  1  •'  0°  M  PLOT  PI 5  640  •  PLOT Pi  20 Jut»'S2  •  on TSCGA ELTiSOFHXLLA Psaudlsothsolua stolonlfsrua Porella navloulsrls Heckara douglasli Prullanla nlaquaUenals Badula ooaplanat* Hynua olroinala Pic ranua Tusossoaas lUir&yDoUua orsganua Cladonla asoilant* Thalotraaa lapadinua P s r a s l i * ph/aodss Sphasropboru* globosua P t l l i d l u a pulohsrrlaua Bbytldladslpnua loraus Pieurococcus T l r l d i s Pssudisothsaiua stolonilerua Por*U* OCTiealaria Bsokar* douglasli Prullanla also.usl*&sls Badula ooaplanat* Badula bolandari Bypnua olrolnal* Scapanla bolandsrl Dioranua fusossosns Cladonla a*ell*nt* -Eurnyneblua orsganua Spbasropborua globosus P t l l i d l u a pulohsrriaua Lobaria oragona Lobaria pulannsrls Lobaria sntbrspsis  2'  +'  I  I -  -I  1  1  1  -  I  1  • ' 2 l  •J  1*  -*  X  l  • -•  + l  on ABIES GBAHD1S Pssudlsotbsolua stolonlfsrua P o r s l l s nsrleulsxls Hseksra douglaail Dioranua fuscascens Eurbjncblua orsg*nsa CIadonis aaoilent* Plaglotbsolua dentlculatua' Plaglotbsolua slsgsns Hypnua o l r c i n s l * Scapanla bolandsrl  Interpretation o f symbols• + On a i M r s l s o i l of  •  --  slndthroas.  * Largely on decaying «ood.  - Largely a t the bases of t b a t r e s s .  1  J  - •> - •* -• • •  *  •  -  -,  + +  1 1  38 T A B L E 7:  TOTAL ESTIMATE ANALYSIS OF THE THUJA P L I C A T A AMERICANUM  o a t . analysed Altitude (ft.) Exposure Slope Wind Exposure Corer  Al A2 A3  11 Thuja p l i c a t a Paaudotauga a e n a i e a l i Tauga h e t e r o p h y l l a Pinua a o n t l e o l a A b i o s grandls  I  A3 Thuja p l i c a t a Tauga h e t e r o p h y l l a Bl Oplopenax n o r r i d u s Tauga heterophylla ilhuje plloata JGtubus a p e o t a b l l l a  3' 3  1  1 1  dllatetun  K ^ n i i m nosohatufl TlaraUa trifoliate Clajtonia a i b l r l c a Gallua t r i f l o r u n Tlarclla laelnlata ithyriua ftlli-feaina Care* leptopoda Lusula p a r v i f l o r a D r y o p t e r l a lliineeana Galium b o r e a l a B p l l o b i u a adenocaulon i d l a n t u n padatua Listera c o n v a l l e r i o i d e e Viola glabella Streptopua a a p l e i i f o l i u o B  3  21 Juae ' 5 2 830 HE 2° (•)  50*1  15*165*  >  *  1  It 3 2 3* 1  1  I l  1  1  3  19 Juns '52 uso SI 10° (•) A0*| 10*50* lot)  1 s > »  SW  70*  85*  80*  60*  50*  60*  PLOT Ly2 L / l  Ly3  D (on decaying wood) Cephaloaia s e d l e Calypogola t r i c h o a a n i a Knlun punotatua Scapanla bolanderi" fiyloaoaiuo splendens Eurhychiuai oraganua Dicranua fuscescana L e p i d o i i a reptans B h ^ i d l a d e l p h u s l o r e us Mniua s p i n u l o s u n Plagiotheeiua dantlculatua Hypnua o i r c i n a l s  The a a l n nuaaral I n each c o l u a n l a the t o t a l a a t l a a t e value for each s p e c i e s , based on a s c a l e f r c a • to 10. The index represents the v i t a l i t y , on a s c a l e f r o a 0 to 3 .  PLOT Itfl  ao*) 10*t50* it)  2* l  1  7 * 4 53 >  -  !  !  l 2 1  1* l 1* l  2 3 i> 3' • > 2' 1* 1  3  I l 2* 2 1' l 1 1  1  1  1  1  PLOT Ly2 L y l  L/3 D (continued) Cladonla aaaaooilllaein t a anlua o e n a l a a l l P a l t i g a r a canina Hookerla luoana Scapanla uabrosa B b y t i d i o p e i a robust* •Paoudlsotheciua a t o l o n l f a r u a "Backera d o u g l a a l l •Porella Mvieularls • L o b a r i a oragona spbaaropborus globoaua " i n t i t r i c h i a curtipandula " F r a i l aula n l e q u a l l e n a i f Thuja p l i c a t a Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a Paaudotauga c e o a i e a i i  2»  D (on ground) Mniua punotatua Eurhynchiun a t o k e s l i Braehytheciua wasUrgtoiiianua Conoeephalun eonicuo Unlua atenslesil P a l l i a colunbiana Mniua inaigne Hiccardia latifrona Plagioohila asplenicices Chlloflcypbufl r i v u l a r i a Pogonatua a l p l n u a i t r l c h U B ) undulatun xHylocoalua splendens xEurhynchiuo oreganun xPeeudlsotheciua s t o l o n i f a r u s xplagiotheoiun denticulatuD j P l a g i o t h e c i u B undulatun xTauga h e t e r o p h y l l a xPseudotsuga a e n i i e s i i xAbies graadla JtThuja p l i c a t a  L y s i o h i t U B americanum Veratrun M c h B c h o l t s i i Cireaea p a c l f i c a Mltella ovalla Oenanthe sarmentoaa Cardamino angulata Varooica aaericana Stochys o l U a t a aalanthenua  10 Juae>52 770 SI 3° (•)  C (continued) Kquiaetun ar?ense Clycerla striata Viola orblculata xfilechnun aplcant lAchlye t r i p b y l l a T r i l l i u m ovatua xVacciniua p a r v l f o i l am aCaultberia shallon iBubus s p e c t a b i l i s •Ooodyera oblong i f o l i a zPolystlchua Bunltua X a a h o n i a nervosa XAdenocaulon b l c o l o r xBubus n i v a l i s ••Listera cordata Thuja plloata XRubus v i t i f o l l u a xpteridiua aqullinua  1  12 Thuja plicate, Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a  2 l  PLOT L j 2  PLOT Ly2 L j l  Ly3  B2 *Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a xGaultherla ahallon xBubua s p e e t e b i l i s xBubua laucodarmla XThuJa p l l o a t a iVaceinlun parvlf o i l u a x V a o c i n i u i alaekaensla Spiraea d o u g l a a l l  PLOT Ly3  LO*J  £  LYSICHITOM  ASSOCIATION PLOTS  +^ + •  1  3 + • '  1  ,  1 2 l -  t  2 2* T  2 2 1 1  1  }  1  3'  1  +  +  on TSUGA UEn£OPHILLA Uypnun o l r c i n a l a "Psaudisotbeciua e t o l o n l f e r u a Soapania b o l a n d a r l f r u l l a n l a nlaquallansls Dicranua fuscoscans Badula bolanderl Cladonla a a o l l e n t a -Byloceolun splaadana •SurhyncnluB oragonun C a t r a r l a laoonoaa Sphaerophorua globosus Ifycoblastus sangulnarius Porella navlcularla i n t i t r i c h i a curtipandula  1  " 1 1  1* 1  0 (on t r e e bark) on THUJA PUC&I& Uypnun o l r c i n a l a Dicranua fuscasans Cladonla a a n i l a c t a "Paeudisothaoiua a t o l o n l f a r u a Scapanla b o l a n d a r l F r u l l a n l a nisquaUanflia P a r a a l l a phyaodaa C a t r a r l a leounosa Spbaeropborua globosus Ochrolaohla paleacane H/ooblaatus saxgulnarlua Bhytidladelpbus l o r * u s Badula b o l a n d e r l Backera d o u g l a a l l  1  1  x  2 U +| 1  1  2 2 l  1  2  +* 1' +j 1 * 1 *  on PSKUDCTSDGi HEHZ1B311 Hypnua c i r e l n a l a 01cranun f u s c a s o t n i Cladonla a a o l l e n t a Scapanla b o l a n d a r l Dicranua a t r l o t u a Plaiiroooocus v l r l d l s  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Synbolai + On a l n e r a l s o i l o f windtnroa-a. a L a r g a l j on dead branches. - L a r g e l y a t tba bases of the t r e e s . • S u r v i v i n g on f a l l e n trunks and branches. a Largely on hiianocks and banks at tba  2 +  1  2  x  *^ * *  y i  l  1  edge the eaaap. of  TABLS 6:  MBNSURATION A N A L Y S I S 07 T H E PSEUDOTSUGA M E N Z I E S I I •  COMIORTA -  G A U L T H E R I A SHALLON -  P E L T I G E R A CANINA -  PINUS  P E L T I G E R A APHTHOSA  A S S O C I A T I O N PLOTS PLOT L5  PLOT U  PLOT L3  PLOT L2  PLOT U  Location  Wolf l i t .  Deadwood  Deadwood  Valley  Fourth L a .  BBSB LAIEh (Frequenoy)  Date analysed (1952)  11 Aug.  U  14 Aug.  17 J u l y  18 J u l y  Gaultberla shallon Linnaee b o r e a l i a C h i m a p h i l a umbellate Coodyera o b l o n g l f o l l a Boschniakla hooaerl mahonia nervosa Pseudotsuga m e n a l e o i l Arctoatephylos u v e - u r s i Fastuca o c c l d e n t a l i s Vaccinlum p a r v l f o l l u a Pyrola picta Allotropa virgate Hierooium a l b i f l o r u a Apocynum a n d r o s a e a l f o l l u i Chimaphila m e n s l e s l l Ushonla a q u l f o l l u m Viola orblculata P t e r l d l u m aqullinua Triantelia l a U f o l l a Aohlys t r i p h y l l a ttslus d i v e r o i f o l i a P i n u s DOOtleola. V a o o i o l u o aembranaceum Eosa gymnoearpa Symphorlcmrpoa Campanula s c o u l e r l Pyrola breoteata Vaooinlua o v a l l f o l i u m Tauga h e t e r o p h y l l a Bubus v l t l f o l l u d Bromus v u l g a r i s  Stand age t y r o . ) S i t e index ( f o r Pseudotsuga)  210 90  Aug. 250  260  250  250  90  80  TREE LAXER Pseudotsuga m e n e l e s i l A v . h t . , dom. A eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per acre Average diameter ( i n . ) Basal area ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e ) Pinus c o n t o r t a A v . b t . , don. & eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per acre Average diameter ( i n . ) Basal area ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . i t . / a c r e )  106 UO 17 250  95 108 18 210 6,860  99 160 16 260 9,U0  116  152  19 360  13,730  67 92 19 185 5,600  67 A 8 1 AO  Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a A v . h t . , dom. A eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per acre Average diameter ( i n . ) B a s a l area ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e )  60 8 10 A UO  Pinus e o o t i c o l a A v . b t . , dom. & eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per acre Average diameter ( i n . ) Basal area ( a q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e )  mOSS . uCHSi  61 20  9  8 200  SHRUB LAIER ( L i n e i n t e r c e p t ) Gaultheria shallon Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a Mahonia nervosa Pseudotsuga m e n z l o s l i Pinus m o n t i c o l a Arctoatephylos uve-ural A r e t e s t a p h y l o a oolumbiana Thuja p l i c a t e Vaccinlum meobranaceum Abies g r a n d i s Pinus c o n t o r t a  35 1 1 1 3  3+ 3 3 1 1 1  38 3 1  PLOT L5  24 6  ^measurements made on e l l t r e e s above a minimum diameter ( e t b r e a s t h e i g h t ) o f A i n c h e e  13 29  11 3 11 9  PLOT U  97 A 35 17 3 5 19  LOT L3  92 AO 40 A 7 20 9 U  84 26 10 2  5  21  1 13 A 1 11 7 6  19 1 2  15  3  23 23 2 + 2  1 1 1 9  1 A  5  A 2 1  LAZES ( P o i n t frequency)  Eurhynchium oreganuo Hylooomlua splendena Bhytldladelpbus triquetrus Rhytldladelphus loreua Dlcrmnum scoparlum Camptotheolum m e g a p t i l u a P e l t l g e r e oanlna P e l t i g e r e epbthose Calllergonella sohreberl Dicranum fusceaoens P o l y t r l c b u m Juniperlnum Cladonla s y l v a t l c a Cledonia g r a o l l i s C l a d o n l a squamosa Cladonla furcate Cladonla b e l l i d l f l o r a Qadcnia macilenta Cladonla f i m b r i a t e .Rbacomitrium lanuginoaum Rhacomltrium canescens R h a c o o i t r i u n heteroatlchum Aulacoonium androgynum Bryum . p a l l e n s S t e r e c e a u l o n tooentoaua S t e r e o o a u l o n pascbale  74 21 9 1 1  22 17  TABLE 9 : SHALLON  MENSURATION ANALYSIS OF THE AMD THE  SHALLON PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION  PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII . GAULTHERIA  PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII - TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS  PSEUDCTSUGA - TSUGA GAULTHERIA ASSOC'N.  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION  PLOT G5  PLOT 04  PLOT 06  PLOT G3  PLOT 01  Location  Bolf Ht.  Deadwood  Deadwood  Valley  fourth Lk. Eoho Ht.  HERB LASER (Frequenoy)  Data analysed (1952)  11 Aug.  13 Aug.  8 Aug.  16 Aug.  19 July  21 July  Gaultheria shallon Llanaea borealia Mahonia nervosa Chimaphila unbellata Vaccinlum parvlfolium BoschnlaJca hookerl Good/era oblongifolia Achlys triphylla Rubus vitifollus Rosa gymnooarpa Chimaphila menaiesll Symphorioarpos mollis Pteridlum aqulllnum Polystlohum munitum Vacolnlum membranaceum Vacolnlum ovalif ollum Gaultheria ovatlfolla Tsuga heterophylla Pyrola bracteata Hypochaeris radlcata Adenocaulon bloolor Viola orbiculata Corallorhisa maculate Trientslis l a t i f o l l e  PLOT G2  Stand aga (yrs.)  210  280  290  230  240  260  Sits Index (for Paeudotsue-a)  130  UO  120  140  90  60  THEE LATER  1  Paeudotsuga aenaleall Av.ht. , don.ftoodosi. (ft.) Traoa par aore Average dlsxeter (In.) Basal area (sq.ft./acre} Volume (ou.ft./aore) Tsuga heterophylla Av.ht., dom. & oodon. (ft.) Trees per aore Average diameter (lo.) Basal area (sq.ft./aore) Volume (ou.ft./aore) Thuja pllcata Av.ht., don. & oodom. (ft.) Trees per aore Average diameter ( I D . ) fiaaal area (ou.ft./aore) Volume (ou.ft./aore) Pinus montloola Av.ht., dom. & oodom. (ft.) Treea per aore Average diameter (In.) Basal area (sq.ft./aore) Volume (ou.ft./aore)  147 100 22 300 13,800  175 108 27 470 24,120  148 104 26 410 19,180  169 64 28 280 14,490  110 172 17 300 11,250  77 104 14 130 3,550  73 12 10 9 300  57 8 6 2 43  66 40 10 24 690  88 16 11 12 410  71 32 10 17 520  70 120 12 120 3,140  -  52 4 9 2 38  74 28 10 16 470  60 12 11 7 170  74 36 14 44 1,300  64 24 9 12 340  -  -  134 4 20 9 400  -  -  -  59 4  41 1  64  31 + 5  50  36 •  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA GAULTHERIA ASSOCH.  PLOT G5  PLOT G4  PLOT G6  PLOT Q3  PLOT Gl  PLOT C2  89 11 47 16  78 1 10 10  83 9 U 1 . 1 1  71 10 7  76 50 15 9 12  76 5  -  -  6  1  56 11 1 2 4 2  31 6 4 1 1  11 1 1  -  H 1  -  -1 •-  15 +  15 13  -1 1  29  6 1  -  1 10  -  -  6 2  -1 -  -  6 26 1 5  -5  2 2 1  -  . MOSS - LICHEN LAXER (Point frequenoy) Hylocomium splendens Eurhynchium oreganum Rhytldladelphus loreus CamptotheolUB megaptilum Rhytidlopsls robusta Flaglotheoiun undulatum Dicranua scoparlum Pseudiaotheolun stoloniferum Paeudotsuga menziesii  1 22  + •  -  -  16 10 2  16 4 5 1 1 +  23 + 5 1 12  +  +  + •  -  -  SHRUB LATER (Line Intercept) Gaultheria shallon Mahonia nervoaa Polystlohum munitum  -  -  -Measurements made on a l l trees above a minimum diameter (at breast height) of 4 inches.  -  O  T A B L E 10s  UBN8URATI0H ANALYSIS 0? THE  mmmm  -  PflBUDOTSUOA MENZIBBII -  HYLOCOMIUM 8PLBHDBH8 -  TSUOA  EURHYMCHIUM ORBOAtWM  ASSOCIATION PLOTS  Location D a t a a n a l y s e d (1952)  PLOT US  PLOT H2  PLOT H i  PLOT « 3  PLOT U l  Bolf lit.  Echo  Deadwood  Valley  Fourth L  SHRTJB LAXEB (Line Intercept)  13 Aug.  16 Aug.  17 J u l y  Polystlohum aunituo Oeultheria • h a l l o o Mahonia nervosa Tsuga heterophylla  1  Aug.  m.  21 J u l y  S t a n d age ( y r s . )  ao  260  290  290  260  S i t e index ( f o r Paeudotsuga)  170  170  130  130  120  PLOT H5  PLOT  •  HEBB LAXE8 (frequency) THEE L A I E H  1  Pseudotsuga a e n t i e s i i A v . h t . , d o a . & eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per acre Average d i a m e t e r ( i n . ) Basal area ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e )  199 SO 33 SOO 28,540  209 72 37 550 31,950  158 96 26 380 17,960  157 84 23 270 13,230  Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a A v . h t . , dom. & eodom. ( f t . ) Trees p e r acre Average d i a m e t e r ( i n . ) B a s a l area ( a q . i t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e )  65 96 7 26 770  87 52 10 28 990  85 176 9 92 3,770  86 88 10 50 1,900  136 64 18 UO 7,420  107 16  101 12 13 13 $40  78 12 13 11 360  85 56  Thuja p l i c a t e A v . h t . , dom. & eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per acre Average d i a m e t e r ( i n . ) Basal area ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e ) Pious montloola A v . h t . , d o a . & eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per acre Average d i a m e t e r ( i n . ) Basal area ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e ) Abies grandis A v . h t . , dom. & eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per acre Average d i a m e t e r ( i n . ) Basal area ( s q . f t . / a c r e ) Volume ( c u . f t . / a c r e )  _  ---  U  20 830 _  _  -  -  160 8 24 26 1,290  LU 68 22 210  9,410  H  68 2,380 _  -  77 12 8 U HO  'Measurements made on a l l t r e e s above a minimum d i a m e t e r ( b r e a s t h e i g h t ) o f 4 i n c h e s  Calaapoila a e n t i e a l l mahonia nervoaa L i n n — borealia Viola o r t l c u l a U Pyrola p l o t * Achlys t r i p h y l l a Gaultheria s h a l l o n Goodyera oolong i f o i l s Vaooinlua parv I f o l l u a Chlaaphila umbellate Trientalls l a t l f o l i a Fastuca aubulata Pseudotsuga seniles11 Tiarella trifoliate Carex leptopoda Polyatichum aunitua Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a Texus b r e v i f o l i a Sparaseis r a d i e a t a  U C S i - LICHEN  1 1  2  2  1  LATCh ( P o i n t f r e q u e n c y )  Eurhynohium oreganum H y l o o o a i u a splendens R h y t i d i a d e l p h u s l o r e us Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus Rhytldiopsis robusta Plagiothecium elegant Pseudisotheolum s t o l o n i f e r u m Camptothecium megaptllum Dioranua fuscescens Pseudotsuga m e n a i e s l l Heterociadium procurrens Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a Thuja p l i c a t a  3 2  1  *  TABLE 11:  MENSURATION ANALYSIS OF THE PLICATA - POLYSTICHUM  PLOT P4 Location  Deadwood  Date analysed (1952)  8 Aug.  PLOT PI  PLOT P2  Fourth Lk. Echo lit. 18 Aug.  20 Aug.  PLOT P5 Wolf Ut. 6 Aug.  Valley 17 Aug,  280  260  260  210  250  Site index (f or Pseudotsuga)  200  160  200  180  200  LAKE Pseudotsuga mengiesii Av.ht., dom. & codom. (ft.) Trees per acre Average diameter (in.) Basal area (sq.ft./aore) Volwne (cu.ft./acre)  248 44 48 570 38,180  199 40 36 280 16,840  244 52 42 440 33,560  Thuja plicata Av.ht., dom. & codom. (ft.) Trees per acre Average diameter (in.) Basal area (sq.ft./acre) Volume (cu.ft./acre)  140 12 34 78 2,710  137 12 31 77 3,410  178 12 25 50 2,830  Tsuga heterophylla Av.ht., dom. & codom. (ft.) Trees per acre Average diameter (in.) Basal area (sq.ft./acre) Volume (cu.ft./acre)  76 52 10 31 1,280  106 76  83 28  94 4,460  15 550  -  -  -  IIUNITOM  1  Abies grandls Av.ht., dom. & codom. (ft.) Trees per acre Average diameter (in.) Basal area (sq.ft./acre) Volume (cu.ft./acre)  SHRUB LAYER  13.  10  218 56 39 490  233  29,200  32,060  148 12 29 56  50 4 7 1  2,660  144 11  64 37 500  24  11 35 1,630  96 24 11 16 620  118 28  778  1,740  9 4 62  13 35  PLOT P4  PLOT PI  PLOT P2  PLOT P5  PLOT P3  6 58  20 30  2  1 4 3 -  10 91 65 30 5  HERB LAYER (Frequency) Polystichum munitum Tiarella t r i f o l i a t e Achlya tripbylla Tiarella laoiniata T r i l l i ma ova turn athyriuin fllix-femlna Melica subulate Adenocaulon bicolor Dryopteris linnaeana Blechnum spicant Viola orbiculata Galium t r i f l e rum Carex hendersonii Claytonia sibirica Disporum oreganum Streptopua amplexifolius Mahonie nervosa Llnnaea borealis Vaccinlum parvlfoilurn Luzula parviflora Trientalis l a t l f o l l a Bromus vulgaris Campanula scoulerl Abies grandls Hcnotropa uniflora Rubus v i t i f o l l u s Rosa gymnooarpa Chimaphila umbellate Chimaphila menziesii Pteridlum aquilinum Vaccinlum alaskaense Thuja plicata Viola glabella Listera cordate Tsuga heterophylla Pseudotsuga menslesii  29 22 24 1 2 •  -  27  8 1 -  1 -1 -  -  -  --  -  u  12 25  -  1 -  --  1 -  -4  34 4 -  -1  1 1 -  -  -  -  1  *  48 39 1 1 5 -  4 25 17 -  13 8 -  10 --  -  1 37 1  -9  9  17  19  -  1 -  1 4  54 2 10 - .  -  -  -  4 2 2  4  1 -  1  1  -  3 -  -  -  2 -  -  2  17 6 2 1 4  ---  1  1  1  -  -  8 2 1 1 -  9 1 + 3 • -  MOSS - LICHEN LASER (Point frequency)  (Line intercept)  Polystichum munitum Tsuga heterophylla Mahonia nervosa Thuja plicata Athyrium fillx-femina Blechnum splcant Lyslchitua amerlcanun Pterldium aquilinum Pseudotsuga menelesil Gaultheria shallon  ASSOCIATION PLOTS  PLOT p;  Stand age (yrs.)  TREE  PSEUDOTSUGA UEHZ1ESI] - THUJA  33  -•  -  1  -  -  40 1 + •  21 4  -  + -  -  +  -  1 + 1  20 -1  +  +  +  -  -  18 2 1  -  'Measurements made on a l l trees above a ndnimum diameter (at breat height) of 4 inches.  EurhychiuiD oreganum Hylocomium splendens Rhytidiadelphus loreus Milium insigne Mniua menaiesli Rhytidiopsis rebusta Plagiotheeiua undulatum Plagiochila aepleniolnes Paeudiaothecium atoloniferum Pseudotsuga men ale a i l Abies grandls  2 10  9 +  3 +  4  +  +  --  •  -  *  1 *  +  •  --  •  + -  •  •  CO  TABLE 1 2 :  MENSURATIOM ANALYSIS 07 THE THUJA PLICAT A - LYSICHITUM AtmHMCAMUil  PLOT Ly3  PLOT Ly2  PLOT L y l  Location  Wolf Ht.  Deadwood  Echo Ht.  Date analysed (1952)  11 l u g .  8 Aug.  20 July  Stand age ( j r s . )  210  280  260  S i t e indei (for Pseudotsuga)  150  190  170  TREE LAYLR  ASSOCIATION PLOTS  2  125 68 38 7*7  41,960  A  A  B  MOSS - LICHEN  46 5A 6 + 5 1  73  Ll  177 60 25 220 12,400  230 16 46 190  206 16 36 120 6,700  183 8 AO 72 3,680  1,364  4,320  SHRUB LAXEfl (Line intercept)  A  B  A9 3  10  11,680  71 60 11 48  2  9 1  132 48 H 83  12 +  16 3  +  32  1  10  HERB LAXEH (Frequency) Lysichitum americanum Claytonia a i b i r l c a Galium triflorum  76 22 13  12 -  42 2 12  54  11 28  Steasuremeots made on a l l trees above a ainiaua diameter (breast height) of 4 inches ^Pseudotuga occurs on the margins only. •"Occurrence In the swamp Occurrence on the banks and hummocks.  b  PLOT Ly2 A  PLOT L y l A  b  b  HERB LAYER (continued)  186 12 26 56 3,610  196 68 30 366 22,030  Pseudotsuga measles 11 A v . h t . . doa. tt eodom. (ft.) Trees per acre Average diameter ( i n . ) Basal area (sq.ft./acre) Volume (cu.ft./acre) Tsuga heterophylla A v . h t . . doa.i eodom. ( f t . ) Trees per acre Average diameter ( i n . ) Basal area (sq.ft./acre) Volume (cu.ft./acre)  Lyslchltua americanum Oplopanax horrid ua Athyrlua filix-femina Rubus spectabilis Blechnum apicant Polystichum munitum Adiantum pedatum Gaultheria shallon Thuja plicate  A  H i t e l l e ovalia Viola orbloulata Viola g l a b e l l a Listere cordata Atbyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a Stachys c i l i a t a Oeoantce aannentosa Dryopteri* linnaeana Eplloblua adenocaulon Carex leptopoda Thuja p l i c a t e Polystichum munitum Cardamirte angulata Galium boreale Uaianthemum dilatatum Clrcaea p a e l i i c a Veratrum eachscholtsil Tiarella trifoliate Tlarella laciniata Streptopua amplexlfollus Achlys t r i p h y l l a Blechnum apicant Vaccinlum parvifolium Gaultheria shallon Adenocaulon bicolor Ruous v l t i f o l i u a Goodyera oulonglfolia Lusula p a r v l f l o r a  1  Thuja plicate A v . h t . , doa. & codoa. (ft.) Trees per acre Average diameter ( I D . ) Basal area (sq.ft./acre) Voluxe (cu.ft./acre)  PLOT Ly3  3  ll  3 3  5 83  -  3 3 3  -  2 2 2 . 2 12 5 7 2  145 40 5  -  AO 9 2 2  -  3 3 3  -  16  5  11 3 5  5 5 5  -  7  -1  -  _  35 28 16  -  -  3  -  .  25 3  -  -*  7 36  14 -  5  57 50  5  14  3  7 7  -  -  -  LAXER (Point frequency)  Malum punctatum 36 Eurhynchium atokesii 16 Braohytheoium washingtonianum 14 Conocephalum conicua 1 P e l l i a oolumbiana 1 minium mensiesii 3 Knium lnslgne + Hookerialucens 1 P l a g i o c h l l a aspleoioides + Chilosoyphus r i v u l a r i s Thuja plioata + Plaglotheoium denticulatum + Eurhynchium orsganua 2 Hylocomium splendens Pseudisotheoium stoloniferum Plsgiotheoium undulatum  -  1 +  1  +  10 5 1  -  19 12 2 +  3 1 2  + -  +  • -2 1  50 11 7 3 1  •  -• -  -  1  -  fv t£  t  44 (Tables 4 and 9).  The site index for Pseudotsuga of 120 to 140 was considerably  higher than the index for the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera stands (70 to 90).  Basal areas and volume were also greater, even though there were fewer  trees per acre.  Tsuga heterophylla was constantly present i n the lower tree  layer, but i t made up l i t t l e of the volume of the plots studied.  Thuja plicata  was present in most plots, but again sizes and volumes were small. The Gaultheria shallon of the stands of this association was considerably taller (one meter or more) and much denser than that in the previous association. Other shrubs were uncommon. Herb layers were characterized by poor species representation and low cover value.  The most common plants of the herb layer of the Pseudotsuga -  Gaultheria - Peltigera association were also the most common ones of this association, but their frequency was lower.  This lower frequency was largely  attributable to the greater density of Gaultheria.  The presence of Polystichum  munitum in the Valley plot (G3) and Achlys triphylla in the Wolf Mountain plot (G5) both being species which occurred more characteristically in the Pseudotsuga Polystichum association, was reflected i n the higher average tree heights and site indices on these plots. Lichens were largely absent from the ground layer, occurring mostly on stones or rock outcrops when present.  Lichens on the bark of trees were less  common, whereas mosses were somewhat more common than i n the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria - Peltigera association.  Hylocomium splendens and Eurhynchium  oreganum were the prominent mosses of the moss-lichen layer and they covered the ground to the almost complete exclusion of other species.  Tree seedlings  rarely survived the f i r s t growing season. Pseudotsuga menaiesii - Tsuga heterophylla - Gaultheria shallon association In stands of this association Tsuga heterophylla was frequently as  common in the upper tree layer as Pseudotsuga (Tables 4 and 9), with the average height of both trees being rather low (e.g. Plot G2, 70 f t . for Tsuga and 77 f t . for Pseudotsuga).  The Fourth Lake plot (Gl) represented an intermediate situ-  ation, being at a lower elevation than the Echo Mountain plot.  Site index for  Pseudotsuga and volumes per acre were low on both plots, although in the Fourth Lake plot the frequency of Tsuga was less than average for the association, resulting i n a higher volume for Pseudotsuga. The presence of Chamaecyparis nootkatensis and Abies amabilis i n the tree and shrub layers of the Echo Mountain plot showed i t s a f f i n i t y with the altitudinal zone above that of the Pseudotsuga forests.  The Gaultheria shallon  of these stands was shorter and less dense than in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria plots.  Vaocinium membranaceum was another species of the shrub layer which  was characteristic of higher altitudes, as was the Gaultheria ovatifolia of the herb layer.  Most of the other plants of the herb layer were common to both  associations. In the moss-lichen layer, apart from Hylocomium splendens. which was the predominant moss, Eurhynchium oreganum, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, and Khytidiopsis robusta were common, with the latter species being another characteristic of higher altitudes.  Tree seedlings had poor v i t a l i t y .  Both mosses and lichens were present on the bark of trees, with Dicranum fuscescens and Sphaerophorus globosus being common on the boles, and particularly on the Echo Mountain plot, Lobaria oregana being conspicuous on both living and dead branches. Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla - Hylocomium 'splendens - Eurhynchium oreganum association The average height of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Tables 5 and 10) in the subassociation nudum plots (199 f t . to 209 ft.) was considerably greater than  46 in the typicum plots (144 f t . to 158 f t . ) . were likewise much greater.  Basal areas and volumes per acre  In most plots Tsuga heterophylla formed a second-  ary canopy with average heights from 70 to 130 f t . lower than the dominant and codominant Pseudotsuga (Fig. 13).  Although the number of Tsuga was  similar or greater, their volume formed only a small part of the stand. However, in the Fourth Lake plot (Ml) (Fig. 9) the height, diameter and volume o f  Tsuga was nearly comparable with that of Pseudotsuga. indicating the affinity  of this stand with those of the west coast, where Tsuga may be predominant. The number and volume of Thuja plicata was mostly small, even though in the Fourth Lake plot i t was more frequent and constituted 13 percent of the volume of the stand. The subordinate vegetation of this association was characterized by an almost complete absence of conspicuous shrubs and herbs.  Such plants as  Chimaphila menziesii, Pyrola picta, Monotropa uniflora, M. latisquamea. Listera cordata, Viola orbiculata and Corallorhiza maculata, characteristic species of the association, were present, but their cover value was small. Stunted Gaultheria shallon. Polystichum munitum and Achlys triphylla. characteristic of other associations, occurred locally and presumably reflected minor variations in edaphic factors.  Occasional small Tsuga heterophylla  and Taxus brevifolia were also present i n some plots. In the subassociation nudum plots the forest floor was essentially bare. Hylocomium splendens and Eurhynchium oreganum formed an almost complete green, mossy carpet in stands of the subassociation typicum, with Rhytidiadelphus loreus also being common in the Valley plot (M3).  On decaying wood, such  characteristic species as Hypnum circinale, Cephalozia media and Scapanla bolanderl were present.  Conspicuous epiphytic lichens were absent from the  lower bole of trees, but bryophytes such as Hypnum circinale, Dicranum  fuscescens and Scapania bolanderl were quite common. Pseudotsuga menziesii - Thuja plicata - Polystichum munitum association Pseudotsuga menziesii attained its maximum height and diameter in stands of this association. (Tables 6 and 11).  In three of the plots studied site index was over 200 Tree heights and site index of the Fourth Lake plot (PI)  were lower than average because the plot was situated toward the upper margin of the stand.  The setting on the lower slope, below the plot, which had been  logged prior to this study, had larger stump diameters and a higher site i n dex (Krajina and Spilsbury 1950:  Plot 64).  Although the number of Thuja  plicata was not great, Thuja was the tallest species of the secondary canopy, with average diameters being f a i r l y large.  Tsuga heterophylla was more nu-  merous and formed a secondary canopy below the level of most of the Thuja. The average diameter of Tsuga. however, was small resulting in small basal areas and volumes, although in the Fourth Lake plot the species was somewhat more numerous than in other plots.  The Wolf Mountain plot (P5) was the only  plot with any appreciable volume of Abies grandls. Shrubby plants had l i t t l e cover value in the shrub layer.  The clumps  of Polystichum munitum were commonly 80 cm. high and dominated the subordinate vegetation.  Other ferns, such as Blechnum spicant (Plot P5), Dryopteris  linnaeana (Plot P4) and Athyrium filix-femina (Plot P2) were common on some plots.  Achlys tripbylla was one of the most conspicuous herbs of this assoc-  iation, with the Valley plot (P3) representing a subtype in which Achlys was more common even than Polystichum.  Typical development of the mature stage  of this association included numerous herbaceous plants, with Tiarella t r i f o l l a t a , T. laeiniata, Trillium oyatum, Adenocaulon bieolor, Galium triflorum, Claytonia sibirica and Dryopteris linnaeana being some of the characteristic species which were present on the plots studied.  48 Mlnum insigne and M. menziesii. among the mosses characteristic of the association, were present on the ground.  Gn decaying wood such typical  bryophytes as Lepidozia reptans, Maiurn punctatum, M. spinulosum and Plagiothecium denticulatum were recorded.  The characteristic epiphytic species, including  Pseudisothecium stoloniferum, Porella navicularis. Neekera douglasii, and Frullania ni squallens is.were most abundant on Thuja. Abies grandis and Acer macrophyllum. Thuja plieata - Lysichitum americanum association The trees in stands of this association occurred on the banks and hummocks which bordered the swampy areas. speeies of the tree layer.  Thuja plicata was the dominant  Average diameter ranged from 25 to 38 inches and  average height from 125 to 196 f t . (Tables 7 and 12).  Pseudotsuga menziesii  was restricted to the drier marginal areas, but individual trees reached good heights and diameters.  In the lower altitude plots (Ly2, Ly3) Tsuga  heterophylla was present only in the secondary canopy, but on Echo Mountain (Plot Lyl) there were a few t a l l trees with large diameters.  Where a con-  siderable proportion of the plot consisted of swampy areas stocking was f a i r l y low, although this was partially compensated by the large volume of individual trees. Gaultheria shallon was quite abundant i n the l i t t e r and decayed wood of the banks.  Other plants which were largely restricted to the banks i n -  cluded Blechnum spicant. Adlantum pedatum. Achlys triphylla. Tiarella spp., Hylocomium splendens and Eurhynchium oreganum. with Cephalozia media, Calypogeia trichomanis, Mnium punctatum and Scapanla bolanderl occurring on decaying wood. The species more characteristic of the association were found most frequently in the swampy areas.  The most conspicuous of these was Lysichitum  americanum, which dominated the swamps during the growing season.  Other  characteristic herbaceous plants growing between and beneath the large Lystichitum leaves included Veratrum eschscholtzii. Circaea pacifica. Mitella ovalis and Oenanthe sarmentosa. with Claytonia sibirica. Galium triflorum. Tiarella t r i f o l i a t a and other herbs,which also occurred in the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association, being quite frequent.  The surface of  the muck in the swampy areas was densely covered by bryophytes, the most common of which were Mnium punctatum, Eurhynchium stokesii, Brachythecium Washington!anum and Conocephalum conicum.  Corticolous plants on the boles  of trees were similar to those i n the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association stands. SOILS Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association The plots of this association were located on sidehills (Plots L l and L5) on a low ridge (Plot L2) and on nearly level ground (Plots L3 and L4). Soil profiles were mostly shallow, with rooting being restricted by a hardpan or bedrock at 50 to 70 cm. (Table 13, Fig. 19 A and C).  Effective s o i l  volume was further reduced by the presence of stones and clinker-like concretions.  Soil moisture was largely provided by precipitation because the  topographic location of the stands limited addition by ground water movement. Most profiles had a shallow l i t t e r layer (Ao)» since conditions for accumulation were not favourable in these open stands.  The leached layer  (Ag) was commonly less than 2 cm. deep and was sometimes barely discernable. The shallow l i t t e r layer and droughty nature of the s o i l presumably moderated the intensity of leaching and profile differentiation.  In some areas (e.g.  on Plot L3) the upper 20 cm. of the profile consisted of a rubble of angular cobbles.  Here the Ag horizon was usually deeper than average, as were the F  50  PLATE  VII, Figure 19  Soil Profiles. Typical soil profiles from various associations in the Nanaimo River Valley; the scale is marked in decimeters. The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association (Plot II, Fourth lake). The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association (Plot Gl, Echo Mountain). The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association (Plot 12, Deadwood Creek). The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association (Plot G6, Deadwood Creek). The Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (Plot M5, Wolf Mountain). The Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association (Plot PI, Fourth Lake.) 1  The Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association (Plot P3, Valley). The Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association (Plot P2, Echo Mountain). The Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association (Plot P5, Wolf Mountain). = The Thuja - Lysichitum association (Plot Ly3, Wolf Mountain).  XABLS 1 3 :  Depth (cm.)  51  DESCRIPTION, p H , AMD OROANIC AND CLAY CONTENTS 0? T Y P I C A L SOIL  PR07IUS PROM I R S  PSMD0T8U0A - QAULTSBBIA - PHLIIOBRA  ASSOCIATION PLOTS  Description  pH  Organic content  Clay content  PLOT L$ (Wolf H t . ) Ao F H B  2-1 1-0 0-1 1-10  B  / 10-20  B  20-45  B  45-70  Ortateln 70-  Vary dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed U t t e r Black (10TH 2 / l ) granular to f e l t y mor; roots common Oray (5Y 6 / l ) sandy loam, often poorly defined; weak f i n e subangular blocky s tructur e; very f r i a b l e . Light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular blocky etrueture; very f r i a b l e : numerous shotty concretions, with y e l l o w i s h red (5TR 5 / 8 ) coatings; l i g h t , dappled, strong brown (7.513 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots common Pale o l i v e (5Y 6 / 3 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak f l n a subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; snotty concretions; occasional pale o l i v e (5Y 6 / 3 ) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with yellowish red (5YR 5 / 8 ) s t a i n i n g ; dappled, strong brown (7.5TR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; scattered yellow (2.5Y 7 / 6 ) and blue (5.0B 7/2) s p e c k l i n g ; roots common . . . P e l * yellow (5T 7/3) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; snotty concretions; l i g h t o l i v e gray (5Y 6 / 2 ) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions becoming more comnon; dappled, strong brown (7.5TR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots moderately conmon ,Light o l i v e gray (5Y 6/2) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with numerous angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; numerous c l i n k e r - l i k e concretions; dappled, y e l l o w i s h red (5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings on gravel and shot; roota sparse, although fine roots comnon above the o r t s t e l n l a y e r Olive gray (5Y 5 / 2 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loan; i r r e g u l a r t h i c k p l a t y s tructur e; cemented; reddish yellow (5YR 6 / 8 ) s t a i n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the upper p a r t ; roots absent  6.0  4.3  6  5*9  3,4  8  6.0  2.0  11  6.1  2.0  11  6.2  1.4  6  5>6  7.6  7  5*7  3.0  7  5 . 5  3.4  6  5,8  2.1  8  PLOT LA (Lower Deadwood) Ao F H *2  3-2 2-0 0-2  B  2-10  B  10-20  B  20-40  B  40-70  O r t s t e l n 70-  Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Black (10YR 2 / l ) granular t o f e l t y mor; roots comnon Oray ( 5 1 6 / 1 ) sandy loam, somewhat discontinuous, but up to 3 cm. t h i c k among surface cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e *. Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) g r a v e l l y sandy l o a n , with scattered angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions, with y e l l o w i s h red (5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings; l i g h t , dappled, strong brown (7.5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common . . . Light y e l l o w i s h brown (10YH 6 / 4 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles, weak f i n e subangular blocky s t r uc t ur e ; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; dappled, strong brown (7.5TR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; scattered y e l l o w i s h red (5YR 4 / 6 ) and blue (5.0B ?/2) s p e c k l i n g ; roots common . . Pale brown (10XR 6 / 3 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular blocky s t r uc t ur e ; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; pale o l i v e (51 6 / 3 ) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with y e l l o w i s h red (5YR 5 / 8 ) s t a i n i n g ; dappled, strong brown (7.5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots moderately common Light y e l l o w i s h brown (2.5Y.6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with numerous angular cobbles: weak f i n e subangular blocky s t r uc t ur e ; very f r i a b l e , becoming weakly cemented with increasing depth; numerous o l i v e gray (5Y 6 / 2 ) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions; dappled, y e l l o w i s h red (5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots sparse, although fine roots common above the o r t s t e l n layer Gray brown (2.5Y 5 / 2 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; I r r e g u l a r t h i c k p l a t y structure; cemented; reddish yellow s t a i n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the upper p a r t ; roots absent  5.5 5 . 8  6.0  2.0  9  6.2  1.0  7  Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Black (10YR 2 / l ) granular to f e l t y mor, up to 4 cm. t h i c k among surface cobbles; roots common . . . . Gray (5Y 6 / l ) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e Brown (10YR 5/3) g r a v e l l y sandy l o a n , with angular cobbles, i n places very numerous; weak fine subangular blocky s t r uc t ur e ; loose; numerous shotty concretions, with yellowish red (5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings; l i g h t , dappled, strong brown ( 7 . 5 Y R 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots common . . . Light yellowish brown (10YR 6 / 4 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular blocky s t r uc t ur e ; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; dappled, strong brown (7>5XR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots common Pale brown (10YR 6 / 3 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky s t r uc t ur e ; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; dappled, strong brown (?.5*R 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots moderately common . ' Pale o l i v e (5YR 6 / 3 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky s t r u c t u r e ; very f r i a b l e , becoming weakly cemented with Increasing depth; numerous l i g h t o l i v e gray (5Y 6 / 2 ) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with y e l l o w i s h red (5YR 5 / 8 ) s t a i n i n g ; dappled y e l l o w i s h red (5TR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots sparse, although f i n e roots common above the o r t s t e l n l a y e r Light o l i v e gray (5T 6 / 2 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; I r r e g u l a r t h i c k platy structure; cemented; reddish yellow (5YR 6 / 8 ) s t a i n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the upper p a r t ; roots absent  4.9 5.0 4.9  6.4  11  5.7  3,6  8  5*6  2.8  7  5.7  2.1  5  5*9  1.9  6  6.2  1.1  4  Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Black (10TR 2 / l ) granular to f e l t y mor; roota common Gray (5Y 6 / l ) sandy loam, often poorly defined, but up to 2 cm. t h i c k among surface cobbles; weak f i n e subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e Brown (10YR 5 / 3 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with ''scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions, with strong brown (7.5TR 5 - 6 ) coatings; l i g h t , dappled, strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common Yellowish brown (10YB 5/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; dappled, reddish yellow (5TR 6 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots common Light yellowish brown (10YR 6 / 4 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky s t r uc t ur e ; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; occasional l i g h t brownish gray (2.5Y 6 / 2 ) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with yellowish red (5TR 5 / 8 ) s t a i n i n g ; dappled, reddish yellow (5YR 6 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roota sparse Light y e l l o w i s h brown (10YR 6 / 4 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular block? s t r uc t ur e ; very f r i a b l e , becoming weakly cemented with Increasing depth; shotty concretions; numerous c l i n k e r - l i k e concretions; dappled, reddish yellow (5IK 6 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots sparse, although fine-r oots common above the o r t a t e l n layer . . Light o l i v e gray (5Y 6 / 2 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; i r r e g u l a r t h i c k p l a t y structure; cemented; reddish yellow (51 6 / 8 ) s t a i n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y In the upper p a r t ; roots absent  5.1  -  5*4  3.6  PLOT L3 (Lower Deadwood) Ao F H  Az B  3-2 2-0 0-2 2-10  B  10-20  B  20-55  B  55-70  Ortsteln 7 0 PLOT L2 (Valley) Ao F H A£  2-1 1-0 0-1  B  1-10  B  10-20  B  20-40  B  40-55  O r t s t e l n 55-  5 . 4  3.4  7  5*6  2.3  8  5.7  2,2  7  5 . 5  2.8  J  6 . 0  1.1  6  PLOT L l (Fourth L k . ) Ao F H A2  2-1 1-0 0-2  B  2-20  B  20-35  B  35-55  D  5 5 -  Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Black (10YR 2 / l ) f e l t y mor; roots common Light gray (5Y ? / l ) l o a n , varying from l e s s than 1 cm. to 5 cm- thick among surface cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; roots common Red (2.5YR 4 / 6 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions, with yellowish red (5TR 5 / 8 ) coatings; dappled, yellowish red (5YR 5 / 6 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots common Yellowish red (5YR 5 / 6 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; dappled yellowish red (5YR 5 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roota moderately common Reddish yellow (5YR 6 / 5 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; dappled reddish yellow (5YH 6 / 8 ) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; scattered, faint blue (7.5 5G 7/2) m o t t l i n g ; roots sparse, although numerous on rock surface, commonly forming a mat; fine dead roots present Rock; seepage water occasions 11/present  4.9 4.5  14.0  5.1  3,5  5  5,2  4,4  6  5 . 3  5.5  5  and H layers above.  Such areas supported a luxuriant growth of mosses,  particularly Hylocomium splendens. and lichens were largely confined to protruding stones. Soil colours were mostly pale, with light yellowish browns predominating.  In the Fourth Lake plot (II), however, yellowish red was common.  The s o i l texture of most horizons was a gravelly sandy loam, and in most plots the 2 mm. fraction constituted less than half the 25 mm. fraction. Plot L l was an exception, with the 2 mm. fraction forming from 60 to 70 percent of the 25 mm. fraction in the upper 20 cm. (Appendix III). and angular cobbles were common.  Stones  Structure was weakly defined and a l l  layers down to the hardpan were very friable.  Shotty concretions were  numerous, especially in plot L l , where from 50 to 80 percent of the 2-5 mm. fraction was actually composed of concretions.  Large irregular clinker-  like concretions (with average diameters up to 10 em.) were frequent in many profiles. (L5),  In the lower portion of profiles on the Wolf Mountin plot  such concretions occupied a large proportion of the s o i l volume.  Mottling was essentially absent and the reddish yellow stains on the gravel and concretions were usually faint.  Profiles commonly merged through a  weakly cemented zone into an ortstein layer.  The ortstein layers of ce-  mented, olive gray sand and gravel had a weakly platy structure, with some yellowish red staining apparent.  The pH of a l l horizons was acid.  Most roots were concentrated in the mineral s o i l near the surface of the profile.  There was limited root pentration of the upper hardpan layer,  with a mat of roots above the ortstein and bedrock being common. The soils of Plot L l were comparable with those included in the Quinsam series and the soils of Plots L2, L3, L4 and L5 resembled those described as the Shawnigan series on Vancouver Island (Farstad 1957).  Pseudotsuga - Qaultlieria association Plots were located on level ground (Plot G6), on gentle slopes (Plots G4 and G5) and at midslope on a steep sidehill (Plot G3).  Soil  depths were commonly somewhat greater than in stands of the previous association, with the hardpan layer 90 cm. or more from the surface. Fig. 19 D).  (Table 14;  Stones and angular cobbles, however, frequently occupied from  10 to 40 percent of s o i l volume.  Soil moisture was again largely derived  from r a i n f a l l , although most of the plots received some moisture by lateral movement of ground water. The l i t t e r layer (Ao)» which varied from 3 to 6 cm. in depth, was composed of both granular and felty mors, the latter being more common among surface cobbles.  The leached horizon (A2) was normally well defined, a l -  though i t rarely exceeded 2 cm., except among surface cobbles.  Surface  horizons were commonly brown, merging through pale brown to yellowish brown, the predominant colour of the greater proportion of most profiles.  All  horizons had a gravelly sandy loam texture, with the 2 mm. fraction constituting about half of the 25 mm. fraction.  The fine subangular blocky  structure was weakly defined and a l l soils were very friable.  Shotty con-  cretions were common, particularly i n Plot G6, where concretions made up to 40 to 75 percent of the 2-5 mm. fraction. also common, again particularly on Plot G6. the lower portions of some profiles.  Clinker-like concretions were Faint mottling was present i n  The dappled, reddish yellow coatings  on cobbles and gravel were slightly stronger than i n the profiles of the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association.  A weakly cemented zone  was normally present above the ortstein, although in most of the pits dug on Plot G5 no ortstein was encountered within 100 cm. of the surface.  In  Plot G3 the profile was commonly abruptly terminated by the presence of bed-  54 rock at 65 cm.  A l l horizons were acid.  It was notable, however, that i n  Plot G4, which had a relatively high site index (140) for the association, a l l pH values for the mineral s o i l below the Ag layer were greater than  6.2.  Roots occurred most frequently in the upper mineral layers, although there was also a network of roots in the felty mor.  A root mat was commonly present  above the hardpan or bedrock. The profiles of Plots G4, G5 and G6 were comparable with those described for the Shawnigan series, whereas the profiles on Plot G3 more closely resembled the Sproat series (Farstad 1957). Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association Both plots of this association were on the upper slope of sidehills. In most pits s o i l depth was less than 80 »> with a considerable proportion em  of the s o i l volume being occupied by stones, particularly in Plot Gl (Table 14; Fig. 19 B).  Ground water movement supplemented s o i l moisture from r a i n f a l l  during part of the year. Litter layers (Ao) were deep, consisting of 2 cm. of partially decomposed needles above 3 cm. or more of very dark brown to black f e l t y mor, which was densely interwoven with roots.  In some places there were layers of l i t t e r  and well rotted wood up to 15 cm. deep.  The leached horizon (Ag) was well  defined, the upper portion of which frequently appeared to be composed of bleached organie material.  In most profiles browns and yellowish and reddish  browns predominated with additional colour being supplied by the prominent reddish yellow coatings on the gravel and concretions. gravelly sandy loams. numerous.  <Soil textures were  Concretions both shotty and clinker-like, were quite  In some pits the solum merged through a zone of fractured rock  into the bedrock, but more frequently there was a sharp break between B and D horizons.  A l l horizons were acid, with the pH of the Ao and Ag horizons of  55 TABLE 141  DESCRIPTION, pH, AND ORGANIC AND CLAY CONTENTS OF TYPICAL SOIL  PROFILES FROM THE  PSEUPOISnHA  - QAULIHERIA AND THE P8BID0T8H0A - IBUOA -  GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA  Depth (cm.)  ASSOCIATION  Description  ph  Organic content it)  Clay content (*>  PLOT OU (Lover Deadwood)  r  B  3.5-2 2-0 0-1 1-10  B  10-20  B  20-W)  B  10-60  B  60-80  A.  H  A2  Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Black (10TB 2/1) granular mor; r o o t s numerous Gray brown (10TE 5 / 2 ) g r a v e l l y l o a n , often p o o r l y d e f i n e d ; weak f i n e aubangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; very f r i a b l e L i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (10IR 6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i t h s c a t t e r e d angular c o b b l e s ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; d i f f u s e , r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5TR 6/6) c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r o o t s common Brown (lOfR 5/3) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i t h s c a t t e r e d angular c o b b l e s ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; numerous ahotty c o n c r e t i o n s , w i t h r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5XR 6/6 c o a t i n g s ; d a p p l e d , r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5TB 6/8) c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r o o t s common L i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (10TR 6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i t h s c a t t e r e d angular c o b b l e s ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s common; dappled, r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5TR 6/8) c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r o o t s moderately common . L i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown ( 2 . 5 r 6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i t h s c a t t e r e d angular c o b b l e s ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s common; d a p p l e d , r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.513* 6/8) c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r o o t s moderately common P a l e o l i v e (51 6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i t h s c a t t e r e d angular c o b b l e s ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; f r i a b l e to weakly cemented towards the o r t s t e i n l a y e r ; s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s ; l i g h t o l i v e gray ( 5 6/2) c l i n k e r - l i k e c o n c r e t i o n s , w i t h r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5TB 6/8) s t a i n i n g becoming more frequent w i t h i n c r e a s i n g depth; d a p p l e d , r e d d i s h y e l l o w c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r o o t s s p a r s e , but f i n e r o o t s common Just above the o r t s t e i n L i g h t o l i v e gray (5T 6/2) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; i r r e g u l a r t h i c k p l a t y s t r u c t u r e ; cemented; r e d d i s h - y e l l o w (5TR 6/8) s t a i n i n g , prominent i n the upper p o r t i o n ; r o o t s absent, except near the upper surface '  5.J  3.0  It  6.2  1.8  7  6.3  1.5  5  6.2  1.6  5  6.6  0.8  2  6^.4  0.9  2  6.5  0.4  4  4.8  2.9  7  5*7  2.7  5  5*7  2.6  4  5*9  2*5  10  T  Ortstein 80-  PLOT 06 (Upper Deadwood) 4-2 2-0 0-1  Ao ? H A2 B  1-10  B  10-25  B  25-50'  B  50-80  Ortstein 80-  Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) f e l t y mor; r o o t s common Dark gray (10TR 4 / l ) sandy l o a n ; t h i c k e r among surface c o b b l e s ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e : v e r y f r i a b l e ; r o o t s common Brown (10TR 5/3) g r a v e l l y sandy l o a m , w i t h s c a t t e r e d a n g u l a r c o b b l e s ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; numerous s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s , w i t h r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7«5YB 6/6) c o a t i n g s ; d a p p l e d , r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5TB 6/6) c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r o o t s common P a l e brown (10TB 6/3) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i t h s c a t t e r e d angular c o b b l e s ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; shotty c o n c r e t i o n s v e r y numerous; d a p p l e d , r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5TB 6/6) c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r o o t s common L i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (2.5T 6/4) g r a v e l l y loam, w i t h angular c o b b l e s ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; very f r i a b l e ; numerous s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s ; l i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown ( 2 . 5 ? 6/4) c l i n k e r - l i k e c o n c r e t i o n s , w i t h r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7«5Tfl 6/8) s t a i n i n g ; d a p p l e d , s t r o n g brown (7.5TB 5 / 8 ) c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r o o t s moderately common P a l e o l i v e (5T 6/3) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i t h s c a t t e r e d angular c o b b l e s ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; f i r m to weakly cemented with i n c r e a s i n g depth; c l i n k e r - l i k e c o n c r e t i o n s common, becoming numerous towards the o r t s t e i n l a y e r ; d a p p l e d , r e d d i s h y e l l o w (5IR 6/8) c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r e d d i s h y e l l o w (5TR 6/8) s t a i n i n g common above the o r t s t e i n ; r o o t s s p a r s e , but f i n e r o o t s common Just above the o r t s t e i n O l i v e gray (51 5 / 2 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; i r r e g u l a r t h i c k p l a t y s t r u c t u r e ; cemented; y e l l o w i s h r e d (5TB 5/8) s t a i n i n g , prominent i n t h e upper p o r t i o n ; r o o t s absent  t 5.2  6.2  1.5  9  6.5.  0.6  5  5*3  6.5  10  5.7  2.8  8  6.0  2.1  13  6.2  1.5  10  6.4  1,0  7  6.*.  2.0  PLOT 05 (Wolf H t . ) AO ? H A2  >2 2-0 0-0.5  B  0.5-10  B  10-20  B  20-45  B  45-65  B  65-100  Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Black (10TR 2/1) g r a n u l a r mor; r o o t s numerous Dark gray (10TR 4 / 1 ) sandy l o a n , o f t e n p o o r l y d e f i n e d , but up t o 2 cm t h i c k i n p l a c e s ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e P a l e brown (10TB 6/3) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i t h s c a t t e r e d angular c o b b l e s , weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s ; f a i n t , r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5TR 6/6) c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r o o t s common -. .T e l l o w l s h brown (10TB 5/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s ; d i f f u s e , r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5YB 6/6) c o a t i n g s on g r a v e l ; r o o t s common L i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (10YB 6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; f r i a b l e ; s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s ; o c c a s i o n a l l i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown ( 2 . 5 ? 6/4) c l i n k e r - l l k e c o n c r e t i o n s , w i t h f a i n t , r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7>5TB 6/6) s t a i n i n g ; d i f f u s e , r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5TR 6/6) c o a t i n g s on g r a v e l ; r o o t s moderately common , L i g h t brownish y e l l o w (10TB 6 / 5 ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i t h angular cobbles and s c a t t e r e d stones; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; ahotty c o n c r e t i o n s ; o c c a s i o n a l c l i n k e r l i k e c o n c r e t i o n s ; d i f f u s e , r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5TB 6/8) c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r o o t s sparse T e l l o w l s h brown (10TB 5/6) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with a n g u l a r cobbles and stones; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e , d i f f u s e , r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5TR 6/8) c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r o o t s sparse  5-9 5.7  -  ( I n some p l a c e s the r o o t zone was terminated by an o r t s t e i n l a y e r a t 90-100 cm.) .PLOT AO? H A  2  03 ( V a l l e y ) -  6-5 5-0 0-6  B  6-10  B  10-35  B  35-65  D  65-  Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Very dark brown (10YB 2/2) f e l t y mor, up t o 10 cm. t h i c k among surface stones and angular c o b b l e s , elsewhere commonly g r a n u l a r mor 2 cm. t h i c k ; r o o t s common Qray (10TR 6 / l ) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, among surface stones and angular c o b b l e s , elsewhere 1-2 cm. t h i c k ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; r o o t s common Brown (7.5TB 5/4) g r a v e l l y sandy l o a n , with numerous a n g u l a r cobbles and atones; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; very f r i a b l e ; s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s ; d a p p l e d , s t r o n g brown (7.5TB 5 / 8 ) c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r o o t s common L i g h t brown (7.5TR 6/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i t h numerous angular c o b b l e s ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s ; d a p p l e d , s t r o n g brown (7.5TB 5/3) « c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; o c c a s i o n a l patches o f r e d d i s h brown (5TB 5/4) sandy loam; s c a t t e r e d c l u s t e r s o f p a l e o l i v e (51 6/3) c l i n k e r - l i k e c o n c r e t i o n s , w i t h y e l l o w i s h r e d (5TB 5 / 8 ) s t a i n i n g ; r o o t s moderately common T e l l o w l s h brown (10TB 5/6) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, w i t h a n g u l a r c o b b l e s ; weak f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; l o o s e ; f e i n t , s t r o n g brown (7.5TB 5/6) c o a t i n g s on cobbles and g r a v e l ; r o o t s moderately common • Rock; normally with a w e l l d e f i n e d boundary between s o i l and rock ( I n some p l a c e s the r o o t tone was terminated by an o r t s t e i n l a y e r )  5.1 5.0 4.5  2.8  7  5*1  3>5  5  5.3  3.5  5  6.1  3.8  7  56  TABLE 14 - Continued  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION  Horizon  Depth (cm.)  pH  Description  Organic content (*>  PLOT 02 (Echo Mt.) Ao F H A2  5-3 3-0 0-4  B  4-35  B  35-55  B  55-75  D  75-  Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) partially decomposed litter Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1) felty mor; roots forming dense network Light gray (10YR ?/l) gravelly sandy loam, in places up to 10 cm. thick among surface cobbles; upper part often including bleached humus; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions; roots numerous Strong brown (7.5YH 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions common, sometimes with heavy red (2.5XR 4/8) coatings; dappled, yellowish red (5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; scattered, faint, yellowish red (5IR 5/8) mottling; roots common Tellovish brown (10IR 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions common; dappled, faint, reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots moderately common Light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) gravelly sandy loam, with numerous angular cobbles and rock fragments; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; dappled, faint, reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots sparse Rock; fine soil merges into bedrock through a zone of fractured rock, with soil between rock fragments; roots sparse (In some places the root zone was terminated by an ortstein layer)  4.6 2.7  .  5-5  3*5  5«7  2.5  5*4  2.7  ••  PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Ao F H  5-3 3-0  A2  0-7  B  7-20  B  20-30  B  30-50  B  50-60  B  60-70  D  70-  Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) partially decomposed litter Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10TR 2/1) felty mor; often up to 10 cm. thick among surface cobbles and stones; roots numerous Light gray (10TR 7/0 gravelly sandy loam, in places up to 15 cm. thick; usually among surface cobbles but elsewhere 2 cm. thick; upper part infiltrated with dark organic matter and bleached humus; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions; roots common . . . . Pale brawn (107R 6/3) gravelly sandy loam, with numerous angular cobbles and stones; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions common; dappled, reddish yellow (5TR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common Reddish brown (5YR 5/4) gravelly sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; numerous shotty concretions, with reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) coatings; dappled, reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common Reddish yellow (7.5IR 6/6) gravelly sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions; dappled, yellowish red (5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common .. Yellowish brown (10TR 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, with numerous angular cobbles and stones; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; shotty concretions; scattered light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6-4) clinker-like concretions, with heavy, yellowish red (5TR 5/8) staining; heavy, dappled reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common Dark yellowish brown (10TR 4/4) gravelly loam, with numerous angular cobbles; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure; friable; numerous heavily stained clinker-like concretions; dappled, reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) coatings on stones and cobbles; scattered faint, yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottling; roots common, including some blackened decayed roots Rock; roots numerous on rock surface, frequently forming a mat; seepage water commonly present ...  5-* 1  5*0 5.4  6.2  5*0  2.8  5*1  6.2  5*3  5*2  5*2  3.8  5*1  6.0  TABLE U l  DESCRIPTION, p g , AND OROANIC AND CLAY CONTENTS 07 TYPICAL BOIL  57  PROFILES FROM THE PBEUDOTBuOA - TBUOA - HYLOCOMIuTI - EURHYNCHIOII ASSOCIATION PLOTS  Horiion  Depth (cm.)  pH Description  Organic content (*)  Clay content (*>  PLOT M5 (Wblf Mt.) Ao T H Al B B B  2-1 1-0 0-1 1-10  Vary dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r 5*5 Black (10TB 2 / l ) duff m u l l ; roots moderately common • 5*5 Very dark brown (10R 2/2) loam; weak crumb structure; f r i a b l e ; roota moderately common . . 5*7 Red (2*5TR 4/6) loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions, with yellowish red (5YR 5/6) coatings; d i f f u s e , yellowish red coatings on gravel; roota common *~ 6*4 . Yellowish red (5IK 4/6) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; numerous ahotty concretions; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) coatings on gravel and shot; roots common 6.5 Yellowish red (5YR 5/6) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; numerous ahotty concretions; yellowish red (5TR 5/6) coatings on gravel and shot; roota moderately common 6.4 Yellowiah brown (10YR 5/8) sandy loam; weak f i n e subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e shotty concretions; scattered, red (2.5TR 5/6) coatings on g r a v e l ; roots moderately common 6.1 Light, o l i v e brown (2.51 5/4) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e t o firm; red (2.5YR 5/8) coating* on gravel and scattered red s t a i n i n g above compact horison below; f a i n t ; b l u i s h (7.5B0 7/2) cast and weak, red m o t t l i n g ; roots sparse, although some fine roots present Just above the compact horison 6.3 Pale o l i v e (5Y 6/4) sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm to weakly cemented; compact; d i f f u s e , red (2.5YR 5/8) coatings on gravel; red s t a i n i n g and mottling; roots absent . . . 6.1  10-20  B  20-45 l 45-70  B  70-100  D  IOO-13O  12.0  — 10  3.0  8  2.4  4  2.1  8  2*5  7  1*4  i  0.5  9  5*7  5*7  11  5*6  2.7  5«9  2.2  10  5.9  1.3  11  5-7_  2.1  23  5.6  3.2  5  6.0  2.0  6  6.0  1.3  5  6.0  1.3  2  6.7  1.1  3  6.2  1.0  5  5.0  3.8  6  5.5  5.1  7  5.3  4.3  4  5.8  2.6  4  5.4  4.0  5  - •  -'  PLOT K2 (Echo H t . ) Ao 7 B A2  2-1 1-0 0-1  B  1-20  B  20-40  Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) f e l t y mor; roots moderately common Dark gray (10YB 4 / l ) sandy loam, i n places poorly defined; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e Yellowish red (5YR 5/8) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; ahotty concretions common; dappled, strong brown (7t5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and snot; roota common Yellowish red (5TR 5/8) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak f i n e subangular . . blocky s t r u c t u r e ; f r i a b l e ; ahotty concretions; strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles gravel and shot; roots common Strong brown (7.5YH 5/6) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; "Shotty concretions; strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and shot; roots sparse .' Yellowish brown (10XR 5/6) g r a v e l l y sandy clay loam, with stones and angular cobbles; medium subangular blocky structure; f i r m ; strong brown (7-5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; f a i n t b l u i s h (7.5BO 7/2) mottling; roots sparse  5.2 5*3  ;  B  40-75  B (Q)  75-100  PLOT K4 (Lower Deadwood) ao F H A?  3-2 2-0 0-1  B  1-10  B  10-20  B  20-40  B  40-70  B  70-100  Very dark brown (10ZR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r . Black (10YR 2 / l ) f e l t y mor; roota .common Oray (10YR 5 / l ) sandy loam, often t h i n but w e l l defined; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable '. Brown (7.5YR 5/4) gravelly loamy sand, with angular cobbles; weak subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; numerous ahotty concratlona; f a i n t , strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and shot; roots common Yellowish brown (10TH 5/4) g r a v e l l y loamy sand, scattered cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; numerous shotty concretions; f a i n t , strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and shot; roots common Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, scattered cobbles and stones; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions common; l i g h t yellowish brown (2.5T 6/4) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with f a i n t , strong brown (7-5YR 5/8) s t a i n i n g ; f a i n t , strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and shot; very s l i g h t b l u i s h (7*5BO 7/2) m o t t l i n g ; roots moderately common Yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) g r a v e l l y loamy sand, scattered cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty and c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions common; f a i n t , strong brown (7-5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and shot; roots sparse Light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) g r a v e l l y loamy sand, with cobbles; very weak granular structure; loose; cobbles and gravel l a r g e l y unstained; roota sparse .  5.3 5.5  Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) to black (10YR 2 / l ) f e l t y mor; roots moderately common Oray (10YR 5 / l ) sandy loam, up to 10 em. t h i c k among surface stones; weak fine subangular blocky s t r u c t u r e ; very f r i a b l e Brown (10YR 5/3) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with numerous angular cobbles and stones; weak f i n e subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions common; f a i n t , strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles, gravel and shot; roots common . . . . . Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; o c c a s i o n a l , ' p a l e o l i v e (5YR 6/3) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with yellowish red (5YB 5/6) s t a i n i n g ; dappled, strong brown (?.5YR 5/8) coatings on cobblesand g r a v e l ; roots moderately common Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) g r a v e l l y loamy sand, with angular cobbles: weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; c l i n k e r - l i k e concretions more common; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots sparse Yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) gravelly loamy sand, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; becoming weakly cemented; shotty concretions; c l i n k e r - l i k e concretions nearly continuous; strong brown (7.5*R 5/8) coatings and m o t t l i n g ; f a i n t b l u i s h (7.5BO 7/2) mottling; roots sparse Olive gray (5Y 5/2) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; I r r e g u l a r t h i c k platy structure; cemented; yellowish red (5YR 4/8) s t a i n i n g ; no roots -  5.3 5.2  x  PLOT H3 (Valley) Ao F a A2  3-2 2-0 0-2  B  2-20  B  20-45  B  45-75  B  75-100  O r t s t e l n 100-  PLOT HI (Fourth Ao T g A  ,  7-5 5-0 0-6  B B  6-6.5 6.5-20  B  20-40  B  40-65  B  65-90  Ortsteln 90-  Ik.) Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Very dark brown (10YR 2/2) t o black (10YR 2 / l ) f e l t y mor; roots numerous (In places the surface horlaon consisted of up to 15 cm. of decayed wood) Light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) sandy loam, up t o 15 cm. t h i c k under decayed wood; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; roots common Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) loam, discontinuous Reddish brown (5YR 5/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with angular cobbles and stones; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; ahotty concretions with yellowish red (5YR 5/8) coatings; dappled, yellowish red (5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots common Reddish brown (5YR 5/4) g r a v e l l y sandy loam, with angular cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; ahotty concretions common; occasional l i g h t yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions, with heavy, yellowish red (5YR 4/6) s t a i n i n g ; heavy, dappled, reddish yellow (5YR 6/6) s t a i n i n g on cobbles and g r a v e l ; roots common Brown (7.5YR 5/4) gravelly sandy loam, with angular cobbles and stones; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions more common; heavy, dappled, yellowish red (5IR 5/8) s t a i n i n g on cobbles and g r a v e l ; f a i n t b l u i s h (7.5BO 7/2) mottling; roots moderately common Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, with angular cobbles and stones; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; c l l n k e r - l i k e concretions numerous; heavy, dappled, yellowish red (5YR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and grave}; scattered b l u i s h (7.5B0 7/2) mottling; roots sparse, although fine roots common above o r t s t e l n l a y e r Olive gray (5Y 5/2) gravelly sandy loam; i r r e g u l a r thick platy structure; cemented; yellowish red (5YR 4/8) s t a i n i n g ; no roots  4.7 4.2 4.3  2.1  10  5.3  3.4  5  5.3  4.0  10  5.3  3.8  9  5.7  1.2  11  <  Plot G2 as low as 4.6.  There was commonly a dense network of roots in the  upper portion of the profile, with the roots of Tsuga and Thuja being concentrated in the Ao and Ag layers.  Normally there was also a concentration  of fine roots in the moist zone above the bedrock. The profiles of these plots were comparable to those described for the Quinsam series (Farstad) (1957). Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association Plots Ml and M3 of the subassociation typicum were on sidehills, whereas Plot M4 was in a small gully.  Plot M5 of the subassociation nudum  was on a gentle slope and Plot M2 on a steeper s i d e h i l l .  Average s o i l  depth was from 80 to 100 cm., with the root zone being terminated in most cases by a compact s o i l layer or by ortstein (Table 15). quent in most plots.  Stones were fre-  In Plots Ml, M3 and parts of M4 30 to 40 percent of  the s o i l volume consisted of material over 25 mm.  in diameter.  The s o i l of  Plot M5, however, was largely composed of material less than 2 mm. ameter (Fig. 18 E).  in d i -  Lateral movement of ground water was evident i n Plots  Ml, M2 and M3 during a considerable portion of the year. Litter layers (Ao) in the subassociation typicum plots consisted of from one to two centimeters of very dark brown to black felty mor. H layers were common among surface stones.  Deep  Leached horizons (Ag) were well  defined in most profiles and varied from a few millimeters to more than 6 cm. deep in Plot Ml.  The H layer in Plot M5 of the subassociation nudum con-  sisted of a shallow layer of black duff mull above a layer of very dark brown loam (Ai), which had a weak crumb structure.  No Ag was encountered in Plot  M5, and in Plot M2 there was only a poorly defined leached layer. The upper profiles of Plots M3 and M4 were brown, merging to yellowish brown with increasing depth.  Soils in Plot Ml were more highly coloured  The upper portion of the profiles was reddish brown, and yellowish red coatings on the gravel and ccmcietions were prominent throughout.  Shotty con-  cretions were common in a l l plots, and clinker-like concretions were very common in Plot Ml and in Plot M3, where they constituted a major proportion of the s o i l volume in the lower part of the profile. s o i l textures were gravelly sandy loams, with the 2 mm. 30 to 40 percent of the 25 mm.  fraction.  In these two plots fraction forming only  An ortstein layer of cemented sand  and gravel, with an irregular platy structure, was present at 80 to 100 in Plots Ml and M3.  cm.  The soil of Plot M4 consisted largely of coarse out-  wash material, and s o i l textures were normally gravelly loamy sands.  A  layer of raw gravel and rounded cobbles was commonly present at the bottom of the profile. The profile in Plot M5 was composed of a deep deposit of fine, yellowish red, outwash material above a compact layer of pale olive sandy loam. This compact layer served to restrict root penetration and downward movement of soil water.  In Plot M2 the lower part of the profile in many places con-  sisted of a faintly mottled gravelly sandy clay loam layer. Values of pH 6 and above were common i n the mineral soils of Plots M4 and M5.  The other plots in the western end of the valley had lower values,  with a pH of 4.2 being recorded for the H layer of Plot Ml.  Most roots were  found in the upper part of the mineral s o i l , although Tsuga roots were largel y restricted to the Ao and A2 horizons and there was some concentration of roots above the ortstein in Plots Ml and  MS.  The profiles of Plot Ml resembled those described for the Stamp series (Farstad 1957).  Profiles developed from coarse materials on Plot  M2 were also comparable with those of the Stamp series, but in some parts of the plot the parent materials were finer and these profiles more closely  TABLE 1 6 :  DESCRIPTION, pH, AND ORGANIC AND CLAY CONTENTS OF TYPICAL SOIL  PROFILES FROM THE PS8UD0T8U0A - POLYSTICHUM  Horlson  Depth (en.)  gQ  ASSOCIATION PLOTS  Description  pH  Very dark brown (10TR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Black (10TB 2 / l ) granular nor: roote common Black (IOTA 2 / l ) sandy loam, somewhat discontinuous; crumb structure; f r i a b l e ; roots numerous . . . . Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) gravelly sandy loam, with occasional rounded cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; scattered shotty concretions; scattered, f a i n t , strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles; roots common . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • < • • • • Tellowlsh brown (10TR 5/6) sandy loam, with occasional rounded gravel*and cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; scattered shotty concretions; scattered, f a i n t , strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles; roots common Tellowlsh brown (10TR 5/8) sandy loam, with occasional rounded gravel and cobbles; vory weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; scattered shotty concretions; scattered, f a i n t , strong brown (7.5TB 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common Oray and brown sand, rounded gravel and cobbles; single grain structure; loose, scattered, f a i n t , strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots sparse Strong brown (7.5TB 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, with scattered rounded coarse gravel and cobbles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; scattered f a i n t , strong, brown (7-5TR 5/6) coatings on cobbles and gravelj roots moderately common Tellowlsh brown (10TR 5/8) gravelly loamy sand, with scattered rounded coarse gravel and cobbles; very weak fine subangular blocky structure; scattered f a i n t , strong brown (7-5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots sparse Light yellowish brown (2*51 6/4) gravelly loamy sand, with scattered rounded coarse gravel and cobbles; very weak f i n e subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; scattered, f a i n t , strong brown (7-5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots very sparse  5.5 5.2  Orftnic content (#>  Clay content (*)  PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood) Ao F H Al B  3-2 2-0 0-1 1-10  B  10-20  B  20-40  B  40-50  B  50-75  B  75-100  B  IOO-130  o.j  o.O  6,3  7 8  6.1  2.6  8  6.4  3.5  10  6.3  3>0  5  6.2  3.7  6  -  -  —  5*3  2.6  5  5.6  3.4  15  5.6  2.5  13  5.9  0.7  13  5.6  0.6 _  22  PLOT PI (Fourth L k . ) Ao F H A  4-3 3-0 0-1  B  1-4  B  4-20  B  20-1.5  B  45.75  B  75-100  B  100-120  2  Very dark brown (10TR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Very dark brown (10TR 2/2) f e l t y mor; roots common Reddish brown (5TR 5/3) sandy loam; weak f i n e subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; roots common; merging i n t o the next horlson Yellowish red (5TR 5/6) gravelly sandy loam, often discontinuous, weak fine'subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; numerous shotty concretions, with heavy, yellowish red (5TR 5/8) coatings; roots common ....... ..4,....,,.... ............. .......... Tellowiah red (5TR 4/6) gravelly sandy loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; numerous shotty concretions; scattered reddish yellow (5TB 6/8) coatings on gravel and shot; roots common strong brown (7.5TR 5/6) gravelly loam; with scattered angular cobbles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable) shotty concretions; scattered reddish yellow (5TR 6/8) coatings on gravel and shot; roots moderately common Tellowlsh brown (10TB 5/6) g r a v e l l y loam, with scattered angular cobbles; weak median subangular blocky structure1 f r i a b l e ; diffuse reddish yellow (5TR 6/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots common Yellowish brown (10TB 5/8) gravelly loam, with scattered stones and angular cobbles; weak medium to coarse subangulan blocky structure; firm; f a i n t , dappled, yellowish red (5YB 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel; roots sparse Light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) gravelly loam, with stones and angular cobbles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c ; very f i r m ; dappled, yellowish red (5TR 5/8) coatings on cobbles and gravel1 roots sparse  5-0 4.5  PLOT P2 (Bcbo R t . ) Ao F B  8-6 6-0  A  0-1  2  B  1-3  B  3-10  B  Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed U t t e r Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) f e l t y mor; often including dark reddish brown (2.5TB 3/4) woody peat from decayed l o g s ; where peat absent humus about 2 cm. deep; roots common Dark reddish gray (5TR 4/2) loam; under peaty decayed wood, t h i s horlson may be up to 10 cm. t h i c k ; weak f i n e subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; roots common Dark red (2.5TR 3/6) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions with heavy, red (2.5TB 5/8) coatings; dappled, yellowish red (5TS 5/6) coatings on gravel; roots numsrous . . . Bed (2.5TB 4/8) sandy loam; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure; numsrous shotty concretions; yellowish red (5TB 5/8) coatings on gravel and shot; roots common . . . . . . . . . . Tellowiah red (5TB 4/8) sandy loam; weak fine to medium rabengular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; numsrous shotty concretions; yellowish red (5TB 5/8) coatings on gravel and shot; roots common . , Tellowiah red (5TB 4/8) sandy loam; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure 1 f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; yellowish red (5TB 5/8) coatings on gravel and shot; roots moderately  10-20  B  20-50  B  50-75  Red (2.5TB 4/6) sandy loam; weak f i n e to medium subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions; diffuse yellowish red (5TR 5/8) coatings on gravel; roots sparse; t h i s horizon i s commonly below the water table . . . . . Olive gray (5T 5/2) sandy loam; i r r e g u l a r thick platy structure; cemented; prominently mottled with yellowish red (5TR 5/6) exposure to a i r ; roots absent v  Ortstein 75-  o  •  5> 5.4  5.6  1.1  5.9  1.7  9  6.1  1.6  13  6.0  1.5  13  6.1  1.9  13  6.0  2.6  9  6.2  -2.8  8  6.1  3.2  7  6.1  1.3  8  6.5  0.1  7  5  n  PLOT P5 ( y o i r I K . AO  A2  F Hi H2  3-2 2-1 1-0 0-1  B  1-2  B .  2-10  B B  10-25 25-fcO W-70  a  70-100  Very dark brown (10TR 2/z) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) f e l t y mor; roots common . Black (10TR 2 / l ) granular duff m a l l ; roots common Dork gray broim (10TR 4/2) loam, often discontinuous and poorly defined; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; roots common , Dark reddish brown (5TB 3/2) loan, often discontinuous) weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; roots common Dark red (2.5TB 3/6) sandy loam; weak fine to medium subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; numerous shotty concretions, with yellowish red (5TR 5/8) coatings; roots numerous Bed (2.5TB 4/8) sandy loam; weak fins to medium subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; numerous shotty concretions, with yellowish red coatings; roots common . . . Tellowlsh red (5TR 5/6) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; shotty concretions common; roots common Tellowlsh brown (10TB 5/6) gravelly sandy loam; weak f i n e subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; occasional shotty concretion with b r i g h t , y e l l o w i s h red (5TR 5/8) coatings; scattered, f a i n t , yellowish red (5TB 5/8) coatings on gravel; scattered, d i s t i n c t , yellowish red (STB 5/8) mottling; roots sparse Light o l i v e grey (51 6/2) gravelly sandy loam, with occasional rounded cobbles; fine to medium subangular blocky structure; firm; compact; gleyed; scattered faint yellowish red (5TR 5/8) coatings on gravel; occasional yellowish red (5TR 5/8) mottling; roots very sparse  PLOT P3( V . H . ) 7  u> r H »1 B  1.5-0.5 0.5-0 0-2 2-3  B  3-8  B  8-20  B  20-50  B  50-70  B  70-95  0  95-120  Very dark brown (10TR 2/2) p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r . . . . . Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) duff mull; roots common Black (10TR 2 / l ) loam; weak fine to medium crumb structure; f r i a b l e ; roots common Very dark brown (10TB 2/2) loom; fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; occasional shotty concretions; roots common . Dark brown (10TR 3/3) loom; weak fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; occasional ahotty concretions; roots common Dark yellowish brown (10TB 4/4) sandy loam; very weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; roots common \ . , Tellowiah brown (10TR 5/6) sandy loam; very weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e , with bands of loose sand; roots moderately common Dark yellowish brown (10TB 4/4) loom; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; roots (Probably the upper part or a buried p r o f i l e ) Tellowisb brown (10TR 5/8) sandy loam; very weak f i n e subangular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; roots moderately common Light grey and brown raw r i v e r gravel and sand; single grain structure; loose; occasional, l i g h t , dappled, strong brown (7.5TR 5/8) coatings on gravel; roots very sparse  5.1 5.2  '  5.6  "•5  10  5.»  2.1  7  6.2  2.6  6  6.0  3.3  9  6.1  1.6  1*  resembled the liberal series.  The soils of Plot M3 were comparable with the  Sproat series, while those of Plot M4 were similar to the Qualicum series. Plot M5 was somewhat like the Royston series. Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association The topographic locations and s o i l profiles of the stands of this association varied considerably (Table 16.).  Plot P4 was on mixed outwash  material i n the bottom of a wide U-shaped valley.  Plot PI was towards the  base of a steep s i d e h i l l and Plots P2 and P5 were on gentle slopes. P3 was on a sandy river terrace.  Plot  Escept in the plots with a high water  table (Plots P2 and P5), s o i l volume available for rooting was good, because profiles were deep and not excessively stony.  Lateral movement of  ground water was prominent in Plots PI, P2 and P5, but in Plot P4 the water table was normally more than 100 cm. from the surface, and in Plot P3 there was no evidence of a water table within the upper 100 cm. of the profile. Plot P4, which had the largest tree volume per acre of any of the plots studied, uses typical of stands of the association growing on f e r t i l e soils under moderately dry climatic conditions.  The Ao layer consisted of  one centimeter of partially decomposed needles, beneath wb.ich.vias a layer of black loam, with a crumb structure.  No Ag horizon was present, though under  decaying wood there was some bleaching of materials.  The remainder of the  profile consisted of gravelly sandy loam, with layers of gravel and cobbles being present throughout the profile (Fig. 16).  Soil structure was very  weakly developed and a l l layers varied from friable to loose. were uncommon.  Concretions  There were some faint brown coatings on the gravel and  cobbles, but there was l i t t l e sign of mottling. horizons was above 6.  The pH of a l l mineral  Fine roots, especially of the subordinate vegetation,  were very common in the A horizon, with the majority of rooting being near  the surface.  Pseudotsuga roots also reached considerable depths.  The  profiles of this plot resembled those described for the Qualicum series, a l though the soil colours were somewhat darker, showing their a f f i n i t y to the Somas series (Farstad 1957). Although Plot PI was towards the upper margin of the site, the profile was typical for stands of the association developed on sidehills under moist climatic conditions. (Fig. 19 F).  The H layer consisted of some 3 cm. of  very dark brown felty mor, in which roots were common.  The Ag, although  well defined, was a shallow layer of reddish brown sandy loam, indicating that leaching of surface layers was not complete.  The upper B horizon,  which corresponded to the Bg of the typical podzol profile, was a yellowish red, gravelly sandy loam, with numerous heavily stained shotty concretions. Shotty concretions were also common in the remainder of the profile.  The B  horizon merged from a yellowish red gravelly sandy loam to a pale yellowish brown gravelly loam at 100 cm. and gravel were prominent.  Yellowish red coatings on the angular cobbles  The lower portion of the profile had a clay con-  tent of 22 percent so that when this layer was wet i t had a slightly plastic consistency and a firm consistency at lower moisture contents. some bluish mottling in this zone.  There was  A pH of 4.5 was measured in the H layer  and values in the mineral s o i l were a l l below pH 6.  Roots were concentra-  ted towards the upper part of the profile and were quite sparse in the dense gravelly loam at the bottom of the profile.  Profiles on t h i s plot resembled  those described for the Stamp series (Farstad 1957). The A Q horizon in Plot P2 was commonly up to 10 cm. deep, much of i t being made up of woody peat from decayed logs (Fig. 19 H). layer consisted of 2 cm. of very dark brown felty mor.  Elsewhere the H  The A2 was a dark  reddish gray loam, usually conspicuously streaked with brown stains.  The B  horizon directly under the A2, again appeared to correspond to the B2 of a typical podzol and consisted of a shallow layer of dark red sandy loam with numerous heavily coated shotty concretions. varied from red to yellowish red sandy loam.  The remainder of the B horizon The presence of fine gravel  and shotty concretions gave the profile a porous structure.  Although in  most profiles examined the water table was commonly less than 40 cm. from the surface there was no evidence of gray gleization.  The lack of gray colour  probably resulted from the ease with which ground water moved through these porous profiles, and in this feature profiles resembled those described for the Bowser series (Farstad 1957).  The pH of the upper horizons varied from  5.4 to 5.9, reflecting the more extreme leaching conditions at this altitude (1400 f t . ) .  Deeper horizons had values above pH 6.0.  The s o i l zone com-  monly terminated in an ortstein layer at 75 cm., although in a l l the pits excavated there was no root penetration to this depth.  Rooting of a l l  species was very shallow. In Plot P5 the Ao horizon was usually shallower than i n Plot P2 (Fig. 19 I ) .  It normally consisted of an B^ layer of very dark brown  felty mor, with a black B^ layer of granular duff mull beneath. peat was also present in some areas.  Wood  The Ag horizon was a dark gray brown  loam, which was often discontinuous and poorly defined.  The upper B hori-  zon consisted of a somewhat discontinuous dark reddish brown layer below the A , beneath which was a dark red sandy loam layer. 2  These layers had  numerous heavily coated shotty concretions, and coatings were common on the gravel.  The majority of roots were concentrated in and above the  upper B horizon.  The remainder of the profile, which was commonly below  the water table, merged from a yellowish red sandy loam, through a yellowish brown gravelly sandy loam to a gleyed, light olive gray loamy gravel. gleyed layer was rarely above the water table.  This  The pH of a l l mineral lay-  64 ers was above 6.  These profiles resembled those of the Puntledge series in  consisting of a shallow loamy deposit overlying an impervious layer (Farstad 1957). This impervious layer caused a high water table. The H layer in Plot P3 consisted of a thin layer of very dark brown duff mull (Fig. 19 G).  This was followed by a shallow &  x  horizon of black loam,  with a crumb structure. The upper B horizon consisted of a very dark brown loam, with a fine subangular blocky structure and friable consistency. concretions were present in this region.  Shotty  The remainder of the B horizon  consisted of dark brown to yellowish brown sandy loam, with very weak structure. There were occasional bands of darker material, indicating the presence of buried profiles.  The B horizon was underlain by a bed of raw gravel and river  cobbles, which occurred at various depths in the sampling pits, the average being 95 cm. 2 mm.  The B horizon was largely free from gravel and cobbles, and the  fraction constituted nearly 100 percent of the 25 mm.  samples.  fraction in most  Boots, though more common in the upper profile, extended to the  gravel layer. Soils of this plot corresponded to those described as the Chemainus series (Farstad 1957). Thuja - Lysichitum association Profiles in the swampy areas of this association consisted of varying depths of black muck, underlain by olive gray, gleyed, sandy loam (Table 17; Fig. 19 J ) . Between the muck and the gleyed layer there was commonly a narrow transition zone of gray, mucky sandy loam, indicating an area with intense gleization conditions.  The gleyed layers were usually heavily  infiltrated with organic matter, causing brown staining. On exposure to a i r some reddish and bluish mottling was evident.  In Plot Lyl the gleyed layer  was f a i r l y gravelly, but in the other plots i t was particles in the upper profile.  Most  largely devoid of coarse  roots were confined to the muck layer,  hut Lysichitum roots were f a i r l y common in the gleyed layer.  65  TABLE 17:  DESCRIPTION, pH, AND CLAY CONTENTS OF TYPICAL SOIL PROFILES FROM THE  THUJA - LYSICHITUM  ASSOCIATION.  Doscription  pK  Depth  Clay content  (36)  (cm.)  PLOT L y 3 (Wolf M t . ) A - SWAMP 0- 1 1- 20 20-23 23-35+  Moss and d e b r i s ( n e e d l e s , t w i g s , wood f r a g m e n t s ) B l a c k muck; w a t e r l e v e l v a r y i n g from 0 t o 10 em. b e l o w t h e moss l a y e r O l i v e g r a y (5Y 4 / 2 ) mucky sandy l o a m ; f i r m ; compact; r o o t s s p a r s e ( m o s t l y L y s i c h i t u m ) ' O l i v e g r a y (5Y 5 / 2 ) g l e y e d sandy l o a m ; p l a s t i c ; s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; f i r m , compact; h a r d when d r y ; brown and y e l l o w i s h r e d m o t t l i n g ( f a i n t b e f o r e e x p o s u r e t o a i r ) ; r o o t s a b s e n t  5*6 6.6  14  B - BANKS AND HUMMOCKS 0- 1 1- 2 2 - 10 20-40 40-  P a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r V e r y d a r k brown (10IR 2 / 2 ) f e l t y mor Dark r e d ( 2 . 5 Y R 3/6) f i b r o u s p e a t , c o n t a i n i n g t w i g a n d wood f r a g m e n t s ; r o o t s f o r m i n g a dense network . V e r y d a r k brown (10YR 2/2) t o b l a c k muck; r o o t s s p a r s e O l i v e g r a y (51 5/2 t o 4 / 2 ) g l e y e d g r a v e l l y sandy l o a m ; u p p e r p o r t i o n h e a v i l y I n f i l t r a t e d w i t h muck; s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c ; s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; f i r m ; compact; h a r d when d r y ; w a t e r commonly r u n n i n g over the surface  4.2  6,8  PLOT L y 2 (Upper Deadwood) A - SWAMP 0- 1 1- 20 20-30 30-  Mo3 3 and d e b r i s B l a c k muck; w a t e r l e v e l v a r y i n g from 0 t o 20 cm. b e l o w t h e moss l a y e r B l a c k muck, somewhat more compact t h a n above O l i v e g r a y (51 5 / 2 ) g l e y e d g r a v e l l y sandy l o a m ; p l a s t i c ; s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; f i r m ; compact; when d r y ; r o o t s a b s e n t  5*2 5*5 hard  A* - MARGIN OF SWAMP 0- 1 1- 10 10-20 20-30 30-80  P a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r V e r y d u s k y r e d (10R 2 / 2 ) g r e a s y p e a t ; r o o t s m o d e r a t e l y common B l a c k muck; r o o t s m o d e r a t e l y common O l i v e g r a y (5T 5 / 2 ) g l e y e d sandy l o a m , h e a v i l y i n f i l t r a t e d w i t h d a r k brown (7.5YR 3/2) o r g a n i c m a t t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y a l o n g r o o t c h a n n e l s ; p l a s t i c ; s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; f i r m ; compact; r o o t s m o d e r a t e l y common ( m o s t l y L y s i c h i t u m ) : w a t e r commonly r u n n i n g o v e r t h e s u r f a c e O l i v e g r a y ( 5 Y 5/2) g l e y e d s a n d y l o a m ; p l a s t i c , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; f i r m ; compact; h a r d when d r y ; r o o t s becoming v e r y s p a r s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d e p t h  4.7 4.8 5*2 5*8  7  B - BANKS AND HUMMOCKS 0- 1 1- 2 2 - 10 10-20 20-30 30-50  P a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r D a r k r e d d i s h brown ( 2 . 5 T R 2 / 4 ) f e l t y mor V e r y d u s k y r e d (10R 2 / 2 ) f i b r o u s p e a t ; r o o t s f o r m i n g dense network R e d d i s h b l a c k (10R 2 / l ) g r e a s y p e a t ; r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous, c o n t a i n i n g few r e c o g n i z a b l e f r a g m e n t s ; r o o t s f o r m i n g dense network A i r space sometimes p r e s e n t . O l i v e g r a y ( 5 Y 5 / 2 ) g l e y e d g r a v e l l y sandy l o a m ; upper p o r t i o n I n f i l t r a t e d w i t h o r g a n i c m a t t e r ; f i r m ; s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; compact; h a r d when d r y ; r o o t s a b s e n t ; w a t e r commonly running over the surface  4.7 4.9  5*7  PLOT L y l (Echo M t . ) A - SWAMP 0- 1 1- 20 20-  Moss and d e b r i s G r a y brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy l o a m , w i t h numerous fragments o f o r g a n i c d e b r i s ; structureless; f r i a b l e ; r o o t s m o d e r a t e l y common; w a t e r l e v e l from 0 t o 10 cm. b e l o w t h e moss l a y e r O l i v e g r a y (5Y 5/2) g l e y e d g r a v e l l y sandy l o a m ; p l a s t i c ; s l i g h t l y s t i c k y ; f i r m ; compact; h a r d when d r y ; r o o t s absent . . . . . . . . . .  5.8  B - BANKS AND HUMMOCKS 0- 1 1- 2 2- 10 10-30 30-40 40-50  P a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r V e r y d a r k brown (lOYfi 2/2) f e l t y mor Dark r e d d i s h brown (2.5YR 2 / 4 ) f i b r o u s p e a t ; r o o t s numerous B l a c k rauck; r o o t s common L i g h t b r o w n i s h g r a y (2.5Y 6/2) g l e y e d sandy l o a m ; upper p o r t i o n h e a v i l y i n f i l t r a t e d w i t h v e r y d a r k brown (10YK 2/2) o r g a n i c m a t t e r ; s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c ; f i r m ; s l i g h t l y h a r d when d r y ; r o o t s s p a r s e ; w a t e r commonly r u n n i n g o v e r t h e s u r f a c e O l i v e g r a y (5Y 5/2) g l e y e d g r a v e l l y sandy c l a y l o a m ; s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c ; s t i c k y ; f i r m ; compact; h a r d when d r y ; r o o t s a b s e n t  4.4 4.6 5«5 5*9  5  6.0  22  The surface of the banks and hummocks surrounding the swampy areas was covered by partially decomposed l i t t e r and a layer of very dark brown felty mor.  These layers were followed by reddish brown to dark brown  fibrous peat, interwoven by a dense network of Thuja roots.  In some areas  there was a layer of greasy peat beneath the fibrous peat, but in most cases the fibrous peat became moister with depth and merged into a black muck layer overlaying an olive gray, gleyed, gravelly sandy loam layer.  Tree roots  were concentrated in the peat and muck layers and rarely penetrated the water table above the gleyed layer. WEATHER Weather patterns in the Nanaimo River Yalley during the years 1951 to 1953 were in accordance with the climatic averages for the region. Rainfall was light during each growing season and winter months were wet. In 1951 r a i n f a l l was in fact below average April, through August, increasing the normal seasonal drought.  Low rainfalls were recorded at a l l stations  in the study area (Table 18), as was true of other stations on Vancouver Island.  Cassidy, for example, on the east coast received only 2.88 inches  compared with an average of 10.75 inches for this period and Nitinat Camp in the central mountains received 6.60 inches compared with an average of 16.44 inches.  In 1952, spring and early summer r a i n f a l l was average, but  the summer drought extended later into the autumn than usual.  Rainfall at  Deadwood Creek for September and October was 1.3 inches compared with an average of 7.5 inches and even at Fourth Lake r a i n f a l l for these months was only 5.0 inches compared with an average of 16.4 inches.  A similar autumn  dry spell was recorded at other stations in the central mountains and on the east coast.  Spring and summer r a i n f a l l i n 1953 was l i t t l e different from  the climatic averages, although in June there was some variation in the  TABLE 18.  67  MONTHLY PRECIPITATION AT STATIONS ADJACENT TO  PLOTS SAMPLED FOB SOIL MOISTURE, 1951-1993 (in ea.)  JAN  FEB  MAR  APE  MAI  JUH  JUL  AUG  SEP  OCT  MOV  DSC  1.1  0.4  1.8  8.9  19.0 a.8 17.7  1.1 1.1  0.4 0.4  1.8 1.3  9.7 9.5  19.0 a.8 18.0 17.2 21.0 17.8  1.1  0.5  2.3  9.7  17.3 20.5 17.0  1.0  0.4 o.5  1951 BOLF MOUNTAIN (Ly3 P5, M5, 05, L5) LOVER DEADWOOD (M4, G4) (L3, U) UPPER DEADWOOD (Ly2, P4, 06) VALLEY Valley floor (P3, L2) Sldehlll (M3, G3)  .  .  ECHO MOUNTAIN Midslope (Lyl, P2, M2) Upper Slope (C2)  .  .  .  .  .  FOURTH LAKE Valley floor (PI, Ml) Ridge (Gl, Ll)  .  .  .  .  . .9 1.0  f  .  .  .  0.9  0  0.6 0 > 6  12.2 23.6 33.0" 17.0 JJ.O 26.1 38.0" 21.8  0  0.6 .8  0.3 14.2 28.1 39.0" 19.2 0.5 15.0 29.2 40.0" 21.2  0.3 0.4  1.0 15.2 28.0 42.0" 26.8 1.0 17.5 30.0 45.0» 27.0  1952 WOLF MOUNTAIN (Ly3, P5, M5, G5, L5) LOWER DEADWOOD (M4, G4) (L3, U) UPPER DEADWOOD (Ly2, P4, 06)  26.0" 16.0"  7.01" 8.0» 2.6  26.0" 16.0" 7.0' 8.0' 2.8 26.0" 16.0" 7.0' 8.0' 2.3  2.6  0.7 . 2.2 0.8 0.7 , 0.8  1.0  2.4 10.8 33.8  26.0" 16.0" 5.5' 6.5' 3.1  2.5 2.2 • 3.2  3.1 2.3  1.0 1.1  2.4 10.9 35.0 2.4 11.2 33.0  3.1  1.1  3.8  VALLEY Valley floor (P3, L2) Sldehlll (M3, 03)  33.0" 22.0" 11.0' 13.0' 3.2 35.0." 23.0" H.O' 16.0' 3.3  4.1 , 1.0 4.7 1.1  4.4 4.3  2.1 4.7 20.8 43.0 2.7 5.4 21.2 52.0"  ECHO MOUNTAIN Midslope (Lyl, P2, M2) Upper slope (M2)  36.0" 28.0" 14.0" 16.0' 4.0 41.0" 32.0" 16.0" 18.0" 3.9  5.8 6.0  0.9 1.0  4.6 4.8  3.1 3.9  6.2 6.8  FOURTH LAKE Valley floor (PI, Ml) Ridge (Gl, Ll)  46.0' 34.0' 17.0' 21.0' 4-5 51.0" 36.0" 18.0" 22.0" 4.8  8.0 8.5  1.0 1.2  7.0 7.4  4-4 4.6  8.3 8.3  23.0 24-0  9.5  8.0 30.0  23.0 47.0  60.0" 62.0"  1953 WOLF MOUNTAIN (Ly3, P5, M5, G5, L5)  47.0  10.3 10.3  5.5  3.1  5.0  2.6  1.8  8.5  26.7 16.8  LOWER DEADWOOD (M4, G4) (L3, L4) UPPER DEADWOOD  47.0 48.0  11.5 10.4 11.6 9.9  5.2 5.3  3.0 2.6  4.2 3.6  2.0 2.0  1.7 10.2 10.0 2.5 10.1 8.9  26.7 17.6  (Ly2, P4, 06)  45.0  10.4 10.2  4.8  3.1  4.8  2.6  3.9 10.2  27.0 19.0  55.0 13.6 19.0 71.0" 15.2 20.5  6.4 7.5  4.8 4.7  5.1 4.9  5.0 5.5  5.2 13.3 19.4 47.0 27.0 4.5 15.0 21.2 51.0 32.0  72.0" 15.3 18.1  8.3  4.8  3.4  6.0  5.0  14.5 23.6 50.5 32.0  80.0" 15.7 24.0 83.0" 16.0 26.0  5.6 7.2  7.6 8.5  2.3 3.0  4.3 5.3  9.0 9.1  16.4 32.1 65.0" 41.0 17.4 33.1  VALLEY Valley floor (P3, L2) Sldehlll (M3, G3) ECHO MOUNTAIN Midslope (Lyl, P2, M2) Upper slope (G2) FOURTH LAKE Valley Valley floor floor (PI, (PI, Ml) Ridge (Gl, Ll)  Interpolated from 2 month reoord * Raingauge overflowed) value estimated. 1  9.9  customary trend from west to east.  Somewhat more r a i n f a l l was recorded at  the eastern end of the study area than at the western end.  Such deviations  could be caused by variations i n the direction of rain bearing winds.  Dif-  ferent topographic features might then cause local rain-shadows or downpowers in unusual places.  During the summer dry periods of 1951 and 1952 mean  daily and mean maximum temperatures were f a i r l y high, accentuating the normal summer drought. The winter of 1951/19.52 was coldlwith considerable snowfall from December to March.  During the winter of 1952/1953 temperatures were more  moderate and most of the precipitation f e l l as rain.  Precipitation during  December 1952 and January 1953 was unusually heavy with Deadwood Creek receiving 31.9 inches compared with an average of 20.6 inches and Echo Mountain 47.8 inches compared with an average of 29.1 inches.  Similarly Cassidy re-  ceived 23.60 inches compared with an average of 14.16 inches and Nitinat Camp 59.35 inches compared with 34.07 inches.  Other winter precipitation  values from 1951 to 1953 showed l i t t l e deviation from the climatic averages. MICROCLIMATE Precipitation and Interception A comparison of the average amounts collected in the four plot raingauges with the averages obtained using the additional nine check gauges showed the four gauges to be a satisfactory measure of the amount of rainfall penetrating tree canopies (Appendix IV). The percentage of interception by the tree canopy varied with stand density, amount and kind of precipitation, and season. variations have been recorded in other studies (Geiger 1950).  Similar The highest  mean annual interception occurred i n Pseudotsuga - Polystichum stands,  IABLB 19: AVERAGE MONTHLY PRECIPITATION -ABB IHTBROBPTIOH IB PLOTS 8AHPLBO FOR SOIL M0I8TUHB, 1951-1953 (en.)  JAN  FEB lUfi  APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC  JAB  PSEPDOTSUCA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGEBA ASSOCIATION PLOT L5 {Wolf Mt.) Preclpltation(ca) 32.11 7 10.7 Interceptlon($) 20 5.5 34 PLOT U (Deadwood) Precipitation(cn) 32.5 11.8 7.0 InterceptionOC) 17 14 17 PLOT L3 (Deadwood) Preolpltation(ca) 30.3 10.7 6.0 lnterceptlon(£) 22 28 PLOT L2 (Valley) Precipitatlon(co) 38.0 12.2 L0.4 Interception (9() 17 32 PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) Preoipitatlon(cm) 57.2 Interception($) 16 20.9 18 19.6 11  12.7  24  27  19  31  MEAN INTERCEPTION  16  21  4.4 1.5 1.5 0.7 0.9 36 45 50 67  54  4.9 8.0 10.8 18.2 35 34 36 28  100 3.1 37 57  5.2 1.3 1.3 0.5 28 37 43 21  1.2 6.1 8.4 13.2 20.8 21 9 18 20 39  t V  109 3.0 24 40  4.5 1.5 1.5 0.5 32 36 39 51  1.3 35  7.2 11.5 19.4 21 28 26  E M  100 3.3 31 42  6.5 2.5 2.3 1.9 2.1 7.1 12.3 20.7 25.5 24 24 18 32 36 33 17 36 30  Z M  141 6.3 28 29  t II  221 9.6 20 26  13  4.8 2.8 28 39 35  39  5.5 31  1.9 4.9 10.7 20.4 28.2 36.7 28 10 21 16 20 27 a 25 22 35  15  41  M  28  39  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT G5 ("olf Mt.) Precipitation(ca) Interception (Jt) PLOT G4 (Deadwood) Preclpitetlon(ca) Interceptloo(£) PLOT G6 (Deadwood) Preolpitatlon(ca) Interception(%) PLOT G3 (Valley) Preolpitation(oa) Interceptlon(g) MEAN INTERCEPTION  PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Preaipitatlon(ca) 36.2 20.7 11.9 6.0 3.8 2.0 60.4 9 12.0 11 21.4 11 22.5 22 Interception(%) 16 21 4. 10 27 29 9 32.7 5 PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.) Preoipitetlon(ca) 2.8 2.6 1.8 2.7 8.9 17.1 28.5 28.6 50.2 20.3 0 11.5 16 Interceptlon(i() 27 17 10 20 15. 20 38 37 30 19 MEAN INTERCEPTION  15 13  17  1 SuajBori June, July, Auguat Total 3 Hun 2  15  18  51  PLOT M 3 (Valley) Prcolpitation(sn) 47.7 15.7 14.8 9.0 2.6 Interception{$) 12 17 15 35 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) Freoipltatlon(ca) 57.0 17.0 18.1 11.9 4.2 Interception(J() 11 11 12 10  24  MEAN INTERCEPTION  18  24  PLOT P4 (Deadwood) Preoipitatlon(cm) Interceptlon(f) PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.) Preolpltatlon(cm) Interception^) PLOT P2 (Echo .Mt.) Preol pi tation(ca) Interception (jj) PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt.) Preolpltation(co) Interceptlon($) PLOT F3 (Valley) Precipitatlon(cffl) InterceptionOE) MEAN INTERCEPTION  ASSOCIATION  13  PLOT H5 (Wolf Ht.) Preoipitation(cm) 25.7 8.6 4.0 3.1 0.6 Interception ($) 55 79 29 36 PLOT H2 (Echo Ht.) Preoipltation(ca) 8.7 2.1 46. 2 20.0 Interne ptionftt) 18 18 12.5 29 31 51 PLOT M4 (Deadwood) Preeipitation(eB) 29.6 9.9 6.0 4.3 1.5 Interception(£) 19 26 31 34 49  18  22  31  27  082 .4  M  78 56  174 .9  148 .9 149 .5 254 .1 7.2 14.3 24.6 26.7 40 27 20 19 156 .3 049 .6 063 .8 534 .7 7.9 27 12.6 25 21.6 20 .  E U  169 34  550 .5  E M  102 36  256 .7  243.1  C II  186  7.5 43  E  217 8.8 18 34  073 .8 0. 7 68  3. 7 60  556 .1 7.4 57 18.4 28  347 .6 8.0 16.5 27.3 37.3 28 1 4 8 10 2.6 1.23 6 437 .6 10.6 21.3 31.1 37.6 33 18 8 4 11  49  1. 8 39  M  u  52  56  45  36  26  27  M  18  24  34  51  PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION  31.0 10.5 5.6 4.7 1.5 1.6 0.8 0.9 5.1 7.2 10.9 20.9 E-101 3.3 16 21 3 5 39 47 47 41 56 33 '32 36 19 M 3 5 48 30.6 10.7 6.0 4.8 1.5 1.1 0.5 0.7 5.0 6.9 10.5 22.0 E 1 00 2.3 17 22 31 35 48 59 56 69 41 36 37 18 II 40 61 33.4 12.4 6.2 4.9 1.9 1.7 0.7 1.9 5.5 7.6 11.7 19.6 E 107 4 .3 10 15 18 L4 37 43 49 37 34 27 15 20 H 27 43 43.2 14.1 13.7 9.3 3.0 2.3 4.0 3.1 9.4 15.4 26.3 31.8 E 176 9 .4 2024202027394I5514IOI215 H 2 5 45 16 21 26 27 40 47 47 54 30 26 25 18 . M 31 49  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA  FEB MAR APR HAY JOB JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC  34 30  29  29  19 13  7  19  E M  234 10.7 16 26  E M  190 7.1 29 34  M  20  30  23.5 7.4 3.2 2.6 0.9 37 42 54 69 57 52.0 17.7 16.1 10.6 20 28 22 21  45.5 16.4 13.5 19 21 1 5  1.2 0.6 63 59  1.4 4.5 6.6 53 5 2 36  7.1 14.5 50  73 3.2 58  41  51  3.7 2.2 1.5 4.3 9.5 19.2-27.1 33.0 23  197 8.0 27 37  9.8 3.2 2.5 2.0 2.8 9.3 17.4 40.0 30.5 28 28 23- 17 20 11 10 9 18  192 7.3 18 23  39  28.7 10.3 5.3 3.9 1.1 22 21 37 44 61  48  21  41  27  18  17  1.2 0.8 0.5 4.9 6.3 10.0 59 72 43 44  64  13.3 10.1 10.5 1.8 1.9 1.4 3.0 25 3 4 4655 45 42 58 23 28 3 3 37 51 49 42 48  36.0 19  44  6.8 34 35  12.7 18.7  21.7 20  95 2.5 44 65 141 6.3 36 48  23  30  25.0 20  26  30  23  M  35 46  THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) Preolpitation(cffl) 29.1 10.0 5.6 4.5 1.6 2.1 0.9 1.0 5.3 7.2 10.6 a . 6 InterceptlonOE) 36 30 50 34 30 36 18 33 33 a 23 34 PLOT Ly2 (Deadwood) Freoipltatlon(aa) 26.1 9.1 4.0 3.2 1.1 1.2 1.7 5.0 .4 Interception OE) 57 0.6 45 45 7.1 44 32 10.2 29 15 39 28 46 PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) Frecipltation(cm) 8.7 3.3 2.4 1.9 2.6 8.5 16.3 27.8 27.9 41.26 7 15.26 2 12.4 Interception(jC) 26 25 33 30 a a 23 11 18 MEAN INTERCEPTION 40 38 33 35 26 25 25 25 27  31  64  34  41 42  .60  15  M  99 4.0 32 39  t M  85 3.5 43 54  n  E 169 6.9 M 28 23 M  33  40  to  where crowns were large and the canopy was dense (Table 19). P2 had below average values because of low stocking.  Plots PI and  The lowest mean annual  interception was i n the open stands of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera associations.  In these stands  erowns were small and there were few trees below the main canopy.  Other  associations had intermediate interception values. Interception was greater i n summer than winter months.  With low  r a i n f a l l a large proportion of the rain from individual showers was needed to wet the tree needles before any could penetrate the canopy and the high summer temperatures and low humidities caused rapid evaporation.  In the  Pseudotsuga - Polystichum plots the average interception during the summer was 46 percent compared with an annual average of 35 percent.  During  light showers interceptions as high as 90 to 100 percent were recorded (Appendix 17).  With heavy rains the amount intercepted was commonly less  than 20 percent and in some of the more open stands values were as low as 5 percent.  It was noted that there were high percentages of interception  with light snowfalls, f o r much of the snow which lodged on the tree branches evaporated before i t had an opportunity to reach the ground.  Even late i n  winter, snow depth beneath the trees was less than in adjacent open areas. Air Temperature Air temperatures reflected the moderating influence of stand density and the cooling effect of moist s o i l s .  Thus the highest monthly maximum  temperatures measured were in the relatively open Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria Peltigera plots and the lowest recorded were in the dense Pseudotsuga Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium  and Pseudotsuga - Polystichum plots and the  moist Thuja Q Lysichitum plots (Appendix IV). Temperature differences between corresponding Fourth Lake and Wolf Mountain plots were inconsistent.  In the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria -  Peltigera association maxima at Fourth Lake during June and August (76°F. and 87°F.) were lower than at Wolf Mountain (82°F. and 90°F.j, although the reverse was the case in July.  In the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium  - Eurhynchium and Pseudotsuga - Polystichum associations the Fourth Lake plots were warmer than their Wolf Mountain counterparts, possibly because the former were less dense and closer to cutover areas.  The Fourth Lake  Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria plot, however, had lower maxima than the Wolf Mountain Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria plot.  These plots had comparable  stand densities, but the former was towards the top of a north slope and the latter was at the base of a southwest slope. Soil Surface Temperature S o i l surface temperatures also reflected the moderating influence of greater stand density.  The lowest summer mean monthly maxima occurred in  the Thuja - Lysichitum and Pseudotsuga - Polystichum associations(65°F. and 72°F.), whereas the highest were in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association (111°F.) (Appendix IV).  The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria -  Peltigera stands were the only ones where monthly value as high as 120°F. were recorded in undisturbed-soils, although in July 1953 a temperature of 135°F. was recorded on Plot G4, which had been swept by a ground f i r e the previous f a l l . The effect of the tree canopy in reducing the range of temperatures was also apparent.  The widest average monthly ranges recorded were at the  open stations outside forest stands.  Differences in minima among stands  were slight, although again the relatively open Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria Peltigera stands generally had the lowest minimum temperatures and the widest ranges.  There was also a relation between stand density and the rate of  temperature increase in spring.  The more open stands warmed more quickly  than the denser and moister stands. More frequent observations than monthly records would have been necessary to determine the length of time s o i l surfaces remained frozen. Monthly minimum temperatures of 32°F. and lower were recorded on a l l plots during the winter of 1952/1953 when snow cover was light and discontinuous. However, frozen ground was only occasionally encountered and i n f i l t r a t i o n was apparently not prevented for high moisture contents were recorded in the upper s o i l layers.  During the winter of 1951/1952 snow covered the ground  on a l l plots for considerable periods.  Although monthly minimum tempera-  tures of 320F. were recorded i n most plots, i t was noted that under the snow at the time these records were taken temperatures were above freezing and the ground was not frozen.  Therefore, even -though i n f i l t r a t i o n of fresh  precipitation was restricted for the duration of the snow pack, soils were not frozen when the snow began to melt in the spring. Monthly records were also insufficiently frequent to show adequately differences among stands of the same association.  It was, however, appar-  ent that the s o i l surfaces of stands in the western end of the study area were cooler and warmed up more slowly i n the spring than equivalent stands further east.  S o i l surfaces at higher altitudes andon north slopes were  also cooler and warmed up later than those i n comparable plots at lower a l titudes and on south slopes. S o i l Temperature During the summer, average s o i l temperatures were highest i n the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera plots, with values decreasing i n the other association with increasing stand density (Appendix IV).  The soils  of plots at higher altitudes and at the western end of the valley were cooler than their lower and more easterly counterparts.  Similarly the  soils of those plots of the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association with high water tables (Plots P2 and P5) were cooler than the soils in other stands of the association.  The highest temperatures recorded occurred in the upper  layers during early September. continued to rise into October.  Temperatures of the deeper layers, however, In the autumn of 1953 inversion of the  gradient with depth had occurred by October 1, while in 1952, when September and October were warm and dry, the inversion was not recorded until the end of the month. During the winter, s o i l temperatures at a depth of 50 cm. did not f a l l below 38°F., except for a few of the higher altitude plots.  Therefore i t  is likely that moisture uptake, though retarded, would not have been prevented in deep-rooted species.  In the upper layers, however, temperatures  ranged from 34° to 38°E. during the winter and early spring.  Freezing or  near freezing temperatures were recorded in a l l plots (except in the swampy areas of Thuja - Lysichitum association) at a depth of one centimeter.  In  those plots measured in early January 1952 (Plots M2 and P4) frost extended to a depth of 10 cm., but i n the milder winter of 1952/53 temperatures below 34°F. were infrequent, even at a depth of 5 cm. Soil temperatures started to rise again in March and the normal gradient of decreasing temperature with increasing depth became reestablished during April.  The soils of the denser associations, as in the case of sur-  face temperatures, warmed up more slowly than the soils of the more open stands.  Earlier warming i n the more easterly stands was also noted.  Evaporation Within the forest stands evaporation rates at one meter above the ground were highest in the open Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association and lowest in the moist Thuja - Lysichitum association (Table 20).  The rates in the other associations f e l l between, for evaporation rates decreased with increased stand density.  Evaporation at the open stations was  always more rapid than under the tree canopies. Exposure to wind also played a prominent part in controlling water losses from the atmometers.  The Echo Mountain station, located on a shoul-  der which was freely exposed to wind movement, had the highest evaporation rates among the open stations.  Plot PI was exposed to abnormal a i r move-  ment because of i t s proximity to the cutover.  Evaporation rates on this  plot were higher than average for the association. The plots at higher altitudes commonly had lower evaporation rates than equivalent plots at lower altitudes.  The rates on Plot LL were nor-  mally lower than on other plots of the same association at lower altitudes. The effects of shrubby and herbaceous vegetation on evaporation rates were reflected more closely by the losses from bulbs at 5 cm. above the ground than by those at one meter.  Thus, although the rates at one meter  in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria stands were greater than those in the denser Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium stands, at 5 cm. the reverse was true.  This reduction in rate was presumably due largely to the i n f l u -  ence of Gaultheria shallon.  Humidity beneath the Gaultheria bushes would  be raised both on account of their transpiration and because they obstructed air movement.  In the latter association there was an almost complete lack  of subordinate vegetation.  The effect of surface s o i l moisture content was  also seen by the rates in the Plot P2, which were lower than average for the association.  Surface soils on this plot were usually moist and there was a  well developed herb layer. The highest evaporation rates occurred in July, with the rates i n August being only slightly lower.  In both months the rates during the f i r s t  TABLE 20. AVERAGE RELATIVE MONTHLY EVAPORATION AT OPEN STATIONS AND Hi PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE, 1951-1952  JUNE Height above ground (em) 100 10 CABIN ECHO MOUNTAIN FOURTH LAKE  _  -  JULY  AUGUST  SEPT.  100 10  100 10  100 10  _  30  41  _  -  36  72 100 87  _  -  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHER•IA - PELTIGERA T—  35  34  68 49  58  55  32  50  AVERAGE  52  37  46 31  -  34 43 36  100 _  -  10  47 64  50  ASSOCIATION  61 40 67 48 48 33 59 42 55 46  55 5*  -  72 61  74 49 78 5 5 58 40 68 47 64 5 2  32  PLOT L5 PLOT LU PLOT L 3 PLOT L2 PLOT Ll  _  53  AVERAGE  60 38  49 31 57 42 42 2 6 42 28  56  36  30  51  42  45  31  43  23  33 36  15 23  59  20 30  26 16 38 18  47  26  33  18  64  48  ) 56  45 .32"  37 41 39  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT Q5 PLOT 04 PLOT 06 PLOT G3  39 20 46 2 7 43 21 27  53 70  34  AVERAGE  46' 24  59  32  65  49  28 40 25  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA  50 38  33  PLOT Gl PLOT G2  33  36 18  12  42 2 1 46 27  41 24  37  13  26 11 34 18  AVERAGE  y*  15  44 24  39  19  30  PLOT PLOT PLOT PLOT PLOT  M5 M2 m M3 Ml  AVERAGE  36 36  50  23  24 41 27 44 34 34 23 38  48  33 33 31  AVERAGE  34  36  44 60 40 48 35  57  53  26  PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM  PL0TT4 PLOT PI PLOT P2 PLOT P5 PLOT P3  33  17  43 27  35  THUJA - LYSICHITUM  25  34 14 39 22 37  18  26 29  35  40 41 45 47  42 29  14  ASSOCIATION  32 21 36  25 25  35 35  35  29  25  18  43  31  33  23  36  27  38 27 27 14 26 11 24 1 5 13 23  36  36  33 33  26  ASSOCIATION  15 17 37 17  16  26 32  38  42 31 50 28 .41 21 39 27 44 28  22  41 43 46 48 39  46  -  ASSOCIATION  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM  42 21 49 3 1 39 40 27 55  41  23  19 32 22 37 24 35  36  23  28  16  27 38 20 33 16 32 20 35 20 37  35  21  ASSOCIATION  PLOT Ly3 PLOT Ly2 PLOT Lyl  28 29  8 9 28 10  37 12 42 1 5 38 14  28 9 34 12 34 1 3  21  6  32  11 25 8  28 9 34 12 31 11  AVERAGE  28  39 14  32  11  26  9  31  9  11  Average evaporation (In ml.) was divided by the largest monthly value (Echo Mountain) July) reduoing amounts to relative values.  naif of the month were almost double those of the second half.  During the  latter periods there was r a i n f a l l and more cloudy days occurred. Relative Evaporation between Black and White Bulb Atmometers A comparison of relative evaporation rates from the black and white bulb atmometers indicated that greater insolation reached the ground of open stands such as Plot L l than penetrated the dense canopies of stands like Plot P5 (Appendix IV).  The same trend was shown among the various stands  of the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association. open, showed the greatest relative differences.  Plot P2, which was  fairly  The dense Plot P5 showed  the least differences and Plot PI was intermediate.  Small percentage i n -  creases in black bulb rates were also recorded in the dense Pseudotsuga Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium plots. The values from the open stations, however, showed some inconsistencies. At Nanaimo, during August 1952, more than 60 percent of the hours of bright sunshine occurred i n the f i r s t half of the month (Meteorological Division, Canada, Department of Transport, 1952), yet in the study area the relative difference between the rates for black and white bulbs during this period was half that of the latter period.  It would seem that during periods of  warm dry weather when rates were high, radiant energy had a relatively smaller influence on evaporation rates than i t did in damp weather.  Never-  theless, when compared during the same periods, the percentage increases did form a measure of the differences in amounts of insolation reaching the ground of various plots. SOIL MOISTURE Considerable variations i n available s o i l moisture were encountered. The differences were both seasonal and between plots. In the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera plots, depletion of s o i l  77  TABLE 21l  MONTHLY V i L O B S Or AVAILABLB SOIL MOISTURE III THE  OAULTHBRIA - PBLTIQBBA (Percentage  JOL  0 + + + 1 1 + 1 2  PLOT IA (Loner Deadwood) AO 0 0 + 0-10 3 10-20 1 1 1 2 20-30 + 2 30-40 2 1 40-50 1 50-60 3 J 1 60-70 + 70-80 " T 80-90 90-100  _ 13 17 12 10 9 11  18 15 15 15 17 13 lit I? 13  16 120 4 25 • 19' 1 17' 1 18' + 23' 4  PLOT L l (Fourth L k . ) Ao - 40 195 0 0-10 28' 7 5 10-20 7 4 29' 20-30 9 2 23 30-40 11 1 26' 40-50 11 2 49' 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100  1  Soil pit ntinber:  r -  "I  PLOT L3 (Lower Deadwood) AO 0 0 • 18 0-10 2 10-20 2 1 14 1 20-30 1 13 1 30-40 14 - 1 1 40-50 12 - 1 50-60 0 - 1 12 60-70 0 - 1 15 70-80 - - - .38 80-90 - 90-100  1  b y w e i g h t o f t h e 5 ran s o i l  fraction)  1953 1951 AUO SBP OCT NOT D2C JAN FEB MAR APR MAT JUN JDL AOO SBP OCT NOV DBC JAM FSB MAR APR MAX JOB JUL ADO SBP OCT  PLOT 15 (Wolf K t . ) AO 0 0 0.10 + + 10-20 1 1 20-JO <• 1 + J0-40 2 40-50 3 + 50-60 1 -t 60-70 2 1 70-80 2 5 80-90 ^ 90-100 2  PLOT U ( V e l l e y ) Ao 0 0-10 2 10-20 1 20-30 1 30-40 1 40-50 1 50-60 2 60-70 "2 70-80 80-90 90-100  PBEHJOTBUOA,-  ASSOCIATIOH P L O T S , 1951-1953.  -  .  90 12 13 9 8 8 9 9  9 13 12 13 3 4 6 6 5  195 14 13 11 11 8 5 6 ~i  - 140 20' 14 14  -  + 2 1 + 2 1 1 1  0 2 2 1 1 1  0  -  0 + 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1  - 140 120 8 15 5 15 13 5 6 13 6 11 11 • 3 5 15  0 2 2 2 3 3 6 6 J. 7  0 0 1 + + 1 1 • 1 _2  35 0  - 160 17 12 11  0 2 2 1 3 3 Tl  0 1 2 1 1 ~I  0 3  -  85 9 8 6 7 7 5 _6  0 4 3 5 5 5 6 6  -  185 32 25 13 16 16 13 13  70 11 3 6 6 6 6 ~7 7 5  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  •%  - 205 - 30' - 28' - 33' - 37'  1  6 18 18 11 7 6 ' 7  +  It 2 2 + 2  190 V>0 120 26 12 25 18 18 5 20' 18 17 21 22 21  -  0 1 + 0 0  0 2  3 2  2  2  3 2  2 2  2 o 7  14 9  13 24'  12 24'  K  7  11'  11'  8  8  7  14'  14'  12  11  16'  ij'  13' 11"  7  2  9 10  17' 13' 18'  18' 16' 24'  20' 6  13 20"  15 17'  11 13  it 2  12 10 It  It 3  16 3  12 13  2  6 6  3  2  3  8  2  16'  J  3  17'  7 8  2 0 4  2 4 4  IJ'  •*•  -  0 3 •  +  10  7  17' 12' 15'  *  2 221  15'  16' 10  22 18  22 20  28' 21  15 17  20 17  0 7  + 6  2 25"  22 23'  13  14  15  12  11  1  1  23'  18  .2  10  -5  -Z  -2  14'  12'  5 5 2  20' 6 4  21 19 16  2  1  13  27 15  15 14  0 T +  + 1 1 • 1 "I  +  2 3 4  -*  0 3 4 4 4 6 6 5 _6  0 5 10 19 22 20 26 30 28  10  11  2 3  5 20  27' 23'  20'  22'  32' 23' 24'  32' 22  1 -2  _8  12'  11  11  5 5  24' 21'  23' 20'  21' 17'  12 12  18 15  4 6  19'  1J'  16 13 11'  17 14  6  20 15 14'  18 14  5  12  12  10  9  4  Jt  -i  ii'  23'  14'  1?  12  12  3.  _8  14 12 11  33' 24'  26 22'  31' 24-  25 20  26 20  16 13  31' 17  23'  20'  17  17  28' 21' 18  23 18  20'  27 20 18  17  11  12  13  10  28 22 20  8  36'  34'  34'  30'  30'  32'  31'  29'  13  29  21  34'  32  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  17  J  S o i l p i t s 1-11 wore o M a s u r o d g r a v l a e t r i e a l l y ; p i t s 1-3 and 7-11 w i t h i n the f i r s t t e n d a / s o f the month, and p i t a <t and 5 during the l a s t t o n days. S o i l p i t 12 was measured e l e c t r o a e t r i e a l l y on the f i r s t da? . each 9 0 1 1 t h .  ' G r a v i t a t i o n a l water preaent (greater than f i e l d c a p a c i t y ) . • C i r c a w i l t i n g percentage. 0 Less than w i l t i n g percentage,  HOV  = Bedrock — Ortsteln ••- Compact s o i l tone  PLATE  VIII, Figure  PLATE  VTII.  Figure 20.  Precipitation and Depth of Available Water Average monthly precipitation and depth of available water in the whole profile and the upper 30 cm. of plots sampled for s o i l moisture, 1951 to 1953. (The heavily cross-hatched portion between the s o i l moisture curves indicates the depth of water within the upper 30 cm. of the profile and the lightly cross-hatched portion the depth in the remainder of the profile).  LONGITUDE ALTITUOE  WOLF MOUNTAIN  DEADWOOD (LOWER)  DEADWOOD (UPPER)  VALLEY  ECHO MOUNTAIN  FOURTH LAKE  I24»07'W 760-1000 If.  I24"08'W 700-79011.  I24«I0'W 810-840 ft.  I24"I7'W 640-S70ft.  (24*20'W 1410-1700 II.  I24*24'W 1050-1570 It.  MONTH  ASSOCIATION  JFHAUJJASOHO  MONTH J FMAHJJ  ASONO  MONTH JPHAHJJASO  MONTH NO  JFHAUJ  J  ASOHD  MONTH J F MAIM  J AS OND  ^  MONTH  J FHA IIJ J ASO HP  PSEUDOTSUGAGAULTHEBIAPELTIGERA  PSEUDOTSUGATSUGAGAULTHERIA  a. Ill  o 40-1  -13 -10  PSEUDOTSUGAGAULTHERIA  - 5 -  -  PSEUDOTSUGATSUGA HYLOCOMIUM  PSEUOOTSUGAPOLYSTICHUM  «0-i  O  moisture reserves began in May and continued throughout the growing season (Table 21;  Fig. 20).  Available s o i l moisture in the Wolf Mountain (L5),  Deadwood Creek (L3 and L4) and Valley (L2) plots was reduced to very small amounts at a l l depths by July In both 1951 and 1952,  and although 1953  somewhat wetter, low percentages were recorded in August.  was  At Fourth Lake  (Plot Ll) however, moisture deficiencies were less marked.  Appreciable  reduction of s o i l moisture did not occur until August, and even in the dry years of 1951 and 1952 pronounced soil drought was not evident below the surface layers.  In the easterly plots •litter layers remained dry most  of the summer, but at Fourth Lake even these layers were not reduced below wilting percentage for such a long period.  Thus, r a i n f a l l in late August  and early September 1951 was sufficient to wet the l i t t e r layers of the westerly plots (Ll, L2), but i t was not adequate to increase available moisture contents in the easterly plots.  Similarly in 1952,  l i t t e r layers  at Fourth Lake s t i l l contained available moisture into early July, while none was present in the other plots. In the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria plots,since s o i l moisture reserves were somewhat greater than in the previous association, available water was not depleted so early in the season.  Marked reductions were evident by  July, and amounts of available water remained small until replenished the autumnal rains.  by  As in the previous association, l i t t e r : layers re-  mained below wilting percentage during much of the growing season. The importance of vegetation in moisture depletion was made evident by the results from Plots G4 and G6.  In the autumn of 1952,  these plots  were swept by ground fires which removed a l l the subordinate vegetation on Plot G6 killed  some trees.  Although in the previous growing seasons  s o i l moisture reduction had been as great as in Plots G3 and G5, in 1953 moisture depletion was small in the disturbed plots.  and  80 TABLB 22t  MONTHLY VALUES 0 1 AVAILABLE 8 0 1 L MOISTURE IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA -  GAULTHERIA  AND THE PSEUDOTSUGA - T3UGA - GAULTHERIA  1951-1953  (Percentage  PSEUDOT5U0A - OA'JLTHgRIA  DEPTH  JUL AI10 SEP OCT NOV DEC  PLOT 05 (tfclf M t . ) AO 0 0 0-10 3 6 10-20 3 3 20-30 it 2 it 2 30-40 5 40-50 3 4 3 50-60 60-70 3 3 70-80 It 3 80-fKI It 2 2 5 90-100  0 ll 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 2  -  -  165  15 13  -  14 10 9 9 6 _5 5  21 11 10 9 7 9 5 6  PLOT 0* (Lower DMdmod) Ao 0 0 0 125 0-10 1 1 18 2 2 2 1 15 10-20 • 14 2 3 20-30 1 1 30-40 3 15 + + 2 40-50 13 + 1 11 1 50-60 0 60-70 2 3 12 2 0 19/ 70-80 80-90 - 2 -3 6  _!  -  -  14  -  in  -  PLOT 03 ( V a l l e y ) Ao 0 0-10 • 10-20 3 20-30 5 30-40 it 40-50 7 50-60 6 60-70 •3 70-80 80-64 90-100  21'  -  21' 15'  -  -  70 9 6 6  5 3 It It J  -  -  - . -  -  -  -  -  18 14  10 10  9 11  16' 13'  125 18 11 10 10 7 10 7 7 8 9  25 3 1 3 1 1 2 ll It 6 7  50 19  0 1 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 1  9 7 8 8  12  14  • < s 23  0 + + 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2  ASSOCIATION  17 17 16  8' re-  30 1 1 1 + + 1  -  0 1  2 +  1  +  17 10'  4  3  1  +  31'  17' 20'  lit 20'  13 17  13'  9  9  11'  15'  15'  10  5  19'  18'  13'  14  16' 19  lit 17  8  9  10  11'  11  15 IB  NOV  + 2  29' 21'  25 20  6  2  8  8  6  It  3  11  5  3  16' 19  10 12  8  8  6  10  12'  9  9 10  ground fire 4 + +• + + +  210 190 15 15 18 12 11 12 11 9 11 10 11 12 12 13 U "9"  17 17  19'  17' 20' ~9 25 210 13 22 + 21 1 21 2 22 4 18 8 10 5  18-  400 24' 20' 18' 19' 19'  15  -  -  14 16  -  23 17 19 17 11 11  20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100  -  - . 150  15  fraction)  MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JtTN JUL AUG SEP OCT  - 200  -  PLOT 06 (Upper SMdwood) 0  0-10 10-20  17  JANFEB  ASSOCIATION P L O T S ,  by w e i g h t o f t h e 5 mm s o i l  0 + + +  1  2  1  -  7 6  15  15  7 8  16  17'  9 12  19'  18'  ll 16  11  19'  13 16  15  15  18' 20'  18'  -  20'  19  -  19'  21'  22'  21'  22'  18  13  ll  9  4  22'  20  21'  18  18  18  15  13  18 15  23' 21'  20  16  19 16  16  18'  19 16  20'  22'  13  11  11  10  13  14  ground fire 7 19 6 16  5  5  1J'  21'  17'  12  13  16 13  3  4  11  13'  11  10  11  11  10  10  10  10  12'  11  8 2  12 6  34 53'  30'  24'  21' 26'  17 13  8 1  9  25  17 21  13  33'  19 25  20  45'  27 33  3 3  12  25' 22'  24' 24'  16 21  15  23'  17" 21  11  24'  16 20  19'  24'  13  16  —  ~  17  15 - 180 29' - 25" 17' 17' IS  1  -  13'  --  -  - 155 145 100  -  -  -  18  18  14 7 8  16 10  15  17  11 7 7 8 J  -  3 3 3  50  4 4 7  "3  19'  —  :  23  17  =  2 2  1  19" 22 22'  —  —  25  PSBUUUTSUUA - TSUGA - OAULTHBRIA ASSOCIATION PLOT 01 ( P o o r U L k . ) Ao 25 0-10 4 10-20 6 12 20-30 11 30-40 14 40-50 20' 50-60 18' 60-70 29' 70-80 80-90 90-100 PLOT 02 (Echo M t . ) AO 1 0-10 2 10-20 5 6 20-30 30-40 7 40-50 7 8 50-60 60-70 7 70-80 8 8 80-90 90-100 1 Soil pit number: 1 2  16  50' 31'  W  260 180 135 25' 8 19 20' 4 2 ' 20 23' 16' 28 38' t 29'  - 245 31  -  -  -  25 22  44'  18  -  g'  25'  0 4 7 3 3 4 4 3 6  25  12  36'  20  8 14  6 11  17 18  30' 5  23 22  10  10  12'  1  13  12  10  10  15'  11  13  16'  13  13  17'  18'  I  _  6 9 9  29' 32' 8  24'  30' 15'  31' 13'  22 11  25  23  22  21  24' 25  11  11  12'  20 12'  15  8  11  17'  13'  12  12  13'  13'  -  9  20'  17'  17'  15  16'  16'  16'  _  —  _  13 17  14  24'  18  - 2' 70 240 4 9 3 15 3 1 2 2 4  5  6  14  15 13  14 14' 11'  13'  - 2  ™*  3  4  20'  -  -  350  -  20' 17  -  18' 21' 24'  -  15  -  5  6  30  .  16  -  13  -  -  . . . . -  .  -  18  14  12 J  66  0 +  14 13 16  6 8 8 8 12 22  •  21  13 13 13 19' 18'  . . . -  140  7  7  ~i  3  5  --  •-  _  . -  9,  10  5 7  7 11  8  27'  22  24'  19  16  27'  13  13  13  12  10  17 11  16  15'  19 13  21  8  26' 20'  22  7  9  17'  15  0  15'  14'  15'  11  12'  11  13'  12'  11  12'  10  13'  13  5  16!  16'  16'  13  13  13  14  14  12  14  7  16'  15  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  ~  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  •  6 10  -  -  -  -  11  12  12  12  ~  12  • S o i l p i t s 1-11 were measured g r e » i n a t r i c a l l y ; p i t s 1 - 3 . 6 and 7-11 w i t h i n the f i r s t t o n days o f the month, p i t s 4 and 5 during the l a s t t e n days. S o i l p i t 12 was measured e l e e t r o n e t r l c a l l y on the f i r s t d a y ' o f each month. O r a v l t a t i o n a l water present (greater than f i e l d c a p a c i t y ) . «- C i r c a w i l t i n g percentage. 0 Less than w i l t i n g percentage. 1  17 —  = —  Bedrock Ortstein Compact s o i l l a y e r  23  During late autumn, after periods of heavy r a i n f a l l , high moisture percentages were recorded and temporary water tables above the hardpans were common.  When Plot G6 was sampled in early December 1951, this water  table was 10 cm. deep.  On sampling i n early January 1952, by which time  snow had covered the ground for some two weeks, there was no gravitational water above the hardpan and the percentages of a l l layers were lower.  It  was apparent that further addition of water was prevented by the blanket of snow.  In these gravelly soils drainage quickly removed excess water, even  though the plot was on an almost level bench.  In the winter of 1952/1953  such perched water tables were present more continuously, for there was l i t t l e snow or frozen s o i l to r estrict i n f i l t r a t i o n of r a i n f a l l . In the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria plots moisture values were i n the upper part of the available range for much of the growing season. Available moisture was even present in the l i t t e r layers during considerable periods in summer.  Low values, particularly in the upper 20 cm., were re-  corded i n July 1951 and August 1952, but periods with small amounts of available moisture were of relatively short duration.  On Plot Gl, which  was on a 20° slope, gravitational water flowed over the bedrock until July. In the subassociation typicum plots of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association available water was largely exhausted from the surface layers of the more easterly plots (M3 and M4) during the summers of 1951 and 1952.  Moisture in the deeper layers was also reduced  to small amounts i n the latter part of the growing season. was quite marked i n Plot M4.  This reduction  In the Fourth Lake plot (Ml), depletions were  less pronounced and of shorter duration.  Litter layers were below wilting  percentage much of the growing season in the easterly plots, but at Fourth Lake available water was present even i n these layers during most months. Moisture depletion was less severe in a l l layers during 1953.  82 In the subassociation nudum plots of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association soil moisture deficiencies were not pronounced, although low values were recorded in the surface layers at the end of the unusually prolonged summer drought of 1952. During the spring and autumn, gravitational water was present above the clayloam layer at the base of the profile in Plot M2.  Depletion of  s o i l moisture reserves during the growing season was therefore delayed by the addition of seepage water early in the season. however, was absent during the summer.  Ground water flow,  Also, when the plot was sampled  in early January 1952, two weeks after heavy snow cover restricted further infiltration, no gravitational water was present to a depth of 100  cm.,  even though water had been encountered three weeks earlier before the snow blanket was complete.  Accumulations of water did occur in an open ob-  servation pit on Plot M5 after prolonged autumnal rains in 1951, but normally the soils on this plot were well drained for a depth of one meter or more.  The deep, fine textured soils of this plot provided good moisture  reserves, and these delayed moisture depletions until late in the growing season. In the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum plots considerable depths of available water were present in m03t plots at a l l seasons, and very low moisture values were uncommon.  High water tables and seepage water, present in four  of the plots, contributed to these favourable moisture conditions. There was relatively l i t t l e fluctuation in the height of the water table in an observation pit on Plot P2.  The level of the water was common-  ly only 40 cm., below the s o i l surface, although in the later summer of 1952 i t dropped to 50 cm. and during the winter i t sometimes rose to within 20 cm. of the surface.  This high water table maintained even the upper  83  TABLB 23: MONTHLY. VALUES 07 AVAILABLE SOIL MOISTURB IB THE PmrmnTBnni . I8UQA - HYLOCOMIUl . BOHHYHCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1933 (Percentage by weight of the 5 mm soli fraction)  DEPTH (cm.)  JUL  AUO SEP  PLOT M5 (Wolf H t . ) AO 60 3 0-10 11 15 10-20 16 12 8 16 20-30 14 18 30-40 22' 17 40-50 18 20 50-60 60-70 15 19 70-80 15 19 11 21 80-90 90-100 11 21 120 PLOT M2 (Echo M t . ) AO 35 0-10 9 10-20 9 20-30 7 30-40 9 • 40-50 9 6 50-60 60-70 9 8 70-80 10 80-90 90-100 9  0 3 5 7 5 7 8 7 8 7 6  OCT NOV  120 18 18 21 23 17 22 24 25' 25' 19  -  DEC JAN  65 17 16 19 IB. 19 18 23 16 7' 8  0 4 3 3 4 •3 3 5 5 2 3  270 12 14 13 12 14 15 15 16 14' 10  - 270 20' 20' 20' 20' 19' 16' 16' 15 16' 20'  PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) AO •f 0 0 + 0-10 2 3 10-20 4 3 3 5 20-30 2 3 30-40 3 3 2 4 40-50 3 3 50-60 5 3 3 60-70 4 2 3 70-80 4 3 3 1 4 80-90 2 6 90-100 1 1  16 15 15 15 14 12 7 7 7 10  -  - 250 28' 12 10 11 7 9 8 8 6' 5'  PLOT 113 ( V a l l e y ) AO 0 0-10 2 10-20 3 4 20-30 30-40 3 4 40-50 4 50-60 4 60-70 70-80 6 80-90 90-100 -  + 1 2 3 3 4 4 6 5 8 11  23 13 13 15 17 17 16 16 16 18'  PLOT Ml (Fourth Lake) AO 37 65 + 0-10 11 10-20 12 3 4 20-30 12 14 30-40 .5 40-50 15 3 50-60 15 -5 60-70 16 5 70-80 13 7 14 80-90 14 17 90-100 10  21 22' 21' 19' 18' 20' 23' 3' 23'  -  -  -  -  FEB  . .- . --  . . .  _  16 14 15 14 15 15 16 15 16' 19'  -  -  -  • -  1952 JUN JUL  MARAPR MAY  _  -  30 14 10 9 11 16 14' 12 20' 24' 38'  90 25 22 18 16 16 16 12 17 13 10  - 140 - .16 14 16 15 13 13 . - 14 15" 17' - 21'  130 19 20 19 19 21 11 11 12 13' 13'  - 185 27 25 25' 21 26' 22' 21' 20' . _ =j  85 5 5 7 10 7 9 11 13 15  -  1953 AUO SEP  0 0 6 9 7 11 10 13 10 ' 14 6 15 4 16 6 15 5 19 20 6 6 26  45 6 4 4 5 6 7 7 6 6 7  0 9 10 7 7 7 7 10 11 11 10  0 6 6 6 6 7 7 6 4 4 5  80 15 11 10 11 11 15 19 il 17 12  1  r  i  35 12 12 9 8 8 12 11 "6 _  -  17  16  16  14  12 19' 16  21  20  19  17  13  15 10  1  18'  9 24'  9  17  27' 23 32'  28  18  14  22'  20'  15  2 2 2  12' 3 2  7 9  9' 12' 10'  9' 11  8 10 8  8 10 8  7 9 7  7  16' 10 8  10' 12"  7  7 9 7  7 8  9'  7 9 8  8 9  9'  5  6  10'  10'  10'  9  9  9  8  7  7  7  6  9  19'  19'  20'  17' 16  16  14  17' 18' 16  19' 11' 16' 19  0 1 6 5 7 8 5 4 4 6 4  190 135 225 90. 20 20 37 20 17 16 13 10 13' 16'  22'  21'  19  20'  18' 6 6  25 7 5  16 8 16'  19  19  14 7 21'  22'  2 0 ' 14' 13  23'  17' 17'  15  13  26'  23'  22'  14  14  14  12  12  12  12  12  12  14 9 15  13 7 15  12  14' 17'  18 10' 17' 18  17  21" 21'  5 12'  5 . 19  13  12  12  14  13  21 11 14  34' 30' 14' 12'  15 14  14  13  14  15' 16' 15'  12  12  12  12  19 11  Soli pit number:  1  S o i l p i t a 1-11 were measured g r a v l m e t r i c a l l y ; p i t s 1-3. 6 and 7-11 w i t h i n the f i r s t t e n days o f the month, and p i t s 4 and 5 d u r i n g the Last t e n days. S o i l p i t 12 was measured e l e c t r o m e t r i c a l l y on the f i r s t day o f each month.  2  3  4  5  ' G r a v i t a t i o n a l water present (greater than f i e l d c a p a c i t y ) . • C i r c a w i l t i n g percentage. 0 Less than w i l t i n g percentage.  10  11  12  Bedrock Ortstein Compact s o i l tone  9'  18' 20'  1  1  14  14  ground fire  10 2 3 3 4 3 4 6 3 3 6 135 100 23 15 12 11 13 13 16 13 13 15 18 12 17 10 17' 9 H' ' \M 4 12'  OCT  12  12  84  TABLE 2 4 :  MONTHLY VALUES OF A V A I L A B L E SOIL MOISTURE I N THE  PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM  ASSOCIATION P L O T S ,  ( P e r c e n t a g e by w e i g h t o f t h e 5 mm s o i l  1951-1953  fraction)  1953 DEPTH  JUL  AUG  SBPOCT  NOV  DEC JAN  FEB  MAR APR MAY  JON  -  JUL  AUG SEf  (CO.)  PLOT PI* (Upper Deadwood) AO 0 50 0-10 32 9 10-20 12 12 7 20-30 6 5 30-00 15 32 8 40-50 50-60 - - 149 33 60-70 70-80 24 8 18 12 80-90 21 9 90-100 PLOT PI (Fourth Lake) AO 0 - 110 4 0-10 7 10-20 12 9 8 14 20-30 30 -40 12 9 8 40-50 11 8 50-60 7 60-70 8 7 70-80 11 6 8' 80-90 6 8 90-100 11  92 44 10 24 12 50 36 30 ' 37 36 35  - 120 65' 65' 51' - 46' 21  _  - 180 22' 22' - 21' 20' 18' - 21' 26' 22' 24' - 21'  21 20 22' 30' 27' 27' 33' 31' 31'  - &!  -  -  51'  -  44 50 52 37 51' 21 16 17 19' 21'  -  -  -  60  40  -  19 11 7 9 20 11 23 16 12  12 31 13 8 8 10 35 38 18  -  60 25 25 21 25 25 25 13 8 5 . 9  160 140 135 29' 25 22 21  0 3 4 3 2 3 5 5 5 21 14  0 1 4 7 3 3 3 3 3 3 28  5 6 7 11 9 10 14 12 10 9  11 16 17 17 12 "7 7  150 160 23 26 165 15 22' 12 101' 10 19' 18 24' 12 26' 19' 21'  56 29 28' 36'  20' -  19 19 19  21 24 16 18' 19'  ground fire 0 35' + 0 4 3  16  -  38' 23  28 37  29 36  31' 37  36' 37  35' 14  29 28  33  35  36  36  35  37' 30 29  20 16  37'  33' 29 36  23 27  16  19  17  36  15'  11  12*  11  11  10  6  4  3  11  22  +  +  8  12'  4  4  -  24  27'  25  26'  26'  24  19  9  5  25  4  4  10  19'  23'  17  22'  22'  19'  16  13  5  5  20'  5 11  18' 12  16 38'  16 27'  15 17  16 19  16 19  16 23'  14 38'  10 38'  7 23'  11 20  8 11  16 29'  34'  34'  31  33  33  34'  32  27  21  17  6  34'  11  12  10  11  10  10  10  6  13'  10  20'  -  8  6  10  12  13'  13'  12  18  20'  20'  20'  20'  20'  20'  20'  20'  20'  19  20'  6 11  13' 15' 20'  13' 16' 20'  14' 16'  8 12  8 12  10' 13'  10' 13'  9 13'  12' 13'  12  9 15' 20'  19'  19'  19'  19'  19'  19'  19'  14' 15' 20'  24'  24'  24'  24'  23'  24'  23'  24'  24'  24'  24'  24'  -  1 5 6  16 10  26' 27'  26' 28'  25' 27'  5  23'  23'  23'  25' 26 20'  25' 27' 20'  23 25 17  25' 27' 20'  25' 27' 20'  24 26 19'  12 17 14  23 27' 18'  26' 27' 20'  5  5  14'  17'  17'  17'  17'  7  15'  15'  13  10  16'  17'  6  7  12'  12'  12'  12'  12'  6  13'  13'  12'  11'  12'  13'  0  +  20 18 21  19 18 20  19 18 19  17 18 19  17 16 17  24'  19' 20  20 18 21  4  19' 20  22' 18 21  20  +  22' 18 17  24'  13 1  18 18  21' 21  1  1  25  26  30'  28  29  29  29  29  28  23  21  31'  2  2  13  18  21'  18  18  19  17  17  15  10  8  20  1  1  11  24'  24'  22  24'  24'  23'  22  20  11  9  24'  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  PLOT P2 (Echo M t . ) AO  0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100  -  -  110 26 25 23  -  PLOT P3 ( V a l l e y ) 36 0-10 11 10-20 30 20-30 27 30 -40 17 40-50 13 50-60 11 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 125 Soli pit number:  230 25" 40"  S& 3V 29' -  PLOT P5 (Wolf M t . ) AO 120 40 0-10 18 7 10-20 11 35 14 18 20-30 12' 18 30-40 40-50 13' 13 12 50-60 11 60-70 70-80 - 13' 80-90 - 12' 11' 90-100  1  55 140 21 215 56' 33' 39 38'  30 15 18 16 28 21 13 13 10 8 8 4 5 4 5 3 2 4 1 2 3 2  3  _  29 29 31' 24' 22' 11'  _ 22 13 19 17 19 20 13 12 8 5  4  -135 29 22  -  -  -  -  30' 28'  " -  -  120 150 180 18 88 185 20 40' 42 2 2 ' 32 24' 23" I f f 28' - 14' 15' -  - i&  24 20 18 16 11 11 14 24' 12 7' 7'  5  _  -  -  6  2 3 ' 24' 26' -  --  50 20 13 10 20 24 32 18 8 5 4  45 24 24 22 30 32 24 32 15 25 18  7  8  -  0 13 9 21 18 i'i 7  0 21 15 10 8 7 7 7 6 5 3  0 16 5 11 23 12 6 15 7 3 6  30 13 12 8 6 4 3 5 3 2 2  9  10  11  1 S o i l p i t s 1-11 wore measured g r a v i m s t r i c a l l y ; p i t s 1-3, 6 and 7-11 w i t h i n the f i r s t t e n day a o f the month, and p i t s -V and 5 during the l a s t t e n days. S o i l p i t 12 was measured e l e c t r o m e t r i c a l l y on the f i r s t day o f each month. ' G r a v i t a t i o n a l water present (greater than f i e l d c a p a c i t y ) . * C i r c a w i l t i n g percentage. 0 Less than w i l t i n g percentage.  Ortateln - . - Compact s o i l l a y e r w W a t e r table  -  layers of the mineral s o i l continuously damp, and moisture values in the l i t t e r layer were above wilting percentage most of the growing season. The observation pit, however, being towards the edge of a slight depression, represented a moister part of the stand. Although the water table on Plot P5 dropped 100 cm. below the ground line during the latter part of the summer, even the upper layers of the s o i l profile remained moist.  At other seasons, observations on an open p i t  showed the water table to fluctuate at a depth of 40 cm. below the s o i l surface.  At the end of January 1953, after prolonged precipitation, the  level rose to within 10 cm. of the top of the p i t . On plot P i water was present i n an observation p i t at most periods except late summer and early autumn.  Normally this water flowed over the  compact s o i l zone of the lower profile, some 80 cm. from the surface. early spring and late autumn, however, i t was frequently higher.  In  During  a wet spell in late December 1952, for example, water overflowed from the pit, even though the plot was on a 20° slope. The only occasion on which a water table was encountered on Plot P4 was in early December 1951 following heavy r a i n f a l l in November. flowed into the sampling pit at 60 cm. from the surface.  Water  When the same  pit was resampled in early January, about two weeks after winter snowfall prevented further infiltration, no ground water occurred within 100 cm. of the s o i l surface.  Although some supplementary s o i l water may have been  provided by seepage on Plot P4, both Plots P3 and P4 were largely dependent on r a i n f a l l for the maintainance of soil moisture reserves.  During 1952,  these reserves were depleted to f a i r l y low levels by the extension of the normal drought into autumn.  Moisture deficiencies were quite marked in  Plot P3 during October and November 1952.  In other years the autumnal  86 rains replenished reserves before deficiencies became pronounced. In the swampy areas of the Thuja - lysichitum plots the water table was close to the surface at a l l seasons. above the gley layer.  This water table was perched  Late i n the summer water levels dropped 10 or 15  cm., but the muck layer remained saturated. On the banks at the margins of these swamps the l i t t e r layers on Plots Ly2 and Ly3 dried out in late summer.  On Plot Lyl, however, avail-  able moisture was always recorded in the l i t t e r layer.  The upper portions  of the peaty layers showed some moisture deficiencies during the summer, but they did not drop below wilting percentage.  During much of the year  the water table remained above the gleyed gravel layer beneath the peat, although in Plot Lyl the water level did drop 10 to 20 cm. below the gravel surface in late summer.  The lower peat layers, however, were always moist  even in summer and they were often saturated during the winter.  DISCUSSION In most temperate regions differences among s o i l moisture regimes are the most c r i t i c a l aspect of water relations that determine tree growth. It has been shown that even seedlings can withstand atmospheric drought i f their roots are supplied with adequate moisture (Daubenmire 1943).  In  certain cases atmospheric humidity can be important for seedling survival and may control forest distribution, as in the case of the California redwoods (Cooper 1917).  Elsewhere s o i l moisture appears to be the most sig-  nificant factor, with variations in atmospheric humidity only modifying the differences imposed by s o i l moisture regimes.  In the study area several  factors were regulatory among the different regimes.  The coincidence of  these different regimes with various forest associations suggested that s o i l moisture did, in fact, play an important role i n forest distribution and  TABLE 25: MONTHLY VALUES OF AVAILABLE SOIL MOISTURE IN THE THUJA - LYSICHITUM  87  ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1955  (Percentage by weight)  DEPTH (cm.)  JUL  1951 SEP OCT  AUG  NOV  1952 MAY  JUN  680'  540'  640'  210'  140 200' 345'  0 0 175' 0 110 160' 410' 460' 375' 220'  600'  640' 635' 520' 500' - 370'  350' 505' 420' i&O'  130 3W' 35 150 335" 380' 305' 380' 300' 70' 180' 140' 276' 60' "87' 69' "#' ~W 60' 60' 99' 77'  DEC  JAN  FEB  MAR  APR  JUL  AUG  SEP  PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) A (SWAMP) 0-10 670' 10-20 20-30  150 330' 590'  490' 510'  565'  0 291' "42  -0 250' 220'  190 110 370' 380' 110'  1  -  B (BANK) L 10 2-10 270 10-20 _40£' 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60  -  1  -  -  -  -255J  550' 640' 205' - 156' 32  25£' 485' 245'  _  -  -  PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) A (SWAMP) 0-10 640' 10-20 A* L 2-10 360' 10-20 250' 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 B (BANK) L 2-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50  620' 500*  700'  810'  330 157 175 .84  485' 530'  450' 540' 400'  0 150 350' 4901  0 60 85 81  *n  60' 69' 68 • 70' 88'  "76' 20'  150 155 110 330' J20'  -220 70 90  -  S  "llf-  -  -  -  170 175 275'  - $kz  -  -  _ 160 150 - 20 200 145 295' 16b'  0 *»5  0 5 65  335'  217'  181 •  200 216' 184'  3 5 165 492' 490'  90 250' 246' 33' 26'  10  11  48.'  PLOT Lyl (Echo Mt.) A (SWAMP) 0-10 10-20 20-30  -  305' 245' - 710' - .430'  B (BANK) L 2-10 22 10-20 200' 20-30 315' 30-40 "-'t 40-50 1  Soil pit number:  1  -  30 40 120 370'  2  140 130 290' "96'  110'  -  300 80 "276"'  245 320' 207' 28' 22 •  180 170 281' i'4'3'  3  9  * Margin of swamp. 1  Soil pita 1-11 were measured gravlmetrically, pits 1-3 and 7-11 within the f i r s t ten days of the month, and pits 4 and 5 during the last ten days.  ' Gravitational water present (greater than l/3 atmosphere capacity). 0 Less than wilting percentage. Gleyed gravel Layer. Water table.  growth in the Douglas-fir region. FACTORS REGUIATING SOIL MOISTURE REGIMES S o i l moisture regimes were controlled by the factors affecting s o i l water storage capacity, moisture depletion and replenishment, and s o i l drainage. Since most soils in the study area were coarse textured and had low organic matter contents, variations i n the amount of water that could be held within the available range were limited.  Differences in water storage  capacities were largely determined by s o i l depth and the proportions of stones, gravel and concretions.  Profiles in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria -  Peltigera plots were shallow and in many cases the bulk of their s o i l volume was composed of coarse materials.  Such profiles had storage capacities as  low as 10 to 15 cm. of water (Fig. 20).  The soils of some plots of the  Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association, on the other hand, had storage capacities of 25 to 30 cm. of water, because profiles were deeper and their gravel and stone contents were lower.  Storage capacities of other soils  were intermediate. According to Thornthwaite and Hare (1955) variations in the amount of radiant energy reaching the vegetative cover of the earth's surface are more important in controlling evapotranspiration than differences in the vegetation itself.  Data presented by Zahner (1955) and others lend support to this  contention.  Since in the study area a l l stands (with the exception of the  Thuja - Lysichitum association) were f u l l y stocked, and both the principal trees were conifers (Pseudotsuga and Tsuga), i t i s possible that differences in crown sizes between the various plots had l i t t l e bearing on rates of s o i l moisture extraction.  Variations in rooting habits, on the other hand, may have had more pronounced effects.  Soil moisture below the surface layers was available  only to deep rooted species.  Examination of profiles showed that  Pseudotsuga was the only species with an appreciable number of roots in the deeper layers.  This species could, therefore, extract moisture from a  greater s o i l volume than others, such as Tsuga and Thuja, which were more shallow rooted, although even with Pseudotsuga the majority of mycorrhizal roots were concentrated in the surface layers (McMinn 1955).  If a l l  species had been shallow rooted the amount of utilizable moisture storage capacity would have been smaller. It may be assumed that the highest transpiration rates, and hence the greatest demands upon s o i l moisture reserves occurred when evaporation rates from the atmometers were highest, even though atmometers are disproportionately sensitive to wind movement (Briggs and Shantz 1917).  In the  study area the largest amounts were evaporated in July and August.  The  rates at the open stations in July were double those in June. rates were lower during rainy periods.  Evaporation  Such periods would not only reduce  transpiration losses by lowering vapour pressure deficits, but they probably made moisture directly available to the plants through uptake by foliage (Breazeale et a l . 1950, Stone and Fowells 1955). Water uptake by roots is affected by s o i l temperatures, with rates being reduced by both low and high values (Kramer 1949).  In the study  area, s o i l temperatures in winter were sufficiently low that rates of moisture uptake would have been reduced.  However, s o i l moistures were rarely  below field capacity in that season, so reduced rates of uptake were of no benefit in conserving moisture.  Transpiration rates would also normally  have been sufficiently low that removal of water by the vegetation could have played l i t t l e part i n alleviation of any moisture excesses.  Only  s o i l surface temperatures reached high enough values (over 90°F.) to be inhibitory to moisture uptake.  Any reduction in moisture losses that  might have resulted would have been more than offset by evaporation losses from this layer. Losses by evaporation influenced depths of available water, both by direct evaporation of moisture and by drying exposed soils below their wilting percentages.  Even more precipitation was needed to replenish such  desiccated layers -than would have been required had no evaporation losses occurred.  Reduction of s o i l moisture by evaporation was presumably great-  est i n the less dense stands where the largest amounts of evaporation occurred from the atmometers 5 cm. above ground level.  Evaporation losses  were small i n stands with dense subordinate vegetation, but as was shown by the results from Plots G4 and G6 after the f i r e , transpiration losses . from these plants more than offset any reductions.  Evaporation,losses i n  early summer on the higher altitude and westerly plots were also smaller, than they were in plots of the same association at lower altitudes and farther east. Replenishment of water losses was mainly by precipitation and ground water movement. Rainfall during the growing season was light.  At the eastern end of  the study area average r a i n f a l l for the months of June, July and August was 8 cm. and even at the western end i t was only 15 cm.  The effectiveness of  these small amounts in supplying s o i l moisture was reduced by interception. Average interception values for the summers of 1951 to 1953 ranged from 26 to 74 percent.  The amounts actually reaching the s o i l were further reduced  by absorption in the l i t t e r layers.  These normally had dried below wilting  percentage by the end of June in those plots with adverse moisture regimes.  91 U t t e r layers were capable of absorbing from one half to one centimeter of water before infiltration into the mineral s o i l could take place. In the summers of 1951 and 1952 the plots east of Second Lake received less than 2.5 cm. of r a i n f a l l in any one month.  As these small  amounts were subjected to maximum interception by the tree canopy and absorption by the l i t t e r layers, additions to s o i l moisture reserves were negligible.  The westerly plots on the other hand received from 4 to 8 cm.  in June and August 1952, which was sufficient mineral s o i l .  to add some moisture to the  Additions during other summer months were negligible.  Even in 1953, when summer rainfall was slightly higher, replenishment of s o i l moisture reserves by r a i n f a l l during the growing season was very limited. It would seem probable that in rainshadow areas, such as the Nanaimo River Yalley, precipitation during the growing season i s just as important i n reducing transpiration losses and adding moisture by foliage uptake as i t i s i n replenishment of s o i l moisture reserves.  During wetter summers than  those of 1951 to 1953, however, additions to s o i l moisture by r a i n f a l l might be more appreciable. Soil moisture reserves were normally replenished by the autumnal rains which began during September.  Average r a i n f a l l for the period September  through November was from 36 to 70 cm., which was adequate to recharge storage capacities.  In some years, however, summer moisture deficiencies  might extend well into the autumn. r a i n f a l l was abnormally light.  For example, i n the autumn of 1952,  The stations east of Second Lake received  only 3.5 cm. before mid-November.  La those soils where moisture reserves  had been exhausted, a l l layers were not recharged to f i e l d capacity until the latter part of the month.  Moisture reserves i n the westerly plots, on  the other hand, were mostly replenished by early November because autumnal  rain in this area, though light, was somewhat greater than farther east, and moisture reserves had not been so f u l l y depleted.  However, even i n  some westerly plots, such as P3, which was entirely dependent on r a i n f a l l for moisture recharge, only the upper layers had been brought to f i e l d capacity by November 1, and a l l layers were not replenished until later in the month (Table 24).  In other years, such as 1953, September r a i n f a l l was  sufficiently high to bring a l l plots to f i e l d capacity by the end of the month. In winter the maximum depth of the snow pack was quite variable. During the years 1951 to 1956 i t ranged from one to six feet on the valley floor at Fourth Lake and from a few inches to two feet east of Second Lake. The duration of the snow pack, and hence the period during which i t supplied melt-water was also quite variable.  At lower altitudes, l i t t l e snow re-  mained on the easterly plots by the end of March, although in the more westerly plots the ground was often not clear until May.  At higher a l t i -  tudes in the western end of the study area snow was often present into July and supplied seepage moisture well into the growing season.  Spring rain-  f a l l on the westerly plots was heavier than on those further east.  Even  in years with a small snow pack, r a i n f a l l in the more westerly plots maintained soils near f i e l d capacity during late spring and early summer. Whether s o i l moisture reserves received supplementary water through ground water movement depended on the topographic position of the plot, the topography of the surrounding areas and the location i n the study area. Essentially no supplementary water was added to moisture reserves i n those plots located on ridge tops, benches and other level areas which were separated from seepage water moving down the sidehills.  The amount and duration  of additions to plots situated on slopes depended on the extent of the slope  93 above the plot and whether the plot was located on a convex or concave portion.  Particularly in the western end of the study area, where upper  slopes received considerable snowfall, seepage moisture was present for much of the growing season on plots located towards the base of long slopes. Most slopes, however, were not entirely smooth.  Sidehills were commonly  differentiated into convex and concave portions by the presence of small ridges and depressions which ran both up and down and across the slope. Movement of seepage water ceased on convex portions of sidehills f a i r l y early in the growing season, but ground water movement in the concave parts often continued for the entire summer. Internal drainage in most profiles was rapid.  In addition to being  coarse textured, many soils had numerous concretions which helped to make profiles porous.  Dovmward movement of water, however, was commonly re-  stricted by the presence of bedrock, ortstein or compact, gleyed layers from two to five feet beneath the surface.  Accumulations of water occurred  above these layers at the base of profiles.  Relief on many plots was such  that these accumulations drained rapidly when further additions of water were prevented.  This rapid removal of ground water was shown on Plots G6  and M2 by the absence of a water table in January 1952 after snow cover blocked further i n f i l t r a t i o n .  In other cases, such as on Plot PI, additions  of seepage water were sufficiently sustained that water tables remained for much of the year.  In depressions, like those in which the plots of the  Thuja - Lysichitum association were located, drainage was restricted enough for water tables to remain high during the entire year.  In these areas the  ground water was not stagnant, but in some depressions drainage was so completely impeded that Sphagnum swamps had developed.  THE ROLE OF SOIL MOISTURE REGIMES Soil moisture may limit plant growth either because i t i s deficient or because i t i s i n excess.  When plants are not supplied with sufficient  water, nutrient uptake and the normal processes of metabolism are restricted. Excess moisture i s usually at the expense of soil a i r .  Without adequate  aeration nutrient uptake by the roots of most mesophytes i s interrupted and toxic compounds may be produced as the products of anaerobic respiration, either by the plants themselves or by s o i l microorganisms (Kramer 1949). Although i t is generally accepted that plants cannot obtain water fast enough nor easily enough to maintain normal growth when s o i l moisture i s reduced to permanent wilting percentage, opinion varies on whether water i s equally available over the entire range between f i e l d capacity and wilting percentage (Veihmeyer and Hendrickson 1950).  Hendrickson and Veihmeyer  (1942) have termed the water between f i e l d capacity and permanent wilting percentage as "readily available moisture" and state that there i s no d i f f e r ence in the rate of s o i l moisture extraction within this range.  They con-  sidered that with the plants and soils they have studied no one moisture content could be termed optimum for plant growth.  Richards and Wadleigh (1952)  on the other hand conclude that: "From the irrigation and s o i l moisture experiments mentioned in the foregoing sections i t i s apparent that there i s considerable evidence that significant differences i n growth rates occur along with varying degrees of moisture depletion within the so-called available soil-moisture range . . . Throughout the moisture-depletion process the soil-moisture stress increases continuously, and much experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that the growth rate of various plants decreases markedly i n the available s o i l moisture range " However, the greatest reduction in the availability of moisture i s likely to occur close to the wilting percentage because in most soils change in moisture tension with variation in moisture content is curvilinear (Wadleigh 1950). Especially i n coarse textured soils, there i s usually l i t t l e change in tension  95 even when two-thirds of the available moisture has been depleted, but as wilting percentage is approached there i s a large increase i n moisture tension with reduction in moisture content.  Moisture deficits within the  plants of the study area were therefore unlikely to be severe until s o i l moisture contents approached wilting percentage. Since tree growth and distribution i s influenced by s o i l nutrient regimes as well as by s o i l moisture regimes, i t was considered desirable to have some measure of the nutrient status of the plots in which water relations were being studied.  In humid temperate climates, such as that  of the coastal regions of British Columbia, there is a correlation between pH and the degree of s o i l leaching and base saturation, even though such correlation may not be exact (Lutz and Chandler 1946, Daubenmire 1947, Webster 1951).  Soil pH values are used to suggest the degree of leaching  and nutrient status of each plot. Various plants have different degrees of tolerance to extreme conditions, with some plants being excluded by drought or flooding and others by deficiencies of certain nutrients.  In natural plant communities, growth  and distribution are further affected by competition, for although environmental factors may not be sufficiently extreme to prevent growth, the less vigourously growing plants may be suppressed by those better able to grow under the conditions prevailing.  Soil moisture regimes are but one factor  in the environmental complex modifying plant growth and distribution (Billings 1952), but i n the study area the marked differences in moisture regimes can be related to the distribution of the various forest associations. Pronounced s o i l moisture deficiencies occurred in the lower altitude Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera plots.  The reduction of s o i l moisture  to the wilting range during a considerable portion of the growing season apparently restricted the growth of Pseudotsuga, giving the association a  low site index (70 to 90). shrub layer was also low.  The height and density of Gaultheria shallon in the Such deficiencies, particularly in the surface  layers, resulted in the poor growth of mosses and higher plants of the ground cover, and permitted the development of lichens able to withstand periods of desiccation.  Tsuga and Thuja were largely absent from the Pseudotsuga -  Gaultheria « Peltigera association.  Both species are shallow rooted.  Their growth and even survival on a site subject to s o i l drought, particularl y in the surface layers, would not be as good as that of Pseudotsuga.  The  latter, being more deep rooted, could draw moisture from greater depths. It was noted that by the year following the dry autumn of 1952 some of the small Tsuga growing in clumps on the Fourth Lake plot had died.  Soil mois-  ture deficiencies at Fourth Lake, however, were not nearly so marked as in the other plots.  The occurrence of occasional soil drought (such as in the  years 1951 and 1952) nevertheless, appeared to be sufficient to favour lichens and xeric mosses and restrict the density of other plants in the subordinate layers.  The growth of Pseudotsuga was also poorer on Plot L l than  in other stands of the association.  This reduction was consistent with  the poor rates in other plots at the western end of the study area which had highly leached, acidic soils. In the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria plots moisture deficiencies were also pronounced, although usually soils did not approach the wilting range as early in the growing season as in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera plots.  The site index for Pseudotsuga (120 to 140) and the increased  height and density of Gaultheria shallon reflected this improvement. PJith an increase in density of the tree canopy and shrub layer, the s o i l surface received less insolation and was less subject to prolonged desiccation.  A dense layer of the shade tolerant mosses Hylocomium splendens  and Eurhynchium oreganum, which was present in a l l stands, prevented the  establishment or survival of lichens and the greater abundance of xeric mosses.  The s o i l moisture deficiencies which did occur and the lack of  ability of Tsuga to compete with Pseudotsuga on such sites were apparently sufficient to prevent Tsuga from reaching large sizes in this association. In Plot G3 the presence of Polystichum munitum indicated some addition of moisture and amelioration of leaching conditions by seepage water.  Soil  leaching was largely unrelieved by ground water movement in the other plots. In the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria plots depletion of s o i l moisture was not as pronounced as in the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria plots. Moisture was reduced to f a i r l y low levels by midsummer in the dry years of 1951 and 1952, with values within the wilting range being recorded on Plot G2.  On Plot Gl, however, seepage water in the lower portion of the pro-  f i l e maintained moisture at high levels into July, and even in 1952 autumnal rains recharged the surface layers earlier than in plots farther east. Poor growth of Pseudotsuga accompanied the moisture deficiencies and highly leached soils of the plots in this association.  On Plot G2, where  the site index for Pseudotsuga was only 70, the average height and volume of Tsuga nearly equalled that of the stunted Pseudotsuga.  The site index  for Pseudotsuga of 90 on Plot Gl was somewhat greater and Tsuga was not abundant.  This plot was transitional between conditions equally favour-  able for either Tsuga or Pseudotsuga.  However, even at similar elevations,  Tsuga was more abundant on other parts of this slope, indicating that circumstances at the time of stand establishment (e.g. availability of seed) in large measure controlled species representation. In Plots M3 and M4 of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium Eurhynchium association (subassociation typicum) soil moistures were re-i • duced to low values for considerable periods during the growing season.  The site index for Pseudotsuga of 130; reflected these droughty periods and the growth of Tsuga in the lower canopy was poor (average height 86 ft.}. Gaultheria shallon was rare on both plots, so that a continuous green carpet of Hylocomium and Eurhynchium formed virtually the only plant cover of the subordinate layers. The absence of Gaultheria on these sites, despite their strongly leached surface layers, presented an interesting problem in plant d i s t r i bution.  On Plot M3 seepage moisture, a normal feature of Pseudotsuga -  Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium stands was present i n deeper layers during a considerable portion of the year.  However, the very coarse nature of the  s o i l prevented much supplement to s o i l moisture reserves in the surface layers and even in the lower profile drainage was sufficiently rapid that the beneficial influence of seepage moisture was less than might be expected in a plot midway down a long slope.  Growth of the tree layer was conse-  quently poor, although on this north slope conditions for the establishment of a two-layered canopy of Pseudotsuga and Tsuga were favourable enough for stand density to be moderately high.  It would appear that the habitat  provided by the surface layers of mineral s o i l , when coupled with the light intensities prevalent in this stand, was sufficiently unfavourable for Gaultheria to impair i t s ability to survive.  More shade tolerant oxylo-  phytes (acidophiles), such as Hylocomium and Eurhynchium could flourish on the l i t t e r layer.  The leached nature of the surface layers, on the  other hand, excluded shade-tolerant species of the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association.  After logging, adjacent areas did support Gaultheria growth,  although the shrubs were not really vigourous.  The hollow in which Plot M4  was located also appeared to provide the necessary conditions for the establishment of Tsuga reproduction.  However, the coarse droughty  soil  did not favour Tsuga growth and Pseudotsuga formed the upper tree canopy, even though heights and diameters were no better than i n the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria association.  The density of the tree canopy, together with the  droughty s o i l , appeared sufficient to exclude Gaultheria. Moisture deficiencies on Plot Ml at Fourth Lake were less pronounced. Low moisture values were recorded in September in the dry summers of 1951 and 1952, but s o i l moisture was not reduced to the wilting range for any extended periods.  The Ag horizon on this plot was deep and very acid  (pH 4.3), indicating a highly leached surface s o i l .  Under such poor nu-  t r i t i v e conditions the stature of Pseudotsuga (average height 144 f t . , average diameter 22 in.) was as poor as in the more droughty plots farther east.  Tsuga. on the other hand, benefitting from the improved s o i l  moisture regime, was able to compete with Pseudotsuga on more equal terms (average height 136 f t . , average diameter 18 inches). Soil moisture deficiencies were infrequent in the subassociation nudum plots of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association, even though surface layers on Plot M5 were depleted of available moisture during the dry autumn of 1952 and each year moisture reserves in a l l layers were low by the end of the growing season.  Although there was  l i t t l e evidence of seepage water movement on Plot M5 leaching was not pronounced.  The surface horizon consisted of duff mull and no Ag was present.  The dry climate and fine texture of the s o i l presumably helped to retard leaching of nutrients.  Seepage moisture on Plot M2 apparently moved more  slowly through the s o i l than on Plot M3, where drainage was accelerated by the preponderance of coarse material in the profile.  Even though Plot M2  was in a wet climate, leaching of nutrients must have been retarded or ameliorated, for the As layer was poorly developed.  Growth of Pseudotsuga  on both plots of this subassociation was very good (site index 170) when  compared with the more highly leached and often droughty soils of the subassociation typicum plots (site index 120 - 130).  Despite this improve-  ment in s o i l moisture conditions, Tsuga was so completely dominated by Pseudotsuga that the average height of Tsuga was no greater than on Plots M3 and M4.  The low abundance of oxylophytes, such as Hylocomium splendens.  was another indication that surface layers were weakly leached and i t also showed the affinity of this subassociation with the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association. On Echo Mountain, the site index for Pseudotsuga (170) in the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium plot was in marked contrast to the index (70) in the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria plot. erence in altitude between the two plots was only 100 feet.  The d i f f -  Such disparity  in site quality was largely attributable to the location of the latter plot (G2) on a convex portion of the slope, while the former plot (M2) was i n a concave part.  The acidity (pH 4.6) and depth (4 cm.) of the Ag horizon on  Plot G2 showed i t s soils to be more highly leached than those on Plot M2, where the Ag horizon had a pH of 5.7 and its depth was rarely more than 1 cm. Growth of both species was poor in such highly leached soils as those of Plot G2.  The growth of Pseudotsuga, however, was so impaired that Tsuga  could compete with i t on nearly equal terms, even though the soils of Plot G2 did not remain as moist as those, of Plot M2.  On Plot M2 Pseudotsuga  completely dominated Tsuga, indicating that Pseudotsuga can grow well i n wet climates when the leaching action of rainfall is counteracted by seepage moisture.  Such site differentiation was quite prominent on Echo Mountain,  with the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association being confined to the troughs between the ridges.  At higher elevations these  ridges were covered by the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association and  at lower altitudes by the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association. In most plots of the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association s o i l moisture was rarely reduced to the wilting range.  The presence of seepage  moisture and high water tables maintained s o i l moisture high i n the available moisture range most of the growing season and counteracted the leaching influence of r a i n f a l l .  Such moist and relatively nutritive soils resulted  in Pseudotsuga reaching i t s maximum size in this association, and i t was the predominant tree i n Pseudotsuga - Polystichum stands under a l l the climatic conditions represented within the study area.  Although the average height  of Tsuga (76 to 111 ft.) was greater in these stands than in most of the other plots in the 3tudy area, i t was s t i l l less than halfithat of Pseudotsuga (199 to 248 ft., site index 160 to 200).  In most stands of this association  Thuja surpassed Tsuga, for average heights ranged from 137 to 178 f t .  Even  larger Thu.la were common in the moist Thuja - Lysichitum plots, where the pH of the water and mineral soils was greater than 6.  In the droughty and more  highly leached soils of the other associations growth of Thuja was poor. Polystichum. Achlys. Tiarella. Trillium. Adenocaulon. Disporum and other ferns and herbs were the characteristic cover of the subordinate layers growing i n the moist and weakly acidic soils of the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum plots. Gaultheria shallon, abundant in leached soils, did not occur on mineral material in these plots.  In the moss layer Hylocomium and Eurhynchium  had low abundance, and mosses such as Mnium insigne. which grow where the surface soil i s not strongly leached, were locally common. Plot P3 in the Valley area represented a separate subassociation. In this plot seepage or ground water played l i t t l e part i n water or nutrient regimes.  Growth-water was entirely supplied by r a i n f a l l , with the deep  sandy profiles storing reserve moisture.  In most years this reserve was  sufficient to provide readily available moisture throughout the growing  season, although with prolonged droughts, such as in the autumn of 1952, moisture was reduced to the wilting range.  Nutrient conditions favourable  for the growth of Pseudotsuga were provided by the varied a l l u v i a l deposits which formed the parent material.  That leaching had not progressed far  was shown by the presence of the duff mull and  layers.  The predominance  of Achlys over Polystichum in the subordinate layer reflected the droughtier nature of the plot and was used t o differentiate the site as the Achlys subassociation (Krajina 1952).  Ln most areas oxylophytes were not abun-  dant, but on some hummocks and benches, which may have been composed of somewhat coarser materials than surrounding areas, leaching of surface layers had taken place.  Such areas supported the growth of oxylophytes  such as Hylocomium splendens and Mahonia nervosa, and i n some cases Gaultheria shallon had spread beyond the decaying wood, which was i t s normal habitat when i t did occur in Pseudotsuga - Polystichum stands. In the swampy areas of the Thuja - Lysichitum plots the water table was too high for tree growth.  Although this high water table resulted in  the trees of the surrounding areas being shallow rooted, fluctuations of the water table were sufficiently small that moisture deficiencies were very slight, even though the surface layers of the marginal hummocks showed some desiccation by late summer in the plots east of Second Lake.  The  height reached by Thuja i n these stands was second only to those measured in stands of the Thuja - Abies - Adiantum association (Krajina 1952). Large Pseudotsuga were also present on the marginal areas and the tallest Tsuga trees encountered i n the present study (average height 186 f t . ) occurred at the edges of the Echo Mountain plot.  This stand was suffic-  iently open for a l l three species (Pseudotsuga, Thuja and Tsuga) to u t i l i z e these moist, relatively nutritive s o i l conditions to attain large sizes and reach the dominant canopy.  Many of the herbs and bryophytes of the swampy  103 areas were restricted, to such wet sites, although a few, such as Claytonia sibirica and Tiarella t r i f o l i a t a were also common in the Pseudotsuga Polystichum plots. FOREST DISTRIBUTION IN TBE DOUGLAS-FIR REGION It may be concluded that the forest associations of the study area are referable to four principal habitats, with the following correlation between site and association: Very wet, relatively nutritive sites (alpha gley soils ): association.  Thuja - Lysichitum  Wet to moist, relatively nutritive sites (beta gley s o i l s ) : Pseudotsuga Polystichum association and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (subassociation nudum)• Moist, strongly leached sites (gamma gley s o i l s ) : Pseudotsuga - Tsuga Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (subassociation typicum) and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association. Droughty, strongly leached sites: Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga Gaultheria - Peltigera associations. Environmental conditions between any such characterization of sites inevitably intergrade.-  However, since the competitive a b i l i t y of plants  growing under suboptimal conditions i s impaired, ecotones between associations are commonly narrow compared with the areas covered by their typical development.  This division of sites may be taken, therefore, as the basis  for a consideration of the role of water relations in forest distribution in the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island. It is apparent that Pseudotsuga, Tsuga and Thuja can a l l make good growth on weakly acidic, relatively nutritive sites.  However, where these  sites are wet, only marginal areas can support tree growth, and even though  According to a terminology for hydromorphic soils advanced by Wilde (1940).  a l l three species did reach large sizes at maturity i n some plots, such saturated soils are suboptimal.  The best growth of Pseudotsuga i s to be  found on moist, relatively nutritive sites.  Although Tsuga may develop  into f a i r l y large trees at maturity on these sites, Pseudotsuga can apparently dominate Tsuga by attaining larger size.  Tsuga therefore remains  restricted to the secondary canopy when both species are represented in the stand.  While Thuja does not reach the uppermost tree canopy when i n com-  petition with Pseudotsuga on moist, relatively nutritive sites, i t can attain f a i r l y large sizes.  Its best growth, however, is made in wet, or  at least periodically flooded, relatively nutritive soils (Krajina 1952). The growth of a l l three tree species i s evidently impaired in highly acidic soils.  In climates where such soils remain moist throughout the  growing season, leaching i s apparently sufficiently intense for the growth rate of Pseudotsuga to be reduced enough for Tsuga to compete with i t on nearly equal terms.  Consequently, in mature stands on moist, strongly  leached sites both species may occur in the upper canopy.  On the other  hand, in droughty soils the growth of Tsuga i s even more impaired than that of Pseudotsuga.  Tsuga therefore remains limited t o the secondary canopy  and forms small to negligible proportions of stand volumes on strongly leached sites in rainshadow areas where s o i l moisture deficiencies are a characteristic feature.  Thuja i s also restricted to the secondary canopy  in highly acidic soils, whether these are moist or droughty, for the species appears t o be vigourous only in relatively nutritive soils. The subordinate vegetation of the Douglas-fir region may be readily divided into plants characteristic of highly acidic soils and those restricted to more weakly acidic soils (Krajina 1952).  Gaultheria shallon  and Hylocomium splendens are the most ubiquitous oxylophytes of the ground  cover in both moist and droughty, strongly leached soils.  Growth, however,  is usually more vigourous on less droughty sites, which differentiates the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association from the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria Peltigera association.  Both species are present when the density of the  tree canopy i s low, whether this low density i s caused by soils being very droughty or very highly leached.  It would seem, however, that where stand  density is high and there i s some amelioration of leaching in subsurface layers, Gaultheria becomes less frequent while Hylocomium remains abundant. These factors would appear to form the basis of site differentiation between the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium Eurhynchium associations.  The subordinate vegetation of relatively nutri-  tive sites i s characterised by the absence of oxylophytes and the presence of various plants, such as Polystichum munitum and Achlys triphylla whose distribution i s limited to moist or wet, weakly leached soils, and Lysichitum americanum which i s restricted to very wet, essentially unleached soils.  In the subassociation nudum stands of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga -  Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association the infrequency of both oxylophytes and subordinates plants characteristic of more nutritive sites, suggests that leaching in the upper profile i s only partially ameliorated.  However,  the ability of Pseudotsuga to dominate Tsuga in this association would seem to reflect more favourable moisture and nutrient conditions in subsurface layers. The dominant influence differentiating the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island appears to be i t s rainshadow climate.  Within this rain-  shadow region, summer r a i n f a l l i s light and upland soils were seen to be droughty.  Therefore, since Pseudotsuga can dominate other species both  on moist, relatively nutritive sites and on strongly leached sites when  these are droughty, this species i s the predominant tree on most sites in the rainshadow region on the eastern side of Vancouver Island.  Other rain-  shadow regions in coastal British Columbia where Douglas-fir forests have been found to predominate, include the head of some coastal inlets, such as the vicinities of Alberni and Kemano, the coastal mainland i n the Powell River district, and the Pemberton Meadows area of the Coast Mountains (Schmidt 1957). It i s apparent that outside such summer drought regions, stands dominated by Pseudotsuga are restricted to moist, relatively nutritive sites. Where strongly leached soils are normally moist throughout the growing season Tsuga may codominate with Pseudotsuga.  This restriction of associations  dominated by Pseudotsuga to relatively nutritive soils in wet climates also suggests one aspect of the altitudinal limitation of the Douglas-fir zone on eastern Vancouver Island.  At higher elevations, soils i n which leaching  i s ameliorated are presumably infrequent, not only because leaching conditions are more intense than at lower altitudes since r a i n f a l l i s usually higher, summers are shorter, soils are moister and cooler, and l i t t e r layers deeper, but also because most slopes are too short for the accumulation of base saturated seepage water.  In such intensely leached soils Pseudotsuga  appears to lose its competitive advantage over other species. Another factor influencing the predominance of Pseudotsuga in rainshadow climates has been the relative frequency of forest f i r e s i n such regions (Schmidt 1957).  Pseudotsuga regenerates most readily when sites  have been cleared by f i r e s or logging.  Some regeneration was noted in the  droughty, open stands of the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Pelgeria association, and even stands of the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association may eventually become uneven-aged when openings are formed by overmature trees dropping out  (Krajina 1952).  However, Pseudotsuga regeneration was not apparent i n the  denser stands of moister sites.  Re-establishment of Pseudotsuga on such  sites has evidently been dependent on their denudation by f i r e .  The widespread  occurrence of Douglas-fir forests on Vancouver Island has undoubtedly been favoured by the former prevalence of forest f i r e s .  The ubiquity of such fires  was evident in the study area, where a l l the plots investigated were established following fires some 220 to 280 years ago. necessary for the establishment  However, while f i r e may be  of Pseudotsuga stands in wet climates and on  moist, relatively nutritive sites, i t would seem that stands of the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera associations can maintain themselves without the intervention of f i r e on droughty sites i n rainshadow regions.  The Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria association may therefore be  considered as the climatic climax i n such regions (Krajina 1952). Within the various climatic areas encountered, topographic position and the concomitant climatic and edaphic factors associated with that position are evidently the major influences differentiating sites. differentiation on hillsides follows a catenary sequence.  Site  In regions  with dry summers, droughty, strongly leached sites are typically situated at the top of slopes and wet, relatively nutritive sites are located at their bases.  Other sites are intermediate.  This distribution of sites  controls the sequence of stands forming the forest association catena typical of the eastern portion of the Nanaimo River Valley (Plate IV). A similar correlation between site and Douglas-fir associations has been reported from Washington and Oregon (Becking 1956).  In climates with wetter  summers, moist rather than droughty, strongly leached sites commonly occupy upper slopes.  The sequence on the lower slopes appears similar  to that found i n drier climates.  However, since s o i l moisture and  nutrient regimes are influenced by local topography, aspect, parent materi a l , soil depth and s o i l texture, variations in these factors may cause deviations from such typical catenary arrangements of stands. SUMMARY 1.  From this study of water relations in the JJouglas-fir region on Vancouver Island, i t was concluded that variation in s o i l moisture regimes is a most significant factor in site differentiation and forest distribution.  2.  It was apparent that on relatively nutritive sites Pseudotsuga, Tsuga and Thuja can a l l attain large size by maturity.  Only  the margins of very wet, relatively nutritive sites are able to support tree growth and a l l species reach larger sizes on less saturated s o i l s .  The best growth of Pseudotsuga can be found  on moist, relatively nutritive sites.  On such sites  Pseudotsuga i s capable of attaining larger size than Tsuga, so that in stands stocked with both species, Tsuga i s so completely dominated by Pseudotsuga that i t remains restricted to the secondary canopy.  Thuja attains maximum vigour on  moist to wet, relatively nutritive sites. 3.  It was also apparent that on strongly leached sites, the growth of both Pseudotsuga and Tsuga i s impaired, so that both species were smaller than on more nutritive sites.  Where strongly  leached soils are moist throughout the growing season, i t would seem that Tsuga can compete with Pseudotsuga on nearly equal terms and both species may reach the upper tree canopy.  On  droughty, strongly leached soils the growth of Tsuga i s evidently more impaired than the growth of Pseudotsuga.  In stands stocked  109 with. both, species, Tsuga is again restricted to the secondary canopy and forms small to negligible proportions of stand volume. Thuja appears restricted to the secondary canopy in highly acidic soils, whether these are moist or droughty. 4.  Since the distribution of plants in the subordinate vegetation layers are similarly differentiated by variations in site quality, the forest associations of the study area are referable to the following principal habitats:  Thuja - Lysichitum  association on very wet, ralatively nutritive sites; Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (subassociation nudum) on wet to moist, relatively nutritive sites;  Pseudotsuga -  Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association (subassociation typicum) and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association on moist, strongly leached sites;  and Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria  and Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera associations on droughty, strongly leached sites. 5.  The dominant influence in the geographical location of the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island is i t s rainshadow climate.  Within this region of low summer r a i n f a l l ,  Pseudotsuga may dominate other species on nearly a l l sites. In wetter climates, outside pronounced rainshadow areas, stands dominated by Pseudotsuga are evidently confined to moist, relatively nutritive sites. 6.  Within these different climatic areas, topographic position and the concomitant climatic and edaphic factors associated with that position appear to be the major influences differentiating  sites.  Site differentiation follows a definite catenary se-  quence, which regulates the sequence of forest associations on hillsides.  Differences in local topography, aspect, parent  material, s o i l texture and s o i l depth, however, sometimes cause deviations from the typical catenary arrangements of stands. REFERENCES American Society for Testing Materials. 1944. Procedures for testing soils; standard method of mechanical analysis for s o i l s . Amer. Soc. Test. Mat. Philadelphia. Becking, R. TIT. 1956. 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Readily available s o i l moisture.and sizes of f r u i t s . Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. S c i . 40: 13-18. Hendrix, T. M., and E. A. Colman. 1951. Calibration of fiberglas soilvmoisture units. Soil S c i . 71: 419-427. Hills, G. A. 1952. The classification and evaluation of site for forestry. Ontario Dept. Lands and Forests., Div. of Research, Res. Rept. 24 41 p.  112 Hoover, M. D., and H. A. Lunt. 1952. A key for the classification of forest humus types. Soil Sci. Proc. 16: 368-370. Kelley, 0. J . 1944. A rapid method of calibrating various instruments for measuring s o i l moisture in situ. Soil S c i . 58: 433-440. Kelley, 0. J., A.S. Hunter, H.R. Haise, and C. H. Hobbs. 1946. A comparison of methods of measuring s o i l moisture under field conditions. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 38: 759-784. Krajina, V. 1933. Die Pflanzengesellschaften des Mlynica-Tales in den Vysoke Tatry.(Hohe Tatra). Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt., Bd. L., Abtlg. I I : 774-957, (L. Teil); Bd. LI, Abtlg. I I : 1-224, (II. T e i l ) . — — — .  1952. The ecological classification of the forests of the eastern part of Vancouver Island. Ms.  ••  1956. A summary of the nomenclature of Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii. Madrono 13: 265-267.. , and R. H. Spilsbury. 1950. Field notes recorded during a study of forest associations i n the Nanaimo River Valley.  Kramer, P. J» 1949. Plant and s o i l water relationships. New York. 347 p.  McGraw-Hill,  Levy, E. B., and E. A. Madden. 1933. The point method of pasture .analysis. New Zealand Jour. Agr. 46: 267-279. Livingston, B. E. 1935. Atmometers of porous porcelain and paper; their use in physiological ecology. Ecology 16: 438-472. Lutz, H. J., and R. F. Chandler. Sons, New York. 514 p.  1946.  Forest soils.  John Wiley and  McArdle, R* E., and W. H. Meyer. 1949. The yield of Douglas f i r i n the Pacific Northwest. U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. No. 201. McMinn, R. G. 1952. The role of s o i l drought i n the distribution of vegetation in the northern Rocky Mountains. Ecology 33: 1-15. . 1955. The root system of second-growth Douglas f i r . Canada Dept. A g r i c , For. Biol. Div., Bi-monthly Progr. Rept. 11(3): 3. Palplant, E. H., and H. W. L u l l . 1953. Comparison of four types of electrical resistance instruments for measuring s o i l moisture. In "Soil moisture measurement with the fiberglas instrument". U. S. Dept. A g r i c , Southern For. Exp. Sta., Occ Paper 128. Pearson, G. A. 1931. Forest types i n the southwest as determined by climate and s o i l . . U. S. Dept. A g r i c , Tech. Bull. No. 247.  113 Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The l i f e forms of plants and statistical plant geography; being the collected papers of C. Raunkiaer. The Clarendon Press, Oxford. 632 p. Richards, L. A. ed. alkali soils.  1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and U. S. Dept. A g r i c , Agric. Handbook No. 60. 160 p.  Richards, L. A., and C. H. Wadleigh. 1952. Soil water and plant growth.. Ch. 3. of "Soil physical conditions and plant growth" ed. B. T. Shaw. Academic Press Inc., New York. Richards, L. A., and L. R. Weaver. 1943. Fifteen-atmosphere percentage as related to permanent wilting percentage. Soil Sci. 56: 331-339. . 1944. Moisture retention by some irrigated soils as related to soil-moisture tension. Jour. Agric. Res. 69: 215-235. Sanderson, M. 1948. The climates of Canada according to the new Thornthwaite classification. Scientific Agr. 28: 501-517. Schimper, A. F. W. 1903. Plant-geography upon a physiological basis. Engl. Trans, by ¥. R. Fisher. The Clarendon Press, Oxford. 839 p. Schmidt, R. L. 1957. The s i l v i c s and plant geography of the genus Abies in the coastal forests of British Columbia. B. C. Forest Service. Tech. Bull. No. 46. Smith, W. H., and C. D. Moodie. s o i l profiles. . Soil Sci.  1947. Collection and preservation of 64: 61-69.  Stone, E. C , and H. A. Fowells. 1955. Survival value of dew under laboratory conditions with Pinus ponderosa. Forest Sci. 1: 183-188. Sukatchev, V. N. 1928. Principles of classification of the spruce communities of European Russia. Jour. Ecol. 16: 1-18. Thornthwaite, C. W., and F. K.'-Hare. forestry. Unasylva 9: 51-59.  1955.  Climatic classification i n  Thornthwaite, C. W., and J. R. Mather. 1955. The water balance. Drexel Inst. Technology, Lab. Climatology, Pubis. Climatology 8 (1). 104 p. Veihmeyer, F. J., and A. H. Hendrickson. 1950. Soil moisture i n relation to plant growth. Ann.' Rev. Plant Physiol. 1: 285-304. Wadleigh, C. H. 1955. Soil moisture in relation to plant growth. In "Water", U. S. Dept. Agr., Yearbook of Agr. 1955: 358-361. Weaver, J. E. 1917. A study of the vegetaioh of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho. Univ. Studies, Univ. Neb. 17: 1-114.  Weaver, J. E., and F. E. Clements, 1929. New York. 2nd ed. 1938. 601 p.  Plant ecology.  McGraw-Hill  Webster, G. R. 1951. Base saturation studies of some Vancouver Island soils, and a method for estimating lime requirement.. Univ. . Brit. Col. M. S. A. Thesis. 87 p. Wilde, S. A. 1933. The relation of soils and forest vegetation of the Lake States region. Ecology 14: 94-105. ———. 1940. Classification of gley soils for the purpose of forest . management and reforestation. Ecology 21: 34-44. ———.  1954. Forest humus: i t s genetic classification. Wisconsin Acad. S c i . , Arts and Letters. 43: 137-163.  Trans.  Zahner, R. 1955. -Soil water depletion by pine and hardwood stands during a dry season. Forest S c i . 1: 258-264.  APIENDICES  Climatic Records. Plant l i s t . Particle Size Distribution i n S o i l s . Weather and Microclimatic Records. S o i l Moisture Records.  APPENDIX I.  CLIMATIC RECORDS  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Table 1. Monthly precipitation, at various stations i n the Nanaimo River Valley, 1951-1956 (Inches)  1  Table 2. Monthly precipitation at various stations i n the Nanaimo River Valley, 1951-1956 (cm.)  3  Table 3. Monthly maiimum and minimum temperatures at various stations i n the Nanaimo River Valley, 1952-1956 (°F)  4  Table 4.  Average values for precipitation and temperature at various stations on Vancouver Island . . . . . . . .  Figure 1. Precipitation and potential evapotranspiration at various stations on Vancouver Island and the coastal mainland of British Columbia  5  6  TABIE 1. MONTHLY PRECIPITATION AT VARIOUS STATIONS IN THE NANAIMO RIVER VALLEY, 1951-1956 (inches) CABIN 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 Average  JAN FEB MAR APR  -  -  MAY TUN  JUL AUG  SEP OCT  1.0 1.4 1.4 2.2 3.6 1.9  0.3 0.4 0.8 2.1 0.3 0.8  0.9 0.7 2.2 0.1 0.5 0.9  0.4 4.4 2.4 1.5 2.6 2.3  0.4 1.0 1.0 1.2 2.0 0.7 1.2 1.1 2.0 1.0 1.3  0.2 0.3 1.0 0.8 2.2 0.9  0.7 3.5 0.9 0.4 0.7 3.7 2.1 2.3 0.1 1.4 0.9 2.3  7.5 0.9 3.3 3.6 6.5 4.4  0.4 0.2 0^9 0.3 2.4 0.8 1.7 1.0 1.6 1.8 3.6 0.3 1.9 0.7  0.5 0.9 1.0 2.1 0.1 0.4 0.8  3.7 0.4 4.0 2.4 1.2 2.8 2.4  6.8 8.3 7.0 0.9 4.4 13.0 3.5 10.5 6.9 3.6 12.9 8.1 6.9 12.2 8.7 8.9 2.3 9.0" 5.1 8.4 8.8.  0.4 1.6 2.0 2.0 2.0 5.3 2.2  0.2 1.7 2.0 2.4 0.1 0.3 1.1  4.8 9.3 0.8 1.8 8.8 7.6 3.3 6.9 2.2 11.8 4.5 13.4 3.5 8.5  3.5 15.3 3.1 3.3 6.3  3.6 2.7 2.8 6.7 3.9  2.0 3.7 5.6 0.5 2.9  1.1 0.9 0.5 0.9 0.7 0.8  WOLF MOUNTAIN 1951 10.2" 6-3" 1952 IS.5. 4.0. 1953 1954 14.6 15.7 1955 4.2 3.1 Average 11.9 7.3  -  -  -  17.1 13.4 4.0 15.3 12.4  -  2.7' 4.0 2.2 2.4 3.7 2.6 5.7 2.9 3.7  LOWER DEADWOOD (L3) ••> 1951 10.2" 6.3" 2.7'3.1* 1952 18.9. 4.6 3.9 2.1 1953 11.0 13.0 3.1 4.2 1954 1955 3.7 2.5 2.5 5.6 15.3 3.1 6.5 0.7 1956-; Average 11.8 5.9 3.7 3.1  0.9 1.0 1.5 1.0 0.4 1.0  VALLEY - Valley Floor (P3) «•* «•» 1951 13.0" 8.7"4.3« 5.1' 1952 1953 21.6. 5.3.7.5 2.5 11.8 18.1 3.7 5.7 1954 1955 5.0 4.6 3.8 7.5 22.4 8.7 14.2 0.3 1956 Average 14.3 9.1 ft.74.2  1.3 1.9 0.8 1.3 0.5 1.2  -  -  -  mm  -  0.2 0.4 2.0 1.9 2.8 0.8 1.3  NOV  DEC  TOTAL ANN.SUM.  0.9 3.8 13.8 3.9, 10.6 6.3 3.8 13.1 7.4 7.0 12.4 7.9 9.5 2.8 9.2 5.0 8.5 8.9  - 2.1 55 2.6 67 4.4 50 4.4 55 4.4 55 3.6  8.6 7.0 4.2 13.3 10.5 6.6 12.2 7.5 12.0 8.5 9.5 8.6  - 1.3 44 2.2 58 3.7 67 4.2 49 4.3 55 3.2  13.0" 6.7 8.2-16.9 18.5 10.6 22.8 16.5 16.2 8.4 4.3 12.1 13.8 11.9  - 1.1 44 2.0 59 3.2 65 4.8 48 3.6 57 4.3 54 3.2 - 0.8 64 3.7 87 6.0 96 6.4 66 4.9 87 6.4 78 4.7  TABLE 1 - Continued . JAN  FSB  MAR  AIR  MAY  . JUN JUL  v  AUG  SEP  OCT  NOV  DEC  TOTAL ANN.SUM.  VALLEY - Sldehlll (M3) 1951 1952 13.8" 9.0" 5.5' 6.3' 1953 27.9- 6.0, 8.1 2.9 13.8 22.0 3.9 1954 6.1 1955 3.9 8.0 5.7 5.5 1956 9.8 15.7 7.8 0.4 Average 13.8 10.5 7.4 4.7  1.3 1.8 0.5 1.8 0.6 1.2  0.4 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.4 5.9 2.4  0.2 0.4 2.2 2.2 2.7 1.1 1.5  0.2 1.8 1.8 2.4 T 0.4 1.1  5.1 10.3 1.1 2.1 5.9 8.3 3.4 7.7 2.7 13.2 4.8 14.6 3.8 9.4  15.0" 8.3 20.1 22.8 17.9 4.5 14.8  8.6 20.5" 12.6 18.1 11.0 13.7 14.1  72 100 105 75 79 85  ECHO MOUNTAIN 1951 1952 14.2" 1953 28.3 1954 16.5 1955 6.2 15.0 1956 16.0 Average  11.0" 5.5' 6.0 7.1 24.0 4.3 5.3 4.4 6.7 15.0" 7.3 10.6  1.6 1.9 0.9 1.7 0.5 1.3  0.3 2.3 1.3 2.7 1.8 5.8 2.4  0.2 0.3 2.4 1.8 2.7 0.6 1.3  0.1 1.8 2.0 2.1 T 0.4 1.1  5.6 11.1 1.2 2.4 9.3 5.7 3.3 8.3 1.8 13.5 6.4 11.8 4.0 9.4  15.3" 9.0. 19.9 22.4 18.3 4.0 14.8  7.6 18.5 12.6 16.9 9.4" 13.8 13.1  74 100 111 73 81 88  0.7 4.4 5.7 6.6 4.6 6.0 4.8  FOURTH LAKE 1951 1952 18.1' 1953 31.5 20.1 1954 1955 6.9 1956 21.2 Average 19.6  13.4» 6.7' 8.3» 6.2 9.4 2.2 4.8 26.8 8.7 4.8 8.9 5.5 11.4 16.5" 1.0 8.4 5.8 12.7  0.3 3.1 0.9 3.1 1.7 7.5 2.8  0.1 0.4 1.7 2.7 3.5 0.8 1.5  0.4 2.7 3.5 2.5 0.1 0.2 1.6  6.0 1.7 6.4 4.4 2.7 7.6 4.8  11.0 3.3 12.6 10.5 16.0 16.5 11.6  16.5" 9.0 25.6 28.7 19.7 6.8 17.7  10.5 23.6" 16.1. 20.1 11.0 16.1 16.2  92 119 133 83 107 107  0.9 6.3 6.1 8.3 5.4 8.5 5.9  -  -  -  -.  -  mm  -  •  6.3' 3.3 7.3 7.8 1.5 5.2  -  -  1.8 3.0 0.7 1.8 1.4 1.7  Summer: total for June, July, August. Interpolated from two month record. Raingauge overflowed, value estimated. Trace.  -  •*  0.8 4.1 5.9 6.9 5.2 7.4 5.0  3  APPENDIX I . TABLE 2. MONTHLY PRECIPITATION AT VARIOUS STATIONSIN THE NANAIMO RIVER VALLEY, 1951-1956 (era.) JAN 1951  -  MAR  -  -  .*  -  —  mm  WOLF MT. DEADWOOD (Lower ;L3) VALLEY (valley floor;P3) VALLEY (sidehill; M3) ECHO MT. 1 midslope) , (valley floor) FOURTH LK, 1952 CABIN 26.0 16.0" WOLF MT. DEADWOOD 26.0" 16.0" VALLEY (Pi 33.0" 22.0" VALLEY (M 35.0" 23.0" 36.0" 28.0" ECHO MT. FOURTH IE. 46.0* 34.0* 1953 43.5 9.0 CABIN 47.0 10.3 WOLF MT. 43.0 U.6 DEADWOOD 55.0 13.6 VALLEY (P I VALLEY (M I 71.0" 15.2 72.0? 15.3 ECHO MT.. 80.O? 15.7 FOURTH LK  -  APR MAY  FEB  W  -  JUN  JUL  AUO  SEP  OCT  NOV DEC  •  —  1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9  0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.3  1.8 1.3 0.6 0.5 0.3 1.0  8.9 9.5 12.2 13.0 14.2 15.2  19.0 17.2 23.6 26.1 28.1 28.0  7.0' 8.0* 7.0* 8.0* 11.0*13.0* 14.0*16.0* 14.0»16.0' 17.0'21.0*  2.7 2.6 2.3 3.2 3.3 4.0 4.5  2.5 2.6 2.3 4.1 4.7 5.8 8.0  0.7 0.7 0.7 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.0  2.2 2.2 2.3 4.4 4.7 4.6 7.0  1.0 1.0 1.1 2.1 2.7 3.1 4.4  2.4 2.4 2.4 4.7 5.4 6.2 8.3  9.6 10.8 11^2 20.8 21.2 23.0 23.0  35.0 33.8 33.0 43.0 52.0" 47.060.0"  9.1 10.3 9.9 19.0 20.5 18.1 24.0  2.3 3.1 2.6 4.8 4i 4.8 7.6  3.7 5.0 3.6 5.1 4.9 3.4 2.3  1.1 2.6 2,0 5.0 5.5 6.0 4.3  1.8 1.8 2.5 5.2 4.5 5.0 9.0  10.3 9.5 10.1 13.3 15.0 14.5 16.4  9.9 8.5 8.9 19.4 21.2 23.6 32.1  27.0 26.7 26.7 47.0 51.0 50.5 65.0"  16.1 16.8 17.6 27.0 32.0 32.0  -  -  mm  5.2 5.5 5.3 6.4 7.5 8.3 5.6  7  21.8 17.7 21.0 17.8 33.0" 38.0? 39.0«? 42.0"  CABIN WOLF MT. DEADWOOD VALLEY (P VALLEY (M ECHO MT". FOURTH LK  1954 34.0 37.0* 28.0* -30.0 35.0* 42.0* 51.0*  39.0 40,0' 33.0* 46.0 56.0* 61.0* 68.0*  6.8 9.5 6.2 9.3 7.8 10.8 9.4 14.5 10.0*15.4 11.0 18.6 12.2 22.0  1.4 1.7 3.8 2.0 1.2 2.4 1.7  3.6 3.2 4.4 5.1 5.7 6.8 7.9  2.0 2.0 2.5 4.9 5.6 4.7 7.0  5.6 6.0 5.4 5.8 5.3 6.1 6.2 8.5 6.2 8.6 5.4 8.5 6.4 11.3  9.8 9.1 9.2 17.6 19.7 21.1 26.8  33.4 31.0 32.9 58.0 58.0 57.0 73.0  18.7 19.0 20.5 42.0 46.0 43.0 51.0  CABIN WOLF MT. DEADWOOD VALLEY (P VALLEY (M ECHO MT. FOURTH LK  1955 10.2 10.6 9.5 12.8 14.5 15.7 17.5  8.0 7.9 6.5 11.8 14.1 13.4 13.9  7.2 14.3 6.7 14.5 6.4 14.3 9.6 19.1 10.0 20.4 11.2 19.8 12.3 22.7  2.4 2.8 2.5 3.3 4.7 4.3 4.5  5.6 5.1 4.1 5.0 6.0 4.7 4.4  5.4 5.6 4.7 7.2 7.0 6.8 8.9  0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.4  3.9 3.7 3.2 5.7 6.9 4.6 7.0  17.7 16.6 17.6 29.9 33.5 34.2 40.6  31.4 30.4 30.9 41.3 45.4 46.6 50.0  20.0 21.5 22.0 21.4 28.0 24.0" 28.0.  CABIN DEADWOOD VALLEY (P VALLEY (M ECHO MT. FOURTH LK  1956 38.9 38.9 56.9 19.8 38.1 53.9  8.4 7.9 22.1 24.9 17.1 28.5  17.1 16.5 36.1 39.9 33.1 41.9  1.8 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.3 3.6  9.2 9.2 13.5 15.0 14.7 19.1  0.7 0.7 2.1 2.6 1.5 2.0  1.3 1.2 0.8 1.2 1.1 0.6  6.6 7.0 11.4 12.2 16.2 19.6  24.0 22.6 34.0 37.0 30.0 41.7  7.1 5.8 10.9 11.5 11.1 17.6  23.S 22.5 30.9 34.9 35.0 40.5  1.3 1.8 0.8 1.2 3.8 2.5  'Interpolated from two month record.  " Raingauge overflowed, estimated.  4  APPENDIX I . TABLE 3. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES AT VARIOUS STATIONS IN THE NANAIMO RIVER VALLEY 1952-1956 (°F) CABIN 1952 Minimum 1953 Minimum 1954 Minimum 1955 Maximum Minimum 1956 Maximum Minimum DEADWOOD CREEK 1953 Minimum 1954 Minimum 1955 Maximum Minimum 1956 Maximum  Mini™™  JAN  Mj  Ti^tBtiyfi  1955 Maximum Minimum 1956 Maximum Minimum ECHO MOUNTAIN 1952 Minimum 1953 Minimum 1954 Minimum 1955 Maximum Minimum 1956 Maximum FOURTH LAKE 1952 Minimum 1953 Minimum 1954 Minimum 1955 Maximum Minimum 1956 Maximum Minimum  MAR  APR  -  -  DEC  20 78 23  25 88 36  38 34 85 38 96 36  42 40 34 87 34 90 38  38 30 26 95 28 82 30  34 26 24 67 25 70 22  20 23 27 55 -1 55 18  22 21 19 42 0 50 18  10  20  20  21 45 8  5 59 12  24 78 26  29 90 34  36 36 92 39 70 34  40 33 87 40 96 41  39 40 88 37 91 39  33 26 93 30 82 31  30 24 68 28 73 26  27 27 55 4 58 23  25 19 44 /•6 51 18  18  18  25  26  18 44 7  7 54 13  28 72 28  35 88 37  35 38 90 39 13 36  43 43 88 42 97 41  45 45 86 40 94 38  38 34 96 32 84 36  32 30 70 30 76 26  28 29 59 4 56 19  28 22 44 6 52 21  -  -  90 42 70 42  44 85 45 99 45  47 85 44 90 44  30 90 38 80 40  30 62 31 65 29  28 54 10 52 27  22 42 15 50 19  40 38 87 43 68 39  46 43 82 44 93 44  47 45 84 44 89 48  38 40 34 89 38 82 38  32 40 30 64 30 72 30  22 28 29 56 10 55 26  26 30 22 40 14 50 18  36 36 89 40 70 38  42 41 88 42 97 40  43 43 89 40 93 38  39 35 28 96 32 85 34  33 32 28 67 28 72 25  23 30 28 56 6 53 25  28 28 19 40 10 43 20  26 46 5  15 44 5  2 59 9  5  -  m  OCT NOV  33 30 91 35 74 32  24 9  -  SEP  28 19  25 12  26 46 12  AUG  21 15  24 -2  mm  JUN JUL  -  ' -  -  MAY  -  -  VALLEY (valley floor) 1953 Minimum 1954 Minimum 4 1955 Maximum 30 Minimum 41 1956 Maximum Minimum 9 VALLEY (sidehill) 1954  FEB  -  -  -  -  -  mm  -  -  -  -  -  30 41 11  20 43 10  8 47 16  28 78 26  32 91 38  26 •9  26  27 18  30 26  34 30  -  -  30 39 12  18 40 10  30 42 24  23 6  23  26 39 4  mm  -  -  m  28 69 27  35 84 37  -  23 17  25 22  31 28  16 43 5  -1 46 23  24 60 22  30 88 36,  1  -  5  APPENDIX I . TABLE 4. AvERAGE VALUES FOR PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS STATIONS ON VANCOUVER ISLAND PRECIPITATION (inches) Ann. Sum. Cumberland Cassidy Duncan Victoria Cowichan Lake Nitinat Camp Pachena Point Bstevan Point 3  58 42 39 36 73 113 109 109  5.3 3.2 3.3 2.8 4.0 5.8 9.3 10.2  TEMPERATURE (°F) Summer  Daily mean max.  Monthly max. range  G  Winter Daily Monthly mean min. min. range  61.0 59.6 63.6 62.6 61.3  75 74 76 70 74  90 85 91 82 87  50 45 49 35 47  37.0 37.0 39.6 40.6 38.0  28 29 30 34 29  16 16 17 24 17  38 36 37 26 31  55.0 55.6  61 61  72 68  30 24  42.3 42.3  35 35  25 26  27 26  -  -  -  -  -  Summer: June, July, August. Winter: December, January, February. Domini oii Astr ©physical Laboratory, L i t t l e Saanich Mountain.  -  - -  6  APPENDIX I.  Figure 1.  Precipitation and potential evapotranspiration at various stations on Vancouver Island and the coastal mainland of British Columbia. Relative water balances are shown by the areas enclosed by the two curves; potential deficiencies are represented by the areas enclosed by the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration curves during the summer months, and potential surpluses by the areas enclosed during the winter months. It may be seen that deficiencies decreased from east to west i n the study area (Deadwood Creek to Fourth Lake), while precipitation increased. Similarly there was a decrease i n deficiencies froa south to north on the east coast (Duncan to Port Hardy) and i n the central mountains (Shawn!gan Lake to Nitinat Camp). Other stations i n rainshadow areas with marked summer deficiencies included Victoria and Nanaimo on the Island and Pemberton Meadows and Powell River on the mainland. There were large surpluses and l i t t l e or no deficiencies at the stations on the west coast of Vancouver Island (Pacheaa Point and Estevan Point), and on the north coast of the mainland (Bella Bella).  APPENDIX I .  to follow page 6  JFM  AMJ JA  SOND  JFMAMJJASOND  DEADWOOD CREEK  JF MAM J J A  JFMAMJJASOND  ECHO *\ MOUNTAIN /  VALLEY  •FOURTH LAKE  x  Annual T-E Susaar T-K  ;  9urrlu« DafJclar.cy  DUNCAN  CASSIDY  \ aua.T-E {%)  s  I  CUMBERLAND  Annual T-E Sumner T-E 3ua. (JE) Surplua Oaftclancy  2( 11 5C 11  Annual T-K  ' aintr T-S  Annual T - E aissar T-E Sua.T-E (*) Surplus D»flclancy  Sua.T-E (*>  Am.j'al t - E Suwtar T - E SUB.T-K (<) Suir-u" Daflclflncy  SOND  aurplua I Dariclancy « «  ALBERNI  Annual r - E Cunaer r - E  aia.T-E <*J Daflcl.ni  Annual T-E S k i u « r T-K  aurrlua  Suo.T-E l*S  Surrlua D»f)cl«ncy  Surplua Daflelinc*  PEMBERTON MEADOWS  26 1?  50  I Annual T-E iJ '.Suaaar T-E 10' 8ua.T-E <*) surrlua Dan clancy  e I  «  42  64 1  \  ESTEVAN / POINT  Annual T-E •fcSuaaar T - E n u a . T - I (Jt) Surplua Daflclansy  POWELL RIVER  NANAIMO  Annual T-E Suoner T-E Sua.T-E <«) 5ur[lua Daflelenej  Annual r - E S u u t r T-E Sua.T-E if) JutTlua Saflclar.cy  Annual T-E S u u t r T-E £ u a . T - I (J) Surplua  17 16  PACHENA / \ POINT 1  2* 1*  52  I I I I  VICTORIA Sua.T-E «)  48? 67 •  PORT HARDY  SHAWNIGAN LAKE  Anr.ua 1 T-E Suaaar T-E  25|  Precipitation PMantiol •* asotr an a plr a lion  BELLA BELLA Annual T - E Suaaar T - E * \  Sua.T-E (Jt)  surplua .Dtflclenoy  I-L  - Tn»r»*l *iiial«ftoy  (aTtir Tborntm.«it«)  Sua.T-L  rttltimnoj J|U», Jul/, AltfUJt.  - Itxraal  \  V '  Surplui - P(In.). oU014*1 aurplua Dariolancy - PoWoUkl ttoflelano/ (la.)T-E for uaajldy. T-E for A l l * m l . 3 I-L for OiaMrlarei. * T-t for Coslchaj. L u * • * T-E for Ocaan Fall* • 1  2  JFMAMJJASOND  JFMAMJJASOND  JFMAMJJASOND  FIG.I. Precipitation and potential evapotranspiration at various stations on Vancouver Island and the coastal mainland of British Columbia.  APPENDIX I I  PLANT LIST l  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHECK LIST OF SPECIES REFERENCES  Page 1 6  APPENDIX u .  1 CHECK LIST OF SPECIES FOUND IN THE PLOTS  TREES Abies a a a b i l i s (Dougl.) Forbes Abies grandls Lindl. Acer macrophyllum Pursh Alnus rubra Bong. Chamaeeyparis nootkatensis (D.Don ) Spach Mains d l T e r s i f o l l a (Bong.) Roam. Pinos contorta jLoud. Pinus montleola Dougl. Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco U P . t a x l f o l l a (Poiret) Britten )) Taxus brevifollg. Nutt. Thuja p l i c a t a D.Don Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. SHRUBS Arctostaphylos eolumbiana Piper Aretoataphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprang. Gaultheria ovatifolla A. Gray Gaaltherla shallon Pursh Holodiscas discolor (Pursh) Maxim. Lonicsra sp. Mahonia aqulfolium (Pursh) Nutt. Mahonia nervosa "*?Pursh) Nutt. Oplopanax horrldus (J.E. Smith) Miq. Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. Rubus leucodermis Dougl. Rub us nivalis Dougl. Rubus spectabilis Pursh Rubua v i t i f o l i u s Cham. & Sehlecht. Salix sltchensls Sanson Salix seooleriana Barrett Sambucus pubens Michx. (( S. Call!carpa Greene J) Spiraea""douglasii Hook. Symphorlcarpos albus (L.) Blake Symphoriearpoa mollis Nutt. Vaccinlum alaskaense Howell Vaccinlum meiabranaceiim Dougl. (.( V. macrophyllum (Hook.) Piper )) Vaccinlum ovalifolium JJB. Smith Vaccinlum parvifolinm J.E. Smith  APPENDIX I I .  2  VASCULAR HERBS Achlya triphylla ( Smith) DC. Adenocaulon,bicolor Hook . Adiantum pedatum L. AUotrona virgata Torr. & Gray Apocynum androsaemifolium L. Athyrlum filix-femiaa*^?L:) Roth Blechnum spioant (LT. J JB, Smith Boschnlakja hooker! Walp. U B. strobilacea Gray )) Bromua vulgaris (Hook.) Shear Calypso bulbosa (L.) Salisb. Campanula sooulerl Hook. Oardamine angulata Hook. Carex henderaonii Bailey Carex leptopoda Mack. Chimaphila menziesii (R.Br.) Spreng. Chlaaphila umbellata (L.) Nutt. Circaea alpina L. Circaea paclfloa Aschers. & Magnus. Claytbnia siblrlca L. Corallorhiza maculata Raf. Danthonia sp. Dieentra formosa Andr. Disporum oreganum (S.Wat3.) Benth. & Hook. Dryopteria linnaeana C.Ghr. Epilobium adenocaulon Haussk. Epilobium paniculatum Nutt. Equisetum arvense L. Eestuca oocidentalis Hook. Festaca subulata Trin. (( including F. subuliflora Scribn. )) Galium aparine LT "' Galium boreale L. Galium triflorum Michx. Glyceria striata (lam.) Hitchk. (.(. G. nervate (Willd.) Trin. )) Ctoodyera oblonglfolia Raf. (TG. declpiens (Hook.) F.T. Hubbard)) Hieraclum albiflornm Hook. Hypoohaeris radieata L. Lllium columbiannm Hanson Linnaea borealis L. l i s t e r a canrina Piper Listera convallarloides (SwO Torr. Listera cordata" lL.) R.Br Luzula parviflora (Ehrh.) Desv. Lysichitum americanum Hulten & St. John Malanthemum dilatatum (Wood) Abrams Melica smithii (Porter) Vasey Melica subulata (Qriseb.) Scribn. r  k  APPENDIX I I . Mimulus moschatus Dougl. Mitella oralis Greene Monotropa Latisquama (Rydb.) Hulten Montropa uniflora L. Oamoiruiza oallenals Hook. & Am. (( 0. nada Torr. )) Polypodium vulgare L. Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) Presl Pterldium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Pyrola bracteata Hook. Pyrola plcta Smith TT including P. aphylla Smith )) Ranunculus bongardil Greene Smllaclna atellata (I.) Desf. var. s e s s i l l f o l l a (Baker) Henderson (( S. s e s s i l l f o l l a (Baker) Nutt. )) Staehys c l l i a t a Dougl. Stellarla erlspa Cham. & Schl. Streptopua amplexlfollus (L.) DC. Tiarella laelnlata Hook. Tiarella t r i f o l i a t a L. Trientalls l a t i f o l l a Hook. Trillium ovatum Pursh Veratrum esehscholtzll A. Gray Veronica amerlcana (Raf.) Schweln. Viola glabella Nutt. Viola orbiculata Geyer H V. sarmentosa Dougl. var. orbiculata (Geyer) A . G r a y ) ) BRYOPHYTES Antitrichia curtipendula "(Hedw.) Brid. Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) Beauv. Aulacomnium androgynum Schw. Bartramla pcaalformis Hedw. Blepharistoma triohophyllum (L.) Dumort. Braehythecium washingtonlanum Eaton Bryum pallens Swartz Calliergonella Sehreberl (Bruch & Schimper) Grout Calypogeia trichomanis (L.) Corda Camptotheolom megaptllum S u l l . Cephalozia leucantha Spruce Cephalozia media Lindb. Chiloscyphua rlvularls (Schrad.) Loeske Claopodium crisplfolium (Hook.) R. & C. Dlcranoweiaia cirrhata (Hedw.) Lindb. Dicranum bonjeanii DeNot. Dicranum fuseescens Turn. Dicranum scoparium Hedw. Dicranum strictum Schleich. Eurhynchium oreganum (Sull.) Lesquerelle 4 James Eurhynchium stokesil (Turn.) Bruch & Schimp.  3  APPENDIX I I . Frullanla niaqnallensis S o i l . Heterocladium proeurrena Lesq. & James Hookeria Xucens (Brid.) Smith Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Brueh & Schimp. Hypnum circinale Hook. Lepidozia reptans (L.) Dumort. Lophooolea heterophylla (Schrad.) Dumort. Mnium lnslgne Mitt. Mai urn menziesii (Hook.) C.M. Mnium punotatua Hedw. . Malum splnulosum Brueh & Schimp. Heekera douglaaii Hook. P e l l i a columbiana Krajina & Brayshaw Plaglochila asplenioides (L.) Dumort. Plagiotheeium denticulaturn (Hedw.) Brueh & Schimp. Plaglotheoium elegans (Hook.) S u l l . Plagiotheeium undulatum (Hedw.) Brueh & Schimp. Pogonatum alpinum (Hedw.) Roehl. Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. Polytrichum p l l l feram Hedw. Pore 11a navicalaris (L & L.) Lindl. Pseudiaothecium stoloaiferum (Hook.) Grout Ptilidlam c a l i f or ni cum (Aust.) Tj. & C. PtHldiam-pulcherrimum (Web.) Hampe Hadula bolanderi Gottache Rhacomitrlum canescens Brid. Rhacomltrium heterostichum (Hedw.) Brid. Rhacomitrlum lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. Rlccardia latifrons Lindb. Rhytidiadelphus loreos (Hedw.) Warnst. Rhytldiadelphas trlcmetrns (Hedw.) Warnst. Rhytididiopsis robusta (Hook.) Broth. Soapanla bolanderi Aust. Scapania umbrosa (Schrad.) Dumort. LICHENS Alectoria jnbata (L.) Ach. Alectoria oregana Tuck. Alectoria sarmentosa Ach. Cetraria, glauca (L.) Ach. Cetraria lacunosa Ach. Cetraria scutata (Wulf.) Poetsoh. TT£. saeplncola (Ehrh.) Ach. )) Cladonla bellldiflora (Ach.) Schaer. Cladonla degenerans (Floerke) Sprang. Cladonla fimbriate (L.) Fries Cladonla fareata (Hods.) Schrad. Cladonla gracilis (L.) Willd. Cladonia macilenta Hoffm. Cladonla pyxidata (L.) Hoffm.  4  APPENDIX I I .  S  Cladonla rangiferina (L.) Web. Cladonla squamosa'~TScop. j Hoffm. Cladonla subsquamosa (Nyl.) Wainio Cladonla sylvatlca (L.) Hoffm. Cladonla nnclalla (L.) .Web. Cladonla v e r t i c l l l a t a Hoffm. Graphls aorlpta (L.) Ach. Graphls sp. IcmadopMla erloetorum (%.) Zahlbr. Letharia vulpine ( L . T Hue , Lobaria oregana (Tuck.) Muell Lobaria pulmoBarla (L.) Hoffm. Mycoblastus sangulnarlus ..(L.) Norm. Nephrcmopsis c l l i a r l s (Ach.) Hue Ochroleehia tartarea (L.) Mass. Ochrolechia uppsaliensls (L.) Mass. Parmella physodes (L.) Ach. Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Ach. Peltigera canina (L.) Willd. Peltigera polydactyla (Neck.) Hoffm. Pertusaria ambigens (Nyl.) Tuck. Pertusaria multlpuncta (Turn.) Nyl. Pllophoron cereolus TAch.) Th .Pr. Pllophoron h a I l i l (Tuck.) Wainio Sphaerophorua globosus (Huds.) Wainio Stereocaulon paschale (I».) Hoffm. Stereocaulon tomentosum Fries Stlota anthraspia Ach; Thelotrema lepadinum Ach. Usnea plicata (L.) Wigg. FUNGI Amanita sp. Cronartlum harkneasli Meineeke Femes applanatua (Pers.) G i l l . (( Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. )') Polyporua schweinltzil Fries Sparassis radicata Weir ALGAE Protocoecua v l r i d l s  C.A.Agardn  The original specimens of plants found on the plots were accidentally destroyed by f i r e before they were placed on f i l e i n the Herbarium of the Biology and Botany Department, University of British Columbia.  APPENDIX I I .  6  REFERENCES USED IN THE COMPILATION OF THE CHECK LIST Abrams, L., 1940. Illustrated flora of the Pacific States. Vol. 1. Stanford University Press. 1944. Illustrated flora of the Pacific States. Stanford University Press.  Vol.2.  1951. Illustrated flora of the Pacific States. Vol. 3. Stanford University Press. Broun, M. author.  1933.  Index to North American ferns. Published by the  Camp, W. H., H. W. Rickett, & C. A. Weatherby. 1947. International Rules of botanical nomenclature. Brittonia 6: 1 - 120. Conard, H. S. 1944. Dubuque, Iowa.  How to know the mosses. Wm.  0. Brown Co.,  Eastham, J . W. 1947. Supplement to 'Flora of southern British Columbia' (J.E.Henry). British Columbia Provincial Museum Special Pub. No. 1. Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of Botany, Bd. 8. Book Co., New York.  American  Fink, B., 1935. The Lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Mich. Gleason, H. A. 1952. The new Britten and Brown Illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Vol. 1. New York Botanical Gardens. 1952. The new Britten and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States ana adjacent Canada. Vol. 2. New York Botanical Gardens. .  1952. The new Britten and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Vol. 3. New York Botanical Gardens.  Grout, A.J. (Ed.) Moss flora of North America. Vol, 1. Publ> by the Ed. Newfane, Vt. — — . Moss flora of North America. Vol. 2. Publ. by the Ed. Newfane, Vt. — — . Moss flora of North America. Vol. 3. Publ. by the Ed. Newfane, Vt.  APPENDIX I I .  7>  Henry, J. K. 1915 Flora of southern British Columbia. W. J . Gage & Co., Toronto, Ont. Hitchcock, A. S. 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Ed. 2., revised by Agnes Chase. U. S. Dept. Agric. Misc. Publ. No. 200. Howard, G. E. 1950. Lichens of the State of Washington. of Washington Press, Seattle, Wash.  University  Hulten, E. 1941. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 1. University, Sweden.  Lund  . 1942. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 2. University, Sweden.  Lund  , 1943. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 3. University, Sweden.  Lund  1944. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 4. University, Sweden.  Lund  . 1945. Flora of Alaska.and the Yukon. Vol. 5. University, Sweden.  Lund  . 1946. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 6. University, Sweden.  Lund  . 1947. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 7. University, Sweden.  Lund  . 1948, Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 8. University, Sweden.  Lund  . 1949. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 9. University, Sweden.  Lund  #  1950. Flora of Alaska and the Yukon. Vol. 10. Lund University, Sweden. Lanjouw, J, 1952. International code of botanical nomenclature adopted by the seventh International Botanical Congress, Stockholm, July, 1950. International Bureau of Plant taxonomy and Nomenclature, 106, lange Nlewstraat, Utrecht, Netherlands. L i t t l e , E. L. 1953. Check l i s t of native and naturalized trees of the united States (including Alaska). U. S. Dept. A g r i c , Agric. Handbook No. 41. 472 p. Maooun, J , , & N, G. Kingberg. 1892. Catalogue of Canadian plants. Part VI., Muscl. Geol. & Nat'l Hist. Survey of Canada. Maeoun, J . 1902. Catalogue of Canadian plants, & Hepaticae. Geol. Survey of Canada.  Part VII, Lichens  APPENDIX I I . Peck, M. E . 1941 A Manual of the higher plants of Oregon. Binfords & Mort, Portland, Oregon. St. John, H. 1937. Flora of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho. Students Book Corp'n, Pullman, Wash.  APPENDIX I I I .  PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS  TABLE OF CONTENTS Table 1. Particle size distribution i n soils from the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots . . . . . . . . Table 2.  Page  1  Particle size distribution i n soils from the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots ......  2  Table 3. Particle size distribution i n soil3 from the Pseudotsuga Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association plots ...  3  Table 4.  Particle size distribution i n soil3 from the Pseudotsuga Polystichum association plots  Table 5. Average volume weights of the 25 mm. s o i l fraction at various depths i n plots sampled for moisture  4 5  1  APPENDIX I I I .  TABLE 1. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHBRTA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS BY WEIGHT (#) 25mm fraction DEPTH (cm.)  2 mm fraction  <2 2-5 5-25 mm. mm. Turn ,  1 T  & UJ  2 •H CO  BY VOLUME (#)  2-5mm fraction s  3 H  V  §  n 'a o  5-25mm fraction U o  4  S  o  Whole s o i l <5 5-25 >25 mm . mm. mm.  «t»*  g o  60 79 69 84 81  40 36 9 6 13  60 64 91 94 87  22 20 26 20 27 19 20 23  89 58 62 50 68 71  9 5 6 18 35 53  91 95 94 82 65 47  27 30 21 19 -  48 41 41 53 48  76 80 77 74 76  18 6 8 12 12 11 15 11 8 16  o 40 21 31 16 19  PLOT L4 (Deadwood) Ag 46 16 38 1-10 33 21 46 10-20 34 22 44 20-45 34 21 45 45-70 38 16 56 ortstein 42 13 45  73 73 73 75 76 80  20 20 21 17 15 13  11 42 38 50 32 29  PLOT L3 (Deadwood) A 37, 10 53 18 50 1-10 32 15 41 10-20 44 20-55 44 16 40 18 45 55-70 37 ortstein 50 18 32  69 73 74 79 82 83  20 11 19 8 7 19 5 16 6 12 13 4  12 88 41 59 34 66 47 53 46 54 33 67  3 7 4 15 31 21  97 93 96 85 69 79  20 27 32 33 -  PLOT L2 (Valley) A 43 1-10 37 10-20 41 20-40 37 40-55 32 ortstein 46  PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) 1-10 34 10-20 37 20-45 43 45-70 29 ortstein 37  18 22 16 18 15  2  #«  V  7 7 6 8 9 7  00  09  -  -  11 14 23 20 16 12  47 49 36 43 52 42  70 70 74 77 77 80  18 12 7 23 8 18 7 16 3 20 6 14  24 21 24 42 40 36  76 79 76 58 60 64  10 18 15 29 45 21  90 82 85 71 55 79  27 36 26 21 -  PLOT L l (Fourth Lake) 72 10 A2 10 2-20 64 59 13 20-35 44 35-55 25  18 26 28 31  64 60 60 76  23 13 35 5 6 34 19 5  79 53 70 69  21 47 30 31  9 13 IS 42  91 87 82 58  32 34 31  2  0.02 - 2mm fraction 2 0.002 - 0.02mm fraction 3 less than 0.002mm fraction 4 shotty and clinker-like concretions.  23 24 25 25 -  24 24 30 40 —  10 10 23 30 -  - 20 23 18 23 29 8 29 8  24 7 20 7 20 10 23 17 - -  - - 11 13 15  9 5 5  2  APPENDIX III. TABLE £. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS BY WEIGHT 25ram fraction  2mm fraction  <2 2-5 5-25  DEPTH (cm.)  mm. mm.  BY VOLUME  1  mm.  2—5mm fraction  2 -p  a I  CO  09  o  H •H  5-2 5mm fraction U 2 a O  a>  Whole s o i l <5 5^25 '25  a  o 43  mm. mm.  mm.  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION  PLOT G5 ( Jolf Mt.) A 59 19 22 0.5-10 50 21 29 10-20 47 19 34 20-45 53 19 28 45-65 52 17 31 65-80 33 18 49 80-100 25 IS 57  74 76 76 78 83 -  16 10 15 8 11 13 12 10 10 7 -  27 27 27 25 19 -  73 73 73 75 81  14 14 13 12 11 -  86 86 87 88 89 -  PLOT G4 (Deadwood) 59 18 A 48 23 1-10 10-20 42 21 53 21 20-40 59 17 40-60 60 14 60-80 ortsteln 59 14  23 28 37 26 24 26 27  85 4 11 76 17 7 78 17 5 81 14 5 1 2 97 96 2 2 87 9 4  55 17 50 16 45 51 37  45 83 50 84 55 49 63  24 15 20 24 13 24 15  76 85 80 76 87 76 85  JDT G6 (Deadwood) 69 13 A* 1-10 41 32 10-25 41 34 25-50 48 29 50-70 41 17 ortsteln 44 15  18 27 25 23 42 41  73 63 64 64 73 84  42 77 75 73 50  53 23 25 27 50  27 73 40 60 36 64 52 48 38 62  2  j  2  LOT G3 (Valley) 5 40 55 A2 6-10 54 13 33 49 13 38 10-35 35-65 36 15 49 PLOT Gl A 7-20 20-30 30-50 50-60 60-70 2  20 7 5 32 32 4 26 10 17 9 11 5  74 19 67 28 72 23 81 12  7 5 5 7  23 77 23 77 30 70 26 74  13 IS 15 17  87 82 85 83  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA • GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION (Fourth Lake) 53 47 23 77 51 15 34 61 24 15 58 42 30 70 6 49 10 41 69 25 68 32 40 60 33 16 51 64 31 5 20 80 22 78 31 17 54 70 25 5 38 62 35 65 34 14 52 70 25 5 22 78 37 63 35 13 52 73 18 9  36 33 45 39 24 17  -  35 35 39 40 39 •  14 15 17 15 1 17 3 18 23 21 24 35  mm  mm  mm  —  m  mm  35 36 35 30  -  14 8 20 8 7 14 13 17 14 17  13 12 10 22  16 16 25 12  mm  13 6 59 19 12 45 20 20 23  _  _  9 13 12 16 18  7 13 15 18 20  mm  61 43 40 40 40  1  APPENDIX I I I . TABLE 2 - Continued PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.} 82 6 12 A 4-35 57 16 27 35-55 37 12 51 55-75 34 14 52 2  18 8 20 11 11 9 15 8  74 69 80 77  36 64 40 60 37 63 12 88  27 27 16 7  73 73 84 93  33 12 12 28 29 13 26 29 22  0.02«2mm fraction 0.002-0.02mm fraction less than 0.002mm fraction 4 shotty and clinker-like concretions. 2  3  TABLE 3. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS By WEIGHT (%) 25mm fraction DEPTH (cm.)  2mm fraction 1  :-5 5-25 mm. mm.. mm.  <2  2  •H u*  PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) Ai 84 10 6 1-10 73 17 10 10-20 74 IS 8 20-40 78 15 7 77 15 8 40*70 70-100 90 7 3  IA  68 67 69 72 71 68  2—5mm fraction  2  s  By VOLUME {%)  4  3  i©  22 10 25 8 4 27 20 8 7 22 1 31  5—25mm fraction  09  g o  8 O  •§  4 u• o  g o  03 <D  o  Whole s o i l ^5 5-25 >25 mm. mm. mm.  43 ,. 09  -  -  45 55 33 67 43 52 43 57 29 71 16 84  33 38 37 53 37 10  67 62 63 47 63 90  40 41 41 48 55  79 66 71 75 72  16 17 12 17 16  84 83 88 83 84  23 16 21 30 19 8 28 15 9 33 3 21  m  5 4 3 4 2  -  -  PLOT M2 (Echo Mt.) 59 11 A2 1-20 46 14 20-40 47 15 43 17 40-75 75-100 77 17  30 40 38 35 6  74 16 10 77 12 11 63 14 23  21 34 29 25 28  PLOT M4 (Deadwood) 44 13 A 1-10 53 23 10-20 55 20 60 15 20-40 40-70 75 14 33 16 70-100  43 24 25 25 11 51  76 19 83 11 9 86 87 11 97 + 93 3  5 6 5 2 3 5  29 45 41 44 56 10  71 55 59 56 44 90  10 90 29 71 28 72 41 59 33 67 2 98  35 43 43 54 31  8 31 19 49 16 55 13 55 15 57  73 21 82 11 84 12 9 87 87 8  6 7 4 4 5  30 34 19 22 22  70 66 81 78 78  4 13 9 8 18  14 13 39 IS 22 34 21 26 23 27 35 8  2  PLOT M3 (Valley) 61 •' A 2-20 32 29 20-45 45-75 27 75-100 28 2  71 IS  11  - - -  96 87 91 92 82  - -  mm  mm  -  11 14 16 7 32  mm  -  20 10 5 11 10  mm  APPENDIX I I I . TABLE 3 - Continued PLOT Ml (Fourth Lake) 72 6 6-2© 39 IS 20*40 34 23 40-65 26 13 65-90 57 13  H  2 3 4  22 43 43 56 30  70 69 77 79 69  20 10 26 5 13 10 12 9 20 11  40 60 27 73 51 69 17 83 33 62  23 6 13 12 33  77 94 87 88 67  mm  23 23 17 24  mm  15 17 21 14  _  27 21 28 30  0.02-2mm fraction 0.002-0.02mm fraction less than 0.002mm fraction shotty and clinker-like concretions. TABLE 4. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS 25mm fraction ^2 2-5 5-25 mm. mm. mm.  PLOT P4 (Deadwood) 60 1-10 10-20 99 20-40 97 40-50 50-75 31 75-100 44 100-130 38  12 28 1 + 1 2  - - -  15 54 18 38 21 41  PLOT PI (Fourth Lake) 1-20 55 15 40 21 20-45 45-75 54 16 75-100 64 11 68 10 100-120  30 39 30 25 22  1  •a  tree  DEPTH (cm.)  By WEIGHT (0) 2mm 2-5mm fraction fraction  to  70 23 67 25 67 25  »  3  o 7 8 8  - - -  .4  U  §  w o  01  U  © H 9 °  %  +•*  n  11 89 9 81 11 89 mm  fi>  O O  ^5 5-25 s>25 mm. mm. mm.  4» (0  2 98 2 93 2 98 **  Whole s o i l  mm  20 55 52 20 26 31 30  8 + 1 38 31 19 20  8 8 10 23 10 12 6  36 31 29 42 43  16 19 12 14 12  9 9 15 16 16  70 20 10 87 8 5 85 9 6  12 88 3 97 8 92  61 59 63 62 55  34 26 24 25 23  50 50 69 31 50 50 12 78 24 76  5 32 9 14 16 13 17 13 14 13  27 73 39 61 26 74 19 81  44 56 43 57 38 62 16 84  26 26 27 41 39  12 12 11 12 14  5 5 5 8 8  22 18 17 15 15  51 47 32 8 3  28 40 26 4 1  41 37 36 39 31  11 16 12 6 26  1 1 1 11 11  PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) 1*3 3-10 57 60 10-20 68 20-50 50-65 64  11 11 10 10  32 29 22 26  63 77 71 70 73  PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt.) 62 2«10 10-25 54 25-40 58 40-70 70 70-100 39  18 20 16 30 16 26 16 14 16 45  69 74 76 77 76  - - -  2 f-l •rt  By VOLUME (£) 5-2 5mm fraction  5 15 13 13 22  9 8 7 8 7  - -  49 53 68 92 97  2 98 2 98 3 97 45 30 16 11 7  55 70 84 89 93  - -  72 60 74 96 99  APPENDIX I I I . TABLE 4 - Continued PLOT P3 (Valley) 3*8 98 8-20 95 20-40 100 100 40-70 100 70-95 95-100  1 3 + + +  +  3  -  62 76 74 69 82  28 10 17 7 20 6 22 9 14 4  75 1 60 53 7 1  25 99 40 47 91 99  30 70 6 94  - - - 1  99  -  38 +• 37 3 40 45 49 18 20 40  -  --  0.02-2mm fraction 0.002-0.02mm fraction 3 less than .002mm fraction 4 snotty and clinker-like concretions. 1 2  TABLE 5. AVERAGE VOLUME WEIGHTS 07 THE 25mm SOIL FRACTION AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA -PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOT L5 PLOT L4 PLOT L3 PLOT L2 0.16 0.13 Ao 0.34 0.23 1.5 1-10 em. 1.5 1.4 1.5 10-20 em. 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6 20-40 em. 1.7 1.4 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.4 40-60 em. 1.7 1.9 1.9 1.5 60-80 cm. 1.9 1.7 80-100cm.  -  -  -  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT G5 PLOT 04 PLOT G6 0.18 0.12 0.12 Ao 1.5 1-10 cm. 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 10-20 cm. 1.6 1.5 20-40 cm. 1.6 1.6 1.7 40-60 cm., 1.5 1.7 1.6 60-80 cm. 1.* 1.3 80-100cm. 1.7  -  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT G2 PLOT G l 0.10 0.12 Ao 1-10 cm. 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2 10-20 cm. 1.3 1.2 20-40 cm. 1.3 40-60 cm. 1.5 60-80 em. 1.7 80-100cm.  -  -  PLOT G3 0.18 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.6  -  mm  PL0T~L1 0.17 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3  -  6  APPENDIX I I I . TABLE 5 - Continued PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - BYLOCOMIUM - BPHBTNCHIUM ASSOCIATION Ao 1-10 cm. 10-20 cm. 20-40 cm. 40-60 cm. 60-80 cm. 80-100 cm.  PLOT 115 0.26 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.5  PLOT M2 0.15 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3  PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM AO 1-10 cm. 10-20 cm. 20-40 em. 40-60 em. 50-60 em. 60-80 em. 80-lOOcm.  PLOT P4 0.3 0.8 1.6 1.6 2.0 1.7 1.5 1.4  PLOT 1S3 0.15 1.2 1.2 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.8  PLOT M4  -  1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9  PLOT PI 0.19 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.8 1.8  PLOT P5 0.26 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.8  PLOT P2 0.2 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.5  -  -  0.15 0.4 1.4  B (Banks and hummocks) (litter) cm;(peat) , cm.(peat) cm.(muck) ^ em.(gleyed)  PLOT P3 0.6 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.7 PLOT L y l  A (swamp)  A (swamp)  L 1-10 10-20 20-30 30-40  mm  ASSOCIATION  THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOT Ly3 PLOT Ly2  1-10 cm. (muck) 10-20 cm. (muck) 20-30 cm. (gleyed)  PLOT Ml 0.12 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4  1-10 cm. (muck) 10-20 cm. (muck) 20-30 cm. (gleyed) A  z  0.18 0.4 0.9  (margin of swamp)  (litter) 0.15 L 1-10 cm.(peat) 0.12 0.15 10-20 cm. (muck) 0.2 20-30 cm.(gleyed)^ 30-40 cm.(gleyed) 1.8 40-50 cm.(gleyed) 2  0.12 0.15 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.9  B (Banks and hummocks) L 1-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 1 gleyed gravelly loss 2 gleyed sandy loss 3 gleyed muck  (litter) 0.16 cm.(peat) 0.15 cm.(peat) 0.15 em.(muck) °-4 cm.(gleyed) I.* 1  i3 1-10 (muck) 10-20 (muck) 20-30 (gleyed) 3  1  0.3 0.4 1.0  B (Banks and hummocks) L (Litter) 1-10 (peat) £0-20 (peat) 20-30 (muck) 30-40 (gleyed) 40-50 (gleyed)  0.14 0.15 0.20 0.4 1.7 1.7  APPENDIX IT.  WEATHER AND MICROCLIMATE RECORDS TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page  A. WEATHER ON VANCOUVER ISLAND Table 1.  Precipitation at various stations on Vancouver Island 1951-1953 (inches)  1  B. PRECIPITATION AND INTERCEPTION Table 2.  Table 3.  Table 4.  Table 5.  Table 6.  Precipitation and interception on plots of the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association, June 1951 to October 1954 (cm.) 7 Precipitation and interception on plots of the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga Gaultheria association, June 1951 to October 1953 (cm.) '••.».• • • • • • • '  2  3  Precipitation and interception on plots of the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association, June 1951 to October 1953 (cm.) .  5  Precipitation and interoeption on plots of the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association, June 1951 to October 1953 (cm.) 7~  7  Precipitation and interception on plots of the Thuja - Lysichitum association, June 1951 to October 1953 (cm.)  9  0. TEMPERATURE Table 7,  Monthly maximum, minimum and mean a i r temperatures i n plots sampled for s o i l moisture, 1953 (°F) .  10  Monthly maximum, minimum and mean s o i l surface temperatures i n plots sampled for s o i l moisture, 1951-1953 (°F)  11  Monthly maximum and minimum s o i l surface temperatures at open stations adjacent to plots sampled for s o i l moisture, 1952-1955 (°F) . ......  12  Table 10. Monthly maximum and minimum s o i l surface temperatures i n the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots, 1951-1953. (°F) "~. . . . . .  14  Table 8.  Table 9.  APPENDIX IV.  ii TABLE OF CONTENTS * Continued  TEMPERATURE - Continued  Page  Table 11. Monthly naximum and minimum s o i l surface temperatures i n the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria & Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots, 1951-1953 (OF) *T  15  Table 12. Monthly maximum and iminimum s o i l surface temperatures i n the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association plots, 1951^1953 (°F)  1?  Table 13. Monthly maximum and minimum s o i l surface temperatures i n the Pseudotsuga - Polystichum association plots, 1951-1953 (°F)  IS  Table 14. Monthly maximum and minimum s o i l surface temperatures i n the Thuja - Lysichitum association plots. 1951-1953 (°F) ...  19  Table 15. Average quarterly s o i l temperatures at various depths i n plots sampled for s o i l moisture, 1951-1953 (°F) .....  20  Table 16. Monthly values of s o i l temperature at various depths i n the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots, 1951-1953T(^F) . . . . . . . .  22  Table 17. Monthly values of s o i l temperature at various depths i n the Pseudotsuga - Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots, 1951-1953 (9F) T T T 23 Table 18. Monthly values of s o i l temperature at various depths i n the Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - -Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association plots, 1951-1953 1%)  25  Table 19. Monthly values of s o i l temperature at various depths i n the Pseudotsuga - Polystlohum association plots, 1951-1953 (°F)  26  Table 20. Monthly values of s o i l temperature at various depths i n the Thuja - Lysichitum association plots, 1951-1953 ...  27  D. EVAPORATION Table 21. Evaporation from Livingston atmometers i a the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots, 1951-1952 (ml.)  28  Table 22. Evaporation from Livingston atmometers i n the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria -and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots, 1951-1952 (mTT)  29  Table 23. Evaporation from Livingston atmometers i n the Pseudotsuga Tsuga - Hylocomium - Barhynohlam association plots, 19511952 (ml.) .  30  APPENDIX 17.  i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued  EVAPORATION - Continued  Page  Table 24. Evaporation from Livingston atmometers i n the Pseudotsuga^ Polystichum association plots, 1951-52 (ml.) . . . . .  31  Table 25. Evaporation from Livingston atmometers i n the Thuja Lysichitum association plots, 1951-1952 (ml.)  32  Table 26. Percentage increase i n evaporation from black bulb atmometers compared with adjacent white bulb atmometers at open stations and i n plots sampled for s o i l moisture, 1951-1952  32  1 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 1. PRECIPITATION AT VARIOUS STATIONS ON VANCOUVER ISLAND, 1951-53 (inches) JAN EAST COAST CUMBERLAND 1951 11,2 1952 8,7 1953 14.6 Average 11.5 Long term average 7.4 CASSIDY 1951 1952 1953 Average Long term average  9.6 7.1 13.4 10.3 7.1  FEB  MAR APR  MAY  JUN JUL AUG  SEP  OCT  6.7 8.5 4.7 6.7  4.2 5.1 7.4 5.5  2.0 1.7 2.7 2.1  0.4 1.4 2.1 1.3  0.2 1.3 3.7 1.7  2.1 0.5 3.6 2.1  7.0 13.1 4.4 8.1 16.7 0.9 4.8 14.8 5.6 4.2 12.0 8.9  20.9 17.8 32.4 23.7  1.0 0.2 1.0 0.7  6.5 4.6  3.3 2.2 2.2 1.6  4.7 4.5 2,8 4.0  1.1 3.5 1.9 2.2  4,0 2.3 2.8 3,0  5.7 3.3  CENTRAL MOUNTAINS COWIGHAN LAKE 15.1 10.7 6.4 1951 1952 15.1 8.6 6.1 5.5 8.3 29.7 1953 20.0 8.3 6.9 Average Long term average 10.3 8.8 7.8 NITINAT CAMP 1951 1952 1953 Average Long term average  1,4 5,0 1.8 2,8  14.0 7.1 14.0 6.2 10.0 10.8 12.7 8.1  15.2 14.7 8.5  NOV  DEC  1.4 2.7  6.8  8.2 10.6  0.3 1.4 1.4 1.0  0.1 0.3 0.6 0.3  0.6 0.7 0.5 0.6  2.3 0.4 3.8 2.3  8.2 0.7 2.3 3.7  6.9 7.9 2.8 10.2 7.6 5.5 6.1 7.5  2.4 1.4 1.1  1.1  1.0 1.6  3.5  7.8  2.1 5.8 2.8 3.6  1.3 1.4 0.1 1.2  2.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 5.0 1.9 2.1 0.4 2.0 1.2 2.7 1.2 1.1 2.2 6.6 2.3 1.2 0.6 1.5 4.3  5.1 2.8 1.8 7.2 3.0 4.0  3.5 2.1 2.9 2.8  7.2 3.1  7.1  6.4 10.4 13.7 5.6 19.4 2.6 8.7 15.9 13.8 7.2 11.7 16.5  1.8 1.1  1.1  3.0  8.1  9.6 13.7  0.8 2.5 0.9 1.4  0.3 0.4 1.8 0.8  0.3 2.0 2,9 1.7  7.8 1.8 8.2 5.9  11.6 18.0 8.9 3.4 8.8 27.1 14.5 25.5 17.9 9.8 17.4 17.9  2.1 2.0  2.1  5.1  22.3  13.9  2  APPENDIX IV. TABLE 2. PRECIPITATION AND INTERCEPTION ON PLOTS CQ? THE PSEUDOTSUGA GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION, June 1951 to October 1953 (in cm)  1  1951  ID M  PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm)-0 Interception (%) \PLOT 14 (Deadwood) Precipitation (em) 0 Interception (%) . PLOT L3 (Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) 0 Interception (#) PLOT L2 (Valley) Precipitation (cm) 0 Interception (#) PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation (cm) 0 Interception (#) -  0>  O.  O  O  |s rH  OJ  0.5 0 6.7 17.8 15.7 13.5 44 16 6 26 24  T T +99 +99  0.5 T 0.2 37 +99 67 "* 0.2 0 0 0.9 50 ' - 31  0.7 0 7.6 14.4 17.7 12.8 30 11 16 16 28  0.1 75  -  —  -  -  0 -  0 1.0 - 23  0.6 0 7.2 12.6 15.1 11.3 "40 15 28 36 27  0.3 25  -  0 -  0 0.4 33  0.5 0 8.8 17.6 27.0 12.8 IS 25 18 25 67  0.2 50  -  0 -  0 -  1.6 43  -  0.4 60  0 12.0 24.6 35£ 19.1 IS 22 29 18  1952 _ m  as . H  , <q •  §  <o  to «o  §1 Si 11131^2^ 131^ PLOT L5 -Pptn. (cm) 36.0 11.0 1.5 Ppth. (check) Inept. (#) 14 27 42 PLOT L4 Pptn. (cm) 34.0 12.5 1.8 Inept. {$>) 19 17 22 PLOT L3 Pptn. (cm) 32.0 11.0 1.6 Iacpt.{%) 24 27 30 PLOT L2 Pptn. (cm) 35+ 15.5 2.0 Inept. {%) 35 37 PLOT L l Pptn. (cm) 68+ 35.0 3.3 Inept. (%) 22 12 31  2  3 ran H  H  H  tun Q i O H  O  H  0.7 0.6 0 0.6 46 54 -  0.4 0.4 43  0 1.2 0.3 T 0 1.3 0.4 T 60 - 41  -  1.2 6.1 29.0 1.1 5.9 23.0 32 54 45  1.0 0.6 0 29 25 -  0.6 14  0 2.0 - 13  0.6 T 45  -  2.3 8.8 28.9 21 12 4  0.9 0.5 0 36 38 -  0.6 14  0 -  1.3 0.5 T 55 43  2.0 7.9 27.6 29 16 17  2.2 0.4 0 31 56 -  0.8 20  0 2.8 - 36  4.9 1.3 0 27 28 -  1.0 17  0 6.9 2.8 0.5 6.8 21.5 54.3 55 18 10 12 7 20 -  -  J  1.0 T 47 +99  3.3 14.4 38.2 30 31 11  3  APPENDIX IV. TABLE 2 - Continued 1953 JAN PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) Precipitation (check) Interception (%) PLOT L4 (Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) Interception (#) PLOT L3 (Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) Interception (#) PLOT L2 (Valley) Precipitation (cm) Interception (#) PLOT XI (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation (cm) Interception (#)  FEB  MAR  APR  MAT  8.0 7.6 26  6.0  3.0  1.6 2.8  42  45  48  44.0 10.6 8.2 8 9 17  3.9 26  1.7 35  40.8 15  9.2 21  53.0 4  9.0 13.6 4.5 3.1 3.6 4.7 3.1 10.9 16.1 30 34 28 35 29 6 40 18 17  -9  43.0  35+  -  7.0 29  JUN  JUL  AUG  SEP  OCT  1.1  0.7  7.2  5.0  44  53  61  24  41  2.2 39  0.7 65  0.7 72  3.3 1.5 2.7 38 42 25  0.7 65  1.5 8.1 7.1 40 20 20  13.8 23.3 6.1 15 14 10  6.4 25  1.8 4.4 7.5 18 40 17  9.5 8.4 6 6  -  -  29.9 10  1 Precipitation values are the average collection from 4 gauges within a quarter acre plot; Interception i s the percentage of precipitation recorded at the adjacent open station (Table 18) not reaching the plot gauges. Check precipitation values are the collections from 13 gauges: the percentage interception i s based on these values for the period the checks were maintained. T Trace. 2  TABLE 3. PRECIPITATION AND INTERCEPTION ON PLOTS OF THE PSEUDOTSUGA GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION, June 1951 to October 1953 (in cm.) 1 PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION 1951 4 m  m  s a B§  si  B|  i  f s S i l  g * >>? $ S H P H 8  O H  PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 0 0.1 0 0.4 T Interception (#) 75 100 50 +99 PLOT G4 (Lower Deadwood) . ~* Precipitation (em) 0 0.2 T 0.5 T Interception (0) 60 +99 44 +99 PLOT G6 (Upper Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) 0 0.2 Interception (#) 60 PLOT G3 (Valley) Precipitation (cm) 0 T Interception {<$>) 90 -  0.3 50  0 -  0.5 44  0 6.3 14.2 15.5 14.4 21 25 30 19  0.2 60  0  0.5 44  0 -  1.6 30  0 -  0.6 33  0 6.8 12.9 16.2 11.4 23 25 21 33  T +99  Q -  1.0 33  0 11.2 22.0 35.0 16.4 3 16 8 25  5.9 12.2 13.0 13.7 33 36 40 24  APPENDIX IV. TABLE 3 - Continued  PLOT G5 Pptn.(em) 33.4 10.3 Pptn (check) Inept.(#) 20 31 PLOT G4 Pptn.(cm) Inept.(%) PLOT G6 Pptn.(cm) 39.6 10.8 Inept. {%) 6 10 PLOT 03 ' Pptn.(cm) 38.5 24.0 Inept. (#) 34 20  H  SEP 16-30 OCT 1-31  FJrH  AUG 1-16  o to p<o  JUL 1-16  JUN 1-16  MAY 1-31  1952 o H fc>eo c > to t  IH  0 0  0.5 0.6 14  0 0  42  0.6 0.6 38 54  1.3 0.4 T 1.2 6.3 30.3 1.3 0.4 T 1.4 6.3 27.4 41 60 +99 42 42 19  1.5 46  0.7 0.2 59 75  0  -  0.4 50  -  0  1.1 0.3 64 70  1.7 45  0.9 0.7 47 53  -  0  0.5 37  -  0  T 2.0 7.3 27.9 1.6 0.4 7 48 9 64 +99 37  1.6 3.1 0.6 51 14 45  0  0.9 18  0 r  3.8 1.8 19 25  1.5  -  PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) Precipitation (check) Interception (%) PLOT G4 (Lower Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) Interception (#) PLOT G6 (Upper Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) Interception (%) PLOT G3 (Valley) Precipitation (cm) Interception (%)  0.8  -  -  -  -  - - -  7.1 30.3 35 13  0.1 4.7 17.7 14.2 10 67 13 17  1953 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY  JUN  JUL AUG  SEP OCT  6.3  2.9 1.5  3.0  1.7  0.6  8.2  6.0  52  40  35  67  14  29  41.3 8.2 7.9 12 23  -  39  40.5 8.6 7.2 31 25 14 42.5 6  9.9 7.5 5 26  47  3.1 1.5 1.8 0.8 0.3 8.3 7.0 60 82 19 30 40 50 57 3.9 2.2 19 29  66.3 13.1 16.3 5.9 4.5 21 4 7 14 20  2.8 1.3 2.6 8.8 8.0 42 50 33 14 19 2.7 7.2 45  2.4 14.0 19.4 47 7 2  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION 1951  • S 5?^5<i^J3^ B  PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation (cm) Interception (#) PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.) Precipitation (cm) Interception (#) -  I f 14 |£ i f §4, .§4, B H  0 0.3 0 - 25 - - -  0.4 60  0 -  1.7 0 39 -  14.5 24.1 42+ 18.0 2 27 7 33  0 0.5 0 - 37 - - -  0.3 40  0 -  1.5 0 25 -  10.7 24.8 36+ 37.3 18 15 10 18  APPENDIX IV. TABLE 3 - Continued 1952  sB sS a ? 1  R?  g« e.s e»§ ^«  a? a?  B?  rH  H  PLOT 01 Pptn.(cm) 71+ 31.0 4.2 7.3 1.5 0 Inept. {%) 18 22 12 — 17 PLOT 02 Pptn. (cm) 58+ 27+ 2.1 3.4 0.9 0 Inept.(#) 2*1 21 46 28 51 ;  rH  rH  0.8 33  0  6.6 2.9 17 11  0.5 50  -  3.6 1.8 0.3 5.3 25 38 70 22  0  o3  0.9 8.0 23.4 54.4 IS 4 3 IS -  mm mm  1953 JAN  FEB  MAR  APR MAT  JUN JUL AUG  SEP  OCT  PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation(cm) 79+ 14.6 23.4 6.6 7,8 2.1 5.0 7.6 16.0 31.8 Interception (#) 5 9 10 8 8 30 6 16 8 4 PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.) ' Precipitation (cm) Interception {%) Precipitation values are the average collection fa?om 4 gauges within a quarter acre plot; interception i s the percentage of precipitation recorded at the adjacent open station (Table IS) not reaching the plot gauges. 2 Check precipitation values are the collections from 13 gauges; the percentage interception i s based on these values for the period the checks were maintained. Trace. 1  T  TABLE 4. PRECIPITATION AND INTERCEPTION ON PLOTS OF THE PSEUDOTSUGA TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION June 1951 to October 1953 (in cm.) 1  1951 JO OJ  _ OJ  J  O* c5  O  to  C- S  Cft Ol  o j o j o .  o  H P *  i f PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt) Preoipitation(cm) 0 T 0 0,3 T 0.1 Interception {%) - +99 100 62 +99 83 PLOT M2 (EehO Mt.) Precipitationfam) 0 0.3 - 0.1 Interception"(#) 62 67 PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) \ Preclpitation(cm) 0 0.1^ T 0.5 T 0.3 Interception (%>) 75 +99 44 +99 30 PLOT M3 (Valley) Preoipitation(cm) 0 0.1 T Interception (#) - 80 - +99 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation(cm) 0 0.2 0.2 Interception {%) 35 80  an  m  0 -  0.3 67  0 5.0 - 37  11.8 11.0 13.1 33 50 26  0 -  0.8 50  0 9.7 - 23  20.3 30.7 15.5 ai 19 26  0 -  0.5 44  0 7.9 - 10  15.3 17.7 13.1 19 27 19  0 -  0.9 40  0 10.4 24.6 35+ 18.7 6 ~8 14 - 10  0 -  1.6 6  0 12.2 26.4 35+ 82.2 18 6 - 10  6  APPENDIX 17.  TABLE 4 - Continued 1952  3  PLOT M5 Pptn. (cm) 29.9 8.8 Pptn. (check) Inept. (%) 29 41 PLOT M2. Pptn. (cm) 61+ 20+ Inept. '(£) 5 33 PLOT M4 Pptn.(cm) Inept. (#) PLOT M3 Pptn.(cm) 47+ 23.8 Inept. (#) 19 21 PLOT Ml Pptn.(cm) - 70+ Inept. [%) -  2  « O W iS ? F I 8 .£ 1  «0  rf.lt  H  6 * tO  -  * to tO ° tO H 6 1 ft ft I tr«» 0.4 T 0 0.6 T 0 73 +99 100 ~ 3.1 1.1 T 33 56 +99 "" 1.2 0.3 0 61 70 100  tO  S  H  0.6 0.3 0.1 - 0.2 77 77 85  0 0 -  0.3 0.4 43  0 0 -  1.5 2.7 0.6 62 43 45  0 -  0.5 44  0 -  1.1 0.9 0.3 61 47 62  0 -  0.5 37  0 -  1.7 2.1 0.4 43 42 64  0 -  0.9 18  0 -  2.6 5.6 0.9 42 16 31  0 -  0.7 30  0 -  O J»» oca  H  0.9 3.5 25.1 1.0 3.8 23.8 58 65 30 4.4 29  -  1.7 7.5 30.2 29 31 14  3.8 1.5 T 3.9 19.6 56.2 19 37 +99 28 8 ~" 6.5 2.3 0.3 7.2 22.3 58.4 7 30 73 12 3 3  1953 JAN PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 33.0 Precipitation(check) Interception (#) 30 PLOT M2 (Echo Mt.) Precipitation (cm) Interception (%) PLOT MS (Lower:i)eadwood) Precipitation (cm) 43.3 Interception (#) 8 PLOT MS (Valley). Precipitation (cm) 67+ Interception {%) ~6 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation (cm) 55+ Interception (#) -  FEB MAR  APE MAT  JDN JUL AUG- SEP OCT  5.9 4.0 1.6^ 0.6 1.7 1.0 0.1 5.8 44 61 71 81 66 62 94 - -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  2.4  -  72  -  8.9 7.6 3.5 1.9 2.4 1.3 0.5 8.4 23 27 33 37 43 35 71 18  6.6 34  12.9 18.6 5.4 3.6 3.4 4.5 3.4 11.4 19.3 15 9 28 23 31 18 24 24 9 14.7 22.8 4.9 5.8 0.9 4.0 7.0 15.5 30.4 6 5 12 24 61 7 22 5 5  Precipitation values are the average collection from 4 gauges within a quarter aore plot; interception i s the percentage of precipitation recorded at the adjacent open station (Table 18) not reaching the plot gauges. Check precipitation values are the collection from 13 gauges; the percentage _ interception i s based on these values for the period the checks were maintained, Traoe. 1  2  7  APPENDIX IV.  TABLE 5. PRECIPITATION AND INTERCEPTION ON PLOTS OF THE PSEUDOTSUGA POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION, June 1951 to October 1953 (in cm.) 1 1951  toot a> w . J , rt  n CM  t  PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood) Precipitation (em) 0 Interception (%) PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.) Precipitation (cm) 0 Interception {%) PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 0 Interception (#) PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 0 Interception (#) PLOT P3 (Valiey) Precipitation (cm) 0 Interception  -  mm  -  0.1 80  -  0.2 33  _  mm  _  -  0.5 17 T +99  o> ^ o> CM _CM _^CU  o CM  tfi  -  _  _  -  -  O  _  -  H  0.2 0 78  c- H &l  rj  Q  1.4 39  0  0.2 80  0 1.3 0 10.8 23.3"35+ 18.0 - • 24 20 20 17 33  -  0 0.4 1.1 20 • 31  T 0.3 T +99 56 +99  0.1 75  :  0  0.4 33  0 r  0.5 0 56 -  T +99  0 -  0.7 53  0 mm  6.6 26  U . l 10.3 8.4 36 50 51  12.1 25.6 35+ 16.6 4 9 10 14 6.4 13.6 15.214.0 28 30 21 20 8.5 21  19.3 23.3 32.2 IS 29 28  ^Ppln^tcm) 21.7 5.8 43 Inept. (#) 52 PLOT PI mm 63+ Pptn.(em) mm Inept. {<$>) PLOT P2 Pptn.(cm) 42.7 23.7 21 33 Inept. (#) PLOT P5 „ Pptn.(cm) 33+ 10.3 Pptn.(check) rf . 21 31 Inept. {<$>) PLOT P3 Pptn.(cm) 42.3 14.8 38 Inept.(#) 23 :  0S-9I NOT  Si  MAY 1-31 JUN 1-16  1952  H  tO  •O H  j  H  K  | H  d>H  ._ i-l tO «© cb i cui-i  <{H  O to cu i  i-l  O  into t>5  H  o **  81 H  O H S Z 5 H O H  0.3 80  -  0  0.4 50  0  -  1.1 0.1 91 65  T +80  2.0 3.9 20.7 37 51 31  2.5 4.7 0.6 50 44 30  0  -  0.9 10  -  0  5.6 2.1 0.3 20 73 36  6.4 19.2 48.1 17 20 23  0.9 18  0  -  0.6 33  0  -  4.1 1.6 36 11  0.4 0.3 77 54  0 0  0.4 0.4 43  0 0  0.6 0.6 73  0.1 T 0.1 T 90 +80  1.2 4.8 29.3 1.1 4.5 26.9 54 58 20  0.8 20  0  2.8 36  0 1.0 47 100  3.2 14.2 37.9 32 12 32  1.1 0.6 65 65  2.3 3.6 23 42 1.2  -  54  0.6 mm  1.3 1.8 0.3 59 44 67  mm  0 •  •  0.2 5.4 67 13  mm  mm  8  APPENDIZ IV. TABLE 5 - Continued 1953 JAN  FEB  MAR  PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood)l Precipitation (cm) 33.5 6.5 3.5 Interception (%) 26 37 66 PLOT P i (Fourth Lake) Precipitation (em) 35+ 11.5 19.4 19 Interception (#) 27 PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) Precipitation (em) Interception ($) PLOT P (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 36.0 8.0 5.9 Interception (#) 23 22 43 PLOT P3 (Valley) 9.8 13.3 Precipitation (cm) 30 28 Interception (#) "2  APR MAX  JUL  AUG  SEP  2.1 0.8 2.2 1.4 56 74 54 46  1.8 54  6.7 6.6 34 35  3.4 7.0 21 23  13.9 29.0 15 10  4.3 23  JUN  5.0 0.8 34 65  OCT  m  5  1.3 0.3 50 83  7.8 4.3 18 49  2.9 2.3 3.2 3.4 3.2 52 32 38 55 37  10.1 15.7 24 19  2.3 1.0 2.2 68 58 56  1 Precipitation values are the average collection from 4 gauges within a quarter acre plot; interception i s the percentage of precipitation recorded at the adjacent open station (Table 13) not reaching the plot gauges. 0  Check precipitation values are the collection from 13 gauges; the percentage interception i s based on these values for the period the cheeks were maintained. Trace>  9  APPENDIX IV. TABLE 6. PRECIPITATION AND INTERCEPTION ON PLOTS OF THE THUJA LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION, June 1951 to October 1953 (in cm.) 1  cn o>  BS-S?  Hi  CM  o 5  o»«  o»  CMg  CM  |JL 8 A 3 H  «aJOJ  T +99  0.4 33  0  -  1.5 35 0.5 17  PLOT Ly3 (Wolf MtJ Precipitation (cm) 0 0,2 0.1 0.6 Interception (#) 50 50 25 PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) 0 0.1 Interception (#) 80 PLOT L y l (Echo Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 0 0.4 Interception {$>) 44  po  _  -  M  o  i  83  OCT 1-31  men  in  SEP 10-17 SEP 17 -OCT 1  1951  ^ © O 1  H  BA  0.3 0 61 -  6.4 14.2 15.2 12.9 20 25 30 27  0  -  0.3 0 66 -  6.8 12.7 15.1 23 27 26  0  0.9 0 44 -  10.3 22.734± 14.4 18 19 25 12  -  7.4 56  1952  +» +  ^+  g  H  _«g  W  gH  H . K H  PLOT Ly3 Incp.(#) PLOT Ly2 Pptn. (em) Inep.($) PLOT L y l Incp.($)  ,<P  .» «q  J H  F»H  F J H M  J l  rtH  d  ^<o I  ^ H  H  o  H  E4(0  t> tO O tO  gjH  HH  O H  grl  q H  0 0.6 14  --  1.1 0.3 T 70 +80 50  1.5 37  43  10  28.5 7.8 1. 0.7 0.6 32 35 61 59 59 58  0 0.4 50  -  0 -  -  1.7 0.2 T 45 82 +80 45  2.0 37  32  32  3.1 0.9 34 18  0 0.7 22  0  3.4 25  5.3 14  38  29  32  38  30  -  0  8  OiH O j l  --  26  0.9 0.8 31 31 38  »  t  g |  -  1.7 0.3 32 50  1953 FEB  MAR  APR MAY  JUN  JUL AUG SEP OCT  PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) Precipitation (cm) 39.0 8.2 6.3 3.4 1.6 4.2 1.9 0.7 8.8 20 16 Interception (#) 17 39 38 48 61 7 27 PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) Precipitation (cm) 34.3 7.3 4.4 2.2 1.0 2.1 1.3 1.8 7.7 50 30 68 56 54 25 Interception ($} 24 57 54 PLOT L y l Precipitation (cm) Interception i$)  6.0 29 6.7 32  Precipitation values are the average collection from 4 gauges within a quarter acre plot; interception i s the percentage of precipitation recorded at the adjacent open station (Table 18) not reaching the plot gauges. T Trace.  TABLE 7. MONTHLY MAXIMUM, MINIMUM AND MEAN AIR TEMPERATURES IN PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE, 1953 (°Fp\ JUNE Max (Ma) Min  JULY Max (Mn) Min  AUG. Max (Mn) Min  SEPT. Max (Mn) Min  OCT. Max (Mn) Min  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASS'N PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) PLOT L l (Fourth Lk)  8B (64) 45 76 (53) 40  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASS'N PLOT 05 (Wolf Mt.) 78 (61) 43 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASS'N PLOT 01 (Fourth Lk.) 75 ( 57) 39 PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM ASS'N PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) 72 (58) 44 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) 76 (57) 38  92 (72 ) 51 97 (72) 46  90 (71) 52 87 (68) 48  91 (70) 49  86 ( 68) 60  90 ( 63 ) 45  84 (67) 50 90 (69) 47  82 ( 61)  -  82 ( 64) 46  82 (67) 51 84 (69) 53  44 40  -  -  79 ( 60)  78 (60) 42 80 (61) 42  - 63 (49) 35  - -  40  -  62 (48 ) 33  64 (52) 40 66 (51) 36  PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASS'N PLOT F5 (Wolf Mt.) PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.)  72 ( 57 ) 42 76 (59) 42  84 ( 67) 49 82 ( 66) 50 79 ( 61) 42 66 ( 52) 39 90 (69) 47 86 (67) 43 80 (61) 42 60 (43) 36  THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASS'N PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.)  1  74 (57 ) 39  Measured at one meter above the ground.  84 (66) 47  82 (65) 48  78 (60) 41  - -  APPENDIX IV.  11  TABLB 3. AVERAGE. QUARTERLY MAXIMUM, MINIMUM AND MEAN SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE 1951-53 (°F) SPRING Max (Mn) Min 2  OPEN STATIONS Cabin Lower Deadwood Valley Echo Mt. Fourth Lk. Average PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTBERIA PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) PLOT 14 (Deadwood) PLOT L3 (Deadwood) PLOT L2 (Valley) PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) Average PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt.) PLOT G4 (Deadwood) PLOT G6 (Deadwood) PLOT 03 (Valley) Average  84 97 83 83 89  (57) (S3) (56) (56) (60)  30 29 30 30 30  87 (58) 30  SUMMER Max (Mn) Min  AUTUMN WINTER Max (Mn) Min Max (Mn) Min  102 119 86 103 121  63 74 64 63 74  3  (70) (79) (64) (72) (79)  39 40 42 41 33  106 (73) 40  4  (44) (51) (46) (46) (51)  25 28 28 28 28  5  46 50 44 52 46  (36) (38) (38) (40) (38)  25 26 31 28 29  67 (47) 27  43 (33) 28  - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION 90 (62) 34 108 (78) 49 97 (68) 39 121 (85) 48 87 (62) 33 105 (76) 47 97 (68) 39 112 (81) 49 89 (63) 37 108 (77) 46 92 (65) 37 111 (79) 48  61 64 57 56 54 58  (47) (49) (45) (45) (44)  57 57 52 51 47  (44) (44) (42) (41) (33)  (46) 33  30 30 32 32 29 53 (42) 31  ASSOCIATION 74 (57) 41 89 (63) 37 78 (58) 38 63 (51) 39 76 (57) 39  51 53 49 51 51  (43) (44) (42) (43) (43)  48 52 48 41 47  (40) (41) (40) (36) (39)  87 101 84 71 86  (69) 50 (75) 43 (67) 49 (61) 50 (68) 49  33 33 33 34 34  36 34 35 36 35  33 31 32 32 32  PSEUDOTSUGA- TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) PLOT 02 (Echo Mt.)  66 (51) 37 70 (55) 40  73 (60) 47 94 (70) 46  49 (41) 33 43 (41) 33  42 (37) 32  Average  63 (53) 38  83 (64) 46  49 (41) 33  42 (37) 32  -  • -.  -  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION 50 (42) 76 (62) 43 61 (50) 39 PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) 72 (60) 48 49 (41) PLOT M2 (Echo Mt.) 63 (52) 41 50 (42) 80 (65) 49 69 (53) 38 PLOT M4 (Deadwood) 49 (42) 62 (50) 38 76 (63) 50 PLOT M3 (Valley) 49 (42) 78 (63) 47 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) 62 (49) 36 50 (42) 76 (62) 48 63 (51) 33 Average  35 34 34 35 34 34  46 (39) 32  PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION 59 (49) 39 PLOT P4 (Deadwood) 59 (43) 38 PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.) 62 (51) 40 PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) 66 (52) 39 PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt.) 63 (50) 37 PLOT P3 (Valley)  33 34 34 35 34  43 (40) 32 42 (37) 32  50 (42) 34  45 (38) 32  Average  60 (49) 38  70 72 71 73 73  (59) (60) (60) (61) (60)  47 43 43 49 48  72 (60) 48  50 51 50 51 48  (42) (43) (42) (43) (41)  -  . -..  51 43 43 46  (41) (37) (37) (39)  mm  - --  -  31 32 32 32  -  47 (39) 31 45 (33) 32  12  /  APPENDIX IV.  TABLE 8 - Continued SPRINGSUMMER AUTUMN WINTER Max (Mn) Min Max (Mn) Min Max (Mn) Min Max (Mn) Min  THUJA PLOT PLOT PLOT  - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION Ly3 (WOlf Mt.) 57 (4B) 39 Ly2 (Deadwood) 55 (47) 40 L y l (Echo Mt.) 62 (51) 40  Average  66 ( 58) 50 48 (42 ) 35 45 (33) 31 63 (55) 47 49 (42) 35 43 (38) 33 65 (56) 48 48 (41) 34 . . .  58 (49) 40  65 (56) 43  43 (42) 35  44 (38) 32  Surface temperature measurements were made approximately 5mm.below the surface of the l i t t e r layer. Measurements were made early i n A p r i l , May and June. Measurements were made early i n July, August and September. 4 Measurements were made early i n October, November and December. Measurements were made early i n January, February and March. 1  2 3  5  TABLE 9. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES AT OPEN STATIONS ADJACENT TO PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE 1952-55 { ° F ) 1  CABIN Maximum Minimum ECHO MOUNTAIN Maximum Minimum FOURTH LAKE Maximum Minimum  CABIN Maximum Minimum VALLEY Maximum Minimum ECHO MOUNTAIN Maximum Minimum FOURTH LAKE Maximum Minimum  1952 JAN FEB MAR -  APR MAY -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  22  30 144 111 117 112 105 72 55 46 26 32 35 44 41 34 32 32 28  -  -  -  JUN JUL AUG- SEP 06T NOV DEC  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  95 75 54 56 40 50 20 22  -  108 103 80 62 46 40 32 22  -  -  -  116 104 82 58 43 44 39 32 26 30  1953 . -  .  -  -  . -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  56 45 32 30  -  58 70 68 90 96 112 109 100 73 56 48 27 24 30 32 40 48 45 42 33 31 30  -  56 68 84 112 128 116 106 76 53 46 26 22 25 31 36 40 42 33 31 32 31  13 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 9 - Continued 1954 JAN FEB MAR APE MAT JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC CABIN Maximum Minimum LOWER DEADWOOD Maximum Minimum VALLEY Maximum Minimum ECHO MOUNTAIN Maximum Minimum FOURTH LAKE Maximum Minimum -  50 53 66 98 110 107 106 76 62 58 47 25 19 28 30 34 41 46 26 28 30 22 42 65 74 116 110 118 124 98 80 56 52 28 20 30 28 36 42 44 30 30 29 28 33 62 76 105 88 91 92 73 64 55 47 32 28 28 26 35 42 45 30 30 32 24 52 59 68 95 98 108 106 90 70 72 53 30 23 28 30 37 42 46 32 30 30 24 36 59 74 108 117 132 127 94 72 32 17 26 28 35 39 42 26 26 -  1955 CABIN . Maximum Minimum LOWER DEADWOOD Maximum Minimum VALLEY Maximum Minimum ECHO MOUNTAIN Maximum Minimum FOURTH LAKE Maximum Minimum  48 43 54 76 102 129 102 89 96 62 55 32 22 26 30 29 39 44 38 32 32 8 54 60 72 102 109 124 128 124 122 80 56 30 23 25 28 29 40 43 39 34 32 17 48 48 56 79 92 98 80 82 98 66 55 32 28 28 32 33 43 47 44 34 32 16 54 56 62 77 96 105 118 114 114 74 64 30 24 26 30 30 42 42 42 35 30 8 46 53 52 74 111 118 134 121 130 72 55 36 27 34 24 32 32 44 44 34 36 8  Measurements were made at approximately 5mm. below the s o i l surface in mineral s o i l , within the f i r s t few days of each month.  45 30  APPENDIX IV.  14  TABLE 10. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (°F). 1951 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) Maximum 4 92 110 106 106 71 50 45 Minimum - . - ' 51 51 50 43 34 32 31 PLOT L4 (Lower Deadwood) Maximum 100 124 - 115 84 54 45 Minimum 50 51 5 2 4 6 35 3 2 3 1 PLOT L3 (Lower Deadwood) Maximum. 88 107 88 66 53 47 Minimum 50 51 50 48 34 32 30 PLOT L2 (Valley) Maximum 99 113 116 67 52 42 Minimum . . . . . 50 49 50 43 35 34 32 PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) j Maximum 94 112 92 66 47 40 Minimum 48 148 50 44 33 32 32 1952 PLOT L5 Maximum Minimum PLOT L4 Maximum Minimum PLOT L3 MaTlmnm  PLOT L2 f^aTj Ttmm  PLOT L l  53 30 -  84 94 97 121 122 88 98 58 53 31 35 43 49 50 45 39 30 31  56 32 -  81 103 106 125 120 109 98 60 50 33 36 43 47 49 50 39 30 31  44 30 -  77 100 98 120 124 100 76 56 43 32 33 42 46 48 43 38 30 31  47 31 -  82 102 96 123 112 106 80 51 45 32 38 44 50 51 48 40 32 32  -  58 101 91 123 121 32 34 42 46 48  -  Minimum  93 72 68 33 42 37 29 32  1953 PLOT L5 Maximum IB] n-JTnrmi  PLOT L4 Maximum Minimum PLOT L3 Maximum Minimum PLOT L2  54 70 75 100 103 124 112 84 30 30 30 38 46 50 52 45 68 80 111 107 136 116 125 82 30 30 33 40 42 47 48 44 38 52 53 64 100 104 112 103 95 64 32 32 32 40 42 47 46 43 37 52 59 32 32  PLOT L l n-tranyn  83 110 110 107 68 46 50 52 47 40  42 60 69 109 96 128 106 100 63 30 28 32 36 42 48 49 42 37  15 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 11. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (°F) PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 1951 PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt.) Maximum Minimum PLOT G4 (Lower Deadwood) Maximum Minimum PLOT G6 (Upper Deadwood) Maximum Minimum PLOT G3 (Valley) Maximum Minimum PLOT G5 Maximum Minimum PLOT G4 Maximum Minimum PLOT G6 Maximum Minimum PLOT G3 Maximum Minimum PLOT G5 Maximum Minimum PLOT G4 Maximum Minimum PLOT G6 Maximum Minimum PLOT 05 Maximum Minimum  -  -  -  -  72 86 88 82 56 47 42 52 50 48 36 35 32  -  -  -  -  65 85 91 69 60 47 43 42 50 52 49 38 34 32  -  -  -  -  74 79 77 68 56 45 40 50 5 2 4 8 3 8 3 4 33  -  -  -  -  66 ^  - 42 - 31  -  -  84 80 101 92 70 64 50 47 47 46 49 51 48 40 33 34  -  .  .  .  36 - 32  -  55 78 77 99 80 79 62 48 46 33 36 44 48 51 46 41 32 34  - 34 - 32  -  52 66 68 76 80 62 58 50 58 33 38 44 49 52 43 44 32 32  70 72 68 57 45 39 52 52 48 37 35 34  1952  104 98 108 110 88 36 42 46 49 46 -  -  1953 50 - 32  48 62 82 78 83 102 79 58 - 34 33 40 46 54 52 48 44 - -  -  64 75 100 106 135 118 110 -68 - 30 32 37 44 43 50 42 34 - -  50 30  - 48 - 32  50 70 86 94 108 93 76 58 32 32 40 44 50 50 46 38  - 42 - 32  45 54 68 68 73 68 65 55 - 33 32 42 45 51 53 46 44 - -  -  -  16 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 11 - Continued PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GATJLTHEglA. ASSOCIATION JAN 1951 PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Maximum Minimum PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.) Maximum Minimum PLOT Gl Maximum Minimum PLOT G2 Maximum Minimum PLOT G l Maximum Minimum PLOT G2 Maximum Minimum  FEB MAR  APR MAY  JUM JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC  -  -  -  -  68 72 74 69 58 44 37 47 43 48 46 34 32 33  -  -  -  -  70 106 46 47  -  -  57 70 70 74 78 63 74 52 36 33 34 40 46 50 44 38 29 32  - 101 60 48 35 48 44 33 33 32  1952 -  1  -  -  -  49 70 69 94 118 33 36 42 45 43  95 64 44 38  1953 -  44 46 56 66 80 76 82 67 56 32 32 32 38 40 43 50 42 38  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  APPENDIX IV. TABLE 12. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURMMCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS 1951 TAN FEB MAR APR MAY TUN PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt) Maximum - - - - - 73 Minimum - PLOT M2 (Echo Mt) Maximum - 65 Minimum - - - - - 4 3 PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) Maximum - - - - - 62 Minimum - - - - - PLOT M3 (Valley) Maximum - 70 Minimum - - - - - - 5 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk) Maximum - 62 Minimum - - - - 47 PLOT M5 Maximum Minimum PLOT M2 Maximum Minimum PLOT M4 Maximum Minimum PLOT M3 Maximum Minimum PLOT Ml Maximum Minimum  JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 88 77 72 51 5 0 4 8  64 47 35 37 34 30  77 64 50 5 0 4 6  57 45 37 36 32 33  68 67 65 58 45 43 52 53 50 39 34 30 80 2  68 56 46 40 51 43 36 34 32  76 49  68 57 43 40 5146 36 3432  1952 - 41 54 62 68 73 76 70 63 50 47 - 30 - 33 37 42 49 49 49 42 32 31 - - - 43 64 62 81 73 64 62 - - - 33 36 42 46 50 46 40 -  -  -  65 66 80 79 63 36 43 47 50 48  I - - 52 70 70 86 87 65 61 50 44 - - 32 36 42 52 50 4 8 4 2 30 32 - -  -  37 72 61 83 100 63 76 50 33 - 32 34 41 46 49 44 40 30 32  1953 PLOT M5 Maximum Minimum PLOT M2 frfayjimim  Minimum PLOT M4 Maximum Minimum PLOT M3 Maximum Minimum PLOT Ml Maximum Minimum  50 52 52 62 68 76 7 5 - 32 32 33 42 46 52 42  80 46  —  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  .  -  .  -  .  -  -  58 42 -  -  -  -  - 62 62 68 83 - 110 90 98 58 30 32 32 38 - 48 50 46 38 -  43 45 50 64 66 80 70 68 55 32 32 33 40 40 50 52 45 41  -  42 48 54 64 66 82 75 76 56 32 32 32 37 38 48 48 43 37  -  APPENDIX IV. TABLE 13. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (°F) JAN EBB MR PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood)  -  Minimum PLOT PI (Fourth Lk) Maximum Minimum PLOT P2 (Echo Mt .) Maximum Minimum PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt Maximum Minimum PLOT P3 (Valley) Maximum Minimum PLOT P4 Maximum Minimum PLOT PI MftT-lTTiyiTTl  Minimum PLOT P2 Maximum Minimum PLOT P5 Maximum Minimum  PLOT P3 Maximum Minimum PLOT P4 Maximum Minimum PLOT PI Maximum Minimum PLOT PB Maximum Minimum PLOT P5 Maximum  Minimum PLOT P3 Maximum Minimum  —  APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC  —  -  60 49  67 49  60 70 48 49 mm  mm  mm  -  «.  64 76 48 50  68 66 50 46  57 44 42 34 33 28  50  67 48  57 43 43 36 34 32  -  66  56 45 39 36 34 32 58 46 34 34  mm  50  146 \  -  65  74 70 51 49  66 43  68  78 49  31 37 57 45 45 35 34 28  m  43  1952  -  42 28  —  - - - - a*- -mm  —  mm  mm  mm  mm m  mm  -  55 61 60 72 73 32 37 42 46 43  68 62 44 33  40 62 60 78 32 35 42 46  64 79 50 42 40 32 30 45  76 49  50 46 32 32  -  72 77 68 54 70 68 32 36 43 48 50 44  62 40  mm 56 66 73 86 76 50 46 32 34 44 48  50 47 63 32 32 42  75 60 65 64 69 28 35 38 46 48  60 50 42 31 32 40  66 46  mm  -  1953  -  68 47 74 52 62 67 76 50 50 44 32 33 33 40 44  53 40  -  70 65 42 45 49 66 68 88 50 50 46 32 32 33 38 40  56 40  mm  -  -  mm  50 48 54 74 76 30 33 32 40 46  -  50  57 65 72 70 44 49 32 32 32 38 41 58  70 70 50 45  58 42  68 47  55 40  68 46  -  -  -  -  mm  -  - - a*  APPENDIX 17. TABLE 14. MONTHLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN THE THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (°F) JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT N07 DEC 1951 PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) Maximum - - - 62 68 Minimum - - - 49 52 PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) Maximum - - 66 65 Minimum - - - 48 50 PLOT L y l (Echo Mt.) Maximum .- - » 60 75 Minimum - - - 43 49  PLOT Ly3 Maximum Minimum PLOT Ly2 Maximum Minimum PLOT L y l Maximum Minimum  PLOT Ly3 Maximum Minimum PLOT Ly2 Maximum Minimum PLOY L y l Minimum  63 61 55 44 50 68 37 33 63 61 - 40 51 42 - 32 - 64 59 44 50 4 6 3 4 3 2  33 32  1952 - - 53 55 61 70 68 60 56 49 46 - 3 2 3 3 4 2 43 52 4 8 4 4 3 3 3 2 - 40 - 32 -  50 55 56 63 65 63 58 50 32 36 4 3 4 6 4 8 4 4 3 8 3 2  - 56 64 57 66 68 60 53 - 32 36 42 47 50 46 40  -  46 33 -  1953 50 46 53 60 62 73 70 63 - - 32 28 34 40 45 51 54 46 - - 43 44 50 52 61 65 60 60 54 - 32 34 36 40 43 48 50 47 42 - -  Surface temperature measurements were made approximately 5 mm. below the surface of the muck i n a swampy part of the plot.  TABLB 15.  AVERAGE QUARTERLY SOIL TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IE PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE, 1951-1953 (°F)  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOT SPRING 5 cm, 15 cm. 50 cm. g SUMMER 5 cm. 15 em. 50 cm. 3 AUTUMN 5 em. 15 cm. 50 cm. 4 WINTER 5 am. 15 cm. 50 cm.  PSEUDOTSUGA GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION  L5  L4  L3  L2  Ll  AV.  G5 04  47 44 45  48 45 45  47 46 45  43 46 45  42 42 42  47 45 45  45 45 44  47 47 46  46 45 44  58 57 56  59 58 56  57 57 55  62 61 56  57 56 53  59 53 55  57 56 53  57 59 56  46 45 50  45 47 49  45 47 47  46 47 48  43 44 47  45 46 48  45 47 47  36 36 39  36 36 39  36 36 37  35 36 33  35 36 38  36 36 33  47 45 47  47 47 47  46 46 46  48 47 47  44 44 45  46 46 47  G6 G3  PSEUDOTSUGA TSUGA GAULTHERIA  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA HYLOCOMIUM ASSOCIATION  AV. Gl  G2  AV  M5 M2 M4 M3 Ml  AV,  44 43 44  45 45 44  40 41 41  43 41 42  41 41 42  46 44 44  42 42 41  47 43 45  43 43 42  42 41 41  44 44 43  58 56 54  57 55 54  57 56 54  55 54 52  54 53 52  54 54 52  56 55 54  54 54 51  58 56 55  55 54 52  55 53 51  56 55 53  44 46 47  44 47 49  45 45 49  45 46 48  46 44 47  44 45 46  45 45 46  45 46 48  42 44 47  44 47 46  45 46 47  44 44 44  44 45 46  36 38 40  34 37 39  38 38 41  35 36 40  36 37 40  35 36 33  34 35 33  35 36 33  37 37 40  35 36 33  36 38 39  36 36 37  36 35 37  36 36 38  46 46 46  46 47 47  46 47 47  45 45 47  46 46 47  44 44 45  44 44 44  44 44 44  46 46 47  44 44 44  46 46 46  45 45 46  44 44 43  45 45 45  1  ANNUAL 5 cm. 15 cm. 50 cm.  1 Temperatures Temperatures Temperatures Temperatures  2  3  measured measured measured measured  in in in in  early early early early  A p r i l , May and June. July, August and September. October, November and December. January, February and March. A3 O  TABLE 15 - Continued PSEUDOTSUGA POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION  THUJA LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION  1 PLOT  P4 PI P2 P5 P3  AV  SPRING 5 cm. 15 cm. 50 cm.  45 41 43 45 45 42 41 43 44 44 42 41 41 44 42  44 43 42  Swamp: 10 cm. Bank: 5 cm. 25 cm.  45 46 45  41 42 43  45 44 43  SUMMER 5 cm. 15 cm. 50 em.  56 55 52 56 58 55 54 52 54 56 52 51 50 52 53  56 54 52  Swamp: 10 cm. 5 cm. Bank: 25 cm.  54 57 54  52 55 49  53 55 53  AUTUMN 5 cm. 15 cm. 50 om.  44 44 46 44 47 46 44 47 45 48 49 48 49 47 48  45 46 43  Swamp: 10 cm. Bank: 5 cm. 25 cm.  42 45 43  45 41 44  42 43 45  43 43 45  WINTER 5 cm. 15 cm. 50 cm.  35 35 36 36 35 36 37 38 36 36 39 38 40 40 37  35 37 39  Swamp: 10 cm. Bank: 5 cm. 25 cm.  36 37 39  36 35 33  35 36 37  36 36 33  45 44 44 45 46 45 44 45 45 46 45 45 45 46 45  45 45 45  10 om. 5 cm. 25 cm.  44 46 47  44 43 43  44 45 45  44 45 45  ANNUAL 5 cm. 15 cm. 50 cm.  Ly3 Ly2 L y l  AV. 44 44 44  i  i  Bank:  t  1  53 56 52  22 APPENDIX IV.  TABLE 16. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN THE, . PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (**)  1951  1952  1953  DEPTH D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N (cm.) . PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) •ii 10 20 40 60 80 100 PLOT L4 1 10 20 40 60 80 100 PLOT L3 1 10 20 40 60 80 100  34 36 37 39  "" '" " S la X - - - 44 52 59 60 52  -  43 37 42 50 55 58 61 59 53 43 36 36 38 35 33 46 50 54 58 57 51 46 57 60 53 58 52 40 40 38 38 40 46 52 55 58 58 54 52 57 58 53 55 57 - 58 53 42 41 39 40 41 45 51 53 58 56 57 53 53 - - 56 53 43 40 39 40 42 45 51 52 56 56 57 53 5 2 - CA  -  -  -  44 44 43 -  51 50 49 -  5 7 4  on  2 0  40 60 80 100  3 9  3 7  (Lower Deadwood) 3 1  34 37 38 38  _ 4 4 - - - 43 - 59 - - 43 - 58 - - 43 - 60 - - 44 - 54 - - - - - - - - - - -  -  -  -  (Lower 33 34 - - - 35 -  -  Deadwood) - - - 44 - - - 44 - - - 44 - - - 44 - - - 43 - - - -  -  -  51 52 52 52 50 49 -  -  58 56 55 53 52 50 -  60 57 60 56 61 56 60 57 57 56 57 55 - -  57 56 56 56  43 45 48 49  37 37 40 42  57 54 58 43 58 53 57 45 59 53 56 48 58 53 56 54 56 49 55 5 4 - 5  4  -  -  S ~ " " " !t St " ~ " " S S S S  38 38 40 41  42 39 38 38  35 36 37 40  40 40 40 41  52 49 48 46  57 52 52 51  59 58 55 53  59 60 57 55  58 57 58 56  53 50 55 51 56 50 55 51  30 38 42 35 40 52 57 59 .59 58 53 50 37 37 39 36 40 49 52 58 60 57 55 51 38 38 38 37 40 48 52 55 57 58 56 50 40 41 38 40 41 46 51 53 55 56 55 51 - - - - - - - - - - - -  -  -  PLOT L2 (Valley) in"  5  4 6  5 ?  -  -  -  5f ^  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  61 44 36 36 40 35 43 49 54 52 65 68  64 05 36 36 43 36 43 43 52 56 62 68 54 50  3 5  57 -  -  -  - - 47 54 57 62R J07 4 0 4 7 5 2 54 59 62 51 52 - - ~ j? i ^ 56 53 43 40 40 40 41 44 50 52 57 58 57 52 - - - 51 53 - 56 - - - 50 - - - - - 4 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5  2  ?  4  Q  3  Q  3  g  4  Q  3  g  4  PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) 1 33+ - - - - 42 52 59 58 55  4 4  38 38  3 3  3 4  3 4  4 4  4 5  5 4  5 7  0 47 44  i? It " " " "* ? 2 I 55 45 34 40 38 34 36 43 46 53 58 58 49 47 20 36 - - - - 40 48 52 58 57 4 53  40 60 80  5 6  5  37 - 39 50 57 55 39 - - - - 38 - 55 53 - - - - - - - - 5 4 53 - - 5  -  5 4 9  3  8  4  0  3 8  3  5  3 8  4  4  4 9  5  2  5 8  5 7  5  2  4  6  9  .1  4  7  5  5 4 9  4  1  4  4  3 7  3 7  3 7  - -  4  1  4  3  5  - -  0  5  5 55 52 49 - - - -  - -  -  23  APPENDIX IV".  TABLE 17. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN THE. PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA TSUGA.•*GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (°F)  1951 DEPTH D J F 1i (em) PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt) 1 33 - - 10 36 - - 20 37 - - 40 59 - - 60 80 40 - - 100  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION 1952 . 1953 A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O ±  -  46 45 45 44  52 59 51 57 51 56 49 54  53 57 56 56 54 - 44 47 52 53  52 53 56 43 39 53 55 49 40 53 53 49 42 mm 52 50 43  40 42 41 43  40 42 41 41  39 40 41 41  40 42 41 41  46 42 44 44  51 49 49 43  53 50 50 50  57 55 53 52  PLOT 04 (Lower Deadwood) 1 34 _ _ - - 46 56 60 63 56 - - - - - - - - - -  i? 20 38  40 $0 30 100  58 55 55 54  51 49 53 49 53 49 53 51  - - -  -  " " " * ? - 34 38 41 35 42 50 56 59 63 60 55 47 - - - - 44 54 55 59 55 . gg g ^ gg g 53 49 40 - - - - 43 51 53 57 53 - - - - - 43 50 52 55 53 57 - 43 40 40 40 43 45 51 53 58 60 59 50 41 - - - - - 49 52 55 52 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4  5  5 5  5 7  6  5  5  5  5  5 7  3 ?  3  9  7  4  9  ? 6 2  6  0  PLOT G6 (Upper Deadwood) 1 35 - - - - 43 - 56 60 57 57 42 30 38 42 35 39 51 54 60 57 60 51 47 10 40 - - - - 42 - 52 58 55 57 45 36 37 39 36 39 47 51 55 53 60 55 49 20 - - - - - 42 - 52 57 55 56 48 39 39 39 39 40 47 51 54 57 59 56 50 40 42 — — — — 42 — 50 55 53 60 - - - - - 42 . 49 - 53 55 49 43 40 40 40 42 44 49 51 55 56 55 51 80 4 4 - - - - - - 49 - 5 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  11 0  PLOT 03 (Valley) 32 - 35 - 20 37 - 40 39 - 6 0  80  - - 43 51 55 64 57 - - 42 50 52 61 56 54 56 60 53 47 - - 43 50 51 60 55 53.46 37 35 38 37 37 43 47 52 54 57 - - 42 43 51 59 55 55 49 41 37 39 39 39 44 49 53 55 56 - - - _ - - - - 59 55 54 50 43 40 40 40 40 44 48 50 54 55 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 4  4 7  3 8  3 7  3 9  3 7  3 9 4  4  4  7  50 47 55 49 55 50 - -  100 ------------------------  24 APPENDIX 17. TABLE 17 - Continued PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION DEPTH (cm)  1951 D  1952 J F M A M J J A  1955 . S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N ;  PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk) 1 34 - - - - 35 47 52 56 55 10 34 - - - - 36 47 51 59 55 20 36 - - - - 37 47 50 57 54 ? 52 54 55 48 48 40 3? . - . . 33 45 49 56 53 53 48 39 40 38 38 38 42 47 51 54 56 50 49 60 - - - - - - . - 53 52 54 49 42 42 38 38 38 42 46 49 53 54 51 49 80 38 - - - - - - - 5 3 . 52 51 43 44 38 38 38 42 46 43 51 53 52 49 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - PLOT 02 (Echo Mt.) ,i 10 20 40 60 80 100  ?57 33  " -  5  5 4  3  3  5  3 8  3 7  3  5  3 6  4  3  4  5  4  5  3 6  3 9  3 8  3  5  3  4  3  4  4  6  5  5  3  5  5  5 7  4 9  4  9  tl  " " " tJ ™ 53 42 34 34 35 33 34 42 49 51 55 57 45 44 - - - 42 49 50 57 50 - - - 42 47 43 55 51 54 44 36 33 31 34 36 44 42 51 54 55 49 47 - - . 40 46 47 53 50 55 43 39 37 36 35 38 45 48 50 55 55 50 43  - - - - - 40 43 47 - 5052 49 4 2 4 0 3 8 3 8 3 8 4 2 47 49 52 53 5248 4 0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  25  APPENDIX IV. TABLE 18. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 ("F) 1952 1951 DEPTH D J F M A M J J A S (cm.) PLOT M5 1 10 20 40 60 80 100 120  (Wolf Mt.) 32 - - - - 4 8 5 2 60 34 - - - - 45 50 56 36 - - - - 44 49 53 37 - - - - 44 47 53 - - - - - 43 46 50 40 - - - - 42 46 49 - - - - - 4 2 - 46 - - - - - - - -  PLOT M2 1 10 20 40 60 80 100  (EohoMt.) 32 32 - 35 32 - - 35 - 38 36 - - - - 41 - - - - - -  PLOT M4 1 10 20 40 60 80 100  (Lower Deadwood) - - - - 43 54 55 62 56 35 - - - - 43 51 54 59 55 36 - - - - 42 50 53 59 55 38 - - - - 43 50 52 57 55 - - - - - 42 48 51 55 54 40 - - - - 42 - 50 55 53 - - - - - - 50 - 53  PLOT M3 1 10 20 40 60 80 100  (Valley) 32 - - 35 - - 35 - - 36 - - - - - 40 - - - - - - -  PLOT Ml 1 10 20 40 60 80 100  (Fourth Lk.) 32 - - 34 - - 34 - - 36 - - -  -  1953 0  N D  58 52 58 53 57 53 55 53 53 53 51 52 50 52 - -  - - - -  M  46 45 44 45 52 49 45 42 42 42 42 44  55 46 56 47 56 50 54. 50  J  J  A  54 44 54 44 53 46 53 48  - —  44 54 44 50 44 49 43 49 42 48 42 48 4 8  63 60 53 54 61 53 53 59 53 53 56 53 51 53 53 50 52 - 5 2  -  42 38 38 37 38  58 50 50 48 47  5  5  57 54 54 53 52  40 39 41 42  49 47 43 48  54 54 52 50  57 56 56 54  58 57 57 54  N  53 46 54 47 56 50 56 50  47 47 52 54 56 51  36 36 40 43  34 34 35 38  39 39 38 33  34 34 44 44 52 34 35 44 44 52 37 43 46 50 37 38 41 45 48  54 54 53 52  52 56 53 53  45 44 47 45 50.48 52 48  51 49 45 41 39 39 39 41 43 47 51 51 52 47  mm  -  37 37 43 34 38 38 40 36 38 38 40 38 42 42 42 42  S 0  48 46 44 50 40 40 40 40 44 44 48 50 54 43  32  63 55 55 52 51  M A  1  42 51 53 65 54 42 51 53 57 53 41 50 49 55 53 39. 47 47 54 53 39 45 46 51 52 39 44 46 50 50 39 - 45 48 49  53 50 43 47 44  F  —  38 37 44 34 39 52 57 60 60 59 51 44 37 40 36 40 48 51 56 59 58 51 49 38 38 40 33 41 46 51 54 58 57 51 49  mm 37  41 40 40 40 41 46 49 53 58 57 54 49  54 48 37 37 40 37 38 44 47 52 54 58 51 48 54 48 38 37 39 39 39 43 48 51 54 58 51 43 49 38 33 39 38 38 44 42 51 54 56 51 49 49 42 39 39 39 59 42 47 49 53 56 53 49 51 50 43 40 40 40 40 43 47 48 52 56 52 50 - - - - - - - - - - - - - ' - 4  5  53 44 35 35 39 36 36 43 46 49 54 56 48 48 54 45 37 34 37 37 37 43 46 50 54 56 50 50 52 47 39 36 37 37 37 42 46 50 .53 54 51 50 52 48 41 37 37 37 38 41 45 46 52 52 52 43 50 48 43 43 38 38 38 40 43 46 50 51 51 50  26 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 19. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 (OF) 1951 DEPTH. D (cm)  J F M A  M  1952 J J A  S  " 0 N D J  - -  - -  58 55 59 53 53 57 57 - 50 56 - 47 54 56 - 45 51 50 53 56 mm 50 —  —  mm ' mm 58 mm mm 58  -  - - - - - - - - -  PLOT PI 1 10 20 40 60 80 100  (Fourth Lk) 32 - 34 - - — 36 - - mm 38 - -  PLOT P2 1 10 20 40 60 80 100  (Echo Mt) 32 - 36 - -  PLOT P5 1 10 20 40 60 80 PLOT P3 1 10 20 40 60 80 100 125  - - -  - -  (Wolf Mt) 31 - 34 - 35 - 38 - - - - - -  -  mm42  -  mm38 mm 38 mm 38 mm 33  —  _  M  J A  -  m  -  J  S 0  N  39 32 39 43 33 43 51 51 56 55 57 54 47 45 33 40 41 36 38 46 48 53 56 57 54 43 45 38 41 39 33 39 45 49 51 55 56 55 49 46 45 45 40 39 40 45 46 48 53 54 55 43 49 43 43 42 39 40 43 45 47 53 54 55 49 43 44 44 43 40 40 41 43, 44 48 55 50 46  59 57 57 55 54 52 52  57 55 54 53 52 52 51  54 54 53 52 52  42 44 46 49 49  33 35 37 42 44  39 39 40 39 39  39 39 33 39 39  34 36 33 38 39  35 .42 44 36 44 47 38 43 47 39 39 45 39 40 45  52 53 52, 54 50 53 47 51 47 51  49 43 57 47 49 55 45 48 54 44 47 52 44- 46 50  51 53 53 52 52  53 57 52 52  46 46 51 49 50 43 50 50  33 40 40 40  40 41 40 40  37 38 39 33  33 39 40 40  43 44 42 41  46 46 45 44  50 49 46 46  53 54 54 53 52 52 52 52  50 51 59 60 53 44 50 54 57 53 43 47 51 55 53 42 43 50 55 53 42 - 49. - 52 - - - - 5 2  54 55 54 53 50  46 47 48 49 49  37 36 40 43 45  40 39 41 41 43  41 40 41 41 42  37 36 40 41 42  40 40 41 43 42  45 45 44 44 43  50 43 49 47 47  54 52 51 47 47  59 56 55 53 52  57 57 56 53 52  50 46 50 43 51 49 53 49 52 49  33 34 37 41  33 36 37 37  38 33 37 37  36 36 37 37  37 33 37 33  46 44 43 43  48 54 48 53 48 52 46' 50  59 57 56 55  65 60 59 58  56 46 59 48 60 43 61 48  46 43 mm mm42 m. mm 40 — mm40 —  51 57 47 52 47 50 45 49 44 48 44 48 43 -  (Valley) - - - - 45 55 58 64 52 34 - - - - 44 54 55 61 53 34 - - - - 44 53 52 59 53 36 - - - - 41 49 50 56 53 - - - - - 41 47 49 54 55 33 - - - - 41 46 48 53 51 - - - - - - 46 43 51 51 - - - - - - - - - -  32  M A  J  PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood) 1 40 33 32 10 38 32 - — mm40 mm 41 20 40 34 40 42 36 41 42 38 - mm mm42 60 43— - mm — 41 80 100 120  41  F  1953  58 55 55 54  40 44 44 48  i  57 56 54 52 52  47 47 49 49 50 48 52 49 52 49  mm  mm  mm  - -  mm  mm  mm  52 49 47 42 33 33 39 41 45 47 53 56 58 49 50 48 43 41 39 33 38 40 43 46 51 53 56 48  27 APPENDIX 17. TABLE 20. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL TEMPERATURE AT VARIOUS DEPTHS IN THE THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-53 (°F)  DEPTH (cm.)  1951 D J  1952 J A S  F M A M J  0 N  1953 J F M A M J J A S O N  D  PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) A(SWAMP) 10 3 4 - - - - 45 49 5258 52 - - - - - - - - - - - - - B (BANE) 1 32 - - - - 44 51 61 60 53 10 34 - - - - 48 50 56 87753 54 38 38 41 36 41 46 50 55 59 59 50 47 4  2  Z•: : : : t % % It S  60  - - - -  -  - - -  PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) A (SWAMP) 10 41 - - - - 40 A (SWAMP - margin) 1 35 - - - - 41 10 38 - - - - 40 20 40 - - - - 40 40 41 - - - - 40  50 47 46 45  53 52 50 49  4 2 - - -  -  -  60  B (BANC) 1 3 4 _ 10 3 8 20 40 40 44 60  _ _ _ - - - -  -  56 52 4 3 4 3 4 1 4 1 4 3 4 6 50 52 56 58 50 50  - -  - -  - 52 52 52 - - -  4 0 - 59 - - 53 - 41 - 50 - 42 - 45  PLOT L y l (Echo Mt.) A (SWAMP) 10 - - - - -  - -  8  - -  - -  - -  - -  - -  - -  - -  - -  57 53 - - - 57 52 60 46 39 40 56 - 63 49 40 40 5852 -  - - - - - 42 36 39 45 43 54 41 40 41 44 49 50 - - - - - -  -  -  -  57 56 52 47  53 52 51 48  -  -  445250 57 52 -  -  -  -  - -  -  -  -  - -  -  -  - -  -  -  - -  - -  - -  - - - 56 58 61 48 54 56 62 47 - - - -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - -  -  -  -  B (BANE)  Is : : : : % % S £ » % i l l 1 1 £;l«£5«*«^  5 2 4 5 39 38 37 36 3 9 4 5 47 52 54 59  11 60  - - - -  -  - - -  - -  - -  - -  w M t t  - -  -"«»""  - -  -  - -  - -  28 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 21. EVAPORATION FROM LIVINGSTON ATMOMETERS IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1952 (ce.)  Height above ground  1951 JUN JUN 25- JUL 918-25 JUL 9 AUG 8  PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt) 100 cm. 301 10 cm. 100 PLOT L (Deadwood) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT L (Deadwood) 100 cm. 275 10 cm. 188 PLOT Ig (Valley) 100 cm. 286 10 cm. 209 PLOT L (Fourth Lk) 100 cm. 297 10 cm. 225  1023 675  384  ... ...  85 54  ... ... ... ...  224 123  259 154  166 100  162 mm  _  1651  119 85  88 85  211 146  1239 855  92 63  88 49  145 90  1544 1108  ••• • *•  167  198 132  1524  • • • •••  243 201  198 147  239  ... ...  ... .. • ... ... ... ... ... ...  JUN 16-30  JUL 1-16  JUL 16-31  274 132  160 143  655 441  396 282  571 414  274 178  331 220  342 232  333 249  248  808 557  471 339  689 495  268 195  356 245  294  267 164  183 78  531 368  336 243  459 321  191 169  221 137  214 133  266 160  259 179  614 425  363 252  -  208  -  259 176  270 183  175 83  182 144  555 478  327 281  555 475  129 98  198 140  171 182  -  438 349  ... •. . ... ... ... ...  JUN 1-16  s  332 275 448 310  x  PLOT L (Wolf Mt) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT L. (Deadwood) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT I*. (Deadwood) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT Lg (Bailey) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT L x (Fourth Lk) 100 cm. 10 cm.  AUG AUG 29- SEP SEP 20-29 SEP L< 4-10 10-U  /  502 289  4  1952  AUG AUG 8-13 13-20  • •» ...  -  —  AUG AUG 1-16 16-31  -  SEP SEP 1-16 16-30  5  Atmometer broken, reading lost. ... Reading not taken u n t i l next record date.  mm  -  29 APPENDIX IT. TABLE 22. EVAPORATION FROM LIVINGSTON ATMOMETERS IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS 1951-1952 Tic.) PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION 1951 JUN JUN 25- JUL 9- AUG 18-25 JUL 9 AUG 8 8-13  Height above ground PLOT Gg (Wolf Mt) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT G. (Deadwood) 100 em. 10 cm. PLOT Gg (Deadwood) 100 cm.. 10 em. PLOT G„ (Valley) 100 cm. 10 cm.  \  208 108  328 174  733 -  58 31  232 131  328 232  695 367  50 46  147 89  193 108  100 62  93 50  127 93  258 110  351 180  * *• •  ••• • ••  976 548  74 51  62 39  101 63  300 139  462 212  • •• •••  ••• • ••  1571  246  177 77  e •  •  ••• ••• e •  JUS JUN 1-16 16-30  •  • e  JUL JUL 1-16 :L6-31  185 -  -  108 41  15873  -  -  • • e  •••  AUG 1-16  AUG 16-31  SEP 1-16  SEP 16-30  475 262  280 150  429 247  175 85  222 104  213 154  760 455  380 270  566 409  232 162  302 201  -  196 87  119 61  478 237  289 137  393 210  109 38  169 68  208 133  219 82  211 97  669 343  363  574 351  176 70  2 14 117  214 105  198 97  152 73  333 216  J  4  6  3  AUG AUG 29- SEP SEP 20-29 SEP 4 4-10 10-17  154 77  1952 PLOT Gg (Wolf Mt) 100 em. 10 em. PLOT G (Deadwood) 100 em.. 10 cm. PLOT G (Deadwood) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT G (Valley) 100 cm. 10 em.  AUG 13-20  -  241  mm  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION 1951 JUN JUN 25- JUL 9- AUG AUG AUG AUG 29- SEP SEP 18-25 JUL 9 AUG 8 8-13 13-20 20-29 SEP 4 4-10 10-17 PLOT G» (Fourth Lk) 100 em. 201 301 1034 ... 177 135 10 cm. 86 140 507 ... -94 62 PLOT G (Echo Mt.) 100 cm. 207 306 1049 ... 207 161 10 cm. 122 168 ... 115 84 (  1  2  30 APPENDIX IY. TABLE 22 - Continued  PLOT &i (Fourth Lk.) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT Og (Echo Mt) 100 cm. 10 em.  1952 JDN , JUN 1-16 16-30  JUL 1-16  JUL 16-31  AUG 1-16  AUG 16-31  SEP 1-16  SEP 16-30  118 7  145 34  374 197  194 100  382 65  53 15  99 23  164 58  139 68  139 72  430 278  232 152  441 297  116 53  170 76  232 125  - Atmometer broken, reading lost. ... Reading not taken until next record date. .. TABLE 23. EVAPORATION FROM LIVINGSTON ATMOMETERS IN TEE PSEUDOTSUGA TSUGA - jgLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION.PLOTS, 1951-52 (ce.) Height above $U$ JUN 25-> JUL 9-' AUG AUG ground 18-25 JUL 9 AUG 8 8-13 13-20 PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt) 100 cm. 208 309 58 694 131 10 cm. 108 212 77 432. 39 PLOT M2 (Echo Mt) 100 cm. 213 324 •• » ••• ••• 10 cm. 155 252 •• • e • e •• • PLOT M4 (Deadwood) 100 cm. 207 120 289 33 10 cm. 147 89 463 31 PLOT M3 (Valley) 100 cm. 239 366 ••• ••• 10 cm. 176 268 e • • •• • PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk) 100 cm. 208 327 •• • •• • 10 cm. 154 235 ••• • • e 1  -  -  ...  ... ... ...  1952 PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT M2 (Echo Mt) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT M4 (Deadwood) 100 em. 10 cm. PLOT M3 (Valley) .100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk) 100 cm. 10 cm.  AUG AUG 29- SEP SEP 20-29 SEP 4 4-10 10-17 170 96 1032  104 62  103 62  147 92  •••  •••  , 209 . 155  164 109  174 123  93 62  85 54  139 77  -  •••  204 141  170 115  173 135  123 85  849 1116 808  e v e  ••• e e  •  •«•  i  JUN JUN 1-16 16-30  JUL 1-16  JUL 16-31  AUG 1-16  AUG 16-31  184 103  161 104  446 301  277 185  392 278  184 123  219 150  223 162  145 84  145 96  460 334  245 169  453 346  122 73  188 119  268 192  316' 235  193 147  633 509  328 266  546 436  223 177  293 232  -  197 135  201 154  503 397  279 216  488 397  155 104  205 142  185  123 69  119 38  427 296  254 215  431 323  34 23  107 61  154 150  - Atmometer broken, reading lost. ... Reading not taken u n t i l next record date.  SEP SEP 1-16 16-30  -  APPENDIX IV. TABLE 24. EVAPORATION FROM LIVINGSTON ATMOMETERS IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-52 (cc)  Height above ground PLOT P4 (Deadwood) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT PI (Fourth Lk) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT P2 (Echo Mt) 100 cm. 10 em. PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt) 100 cm. 10 em. PLOT P3 (Valley) 100 cm. 10 cm.  1951 JUN JUN 25 JUL 9- AUG AUG 18-25 JUL 9 AUG 8 8-13 13-20 268 214  223 107  334 165  193 100  347 154  177 85  270  -  355  192 99  269  • • e  1952  PLOT P4 (Beadwodd) 100 cm., 10 cm. PLOT PI (Fourth Lk) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT P2 (Echo Mt) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt) 100 cm. 10 em. PLOT P3 (Valley) 100 cm. 10 cm.  ... ... ... ... ... ...  206 145  -  ... ... ... ... ... ...  ... ... ... ... ... ...  42 39 ••• •• •  AUG AUG 29- SEP SEP 20-29 SEP 4 4-10 10-11 895 728 1153 613  69 65 ••• •* •  73 57  126 96  208 111  131 61  942 525  •• • •• •  170 77  135 69  116 77  100 93  77 54  81 46  -  ••• •* •  992 766  •••  -  •• •  — •  JUL JUL 1-16 16-31  AUG 1-16  100 61  —  •• •  JUN 1*16  JUN 16-30  167 95  114 57  403 268  251 160  372 241  129 91  182 114  253 160  114 45  114 53  457 271  251 153  427 271  68 19  106 45  144 72  107 42  107 42  353 183  200 95  362 210  77 19  115 33  165 72  153 86  127 65  403 246  232 134  356 227  155 88  186 111  182 107  134 76  169 80  431 236  234 121  451 251  103 41  130 64  115 60  - Atmometer broken, reading l o s t . ... Reading not taken u n t i l next record date.  AUG ' SEP SEP 16-31 1-16 16-30  APPENDIX IV; TABLE 25. EVAPORATION FROM LIVINGSTON ATMOMETERS IN THE THUJA LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1952 (cc) 1951 JUN JUN 25- JUL 9- AUG 18-25 JUL 9 AUG 8 8-13  Height above ground  PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT Ly2 (Deadwood) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT L y l (Echo Mt.) 100. cm. 10 cm.  AUG AUG AUG 29- SEP 13-20 20-29 SEP 4 4-10  SEP 10-17  -  154 46  232  208 55  289 94  162 78  255 101  -  521  -  ... ... ... ...  39 11  100 31  89 35  69 19  66 19  100 31  •••  • e •  •••  • m •  273  69 23  62 16  96 27  •• • •• *  • •* •••  888 310  •••  158 43  127 39  SEP l 16  SEP 16-30  -  • • e  1952 JUN 1-16 PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT Ly2 (Deadwood) 100 cm. 10 cm. PLOT L y l (Echo Mt.) 100 cm. 10 em.  JUN JUL 16-30 1-16  JUL 16-31  AUG AUG 1-16 16-31  r  130 35  92 22  334 103  200 57  300 84  115 33  150 45  146 53  164 58  118 37  401 155  271 96  351 142  114 33  164 67  229 117  103 45  111 33  357 145  196 68  353 143  88 42  126 45  173 61  - Atmometer broken, reading lost. ,.. Reading not taken until next record date. TABLE 26. PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN EVAPORATION FROM BIACK BULB ATMOMETERS COMPARED WITH ADJACENT WHITE BULB ATMOMETERS AT OPEN STATIONS AND IN PLOTS SAMPLED FOR SOIL MOISTURE, 1951-52 SEPTEMBER JUNE AUGUST JULY 1-16 16-30 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-31 1-16 16-30 OPEN STATIONS (1952) - . 67 40 28 33 64 54 Cabin 74 63 53 54 30 24 31 Echo Mt. 30 37 28 69 15 28 55 Fourth Lk.  -  -  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) — 13 1951 4 3 26 1952 6 0 3 PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) 30 46 1952 5 20 17  AVERAGE 51 42 37  OPEN -  -  mm  7 2  15 6  9 6  12  31  22  24  65  33 APPENDIX IV. TABLE 26 - Continued. PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION  PLOT G5 (WolfMtTl  17  10 19  17 5  22  13  8  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk) 1952 12 8 8 25 27 PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.) 1952 14 7 14 12 19  30  19  IS  49  18  6  12  29  1951 1952  37  22  1951  -  -  PLOT G4 (Lower Deadwood)  12  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) 1951 1952 8 4 2 PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) 1951 - .' PLOT M2 (Echo Mt.,) 1952 2 1 3 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) 1952 0,0 1  28 4,  9 18  35  12  ASSOCIATION 0 6  5 4  18 3  6 3  5 0  7 4  8  10  4  5  15  8  -  1 .  5  0  2  5  mm  6  2  0  0  30  0  4  4  11  1  21  35  7  8  22  8  21  29  11  17  40  0 3  20 1  20  2 2  10 3  7  9 9  30 1  21 0  26 0  21 4  8  19  1  0  2  2  6  16  PSEUDOTSUGA - POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.) 1952 11 2 0 6 PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) 1952 26 17 20 8 PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt.) 1951 1952 6 1 4 1 THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.)~ 1951 1952 8 4 4 PLOT L y l (Echo Mt.) 1952 2 21 0  1 6  mm  . 6  APPENDIX V.  SOIL MOISTURE RECORDS TABLE OF CONTENTS A.  MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL MOISTURE Table 1.  Table 2.  Table 3.  Table 4. Table 5.  Page  Monthly values of s o i l moisture i n the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots, 1951 to 1953  1  Monthly values of s o i l moisture i n the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots, 1951 to 1953  3  Monthly values of s o i l moisture i n the Pseudotsuga Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association plots, 1951 to 1953  7  Monthly values of s o i l moisture i n the Pseudotsuga Polystichum association plots, 1951 to 1953 . . .  9  Monthly values of s o i l moisture i n the Thuja .Lysichitum association plots, 1951 to 1953 ...  12  B. WILTING PERCENTAGES Table 6. Table 7.  Table 8. Table 9. Table 10.  Wilting percentage of soils from the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria - Peltigera association plots ....  14  Wilting percentage of soils from the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots  15  Wilting percentage of soils from the PseudotsugaTsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association plots,  17  Wilting percentage of soils from the Pseudotsuga Polystichum association plots  18  Wilting percentage of soils from the Thuja Lysichitum association plots  20  ii  APPENDIX V. TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued C. FIELD CAPACITY  Page  Table 11. Field capacity of soils from the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria - -Peltigera association plots  21  Table 12. Field capacity of soils from the Pseudotsuga Gaultheria and Pseudotsuga - Tsuga - Gaultheria association plots .  22  Table 13. Field capacity of soils from the Pseudotsuga Tsuga - Hylocomium - Eurhynchium association plots .  24  Table 14. Field capacity of soils from the Pseudotsuga Polystichum association plots  25  Table 15. F i e l d capacity of soils from the Thuja - Lysichitum association plots  27  APPENDIX T. TABLE 1. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL MOISTURE IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA GAULTHERIA -.PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 1  Gravimetric Measurement S o i l pit: DEPTH  1  2  3 4 1951 JUL AUG SEP OCT  (cm.) PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) Ao IB 11 5 0-10 5 10-20 6 6 20*30 6 5 30-40 5 7 40-50 8 5 50-60 5 6 7 60-70 8 70-80 10 8 80-90 6 90-100 5  23 7 5 5 5 5 5 6 6  17 19 16 17 13 15 13 12  - - -  -  mm  PLOT L4 (Lover Deadwood) 20 27 Ao . mm 7 0-10 11 mm 10-20 7 7 7 20-30 7 mm 6 30-40 8 mm 6 40-50 7 mm 50-60 6 3 6 60-70 8 mm mm 5 70-80 mm 5 80-90 90-100  24 21 21 21 23 19 19 20 17 18  PLOT L (Lower Deadwood) 27 Ao 41 - 5 0-10 7 mm 5 10-20 7 5 20-30 5 30-40 5 5 mm 5 40-50 5 50-60 5 5 5 60-70 5 mm ee> 70-80 80-90 mm mm 90-100  -  -  -  24 20 13 19 17 16 19 13 11 11  -  -  - - -  3  -  -  -  -  5  6  7  DEC  JAN  MAY  140 17 18 13 11 11 13 13 13 13 14  -  -  mm m  mm mm  -  - 16 19 18 18 7 8 10 10 9 11 280 21 20 17 16 12 9 9 11  -  -  mm  -  -  mm  -  mm mm mm  - •* - -  10  11  AUG  SEP  35 11 6 6 6 5 5 5 6 6 5  35 3 8 6 7 7 6  24 7 5 4 4 4  260 170 43 17 36 12 21 12 23 12 23 12 18 12 18 13 13 mm 10  50 9 9 9 8 8 10 8  28 8 8 8 8 7 6 7 7 5  70 9 7 6 7 7 7 6 6 5 5  220 220 15 26 25 12 12 24 24 12 11 21 8 16 21 10 7  50 8 8 8 9 8 12 12 14 12  30 6 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5  110 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 4  130 14 12 10 11 10 9 9 mm  -  mm  8  9 1952 JUN JUL  60 9 9 10 11 11 11 12  mm -  -  -  -  mm  -  - - mm  Percentage by weight of the 5 mm. s o i l fraction.  -  -  -  mm  -  ma  •-  2  APPENDIX 7. TABLE 1 - Continued. Soil pit: DEPTH (em.)  1  2  JUL AUG  3 4 1951 SEP • \,  PLOT L Ao  2  o-io  (Valley) 30  7 6 6 6 6 7 7 - - - -  10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100  5  —  —  •  -  PLOT L (Fourth Lk.) Ao 19 . — — 0-10 15 10-20 14 20-30 16 30-40 19 40-50 21 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100  -  85 240 37 13 12 39 10 32 10 36 13 56 mm 23  -  -  220 28 23 21  -  —  •  mm - - -  —  -  —  -  -  x  - -  8 9 1952  OCT-DEC JAN - MAT JUN  46 170 190 13 30 26 7 19 24 7 22 19 7 20 23 7 28 20 9 11 15 7 11  —  7  6  270 39 40 46 48  -  -  Mt  mm  - -  51 27 26 18 14 12 13 16 16 17 18  260 230 40 24 32 17 37 37 58 34 mm 35 mm 44  10  11  JUL  AUG  SEP  42 9 8 8 8 8 10  24 7 7 8  60 9 7 9 9 10 10 11  -— —  -  ISO 34 30 29 32 33 37  8 8 m  mm mm  mm  _  mm  -  27 12 15 16 IS 22 20 17 16  -  60 10 20 31 36 32 40 50 46 36  Electrometric Measurement S o i l pit: DEPTH (em.) PLOT L 5 15 30 55 70  5  1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 12 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 12 12 12 1952 1953 OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAT JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV  (Wolf Mt.) 5 9 8 8 8 8 9 8 10 10  26 12 10 20 10  20 15 13 20 24  19 30 17 18 21  18 30 17 15 18  19 26 14 17 IS  21 23 14 19 19  17 19 13 13 15  18 10 10 22 9 8 16 9 10 8 8 9 9 8 22 12 14 13 11 25  •LOT L A (Lover Deadwood) 5 8 9 24 21 15 7 7 25 30 13 14 23 50 7 7  25 24 31 25  23 19 21 23  22 IS 21 21  24 20 22 22  24 20 26 23  21 16 9 9 9 9 5 12 21 16 13 6 16 15 13 11 11 29 17 14 9 8 21 22  18 19 14 13 16  3 APPENDIX V. TABUS 1 - Continued S o i l pit:  12 12 12 12 13 12 IE 18 12 12 12 12 12 12 1952 1953 OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JDN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV  DEPTH (em.) PLOT L3 (Lower Deadwood) 5 9 12 34 15 10 27 30 30 8 27 29 60 9 14 18  39 29 29 29 25 27 24 20 21 17 15 15  39 30 31 17  35 22 27 6 7 9 29 28 24 24 14 13 32 30 8 30 25 22 19 18 8 16 15 13 9 9 20 IB >  PLOT L2 (Valley) 5 15 34 33 31 30 26 28 27 22 28 14 15 30 31 15 11 27 26 23 21 19 20 20 18 21 12 11 12 25 30 11 12 25 21 20 17 18 18 16 15 10 8 10 22 55 10 11 21 29 20 18 18 18 15 14 12 9 11 19 PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) 5 24 43 15 22 34 30 22 31 50 22 50  36 32 34 48  41 34 31 48  37 36 38 33 26 30 30 31 28 23 29 28 29 28 22 44 26 45 43 27  35 30 28 44  41 37 25 38 27 25 24 32 23 24 21 31 43 35 48 46  TABLE 2. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL MOISTURE IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 1  PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA  ASSOCIATION  Gravimetric Measurement Soil pit:  1  2  5 3 4 1951 AUG SEP OCT -DEC  DEPTH JUL (cm.) PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt .) 38 42 Ao 0-10 7 11 10-20 7 7 20-30 8 7 8 30-40 7 9 6 40-50 50-60 6 8 60-70 6 7 70-80 6 7 80-90 7 5 90-100 9 5  6  7  JAN - MAY  8 9 1952 JUN JUL  10  11  AUG  SEP  230 110 9 23 17 8 16 8 17 6 15 7 18 8 9 14 9 14 15 10 11 15  57 5 6 7 7 7 5 6 6 6 5  110 9 7 7 6 6 6 5  „  49 11 7 6 5 5 5 6 5 5 5  26 19 17 15 14 13 11 13 8 9  270 23 20 16 14 13 9 8 8  -  -  •—  mm mm mm  130 15 12 12 10 7 7 7 8 11 12  Percentage by weight of the 5 mm. s o i l fraction.  -  -  mm  4  APPENDIX V. TABLE 2 - Continued S o i l pit: DEPTH (cm.)  1  2  JUL  AUG  3 4 5 1951 SEP OCT - DEC  PLOT 04 (Lover Deadwood) AO 31 44 45 210 0-10 7 6 6 23 10-20 7 7 6 20 20-30 6 8 5 18 30-40 7 6 6 18 40-50 6 5 5 16 50-60 5 5 4 14 60-70 6 5 6 15 70-80 5 6 5 23 mm 80-90 8 8 6 90-100 5 12  -  -  PLOT 06 (Upper Deadwood) Ao 75 43 0-10 9 8 10-20 10 10 20-30 10 11 —a 30-40 13 9 40-50 10 14 50-60 12 6 60-70 10 7 10 70-80 8 8 80-90 9 90-100  -  -  -  -  PLOT 03 (Valley) Ao 45 0-10 5 10-20 9 20-30 11 10 30-40 40-50 13 50-60 10 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100  -  --  -  28 22 24 22 16 16 20 21 24 12  100 290 29 27 5 26 6 27 7 28 9 22 13 14 9  -  280 21 • 21 20 20 22 26 25 26 17  -  500 31 27 25 26 26. 19 25  -  240 56 30 22 22 23 17  -  6  8 9 1952 JAN - MAY JUN JUL  -  mm  -  mm  m  24 24 24 24 23 21 21 22 20  -  -  --  7  230 140 27 25 20 16 17 15 16 16 17 15 20 16 21 22 18 17 «• 30 mm  \  m  300 300 23 24 24 23 17 22 19 16 17 17 20 16 16 21 15 16 16 mm 16  -  61 7 8 7 7 8 8 8 6 6 6 130 14 11 12 12 13 12 10 10 12  -  230 230 ISO 25 23 17 22 21 12 22 11 22 14 14 12 11 12 17  -  -  -  10  11  AUG  SEP  31 100 7 12 6 8 7 7 7 7 7 8 6 8 5 6 5 6 6  -  -  -  48 8 10 9 8 8 6 7 6  70 7 8 8 8 8 9 7 6 5  -  7 6 7 6 5 6 9 9 8  -  130 13 9 12 10 13 IS 11 mm  -  APPENDIX V. TABLE 2 - Continued Eleetrometrie Measurement S o i l pit:  12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 1952 1)955 " OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV  DEPTH (cm.) :;v' PLOT Gg (Wolf Mt.) 8 4 7 15 7 6 32 7 6 55 8 7 75 8 7 ;  22 26 19 19 26  36 23 16 15 12  19 26 15 19 25  18 20 21 23 24 25 15 14 15 14 14 15 20 18 19  19 23 14 10 16  21 25 14 14 18  5 34 30 15 18 8 27 26 18 8 14 14 10 8 7 13 mm 17 12 10  *LOT OTA (Lover Deadwood) - 22. 26 26 21 23 23 19 19 17 15 27 24 15 - 22 27 26 23 25 24 23 22 19 15 27 26 28 70 - 26 28 29 28 29 25 20 18 16 11 29 27 flLOT G 5 18 35 60  fi  b  (Upper Deadwood) 14 14 26 16 16 26 16 16 26 9 10 17  5 20 35 50  15 15 13 12  19 19 22 33  41 66 35 31  28 32 32 19  25 28 28 17  25 26 23 16  26 26 24 17  27 26 24 17  25 25 24 16  26 23 25 30 26 23 25 31 22 22 21 24 16 16 16 18  37 58 34 33  31 46 29 33  26 28 38 39 26 29 29 32  27 33 27 30  24 34 26 30  24 26 21 22  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA  20 30 25 25  27 27 25 17  15 16 34 14 14 46 12 29 32 11 31 34  ASSOCIATION  Gravimetric Measurement S o i l pit: DEPTH  5 4 3 1951 JUL AUG SEP OCT - DSC 1  2  I cm.; PLOT G, (Fourth Lk.) 80 AO 8 0-10 10*20 11 20-30 17 30-40 18 40-50 21 27 50-60 60-70 25 70*80 37 37 30*90 mm 90-100 X  ---  mm  mm  115 29 12 13 15 16 10  36 58 40 87  •*  mm  -  -  —  mm mm  -  -  330 39 30 31 30 31 32 37 50 54  6 JAN  e -n  -  — mm  -  mm mm  -  mm  8 9 1952 - MAY JUN JUL 7  350 310 220 30 38 23 78 26 32 40 38 46 40 58 43 61  -  -  -  -  mm  -  —  -  -*  mm  *"*  -  10  11  AUG  SEP  34 HO 11 23 32 14 34 12 11 28 27 12 33 11 mm 11 14  -  -  --  6  APPENDIX V. TABLE 2 - continued Soil pit: DEPTH (cm.)  1  2  JUL  AUO  PLOT (Echo Mt.) Ao 54 0-10 7 10-20 10 20-30 12 30-40 12 40-50 12 50-60 12 10 60-70 70-80 12 80-90 12 90-100  -  3 1951 SEP  OCT -DEC  130 9 8 9 8 7 7 9 11 10 11  310 mm 20 450 20 28 19 24 19 22 18 26 30 19 19 32 15 18 25  •*  mm  -  mm  -  —  -  4  5  6  -  -  7  8  JAN-MAY  mm mm  -  —  '-  —  -  -  9 1952 JUN JUL  310 240 33 26 28 19 25 19 22 19 19 20 IS 20 11 20 26 25 22  -  10  11  AUO  136 12 10 12 12 12 13 32 11  56 5 6 9 16  102 13 14 15 20  -  16 18  —  _  -  —  —  —  -  -  Electrometric Measurement S o i l pit:  12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 1952 1953 OCT NOT DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUO SEP OCT NOT  DEPTH (cm.) PLOT Gi (Fourth Lk.) 5 14 37 15 19 42 30 19 18 50 17 20 70 18 29  32 41 23 22 26  28 32 21 21 24  31 33 21 21 25  31 31 21 22 25  32 35 22 22 25  26 30 22 21 25  16 24 20 19 22  14 21 20 19 22  25 23 22 24 26  PLOT G (Echo Mt.) 6 13 32 27 31 20 15 16 23 28 35 7 22 21 22 70 11 22 22 22  24 21 18 19  27 21 19 19  26 21 18 19  29 21 20 20  24 20 19 20  21 18 18 18  22 19 19 20  21 32 23 17 25 23 17 20 20 13 22 21  32, 40 25 26 26  SEP  38 15 11 20 27  31 32 23 22 26  P  -  —  APPENDIX V. TABLE Z.  MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL MOISTURE IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 A  Gravimetric Measurement S o i l pit:  1  2  3 5 4 1951 AUG SEP OCT -DEC  DEPTH JUL (cm.) PLOT M (Wolf Mt.) 33 120 Ao 0-10 21 17 10-20 18 22 20-30 14 23 20 30-40 25 40-50 27 24 50-60 23 27 60-70 19 25 70-80 19 26 80-90 14 26 17 25 90-100  19 190 110 10 24 25 11 24 23 28 27 13 30 25 12 14 24 26 29 25 15 30 29 14 15 31 22 31 10 14 12 25 11  PLOT M (Echo Mt.) 65 . Ao^ 0-10 14 10-20 16 20-30 15 mm 30-40 16 mm 40-50 16 50-60 12 60-70 15 70-80 13 80-90 15 90-100 14  75 310 340 10 18 27 10 19 27 9 19 26 10 IS 26 9 21 25 10 21 23 21 25 12 10 22 23 6 22 24 8 IS 26  5  P  -  -  PLOT M (Lower Deadwood) 59 47 45 Ao 0-10 8 7 6 8 9 8 10-20 9 9 20-30 7 8 8 30-40 7 8 8 9 40-50 9 9 50-60 10 9 7 8 60-70 9 8 70-80 7 80-90 7 4 9 10 5 5 90-100 4  mm  21 20 20 19 IS 16 10 10 10 14  350 35 19 16 17 16 14 11 11 9 8  6  7  JAN -MAY  -  -  —  mm  -  8 JUN  90 180 35 24 20 31 25 19 21 23 25 23 23 22 19 17 28 21 33 17 48 13  10 9 1952 JUL AUG 22 13 15 17 17 11 9; 11 9 10 11  - 220 175 130 23 21 21 20 21 22 23 23 24 25  -  —  -  -  21 23 23 22 20 20 21 24 25 31  8 8 11 15 16 17 IS 19 20  mm  220 130 26 11 9 15 9 11 10 12 11 10 13 9 7 15 17 8 6 16 IS  -  Percentage by weight of the 5 mm. s o i l fraction.  12 12 10 11 12 13 14 14 15 15 80 9 9 9 10 6 10 12 5 5 11  11 SEP  34 17 19 21 23 23 23 23 27 28 34  57 14 15 15 14 15 15 14 10 9 8  50 15 16 13 13 12 12 16 18 18 16  150 21 18 19 22 22 27 36 32 33 28  33 10  150 9 8 6 5 4 4 4 4 4 4  8  8 9 9 10 13 13 13 11  8  APPENDIX Y. TABLE 3 - Continued S o i l pit:  1 2  3 1951  DEPTH JUL AUG SEP (em.) PLOT M (Talley) Ao 20 75 0-10 7 8 10-20 8 9 mm 20-30 9 9 mm 30-40 8 9 40-50 9 mm 11 50-60 9 10 60-70 9 m 11 70-80 11 11 — 80-90 15 mm 90-100 18  -  3  -  -  PLOT M (Fourth Lk.) 140 Ao 87 . 0-10 17 6 10 10-20 20 20-30 20 13 30-40 13 22 e » 40-50 23 11 50-60 23 12 60-70 24 12 70-80 21 15 80-90 23 21 90-100 18 27 mm  -  X  -  4  5  6  7  8 l  OCT - DEC  29 19 18 19 21 21 20 20 20 22  -  30 29 27 26 25 27 31 31 33  200 25 26 26 26 30 16 15 16 17 17 280 33 32 35 32 37 31 30 30  mm  -  mm  -  *•  -  -  mm  mm  —  mm  10  11 SEP  JUN  JUL  AUG  210 170 21 27 20 16 20 19 23 18 23 17 16 27 25 14 25 15 15 20 17 24  110 19 17 15 14 14 17 16 10  50 6 12 11 14 14 11 8 8 10 9  JAN -MAY  -  9 __ 1958_  -  290 240 300 28 107 27 25 43 27 30 22 22 20 21 28 28 23 22 23 21 24 20 18 22 20 27 22 mm 28 22 mm e» 26  -  12 12 12 1952 OCT NOT DEC  -  -  —  —  12 12 12 12 12 12 12 1953 JAN FEB MAR APE MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOT  DEPTH (em.) PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) 8 8 5 10 10 15 30 16 15 60 16 15 70 21 20 20 19 120  23 19 18 15 20 18  31 24 21 31 39 27  30 30 28 34 39 28  25 23 25 30 39 29  27 23 24 29 33 29  31 25 24 28 37 29  30 23 22 26 35 26  22 20 21 24 32 24  16 17 12 11 14 13  20 28 23 20 23 21  31 26 29 21 25 21  PLOT M (Echo Mt.) 5 9 19 15 11 12 30 10 10 50 14 15 90 18 26  14 18 17 19 31  16 21 13 19 31  16 20 17 19 32  14 18 16 IB 29  15 19 16 18 30  15 14 15 19 18 18 16 15 15 13 17 16 28 29 28  14 18 15 16 28  14 17 15 16 26  23 19 16 15 30  17 21 17 18 32  2  -  110 17 16 12 13 11 14 14 16 21  12 12 12 12  25 21 23 27 35 27  10 11 11 12 13 13 12  56 12 14 17 19 21 20 20  Electrometric Measurement S o i l pit:  -  9 APPENDIX V. TABLE 3 - Continued S o i l pit:  12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 1952 1953 OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV  DEPTH (cm.) PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood 5 27 26 18 18 19 mo 20 23 30 58 30 33  -mi*  25 19 24 32  21 15 21 30  25 16 22 31  25 17 23 31  20 23 18 18 27 25 15 16 14 14 19 18 22 23 17 19 24 24 30 30 29 28 32 32  PLOT M3 (Valley) 10 10 25 25 21 21 21 21 22 21 20 13 12 20 13 12 12 13 14 13 30 13 12 27 26 25 25 25 26 27 60 12 28 26 20 19 18 20 23 19 80 12 22 15 13 12 12 12 12 14  25 14 27 18 14  19 11 25 18 14  15 11 22 15 13  12 18 27 26 13  26 14 26 22 14  SLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) 8 20 39 20 19 14 35 23 31 60 30 34 90 22 30  25 20 21 21 18  27 21 22 22 18  37 23 24 23 22  40 24 27 24 22  36 22 25 23 23  33 21 25 31 22  25 21 25 30 21  25 21 23 22 19  28 21 21 22 19  28 21 22 22 19  33 22 23 22 19  33 21 22 22 19  TABLE 4. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL MOISTURE IN THE PSEUDOTSUGA POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953 V Gravimetric Measurement Soil pit:  1  3 4 1951 AUG SEP OCT 2  DEPTH JUL (cm.) PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood) Ao 80. 47 120 0-10 45 55 24 17 20 16 10-20 20-30 11 mm 11 28 30-40 21 mm 10 16 40-50 62 41 13 mm 25 47 50-60 60-70 40 45 15 70-80 33 15 47 46 80-90 26 IS 29 90-100 14 43  -  -  -  5  150 79 79 67 57 33 35 51 60  -  8 9 1952 JAN - MAY JUN JUL 6  58 64 68 48 63 29 23 26 27 30  7  120 34 16 36 33 34 13 36 13 39 38 12 15 21 14 46 49 9 27 13  130 150  -  24 15 10 12 27 14 31 21 16  Percentage by weight of the 5 mm. s o i l fraction.  «  10  11  AUG  SEP  43 8 9 8 6 7 9 12 9 30 26  33 4 15 16 8 7 7 7 7 7 43  APPENDIX Y. TABUS 4 - Continued Soil pit: 1 JUL  1951 2 3 AUG SEP  DEPTH (cm.) PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.) Ao 35 0-10 15 mm 10-20 18 mm 20-30 20 30-40 24 mm 40-50 26 50-60 23 60-70 21 70-80 21 80-90 18 90-100 23  .-  -  -  PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) Ao 0-10 160 10-20 35 20-30 35 30-40 35 40-50 43 mm 50-60 60-70 70-80  -.  -  -  170 14 21 24 23 23 23 22 18 16 17  26 26 33 45 43 46 52 46 46  -  130 200 40 280 73 64 57 39 45 49 46 47 48 46 32  -  PLOT P5 (Wolf Mt.) 150 100 Ao 0-10 26 14 10-20 44 17 20-30 22 20 30-40 18 23 40-50 IS 18 50-60 15 15 60-70 15 70-80 15 80-90 14 90-100 14  -  90 24 26 25 33 29 19 19 14 12 11  PLOT P3 (Valley) Ao 44 0-10 26 10-20 33 20-30 31 30-40 22 40-50 17 50-60 15 60-70 25 70-80 24 80-90 16 90-100 9  18 14 12 12 8 7 9 3 5 5 5  -  4 5 OCT - DEC  37 37 33 40 30 26 14  33 18 25 22 24 25 16 15 10 7  280 30 30 30 28 28 32 37 36 37 36  -  6 7 JAN -MAY mm  -  -  290 31 50  -  -  -  - -  220 35 29 42 37 36 m  -  48 25 27 21 16 14 19 28 14 9 9  mm  mm mm mm  -  mm  -  —  1952 8 9 JUN JUL  250 250 220 31 35 29 32 33 31 30 26 28 27 30 24 31 31 22 34 25 39 22 ' mm 29 19 31 18 28 16  -, -  -  10 11 AUG SEP 45 19 22 17 20 17 20 24 23 22 19  66 18 18  -  22 30 31 31 23 15 15  230 250 30 37 230 29 15 124 32 23 32 38 25 29 35 29 22 30 31 36 36  80 110 90 78 14 44 17 39 23 51 23 53 22 27  160 260 280 24 110 270 27 '* 47 56 28 34 29 18 28 29 20 34 mm 21 mm 22  38 19 19 29 25 19 13 14  48 14 14 14 15 15 13 13 15 23 19  60 23 13 16 33 16 7 19 10 5 9  54 29 22 16 15 10 7 11 9 4 4  -  -  -  -  90 100 33 28 18 32 13 28 37 25 38 29 32 38 24 37 11 18 31 7 6 21  42 31 23 16 13 10 10 9 8 7 5  -  APPENDIX V. TABLE 4 - Continued Electrometric Measurement Soil pit: DEPTH (cm.) PLOT P 5 15 52 58 85 120  A  121212 12 12 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 12 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1952 1955 OCT NOV DEC JAN EBB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG- SEP OCT NOV  (Upper Deadwood) 5 46 - . 13 13 29 18 17 30 5 5 13 15 15 9 9 15  49 36 51 17 35 24  44 42 50 20 38 28  34 40 47 16 36 22  39 50 49 17 37 27  40 49 50 16 37 27  42 50 50 16 35 24  47 50 49 15 33 21  48 43 43 11 30 18  31 29 43 9 20 10  46 27 31 8 16 10  40 41 50 16 36 25  IS 54 42 23 31  24 45 49 26 31  PLOT Pi (Fourth Lk.) 6 ^ . ' 13 26 15 27 28 35 23 21 60 23 25 86 29 31  24 54 49 26 31  24 43 49 26 31  23 33 46 25 31  24 35 48 24 31  24 35 48 25 31  24 39 49 23 31  22 54 47 24 31  15 39 36 23 30  19 36 32 23 31  16 27 21 29 21  PLOT Po (Echo Mt.) 5 12 15 15 18 22 30 19 27 50 32 32  19 22 27 32  19 23 27 32  20 23 26 31  14 19 26 32  14 19 26 31  16 20 26 32  16 15 18 20 20 20 26 26 26 32 32 32  20 22 27 32  -  mm mm  -  -  PLOT P 5 15 30 55 80  (Wolf Mt.) 8 23 13 18 14 13 10 10 9 10  33 35 31 19 15  33 32 32 32 30 36 35 34 35 35 31 31 28 28 25 22 22 22 22 12 9 15 15 15 15  32 35 28 20 16  32 35 28 20 16  31 34 27 IS 15  19 25 22 15 14  30 35 26 21 15  33 35 28 22 16  (Valley) 10 10 10 10 7 7  35 28 27 34 IS 17  37 29 30 35 23 30  33 33 33 32 29 28 28 28 30 31 31 30 37 38 33 33 23 23 24 22 28 30 30 29  32 28 29 33 22 28  30 28 29 37 20 26  30 26 27 32 15 17  17 28 28 30 13 15  17 31 31 40 25 30  PLOT P 5 18 30 55 85 125  5  3  13 23 11 10 7 7  35 28 31 39 26 30  •  APPENDIX V. TABLB 5. MONTHLY VALUES OF SOIL MOISTURE IN THE THUJA LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS, 1951-1953"! Gravimetric Measurement Soil pit:  1  2  3 5 4 1951 AUG SEP OCT -DEC  DEPTH JUL (cm.) PLOT Lys (Wolf Mt.) A (SWAMP) 0-10 760 220 560 650 *• 10-20 400 640 «• 20-30 680  -  B (BANK) L 2-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60  -  70 90 330 325 6 430 48 430 e» 250 mm 39  -  PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) A (SWAMP) m 720 0-10 690 m 10-20 560 A (SWAMP - margin) 390 L 2-10 420 e» 180 10-20 280 m 200 20-30 210 m 10© mm 30-40 72 mm mm 40-50 50-60 mm 60-70 70-80  .-  -  B (BANE) L  2-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50  60 145 160 100  -  «•  mm  -  mm  Percent by weight*  -  91 230 450 570 mm  6  9 1952 JAN - MAY JUN JUL  760  «»  mm  m  260 210 460 470 130  310 610 40  -  — -  760  -  870  -  570 600 390 130 70 80 80 80 100  540 610 440 410 90 31  250 240 200 420 575  320 150 180 300 170  m  -  -  mm  7  8  m m  -  m  -  «• m  —  -  11  AUG  SEP  620 710 630 730  -  -  -  -  270 200 41  mm 230 43 280 250 30 200 440 430 560 470 450 50 290 580 90 90 70 220 22  56 270 320 280 690 340 12  680 710 710 580  -  570 390  240 440 130 420 470 360 330 120 240 300 70 100 68 80 70 110 90  250 450 170 80 70  e»  mm  mm  -  10  450 570 430 180 130 m  •mt  870 265 360 270 •*  -  270 250 280 330 410  -  110 240 240 200  -  60 130 130 230 200  -  47 90 120 gap 340  APPENDIX V. TABLE 5 - Continued S o i l pit:  1  2  3 1951 JUL AUG SEP  4  5  DEPTH (cm.) PLOT L y l (Echo Mt.) A (SWAMP) 0-10 . 10-20 20-30 -  335 760 470  270  130  -  -  B (BANE) L 2-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50  110 120 190 400 47  200 200 320 100  mm  92 250 350  tm  -  —  -  6  7  8  OCT - DEC JAN - MAY JUN  -  -  330 110 300  mm  -  -  -  — .  -  230 -  -  190  -  -  360 270 400 260 240 310 33 160 28  -  —  —  9 10 1952 JUL AUG  SEP  -  230  200  -  43 90 250 520 520 460  430  300 250 220  -  —  11  —  -  -  -  190 310 270 41 32 46  Electrometrie Measurement Soil pit:  12 12 12 1952 OCT N07 DEC  12 12 12 12  12 12 12 12 12 1953 JAN FEBMAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV 12 12  DEPTH (cm.) PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt.) B (BANK) 120 160 120 110 110115 120 105 130 125 145 5 30 160 160 155 165 155150 155 85 155 155 165  -  mm  mm  mm  PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) A (SWAMP - margin) 10 165 185 185 185 175 175 180 180 180 175 175 175 170 170 25 145 150 160 195 150 150 150 150 150 155 160 160 170 165 PLOT L y l (Echo Mt.) B (BANK) 5 380 135 270 190 160 130 175 225 265 325 325 315 360 320 25 150 205 240 225 210 210 225 230 245 245 260 270 260 260  APPENDIX V. TABLE 6. WILTING- PERCENTAGE OF SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS DEPTH 2 (cm.) 1 PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) Ao 75 21 0-10 5 5 10-20 5 5 20-50 5 5 50-40 5 5 40-50 5 5 50-60 5 5 60-70 6 6 70-80 6 5 30-90 5 90-100 3  -  3 40 7 5 5 4 4 5 5 4  4  4 2 4 7 4 4 4 4  - -  mm  S o i l pit number 5 8 6 7 50 5 5 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 3  PLOT L4 (Lower Deadwood) mm Ao 85 33 mm 0*10 8 7 6 10-20 6 20-30 6 5 30-40 6 6 mm 40-50 5 5 mm 50-60 5 5 60-70 5 5 mm 70-80 5 80-90 4 mm mm mm 90-100  -  -  6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 4 4  7 6 6 5 4 4 4 4 4 4  PLOT L3 (Lower Deadwood) 80 80 ' AO 0-10 5 5 10-20 5 4 4 20-30 4 30-40 4 4 40-50 4 4 4 6 50-60 mm 60-70 8 4 70-80 mm 80-90 mm mm 90-100  6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  PLOT L2 (Talley) 55 AO 0-10 5 5 10-20 20-30 5 30-40 5 40-50 5 5 50-60 60-70 5 mm 70-80 80-90 m. 90-100  -  mm  -  —  -  -  30 50 9 5 7 5 6 5 5 6 5 7 5 2 5 3  - -  mm  85 7 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 mm  50 6 5 5 5 5 4  _  -  -  -  -  45 130 5 5 4 6 4 5 4 6 3 6 5 4 3 6 mm  mm  -  mm  mm  -  -  mm  -  mm  -  mm  -  -  -  mm  -  mm mm  -  - - - •*  75 100 11 6 9 11 8 6 7 6 7 6 6 5 6 5 6 5  9  10  11  12  35 9 5 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4  90 6 6 5 6 6 5  75 6 5 5 5 4  55 6 6  -  mm  80 8 6 7 6 5 5 5 - • 5 mm 4  65 9 5 7 6 8 7 6  -  mm  85 6 7 6 7 7 7 7 5 5  o /»  6 8 mm  7 8 7 7  -  mm  I..5  80 100 7 11 7 10 7 11 11 6 10 5 5 5 5 6 3  -  -  —  —  60 11 11 10  45 9 8 7 7 6 6 7 7 6 6  -  mm mm mm  -  65 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 7 5  -  70 7 6 7 5 5 6  -  -  -  90 8 6 7 6 5 5 6 5 4 3  75 7 6 6 5 5 5 4 3  80 6 5 7 7 7  80 6 7 7 6 6 7 9  mm mm  -  -  7 7 7 g  mm  mm-  -  -  10 6 6 6 —  mm  APPENDIX 7.  TABLE 6 - Continued  DEPTH S o i l pit number (em.) 2 1 5 3 6 4 PLOT L l (Fourth Lk.) Ao 32 65 43 45 0*10 9 8 8 9 mm 8 10 10*20 12 7 20-30 8 12 7 9 30-40 8 9 10 11 m 40*50 10 11 7 50-60 17 60-70 70-80 e» 80-90 90-100  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  7  8  9  10  11  70 14 14 17 16 14 12  90 12 12 19 9  60 9 12 12 11 11 13  70 9 11 12 14 16 14 12 10  75 5 10 12 14 12 14 20 18 16  —  -  -  —  —  -  mm mm  m  -  -  Percentage by weight of water retained by the 5 mm, s o i l fraction against a pressure of 15 atmospheres. TABLE 7. WILTING PERCENTAGE OF SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS* PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA DEPTH (cm.) 2 1 (Wolf Mt.) PLOT G5 Ao 75 85 0-10 4 5 4 10-20 4 20-30 5 4 30-40 5 4 40-50 3 4 3 50-60 4 60-70 3 4 70-80 3 3 3 3 80-90 90-100 3 4  3 60 7 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 4 3  PLOT G4 (Lower Deadwood) 80 Ao 42 85 0-10 5 5 5 5 10-20 5 5 5 20-30 4 5 30-40 5 5 4 5 5 40*50 4 50*60 4 4 4 60-70 6 3 4 70-80 4 4 4 5 80-90 4 mm 90-100 4  -  -  4  0  4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 85 5 5 4 3 3 3 3 4 2 3  5 105 6 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 mm  -  6  -  -  mm  --  mm  - -  80 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 2  mm  ASSOCIATION 9  10  11  60 6 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 4 4  105 85 ,5 6 6 7 6 5 7 5 6 8 8 6 7 5 7 5 4 7 6 4  110 5 6 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 3  80 8 6 6 6 6 6 4  80 7 6 7 6 8 5 5 5  90 80 8 6 7 5 8 5 8 4 7 6 8 5 8 6 9 5 7 5 mm 4  90 5 6 7 7 6 5 4 4  65 8 8 7 7 8 8 6 6 6  7  -  8  -  mm  -  -  -  APPENDIX V. DEPTH (cm.)  TABLE 7 - Continued S o i l p i t number 1  2  3''  PLOT G 6 (Upper Deadwood) 75 Ao 70  4  5  6  -  100  -  90  7?  8  9  110  75  ID:  11  12  90  90  _ 7  0-10  6  -  7  5  7  7  8  9  6  6  7  10-20  6  -  7  5  7  7  6  11  6  7  8  20-30  6  -  7  5  7  7  6  10  7  6  8  30-40  6  -  7  5  7  7  8  7  6  6  7  40-50  5  -  7  5  7  7  6  7  6  6  7  10 11  50-60  5  -  5  5  6  6  5  8  5  7  5  -  5  5  6  6  5  8  4  60-70  5  4  6  O  70-80  4  -  6  4  6  4  5  6  —  -  4  -  80-90 90-100  -  PLOT 0 3 (Valley) Ao 75  - -  6  4  7  3  -  75  80  60  5  0-10  5  -  16  5  7  10-20  6  -  5  5  5  20-30  6  -  5  6  .  5  30-40  6  -  5  6  5  40-50  6  -  5  4  5  50-60  4  -  60-70  mm  - -  70-80 80-90  5  mm  - -  4  —»  -  - - 4  4  5  -  4  mm  6  4 4  -  .  5  20-30  5  30-40  7  40-50  7  50-60  7  60-70  7  70-80  8  80-90  8  -  7  8  8  7  9  5  •-  9  16  9  -  -  10 10 6 mm  -  •-  -  -  85  80  80  7  5  6  4  9  6  5  5  3  5  8  6  4  4  5  7  4  4  4  4  _ -  -  4  4  6  -  4  8  5  —  5  4 mm  _ _  —  5  mm  _  4  4  —  — j  8  15  30  -  12  9  12  11  8  14  •a  11 mm  8  12  7  14  -  90 8 10  5  4  6  7  9  6  4  6  8  8  3  4  11  6  7  4  -  7  9  6  7  6  8,  3  7  10  7  3  12  mm  -  8  -  100  70  75  90  5  5  5  8  -  -  -  8  9  10  6  17  10  15  36  20  13  10  12  '7  7  -  85  -  12  -  80  -  12 12  -  75  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Ao 55 130 90 85 85 —• 0-10 30 4 75 20 85 5 7 4 10-20  mm  e  10 Q V  9  90-100  PLOT 0 2 (Echo Ht.) AO 53  -  60  70  -  -  5  11  100  5  5  8  5  7  7  4  7  4  4  8  4  -  6  4  4  3  mm  5  4  70-80  4  -  4  80-90  4  -  -  6 6  4  —  8  5  0-10  5  10-20  5  20-30  6  30-40  5  40-50  5  50-60 60-70  90-100  -  -  - -  mm  mm  -  —  7 6  -  mm am  -  9  mm 5 Q  O  7  10  -  8  mm  -  6  -  -  APPENDIX 7. TABLE 8. WILTING PERCENTAGE OF SOUS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS DEPTH (cm.) 1 2 PLOT M5 (wolf at ;"),'" Ao 60 35 0-10 6 6 10-20 6 6 20-30 6 7 30-40 6 7 40-50 5 7 50-60 5 7 60-70 4 6 70-80 4 7 80-90 3 5 90-100 3 4  3  4  35 7 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 6  70 6 6 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6  45 8 7 8 7 7 7 6 6 3 3  PLOT M2 (Echo Mt.) Ao 30 0-10 5 mm 10-20 7 20-30 8 *• 30-40 7 40-50 7 em 50-60 6 60-70 6 mm 70-80 5 mm 80-90 5 90-100 5  90 6 7 6 6 6 7 7 5 4 5  70 6 5 6 6 7 6 6 6 8 8  70 7 7 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 6  PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) 60 70 Ao 70 0-10 4 7 5 10-20 4 5 6 20-30 5 4 6 30-40 4 5 6 40-50 4 5 6 50-60 5 6 6 60*70 4 6 5 70-80 5 4 5 80-90 3 5 5 90-100 4 4 4  5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 4  100 7 7 6 6 9 5 3 3 3 3  -  PLOT M3 (7alley) Ao 75 0-10 5 10-20 5 20-30 5 30-40 5 5 40-50 50-60 5 60-70 5 70-80 5 80-90 90-100  -  mm  mm  -  -  mm  -  -  -  75 7 7 6 6 7 6 5 6 7 7  6 6 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4  S o i l pit number 5 6 7 8  70 6 6 7 7 9 5 4 4 4 4 r  9  10  11  12 _  60 10 10 10 10 9 9 7 8 9 10  90 10 9 7 7 7 6 5 4 4 3  65 7 8 7 7 5 5 5 4 4 5  85 8 8 8 9 8 7 8 8 8 8  60 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 6 5 3  80 5 9 7 7 7 7 7 9 8 10  90 3 3 4 5 9 8 7 6 5  -  85 6 8 6 6 6 6 7 8 9 8  90 6 6 6 6 5 5 6 7 7 6  70 6 7 9 11 11 12 17 15 16 16  80 9 mm 7 5 5 4 3 3 •- 3 2  70 7 6 6 6 3 6 6 2 2 5  85 6 6 6 7 7 6 8 9 8 6  75 9 6 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 2  75 7 5 6 6 6 5 5 4  80 5 6 6 7 6 6 4 4 4 5  90 7 6 8 7 6 6 6  mm mm  -  -  -  -  7 7 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 6  -  -  90 6 6 4 5 5 7 7 8 7 7  -  75 6 8 7 7 8 9 8 8 5 5  70 4 5 6 5 4 4 4 6 9 10  mm  -  -  -  mm  mm  mm  -  8 9 7 i  7 6 —  7 9 8 Q  .7  12  7 8 8 7 XX  7 6 6 6 O  o —  IS  APPENDIX V. TABLE 3 - Continued DEPTH (cm.)  1  2  Ao Ml (Fourth - . PLOT 50 Lake) mm 0-10 6 10-20 8 20-30 8 — 30-40 8 40-50 8 mt 50-60 8 60-70 8 70-30 8 mm 80-90 9 mm 90-100 10  -  -  S o i l pit number 3 4 5 6 75 6 7 9 8 8 7 7 8 7 8  -  -  9 7 6 7 7 7 8  8  10  95 6 7 10 11 11 9 9 10  -  mm  mm m 'X mm mm  mm mm  -  8 100 17 6 10 11 12 10 8 7 6  10  105 8 10 9 7 8 9 3 9  75 7 8 7 6 6 5 5 5 10 11  mm  mm  m  mm  105 5 6 7 9 10 10 10 _  11 12 85 10 11 13 12 11 10 10 10 13  it 8 8  M  14  Percentage by weight of water retained by the 5 mm. s o i l fraction against a pressure of 15 atmospheres. TABLE 9. WILTING PERCENTAGE OF SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS** DEPTH (cm.)  1  2  S o i l pit number 3 4 5  PLOT P (Upper Deadwood) Ao 30 50 mm 0-10 13 15 mm 10-20 5 8 mm 20-30 4 5 30-40 6 5 mm 40-50 9 IS, • 50-60 7 11 mm 60-70 12 6 mm 70*80 9 7 80-90 8 6 mm 90-100 8 5 120 4  -  (Fourth Lk.) Ao 40 0-10 8 — 10-20 9 20-30 12 mm 30-40 12 40-50 15 mm 50-60 16 mm 60*70 14 70-80 10 mm 80-90 10 mm 90-100 12  PLOT PT.  -  60 10 9 10 14 15 15 14 12 10 9  28 11 6 4 4 12 11 10 10 10 8  mm  5 6 11 15 16 19 19 15 15  -  30 14 14 16 11 12 8 7 9 mm mm  100 8 8 9 8 10 11 11 14 15 15  6  7  -  -  14 14 16 11 12 8 7 9 8 9  70 5 4 3 5 7 3 8 5 4  mm mm mm mm  -  mm  90 6 6 9 11 11  -  mm  8  9  10  11  110 9 4 7 5 5 4 5 11 11 9  60 9 11 13 11 14 13 8 6 4 4  70 5 5 5 4 4 4 7 4 9 12  75 3 11 9 5 4 4 4 4 4 15  110 6 12 11 11 12 13 15 15 13 9  85 7 12 12 11 11 11 10 8 9 8  65 13 14 10 9 8 10 10 11 12 10  85 13 12 13 11 14 14 14 11 8 8  12 mm  11 13 14 9  iiis  8 16 15 13 11  APPENDIX V. TABLE 9 - Continued DEPTH (cm.)  1  2  PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) mm mm Ao mm 0-10 50 mm 10-20 9 mm 20-30 10 mm 30-40 12 mm 40-50 10 50-60 8 mm 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100  -  S o i l pit number 3 5 4 6 75 19 18 16 10 9 9  -  PLOT P (Wolf Mt.) 60 30 AO 0-10 8 7 10-20 9 6 20-30 4 6 30-40 6 5 40-50 5 5 50-60 3 4 — 60-70 4 mm 2 70-80 *» 80-90 2 90-100 3  60 9 8 9 10 8 6 6 4 4 3  PLOT Pg (Valley) 8 . Ao mm 0-10 15 mm 10-20 3 mm 20*30 4 mm 30>40 5 m 40-50 4 50-60 4 60-70 4 4 70-80 mm 80-90 4 90-100 3 1 2 5 -  14 9 8 7 5 5 5 2 3 2 3 -  5  -  -  60 65 8 6 10 9 8 5  -  8 8 7 7 6 4 3  -  7  8  9  10  11  mm  -  80 75 4 5 5 5 5 5  85 22 15 11 15 13  40 110 100 6 22 85 «e> 7 14 7 6 6 10 6 4 8 6 6 mm 6 mm 4  55 6 10 8 7 8 6 4  90 11 10 10 U 9 7 6 6 5 5  - 80 90  -  60 6 1©  7 mm 7 mm 13 12 mm 9 7  -  -  mm  ---  85 6 7 8 7 8  -  11 65 3 23 5 8 6 8 7 5 7 7 mm 10  - -  —  11 5 6 5 5 5 3 3 2 2 -  24 5 9 5 5 3 5 4 2 2 2  ma mm  -  mm  -  -mm mm  -  -  40 55 70 9 10 8 8 5 8 6 6 3 5 5 7 5 6 3 3 6 8 5 2 6 2 3 3 2 2 6 2 2 3 -  85 7 8 5 10 4 1 4 3 3 3 -  Percentage by weight of water retained by the 5 mm.. against a pressure of 15 atmospheres.  mm mm  24 16 10 8 9 6 4 6 6 2 2 -  12  6 7 7 '/  8  -  mm  7 8 8 5 3 mm  -  13 10 10 g  mw  B  5 6  s o i l fraction  20  APPENDIX V.ui TABLE 10. WILTING- PERCENTAGE OF SOILS FROM THE THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS  1  DEPTH (cm.) 1 PLOT Ly3 (Wolf A (SWAMP) 0-10 90 10-20 20*30 * B(BANK) 80 L 2-10 60 10-20 25 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60  -  -  2 Mt.) 70 70 90 80 34 6  -  mm  -  3 70 130  -  ISO 90 30 7  -  S o i l pit number 4 5 5 7  8  9  10  11  8%  7©  80  90  65 44 9  85 —  80  -  -  -  -  PLOT Lyi (Echo Mt.) A (SWAMP) mm 0-10 10-20 20-30 B (BANK) mm mm L 2-10 70 10-20 50 mm 20-30 35 mm m» 30-40 40-50  -  -  -  -  -  30 50 40  80 80 70 30 6  —  —  _  mm  90 80 95 95 12  75 70 9 10  mm  - - - -  -  -  -  -  _  -  -  —  •  PLOT Ly« (Upper Deadwood) A (SWAMP) 0-10 70 80 60 60 _ mm mm 10-20 60 A (SWAMP - margin) mm L 60 85 90 mm 2-10 70 70 60 23 10-20 30 25 38 40 20-30 15 16 14 40 mm 11 10 12 30-40 mm 11 11 40-50 mm 50-60 12 60-70 10 70-80 12 B (BANK) 100 L 80 100 100 80 80 2-10 85 85 10-20 100 90 90 75 90 20-30 80 90 19 -. 30-40 55 50 40-50 -  -  mm  -  70 100 100 90 90 8 90 20  -  mm m  -  25  25  -  -  60 70 30 10  80 30 30  mm  •*  -  80 —  -  mm  mm  mm  mm mm —  -  65 60 20 15  -  mm  -  mm  110 100 36 12  -  -  70  75  _  - 100 110  - mm  mm  mm  85 30 24 8 11  -  -  100 110 90 100 80 85 26 85 - 35  -  100 90  so 10 12 13  -  -  -  60 _  120  no  100 35 70 50 3  70 20  100 95 70 55 30 60 . 13 11 10 10  -  -  -  _ m  120  80  _  -  _  A  g o mm mm m m  -  90 85 85 75 17  100 85 55  -  50  -  13  19  -  -  -  -  21  19  95  -  -  -  115 80 33 5 6  90 90 29 17  100 34 36  -  -  •*  -40 85 85 28 30 45  -  100 60 24 8 6 10  A  42  90 95 80 50  -  -  90 90 95 95 30 8  12  90  -  36  Percentage by weight of water retained against a pressure of 15 atmospheres.  APPENDIX V.  TABLE 11. FIELD CAPACITY GF SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA GAULTHERIA - PELTIGERA ASSOCIATION PLOTS 1 S o i l pit number 5 6 7 8  DEPTH (cm.) 1 2 PLOT L5 (Wolf Mt.) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50*60 60-70 70-30 80-90 90-100  10  11  12 22 21 14  11 13 13 13 11 12  PLOT L4 (Lower Deadwood) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 -  18 20  18  23 19 21 21 13 12 14  PLOT L3 (Lower Deadwood) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-^00 PLOT L2 (Valley) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100  9  31 21  31 29 25  15 14  30 23 21 19 15 13  21 19 19 19 19 16  17  30 21 19 20  APPENDIX V .  TABLE 11 - Continued DEPTH (cm.)  1  2  3  S o i l pit number 4 5 6 7  SLOT L l (Fourth. Lk.) Ao • • 0-10 31 31 10-20 34 35 20-30 32 41 . 34 40 30-40 40-50 43 37 50-60 44 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 -  -  -  8  • •  • *  •  •  ™  •  -  34 34 32  38 27  *  -  -  -  -  -  9  10  . . . . .  . . . • . . . . . .  33 35 -  11  37 30 29 37  -  . -  12  .  "^Percentage by weight of water retained by the 5 mm. s o i l fraction against a pressure of 1/3 atmosphere. .Value not determined.  TABLE 12. FIELD CAPACITY OF SOILS FROM THE PSEPDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA AND PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOTS PSEUDOTSUGA - GAULTHERIA DEPTH  (cm.)  1  3  S o i l pit number 4 5 6 7  PLOT G5 (Wolf Mt.) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 PLOT G4 (Lower Deadwood) Ao 0-10 10*20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100  ASSOCIATION 8  9  10  11  12  20 25  22 19  15 14 18  11  23 23  16 14 15 15  22 22 20 21 15  17 16 15 13  25  APPENDIX V.  TABLE 12 - Continued  S o i l pit number DEPTH 7 5 6 • 1 2 3 (em.) 4 PLOT G6 (Upper Deadwood) mm ..' Ao • 25 24 0-10 24 24 10-20 24 24 20-30 24 24 30-40 23 23 40-50 . 20 20 50-60 20 17 17 60-70 20 20 70-80 20 21 80-90 . 16 90-100 • •  8  9  10  11  -  26 26  --  -  -  PLOT G3 (Valley) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 #  -  12  24 17  -  -  • • • •  -  30 28 14  -  -  mm  •  34 26 21 21 20 16  -  —  —  -  27  a*  -  33 26 30  mm  -  .  mm  -  24  mm  PSEUDOTSUGA - TSUGA - GAULTHERIA ASSOCIATION PLOT Gl (Fourth Lk.) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 22 40-50 22 50-60 22 60-70 mm 70-80 24 19 80-90 90-100  ---  PLOT G2 (Echo Mt.) mm Ao 0-10 mm 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 • 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 mm 90-100  m  m  •  .  42 33  e  •  -  mm  2 7  mm  ee> mm  -  -  #  m  -  • •  30 31 31 31 34  99  •  . . . .  19 12 9 10 13  27 24 22 24 28 28  -  mm  -  —  mm  26 30 34 42 40  33 68 45  -  —  mm  —  -  • •  •  -  mm  —  -  • •  • • •  -  mm  • • *  -  mm  mm  -  •  • 21 13  -  -  23 23 23 23 20  21  35 35  27 mm mm  •  • • 22 35 15 —  -  31 32  .  •  — m  —  • • • • •  21 24  —  • • • • •  —  -  • •  —  -  -  —  —  —  —  27 21 18  20  APPENDIX V. TABLE 13. FIELD CAPACITY OP SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA TSUGA - HYLOCOMIUM - EURHYNCHIUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS 1  DEPTH  (can.)  1  2  4  PLOT M5 (Wolf Mt.) AO  0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 120-  #  •  •  •  mm  •  •  •  «_  •  •  •  •  30 •  PLOT M2 (Echo Mt.) Ao . — 0-10 10-20 • ** 20-30 • *" 30-40 • ** 40-50 e ** 50-60 e 60-70 • ** 70-80 • "* 80-90 • 90-100 • **  •  •  •  . . .  30 30 28 27  •  e  e  •  •  •  e  •  . .  22 21  •  •  . . . .  21 22 16 IB  PLOT M4 (Lower Deadwood) Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 PLOT M3 (Valley) Ao 0-10 • 10-20 • 20-30 • 30-40 • 40-50 * 50-60 • 60-70 • 70-30 • 80-90 90-100 #  -  10  11  12  mm  30 m m  mm  „  m  29 22 6 15  •  23 23 23 23 22 22 22 23 22 19  _ —  20 26 27 27  -  23 21 21 20 21 22 23 23 22 19  .  .  •  .  .  .  . .  . .  . .  . .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . . . .  .  22 23 22 20  .  .  19 20  .  -  .  .  ;  11 8 6  29 *  33  —  . . .  8  30 19  -  -  S o i l pit number 5 6 7  20 21 16  16 16 14  -  mm -  mm  '  27 25 22 13 13  .  .  21 13 26  . -  19 18  -  -  APPENDIX V. DEPTH (cm.) 1 2 PLOT Ml (Fourth Lk.) Ao 0-10 mm 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 . 70-80 80-90 28 90-100 52 #  1  *  -  TABLE 13 - Continued S o i l pit number 3 4 5 6 7 mm  . .  . .  30 28 26 24 24 24 25 25 28  •  42 32 31 34 32 25 25 21  -  -  #  mm  -  -  8  m  9  10  •  -•  11 u  # m  m  9  12  .  —  . .  33 21  •  23  *  22  #  # #  23 22 19 16  -  29 23 24  -  -  22 27 26  #  •  22  Percentage by weight of water retained by the 5 mm. s o i l fraction against a pressure of 1/3 atmosphere. . Value not determined.  TABLE 14. FIELD CAPACITY OF SOILS FROM THE PSEUDOTSUGA POLYSTICHUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS" "" 1  DEPTH S o i l p i t number (em.) 1 2 3 5 7 4 6 PLOT P4 (Upper Deadwood) Ao • • 53 58 6-10 • 10-20 64 64 • 68 20-30 35 66 48 43 30-40 e 40-50 56 56 62 62 27 50-60 29 • • 25 60-70 25 • 47 30 70-80 33 30 mm mm 80-90 24 • mm 26 90-100 • 120  8  9  10  .  .  11  12  .  40 . 5 0  *  *  *  -  *  *  *  -  Ifi AO  •  •  *  Sft  . .  24 36  .  48  \  25  .  30  -  PLOT PI (Fourth Lk.) . -, Ao mm 0-10 mm 10-20 20-30 30-40 — 40-50 — 50-60 60-70 45 . 22 70-80 80-90 33 16 90-100 33 24 #  -  mm  28 32 30 28 37 37 41 43 38  -  •  28 28 29 24 24 20 25 27 25 26  mm  -  -  -  -  -  —»  .  27 26 24 21 21  mm  -  -  mm  -  Ct\  50  . . .  • 30  .  . •  e e  • •  29 30 27  \  APPENDIX V. TABLE 14 - Continued DEPTH (em.)  1  2  3  PLOT P2 (Echo Mt.) Ao e 0-10 40 • 10-20 44 • 20-30 45 • 30-40 42 30 mm 40-50 28 36 50-60 32 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100  -  -  -  PLOT PS (Wolf Mt.) Ao 0-10 30 10-20 45 20-30 25 30-40 16 27 40-50 14 27 50-60 12 22 •» 60-70 18 mm 70-80 14 80*90 10 90-100 9  .  -  -  • •  39 55 43 22 19 14 13 11  PLOT P3 (Valley) .m Ao 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 — 70-80 60-90 90-100 125  -  -  S o i l pit number 4 5 6 7 e  •  •  e  44 34 49 27 30 14  30 28  39 39 32 31 19 16 12  •  -  Ml  31 34 29 27 mm  8  9  •  30 - ' 28 30 30 22 15 a.  -  -  -  mm  m  25 30 25 25 20 17 15  10 •  •  30 24 22 22 26  e  32 24 21  -  •  70 25 23 13 15  e  -  20 22 20 20 19 23  • •  •  30 28 1* «•>  m  11  mm  80 44 30 34 38  15 20 25 OA  29  31 34  e e  28 19 13 13  18 # m  -  -  -  -  . 25  -  31 28 10 *  27 21 16 14 19 27 14 7 7  -  mm  mm  -  19  -  -  9 #  9 w  33  9  m  9  #  26  25 20  m  #  24  m  -  33 po ao 31 33  37  T  -  #  21  m  -  -  ^Percentage by weight of water retained by the 5 mm. s o i l fraction against a pressure of 1/3 atmosphere. . Value not determined.  12  28  APPENDIX V.  TABLE 15. FIELD CAPACITY OF SOILS FROM THE THUJA - LYSICHITUM ASSOCIATION PLOTS  DEPTH (cm.) 1 2 3 PLOT Ly3 (Wolf Mt J A (SWAMP) 0-10 . . 160 . 10-20 . 20-30 . B (BANE) L 2-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60  S o i l p i t number 4 5 6 7 . -  . -  330 110 . . . 330 36 . 265 . - 101 230 . 30 90 - - - -  PLOT Ly2 (Upper Deadwood) A (SWAMP) 0-10 • • mm e 10-20 A (SWAMP) L e m 0-10 • • 10-20 105 225 190 75 20*30 30-40 48 mm mm 40-50 mm 50-60 60-70 70-80 B (BANE) L a . e — 2-10 • • 205 10-20 220 240 20-30 • 30-40 40-50  -  -  -  - - -  -  - -  PLOT L y l (Echo Mt.) A (SWAMP) 0-10 10-20 20-30 — B (BANE) — L 2-10 — 10-20 130 180 20-30 30-40 mm 40-50  -  100 135  •  •  -  •  e  170 150 73 49  . .  •  58  . e  -  e  •  •  •  180 215 165  11  12  175 160 250 . 110 .-105 3 6  -  .  9  10  310 160 310 250 . - 170 130 200 220 - 200 58 110 240 240 - 44 38 40 65 250 - - - 1 8 . - -  mm  -  —  180 123 mm  - - mm  mm mm  -  235 340 115 160 130 77 80 80 77 45 63 mm  •  60  -  8  270 245 250 125  - -  -  e  -  -  35  • •  320 180 130 60 45  • •  •a  e  • •  -  mm  mm  mm  -  -  245 300 300 260 280 195 140 200 • • 90 165 •  mm  -  m m  • mm  •  •  *  eat  90  80  -  -  -  115  -  48  .  -  300 220  -  '-  no 180 mm  -  -  CP  -  • —  -  —  .  220 270 86 135 41 31 -  -  .  -  -  mm  -  115 140 205 230 180 90 100 100 220 70 66 105 27 mm 22 • 105 •  -  •  -  mm  240 100 e  .  mm -  

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