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Travel literature as a commentary on development in the Canadas, 1763-1838 Owens, Noel Arthur Scott 1956

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T R A V E L L I T E R A T U R E A 3 A COMMENTARY ON DEVELOPMENT- I N " T H E C A N AD A S , 1 7 6 3 - 1 8 3 8 NOEL ARTHUR SCOTT OVZENS B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ' 1 9 4 8 B . L . S . , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1 9 5 1 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R F J M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A R T S i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A O c t o b e r , 1 9 5 6 I I A B S T R A C T T r a v e l a c c o u n t s a r e a n i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t e a s t e r n C a n a d a d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1 7 6 3 - 1 8 3 8 . The a u t h o r s i n c l u d e d c i v i l a n d m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s , m e r c h a n t s , a n d f a r m e r s , o f B r i t i s h , F r e n c h , G e r m a n , a n d A m e r i c a n n a t i o n a l i t y . M o s t o f t h e m d i s p l a y e d t h e o u t l o o k a n d p r e -j u d i c e s o f t h e m i d d l e a n d u p p e r c l a s s e s , a n d a l m o s t a l l o f t h e m w e r e P r o t e s t a n t s o f v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f c o n v i c t i o n . B e t w e e n t h e C o n q u e s t a n d t h e P e a c e o f P a r i s , t h e s e t r a v e l l e r s f o u n d a c o n q u e r e d p r o v i n c e i n h a b i t e d m a i n l y b y F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g p e a s a n t s w i t h d i s t i n c t i v e c u s t o m s . T h e i n f l u x o f l o y a l i s t s a f t e r t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n a u g m e n t e d t h e s m a l l b u t i n f l u e n t i a l E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o m m u n i t y a n d l e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e s e p a r a t e p r o v i n c e s o f L o w e r a n d U p p e r C a n a d a i n 1 7 9 1 . A f t e r t h e War o f 1 8 1 2 , I m m i g r a t i o n f r o m G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d I r e l a n d a d d e d t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e a n d g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e w e s t e r n . R a c i a l a n t a g o n i s m b e c a m e s e r i o u s i n L o w e r C a n a d a , b u t i t w a s n e v e r i m p o r t a n t i n U p p e r C a n a d a . S o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s s h o w e d g r a d u a l i m p r o v e m e n t t h r o u g h -o u t t h e p e r i o d 1 7 6 3 - 1 8 3 8 , b u t i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d c u l t u r a l p r o g r e s s w a s s l o w , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n U p p e r C a n a d a . T h e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h i n L o w e r C a n a d a h a d n o p a r a l l e l i n t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e , w h e r e r e l i g i o u s 0 i i i d i v e r s i t y w a s t h e r u l e . E c o n o m i c a l l y , " b o t h p r o v i n c e s w e r e b a c k w a r d , e v e n i n a g r i c u l t u r e , t h e m a i n s t a y o f t h e i r p e o p l e . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w e r e g e n e r a l l y p r i m i t i v e , w i t h c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t e x c e p t i o n s . T h e p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e i n L o w e r C a n a d a w a s e s s e n t i a l l y a n a t t e m p t b y t h e F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g m a j o r i t y t o a s s u m e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f i t s own a f f a i r s b y s u b o r d i n a t i n g t h e e x e c u t i v e t o t h e p o p u l a r l e g i s l a t u r e . T h i s r a c i a l i s s u e d i d n o t a r i s e i n U p p e r C a n a d a , w h e r e t h e r e f o r m e r s s o u g h t t o p u t i n t o e f f e c t d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s o f B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n p r o v e n a n c e . The R e b e l l i o n s o f 1 8 3 7 came a s a s u r p r i s e , d e s p i t e t h e e v i d e n c e o f m o u n t i n g t e n s i o n i n t h e y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g . T h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t r a v e l l e r s w e r e s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n s i s t e n t t o a c t a s a u s e f u l c o m p l e m e n t t o L o r d D u r h a m ' s R e p o r t . On t h e w h o l e , t h e y c o n f i r m e d h i s d i a g n o s i s a n d s u p p o r t e d h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . T h e p i c t u r e o f t h e CanaxLas d e r i v e d f r o m t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e i s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e f o r a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C a n a d i a n d e v e l o p m e n t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1 7 6 3 - 1 8 3 8 . In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the Universit3>-of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s under-stood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. TT The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h ^Columbia, Vancouver #, Canada. Department of TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION . . . 1 CHAPTER I . THE CONQUERED PROVINCE: CANADA, 1763-1783 . . . 5 CHAPTER I I . ADJUSTMENT AND PROGRESS: LOWER CANADA, 1784-1814 . . . . . . . . 46 CHAPTER I I I . THE ATTACK ON THE WILDERNESS: UPPER CANADA, 1784-1814 . 115 CHAPTER. IV. THE CLASH OP RACES: LOWER CANADA, 1815-1838 152 CHAPTER V. TOWARDS A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY: UPPER CANADA, 1815-1838 201 CONCLUSION TRAVEL LITERATURE AS A COMPLEMENT TO LORD DURHAM'S REPORT 273 APPENDIX BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON TRAVELLERS . 278 BIBLIOGRAPHY 296 A NEW MAP OP UPPER & LOWER CANADA 1798 F o l l o w i n g 317 INTRODUCTION The writings of t r a v e l l e r s make an important c o n t r i -bution to our knowledge of eastern Canada during the period between 1763 and 1838. Travellers came to Canada f o r various reasons. Some were government o f f i c i a l s or m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s who found time during the course of t h e i r duties to make observations on the country i n which they were temporarily stationed. Others were merchants on business, with a keen eye to economic prospects, or p r a c t i c a l farmers s i z i n g up the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l settlement. V i s i t o r s to the United States often took advantage of t h e i r proximity to the B r i t i s h colonies to include Quebec, Montreal, Niagara F a l l s , and way points i n t h e i r i t i n e r a r i e s . B r i t i s h writers and t o u r i s t s pried into the mysteries of c o l o n i a l l i f e ; Frenchmen came to investigate t h e i r l o s t colony and examine the new c i v i l i z a t i o n growing i n the wilderness; Germans viewed with detachment a society founded by other peoples but of f e r i n g a promising f i e l d f o r immigrants; Americans crossed the border to assuage t h e i r c u r i o s i t y about t h e i r northern neighbors, and sometimes came with the aim of persuading them to accept t h e i r manifest destiny. The writings used In t h i s study are those of actual t r a v e l l e r s from other countries, not natives or permanent residents. The observations and opinions recorded are es s e n t i a l l y those of outsiders, even though some of them 2. may have lived in the country for a few years. Gazetteers, geographies, guidebooks, histories, manuals for emigrants, and similar material have "been excluded. The area covered consists of the valley of the St. Lawrence and i t s tributaries from about Tadoussac at the mouth of the Saguenay to Pembroke on the Ottawa and thence across to Georgian Bay. This i s a f a i r l y distinct physio-graphic region, the St. Lawrence Lowland, hemmed in between the Appalachians and the Laurentian Shield, with the Great Lakes encircling i t s southern peninsula."'" It excludes the Maritimes and the adjoining Gaspe'Peninsula as well as the inhospitable Preeambrian upland that even today marks the limit of close settlement and intensive agriculture. The general similarity of climate throughout this valley, de-spite considerable variations, has caused i t to be desig-2 nated the Lower Great Lakes climatic region. Furthermore, almost the whole area f a l l s withing the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence and Deciduous forest regions, sharply differen-tiated from the adjacent Acadian and Boreal zones. I P . J. Alcock, "Geology,'Canada Yearbook, 1951, pp. 14-26 2 A. J. Connor, "The 'climate of Canada^' Canada Yearbook. 1948-49, pp. 41-62. 3 3 "Forest regions£i1 Canada Yearbook, 1954, pp.451-453 3. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the v a l l e y was t h e h e a r t of New Prance. Later, i n the guise of the province of Quebec, and the provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, i t retained a substan-t i a l uniformity. Economic conditions were s i m i l a r throughout the area, although methods of development varied from place to place. The r i v e r s and lakes formed the natural trade routes from the e a r l i e s t times, and the l a t e r construction of roads and canals strengthened these l i n k s . In the days when the f u r trade flourished, cargoes from the pays d'en  haut were freighted down to the trading centres of Quebec and Montreal. As population expanded through immigration and natural increase, the waterway became the l i f e l i n e of a s t r i n g of new settlements. Pioneers took up the struggle to clear the forest and occupy the good farmlands that stretched along the St. Lawrence and into the broad penin-sula of western Ontario. By 1838 agriculture was being carried on throughout much of the accessible area, and a beginning had been made with other industries. The period 1763-1838 i s bounded by the Treaty of P a r i s and the Durham Report. During t h i s span of seventy-five years the St. Lawrence Va l l e y changed from a sparsely-settled colony of French-speaking habitants to the centre of popu-l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h North America. The conquered province of New France s p l i t into two d i v i s i o n s , peopled by disparate races and rent by p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n s . Several important events punctuated t h i s period; the American Revolution, with the subsequent i n f l u x of L o y a l i s t s and profound effects , on r a c i a l balance, land settlement, and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u -tions; the War of 1812; and the Rebellions of 1837. These l a s t disturbances brought about the mission of Lord Durham and h i s famous Report. Insofar as t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e gives a picture of the Canadas up to 1838, i t affords a valuable complement to the information contained i n the Report. The material embodied i n t r a v e l l e r s ' accounts covers a wide f i e l d . I t conveys general impressions of the Canadas, t h e i r landscapes, natural resources, c i t i e s and towns. The various peoples, with t h e i r peculiar manners and customs, are described, and t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences noted. There i s a good deal of information on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l conditions, including the s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e of r e l i g i o n . Many t r a v e l l e r s were concerned with economic development, especially agriculture, and also emphasized the problems of transportation and communication. The discussions of government, p o l i t i c s , and defence reveal the intractable nature of the s i t u a t i o n that confronted Lord Durham on h i s assuming o f f i c e . 5. CHAPTER I THE CONQUERED PROVINCE: CANADA. 1763-1783. Between 1763 and 1783 Canada held a peculiar interest f o r t r a v e l l e r s . This d i s t i n c t i v e l y French and Roman Catholic province was an anomaly i n B r i t i s h North America. With the passage of the Quebec Act i n 1774, several features of the French regime were restored i n modified form, such as French c i v i l law and the payment of t i t h e s f o r the support of the Roman Catholic clergy. I t was understandable that t h i s strangely mixed community should a t t r a c t numerous v i s i t o r s . An additional reason f o r t r a v e l to the province was the outbreak of the American Revolution. Members of both the invading and defending forces l e f t records of t h e i r obser-vations while serving, i n Canada. After the unsuccessful siege of Quebec i n 1775-1776, conditions were generally quiet enough to permit recreational, journeys. Sightseeing was n a t u r a l l y one of the commonest motives for t r a v e l . Most v i s i t o r s i n the early years looked out from the Rampart of Quebec, gazed on the f a l l s of Mont-morency, and scaled the heights of Mount Royal; a few s a i l e d through the Thousand Islands and exclaimed over the majesty of Niagara. E s p e c i a l l y during the l a t e eighteenth century, when mountains, forests, and untamed nature were gradually establishing t h e i r claims on the attention of cul t i v a t e d t r a v e l l e r s , f i r s t impressions varied with i n d i v i d u a l back-grounds and temperaments. 6. One of the e a r l i e s t written observations on the view from the Ramparts of Quebec, i n 1767, remarked on the "most d e l i g h t f u l and extensive prospect", whose beauty was en-hanced by the "well s e t t l e d " nature of the countryside. About the same time an English trader described the l i e d'Orleans as a "beautiful spot of ground", and pointed out that i t s f e r t i l e s o i l made i t an important source of produce f o r the nearby c a p i t a l . At Beauport he declared the scene " r i c h , romantic, and magnificent", Montmorency, which attracted him more than Niagara because les s "awful", was "perhaps the most pleasing natural cascade i n the world". 3 The r i v a l t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n of the Chaudiere P a l l s , a short distance upstream from Quebec, also had vocal admirers. An American who v i s i t e d t h i s cataract i n 1772 found i t "grand and awful". 4 Several of the German mercenaries who served i n Canada during the American Revolution took advantage of t h e i r l e i s u r e to contemplate t h e i r temporary place of residence 1 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," New York  History, v o l . 13 (July 1932), p. 312. 2 John Long, Voyages and travels of ah Indian interpreter and trader, describing the manners and customs of the North American Indians: with an account of the posts situated on  the r i v e r Saint Laurence, Lake Ontario, & c . London, Printed f o r the author, 1791, pp. 2-3. 3 Loc. o i t . 4 Henry Hulton, "Canada','in Ann Hulton, Letters of a  L o y a l i s t lady, being the l e t t e r s of Ann Hulton, s i s t e r of  Henry Hulton, commissioner of customs at Boston, 1767-1776, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard u n i v e r s i t y press, 1927, p. 103. 7. and write down t h e i r impressions i n l e t t e r s home. General von Riedesel of the Brunswick contingent wrote enthusiastic-a l l y to h i s wife: "Das hiesige Land wird D i r sehr gefallen; es i s t a l l e s was man SehBnes sehen kann." 5 Other Brunswick and Hessian o f f i c e r s were somewhat more c r i t i c a l . One of them found that the landscape r e c a l l e d the Haxz Mountains-hut the v i l l a g e s varied i n attractiveness. Cap Sante was "beautiful", with a f i n e new church; Batiscan was "none of the best", and contained "most wretched" houses; Pointe du Lac was a "wretchedly poor place". Among the many strange natural phenomena of Canada, few were more spectacular than the f l i g h t of the wild doves or passenger pigeons, known as t o u r t e s t o the habitants. European v i s i t o r s sometimes f e l t alarm at the clouds of birds that darkened the sky during t h e i r migrations. The natives indulged i n wholesale slaughter of the seemingly inexhaustible species as a means of augmenting t h e i r food 7 supplies and income. 5 Priederike Charlotte Luise, f r e i f r a t i von Riedesel, Die beruf s-reise nach America. B r i e f e der generalin von  Riedesel auf dieser reise und wahrend ihres sechs .jahrigen  aufenthalts i n America zur z e i t des dbrtigen krieges i n den  .iahren 1776 b i s 1783, nach Deutschland geschrieben, B e r l i n , Hande und Spener, 1800, p. 26. 6 William Leete Stone, trans., Letters of Brunswick and  Hessian o f f i c e r s during the American revolution, transi William L. Stone (Assisted by August Hund), Albany, H.Y., J. Munsell's sons, 1891, pp. 46-48 7 Riedesel, Berufs-reise. n. 119; Thomas Anburey, Travels  through the i n t e r i o r -parts of America, by Thomas Anburey; lieutenant i n the army of General Burgoyne- with a foreword  by Ma.ior-General William Harding Carter, Boston, Houghton, M i f f l i n , 1923, v o l . 1, p. 165. 8. Quebec, usually the goal of v i s i t o r s to the colony, was the f i r s t c i t y seen by ocean t r a v e l l e r s . In addition to i t s fame as the scene of a great B r i t i s h v i c t o r y , i t ca l l e d up re c o l l e c t i o n s of The h i s t o r y of Emily Montague, 8 a book f a m i l i a r to many educated people. The town seen at close hand usually did not quite measure up to expectations and was less pleasing than i t s natural surroundings. A Scottish t r a v e l l e r i n 1767 noticed that the effects of the siege were s t i l l apparent. The Chateau was i n ruins and the Parade "very mean f o r a town of t h i s consequence." The Lower Town, however, had been r e b u i l t , with "more elegant o and commodious" houses than thosein the Upper Town. In 1772, an American o f f i c i a l found the Lower Town "very s t r a i t , close & confined, the way to the Upper Town v a s t l y disagreeable, steep, slippery, and miserably d i r t y . " Despite these animadversions, he joined i n the general appreciation of the "fine extensive view." 1 0 8 This was the f i r s t novel with a Canadian.setting and probably the f i r s t written i n Canada. Its. author, Mrs. Francis Brooke, was the wife of the garrison chaplain at Quebec and the f r i e n d of Dr. Johnson, Garrick, and t h e i r c i r c l e . Her residence at Quebec from about 1764 enabled her to incorporate i n her work pictures of s o c i a l l i f e i n the c a p i t a l j u s t a f t e r the Conquest. The novel was pub-lis h e d i n 1769. See Encyclopedia of Canada, v o l . 4, p. 93. 9 "Journal from Mew York to Canada, 1767," pp. 311-312. 10 Hulton, "Canada," p. 102 9. The siege "by the Americans i n 1775-1776 destroyed many of the scenes f a m i l i a r to readers of Emily Montague, and caused great damage to the carriage roads.-1-1 Frau von Riedesel received a favorable f i r s t impression of the c a p i t a l and i t s environs on her a r r i v a l i n 1776, but her considered opinion \*as unfavorable: "Nur die Stadt Quebec i s t so h a s s l i c h als mttglich, und sehr unbequem."12 Newcomers p a r t i c u l a r l y objected to climbing a mountain to get from one part of the c i t y to the other. Montreal was much l e s s important than Quebec f o r several years after the Conquest. In 1767 i t was l i t t l e more than two streets with cross lanes, showing the ravages of a recent f i r e . Nine years l a t e r i t was described as an oblong square, with "regular, w e l l formed streets" and w e l l b u i l t houses, damaged during the Revolutionary War. 1 4 Further west, there were few settlements u n t i l the coming of the L o y a l i s t s after the Revolution. A small garrison was stationed at Cataraqui or Fort Frontenac (Kingston), 1* 5 and there was a shipbuilding establishment at Newark or N i a g a r a , 1 6 but these were almost the only l o c a l i t i e s of note. Few 11 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 30-31 12 Riedesel, Berufs-reise, p. 103. 13 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," p. 308. 14 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 72-73 15 Long, Voyages and t r a v e l s , pp. 11-12. 16 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," p. 192 10 t r a v e l l e r s ventured upstream from Montreal unless military-duty or the fu r trade took them to D e t r o i t , Michilimackinac, or other posts scattered throughout the wilderness. The inhabitants of the province were the main object of interest i n the Canadian scene* Before the i n f l u x of the Loy a l i s t s and other immigrants, the people were overwhelm-in g l y of French descent, nevertheless- the Indian population was widespread and conspicuous. Many European t r a v e l l e r s , f a m i l i a r with the extensive and often sensational l i t e r a t u r e about the "savages", eagerly awaited t h e i r f i r s t sight of a native. I t was common f o r groups of Indians i n various stages of c i v i l i z a t i o n to wander into the towns at certain seasons to trade and to seek amusement. Some t o u r i s t s saw no more than these groups, which gave a f a r from f l a t t e r i n g picture of aboriginal l i f e . During the American Revolution, B r i t i s h and German soldiers had many opportunities to observe t h e i r Indian a l l i e s at close quarters. The reactions to t h i s comradeship in arms were mixed, but on the whole unfavorable. One B r i t i s h o f f i c e r expressed h i s d i s t r u s t i n the following words: "The attachment of the Indian l a s t s no longer than you heap presents on him, and he sides with that party which w i l l make the g r e a t e s t . " 1 7 In s i m i l a r vein, a German o f f i c e r 17 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 119. 11. remarked: "The Indians, on account of t h e i r inborn b e s t i a l i t y , are not to be trusted."1® Because of t h e i r want of d i s c i p l i n e , even t h e i r admitted bravery was often unavailing, and they needed B r i t i s h or Canadian o f f i c e r s as leaders. Their pen-chant f o r going to extremes made them of doubtful value i n was, and often endangered t h e i r friends as much as t h e i r enemies. Nevertheless, Indian hardiness, woodcraft, and s k i l l i n hunting was ungrudgingly acknowledged. There must have been attractions i n t h e i r way of l i f e that appealed to adventurous s p i r i t s . One white man who adopted Indian ways was Captain Carleton, nephew of the Governor. Like many another B r i t o n and Canadian, t h i s young man of good family preferred the free l i f e of the woods, taking an Indian wife, and only r e l u c t a n t l y returning to c i v i l i z a t i o n to marry i n accordance with the wishes of.his r e l a t i v e s . Frau von Riedesel found that the Indians l i k e d her husband, who seems to have been one of the f i r s t of the long l i n e of distinguished v i s i t o r s to smoke the pipe at an Indian gathering and receive a complimentary t i t l e — • a ceremony that has l o s t none of i t s appeal even today. Several of the stories t o l d to the Riedesels r e f l e c t c r e d i t on the Indian character. The possible reason f o r many of the 18 Stone, Letters, p. 79 19 Riedesel, B e r u f s r e i s e . p p . 299-300 12. Indians' worst features was summed up i n the ungrammatical hut eloquent remark of one tribesman at the above-mentioned ceremony: "Bon enfant l e sauvage, lorsque sobre, mais trop bu, animal f e r o c e l " 2 0 The " c i v i l i z e d " Indians n a t u r a l l y presented a d i f f e r e n t picture i n many respects from t h e i r "savage" brethren. V i s i t o r s to Quebec frequently made the short journey to Lorette, where the Huron community provided a model of what might develop when these people s e t t l e d i n one place, took up farming, and received intensive s p i r i t u a l guidance. The inhabitants appeared to be of good physique and demeanor, and "... t h e i r houses are much neater and better b u i l t than p i those of the common French inhabitants." What struck a l l observers most f o r c i b l y was the atmosphere of piety, as exemplified i n the "fervor and modesty" of t h e i r devotions 22 under the supervision of a Jesuit missionary. Another i n t e r e s t i n g settlement was that of the Iroquois at Caughnawaga near Montreal. Although the stone houses appeared "mean and d i r t y " , the people were l a r g e l y " C i v i l i z e d and industrious", r a i s i n g crops of corn, but shunning domestic employment as slavery. Here again p i e t y was conspicuous, 20 Riedesel, B e r u f s - r e i s e , p . 302. 21 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," p. 313.-22 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 45. 13. with services i n the Iroquois language "by a French p r i e s t . Unfortunately, some in d i v i d u a l s , known as the "praying Indians", t r i e d to p r o f i t from t h e i r r e l i g i o n by wearing c r u c i f i x e s and begging with beads i n M o n t r e a l . 2 3 Despite such an abuse of r e l i g i o u s teaching, one English fur trader warmly commended the success of the French i n improving Indian behavior by subduing t h e i r temper, r e s t r a i n -ing t h e i r impetuosity, and reducing t h e i r attachment to li q u o r . The influence of most English traders was by contrast d i s t i n c t l y harmful because o f ' t h e i r habitual dishonesty, intemperance, and immorality. A s i m i l a r colony of Ojibways mixed with Mohawks existed at Oka on the Lac des Deux Montagnes. In 1768 some two 25 hundred people were engaged i n farming at t h i s l o c a t i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l who stood out commandingly from the whole Indian population was Captain Joseph Brant, the Mohawk leader. In h i s strange dress, hal f m i l i t a r y uniform, h a l f savage costume, he created an impression of manliness and i n t e l l i -gence, which was reinforced by his c u l t i v a t e d speech, good manners,and mildness of character. His conduct won the esteem of Governor Haldimand among o t h e r s . 2 6 In l a t e r years, 23 Long, Voyages and tr a v e l s , pp. 6-7. 24 Ibi d . , pp. 31-33. 25 I b i d . , pp. 25-26. 26 Riedesel, Berufs-reise, p. 301. 14. many more t r a v e l l e r s were to report on t h i s famous warrior and statesman as they met him en route or at the Mohawk v i l l a g e on the Grand River where he s e t t l e d with h i s people. The French-speaking majority, usually referred to simply as "Canadians", were a never-ending source of interest to t r a v e l l e r s . The voluminous comments on t h i s people exhibit a bewildering v a r i e t y of attitudes, running the gamut of sympathy, condescension, selective appraisal, querulous c r i t i c i s m , and indignant disapproval. Whatever preconcep-tions a v i s i t o r might hold, he could not ignore the " f a i t fran§ais", and eventually formed an opinion that either con-firmed h i s prejudices or supplied him with a fresh i n s i g h t . I t i s not surprising that the Canadians of t h i s period presented a confusing picture. As a conquered people de-prived of t h e i r former leaders and excluded from p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , they faced d i f f i c u l t problems of adjustment. The substantial advantages offered by certain features of B r i t i s h rule were counterbalanced by the appeal of American revolu-t i o n a r i e s to the t r a d i t i o n a l hatred of the B r i t i s h and to the ne\* enthusiasm f o r l i b e r t y . In economic a f f a i r s , the Canadians generally formed the lowest classes, performing the hard, disagreeable, and unremunerative functions while B r i t i s h and American intruders monopolized l u c r a t i v e employment. Never-theless, there was a French-speaking e l i t e o f clergy and seigneurs that complicated the scene, enjoying as i t did certain advantages that the new regime could not destroy. 15 The f i r s t accounts of the Canadians af t e r the Conquest singled out certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that recurred i n many subsequent appraisals during the early period. These short, sturdy men and women exhibited a "simple and inoffensive character", with a natural indolence "much calculated and 07 inured to fatigue and hard l i v i n g . Their lack of enter-prise i n s e t t l i n g the back country away from the St. Lawrence suggested that they had not been "encouraged to industry", and that they aimed only at making a bare subsistence an appalling f a c t to a Scotti s h merchant. Although backward i n farming, many Canadians had served "up-country" as canoe-men, where t h e i r expertness as navigators and t h e i r l i k i n g 28 f o r the l i f e gave them pre-eminence i n the. f u r trade. A Bostonian made much the same estimate of t h e i r q u a l i t i e s . Pointing out the absence of luxury or even "comforts & conveniences" among the Canadians, he declared: 29 "They are a chearful, Lazy, d i r t y , ignorant, happy people." He considered them much less active economically than Americans, even allowing f o r c l i m a t i c r e s t r i c t i o n s on a c t i v i t y and the frequency of r e l i g i o u s holidays. However, the i r idleness was not spent i n v i c e but i n "chearful d i s s i -30 pation", such as dr i v i n g , dancing and singing. On h i s return 27 "Journal from Hew York to Canada, 1767", p. 315 28 I b i d . , pp. 315-16. 29 Hulton, "Canada'^' p. 101 30 Loc. c i t . 16. to the southern colonies, t h i s w r i t e r drew an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison with the good burghers of Albany, i n the follow-ing terms:"... the Dutch the reverse of the French, t h e i r houses very clean, plenty of Milk, butter, cheese & meat, SI but they have not the heart to use t h e i r good things.' Some of the Americans who invaded Canada during the Revolution saw no more than they expected to see, namely, a people languishing under royal and p r i e s t l y tyranny and ripe f o r l i b e r a t i o n . One o f f i c e r gave vent to an opinion that was to have a long currency i n many parts of the English-speaking world: ...Everywhere you see marks of oppression. The people are poor and i l l i t e r a t e and appear to have no other end i n view than keeping t h e i r souls and bodies together, and preparing f o r the next world, being exceedingly devout. 2 Class d i s t i n c t i o n s were by no means lacking i n French Canadian society. Anburey declared that the seigneurs "assume more consequence than the f i r s t peer i n England." He noted that.the descendants of the noblesse considered trade 31 Hulton, "Canada*!' p. 104 . 32 "Extract of a l e t t e r from an o f f i c e r under Col. Arnold dated at Point aux Tremble ( i n Canada), Nov. 21, 1775," In John Joseph Henry, Account of Arnold's campaign against  Quebec, and of the hardships and sufferings of that band of heroes who traversed the wilderness of Maine from Cambridge to the St. Lawrence, i n the autumn of 1775, by John Joseph Henry, one of the survivors, Albany N.Y. Joel Munsell, 1877, p. 184. 33 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 43-44. 17 a disgrace, but most of the habitants claimed a f f i n i t y with a seigneur* The v i l l a g e postmasters, who kept inns, were usually members of the noblesse, and the p r i n c i p a l persons 34 of t h e i r communities. As might be expected, the conduct of the lower classes was frequently objectionable to B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s , p a r t i -c u l a r l y during the revolutionary troubles. Anburey com-plained b i t t e r l y of the "insolent and overbearing" behavior of the Canadians, who countered any threat of punishment with the r e t o r t : "Je vais l e dire au General Carleton." This indulgence of Carleton's f o r the habitants was con-sidered to be the cause of t h e i r i n s u l t i n g deportment. The same author t o l d with r e l i s h the story of one Canadian who was horsewhipped when he made the u n l e t t i n g mistake of tr y i n g to overawe the Governor's brother with the prospect of a complaint to C a r l e t o n . 3 6 The incident suggests that the B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s may have been at timea excessively arrogant. German reactions to the Canadians i n t h i s period seem to have been generally favorable. They commented on the deference paid to the seigneurs,despite t h e i r modest incomes 37 and residences. The common people were described as austere 34 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 60 35 Ib i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 43-44 36 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 38-39 37 Stone, Letters, pp. 24-26 18. rather than v o l a t i l e , without the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c French v i v a c i t y . I t was hard to win t h e i r confidence, hut when won over they were devoted followers, who showed "true droiture du coeur". Their trustfulness made them susceptible to persuasion by "scoundrels", such as those adventurers 38 who sought to induce them to rebel;. Far from being stupid and boorish peasants, the Canadians appeared as "hommes d* e s p r i t " , e x h i biting politeness without indulging i n fulsome compliments. Their extraordinary capacity f o r hard work and endurance was acknowledged. They served cheerfully i n the forces, but resented rough treatment, and needed courteous though f i r m handling to 39 obtain t h e i r co-operation. This appraisal i s an il l u m i n a t i n g complement to the B r i t i s h viewpoint expressed by Anburey. In t h e i r domestic l i f e , the Canadians appeared cleanly, orderly, and economical, l i v i n g on a simple diet and t h r i f t i l y hanging on to possessions to be transmitted to posterity. Despite t h e i r closeness with money, they were hospitable with one another, and showed a strong community f e e l i n g . An honest and unsuspicious people, they never touched the property of others, and r a r e l y locked up t h e i r premises. 4 0 38 Stone, Letters, pp. 28-29 39 I b i d . . pp. 29-30 40 I b i d . , pp. 31-32 19. After a l l these complimentary remarks, i t i s surprising to meet a contrary German opinion, that points up one of the weaknesses of Canadian l i f e . The write r asserted b l u n t l y : : "... the s t u p i d i t y and ignorance of the Canadians regarding 41 t h e i r own country i s beyond b e l i e f . " I t i s hard not to conclude that ignorance was a regrettably widespread charac-t e r i s t i c , however much we may discount the exaggerations of newcomers. The Canadians seem to have retained many of the t r a i t s of t h e i r French ancestors, modified by l o c a l circum-stances, and to have presented the spectacle of a people without any serious vices, adapted to a simple but decent existence i n a p r i m i t i v e environment. But they lacked many of the graces of French c i v i l i z a t i o n , and were poorly equipped to cope with the economically aggressive and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a l e r t Britons and Yankees. For several years after the Conquest, French Canadian society seemed destined to continue i n i t s old narrow path, but the shattering events of the American Revolution created a s i t u a t i o n where i t s weak-nesses showed up harshly. Canadian l i f e was strongly marked by the natural environment, especially i n the countryside. Furthermore, the French origins of the majority endowed them with peculiar manners and customs that fascinated foreign observers. Food, clothing, and recreation were a l l d i s t i n c t i v e l y Canadian amongst the r u r a l community. 41 Stone, Letters, p. 82 20. The food of the habitants was d i f f e r e n t from that of American farmers, and included some of the dishes that are s t i l l considered t y p i c a l l y French Canadian. Heals were substantial but lacking i n v a r i e t y and delicacy. Hulton remarked that the peasants ate more bread than meat and were unfamiliar with roasting. Dinner often consisted of a pot f i l l e d with water, peas, cabbage, and 42 f a t pork b o i l e d and stuffed with bread. This recipe showed that even then soupe aux pois a l a canadienne was a f a v o r i t e dish, and a meal i n i t s e l f . Unfortunately, t h i s coarse but savory mess did not appeal to a l l foreigners, and the same writer warned that a t r a v e l l e r who wished to be comfortable on the road should carry tea, sugar, wine 4 3 and v i c t u a l s , with a cook. Other Americans were not so c r i t i c a l of Canadian food. The p l a i n and simple diet did not bespeak poverty, and the people seemed to thrive on i t . Monotony, however was inevitable because of the practice of preparing the same dinner several days i n a row. I t was customary to f i l l the k e t t l e every night before bedtime, l e t t i n g i t simmer u n t i l morning and then stew u n t i l dinner at noon. The American soldiers who invaded Canada i n 1775 ate as much 4 4 beef at one meal as a Canadian family had i n a week. 4:2 Hulton, "Canada", pp. 101-2 4 3 Loc. o i t . 4 4 Henry, Account, p. 92 21. Although the Canadians did not fare as d e l i c a t e l y as t h e i r v i s i t o r s might have wished, t h e i r arrangements f o r keeping food during the winter and summer a l i k e won widespread admiration. The simple hut e f f i c i e n t system of using ice-houses and i c e - c e l l a r s showed how they had adapted themselves to a climate that was unfavorable to 45 stock-raising i n winter and destructive to food i n summer. The Canadian climate had an overriding influence on clothes. The majority of the population dressed f o r winter i n a costume that included several borrowings from the Indians. Home-made clothes were the ru l e , and fashion had l i t t l e sway. A t y p i c a l man's o u t f i t consisted of homespun s h i r t , c l o t h or leather breeches, k n i t t e d brown stockings, leggings, shoes or moccasins, f u r gloves and blanket coat with sash — the famous ceinture flechee. Instead of a hat, a red bonnet, f u r cap topped off a head ornamented with a 46 long queue. The wealthier Canadians did not dress with p a r t i c u l a r d i s t i n c t i o n , but some dandies adorned themselves with white-ribboned and fringed jackets that had a great 47 vogue. Canadian women inv a r i a b l y wore a long cloak or mantle, usually of scarlet cloth, when they went outdoors. In winter they added a large hood or capuchon wadded with 45 Anburey, T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, p. 108 46 Stone, Letters, pp. 32-33; Anburey, Travels, v o l 1. pp. 42-43. 47 Stone, Letters, pp. 33-34. 22. feathers. According to the observant Frau Riedesel, the petticoats and jackets underneath were often very poor and d i r t y . 4 8 A pipe was essential to the Canadian's happiness. Men were rarely seen without one i n t h e i r mouths, and even small hoys observed the practice. Anburey saw a three-49 year-old puffing away contentedly. The French Canadian addiction to tobacco was the source of much amusing comment by t r a v e l l e r s . Canadian l i f e was l a r g e l y regulated by the seasons. With the onset of winter, farming was impossible, navigation stopped, business p r a c t i c a l l y came to a s t a n d s t i l l , and m i l i t a r y operations usually ceased. As a r e s u l t , habitants and seigneurs, traders, and merchants, soldiers and o f f i c i a l s , found themselves with l i t t l e to do f o r several months each year.. Far from being depressed by the severity of the weather, the whole populace turned to recreational pursuits with amazing gusto. In t h i s f i e l d the French Canadians set an example that won over English-speaking residents and appealed p a r t i -c u l a r l y to active young English gentlemen on m i l i t a r y service. Outdoor sports were very popular; skating, snow-shoeing and c a r i o l i n g went on as long as the weather was clear. Sleighers from Montreal thought nothing of an 48 Beruf s-reise,, p. 105. 49 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 43. 23 eighteen-mile t r i p d a i l y f o r amusement, and journeys of 50 f o r t y to f i f t y miles and return were not uncommon. Naturally> t h i s strenuous open-air exercise "built up huge appetites, which set the stage for evenings of feasting and revelry. The Canadians shared the French penchant f o r dancing, and met f o r t h i s entertainment almost every night. According to one German account, these evenings were simple but l i v e l y occasions. In default of musicians, the Canadian minuet went on to the humming of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , and 51 r u s t i c throats bawled f o r t h chansons i n stentorian tones. The small English-speaking community r a p i d l y adopted Canadian amusements, a l b e i t i n a somewhat more refined form. The New Year was a great oelebration f o r the o f f i c e r s at Quebec, with dancing i n the English s t y l e u n t i l daylight. A l l the English f a m i l i e s , and the French m i l i t i a o f f i c e r s , provided f^tes at t h i s period. On New Year* s morning the Governor held a levee, and the residents of the town started 52 on a c o n v i v i a l round of c a l l s . These New Year customs were also observed i n Montreal. Young B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s took great delight i n going the rounds saluting the l a d i e s , who were at home for three days f o r t h i s purpose. Here again a Canadian custom of French o r i g i n 53 was taken over by others with only s l i g h t changes. 50 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 43 51 Stone, Letters, pp. 71-72 52 I b i d . , pp. 68-69 53 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 85-86 24. Whatever t r a v e l l e r s may have said about Canada, they were v i r t u a l l y unanimous i n t h e i r wholehearted approval of the recreational aspect of Canadian l i f e . French l i v e -l i n e s s and gaiety persisted among a l l classes of society, and found expression i n various diversions appropriate to the surroundings. Whether borrowed from the Indians or developed spontaneously, these pastimes offered an agree-able way of overcoming the monotony of winter u n t i l warmer weather permitted the resumption of sustained economic a c t i v i t y . The modest circumstances of the habitants were no obstacle to an enjoyable s o c i a l l i f e . Their example had a deep effect on new a r r i v a l s , and speedily imparted to the English-speaking community a d i s t i n c t l y Canadian f l a v o r . In t h i s way, some of the natural antagonism between the races wore off and was replaced by an embryonic f e e l i n g of i d e n t i t y . I t i s perhaps not too much to say that t h i s universal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s i m i l a r amusements was one of the most important unifying factors i n a society otherwise s p l i t by divergent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Social conditions i n Canada re f l e c t e d the united effects of environment and t r a d i t i o n . Housing was one of the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c manifestations of these influences. As t r a v e l l e r s s a i l e d along the St. Lawrence, they noticed the rows of whitewashed dwellings that l i n e d the r i v e r banks, and when they came ashore cu r i o s i t y , frequently impelled them to examine the outside and inside of the buildings at close 25. hand. Some of the early accounts of Canada went into extraordinary d e t a i l about houses and t h e i r f u r n i t u r e . These seem to have been an inexhaustible source of interest to newcomers. In the towns, houses were usually of stone, with wooden f l o o r s and p a r t i t i o n s . One account describes very pri m i t i v e i n t e r i o r s , with clumsily l a i d (and d i r t y ) f l o o r s , ladders i n place of s t a i r s , and no c e i l i n g s , so that any 54 noise was heard i n every room. Montreal had a number of more substantial houses, designed to combat the recurring plague of f i r e that had destroyed most of the e a r l i e r wooden structures. Thick fireproof dividing,walls and protected roofs were augmented by double doors to each apartment, and double shutters on the windows. The plate-i r o n outer doors and shutters were usually painted green, forming a pleasant contrast with the white buildings. Quebec houses were s i m i l a r , but many had been made bomb-55 proof as w e l l as fir e p r o o f . Farmhouses were generally one-storey e d i f i c e s of wooden beams chinked with moss, clay, stones, or mortar, and fin i s h e d with lime or boards. B r i c k s and t i l e s were un-known. Out-buildings might be of hewn logs covered with sod, straw, or b i r c h bark. P r i v i e s were apparently 54 Hulton, "Canada," pp. 102-103 55 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 73-74 26. uncommon. The i n t e r i o r s , l i k e the outsides, struck observers as monotonously s i m i l a r . Planed hoards without pla s t e r formed the inside walls and p a r t i t i o n s . The ri c h e r habitants and seigneurs b u i l t i n the same s t y l e , on a larger scale, but few aspired to the dig n i t y of a 57 second storey. Descriptions of the i n t e r i o r s give an impression of simple comfort. Among the scanty f u r n i t u r e , large cano-pied beds took pride of place. In poor households, these would a l l be i n one room, but the more genteel f o l k had two or more bedrooms. Large fa m i l i e s must have been crowded together at night, but everyone had h i s own p i l l o w , and several t r a v e l l e r s remarked on the cleanliness of the beds. Although the habitant did not possess elaborate f u r n i -ture, the house could usually boast tea and coffee services i n English stoneware or d e l f t . Even ordinary people might 59 have considerable s i l v e r . A d i s t i n c t i v e feature of Canadian farmsteads that impressed Europeans was the ice-house dug i n the earth and l i n e d with boards. This permitted the keeping of food i n a clean and wholesome condition throughout the year, and was indispensable when livestock was slaughtered i n the f a l l and whole carcasses had to be stored f o r several months. 56 Stone, Letters, p. 20 57 I b i d . , pp. 16-18 58 Ibid.., pp. 18-19 59 I b i d . , p. 19 60 Riedesel, Berufs-reise, p. 287 27 Preparation f o r the winter was a formidable process i n both town and country, i t involved, to the amazement of new a r r i v a l s from more temperate climes, walling up fir e p l a c e s and substituting f o r them b i g iron stoves. Complaints about the unhealthiness of these stoves cannot a l l be set down to B r i t i s h abhorrence of central heating; excessive temperatures, lack of v e n t i l a t i o n and leakage of noxious fumes were c l e a r l y apparent to strangers, a l -though ignored by natives. One Englishman drew attention to the lack of proper drafts and dampers, arguing that the Canadians should take lessons from the Russians and Germans, who had learned to design f or e f f i c i e n t and comfortable heating. The same author assigned the p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r red-hot stoves as the cause f o r the high tuberculosis rate amongst Canadians, despite the h e a l t h f u l Climate. A physician had emphasized to him the danger children incurred by dashing into the freezing a i r from overheated rooms and 62 back again* Certainly the habit of s i t t i n g around glowing stoves smoking incessantly must have been harmful, and might have been responsible f o r the sallow complexions that characterized Canadians i n the winter. 61" Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 56-57, 90-93 62 I b i d . , pp. 90-93 28. Cultural l i f e a f t e r the Conquest was at a low ebb. What survived from the French regime did not make.much of an impression on Europeans. Apart from domestic architec-ture, churches and convents were the main objects of in t e r e s t . The cathedral at Quebec was notable for i t s unique s l a t e roof and highly ornamented i n t e r i o r with a g i l t p u l p i t , f l a t c e i l i n g , and plank f l o o r . This l a s t feature was eminently p r a c t i c a l i n the winter, when stone f l o o r s would have been unpleasantly cold. The arts and l e t t e r s appeared to be almost e n t i r e l y wanting amongst the mass of the population, who suffered from de f i c i e n t knowledge and a narrow range of experience. Few Canadians were l i t e r a t e , and even these wrote i n a manner as crude as t h e i r speech. Only the cures gave the impression of being w e l l informed. 6 4 A Lutheran chaplain with the German forces at Quebec i n 1776 recorded that the seminary had the only l i b r a r y i n the c i t y , consisting of 65 a few Latxn and many French books. 63 Anburey, Travels,vol. 1, pp. 38-39 64 Stone,.. Letters, pp. 36-37 65 F.V. Melsheimer, "Journal of the voyage of the Brunswick a u x i l i a r i e s from Wolfenbuttel to Quebec, by F. V. Melsheimer, chaplain to the Duke of Brunswick's dragoon regiment, Minden, 1776," trans. William Wood and William L. Stone, L i t e r a r y and h i s t o r i c a l society of Quebec, Transactions, Quebec, "Morning chronicle" steam p r i n t i n g establishment, 1891, no. 20, sessions of 1889 to 1891, p. 160 29. Most observers were surprised at the predominance of the clergy i n i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e . The f l o u r i s h i n g state of r e l i g i o n contrasted sharply with the barrenness of the c u l t u r a l scene. Since most of the early t r a v e l l e r s were Protestants, they viewed with i n t e r e s t and a c e r t a i n un-easiness the unusual spectacle of entrenched and popular Romanism under B r i t i s h r u l e . Their voluble comments showed a v a r i e t y of attitudes ranging from detachment to uncom-promising h o s t i l i t y . A t y p i c a l remark, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of many l a t e r accounts, was that "The lower people are i n general very ignorant, and much governed by t h e i r p r i e s t s . " As opposed to t h i s , a pious American admitted that the "fervency and zeal" of Catholic services was "a severe and additional stroke at early prejudices." V i s i t o r s , to Quebec were usually sur-prised at the lack of r e l i g i o u s animosity. The atmosphere of tolerance was exemplified by the arrangement f o r Pro-testants to use Catholic churches f o r services i n default of t h e i r own buildings. This*laudable development was held to emphasize the wisdom of the Quebec Act i n t o l e r a t i n g Roman Catholicism. Such an example of harmony, however, could not disguise numerous features that jarred on Protestant s u s c e p t i b i l i t i e s . 66 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," p. 315 67 Henry, Account, p. 91 68 Anburey. Travels, v o l . 1, p. 39 30. The crosses l i n i n g the roads, accompanied by wax images "behind glass and instruments of the c r u c i f i x i o n , not only -looked incongruous, hut caused numerous delays to t r a v e l l e r s . Whatever the weather, devout drivers would leap from t h e i r carriages at every wayside cross to say a prayer, much to 69 the annoyance of impatient passengers. The celebration of the feast of Corpus C h r i s t i or La Pete-Pieu was a p a r t i c u l a r l y impressive sight, as the procession wound through the streets decked with fresh greenery, the host reposing under a crimson canopy, escorted by the clergy and a band of musicians, i n the midst of flowers and censers. The B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s , keenly aware of the need to smooth over possible sources of i r r i -t a t i o n , had ordered troops to take off t h e i r hats to the 70 host. We can imagine the effect of t h i s unwonted spectacle on v i s i t o r s from countries where such r i t u a l was s t i l l proscribed. Despite t h e i r i n terest i n such manifestations, Pro-testant observers did not disguise t h e i r uneasiness at the state of a f f a i r s . When Anburey attended a Christmas Eve service, he remarked on the great shout that greeted the a r r i v a l of the cradle and c h i l d . His experiences moved 69 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 39 70 I b i d . , pp. 123-124 31. him to assert: "These superstitious people i m p l i c i t l y "believe, the waxen images that are shown them by the pr i e s t s , to be absolutely the persons they are intended to represent." x This was not a s o l i t a r y impression. Frau von Riedesel found the Ursuline nuns at Trois-Rivieres f r i e n d l y and pleasant company. She had many enjoyable experiences with the h i g h - s p i r i t e d young women whom she v i s i t e d , and did not notice any resentment over r e l i g i o u s differences. Yet when her five-month-old daughter died and was buried at Sorel, she was deeply troubled l e s t the " b l i n d - e i f r i g e Catholiken" should d i s i n t e r the body from consecrated ground as that of a her e t i c . Fortunately, the parish p r i e s t agreed to keep h i s parishioners under'control by 72 i n s i s t i n g that the c h i l d had been baptized. I t i s hard to obtain a f a i r picture of r e l i g i o n i n Canada at t h i s time from the sources quoted. Apparently i n the larger centres there was l i t t l e f r i c t i o n and overt antagonism, whatever may have been the private opinions of adherents to the various denominations. In the country, however, the behavior of the majority of the habitants must have given some cause f o r the charges of "bigotry" and"superstition" that continued to r i s e to the l i p s of 71 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 86 72 Riedesel, Berufs-reise, p. 311 32. many commentators, The clergy, with t h e i r advantages of learning and prestige, showed a more urbane attitude to "heretics" than did most of t h e i r congregations, although the l a t t e r generally allowed t h e i r good nature to p r e v a i l over suspicion. The u t i l i z a t i o n of Canada's physical resources was on much the same pri m i t i v e l e v e l as the s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c -t u a l l i f e of the people. Early reports noted the undeveloped p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the Canadian economy, and expressed the hope f o r f r u i t f u l progress with the advent of peace and enlightened B r i t i s h r u l e . Some B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r s believed that the incentive f o r improvement had been thwarted under the French by continual warfare, oppressive government, and a rapacious clergy. The growing exports of lumber and grain promised a more prosperous and d i v e r s i f i e d economy than that of the old regime, which had kept agriculture 73 i n the subsistence stage and over-emphasized the fur trade. One of the most flagrant examples of French "backward-ness" was the v i r t u a l l i m i t a t i o n of settlement to the banks and islands of the St. Lawrence. Although these areas were we l l peopled, they formed l i t t l e more than a double ribbon of farms and v i l l a g e s backed on each side of the r i v e r by the wilderness. In 1767, settlement extended upstream to Lac St-Francois, j u s t south of Montreal, with some expansion 73 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 132-133 33. along the Richelieu R i v e r . 7 4 By 1776 the countryside below Quebec was s t i l l t h i n l y populated, but from there to Montreal clearing f o r new "plantations" was apparent. Every three leagues or so there was a t i n y community with i t s church, 75 parsonage, auberge, school, and a few houses. These parishes consisted of houses scattered apart at distances of from one hundred to s i x hundred paces, often with intervening patches of woodland. Houses were almost invariably located along a road or r i v e r , hardly ever i n the rear. Each habitant had h i s own f i e l d s , meadows, or gardens, i n front of, or behind, h i s house, as wel l as a farm woodlot. The arrangement reminded a German o f f i c e r 76 of the enclosed marshland near Bremen. Hew houses were constantly being b u i l t to accommodate the growing population. Trees were f e l l e d by burning to provide b u i l d i n g material. Over a number of years the houses were improved and the ground cleared up to a quarter league around them. Although the forests were s t i l l exten-sive, the new clearings had a charred and "desolate" appear-ance. However, the burnt-over land yielded good crops of 77 grass and hay. This pattern of settlement was linked with the close-k n i t character of the Canadian family. When a son or daughter 74 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," pp. 307, 309,311. 75 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 60 76 Stone, Letters, pp. 13-14 77 I b i d . , pp. 26-28 34. married, the family usually helped the couple to estab l i s h 7ft a new homestead, preferably nearby.'° Thus the remaining land along the r i v e r was gradually taken up, and even before the onset of large-scale immigration the problem of s e t t l i n g the r i s i n g generation of habitants was becoming more serious every year. Opinions on the character and prospects of Canadian agriculture varied widely. One viewpoint expressed by an American was that the natural wealth of the f e r t i l e r i v e r s i d e s o i l s compensated f o r the laziness of the farmers, who were reluctant to manure the land and provide fodder f o r the c a t t l e . Their horses were good carriage animals, but t h e i r cows were "small half-starved poor creatures", 79 and t h e i r homes and d a i r i e s were p r i m i t i v e and insanitary. The same author remarked acutely on the too d r a s t i c clear-ing of woods from the land, and deplored the s c a r c i t y of RO woodlots, orchards, and gardens. Another American observer made some in t e r e s t i n g r e f l e c t i o n s on agriculture during h i s mission to persuade the Canadians to j o i n the thirteen colonies i n t h e i r r e v o l t . As he journeyed from St-Jean to Montreal and Sorel he was impressed with the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the country once i t came 78 Riedesel, Beruf s-reise, -p. 120 79 Hulton, "Canada," p. 101 80 Ib i d . , p. 102 35. to know true l i b e r t y . The farmers i n the "large and neat" v i l l a g e s seemed to be the " r i c h men i n Canada", as opposed to the impoverished seigneurs.®1 To German, eyes, the picture was even more favorable. The o f f i c e r s thought the breed of c a t t l e "excellent", and observed no serious inroads on the herds despite the generous v i c t u a l l i n g of the army. The milk and butter were good, but cheese was rare. Wild ducks and pigeons took the place of domestic v a r i e t i e s , although tame chickens, turkeys, 82 and geese were p l e n t i f u l . While recognizing divergences from European farming practice, p a r t i c u l a r l y the lack of manuring, the Germans considered the grains very good, and remarked on the v a r i e t y of vegetables, including such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y American products as pumpkins. There was some good winter f r u i t raised near Montreal, but the harsh climate deterred the 83 poorer farmers from venturing into fruit-growing. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to record the impressions of these Germans when they advanced into the r i c h pastures of Vermont. 81 Charles C a r r o l l , Journal of Charles C a r r o l l of  Carrollton, during h i s v i s i t to Canada i n 1776, as one of  the commissioners from Congress: with a memoir and notes  hv Brantz Mayer, Baltimore, Maryland h i s t o r i c a l society, 1845, pp. 73-74, 77, 79. 82 Stone, Letters, pp. 15-16 83 Ib i d . , pp. 14-15 36. One write r asserted that the Canadian horses were f i f t y -percent better than those i n Vermont, hut that the Vermont 84 c a t t l e were eighty percent better than those i n Canada. Another G-erman observer of the same period, Frau von Riedesel, p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed the spectacle of the herds returning at night to the a t t r a c t i v e white-washed houses. This d a i l y pilgrimage of cows and swine to the woods. 85 suggested that these animals were i n a semi-wild state. The same writer was one of the f i r s t to note that most of the livestock was slaughtered at the beginning of winter and sold i n town, only a few animals .being kept u n t i l spring.' A B r i t i s h army o f f i c e r emphasized the benefits con-ferred by the B r i t i s h government on t h i s n a t u r a l l y f r u i t f u l land. The habitants vrere much better o ff than the country people of England. Emancipated from the indolence that characterized them under French r u l e , they were improving 87 t h e i r farms and enriching themselves ra p i d l y . Economic a c t i v i t i e s of every kind were rudimentary fo r a number of years after the Conquest. Apart from the fur trade, a l i t t l e f i s h i n g and lumbering, and the extraction of pine-tar, the main non-agricultural enterprise was 84 Stone, Letters, pp. 86 85 Riedesel, Beruf s-reise, pp. 120-121 86 Ib i d . , p. 288 87 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 53-54 37. iron-smelting and working. The Forges St-Maurice, near Trois-Rivieres, using l o c a l ores, had operated f o r many years under the French. In 1768, the plant was producing stoves and k e t t l e s , which were shipped cheaply by water to domestic markets. This industry contributed a good deal \ 88 to the prosperity of Trois-Rivieres. As a concomitant of the low degree of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , the opportunities f o r non-farm employment were l i m i t e d . Among the trades noted were the usual services and cr a f t s to be expected i n a community with a modest degree of urban development. These trades included tavern-keeping, wine and l i q u o r s e l l i n g , merchandising, shoemaking, ^ t a i l o r i n g , wheel and cabinet-making. 8^ For several decades after the Conquest, Canada was a land of rude plenty f o r most of the r u r a l population. This happy state of a f f a i r s was due to the p r o d i g a l i t y of nature rather than to the s k i l l and enterprise of the habitants. The rapid natural increase and the gradual exhaustion of the s o i l threatened to undermine the Canadian economy, unless new resources were tapped and new methods adopted. Even before the American Revolution precipitated r a d i c a l changes, the weaknesses of a society based on a subsistence agriculture were apparent. 88 long, Voyages and tr a v e l s , pp. 3-4 89 Stone, Letters, p. 28 38. Since the e a r l i e s t times, the development of trans-portation has had a profound influence on Canada's p o l i t i c a l organization and economic expansion. Eastern Canada was discovered and explored v i a the great waterway of the St. Lawrence, and i t s growth u n t i l the middle of the nineteenth century was larg e l y the spread of settlement along t h i s single l i n e of communication and i t s t r i b u t a r y routes. Land transport at f i r s t p a r a l l e l e d the waterways, supplying an alternative means of t r a v e l when winter closed navigation. Nearly every t r a v e l l e r devoted considerable space i n h i s l e t t e r s and books to h i s experiences with Canadian forms of transport, which provided some of the most poignant memories of v i s i t s to the province. As Europeans approached Canada up the St. Lawrence, they were impressed by t h i s navigable route into the heart of the colony, but they often noted i t s drawbacks as w e l l . Anburey pointed out that the ice and fogs that blocked the r i v e r f o r long periods n u l l i f i e d to a great extent the 90 advantages of a f e r t i l e s o i l and a h e a l t h f u l climate. The expense of navigation was increased by the requirement under insurance regulations to carry p i l o t s from Point-au-Pere to Quebec. In 1781, these p i l o t s often received as 91 much as twenty guineas a t r i p f or t h e i r services. 90 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 27 91 Riedesel, Berufs-reise, p. 286 39 On land, t r a v e l l e r s often expressed themselves f r e e l y about the novelty of r i d i n g i n caleches.There was general agreement that these were a fa s t means of transport, but opinions about t h e i r comfort varied. One t r a v e l l e r found 92 them "very uneasy and inconvenient"; another described them as a "kind of clumsy wooden chaise", but said they 93 provided "very pleasant quick t r a v e l l i n g " . A d i v e r t i n g feature of journeys i n these vehicles was the drivers' habit of t a l k i n g incessantly to the horses, c a l l i n g them by f a v o r i t e names, when they were not pl y i n g t h e i r whips or singing to urge them on.^ 4 The existence of post-houses i n each parish, with f i v e or s i x caleches available f o r t r a v e l l e r s at any time, provided a r e g u l a r i t y of service that won the approval of European observers. In the early years the rate f o r carry-ing passengers was usually about one s h i l l i n g per league. I t was noteworthy that the custodians of post-houses, together with seigneurs and captains of m i l i t i a , were exempt from quartering and providing conveyances i n wartime. 92 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," p. 309. 93 Hulton, "Canada," p. 103. 94 Riedesel, Berufs-reise, pp. 111-112. 95, Stone, Letters, p. 28. 40. The habitants were well supplied with means of t r a v e l , each one having a horse, caleche, and s l e i g h . Despite the li m i t e d use of iron i n b u i l d i n g the carriages, t h e i r tough wooden structure stood up w e l l to the unavoidable j o l t i n g . The l i g h t , sturdy horses were shod only i n winter, and they 96 were usually guided by words, rather than by the whip. Observations on the state of the roads were often c o n f l i c t i n g . The t r a v e l l e r ' s attitude seems to have varied with the season, since roads were better maintained i n winter, when snow provided a smoother surface. An American soldier who reached Montreal i n November, 1775, considered the roads to be " i n excellent order", and reported that the c'orvee was being kept up e f f e c t i v e l y but l e s s r i g i d l y than under the French. He noted the practice of set t i n g up pine saplings (balises) to mark routes, and the law requiring landowners to retrace the roads through t h e i r property when 97 fresh snow f e l l . There were certain d i f f i c u l t i e s i n winter d r i v i n g when winds heaped up snowdrifts and the b a l i s e s had to be sh i f t e d to mark changed i n the routes. Frozen r i v e r s made excellent highways, so long as the weak spots were indicated. The most dangerous period f o r t r a v e l was during the freeze-up and 98 break-up, when f a t a l accidents were not uncommon. With the 96 Stone, Letters, -pp. 34-35. 97 Henry, Account, p. 93 98 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 116-117 41 a r r i v a l of spring, conditions became abominable. An American, recounting a t r i p from St-Jean to La p r a i r i e i n A p r i l 1776, declared: "I never t r a v e l l e d through worse roads, or i n 99 worse carriages." Canadian bridges made of beams or tree-trunks l a i d side by side were a novelty to Europeans, i f not to Americans. These queer structures were s t i l l serviceable even i f one beam broke, but they were dangerous at night, especially ^ 100 for horses. Whatever v i s i t o r s thought of the transportation system, they were generally united i n t h e i r attitude to the pro-vi s i o n s f o r accommodating t r a v e l l e r s . They grudgingly admitted that the food was adequate and inexpensive, but everything else drew t h e i r unreserved condemnation. Hulton described the taverns of Montreal as "dear, and d i r t y " Anburey found only two taverns i n Quebec city,"both of them i n the worst state imaginable", with f a c i l i t i e s that "would 102 disgrace the meanest public-house i n London". The chorus of disapproval from American and B r i t i s h sources showed that, even allowing for the disruption caused by the i n -vasion of 1775-1776, the Canadian t o u r i s t industry was hopelessly p r i m i t i v e . 99 C a r r o l l , Journal, p. 73. 100 Stone, L e t t e r s , p p . 44-48. 101 Hulton, "Canada," p. 103. 102 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 33. 42. The governance of Canada posed awkward problems i n the two decades between 1763 and 1783. A small group of English-speaking o f f i c i a l s held sway over a population foreign to them i n speech, customs, and r e l i g i o n . When the American colonies broke out i n r e v o l t , the s i t u a t i o n became extremely d e l i c a t e . During part of t h i s period the province was almost an armed camp. I t was hard f o r outsiders to gain much understanding of p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and aspirations. Under B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y rule and the Quebec Act, the governor's person was the mainspring of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . Nevertheless, there was a certain amount of delegation of authority to l o c a l o f f i c i a l s . A German o f f i c e r remarked on the system of naming a captain of m i l i t i a i n each parish, aided by a lieutenant of police and sergeant. The captains were held accountable for everything i n t h e i r respective j u r i s d i c t i o n s , and often had t h e i r hands f u l l during the American invasion. The Germans saw many instances of rebel-l i o u s parishes i n which the c a t t l e had been f o r f e i t e d , the 103 f i r e s extinguished, and the roofs pulled down. This scheme of l o c a l administration, possibly influenced by the English concept of j u s t i c e s of the peace, was an i n t e r e s t i n g adaptation from the French regime. The p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Canada inspired comments by several observers. In 1767 a S c o t t i s h t r a v e l l e r found 103 Stone, Letters, pp. 22-24. 43. the Canadians "averse" to the B r i t i s h for various reasons. The n o b i l i t y and seigneurs resented t h e i r lack of p r i v i l e g e s and t h e i r exclusion from the army; the remaining traders were more reconciled to t h e i r p o s i t i o n , although sometimes h o s t i l e because of t h e i r "avarice and bigotry"; the lower people were inspired s o l e l y by "prejudices", mainly r e l i g i o u s . P r i e s t l y influence was furthered by the "loose morals and l i t t l e r e l i g i o n " of the English-speaking residents i n the 104 colony. Anburey, as a B r i t i s h o f f i c e r i n Quebec following the l i f t i n g of the American siege, asserted that the Canadians were not "well affected to" the government although they enjoyed the blessings of t o l e r a t i o n , l i b e r t y , and the B r i t i s h c onstitution. He thought that they looked f o r French protection, and would help the Americans i f the 105 B r i t i s h forces proved weak. Travellers unquestionably received d i f f e r i n g im-pressions of Canada with regard to the d e t a i l s of l i f e . Yet, taken as a whole, the country appeared i n a favor-able l i g h t to most outsiders who saw the province between 1763 and 1783. Possibly t h i s appraisal was a reaction against the dire tales brought back by e a r l i e r v i s i t o r s . Many accounts of Canada had given currency to the myth of a land tormented by unbearable winters and peopled by a 104 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," pp. 316-317. 105 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 40. 44 m i x t u r e o f f e r o c i o u s s a v a g e s a n d p e a s a n t s s t e e p e d i n p o v e r t y , i g n o r a n c e , a n d s u p e r s t i t i o n . T h i s d e l u s i o n w a s u n d e r s t a n d -a b l e i n E u r o p e a n s ; i t w a s s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d s i m i l a r m i s -c o n c e p t i o n s a m o n g s t A m e r i c a n s . T h e r e w a s a r e v e a l i n g a d -m i s s i o n i n t h e r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f a P e n n s y l v a n i a n who t o o k p a r t i n A r n o l d ' a ; m a r c h t o Q u e b e c i n 1 7 7 5 : " . . . w h e r e I t h o u g h t t h e r e c o u l d . b e l i t t l e o t h e r t h a n b a r b a r i t y , we f o u n d c i v i l i z e d m e n , i n a c o m f o r t a b l e s t a t e , e n j o y i n g a l l t h e b e n e f i t s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y . " 1 0 6 E v e n m o r e s t r i k i n g . .was t h e f i n a l s u m m i n g - u p b y H u l t o n , w h o s e u n s p a r i n g s t r i c t u r e s c a s t i g a t e d m a n y o f t h e w o r s t a s p e c t s o f C a n a d i a n l i f e . A s a g r a c e f u l p a r t i n g t r i b u t e w h e n h e r e t u r n e d t o B o s t o n i n 1 7 7 2 h e d e s c r i b e d i n a l m o s t l y r i c a l p h r a s e s a n i d y l l i c c o m m u n i t y w h o l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e e f f e t e s o c i e t y o f c o n t e m p o r a r y E n g l a n d : The C o n t r a s t I n L o n d o n A h e a v y g l o o m y s k y - -s u s p i c i o u s c o u n t e n a n c e s - -b a r r e d d o o r s - - : a d i s p l a y o f w e a l t h - - a r e f i n e m e n t o f t a s t e — s e l f - g r a t i -f i c a t i o n e n c r e a s e d ^ — t h e h e a r t c o n t r a c t e d - - p r i n -c i p l e s c o r r u p t e d - - t h e p a s s i o n s i n f l a m e d — -G r e a t n e s s s a t i e t e d w i t h p l e a s u r e & p i n i n g u n d e r t h e w e i g h t o f e n j o y m e n t — I n C a n a d a A c l e a r b l u e s k y - -c h e a r f u l c o u n t e n a n c e s — h e a r t s a t e a s e — o p e n h o u s e s - - a s i m p l i c i t y o f m a n n e r s - -a n i g n o r a n c e o f L u x u r y - - a c o n t e n t m e n t w i t h t h e i r l o t — i n n o c e n t a m u s e m e n t s - - s i m p l e e n j o y m e n t s & a n h e a r t y c o m m u n i c a t i o n : o f t h e m t o o t h e r s . H a p p y C a n a d i a n ! who l i v e s S a n s o u c i - - f e e l s n o w a n t - -Kn'ows n o a n x i e t y b u t w r a p t 1 0 6 H e n r y , A c c o u n t , p . 7 6 . 4 5 . The Contrast (continued) In London Wealth mortify'd--Men i n o f f i c e soured & discon-tented—Thousands l i v i n g "beyond t h e i r means to v i e i n appearance with those above them,--and of course wretched. In Canada i n f l a n n e l jacket drives about i n h i s c a r r i o l e - - w i t h appetite keen--with s p i r i t s l i g h t as the a i r he breathes — laughs, sings, and dances l i f e away—This i s surely the country where the plant c a l l ' d hearts-ease so rare els'where grows l i k e a weed, & i s found at every Cottage. 107 Hulton, "Canada", p. 107 46. CHAPTER I I ADJUSTMENT AND PROGRESS: LOWER CANADA, 1784-1814. During the period 1784-1814 Canada underwent remark-able changes. No longer did an almost e n t i r e l y French population surround a handful of English-speaking admin-i s t r a t o r s and merchants. With the establishment of Ameri-can independence, a wave of L o y a l i s t s swept into what was l e f t of B r i t i s h North America. The a r r i v a l of so many energetic, a r t i c u l a t e , and often talented immigrants va s t l y enlarged the role of the English-speaking community, imparting to the colony a dual character that was recognized i n the separation of Upper and Lower Canada i n 1791. In addition to t h i s fundamental change i n the Canadian population, world events affected conditions even i n so distant a colony. The French Revolution, with i t s emphasis on nationalism and democracy, could not f a i l to influence Canada i n the long run, although i t s effects were delayed by the united h o s t i l i t y of the B r i t i s h government and the Roman Catholic church. Furthermore, the I n d u s t r i a l Revo-l u t i o n was w e l l under way i n B r i t a i n , and i t s ramifications i n the United States could not f a i l to penetrate north of the border. At the end of t h i s period the War of 1812 saw the Canadian peoples united against another American invasion, from which they emerged with considerable c r e d i t . Yet 47 the dominant tendencies of the time, i n contrast to those of the previous two decades, were d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . I t i s convenient to examine accounts of the two provinces separately, i n view of t h e i r divergent natures. Lower Canada, as i t o f f i c i a l l y became i n 1791, re-mained u n t i l w e l l after 1814 the more populous and deve-loped province. I t continued to a t t r a c t numerous t r a v e l l e r s v i a the ocean route to Quebec or the Lake Ghamplain water-way to Montreal. In observing the reactions of newcomers to the Canadian scene, i t i s useful to remember that t h i s • period saw the triumph of romanticism i n English l i t e r a t u r e . Extravagant praise f o r natural beauty needs to be discounted i n some instances. A v i s i t o r from Manchester declared i n August 1785 that the view from the P l a i n s of Abraham was "... without exception the most sublime, grand and b e a u t i f u l and int e r e s t i n g scene I ever beheld." 1 This testimony from one who had been i n Switzerland and the Tyrol would be more convincing i f he had not used almost i d e n t i c a l language 2 about the view from Mount Royal a few days e a r l i e r . 1 Joseph Hadfield, An Englishman i n America, 1785, being  the diary of Joseph H a d f i e l d , e d . and annotated by Douglas S. Robertson, Toronto, Hunter-Rose, 1933, p. 146. 2 I b i d . , p. 112 48. Nevertheless, the s i t u a t i o n of Quebec continued to c a l l f o r t h praise that cannot be ascribed wholly to excess of youthful enthusiasm. In 1796, an Irishman with a keen eye f o r landscape asserted that the view from the Upper Town, "... f o r i t s grandeur, i t s beauty, and i t s d i v e r s i t y , surpasses a l l that I have hitherto seen i n America, or 3 indeed i n any other part of the globe." This opinion was confirmed by the sober statement of an experienced t r a v e l l e r i n 1806: "I have seen most of the f i n e views i n Europe; and I can safely say, they do not surpass, perhaps they do not equal, that from the f l a g s t a f f of Quebec on Gape Diamond."4 The climate did not evoke the same general admiration as the scenery. Most newcomers, however, found the winters less harrowing than they expected, and were surprised at the rapid growth of vegetation i n the short but t o r r i d summers. In August 1785, Hadfield remarked on the v a r i e t y of garden flowers at Quebec i n the following terms: " I begin to think the l u r i d accounts of the cold and unfavourable climate of t h i s country do not proceed so much from 3 Isaac Weld, Travels through the states of North America, and the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, during the  years 1795. 1796, and 1797, London, J. Stockdale, 1799, p. 203. 4 Hugh Gray, Letters from Canada, written during a r e s i -dence there i n the years 1806, 1807, and 1808: shewing; the  present state of Canada, i t s productions--trade—"Commercial  importance and p o l i t i c a l relations,London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1809, p. 65. 49. disadvantages as from the indolence and ignorance of the Canadians, who have no notion of q u i t t i n g the path they 5 have been accustomed to pursue." This ingenious explanation may have had some basis, but the fa c t remained that the long, hard winters, l a s t i n g some f i v e months, sharply r e s t r i c t e d economic a c t i v i t i e s . Snow was a serious problem i n the Quebec streets, where d r i f t s often p i l e d up above a man's height, and sometimes reached to garret windows. Montreal had i t s own problem of ice-jams or refoulements, occuring two or three times each winter. A B r i t i s h o f f i c e r staying at a hotel on the r i v e r bank i n 1797 f e l t considerable alarm when the i c e 7 .rose twenty feet above the second-storey window. The same o f f i c e r commented on the dangers of extremely cold weather f o r so l d i e r s . At Quebec, sentinels were relieved every f i f t e e n minutes under severe conditions, but even so there were several cases of freezing to death. g Drunkenness was p a r t i c u l a r l y dangerous at such times. 5 Hadfield, Englishman i n America. 1785, p. 147 6 John Lambert, Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America, i n the years 1806. 1807, & 18Q8, to which are added, biographical'notices and anecdotes of  some of the leading characters i n the United States, London, Baldwin, Cradock and Joy, 1814-16, v o l . 1, p. 107. 7 George Thomas Landmann, Adventures and re c o l l e c t i o n s  of Colonel Landmann, l a t e of the Corps of Royal Engineers, London, Colburn, 1852, v o l . 1, pp.228-231. 8 Ibi d . , v o l . 1, pp. 259-260. 50. Fortunately, people were quick to notice the onset of f r o s t -b i t e i n others, and did not hesitate to warn victims immediate-l y . Some unbelieving v i s i t o r s were surprised at t o t a l strangers peremptorily rubbing t h e i r faces with snow. This brusque treatment, was deeply appreciated when the reason was made clear.^ New a r r i v a l s did not usually f e e l the cold as much as the Canadians f o r the f i r s t two or three years. English-men i n p a r t i c u l a r , hardened by open f i r e p l a c e s , draughty rooms, and inadequate clothing, stood up wel l to the elements u n t i l the d e b i l i t a t i n g effects of hot stoves and heavy garments reduced them to the l e v e l of the natives. "^Although Europeans were prepared for the cold, they did not a n t i c i -pate the heat of the Canadian summer. On a June day i n -1792 an Englishwoman found the heat of Montreal "... more insufferable than I had ever f e l t . " The i r o n doors and shutters and t i n roofs of the c i t y created a foretaste of 11 the Inferno. Most accounts tended to minimize the disadvantages of the Canadian climate. One B r i t i s h w r i t e r pointed out that Russia had undergone remarkable development with a s i m i l a r climate, and Quebec was better situated than 9 Hugh Gray, Letters, pp. 291-293. 10 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 119-120. 11 Elizabeth Posthuma (Gwillim) "Simcoe, The, diary of  Mrs. John Graves Simcoe, wife of the f i r s t Lieutenant-governor of the province of Upper Canada, 1792-6, with notes and a biography, by J. Ross Robertson, Toronto, William Briggs,- 1911, p. 95. 51. 12 St. Petersburg f o r winter navigation. Furthermore, t r a v e l l e r s returning to the B r i t i s h I s l e s missed the bright sun, blue sky, and clear a i r of Canada. A representative opinion ran as follows: "Upon the whole, the climate of the Canadas, com-pared with the climate of Great B r i t a i n , i s equally agree-able; equally favorable to agriculture; and actually more healthy.»13 Most v i s i t o r s to Canada were not merely sightseers. Several observers were keenly interested i n the p o s s i b i l i -t i e s f o r developing the natural endowment of s o i l s , vegeta-t i o n , and w i l d l i f e . The most impressive feature to any newcomer was the vast and s t i l l l a r g e l y untouched f o r e s t . The spectacle on the Temiscouata portage inspired one p r a c t i c a l Scot to a rare f l i g h t of eloquence: "Forest of the most st a t e l y kind, coeval perhaps with the world, and extensive as the great continent which sustains them, which have never suffered diminution since the creation, and f i t 14 to supply the world with ship timber to the end of time...." 12 Gray, Letters, pp. 319-320. 13 David Anderson, Canada: or, A view of the importance  of the B r i t i s h American colonies, London, J. M. Richard-son, 1814, p. 46. 14 P a t r i c k Campbell, Travels i n the i n t e r i o r inhabited  parts of North America i n the years 1791 and 1792, ed., with an introduction, H. H. Langton, and with notes by H. H. Langton and ¥. F. Ganong, Toronto, Champlain Society, 1937, p. 104. 52. Interesting as was the f l o r a of Canada, i t did not evoke a f r a c t i o n of the vociferous comment accorded to i t s insect l i f e . Few t r a v e l l e r s l e f t either province without h e a r t f e l t animadversions on the swarms of midges, f l i e s , mosquitoes, and other pests. Clearing and settlement seems to have reduced the plague of mosquitoes i n Lower Canada. During August 1796 they were rare i n Quebec and Montreal, and the only inhabited area they infested was v 15 Trois-Rivieres. The province made up f o r t h i s , however, with a superabundance of house f l i e s , which drove at least one B r i t i s h v i s i t o r to d i s t r a c t i o n . Escape to the outdoors was thwarted by sand-flies (brulots), which denied any •I fL repose i n the shade. Snakes were uncommon i n Lower Canada, but storie s about them had a morbid fascination f o r many t r a v e l l e r s . An o f f i c e r i n the Royal Engineers had an unpleasant en-counter at the Cascades Rapids with a six-foot blacksnake that crawled under h i s blankets on a cold October night 17 i n 1802. Most v i s i t o r s , however, were u n l i k e l y to have any exciting contact with w i l d l i f e . The general route f o r t r a v e l led through the l i n e of c i t i e s , towns, and v i l l a g e s on the St. Lawrence, avoiding the wilderness. Travellers spent most of th e i r time i n 15 Weld, Travels, p.,252 16 Lambert, Travels. v o l . 1, p. 127 17 Landmann, Adventures,vol. 2, pp. 254-256. 53. the larger communities, which thus influenced t h e i r im-pressions of the colony. Quebec, f o r a l l i t s commanding posi t i o n and a t t r a c t i v e setting, did not arouse much enthusiasm. Mrs. Simcoe had the misfortune to see the c i t y f i r s t i n a dismal r a i n , but closer acquaintance did not render i t much more a t t r a c t i v e . She noticed the sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between the Lower and Upper Towns: the former with high merchants' houses of dark stone l i n i n g "narrow and gloomy" streets; the l a t t e r "more a i r y and pleasant", 18 with l e s s pretentious houses. An anonymous B r i t i s h w r i t e r found the Lower Town i n October 1792 "one uniform scene of mud", and suggested a connection between the obvious French character of the 19 community and i t s uncleanllness. Another unpleasant feature was the "intolerable stench" when the tide was out. The Upper Town was by contrast "extremely agreeable" i n summer, with i t s pure a i r and lack of oppressive heat, but even t h i s part gave the impression of being poorly O A l a i d out, with "small, ugly, and inconvenient" houses. An I r i s h poet wrote one of the most devastating comments on Quebec during h i s v i s i t i n August 1804: " I f anything 18 Simcoe, Diary, pp. 54, 61. 19 Canadian l e t t e r s , description of a tour thro' the  provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, i n the course of the  years 1792 and '93, Montreal* C. A. Marchand, 1912, p. 6. 54. can make the "beauty of the country more s t r i k i n g , i t i s the deformity and oddity of the c i t y which i t surrounds, and which l i e s hemmed i n by ramparts, amidst t h i s d e l i c i o u s pi scenery, l i k e a hog i n armour upon a bed of roses." The very features that lent to Quebec i t s picturesque-ness and m i l i t a r y strength handicapped i t as a place of business and residence f o r a growing population. The Lower Town, jammed between the r i v e r and the c l i f f , was not only unpleasant but also dangerous i n winter, when ice f a l l i n g from the rocks sometimes injured or k i l l e d people below. 2 2 Mountain Street, the main thoroughfare to the higher l e v e l s , was a steep and winding path that taxed the strength of horses and pedestrians, although the l a t t e r 23 might choose the dubious alternative of Breakneck S t a i r s . Movement and growth i n the Upper Town were hampered by the f o r t i f i c a t i o n s and the extensive properties of r e l i g i o u s 24 i n s t i t u t i o n s , which forced people to l i v e i n the suburbs-. Houses were hard to rent except i n May, when leases expired. Crowding was p a r t i c u l a r l y severe during sessions of the Assembly. By 1806, stone was the common bu i l d i n g material, 21 Thomas Moore, Memoirs, journal and correspondence  of Thomas Moore, ed. the Right Honourable Lord John Rus s e l l , M.P., London, Longman, Brown, Green, and Long-mans, 1853, Vol. 1, pp. 173-174. 22 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 17-18. 23 Ibid., v o l . 1, pp. 19-21. 24 Ib i d . , v o l . 1, p. 68. 55 with i r o n or t i n roofs on the better houses, although many older structures were covered with shingles, i n defiance 25 of f i r e regulations. Other communities along the St. Lawrence fared no better than Quebec i n t r a v e l accounts. Trois-Rivieres 26 appeared pleasant to a young Englishman i n 1785, but l a t e r t r a v e l l e r s found i t unimpressive. In 1792, i t seemed to lack "bustle, animation, and industry"j' and was peopled 27 with "indolent and l i s t l e s s " inhabitants. The town did not share i n the growth and prosperity that were notice-able i n other parts of the colony. By 1806 i t was s t i l l a small place of "paltry wooden" houses, many of them decaying and unpainted, with unpaved streets that the wind whipped up 28 into clouds of dust and sand. Sorel was another small centre, but more a t t r a c t i v e l y l a i d out. I t was predominantly English-speaking i n 1796, with a substantial L o y a l i s t population, and depended mainly ?9 on i t s shipbuilding industry." i t s wealth and population seemed to be declining by 1807, with the cessation of shipbuilding. The country people nearby neglected t h e i r farms to ship as voyageurs. 25 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 17-18. 26 Hadfield, Englishman i n America, 1785, p. 119. 27 Canadian l e t t e r s , p. 18* 28 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 466-467. 29 Weld., Travels, p. 191. 30 Lambert, Travels,vol. 1, p. 509. 56. Travellers a r r i v i n g from the United States by the Lake Champlain route were not impressed by the garrison town of Saint-Jean. In 1796 i t consisted of dilapidated f o r t i f i c a -tions and "about f i f t y miserable wooden dwellings". To make matters worse, a disastrous f i r e i n 1788 had l e f t the surrounding countryside bare, causing a f u e l shortage i n 31 t h i s land of for e s t s . Montreal appealed to most t r a v e l l e r s on account of i t s s i t u a t i o n i n the midst of a f r u i t f u l landscape which offered a pleasing contrast to the s t e r i l e grandeur of Quebec. The advantages of the milder climate were often mentioned. An account r e l a t i n g to the year 1786 described Montreal as a "handsome, w e l l b u i l t c i t y " , about two-thirds the size of Quebec, "abounding with a l l the conveniences of l i f e " , and well situated f o r trade with the Indians to the .32 west. Another B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r i n 1792 found the c i t y cleaner than Quebec, and thought i t resembled an English country town, with i t s flagged streets and stone buildings, lower and neater than most French houses. Outside the walls, which were decaying rap i d l y by 1796, most houses were of 31 Weld, Travels, pp. 174-175 32cS. Hollingsworthj, The present state of Nova Scotia: with a b r i e f account of Canada, and the B r i t i s h islands on  the coast of North"America, 2nd ed., corr. and enl., Edinburgh, W. Creech, 1787,„ p. 204. 33 Canadian l e t t e r s , pp. 21-22. 5 7 . w o o d ; t h o s e n e a r t h e r i v e r h a d t h e l o o k o f s t o n e " p r i s o n s " , 34 o n a c c o u n t o f t h e i r f i r e p r o o f i r o n s h u t t e r s . A n A m e r i c a n c l e r g y m a n i n 1 7 9 9 a d m i r e d t h e " h a n d s o m e v i e w o f w e l l b u i l t h o u s e s a n d c h u r c h e s " , t r a v e r s e d b y " r e g u l a r a n d c o m m o d i o u s " s t r e e t s . P r o m t h e w a t e r , M o n t r e a l p r e s e n t e d a s t r i k i n g a p p e a r a n c e w i t h t h e l i g h t g r e y w a l l s a n d t i n r o o f s o f i t s b u i l d i n g s g l i s t e n i n g i n t h e s u n . On c l o s e r a c q u a i n t a n c e , h o w e v e r , t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e c i t y g a v e . a n i m p r e s s i o n o f h e a v i n e s s a n d g l o o m . T h e r e d o r l e a d - c o l o r e d s h u t t e r s i n t e n s i f i e d t h e s o m b r e a t m o s p h e r e o f b u i l d i n g s d e s c r i b e d b y o n e w r i t e r i n 1807 a s " . . . p o n d e r o u s m a s s e s o f s t o n e , e r e c t e d w i t h 36 v e r y l i t t l e t a s t e a n d l e s s j u d g m e n t . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e same w r i t e r a d m i t t e d t h e b e a u t y o f t h e e n v i r o n s , w h e r e w e a l t h y m e r c h a n t s h a d b u i l t c o u n t r y h o u s e s a m i d s t o r c h a r d s a n d g a r d e n s . 3 7 B e t w e e n t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n a n d t h e W a r o f 1 8 1 2 t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f L o w e r C a n a d a i n c r e a s e d i n n u m b e r a n d d i v e r s i t y . T h e a b o r i g i n e s m a d e u p o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e t o t a l , b u t a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f n u m e r o u s ,34 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p p . 1 7 7 - 1 7 8 35 [-John C o s e n s Ogdenj , A t o u r , - t h r o u g h U p p e r a n d L o w e r  C a n a d a . B y a c i t i z e n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . C o n t a i n i n g , a v i e w o f t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f r e l i g i o n , l e a r n i n g , c o m m e r c e , a g r i c u l t u r e , c o l o n i z a t i o n , c u s t o m s a n d m a n n e r s , among t h e  E n g l i s h , F r e n c h a n d I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t s . T a r r y t o w n , N . Y . R e p r i n t e d , W . A b b a t t , 1 9 1 7 , p . 6 36 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, p p . 5 1 6 - 5 1 7 . 37 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p p . 5 2 2 - 5 2 3 . 58. t r a v e l l e r s . Most Europeans, however, saw the Indians only near, c i t i e s , where contact with c i v i l i z a t i o n had considerably altered t h e i r native q u a l i t i e s . V i s i t o r s to Quebec were l i k e l y to include the v i l l a g e of Lorette i n t h e i r i t i n e r a r i e s , and they generally expressed pleasure at the evidence of progress by the l o c a l Hurons. One B r i t i s h o f f i c e r thought them "far advanced towards c i v i l i z a t i o n " , i n view of th e i r substantial houses, Well-'s-attended church, and lands c u l t i v a t e d as i n d i v i d u a l property. Not a l l the Indians around Quebec were so impressive. Another writer was disgusted with the ragged, d i r t y natives who wandered through the streets "with a b o t t l e of rum i n one hand and a raw bullock's head i n the other", although he remarked that the women seemed to be more careful of t h e i r 39 appearance than the men and less addicted to l i q u o r . Caughnawaga appeared le s s successful than Lorette. I t produced one remarkable leader known as Gaptain Thomas, who dealt extensively i n f u r s . This gentleman made a favorable impression on a Scottish t r a v e l l e r i n 1791 through 40 h i s respectable behavior and moderation i n drinking. Unfortunately, by 1807 the gallant captain had become a slave to alcohol, and the v i l l a g e i t s e l f was characterized 38 Landmann, Adventures, v o l . 2, p. 128. 39 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 357-360. 40 Campbell, Travels, pp. 138-139. 59. "by idleness, i t s houses " d i r t y , miserable, and destitute 41 of fu r n i t u r e " , i t s streets " f o r l o r n and wretched". Here, as at Lorette, there were a number of fair-complexioned children being raised by the women. These were i l l e g i t i m a t e offspring of white parentage, adopted by the Indians and 42 cared f o r with every evidence of af f e c t i o n . In contrast to the Indians, the people of European o r i g i n increased steadily after the American Revolution. French-speaking habitants s t i l l formed the overwhelming majority i n Lower Canada. There was no great change i n th e i r general character up to the War of 1812. Nearly every t r a v e l l e r described them as cheerful and vivacious, although one account represents some of them as sull e n 43 and blunt l i k e Americans. In most ways, however, the habitants were very d i f f e r e n t from Americans. They were summed up by a B r i t i s h observer i n 1806 as "an inoffensive quiet people, possessed of l i t t l e industry and less ambition." 4 4 In compensation f o r t h e i r defects, they showed "easy and p o l i t e " manners to a l l without d i s t i n c t i o n of persons, and had the a i r of town-dwellers 41 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 533, 537. 42 Hadfield, Englishman i n America, 1785,pp. 151-152. 43 Weld, Travels, p. 194. 44 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 149-150. 60. 45 rather than countrymen. Peasant and laborer a l i k e paid one another compliments with a grace f a r d i f f e r e n t from the 46 coarseness of the working-class Londoner. The voyageurs were an exception to the pattern of French-Canadian l i f e i n t h e i r l i k i n g . f o r t r a v e l and adven-ture. What attracted them to t h i s desperately hard and dangerous l i f e was not so much the pay as the prestige accruing to the hommes du nord,who looked down contemptuously 47 on the mangeurs de l a r d back on the farms* On returning from a t r i p the voyageur was l i a b l e to indulge i n "extrava-gance and debauchery" that contrasted sharply with the f r u g a l 48 and modest behavior of the ordinary habitant. French Canadian women had to work hard, but enjoyed considerable standing i n the community. Mrs. Simcoe found them better educated than the men, who l e f t the management 49 of a f f a i r s to t h e i r wives. Heavy labor i n the open a i r quickly robbed the g i r l s of t h e i r natural beauty. Town g i r l s retained the fr i v o l o u s and coquettish nature observed by t r a v e l l e r s before the Conquest. The example of English 45 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 149-150. 46 Ib i d . , v o l . 1, p. 173. 47 Landmann, Adventures, v o l . 1, p. 310. 48 Hugh Gray, Letters, p. 156. 49 Simcoe, Diary, p. 91. 61 reserve had done l i t t l e to modify t h e i r taste for l a v i s h display, f l i r t a t i o u s conduct, and risque conversation. B r i t i s h immigrants to Lower Canada tended to concen-trate i n Montreal and Quebec, where the opportunities f o r mercantile success were greatest. In 1795 the Scots were we l l i n the lead of the business community on account of t h e i r "superior industry and a c t i v i t y " . Thirteen years l a t e r another t r a v e l l e r remarked on the dominance of busi-ness by the "indefatigable and persevering" Scots, whose diligence and knowledge, coupled with t h e i r undoubted 52 l o y a l t y to the crown, made them invaluable to the colony. Not long after the American Revolution L o y a l i s t immi-gration was supplemented by numerous a r r i v a l s from the United States whose motive was other than attachment to B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s . Hardy New Englanders crossed the border into what became the Eastern Townships, where they showed themselves more aggressive and adaptable than French 53 Canadians or B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s . By 1806, "active and enterprising" Americans had achieved business success i n Montreal at the expense of the B r i t i s h , who seemed handi-capped by the effects of the long winters and the influence 54 of French habits. 50 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1. -pp. 289- 290. 51 Canadian l e t t e r s , p. 80. 52 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 147-148. 53 Hugh Gray, Letters, p. 364. 54 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 241-242. 62. Amidst t h i s growing d i v e r s i t y of peoples, i t i s i n t e r -esting to f i n d a reference to the small Jewish community. A B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r was at Trois-Rivieres during the con-troversy over the election of E z e k i e l Hart to the Legis-l a t i v e Assembly of Lower Canada. The author thought oppo-s i t i o n to h i s seating was caused by the desire of the French-speaking members f o r an additional representative, and he considered exclusion on grounds of r e l i g i o n u n j u s t i f i e d . The Hart family was "respectable" and controlled most of 55 the commerce i n the St-Maurice d i s t r i c t . With the increasing complexity of society there seems to have developed a c e r t a i n s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and s t i f f n e s s , at l e a s t i n the towns of Lower Canada. Lambert distinguished three d i v i s i o n s of the Quebec population during h i s stay i n 1806: an upper class of d i g n i t a r i e s , leading members of., the professions, and merchants; a middle group of lesser mer--chants, shopkeepers, subordinate o f f i c i a l s and army o f f i c e r s , minor clergy, lawyers, doctors, and other B r i t i s h residents; l a s t l y , the whole French community, except for a few 56 o f f i c i a l s . This society was by no means so gay and f r i e n d l y as described by e a r l i e r w r i t e rs. Jealousy and snobbery gave b i r t h to r i v a l groups whose feuds s p l i t the populace 55 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 241-242. 56 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 274. 63. 57 into warring factions. Scandal was rampant. A si m i l a r s i t u a t i o n on a miniature scale existed at Trois-Rivieres.. One reason f o r t h i s unwholesome condition was the v i r t u a l segregation of the English and French communities. The frequent c o r d i a l i t y that marked e a r l i e r contacts appears to have "been replaced by mutual suspicion and repugnance. Divergent attitudes towards the American and French Revo-lutions may hare exacerbated r e l a t i o n s between the two races. French Canadians retained a natural longing f o r self-determination and a pr e d i l e c t i o n f o r the mere-patrie 58 and i t s people — "nos pauvres gens". The persistence of the language b a r r i e r aggravated the clash of opinions. French Canadians showed an uncon-querable aversion to learning English, forcing the B r i t i s h residents to acquire at least a rudimentary knowledge of 59 French. 3 A B r i t i s h w r i t e r describing conditions i n 1807 lamented that French was used univer s a l l y i n the Assembly, the public o f f i c e s , and the c o u r t s . 6 0 The government was c r i t i c i z e d f o r not spreading a knowledge of English and pre s c r i b i n g . i t s use i n public business. This p o l i c y v.";-.-.;..u 57 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 293-294. 58 Hugh Gray, Letters, p. 334. 59 Weld, Travels, p. 180. 60 Hugh Gray, Letters, p. 101. 64 would have ensured l o y a l t y and furthered the r e a l interests of the French Canadians as a people linked by commerce with 61 B r i t a i n and the United States. To well-educated t r a v e l l e r s the French spoken i n Canada sounded strange and sometimes r i d i c u l o u s . Mrs. Simcoe deplored the indiscriminate use of the adjectives 62 magnifique and superbe f o r t r i v i a l objects. Lambert found the language of the Quebec market-place puzzling to an Englishman knowing only "boarding-school French", and was amused at the "curious sort of jargon" used f o r bargain-63 ing between French and English. He noticed the profusion of anglicisms, and also archaic words, such as f r e t e f o r f r o i d , i c i t e f o r i c i , and parre for pr£t. In view of these p e c u l i a r i t i e s , he thought that the Canadians did not deserve the reputation of speaking pure and correct French before the Qonquest, unless contact with the B r i t i s h had altered •4.1- • . ... 64 t h e i r pronunciation. I t i s hard to gain an idea of the moral character of the peoples of Lower Canada i n t h i s period. Observers were l i a b l e to be either h o s t i l e or s u p e r f i c i a l . Under-standably, the crowded conditions of habitant l i f e did not 61 Hugh Gray, Letters, p. 335-338. 62 Simcoe, Diary, p. 91. 63 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 87-88. 64 Ibid., v o l . 1, pp. 176-177. 65 permit the privacy that Englishmen of refined upbringing expected. A young t r a v e l l e r i n 1785 discovered that men, women, and children a l l slept i n the same room, and he was 65 distressed at a lack of modesty on the part of h i s hostess. This experience i s hard to reconcile with the judgment of a l a t e r t r a v e l l e r that the habitants were "unusually modest". Men would never go bathing without.-trousers or at le a s t a handkerchief around t h e i r waists. Whatever may have been the s i t u a t i o n i n the country-side, urban l i f e seems to have had a bad effect on morals. i An Englishman at Quebec i n 1792 declared: "The environs of Quebec are infested with p r o s t i t u t e s of the lowest order, 67 who s o l i c i t the attention of passengers at noonday." Servant g i r l s from French Canadian f a m i l i e s were soon corrupted by the bad example of t h e i r mistresses. The higher classes were characterized i n strong language by a t r a v e l l e r who spent a good deal of time i n society from 1806 to 1808: "For a small society l i k e that of Canada, the numbers of u n f a i t h f u l wives, kept mistresses, and 65 Robert Hunter, Quebec to Carolina i n 1785-1786, being  the t r a v e l diary and observations of Robert Hunter, j r . " , a young merchant of London,ed. Louis B. Wright arid Marion T i n l i n g , San Marino, C a l i f . , Huntington l i b r a r y , 1943, pp. -24, 26. 66 Lambert, Travels, v o l . .1, p. 165. 67 Canadian l e t t e r s , p. 15. 66. g i r l s of easy v i r t u e , exceed i n proportion those of the old country, and i t i s supposed that i n the towns more "68 children are horn i l l e g i t i m a t e l y than i n wedlock. Even i f we discount t h i s opinion considerably, i t suggests that Canadians of a l l classes were less virtuous than t h e i r outward decorum and r e l i g i o s i t y indicated. There was a streak of f r i v o l i t y and extravagance i n the Canadian character that occasionally burst f o r t h into riotous l i f e . Canadian food and eating habits continued to be d i s -t i n c t i v e . Sometimes the standard d i e t was enlivened by native dishes that t i t i l l a t e d the palates of v i s i t o r s . Mrs. Simcoe t r i e d a delicacy which she described as "the moufle of the orignale" (moose nose?) at Quebec i n 1791, and mentioned a pie of "crete de coys" [ s i c ] , presumably 69 cockscombs, which was a fa v o r i t e dish. The s t y l e of l i v i n g among the "genteel" classes at Quebec was s i m i l a r to that i n England. French Canadians of the same status tended to follow the B r i t i s h example except f o r r e l i g i o u s f a s t s . Beef, mutton, pork, and veal could be bought d i r e c t l y from the habitants as w e l l as from butchers, but the l a t t e r usually supplied better quality. The lowest class of Canadians bought only f a t 68 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 292-293. 69 Simcoe, Diary, p. 66. 67. pork, the basic ingredient of t h e i r thick soups. Lent was n a t u r a l l y the time f o r f i s h . On Holy Saturday meat was displayed with decorations f o r the regal at the end of the f a s t . 7 0 Bread was dear and " i n d i f f e r e n t " at Quebec, possibly because poor f l o u r from the markets was mixed with the better product from the m i l l s . Magistrates set the price of bread every month i n r e l a t i o n to the price of f l o u r . These prices seemed unreasonably high f o r a wheat-exporting 71 country. The home-made wheat and rye bread from the famous outdoor ovens was "coarse and heavy", being sour 72 from lack of yeast. Englishmen noted with surprise the extravagant fond-ness f o r corn on the cob, with butter and s a l t . Remarking on t h i s great North American dish, Lambert wrote: "They pick the corn off the cob i n the same s t y l e , and with as much gout, as an alderman picks the wing of a fowl at a c i t y f e a s t . " 7 5 No less disconcerting was the French habit of b o i l i n g 74 tea or coffee water i n f r y i n g pans f o r want of k e t t l e s . Tea was expensive. Green v a r i e t i e s imported from the United States were the most common. Coffee and chocolate, both of 70 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 71-72. 71 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 95-96. 72 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 157-158. 73 Ib i d . , v o l , 1, pp. 132-133 74 Ib i d . , v o l . 1, p. 185. 6 8 . i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y , w e r e p r e f e r r e d b y t h e F r e n c h . W i n e s , o f w h i c h M a d e i r a w a s t h e m o s t p o p u l a r , w e r e a l s o i n f e r i o r , a n d h a d s p o i l e d t h e t a s t e f o r g o o d v a r i e t i e s . Rum w a s t h e f a v o r i t e s p i r i t . T h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i n d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e o f C a n a d i a n f o o d s a n d " b e v e r a g e s w e r e s u g g e s t e d i n a p a s s a g e t h a t e x p l a i n s a g o o d d e a l a b o u t C a n a d a a t t h e t i m e ( 1 8 0 6 -1 8 0 8 ) : " A n a r t i c l e , ha.s o n l y t o b e c h e a p t o r e c o m m e n d i t f o r s a l e i n C a n a d a ; i t i s o f l i t t l e c o n s e q u e n c e w h a t i t s q u a l i t i e s m a y b e , i f i t i s h i g h p r i c e d ; a s , i n t h a t c a s e i t ' w i l l n e v e r a n s w e r f o r a C a n a d i a n m a r k e t ; t h a t i s , i t w i l l n e v e r b r i n g t h e m e r c h a n t f i f t y , o r o n e h u n d r e d p e r c e n t . " 7 6 C a n a d i a n c o s t u m e d i d n o t c h a n g e m u c h i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . One u n c h a r i t a b l e E n g l i s h m a n i n 1 7 8 5 t h o u g h t t h e l o n g c l o a k s w o r n b y t h e women c o n v e n i e n t f o r s t e a l i n g , a n d p o i n t e d o u t t h e i n c o n g r u i t y o f t h e i r h a n d s o m e s i l k o u t e r g a r m e n t s o v e r s h a b b y o r d i r t y c l o t h e s w h i c h t h e y w e r e t o o 77 l a z y t o c h a n g e . F u r s w e r e o f t e n w o r n i n t h e s h a p e o f m u f f s , m i t t e n s , a n d c a p s , b u t i n 1 7 9 8 t h e y v/ere t w i c e a s 78 e x p e n s i v e a s i n E n g l a n d . B y 1806 g r a d u a l c h a n g e s h a d t a k e n p l a c e , e v e n i n r u r a l a r e a s . T h e y o u n g e r w o m e n , i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e s e r v a n t - g i r l s 7 5 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 1 0 1 - 1 0 2 . 7 6 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p p . 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 . 77 H u n t e r , Q.uebec t o C a r o l i n a , p . 3 8 . . 78 L a n d m a n n , A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 1 , p p . 2 6 6 - 2 6 7 . 69. of Quebec, were abandoning some of the old fashions, such as long waists and f u l l caps, but many continued to wear 7Q home-made f a b r i c s . 57 Town-dwellers followed English fashions belatedly. Men1s clothing was undistinguished. Many gentle-men of Quebec dressed i n slovenly manner during the winter 80 on the assumption that a greatcoat covered everything. I t was in t e r e s t i n g to note survivals of eighteenth-century French elegance i n the powdered h a i r and cheeks rouged with beetroot that some women and even a few men displayed on o 1 Sundays and f e s t i v a l s . Tobacco and rum were the p r i n c i p a l luxuries of the habitants. The indulgence i n smoking v/as carried to fan-t a s t i c lengths, especially by the voyageurs, who were continually stopping t h e i r vessels "pour allumer l a pipe", O p notwithstanding the remonstrances of t h e i r passengers. The taste f o r rum was widespread amongst the men, and sometimes led to excesses. In the Quebec market-place "debauches" were frequent, and most of the farmers were intoxicated on t h e i r return. I t i s clear that the Canadian peasantry, f o r a l l t h e i r happiness and contentment, were not inse n s i t i v e to the allurements of alcohol. 79 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 159-160. 80 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 307-308. 81 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 174. 82 Hunter, Quebec to Carolina, p. 66. 83 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 156-157. 70. The ceremonies of s o c i a l l i f e amongst the French Canadians appeared highly elaborate to B r i t i s h v i s i t o r s . Weddings attracted large numbers of friends and r e l a t i v e s , who rode to church i n long cavalcades of caleches or c a r i -oles. In town, married couples often paraded the streets during the afternoon following the service, accompanied 84 by crowds of friends. Funerals were even more spectacular, especially to Protestants unused to Catholic pomp and unrestrained emotion. The amount of display varied with the wealth of the deceased, although even the poorest was conveyed i n a procession by an acolyte and p r i e s t . One of the most splendid funerals recorded was that of the wife of Faucher, the S o l i c i t o r General, at Quebec i n 1799. I t was described by an English v i s i t o r as follows: The i n t e r i o r of the cathedral was hung with black from top to bottom, on a l l sides, and t h i c k l y covered with white spots exactly of the shape of tadpoles, but v a s t l y larger, to represent tears. The cathedral was illumined by many thousands of wax-tapers; i n short everything, which the Roman Catholic clergy could suggest as magnificent and costly, and which the ample pocket of the S o l i c i t o r -General could e a s i l y defray, was exhibited on t h i s occasion. s t > The same gusto shown i n these solemn ceremonies was carried over into the leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s of the French Canadians. Their fondness for dancing and games on Sunday 84 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 168. 85 Landmann, Adventures, v o l . 2, pp. 62-63. 71. reca l l e d the customs of old France. Winter continued to he the season f o r recreation, which reached a high point i n the b r i l l i a n t society of the c a p i t a l . Here dancing was the " r u l i n g passion" f o r young and old, although con-87 certs and plays as wel l enlivened the long evenings. Parties would drive several miles into the country, often carrying a cold dinner, then return to town f o r a dance, even i n the most severe weather.®® Montreal did not enjoy the o f f i c i a l prestige of Quebec, but i t s populace more than made up f o r t h i s handicap by t h e i r s o c i a b i l i t y and h o s p i t a l i t y to strangers. An I r i s h v i s i t o r painted a pleasant picture of society i n 1796: "In winter they keep up such a constant and f r i e n d l y i n t e r -course with each other, that i t seems then as i f the town were inhabited but by one large f a m i l y . " 0 * Unrivalled f or c o n v i v i a l i t y were the Nor'westers, who seemed determined to make up f o r the hardships of fur-trading by l a v i s h expenditure and over-indulgence. A young B r i t i s h o f f i c e r has l e f t a description of a h i l a r i o u s revel under the auspices of S i r Alexander Mackenzie and William 86 Hunter, Quebec to Carolina, .p. 35. 87 Canadian l e t t e r s , pp. 8, 12. 88 Simcoe, Diary, pp. 60-61. 89 Weld, Travels, p. 181. 72. M c G i l l i v r a y i n December 1797: We now began i n r i g h t earnest and true highland s t y l e , and by four o'clock i n the morning, the whole of us had arrived at such a degree of per-f e c t i o n , that we could a l l give the war-whoop as well as Mackenzie and McGilli v r a y , we could a l l sing admirably, we could a l l drink l i k e f i s h e s , and we a l l thought we could dance on the table without disturbing a single decanter, glass or plate by which i t was profusely covered; but on making the experiment we discovered that i t was a complete delusion, and ultimately, we broke a l l the plates, glasses, b o t t l e s , & c , and the table also, and worse than a l l the heads and hands of the party received many severe contusions, cuts and scratches. 9 0 The Highland Scots brought with them a zest f o r enjoyment that f i t t e d i n admirably with the diversions of the Canadian winter. Their boisterous good-fellowship was a better expression of popular character than the decorum of the Governor's reception at Quebec. I t i s surprising to learn of a decline i n s o c i a b i l i t y and c o n v i v i a l i t y after the turn of the century. Although the common people kept up t h e i r amusements, the s o c i a l functions at the c a p i t a l were reduced to s i x subscription dances during the season. The Governor's presence brought a round of entertainment confined to the upper classes. Private entertainments indoors consisted mainly of tea and card p a r t i e s . Most people resorted to c a r i o l i n g to divert 91 themselves throughout the winter. Snobbishness had set 90 Landmann, Adventures, v o l . 1, p. 234. 91 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 298-300. 73. up obstacles to pleasant s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s even within s i m i l a r classes. In contrast to e a r l i e r days, winter at Quebec might be d u l l f o r young strangers. The B r i t i s h community did not celebrate Easter, Whitsun, Michaelmas, and Christmas as i n England, New Year's Day being the great f e s t i v a l . Even t h i s celebration had l o s t i t s piquancy with the 92 cessation of the practice of k i s s i n g a l l and sundry. One new diversion, however, was horse-racing, which was introduced by the Governor on the Plains of Abraham i n 1807. Habitants r i d i n g Canadian horses competed f o r a purse, making up i n zeal and energy f o r what they lacked i n horsemanship.^ 3 The deterioration of s o c i a l amenities did not affect Montreal so seriously. There the Nor'westers continued to set the pace with l a v i s h and l i v e l y entertain-ments, despite the carping of certain envious c i t i z e n s . Furthermore, there was always escape into the strenuous a c t i v i t i e s of the countryside f o r energetic young people w i l l i n g to put up with a few discomforts. Social and c u l t u r a l conditions i n lower Canada responded slowly to the changes i n population. Housing bore witness to a fundamental conservatism. As the c i t i e s grew, stone 92 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 298-300. 93 I b i d . . v o l . 1, p. 308. 74. replaced b r i c k i n the central d i s t r i c t s , but wood remained the usual material i n the suburbs and countryside. A whitewashed structure of square logs s a t i s f i e d most habi-tants. An Irishman considered these "more compact and better b u i l t " than American log cabins, although they were not properly ve n t i l a t e d , even i n warm weather. When he asked the owners why they did not a i r t h e i r houses, he was t o l d : "Ge n*est pas l a maniere des habitans." Another v i s i t o r from the B r i t i s h I s l e s considered these buildings less a t t r a c t i v e than the farmhouses finished with painted clapboards that he had seen i n the United States He p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s l i k e d the shabby outer doors l i k e sentry-boxes that were sometimes b u i l t out into the streets. This arrangement was less satisfactory than a porch or double entrance; the houses moreover were poorly designed and 96 fi n i s h e d to guard against the cold. I n t e r i o r s were generally p l a i n and simple, decorated with r e l i g i o u s pictures or images. Canadian furniture was preferred because a r t i c l e s of English make f e l l apart i n 97 the heat of the stoves. Indoor temperatures sometimes rose to appalling heights. Mrs. Simcoe nearly fainted with 94 Weld, Travels, p. 194. 95 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 152. 96 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 314-315. 97 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 316-317. 75. t h e h e a t w h i l e a t Q u e b e c i n D e c e m b e r 1 7 9 1 . S h e w a s t o l d a t o n e r e s i d e n c e t h a t t h e t h e r m o m e t e r r e a d 1 0 0 ° ] ? . i n t h e 9 8 d r a w i n g - r o o m . T h i s o v e r h e a t i n g w a s u s u a l l y d i s t r e s s i n g t o n e w a r r i v a l s f r o m B r i t a i n , a l t h o u g h p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n t s s e e m e d t o e n j o y t h e s t u f f i n e s s . O c c a s i o n a l l y a v i s i t o r w o u l d f i n d t h e h e a t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s c o m f o r t a b l e , i n s p i t e o f " E n g l i s h p r e j u d i c e s " . S t o v e s o b v i o u s l y p r o m o t e d c i r c u -l a t i o n a n d d i d a w a y w i t h t h e E n g l i s h p r a c t i c e o f r o a s t i n g 99 a n d f r e e z i n g o n o p p o s i t e s i d e s a t t h e same t i m e . The c o s t o f h e a t i n g h o u s e s i n Q u e b e c h a d b e c o m e e q u a l t o t h a t i n L o n d o n b y 1 8 0 8 , b e c a u s e o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g e x p e n s e o f a b t a i n i n g f i r e w o o d a s t h e n e a r b y w o o d s w e r e c u t d o w n . G o a l c o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p o r t e d c h e a p l y f r o m B r i t a i n a s b a l l a s t , b u t t h e p e o p l e d i s l i k e d t h e s m e l l . 1 < ^ ° Ho d o u b t o v e r h e a t i n g c a u s e d a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f r e s p i r a -t o r y d i s e a s e i n L o w e r C a n a d a . I n g e n e r a l , h o w e v e r , t h e h e a l t h o f t h e c o m m u n i t y seems t o h a v e b e e n g o o d , a c i r c u m -s t a n c e t h a t w a s u s u a l l y a s c r i b e d t o t h e d r y c l i m a t e . I n s t a n c e s o f l o n g e v i t y w e r e n u m e r o u s among t h e h a b i t a n t s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y a g e d r a p i d l y i n a p p e a r a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e w o m e n . 1 0 1 9 8 S i m c o e , D i a r y , p . 5 7 . 99 H . G r a y , L e t t e r s , p p . 3 0 4 - 3 0 5 . 100 I b i d . , p p . 2 8 5 - 2 8 6 . 1 0 1 L a n d m a n n , A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 1 , p p . 3 1 0 - 3 1 1 . 7 6 . I t w a s d i f f i c u l t t o k e e p e p i d e m i c s o u t o f t h e p r o v i n c e o n a c c o u n t o f t h e c o n s t a n t i n f l u x o f t r o o p s f o r t h e g a r r i -s o n s . T y p h u s w a s s e v e r e i n t h e a u t u m n o f 1 7 9 9 a t M o n t r e a l a n d Q u e b e c , e x a c t i n g a h e a v y d e a t h t o l l among t h e s o l d i e r s 1 0 2 b e c a u s e o f p o o r t r e a t m e n t . I n " 1 8 0 1 a g r e a t m e d i c a l a d v a n c e w a s s i g n a l i z e d b y t h e v a c c i n a t i o n O f t w o c h i l d r e n w i t h w h a t w a s t h o u g h t t o b e t h e f i r s t v a c c i n e t o a r r i v e i n A m e r i c a . S e v e r a l d o c t o r s f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s came t o Q u e b e c t o o b t a i n t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t . 1 0 3 C e r t a i n d i s e a s e s w e r e l o c a l i z e d . A t T r o i s - R i v i e r e s i n 1806 m a n y women h a d " . . . w e n s , s w e l l e d n e c k s , a n d o t h e r d i s o r d e r s o f t h e t h r o a t , a s mumps , s w e l l i n g o f t h e g l a n d s , & c . " Some o b s e r v e r s a s c r i b e d t h i s c o n d i t i o n , w h i c h w a s a p p a r e n t l y g o i t r e , t o d r i n k i n g t h e l o c a l w e l l w a t e r o r t h e s n o w - w a t e r i n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e , b u t i t w a s n o t c l e a r w h y 1 0 4 o t h e r c i t i e s u s i n g t h e r i v e r f o r s u p p l i e s w e r e u n a f f e c t e d . C i v i c w a t e r s u p p l i e s w e r e p o o r b y m o d e r n s t a n d a r d s , A t Q u e b e c , i n 1 9 0 6 , m o s t p e o p l e u s e d t h e r i v e r , a l t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e g o o d s p r i n g s i n t h e l o c a l r o c k . C a r t e r s s o l d 1 0 5 b a r r e l s o f w a t e r a t s i x p e n c e o r e i g h t p e n c e e a c h . M o n t r e a l s u p p l i e r s w e n t f a r o u t o n t h e i c e i n w i n t e r t o o b t a i n c l e a r 1 0 2 L a n d m a n n , A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 2 1 - 1 2 2 . 1 0 3 I b i d . , v o l . 2 , pp. 2 3 6 - 2 3 7 . T h e a u t h o r p e r s o n a l l y r e c e i v e d t h e f i r s t s h i p m e n t o f v a c c i n e , w h i c h w a s i n s e r t e d b e t w e e n g l a s s s l i d e s a n d d e s p a t c h e d b y m a i l . 1 0 4 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 4 9 9 - 5 0 0 . 105 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p p . 3 9 0 - 3 9 1 . water, avoiding the turbid stream of the Ottawa. 1 0 6 H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n was almost e n t i r e l y provided by the female r e l i g i o u s orders. The nuns were warmly praised by nearly every t r a v e l l e r f o r t h e i r kindness and compe-tence as nurses. In 1785 an Englishman found the Hopital General and Hotel Dieu at Quebec neat, clean, and orderly. 107 Wards were uncrowded and medicine was properly dispensed. A similar impression was received by another v i s i t o r at Montreal i n 1792. He thought the poor could gain admission 108 more easil y than i n England. These testimonies are p a r t i c u l a r l y impressive coming from Protestants who were i n s t i n c t i v e l y c r i t i c a l of Catholic i n s t i t u t i o n s . The treatment of mental patients was less s a t i s f a c t o r y than tha,t of the sick. In 1808, a lunatic g i r l of twenty was kept chained i n a hut near Trois-Rivieres, and several lunatics wandered around loose at Quebec and Montreal, 109 looking for money to spend on rum. Foundlings were taken care of, but not so wel l as i n London. 1 1 0 There was les s provision f or the i n t e l l e c t u a l advance-ment of the people of Lower Canada than f o r t h e i r bodily welfare. The church supplied i n s t r u c t i o n on a modest scale 106 Landmann, Adventures, v o l . 2, p. 172. 107 Hadfield, Englishman i n America, 1785, pp. 156, 158, 108 Canadian l e t t e r s , p p . 27-28. 109 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 501-502. 110 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 502. 7 8 . t o t h e F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g p o p u l a t i o n . A v i s i t i n g E p i s c o p a l c l e r g y m a n i n 1 7 9 9 d e p r e c a t e d t h e common c h a r g e t h a t t h e Roman c l e r g y w i s h e d t o k e e p t h e p e o p l e i n i g n o r a n c e , p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e J e s u i t s h a d d e a l t a s e v e r e 1 1 1 b l o w t o e d u c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h F r e n c h C a n a d i a n m e n w e r e n o t g e n e r a l l y e d u c a t e d , m a n y women r e c e i v e d a g o o d s c h o o l i n g f r o m t h e f e m a l e o r d e r s : T J r s u l i n e s i n t h e c i t i e s a n d G-rey N u n s i n t h e c o u n t r y . T h e n u n s o p e r a t e d a w i d e s p r e a d s y s t e m o f s c h o o l s i n w h i c h g i r l s l e a r n t r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , a n d d o m e s -1 1 2 t i c a r t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o o b t a i n i n g r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n . The s e m i n a r i e s f o r t r a i n i n g •,; p r i e s t s e x t e n d e d t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s t o a n u m b e r o f b o y s p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . H e n c e a s m a l l g r o u p o f p o t e n t i a l c l e r k s , n o t a r i e s , a n d a d v o -c a t e s a c q u i r e d a m o d i c u m o f l i t e r a r y c u l t u r e . A c r i t i c a l o b s e r v e r i n 1 8 0 6 t h o u g h t t h e s t a n d a r d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n l o w e r t h a n i n E n g l a n d , b u t p e r h a p s s u f f i c i e n t u n d e r t h e c i r c u m -s t a n c e s . 1 1 3 H e c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e f e m a l e c u r r i c u l u m a s " r e a d i n g , e m b r o i d e r y , a n d s u p e r s t i t i o n " , b l a m i n g t h e l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s f o r s c h o o l i n g t o a g r e a t e x t e n t o n t h e " p a r s i -114 m o n i o u s f r u g a l i t y " o f t h e h a b i t a n t s . 1 1 1 O g d e n , T o u r , p p . 1 6 - 1 7 . 1 1 2 I b i d . , p p . 2 6 - 2 7 . 1 1 3 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 2 8 4 - 2 8 5 . 114 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , pp. 1 6 5 - 1 6 6 , 2 8 5 . 7 9 . A l t h o u g h t h e B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n s e t t l e r s made g r e a t e r e f f o r t s t o t e a c h t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t h e e d u c a t i o n o f E n g l i s h -s p e a k i n g r e s i d e n t s was n o t v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y . B o a r d i n g s c h o o l s o f d o u b t f u l v a l u e w e r e t h e m a i n r e c o u r s e f o r t h o s e who c o u l d n o t s e n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n a b r o a d . T h e e d u c a t i o n o f women i n p a r t i c u l a r w a s " s l i g h t a n d s u p e r f i c i a l " , s i n c e p u p i l s f r o m w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s w e r e p r e - o c c u p i e d w i t h f a s h i o n a n d e n t e r t a i n m e n t . G i r l s o f g o o d f a m i l y w e r e t r e a t e d w i t h " f a l s e i n d u l g e n c e " b y t h e i r p a r e n t s . T h e m a i n o b j e c t o f f e m i n i n e i n t e r e s t w a s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o n t a c t s w i t h 1 1 5 t h e n u m e r o u s y o u n g a r m y o f f i c e r s . The g e n e r a l i n d i f f e r e n c e t o e d u c a t i o n w a s p a r t l y d u e t o a n a t t i t u d e o f " l e v i t y a n d f r i v o l i t y " a m o n g s t t h e h i g h e r c l a s s e s . T h i s a t t i t u d e w a s a l s o e v i d e n t i n o t h e r c l a s s e s 116 o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a g o o d m a n y F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s . A p a r t f r o m a n e l i t e d o m i n a t e d b y t h e c l e r g y , p o p u l a r i n -t e r e s t s w e r e n o t d i r e c t e d t o t h i n g s o f t h e m i n d . C u l t u r a l l y , L o w e r C a n a d a r e m a i n e d l i t t l e b e t t e r t h a n a w i l d e r n e s s . F o r a l l t h e l i v e l i n e s s o f s o c i e t y i n t h e c a p i t a l , i t s a t m o s p h e r e d i d n o t a p p e a l t o p e r s o n s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l t a s t e s . T h e r e w a s a r e v e a l i n g d i v e r g e n c e o f v i e w s b e t w e e n M r s . S i m c o e , who t h o u g h t Q u e b e c a " d e l i g h t f u l p l a c e " , a n d 1 1 5 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 2 8 5 - 2 8 6 . 116 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p p . 2 7 7 - 2 7 8 . 8 0 . h e r h u s b a n d , who r e g r e t t e d t h a t h e f o u n d " . . . f e w men o f l e a r n i n g o r i n f o r m a t i o n , l i t e r a r y s o c i e t y n o t b e i n g n e c e s s a r y 117 f o r t h e a m u s e m e n t o f l a d i e s . " M o r e t h a n a d e c a d e l a t e r , i n 1 8 0 6 , an E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r r e m a r k e d c r u s h i n g l y : " T h e s t a t e o f l i t e r a t u r e , t h e a r t s , a n d s c i e n c e s , i n C a n a d a , c a n s c a r c e l y b e s a i d t o b e a t a l o w e b b , b e c a u s e t h e y 118 w e r e n e v e r k n o w n t o f l o w Some e v i d e n c e o f i m p r o v e m e n t d i d a t t r a c t n o t i c e f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . I n A u g u s t o f 1 7 8 5 a t r a v e l l e r a t Q u e b e c r e p o r t e d t h a t a l i b r a r y h a d j u s t b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e B i s h o p ' s P a l a c e w i t h some t w o t h o u s a n d " w e l l c h o s e n " F r e n c h a n d E n g l i s h b o o k s . T h e w r i t e r w a s s u r p r i s e d t h a t t h e w e l l - t o - d o i n h a b i t a n t s s h o u l d h a v e w a i t e d s o l o n g t o s e t 119 u p s u c h a n i n s t i t u t i o n . A l a t e r v i s i t o r n o t e d t h a t t h e b o o k s c i r c u l a t e d o n l y t o s u b s c r i b e r s , a n d t h a t n o v e l s a n d r o m a n c e s w e r e m o s t i n d e m a n d b y f e m a l e b o r r o w e r s ; " I t i s 120 s m a l l , a n d v e r y i n d i f f e r e n t l y s u p p l i e d w i t h n e w p u b l i c a t i o n s . " T h i s w a s t h e o n l y p u b l i c l i b r a r y i n t h e p r o v i n c e f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , a n d i n d e e d a l m o s t t h e o n l y c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n o f a n y k i n d . T h e p r e s s b e g a n i n a u s p i c i o u s l y i n L o w e r C a n a d a . A v i s i t i n g c l e r g y m a n o f T o r y p r o c l i v i t i e s r e m a r k e d u n c t u o u s l y o f t h e n e w s p a p e r s i n 1 7 9 9 : " T h e y a r e c a r e f u l l y g u a r d e d 11<7. S i m c o e , D i a r y , p . 8 1 . 1 1 8 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 3 1 8 . 119 H a d f i e l d , E n g l i s h m a n i n A m e r i c a , 1 7 8 5 , p . 1 2 8 . 120 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 3 2 5 . 81. a g a i n s t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t may e x c i t e d i s c o n t e n t s among t h e i n h a b i t a n t s , o r e n c o u r a g e a s s a u l t s u p o n r e l i g i o n a n d g o v e r n -m . e n t . " - 1 - ^ D e s p i t e g o v e r n m e n t a l i n t e r f e r e n c e d u r i n g t h e w a r s w i t h F r a n c e , a s i z e a b l e w e e k l y p r e s s h a d g r o w n u p b y 1 8 0 8 . T h e M o n t r e a l a n d Q u e b e c G a z e t t e s c o n f i n e d t h e m s e l v e s t o o f f i c i a l n e w s a n d e x t r a c t s , l e a v i n g comment t o f o u r o t h e r o r g a n s . O f t h e s e , t h e Q u e b e c M e r c u r y a n d C a n a d i a n Q o u r a n t s u p p o r t e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t ; L e C a n a d i e n w a s t h e m o u t h p i e c e o f " d i s s a t i s f i e d " F r e n c h l a w y e r s a n d m e m b e r s o f t h e l e g i s -l a t u r e . L e C o u r i e r d e Q u e b e c w a s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t a s a v e h i c l e f o r t h e w r i t i n g s o f a n e w l y - f o r m e d l i t e r a r y 1 2 2 s o c i e t y . T h e s e j o u r n a l s w e r e a l w a y s a t w a r w i t h one 1 2 3 a n o t h e r , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f p o l i t i c a l a l l e g i a n c e . A p a r t f r o m t h e p r e s s , p u b l i s h i n g d i d n o t r e f l e c t t h e i n c r e a s e i n p r o s p e r i t y . T h e p r i n t i n g o f f i c e s w h i c h s e r v e d a s t h e o n l y b o o k s t o r e s i n Q u e b e c a n d M o n t r e a l c o n t a i n e d 1 2 4 c h i e f l y s c h o o l b o o k s a n d " a f e w o l d h i s t o r i e s " . M o r e -o v e r , r e a d i n g w a s n o t a g e n e r a l d i v e r s i o n a s i n E n g l a n d . L a d i e s u s u a l l y s p e n t t h e i r t i m e d o i n g n o t h i n g w h e n n o t 1 2 5 e n g a g e d i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h e f r i v o l i t y t h a t h a m -p e r e d t h e e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n a l s o t u r n e d a d u l t s a w a y f r o m i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s . 1 2 1 O g d e n , T o u r , p . 5 0 . 1 2 2 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 3 2 1 - 3 2 3 . 1 2 3 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 3 2 4 . 1 2 4 I b i d . , v o l , 1 , p . 3 2 8 . 125 L o c . c i t . 8 2 . S u c h C a n a d i a n a r t a s t r a v e l l e r s w e r e l i k e l y t o s e e c o n s i s t e d o f p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s a n d t h e i r d e c o r a t i o n s . C h u r c h e s w e r e u s u a l l y t h e m o s t c o n s p i c u o u s a n d a t t r a c t i v e s p e c i m e n s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e . T h e M o n t r e a l p a r i s h c h u r c h (Roman C a t h o l i c ) w a s d e s c r i b e d b y a n E p i s c o p a l c l e r g y m a n a s a " m a g n i f i c e n t f a b r i c " , a d o r n e d w i t h r i c h f u r n i t u r e a n d n u m e r o u s p a i n t i n g s . T h i s w r i t e r c o n s i d e r e d . . t h a t i t e x c e e d e d i n s p l e n d o r t h e c a t h e d r a l a t Q u e b e c . 1 2 6 A n o t h e r t r a v e l l e r , w r i t i n g i n 1 8 0 6 , t h o u g h t t h e E n g l i s h c h u r c h t h e o n l y p r a i s e w o r t h y s t r u c t u r e i n Q u e b e c , p r e s e n t i n g " a r e -m a r k a b l e l i g h t a n d b r i l l i a n t a p p e a r a n c e " w i t h i t s t i n r o o f . T h e u s e o f t i n f o r r o o f i n g c h u r c h e s w a s a d i s t i n c t i v e C a n a d i a n c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a r c h i t e c t u r e t h a t f o r c e d i t s e l f o n t h e s i g h t o f e v e r y t r a v e l l e r . T h e r o w s o f g l i s t e n i n g s p i r e s o n e a c h s i d e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e made a n a b i d i n g i m p r e s s i o n o n n e a r l y e v e r y o n e who p a s s e d a l o n g t h e r i v e r . G o v e r n m e n t b u i l d i n g s w e r e l e s s p l e a s i n g t h a n t h e i r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h e C h a t e a u S t - L o u i s a t Q u e b e c d i d n o t w i n f a v o r a b l e c o m m e n t , a n d n e w e r s t r u c t u r e s f a r e d n o b e t t e r . One o f t h e m o s t a p p a l l i n g m o n s t r o s i t i e s w a s t h e U p p e r T o w n m a r k e t a t Q u e b e c , t o w h i c h E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r s d e v o t e d some o f t h e i r c h o i c e s t i n v e c t i v e . One d o e s n o t k n o w w h i c h t o b e m o r e a s t o n i s h e d a t , w h e t h e r t h e w a n t o f t a s t e i n t h e a r c h i t e c t , o r t h a t h i s p l a n s m e t w i t h a p p r o b a t i o n : s u f f i c e 126 O g d e n , T o u r , p p . 7 - 8 , 1 8 . 127 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 5 1 - 5 2 . 8 3 . i t t o s a y , t h a t o n a " b u i l d i n g o n e s t o r y h i g h , y o u h a v e a dome a s l a r g e a s t h a t o f S t . P a u l . l s i n L o n d o n . N e v e r w e r e t h e r u l e s o f a r c h i t e c -t u r e a n d common s e n s e m o r e o u t r a g e d . 2 T h e t h e a t r e i n L o w e r C a n a d a w a s n o t a l i v e l y a r t . A u d i e n c e s a t Q u e b e c a n d M o n t r e a l o c c a s i o n a l l y h a d t h e c h a n c e t o s e e p l a y s o f v a r y i n g q u a l i t y . I n 1 7 9 2 M r s . S i m c o e w a s s u r p r i s e d a t t h e c o m p e t e n t p e r f o r m a n c e o f some C a n a d i a n g e n t l e m e n who s t a g e d M o l i e r e 1 s M e d e c i n m a l g r e ' l u i a n d C o m t e s s e d ' E s c a r b a g n a s i n . t h e Q u e b e c f o r t i f i c a t i o n s . O f f i c e r s o f t h e g a r r i s o n s o m e t i m e s e n g a g e d i n a m a t e u r t h e a t r c a l s o f l i t t l e m e r i t . I n 1 8 0 6 , a B o s t o n c o m p a n y w a s e n t h u -s i a s t i c a l l y a p p l a u d e d f o r i t s m e d i o c r e r e n d i t i o n o f S h a k e -130 s p e a r e . M u s i c a l l i f e a l s o w a s o n a m o d e s t s c a l e i n t h e t o w n s . C o n c e r t s b y r e g i m e n t a l b a n d s t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r . A t Q u e b e c i n 1 8 0 6 t h e r e w e r e o n l y t w o m u s i c m a s t e r s , w h o s e 131 s o l e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t w a s t h e v i o l i n . P e w t r a v e l l e r s m e n t i o n e d F r e n c h C a n a d i a n f o l k s o n g s , a n d t h e n o n l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e v o y a g e u r s . T h e i r i n c e s s a n t s i n g i n g d u r i n g t h e m o s t a r d u o u s l a b o r s c a l l e d f o r t h t h e a d m i r a t i o n 1 3 2 o f t h e i r p a s s e n g e r s . 1 2 8 H u g h G r a y , L e t t e r s , p . 5 5 . C f . L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 6 9 - 7 0 . 129 S i m c o e , D i a r y , p v 7 7 . 1 3 0 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . . 1 . p p . 3 0 0 - 3 0 1 . 1 3 1 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 3 0 2 . 1 3 2 S i m c o e , D i a r y , p . 9 2 ; V 7 e l d , T r a v e l s , p . 2 7 4 . 8 4 . A l t h o u g h c u l t u r e r e m a i n e d a t a l o w l e v e l b e t w e e n 1 7 8 4 a n d 1 8 1 4 , r e l i g i o n c o n t i n u e d t o f l o u r i s h . M o s t o f t h e a c c o u n t s o f r e l i g i o n i n L o w e r C a n a d a a t t h i s t i m e come f r o m t h e p e n s o f P r o t e s t a n t w r i t e r s . I t i s t r u e t h a t d e v o t i o n t o t h e t e n e t s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c h u r c h e s w a s o f t e n n o m o r e t h a n l u k e w a r m , h u t a l l w e r e u n i t e d b y a d i s l i k e f o r R o m a n i s m . I n v i e w o f t h i s a t t i t u d e , i t i s a l l t h e m o r e r e m a r k a b l e t h a t t h e n u n s s h o u l d w i n u n a n i m o u s a p p r o v a l . T h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a s n u r s e s a n d t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d u n s t i n t e d p r a i s e f r o m a l l t h o s e who came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e m . P a r f r o m i d l i n g away t h e i r s p a r e t i m e , t h e y d e v o t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o m a k i n g n e e d l e w o r k , e m b r o i d e r y , a r t i f i c i a l f l o w e r s , c h u r c h o r n a m e n t s , a n d g i l d e d w o o d w o r k o f e x c e p t i o n a l 1 3 3 q u a l i t y . T h e U r s u l i n e s a t Q u e b e c h a d s u c h a t a l e n t f o r p r e p a r i n g c a k e s a n d s w e e t m e a t s t h a t t h e y w e r e a b l e t o 1 3 4 s u p p l y d e s s e r t s f o r a l l t h e t a b l e s o f t h e c i t y . T h e s e e c o n o m i c p r o j e c t s b r o u g h t i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c o m e f o r u s e o n r e l i g i o u s a n d c h a r i t a b l e o b j e c t s . T h e r e w e r e n a t u r a l l y some d o u b t s a b o u t t h e v i r t u e s o f c o n v e n t l i f e ; P r o t e s t a n t s s u s p e c t e d t h a t g i r l s m i g h t b e f o r c e d t o a s s u m e t h e r e l i g i o u s h a b i t a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l , a n d t h e y f e a r e d l e s t t h e t e a c h i n g n u n s s h o u l d i n s t i l " b i g o t e d n o t i o n s o f t h e i r r e l i g i o n " i n t o t h e m i n d s o f 1 3 5 t h e i r p u p i l s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , e v e n t h e k e e n e s t c r i t i c s 1 3 3 H a d f i e l d , E n g l i s h m a n i n A m e r i c a , 1 7 8 5 , p p . 1 5 4 - 1 5 5 . 134,31211006, D i a r y , pp. 6 6 - 6 7 . 1 3 5 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 5 9 - 6 0 . 8 5 . r e c o g n i z e d t h e v a l u e o f t h e f e m a l e o r d e r s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e w a s g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t o n t h e w i s d o m o f s u p p r e s s i n g t h e i r m a l e c o u n t e r p a r t s . 1 3 6 The s e c u l a r c l e r g y c o u l d h a r d l y e x p e c t t o s h a r e t h e a d m i r a t i o n t h a t s t r a n g e r s o f d i f f e r e n t f a i t h s a c c o r d e d t o t h e n u n s . P r i e s t s d i d n o t h a v e t h e same o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m e e t i n g v i s i t o r s , a n d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l a n d c h a r i t a b l e w o r k w a s l e s s c o n s p i c u o u s . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e s e h a n d i c a p s , t h e y e n j o y e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r s t r i c t m o r a l i t y a n d d e v o t i o n t o t h e i r d u t i e s . A n E p i s c o p a l c l e r g y m a n i n 1799 p r a i s e d t h e m i n f u l s o m e t e r m s : " T h e s e l f d e n i a l s , p i o u s b e n e f a c t i o n s , a n d s u c c e s s f u l e x e r t i o n s o f t h e C a t h o l i c c l e r g y t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e s e r v i c e o f G o d , a n d t h e s u p p o r t o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , e x c e e d e v e r y P r o t e s t a n t c o u n t r y i n a n y o t h e r n o r t h e r n 137 s t a t e , c o l o n y , o r p r o v i n c e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . " T h e c l e r g y w e r e n o t o n l y e x e m p l a r y i n t h e i r l i v e s ; t h e y a l s o s h o w e d d i s c r e t i o n a n d t o l e r a n c e i n t h e i r r e l a -t i o n s w i t h n o n - C a t h o l i c s . T h e y made n o a t t e m p t t o p r o -s e l y t i z e , c o n v e r s i o n s b e i n g t h e r e s u l t o f n e g l e c t b y t h e P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y . T h e n u n s , h o w e v e r , o c c a s i o n a l l y 138 t r i e d t o w i n o v e r i n d i v i d u a l s t o t h e i r f a i t h . 136 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 5 9 - 6 0 . 137 O g d e n , T o u r , p p . 4 7 - 4 8 . 1 3 8 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 3 3 6 - 3 3 8 . 86. I t was to be expected that the-Roman Catholic hier-archy would appreciate the importance of keeping on good terms with the B r i t i s h r u l e r s . The church enjoyed not only tolerance but p r i v i l e g e s unknown to the i r fellow-r e l i g i o n i s t s i n Great B r i t a i n and Ireland. Furthermore, with the outbreak of a n t i - r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s during the French Revolution, the church had good reason to support a government i r r e c o n c i l a b l y opposed to the common enemy. B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r s sometimes remarked that the clergy 139 should give thanks f o r the ca p i t u l a t i o n of Quebec. The French Revolution did more than unite e c c l e s i a s t i -c a l and p o l i t i c a l authorities against the menace of atheist republicanism. I t sent to Canada a number of emigre p r i e s t s , some of them men of considerable talents, such as Father Calonne, who became chaplain of the Ursulines at Trois-Rivieres i n 1807. 1 4 0 These newcomers were f i t t e d to act as a leaven to the mass of the native clergy, r a i s i n g t h e i r mental c a l i b r e and t r a i n i n g to a l e v e l corresponding with t h e i r moral character. 139 Canadian l e t t e r s , p. 28. 140 Jacques-Ladislas-Joseph de Calonne, 1743-1822, emi-grated to London i n 1789, then served as a missionary i n Prince Edward Island before coming to Canada. He was a brother of Charles-Alexandre de Calonne, co n t r o l l e r -general under Louis XVI from 1783 to 1787. See Louis-Marie LeJeune, „Dictionnaire general de biographie, h i s t o i r e , l i t t e r a t u r e , agriculture, commerce, industrie et des art s , sciences, moeurs, coutumes, i n s t i t u t i o n s p o l i t i q u e s et  religieuses du Canada!£ Ottawa), Universite" d' Ottawa, 1931, v o l . 1, p. 279. 8 7 . T r a v e l l e r s n o t i c e d t h a t c h u r c h s e r v i c e s w e r e w e l l a t t e n d e d i n " b o t h t o w n a n d c o u n t r y . A t M o n t r e a l i n 1796 a n I r i s h m a n c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e i n c e s s a n t j a n g l i n g o f b e l l s o c c a s i o n e d b y t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f m a s s e s , b a p t i s m s , w e d d i n g s , 1 4 1 a n d f u n e r a l s . P e r s o n s s t a y i n g n e a r t h e p a r i s h c h u r c h c o u l d n o t e s c a p e t h i s a u d i b l e e v i d e n c e o f p i e t y , w h i c h b e s p o k e g r e a t e r z e a l t h a n c o m p e t e n c e i n t h e b e l l - r i n g e r s . R e l i g i o u s p r o c e s s i o n s were l e s s n o t i c e a b l e i n 1806 t h a n i n e a r l i e r y e a r s , a n d m o s t f e s t i v a l s h a d b e e n a b o l -1 4 2 i s h e d . D r i v e r s w e r e l e s s l i k e l y t h a n b e f o r e t o i n t e r r u p t • u. . 1 4 3 ' t h e i r j o u r n e y s a t e v e r y c r u c i f i x . T h e women w e r e m o r e p r o n e t h a n " t h e men t o r e l y o n h o l y w a t e r a n d c a n d l e s i n e m e r g e n c i e s , a p r a c t i c e t h a t w a s r i d i c u l e d b y some u n s y m -p a t h e t i c o b s e r v e r s . 1 4 4 So r a r e w a s i n f i d e l i t y o r e v e n t h e s u s p i c i o n o f i t t h a t e x a m p l e s w e r e n o t e d w i t h s u r p r i s e . I n 1 7 9 2 a b i s h o p r e p l i e d t o t h e a c c u s a t i o n o f h a v i n g V o l t a i r e i n h i s l i b r a r y w i t h t h e r e m a r k : " L e s m e i l l e u r s p h y s i c i e n s t i e n n e n t l e s p o i s o n s e n l e u r b o u t i q u e . " 1 4 5 A p i l o t a t P o i n t - a u - P e r e i n 1 8 0 6 h a d b e c o m e a n t i - c l e r i c a l f r o m r e a d i n g a n E n g l i s h 1 4 1 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p p . 1 7 8 - 1 7 9 . 1 4 2 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 3 3 8 S 3 3 9 . 1 4 5 I b i d . v o l . 1 , p p . 4 6 3 - 4 6 4 . 1 4 4 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p p . 1 7 5 - 1 7 6 . 145 S i m c o e , D i a r y , p . 8 9 . T h i s w a s C h a r l e s - F r a n c o i s B a i l l y d e M e s s e i n , t i t u l a r B i s h o p o f G a p s e a n d c o a d j u t o r t o t h e B i s h o p o f Q u e b e c . " H e l e d t r o o p s a g a i n s t t h e A m e r i c a n i n v a d e r s i n 1776 a n d l a t e r s e r v e d a s t u t o r t o ( c o n t i n u e d o n n e x t p a g e ) 8 8 . B i b l e , b u t a l l o w e d h i s w i f e a n d d a u g h t e r s t o a t t e n d c o n -146 f e s s i o n . A p a r t f r o m s u c h s c a t t e r e d i n s t a n c e s , t h e r e -l i g i o u s l i f e o f F r e n c h C a n a d a w a s a s p e c t a c l e o f o b e d i e n t a n d e n t h u s i a s t i c c o n f o r m i t y . T h e s p i r i t u a l n e e d s o f t h e s m a l l P r o t e s t a n t c o m m u n i t y i n L o w e r C a n a d a w e r e n o t w e l l l o o k e d a f t e r f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s a f t e r 1 7 8 3 . A v i s i t o r t o Q u e b e c i n 1 7 8 5 h e a r d a n A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r o f S w i s s o r i g i n p r e a c h b a d l y w i t h a 1 4 7 G e r m a n a c c e n t . I n 1799 a n E p i s c o p a l m i n i s t e r o n t o u r a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e P r o t e s t a n t s who h a d j o i n e d t h e C h u r c h o f Rome o u t n u m b e r e d t h e C a t h o l i c s wlao h a d b e e n c o n v e r t e d t o 1 4 8 t h e A n g l i c a n o r P r e s b y t e r i a n f a i t h s . A l a t e r w r i t e r , i n 1 8 0 6 , m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e A n g l i c a n c l e r g y h a d n e i t h e r t h e d e s i r e n o r t h e a b i l i t y t o m a k e c o n v e r t s , s i n c e t h e y w e r e " d e f i c i e n t i n t h e v e r y d u t i e s o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n " , a n d r e p e l l e d t h e C a n a d i a n s w i t h t h e i r " h a u g h t y , s u p e r -149 c i l i o u s b e h a v i o u r " . T h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i d n o t i m p r o v e i t s 1 4 5 ( c o n t i n u e d ) L o r d D o r c h e s t e r ! s c h i l d r e n . H e c r i t i c i z e d t h e d i o c e s a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n a c o m m u n i c a -t i o n t o t h e G a z e t t e d e Q.uebec o f 29 A p r i l 1 7 9 0 , a n d a l s o w r o t e i n f a v o r o f a m i x e d , i . e . , m u l t i , - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l , u n i v e r s i t y . S e e L e J e u n e , D i c t i o n n a i r e g e n e r a l , v o l . 1 , p p . 1 1 4 - 1 1 5 . 146 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 1 1 . 147 H a d f i e l d , E n g l i s h m a n i n A m e r i c a , 1 7 8 5 , p . 1 2 4 . 148 O g d e n , T o u r , p . 2 4 . 149 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 3 4 8 - 3 4 9 . 89. character and influence. Lacking a numerous and devoted l a i t y , the Protestant denominations presented an unfavorable contrast with the f l o u r i s h i n g Catholic community. The stagnation that characterized much of the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l l i f e of Lower Canada from 1784 to 1814 extended into several f i e l d s of economic a c t i v i t y . At the same time, certain new elements i n the population stimulated growth and development. The increased tempo of immigra-tio n after the American Revolution s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed the appearance of the countryside. No longer were the two rows of v i l l a g e s along the St. Lawrence the only im-portant areas of settlement. A Scottish a g r i c u l t u r i s t r i d i n g from Kamouraska to Quebec i n 1791 reported that B r i t i s h grants had m u l t i p l i e d settlements and extended them ten to twelve miles into the v/oods behind the seigneur-150 i e s . American immigrants carved out homesteads from the forests of the Eastern Townships. These pioneers won the praise of an English v i s i t o r i n 1806, who wrote: "They are cer t a i n l y enterprising s e t t l e r s , and improve a country more i n two or three years than the French Canadians do i n a century. 1 1 A A Some of the old seigneuries as well had developed into prosperous farmlands. Lambert p a r t i c u l a r l y admired 150 Campbell, Travels, pp. 109-110. 151 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 138. 9 0 . t h e d i s t r i c t a l o n g t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f L a c S t / P i e r r e b e t w e e n 1 5 2 Y a m a c h i c h e a n d B e r t h i e r . A n o t h e r t r a v e l l e r g a v e h i s p r e f e r e n c e t o R i v i e r e d u S u d , j u s t belo\tf Q u e b e c o n t h e 1 5 3 s o u t h s h o r e . C u l t i v a t i o n h a d s p r e a d some f i f t e e n m i l e s f r o m t h e S t . L a w r e n c e b y 1 8 0 8 , a n d w a s p e n e t r a t i n g i n l a n d a l o n g r o a d s t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e C h a u d i e r e , S t - F r a n c o i s a n d C h a m b l y R i v e r s . S o u t h e a s t l a y t h e t o w n s h i p s s u r v e y e d o n t h e B r i t i s h s y s t e m , a n d a l r e a d y i n v a d e d , a s we h a v e s e e n , •u -r - • 154 b y Y a n k e e p i o n e e r s . L a n d t e n u r e i n L o w e r C a n a d a w a s a d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m t h a t e n g a g e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f s e v e r a l t r a v e l l e r s . A n o b s e r v a n t S c o t a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e L o y a l i s t s u p e r i o r i t y .', i n c l e a r i n g l a n d w a s riot s o m u c h t h e r e s u l t o f B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r y c o n t r a s t e d w i t h F r e n c h l a z i n e s s a s t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f a d i f f e r e n t s y s t e m o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p , w h i c h f o r c e d men t o w o r k h a r d i n o r d e r t o m a k e a. l i v i n g o n t h e i r 1 5 5 own p r o p e r t y . S e i g n e u r i a l t e n u r e w a s c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s r e s t r i c t i o n s o n e n t e r p r i s e r a t h e r t h a n f o r t h e b u r d e n s i t i m p o s e d o n t e n a n t s . T h e e q u a l d i v i s i o n o f p r o p e r t y among h e i r s u n d e r F r e n c h ' l a w a l s o l i m i t e d p r o g r e s s b y p r e v e n t i n g 156 t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f f a r m u n i t s o f e c o n o m i c s i z e . 1 5 2 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 1 3 8 . 1 5 3 H u g h G r a y , L e t t e r s , p p . 1 3 3 - 1 3 4 . 1 5 4 I b i d . , p p . 3 6 1 - 3 6 2 . 1 5 5 C a m p b e l l , T r a v e l s , p p . 1 2 3 - 1 2 4 . 156 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 1 9 5 - 1 9 6 . 9 1 . T h e a r e a o f L o w e r C a n a d a o u t s i d e t h e s e i g n e u r i e s w a s s u r v e y e d a n d d i v i d e d i n t o t o w n s h i p s , h e l d b y t h e E n g l i s h t e n u r e o f f r e e a n d common s o c c a g e . So g r e a t w a s t h e d i v e r g e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e a n d t h e s e i g n e u r i a l l a n d s t h a t i n 1 8 0 8 i t w a s s t i l l a q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r F r e n c h 157 c i v i l l a w a p p l i e d t o t h e t o w n s h i p s . The p a s s a g e o f t h e y e a r s b r o u g h t a f e w c h a n g e s i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l m e t h o d s o f F r e n c h C a n a d a , b u t t h e f a m i l i a r p a t t e r n s r e m a i n e d d o m i n a n t . One t r a v e l l e r a f t e r a n o t h e r a r r a i g n e d t h e b a c k w a r d n e s s o f t h e h a b i t a n t s , who s e e m e d p e r f e c t l y c o n t e n t w i t h t h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m s . T h e i n -f r e q u e n t e x a m p l e s o f p r o g r e s s w e r e u s u a l l y d u e t o o u t s i d e r s , a s i n t h e c a s e o f a S c o t t i s h f a r m e r a t Y a m a c h i c h e who g r e w t h i r t y b u s h e l s o f w h e a t t o t h e a c r e i n s t e a d o f h i s n e i g h b o r s ' 158 t w e n t y b y a p p l y i n g E n g l i s h p r i n c i p l e s o f f a r m i n g . S u c h b r i g h t s p o t s w e r e r a r e . A c o m p e t e n t o b s e r v e r d e s c r i b e d t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s i n 1 7 9 1 a s " p e r h a p s t h e w o r s t f a r m e r s i n t h e w o r l d " , c o n d e m n i n g t h e m p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e i r w a s t e o f m a n u r e , w h i c h t h e y u s u a l l y t h r e w i n t o t h e r i v e r o r 159 o c c a s i o n a l l y d u m p e d o n a f i e l d w i t h o u t s p r e a d i n g . B y w a y o f c o n t r a s t , s e v e r a l f i n e f a r m s o n M o n t r e a l I s l a n d w e r e c u l t i v a t e d a l o n g E n g l i s h l i n e s , w i t h a s t o n i s h i n g r e s u l t s t h a t e n c o u r a g e d i m i t a t i o n . 157 H u g h G r a y , L e t t e r s , p . 3 4 8 . 1 5 8 H a d f i e l d , E n g l i s h m a n i n A m e r i c a , 1 7 8 5 , p p . 1 6 3 - 1 6 4 . 159 C a m p b e l l , T r a v e l s , p p . 1 1 3 - 1 1 4 . 160 I b i d . , p p . 1 1 7 - 1 1 8 . 9 2 . G r a d u a l l y t h e i n c r e a s e d d e m a n d f o r g r a i n e x p o r t s a n d t h e a d v i c e o f g r a i n m e r c h a n t s s t i m u l a t e d some c h a n g e s f o r t h e b e t t e r i n t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f f i e l d c r o p s . 1 6 1 A l t h o u g h t h e f a r m e r s "began t o u s e f e r t i l i z e r s l i k e m a r l , t h e y w e r e r e l u c t a n t t o e m b a r k o n t h e g r o w i n g o f n e w p r o d u c t s . O n l y i n t h e M o n t r e a l a r e a w a s t h e r e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o g r e s s . H e r e a f a v o r a b l e c l i m a t e a n d s o i l c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e d e m a n d s o f a l a r g e u r b a n m a r k e t t o c r e a t e a f l o u r i s h i n g h o r t i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . E a r l y i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e i s l a n d p r e s e n t e d a f i n e e x p a n s e o f g a r d e n s a n d o r c h a r d s , p r o -d u c i n g f r u i t s o f e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y , n o t a b l y e a t i n g a n d 1 6 2 c i d e r a p p l e s . F a v o r i t e C a n a d i a n v e g e t a b l e s w e r e c u c u m -b e r s , o n i o n s , l e e k s , a n d g a r l i c . P o t a t o e s h a d b e c o m e common b y 1 8 0 6 , a l t h o u g h a l m o s t u n k n o w n b e f o r e t h e C o n q u e s t . A l i t t l e t o b a c c o w a s g r o w n f o r home u s e . A s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f i n t r o d u c i n g a n e w c r o p , t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f J o h n L a m b e r t w e r e i l l u m i n a t i n g . T h i s E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r w a s i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o m o t i n g t h e . c u l t i v a t i o n o f hemp f o r t h e B r i t i s h m a r k e t , a t a t i m e w h e n t h e m o t h e r c o u n t r y w a s p e r i l o u s l y d e p e n d e n t o n R u s s i a f o r c o r d a g e t o s u p p l y t h e R o y a l H a v y . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l e x p e r i -m e n t s h a d b e e n m a d e i n C a n a d a , t h e y h a d y i e l d e d n o r e s u l t s 1 6 1 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p p . 2 4 9 - 2 5 0 . 1 6 2 H u g h G r a y , L e t t e r s , p p . 1 5 0 - 1 5 1 . 1 6 3 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 9 4 - 9 5 . 9 3 . u p t o 1 8 0 0 , a n d a s l a t e a s 1 8 0 8 n o t h i n g h a d b e e n p r o d u c e d f o r B r i t i s h u s e . T h i s w a s s u r p r i s i n g i n a c o u n t r y a s w e l l s u i t e d a s R u s s i a a n d P o l a n d t o hemp c u l t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e p l a n t g r e w w i l d . L a m b e r t t h o u g h t t h e f a i l u r e m i g h t b e d u e t o t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e c l e r g y , g r a i n m e r -c h a n t s , a n d s e i g n e u r s , who f e a r e d t h e r e s p e c t i v e l o s s o f 1 6 4 t i t h e s , t r a d e , a n d m i l l i n g f e e s i f hemp r e p l a c e d w h e a t . C a n a d i a n " l i v e s t o c k made a p o o r i m p r e s s i o n , e x c e p t f o r t h e s t u r d y a n d s p i r i t e d l i t t l e h o r s e s . M a n y t r a v e l l e r s e x p r e s s e d a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e s e u s e f u l a n i m a l s , who s e e m e d a b l e t o s t a n d a n y a m o u n t o f c o l d w h e n t h e y w e r e l e f t o u t -1 6 5 s i d e i n t h e m o s t s e v e r e w e a t h e r , a s w a s t h e i r u s u a l l o t . Y a n k e e d e a l e r s w e r e k e e n l y a w a r e o f t h e i r v a l u e , a n d f r e -q u e n t l y c a r r i e d , o u t p r o f i t a b l e t r a d e s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e h a b i t a n t s . 1 6 6 I n 1 7 9 1 t h e c a t t l e o f t h e Q u e b e c r e g i o n w e r e p r o n o u n c e d t o b e " i l l m a d e , b i g b e l l i e d , t h i n q u a r t e r e d , a n d p o o r a s c a r r i o n . . . . " 1 6 7 T h e b r e e d h a d i m p r o v e d l i t t l e b y 1 8 0 6 . C i t y b u t c h e r s s u p p l i e d b e t t e r b e e f t h a n t h e o r d i n a r y f a r m e r , w h o s e s t o c k p r o d u c e d t o u g h m e a t o f p o o r q u a l i t y . M u t t o n a n d 1 6 8 l a m b w e r e m u c h s u p e r i o r . D a i r y p r o d u c t s o f f e r e d o n t h e 164 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 9 4 - 9 5 . 165 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p . 2 2 7 . 166 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 1 3 9 - 1 4 0 . 167 C a m p b e l l , T r a v e l s , p p . 1 1 3 - 1 1 4 . 168 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 7 8 - 7 9 . 9 4 Q u e b e c m a r k e t w e r e g e n e r a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t . Among t h e n o v e l t i e s t h a t c a u g h t t h e a t t e n t i o n o f v i s i t o r s w a s a d e l i c a c y k n o w n a s " s t i n k i n g c h e e s e " . T h i s w a s p r e p a r e d b y w r a p p i n g s m a l l f l a t c a k e s o f n e w c h e e s e i n w e t s t r a w a n d p l a c i n g t h e m u n d e r a d u n g h i l l t o r i p e n . T h e r e s u l t a n t p r o d u c t w a s m u c h e s -169 t e e m e d b y Q u e b e c g o u r m e t s . So l o n g a s t h e m a j o r i t y o f F r e n c h C a n a d i a n f a r m e r s w e r e a b l e t o m a k e a d e c e n t l i v i n g i n t h e o l d w a y a g r i c u l -t u r a l p r o g r e s s w a s "bound t o b e s c a t t e r e d a n d d i s c o n t i n u o u s . A f u r t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e w a s t h e a b s e n c e o f w e a l t h y g e n t l e m e n f a r m e r s w i l l i n g a n d a b l e t o i n i t i a t e i m p r o v e m e n t s . N e i t h e r s e i g n e u r n o r h a b i t a n t h a d t h e c a p i t a l t o u n d e r t a k e e x p e r i -m e n t s e v e n i f t h e i r n a t u r a l c o n s e r v a t i s m c o u l d b e o v e r c o m e . M a j o r a d v a n c e s w e r e u n l i k e l y u n t i l t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a c o m m e r c i a l e c o n o m y d i r e c t e d b y e n t r e p r e n e u r s f r o m o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . C a n a d i a n s w e r e e q u a l l y s l o w a t d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o t h e r t h a n l a n d . T h e f u r t r a d e t h a t e n r i c h e d t h e N o r ' w e s t e r s o f M o n t r e a l d r e w o n r e m o t e a r e a s f o r i t s s u p p l i e s a n d d i d n o t l e a d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s -t r y . F i s h i n g w a s c a r r i e d o n b y I n d i a n s a n d w h i t e s f o r t h e i r own r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d s o m e t i m e s t o s u p p l y t h e m a r k e t s o f Q u e b e c a n d M o n t r e a l . I n s p i t e o f t h e a b u n d a n c e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e f i s h e r i e s , M o n t r e a l m e r c h a n t s h a d t o i m p o r t 169 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 7 8 ^ 7 9 . 9 5 . 170 f r e s h c o d f r o m Hew E n g l a n d i n w i n t e r . S e a l s a n d p o r p o i s e s w e r e c a u g h t i n t h e l o w e r S t . L a w r e n c e f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , 1 7 1 h u t b y 1807 t h i s f i s h e r y w a s o f l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e . The g r e a t f o r e s t s o f C a n a d a c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e t o t h e w e a l t h o f t h e p e o p l e , a p a r t f r o m t h e i r u s e a s f u e l a n d b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l . M u c h o f t h e t i m b e r e x p o r t e d f r o m Q u e b e c h a d b e e n r a f t e d d o w n t h e R i c h e l i e u R i v e r f r o m L a k e 1 7 2 C h a m p l a m b y V e r m o n t l u m b e r m e n . T h e r e w a s l i t t l e c u t t i n g o f t h e m a g n i f i c e n t w h i t e p i n e s t a n d s i n L o w e r C a n a d a , a s c o m p a r e d w i t h U p p e r C a n a d a a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Q u e b e c , h o w e v e r , w a s t h e c e n t r e f o r e x p o r t , a n d t h e a u t h o r i t i e s r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e l u m b e r t r a d e b y s e t t i n g s t a n d a r d s o f q u a l i t y . W h i t e a n d r e d p i n e a n d w h i t e o a k 1 7 3 h a d t o b e i n s p e c t e d a n d s t a m p e d b e f o r e e x p o r t . F u r t h e r i m p r o v e m e n t w a s n e e d e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f b o a r d s , w h i c h 1 7 4 c o u l d b e made f r o m s m a l l t r e e s i n w o o d l o t s . T h e n e g l e c t o f t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y w a s t y p i c a l o f t h e h a l f - h e a r t e d d e v e l o p -m e n t o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s i n L o w e r C a n a d a . 1 7 0 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 7 6 - 7 8 . 1 7 1 H u g h G r a y , L e t t e r s , p . 2 1 7 . 1 7 2 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 2 4 5 . 1 7 3 A n d e r s o n , C a n a d a , p p . 1 7 3 - 1 7 4 . 174 I b i d . , p p . 1 7 5 - 1 7 7 . 96. The c h i e f m i n i n g a c t i v i t y w a s t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f i r o n o r e f o r t h e r e n o v m e d F o r g e s S t - M a u r i c e n e a r T r o i s - R i v i e r e s . T h i s e n t e r p r i s e c o n t i n u e d t o f l o u r i s h a s t h e m a i n s o u r c e ' o f s t o v e s a n d o t h e r i r o n w a r e f o r t h e p r o v i n c e . S e v e r a l o f t h e n u m e r o u s v i s i t o r s b e s t o w e d p r a i s e o n t h e l e s s e e s f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y . O p e r a t i o n s w e n t o n a r o u n d t h e c l o c k a t t h e f o r g e s , w h i l e t h e f o u n d r y r a n f r o m s u n r i s e t o s u n s e t . T h e w o r k e r s w e r e m a i n l y F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s w i t h some E n g l i s h 1 7 5 f o r e m e n . A n o t h e r i r o n w o r k s w a s e s t a b l i s h e d a t B a t i s c a n , "be tween T r o i s - R i v i e r e s a n d Q u e b e c , b u t i n 1806 t h e s u b -176 s t a n t i a l i n v e s t m e n t h a d s o f a r b r o u g h t l i t t l e r e w a r d . S h i p b u i l d i n g w a s o n e o f t h e f e w o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s t h a t o p e r a t e d o n a c o n s i d e r a b l e s c a l e . Y a r d s a t Q u e b e c , S o r e l , a n d M o n t r e a l t u r n e d o u t s e v e r a l s h i p s o f f r o m t w o h u n d r e d t o f i v e h u n d r e d t o n s e a c h y e a r . S a i l s a n d r i g g i n g h a d t o b e i m p o r t e d f r o m E n g l a n d ; i r o n w o r k w a s a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y . W o r k c o n t i n u e d a l l t h r o u g h t h e y e a r , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e 177 u s u a l p a t t e r n o f e m p l o y m e n t i n L o w e r C a n a d a . A l t h o u g h m o s t o f t h e s h i p w r i g h t s came f r o m E u r o p e , t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n a p p r e n t i c e s h a d a b e t t e r r e p u t a t i o n f o r s t e a d i n e s s 1 78 a n d s o b r i e t y . 1 7 5 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 4 8 5 - 4 8 8 . 1 7 6 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 2 4 8 . 177 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 2 4 8 - 2 4 9 . 178 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 5 5 2 9 7 . F l o u r a n d l u m b e r m i l l s w e r e n e e d e d t o f i l l t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e c i t i e s a n d e x p o r t m a r k e t s . One o f t h e f e w c a p i t a l i s t s who e n t e r e d t h i s b u s i n e s s -on a- l a r g e s c a l e w a s C o l o n e l C a l d w e l l , R e c e i v e r G e n e r a l o f C a n a d a , who o w n e d b y 1 8 0 6 179 f o u r o r f i v e l a r g e f l o u r m i l l s i n t h e Q u e b e c d i s t r i c t . T h e r e s t r i c t e d m a r k e t l i m i t e d t h e s c o p e o f m a n u f a c -t u r i n g f o r d o m e s t i c c o n s u m p t i o n t o t h o s e c o m m o d i t i e s i n h e a v y d e m a n d . T h u s t h e i n s a t i a b l e t h i r s t o f t h e C a n a d i a n s s t i m u l a t e d t h e f o u n d i n g o f s e v e r a l b r e w e r i e s a t Q u e b e c . E v e n i n t h i s l u c r a t i v e f i e l d c o m p e t i t i o n c a j u s e d t h e t w o 180 l a r g e s t t o f a i l . S o a p w a s a n o t h e r p r o d u c t o f g r e a t u t i l i t y , y e t t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s d i d n o t b e g i n t o m a k e t h e i r own p o t a s h u n t i l a f t e r 1 8 0 0 , p r e f e r r i n g t o i m p o r t s u p p l i e s f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d U p p e r C a n a d a . The s m a l l o u t l a y f o r a p o t a s h k e t t l e d e t e r r e d m a n y f a r m e r s 1 8 1 f r o m t a p p i n g a n e x t r a s o u r c e o f i n c o m e . H a b i t a n t p a r s i m o n y h a d f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i v e e f f e c t s i n f i n a n c i a l m a t t e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o a n E n g l i s h a c c o u n t , t h e p r i e s t s f o r b a d e l e n d i n g a t i n t e r e s t . H e n c e s p a r e c a s h c o u l d b e u s e d o n l y t o b u y l a n d o r m e r c h a n d i s e , a n d 182 w a s g e n e r a l l y k e p t l o c k e d u p . B r i t i s h m e r c h a n t s f a -v o u r e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a b a n k t o p r o v i d e c a p i t a l 179 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 9 7 . 180 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 9 8 , 1 8 1 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 2 2 8 . 1 8 2 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 2 4 2 . 98. f o r t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . T h i s p r o p o s a l a r o u s e d s t r o n g o p p o -s i t i o n . Among t h e o b j e c t i o n s p u t f o r w a r d w e r e t h e F r e n c h p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t p a p e r m o n e y a n d t h e d a n g e r o f c o u n t e r -1 8 3 f e i t i n g b y A m e r i c a n f o r g e r s . The d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y f o u n d t h e m -s e l v e s a t l o g g e r h e a d s o v e r t a x a t i o n a s w e l l . F r e n c h -s p e a k i n g m e m b e r s o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e w e r e h o s t i l e t o l e v i e s o f a n y k i n d , a n d v i o l e n t l y o p p o s e d t h e t u r n p i k e s y s t e m 1 8 4 d e s i r e d b y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g m e r c h a n t s . C o n f l i c t s o f t h i s n a t u r e d i d m u c h t o h o l d b a c k t h e e c o n o m i c p r o g r e s s o f L o w e r C a n a d a . F o r some t i m e a f t e r t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n b u s i n e s s w a s p o o r . A r e p o r t f r o m M o n t r e a l d a t e d 20 J u n e 1 7 8 5 p a i n t e d a d e p r e s s i n g p i c t u r e ; T h i n g s a r e i n t h e m o s t w r e t c h e d s t a t e i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . P e o p l e a x e b r e a k i n g e v e r y d a y , a n d g o o d s ^ o f c o u r s e , s e l l i n g a t h a l f t h e i r v a l u e • * • • A s p o p u l a t i o n g r e w , h o w e v e r , c o n d i t i o n s i m p r o v e d . Q u e b e c r e m a i n e d t h e g r e a t e n t r e p o t f o r t h e S t . L a w r e n c e V a l l e y , a n d M o n t r e a l b e n e f i t e d f r o m t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i t s h i n t e r l a n d t o t h e w e s t . A n I r i s h t r a v e l l e r i n 1 7 9 6 v e n t u r e d t h e p r o p h e c y t h a t M o n t r e a l w o u l d o n e d a y 1 8 3 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 2 4 2 . 1 8 4 I b i d . . v o l . 1 , p p . 2 1 1 - 2 1 2 . 185 H u n t e r , Q u e b e c t o C a r o l i n a , p . 5 3 . 99 1 1 . . . r i v a l i n w e a l t h a n d i n s i z e t h e g r e a t e s t o f t h e c i t i e s o n t h e c o n t i n e n t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . " 1 8 6 C o n t r a b a n d p l a y e d a l a r g e p a r t i n C a n a d i a n t r a d e f o r m a n y y e a r s . A m e r i c a n g o o d s w e r e e a s i l y s m u g g l e d a c r o s s t h e b o r d e r a n d f o u n d a r e a d y m a r k e t i n L o w e r C a n a d a o n a c c o u n t o f t h e i r c h e a p n e s s . A s a r e s u l t , i m p o r t s f r o m 187 B r i t a i n h a d d e c r e a s e d b y 1 8 0 6 . N e w c o m e r s f r o m L o n d o n f o u n d t h e r e t a i l o u t l e t s o f L o w e r C a n a d a d i s a p p o i n t i n g . The s t o r e s o f Q u e b e c , a d o r n e d w i t h g l o o m y c a s e m e n t s - a n d i r o n s h u t t e r s , d i s p l a y e d o n l y a f e w " p a l t r y a r t i c l e s o f c r o c k e r y " , a n d h a r d w a r e , o c c a s i o n -a l l y e n l i v e n e d b y a b e a r s k i n o r o t h e r i n c o n g r u o u s o b j e c t . E v e n B r i t i s h s t o r e k e e p e r s made l i t t l e e f f o r t t o s h o w t h e i r w a r e s , c o n t e n t i n g t h e m s e l v e s w i t h w e e k l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . F r e n c h r e t a i l e r s b o u g h t m o s t l y a t a u c t i o n s , w h i c h w e r e f r e q u e n t a n d p o p u l a r , b r i n g i n g h i g h r e t u r n s t o t h e a u c t i o n --189 e e r s . o v T h e s u b s t a n t i a l p r o f i t s , o f t e n 50 t o 100%, made b y m e r c h a n t s d i d n o t g u a r a n t e e p r o s p e r i t y . T h e l o n g w i n t e r s h a l t e d b u s i n e s s w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i n g t h e r e m o r s e l e s s a c c u m u l a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t . F a i l u r e s w e r e common b e c a u s e 186 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p . 2 8 2 . 187 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 2 4 9 - 2 5 1 . 188 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 2 2 . 189 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 2 3 . 1 0 0 . o f t h e p r a c t i c e o f o p e r a t i n g w i t h s m a l l c a p i t a l a n d l a r g e c r e d i t . 1 9 0 B u s i n e s s p r o g r e s s h a d b e e n d i s t u r b e d b y t h e C o n q u e s t a n d t h e A m e r i c a n w a r s w h i c h h a d b e e n a c c o m p a n i e d 191 b y t h e p r o d i g a l i s s u e o f g o v e r n m e n t b i l l s . H a r d w o r k a n d e c o n o m y w e r e n o s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t b a n k r u p t c y e v e n f o r t h e m o s t s o l i d b u s i n e s s m a n . The m a r k e t - p l a c e s o o f . ^ Q u e b e c , T r o i s - R i v i e r e s a n d M o n t -r e a l w e r e i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e s o f t r a d e d u r i n g t h e w h o l e y e a r . T h e y o f f e r e d i n t e r e s t i n g s i g h t s a s c i t i z e n s o f a l l c l a s s e s s t r u g g l e d n o i s i l y f o r t h e f a r m e r ' s p r o d u c e . C u s t o m e r s s h o w e d f i e r c e r i v a l r y , s o m e t i m e s r i s i n g e a r l y t o f o r e s t a l l o n e a n o t h e r , azid s c u f f l i n g o p e n l y o v e r c h o i c e i t e m s . D e s p i t e t h e l a n g u a g e b a r r i e r , t h e s h r e w d h a b i t a n t , o r h i s w o m e n f o l k , r a r e l y s u f f e r e d f r o m t h e f t o r c h e a t i n g . M o n t r e a l i n 1 8 0 6 h a d a w e l l s u p p l i e d m a r k e t w i t h l o w e r 1 9 3 p r i c e s t h a n t h e o t h e r c i t i e s . A s m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d i n a n e x p a n d i n g c o m m u n i t y , l a b o r w a s s c a r c e a n d f a i r l y w e l l p a i d . S k i l l e d w o r k m e n a t M o n t -r e a l i n 1 7 8 5 c o u l d make a d o l l a r a d a y . 1 9 4 A c c o r d i n g t o 190 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 2 4 3 . 1 9 1 H u g h G r a y , L e t t e r s , p p . 2 2 6 - 2 3 0 . 1 9 2 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 7 9 - 8 0 . 1 9 3 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 5 2 8 . 1 9 4 H a d f i e l d , E n g l i s h m a n i n A m e r i c a , 1 7 8 5 , p . 4 7 . 1 0 1 . a n a c c o u n t o f c o n d i t i o n s i n 1 8 0 6 , t h e r e w a s a s u r p r i s i n g v a r i e t y o f t r a d e s i n Q u e b e c a n d o t h e r t o w n s , e v e n i f l e s s t h a n i n E n g l a n d o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . P r o f e s s i o n s s u c h a s 1 9 5 m e d i c i n e , l a w , a n d t h e c h u r c h w e r e a l s o w e l l s u p p l i e d . D o m e s t i c s e r v a n t s , h o w e v e r , w e r e a l m o s t u n o b t a i n a b l e . I f a n i m m i g r a n t b r o u g h t h i s o w n , t h e y w e r e a l m o s t s u r e t o l e a v e b e c a u s e o f b e t t e r p r o s p e c t s i n o t h e r l i n e s o f . 196 w o r k , a n d l e g a l r e d r e s s f o r m a s t e r s w a s h a r d t o g e t . N a t i v e - b o r n w o r k m e n w e r e o f t e n p r e f e r r e d t o E u r o p e a n s , e v e n t h o u g h l e s s s k i l l e d , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s o b r i e t y , i n d u s -t r y a n d c i v i l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s s h o w e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n g e n u i t y a n d r e s p o n d e d q u i c k l y t o t r a i n i n g . T h e y w e r e m o r e r e l i a b l e t h a n t h e A m e r i c a n s , who w e r e a l w a y s 197 r e a d y t o l e a v e f o r b e t t e r p a y . T h e h i g h w a g e s r e c e i v e d b y t h e w o r k e r s l a s t e d f o r o n l y p a r t o f t h e y e a r i n m o s t c a s e s , a n d h a d t o s u f f i c e m a n y o f t h e m d u r i n g t h e l o n g w i n t e r s . N e c e s s i t i e s w e r e r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d , b u t h i g h r e n t s a n d e x p e n s i v e i m p o r t s 198 r a i s e d t h e g e n e r a l c o s t o f l i v i n g . The e c o n o m i c p i c t u r e o f L o w e r C a n a d a b e t w e e n 1 7 8 4 a n d 1 8 1 4 w a s u n i n s p i r i n g . E v e n a l l o w i n g f o r c l i m a t i c a n d o t h e r 1 9 5 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 1 0 4 - 1 0 5 . 196 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 5 5 2 , 197 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 5 2 7 . 198 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 7 5 . 102. o b s t a c l e s , t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e a r e a w e r e n o t b e i n g u s e d i n t e l l i g e n t l y a n d e f f i c i e n t l y . F r e n c h c o n s e r v a t i s m w a s m a t c h e d b y B r i t i s h c a u t i o n i n m o s t a c t i v i t i e s . H e r e a n d t h e r e s i g n s o f p r o g r e s s f o r e s h a d o w e d l a t e r i m p r o v e m e n t s . E n g l i s h m e t h o d s w e r e s l o w l y a f f e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e ; m e r c h a n t s w e r e t r y i n g t o d e v i s e m e a n s o f r a i s i n g a d e q u a t e c a p i t a l ; Y a n k e e e n t e r p r i s e w a s i m p a r t i n g a w h o l e s o m e i m p e t u s t o t r a d e . T h e s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f i r o n w o r k s a n d s h i p -y a r d s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f m a n a g e r i a l s k i l l a n d t h e a p t i t u d e o f C a n a d i a n l a b o r f o r i n d u s t r i a l e m p l o y m e n t . P e r h a p s t h e m o s t h o p e f u l d e v e l o p m e n t w a s t h e g r o w t h o f M o n t r e a l i n t o a b u s y u r b a n c e n t r e s u r r o u n d e d b y r i c h f a r m -l a n d s a n d s p r e a d i n g i t s t r a d e r o u t e s i n t o t h e b u r g e o n i n g w e s t . S u c h a f o c u s o f a c t i v i t y w a s n e e d e d t o s h a k e o f f t h e l e t h a r g y h i t h e r t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e C a n a d i a n e c o n o m y . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s e x p a n d e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the" s p r e a d o f p o p u l a t i o n w i t h o u t a n y r e m a r k a b l e i m p r o v e m e n t i n q u a l i t y . T h e r e w e r e n o f a r - r e a c h i n g c h a n g e s i n d e e p s e a s h i p p i n g u n t i l t h e c o m i n g o f t h e s t e a m b o a t . Q u e b e c w a s t h e m a i n s e a p o r t f o r t h e w h o l e c o l o n y . A f e w s h i p s made t h e d i f f i c u l t v o y a g e u p t o M o n t r e a l , w h e r e a d e e p c h a n n e l p e r m i t t e d t h e m t o l i e c l o s e t o t h e t o w n . T h e w o r s t o b s t a c l e w a s a r a p i d t w o m i l e s d o w n r i v e r , w h i c h h a m p e r e d p r o g r e s s e v e n a t t i m e s o f s t r o n g f a v o r a b l e w i n d s . One t r a v e l l e r r e p o r t e d a p o s s i b l y a p o c r y p h a l s t o r y o f a s h i p t h a t l a y t h e r e f o r w e e k s a f t e r m i s s i n g a n o p p o r t u n i t y , a n d w a s s t i l l 1 0 3 . t h e r e w h e n a l u c k i e r c o m p a n i o n v e s s e l h a d u n l o a d e d , r e t u r n e d 199 t o E n g l a n d , a n d come h a c k o n a s e c o n d v o y a g e . i n a n y c a s e , i t w a s h a r d , t o make m o r e t h a n o n e t r i p a c r o s s t h e A t l a n t i c t o M o n t r e a l i n a s e a s o n . M o s t o f t h e r i v e r t r a f f i c b e t w e e n Q u e b e c a n d M o n t r e a l w a s c a r r i e d o n b y b a t e a u x o r s c h o o n e r s . E v e n w i t h t h e a l t e r n a t i v e o f r e g u l a r l a n d t r a n s p o r t , t r a v e l l e r s o f t e n p r e f e r r e d t h e w a t e r r o u t e f o r i t s s p e e d a n d c o n v e n i e n c e . T h e s c h o o n e r s , o f f r o m t h i r t y t o one h u n d r e d t o n s b u r t h e n , w e r e m a i n l y f o r f r e i g h t , u s u a l l y t a k i n g p a s s e n g e r s d o w n -s t r e a m o n l y . I n 1 8 0 6 , t h e j o u r n e y b e t w e e n Q u e b e c a n d M o n t r e a l t o o k f r o m t w o t o f i v e d a y s , a n d c o s t t w o d o l l a r s . F a s t i d i o u s p a s s e n g e r s o n t h e s c h o o n e r s c h o s e t o s l e e p a s h o r e o r o n d e c k r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e s m a l l a n d f i l t h y c a b i n s . 2 0 0 W i t h i n a f e w y e a r s , t h e a d v e n t o f t h e s t e a m b o a t w a s t o b r i n g p r o f o u n d c h a n g e s t o t h e i n l a n d w a t e r w a y s . F e r r i e s w e r e i m p o r t a n t o n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e b e f o r e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b r i d g e s . T h e s e r v i c e b e W e e n Q u e b e c a n d L e v i s w a s p e c u l i a r i n t h a t i t w a s g e n e r a l l y c a r r i e d o n a l l w i n t e r . F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s made t h e i r w a y r e g u l a r l y t o m a r k e t i n l a r g e d u g o u t c a n o e s , d r a g g i n g t h e m a c r o s s i c e -f l o e s t h a t b a r r e d t h e i r w a y . P a s s e n g e r s who h a d made t h i s 199 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 5 1 3 - 5 1 4 . 200 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 4 5 4 . 1 0 4 . d i f f i c u l t a n d d a n g e r o u s t r i p w e r e s u r p r i s e d a t t h e s k i l l 201 a n d h a r d i n e s s o f t h e b o a t m e n . E v e r y f e w y e a r s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t t e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a n i c e b r i d g e o r p o n t a c r o s s t h e n a r r o w s . T h i s e v e n t , w h i c h m i g h t t a k e p l a c e o v e r n i g h t , was w e l c o m e d b y m o s t o f t h e l o c a l p o p u l a c e , who s w a r m e d a c r o s s t h e i c e o n b u s i n e s s o r p l e a s u r e . T h e o n l y o b j e c t o r s w e r e t h e f e r r y m e n , who d i d w h a t t h e y c o u l d t o p r e v e n t f r e e z i n g b y b r e a k i n g t h e i c e a t t h e e d g e s , i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e ° 0 ? t h e i r j o b s . " V i s i t o r s t o L o w e r C a n a d a i n t h e summer a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y e x p r e s s e d s u r p r i s e , a n d s o m e t i m e s a l a r m , a t t h e p r o s p e c t o f t r a v e l l i n g i n a c a l e c h e . O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e y h a d g o o d r e a s o n f o r t h e i r f e a r s . T h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n d r i v e r s r a c e d h e a d l o n g o v e r b u m p y r o a d s , o f t e n s u f f e r i n g b r e a k d o w n s t h r o u g h c a r e -20 3 l e s s n e s s . One u n h a p p y B r i t i s h t o u r i s t i n 1 7 9 2 a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e p o s t i n g s y s t e m w a s c h e a p , b u t c o m p l a i n e d : " T h e p u b l i c c a r r i a g e s h e r e c a n n o t b e p a r a l l e l e d f o r i n c o n v e n i e n t 4 I m p r o v e m e n t s came a b o u t g r a d u a l l y . I n 1 7 9 6 a n I r i s h -man p r a i s e d t h e c o m m o d i o u s a r r a n g e m e n t s o n t h e r o a d b e t w e e n Q u e b e c a n d M o n t r e a l , p r o n o u n c i n g t h e c a l i c h e s t o b e " f a r 201 H u g h C r a y , L e t t e r s , p p . 2 5 7 - 2 5 8 . 2 0 2 L a n d m a n n , A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 1 , p p . 2 5 5 - 2 5 7 . 203 H u n t e r , Q.uebec t o C a r o l i n a , p . 1 1 5 . 204 C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s , p p . 1 5 , 2 1 . 105. s u p e r i o r t o t h e A m e r i c a n s t a g e w a g g o n s " . 2 0 5 H e w a s a m u s e d a t t h e - v a n i t y o f t h e d r i v e r s , who r e s p o n d e d t o p r a i s e w i t h a m o d e r a t e h u r s t o f s p e e d , a n d t o c r i t i c i s m w i t h v i o l e n t a c c e l e r a t i o n . T h e n i c k n a m e o f " m a r c h e d o n e " f o r a c a l e c h e w a s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e c r i e s w h i c h w e r e c a r e f u l l y a t t u n e d t o t h e s p e e d r e q u i r e d . 2 0 6 Some c a l e c h e s w e r e f i t t e d u p l i k e E n g l i s h c h a i s e s . A n a c c o u n t o f 1806 n o t e s t h a t t h e o w n e r s w e r e a b a n d o n i n g t h e h e a v y F r e n c h h a r n e s s s t u d d e d w i t h b r a s s n a i l s f o r a l i g h t f a s t e n i n g m o r e u s e f u l i n a c c i d e n t s . P o s t i n g v e h i c l e s w e r e s t i l l " m o s t a b o m i n a b l e m a c h i n e s " , i n w h i c h a f a t d r i v e r w o u l d t i l t t h e b o d y f o r -207 w a r d t o t h e g r e a t i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f p a s s e n g e r s . W i n t e r t r a v e l o n l a n d w a s e a s i e r b u t h a r d l y m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e . M o s t c a r i o l e s w e r e o p e n b e c a u s e s e e i n g a n d b e i n g s e e n w e r e t h e m a i n p l e a s u r e s o f s l e i g h i n g . ^ On h e a v i l y t r a v e l l e d r o u t e s t h e c a r i o l e a c q u i r e d a n u n p l e a s a n t m o t i o n t! A A " . . . n o t u n l i k e r o w i n g i n a b o a t a g a i n s t a h e a d - s e a . " 2 0 ^ T h i s w a s d u e t o t h e b u m p s o r c a h o t s f o r m e d b y t h e s n o w -g u a r d t h a t e n a b l e d t h e s l e i g h t o s u r m o u n t o b s t a c l e s a n d b r e a k n e w r o a d s . H a b i t a n t i n g e n u i t y w a s u n a b l e t o d e s i g n 205 W e l d , " T r a v e l s , p p . 2 4 6 - 2 4 7 . 206 I b i d . , p p . 2 4 7 - 2 4 8 . 207 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 1 6 8 - 1 7 0 . 208 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p . 2 2 6 . 209 H . G r a y , L e t t e r s , p . 2 4 8 . 1 0 6 . a n i m p r o v e m e n t e l i m i n a t i n g t h i s d i s t r e s s i n g f e a t u r e . 2 1 0 F a s h i o n a b l e p e o p l e i n t h e t o w n s k e p t h i g h - r u n n e r s l e i g h s 211 t h a t w e r e f a s t a n d c o m f o r t a b l e b u t e a s i l y u p s e t . A s a n a u x i l i a r y t o t h e t o u g h l i t t l e h o r s e s , F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s u s e d d o g s t o d r a w c a r t s t o m a r k e t a n d p u l l s l e d s o n l o n g w i n t e r j o u r n e y s . T h i s w a s a common p r a c t i c e i n 2 1 2 Q u e b e c a n d M o n t r e a l i n 1 7 9 6 . T e n y e a r s l a t e r d o g s w e r e u s e d o n l y b y b o y s , a n d p r o d u c e was c a r r i e d i n h o r s e - d r a w n - • x. 213 c a r t s o r s l e i g h s . The r o a d s o f L o w e r C a n a d a w e r e a t t i m e s a b o m i n a b l e . T h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n r e f e r s t o a j o u r n e y i n M a y 1 7 9 8 f r o m M o n t r e a l t o L a c h i n e - - t h e h i g h r o a d f o r a l l t r a f f i c t o t h e w e s t . The r o a d we h a d f o l l o w e d , t h e o n l y o n e b e t w e e n t h o s e p l a c e s , w h i c h s c a r c e l y d e s e r v e d s u c h a n a m e , w a s a t f i r s t r o u g h e n o u g h , b u t o n a d v a n c i n g i t e n t e r e d a s o r t o f w o o d , w h e r e e v e r y o n e f o l l o w e d h i s own f a n c y . The s u r f a c e w a s c o v e r e d o r s c a t t e r e d t h i c k l y w i t h s t o n e s , e a c h o f t h e m l a r g e e n o u g h t o u p s e t a n y k i n d o f v e h i c l e , a n d t h e s e w e r e p a r t l y s t a n d i n g i n w a t e r , s o t h a t i n p r o c e e d i n g i t n o t u n f r e q u e n t l y h a p p e n e d , t h a t i n t u r n i n g t h i s w a y t o a v o i d one o f t h o s e m a s s e s y o u p l u n g e d t h e w h e e l o f y o u r c a r r i a g e , o n t h e o o t h e r s i d e , i n t o a d e e p h o l e i n t h e g r o u n d , c o n c e a l e d b y t h e w a t e r . 2 1 4 210 O g d e n , T o u r , p . 4 3 . 211 L a n d m a n n , A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 1 , p . 2 6 5 . 2 1 2 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p . 2 0 3 . 2 1 3 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 7 2 . 214 L a n d m a n n , A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 1 , p p . 2 9 4 - 2 9 5 . 107. B y 1807. t h i s r o u t e h a d b e c o m e t h e o n l y t u r n p i k e i n L o w e r C a n a d a , b u t i t w a s n o t w e l l k e p t u p c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r a t e o f f o u r p e n c e f o r a h o r s e a n d e i g h t p e n c e f o r a h o r s e a n d n . 215 c h a i s e . W e a r y t r a v e l l e r s c o u l d n o t l o o k f o r w a r d t o c o m f o r t a b l e a c c o m m o d a t i o n a t j o u r n e y ' s e n d . I n 1791 M r s . S i m c o e c o m -p l a i n e d o f t h e " d i s m a l a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e o l d - f a s h i o n e d PI 6 i n n " w h e r e s h e h a d t o s t a y a t Q u e b e c . On a s u b s e q u e n t v i s i t i n 1795 s h e d e c l a r e d : " . . . t h e r e a r e n o t o l e r a b l e a c c o m m o d a t i o n s h e r e f o r t r a v e l l e r s , a n d n o l o d g i n g s t o b e 217 h i r e d b u t w h a t a r e v e r y m i s e r a b l e The s i t u a t i o n i n t h e t o w n s h a d i m p r o v e d l i t t l e b y 1806. New a r r i v a l s w e r e w a r n e d n o t t o b e m i s l e d b y n a m e s : " E v e r y l i t t l e d i r t y h o l e , w h e r e a f e w g l a s s e s o f r u m , g i n , 218 o r w h i s k e y a r e s o l d , i s a T a v e r n . " T h e r e w e r e i n Q u e b e c o n l y t w o " r e s p e c t a b l e " h o t e l s a n d a n u m b e r o f b o a r d i n g 219 \ h o u s e s n o t s u i t e d t o E n g l i s h t a s t e s . T r o i s - R i v i e r e s j p o s s e s s e d o n e d e c e n t h o u s e f o r a c c o m m o d a t i o n r u n b y a B r i t i s h l a n d l a d y who w a s c l e a n a n d c o m p e t e n t b u t t h e 215 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, p . 528. 216 S i m c o e , D i a r y , p . 54. 217 I b i d . , p . 351. 218 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, p . 23. 219 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p p . 23-25, 317. 1 0 8 . 220 r e v e r s e o f o b s e q u i o u s . T h e M o n t r e a l H o t e l o n t h e P l a c e d ' A r m e s was a n e a t , c l e a n , w e l l r u n h o s t e l r y s u i t e d t o 221 E n g l i s h m e n a n d d e s c r i b e d a s t h e b e s t i n C a n a d a . E n r o u t e t h r o u g h t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , t r a v e l l e r s m i g h t h a v e t o t a k e p o t - l u c k a t f a r m h o u s e s , a n d u s u a l l y c a r r i e d 222 b a s k e t s o f p r o v i s i o n s . E v e n t h e p u b l i c h o u s e s o r a u b e r g e s w e r e f r e q u e n t l y u n a b l e t o s u p p l y m o r e t h a n t h e b a r e s t n e c e s s i t i e s , n o t f r o m i l l - w i l l b u t f r o m p o v e r t y . T h e a u b e r g i s t e s , who w e r e a l s o f a r m e r s o r s h o p k e e p e r s , s h o w e d a p o l i t e n e s s a n d s o l i c i t u d e t h a t w a s a r e f r e s h i n g c o n t r a s t 223 t o t h e m a n n e r s o f E u r o p e a n i n n k e e p e r s . T h e p e r i o d 1 7 8 4 - 1 8 1 4 saw i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a , t o t h e a c c o m p a n i m e n t o f g r e a t p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s e l s e w h e r e . A s a s e q u e l t o t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n came t h e d i v i s i o n i n t o t w o p r o v i n c e s , e a c h e n j o y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s o n a l i m i t e d s c a l e . T h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n d e e p l y d i s t u r b e d o p i n i o n , e x c i t i n g r e p u b l i c a n a g i t a t i o n o n t h e o n e h a n d w h i l e i t s t r e n g t h e n e d c o n s e r v a t i v e f o r c e s o n t h e o t h e r . T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y p o s e d n o v e l q u e s t i o n s f o r a F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g m a j o r i t y u n f a m i l i a r w i t h p a r l i a m e n t a r y 220 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 4 7 9 - 4 8 1 . 221 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 5 1 7 . 2 2 2 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p . . 1 9 3 . 2 2 3 H u g h G r a y , L e t t e r s , p p . 1 2 6 - 1 2 7 . 1 0 9 . d e v i c e s . O v e r t h e w h o l e s c e n e a f t e r 1 7 9 3 l o o m e d t h e w a r w i t h r e v o l u t i o n a r y a n d N a p o l e o n i c P r a n c e , a n d t h e t h r e a t o f h o s t i l i t i e s w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , c u l m i n a t i n g i n a c t u a l c o n f l i c t i n 1 8 1 2 . A s e a r l y a s 1 7 8 5 a y o u n g E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r w a r n e d t h a t i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o g r a n t t h e r e c e n t r e q u e s t f o r a n a s s e m b l y , a n d t h a t o n l y a c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d l i b e r t y w o u l d k e e p t h e c o l o n y f r o m f o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 2 2 4 T h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l A c t o f 1 7 9 1 w e n t a c o n s i d e r a b l e w a y t o w a r d s m e e t i n g t h e d e m a n d f o r l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n g o v e r n m e n t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e G o v e r n o r - i n - C h i e f a n d h i s l i e u t e n a n t c o n t i n u e d t o e x e r c i s e g r e a t p o w e r a n d i n f l u e n c e . T h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t a t Q u e b e c n o t i c e a b l y a f f e c t e d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , a s e v i d e n c e d b y t h e u p s u r g e i n b u s i n e s s w h e n S i r J a m e s C r a i g a r r i v e d t o t a k e u p h i s d u t i e s a s G o v e r n o r O O R i n 1 8 0 7 . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e G o v e r n o r - i n - C h i e f , t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l ha.d s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d p o w e r s a s A d m i n i s t r a t o r — a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h c a u s e d d i f f i -c u l t y i n e m e r g e n c i e s . L a m b e r t a t t r i b u t e d t o t h i s w e a k n e s s t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f a p r o j e c t f o r g r o w i n g hemp i n w h i c h h e 226 w a s i n t e r e s t e d . 224 H a d f i e l d , E n g l i s h m a n i n A m e r i c a , 1 7 8 5 , p p . 1 3 3 - 1 5 4 . 225 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 2 3 1 - 2 3 2 . 226 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 1 8 0 . 1 1 0 . B r i t i s h , t r a v e l l e r s f o u n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e l i t t l e m o r e t h a n a t r a v e s t y o f t h e M o t h e r o f P a r l i a m e n t s . O n l y p e t t y s u b j e c t s came u p f o r d i s c u s s i o n , a n d t h e d e b a t e s , w h i c h w e r e m o s t l y i n F r e n c h , w e r e " n e v e r r e m a r k a b l e f o r 227 l e a r n i n g , e l o q u e n c e , o r p r o f o u n d a r g u m e n t . " T h i s c i r c u m -s t a n c e w a s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l m e m b e r s w e r e i l l i t e r a t e . I n 1 8 0 6 , o v e r h a l f o f t h e A s s e m b l y w a s made u p o f m e r c h a n t s , s h o p k e e p e r s , l a w y e r s , a n d n o t a r i e s 228 f r o m Q u e b e c a n d M o n t r e a l * T h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s w a s n a t u r a l l y r e p u g n a n t t o v i s i t o r s f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e a u g u s t p r o c e e d i n g s a t W e s t m i n s t e r . One w r i t e r t h o u g h t i t m o s t u n b e c o m i n g t h a t c o n t r o l s h o u l d b e i n t h e h a n d s o f a p e o p l e i g n o r a n t o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f c i v i l a n d r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t y a n d " d e f i c i e n t i n g e n e r a l 229 k n o w l e d g e . " H e a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e F r e n c h " . . . c a r r y t h i n g s w i t h a h i g h h a n d . . . " , f o r g e t t i n g t h a t t h e c o n s t i t u -t i o n w a s a " f r e e g i f t " f r o m B r i t a i n . 2 3 0 The l e g a l a n d j u d i c i a l s y s t e m a l s o l e f t a g o o d d e a l t o b e d e s i r e d i n B r i t i s h e y e s . C r i m i n a l j u s t i c e i n L o w e r C a n a d a f o r t u n a t e l y h a d l i t t l e s c o p e a m o n g s t t h e l a w - a b i d i n g 227 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 1 8 4 . 228 H u g h G r a y , L e t t e r s , p p . 7 8 - 7 9 . 229 I b i d . , p p . 8 1 - 8 2 . 230 I b i d . , p p . 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 . 1 1 1 . F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s . So t e m p e r e d w a s t h e - s e v e r i t y o f E n g l i s h c r i m i n a l l a w t h a t t h e r e w a s a p r o v e r b t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t " . . . i t r e q u i r e s g r e a t i n t e r e s t f o r a man t o b e h u n g i n C a n a d a . " 2 3 1 F r e n c h c i v i l l a v ; w a s t h e f e a t u r e t h a t d r e w t h e f i r e o f B r i t i s h c r i t i c s . I t w a s h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g r a v e d e f e c t s i n t h e j u d i c i a l s y s t e m a n d i n o t h e r a s p e c t s o f l i f e i n L o w e r C a n a d a . E s p e c i a l l y s i n g l e d o u t w e r e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i n h e r i t a n c e , a s o p p o s e d t o p r i m o g e n i t u r e ; t h e s y s t e m o f c o m m u n a u t e d e b i e n s i n m a r r i a g e ; a n d t h e a b s e n c e o f b a n k r u p t c y l a w s . T h e s e w e r e c o n d e m n e d a s t h w a r t i n g t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y , d e s t r o y i n g f a m i l y a f f e c t i o n , a n d 2 3 2 e n c o u r a g i n g f r a u d . E v e n a l l o w i n g f o r n a t u r a l p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t u n - E n g l i s h l e g a l s y s t e m s , i t i s e a s y t o s y m p a t h i z e w i t h t h e c r i t i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e F r e n c h c i v i l l a w e x t e n d e d t o B r i t i s h r e s i d e n t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . E n g l i s h - t r a i n e d j u s t i c e s c o u l d n o t b e e x p e c t e d t o m a s t e r t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f a f o r e i g n b o d y o f l a w . T h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d q u i b b l i n g w e r e o b v i o u s . I t w a s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t l i t i g a t i o n f l o u r i s h e d , a n d t h a t t h e c i v i l c o u r t s 2 3 3 f a i l e d t o command p u b l i c r e s p e c t . The F r e n c h l a w y e r s , 231 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , . p . 1 7 7 . 2 3 2 H u g h G r a y , L e t t e r s , p p . 1 2 1 , 1 3 8 - 1 4 3 . 233 I b i d . , p . 1 2 0 . 1 1 2 . a p p a r e n t l y o f " n a r r o w a n d c o n t r a c t e d " e d u c a t i o n , d i d n o t 4 s h o w a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f p r a c t i c e . C o u r t r o o m p r o c e d u r e w a s v e r y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . ' 0 Y e t t h i n g s m i g h t h a v e b e e n w o r s e , i f we a c c e p t t h e f o l l o w i n g o p i n i o n : ' 'The l a w i n C a n a d a i s e x t r e m e l y t e d i o u s ; b u t , t o c o m p a r e i t w i t h t h e l a w o f S c o t l a n d , a n d t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t o f C h a n c e r y , i s t o c o m p a r e t h e f l e e t n e s s o f t h e h a r e w i t h t h e s l u g g i s h m o t i o n o f t h e ,235 s n a i l . I n t h e r e a l m o f p o l i t i c s , t h r e e g r e a t i s s u e s f o r c e d t h e m s e l v e s o n t h e a t t e n t i o n o f o b s e r v e r s . T h e s e w e r e t h e d e m a n d f o r g r e a t e r p o p u l a r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g o v e r n m e n t , t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g m a j o r i t y , a n d r e l a t i o n s w i t h G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n 1 7 8 5 a n E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r a t Q u e b e c r e p o r t e d d i s c o n t e n t w i t h G o v e r -n o r H a l d i m a n d 1 s " G e r m a n p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s p o t i s m " . T h i s w r i t e r t h o u g h t t h e c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t i e s s h o u l d h a v e t r i e d t o A n g l i c i z e t h e p e o p l e t h r o u g h a s y s t e m o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s , b u t . h e b e l i e v e d t h e L o y a l i s t i m m i g r a n t s w o u l d , i n a n y c a s e a c h i e v e d o m i n a n c e t h r o u g h s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y . L a t e r v i s i t o r s w e r e o f t e n o b s e s s e d w i t h t h e d a n g e r s o f t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . T h e y e x p r e s s e d t h e f e a r t h a t F r e n c h i d e a s o f d e m o c r a c y m i g h t i n f i l t r a t e t h r o u g h t h e m e d i u m o f A m e r i c a n s y m p a t h i z e r s . One i n d i g n a n t B r i t o n 234 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p p . 2 0 1 - 2 0 2 . 235 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 2 0 3 . 236 H a d f i e l d , E n g l i s h m a n i n A m e r i c a , 1 7 8 5 , p p . 1 3 1 - 1 3 3 . 1 1 3 . i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s h a d n o b a s i s f o r t h e i r a l l e g e d g r i e v a n c e s b u t t h e i r own p e r v e r s e d i s p o s i t i o n s . T h e s e q u e r u l o u s c o l o n i a l s e n j o y e d t h e i r s h a r e o f p u b l i c e m p l o y m e n t s a n d p r o f i t e d f r o m t h e u n p r e c e d e n t e d b e n e v o l e n c e 2 3 7 o f B r i t i s h r u l e . The w r i t e r q u e s t i o n e d t h e w i s d o m o f c o n f e r r i n g B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s o n a c o n q u e r e d p e o p l e , w h e n t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s h a d t a k e n s o l o n g t o m a t u r e i n 938 t h e h o m e l a n d . F u r t h e r m o r e , h e e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s n a t u r a l l y l o n g e d f o r t h e r e s u m p t i o n o f F r e n c h r u l e . 2 5 9 T h e p o l i t i c a l d i s p u t e s a n d o t h e r d i v i s i v e f o r c e s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e d i d n o t a u g u r w e l l i n c a s e o f a c o n -f l i c t w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . M o r e o v e r , t h e p h y s i c a l d e -f e n c e s o f L o w e r C a n a d a w e r e f a r f r o m r e a s s u r i n g . When L a m b e r t w a s a t Q u e b e c i n 1 8 0 6 h e l o o k e d i n v a i n f o r t h e c i t a d e l o n C a p e D i a m o n d : " . . . my u n p r o f e s s i o n a l , e y e c o u l d d i s c e r n n o t h i n g b u t a h e a p o f r u i n s a n d r u b b i s h ; a h e t e r o -g e n e o u s c o l l e c t i o n o f o l d w o o d e n l o g - h o u s e s a n d b r o k e n -d o w n w a l l s . " 2 4 0 A t t h i s t i m e , h o w e v e r , G o v e r n o r C r a i g w a s h a s t e n i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f r e p a i r s a n d n e w b u i l d i n g s , 1 i n -2 4 1 e l u d i n g f o u r M a r t e l l o t o w e r s o n t h e P l a i n s o f A b r a h a m . 237 H u g h G r a y , L e t t e r s , pp. 3 3 0 - 3 3 2 . 238 I b i d . , p p . 8 4 - 8 5 . 239 I b i d . , p p . 3 2 7 - 3 3 0 . 240 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 4 0 . 241 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p . 4 1 . 1 1 4 . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e g a r r i s o n t r o o p s , a m i l i t i a b a s e d o n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l F r e n c h s y s t e m w a s a v a i l a b l e i n e m e r g e n -c i e s . T h e B r i t i s h a n d F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s f o r m e d s e p a r a t e c o m p a n i e s w i t h t h e i r oxm o f f i c e r s - - a d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t o n e 94 t r a v e l l e r c o n s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f u n i t y . " " T h e same a u t h o r m e n t i o n e d w i t h a p p r o v a l a f e n c i b l e r e g i m e n t a t T r o i s - R i v i e r e s i n 1807 w i t h S c o t t i s h o f f i c e r s a n d F r e n c h 0 4 3 C a n a d i a n o t h e r r a n k s , s u p p l e m e n t e d b y a f e w A m e r i c a n s . The p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f C a n a d a i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1 7 8 4 t o 1 8 1 4 w a s one o f d i v i s i o n a n d f e r m e n t . New i n s t i -t u t i o n s w e r e b e i n g t e s t e d b y a n o n - h o m o g e n e o u s p e o p l e i n t h e m i d s t o f g r e a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s o r d e r . I t w a s i m p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e m a c h i n e r y s h o u l d w o r k s m o o t h l y , a n d t h e w o n d e r w a s t h a t i t w o r k e d a t a l l . " A p p e a r a n c e s m u s t h a v e b e e n w o r s e t h a n t h e r e a l i t y i n some r e s p e c t s . I n t h e t i m e o f t e s t i n g , t h e p e o p l e o f L o w e r C a n a d a h a d n o r e a s o n t o b e a s h a m e d o f t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e a t C h a t e a u g u a y . 2 4 2 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 4 8 . 2 4 3 I b i d . , v o l . 1 , p p . 4 7 7 - 4 7 8 . 1 1 5 . C H A P T E R I I I THE A T T A C K OH THE W I L D E R N E S S : U P P E R C A N A D A . 1 7 8 4 - 1 8 1 4 B e f o r e t h e c o m i n g o f t h e L o y a l i s t s , C a n a d a w e s t o f M o n t r e a l w a s l a r g e l y t e r r a i n c o g n i t a t o t r a v e l l e r s . Some o f t h e m h a d v i s i t e d t r a d i n g p o s t s a n d s t o p p e d o f f a t N i a g a r a t o v i e w t h e f a l l s . How t h a t s e t t l e r s w e r e p o p u -l a t i n g t h e w i l d e r n e s s , t h e r e v/as m o r e i n c e n t i v e t o v i s i t t h i s r e g i o n . The c r e a t i o n o f a s e p a r a t e p r o v i n c e o f U p p e r C a n a d a i n 1 7 9 1 m e a n t t h a t a n e w c a p i t a l w a s e s t a b l i s h e d , c o m p l e t e w i t h a l l t h e p a r a p h e r n a l i a o f g o v e r n m e n t . Up t o 1 8 1 4 i t was p o s s i b l e t o s e e m o s t o f t h e s e t t l e d a r e a b y f o l l o w i n g t h e S t . L a w r e n c e , L a k e O n t a r i o , t h e N i a g a r a R i v e r , a n d L a k e E r i e t o t h e D e t r o i t R i v e r . T h i s r o u t e c o u l d b e c o m m e n c e d a t e i t h e r e n d , o r a p p r o a c h e d f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a t some i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t , s u c h a s t h e H i a g a r a P e n i n s u l a . T r a v e l l e r s b y w a t e r f r o m M o n t r e a l w e r e u s u a l l y d e -l i g h t e d b y t h e s p e c t a c l e o f t h e T h o u s a n d I s l a n d s a f t e r t h e w e a r y i n g u p s t r e a m j o u r n e y t h r o u g h t h e r a p i d s . One o f t h e f i r s t r e c o r d e d i m p r e s s i o n s , h o w e v e r , w a s f a r f r o m l a u d a t o r y . A h a r d - h e a d e d S c o t i n t e n t o n a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s d i s m i s s e d t h e s e b e a u t y s p o t s a s h e p a s s e d t h r o u g h i n 1 7 9 1 w i t h t h e r e m a r k : " T h e y a r e o f v e r y l i t t l e 1 1 6 . v a l u e , a n d p r o d u c e b u t s c r a g g y w o o d o f u s e l e s s p i n e . , , J -L a t e r w r i t e r s made amends f o r t h i s l a c k o f a p p r e c i a t i o n . A m o r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o p i n i o n w a s t h a t ' t h e i s l a n d s w e r e 2 " . . . b e a u t i f u l i n t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e . " N i a g a r a P a l l s b e g a n t o a t t r a c t n u m e r o u s s i g h t s e e r s i n t h e p e r i o d a f t e r 1 7 8 3 . S e v e r a l t r a v e l l e r s e n t e r e d C a n a d a n e a r b y o r mad.e a p o i n t o f r e a c h i n g t h i s s i g h t o f g r o w i n g f a m e . T h e s p e c t a c l e u s u a l l y c a l l e d f o r t h e x p r e s s i o n s o f p r o f o u n d e m o t i o n , g i v i n g r i s e t o some o f t h e m o s t l u x u r i a n t p r o s e i n C a n a d i a n t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e . A B r i t i s h a r m y o f f i c e r i n 1787 s e t t h e k e y n o t e w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e : " H e r e I f o r o n e s a t down f o r some t i m e i n s i l e n t a d m i r a t i o n a n d a s t o n i s h m e n t , a t a s i g h t w h i c h I am f u l l y p e r s u a d e d n o p e n 3 o r p e n c i l c a n e v e r c o n v e y a c r o s s t h e s e a . " T h i s a s s e r t i o n o f t h e f u t i l i t y o f a n y a t t e m p t a t d e s -c r i p t i o n d i d n o t d e t e r s u b s e q u e n t w r i t e r s f r o m c o m p o s i n g r h a p s o d i e s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n ; o r p r i v a t e e n j o y m e n t . P e r -h a p s t h e h i g h p o i n t i n t h i s o u t p o u r i n g o f s e n t i m e n t w a s t h e comment o f Thomas M o o r e , t h e I r i s h p o e t , i n 1 8 0 4 . H i s j o u r n a l e n t r y f o r 24 J u l y g a v e a g o o d i d e a o f t h e 1 C a m p b e l l , T r a v e l s , p . 1 3 7 . 2 V e l d , T r a v e l s , p . 2 7 5 . 3 J o h n E n y s , " V i s i t t o N i a g a r a , j o u r n a l o f C a p t . E n y s , 29 t h r e g i m e n t , 1 7 8 7 , " ' C a n a d a , P u b l i c a r c h i v e s , R e p o r t , 1 8 8 6 , p . c c x x v i . 1 1 7 . e f f e c t o f t h e s c e n e o n a s e n s i t i v e a n d e l o q u e n t o b s e r v e r : I t i s i m p o s s i b l e b y p e n o r p e n c i l t o c o n v e y e v e n a f a i n t i d e a o f t h e i r m a g n i f i c e n c e . P a i n t i n g i s l i f e l e s s ; a n d t h e m o s t b u r n i n g w o r d s o f p o e t r y h a v e a l l b e e n l a v i s h e d u p o n i n f e r i o r a n d o r d i n a r y s u b j e c t s . We m u s t h a v e n e w c o m b i n a t i o n s o f l a n -g u a g e t o d e s c r i b e t h e P a l l s o f N i a g a r a . Wh e n C a p t a i n E n y s v i s i t e d N i a g a r a i n 1 7 8 7 some c l e a r -i n g h a d b e e n d o n e o n t h e C a n a d i a n s i d e t o p e r m i t v i e w s o f t h e f a l l s , b u t a c c e s s t o t h e b a s e was d i f f i c u l t a n d d a n g e r -o u s . B y 1 7 9 5 a t l e a s t one woman h a d d e s c e n d e d t o t h e r i v e r o n a s e r i e s o f s h o r t l a d d e r s w h i c h r e p l a c e d a n o l d 5 " I n d i a n L a d d e r " c o n s i s t i n g o f a n o t c h e d t r e e - t r u n k . I n t h e same y e a r a F r e n c h t r a v e l l e r c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d n o t m a d e c o n v e n i e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e v a r i o u s v i e w p o i n t s . H e d i s m i s s e d a s i n a d e q u a t e t h e e x c u s e t h a t f e w t r a v e l l e r s w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n s i g h t - s e e i n g o n l y , a n d g t h a t t h o s e i n t e n t o n b u s i n e s s r a r e l y s t o p p e d t o l o o k . T h i s c o n d e m n a t i o n o f o f f i c i a l p a r s i m o n y w a s e a r l y e v i d e n c e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c i n g C a n a d i a n t o u r i s t d e v e l o p m e n t . The c l i m a t e o f U p p e r C a n a d a p r e s e n t e d f e w s u r p r i s e s t o t r a v e l l e r s who h a d l i v e d i n L o w e r C a n a d a o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . • W i n t e r s w e r e t y p i c a l l y C a n a d i a n i n a l l b u t t h e 4 M o o r e , M e m o i r s , v o l . 1 , p . 1 7 2 . 5 S i m c o e , D i a r y , p . 2 8 6 . 6 F r a n g o i s - A l e x a n d r e - F r e d e r i c , D u e d e L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d L i a n c o u r t , Yoya .ge d a n s l e s E t a t s - U n i s d ' A m e r i q u e , f a i t e n  1 7 9 5 , 1796 e t 1 7 9 7 , P a r i s , D u P o n t , l ' a n V I I d e l a R e p u b l i q u e £ l 7 9 9 j , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 9 - 2 0 . 1 1 8 . s o u t h e r n m o s t d i s t r i c t s , e v e n t h o u g h t e m p e r a t u r e s w e r e m i l d e r t h a n i n t h e e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e . T h e summer h e a t w a s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y g r e a t e r . R e s i d e n t s o f t h e N i a g a r a P e n i n s u l a o c c a s i o n a l l y s u f f e r e d f r o m h e a v y a n d o p p r e s s i v e w e a t h e r t h a t c a u s e d g r e a t d i s t r e s s a t n i g h t b y d e n y i n g 7 t h e m t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e f r e s h i n g s l e e p . The p r o v i n c e w a s l i t t l e m o r e t h a n a s e a o f f o r e s t f o r m a n y y e a r s a f t e r i t s f o u n d a t i o n . O n l y a f e w n a t u r a l o p e n i n g s a n d p r a i r i e s , s u p p l e m e n t e d b y a f r i n g e o f c l e a r -i n g s , v a r i e d t h e l a n d s c a p e . F i r e s , w h e t h e r d e l i b e r a t e l y s e t o r n o t , c a u s e d g r e a t d a m a g e , a n d o f t e n d a r k e n e d t h e summer s k i e s f o r w e e k s a t a t i m e . D u r i n g one c a n o e t r i p t h r o u g h t h e G-reat L a k e s a n d down t h e S t . L a w r e n c e t o M o n t -r e a l i n J u l y 1 8 0 0 t h e c r e w s u f f e r e d f r o m t h e e f f e c t s o f smoke f o r t h e w h o l e s e v e n h u n d r e d m i l e s . F i r e s o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e r i v e r p o u r e d a s h e s a n d c i n d e r s o n t h e 8 v o y a g e r s w i t h o u t r e s p i t e . I n e a r l y y e a r s , w h e n l i t t l e l a n d h a d b e e n c l e a r e d , m o s q u i t o e s w e r e e x t r e m e l y t r o u b l e s o m e i n U p p e r C a n a d a . On t h e s i t e o f T o r o n t o i n 1 7 9 6 , M r s . S i m c o e r e m a r k e d : " I t i s s c a r c e l y p o s s i b l e t o w r i t e o r u s e my h a n d s , w h i c h 7 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p . 1 2 0 . 8 , L a n d m a n n , A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 6 9 - 1 7 0 . 1 1 9 . a r e a l w a y s o c c u p i e d i n k i l l i n g t h e m o r d r i v i n g t h e m a w a y . " R a t t l e s n a k e s i n f e s t e d l a r g e a r e a s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . A l t h o u g h some o f t h e t a l l s t o r i e s m u s t b e d i s c o u n t e d , t h e r e i s n o d o u b t t h a t t h e y w e r e n u m e r o u s a n d o f t e n t r o u b l e s o m e . A t l e a s t s e v e n h u n d r e d s n a k e s w e r e k i l l e d b y r o a d b u i l d e r s n e a r B u r l i n g t o n a t t h e h e a d o f L a k e O n t a r i o i n t h e summer o f 1 7 9 5 , b u t o n l y one man w a s b i t t e n . " 1 ' 0 T h e w o r s t a r e a f o r s n a k e s \^as t h e i s l a n d s a t t h e w e s t e n d o f L a k e E r i e , w h e r e r a t t l e r s made l a n d i n g d a n g e r o u s a t t h e h e i g h t o f s u m m e r , a n d w e r e a c t i v e u n t i l l a t e S e p t e m b e r . O t h e r f o r m s o f w i l d l i f e w e r e l e s s o b j e c t i o n a b l e . P a s s e n g e r p i g e o n s c o n t i n u e d t o a s t o n i s h v i s i t o r s w i t h t h e i r p r o d i g i o u s n u m b e r s . L a n d m a n n , a n o b s e r v a n t e n g i n e e r , saw a f l o c k a t N i a g a r a t h a t w a s t w o t o t h r e e m i l e s w i d e a n d 1 2 t o o k t h r e e t o f o u r h o u r s t o p a s s . A n a b u n d a n c e o f b i r d s a n d mammals p r o v i d e d g o o d h u n t i n g f o r I n d i a n s a n d s e t t l e r s . F l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e i r n u m b e r s p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e o f a w i l d -l i f e c y c l e . One t r a v e l l e r r e p o r t e d s t r a n g e p h e n o m e n a i n t h e " b e a r a n d s q u i r r e l y e a r " o f 1 7 9 6 . D u r i n g S e p t e m b e r many b e a r s c o m i n g f r o m t h e n o r t h w e r e s e e n i n t h e w a t e r s 9 S i m c o e , D i a r y , p . 3 3 5 . 10 I b i d . , p . 2 9 8 . 1 1 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p . 3 4 0 . 1 2 L a n d m a n n , A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 1 , p . 2 7 8 . 120. of the St. Lawrence and Great Lakes. Squirrels migrated from the south at the same time by swimming the Niagara River, and then went on to wreak havoc amongst crops on 13 the Canadian side. Upper Canada had no large c i t i e s to compare with Quebec and Montreal u n t i l long after 1791. Among the ti n y communities that l i n e d the St. Lawrence, Kingston was the f i r s t worthy of detailed notice to t r a v e l l e r s proceeding upstream. Its s i t u a t i o n inspired a good many favorable comments, and the c i t y i t s e l f was a t t r a c t i v e . Nevertheless, one p r a c t i c a l Scot rebuked the residents f o r b u i l d i n g their houses of wood instead of the nat u r a l l y 14 quadrangular limestone that was abundant i n the l o c a l i t y . Another,traveller thought Kingston the most e l i g i b l e s i t e f o r the c a p i t a l of the province, on account of i t s advantages 15 for trade and defence. By contrast, a French v i s i t o r three years l a t e r , i n 1795, considered the town i n f e r i o r to Newark because of i t s poor housing and lack of public buildings, although he recognized i t s commercial advantages. There was l i t t l e to detain the t r a v e l l e r between Kingston and Niagara. Toronto harbor was known to be 13 Weld, Travels, pp. 270-271. 14 Campbell, Travels, pp. 139-140. 15 Canadian l e t t e r s , p. 37. 16 l a Rochefoucauld, Voyage, v o l . 2, pp. 131-133. 1 2 1 . e x c e l l e n t , "but t h e v i l l a g e o f Y o r k t o o k s e v e r a l y e a r s t o r e a c h a r e s p e c t a b l e s i z e . M r s . S i m c o e s p e n t a g r e e a b l e h o l i d a y s i n t h e w o o d s o n t h e D o n R i v e r . L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d d i d n o t e v e n b o t h e r t o v i s i t t h e n e w c a p i t a l . T h e o r i g i n a l c a p i t a l o f N e w a r k ( N i a g a r a - o n - t h e - L a k e ) w a s m u c h m o r e a c c e s s i b l e t o v i s i t o r s f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s - - a f a c t t h a t l o w e r e d i t s s u i t a b i l i t y a s a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e i n c a s e o f w a r . N e w a r k w a s d e s c r i b e d i n 1 7 9 2 a s " a p o o r w r e t c h e d s t r a g g l i n g v i l l a g e , w i t h a few s c a t t e r e d c o t t a g e s e r e c t e d h e r e a n d t h e r e a s c h a n c e , c o n v e n i e n c e , ' o r c a p r i c e 17 d i c t a t e d . " B y 1 7 9 6 , h o w e v e r , i t h a d " s e v e r a l e x c e l l e n t d w e l l i n g s " , a n d w a s g r o w i n g r a p i d l y t h r o u g h t r a d e a n d -1 Q i m m i g r a t i o n f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . W e s t o f N e w a r k l a y a f e w e v e n s m a l l e r v i l l a g e s , n o t a b l y Q u e e n s t o n a n d G h i p p a w a i n t h e N i a g a r a P e n i n s u l a , a n d M a i d e n ( A m h e r s t b u r g ) o p p o s i t e D e t r o i t . U r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t i n U p p e r C a n a d a d i d n o t c o m p a r e w i t h t h a t o f t h e l o w e r p r o v i n c e u n t i l a f t e r t h e W a r o f 1 8 1 2 . T h e f r o n t i e r c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p r e v a i l e d o v e r m o s t o f t h e a r e a d e t e r m i n e d t o a g r e a t e x t e n t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p e o p l e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1 7 8 4 - 1 8 1 4 . A s t h e t i d e o f i m m i g r a t i o n s w e l l e d , t h e I n d i a n p o p u -l a t i o n w a s r e d u c e d t o a m i n o r e l e m e n t . T h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e o f I n d i a n l i f e w a s i t s e l f t h e r e s u l t o f i m m i g r a t i o n . 17 C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s , p . 4 2 . 18 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p . 2 9 7 . 1 2 2 . T h i s w a s t h e Mohawk v i l l a g e o n t h e G r a n d R i v e r , f o u n d e d b y J o s e p h B r a n t a f t e r t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n . M a n y t r a v e l l e r s made a p o i n t o f v i s i t i n g t h i s s e t t l e m e n t , d r a w n b y t h e l u s t r e o f B r a n t ' s r e p u t a t i o n . T h e i r o p i n i o n s w e r e g e n e r a l l y f a v o r a b l e . T h e d e c o r o u s c h u r c h s e r v i c e s , t h e w e l l - a t t e n d e d s c h o o l , t h e p r o d u c t i v e f a r m s , a l l s h o w e d t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f t h e I n d i a n s u n d e r s u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s . T h e s e c i v i l i z e d a m e n i t i e s , m o r e o v e r , h a d b e e n a c h i e v e d 19 w i t h o u t a b a n d o n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l c u s t o m s . B r a n t h i m s e l f w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m u c h o f t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . H e made a d e e p i m p r e s s i o n o n a l l who m e t h i m . T h i s c o m p l e x i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d e n g a g e i n s e r i o u s c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h w e l l - i n f o r m e d v i s i t o r s , j o i n i n t h e y o u n g 20 p e o p l e ' s f r o l i c s , o r g e t d r u n k w i t h a c o n v i v i a l E u r o p e a n . H e h a d d e m o n s t r a t e d h i s k n o w l e d g e a n d p i e t y b y t r a n s l a t i n g p a r t o f t h e Hew T e s t a m e n t i n t o M o h a w k , y e t h a d b e e n c a p a b l e 21 o f k i l l i n g h i s own s o n . I n t h e e y e s o f w h i t e m e n , t h i s s h r e w d , i n t e l l i g e n t , a n d a m b i t i o u s l e a d e r f a r o u t s h o n e a l l o t h e r m e m b e r s o f h i s r a c e i n t h e C a n a d a s . The o t h e r I n d i a n t r i b e s o f U p p e r C a n a d a p r e s e n t e d a n u n h a p p y s p e c t a c l e . P e r h a p s t h e m o s t w r e t c h e d w e r e t h e M i s s i s s a u g a s a l o n g L a k e O n t a r i o , who w e r e d e s c r i b e d i n 179 2 19 C a m p b e l l , T r a v e l s , p . 1 6 6 - 1 6 8 . 20 I b i d . , p p . 1 6 9 - 1 7 0 , 1 7 3 - 1 7 4 . 21 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p p . 4 0 7 - 4 0 9 . 123. as an "... unwarlike, i d l e , drunken, d i r t y t r i b e " 2 2 - -a description that expressed a general opinion. These nomads made a poor l i v i n g out of bartering f i s h and game with s e t t l e r s or other t r i b e s . Along the Detroit River the Indians were l i t t l e better. One writer gave up his plans to l i v e with them f o r the purposes of observation i n 1796 because of the " f i l t h i n e s s and wretchedness of their"smoky habitation", t h e i r nauseous food and general 23 uncleanliness. Yet these degraded people despised men who had l o s t t h e i r freedom, and un i v e r s a l l y hated Negroes as an i n f e r i o r species whom they did not hesitate to k i l l 24 without compunction i f given an opportunity. Indians treated one another with "gentleness and harmony", unless inflamed by li q u o r , the curse f o r which the whites could 25 never make amends. The missionaries who made the most successful appeal to the Indians were the Roman Catholics, presumably because they i n s i s t e d on the observance of outward forms without imposing serious r e s t r a i n t s on everyday behavior. The Moravians did an excellent job of turning warriors into 22 Simcoe, Diary, p. 115. 23 Weld. Travels, pp. 415-416. 24 I b i d . , p. 403. 25 Ib i d . , pp. 401-402. 124. p e a c e f u l farmers, but t h e i r converts were few. Quakers made l i t t l e progress because of t h e i r teachings on non-. ' 26 r e s i s t a n c e . Most t r a v e l l e r s were c r i t i c a l of the Indian p o l i c y of the government. In a d d i t i o n to deprecating the use of such savage a l l i e s i n wartime, B r i t i s h observers questioned the value of the l a v i s h annual d i s t r i b u t i o n of presents. They pointed to the greater.success of French agents i n the past, and emphasized the need f o r sympathy and respect to win 27 the l a s t i n g a f f e c t i o n of the n a t i v e s . A French t r a v e l l e r thought the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n should make a serious e f f o r t to c i v i l i z e those Indians i n contact w i t h whites, and expressed h o r r o r at r e p o r t s that Governor Simcoe was i n -c i t i n g the savages to hate Americans and prepare f o r orgies 28 of burning and s c a l p i n g i n case of h o s t i l i t i e s . I t was a common b e l i e f that the number of Indians was decreasing, and that a l l but a few s e t t l e d groups would disappear during the nineteenth century. Disease and l i q u o r threatened to aggravate the e f f e c t s of a d e c l i n i n g 29 b i r t h r a t e and thus solve the Indian problem permanently. 26 Weld, Tra v e l s , pp. 409-410. 27 I b i d . , p. 361. 28 La Rochefoucauld, Voyage, v o l . 2, pp. 68-69, 80-81. 29 Weld, T r a v e l s , pp. 372-374. 1 2 5 . T h e d i v e r s e o r i g i n s o f t h e i m m i g r a n t s i n t o U p p e r C a n a d a c r e a t e d a p o p u l a t i o n i n s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o t h a t o f t h e o l d e r p r o v i n c e . B e f o r e t h e L o y a l i s t s c a m e , s m a l l c o l o n i e s o f F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s h a d s e t t l e d a l o n g t h e h a n k s o f t h e D e t r o i t R i v e r . T h e s e h a b i t a n t s r e t a i n e d t h e l a n -g u a g e a n d c u s t o m s o f t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s . E v e n t h e i r f o r m o f s e t t l e m e n t r e s e m b l e d t h e l o n g , n a r r o w f a r m s t e a d s t h a t 30 l i n e d t h e l o w e r S t . L a w r e n c e . A f t e r t h e T r e a t y o f P a r i s i n 1 7 8 3 L o y a l i s t s p u s h e d r a p i d l y i n t o t h e w e s t e r n p a r t s o f C a n a d a . B y 1 7 8 5 t h e y h a d e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s o n t h e b a n k o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e O t t a w a a n d L a k e O n t a r i o . I n t h a t y e a r a y o u n g E n g l i s h m a n r e m a r k e d o n t h e " e n t e r p r i s i n g a n d i n d u s t r i o u s " 3 1 s e t t l e r s who w e r e d e v e l o p i n g a c o u n t r y o f g r e a t p r o m i s e . N o t a l l t h e n e w c o m e r s w e r e L o y a l i s t s . S c o t s w e r e q u i c k t o m o v e i n t o t h e v i r g i n t e r r i t o r y . T h e i r y o u t h a n d " s u p e r i o r i n d u s t r y a n d a c t i v i t y " h a d e n a b l e d t h e m t o a t t a i n 3 2 t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e m e r c h a n t c o m m u n i t y i n N e w a r k b y 1 7 9 3 . A v i s i t o r t o K i n g s t o n i n 1 7 9 5 w r o t e t h a t t h e L o y a l i s t s i n t h e d i s t r i c t w e r e o u t n u m b e r e d b y t h e t o t a l o f o t h e r g r o u p s , 33 v i z . S c o t s , E n g l i s h , I r i s h , D u t c h , a n d G e r m a n . A c c o r d i n g 30 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p . 3 5 1 . 31 H u n t e r , Q.uebec t o C a r o l i n a , p p . 8 3 - 8 4 . 3 2 C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s , p. 8 0 . 3 3 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 4 2 - 1 4 3 . 1 2 6 t o a n a c c o u n t r e f e r r i n g t o 1 8 0 6 , t h e S c o t t i s h e l e m e n t w a s d o m i n a n t a n d t h e E n g l i s h v e r y s m a l l . M o s t I r i s h p r e f e r r e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , h u t m a n y o f t h e m m o v e d t o U p p e r C a n a d a 34 a f t e r b e i n g d i s i l l u s i o n e d a b o u t t h e A m e r i c a n w a y o f l i f e . A s i n L o w e r C a n a d a , a n u m b e r o f i m m i g r a n t s f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w e r e q u i t e d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e L o y a l i s t s . T h e s e n e w c o m e r s w e r e a. s o u r c e o f c o n c e r n t o G o v e r n o r S i m c o e o n a c c o u n t o f t h e i r s u s p e c t e d r e p u b l i c a n s y m p a t h i e s . T h e G o v e r n o r t r i e d t o s e t t l e t h e m i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y , a w a y f r o m t h e v u l n e r a b l e w a t e r f r o n t , w h e r e h e p r e f e r r e d t o h a v e 35 d i s c h a r g e d B r i t i s h s o l d i e r s o f s o u n d l o y a l t y . T h e g o v e r n m e n t w a s s e l e c t i v e t o w a r d s A m e r i c a n i m m i g r a -t i o n n o t o n l y f o r p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s b u t a l s o b e c a u s e i t w i s h e d t o o b t a i n n o one b u t f a r m e r s a n d l a b o r e r s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t . H e n c e p r o f e s s i o n a l m e n , s u c h a s c l e r g y m e n , p h y s i c i a n s , a n d s c h o o l m a s t e r s , w e r e d i s c o u r a g e d . A n E p i s c o p a l m i n i s t e r , w r i t i n g i n 1 7 9 9 , d e p l o r e d t h e e x c l u s i o n o f A m e r i c a n c l e r g y a s e s p e c i a l l y 36 h a r m f u l t o r e l i g i o n . L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e m a n n e r s a n d c u s t o m s o f t h e p e o p l e o f U p p e r C a n a d a a p p e a r e d i n t r a v e l a c c o u n t s 34 L a m b e r t , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1 , p . 1 4 7 . 35 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p . 4 5 . 36 O g d e n , T o u r , p . 3 4 . 1 2 7 . f o r t h e p e r i o d 1 7 8 4 - 1 8 1 4 . T h e r e w a s n o t m u c h i n common among t h e L o y a l i s t f a r m e r s a l o n g t h e S t . L a w r e n c e , t h e . S c o t s m e r c h a n t s o f N e w a r k , a n d t h e F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g h a b i t a n t s o f t h e s o u t h w e s t . E a c h g r o u p r e t a i n e d m o s t o f i t s n a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u n t i l t h e s p r e a d o f s e t t l e m e n t a n d t h e i m -p r o v e m e n t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f a c i l i t a t e d a n a m a l g a m o f t h e w h o l e . The o n l y g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m e n t i o n e d w a s a h o s p i t a l i t y t o w a r d s s t r a n g e r s t h a t m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d i n a 37 p i o n e e r s o c i e t y . S u c h i n f o r m a t i o n a s i s a v a i l a b l e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e t t l e r s w e r e n o t p a r a g o n s o f v i r t u e . One A m e r i c a n w r i t e r t o o k p a i n s t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e p o p u l a r o p i n i o n t h a t a l l t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f U p p e r C a n a d a w e r e " r o g u e s " , d e s c r i b i n g t h e m f r o m h i s own w i d e a c q u a i n t a n c e a s " p e a c e a b l e , j u s t a n d , 38 g e n e r o u s " . A l t h o u g h t h e r e g u l a r f o o d o f t h e s e t t l e r s w a s n o t s o d i s t i n c t i v e a s t h a t o f F r e n c h C a n a d a , i t w a s o c c a s i o n a l l y v a r i e d b y l o c a l p r o d u c t s . M r s . S i m c o e e n j o y e d t h e L a k e O n t a r i o w h i t e f i s h a n d f o u n d t h e s t u r g e o n m u c h b e t t e r t h a n 37 H u n t e r , Q u e b e c t o C a r o l i n a , p . 7 7 ; C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s , p . 8 0 . 38 M i c h a e l S m i t h , A g e o g r a p h i c a l ' v i e w o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f  U p p e r C a n a d a . A n d p r o m i s c u o u s r e m a r k s o n t h e g o v e r n m e n t . I n t w o p a r t s , w i t h a n a p p e n d i x ; c o n t a i n i n g a c o m p l e t e  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e N i a g a r a F a l l s . A n d r e m a r k s r e l a t i v e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s r e s p e c t i n g t h e w a r ,  a n d a c o n c i s e h i s t o r y o f i t s p r o g r e s s , t o t h e p r e s e n t d a t e , 3 d e d . , r e v . , T r e n t o n , [ N . J M o o r e a n d L a k e , 1 8 1 3 , p p . 59-60. 1 2 8 . s a l t - w a t e r v a r i e t i e s . A n o t h e r t r a v e l l e r a t N i a g a r a , i n 1 7 9 2 , r e m a r k e d o n t h e a b u n d a n t s u p p l y o f w i l d p i g e o n s a n d 40 t h e f r e q u e n t a p p e a r a n c e o f s q u i r r e l s o n t h e d i n n e r t a b l e . T h e p o p u l a t i o n o f U p p e r C a n a d a w a s n o t l a r g e e n o u g h t o p r o v i d e f o r e l a b o r a t e s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h e m i n i a t u r e c a p i t a l a t N e w a r k p r o v i d e d a r o u n d o f l i v e l y p a r t i e s f o r o f f i c i a l s o c i e t y . A t t h e f o r t n i g h t l y b a l l s , c o u p l e s i n f a n c y d r e s s e n g a g e d i n d a n c i n g a n d h e a r t y s u p p e r s t h a t 4 1 l a s t e d u n t i l w e l l a f t e r m i d n i g h t . P o p u l a r a m u s e m e n t s i n t h e n e w s e t t l e m e n t s r e s e m b l e d t h o s e o f L o w e r C a n a d a , d e s p i t e d i f f e r e n c e s o f c l i m a t e a n d n a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d . ¥ i t h t h e e n d o f t h e h e a v y summer w o r k , t h e p e o p l e t u r n e d t o p r i v a t e d a n c e s , s i n g i n g , a n d o u t d o o r s p o r t s s u c h a s h u n t i n g . S l e i g h i n g , o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d 4 2 b y f u r i o u s d r i v i n g , w a s a f a v o r i t e r e c r e a t i o n . F r o n t i e r l i f e p r o v i d e d f e w o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l a m e n i t i e s . T h e e a r l y s e t t l e r s i n t h e f o r e s t c l e a r i n g s n a t u r a l l y b u i l t l o g s h a n t i e s a n d c a b i n s a s d w e l l i n g s . I n t h e f e w t o w n s a s w e l l , b u i l d i n g s w e r e a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y 39 S i m c o e , D i a r y , p . 1 3 9 . 40 C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s , p p . 4 3 - 4 4 . 41 I b i d . , p . 4 5 . 4 2 S m i t h , U p p e r C a n a d a , p p . 6 3 - 6 4 . 1 2 9 . o f w o o d . T h i s w a s t h e c a s e e v e n w h e r e s t o n e w a s a v a i l a b l e , a s a t K i n g s t o n , w h i c h w a s l o c a t e d o n a l i m e s t o n e f o r m a t i o n t h a t s p l i t easily a n d h a r d e n e d i n t h e a i r t o a n e x c e l l e n t b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l . ^ 3 T h e h e a l t h p r o b l e m s o f U p p e r C a n a d a w e r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o f t h e l o w e r p r o v i n c e . H e r e t h e g r e a t m e n a c e w a s a g u e o r m a l a r i a , w h i c h r e i g n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e w a r m w e a t h e r i n t h e a r e a o f s e t t l e m e n t f r o m K i n g s t o n w e s t w a r d . A t r a v e l l e r a r r i v i n g a t N e w a r k i n S e p t e m b e r 1796 f o u n d t h a t e v e r y h o u s e h a d a t l e a s t o n e c a s e . M a n y c o m p l e t e f a m i l i e s 44 w e r e l a i d u p , a n d m o s t o f t h e n e w g a r r i s o n w e r e a f f e c t e d . A n o t h e r s e v e r e a t t a c k p r o s t r a t e d t h e g a r r i s o n a t N e w a r k i n 1 7 9 8 . T h e o f f i c e r c o m m a n d i n g p r o p o s e d t o d r a i n o r c o v e r a n e a r b y m a r s h t h a t w a s b l a m e d f o r t h e i n f e c t i o n , b u t h e 45 was r e f u s e d p e r m i s s i o n b y h i s s u p e r i o r . O t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s s u f f e r e d i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . S e v e r a l t r a v e l l e r s l o o k e d t o t h e c u t t i n g o f t r e e s a n d d r a i n i n g o f swamps a s t h e o n l y . . 46 p r e v e n t i v e . I t w a s a g o o d t h i n g t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e w a s o t h e r w i s e r e a s o n a b l y h e a l t h y . I n t h e e a r l y y e a r s m e d i c a l p r a c t i c i o n -e r s w e r e s c a r c e a n d n o t a l w a y s c o m p e t e n t . When G o v e r n o r 4 3 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 4 3 - 1 4 4 . 44 W e l d , ' T r a v e l s , p . 2 9 8 . 45 L a n d m a n n , A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 2 , p p . 2 1 - 2 2 . 46 C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s , p . 4 7 . 1 3 0 . S i m c o e w a s i l l a t K i n g s t o n i n A p r i l 1 7 9 5 , t h e m i l i t a r y s t a f f - s u r g e o n w a s a t N e w a r k , a n d t h e o n l y m e d i c a l a d v i c e a v a i l a b l e w a s " . . . t h a t o f a h o r s e - d o c t o r who p r e t e n d e d 47 t o h e a n a p o t h e c a r y . " F o r t u n a t e l y , J o s e p h B r a n t ' s s i s t e r , who h a p p e n e d t o h e p r e s e n t , w a s a b l e t o p r e s c r i b e a n e f f i -c a c i o u s I n d i a n r e m e d y . 4 8 The common p e o p l e w e r e a f r a i d o f p h y s i c i a n s b e c a u s e t h e y p r e s c r i b e d q u i n q u i n a f o r f e v e r s . H e n c e t h e p o o r h a d r e c o u r s e t o m a g i c , t y i n g a k n o t f o r e a c h a t t a c k i n a s t r i n g 49 a t t a c h e d t o a n e l m o r s a s s a f r a s b r a n c h . T h e c a s t s k i n s o f r a t t l e s n a k e s a p p l i e d t o a f f l i c t e d p a r t s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a s u r e c u r e f o r r h e u m a t i s m . D r i e d r a t t l e s n a k e s , p o w d e r e d a n d i n f u s e d i n t o b r a n d y , w e r e s a i d t o b e a " n e v e r f a i l i n g 50 r e m e d y " f o r t h i s c o m p l a i n t , a n d m a n y c u r e s w e r e r e p o r t e d . T h e s e e v i d e n c e s o f s u p e r s t i t i o n a n d g u l l i b i l i t y r e v e a l e d t h e c r u d i t y o f l i f e i n U p p e r C a n a d a b e f o r e t h e g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n p e r m i t t e d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a d e q u a t e m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t . I n e d u c a t i o n , U p p e r C a n a d a h a d e v e n l e s s t o b o a s t o f t h a n i t s n e i g h b o r p r o v i n c e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e w a s g o o d r e a s o n f o r i t s b a c k w a r d n e s s a t f i r s t . U n t i l t h e g o v e r n m e n t l a u n c h e d 47 S i m c o e , D i a r y , p p . 2 7 4 - 2 7 5 . 48 L o c . c i t . 49 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e . , v o l . 2 , p p . 9 8 - 9 9 . 50 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p p . 3 4 1 - 3 4 2 . 1 3 1 . a n e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n w e r e e x i g u o u s a n d h a p h a z a r d . I n 1 7 9 8 s e t t l e r s o n t h e Thames R i v e r c o m p l a i n e d t h a t o n l y t h e I n d i a n s h a d c h u r c h e s 5 1 a n d s c h o o l s . P u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l i n g w a s w i d e s p r e a d t h o u g h f e w s e t t l e r s w e r e w e l l e d u c a t e d . B y 1 8 1 2 t h e r e w a s i n t h e o r y a f r e e p u b l i c s c h o o l i n e a c h o f t h e e i g h t d i s t r i c t s , e m p l o y i n g a t e a c h e r a t a s a l a r y o f o n e h u n d r e d p o u n d s p e r y e a r . Hew s c h o o l s t e a c h i n g L a t i n a n d G r e e k y 5 2 e x i s t e d a t Y o r k , N e w a r k , a n d t h e B a y o f Q u i n t e . T h i n g s o f t h e m i n d w e r e n o t h e l d i n g r e a t e s t e e m i n U p p e r C a n a d a . A B r i t i s h w r i t e r who w a s t h e r e i n 1 7 9 2 a n d 1 7 9 3 s a i d t h a t h e h a d m e t o n l y t h r e e s c h o l a r l y p e r s o n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e , a l t h o u g h h e h a d b e e n a s s u r e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e 5 3 a t l e a s t t w o o t h e r s o f s i m i l a r a t t a i n m e n t s . T h e f i r s t n e w s p a p e r , t h e U p p e r C a n a d a , G a z e t t e o r A m e r i c a n O r a c l e , 51 L e s l i e R . G r a y , e d . , " F r o m B e t h l e h e m t o F a i r f i e l d — 1 7 9 8 . D i a r y o f t h e B r e t h r e n J o h n H e c k e w e l d e r a n d B e n j a m i n M o r t i m e r , o n t h e i r j o u r n e y f r o m B e t h l e h e m i n P e n n s y l v a n i a t o F a i r f i e l d i n U p p e r C a n a d a , f r o m t h e 3 0 t h A p r i l t o t h e 2 2 n d M a y , 1 7 9 8 , " O n t a r i o h i s t o r y , v o l . 46 ( w i n t e r - s p r i n g 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 5 4 ) , p . 1 2 5 . 5 2 S m i t h , U p p e r C a n a d a , pp. 5 8 - 5 9 . 53 C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s , p . 5 6 . T h e " t h r e e h e h a d m e t w e r e G o v e r n o r S i m c o e , " C h i e f J u s t i c e O s g o o d e , a n d t h e R e v . M r . A d d i s o n , A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r a t N e w a r k ; t h e o t h e r t w o w e r e M r . H a m i l t o n o f The L a n d i n g ( Q u e e n s t o n ) a n d M r . C a r t w r i g h t o f Cataraqui ( K i n g s t o n ) . 1 3 2 . w a s a m e d i u m f o r g o v e r n m e n t p r o c l a m a t i o n s a n d a d v e r t i s e -m e n t s . The o n l y p r i n t e r a t t h e t i m e ( 1 7 9 3 ) w a s L o u i s R o y , 5 4 who c o u l d n o t w r i t e g o o d E n g l i s h . A F r e n c h t r a v e l l e r i n 1 7 9 5 f o u n d t h e U p p e r C a n a d i a n s l e s s a v i d f o r n e w s t h a n t h e A m e r i c a n s . N e i t h e r a t K i n g s t o n n o r a t N e w a r k , t h e m a i n c e n t r e s o f p o p u l a t i o n , w a s t h e r e m u c h i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s 55 o r w o r l d a f f a i r s . U p p e r C a n a d a s h o w e d a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s r e l i g i o u s d i v e r s i t y e v e n f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t y e a r s . B y 1 7 9 1 b e a r d e d M o r a v i a n s f r o m P e n n s y l v a n i a h a d s e t t l e d n e a r N i a g a r a F a l l s . T h e s e " m i l d a n d i n o f f e n s i v e " p e o p l e w e r e l i k e d b y t h e i r 56 n e i g h b o r s , i n s p i t e o f t h e i r p e c u l i a r c o m m u n i t y l i f e . W i t h i n t h e n e x t f e w y e a r s t h e p a t t e r n o f h e t e r o g e n e i t y greitf m o r e c o m p l e x . I n 1 7 9 5 , a p a r t f r o m t h e e s t a b l i s h e d A n g l i c a n c h u r c h , t h e r e w e r e Roman C a t h o l i c s ( m o s t l y F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s o n t h e D e t r o i t R i v e r ) , P r e s b y t e r i a n s , " A n a b a p t i s t s " , 57 Q u a k e r s , M e n n o n i t e s a n d D u n k e r s . F o r a w h i l e , c h u r c h b u i l d i n g s w e r e h a r d l y m o r e n u m e r o u s t h a n d e n o m i n a t i o n s . A t N e w a r k t h e same b u i l d i n g w a s u s e d b o t h f o r w o r s h i p a n d f o r s e s s i o n s o f t h e E x e c u t i v e a n d 5 4 S i m c o e , D i a r y , p . 1 6 1 . 5 5 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 0 3 - 1 0 4 , 1 4 3 . 56 C a m p b e l l , T r a v e l s , p p . 1 5 3 - 1 5 4 . 57 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 0 5 , 1 4 2 . 1 3 3 . l e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l s . K i n g s t o n h a d n o s u i t a b l e c h u r c h 58 u n t i l a b a r n - l i k e s t r u c t u r e was e r e c t e d i n 1 7 9 5 . A n a c c o u n t r e f e r r i n g t o t h e y e a r s 1 8 0 8 - 1 8 1 2 r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e M e t h o d i s t s w e r e b y t h a t t i m e t h e m o s t n u m e r o u s a n d w i d e s p r e a d d e n o m i n a t i o n . The a u t h o r d i d n o t n o t i c e a g e n e r a l r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l , b u t d i s c o v e r e d s e r i o u s i n t e r e s t i n r e l i g i o n . I t i s h a r d t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t w e i g h t t o g i v e t o h i s s u m m a r y o f c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e : " B i g o t r y a n d s u p e r s t i t i o n i s n o t o f t e n t o b e d i s c o v e r e d among t h e i n -h a b i t a n t s o f C a n a d a , o f c o u r s e t h e y d o n o t p e r s e c u t e e a c h 59 o t h e r , b u t a r e f r i e n d l y a n d l o v i n g . " The p r i m i t i v e s t a t e o f s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l l i f e w a s l a r g e l y d u e t o t h e g e n e r a l p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s . U n t i l l a r g e a r e a s w e r e s e t t l e d a n d b r o u g h t u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n , i t w a s a b s u r d t o e x p e c t m u c h r e f i n e m e n t . - B e f o r e 1 8 1 4 , t h e s t r u g g l e t o l a y t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t t o o k u p m o s t o f t h e e n e r g i e s o f t h e p e o p l e . S e t t l e m e n t s p r e a d r a p i d l y f r o m e a s t t o w e s t . A S c o t t i s h a g r i c u l t u r i s t t r a v e l l i n g f r o m M o n t r e a l t o K i n g s t o n i n 1 7 9 1 d e c l a r e d o f t h e a r e a a r o u n d C o r n w a l l : " T h i s p a r t 58 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 0 5 , 1 4 2 , 1 4 5 . 59 S m i t h , U p p e r C a n a d a , p p . 6 0 - 6 2 . i 134. o f t h e c o u n t r y i s i m p r o v i n g v e r y f a s t , a n d w i l l s o o n b e i n a v e r y f l o u r i s h i n g s t a t e . " 6 0 B y 1794 t h e - P r i n c e Edx-zard P e n i n s u l a a n d t h e s h o r e s o f t h e B a y o f Q u i n t s ' w e r e w e l l p o p u l a t e d , o f f e r i n g t h e " . . . a p p e a r a n c e o f a b e a u t i f u l o l d -s e t t l e d c o u n t r y . " 6 1 The c u t t i n g o f Y o n g e a n d D u n d a s S t r e e t s c a r r i e d s e t t l e m e n t f r o m Y o r k n o r t h t o w a r d s L a k e S i m c o e a n d w e s t t h r o u g h B u r l i n g t o n t o t h e G r a n d R i v e r a n d t h e R i v e r L a T r e n c h e o r T h a m e s . I n t h e w e s t e r n d i s t r i c t s b u i l d i n g s w e r e s t i l l v e r y s c a t t e r e d i n 1795. A t r a v e l l e r i n t h a t y e a r w a s s u r p r i s e d a t t h e s m a l l n u m b e r o f " h a b i t a t i o n s " i n t h e f i n e l a n d s b e t w e e n t h e . N i a g a r a R i v e r a n d t h e h e a d 62 o f L a k e O n t a r i o . T h e N i a g a r a f r o n t i e r w a s o n e o f t h e f i r s t a r e a s t o a t t r a c t i m m i g r a n t s . A s e a r l y a s 1785, t h e " b e a u t i f u l s e t t l e m e n t s " t h e r e , f a r m o r e i m p r e s s i v e t h a n t h o s e o n t h e A m e r i c a n s i d e , r e c a l l e d t o o n e t r a v e l l e r h i s 63 n a t i v e E n g l a n d . A l o n g t h e D e t r o i t R i v e r t h e r e w a s a f a i r -s i z e d F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t y . o f l o n g s t a n d i n g , b u t m o s t 64 o f i t was o n t h e A m e r i c a n s i d e . 60 C a m p b e l l , T r a v e l s , p . 127. 61 [-John C o s e n s O g d e n j , " A l e t t e r f r o m a g e n t l e m a n t o h i s f r i e n d , i n E n g l a n d , d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f U p p e r C a n a d a , I n h i s A t o u r , t h r o u g h  U p p e r a n d L o w e r C a n a d a T a r r y t o w n , N . Y . , R e p r i n t e d , W i l l i a m Abb a t t , 1917, p . 6 1 . 62 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2, p . 96. 63 H u n t e r , Q u e b e c t o C a r o l i n a , p . 108. 64 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2, p p . 57-58. 1 3 5 . A m e r i c a n i m m i g r a n t s , a c c u s t o m e d t o f r o n t i e r c o n d i t i o n s , s o m e t i m e s a c t e d a s t h e s p e a r h e a d o f s e t t l e m e n t . • T h o s e who came t o t h e Thames v a l l e y u s u a l l y m o v e d i n w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s , b u i l t l o g - h o u s e s a n d b a r n s , c l e a r e d s e v e r a l a c r e s , a n d t h e n t r i e d t o s e l l t h e p r o p e r t y s o t h a t t h e y c o u l d move 6 5 o n t o r e p e a t t h e same p r o c e s s , e l s e w h e r e . T h e s e r e s t l e s s a x e m e n t h u s p r e p a r e d t h e way f o r m o r e p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n t s . S p e c t a c u l a r a d v a n c e s c o n t i n u e d w e l l i n t o t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . B y 1 8 1 2 , t h e g r e a t w a v e o f s e t t l e m e n t h a d p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e e a s t e r n d i s t r i c t s t o t h e r i c h e r s o i l s a n d m i l d e r c l i m a t e o f t h e l a n d s w e s t o f K i n g s t o n . T h e L a k e O n t a r i o s h o r e w a s s u b s t a n t i a l l y p o p u l a t e d b e t w e e n Y o r k a n d t h e b u s y c o m m u n i t y a t B u r l i n g t o n B a y ( H a m i l t o n ) . D u t c h s e t t l e r s w e r e n u m e r o u s o n t h e G r a n d R i v e r , w h e r e p r e v i o u s l y t h e r e h a d b e e n o n l y B r a n t ' s Mohawk v i l l a g e . A s y e t , o n l y a t h i n f l o w o f i m m i g r a t i o n h a d p e n e t r a t e d t o t h e p r o m i s i n g 66 L o n d o n d i s t r i c t o n t h e Thames R i v e r . S e i g n e u r i a l t e n u r e w a s n o p r o b l e m i n U p p e r C a n a d a , b u t t h e l a n d s i t u a t i o n w a s n o t a l t o g e t h e r s a t i s f a c t o r y . D e l a y i n g r a n t i n g t i t l e s c r e a t e d u n c e r t a i n t y among s e t t l e r s 6 5 L a n d m a n n , A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 4 7 - 1 4 8 . 66 S m i t h , U p p e r C a n a d a , p p . 4 9 - 5 1 . 1 3 6 . a n d l e d t o c h a r g e s t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t w a s p a r t i a l a n d a r b i t r a r y i n i t s p r o c e e d i n g s . T h e r o y a l r e s e r v e s o f 67 m i n e r a l s a n d t i m b e r w e r e a d d i t i o n a l c a u s e s o f c o m p l a i n t . O s t e n s i b l y , t h e m o t i v e s f o r r e s t r i c t i o n s on o w n e r s h i p w e r e t o p r e v e n t l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n o n t h e A m e r i c a n p a t t e r n , t o d i s c o u r a g e e m i g r a t i o n , a n d t o e n s u r e t h e g o o d b e h a v i o r o f s e t t l e r s , e s p e c i a l l y A m e r i c a n s . A n I r i s h t r a v e l l e r c o n -d e m n e d t h e s y s t e m a s a b a r r i e r t o i m p r o v e m e n t , a r g u i n g t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c l e a r t i t l e s w o u l d b e t h e b e s t 68 g u a r a n t e e o f l o y a l t y a n d s u s t a i n e d i m m i g r a t i o n . F a r m i n g c o n d i t i o n s w e s t o f M o n t r e a l w e r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e i n t h e o l d e r s e t t l e m e n t s d o w n s t r e a m . T h e v i r g i n f o r e s t h a d t o b e c l e a r e d b e f o r e c r o p s c o u l d b e r a i s e d . F o r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s a f t e r 1 7 8 3 t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y o f U p p e r C a n a d a c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y o f t h e r e l e n t l e s s b a t t l e a g a i n s t t r e e s , w h i c h m o s t s e t t l e r s r e g a r d e d a s e n e m i e s t o b e u t t e r l y d e s t r o y e d . U n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t w a s u n l i k e l y t h a t a n y b u t . t h e c r u d e s t f a r m i n g c o u l d b e c a r r i e d o n i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s . A s t h e L o y a l i s t s p u s h e d i n t o w h a t was l a t e r t h e E a s t e r n D i s t r i c t o f U p p e r C a n a d a , b e t w e e n t h e O t t a w a R i v e r a n d L a k e O n t a r i o , t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d e n e m i e s o t h e r 67 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2, p p . 53-55. 68 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p p . 231-236. 1 3 7 t h a n t h e f o r e s t . I n t h e s i m m e r o f 1 7 8 5 a " w o r m o r g r u b a b o u t l | - i n c h e s l o n g " d e s t r o y e d m u c h o f t h e g r a i n i n t h i s 6 9 r e g i o n . O n l y g o v e r n m e n t r a t i o n s p r e v e n t e d s t a r v a t i o n . C o n d i t i o n s w e r e m o r e f a v o r a b l e i n t h e N i a g a r a P e n i n s u l a , w h e r e t h e h o t s u n o n t h e d e e p s o i l e n a b l e d f a r m e r s t o sow 70 a s e c o n d c r o p a s s o o n a s t h e f i r s t h a d b e e n c l e a r e d a w a y . M e t h o d s o f c l e a r i n g l a n d w e r e n a t u r a l l y c r u d e t o E u r o p e a n e y e s . S m a l l w o o d w a s c u t a n d b u r n t ; b i g t r e e s w e r e k i l l e d b y r i n g i n g a n d e v e n t u a l w i n d t h r o w . The s t u m p s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o f t h e c o n i f e r s , t o o k a l o n g t i m e t o d e c a y , a n d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s t h e y o b s t r u c t e d c u l t i v a t i o n a s w e l l 71 a s o f f e n d i n g t h e s i g h t . F o r t u n a t e l y , n e w s e t t l e r s w e r e a b l e t o g r o w c r o p s f o r t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s w i t h o u t t i l l i n g 72 t h e s o i l , a n d e v e n t h e n u n d e r t o o k o n l y s h a l l o w p l o u g h i n g . The s c a r c i t y a n d h i g h c o s t o f l a b o r c a u s e d t h e u s e o f i n e f f i c i e n t a n d w a s t e f u l m e t h o d s o f h a r v e s t i n g b y t h e 73 f a m i l i e s o f s e t t l e r s . I n t h e w a r m s o u t h w e s t o f t h e p r o v i n c e , f r u i t o f m a n y k i n d s g r e w i n p r o f u s i o n . T h e m a g n i f i c e n t p e a c h e s o f t h e N i a g a r a d i s t r i c t e m p h a s i z e d t h e c o n t r a s t w i t h L o w e r C a n a d a . 69 H a d f i e l d , E n g l i s h m a n i n A m e r i c a , 1 7 8 5 , p . 5 8 . 70 C a m p b e l l , T r a v e l s , p . 1 4 9 . 7 1 S i m c o e , D i a r y , p . 1 1 9 . 7 2 La . R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 9 4 - 9 5 . 7 3 I b i d . , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 3 4 - 1 3 6 . 1 3 8 . A l o n g t h e D e t r o i t R i v e r t h e o r c h a r d s p r o d u c e d s p l e n d i d 7 4 c r o p s o f p e a c h e s , a p p l e s , a n d c h e r r i e s . R a i s i n g l i v e s t o c k i n t h e c l e a r i n g s i m p o s e d p e c u l i a r p r o b l e m s . D u r i n g t h e summers t h e a n i m a l s r o a m e d t h e w o o d s , a n d t h e y m i g h t e v e n s t a y o u t a l l y e a r i n m i l d w i n t e r s . B a r n s w e r e p o o r a n d h a y s u p p l i e s s c a n t y , b u t t h e c a t t l e s e e m e d t o t h r i v e . The o x e n a n d some o f t h e c o w s came f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ; o c c a s i o n a l l y t h e s m a l l c o w s f r o m L o w e r 7 5 C a n a d a w e r e p r e f e r r e d . Up t o t h e W a r o f 1 8 1 2 , t h e a g r i c u l t u r e o f U p p e r C a n a d a s h o w e d n o g r e a t e x c e l l e n c e . I n c o n t r a s t t o - L o w e r C a n a d a , h o w e v e r , i t h e l d t h e p r o m i s e o f r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t i n v i e w o f t h e b e n e f i c e n t c l i m a t e a n d t h e i n f l u x o f n e w i d e a s w i t h i m m i -g r a n t s f r o m G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . S u c h d e v e l o p -m e n t h a d t o w a i t u p o n t h e s e t t l i n g o f l a r g e a r e a s o f p r i m e v a l f o r e s t a n d t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y f r o m i t s p i o n e e r i n g s t a g e . The n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s o f U p p e r C a n a d a w e r e n e g l i g i b l e u n t i l a f t e r 1 8 1 4 . The G r e a t LaJses p r o v i d e d s u b s t a n t i a l n u m b e r s o f w h i t e f i s h , h e r r i n g , a n d s t u r g e o n 76 f o r t h e t a b l e s o f N e w a r k a n d o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s . T i m b e r a n d f u e l f o r l o c a l u s e came f r o m t h e f o r e s t , b u t l i t t l e c o m m e r c i a l a d v a n t a g e w a s t a k e n o f t h i s a p p a r e n t l y l i m i t -74 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p p . 3 2 6 , 3 5 0 . 75 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 3 7 - 1 3 9 . 76 S i m c o e , D i a r y , p . 1 3 9 . 1 3 9 . l e s s r e s o u r c e . S c a t t e r e d d e p o s i t s o f i r o n , s a l t , a n d 77 g y p s u m w e r e w o r k e d o n a s m a l l s c a l e . T h e g e n e r a l p i c t u r e w a s one o f r u d i m e n t a r y u t i l i z a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . S u c h m a n u f a c t u r i n g a s t h e r e w a s t o o k p l a c e i n s m a l l m i l l s s i t u a t e d a t c o n v e n i e n t s o u r c e s o f w a t e r po\<\rer. A B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r who h a d n o t i c e d a b u s y s a w m i l l a t N i a g a r a F a l l s i n 1 7 9 3 r e m a r k e d t h a t m a c h i n e s w e r e m o s t d e s i r a b l e i n C a n a d a b e c a u s e o f t h e l a b o r s h o r t a g e , h o w e v e r h a r m f u l t h e y m i g h t a p p e a r i n o v e r c r o w d e d E u r o p e . Some o f t h e l o y a l i s t s e t t l e r s b r o u g h t w i t h t h e m a s h a r e o f Y a n k e e i n g e n u i t y t h a t e n a b l e d t h e m t o s e t u p c o m p l e x a n d e f f i c i e n t p l a n t s . I n 1 7 9 5 a F r e n c h o b s e r v e r , c o m m e n t i n g o n t h e g r i s t a n d s a w m i l l s a t C h i p p a w a , f o r e s a w a g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d d e m a n d f o r N i a g a r a p o w e r o n c e t h e m a r k e t e x p a n d e d . T r a d e i n U p p e r C a n a d a , w o u l d h a v e b e e n c r i p p l e d b y a s h o r t a g e o f s p e c i e i f n o t e s h a d n o t b e e n i s s u e d . I n 1 7 9 3 a l l b u s i n e s s a t C a t a r a q u i ( K i n g s t o n ) , N e w a r k , a n d D e t r o i t ( a t t h a t t i m e i n B r i t i s h h a n d s ) w a s c a r r i e d o u t w i t h p a p e r c u r r e n c y . T h i s c o n s i s t e d o f s m a l l s q u a r e s o f c a r d o r p a p e r p r i n t e d w i t h p r o m i s s o r y n o t e s , p a y a b l e o n c e a y e a r . M e r -c h a n t s made a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o f i t o u t o f t h e w e a r a n d l o s s 77 S m i t h , U p p e r C a n a d a , p p . 2 8 - 3 0 . 78 C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s , p p . 7 1 - 7 2 . 79 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 2 1 - 2 2 . 1 4 0 . o f t h i s f r a g i l e m e d i u m . A F r e n c h t r a v e l l e r a t F o r t E r i e i n 1 7 9 5 d e s c r i b e d m a n y o f t h e h i l l s o f e x c h a n g e a s h a n d -w r i t t e n s c r a p s o f p a p e r , o f t e n u n s i g n e d , m u t i l a t e d , o r d i s f i g u r e d . H e n o t e d o m i n o u s l y t h a t t h e y w e r e n o m o r e t r u s t e d t h a n t h e a s s i g n a t s o f w h i c h h e h a d h a d p e r s o n a l 8 1 e x p e r i e n c e d u r i n g t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . T h e l a r g e s t i t e m o f p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e v/as t h e p r o -v i s i o n o f g i f t s f o r t h e I n d i a n s , a n i m p e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . L a n d s u r v e y was a n o t h e r c o s t l y i t e m i n a p e r i o d o f r a p i d s e t t l e m e n t . R o a d s w e r e m a i n t a i n e d b y r e q u i r i n g t w e l v e d a y s ' w o r k f r o m e a c h l a n d o w n e r , a n a r r a n g e m e n t t h a t g a v e r i s e t o some c o m p l a i n t s b e c a u s e t h e l e v y w a s n o t r e l a t e d 8 2 t o t h e s i z e o f p r o p e r t y . I n 1 7 9 5 t h e s m a l l r e v e n u e f r o m e x c i s e , l i c e n c e s , a n d s p e c i a l t a x e s w e n t t o w a r d s p a y i n g t h e o f f i c i a l s o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y a n d t h e m e m b e r s 8 3 w h e n i n s e s s i o n . M e r c h a n d i s i n g i n U p p e r C a n a d a v/as n o t c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h a t i n t h e o l d e r p r o v i n c e . T h e r e w e r e n o c e n t r e s a p p r o a c h -i n g t h e s i z e a n d a c t i v i t y o f Q u e b e c a n d M o n t r e a l . I n 1 7 9 8 , a n A m e r i c a n t r a v e l l e r r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e s t o r e s o n l y a t Y o r k , N e w a r k , a n d t h e D e t r o i t R i v e r . Common a r t i c l e s 8 4 l i k e t o b a c c o w e r e u n o b t a i n a b l e . 80 C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s , . p . 7 4 . 8 1 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 8 - 9 . 8 2 I b i d . , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 4 4 - 1 4 5 . 8 3 I b i d . , v o l . 2 , p p . 6 2 - 6 3 8 4 L . R . G r a y , e d . , " F r o m B e t h l e h e m t o F a i r f i e l d - 1 7 9 8 , " p . 1 2 5 . 141. L a b o r r e m a i n e d s c a r c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r s o f r a p i d s e t t l e m e n t . D u r i n g t h e 1 7 9 0 ' s t h e s u p p l y was a u g m e n t e d b y p r i v a t e s o f t h e Q u e e n ' s R a n g e r s who w e r e a l l o w e d t o O K h i r e o u t a s s e r v a n t s a n d t r a d e s m e n . G o v e r n o r S i m c o e h i m s e l f w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e b e e n h a r d p u t f o r d o m e s t i c s i n v i e w o f t h e a b o l i t i o n o f s l a v e r y a n d t h e d e s e r t i o n o f o r d i n a r y s e r v a n t s . P r i c e s i n N e w a r k i n 1 7 9 5 w e r e " e x o r b i -t a n t " b e c a u s e t h e s m a l l n u m b e r o f m e r c h a n t s c o m b i n e d t o h o l d t h e m u p . I t w a s n o w o n d e r t h a t s m u g g l i n g v/as r i f e i n o r d e r t o e v a d e t h e h i g h t a r i f f a n d c i r c u m v e n t t h e 86 p r o f i t e e r s . A s h a s b e e n t h e c a s e t h r o u g h o u t C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y , p r o g r e s s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w a s n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e t h e c o u n t r y c o u l d r e a l i z e i t s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . I n t h e e a r l y y e a r s U p p e r C a n a d a g r e w a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y a l o n g t h e r o u t e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e - G r e a t L a k e s s y s t e m . V e s t o f M o n t r e a l t h e t r a v e l l e r w a s p r a c t i c a l l y c o n f i n e d t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t u n t i l s e t t l e m e n t p e r m i t t e d t h e o p e n i n g o f r o a d s . The j o u r n e y u p s t r e a m i n b a t e a u x c a l l e d f o r t h H e r c u l e a n e f f o r t s o n t h e p a r t o f t h e C a n a d i a n b o a t m e n . W h e t h e r r o w i n g , p o l i n g , o r d r a g g i n g t h e b o a t s u p t o t h e i r w a i s t s i n w a t e r , t h e s e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s s h o w e d r e m a r k a b l e k n o w l e d g e 8 5 C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s , p . 5 2 . 8 6 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 7 2 - 7 3 . 1 4 2 . a n d p e r s e v e r a n c e , u n i t e d w i t h a c a p a c i t y f o r e x e r t i o n t h a t 87 s e e m e d b e y o n d t h e p o w e r s o f a E u r o p e a n . When t h e c o u n t r y t o t h e w e s t w a s j u s t o p e n i n g u p , n e w t r a v e l l e r s w e n t t h r o u g h a c e r e m o n y o f " b a p t i s m " a t P o i n t e d e i t E v r o g n e , n e a r m o d e r n W i l l i a m s b u r g , vrhere p r o g r e s s b e c a m e e a s i e r . G e n t l e m e n w e r e s p r i n k l e d a n d e x p e c t e d t o d o n a t e r u m : f o r t h e c r e w ; common p e o p l e w e r e t h r o w n i n t o t h e r i v e r . B a t e a u x w e r e u s e d a l s o o n L a k e O n t a r i o a n d t h e N i a g a r a R i v e r . A B r i t i s h a r m y o f f i c e r h a d a n u n p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e a t C h i p p a w a i n 1 7 9 8 , w h e n i n c o m p e t e n t b o a t m e n m i s s e d t h e l a n d i n g , a n d t h e c r a f t w o u l d h a v e g o n e o v e r t h e f a l l s i f 89 n o t s a v e d w i t h t h e a i d o f s o l d i e r s o n s h o r e . The b u s y p o r t a g e f r o m Q u e e n s t o n t o C h i p p a w a a r o u n d N i a g a r a P a l l s 90 w a s a v a l u a b l e s o u r c e o f i n c o m e t o l o c a l f a r m e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e n a v i g a t i o n o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s p r e s e n t e d h a z a r d s e q u a l t o t h o s e o n t h e h i g h s e a s , t h e c r e w s o f t h e m e r c h a n t v e s s e l s i n t h i s s e r v i c e w e r e n o t d i s t i n g u i s h e d f o r s e a m a n s h i p . D u r i n g o n e t r i p a c r o s s L a k e O n t a r i o i n N o v e m b e r 1 7 9 1 , t h e c a p t a i n w e n t t o b e d d r u n k a t n i g h t , a n d t h e c r e w w e r e i n l i t t l e b e t t e r s t a t e , a p a r t f r o m t h e 87 H a d f i e l d , E n g l i s h m a n i n A m e r i c a , p . 5 9 ; H u n t e r , Q.uebec  t o C a r o l i n a , p . 7 1 . 88 H a d f i e l d , E n g l i s h m a n i n A m e r i c a , p . 6 5 . 89 L a n d m a n n , A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 6 - 2 0 . 90 O g d e n , L e t t e r , p . 6 3 . 1 4 3 . f a c t t h a t t h e y w e r e a l m o s t u s e l e s s w h e n s o b e r . N o w a t c h w a s k e p t , e x c e p t b y t h e i g n o r a n t h e l m s m a n . When a s t o r m a r o s e , t h e c a p t a i n o r d e r e d t h e s a i l s r e e f e d , b u t t h e n r e t u r n e d t o b e d m o a n i n g t h a t a l l w a s l o s t . T h e p a s s e n g e r who d e s c r i b e d t h i s t r i p t h o u g h t t h e c a p t a i n ' s b e h a v i o r a v i v i d c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e v i g i l a n c e o f t h e s k i p p e r o n t h e A t l a n t i c c r o s s i n g . T h i s w a s n o t a n i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t . L i e u t e n a n t L a n d -m a n n o f t h e R o y a l E n g i n e e r s h a d a s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e i n a g o v e r n m e n t s l o o p o n L a k e H u r o n i n 1 7 9 8 . When t h i s s h i p , w h i c h s a i l e d " n o b e t t e r t h a n a c o a l b a r g e " , r a n i n t o a s t o r m , t h e c a p t a i n a n d m a t e b o t h b e c a m e d r u n k . L a n d m a n n w a s f o r c e d ' t o t a k e c h a r g e o f t h e s h i p , a n d w i t h t h e c o -o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c r e w o f C a n a d i a n V o l u n t e e r s , b r o u g h t h e r 9 2 s a f e l y t h r o u g h . I n s p i t e o f s u c h h a n d i c a p s , s h i p s p l i e d r e g u l a r l y b e t w e e n K i n g s t o n a n d N i a g a r a f r o m M a y t o N o v e m b e r . T h e v o y a g e t o o k f r o m one t o f i v e d a y s , a n d c o s t two g u i n e a s f o r a c a b i n p a s s e n g e r . F r e i g h t p a i d t h i r t y - s i x s h i l l i n g s p e r t o n . M a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s w e r e h i g h , a n d t h e s a i l o r s q h a d t o b e p a i d w e l l t o k e e p t h e m o n c a l l d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r . N a v i g a t i o n o n L a k e E r i e w a s m o r e e x p e n s i v e a n d l e s s c e r t a i n . 9 1 C a m p b e l l , T r a v e l s , p p . 1 4 3 - 1 4 4 . 9 2 L a n d m a n n , A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 2 , p p . 2 - 9 . 9 3 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p p . 2 8 7 - 2 8 8 . 9 4 I b i d . , p . 3 3 9 . 1 4 4 . S c o w s came i n t o u s e f o r c a r r y i n g f l o u r , p o t a s h , a n d o t h e r p r o d u c t s a s t h e e x p o r t t r a d e o f U p p e r C a n a d a d e v e l o p e d . T h e s e v e s s e l s w e r e b u i l t f o r f a r m e r s o n t h e l a k e s a n d r o w e d , p o l e d , o r s a i l e d d o w n s t r e a m t o Q u e b e c , w h e r e t h e e m p t y h u l l s 95 w e r e b r o k e n u p f o r t h e i r l u m b e r . C a n a l - b u i l d i n g d i d n o t a s s u m e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s u n t i l a f t e r t h e W a r o f 1812. N e v e r t h e l e s s , u s e r s o f t h e w a t e r w a y s c o u l d n o t f a i l t o o b s e r v e t h e n e e d f o r p a s s a g e s a r o u n d t h e o b s t r u c t i o n s . A p r o j e c t f o r a c a n a l a c r o s s t h e N i a g a r a P e n i n s u l a was u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n i n 1 7 9 6 , b u t t h e v i s i t o r who m e n t i o n e d t h i s t h o u g h t i t w o u l d b e c u t on t h e New Y o r k s i d e , b e c a u s e t h e t e r r a i n w a s b e t t e r a n d t h e s t a t e 96 w a s r i c h e r i n p o p u l a t i o n a n d c a p i t a l t h a n U p p e r C a n a d a -L a n d t r a v e l i n U p p e r C a n a d a h a d t o w a i t o n t h e g r o w t h o f s e t t l e m e n t s t h a t c o u l d b e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r . A l o n g t h e S t . L a w r e n c e r o a d s s t r e t c h e d f r o m M o n t r e a l t o K i n g s t o n b y 1 7 9 6 , b u t t h e s e w e r e n o t u s e d f o r t h r o u g h j o u r n e y s b e c a u s e 97 r i v e r t r a v e l w a s m o r e c o n v e n i e n t . I n t h e w e s t e r n p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e h a s t i l y b u i l t c o r d u r o y r o a d s t a x e d t h e p a t i e n c e o f t r a v e l l e r s . Two A m e r i c a n s g o i n g f r o m A n c a s t e r t o B r a n t f o r d i n M a y 1798 95 H u g h G r a y , L e t t e r s , -pp. 202-203. 96 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p . 325. 97 I b i d . , p . 258. 145 c r o s s e d t h o u s a n d s o f b r i d g e s " . . . m a n y -of w h i c h . . . we f o u n d m o r e d a n g e r o u s t h a n swamps i n w h i c h t h e h o r s e s s u n k u p t o t h e i r " b e l l i e s . " 9 8 On t h e G-rand R i v e r f a r m e r s u s e d o x - d r a w n s l e i g h s i n s t e a d o f w a g o n s a l l y e a r . Wh en one d r i v e r w a s a s k e d h o w t h e o x e n c o u l d t r a v e l among t h e a b u n d a n t f a l l e n t i m b e r , h e a s s u r e d h i s q u e s t i o n e r s : " I f t h e o x e n c o u l d b u t p u t t h e i r n o s e s o v e r t h e t r e e s , t h e y m u s t j u m p o v e r t h e m , a n d ' t h e s l e i g h s m u s t f o l l o w . " " L i t t l e w a s r e p o r t e d o f t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r t r a v e l l e r s i n U p p e r C a n a d a b e f o r e 1 8 1 4 . W a y f a r e r s r a n t h e r i s k o f b e i n g l o d g e d m i s e r a b l y i n a o n e - r o o m l o g c a b i n w i t h b r o k e n w i n d o w s a n d l i t t l e f o o d , a s h a p p e n e d t o o n e v i s i t o r a t 100 P o r t E r i e i n 1 7 9 6 . T a v e r n k e e p e r s s h o w e d a n i n s a t i a b l e c u r i o s i t y a b o u t t h e i r g u e s t s t h a t w a s m o s t d i s t r e s s i n g t o t h o s e u n f a m i l i a r w i t h l o c a l c u s t o m s . 1 0 ' 1 " A s p o p u l a t i o n g r e w t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s b e g a n t o r e s e m b l e t h o s e i n o l d e r c o u n t r i e s . A B r i t i s h v i s i t o r i n 1 8 1 1 f o u n d t h a t s u b s e r v i e n c y h a d s p r e a d i n t o U p p e r C a n a d a . H e d e p l o r e d t h e f a c t t h a t s e r v a n t s i n a n i n n a t N i a g a r a P a l l s l e f t p a y m e n t u p t o t h e g u e s t s 98 L . R . G r a y , e d . , " P r o m B e t h l e h e m t o F a i r f i e l d - - 1 7 9 8 , " , p . 1 1 8 . 99 I b i d . , p . 1 2 1 . 100 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p . 3 2 7 . 1 0 1 L . R . G r a y , e d . , " F r o m B e t h l e h e m t o F a i r f i e l d - - 1 7 9 8 , " p p . 1 1 4 - 1 1 5 . 1 4 6 . i n e x p e c t a t i o n o f g r a t u i t i e s . v ^ The n e w l y - c r e a t e d p r o v i n c e o f U p p e r C a n a d a w a s b e t t e r -p r e p a r e d t h a n i t s s i s t e r p r o v i n c e t o m a k e u s e o f r e p r e s e n t a ^ t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s . M o s t o f i t s r e s i d e n t s , w h e t h e r f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r G r e a t B r i t a i n , h a d a t l e a s t some c o n c e p t o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . S i n c e t h e y w e r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g , t h e y d i d n o t i n c u r t h e o f f i c i a l d i s t r u s t t h a t n a t u r a l l y f e l l o n F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s a t a t i m e w h e n r e v o l u t i o n a r y a n d N a p o l e o n i c F r a n c e w a s threatening B r i t i s h e x i s t e n c e . U n d e r t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l A c t t h e p e o p l e w e r e a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e o r d e r i n g o f t h e i r own a f f a i r s t o a m o d e s t e x t e n t . A n A m e r i c a n v i s i t o r seems t o h a v e e x a g g e r a t e d s o m e w h a t w h e n h e a s s e r t e d t h a t e a c h p r o v i n c e e n j o y e d " . . . a c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r f r e e d o m a n d t h e r i g h t s o f 103 man p e r h a p s u n e q u a l l e d i n t h e h i s t o r i c p a g e . . . . " w T h e f i r s t L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r , J o h n G r a v e s S i m c o e , w o n t h e p r a i s e o f a c r i t i c a l F r e n c h t r a v e l l e r f o r h i s l i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , d i l l i g e n c e , a n d b o l d n e s s o f v i s i o n , T h i s t r i b u t e w a s a l l t h e m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e S i m c o e ' s 1 0 2 J o h n M e l i s h , T r a v e l s t h r o u g h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f  A m e r i c a , i n t h e y e a r s 1806 & 1 8 0 7 . a n d 1 8 0 9 . 1 8 1 0 , & 1 8 1 1 ; i n c l u d i n g a n a c c o u n t o f p a s s a g e s b e t w i x t A m e r i c a £ B r i t a i n , a n d t r a v e l s t h r o u g h v a r i o u s part3 o f B r i t a i n , I r e l a n d a n d C a n a d a , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P r i n t e d f o r t h e a u t h o r , L o n d o n , R e p r i n t e d f o r G e o r g e C o w i e a n d c o . , a n d J o h n C u m m i n g , D u b l i n , 1 8 1 8 , p . 4 9 3 . 1 0 3 O g d e n , L e t t e r , p p . 6 6 - 6 7 . 1 4 7 . v i o l e n t h a t r e d o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w a s m o s t d i s t a s t e f u l 1 0 4 t o t h e w r i t e r . The G o v e r n o r - i n - C h i e f a t t h e t i m e , L o r d D o r c h e s t e r , i n t e r f e r e d w i t h S i m c o e 1 s p o l i c y on l a n d g r a n t s a n d e v e n h i s h a n d l i n g o f r e g i m e n t a l m a t t e r s . T h i s c o n d u c t may h a v e b e e n d u e t o D o r c h e s t e r ' s a u t h o r i t a r i a n c h a r a c t e r , 1 0 5 i n t e n s i f i e d b y h i s a d v a n c e d a g e . The E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s e t t l e r s o f U p p e r C a n a d a m i g h t h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d t o c o n d u c t t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f a r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e a s s e m b l y w i t h m o r e c o m p e t e n c e a n d d i g n i t y t h a n i n e x p e r i e n c e d F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s . T h e y h a d t h e i r own p r o b l e m s , h o w e v e r . I n 1 7 9 5 a s e s s i o n o f t h e A s s e m b l y f e l l t h r o u g h f o r w a n t o f a q u o r u m b e c a u s e i t c l a s h e d w i t h t h e h a r v e s t . 1 0 6 I n t h i s p r o v i n c e o f g r e a t d i s t a n c e s , t h i n s e t t l e m e n t , a n d p o o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , a t t e n d a n c e w a s a h e a v y b u r d e n o n t h e m e m b e r s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y r e c e i v e d a n i n d e m n i t y . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a , t , a s o f A u g u s t 1 8 1 2 , t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e t w e n t y - s i x m e m b e r s o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y w e r e A m e r i c a n i m m i g r a n t s — a s t r a n g e s i t u a t i o n f o r a B r i t i s h c o l o n y on 107 t h e e v e o f w a r w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . U p p e r C a n a d a d i d n o t f a c e t h e p r o b l e m o f a. d u a l l e g a l s y s t e m , b u t i t h a d t o c o p e w i t h a d m i n i s t e r i n g l a w t o a 104 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 4 7 , 5 8 - 6 0 . 1 0 5 I b i d . , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 2 9 - 1 3 0 . D o r c h e s t e r w a s o v e r s e v e n t y a t t h e t i m e ( 1 7 9 5 ) . L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d w a s s t r o n g l y p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t h i m f o r r e f u s i n g h i m p e r m i s s i o n t o v i s i t L o w e r C a n a d a . 106 : i b i d ' . : , v - . v . b i .z2'j 1PP.78.8*89, v c ? . . 10-7 S m i t h , U p p e r C a n a d a , p . 6 7 . 1 4 8 . w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d , r o u g h , a n d s o m e t i m e s t u r b u l e n t p o p u l a c e . I n t h e e a r l y y e a r s , j u r i e s s e e m e d t o b e u n s u r e o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n s , a n d t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e c o u r t s l a c k e d t r a d i -108 t i o n a l d e c o r u m . T h e r e w a s a g o o d d e a l o f c r i m e , i n c l u d i n g m u r d e r , b u t i t w a s h a r d t o i n f l i c t p u n i s h m e n t , b e c a u s e a s l a t e a s 1 7 9 5 , t h e r e w e r e n o p r i s o n s , a n d c o l l e c t i n g f i n e s w a s 109 o f t e n i m p r a c t i c a b l e . The s a v a g e p e n a l t i e s f o r s t e a l i n g u n d e r E n g l i s h l a w w e r e c i r c u m v e n t e d b y t h e p l a i n t i f f s s e t t i n g t h e v a l u e o f t h e s t o l e n g o o d s b e l o w t h i r t e e n p e n c e , w h i c h w a s t h e m i n i m u m f o r c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t . 1 1 0 D e s p i t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e L o y a l i s t s , t h e p e o p l e o f U p p e r C a n a d a w e r e o f t e n r e s t i v e u n d e r t h e p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i -t i e s . I n 1 7 9 5 , a F r e n c h m a n t h o u g h t t h e g r i e v a n c e s o v e r t h e h i g h c o s t o f l i v i n g , t r a d e r e s t r i c t i o n s , a n d l a n d t i t l e s w e r e n o t s e r i o u s , b u t t h e g o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d n o t b e c o m p l a c e n t a b o u t i t s p o s i t i o n i n c a s e o f w a r w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 1 1 1 T h e e x a m p l e o f A m e r i c a n i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d t h e n e e d f o r t r a d e a c r o s s t h e b o r d e r f o r e s h a d o w e d • e a r l y s e p a r a t i o n 1 1 ? f r o m B r i t i s h r u l e . " T h i s o p i n i o n w a s s h a r e d i n t h e 108 C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s , p . 5 7 . 109 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p . 6 4 . 110 S m i t h , U p p e r C a n a d a , p . 6 8 . 1 1 1 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 0 4 - 1 0 5 , 1 1 2 I b i d . , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 1 4 - 1 1 6 . 1 4 9 . f o l l o w i n g y e a r b y a n I r i s h t r a v e l l e r , who a r g u e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , p o p u l a r a n t a g o n i s m , a n d 1 1 3 n a t u r a l o b s t a c l e s w o u l d p r e v e n t u n i o n w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n s . On t h e e v e o f w a r , i n 1 8 1 1 , a S c o t t i s h m e r c h a n t who h a d t r a v e l l e d w i d e l y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s made c a r e f u l i n q u i r i e s among r e s i d e n t s o f t h e N i a g a r a f r o n t i e r a b o u t t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o a n A m e r i c a n i n v a s i o n . H e c o n c l u d e d t h a t i f a f o r c e o f some f i v e t h o u s a n d men e n t e r e d U p p e r C a n a d a w i t h a p r o c l a m a t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n c e , a g r e a t m a s s o f C a n a d i a n s w o u l d j o i n t h e m . 1 " 1 " 4 I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e e n d u r i n g t e n s i o n w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t w a s n a t u r a l t h a t t h e d e f e n c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h o u l d d r a w t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t r a v e l l e r s , some o f whom w e r e t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e a r m e d s e r v i c e s . N o t m u c h c o u l d b e s a i d f o r t h e n a v y i n U p p e r C a n a d a , w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f a s m a l l f l e e t on L a k e O n t a r i o . A v i s i t o r t o K i n g s t o n i n 1 7 9 5 c o n d e m n e d t h e v e s s e l s t h e r e a s e x p e n s i v e l y b u i l t o f g r e e n w o o d , a n d a l r e a d y r o t t e n a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s ' s e r v i c e . H e b l a m e d o f f i c i a l c o r r u p t i o n f o r t h i s e x t r a v a g a n c e a n d 115 i n e f f i c i e n c y i n a l a n d o f a b u n d a n t t i m b e r . 1 1 3 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p . 345 . 114 M e l i s h , T r a v e l s , p . 5 0 2 . 115 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 5 0 - 1 5 2 . 1 5 0 . E v e n a t t h i s e a r l y d a t e t h e n a v y h a d a d i s t i n c t i v e l y C a n a d i a n u n i f o r m , w i t h b u t t o n s d i s p l a y i n g a b e a v e r a n d t h e w o r d " C a n a d a " . The c o m m o d o r e , J e a n - B a p t i s t e B o u c h e t t e , w a s a, F r e n c h C a n a d i a n who f a v o r a b l y i m p r e s s e d t h o s e who m e t h i m . N a v a l c o m m a n d e r s w e r e a l l o w e d t o c a r r y p a s s e n g e r s a n d f r e i g h t w h e n f r e e f r o m t h e i r r e g u l a r d u t i e s o f t r a n s -lip. p o r t i n g t r o o p s a n d m i l i t a r y s t o r e s . The m i l i t a r y f o r c e s o n t h e N i a g a r a f r o n t i e r a n d t h e S t . L a w r e n c e s h o w e d s e r i o u s d e f e c t s . D e s e r t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w a s s e r i o u s a b o u t t h e y e a r 1 7 9 5 . T h e p r o s p e c t o f c h e a p l a n d a c r o s s t h e b o r d e r a p p e a l e d g r e a t l y t o s o l d i e r s s u f f e r i n g f r o m b o r e d o m a n d t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e i r 117 s u p e r i o r s . To a n e x p e r i e n c e d o b s e r v e r , d i s c i p l i n e s e e m e d h a r s h e r t h a n i n t h e F r e n c h a r m y , a n d t h e r e w a s l e s s c o n c e r n 1 1 8 f o r t h e m e n ' s w e l f a r e . W h i l e a t K i n g s t o n i n 1 7 9 5 , t h i s w r i t e r r e m a r k e d t h a t h e h a d n e v e r s e e n F r e n c h s o l d i e r s s o d r u n k a s t h e c r e w who r o w e d h i m t o a m i l i t a r y p o s t o n t h e V, A 1 1 9 b o r d e r . The m i l i t i a o f U p p e r C a n a d a w a s a n u n t r i e d f o r c e u n t i l 1 8 1 2 . G o v e r n o r S i m c o e p u t a g r e a t d e a l o f e f f o r t i n t o l a y i n g t h e b a s e f o r e f f e c t i v e m o b i l i z a t i o n . I t w a s 116 W e l d , T r a v e l s , p . 2 8 5 . 117 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p . 8 7 . 118 I b i d . , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 5 2 - 1 5 4 . 119 I b i d . , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 5 6 - 1 5 7 . 1 5 1 . n o t a b l e t h a t . . Q u a k e r s , M e n n o n i t e s , a n d D u n k e r s w e r e e x e m p t e d f r o m s e r v i c e o n p a y m e n t o f t w e n t y s h i l l i n g s p e r y e a r f o r 120 e a c h man i n p e a c e t i m e . P o l i t i c a l d i s s e n s i o n a n d d e f e n s i v e w e a k n e s s w e r e n o t c o n f i n e d t o l o w e r C a n a d a i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1 7 8 4 t o 1 8 1 4 . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e u p p e r p r o v i n c e d i d n o t s u f f e r f r o m t h e p r o f o u n d r a c i a l d i v i s i o n t h a t s u n d e r e d F r e n c h a n d B r i t i s h . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t h a d i t s own d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e d i v e r s e s o u r c e s o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n . T h e A m e r i c a n e l e m e n t w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o r e p u b l i c a n i d e a s . E v e n t h e B r i t i s h a n d L o y a l i s t s e t t l e r s v/ere r e s e n t f u l o f a r b i t r a r y r u l e a n d q u i c k t o a s s e r t g r i e v a n c e s . T h e r e v/as l i t t l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e m i l i t i a c o u l d do m u c h t o s u p p o r t t h e r e g u l a r m i l i t a r y a n d n a v a l f o r c e s , s u c h a s t h e y w e r e , i n a n e m e r g e n c y . A s i n L o w e r C a n a d a , t r a v e l l e r s g e n e r a l l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d a b i l i t y o f t h e C a n a d i a n s t o r e s i s t a g g r e s s i o n . 120 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2 , p p . 1 5 2 - 1 5 4 . 152. CHAPTER IV THE CLASH OF RACES: LOWER CANADA. 1815-1838. In the period between the War of 1812 and the Rebellion, t r a v e l l e r s i n Lower Canada had l i t t l e new to say about i t s physical appearance. The province had l o s t much of i t s rawness and had assumed an appearance quite d i f f e r e n t from that of the United States. An emi-nent French writer, A l e x i s de Tocquevillei, provided con-vincing evidence of t h i s change from the conditions of a c o l o n i a l outpost. During h i s b r i e f stay i n Lower Canada i n August 1831, t h i s keen observer was delighted by a land-scape that r e c a l l e d h i s homeland. The f u l l y c u l t i v a t e d and t h i c k l y s e t t l e d banks of the St. Lawrence seemed the most European part of the continent. 1 Other observers found the landscape less a t t r a c t i v e . One American deplored the absence of trees around the settlements. He thought the banks of the St. Lawrence could not compare with those of the Hudson and Delaware, 1 George Wilson Pierson, Toequeville and Beaumont i n  America, New York. Oxford u n i v e r s i t y press, 1938,. pp. 318-319. 153 where the population was gathered into towns and hamlets separated by extensive patches of woodland. Even less f l a t t e r i n g were the comparisons made by a B r i t i s h army o f f i c e r on entering Canada v i a the Lake Champlain route i n March 1816: "Hothing could be more Siberian than the aspect of the Canadian f r o n t i e r : ... a few log huts, round v/hich a brood of ragged children, a starved p i g , and a few half-broken r u s t i c implements formed an accompaniment more suited to an I r i s h landscape than to the t h r i v i n g scenes we had j u s t quitted." I t i s perhaps charitable to ascribe these b i t t e r remarks to the miserable conditions of l a t e winter. The natural beauties of the province continued to draw th e i r quota of t o u r i s t s . Unfortunately, the march of pro-gress threatened to mar certain w a t e r f a l l s by u t i l i z i n g part of t h e i r flow to drive m i l l s . Montmorency had been seriously affected i n t h i s way, according to a report dated 1833: "The love of gain has here, as i n many other places of the l i k e , nature, destroyed the beauty of the 2 Joseph Sahsom, Travels i n Lower Canada, with the  author's re c o l l e c t i o n s of the s o i l , and aspect; the morals, habits, and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s , of that country,London, S i r Richard P h i l l i p s and co., 1820, pp. 13-14. 3 Francis H a l l , Travels i n Canada, and the United States, i n 1816 and 1817, London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, 1818, p. 65. 154. P a l l * "by the erection of saw-mills, f o r which purpose considerable portion of the water has been diverted from 4 the general mass." The r i v a l scenic a t t r a c t i o n of the Chaudiere did not suffer such despoilment. A t r a v e l l e r i n the early summer of 1816 noted with approval that the scenery had escaped the "ravages of improvement".5 In l a t e summer and autumn, however, low water reduced the scenic effect seriously. A less appreciative t r a v e l l e r , "rather t i r e d of wa t e r f a l l s " , found with a c e r t a i n "malicious satisfaction?! that the cascade was almost i n v i s i b l e on 31 August 1827. However mixed may have been the response of t r a v e l l e r s to the scenery, none could deny the beauty of the autumn fo l i a g e . On a t r i p through Lac St-Pierre i n September 1833, an English t o u r i s t declared: H I think I have seen nothing so surprisingly b e a u t i f u l since I l e f t England." 4 Carl David Arfwedson, The United States and Canada, i n 1832. 1833, and1834, London, Richard Bentley, 1834, v o l . 2, p. 346. 5 Francis. H a l l , Travels, PP.. 118-121. 6 B a s i l H a l l , Travels i n North America, i n the years 1827  and 1828, Edinburgh, Cadell and co., 1829, v o l . 1, p. 401. 7 Al f r e d Domett, The Canadian .journal of Al f r e d Domett, being, an extract from a .journal of a tour i n Canada,: the United States and Jamaica, 1833-1835,ed. E. A. Horsman and L i l l i a n Rea Benson, London, [Ont.J , University of Western Ontario, 1955, p. 13. 155. Cleaxing and f i r e s devastated much of the woodland i n the early years of the century. Great t r a c t s of v i r g i n timber remained, however, i n the v a l l e y of the Ottawa. A B r i t i s h doctor who v i s i t e d new settlements along t h i s r i v e r about 1821 remarked on the incomparably " l o f t y and large f i r s " of the d i s t r i c t . The magnificent white pine stands of the Ottawa Valley were becoming accessible with the advance of settlement. One recurrent theme i n accounts of the province was i t s difference from the United States and i t s resemblance to Europe. V i s i t o r s of diverse origins united i n empha-si z i n g these p e c u l i a r i t i e s . An American professor i n 1819 thought a tour of Lower Canada "... i n some degree, a 9 substitute f o r a v i s i t to Europe." The contrasts with the United States p a r t i c u l a r l y impressed one B r i t i s h w r i t e r . He singled out f o r mention the widespread use of a foreign language; the gentle manners; the "pomp of monarchy" and a r i s t o c r a t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s ; the abundance of churches, convents, and p r i e s t s . 1 0 8 John Jeremiah Bigsby, The shoe and canoe, or. Pictures of t r a v e l i n the Canadas. I l l u s t r a t i v e of t h e i r scenery  and of c o l o n i a l l i f e ; with f a c t s and opinions on emigration, state p o l i c y , and other points of public i n t e r e s t , London, Chapman.and H a l l , 1850, v o l . 1, p. 131. 9 Benjamin Si l l i m a n , A tour to Quebec, i n the autumn of  1819. London. S i r Richard P h i l l i p s and co., 1822, p. 112. 10 Adam Hodgson, Letters from North America, written during  a tour i n the United States and Canada, London, Hurst, Robinson & co., 1824, v o l . 2, p. 41. 156 The two chief c i t i e s bore out the impression that the province was European rather than American i n many charac-t e r i s t i c s . One English t r a v e l l e r asserted: "Montreal and Quebec are so much l i k e old European towns, that an American f e e l s as f a r from home, on h i s f i r s t a r r i v a l , as I did i n the forests on the M i s s i s s i p p i . " 1 1 Another Englishman remarked, i n 1817: "On account of the i r r e g u l a r i t y of the streets and the lowness of the houses, neither Quebec or Montreal would rank more than second rate towns i n the United S t a t e s . " 1 2 Quebec remained much the same as before. V i s i t o r s who were charmed by i t s appearance from the water usually made certain reservations on closer acquaintance. Typical of these v i s i t o r s was an I r i s h immigrant i n 1818 whose f i r s t impressions of "sober majesty" were followed by disappoint-ment at the "confined, i l l - c o n s t r u c t e d , and inelegant" Lower Town, made up of narrow streets "void of beauty, taste, and 13 r e g u l a r i t y " . w An American i n July 1817 wrote disparagingly of the "... dismal congeries of the most wretched buildings, 11 Hodgson, L e t t e r s , v o l . 2, p. 41. 12 John Palmer, Journal of travels i n the United States of  North America, and i n Lower Canada, performed i n the year 1817, London, Sherwood, Neely, and Jones, 1818, p. 229. 13 Edward A l l e n Talbot, give years* residence i n the  Canada, including a tour through part of the United' States  of America, i n the year 1823. London. Longman,Hurst*; Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1824, v o l . 1, pp. 40-41, 45-46. 157. r i s i n g , i n darkness v i s i b l e , amidst every kind of f i l t h , 14 between the rock and the r i v e r ...." The Upper Town presented a favorable contrast to i t s lowly neighbor, congested by the business of a f l o u r i s h i n g port. Cleaner and roomier streets provided a setting f o r substantial public buildings and houses of considerable elegance. Yet there were complaints that the architecture lacked d i s t i n c t i o n and that t h i s part was uninteresting to stra n g e r s . 1 5 The growing population had s p i l l e d over into the suburbs of St-Louis, St-Jean and St-Roch. These were made up of rectangular blocks of wooden houses with l a r g e l y unpaved 16 streets deep i n mud for h a l f the year. The c a p i t a l had come to include these squalid and spreading quarters i n addition to the crowded port and impressive government establishments. Montreal, l i k e Quebec, looked more a t t r a c t i v e from a distance than on the spot. I t s shining t i n roofs lent a deceptive lightness to the dark limestone buildings of the central section. A v i s i t o r from Glasgow i n 1818 noted 14 Sansom, Travels, p. 18. 15 John Morison Duncan, Travels through part of the United  States and Canada i n 1818 and 1819, Glasgow, University press, f o r Hurst Robinson & co., London, 1823, v o l . 2, pp. 185-186. 16 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe,vol. 1, p. 15. 158. s i m i l a r i t i e s to h i s native c i t y , hut missed the character-i s t i c s of American towns: b r i g h t l y painted clapboard houses, 17 b r i c k tenements, tr e e - l i n e d avenues, lawns and gardens. At least one American, however, l i k e d the old-world atmos-phere, and recommended the use of stone to American bu i l d e r s . Although the streets were cleaner than those of Quebec, many of them were dark, narrow, and crooked. One of the worst features was the "barbarous practice" of b u i l d i n g steps projecting onto the sidewalk, so that two pedestrians could not pass without one being forced into the snow or 19 mud of the gutter. Whatever c r i t i c i s m s were directed at Montreal, t r a v e l -l e r s who v i s i t e d there united i n reporting an a i r of pros-p e r i t y and improvement unusual i n Lower Canada. A c r i t i c a l B r i t i s h w r i t e r eulogized the c i t y as he saw i t i n 1818 i n terms bordering on extravagance: "The lightness of the streets, the neatness of the buildings, the h o s p i t a l i t y and polished manners of the people, and the a i r of enterprise and a c t i v i t y that i s every where exhibited i n i t , are t r u l y 17 Duncan, Travels, v o l . 2, pp. 149 -150. 18 S i l l i m a n , Tour, p. 117. 19 Talbot, give years* residence, v o l . 1, p. 65. 159 a t t r a c t i v e , and appear to p a r t i c u l a r advantage-when contrasted with the dulness Q S J C ^ , g l o o m , and d i r t i n e s s of Quebec. M 2 0 This judgment was confirmed by several l a t e r observers. The c i t y continued to move ahead as the commercial centre of the two Ganadas. In 1833, a Scottish farmer expressed the opinion that Montreal's growth was certain so long as Upper Canada prospered, and he pointed out the value f o r 21 manufacturing of the abundant power i n the Lachine Rapids. The combined effect of a strategic l o cation and a vigorous mercantile community was swinging the economio balance of the two provinces towards t h i s busy c i t y . The population of Lower Canada grew i n both number and complexity after the War of 1812. Natural increase was the main cause, but the flow of immigration to the west l e f t numbers of various people i n the eastern province. This was especially noticeable i n Quebec, where the emigrant ships landed t h e i r teeming cargoes, and merchant vessels from the seven seas imparted an exotic color to the scene. An I r i s h t r a v e l l e r described the Lower Town i n 1818 as "crowded with a motley t r a i n of a l l nations": Africans, 20 John Howi3on, Sketches of Upper Canada, domestic, l o c a l , and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : to which are added, p r a c t i c a l d e t a i l s f o r  the information of emigrants of every class: and some  reco l l e c t i o n s of the United States of America, §d ed., Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd, 1825, p. 18. 21 P a t r i c k S h i r r e f f , A tour through North America: together  with a comprehensive view of the Canadas and United States. As adapted f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l emigration, Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd, 1835, p. 141. 160 Indians, Americans, Europeans, and Asians. The v a r i e t y of costume could he matched only i n an American port or 22 St. Petersburg. The Indian element i n the province received l i t t l e attention, except f o r occasional references to Lorette. This v i l l a g e had an atmosphere of "poverty and slovenliness" that did not say much for the p o l i c y of attachingthe Indians 23 to a s e t t l e d l i f e . Aversion to farming as a "dishonorable" occupation drove many of the inhabitants to l i v e by hunting 24 and the sale of handicrafts made by the women. Although the community was a depressing sight to most v i s i t o r s , the houses were generally clean. The descendants of the o r i g i n a l Huron tribesmen spoke French, and looked European, apart 25 from certain p e c u l i a r i t i e s of dress. The few wandering t r i b e s who fished along the St. Lawrence and sometimes camped near the c i t i e s were unedi-f y i n g specimens of t h e i r race. Alcohol had dragged most 26 of them down to wretohedness. t I t was apparent that Indians of pure stock were i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n number, and Indians i n general had come to play a minor role i n the l i f e of the province. 22 Talbot, Five years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, p. 42. 23 Francis H a l l , Travels, pp. 89-90. 24 Pierson, Tocqueville and Beaumont, p. 333. 25 Domett, Canadian journal, p. 5. 26 Palmer, Journal, p. 219. 161. The character of the French Canadians showed few changes a f t e r 1814. One English t r a v e l l e r who observed t h e i r society i n d e t a i l during the summer of 1816 thought that the war had endowed the young men with "... a l i t t l e 27 more i n t e l l i g e n c e , and a great deal more knavery." The habitants remained e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t e , f r i e n d l y , and con-tented with t h e i r l o t . Even c r i t i c s who considered t h e i r ignorance and poverty l i t t l e better than that of the Indians 28 agreed that they were a happy, people. Furthermore, i n t h e i r morality and devotion they compared favorably with the Swiss and Scots i n Europe, "... though f a r behind the former i n industry and the l a t t e r i n ingenuity and enterprise." Travellers of d i f f e r e n t origins frequently contrasted the French Canadians with other peoples they had known. They were more a l e r t than English r u s t i c s , better off than the I r i s h peasantry, and warmer-hear ted than Americans. An I r i s h s e t t l e r i n Upper Canada eulogized the people of the neighbor province: "... I have found, among the uneducated inhabitants of Lower Canada, more r e a l happiness, more true politeness, greater reverence f o r religion:, < and stronger national attachment to each other, than I have found among 30 the inhabitants of any other country i n which I have sojourned." 27 Francis H a l l , Travels, p. 152. 28 Sansom, Travels, p. 74. 29 I b i d . , p. 75. 30 Talbot, Five years' residence, v o l . 2. p. 308. 162. The i n t e l l e c t u a l achievements of the French Canadians were less admirable than t h e i r character. This was not due to any lack of i n t e l l i g e n c e . Tocqueville found them t y p i -c a l l y French i n t h e i r mental acuteness and fondness f o r 31 discussion. Nor was lack of education wholly to blame, f o r they were no worse off i n t h i s respect than people of the same class i n other lands. What seemed to hold them back was an absence of c u r i o s i t y and an aversion to change that imbued them with a profound conservatism. A B r i t i s h observer summed up the s i t u a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n h i s remarks on the l i m i t e d nature of land settlement: ... the most prominent t r a i t i n the character of t h i s people, i s . an attachment to whatever i s estab-li s h e d . Far d i f f e r e n t i n t h i s respect from the American, the Canadian w i l l submit to any p r i v a t i o n , rather than quit the spot h i s forefathers t i l l e d , or remove from.the sound of h i s parish b e l l s . 2 Although Lower Canada remained overwhelmingly French, i t did not escape the effects of immigration. As the volume swelled a f t e r 1815, the seaports had to cope with the problem of funnelling hordes of newcomers to Upper Canada. Societies to inform and r e l i e v e immigrants had been founded at Quebec ^3 and Montreal by 1820. Sick, bewildered, and penniless new a r r i v a l s frequently taxed the resources of these two c i t i e s . 31 Pierson, Tocqueville and Beaumont.pp. 334-335. 32 Francis H a l l , Travels, p . 95. 33 Hodgson, L e t t e r s , v o l . 2, p. 45. 163 A number of immigrants stayed i n Lower Canada to augment the e x i s t i n g minorities and introduce new elements. English-speaking residents usually advised B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s to continue westwards, declaring the differences of r e l i g i o n and language obstacles to working alongside the F rench. 3 4 Nevertheless, to judge by the names on the store-fronts, 35 several Scots had prospered as merchants i n Montreal. The I r i s h did not usually fare so w e l l . At Quebec about 1818 an English doctor was appalled at the "disease and d e s t i t u t i o n " amongst the immigrants from Ireland. A f t e r being crowded into inadequate vessels f o r the A t l a n t i c crossing, they came ashore into hovels where they subsisted on government rations i n deplorably f i l t h y conditions. Their p l i g h t emphasized the need for l i c e n s i n g and inspect-ing the emigrant ships and f o r s e t t i n g up a system of 36 receiving and d i s t r i b u t i n g newcomers. Some of the I r i s h raised themselves quickly from poverty to modest affluence 37 when they s e t t l e d along the, Ottawa River. Montreal, growing ra p i d l y with the expanding economy, was p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e to Americans. One of t h e i r 34 Adam Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes made during a tour i n  Canada, and a portion of the United States, i n MDCCCXXXI, Edinburgh, William Blaekwood, 1833, p. 261. 35 Bornett, Canadian journal, p. 14. 36 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, vol.. 1, pp. 23-26. 37 Ibid. . v o l . 1, p. 66. 164. fellow-countrymen remarked i n 1817 on the number of New Englanders "... who are winding themselves into a l l the most active and ingenious employments." Other Americans pioneered remote areas, transforming the landscape with t h e i r energy and enthusiasm. One of the most prominent of these pioneers was Philemon Wright, who established H u l l -i n the forests opposite the future c a p i t a l of Canada. In 1821, he and the schoolmaster who acted as h i s factotum were working overtime at planning new projects for-peopling 39 the wilderness of the Ottawa Valle y . Social l i f e i n Lower Canada became more sophisticated a f t e r 1814. The s i t u a t i o n of the upper classes i n Quebec and Montreal was not markedly i n f e r i o r to that of s i m i l a r groups i n London, and was a pleasant contrast to the crudity An of c o l o n i a l society at Cape Town. At the c a p i t a l , the vice-regal entourage set the tone f o r the whole community. Montreal, however, contained many well-to-do persons who displayed inordinate pride and vanity about t h e i r status. I t was a point of honor f o r newly-rich merchants to i n s i s t on the t i t l e of " Esquire". 4 1 38 Sansom, Travels, p. 72. 39 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 146 n. 40 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 110. 41 Talbot, Five years 1 residence, v o l . 2. p. 283. 165. Glass divisions, were further complicated by r a c i a l differences. The old French f a m i l i e s i n o f f i c i a l positions at Quebec seldom mixed with the English, although they were 42 very sociable amongst themselves. Language was a serious b a r r i e r , i n t e n s i f i e d by the "arrogant superiority" of the B r i t i s h . A S c o t t i s h w r i t e r of long experience i n other North American colonies blamed the leaders of the English-speaking community f o r not c u l t i v a t i n g the acquaintance of 43 the French Canadian gentry. This estrangement was not confined to the upper classes. French politeness occasionally gave way to outspoken h o s t i l i t y . A party of I r i s h immigrants t r a v e l l i n g up the St. Lawrence i n 1818 was refused permission to sleep i n a habitant* s kitchen or stable, to the accompaniment of the imprecation "Saorez -vous, hommes Anglois!" The writer who recorded t h i s incident thought i t was a disagreeable contrast with the h o s p i t a b i l i t y of the peasantry i n I r e l a n d . 4 4 Moral standards i n Lower Canada appeared high to out-siders. One v i s i t o r took issue strongly with the asper-sions of John Lambert, who had painted a black picture 42 Bigsby, Shoe, and canoe..'. v o l . 1. p. 33. 43 John MacGregor.. B r i t i s h .America. Edinburgh. William Blackwood, 1832, v o l . 2, pp. 482-483. 44 Talbot, Five years* r e s i d e n c e . v o l . 1, pp. 87-89. 166. 45 of conditions i n the years 1806 to 1808. There were few reports of improper conduct by single women during the 46 period 1818-1823, and i n f i d e l i t y of wives was unknown. Travellers disagreed about the quality of Canadian French. One American thought the language " l i t t l e deteriorated", and a "very tolerable French", though 47 not so pure as the English of America* Another t o u r i s t asserted: "They speak French, but i t i s a kind of patois, 48 which no Frenchman can understand.'1 Canadian food varied l i t t l e with the years, remaining fo r the most part, s o l i d and unimaginative. The sour, dark, and b i t t e r bread was a disappointment to a widely-travelled American i n 1819. 4 9 Lighter foods usually replaced the staple habitant dish of thick soup i n summer. A wayfarer going from Rimouski to Quebec i n August 1833 found the meals almost always the same: bacon, eggs, rum, milk, and maple 50 sugar. As the nineteenth century wore on, the d i s t i n c t i v e Canadian costume assumed a more sombre hue. In 1817, the 45 See above, pp. 65-66. 46 Talbot, Five years* residence,vol. 2, pp. 289-290. 47 Sansom, Travels, p. 76. 48 Arfwedson, United States and Canada, v o l . 2, p. 339. 49 S i l l i m a n , Tour, p. 120 50 Domett, Canadian journal, p. 2. 16? country people of the d i s t r i c t s south of Montreal dressed p l a i n l y f o r Sunday, the men i n grey or drab jackets and trousers, the women i n gowns of domestic manufacture or 51 English p r i n t fabrics-. At Montreal, the men wore good clothes, but few women had "... the a i r or the dress of l a d i e s . " An I r i s h observer was sure that an English v i l l a g e would display more "fashionables" than the Champ 52 de Mars on summer evenings. Some d i s t i n c t i v e customs prevailed amidst the general dullness of food and clothing. The large and boisterous French Canadian weddings were an i n t e r e s t i n g sight i n the towns. Even more e x c i t i n g was the c h a r i v a r i , which was often mentioned by t r a v e l l e r s a f t e r 1814. Eminent members of the community sometimes took part i n these raucous serenades to badly-matched couples, when the husband or wife was much older than h i s or her partner. At Quebec i n 1817 a member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly who had married a servant g i r l had to pay up to get r i d of h i s tormentors, even after c a l l i n g on the mayor and the m i l i t a r y f o r pro-t e c t i o n . These disorderly proceedings developed into 51 Palmer, Journal, p. 210. 52 Talbot, Five years' residenoe, v o l . 2, pp. 286-287. 53 Palmer, Journal, pp. 227- 228. 168 powerful weapons against unpopular persons, and sometimes 54 ended i n violence. The t r a d i t i o n a l amusements of the Canadian winter retained t h e i r appeal f o r a l l classes. Some of the newer a c t i v i t i e s had a more select group of followers. The annual horse races held on the P l a i n s of Abraham attracted many o f f i c e r s and c i t i z e n s , but few French Canadians were 55 interested. Other sports of B r i t i s h o r i g i n were introduced, 56 such as c u r l i n g and duck- and snipe-shooting. Riding was especially popular at Montreal, where fox-hunting and jockey 57 clubs provided meeting places f o r lovers of horseflesh, Dancing and dining f i l l e d the long winter evenings. Each class of society had i t s own night f o r meeting. 5 0 The same tendency towards exclusiveness may have prompted the formation of private societies such as the Tandem Club at Quebec. Canadian s o c i a l l i f e had taken on the appearance of sophistication with l i t t l e corresponding gain i n refinement. 54 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, pp. 34-37. 55 Palmer, Journal, p. 226. 56 I b i d . , p.216. 57 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, pp. 517-518. 58 Talbot, Five years* r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 2, p. 285. 169 A somewhat s t r a i t - l a c e d S c o t t i s h t r a v e l l e r at Montreal i n 1818 declared: I f you enjoy good eating, card playing, dancing, music, and gayety, you w i l l f i n d abundance of.- a l l . I f l i t e r a r y society i s your choice, you w i l l d i s -cover I am a f r a i d hut l i t t l e ; and i f r e l i g i o u s , s t i l l l e s s . 5 9 Even the outbreak of r e b e l l i o n could not subdue the passion for enjoyment, at least among the upper classes. A young B r i t i s h o f f i c e r who was serving against the rebels during the winter of 1837-1838 recorded that "Montreal, between the expeditions, was very gay, and there were plenty of b a l l s and p a r t i e s . " 6 0 Ear from being a u n i f y i n g force as i n the early days of B r i t i s h r u l e , recreation had become a matter of exclusive enjoyment by groups d i f f e r i n g i n language and s o c i a l status. The population had grown too large and complex, and the l i n e s of d i v i s i o n had been drawn too sharply, f o r the old shared heartiness of common amusements to p e r s i s t . The conditions of l i f e i n the older s e t t l e d parts of the province altered slowly after 1814. Tradition was p a r t i c u l a r l y strong i n r u r a l housing. Tourists who did 59 Duncan. Travels, v o l . 2, pp. 171-172. 60 S i r Daniel Lysons, E a r l y reminiscences. London, John Murray, 1896, p. 89. 170. not venture off the St. Lawrence route were charmed by the old houses, many of which had acquired a venerable aspect. The habitants showed increasing interest i n adorning t h e i r homes with flowerpots and creepers, so that some v i l l a g e s r e c a l l e d scenes i n southern France and I t a l y . A B r i t i s h naval o f f i c e r who v i s i t e d the environs of Quebec i n August 1827 found the picturesque v/hitewashed cottages "... a l l very f a n t a s t i c and old-fashioned." The charm of these r u s t i c dwellings did not extend to t h e i r sanitary arrangements. Crowding was inevitable with large f a m i l i e s . Unfortunately, Canadians did not show much concern about waterrsupplies and waste disposal. Near Trois-Rivieres i n 1817 a v i s i t i n g American found the people did not sink wells because they were close to surface water, "... and they s t i l l appear to hold what we esteem necessaries 62 as unnecessary as ever." The towns were no better than the country. Uncleaned streets and poor sewerage exacted a high mortality. At Quebec, sewers opened into the Lower Town, and the suburbs were without any proper drains. An English physician des-cribed the streets of St-Roch suburb i n the spring as 61 B a s i l H a l l , Travels, v o l . , 1, p. 395. 62 Sansom, Travels, p. 53. 171 sloughs of ice mixed with the "... accumulated p u t r i d i t i e s 63 of the whole winter." The medical attention sought by the populace i n i t s need was not always professional. A Scottish writer who toured the province between 1824 and 1828 saw several persons who had allegedly been cured of cancer by an "astringent pla s t e r " supplied by certain nuns. These nuns were said to have received the herbal recipe from an Indian woman, and they would reveal the secret only to the. clergy, but 64 they f r e e l y undertook to oure any applicant. The hospitals operated by the r e l i g i o u s orders main-tained t h e i r reputation f o r e f f i c i e n t and ki n d l y treatment, A B r i t i s h army o f f i c e r who v i s i t e d the Hopital General at Quebec i n 1816 found the "tender s o l i c i t u d e " of the s i s t e r s i n f i n i t e l y preferable to the "... heartless, grudging attention which h o s p i t a l nurses i n f l i c t upon t h e i r v i c t i m s . " 6 The h o s p i t a l received a small government subsidy f o r the treatment of so l d i e r s . No d i s t i n c t i o n was made between 66 Protestant and Roman Catholic patients.. 63 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 22. 64 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America.vol. 2, p. 594. 65 Francis H a l l , Travels. pp.80-82. 66 Ibid., pp. 79-80. 172. Overcrowding was no problem i n the hospitals. The 67 s t a f f s were often as numerous as the patients.. By 1817 the convent of the Grey Sist e r s at Montreal, o r i g i n a l l y a general h o s p i t a l f o r the poor, had been turned into a home fo r l u n a t i c s , foundlings, and aged i n v a l i d s . The Montreal General Hospital, founded i n 1821 under Protestant auspices, was equal i n comfort and cleanliness to any B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n . A v i s i t o r who had seen a good deal of the other provinces declared i t to be "... unquestion-ably the best regulated and most extensive establishment 69 of the kind i n B r i t i s h America." Social welfare became a problem of considerable dimen-sions i n the period between 1815 and 1838. An American -t r a v e l l e r i n 1817 reported that begging as known i n Europe 70 did not ex i s t i n Canada. Not long a f t e r , i n 1831, an observant Scot was surprised to see beggars at Montreal f o r the f i r s t time during h i s travels i n the New World. He ascribed the s i t u a t i o n to laziness encouraged by the cer-t a i n t y of free support f o r indigents i n r e l i g i o u s houses. 7 1 67 Sansom, Travels, p. 22. 68 Duncan, Travels, v o l . 2, pp. 160-161. 69 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America,vol. 2, p. 511. 70 Sansom, Travels, pp. 15, 33. 71 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, p.67. 173 I t might have "been wiser to place the blame f o r the increase i n s o c i a l problems on the r i s i n g tide of immigra-t i o n . The inhabitants of Lower Canada were so annoyed at having to look a f t e r the paupers and sick amongst new a r r i v a l s l a r g e l y destined f o r the upper province, that they 7 9 imposed a tax of one d o l l a r a head on a l l immigrants.. The Grey Nuns cared f o r orphans of the 1832 cholera epi-^ 73 demic i n the Hotel Dieu at Montreal. Several of the numerous philanthropic s o c i e t i e s that existed i n the c i t i e s were devoted to the welfare of immigrants. I t was obvious that the large numbers of distressed and diseased newcomers from Ireland and elsewhere threatened to overtax the health and welfare f a c i l i t i e s of Lower Canada, which were never intended to cope with such unprecedented! masses of human misery. Interest i n education was more noticeable a f t e r the War of 1812 than i n e a r l i e r years. The nuns carried on t h e i r task of providing elementary t r a i n i n g f o r a number of g i r l s i n convents. Because of the suppression of the 72 Isaac Fid!er, Observations on professions, l i t e r a t u r e , manners, and, emigration,.in the United States and Canada, made.during a residence there i n  1832, by the Rev. Isaac F i d l e r , f o r a short time missionary of Thornhill on Yonge Street near York, Upper Canada, New York, J . & J . Harper, 1833, pp. 142-143. 73 Arfwedson, United States and Canada, v o l . 2. p. 334. 174. male r e l i g i o u s orders, boys i n French Canada were not usually so w e l l educated as th e i r s i s t e r s . A Protestant of Scottish o r i g i n held that the revenue from the Jesuits' 74 estates should be applied to public i n s t r u c t i o n . Beyond the elementary l e v e l , the education of a number of boys and young men was carried on e f f e c t i v e l y by the seminaries. In 1816, the Quebec Seminary, drawing an income from seigneurial domains, gave free i n s t r u c t i o n to two hundred Roman Catholic youths. This i n s t i t u t i o n possessed a small museum or cabinet de physique that con-tained natural c u r i o s i t i e s and s c i e n t i f i c instruments. The l i b r a r y appeared "somewhat too theological" to a B r i t i s h v i s i t o r . Similar i n s t i t u t i o n s existed i n Montreal and several smaller places. These seminaries or colleges supplied elementary and secondary i n s t r u c t i o n to suitable students, whether or not they were t r a i n i n g f o r the priesthood. The French college at Montreal taught theology, r h e t o r i c , philosophy, mathematics, and Greek, i n addition to French 76 and English. 74 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, pp. 561-562. 75 Francis H a l l , Travels,pp. 83-84.. 76 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America.vol. 2, pp. 509-510. 175. In the face of t h i s substantial development, the educational progress of the English-speaking minority was disappointing to some observers. A S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t y graduate i n 1818 emphasized the need f o r an English college at Montreal to counterbalance the French and Roman Catholic i n s t i t u t i o n s . He complained that l i t t l e had been done to accomplish the purposes of the large bequest made by James 77 M c G i l l i n 1814 f o r the promotion of higher learning. A l a t e r w r i t e r considered t h i s c r i t i c i s m too severe. During the 1820's, M c G i l l College had been granted a charter, and other educational f a c i l i t i e s were available i n Montreal, notably a royal grammar school and a national school spon-sored by the Montreal D i s t r i c t Committee f o r Promoting 78 C h r i s t i a n Knowledge. There were i n addition numerous 79 private academies, mostly with.competent. I r i s h teachers. General culture hardly kept pace with the spread of education. An attempt by the Governor, S i r George Prevost, to found a society l i k e the Royal I n s t i t u t i o n i n Quebec f e l l through for lack of members. A B r i t i s h o f f i c e r be-l i e v e d that t h i s project f a i l e d because the residents were 77 Duncan. T r a v e l s . v o l . 2, pp. 165-166. 78 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, pp. 510-512. 79 Talbot, Five years 1 r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 2, p. 290. 176. pre-occupied with business i n the summer and pleasure i n the w i n t e r . 8 0 Nevertheless, a few of the s o c i e t i e s that sprang up during the period 1815-1838 had c u l t u r a l objects. The L i t e r a r y and H i s t o r i c a l Society of Quebec, founded i n 1824 by Lord Dalhousie, explored the h i s t o r y of the province 81 and maintained a museum that augured w e l l f o r the future. During a v i s i t i n 1832, a B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r of s c i e n t i f i c i nterests praised the "assiduous" investigations of the 82 Natural History Society of Montreal. L i b r a r i e s somehow expanded i n an uncongenial environ-ment. A good public l i b r a r y i n the l e g i s l a t i v e buildings at Queb>ec contained many books of h i s t o r y and t r a v e l i n 1816, "... but no c l a s s i c s , probably because none of the inhabitants affect to read them." 8 3 The o f f i c e r s of the s t a f f and garrison also had an excellent l i b r a r y , and 84 several individuals owned good private c o l l e c t i o n s . 80 Francis H a l l , T r a v e l s , p . 85. 81 Domett, Canadian journal, pp. 8-9. 82 John Finch, Travels i n the United States of America  and Canada, containing some account of t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c  i n s t i t u t i o n s , and a few notices of the geology and mineral- ogy of these countries. To which i s added. An essay on the natural boundaries of empires. London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1833, p. 324. 83 Francis H a l l , Travels, p. 84. 84 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1. pp. 37-38. 177 Reading rooms with current newspapers and magazines were appreciated by the business community. The newsroom at Montreal supplied maps as well as reading material, i n the adjoining l i b r a r y was "... the most voluminous and best c o l l e c t i o n i n the B r i t i s h colonies of books, and p r i n t s 85 i l l u s t r a t i n g the costumes and sceneries of d i f f e r e n t countries." English-speaking Canadians were not usually of bookish tastes. Montreal i n 1818 had only one bookstore with an adequate representation of English authors, and Quebec was 86 perhaps worse provided. Newspapers were the most popular form of reading. French Canadians of l i t e r a r y i n t e r e s t could f i n d some good material i n the columns of Le Canadien, which vigorously espoused the national cause under the mast-head "Notre r e l i g i o n , notre langue, nos l o i s . " Two French v i s i t o r s from Europe i n 1831 thought the verse was accept-able, but condemned the prose st y l e as p r o v i n c i a l on account 87 of i t s anglicisms and strange figures of speech. The a r t i s t i c scene remained s i n g u l a r l y barren up to 1838. L i t t l e that was noticed by t r a v e l l e r s rose above mediocrity. The Anglican cathedral, at Quebec appealed to 85 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2 , p. 512. 86 Duncan, Travels. v o l . 2, pp. 172, 217. 87 Pierson, Tocqueville and Beaumont, pp. 321-322. 178 some v i s i t o r s , but one B r i t i s h commentator i n s i s t e d that i t had "... nothing about i t reproachable'with earthly beauty." Some fi n e carved wainscot i n the Roman Catholic cathedral had i t s effect .spoiled by the juxtaposition of the p u l p i t and statues, which were "... painted and gilded 89 i n a gaudy st y l e unworthy of notice or description." The same penchant f o r over-decoration disfigured the old church of Uotre Dame at Montreal. I t s l a v i s h l y orna-mented i n t e r i o r was notable f o r a large statue of the V i r g i n above the a l t a r and a "... huge c r u c i f i x of barba-90 rous workmanship. •' More r e s t r a i n t was apparent i n the Doric design of the Anglican church i n the same c i t y . This had a "very l i g h t and elegant" steeple and an i n t e r i o r 91 displaying "taste and neatness". I t , i a surprising to come across the assertion that, i n 1820, a secular b u i l d i n g , the Bank of Montreal, was "... by f a r the f i n e s t e d i f i c e , 92 either public or private, i n the Canadas ...." A l l e a r l i e r architecture was surpassed, at leas t i n bulk, by the new cathedral of Uotre Dame at Montreal, begun 88 Francis H a l l , Travels, PP. 76-77. 89 Sansom, T r a v e l s , p . 24. 90 Duncan, Travels, v o l . 2, pp. 166-167. 91 Talbot, Five years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, pp. 69-70. 92 l b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 71. 179. i n 1824. A B r i t i s h naval o f f i c e r who v i s i t e d the scene of construction i n 1826 found the work most impressive, and declared the use of blue granite "... one of the rare i n -stances of American good t a s t e . " 9 3 Another v i s i t o r s i x years l a t e r considered i t "... a noble b u i l d i n g , superior 94 to any other I had seen on the American continent ...." The p l a i n exterior, devoid of transepts, created an effect of simple grandeur that was b e l i e d by the i n t e r i o r . In 1833, an English writer deplored the "miserable daubing" i n imitation of marble that ruined the design of the columns and arches. His considered appraisal was devastating: "Altogether the place i s a broad carricature ^sio-j of a r c h i t e c t u r a l pomp and costliness of material, a church i a masquerade, a temple i n t r a v e s t i e . " Canadian sculpture, scarce as i t was, enjoyed no better standing i n the opinion of foreigners. Most t r a v e l l e r s commented rudely on the small wooden statue of Woife that had been placed i n a niche on a private 93 John Frederick F i t z g e r a l d De. Ros, Personal narrative of  travels i n the United States and Canada i n 1826, i l l u s t r a t e d  by plates, with remarks on the present, state of the American  navy, by L i e u t , the Hon. Fred. F i t z g e r a l d De Roos, Royal Navy, London, William Harrison Ainsworth, 1827, p. 129. w 94 Finch, Travels. p. 323. 95 Domett, Canadian j o u r n a l , p . 14. 180 house i n an obscure part of Quebec. This " p i t i f u l t r i b u t e " moved an I r i s h w r i t e r to remark s a r c a s t i c a l l y that i t represented "detestation and contempt" rather than " g r a t i -96 tude and respect" f o r the hero. Although Lower Canada produced no painting of note, there was a certain degree of interest i n the subject. I t i s not clear that t h i s i n t e r e s t was purely aesthetic. A dealer holding an exhibition of European paintings at Montreal i n 1833 ostentatiously advertised a canvas of "Leda and the Swan" by a contemporary French a r t i s t . This picture was shown i n a room by i t s e l f away from the old masters f o r fear that the "Canadians" and Roman Catholics 97 would be scandalized by a public display of nudity. As with painting, drama was mainly an imported luxury. The English-speaking population was able to see t r a v e l l i n g theatre companies i n the two large c i t i e s . There were also amateur t h e a t r i c a l s of f a i r q u a l i t y . In September 1833, some sergeants of the Montreal garrison staged a performance i n t h e i r private theatre that drew praise from a c u l t i v a t e d QQ English v i s i t o r . 96 Talbot, Five years* residence, v o l . 1. pp. 49-52. 97 Domett, Canadian j o u r n a l . p . 15. 98 I b i d . , p. 15. 181. Religion suffered no s i g n i f i c a n t setbacks after 1814. Lower Canada gave to outsiders the impression of a Roman Catholic country. No one could avoid seeing the wayside crosses, the r e l i g i o u s statues, and the ubiquitous spires of the parish churches. In the c i t i e s r e l i g i o u s processions were c o l o r f u l spectacles on high feast days. Montreal was notorious f o r the incessant t o l l i n g of church b e l l s , which one writer deprecated as "... a most disagreeable annoyance, 99 p a r t i c u l a r l y to strangers.v One most peculiar custom was the baptizing of b e l l s . This ceremony was carried out with a l l the paraphernalia of the regular sacrament, including sponsors and presents f o r the newly-christened. To a Scottish Protestant who witnessed such a proceeding at Montreal i n 1818, the ex-perience was both surprising and d i s t u r b i n g . 1 0 0 The Catholic clergy made a good impression even on those who had no sympathy with t h e i r creed. A Scottish w r i t e r with personal knowledge of some of them repudiated as ••unjust" the charges that they s i l e n t l y opposed schools and the use of the English language. 1 0 1 A l i b e r a l from 99 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2. P. 507. 100 Duncan, Travels, v o l . 2, pp. 167-170. 101 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, pp. 563-564. 182. old France found them more a t t r a c t i v e than American Protes-tant ministers, because the cure was a true pastor and not 102 a " r e l i g i o u s business man". Although the clergy were strongly Canadian i n f e e l i n g , t h e i r l o y a l t y to the crown was not seriously doubted. When r e b e l l i o n broke out a l l but a handful threw t h e i r weight behind the authorities. The extensive character of the insurrection i n Lower Canada suggested that p r i e s t l y 103 influence over t h e i r f l o c k s was waning i n some areas. The nuns were even further removed from the f i e l d of p o l i t i c a l controversy. When Lord Durham v i s i t e d the Ursuline Convent at Quebec i n June 1838 he was welcomed with an ela-104 borate reception that showed naive but genuine goodwill. Strangers who had been present at masses where the congregation showed exemplary attention could not deny the hold.of r e l i g i o n on the l a i t y . Even voyageurs on the 102 Pierson, Tocqueville and Beaumont, p. 321. 103 T. R. Preston, Three years* residence i n Canada, from  1837 to 1839.With notes of a winter voyage to New York, and journey thence to the B r i t i s h possessions: to which i s  added, a review of the condition of the Canadian people, London, Richard Bentley, 1840, v o l . 1, pp. 86-87. 104 Louisa E l i z a b e t h (Grey), Countess Durham, Lady Dur-ham* s journal, Canada, ^Quebec, The Telegraph p r i n t i n g co., 1915J, p. 18. 183. Ottawa River took part i n Sunday services with every appear-i n g ance of devotion. During the week, churches i n the towns were open to a l l f o r prayer and confession. The spectacle of men and women i n t h e i r working clothes s i t t i n g s i l e n t l y i n the pews impressed an English t r a v e l l e r as more solemn than an ordinary Sunday congregation. S i m i l a r l y , the practice of family prayer was very moving to v i s i t o r s 107 from England. Protestantism i n Lower Canada did not compare favorably with Roman Catholicism i n organization and personnel. An English t r a v e l l e r , noting the contrast of church buildings at Montreal i n 1816, remarked: "There seems to be something i n the Canadian climate, unfavourable to the growth of Protestant churches ...."10° The Anglican clergy were "personally amiable", but seemed to do l i t t l e more than v i s i t and r e l i e v e the sick when c a l l e d on. Archdeacon Mountain of Quebec was a conspicuous exception who showed great zeal and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e i n ministering to the poor and fever-ridden immigrants i n the waterfront slums. 1 0 9 105 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe,vol. 1, p. 148. 106 Domett, Canadian journal, pp. 11-12. 107 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 176. 108 Francis H a l l , Travels, p. 143. 109 Bigsby, Shoe and Canoe, v o l . ,1, p. 28. 184 In general, Protestants were slack about Sunday obser-vance and i n d i f f e r e n t to c a l l s f o r missionary work. A devout Scot lamented the fact that there was no one able to preach 110 the gospel i n French. Under the circumstances, i t was not surprising that Protestantism should have no attractions f o r the French-speaking population. The economic development of Lower Canada between 1815 and 1838 did not hold much interest f o r t r a v e l l e r s . There were no spectacular advances i n land settlement or a g r i c u l -ture. The north shore of the St. Lawrence, hemmed i n by the Laurentide Mountains, offered l i t t l e room f o r expansion. Some of the older d i s t r i c t s , of which Berthier was a leading example, offered a pleasing spectacle of good houses, wide c u l t i v a t i o n and comfortable and cheerful p e o p l e . 1 1 1 The parishes on the south shore were less populous and more remote from the l i n e s of t r a v e l . The habitants had spread along the banks of numerous t r i b u t a r i e s on both sides of 112 the St. Lawrence between Quebec and Montreal. English-speaking s e t t l e r s ranged further a f i e l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Ottawa:Valley. The v i l l a g e of H u l l was a f i n e example of Anglo-American e n t e r p r i s e . 1 1 3 110 Duncan, Travels, v o l . 2, pp. 221-222. 111 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 2, p. 42. 112 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, p. 494. 113 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe,vol. 1* p. 144. 185. Seigneurial tenure continued i n the old settlements, although English-speaking proprietors had purchased some of the domains. Despite the irksomeness of feudal dues, most of the tenants (censitaires)seemed s a t i s f i e d , pre-f e r r i n g the seigneuries to the townships. Prospective purchasers of land f e l t the lack of a p r o v i n c i a l registry-o f f i c e where they could examine deeds to determine whether 114 property was encumbered. Many outsiders severely c r i t i c i z e d the state of ag r i -culture. Several of these observers were i n t e l l i g e n t , p r a c t i c a l farmers from the B r i t i s h I s l e s , i n touch with the l a t e s t advances. A young Irishman, viewing the H e d 1Orleans i n 1818, asserted that the farmers needed a stimulus to e f f i c i e n c y s i m i l a r to that provided by the a g r i c u l t u r a l societies i n B r i t a i n during the Napoleonic Wars. 1 1 5 Later v i s i t o r s were surprised to f i n d the Canadians following the old Scots practice of i n f i e l d and o u t f i e l d , taking crops without rest u n t i l only weeds remained. 1 1 6 S o i l s exhausted by constant cropping were l e f t i n natural grass f o r a summer, then ploughed again, Even na t u r a l l y 117 r i c h lands produced mediocre y i e l d s with such treatment-; 114 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, p.590. 115 Talbot, Five years 1 residence, v o l . 1, pp. 35-37. 116 ffergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, p. 263. 117 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 352. 186. In newly-settled lands the problem-was not habitant conservatism but the u n s u i t a b i l i t y of many pioneers as permanent farmers. An experienced Scottish a g r i c u l t u r i s t pointed out that destroying forests and managing land were two d i f f e r e n t tasks. Some of the f i r s t s e t t l e r s had become "encrusted with s l o t h " , and be s t i r r e d themselves only to 118 shoot game f o r food as needed. Livestock breeding was no more e f f i c i e n t than c u l t i -v ation. The province did not seem able to supply i t s own requirements of food, especially meat, to_ judge by the 119 large imports from the United States. Sometimes poor harvests produced serious d i s t r e s s i n certain d i s t r i c t s . In the neighborhood of Trois-Rivieres during the summer of 1816 many v i l l a g e r s had been reduced to l i v i n g on w i l d vegetables, and there were numerous deaths from f a m i n e . 1 2 0 The habitants clung to t h e i r worn-out farms, preferring work i n the l o c a l i t y at low wages to moving. 1 2 1 There were some bright spots i n t h i s gloomy picture. The luxuriant f i e l d s of Montreal Island yielded a wealth of products. Many of the farms showed the influence of 118 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 352. 119 I b i d . , p. 353. 120 Francis H a l l , Travels, p. 128. 121 S h i r r e f f , Tour. p. 354. 187. European practices i n t h e i r neat furrows and straight hoard •top fences. B r i t i s h farmers scattered throughout the province introduced improved methods that distinguished them from the 123 h a b i t a n t s , o n l y a few of whom t r i e d to copy them. At an a g r i c u l t u r a l meeting i n Quebec during October 1838, the t r i a l p lots of English laborers were d e f i n i t e l y superior 1 94 to those of the French. Among the signs of improvement was a botanical garden owned by a Canadian on the outsk i r t s of Montreal. In 1833, t h i s unusual establishment included weeping willows, new species of apples, magnolia, and a greenhouse containing 125 cactus and tea plants. Such an enterprise was needed to interest Canadians i n orchards, h o r t i c u l t u r e , and other p r o f i t a b l e and a t t r a c t i v e types of farming. In the c i t i e s , certain t y p i c a l l y Canadian occupations added color to the scene. Rugged Indian traders s t i l l came to Montreal during the 1820's to spend t h e i r money f r e e l y and enjoy l i f e before returning upstream. 1 2 6 Another d i s t i n c t i v e group was that of the , llumberers , , who f e l l e d timber i n the i n t e r i o r and rafted i t down to Montreal and 122 Duncan, Travels, v o l . 2, p. 145. 123 Preston, Three years 1 r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, p. 62. 124 lady Durham. Journal, p. 46. 125 Domett, Canadian journal, p. 17. 126 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 125. 188. Quebec. Many of them l i v e d i n "wretched dwellings" under the c l i f f s near Wolfe's Cove. When they were paid off they indulged i n "uproar and debauchery" sometimes leading to "atrocious c r i m e s " . 1 2 7 Lumbering provided the basis f o r steadier employment i n the wood-using industries. A large sawmill at Mont-morency used power from the f a l l s to operate highly e f f i -cient machinery. The magnitude of the enterprise was im-pressive even to Americans. 1 2 8 Shipbuilding also was under-taken on a large scale. A yard on the H e d'Orleans produced 1 99 two ships that were considered "gigantic':' at the time. At Levis, a patent s l i p constructed i n 1833 enabled ships of more than three hundred tons to be drawn up expeditiously on a cradle f o r r e p a i r . 1 5 0 Although manufacturing gave evidence of considerable technical and organizational s k i l l , Canadian businessmen were not conspicuous f o r t h e i r salesmanship. The mercan-t i l e houses at Quebec i n 1818 looked l i k e d i r t y private 127 De Ros, Personal narrative, pp. 122-123. 128 Sill i m a n , Tour, P. 87. 129 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, pp. 592-293. The ships were the Columbus, length three hundred twenty feet, launched 1824, and the Baron of Renfrew. 130 Domett, Canadian .journal, p, 6. 189. dwellings, displaying no goods "... except such trumpery as would more r e a d i l y convey the idea of a brandy shop or barracks, than that of an extensive warehouse. "Xv,J-The Scots continued to be the most successful merchants. Yet even these energetic traders shared the Canadian preference f o r " i n d i v i d u a l adventure" rather than "mutual c o - o p e r a t i o n " . 1 3 2 Some of the l a t t e r q u a l i t y was provided with the founding of banks. Canadian bank direc-tors, however, were "cautious and prudent", avoiding "unguarded speculation" i n the "Republican" s t y l e common throughout the United S t a t e s . 1 3 3 Montreal was unquestionably wresting from Quebec the commercial ascendancy over the Canadas. I t s shorter, milder winter, i t s p l e n t i f u l l o c a l supplies of farm pro-duce, i t s contacts with the United States and Upper Canada made i t a c e n t r e o f year-round-business,activity. w One explanation f o r Montreal's surge to the fore was the growth of steamship services on the St. Lawrence. No longer was Quebec the only deepsea port f o r the two provinces. 131 Talbot, Five years* r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, p. 56. 132 Duncan, T r a v e l s , v o l . 2, p. 156. 133 Talbot, Five years' residence, v o l . 1, pp. 76-77. 134 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, pp. 573-574. 190 Ships could transfer t h e i r cargoes to r i v e r steamers or be towed quickly upstream to Montreal. Nearly every t r a v e l l e r who v i s i t e d Lower Canada aft e r 1814 remarked favorably on the steamboat f a c i l i t i e s that were available on the St. Lawrence. In 1818, seven steamers p l i e d between Quebec and Montreal, taking twenty-two hours downstream and t h i r t y - s i x hours upstream. These vessels were w e l l f i t t e d up with large cabins, and provided food 135 and service equal to that of the best European hotels. An English t r a v e l l e r i n 1821 declared that European steamers were "unclean tubs" compared with those i n America. 1 3 6 The St. Lawrence steamers were d i s t i n c t l y "more pleasant and commodious" than those on the Hudson, which were usually over-crowded. Unhappily, the port f a c i l i t i e s did not keep up with the progress of shipping. Passengers embarking at Montreal had to make t h e i r way to the waterside across a quay f r e -quently encumbered with mud and f i l t h . A s i m i l a r " d e f i -ciency of enterprise" was shown i n the f a i l u r e to cut a canal at Lachine, while the Americans were pushing^ahead with the E r i e C a n a l . 1 3 9 135 Talbot, Five years 1 residence, v o l . 1, pp. 79-80. 136 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe,vol. 1, p. 218. 137 Preston, Three years 1 residenoe, v o l . 1, p. 41. 138 Talbot, Five years' residence, v o l . 1, p. 81. 139 Duncan, Travels, v o l . 2, pp.. 158-159. 191 Land transport along the St. Lawrence l o s t much of i t s importance i n the summer when the steamers were running. Most t r a v e l l e r s gained t h e i r knowledge of Lower Canadian roads from the short journeys between Lachine or St-Jean -and Montreal. In 1831, the he a v i l y - t r a v e l l e d Lake Champlain route i n Canada was being "improved" piecemeal without adequate funds. A Scottish t r a v e l l e r who arrived i n A p r i l had to take the old road which had been o f f i c i a l l y closed. The driver crossed a brook, forced h i s way through indig-nant farmers, and took h i s coach through a four-foot fence. 1' Bridges, l i k e roads, were poorly maintained. A B r i t i s h v i s i t o r to Montmorency i n 1827 found a bridge that had been down f o r s i x weeks, though a carpenter and twenty laborers could have f i x e d i t i n two days. This state of a f f a i r s inspired the r e f l e c t i o n : "I never saw any country where these sort of things appeared to move so slowly as i n Canada." 1 4 1 Sleighs remained indispensable f o r the long winters. There was no improvement i n the construction, so that constant j o l t i n g over eahots was a disagreeable necessity. A B r i t i s h o f f i c e r who had enjoyed winter sports i n Uew Brunswick found the sleighing i n Lower Canada " v i l e " . 140 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, pp. 59-61. 141 B a s i l H a l l , Travels, v o l . 1, p. 394. 192. He blamed the persistence i n using a f a u l t y design on the peasantry, "bigoted to old habits and customs", and "di s -1 49 daining innovation". * I t i s g r a t i f y i n g to learn that accommodation f o r t r a v e l l e r s improved greatly after 1814. Several v i l l a g e s provided "... that cheerful c i v i l i t y and the moderate charges we so often experience i n the inns of French 143 Canada." Quebec was less w e l l endowed with hotels than Montreal, where the Mansion House supplied rooms and service 144 as capably as any hostelry i n England. The cause of t h i s development was the i n f l u x of American v i s i t o r s who made the fashionable summer tour from Saratoga v i a Lake Champlain 145 to Montreal and thence to Niagara. Canadians themselves were becoming t o u r i s t s i n the years after 1814. Kamouraska, "the watering-place of Canada", was frequented by fa m i l i e s from Quebec and Montreal i n the season. They had a choice of several inns, and could 146 enjoy hot or cold seawater baths. Travel was becoming more easy and rapid a l l along the St. Lawrence. In contrast 142 S i r Richard George Augustus Levinge, 7th bart., Echoes from the backwoods; or Sketches of Transatlantic l i f e , London, Henry Colburn, 1846, v o l . 2, pp. 122-124. 143 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, pp. 41-42. 144 De Ros, Personal narrative, pp. 126-127. 145 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, p. 75. 146 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, p. 462. 193. to the elaborate preparations needed i n e a r l i e r years, a-t r a v e l l e r hound f o r Upper Canada had only to pay h i s place 147 at the stage-office i n Montreal to complete a l l arrangements. I t was obvious that Lower Canada had made substantial i f uneven progress i n economic development from 1815 to 1838. A growing population, the i n t e n s i f i e d e x ploitation of re-sources, and the adoption of technical improvements created a considerable degree of prosperity. There seemed no reason why a f r u g a l and apparently happy peasantry should r i s e against the government. Yet t h i s did happen i n 1837 and 1838, to the surprise of the authorities i n the province and overseas. The very conservatism of the French Canadians provided one explanation f o r t h e i r resort to violence. In t h e i r resentment against a l i e n innovators who threatened t h e i r way of l i f e , they were ready to l i s t e n to the blandishments of extremists who promised national salvation. The f a c t that part of t h e i r trouble was caused by t h e i r own r e f u s a l to adapt to changing circumstances did not soften t h e i r exasperation at the state of a f f a i r s . The system set up by the Constitutional Act In 1791 was breaking down. Representation i n the L e g i s l a t i v e 147 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes,p. 81 n. 194 Assembly had provided a forum f o r the French Canadian leaders without s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r appetite f o r power. In the courts, French c i v i l law was a source of misunderstand-ings and i r r i t a t i o n . A v i s i t o r from France who heard a case i n the Court of King's Bench at Quebec i n 1831 thought 1 48 the proceedings "bizarre" and "burlesque". Governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s r e f l e c t e d and fostered the d i v i s i o n of races, rather than reconciling them. An English t r a v e l l e r who v i s i t e d the north shore of the St. Lawrence downstream from Quebec i n 1821 found the better class French Canadians "... thoughtful, and fond of p o l i t i c a l discussion." Although they were f a m i l i a r with few books, t h e i r "nimble minds" were active during the long winters. * In the course of a long argument with a B r i t i s h guest, the author's host at Baie St. Paul spoke eloquently on the need for responsible government i n domestic a f f a i r s . 1 5 0 Another B r i t i s h observer, i n 1826, diagnosed the s i t u a t i o n convincingly. Pointing out that trade and prosperity were increasing, despite the " s p i r i t of con-t r a d i c t i o n " shown by the French majority of the Assembly, 148 Pierson, Tocqueville and Beaumont, pp. 324-326. 149 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 195. 150 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 197-198. 195. lie wrote: Though p e r f e c t l y l o y a l , a jealousy, a suspicion, and a d i s t r u s t of the mother country, pervade a l l thei r discussions, and form a remarkable contrast with the more reasonable s p i r i t which animates the contented inhabitants of Nova Sootia and Hew Brunswick. ... such i s t h e i r apprehension of any encroachment upon t h e i r r e l i g i o n , laws or language, that they are content to s a c r i f i c e obvious advan-tages to the maintenance of ancient customs and unreasonable p r e j u d i c e s . 1 5 1 This appraisal emphasized the f a c t that discontent was not fundamentally economic but r a c i a l . The demand f o r responsible government was a device f o r increasing the influence of the French-speaking majority, rather than an expression of democratic sentiment. The international setting may help to explain how t h i s stubborn antipathy was exacerbated to the point of re b e l l i o n . In the year 1828, Jacksonian democracy triumphed at the p o l l s i n the United States. Two years l a t e r , the July Revolution overthrew the Bourbons and promised a re-b i r t h of l i b e r a l i s m i n France. Great B r i t a i n at t h i s time was i n the throes of p o l i t i c a l a g itation, culminating i n the passage of the Reform B i l l i n 1831. L i b e r a l , national-i s t , and revolutionary ideas were i n the a i r . Canada was not immune to i n f e c t i o n from them. 151 De Ros, Personal n a r r a t i v e , p p . 114-115. 196 The p o l i t i c a l leadership of the French-speaking community was i n the hands of a small e l i t e of doctors, notaries, and lawyers. Young men, fresh from studies i n France or the United States, s e t t l e d down to practice i n -the v i l l a g e s and towns of Lower Canada. Enjoying the pres-tige of a good education and professional status, they became the natural spokesmen of t h e i r race, and frequently gained seats i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. 1 5 2 These popular champions were i n a strong p o s i t i o n to disseminate "dangerous" ideas amongst the l a r g e l y unlettered and sometimes g u l l i b l e habitants. In t h i s work they were abetted by t h e i r proximity to the United States. The most rebellious d i s t r i c t s were those along the south bank of the St. Lawrence from Beauharnois to Sorel and towards the border. Next to them were the d i s t r i c t s surrounding Montreal. The region between Montreal and Quebec was the 1 5 3 least "contaminated" by subversive influences. Certain evidences of s o c i a l c o n f l i c t accompanied the obvious r a c i a l antagonism. A l i b e r a l Frenchman gathered from conversation with French Canadians i n 1831 that the 152 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 1, pp.. 77-78. 153 Ibid.., v o l . 1, pp. 77-78. 197 seigneurs were regarded with jealousy and hatred. Demo-c r a t i c a g i t a t i o n i n Lower Canada was in many ways j u s t as active and thoroughgoing as i n the United States and France^ 4 A B r i t i s h w r i t e r who had observed widely and thought deeply about the r e v o l t assigned two causes f o r the trouble. F i r s t was the f a i l u r e to assimilate a "torpid race"; second, the " t o t a l neglect of th e i r mental culture", so that the French Canadians had no chance to acquire the r i g h t ideas 155 f o r t h e i r own and the country's good. This w r i t e r asserted that the f i g h t f o r independence had not begun e a r l i e r because previously the French Canadians 1 had seen no alternatives but B r i t i s h r u l e or annexation to the United States. The f e e l i n g of exasperation was height-ened by the increasing numbers of immigrants who threatened 156 to swamp the French-speaking population. Alarm at the prospect of encirclement gave a new bitterness to the long-standing resentment of Anglo-Saxon commercial dominance. In the face of widespread unrest, the English-speaking community remained si n g u l a r l y complacent. A Quebec merchant who was interviewed by a Frenchman i n 1831 assured the 154 Pierson, Tocqueville and Beaumont, pp. 338-341. 155 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 1, p. 250. 156 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 116-117. 198 l a t t e r that the p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n was j u s t a l o t of t a l k by d i s s a t i s f i e d lawyers. The speaker could not disguise h i s scorn and hatred when he referred to the French Cana-d i a n s . 1 5 7 The L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly provided the natural outlet f o r popular grievances. The habitants entered into elec-tions with as much enthusiasm as i f they had been used to a 158 constitution f o r centuries. Gnce elected, however, t h e i r representatives were unable to control the p o l i c y of an executive responsible to the crown. L e g i s l a t i v e sessions were l i t t l e more than occasions f o r f i e r y speeches and f u t i l e attempts to coerce the government. The apparent f a i l u r e of parliamentary methods convinced many reformers that the issue would have to be brought to the arbitrament of arms. Matters came to a head haphazardly i n 1837. For some time agitators had been addressing congregations outside the churches after mass, e x t o l l i n g the virt u e s of l i b e r t y and "La Grande Nation Canadienne", and denouncing the 159 redcoats. Disaffected groups d r i l l e d openly i n preparation f o r r e v o l t . At Montreal, i n 1837, the future rebels used 157 Pierson, Tocqueville and Beaumont, p. 324. 158 Domett, Canadian journal, p. 5. , 159 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 1, pp. 82-85. 199. the parade ground of the F i r s t Royal Regiment f o r t h e i r maneuvres, and complained when the soldiers interfered with them. 1 6 0 The B r i t i s h population i n s t i n c t i v e l y closed i t s ranks against the common danger. Although the m i l i t a r y preparations of rebellious elements were generally considered a joke, many of the l o y a l i s t s were ready for a f i g h t . When a r i o t broke out on 14 October 1837 at Montreal, the deeds of the pror 161 B r i t i s h party won them the name of "Axe-Handle Guards"-. As tension mounted, violence f l a r e d again on 6 November. An attack by English speaking c i v i l i a n s on an unauthorized meeting of t h e i r r i v a l s ended i n a general melee on the Place 162 d'Armes. Events moved rapidly to the climax of open warfare. When Lord Durham arrived as Governor-in-Chief i n 1838 he received a warm welcome. The reception at Montreal was even "more c o r d i a l & enthusiastic" than at Quebec. A large and animated crowd showed no resentment at h i s amnesty f o r the rebels. ° This g r a t i f y i n g manifestation of l o y a l t y to the representative of the crown showed that h i s p o l i c y of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n was widely accepted i n Lower . 160 Lysons, Reminiscences, p. 65. 161 I b i d , , p. 68. 162 Preston, Three years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1 , pp. 88-94. 163 Lady Durham, Journal, p. 20. 200 Canada. The news that h i s ordinances had been disallowed caused widespread dismay. At once some B r i t i s h elements began to t a l k of separation or annexation, and the French returned to t h e i r i n t r i g u e s . 1 6 4 Respectful crowds f i l l e d the streets of Quebec as Lord Durham l e f t on 1 November 1838. Only a few cheers 165 enlivened the general gloom. The whole hi s t o r y of h i s r e l a t i o n s with the people of the province t e s t i f i e d to hi s grasp of t h e i r problems and the wisdom of h i s p o l i c y . Lower Canada at the end of 1838 was not a happy spec-t a c l e . The old system of government was obviously unable to restore harmony and thus permit the resumption of econo-mic and s o c i a l progress. Any attempt to devise a new system was thwarted by the mutual suspicion of the two races, heightened by the memory of bloodshed. The English-speaking minority were uncompromisingly opposed to any change that would put them at the mercy of the French-speaking majority. The l a t t e r i n s i s t e d on a transfer of governmental responsi-b i l i t y that would enable them to control t h e i r own destiny. Proposals f o r escaping from the impasse ranged from union with Upper Canada to independence or annexation to the United States. The successors of Lord Durham as Governor faced a delicate and arduous task of p a c i f i c a t i o n and reorganization. 164 Lady Durham, Journal, p. 42. 165 I b i d . , pp. 52-53. 201. CHAPTER V. TOWARDS A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY: UPPER CANADA. 1815-1838 Upper Canada, l i k e i t s s i s t e r province, d i f f e r e d remarkably from the adjoining parts of the United States, hut i t had l i t t l e of the old-world charm of French Canada. After the War of 1812 i t was s t i l l l a r g e l y forest, unmarked by d i s t i n c t i v e natural features, except at the Thousand Islands and Niagara P a l l s . Travellers saw nothing to com-pare with the panorama of neat whitewashed houses that bordered the lower St. Lawrence. Porest clearings did not show the picturesqueness attributed to them by certain f a n c i f u l stay-at-homes. The t y p i c a l immigrant dwelt amidst a "... dismal scene of uncouth log huts, blackened stumps, l e a f l e s s scorched trees and awkward zig-zag fences." 1 The " s o l i t a r y grandeur" of the landscape throughout most of the province induced "melancholy" i n one B r i t i s h v i s i t o r , who f e l t that the blue skies and l i g h t atmosphere only p a r t i a l l y a l l e v i a t e d o i t s depressing e f f e c t . The Thousand Islands received perfunctory notice, but they offered no temptation to l i n g e r . F i l i b u s t e r s and 1 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 93. 2 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 4-5. 202 pirates were reputed to i n f e s t t h e i r myriad channels during 3 the disturbances of 1837 and 1838. Niagara P a l l s was the one great scenic a t t r a c t i o n . With the passage of years, the s i t e became more easy of access. Already i n 1816 a B r i t i s h v i s i t o r was bemoaning the loss of primitive grandeur through the swelling throngs of sightseers. With surprising accuracy he prophesied: "For Niagara, I foresee that i n a few years t r a v e l l e r s w i l l f i n d a finger post 'To the F a l l s ' Tea Gardens, with cakes, and refreshments, set out on the Table Rock." 4 In 1822, the set t i n g of the f a l l s was s t i l l almost "primeval". There was only one house on the Canadian side, 5 and the small hamlet across the gorge was out of sight. Five years l a t e r , the American side had been disfigured "... by the erection of hotels, paper manufactories, saw-_ m i l l s , and numerous other raw, staring, wooden e d i f i c e s . " 6 So generous was the provision of amenities that by 1833 t o u r i s t s were able to play b i l l i a r d s a l l day i n the P a v i l i o n 7 Hotel without bothering about the scenery. 3 Lady Durham, Journal, p. 22. 4 Francis H a l l , T r a v e l s , p . 235. 5 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 2, p. 4. 6 B a s i l H a l l , Travels, v o l . 1, p. 190. 7 Domett, Canadian .journal, p. 30. 203. Speculators hoping to p r o f i t from the l o c a l attractions were s t a r t i n g to b u i l d v i l l a s on the Canadian side i n 1833. A Scottish v i s i t o r c a l l e d the project "visionary", since not enough Canadians could afford to occupy summer residences there at the time. This judgment was borne out by the collapse of a scheme f o r a "City of the F a l l s " . A woman who v i s i t e d the s i t e i n 1837 thought that the f i r s t develop-ment would be that of a manufacturing centre using the enormous water powers of the l o c a l i t y . She f e l t that.any addition to the present assemblage of hotels, museums, and c u r i o s i t y shops would bring a "moral p o l l u t i o n " to the 9 splendors of Niagara. Most t r a v e l l e r s found the climate generally favorable. The cold was not so severe as i n Lower Canada, though frequently a source of discomfort. Summer brought oppress-ive heat, thunderstorms, and "hurricanes" that sometimes overthrew great areas of forest. The worst season was spring, when the_roads were nearly impassable, the lowlands were flooded, and malaria attacked dwellers near swamp-l a n d . 1 0 The sudden variat i o n s and extreme temperatures 8 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 92. 9 Mrs. Anna Brownell (Murphy) Jameson, Winter studies and  sijmmer rambles.-in Canada, London, Saunders and Otley, 1838, v o l . 2, pp. 75-76. 10 Ib i d . , v o l . 1, p. 267. 204. were not suited to sedentary persons, but i d e a l f o r robust and active workers-. Any t r a v e l l e r interested i n farming viewed the forests with a h o s t i l e eye. A young I r i s h s e t t l e r i n 1818 looked f o r great advances i n comfort from the clearing of the woods which he considered responsible f o r the abundant insects and vermin, and f o r the fever-ridden marshes. As a praise-worthy example of improvement, he pointed to the "complete desiccation" of many creeks after clearing, notably i n the 12 Talbot Settlement on Lake E r i e . Later farmers were to pay dearly for t h i s mistaken attitude to the natural cover that retained the precious t o p s o i l . I t was understandable that the residents should look f o r r e l i e f from t h e i r insect tormentors by clearing as much land as possible. Mosquitoes, h o r s e f l i e s , and bedbugs caused much unpleasantness and suffering to man and beast. In many settlements, houseflies were an "overwhelming plague" that 13 made cleanliness impossible, even with constant attention. Compared with these pests, rattlesnakes were a minor annoy-ance. One of the most obnoxious inhabitants of the woods was the huge native b u l l f r o g , whose "hideous y e l l s " resounded 14 night and day during the summer. 11 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 19-21. 12 Talbot, Five years' residence, v o l . 1, pp. 341-342. 15 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 248-249. 14 Ibi d . , v o l . 1, pp. .£259-] -261. 205. The raucous voices of the frogs were no compensation to the homesick Briton,, for the absence of singing b i r d s . Game b i r d s , however, were p l e n t i f u l , including the famous passenger pigeons. On the Thames River i n the spring of 1834 an English observer saw several small f l o c k s and one large one. The numbers were "astonishing", but the birds 15 did not darken the sky as recorded i n e a r l i e r accounts'. Farmers hunted animals not merely f o r food but also to protect t h e i r crops and l i v e s t o c k . Squirrels were possibly the worst enemies, since they could reduce a s e t t l e r ' s family to want by eating up t h e i r green and ripe grain. Bears attacked swine and wolves caused serious losses of sheep. Deer were p l e n t i f u l but hard to track down. Upper Canada was not a good area f o r sport hunting, especially as the advance of settlement forced much of the w i l d l i f e to retreat into the f o r e s t . A v i s i t o r who t r a v e l l e d exten-s i v e l y i n the province during 1833 asserted: "I have seen more game i n half-an-hour i n Scotland than I saw i n a l l 17 my wanderings i n Canada ...." Municipal development i n Upper Canada proceeded slowly u n t i l increased immigration, stimulated the growth of l o c a l 15 Domett, Canadian .journal, p. 53. The l a s t known passenger pigeon died i n c a p t i v i t y i n 1914. See Encyclopedia  of Canada, v o l . 5, p. 119. 16 Talbot, Five years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, p. 216. 17 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 390. 206 centres. Unlike Lower Canada, with i t s two large f o e i of a c t i v i t y , the western province contained a number of small communities, none of which was dominant u n t i l Toronto moved ahead i n the 1830's. The banks of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence Rivers offered l i t t l e i n the way of urban amenities to detain the t r a v e l l e r . Bytown was no more than an opening i n the forest u n t i l the completion of the Rideau Canal i n 1832. Even then, the l i t t l e settlement, dominated by the barracks on the future'Parliament 18 H i l l , was hemmed.In by great stands of pine. B r o c k v i l l e made a happy impression on t r a v e l l e r s going up or down the St. Lawrence. This a t t r a c t i v e community, set amidst smiling f i e l d s , had "every appearance 19 of prosperity" i n 1826, though only some ten years old. The inhabitants b u i l t good houses of wood or stone, and l e f t trees among them f o r added beauty -- an unusual practice i n the Canadas. Because of t h i s concern for appearances, Brock-90 v i l l e was known as "... the p r e t t i e s t town on the r i v e r . " 1 0 18 S i r James Edward Alexander, Transatlantic sketches, comprising v i s i t s to the most in t e r e s t i n g scenes i n North and South America, and the-West Indies. With notes on Negro slavery and. Canadian emigration, London, R. Bent ley, 1833, Extract i n Gerald M . Craig,; ed., E a r l y t r a v e l l e r s i n  the Canadas,., 1791-1867. Toronto, The Macmillan co. of Canada Ltd., 1955, pp. 81-82. 19 De Ros, Personal narrative, pp. 136-137. 20 Domett, Canadian .journal, p. 21. 207 Travellers a r r i v i n g at Kingston by land or water noticed the "imposing" aspect of the town. I t seemed l i k e l y to remain the m i l i t a r y , naval, and commercial headquarters for the province, even though York had the 21 advantage of being the c a p i t a l . The houses, l a i d out on an "elegant and extensive" plan, were mostly of limestone by 1818. This use of l o c a l b u i l d i n g material gave the place 22 a d i s t i n c t i v e character. Although Kingston was crude by European standards, i t drew praise from numerous v i s i t o r s . An English physician i n 1823 considered i t to be an "... agreeable residence, 23 s t i r r i n g , healthy, and cheap." Kingstonians became aware of t h e i r c i t y ' s charms i n l a t e r years. Conscious of i t s excellence, they ignored such defects as the noisy f i g h t s between pigs and dogs that took place constantly i n the streets. In 1837, a B r i t i s h v i s i t o r declared that Kingston was " e s s e n t i a l l y ... unprogressive", since "... i t reposes too complacently on i t s assumed d i g n i t y to be otherwise 24 than stationary." Pew t r a v e l l e r s would say a good word f o r York (Toronto). Most of them were disappointed at t h e i r f i r s t sight of the 21 Duncan, Travels. vol...?, pp. 112-113. 22 Howison, Sketches, p. 58. 23 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 2, p. 56. 24 Preston, Three years 1 r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, pp. 125-127. 208. c a p i t a l . I t was hard for them to understand why the govern-ment had been located i n the midst of a featureless landscape, with nothing to recommendthe s i t e but an JLndifferent harbor. A B r i t i s h o f f i c e r who viewed the town i n 1816 thought the administration would have been transferred to Kingston i f 25 i t were not f o r vested i n t e r e s t s . York was poorly situated on low, marshy land, which an I r i s h immigrant i n 1818 described as "... better calcu-lated f o r a frog-pond, or beaver-meadow, than f o r the 26 residence of human beings." The picture became more favorable when the growth of population throughout the province brought increased a c t i v i t y i n the c a p i t a l . A f t e r 1830, construction was active, and b r i c k replaced wood f o r many houses and public buildings. One t r a v e l l e r a c t u a l l y commented on the town's "fine appearance" from the water i n 1833, and pointed out 1 the improvement i n health since the P7 marshes were drained. York underwent a kind of "boom" as the r e s u l t of massive immigration from B r i t a i n . I t s t i l l looked de-pressing i n the depths of winter, however, p a r t i c u l a r l y to a newcomer laboring under personal disappointments. 25 Francis H a l l , Travels, PP. 214-215. 26 Talbot, Five years' residence,vol..1, p. 102. 27 Isaac F i d l e r , Observations,pp. 154-156. 209 One such person wrote soon aft e r her a r r i v a l i n December 1836: "A l i t t l e i l l - b u i l t town on low land, at the bottom of a frozen bay, with one very ugly church, without tower or steeple; some government o f f i c e s , b u i l t of staring,red b r i c k , i n the most tas t e l e s s , vulgar s t y l e imaginable; three feet of snow a l l around;and the grey, s u l l e n , wintry lake, and the dark gloom of the pine forest bounding the 28 prospect; such seems Toronto to me now." On the eve of the Rebellion i n 1837, the c i t y had made d i s t i n c t , i f modest, progress. A temporary resident made the following judicious appraisal at the time:"Toronto, though exhibiting l i t t l e to bear out i t s pretensions either as a c i t y or a c a p i t a l , and s t i l l l ess to j u s t i f y the metro-p o l i t a n a i r s which the e l i t e of i t s denizens assume, i s a place bearing (unlike Kingston) the appearance of having 29 been much improved within these l a s t few years ...." Across Lake Ontario, Newark or Niagara relapsed into obscurity after the War of 1812. The former c a p i t a l found a new source of income as a fashionable summer resort on account of i t s nearness to the f a l l s . In 1818, the attract-30 ive v i l l a g e was the "neatest" i n the province after B r o c k v i l l e . 28 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, p. 2.. 29 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 36-37. 30 Talbot, Five years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, p. 122. 210 The passing years dealt harshly with the l o c a l i t y . Accord-ing to an account dated 1833, "Queenston and Niagara are mean"j:dirty-looking v i l l a g e s , apparently without trade, and very unlike the clean h u s t l i n g places on the opposite side of the r i v e r . " 3 1 Hamilton rose into prominence at the head of the lake after a canal was cut to give access to the f i n e harbor of Burlington Bay. The v i l l a g e grew rapidly into a town which a c r i t i c a l . o b s e r v e r i n 1833 pronounced "... one of the < cleanest and most desirable places of residence i n Canada." 3 2 Others were equally pleased by t h i s " f l o u r i s h i n g " and a t t r a c t -ive" community, on account of i t s " a i r of business, and bustle, 3 3 and animation ...." Numerous settlements i n the western peninsula, such as Guelph, Gait, Brantford, and St. Thomas, showed promise i n the decade before 1838. London had outstripped them a l l by the end of t h i s period. A v i s i t o r to t h i s town i n 1837 asserted: "On the whole., I have nowhere seen such evident signs of progress and p r o s p e r i t y . " 0 * In comparison with t h i s scene of a c t i v i t y , the old settlements along the D e t r o i t River seemed u t t e r l y stagnant. .31 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 94. 32 I b i d . , p. 104. 33 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 97-98. 54 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 144-145. 211 Across from them, the burgeoning centre of De t r o i t rose "... i n s t r i k i n g contrast to the poverty and l i f e l e s s n e s s of Amherstburgh and Sandwich ...." In 1837, the difference was p a i n f u l l y obvious. On the American side was a large and busy c i t y ; on the Canadian side, "... a l i t t l e straggling hamlet, one schooner, one l i t t l e wretched steam-boat, some windmills, a catholic chapel or two, a supine ignorant peasantry, a l l the symptoms of apathy, indolence, mistrust, hopelessness." Upper Canada between 1815 and 1838 was no earthly paradise. I t s scenery was f o r the most part uninspiring, except f o r Niagara P a l l s , where t o u r i s t development threatened to s p o i l i t s p r i m i t i v e beauty. The c i t i e s , towns, and v i l l a g e s were generally d u l l , when they were not downright depressing. Towards the end of the period, however, i n -creasing commerce and urban expansion gave promise of future improvement. The stimulus to a c t i v i t y was imparted by the growing population, i n which large-scale immigration aug-mented the natural increase.of the older f a m i l i e s . The people of Upper Canada were a patchwork of diverse elements, very d i f f e r e n t from the predominantly French society of Lower Canada. Newcomers from many parts of 35 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 216. 36 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 313-314. 212 North America and Europe contributed to the v a r i e t y . The Indian t r i b e s lent a touch of color to the scene without exerting much influence on development. Along the Grand River, Mohawks and Cayugas l i v e d q u ietly amongst a growing white community. After the war, i n 1816, many of them suffered want from unwisely concen-t r a t i n g on growing corn i n bad seasons, and had to exis t 37 f o r a time on the government bounty. Many of them succumbed to the lure of f i s h i n g and hunting, to the detriment of th e i r husbandry. Nevertheless, they raised f a i r crops of corn when the weather was favorable. Some of them p r o f i t e d from attending a Mechanic's School at Brantford sponsored by the 38 Society f o r the Propagation of the Gospel. Tuberculosis 3' and other causes had reduced the.population sharply by 1837. Another experiment i n " c i v i l i z i n g " Indians took place on the Credit River. Here a v i l l a g e was formed during the 1820's under the auspices of the Lieutenant-Governor. A band of Mississaugas formerly notorious f o r drunkenness and de-pravity underwent a remarkable change, la r g e l y through the ef f o r t s offahalf-breed Methodist missionary, the Reverend Peter Jones. In 1827, the village.contained neat, furnished 37 Francis H a l l , Travels, pp. 223-224. 38 Pergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, pp. 135-138. 39 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 106-108. 213. houses inhabited by people who were "perfectly clean" and "tolerably w e l l dressed". Most of the children and some of the elders could read i n English. The whole t r i b e pro-fessed C h r i s t i a n i t y , eschewed l i q u o r , and enjoyed a reputa-40 t i o n for orderliness and industry. This i d y l l i c scene did not endure f o r long. By 1837, the population was much decreased through tuberculosis.. The formerly active c u l t i v a t o r s had often lapsed into idleness and worse, to the despair of t h e i r s p i r i t u a l leader. Although some of the v i l l a g e r s showed superior.. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , "... d i r t , indolence, and drunkenness 41 are but too general." The s i t u a t i o n throughout the rest of the province was no more hopeful. Indian reserves from the Bay of Q.uinte' to the D e t r o i t River were under constant pressure from land-hungry s e t t l e r s . As a p a r t i a l solution of the problem, the government decided to move many of the demoralized and starving natives from valuable unused land to islands i n 42 Lake Huron where f i s h and game were p l e n t i f u l . An observer sympathetic to the Indians considered the govern-ment' s plans "benevolent and j u s t i f i a b l e " * even though the 41 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 296-298. 40 B a s i l H a l l , Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 257-259. 42 S i r Francis Bond Head, bart., The emigrant, New York, Harper & Brothers, 1847, p. 79. 214. expulsion was a harsh measure. Attempts to maintain native reserves amidst white settlements were useless i n that they 43 demanded too much forbearance on the part of both peoples. By 1838, most of the Indians seemed destined f o r a melancholy fate. Those who had not become assimilated to the mass of the population were succumbing to the ravages of tuberculosis. The only individuals of Indian descent who prospered were certain half-breeds or bois brule's, who 44 sometimes achieved respectable positions i n the community. French Canadians formed a minor but d i s t i n c t i v e group i n Upper-Canada. In t h e i r settlements at the southwestern t i p of the province, they retained t h e i r ancestral language, appearance, and customs. The habitant farms, front i n g the r i v e r as i n Lower Canada, displayed t y p i c a l l y unprogressive agriculture, except that orchards were abundant. This unambitious people d i f f e r e d from t h e i r brethren i n the older province only i n being less light-hearted and p o l i t e , apparently through the influence of the English-speaking 45 majority. Their "French patois" was almost u n i n t e l l i g i b l e to a cultured Irishwoman who conversed with some of the peasants i n 1837. 4 6 43 Jameson, Winter scenes,vol. 2, pp. 267-268. 44 Preston, Three years 1 residence,vol. 2, p. 215. 45 S h i r r e f f , Tour, pp. 209-210. . 46 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 280-281, 315. 215. The descendants of the L o y a l i s t s were not completely admirable i n the eyes of t r a v e l l e r s . A Scottish a g r i c u l -t u r i s t touring t h e i r settlements along the Thames and Detroit Rivers i n 1833 found them l i v i n g i n shabby houses 47 and l i t t l e addicted to improvement. Many persons of Lo y a l i s t stock were accused of harboring "doubtful p r i n - -• c i p l e s " i n p o l i t i c s . This charge was condemned as "unjust and knavish" by an English clergyman who had met many "honourable and amiable" L o y a l i s t families during h i s r e s i -48 dence near Toronto i n 1832. There must have been some grounds f o r suspicion. Another B r i t i s h writer, who had l i v e d i n Toronto during 1837 and 1838, described the Loyal-i s t element as la r g e l y disaffected, and the segment of the 49 population least zealous f o r the crown. A substantial flow of immigrants took place during most of the period after 1814. The re s u l t s were apparent to anyone who v i s i t e d the newer settlements. Travellers made l i t t l e mention of the English, preferring to expatiate on the more c o l o r f u l newcomers from the C e l t i c fringe. Many Scots had taken up farms together i n the Talbot Settlement along Lake E r i e by 1818. In spite of t h e i r "clannishness", these 47 S h i r r e f f , Tour-, p. 212. 48 E i d l e r , Observations, pp. 223-224. 49 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 24. 216 immigrants soon acquired American ideas of equality. The Highlanders who established themselves i n the wilds of Glen-garry retained t h e i r native c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n almost unaltered form. Most of them spoke only Gaelic, and they exhibited an 51 unquestioning l o y a l t y to the sovereign. Although they were "hospitable and warm-hearted", t h e i r dwellings lacked the "snug comfort" found amongst the peasantry of Lower Canada, because of t h e i r "... want of management, and the force of h a b i t . " 5 2 Another account of the Highlanders, t h i s time i n the southwestern peninsula, gave a s i m i l a r picture of a p r i m i t i v e , t i g h t l y - k n i t people slowly improving t h e i r circumstances under d i f f i c u l t conditions. An Irishwoman who saw them i n 1827 reported that they "... bring hither a l l t h e i r clannish attachments, and t h e i r t h r i f t y , d i r t y habits, —and also, 53 t h e i r pride and t h e i r honesty." I f the quality of the Scottish immigrants was frequently i n d i f f e r e n t , that of the I r i s h was sometimes appalling. An I r i s h s e t t l e r of c u l t i v a t e d upbringing referred to the lower classes of h i s fellow-countrymen i n stinging terms: "Of a l l vapid coxcombs upon earth, an I r i s h emigrant without education 50 Howison, Sketches, p. 188. 51 F. B. Head, Emigrant, p. 74. 52 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, p. 530. 53 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 214-215. 217. i s the most i n t o l e r a b l e , the least amiable, and the most preposterous .,.."54 Two shiploads of I r i s h s e t t l e r s who came out to the Rideau River f e l l to attacking each other aft e r d r i v i n g out some Scots who had preceded them i n the l o c a l i t y . When the m i l i t i a had suppressed the disturbance, the newcomers directed t h e i r combative i n s t i n c t s to the assault on the for e s t , at which they showed themselves 55 thoroughly competent. Other I r i s h communities were less unruly. A number of impoverished immigrants had been successfully established at Peterborough by 1827. The inhabitants showed th e i r l o y a l t y and gratitude f o r government assistance, but they were reluctant to admit the fa c t of t h e i r poverty i n Ireland. Immigration from the United States brought some c o n t r i -butions of questionable value to Upper Canadian l i f e . Several t r a v e l l e r s expressed alarm at the incursion of "refuse'' from across the border, who lowered the tone of society with t h e i r unprincipled, immoral, and criminal 57 a c t i v i t i e s . Nevertheless, these vigorous Yankees gave a useful impetus to the development of the province. Most of the hotelkeepers, stage-coach drivers, and- success-f u l businessmen were from the United States. In the opinion 54 Talbot, Pive years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 16.. 55 Alexander, Transatlantic sketches, i n Craig, E a r l y t r a v e l l e r s , p. 86. 56 B a s i l H a l l , Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 284-286. 57 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . P.. p. 570. 218 of a Scottish v i s i t o r i n 1833, Upper Canada was indebted ~ . 5 8 to the Americans f o r a l l i t s " a c t i v i t y and refinement". The United States also supplied such i n t e r e s t i n g groups as the Dutch or Germans who set t l e d i n the Niagara d i s t r i c t and the neighborhood of B e r l i n (Kitchener). Their peculiar dress and appearance marked them out, even when they were away from t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c houses, churches, and cemeteries. A t r a v e l l e r i n 1837 noted that they were "... favourably distinguished by t h e i r industrious, sober, 59 and t h r i v i n g habits." Several of them v/ere Dunkers with p a c i f i s t i n c l i n a t i o n s . These "peaceful Dutchmen" were disturbed at manifestations of unrest i n the period j u s t before the Rebellion. When one of them met a touring hunter from Germany carrying a gun i n November 1837, he expressed alarm.until assured that 60 the weapon was only f o r sport. Runaway slaves and t h e i r descendants were a small but conspicuous element i n the southwestern d i s t r i c t s . B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r s , most of whom were b i t t e r opponents of slavery, showed great i n t e r e s t i n these people. At Amherstburg* 58 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 389. 59 Jameson, Winter scenes, vol... 2, p. 101. 60 cFriederich Gerstacker^ , "A German t r a v e l l e r i n Upper Canada i n 1837, t r a n s l a t i o n from the German by the Honourable William Renwick R i d d e l l , " Canadian magazine, v o l . 36 ( A p r i l 1911), p. 552. 219. opposite D e t r o i t , i n 1822, there was a Negro colony founded 61 by a Captain Stewart, formerly of the East India Service, Several modest but comfortable homesteads i n various parts of the province disproved the argument that the slaves ©2 were u n f i t f o r emancipation. Unfortunately, the free Negroes on B r i t i s h s o i l * s t i l l faced .the problem of discrimination. The children of a family at Chatham i n 1833 had not been to school, "...as the teacher could not receive children of colour without displeasing h i s employers." & Notwithstanding such sources of i r r i t a t i o n , the Negroes were zealous supporters of B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s . When the-Niagara f r o n t i e r was the scene of f i g h t i n g i n December 1837, several wagonloads of them came at t h e i r own expense to ask fo r the honor of attacking Navy Island. They displayed a f i e r c e desire to avenge themselves on the invaders of the 64 B r i t i s h s o i l where they had found refuge. A strange v a r i e t y of people found t h e i r way into the province through d i f f e r e n t channels. Many of them were English and I r i s h paupers, the victims of either misfortune 61 Bigsby, "Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, pp. 264-266. 62 Pergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes,"•'•/pp. 122-123; S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 178. 63 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 202. 64 P. B. Head, Emigrant, pp. 141-142. 220. or incompetence. Some quickly adapted themselves to con-d i t i o n s and achieved a modest prosperity; others were obvious m i s f i t s , doomed to a precarious existence as un-s k i l l e d laborers. Upper Canada was not a "poor man* s country" i n the eyes of a Scotti s h a g r i c u l t u r i s t i n 1833. He main-tained, however, that r u r a l Scots and I r i s h , accustomed to hardship, could improve t h e i r p o s i t i o n by emigrating, i f 65 they were "sober", "prudent", and "industrious". O f f i c i a l blunders caused considerable suffering. A number of B r i t i s h veterans commuted t h e i r pensions i n 1832 f o r four years' purchase and a grant of one hundred acres i n Upper Canada. Most of these were unsatisfactory s e t t l e r s , and the s i t u a t i o n was made worse by the "errors, ignorance, and remoteness" of the home government. In 1837, many of the survivors were reduced to beggary, others were l i v i n g on rations at the remote naval depot of Penetan-• -u 66 guishene. Some of the immigrants i n l a t e r years were men of good education and substantial resources, such as wealthy farmers, 67 merchants with c a p i t a l , clergymen, and medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Others were of less praiseworthy character, including some 65 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 386. 66 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 3, pp. 340-346. 67 P i d l e r , Observations, p. 198. 221. whom the Lieutenant-Governor denounced as " S o c i a l i s t s * Communists, or L i b e r a l s " . 6 8 Conservative residents feared i n f i l t r a t i o n by numerous foreigners, of republican p r i n c i p l e s . The r e s t r i c t i o n s on the holding of land by aliens probably -diverted many f i n e German, Swiss, and even B r i t i s h immigrants 69 to the western states. Whatever the origins of the people, they exhibited a s t r i k i n g uniformity of character. The majority were d i s t i n -guished by t h e i r p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r equality and independence. This attitude was r i d i c u l e d by many t r a v e l l e r s from the B r i t i s h I s l e s , who expressed surprise at the speed with which 70 newcomers adopted these "absurd notions". There was much to admire, however, i n a society without an aristocracy or ex-tremes of wealth and poverty. Humble workers acquired a new sense of t h e i r own importance on being addressed as " s i r , 71 "master", or "gentlemen". The s e t t l e r s who joined i n the common struggle against the wilderness showed a good deal of mutual helpfulness and f r i e n d l i n e s s towards strangers. Farmers troubled by i l l n e s s or other misfortunes could often count on a "bee" by t h e i r neighbors to tide them over. This generosity 68 F. B. Head, Emigrant, pp. 24-25. 69- Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, p. 162-163. 70 Talbot, Five years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 2, pp. 9-11; Howison, Sketches, p. 279. 71 Howison, Sketches, pp. 188-189. 7 2 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 71. 222. was not always a l t r u i s t i c . A writer who described the province i n the years 1832-1834 warned new a r r i v a l s against b u i l d i n g "bees", urging them to "beware of t h i s harum scarum drunken work", which attracted a l l the " i d l e r i f f r a f f ... getting drunk, eating up a l l your pork and f l o u r , and 73 f i g h t i n g l i k e Irishmen ..." Not a l l the farmers were hospitable to strangers. An I r i s h w r i t e r contrasted the Upper Canadians unfavorably with the generous I r i s h peasants, asserting that the former received wayfarers g r u f f l y , and expected them to pay j u s t 74 as much as at a tavern. The i n q u i s i t i v e and communicative nature of the residents caused embarrassment to B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r s , who d i s l i k e d being cross-examined about t h e i r 75 personal a f f a i r s . On the eve of the Rebellion, the r u r a l population impressed a B r i t i s h observer as "rough, blunt, and uncultivated", but "... a brave, an open-hearted, and 76 a hospitable set of people." The emphasis on equality had some unpleasant aspects. Canadians were prone to claim t h e i r r i g h t s s t r i d e n t l y and flaunt t h e i r independence i n the face of anyone who looked 73 Canada i n the years 1852, 1835, and 1834. Containing  important information and instructions to persons intending  to emigrate t h i t h e r i n 1835, Dublin, P h i l i p Dixon Hardy, 1835, pp. 114-115. 74 Talbot, Five years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 2, pp. 62-65. 75 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 54-55. 76 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 71-72. 223. superior. This was espe c i a l l y noticeable amongst B r i t i s h 77 immigrants, who quickly forgot t h e i r native manners. A vein of coarseness ran through the whole society. S e t t l e r s of long standing had f a i l e d to overcome t h e i r " o r i g i n a l depravity", and showed t h e i r contempt f o r t h e i r "betters" 78 by refusing to imitate them i n any way. The emphasis on individualism fostered selfishness and avarice as w e l l as rudeness. I t was probably an exaggeration f o r one t r a v e l l e r to write: "Gain i s , i n f a c t , t h e i r god, at whose shrine they s a c r i f i c e a l l p r i n c i p l e 79 and t r u t h ...." Nevertheless, sharp practice was common i n business, whether i t was a merchant charging f o r goods or a laborer valuing h i s s e r v i c e s . 8 0 Avarice and parsimony were combined with an inordinate vanity that sometimes led 81 to wasteful expenditure on luxuries. The class structure was simple. Above the mass of farmers, artisans, and laborers was a small group made up of professionals, merchants, c i v i l and m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s , and members of the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . The o f f i c i a l 77 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 406. 78 Howison, Sketches, pp. 151-152. 79 Talbot, give years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 68-69. 80 Domett, Canadian .journal, p. 43. 81 Howison, Sketches, pp. 228-229. 224 c i r c l e s at the c a p i t a l presented an unpleasant spectacle to one woman who was forced to move i n them f o r a while. In the spring of 1837, she wrote of Toronto: "We have here a petty c o l o n i a l oligarchy, a self-constituted aristocracy, based upon nothing r e a l , nor even upon anything imaginary; and we have a l l the mutual jealousy and fear,- and petty gossip, and mutual meddling and mean r i v a l s h i p , which are common i n a small society of which the members are well known to each other ...."82 I t was disconcerting for her to f i n d that, i n the midst of the primeval f o r e s t , "...with an absolute want of the means of the most ordinary mental and moral developement, we have here conventionalism i n 83 i t s most oppressive and r i d i c u l o u s forms." Women of the upper class were not distinguished f o r taste or refinement. They showed l i t t l e i n t e r e st i n reading or conversation. Mixed company was often dismal because of 84 the t a c i t u r n i t y and boredom of both sexes. The poorly educated women of the lower class were rather s i m i l a r but more i n q u i s i t i v e . They were addicted to pleasure and 85 gaudy apparel. The status of women was high, because of t h e i r s c a r c i t y value i n a pioneer community. Although 82 Jameson, Winter scenes,vol. 1, p. 98. 83 Ibi d . , v o l . 1, pp. 105-107. 84 Talbot, Five years 1 residence, v o l . 2, pp. 23-26. 85 Ibid?*•,vol. 2, p.,.31. 225. rather careless of t h e i r persons, they were f a i r house-86 keepers, hut they were not expected to work outdoors. Most of the s e t t l e r s 1 wives horn i n the province were con-tented, hut newcomers found i t hard to adjust to i s o l a t i o n on and unending t o i l . Children quickly adopted the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adult-hood. Inured from early years to strenuous labor, and exempt from school d i s c i p l i n e , boys asserted t h e i r indepen-dence while s t i l l i n t h e i r teens, l i k e t h e i r elders, they i n s i s t e d on complete freedom i n everything, including morals. Indeed, the moral character of the Upper Canadians was f a r from exemplary. An I r i s h observer, accustomed to the unassailable v i r t u e of h i s fellow-countrywomen, was appalled at the "almost universal demoralization" of women i n the province. He found that sexual lapses were regarded with indulgence, and that unmarried mothers enjoyed a respectable status. Children were so valuable to the pioneers that they 89 did not worry about t h e i r legitimacy. In other ways the residents f a i l e d to l i v e edifying; l i v e s . They were notorious f o r profanity and intemperance. 86 Pergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, p. 132. 87 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2» P.. 133. 88 Talbot, Pive years 1 residence, v o l . 2, p. 95. 89 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 38-40. 226. A Scottish t r a v e l l e r was shocked on h i s f i r s t venture across the border i n 1833: "... I heard more oaths and witnessed -more drunk people the f i r s t few days I was i n Canada, than I had met with during my previous wanderings i n the S t a t e s . 1 , 9 0 Drunkenness was a besetting vice throughout the province. The men i n p a r t i c u l a r were addicted to a v a r i e t y of d i s t i l l e d l i q u o r s , among which grog and straight aqua vita e were 91 f a v o r i t e s . Some is o l a t e d s e t t l e r s took to drink to ease t h e i r hardships and ob l i t e r a t e t h e i r disappointments. Innumerable taverns offered cheap refreshment to t h i r s t y wayfarers. A cul t i v a t e d woman t r a v e l l e r at Niagara i n 1837 reproached the community with i t s abundance of whisky outlets 92 and i t s lack of booksellers. Although licensed premises were ubiquitous, many grocery stores were r e a l l y drinking-houses as w e l l , bootlegging strong l i q u o r to a l l comers, 93 including Indians. Gluttony was another popular indulgence with les s damaging consequences. Pood i n the backwoods was coarse and p l a i n , but usually p l e n t i f u l . New immigrants l i v e d on s a l t pork and bread at f i r s t , but soon fared much better 94 than the corresponding class i n B r i t a i n . A Canadian 90 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 389. . i 91 Talbot, Five years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 28. 92 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 80-81. 93 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 146-147. 94 Howison, Sketches, p. 270. 227. breakfast might consist of f r i e d pork, honeycomb, salted salmon, pound cake, pickled cucumbers, stewed chickens, apple t a r t s , maple-molasses, pease-pudding, gingerbread, 95 and sauerkraut. This gargantuan menu was repeated at ]-dinner and supper. To wash i t down, there were many ingenious substitutes for tea and coffee. Beech chips, strawberry leaves, spearmint, s a r s a p a r i l l a , and b i r c h bark often took the place of tea; peas, burnt f l o u r , and toasted barley 96 made acceptable coffee. Travellers were sometimes regaled with such b i l l s of fare as venison steaks, f r i e d f i s h , coffee, hotcakes, cheese, and whisky punch. Supplies v/ere u s u a l l y l a v i s h but i n d i f f e r -97 ently cooked. During the winter, town dwellers might run short of fresh food, and be forced to l i v e on salted pro-v i s i o n s , unless they owned farms from which they could draw produce. The conditions of l i f e i n Upper Canada put a premium on early marriage. No consideration of fortune or parental r e s t r a i n t interfered with these unions. Men v/ere anxious to get a helpmeet as soon as they were twenty-one, so that 95 Talbot, Five years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 67. 96 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 322-323. 97 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 75-77. 9 8 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 267-269. 228. they could operate a farm. As a r e s u l t , few women were s t i l l single at twenty-five, when they were considered no longer 99 desirable. There were some peculiar customs connected with court-ship. One wr i t e r described a "sparking f r o l i c " very l i k e the practice of "bundling" i n other s o c i e t i e s . The couple were l e f t alone together for a whole night to f i n d out i f they were c o m p a t i b l e . W e d d i n g s could be performed by a magistrate on three weeks' notice i f there was no clergy-man within eighteen miles. and After the wedding, husband^wife might become involved i n i n f i d e l i t i e s without recriminations. Many husbands were henpecked by t h e i r wives, who enjoyed a p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n because of the surplus of males and the absolute need of 102 a competent housewife to make a farm prosper. As i n Lower Canada, the winter was the" time f o r recrea-t i o n . B r i t i s h v i s i t o r s were disappointed at the l i m i t e d opportunities f o r f i e l d sports, p a r t i c u l a r l y angling. The men spent a good deal of time at drinking and gambling. i n ? Boxing of a very "rough and tumble" kind was popular. 99 Talbot, Five years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 2, p. 26. 100 Ib i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 35-36. 101 Ib i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 413-414. 102 I b i d . , v o l . 2, p.( 49. 10'3 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 58-60. 229. The sexes joined i n simple country dances at frequent s u b s c r i p t i o n - h a l l s . 1 0 4 One of the few customs imported from,French Canada was the New Years' levee. At Toronto i n 1837 t h i s seemed a perfunctory and meaningless duty to a woman whose o f f i c i a l connections compelled her to receive t o t a l strangers."'" 0 5 The English spoken i n Upper Canada had some peculiar c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A B r i t i s h clergyman i n 1832 found the old-country d i a l e c t s strong, i n contrast to the uniformity 106 of speech throughout the United States. Many of the expressions noted were American, such as "clever" for "wealthy", "ugly" f o r " i r r i t a b l e " , and "most righteous 107 b u i l d i n g " f o r "good house". Equ a l i t a r i a n f e e l i n g must have inspired euphemisms l i k e " i t i n e r a n t merchant" for " p e d l a r " . 1 0 8 Travellers were hard put to determine the origins of popular character i n Upper Canada. One B r i t i s h v i s i t o r i n 1827 reported that everywhere the people spoke, looked, 109 and acted l i k e Englishmen. Ten years l a t e r , a German 104 Talbot, Five years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 21-23. 105 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 18-19. 106 F i d l e r , Observations, p. 195. 107 Talbot, Five years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 56. 108 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 168. 109 B a s i l H a l l , Travels, v o l . 1, p. 265. 230. thought that the attachment of the English, Scots, and-I r i s h to t h e i r old customs made a great difference between Canada and the United S t a t e s . 1 1 0 According to a B r i t i s h observer who was at Toronto i n 1837 and 1838, the native-born had "... yet no exclusive character, but exhibit i n t h e i r speech, habits, manners, and demeanour, a strange admixture of English a r i s t o c r a t i c f e e l i n g with democratic s e n s i b i l i t i e s . 1 , 1 1 1 Other writers emphasized the American influences that sharply distinguished the province from Lower Canada. The contrast between the common people of the two provinces -was summed up by an English t r a v e l l e r i n terms that r e f l e c t e d u n f l a t t e r i n g l y on Upper Canada: The Upper Canadians., who are mostly Yankee-bred," are the very Antipodes of the Lower, mostly French-bred. The~Upper i s s t i f f , and boorish, i f not- imper-tinent, sturdy and shows l i t t l e respect of persons. The Lower is. smooth, obsequious, l i v e l y , p o l i t e . Both w i l l probably cheat you, but the Upper to a greater extent and f a r more audaciously. They have one c o i n c i d e n c e — b o t h s p i t and smoke; and i t i s hard to say which Is the better hawker. In the Lower country, t h e i r manners and customs are simple, i n the Upper somewhate r s i o j coarse. The security and confidence with respect to property arises i n the Lower country from t h e i r honest and pri m i t i v e character, i n the Upper from the fewness of inhabitants. The Lower"is a quiet s e t t l e d , contented race, the Upper a bu s t l i n g , changing, money-getting, improving one. In t h e i r persons the Lower are neat and clean, the Upper d i r t y and ragge d . 1 1 2 110 Gerstacker, "German t r a v e l l e r " , pp. 551-552. 111 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 45. 112 Domett, Canadian journal, p. 47. 231. A growing population provided the base for an expansion of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l amenities in-Upper Canada after-1814. In many respects, however, the province did not catch up with Lower Canada u n t i l much l a t e r . This was l a r g e l y due to the absence of large c i t i e s and long-settled r u r a l communi-t i e s . Housing i n the backwoods of the west was much cruder than i n the seigneuries along the Lower St. Lawrence. The f i r s t home of many s e t t l e r s was a rough log "shanty", con-s i s t i n g of a single room. When properly caulked and heated by a roaring f i r e t h i s simple structure provided adequate shelter even i n severe winters. As soon as possible, the s e t t l e r b u i l t a cabin of rough or squared logs that con-tained bedrooms upstairs. This would house h i s family comfortably for several years. Frame houses of painted boards looked neater, but they were expensive and not practicable i n the bush. The i n t e r i o r s of the houses were usually divided into two or more rooms by board p a r t i t i o n s . Timber from the clearings provided material for the crude f u r n i t u r e , which often consisted of no more than beds, tables, and benches. A stove and feather beds completed the essentials f o r pioneer housekeeping."1"14 113 F i d l e r , Observations, pp. 224-225. 114 Talbot, Five years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 101. 232. Some of the more prosperous and imaginative residents b u i l t elaborate dwellings and furnished them with imported objects. Pew of these structures were notable f o r s t y l e and appropriateness. One praiseworthy exception was Stamford Park, near Lundy's Lane. A woman of cul t i v a t e d tastes described i t i n 1837 as "... the only place I saw i n Upper Canada combining our ideas of an elegant, well-furnished English v i l l a and ornamented grounds, with some of the grandest and wildest features of the forest scene." 1 1 5 Wood was the common material for houses even i n the c i t i e s , except where l o c a l stone was used, as at Kingston. Inevitably, f i r e s were frequent. During the winter of 1836-1837, there were one or two alarms each week i n Toronto. Many residents considered any f i r e a public benefit, because T 1 Pi i t ensured the replacement of wood by br i c k . The province was generally healthy compared to many parts of the United States. Malaria was worst i n the western d i s t r i c t s . There was a p a r t i c u l a r l y severe v i s i t a t i o n i n 117 1819 along the shores of-Lake E r i e . i n l a t e r years, the ravages of fever decreased among "longtime residents, although 118 newcomers were s t i l l susceptible. 115 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, p. 48. 116 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 108-111. 117 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, pp. 250-252. 118 B a s i l H a l l , Travels, v o l . 1, p. 296. 233. Upper Canada did not escape the cholera epidemic of 1832. An English clergyman near York reported that the townspeople were less subject to panic than those of Ameri-can c i t i e s under the same conditions. Instead of seeking safety i n f l i g h t , people of means supplied medical and monetary help to the sufferers. Unfortunately, some doctors added to the death t o l l by an unwise choice of remedies or by assuring the public that the disease was not contagious. 1 1' Medical standards i n . r u r a l areas were at a low l e v e l i n the early years. A t r a v e l l e r i n the settlements along the Thames River i n 1818 was distressed by the conduct of a doctor c a l l e d i n to treat a rheumatic woman. The physi-cian administered "curious remedies" i n a "slapdash" manner, 120-playing on the c r e d u l i t y of h i s patient. The number of q u a l i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s increased with the growth of popula-t i o n . In 1832, the towns and v i l l a g e s were w e l l supplied with doctors, and competent ones could earn substantial 121 incomes. x The insane wandered about uncared for or were confined i n j a i l s . One writer reported i n 1837 that a maniac had been 122 chained up i n the Niagara j a i l f o r four years. These j a i l s were often grossly unsatisfactory. A Scottish v i s i t o r 119 E i d l e r , Observations, pp. 164, 166-167. 120 Howison, Sketches, pp. 209-212.. 121 E i d l e r , Observations, pp. 188-189. 122 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 166-167. 234. to Niagara i n 1818 found the c e l l s open to the public view. Debtors had outside windows and f i r e p l a c e s , but criminals had only an opening i n the door and a view-of the stove. The arrangements were i n miserable contrast with prisons 123 i n the United States. P r i v a t e charity was active i n providing f o r orphans, such as those who had l o s t t h e i r parents from c h o l e r a . 1 2 4 The circumstances of l i f e i n the province were not conducive to educational advancement. Parents were more interested i n t h e i r children becoming p r o f i c i e n t at wood-cutting or spinning than at any "book-learned s k i l l " , Several "I OK members of the l e g i s l a t u r e were unable to read and write. The d i s t r i c t seminaries established under a law of 1807 could not attract teachers at an annual salary of one hundred pounds. This was quite inadequate i n the opinion of an I r i s h immigrant who had himself experienced the hardship and poverty of teaching i n the backwoods. The s i t u a t i o n improved over the years, but i t was s t i l l unsatisfactory i n 1837. At that time there was an attempt to devote the revenue from the clergy reserves;, to elementary education. 123 Duncan, Travels, v o l . 2, pp. 107-108. 124 P i d l e r , Observations, p. 164. 125 Talbot, give .years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 116-117. 126 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 121-122. 235. A sympathetic observer thought the i l l i t e r a t e p e t i t i o n e r s deserved praise rather than r i d i c u l e f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s to benefit t h e i r children. ^ O f f i c i a l niggardliness caused the closing of several schools f o r want of masters. During a t r i p through the western d i s t r i c t s i n 1837, a woman t r a v e l l e r found the teachers to be Scots or Americans t o t a l l y u n f i t f o r t h e i r tasks. Competent men would not enter a c a l l i n g i n which they were "111'fed, i l l clothed, i l l paid, or not paid at a l l ,.~"x28 As a r e s u l t , many elementary teachers were American "adventurers" of i n d i f f e r e n t character and repub-l i c a n sentiments who had an unsettling effect on th e i r 129 pup i l s . There were few women teachers, except i n the towns. 1 3 0 Secondary and higher education was more impressive than elementary schooling. Upper Canada College and other boarding schools provided f a c i l i t i e s f o r those who could afford them. When ha l f the lands granted f o r free grammar schools were transferred to the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y i n 1837, several members of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly protested. 127 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, p. 34. 128 I b i d . , v o l . 2, p. 217. 129 Preston, Three years' residence, vol.,2, p. 110. 130 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, p. 218. 236. They argued that f i n a n c i a l benefits should not be confined to one large establishment "... too expensive f o r the popula t i o n and wants of the c o u n t r y . " 1 3 1 For many years culture i n the province lagged behind that i n Lower Canada and the United States. By 1832, however, a B r i t i s h observer noticed "astonishing improvement 132 i n things of the mind. The isolated and pri m i t i v e l i f e of many s e t t l e r s m i l i t a t e d against i n t e l l e c t u a l advancement. Unfortunately, the c a p i t a l d id not set a good example. The f r i v o l i t y of the populace moved a newcomer to remark i n 1837 " I t i s curious enough to see how quickly a new fashion, or a new f o l l y , i s imported from the old country, and with what d i f f i c u l t y and delay a new idea finds i t s way into the heads of the people, or a new book into t h e i r hands." Books were scarce and l i t t l e valued i n most quarters. Even educated people might never read a book after leaving 134 school. By 1837 there were two booksellers i n Toronto, mainly supplied from Buffalo, but t h e i r goods were expensive 1 "^5 and new works took about two years to reach the c a p i t a l . 131 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 159-161. 132 F i d l e r , Observations, p. 193. 133 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, p. 98. 134 Talbot, Five years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 118-119. 135 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 270-271. 237. Although, a few in d i v i d u a l s , professional s o c i e t i e s , and public o f f i c e s had f a i r l i b r a r i e s , public l i b r a r y service was lacking. Army o f f i c e r s were reluctant to move from Lower to Upper Canada because they would be deprived of mental occupation. Newspapers made up f o r some of the deficiencies i n l i t e r a r y fare. The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of l o c a l journals supplied a v a r i e t y of material r e f l e c t i n g diverse p o l i t i c a l and re l i g i o u s viewpoints. Even the German-speaking community issued i t s own organ at B e r l i n . Papers from Lower Canada and the United States c i r c u l a t e d widely. The volume of 13 c i r c u l a t i o n was surprising i n a province with many i l l i t e r a t e s . A good deal of the attractiveness of t h i s medium was due to the passionate discussion of p o l i t i c a l issues that character-ized most e d i t o r i a l w r i t i n g . Upper Canada had no a r t i s t i c objects to compare with those of the older province. I t s buildings were for the most part purely functional and b u i l t of ephemeral materials. Such examples of architecture as did at t r a c t notice were secular rather than e c c l e s i a s t i c a l . Toronto had a large b r i c k market b u i l d i n g of oblong shape on the waterfront. An English v i s i t o r i n 1832 thought 136 Preston, Three years 1 residence, v o l . 2, pp.245-246. 137 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 271-273. 138 Preston, Three years 1 residence, v o l . 2, p. 243. 238. i t better than anything of a si m i l a r nature he had seen i n the United States. The great source of l o c a l pride, however, was the h a l l of the L e g i s l a t i v e Council. One of the audience at a ceremony theie i n 1837 represented i t as a "... spacious and l o f t y room, with a splendid throne and the usual s u p e r f l u i t y of g i l d i n g and varnish; yet the i n t e r i o r decorations (the admiration of the people here) are i n the v i l e s t possible taste ...." 1 4 0 Other buildings i n the province were notable f o r b i z a r r e r i e rather than a r t i s t i c f i t n e s s . London boasted a courthouse modelled on Malahide Castle i n Ireland. A t r a v e l l e r who arrived there i n 1834 found h i s f i r s t sight of the town to be "... a stuccoed Gothic b u i l d i n g of an oblong form, cas t e l l a t e d , with small towers at the c o r n e r s . 1 , 1 4 1 Occasionally, simple designs struck a note of good taste. The Brock Monument at Queenston, erected i n 1824 and des-troyed i n 1840, was a p l a i n stone p i l l a r quite suited to 142 i t s function. The other arts were i n a sad state. Polk music played no s i g n i f i c a n t part i n the l i f e of the people. The Anglican church choir at Toronto had the good fortune i n 1837 to 139 F i d l e r , Observations, p. 155. 140 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 151-152. 141 Domett, Canadian .journal, p. 49. 142 I b i d . . p. 26 and n. 19. 239. receive some d r i l l i n g from a musician. Archdeacon Strachan was at t h i s time s o l i c i t i n g funds f o r an organ, but one of h i s parishioners thought a singing school would be a more 143 useful project. The outlook was dreary f o r any lover of the f i n e arts. One of the sharpest contrasts between Upper and Lower Canada was i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . The s e t t l e r s of the western province were of diverse origins and b e l i e f s ; they l i v e d i n widely scattered communities; and they were influenced by equalitarian, i n d i v i d u a l i s t , and m a t e r i a l i s t concepts. The denominations could not keep up with the movements of t h e i r members, with the r e s u l t that many s e t t l e -ments were deprived of s p i r i t u a l guidance f o r a long time after t h e i r foundation. Under these circumstances, i t was not surprising that many persons grew i n d i f f e r e n t to r e l i g i o n and careless of moral standards. Travellers i n 1818 and the years imme-d i a t e l y following found a good deal of i n f i d e l i t y and impiety. Sabbath-breaking, profanity, and lack of decency bore witness to the departure from C h r i s t i a n behavior. An I r i s h immigrant changed h i s early prepossessions i n favor of the people when he discovered them to be "depraved", 144 "pr o f l i g a t e " , and "graceless". Even staunch Methodists 143 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, p. 274. 144 Talbot, Five years* residence, v o l . 2, p. 125. 240. who came to the province soon l o s t t h e i r upright character 145 and took up Canadian practices. Such r e l i g i o n as did survive was characterized by "minute sectarianism, and the s p i r i t of r e l i g i o u s inde-pendence . ... , | 1 4 6 No church could aspire to numerical dominance. Roman Catholicism had no more than a f r a c t i o n of i t s influence i n the neighboring province. I t s strong-hold was amongst the French-speaking s e t t l e r s of the D e t r o i t River, who displayed t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l deference and sub-147 missiveness towards the clergy. Missionary work with the Indians had considerable success. A Protestant woman observer i n 1837 contrasted the Roman Catholic e f f o r t s favorably with those of the i n d i f f e r e n t Anglicans and Presbyterians and the f a n a t i c a l Methodists. She pronounced t h e i r native converts "... i n appearance, dress, i n t e l l i g e n c e , industry, and general c i v i l i z a t i o n , superior to a l l the o t h e r s . " 1 4 8 The Anglican church s t i r r e d up great resentment by i t s attempts to maintain i t s ascendancy. The Clergy Reserves intended for the sole benefit of the established churGh remained a major p o l i t i c a l issue u n t i l a f t e r 1838. Anglicans were numerous but by no means predominant. Some of the 145 Talbot, Five years' residence, v o l . 2» p.. .130-, 132. 146 Preston, Three years'residence, v o l . 2, p. 114. 147 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 280-281. 148 I b i d . , v o l . 3, pp. 295-297. 241. church, members joined the Methodists f o r want of a minister of t h e i r own denomination i n t h e i r l o c a l i t y . 1 4 9 F i n a n c i a l stringency prevented the maintenance of a clergyman i n many r u r a l parishes, since the stipend of one hundred pounds paid i n 1837 was inadequate f o r a man who had to t r a v e l extensively on horseback. A minister needed to c u l t i v a t e 150 a farm or keep a store to pay hi s expenses. The i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n s of Presbyterianism were a valuable contribution to the r e l i g i o u s l i f e of the province. Some of the groups that had s p l i t off from the main body adopted a d i f f e r e n t approach. A Reformed Presbyterian who denounced Romanism, episcopacy, and the k i r k at services near Toronto i n 1832 enjoyed great success because he impressed the people as a p l a i n man "... j u s t l i k e one of 151 themselves." This "democratic" attitude may have been responsible f o r the remarkable popularity of the Methodists. In 1818, t h i s denomination was active i n several of the western d i s t r i c t s . A B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r who met some of them at St. Catharines i n that year considered that "... they carry 152 t h e i r r e l i g i o u s mania to an immoderate height. """• He 149 P i d l e r , Observations, p. 134. 150 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 312-313. 151 P i d l e r , Observations, p. 186. 152 Howison, Sketches, p. 150. 242. reproached them with condemning dancing and card-playing "... while t h e i r own lives-we're, i n many instances, one 153 continued outrage against decency, decorum, and v i r t u e . " Methodist preachings were deeply disturbing to B r i t i s h and I r i s h observers unaccustomed to extravagant emotion i n r e l i g i o u s services. One newcomer who attended a house meeting i n the Talbot Settlement,in 1818 was amazed at the mad antics of the people as the minister's prayers b u i l t up 154 increasing excitement. Several v i s i t o r s were led to investigate "camp-meetings" because of the unsavory notoriety that they had achieved through the l u r i d accounts of certain t r a v e l l e r s i n the United States. A B r i t i s h naval o f f i c e r who attended one of these " f i e l d preachings" near Cobourg i n July 1827 found l i t t l e to c r i t i c i z e i n the simple, unaffected sermon that was wel l received by a quiet congregation. This author thought that derision was out of place i n describing such meetings, which f i l l e d the need f o r r e l i g i o u s services i n 155 is o l a t e d communities. Other observers brought back les s complimentary reports. At a meeting near St. Thomas i n 1833,