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Travel literature as a commentary on development in the Canadas, 1763-1838 Owens, Noel Arthur Scott 1956

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T R A V E L L I T E R A T U R E A 3 A COMMENTARY ON D E V E L O P M E N T - I N " T H E C A N AD A S , 1763-1838  N O E L ARTHUR SCOTT OVZENS B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,' 1948 B . L . S . , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1951  A THESIS THE  S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF RE Q U I R F J M E N T S FOR T H E DEGREE OF M A S T E R OF A R T S in  the Department of History  We a c c e p t  this  thesis  required  standard  as conforming  to the  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A October,  1956  II  ABSTRACT  Travel about  accounts  eastern  authors  are  Canada d u r i n g the  included c i v i l  and f a r m e r s ,  of  Most  the  of  Between travellers  the  influx  of  the  small but  led  to  Lower  of  Conquest  peasants  loyalists  the  after  the  of  of  population  Upper  of  the  of P a r i s ,  of  the  customs.  and I r e l a n d  western. but  these  inhabited mainly  the  it  augmented  1812, to  the  increased  antagonism  was n e v e r  and  of  War o f added  by  The  community  and g r e a t l y  Racial  of  conviction.  separate provinces After  prea l l  American Revolution  eastern province  i n Lower Canada,  became  important  in  Canada. Social  out  the  and  and a l m o s t  distinctive  and Upper Canada i n 1791.  serious  Peace  province  Immigration from Great B r i t a i n  the  classes,  and the  The  merchants,  outlook  v a r y i n g degrees  with  information  and A m e r i c a n  influential English-speaking  establishment  complexity  German,  them d i s p l a y e d t h e  found a conquered  French-speaking  of  p e r i o d 1763-1838.  French,  m i d d l e and u p p e r  them were P r o t e s t a n t s  source  and m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s ,  of B r i t i s h ,  nationality. judices  an i m p o r t a n t  the  conditions  showed g r a d u a l  p e r i o d 1763-1838,  progress dominance  was of  slow, the  h a d no p a r a l l e l  but  intellectual  particularly  Roman C a t h o l i c i n the  western  improvement and  cultural  i n Upper Canada. church  i n Lower  province,  through-  where  The Canada  religious  0  i i i  d i v e r s i t y was  the  were backward, people. with  rule.  even  in  Economically, agriculture,  Transportation  certain  facilities  important  direction to  the  arise into  by of  own a f f a i r s  i n Upper Canada,  despite  the  immediately The  Report.  their  primitive,  of  majority  to  essentially  assume  racial  issue  reformers  the  executive  did  sought  not to  put  of B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n  1837  came a s  a  surprise,  i n the  years  preceding.  to  act  On t h e  supported h i s  as  of  travellers  a useful  whole,  they  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g 1763-1838.  literature of  were  complement  confirmed h i s  recommendations.  derived from t r a v e l  period  generally  of m o u n t i n g t e n s i o n  observations  consistent  the  principles  The R e b e l l i o n s evidence  of  s u b o r d i n a t i n g the  This  where  democratic  provenance.  for  by  popular legislature.  effect  were  mainstay  i n L o w e r C a n a d a was  the F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g its  the  provinces  exceptions.  The p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e an a t t e m p t  "both  sufficiently to  of  Durham's  diagnosis  The p i c t u r e is  Lord  of  the  considerable  Canadian development  and CanaxLas  value  during  the  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e Universit3>of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may of my  study.  I further  copying of  this  be g r a n t e d by the Head  Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  I t i s under-  stood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my permission.  Department of  TT  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h ^Columbia, Vancouver #, Canada.  written  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I . CHAPTER I I .  CHAPTER I I I .  CHAPTER. I V . CHAPTER V . CONCLUSION  . . .  1  THE CONQUERED PROVINCE: CANADA, 1763-1783 . . . ADJUSTMENT AND PROGRESS: LOWER CANADA, 1784-1814 . . . . . . . . THE ATTACK ON THE WILDERNESS: UPPER CANADA, 1784-1814 .  115  THE CLASH OP RACES: LOWER CANADA, 1815-1838  152  TOWARDS A DEMOCRATIC CANADA, 1815-1838  201  SOCIETY: UPPER  BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON TRAVELLERS  BIBLIOGRAPHY A NEW MAP  46  TRAVEL LITERATURE AS A COMPLEMENT TO LORD DURHAM'S REPORT  APPENDIX  5  OP UPPER & LOWER CANADA 1798  273 .  278 296  Following  317  INTRODUCTION  The w r i t i n g s of t r a v e l l e r s make an important  contri-  b u t i o n to our knowledge of eastern Canada during the p e r i o d between 1763 and 1838. reasons.  T r a v e l l e r s came to Canada f o r v a r i o u s  Some were government o f f i c i a l s or m i l i t a r y  officers  who found time during the course of t h e i r d u t i e s to make observations on the country i n which they were temporarily stationed.  Others were merchants on business, w i t h a keen  eye to economic prospects, or p r a c t i c a l farmers s i z i n g up the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l settlement.  V i s i t o r s to  the United States often took advantage of t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to the B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s to include Quebec, Montreal, Niagara F a l l s , and way p o i n t s i n t h e i r i t i n e r a r i e s .  B r i t i s h writers  and t o u r i s t s p r i e d i n t o the mysteries of c o l o n i a l  life;  Frenchmen came to i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i r l o s t colony and examine the new c i v i l i z a t i o n growing i n the wilderness; Germans viewed w i t h detachment a s o c i e t y founded by other peoples but o f f e r i n g a promising f i e l d f o r immigrants; Americans crossed the border to assuage t h e i r c u r i o s i t y about t h e i r northern neighbors, and sometimes came w i t h the aim of persuading them to accept t h e i r manifest d e s t i n y . The w r i t i n g s used I n t h i s study are those of a c t u a l t r a v e l l e r s from other c o u n t r i e s , not n a t i v e s or permanent residents.  The observations and opinions recorded are  e s s e n t i a l l y those of o u t s i d e r s , even though some of them  2.  may have l i v e d i n the country f o r a few years.  Gazetteers,  geographies, guidebooks, h i s t o r i e s , manuals f o r emigrants, and similar material have "been excluded. The area covered consists of the v a l l e y of the St. Lawrence and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s from about Tadoussac at the mouth of the Saguenay to Pembroke on the Ottawa and thence across to Georgian Bay.  This i s a f a i r l y d i s t i n c t physio-  graphic region, the St. Lawrence Lowland, hemmed i n between the Appalachians and the Laurentian Shield, with the Great Lakes e n c i r c l i n g i t s southern peninsula."'" I t excludes the Maritimes and the adjoining Gaspe'Peninsula as well as the inhospitable Preeambrian upland that even today marks the l i m i t of close settlement and intensive agriculture.  The  general s i m i l a r i t y of climate throughout t h i s v a l l e y , despite considerable variations, has caused i t to be desig2 nated the Lower Great Lakes climatic region.  Furthermore,  almost the whole area f a l l s withing the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence and Deciduous f o r e s t regions, sharply d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the adjacent Acadian and Boreal zones.  I P . J. Alcock, "Geology,'Canada Yearbook, 1951, pp. 14-26 2 A. J. Connor, "The 'climate of Canada^' Canada Yearbook. 1948-49, pp. 41-62. 3 3 "Forest regions£i Canada Yearbook, 1954, pp.451-453 1  3.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , the v a l l e y was t h e h e a r t of New  Prance.  L a t e r , i n the guise of the province of Quebec, and the provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, i t r e t a i n e d a substant i a l u n i f o r m i t y . Economic c o n d i t i o n s were s i m i l a r  throughout  the area, although methods of development v a r i e d from place to p l a c e .  The r i v e r s and lakes formed the n a t u r a l trade  routes from the e a r l i e s t times, and the l a t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n of roads and canals strengthened these l i n k s .  In the days  when the f u r trade f l o u r i s h e d , cargoes from the pays d'en haut were f r e i g h t e d down to the t r a d i n g centres of Quebec and Montreal.  As population expanded through immigration  and n a t u r a l increase, the waterway became the l i f e l i n e of a s t r i n g of new settlements.  Pioneers took up the s t r u g g l e  to c l e a r the f o r e s t and occupy the good farmlands that stretched along the St. Lawrence and i n t o the broad penins u l a of western Ontario.  By 1838 a g r i c u l t u r e was being  c a r r i e d on throughout much of the a c c e s s i b l e area, and a beginning had been made w i t h other i n d u s t r i e s . The p e r i o d 1763-1838 i s bounded by the Treaty of P a r i s and the Durham Report.  During t h i s span of seventy-five  years the St. Lawrence V a l l e y changed from a s p a r s e l y - s e t t l e d colony of French-speaking h a b i t a n t s to the centre of popul a t i o n i n B r i t i s h North America.  The conquered province  of New France s p l i t i n t o two d i v i s i o n s , peopled by d i s p a r a t e races and rent by p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n s .  Several important  events punctuated t h i s p e r i o d ; the American R e v o l u t i o n ,  w i t h the subsequent i n f l u x of L o y a l i s t s and profound e f f e c t s , on r a c i a l balance, land settlement, and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ; the War of 1812; and the R e b e l l i o n s of 1837.  These  l a s t disturbances brought about the mission of Lord Durham and h i s famous Report.  Insofar as t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e gives  a p i c t u r e of the Canadas up to 1838, i t a f f o r d s a v a l u a b l e complement to the information contained i n the Report. The m a t e r i a l embodied i n t r a v e l l e r s ' accounts covers a wide f i e l d .  I t conveys general impressions of the Canadas,  t h e i r landscapes, n a t u r a l resources, c i t i e s and towns.  The  various peoples, w i t h t h e i r p e c u l i a r manners and customs, are described, and t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s noted. There i s a good deal of information on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e of r e l i g i o n . Many t r a v e l l e r s were concerned w i t h economic development, e s p e c i a l l y a g r i c u l t u r e , and a l s o emphasized the problems of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication.  The d i s c u s s i o n s of  government, p o l i t i c s , and defence r e v e a l the i n t r a c t a b l e nature of the s i t u a t i o n that confronted Lord Durham on h i s assuming o f f i c e .  5. CHAPTER I THE CONQUERED PROVINCE: CANADA. 1763-1783.  Between 1763 and 1783 Canada h e l d a p e c u l i a r i n t e r e s t for travellers.  This d i s t i n c t i v e l y French and Roman C a t h o l i c  province was an anomaly i n B r i t i s h North America.  With the  passage of the Quebec Act i n 1774, s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s of the French regime were restored i n modified form, such as French c i v i l law and the payment of t i t h e s f o r the support of the Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y .  I t was understandable that t h i s  strangely mixed community should a t t r a c t numerous v i s i t o r s . An a d d i t i o n a l reason f o r t r a v e l to the province was the outbreak of the American R e v o l u t i o n .  Members of both the  invading and defending forces l e f t records of t h e i r observ a t i o n s while serving, i n Canada.  A f t e r the unsuccessful  siege of Quebec i n 1775-1776, c o n d i t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y quiet enough to permit r e c r e a t i o n a l , journeys. Sightseeing was n a t u r a l l y one of the commonest motives for  travel.  Most v i s i t o r s i n the e a r l y years looked out  from the Rampart of Quebec, gazed on the f a l l s of Montmorency, and scaled the h e i g h t s of Mount Royal; a few s a i l e d through the Thousand Islands and exclaimed over the majesty of Niagara.  E s p e c i a l l y during the l a t e eighteenth century,  when mountains, f o r e s t s , and untamed nature were g r a d u a l l y e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r claims on the a t t e n t i o n of c u l t i v a t e d t r a v e l l e r s , f i r s t impressions v a r i e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l backgrounds and temperaments.  6. One of the e a r l i e s t w r i t t e n observations on the view from the Ramparts of Quebec, i n 1767, remarked on the "most d e l i g h t f u l and extensive prospect", whose beauty was enhanced by the " w e l l s e t t l e d " nature of the countryside. About the same time an E n g l i s h trader described the l i e d'Orleans as a " b e a u t i f u l spot of ground", and pointed out that i t s f e r t i l e s o i l made i t an important source of produce f o r the nearby c a p i t a l .  At Beauport he declared the scene  " r i c h , romantic, and magnificent",  Montmorency, which  a t t r a c t e d him more than Niagara because l e s s "awful", was "perhaps the most p l e a s i n g n a t u r a l cascade i n the w o r l d " .  3  The r i v a l t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n of the Chaudiere P a l l s , a short distance upstream from Quebec, also had v o c a l admirers. An American who v i s i t e d t h i s c a t a r a c t i n 1772 found i t "grand and a w f u l " .  4  Several of the German mercenaries who served i n Canada during the American Revolution took advantage of t h e i r l e i s u r e to contemplate t h e i r temporary p l a c e of residence  1 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," H i s t o r y , v o l . 13 ( J u l y 1932), p. 312.  New York  2 John Long, Voyages and t r a v e l s of ah Indian i n t e r p r e t e r and t r a d e r , d e s c r i b i n g the manners and customs of the North American Indians: w i t h an account of the posts s i t u a t e d on the r i v e r Saint Laurence, Lake Ontario, & c . London, P r i n t e d f o r the author, 1791, pp. 2-3. 3 Loc. o i t . 4 Henry Hulton, "Canada','in Ann Hulton, L e t t e r s of a L o y a l i s t lady, being the l e t t e r s of Ann Hulton, s i s t e r of Henry Hulton, commissioner of customs at Boston, 1767-1776, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard u n i v e r s i t y press, 1927, p. 103.  7.  and w r i t e down t h e i r impressions  i n l e t t e r s home.  General  von R i e d e s e l of the Brunswick contingent wrote e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y to h i s wife: "Das h i e s i g e Land wird D i r sehr g e f a l l e n ; es i s t a l l e s was man  SehBnes sehen kann." Other Brunswick 5  and Hessian o f f i c e r s were somewhat more c r i t i c a l .  One  of  them found that the landscape r e c a l l e d the Haxz Mountainshut the v i l l a g e s v a r i e d i n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . " b e a u t i f u l " , w i t h a f i n e new  Cap Sante was  church; B a t i s c a n was  "none of  the best", and contained "most wretched" houses; Pointe Lac was  du  a "wretchedly poor place".  Among the many strange n a t u r a l phenomena of Canada, few were more spectacular than the f l i g h t of the w i l d doves or passenger pigeons, known as t o u r t e s t o the h a b i t a n t s . European v i s i t o r s sometimes f e l t alarm at the clouds of b i r d s that darkened the sky during t h e i r migrations.  The  natives indulged i n wholesale slaughter of the seemingly i n e x h a u s t i b l e species as a means of augmenting t h e i r food 7  supplies and income.  5 P r i e d e r i k e C h a r l o t t e L u i s e , f r e i f r a t i von R i e d e s e l , Die beruf s - r e i s e nach America. B r i e f e der g e n e r a l i n von Riedesel auf d i e s e r r e i s e und wahrend i h r e s sechs .jahrigen aufenthalts i n America zur z e i t des dbrtigen k r i e g e s i n den .iahren 1776 b i s 1783, nach Deutschland geschrieben, B e r l i n , Hande und Spener, 1800, p. 26. 6 W i l l i a m Leete Stone, t r a n s . , L e t t e r s of Brunswick and Hessian o f f i c e r s during the American r e v o l u t i o n , t r a n s i W i l l i a m L. Stone ( A s s i s t e d by August Hund), Albany, H.Y., J . Munsell's sons, 1891, pp. 46-48 7 R i e d e s e l , B e r u f s - r e i s e . n. 119; Thomas Anburey, Travels through the i n t e r i o r -parts of America, by Thomas Anburey; l i e u t e n a n t i n the army of General Burgoyne- w i t h a foreword by Ma.ior-General W i l l i a m Harding Carter, Boston, Houghton, M i f f l i n , 1923, v o l . 1, p. 165.  8.  Quebec, u s u a l l y the goal of v i s i t o r s t o the colony, was the f i r s t c i t y seen by ocean t r a v e l l e r s .  In addition  to i t s fame as the scene of a great B r i t i s h v i c t o r y , i t c a l l e d up r e c o l l e c t i o n s of The h i s t o r y of Emily Montague, 8  a book f a m i l i a r to many educated people.  The town seen  at c l o s e hand u s u a l l y d i d not quite measure up to expectations and was l e s s p l e a s i n g than i t s n a t u r a l surroundings. A S c o t t i s h t r a v e l l e r i n 1767 n o t i c e d t h a t the e f f e c t s of the siege were s t i l l apparent.  The Chateau was i n r u i n s  and the Parade "very mean f o r a town of t h i s consequence." The Lower Town, however, had been r e b u i l t , w i t h "more elegant o and commodious" houses than thosein the Upper Town. In 1772, an American o f f i c i a l found the Lower Town "very strait,  c l o s e & confined, the way t o the Upper Town v a s t l y  disagreeable, steep, s l i p p e r y , and miserably d i r t y . "  Despite  these animadversions, he j o i n e d i n the general a p p r e c i a t i o n of the " f i n e extensive v i e w . "  10  8 This was the f i r s t novel w i t h a Canadian.setting and probably the f i r s t w r i t t e n i n Canada. Its. author, Mrs. F r a n c i s Brooke, was the w i f e of the g a r r i s o n c h a p l a i n a t Quebec and the f r i e n d of Dr. Johnson, G a r r i c k , and t h e i r circle. Her residence at Quebec from about 1764 enabled her to incorporate i n her work p i c t u r e s of s o c i a l l i f e i n the c a p i t a l j u s t a f t e r the Conquest. The novel was publ i s h e d i n 1769. See Encyclopedia of Canada, v o l . 4, p. 93. 9 "Journal from Mew York t o Canada, 1767," pp. 311-312. 10 Hulton, "Canada," p. 102  9.  The siege "by the Americans i n 1775-1776 destroyed many of the scenes f a m i l i a r to readers of Emily Montague, and caused great damage to the c a r r i a g e roads.- - Frau von R i e d e s e l 1  1  received a favorable f i r s t impression of the c a p i t a l and i t s environs on her a r r i v a l i n 1776, but her considered opinion \*as unfavorable: "Nur d i e Stadt Quebec i s t so h a s s l i c h a l s mttglich, und sehr unbequem." Newcomers p a r t i c u l a r l y objected 12  to climbing a mountain to get from one p a r t of the c i t y to the other. Montreal was much l e s s important than Quebec f o r s e v e r a l years a f t e r the Conquest.  In 1767  i t was l i t t l e more than  two s t r e e t s w i t h cross l a n e s , showing the ravages of a recent f i r e .  Nine years l a t e r i t was described as an oblong  square, w i t h "regular, w e l l formed s t r e e t s " and w e l l b u i l t houses, damaged during the Revolutionary W a r .  14  Further west, there were few settlements u n t i l the coming of the L o y a l i s t s a f t e r the Revolution.  A small g a r r i s o n was  stationed at Cataraqui or F o r t Frontenac (Kingston), * 1  5  and  there was a s h i p b u i l d i n g establishment at Newark or N i a g a r a , but these were almost the only l o c a l i t i e s of note.  11 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 12 R i e d e s e l , B e r u f s - r e i s e , p.  Few  30-31  103.  13 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," p.  308.  14 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 72-73 15 Long, Voyages and t r a v e l s , pp. 11-12. 16 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," p.  192  16  10 t r a v e l l e r s ventured upstream from Montreal unless militaryduty or the f u r trade took them to D e t r o i t , M i c h i l i m a c k i n a c , or other posts scattered throughout the wilderness. The i n h a b i t a n t s of the province were the main object of i n t e r e s t i n the Canadian scene*  Before the i n f l u x of the  L o y a l i s t s and other immigrants, the people were overwhelmi n g l y of French descent,  nevertheless- the Indian population  was widespread and conspicuous.  Many European t r a v e l l e r s ,  f a m i l i a r w i t h the extensive and often s e n s a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e about the "savages", eagerly awaited t h e i r f i r s t s i g h t of a native.  I t was common f o r groups of Indians i n v a r i o u s  stages of c i v i l i z a t i o n t o wander i n t o the towns a t c e r t a i n seasons t o trade and t o seek amusement.  Some t o u r i s t s saw  no more than these groups, which gave a f a r from f l a t t e r i n g p i c t u r e of a b o r i g i n a l l i f e . During the American Revolution, B r i t i s h and German s o l d i e r s had many o p p o r t u n i t i e s to observe t h e i r Indian a l l i e s a t close quarters.  The r e a c t i o n s t o t h i s comradeship  i n arms were mixed, but on the whole unfavorable.  One  B r i t i s h o f f i c e r expressed h i s d i s t r u s t i n the f o l l o w i n g words: "The attachment of the Indian l a s t s no longer than you heap presents on him, and he sides w i t h t h a t p a r t y which w i l l make the g r e a t e s t . "  1 7  I n s i m i l a r v e i n , a German o f f i c e r  17 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 119.  11. remarked: "The  Indians, on account of t h e i r inborn b e s t i a l i t y ,  are not to be trusted." ®  Because of t h e i r want of d i s c i p l i n e ,  1  even t h e i r admitted bravery was often u n a v a i l i n g , and needed B r i t i s h or Canadian o f f i c e r s as l e a d e r s .  they  Their pen-  chant f o r going to extremes made them of d o u b t f u l value i n was,  and often endangered t h e i r f r i e n d s as much as t h e i r  enemies. Nevertheless, Indian hardiness, woodcraft, i n hunting was ungrudgingly  acknowledged.  and  skill  There must have  been a t t r a c t i o n s i n t h e i r way of l i f e that appealed to adventurous s p i r i t s .  One white man who  adopted Indian  ways was Captain Carleton, nephew of the Governor. many another B r i t o n and Canadian, t h i s young man  Like  of good  f a m i l y p r e f e r r e d the f r e e l i f e of the woods, t a k i n g an Indian w i f e , and only r e l u c t a n t l y r e t u r n i n g to c i v i l i z a t i o n to marry i n accordance w i t h the wishes o f . h i s r e l a t i v e s . Frau von R i e d e s e l found that the Indians l i k e d her husband, who  seems to have been one of the f i r s t of the  long l i n e of d i s t i n g u i s h e d v i s i t o r s to smoke the pipe at an Indian gathering and r e c e i v e a complimentary t i t l e  —•a  ceremony that has l o s t none of i t s appeal even today. Several of the s t o r i e s t o l d to the Riedesels r e f l e c t c r e d i t on the Indian character.  The p o s s i b l e reason f o r many of the  18 Stone, L e t t e r s , p. 79 19 R i e d e s e l , B e r u f s r e i s e . p p . 299-300  12.  Indians' worst f e a t u r e s was summed up i n the ungrammatical hut eloquent remark of one tribesman at the above-mentioned ceremony: "Bon enfant l e sauvage, lorsque sobre, mais trop bu, animal f e r o c e l "  2 0  The " c i v i l i z e d " Indians n a t u r a l l y presented a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e i n many respects from t h e i r "savage" b r e t h r e n . V i s i t o r s to Quebec f r e q u e n t l y made the short journey to L o r e t t e , where the Huron community provided a model of what might develop when these people s e t t l e d i n one p l a c e , took up farming, and received i n t e n s i v e s p i r i t u a l guidance.  The  i n h a b i t a n t s appeared t o be of good physique and demeanor, and "... t h e i r houses are much neater and b e t t e r b u i l t than pi  those of the common French i n h a b i t a n t s . "  What struck a l l  observers most f o r c i b l y was the atmosphere of p i e t y , as exemplified i n the " f e r v o r and modesty" of t h e i r devotions 22 under the s u p e r v i s i o n of a J e s u i t missionary. Another i n t e r e s t i n g settlement was that of the I r o q u o i s at Caughnawaga near Montreal.  Although the stone houses  appeared "mean and d i r t y " , the people were l a r g e l y " C i v i l i z e d and i n d u s t r i o u s " , r a i s i n g crops of corn, but shunning domestic employment as slavery.  Here again p i e t y was conspicuous,  20 R i e d e s e l , B e r u f s - r e i s e , p . 302. 21 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," p. 313.22 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 45.  13. w i t h s e r v i c e s i n the Iroquois language "by a French p r i e s t . Unfortunately, some i n d i v i d u a l s , known as the "praying Indians", t r i e d to p r o f i t from t h e i r r e l i g i o n by wearing c r u c i f i x e s and begging w i t h beads i n M o n t r e a l .  23  Despite such an abuse of r e l i g i o u s teaching, one E n g l i s h f u r t r a d e r warmly commended the success of the French i n improving Indian behavior by subduing t h e i r temper, r e s t r a i n ing t h e i r impetuosity, and reducing t h e i r attachment t o liquor.  The i n f l u e n c e of most E n g l i s h traders was by c o n t r a s t  d i s t i n c t l y harmful because o f ' t h e i r h a b i t u a l dishonesty, intemperance, and immorality. A s i m i l a r colony of Ojibways mixed w i t h Mohawks e x i s t e d at Oka on the Lac des Deux Montagnes.  I n 1768 some two  hundred people were engaged i n farming a t t h i s l o c a t i o n .  25  The i n d i v i d u a l who stood out commandingly from the whole Indian population was Captain Joseph Brant, the Mohawk leader. I n h i s strange dress, h a l f m i l i t a r y uniform, h a l f savage costume, he created an impression of manliness and i n t e l l i gence, which was r e i n f o r c e d by h i s c u l t i v a t e d speech, good manners,and mildness of character.  H i s conduct won the  esteem of Governor Haldimand among o t h e r s .  23 Long, Voyages and t r a v e l s , pp. 6-7. 24 I b i d . , pp. 31-33. 25 I b i d . , pp. 25-26. 26 R i e d e s e l , B e r u f s - r e i s e , p. 301.  2 6  I n l a t e r years,  14.  many more t r a v e l l e r s were t o report on t h i s famous w a r r i o r and statesman as they met him en route or a t the Mohawk v i l l a g e on the Grand R i v e r where he s e t t l e d w i t h h i s people. The French-speaking m a j o r i t y , u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to simply as "Canadians", were a never-ending source of i n t e r e s t to travellers.  The voluminous comments on t h i s people e x h i b i t  a b e w i l d e r i n g v a r i e t y of a t t i t u d e s , running the gamut of sympathy, condescension, s e l e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l , querulous c r i t i c i s m , and indignant d i s a p p r o v a l .  Whatever preconcep-  t i o n s a v i s i t o r might hold, he could not ignore the " f a i t fran§ais", and e v e n t u a l l y formed an opinion that e i t h e r confirmed h i s p r e j u d i c e s or supplied him w i t h a f r e s h i n s i g h t . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that the Canadians of t h i s p e r i o d presented  a confusing p i c t u r e .  As a conquered people de-  p r i v e d of t h e i r former leaders and excluded from p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , they faced d i f f i c u l t problems of adjustment.  The  s u b s t a n t i a l advantages o f f e r e d by c e r t a i n features of B r i t i s h r u l e were counterbalanced  by the appeal of American r e v o l u -  t i o n a r i e s to the t r a d i t i o n a l hatred of the B r i t i s h and to the ne\* enthusiasm f o r l i b e r t y .  I n economic a f f a i r s , the Canadians  g e n e r a l l y formed the lowest c l a s s e s , performing  the hard,  disagreeable, and unremunerative f u n c t i o n s while B r i t i s h and American i n t r u d e r s monopolized l u c r a t i v e employment.  Never-  t h e l e s s , there was a French-speaking e l i t e o f c l e r g y and seigneurs that complicated the scene, enjoying as i t d i d c e r t a i n advantages that the new regime could not destroy.  15 The f i r s t accounts of the Canadians a f t e r the Conquest s i n g l e d out c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that recurred i n many subsequent a p p r a i s a l s during the e a r l y p e r i o d .  These short,  sturdy men and women e x h i b i t e d a "simple and i n o f f e n s i v e character", w i t h a n a t u r a l indolence "much c a l c u l a t e d and 07  inured to f a t i g u e and hard l i v i n g .  Their l a c k of enter-  p r i s e i n s e t t l i n g the back country away from the St. Lawrence suggested that they had not been "encouraged t o i n d u s t r y " , and that they aimed only at making a bare  subsistence  an a p p a l l i n g f a c t to a S c o t t i s h merchant.  Although backward  i n farming, many Canadians had served "up-country" as canoemen, where t h e i r expertness as navigators and t h e i r l i k i n g 28  f o r the l i f e gave them pre-eminence i n the. f u r trade. A Bostonian made much the same estimate of t h e i r qualities.  P o i n t i n g out the absence of luxury or even  "comforts & conveniences" among the Canadians, he declared: 29  "They are a c h e a r f u l , Lazy, d i r t y , ignorant, happy people." He considered  them much l e s s a c t i v e economically  than  Americans, even allowing f o r c l i m a t i c r e s t r i c t i o n s on a c t i v i t y and the frequency of r e l i g i o u s h o l i d a y s .  However,  t h e i r i d l e n e s s was not spent i n v i c e but i n " c h e a r f u l d i s s i 30 p a t i o n " , such as d r i v i n g , dancing and s i n g i n g . On h i s r e t u r n 27 "Journal from Hew York t o Canada, 1767", p. 315 28 I b i d . , pp. 315-16. 29 Hulton,  "Canada'^' p. 101  30 Loc. c i t .  16.  to the southern c o l o n i e s , t h i s w r i t e r drew an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison w i t h the good burghers of Albany, i n the f o l l o w ing  terms:"... the Dutch the reverse of the French, t h e i r  houses very clean, p l e n t y of M i l k , b u t t e r , cheese & meat, SI but they have not the heart to use t h e i r good things.' Some of the Americans who invaded Canada during the Revolution saw no more than they expected to see, namely, a people l a n g u i s h i n g under r o y a l and p r i e s t l y tyranny and ripe for liberation.  One o f f i c e r gave vent to an opinion  that was to have a long currency i n many p a r t s of the E n g l i s h speaking world: ...Everywhere you see marks of oppression. The people are poor and i l l i t e r a t e and appear to have no other end i n view than keeping t h e i r souls and bodies together, and preparing f o r the next world, being exceedingly devout. 2  Class d i s t i n c t i o n s were by no means l a c k i n g i n French Canadian s o c i e t y .  Anburey declared that the seigneurs  "assume more consequence than the f i r s t peer i n England." He noted that.the descendants of the noblesse considered trade  31 Hulton, "Canada*!' p. 104  .  32 " E x t r a c t of a l e t t e r from an o f f i c e r under C o l . Arnold dated at P o i n t aux Tremble ( i n Canada), Nov. 21, 1775," In John Joseph Henry, Account of Arnold's campaign against Quebec, and of the hardships and s u f f e r i n g s of that band of heroes who traversed the wilderness of Maine from Cambridge to the St. Lawrence, i n the autumn of 1775, by John Joseph Henry, one of the s u r v i v o r s , Albany N.Y. J o e l Munsell, 1877, p. 184. 33 Anburey, T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, pp. 43-44.  17  a disgrace, but most of the habitants claimed a f f i n i t y w i t h a seigneur*  The v i l l a g e postmasters, who kept inns, were  u s u a l l y members of the noblesse, 34 of t h e i r communities.  and the p r i n c i p a l persons  As might be expected, the conduct of the lower c l a s s e s was f r e q u e n t l y objectionable to B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y during the r e v o l u t i o n a r y t r o u b l e s .  Anburey com-  p l a i n e d b i t t e r l y of the " i n s o l e n t and overbearing"  behavior  of the Canadians, who countered any t h r e a t of punishment w i t h the r e t o r t : "Je v a i s l e d i r e au General Carleton." This indulgence of Carleton's f o r the habitants was considered t o be the cause of t h e i r i n s u l t i n g deportment. The same author t o l d w i t h r e l i s h the s t o r y of one Canadian who was horsewhipped when he made the u n l e t t i n g mistake of t r y i n g to overawe the Governor's brother w i t h the prospect of a complaint to C a r l e t o n .  3 6  The i n c i d e n t suggests that the  B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s may have been at timea e x c e s s i v e l y  arrogant.  German r e a c t i o n s t o the Canadians i n t h i s p e r i o d seem to have been g e n e r a l l y f a v o r a b l e .  They commented on the  deference p a i d t o the s e i g n e u r s , d e s p i t e t h e i r modest incomes 37 and residences. The common people were described as austere  34 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 60 35 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 43-44 36 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 38-39 37 Stone, L e t t e r s , pp. 24-26  18.  r a t h e r than v o l a t i l e , without the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c French vivacity.  I t was hard t o win t h e i r confidence, hut when  won over they were devoted f o l l o w e r s , who showed "true d r o i t u r e du coeur". Their t r u s t f u l n e s s made them s u s c e p t i b l e to persuasion by "scoundrels", such as those adventurers 38 who sought t o induce them t o rebel;. Far from being s t u p i d and b o o r i s h peasants, the Canadians appeared as "hommes d* e s p r i t " , e x h i b i t i n g p o l i t e n e s s without i n d u l g i n g i n fulsome compliments.  T h e i r extraordinary  capacity f o r hard work and endurance was acknowledged. They served c h e e r f u l l y i n the f o r c e s , b u t resented rough treatment, and needed courteous though f i r m h a n d l i n g t o 39 obtain t h e i r co-operation.  This a p p r a i s a l i s an i l l u m i n a t i n g  complement t o the B r i t i s h viewpoint expressed by Anburey. In t h e i r domestic l i f e , the Canadians appeared c l e a n l y , o r d e r l y , and economical, l i v i n g on a simple d i e t and t h r i f t i l y hanging on to possessions to be t r a n s m i t t e d t o p o s t e r i t y . Despite t h e i r closeness w i t h money, they were h o s p i t a b l e w i t h one another, and showed a strong community f e e l i n g . An honest and unsuspicious people, they never touched the property of others, and r a r e l y locked up t h e i r p r e m i s e s .  38 Stone, L e t t e r s , pp. 28-29 39 I b i d . . pp. 29-30 40 I b i d . , pp. 31-32  40  19. A f t e r a l l these complimentary remarks, i t i s s u r p r i s i n g to meet a contrary German opinion, that p o i n t s up one of the weaknesses of Canadian l i f e .  The w r i t e r asserted b l u n t l y :  :  "... the s t u p i d i t y and ignorance of the Canadians regarding 41 t h e i r own country i s beyond b e l i e f . "  I t i s hard not to  conclude that ignorance was a r e g r e t t a b l y widespread charact e r i s t i c , however much we may discount the exaggerations of newcomers.  The Canadians seem to have r e t a i n e d many of the  t r a i t s of t h e i r French ancestors, m o d i f i e d by l o c a l circumstances, and to have presented the spectacle of a people without any serious v i c e s , adapted to a simple but decent existence i n a p r i m i t i v e environment.  But they lacked many  of the graces of French c i v i l i z a t i o n , and were p o o r l y equipped to cope w i t h the economically aggressive and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a l e r t B r i t o n s and Yankees.  For s e v e r a l years a f t e r the  Conquest, French Canadian s o c i e t y seemed destined to continue i n i t s o l d narrow path, but the s h a t t e r i n g events of the American R e v o l u t i o n created a s i t u a t i o n where i t s weaknesses showed up h a r s h l y . Canadian l i f e was s t r o n g l y marked by the n a t u r a l environment, e s p e c i a l l y i n the countryside. the  Furthermore,  French o r i g i n s of the m a j o r i t y endowed them w i t h  p e c u l i a r manners and customs that f a s c i n a t e d f o r e i g n observers.  Food, c l o t h i n g , and r e c r e a t i o n were a l l  d i s t i n c t i v e l y Canadian amongst the r u r a l community.  41 Stone, L e t t e r s , p. 82  20. The food of the h a b i t a n t s was d i f f e r e n t from that of American farmers, and included some of the dishes that are  s t i l l considered t y p i c a l l y French Canadian.  Heals  were s u b s t a n t i a l but l a c k i n g i n v a r i e t y and d e l i c a c y . Hulton remarked that the peasants ate more bread than meat and were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h r o a s t i n g .  Dinner often  consisted of a pot f i l l e d w i t h water, peas, cabbage, and 42 f a t pork b o i l e d and s t u f f e d w i t h bread.  This r e c i p e  showed that even then soupe aux p o i s a l a canadienne was a f a v o r i t e d i s h , and a meal i n i t s e l f .  Unfortunately, t h i s  coarse but savory mess d i d not appeal to a l l f o r e i g n e r s , and the same w r i t e r warned that a t r a v e l l e r who wished to be comfortable on the road should carry t e a , sugar, wine 43  and v i c t u a l s , w i t h a cook. Other Americans were not so c r i t i c a l of Canadian food. The p l a i n and simple d i e t d i d not bespeak poverty, and the people seemed t o t h r i v e on i t . Monotony, however was i n e v i t a b l e because of the p r a c t i c e of preparing the same dinner several days i n a row. I t was customary to f i l l the k e t t l e every n i g h t before bedtime, l e t t i n g i t simmer u n t i l morning and then stew u n t i l dinner a t noon.  The  American s o l d i e r s who invaded Canada i n 1775 ate as much 44  beef at one meal as a Canadian f a m i l y had i n a week. 4:2 Hulton, "Canada", pp. 101-2 43  Loc. o i t .  4 4 Henry, Account, p. 92  21. Although the Canadians d i d not f a r e as d e l i c a t e l y as t h e i r v i s i t o r s might have wished, t h e i r arrangements f o r keeping food during the winter and summer a l i k e won widespread admiration.  The simple hut e f f i c i e n t system  of using ice-houses and i c e - c e l l a r s showed how they had adapted themselves to a climate that was unfavorable to s t o c k - r a i s i n g i n winter and d e s t r u c t i v e to food i n summer.  45  The Canadian climate had an o v e r r i d i n g i n f l u e n c e on clothes.  The m a j o r i t y of the population dressed f o r winter  i n a costume that included s e v e r a l borrowings from the Indians.  Home-made c l o t h e s were the r u l e , and f a s h i o n had  l i t t l e sway.  A t y p i c a l man's o u t f i t c o n s i s t e d of homespun  s h i r t , c l o t h or l e a t h e r breeches, k n i t t e d brown stockings, leggings, shoes or moccasins, f u r gloves and blanket w i t h sash —  the famous ceinture f l e c h e e .  coat  Instead of a hat,  a red bonnet, f u r cap topped o f f a head ornamented w i t h a 46 long queue. The w e a l t h i e r Canadians d i d not dress w i t h p a r t i c u l a r d i s t i n c t i o n , but some dandies adorned themselves w i t h white-ribboned 47 vogue.  and f r i n g e d j a c k e t s that had a great  Canadian women i n v a r i a b l y wore a long cloak or mantle, u s u a l l y of s c a r l e t c l o t h , when they went outdoors.  In  winter they added a l a r g e hood or capuchon wadded w i t h 45 Anburey, T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, p. 108 46 Stone, L e t t e r s , pp. 32-33; Anburey, Travels, v o l 1. pp. 42-43. 47 Stone, L e t t e r s , pp. 33-34.  22. feathers.  According to the observant Frau R i e d e s e l , the  p e t t i c o a t s and j a c k e t s underneath were often very poor and dirty.  4 8  A pipe was e s s e n t i a l to the Canadian's happiness. Men were r a r e l y seen without one i n t h e i r mouths, and even small hoys observed the p r a c t i c e .  Anburey saw a three49  y e a r - o l d p u f f i n g away contentedly.  The French Canadian  a d d i c t i o n to tobacco was the source of much amusing comment by t r a v e l l e r s . Canadian l i f e was l a r g e l y regulated by the seasons. With the onset of winter, farming was impossible, n a v i g a t i o n stopped, business p r a c t i c a l l y came to a s t a n d s t i l l , and m i l i t a r y operations u s u a l l y ceased.  As a r e s u l t , h a b i t a n t s  and seigneurs, traders, and merchants, s o l d i e r s and o f f i c i a l s , found themselves w i t h l i t t l e to do f o r s e v e r a l months each year.. Far from b e i n g depressed by the s e v e r i t y of the weather, the whole populace turned to r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s w i t h amazing gusto. In t h i s f i e l d the French Canadians set an example that won over English-speaking r e s i d e n t s and appealed p a r t i c u l a r l y to a c t i v e young E n g l i s h gentlemen on m i l i t a r y service.  Outdoor sports were very popular; s k a t i n g , snow-  shoeing and c a r i o l i n g went on as l o n g as the weather clear.  Sleighers from Montreal thought nothing of an  48 Beruf s-reise,, p. 105. 49 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 43.  was  23 eighteen-mile t r i p d a i l y f o r amusement, and journeys of 50 f o r t y to f i f t y m i l e s and r e t u r n were not uncommon. Naturally> t h i s strenuous open-air exercise "built up huge appetites, which set the stage f o r evenings of f e a s t i n g and r e v e l r y .  The Canadians shared the French penchant f o r  dancing, and met f o r t h i s entertainment almost every n i g h t . According t o one German account, these evenings were simple but l i v e l y occasions. In d e f a u l t of musicians, the Canadian minuet went on to the humming of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , and r u s t i c t h r o a t s bawled f o r t h chansons i n s t e n t o r i a n tones.  51  The small English-speaking community r a p i d l y adopted Canadian amusements, a l b e i t i n a somewhat more r e f i n e d form.  The New Year was a great o e l e b r a t i o n f o r the o f f i c e r s  at Quebec, w i t h dancing i n the E n g l i s h s t y l e u n t i l d a y l i g h t . A l l the E n g l i s h f a m i l i e s , and the French m i l i t i a o f f i c e r s , provided f ^ t e s at t h i s p e r i o d .  On New Year* s morning the  Governor h e l d a levee, and the r e s i d e n t s of the town s t a r t e d 52 on a c o n v i v i a l round of c a l l s . These New Year customs were also observed i n Montreal. Young B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s took great d e l i g h t i n going the rounds s a l u t i n g the l a d i e s , who were at home f o r three days f o r t h i s purpose.  Here again a Canadian custom of French o r i g i n 53 was taken over by others w i t h only s l i g h t changes. 50 51 52 53  Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 43 Stone, L e t t e r s , pp. 71-72 I b i d . , pp. 68-69 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 85-86  24.  Whatever t r a v e l l e r s may have s a i d about Canada, they were v i r t u a l l y unanimous i n t h e i r wholehearted approval of the r e c r e a t i o n a l aspect of Canadian l i f e .  French l i v e -  l i n e s s and g a i e t y p e r s i s t e d among a l l c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y , and found expression i n v a r i o u s d i v e r s i o n s appropriate t o the surroundings.  Whether borrowed from the Indians or  developed spontaneously,  these pastimes o f f e r e d an agree-  able way of overcoming the monotony of winter u n t i l warmer weather permitted the resumption of sustained economic activity.  The modest circumstances  of the h a b i t a n t s were  no obstacle to an enjoyable s o c i a l l i f e .  Their example  had a deep e f f e c t on new a r r i v a l s , and s p e e d i l y imparted to the English-speaking community a d i s t i n c t l y Canadian f l a v o r . I n t h i s way, some of the n a t u r a l antagonism between the races wore o f f and was replaced by an embryonic f e e l i n g of i d e n t i t y .  I t i s perhaps not too much to say that t h i s  u n i v e r s a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s i m i l a r amusements was one of the most important u n i f y i n g f a c t o r s i n a s o c i e t y otherwise s p l i t by divergent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S o c i a l conditions i n Canada r e f l e c t e d the u n i t e d e f f e c t s of environment and t r a d i t i o n .  Housing was one of  the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c manifestations of these i n f l u e n c e s . As t r a v e l l e r s s a i l e d along the St. Lawrence, they n o t i c e d the rows of whitewashed dwellings that l i n e d the r i v e r banks, and when they came ashore c u r i o s i t y , f r e q u e n t l y impelled them to examine the outside and i n s i d e of the b u i l d i n g s a t c l o s e  25.  hand.  Some of the e a r l y accounts of Canada went i n t o  extraordinary d e t a i l about houses and t h e i r f u r n i t u r e . These seem t o have been an i n e x h a u s t i b l e source of i n t e r e s t to newcomers. In the towns, houses were u s u a l l y of stone, w i t h wooden f l o o r s and p a r t i t i o n s .  One account describes very  p r i m i t i v e i n t e r i o r s , w i t h c l u m s i l y l a i d (and d i r t y ) f l o o r s , ladders i n place of s t a i r s , and no c e i l i n g s , so that any 54 noise was heard i n every room.  Montreal had a number of  more s u b s t a n t i a l houses, designed t o combat the r e c u r r i n g plague of f i r e that had destroyed most of the e a r l i e r wooden s t r u c t u r e s .  Thick f i r e p r o o f d i v i d i n g , w a l l s and  protected roofs were augmented by double doors t o each apartment, and double shutters on the windows.  The p l a t e -  i r o n outer doors and shutters were u s u a l l y painted green, forming a pleasant contrast w i t h the white b u i l d i n g s . Quebec houses were s i m i l a r , but many had been made bomb55 proof as w e l l as f i r e p r o o f . Farmhouses were g e n e r a l l y one-storey  e d i f i c e s of wooden  beams chinked w i t h moss, c l a y , stones, or mortar, and f i n i s h e d w i t h lime or boards. known.  B r i c k s and t i l e s were un-  Out-buildings might be of hewn logs covered w i t h  sod, straw, or b i r c h bark.  P r i v i e s were apparently  54 Hulton, "Canada," pp. 102-103 55 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 73-74  26.  uncommon.  The i n t e r i o r s , l i k e the outsides, struck  observers as monotonously s i m i l a r .  Planed hoards without  p l a s t e r formed the i n s i d e w a l l s and p a r t i t i o n s .  The  r i c h e r habitants and seigneurs b u i l t i n the same s t y l e , on a l a r g e r s c a l e , but few aspired to the d i g n i t y of a 57 second storey. D e s c r i p t i o n s of the i n t e r i o r s give an impression of simple comfort.  Among the scanty f u r n i t u r e , l a r g e cano-  p i e d beds took p r i d e of place.  I n poor households, these  would a l l be i n one room, but the more genteel f o l k had two or more bedrooms.  Large f a m i l i e s must have been  crowded together at n i g h t , b u t everyone had h i s own p i l l o w , and s e v e r a l t r a v e l l e r s remarked on the c l e a n l i n e s s of the beds. Although the habitant d i d not possess elaborate f u r n i t u r e , the house could u s u a l l y boast t e a and coffee s e r v i c e s i n E n g l i s h stoneware or d e l f t . 59 have considerable  Even ordinary people might  silver.  A d i s t i n c t i v e feature of Canadian farmsteads that impressed Europeans was the ice-house dug i n the earth and l i n e d w i t h boards.  This permitted the keeping of food  i n a clean and wholesome c o n d i t i o n throughout the year, and was indispensable when l i v e s t o c k was slaughtered fall 56 57 58 59 60  i n the  and whole carcasses had to be stored f o r s e v e r a l months. Stone, L e t t e r s , p. 20 I b i d . , pp. 16-18 Ibid.., pp. 18-19 I b i d . , p. 19 R i e d e s e l , B e r u f s - r e i s e , p. 287  27 P r e p a r a t i o n f o r the w i n t e r was a formidable process i n both town and country,  i t i n v o l v e d , t o the amazement  of new a r r i v a l s from more temperate c l i m e s , w a l l i n g up f i r e p l a c e s and s u b s t i t u t i n g f o r them b i g i r o n stoves. Complaints about the unhealthiness of these stoves cannot a l l be set down to B r i t i s h abhorrence  of c e n t r a l heating;  excessive temperatures, l a c k of v e n t i l a t i o n and leakage of noxious fumes were c l e a r l y apparent to strangers, a l though ignored by n a t i v e s . One Englishman drew a t t e n t i o n to the l a c k of proper d r a f t s and dampers, arguing that the Canadians should take lessons from the Russians and Germans, who had learned to design f o r e f f i c i e n t and comfortable heating. The same author assigned the p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r red-hot stoves as the cause f o r the h i g h t u b e r c u l o s i s r a t e amongst Canadians, despite the h e a l t h f u l Climate.  A physician  had emphasized to him the danger c h i l d r e n i n c u r r e d by dashing i n t o the f r e e z i n g a i r from overheated rooms and 62 back again*  C e r t a i n l y the h a b i t of s i t t i n g around glowing  stoves smoking i n c e s s a n t l y must have been harmful, and might have been responsible f o r the s a l l o w complexions c h a r a c t e r i z e d Canadians i n the w i n t e r . 61" Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 56-57, 62 I b i d . , pp. 90-93  90-93  that  28. C u l t u r a l l i f e a f t e r the Conquest was at a low ebb. What survived from the French regime d i d not make.much of an impression on Europeans.  Apart from domestic a r c h i t e c -  t u r e , churches and convents were the main objects of i n t e r e s t . The cathedral at Quebec was notable f o r i t s unique s l a t e roof and h i g h l y ornamented i n t e r i o r w i t h a g i l t p u l p i t , f l a t c e i l i n g , and plank f l o o r .  This l a s t f e a t u r e was  eminently p r a c t i c a l i n the winter, when stone f l o o r s would have been unpleasantly c o l d . The a r t s and l e t t e r s appeared to be almost e n t i r e l y wanting amongst the mass of the population, who  suffered  from d e f i c i e n t knowledge and a narrow range of experience. Few Canadians were l i t e r a t e , and even these wrote i n a manner as crude as t h e i r speech.  Only the cures gave the  impression of being w e l l i n f o r m e d .  64  A Lutheran c h a p l a i n  w i t h the German forces at Quebec i n 1776 recorded that the seminary had the only l i b r a r y i n the c i t y , c o n s i s t i n g of  65  a few Latxn and many French books.  63 Anburey, T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, pp. 38-39 64 Stone,.. L e t t e r s , pp. 36-37 65 F.V. Melsheimer, "Journal of the voyage of the Brunswick a u x i l i a r i e s from Wolfenbuttel to Quebec, by F. V. Melsheimer, c h a p l a i n to the Duke of Brunswick's dragoon regiment, Minden, 1776," t r a n s . W i l l i a m Wood and W i l l i a m L. Stone, L i t e r a r y and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y of Quebec, Transactions, Quebec, "Morning c h r o n i c l e " steam p r i n t i n g establishment, 1891, no. 20, sessions of 1889 to 1891, p. 160  29.  Most observers were s u r p r i s e d at the predominance of the c l e r g y i n i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e .  The f l o u r i s h i n g s t a t e  of r e l i g i o n contrasted sharply w i t h the barrenness of the c u l t u r a l scene.  Since most of the e a r l y t r a v e l l e r s were  P r o t e s t a n t s , they viewed w i t h i n t e r e s t and a c e r t a i n uneasiness the unusual spectacle of entrenched and Romanism under B r i t i s h r u l e .  popular  Their v o l u b l e comments showed  a v a r i e t y of a t t i t u d e s ranging from detachment to uncompromising  hostility.  A t y p i c a l remark, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of many l a t e r accounts, was that "The  lower people are i n general very ignorant,  and much governed by t h e i r p r i e s t s . "  As opposed to t h i s ,  a pious American admitted that the "fervency and z e a l " of C a t h o l i c s e r v i c e s was early prejudices."  "a severe and a d d i t i o n a l stroke at V i s i t o r s , to Quebec were u s u a l l y sur-  p r i s e d at the l a c k of r e l i g i o u s animosity. of tolerance was  The atmosphere  exemplified by the arrangement f o r Pro-  t e s t a n t s to use C a t h o l i c churches f o r s e r v i c e s i n d e f a u l t of t h e i r own b u i l d i n g s .  This*laudable development was  held  to emphasize the wisdom of the Quebec Act i n t o l e r a t i n g Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . Such an example of harmony, however, could not d i s g u i s e numerous features that j a r r e d on P r o t e s t a n t s u s c e p t i b i l i t i e s .  66 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," p. 67 Henry, Account, p. 91 68 Anburey. Travels, v o l . 1, p. 39  315  30.  The crosses l i n i n g the roads, accompanied by wax images "behind g l a s s and instruments of the c r u c i f i x i o n , not only looked incongruous, hut caused numerous delays to t r a v e l l e r s . Whatever the weather, devout d r i v e r s would leap from t h e i r c a r r i a g e s at every wayside cross to say a prayer, much to 69 the annoyance of impatient passengers. The c e l e b r a t i o n of the f e a s t of Corpus C h r i s t i or La Pete-Pieu was a p a r t i c u l a r l y impressive s i g h t , as the procession wound through the s t r e e t s decked w i t h f r e s h greenery, the host reposing under a crimson canopy, escorted by the c l e r g y and a band of musicians, i n the midst of flowers and censers.  The B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s , keenly  aware of the need to smooth over p o s s i b l e sources of i r r i t a t i o n , had ordered troops to take o f f t h e i r hats to the 70  host.  We can imagine the e f f e c t of t h i s unwonted spectacle  on v i s i t o r s from c o u n t r i e s where such r i t u a l was  still  proscribed. Despite t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n such m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , Prot e s t a n t observers d i d not d i s g u i s e t h e i r uneasiness at the s t a t e of a f f a i r s .  When Anburey attended a Christmas Eve  s e r v i c e , he remarked on the great shout t h a t greeted the a r r i v a l of the c r a d l e and c h i l d .  H i s experiences moved  69 Anburey, T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, p. 39 70 I b i d . , pp.  123-124  31. him t o a s s e r t : "These s u p e r s t i t i o u s people i m p l i c i t l y "believe, the waxen images that are shown them by the p r i e s t s , to be a b s o l u t e l y the persons they are intended t o represent."  x  This was not a s o l i t a r y impression.  Frau von R i e d e s e l  found the U r s u l i n e nuns a t T r o i s - R i v i e r e s f r i e n d l y and pleasant company.  She had many enjoyable experiences  with  the h i g h - s p i r i t e d young women whom she v i s i t e d , and d i d not n o t i c e any resentment over r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s . Yet when her five-month-old  daughter d i e d and was b u r i e d  at S o r e l , she was deeply troubled l e s t the " b l i n d - e i f r i g e Catholiken" should d i s i n t e r the body from  consecrated  ground as that of a h e r e t i c . F o r t u n a t e l y , the p a r i s h p r i e s t agreed t o keep h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s under'control by 72  i n s i s t i n g that the c h i l d had been b a p t i z e d . I t i s hard t o obtain a f a i r p i c t u r e of r e l i g i o n i n Canada a t t h i s time from the sources quoted.  Apparently  i n the l a r g e r centres there was l i t t l e f r i c t i o n and overt antagonism, whatever may have been the p r i v a t e opinions of adherents t o the various denominations.  I n the country,  however, the behavior of the m a j o r i t y of the h a b i t a n t s must have given some cause f o r the charges of " b i g o t r y " a n d " s u p e r s t i t i o n " that continued t o r i s e t o the l i p s of  71 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 86 72 R i e d e s e l , B e r u f s - r e i s e , p. 311  32. many commentators,  The c l e r g y , w i t h t h e i r advantages of  l e a r n i n g and p r e s t i g e , showed a more urbane a t t i t u d e to " h e r e t i c s " than d i d most of t h e i r congregations, although the l a t t e r g e n e r a l l y allowed t h e i r good nature to p r e v a i l over s u s p i c i o n . The u t i l i z a t i o n of Canada's p h y s i c a l resources was on much the same p r i m i t i v e l e v e l as the s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e of the people.  E a r l y r e p o r t s noted the undeveloped  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the Canadian economy, and expressed the hope f o r f r u i t f u l progress w i t h the advent of peace and enlightened B r i t i s h r u l e .  Some B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r s b e l i e v e d  that the incentive f o r improvement had been thwarted under the French by c o n t i n u a l warfare, oppressive government, and a rapacious c l e r g y .  The growing exports of lumber and  g r a i n promised a more prosperous and d i v e r s i f i e d economy than that of the o l d regime, which had kept a g r i c u l t u r e i n the subsistence stage and over-emphasized the f u r trade. One of the most f l a g r a n t examples of French  73  "backward-  ness" was the v i r t u a l l i m i t a t i o n of settlement t o the banks and i s l a n d s of the St. Lawrence.  Although these areas were  w e l l peopled, they formed l i t t l e more than a double ribbon of farms and v i l l a g e s backed on each side of the r i v e r by the w i l d e r n e s s . In 1767, settlement extended upstream to Lac St-Francois, j u s t south of Montreal, w i t h some expansion  73 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 132-133  33. along the R i c h e l i e u R i v e r .  7 4  By 1776 the countryside below  Quebec was s t i l l t h i n l y populated, but from there to Montreal c l e a r i n g f o r new " p l a n t a t i o n s " was apparent. Every three leagues or so there was a t i n y community w i t h i t s church, 75 parsonage, auberge, school, and a few houses. These parishes consisted of houses scattered apart at  distances of from one hundred to s i x hundred paces,  often w i t h i n t e r v e n i n g patches of woodland.  Houses were  almost i n v a r i a b l y located along a road or r i v e r , h a r d l y ever i n the r e a r .  Each habitant had h i s own f i e l d s , meadows,  or gardens, i n f r o n t of, or behind, h i s house, as w e l l as a farm woodlot. of  The arrangement reminded a German o f f i c e r 76 the enclosed marshland near Bremen. Hew houses were constantly being b u i l t to accommodate  the  growing population.  Trees were f e l l e d by burning to  provide b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l .  Over a number of years the  houses were improved and the ground cleared up to a quarter league around them.  Although the f o r e s t s were s t i l l exten-  s i v e , the new c l e a r i n g s had a charred and "desolate" appearance.  However, the burnt-over land y i e l d e d good crops of 77  grass and hay. This p a t t e r n of settlement was l i n k e d w i t h the closek n i t character of the Canadian f a m i l y .  When a son or daughter  74 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," pp. 307, 309,311. 75 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 60 76 Stone, L e t t e r s , pp. 13-14 77 I b i d . , pp. 26-28  34. married, the f a m i l y u s u a l l y helped the couple to e s t a b l i s h 7ft  a new homestead, p r e f e r a b l y nearby.'° Thus the remaining land along the r i v e r was g r a d u a l l y taken up, and even before the onset of l a r g e - s c a l e immigration the problem of s e t t l i n g the r i s i n g generation of h a b i t a n t s was becoming more serious every year. Opinions on the character and prospects of Canadian a g r i c u l t u r e v a r i e d widely.  One viewpoint expressed by  an American was that the n a t u r a l wealth of the f e r t i l e r i v e r s i d e s o i l s compensated f o r the l a z i n e s s of the farmers, who were r e l u c t a n t to manure the land and provide fodder f o r the c a t t l e .  Their horses were good c a r r i a g e animals,  but t h e i r cows were "small h a l f - s t a r v e d poor c r e a t u r e s " , 79 and t h e i r homes and d a i r i e s were p r i m i t i v e and i n s a n i t a r y . The same author remarked a c u t e l y on the too d r a s t i c c l e a r ing of woods from the land, and deplored the s c a r c i t y of woodlots, orchards, and gardens.  RO  Another American observer made some i n t e r e s t i n g r e f l e c t i o n s on a g r i c u l t u r e during h i s m i s s i o n to persuade the Canadians to j o i n the t h i r t e e n c o l o n i e s i n t h e i r r e v o l t . As he journeyed from St-Jean to Montreal and S o r e l he  was  impressed w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the country once i t came  78 R i e d e s e l , Beruf s - r e i s e , -p. 120 79 Hulton, "Canada," 80 I b i d . , p. 102  p. 101  35. to know t r u e l i b e r t y .  The farmers i n the " l a r g e and neat"  v i l l a g e s seemed to be the " r i c h men i n Canada", as opposed to the impoverished seigneurs.®  1  To German, eyes, the p i c t u r e was even more f a v o r a b l e . The o f f i c e r s thought the breed of c a t t l e " e x c e l l e n t " , and observed no serious inroads on the herds d e s p i t e the generous v i c t u a l l i n g of the army. but cheese was r a r e .  The m i l k and b u t t e r were good,  W i l d ducks and pigeons took the place  of domestic v a r i e t i e s , although tame chickens, turkeys, 82 and geese were p l e n t i f u l . While r e c o g n i z i n g divergences from European farming p r a c t i c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a c k of manuring, the Germans considered the g r a i n s very good, and remarked on the v a r i e t y of vegetables, i n c l u d i n g such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y American products as pumpkins.  There was some good winter f r u i t  r a i s e d near Montreal, but the harsh c l i m a t e deterred the 83 poorer farmers from v e n t u r i n g i n t o f r u i t - g r o w i n g . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to record the impressions of these Germans when they advanced i n t o the r i c h pastures of Vermont.  81 Charles C a r r o l l , J o u r n a l of Charles C a r r o l l of C a r r o l l t o n , during h i s v i s i t to Canada i n 1776, as one of the commissioners from Congress: w i t h a memoir and notes hv Brantz Mayer, B a l t i m o r e , Maryland h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y , 1845, pp. 73-74, 77, 79. 82 Stone, L e t t e r s , pp. 83 I b i d . , pp.  14-15  15-16  36. One w r i t e r asserted that the Canadian horses were f i f t y percent b e t t e r than those i n Vermont, hut that the Vermont 84 c a t t l e were eighty percent b e t t e r than those i n Canada. Another G-erman observer of the same p e r i o d , Frau von R i e d e s e l , p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed the spectacle of the herds r e t u r n i n g at n i g h t to the a t t r a c t i v e white-washed  houses.  This d a i l y pilgrimage of cows and swine to the woods. 85 suggested that these animals were i n a semi-wild s t a t e . The same w r i t e r was one of the f i r s t to note that most of the l i v e s t o c k was slaughtered at the beginning of w i n t e r and s o l d i n town, only a few animals .being kept u n t i l spring.' A B r i t i s h army o f f i c e r emphasized the b e n e f i t s conf e r r e d by the B r i t i s h government on t h i s n a t u r a l l y f r u i t f u l land.  The h a b i t a n t s vrere much b e t t e r o f f than the country  people of England.  Emancipated from the indolence that  c h a r a c t e r i z e d them under French r u l e , they were improving 87 t h e i r farms and e n r i c h i n g themselves r a p i d l y . Economic a c t i v i t i e s of every k i n d were rudimentary for  a number of years a f t e r the Conquest.  Apart from the  fur  trade, a l i t t l e f i s h i n g and lumbering, and the e x t r a c t i o n  of p i n e - t a r , the main n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e was  84 Stone, L e t t e r s , pp. 86 85 R i e d e s e l , Beruf s - r e i s e , pp. 120-121 86 I b i d . , p. 288 87 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 53-54  37. i r o n - s m e l t i n g and working.  The Forges St-Maurice, near  T r o i s - R i v i e r e s , u s i n g l o c a l ores, had operated f o r many years under the French.  I n 1768, the p l a n t was producing  stoves and k e t t l e s , which were shipped cheaply by water to domestic markets.  This i n d u s t r y c o n t r i b u t e d a good deal \ 88 to the p r o s p e r i t y of T r o i s - R i v i e r e s . As a concomitant of the low degree of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r non-farm employment were l i m i t e d .  Among the trades noted were the u s u a l s e r v i c e s and c r a f t s to be expected i n a community w i t h a modest degree of urban development.  These trades included tavern-keeping, wine  and l i q u o r s e l l i n g , merchandising, shoemaking, ^ t a i l o r i n g , wheel and cabinet-making. ^ 8  For s e v e r a l decades a f t e r the Conquest, Canada was a land of rude p l e n t y f o r most of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n .  This  happy s t a t e of a f f a i r s was due to the p r o d i g a l i t y of nature r a t h e r than t o the s k i l l and e n t e r p r i s e of the h a b i t a n t s . The r a p i d n a t u r a l increase and the gradual exhaustion of the s o i l threatened to undermine the Canadian economy, unless new resources were tapped and new methods adopted. Even before the American R e v o l u t i o n p r e c i p i t a t e d r a d i c a l changes, the weaknesses of a s o c i e t y based on a subsistence a g r i c u l t u r e were apparent.  88 long, Voyages and t r a v e l s , pp. 3-4 89 Stone, L e t t e r s , p. 28  38.  Since the e a r l i e s t times, the development of transp o r t a t i o n has had a profound i n f l u e n c e on Canada's p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and economic expansion.  Eastern Canada was  discovered and explored v i a the great waterway of the S t . Lawrence, and i t s growth u n t i l the middle of the nineteenth century was l a r g e l y the spread of settlement along t h i s s i n g l e l i n e of communication and i t s t r i b u t a r y routes. Land t r a n s p o r t at f i r s t p a r a l l e l e d the waterways, supplying an a l t e r n a t i v e means of t r a v e l when w i n t e r closed n a v i g a t i o n . Nearly every t r a v e l l e r devoted considerable space i n h i s l e t t e r s and books t o h i s experiences w i t h Canadian forms of t r a n s p o r t , which provided some of the most poignant memories of v i s i t s t o the province. As Europeans approached Canada up the S t . Lawrence, they were impressed by t h i s navigable route i n t o the heart of the colony, but they often noted i t s drawbacks as w e l l . Anburey pointed out t h a t the i c e and fogs that blocked the r i v e r f o r long periods n u l l i f i e d t o a great extent the 90 advantages of a f e r t i l e s o i l and a h e a l t h f u l c l i m a t e . The expense of n a v i g a t i o n was increased by the requirement under insurance r e g u l a t i o n s to c a r r y p i l o t s from Point-auPere t o Quebec.  I n 1781, these p i l o t s often received as 91 much as twenty guineas a t r i p f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s . 90 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 27 91 R i e d e s e l , B e r u f s - r e i s e , p. 286  39 On land, t r a v e l l e r s often expressed themselves  freely  about the n o v e l t y of r i d i n g i n c a l e c h e s . T h e r e was general agreement that these were a f a s t means of t r a n s p o r t , but opinions about t h e i r comfort v a r i e d . One t r a v e l l e r found 92 them "very uneasy and inconvenient"; another described them as a "kind of clumsy wooden chaise", but s a i d they 93 provided "very pleasant quick t r a v e l l i n g " .  A diverting  f e a t u r e of journeys i n these v e h i c l e s was the d r i v e r s ' h a b i t of t a l k i n g i n c e s s a n t l y to the horses, c a l l i n g them by f a v o r i t e names, when they were not p l y i n g t h e i r whips or s i n g i n g to urge them on.^  4  The existence of post-houses i n each p a r i s h , w i t h f i v e or s i x caleches a v a i l a b l e f o r t r a v e l l e r s at any time, provided a r e g u l a r i t y of s e r v i c e that won the approval of European observers.  I n the e a r l y years the r a t e f o r c a r r y -  ing passengers was u s u a l l y about one s h i l l i n g per league. I t was noteworthy that the custodians of post-houses, together w i t h seigneurs and captains of m i l i t i a , were exempt from quartering and p r o v i d i n g conveyances i n wartime.  92 "Journal from New York t o Canada, 1767," p. 309. 93 Hulton, "Canada," p. 103. 94 R i e d e s e l , B e r u f s - r e i s e , pp. 111-112. 95, Stone, L e t t e r s , p. 28.  40. The h a b i t a n t s were w e l l supplied w i t h means of t r a v e l , each one having a horse, caleche, and s l e i g h .  Despite the  l i m i t e d use of i r o n i n b u i l d i n g the c a r r i a g e s , t h e i r tough wooden s t r u c t u r e stood up w e l l to the unavoidable j o l t i n g . The l i g h t , sturdy horses were shod only i n w i n t e r , and they 96 were u s u a l l y guided by words, rather than by the whip. Observations on the s t a t e of the roads were often conflicting.  The t r a v e l l e r ' s a t t i t u d e seems to have v a r i e d  w i t h the season, since roads were b e t t e r maintained i n winter, when snow provided a smoother surface.  An American  s o l d i e r who reached Montreal i n November, 1775, considered the roads to be " i n e x c e l l e n t order", and reported that the c'orvee was being kept up e f f e c t i v e l y but l e s s r i g i d l y than under the French.  He noted the p r a c t i c e of s e t t i n g up pine  saplings ( b a l i s e s ) to mark routes, and the law r e q u i r i n g landowners to r e t r a c e the roads through t h e i r property when 97 f r e s h snow f e l l . There were c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s i n winter d r i v i n g when winds heaped up snowdrifts and the b a l i s e s had to be s h i f t e d to mark changed i n the routes. Frozen r i v e r s made e x c e l l e n t highways, so long as the weak spots were i n d i c a t e d .  The most  dangerous p e r i o d f o r t r a v e l was during the freeze-up and 98 break-up, when f a t a l accidents were not uncommon. With the 96 Stone, L e t t e r s , -pp. 34-35. 97 Henry, Account, p. 93 98 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 116-117  41 a r r i v a l of s p r i n g , conditions became abominable.  An American,  recounting a t r i p from St-Jean t o L a p r a i r i e i n A p r i l 1776, declared: " I never t r a v e l l e d through worse roads, or i n 99 worse c a r r i a g e s . " Canadian bridges made of beams or tree-trunks l a i d side by side were a n o v e l t y to Europeans, i f not to Americans. These queer s t r u c t u r e s were s t i l l s e r v i c e a b l e even i f one beam broke, but they were dangerous a t n i g h t , e s p e c i a l l y ^ 100 f o r horses. Whatever v i s i t o r s thought of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system, they were g e n e r a l l y u n i t e d i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e to the prov i s i o n s f o r accommodating t r a v e l l e r s .  They grudgingly  admitted that the food was adequate and inexpensive, b u t everything else drew t h e i r unreserved condemnation.  Hulton  described the taverns of Montreal as "dear, and d i r t y " Anburey found only two taverns i n Quebec c i t y , " b o t h of them i n the worst s t a t e imaginable",  w i t h f a c i l i t i e s that "would 102  disgrace the meanest public-house i n London".  The chorus  of disapproval from American and B r i t i s h sources showed t h a t , even allowing f o r the d i s r u p t i o n caused by the i n vasion of 1775-1776, the Canadian t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y was hopelessly p r i m i t i v e . 99 C a r r o l l , Journal, p. 73. 100 Stone, L e t t e r s , p p . 44-48. 101 Hulton, "Canada," p. 103. 102 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 33.  42. The governance of Canada posed awkward problems i n the two decades between 1763 and 1783.  A small group of E n g l i s h -  speaking o f f i c i a l s held sway over a population f o r e i g n to them i n speech, customs, and r e l i g i o n .  When the American  colonies broke out i n r e v o l t , the s i t u a t i o n became extremely delicate.  During p a r t of t h i s p e r i o d the province  almost an armed camp. much understanding  was  I t was hard f o r outsiders to gain  of p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and a s p i r a t i o n s .  Under B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y r u l e and the Quebec Act, the governor's person was the mainspring of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . Nevertheless, there was a c e r t a i n amount of delegation of a u t h o r i t y to l o c a l o f f i c i a l s .  A German o f f i c e r remarked  on the system of naming a captain of m i l i t i a i n each p a r i s h , aided by a l i e u t e n a n t of p o l i c e and sergeant.  The  captains  were held accountable f o r everything i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n s , and often had t h e i r hands f u l l during the American i n v a s i o n .  The Germans saw many instances of r e b e l -  l i o u s parishes i n which the c a t t l e had been f o r f e i t e d , the 103 f i r e s extinguished, and the r o o f s p u l l e d down.  This  scheme of l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c e d by the E n g l i s h concept of j u s t i c e s of the peace, was an i n t e r e s t i n g adaptation from the French regime. The p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Canada i n s p i r e d comments by s e v e r a l observers.  In 1767  a S c o t t i s h t r a v e l l e r found  103 Stone, L e t t e r s , pp. 22-24.  43. the Canadians "averse"  to the B r i t i s h f o r various reasons.  The n o b i l i t y and seigneurs resented t h e i r l a c k of p r i v i l e g e s and t h e i r e x c l u s i o n from the army; the remaining traders were more r e c o n c i l e d to t h e i r p o s i t i o n , although sometimes h o s t i l e because of t h e i r "avarice and b i g o t r y " ; the lower people were i n s p i r e d s o l e l y by "prejudices", mainly r e l i g i o u s . P r i e s t l y i n f l u e n c e was f u r t h e r e d by the "loose morals and l i t t l e r e l i g i o n " of the English-speaking 104  r e s i d e n t s i n the  colony. Anburey, as a B r i t i s h o f f i c e r i n Quebec f o l l o w i n g the l i f t i n g of the American siege, asserted that the Canadians were not " w e l l a f f e c t e d t o " the government although they enjoyed the b l e s s i n g s of t o l e r a t i o n , l i b e r t y , and  the  B r i t i s h c o n s t i t u t i o n . He thought that they looked f o r French p r o t e c t i o n , and would help the Americans i f the 105  B r i t i s h f o r c e s proved weak. T r a v e l l e r s unquestionably received d i f f e r i n g impressions of Canada w i t h regard to the d e t a i l s of l i f e . Yet, taken as a whole, the country appeared i n a favorable l i g h t to most outsiders who 1763  and 1783.  saw the province between  P o s s i b l y t h i s a p p r a i s a l was  a reaction  against the d i r e t a l e s brought back by e a r l i e r v i s i t o r s . Many accounts of Canada had given currency to the myth of a land tormented by unbearable winters and peopled by a  104 "Journal from New York to Canada, 1767," pp. 316-317. 105 Anburey, Travels, v o l . 1, p.  40.  44 mixture  of  ferocious  ignorance, able  conceptions  part  it  amongst  i n the  there  the  could.be  find  was  understand-  similar mis-  a revealing  i n 1775:  other  state,  ad-  took  where  than b a r b a r i t y ,  a comfortable  a r i s i n g from the  "...  I we  enjoying  institutions  of  s t r i k i n g ..was  the  final  civilized  summing-up b y  whose u n s p a r i n g s t r i c t u r e s  castigated  aspects  of  As a g r a c e f u l p a r t i n g  when he  returned  lyrical  phrases  effete  Canadian l i f e . to Boston an i d y l l i c  society  of  i n 1772  he  many o f  the  described  community w h o l l y  Hulton,  worst tribute  in  almost  different  from  contemporary England: The  In London  Henry, Account, p.  Contrast In  A heavy gloomy s k y - suspicious countenances-b a r r e d d o o r s - - :a d i s p l a y of w e a l t h - - a r e f i n e m e n t of taste—self-gratification encreased^—the heart contracted--principles corrupted--the passions inflamed— Greatness satieted w i t h pleasure & p i n i n g under the w e i g h t of enjoyment—  106  poverty,  1 0 6  Even more  the  in  a P e n n s y l v a n i a n who  Quebec  l i t t l e  in  There  of  steeped  d e l u s i o n was  s u r p r i s i n g to  reminiscences  benefits  society."  This  Americans.  f o u n d c i v i l i z e d men, all  was  i n Arnold'a;march to  thought  and p e a s a n t s  and s u p e r s t i t i o n .  i n Europeans;  mission  savages  76.  Canada  A clear blue sky-chearful countenances— hearts at ease—open houses - - a s i m p l i c i t y of manners-an i g n o r a n c e o f L u x u r y - - a contentment w i t h t h e i r l o t — innocent amusements--simple enjoyments & an h e a r t y communication:of them to o t h e r s . H a p p y C a n a d i a n ! who l i v e s S a n s o u c i - - f e e l s no w a n t - Kn'ows n o a n x i e t y b u t w r a p t  45.  The Contrast (continued) In London  In Canada  Wealth mortify'd--Men i n o f f i c e soured & discontented—Thousands l i v i n g "beyond t h e i r means to v i e i n appearance w i t h those above them,--and of course wretched.  i n f l a n n e l jacket drives about i n h i s c a r r i o l e - - w i t h appetite keen--with s p i r i t s l i g h t as the a i r he breathes — laughs, sings, and dances l i f e away—This i s s u r e l y the country where the p l a n t c a l l ' d hearts-ease so rare els'where grows l i k e a weed, & i s found at every Cottage.  107 Hulton, "Canada", p. 107  46. CHAPTER I I ADJUSTMENT AND PROGRESS: LOWER CANADA, 1784-1814.  During the p e r i o d 1784-1814 Canada underwent remarkable changes.  No longer d i d an almost e n t i r e l y French  population surround a handful of English-speaking admini s t r a t o r s and merchants.  With the establishment of Ameri-  can independence, a wave of L o y a l i s t s swept i n t o what was l e f t of B r i t i s h North America.  The a r r i v a l of so many  energetic, a r t i c u l a t e , and often t a l e n t e d immigrants v a s t l y enlarged the r o l e of the English-speaking community, imparting to the colony a dual character that was recognized i n the separation of Upper and Lower Canada i n 1791. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s fundamental change i n the Canadian population, world events a f f e c t e d c o n d i t i o n s even i n so d i s t a n t a colony.  The French Revolution, w i t h i t s emphasis  on n a t i o n a l i s m and democracy, could not f a i l to i n f l u e n c e Canada i n the long run, although i t s e f f e c t s were delayed by the u n i t e d h o s t i l i t y of the B r i t i s h government and the Roman C a t h o l i c church.  Furthermore, the I n d u s t r i a l Revo-  l u t i o n was w e l l under way i n B r i t a i n , and i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n the United States could not f a i l to penetrate n o r t h of the border. At the end of t h i s p e r i o d the War of 1812 saw the Canadian peoples u n i t e d against another American i n v a s i o n , from which they emerged w i t h considerable c r e d i t . Y e t  47 the dominant tendencies of the time, i n contrast t o those of the previous two decades, were d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and diversification.  I t i s convenient to examine accounts of  the two provinces separately, i n view of t h e i r divergent natures. Lower Canada, as i t o f f i c i a l l y became i n 1791, r e mained u n t i l w e l l a f t e r 1814 the more populous and developed province.  I t continued to a t t r a c t numerous t r a v e l l e r s  v i a the ocean route to Quebec or the Lake Ghamplain waterway to Montreal. In observing the r e a c t i o n s of newcomers to the Canadian scene, i t i s u s e f u l to remember that t h i s • p e r i o d saw the triumph of romanticism i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . Extravagant p r a i s e f o r n a t u r a l beauty needs to be discounted i n some instances.  A v i s i t o r from Manchester declared i n  August 1785 that the view from the P l a i n s of Abraham was "... without exception the most sublime, grand and b e a u t i f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g scene I ever b e h e l d . "  1  This testimony from  one who had been i n Switzerland and the T y r o l would be more convincing i f he had not used almost i d e n t i c a l language about the view from Mount Royal a few days e a r l i e r .  2  1 Joseph H a d f i e l d , An Englishman i n America, 1785, being the d i a r y of Joseph H a d f i e l d , e d . and annotated by Douglas S. Robertson, Toronto, Hunter-Rose, 1933, p. 146. 2 I b i d . , p. 112  48. Nevertheless, the s i t u a t i o n of Quebec continued to c a l l f o r t h p r a i s e that cannot be ascribed wholly to excess of y o u t h f u l enthusiasm.  I n 1796, an Irishman w i t h a keen  eye f o r landscape asserted that the view from the Upper Town, "... f o r i t s grandeur, i t s beauty, and i t s d i v e r s i t y , surpasses a l l that I have h i t h e r t o seen i n America, or indeed i n any other p a r t of the globe."  3  This opinion was confirmed by the sober statement of an experienced t r a v e l l e r i n 1806: " I have seen most of the f i n e views i n Europe; and I can s a f e l y say, they do not surpass, perhaps they do not equal, that from the f l a g s t a f f of Quebec on Gape Diamond."  4  The climate d i d not evoke the same general admiration as the scenery.  Most newcomers, however, found the w i n t e r s  l e s s harrowing than they expected, and were s u r p r i s e d at the r a p i d growth of v e g e t a t i o n i n the short but t o r r i d summers.  I n August 1785, H a d f i e l d remarked on the v a r i e t y  of garden flowers at Quebec i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: " I begin to think the l u r i d accounts of the c o l d and unfavourable climate of t h i s country do not proceed so much from  3 Isaac Weld, Travels through the s t a t e s of North America, and the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, during the years 1795. 1796, and 1797, London, J . Stockdale, 1799, p. 203. 4 Hugh Gray, L e t t e r s from Canada, w r i t t e n during a r e s i dence there i n the years 1806, 1807, and 1808: shewing; the present s t a t e of Canada, i t s productions--trade—"Commercial importance and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s , L o n d o n , Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1809, p. 65.  49. disadvantages as from the indolence and ignorance of the Canadians, who have no n o t i o n of q u i t t i n g the path they have been accustomed t o pursue."  5  This ingenious explanation may have had some b a s i s , but the f a c t remained that the long, hard w i n t e r s , l a s t i n g some f i v e months, sharply r e s t r i c t e d economic a c t i v i t i e s . Snow was a serious problem i n the Quebec s t r e e t s , where d r i f t s o f t e n p i l e d up above a man's height, and sometimes reached to g a r r e t windows.  Montreal had i t s own problem  of ice-jams or refoulements, occuring two or three times each w i n t e r .  A B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s t a y i n g at a h o t e l on the  r i v e r bank i n 1797 f e l t considerable alarm when the i c e 7 .rose twenty f e e t above the second-storey window. The same o f f i c e r commented on the dangers of extremely c o l d weather f o r s o l d i e r s .  At Quebec, s e n t i n e l s were  r e l i e v e d every f i f t e e n minutes under severe c o n d i t i o n s , but even so there were s e v e r a l cases of f r e e z i n g t o death. g Drunkenness was p a r t i c u l a r l y dangerous at such times.  5 H a d f i e l d , Englishman i n America. 1785, p. 147 6 John Lambert, Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America, i n the years 1806. 1807, & 18Q8, to which are added, b i o g r a p h i c a l ' n o t i c e s and anecdotes of some of the l e a d i n g characters i n the United S t a t e s , London, Baldwin, Cradock and Joy, 1814-16, v o l . 1, p. 107. 7 George Thomas Landmann, Adventures and r e c o l l e c t i o n s of Colonel Landmann, l a t e of the Corps of Royal Engineers, London, Colburn, 1852, v o l . 1, pp.228-231. 8 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 259-260.  50. F o r t u n a t e l y , people were quick to n o t i c e the onset of f r o s t b i t e i n others, and d i d not h e s i t a t e to warn v i c t i m s immediately.  Some u n b e l i e v i n g v i s i t o r s were s u r p r i s e d at t o t a l  strangers peremptorily rubbing t h e i r faces w i t h snow. This brusque treatment, was deeply appreciated when the reason was made c l e a r . ^ New a r r i v a l s d i d not u s u a l l y f e e l the c o l d as much as the Canadians f o r the f i r s t two or three years.  English-  men i n p a r t i c u l a r , hardened by open f i r e p l a c e s , draughty rooms, and inadequate c l o t h i n g , stood up w e l l to the elements u n t i l the d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of hot stoves and heavy garments reduced them to the l e v e l of the n a t i v e s . "^Although Europeans were prepared f o r the c o l d , they d i d not a n t i c i pate the heat of the Canadian summer.  On a June day i n  1792 an Englishwoman found the heat of Montreal i n s u f f e r a b l e than I had ever f e l t . "  "... more  The i r o n doors and  shutters and t i n r o o f s of the c i t y created a f o r e t a s t e of 11 the Inferno. Most accounts tended to minimize the disadvantages of the Canadian climate.  -  One B r i t i s h w r i t e r pointed out  that R u s s i a had undergone remarkable development w i t h a s i m i l a r climate, and Quebec was b e t t e r s i t u a t e d than 9 Hugh Gray, L e t t e r s , pp. 291-293. 10 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 119-120. 11 E l i z a b e t h Posthuma (Gwillim) "Simcoe, The, d i a r y of Mrs. John Graves Simcoe, w i f e of the f i r s t Lieutenantgovernor of the province of Upper Canada, 1792-6, w i t h notes and a biography, by J . Ross Robertson, Toronto, W i l l i a m Briggs,- 1911, p. 95.  51. St. Petersburg f o r winter n a v i g a t i o n .  12  Furthermore, t r a v e l l e r s  r e t u r n i n g to the B r i t i s h I s l e s missed the b r i g h t sun, blue and c l e a r a i r of Canada.  sky,  A representative opinion ran as  f o l l o w s : "Upon the whole, the climate of the Canadas, compared w i t h the climate of Great B r i t a i n , i s e q u a l l y agreeable; equally favorable to a g r i c u l t u r e ; and a c t u a l l y more healthy.»  13  Most v i s i t o r s to Canada were not merely s i g h t s e e r s . Several observers were keenly i n t e r e s t e d i n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r developing the n a t u r a l endowment of s o i l s , vegetat i o n , and w i l d l i f e .  The most impressive f e a t u r e to any  newcomer was the vast and s t i l l l a r g e l y untouched f o r e s t . The spectacle on the Temiscouata portage i n s p i r e d one p r a c t i c a l Scot to a rare f l i g h t of eloquence: "Forest of the most s t a t e l y k i n d , coeval perhaps w i t h the world,  and  extensive as the great continent which sustains them, which have never s u f f e r e d diminution since the c r e a t i o n , and f i t to supply the world w i t h ship timber to the end of  time...."  12 Gray, L e t t e r s , pp. 319-320. 13 David Anderson, Canada: or, A view of the importance of the B r i t i s h American c o l o n i e s , London, J . M. Richardson, 1814, p. 46. 14 P a t r i c k Campbell, Travels i n the i n t e r i o r i n h a b i t e d p a r t s of North America i n the years 1791 and 1792, ed., w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n , H. H. Langton, and w i t h notes by H. H. Langton and ¥. F. Ganong, Toronto, Champlain S o c i e t y , 1937, p. 104.  14  52. I n t e r e s t i n g as was the f l o r a of Canada, i t d i d not evoke a f r a c t i o n of the v o c i f e r o u s comment accorded to i t s insect l i f e .  Few t r a v e l l e r s l e f t e i t h e r province without  h e a r t f e l t animadversions on the swarms of midges, mosquitoes, and other p e s t s .  flies,  C l e a r i n g and settlement  seems to have reduced the plague of mosquitoes i n Lower Canada.  During August 1796 they were rare i n Quebec and  Montreal, and the only inhabited area they i n f e s t e d was v 15 Trois-Rivieres.  The province made up f o r t h i s , however,  w i t h a superabundance  of house f l i e s , which drove a t l e a s t  one B r i t i s h v i s i t o r to d i s t r a c t i o n . Escape to the outdoors was thwarted by s a n d - f l i e s ( b r u l o t s ) , which denied any •I  repose i n the shade.  fL  Snakes were uncommon i n Lower Canada, but s t o r i e s about them had a morbid f a s c i n a t i o n f o r many t r a v e l l e r s . An o f f i c e r i n the Royal Engineers had an unpleasant encounter at the Cascades Rapids w i t h a s i x - f o o t blacksnake that crawled under h i s b l a n k e t s on a cold October night 17 i n 1802.  Most v i s i t o r s , however, were u n l i k e l y to have  any e x c i t i n g contact w i t h w i l d l i f e . The general route f o r t r a v e l l e d through the l i n e of c i t i e s , towns, and v i l l a g e s on the S t . Lawrence, avoiding the wilderness.  T r a v e l l e r s spent most of t h e i r time i n  15 Weld, Travels, p.,252 16 Lambert, Travels. v o l . 1, p. 127 17 Landmann, A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 2, pp. 254-256.  53. the l a r g e r communities, which thus influenced t h e i r impressions of the colony.  Quebec, f o r a l l i t s commanding  p o s i t i o n and a t t r a c t i v e s e t t i n g , d i d not arouse much enthusiasm.  Mrs. Simcoe had the misfortune to see the  c i t y f i r s t i n a dismal r a i n , but c l o s e r acquaintance not render i t much more a t t r a c t i v e .  did  She n o t i c e d the sharp  d i s t i n c t i o n between the Lower and Upper Towns: the former w i t h h i g h merchants' houses of dark stone l i n i n g "narrow and gloomy" s t r e e t s ; the l a t t e r "more a i r y and pleasant", 18 w i t h l e s s p r e t e n t i o u s houses. An anonymous B r i t i s h w r i t e r found the Lower Town i n October 1792 "one uniform scene of mud",  and suggested a  connection between the obvious French character of the 19 community and i t s u n c l e a n l l n e s s .  Another  unpleasant  f e a t u r e was the " i n t o l e r a b l e stench" when the t i d e was  out.  The Upper Town was by contrast "extremely agreeable" i n summer, w i t h i t s pure a i r and l a c k of oppressive  heat,  but even t h i s p a r t gave the impression of being poorly OA  l a i d out, w i t h "small, ugly, and inconvenient" houses. An I r i s h poet wrote one of the most devastating comments on Quebec during h i s v i s i t i n August 1804:  " I f anything  18 Simcoe, D i a r y , pp. 54, 61. 19 Canadian l e t t e r s , d e s c r i p t i o n of a tour thro' the provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, i n the course of the years 1792 and '93, Montreal* C. A. Marchand, 1912, p. 6.  54. can make the "beauty of the country more s t r i k i n g , i t i s the deformity and oddity of the c i t y which i t surrounds, and which l i e s hemmed i n by ramparts, amidst t h i s d e l i c i o u s scenery, l i k e a hog i n armour upon a bed of roses."  pi  The very features that l e n t to Quebec i t s picturesqueness and m i l i t a r y strength handicapped i t as a place of business and residence f o r a growing p o p u l a t i o n .  The  Lower Town, jammed between the r i v e r and the c l i f f , was not only unpleasant but also dangerous i n winter, when i c e f a l l i n g from the rocks sometimes i n j u r e d or k i l l e d people b e l o w .  22  Mountain S t r e e t , the main thoroughfare to  the higher l e v e l s , was a steep and winding path that taxed the strength of horses and pedestrians, although the l a t t e r 23 might choose the dubious a l t e r n a t i v e of Breakneck S t a i r s . Movement and growth i n the Upper Town were hampered by the f o r t i f i c a t i o n s and the extensive p r o p e r t i e s of r e l i g i o u s 24 i n s t i t u t i o n s , which forced people t o l i v e i n the suburbs-. Houses were hard to rent except i n May, when leases expired. Crowding was p a r t i c u l a r l y severe during sessions of the Assembly.  By 1806,  stone was the common b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l ,  21 Thomas Moore, Memoirs, j o u r n a l and correspondence of Thomas Moore, ed. the Right Honourable Lord John R u s s e l l , M.P., London, Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1853, V o l . 1, pp. 173-174. 22 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 17-18. 23 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 19-21. 24 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 68.  55 w i t h i r o n or t i n roofs on the b e t t e r houses, although many older structures were covered with shingles, i n defiance 25  of f i r e r e g u l a t i o n s . Other communities along the St. Lawrence f a r e d no b e t t e r than Quebec i n t r a v e l accounts.  Trois-Rivieres 26  appeared pleasant t o a young Englishman i n 1785,  but  l a t e r t r a v e l l e r s found i t unimpressive.  i t seemed  I n 1792,  to l a c k "bustle, animation, and industry"j' and was peopled 27 w i t h "indolent and l i s t l e s s " i n h a b i t a n t s .  The town d i d  not share i n the growth and p r o s p e r i t y that were n o t i c e able i n other p a r t s of the colony.  By 1806 i t was s t i l l a  small place of " p a l t r y wooden" houses, many of them decaying and unpainted, w i t h unpaved s t r e e t s that the wind whipped up 28 Sorel was another small centre, but more a t t r a c t i v e l y i n t o clouds of dust and sand. l a i d out. I t was predominantly English-speaking i n 1796, w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l L o y a l i s t population, and depended mainly ?9 on i t s s h i p b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y . "  i t s wealth and population  seemed to be d e c l i n i n g by 1807,  with the cessation of  shipbuilding.  The country people nearby neglected t h e i r  farms to ship as voyageurs. 25 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 17-18. 26 H a d f i e l d , Englishman i n America, 1785, p. 119. 27 Canadian l e t t e r s , p. 18* 28 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 466-467. 29 Weld., Travels, p. 191. 30 Lambert, T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, p. 509.  56. T r a v e l l e r s a r r i v i n g from the United States by the Lake Champlain route were not impressed by the g a r r i s o n town of Saint-Jean.  I n 1796 i t consisted of d i l a p i d a t e d f o r t i f i c a -  t i o n s and "about f i f t y miserable wooden d w e l l i n g s " .  To make  matters worse, a d i s a s t r o u s f i r e i n 1788 had l e f t the surrounding countryside bare, causing a f u e l shortage i n 31 t h i s land of f o r e s t s . Montreal appealed t o most t r a v e l l e r s on account of i t s s i t u a t i o n i n the midst of a f r u i t f u l landscape which o f f e r e d a p l e a s i n g contrast to the s t e r i l e grandeur of Quebec.  The advantages of the m i l d e r c l i m a t e were often  mentioned.  An account r e l a t i n g to the year 1786 described  Montreal as a "handsome, w e l l b u i l t c i t y " , about two-thirds the s i z e of Quebec, "abounding w i t h a l l the conveniences of l i f e " , and w e l l s i t u a t e d f o r trade w i t h the Indians to the .32 west. Another B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r i n 1792 found the c i t y cleaner than Quebec, and thought i t resembled an E n g l i s h country town, w i t h i t s flagged s t r e e t s and stone b u i l d i n g s , lower and neater than most French houses.  Outside the w a l l s ,  which were decaying r a p i d l y by 1796, most houses were of  31 Weld, Travels, pp. 174-175 32cS. Hollingsworthj, The present s t a t e of Nova S c o t i a : w i t h a b r i e f account of Canada, and the B r i t i s h i s l a n d s on the coast of North"America, 2nd ed., c o r r . and e n l . , Edinburgh, W. Creech, 1787,„ p. 204. 33 Canadian l e t t e r s , pp. 21-22.  57. wood;  those near  the  r i v e r had the  look  of  stone  "prisons",  34 on a c c o u n t clergyman houses  of  their  i n 1799  fireproof  admired the  and c h u r c h e s " ,  iron  shutters.  "handsome  traversed  by  An American  v i e w of  "regular  well  and  built  commodious"  streets. Prom the with  the  light  glistening the  and gloom.  in  sombre 1807  as  grey  i n the  interior  the  water,  Montreal presented walls  sun.  roofs  On c l o s e r  of  the  city  The  red  or  gave.an  masses  its  impression  buildings  ponderous  of  of  shutters described  of  stone,  appearance  buildings  acquaintance,  lead-colored  atmosphere of "...  and t i n  a striking  however, heaviness  intensified by  one  erected  writer with  36 very  little  taste  same w r i t e r  and l e s s  admitted  judgment."  the b e a u t y of  wealthy merchants had b u i l t and  gardens. Between  the  the  total,  ,34 W e l d ,  the  country  environs,  houses  the  where  amidst  orchards  3 7  the  population  diversity.  Nevertheless,  of  The but  American Revolution  and t h e  Lower Canada i n c r e a s e d  aborigines attracted  Travels,  pp.  made  the  up o n l y  attention  War o f  i n number  1812 and  a small part of  of  numerous  177-178  3 5 [-John C o s e n s Ogdenj, A t o u r , - t h r o u g h U p p e r a n d L o w e r Canada. B y a c i t i z e n of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Containing, a v i e w of the p r e s e n t s t a t e of r e l i g i o n , l e a r n i n g , commerce, a g r i c u l t u r e , c o l o n i z a t i o n , c u s t o m s a n d m a n n e r s , among t h e E n g l i s h , F r e n c h and I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t s . T a r r y t o w n , N . Y . R e p r i n t e d , W. A b b a t t , 1 9 1 7 , p . 6 36  Lambert,  37  Ibid.,  Travels,  vol.  1,  pp.  v o l . 1,  pp.  522-523.  516-517.  58. travellers.  Most Europeans, however, saw the Indians only  near, c i t i e s , where contact w i t h c i v i l i z a t i o n had considerably altered their native qualities. V i s i t o r s t o Quebec were l i k e l y t o include the v i l l a g e of L o r e t t e i n t h e i r i t i n e r a r i e s , and they g e n e r a l l y expressed pleasure at the evidence of progress by the l o c a l Hurons. One B r i t i s h o f f i c e r thought them " f a r advanced towards c i v i l i z a t i o n " , i n view of t h e i r s u b s t a n t i a l houses, Well's-  attended church, and lands c u l t i v a t e d as i n d i v i d u a l property. Not a l l the Indians around Quebec were so impressive.  Another  w r i t e r was disgusted w i t h the ragged, d i r t y n a t i v e s who wandered through the s t r e e t s "with a b o t t l e of rum i n one hand and a raw b u l l o c k ' s head i n the other", although he remarked that the women seemed t o be more c a r e f u l of t h e i r 39 appearance than the men and l e s s addicted to l i q u o r . Caughnawaga appeared l e s s s u c c e s s f u l than L o r e t t e . I t produced one remarkable leader known as Gaptain Thomas, who d e a l t e x t e n s i v e l y i n f u r s .  This gentleman made a  favorable impression on a S c o t t i s h t r a v e l l e r i n 1791 through 40 h i s respectable behavior and moderation i n d r i n k i n g . Unfortunately, by 1807 the g a l l a n t c a p t a i n had become a slave to a l c o h o l , and the v i l l a g e i t s e l f was c h a r a c t e r i z e d 38 Landmann, Adventures, v o l . 2, p. 128. 39 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 357-360. 40 Campbell, Travels, pp. 138-139.  59. "by i d l e n e s s , i t s houses " d i r t y , miserable, and d e s t i t u t e 41 of f u r n i t u r e " , i t s s t r e e t s " f o r l o r n and wretched".  Here,  as at L o r e t t e , there were a number of fair-complexioned c h i l d r e n being r a i s e d by the women.  These were i l l e g i t i m a t e  o f f s p r i n g of white parentage,  adopted by the Indians and 42 cared f o r w i t h every evidence of a f f e c t i o n . In contrast to the Indians, the people of European o r i g i n increased s t e a d i l y a f t e r the American R e v o l u t i o n . French-speaking h a b i t a n t s s t i l l formed the overwhelming m a j o r i t y i n Lower Canada.  There was no great change i n  t h e i r general character up to the War of 1812.  Nearly  every t r a v e l l e r described them as c h e e r f u l and v i v a c i o u s , although one account represents some of them as s u l l e n 43 and b l u n t l i k e Americans. In most ways, however, the h a b i t a n t s were v e r y d i f f e r e n t from Americans.  They were summed up by a B r i t i s h  observer  i n 1806 as "an i n o f f e n s i v e quiet people, possessed of l i t t l e i n d u s t r y and l e s s a m b i t i o n . "  44  I n compensation f o r t h e i r  d e f e c t s , they showed "easy and p o l i t e " manners t o a l l without d i s t i n c t i o n of persons, and had the a i r of town-dwellers  41 Lambert, T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, pp. 533, 537. 42 H a d f i e l d , Englishman i n America, 1785,pp. 151-152. 43 Weld, T r a v e l s , p. 194. 44 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 149-150.  60. rather than countrymen.  45  Peasant and l a b o r e r a l i k e p a i d  one another compliments w i t h a grace f a r d i f f e r e n t from the 46 coarseness of the working-class Londoner. The voyageurs were an exception t o the p a t t e r n of French-Canadian l i f e i n t h e i r l i k i n g . f o r t r a v e l and adventure.  What a t t r a c t e d them t o t h i s desperately hard and  dangerous l i f e was not so much the pay as the p r e s t i g e accruing to the hommes du nord,who looked down contemptuously 47 on the mangeurs de l a r d back on the farms*  On r e t u r n i n g  from a t r i p the voyageur was l i a b l e to indulge i n "extravagance and debauchery" that contrasted sharply w i t h the f r u g a l 48 and modest behavior of the ordinary h a b i t a n t . French Canadian women had t o work hard, but enjoyed considerable standing i n the community.  Mrs. Simcoe found  them b e t t e r educated than the men, who l e f t the management 49 of a f f a i r s t o t h e i r wives.  Heavy l a b o r i n the open a i r  q u i c k l y robbed the g i r l s of t h e i r n a t u r a l beauty.  Town  g i r l s r e t a i n e d the f r i v o l o u s and c o q u e t t i s h nature observed by t r a v e l l e r s before the Conquest.  The example of E n g l i s h  45 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 149-150. 46 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 173. 47 Landmann, Adventures, v o l . 1, p. 310. 48 Hugh Gray, L e t t e r s , p. 156. 49 Simcoe, D i a r y , p. 91.  61 reserve had done l i t t l e to modify t h e i r t a s t e f o r l a v i s h d i s p l a y , f l i r t a t i o u s conduct, and risque conversation. B r i t i s h immigrants to Lower Canada tended to concent r a t e i n Montreal and Quebec, where the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r mercantile success were greatest.  I n 1795 the Scots were  w e l l i n the lead of the business community on account of t h e i r "superior i n d u s t r y and a c t i v i t y " .  Thirteen years  l a t e r another t r a v e l l e r remarked on the dominance of b u s i ness by the " i n d e f a t i g a b l e and persevering" Scots, whose d i l i g e n c e and knowledge, coupled w i t h t h e i r undoubted l o y a l t y to the crown, made them i n v a l u a b l e to the colony.  52  Not long a f t e r the American Revolution L o y a l i s t immig r a t i o n was supplemented by numerous a r r i v a l s from the United States whose motive was other than attachment to British institutions.  Hardy New Englanders crossed the  border i n t o what became the Eastern Townships, where they showed themselves more aggressive and adaptable than French 53 Canadians or B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s .  By 1806,  " a c t i v e and  e n t e r p r i s i n g " Americans had achieved business success i n Montreal at the expense of the B r i t i s h , who  seemed handi-  capped by the e f f e c t s of the long winters and the i n f l u e n c e 54 of French h a b i t s . 50 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1. -pp. 289- 290. 51 Canadian l e t t e r s ,  p. 80.  52 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 147-148. 53 Hugh Gray, L e t t e r s , p.  364.  54 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 241-242.  62. Amidst t h i s growing d i v e r s i t y of peoples, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to f i n d a reference to the small Jewish community. A B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r was  at T r o i s - R i v i e r e s during the con-  troversy over the e l e c t i o n of E z e k i e l Hart to the Legisl a t i v e Assembly of Lower Canada.  The author thought oppo-  s i t i o n to h i s seating was caused by the d e s i r e of the Frenchspeaking members f o r an a d d i t i o n a l representative, and considered  he  exclusion on grounds of r e l i g i o n u n j u s t i f i e d .  The Hart f a m i l y was  "respectable" and c o n t r o l l e d most of 55 the commerce i n the St-Maurice d i s t r i c t . With the i n c r e a s i n g complexity  of s o c i e t y there seems  to have developed a c e r t a i n s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and at l e a s t i n the towns of Lower Canada.  stiffness,  Lambert d i s t i n g u i s h e d  three d i v i s i o n s of the Quebec p o p u l a t i o n during h i s stay i n 1806:  an upper c l a s s of d i g n i t a r i e s , leading members of., the  p r o f e s s i o n s , and merchants; a middle group of l e s s e r mer-chants, shopkeepers, subordinate  o f f i c i a l s and army o f f i c e r s ,  minor c l e r g y , lawyers, doctors, and other B r i t i s h r e s i d e n t s ; l a s t l y , the whole French community, except f o r a few 56 officials.  This s o c i e t y was by no means so gay and f r i e n d l y  as described by e a r l i e r w r i t e r s .  Jealousy and snobbery  gave b i r t h to r i v a l groups whose feuds s p l i t the populace  55 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 241-242. 56 I b i d . , v o l . 1,  p.  274.  63. i n t o warring f a c t i o n s .  Scandal was rampant.  57  A similar  s i t u a t i o n on a miniature scale e x i s t e d a t T r o i s - R i v i e r e s . . One reason f o r t h i s unwholesome c o n d i t i o n was the v i r t u a l segregation  of the E n g l i s h and French communities.  The frequent c o r d i a l i t y that marked e a r l i e r contacts appears to have "been replaced by mutual s u s p i c i o n and repugnance. Divergent a t t i t u d e s towards the American and French Revol u t i o n s may hare exacerbated r e l a t i o n s between the two races.  French Canadians r e t a i n e d a n a t u r a l longing f o r  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the mere-patrie 58 and i t s people — "nos pauvres gens". The persistence of the language b a r r i e r aggravated the c l a s h of opinions.  French Canadians showed an uncon-  querable aversion to l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , f o r c i n g the B r i t i s h r e s i d e n t s t o acquire a t l e a s t a rudimentary knowledge of 59 French.  3  A B r i t i s h w r i t e r d e s c r i b i n g conditions i n 1807  lamented that French was used u n i v e r s a l l y i n the Assembly, the p u b l i c o f f i c e s , and the c o u r t s .  6 0  The government was  c r i t i c i z e d f o r not spreading a knowledge of E n g l i s h and p r e s c r i b i n g . i t s use i n p u b l i c business.  This p o l i c y  57 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 293-294. 58 Hugh Gray, L e t t e r s , p. 334. 59 Weld, Travels, p. 180. 60 Hugh Gray, L e t t e r s , p. 101.  v.";-.-.;..u  64 would have ensured l o y a l t y and f u r t h e r e d the r e a l i n t e r e s t s of the French Canadians as a people l i n k e d by commerce w i t h 61 B r i t a i n and the United States. To well-educated  t r a v e l l e r s the French spoken i n  Canada sounded strange and sometimes r i d i c u l o u s .  Mrs.  Simcoe deplored the i n d i s c r i m i n a t e use of the a d j e c t i v e s 62 magnifique and superbe f o r t r i v i a l objects.  Lambert  found the language of the Quebec market-place p u z z l i n g to an Englishman knowing only "boarding-school  French", and  was amused at the "curious s o r t of jargon" used f o r bargain63 ing between French and E n g l i s h .  He n o t i c e d the p r o f u s i o n  of anglicisms, and also archaic words, such as f r e t e f o r f r o i d , i c i t e f o r i c i , and parre f o r pr£t.  In view of these  p e c u l i a r i t i e s , he thought that the Canadians d i d not deserve the r e p u t a t i o n of speaking pure and c o r r e c t French before the Qonquest, unless contact w i t h the B r i t i s h had a l t e r e d . ... 64 t h e i• r pronunciation.  •4.1-  I t i s hard to gain an i d e a of the moral character of the peoples of Lower Canada i n t h i s p e r i o d .  Observers  were l i a b l e to be e i t h e r h o s t i l e or s u p e r f i c i a l .  Under-  standably, the crowded conditions of h a b i t a n t l i f e d i d not  61 Hugh Gray, L e t t e r s , p. 335-338. 62 Simcoe, D i a r y , p. 91. 63 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 87-88. 64 I b i d . ,  v o l . 1, pp. 176-177.  65 permit the p r i v a c y that Englishmen of r e f i n e d upbringing expected.  A young t r a v e l l e r i n 1785 discovered that  men,  women, and c h i l d r e n a l l s l e p t i n the same room, and he  was  d i s t r e s s e d at a l a c k of modesty on the p a r t of h i s hostess.  65  This experience i s hard to r e c o n c i l e w i t h the judgment of a l a t e r t r a v e l l e r that the habitants were "unusually modest". Men would never go bathing without.-trousers or at l e a s t a handkerchief  around t h e i r w a i s t s .  Whatever may have been the s i t u a t i o n i n the countryside, urban l i f e seems to have had a bad e f f e c t on morals. i  An Englishman at Quebec i n 1792 declared: "The  environs of  Quebec are i n f e s t e d w i t h p r o s t i t u t e s of the lowest order, 67 who  s o l i c i t the a t t e n t i o n of passengers at noonday."  Servant g i r l s from French Canadian f a m i l i e s were soon corrupted by the bad example of t h e i r m i s t r e s s e s .  The  higher c l a s s e s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n strong language by a t r a v e l l e r who 1806 to 1808:  spent a good deal of time i n s o c i e t y from  "For a small s o c i e t y l i k e that of Canada,  the numbers of u n f a i t h f u l wives, kept m i s t r e s s e s , and 65 Robert Hunter, Quebec to C a r o l i n a i n 1785-1786, being the t r a v e l d i a r y and observations of Robert Hunter, j r . " , a young merchant of London,ed. Louis B. Wright arid Marion T i n l i n g , San Marino, C a l i f . , Huntington l i b r a r y , 1943, pp. -24, 26. 66 Lambert, Travels, v o l . .1, p. 67 Canadian l e t t e r s , p. 15.  165.  66.  g i r l s of easy v i r t u e , exceed i n proportion those of the o l d country, and i t i s supposed that i n the towns more "68 c h i l d r e n are horn i l l e g i t i m a t e l y than i n wedlock. Even i f we discount t h i s opinion considerably, i t suggests that Canadians of a l l c l a s s e s were l e s s v i r t u o u s than t h e i r outward decorum and r e l i g i o s i t y i n d i c a t e d . There was a streak of f r i v o l i t y and extravagance i n the Canadian character that o c c a s i o n a l l y b u r s t f o r t h i n t o riotous l i f e . Canadian food and eating h a b i t s continued tinctive.  to be d i s -  Sometimes the standard d i e t was enlivened by  native dishes that t i t i l l a t e d the p a l a t e s of v i s i t o r s . Mrs. Simcoe t r i e d a d e l i c a c y which she described as "the moufle of the o r i g n a l e " (moose nose?) at Quebec i n 1791, and mentioned a p i e of "crete de coys" [ s i c ] , presumably 69 cockscombs, which was a f a v o r i t e d i s h . The s t y l e of l i v i n g among the "genteel" c l a s s e s a t Quebec was s i m i l a r t o that i n England.  French Canadians  of the same status tended to f o l l o w the B r i t i s h except f o r r e l i g i o u s f a s t s .  example  Beef, mutton, pork, and v e a l  could be bought d i r e c t l y from the habitants as w e l l as from butchers, but the l a t t e r u s u a l l y supplied b e t t e r quality.  The lowest c l a s s of Canadians bought only f a t  68 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 292-293. 69 Simcoe, D i a r y , p. 66.  67. pork, the b a s i c ingredient of t h e i r t h i c k soups. was n a t u r a l l y the time f o r f i s h .  Lent  On Holy Saturday meat  was displayed w i t h decorations f o r the r e g a l at the end of the f a s t .  7 0  Bread was dear and " i n d i f f e r e n t " at Quebec, p o s s i b l y because poor f l o u r from the markets was mixed w i t h the b e t t e r product from the m i l l s .  M a g i s t r a t e s set the p r i c e  of bread every month i n r e l a t i o n to the p r i c e of f l o u r . These p r i c e s seemed unreasonably h i g h f o r a wheat-exporting 71 country. The home-made wheat and rye bread from the famous outdoor ovens was "coarse and heavy", being sour 72 from lack of yeast. Englishmen noted w i t h s u r p r i s e the extravagant fondness f o r corn on the cob, w i t h b u t t e r and s a l t .  Remarking  on t h i s great North American d i s h , Lambert wrote: "They p i c k the corn o f f the cob i n the same s t y l e , and w i t h as much gout, as an alderman p i c k s the wing of a f o w l at a city feast."  7 5  No l e s s d i s c o n c e r t i n g was the French h a b i t of b o i l i n g 74  tea or coffee water i n f r y i n g pans f o r want of k e t t l e s . Tea was expensive.  Green v a r i e t i e s imported from the United  States were the most common.  Coffee and chocolate, both of  70 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 71-72. 71 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 95-96. 72 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 157-158. 73 I b i d . , v o l , 1, pp. 132-133 74 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 185.  68.  inferior  q u a l i t y , were p r e f e r r e d b y  o f w h i c h M a d e i r a was and h a d s p o i l e d t h e favorite  spirit.  Canadian foods that  explains  1808): for  it'will  and "beverages a good d e a l  i n Canada;  never  for  were  about  is  it  of  is  answer f o r  the  suggested  cheap  l i t t l e  Rum w a s  in a  the  the  to  high priced;  (1806-  recommend  or  that  it  what  as, i n t h a t  a Canadian market;  of  passage  time  consequence  fifty,  inferior,  i n d i f f e r e n t nature  Canada at  o n l y to be  it  if  for  Wines,  also  good v a r i e t i e s .  never b r i n g the merchant  cent."  its  case  is,  it  one h u n d r e d p e r  7 6  Canadian century. long  taste  The r e a s o n s  q u a l i t i e s may b e ,  will  the most p o p u l a r , were  " A n a r t i c l e , ha.s  sale  the F r e n c h .  d i d not  change much i n the  One u n c h a r i t a b l e E n g l i s h m a n i n 1 7 8 5  cloaks  pointed  costume  out  garments  worn b y the  over  the  women c o n v e n i e n t  i n c o n g r u i t y of  shabby  or d i r t y  for  which  thought stealing,  t h e i r handsome clothes  eighteenth  silk  the and  outer  t h e y were  too  77 lazy  to  muffs,  change. mittens,  expensive  as  but  Lambert,  76  Ibid.,  Travels,  v o l . 1,  shape  t h e y v/ere  had taken p l a c e ,  influenced by  v o l . 1,  pp.  Q.uebec t o  i n 1798  i n the  of  twice  as  78  The y o u n g e r women,  77 H u n t e r ,  o f t e n worn  g r a d u a l changes  75  78  and c a p s ,  i n England.  B y 1806 areas.  F u r s were  pp.  the  even  Landmann, A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 1,  p.  101-102.  38.. pp.  rural  servant-girls  100-101.  Carolina,  in  266-267.  69. of Quebec, were abandoning some of the o l d fashions, such as long waists and f u l l caps, but many continued to wear  7Q  home-made f a b r i c s . belatedly.  57  Town-dwellers followed E n g l i s h fashions  Men s c l o t h i n g was undistinguished. 1  Many gentle-  men of Quebec dressed i n s l o v e n l y manner during the winter 80  on the assumption that a greatcoat covered everything. I t was i n t e r e s t i n g to note s u r v i v a l s of eighteenth-century French elegance i n the powdered h a i r and cheeks rouged w i t h beetroot that some women and even a few men displayed on o1  Sundays and f e s t i v a l s . Tobacco and rum were the p r i n c i p a l l u x u r i e s of the habitants.  The indulgence  i n smoking v/as c a r r i e d t o fan-  t a s t i c lengths, e s p e c i a l l y by the voyageurs, who were c o n t i n u a l l y stopping t h e i r v e s s e l s "pour allumer l a pipe", Op  notwithstanding the remonstrances of t h e i r passengers. The t a s t e f o r rum was widespread amongst the men, and sometimes l e d to excesses.  In the Quebec market-place  "debauches" were frequent, and most of the farmers were i n t o x i c a t e d on t h e i r r e t u r n .  I t i s c l e a r that the Canadian  peasantry, f o r a l l t h e i r happiness and contentment, were not i n s e n s i t i v e t o the allurements of a l c o h o l . 79 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 159-160. 80 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 307-308. 81 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 174. 82 Hunter, Quebec to C a r o l i n a , p. 66. 83 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 156-157.  70. The ceremonies of s o c i a l l i f e amongst the French Canadians appeared h i g h l y elaborate to B r i t i s h v i s i t o r s . Weddings a t t r a c t e d l a r g e numbers of f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s , who rode to church i n long cavalcades of caleches or c a r i oles.  In town, married couples often paraded the s t r e e t s  during the afternoon f o l l o w i n g the s e r v i c e , accompanied 84 by crowds of f r i e n d s . Funerals were even more spectacular, e s p e c i a l l y to Protestants unused to C a t h o l i c pomp and unrestrained emotion. The amount of d i s p l a y v a r i e d w i t h the wealth of the deceased, although even the poorest was conveyed i n a procession by an acolyte and p r i e s t .  One of the most splendid f u n e r a l s  recorded was that of the wife of Faucher, the S o l i c i t o r General, at Quebec i n 1799.  I t was described by an E n g l i s h  v i s i t o r as f o l l o w s : The i n t e r i o r of the cathedral was hung w i t h black from top to bottom, on a l l s i d e s , and t h i c k l y covered w i t h white spots e x a c t l y of the shape of tadpoles, but v a s t l y l a r g e r , to represent t e a r s . The cathedral was i l l u m i n e d by many thousands of wax-tapers; i n short everything, which the Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y could suggest as magnificent and c o s t l y , and which the ample pocket of the S o l i c i t o r General could e a s i l y defray, was e x h i b i t e d on t h i s occasion. st>  The same gusto shown i n these solemn ceremonies was c a r r i e d over i n t o the l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s of the French Canadians.  Their fondness f o r dancing and games on Sunday  84 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, p.  168.  85 Landmann, Adventures, v o l . 2, pp. 62-63.  71. r e c a l l e d the customs of o l d France.  Winter continued  to he the season f o r r e c r e a t i o n , which reached a h i g h p o i n t i n the b r i l l i a n t s o c i e t y of the c a p i t a l .  Here dancing  was the " r u l i n g passion" f o r young and o l d , although con87 c e r t s and p l a y s as w e l l enlivened the long evenings. P a r t i e s would d r i v e s e v e r a l m i l e s i n t o the country, often c a r r y i n g a c o l d dinner, then r e t u r n to town f o r a dance, even i n the most severe weather.®® Montreal d i d not enjoy the o f f i c i a l p r e s t i g e of Quebec, but i t s populace more than made up f o r t h i s handicap by t h e i r s o c i a b i l i t y and h o s p i t a l i t y to strangers. An I r i s h v i s i t o r painted a pleasant p i c t u r e of s o c i e t y i n 1796: "In winter they keep up such a constant and f r i e n d l y i n t e r course w i t h each other, that i t seems then as i f the town were inhabited but by one large f a m i l y . " * 0  U n r i v a l l e d f o r c o n v i v i a l i t y were the Nor'westers,  who  seemed determined to make up f o r the hardships of f u r t r a d i n g by l a v i s h expenditure and over-indulgence. A young B r i t i s h o f f i c e r has l e f t a d e s c r i p t i o n of a h i l a r i o u s r e v e l under the auspices of S i r Alexander Mackenzie and W i l l i a m  86 Hunter, Quebec to C a r o l i n a , .p. 35. 87 Canadian l e t t e r s , pp. 8, 12. 88 Simcoe, D i a r y , pp. 60-61. 89 Weld, Travels, p. 181.  72. M c G i l l i v r a y i n December 1797: We now began i n r i g h t earnest and true highland s t y l e , and by four o'clock i n the morning, the whole of us had a r r i v e d at such a degree of perf e c t i o n , that we could a l l give the war-whoop as w e l l as Mackenzie and M c G i l l i v r a y , we could a l l sing admirably, we could a l l drink l i k e f i s h e s , and we a l l thought we could dance on the t a b l e without d i s t u r b i n g a s i n g l e decanter, g l a s s or p l a t e by which i t was p r o f u s e l y covered; but on making the experiment we discovered that i t was a complete d e l u s i o n , and u l t i m a t e l y , we broke a l l the p l a t e s , g l a s s e s , b o t t l e s , & c , and the table a l s o , and worse than a l l the heads and hands of the p a r t y received many severe contusions, cuts and s c r a t c h e s . 90  The Highland Scots brought w i t h them a zest f o r enjoyment t h a t f i t t e d i n admirably w i t h the d i v e r s i o n s of the Canadian winter.  Their boisterous  good-fellowship  was a b e t t e r expression of popular character than the decorum of the Governor's reception at Quebec. I t i s s u r p r i s i n g to l e a r n of a d e c l i n e i n s o c i a b i l i t y and c o n v i v i a l i t y a f t e r the turn of the century.  Although  the common people kept up t h e i r amusements, the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s at the c a p i t a l were reduced to s i x s u b s c r i p t i o n dances during the season. a round o f entertainment P r i v a t e entertainments  The Governor's presence brought confined to the upper c l a s s e s .  indoors consisted mainly of tea and  card p a r t i e s . Most people resorted t o c a r i o l i n g to d i v e r t 91 themselves throughout the winter. Snobbishness had s e t  90 Landmann, Adventures, v o l . 1, p. 234. 91 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 298-300.  73. up obstacles to pleasant s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s even w i t h i n similar classes. In contrast to e a r l i e r days, winter at Quebec might be d u l l f o r young strangers.  The B r i t i s h community d i d  not celebrate Easter, Whitsun, Michaelmas, and Christmas as i n England, New Year's Day being the great f e s t i v a l . Even t h i s c e l e b r a t i o n had l o s t i t s piquancy w i t h the 92 cessation of the p r a c t i c e of k i s s i n g a l l and sundry. One new d i v e r s i o n , however, was horse-racing, which was introduced by the Governor on the P l a i n s of Abraham i n 1807.  Habitants r i d i n g Canadian horses competed f o r a  purse, making up i n z e a l and energy f o r what they lacked i n horsemanship.^  3  The d e t e r i o r a t i o n of s o c i a l amenities d i d not a f f e c t Montreal so s e r i o u s l y . There the Nor'westers continued to set the pace w i t h l a v i s h and l i v e l y e n t e r t a i n ments, despite the carping of c e r t a i n envious  citizens.  Furthermore, there was always escape i n t o the  strenuous  a c t i v i t i e s of the countryside f o r energetic young people w i l l i n g to put up w i t h a few discomforts. S o c i a l and c u l t u r a l conditions i n lower Canada responded slowly to the changes i n population. to a fundamental conservatism.  Housing bore witness  As the c i t i e s grew, stone  92 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 298-300. 93 I b i d . . v o l . 1, p.  308.  74. replaced b r i c k i n the c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t s , but wood remained the usual m a t e r i a l i n the suburbs and countryside.  A  whitewashed s t r u c t u r e of square logs s a t i s f i e d most habitants.  An Irishman considered these "more compact and  b e t t e r b u i l t " than American l o g cabins, although they were not p r o p e r l y v e n t i l a t e d , even i n warm weather.  When he  asked the owners why they d i d not a i r t h e i r houses, he was t o l d : "Ge n*est pas l a maniere des habitans." Another v i s i t o r from the B r i t i s h I s l e s considered these b u i l d i n g s l e s s a t t r a c t i v e than the farmhouses f i n i s h e d with painted clapboards that he had seen i n the United States He p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s l i k e d the shabby outer doors l i k e sentryboxes that were sometimes b u i l t out i n t o the s t r e e t s .  This  arrangement was l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y than a porch or double entrance; the houses moreover were p o o r l y designed 96 f i n i s h e d to guard against the c o l d . I n t e r i o r s were g e n e r a l l y p l a i n and simple, w i t h r e l i g i o u s p i c t u r e s or images.  and  decorated  Canadian f u r n i t u r e was  p r e f e r r e d because a r t i c l e s of E n g l i s h make f e l l apart i n 97 the heat of the stoves.  Indoor temperatures sometimes  rose to a p p a l l i n g heights. 94 Weld, Travels, p.  Mrs. Simcoe nearly f a i n t e d w i t h  194.  95 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, p. 96 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 314-315. 97 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 316-317.  152.  75. the at  heat w h i l e at one  residence  Quebec  i n December  1791.  thermometer  She was  that  the  read  100°]?.  This  o v e r h e a t i n g was u s u a l l y  told  in  the  98 drawing-room.  t o new a r r i v a l s f r o m B r i t a i n , seemed  to  enjoy  would f i n d of  the  and f r e e z i n g The  cost  of  of  a b t a i n i n g f i r e w o o d as c o u l d have been the  people  Ho d o u b t tory  health  of  stance  that  Instances even the  the  disliked  of  the  of  time.  Simcoe,  the  smell.  caused  1 <  99  H . Gray,  increasing  expense  a certain  c o m m u n i t y seems  to have been to  l o n g e v i t y were numerous aged r a p i d l y  p.  57.  Letters,  pp.  pp.  99  cut  down.  the  amount  good,  dry  101  Landmann, A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 1,  among t h e  the  a circum-  habitants, especially  285-286. pp.  respira-  climate.  304-305.  Ibid.,  of  however,  i n appearance,  100  ballast,  ^°  In general,  Diary,  roasting  equal  1 0 1  98  circu-  h a d become  n e a r b y woods were  i n Lower Canada.  though they women.  same  i n Quebec  was u s u a l l y a s c r i b e d  of  spite  i m p o r t e d c h e a p l y f r o m B r i t a i n as  overheating  disease  the  because the  in  o b v i o u s l y promoted  at  houses  i n London b y 1808,  comfortable,  English practice  sides  heating  that  but  the  on o p p o s i t e  to  Goal  Stoves  and d i d away w i t h  residents  Occasionally a v i s i t o r  arrangements  "English prejudices".  lation  a l t h o u g h permanent  stuffiness.  the heating  distressing  310-311.  76. It  was d i f f i c u l t t o k e e p  on a c c o u n t sons.  of  the  constant  Typhus was  and Quebec,  severe  exacting  epidemics  i n f l u x of  i n the  out  troops  autumn of  a heavy death  of  toll  the  for  1799  province  the  garri-  at  Montreal  among t h e  soldiers  102 because  of  poor  advance  was  treatment.  s i g n a l i z e d by  w i t h w h a t was  thought  in  America.  Several  to  Quebec  obtain  to  Certain in  1806  &c."  of  the  snow-water  in  At  Quebec,  there  the  were  the  of  river  to  United States  this  the  At  Trois-Rivieres  springs  people i n the  and the  other glands,  w h i c h was  local  water  it  well  was n o t  used local  the  the  why  unaffected.  104  standards,  river,  rock.  or  clear  s u p p l i e s were  s u p p l i e s were poor b y modern most  1 0 3  condition,  but  for  came  development.  s w e l l i n g of  this  children arrive  swelled necks,  as mumps,  Lawrence,  medical  Of two  vaccine  localized.  drinking  St.  first  from the  ascribed  to  i n 1906, good  the  "...wens,  u s i n g the  water  vaccination  benefits  throat,  goitre,  Civic  be  doctors  Some o b s e r v e r s  cities  the  d i s e a s e s were  apparently  other  to  m a n y women h a d  disorders  In"1801 a great  although  Carters  sold  105 barrels  of  suppliers  102  water  at  went f a r  sixpence out  or  on the  Landmann, A d v e n t u r e s ,  eightpence  ice  vol.  each.  in winter  2,  pp.  to  Montreal  obtain  clear  121-122.  1 0 3 I b i d . , v o l . 2 , pp. 2 3 6 - 2 3 7 . The a u t h o r p e r s o n a l l y r e c e i v e d t h e f i r s t s h i p m e n t o f v a c c i n e , w h i c h was i n s e r t e d between g l a s s s l i d e s and despatched b y m a i l . 104  Lambert,  105  Ibid.,  Travels,  vol.  1,  pp.  vol.  1,  pp.  390-391.  499-500.  water, avoiding the t u r b i d stream of the O t t a w a .  106  H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n was almost e n t i r e l y provided by the female r e l i g i o u s orders.  The nuns were warmly p r a i s e d  by nearly every t r a v e l l e r f o r t h e i r kindness and competence as nurses.  In 1785 an Englishman found the H o p i t a l  General and H o t e l Dieu at Quebec neat, clean, and o r d e r l y . 107  Wards were uncrowded and medicine was p r o p e r l y dispensed. A s i m i l a r impression was received by another v i s i t o r at Montreal i n 1792.  He thought the poor could gain admission 108  more e a s i l y than i n England.  These testimonies are  p a r t i c u l a r l y impressive coming from P r o t e s t a n t s who were i n s t i n c t i v e l y c r i t i c a l of C a t h o l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . The treatment of mental p a t i e n t s was l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y than tha,t of the s i c k .  In 1808, a l u n a t i c g i r l of twenty  was kept chained i n a hut near T r o i s - R i v i e r e s , and several l u n a t i c s wandered around loose at Quebec and Montreal, 109  l o o k i n g f o r money to spend on rum.  Foundlings were taken  care of, but not so w e l l as i n L o n d o n .  110  There was l e s s p r o v i s i o n f o r the i n t e l l e c t u a l advancement of the people of Lower Canada than f o r t h e i r b o d i l y welfare.  The church supplied i n s t r u c t i o n on a modest scale  106 Landmann, Adventures, v o l . 2, p. 172. 107 H a d f i e l d , Englishman i n America, 1785, pp. 156, 158, 108 Canadian l e t t e r s , p p . 27-28. 109 Lambert, Travels, v o l . 1, pp. 501-502. 110 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 502.  78.  to  the  French-speaking  clergyman  i n 1799  population.  deprecated  Roman c l e r g y  wished to  out  suppression  that  the  keep of  the  A visiting Episcopal  common c h a r g e t h a t  the  people  in  the  Jesuits  the  ignorance,  had dealt  pointing  a  severe  111 blow to not  education.  generally  from the of  schools  tic  educated,  female  Nuns i n the  orders:  country.  in  facilities  to  a small group  cates  acquired  than  i n 1806  1  1  "reading, facilities  for  training  thought but  perhaps  He c h a r a c t e r i z e d  3  embroidery, for  clerks,  to  frugality"  111  Ogden,  Tour,  112  Ibid.,  pp.  113  Lambert,  114  Ibid.,  of  the  pp.  the  curriculum  a great  on the  habitants.  26-27.  v o l . 1,  pp.  vol.  1,  pp.  165-166,  284-285. 285.  the  lower  circumas  blaming the  extent  advo-  critical  under  16-17.  Travels,  A  112  their  and  sufficient female  domes-  professions.  instruction  114  monious  the  notaries,  of  system  and  extended  culture.  and s u p e r s t i t i o n " ,  schooling  a n d G-rey  instruction.  preparing for  standards  schooling  a widespread  religious  literary  the  cities  •,; p r i e s t s  potential  were  a good  reading, writing,  obtaining  of boys  of  i n the  operated  learnt  a modicum of  i n England,  stances.  The nuns  a number  Hence  observer  TJrsulines  addition to  seminaries  C a n a d i a n men  m a n y women r e c e i v e d  i n which g i r l s  arts, The  Although French  limited  "parsi-  79.  Although efforts  to  speaking schools  the B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n s e t t l e r s  teach  residents of  children,  was n o t v e r y  d o u b t f u l v a l u e were  who c o u l d n o t of  their  send  their  women i n p a r t i c u l a r  pupils  "false  feminine the  interest  numerous The  to  was  Girls  indulgence"  was  the  general  This  the  of  main recourse  parents.  was  of  those  education  with  since fashion  treated  contacts  with of  with  115  education  also  for  The m a i n o b j e c t  establishment  to  English-  and s u p e r f i c i a l " ,  " l e v i t y and f r i v o l i t y "  attitude  The  good f a m i l y were  officers.  greater  Boarding  were p r e - o c c u p i e d  indifference  of  of  satisfactory.  "slight  their  y o u n g army  an a t t i t u d e  classes.  by  education  children abroad.  from wealthy families  and e n t e r t a i n m e n t .  the  made  evident  was p a r t l y  amongst  the  i n other  due higher  classes 116  of  the  population,  i n c l u d i n g a g o o d many F r e n c h  A p a r t f r o m an e l i t e terests  were  not  Culturally, wilderness. its  For  atmosphere  tastes. Mrs.  There  Simcoe,  dominated by  directed  Lambert,  116  Ibid.,  of  the  popular  a l l  society  the  was  liveliness  appeal  to  of  persons  a revealing divergence  Travels, 1,  pp.  Quebec  vol.  1,  a  277-278.  of of  better i n the  285-286.  than  views  a  capital,  intellectual between  "delightful place",  pp.  in-  mind.  little  d i d not  vol.  things  clergy,  Lower Canada remained  who t h o u g h t  115  to  the  Canadians.  and  80. her  husband,  learning  or  who r e g r e t t e d information,  that  he  literary  found  "...  society  f e w men  not being  of  necessary  117 for  the  in  1806,  state can  amusement  of  literature,  never  be  to  the  known to  time. that  Bishop's  Palace  remarked  a decade  later,  crushingly:  and s c i e n c e s , a l o w ebb, 118  in  "The  Canada,  because  they  flow of  improvement 1785  a l i b r a r y had j u s t with  and E n g l i s h b o o k s . well-to-do  at  I n August of  reported  More than  arts,  s a i d to be  Some e v i d e n c e time  ladies."  an E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r  scarcely  were  of  some  did attract a traveller been  inhabitants  should have  at  "well  so  in  chosen"  surprised that waited  from  Quebec  established  two t h o u s a n d  The w r i t e r was  notice  the French  the  l o n g to  set  119 up  such  books  an i n s t i t u t i o n .  circulated  romances  A later  only to  were most  v i s i t o r noted  subscribers,  and t h a t  i n demand b y f e m a l e  that  the  novels  and  borrowers;  "It  is 120  small,  and v e r y  T h i s was years, any  the  only public  and i n d e e d  s u p p l i e d w i t h new  l i b r a r y i n the  almost  the  publications."  province  for  several  only cultural i n s t i t u t i o n  of  kind. The p r e s s  visiting of  indifferently  the  began  clergyman  newspapers  11<7.  Simcoe,  118  Lambert,  119  Hadfield,  120  Lambert,  i n a u s p i c i o u s l y i n Lower Canada.  of  Tory p r o c l i v i t i e s remarked  i n 1799:  Diary,p. Travels,  "They  are  carefully  1,  p.  guarded  318.  Englishman i n America, Travels,  unctuously  81. vol.  vol.  1,  p.  325.  1785,  p.  A  128.  81. against  every  thing  inhabitants, m.ent."- -^  or  encourage  Despite  1  t h a t may e x c i t e assaults  governmental  discontents  among  upon r e l i g i o n  and  interference  the govern-  d u r i n g the  wars  with France,  a sizeable  w e e k l y p r e s s h a d grown up b y  1808.  The M o n t r e a l  and Quebec  Gazettes  to  official  news  organs.  Of  supported of  these,  the  the  leaving  Quebec  government;  "dissatisfied"  lature. as  and e x t r a c t s ,  French  for  the  to  four  M e r c u r y and Canadian  lawyers  writings  themselves  comment  L e C a n a d i e n was  L e C o u r i e r de Quebec  a vehicle  confined  and members  was of  the  of  other Qourant  mouthpiece of  the  legis-  particular  interest  a newly-formed  literary  122 society.  These j o u r n a l s  another,  irrespective  Apart increase as  the  from the  of  always  political  press,  in prosperity.  only bookstores  were  at  war w i t h 123 allegiance.  p u b l i s h i n g d i d not  The p r i n t i n g o f f i c e s i n Quebec  one  reflect which  and M o n t r e a l  the served  contained 124  chiefly over,  school  books  and  r e a d i n g was n o t  Ladies  usually  spent  "a few o l d h i s t o r i e s " .  a general their  time  d i v e r s i o n as  More-  i n England.  d o i n g n o t h i n g when  not  125 engaged pered  in  the  social  activities.  education  from i n t e l l e c t u a l Tour,  of  children  also  f r i v o l i t y that turned  pursuits.  121  Ogden,  122  Lambert,  123  Ibid.,  vol.  1,  p.  324.  124  Ibid.,  vol,  1,  p.  328.  125  Loc.  cit.  The  p.  50.  Travels,  vol.  1,  pp.  321-323.  adults  hamaway  82.  Such Canadian a r t consisted  of  as  travellers  p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and t h e i r  Churches were u s u a l l y the most specimens  of  architecture.  (Roman C a t h o l i c ) as  a  adorned w i t h  This writer  exceeded  cathedral  writing  i n 1806,  The u s e  light of  sight  spires  on each  impression  of  every side  on n e a r l y  the  St.  everyone  ecclesiastical  counterparts.  Quebec  win favorable  d i d not  f a r e d no b e t t e r . was  the  One o f  devoted  some  of  at  a  Another  1 2 6  "a  its  tin  forced  an  their  appalling  river. their at  structures  monstrosities  which E n g l i s h  choicest  invective.  One d o e s n o t k n o w w h i c h t o b e m o r e a s t o n i s h e d at, whether the want of t a s t e i n the architect, o r t h a t h i s p l a n s met w i t h a p p r o b a t i o n : suffice  126  Ogden,  Tour,  127  Lambert,  pp.  Travels,  7-8, vol.  18. 1,  pp.  roof.  abiding  than  and newer  to  re-  glistening  along the  pleasing  comment,  the  itself  The C h a t e a u S t - L o u i s  Quebec,  it  distinctive  that  who p a s s e d  the most  U p p e r Town m a r k e t  travellers  was  with  The rows o f  less  clergyman  presenting  L a w r e n c e made  Government b u i l d i n g s were  church  the E n g l i s h church  architecture  traveller.  of  attractive  furniture  Quebec.  i n Quebec,  r o o f i n g churches  Canadian c o n t r i b u t i o n to on t h e  rich  and b r i l l i a n t appearance"  tin for  see  considered..that  at  thought  only praiseworthy structure markable  and  an E p i s c o p a l  and numerous p a i n t i n g s .  to  decorations.  The M o n t r e a l p a r i s h  fabric",  i n splendor the  likely  conspicuous  was d e s c r i b e d b y  "magnificent  traveller,  were  51-52.  83.  i t t o s a y , t h a t on a " b u i l d i n g one s t o r y h i g h , y o u h a v e a dome a s l a r g e a s t h a t o f S t . P a u l . l s i n London. N e v e r were the r u l e s of a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d common s e n s e m o r e o u t r a g e d . 2  The  theatre  Audiences  at  chance  see  to  i n L o w e r C a n a d a was n o t  Quebec plays  a lively  art.  and M o n t r e a l o c c a s i o n a l l y had of v a r y i n g  S i m c o e was s u r p r i s e d a t  the  quality.  competent  I n 1792  the Mrs.  performance  of  some C a n a d i a n g e n t l e m e n who s t a g e d M o l i e r e s M e d e c i n m a l g r e ' 1  lui  and Comtesse  Officers cals  of  of  the  d'Escarbagnas  g a r r i s o n sometimes  l i t t l e merit.  siastically  i n .the  I n 1806,  applauded f o r  its  Quebec  engaged  a Boston  mediocre  fortifications.  i n amateur  company was  theatr enthu-  r e n d i t i o n of  Shake-  scale  towns.  130 speare. Musical Concerts by At  Quebec  sole  l i f e  also  was on a m o d e s t  r e g i m e n t a l bands  i n 1806  there  were  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t was t h e  took place  violin.  connection with  the voyageurs.  during  arduous l a b o r s  of  their  passengers.  Simcoe,  Diary,  130  Lambert,  131  Ibid.,  132  Simcoe,  the  winter.  Pew  travellers  and then  Their  whose  only  incessant  called forth  the  in  singing admiration  132  128 H u g h G r a y , L e t t e r s , v o l . 1, p p . 69-70. 129  during  o n l y two m u s i c m a s t e r s , 131  mentioned French Canadian folksongs,  the most  i n the  pv  Travels,  v o l . 1,  p.  Diary,  p.  p.  55.  Cf.  Lambert,  Travels,  77. vol..1.  pp.  300-301.  302. 92;  V7eld,  Travels,  p.  274.  84. Although 1784 the  culture  and 1814, accounts  often  of  the  for  approval.  tenets  than  Their  Par  flowers,  to  their  a l l were  that  activities from a l l  the as  this nuns  church ornaments,  time  is  true  churches  that  was  united by  attitude,  a  it  and t e a c h e r s  t h o s e w h o came  to making needlework,  of  is  should w i n unanimous  nurses  away t h e i r  Most  this It  respective  I n v i e w of  between  flourish.  writers.  lukewarm, hut  from i d l i n g  themselves  of  remarkable  unstinted praise them.  of P r o t e s t a n t  Romanism.  the more  a low l e v e l  r e l i g i o n i n Lower Canada at  pens  no more  dislike all  to  at  r e l i g i o n continued  come f r o m t h e devotion  remained  spare  into time,  embroidery,  received  contact they  with  devoted  artificial  and g i l d e d woodwork of  exceptional  133 quality.  The U r s u l i n e s a t  preparing  cakes  Quebec  and sweetmeats  had  that  such a talent  they  were  able  for  to  134 supply  desserts  economic  projects  on r e l i g i o u s There convent forced  to  a l l  the  brought  tables  in  and c h a r i t a b l e  were  life;  and t h e y  for  of  Protestants  suspected  feared  "bigoted notions  religious habit  lest  the  of  their  These  income  for  use  objects.  some d o u b t s  the  city.  a considerable  naturally  assume  the  teaching  about that  their  should  into  virtues  g i r l s might  against  nuns  religion"  the  the  of  be  will,  instil minds  of  135 their 133  pupils. Hadfield,  Nevertheless,  Lambert,  the  Englishman i n America,  134,31211006, D i a r y , 135  even  pp.  Travels,  keenest 1785,  66-67. vol.  1,  pp.  59-60.  pp.  critics 154-155.  85. recognized  the  was g e n e r a l male  value  agreement  counterparts. The  secular that  the  nuns.  Priests  for  meeting  to  enjoyed  their  the  d i d not  service  colony,  The c l e r g y they tions  also  to  terms:  for  "The  exertions of  the  God, and the country  were n o t  win over  137  Ogden,  138  Lambert,  same  their  T h e y made n o the  vol.  handicaps,  clergy of  result  benefactions, to  provide  Christianity,  other  northern 137  in their  lives;  in their  attempt of  devotion praised  pious  and t o l e r a n c e  individuals  Travels,  Catholic  i n any  rela-  to  neglect  proby  however,  occasionally  to  faith.  their  to  charitable  i n 1799  denials,  support  the  accorded  m o r a l i t y and  only exemplary  The n u n s ,  pp.  share  and  i n North America."  being  Travels,  Tour,  there  opportunities  educational  strict  self  of  or p r o v i n c e  clergy.  Lambert,  the  to  faiths  An E p i s c o p a l clergyman  conversions  136  suppressing  Notwithstanding these  with non-Catholics.  Protestant tried  have  showed d i s c r e t i o n  selytize,  different  and t h e i r  exceed every P r o t e s t a n t state,  of  a reputation  and s u c c e s s f u l  wisdom of  although  could hardly expect  strangers  duties.  orders,  1 3 6  conspicuous.  them i n f u l s o m e  for  female  on t h e  visitors,  w o r k was l e s s  the  clergy  admiration  they  of  1,  pp.  59-60.  v o l . 1,  pp.  336-338.  47-48.  138  the  86. I t was to be expected that the-Roman C a t h o l i c h i e r archy would appreciate the importance of keeping on good terms with the B r i t i s h r u l e r s .  The church enjoyed not  only tolerance but p r i v i l e g e s unknown to t h e i r f e l l o w r e l i g i o n i s t s i n Great B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d .  Furthermore,  w i t h the outbreak of a n t i - r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s during the French Revolution, the church had good reason to support a government i r r e c o n c i l a b l y opposed to the common enemy. B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r s sometimes remarked that the c l e r g y 139 should give thanks f o r the c a p i t u l a t i o n of Quebec. The French Revolution d i d more than u n i t e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s against the menace of a t h e i s t republicanism.  I t sent to Canada a number of emigre p r i e s t s ,  some of them men of considerable t a l e n t s , such as Father Calonne, who became chaplain of the U r s u l i n e s at T r o i s Rivieres i n 1807.  140  These newcomers were f i t t e d to a c t  as a leaven to the mass of the n a t i v e c l e r g y , r a i s i n g t h e i r mental c a l i b r e and t r a i n i n g to a l e v e l  corresponding  w i t h t h e i r moral character.  139 Canadian l e t t e r s , p. 28. 140 Jacques-Ladislas-Joseph de Calonne, 1743-1822, emigrated to London i n 1789, then served as a missionary i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d before coming to Canada. He was a brother of Charles-Alexandre de Calonne, c o n t r o l l e r general under Louis XVI from 1783 to 1787. See Louis-Marie LeJeune, „Dictionnaire general de biographie, h i s t o i r e , l i t t e r a t u r e , a g r i c u l t u r e , commerce, i n d u s t r i e et des a r t s , sciences, moeurs, coutumes, i n s t i t u t i o n s p o l i t i q u e s et r e l i g i e u s e s du Canada!£ Ottawa), U n i v e r s i t e " d' Ottawa, 1931, v o l . 1, p. 279.  87. Travellers attended  noticed  that  church services  i n "both town and c o u n t r y .  an I r i s h m a n occasioned  complained of by  the  the  succession  were  well  At Montreal in  incessant  jangling  of m a s s e s ,  baptisms,  1796  of  bells  weddings,  141 and f u n e r a l s .  Persons  could not  this  bespoke  escape  greater  Religious than  zeal  staying near  audible than  in earlier  years,  evidence  competence  processions  the of  parish  church  piety,  which  i n the  bell-ringers.  were l e s s n o t i c e a b l e  and most  festivals  in  1806  had been  abol-  142 ished. D r i v e r s were l e s s l i k e l y than b e f o r e to i n t e r r u p t • u. . 143 ' t h e i r journeys at every c r u c i f i x . T h e women w e r e m o r e prone  than"the  emergencies, pathetic  observers.  with  was  examples  replied the  to  rely  a practice  So r a r e that  men t o  that  noted  with of  even  en l e u r b o u t i q u e . "  in  h a d become  1 4 5  pp.  A pilot  1792  unsym-  at  142  Lambert,  145  I b i d . v o l .  1,  pp.  463-464.  144  Ibid.,  1,  pp.  175-176.  of a  in his  tiennent  it  bishop library les  Point-au-Pere  from reading  Weld,  vol.  In  physiciens  141  Travels,  suspicion  having Voltaire  anti-clerical  Travels,  the  surprise.  "Les m e i l l e u r s  poisons 1806  some  in  1 4 4  accusation  remark:  and candles  was r i d i c u l e d b y  i n f i d e l i t y or  were  the  on h o l y w a t e r  an E n g l i s h  178-179. v o l . 1,  pp.  338S339.  145 S i m c o e , D i a r y , p . 8 9 . T h i s was C h a r l e s - F r a n c o i s B a i l l y de M e s s e i n , t i t u l a r B i s h o p of Gapse and c o a d j u t o r t o t h e B i s h o p of Quebec." He l e d t r o o p s a g a i n s t the A m e r i c a n i n v a d e r s i n 1776 and l a t e r s e r v e d a s t u t o r t o ( c o n t i n u e d on n e x t page)  88. Bible,  but  allowed his  wife  and d a u g h t e r s  to  attend  con-  146 fession. ligious  Apart from such scattered life  o f F r e n c h C a n a d a was  and e n t h u s i a s t i c The in  s p i r i t u a l needs  after  a spectacle  the  of  re-  obedient  conformity. of  Lower Canada were not  years  instances,  1783.  the  well  A visitor  Anglican minister  of  Swiss  In  1799  small Protestant  looked to  after  Quebec  for  i n 1785  community several  heard  o r i g i n preach badly with  an a  147 German a c c e n t . asserted of  Rome  that  the  an E p i s c o p a l m i n i s t e r  Protestants  outnumbered  the  who h a d j o i n e d  Catholics  the  on  tour  Church  wlao h a d b e e n c o n v e r t e d  to  148 the in  A n g l i c a n or P r e s b y t e r i a n 1806,  the  maintained  desire  were  nor  the  "deficient  and r e p e l l e d  that  very duties  Canadians  A later  writer,  Anglican clergy had  a b i l i t y t o make  i n the  the  the  faiths.  with  converts, of  their  their  neither  since  they  profession",  "haughty,  super-  149 cilious  behaviour".  The  association  of  the A n g l i c a n  Church w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i d not improve i t s 145 ( c o n t i n u e d ) L o r d D o r c h e s t e r ! s c h i l d r e n . He c r i t i c i z e d the d i o c e s a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n a communicat i o n t o t h e G a z e t t e d e Q.uebec o f 29 A p r i l 1 7 9 0 , and a l s o w r o t e i n f a v o r of a m i x e d , i . e . , m u l t i , - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l , university. See L e J e u n e , D i c t i o n n a i r e g e n e r a l , v o l . 1 , pp. 114-115. 146  Lambert,  147  Hadfield,  148  Ogden,  149  Lambert,  Travels,  vol.  1,  p.  11.  E n g l i s h m a n i n A m e r i c a , 1785,  Tour,  p.  Travels,  24. vol.  1,  pp.  348-349.  p.  124.  89. character and i n f l u e n c e . Lacking a numerous and devoted l a i t y , the P r o t e s t a n t denominations  presented an unfavorable  contrast w i t h the f l o u r i s h i n g C a t h o l i c community. The stagnation that c h a r a c t e r i z e d much of the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l l i f e of Lower Canada from 1784 to 1814 extended i n t o s e v e r a l f i e l d s of economic a c t i v i t y .  At the same  time, c e r t a i n new elements i n the population stimulated growth and development.  The increased tempo of immigra-  t i o n a f t e r the American Revolution s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed the appearance of the countryside.  No longer were the  two rows of v i l l a g e s along the St. Lawrence the only important areas of settlement.  A Scottish agriculturist  r i d i n g from Kamouraska to Quebec i n 1791 reported that B r i t i s h grants had m u l t i p l i e d settlements and extended them ten to twelve m i l e s i n t o the v/oods behind the seigneur150 ies.  American immigrants carved out homesteads from the  f o r e s t s of the Eastern Townships.  These pioneers won the  p r a i s e of an E n g l i s h v i s i t o r i n 1806, who wrote: "They are c e r t a i n l y e n t e r p r i s i n g s e t t l e r s , and improve a country more i n two or three years than the French Canadians do i n a century.  11A  A  Some of the o l d seigneuries as w e l l had developed i n t o prosperous farmlands.  Lambert p a r t i c u l a r l y admired  150 Campbell, Travels, pp. 109-110. 151 Lambert, T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, p. 138.  90. the  district  along the  north  Yamachiche  and B e r t h i e r .  preference  to R i v i e r e  152  shore  of  Lac  St/Pierre  Another t r a v e l l e r  du Sud,  just  between  gave  belo\tf Q u e b e c  his  on  the  153 south  shore.  from the along  C u l t i v a t i o n had spread  St.  roads  Lawrence b y 1808, that  Southeast  Chaudiere,  lay  the  t h e B r i t i s h s y s t e m , and a l r e a d y •u -r • 154 by Yankee p i o n e e r s . Land that  engaged  observant in  tenure  Scot  clearing  American  attention  asserted  l a n d was  of  that  riot  consequence  of  f o r c e d men t o  invaded,  a different work h a r d  order  we h a v e  seen,  An  of B r i t i s h  laziness  as  land ownership,  t o make  on  s u p e r i o r i t y .',  result  of  and  problem  travellers.  with French  system  in  as  Loyalist  so much t h e  inland  surveyed  a difficult  several the  industry contrasted  miles  St-Francois  townships  i n L o w e r C a n a d a was  the  fifteen  and was p e n e t r a t i n g  f o l l o w e d the  Chambly R i v e r s .  some  a. l i v i n g  and  the which  on  their  155 own p r o p e r t y . restrictions imposed heirs the  Seigneurial on e n t e r p r i s e  on t e n a n t s .  rather  equal  under French' law also  establishment  152  Lambert,  153  Hugh G r a y ,  154  The  Ibid.,  of  155  Campbell,  156  Lambert,  criticized for  than f o r of  the  1,  pp.  of  p.  economic  138.  133-134.  361-362.  Travels, Travels,  pp. vol.  123-124. 1,  pp.  burdens  property  l i m i t e d progress  vol.  Letters,  was  division  farm units  Travels,  pp.  tenure  195-196.  by  its it  among  preventing  size.  156  91.  The was  area  surveyed  of  Lower Canada o u t s i d e  and d i v i d e d  English  tenure  was  divergence  the  lands  that  civil  of  law applied to of  was the  the  remained  arraigned  the  perfectly  content  frequent i n the  s t i l l  years  dominant.  with of  h e l d by  and the  So  a question  whether  their  case  of  a Scottish  t h i r t y bushels  of  wheat  to  but  were  acre  another  who  seemed  farms.  The  of  in-  outsiders,  at Yamachiche instead  in familiar  u s u a l l y due t o  farmer  the  the  after  habitants,  subsistence  progress  French  a few changes  One t r a v e l l e r the  great  157  brought  of  the  seigneurial  of F r e n c h Canada,  backwardness  examples  these  townships.  a g r i c u l t u r a l methods  patterns  as  it  townships,  seigneuries  a n d common s o c c a g e .  between  i n 1808  The p a s s a g e the  free  into  the  who  his  grew  neighbors'  158 twenty by bright  applying English principles  spots  were  rare.  the French Canadians in  the  world",  of manure,  A competent  i n 1791  condemning  as  of  farming.  observer  "perhaps  the  described worst  them p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r  which they u s u a l l y threw into  the  Such  farmers  their  river  waste  or  159 occasionally way of were  dumped on a f i e l d w i t h o u t  contrast,  cultivated  results  that  several  fine  farms  on M o n t r e a l  along English lines, with  encouraged  By Island  astonishing  imitation.  157  Hugh G r a y ,  158  Hadfield,  Englishman i n America,  159  Campbell,  Travels,  160  Ibid.,  pp.  spreading.  Letters,  117-118.  p.  pp.  348.  113-114.  1785,  pp.  163-164.  92. Gradually the  advice  of  the b e t t e r the  to  embark  use  climate  development. presented ducing  there  to  a fine  fruits  of  expanse  excellent  for  Although  1 6 1  they  were  new p r o d u c t s .  Only  significant progress. the  Here  demands  of  a flourishing horticultural  nineteenth  of  and  changes  marl,  combined w i t h  create  E a r l y i n the  crops.  like  g r o w i n g of  and s o i l  urban market  field  fertilizers  on t h e  grain exports  s t i m u l a t e d some  c u l t i v a t i o n of  t h e M o n t r e a l a r e a was  large  demand f o r  g r a i n merchants  i n the  a favorable a  increased  f a r m e r s "began t o  reluctant in  the  gardens  century  the  and o r c h a r d s ,  quality, notably  island pro-  eating  and  162 cider  apples.  bers,  onions,  Favorite leeks,  common b y 1 8 0 6 , A l i t t l e As crop,  Canadian vegetables  and g a r l i c .  t o b a c c o was g r o w n f o r home  the  of  the  experiences  This English cultivation  of  traveller o f hemp f o r  the  Conquest.  use.  difficulty  of  i n t r o d u c i n g a new  John Lambert were  was  cucum-  P o t a t o e s h a d become  a l t h o u g h a l m o s t unknown b e f o r e  an example  were  interested  illuminating.  i n promoting the .  the B r i t i s h market,  at  a t i m e when  the mother  c o u n t r y was p e r i l o u s l y d e p e n d e n t  on R u s s i a  cordage  supply the R o y a l Havy.  several  ments  to  h a d b e e n made i n C a n a d a ,  161 W e l d ,  Travels,  162 Hugh G r a y , 163  Lambert,  pp.  t h e y h a d y i e l d e d no  249-250.  Letters,  Travels,  Although  pp.  v o l . 1,  150-151. pp.  94-95.  for  experiresults  93.  up  to  1800,  and as  for B r i t i s h use. suited  as  since  the  m i g h t be  due  as  grew w i l d .  to  the  tithes,  trade,and m i l l i n g  expressed able  to  fees  made  if  culture, thought  of  the  the  respective  grain  hemp r e p l a c e d  a poor  well  loss  of 164  except  Many  animals,  mer-  wheat.  impression, horses.  as  failure  clergy,  these u s e f u l  any amount  produced  particularly  the  and s p i r i t e d l i t t l e  admiration for  stand  Lambert  who f e a r e d  Canadian "livestock sturdy  hemp  o p p o s i t i o n of  and s e i g n e u r s ,  the  n o t h i n g had been  surprising i n a country  and P o l a n d to  chants,  for  1808  T h i s was  Russia plant  late  travellers  who  c o l d when t h e y were  seemed  left  out165  side  i n the most  Yankee  dealers  quently the  habitants.  aware  " i l l made, 1 6 7  City butchers stock  as  was  their  of  their  usual  value,  trades  at  the  Quebec  r e g i o n were  lot.  and  expense  freof  1 6 6  the  carrion...."  whose  were k e e n l y  c a r r i e d , out p r o f i t a b l e  I n 1791 to be  severe weather,  cattle  of  the  big bellied, The b r e e d  thin  produced tough meat  164  Lambert,  Travels,  165  Weld,  166  Lambert,  167  Campbell, Travels,  168  Lambert,  Travels,  168  vol.  p.  227.  Travels,  vol.  Travels,  and p o o r  had improved l i t t l e by  supplied better beef  lamb were much s u p e r i o r .  quartered,  pp. vol.  of  than  the  poor  quality.  Dairy products  offered  pp.  94-95.  1,  pp.  139-140.  1,  pp.  78-79.  as  1806.  ordinary  1,  113-114.  pronounced  farmer,  M u t t o n and on  the  94  Quebec m a r k e t that as  caught  were  the  generally  attention  " s t i n k i n g cheese".  flat  of  new c h e e s e  a dunghill  to  ripen.  So were  l o n g as  able  of  v i s i t o r s was  i n wet  a decent  of F r e n c h C a n a d i a n  living  i n the  scattered  A further  absence  disadvantage  seigneur  nor habitant  ments  even i f  Major  advances  commercial  was t h e  and a b l e  their  under  es-  169  the m a j o r i t y  willing  a d e l i c a c y known  p r o d u c t was much  t u r a l p r o g r e s s w a s "bound t o b e  farmers  novelties  s t r a w and p l a c i n g them  The r e s u l t a n t  gourmets.  t o make  Among t h e  T h i s was p r e p a r e d b y w r a p p i n g s m a l l  cakes  teemed b y Quebec  indifferent.  to  initiate  had the  natural  o l d way a g r i c u l and d i s c o n t i n u o u s .  of  to  gentlemen  the  Neither  undertake  conservatism  economy d i r e c t e d b y  wealthy  improvements.  capital  were u n l i k e l y u n t i l  farmers  c o u l d be  emergence  entrepreneurs  experiovercome.  of  from  a other  countries. Canadians were resources  other  than  equally  slow at  developing their  land.  The f u r  trade  Nor'westers  of M o n t r e a l d r e w on remote  and d i d n o t  lead  try.  F i s h i n g was  own r e q u i r e m e n t s Quebec St.  the  In  Travels,  areas of  on b y I n d i a n s  and sometimes  fisheries,  Lambert,  establishment  carried  and M o n t r e a l .  Lawrence  169  to  spite  that  for  its  and w h i t e s  to  s u p p l y the  of  the  pp.  enriched  abundance  78^79.  of  had to  indus-  for  markets  the  supplies  a processing  Montreal merchants  v o l . 1,  natural  their  of the  import  95. fresh were  170  c o d f r o m Hew E n g l a n d i n w i n t e r . caught  hut by  i n the  1807  The wealth  this  great  of  the  lower  fishery  forests people,  building material. Quebec  had been  of  St.  Lawrence  was  of  for  little  Much of  and  porpoises  several  years,  importance.  Canada c o n t r i b u t e d  apart  rafted  Seals  171  little  to  fuel  and  from their  use  the  exported  from  Richelieu River  from  timber  down t h e  as  the  Lake  172 Champlam by Vermont of  the  magnificent  lumbermen.  white pine  T h e r e was  stands  compared w i t h Upper Canada and the however,  was  recognized standards  the  the of  centre  for  importance  quality.  the  White  cutting  i n Lower Canada,  United States.  export,  of  little  and the  lumber  Quebec,  authorities  trade  and r e d p i n e  as  by  setting  and w h i t e  oak  173  had to be i n s p e c t e d and stamped b e f o r e e x p o r t . Further i m p r o v e m e n t was n e e d e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n of b o a r d s , w h i c h 174 c o u l d b e made of  this  ment  of  from small  trees  o p p o r t u n i t y was the  forest  170  Lambert,  171  Hugh G r a y ,  172  Lambert,  173  Anderson,  174  Ibid.,  vol.  Letters,  Travels,  pp.  typical  industries  Travels,  Canada,  i n woodlots.  p.  vol. pp.  175-177.  of  the  i n Lower  1,  pp.  1,  p.  173-174.  half-hearted Canada.  76-78.  217. 245.  The  neglect develop-  96. The ore  for  This of  chief the  renovmed F o r g e s  enterprise  stoves  the  mining activity  and o t h e r  numerous  their  continued  ability.  to  forges,  while the  workers  were  extraction near  f l o u r i s h as for  bestowed  Operations  the  St-Maurice  ironware  visitors  was  the  went  the  Canadians  with  source  clock  to  '  Several  lessees  the  foundry ran from sunrise  mainly French  main  on the  on a r o u n d  iron  Trois-Rivieres.  province.  praise  of  of  for at  the  sunset.  The  some E n g l i s h  175 foremen. "between stantial  Another  Trois-Rivieres investment  Shipbuilding operated  i r o n w o r k s was and Quebec,  had  was  so  one  turned  hundred  out  five  be  imported from England;  Work c o n t i n u e d  most  pattern of  Canadian  of  the  tons  all of  scale.  employment  little  Yards  ships  of  Sails  year,  at  Lambert,  1  Ibid.,  7  6  Travels,  vol.  177  Lambert,  178  Ibid.,  p.  248.  Travels,  vol.  vol.  1,  1,  p.  552  reward.  Quebec,  available  in contrast  came f r o m E u r o p e ,  vol.  sub176  that Sorel,  hundred  and r i g g i n g had  177  the  reputation  sobriety.  175  the  f r o m two  1 78  and  Batiscan,  industries  i n Lower Canada.  had a b e t t e r  at  i n 1806  other  i r o n w o r k was  through the  apprentices  few  each year.  shipwrights  but  brought  the  several  to  usual  far  on a c o n s i d e r a b l e  and M o n t r e a l  established  1,  pp.  485-488.  1,  pp.  248-249.  to  locally. to  the  Although  French for  steadiness  97. Flour of  the  and l u m b e r m i l l s  cities  who e n t e r e d Caldwell, four  and e x p o r t m a r k e t s .  this business  Receiver  or f i v e  large  for  market  domestic  l i m i t e d the  scope  the  thirst  f o u n d i n g of  several  lucrative field  few  demands capitalists  was C o l o n e l  Quebec  those  stimulated the in t h i s  i n the  insatiable  the  who o w n e d b y  consumption to  Thus  f i l l the  scale  Canada,  flour mills  heavy demand.  Even  of  to  One o f  -on a- l a r g e  General  The r e s t r i c t e d turing  were needed  1806  district. of  manufac-  commodities of  breweries  179  the at  in  Canadians Quebec.  c o m p e t i t i o n cajused  the  two  another  great  180 largest  to  utility, their  fail.  yet  Soap was  the F r e n c h Canadians d i d not b e g i n  own p o t a s h u n t i l  supplies small  from the  outlay for  after  1800,  United States  source  of  preferring  deterred income.  Habitant parsimony had f u r t h e r financial matters.  the p r i e s t s cash  forbade  c o u l d be  used  According to  l e n d i n g at  to  to  many  make  import  and U p p e r C a n a d a .  a potash kettle  f r o m t a p p i n g an e x t r a  in  p r o d u c t of  The  farmers  181  restrictive  effects  an E n g l i s h  interest.  account,  Hence  spare  only to buy l a n d or merchandise,  and  182 was g e n e r a l l y k e p t voured  the  locked up.  establishment Travels,  of  179  Lambert,  180  Ibid.,  v o l . 1,  p.  98,  181  Ibid.,  v o l . 1,  p.  228.  182  Lambert,  Travels,  B r i t i s h merchants  a bank  v o l . 1,  v o l . 1,  to  provide  p.  97.  p.  242.  fa-  capital  98. for  their  sition.  operations. Among t h e  prejudice  against  objections  The d i f f e r e n t at  sections  loggerheads  s p e a k i n g members of  forgers.  any k i n d ,  of  over  the  strong  put f o r w a r d were  p a p e r money and t h e  f e i t i n g by American  selves  This proposal aroused  danger  the  of  oppoFrench  counter-  183  of  the  community found  taxation  as  legislature  well.  French-  were h o s t i l e  and v i o l e n t l y opposed t h e  them-  turnpike  to  levies  system  184 desired by English-speaking merchants. this of  nature  d i d much to h o l d back  Conflicts  the  economic  of  progress  Lower Canada. For  some  was p o o r .  time  after  A report  the  American Revolution  from Montreal dated  20  business  J u n e 1785  painted  a depressing picture; Things are i n the most wretched s t a t e i n t h i s province. P e o p l e axe b r e a k i n g e v e r y d a y , and goods^ of course, s e l l i n g at h a l f t h e i r v a l u e •*• •  As p o p u l a t i o n grew, Quebec  remained  Valley, its  the  great  entrepot  and M o n t r e a l b e n e f i t e d  h i n t e r l a n d to  ventured  however,  the  the  west.  prophecy that  183  Lambert,  Travels,  184  Ibid..  vol.  185  Hunter,  Quebec  1,  to  for  the  from the  St.  Lawrence  development  An I r i s h t r a v e l l e r Montreal would  vol.  pp.  conditions improved.  1,  p.  242.  211-212.  Carolina, p.  53.  one  in  day  of 1796  99  1 1  ...  rival  cities  i n wealth  on t h e  and i n  continent  Contraband played many y e a r s . the  border  account  North  a large  A m e r i c a n goods  their  part  1806.  enlivened by  of  contenting  French  retailers  frequent eers.  and p o p u l a r ,  for  across  imports  retail  stores  crockery",  themselves bought  smuggled  of  shutters,  or  E v e n B r i t i s h s t o r e k e e p e r s made wares,  1 8 6  i n Lower Canada  the  The  a bearskin  the  on  from  187  w i t h gloomy casements- and i r o n  ally  easily  from London found  articles  of  i n Canadian trade  As a r e s u l t ,  Lower Canada d i s a p p o i n t i n g .  "paltry  greatest  America."  were  cheapness.  had decreased by  Newcomers  few  the  and f o u n d a r e a d y market  of  Britain  of  size  other  to  only  a  occasion-  incongruous effort  of adorned  displayed  with weekly at  Quebec,  and h a r d w a r e ,  little  mostly  outlets  object.  show  their  advertisements.  auctions,  bringing high returns  which to  the  were auction-  -189  o v  The merchants halted  substantial d i d not  business  accumulation  of  profits,  often  50  to  guarantee p r o s p e r i t y .  without  interrupting  interest.  Travels,  Failures  186  Weld,  p.  282.  187  Lambert,  Travels,  vol.  188  Ibid.,  vol.  1,  p.  22.  189  Ibid.,  vol.  1,  p.  23.  1,  pp.  the were  100%, The  made  long  by  winters  remorseless common  249-251.  because  100.  of  the  practice  credit.  operating with  Business  1 9 0  Conquest  of  and the  progress  small capital  had been  and  large  disturbed by  American wars which had been  the  accompanied  191 by  the  prodigal issue  and economy were no the  most  solid  of  government b i l l s .  safeguard  against  were  important  They o f f e r e d  centres  interesting  struggled n o i s i l y for showed f i e r c e one  another,  Despite  the  womenfolk, Montreal prices  rarely  the  citizens  farmer's  produce.  suffered  rising  190  Lambert,  Travels,  191  Hugh G r a y ,  192  Lambert,  for  193  Ibid.,  194  Hadfield,  v o l . 1,  p.  and M o n t whole  of  a l l  classes  Customers  early choice  to  forestall  items.  shrewd h a b i t a n t , or  year.  or  his  cheating. with  lower  193  i n an e x p a n d i n g c o m m u n i t y , paid.  a dollar  v o l . 1,  Letters,  Travels,  the  the  s u p p l i e d market  cities.  c o u l d make  over  from theft  had a w e l l  expected  during  as  barrier,  and f a i r l y w e l l  i n 1785  trade  sometimes  other  As m i g h t be  real  b a n k r u p t c y even  Trois-Rivieres  azid s c u f f l i n g o p e n l y  i n 1806  was s c a r c e  of  sights  the  rivalry,  language  than  work  businessman.  The m a r k e t - p l a c e s o o f . ^ Q u e b e c , real  Hard  pp.  v o l . 1,  S k i l l e d workmen a t a day.  p.  1 9 4  According  243.  226-230. pp.  79-80.  528.  E n g l i s h m a n i n A m e r i c a , 1785,  p.  47.  labor Montto  101. an a c c o u n t  of  variety  trades  than  of  conditions  i n Quebec  i n England or  medicine, Domestic  law,  i n 1806,  the  c h u r c h were  however,  If  an i m m i g r a n t b r o u g h t h i s  to  leave  work,  even try  because  and l e g a l  of b e t t e r redress  were  though l e s s  skilled,  to  leave  many of  of  the  year  i n most  the  reasonably  priced,  but  raised  general  cost  The  economic  pay.  was u n i n s p i r i n g .  Travels,  the  their  Lambert,  196  Ibid.,  v o l . 1,  p.  552,  197  Ibid.,  v o l . 1,  p.  527.  198  Ibid.,  v o l . 1,  p.  75.  195  sure  lines  of.  get.  to  196  Europeans,  sobriety,  q u i c k l y to  indus-  showed training.  workers lasted  cases,  and had to  always  were  imports  198  Lower Canada between  v o l . 1,  for  suffice  Necessities  and expensive  Even allowing  195  as  197  living. of  almost  A m e r i c a n s , who w e r e  high rents  picture  such  unobtainable.  preferred  long winters.  of  less  supplied.  was h a r d t o  of  if  French Canadians  the  received by  them d u r i n g  the  than  for better  The h i g h wages only part  because  Furthermore,  reliable  well  i n other  i n g e n u i t y and responded  They were more ready  often  even  Professions  almost  f o r masters  a surprising  towns,  also  prospects  workmen were  considerable  was  own, t h e y were  Native-born  and c i v i l i t y .  1814  and o t h e r  United States.  and t h e  servants,  there  pp.  for  climatic  104-105.  1784  and  and  other  102. obstacles,  the  intelligently  resources  of  signs  of  progress  E n g l i s h methods were  t r y i n g to  Yankee  yards the  were  The  Perhaps  the  Montreal  of  the  presence  Canadian labor  a busy urban  lands  and s p r e a d i n g  its  west.  Such a focus  of  lethargy  hitherto  in  of  quality.  shipping u n t i l main  seaport  voyage  permitted  them to  was  a r a p i d two m i l e s  even  at  times  reported there  for  of  a possibly weeks  was  the  into  the  the  and  of farm-  burgeoning  to  shake  off  with  improvement  changes  steamboat.  in  deepsea  Quebec  was  A f e w s h i p s made a deep  town.  The w o r s t  story  of  One a ship  a f t e r m i s s i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y ,  the  the  channel  w h i c h hampered winds.  the  economy.  i n accordance  any r e m a r k a b l e  the  favorable  apocryphal  ship-  growth  Canadian  expanded  down r i v e r ,  strong  to  surrounded by r i c h  of  the  to  impetus  employment.  up t o M o n t r e a l , where close  capital;  industrial  whole colony.  lie  merchants  for  a c t i v i t y was n e e d e d  coming of  the  difficult  adequate  were no f a r - r e a c h i n g  the  for  agriculture;  skill  population without There  and  improvements.  i r o n w o r k s and  routes  facilities  Here  managerial  centre  trade  was  of  characteristic  Transportation the" s p r e a d  of  most h o p e f u l development  into  later  raising  operation  used  conservatism  activities.  foreshadowed  of  not being  i m p a r t i n g a wholesome  successful  aptitude  French  i n most  means  was  demonstrated  were  slowly affecting  devise  enterprise  trade.  area  and e f f i c i e n t l y .  matched b y B r i t i s h c a u t i o n there  the  obstacle  progress  traveller that  lay  and was  still  103. there  when a l u c k i e r companion v e s s e l  had unloaded,  returned  199 t o E n g l a n d , a n d come h a c k case,  it  on a s e c o n d v o y a g e .  was hard, t o make more  Atlantic  to  Most  Montreal in a  of  the  preferred The  of  the  river traffic  schooners,  of  were m a i n l y f o r stream took  only.  rather  than  years,  the  changes  to  advent  construction  all  market floes  inland  were  that  speed  and  Lambert,  200  Ibid.,  one h u n d r e d t o n s  Quebec  two d o l l a r s .  chose  sleep  to  steamboat  burthen,  cabins.  ashore 2 0 0  down-  and M o n t r e a l Fastidious or  on  Within  deck  a  few  was t o b r i n g p r o f o u n d  waterways.  i m p o r t a n t on t h e The  i n that  it  St.  service  Lawrence before beWeen  was g e n e r a l l y  dugout canoes,  Travels, v o l . 1,  often  convenience.  and c o s t  b a r r e d t h e i r way.  199  the  travellers  F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s made t h e i r  i n large  and M o n t r e a l  Even with  journey between  of b r i d g e s .  was p e c u l i a r  winter.  its  s m a l l and f i l t h y the  the  u s u a l l y taking passengers  schooners  of  across  Quebec  transport,  f i v e days,  i n the  the  between  from t h i r t y to  on t h e  trip  schooners.  for  I n 1806, t h e  Ferries  Levis  route  freight,  f r o m two t o  passengers  or  regular land water  one  any  season.  was c a r r i e d on b y b a t e a u x alternative  than  in  p.  carried  Passengers  pp.  and on  way r e g u l a r l y  d r a g g i n g them a c r o s s  v o l . 1, 454.  Quebec  to  ice-  who h a d made  513-514.  the  this  104. difficult  and dangerous  and h a r d i n e s s  of the  formation  This  event,  by most  of  an i c e b r i d g e  or p l e a s u r e .  who d i d w h a t  at  the  conditions  or pont  across  skill  who swarmed  narrows.  was w e l c o m e d  across  the  o b j e c t o r s were  the  could to prevent  the edges,  permitted  the  overnight,  The o n l y  they  the i c e at  of  take place  the l o c a l populace,  by breaking  i n order  ice  freezing  to  preserve  °0? j obs. "  their  Visitors expressed  their  t o L o w e r C a n a d a i n t h e summer  surprise,  travelling for  a combination  which might  on b u s i n e s s ferrymen,  of  surprised  201  boatmen.  Every few years the  t r i p were  and sometimes  i n a caleche. fears.  Occasionally  The F r e n c h  o v e r bumpy r o a d s ,  alarm,  often  almost  at  the prospect  they  had good  Canadian d r i v e r s  suffering  invariably  breakdowns  raced  of  reason headlong  through  care-  20 3 lessness. that  One u n h a p p y B r i t i s h t o u r i s t  the posting  public  system  carriages  here  Improvements man p r a i s e d Quebec  was cheap,  cannot  and M o n t r e a l ,  201 Hugh C r a y , 202 Landmann, 203 H u n t e r ,  Letters,  arrangements  pp.  Adventures,  Q.uebec  gradually.  pronouncing  204 C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s ,  p.  21.  pp.  I n 1796  an  on t h e r o a d to be  255-257.  115.  "The  inconvenient  257-258.  v o l . 1,  pp. 15,  for  the caliches  to Carolina,  admitted  but complained:  be p a r a l l e l e d  came a b o u t  t h e commodious  i n 1792  Irishbetween "far  4  105. superior at  to  the  American stage w a g g o n s " .  the -vanity of  the  a moderate h u r s t acceleration.  of  to  the  owners were with brass  cries  chaises.  of  criticism with  "marche  which were  done"  nails  for  amused  praise  carefully  a  caleche  attuned  Some c a l e c h e s w e r e f i t t e d  2 0 6  An account  of  1806  notes  i n which a fat  were  s t i l l  d r i v e r would  "most tilt  up  that  the  studded  a l i g h t f a s t e n i n g more u s e f u l  Posting vehicles  with  violent  for  abandoning the heavy French harness  accidents. machines",  and t o  The n i c k n a m e  speed r e q u i r e d .  like English  He was  d r i v e r s , who r e s p o n d e d t o speed,  was d e r i v e d f r o m t h e  2 0 5  in  abominable  the body  for-  207 ward to  the  great  Winter  travel  comfortable. being  inconvenience on l a n d was  Most c a r i o l e s  seen were  of  passengers.  easier  were  b u t h a r d l y more  open b e c a u s e  the main pleasures  of  seeing  sleighing.^  On  h e a v i l y t r a v e l l e d r o u t e s the c a r i o l e a c q u i r e d an u n p l e a s a n t motion head-sea." ^ t!" . . . n o t u n l i k e r o w i n g i n a b o a t a g a i n s t a 2 0  A  A  and  This  was due t o  guard that break  t h e bumps o r  enabled  new r o a d s .  the  Ibid.,  207  Lambert,  208 W e l d , 209  pp.  surmount o b s t a c l e s  pp.  246-247.  247-248.  Travels,  Travels,  H . Gray,  s l e i g h to  formed by the  H a b i t a n t i n g e n u i t y was u n a b l e  205 W e l d , " T r a v e l s , 206  cahots  p.  Letters,  v o l . 1, 226. p.  248.  pp.  168-170.  to  snowand design  106.  an improvement Fashionable that  were As  eliminating this  people  fast  i n the  Canadians  towns k e p t  and c o m f o r t a b l e  an a u x i l i a r y t o used  dogs  to  the  used carts  or The  The  -  •  of  to  the  horses,  to market  sleighs 211  French  and p u l l  a common p r a c t i c e  Ten y e a r s  a n d p r o d u c e was  Lower Canada were  following description refers  from Montreal to  upset.  later  carried  in  2 1 0  dogs  sleds in were  horse-drawn  213  x.  sleighs. roads  tough l i t t l e  212  feature.  high-runner  easily  T h i s was  and M o n t r e a l i n 1796.  only by boys,  but  draw c a r t s  on l o n g w i n t e r j o u r n e y s . Quebec  distressing  Lachine  --  the  to  at  times  a journey  highroad for  abominable. i n May all  1798  traffic  west.  T h e r o a d we h a d f o l l o w e d , t h e o n l y o n e b e t w e e n those places, which scarcely deserved such a name, was a t f i r s t r o u g h e n o u g h , b u t on a d v a n c i n g i t e n t e r e d a s o r t o f w o o d , w h e r e e v e r y one f o l l o w e d h i s own f a n c y . The s u r f a c e was c o v e r e d or s c a t t e r e d t h i c k l y w i t h s t o n e s , each of them l a r g e enough t o u p s e t any k i n d of v e h i c l e , and t h e s e were p a r t l y s t a n d i n g i n w a t e r , so t h a t i n proceeding i t not unfrequently happened, that i n t u r n i n g t h i s way t o a v o i d one o f t h o s e m a s s e s y o u p l u n g e d t h e w h e e l o f y o u r c a r r i a g e , on t h e o o t h e r s i d e , i n t o a deep h o l e i n the g r o u n d , concealed by the water.214  210  Ogden,  211  Landmann, A d v e n t u r e s ,  212 W e l d ,  Tour,  p.  Travels,  43.  p.  203.  Travels,  vol.  213  Lambert,  214  Landmann, A d v e n t u r e s ,  v o l . 1,  1, vol.  p. 1,  p.  265.  72. pp.  294-295.  107. By  1807.this  Canada, of  but  r o u t e h a d become it  fourpence  was n o t  for  well  a horse  the  kept  o n l y t u r n p i k e i n Lower up c o n s i d e r i n g t h e  and e i g h t p e n c e  for  a horse  rate and  . 215 chaise. n  Weary t r a v e l l e r s accommodation plained  of  at  the  could not  journey's  look forward to  end.  In  " d i s m a l appearance  1791 M r s . S i m c o e  of  the PI  inn" visit  where  she had t o  i n 1795  she  The  what  at  declared:  accommodations here hired but  stay  are  for very  there  travellers,  old-fashioned  On a are  no  subsequent tolerable  and no l o d g i n g s t o 217  be  miserable  s i t u a t i o n i n the  towns had improved l i t t l e  New a r r i v a l s w e r e w a r n e d n o t  1806.  com-  6  Quebec.  "...  comfortable  "Every l i t t l e d i r t y hole,  t o be  misled by  by names:  a few g l a s s e s of rum, g i n , 218 or whiskey are s o l d , i s a T a v e r n . " T h e r e were i n Quebec o n l y two " r e s p e c t a b l e " h o t e l s and a number o f b o a r d i n g 219 \ houses not s u i t e d to E n g l i s h t a s t e s . Trois-Rivieres j possessed British  one  decent  house  for  l a n d l a d y who was c l e a n  215 L a m b e r t , 216  Simcoe,  217  Ibid.,  Travels, Diary,  p.  218 L a m b e r t , 219  where  p.  accommodation run by and competent  v o l . 1, p .  528.  54.  351. Travels,  Ibid.,vol.  1,  pp.  v o l . 1, 23-25,  p. 317.  23.  but  the  a  108. reverse  of  d ' A r m e s was Englishmen  a neat,  to  The M o n t r e a l H o t e l on t h e  clean,  and d e s c r i b e d  En route have  220  obsequious.  as  through the  take p o t - l u c k  well  at  run hostelry  the  best  in  countryside, farmhouses,  Place  suited  Canada.  to  221  travellers  might  and u s u a l l y  carried  222 baskets were  of  provisions.  frequently  Even the  unable  to  p u b l i c houses  s u p p l y more  necessities,  not  from i l l - w i l l  aubergistes,  who w e r e  a politeness  and s o l i c i t u d e  also  but  the  or  was  auberges  barest  from poverty.  farmers that  than  or  The  shopkeepers,  showed  a refreshing  contrast  223 to  the manners  of E u r o p e a n  innkeepers.  The p e r i o d 1 7 8 4 - 1 8 1 4 government political  of  events  Revolution enjoying  Canada,  to  saw i m p o r t a n t the  accompaniment  elsewhere.  came t h e  As a sequel  division  representative  into  agitation  institutions  conservative the  forces  Legislative  Lambert,  221  Ibid.,  222 W e l d , 223  on t h e  majority  Travels, vol.  1,  other.  Travels,  Hugh G r a y ,  vol.  1,  The  opinion,  pp.  each  126-127.  scale.  exciting strengthened  for  of a  parliamentary  479-481.  517.  pp.  American  establishment  questions  p..193.  Letters,  the  it  the  great  on a l i m i t e d  unfamiliar with  p.  to  one h a n d w h i l e  Assembly posed novel  French-speaking  220  on the  of  in  two p r o v i n c e s ,  The F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n d e e p l y d i s t u r b e d republican  changes  109.  devices. with of  Over the  revolutionary  hostilities  actual  that  the  in  early  it  was n e c e s s a r y  States.  1785  and t h a t  lieutenant  to  grant  the  the  continued  establishment as  to at  the  war  threat  culminating  in  Quebec  request  for  and l i b e r t y  example 1791  local  of  the  went  a  great  upsurge  t a k e up h i s  an  would United considerable  representation  power and  noticeably  the  a r r i v e d to  warned  G o v e r n o r - i n - C h i e f and  exercise  evidenced by  James C r a i g  and the  recent  demand f o r  Nevertheless,  conditions,  loomed the  a young E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r  The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l A c t o f  government.  Sir  United States,  colony from f o l l o w i n g the 2 2 4  1793  only a constitution  way t o w a r d s m e e t i n g  Their  after  1812.  As  the  as  scene  and N a p o l e o n i c P r a n c e ,  with  conflict  assembly, keep  whole  his  influence.  affected  economic  i n business duties  in  as  when  Governor  O OR  in  1807.  In  the  of  President  of  powers  Administrator— a  culty the  as  the  absence  Executive  i n emergencies.  frustration  of  the  Governor-in-Chief,  C o u n c i l ha.d s t r i c t l y  a project  limited  s i t u a t i o n which caused  Lambert  attributed  for  to  the  this  diffiweakness  g r o w i n g hemp i n w h i c h h e  226 was  interested.  224  Hadfield,  225  Lambert,  226  Ibid.,  Englishman i n America, Travels,  vol.  1,  vol. p.  1,  180.  pp.  1785,  231-232.  pp.  133-154.  110.  British, little  more  Only petty  travellers than  found the  a travesty  subjects  of  legislature  the Mother of  came u p f o r  w h i c h were m o s t l y i n F r e n c h ,  provincial  discussion,  were  "never  Parliaments. and the  remarkable  debates, for  227 learning,  eloquence,  s t a n c e was n o t members w e r e  or profound argument."  s u r p r i s i n g , i n v i e w of  illiterate.  I n 1806,  was made up o f m e r c h a n t s , f r o m Quebec This visitors  and M o n t r e a l *  state  of  the  of  the  Assembly  lawyers,  and  notaries  august proceedings  be  a people  civil  several  was n a t u r a l l y r e p u g n a n t  it  of  that  228  One w r i t e r t h o u g h t i n the hands  circum-  fact  over h a l f  shopkeepers,  affairs  familiar with  the  This  most unbecoming that ignorant  of  Westminster.  control  the  and r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t y and " d e f i c i e n t  at  to  should  principles in  of  general  229 knowledge." things  He a s s e r t e d  with  t i o n was a  the French  a high hand...", forgetting "free  The l e g a l be  that  gift"  from  B r i t a i n .  2  3  eyes.  Canada f o r t u n a t e l y had l i t t l e  227  Lambert,  Travels,  228  Hugh G r a y ,  Letters,  229  Ibid.,  pp.  81-82.  230  Ibid.,  pp.  Criminal scope  v o l . 1,  100-101.  pp.  p. 78-79.  carry  that  the  constitu-  left  a good d e a l  0  and j u d i c i a l system a l s o  desired i n B r i t i s h  "...  justice  amongst  184.  to  i n Lower  the l a w - a b i d i n g  111.  French  Canadians.  criminal "...  it  law that requires  Canada."  in  the  equal  l a v ; was It  system  communaute  accumulation encouraging Even  laws. of  fraud.  it  residents  the  law.  quibbling that  in  expected  of  as  were  singled opposed  de b i e n s  to  the  of  English  effect be  that  hung  in  easy to  Hugh Gray,  233  Ibid.,  Travels,  p.  fire  grave  of  life  the  condemned  in  principle the  and the as  of  defects  primogeniture;  absence  thwarting  family affection,  prejudice  civil  the  It  120.  with  the and  un-English  the  l a w extended  intricacies  critics, to  British  was n o t and t h a t  vol. pp.  of  a  233  1,. p . 121,  surprising, the  civil  The F r e n c h  177. 138-143.  could  foreign  for misrepresentation  respect.  Letters,  against  English-trained justices  opportunities  command p u b l i c  232  were  sympathize  the French  obvious.  Lambert,  for  i n marriage;  natural  to master  231  to  drew the  232  province.  The  that  aspects  out  destroying  litigation flourished,  failed  to  a man t o  feature  These were  is  since  body  for  and i n o t h e r  allowing for  systems,  be  a proverb  the  property,  particularly  not  the-severity  was h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e  inheritance,  of  was  interest  Especially  of b a n k r u p t c y  legal  great  critics. judicial  system  t h e r e was  civil  Lower Canada. of  tempered  2 3 1  French British  So  and  therefore, courts lawyers,  112.  apparently  of  " n a r r o w and c o n t r a c t e d "  education,  did  not  4  show a h i g h s t a n d a r d very unsatisfactory.' if  we a c c e p t  the  tedious;  Scotland,  and the  fleetness  practice. Yet  0  Courtroom procedure  t h i n g s might have been  following opinion:  extremely  the  of  of  but,  to  compare  English court the  hare  with  ''The it  of  worse,  law i n Canada  with  the  Chancery,  the  was  law  is  is  of  to  compare  s l u g g i s h motion of  the  ,235 snail. In  the  r e a l m of  themselves  on t h e  demand f o r  greater  the  position  of  politics,  attention  the  traveller  French-speaking  at  Quebec  to  A n g l i c i z e the  but.he  believed  achieve  colonial  people the  dominance  Later of  the  of  ideas  medium of  of  were  superior often  Lambert,  235  Ibid.,  They  democracy might  236  Hadfield,  Travels,  vol.  1,  1785  an  with  Gover-  This  s h o u l d have of  public  tried schools,  p.  v o l . 1,  case  ability.  obsessed w i t h  American sympathizers.  234  relations  L o y a l i s t i m m i g r a n t s would, i n any  the French R e v o l u t i o n .  French  In  and  despotism".  authorities  the  government,  discontent  through a system  through  visitors  in  majority,  reported  forced  These were  United States.  1  thought  issues  observers.  n o r H a l d i m a n d s "German p r i n c i p l e s writer  great  popular participation  w i t h G r e a t B r i t a i n and the English  of  three  expressed  the  infiltrate  the  dangers  fear  through  that the  One i n d i g n a n t B r i t o n  pp.  201-202.  203.  Englishman i n A m e r i c a , 1785,  pp.  131-133.  113.  insisted alleged These  that  the  French  grievances  querulous  employments  but  Canadians  their  colonials  own p e r v e r s e  enjoyed  and p r o f i t e d  h a d no b a s i s  their  from the  for  their  dispositions.  share  of  unprecedented  public benevolence  237  of B r i t i s h r u l e .  The w r i t e r  conferring B r i t i s h when t h e s e  questioned  institutions  institutions  the  wisdom  on a c o n q u e r e d  had taken  so  long  of  people,  to mature  in  938 the  homeland.  Furthermore,  French  Canadians  French  r u l e .  2  5  naturally  flict  the  fences  of  the  d i d not  was  at  citadel  on Cape D i a m o n d :  discern  nothing but  geneous  collection  eluding  Quebec  the  resumption  i n 1806 "...  a heap of  of  of  of  the  Hugh G r a y ,  Letters,  238  Ibid.,  pp.  84-85.  239  Ibid.,  pp.  327-330.  240  Lambert,  241  Ibid.,  Travels,  looked  ruins  p.  41.  a  on t h e  in vain for  p.  and  a  the could hetero-  broken-  Governor C r a i g  Plains  40.  of  de-  When  and new b u i l d i n g s ,  330-332.  1,  con-  physical  and r u b b i s h ;  however,  pp.  vol.  of  from reassuring.  repairs  towers  237  1,  he  case  o l d wooden l o g - h o u s e s  completion  vol.  in  forces  my u n p r o f e s s i o n a l , e y e  time,  four Martello  divisive  Moreover,  far  At this  2 4 0  the  the  augur w e l l  United States.  Lambert  hastening  and o t h e r  Lower Canada were  down w a l l s . "  for  that  9  province  with  emphasized  longed  The p o l i t i c a l d i s p u t e s within  he  Abraham.  was 1  in-  241  114.  In  a d d i t i o n to  the  garrison  troops,  on t h e  t r a d i t i o n a l French  cies.  The B r i t i s h and F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s  companies  with  their  s y s t e m was  officers--a  oxm  a militia  available  in  formed  based emergen-  separate  d i s t i n c t i o n that  one  94 traveller The at  considered  undesirable  same a u t h o r m e n t i o n e d w i t h Trois-Rivieres  i n 1807  with  i n the  interests  of  approval a fencible Scottish  officers  unity.""  regiment  and  French 043  Canadian  other  ranks,  supplemented by  The p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n 1784  to  tutions the  was  one  were b e i n g  midst  that was  1814  of  great  worse  it  than  testing, ashamed  the of  reality  people  their  242  Lambert,  243  Ibid.,  disorder.  Appearances  i n some  of  performance  1,  at  v o l . 1,  pp.  New i n s t i -  It  477-478.  was  in  impossible  must have  been  In  the  reason  Chateauguay.  48.  people  wonder  respects.  p.  from  and the  Lower Canada h a d no  Travels,  vol.  and f e r m e n t .  s h o u l d work s m o o t h l y , all."  period  a non-homogeneous  international  worked at the  Canada i n the  division  tested by  the machinery that  of  of  a few Americans.  time to  of be  115.  CHAPTER  III  THE A T T A C K OH THE W I L D E R N E S S : U P P E R C A N A D A .  Before Montreal of  the  coming of  was l a r g e l y  the  terra  Loyalists,  incognita  them had v i s i t e d t r a d i n g p o s t s  Niagara to  v i e w the  lating  wilderness,  this  the  region.  The  Canada i n 1791 complete 1814  it  with  all  the  the  St.  commenced  States  at  that  a new c a p i t a l was of  of  Lawrence,  Lake  Ontario,  at  some  the  the D e t r o i t  either  were  end,  to  visit  intermediate  of  Upper  established,  settled the  River.  or  popu-  government.  most  to  Some at  a separate province  paraphernalia to  off  incentive  see  and Lake E r i e  c o u l d be United  meant  of  travellers.  settlers  t h e r e v/as m o r e of  Canada west  and s t o p p e d  How t h a t  creation  was p o s s i b l e  following River,  falls.  to  1784-1814  area  to  by  Niagara  This  approached  point,  Up  route from  such as  the  the  Hiagara Peninsula. Travellers l i g h t e d by  the  by water  f r o m M o n t r e a l were  spectacle  of  the  the  wearying upstream journey  the  first  laudatory.  recorded  possibilities through  dismissed  i n 1791  Thousand I s l a n d s  through the  impressions,  A hard-headed  with  the  Scot  usually  however, intent  these beauty remark:  on  One  of  from  agricultural  spots  "They  after  rapids. was f a r  de-  are  as  he  passed  of  very  little  116.  value, Later  and p r o d u c e b u t w r i t e r s made  A more "...  amends  representative  beautiful  in  scraggy  the  the  period after  Canada nearby  highest  in I  1783.  The  1787 for  set  one  the  sat  astonishment,  keynote  down f o r at  of  islands  with  the time  reaching  some  which I  were  sightseers entered  this  sight  of  the  of  expressions  most  luxuriant  A B r i t i s h army  f o l l o w i n g passage: in  -  2  travellers  to  , , J  appreciation.  numerous  literature.  a sight  pine.  usually called forth rise  some  of  that'the  Several  giving  i n Canadian t r a v e l  lack  attract  spectacle  profound emotion,  prose  to  useless  degree."  o r mad.e a p o i n t  growing fame. of  this  o p i n i o n was  N i a g a r a P a l l s began in  for  wood o f  silent  am f u l l y  officer "Here  admiration  and  p e r s u a d e d no  pen  3 or p e n c i l  can  This cription  the  d i d not for  deter  high point  comment  of  His  journal  entry  1 Campbell,  of  across  the  subsequent  Travels,  Travels,  p.  the  July  p.  any  attempt from  gave  in  a good i d e a  des-  Per-  sentiment  I r i s h poet,  at  composing  enjoyment.  o u t p o u r i n g of  Thomas M o o r e , 24  sea."  writers  or p r i v a t e  in this  for  the  f u t i l i t y of  publication;  the  2 Veld,  convey  assertion  rhapsodies haps  ever  was  1804. of  the  137.  275.  3 John E n y s , " V i s i t to N i a g a r a , j o u r n a l of C a p t . E n y s , 29 t h r e g i m e n t , 1 7 8 7 , " ' C a n a d a , P u b l i c a r c h i v e s , Report, 1886, p . c c x x v i .  117.  effect  of  the  scene  on a s e n s i t i v e  and e l o q u e n t  observer:  I t i s i m p o s s i b l e by pen or p e n c i l to convey even a f a i n t i d e a of t h e i r m a g n i f i c e n c e . Painting is l i f e l e s s ; and the most b u r n i n g words of p o e t r y have a l l been l a v i s h e d upon i n f e r i o r and o r d i n a r y subjects. We m u s t h a v e n e w c o m b i n a t i o n s o f l a n guage to d e s c r i b e the P a l l s of N i a g a r a . When C a p t a i n E n y s v i s i t e d N i a g a r a i n 1787 ing had been the  falls,  done  but  ous.  B y 1795  river  on a  on the  access at  to  least  series  of  Canadian side the base  to  clear-  permit views  was d i f f i c u l t a n d  o n e woman h a d d e s c e n d e d  short  some  to  of  danger-  the  ladders which replaced  an  old  5 "Indian the  Ladder" consisting  same y e a r  a French  of  a notched  traveller  tree-trunk.  complained that  ment h a d n o t made c o n v e n i e n t  approaches  to  viewpoints.  inadequate  the  He d i s m i s s e d as  few t r a v e l l e r s  were  interested  the  In  the  various  excuse  in sight-seeing  govern  that  only,  and  g that  those  This  condemnation  of  the  on b u s i n e s s of  rarely  stopped  o f f i c i a l p a r s i m o n y was  d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c i n g Canadian t o u r i s t  The to  intent  climate  travellers  States.•  of Upper Canada p r e s e n t e d  who h a d l i v e d  W i n t e r s were  Diary,  p.  look.  early  1,  few  i n Lower Canada or  p.  evidence  development. surprises the  t y p i c a l l y Canadian i n a l l but  4 Moore, Memoirs, v o l . 5 Simcoe,  to  United the  172.  286.  6 F r a n g o i s - A l e x a n d r e - F r e d e r i c , Due de L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d L i a n c o u r t , Yoya.ge d a n s l e s E t a t s - U n i s d ' A m e r i q u e , f a i t en 1 7 9 5 , 1796 e t 1 7 9 7 , P a r i s , D u P o n t , l ' a n V I I de l a R e p u b l i q u e £ l 7 9 9 j , v o l . 2, p p . 1 9 - 2 0 .  118.  southernmost milder  than  districts, i n the  even  eastern  though temperatures  province.  was c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y g r e a t e r . Peninsula weather  occasionally  that  them the  caused  Residents  suffered  great  opportunity for  openings ings, set  v a r i e d the  summer s k i e s through the  for  smoke f o r sides  of  voyagers In  1800  the the  sleep.  than  a sea  were  On t h e  site  of  Fires,  damage,  at  whether  and o f t e n  a time.  During  a n d down t h e  crew suffered  "It  scarcely  forest  St.  extremely  of  clear-  deliberately  one  canoe  Lawrence  from the  the trip  to Mont-  effects  Fires on  of  on b o t h the  8  l a n d had been  troublesome  i n 1796,  possible  natural  darkened  and c i n d e r s  when l i t t l e  Toronto  of  a fringe  respite.  early years,  7  supplemented by  r i v e r poured ashes  to  Adventures, v o l .  vol. 2,  cleared,  i n Upper Canada.  M r s . Simcoe  write  7 L a Rochefoucauld, Voyage, 8,Landmann,  night by denying  whole seven hundred m i l e s .  without  mosquitoes  is  the  at  oppressive  Only a few  G-reat L a k e s  in July  and  heat  Niagara  foundation.  great  weeks  from heavy  more  landscape.  caused  the  refreshing  its  and p r a i r i e s ,  or not,  real  after  summer  of  distress  The p r o v i n c e was l i t t l e f o r many y e a r s  The  were  remarked:  o r u s e my h a n d s ,  2, pp.  p.  120.  169-170.  which  119.  are  always occupied i n k i l l i n g  Rattlesnakes some o f  the  infested tall  large  stories  that  least  seven hundred snakes  snakes  but  \^as  the  the  head  of  1  islands  at  the  west  made l a n d i n g  dangerous  and were  active  late  until  Other forms  saw a f l o c k  at  is  no  troublesome.  At  by roadbuilders  0  summer  The w o r s t a r e a  end of  Lake E r i e ,  the height  were l e s s  continued to  t h e i r p r o d i g i o u s numbers.  there  of  for  where  summer,  September.  of w i l d l i f e  pigeons  at  away." Although  Lake O n t a r i o i n the  o n l y one man was b i t t e n . " '  the  them  province.  discounted,  were k i l l e d  rattlers  Passenger  of  t h e y were numerous and o f t e n  near B u r l i n g t o n at 1795,  areas  must be  doubt  of  them or d r i v i n g  objectionable.  astonish visitors  with  Landmann, an o b s e r v a n t  Niagara that  was  two t o  three  engineer,  m i l e s w i d e and  12 took  three  to  four hours  a n d mammals p r o v i d e d  to  in their  life  One t r a v e l l e r  the  "bear  9 10  Simcoe, Ibid.,  11 W e l d ,  numbers p r o v i d e d reported  and s q u i r r e l y e a r "  many b e a r s  coming from the  Diary, p.  A n abundance  good h u n t i n g f o r  Fluctuations cycle.  pass.  p.  of  Indians  1796.  n o r t h were  seen  335.  p.  340.  12 Landmann, A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 1,  p.  278.  of  birds settlers. a  phenomena  During  298.  Travels,  and  evidence  strange  of  wildin  September  i n the  waters  120.  of the S t . Lawrence and Great Lakes.  S q u i r r e l s migrated  from the south at the same time by swimming the N i a g a r a R i v e r , and then went on to wreak havoc  amongst crops on  13 the Canadian  side.  Upper Canada had no l a r g e c i t i e s to compare w i t h Quebec and M o n t r e a l u n t i l l o n g a f t e r 1791. t i n y communities was  Among the  that l i n e d the S t . Lawrence, K i n g s t o n  the f i r s t worthy  of d e t a i l e d n o t i c e to t r a v e l l e r s  p r o c e e d i n g upstream.  I t s s i t u a t i o n i n s p i r e d a good many  f a v o r a b l e comments, and the c i t y i t s e l f was  attractive.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , one p r a c t i c a l Scot rebuked the r e s i d e n t s f o r b u i l d i n g t h e i r houses  of wood i n s t e a d of the n a t u r a l l y 14 quadrangular limestone that was abundant i n the l o c a l i t y .  A n o t h e r , t r a v e l l e r thought K i n g s t o n the most e l i g i b l e  site  f o r the c a p i t a l of the p r o v i n c e , on account of i t s advantages 15 f o r trade and defence. three years l a t e r , to Newark because buildings,  By c o n t r a s t , a F r e n c h v i s i t o r  i n 1795,  c o n s i d e r e d the town i n f e r i o r  of i t s poor housing and l a c k of p u b l i c  although he r e c o g n i z e d i t s commercial  There was  advantages.  l i t t l e to d e t a i n the t r a v e l l e r between  K i n g s t o n and N i a g a r a .  Toronto harbor was known to be  13 Weld, T r a v e l s , pp. 270-271. 14 Campbell, T r a v e l s , pp. 139-140. 15 Canadian l e t t e r s , p.  37.  16 l a Rochefoucauld, Voyage, v o l . 2, pp. 131-133.  121.  excellent, reach  not  i n the  of  woods  to  of  wretched erected  spent  on t h e D o n R i v e r .  to  visit  visitors  lowered i t s  case  M r s . Simcoe  several  the  war.  from the  straggling village, here  and t h e r e  as  The  --  i n 1792  a few  with  chance,  original  was much more a  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  described  to  Rochefoucauld  United States  s u i t a b i l i t y as N e w a r k was  La  years  agreeable  new c a p i t a l .  Newark ( N i a g a r a - o n - t h e - L a k e )  accessible  in  of Y o r k took  size.  even b o t h e r  capital  that  village  a respectable  holidays did  "but t h e  as  centre "a  scattered  convenience,'  fact  poor  cottages  or  caprice  17 dictated."  B y 1796,  dwellings",  however,  Queenston  of  the  after  As the  feature  17  compare  with  t h e War o f  1812.  of  the  tide  of  of  excellent  to  Indian l i f e  Travels,  smaller  that  of  the  The f r o n t i e r determined period  p.  a minor element.  p.  itself  42.  297.  lower  the  notably  and M a i d e n  Urban development  d u r i n g the  was  villages,  Niagara Peninsula,  area  and  -1 Q  immigration swelled,  Canadian l e t t e r s ,  18 W e l d ,  the  people  was r e d u c e d of  a few even  opposite D e t r o i t .  over most  nature  lation  States.  and G h i p p a w a i n t h e  Canada d i d not  prevailed  United  Newark l a y  (Amherstburg)  until  had " s e v e r a l  and was g r o w i n g r a p i d l y t h r o u g h t r a d e  immigration from the West  it  i n Upper  province  conditions  that  to  extent  a great  1784-1814.  the  Indian popu-  The m o s t result  of  interesting immigration.  122.  T h i s was  the  Mohawk v i l l a g e  by Joseph Brant  after  travellers  a point  by  the  made  lustre  generally  favorable.  These  civilized  without  the  met  reputation.  of  the  Indians  him.  This  conversation  He made  Many drawn  opinions  were  church services,  under  moreover,  all  19  impression  complex i n d i v i d u a l  conditions.  achieved  f o r much of  a deep  the  showed  suitable  had been  customs.  was r e s p o n s i b l e  community.  Their  productive farms,  amenities,  himself  founded  settlement,  the  abandoning t r a d i t i o n a l  Brant of  visiting this  The d e c o r o u s  school,  potentialities  Grand R i v e r ,  American Revolution.  of  of B r a n t ' s  well-attended the  the  on t h e  the  on a l l  c o u l d engage  with well-informed visitors,  join  in  success who serious  i n the  young 20  people's  frolics,  or  He h a d d e m o n s t r a t e d part  of  the  get his  drunk w i t h knowledge  Hew T e s t a m e n t  a c o n v i v i a l European.  and p i e t y b y  i n t o Mohawk, y e t  translating  had been  capable  21 of  killing  shrewd, other  his  intelligent,  members The  own s o n .  of  other  19 20  his  race  Indian  21 W e l d ,  i n the  tribes  of  Perhaps  Travels,  pp.  p.  169-170,  Travels,  eyes  pp.  of  w h i t e men,  leader  far  the  most  outshone  a l l  173-174.  presented  wretched were  who w e r e  166-168.  407-409.  this  Canadas. Upper Canada  along Lake O n t a r i o ,  Campbell, Ibid.,  the  and a m b i t i o u s  an unhappy s p e c t a c l e . Mississaugas  In  described  the  i n 179 2  123.  as an "... unwarlike, i d l e , drunken, d i r t y t r i b e " - 2 2  a d e s c r i p t i o n that expressed a general opinion.  These  nomads made a poor l i v i n g out of b a r t e r i n g f i s h and game w i t h s e t t l e r s or other t r i b e s .  Along the D e t r o i t R i v e r  the Indians were l i t t l e b e t t e r .  One w r i t e r gave up h i s  plans to l i v e w i t h them f o r the purposes of observation i n 1796 because of the " f i l t h i n e s s and wretchedness of their"smoky h a b i t a t i o n " , t h e i r nauseous food and general 23 uncleanliness.  Y e t these degraded people despised men  who had l o s t t h e i r freedom, and u n i v e r s a l l y hated Negroes as an i n f e r i o r species whom they d i d not h e s i t a t e t o k i l l 24 without compunction i f given an opportunity.  Indians  treated one another w i t h "gentleness and harmony", unless inflamed by l i q u o r , the curse f o r which the whites could 25 never make amends. The m i s s i o n a r i e s who made the most s u c c e s s f u l appeal to the Indians were the Roman C a t h o l i c s , presumably because they i n s i s t e d on the observance of outward forms without imposing serious r e s t r a i n t s on everyday behavior.  The  Moravians d i d an e x c e l l e n t job of t u r n i n g w a r r i o r s i n t o 22 Simcoe, D i a r y , p. 115. 23 Weld. T r a v e l s , pp. 415-416. 24 I b i d . , p. 403. 25 I b i d . , pp. 401-402.  124.  p e a c e f u l f a r m e r s , b u t t h e i r c o n v e r t s were few. Quakers made l i t t l e p r o g r e s s because o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g s on non-  .  '  resistance.  26  Most t r a v e l l e r s were c r i t i c a l o f t h e I n d i a n p o l i c y of the government.  I n a d d i t i o n t o d e p r e c a t i n g t h e use of such  savage a l l i e s i n wartime, B r i t i s h o b s e r v e r s q u e s t i o n e d t h e v a l u e of t h e l a v i s h annual d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r e s e n t s .  They  p o i n t e d t o t h e g r e a t e r . s u c c e s s of F r e n c h agents i n t h e p a s t , and emphasized t h e need f o r sympathy and r e s p e c t t o w i n 27 the l a s t i n g a f f e c t i o n o f t h e n a t i v e s . thought  A French  traveller  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d make a s e r i o u s e f f o r t  t o c i v i l i z e those I n d i a n s i n c o n t a c t w i t h w h i t e s , and expressed h o r r o r a t r e p o r t s t h a t Governor Simcoe was i n c i t i n g t h e savages t o hate Americans and p r e p a r e f o r o r g i e s 28 of b u r n i n g and s c a l p i n g i n case of h o s t i l i t i e s . I t was a common b e l i e f t h a t t h e number o f I n d i a n s was d e c r e a s i n g , and t h a t a l l b u t a few s e t t l e d groups would disappear during the nineteenth century.  D i s e a s e and  l i q u o r t h r e a t e n e d t o aggravate t h e e f f e c t s o f a d e c l i n i n g 29 b i r t h r a t e and thus s o l v e t h e I n d i a n problem permanently.  26 Weld, T r a v e l s , pp. 409-410. 27 I b i d . , p. 361. 28 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d ,  Voyage, v o l . 2, pp. 68-69, 80-81.  29 Weld, T r a v e l s , pp. 372-374.  125.  The d i v e r s e Canada c r e a t e d the  older  colonies of  the  guage of  origins  the  a population in  province. of F r e n c h  Detroit  Before  River. of  immigrants sharp  the  Canadians  and customs  settlement  of  contrast  Loyalists  had  settled  These h a b i t a n t s their  resembled  long,  Upper  to  that  came, along  of  small the  retained  hanks  the  lan-  Even t h e i r  form  narrow farmsteads  that  forefathers.  the  into  30 lined  the  lower  After  the  rapidly  into  St.  Treaty  the  had established between  the  Lawrence. of  Paris  i n 1783  western  parts  of  themselves  Not quick  who w e r e a l l  the  t o move  "superior  Canada.  on t h e  bank  O t t a w a and L a k e O n t a r i o .  Englishman remarked settlers  Loyalists  on t h e  "enterprising  developing newcomers  into  the  industry  a country  were  virgin  B y 1785  of In  the  they  St.  Lawrence  that year and  of  territory.  a  young  industrious"  great  Loyalists.  and a c t i v i t y "  pushed  promise.  Scots Their  had enabled  were  youth  them  31  to  and attain 32  the  leadership  A visitor the viz.  the  merchant  t o K i n g s t o n i n 1795  district Scots,  30 W e l d ,  of  were  wrote  outnumbered b y  English, Travels,  31 H u n t e r ,  community i n Newark b y  Q.uebec  Irish, p. to  that  the  Dutch,  the  total  Loyalists  of  and German.  other 33  32  Canadian l e t t e r s ,  p.  33  La Rochefoucauld,  Voyage,  pp.  83-84.  80. vol.  2,  pp.  in  groups,  According  351. Carolina,  1793.  142-143.  126  to  an account  dominant the  referring  and the  As United  the  These newcomers of  quite  were  their  Governor  tried  to  from the  vulnerable  the of  distinct  f r o m the  suspected them  of  Irish  concern  i n the  was  preferred  Upper  immigrants  Canada life.  from  the  Governor  Simcoe  sympathies.  back  34  Loyalists.  to  republican  waterfront,  element  A m e r i c a n way o f  a number  a. s o u r c e  settle  Most  them moved to  d i s i l l u s i o n e d about  S t a t e s were  Scottish  small.  h u t many o f  i n Lower Canada,  on account  1806,  English very  United States,  after being  to  country,  The away  where he p r e f e r r e d  to  have  35 discharged B r i t i s h  tion  soldiers  The  government  not  only for  wished to  obtain  interests  of  such as  sound  selective  no  clergymen,  towards  one b u t  farmers  physicians,  exclusion  of  American  also  and s c h o o l m a s t e r s ,  American clergy  as  in  it  in  Hence p r o f e s s i o n a l  writing  immigra-  because  and l a b o r e r s  An E p i s c o p a l m i n i s t e r ,  the  loyalty.  p o l i t i c a l reasons but  r a p i d development.  discouraged. deplored  was  of  the men,  were 1799,  especially  36 harmful  to  Little the  people  religion. information of  34 L a m b e r t ,  about  the  manners  Upper Canada appeared  Travels,  35  La Rochefoucauld,  36  Ogden,  Tour,  p.  vol.  1,  Voyage, 34.  p. vol.  and customs  in travel  147. 2,  p.  45.  accounts  of  127.  for  the  p e r i o d 1784-1814.  among t h e  L o y a l i s t farmers  Scots merchants of  the  of  Newark,  southwest.  characteristics provement whole.  of  The  was n o t  much i n  along  the  Lawrence,  St.  until  the  spread  communications  towards  common the .  and t h e F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g  Each group r e t a i n e d most  only general  hospitality  There  of  settlement  facilitated  characteristic  strangers  that  of  habitants  its  native  and the  im-  an amalgam of  the  m e n t i o n e d was  a  m i g h t be  expected  in  a  37 pioneer  society.  S u c h i n f o r m a t i o n as settlers took  were  pains  not  to  inhabitants  paragons  counteract  of  is  available of  the  virtue.  Upper Canada were  own w i d e a c q u a i n t a n c e , 38 generous".  distinctive varied by  the  as  regular  that  of  f o o d of  37 H u n t e r , 80.  Quebec  to  the  settlers it  a l l  was  enjoyed  just  77;  them  and  was n o t  so  occasionally the  Lake  s t u r g e o n much b e t t e r  Carolina, p.  the  describing  "peaceable,  M r s . Simcoe  O n t a r i o w h i t e f i s h and f o u n d t h e  p.  as  the  One A m e r i c a n w r i t e r  "rogues",  French Canada,  local products.  that  popular opinion that  from h i s  Although  suggests  Canadian  than  letters,  38 M i c h a e l S m i t h , A g e o g r a p h i c a l ' v i e w o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f Upper Canada. And p r o m i s c u o u s r e m a r k s on t h e g o v e r n m e n t . I n two p a r t s , w i t h a n a p p e n d i x ; c o n t a i n i n g a c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n of the N i a g a r a F a l l s . And remarks r e l a t i v e to the s i t u a t i o n of the i n h a b i t a n t s r e s p e c t i n g the war, and a c o n c i s e h i s t o r y of i t s p r o g r e s s , to the p r e s e n t date, 3 d e d . , r e v . , T r e n t o n , [ N . J M o o r e a n d L a k e , 1 8 1 3 , p p . 59-60.  128.  salt-water 1792, the  varieties.  remarked  frequent  Another  on t h e abundant  appearance  of  traveller  at Niagara,  supply of w i l d  squirrels  pigeons  on t h e d i n n e r  The p o p u l a t i o n of U p p e r C a n a d a was n o t l a r g e to  provide f o r elaborate  capital  society.  dress  lasted  until  well  couples  in  after  amusements  sports  turned  such  by furious  and c u l t u r a l clearings In  life  despite ¥ith  39 S i m c o e ,  dances,  was a f a v o r i t e  of  The e a r l y  p.  singing, often  40 C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s ,  settlers  log shanties  41 I b i d . ,  p.  42 S m i t h ,  Upper Canada,  43-44.  45. pp.  63-64.  and  summer  and  work,  outdoor  42  for  i n the  and cabins  b u i l d i n g s were  pp.  climate  characterized  recreation.  139.  resembled  the heavy  provided few opportunities  as w e l l ,  Diary,  differences  the end of  naturally built  that  41  Sleighing,  amenities.  t h e few towns  suppers  i n t h e new s e t t l e m e n t s  as h u n t i n g .  Frontier  and h e a r t y  midnight.  to p r i v a t e  driving,  The m i n i a t u r e  A t the f o r t n i g h t l y b a l l s , i n dancing  40  enough  for  of Lower Canada,  people  table.  parties  national background. the  and  lively  engaged  Popular those  activities.  at Newark p r o v i d e d a round of  official fancy  social  in  almost  social forest as  dwellings.  invariably  129.  of  wood.  as  at K i n g s t o n ,  that  T h i s was  building  from those of was  in  problems  the  the  located  available,  on a l i m e s t o n e  i n the  of  air  to  formation  an  Upper Canada were  lower province.  area  s t o n e was  excellent  3  ague or m a l a r i a ,  weather  even where  and h a r d e n e d  material.^  The h e a l t h  case  w h i c h was  easily  split  the  Here  which reigned of  settlement  A traveller  a r r i v i n g at  every house  had at  the  quite  great  throughout  the  from Kingston  one  case.  menace warm  westward.  N e w a r k i n S e p t e m b e r 1796  least  different  found  Many complete  that  families 44  were  laid  Another in  up,  and most  severe  attack  1798.  a nearby  The  officer  marsh  that  of  the  new g a r r i s o n were  prostrated  the  garrison  commanding p r o p o s e d  was b l a m e d  for  the  permission by his  superior.  suffered  similar fashion.  Several  to  the  cutting .. 46 preventive. It  was  reasonably ers  43  were  of  trees thing  healthy.  In  scarce  and n o t  La Rochefoucauld,  44 W e l d , ' T r a v e l s ,  p.  45  Landmann,  46  Canadian l e t t e r s ,  that the  the  early  always  Voyage,  swamps was  years medical  competent.  2,  pp.  When  p.  vol. 47.  2,  pp.  but  21-22.  cover he  communities looked  as  the  only  otherwise practicionGovernor  143-144.  298.  Adventures,  d r a i n or  travellers  province  vol.  Newark  Other  and d r a i n i n g of  a good  at  infection, 45  was r e f u s e d in  to  affected.  130.  Simcoe  was  i l l at K i n g s t o n i n A p r i l  staff-surgeon  was  available  "...  was  at  Newark,  that  of  1795,  and t h e  the  military  only medical  a horse-doctor  who  advice  pretended  47 to he  an a p o t h e c a r y . "  who h a p p e n e d cacious  Indian  The they  to he  Fortunately,  present,  remedy.  common p e o p l e  prescribed  recourse  was  able  to  prescribe  sister,  an  effi-  4 8  were  afraid  quinquina for  to magic,  Joseph B r a n t ' s  of  physicians  fevers.  tying a knot  for  Hence each  because  the  attack  poor in a  had string  49 attached of a  to  an e l m o r  rattlesnakes sure  cure  applied to  for  and i n f u s e d  sassafras branch. afflicted  rheumatism.  into brandy,  The  parts  cast  were  considered  Dried rattlesnakes,  were  said  to be  skins  powdered  a "never  failing 50  remedy" These the  for  this  evidences  c r u d i t y of  complaint, of  and many c u r e s  superstition  life  were  and g u l l i b i l i t y  i n Upper Canada b e f o r e  population permitted  the  p r o v i s i o n of  the  adequate  reported. revealed growth  of  medical  treatment. In than for  education,  its its  neighbor  Upper Canada had even province,  backwardness  at  47  Simcoe,  48  Loc.  49  La Rochefoucauld,  50 W e l d ,  Diary, pp.  less  to boast  a l t h o u g h t h e r e was g o o d  first.  Until  the  government  274-275.  cit.  Travels,  pp.  Voyage., 341-342.  vol.  2,  pp.  98-99.  of  reason launched  131.  an e d u c a t i o n a l were  exiguous  Thames  River  program,  opportunities  and h a p h a z a r d . complained  In  that  for  1798  instruction  settlers  o n l y the  Indians  on had  the churches  51 and s c h o o l s . though few was  Public  settlers  i n theory  districts,  at  York, of  Upper Canada.  the  said  well  the  at  in  B y 1812  there  of  the  a salary  of  one  teaching  not  widespread  each  and the Bay  mind were  Latin  of  held  only three  a l t h o u g h he had been  eight  and  hundred Greek  y 52 Quinte.  i n great  A B r i t i s h w r i t e r who w a s  t h a t he had met  province,  s c h o o l i n g was  school  Hew s c h o o l s Newark,  in  educated.  employing a teacher  Things  1793  were  a free public  pounds per y e a r . existed  interest  there  esteem i n 1792  scholarly  assured  that  in and  persons  in  there  were  53 at  least  two o t h e r s  newspaper,  the  of  similar  attainments.  U p p e r Canada, G a z e t t e  The  or American  first  Oracle,  51 L e s l i e R . G r a y , e d . , "From Bethlehem to F a i r f i e l d — 1798. D i a r y of the B r e t h r e n John H e c k e w e l d e r and B e n j a m i n M o r t i m e r , on t h e i r j o u r n e y f r o m B e t h l e h e m i n P e n n s y l v a n i a to F a i r f i e l d i n Upper Canada, from the 30th A p r i l to the 2 2 n d M a y , 1 7 9 8 , " O n t a r i o h i s t o r y , v o l . 46 ( w i n t e r - s p r i n g 1953-1954), p. 125. 52  Smith,  Upper Canada,  pp.  58-59.  53 C a n a d i a n l e t t e r s , p . 5 6 . T h e " t h r e e he h a d met were G o v e r n o r Simcoe," C h i e f J u s t i c e Osgoode, and the R e v . M r . A d d i s o n , A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r a t N e w a r k ; t h e o t h e r two were M r . H a m i l t o n o f The L a n d i n g ( Q u e e n s t o n ) a n d M r . C a r t w r i g h t  of Cataraqui  (Kingston).  132.  was  a medium f o r government  ments.  The o n l y p r i n t e r  who c o u l d n o t w r i t e  at  proclamations the time  good E n g l i s h .  1795 f o u n d t h e Upper C a n a d i a n s Americans. centres  Neither  54  and  (1793)  was L o u i s R o y ,  A French  less  avid  advertise-  traveller  f o r news  at K i n g s t o n n o r at Newark,  of population,was  t h e r e much i n t e r e s t  than  in the  the main in  politics  55 or world  affairs.  Upper Canada showed  a tendency  diversity  even  Moravians  from Pennsylvania had settled  These  "mild  neighbors, Within  and i n o f f e n s i v e " i n spite  the next  greitf m o r e Anglican Canadians Quakers, For than  from the e a r l i e s t  towards  of  few years  complex. church,  t h e r e were  Mennonites a while,  and D u n k e r s .  of  p.  Travels,  La Rochefoucauld,  Falls.  their  life.  56  heterogeneity  from the  established (mostly  French  "Anabaptists",  57  h a r d l y more  A t N e w a r k t h e same b u i l d i n g  55 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , 56 C a m p b e l l ,  community  Presbyterians,  and f o r s e s s i o n s  Diary,  liked by  Roman C a t h o l i c s  River),  bearded  near Niagara  were  peculiar  apart  B y 1791  c h u r c h b u i l d i n g s were  denominations.  54 Simcoe,  people  the pattern  I n 1795,  on t h e D e t r o i t  both f o r worship  57  their  years.  religious  of  numerous  was u s e d  the Executive  and  161. Voyage, pp.  v o l . 2,  p p . 103-104,  153-154.  Voyage,  v o l . 2,  p p . 105,  142.  143.  133.  legislative until  Councils.  a barn-like An a c c o u n t  that  the  general  structure  referring  Methodists  and w i d e s p r e a d  religion.  to  his  It  summary  is  of  hard  habitants  Canada,  but  are  often of  and  The p r i m i t i v e s t a t e largely  due  progress.  -  to  the  Until  large  cultivation,  it  was  Before  1814,  the  future  development  struggle took  be  they  social  to  do n o t  up most  interest to  give and  among t h e  in-  persecute  each  59  with  settled  of  a  "Bigotry  and c u l t u r a l  the  notice  what w e i g h t  was  material under  refinement.  economic  the  life  and b r o u g h t  e x p e c t much lay  numerous  serious  pre-occupation  to  revealed  d i d not  discovered  a r e a s were  absurd  most  province:  loving."  of  general  author  i n the  1795.  church 58  1808-1812 the  determine  to  in  discovered  course  friendly  time  The  conditions  not  years  that  to  suitable  erected  the  r e v i v a l , but  is  other,  to  were b y  superstition of  was  denomination.  religious  in  K i n g s t o n h a d no  base  energies  for  of  the  people. Settlement Scottish in  1791  spread  agriculturist declared  of  the  58  La Rochefoucauld,  59  Smith,  i  r a p i d l y from east  to  west.  t r a v e l l i n g from Montreal to area  around C o r n w a l l :  Voyage,  Upper Canada,  pp.  vol. 60-62.  2,  pp.  105,  A Kingston  "This  142,  part  145.  134.  of  the  country  a very  is  improving very  flourishing state."  Peninsula  and the  populated,  shores  offering  settled  country."  carried  settlement  west  of "...  The  cutting  or  were  s t i l l  very  year  was  the  scattered  surprised  fine  In  at  the  lands between  of  the the  of  of Yonge  i n 1795.  and the  A traveller of  the.Niagara River  those  on t h e  there,  American side,  far  more  recalled  to  and  River  buildings in  that  and the  of Lake O n t a r i o . The N i a g a r a f r o n t i e r was one f i r s t areas to a t t r a c t immigrants. A s e a r l y as settlements"  Streets  "habitations"  62  "beautiful  old-  Lake Simcoe  districts  s m a l l number  well  and Dundas  Grand R i v e r  in  Edx-zard  a beautiful  towards  western  soon be  Quints'were  appearance  from York north  Thames.  and w i l l  1794 t h e - P r i n c e  the Bay  the  through B u r l i n g t o n to  La Trenche  in  6 1  By  6 0  fast,  of the 1785, the  impressive one  head  than  traveller  his  63  native  England.  Along  sized French-Canadian  the D e t r o i t  community.of  River long  t h e r e was  standing,  a  but  fairmost  64  of  it  was  on t h e  60 C a m p b e l l ,  American  Travels,  p.  side. 127.  6 1 [-John C o s e n s O g d e n j , " A l e t t e r f r o m a g e n t l e m a n t o h i s f r i e n d , i n E n g l a n d , d e s c r i p t i v e of the d i f f e r e n t settlements i n the p r o v i n c e of Upper Canada, In his A tour, through Upper and Lower Canada Tarrytown, N . Y . , Reprinted, W i l l i a m Abb a t t , 1917, p . 6 1 . 62 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d ,  Voyage,  63 H u n t e r ,  Carolina, p.  108.  Voyage,  2, p p .  Quebec  to  64 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d ,  vol.  vol.  2, p .  96.  57-58.  135.  American sometimes came  to  acted  the  families, and t h e n  immigrants, accustomed as  the  spearhead  of  to  frontier  settlement.  • T h o s e who  Thames v a l l e y u s u a l l y m o v e d i n w i t h  built  log-houses  t r i e d to  sell  and b a r n s ,  the  cleared  p r o p e r t y so  that  conditions,  their  several  acres,  they could  move  65 on t o  repeat  axemen  the  same p r o c e s s , e l s e w h e r e .  thus prepared the  Spectacular century. through milder  the  Ontario  the  eastern  climate  of  way f o r more p e r m a n e n t  advances  B y 1812,  continued well  great  wave of  d i s t r i c t s to  the  lands west  the  were numerous on t h e  had been  thin  flow  of  only B r a n t ' s  Seigneurial the  Delay  the  nineteenth  had  soils  passed  and  The  land  (Hamilton).  Grand R i v e r ,  Lake  Thames  tenure  Dutch  As y e t ,  to  the  only  promising  66  was no p r o b l e m i n U p p e r C a n a d a ,  s i t u a t i o n was n o t  in granting titles  River.  and  where p r e v i o u s l y  Mohawk v i l l a g e .  immigration had penetrated  London d i s t r i c t on t h e  but  residents.  settlement richer  restless  s h o r e was s u b s t a n t i a l l y p o p u l a t e d b e t w e e n Y o r k  settlers  a  into  of K i n g s t o n .  the busy community at B u r l i n g t o n Bay  there  These  altogether  created  satisfactory.  u n c e r t a i n t y among  65  Landmann, A d v e n t u r e s , v o l . 2,  66  Smith, Upper Canada, p p .  pp.  49-51.  147-148.  settlers  136.  and l e d  to  arbitrary minerals  charges in  prevent  settlers,  the  motives  emigration,  demned t h e  system  of  from those  i n the  decades  to  be  trees,  utterly  on t h e  of  older  after  1783  the  largely  destroyed.  carried  early  As  the  River  of  67  La Rochefoucauld,  68  Weld,  Travels,  pp.  the  68  very  different  The  virgin  raised.  relentless  regarded  crudest  as  For  of  battle enemies  circumstances, farming could  i n t o w h a t was  of Upper Canada,  and Lake O n t a r i o ,  best  it be  years.  L o y a l i s t s pushed  Eastern D i s t r i c t  the  downstream.  Under these  any but. the  arguing  would be  c o u l d be  of  con-  agricultural history  settlers  was u n l i k e l y t h a t  to  traveller  immigration.  crops  they  between  encountered  Voyage,  vol.  231-236.  2,  later the  the  Ottawa  enemies  pp.  67  were  good b e h a v i o r  of M o n t r e a l were  before  w h i c h most  on i n the  titles  settlements  cleared  the  improvement,  and s u s t a i n e d west  complaint.  on o w n e r s h i p  An I r i s h  clear  of  of  American pattern,  ensure  to  and  royal reserves  restrictions  a barrier  Upper Canada c o n s i s t e d against  for  conditions  had t o be  several  as  was p a r t i a l  a d d i t i o n a l causes  Americans.  loyalty  Farming  The  and to  establishment  guarantee  forest  proceedings.  especially  the  government  land speculation  discourage  that  the  and t i m b e r were  Ostensibly, to  its  that  53-55.  other  137 than  the  about  forest.  In  l | - inches  the  simmer  of  1785  a "worm or  l o n g " d e s t r o y e d much of  the  grain  grub in  this 69  region.  Only government  C o n d i t i o n s were more where  the  hot  rations  favorable  s u n on t h e  deep  prevented  i n the soil  starvation.  Niagara Peninsula,  enabled  farmers  to  sow 70  a  second  crop  Methods European  of  especially  by  soon  as  the  clearing  eyes.  were k i l l e d  and f o r  as  first  had been  l a n d were  S m a l l wood was  several  of  the  cut  years  conifers,  they  away.  n a t u r a l l y crude and b u r n t ;  r i n g i n g and e v e n t u a l  those  cleared  windthrow.  took  obstructed  big  to trees  The  a long time  stumps, to  c u l t i v a t i o n as  decay, well  71 as o f f e n d i n g the s i g h t . F o r t u n a t e l y , new s e t t l e r s were able to grow crops f o r t h r e e or f o u r y e a r s w i t h o u t t i l l i n g 72 the s o i l , and even then u n d e r t o o k o n l y s h a l l o w p l o u g h i n g . The  scarcity  inefficient  and h i g h c o s t  of  labor  and w a s t e f u l methods  of  caused  the  harvesting  use  of  by  the  73 families In kinds  of the  settlers. warm s o u t h w e s t  grew i n p r o f u s i o n .  Niagara d i s t r i c t  of  the  province,  The m a g n i f i c e n t  emphasized  the  contrast  69  Hadfield,  Englishman i n America,  70  Campbell,  Travels,  71  Simcoe,  72  La. R o c h e f o u c a u l d ,  73  Ibid.,  Diary, p.  vol.  2,  pp.  p.  fruit  of  many  peaches  of  the  w i t h Lower Canada.  1785,  p.  58.  149.  119. Voyage,  vol.  134-136.  2,  pp.  94-95.  138. Along  the D e t r o i t  crops  of  peaches,  Raising problems.  During  were  seemed t o the  Up t o  forest  the  small  the  woods,  winters. the  cattle  cows  came  from  cows f r o m L o w e r  the  excellence.  In  contrast  to-Lower  Canada,  of  r a p i d development  in view  the  promise  climate  wait  and t h e  but  a n d some o f the  roamed  in mild  scanty,  peculiar  75  and the  from Great B r i t a i n  had to  imposed  animals  a l l year  supplies oxen  74  clearings the  splendid  1812,  held  beneficent  grants ment  it  out  produced  cherries.  occasionally  War of  showed no g r e a t however,  stay  preferred. the  and  summers  The  United States;  orchards  i n the  and hay  thrive.  Canada were  the  the  even  poor  the  apples,  livestock  and they m i g h t Barns  River  upon the  emergence  agriculture  i n f l u x of  and t h e  the  Upper  new i d e a s  United States.  settling of  of  of  large  Canada  with Such  areas  of  community from i t s  immidevelop-  primeval  pioneering  stage. The  non-agricultural  negligible  until  substantial  after  numbers  of  industries  1814.  The  whitefish,  of  Great  Upper Canada  were  LaJses p r o v i d e d  herring,  and  sturgeon  76 for  the  and f u e l  tables for  commercial 74 W e l d ,  of  Newark and o t h e r  local  use  advantage Travels,  75  La Rochefoucauld,  76  Simcoe,  Diary,  came f r o m t h e  was pp.  p.  communities.  taken 326,  Voyage, 139.  of  forest,  this  but  apparently  Timber little limit-  350. vol.  2,  pp.  of  137-139.  139.  less  resource.  Scattered  deposits  of  iron,  salt,  and  77 gypsum were w o r k e d on a s m a l l s c a l e . was  one  of  rudimentary u t i l i z a t i o n  Such m a n u f a c t u r i n g as mills  situated  A British  desirable  of  the  Yankee  they might loyalist  of  the  of  a busy  sawmill  machines labor  brought with  enabled  I n 1795  all  business  (at  that  time  at  if  This  were  at most  shortage,  however  them t o  a French  Cataraqui  set  Chippawa,  hands)  consisted  of  profit  77  Smith, Upper Canada, pp.  78  Canadian l e t t e r s ,  79  La Rochefoucauld, Voyage,  pp.  out  a  issued.  In  a  1793  Newark, and D e t r o i t out w i t h of  once of  card or  a year.  the  wear  71-72. 2,  expanded.  crippled by  28-30.  vol.  greatly  the market  carried  payable  commenting  foresaw  small squares  with promissory notes, made a c o n s i d e r a b l e  was  of  up c o m p l e x and  observer,  (Kingston),  Some  them a s h a r e  notes had not been  in British  small  i n overcrowded Europe.  and s a w m i l l s a t  specie  in  w a t e r po\<\rer.  i n U p p e r Canada, w o u l d h a v e b e e n  of  currency.  took place  sources  picture  resources.  demand f o r N i a g a r a p o w e r once  Trade  chants  settlers  plants.  grist  shortage  was  remarked that  appear  ingenuity that  increased  printed  i n 1793  i n Canada because  efficient on the  convenient  of  t r a v e l l e r who h a d n o t i c e d  Niagara F a l l s  harmful  at  there  The g e n e r a l  pp.  21-22.  and  paper paper Merloss  140.  of  this  fragile  in  1795  described  many o f  scraps  paper,  written  medium.  of  disfigured.  He n o t e d  trusted  the  than  experience The vision Land  days' rise  for  some  unsigned,  costly  an  they  were  were m a i n t a i n e d b y landowner,  no  the  or  more  personal  v/as  the  pro-  responsibility.  a period  of  requiring  an a r r a n g e m e n t  because  hand-  81  imperial  item i n  Erie  mutilated,  expenditure  Indians,  complaints  as  w h i c h he had had  public  the  work f r o m each to  of  another  Roads  of  at F o r t  exchange  French Revolution.  item  s u r v e y was  settlement.  often  of  ominously that  d u r i n g the  gifts  traveller  the h i l l s  assignats  largest  of  A French  rapid  twelve that  l e v y was n o t  gave  related  8 2 to  the  excise, the  size  of  licences,  officials  when i n  property.  of  session.  ing  i n the the  the  p.  of  Quebec  reported  that  unobtainable.  towards  from  paying members  Canadian l e t t e r s , . p .  81  La Rochefoucauld,  82  Ibid.,  vol.  2,  pp.  144-145.  83  Ibid.,  vol.  2,  pp.  62-63  ed.,  were  comparable  no c e n t r e s  and M o n t r e a l . there  River.  were Common  with  approachIn  stores  1798, only  articles  84  80  Gray,  went  Assembly and the  There  and the D e t r o i t  t o b a c c o were  84 L . R . 125.  small revenue  i n U p p e r C a n a d a v/as n o t  and a c t i v i t y  York, Newark,  like  the  83  an A m e r i c a n t r a v e l l e r at  taxes  Legislative  older province.  size  1795  and s p e c i a l  Merchandising that  In  74.  Voyage,  vol.  2,  "From Bethlehem  pp.  to  8-9.  Fairfield -  1798,"  141.  Labor  remained  settlement.  During  by privates  of  the  scarce the  throughout  1790's  Queen's  the  the  years  s u p p l y was  Rangers  who w e r e  of  rapid  augmented  allowed  to  O K  hire  out  himself in  as  would  v i e w of  ordinary tant" hold in  servants  otherwise  the  because  the  them u p .  It  to  have  a b o l i t i o n of  servants.  order  and tradesmen.  evade  Prices  been  Governor  hard put for  slavery  and the  was no wonder t h a t high tariff  domestics  desertion  i n Newark i n 1795  s m a l l number of m e r c h a n t s  the  Simcoe  were  "exorbi-  combined  s m u g g l i n g v/as  and c i r c u m v e n t  of  to  rife  the  86 profiteers. As has progress  been  case  in transportation  could realize early years route  the  its  St.  Montreal  the  traveller  until  on the  rowing,  poling,  water,  Lawrence-Great  part  the  development.  country  In  the  exclusively along  Lakes  system.  Vest  was p r a c t i c a l l y c o n f i n e d t o  settlement  upstream  efforts  in  of  Upper Canada grew almost  the  The j o u r n e y  Canadian h i s t o r y ,  was n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e  potentialities  of  transport  throughout  permitted  the  the  of water  opening of  roads.  i n bateaux called f o r t h Herculean of  the  Canadian boatmen.  or dragging the  boats  these French Canadians  85  Canadian l e t t e r s ,  p.  86  La Rochefoucauld,  Voyage,  up t o  Whether their  showed r e m a r k a b l e  52. vol.  2,  pp.  72-73.  waists knowledge  142.  and p e r s e v e r a n c e ,  united with  a capacity  for  exertion  that  87 seemed b e y o n d t h e p o w e r s When t h e  country to  new t r a v e l l e r s  went  PointedeitEvrogne, easier.  donate  r u m f o r the  west  was j u s t  t h r o u g h a ceremony  of  opening up, "baptism"  crew;  vrhere  at  progress  s p r i n k l e d and e x p e c t e d  common p e o p l e w e r e  thrown  to  into  river.  River.  were used  A British  not  saved w i t h  portage was  and t h e  merchant for  equal  to  vessels  seamanship.  November 1791, and t h e  a i d of  source the  of  those  the  income  service one  to the  high  trip  c a p t a i n went  over  on s h o r e .  local  experience  Great  89  seas,  the  across to bed  Lakes  the  falls The  if  busy  apart  59;  88  Hadfield,  p.  65.  89  Landmann, A d v e n t u r e s , v o l .  90  Ogden,  63.  pp.  crews  drunk at  p.  2,  presented of  Lake Ontario  state,  Englishman i n America,  90  the  distinguished  87 H a d f i e l d , E n g l i s h m a n i n A m e r i c a , Carolina, p. 71.  p.  the  farmers.  were not  in l i t t l e better  Letter,  Niagara  Chippawa around N i a g a r a P a l l s  on t h e  in this  gone  soldiers  n a v i g a t i o n of  During  crew were  h a d an u n p l e a s a n t  would have  from Queenston to  Although  on L a k e O n t a r i o a n d t h e  when i n c o m p e t e n t boatmen m i s s e d  craft  the  a valuable  hazards  also  army o f f i c e r  Chippawa i n 1798,  landing,  to  the  Gentlemen were  :  Bateaux  at  a European.  near modern W i l l i a m s b u r g ,  became  the  of  16-20.  in  night, from  Hunter,  the  Q.uebec  143.  fact  that  they  was k e p t , arose,  captain  to  the  helmsman.  sails  a l l was  thought  the  vigilance  an i s o l a t e d  the R o y a l Engineers sloop  sailed  storm,  the  when s o b e r .  No w a t c h  When a  reefed,  but  lost.  of  the  then  The  captain's  storm  passenger  behavior  skipper  on  a  the  crossing.  government which  trip  with  T h i s was n o t mann o f  ignorant  ordered  this  contrast  Atlantic  the  useless  bed moaning that  who d e s c r i b e d vivid  almost  except by  the  returned  were  the  operation  captain  of  had  Lieutenant  a similar  on L a k e H u r o n i n 1 7 9 8 .  "no b e t t e r  was f o r c e d ' t o  incident.  take the  than  a coal  charge  crew  of  of  the  experience When t h i s  barge",  and mate b o t h became ship,  Land-  ran  drunk.  a  ship,  into  a  Landmann  and w i t h  Canadian Volunteers,  in  the  co-  brought  her  92 safely  through.  In  spite  between voyage  of  such handicaps,  ships  plied  K i n g s t o n and N i a g a r a f r o m May to took  f r o m one  to  for  a cabin passenger.  per  ton.  Maintenance  five  days,  Freight costs  regularly  November.  and cost  two  paid thirty-six  were h i g h ,  and t h e  The  guineas shillings sailors  q had to  be  paid well  Navigation  to keep  on L a k e E r i e  was more  91  Campbell,  92  Landmann, A d v e n t u r e s ,  93 W e l d , 94  Ibid.,  Travels,  Travels, p.  339.  pp.  them on c a l l  pp.  d u r i n g the  expensive  143-144. vol.  287-288.  2,  pp.  2-9.  and l e s s  winter. certain.  144.  Scows other  came i n t o  products  These v e s s e l s poled,  or  as  use  the  for  export  were b u i l t  sailed  carrying flour, trade  for  of Upper Canada  farmers  downstream to  potash,  on t h e  Quebec,  lakes  where  the  and developed.  and rowed, empty  hulls  95 were b r o k e n up f o r  their  Canal-building until  after  waterways  d i d not  t h e War of  could not  around the  lumber. assume  to  obstructions.  who m e n t i o n e d  New Y o r k  side,  because  proportions  users  observe  the  need  A project  for  a canal  N i a g a r a P e n i n s u l a was u n d e r visitor  Nevertheless,  1812.  fail  significant  discussion  for  thought  it  w o u l d be  the  terrain  was b e t t e r  the  passages across  i n 1796,  this  of  but cut  the  the on  the  and the  state  96 was  richer  i n p o p u l a t i o n and c a p i t a l  Land t r a v e l of  settlements  St.  Lawrence  1796,  but  river  travel In  roads  c o u l d be stretched  was more western  corduroy roads  taxed  96 W e l d , Ibid.,  p.  258.  wait  on t h e  growth  Along  the  from Montreal to K i n g s t o n by through journeys 97  because  convenient.  parts the  Letters,  Travels,  to  linked together.  used f o r  of  p.  the  patience  going from Ancaster  95 H u g h G r a y ,  97  that  these were not  the  Americans  i n Upper Canada had  than Upper Canada-  province hastily of  to B r a n t f o r d  -pp. 202-203. 325.  travellers. i n May  built Two 1798  145  crossed  thousands  f o u n d more up t o  of b r i d g e s  dangerous  their "bellies."  ox-drawn driver  sleighs  was  the  could but  oxen  must jump o v e r Little  timber, put  them,  oxen he  windows and l i t t l e  of  ...  we  horses  G-rand R i v e r f a r m e r s a l l year.  could travel  noses  used  When  among  one  the  the  must  trees,  they  f o l l o w . " "  accommodation f o r  Wayfarers  "If  ran  the  travellers  risk  i n a one-room l o g c a b i n w i t h  food,  as h a p p e n e d  sunk  questioners:  over  sleighs the  1814.  lodged miserably  i n which the  assured h i s  and'the  was r e p o r t e d  many -of w h i c h  wagons  their  Upper Canada b e f o r e  being  of  a s k e d how t h e  fallen  swamps  On t h e  9 8  instead  abundant  in  than  "...  to  one v i s i t o r  of broken at  100 Port Erie  i n 1796.  Tavernkeepers  curiosity  about  guests  their  those u n f a m i l i a r with tourist  facilities  A British visitor  began  p.  an i n n at  98  L . R. 118.  99 100  Ibid., Weld,  p.  resemble  found that  He d e p l o r e d t h e  Niagara Palls  Gray,  was m o s t  customs.  to  i n 1811  i n t o Upper Canada. in  local  that  ed.,  left  showed an  1 0  ' "  insatiable  distressing  As p o p u l a t i o n grew  1  those  in older  subserviency fact  that  payment up t o  "Prom Bethlehem  to  to  countries.  had  spread  servants the  guests  Fairfield --  1798,",  121.  Travels,  101 L . R . G r a y , pp. 114-115.  p.  ed.,  327. "From Bethlehem  to F a i r f i e l d - -  1798,"  146.  in  expectation  of  gratuities.  The n e w l y - c r e a t e d prepared tive the  than  its  United States  concept  of  that  existence.  to  to  they  its  exaggerated "...  t o make u s e  residents,  Since  d i d not  they  on F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s  Under the  was  the  o r d e r i n g of  An American v i s i t o r  somewhat  when he  a constitution  for  a time  the  distrust when British  people  their  extent.  asserted  predominantly  threatening  Constitutional Act  in  from  some  official at  better-  representa^  least  were  the  of  whether  had at  incur  and N a p o l e o n i c F r a n c e  participate  a modest  enjoyed  of  U p p e r C a n a d a was  or Great B r i t a i n ,  naturally f e l l  revolutionary  able  Most  of  province  self-government.  English-speaking,  ^  province  sister  institutions.  v  affairs  seems t o  that  freedom  own  each  and the  were  have  province rights  of  103 man p e r h a p s  unequalled  The f i r s t  page  ...."  John  of  traveller  praise  liberal  principles,  tribute  historic  Lieutenant-Governor,  won t h e  This  i n the  was  a c r i t i c a l French  a l l  dilligence, the more  Graves  and b o l d n e s s  significant  w  Simcoe,  for of  his  vision,  because  Simcoe's  102 John M e l i s h , T r a v e l s t h r o u g h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s of A m e r i c a , i n t h e y e a r s 1806 & 1 8 0 7 . and 1809. 1810, & 1811; i n c l u d i n g an a c c o u n t of p a s s a g e s b e t w i x t A m e r i c a £ B r i t a i n , a n d t r a v e l s t h r o u g h v a r i o u s part3 o f B r i t a i n , I r e l a n d a n d Canada, P h i l a d e l p h i a , P r i n t e d f o r the author, London, R e p r i n t e d f o r George Cowie and c o . , and John Cumming, D u b l i n , 1818, p . 493. 103  Ogden,  Letter,  pp.  66-67.  147.  violent  hatred  of  the  United States  was m o s t  The  Governor-in-Chief  distasteful  104 to  the  writer.  Dorchester,  interfered  and even h i s may h a v e  with  h a n d l i n g of  b e e n due  Simcoe s  to D o r c h e s t e r ' s  the  policy  1  regimental  at  time,  Lord  on l a n d  matters.  grants  This  authoritarian  conduct  character,  105 intensified  by h i s  advanced  The E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g have  been  sentative  for In  want this  poor  to  assembly  w i t h more  In of  French 1795  conduct  a session  of  great  even  worth noting  tha,t,  as  of  t w e n t y - s i x members  of  the  immigrants  —  a  deliberations  of  the  it  clashed  strange  received  an  Legislative for  of  a  reprethan  own  problems,  through  the  harvest.  settlement,  a heavy  August 1812,  situation  their  with  thin  was  might  and d i g n i t y  Assembly f e l l  distances,  they  Upper Canada  They had  attendance  though  of  competence  a quorum b e c a u s e  province  the  Canadians.  communications,  members,  settlers  expected  inexperienced however.  age.  burden  indemnity. two-thirds  of  Assembly were a British  and  on It  1 0 6  the is  the American  colony  on  107 the  eve  of  war w i t h  the  United  Upper Canada d i d not system,  but  it  had  to  States.  face  the  cope w i t h  problem  of  a. d u a l  legal  administering  law to  a  104 L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d , V o y a g e , v o l . 2, p p . 4 7 , 58-60. 105 I b i d . , v o l . 2, p p . 1 2 9 - 1 3 0 . D o r c h e s t e r was o v e r s e v e n t y a t t h e t i m e ( 1 7 9 5 ) . L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d was s t r o n g l y p r e j u d i c e d against him f o r r e f u s i n g him p e r m i s s i o n to v i s i t Lower Canada. 106  :ibid'.:,v-.v.bi.z2'j  10-7  Smith,  1PP.78.8*89,  Upper Canada,  p.  v c ? . .  67.  148.  widely  scattered,  In  early years,  the  functions,  rough,  and the  and sometimes  juries  seemed  atmosphere  of  to the  turbulent  be  unsure  courts  populace.  of  their  lacked  tradi-  crime,  including  108 tional  decorum.  murder, as  but  1795,  it  There  was  was h a r d t o  a good d e a l  of  i n f l i c t punishment,  t h e r e were no p r i s o n s ,  because  and c o l l e c t i n g f i n e s  as  late  was  109 often  impracticable.  The  under E n g l i s h l a w were setting  the  value  of  circumvented by  the  stolen  w h i c h was t h e m i n i m u m f o r D e s p i t e the presence Upper Canada were ties.  I n 1795,  high  cost  were  not  about The  its  of  but  the  p o s i t i o n i n case  across  of  thought  from B r i t i s h r u l e .  government of  and l a n d  the  p.  109  La Rochefoucauld,  Voyage,  110  Smith,  111  La Rochefoucauld,  112  Ibid.,vol.  Upper Canada,  United  and the  o p i n i o n was  Canadian l e t t e r s ,  pp.  grievances  s h o u l d n o t be  war w i t h  108  people  need  over  complacent States. for  separation  shared  in  p.  2,  p.  the  2,  pp.  64.  68.  Voyage, 114-116.  vol.  the  titles  57. vol.  of  provincial authori-  foreshadowed•early  11? " This  2,  the  restrictions,  American independence  the border  thirteenpence, 1 1 0  under the  stealing  p l a i n t i f f s  goods b e l o w  restive  trade  the  for  capital punishment. of the L o y a l i s t s , the  a Frenchman  serious,  example  trade  often  living,  savage p e n a l t i e s  104-105,  1 1 1  149.  following year that  eve  had t r a v e l l e d inquiries their  differences,  of  war,  widely in  attitude of  to  would j o i n  some  five  States,  them. " " 1  the it  light  themselves the  fleet  blamed  of  the  the  of  careful about  Upper  a g r e a t mass  services.  there  in a land  as  after  113  Weld,  p.  114  Melish,  115  La Rochefoucauld,  Travels,  of  that  Canada of  p.  the  Canadians  United  establishment some  of  whom w e r e  Not much c o u l d be of  to K i n g s t o n i n  expensively b u i l t three years' this  abundant  345  with  which consisted  A visitor  rotten  Travels,  defence  travellers,  o f f i c i a l corruption for  inefficiency  who  He c o n c l u d e d  enduring tension  that  armed  vessels  and a l r e a d y  made  113  4  on L a k e O n t a r i o . the  Americans.  Niagara frontier  independence,  and  merchant  t h o u s a n d men e n t e r e d  attention  i n the  the  a Scottish  the  navy i n Upper Canada,  condemned wood,  1  of  was n a t u r a l  should draw the  union with  United States  of  however,  antagonism,  an A m e r i c a n i n v a s i o n .  a proclamation  In  the  who a r g u e d ,  popular  i n 1811,  among r e s i d e n t s  a force  with  traveller,  obstacles would prevent  On t h e  for  an I r i s h  constitutional  natural  if  by  small  1795 of  service.  extravagance timber.  a  and  115  . 502.  Voyage,  vol.  2,  pp.  said  150-152.  green He  150.  Even at  this  early  date  the  navy had  a  distinctively  Canadian uniform, w i t h buttons  d i s p l a y i n g a beaver  word  Jean-Baptiste  was  "Canada".  The  commodore,  a, F r e n c h C a n a d i a n who f a v o r a b l y  met h i m .  Naval  and f r e i g h t  commanders  when f r e e  were  from their  regular  the  Bouchette,  impressed  allowed to  and  those  carry  who  passengers  duties  of  trans-  lip. porting  troops  and m i l i t a r y  The m i l i t a r y f o r c e s St.  Lawrence  United of  serious  land across  suffering  on t h e  showed s e r i o u s  S t a t e s was  cheap  stores.  the  from boredom  Niagara frontier  defects.  about  the  border  and t h e  and  Desertion year  to  1795.  appealed  greatly  indifference  of  the  the  The  prospect  to  soldiers  their  117 superiors. harsher  To a n e x p e r i e n c e d  than  i n the  French  observer,  army,  discipline  and t h e r e  was  less  seemed concern  118 for  the men's  writer drunk V,  welfare.  remarked as  A  1  the 1  that  W h i l e at K i n g s t o n i n 1795,  he had n e v e r  seen French  c r e w who r o w e d h i m t o  this  soldiers  a m i l i t a r y post  on  so the  9  border. The m i l i t i a until into  1812.  of  U p p e r C a n a d a was  Governor  l a y i n g the  base  Travels,  Simcoe  put  a great  for  effective  p.  285.  116  Weld,  117  La Rochefoucauld,  118  Ibid.,  vol.  2,  pp.  152-154.  119  Ibid.,  vol.  2,  pp.  156-157.  Voyage,  an u n t r i e d deal  of  mobilization.  vol.  2,  p.  87.  force effort It  was  151.  notable  t h a t ..Quakers,  Mennonites,  from service  on p a y m e n t  e a c h man i n  peacetime.  Political confined It  is  to  true  profound  that  the  diverse  British rule  had  sources  was p a r t i c u l a r l y  quick  that  its  assert  regular  m i l i t a r y and n a v a l  120  to  to  the  resist  1814.  ideas. of  out  such  they  travellers  and a b i l i t y  Even  Voyage,  vol.  2,  pp.  to  were,  in  generally of  the  the  the  aggression.  La Rochefoucauld,  element  little  support  as  of  arbitrary  T h e r e v/as  c o u l d do m u c h t o  the  and B r i t i s h .  The A m e r i c a n  v/ere r e s e n t f u l  determination  not  from  arising  republican  forces,  to  suffer  sundered French  As i n Lower Canada,  underestimated Canadians  militia  d i d not  grievances.  that  emergency.  for  were  p e r i o d f r o m 1784  population.  settlers  suggest  an  year  weakness  own d i f f i c u l t i e s  susceptible  to  the  its of  and L o y a l i s t  and  the  upper province  division  it  s h i l l i n g s per  and d e f e n s i v e  Canada i n  the  racial  twenty  exempted  120  dissension  lower  Nevertheless,  of  and D u n k e r s were  152-154.  152.  CHAPTER IV  THE CLASH OF RACES: LOWER CANADA. 1815-1838.  In the p e r i o d between the War  of 1812 and  the  R e b e l l i o n , t r a v e l l e r s i n Lower Canada had l i t t l e new say about i t s p h y s i c a l appearance.  The province  to  had  l o s t much of i t s rawness and had assumed an appearance quite d i f f e r e n t from that of the United States.  An emi-  nent French w r i t e r , A l e x i s de T o c q u e v i l l e i , provided conv i n c i n g evidence of t h i s change from the c o n d i t i o n s of a c o l o n i a l outpost. i n August 1831,  During h i s b r i e f stay i n Lower Canada  t h i s keen observer was d e l i g h t e d by a land-  scape that r e c a l l e d h i s homeland.  The f u l l y c u l t i v a t e d and  t h i c k l y s e t t l e d banks of the St. Lawrence seemed the most European p a r t of the c o n t i n e n t .  1  Other observers found the landscape l e s s a t t r a c t i v e . One American deplored the absence of t r e e s around the settlements.  He thought the banks of the St. Lawrence  could not compare w i t h those of the Hudson and Delaware,  1 George Wilson P i e r s o n , Toequeville and Beaumont i n America, New York. Oxford u n i v e r s i t y press, 1938,. pp. 318-319.  153  where the population was gathered i n t o towns and hamlets separated by extensive patches of woodland. Even l e s s f l a t t e r i n g were the comparisons made by a B r i t i s h army o f f i c e r on e n t e r i n g Canada v i a the Lake Champlain route i n March 1816:  "Hothing could be more  S i b e r i a n than the aspect of the Canadian f r o n t i e r : ... a few l o g huts, round v/hich a brood of ragged c h i l d r e n , a starved p i g , and a few half-broken r u s t i c implements formed an accompaniment more s u i t e d t o an I r i s h  landscape  than t o the t h r i v i n g scenes we had j u s t q u i t t e d . " I t i s perhaps c h a r i t a b l e t o a s c r i b e these b i t t e r remarks t o the miserable c o n d i t i o n s of l a t e winter. The n a t u r a l beauties of the province continued to draw t h e i r quota of t o u r i s t s .  Unfortunately, the march of pro-  gress threatened to mar c e r t a i n w a t e r f a l l s by u t i l i z i n g p a r t of t h e i r f l o w t o d r i v e m i l l s .  Montmorency had been  s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d i n t h i s way, according t o a report dated 1833:  "The love of gain has here, as i n many other  places of the l i k e , nature, destroyed the beauty of the  2 Joseph Sahsom, Travels i n Lower author's r e c o l l e c t i o n s of the s o i l , h a b i t s , and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s , S i r Richard P h i l l i p s and co., 1820,  Canada, w i t h the and aspect; the morals, of t h a t country,London, pp. 13-14.  3 F r a n c i s H a l l , Travels i n Canada, and the United S t a t e s , i n 1816 and 1817, London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, 1818, p. 65.  154.  P a l l * "by the e r e c t i o n of saw-mills, f o r which purpose considerable p o r t i o n of the water has been d i v e r t e d from the general mass."  4  The r i v a l scenic a t t r a c t i o n of the Chaudiere d i d not s u f f e r such despoilment.  A t r a v e l l e r i n the e a r l y summer  of 1816 noted w i t h approval that the scenery had escaped the "ravages of improvement". I n l a t e summer and autumn, 5  however, l o w water reduced the scenic e f f e c t s e r i o u s l y . A l e s s a p p r e c i a t i v e t r a v e l l e r , "rather t i r e d of w a t e r f a l l s " , found w i t h a c e r t a i n "malicious satisfaction?! that the cascade was almost i n v i s i b l e on 31 August 1827. However mixed may have been the response of t r a v e l l e r s to the scenery, none could deny the beauty of the autumn foliage.  On a t r i p through Lac S t - P i e r r e i n September 1833,  an E n g l i s h t o u r i s t declared: I t h i n k I have seen nothing H  so s u r p r i s i n g l y b e a u t i f u l since I l e f t England."  4 C a r l David Arfwedson, The United States and Canada, i n 1832. 1833, and1834, London, Richard B e n t l e y , 1834, v o l . 2, p. 346. 5 Francis. H a l l , T r a v e l s , PP.. 118-121. 6 B a s i l H a l l , Travels i n North America, i n the years 1827 and 1828, Edinburgh, C a d e l l and co., 1829, v o l . 1, p. 401. 7 A l f r e d Domett, The Canadian .journal of A l f r e d Domett, being, an e x t r a c t from a .journal of a tour i n Canada, the United States and Jamaica, 1833-1835,ed. E. A. Horsman and L i l l i a n Rea Benson, London, [Ont.J , U n i v e r s i t y of Western Ontario, 1955, p. 13. :  155.  Cleaxing and f i r e s devastated much of the woodland i n the e a r l y years of the century.  Great t r a c t s of v i r g i n  timber remained, however, i n the v a l l e y of the Ottawa. A B r i t i s h doctor who v i s i t e d new settlements along t h i s r i v e r about 1821 remarked on the incomparably large f i r s " of the d i s t r i c t .  " l o f t y and  The magnificent white p i n e  stands of the Ottawa V a l l e y were becoming a c c e s s i b l e w i t h the advance of settlement. One recurrent theme i n accounts of the province was i t s d i f f e r e n c e from the United States and i t s resemblance to Europe.  V i s i t o r s of d i v e r s e o r i g i n s u n i t e d i n empha-  s i z i n g these p e c u l i a r i t i e s .  An American professor i n 1819  thought a tour of Lower Canada "... i n some degree, a 9 s u b s t i t u t e f o r a v i s i t to Europe."  The c o n t r a s t s w i t h the  United States p a r t i c u l a r l y impressed one B r i t i s h w r i t e r . He s i n g l e d out f o r mention the widespread use of a f o r e i g n language; the gentle manners; the "pomp of monarchy" and a r i s t o c r a t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s ; the abundance of churches, convents, and p r i e s t s .  1 0  8 John Jeremiah Bigsby, The shoe and canoe, or. P i c t u r e s of t r a v e l i n the Canadas. I l l u s t r a t i v e of t h e i r scenery and of c o l o n i a l l i f e ; w i t h f a c t s and opinions on emigration, state p o l i c y , and other p o i n t s of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , London, Chapman.and H a l l , 1850, v o l . 1, p. 131. 9 Benjamin S i l l i m a n , A tour t o Quebec, i n the autumn of 1819. London. S i r Richard P h i l l i p s and co., 1822, p. 112. 10 Adam Hodgson, L e t t e r s from North America, w r i t t e n during a tour i n the United States and Canada, London, Hurst, Robinson & co., 1824, v o l . 2, p. 41.  156  The two c h i e f c i t i e s bore out the impression that the province was European rather than American i n many characteristics.  One E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r asserted: "Montreal and  Quebec are so much l i k e o l d European towns, that an American f e e l s as f a r from home, on h i s f i r s t a r r i v a l , as I d i d i n the  f o r e s t s on the M i s s i s s i p p i . "  1 1  Another Englishman  remarked, i n 1817: "On account of the i r r e g u l a r i t y of the s t r e e t s and the lowness of the houses, n e i t h e r Quebec or Montreal would rank more than second r a t e towns i n the United S t a t e s . "  1 2  Quebec remained much the same as b e f o r e . V i s i t o r s who were charmed by i t s appearance from the water u s u a l l y made c e r t a i n reservations on c l o s e r acquaintance. T y p i c a l of these v i s i t o r s was an I r i s h immigrant i n 1818 whose f i r s t impressions of "sober majesty" were followed by disappointment at the "confined, i l l - c o n s t r u c t e d , and inelegant" Lower Town, made up of narrow s t r e e t s "void of beauty, t a s t e , and 13 regularity".  w  An American i n J u l y 1817 wrote d i s p a r a g i n g l y  of the "... dismal congeries of the most wretched b u i l d i n g s ,  11 Hodgson, L e t t e r s , v o l . 2, p. 41. 12 John Palmer, Journal of t r a v e l s i n the U n i t e d States of North America, and i n Lower Canada, performed i n the year 1817, London, Sherwood, Neely, and Jones, 1818, p. 229. 13 Edward A l l e n Talbot, g i v e years* residence i n the Canada, i n c l u d i n g a tour through p a r t of the United' States of America, i n the year 1823. London. Longman,Hurst*; Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1824, v o l . 1, pp. 40-41, 45-46.  157.  r i s i n g , i n darkness v i s i b l e , amidst every k i n d of f i l t h , 14 between the rock and the r i v e r ...." The Upper Town presented  a favorable contrast to i t s  lowly neighbor, congested by the business of a f l o u r i s h i n g port.  Cleaner and roomier s t r e e t s provided a s e t t i n g f o r  s u b s t a n t i a l p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and houses of considerable elegance.  Yet there were complaints that the a r c h i t e c t u r e  lacked d i s t i n c t i o n and that t h i s p a r t was u n i n t e r e s t i n g to strangers.  15  The growing population had s p i l l e d over i n t o the suburbs of St-Louis, St-Jean and St-Roch.  These were made up of  rectangular b l o c k s of wooden houses w i t h l a r g e l y unpaved 16 s t r e e t s deep i n mud f o r h a l f the year.  The c a p i t a l had  come to include these s q u a l i d and spreading quarters i n a d d i t i o n to the crowded p o r t and impressive government establishments. Montreal, l i k e Quebec, looked more a t t r a c t i v e from a distance than on the spot.  I t s shining t i n roofs lent a  deceptive l i g h t n e s s to the dark limestone b u i l d i n g s of the central section.  A v i s i t o r from Glasgow i n 1818 noted  14 Sansom, Travels, p. 18. 15 John Morison Duncan, Travels through p a r t of the United States and Canada i n 1818 and 1819, Glasgow, U n i v e r s i t y press, f o r Hurst Robinson & co., London, 1823, v o l . 2, pp. 185-186. 16 Bigsby, Shoe and c a n o e , v o l .  1, p. 15.  158. s i m i l a r i t i e s to h i s n a t i v e c i t y , hut missed the characteri s t i c s of American towns: b r i g h t l y painted clapboard houses, 17 b r i c k tenements, t r e e - l i n e d avenues, lawns and gardens. At l e a s t one American, however, l i k e d the old-world atmosphere, and recommended the use of stone to American b u i l d e r s . Although the s t r e e t s were cleaner than those of Quebec, many of them were dark, narrow, and crooked.  One of the  worst features was the "barbarous p r a c t i c e " of b u i l d i n g steps p r o j e c t i n g onto the sidewalk, so that two pedestrians could not pass without one being forced i n t o the snow or 19 mud of the g u t t e r . Whatever c r i t i c i s m s were d i r e c t e d at Montreal,  travel-  l e r s who v i s i t e d there u n i t e d i n r e p o r t i n g an a i r of prosp e r i t y and improvement unusual i n Lower Canada.  A critical  B r i t i s h w r i t e r eulogized the c i t y as he saw i t i n 1818 i n terms bordering on extravagance:  "The l i g h t n e s s of the  s t r e e t s , the neatness of the b u i l d i n g s , the h o s p i t a l i t y and p o l i s h e d manners of the people, and the a i r of e n t e r p r i s e and a c t i v i t y that i s every where e x h i b i t e d i n i t , are t r u l y  17 Duncan, Travels, v o l . 2, pp. 18 S i l l i m a n , Tour, p.  149  -150.  117.  19 Talbot, g i v e years* residence, v o l . 1, p. 65.  159  a t t r a c t i v e , and appear to p a r t i c u l a r advantage-when contrasted w i t h the dulness Q S J C ^ , g l o o m , and d i r t i n e s s of Q u e b e c .  M20  This judgment was confirmed by s e v e r a l l a t e r observers. The c i t y continued to move ahead as the commercial centre of the two Ganadas.  I n 1833,  a S c o t t i s h farmer  expressed  the opinion that Montreal's growth was c e r t a i n so long as Upper Canada prospered, and he pointed out the value f o r 21 manufacturing  of the abundant power i n the Lachine  Rapids.  The combined e f f e c t of a s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n and a vigorous mercantile community was swinging the economio balance  of  the two provinces towards t h i s busy c i t y . The population of Lower Canada grew i n both number and complexity a f t e r the War  of 1812.  N a t u r a l increase was  the  main cause, but the f l o w of immigration to the west l e f t numbers of various people i n the eastern province.  This  was e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e i n Quebec, where the emigrant ships landed t h e i r teeming cargoes, and merchant v e s s e l s from the seven seas imparted an e x o t i c c o l o r to the scene. An I r i s h t r a v e l l e r described the Lower Town i n 1818  as  "crowded w i t h a motley t r a i n of a l l nations": A f r i c a n s ,  20 John Howi3on, Sketches of Upper Canada, domestic, l o c a l , and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : to which are added, p r a c t i c a l d e t a i l s f o r the information of emigrants of every c l a s s : and some r e c o l l e c t i o n s of the United States of America, §d ed., Edinburgh, O l i v e r & Boyd, 1825, p. 18. 21 P a t r i c k S h i r r e f f , A tour through North America: together w i t h a comprehensive view of the Canadas and United States. As adapted f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l emigration, Edinburgh, O l i v e r and Boyd, 1835, p. 141.  160  Indians, Americans, Europeans, and Asians.  The v a r i e t y of  costume could he matched only i n an American p o r t or 22 St.  Petersburg. The Indian element i n the province received l i t t l e  a t t e n t i o n , except f o r  occasional references t o L o r e t t e .  This v i l l a g e had an atmosphere of "poverty and s l o v e n l i n e s s " that d i d not say much f o r the p o l i c y of a t t a c h i n g t h e Indians 23 to a s e t t l e d l i f e . Aversion to farming as a "dishonorable" occupation drove many of the i n h a b i t a n t s t o l i v e by hunting 24 and the sale of h a n d i c r a f t s made by the women.  Although  the community was a depressing s i g h t t o most v i s i t o r s , the houses were g e n e r a l l y clean.  The descendants of the o r i g i n a l  Huron tribesmen spoke French, and looked European, apart 25 from c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r i t i e s of dress. The few wandering t r i b e s who f i s h e d along the S t . Lawrence and sometimes camped near the c i t i e s were unedif y i n g specimens of t h e i r race. A l c o h o l had dragged most 26 of them down to wretohedness.  t  I t was apparent that Indians  of pure stock were i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n number, and Indians i n general had come to p l a y a minor r o l e i n the l i f e of the province. 22 Talbot, F i v e years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, p. 42. 23 F r a n c i s H a l l , T r a v e l s , pp. 89-90. 24 P i e r s o n , T o c q u e v i l l e and Beaumont, p. 333. 25 Domett, Canadian j o u r n a l , p. 5. 26 Palmer, J o u r n a l , p. 219.  161. The character of the French Canadians showed few changes a f t e r 1814.  One E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r who observed  t h e i r s o c i e t y i n d e t a i l during the summer of 1816 thought that the war had endowed the young men w i t h "... a l i t t l e 27 more i n t e l l i g e n c e , and a great deal more knavery."  The  h a b i t a n t s remained e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t e , f r i e n d l y , and contented w i t h t h e i r l o t . Even c r i t i c s who considered  their  ignorance and poverty l i t t l e b e t t e r than that of the Indians 28 agreed that they were a happy, people.  Furthermore, i n t h e i r  m o r a l i t y and devotion they compared f a v o r a b l y w i t h the Swiss and Scots i n Europe, "... though f a r behind the former i n i n d u s t r y and the l a t t e r i n i n g e n u i t y and e n t e r p r i s e . " T r a v e l l e r s of d i f f e r e n t o r i g i n s f r e q u e n t l y contrasted the French Canadians w i t h other peoples they had known. They were more a l e r t than E n g l i s h r u s t i c s , b e t t e r o f f than the I r i s h peasantry, and warmer-hear ted than Americans. An I r i s h s e t t l e r i n Upper Canada eulogized the people of the neighbor province: "... I have found, among the uneducated i n h a b i t a n t s of Lower Canada, more r e a l happiness, more true p o l i t e n e s s , greater reverence f o r r e l i g i o n : , < and stronger n a t i o n a l attachment to each other, than I have found among the i n h a b i t a n t s of any other country i n which I have 27 F r a n c i s H a l l , Travels, p. 152. 28 Sansom, Travels, p. 74. 29 I b i d . , p. 75. 30 Talbot, F i v e years' residence, v o l . 2. p. 308.  30 sojourned."  162.  The i n t e l l e c t u a l achievements of the French Canadians were l e s s admirable than t h e i r character. to any l a c k of i n t e l l i g e n c e .  This was not due  Tocqueville found them t y p i -  c a l l y French i n t h e i r mental acuteness and fondness f o r 31 discussion.  Nor was l a c k of education wholly to blame,  f o r they were no worse o f f i n t h i s respect than people of the same c l a s s i n other lands.  What seemed to h o l d them  back was an absence of c u r i o s i t y and an aversion t o change that imbued them w i t h a profound conservatism. A B r i t i s h observer summed up the s i t u a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n h i s remarks on the l i m i t e d nature of land settlement: ... the most prominent t r a i t i n the character of t h i s people, i s . an attachment t o whatever i s establ i s h e d . F a r d i f f e r e n t i n t h i s respect from the American, the Canadian w i l l submit t o any p r i v a t i o n , r a t h e r than q u i t the spot h i s f o r e f a t h e r s t i l l e d , or remove from.the sound of h i s p a r i s h b e l l s . 2  Although Lower Canada remained overwhelmingly French, i t d i d not escape the e f f e c t s of immigration. As the volume swelled a f t e r 1815, the seaports had to cope w i t h the problem of f u n n e l l i n g hordes of newcomers to Upper Canada.  Societies  to inform and r e l i e v e immigrants had been founded a t Quebec ^3 and Montreal by 1820.  S i c k , bewildered, and penniless new  a r r i v a l s f r e q u e n t l y taxed the resources of these two c i t i e s .  31 P i e r s o n , Tocqueville and Beaumont.pp. 334-335. 32 F r a n c i s H a l l , Travels, p . 95. 33 Hodgson, L e t t e r s , v o l . 2, p. 45.  163  A number of immigrants stayed i n Lower Canada to augment the e x i s t i n g m i n o r i t i e s and introduce new English-speaking  elements.  r e s i d e n t s u s u a l l y advised B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s  to continue westwards, d e c l a r i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s of r e l i g i o n and language obstacles to working alongside the F r e n c h . Nevertheless,  3 4  to judge by the names on the s t o r e - f r o n t s , 35  s e v e r a l Scots had prospered as merchants i n Montreal. The I r i s h d i d not u s u a l l y f a r e so w e l l . 1818  an E n g l i s h doctor was  At Quebec about  appalled at the "disease  d e s t i t u t i o n " amongst the immigrants from I r e l a n d .  and After  being crowded i n t o inadequate v e s s e l s f o r the A t l a n t i c c r o s s i n g , they came ashore i n t o hovels where they subsisted on government r a t i o n s i n deplorably f i l t h y c o n d i t i o n s . Their p l i g h t emphasized the need f o r l i c e n s i n g and inspecti n g the emigrant ships and f o r s e t t i n g up a system of 36 r e c e i v i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g newcomers. Some of the I r i s h r a i s e d themselves q u i c k l y from poverty to modest affluence 37 when they s e t t l e d along the, Ottawa R i v e r . Montreal, growing r a p i d l y w i t h the expanding economy, was p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e to Americans.  One  of t h e i r  34 Adam Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes made during a tour i n Canada, and a p o r t i o n of the United States, i n MDCCCXXXI, Edinburgh, W i l l i a m Blaekwood, 1833, p. 261. 35 Bornett, Canadian j o u r n a l , p.  14.  36 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, vol.. 1, pp. 23-26. 37 I b i d . . v o l . 1,  p.  66.  164.  fellow-countrymen remarked i n 1817 Englanders "...  who  on the number of  New  are winding themselves i n t o a l l the  most a c t i v e and ingenious employments."  Other Americans  pioneered remote areas, transforming the landscape w i t h t h e i r energy and enthusiasm.  One  of the most prominent  of these pioneers was Philemon Wright, who  established H u l l -  i n the f o r e s t s opposite the f u t u r e c a p i t a l of Canada. 1821, he and the schoolmaster who  In  acted as h i s factotum  were working overtime at planning new p r o j e c t s f o r - p e o p l i n g 39 the wilderness of the Ottawa V a l l e y . S o c i a l l i f e i n Lower Canada became more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a f t e r 1814.  The s i t u a t i o n of the upper c l a s s e s i n Quebec  and Montreal was not markedly i n f e r i o r to that of s i m i l a r groups i n London, and was a pleasant contrast to the c r u d i t y An  of c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y at Cape Town.  At the c a p i t a l , the  v i c e - r e g a l entourage set the tone f o r the whole community. Montreal, however, contained many well-to-do persons  who  d i s p l a y e d i n o r d i n a t e p r i d e and v a n i t y about t h e i r s t a t u s . I t was a p o i n t of honor f o r newly-rich merchants to i n s i s t on the t i t l e of  "Esquire".  38 Sansom, T r a v e l s , p.  41  72.  39 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 146 40 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 41 Talbot, F i v e y e a r s  n.  110. 1  residence, v o l . 2. p.  283.  165.  Glass d i v i s i o n s , were f u r t h e r complicated by r a c i a l differences.  The o l d French f a m i l i e s i n o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s  at Quebec seldom mixed w i t h the E n g l i s h , although they were 42 very s o c i a b l e amongst themselves.  Language was a s e r i o u s  b a r r i e r , i n t e n s i f i e d by the "arrogant s u p e r i o r i t y " of the British.  A S c o t t i s h w r i t e r of long experience i n other  North American c o l o n i e s blamed the leaders of the E n g l i s h speaking community f o r not c u l t i v a t i n g the acquaintance 43 the French Canadian gentry.  of  This estrangement was not confined to the upper c l a s s e s . French p o l i t e n e s s o c c a s i o n a l l y gave way to outspoken h o s t i l i t y . A p a r t y of I r i s h immigrants t r a v e l l i n g up the S t . Lawrence i n 1818 was refused permission to sleep i n a habitant* s k i t c h e n or s t a b l e , to the accompaniment of the imprecation "Saorez vous, hommes A n g l o i s ! "  The w r i t e r who recorded t h i s i n c i d e n t  thought i t was a disagreeable c o n t r a s t w i t h the h o s p i t a b i l i t y of the peasantry i n I r e l a n d .  4 4  Moral standards i n Lower Canada appeared h i g h to outsiders.  One v i s i t o r took issue s t r o n g l y w i t h the asper-  sions of John Lambert, who had painted a b l a c k p i c t u r e  42 Bigsby, Shoe, and canoe..'. v o l . 1.  p. 33.  43 John MacGregor.. B r i t i s h .America. Edinburgh. W i l l i a m Blackwood, 1832, v o l . 2, pp. 482-483. 44 Talbot, F i v e years* r e s i d e n c e . v o l . 1, pp. 87-89.  166.  of  c o n d i t i o n s i n the years 1806 to 1808.  45  There were few  reports of improper conduct by s i n g l e women during the p e r i o d 1818-1823, and i n f i d e l i t y of wives was unknown.  46  T r a v e l l e r s disagreed about the q u a l i t y of Canadian French.  One American thought the language  "little  d e t e r i o r a t e d " , and a "very t o l e r a b l e French", though 47 not so pure as the E n g l i s h of America* Another t o u r i s t asserted: "They speak French, but i t i s a k i n d of p a t o i s , 48 which no Frenchman can understand.' 1  Canadian food v a r i e d l i t t l e w i t h the years, remaining for  the most p a r t , s o l i d and unimaginative.  The sour, dark,  and b i t t e r bread was a disappointment to a w i d e l y - t r a v e l l e d American i n 1 8 1 9 .  49  L i g h t e r foods u s u a l l y replaced the  s t a p l e h a b i t a n t d i s h of t h i c k soup i n summer. A wayfarer going from Rimouski to Quebec i n August 1833 found the meals almost always the same: bacon, eggs, rum, m i l k , and maple 50 sugar. As the nineteenth century wore on, the d i s t i n c t i v e Canadian costume assumed a more sombre hue.  I n 1817, the  45 See above, pp. 65-66. 46 Talbot, F i v e years* r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 2, pp. 289-290. 47 Sansom, Travels, p. 76. 48 Arfwedson, United States and Canada, v o l . 2, p. 339. 49 S i l l i m a n , Tour, p. 120 50 Domett, Canadian j o u r n a l , p. 2.  16?  country people of the d i s t r i c t s south of Montreal dressed p l a i n l y f o r Sunday, the men i n grey or drab j a c k e t s and t r o u s e r s , the women i n gowns of domestic manufacture or 51 E n g l i s h p r i n t fabrics-. At Montreal, the men wore good c l o t h e s , but few women had "... the a i r or the dress of ladies."  An I r i s h observer was sure t h a t an E n g l i s h  v i l l a g e would d i s p l a y more "fashionables" than the Champ 52 de Mars on summer evenings. Some d i s t i n c t i v e customs p r e v a i l e d amidst the general d u l l n e s s of food and c l o t h i n g .  The l a r g e and b o i s t e r o u s  French Canadian weddings were an i n t e r e s t i n g s i g h t i n the towns.  Even more e x c i t i n g was the c h a r i v a r i , which was  o f t e n mentioned by t r a v e l l e r s a f t e r 1814.  Eminent members  of the community sometimes took p a r t i n these raucous serenades to badly-matched  couples, when the husband or  w i f e was much o l d e r than h i s or her p a r t n e r . At Quebec i n 1817 a member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly who had married a servant g i r l had to pay up to get r i d of h i s tormentors, even a f t e r c a l l i n g on the mayor and the m i l i t a r y f o r protection.  These d i s o r d e r l y proceedings developed i n t o  51 Palmer, J o u r n a l , p. 210. 52 Talbot, F i v e years' residenoe, v o l . 2, pp. 286-287. 53 Palmer, J o u r n a l , pp. 227- 228.  168  powerful weapons against unpopular persons, and sometimes 54 ended i n v i o l e n c e . The t r a d i t i o n a l amusements of the Canadian winter retained t h e i r appeal f o r a l l c l a s s e s .  Some of the newer  a c t i v i t i e s had a more s e l e c t group of f o l l o w e r s .  The  annual horse races h e l d on the P l a i n s of Abraham a t t r a c t e d many o f f i c e r s and c i t i z e n s , but few French Canadians were 55 interested. Other sports of B r i t i s h o r i g i n were introduced, 56 such as c u r l i n g and duck- and snipe-shooting. R i d i n g was e s p e c i a l l y popular at Montreal, where fox-hunting and jockey 57 clubs provided meeting places f o r l o v e r s of h o r s e f l e s h , Dancing and d i n i n g f i l l e d the long winter evenings. Each c l a s s of s o c i e t y had i t s own n i g h t f o r m e e t i n g .  50  The same tendency towards exclusiveness may have prompted the formation of p r i v a t e s o c i e t i e s such as the Tandem Club at Quebec. Canadian s o c i a l l i f e had taken on the appearance of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n w i t h l i t t l e corresponding gain i n refinement.  54 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, 55 Palmer, J o u r n a l , p.  pp. 34-37.  226.  56 I b i d . , p . 2 1 6 . 57 MacGregor,  B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, pp. 517-518.  58 Talbot, F i v e years* r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 2, p.  285.  169  A somewhat s t r a i t - l a c e d S c o t t i s h t r a v e l l e r at Montreal i n 1818  declared: I f you enjoy good e a t i n g , card p l a y i n g , dancing, music, and gayety, you w i l l f i n d abundance of.- a l l . I f l i t e r a r y s o c i e t y i s your choice, you w i l l d i s cover I am a f r a i d hut l i t t l e ; and i f r e l i g i o u s , still less. 5 9  Even the outbreak of r e b e l l i o n could not subdue the passion f o r enjoyment, at l e a s t among the upper c l a s s e s . A young B r i t i s h o f f i c e r who was  serving against the rebels  during the winter of 1837-1838 recorded that  "Montreal,  between the expeditions, was very gay, and there were p l e n t y of b a l l s and  parties."  6 0  Ear from being a u n i f y i n g f o r c e as i n the e a r l y days of B r i t i s h r u l e , r e c r e a t i o n had become a matter of e x c l u s i v e enjoyment by groups d i f f e r i n g i n language and s o c i a l s t a t u s . The population had grown too l a r g e and complex, and  the  l i n e s of d i v i s i o n had been drawn too sharply, f o r the o l d shared h e a r t i n e s s of common amusements to p e r s i s t . The conditions of l i f e i n the older s e t t l e d parts of the province a l t e r e d slowly a f t e r 1814. p a r t i c u l a r l y strong i n r u r a l housing.  T r a d i t i o n was T o u r i s t s who  59 Duncan. Travels, v o l . 2, pp. 171-172. 60 S i r D a n i e l Lysons, E a r l y reminiscences. John Murray, 1896, p. 89.  London,  did  170.  not venture o f f the St. Lawrence route were charmed by the o l d houses, many of which had acquired a venerable aspect. The h a b i t a n t s showed i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n adorning t h e i r homes w i t h flowerpots and creepers, so that some v i l l a g e s r e c a l l e d scenes i n southern France and I t a l y .  A British  naval o f f i c e r who v i s i t e d the environs of Quebec i n August 1827 found the picturesque v/hitewashed cottages "... a l l very f a n t a s t i c and old-fashioned." The charm of these r u s t i c d w e l l i n g s d i d not extend to t h e i r s a n i t a r y arrangements. large families.  Crowding was i n e v i t a b l e w i t h  Unfortunately, Canadians d i d not show much  concern about waterrsupplies and waste d i s p o s a l .  Near  T r o i s - R i v i e r e s i n 1817 a v i s i t i n g American found the people d i d not sink w e l l s because they were close to surface water, "...  and they s t i l l appear to h o l d what we esteem necessaries 62 as unnecessary as ever." The towns were no b e t t e r than the country.  Uncleaned  s t r e e t s and poor sewerage exacted a h i g h m o r t a l i t y .  At  Quebec, sewers opened i n t o the Lower Town, and the suburbs were without any proper d r a i n s .  An E n g l i s h p h y s i c i a n des-  c r i b e d the s t r e e t s of St-Roch suburb i n the s p r i n g as  61 B a s i l H a l l , T r a v e l s , v o l . , 1, p. 62 Sansom, Travels, p. 53.  395.  171  sloughs of i c e mixed w i t h the "... accumulated p u t r i d i t i e s 63  of the whole winter." The medical a t t e n t i o n sought by the populace i n i t s need was not always p r o f e s s i o n a l .  A S c o t t i s h w r i t e r who  toured the province between 1824 and 1828 saw s e v e r a l persons who had a l l e g e d l y been cured of cancer by an " a s t r i n g e n t p l a s t e r " supplied by c e r t a i n nuns.  These nuns were s a i d  to have received the h e r b a l r e c i p e from an Indian woman, and they would r e v e a l the secret only t o the. c l e r g y , but 64 they f r e e l y undertook to oure any a p p l i c a n t . The h o s p i t a l s operated by the r e l i g i o u s orders maintained t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n f o r e f f i c i e n t and k i n d l y treatment, A B r i t i s h army o f f i c e r who v i s i t e d the H o p i t a l General a t Quebec i n 1816 found the "tender s o l i c i t u d e " of the s i s t e r s i n f i n i t e l y p r e f e r a b l e t o the "... h e a r t l e s s , grudging a t t e n t i o n which h o s p i t a l nurses i n f l i c t upon t h e i r v i c t i m s . " The h o s p i t a l received a small government subsidy f o r the treatment of s o l d i e r s . No d i s t i n c t i o n was made between 66  P r o t e s t a n t and Roman C a t h o l i c patients..  63 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 22. 64 MacGregor,  B r i t i s h America.vol.  65 F r a n c i s H a l l , Travels. pp.80-82. 66 I b i d . , pp. 79-80.  2, p. 594.  6  172. Overcrowding was no problem i n the h o s p i t a l s . 67 s t a f f s were often as numerous as the p a t i e n t s . . By the convent of the Grey S i s t e r s at Montreal,  The 1817  originally  a general h o s p i t a l f o r the poor, had been turned i n t o a home f o r l u n a t i c s , foundlings, and aged i n v a l i d s . The Montreal General H o s p i t a l , founded i n 1821 under P r o t e s t a n t auspices, was  equal i n comfort and c l e a n l i n e s s  to any B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n .  A v i s i t o r who had seen a good  deal of the other provinces declared i t to be "... ably the best regulated and most extensive 69 of the k i n d i n B r i t i s h America."  unquestion-  establishment  S o c i a l welfare became a problem of considerable dimensions i n the p e r i o d between 1815 and 1838.  An American -  t r a v e l l e r i n 1817 reported that begging as known i n Europe 70 d i d not e x i s t i n Canada. observant Scot was  Not long a f t e r , i n 1831,  an  s u r p r i s e d to see beggars at Montreal  f o r the f i r s t time during h i s t r a v e l s i n the New World. He ascribed the s i t u a t i o n to l a z i n e s s encouraged by the cert a i n t y of f r e e support f o r indigents i n r e l i g i o u s h o u s e s . 67 Sansom, Travels, p.  22.  68 Duncan, T r a v e l s , v o l . 2, pp. 160-161. 69 MacGregor, B r i t i s h A m e r i c a , v o l . 70 Sansom, Travels, pp. 15,  2, p.  33.  71 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes,  p.67.  511.  71  173 I t might have "been wiser to place the blame f o r the increase i n s o c i a l problems on the r i s i n g t i d e of immigration.  The i n h a b i t a n t s of Lower Canada were so annoyed at  having to look a f t e r the paupers and s i c k amongst new a r r i v a l s l a r g e l y destined f o r the upper province, that they 7 9  imposed a tax of one d o l l a r a head on a l l immigrants.. The Grey Nuns cared f o r orphans of the 1832 c h o l e r a e p i ^ 73 demic i n the H o t e l Dieu at Montreal. Several of the numerous p h i l a n t h r o p i c s o c i e t i e s that e x i s t e d i n the c i t i e s were devoted to the welfare of immigrants.  I t was  obvious  that the l a r g e numbers of d i s t r e s s e d and diseased newcomers from I r e l a n d and elsewhere threatened to overtax the h e a l t h and welfare f a c i l i t i e s of Lower Canada, which were never intended to cope w i t h such unprecedented! masses of human misery. I n t e r e s t i n education was more n o t i c e a b l e a f t e r the War  of 1812 than i n e a r l i e r years.  The nuns c a r r i e d on  t h e i r task of p r o v i d i n g elementary t r a i n i n g f o r a number of g i r l s i n convents.  Because of the suppression of the  72 Isaac F i d ! e r , Observations on p r o f e s s i o n s , l i t e r a t u r e , manners, and, emigration,.in the United States and Canada, made.during a residence there i n 1832, by the Rev. Isaac F i d l e r , f o r a short time missionary of T h o r n h i l l on Yonge S t r e e t near York, Upper Canada, New York, J . & J . Harper, 1833, pp. 142-143. 73 Arfwedson, United States and Canada, v o l . 2. p.  334.  174.  male r e l i g i o u s orders, boys i n French Canada were not u s u a l l y so w e l l educated as t h e i r s i s t e r s .  A Protestant  of S c o t t i s h o r i g i n h e l d that the revenue from the J e s u i t s ' 74 estates should be applied t o p u b l i c i n s t r u c t i o n . Beyond the elementary l e v e l , the education of a number of boys and young men was c a r r i e d on e f f e c t i v e l y by the seminaries.  I n 1816,  the Quebec Seminary, drawing an  income from s e i g n e u r i a l domains, gave f r e e i n s t r u c t i o n to two hundred Roman C a t h o l i c youths.  This i n s t i t u t i o n  possessed a small museum or cabinet de physique that contained n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t i e s and s c i e n t i f i c instruments.  The  l i b r a r y appeared "somewhat too t h e o l o g i c a l " t o a B r i t i s h visitor. S i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s e x i s t e d i n Montreal and s e v e r a l smaller p l a c e s .  These seminaries or c o l l e g e s supplied  elementary and secondary i n s t r u c t i o n to s u i t a b l e  students,  whether or not they were t r a i n i n g f o r the priesthood.  The  French c o l l e g e a t Montreal taught theology, r h e t o r i c , philosophy,  mathematics, and Greek, i n a d d i t i o n t o French 76 and E n g l i s h .  74 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, pp. 561-562. 75 F r a n c i s H a l l , T r a v e l s , p p . 83-84.. 76 MacGregor, B r i t i s h A m e r i c a . v o l . 2, pp. 509-510.  175.  In the face of t h i s s u b s t a n t i a l development, the educational progress of the English-speaking m i n o r i t y d i s a p p o i n t i n g to some observers. graduate i n 1818  was  A Scottish university  emphasized the need f o r an E n g l i s h c o l l e g e  at Montreal to counterbalance the French and Roman C a t h o l i c institutions.  He complained that l i t t l e had been done to  accomplish the purposes of the large bequest made by James 77 M c G i l l i n 1814 f o r the promotion of higher l e a r n i n g . A l a t e r w r i t e r considered  t h i s c r i t i c i s m too  severe.  During the 1820's, M c G i l l College had been granted a charter, and other educational f a c i l i t i e s were a v a i l a b l e i n Montreal, notably a r o y a l grammar school and a n a t i o n a l school sponsored by the Montreal D i s t r i c t Committee f o r Promoting 78 C h r i s t i a n Knowledge. There were i n a d d i t i o n numerous p r i v a t e academies, mostly with.competent. I r i s h  teachers.  79  General c u l t u r e h a r d l y kept pace w i t h the spread of education.  An attempt by the Governor, S i r George Prevost,  to found a s o c i e t y l i k e the Royal I n s t i t u t i o n f e l l through f o r lack of members.  i n Quebec  A British officer  be-  l i e v e d that t h i s p r o j e c t f a i l e d because the r e s i d e n t s were  77 Duncan. T r a v e l s . v o l . 2,  pp. 165-166.  78 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, pp. 510-512. 79 Talbot, F i v e y e a r s  1  r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 2, p.  290.  176.  pre-occupied the w i n t e r .  w i t h business i n the summer and pleasure i n 8 0  Nevertheless,  a few of the s o c i e t i e s that  sprang up during the p e r i o d 1815-1838 had c u l t u r a l o b j e c t s . The L i t e r a r y and H i s t o r i c a l Society of Quebec, founded i n 1824 by Lord Dalhousie, and maintained  explored the h i s t o r y of the province 81  a museum that augured w e l l f o r the f u t u r e .  During a v i s i t i n 1832,  a B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r of s c i e n t i f i c  i n t e r e s t s p r a i s e d the "assiduous"  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the 82 N a t u r a l H i s t o r y Society of Montreal. L i b r a r i e s somehow expanded i n an uncongenial ment.  environ-  A good p u b l i c l i b r a r y i n the l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s  at Queb>ec contained many books of h i s t o r y and t r a v e l i n 1816,  "... but no c l a s s i c s , probably because none of the  i n h a b i t a n t s a f f e c t to read them."  83  The o f f i c e r s of the  s t a f f and g a r r i s o n also had an e x c e l l e n t l i b r a r y ,  and 84 s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s owned good p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s .  80 F r a n c i s H a l l , T r a v e l s , p .  85.  81 Domett, Canadian j o u r n a l , pp.  8-9.  82 John F i n c h , Travels i n the United States of America and Canada, containing some account of t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , and a few n o t i c e s of the geology and mineralogy of these c o u n t r i e s . To which i s added. An essay on the n a t u r a l boundaries of empires. London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1833, p. 324. 83 F r a n c i s H a l l , Travels, p.  84.  84 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1. pp. 37-38.  177  Reading rooms w i t h current newspapers and magazines were appreciated by the business community.  The newsroom a t  Montreal supplied maps as w e l l as reading m a t e r i a l , i n the a d j o i n i n g l i b r a r y was "... the most voluminous and best c o l l e c t i o n i n the B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s of books, and p r i n t s 85 i l l u s t r a t i n g the costumes and sceneries of d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . " English-speaking Canadians were not u s u a l l y of bookish tastes.  Montreal i n 1818 had only one bookstore w i t h an  adequate representation of E n g l i s h authors, and Quebec was 86 perhaps worse provided. form of reading.  Newspapers were the most popular  French Canadians of l i t e r a r y i n t e r e s t  could f i n d some good m a t e r i a l i n the columns of Le Canadien, which v i g o r o u s l y espoused the n a t i o n a l cause under the masthead "Notre r e l i g i o n , notre langue, nos l o i s . "  Two French  v i s i t o r s from Europe i n 1831 thought the verse was acceptable, b u t condemned the prose s t y l e as p r o v i n c i a l on account 87 of i t s anglicisms and strange f i g u r e s of speech. The a r t i s t i c scene remained s i n g u l a r l y barren up to 1838.  L i t t l e that was n o t i c e d by t r a v e l l e r s rose above  mediocrity.  The Anglican cathedral, at Quebec appealed to  85 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2 ,  p. 512.  86 Duncan, Travels. v o l . 2, pp. 172, 217. 87 P i e r s o n , T o c q u e v i l l e and Beaumont, pp. 321-322.  178  some v i s i t o r s , b u t one B r i t i s h commentator i n s i s t e d that i t had "... nothing about i t reproachable'with beauty."  earthly  Some f i n e carved wainscot i n the Roman C a t h o l i c  cathedral had i t s e f f e c t .spoiled by the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the p u l p i t and statues, which were "... painted and g i l d e d 89 i n a gaudy s t y l e unworthy of n o t i c e or d e s c r i p t i o n . " The same penchant f o r over-decoration o l d church of Uotre Dame a t Montreal.  d i s f i g u r e d the  I t s l a v i s h l y orna-  mented i n t e r i o r was notable f o r a large statue of the V i r g i n above the a l t a r and a "... huge c r u c i f i x of barba90 rous workmanship. •'  More r e s t r a i n t was apparent i n the  D o r i c design of the Anglican church i n the same c i t y . This had a "very l i g h t and elegant" steeple and an i n t e r i o r 91 d i s p l a y i n g " t a s t e and neatness".  I t , i a s u r p r i s i n g to  come across the a s s e r t i o n t h a t , i n 1820, a secular b u i l d i n g , the Bank of Montreal, was "... by f a r the f i n e s t e d i f i c e , 92 e i t h e r p u b l i c or p r i v a t e , i n the Canadas ...." A l l e a r l i e r a r c h i t e c t u r e was surpassed, a t l e a s t i n bulk, by the new cathedral of Uotre Dame a t Montreal, begun 88 F r a n c i s H a l l , Travels, PP. 76-77. 89 Sansom, T r a v e l s , p . 24. 90 Duncan, Travels, v o l . 2, pp. 166-167. 91 Talbot, F i v e years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, pp. 69-70. 92 l b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 71.  179.  i n 1824.  A B r i t i s h naval o f f i c e r who v i s i t e d the scene of  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n 1826 found the work most impressive, declared the use of blue g r a n i t e "... stances of American good t a s t e . " years l a t e r considered i t "...  9 3  and  one of the rare i n -  Another v i s i t o r s i x  a noble b u i l d i n g , superior 94  to any other I had seen on the American continent  ...."  The p l a i n e x t e r i o r , devoid of transepts, created an e f f e c t of simple grandeur that was b e l i e d by the i n t e r i o r . 1833,  In  an E n g l i s h w r i t e r deplored the "miserable daubing"  i n i m i t a t i o n of marble that ruined the design of the columns and arches.  H i s considered a p p r a i s a l was devastating:  "Altogether the place i s a broad c a r r i c a t u r e ^sio-j of a r c h i t e c t u r a l pomp and c o s t l i n e s s of m a t e r i a l , a church i a masquerade, a temple i n t r a v e s t i e . " Canadian s c u l p t u r e , scarce as i t was,  enjoyed no  b e t t e r standing i n the opinion of f o r e i g n e r s . Most t r a v e l l e r s commented r u d e l y on the small wooden statue of Woife that had been placed i n a niche on a p r i v a t e  93 John F r e d e r i c k F i t z g e r a l d De. Ros, P e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e of t r a v e l s i n the United States and Canada i n 1826, i l l u s t r a t e d by p l a t e s , w i t h remarks on the present, s t a t e of the American navy, by L i e u t , the Hon. Fred. F i t z g e r a l d De Roos, R o y a l Navy, London, W i l l i a m H a r r i s o n Ainsworth, 1827, p. 129. w  94 F i n c h , T r a v e l s . p.  323.  95 Domett, Canadian j o u r n a l , p . 14.  180  house i n an obscure p a r t of Quebec.  This " p i t i f u l t r i b u t e "  moved an I r i s h w r i t e r to remark s a r c a s t i c a l l y that i t represented  " d e t e s t a t i o n and contempt" rather than " g r a t i 96 tude and respect" f o r the hero. Although Lower Canada produced no p a i n t i n g of note, there was a c e r t a i n degree of i n t e r e s t i n the subject. I t i s not c l e a r that t h i s i n t e r e s t was p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c . A dealer h o l d i n g an e x h i b i t i o n of European p a i n t i n g s at Montreal i n 1833  o s t e n t a t i o u s l y advertised a canvas of  "Leda and the Swan" by a contemporary French a r t i s t . This p i c t u r e was  shown i n a room by i t s e l f away from the  o l d masters f o r f e a r that the "Canadians" and Roman C a t h o l i c s 97 would be scandalized by a p u b l i c d i s p l a y of nudity. As w i t h p a i n t i n g , drama was mainly an imported luxury. The English-speaking  population was able to see t r a v e l l i n g  theatre companies i n the two l a r g e c i t i e s . amateur t h e a t r i c a l s of f a i r q u a l i t y .  There were also  In September  1833,  some sergeants of the Montreal g a r r i s o n staged a performance i n t h e i r p r i v a t e theatre that drew p r a i s e from a c u l t i v a t e d English v i s i t o r .  QQ  96 Talbot, F i v e years* residence, v o l . 1. pp. 49-52. 97 Domett, Canadian j o u r n a l . p . 98 I b i d . , p.  15.  15.  181.  R e l i g i o n s u f f e r e d no s i g n i f i c a n t setbacks a f t e r 1814. Lower Canada gave t o outsiders the impression of a Roman C a t h o l i c country.  No one could avoid seeing the wayside  crosses, the r e l i g i o u s statues, and the ubiquitous s p i r e s of the p a r i s h churches.  I n the c i t i e s r e l i g i o u s processions  were c o l o r f u l spectacles on h i g h f e a s t days.  Montreal was  notorious f o r the incessant t o l l i n g of church b e l l s , which one w r i t e r deprecated  as "... a most disagreeable annoyance, 99  p a r t i c u l a r l y t o strangers.v One most p e c u l i a r custom was the b a p t i z i n g of b e l l s . This ceremony was c a r r i e d out w i t h a l l the paraphernalia of the r e g u l a r sacrament, i n c l u d i n g sponsors and presents f o r the newly-christened. witnessed such a proceeding  To a S c o t t i s h P r o t e s t a n t who at Montreal i n 1818, the ex-  perience was both s u r p r i s i n g and d i s t u r b i n g .  1 0 0  The C a t h o l i c c l e r g y made a good impression even on those who had no sympathy w i t h t h e i r creed.  A Scottish  w r i t e r w i t h personal knowledge of some of them repudiated as ••unjust" the charges t h a t they s i l e n t l y opposed schools and the use of the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e .  101  A l i b e r a l from  99 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2. P. 507. 100 Duncan, T r a v e l s , v o l . 2, pp. 167-170. 101 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, pp. 563-564.  182.  o l d France found them more a t t r a c t i v e than American Protest a n t m i n i s t e r s , because the cure was a true pastor and not 102 a " r e l i g i o u s business man". Although the c l e r g y were s t r o n g l y Canadian i n f e e l i n g , t h e i r l o y a l t y t o the crown was not s e r i o u s l y doubted.  When  r e b e l l i o n broke out a l l but a handful threw t h e i r weight behind the a u t h o r i t i e s .  The extensive character of the  i n s u r r e c t i o n i n Lower Canada suggested that p r i e s t l y 103  i n f l u e n c e over t h e i r f l o c k s was waning i n some areas. The nuns were even f u r t h e r removed from the f i e l d of p o l i t i c a l controversy.  When Lord Durham v i s i t e d the U r s u l i n e  Convent at Quebec i n June 1838 he was welcomed w i t h an e l a 104 borate r e c e p t i o n t h a t showed naive but genuine g o o d w i l l . Strangers who had been present at masses where the congregation showed exemplary a t t e n t i o n could not deny the hold.of r e l i g i o n on the l a i t y .  Even voyageurs on the  102 P i e r s o n , T o c q u e v i l l e and Beaumont, p. 321. 103 T. R. P r e s t o n , Three years* residence i n Canada, from 1837 to 1 8 3 9 . W i t h notes of a winter voyage t o New York, and journey thence t o the B r i t i s h possessions: t o which i s added, a review of the c o n d i t i o n of the Canadian people, London, Richard B e n t l e y , 1840, v o l . 1, pp. 86-87. 104 L o u i s a E l i z a b e t h (Grey), Countess Durham, Lady Durham* s j o u r n a l , Canada, ^Quebec, The Telegraph p r i n t i n g co., 1915J, p. 18.  183.  Ottawa R i v e r took p a r t i n Sunday s e r v i c e s w i t h every appearing  ance of devotion.  During the week, churches i n the towns  were open to a l l f o r prayer and confession. of men  The  spectacle  and women i n t h e i r working clothes s i t t i n g s i l e n t l y  i n the pews impressed an E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r as more solemn than an ordinary Sunday congregation. S i m i l a r l y , the p r a c t i c e of f a m i l y prayer was very moving to v i s i t o r s 107 from England. P r o t e s t a n t i s m i n Lower Canada d i d not compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h Roman C a t h o l i c i s m i n o r g a n i z a t i o n and personnel.  An  E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r , noting the contrast of church b u i l d i n g s at Montreal i n 1816,  remarked: "There seems to be something  i n the Canadian c l i m a t e , unfavourable  to the growth of  P r o t e s t a n t churches ...." ° The Anglican c l e r g y were 10  "personally amiable", but seemed to do l i t t l e more than v i s i t and r e l i e v e the s i c k when c a l l e d on.  Archdeacon  Mountain of Quebec was a conspicuous exception who  showed  great z e a l and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e i n m i n i s t e r i n g to the poor and f e v e r - r i d d e n immigrants i n the waterfront  105 Bigsby, Shoe and c a n o e , v o l .  1, p.  148.  106 Domett, Canadian j o u r n a l , pp. 11-12. 107 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 108 F r a n c i s H a l l , T r a v e l s , p.  176.  143.  109 Bigsby, Shoe and Canoe, v o l . ,1, p.  28.  slums.  1 0 9  184  In general, P r o t e s t a n t s were s l a c k about Sunday observance and i n d i f f e r e n t to c a l l s f o r missionary work.  A devout  Scot lamented the f a c t that there was no one able t o preach 110 the gospel i n French.  Under the circumstances,  i t was not  s u r p r i s i n g that P r o t e s t a n t i s m should have no a t t r a c t i o n s f o r the French-speaking population. The economic development of Lower Canada between 1815 and 1838 d i d not h o l d much i n t e r e s t f o r t r a v e l l e r s .  There  were no spectacular advances i n land settlement or a g r i c u l ture.  The n o r t h shore of the St. Lawrence, hemmed i n by  the Laurentide Mountains, o f f e r e d l i t t l e room f o r expansion. Some of the older d i s t r i c t s , of which B e r t h i e r was a leading example, offered a p l e a s i n g spectacle of good houses, wide c u l t i v a t i o n and comfortable  and c h e e r f u l p e o p l e .  1 1 1  The  parishes on the south shore were l e s s populous and more remote from the l i n e s of t r a v e l .  The h a b i t a n t s had spread  along the banks of numerous t r i b u t a r i e s on both sides of 112 the St. Lawrence between Quebec and Montreal.  English-  speaking s e t t l e r s ranged f u r t h e r a f i e l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Ottawa:Valley.  The v i l l a g e of H u l l was a f i n e example of  Anglo-American e n t e r p r i s e .  1 1 3  110 Duncan, Travels, v o l . 2, pp. 221-222. 111 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 2, p. 42. 112 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, p. 494. 113 Bigsby, Shoe and c a n o e , v o l .  1*  p. 144.  185.  S e i g n e u r i a l tenure continued i n the o l d settlements, although English-speaking p r o p r i e t o r s had purchased some of the domains. Despite the irksomeness of f e u d a l dues, most of the tenants ( c e n s i t a i r e s ) s e e m e d s a t i s f i e d , pref e r r i n g the seigneuries to the townships.  Prospective  purchasers of land f e l t the l a c k of a p r o v i n c i a l registryo f f i c e where they could examine deeds to determine whether 114 property was encumbered. Many outsiders severely c r i t i c i z e d the s t a t e of a g r i culture.  Several of these observers were i n t e l l i g e n t ,  p r a c t i c a l farmers from the B r i t i s h I s l e s , i n touch w i t h the l a t e s t advances.  A young Irishman, viewing the H e  d Orleans i n 1818, asserted that the farmers needed a 1  stimulus to e f f i c i e n c y s i m i l a r t o that provided by the a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s i n B r i t a i n during the Napoleonic Wars.  1 1 5  Later v i s i t o r s were s u r p r i s e d to f i n d the Canadians  f o l l o w i n g the o l d Scots p r a c t i c e of i n f i e l d and o u t f i e l d , t a k i n g crops without r e s t u n t i l only weeds r e m a i n e d .  116  S o i l s exhausted by constant cropping were l e f t i n n a t u r a l grass f o r a summer, then ploughed again,  Even n a t u r a l l y  r i c h lands produced mediocre y i e l d s w i t h such treatment-;  114 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, p . 5 9 0 . 115 Talbot, F i v e y e a r s  1  residence, v o l . 1, pp. 35-37.  116 ffergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, p. 263. 117 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 352.  117  186.  In n e w l y - s e t t l e d lands the problem-was not h a b i t a n t conservatism but the u n s u i t a b i l i t y of many pioneers as permanent farmers.  An experienced S c o t t i s h a g r i c u l t u r i s t  pointed out t h a t destroying f o r e s t s and managing land were two d i f f e r e n t t a s k s .  Some of the f i r s t s e t t l e r s had become  "encrusted w i t h s l o t h " , and b e s t i r r e d themselves only to 118  shoot game f o r food as needed. L i v e s t o c k breeding was no more e f f i c i e n t than c u l t i vation.  The province d i d not seem able to supply i t s own  requirements of food, e s p e c i a l l y meat, to_ judge by the 119  large imports from the United S t a t e s .  Sometimes poor  harvests produced serious d i s t r e s s i n c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t s . In the neighborhood  of T r o i s - R i v i e r e s during the summer  of 1816 many v i l l a g e r s had been reduced t o l i v i n g on w i l d vegetables, and there were numerous deaths from  famine.  1 2 0  The h a b i t a n t s clung to t h e i r worn-out farms, p r e f e r r i n g work i n the l o c a l i t y at low wages to m o v i n g .  121  There were some b r i g h t spots i n t h i s gloomy p i c t u r e . The l u x u r i a n t f i e l d s of Montreal I s l a n d y i e l d e d a wealth of products.  Many of the farms showed the i n f l u e n c e of  118 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 352. 119 I b i d . , p. 353. 120 F r a n c i s H a l l , T r a v e l s , p. 128. 121 S h i r r e f f , Tour. p. 354.  187.  European p r a c t i c e s i n t h e i r neat furrows and s t r a i g h t hoard fences.  •top  B r i t i s h farmers scattered throughout the province  introduced improved methods that d i s t i n g u i s h e d them from the 123 h a b i t a n t s , o n l y a few of whom t r i e d to copy them.  A t an  a g r i c u l t u r a l meeting i n Quebec during October 1838, the t r i a l p l o t s of E n g l i s h l a b o r e r s were d e f i n i t e l y superior 1 94  to those of the French. Among the signs of improvement was a b o t a n i c a l garden owned by a Canadian on the o u t s k i r t s of Montreal. t h i s unusual establishment  I n 1833,  included weeping w i l l o w s , new  species of apples, magnolia, and a greenhouse containing 125 cactus and t e a p l a n t s .  Such an e n t e r p r i s e was needed to  i n t e r e s t Canadians i n orchards, h o r t i c u l t u r e , and other p r o f i t a b l e and a t t r a c t i v e types of farming. In the c i t i e s , c e r t a i n t y p i c a l l y Canadian added c o l o r t o the scene.  occupations  Rugged Indian traders s t i l l  came to Montreal during the 1820's to spend t h e i r money f r e e l y and enjoy l i f e before r e t u r n i n g u p s t r e a m . d i s t i n c t i v e group was that of the lumberers ,l  ,,  126  Another  who f e l l e d  timber i n the i n t e r i o r and r a f t e d i t down to Montreal and  122 Duncan, Travels, v o l . 2, p. 145. 123 Preston, Three years  1  r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, p. 62.  124 l a d y Durham. J o u r n a l , p. 46. 125 Domett, Canadian j o u r n a l , p. 17. 126 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 125.  188.  Quebec. the  Many of them l i v e d i n "wretched dwellings" under  c l i f f s near Wolfe's Cove.  When they were p a i d o f f they  indulged i n "uproar and debauchery" sometimes l e a d i n g to "atrocious c r i m e s " .  1 2 7  Lumbering provided the b a s i s f o r s t e a d i e r employment i n the wood-using i n d u s t r i e s .  A l a r g e sawmill at Mont-  morency used power from the f a l l s to operate h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t machinery.  The magnitude of the e n t e r p r i s e was im-  p r e s s i v e even to A m e r i c a n s . taken on a large s c a l e .  128  S h i p b u i l d i n g also was under-  A yard on the H e  d'Orleans produced 1 99  two ships that were considered "gigantic':' at the time. At L e v i s , a patent s l i p constructed i n 1833 enabled ships of more than three hundred tons to be drawn up e x p e d i t i o u s l y on a cradle f o r r e p a i r .  1 5 0  Although manufacturing gave evidence of considerable t e c h n i c a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l , Canadian businessmen were not conspicuous f o r t h e i r salesmanship. The mercant i l e houses at Quebec i n 1818 looked l i k e d i r t y p r i v a t e  127 De Ros, Personal n a r r a t i v e , pp. 122-123. 128 S i l l i m a n , Tour, P. 87. 129 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, pp. 592-293. The ships were the Columbus, length three hundred twenty f e e t , launched 1824, and the Baron of Renfrew. 130 Domett, Canadian .journal, p, 6.  189.  d w e l l i n g s , d i s p l a y i n g no goods "... except such trumpery as would more r e a d i l y convey the i d e a of a brandy shop or barracks, than that of an extensive warehouse. "  Xv,J  -  The Scots continued t o be the most s u c c e s s f u l merchants.  Y e t even these energetic traders shared the  Canadian preference f o r " i n d i v i d u a l adventure" r a t h e r than "mutual c o - o p e r a t i o n " .  132  Some of the l a t t e r q u a l i t y was  provided w i t h the founding of banks.  Canadian bank d i r e c -  t o r s , however, were "cautious and prudent", avoiding "unguarded s p e c u l a t i o n " i n the "Republican" s t y l e common throughout the United S t a t e s .  1 3 3  Montreal was unquestionably wresting from Quebec the commercial ascendancy over the Canadas.  I t s shorter,  milder winter, i t s p l e n t i f u l l o c a l supplies of farm produce, i t s contacts w i t h the United States and Upper Canada made i t a c e n t r e o f year-round-business,activity. One explanation f o r Montreal's  w  surge t o the f o r e was  the growth of steamship s e r v i c e s on the St. Lawrence.  No  longer was Quebec the only deepsea p o r t f o r the two provinces.  131 Talbot, F i v e years* r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, p. 56. 132 Duncan, T r a v e l s , v o l . 2, p. 156. 133 Talbot, F i v e years' residence, v o l . 1, pp. 76-77. 134 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, pp. 573-574.  190 Ships could t r a n s f e r t h e i r cargoes to r i v e r steamers or be towed q u i c k l y upstream to Montreal. Nearly every t r a v e l l e r who v i s i t e d Lower Canada a f t e r 1814 remarked f a v o r a b l y on the steamboat f a c i l i t i e s that were a v a i l a b l e on the St. Lawrence.  In 1818, seven steamers  p l i e d between Quebec and Montreal, t a k i n g twenty-two hours downstream and t h i r t y - s i x hours upstream.  These v e s s e l s  were w e l l f i t t e d up w i t h l a r g e cabins, and provided food 135 and s e r v i c e equal to that of the best European h o t e l s . An E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r i n 1821 declared that European steamers were "unclean tubs" compared w i t h those i n A m e r i c a .  1 3 6  The S t . Lawrence steamers were d i s t i n c t l y "more pleasant and commodious" than those on the Hudson, which were u s u a l l y over-crowded. Unhappily, the port f a c i l i t i e s d i d not keep up w i t h the progress of shipping.  Passengers embarking at Montreal  had to make t h e i r way to the waterside across a quay f r e quently encumbered w i t h mud  and f i l t h .  A similar"defi-  ciency of e n t e r p r i s e " was shown i n the f a i l u r e to cut a canal at Lachine, while the Americans were pushing^ahead w i t h the E r i e  Canal.  1 3 9  135 Talbot, F i v e y e a r s  1  residence, v o l . 1, pp. 79-80.  136 Bigsby, Shoe and c a n o e , v o l . 1, 137 Preston, Three y e a r s  1  p.  218.  residenoe, v o l . 1, p. 41.  138 Talbot, F i v e years' residence, v o l . 1, 139 Duncan, Travels, v o l . 2,  pp.. 158-159.  p. 81.  191 Land transport along the S t . Lawrence l o s t much of i t s importance i n the summer when the steamers were running. Most t r a v e l l e r s gained t h e i r knowledge of Lower Canadian roads from the short journeys between Lachine or St-Jean and Montreal.  I n 1831, the h e a v i l y - t r a v e l l e d Lake Champlain  route i n Canada was being "improved" piecemeal without adequate funds.  A S c o t t i s h t r a v e l l e r who a r r i v e d i n A p r i l  had t o take the o l d road which had been o f f i c i a l l y closed. The d r i v e r crossed a brook, forced h i s way through i n d i g nant farmers, and took h i s coach through a f o u r - f o o t fence. ' 1  B r i d g e s , l i k e roads, were poorly maintained.  A British  v i s i t o r to Montmorency i n 1827 found a b r i d g e that had been down f o r s i x weeks, though a carpenter and twenty l a b o r e r s could have f i x e d i t i n two days.  This s t a t e of a f f a i r s  i n s p i r e d the r e f l e c t i o n : " I never saw any country where these s o r t of things appeared to move so slowly as i n Canada."  141  S l e i g h s remained indispensable f o r the long w i n t e r s . There was no improvement i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n , so that constant j o l t i n g over eahots was a disagreeable n e c e s s i t y . A B r i t i s h o f f i c e r who had enjoyed w i n t e r sports i n Uew Brunswick found the s l e i g h i n g i n Lower Canada " v i l e " .  140 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, pp. 59-61. 141 B a s i l H a l l , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, p. 394.  192.  He blamed the p e r s i s t e n c e i n u s i n g a f a u l t y design on the peasantry, "bigoted to o l d h a b i t s and customs", and " d i s -  1 49 daining i n n o v a t i o n " . * I t i s g r a t i f y i n g to l e a r n t h a t accommodation f o r t r a v e l l e r s improved g r e a t l y a f t e r 1814. Several v i l l a g e s provided "... that c h e e r f u l c i v i l i t y and the moderate charges we so often experience i n the inns of French 143 Canada." Quebec was l e s s w e l l endowed w i t h h o t e l s than Montreal, where the Mansion House supplied rooms and s e r v i c e 144 as capably as any h o s t e l r y i n England.  The cause of t h i s  development was the i n f l u x of American v i s i t o r s who made the fashionable summer tour from Saratoga v i a Lake Champlain 145 to Montreal and thence to Niagara. Canadians themselves were becoming t o u r i s t s i n the years a f t e r 1814.  Kamouraska, "the watering-place of  Canada", was frequented by f a m i l i e s from Quebec and Montreal i n the season.  They had a choice of s e v e r a l i n n s , and could 146  enjoy hot or c o l d seawater baths.  T r a v e l was becoming  more easy and r a p i d a l l along the St. Lawrence.  In contrast  142 S i r R i c h a r d George Augustus Levinge, 7th b a r t . , Echoes from the backwoods; or Sketches of T r a n s a t l a n t i c l i f e , London, Henry Colburn, 1846, v o l . 2, pp. 122-124. 143 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, pp. 41-42. 144 De Ros, Personal n a r r a t i v e , pp. 126-127. 145 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, p. 75. 146 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, p. 462.  193.  to the elaborate preparations needed i n e a r l i e r years, at r a v e l l e r hound f o r Upper Canada had only to pay h i s place 147 at the s t a g e - o f f i c e i n Montreal to complete a l l arrangements. I t was obvious that Lower Canada had made s u b s t a n t i a l i f uneven progress i n economic development from 1815 to  1838.  A growing population, the i n t e n s i f i e d e x p l o i t a t i o n of resources, and the adoption of t e c h n i c a l improvements created a considerable degree of p r o s p e r i t y . There seemed no  reason  why a f r u g a l and apparently happy peasantry should r i s e against the government. Yet t h i s d i d happen i n 1837 and  1838,  to the s u r p r i s e of the a u t h o r i t i e s i n the province and overseas. The very conservatism of the French Canadians provided one explanation f o r t h e i r r e s o r t to v i o l e n c e .  In t h e i r  resentment against a l i e n innovators who threatened t h e i r way of l i f e , they were ready to l i s t e n to the of extremists who promised n a t i o n a l s a l v a t i o n .  blandishments The f a c t  that p a r t of t h e i r t r o u b l e was caused by t h e i r own  refusal  to adapt to changing circumstances d i d not soften t h e i r exasperation at the s t a t e of a f f a i r s . The system set up by the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Act In 1791 was breaking down. Representation i n the L e g i s l a t i v e  147 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l n o t e s , p . 81 n.  194  Assembly had provided a forum f o r the French Canadian leaders without s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r appetite f o r power.  In  the courts, French c i v i l law was a source of misunderstandings and i r r i t a t i o n .  A v i s i t o r from France who heard a  case i n the Court of King's Bench at Quebec i n 1831  thought  1 48 the proceedings " b i z a r r e " and "burlesque".  Governmental  i n s t i t u t i o n s r e f l e c t e d and f o s t e r e d the d i v i s i o n of races, r a t h e r than r e c o n c i l i n g them. An E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r who v i s i t e d the n o r t h shore of the St. Lawrence downstream from Quebec i n 1821 found the b e t t e r c l a s s French Canadians "... thoughtful, and fond of p o l i t i c a l discussion."  Although they were f a m i l i a r w i t h  few books, t h e i r "nimble minds" were a c t i v e during the long w i n t e r s . * In the course of a long argument w i t h a B r i t i s h guest, the author's host at B a i e S t . P a u l spoke eloquently on the need f o r r e s p o n s i b l e government i n domestic  affairs.  1 5 0  Another B r i t i s h observer, i n 1826, diagnosed the s i t u a t i o n convincingly.  P o i n t i n g out that trade and  p r o s p e r i t y were i n c r e a s i n g , d e s p i t e the " s p i r i t of cont r a d i c t i o n " shown by the French m a j o r i t y of the Assembly,  148 P i e r s o n , T o c q u e v i l l e and Beaumont, pp. 324-326. 149 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 195. 150 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 197-198.  195.  lie wrote: Though p e r f e c t l y l o y a l , a j e a l o u s y , a s u s p i c i o n , and a d i s t r u s t of the mother country, pervade a l l t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s , and form a remarkable contrast w i t h the more reasonable s p i r i t which animates the contented i n h a b i t a n t s of Nova S o o t i a and Hew Brunswick. ... such i s t h e i r apprehension of any encroachment upon t h e i r r e l i g i o n , laws or language, that they are content to s a c r i f i c e obvious advantages t o the maintenance of ancient customs and unreasonable p r e j u d i c e s . 1 5 1  This a p p r a i s a l emphasized the f a c t that discontent was not fundamentally economic but r a c i a l .  The demand f o r  responsible government was a device f o r i n c r e a s i n g the i n f l u e n c e of the French-speaking m a j o r i t y , rather than an expression of democratic sentiment. The i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e t t i n g may help to e x p l a i n how t h i s stubborn antipathy was exacerbated t o the p o i n t of rebellion.  In the year 1828, Jacksonian democracy triumphed  at the p o l l s i n the U n i t e d States.  Two years l a t e r , the  J u l y R e v o l u t i o n overthrew the Bourbons and promised a r e b i r t h of l i b e r a l i s m i n France.  Great B r i t a i n a t t h i s time  was i n the throes of p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n , culminating i n the passage of the Reform B i l l i n 1831. L i b e r a l , n a t i o n a l i s t , and r e v o l u t i o n a r y ideas were i n the a i r . not immune t o i n f e c t i o n from them.  151 De Ros, P e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e , p p . 114-115.  Canada was  196 The p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p of the  French-speaking  community was i n the hands of a small e l i t e of doctors, n o t a r i e s , and lawyers.  Young men,  f r e s h from s t u d i e s i n  France or the United States, s e t t l e d down to p r a c t i c e i n the v i l l a g e s and towns of Lower Canada.  Enjoying the pres-  t i g e of a good education and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s , they became the n a t u r a l spokesmen of t h e i r race, and f r e q u e n t l y gained seats i n the L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y .  152  These popular champions were i n a strong p o s i t i o n to disseminate "dangerous" ideas amongst the l a r g e l y u n l e t t e r e d and sometimes g u l l i b l e h a b i t a n t s .  In t h i s work they were  abetted by t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to the United S t a t e s .  The most  r e b e l l i o u s d i s t r i c t s were those along the south bank of the St. Lawrence from Beauharnois border. Montreal.  to S o r e l and towards the  Next to them were the d i s t r i c t s surrounding The r e g i o n between Montreal and Quebec was  l e a s t "contaminated" by subversive i n f l u e n c e s .  the  153  C e r t a i n evidences of s o c i a l c o n f l i c t accompanied the obvious r a c i a l antagonism.  A l i b e r a l Frenchman gathered  from conversation w i t h French Canadians i n 1831 that the  152 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 1, pp.. 77-78. 153 Ibid.., v o l . 1,  pp. 77-78.  197  seigneurs were regarded w i t h j e a l o u s y and hatred.  Demo-  c r a t i c a g i t a t i o n i n Lower Canada was i n many ways j u s t as a c t i v e and thoroughgoing  as i n the United States and F r a n c e ^  4  A B r i t i s h w r i t e r who had observed widely and thought deeply about the r e v o l t assigned two causes f o r the t r o u b l e . F i r s t was the f a i l u r e t o a s s i m i l a t e a " t o r p i d race"; second, the " t o t a l neglect of t h e i r mental c u l t u r e " , so t h a t the French Canadians had no chance to acquire the r i g h t ideas 155 f o r t h e i r own and the country's good. This w r i t e r asserted t h a t the f i g h t f o r independence had not begun e a r l i e r because p r e v i o u s l y the French Canadians had seen no a l t e r n a t i v e s but B r i t i s h r u l e or annexation to the United States.  The f e e l i n g of exasperation was height-  ened by the i n c r e a s i n g numbers of immigrants who threatened 156 to swamp the French-speaking  population.  Alarm a t the  prospect of encirclement gave a new b i t t e r n e s s t o the longstanding resentment of Anglo-Saxon commercial dominance. I n the face of widespread unrest, the English-speaking community remained s i n g u l a r l y complacent.  A Quebec merchant  who was interviewed by a Frenchman i n 1831 assured the  154 P i e r s o n , Tocqueville and Beaumont, pp. 338-341. 155 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 1, p. 250. 156 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 116-117.  1  198  l a t t e r that the p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n was j u s t a l o t of t a l k by d i s s a t i s f i e d lawyers.  The speaker could not d i s g u i s e  h i s scorn and hatred when he r e f e r r e d t o the French Canadians.  1 5 7  The L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly provided the n a t u r a l o u t l e t f o r popular grievances.  The h a b i t a n t s entered i n t o elec-  t i o n s w i t h as much enthusiasm as i f they had been used to a 158 constitution f o r centuries.  Gnce e l e c t e d , however, t h e i r  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were unable to c o n t r o l the p o l i c y of an executive r e s p o n s i b l e to the crown.  L e g i s l a t i v e sessions  were l i t t l e more than occasions f o r f i e r y speeches and f u t i l e attempts to coerce the government.  The apparent  f a i l u r e of parliamentary methods convinced many reformers that the i s s u e would have to be brought t o the arbitrament of arms. Matters came to a head haphazardly i n 1837.  F o r some  time a g i t a t o r s had been addressing congregations outside the churches a f t e r mass, e x t o l l i n g the v i r t u e s of l i b e r t y and "La Grande Nation Canadienne", and denouncing the 159 redcoats.  D i s a f f e c t e d groups d r i l l e d openly i n preparation  for revolt.  A t Montreal, i n 1837, the f u t u r e r e b e l s used  157 P i e r s o n , T o c q u e v i l l e and Beaumont, p. 324. 158 Domett, Canadian j o u r n a l , p. 5.  ,  159 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 1, pp. 82-85.  199.  the parade ground of the F i r s t Royal Regiment f o r t h e i r maneuvres, and complained when the s o l d i e r s i n t e r f e r e d with them.  160  The B r i t i s h population i n s t i n c t i v e l y closed i t s ranks against the common danger.  Although the m i l i t a r y preparations  of r e b e l l i o u s elements were g e n e r a l l y considered a joke, many of the l o y a l i s t s were ready f o r a f i g h t . out on 14 October 1837  When a r i o t broke  at Montreal, the deeds of the pror 161  B r i t i s h p a r t y won them the name of "Axe-Handle Guards"-. As tension mounted, v i o l e n c e f l a r e d again on 6 November. An attack by E n g l i s h speaking c i v i l i a n s on an unauthorized meeting of t h e i r r i v a l s ended i n a general melee on the Place 162 d'Armes.  Events moved r a p i d l y to the climax of open  warfare. When Lord Durham a r r i v e d as Governor-in-Chief 1838 he received a warm welcome.  in  The reception at Montreal  was even "more c o r d i a l & e n t h u s i a s t i c " than at Quebec. A l a r g e and animated crowd showed no resentment at h i s amnesty f o r the r e b e l s .  ° This g r a t i f y i n g manifestation  of l o y a l t y to the representative of the crown showed that h i s p o l i c y of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n was widely accepted i n Lower . 160 Lysons, Reminiscences, p. 65. 161 I b i d , , p.  68.  162 Preston, Three years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1 , pp. 88-94. 163 Lady Durham, J o u r n a l , p.  20.  200 Canada.  The news that h i s ordinances had been d i s a l l o w e d  caused widespread dismay.  At once some B r i t i s h elements  began to t a l k of separation or annexation, and the French returned t o t h e i r i n t r i g u e s .  1 6 4  R e s p e c t f u l crowds f i l l e d the s t r e e t s of Quebec as Lord Durham l e f t on 1 November 1838. 165 enlivened the general gloom.  Only a few cheers  The whole h i s t o r y of h i s  r e l a t i o n s w i t h the people of the province t e s t i f i e d to his  grasp of t h e i r problems and the wisdom of h i s p o l i c y . Lower Canada at the end of 1838 was not a happy spec-  tacle.  The o l d system of government was obviously unable  to r e s t o r e harmony and thus permit the resumption of economic and s o c i a l progress. Any attempt to devise a new system was thwarted by the mutual s u s p i c i o n of the two races, heightened by the memory of bloodshed.  The English-speaking  m i n o r i t y were uncompromisingly opposed to any change that would put them at the mercy of the French-speaking m a j o r i t y . The l a t t e r i n s i s t e d on a t r a n s f e r of governmental responsib i l i t y that would enable them to c o n t r o l t h e i r own d e s t i n y . Proposals f o r escaping from the impasse ranged from union w i t h Upper Canada to independence or annexation to the United States.  The successors of Lord Durham as Governor faced a  d e l i c a t e and arduous task of p a c i f i c a t i o n and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n .  164 Lady Durham, J o u r n a l , p. 42. 165 I b i d . , pp. 52-53.  201.  CHAPTER V. TOWARDS A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY: UPPER CANADA. 1815-1838  Upper Canada, l i k e i t s s i s t e r province, d i f f e r e d remarkably from the a d j o i n i n g p a r t s of the United S t a t e s , hut i t had l i t t l e of the old-world charm of French Canada. A f t e r the War  of 1812 i t was s t i l l l a r g e l y f o r e s t , unmarked  by d i s t i n c t i v e n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , except at the Thousand Islands and Niagara P a l l s .  T r a v e l l e r s saw nothing to com-  pare w i t h the panorama of neat whitewashed houses t h a t bordered the lower St. Lawrence. Porest c l e a r i n g s d i d not show the picturesqueness a t t r i b u t e d to them by c e r t a i n f a n c i f u l stay-at-homes. The t y p i c a l immigrant dwelt amidst a "... dismal scene of uncouth l o g huts, blackened stumps, l e a f l e s s scorched t r e e s and awkward zig-zag f e n c e s . "  1  The " s o l i t a r y grandeur"  of the landscape throughout most of the province induced "melancholy" i n one B r i t i s h v i s i t o r , who f e l t that the b l u e s k i e s and l i g h t atmosphere only p a r t i a l l y a l l e v i a t e d o  i t s depressing e f f e c t . The Thousand Islands r e c e i v e d perfunctory n o t i c e , but they o f f e r e d no temptation to l i n g e r .  F i l i b u s t e r s and  1 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 93. 2 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, pp.  4-5.  202  p i r a t e s were reputed to i n f e s t t h e i r myriad channels during 3 the disturbances of 1837 and 1838. one great scenic a t t r a c t i o n .  Niagara P a l l s was  the  With the passage of years,  the s i t e became more easy of access.  Already i n 1816  B r i t i s h v i s i t o r was bemoaning the l o s s of p r i m i t i v e through the s w e l l i n g throngs of s i g h t s e e r s .  a grandeur  With s u r p r i s i n g  accuracy he prophesied: "For Niagara, I foresee that i n a few years t r a v e l l e r s w i l l f i n d a f i n g e r post 'To the F a l l s ' Tea Gardens, w i t h cakes, and refreshments, set out on the Table Rock." In 1822, the s e t t i n g of the f a l l s was s t i l l almost "primeval". There was only one house on the Canadian side, 5 and the small hamlet across the gorge was out of s i g h t . F i v e years l a t e r , the American side had been d i s f i g u r e d 4  "... by the e r e c t i o n of h o t e l s , paper manufactories,  saw-_  m i l l s , and numerous other raw, s t a r i n g , wooden e d i f i c e s . " So generous was the p r o v i s i o n of amenities that by  6  1833  t o u r i s t s were able to p l a y b i l l i a r d s a l l day i n the P a v i l i o n 7 H o t e l without bothering about the scenery.  3 Lady Durham, J o u r n a l , p. 22. 4 F r a n c i s H a l l , T r a v e l s , p . 235. 5 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 2, p. 4. 6 B a s i l H a l l , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, p. 190. 7 Domett, Canadian .journal, p. 30.  203.  Speculators hoping t o p r o f i t from the l o c a l a t t r a c t i o n s were s t a r t i n g to b u i l d v i l l a s on the Canadian side i n 1833. A S c o t t i s h v i s i t o r c a l l e d the p r o j e c t " v i s i o n a r y " , s i n c e not enough Canadians could a f f o r d to occupy summer residences there at the time.  This judgment was borne out by the  c o l l a p s e of a scheme f o r a " C i t y of the F a l l s " .  A woman  who v i s i t e d the s i t e i n 1837 thought that the f i r s t development would be that of a manufacturing centre u s i n g the enormous water powers of the l o c a l i t y .  She f e l t that.any  a d d i t i o n to the present assemblage of h o t e l s , museums, and c u r i o s i t y shops would b r i n g a "moral p o l l u t i o n " to the 9 splendors of Niagara. Most t r a v e l l e r s found the climate g e n e r a l l y f a v o r a b l e . The c o l d was not so severe as i n Lower Canada, though f r e q u e n t l y a source of discomfort. Summer brought oppressi v e heat, thunderstorms, and "hurricanes" that sometimes overthrew great areas of f o r e s t .  The worst season was  s p r i n g , when the_roads were n e a r l y impassable, the lowlands were f l o o d e d , and m a l a r i a attacked d w e l l e r s near swampland.  1 0  The sudden v a r i a t i o n s and extreme temperatures  8 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 92. 9 Mrs. Anna B r o w n e l l (Murphy) Jameson, Winter studies and sijmmer rambles.-in Canada, London, Saunders and Otley, 1838, v o l . 2, pp. 75-76. 10 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 267.  204.  were not s u i t e d t o sedentary persons, but i d e a l f o r robust and a c t i v e workers-. Any t r a v e l l e r i n t e r e s t e d i n farming viewed the f o r e s t s w i t h a h o s t i l e eye.  A young I r i s h s e t t l e r i n 1818 looked  f o r great advances i n comfort from the c l e a r i n g of the woods which he considered responsible f o r the abundant i n s e c t s and vermin, and f o r the f e v e r - r i d d e n marshes.  As a p r a i s e -  worthy example of improvement, he pointed to the "complete d e s i c c a t i o n " of many creeks a f t e r c l e a r i n g , notably i n the 12 Talbot Settlement on Lake E r i e .  Later farmers were t o pay  dearly f o r t h i s mistaken a t t i t u d e t o the n a t u r a l cover that r e t a i n e d the precious t o p s o i l . I t was understandable  that the r e s i d e n t s should look  f o r r e l i e f from t h e i r i n s e c t tormentors by c l e a r i n g as much land as p o s s i b l e .  Mosquitoes, h o r s e f l i e s , and bedbugs caused  much unpleasantness and s u f f e r i n g to man and beast. settlements, h o u s e f l i e s were an "overwhelming plague"  In many that 13  made c l e a n l i n e s s impossible, even w i t h constant a t t e n t i o n . Compared w i t h these p e s t s , r a t t l e s n a k e s were a minor annoyance.  One of the most obnoxious i n h a b i t a n t s of the woods  was the huge n a t i v e b u l l f r o g , whose "hideous y e l l s " resounded 14 night and day during the summer. 11 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 19-21. 12 Talbot, F i v e years' residence, v o l . 1, pp. 341-342. 15 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 248-249. 14 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. .£259-] -261.  205.  The raucous v o i c e s of the frogs were no compensation to the homesick Briton,, f o r the absence of s i n g i n g b i r d s . Game b i r d s , however, were p l e n t i f u l , i n c l u d i n g the famous passenger pigeons.  On the Thames R i v e r i n the spring of  1834 an E n g l i s h observer saw s e v e r a l small f l o c k s and  one  l a r g e one.  The numbers were "astonishing", but the b i r d s 15 d i d not darken the sky as recorded i n e a r l i e r accounts'. Farmers hunted animals not merely f o r food but a l s o to  p r o t e c t t h e i r crops and l i v e s t o c k . S q u i r r e l s were p o s s i b l y the worst enemies, since they could reduce a s e t t l e r ' s f a m i l y to want by e a t i n g up t h e i r green and r i p e g r a i n . Bears attacked swine and wolves caused serious l o s s e s of sheep.  Deer were p l e n t i f u l but hard to track down.  Upper  Canada was not a good area f o r sport hunting, e s p e c i a l l y as the advance of settlement f o r c e d much of the w i l d l i f e to r e t r e a t i n t o the f o r e s t . A v i s i t o r who  t r a v e l l e d exten-  s i v e l y i n the province during 1833 asserted: "I have seen more game i n half-an-hour  i n Scotland than I saw i n a l l 17  my wanderings i n Canada  ...."  M u n i c i p a l development i n Upper Canada proceeded slowly u n t i l increased immigration, stimulated the growth of l o c a l  15 Domett, Canadian .journal, p. 53. The l a s t known passenger pigeon died i n c a p t i v i t y i n 1914. See Encyclopedia of Canada, v o l . 5, p. 119. 16 Talbot, F i v e years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, p. 17 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p.  390.  216.  206 centres.  U n l i k e Lower Canada, w i t h i t s two l a r g e f o e i of  a c t i v i t y , the western province contained a number of small communities, none of which was dominant u n t i l Toronto moved ahead i n the 1830's. The banks of the Ottawa and S t . Lawrence R i v e r s offered l i t t l e i n the way of urban amenities to d e t a i n the t r a v e l l e r . Bytown was no more than an opening i n the f o r e s t u n t i l the completion of the Rideau Canal i n 1832.  Even then, the l i t t l e  settlement, dominated by the barracks on the future'Parliament 18  H i l l , was hemmed.In by great stands of pine. B r o c k v i l l e made a happy impression on t r a v e l l e r s going up or down the S t . Lawrence.  This a t t r a c t i v e  community, set amidst s m i l i n g f i e l d s , had "every appearance 19 of p r o s p e r i t y " i n 1826, though only some ten years o l d . The i n h a b i t a n t s b u i l t good houses of wood or stone, and l e f t t r e e s among them f o r added beauty -- an unusual p r a c t i c e i n the  Canadas.  Because of t h i s concern f o r appearances, Brock-  v i l l e was known as "... the p r e t t i e s t town on the r i v e r . "  90 1 0  18 S i r James Edward Alexander, T r a n s a t l a n t i c sketches, comprising v i s i t s to the most i n t e r e s t i n g scenes i n North and South America, and the-West I n d i e s . With notes on Negro s l a v e r y and. Canadian emigration, London, R. Bent ley, 1833, E x t r a c t i n Gerald M . Craig,; ed., E a r l y t r a v e l l e r s i n the Canadas,., 1791-1867. Toronto, The Macmillan co. of Canada Ltd., 1955, pp. 81-82. 19 De Ros, P e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e , pp. 136-137. 20 Domett, Canadian .journal, p. 21.  207  T r a v e l l e r s a r r i v i n g at Kingston by land or water n o t i c e d the "imposing" aspect of the town.  I t seemed  l i k e l y to remain the m i l i t a r y , n a v a l , and commercial headquarters f o r the province, even though York had the 21 advantage of being the c a p i t a l .  The houses, l a i d out on  an "elegant and extensive" p l a n , were mostly of limestone by 1818.  This use of l o c a l b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l gave the place 22 a d i s t i n c t i v e character. Although Kingston was crude by European standards, i t  drew p r a i s e from numerous v i s i t o r s .  An E n g l i s h p h y s i c i a n  i n 1823 considered i t to be an "... agreeable residence, 23 s t i r r i n g , h e a l t h y , and cheap."  Kingstonians became aware  of t h e i r c i t y ' s charms i n l a t e r years.  Conscious of i t s  excellence, they ignored such defects as the n o i s y f i g h t s between p i g s and dogs that took place c o n s t a n t l y i n the streets.  In 1837, a B r i t i s h v i s i t o r declared that Kingston  was " e s s e n t i a l l y ... unprogressive", since "... i t reposes too complacently on i t s assumed d i g n i t y to be otherwise 24  than s t a t i o n a r y . " Pew t r a v e l l e r s would say a good word f o r York (Toronto). Most of them were disappointed at t h e i r f i r s t s i g h t of the 21 Duncan, T r a v e l s . vol...?, pp. 112-113. 22 Howison, Sketches, p. 58. 23 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 2, p. 56. 24 Preston, Three y e a r s  1  r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, pp. 125-127.  208.  capital.  I t was hard f o r them to understand why the govern-  ment had been located i n the midst of a f e a t u r e l e s s landscape, w i t h nothing to recommendthe s i t e but an JLndifferent harbor. A B r i t i s h o f f i c e r who viewed the town i n 1816 thought the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would have been t r a n s f e r r e d to Kingston i f 25 i t were not f o r vested i n t e r e s t s . York was p o o r l y s i t u a t e d on low, marshy land, which an I r i s h immigrant i n 1818 described as "... b e t t e r c a l c u l a t e d f o r a frog-pond, or beaver-meadow, than f o r the 26  residence of human beings."  The p i c t u r e became more  favorable when the growth of population throughout the province brought increased a c t i v i t y i n the c a p i t a l .  After  1830, c o n s t r u c t i o n was a c t i v e , and b r i c k replaced wood f o r many houses and p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s .  One t r a v e l l e r a c t u a l l y  commented on the town's " f i n e appearance" from the water i n 1833, and pointed out the improvement i n h e a l t h since the 1  P7  marshes were drained. York underwent a k i n d of "boom" as the r e s u l t of massive immigration from B r i t a i n .  I t s t i l l looked de-  p r e s s i n g i n the depths of winter, however, p a r t i c u l a r l y to a newcomer l a b o r i n g under personal disappointments. 25 F r a n c i s H a l l , Travels, PP. 214-215. 26 Talbot, F i v e years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . . 1 , p. 102. 27 Isaac F i d l e r , O b s e r v a t i o n s , p p . 154-156.  209  One such person wrote soon a f t e r her a r r i v a l i n December 1836:  "A l i t t l e i l l - b u i l t town on low land, at the bottom  of a f r o z e n bay, w i t h one very ugly church, without tower or s t e e p l e ; some government o f f i c e s , b u i l t of s t a r i n g , r e d b r i c k , i n the most t a s t e l e s s , vulgar s t y l e imaginable; three f e e t of snow a l l around;and the grey, s u l l e n , w i n t r y l a k e , and the dark gloom of the pine f o r e s t bounding the 28  prospect; such seems Toronto to me  now."  On the eve of the R e b e l l i o n i n 1837, the c i t y had made d i s t i n c t , i f modest, progress.  A temporary r e s i d e n t  made the f o l l o w i n g j u d i c i o u s a p p r a i s a l at the  time:"Toronto,  though e x h i b i t i n g l i t t l e to bear out i t s pretensions e i t h e r as a c i t y or a c a p i t a l , and s t i l l l e s s to j u s t i f y the metrop o l i t a n a i r s which the e l i t e of i t s denizens assume, i s a place bearing ( u n l i k e Kingston) the appearance of having 29  been much improved w i t h i n these l a s t few years  ...."  Across Lake Ontario, Newark or Niagara relapsed i n t o o b s c u r i t y a f t e r the War  of 1812.  The former c a p i t a l found  a new source of income as a fashionable summer r e s o r t on account of i t s nearness to the f a l l s . ive  In 1818, the a t t r a c t -  30 v i l l a g e was the "neatest" i n the province a f t e r B r o c k v i l l e .  28 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1,  p. 2..  29 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 36-37. 30 Talbot, F i v e years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, p.  122.  210  The passing years d e a l t h a r s h l y w i t h the l o c a l i t y . ing to an account dated 1833,  Accord-  "Queenston and Niagara are  mean"j:dirty-looking v i l l a g e s , apparently without trade, and very u n l i k e the clean h u s t l i n g places on the opposite side of the r i v e r . "  3 1  Hamilton rose i n t o prominence at the head of the lake a f t e r a canal was cut to give access to the f i n e harbor of B u r l i n g t o n Bay.  The v i l l a g e grew r a p i d l y i n t o a town which  a c r i t i c a l . o b s e r v e r i n 1833 pronounced "...  one of the  <  cleanest and most d e s i r a b l e places of residence i n Canada."  32  Others were e q u a l l y pleased by t h i s " f l o u r i s h i n g " and a t t r a c t i v e " community, on account of i t s " a i r of business, and b u s t l e , 33  and animation  ...."  Numerous settlements i n the western peninsula, such as Guelph, G a i t , B r a n t f o r d , and S t . Thomas, showed promise i n the decade before 1838.  London had o u t s t r i p p e d them a l l by  the end of t h i s p e r i o d .  A v i s i t o r to t h i s town i n 1837  asserted: "On the whole., I have nowhere seen such evident signs of progress and p r o s p e r i t y . " * 0  In comparison w i t h t h i s scene of a c t i v i t y , the o l d settlements along the D e t r o i t R i v e r seemed u t t e r l y stagnant.  .31 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 94. 32 I b i d . , p.  104.  33 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 97-98. 54 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 144-145.  211  Across from them, the burgeoning centre of D e t r o i t rose "... i n s t r i k i n g contrast to the poverty and l i f e l e s s n e s s of Amherstburgh and Sandwich ...." was p a i n f u l l y obvious.  In 1837, the d i f f e r e n c e  On the American side was a l a r g e and  busy c i t y ; on the Canadian s i d e , "... a l i t t l e  straggling  hamlet, one schooner, one l i t t l e wretched steam-boat, some w i n d m i l l s , a c a t h o l i c chapel or two, a supine ignorant peasantry, a l l the symptoms of apathy, indolence, m i s t r u s t , hopelessness." Upper Canada between 1815 and 1838 was no e a r t h l y paradise.  I t s scenery was f o r the most p a r t u n i n s p i r i n g ,  except f o r Niagara P a l l s , where t o u r i s t development threatened to  s p o i l i t s p r i m i t i v e beauty.  The c i t i e s , towns, and  v i l l a g e s were g e n e r a l l y d u l l , when they were not downright depressing.  Towards the end of the p e r i o d , however, i n -  creasing commerce and urban expansion gave promise of f u t u r e improvement.  The stimulus to a c t i v i t y was imparted by the  growing population, i n which l a r g e - s c a l e immigration augmented the n a t u r a l increase.of the older f a m i l i e s . The people of Upper Canada were a patchwork of diverse elements, very d i f f e r e n t from the predominantly French s o c i e t y of Lower Canada.  Newcomers from many p a r t s of  35 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 216. 36 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 313-314.  212  North America and Europe c o n t r i b u t e d to the v a r i e t y .  The  Indian t r i b e s l e n t a touch of c o l o r to the scene without e x e r t i n g much i n f l u e n c e on development. Along the Grand R i v e r , Mohawks and Cayugas l i v e d q u i e t l y amongst a growing white community.  A f t e r the war,  i n 1816, many of them s u f f e r e d want from unwisely concent r a t i n g on growing corn i n bad seasons, and had to e x i s t 37 f o r a time on the government bounty.  Many of them succumbed  to the l u r e of f i s h i n g and hunting, to the detriment of t h e i r husbandry.  Nevertheless, they r a i s e d f a i r crops of corn when  the weather was f a v o r a b l e .  Some of them p r o f i t e d from  attending a Mechanic's School at B r a n t f o r d sponsored by the 38 S o c i e t y f o r the Propagation of the Gospel. Tuberculosis 3'  and other causes had reduced the.population sharply by 1837. Another experiment i n " c i v i l i z i n g " Indians took p l a c e on the C r e d i t R i v e r .  Here a v i l l a g e was formed during the  1820's under the auspices of the Lieutenant-Governor. of Mississaugas f o r m e r l y notorious f o r drunkenness  A band  and de-  p r a v i t y underwent a remarkable change, l a r g e l y through the e f f o r t s offahalf-breed Methodist missionary, the Reverend Peter Jones.  In 1827, the v i l l a g e . c o n t a i n e d neat, f u r n i s h e d  37 F r a n c i s H a l l , T r a v e l s , pp. 223-224. 38 Pergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, pp. 135-138. 39 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 106-108.  213.  houses i n h a b i t e d by people who were " p e r f e c t l y clean" and " t o l e r a b l y w e l l dressed".  Most of the c h i l d r e n and some  of the elders could read i n E n g l i s h .  The whole t r i b e pro-  fessed C h r i s t i a n i t y , eschewed l i q u o r , and enjoyed a reputa40 t i o n f o r o r d e r l i n e s s and i n d u s t r y . This i d y l l i c scene d i d not endure f o r long.  By 1837,  the population was much decreased through tuberculosis.. The formerly a c t i v e c u l t i v a t o r s had often lapsed i n t o i d l e n e s s and worse, to the despair of t h e i r s p i r i t u a l leader.  Although some of the v i l l a g e r s showed superior..  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , "... d i r t , indolence, and drunkenness 41 are but too general." The s i t u a t i o n throughout the r e s t of the province was no more h o p e f u l .  Indian reserves from the Bay of Q.uinte' to  the D e t r o i t R i v e r were under constant pressure from landhungry s e t t l e r s .  As a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n of the problem,  the government decided to move many of the demoralized and s t a r v i n g n a t i v e s from valuable unused land to i s l a n d s i n 42 Lake Huron where f i s h and game were p l e n t i f u l . observer sympathetic  An  to the Indians considered the govern-  ment' s plans "benevolent and j u s t i f i a b l e " * even though the 41 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 296-298. 40 B a s i l H a l l , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, pp. 257-259. 42 S i r F r a n c i s Bond Head, b a r t . , The emigrant, New York, Harper & Brothers, 1847, p. 79.  214.  expulsion was a harsh measure.  Attempts to maintain n a t i v e  reserves amidst white settlements were useless i n that they 43 demanded too much forbearance on the part of both peoples. By 1838, most of the Indians seemed destined f o r a melancholy f a t e .  Those who had not become a s s i m i l a t e d to  the mass of the population were succumbing to the ravages of t u b e r c u l o s i s . The only i n d i v i d u a l s of Indian descent  who  prospered were c e r t a i n half-breeds or b o i s brule's, who sometimes achieved respectable p o s i t i o n s i n the community.  44  French Canadians formed a minor but d i s t i n c t i v e group i n Upper-Canada.  In t h e i r settlements at the  southwestern  t i p of the province, they r e t a i n e d t h e i r a n c e s t r a l language, appearance, and customs.  The h a b i t a n t farms, f r o n t i n g the  r i v e r as i n Lower Canada, d i s p l a y e d t y p i c a l l y unprogressive a g r i c u l t u r e , except that orchards were abundant. unambitious  This  people d i f f e r e d from t h e i r brethren i n the older  province only i n being l e s s l i g h t - h e a r t e d and p o l i t e , apparently through the i n f l u e n c e of the English-speaking 45 majority.  Their "French p a t o i s " was almost u n i n t e l l i g i b l e  to a c u l t u r e d Irishwoman who conversed w i t h some of the peasants i n 1 8 3 7 .  46  43 Jameson, Winter s c e n e s , v o l . 2, pp. 267-268. 44 Preston, Three y e a r s  1  r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 2, p.  215.  45 S h i r r e f f , Tour, pp. 209-210. . 46 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 280-281, 315.  215.  The descendants of the L o y a l i s t s were not completely admirable i n the eyes of t r a v e l l e r s .  A Scottish agricul-  t u r i s t t o u r i n g t h e i r settlements along the Thames and D e t r o i t R i v e r s i n 1833 found them l i v i n g i n shabby houses 47 and l i t t l e addicted to improvement.  Many persons of  L o y a l i s t stock were accused of harboring "doubtful p r i n - -• ciples" in politics.  This charge was condemned as "unjust  and knavish" by an E n g l i s h clergyman who had met many "honourable and amiable" L o y a l i s t f a m i l i e s during h i s r e s i 48 dence near Toronto i n 1832. grounds f o r suspicion.  There must have been some  Another B r i t i s h w r i t e r , who had  l i v e d i n Toronto during 1837 and 1838, described the Loyali s t element as l a r g e l y d i s a f f e c t e d , and the segment of the 49 population l e a s t zealous f o r the crown. A s u b s t a n t i a l flow of immigrants took place during most of the p e r i o d a f t e r 1814. The r e s u l t s were apparent to anyone who v i s i t e d the newer settlements.  T r a v e l l e r s made  l i t t l e mention of the E n g l i s h , p r e f e r r i n g to expatiate on the more c o l o r f u l newcomers from the C e l t i c f r i n g e .  Many Scots  had taken up farms together i n the Talbot Settlement Lake E r i e by 1818.  along  I n s p i t e of t h e i r "clannishness", these  47 S h i r r e f f , Tour-, p. 212. 48 E i d l e r , Observations, pp. 223-224. 49 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 24.  216  immigrants soon acquired American ideas of e q u a l i t y .  The  Highlanders who e s t a b l i s h e d themselves i n the w i l d s of Glengarry r e t a i n e d t h e i r n a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n almost unaltered form.  Most of them spoke only G a e l i c , and they e x h i b i t e d an 51  unquestioning l o y a l t y to the sovereign.  Although they were  "hospitable and warm-hearted", t h e i r dwellings lacked the "snug comfort" found amongst the peasantry of Lower Canada, because of t h e i r "... want of management, and the f o r c e of h a b i t . "  5 2  Another account of the Highlanders, t h i s time i n the southwestern peninsula, gave a s i m i l a r p i c t u r e of a p r i m i t i v e , t i g h t l y - k n i t people slowly improving t h e i r circumstances under d i f f i c u l t c o n d i t i o n s .  An Irishwoman who saw them i n  1827 reported that they "... b r i n g h i t h e r a l l t h e i r c l a n n i s h attachments, and t h e i r t h r i f t y , d i r t y h a b i t s , — a n d a l s o , 53 t h e i r p r i d e and t h e i r honesty." I f the q u a l i t y of the S c o t t i s h immigrants was f r e q u e n t l y i n d i f f e r e n t , that of the I r i s h was sometimes a p p a l l i n g .  An  I r i s h s e t t l e r of c u l t i v a t e d upbringing r e f e r r e d to the lower c l a s s e s of h i s fellow-countrymen i n s t i n g i n g terms: "Of a l l vapid coxcombs upon earth, an I r i s h emigrant without education  50 Howison, Sketches, p. 188. 51 F. B. Head, Emigrant, p. 74. 52 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . 2, p. 530. 53 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 214-215.  217.  i s the most i n t o l e r a b l e , the l e a s t amiable, and the most preposterous .,.."  54  Two shiploads of I r i s h s e t t l e r s who  came out to the Rideau R i v e r f e l l to a t t a c k i n g each other a f t e r d r i v i n g out some Scots who had preceded locality.  them i n the  When the m i l i t i a had suppressed the disturbance,  the newcomers d i r e c t e d t h e i r combative i n s t i n c t s to the a s s a u l t on the f o r e s t , at which they showed 55 thoroughly competent.  themselves  Other I r i s h communities were l e s s unruly.  A number  of impoverished immigrants had been s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d at Peterborough by 1827.  The i n h a b i t a n t s showed t h e i r  l o y a l t y and g r a t i t u d e f o r government a s s i s t a n c e , b u t they were r e l u c t a n t to admit the f a c t of t h e i r poverty i n I r e l a n d . Immigration from the United States brought some c o n t r i butions of questionable value to Upper Canadian l i f e . Several t r a v e l l e r s expressed alarm at the i n c u r s i o n of "refuse'' from across the border, who lowered the tone of s o c i e t y w i t h t h e i r u n p r i n c i p l e d , immoral, and c r i m i n a l 57 activities.  Nevertheless, these vigorous Yankees gave  a u s e f u l impetus t o the development of the province. Most of the hotelkeepers, stage-coach d r i v e r s , and- successf u l businessmen were from the United States.  I n the opinion  54 Talbot, P i v e years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 16.. 55 Alexander, T r a n s a t l a n t i c sketches, i n C r a i g , E a r l y t r a v e l l e r s , p. 86. 56 B a s i l H a l l , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, pp. 284-286. 57 MacGregor, B r i t i s h America, v o l . P.. p. 570.  218  of a S c o t t i s h v i s i t o r i n 1833, Upper Canada was indebted ~ . 5 8 to the Americans f o r a l l i t s " a c t i v i t y and refinement". The United States also supplied such i n t e r e s t i n g groups as the Dutch or Germans who s e t t l e d i n the Niagara d i s t r i c t and the neighborhood of B e r l i n ( K i t c h e n e r ) .  Their peculiar  dress and appearance marked them out, even when they were away from t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c houses, churches, and cemeteries.  A t r a v e l l e r i n 1837 noted that they were  "... f a v o u r a b l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r i n d u s t r i o u s , sober, 59 and t h r i v i n g h a b i t s . " Several of them v/ere Dunkers w i t h p a c i f i s t i n c l i n a t i o n s . These "peaceful Dutchmen" were disturbed at m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of unrest i n the p e r i o d j u s t before the R e b e l l i o n . When one of them met a t o u r i n g hunter from Germany c a r r y i n g a gun i n November 1837, he expressed a l a r m . u n t i l assured that 60 the weapon was only f o r sport. Runaway slaves and t h e i r descendants were a small but conspicuous element i n the southwestern d i s t r i c t s .  British  t r a v e l l e r s , most of whom were b i t t e r opponents of slavery, showed great i n t e r e s t i n these people.  At Amherstburg*  58 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 389. 59 Jameson, Winter scenes, vol... 2, p. 101. 60 c F r i e d e r i c h Gerstacker^ , "A German t r a v e l l e r i n Upper Canada i n 1837, t r a n s l a t i o n from the German by the Honourable W i l l i a m Renwick R i d d e l l , " Canadian magazine, v o l . 36 ( A p r i l 1911), p. 552.  219.  opposite D e t r o i t , i n 1822, there was a Negro colony founded 61 by a Captain Stewart, formerly of the East I n d i a S e r v i c e , Several modest but comfortable homesteads i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the province disproved the argument that the slaves ©2 were u n f i t f o r emancipation. Unfortunately, the f r e e Negroes on B r i t i s h s o i l * faced .the problem of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  still  The c h i l d r e n of a  f a m i l y at Chatham i n 1833 had not been to school, "...as the teacher could not r e c e i v e c h i l d r e n of colour without d i s p l e a s i n g h i s employers."  &  Notwithstanding such sources of i r r i t a t i o n , the Negroes were zealous supporters of B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s .  When the-  Niagara f r o n t i e r was the scene of f i g h t i n g i n December 1837, s e v e r a l wagonloads of them came at t h e i r own expense to ask f o r the honor of a t t a c k i n g Navy I s l a n d .  They d i s p l a y e d a  f i e r c e d e s i r e to avenge themselves on the invaders of the 64 B r i t i s h s o i l where they had found refuge. A strange v a r i e t y of people found t h e i r way i n t o the province through d i f f e r e n t channels.  Many of them were  E n g l i s h and I r i s h paupers, the v i c t i m s of e i t h e r misfortune  61 Bigsby, "Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, pp. 264-266. 62 Pergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes,"•'•/pp. 122-123; S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 178. 63 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 202. 64 P. B. Head, Emigrant, pp. 141-142.  220.  or incompetence.  Some q u i c k l y adapted themselves to con-  d i t i o n s and achieved a modest p r o s p e r i t y ; others were obvious m i s f i t s , doomed t o a precarious existence as uns k i l l e d l a b o r e r s . Upper Canada was not a "poor man* s country" i n the eyes of a S c o t t i s h a g r i c u l t u r i s t i n 1833. He maint a i n e d , however, that r u r a l Scots and I r i s h , accustomed t o hardship, could improve t h e i r p o s i t i o n by emigrating, i f 65 they were "sober", "prudent", and " i n d u s t r i o u s " . O f f i c i a l blunders caused considerable s u f f e r i n g . A number of B r i t i s h veterans commuted t h e i r pensions i n 1832 f o r f o u r years' purchase and a grant of one hundred acres i n Upper Canada.  Most of these were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  s e t t l e r s , and the s i t u a t i o n was made worse by the " e r r o r s , ignorance, and remoteness" of the home government.  I n 1837,  many of the s u r v i v o r s were reduced to beggary, others were l i v i n g on r a t i o n s at the remote naval depot of Penetan• -u 66 guishene. Some of the immigrants i n l a t e r years were men of good education and s u b s t a n t i a l resources, such as wealthy farmers,  67 merchants w i t h c a p i t a l , clergymen, and medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Others were of l e s s praiseworthy character, i n c l u d i n g some 65 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 386. 66 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 3, pp. 340-346. 67 P i d l e r , Observations, p. 198.  221. whom the Lieutenant-Governor denounced as " S o c i a l i s t s * Communists, or L i b e r a l s " .  6 8  Conservative r e s i d e n t s feared  i n f i l t r a t i o n by numerous foreigners, of r e p u b l i c a n p r i n c i p l e s . The r e s t r i c t i o n s on the h o l d i n g of land by a l i e n s probably d i v e r t e d many f i n e German, Swiss, and even B r i t i s h immigrants 69  to the western s t a t e s . Whatever the o r i g i n s of the people, they e x h i b i t e d a s t r i k i n g u n i f o r m i t y of character. The m a j o r i t y were d i s t i n guished by t h e i r p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r e q u a l i t y and independence. This a t t i t u d e was r i d i c u l e d by many t r a v e l l e r s from the B r i t i s h I s l e s , who expressed s u r p r i s e a t the speed w i t h which 70  newcomers adopted these "absurd n o t i o n s " .  There was much to  admire, however, i n a s o c i e t y without an a r i s t o c r a c y or extremes of wealth and poverty.  Humble workers acquired a new  sense of t h e i r own importance on being addressed as " s i r , 71 "master", or "gentlemen". The s e t t l e r s who j o i n e d i n the common s t r u g g l e against the wilderness showed a good deal of mutual h e l p f u l n e s s and f r i e n d l i n e s s towards strangers. Farmers troubled by i l l n e s s or other misfortunes could often count on a "bee" by t h e i r neighbors t o t i d e them over.  This generosity  68 F. B. Head, Emigrant, pp. 24-25. 69- Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, p. 162-163. 70 Talbot, F i v e years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 2, pp. 9-11; Howison, Sketches, p. 279. 71 Howison, Sketches, pp. 188-189. 7 2 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 71.  222. was not always a l t r u i s t i c .  A w r i t e r who described the  province i n the years 1832-1834 warned new a r r i v a l s against b u i l d i n g "bees", urging them to "beware of t h i s harum scarum drunken work", which a t t r a c t e d a l l the " i d l e r i f f r a f f ... g e t t i n g drunk, e a t i n g up a l l your pork and f l o u r , and 73 f i g h t i n g l i k e Irishmen ..." Not a l l the farmers were h o s p i t a b l e to strangers. An I r i s h w r i t e r contrasted the Upper Canadians unfavorably w i t h the generous I r i s h peasants,  a s s e r t i n g that the former  received wayfarers g r u f f l y , and expected them to pay j u s t 74 as much as at a tavern.  The i n q u i s i t i v e and communicative  nature of the r e s i d e n t s caused embarrassment to B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r s , who d i s l i k e d being cross-examined about t h e i r  75 personal a f f a i r s .  On the eve of the R e b e l l i o n , the r u r a l  population impressed a B r i t i s h observer as "rough, b l u n t , and u n c u l t i v a t e d " , but "... a brave, an open-hearted, and a h o s p i t a b l e set of people."  76  The emphasis on e q u a l i t y had some unpleasant  aspects.  Canadians were prone to c l a i m t h e i r r i g h t s s t r i d e n t l y and f l a u n t t h e i r independence i n the face of anyone who looked 73 Canada i n the years 1852, 1835, and 1834. Containing important information and i n s t r u c t i o n s to persons intending to emigrate t h i t h e r i n 1835, D u b l i n , P h i l i p Dixon Hardy, 1835, pp. 114-115. 74 Talbot, F i v e years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 2, pp. 62-65. 75 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 54-55. 76 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 71-72.  223. superior.  This was e s p e c i a l l y noticeable amongst B r i t i s h 77 immigrants, who q u i c k l y forgot t h e i r n a t i v e manners. A v e i n of coarseness ran through the whole s o c i e t y . S e t t l e r s of long standing had f a i l e d t o overcome t h e i r " o r i g i n a l depravity",  and showed t h e i r contempt f o r t h e i r " b e t t e r s " 78 by r e f u s i n g to i m i t a t e them i n any way. The emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l i s m f o s t e r e d and avarice as w e l l as rudeness.  selfishness  I t was probably an  exaggeration f o r one t r a v e l l e r t o w r i t e : "Gain i s , i n f a c t , t h e i r god, a t whose shrine they s a c r i f i c e a l l p r i n c i p l e 79 and t r u t h ...."  Nevertheless, sharp p r a c t i c e was common  i n business, whether i t was a merchant charging f o r goods or a laborer v a l u i n g h i s s e r v i c e s .  Avarice and parsimony  8 0  were combined w i t h an i n o r d i n a t e v a n i t y that sometimes l e d 81 to wasteful expenditure on l u x u r i e s . The c l a s s s t r u c t u r e was simple.  Above the mass of  farmers, a r t i s a n s , and laborers was a small group made up of p r o f e s s i o n a l s , merchants, c i v i l and m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s , and members of the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . The o f f i c i a l  77 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 406. 78 Howison, Sketches, pp. 151-152. 79 Talbot, g i v e years' residence,  v o l . 2, pp. 68-69.  80 Domett, Canadian .journal, p. 43. 81 Howison, Sketches, pp. 228-229.  224  c i r c l e s at the c a p i t a l presented an unpleasant  spectacle  to one woman who was forced t o move i n them f o r a w h i l e . In the s p r i n g of 1837, she wrote of Toronto: "We have here a petty colonial oligarchy, a self-constituted aristocracy, based upon nothing r e a l , nor even upon anything  imaginary;  and we have a l l the mutual j e a l o u s y and fear,- and p e t t y gossip, and mutual meddling and mean r i v a l s h i p , which are common i n a small s o c i e t y of which the members are w e l l known to each other ...."  82  I t was d i s c o n c e r t i n g f o r her  to f i n d t h a t , i n the midst of the primeval f o r e s t , "...with an absolute want of the means of the most ordinary mental and moral developement, we have here conventionalism i n 83 i t s most oppressive and r i d i c u l o u s forms." Women of the upper c l a s s were not d i s t i n g u i s h e d f o r t a s t e or refinement.  They showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n reading  or conversation.  Mixed company was often dismal because of 84 the t a c i t u r n i t y and boredom of both sexes. The p o o r l y educated women of the lower c l a s s were rather s i m i l a r but more i n q u i s i t i v e . 85 gaudy apparel.  They were addicted t o pleasure and The status of women was high, because of  t h e i r s c a r c i t y value i n a pioneer community.  Although  82 Jameson, Winter s c e n e s , v o l . 1, p. 98. 83 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 105-107. 84 Talbot, F i v e y e a r s  1  residence, v o l . 2, pp. 23-26.  85 Ibid?*•,vol. 2, p.,.31.  225.  r a t h e r c a r e l e s s of t h e i r persons, they were f a i r house86 keepers, hut they were not expected to work outdoors. Most of the s e t t l e r s  1  wives horn i n the province were con-  tented, hut newcomers found i t hard to adjust to i s o l a t i o n on  and unending  toil.  C h i l d r e n q u i c k l y adopted the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adulthood.  Inured from e a r l y years to strenuous l a b o r , and  exempt from school d i s c i p l i n e , boys asserted t h e i r independence while s t i l l i n t h e i r teens,  l i k e t h e i r e l d e r s , they  i n s i s t e d on complete freedom i n everything, i n c l u d i n g morals. Indeed, the moral character of the Upper Canadians was f a r from exemplary.  An I r i s h observer, accustomed to the  u n a s s a i l a b l e v i r t u e of h i s fellow-countrywomen, was appalled at the "almost u n i v e r s a l demoralization" of women i n the province.  He found that sexual lapses were regarded w i t h  indulgence, and that unmarried mothers enjoyed a respectable status.  C h i l d r e n were so v a l u a b l e to the pioneers that they 89 d i d not worry about t h e i r l e g i t i m a c y . In other ways the r e s i d e n t s f a i l e d to l i v e e d i f y i n g ; lives.  They were n o t o r i o u s f o r p r o f a n i t y and intemperance.  86 Pergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, p. 132. 87 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2» P.. 133. 88 Talbot, P i v e y e a r s  1  residence, v o l . 2, p. 95.  89 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 38-40.  226.  A S c o t t i s h t r a v e l l e r was shocked on h i s f i r s t venture across the border i n 1833: "... I heard more oaths and witnessed more drunk people the f i r s t few days I was i n Canada, than I had met w i t h during my previous wanderings i n the S t a t e s .  1 , 9 0  Drunkenness was a b e s e t t i n g v i c e throughout the province. The men i n p a r t i c u l a r were addicted to a v a r i e t y of d i s t i l l e d l i q u o r s , among which grog and s t r a i g h t aqua v i t a e were 91 favorites.  Some i s o l a t e d s e t t l e r s took to drink to ease  t h e i r hardships and o b l i t e r a t e t h e i r disappointments. Innumerable taverns o f f e r e d cheap refreshment to t h i r s t y wayfarers.  A c u l t i v a t e d woman t r a v e l l e r at Niagara i n 1837  reproached the community w i t h i t s abundance of whisky o u t l e t s 92 and i t s l a c k of b o o k s e l l e r s .  Although l i c e n s e d premises  were ubiquitous, many grocery stores were r e a l l y d r i n k i n g houses as w e l l , bootlegging strong l i q u o r to a l l comers, 93 i n c l u d i n g Indians. Gluttony was another popular indulgence w i t h l e s s damaging consequences.  Pood i n the backwoods was coarse  and p l a i n , but u s u a l l y p l e n t i f u l .  New immigrants l i v e d  on s a l t pork and bread at f i r s t , but soon f a r e d much b e t t e r 94 than the corresponding c l a s s i n B r i t a i n . A Canadian 90 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 389. . i 91 Talbot, F i v e years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 28. 92 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 80-81. 93 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 146-147. 94 Howison, Sketches, p. 270.  227.  b r e a k f a s t might c o n s i s t of f r i e d pork, honeycomb, s a l t e d salmon, pound cake, p i c k l e d cucumbers, stewed chickens, apple t a r t s , maple-molasses, pease-pudding, gingerbread, 95 and sauerkraut. This gargantuan menu was repeated at ]-  dinner and supper.  To wash i t down, there were many ingenious  s u b s t i t u t e s f o r t e a and c o f f e e . Beech c h i p s , strawberry leaves, spearmint, s a r s a p a r i l l a , and b i r c h bark often took the place of tea; peas, burnt f l o u r , and toasted b a r l e y 96 made acceptable c o f f e e . T r a v e l l e r s were sometimes regaled w i t h such b i l l s of f a r e as venison steaks, f r i e d f i s h , c o f f e e , hotcakes, cheese, and whisky punch. 97 e n t l y cooked.  Supplies v/ere u s u a l l y l a v i s h but i n d i f f e r -  During the w i n t e r , town d w e l l e r s might run  short of f r e s h food, and be f o r c e d to l i v e on s a l t e d prov i s i o n s , u n l e s s they owned farms from which they could draw produce. The c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e i n Upper Canada put a premium on e a r l y marriage.  No c o n s i d e r a t i o n of fortune or p a r e n t a l  r e s t r a i n t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h these unions.  Men v/ere anxious  to get a helpmeet as soon as they were twenty-one, so that 95 Talbot, F i v e years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 67. 96 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 322-323. 97 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 75-77. 9 8  I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 267-269.  228.  they could operate a farm.  As a r e s u l t , few women were s t i l l  s i n g l e at twenty-five, when they were considered no longer 99 desirable. There were some p e c u l i a r customs connected w i t h courtship.  One w r i t e r described a "sparking f r o l i c " very l i k e  the p r a c t i c e of "bundling" i n other s o c i e t i e s .  The couple  were l e f t alone together f o r a whole n i g h t to f i n d out i f they were c o m p a t i b l e . W e d d i n g s could be performed by a magistrate on three weeks' n o t i c e i f there was no c l e r g y man w i t h i n eighteen m i l e s . and A f t e r the wedding, husband^wife might become involved i n i n f i d e l i t i e s without r e c r i m i n a t i o n s .  Many husbands were  henpecked by t h e i r wives, who enjoyed a p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n because of the surplus of males and the absolute need of 102  a competent housewife to make a farm prosper. As i n Lower Canada, the winter was the" time f o r recreation.  B r i t i s h v i s i t o r s were disappointed at the l i m i t e d  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f i e l d sports, p a r t i c u l a r l y a n g l i n g . The men spent a good d e a l of time at d r i n k i n g and gambling. Boxing of a very "rough and tumble" k i n d was popular. 99 Talbot, F i v e years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 2, p. 26. 100 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 35-36. 101 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 413-414. 102 I b i d . , v o l . 2, p. 49. (  10'3 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 58-60.  in?  229.  The sexes j o i n e d i n simple country dances at frequent subscription-halls.  1 0 4  One of the few customs imported  from,French Canada was the New Years' levee.  At Toronto  i n 1837 t h i s seemed a perfunctory and meaningless duty to a woman whose o f f i c i a l connections compelled her to receive t o t a l strangers."'"  05  The E n g l i s h spoken i n Upper Canada had some p e c u l i a r characteristics.  A B r i t i s h clergyman i n 1832 found the  old-country d i a l e c t s strong, i n contrast to the u n i f o r m i t y 106 of speech throughout the United States.  Many of the  expressions noted were American, such as " c l e v e r " f o r "wealthy",  "ugly" f o r " i r r i t a b l e " , and "most righteous 107  b u i l d i n g " f o r "good house".  E q u a l i t a r i a n f e e l i n g must  have i n s p i r e d euphemisms l i k e " i t i n e r a n t merchant" f o r "pedlar".  1 0 8  T r a v e l l e r s were hard put to determine the o r i g i n s of popular character i n Upper Canada. One B r i t i s h v i s i t o r i n 1827 reported that everywhere the people spoke, looked, 109 and acted l i k e Englishmen. Ten years l a t e r , a German 104 Talbot, F i v e years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 21-23. 105 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 18-19. 106 F i d l e r , Observations, p.  195.  107 Talbot, F i v e years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 56. 108 I b i d . , v o l . 1, p.  168.  109 B a s i l H a l l , Travels, v o l . 1, p.  265.  230.  thought that the attachment of the E n g l i s h , Scots, andI r i s h t o t h e i r o l d customs made a great d i f f e r e n c e between Canada and the United S t a t e s .  1 1 0  According to a B r i t i s h  observer who was at Toronto i n 1837 and 1838, the n a t i v e born had "... y e t no e x c l u s i v e character, but e x h i b i t i n t h e i r speech, h a b i t s , manners, and demeanour, a strange admixture of E n g l i s h a r i s t o c r a t i c f e e l i n g w i t h democratic sensibilities.  1 , 1 1 1  Other w r i t e r s emphasized the American i n f l u e n c e s that sharply d i s t i n g u i s h e d the province from Lower Canada.  The  contrast between the common people of the two provinces was summed up by an E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r i n terms t h a t r e f l e c t e d u n f l a t t e r i n g l y on Upper Canada: The Upper Canadians., who are mostly Yankee-bred," are the very Antipodes of the Lower, mostly Frenchbred. The~Upper i s s t i f f , and b o o r i s h , i f not- impert i n e n t , sturdy and shows l i t t l e respect of persons. The Lower is. smooth, obsequious, l i v e l y , p o l i t e . Both w i l l probably cheat you, but the Upper t o a greater extent and f a r more audaciously. They have one c o i n c i d e n c e — b o t h s p i t and smoke; and i t i s hard t o say which I s the b e t t e r hawker. I n the Lower country, t h e i r manners and customs are simple, i n the Upper somewhate r s i o j coarse. The s e c u r i t y and confidence w i t h respect to property a r i s e s i n the Lower country from t h e i r honest and p r i m i t i v e character, i n the Upper from the fewness of i n h a b i t a n t s . The Lower"is a quiet s e t t l e d , contented race, the Upper a b u s t l i n g , changing, money-getting, improving one. I n t h e i r persons the Lower are neat and c l e a n , the Upper d i r t y and r a g g e d . 1 1 2  110 Gerstacker, "German t r a v e l l e r " , pp. 551-552. 111 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 45. 112 Domett, Canadian j o u r n a l , p. 47.  231. A growing population provided the base f o r an  expansion  of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l amenities in-Upper Canada after-1814. In many respects, however, the province d i d not catch up w i t h Lower Canada u n t i l much l a t e r .  This was l a r g e l y due to  the absence of large c i t i e s and l o n g - s e t t l e d r u r a l communities. Housing i n the backwoods of the west was much cruder than i n the seigneuries along the Lower S t . Lawrence.  The  f i r s t home of many s e t t l e r s was a rough l o g "shanty", cons i s t i n g of a s i n g l e room.  When p r o p e r l y caulked and heated  by a r o a r i n g f i r e t h i s simple s t r u c t u r e provided adequate s h e l t e r even i n severe w i n t e r s .  As soon as p o s s i b l e , the  s e t t l e r b u i l t a cabin of rough or squared logs that contained bedrooms u p s t a i r s .  This would house h i s f a m i l y  comfortably f o r s e v e r a l years.  Frame houses of painted  boards looked neater, but they were expensive and not p r a c t i c a b l e i n the bush. The i n t e r i o r s of the houses were u s u a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o two or more rooms by board p a r t i t i o n s .  Timber from the  c l e a r i n g s provided m a t e r i a l f o r the crude f u r n i t u r e , which often c o n s i s t e d of no more than beds, t a b l e s , and benches. A stove and feather beds completed the e s s e n t i a l s f o r pioneer  housekeeping." " 1  14  113 F i d l e r , Observations, pp. 224-225. 114 Talbot, F i v e years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 101.  232.  Some of the more prosperous and imaginative r e s i d e n t s b u i l t elaborate dwellings and f u r n i s h e d them w i t h imported objects.  Pew of these s t r u c t u r e s were notable f o r s t y l e  and appropriateness.  One praiseworthy exception was Stamford  Park, near Lundy's Lane.  A woman of c u l t i v a t e d t a s t e s  described i t i n 1837 as "... the only place I saw i n Upper Canada combining our ideas of an elegant, w e l l - f u r n i s h e d E n g l i s h v i l l a and ornamented grounds, w i t h some of the grandest and w i l d e s t features of the f o r e s t s c e n e . "  1 1 5  Wood was the common m a t e r i a l f o r houses even i n the c i t i e s , except where l o c a l stone was used, as a t Kingston. I n e v i t a b l y , f i r e s were frequent.  During the winter of  1836-1837, there were one or two alarms each week i n Toronto. Many r e s i d e n t s considered any f i r e a p u b l i c b e n e f i t , because i t ensured the replacement of wood by b r i c k .  T 1 Pi  The province was g e n e r a l l y healthy compared to many p a r t s of the United States. districts.  M a l a r i a was worst i n the western  There was a p a r t i c u l a r l y severe v i s i t a t i o n i n 117  1819 along the shores of-Lake E r i e . i n l a t e r years, the ravages of fever decreased among "longtime r e s i d e n t s , although 118  newcomers were s t i l l s u s c e p t i b l e .  115 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, p. 48. 116 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 108-111. 117 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, pp. 250-252. 118 B a s i l H a l l , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, p. 296.  233.  Upper Canada d i d not escape the c h o l e r a epidemic of 1832.  An E n g l i s h clergyman near York reported t h a t the  townspeople were l e s s subject to panic than those of American c i t i e s under the same c o n d i t i o n s . Instead of seeking s a f e t y i n f l i g h t , people of means supplied medical and monetary help to the s u f f e r e r s .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , some doctors  added to the death t o l l by an unwise choice of remedies or by assuring the p u b l i c that the disease was not c o n t a g i o u s . ' 11  M e d i c a l standards i n . r u r a l areas were a t a low l e v e l i n the e a r l y years.  A t r a v e l l e r i n the settlements along  the Thames R i v e r i n 1818 was d i s t r e s s e d by the conduct of a doctor c a l l e d i n t o t r e a t a rheumatic woman.  The p h y s i -  c i a n administered "curious remedies" i n a "slapdash" manner, 120p l a y i n g on the c r e d u l i t y of h i s p a t i e n t .  The number of  q u a l i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s increased w i t h the growth of population.  I n 1832, the towns and v i l l a g e s were w e l l supplied  w i t h doctors, and competent ones could earn s u b s t a n t i a l 121  incomes.  x  The insane wandered about uncared f o r or were confined in j a i l s .  One w r i t e r reported i n 1837 that a maniac had been 122  chained up i n the Niagara j a i l f o r four years.  These  j a i l s were often g r o s s l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . A S c o t t i s h v i s i t o r 119 E i d l e r , Observations, pp. 164, 166-167. 120 Howison, Sketches, pp. 209-212.. 121 E i d l e r , Observations, pp. 188-189. 122 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 166-167.  234. to Niagara i n 1818 found the c e l l s open to the p u b l i c view. Debtors had outside windows and f i r e p l a c e s , but c r i m i n a l s had only an opening i n the door and a view-of the stove. The arrangements were i n miserable c o n t r a s t w i t h p r i s o n s 123 i n the United States.  P r i v a t e c h a r i t y was a c t i v e i n  p r o v i d i n g f o r orphans, such as those who had l o s t t h e i r parents from c h o l e r a .  1 2 4  The circumstances of l i f e i n the province were not conducive to educational advancement.  Parents were more  i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n becoming p r o f i c i e n t at woodc u t t i n g or spinning than at any "book-learned  skill",  Several "I  OK  members of the l e g i s l a t u r e were unable to read and w r i t e . The d i s t r i c t seminaries e s t a b l i s h e d under a law of  1807  could not a t t r a c t teachers at an annual s a l a r y of one hundred pounds.  This was quite inadequate i n the opinion of an  I r i s h immigrant who had himself experienced the hardship and poverty of teaching i n the backwoods.  The  situation  improved over the years, but i t was s t i l l u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n 1837.  At that time there was an attempt to devote the  revenue from the c l e r g y reserves;, to elementary  education.  123 Duncan, T r a v e l s , v o l . 2, pp. 107-108. 124 P i d l e r , Observations, p.  164.  125 Talbot, g i v e .years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 116-117. 126 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 121-122.  235.  A sympathetic observer thought the i l l i t e r a t e p e t i t i o n e r s deserved p r a i s e r a t h e r than r i d i c u l e f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s to benefit their children.  ^  O f f i c i a l n i g g a r d l i n e s s caused the c l o s i n g of s e v e r a l schools f o r want of masters.  During a t r i p through the  western d i s t r i c t s i n 1837, a woman t r a v e l l e r found the teachers to be Scots or Americans t o t a l l y u n f i t f o r t h e i r tasks.  Competent men would not enter a c a l l i n g i n which  they were "111'fed, i l l clothed, i l l p a i d , or not p a i d at a l l  ,.~"  x28  As a r e s u l t , many elementary teachers were  American "adventurers" of i n d i f f e r e n t character and republ i c a n sentiments who had an u n s e t t l i n g e f f e c t on t h e i r 129 pupils. towns.  There were few women teachers, except i n the 130  Secondary and higher education was more impressive than elementary schooling. Upper Canada College and other boarding schools provided f a c i l i t i e s f o r those who could a f f o r d them.  When h a l f the lands granted f o r f r e e grammar  schools were t r a n s f e r r e d t o the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y i n 1837, s e v e r a l members of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly protested.  127 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, p. 34. 128 I b i d . , v o l . 2, p. 217. 129 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . , 2 , p. 110. 130 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, p. 218.  236.  They argued that f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s should not be confined to one l a r g e establishment "... too expensive f o r the popula t i o n and wants of the c o u n t r y . "  1 3 1  For many years c u l t u r e i n the province lagged behind that i n Lower Canada and the United States. By 1832, however, a B r i t i s h observer n o t i c e d " a s t o n i s h i n g improvement 132 i n things of the mind.  The i s o l a t e d and p r i m i t i v e l i f e  of many s e t t l e r s m i l i t a t e d against i n t e l l e c t u a l advancement. Unfortunately, the c a p i t a l d i d not s e t a good example.  The  f r i v o l i t y of the populace moved a newcomer to remark i n 1837 " I t i s curious enough to see how q u i c k l y a new f a s h i o n , or a new f o l l y , i s imported from the o l d country, and w i t h what d i f f i c u l t y and delay a new i d e a f i n d s i t s way i n t o the heads of the people, or a new book i n t o t h e i r hands." Books were scarce and l i t t l e valued i n most quarters. Even educated people might never read a book a f t e r l e a v i n g 134 school. By 1837 there were two b o o k s e l l e r s i n Toronto, mainly supplied from B u f f a l o , but t h e i r goods were expensive and new works took about two years to reach the c a p i t a l .  1 "^5  131 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 159-161. 132 F i d l e r , Observations, p. 193. 133 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, p. 98. 134 Talbot, F i v e years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 118-119. 135 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 270-271.  237.  Although, a few i n d i v i d u a l s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , and p u b l i c o f f i c e s had f a i r l i b r a r i e s , p u b l i c l i b r a r y s e r v i c e was l a c k i n g .  Army o f f i c e r s were r e l u c t a n t to move from  Lower to Upper Canada because they would be deprived of mental  occupation.  Newspapers made up f o r some of the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n l i t e r a r y fare.  The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of l o c a l j o u r n a l s supplied  a v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l r e f l e c t i n g diverse p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s viewpoints.  Even the German-speaking community  issued i t s own organ at B e r l i n .  Papers from Lower Canada  and the United States c i r c u l a t e d widely.  The volume of 13  c i r c u l a t i o n was s u r p r i s i n g i n a province w i t h many i l l i t e r a t e s . A good deal of the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of t h i s medium was due to the passionate d i s c u s s i o n of p o l i t i c a l issues that characteri z e d most e d i t o r i a l w r i t i n g . Upper Canada had no a r t i s t i c objects to compare w i t h those of the older province.  I t s b u i l d i n g s were f o r the  most part purely f u n c t i o n a l and b u i l t of ephemeral m a t e r i a l s . Such examples of a r c h i t e c t u r e as d i d a t t r a c t n o t i c e were secular rather than e c c l e s i a s t i c a l . Toronto had a large b r i c k market b u i l d i n g of oblong shape on the waterfront.  136 Preston, Three y e a r s  An E n g l i s h v i s i t o r i n 1832 thought  1  residence, v o l . 2, pp.245-246.  137 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 271-273. 138 Preston, Three y e a r s  1  residence, v o l . 2, p. 243.  238.  i t b e t t e r than anything of a s i m i l a r nature he had seen i n the United S t a t e s .  The great source of l o c a l p r i d e ,  however, was the h a l l of the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l .  One of  the audience at a ceremony theie i n 1837 represented i t as a "... spacious and l o f t y room, w i t h a splendid throne and the u s u a l s u p e r f l u i t y of g i l d i n g and v a r n i s h ; yet the i n t e r i o r decorations (the admiration of the people here) are i n the v i l e s t p o s s i b l e t a s t e ...."  1 4 0  Other b u i l d i n g s i n the province were notable f o r b i z a r r e r i e r a t h e r than a r t i s t i c f i t n e s s .  London boasted  a courthouse modelled on Malahide C a s t l e i n I r e l a n d . A t r a v e l l e r who a r r i v e d there i n 1834 found h i s f i r s t s i g h t of the town t o be "... a stuccoed Gothic b u i l d i n g of an oblong form, c a s t e l l a t e d , w i t h small towers at the c o r n e r s . Occasionally, simple designs struck a note of good t a s t e . The Brock Monument at Queenston, erected i n 1824 and destroyed i n 1840, was a p l a i n stone p i l l a r quite s u i t e d to 142 i t s function. The other a r t s were i n a sad s t a t e .  P o l k music played  no s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n the l i f e of the people.  The Anglican  church c h o i r at Toronto had the good fortune i n 1837 to  139 F i d l e r , Observations, p. 155. 140 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 151-152. 141 Domett, Canadian .journal, p. 49. 142 I b i d . . p. 26 and n. 19.  1 , 1 4 1  239.  r e c e i v e some d r i l l i n g from a musician.  Archdeacon Strachan  was at t h i s time s o l i c i t i n g funds f o r an organ, but one of h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s thought a s i n g i n g school would be a more 143 useful project.  The outlook was dreary f o r any l o v e r  of the f i n e a r t s . One of the sharpest contrasts between Upper and Lower Canada was i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s s i t u a t i o n s .  The s e t t l e r s  of the western province were of d i v e r s e o r i g i n s and b e l i e f s ; they l i v e d i n widely scattered communities; and they were influenced by e q u a l i t a r i a n , i n d i v i d u a l i s t , and m a t e r i a l i s t concepts.  The denominations could not keep up w i t h the  movements of t h e i r members, w i t h the r e s u l t that many s e t t l e ments were deprived of s p i r i t u a l guidance f o r a long time a f t e r t h e i r foundation. Under these circumstances, i t was not s u r p r i s i n g that many persons grew i n d i f f e r e n t to r e l i g i o n and c a r e l e s s of moral standards. T r a v e l l e r s i n 1818 and the years immed i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g found a good deal of i n f i d e l i t y and impiety.  Sabbath-breaking, p r o f a n i t y , and lack of decency  bore witness to the departure from C h r i s t i a n behavior. An I r i s h immigrant changed h i s e a r l y prepossessions i n favor of the people when he discovered them to be "depraved", 144 " p r o f l i g a t e " , and "graceless". Even staunch Methodists 143 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, p. 274. 144 Talbot, F i v e years* residence, v o l . 2, p. 125.  240.  who came to the province soon l o s t t h e i r u p r i g h t character 145 and took up Canadian p r a c t i c e s . Such r e l i g i o n as d i d survive was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by "minute sectarianism, and the s p i r i t of r e l i g i o u s independence . . . . dominance.  ,|146  No church could aspire t o numerical  Roman C a t h o l i c i s m had no more than a f r a c t i o n  of i t s i n f l u e n c e i n the neighboring province. h o l d was amongst the French-speaking  I t s strong-  s e t t l e r s of the D e t r o i t  R i v e r , who displayed t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l deference and sub147 missiveness towards the c l e r g y . Indians had considerable success.  Missionary work w i t h the A P r o t e s t a n t woman  observer i n 1837 contrasted the Roman C a t h o l i c e f f o r t s f a v o r a b l y w i t h those of the i n d i f f e r e n t Anglicans and Presbyterians and the f a n a t i c a l Methodists.  She pronounced  t h e i r n a t i v e converts "... i n appearance, dress, i n t e l l i g e n c e , industry, and general c i v i l i z a t i o n , superior to a l l the others."  1 4 8  The Anglican church s t i r r e d up great resentment by i t s attempts to maintain i t s ascendancy.  The Clergy Reserves  intended f o r the sole b e n e f i t of the e s t a b l i s h e d churGh remained a major p o l i t i c a l issue u n t i l a f t e r 1838. were numerous but by no means predominant.  Anglicans  Some of the  145 Talbot, F i v e years' residence, v o l . 2» p.. .130-, 132. 146 Preston, Three years'residence, v o l . 2, p. 114. 147 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 280-281. 148 I b i d . , v o l . 3, pp. 295-297.  241.  church, members j o i n e d the Methodists f o r want of a m i n i s t e r of t h e i r own denomination i n t h e i r l o c a l i t y . stringency prevented the maintenance  Financial  1 4 9  of a clergyman i n many  r u r a l p a r i s h e s , since the stipend of one hundred pounds p a i d i n 1837 was inadequate f o r a man who had t o t r a v e l e x t e n s i v e l y on horseback.  A m i n i s t e r needed to c u l t i v a t e 150  a farm or keep a store to pay h i s expenses. The i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n s of P r e s b y t e r i a n i s m were a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the r e l i g i o u s l i f e of the province. Some of the groups that had s p l i t o f f from the main body adopted a d i f f e r e n t approach.  A Reformed P r e s b y t e r i a n who  denounced Romanism, episcopacy, and the k i r k at s e r v i c e s near Toronto i n 1832 enjoyed great success because he impressed the people as a p l a i n man "... j u s t l i k e one of 151 themselves." This "democratic" a t t i t u d e may have been responsible f o r the remarkable p o p u l a r i t y of the Methodists.  I n 1818,  t h i s denomination was a c t i v e i n s e v e r a l of the western d i s t r i c t s . A B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r who met some of them a t St. Catharines i n that year considered that "... they c a r r y 152  t h e i r r e l i g i o u s mania to an immoderate height. """•  149 P i d l e r , Observations, p. 134. 150 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 312-313. 151 P i d l e r , Observations, p. 186. 152 Howison, Sketches, p. 150.  He  242. reproached them w i t h condemning dancing and c a r d - p l a y i n g "... w h i l e t h e i r own lives-we're, i n many instances, one continued outrage against decency, decorum, and v i r t u e . "  153  Methodist preachings were deeply d i s t u r b i n g to B r i t i s h and I r i s h observers unaccustomed to extravagant emotion i n religious services.  One newcomer who attended a house  meeting i n the Talbot Settlement,in 1818 was amazed at the mad a n t i c s of the people as the m i n i s t e r ' s prayers b u i l t up 154 i n c r e a s i n g excitement. Several v i s i t o r s were l e d to i n v e s t i g a t e "camp-meetings" because of the unsavory n o t o r i e t y that they had achieved through the l u r i d accounts of c e r t a i n t r a v e l l e r s i n the United States. A B r i t i s h naval o f f i c e r who attended one of these " f i e l d preachings" near Cobourg i n J u l y 1827  found  l i t t l e to c r i t i c i z e i n the simple, unaffected sermon that was w e l l r e c e i v e d by a quiet congregation.  This author  thought that d e r i s i o n was out of place i n d e s c r i b i n g such meetings, which f i l l e d the need f o r r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s i n 155 i s o l a t e d communities. Other observers brought back l e s s complimentary  reports.  At a meeting near St. Thomas i n 1833, the "impassioned" prayers of the m i n i s t e r caused many of h i s audience to 153 Howison, Sketches, p. 150. 154 Talbot, F i v e years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 150-152. 155 B a s i l H a l l , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, pp. 275-277.  243. bellow and clap as i f i n t r a n s p o r t s , while others whined and wrung t h e i r hands.  Many bystanders  obviously came to  look on or s c o f f . Although the proceedings were f o r e i g n to the P r e s b y t e r i a n t r a i n i n g of a Scotsman who was present, 156 he detected no i m p r o p r i e t i e s . A woman who toured the same area i n 1837 was l e s s r e s t r a i n e d i n her c r i t i c i s m .  She declared unequivocally:  "Nothing, b e l i e v e me, that you may have heard or read of the f r o n t i e r d i s o r d e r s of the Methodist l o v e - f e a s t s and 1 57 camp-meetings i n Upper Canada can exceed the t r u t h ...." Nevertheless, she pointed out that the Methodists were often the only r e l i g i o u s teachers, administering s p i r i t u a l comfort while church and government were q u a r r e l l i n g about tenets 158 and methods i n s t e a d of c a r i n g f o r t h e i r f l o c k s . The i t i n e r a n t preachers who c a r r i e d Methodism i n t o remote areas v/ere often Americans suspected of a n t i - B r i t i a h and r e p u b l i c a n sentiments.  One w r i t e r asserted that some  of them were l e s s concerned w i t h the preaching the Gospel 1 59 than w i t h smuggling contraband. The p o l i t i c a l tendencies  156 S h i r r e f f , Tour, pp. 184-188. 157 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 218-219. 158 Loc. c i t . 159 Talbot, P i v e years' residence, v o l . 2, .pp.. .146-147.  244 of these preachers were democratic, and t h e i r support of W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie caused them to he accused of subversion." ' 1  00  As vigorous opponents of the e s t a b l i s h e d church  and as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a b r o a d l y popular i n s t i t u t i o n they were n a t u r a l l y , unsympathetic t o the a u t h o r i t i e s . Several other denominations claimed adherents i n Upper Canada.  German Mennonites s e t t l e d i n considerable numbers,  and the Moravian Church had an important m i s s i o n at an Indian settlement near Chatham. to time i n v a r i o u s centres.  Quakers appeared from time  An e c c e n t r i c Quaker sect known  as the "Children of L i g h t " b u i l t a remarkable wooden temple three storeys h i g h at Hope or Davidstown (now Sharon), near Newmarket.  Under the leadership of David W i l l s o n  ("King David"), they prospered f o r s e v e r a l years by shipping t h e i r produce t o market i n common, but they d i d not form a communistic s o c i e t y .  W i l l s o n espoused vague p r i n c i p l e s  of h o s t i l i t y t o creeds and p r e l a t e s .  162  The b e w i l d e r i n g v a r i e t y of r e l i g i o u s groups was n a t u r a l l y unwelcome t o supporters of a church establishment. In many ways the s i t u a t i o n was a r e g r e t t a b l e contrast to the order and decorum of e c c l e s i a s t i c a l matters i n Lower  160 F i d l e r , Observations, p. 124. 161 S h i r r e f f , Tour, pp. 106-108, 162 F i d l e r , Observations, pp. 187-188.  245.  .Canada. Yet, from another viewpoint, t h i s d i v e r s i t y was welcome evidence of v i t a l i t y .  Even i t s extravagances bore  witness to the i n t e n s i t y of s t r i v i n g f o r s p i r i t u a l s a t i s faction.  The mental and moral struggles of the people h e l d  the promise of advancement i n many d i r e c t i o n s w i t h an i n crease i n economic and educational o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The economy of Upper Canada suffered temporarily from the War of 1812.  M i l i t i a duty took men away from t h e i r  farms, and some settlements were damaged during the h o s t i l i ties. the  The most serious setback was the sudden c o l l a p s e of  c r e d i t boom that had been stimulated by m i l i t a r y expen-  diture. the  Debt remained a heavy burden on most c l a s s e s of  population f o r s e v e r a l years a f t e r the peace. A number of t r a v e l l e r s drew u n f l a t t e r i n g comparisons  between Upper Canada and a d j o i n i n g p a r t s of the United States. In 1818, the Niagara-Lake E r i e F r o n t i e r e x h i b i t e d the f o l l o w i n g contrast to an observer on the Canadian side: "There, b u s t l e , improvement,  and animation, f i l l every  s t r e e t ; here, dulness ^ s i c - j , decay, and apathy, discourage enterprise and repress exertion."' ' 1  64  Although the province had advanced n o t i c e a b l y by 1833, a S c o t t i s h v i s i t o r considered the causes of economic  163 Howison, Sketches, pp. 94-96. 164 I b i d . , pp. 130-131.  activity  246.  to "be a r t i f i c i a l .  He p r e d i c t e d a c e s s a t i o n of progress  w i t h the end of the numerous a n n u i t i e s enjoyed by half-pay o f f i c e r s , and the completion of the expensive and  unproductive  p u b l i c works undertaken i n recent years. Just before the R e b e l l i o n , there was a good deal of discontent over the depressed state of the economy.  The  government was widely c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s f a i l u r e to encourage i n d u s t r y arid i t s mismanagement of the p u b l i c lands.  A  B r i t i s h r e s i d e n t of Toronto described c o n d i t i o n s f o r c i b l y by w r i t i n g that a v i s i t to the United States and r e t u r n gave the f e e l i n g that "... you have plunged unconsciously from a stagnant pond i n t o a v i v i f y i n g stream, and tumbled 16 V from the l a t t e r back again i n t o a miry slough." Settlement proceeded w i t h v a r y i n g success i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the province.  The eastern d i s t r i c t s expanded  northwards from the o l d L o y a l i s t townships along the St. Lawrence.  Glengarry was s e t t l e d by Highlanders, who made  i n d i f f e r e n t farmers, and f r e q u e n t l y p r e f e r r e d t o spend t h e i r 168 time as hunters and lumbermen. Farther west, the w e l l - c u l t i v a t e d  lands near the Bay  of Q.uinte' offered a t t r a c t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s to immigrants  165 S h i r r e f f , Tour, pp. 416-417. 166 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp.  viii-x.  167 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 39, 168 Pergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, p. 85.  247  w i t h means who d i d not wish t o rough i t i n the h u s h .  1 6 9  Prom t h i s area to the head of Lake Ontario was the scene of the most spectacular growth i n l a t e r years.  A f t e r the -•  War of 1812, much of the land was unpromising hemlock swamp 170 and pine barren.  By 1831, the country near Toronto was  s e t t l i n g r a p i d l y , and contained many f l o u r i s h i n g farms. A S c o t t i s h observer remarked e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y : "Comfort and 171 c h e e r f u l i n d u s t r y seemed everywhere to r e i g n ...." This development was not always welcome t o the o r i g i n a l homesteaders.  One old-timer lamented i n 1832 that E n g l i s h  farmers w i t h c a p i t a l were buying farms along Yonge S t r e e t  1 7P  and d i s p l a c i n g the pioneer f a m i l i e s . On the eve of the R e b e l l i o n , the area between Toronto and Lake Simcoe con173 veyed an a i r of " p r o s p e r i t y and s e c u r i t y " . Another prosperous d i s t r i c t was the Niagara P e n i n s u l a . As e a r l y as 1815 i t s c u l t i v a t e d and s e t t l e d appearance d i s tinguished i t from the r e s t of the province.  One B r i t i s h  o f f i c e r saw considerable resemblance to Europe, and declared that the r i d e along the Niagara R i v e r r e c a l l e d the banks  169 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, p. 85. 170 F r a n c i s H a l l , T r a v e l s , p. 213. 171 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, p. 117. 17 2 F i d l e r , Observations, pp. 158-159. 173 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 3, p. 355.  248.  of the Garonne.  Later w r i t e r s found the wide expanse of  improved land a, welcome change from scattered c l e a r i n g s and unbroken f o r e s t .  In 1822,  an E n g l i s h v i s i t o r reported proudly  that, while the eastern bank was s t i l l uncleared, the Canadian shore "... blooms from end to end w i t h orchards, and 1  hamlets and ornamental residences."  farms,  75  The western d i s t r i c t s a t t r a c t e d i n c r e a s i n g numbers of immigrants a f t e r 1814.  White s e t t l e r s took up land beside  the Indians on the Grand R i v e r and pushed westwards along the Lake E r i e shore.  The systematic settlement that took  place under the p a t e r n a l s u p e r v i s i o n of Colonel Thomas Talbot f i l l e d up a l a r g e area around St. Thomas and provided 176 i t w i t h a network of roads. The Canada Company and other p r o p r i e t o r s were respons i b l e f o r extensive development f u r t h e r i n l a n d , where Guelph and Gait were centres f o r the organized occupation of privately-owned lands.  A Scottish a g r i c u l t u r i s t looking f o r  farming o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n 1831 was " d e l i g h t e d " w i t h the superior husbandry of the Dutch s e t t l e r s i n Waterloo  174 S i r George H e a d , A f f o r e s t scenes and i n c i d e n t s , i n the w i l d s of North America; being a d i a r y of a winter's route from H a l i f a x to the Canadas, and during four months' residence i n the woods on the borders of Lakes Huron and Simcoe; 2d ed., London, John Murray, 1838, pp. 331-332. 175 Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 2, p. 2. 176 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, p.  177.  249.  Township.  177  The London d i s t r i c t appealed to men of good  f a m i l y and education, w i t h considerable c a p i t a l , many of 178 whom s e t t l e d near Woodstock. In the extreme west progress was slow.  A critical  v i s i t o r to Goderich i n 1833 found the "coarse rawness" of the l o c a l i t y "disagreeable". He pronounced the farmhouses i n the Huron Tract "... often quite equal i n wretchedness to the worst hovels of I r e l a n d and Scotland ....  1,179  Conditions were a l i t t l e b e t t e r i n the o l d settlements along the D e t r o i t R i v e r , which were g r a d u a l l y spreading up the Thames.  The i n h a b i t a n t s , mainly French Canadians and  L o y a l i s t s , seemed u n e n t e r p r i s i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y when compared to the neighboring Americans who were opening up the Michigan shore.  1 8 0  The nature of settlement up to 1838 was such that i t had "length, without adequate depth", resembling "... a long, s t r a g g l i n g l i n e of i n f a n t r y , i n some p a r t s s c a r c e l y two deep, and exposed, consequently, to d i s r u p t i o n at almost any p o i n t , without the power of c l o s i n g u p . "  1 8 1  177 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, pp. 281-282. 178 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 123-124. 179 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 176. 180 I b i d . , pp. 208-209. 181 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 33.  250.  Government p o l i c y w i t h regard to land settlement came under constant c r i t i c i s m from "both r e s i d e n t s and o u t s i d e r s . Some persons w i t h experience  of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of obtain-  ing grants advised immigrants to buy land p r i v a t e l y rather than go to the trouble of p e t i t i o n i n g the a u t h o r i t i e s and paying exorbitant f e e s .  1 8 2  United Empire L o y a l i s t r i g h t s  were considered cheap and safe purchases f o r newcomers 183 wary of glib-tongued speculators. Outside observers were d i v i d e d over the merits of the Canada Company.  One view was that i t contributed l a r g e l y  to the welfare of the province by b u i l d i n g roads, b r i d g e s , and m i l l s that the government and i n d i v i d u a l s would not or 184 could not undertake.  On the other hand, the company was  c r i t i c i z e d f o r encouraging s e t t l e r s to buy land beyond t h e i r means and saddling them w i t h a c r i p p l i n g load of debt. Moreover, the v i r t u a l monopoly h e l d by the company i n some areas created the danger of improper p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e 1A5  through the i n s t a l l a t i o n of i t s "minions" i n p u b l i c o f f i c e s . Land p r i c e s rose r a p i d l y during the 1830's, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the towns.  The "extravagantly high" f i g u r e s  182 Talbot, F i v e years' residence, v o l . 2, p. 183 Canada i n the years 1832,  1833,  and 1834, p. 52.  184 Eergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, pp. 271-272. 185 S h i r r e f f , Tour, pp. 175-176.  174.  251.  discouraged many immigrants, who p r e f e r r e d the low f i x e d 186  p r i c e s of the United States p u b l i c lands.  The w a s t e f u l  system of land grants, coupled w i t h Clergy Reserves and concessions to great landholders, appeared a great obstacle , improvement. . . 187 to The farmers of Upper Canada were not noted f o r t h e i r competence.  Most of t h e i r energies were absorbed by the  struggle t o c l e a r the f o r e s t , so that they were content to wrest a l i v i n g from the s o i l by the crudest methods. They were understandably eager to get r i d of the t r e e s that hampered t h e i r e f f o r t s .  Europeans were shocked at the whole-  sale d e s t r u c t i o n wrought by the pioneers.  An Irishwoman  summed up the general a t t i t u d e s u c c i n c t l y : "A Canadian s e t t l e r hates a t r e e , regards i t as h i s n a t u r a l enemy, as something to be destroyed, eradicated, a n n i h i l a t e d by a l l and any means."  188  Although l i f e was too hard t o permit concern f o r decorative e f f e c t , the s e t t l e r ' s r u t h l e s s methods were objectionable on more p r a c t i c a l grounds.  He i n f l i c t e d  serious damage on the land by c a r e l e s s burning of s l a s h . This destroyed the vegetable matter i n the t o p s o i l and  186 S h i r r e f f , Tour, pp. 175-176. 187 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 74-76. 188 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, p. 96.  252. -i on  caused poor y i e l d s from the f i r s t crops.  Instead of  c u l t i v a t i n g the s o i l i n t e n s i v e l y , the s e t t l e r u s u a l l y pref e r r e d to b r i n g more land under "improvement" by f u r t h e r 190 clearing.As a r e s u l t of these w a s t e f u l p r a c t i c e s . s e v e r a l farms i n older areas, such as the Bay of Quinte', Li7W  191  had been deserted by 1833. F o r t u n a t e l y , advances took place i n some d i s t r i c t s as the p r i m i t i v e conditions of the f r o n t i e r receded.  Farmers  learned to use various f e r t i l i z e r s a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y , such as gypsum and potash.  A S c o t t i s h farmer who studied the  s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y i n 1833 considered the province much b e t t e r than Lower Canada f o r immigrants who wished to 192 i n v e s t c a p i t a l and l a b o r i n farming.  The same observer,  however, condemned the u n e n t e r p r i s i n g h a b i t s of the o l d s e t t l e r s who f a i l e d to progress even i n the highly-favored Niagara  Peninsula.  1 9 3  New farmers were eager to r a i s e wheat because i t was merchantable commodity n e a r l y as u s e f u l as cash.  Corn was  another valuable crop supplying p a l a t a b l e food f o r man and beast.  I t s c h i e f drawback was the u n c e r t a i n t y of i t s y i e l d ,  189 S h i r r e f f , Tour,- pp. 370-571. 190 Howison, Sketches, pp..207-208. 191 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 126. 192 I b i d . , p. 383.  253 which might he d i s a s t r o u s l y low f o r two or three years i n 194 a row. Melons and pumpkins f l o u r i s h e d w i t h a minimum of a t t e n t i o n . I n the western peninsula, tobacco, c u l t i v a t e d 195 by runaway s l a v e s , was becoming a l u c r a t i v e s t a p l e by 1826. The n a t u r a l advantages of the Niagara and D e t r o i t d i s t r i c t s f o s t e r e d the growth of orchards that y i e l d e d abundantly despite l a c k of a t t e n t i o n . In October 1833, the laden apple trees along the Niagara R i v e r reminded a p o e t i c E n g l i s h t o u r i s t of M i l t o n ' s P a r a d i s e .  1 9 6  Another b e a u t i f u l  prospect, unusual f o r the province, was a rose garden on the 197 property of Golonel Talbot near S t . Thomas. Livestock were not w e l l t r e a t e d i n Upper Canada, even by E n g l i s h and I r i s h i m m i g r a n t s who were used to handling 198 1  animals c a r e f u l l y .  Nevertheless, the c a t t l e managed to  survive on t h e i r r e g u l a r d i e t of "browse", i . e . the buds,  194 Canada i n the years 1832, 1833, and 1834, pp. 119-120. 195 Joseph P i c k e r i n g , I n q u i r i e s of an emigrant: being the n a r r a t i v e of an E n g l i s h farmer, from the year 1824 to 1850: during which p e r i o d he traversed the United States of America, and the B r i t i s h province of Upper Canada, w i t h a view to s e t t l e as an emigrant, London, 1831, E x t r a c t i n C r a i g , E a r l y t r a v e l l e r s , pp. 78-79. 196 Domett, Canadian .journal, p. 26. 197 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, p. 197. 198 Talbot, E i v e years' residence, v o l . 1, p. 178.  254.  leaves, and branches of deciduous t r e e s .  199  In the 1830's»  s t o c k - r a i s i n g was of growing importance because of sharplyincreased p r i c e s f o r m e a t . of mediocre q u a l i t y .  200  D a i r y products were u s u a l l y  A g r a z i n g farm at P o r t Talbot pro-  vided b u t t e r and cheese f o r shipment to other d i s t r i c t s . 201 I t was unusual to f i n d an operation of t h i s nature i n 1837. Upper Canada was not good sheep country.  These animals  were not at home i n the bush, and sometimes f e l l prey to 202 wolves.  Swine, though a " v i l e , degenerate race", throve  m i g h t i l y on corn, and produced f a t , j u i c y pork superior to  203  any seen i n I r e l a n d . The draught animals u s u a l l y came from the United States. Oxen were more u s e f u l than horses 204 while Lumbering stumps were i n theanground. provided important source of cash income v  f o r many s e t t l e r s , and was e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l as an opportunity f o r w i n t e r employment.  Some observers, however, deprecated  199 Canada i n the years 1852, 1833, and 1854, -pp. 84-85. 200 I b i d . , pp. 96-98. 201 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, p. 211. 202 Canada i n the years, 1832, 1833, and 1854, pp. 95-96. 203 I b i d . , pp. 94-95. 204 P i d l e r , Observations, PP. 200-201.  255.  t h i s work because i t promoted "loose and debauched h a b i t s " .  205  Several l a r g e and e f f i c i e n t sawmills were run by water power 206 on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence R i v e r s .  The streams i n the  southwestern d i s t r i c t s had not enough f a l l to d r i v e machinery. There were several poor g r i s t m i l l s powered by oxen, and windm i l l s along the D e t r o i t and Thames R i v e r s .  I n 1833, plans f o r 207 a steam m i l l a t Sandwich were under d i s c u s s i o n . Many small ironworks were b u i l t to u t i l i z e the p l e n t i -  f u l ore deposits and vast supplies of timber f o r charcoal. A f t e r a slow s t a r t , the heavy demand f o r stoves,  pots,  k e t t l e s , and m i l l machinery stimulated the growth of a t h r i v i n g industry.  B o t h wrought and cast i r o n were a v a i l a b l e pnfi to the s e t t l e r s at various forges and furnaces. Lack of 1  c a p i t a l , a n d of government encouragement delayed the u t i l i z a 209 t i o n of the numerous s a l i n e springs. Business t r a n s a c t i o n s i n Upper Canada were c a r r i e d on l a r g e l y by b a r t e r f o r many years a f t e r 1814. The lack of money not only handicapped t a x c o l l e c t i o n s and c a p i t a l °10  formation, but also favored cheating and generated distrust'."  205 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, p. 266. 206 I b i d . , p. 267; Bigsby, Shoe and canoe, v o l . 1, p. 68. 207 S h i r r e f f , Tour, p. 213. 208 P i c k e r i n g , I n q u i r i e s of an e m i g r a n t , i n t r a v e l l e r s , p. 71.  Craig, Early  209 Talbot, F i v e years' r e s i d e n c e , v o l . 1, pp. 331-333. 210 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 72-73.  256.  Wheat, corn, and potatoes were widely used-media of exchange. 211 B a r t e r p r e v a i l e d i n remote areas up t o 1838. The standard of e t h i c s i n trade and merchandising was deplorably low.  Immigrants were disgusted 212 5  and fraud" i n everyday business.  at the "chicanery  Some merchants and  storekeepers w i t h ample c a p i t a l resources achieved great i n f l u e n c e because many landowners and workers became i n - ' debted to them.  21 3  These middlemen twere reported to make 214 H i g h s a l a r i e d o f f i c i a l s at Toronto s e t a exorbitant p r o f i t s up t o two hundred percent. standard of  l a v i s h expenditure that r a i s e d p r i c e s and deterred economical 215 immigrants from s e t t l i n g i n the c a p i t a l . The smuggling of tea and other commodities was regarded as a wholly proper 216 means of circumventing.the high cost of l i v i n g . The s c a r c i t y of labor encouraged a "free and easy behaviour of the lower c l a s s e s " that was d i s c o n c e r t i n g t o British travellers.  Servants were always i n short supply,  211 Preston, Three y e a r s  1  212 Talbot, g i v e y e a r s  residence, v o l . 2, p. 237.  1  residence, v o l . 2, pp. 191-193.  213 S h i r r e f f , Tour, pp. 128, 387. 214 F i d l e r , O b s e r v a t i o n s , p . 216. 215 Preston, Three y e a r s  1  residence, v o l . 2, pp. 40-41.  216 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 151-152. 217 F r a n c i s H a l l , T r a v e l s , p . 217.  257.  and those that o f f e r e d themselves were u s u a l l y incompetent. The I r i s h immigrant women who went i n t o s e r v i c e to make e x t r a money might be honest and w i l l i n g , but t h e i r back?18  ground was not conducive to c l e a n l i n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y . S k i l l e d craftsmen i n such trades as carpentry  could  make good money, but there was no demand f o r p a i n t e r s , s l a t e r s , or stonemasons, because of the prevalence of 219  rough wooden b u i l d i n g s . summer than winter.  Farm laborers d i d b e t t e r i n  The system of payment i n k i n d made i t  hard f o r them to save enough to e s t a b l i s h themselves on ,_ « _ 220 t h e i r own land. Upper Canada o f f e r e d only l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l men.  Clergymen were needed i n many areas,  but  law and medicine had no shortage of p r a c t i t i o n e r s . There was  strong f e e l i n g amongst B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s against the  law  r e s t r a i n i n g E n g l i s h a t t o r r i i e s from p r a c t i s i n g i n the province f o r f i v e years a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l .  This  measure seemed  representative of the same " i n t o l e r a n t exclusive s p i r i t " 221  that animated the Family Compact.  ' 2318 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, pp. 269-270. 219 Talbot, F i v e y e a r s ' r e s i d e n c e , ;  220 S h i r r e f f . Tour, p.  v o l . 2, pp. 246-247.  384.  221 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 49-51.  258.  Young men  of the. p r o v i n c i a l gentry" were averse to J,  engaging i n commerce or a g r i c u l t u r e .  Snobbery drove many of  them to enter the overcrowded professions r a t h e r than pursue u s e f u l and remunerative employment i n l e s s exalted spheres. As a r e s u l t , swarms of needy lawyers preyed oh the p u b l i c ppp  and competed r u t h l e s s l y f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e s . The p r i m i t i v e nature of the economy, which l i m i t e d the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l employment,-was r e f l e c t e d i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s .  The i n h a b i t a n t s were too  absorbed i n making a l i v i n g to care much about t r a v e l f o r pleasure.  T o u r i s t s had d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining  information  about mails and stage s e r v i c e s , and a S c o t t i s h v i s i t o r i n 1833 was  s u r p r i s e d that he could not buy a map  anywhere.  This was  a d i s a p p o i n t i n g contrast to the United  States, 223 where pocket and w a l l maps were a v a i l a b l e u n i v e r s a l l y . The i n t r o d u c t i o n to Upper Canada by the  Montreal-  Kingston route was not c a l c u l a t e d to appeal to t r a v e l l e r s . Most of them found the boat t r i p monotonous and the t r a n s f e r s to stage-coaches inconvenient.  frequent  At P r e s c o t t ,  schooners and sloops replaced the bateaux or Durham boats as f a r as Kingston.  Steamers came i n t o use on c e r t a i n  222 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 49-51. 223 S h i r r e f f , Tour, pp. 93-94.  259.  s t r e t c h e s i n l a t e r years,, hut t h e i r , s a i l i n g s were sometimes hazardous.  A storm on Lac- St-Francois i n 1831 stopped the  engines of one v e s s e l and forced her to r e t u r n to p o r t . Broken l o g - r a f t s were a serious danger i n rough weather.  224  The steamer F r o n t e n a c , r e p u t e d to be the l a r g e s t i n 225 the Canadas, was i n s e r v i c e on Lake Ontario by 1818. Lake shipping operators p r o f i t e d from the c a r r i a g e of immigrants, who„often crowded every i n c h of space and s l e p t 226 on the decks. Some of the v e s s e l s were p o o r l y b u i l t and operated, such as the sternwheeler John By, o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t for  the Rideau.Canal, whose high-pressure engine roasted the 227  passengers. On Lake E r i e , the Canadian merchant f l e e t was disgracef u l l y inadequate.  American i n t e r e s t s possessed several  "magnificent" steam v e s s e l s as w e l l as numerous small coasters and schooners.  By way of c o n t r a s t , the shores of s  Upper Canada were served by "... two l i t t l e  ill-conducted  steamers, which go p u f f i n g up and down l i k e two l i t t l e t e a - k e t t l e s ...."  228  224 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, pp. 83-84. 225 Howison, Sketches, pp. 62-63. 226 S h i r e f f , Tour, pp. 146-147. 227 I b i d . , p. 148. 228 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, p. 276.-  260.  Some t r a v e l l e r s expected great b e n e f i t s to flow from the c o n s t r u c t i o n of canals, such as. the Welland and Rideau. One sanguine B r i t i s h observer .in 1827, somewhat ahead of h i s time,' envisioned Upper Canada as a maritime province of the 229 United Kingdom.  Other accounts reported c r i t i c i s m of the  canal p r o j e c t s as expensive and of doubtful u t i l i t y .  The  Welland was so b a d l y b u i l t that t h e . r e p a i r b i l l s exceeded the income from t o l l s , and the Rideau was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y because there was no completely navigable waterway between Bytown and Montreal.  Further improvements on the S t .  Lawrence would be c o s t l y and exposed to A m e r i c a n . a t t a c k s .  230  Many p a r t s of the province could be reached only by land over shockingly bad roads.  Even on the busy lakeshore  routes, c o n d i t i o n s might be nerve-racking.  A B r i t i s h officer  going by wagon from the C r e d i t R i v e r to.York i n 1827 desc r i b e d the corduroy roads as "... more abominably j o l t y 231 than any t h i n g a European imagination can conceive." The explanation f o r much of the backwardness was the reluctance of the s e t t l e r s to pay road taxes or set up turnpikes.  Farmers p r e f e r r e d t a k i n g t h e i r turn a t s t a t u t e  229 B a s i l H a l l , Travels, v o l . 1, p. 222. 230 Preston, Three years', residence, v o l . 2, pp. 130, 135-137. 231 B a s i l H a l l , T r a v e l s , v o l . 1, p. 261.  261  l a b o r t o paying one d o l l a r a year f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l road232 builders.  N e w l y - s e t t l e d areas were p a r t i c u l a r l y bad,  since men busy w i t h c l e a r i n g and sowing t r i e d to avoid road work, and c a r r i e d out only the crudest improvements. The wretched communications caused resentment against t h e 233 a u t h o r i t i e s , t o the g r a t i f i c a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l , a g i t a t o r s . :  The Canada Company made e f f o r t s t o improve the roads i n i t s own lands by a l l o w i n g s e t t l e r s to work at " t u r n p i k i n g " i n order to pay o f f p a r t of t h e i r indebtedness.  In this  way, c e r t a i n corduroy roads i n the Huron Tract were improved by the burning of stumps and heaping of earth onto the middle of the track.  Yonge Street i n 1837 was the only "comfort-  able" road i n the province, and i t was macadamised f o r twelve 235 miles n o r t h of Toronto. The v e h i c l e s that traversed these roads were b u i l t f o r strength rather than comfort.  Some stage-coaches had no  doors, so that they would be w a t e r t i g h t when passing through rivers.  Passengers had to climb out of the windows from 236 time t o time when the going became d i f f i c u l t . Winter  232 P i d l e r , Observations, p. 214. 233 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, pp. 119-120. 234 S h i r r e f f . Tour, p. 180. 235 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, p. 7. 236 Fergusson, P r a c t i c a l notes, pp. 88-89.  262.  t r a v e l i n c a r r i a g e - s l e i g h s was more comfortable.  Some young  men and o f f i c e r s dashed about i n c u t t e r s on h i g h runners. These r e q u i r e d s k i l f u l handling,and they often turned over.  237  P o s t a l s e r v i c e i n Upper Canada was i n e f f i c i e n t and expensive.  Poor immigrants were f r e q u e n t l y unable t o  c o l l e c t t h e i r m a i l because of heavy charges.  The management  of the Post O f f i c e was an obvious source of grievance 238 against the i m p e r i a l government. T r a v e l l e r s who sought overnight accommodation u s u a l l y had t o s a c r i f i c e B r i t i s h standards of p r i v a c y , comfort, and good food.  Many taverns were l o g cabins c o n t a i n i n g a k i t c h e n ,  bedroom, and bar.  The sleeping-quarters were occupied by  men, women, and c h i l d r e n i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y .  A late arrival  239  was lucky t o get a bed to h i m s e l f . ^ Meals were monotonous y  and sometimes meagre, but t e a was always served, though i t might be one of the p e c u l i a r s u b s t i t u t e s devised by the . , 240 proprietors. I t was hopeless t o expect good s e r v i c e from the independent-minded innkeepers of Upper Canada.  British  t r a v e l l e r s who adopted s u p e r i o r a i r s were sometimes d r i v e n  237 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 1, p. 22. 238 I b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 219- 220. 239 Talbot, P i v e years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 263-264, 240 Howison, Sketches, pp. 133-134.  263.  out i n d i g n a n t l y "by "Yankee" l a n d l o r d s .  241  More adaptable  persons were able t o make themselves at home by f o r g e t t i n g t h e i r p r e j u d i c e s , as i n the case of a S c o t t i s h v i s i t o r of democratic  leanings who d i d not mind s i t t i n g  at t a b l e w i t h h i s wagon-driver.  He pointed out that meals  i n North America were f o r feeding, not f o r conversation, and anyone who could pay was e n t i t l e d t o s i t down at the 242 common board. Country inns were i n f e r i o r t o those of the United States, though many of them were kept by Americans.  ,  These  men, and t h e i r Canadian i m i t a t o r s , displayed a crudeness of manners and language f a r worse than that g e n e r a l l y found-in 243 t h e i r n a t i v e land.  A v i s i t i n g clergyman quoted, w i t h  some r e s e r v a t i o n s , the opinion of "an E n g l i s h gentleman" who "... described the American inns as palaces, and the Canadian as i n f e r n a l receptacles of plundered  travellers."  Hotels i n the towns were not up to American standards. Accommodation was scarcer i n Toronto than elsewhere during the 1830's, and the two "respectable" h o t e l s were g e n e r a l l y crowded.  Macdonald's North American H o t e l a t Kingston 245  was one of the few t o enjoy a good r e p u t a t i o n . 241 Canada i n the years 1832,  1833, and 1834, pp. .27-28.  242 S h i r r e f f , Tour, yy. 161-162. 243 Jameson, Winter scenes, v o l . 2, p. 110. 244 P i d l e r , Observations, pp. 1.20-121. 245 Preston, Three years' residence, v o l . 2, pp. 42-43.  2 4 4  264.  The t o u r i s t magnet of Niagara F a l l s a t t r a c t e d a number of entrepreneurs who seers.  sought to p r o f i t from the f l o w of s i g h