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The psychosocial factors which may intensify the adolescent foster child's concern about his unknown… Lugtig, Donald Joseph 1956

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THE PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS WulCH MAY INTENSIFY  THB ADOLESCENT FOSTER CHILD'S CONCERN ABOUT HIS UNKNOWN NATURAL PARENTS Art Exploratory Study of Seven Adolescent Wards of The Vancouver Children's Aid Society. by DONALD JOSEPH LUGTIG Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of WASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of Soc i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work 1956 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. - i i -TABtE OF CONTESTS Copter 1. Chapter 2, the Parnaramtffi Separated boater Child and Hie  denleeyn about"MB Pari Watural Pare'ntB.' " A Social and Psychological Perspective. Introduction. Definitions. 7he Changing Philo-sophy of Foster Care. The Problea of Pensanent Parent-Child Separation. The Child's Social Concern a Social Sterapeetive. Psychosocial problems of adolescence in relation to the Child's Concern. Assumptions, Objectives and tetuoda of Study.... Factors which may intensify the Adolescent foster Child*a Concern - A Btevlew of the Literature. Introduction. Basic Causative factors, immediate precipitating faefcore. an Analysis of the factors..• 28 Chapter 3, Chapter lu A gesoription and Identification of the Factors in Seven Caso focbrffl. Kathod of Soloeting Case Records. Baflnitien of ©actors. ¥he Incidence of Ifaetcrs. Description of the Sactdrs.Soggeetad in Bach Caee Record. Susaaary of Eludings U9 ConcXuaions and Implications for Research and  Social Upvk help. HestateEBQt of the Ebcua. A Critique of the Kasearch. Issplicationo of the Findings for Eese&reh. Tho Social tforker' 8 Sole in X&agnosis and Treatoant. 82 Appendices: Bibliography. 97 CHARTS IH THB TEXT figure 1 Eslationahips and Desirable Psychosocial Be stilts for Child XtevslopEssnt when the JJau&ly is considered as a Psychological Unit. §1gore 11 The Incidanca of Contributing and Precipitating Factors which seats to Intensify the Adolescent Foster Child's Concern about his Unknown Natural Parents.. - lis: AfiggB&OT the purpose of this thesis i s to maka an exploratory study of the basic and immediate psychosocial factors which may intensify the concern which some adolescent foster children show about the natural parents from which they were permanently separated at an early age* The study includess 1. A brief description ©f bow the child's concern taay be Intensified (a) by broad sooial factors which vary accord-ing to the cultural definition of the importance to the child of being reared by "biological" parents (b) by the problems of adolescence in tMs culture's family l i f e * 2* A description of the intensifying factors derived from a review of relevant literature in the fields of social work, social psychology and psychiatry* 3. &n identification and description of the factors in the cases of seven adolescent foster children who, according to two experienced sooial workers, showed Intense concern about their unknown natural parents* The review of the literature provided a tentative fraao of reference for use in exploring the case records* Some factors which were described seemed related to the foster child's early developmental years, others seemed more related to the particular psychosocial problems of adolescence* Suggestions for further research and social work diagnosis were drawn from the study* The concern of the adolescent foster child about his unknown natural parents seems related to Ms own particular l i f e experiences. Careful study of the individual child should be made before the matter of telling the child about the parents i s approached by the social worker* Further orientation of foster parents with regard to this problem seems indicated. Special treatment for certain children with pathological l i f e experiences of which their concern about parents seesas to be symp-tomatic i s also suggested* - Iv -I x&sh to express nsy sincere appreciation to Hrs. Helen Exner and Kr. Adrian Carriage, isembere of the School of Sooial Mork, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, for their Invaluable guidance and encouragement i n the development of this thesis. To tiles Haael Miles and Mr. John Sanders of the Vancouver Children's Aid Society goes w& gratitude for their selection of the cases studied and for valuable supplemental information. 1 also aish to thank Hiss Dorothy Coombe, Director of the Children' a Aid Society for the privilege of using case material and staff help. I t i e hope that this thesis w i l l be a small contribution to the very valuable service which the Children's Aid Society i s giving to foster children, foster parents, and natural parents. me PSYCHOSOCIAL EACTOBS mm. MM xtmaaim TH£ ADOLESCENT FOSTER. CHILD'S G0H03R} mm HIS OTmriQItl HAT0RAL S>ARl3fc3 An Exploratory Study of Seven Adolescent Bards of the Vancouver Children's Aid Scciety. Chapter 1 The Permanently Separated Foster Child and ,Rle Concern about Hie Unknown Natural Parents * A Social and Psychological Perspective. Introduction Social itorkars in the field of child placement have long been aware of the problems of the foster child who in adolescence becomes concerned about toe natural parents from whoia he was separated at an early age. Some children seem only mildly curious about the factB of their origin and back-ground} others arc deeply interested and become eo concerned about the subject that thay start an intense search for their parents. Others appear eo preoccupied about fantasies of their parents that they suffer from inability to function adequately In their social environment. To date l i t t l e study has been done in this area of social work with foster children. This atucfcr proposes to explore the question? &iy are some foster children store concerned about their unknown natural parents than others? Bafinitions In order to gain a broad perspective for the study Certain basic, definitions easa required. The "foster" child is a person t£u> ie not living with his biological parents. In most cases he is living with adults who are acting i i i a parental role although they are not related to him by kinship ties. Generally speaking, tha foster child may be living ndth "inatitu-tional n parents, "boarding" parents, or "adoptive" parents. Institutional parents are generally those adults working in on institution who are in a position of authority in relation to the child. "Boarding" parents are generally those a&tltfi who care for a child (usually unrelated to them) in a family setting which i s supervised by a public or private child placement 2 agency. In aost cases the care of the child i s subsidised by the agency, although i n some the child works for his care or obtains his care free frora the "boarding0 parents. Agency supervision to ensure that the family setting meets the physical, emotional, and social needs of the growing child Is the distinguishing feature of "boarding" home care, these parents are selected by the agency upon the basis of careful study predicated upon certain criteria of what good boarding parents should be like* "Adoption i s the legal process by which the child of one pair of parents becomes the child of other parents.**^ "Adoptive" parents are those parents who act i n a parental role to a child not theirs by birth "tahen the responsibility for the child by bis natural parents has bees terminated psnaanently by court action end the adoptive parents and adopted child acquire a l l the responsibi-l i t i e s and privileges of the natural parent-child relationship through legal adoption".** $hd adoptive parents are responsible for maintenance of the child until he reaches legal maturity. fh© child usually takes the adoptive parents* surname, fhose adults are selected on the basis of their mutual desire for a child, and their physical, emotional, and economic readiness to give him love and opportunities for growth and development.3 The child placement agency usually supervises the adoption ham, to protect the welfare of the child and to ensure the feasibility ef the adoption, during the "adoption probation" period. ©lis i s before the adoption lias been finally legalized by the court, and usually amounts to a year. Super* vision i s terminated after the legal adoption takes place. 1 Clyde Gets, "Adoption", Social Woric Yearbook, 19$k» American Association of Sooial Workers, Hew York, p. 26. Helen R. Hagan, "Poster Care for Children", 'Social Work Yearbook^ 195k* American Association of Social Workers, New York, p. 227 3 Loc. ©it. 3 jbr the purposes of this study, the "foster*1 child w i l l be can* sidered as a person #10 has spent most of his childhood l i f e tilth "boarding" parents under the supervision of a child placement agency. He may have resided for a tiaie i n an institution* He may also have been placed upon adoption probation. However, his main -experience with parental persons has been with those who from day to day were in a parental position in a fatally setting but Who were not his own i n a biological or legal sense. The Changing Philosophy of Foster Care "Poster care denotes the type of care that la given to children who oust be separated froa their natural families* Social agencies provide i t by placing children in institutions and in family homes at the request of parents or other responsible adults."* the reasons for separation of natural parents and child are many. They includes death of one or both parents, temporary or permanent incapa-bi l i t y of the parents to rear the child by reasons of physical, Intellectual, emotional, or social problems* unwillingness of the parents to rear the child, and a number of otters. Sometimes the natural parents voluntarily decide that separation i s necessary; sometimes the community through Court action forces the parent-child separation i n the interests of the child's welfare. Many separations take place privately without agency help. However, the trend i s toward use of the social agency i n these circumstances. "Agency-sponsored fester care i s now Considered essential for any Child regardless of social and economic status, whose parenta cannot provide an adequate home."2 This statement seems to have acceptance not only i n the profession of social 1 Kagan, "Boater Care for Children", Social Work Yearbook, 195U, p. 2 2 5 2 Ibid. p.,226 k work itself, but i n many other areas in the corranunity. Within the profession of social work the philosophy for using foster care as a means of social treatment has changed over the years. Social workers in the foster care fields are continuously arethittt&ng ite sooial usefulness In terns of the needs of children who cannot live /with their own parents. Much of this thinking has centered around the specific useful-ness of various types of foster care, i t has been influenced by the accumu-lation and analysis of experience In the field of child placement in particu-lar, and the broader field of professional social work as well. She con-tributions of students and tferkere i n other disciplines i n the human relatione field (sociology, anthropology, psychology, law and psychiatry) has also had much influence, not only upon the bfroad fie l d of social, uork, but tho specific field of child placement, fflie Problem of Permanent Parent-Child Separation Ho problem faced by child welfare social workers seems to be fraught with so many complications as that of permanent parent child separa-tion. When i s permanent parent-child separation indicated? What i s the best approach to providing care for the permanently separated child? Many permanent separations are already accomplished facts through the parent's , desertion or abandonment of the child. In those cases i t is usually the second question which assumes major importance for the child welfare worker. However, in some instances the social worker must "appraise the capacity for parenthood11 in order to decide t&ether i t ie In the best interests of the. child to be permanently separated from his natural parents. When i s permanent parent-child separation indicated? This ie no easy question to ansxrer. today i t i s answered by careful psychosocial diagnosis of the family situation. Thie was not always the case. In the 5 early days of social work in the child, placement and protection field, many social -workers answered the question on "ncra!" grounds* Sorae parents were not considered f i t to rear their oMldren on th© sole basis that their behavior toward their ch3.1dr©n, or their behavior In general, was not con-sidered suitable for tha proper developaant of the child. Poor standards of physical and personal hygiene were cftan other factors in tho ligjht of which tho social workers made such judgments. Economic factors looi^d Ifirga. I f the family was not thought able to support i t s children, cr the parents did not think m themselves, separation was often effected. ' Often after separa-tion was effected parents were' discouraged from maintaining contact with their children in foster care and permanent serration resulted.^ The whole question of parent child separation has been continuously evaluated by social workers over the years. . One of the f i r s t principles whieh social workers formulated in regard to this problem, wasi "fhat a child sliall be not separated from his parents for reasons of poverty alona.tt2 In spite of this declaration pf principle by the f i r s t gathering of social workers i n the child welfare field in,1909, a l i t t l e over two decades later in & similar conference, It was observed "large numbers of children s t i l l suffer, unrelieved in their own homes, or arc separated froa their hemes because of poverty*^ She question.of. parental fitness, or ability has likewise come in for revision in thinking on the part of social workers i n this field. the natter of parental neglect of children has lost BOMB of it s "moral" judgment implications as social workers have refined their 1 Henrietta L. Gordon "Limitations of Poster Heme Care", Child Ifelfara, Child Welfare League of America, Hew ¥ork, July 19$3. P*7 2 Proceedings, White House Conference on the Care of Dependent Children, 1909, Ctovernmsnt Printing Office, Washington, 1909. Proceedings, White House Conference on Child Health and Protection, 1930 The Century Company, Hew York, 1931* • 6 philosophy and methods. Neglect i s now considered to be caused by a. matrix of social and psychological factors t&ich Impinge upon the particular parent-children relationship. Sometimes causes of neglect He within the Immediate social pressures of the environment* Other times these causes He within the personalities of the p&rente themselves* More often than riot, neglect i s caused by an interaction of these factors. Broad social welfare programs such as lather's AHowaace and -Family AHowance i n Canada and Aid to dependent Children and Survivors Insurance i n tii© United States, along with a network of other public assis-tance and insurance mhm&n, have tended to strengthen families eeonotaically and have tjorked to prevent parent-child separation for economic reasons alone. Likewise foster day care and children 1& nurseries have made I t possible for many wmen who have lost their husbands to. support their fasaiiHes by worklngj and this has made i t possible for them to rear the children i d thin the family c i r c l e * ftibXic Health programs, along with the advance of medical science, have increased human longevity and have made i t possible for more children to grow up without losing their parents by reason of death. At the same time, the accelerated study of family Hving on the part of social workers with the new frame,of reference provided by psychoanalytic theory has made i t possible for social writers to understand better the dynamics of personality development and thereby to develop new techniques for diagnosing and treating family problems, and thus help prevent family breakdown, neglect Bituations, and parent-child separation* Although the problems of family breakdown are complex, social workers, practicing on the principle that the family i d the primary etacletal institution and that i t must be preserved, are using the s k i l l s of case wark, groupwork and community 7 organisation to buttress and strengthen family living. Xn recent years the social work principle of supporting family strengths and preventing family breakdowns is having greater application in the child protection and placement field. John Bala has stated this application clearly* "Wo recognise that the beet place for meeting a child*3 individual and emotional needs is in the child's own home. A child's own homo and family are the natural medium in union normal social and personality development can be beat assured. Tfe believe that a child 1 G family should be assisted i n every B&y possible tc meet his individual emotional and mental needs in his own home,"^  Permanent Separation of the "Older Ohild11 Separation of the natural parent and the child has come to be seen as a necessity «hen other methods of assistance to the child and parent i n their home have not proved fruitful. But must such separation be permanent for the child who has lived for some years with one or both of his parents? Social workers have observed: "the foster child old enough to have developed strongly etched images of his own parents takes these with him to the foster home where they continue to plague him, his foster parents and the worker. "^ In other words as Henrietta Gordon has observed, physical separation does not necessarily mean psychological separation, t-fliera possible, a foster home is now seen as a temporary form of care within a social treatment plan which has as its goal the reunion of such children with their pa rente In their own home. In such cases "the only way for euch a child to turn to them (foster 1 John Oula, "She Child Away from Home", Journal of Social Casework, family litelfare Association of America, Hew York, April l$>iiB, p. 3^0. 0 Dorothy Hutchinson "The Placement Worker and the Child's Own Barents", Social Casework, July %9$h9 p. 295. 8 parents and worker), i s for him to see that they like his parents, that they think well of his parents, and that they act kindly about his parent's mistakes,"1 Visits of the natural parents to the child i n the boarding home are encouraged as part of the social treatment plan. In other cases, however, permanent separation is indicated after a s k i l l f u l psychosocial diagnostic appraisal of the "capacity for parenthood" has been made. Social workers have corns to realise, according to Henrietta Gordon, that the child can retain idealisations of "bad" parents which prevent hla from becoming attached to the foster parents emotionally. Such children need casework help to separate themselves psychologically from their past parent images so that they can form new ones. Often this involves allowing the child to express the hidden hostility toward the parents which lies underneath the idealisation of them and the acceptance of this hostility by the worker.2 Furthermore the child needs to express his guilt over the separation and have i t receive acceptance., Recent studies of the effects of separation upon the child have supplemented the worker's knowledge in this area by establishing tha fact that separation is often viewed by the child as having baen caused by him, regardless of the actual "facts 1 1 of the case. In addition the child needs the acceptance of his regression, his temporary "testing" of the nsw parents' leva and acceptance of his guilt which he often expresses by "bad behavior". The philosophy of the uee of various forms of fbster care has also been refined for the "permanently" separated child. Again the principle of the child living with his "own parents and family group" i s central. As Dorothy Hutchinson "The Placement Worker and the Child's Own Parents", Social Casework, July \9$kt p. 2 9 5 2 Ibid;, * t p.5 296 9 Dorothy Hutchinson sayss "Adoption and foster care (boarding) supplement each other like twin hand maidens i n a single program. They are like ' twin hand maidens designed to meet more completely- the needs of a l l children to remain at home. Both assume that for a child to have parents of hie own is- his f i r s t right, i f this is possible and wise.*, the more social workers can appraise the capacity for parenthood, the more they will know when there Is no parenthood possible or desired, and the more fester ear© will assume a temporary nature with the expectation of speedier return of the child to his own* home cn the one hand, or adoption on the other; In either case, the child i s taken off the psychological book of insecurity; He can then grow up with parents of his or those made his own by adoption; Permanent Separation for the Child too Young to have Parental Images The aforementioned refinement of philosophy and practice in regard to permanent separation of the older child has relevancy i n assessing the capacity for parenthood of those parents who come to the agency's attention before the'child's birth or when the child is very young. It becomes of paramount Importance in terras of the child's future l i f e to assist those parents who do not have the capacity for parenthood to separate themselves physically and psychologically from the child in order to free him to form relationships with permanent parental figures. This philosophy has developed as i t has been established that these basic ingredients are essential for the child's development i n terms of his emotional health, parental love and acceptance of the child, continuity of parental figures in the child's l i f e , and consistency in the parent-child relationship. Bowlby has observed that the lack of these ingredients for emotional health In the child's l i f e often leads to the development of the delinquent and affectionless child. 2 When x Borothy Hutchinson, op. c i t . p. 296. 2 ' %-John Bowlby, Maternal Care and Mental Health, World Health Organisation, Seneva, 1952. 10 a child moves frequently from one foster home to another he fails to receive these basic ingredients* . Often the frequency of these moves i s occasioned by unhealthy parental influence in a direct or indirect manner* Sometimes the neurotic parent moves the child from one home to another as ah expression of his own Insecurity* Sometimes the parent gives up the child "permanently" but retains hopes of reconciliation, thereby making the child's adoption Into a permanent family impossible* This new philosophy and knowledge has had special import In work vith unmarried mothers* In the past efforts were made when,possible to help the mother and ohlld retain their ties* Often efforts were made to help the unmarried mother rear her child* Refinement of psychological under-standing on the part of social workers has illuminated this problem* It Is now held that many unmarried mothers do not have the capacity for parent-hood. It has further been observed that the social problem involved in the mother's rearing her child are often so great that i t i s difficult for the mother to exercise the capacity for patenthood which exists* Thus efforts in many cases are made on the part of social workers to help the unmarried mother release her ohlld so that i t may grow up under mere "normal" family conditions* This factor is of particular relevance since oyer half of a l l adopted children are illegitimate, as are many foster children. In the past children permanently separated from their parents during infancy were placed often in foster boarding care on a permanent basis* It i s now recognised that legal adoption provides a more secure,family l i f e for the child* Fart of the increase in adoptions over the past ten years can be attributed to this changing philosophy. Refinement in social work skills of assessing the potentiality of prospective adoptive parents, lib e r a l i -sation of adoption laws, and increased public aid to adoption services have 11 gone together to give the child the security of adoption. It is a matter directly related to the problem of this study that i t has been assumed by many workers in the fie l d that sound adoption practice makes i t unnecessary for the child to be seriously concerned about the natural parents from whom he has been permanently separated.* An application of this study to children who were adopted would hopefully tend to validate or invali-date this assumption. This study concerns itself, however, with the very real problem of the child who is i n permanent boarding foster care. In spite of the fact that adoption is considered the best way to meet the particular needs of the child permanently separated from infancy, many children for a variety of reasons cannot be given this service under existing conditions, among the many reasons for this are scarcity of adoption homes for children of mixed racial background, scarcity of homes for children with serious physical handi-caps and others. Permanent boarding care is usually considered the best form of foster care for these children* However, the fact'that the agency supervises and pays for the child's care and the fact that the child usually has a different name from his foster parents tend, i t would seera, to remind the child that the foster parents are not his "own" parents* These factors may tend to make him wonder about his natural parents* Telling the adopted child about his natural parents and his adoption throughout his developmental years in terms that he can understand, has been formulated as the best means for helping the adopted child with arty Curiosity he may have about his natural pa rent 8.x The philosophy regarding helping the permanent foster child with problems in this area has been spelled out to a far Sarah Stone, "Children Without Boots", Social Service Review, The Univer-sity of Chicago Press, Chicago, June 1°53, p.. litiU 12 less degree. Many children come to the workers in adolescence with intense concern about their natural parents* Some spend a great deal of time engaged in fantasy about their parents. Some children apparently are not concerned at a l l about their natural parents*, except for mild curiosity about their background* < literature en this subject i s scarce. Apparently practice in . helping the child and the foster parents with this concern varies a great deal. Questions of what to t e l l title child, when to t e l l him, and how to t e l l him about his natural parents are probably often not carefully thought out. Shis study focuses on the psychosocial needs of the individual foster child as he faces this problem. It attempts to explore a way of formulating principles for psychosocial understanding and explanation which can be related to the Individual foster child who Is concerned about hie natural parent from whom he has been separated at an age which precluded the . possibilities of his forming etched images of them in his mind. •Why are some adolescent fester children intensely concerned about their natural parents? In a broad sense, studies in cultural anthropology seem to Indicate that the child's concern about his natural parents may vary in intensity according to the particular culture In which the child lives. The Importance to the Child of being Beared by his Biological Parents may  be a "Socially Defined HeecFT The basic principle of child protection and placement work is that the family Is the most beneficial environment for the growing child* Other factors being equal, the child's natural family is considered the most desirable "Repression" must be taken into account here, as many children may be concerned but afraid to express i t . 13 form of family l i f e for him. I f this is not possible, the next best substitute i s family l i f e by legal adoption. Foster boarding home ears and institutional home care are not considered as completely desirable as the adoptive family because they do not give the child, as a general rule, the sense of "belonging" that the adoptive family does. In spite of the value of these forms of substitute family l i f e for a particular child, i n theory they would not be considered as beneficial as the child*s biological family, * i f this were available for him. Being reared by parents of, one's own by birth may be what Margaret Head calls a "socially defined need?; "By a socially defined need, I mean the presence in the society of a special.pattern of human relationships which the child can learn about and which he can feel i s wanting (lacking) in his own case."* "These (needs) may be of different sorts, the society ^ may teach the child that everyone should have a father and mother, or a nurse, or a governess, or a school teacher, or a sweetheart or a God. The dictated needs may be of the most diverse nature,, but whatever they are, some children wi l l respond to their presence by the building of imaginative structures. The Invisible playmate, the fabulous parent, the imagined love experi-ence are a l l familiar enough to us. But what i s not always clearly recognised is that none of these are basic human needs." If Mead's hypotheses of "socially defined needs" i s followed out logically, the child's concern about his unknown natural parents i s In-fluenced by the following variables! (1) the cultural definition of the Importance of biological parenthood, (2) the specific psychosocial factors In the child's environment which make.him feel the lack of having lived with Hargaret Mead, growing Up in Hew Guinea, Mentor Books, The Hew American library of World Literature, Inc., Hew York, July 1953, p, ll»S. biological parents. Variations in Cultural definition of the Importance of Being Beared by  Biological Parents. How important i s i t to the child to live with his natural parents? Does the importance vary from one culture to another? There i s strong evidence that the significance of biological parenthood both to adults and children is a variable according to the cultural climate one lives i n . This perhaps can be seen best by examining cultural attitudes toward adoption. t In his study of adoption practices among the Eskimos on Southampton Island, Morton Teioher has noted that the practice of adoption has yielded least to the white man's influence. Adopted children have the same rights and responsibilities as natural children. They are subject to the same incest taboos. They obtain f u l l inheritance and in fact an older adopted child has precedence in inheritance over a younger natural child. The child knows from the beginning that he i s adopted. A special suffix i s added to his name to signify this. Yet he i s considered a f u l l member of the family. "As the child grows up his status as an adopted child has l i t t l e effect upon his personality development. His treatment i s the same as i s the natural child's. He may or may not know his natural parents. He may or may not have anything to do with them. He certainly bears no resentment to his natural parents for giving him up for adoption.4'1 Teicher states that over half the families on the island have adopted children in them. In fact nearly twenty-five per cent of the people on the island are adopted. In her study of the ffenue, Margaret Mead notes that adoption is accepted as rather commonplace. "The adopted child i s considered to be far* Morton I. Teicher, "Adoption Practices among the Eskimos on Southampton Island", Canadian Welfare, July 1953, pp» 32*37. 15 store his foster father's than his true father's* Does he not belong to his foster father's spirits? Many cany pregnant women who are widowed or separated from their husbands and when the children ere born, welcome them as their own* The real fattier makes no claim upon his child bom to a runaway wife* Although the whole village may know the true father of a child, they will never mention i t unless pressed, and never to the child unless the child remembers his adoption.11* In the Ifenua, Mead points out, the child's relationship with i t s father i s the strongest* The loneliest boys i n one village were the ones whose fathers had died, and It was too late for their reabsorption into some other household.2 The fact that l i t t l e emphasis was plaoed upon the "biological 1 1 parent is most interesting. As long as a child had a fattier It did not seem to matter whether i t was his own by birth* "In some cases i t was possible to see a ehild's personality change under adoption* Yesa, Kapamalae's older brother was a quiet, abashed child of twelve when I came to the village* like his younger brother he took his colour (personality) from his mild, un-remarkable father* Shortly afterwards he was adopted by his father's younger brother, Paleao, one of the most interprislng men in the village* Paleao had a small foster son Popoli, whom he had adopted as a baby from another tribe, and who showed a great re-semblance now to him in every gesture. Yesa, the quiet, immediately took colour from the decisiveness of his new fathers his real father became grandfather, relegated to unimportance, and his shoulders squared beneath his new prestige. But the correspondence was less marked always than i f he had been adopted in babyhood."? In Oceania (The Andaman Islands) the exchange of children i s considered fashionable. "It is said to be of rare occurrence to find any ohild above six or seven years of age residing.with i t s Margaret Mead, Growing Up in Mew Guinea, p. 53 \ Ibid. p. 72 3 Ibid. p. 86. 16 parents, and this is because It is considered a compli-ment and also a mark of friendship for a married man, after paying a v i s i t , to ask his hosts to allow him to adopt one of their children. The request is usually complied with, and thenceforth the child's home is with his (or ber) foster father. Though tine parents in their turn adopt the children of other friends, they nevertheless pay continual visits to their own child, and occasionally ask permission to take him (or her) away with them for a few days. A man i s at liberty to please himself in the number of children he adopts, but he must treat them with kindness and consideration, and i n every respect as his own sons and daughters, and they on their part render him f i l i a l affection and obedience. It not infrequently happens that i n due course permission i s asked to adopt a foster child by a friend of the foster father, and i t is at once granted, without even the formality.of a reference to the actual parents, who are merely informed of the change, in order that they may be enabled to pay their periodical v i s i t s . " ! Sooiety defines adoption in the Banks Islands not so much as an obligatory courtesy but more in the nature of a compulsion. "On the island of Mota, the child becomes the child of the man who pays the chief helper or nidwife at birth. The father has protection in the fact that his sister ehooees the midwife and that he is on the spot, but i f be is absent or has not the necessary money, another may step in before him, and become the father of the child. The real father has the right to redeem the child but the adoptive family and i t s relatives make this difficult by assigning property to i t , making gifts to i t , and giving feasts for i t , and the value of these must be paid also... Another payment is paid.called 'name concealment' which obliges the father never to reveal the state of affairs to his son. This payment should properly be made when the child i s grown up, but is sometimes made when the child i s quite young to prevent the father from revealing the facts. Sometimes tha parentage is revealed by some third party, usually in a quarrel, and i t i s said that no Rota man i s ever wholly free from doubt as to his real parentage."? from the child's point of view, a major factor contributing to this concern about natural parenthood in a given culture may be whether i t is William I. Thomas, Primitive Behavior, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York and London, 1937, p^ loO 2 Ibid,, p. U4I 17 "the central, tendency" (to nee Mead's term) for the biological parents to rear their children* Mead estimates that twenty-five per cent of the children are adopted in the Hanus society, Teicher indicates that the same i s true for the Eskimos on Southampton Island. The ratio of foster and adopted children i n this culture to those living with their own parents i f considera-bly less than that* A l l sociologists .studying the modern Northern American middle class family point to the central tendency of the mother-father^child type of family which has i t s base in the procreation function* tfaile parenthood i s not a mere biological fact, as Malinowskl saye "social and cultural influences always endorse and emphasise the original individuality of the biological fact... (and) statistically speaking, the biological ties are almost invariably reinforced, redetermined, and remolded by the cultural ones, and thus the essence Of human parenthood is that through building of strong emotional attitudes on biological foundations, i t endures and i t leads to the establishment of lifelong social relationships of mutual obligation and service.?* The biological ties do seem to be more emphasized where the central tendency i s that natural parents in most circumstances rear their own children, as in this culture. Evidence of this exists i n the social worker's experience with pros-pective adoptive parents. Ruth Michaels has observed: "The inability to child produce a normal/for whatever reasons i s a tremendous blow to anyone, however stable and mature. Infertility i n the male threatens his sense of potency, and In the female disturbs her sense of adequacy as a woman."2 Other social * Bronislaw Malinowskl, "Parenthood - The Basis of Social Structure", Sourcebook in Marriage and the gamjly, H. Sussman (ed.), Houghton Mifflin Company, The Riverside Press, Cambridge, MaBS. , p. 25. 2 Rath Michaels, "Special Problems in Casework with Adoptive ParentsV Adoption Principles and Services, family Service Association of Ameriea, Hew York, P^ SV. 18 workers in the field of adoption also have observed this concern about biological parenthood i n prospective adoptive applicants. The Bamlly in Korth American Culture • In its broadest outline the family may be defined as "some set of permanent arrangements by which males assist females i n caring for children while they are young."1 Helationshlps within the family vary widely from culture to culture with varying effects on the personalities of both parents and children. The functions of the family are also variables according to the particular cultural milieu. "In traditional China the role and scope of the individual was defined almost exclusively by the family, while in some tribal groups the influence of the immediate blood kin appears scarcely ' I 9 greater than that of other individuals in the community."z Basic Definitions of Structure, Sanction, and Relationships i n the Modern  Morth American Family. fiedfield defines the modern American family thust "The American family - parents and children « appears on the surface as a simple conjugal type (father, mother, children - structure) with no important or formal connections with remoter kin... end no intricate economic ties.' It is a small compact group of two generations, bound together by ties of affection and functioning to care for the young until they reach the years of maturity and can repeat for themselves the process of family rearing."3 Burgess finds the modern type of family which permits freedom to the individual is 1 Margaret $3sad, Male and Female, The Hew American Library of World litera-ture, Inc., Hew York, 1955, p. 188. 2 Margaret Redfield, "The American Family« Consensus and Freedom"* Source-book in Marriage and the Family, H. Sussman (ed.), 1955, p. 13. 3 Ernest W. Burgess, "The family", in American Society In Wartime, ty. F. Ogfeurn (ed.), University of Chieago Press, Chicago, 19«3, p. 39* 19 "dynamic, adaptable, and creative - characteristics suited for survival and growth in a society In process of rapid social change* The Psychological Significance of Individual Family Members to the Particular Child. According to Josselyn the significance of the members of the family in the child's maturation process can be described as follows; The newborn baby through his physio-emotional symbiosis with the mother, experiences a sense of well being and/or frustration which determines how sage he feels i n starting on the long road to adaptation to tho external world. In the frame-work of this early security, firm or as precarious as i t may be, ho gradually learns to master his external world as well as his own internal impulses. He learns to deal with his ambivalent feelings to- 1 ward the primary members of the family, and in so doing experiences a l l the gratifications and dangers inherent in his ambivalent responses. He experi-ences the conflicts of the Oedipal period and finds a solution that does not completely destroy the significance of his primary relationships. He gradually finds gratification for his emotional needs in his relationship with persons outside the family; but hopefully he preserves a feeling of basic security in the interpersonal relation-ships of the broader family group. He struggles with his adolescent conflicts and he attempts to establish himself as'an independent adult. He rebels against the bonds that hold him to his primary infantile love objects (parents), hope- . , . fully with the knowledge that while those bonds are weakened, they cannot be broken. He reaches adulthood to find that those bonds are no longer something to struggle against, but are part of his cultural heritage and will determine to some extent his own ability to become the nucleus of a new faoily. t tl Specific requirements and their desirable outcomes have been listed from Josselyn's exposition. "\ • 1 •-Irene M. Josselyn, "The Family as a Psychological Knit", Sooial Casework) Family Service Association of Ameriea, Hew Xork, October 1953, p.. 339*- . Figure 1 Age* Period Family Person^) acquired Relationship Ssychooicjal Outcome. Infancy Training period Oedipal Hother Meeting physical needs @M love Mother Saras as above but. (others) giving some approval of Independence of sGif witliin family framework of patterns of behavior IktUiw? Love and aooeptaiios (father) underpinning reality of sexual rol&s in feaiOy Siblings Sofepa Hvaliy but basic lovs laaiily Asexual Salt as a whole faaily love relation- patterns siiipe ifoaily unit fatal family security Safety for relinquishments of dependence on mother to more mature dependence on family Child learns independence comes by accepting basic parental patterns of behavior. 0&&Xd*s acceptance of sexual role of parent of ea&o gex. socially bat re-pression of sexual rivalry with that person for parent of opposite sex. Child learns that he has liiidig as well as possibi-l i t i e s for relationship with peears. Later iraao* ferred to peer group. Sesexualization of primary relationship with,' parents by giving the child a sense that he will becoiae the nucleus of a future family.. 1 Adaptation to (social group outside family unit. Haven in .tfoae of stress or difficulty - recharges his ability to get along in outside world. 3- Josselyn, Ibid. p. 3li0-lil Relationships and Besirable Psychosocial Results for Child Development when the Family i s considered as a Psychological Unit, 20 The Psychological Role of the gather In the Family According to Dr. Spurgeon 0. English th© variants of the father's role in the development of the child are as follows: 1, Companion and inspiration for mother. 2, Awakener of the emotional potentialities for the child. 3, Beloved friend and teacher of the child. h. Ego ideal for masculine love, ethics, and morality. $• Model for social and vocational behavior. 6. Stabilizing influence for solution of the Oedipus complex 7. Protector, mentor and hero of the grade school child. 8. Counsellor and friend for the adolescent. 1 The psychological Role of the Mother in the Family Much has been written about the importance of the mother's role i n the physical and emotional development of the child — her role in the gratifi-cation of the child's need for love and affection, and of good physical care during the f i r s t year of l i f e ; of patience and guidance and continued loving care, especially throughout the f i r s t five years of l i f e . The mother i s actually the center of American family l i f e inasmuch as she spends the great-est amount of time in the home and carried on the greatest number o f Imme-diate family functions. Her personality forms a pattern for the ego ideal of feminine love with which the daughter can identify and with which the son can choose as a basis for his future choice of a feminine mate. In a broader sense the mother forms the symbolic basis for family l i f e . "The family thus retains throughout l i f e the symbolic meanings of the motherj i t becomes a token of security but free of the limiting bonds of the intimate Hother-child relationship." 2 0. Spurgeon English, "The Psychological Hole of the lather in the Family", Social Casework!, October l$$h, p* 32°., 2 • Josselyn, op. c i t . , p. 339 21 Roles of Family Members in a Changing Society Benedek* has described the change that is occurring i n relation-ship to the mania economic and authoritative role in family l i f e i n this culture. . In the past the father was the acknowledged head of the house-r hold as well as Its economic center. Today he is absent from the home during most of i t s waking hours. Increasing importance is being plaoed i n the motherrchild relationship in the child's ideal development, particularly i n the early years of l i f e . These factors seem to place the father in a position of secondary importance. As Josselyn says, he is i n danger of becoming the "forgotten man". Furthermore, the father's economic role Is becoming less well-defined as many jobs take on an abstract character. This must be particularly difficult for the sons i n ihe family who in the past derived from the father a pattern of economic functioning. The mother's role in the family activity has been changed by a world of gadgets, by increased day nursery facilities, by the removal of her educational role to that of the public school, and by increased emphasis on her capability of functioning economically, and politically as readily as a man. $£tile these factors seem to work toward removing many of the traditional family activities from the mother, increased emphasis has been laid in popularised versions of scientific studies on the importance of the mother-child relationship to child development.. Mead, among other students, has pointed out these factors make for confusion to the growing ohild who i s trying to obtain patterns for adult living from his mother and father. The Importance of Family Membership. Josisslyn emphasises the importance of family membership to the 1 Therese Senedek, '"The Emotional Structure of the Family", The Usually, Its Function and Eeatiny. Bath Honda. Anshen (ed.). Harper and Brothers, Hew 22 child. She sayo: "the child appears not only to want the love of the per-son toward whom his ambivalent feelings are directed, but also acceptance i n the family unit, 1* 1 This seems to correspond to the need for "belonging" which i s something most persons understand but find hard to define. Redfield points out that family l i f e "derives i t s strength from a sense of standing together as a group struggling against d i f f i c u l t i e s , of standing for something. More fundamental than mutual participation i s the need for sharing a common goal." 2 i t would appear that the feeling of Membership i n the family as far as the child i s concerned not only pertains to acceptance within the family group but an identification with toe family group as a unit of importance i n relation to other families i n the community, and to the community as a Whole. The participation of family members i n jmitaally 'important projects such as economic maintenance Is disappearing from the family scene, with the gradual change of centers of economic activity from the family i t s e l f to the broader community - brought about by industrial development. The : mutual goals of family l i f e also seem less defined than formerly. I t has always boon the function of the older generation to transmit basic principles of conduct to the younger generation. This used to be one of the impor-tant goals of family l i f e . Today, however, many students Have noted that ' parents are often unsure of just what they do stand f o r and Just what they do want from l i f e . Rapid social Change i n a democracy, and industrial and technological changes, seem to be the mainsprings i n this confusion. • Values and goals seem to be i n flux as is l i v i n g i t s e l f . 1 Irene M. Josselyn, "The Family as a Psychological Unit", Social Casework, October, 1903, p. 339 Bedfield, "The American Family: Consensus and Freedom", Sourcebook of  Marriage and the Family, p. 1£ 23 The Problems of the Adolescent and hia Parents In this Culture Adolescence In this culture Is a confusing period of l i f e In which, along with a resurgence of sexual urges, largely dormant during the latency period, and changes i n physical appearance, the adolescent faces the con-fusion of finding his place in the world outside the family and defining future social roles. In primitive societies the problems of adolescence are not so complex. Tho relatively well defined functions of male and female adult roles help the adolescent face adult l i f e with certainty, furthermore the period of adolescence i s not so long in primitive society as i n this culture. Puberty rites mark the beginning of adulthood for the child with considerable clarity. In this culture, however, as has already been indicated, the problem of defining present and future roles i s some-what more complex. The adolescent does not know what to expect i n planning for adulthood because the adult female and male roles are less well defined. However, the adolescent i s pushed to adulthood by the resurgence of his sexual drives and the strong cultural pressure which makes marriage and parenthood incumbent upon him. The result of this confusion is that the adolescent i s torn bet-ween wanting to be a child and wanting to be a grown-up. Adulthood ie . pressed upon him and yet It i s too frightening because of it s confusion. He regresses to more childish forms of dependent behavior. At times he seeks to be almost totally dependent upon his parents. At other times parents are afraid of his emancipation, and he wants to be almost totally Independent from them. This conflict produces Insecurity which often leads to the expression of the conflict in hostility toward the parents on the one hand, or withdrawal into fantasy worlds on the other. At times the adolescent may wish that he had a different set of parents, a more "giving'1 set as i n 2U infancy j or ones who s i l l "give" only admiration and complete freedom. Students i n the fields of psychiatry and psychology, since the time of Freud, have observed that a- child l i v i n g with his natural parents often has at various stages of development two pairs of parents i n his snind. In a short a r t i c l e "Fas&ly Romances" (1909) Freud describes a special type of fantasy occurring with most children of preadoleseent age. In these daydreams they try to get r i d of their own parents, whom they have learned to c r i t i c i s e , and substitute tot them, as a rule* other parents on a much higher social l e v e l , dukes, kings and querns, heroes or millionaires -depending upon what the children have read or heard. Freud espialno how aggressive criticism and feelings of revenge develop i n children toward parents who have punished them for mistakes and sexual behavior but who turn out to be far from perfect, and who indulge i n sexual pleasure themselves. The fantasy figures Show more or less dis t i n c t l y t r a i t s of the real parents-and i t became clear that the children do not eliminate their own parents i n their fantasies but rather esstalt then. These daydreams, Freud concludes, are tha expression of the children's longing for the lost happy period of thei r lives when father appeared as the most powerful af a l l men and mother . as the most beautiful and lovable of a l l women. The overestimation of parents at a very early age i s reproduced i n the children's fantasies. -Harry Stack Sullivan has also observed this and from Ills remarks i t seems that the dichotomy may go back to infancy i n the child's person-a l i t y development. He sayss ^"Thanks i n no small part to the incredible power which verbal behavior seems to exercise i n interpersonal situations, and to the great energy devoted by mature people around the very young child to equip him with the most important of a l l human tools, language, i t becomes quite impossible for the c h i l d to carry forward any striking surviving evidence of his earliest impressions of two mothers - one which gives tenderness and co-operation 25 In th© satisfaction of needs and one who carries anxiety and interferes with the satisfaction of needs,. Although ttiis dichotomy pertaining to one real person can go on at the lower strata, you might say, cf personality, i t can scarcely survive very long the high-pressure acculturation which makes one person '•mama" and the other person, sister... Thus no matter how thoroughly organised the two separate personifications of the good mother arid the bad mother were, their Individuality is lost or fused i n a later personification, in the process of learning language. But this fusion i s not to be taken as ccsprehexjaive., In other words, a l l attributes organised in infancy i n their personification in the bad mother ara not necessarily or probably present i n the personification of mother as i t begins to be conspicuous In childhood. . And i t can scarcely be possible under any circumstances that a l l the attributes of the good mother can be fused into the childhood personifications of mother. Under certain circumstances we see evidence which makes this statement practically beyond doubt; that i s , in later l i f e the person seeks, and can quite clearly be proved to be seeking, someone who will f i t fairly closely to the personification of good mother, in aspects which are not shown In the personification of the real siother*"! Dr. Florence Clothier has observed that this is a special problem for the separated child. She says that a l l children tend to fantasy about 5 having other; parents who would treat them better than the ones with whom they live. - For tha natural child this can be a game, but for the adopted child, the fact that he has had other parents i s a reality. Be has been forsaken, by his real parents about whom he knows nothing. He finds an easy escape from the frustrations inherent in his home education by assuming the attitude that these, his foster parents are bad and wicked. • Bis own parents (or possibly previous foster parents) from whom he was "stolen" are represented in fantasy as good parents to whom he owes love and allegiance, 2 ftohlsaat and Johnson make the same point.^ * Harry S. Sullivan, The Interpersonal 'fheory of Psychiatry, W. 1?. Horton and Company, Inc., Hew York, l#xJ, p.' 2db." 2 Florence Clothier, "The Psychology of the Adopted Child", Mental Hygiene. Hational Association for Mental Hygiene, Albany, Hew York, April l^'to*, p.azz 3 B. Sohlsaat and A. Johnson, "Some Suggestions for Practice in Infant Adoptions", Social Casework. March l$5b, p. 92 26 Assumptions, Objectlyee, and Methods o£ the Study . I t has been postulated i n this etsdy that the concern about the natural parents i s not something tfhich can be explained i n biological terms. There probably l a no r^steiions biological connection between natural parents and their children. Rather, as Head points out, concern about the natural parents may be seen from the child's point of viet* In a broad sense as resulting from" a need defined by the culture i n which the chi l d l i v e s , Studies of adoption practises among primitive peoples support this view by indicating that children are separated from their parents movsd from one set of adoptive parents to another with no apparent feeling of less. In North American Family l i f e where the goal i n l i f e i e parenthood within the confines of marriage and where the predominant prac-tice Is for biological parents to roar their ohildren, i t would seem that the need from the child's point of view for being reared by the natural parents may be greater than In other cultures. Conversely, the chil d who does cot have the esgperlence of being reared by natural parents may have, under certain circumstances, a feeling of great personal loss on account of thi s circumstance, feJhat factors seem to define a child's feeling of loss or concern for not having been reared by his natural parents? An attempt to answer this question i s the central focus of the study. In order to answer this question i t i s necessary to formulate a conceptual framework f o r studying those factors i n the permanently sepa-rated foster child's immediate environment whioh Seem to define his con-t cam about his natural parents. I t i s assumed that the adolescent foster -child looks out at the world generally i n much the same way as Other adolescents i n a general sense. He i s torn between the need to be depen-dent upon adult figures and the need to establish his own independence of 27 psychosocial functioning. Occasionally, l i k e a l l children, he may fantasy about ideal parents i n his anger and disappointment at ths people who function i n the real parental role. Certain adolescent foster children seem intensely preoccupied with a set of parents whom they do not know.. What particular combination of factors intensifies this Interest i n "unreal" parents? The f i r s t phase of the research w i l l attempt to draw from a study of pertinent literature i n the fie l d s of social psychology, psychiatry, and social work, those factors which seem to intensify the adolescent foster child's concern about his unknown natural parents. These factors w i l l be l i s t e d i n a schedule which w i l l provide a conceptual framework for a study of the incidence of the factors i n selected oase records of adolescents, who show intense concern about their unknown natural parents. The second phase of the research w i l l be an application of the framework to the case records. I f the factors i n the schedule can be identified i n the case records i t w i l l be assumed that the purpose of tile study w i l l have been accomplished, namely, the formulation of a conceptual framework with which to view the factors which seem to intensify the adolescent foster child's concern about his natural parents. . Chapter 2. Factors which may intensify The Adolescent Foster Child's Concern - A Review of the Literature. Introduction The purpose of this chapter i s to review relevant literature from the fields of social work, psychiatry and social psychology which has dealt with the separated foster child's concern about his unknown parent. Although the literature i s sparse on the subject, i t can be divided into th© following rough categories; (1) expository material based on general f i e l d experience (2) expository material based *ipon c l i n i c a l study of specific cases. I t i s possible that some of the literature has been overlooked by the writer inasmuch as no library study i n this area appears to have been printed, and for that matter, no bibliography appears to have been collected. The literature was reviewed with the object of selectings (1) basic causative factors i n the child's concern about his unkown parents (2) precipitating factors i n the child's concern. Many ^ f the factors had to be inferred from the literature inasmuch ae i t was found i n many cases to be too vague and generalized. Basle Causative Factors. For purposes of the study, th© writer decided that a basio contrite-, uting factor could be viewed from the standpoint of historical causation. In other words, the writer looked for those factors previous to adolescence which might have a relatiunship to the child's concern about hie natural parents. Precipitating factors on the other hand would be those i n the immediate daily environment which would lead to the adolescent's being concerned about his own parents. 29 1, Separation Trauma In Infancy as a,, causative Factor* One student of the subject, i n an analysis of the concern of a six year old adopted child for his .unknown parents advanced the theory that the main cause of the child's concern was "archaic trauma" i . e . a hurtful t separation experience i n the f i r s t six months of l i f e , 1 The case presented was that of Carl* a German war refugee who had been kidnapped from his parents by the Seals during the f i r s t few months of his l i f e , near the end of World War I I , He was placed i n an institution where he and the other children received extremely poor care* Hany of the infants died. After the war, at the age of a year and a half, Carl was placed i n a United Nation's Childrens* Center. After a stay i n the childrens' center of about a year, when Carl was two and a half, he was sent to the United States for adoption* The adoptive parents were carefully chosen and seemed to be sensitive to the child's needs. At the age of three he was ( told he was adopted and ostensibly aecpeted this quite well* However, as time went on, he became more and more concerned about who his natural parents were, why they could not keep him, and so on. Although Carl was aided through close psychiatric consultation i n working out his concern about his own parents,, after a year and a half of intensive work of this kind by both the psychiatric consultant and the adoptive mother, much of Carl's concern remained.. He refused to believe that his parents were dead and expressed this concern i n many ways, i n fantasy and i n anti-social behaviour. Although well-adjusted i n school and apparently happy i n most areas of l i v i n g , Carl s t i l l could not accept the facts of his separation. Or. Hens Spits i n commenting on the case advanced the following theory* 1 Bene Spits "Discussion of the Working Through Process i n Dealing with Anxiety around Adoption" by Marion Barnes, Journal of Orthopsychiatry, July, 1953, pp* 605^620. 30 "X believe that the symptoms, described by Hiss Barnes (concern about natural parents) should be viewed as a secondary elaboration b u i l t upon the original trauma which had as a basic pattern the kidnapping from home. As the result of this basic pattern any kind of change i n situation repeats the signal of insecurity, provokes the expectation that terrible things are going to happen. The change i s situational one and can refer indiscrim-inately to persons, objects, houses and l o c a l i t i e s . Any change i n Carl's physical environment or i n his emotional environment w i l l act as a trigger to produce symptoms that reenact the feeling of disorientation which he experienced on the occasion of the f i r s t trauma, I t w i l l produce something analagous to the 'catastrophe reac-tion' described by Kurt Goldstein i n the brain injured. But according to his mora advanced age, Carl now refers his anxiety to the person who l e f t him or who i s leaving him, or whom he i s leaving, to the house to which he moves, to the l o c a l i t y to which he changes. Security for Carl has come to mean an unchanging s t a t i c , t o t a l environment."* Spits' theory i s that i f an infant i s separated from the mothering-one i n infancy (the f i r s t six: months) before the ego i s differentiated, the infant organism experiences "total" conditioned shock which i s devast-ating because conditioning i s the basic way of l i f e at this time. This produces a situation of complete disorientation for the c h i l d . The fear of such an experience recurring i s so great that the ohlld cannot stand change l e s t the shock reoccur. The concern about the natural parents i s a symbolic expression of the original hurtful experience. Solomon has said, i n explaining the dynamics of this kind of experience, that i t i s analogous to what happens i n the personality when an adult f a l l s o f f a horse or i s hurt i n an aeroplane. I f the person does not go back up i n an aeroplane, for example, he may build up too many fantasies of the incident. "Similarly, the child who has been exposed to traumatic situations i n his real l i f e builds up fantasies more terrifying than the original trauma because of the condensation of previous trauma and Loc. c i t . p 620. the elaborations which take place as characteristic of the c h i l d . This may be an attempt upon the part of the organism to repair the damage of the trauma, but often i t serves to intensify or. amplify the t r a u m a W h e t h e r fantasy about the parent i s an attempt to repair the damage of trauma of separation> or whether i t i s a reaction triggered by situations similar ,to the trauma i s an interesting point for speculation. The major point i s that fantasy about title natural parents, according to these writers, i s directly connected with the original hurtful experience i n infancy. The assumption would be that a ch i l d , moved directly from the hospital where he was born, shortly after birth to an adoptive or boarding mother where he received love and care necessary for healthy emotional growth, would not have as much occasion to • - ; fantasy about his natural parents as the child who was taken from i t s i mother and placed i n circumstances where i t s psychological l i f e wasin danger. In contrast, Carl remained i n physical danger for a year and a half j and without any Individual adult relationship for two and a half years* with only a few months of individual care. Lack of Continuity i n Parental Figures. In essence this factor i s closely related to the previous one. It may be defined as lack of experience on the part of the child i n having consistent relationships with the same adult figures and i n having a reasonable semblance of order and continuity i n those relationships. ' In a study of forty adolescent foster children who wore concerned about their own parents but who had no t i e s i n r e a l i t y with them, Stone found "that almost a l l the children had been i n some kind of placement before they became known to the agency and many of them had a number of placements after service 1 Joseph C* Solomon> "Play Technique and the Integrative Process", Journal  of Orthopsychiatry, July, 1955. 32 by the agency was i n i t i a t e d . Such a c h i l d i s d e f i n i t e l y an anxious c h i l d . We see i n hire the c h i l d who cannot r e l a t e to and stake constructive use of the s o c i a l treatment offered oy the agency. Thus he movos from foster-home to foster-home and thereby increases and deepens the v i c i o u s cycle by which hi s l i f e i s already characterized.* levy describes these persons i n l a t e r l i f e as ones "Whose s o c i a l l i f e represents a series of relationships with older people, every one of whom i s a substitute mother. They may be s i n g l e , or i n combination, the point being that the patient must, throughout l i f e , be i n contact with a person from whom the same demands are made as those that were thwarted i n the o r i g i n a l experience with the mother. The l i f e pattern then becomes dependent upon making such relationships."2 This i s the person s i m i l a r to the one Su l l i v a n describes as seeking a f t e r the good mother. (See Chapter 1 ) . As Anna Freud says, "repeated rejection by separation i n t e n s i f i e s the process of d e t e r i o r a t i o n (of a b i l i t y to form relationships) and produces persons who are d i s s a t i s f i e d , shallow, and worst af a l l , promiscuous i n t h e i r relationships."3 Here again the concern about the natural parents may be interpreted not as concern about the s p e c i f i c parents per se, but as symbol of the basic anxiety i n the i n d i v i d u a l . Continuity i n Parental Figures but Basic Rejection by Them* Xt would appear that even though the c h i l d has had continuity i n parental r e l a t i o n s h i p s , he might be concerned about h i s natural parents by reason of the f o s t e r parents' r e j e c t i o n of him. Rejection may be viewed as 1 * Sarah Stone, "Children Without Hoots", S o c i a l Service Heview, June 1953 pp 146-147. 2» Levy, J)., American Journal of Psychiatry, 94, p. 645. (1932) 3« Anna Freud, "Safeguarding the Emotional Health of Our Children?  Casework Papers, Rational Conference on S o c i a l Work, 1 & > 4 , p. 1 2 . a form of psychological separation which has similar effects upon the i personality as physical separation* Every child experiences a certain amount of rejection i n his l i f e , as when a new child comes into the home* What i s referred to here i s basic lack of acceptance of the child upon the part of the foster parent even when he continues to keep the child in the home* According to Anna Freud* rejection i s experienced by the ohild when there i s a basic lack of willingness upon the part of the parents to take care of the child, by physical separation of parents and child, by abnormality of the mother (refusal to let the child grow - overprotectiveness) and by inconstancy of feeling (alternation of rejection and acceptance of the child on the part of the parent-ambivalence).l That this may be a factor in the child's concern about his unknown parents i s inferred from Grace Hutchinson's observations which she made after several children who were concerned about their natural parents were interviewed* She observed that the interest in the parents was not so intense in those children who seemed to have made a good foster parent-child relationship adjustment*2 However, the literature i s not very clear on actual evidence of this point* In a study made by Eppich and Jenkins of the experience of 38 sets of adoptive parents in telling tho adopted ohildren about their background, i t was found that very few of these adopted children asked any questions about their natural parents* In many instances the adoptive parents did not fully accept the adoptive child. However, in one case cited in the study, that of an eight and a half year old boy who asked persistent questions about his adoption, the writers raised the question of rejection in connection with a child's concern about his own parents. They 1 Anna Freud, loc. c i t . 2 Grace Hutchinson, "Who am I", The Child, February, 1347, U.S. Childrens' Bureau, Hashington. 1 34 commented a "X think that Hr. Gray would l i k e Jim to feel grateful to the . family for adopting him* He w i l l not Introduce even the slightest b i t of history to ease any of the i n f e r i o r i t y Jim may be feeling, although the history i s good* Hr. Gray i s a rather insecure person himself and has a great need to be dominant. Jim seems a threat to him and t think that Mr. Gray feels as long as Jim i s insecure about his background he w i l l not be more of a threat."1 Stone observes that i n a good adoptive, home where there i s a good relationship between parents and children "the knowledge about his (the child's) natural background i n later years can be assimilated with a rainirauta of anxiety or trauma."2 Kohlsaat and Johnson make the point that poor parent-child relationships may be a factor i n the child's concern about his own parents. "Host children, when momentarily angry wish they had a different set of parents. Adopted children, likewise, remain bound to fantasies of how wonderful their own parents might have been only when the adoptive parents neurotically drive them to such a pitch."3 Florence Clothier has said: "If a child's identification with his adoptive parents i s complete he w i l l have no need to search for his own true parents. I f his identification with his family i s incomplete, he w i l l repeatedly return to fantasy about his natural parents."4 I t would seem a l o g i c a l inference that i f separation trauma and repeated separation experiences (forms of rejection) tend to increase the foster child's concern about his natural parents, then other forms of 1 Ethel t). Eppich and Alma C. Jenkins, "Telling Adopted Children",- Studies of Children* G* Meyer (fid), Columbia University, King's Crown Press, Hew fork, i m , p. 124* 2 Stone, op. c i t . p. 144* 3 6. Kohlsaat and A. Johnsonj "Some Suggestions for Practice i n Infant Adoptions", Social Casework, March, 1954, p. 92. * Florence Clothier, "The Psychology of the Adopted Child", Etental Hygiene A p r i l , 1943. 35 rejection might also do this. Negative Attitudes on the Part of Foster Parents toward the Child's Own  Parents, This factor is closely related to the previous one* It i s probable that the "rejecting" foster parent would also have negative attitudes toward the child's real parents. Kohlsaat and Johnson uphold the view thatj "because of the possibility of neurotic character traits in the adoptive parents, they and the child must be protected by keeping them from any knowledge about the child's background which they can use as a cudgel."1 One example of this fact was cited which serves to describe the basis for their thinkingJ "As we know, some people who cannot produce children whether or not demonstrable organic disease i s present, have deep neurotic feelings of inferiority about femininity and masculinity. Such people, therefore, may be hoetilely envious of those who can bear children. It i s not surprising then that an adoptive mother may be hostilely envious of the baby's natural mother, whether the natural mother was married or not. This conclusion seems elementary to anyone who spends a moment thinking about i t . It i s not difficult to anticipate that the adoptive mother's hostile envy would come easily to the surface on provocation by the child and, with i t , a wish to depreciate the woman who could bear a child. Ten year old Anne, say, becomes angry over some issue and says to the adoptive mother, *You are mean to me. Ky own mother would have loved me more. I wish X had my own mother." Here i s a tailor-made opportunity for the envious woman, in word or tone, to depreciate the child's natural mother."2 Another mainspring of the parent's negative attitudes toward the child's own parents may be through social disapproval of the parent's behaviour, such as illegitimate parenthood. Johnson and Kohlsaat cite the Kohlsaat and Johnson, op. c i t . p. 92* 2* 8. Kohlsaat and A. Johnson "Some Suggestions for Practice in Infant Adoptions", Social Casework, March, 1954, p. 92* adoptive mother who t e l l e of*her fantasy that the child may get into sexual trouble because of heredity.* Stone also points out th i s p o s s i b i l i t y . 2 I t i s interesting to note i n connection with the attitudes of the foster parents toward the behaviour of the real parents that none of the ' thirty-eight pairs of parents i n Eppich's and Jenkins' study f e l t comfortable about the child's illegitimacy and about t e l l i n g the child about i t . Yet apparently none of them depreciated the child's background. On the other hand, "these who were glad their child was a foundling were usually the most insecure."3 This seems to imply that the persons who accepted the child's parents least, by not wanting to know about the child's natural parents, were also the people who had the most personality problems. This would seem to indicate that the foster parents• attitude toward the natural parents i s closely related to their own a b i l i t y to accept the child f u l l y . f Concealment of Information about the Natural Parents from the Child. Jalowics has pointed out that strong feelings of conflict may be present i n the child and that "the strength and influence of these feelings are increased by their c o n c e a l m e n t T h e theory here would be that concealment of information may intensify fantasy around the subject. A comparable thing takes place often when the facts about sex are concealed from the ch i l d . His lack of information tends to make him wonder and *• Ibid. 2 # Stone, Ibid, p. 150. 3* Bppich and Jenkins, op. c l t . p. 128. Alameda P. Jalowica, "A Foster Child needs his own Parents", The Child, August 1947, p. 21. 37 fantasy more about seat* Tho ttaineprings of Concealment sight l i s l a the foster parents* rejr&tloa o f the child and his natural parents* I t sight l i e sore i n the area of the foster parent's feelings about sex as observed by Hppieh and Jenkinst "fna adaptive parents who were able to give the most history to their children were also the families who discussed sex information with them Eisei f u l l y . 1 * 1 Another factor may be the fact that the adoptive parents actually come to f e e l that the children arc their own* "Almost a l l adoptive parents arc threatened by the idea of including the natural parents i a their own thoughts and i n the child's l i f e * $o them the l i f e of their child actually begins at the time of placement into their family* ESQttonally, they have given birth to the chil d they have wanted and waited for* Ae tiros goes by and acceptance of his* intensifies, this emotional birth may also sees fc*> ths& a physical one, to f u l f i l l tlteir inner wishes that he be a product of thsaa."2 that this factor i s not as operative i n the boarding parents* situation i s obvious* while aany af them may want to make the child their own, the worker and the agency are too much i n the picture to ever allow them to feel the same as an adoptive parent. Whether or nab concealment by i t s e l f stakes for greater concern en the part of the child about his natural p&renta does not seesa to be indicated i n the study by Applch and Jenkins* The Attitudes toward t e l l i n g the children ranged fros almost complete hiafcory t e l l i n g tt&a the beginning on the one extreme to complete conceal&ftnt on the other hand* these students found thatt "In general the adopted children reported cn i n this study did not Btfeel 8. i^tpich end alma C. Jenkins, " f e l l i n g Adapted Children", Studies  o f Children. p« 125* 2* Ibid, p* 125. 38 spontaneously seek oat information about their backgrounds or the details of their adoptions* there was not, contrary to expectations, much natural questioning on the part of the child* There was no series of question which the parent, the worker, or anyone could anticipate as the child grew i n perception and understanding. There were no set age levels at which certain ohildren asked certain questions* Very few of these adopted children asked any questions about their backgrounds...they did not take advantage of the situations that a few adoptive parents created to enable them to ask for information. One boy was told that he could look at the adoption papers but refused to take advantage of the opportunity* Concealment of information about the natural parents may have more intensifying effects on the foster child's concern inasmuch as the worker frequently v i s i t s the child and the child's surname i s usually different from that of the foster parents* The adopted child conceivably could never know of his adoption i f he lived i n a community where no one knew of his adoption and his adoptive parents failed to t e l l him about i t . The foster c h i l d , because of the factors mentioned above probably knows i n a general sense during his early years that he i s not the natural ohild of his foster parents. Failure on the part of the foster parents to t e l l him about his status may, therefore, lead him to wonder about his "difference" i n status. 4s i n the case of sexual fantasy, mentioned ea r l i e r , he would then be apt to build up . a structure of fantasy around this difference. As Syroonds has noted, the child tends to elaborate In fantasy ideas and feelings whioh he does not have the opportunity to face i n r e a l i t y . Concealment, therefore, i s devas-tating because there can be only p a r t i a l concealment at best. Usually i n adolescence the foster or adopted child w i l l learn of his "difference" and l o Eppich and Jenkins, i b i d , pp. 122-123. 39 the degree to whioh this i s disturbing to him often varies with the degree of concealment of information about his natural parents and. difference i n status which he experienced in early years. This will be discussed more fully under, precipitating factors. Extreme of "Colour Difference" Between Foster Parents and Poster Child. ISppich and Jenkins have pointed out: "If a good matching job is done (between adoptive parents and adopted child) the child w i l l not heed to feel either inferior or superior to the family group i n which he i s placed, By inference, the writer understands that this means that a child should be as similar as possible in torms of physical appearance, and general intelligence to the adoptive parents. the grossest "difference" would be an extreme variation in raeial background. As yet l i t t l e i s known as to how this variation affects the foster ohild. very rarely do adoptions take place between parents and children of different racial backgrounds. In foster care programs, because of the scarcity of adoption homes for children of particular racial groups, i t i s often necessary to place children in foster families* homes where the racial background of the child i s different from that of the foster parents. These placements are s t i l l in the stage of experimentation and l i t t l e i s known as to the effects they have on the personality of the children. Probably the effects vary as to the degree of racial prejudice which exists in different communities. None of the writers studied have brought this subject into tile open. It might be true that, i f the child's physical appearance differs significantly from that of tho foster parents that he would tend to wonder about his back-ground and need reassurance and acceptance on the part of the adults i n regard Eppich and Jenkins, ibid. p. 127. 40 to h i s o r ig in* This wr i te r f e e l s that t h i s may be a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e n s i f y i n g fac to r i n the c h i l d ! s concern about h i s natura l parents and should be inc luded as a causative factor* P r e c i p i t a t i n g Factors i n the C h i l d ' s Concern about h i s Unknown Parents. •A p r e c i p i t a t i n g fac to r i n the c h i l d ' s concern abcut h i s unknown b i o l o g i c a l parents may be defined as any f a c t o r i n the c h i l d ' s inner o r outer world which seemed to be the immediate reason f o r h i s asking about h i s unknown parents . 1. Separation Experience as P r e c i p i t a t i n g factor* The f a c t that a c h i l d ' s concern about h i s parents might be i n t e n s i f i e d by a separation experience i n the c h i l d ' s outer world has been noted by Barnes. Returning to tine case o f C a r l mentioned e a r l i e r i t i s reca l led that t h i s f a c t o r seemed to be a t r i g g e r which r e c a l l e d to C a r l the o r i g i n a l h u r t f u l experience. According to Barnes, "There has not been a s ing le ins tance , when one or both of the parents have gone out f o r the evening, that has not been accompanied by expressions of anx ie ty , although C a r l has been prepared i n advance and assured o f t h e i r r e t u r n . H is f e a r o f t h e i r poss ib le l o s s has been interpreted to him many t imes, but the o r i g i n a l traumata have been of such p a i n f u l nature that h i s anxiety i s s t i l l i n the process of being worked th rough . " 1 According to Barnes, C a r l was not on l y anxious about separation from people, but from f a m i l i a r p laces : "isach year , when the fami l y move from t h e i r winter home to t h e i r summer home, C a r l i s most uneasy, although he knows that the parents and t h e i r dogs a l l go together and return t o g e t h e r . " 2 This separation experience has been in terpreted by i ! • Marion j . Barnes, "The Working Through Process i n Anxiety Around Adoption**, Journal of Orthopsychiatry^ p . 609. 2 « I b i d . 41 Spite as a "signal of insecurity which provokes the expectation that terrible things are going to happen."1 It i s likely that a certain amount of separation anxiety exists in the inner world of a l l adolescents.. This may be directly referred to the need for the adolescent to emancipate himself from Ms parents. In an analysis of the fantasies of forty "normal" adolescent boys and girls through the use of the picture-story projection test, Symmonds discovered that relatively few themes occur with high frequency in adolescent fantasy. Among them are themes related to family, aggression, punishment, economic concern, separation and love, in that order.? This writer does not know how valid the methods of testing and correlation of themes were in this study: however, i t i s of note that separation themes correlated most positively with themes of parent figures and family* Several of the children in the study, however, had been separated from their parents at an early ages therefore, l t Is not known. In this writer's opinion how much fear of separation exists in the "Normal" adolescent. It would Seem safe to assume, however, the adolescent i s torn by the desire to separate-from the parental figures on the one hand and to be more dependent upon them on the other hand. A separation experience may then intensify a fear of separation which as a common denominator in the adolescent's personality and in relation to the specific adolescent foster child may reactivate the child's earlier separation fears which could be referred in a secondary way to his parents who abandoned him. On the other hand the separation fear in the adolescent's personality might be a causative factor in leading to reactivation of an, earlier, repressed fear, and thus lead to behaviour which would result in separation from foster parents. Kurt Lewin has hypothesized that such inner conflict might lead to Spit's, op.: c i t . , p. 619. 2 • a- . • . Symonds, Percival, Adolescent Fantasy, Columbia University Press, Hew York, l$h9 42 npn the one hand, increased uncertainty of behaviour and conflicts, and on the other hand, to the aggressiveness of some of the adolescent reactions ."* 2. Prior Concealment of Knowledge about Natural Parents and Sudden Revelation in Adolescence. Eda Bouwink cites a case which illustrates this factor. A boy had been adopted from birth. In most ways the writer felt that his adjustment had been normal. However, he did have some conflict about separation from the adoptive parents and going out on his own. The adoptive parents on the other hand were in conflict about whether to t e l l him about his adoption. When the child was eighteen, they went to a local clergyman to ask his advice about when to t e l l the child and he advised them to wait until the boy was about to be married. In an argument with the adoptive family, the boy was told that he was adopted. This seemed to Shatter his world and he spent the next three years hunting down information about his biological mother. Finally he found her and met her. The result of this search and discovery was that the boy developed "a stronger, more realistic tie with his adoptive parents."2 The dynamica of the effects of concealment and sudden revelation have been explained by Kurt Lewin en a theoretical basis. He says that this situation i s aaalagous to that of a Hegro g i r l brought up in the Northern united States with the expectation and belief the Hegroes and White people are equal in status. Suddenly she finds herself, in adolescence, in a situation i n which she i s discriminated against. She has a complete break-down in adaptation. Kurt Lewin, "The Field Theory Approach to Adolescence", The Adolescent, J. Sudma (£d), The Dryden Press, New York, 1333, p. 37. 2» Eda Houwiak, "An Adopted'Child Seeks His Own Hother", Child Welfare  League of Ataerica, Bulletin Vo. XXXI, Ho. 4. 43 "The histories of fostor children reveal (similar) tragic developments, A child adopted very young grows up believing his foster parents to be his true parents* They do not t e l l the child the truth, wishing him to regard them as his true parents. It i s not unusual, however, that around the age of fifteen or seventeen he i s told by someone that he i s 'merely* a foster child. The result i s frequently devastating beyond a l l expectation. There are oases where the child who was a good student at school loses his high rank, stops taking any work seriously and turns into a vagabond. Such reactions have been observed where the foster-parents continue to give the child every proof of their undiminishing love and loyalty and nothing has changed i n the 'objective' relations of the family. In such cases the deplorable effect seems to be excessively out of proportion, for nothing else than the child's feeling of belonging to the parents has been changed."1 A partial dynamic, explanation of this effect i s that "the group to which an individual belongs i s the ground on which he stands, which gives or denies him help and security. The firmness or weakness of this ground might not be consciously perceived, just as the firmness of the physical ground i s not always thought of. Dynamically, however, the, firm-ness and clearness of tills ground determines what the individual wishes to * do, and how he will do i t . This i s true equally of the sooial ground as well as. the physical ground."2 The sudden knowledge, especially when received during adolescence, weakens the social ground in the social structure of the child's psychological world and "his own position (as far as the child's perceptions are concerned) has changed, and therefore a change of the relation to the totality of the facts existing in his world has taken place...He too has seen a world built up for years break down In a moment« and his faith In the stability of the ground on which he stands !• Kurt Lev&n, "Resolving Social Conflicts", Harper and Brothers, Mew Tork, 1948, p. 173u • • • • — -8* Ibid. p. 174. 44 and nance his willingness to make plans for the future i s l o s t . " * Such a sudden change i n social ground i s particularly devastating to the adolescent because his world i s fraught with insecurity and conflict* The sudden sh i f t i n social ground imposes further strain and pressure on a personality which i s already under the severe pressure of facing other sudden changes, both physiological and psychological, and social* Thus the new strain pushes the adolescent's shaky personality to the point of disintegration* In earlier years, particularly i n latency when the chi l d i s relatively certain about himself and world around him, such a new burden would not be as devastating because the child's personality at that time i s secure and well-intograted enough to cope with additional pressure* . Psychosexual Conflicts and Confusion Aroimd Future Social Sexual Role* One way psyebosexual conflicts and confusion about social-sexual role could be a precipitating factor i n the adolescent foster child's, concern about bis natural parents might l i e i n the area of a sense of shame with the natural parents' sexual behaviour i n such instances as when the child learns about his Illegitimacy. Adolescence i s a period whan the chi l d has to cope with resurgence of sexual drives, repressed during latency, and to Integrate them with culturally acceptable forms of sexual behaviour, the primary form of adult socially acceptable sexual behaviour i n t h i s culture i s sexual behaviour within the confines of legal marriage. John Sirjamaki, i n formulating "Cultural Configurations of the American Family" has observedt "Carriage i s the dominating goal for men and women. It i s f e l t that married l i f e i s the normal, desired condition f o r a l l adults, that i t brings the greatest Ibid. p. 175. 45 personal happiness and fulfillment, and that i t permits the proper exercise of sex for the procreation of children arid for individual satisfaction. "*. Conflicts about sexual behaviour which i s socially acceptable are -particularly strong i n adolescence. Part of the conflict seems to l i e i n the realm of morals (what a person ought to do). Symonds, among Others, has noted that adolescents have rather r i g i d moral standards. > Epplch and Jenkins have noted the close a f f i n i t y between the child's questions about sex and about his unknown biological parents. 2 Barnes has noted that Carl's concern about his own parents was precipitated i n part by hie concern about sexual information and sexual-social role.5 Kohlsaat and Johnson have noted this area as a factor i n the child's concern about his unknown parents* "Adolescent boys and g i r l s have a need to believe that their natural father or mother have never acted out ahtisocially* Adolescent boys and g i r l s are more l i k e l y to hold themselves i n l i n e sexually when they sense i n their parents mutual esteem and protective respect toward each other, through identification with such parents adolescents come to treat persons of the opposite sex with similar generosity and kindness. I f they hear of serious disrespect or antisocial acting out on tho part of the parents, their own sense of security i s shaken: they hostilely identify with such parents and may set out similarly, their sexuality fused with sadomasoehism (punishment of self through punishment of others). In other words, the g i r l feels, I am so ashamed of my mother's a f f a i r s , and therefore so angry, that I don't care what X do. The boy feels, Women are not to be 1. John Slrjamaki, ''Cultural Configurations, i n The American Family", American, Journal of Sociology, Hay, 1948* 2« Eppioh and Jenkins, "Telling Adopted Children", Studies of Children, p. 122* 5* Barnes, op. c i t . pp. 608-610. 46 trusted, X hate them a l l and w i l l use them as I wish. This applies to children with adoptive parents as well as to children with own parents, what they w i l l do hostilely i f they hear of antisocial sexual behaviour i n their parents i s highly predictable," 1 This "identification" with the sexual misconduct of unknown natural parents has also been observed i n a case Jalowicz. 2 An Analysis of the Factors. flany of the factors are closely interrelated. Severe separation trauma might make i t impossible for a child to adjust i n a "normal" foster family* In such a case the c h i l d might be re-placed, not because of the foster family's rejection of hint i n a psychological sense, but because of their knowledge that they could not give him emotional security. Such a child, without receiving psychological treatment might l i v e i n several family environments, but be part of none of them. Therefore, he would experience not only separation trauma, but also lack of continuity i n parental figures. On the other hand, the child might have been able to settle i n a foster family even though he was traumatizedx however, part i a l rejection by tho foster parents might be too much for the child to take and i t would result i n another placement for the c h i l d . Thus the chain reaction of lack of continuity i n parental figures and frequent separation experiences would then start over again. Sometimes the child might not be traumatized i n infancy "but would experience rejection whieh might lead to further separation experiences. !• B. Kohlsaat and A. Johnson, "Some Suggestions f o r Practice i n Infant Adoptions", Social Casework, March 1954, pp, 92-93. Alameda fl. Jalowics, "A Foster Chilfi Heeds His Own Parents", The Child, August, 1947, p. 22. 47 Cn the other hand* a child might be traumatized, but remain in one foster home because Of a neurotic attachment to the foster parents* In this case, the child might have continuous parental figures in his l i f e but lack the basic love needed for growth because of the foster parent's psychological rejection of him* It i s not unknown for a child to have experienced trauma in infancy, frequent separation experiences In early childhood, and yet to have finally found foster parents who accepted him to such an extent that his previous problems were alleviated and their effects on his personality modified* The interrelation between concealment of information about the natural parents and rejection of the child by the foster parents has already been discussed. None of the basic causative factors would be clear-cut entities, although the impact of one factor might be greater upon the child's concern than others. Neither can a precise distinction be made between basic causative factors and immediate precipitating factors. Sudden revelation of inform-ation to the child about his natural parents in adolescence might not be so devastating i f virtual concealment of this information had not preceded i t in the child's earlier years. Negative attitudes toward the natural parents and/or rejection might also be closely related to the precipitating factor of revelation of information in adolescence. The impact of information given by a "rejecting" foster parent might have much more disturbing effects on the child than the impact of such information i f given by "accepting" foster parents, even i f the information was previously concealed by both. The distinction between causative factors and immediate precipitating factors was made for convenience of exposition, . It.was also thought that Certain factors such as social-sexual conflicts would be a more immediate precipitating 48. factor i u adolescence than i t would have been previously: thus the d i s -tinction might serve the purpose of focussing on the more long-range factors, as distinguished from the short-range factors. With the close connection between these factors i n mind, the writer w i l l use them as an outline f o r study of seven cases of adolescent foster children, wards of the Vancouver Ohildren*s Aid Society, who showed intense concern about their natural parents from whom? they were permanently separated at an early age. An attempt w i l l be made i n Chapter 3 to identify and describe these factors as they appear i n the ease records. Chapter 3 A Description and an identification of the Sectors in Seven Case Records. The conceptual framework developed from the review of the lite r a -ture in Chapter 2 was used to study the case records of seven adolescent foster children who showed Intense concern about the natural parents from whom they had been separated during the first three years of l i f e . . Each of the factors as they appeared in the records are identified and discussed in this chapter in the light of each child's ease history* Hp attempt was made to establish definitely that one factor had more impact upon the child's concern than another, although the case descriptions are suggestive of which factors seem most significant* The purpose ef the research i s exploratory rather than definitive* therefore, i t was thought sufficient as an objective of the research to identify the factors and describe them in the light of each case history* More definitive research would hopefully be able to determine which factors were most significant in a given child's concern* Method of Selecting Case Records In order to select the cases for study, the writer asked two social workers, experienced In working with adolescent fester children, "toe following question: "Of a l l the foster children in adolescence with whom you have worked, diicb, children seemed most concerned about their natural parents?" A condition of selection was that the ohildren must have been separated from their natural parents during the f i r s t three years of their l i f e in order to rule out the possibility of their being able to remember their parents consciously* The hypothesis was that a child who does not 5o know or who cannot r e c a l l his natural parents would have l i t t l e Ooncern about parental persons who were not i n his present reality world (escept for mild curiosity) unless some special factors i n his environment or in his personality were causing this concern. Concern was roughly defined as: (a) persistency i n request for information about the natural parents over an extended period of time even though the chil d had been given a l l the positive pertinent Infoxmation available about them, <b) persistency i n trying to fi n d the parents i n rea l i t y , (c) an elaboration of fantasy about the natural parents as to their good or bad qualities, physical appearance, reasons for abandonment of the child, or their moral behavior - which seemed to the social workers to occupy a great proportion of their thinking time, The method of selection was j u s t i f i e d upon the basis of expediency inasmuch as i t would be beyond the limits of time to study a l l the cases of adolescent foster children in this group to determine whioh ones were greatly concerned, some concerned, or l i t t l e concerned.' This would be properly the job of another study. Upon the basis of this question and these c r i t e r i a seven records were selected by the workers. Such a limited cample tsould be within the realm of the time available for. study. The cases wore thought to be suggestive rather than representative of a l l the cases i n this group, . Representativeness was considered relatively unimportant l h this exploratory study; however, i t was recognised that other cases sight reveal other factors upon study. Definition of the Factors For the purpose of study i t was decided that some effort should be made to define i n a general sense how each factor could be recognised. 51 Separation £rauma was defined ag a hurtful experience for the child which occurred as the result of his separation from th* mother*©n© during the f i r s t three years of l i f e . If the child was placed in an Institution during this period this was taken as an experience which would tend to intensify the trauma* If the child sieved frora one mother figure to another during these years of l i f e this was considered as evidence of trauma having taken place. Syssptons snch as psychosomatic feeding problem or disturbances of the digestive system were also seen as evidences of separation trauma. Lack of spontaneity In the child's behavior may also hay© been symptomatic of the tmwas,. althcu$x not always, 1, Lack of Continuity in Parental figures was roughly defined as having taken place when a child moved from one family to another three or more times during childhood. It was recognised that separation experiences and their subsequent result in this factor being present would have varying impact upon the child according to the length of stay which a child had in a particular hcjpe, the degree of his acceptance or rejection by the substitute parents, and his age. Generally speaking, separation experiences are most devastating to the child's personality during the first five years of l i f e . Some effort was made to select as being most significant' those moves made during the fir s t five years of l i f e and those moves occasioned by the parents' rejection of the child, 2. Continuity of Parental Elgares but Rejection of the Child by thorn was Identified upon the basis of the writer's clinical experience and judgment. From his experience the writer has found that foster parents usually show rejection of a child when (a) they expect to make the child over into a "good" child, (b) when they ask for the child's removal from the home for $2 3eamingly minor reasons such as a mild illness in the family or a holiday. 3, Hegative Attitudes Expressed by the Foster Parents toward the Child's  Natural Parents, This factor was thought to be identifiable when the foster parent verbalized that they considered the child was "bad" on account of his natural parents' behavior or by the expression of some other disparaging criticism of the natural parents. Also i t was thought to be identifiable i f either the sooial worker or the psychiatrist noticed that the negative attitude was expressed by direct statement or implication. U. Extreme Color iDifferanoes were thought to bo identifiable when there was evidence i n the record that the child perceived a noticeable difference between his foster parents' skin color and his own, 5, Cpncealffisnt'of Inform tion about the Hatural Parents from the Child was identified by tho absence of any information in the record that the ohild was told that he was a foster child and had natural parents with whom he was not living. It was thought that i f the child used the surname of the foster parents this Slight heighten the effect of concealment as i t would tend to lead the ohild to think that his foster parents were his own by birth. It was recognised that i n many instances the child may have been told by the foster parents about his status and his natural parents although this information did not appear i n the record, 6. A Separation Experience was thought to be a precipitating factor in the child's concern i f he asked about his natural parents during, or immediately following the separation experience (defined as a move from one family environment to another during adolescence). 53 7« Bevul&tiou of Iiii-oatat^oia about tee Natural Parents was thought to be significant in the adolescent's concern when (a) lie knew relatively l i t t l e about the parents before he reaci«ed the age of adolescence, (b) he was told inforstation which he may have associated as being "bad", (c) he was told information during a critical stage in ids life, such as during a separation experience* 8. Social-Sexual Conflicts were thought to be precipitating factors in the child's concern when the child Implied a relationship between his concern about his natural parents and his concern about social-sexual role func-tioning. Such an example might occur when a child showed concern about his natural parents about the time when he was getting married. The incidence of factors identified in each child's case are listed in Figure 1, The Incidence of Contributing and Precipitating Factors which seem to Intensify the Adolescent Foster Child's Concern about his Unknown Natural parents, Figure H . Fadtor Hams of Child Causative Harjorle Jane Jerry Jim Harold Larry B i l l Separation Trauma X X X X X X lack of Continuity X X Partial Rejection X X X X if Continuity but Rejection X I Negative Attitudes Toward Natural Parents X X X X Concealment X X X X X Color difference X X Precipitating Factors Separation Experience X X X Bevelstion X X X X " X X Social-Sexual Conflict X • • X X X An additional Factor "Semblance of Family" x x X Case I.; $farjori3 m* on© o r the t&ildren studies who Sealed most con-cerned i n aUoleacajiee about Uuv uttural parents, ij&aiaififcd by a psychia-t r i s t &% the Child Guidance Cli n i c whun she was seventeen,. Marjorie was described us a g i r l "whose restlessness i s activated by a constant and fru i t l e s s search for her tsather figure* conjuring up soiaeone who might answer her ideal. She i s at the sa&& time attracted and repelled by a desire to sea her mother's photograph. She scans the faces of people i n the street and buses for somom iMom SIKJ iaight acknowledge as her isother". fcjasy of $he factors both causative and precipitating seemed to be inten-sifying Mas'jorio's concern. This c h i l d was bom out of wedlock to a young mother who while a Bomber of an apparently stable family, seemed to be a misfit within the family group. She was promiscuous i n her later adolescent years, and had two illegitimate children prior to Marilyn's birth. 'Ihe natural mother never kept the child and abandoned i t i n an infant's home. At tho age of five months Marjorie was placed with a foster mother who was described i n the record as "nervous" and unsure of herself". Ibr nearly a year Harjorle was moved back and forth betwaan thi s fondly and an infout's hospital because she presented severe feeding problems, which the attending doctor described as being of "nervous" origin. Undoubtedly maternal deprivation in the infant'3 hospital and separation trauma were basic causes of MSarjorie's restless and nervous behavior and physical syi^tomology. At tho age of twenty-one months I4arjorie was placed from the infant's hospital into a foster environment where strong elements of rejection were present. This factor was inferred by the writer from the scarce material in the records because of the fester aether's almost constant complaints to the worker about 55 the child's "baa" behavior. Murjoi-le'u physical onu mental development; seemed to be within • tlie iiormal range; however, ber behavior was described as "demanding, rest** less, sei£<-«enterea, and unco-operative".: The foster mother t r i e d using physical punishment to curb the child's impulsive behavior, but this produced no results.. She fin a j j y t r i e d isolating the child from the family group, i&rjorie's poor behavior continued, however, and two years after the placement began the foster mother asked to have the child moved temporarily on the pretext that she was going away for a holiday. Tho worker thought that t i l l s would be a good time to move the child because she considered the foster mother to be "incompetent and lacking i n discipline". I t i s doubtful that Marjoxie's problem lay i n the realm of discipline alone. Hor Demanding behavior suggests thau she may not have received the basic affection she needed from the mothering person. harjorie's third foster nam© placement lasted for f i v e years (from the ages of five to eight). On the surface these appeared to be more accepting foster parents. Physical standards appeared to be high, the parents well-educated and well-mated. However, they had four young foster children i n the home and i n th i s enviroaifflont i t was doubtful whether a ch i l d , as deprived as Harjorie was, could obtain satisfaction for her strong affectional needs. Always a f r a i l c h i l d, i&rjorie was physically sick with one i l l n e s s after another, She became involved i n antisocial behavior i n the community because she could not relate to other children. Although of average intelligence she could not pass i n school because of her apparent isolation from the teacher, her classmates, and the subject material. I t i s l i k e l y that the disturbances which Marjorie brought with her into the home brought out many of the unfavorable elements i n the 56 fouler parent's personality. I t Is also Kfcely that the foster mother pa r t i a l l y rejected her imsrjuclt us sho, to uae the worker's phrase, "expected too saica" of tho c k i l d . L i t t l e i s recorded i n detail about the p^-ent-cMld r**laUonsi&ps, However, Harjorle's behavior became pro-' gresslvely worso, and at ths age of sight tho footer mother began pressing foy tha child's removal froa ths ha,aa, 33uring this later period, the worker ooKusented* The foster aether constantly asks to have Marjorie psychoanalysed. I t i s perhaps unfortunate th&t the foster .mother i s aware of the Instability of the child's natural mother inasmuch as she.constantly refers to inheritance i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of Jtorjoria seeing a psychiatrist". At this time both tho foster Mother and the c h i l d saw the psychiatrist at , the Child Guidance Clinic who recoasae&dad: The foster mother knows of the , child's family history and .therefore I t i s f e l t that i f Harjorie i s removed \ • • . to a coiiimunity away from that of tha foster mother, there w i l l be no con« f l i c t s " . The c h i l d was placed i n another foster hoase shortly thereafter. Hare 'the negative attitudes on tha part of th? fostor mother toward the child's natural mother and their close connection with rejection, of the child seem strongly inter-related. Previous to adolescence Harjorie apparently was told nothing about her natural parents (concealment)$ however, because, of the foster mother's rejection arid strong negative attitude toward the natural parents, Barjoris asay have learned directly or indirectly to associate her bad behavior with that of her nebulous natural mother. from tiie time she waa eight u n t i l the time she was fifteen, Marjorie was sieved fifteen tiass. She never seemed to find acceptance i n any family environ™, grant. Usually bad behavior led to her removal from the foster homes* . The The behavior symptoms included: lack of emotion, isolationism, cruelty to babies and animals, marked interest i n sex (exhibiting herself), and frequent 57 stealing of food., ?>he uluo run away from tho foster hones frequently* Ife^jcrlc'e interest In nor natural parents began when she was . fourteen. At this time she was about to bo plaoed from one foster hone to another because the foster parents "could no longer cope with her behavior, Tho record reads; "Recently Marjorie hao been brooding over tee disap-pointments she experienced from the agency. Foster mother feels that she Is vszy deep and bus a l o t of fcar toward the agency which she feels has been the cause of many disuppointrasnts to her, Foster mother has encouraged her to writ© tho otoi^- of her l i f e aa Eftrjorle i s interested i n writing and has expressed an interest i n her l i f e history"* After the placement was made the t7orl»r. brought up..tho aubjeet with Marjoria. "She wanted to know where her parents were now and tho conditions of her coming into the agency' s care." Two years la t e r Marjorie*a interest i n her natural mother was s t i l l persisting, faring this time she was having a great deal of trouble because of petty stealing and damaging of property. Furthermore, i t was suspected that she was having sexual conflicts inasmuch as she frequently ran away with beys. Harjorie's conflicts, particularly i n regard to her natural parents, xasy have had a connection with her social sexual conf Hots. "In recent months Hnrjorie has been interested i n her family background. Harjorle f i r s t began to ask worker two i?ears ago* At this time, worker told her as much as she could of her background history and her early history i n care. Unfortunately there i s l i t t l e information on the family f i l e and not enough to satisfy her curiosity. Worker has noticed that Marjorie seems to f e e l deeply about her family and has expressed a desire to know what her mother looked l i k e . At f i r s t the worker did not t e l l Ha?jorie of her illegitimacy, but as this question has come up on various occasions i n the past two years, worker told Karjorle of this l a s t spring when discussion regarding her family background led to 58 her questions Was she illegitimate?, worker gave Marjorle a great deal of interpretation regarding this subject trying to help her feel that i t was not for her to be ashamed of and that she should not concern herself about i t * , I t was also suggested that this was l4arjorie'e own private information and there was no need for her discussing i t with anyone. However, i f she would like to discuss i t with her foster mother, worker felt i t would be a l l right. She did discuss this with foster mother after the inter-view and worker was pleased to learn that foster mother had continued worker's interpretation around illegitimacy.. This subject was referred to i n sub-sequent interviews as i t appeared that Marjorle was somewhat confused about her role as she felt that It made her different from other children." While no direct relationship between social-sexual conflicts and Harjorie's concern about her mother can be established* her behavior and her conflict around illegitimacy suggest that this ,was the case. She continued to be promiscuous i n her sexual relationships and became an unmarried mother at nineteen.* She remarked about the similarity between her predicament and that of her natural mother's. She also identified herself with the expected baby*, "She was most interested i n the questions about the putative father and insisted upon writing them out for herself• She also went on to request further information about herself as a baby and was quite insistent that she see her own f i l e . 1 told her that X would be glad to let ' her have pertinent information but could not let her see the f i l e . She told me that she has 'seen' her mother and that she loves her and wants the baby named after her mother, i f i t i s a l i t t l e g i r l . When I questioned when she could have seen her mother she said quickly, '1 don't think i t i s anything X can explain. X don't suppose you would understand. X gathered from the way she said this that she had Seen her mother in a dream or had imagined her very vividly. Marjorie insisted that the baby be given a good adoption home and not move around the way she herself did." Today Karjorie i s slowly developing a relationship with the worker whom she has had for several years and gets pleasure out of calling her 'mother' occasionally. She remains concerned about her natural parents, 59 fluctuating between the desire to go by her father's name and her mother's. She burns candles in the church for the natural aether she has never known. Xt is difficult to assess in Marilyn's ease whether concealment of information about bar natural parents and revelation of this information in adolescence had an effect on her concern. It can surmised that this may have been a factor as shown by her concern over- a period of two years about whether she was illegitimate. Although Mar jorio had never been told this previously by the worker or foster parents, as far as is recorded, she surmised this. It may be true that i f her feelings about this had bean brought out earlier that she would have had less concern. However, her concern seems related to so many other factors such as rejection, Separation trauma, lack of continuity in parental figures, and frequent separation experiences in adolescence as well as social-sexual conflicts that i t is difficult to assess whether concealment had precise influence except as related to the other factors. Case 2. jane i s another child who was exposed to separation trauma in infancy. 2he illegitimate daughter of an agency ward who was described as being emotionally unstable and engaged in prostitution, Jane lived with her maternal grandmother during the first three months of her lif e . The grandmother was herself a promiscuous woman who was also considered malad-justed. After three months, she placed Jane in an infants hospital whore she lived until the age of eleven months. One can only infer from these shreds of evidence that Jane had been traumatised. She was placed in a foster home at the age of eleven months and remained with the same continuous parental figures until she was twelve years old. She was described as an apathetic child who was slow to walk and talk (possible'indications of early 60 deprivation), for the f i r s t twelve months i n the foster home she was plagued by stomach illnesses which seemed to have no purely physical origin., l i t t l e i s recorded of Jane's f i r s t four years of l i f e i n thie foster home... There was some indication that tee ohild craved attention and was jealous of an older foster sister..' The foster mother's rejecting attitude toward the child began to appear when Jane was about five years old. She was afraid that Jane was "too restless" to go to public school and seemed to need discipline.. She saids "I have been having quite a bit of trouble with her. She i s very disobedient and getting quite sly.. She nevers seems to be ashamed of anything, but is very resentful when punished... .1 never knew a child with such conflicting characteristics, fly one ambition is teat she grow into being a useful citizen. She is quite clever. 1 think teat cleverness can be directed into useful channels* She ought to be a great success, i f that fails, t am afraid she will make plenty of trouble," This in itsel f might not be an indication of rejection. However, after six months the foster mother called tee worker because Jane had been Stealing food from the neighbours for no apparent reason. Evidently this had been going on for some time but the foster parents had kept i t hidden. The foster mother's ovorproteetivenese (a form of rejection) i s indicated by the fact that she said she always picked Jane's friends since she was a child "who was easily influenced by other spoiled children", jane, upon closer study by the worker, was found to be an excessively demanding child who always wanted tee center of attention, was exceedingly jealous of other children, and somewhat isolated from the family. She seemed to lack affection for other people. Concealment of information about the natural parents did not seem Operative so much in Jane's case. The foster mother told her when she was four years old that she was not the child's natural mother. It was unfor-61 tunat©, however, that the second explanation took place when the foster mother brought up the stealing problem a year later. "Jane asked what business was i t of ours that she was bad* Fester mother explained to her that we. (the worker) looking after her had asked the foster mother to be her mother." Evidently Jane showed l i t t l e interest i n her natural parents during the period previous to adolescence in spite of the fact that the., foster mother had given her some information. At the" age of twelve Jane told the worker that she., hover really knew before this that the foster mother was not her. natural mother. She may have meant that she did not understand it, very well. Jane's behavior in the foster home became progressively worse during the years between five and bine. The foster mother's attitude became more openly "rejecting". When Jane was eight, she became i l l with scarlet fever. The foster mother severely criticised the agency because they did not remove the child from the home temporarily so that the rest of the family would not get the illness. A year later, the foster mother went into hospital for a minor operation aad asked for a temporary re-placement of Jane. This was done. Then ths foster mother debated whether she would have the child back in the homo beoause of her bad behavior. However she finally "relented" and let Jane come back into the home. It is d i f f i -cult to get a clear picture of Jane i n the years between nine and twelve. At times the foster mother seemed most accepting of her and at other times seemed to be rejecting. Jane seemed loud and boisterous and had l i t t l e relationship capacity. when Jane was nearly twelve the foster mother admitted that Jane was getting on nor nerves. She felt that she could not trust her. The foster mother again mentioned the child's natural parents to hers Poster 62 toother tried to explain to her that she had been particularly wanted i n this home, that there were several children in the district who are not living with their parents, and there Is no disgrace attached to i t . " This information seemed to be i n the context of the foster mother's rejection of tiie child, however, inasmuch as she mentioned this while she was implying that she wanted Jane removed from the home* A study of Jane's case at the Child Guidance Clinic at this time indicated that "tills home i s not fully accepting of her and that difficulties are bound to arise during her adolescence when the foster mother will not be able to cope with thorn, The fact that the foster mother took a fester child as a mission in l i f e would prove a difficulty as she would have a great sense of failure should Jane get Into difficulties," It was recommended, therefore, that the child should be moved to another home, tyhlle concealment of information about the natural parents did not wholly occur in Jane's case the impact of telling the child at a c r i t i c a l time i n her l i f e can be seen. The worker persuaded the foster mother to t e l l the child more about her background just at the time the child was being rejected by the foster mother. While Jans apparently ignored this "telling", she later showed great concern about her natural parents, after she had moved from the foster home. The impact of telling 'the child about her natural parents at this cri t i c a l time, the rejection by the foster mother* and the separation experience itself may have a l l played a part in intensi-fying Jane's concern, ' A few days after she was moved from the homo, Jane visited the worker, "Khen the worker appeared, Jane was in tears. The only thing she could ask was, "where i s my mother?" Worker took her to the office where we were able to be alone and Jane had quite a crying spell.. She 63 wanted to know where her mother was and why she was not with her," Three months later Jane s t i l l persisted In inquiring more about her natural mother., "She told worker that she had tried hard to think, but the only thing that kept coming to her mind was tee time she came to clinic with her foster mother.. Some worker had met her on the stairs and said she looked just like her natural mother.. It would seem from that time onward Jane has been wondering about her natural mother, and It i s possible that perhaps foster mother's manner of explaining about her natural mother was not entirely tactful." This picture seems to support the viewpoint that the foster mother, i n spite of tee fact that she had told tee child about her natural parents, may have expressed to tee child a negative attitude toward her parents. Up to this point a l l tee factorss separation trauma, continuity  but rejection, and negative attitudes toward the natural parents are sug-gested in tee record; Concealment of information in this case would appear to have been absent. The separation experience and sudden revelation of information seemed to have been important precipitating factors for the child's immediate concern about her natural parents*. Since this separation Jane's social adjustment has steadily deteriorated. She has been in numerous foster homes and i n a convent. None of these homes has been able to give her the security and affection she has needed. She has been committed to the Industrial school on charges of sexual immorality and is now a drug addict, iter unhealthy bond with her original foster mother seems never to have been completely severed. For three years the contact between the two w a B fairly regular, although i t was evident teat the rejection on tee foster mother's part became more clearly defined. Jane i s s t i l l confused about tee reasons for her separation from her foster mother. At tee same time she Is quite persistent about her concern about her natural mother. Since she has become a drug addict, 6h she has come Into the office in a semi-conscious state and while lying on the floor in a state of stupor, says over and oyer again, "If only X could find my own motlier1!. Unlike Marjorie, Jane had continuity of parental, figures in her l i f e * However, the basic rejection by her foster mother seems to have been the mainspring of her concern about her natural mother. Oase 3. l i t t l e i s known of Jerry's early life*. Another child born but of wedlock* jerry lived with his mother for the f i r s t two and one half years of his l i f e . She was described as nervous end erratic. Jerry and hie half brother, a year younger than Jerry, ware apprehended by the agency because the mother apparently was unable to look after the children. Jerry's f i r s t placement in a foster family abruptly ended after four months because the foster mother had a heart attack. the child showed his reaction to tho two olose separation experiences and their resultant trauma by frequent masturbating, soiling and bed-wetting. Jerry's second placement lasted for three years (he was placed with his brother). It was noted throughout this placement that the foster mother was inconsistent in her attitude toward the children, treating one with favoritism one time and the other, another time. Also, accommodation and dietary standards were poor. During this time, Jerry's behavior fluctuated between hostility, aggressiveness and withdrawal from those around him. The foster mother thought he was difficult to control* Toward the end of the placement, Jerry became more affable and affectionate, but at this time, placement was terminated by the agency because i t was thought that tee home was unsuitable. J&rry probably was partially rejected in this home* This rejection may have increased his separation anxiety. One incident serves to Illustrate this* Jerry was slow in 65 getting ready for a trip*. She foster parents left him along in the house* Vflien they returned ten minutes later they found him crying on the steps* Stating that he did- not want to stay home again, jerry's third placement lasted for three years* At f i r s t he was an obedient and wall*mannered youngster who responded immediately to • a word of reprajaand. Bis rejection in the previous home was indicated by the unusual way l a which he cringed when reprimanded* The record i s sparse during this period, hut here again Jerry was apparently rejected* Suddenly (Jerry 'was nine) the foster mother complained that the boy was becoming more and more rude and disobedient and asked for his removal along with his brother's. The worker agreed to the move, t&en the worker Called she observed? "The fester aether seemed to feel that the children were being deceitful and naughty, rather than being mischievous. She did not seem to feel any warmth for them but enjoyed seeing their sad expres-sions when a move was mentioned.R ighen the worker called for the boys she observed* "Sbster mother was annoyed that worker had kept her waiting for half an hour* ' Foster mother had an appointment and was anxious to rush the boys off.1* The next placement lasted only two more years* It i s net possible to get a picture of the home as few interviews were recorded. The foster mother deeided to keep Jerry's brother but not Jerry* She asked for his removal on the grounds that he was an "angel" one moment and a completely "obnoxious" child the next* The writer checked the brother's f i l e and found that he too had been rejected by the foster parents at the age of fifteen* Jerry was eleven at the time of this isove. Since that time he has lived in numerous fester homes, never staying more than a few months at a. time* His behavior pattern was one of constantly running away. His early l i f e 66 me characterised by lack of continuity of parental figures, .rejection by parental figures, and separation trauEia. In adolescence Jerry became intensely concerned about his natural parents.. . This concern f i r s t started after a "running away incident" when Jerry was. fourteen (separation experience). The record reads: "Jerry asked about his parents and visitor explained that they had been unable to look after him", Previous to this time, Jerry had apparently known nothing about his natural parents. Cohcealmsht of information along with the , other factors mentioned above seems to have played a part i n intensifying liis concern, No further mention of Jerry's concern was made until a year and a half later. There i s some indication that revelation of Information in adolescence may have had an intensifying effect upon Jerry's concern. "He was told her stody and that she had died. He cried a l i t t l e but accepted the history quite wen. Ber death was a great disappointment to him because he had hoped that some day he would go to live with his mother like some other agency children be knew". This was apparently quite a shock to Jerry on top of the other experiences lie had previously,. He pressed for more information a few months later, "Then there was a dead silence and Jerry came, out with a question and asked what year his mother had died. Worker indicated that she had died a few years after he was bom. Worker went on to say that when ids mother had gone to hospital, Jerry had been under.the care of the agency. He said he knew his mother had died i n mental hospital and had been buried close by there. He then wondered about his father, who he was and what kind of a person he was; He wondered whether he could find out from the court papers. Worker pointed out that i t had been rather difficult for apparently the man who had been called his father had not been with his mother vezy long. A© far as worker knew, this man had never married Jerry's mother* Jerry said he wouldn't do a thing like that* Worker remarked that Jerry knew tho con-sequences Of tiais for himself as he knew how unhappy ho had been* Jerry then wondered whether he ran away from the various homes because hie father had run away from his mother." 67 Undoubtedly the worker's intentions in this case were good. Yet' apparently the information Jerry received about his natural parents seemed to emply that his bad behavior was the result' of his natural parents' behavior* This revelation of information along with the previous rejec-tion and separation experiences seemed to intensify Jerry's concern to a pathological degree. He began looking for his father saying he had heard that he was in an eastern city, Mhan Jorry was twenty years old, he came to the agency requesting mora information about his background. At that time he was "hanging around" the fringes of the underworld. Apparently Jerry had located the nam whom he thou^it was his father. The worker sayss "Jerry exhibited a desperate need to find his father and talk with him. It appeared that he had a punitive attitude toward him and was desirous' of Seeking some foaa of legal action against him in order to obtain funds,*' A month later Jerry returned to' the worker and said that he had found hie father*s address and was going to v i s i t him immediately. Mhen i t was pointed out that this might not be his natural father, Jerry threatened to sue tha agency for giving him incorrect informatioh, fie wanted' the cose completely Investigated to find out who his real father was. Later he went to see the man-who lie thought was his father and was satisfied that this was not the man. He persisted however with his quest to establish his father's identity until the agency's lawyer told him that this was impossible to do. At one point he threatened to take the case to tho provincial legislature. Case h. Jjpfr like Barjerle and Jane, lived i n a baby home in infancy. He was abandoned by his mother at birth and remained in the institution for thirteen months, Apparently this was not a traumatic experience or as 68 depriving an experience for him as i t was for the other ehlldren. % en he cause into care, he seeded to be able to relate well to people, was well physically and happy. His f i r s t foster placement lasted thirteen months and seemed exceptionally good for him. He was cheerful and spontaneous. His physical and mental development appeared normal. Unfortunately, as i t turned out, Jim was, removed from thie homo and placed on adoption probation in another one. Initially he. seemed slow in responding to foster parents. He was plagued by constipation, related to a,severe appendix infection which almost claimed his l i f e . Even after he recovered he had constipation and the attending doctor felt that these were caused by psychological problems. It was felt that the foster mother was "nervous" and excessively worried about the child. This partial rejection led to the child's removal from the home at the age of five. Jim's new foster placement lasted not quite a year, He reacted to the home by wetting himself in the daytime. His constipation continued. The foster mother thought this was "wilful" and punished him by keeping him in bed a l l day. Another time she punished him by dressing him in girl's clothing. Jim also frequently lied about seemingly insignificant things. The foster mother admitted that he had lost some of his affectionate dis-position and said that she was not the demonstrative kind in that she seldom fondled the ohild. Apparently the foster mother had threatened him with a policeman's vi s i t and this led Jim to be anxious about being placed i n another home. Jim's behavior improved and seemed mainly on aecount of his fear of being moved. At this time (at the age of six) he started asking it about his natural mother and the foster mother found these questions d i f f i -cqlt to answer. "He wants to know why he cannot stay with one mamma like other boys do." At this time Jim was s t i l l calling himself by his previous 69 foster parents' surname., No effort apparently was xaade at explaining his status to him and this concealment seemed to be connected with his questions about his natural parents,, Jim l i v e d i n his next foster home.for a period of nine years , (until the age of fifteen),, In this home Jim seemed truly accepted by the f pater parents. There were none of the old behavior problems and Jim gradually regained his former affectionate disposition and spontaneity. He was a bright boy intell e c t u a l l y and did well i n school,. He was well liked by the ether children i n the neighborhood and i n school. However, he remained very sensitive and somewhat shy. While these foster parents seemed to be accepting of Jim, there i s some indication that there was some negative attitude expressed toward his natural parents on the part of the foster father. "Jim went on to say that as a c h i l d he was addicted to swearing and quite without meaning, one day called'a boy a bastard. Foster father had immediately picked i t up and flung i t back at Jim, saying that he was i n no position to c a l l anyone else a bastard because he was one himself. This hurt Jim deeply," I t i s impossible to determine what impact this attitude had upon the boy's concern about his natural parents, or whether this statement was related i o the foster father's possible rejection of the boy, Although the foster parents seemed to accept Jim, he begged to leave home early i n adolescence. This was postponed for a year. However, when Jim f i n a l l y did leave, he did not retain the ti e s with his foster parents very closely for a long time. Possibly the new feelings of adoles-cence and i t s confusion reactivated his earlier separation anxiety. At any rate Jim moved from one foster home to another for the next three years. At ona point he wanted a family, whom he had known only a few days, to adopt him. 70 anginal queetlona about h i * -owl ;parc«t»/ l»8tt*4 t» ft* precipitated at tfed t i s e when hie engagejoeut to laarsy had ham hvokm by his fi&scea.. H G W«,S vesy sorrowful over this unfortunate lovo a f f a i r s . At a^ut 4tita-«gaa he asked for infoiaetien m the gmthds that a eaupKi, was latttttftadi i n etcoptinfj his,, t h i s proved to he based vary l i t t l e upon fact, bs»Bvor«-. &t this tim Jiia was i» the Kavy and at l a s t gestsea to have 3©Wl<?a aaim.-. He. was eigM$e*i.-. w k e r hafedSbatf this "teiliRg" very mXk m& Jim zmpomted to tho i&fosas»tio» about his illegltfcsacy by sayings *%&11* i t dspchdi} upcn ijyself Eilono, afeut I am." At titis tlase Jim revealed that sosse of th$ various foster parents had been "badgeasiaftg h£& about. «he he was and shy ho was i n care and so on". this along with- the statement cheat his ftvmgr fester father's attitude points to the fact th&t nesativo attitudes ea -the part of the 'fetter parents to the child*® natural .patents' saay have baen one of the basic cssses of his ooaoara i a addition to the prccii>i.t^tihg factor about his c o n f l i c t about scsjai^excaA j a i e , Jin'a cosccym persisted over tho next two years*. One© h& wrote* "The main object of «y interest the wfesreaboite of «y s&ther. £ have always f e l t that th« agency had known store abcut her than they have tol d m* However* now that X m of age, I have every right to knew anything thaij aay threw some l i g h t on this case. £ quite realise the ©irctK&tasieefli of sy feirtfe. Sliat, 1 have lived down ssfself • Bow 1 twuld l i k e to lind ttet i f 1 do have any next of kin in tho t&ape cf p&rantg or relfttivee." j$ta gave up the csareh, bowsver* after accepting the fact -that mthisig acre was known. Be id new happily m%rlQA and has an exccll&nt relationship with the agency* although he apparently s t i l l has l i t t l e contact with his losg*feis® fester parents. Th® factors i n Jiia't? concern cess to be p a r t i a l l y sopayatlon traoaa 71 partially rejection by foster parents, and partially negative attitudes of foster parents toward the natural parents. ' The major precipitating factor seemed in this case to be concern with social^sexaal role as the questioning occurred when Jim was having heterosexual problems and seemed to have been sensitive to tho fact of his illegitimacy. Case 5, Little i s known of Haroldj3 early l i f e . Apparently he lived with his mother for the f i r s t two years of l i f e and then she deserted him. There i s some indication that Harold suffered from separation trauma inas-much as he reacted with apparent psychosomatic stomach complaints immediately after being placed in his f i r s t foster home. Harold remained i n his f i r s t foster home until the age of five. His adjustment was apparently good, although l i t t l e Information was recorded. At this time he was placed on adoption probation i n another fanily. There were no contacts with the family or child (they lived i n tee interior of British Columbia) for six years. At this time the foster parents decided to give Harold up because he had been stealing. He seemed on tee whole well-adjusted and was doing good work in school and was getting along well i n the community. The foster parents, however, seemed to be partially rejecting him. His was temporarily removed from the home for an examination at the Vancouver Child Guidance Clinic. airing the short time he was away, tee foster parents wrote to tee agency requesting teat he sot return. Their rejecting  attitude and their negative attitude toward tee child's background appeared in the letter they wrote. Both factors seem inter-related in this oase, . "It i s with great regret teat we have to t e l l you that we have decided we cannot have Harold back 72 here with us again.,. Since he left here we have had different instances of his untrustworthiness brought to our attention.,.. It i s perfectly evident that he has a hereditary stealing and lying'instinct.. I intend to get another young boy, and believe me, I will sake certain that there i s no foreign strain in him., Harold's case has been a bitter lesson.,"! One can only speculate what the impact of this attitude was on Harold's concern about his unknown parents.. when Harold moved to his new foster home at the age of eleven he took his own surname and seemed to enjoy this., Harold remained in this home for about five years., In general tills seemed to have been a good foster home experience for his.., While i n i t i a l l y he had certain behavior problems such as stealing and masturbation,, these became a problem with him no longer as he settled in the foster family environment.,. It i s doubt-ful, however, i f he was able really to feel that he "belonged" i n this home in the sense that he thought i t was his "own".. As he proceeded on into middle adolescence old anxieties seemed to be reactivated inasmuch as Harold's former behavior reappeared., One stealing incident followed another.. Several times he got into difficulty by having sex play with neigh-borhood girls.. Superficially the foster parents seemed to be helping Harold cope with his problems.. Yet there was always the question raised by them that he would have to be moved from tee home i f his behavior did not improve.. Harold seemed to be "testing" their feelings out in this area and a stealing incident finally led to his replacement at the age of fifteen.. In the next foster home which lasted for about a year, Harold's behavior was about the same.. He seemed unsettled and ran away frequently.. He seemed confused about- surnames and refused to use his own name, choosing insteadj the foster parents'.. Shis writer does not get the impression teat Harold was a deeply disturbed boy, but rather teat he was confused 1 This letter was written in tee 1930's when C.A.S. adoption practice was in it s i n i t i a l stages. about his status and perhaps f e l t teat no fatally environment represented the security he needed to work through his adolescent problems. His attitude showed that he f e l t g u i l t about hie behavior and was consciously trying to make an effort to behave better* Yet he had not achieved a balance with the stranger drives and anxieties within him. At about this time i t was implied that Harold was seeking information about his hack-ground and his parents. The worker contacted his mother who had maintained come contact with the agency on account of some younger children who were i n care.. The worker mentioned to the mother (who thought Harold had been adopted at an early age) that he had been inquiring about his parents and "one of these days he was going to look teem up". About the time he was eighteen, while i n the SJavy, -Harold started being concerned more about his natural parents. By this time he was apparently adjusting quite well. He said that since he had time to think he started wondering about his parents. A year l a t e r after he returned from overseas duty Harold returned to tee worker with whom he had kept frequent contact during the war and requested further Information about his parents. Some of this concern seems to have been precipitated by social- sexual conflicts: "Harold said at this time that he was planning to get married and for this reason wanted to know something about his background." About a month later he returned for more information. "Harold was given information regarding his background. He was disturbed at tee thought of his mother wanting to place him for adoption but after discussing the whole situation he seemed to accept the fact that because of her youth and the position she was i n , his mother had no alternative other than to place him for adoption. He was told teat his mother Is apparently happily married -and he was also told of his step-brothers and step-sisters who are i n the care of the agency. After some thought Harold decided that he did not wish to contact her as he f e l t that this might jeopardise his marriage, and he didn't wish to do t h i s , 0 7U Several months later, after receiving his discharge from the Kavy, Harold came to the office, stating that he had given the.matter more thsught and wondered whether i t would be possible to arrange a meeting with his mother.: "Harold has been in the' office several times arranging for his marriage.: He has been most anxious to meet hie mother.; On the ir*>rning of the wasting worker met Harold f i r s t and discussed with him this situation.. The lad was pretty nervous and asked many times what he was to do. His mother also seemed to be in a nervous state. She did not know just what to do. However, after a brief introduction of 'Harold, this is your mother', . worker l e f t as the emotional strain was pretty hard. The lad was with ills mother alone for about an hour and teen worker went in as the mother had to sign her consent for the marriage... tee meeting seemed quite successful. Later the mother and step-father attended the wedding." Harold's concern seeded to be precipitated in the main by his conflicts in the social-sexual area. Biile there had been some rejection in his growing years from parental figures, this did not seem to damage his personality to the extent teat lie could not grow and mature emotionally. Harold's concern seemed to be anchored more in reality than teat of the other ohildren, .as he was able to see his mother's side of the story fairly objectively. He accepted her early behavior quite philosophically by saying, as he smiled: "She did get around, didn't she?" The continuity of parental figures in Harold's l i f e , particularly during tee f i r s t five . years and his apparent acceptance by parental figures during that time seemed to have been a faetor i n giving him the strength to mature i n spits of later difficulties. also i t is likely teat he received a fair amount of acceptance in the third foster home environment although i t was not able to help him directly when his adolescent problems became too great. 7S Case 6.» B i l l apparently l i v e d with hie mother, an Indian, : during the f i r s t year of his life.-. Nothing i s recorded i n the history.. Shy placed him i n a baby's home when he was about a year old and he remained there for over a year, i There i s no evidence i n the record to point to definite separation  trauma i n B i l l ' s case, although i t i s possible that there probably i s some inasmuch as he moved from his mother to the probably less-dose mothering of someone i n the institution. In his f i r s t foster home, where he was placed at tee age of twenty-seven months, B i l l seemed to have adjusted f a i r l y well, although he was described as shy and ret i r i n g . Th© foster parents seemed to have accepted him as there were no particular problems as far as B i l l was concerned. l e t they asked for his removal two years later on tee grounds that they were taking a t r i p . Not enough i s known as to whether this request for separa-tion constituted a psychological rejection of the child. In his third foster home B i l l showed some signs of poor personality adjustment. His shy and retarded behavior continued and he seemed unable to relate well to people. l i t t l e i s recorded about tee family relation-ships. At about age eight B i l l ' s "acting out" behavior became more severe. He had regressed to bed-wetting, and at the same time had been exposing his i genitals to neighbourhood ohildren. In addition he was involved i n several stealing and property destroying incidents. B i l l ' s physical appearance was markedly different from the foster parents inasmuch aa he was a swarthy child with Indian f a c i a l features. He had tight curly hair and the foster mother noticed that he fondled this a good deal of the time. B i l l took other children's caps frequently and this may have been related to his sensitivity about his difference i n color and r a c i a l features from other 76 children, which the curly hair symbolized.. When B i l l was nine, his,foster father died suddenly and B i l l grieved a loftfc time over this loss. His behavior became worse and f i n a l l y the c h i l d was ranovod iron the home at the age of ten.. B i l l was placed with foster parents who had adopted a child about the same age as his own. VJhother B i l l was told about his status as a foster child i s not known. There i s some indication that other children i n the neighborhood teased him about not being adopted. B i l l was Sensitive about this teasing. ¥et the fact that the children knew of M i l ' s status and of the other boy's adoption indicates that the foster parents may have been f a i r l y open about this i n the community and perhaps to the children themselves. B i l l , HWever, used the foster parent's surname and this may have heightened his feeling of "difference" which was accentuated by his Indian features. This foster home seamed really to be a place where B i l l ' , f e l t that he belonged. He had no particular problems i n adolescence and, although information i s scarce, B i l l remained l i v i n g with his foster parents after "board" was terminated by the agency. The worker commented on this saying that she rolled a-great deal on foster mother's a b i l i t y to give B i l l proper supervision. "She takes a motherly interest i n this boy and treats' > him as her owa." B i l l s t i l l retained a bond with the former foster mother i and v i s i t e d her occasionallyj 'so therefore, i t does not appear that he f e l t "rejected" by her* At the age of nineteen, M i l returned fttom the Navy intensely concerned about his natural parents. His concern seemed related to the sensitivity with regard to his raci a l background which was noted e a r l i e r i n his l i f e , "lie went on to ask a ratter pointed question. "Just 77 who SIB I? And what nationality aa 1? liforker was taken aback as be did not know the background of this lads however, as soon as the f i l e s were called fer^ he -realized that this lad had a right to knew about his ' past. As i t was a rather sordid one, worker f e l t that he could only t e l l B i l l so much. I t was rather awkward to t e l l him that, although we had records on his mother we had none on his father* B i l l did not know anything of his past whatsoever.; He stated hew awkward i t was when with a group of fellows, i f anyone started discussing nationality ha was never quite sure what he was. worker'assured him that he was of good B r i t i s h stock and had nothing to be ashamed of. However, he s t i l l looked dissatisfied with the results of this conversation, liforker f e l t there was something behind his attitude and questioned him about thi s . B i l l asked this question: "What would happen i f you got married and you had Children and one was of different color than you?" Worker then gave htm information from the f i l e s that his mother had Indian blood i n her*; B i l l was very relieved. He stated that he ma always worried that he had Negro blood on account of his curly black hair. B i l l seemed very pleased with the interview and worker f e l t that the shock, although bad at f i r s t , was now fading away* One was inclined to f e e l that the problem of Segro blood was really worrying the lad. He l e f t with good s p i r i t s and promised to c a l l again the next time he was i n Vancouver." In this case i t would appear that comealmant, conflicts around differences i n color, and the social stigma attached, were the mainsprings of B i l l ' s concern.. I t i s noteworthy, however, that B i l l brought this up i n connection with carriage and i t i s possible, that goclal-sexaal con*, f l i c t s were also involved as immediate precipitating factors. Although B i l l had been exposed probably to some separation trauma which seemed to have been intensified by his foster father's death, he received enough acceptance from his foster parents to indicate that probably neither negative attitudes toward thenatural parents or psychological rejection were present i n this child's concern. 78 Case 7» In ocmp&xlng B i l l ' s history with that of his half-brother Larry, i t would seem to tha writer that the color difference aa a causative factor l a intensifying a child's concern i s further substantiated. Larry's early history i s meager* He was taken into care from a baby home where he Iiad l i v e d about a year. There i s some evidence that separation trauma may have been caused by four foster placements during Larry's second year of l i f e . These placements were occasioned lay i l l n e s s on the part of the foster parents and did not seam to constitute rejection. Larry remained with the fourth set of foster parents a l l during his youth and i n adult-hood considered them as his parents. Although he was always somewhat shy, he seems to have been accepted and loved i n this foster home, Cf average intelligence, he did f a i r work i n school and became soli' supporting after reaching grade nine. Larry always want by his own name i n contrast to B i l l * Aether he was told such about his natural parents i s not recorded* Bay elation i n adolescence may have been a factor intensifying Larry's concern. Although he had not known during his early years, i n some way he met him at the age of fourteen* "According to Larry's foster mother, B i l l saw his natural motheir before he l e f t town (unsubstanti-ated by record - he had not yet discussed this problem with the worker) and xuas inclined to be very friendly with her." B i l l came to the foster home and saw Larry, and while there evidently told B i l l something of hie mother as foster taother noticed that Larry had been quite upset for a few days after the v i s i t . " About a year l a t e r , Larry came to the office with a belligerent attitude and demanded to know about his parents. "He stated that he got fedVup with people asking him what nationality he was and when he said 19 Canadian they always laughed".. The worker noted that Larry did not seeta nearly as concerned about his illegitiisacy as B i l l had been., Although Lorry aeeisad satisfied iwith tJus inforififction, he o&m buck In a month s t i l l upset. <• He f e l t the agency was not giving him the correct,information* He ?*&nt®d to find his mother, and proceeded to i n i t i a t e a seardh.. His mother was f i n a l l y located i n . j a i l . The worker f e l t teat he was mature enough to see her.-"Worker met Larry and took him to Oakalla,. He was extremely nervous, chain smoking and drying his hands. Worker made no attempt to introduce teem, merely greeting Hrs* A, and saying: "Larry has asked me to come up with him and v i s i t you. Mother and son shook hands and just gaaed for approximately forty seconds and then embraced. The controlled their emotions very well and Larry said: "Gee whls, my own Horn* X f i n a l l y found you." Larry and his mother discussed family happenings, work, l i k e s , dislikes, clothing and plans for the 'future. The Interview lasted for approx-imately half an- hour and worker agreed i n every way to help establish normal relationship after mother's dis-charge. Upon getting outside Oakalla»s gates, Larry's bottled tension demanded r e l i e f and he said "Qee, let's run." Worker obliged for two blocks and then both agreed on a cup of coffee. Larry was J b l l . of plans for his mother and promised to keep worker informed on a l l details." However, Larjty never did follow up with his plans to keep tee worker i n -formed. In this case, difference i n color and sudden revolation i n adolescence of information about tee natural parents seemed to have been the main causative and precipitating factors i n Larry's concern. An Additional Factor In both the case of Jerry, Larry and B i l l there Is some evidence to suggest that i f the c h i l d knows that he has siblings or has lived-with siblings, his concern may be intensified* ftiring tee time Jeny was con-cerned about his father he was also concerned about reuniting with his brother. He had lived with his brother continuously u n t i l he was eight 80 years of a$e., On the other hand, Larry and B i l l did not l i v e with each other but apparently knew abdut each other,., This apparently led M i l to seek out Larry, Vfiiile il«y were together tha> discussed tlieir unknown natural parents,, I t **»uld seem only natural that knowing about a "sem-blance of family" would tend to lead the caild ^o inquire further about his and his sibling'a parents, > Summary of Findings A l l of the factors, both causative and precipitating, have been identified descriptively i n the case records upon the basis of the writer's c l i n i c a l judgment i n analysing the data i n the case records, Miile the writer did not attempt to establish precisely that the factors directly intensified the child's concern, the presence of these factors i n these seven cases suggests that thay may have some relevance to an intensification of the child's concern, * Generally speaking, i n the oases studied, the children with the most traumatic and rejecting experiences seem to be more pathologically t concerned than the children wHo have not been subjected to such severe ex-periences. Also their concern seems less connected with the normal ado-lescent conflicts around social-sexual role. The more disturbed children (Jane, Marjorie, and Jerry) seemed to be preoccupied about their parents to a far greater degree i n terms ;ot time-span over a period of years and i n terms of fantasy than the other children, Negative attitudes on the part of the foster parents toward the natural parents seemed to be connected with the foster parent's rejection of the c h i l d i n most cases, Concealment of information was present i n most cases as i t appeared that- the children knew very l i t t l e about their parents before adolescence. I f they did knew (as i n the case of Marjorie and 61 possibly Jim and Harold) tho ini'orstution giv^sn was probably negative. While difference i n nasw nay have ca*oed conflict because i t tended to conceal information about the child which he may have suspected, the less concerned children were concerned peihaps for other reasons such us color differsnce 3 social-sexual conf I i et- 3 or a separation experience. None of the intensely concerned children had used a different name. Sudden revelation of information i n adolescence appeared to be present i n three cases i n a way that mi^ht have impact on the child'a concern (Jane, Jerry, Larry). However, this factor may have had acre influence 'than i s apparent inasmuch as none of tho children knew much about their foster child status or their natural parents before reaching adolescence. 'Jiie ^ concern seemed related s » to relatively normal socisl-pexual conflicts i n the less pathologically I concerned children. • Karriuge and possible i n f e r i o r i t y feelings regarding that role seemed to be tee main concern as related to tho aatural parents. In Harjorie'e case the social-sexual conflict seaaed to have a relation to hat own maladjustiBent i n "a psyehosexual sense. I t i s doubtful i n the writer! a opinion whether Marjorie became l i k e her mother because she identi-fied with nor as much as she did because of her oxtfi basic personality disturbance. The factor of separation experience, wbieh seemed'closely connected with rejection, seemed to be a precipitating factor i n tee child's concern. Semblance of family also seemed to have some bearing on the child's concern although other factors were operative (see contrast between Jerry's cose and Lariy's and B i l l ' s ) . Noticeable oolor difference seemed to be the mainspring of the concern i n two cases, although other factors seemed to have relevance i n these cases also. These findings are specula-tlve and suggestive rather than conclusive. In Chapter U their implications i n terms of further research and social work practice w i l l be discussed. Chapter It Conclusions and Implications for Research and Social Work Help.  This study was an attempt to explore the general problem of the intense concern which nam adolescent foster children show about their biological parents, from whom they were separated permanently during the f i r s t three years of l i f e . It was aseuaed by the writer that being reared by natural parents is a socially defined need which children in this culture may feel more strongly than children in other cultures. furthermore, i t was assumed that the adolescent foster child, like ether adolescents, has strong conflicts with parental figures which nay at tiiaoe precipitate a natural fantasy about an "ideal" set of parents who are different in per-sonality and physical appearance from the parents with whom they are living. In the adolescent foster child's cose, the content of this fantasy might be expressed in terms of concern about the natural parents whom the child has not known since his early years of l i f e . However, sose adolescent foster children are much more concerned about their natural parents than might be expected i f the above factors were the major causative ones in their concern, t&at creates this intense concern on the part of some of these children? tills was the fecal question of the study. The writer hoped that study of a group of intensely concerned adolescent foster children might reveal factors which may contribute to this intensification ef concern. In order to exassine the case records for the purpose of identi-fying these factors, the writer decided that a series ef inter-related hypotheses would have to be made to form a frame of reference, This frame of reference was derived by the writer from a review of relevant literature on this subject from the fields of social work, social psychology, and 63 psychiatry. Th© series of inter-related hypotheses (factors) were grouped arbitrarily Into basic causative factors and imedlate precipitating factors, and described under these groupings' in Chapter Two. In Chapter Three the writer described the factors which he identified In seven ease records oh the basis of clinical judgment. Elements of a l l the factors were found to be present In the esses of these adolescent footer children, wards -af tho Vancouver Children's Aid Society who, in the clinical judgment of two experienced workers, were considered to be intensely concerned about their unknown natural parents. Ho attempt to weigh the significance of the factors i n a particular child's concern was made, as It was thought that this would properly be the job of more definitive research. A Critique of the JEteaearch Miile the study admittedly was an exploratory one, i t raises certain questions ef methodology which have implications for farther research. One of the crucial areas of the study ley in conceptualising arid defining the factors. One Eight well ask the question) were any of the factors actually located in the cases studied? Certainly descriptive defi-nition lacks precision, tihat are the coaponeiito of separation trauma? Bow can they be Identified with precision that would lend i t s e l f to further verification? It would seaa that such a question oe this le of c r i t i c a l import. Clinical judpients by themselves do net necessarily form a solid base for research. Yet with the material at hand, what i s open for the researcher? At the time these children were taken into care (in the late 1920's and early I930*e) the clinical judgments of workers nay not have been refined enough to identify evidence suggestive of separation trauma, for example, or else there may have been Insufficient consideration of this ah problem by the workers. Thus the records may not reflect the clinical observations which social workers could make today i n tee actual ease situations. This student was forced therefore on the basis of tee paucity of the material to superimpose certain general descriptions of the factors upon the material at hand* The result i s that only indications of tee factors are presented. The limitations of such research are obvious. In order to establish rathar than surest that certain factors may bo present in such oases, .more complete case material and more definitive criteria would have to be set up. This study merely provides a suggested conceptual frame-work with wtilch to further study the factors Whioh may contribute to the adolescent foster child's concern about hie natural parents from whoa he was separated at an early age. Implications of the Findings i n Terms of Euture Research The limitations of tee study point up the need for further research In this area. This research should be directed toward further definition of the problem for sooial treatment purposes* Admittedly the concern about the natural parents Is only one phase of the adolescent foster child's problems* But i f , as tee study suggests, tee concern for tee natural parents i s systematic of disorganizing factors in the child'e environment, this seems to indicate teat any dealing with tela concern Isolated from the adolescent's own psychosocial problems would be without) helpful purpose. Hie problem teen Is to set the concern within tee framework of a particular adolescent's inner and outer world. This can be accomplished by sound psychosocial diagnosis based on definitive research*, what influence does a factor such as separation trauma have on the adolescent's concern? Does Separation trauma hove a different degree of influence than concealment during m childhood,, and revelation of the knowledge about natural parents in ado-lescence? Which factors can be dealt with cost effectively by social workers} which factors can be dealt with mast effectively by psychiatrists? The writer believes that within i t s limitations such a framework as suggested i n this study may provide a start i n answering seme ef these questions. The f i r s t step in research would appear to be an amplification of this frame of reference with more refined criteria. One could study the foster child who ie not concerned about his natural parents. Has he been subjected to separation trauma In infancy? Has he had lack of continuity in parental figures? Has he had continuity in parental figures, but basic rejection by them? Are Ms foster parents1 attitudes toward his natural parents negative or positive? If the adolescent foster child who shows l i t t l e concern about his natural parents has these negative factors present in his environmentj then a new dimension will have to be added to the con-ceptual framework. Other factors will have to be ferreted out and examined. On the other hand the conceptual framework might be validated as i t stands. The study sight serve as a basis for illuminating our understanding of the concern susse adopted children show about their unknown natural parents. If the child was adopted during the f i r s t months of infancy and remained with his adopting parents for the rest of his childhood, factors other than continuity in parental figures might be highlighted for further study. This study also provides a tentative framework for examination and weighing of these factors in individual cases upon a quantitative basis. The relative degrees of the presence ef each factor could be compared with the relative intensity of the child's concern. Probably generalisations would be hard to draw ae each dhild defines a cultural need in hie peculiar 56 idiomatic fashion. If tho basic social work principle of understanding whore the individual client i s , io to be applied, teen this researoh seems indicated. Also the question of whether this i s a peculiar problem of the adolescent foster ohild should be answered., I f tele i s a Special problem for adolescent foster ohildren* teen the efforts on the part of sooial workers in tee child placement field should be foeused more on the problem*, How many adolescent foster ohildren i n this group are concerned? Is the over-a l l concern great enough, as compared with adopted ohildren, to warrant specialised attention? A coapa3?atlve study of the concern quantitatively as between the two groups would ©sea to be indicated. The Social frforker's Bole i n Diagnosis and Treatment Jean Charnley i n her book "The Art of Child Placement'' has said tee sooial worker i n child placement i s the link between the ohild, his natural parents, and hie foster parents* The trorltor'o role is that of keeping balance among these persons i n tee triangle. 1 Although tee worker's role i n helping the adoleeoent foster child1© concert about his natural parentis was not studied specifically It was evident teat the children i n tills study saw the worker as a bridge between teem and the parents whom they did not know* What should tee worker t e l l the child about his own parents? When should he t e l l them? How should he t e l l them? These are questions to which no definite answers seem available* This thesis points up softs provocative areas for further study i n regard to these questions* Jean Chamley, The Art of Child Plaeeaenta University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 19SS. 87 One of the assuraptlonB oany workers have aad i s that a child who IS afforded love and security of permanent parental figures l h a fasaily sotting w i l l have very l i t t l e concern about his natural parents, The study of the literature reveals this Ray net always be the case. Spita has diagnosed the concern ef one child as being symptomatic of the child's anxiety over a basic traumatic experience of separation. I f the diagnosis ef the case consultant and the psychiatrist i n this instance i s correct, It would appear that Carl hod both love and continuity of parental figures i n bis adopted home. In addition he seemed to be well adjusted i n other areas of his l i f e , school and peer relationships, Yet time and time again Carl returned to the question of his own parents whom he could not believe wore dead. In spite of two years of Intensive psychiatric treatment, Carl's concern persisted. He showed his concern by stealing and by a great deal of fantasy. It ie interesting to know that in this study five children would seem to have had early traumatic separation experiences, f&ile i n each Case other factors seem related to the child's concern about his unknown natural parents, this writer wanders how influential was the repetitive pattern of the basic separation experience i n relation to the concern these children shewed. If the concern i s related to a deep-seated problem such as a repetitive reaction to on early separation trauna, then i t would appear that some special focus would have to be made on this core problem early i n a child's l i f e , Whether an attack en this problem Hee within the realm of social work or psychiatric competency i s the question. Spits questions whether psychiatric treatment In i t s present forai would be helpful, "ttiether our verbal, our interpretive analytical approach can touch the basic insecurity, the one which I have called conditioned trauma, remains an open, question in sy t&nd, W& Bay have to con-eider in such cases approaches which compleaent 33 the classical analytical therapy. That i s not a n&& idea| ohild analysis as such already ie a (sonified analytical therapy and play therapy goes s t i l l further i n Its modification. It i s sy conviction that we may have to become even more radical.'*! If Spits*e theory i s correct, then- i t may be true to eay that l a these instances where severe separation trauma has occurred i n a child's l i f e , the natter of what to t e l l a child about his natural parents and when to t e l l hi& nay be Irrelevant to the basic itimie. It would seem teat i n Carl's cade (described in Chapter Two) teat the tailing of tee background to the ohild may have intensified, rather than helped Carl with his basic separa-tion anxiety. This cay be .also truo i n tee eases of several children studied in thie thesis, for example, <fe??y Bast have been told quite a hit of infoxmtion about hie natural parents by the worker, fie was told, i t would appear, that his mother had died while i n a mental hospital. It ie likely teat he was told hie putative father's name, later i n adolescence he used this Information not only to punish himself but also to punish the people he believed to have been responsible for bis basic separation experience, his natural parents. This seems to be a matter which raerits -c r i t i c a l diagnostic tidnking. It would appear to be a trs#e circumstance that tea social worker or the foster parents «ould play into a child 1 a unhealthy fantasy. As Sarah Stone says, tee fantasy of this typo of child differs from that of tee child who has had a reasonably normal l i f e history* •Xt i s not the quality of the young active ohild who will stop momentarily in his ploy to wonder what kind of bouncing games be might devise on top of a pretty white cloud* It i s not of the quality of tee add* Bene A* Spits, K.9., "Discussion of. 'The Working-Throng Process l a Dealing with Anxiety around Adoption*, by Harion J, Barnes, "American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, July 1953, American Orthopsychlatric Assciation, *tow York, p. 620. lescent g i r l who before dropping off to ©leep dreams of & lover... Xt ie different too frost that whieh derives from the hatred which a well-tak©R-care-of middle class child develops: as a sideline to hie anxiety or compulsion neurosis. His (the foster child's) fantasy ie pathological i n that i t irraoblliacs him for productive use of many of hie capacities to nest current living*"1 However, although the traunatiaed foster child's fantasy ie pathological oe Stem points cut, she cakes this observations "Sbr son© of these children the voids are so large and so deep that l i t t l e can be dene to effectively f i l l them* these children will* despite the social worker's most s k i l l f u l efforts, continue to dessonstrate a craving for a 'crutch't a craving which for some will be insatiable* She fantasy will need to be continued in order that l i f e be tolerable*" 2 Therefore, i t would appear that telling the severely trauB&tiaed adolescent fester child about hie natural parents is a matter which requires a great deal of casework s k i l l * In these cases i t would eeera a eafe gSBeraliaation to limit ssany of the specific details about the parent's lives, particularly i n regard to their antisocial behavior, so that the child would not build up a fantasy which he could turn against himself and the world. PUrthepEsore, i t would appear that seise special means of helping these children early i n childhood, i n addition to carefully selected foster home placement* seems warranted, Possibly the use of structured ploy therapy i s a clinical setting, as defreeated by Solomon and Levy, might help the child to work cut the repetitive separation problem by his achieving a desensitiaation ef the basic separation trouma.3 Many of the children i n the group studied' seemed 1 Sarah Stone, "Ohildren Sftthout Roots", Social Service Review, June, 15>J>3, University of Chieago Press, Chicago, p. lm, 2 ma, p* 150 9 Hambridge, 0. Jr,, Structured Play Theraay. Americani Journal of Ortho-psychiatry, American Orthop^chiatric Association, Bei* York, Kew Wfc, July 90 to be unable to benefit by foster home placement because of the behavior caused by this basic separation anxiety which usually displayed i t s e l f either in antl«aocial behavior or a restlessness making It impossible for them to remain situated in a foster horns for mors than a few months at a iiaa. Obviously, such thinking would influence philosophy regarding whether a child should be told nuch about his parents at an early age* Other things being equal however. It would appear that i t would be better for a child to face some facts about his parents and about hie fester home site* ation throughout his early childhood, The dangers of revelation of these facts i n adolescence would seesa to be too great. As Kurt La win has eaids "It ie of f i r s t importance that a stable social ground be laid very early; tee some experience of being called a foster child which might upset tee 15 year old boy who was not aware of the real situation, y i l l have l i t t l e or no effect at e l l on the child who i s properly intro-duced to Ilia ?4al situation at the age of three* The variety of social structures to which a growing child can adapt himself In & relatively stable wgy Is astonishingly great. It seems, however, extremely difficult to establish a new stable social ground after one has broken down."! This theory of Lewin'a sight have to be limited in telling the severely traumatism child* However, wite other children i t would seem that a realis-t i c facing of the Circumstances i s indicated. The study reveals that, as far as records are concerned, a l l except one of the foster children were told nothing about their situation before adolescence, Bomo childrea went by the same name as their fester parents only to learn in adolescence that their name was different. These children 3- Hart Lewin, Itesolvlng Social Conflicts, Harper and Brothers, Hew York, 91 mm generally the atm who had d i f f i c u l t y facing the facte around aa$a« Two of the© tired aliases quite extensively. Bath were children who had used the foster parents' real suafnaoos at various times i n their l i v e s . However, the fact that conceslaont &nd sudden revelatica i s not a contributing factor i n i t e e l f i s shown i n Jane's ease. Even theu$* Jane was told at an early a^e that oho was a foster c h i l d slue seeras to have repressed' this know-ledge as indicated by her e^lanatien to the sorter, after her rejection by the footer parents, that she always thought tho foster parents were har oiaa. The writer believes that i n Jam's case, separation trawrea and rejection, ratter than concealment or lack of i t , my nave beer, the crucial factors i n her concern. The study seemed to point up the fact that negative attitudes t«ward the natural parents on tho part of th© foster parents were related to a baelc rejection of the ch i l d by the foster parents. This was obviously so i n both Jam'e and SSarjorie'a cases. la Harold's case the foster father i n rejecting Harold said that he believed that Harold's bad beh&vlor was caused by here-dity and 'foreign blood'. In Jia's ease tho fact that the faster fattier called him a "bastard" alee smmd related to the foster 'parents' lack ef acceptance of t!» child. That this hurt Jim deeply after seven years i s an indication of the sensitivity a c h i l d has to the negative attitudes on the part- of the foster parents toward the natural parents. One of the basic principles i n foster ylaceaant work i s that th® foster parent should ba able to accept the natural parents of the child. Tills i s applied more to the child who has parents i n reality^ i t mosau not to have applied so such to the child who does not have parents. While the records do not indicate the way workers interpreted the natural parents to the foster parents, i t would appear that one of the c r i t i c a l factors l a selecting the foster parents ted been over-92. looked: that ie, the fester parents' acceptance of the natural parents* , Here again, tho scarcity of the material in th® records points to the need for wore focusing on the interpretive job which the social worker &u@t do to help the foster parents be able to show the foster child that he accepts the child's natural parents however nebulous they may be. One worker, jolowiea, has recoraosnded that foster parents try to keep reraet&rcnces of the child's am parents in the horn, each as photographs and mementos. She also recaia-mende that the child observe the birthday of the natural parente*'* f&ether this le a valid idea or not Is probably open to question. However, i t would seem to be worth notice inasmoh as i t would tend not only to f i l l the gaps in the child's l i f e and thus lessen the need of fantasy end concern about the natural parents, but i t would also tend to help the fester parents have positive attitudes toward the natural parents, This might be a practical way in which the worker could help relieve the necessity of fantasy which may result not only from concealment of information, but also from possible un-conscious negative attitudes on the part of foster parents* Beth of these factors, concealment and negative attitudes on the part of foster parents, would appear to be closely inter-related* The setter of racial difference between the^f ester child and the fester parents seeras to be one which would accentuate the concern about the natural parents on the part of the child* As yet, no careful study has been nade i n relation to the influence this factor may have cn the child's concern* Cultural attitudes toward racial differences in the cewiraunity play a part In intensifying the adolescent's concern about his "difference 9. Sesse children Alaraeaa R» Jalawlcs, "A Foster Child Heeds his own Parents", The Child, August 1SU7, O.S. Children's Bureau, tfcshington, p* 21. have to be placed in foster noises where the racial background Is different from their own, Scarcity cf foster hoses in certain racial groups makes this necessary. Therefore, tee "difference" whioh the child feels himself can only be minimised with careful casework help. This factor could be discussed with the child at an early age; his feelings of inferiority could be brought out into the open and accepted by the foster parents end the worker. This would seem to be the aost practical way of minimising not only concern about racial difference, but the concern about the natural parents which this feeling of difference may engender. The matter of social-sexual conflict i n relation to the adolescent foster child's concern about his natural parents i s one which i s a subject of considerable controversy. Huch of this concern is related to the natural parents' socially unacceptable sexual behavior. Kohlsaat and Johnson^ believe teat a child should never face the fact of his being illegitimately bom. itihile i t i s true that some children face this fact with more trauma than others, tee writer thinks that in many cases concealment of this fact by the worker from tee child only tends to intensify his concern in this . area. Many foster children probably learn from novels, moving pictures, or talk with peers or adults that a foster child i s i n many cases illegitimate. It would appear that in many situations i t would be better for tee ohild to have hie suspicions brought into the open so he can receive help from tee caseworker with tee anxiety and shame which he may f e d . I f the child could be helped to accept tele fact, i t might i n general be a mors healthy approach than i f tee whole matter ware ignored. In tee writer's opinion the child . should be helped to see teat social stigma is not on tee child, his B, Kohlsaat and A. Johnson, "Some Suggestions tor Practice In Infant Adoptions", Social Casework, March, l$$ht Sfeaily Service Association of America, Hew York. 9h iliugitaUaata bir%u wao not caused by his boMOVior ama ha siiould be helped to accept tuia. He could also be helped naa that i t «ae not caused tty hie parents choosing to be "baa", but rather i t igas caused by their own uah«ppiii©s0 or unfortunate clrauiast&ncss. ©ie scarcity of juuterioi i n these case records accut uau tije child was told atout Ms i l l e g i t i w c y aud i.uw tie reacted to this ini'anuation, point ua tho mad for further focus on the part of social wurters i n this c r i t i c a l area. Una factor which tne study revealed was tha« KnouLedgo of siblings sate/ have an influence on thu cn i l t i 1 s concern au>ut> »:&ES unknown natural p a i n t s . . 'i'ao etutijy does not euww whether t»4.8 ie a factor i n i t s e l f * however, i t would BQ& that f&uily faowoarahip has deep seatad isport i n t a i s culture and that a child laijut oling to a biological fa-ii l y even though i t has no speei£i<j waning to h i a i i i r e a l i t y . waothe? children wao ore too young to know their own aiulings aaould ruisuin with then In foster care i s a c r i t i c a l question. The writer can sea how Eaalntaiuiug the i'aaily Kay be Important for tha oidar Ciiild. however, i n tite case of x,ha younger 'child who hopefully lives i n a substitute lordly of hie own, i t would seen that k .apiiiij a seabluiice of family for hi« i s unrealistic ami would only intensify his concern about a fatally which i s not wis i n r e a l i t y . In tide study, i n both iriatianees th® half brothers ware only aeparaied i n age by a saort span of time. Tuese children wore separated fma ihoir parents i n infancy, onts sot u£ children did not even l i v e with each otaer but the other set of eaildmi l i v e d with each other u n t i l they waro eight years old. In th# former case a worker isay have Hade an etfort to bring the boys together although tuiu i s xmt clearly Indicated i n the records. In the latter case an effort was euae to keep tho boys together and i t did not work out. f i d s wiiole question of keeping siblings who never really knew each .9$ other tejjether to com degree ie one which should be examined further, She fact that a worker ?oay have special feelings around this area i s an important area to bo cojwidered. "The worker needs to understand thEt his proposed demands to help the child learn about hl&sslf w i l l be anxiety pro-ducing not only to the child but to hiEsolf as well. He needs to understand himself to know why at times he w i l l say 'this I could net share with the child*. Ob-viously i t stay not be wise to share with a child everything that bccojaes known, but the selection of what and when raay be related to the worker's own naeds and to &s own previous personal l i f e experiences. A work of caution i s necessary here. tSiile the jaajority of workers w i l l tend to be. over-protective and try to ahiolrt the child from an inevitable pain, there are unfortunately a few with so such basic h o s t i l i t y that they rsay run raa?3ant i n this kind of situation. Knowing of ouch elements of ho s t i l i t y i n a worker, a supervisor should not pemit em-barkation on a project such as this unless they can offer sufficient protection."i As Yet i t i s impossible to cake va l i d generalisations, as Stone points out, about what and when to t e l l an adolescent. The question of how to t e l l a child aeons to be mra open for definition, Xrt this s i t u -ation the social worker should apply the sai^e umterstanUini;, warmth and acceptance that he uses i n other case work situations. The? object i s to proceed at the child's pace by not giving hits too ranch information too prematurely or information that would be devastating to hia personality structure. A worker, i n this writer's opinion should try to help the c h i l d see that bore i s an understanding adult (the oaewworker) who accepts the fact that a chil i I can hava mixed feelings about hia unknot® parents and who understands that there are voids In a child's past which need to be f i l l e d , tJith t h i s kind of suppox$ive understanding the worker should be able, except i n eases of extreme disturbances, to help the child (1) to relieve his Stone, op. c i t . , p. 1J>0. negative fueilugs about his situation and ( 2 ) to gain a positive perspec-tive toward the facts of his l i f e ac tout hu cay be able to feel that what fee i s hiaself i o itaportuwt, what he dees i n the future i s important, and that he does not L«ave to be tied to tho past. Too worker should also help the c i d l d to accept the fact that his parents had their &wd as \ f e l l ss their bad qualities and that basically thesy haa probleaa over which he personally had no control, but which he could understand. Tide would seem to help the chil d W form a better understanding of the d i f f i c u l t i e s other people i n the world around hia have. '£,.is say eventually lead to his acceptance of his own weaknesses as well as strengths. I K the broad sense this study would seoa to point cut a need for further efforts on tha part of the social worker i n child placement to help foster children have the satisfaction of l i v i n g i n a hone with accep-ting foster parents who con reia&in as a aoustunt parental f i b r e s through-out his develepisentol ye<*re. While ease of these children Kay never be adopted, continued efforts should be si&de to help the child f e e l that this footer finally i s liis am fa»<43y, as close as one can possibly be for hita. Xi' the worker can help thts fostar parents and footer child accept the strengthe. as well as the limitations of foster care, the worker w i l l have accomplished a great deal i n helping the child feel that, tale foster forally i e a place where he con fe e l that he belongs and i s wanted.. general inferences Boesard, Ji«jae© tt. S., Tho Sociology of Child Development, Harper and Brothers, Bew York and London, W&. ' Bruhe, Frank J., Trends i n Sooial Ufcrk (As Sefleeted i n the Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work, 187ii-lyk(S), Columbia University Press, Urn York, l°i*B. Brikeon, Erik H., Childhood and Society, W. W. Norton and Cccpany, New York, 1$50. j&aud, Anim, and Burlih&bara, Dorothy, Infants Without ffanftlias, Int©3?~ national tfnivorslty Pre«s, Sew York, I9iib« Josselyn, Initio M«, gw Adblescont and His World, totally Service Association of A f r i c a , liefer York, 19i>£. Hutchinson, Qorothy, In ^ a.est. of Foster Parents, (A Point of View i n HOJBS-flading), ColuBbia University Press, lieu York, Is?b3. Lundberg, Eiaaa Qctavia, Unto the Least of ghooe, 9. Applstos-Cantury Company, If sc., &»t York &nd London, I$u7. Xosng, Leostine, Out of tfediock (A Stu*$r of the Bi-obleas of the Unmarried Mother and her Chiid)",*l4«0raw-'ilill Soak Go&paoy, Slew York, 2$$h* Specific Mferencss socks Bowlby, John;, Maternal Care and Mental H**^*1, World Health Organisation, Geneva, 19$2, (Ponograph Series 2) I9hh~. Charnloy, Jean, The Art of Child Placetsant. University of Minnesota ftress, Minneepolis, 1955.'' Lewin, Wart, Sssolvifig Social Conf Hots, Harcer1 and Brothers, tew York, i9he. ; Sfoad, Margas-et, Greying Up i n Hew Cuinaa, The Hew Aaesican Libraiy of World Literature,"'"(Wohtor Ttk>o!k''editi on)1S#3. Mead, Kargaret, Kale and jfeia&le, The. Hew American Library of World Litera-ture (Kentor Book edition),' 1°&3. S u i l l v a % Harry Stock, Intorpsraonal Theory of Psychiatry, W. t?. Gorton Co., How York, 35»J>2« — * - -°6 Synaade, Poroiv&l, Adolescent ftuitasy, Columbia University Press, flow-York, 1S>J*°. fboraas, t&lliam 1., Primitive Behavior, KcOraw-HiU Book Company, Inc., $uw York and London, 1 9 3 7 Periodicals Eenedek, Shereee, "The ©actional Structure ef the Sanily", gho ffaasily, Its function and Destiny. &ith Nanda Anchen (ed) Harper and 'awe-there. Hew York, l y t e . Barnes, Marion J., "The Working through Process i n iSeallns with Are&oty Around.Adoption", Agoricao Journal of Orttiop.sychiatry, July, 1953, Aiaariean Orthopsychiatric Association, Hew York. Burgess, Ernest w*., Mfh© Jtoaily*', i n American Society An Wartime, W. Ogburn (&&.), l?i<3, University of Chicago Press, Cnxeago. Clothier. Florence, "the Psychology of the Adopted Child", llsntal Hygiene, A p r i l 19«3, national Association of Mental Hygiene, Albany, Itew Xork. Da l a , John, ,JTho Child Away froa Hone*, Journal of Social Casework:, Api&l 19b8, Easily Welfare Association of America, New ¥ork. English, 0. ftpurgeon, "Tha Psychosocial Ifclo of the Father ir. the Faasily", Social Casework, October, l?£lj, F&edly Service Association of America, Hew York'.' Ippieh, Ethel 3., and Jenkins, Aloa C., "Tolling Adopted Children", Studios  of Children, Columbia University, Hew York, 19h&. Freud, Anna. "Safeguarding the Sa»tional Health of Our Children", Casework  Papers, i9S>u, national Conference on Social Work, How York. " J l " data, Clyde, "Adoption", postal *fork Yearbook, 195U, Aearlcaa Aoscci&tion of Social Workers, New York. Cordon, Henrietta 1,, "Limitations of Sbstsr Home Care", Child Welfare, July 19$3, Child i/elfare league of Anerlca, New York. Hagan, Helen S., "Foster Care for Children!; Social Work Yearbook, 195h, American Association of Social tforl&rs, !?ew York.' • Hambridge, Cove Jr . , "Structured Play Therapy", AasrlcauJournal of Ortho-psychiatry, July 19$$, Aaorican Orthopaychiatric Association, &ew xork. Houwink, Eda, "An Adopted Child Geeks His Own itother", Child Welfare  League Bulletin. Sew York, A p r i l l°hi Hutchinson, Borothy, "The Placement vrbrker and the Child^s Own Barents", Social Casework, July 19$h, Fsaily Service Association of Amsricu, New York. 99 Hutcnincon, Oracu, "fc&to ils I?", ?hu Child, Children*s Bureau, February 19«7, l&shington, Jaloaica, Altssda B,,"The Ebster Child Beads his Own Parents", She Child, August 29U7, b'.S. Children's bureau, tfcvernasnt Printing Ofiioe, Washington, B.O, Josselyn, Irene M*, !"lhe Ffcaaily as a Psychological Onit", Sooial Caoeaork, October 1953, iaiaily Service association oi' America, Mew York. Kohlsaat, Barbara,, and Johnson, Adelaide ft., "Sous Suggestions for Practice i n Infant Adoptions, Social Casework, Kaich 29S?t», liaaily Service Association of Atactica, Kev Xork. tJalinoaski, Branlslow, "Parenthood - Siie Basis of Social structure 1 1, Source*-book i n fforri&gQ and the ffaa&ly, U. Sufjsraan (ed.), Houghton M i f f l i n Company, f&'kiveWlde Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1955. Michaels, Ruth, "Special Problems i n Casework with Adoptive Parents", Adoption Principles antl Services, SamUy Service Association of Aiaorica, jL95*i, Hew York. A Esdfield, Margaret, rtjfhc A f r i c a n FmU&i Consensus and J?reectorau, Seurce- book i n Harr-lage and the Ww&ty, ft, Sussmn (ed.) Houghton $L£fltn Con^any, 1'he Kiversiuo Prods, Cambridge, Mass., 19J&. Solomon, Joseph C, "Play Stachtilquee and the Integrative Process", American  Journal of Orthopsychiatry, July 19$£, Aiaerlc&n Orthopsychlatric Associa-tion, Beyr York. Spits, fleaa, "Dleeuauion on 'Tha Working Through Process Around Anxiety i n Adoption*1', by Marion J. Barnes'*, /taoriean Journal of Orthopsychiatry. July 1923, American Grthopsyci&airio Association,' Jfei* Xorls.~" Sirjosaki, John, "Cultural Configurations i n tho A f r i c a n Sbnily", American Journal of Sociology, May 19U8, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Stone, Sarah, "Children Without Roots'1, Social Service Review, July 1953, University of Chicago Prose, Gisicagc, Yelcher, Morton I., "Adoption Practices iiaong tho Eskimos on Southampton Island'*, Canadian Waifare, July 1953. levin, Kurt, "The Held Theory Approach to Add&acence", fhe Adolescent, JeroiBe M. Soidraah (ed.), 1953. Brydon Press, Now York,. * Procaedlnge, 'White House Conference on the Care of Qenendent Children, 1909, dovGrnnjent Printing Office, Washington, 1909. '• ' Proceedings, &Mte Bouse Conforence on Child Health and Protection, 1930, The century CoKpany, am York, 1931. 


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