UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Some aspects of differential placement : a study of one long-term CAS foster home in which many children… Walker, Roy Francis Paul 1956

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1956_A5 W2 S6.pdf [ 12.41MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106259.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106259-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106259-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106259-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106259-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106259-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106259-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106259-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106259.ris

Full Text

SOME ASPECTS OF DIFFERENTIAL PLACEMENT: A STUDY OF Om  LONG-TERM CAS FOSTER HOME  IN M I C H MANY CHILDREN HAVE BEEN PLACED  by ROY FRANCIS PAUL WALKER  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r t h e degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  1S56 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  - iv -  ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s an examination o f an i n d i v i d u a l , long-term f o s t e r home which served a l a r g e c h i l d placement agency u n t i l a few years ago* Th® f o s t e r home was regarded by agency workers as an eminently s u c c e s s f u l one, b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y ! p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h a d o l e s c e n t boys, who a r e placement problems f o r any c h i l d - p l a c i n g agency. The study was undertaken as an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the reasons f o r the f o s t e r home's success w i t h a d o l e s c e n t boys, i n order t o p r o v i d e a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r more c o n t r o l l e d s c i e n t i f i c study i n the f u t u r e . The study was done a t the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , oae o f s e v e r a l a g e n c i e s o f i t s k i n d i n Canada which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o s t e r home and other forms o f placement p l a n n i n g f o r many c h i l d r e n who come i a t o i t s c a r e , and f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s s t a t u t e s r e l a t e d t o the p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n . The  study  includes:  1.  Aa account o f the h i s t o r i c a l development o f f o s t e r home placement p r a c t i c e , an account o f the aeeds and problems o f c h i l d r e n ( w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o those who r e q u i r e f o s t e r home c a r © ) , and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e agency i n which t h e study took p l a c e ;  2.  A survey o f t h e c h i l d r e n p l a c e d l a the f o s t e r home and a q u a l i t a t i v e study o f t h e f o s t e r home, f o c u s s i n g on the twenty-on©-year p e r i o d o f i t s a c t i v e s e r v i c e t o t h e agency;  3.  An examination o f t h e agency's case r e c o r d s o f the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , t h e i r own f a m i l i e s , and the f o s t e r f a m i l y . A d d i t i o n a l material f o r the study was o b t a i n e d from I n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e f o s t e r mother, h e r own two c h i l d r e n , aad f o u r o f h e r former f o s t e r c h i l d r e n .  T h i s study sought t o examlae the f o s t e r home i a o r d e r t o p r o v i d e some f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e dynamics o f a good f o s t e r home, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r a d o l e s c e n t boys. Th© f i n d i n g s suggest a number o f important f a c t o r s t o be sought i a any such f o s t e r home, i n c l u d i n g steady and c o n s i s t e n t a f f e c t i o n f o r a l l c h i l d r e n , f o s t e r and own, a n assumption o f a d u l t  h u m i l i t y , i n t e r e s t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and l e a d e r s h i p on the p a r t o f t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s , and the Importance o f strong community r o o t s f o r t h e f o s t e r home* These f i n d i n g s , In. a d d i t i o n t o having i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , may p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r a f u r t h e r refinement o f d i a g n o s t i c e f f i c i e n c y i n the agency's f u t u r e f o s t e r home placement programs*  -  11  TABLE OF COHTEKTS Chapter I . F o s t e r Home Placement  Page  C h i l d placement p r a c t i c e today. C h i l d placement p r a c t i c e i n Canada aad B r i t i s h Colombia. C h i l d r e n have b a s i c needs* The n e c e s s i t y o f f o s t e r home c a r e f o r some c h i l d r e n * . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter I I . F o s t e r Home Placement (Continued) The problems o f l a t e n c y aad a d o l e s c e n c e . The Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y * Method of study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33  Chapter I I I . .4 Survey o f foe C h i l d r e n F l a c e d - j n . frfre Fosfeer Home C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f placements. A study o f the placements* C o n c l u s i o n s . * , • • . . . . . . . .  62  Chapter IV. A Study o f t h e F o s t e r Home from Reasons f o r s t u d y i n g the f o s t e r home. A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e backgrounds o f t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s p r i o r t o 1931o A study o f t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s * L i f e l a t h e f o s t e r home* L i f e i n the f o s t e r home as seen by former f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . The o w n c h i l d r e n ' s f e e l i n g s about l i f e i a t h e f o s t e r home* C o n c l u s i o n s • n  Chapter V*  w  108  Coaclusloaa  The growth aad development o f t h e f o s t e r parents* Seme c h a r a c t e r ! s t i e s o f the f o s t e r f a m i l y * Some o b s e r v a t i o n s * Conclusions. • • * * * . . . . . . Appendices! A. - A copy o f a l e t t e r s e a t t o t h e f o s t e r parents by a Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y worker i a 1948 B.  A copy o f a l e t t e r sent t o the f o s t e r mother by a Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y worker i n 1956  C.  Bibliography  153  * iii  *  Table  1.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Placements A c c o r d i n g t o Category, P e r i o d , and R e s u l t s o f Placement. .  Table  2.  S u c c e s s f u l and U n s u c c e s s f u l Placements A c c o r d i n g t o Category . . . . . . . . . . . .  Page 65 67 »  Table  3.  Table . 4.  S u c c e s s f u l and U n s u c c e s s f u l Placements A c c o r d i n g t o Category and P e r i o d , . . . . . . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Very S h o r t Placements i n Period 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Table Table  $• 6.  Table Table  7, 8. 9*  T a b l e 10.  .  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Very S h o r t Placements i n Period 2 . . . . . . . . . . .  73 74  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S h o r t Placements i n Period 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Table  68  .  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S h o r t Placements i n Period 2 . . . . . .  77  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Medium Placements ' i n Period 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Medium Placements According to Plan i n Period 2 * * .  76  .  .....  Outcome o f Long-term Placements i n Period 2 , . . . . . . . . . .  ,  86  Bl 93  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  I wish t o express t o Mrs. H e l e n Exner and Mr. A d r i a n Marriage o f the f a c u l t y o f the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and M i s s Dorothy Coombe, Mr. John Sanders, and Mr. Ronald Hawkes, o f t h e Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , my a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o and a s s i s t a n c e i n the completion o f t h i s study.  SOME ASPECTS OF DIFFERENTIAL PLACEMENT: A STUDY OF ONE LONG-TERM OAS FOSTER HOME IN WHICH MANY CHILDREN HAVE BEEN PLACED  CHAPTER*I  FOSTER HOME PLACEMENT  C h i l d Placement P r a c t i c e Today C h i l d placement p r a c t i c e today i s an a r t .  Dorothy  Hutchinson expresses t h i s view in- her I n t r o d u c t i o n * to J e a n Charaley's book The A r t o f C h i l d Placement, when she  states:  C h i l d placement compounds s c i e n t i f i c theory and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o p r a c t i c e w i t h aa a d d i t i o n a l I n g r e d i e n t — an easy:, c r e a t i v e , aad i m a g i n a t i v e use o f the theory as t h i s expressed through the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the s o c i a l worker,. To have aay r e a l poteacy i a the l i v e s o f people, the t h e o r i e s o f c h i l d placement must be expressed through the d i s c i p l i n e d emotions o f those who p r a c t i c e . It i s t h i s c r e a t i v e use o f theory which earas t h i s book i t s t i t l e * * - ' T h e A r t o f C h i l d Placement. '1 Miss Hutchiasoa goes oa t o say t h a t the r o l e of the placement worker, as she guides aad s t e e r s the placement p r o c e s s , can be c l e a r l y  seen:  L i k e the hub o f a wheel, she h o l d s t o g e t h e r the s e v e r a l r a d i a t i a g bars o f placement. To the c h i l d , to h i s a a t u r a l p a r e a t s , she l e a d s her s t r e a g t h , her i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s aad her understanding, so t h a t the p r o c e s s caa proceed w i t h g r e a t e r h e l p t o a l l . She makes use o f a g r e a t fund o f knowledge. To t h i s knowledge she adds an I n d i v i d u a l and c r e a t i v e touch which s p r i n g s from the wisdom o f l i f e e x p e r i e a c e . She i s the t r u e p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t h a t she bleads aa o b j e c t i v e knowledge of placemeat w i t h self-knowledge aad puts both t o use i a t h i s b u s i n e s s o f h e l p i n g people through f o s t e r care.2 Miss C h a r a l e y , i n the same book, aad l a the same v e l a ,  states:  1 C h a r a l e y , Jean, The A r t o f C h i l d Placement. U a i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1955, I n t r o d u c t i o n , p . v i i . 2  I b i d . . Introduction, p.  vlii.  - 2 -  111 no other a r e a o f her work I s the c h i l d placement worker more aware t h a t t h i s i s an a r t she i s p r a c t i c i n g — not a s c i e n c e . One envies the exactness of c h e m i s t r y ; but chemists, f o r a l l t h e i r m i r a c l e s , cannot make g o l d . And y e t the s o c i a l worker who succeeds i n making a good placement i s a r e a l a l c h e m i s t , f o r to a t r o u b l e d c h i l d a good f o s t e r home placement Is pure g o l d . ! In r e l a t i o n to what has f o l l o w s that  s o c i a l casework, an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f c h i l d p l a c e -  ment today. Is a l s o an a r t . "The  a l r e a d y been s a i d , i t  Nature and  P r i n c i p l e s and  Swithun Bowers, i n h i s a r t i c l e  D e f i n i t i o n o f S o e i a l Casework,** In the book Techniques of S o c i a l Casework*  S o e i a l casework i s an s c i e n c e o f human r e l a t i o n s used to m o b i l i z e c a p a c i t i e s r e s o u r c e s I n the community ment between the c l i e n t and  environment.2  a r t i n which knowledge o f th® and s k i l l i n r e l a t i o n s h i p are i n tho i n d i v i d u a l and appropriate f o r better adjusta l l or any p a r t o f h i s t o t a l  C h i l d placement p r a c t i c e has stage of e v o l u t i o n o f c h i l d r e n who Today one  states:  a f t e r a long period  reached i t s p r e s e n t o f haphazard placement  r e q u i r e d care away from t h e i r own  f i n d s c h i l d r e n who  homes.  r e q u i r e placement, t e m p o r a r i l y  or permanently, going Into s p e c i a l i z e d a d o p t i o n and homes, and and  i n s t i t u t i o n s , best s u i t e d t o t h e i r v a r i o u s  e x t r i n s i c needs.  The  placements p o s s i b l e .  1  Ibld.  f  p.  made s p e c i a l i z e d  However, the r e f i n e d c h i l d placement  o f today have had  matter of s e v e r a l  intrinsic  refinement of s o c i a l work s k i l l s  today, i n t h i s area of c h i l d w e l f a r e , has  practices  foster  o n l y a very r e c e n t hlstory*«»a  d e c a d e s — a n d have been preceded by  centuries  191,  2 K a s i u s , Cora, P r i n c i p l e s and Techniques o f S o e i a l Casework. F a m i l y S e r v i o e s A s s o c i a t i o n of America, New York, 1 9 5 0 , p. 1 2 7 .  Of s l o a , uneven p r o g r e s s and improvement i n c a r e f o r the c h i l d away from h i s own home. As t h i s t h e s i s w i l l f o c u s i t s a t t e n t i o n on one type o f c h i l d placement, the placement o f c h i l d r e n i n a f o s t e r home,' the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l development o f c h i l d placement w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e l a r g e l y on the placement o f c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes* In England,  i n the year 1601,  the A c t o f 43  E l i z a b e t h was passed as t h e government's answer t o t h e need, a t t h a t time, o f s t a t e - s h a r e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d r e n . The A c t made p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e c h i l d who c o u l d n o t remain i n h i s own home by i n d e n t u r i n g him o r c o n f i n i n g him t o t h e i l l * famed poorhouse.  I f a c h i l d was t o be i n d e n t u r e d , he was  p l a c e d by h i s own p a r e n t s i n another home, u s u a l l y a t an e a r l y age, so t h a t he c o u l d l e a r n a t r a d e o r otherwise himself to face the world.  equip  The c h i l d was bound over t o  another person o r f a m i l y when he was Indentured.  However,  t h e r e was g e n e r a l l y no r e a l concern f o r h i s w e l f a r e , which was  only i n c i d e n t a l .  An indentured placement was a f a r c r y  from the f o s t e r home placement o f today.  The c a r e o f the  indentured c h i l d depended on the needs and wishes o f t h e Master.  The r i g h t s and w e l f a r e o f the c h i l d depended on the  character o f t h i s person.  The development and u s e f u l n e s s o f  the c h i l d as a worker and as a source o f l a b o u r , I n t h e p r e s e n t and i n t h e f u t u r e , was t h e main focus o f t h e Masterchild  relationship.  The  system of Indenture was  i a England a f t e r 1601,  and  spread t o ameriea, w i t h i t s E n g l i s h  s e t t l e m e n t s , i n the 1630*s. the P u r i t a n s  aad  a pronounced development  To  the e a r l y c o l o n i s t s , such as  the Quakers, who  regarded work as  e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the t r a i n i n g o f a l l c h i l d r e n , served a two-fold purpose. and  an  indenturing  I t «?as b e n e f i c i a l t o the  a t the same time economical f o r the  child  community*  1 A f t e r 1700, p u b l i c and  i a America, a c c o r d i n g t o A r t h u r  p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , as methods of aare f o r  c h i l d r e n , began t o appear l a the f a c e o f changing condltioas  and  social  the growth o f l a r g e c i t i e s , where homeless  indenturing  continued on a g r a d u a l l y  n o t o r i o u s p u b l i c almshouse and A f t e r 1800,  decreasing scale,  c h i l d r e n was  the  the p r i v a t e orphanage came t o  s t a t e homes f o r c h i l d r e n , as a break i n  almshouse care f o r c h i l d r e n , were e s t a b l i s h e d * ment t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d  aad  While  h e l p l e s s c h i l d r e n began t o appear i n l a r g e numbers*  the f o r e *  Flak,  t o the r e d u c t i o n  Another move-  o f almshouse c a r e f o r  the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e s and  o f f o s t e r home placement during  practices  the l a s t h a l f of the  nineteenth  century* In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Introduced a new  i n 18539 C h a r l e s L o r i n g  concept of f o s t e r c a r e by being the  person i n that country t o i n s t i t u t e the use  o f the  Brace,  first  private  home r a t h e r than the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r homeless c h i l d r e n * 1 F i n k , A r t h u r , The F i e l d o f S o c i a l Work* Henry H o l t Company, Hew York, 1$42, p* 75*  and  A l t h o u g h h i s methods o f f o s t e r home p l a n n i n g were crude today's standards, h i s i d e a s were o r i g i n a l and s t a r t i n g - p o i n t f o r the movement towards the f o s t e r home c a r e o f today; m i s s i o n , began, i n 1 6 5 3 , c h i l d r e n from the of putting  B r a c e , who  t o p i c k up  s t r e e t s of New  by  provided a •  specialized  headed a  vagrant and  children's destitute  York C i t y , w i t h the  them i n t o s u i t a b l e homes elsewhere.  idea  Many were  sent t o the f r o n t i e r a r e a t o l i v e w i t h r u r a l f a m i l i e s . p l a n envisaged the. c h i l d c a r r y i n g . a  His  share o f the work i n h i s  f o s t e r home t o r e l i e v e the f o s t e r p a r e n t s o f c e r t a i n work cares.  The  c h i l d r e n ' s m i s s i o n would be f i n a n c i a l l y r e s p o n s i -  b l e f o r moving the c h i l d to h i s f o s t e r home and him,  i f necessary.  Those who  planned aad  returning  organized.the  movements o f these c h i l d r e n under Brace were c h i e f l y concerned w i t h g a t h e r i n g the c h i l d r e n t o g e t h e r and t o homes where they would be housed and t h a t the c h i l d r e n ' s  e n t i r e need was  f e d i n the b e l i e f  merely t h a t of a move t o  a f a m i l y o f good morals i n a r u r a l s e t t i n g . i n v e s t i g a t i o n or study o f the homes. o f the problems c r e a t e d  f r i e n d s , and  strangers.  There was  There was  no  no  recognition  f o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n as they were moved  about; l-.e,, as a r e s u l t o f s e p a r a t i o n and  moving them  the need t o a d j u s t  from t h e i r own  t o new  families  environments w i t h  A l s o , these c h i l d r e n were made more prone t o  unhappiness i n the f u t u r e them were not  i n that the f o s t e r homes chosen f o r  e v a l u a t e d t o any  extent i n terms of the  parents* motivations f o r d e s i r i n g f o s t e r c h i l d r e n .  foster  Some had  a worthy m o t i v a t i o n — t h e y wanted the c h i l d f o r the sake; o t h e r s had mercenary and o t h e r s e l f i s h Two  child's  motives.  o t h e r American p i o n e e r s i n the f i e l d of c h i l d  placement i n f o s t e r homes a r e worthy o f mention. a c t i v e i n the l a t t e r h a l f o f the 19th Bureh Van A r s d a l e , i n 1883,  century.  Both were  Martin  Van  e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t f o s t e r care  agency i n I l l i n o i s , a state-wide c h i l d r e n ' s home s o c i e t y ,  and  began t o s e l e c t f a m i l y homes t o meet the needs o f i n d i v i d u a l children,  C h a r l e s B i r t w e l l , o f the Boston C h i l d r e n ' s a i d  S o c i e t y , r e p o r t e d l a 1888  t h a t f o s t e r homes should be s t u d i e d  so t h a t the p h y s i c a l , emotional, i n t e l l e c t u a l and needs o f the c h i l d should be met.  spiritual  Re r e c o g n i z e d t h a t good  f o s t e r parents must have s k i l l , p a t i e n c e , understanding aad a g e n e r o s i t y of s p i r i t w i t h c h i l d r e n . of  .  He was  of  a pioneer  the use o f study and s k i l l s i n c h i l d placement and  presented 19th  the most r e f i n e d approach t o f o s t e r home placement i n the century.  A l l i n a l l , o n l y s p o r a d i c e f f o r t s were made to p l a c e c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r f a m i l y homes i a the U n i t e d S t a t e s by end of the 19th  century.  In the meantime, w e l f a r e  the  legislation,  an i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e matter, became more c h i l d - c e n t e r e d , and i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e s began t o assume more p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards f o s t e r home placement and the p r o t e c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n . The f i r s t White House Conference  o f 1909  was  an  original  attempt to o r g a n i z e t h i n k i n g about c h i l d w e l f a r e matters a national level.  A l s o , as Leon Blchman s t a t e s , t h i s  at  conference had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f o s t e r home placement; The most d i r e c t s t i m u l u s t o f o s t e r home placement • was the f i r s t White House Conference o f 1909 whieh enunciated t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t c h i l d r e n d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r parents were b e t t e r o f f under the c a r e o f f o s t e r f a m i l i e s than i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . 1 T h i s statement  v o i c e d the f e e l i n g s o f American f o s t e r  care agencies a t t h a t time, who a l s o emphasized t h a t the needs of the I n d i v i d u a l c h i l d i n c a r e must be met and were aware o f the importance o f m a i n t a i n i n g t i e s w i t h own p a r e n t s , r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s , when p o s s i b l e , and urged  that only c h i l d r e n  without f a m i l y t i e s be separated permanently. The f o s t e r home movement experienced i t s g r e a t e s t development d u r i n g the e a r l y years f o l l o w i n g World War I . Then there f o l l o w e d a p e r i o d , which has extended up t o r e c e n t y e a r s , o f c o n t r o v e r s y as t o t h e advantages and disadvantages off f o s t e r home placement over i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e . s c h o o l s o f thought p o i n t o f view.  The two  s t u b b o r n l y r e f u s e d t o see each o t h e r ' s  P o s t e r care agencies were accused  o f propa-  g a n d i z i n g t o keep c h i l d r e n from i n s t i t u t i o n s , which were, i n t u r n , accused  o f taking, c h i l d r e n t o f i l l  empty beds.  In the  s t r u g g l e f o r c h i l d r e n , t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e c h i l d was l o s t from sight. A t t h e p r e s e n t time, most c h i l d placement workers r e a l i z e t h a t both types off eare a r e needed i n c h i l d placement; i . e . , t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n i s more s u i t a b l e f o r c e r t a i n  1 Richman, Leon, Problems o f F o s t e r Care. An Address g i v e n t o the C h i l d w e l f a r e D i v i s i o n , Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Ottawa, 11 Nov., 1948, p. 1.  • 3>  types o f c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e s c o n d i t i o n e d environment and f o r many a d o l e s c e n t s , and t h a t t h e f o s t e r home i s more s u i t * a b l e f o r l e s s d i s t u r b e d and a l l p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Today, when standards o f p r a c t i c e a r e good, when an agency worker p l a c e s a c h i l d i n a f o s t e r home, he l o o k s f o r a home t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e t h e c h i l d w i t h the " t a n g i b l e s and i n t a n g i b l e s " b e s t s u i t e d t o meet h i s needs as a c h i l d and as an i n d i v i d u a l . study and acceptance  Such a home i s chosen a f t e r c a r e f u l o f t h e home as a f o s t e r home, and as a  f a c i l i t y f o r the c h i l d i n question.  Both the placement  worker and t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s must be aware o f t h e emotional impact  t h a t placement w i l l have on the c h i l d and h i s own  parents.  S k i l l e d and experienced workers a r e b e l i e v e d t o be  e s s e n t i a l i n t h e study and e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e homes and f a m i l i e s o f those who o f f e r t o p r o v i d e f o s t e r home c a r e , t o a s s e s s t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y as f o s t e r p a r e n t s , t o c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n n o t t h e i r own, who have s u f f e r e d d e p r i v a t i o n , and who u s u a l l y have o t h e r t i e s * s t u d i e d i n t h e same way.  The c h i l d being moved i s  The placement worker t r i e s t o s e l e c t  as s u i t a b l e a home as p o s s i b l e from those a v a i l a b l e , and then t r i e s t o make a c a r e f u l p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d , h i s own p a r e n t s , i f p o s s i b l e , and f o s t e r p a r e n t s , f o r t h e move. A f t e r t h e c h i l d i s i n t h e f o s t e r home, continued casework I s g i v e n t o h e l p him through t o t a l l y new s i t u a t i o n *  the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f adjustment t o a  Continued  p a r e n t s h e l p s them t o understand  casework w i t h t h e f o s t e r t h e c h i l d ' s problems and  9  t h e i r r o l e o f day-by-day c a r e t o a s s i s t the agency i n implementing a long-term p l a n for. the Placement i s only one g i v e n t o c h i l d r e n today*  child,  o f the many types o f  Common to a l l types of  service  service  g i v e n to c h i l d r e n i s the b a s i c s o c i a l work p h i l o s o p h y o f inherent  worth o f the c l i e n t , and  h i s r i g h t t o acceptance as  an I n d i v i d u a l , w i t h unique needs and the y e a r s , the f o c u s has  t h a t the c h i l d has  characteristics*  f i n a l l y come t o r e s t on the  a c l i e n t , w i t h r i g h t s and  needs o f h i s own.  f a m i l y means.  a b a s i c concept In working w i t h c h i l d r e n , and e v o l v e d r e s o u r c e s and  Over  child  as  I t i s recognized  a r i g h t t o h i s own. home and  which.membership i n one's own  the  the  security  T h i s has  become  s o c i a l work  has  techniques i n working w i t h f a m i l i e s t o  prevent a breakdown o f the home w i t h which so much o f c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g wanted and  b e l o n g i n g are  the  involved.  As a r e s u l t , s o c i a l workers have r e f i n e d t h e i r s k i l l s i n c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n and time and  are c a r r y i n g out, w i t h i n a v a i l a b l e  s k i l l s , p r e v e n t i v e work, whereby c h i l d r e n may  w i t h their, own  t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o be  towards l i v i n g more s a t i s f y i n g and Public f i n a n c i a l assistance  has  p r e v e n t i n g f a m i l y breakdowns. providing  remain  f a m i l i e s while p r o f e s s i o n a l help i s being  g i v e n t o enable o h i l d r e n and  now  staff-  strength  remain as a u n i t *  and  helped  socially-acceptable  lives.  become an important t o o l i n Also, family counselling  is  support t o f a m i l i e s s t r u g g l i n g  P s y c h i a t r i c diagnosis  and  treatment  to  are  r e c o g n i z e d as f u r t h e r a i d s i n p r e v e n t i n g unnecessary removal  - 10  o f a c h i l d from h i s own  -  parents.  Further,  i t has  been  r e c o g n i z e d t h a t such s k i l l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work h e l p r e q u i r e s a s p e c i a l body o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and which i s now  training,  being g i v e n i n s c h o o l s o f s o c i a l work.  p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e t o c h i l d r e n makes use  Effective  o f these  various  r e s o u r c e s b e f o r e r e s o r t i n g t o a c t u a l placement, o f the  child  i n a f o s t e r home. When the p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f o r t s o f the s o e i a l workers and  t h e i r colleagues  i n a l l i e d professional fields f a i l  keep a home i n t a c t , the c h i l d must be moved from h i s and  a s u b s t i t u t e home found f o r him,  p e r i o d o f time.  As a l r e a d y  programs make use and  family*  The  depends on the period  o f two  family  f o r a s h o r t or a  long  mentioned, present-day placement  separate types o f c a r e ,  c h o i c e o f one  institutional  type of c a r e or the  other  s p e c i f i c needs o f the c h i l d a t a s p e c i f i c  i n terms o f h i s adjustment*  The  k i n d o f f o s t e r c a r e s e t t i n g i s wide* i n s t i t u t i o n s e x i s t e d f o r the f o r c h i l d r e n without a home*  range w i t h i n  s o l e purpose o f p r o v i d i n g  shelter  As mentioned e a r l i e r , t h e r e  theory t h a t the f o s t e r f a m i l y was  was  X to a  the panacea f o r the needs  o f a l l homeless c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g placement, casework e v a l u a t i o n  determine h i s Immediate and  each  For a long time, l a r g e  a swing i n p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i n k i n g a f t e r World War  p s y c h i a t r i c and  to  today,  o f the c h i l d h e l p  long-term needs, and  to  ideally* i f  both r e s o u r c e s are a v a i l a b l e , th® m e r i t s o f each type o f placement are c o n s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t o f the  evaluation.  •  11  As c h i l d - p l a c i n g techniques have become more r e f i n e d , w i t h r e s p e c t t o matching the f o s t e r home t o the needs o f t h e c h i l d t o be p l a c e d , c h i l d placement has become an a r t * The a r t i s t i s t h e c h i l d placement worker, who, a c c o r d i n g t o Jean Charmley,*is a p r o f e s s i o n a l person w i t h an understanding h e a r t , an a b i l i t y t o emphasize and communicate w i t h c h i l d r e n , f o s t e r and h i s own p a r e n t s , and w i t h a s u r e , u n f a l t e r i n g b e l i e f i n the p h i l o s o p h y and t h e t e c h n i q u e s . s u p p o r t i n g c h i l d placement. Child; Placement P r & e t i o e I n Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d placement p r a c t i c e i n Canada has f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n o f t h i n k i n g and method s i m i l a r t o t h a t experienced i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s *  Because o f i t s more r e c e n t h i s t o r y ,  Canada d i d n o t come a b r e a s t o f i t s neighbor w i t h r e s p e c t t o f o s t e r c a r e u n t i l about t h e beginning o f t h e p r e s e n t c e n t u r y , f o l l o w i n g the passage o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A c t , i n 1893, O n t a r i o , which i n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g p r o t e c t i v e  l  n  legislation  f o r o h i l d r e n , made p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e establishment o f the f i r s t c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y i n Canada t o take c a r e o f homeless c h i l d r e n a f f o o t e d by the A c t .  C h i l d r e n ' s l e g i s l a t i o n and  c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , have spread a c r o s s Canada d u r i n g the l a s t sixty»odd y e a r s t o every p a r t o f the c o u n t r y , and i n g e n e r a l , f o s t e r home programs a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , i n t h e o r y  1 C h a r n l e y , Jean, The A r t o f C h i l d Placement. U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1955*  - 12 -  and p r a c t i c e , t o those found i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s today*  In  both c o u n t r i e s , p r a c t i c e v a r i e s extremely. A t the beginning o f the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y , i n Canada, those agencies r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the care of c h i l d r e n who  were  n e g l e c t e d aad abandoned made an almost complete use o f institutions.  However, these agencies were aware of the  new  concept o f c h i l d Care which had emerged i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; i.e.,  t h a t s p e c i a l l y - s e l e c t e d f o s t e r homes were the b e s t  placement resource f o r a c h i l d away from h i s own home and family.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s new  concept was  not a p p l i e d t o  c h i l d placement p r a c t i c e to any e x t e n t f o r many y e a r s .  Less  1 than t h i r t y - f i v e years ago, a c c o r d i n g to Anne Margaret  Angus,  a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h Columbia were b e i n g p l a c e d i n homes on a f r e e or wage-earning b a s i s , p a r t l y t o reduce maintenance c o s t s *  l a t h i s province l i t t l e  i n th© way  follow-up s t u d i e s were made o f such c h i l d r e n ; t h e r e was  of no  s u p e r v i s i o n o f such homes; many c h i l d r e n were l o s t t r a c k o f because r e c o r d s o f t h e i r whereabouts were not k e p t . were few t r a i n e d workers. of  There was  p r o s p e c t i v e f o s t e r homes.  l i t t l e o r no  There  investigation  However, as a r e s u l t o f the  spread o f American t h i n k i n g , Canadian f o s t e r home programs began t o take on a new  look a f t e r World War  I and have seen a  p e r i o d o f development, improvement, and refinement i n t e c h n i q u e s , i n the l a s t t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s , s i m i l a r t o t h a t 1 Angus, Anne Margaret, C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver. IjCfti 1901-lffl*  *  13  which o c c u r r e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and o f t e n concurrent with b e n e f i c i a l , child-centred l e g i s l a t i o n . In 1926-27, t r a i n e d and experienced  child  welfare  workers from O n t a r i o came t o B r i t i s h Columbia t o conduct a survey o f c h i l d w e l f a r e r e s o u r c e s and p r a c t i c e s In the p r o v i n c e a t the r e q u e s t o f the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society.  Up u n t i l t h i s time i n s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r homeless  c h i l d r e n had been l a r g e l y used as a placement r e s o u r c e .  Such  c a r e was o f t e n I n e f f e c t u a l because o f o v e r l o a d i n g and overcrowding, poor, u n t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l , program, and  facilities.  As a r e s u l t o f the Survey, p r i v a t e boarding home care came i n t o prominence and began t o take precedence over t i o n a l placements.  Institu-  A l s o , the Survey recommended t h a t t h e r e  should be a complete r e - o r l e n t a t l o n o f the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s Aid  S o c i e t y ' s c h i l d placement program.*  One o f i t s many  suggestions was t h a t a boarding home system be e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n was a c t e d upon, although antagonism and apprehension  on the p a r t o f many was apparent.  Regular  s u p e r v i s i o n o f c h i l d r e n a l r e a d y i n f r e e f o s t e r homes began for  the f i r s t  time i n t h e p r o v i n c e .  In previous years,  f o s t e r home placements had a c q u i r e d a poor r e p u t a t i o n I n B r i t i s h Columbia because they had been used as an Inexpensive method o f d i s p o s i n g o f a c h i l d I n a f r e e o r wage, home I n a v e r y haphazard manner.  • H e r e a f t e r the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as the CAS,  * 14 -  U n t i l the l a t t e r years o f World War X I , the Vancouver CAS and the V i c t o r i a Family and Children's S e r v i c e were responsible f o r most f o s t e r home placements i n the province.  Since then the Vancouver C a t h o l i c Children's A i d  S o c i e t y (whose program a f t e r the 1920's was i n f l u e n c e d by the C h i l d Welfare Survey o f  1926*27) and the p r o v i n c i a l  department o f Health and Welfare's S o c i a l Welfare Branch have been a c t i v e i n t h i s area o f c h i l d w e l f a r e , w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l government being l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o s t e r home p l a c e ments outside o f Vancouver, :  The Vancouver CAS, a p r i v a t e agency, began t o  r e c e i v e p r o v i n c i a l government f i n a n c i a l support f o r c h i l d r e n l a care i n the years f o l l o w i n g World War XI, though e f f o r t s had been made t o o b t a i n such a s s i s t a n c e a f t e r the C h i l d Welfare Survey o f  1926-27*  I n 1947, the p r o v i n c i a l government,  began t o assume SO per cent o f a l l s o e i a l a s s i s t a n c e c o s t s , Which included the costs o f maintaining wards.  Earlier  l e g i s l a t i o n provided t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the p r o v i n c e , where such wards had l e g a l residence, underwrite the t o t a l maintenance c o s t s . arrangement*  There had been much r e s i s t a n c e t o t h i s  This r e s i s t a n c e disappeared  a f t e r 1947,  During the l a s t eight years there has been a gradual r e f i n i n g o f c h i l d welfare p r a c t i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on the use o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work and c h i l d placement s k i l l s i n the f i n d i n g o f f o s t e r homes, placement, and continuing assessment*  C h i l d r e n Have B a s i c Heeds All  c h i l d r e n have b a s i c p h y s i c a l ,  emotional, and s p i r i t u a l needs,  intellectual,  the adequate meeting o f  these needs i s l a r g e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r p a r e n t s - * when parents f a i l s t a t e , and church.  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l i e s w i t h the community, From i n f a n c y , the c h i l d depends on h i s  p a r e n t s ' c a r e t o meet these needs i n order t o grow and develop i n t o a h e a l t h y , mature i n d i v i d u a l t o the e x t e n t o f his  potentiality*  H i s r e a c t i o n t o the world about him, as an  i n f a n t , depends on how h i s needs a r e s a t i s f i e d *  I f he i s  r e a r e d i n a h e a l t h y p h y s i c a l environment, and r e c e i v e s cons i s t e n t a f f e c t i o n , he has a p l e a s a n t e x p e c t a t i o n o f the w o r l d . He expects those who l i v e i n i t t o be l o v i n g c r e a t u r e s who are i n t e r e s t e d i n and want him*  He develops f e e l i n g o f  s e c u r i t y I n a p l e a s a n t atmosphere* He f i n d s i t an easy matter  He f e e l s t h a t he b e l o n g s .  t o respond  t o those who have made  l i f e s o p l e a s a n t f o r him, i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e h i s mother, who p r o v i d e s him w i t h h i s e a r l i e s t t e n d e r , p r o t e c t i v e experience o f comfort and s a t i s f a c t i o n , and l a t e r h i s f a t h e r , s i b l i n g s , and so f o r t h * From the l o v e experience w i t h h i s mother, o r mothers u b s t i t u t e , the c h i l d develops the c a p a c i t y , as he grows o l d e r , to  e n t e r I n t o a f f e c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r members o f  ef  h i s f a m i l y , and g r a d u a l l y beyond h i s f a m i l y t o those out*  side i t *  The e x p e r i e n c e i s an emotionally-maturing one and  enables him t o g r a d u a l l y g i v e i n r e t u r n , t o do, and t o expect and r e c e i v e , as he p r o g r e s s e s towards and reaches  adulthood,  16  p h y s i c a l l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y , and  spiritually*  The c h i l d , i n order t o mature i n t o a  well-rounded  a d u l t , must l e a r n a t an e a r l y age t o r e s o l v e the p l e a s u r e p r i n c i p l e - r e a l i t y p r i n c i p l e c o n f l i c t d e s c r i b e d by August .  1  '  Alchorn*  He must l e a r n to deny h i m s e l f immediate s a t i s f a c -  t i o n o f needs by f i n d i n g t h a t d e n i a l I s , perhaps, more e m o t i o n a l l y s a t i s f y i n g than i n s t a n t g r a t i f i c a t i o n *  He  finds  emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n from the l o v e and a p p r o v a l he r e c e i v e s from h i s parents when he shows c o n f o r m i t y t o t h e i r wishes f o r s o c i a l l y - a c c e p t a b l e behaviour  on h i s p a r t *  a l s o must, i n a s i m i l a r manner, r e s o l v e the  The  child  psyehosexual  c o n f l i c t o f the O e d l p a l p e r i o d a t the time i t I s b e i n g experienced i f he Is t o a c h i e v e emotional m a t u r i t y i n a d u l t hood*  P a t i e n c e and understanding  on the p a r t o f h i s p a r e n t s  w i l l make t h i s p o s s i b l e * C h i l d r e n ' s p h y s i c a l needs i n c l u d e a  suitable  p h y s i c a l environment i n which t o l i v e , an adequate amount o f f o o d , proper c l o t h i n g , m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n , and h e a l t h t r a i n i n g . I n a d d i t i o n t o what has a l r e a d y been s a i d , t h e i r  emotional  needs i n c l u d e r e c i p r o c a t i n g l o v e and acceptance, a f e e l i n g  of  being wanted and b e l o n g i n g , a f e e l i n g o f having s t a t u s and importance w i t h i n and w i t h o u t the f a m i l y ( p a r t i c u l a r l y as they grow o l d e r and b e g i n to emancipate from the home and f a m i l y ) , a f e e l i n g of being adequate, a c h i e v i n g , and worthy,  1 A l c h o r n , August, Wayward Youth. V i k i n g P r e s s , New 1945* '  York, .  a f e e l i n g o f b e i n g w i l l i n g t o f a c e adulthood w i t h I t s m y s t e r i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  Children's Intellectual  needs i n c l u d e the need f o r a continuous l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e and c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g as they grow o l d e r *  They need  encourage-  i  ment from t h e i r parents and teachers t o a t t a i n t h e i r i n e l l e c t u a l and p h y s i c a l p o t e n t i a l i t y .  They need t o l e a r n about sex  from t h e i r parents o r p a r e n t - s u r r o g a t e s when they q u e s t i o n i t , i f they a r e t o have an i n t e l l i g e n t a t t i t u d e towards i t . C h i l d r e n need t o be guided by w i s e , mature p a r e n t s and o t h e r s , who can make them f e e l secure w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s and o b t a i n the c o o p e r a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n through understanding and consistent, just d i s c i p l i n e .  By i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h t h e i r  p a r e n t s and o t h e r a d u l t s , and i n t e r n a l i s i n g t h e i r  standards,  c h i l d r e n c a n s a t i s f y t h e i r need f o r moral standards and the a b i l i t y t o give-and-take i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ,  so as t o  d e r i v e happiness from l i v i n g and develop towards m a t u r i t y and independence*  C h i l d r e n i n t h e a d o l e s c e n t p e r i o d , a stormy  one, r e q u i r e mature p a r e n t a l and community u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and acceptance. development.  They a r e i n a h a l f - c h i l d - h a l f - a d u l t  phase o f  They a r e i n s e c u r e and u n c e r t a i n as they s t r u g g l e  f o r emancipation from c h i l d h o o d and f a m i l y dependency, i n the o p i n i o n o f many a u t h o r i t i e s , t h i s time.  they need expert, guidance a t  C h i l d r e n ' s r e l i g i o u s needs i n c l u d e i n s t r u c t i o n  i n d o c t r i n e and an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s t o p r o v i d e them w i t h a s p i r i t u a l anchor t o d e a l w i t h t h e emotional problems o f l i v i n g .  * 18 -  To go on, every c h i l d has need o f adequate academic, v o c a t i o n a l , moral, and r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g , as w e l l as group and community-life experience a t a p p r o p r i a t e ages, i f he i s to  r e a c h h i s p o t e n t i a l i t y f o r growth and oceupy h i s r i g h t f u l ,.  place i n society* The paramount importance  o f the f a m i l y , the b a s i c  s o c i a l u n i t , as a prime c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h e s u c c e s s f u l development o f the c h i l d I n t o a h e a l t h y , normal, a d u l t be over-emphasized.  cannot  The c h i l d and the f a m i l y a r e a p a r t o f .  each o t h e r . . The atmosphere o f f a m i l y l i f e determines the emotional i n t e r a c t i o n between the c h i l d and h i s p a r e n t s and between t h e p a r e n t s themselves.  I f there i s a l a c k o f mutual  concern or over-concern f o r each o t h e r ' s w e l l - b e i n g , emotional d e p r i v a t i o n o f the c h i l d w i l l r e s u l t , depending  on the age  l e v e l s o f t h e p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d . The c h i l d , i d e a l l y , needs e m o t i o n a l l y w e l l - b a l a n c e d parents.  The good mother w i l l p r o v i d e him w i t h h i s e a r l i e s t  emotional t i e s , emotional and p h y s i c a l s e c u r i t y , and s u f f i c i e n t nourishment  f o r h i s body.  She c o n t i n u e s t o c a r r y o u t t h i s  f u n c t i o n as he grows o l d e r and h e l p s him t o develop an a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n o f l i f e through l o v e , understanding, and guidance.  The good f a t h e r a l s o shows concern f o r and  i n t e r e s t I n the c h i l d , a l t h o u g h h i s i n s p i r a t i o n i s n o t u s u a l l y f e l t i n the e a r l i e s t stages o f I n f a n c y , when the mother i s the p r i n c i p a l l o v e - o b j e c t . The good f a t h e r w i l l m a n i f e s t I n s p i r a t i o n and companionship f o r the mother but a t t h e same  -  19  -  time bestow h i s l o v e on the c h i l d * understanding  and  He i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  l o v i n g , along w i t h the mother, d u r i n g  c h i l d ' s growth from the p l e a s u r e p r i n c i p l e to the p r i n c i p l e and d u r i n g h i s O e d l p a l c o n f l i c t .  the  reality  The parents  will  h e l p the c h i l d to r e s o l v e these c o n f l i c t s a t an e a r l y age c l a r i f y i n g h i s r o l e i n the f a m i l y group.  The  by  good f a t h e r  a i d s the good mother i n the c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional f r i e n d and  and  s p i r i t u a l development and becomes h i s b e s t  teacher.  He enables  the c h i l d t o i d e n t i f y  him or see him as an e g o - i d e a l f o r masculine The recognize  with  behaviour.  good p a r e n t s , where s i b l i n g s are i n v o l v e d , w i l l  the uniqueness and  i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f each, but  i n each the b a s i c needs of every c h i l d . the b a s i s of s i b l i n g r i v a l r y and  see  They w i l l understand  spread t h e i r l o v e  and  attention accordingly. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a l l f a m i l i e s a r e not happy ones* Marital c o n f l i c t ! parental rejection, separation, divorce, and death ( i n soma c a s e s ) can c r e a t e an unhealthy  emotional  atmosphere f o r the c h i l d or c h i l d r e n Involved*  child's  A  b a s i c needs may  go unheeded and h i s a l l - r o u n d development  may  I f a c h i l d , f o r i n s t a n c e , Is d e p r i v e d  be h a l t e d .  l o v e from a very e a r l y age, he may human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n i n f a n c y * humans and may  of  make a withdrawal f r o m  He may  only f e a r other  e v e n t u a l l y d i e a morasmlc death o r become  n a r c i s s i s t i c and p r o t e c t h i m s e l f from the p a i n o f d e p r i v a t i o n o f l o v e by l o v i n g o n l y h i m s e l f *  A l l h i s energies  are  - 20  directed towards s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n and self-aggrandizment. He uses other humans as a useful means to an end. According to d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r i t i e s , c h i l d r e n who experience emotional deprivation In Infancy often continue to remain emotionally thwarted during the pre-school period because of poor lnter-personal relationships within the family.  Disturbed parental relationships can warp the c h i l d  emotionally.  While he Is capable of Independent action, he  r e l i e s on socially-acceptable parental approval f o r such action.  I f such approval i s not forthcoming, h i s s o c i a l  behaviour becomes c r i t i c a l l y affected.  I f he reaches  adolescence a f t e r a normal development, undue interference, sometimes by well-meaning parents, with h i s accelerated need f o r s o c i a l expression, can be emotionally depriving and harmful.  He w i l l be overcome In h i s struggle to f i n d a '  place i n the adult world and to develop appropriate p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , a r t i s t i c , and s o c i a l s k i l l s .  In adolescence,  he p a r t i c u l a r l y needs a sense of belonging to h i s f a m i l y  a  school, and community groups* When a c h i l d ' s basic needs f o r healthy, all-round growth are not met, he may develop a h o s t i l e behaviour pattern.  He may f i n d aggressive, destructive, and s o c i a l l y -  unacceptable outlets f o r h i s drives because he can not obtain s a t i s f a c t i o n i n any other way.  He may f e e l , from  experience, that adults can s a t i s f y h i s needs, and when they deprive him he may think that they are h i s aggressors and  21 -  f r u s t r a t i n g t o him*  He, may, t h e r e f o r e , r e a c t a g g r e s s i v e l y  towards them. C h i l d r e n who a r e d e p r i v e d o f t h e meeting  of t h e i r  b a s i c needs i n one way o r another i n d i c a t e t h i s d e p r i v a t i o n by v a r i o u s symptoms o f d i s t u r b e d behaviour, such as compulsive c r u e l t y , exaggerated  sexual preoccupation, excessive sexual  a c t i v i t y o r p e r v e r s i o n , t r u a n c y , e r r a t i c b e h a v i o u r , and such n e u r o t i c symptoms as acute g e n e r a l i z e d f e a r s , s p e c i f i c d e p r e s s i o n s , compulsions, such psychosomatic  phobias,  l e a r n i n g i n h i b i t i o n s , as w e l l as  complaints as asthma, e n e u r e s l s , u l c e r s ,  c o l i t i s , and so f o r t h .  When they r e a c h a d o l e s c e n c e , they may  become j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s , sex o f f e n d e r s , and r e b e l a g a i n s t t h e i r p a r e n t s and those who a r e p a r e n t - s u b s t i t u t e s , such as t e a c h e r s , neighbours and the p o l i c e .  Other d i s t u r b e d a d o l e s -  cents develop s c h i z o i d p e r s o n a l i t i e s and g r a d u a l l y withdraw from human r e l a t i o n s h i p s as they g i v e up the s t r u g g l e f o r satisfying social interaction.  When adulthood i s reached*  those were d e p r i v e d as c h i l d r e n o f t e n d r i f t l a t e  hoboing,  c r i m i n a l i t y , c h r o n i c mental i l l n e s s , o r become greedy*  inade-  quate, u n l o v i n g , u n s a t i s f i e d people* C h i l d r e n o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e f r i g h t f u l and p a i n f u l episodes I n t h e i r l i v e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o d e p r i v a t i o n o f t h e i r b a s i c needs*  These experiences a r e very damaging t o t h e i r  p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e g r a t i o n , as they a r e f c r e e d t o f a c e s u f f e r i n g b e f o r e they can master I t *  I n o r d e r t o minimize o r a v o i d p a i n ,  the c h i l d may show d i s t u r b e d behaviour and p e r s o n a l i t y  d i s t o r t i o n , , o r s o o i a l w i t h d r a w a l , by becoming p a t h o l o g i c a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and s e l f - c e n t r e d .  A d u l t s a r e o f t e n m i s l e d by  the l a t t e r type o f c h i l d ; they i n t e r p r e t h i s  self-centred  c o n f o r m i t y and s u p e r f i c i a l l y good behaviour a s evidence o f good adjustment.  A c h i l d may be exposed t o many and v a r i o u s  forms o f traumatic and h u r t f u l e x p e r i e n c e s , such as p h y s i c a l c r u e l t y , i n c o n s i s t e n t and u n r e l i a b l e c a r e , s e x u a l a t t a c k s , o r premature s e d u c t i o n ,  intermittent physical neglect,  adult  q u a r r e l l i n g , f r i g h t e n i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t i e s , and so f o r t h . various  traumata l e a v e p s y c h i c  s c a r s and n e g a t i v e l y  g e n e r a l growth and optimum f u n c t i o n i n g  These  a f f e c t the  of children.  T h i s t h e s i s w i l l d e a l w i t h c h i l d r e n , t h e i r own p a r e n t s , o r p a r e n t - s u r r o g a t e s , and a p a r t i c u l a r p a i r o f f o s t e r parents who p r o v i d e d a f o s t e r heme f o r t h e CAS, t e m p o r a r i l y and l o n g e r , f o r 117 c h i l d r e n over a 21-year p e r i o d , from 1931 t o 1952*  I n t h e case h i s t o r i e s o f each c h i l d there I s e v i d e n c e o f  disturbance, either family or personal, another and v a r y i n g  o r b o t h , i n one form o r  i n q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y *  I t i s a well*  known f a c t t h a t o n l y a few c h i l d r e n come t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f the CAS, o r any other c h i l d r e n ' s agency, who have had normal, healthy l i v e s , protected  and guided by w i s e mature p a r e n t s *  Many o f t h e c h i l d r e n being d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s come from broken homes, because o f p a r e n t a l  i n a b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h and  m a i n t a i n mature m a r i t a l and s o e i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  I n many  cases these c h i l d r e n have been t h e v i c t i m s o f n e g l e c t ,  frequent  r e j e c t i o n , c r u e l t y , poor p h y s i c a l environments, c a r e l e s s  adult  s e x u a l behaviour, d e s e r t i o n , and movement from one f o s t e r home t o another. The .foster home being s t u d i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i a 117 c h i l d r e n from 1931  t o 1952*  took  A l l b u t two were boys.  Some c h i l d r e n remained f o r o n l y a few days, o r weeks, o r months; o t h e r s remained f o r y e a r s *  The home served as a  temporary f o s t e r home f o r emergency placements but i t a l s o served f o r q u i t e a number o f long-term placements*  The f o s t e r  parents have had p a r t i c u l a r success w i t h a d o l e s c e n t boys* They a r e unable t o serve t h e CAS and the community now.  They  had reached an e l d e r l y age i n 1952 when the l a s t boy was placed.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e f o s t e r f a t h e r d i e d l a s t autumn,  a f t e r t h i s t h e s i s was planned. The N e c e s s i t y o f F o s t e r Home Placement f o r C h i l d r e n Some c h i l d r e n , t e m p o r a r i l y o r permanently, cannot be cared f o r i n t h e i r own homes by t h e i r n a t u r a l p a r e n t s , f o r one reason o r another,  sueh as death, temporary o r permanent  I l l n e s s o f the p a r e n t , s e p a r a t i o n , d i v o r c e , d e s e r t i o n , n e g l e c t b e h a v i o u r a l problems o f c h i l d r e n , and so f o r t h .  I n some cases  c o u r t a c t i o n i s taken which r e q u i r e s a s o c i a l agency t o make c h i l d r e n wards and p r o v i d e them w i t h a s u b s t i t u t e home*  In  o t h e r cases, n a t u r a l parents o r p a r e n t - s u r r o g a t e s ask t h e s o c i a l agency t o p r o v i d e f o s t e r homes f o r c h i l d r e n on a nonward b a s i s * I t I s g e n e r a l l y agreed  today t h a t t h e b e s t  interests  «?-. 2 4  of  such c h i l d r e n can he served, i f they a r e n o t t o o s e r i o u s l y  d i s t u r b e d e m o t i o n a l l y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i f they have n o t reached adolescence, I f they can l i v e w i t h and be a p a r t o f another f a m i l y . placement  R e f i n e d f o s t e r home c a r e today r e f e r s t o t h e  o f a c h i l d , whose own home has f a i l e d him,  temporar-  i l y sometimes, I n t o another f a m i l y s e t t i n g which w i l l t r y t o g i v e him t h e p o s i t i v e elements  o f h i s own home and f a m i l y , a s  w e l l as those elements which were l a c k i n g .  However, i t i s  a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h a f o s t e r home might o f f e r more than t h e own home i a the way o f a f f e c t i o n ,  understanding,  guidance, and acceptance, what t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s have t o g i v e i s not as e s s e n t i a l t o t h e c h i l d ' s sense o f w e l l b e i n g as even ambivalent acceptance from h i s own p a r e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when he has deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l r o o t s i n h i s own home which must be t o r n up when he i s moved, and which may a f f e c t his  a b i l i t y t o s a t i s f y h i s b a s i c needs. Any  c h i l d who i s separated from h i s p a r e n t s f o r any  cause has f e l t unwanted and needs c o n s i d e r a b l e r e a s s u r a n c e t h a t he i s wanted.  Placement o f t h e c h i l d i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e  f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n has reached a c r i t i c a l s t a g e , t e m p o r a r i l y o r permanently, his  and t h e c h i l d must be helped by removing him from  own home.  child.  When a parent d i e s , i t i s a s e r i o u s l o s s t o t h e  However, i f he has had an e a r l i e r s a t i s f y i n g  experience  w i t h h i s p a r e n t s , i t would h e l p him t o accept a placement r e l a t i o n s h i p with f o s t e r parents*  However, many c h i l d r e n  ( i n c l u d i n g some o f those t o be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s ) came  .* -25 -  I n t o placement because t h e i r homes were broken divorce, separation, desertion, or neglect.  through  Placement t o  these c h i l d r e n sometimes r e p r e s e n t s p a r e n t a l r e j e c t i o n . Sometimes these c h i l d r e n have g u i l t f e e l i n g s about being placed. bad.  They f e e l they a r e b e i n g moved because they have been  Some o f these c h i l d r e n , p r i o r t o placement, have been  exposed t o f a m i l y f r i c t i o n and h o s t i l i t i e s which have under* mined t h e i r emotional  s e c u r i t y beforehand..  A c h i l d can  accept the l o s s o f a parent through death as an A c t o f God, depending on h i s age, a l t h o u g h he i s u n c o n s c i o u s l y a t being " d e s e r t e d , "  resentful  However, a f a m i l y break-up by l i v i n g  parents l e a v e s a stigma and l o s s which i s d i f f i c u l t t o bear, i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y ( i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s peers who a r e not i n h i s p e c u l i a r s i t u a t i o n ) .  Although h i s own home has  i n a d e q u a c i e s , i t i s s t i l l a place.he can c a l l h i s own.  When  a c h i l d i s p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home he has t o make a change from t h e known t o t h e unknown.  Therefore, preparations f o r  moving the c h i l d i n t o t h e unknown r e q u i r e keen  understanding  o f the c h i l d by the placement worker and s k i l l i n the h e l p i n g process through t h e use o f r e l a t i o n s h i p . Moving a c h i l d i n t o a f o s t e r home I s d i f f i c u l t and r e q u i r e s the s e r v i c e s o f a s k i l l e d placement worker.  The  f o s t e r p a r e n t s , n a t u r a l l y , tend t o have p r e - c o n c e i v e d i d e a s o f t h e i r own i n r e l a t i o n t o the c h i l d and t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l experience i n c a r i n g f o r him.  they  Considerable f e e l i n g f o r  the c h i l d , on t h e i r p a r t , w i l l go i n t o p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g  - 26 oat r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s , and child i n return.  they expect f e e l i n g from the  I f there i s no two-way flow o f f e e l i n g ,  f o s t e r - p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p may  have l i t t l e v a l u e ,  the Not  a l l c h i l d r e n have the c a p a c i t y t o take on the r e l a t i o n s h i p required of f o s t e r family l i f e .  C h i l d r e n whose confidence  a d u l t s has been shaken by t r a u m a t i c  experiences w i t h t h e i r  p a r e n t s might not be a b l e to take on the p e r s o n a l i z e d ment off the f o s t e r f a m i l y , a t f i r s t ,  in  perhaps n e v e r .  own  environThese  c h i l d r e n b u i l d up s t r o n g defences as i f to p r o t e c t themselves from the h o s t i l e world they have known, because they expect t o be h u r t *  They cannot g i v e , because t h e i r experience i n  r e c e i v i n g has been so l i t t l e and is  so l a t e .  expressed through many symptoms.  Those t h a t d i s t u r b f o s t e r  parents the most seem t o be d i s o b e d i e n c e , l y i n g , and  sex problems.  T h e i r unhappiness  Therefore,  enuresis, s t e a l i n g ,  f o s t e r homes a r e not  panacea f o r a l l c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g placement.  a  The I n s t i t u t i o n  or the temporary s u b s i d i z e d f o s t e r home i s i n d i c a t e d f o r such disturbed children.  The  temporary f o s t e r home can be used t o  determine i f a d i s t u r b e d c h i l d can take placement and the a b i l i t y o f own  tests  p a r e n t s t o accept s e p a r a t i o n from t h e i r -  children. Placement o b v i o u s l y  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p a r e n t - c h i l d  r e l a t i o n s h i p has been d i s t u r b e d *  Commenting on placement,  Porothy Hutchinson, i n her a r t i c l e , "The s h i p as a F a c t o r i n C h i l d Placement,"  Parent-Child  Relation-  says:  i  * 27  C h i l d placement d e a l s w i t h d i f f e r e n t ; ? types o f parent-child relationships* I t s s e r v i c e t o both parents and c h i l d i s f r u i t f u l and s a l u t a r y i n some . t y p e s , w h i l e i n o t h e r s i t i s u n p r o f i t a b l e and f u t i l e . Miss Hutchinson a l s o mentioned, i n the same a r t i c l e , t h a t o n l y s e r i o u s r e s e a r c h w i l l determine which c h i l d r e n can be reasonably c e r t a i n o f being helped by s e p a r a t i o n and placement, and a l s o which p a r e n t s can endure i t , on what terms, and under what c o n d i t i o n s * Under normal c o n d i t i o n s , g r a d u a l s e p a r a t i o n o f the c h i l d from a l o v e d p a r e n t . i s p a r t o f t h e growth p r o c e s s a t a d o l e s c e n c e , a l t h o u g h some s e p a r a t i o n begins w i t h entrance t o school*  Growing up i s a growing away from the p a r e n t s and  f a m i l y towards r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e l f and e v e n t u a l beginning of a new f a m i l y *  When a c h i l d i s p l a c e d , however, s e p a r a t i o n  i s something a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t *  He w i l l u s u a l l y r e g r e s s  t o b a b y i s h behaviour i f the experience i s e s p e c i a l l y h u m i l i a t i n g or s  frightening. Often a f o s t e r c h i l d has a l r e a d y been s e p a r a t e d  from h i s parents by o v e r t r e j e c t i o n long b e f o r e placement. He has a c t u a l l y been an o u t s i d e r i n h i s own f a m i l y .  The  a c t u a l p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n i s o f t e n t h e climax t o a l o n g s e r i e s o f traumatic events.  I t o f t e n confirms h i s own f e a r s  o f being unwanted, unloved, o f n o t b e l o n g i n g , and h i s own "badness" o r t h a t o f h i s p a r e n t s .  I f a c h i l d has an emotional  1 Hutchinson. Dorothy* The P a r e n t - C h i l d R e l a t i o n s h i p as a F a c t o r In C h i l d Placement. The Family W e l f a r e A s s o o i a t i o n o f Ameriea, New York, A p r i l , 1946, p* 47*  -28  -  t i e w i t h h i s p a r e n t s because o f g u i l t f e e l i n g s towards them or t h e i r ambivalent f e e l i n g s towards him, he may s t i l l be determined  t o win, i n many cases from h i s mother, t h e  emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n s t h a t have been d e n i e d t o him.  He  w i l l c l i n g t o h i s u n l o v i n g parent b u t i n so doing w i l l u s u a l l y f i n d t h e experience f r u s t r a t i n g and d e s t r u c t i v e emotionally. As mentioned e a r l i e r , c h i l d r e n i n placement sometimes f e e l t h a t they have been moved because they were bad. Some o f t h e b a s i s o f t h i s f e e l i n g i s due t o g u i l t  feelings  the c h i l d has as a r e s u l t o f w i s h i n g f o r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f h i s parents when angry w i t h them.  He b e l i e v e s t h a t  i s a j u s t r e t a l i a t i o n f o r such bad thoughts.  placement  Normally,  p a r e n t a l l o v e w i l l c o u n t e r a c t such wishes and e x p e c t a t i o n o f retaliation.  With t h e f o s t e r c h i l d , however, the f e a r o f  r e t a l i a t i o n i s n o t d i s p e l l e d by p a r e n t a l a f f e c t i o n b u t i s confirmed by the r e a l l o s s o f h i s p a r e n t s * A u t h o r i t i e s agree t h a t s e p a r a t i o n i s t r a u m a t i c — w i t h d i f f e r i n g e f f e c t s on c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t  ages*  S e p a r a t i o n i s an u p r o o t i n g experience and a b r e a k i n g o f family t i e s *  I t i s known how important p a r e n t s a r e t o  c h i l d r e n and attempts  a r e made t o keep f a m i l i e s i n t a c t , o r  t o make f o s t e r home placement a l t h o u g h n o t always*  as temporary  as p o s s i b l e ,  When i t i s permanent, v i s i t i n g by t h e  p a r e n t s t o t h e f o s t e r home i s o f t e n encouraged  b u t n o t always*  I n many c a s e s , t h e very nature o f the p a r e n t - c h i l d  relation,  s h i p , due t o p a r e n t a l f e e l i n g s , i l l n e s s e s , and- l i m i t a t i o n s ,  29  t h a t make placement n e c e s s a r y , make i t i m p o s s i b l e inexpedient  to r e t u r n the c h i l d t o h i s f a m i l y .  or  The  most  d i f f i c u l t p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t the f o s t e r parents must d e a l w i t h Is the complicated or f a t h e r , who  one  o f the g u i l t y mother,  i s more h i n d e r i n g to s u c c e s s f u l placement  than the r e j e c t i n g mother, o r f a t h e r , who  steps out o f  child's l i f e altogether.  The  difficult.  a g u i l t y mother's conscience  For Instance,  the  g u i l t y mother or f a t h e r i s more  her b e l i t t l e tho f o s t e r mother's e f f o r t s w h i l e  makes  she makes  f a l s e promises to her c h i l d t h a t he w i l l r e t u r n t o her because she wants him  to.  The  c h i l d i s "caught i n the middle"  and does not know where he s t a n d s . no progress  i n placement.  through many f o s t e r homes.  He might make l i t t l e  T h i s type off c h i l d i s apt t o pass He  i s caught In the v i c i o u s c i r c l e  of h i s g u i l t y mother's r e j e c t i o n , g u i l t , and promises. r e s u l t , h i s growth and p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e g r a t i o n may because o f emotional c o n f l i c t .  The  bujb  defend her b l i n d l y and  be damaged,  e v e n t u a l l y hopes he w i l l . only strengthen  He He  Such a c h i l d , might not be helped  f o s t e r home. while  He  has may  an a l r e a d y poor  p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i l e making an u n s u c c e s s f u l ment.  a  child i s  by h i s mother's a c t i o n s and m o t i v a t i o n s ,  never had her l o v e  As  I n such eases, o n l y p h y s i c a l  but not p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n can o c c u r . deceived  or  place-  successfully i n a  cannot a s s i m i l a t e the f o s t e r mother's l o v e  s t i l l s t r i v i n g t o win h i s own  mother.  up what he never had without p s y c h i a t r i c and  He  cannot g i v e  casework h e l p .  - 30 -  The most s u c c e s s f u l c h i l d r e n i n placement a r e those who unders t a n d the n e c e s s i t y o f placement*  I n some c a s e s , the c h i l d ,  w i t h casework and p s y c h i a t r i c h e l p , can he f r e e d from h i s mother t o accept the a f f e c t i o n o f the, f o s t e r mother*  Some*  t i m e s , h i s p a r e n t s might h e l p him t o understand h i s s i t u a t i o n * In  other c a s e s , when a c h i l d i s n o t t o o s t r o n g l y t i e d t o h i s  mother, the f o s t e r mother and f a t h e r may a c t as a f o i l a g a i n s t which t h e c h i l d may compare h i s own mother.  The  emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n he r e c e i v e s from them may reduce h i s f r u s t r a t i o n t o reasonable l i m i t s .  Sometimes, t h e c h i l d can  be helped by g i v i n g casework h e l p t o h i s mother, so t h a t she w i l l accept the f o s t e r mother, e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e l a t t e r i s an o l d e r woman who c o u l d be a f o s t e r mother t o both the mother and the c h i l d . In  f o s t e r home placement, i t i s Important  placement worker understand  t h e p a r e n t s , t h e i r wishes and the  p a r t they p l a y e d i n the breakdown o f f a m i l y l i f e * is  that the  When there  r e s i s t a n c e t o placement and i n t e r f e r e n c e a f t e r placement,  where l e g a l commitments a r e i n v o l v e d , i t i s probable t h a t emotional t i e s e x i s t , p o s i t i v e , n e g a t i v e , o r both, and t h a t the parent c o n t i n u e s t o be a n . a c t i v e f o r c e i n t h e c h i l d ' s l i f e and should always p a r t i c i p a t e i n placement, i f p o s s i b l e , so t h a t t h e c h i l d w i l l n o t be f u r t h e r demoralized by a f e e l i n g t h a t he was a b r u p t l y snatched from h i s parents without p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e placement p l a n .  their  Such n a t u r a l / p a r e n t s , as  those who request f o s t e r home placement f o r a c h i l d , s h o u l d be  - 31 -  h e l p e d through casework t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m w h i l e t h e i r c h i l d i s i n placement*  Casework can h e l p the n a t u r a l  parents t o form a f r i e n d l y , c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the f o s t e r p a r e n t s , which c o u l d prevent unnecessary  interference •  i n the f o s t e r home r o u t i n e by the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s t o ensure t h a t t h e c h i l d w i l l have some chance t o b e n e f i t from p l a c e ment*  ;  The f o s t e r parents should r e c e i v e r e g u l a r and c o n t i n u i n g casework t o h e l p them understand  and meet the  c h i l d ' s needs and t o h e l p him accept and understand h i s p l a c e ment, as w e l l as r e s p e c t i n g the e x i s t e n c e o f h i s own p a r e n t s a t the same time*  F o s t e r parents sometimes experience  c o n f l i c t when t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p ends, even though t h i s has been planned f o r a t the b e g i n n i n g o f placement*  F o s t e r parents need t o remain aware t h a t they w i l l  have t o g i v e up the c h i l d a t some time.  When t h i s I s the  case, i t i s more d i f f i c u l t t o g i v e a f f e c t i o n and c a r e t o a c h i l d knowing t h a t , a f t e r a l i m i t e d time, one must g i v e him up*  Sometimes f o s t e r p a r e n t s f e e l r e s e n t f u l t h a t , a f t e r a l l  the c a r e they have g i v e n a c h i l d the n a t u r a l parents  will  take him home when he i s mature enough t o look a f t e r h i m s e l f . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t f o r f o s t e r p a r e n t s who have no c h i l d r e n o f t h e i r own.  However, as Leon Richraan says?  As l o n g as the c h i l d i s n o t adopted, the agency remains a r e a l i t y t o the c h i l d , f o s t e r p a r e n t s , and n a t u r a l p a r e n t s . To deny t h i s r e a l i t y i s an e v a s i o n  *  32  of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the agency assumes when i t removes a c h i l d from h i s home and s e l e c t s a f o s t e r home f o r him,! I t i s f e l t by many that f o s t e r care I s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d f o r those c h i l d r e n whose needs can be met i n a f o s t e r home s p e c i a l l y - s e l e c t e d f o r them and whose parentc h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h f o s t e r family c a r e . I t has c e r t a i n healing q u a l i t i e s .  I t gives the c h i l d the  opportunity t o form a healthy r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f he i s s t i l l able t o do so, w i t h s p e c i a l l y - s e l e c t e d , emotionally w e l l -  -  balanced a d u l t s , o f t e n when he has never known t h i s experience* I t i s only through warm, a f f f e c t i o n a l t i e s and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s w i t h parents or t h e i r s u b s t i t u t e s that a c h i l d can grow i n t o healthy adulthood,  The f o s t e r home i s a l s o advantageous f o r  o h i l d r e n who need f o s t e r care i n that i t i s a p a r t o f the community and therefore a more r e a l i s t i c p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e as i t enables the f o s t e r c h i l d t o l i v e l i k e other c h i l d r e n i n a home w i t h a f a m i l y group.*  1  Ricnman, o£, c i t , * p. ?,  CHAPTER I I  FOSTER HOME PLACEMENT (Continued)  The Problems o f Latency and  Adolescence  As a l l the c h i l d r e n plaoed i n the f o s t e r home b e i n g s t u d i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s were i n e i t h e r the l a t e n c y o r a d o l e s c e n t stage o f development, w i t h one school-aged  exception, a pre-  c h i l d , i t seems t i m e l y to d i s c u s s the problems  o f these p e r s o n a l i t y development p e r i o d s i n some d e t a i l * Adolescence  i s a p e r i o d o f c o n f l i c t i n g needs,  t e n s i o n s , and a n x i e t i e s *  I t i s a p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n from  the dependency o f c h i l d h o o d t o the independence o f a d u l t hood*  The a d o l e s c e n t wishes t o a c h i e v e m a t u r i t y , but i s  r e l u c t a n t t o g i v e up the s e c u r i t y o f c h i l d h o o d .  He  attempts  p o i s e and accomplishments beyond h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and physiological maturity.  I n r e t r o s p e c t , he w i l l o f t e n r e g a r d  h i s a c t i o n s as c h i l d i s h , but a t the same time he longs f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of h i s c h i l d h o o d *  He o f t e n wants the p r i v i l e g e s  o f adulthood; however, he i s not f u l l y prepared responsibilities.  to accept i t s  A d u l t s , on the o t h e r hand, o f t e n expect  him to take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s without having the p r i v i l e g e s * The a d o l e s c e n t advances towards m a t u r i t y d r i v e n by the new  p h y s i c a l and emotional d r i v e s he e x p e r i e n c e s .  same time he i s t r y i n g t o e r e e t a new  A t the.  behavioural structure  and a new standard o f v a l u e s and p r i n c i p l e s t o a e t as a guide f o r h i s new d r i v e s .  Due t o h i s inadequate h a n d l i n g  o f these new d r i v e s and because o f a r e s i d u e o f problems from e a r l i e r developmental  p e r i o d s w i t h whieh he i s f a c e d  once more, he experiences t e n s i o n s , a n x i e t i e s , and f e a r s * He may become a g g r e s s i v e one moment and withdrawing  another  moment as he t e s t s h i m s e l f and those around him. He c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i s p l a y s s t r i k i n g l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y and mutually e x c l u s i v e trends.  T h i s l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n c y arouses  i n t h e a d o l e s c e n t the f e a r o f being misunderstood,  especially  s i n c e he has d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding h i m s e l f , and t h i s f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s h i s i n n e r c o n f l i c t as he t r i e s t o a d j u s t t o new demands. Those working w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s meet these  conflict-  i n g f a c e t s i n them and must be prepared t o accept and enable the a d o l e s c e n t t o understand it*  t h i s c o n f l i c t and t o a d j u s t t o  C h a r l o t t e Towle says t h a t condemnation o f a d o l e s c e n t  1 behaviour  should be a v o i d e d whenever p o s s i b l e .  She a l s o  says t h a t " i t i s w e l l r e c o g n i z e d , however, by those who have had a wide e x p e r i e n c e i n h e l p i n g a d o l e s c e n t s t h a t f r e q u e n t l y they need d e f i n i t e guidance and s u p p o r t i v e judgments as t o t h e r i g h t way o f doing t h i n g s ; t h i s p r e f e r a b l y should come from 1 Towle, C h a r l o t t e , Common Human Heeds. American A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o e i a l Workers, Hew York, 1953*  - 35 l someone whom they admire and r e s p e c t . When a d o l e s c e n t s have experienced  many  traumatic  events, such as r e j e c t i o n and abuse from t h e i r own and s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s , g r e a t e r i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and c o n f u s i o n s w i l l be apparent i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and a c t i o n s .  They  w i l l tend t o be more extreme i n t h e i r r e a c t i o n s , have g r e a t e r swings o f mood and d i f f i c u l t y i n forming o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the adolescent  r e l a t i o n s h i p s * Many  can be t r a c e d back t o  the problems o f e a r l i e r developmental phases, and t o new s t r e s s e s and a n x i e t i e s which appear i n adolescence, are a f f e c t e d by e a r l i e r adjustment. o f the a d o l e s c e n t  b u t which  This i s especially  true  i n placement who has, I n some form or  o t h e r , s u f f e r e d the l o s s o f l o v e and a f f e c t i o n o f h i s own parents• The problems o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t depend on the c h a r a c t e r and s e v e r i t y o f the a n x i e t i e s o f i n f a n c y and e a r l y c h i l d h o o d which have been mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , because i n adolescence  the c h i l d i s again  faced  w i t h i n c r e a s e d i d d e s i r e s because o f g l a n d u l a r changes*  He  i s b e t t e r a b l e t o a d j u s t t o these d e s i r e s i f he has p r e v i o u s l y developed f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - w o r t h based f i r s t on h i s mother's love i n the o r a l period* the c h i l d experiences  Otherwise, s i n c e i n adolescence  i n c r e a s e d f e e l i n g s o f i n s e c u r i t y , he  may r e g r e s s t o i n f a n t i l e s e c u r i t i e s , now c o n s i d e r e d problems, and experience  1  Ibld.  t  p . 47.  behaviour  g r e a t c o n f u s i o n and d i f f i c u l t y i n  - 36 -  seeking a s o c i a l l y - a c c e p t a b l e  adjustment.  A c h i l d l i v i n g a t home may period again at adolescence.  r e g r e s s t o the o r a l  However, a f o s t e r c h i l d  r e - e x p e r i e n c e l t t o a g r e a t e r degree because o f the t i o n i n v o l v e d i n placement.  may  separa-  I f a c h i l d comes i n t o agency  c a r e d u r i n g the o r a l p e r i o d he has the b e s t chance o f succeeding i n placement i f l o v i n g , permanent f o s t e r p a r e n t s can be found f o r him.  Because of h i s age, he w i l l n o t have  experienced a n x i e t i e s , maltreatment,  and r e j e c t i o n over as  long a p e r i o d o f time as the o l d e r c h i l d .  However, he  may  experience c o n t i n u a l f r u s t r a t i o n i f h i s b a s i c needs f o r l o v e and c a r e a r e not met.  H i s a f f e c t i v e appetite.may  be s t a r v e d ,  and t h i s , combined w i t h the trauma o f placement w i l l  arouse  t e n s i o n s , f e a r s , and a n x i e t i e s i n him f a r beyond what the *  average  c h i l d experiences.  H i s d i s t u r b a n c e may  be r e v e a l e d  i n a g g r e s s i v e , demanding b e h a v i o u r , o r i n depressed, drawn b e h a v i o u r .  U n l e s s the f o s t e r p a r e n t s a r e g r e a t l y  helped by the s o c i a l worker p r i o r t o , d u r i n g , and placement, they may  not be a b l e t o understand,  r e s u l t i n a f u r t h e r r e j e c t i o n t o the c h i l d and  after  cope w i t h o r  accept the r e a c t i o n s o f the f o s t e r c h i l d t o them.  may  with-  This  may  replacement  serve o n l y t o i n c r e a s e h i s a n x i e t i e s , and t o d e l a y h i s  p r o g r e s s t o the next developmental The a d o l e s c e n t who  phase.  has not e a r l i e r l e a r n e d t o g a i n  s a t i s f a c t i o n of h i s i d d r i v e s through s u b l i m a t i o n w i l l f o r t h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and w i l l tend t o operate on the pleasure p r i n c i p l e .  T h i s i s seen i n a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h  strive  • 37 -  a g g r e s s i v e t e n d e n c i e s , who want something and see no reason why they should n o t g e t i t when they want i t . the o t h e r hand, i f the a d o l e s c e n t ' s  On  childhood r e a c t i o n t o  d e p r i v a t i o n was withdrawal and r e s i g n a t i o n , t h i s i s l i k e l y t o re-appear i n adolescence  i n a s i m i l a r form.  The a d o l e s c e n t who has s u f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from t h e a n x i e t i e s o f the o r a l phase o f development i s f u r t h e r handicapped i n t h a t he undoubtedly w i l l . h a v e e x p e r i enced d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e a n a l and o e d l p a l phases.  This  will  r e s u l t i n improper and I n s u f f i c i e n t development and even s e p a r a t i o n o f the ego and superego.  When t h i s development  i s weak, the a d o l e s c e n t w i l l have f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n t r o l l i n g h i s i d d e s i r e s , which a r e so s t r o n g i n a d o l e s cence.  The s t r e n g t h o f t h e i d , when the ego and superego  a r e weak, c r e a t e s f u r t h e r t e n s i o n i n the a d o l e s c e n t and i s a major problem o f many a d o l e s c e n t s * F o l l o w i n g the a n x i e t i e s o f the o r a l p e r i o d , the c h i l d experiences  the a n x i e t i e s o f t h e n e x t developmental  p e r i o d , the a n a l p e r i o d . the c h i l d begins  Between the ages o f two and f o u r  t o develop h i s conscious  a b i l i t y to deal  w i t h r e a l i t y , t o conform t o the demands o f s o c i e t y , and t o develop h a b i t s which h i s environment urges upon him. I f t o i l e t t r a i n i n g and other s o c i a l c o n t r o l s a r e n o t c a r r i e d out s u c c e s s f u l l y b u t a r e r i g i d l y imposed, the c h i l d , i n t r y i n g t o achieve c o n t r o l , may develop an a n x i e t y t h a t he i s Incompetent.  He experiences  worth and develops a weak ego.  low f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l I f the ego i s unable t o  - 38 -  meet r e a l i t y demands c o m f o r t a b l y ,  the c h i l d may become  extremely conforming o r non-conforming, a g g r e s s i v e o r withdrawn.  I n t h i s way he t r i e s t o r e l i e v e h i m s e l f o f the  a n x i e t y c r e a t e d by the demands o f h i s environment and p r o t e c t h i s ego.  T h i s a n x i e t y w i l l be i n c r e a s e d I n a d o l e s -  cence when he i s s t r u g g l i n g f o r a d u l t s t a t u s .  Me may have  d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n f o r m i n g t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s and demands o f society;  He may withdraw i n t o h i s own w o r l d , o r he may  have c o n f l i c t s w i t h a u t h o r i t y and d i f f i c u l t y i n a c c e p t i n g guidance and h e l p from o l d e r E n g l i s h and Pearson  people. s t a t e t h a t a c h i l d can o n l y  conform t o s o c i e t a l demands when he f e e l s secure i n h i s l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s parents and i s w i l l i n g t o g i v e up h i s own d e s i r e s I n exchange f o r p a r e n t a l l o v e . c h i l d ' i s separated  from h i s parents  When a  or parent-substitutes  d u r i n g h i s second developmental p e r i o d , and has n o t experienced  the s e c u r i t y o f a c o n t i n u i n g l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p  w i t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s , he w i l l have more d i f f i c u l t y a c h i e v i n g s e l f - c o n t r o l and the accompanying Increased worth,  sense o f p e r s o n a l  i f he i s u n s u c c e s s f u l l y p l a c e d w i t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s  and f e a r s r e j e c t i o n o r punishment, he I s l i k e l y t o f e e l h i m s e l f o f l i t t l e p e r s o n a l worth. a b l e t o achieve  I f a c h i l d has n o t been  c o n t r o l and t h e acceptance o f a u t h o r i t y  normal t o the a n a l p e r i o d p r i o r t o adolescence,  he w i l l , i n  1 E n g l i s h , O.S., and Pearson, O.H.J., Emotional Problems o f L i v i n g . W.W, Norton and Company, New York, 1946, p . 5.  - 39  -  t h i s s t r e s s f u l p e r i o d , develop acute a n x i e t i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o a u t h o r i t y , or r e j e c t i t * I n a d o l e s c e n c e , r e s i d u a l problems o f the a n a l p e r i o d c r e a t e problems i n v o l v i n g the a d o l e s c e n t ' s r e f u s a l t o accept the a u t h o r i t y and demands o f s o e l e t y , t o g e t h e r w i t h s e l f - c e n t e r e d behaviour o f an a g g r e s s i v e or nature. demands.  I n t h i s way  withdrawing  the a d o l e s c e n t t r i e s t o escape s o c i e t a l  I n a d d i t i o n , the a d o l e s c e n t may  r e g r e s s , showing  renewed d i f f i c u l t y w i t h e x c r e t o r y c o n t r o l through e n u r e s i s and  soiling.  T h i s problem n a t u r a l l y i n c r e a s e s h i s low  sense  o f p e r s o n a l worth. Between the ages o f t h r e e and s i x the c h i l d through h i s t h i r d phase o f p e r s o n a l i t y development. the O e d l p a l phase, d u r i n g which the c h i l d l e a r n s t©  passes This i s  develop  h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s parents, h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s own  and th© o p p o s i t e sex, and t o develop h i s c o n s c i e n c e o r  superego*  H i s superego development culminates i n the c h i l d ' s  working out h i s l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s p a r e n t s *  I f the  a u t h o r i t y o f the parents i s c o n f l i c t i n g and c o n f u s i n g t o the c h i l d , he w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e g r a t i n g t h e i r a u t h o r i t y i n t o h i s behaviour p a t t e r n and the r e s u l t i n g s t r u g g l e as t o r i g h t and wrong and how T h i s a n x i e t y may of h i m s e l f *  t o behave arouses a n x i e t y i n him*  be expressed as a resentment o f o t h e r s o r  In a d o l e s c e n c e , t h i s a n x i e t y may  be expressed  by  a g g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t h i m s e l f and o t h e r s * As the parents ar© the o r i g i n a l a u t h o r i t y t o the c h i l d , t h e i r i n f l u e n c e I s the most b a s i c i n the f o r m a t i o n o f  40 ».  h i s conscience.  I f t h e i r a u t h o r i t y i s c o n f u s i n g and i n c o n -  s i s t e n t , i t may be r e f l e c t e d i n weakness I n the development o f the c h i l d ' s superego. based  I f I t i s r i g i d and severe, and n o t  on a f f e c t i o n , i t may make the c h i l d r e b e l l i o u s and  delinquent.  Where parents a r e a f f e c t i o n a t e b u t over-severe  and p e r f e c t i o n i s t i c i n demands, t h e c h i l d i s l i k e l y t o f e e l w o r t h l e s s i n meeting t h e i r demands, g u i l t y and i m m o b i l i s e d . When t h e i r a u t h o r i t y I s weak o r v a c i l l a t i n g , the c h i l d i s l i k e l y t o develop a weak superego,  continue on the p l e a s u r e  p r i n c i p l e , and become v u l n e r a b l e t o the f o r c e s surrounding him. The  e a r l i e r development o f th© superego i s v e r y  important a t adolescence when the boy i s n o r m a l l y making h i s break w i t h p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y .  I n adolescence he w i l l  experience g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n conforming has u n s t a b l e s t a n d a r d s .  t o s o c i e t y , i f he  A l s o , i f he has n o t accepted h i s  s e x u a l i d e n t i t y , and i d e n t i t y as a member o f a g e n e r a t i o n beyond t h a t o f h i s p a r e n t s , he w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y i n adolescence as h i s s o c i a l l i f e expands and h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l d r i v e s encourage him t o e s t a b l i s h c l o s e r and more f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t w i t h the o p p o s i t e sex. While every c h i l d  experiences  O e d i p a l a n x i e t i e s d u r i n g h i s development, i f they p e r s i s t without a m e l e r i o r a t i o n the c h i l d , i n a d o l e s c e n c e , may f i n d these a n x i e t i e s i n t e n s i f i e d and c r e a t i n g problems. When a c h i l d i s p l a c e d between the ages o f t h r e e and s i x , he may be delayed i n o r prevented i n s o l v i n g the problem o f h i s i d e n t i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s own and t h e o p p o s i t e sex  - 41 *  because o f a r e s i d u e o f a n x i e t i e s and problems o f e a r l i e r years.  A l s o , because he i s b e i n g separated from h i s f i r s t  l o v e o b j e c t s and l i v i n g w i t h s t r a n g e r s , he may be f u r t h e r delayed i n r e s o l v i n g h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s parents*  If  he i s unable t o develop a s t r o n g enough r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f o s t e r p a r e n t s , or has i n s u f f i c i e n t c o n t a c t w i t h h i s own p a r e n t s , he may never work o u t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o b o t h A t adolescence, a boy may have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s o c i a l s h i p s because he i s s t i l l  sexes.  relation-  seeking from h i s mother the  i n a p p r o p r i a t e a f f e c t i o n she o f f e r s , o r a f f e c t i o n he has never received.  He may a l s o need a chance t o i d e n t i f y w i t h a  f a t h e r - p e r s o n o r t o f e e l acceptance  from and t h e r e f o r e f o r  male a d u l t s , female a d u l t s , o r b o t h . F o s t e r p a r e n t s a r e new a u t h o r i t i e s t o t h e c h i l d . They may c o n f l i c t w i t h the p a r e n t s he knew e a r l i e r .  He w i l l  not be a b l e t o accept the f o s t e r p a r e n t s ' guidance u n l e s s he has a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h them.  I f he f e e l s g u i l t y  over  s e p a r a t i o n from h i s p a r e n t s , t h i s may a l s o prevent him from a c c e p t i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y o f the f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  I n any o f these  i n s t a n c e s , h i s a b i l i t y t o develop standards f o r l i v i n g w i l l be affected.  A poorly-developed conscience w i l l hinder h i s  development I n a d o l e s c e n c e .  The a d o l e s c e n t must have a s t r o n g  c o n s c i e n c e i f he i s t o keep h i s i n c r e a s e d i d d r i v e s i n cheek i n t h e f a c e o f a weakened ego. The i n h e r e n t dangers o f the o r a l , a n a l , and o e d i p a l p e r i o d s o f p e r s o n a l i t y development make n e c e s s a r y t h e use o f  42 *  extreme eare i n f e s t e r home placement during the pre-school years i f serious problems are to be lessened or avoided. Unfortunatelyj I t i s easier f o r workers to place c a r e l e s s l y i n t h i s period, since c h i l d r e n of t h i s age are more e a s i l y controlled.  Replacement may be necessary, but unless  f u l l y made, only makes the c h i l d more confused.  care-  Each move,  at f i r s t , means further r e j e c t i o n to the c h i l d by parentpersons and creates i n the c h i l d a fear of showing normal love and anger.  Each move increases h i s e x i s t i n g anxieties and  lessens h i s a b i l i t y to form a meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p with foster parents and society i n general.  These losses can only  be overcome by e s p e c i a l l y c a r e f u l replacements and extra patience, as well as a f f e c t i o n , understanding, and firmness on the f o s t e r parents part.  The c h i l d has a fundamental need  to form sound human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i f he i s going to solve h i s problems. The latency period of c h i l d personality development i s a quiet one i n terms of personality development but not i n activity—some  writers have c a l l e d i t the "Wild Injun Age."  I t occurs between the ages of s i x and eleven and precedes the adolescent period.  The c h i l d ' s s o c i a l horizons greatly  broaden during the latency period. spent most of h i s time at home. l e s s time with his family.  P r i o r to t h i s period he  How he spends considerably  He goes to school, begins to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n group a c t i v i t i e s , and discovers that much of h i s recreation, work, leadership, and authority originates  * 43 *  o u t s i d e h i s l i f e a t home* his  As he becomes more independent o f  p a r e n t s i n the l a t e n c y p e r i o d , the c h i l d f i n d s t h a t  i s becoming more c o m p e t i t i v e *  life  He a l s o f i n d s t h a t t h e l a t e n c y  p e r i o d i s one i n which he g a i n s s a t i s f a c t i o n from achievement, e x p l o r i n g the world around him and h i s own age and sex group* T h i s p e r i o d l a y s t h e b a s i s f o r a d u l t achievement and com* p e t i t i v e and group a c t i v i t i e s w i t h peers* If  a c h i l d i s placed with f o s t e r parents during the  l a t e n c y p e r i o d , he must f e e l secure i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h his  own p a r e n t s o r p a r e n t - s u r r o g a t e s ,  be a s u c c e s s f u l one*  I f he doubts t h e i r continued  a f f e c t i o n w h i l e he i s separated l e a v i n g them*  I f h i s placement i s t o  from them, he w i l l  l o v e and resist  I f he i s s e p a r a t i n g h i m s e l f , o r has  separated  a f f e c t i o n a t e l y from h i s p a r e n t s o r p a r e n t * s u r r o g a t e s , he has experienced much a n x i e t y  e a r l i e r through r e j e c t i o n o r  s e p a r a t i o n , he i s l i k e l y t o r e - e x p e r i e n c e measure*  and i f  t h i s a n x i e t y i n some  I f h i s o e d i p a l c o n f l i c t has n o t been f u l l y  resolved,  and he f e a r s t h a t h i s absence w i l l cause h i s mother*s a f f e c t i o n to be moved even f a r t h e r from him i n h i s absconce, he w i l l have t r o u b l e l e a v i n g home t o a t t e n d period.  s c h o o l i n the l a t e n c y  I n s c h o o l h i s behaviour w i l l i n d i c a t e t h a t he i s  t r o u b l e d by a n x i e t y *  He may be a g g r e s s i v e ,  unwilling to  l e a r n , o r become withdrawn and day-dreaming.  These symptoms  show t h a t he does not f e e l secure enough t o make the move from the home t o the school« unresolved  Further  evidence o f an  o e d i p a l s i t u a t i o n i s apparent when t h e c h i l d does  n o t i d e n t i f y w i t h h i s f a t h e r as h i s i d e a l and does n o t t r y t o emulate him.  T h i s f a c t ean be observed when a boy p r e f e r s t o  p l a y w i t h g i r l s r a t h e r than w i t h other boys* accepted h i s f a t h e r as h i s masculine i d e a l .  The boy has n o t I f a boy i s w i t h  f o s t e r p a r e n t s and does n o t i d e n t i f y w i t h the f o s t e r f a t h e r he w i l l n o t i m i t a t e him.  When a boy does n o t enter  this  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i s peer group i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n the l a t e n c y p e r i o d , he w i l l a l s o be censured by h i s own playmates. A l t h o u g h the development o f t h e superego o r cons c i e n c e begins i n t h e p r e - s c h o o l  years, i t i s i n the latency  p e r i o d t h a t i t I s t e s t e d out and developed.  Before, he goes  t o s c h o o l , the c h i l d has had t h e p r o t e c t i o n - o f h i s own home for his actions*  When he goes t o s c h o o l , he i s more r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r h i s a c t i o n s and f i n d s a number o f new l i m i t a t i o n s w i t h i n which he must guide h i s b e h a v i o u r . w i t h t h e pressures  A l s o , he i s c o n f r o n t e d  o f t h e group, which sometimes c o n f l i c t  w i t h t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y i n h i s home and a t s c h o o l . I f he does n o t conform t o the behaviour o f t h e group he may be o s t r a c i z e d ; sometimes the behaviour o f t h e group i s a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h a t expected by h i s f a m i l y and s c h o o l ; as a r e s u l t the c h i l d experiences c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g  his loyalties  to the group and t o those o u t s i d e i t . The c h i l d must make d e c i s i o n s when such c o n f l i c t s a r i s e .  Such d e c i s i o n s can  c r e a t e much a n x i e t y , depending upon the c h i l d ' s e a r l i e r and e x i s t i n g f e e l i n g s of s e c u r i t y i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s p a r e n t s or  parent-surrogates*  I f a c h i l d comes i n t o the l a t e n c y p e r i o d w i t h unresolved  a n x i e t i e s from e a r l i e r p e r i o d s , or has been p l a c e d  with f o s t e r parents j u s t before  t h i s p e r i o d , and has  been  unable to a d j u s t t o the f o s t e r home move, the l a t e n c y f o r him w i l l be a d i f f i c u l t one. tense; he may  He w i l l be anxious  Indicate h i s emotional disturbance  period and  by r e c u r r i n g  e n u r e s i s , r e t i c e n c e , f e a r s o f the unknown, r e l u c t a n c e t o move out from the f o s t e r home, a g g r e s s i v e ,  h o s t i l e , uncooperative  and demanding behaviour beyond the normal p e r i o d i n the n i n g o f placement o f r e g r e s s i o n and parents.  t r y i n g out the f o s t e r  H i s f e e l i n g s o f i n s e c u r i t y w i l l handicap him  moving towards and  begin-  in  a d j u s t i n g to a d o l e s c e n c e .  Although a n x i e t i e s In the o r a l , a n a l , o e d i p a l ,  and  l a t e n c y p e r i o d s o f p e r s o n a l i t y development a f f e c t adjustment i n a d o l e s c e n c e , there are a number o f problems p e c u l i a r to adolescent  p e r i o d of p e r s o n a l i t y development, which begins  around the age  o f twelve and  extends i n t o the l a t e  . T h i s . p e r i o d precedes a d u l t h o o d . for  As  the a d o l e s c e n t  teens. struggles  independence, he f a c e s the problem o f forming new  ments o u t s i d e h i s f a m i l y .  He must a l s o i n t e g r a t e  a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h those he a l r e a d y has known. r e b e l l i o u s , "cheeky," and i s w i t h h i s own  He  attach-  new o f t e n appears  d e f i a n t i n ' e a r l y adolescence.  f a m i l y , and  a s t a b l e one,  I f he  this i s usually  accepted as a normal though d i f f i c u l t stage o f growth.  I f he  i s w i t h a f o s t e r f a m i l y , t h e r e i s a tendency f o r the worker and  the  the f a m i l y t o remove him  because he  i s "not  adjusting."  -r  The aforementioned  46 *•  problems o f the a d o l e s c e n t a r e f u r t h e r  complicated by h i s m a t u r a t i o n , which develops i n him  an  Increased c a p a c i t y t o l o v e and a g r e a t e r a b i l i t y f o r p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l accomplishment.  A l s o , In e a r l y adolescence,  g e n e r a l l y between the ages of twelve and f i f t e e n , as the body i s a d j u s t i n g t o g l a n d u l a r changes, t h e r e i s o f t e n a p e r i o d o f apparent  l e t h a r g y , o f t e n regarded by a d u l t s as l a z i n e s s , when  b o d i l y energy i s b e i n g d r a i n e d i n t o p h y s i c a l growth and The a d o l e s c e n t has t o l e a r n t o channel and h i s new  change.  direct  d r i v e s so t h a t he can a r r i v e a t h i s g o a l o f m a t u r i t y .  He becomes anxious l e s t he i s unable t o handle these d r i v e s i n an adequate manner.  P e r i o d i c a l l y , he may  r e g r e s s t o the  s e c u r i t y o f c h i l d h o o d t e m p o r a r i l y r a t h e r than s u f f e r a d e f l a t i o n o f h i s ego.  H i s a b i l i t y t o form new  attachments  depends  p a r t i c u l a r l y upon h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h h i s parents o r parent-surrogates.  H e l e n Ross says t h a t t h i s  " c a r r i e s w i t h i t the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t he  Identification  (the a d o l e s c e n t ) has  had a good p a t t e r n w i t h which t o i d e n t i f y *  A normal i d e n t i f i -  c a t i o n w i t h the p a r e n t makes the f o r m a t i o n of new  attachments  1 easy,"  A d o l e s c e n t s who  p a r e n t s and who  have been separated from  their  have had to r e l a t e t o one o r more s e t s o f  f o s t e r parents may  have d i f f i c u l t y i n forming new  i n adolescence, depending  attachments  on t h e i r attainment of s a t i f a c t o r y  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s and f o s t e r p a r e n t s . 1 Ross, Helen, The Caseworker and the A d o l e s c e n t * F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, 1941, p. 233*  - 47 -  The presence o f a s t r o n g superego i s fundamental to  the problem o f i n t e g r a t i n g new a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h t h e o l d ,  to  the c h a n n e l l i n g o f new d r i v e s , and t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n of,  new experiences and s i t u a t i o n s *  Inner s e c u r i t y and standards  to meet these problems depend upon t h e a d o l e s c e n t ' s l o v e f o r and attachment t o h i s p a r e n t s * of  When a n a d o l e s c e n t , because  c o n t i n u a l s h i f t i n g from parents t o f o s t e r p a r e n t s , and  from f o s t e r parents t o f o s t e r p a r e n t s , has been unable t o make enduring attachments,  and from them develop s e c u r i t y o f  s t a n d a r d s , these problems assume major p r o p o r t i o n s * When a boy reaches a d o l e s c e n c e , he i s s u b j e c t e d t o s t i l l another f o r c e which a c t s upon t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l changes of  t h i s p e r i o d and upon t h e problem o f making new  attachments  and i n t e g r a t i n g new a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h those o f t h e p a s t * T h i s f o r c e i s t h e c u l t u r a l demand which s o c i e t y makes on the adolescent*  He i s encouraged t o be m a s c u l i n e , a g g r e s s i v e ,  c o m p e t i t i v e , t o s e l e c t and prepare h i m s e l f f o r a v o c a t i o n , and t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t w i t h t h e female sex* demands occur almost a l l a t t h e same time*  These v a r i o u s  When an a d o l e s c e n t  moves o u t i n t o these areas o f e x p e r i e n c e , he i s f a c e d w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f a i l u r e whioh i s d i f f i c u l t f o r h i s weakened ego t o accept*  Most a d o l e s c e n t boys have a s t a b l e f a m i l y t i e  to f a l l back on when the going i s d i f f i c u l t *  However, f o r  those who a r e a l i e n a t e d from t h e i r f a m i l i e s , o r who have experienced r e j e c t i o n and abuse as they passed developmental  through t h e  p e r i o d s , o r who have no f a m i l y t i e s because o f  a c o n t i n u a l s h i f t from f a m i l y t o f a m i l y , t h e going i s f a r  mi  more d i f f i c u l t •  48  Such a d o l e s c e n t s have c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y  i n r e l a t i n g t o and t r u s t i n g i n someone who c a n f u l f i l l t h e p a r e n t a l r o l e and a r e t h e f r e q u e n t concern o f s o c i a l As the a d o l e s c e n t i s attempting  agencies*  t o emancipate h i m s e l f  from p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l and a c h i e v e independence, t h i s f a c t must be borne i n mind when s e p a r a t i o n from h i s parents becomes necessary*  I f he i s p l a c e d w i t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s who do n o t  h e l p him t o a c h i e v e Independence, h i s problems w i l l i n c r e a s e * He may r e s i s t being I n v o l v e d I n too p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s , b u t he w i l l need someone t o whom he c a n l o o k f o r guidance, understanding,  l i m i t s and d i r e c t i o n *  w i l l need someone t o r e l i e v e the p r e s s u r e s upon him, h i s weakened ego, and t o h e l p him know h i m s e l f *  He  strengthen  Whether he  can be helped t o achieve a s o c i a l l y - a c c e p t a b l e a d o l e s c e n t adjustment through placement w i t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s o r i n an i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l depend upon the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n f o s t e r homes and i n s t i t u t i o n s and upon the a b i l i t y o f the worker.  soeial  The l a t t e r must enable the c h i l d o r a d o l e s c e n t t o  understand  why he i s b e i n g separated from h i s p a r e n t s , g i v e  f o s t e r parents a s s i s t a n c e i n meeting the problems o f a d o l e s cent f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , and develop a s t r o n g s u p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the a d o l e s c e n t . Standards  o f F o s t e r Home F i n d i n g . Placement, and S u p e r v i s i o n Today, as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o f o s t e r c a r e , p r o g r e s s i v e  s o c i a l agencies s t r i v e t o adhere t o standards o f f o s t e r home f i n d i n g , i n t a k e s e r v i c e , placement, and s u p e r v i s i o n , l a i d down  49 -  by the C h i l d Welfare League o f Ameriea and the Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l *  I n p r a c t i c e , agencies cannot always imple-  ment these standards because of the p r e s s u r e of heavy casel e a d s , shortage o f q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l , turnover o f workers, and the shortage o f f o s t e r homes. When a c h i l d has to be moved from h i s own home, i t must be remembered, as a l r e a d y mentioned, t h a t he has down some r o o t s , r e g a r d l e s s o f how might be* one*  put  bad h i s f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n ,  The d e c i s i o n to move him i s , t h e r e f o r e , an  important  The next d e c i s i o n , w i t h concern t o the k i n d o f f a m i l y he  w i l l be p l a c e d w i t h , i s j u s t as important* k i n d s o f f o s t e r homes f o r the c h i l d .  ^hore a r e d i f f e r e n t  I n the boarding home the  f o s t e r parents r e c e i v e payments f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s * s e n t may  be made e i t h e r by p a r e n t s , r e l a t i v e s , guardians, the  agency, or the c o u r t * today^  T h i s pay*  In the f r e e home, which i s l i t t l e  the same q u a l i t y of c a r e may  be g i v e n but  money compensation t o the f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  used  without  A wage home might  o f f e r the c h i l d the same s e r v i c e as the f o r e g o i n g types except t h a t the c h i l d r e c e i v e s payment f o r d e f i n i t e work p e r formed*  A wage-free home might a l s o o f f e r f o s t e r home s e r v i c e  s i m i l a r t o the types a l r e a d y mentioned*  However, i n such a  home, the c h i l d , u s u a l l y an o l d e r one, has an o u t s i d e j o b . Such a c h i l d might pay f o r h i s upkeep from h i s e a r n i n g s . Under whatever p l a n a c h i l d i s p l a c e d , however, the agency i s h i s guardian and p r o t e c t o r , aad r e t a i n s the o b l i g a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n and  removal.  - $0 *  B e f o r e placement o c c u r s I n a f o s t e r home, t h e r e i s much t h a t must he known about t h e c h i l d and t h e p r o s p e c t i v e foster family*  R e g a r d l e s s o f who b r i n g s t h e c h i l d t o t h e  attention of the s o c i a l agency—parents, a p r i v a t e c i t i z e n , another  relatives,  guardians,  s o c i a l agency, o r t h e c o u r t — h e  s h o u l d be g i v e n a complete p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n , t o determine whether h i s p r e s e n t p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n w i l l p e r m i t placement o r r e q u i r e t r e a t m e n t , and t o g u i d e t h e placement worker as t o t h e k i n d o f c a r e he w i l l r e q u i r e i f p l a c e d * f o s t e r parents are e n t i t l e d  The p r o s p e c t i v e  t o such m e d i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a l s o *  The placement worker must know more about t h e c h i l d b e s i d e s h i s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n t o make a s u i t a b l e placement* i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o have knowledge o f h i s m e n t a l c a p a c i t y , whether h i g h , l o w , o r a v e r a g e ,  t o e n a b l e placement w h i c h does  n o t make demands beyond h i s a b i l i t y *  There i s even more v i t a l  knowledge r e q u i r e d o f t h e c h i l d t o be p l a c e d , such as h i s emotional n a t u r e , h i s c u l t u r a l background, h i s p r e v i o u s experience i n f a m i l y l i f e , h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h h i s s i b l i n g s , h i s a t t i t u d e , h a b i t s , and b e h a v i o u r .  The purpose o f  a c q u i r i n g t h e f o r e g o i n g g e n e r a l knowledge about t h e c h i l d i s to enable as much u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f him a s p o s s i b l e , so t h a t  t h e agency c a n p l a n a f o s t e r home a b l e and w i l l i n g t o meet h i s i n d i v i d u a l needs so t h a t he w i l l be a b l e t o d e v e l o p h i s c a p a c i t i e s f o r h a p p i n e s s and growth t o t h e f u l l e s t e x t e n t . Many c h i l d - p l a c i n g agencies, use a temporary f o s t e r home p r i o r t o a more permanent placement. . The r e a s o n f o r  •  51  **  t h i s i s , i n p a r t , t o a l l e v i a t e t h e emotional shock o f removal, and not t o expose the c h i l d t o deeper demands too soon, as w e l l as t o get t o know him.  When a c h i l d l e a v e s h i s  own home, f o r almost any r e a s o n , l t i s e m o t i o n a l l y u p s e t t i n g . S i n c e b i r t h he has been sending down l i t t l e emotional r o o t s . These r o o t s have helped him t o f e e l t h a t he belonged somewhere and t o somebody. security.  He has had some f e e l i n g o f s t a b i l i t y and  Even when a c h i l d runs away, o r I s r e c a l c i t r a n t o r  d e l i n q u e n t , he may be showing by such s i g n s t h a t he has a need t o belong t o somebody, somewhere, and t o be a c c e p t e d and' helped.  When a c h i l d i s p l a c e d , he has l o s t h i s own home,  t e m p o r a r i l y o r permanently* understanding*  He needs c a r e , a f f e c t i o n , and  Often the placement  experience i s so u p s e t t i n g  t h a t he i s no way a b l e t o take on another home r i g h t away, p a r t i c u l a r l y a long-term f o s t e r home*  He needs an i n t e r i m  p e r i o d and experience d u r i n g which he can get over some o f h i s f e a r , r e b e l l i o n , and r e s i s t a n c e t o h e l p *  Most o f a l l he needs  h e l p i n d e a l i n g w i t h h i s own f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g r e j e c t e d by h i s parents*  While t h i s i n t e r n a l s t r u g g l e i s going on, he  needs t o be i n a s i t u a t i o n where he can work out many o f h i s f e e l i n g s and a t t h e same time be a c c e p t e d f o r what he i s and where he i s i n h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s *  The temporary  f o s t e r home  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y demand the r e t u r n o r response from him which a more permanent home would demand*  He has more freedom  t o t e s t out f o r h i m s e l f h i s a b i l i t y f o r the k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p he can take on.  He can even show h i s i n a b i l i t y t o f i n d  -  %-  a s a t i s f y i n g kind of r e l a t i o n s h i p .  A t the same time he must  meet the o r d i n a r y requirements o f any home and i s o f t e n  able  to f e e l a s t a b i l i t y t h a t l e t s him move toward a new p a t t e r n . of l i v i n g .  In a temporary home, which t h e c h i l d must know •  i s temporary, the c h i l d needs t o f e e l t h a t he has time t o f i n d h i m s e l f , t o t r y t o say what i t i s he r e a l l y needs and wants.  A temporary f o s t e r home w i t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s who under-  stand him w i l l u s u a l l y h e l p the c h i l d and t h e placement agency t o f i n d o u t the k i n d o f home b e s t s u i t e d t o him.  When he i s  ready t o leave h i s temporary home there w i l l be a more permanent home w a i t i n g f o r him, i f a v a i l a b l e . :  A f t e r a study o f the c h i l d has t a k e n p l a c e , which r e q u i r e s much s k i l l on the p a r t o f t h e c h i l d placement worker, f u r t h e r s k i l l i s r e q u i r e d t o choose t h e b e s t home f o r the p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , from those a l r e a d y The  s t u d i e d and a c c e p t e d .  s o c i a l agency must know c e r t a i n f a c t s about the p r o s -  pective f o s t e r parents,  such as t h e i r f i n a n c i a l  status,  housing and housekeeping standards, make-up o f the f a m i l y group, and t h e background, i n t e l l i g e n c e , e d u c a t i o n , and i n t e r e s t o f the p r o s p e c t i v e  f o s t e r parents*  I t i s also  e q u a l l y important t o know how w i l l i n g t h e p r o s p e c t i v e  foster  f a m i l y i s t o share i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and care o f the child* in  Foster parents,  t h e i r way o f l i f e *  l i k e others, look f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n s They expect t h a t a f o s t e r home p l a c e -  ment w i l l be mutually s a t i s f y i n g *  They should know t h a t i t  w i l l have i t s disappointments, d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  struggles,  -  53  -  r e c r i m i n a t i o n s and p o s s i b l e h e a r t b r e a k s . this.  Any  f a m i l y expects  F o s t e r p a r e n t s have to f a c e these f a c t s t o r e a l i z e  t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and  the demands which the c a r e o f  c h i l d w i l l make upon them, and e x t r a problems.  t h a t the f o s t e r c h i l d  any  has  They a l s o have a r i g h t to hope f o r the  s a t i s f a c t i o n o f having a c h i l d or c h i l d r e n In t h e i r home and h e l p i n g i n t h e i r growth t o m a t u r i t y  and  happiness.  An important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n f o s t e r home-finding i s to f i n d out what a f o s t e r home has  t h a t can c o n t r i b u t e  the normal, h e a l t h y development o f the c h i l d to be  to  placed.  I t i s important to f i n d out i f t h e r e i s t h a t i n t a n g i b l e "something  1,  i n the adjustment o f the p r o s p e c t i v e  f a m i l y members t o each o t h e r , and  foster  to others outside  f a m i l y , as w e l l as a t t i t u d e s t o a p r o s p e c t i v e  foster child,  t h a t w i l l make a p a r t i c u l a r placement a m u t u a l l y experience.  These two  f o s t e r c h i l d and  f o s t e r home—must be f i t t e d together* adjusted  a prospective  seem t o  Conversely,  might no  i n h i s make-up, he  I t f o l l o w s t h a t f o s t e r home  placement5 as an a r t , c o n s i s t s i n the " s k i l l f u l o f c h i l d and  how  offer, i t s t i l l  matter what a e h i l d needs, or what he has  together  prospective  R e g a r d l e s s of  not meet the needs of a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d *  not f i t i n t o any home*  the  f o s t e r f a m i l y may  be, or what m a t e r i a l advantages i t may  s t i l l may  satisfying  most important f a c t o r s i n f o s t e r home  placement—the prospective  emotionally  the  fitting  f a m i l y , making p o s s i b l e the  fullest  - J4 -  f r u i t i o n o f both.*  1 1  S o c i a l a g e n c i e s use d i f f e r e n t methods o f s e c u r i n g and  making use o f f o s t e r homes, b u t they have s i m i l a r  objectives*  Many l a r g e a g e n c i e s , l i k e t h e CAS, have s e p a r a t e  h o m e f i n d i n g departments t h a t d e v o t e a l l t h e i r e n e r g i e s t o f i n d i n g and I n v e s t i g a t i n g  f o s t e r homes and f o s t e r  families*  I n a d d i t i o n t o s t u d y i n g t h e c h i l d t o be p l a c e d , and  s e l e c t i n g a f o s t e r home f o r h i m , t h e c h i l d - p l a c i n g agency  a l s o s u p e r v i s e s him i n t h e f o s t e r home.*  W h i l e t h e agency  may be l e g a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p l a c e d c h i l d , i t r e l e a s e s some d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d ' s l i f e t o t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s * Is w i t h the f o s t e r family not  It  t h a t t h e c h i l d i s l i v i n g and g r o w i n g ,  t h e agency, and t h e r e I s u l t i m a t e l y a shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r h i m . The agency may s u p p l y some form o f d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o the c h i l d , such a s v i s i t s f o r h e a l t h and d e n t a l t r e a t m e n t , o r the s u p p l y i n g o f - c l o t h i n g , a l t h o u g h i n many a g e n c i e s t h e s e s e r v i c e s a r e a r r a n g e d t h r o u g h f o s t e r p a r e n t s , b u t u s u a l l y th© worker's f i r s t concern i s helping  t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s and c h i l d  toward h e l p f u l f a m i l y i n t e r - r e l a t l o n s h i p s .  T h i s does n o t  mean t h a t t h e worker t e l l s t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s how t o r e a r t h e c h i l d b u t means t h a t t h e agency s t a n d s b e h i n d , o r a l o n g s i d e o f , the f o s t e r p a r e n t s t o h e l p them i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c h i l d and the agency a t a l l t i m e s .  This helping  process implies a  p a r t n e r s h i p arrangement and o c c a s i o n s p e r i o d i c v i s i t i n g by  1 F i n k , A r t h u r , E., The F i e l d o f S o c i a l Work4 Henry H o l t and Company, Hew Y o r k , 1942, p . 8tt«  the worker t o the f o s t e r home where problems a r e d i s c u s s e d w i t h the f o s t e r parents and the c h i l d , ' I n d i v i d u a l l y and together,  and s i m i l a r v i s i t i n g by the c h i l d and/or the  f o s t e r p a r e n t s t o t h e agency. The  o b j e c t i v e o f t h e c h i l d - p l a c i n g agency I n f o s t e r  home placement i s t o p r o v i d e , f o r t h e c h i l d , as n a t u r a l a home environment as a f o s t e r home w i l l p e r m i t , w i t h as l i t t l e i n t e r f e r e n c e as p o s s i b l e w i t h the mode o f l i f e f a m i l y grouping.  o f t h i s new  I t o f t e n happens t h a t the c h i l d w i l l  bring  a l l h i s f e a r s , s u l l e n n a s s , r e s i s t a n c e , and o t h e r forms o f i n s e c u r i t y , and t h a t t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s need help i n d e a l i n g w i t h the c h i l d , who w i l l o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e a normal p e r i o d o f r e g r e s s i o n and t r y i n g - o u t a f t e r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f good behaviour (as mentioned e a r l i e r , i n Chapter I ) .  The c h i l d  w i l l o f t e n f i n d i n h i s new home, l o v e , s e c u r i t y , and opport u n i t y f o r f u l f i l l m e n t o f h i s a s p i r a t i o n s , and t h a t many o f his  emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s g i v e way i n the f a c e o f the normal  l i f e he w i l l f i n d i n a w e l l - s e l e c t e d f o s t e r home. I n s u p e r v i s i n g the f o s t e r home, the c h i l d - p l a c i n g agency makes ©very e f f o r t t o m a i n t a i n t h e c h i l d ' s c o n t a c t s w i t h h i s own f a m i l y and v i c e v e r s a , u n l e s s  they a r e d e s t r u c -  t i v e , s i n c e most f o s t e r c h i l d r e n need t o f e e l t h a t they,are s t i l l p a r t o f t h e i r own f a m i l y , and a l s o because most o f them w i l l e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n t o t h e i r own homes.  An agency  should arrange v i s i t s o f own p a r e n t s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n and v i c e v e r s a under such circumstances t h a t such v i s i t i n g  will  * 56 -  not d i s t u r b r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the f o s t e r home.  With some  parents t h e r e should be f r e e v i s i t i n g ! w i t h o t h e r s , arranged v i s i t s — d e p e n d i n g on the p a r e n t s *  "Arranged"  f o s t e r and n a t u r a l p a r e n t s never meet,, may  v i s i t i n g , where  be f a r more  d i s t u r b i n g , however, because such v i s i t i n g encourages s u s p i c i o n , r i v a l r y , and so f o r t h .  The agency must be s e n s i t i v e t o the  f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s w i t h i n t h e own  parent-foster parent*  c h i l d t r i a n g l e and always remember t h a t the w e l f a r e o f the c h i l d i s of paramount importance placement* own  f o r a s u c c e s s f u l f o s t e r home  The agency must a l s o remember t h a t , i f n e c e s s a r y ,  p a r e n t s must be g i v e n h e l p t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r s t r e n g t h s  w h i l e t h e i r c h i l d i s i n placement (as mentioned i n Chapter I ) , and t o prepare them f o r h i s r e t u r n i f such i s p o s s i b l e . F i n a l l y , the c h i l d - p l a c i n g agency must perform t e r m i n a t i o n - o f - s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n when the c h i l d I s ready l e a v e the f o s t e r home*  back*  He may  l e a v e when h i s own  He may  to  He might l e a v e when he i s beyond the  l e g a l age which the committing him.  a  c o u r t h o l d s j u r i s d i c t i o n over p a r e n t s a r e ready t o t a k e  be ready t o l e a v e o f h i s own  v o l i t i o n , when he  i s f u l l y grown, w i t h the f o s t e r p a r e n t s ' a p p r o v a l * case, the agency performs  him  In any  an u n d e r l y i n g s e r v i c e by b e i n g a b l e  t o o f f e r , by working them out w i t h those concerned,  construc-  t i v e p l a n s f o r the f u t u r e , c e n t e r e d on the c h i l d h i m s e l f * Such p l a n s may  r e q u i r e adjustments  w i t h i n h i s own  home, and  e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l adjustments*  The c h i l d w i l l need  t o be prepared t o develop independence*  The whole p r o c e s s i s  - 57 -  a g r a d u a l one, which must be w e l l - p l a n n e d I n advance, and r e q u i r e s a continuance o f s u p e r v i s i o n f o r a t l e a s t a y e a r , sometimes more* The Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y The CAS I s a p r i v a t e s o c i a l agency i n c o r p o r a t e d under t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t , passed i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1901. government  The S o c i e t y was d e l e g a t e d by the p r o v i n c i a l  to c a r e f o r and p r o t e c t n e g l e c t e d and dependent  c h i l d r e n i n the C i t y o f Vancouver* orphanage c a r e u n t i l 1927  Such c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d  when t h e B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d  Welfare Survey ( a l r e a d y mentioned) recommended the use o f f o s t e r homes, i n v e s t i g a t e d and s u p e r v i s e d by the CAS under w r i t t e n agreement w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l  government.  L e g a l l y , Agency c h i l d r e n a r e c l a s s i f i e d as wards and non-wards.  The former group i s composed o f c h i l d r e n  committed by a F a m i l y o r J u v e n i l e Court Order t o the c a r e and custody o f the CAS, which thereby becomes t h e i r  legal  guardian u n t i l they r e a c h the age o f twenty-one y e a r s , o r u n t i l t h e order o f wardship i s r e s c i n d e d by the C o u r t .  Non-  wards are c h i l d r e n f o r whom the parent or p a r e n t - s u r r o g a t e i s i n t e n d i n g t o make a r e s p o n s i b l e p l a n .  These c h i l d r e n may  be  t e m p o r a r i l y i n f o s t e r c a r e a t the r e q u e s t o f a p a r e n t , r e l a t i v e , and so f o r t h . W i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a c o u r t may d i r e c t o f an apprehended c h i l d to the Superintendent  of C h i l d  delivery Welfare  a p r o v i n c i a l government o f f i c e r , who  may,  custody and/or g u a r d i a n s h i p t o the CAS  i n turn, delegate  f o r f o s t e r home p l a c e -  ment. For many y e a r s , and s i n c e the C h i l d Welfare  Survey  o f 1 9 2 6 - 2 7 , the CAS d i v i d e d i t s work i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ; f a m i l y work, c h i l d placement work, and p r o t e c t i o n *  In  f a m i l y work, casework has been used w i t h parents t o h e l p them'mobilize  f a m i l y s t r e n g t h s t o keep f a m i l i e s i n t a c t ,  w i t h unmarried  and  mothers, t o h e l p them i n t h e i r immediate c r i s i s  and t o t r y t o ensure t h a t an adequate p l a n i s worked out f o r themselves  and t h e i r c h i l d r e n *  I f , a f t e r study and h e l p ,  parents do not seem l i k e l y t o be ever a b l e t o p r o v i d e a h e a l t h y environment f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , or I f they w i s h t o r e l i n q u i s h them, the CAS  has an o b l i g a t i o n t o assume g u a r d i a n -  s h i p to p r o t e c t the c h i l d . agency concerns when t h e i r own  I n c h i l d placement work, the  I t s e l f w i t h f i n d i n g f o s t e r homes f o r c h i l d r e n home w i l l not permit normal growth, which  might i n v o l v e l e g a l commitment, and f o r c h i l d r e n f o r whom f o s t e r home placement I s requested by p a r e n t s or o t h e r s *  The  CAS p l a c e s such o h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes and s u p e r v i s e s them i n such homes, t o guarantee, needs are adequately met*  i f p o s s i b l e , t h a t the c h i l d ' s  C h i l d placement work i n c l u d e s the  use of temporary and permanent placement i n r e c e i v i n g homes and i n f o s t e r boarding homes, placement i n a d o p t i o n homes, and i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f and r e f e r r a l to p r i v a t e boarding homes. In February, 1954,  a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the  - 59 -  agency u n i t e d f a m i l y work and agency i n r e g a r d  t o these f u n c t i o n s on a g e o g r a p h i c a l  of functional basis. separate one,  c h i l d placement) d i v i d i n g the  The  Adoptions Department has  as has Home-Finding. t  Placement and  Instead  remained a supervision  o f non-adoptable c h i l d r e n i n permanent f o s t e r homes w i t h a view t o a d o p t i o n i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a worker, who  works  i n c l o s e l i a i s o n w i t h the Home-Finding and A d o p t i o n departments. The above mentioned r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o 1 C h a r l o t t e Cornwall)  i s a r e c e n t example o f the CAS* a b i l i t y  t o adapt i t s e l f t o changing concepts w i t h regard e f f e o t i v e methods of s e r v i n g c l i e n t s .  t o the most  As the agency grew  l a r g e r through the y e a r s , i t became apparent t h a t ) a t t i m e s , the two-department s t r u c t u r e hampered w i s e , planning  f o r the c h i l d and  apparent that I n t e g r a t e d one worker who The  his family.  planning  coordinated  I t became I n c r e a s i n g l y  c o u l d b e s t be handled  by  knew b o t h s i d e s o f the s i t u a t i o n . r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f 1954  i s i n d i c a t i v e of  flexi-  b i l i t y , which i s a n e c e s s a r y a t t r i b u t e of an agency which i s t r y i n g to p e r p e t u a t e a dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h community needs.  T h i s t h e s i s has as i t s purpose the study o f i n d i v i d u a l CAS regarded by CAS  f o s t e r home o f long standing which has workers as a s u c c e s s f u l one,  an been  particularly  1 C o r n w a l l , C h a r l o t t e , S t r u c t u r e Change Concerning F a m i l i e s and C h i l d r e n , Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , November, 1954.  w i t h a d o l e s c e n t boys, who a r e placement problems f o r t h e CAS and  any o t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s agency.  I t i s hoped t o d i s c o v e r  why  t h i s f o s t e r home was s u c c e s s f u l w i t h boys, p a r t i c u l a r l y adolescents. The  p l a n I s t o examine t h e f o s t e r home i n such a  manner t h a t some f o r m u l a t i o n o f the dynamics o f a good f o s t e r home might be made. discover  An attempt w i l l be made, t h e r e f o r e , t o  t h e dynamic f a c t o r s i n t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f the  f o s t e r p a r e n t s and t h e i r ego s t r e n g t h s , a s w e l l a s t h e dynamic f a c t o r s o f l i f e i n the f o s t e r home and community, through changing t i m e s , a s r e l a t e d t o t h e c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n the f o s t e r home and t h e i r backgrounds. While t h i s t h e s i s does n o t conform t o experimental s c i e n t i f i c d e s i g n , i t should serve as something o f a f l o o r o r source f o r s c i e n t i f i c  study i n the f u t u r e  i n r e l a t i o n to  r e s e a r c h Into CAS f o s t e r home placement p r a c t i c e f o r boys, p a r t i c u l a r l y adolescents. The  study has been d i v i d e d  i n t o f i v e chapters.  Chapter I I I i s devoted t o a survey o f the 117 c h i l d r e n who were p l a c e d i n the f o s t e r home d u r i n g i t s 21-year  existence.  M a t e r i a l , some o f which i s o f a q u a n t i t a t i v e n a t u r e , w i l l be presented t o support the view o f CAS workers t h a t the f o s t e r home was a s u c c e s s f u l  one I n a s p e c i f i c sense; i . e . , w i t h  boys, most o f whom were a d o l e s c e n t s .  Chapter IV i s devoted  t o a study o f the dynamics o f l i f e i n t h e f o s t e r home* M a t e r i a l , l a r g e l y q u a l i t a t i v e i n n a t u r e , w i l l be p r e s e n t e d  6l *  which w i l l I n d i c a t e  t h a t t h e f o s t e r home was  because o f the q u a l i t y o f l i f e  i n t h e home.  successful Chapter V d e a l s  w i t h f i n d i n g s , o b s e r v a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s r e s u l t i n g from the  study. The m a t e r i a l  CAS f i l e s , i n c l u d i n g  f o r t h i s study has been o b t a i n e d from  those o f t h e f o s t e r c h i l d r e n and t h e i r  own f a m i l i e s , and t h e f o s t e r f a m i l y f i l e , interviews,  as w e l l as from  The f o s t e r mother, her own two c h i l d r e n , and f o u r  of h e r former f o s t e r c h i l d r e n were i n t e r v i e w e d . All  names used I n t h i s study a r e f i c t i t i o u s .  CHAPTER XII  A SURVEY OF THE CHILDREN PLACED IH THE FOSTER HOIS  1.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n p f Placements There were 120  between September, 1931, and September,  1952,  placements i n the f o s t e r home when the f i r s t c h i l d was  placed,  when the l a s t one was p l a c e d .  This  21-year p e r i o d r e p r e s e n t s the approximate l e n g t h o f time the f o s t e r p a r e n t s were on " a c t i v e s e r v i c e " f o r the CAS,  Through  most o f t h i s p e r i o d the S c o t t ' s own two c h i l d r e n , J e s s i e , born i n 1927, parents*  and Angus, born i n 1930,  From 1931  t o 1949  l i v e d with their  there were s i x f o s t e r  l i v i n g w i t h the S c o t t s most o f the time*  children  From 1949  1952,  to  there were u s u a l l y two* The 120  placements i n v o l v e 115  boys and 2  girls  (some o f the boys had two placements w i t h the S c o t t s ) .  For  the purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e were f o u r placement c a t e g o r i e s i n terms o f time spent i n the f o s t e r home by the children placed therein*  Those who  remained f o r two weeks o r  l e s s a r e c l a s s i f i e d as Very S h o r t placements*  Those  who  remained up t o e i g h t weeks a r e c l a s s i f i e d as S h o r t placements* Those who  remained more than a y e a r a r e c l a s s i f i e d as Long-  term placements* In terms o f the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f placement, the  21-year period being studied has been broken down into three periods—Periods 1, 2, and 3. The reason for this breakdown is that in Period 1, which will be from September, 1931, to February,, 1939, the Scotts lived in Vancouver, They had a fairly-large house on a city lot*  The neighbourhood was  working-class and heavily-populated* The Scotts kept a few chickens and rabbits and had a small garden, a l l of which provided a. few chores for the foster and own children and food for the table.  In February, 1939, for financial reasons,  the Scotts moved to a semi-rural area In Burnaby, into a little larger home on an acre of land.  A large garden was  planted, and a goodly number of chickens* ducks, geese, rabbits, and goats were kept* The foster and own children were called upon to perform farm chores over and above those performed earlier. As was the case in Vancouver, the children also had to perform household chores, work at part-time jobs for spending money, and take an interest In their sehoolwork and community activities as part of their daily training in the fundamentals of good living.  The Scotts moved again, in  July, 1950, to a smaller home in more-urbanised Burnaby, because their second foster home was to be torn down due to industrial expansion and because they were going into "retire* raent"' as foster parents. Life in the third foster home lost Its farm-like aspects, as the poultry and animals of the second foster home were disposed of prior to July, 1950* Only a small garden was maintained at the third foster home*  - 64 -  As t h e way o f l i f e i n t h e second S c o t t f o s t e r home was  somewhat d i f f e r e n t from t h a t I n the f i r s t ,  and because  the l a t t e r was an agency r e s o u r c e d u r i n g an economic depress i o n w h i l e the former prosperous  economic p e r i o d , and a World War, P e r i o d 2 has  been c r e a t e d . P e r i o d 1),  served t h e CAS d u r i n g a c o m p a r a t i v e l y  I t extends from February, 1939  t o F e b r u a r y , 1949.  (the end o f  I t has been l i m i t e d t o t e n  y e a r s because a f t e r February, 1949,  t h e f o s t e r home entered  a p e r i o d o f d e c l i n e as an agency r e s o u r c e on account  o f the  advancing age o f the f o s t e r p a r e n t s , t h e i l l n e s s o f Mr. S c o t t , and t h e cumulative e f f e c t on the S c o t t s o f h a n d l i n g 116 p l a c e . ments i n 17& y e a r s .  Only f o u r c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d w i t h them  between February, 1949,  and September, 1952,  which has been  d e s i g n a t e d as P e r i o d 3. To c l a r i f y what was s a i d a t the beginning o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e r e were s i x CAS f o s t e r c h i l d r e n l i v i n g w i t h t h e S c o t t s d u r i n g t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f P e r i o d s 1 and 2; t h e r e were u s u a l l y two i n P e r i o d 3* the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e I s being presented t o p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l i d e a o f how 115 boys, one o f whom was o f p r e - s c h o o l age and t h e remainder  o f whom were p r e - a d o l e s e e n t s and a d o l e s -  c e n t s , and two g i r l s , one o f whom was a p r e - a d o l e s c e n t and the o t h e r a n a d o l e s c e n t , were p l a c e d i n t h e S c o t t f o s t e r home, in  terms o f c a t e g o r y o f placement, p e r i o d o f placement, and  r e s u l t s o f placement, from September, 1931.  1952  t o September,  - 65 Table 1.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Placements According t o Category, Period,, and, R e s u l t s o f P;Lqeemgji&  Very Short According t o Plan Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Sub-total  Wo.  6 29 l  36  Very Short Terminated by Premature Removal Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Sub-total  Ho. 1  Period 1 Period 2 Period 3  ii  Period 1 Period 2 Period 3  Sub-total  23  Sub-total  m  6  42  m  6 29  Medium According t o P l a n  Medium Terminated by Premature Removal  Period 1 Period 2 Period 3  Period 1 Period 2 Period 3  — 3  Sub-total  3  il 2 22  Long-term According t o Plan  cm  25  Long-term Terminated by Premature Removal 8  Period 1 Period 2 Period 3  10 1  Period 1 Period 2 Period 3  Sub-total  1?  Sub-total  Total  •  5  Short. Terminated by Premature Removal  Short According t o P l a n  Sub-total  Total  100  Total  1 4 — 24  20  120  66  With r e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e 1,  c h i l d r e n whose placement  was terminated by premature removal were removed because they did  not a d j u s t t o the f o s t e r home.  W i t h some o f these  children,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e Very Short and S h o r t c a t e g o r i e s , placements were o n l y intended t o be temporary, i n any c a s e .  Ohildren  were removed prematurely  behaviour  because o f emotional  problems, emotional problems and d e l i n q u e n c y running away, e p i l e p s y , and i n c o n t i n e n c e .  and  tendencies, f o r  Placements t e r m i -  nated by premature removal w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d u n s u c c e s s f u l . Placements a c c o r d i n g t o p l a n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d s u c c e s s f u l . T h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g t o Table 1, 5 out o f 6 successful. Table 1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l a r g e s t number o f s u c c e s s f u l placements were t h e Very S h o r t , f o l l o w e d by the S h o r t , Medium, and Long-term, i n t h a t o r d e r .  The l a r g e s t  number o f u n s u c c e s s f u l placements were i n t h e Very Short and S h o r t c a t e g o r i e s , f o l l o w e d by the Long-term and Medium i n that order. An average o f 5*7 w i t h the S c o t t s (120 ? 21). of  c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d each year The l a r g e s t and s m a l l e s t number  c h i l d r e n p l a c e d I n any one year were, a c c o r d i n g t o agency  r e c o r d s , 17  ( i n 1939)  and 1 ( I n 19|?2) r e s p e c t i v e l y . The  Median, t h e r e f o r e , I s 9, The f o l l o w i n g r a t i o s and percentages  can be o b t a i n e d  i n terms o f s u c c e s s f u l and u n s u c c e s s f u l placements i n the v a r i o u s aforementioned  c a t e g o r i e s , and i n t o t a l placements,  - 67  by a study of Table 1*  Table 2.  Category  S u c c e s s f u l and Unsuccessful Placements According to„, C a l o r y ;  Successful  Short  36 23  Medium  22  Long-Term Total Placements  19 .  Very short  100  Unsuccessful  Total  Ratio  Percentage  6 6 3 5  42  6:1  85*7  29  3*8*1  25  7.3?1  79.3 88.0  24  3*8*1  79.1  20  120  5*1  83*3  Table 2 p o i n t s out that Medium placements were most s u c c e s s f u l , followed by the Very Short, Short, and Long-term, i n that order. S t a t i s t i c a l l y - s p e a k i n g , the Seott f o s t e r home seems to have been a s u c c e s s f u l one i n terms of i t s l a r g e number o f s u c c e s s f u l placements i n a l l categories and i n t o t a l p l a c e * ments, according t o Table 2. A study o f Table 1 provides the f o l l o w i n g r a t i o s and percentages (as shown i n Table 3, page 68) i n terms o f s u c c e s s f u l and unsuccessful placements I n the various c a t e g o r i e s according t o Periods ( 1 , 2, and 3). Table 3 I n d i c a t e s that the S c o t t f o s t e r home, had a h i g h degree o f success during a l l three Periods i n terms o f  Table 3.  Category Very Short Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 1 Period 2 Period 3  Successful aad Unsuccessful Placements  Successful  Unsuccessful  Total  Ratio  6  1 5  7 34 1  6:1 5.8:1  5 24  «•  29  1  I 18  -  -  Media* Period 1 Period 2 Period 3  15 2.  ^nff-$§ra Period 1 Period 2 Period 3  8 10 1  Total -  *»  • •  100  •»>  3  «•  1 .4 ,  —  5 18 2 9  •»  14 1  20  120  Percentage  •85,3 • 100.0 100.0  3:1 »»  75.0  -  n  100.0  5:1  83*3  100.0  «•»  8:1 2 •5*1.  88,8 71.4 100.0  •  5*i  a  8 .3  b  3  a - Average R a t i o o f success. b - Average percentage of success.  the various placement c a t e g o r i e s .  A study of Table 3 shews  that 26 placements i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s were made i n Period 90 i n P e r i o d 2 , and 4 i n P e r i o d 3.  1,  There were 2 unsuccessful  placements i n P e r i o d 1, 18 i n P e r i o d 2, and none i n P e r i o d 3* The high r a t e o f success throughout the three Periods i s n o t e worthy, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n P e r i o d 2*  In t h i s p e r i o d ?2 out of 90  6$  c h i l d r e n had s u c c e s s f u l placements i n the f o s t e r home over a p e r i o d o f 10 y e a r s , as compared w i t h 24 out o f 26 d u r i n g the seven and o n e - h a l f years o f P e r i o d 1 and f o u r o u t o f f o u r d u r i n g the t h r e e and o n e - h a l f year P e r i o d 3»  The S c o t t s  were s u c c e s s f u l w i t h 4 out o f 5 c h i l d r e n p l a c e d w i t h them i n P e r i o d 2* which i s d e s e r v i n g o f mention because t h e r e were 9 placements each year i n t h i s P e r i o d , w h i l e there were o n l y 3*5  placements p e r year i n P e r i o d 1 and 1*14 placements  annually i n Period The  3* i n c r e a s e d number o f c h i l d r e n p l a c e d I n  P e r i o d 2 c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t a d i f f e r e n t f o s t e r home e n v i r o n ment, Increased  f o s t e r - p a r e n t experience,  changing times, and  more f a v o r a b l e board r a t e s made a l a r g e r s e r v i c e p o s s i b l e * It  should be mentioned t h a t , p h y s i c a l l y speaking,  the f o s t e r  home i n P e r i o d 2 was n o t very much l a r g e r than t h a t i n P e r i o d According  t o Table 3,  Long-term placements wero  l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l i n P e r i o d 2, when 1.4 boys a n n u a l l y were p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s and remained w i t h them f o r more than a year*  However, the percentage o f success  (71.4) i s noteworthy  when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t o n l y 1.2 boys had long-term p l a c e * ments i n P e r i o d 1,  and o n l y 1 boy remained w i t h the S c o t t s  f o r more than a year i n P e r i o d 3.  I t i s t r u e t h a t Long-term 1  J  placements were more s u c c e s s f u l i n P e r i o d s 1 and 3 b u t the t o t a l s o f a l l c a t e g o r i e s o f placements i n these p e r i o d s was much l e s s , and n o t I n p r o p o r t i o n i n terms o f the time span o f each p e r i o d , when compared w i t h P e r i o d 2.  1*  According  t o the c h i l d r e n ' s r e c o r d s , the Long-term  placements averaged 37 • 8 months i n P e r i o d 1, P e r i o d 2,  30*1  months i n  and the one Long-term placement i n P e r i o d 3 was o f  26 months' d u r a t i o n . The  s h o r t e s t and l o n g e s t Long-term placements i n  P e r i o d 1 were 13^ and 73 months r e s p e c t i v e l y . 43.25 months. and  f i g u r e s f o r P e r i o d 2 a r e 16  54 months r e s p e c t i v e l y , w i t h a Medlar) f i g u r e o f 35 months. The  according six  The corresponding  The Media© i s  s h o r t e s t placement I n t h e S c o t t f o s t e r home,  t o agency r e c o r d s , was one day; the l o n g e s t was over  years* According  t o agency r e c o r d s , t h e 120  placements  i n v o l v e d one p r e - s c h o o l youngster, 23 p r e ^ a d o l e s c e n t s , and 96 a d o l e s c e n t s home).  ( a t time o f placement i n t h e S c o t t f o s t e r  The 20 u n s u c c e s s f u l placements Included 4 p r e -  a d o l e s c e n t and 16 a d o l e s c e n t boys ( a t time o f placement i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home)* The next s e c t i o n of to a study o f the 120  t h i s chapter w i l l be devoted  placements, which have now been  c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o l e n g t h o f s t a y , time o f placement, and whether s u c c e s s f u l o r u n s u c c e s s f u l * 2.  A, Sfridy of, tfce Placements. The  f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f placements w i l l be d e s c r i b e d  and/or s u b - c l a s s i f i e d , i n order o f p e r i o d s o f placement, i n this section*  The Very Short placements w i l l be s t u d i e d  f i r s t , through P e r i o d s  1,  2,  and 3,  f o l l o w e d by t h e S h o r t , *  - 71  Medium and Long-term, i n t h a t order* unsuccessful The  S u c c e s s f u l and  placements w i l l he a p p r o p r i a t e l y  segregated.  Medium and Long-term placements w i l l he b r i e f l y  d e s c r i b e d because the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d remained I n the S c o t t f o s t e r home s u f f i c i e n t l y long t o f e e l t h e e f f e c t s o f i t s conditioning The  process*  purpose o f t h i s method o f study i s t o e l a b o r a t e  the f a c t t h a t 117  c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d  i n the S c o t t f o s t e r  home f o r a v a r i e t y o f reasons over a 21-year p e r i o d * a l s o intended  t h a t t h i s study should  It is  shed some l i g h t on the  placement experience o f a number o f these children-*—while i n care as w e l l as i n the S c o t t f o s t e r h o m e — w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o Medium and Long-term placements* i n t e r e s t , because a l l 117  T h i s study might be o f  c h i l d r e n were unique i n d i v i d u a l s  w i t h v a r i e d and unmet b a s i c human needs. The  m a t e r i a l i n t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l b r i n g t o mind  much o f what has a l r e a d y been s a i d i n Chapters I and I I concerning  c h i l d placement techniques,  the b a s i c needs o f  c h i l d r e n , the problems o f l a t e n c y and a d o l e s c e n c e , and the n e c e s s i t y o f f o s t e r home c a r e f o r some c h i l d r e n . As Chapter I I I w i l l study the " i n t a n g i b l e s " o f the S c o t t f o s t e r home, w i t h i t s p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , and  emotional,  s p i r i t u a l elements, there w i l l be o n l y a minimum o f  reference  t o these f a c t o r s i n t h i s s e c t i o n . As an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n , f o r the purposes off  t h i s study, a p r e - a d o l e s c e n t  c h i l d , o r one i n the l a t e n c y  - 72 -  stage o f p e r s o n a l i t y development, i s between the ages o f 6 and 11; an a d o l e s c e n t i n between the ages o f 12 and 18 (although i t i s r e c o g n i s e d by many a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t t h e r e i s some v a r i a t i o n , i n terms o f age, as t o when c h i l d r e n e n t e r t and l e a v e the l a t e n c y and a d o l e s c e n t stages o f p e r s o n a l i t y , development); an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y placement, u n l e s s d e f i n e d , i s one where the f o s t e r parents i n v o l v e d were unable  t o meet  the b a s i c needs o f the c h i l d because o f t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t him as he i s , a human b e i n g w i t h p o t e n t i a l s , heeds, and problems; a temporary placement i s one t h a t extends up t o two months; a broken home, u n l e s s d e f i n e d , I s one where the p a r e n t s a r e no l o n g e r l i v i n g together beeause o f d e s e r t i o n , s e p a r a t i o n , d i v o r c e , o r imprisonmentj  an unhappy home,  u n l e s s d e f i n e d , i s one where m a r i t a l f r i c t i o n o f a sever® nature  exists*  Very  S h o r t Placements  With r e f e r e n c e t o f a b l e 1, seven c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d f o r a very s h o r t time i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home d u r i n g P e r i o d 1, s i x s u c c e s s f u l l y .  A l l were boys,  c e n t s ; the seventh was i n e a r l y l a t e n c y , age from s i x t o e i g h t e e n .  S i x were a d o l e s -  The boys ranged i n  The placements were i n t e n d e d t o be  temporary, w i t h one e x c e p t i o n — i n t h e case o f t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l placement, an a d o l e s c e n t *  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e c l a s s i f i e s the  Very S h o r t Placements i n P e r i o d 1,  -  T a b l e 4.  73 -  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Very S h o r t Placements i n Period; 1  Reason f o r Placement  '  No. o f Boys  Successful From a c o u n t r y f o s t e r home and w a i t i n g f o r a job Pending d i s c h a r g e from c a r e ; former f o s t e r p a r e n t s on h o l i d a y From country f o s t e r home; v i s i t i n g s i s t e r In c i t y Removed from former f o s t e r home because o f emotional and behaviour problems; a w a i t i n g move t o new f o s t e r home Pending move t o permanent f o s t e r horn® or admission t o c a r e Pending move t o c o u n t r y f o s t e r home; r a n away from former f o s t e r home  1 1 1 1 1 1  Unsuccessful P l a c e d on t r y o u t b a s i s ; had been c h r o n i c runaway a t A l e x a n d r i a Orphanage, r a n away from f o s t e r home  1  Total  T a b l e 1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t 34 c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d f o r a v e r y s h o r t time i n t h e S c o t t f o s t e r home i n P e r i o d 2, 29 successfully*  A l l 34 c h i l d r e n were boys, i n c l u d i n g  28  a d o l e s c e n t s , $ p r e - a d o l e s c e n t s and 1 p r e - s c h o o l aged. ?  boys ranged i n age from 3 t o 16.  The  A l l placements wore  Intended t o be temporary except i n t h e case o f a boy who was removed f o r e p i l e p s y .  The u n s u c c e s s f u l placements  included  2 p r e - a d o l e s c e n t and 3 a d o l e s c e n t boys*  The f o l l o w -  i n g t a b l e c l a s s i f i e s t h e Very S h o r t placements i n P e r i o d  T a b l e 5«  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Very S h o r t Placements in, P e r i o d 2,  Reason f o r Placement  Ho» o f Boys  Successful Pending move t o a wage home; removed from former f o s t e r home because o f emotional and behaviour problems Pending move to a new f o s t e r home; removed from former f o s t e r home because o f ; 1) Emotional and Behaviour problems 2) Emotional problems and d e l i n q u e n t tendencies Pending r e t u r n t o own f o s t e r home a f t e r running away Pending move t o a new f o s t e r home; removed from an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o s t e r home Pending a j o b on removal from an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o s t e r home Pending d i s c h a r g e t o p a r e n t s a f t e r removal from u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o s t e r home Pending move t o another f o s t e r home t o be near j o b ; former f o s t e r home u n s a t i s f a c t o r y Pending r e t u r n t o c o u n t r y f o s t e r home a f t e r d i s c h a r g e from h o s p i t a l Pending move t o a permanent f o s t e r home on committal t o CAS  1 5 3 4 7 1 1 1 4 2  ghsftcc^esfu^ P l a c e d i n f o s t e r home on t r y - o u t b a s i s on admission t o c a r e ; removed because o f epilepsy Pending move t o a c o u n t r y f o s t e r home, a f t e r removal from former f o s t e r home because o f emotional and behaviour problems; r a n away Pending move t o new f o s t e r home on d i s c h a r g e from h o s p i t a l ; unable t o r e t u r n t o former f o s t e r home because o f e m o t i o n a l and behaviour problems; r a n away Pending move t o c o u n t r y f o s t e r home on d i s c h a r g e from The Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l . Ran away Total  1 2  1 1  34  2.  P e r i o d ^: A 12-year-old  boy was p l a c e d i n t h e S c o t t f o s t e r  home f o r two days i n November, 1949* d i s c h a r g e d from h o s p i t a l .  He had j u s t been  He r e t u r n e d t o h i s permanent  f o s t e r home i n t h e country*  The S c o t t f o s t e r home served as a f o s t e r home f o r a v a r i e t y o f reasons  f o r 42 boys, r a n g i n g i n age from t h r e e t o  e i g h t e e n , f o r a Very S h o r t time d u r i n g P e r i o d s 1, 2, and 3* I t s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r i e d out t h i s f u n c t i o n w i t h 36 boys* Where i t f a i l e d i n the case o f s i x boys, (one i n P e r i o d 1 and f i v e i n P e r i o d 2)  I t was unable t o cope w i t h c h i l d r e n who  were placement r i s k s i n any f o s t e r home, a c c o r d i n g t o the f i l e s o f the c h i l d r e n involved, Sftoyt .Placements, Period  1: With r e f e r e n c e t o Table 1, f i v e o h i l d r e n were  p l a c e d f o r a Short time i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home i n P e r i o d 1, i n c l u d i n g f o u r a d o l e s c e n t boys and 1 p r e - a d o l e s c e n t A l l were s u c c e s s f u l . seventeen.  girl.  The c h i l d r e n ranged i n age from t e n t o  A l l placements were Intended t o be temporary.  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e on page 76 c l a s s i f i e s the Short placements i n P e r i o d 1.  76 *  Table 6.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Short Placements i n Period 1  Reason f o r Placement  Ho.* of Children  Placed i n f o s t e r home on admission to care pending farther study of eases 'Turned over to Vancouver Catholic Children's A i d Society Placed i n foster home on admission to eare and pending move to a country foster home Pending move to a new foster home; removed from former foster home because of i l l n e s s of f o s t e r mother Total  1 3*  1 .5  •These three c h i l d r e n are s i b l i n g s , including a ten-year-old g i r l and her two brothers, aged 12 and 14* The g i r l was the second of two placed with the Scotts*  Period 3 s  Table 1 indicates that 24 children were placed f o r a Short time i n the Scott foster home i n Period 2, 18 success* fully*  A l l were boys.  adolescent*  17 were adolescents and 7 pre-  The boys ranged i n age from s i x to seventeen*  A l l placements were intended t o be temporary, except i n the cases of the s i x unsuccessful placements, which included 2 pre-adolescents and 4 adolescents who were on a tryout basis* The following table c l a s s i f i e s the Very Short placements i n Period 2,  * 77 •  Table 7.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Short Placements In Period 2  Reason f o r Placement  No, o f Boys  Successful Pending a j o b ; former f o s t e r home unsatisfactory Pending move t o another f o s t e r home t o be near j o b ; former f o s t e r home u n s a t i s f a c t o r y Pending move t o a new f o s t e r home; former f o s t e r home u n s a t i s f a c t o r y Pending move t o a new f o s t e r home; removed from former f o s t e r home because o f emotional problems and d e l i n q u e n t tendencies Pending r e t u r n t o own f o s t e r home a f t e r running away Pending r e t u r n t o country f o s t e r home a f t e r d i s c h a r g e from h o s p i t a l Pending e n l i s t m e n t i n t h e Army; from a country f o s t e r home Pending d i s c h a r g e t o p a r e n t s a f t e r removal from u n s a t i f a c t o r y f o s t e r home Pending d i s c h a r g e t o p a r e n t s a f t e r being i n f o s t e r home s i n c e coming i n t o c a r e Pending move t o a permanent f o s t e r home o n committal t o c a r e  1 2 2  2 1 3 2 1 2 2  Unsuccessful P l a c e d a f t e r being a c h r o n i c runaway i n c a r e * Ran away P l a c e d a f t e r being u n s u c c e s s f u l i n care because o f emotional and behaviour problems and running away* Ran away P l a c e d a f t e r d i s c h a r g e from the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l * Removed f o r rebelliousness P l a c e d on admission t o care* Ran away P l a c e d a f t e r being i n c o n t i n e n t i n f i r s t f o s t e r home. Removed f o r i n c o n t i n e n c e Total  1 2 1 1 1 24  P e r i o d fl> I n P e r i o d 3 there were no c h i l d r e n placed f o r a > Short Time i n the Scott f o s t e r home, according t o Table 1. Summary Th® S c o t t f o s t e r home served 29 c h i l d r e n f o r a Short Time during i t s existence as a CAS resource*  Six of  the c h i l d r e n were, u n s u c c e s s f u l l y placed w i t h the S c o t t s — a l l i n P e r i o d 2. According t o the f i l e s o f these c h i l d r e n , they were u n s u i t a b l e f o r placement w i t h the Scotts a t the time they were taken t o the f o s t e r home* Medium Placements Period Is With reference t o Table 1, f i v e c h i l d r e n had Medium placements i n P e r i o d 1* removed.  Hon© were prematurely  The f i v e c h i l d r e n Included an adolescent g i r l , a  pre-adolescent boy and three adolescent boys*  Bach p l a c e -  ment w i l l be described b r i e f l y i n order o f time o f placement - i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home. Ann was 16 when placed w i t h the Scotts i n September, 1931* She was t h e i r f i r s t f o s t e r c h i l d and the f i r s t o f two g i r l s placed w i t h them. The second has already been mentioned as a Short placement i n P e r i o d 1* Ann was placed w i t h the Scotts a f t e r discharge from the G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l School* She was a h i g h l y i n t e l l i g e n t g i r l and an e x c e l l e n t seamstress. She had a seemingly r e j e c t i n g mother who had l e f t her w i t h others i n earlier-:year's w h i l e she (her mother) l i v e d promiscuously* Ann's f a t h e r had deserted h i s f a m i l y when she was q u i t e young, Zn the S c o t t f o s t e r home she was a r e a l helpmate t o Mrs* S c o t t w i t h the'household chores and i n c a r i n g f o r the S c o t t c h i l d r e n ( J e s s i e was f o u r and Angus' one a t the t i m e ) . A f t e r 11 months she l e f t , t h e Scotts to take a job* She l a t e r married h a p p i l y and had s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n * Today she i s a widow* The S c o t t s have heard from her through the years*  - 79 Mara was' 6 when placed with the' Scotts In March, 1932, on admission to care. He was the Scott's second foster c h i l d . He was i l l e g i t i m a t e and h i s mother and stepfather had placed him f o r adoption* He had l i v e d most of h i s l i f e with a doting maternal grandmother. She spoiled him and could not handle him. In the Scott foster home, at f i r s t , he eon* t i n u a l l y t r i e d to pick f i g h t s with Angus. He gradually settled down, however. After f i v e months he was discharged to' his mother because h i s maternal grandmother planned t o adopt him. This plan d i d not work out and he was l a t e r adopted p r i v a t e l y by a country couple. Ben was 18 when placed with the Scotts i n A p r i l , 1937* He came from a broken home. S i x previous foster home placements had f a i l e d i n h i s four years of care because of emotional and behaviour problems* He was unable to resolve h i s t i e with his apparently g u i l t y mother* His father was inadequate* However, when he came t o the Scotts he was beginning t o r e a l i s e h i s mother's true character* He stayed In the Scott foster home f o r eight months, during which he worked at odd jobs and paid part of h i s maintenance* His behaviour was generally good* He was a great help to the Scotts by helping them c o n t r o l the younger CAS boys i n the foster home. He obtained a job out-of-town i n December, 1937* Today he i s a laundry supervisor and happily-married with a family. The Scotts have heard from him through the years. He attended Mr* Scott's f u n e r a l . 1  Bob was 14 when placed with the Scotts i n J u l y , 1938. He was committed t o care as a juvenile delinquent from a n e g l e c t f u l home i n A p r i l , 1938* His family was well-known to s o c i a l agencies and several.of h i s r e l a t i v e s were known criminals. He was In h i s f i r s t foster home f o r three months when he was removed f o r emotional and behaviour problems and delinquent tendencies. Upon removal he wanted to return to h i s parents with whom he had a strong t i e . He was upset at moving to the Scotts* He remained with them f o r eight months, however* He constantly asked to return to h i s parents while with the Scotts and was always impertinent a f t e r v i s i t i n g them. Mrs, Scott found him to be somewhat of a d i s c i p l i n a r y problem, but said that he was " a l l r i g h t as long as he was sat on." He moved to Burnaby with the Scotts i n February, 1939* He was moved to another f o s t e r home i n March, 19391 i n order to attend h i s o l d school, to which ho had a strong t i e . He kept i n touch with the Scotts afterwards. Today he i s working as a mechanic and i s married with a family Clem was 12 when placed with the Scotts temporarily i n February, 1939» on admission t o care. His f i v e s i s t e r s were also admitted to care a t the same time and placed separately. Clem stayed with the Scotts f o r two and one-half months—in K l t s l l a n o and Burnaby* He and s i b l i n g s came into care  - .80  -  because t h e i r mother was i n p r i s o n and t h e i r f a t h e r , who was working out-of-town was unable t o care f o r them* Clem's worker, on p l a c i n g him w i t h the S c o t t s , described the f o s t e r home ( i n Clem's reeord) as a "CAS f o s t e r home o f long stand* ing (?£ years) where many c h i l d r e n (22) had received e x c e l l e n t care. Although the p h y s i c a l standards are n o t high, the f o s t e r parents have a r e a l understanding o f c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y boys, and the f o s t e r parents take a k i n d l y i n t e r e s t I n them." ' ' L i t t l e concentrated work" was done w i t h Clem, according t o h i s worker, because h i s p l a c e * ment was known t o be temporary. However, i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home " h i s h e a l t h and p e r s o n a l i t y improved and he was reconditioned t o r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e H e was discharged t o h i s f a t h e r i n A p r i l , 1939 • Period 2: According t o Table 1, 18 boys had Medium p l a c e ments i n Period 2 , 15 o f which were, s u c c e s s f u l .  The f o l l o w -  ing table gives the age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the 18 boys*  Table 8. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Medium Placements i n P e r i o d 2  Age 9 10 11  18 Total  Ho*  o f Boys 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 18  The foregoing t a b l e l i s t s f i v e pre-adolescent and t h i r t e e n adolescent boys* prematurely.  Three o f the l a t t e r were- removed  - 81 *  The 15 s u c c e s s f u l placements w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o r e a s o n s f o r and r e s u l t s o f placement i n t h e following  t a b l e , w h i c h w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a b r i e f  o f t h e more i n t e r e s t i n g p l a c e m e n t s .  description  Following this there  w i l l 1*e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t h r e e u n s u c c e s s f u l p l a c e ments i n ordejp off time o f placement*  T a b l e 9*  Category Ho, 1 2 3  4  5 6 7 3  9 10 Total  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Medium Placements According t o P l a n i n Period 2  Reasons f o r and R e s u l t s o f Placement i n t h e S c o t t F o s t e r Home ' P l a c e d on a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e ; on free-wage b a s i s 1 took 30b o u t - o f - t o w n . P l a c e d on a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e j on free-wage b a s i s ; j o i n e d Army. Pending move t o a c o u n t r y f o s t e r home a f t e r a p l a n n e d t r i a l p e r i o d ; removed from p r e v i o u s f o s t e r home because o f e m o t i o n a l and b e h a v i o u r problems and d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s . Moved a s p l a n n e d . I n d e f i n i t e placement; removed from former f o s t e r home because o f e m o t i o n a l and b e h a v i o u r problems and d e l i n q u e n t tendencies; l l l e d while working. I n d e f i n i t e placement; removed from f o r m e r f o s t e r home because o f e m o t i o n a l and b e h a v i o u r problems; d i s c h a r g e d t o p a r e n t s I n d e f i n i t e placement; removed f r o m f o r m e r f o s t e r home because o f h e a l t h o f f o s t e r parents; discharged t o r e l a t i v e s * I n d e f i n i t e placement; removed f r o m former f o s t e r home because o f d i s t a n c e t o s c h o o l ; discharged to r e l a t i v e s . I n d e f i n i t e placement on a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e ; moved t o a n o t h e r f o s t e r home t o be n e a r . a school with special classes f o r the mentally retarded. P l a n n e d temporary placement on a d m i s s i o n t o care; discharged t o parents* P l a n n e d temporary placement on a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e t moved t o a permanent f o s t e r home*  Ho. o f Boys 1 1  3  1 3 1 1  1 2 1  - 82 -  C a l v i n , D a n i e l , and Edward a r e t h e t h r e e boys r e f e r r e d t o i n category 3 o f T a b l e 9, They were aged 11, 12, and 14, r e s p e c t i v e l y , when p l a c e d w i t h t h e S c o t t s between October, 1942, and May, 1943* They averaged f o u r months i n t h e f o s t e r home and were t o g e t h e r f o r a s h o r t time i n January, 1943* I t was planned t h a t each o f these boys would spend a t r i a l p e r i o d w i t h t h e S c o t t s b e f o r e t r a n s f e r t o permanent c o u n t r y f o s t e r homes, The boys had been i n c a r e f o r some years and had s e v e r a l u n s u c c e s s f u l f o s t e r home placements each, where t h e d i s c i p l i n e had n o t been c o n s i d e r e d 9 t r i e t enough* C a l v i n and Edward were from broken homes and had s t r o n g t i e s w i t h p a r e n t - f i g u r e s , C a l v i n w i t h h i s mother and Edward w i t h h i s f a t h e r * D a n i e l had been d e s e r t e d soon a f t e r b i r t h by h i s mother* C a l v i n ' s mother, who had married a man other than h i s f a t h e r , had i n t e r f e r e d c o n t i n u a l l y w i t h h i s v a r i o u s placements s i n c e h i s coming i n t o c a r e a s a n e g l e c t e d w a i f i n 1940. She made f a l s e a c c u s a t i o n s about Mrs* S c o t t ' s i n t e g r i t y and a b i l i t y a s a f o s t e r mother. The S c o t t s had a r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t time w i t h these t h r e e boys because o f t h e i r r e b e l l i o u s n e s s and resentment towards t h e CAS, They were p l a c e d i n country f o s t e r homes because these were c o n s i d e r e d t o be b e s t s u i t e d t o meet t h e i r b a s i c needs and a l s o , i n C a l v i n ' s Case, t o put him out o f r e a c h o f h i s mother, who had been having c l a n d e s t i n e v i s i t s w i t h him* A l l t h r e e boys were i n f a v o u r o f such a move* Edward was d i s c h a r g e d t o h i s f a t h e r i n 1943 from h i s c o u n t r y f o s t e r home* D a n i e l a f t e r s e v e r a l subsequent placements, j o i n e d t h e Wavy i n 1949* Today he i s married and has a f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e towards t h e CAS* C a l v i n was d i s c h a r g e d from c a r e i n 1953* He was l i v i n g w i t h h i s mother and l e g a l f a t h e r a t t h e time o f l a s t agency c o n t a c t * He a l s o had s e v e r a l subsequent placements and spent a term i n t h e Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l b e f o r e d i s c h a r g e from care* D a l t o n I s the boy r e f e r r e d t o i n category 4* He was 14 when p l a c e d w i t h t h e S c o t t s i n August, 1941* H i s b r o t h e r was a n u n s u c c e s s f u l Short placement i n P e r i o d 2 ( i n 1946). Dalton, l i k e h i s b r o t h e r , was o f S a s t I n d i a n and E n g l i s h b l o o d and i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h . The two b r o t h e r s were committed t o c a r e w i t h t h e i r s i b l i n g s I n 1935 &s r e s u l t o f n e g l e c t by t h e i r mother and common*law f a t h e r * The n a t u r a l f a t h e r o f t h e two b r o t h e r s had d i e d e a r l i e r * D a l t o n had very weak f a m i l y t i e s * A l s o , he l o s t e i g h t f o s t e r home placements because o f e m o t i o n a l and behaviour problems and d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s , b e f o r e being p l a c e d w i t h t h e S c o t t s a s an emergency measure* He r a n away from h i s e i g h t h f o s t e r home a f t e r a t t a c k i n g t h e f o s t e r f a t h e r w i t h an axe. Soon a f t e r being p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s he s t o l e Mrs* S c o t t ' s watch, which he took t o h i s own mother. About t h e same time, he t r i e d t o i n c i t e t h e o t h e r CAS boys i n t h e f o s t e r home t o s e t t h e house on f i r e * He was as a r e s u l t , kept I n every n i g h t f o r a week d u r i n g a  which the s t o l e n watch was r e c o v e r e d . He g r a d u a l l y s e t t l e d down i n the f o s t e r home, however, because o f the f o s t e r parents understanding, acceptance, and f i r m n e s s , and a l s o because he found out t h a t he c o u l d not b u l l y the o t h e r boys who were o l d e r and b i g g e r than he was* Between August, 1941, and June, 1942, he saw h i s mother and s i b l i n g s on a number o f o c c a s i o n s w i t h no i l l a f t e r - e f f e c t s * He p l a y e d t r u a n t from s c h o o l (he was i n Grade 7) t w i c e , and r a n away once f o r a h a l f - d a y * He had some problems w i t h d i s c i p l i n e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the S p r i n g o f 1942, when he o b j e c t e d t o coming i n a t r e g u l a r hours i n the evenings* With the h e l p o f Mr. and Mrs. S c o t t and the CAS he o b t a i n e d summer employment i n a s a w m i l l . Ho was k i l l e d i n an a c c i d e n t t h e r e i n J u l y , 1942* The S c o t t s were heartbroken* Mrs. S c o t t had k i s s e d him b e f o r e he went to work on the day o f h i s death, as she had been d o i n g d a l l y f o r some time. E v e r e t t i s the boy r e f e r r e d t o i n c a t e g o r y 7* He was 16 when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n September, 1948, t o be near a t e c h n i c a l h i g h s c h o o l * He remained w i t h them a y e a r . He completed Grade 12 i n June, 1949. He got a l o n g very w e l l i n t h e f o s t e r home and was d i s c h a r g e d t o h i s aunt i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n September, 1949. Frank i s the boy r e f e r r e d t o i n c a t e g o r y 8 o f T a b l e 9* He was 13 when admitted t o c a r e i n November, 1944, and p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s . H i s p a r e n t s were d i v o r c e d * H i s f a t h e r had custody of him but was a t sea most of the time and unable t o l o o k a f t e r him* Frank was very unhappy a t p a r t i n g from h i s f a t h e r and was e n u r e t i c d u r i n g h i s f i r s t months i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home, a l t h o u g h th® reason f o r h i s coming I n t o c a r e was d i s c u s s e d w i t h him by h i s worker and the S c o t t s . He was examined a t the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c i n the S p r i n g o f 1945 because o f h i s poor s c h o o l work. A c c o r d i n g t o the C l i n i c , he was a "high-grade moron, p o o r l y - a d j u s t e d s o c i a l l y , and withdrawn," He was a l s o handicapped by d e f e c t i v e v i s i o n and a marked f a c i a l dissymmetry. He was i n Grade 3 w h i l e w i t h the S c o t t s and r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l t e a c h i n g f o r the m e n t a l l y * r e t a r d e d . The S c o t t s and the CAS were unable t o f i n d a s c h o o l w i t h s p e c i a l c l a s s e s i n Burnaby, however. In any c a s e , Frank g r a d u a l l y began t o f i t i n t o the f o s t e r home l i v i n g p a t t e r n * However, d u r i n g h i s f i r s t few months w i t h the S c o t t s , he would o f t e n " p l a y dumb" t o get out o f h i s c h o r e s . He soon l e a r n e d t h a t t h i s scheme would not w o r k — h e c o u l d not go out t o p l a y u n t i l h i s chores were f i n i s h e d . He was promoted t o Grade 4 i n June, 194?, on t r i a l . H i s c l a s s s t a n d i n g was "D" and he was working t o c a p a c i t y * Between June and September, 1945, he began t o "get on Mrs. S c o t t s n e r v e s . " He was g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p i n g a " d e c e i t f u l l a z y s t r e a k , " a c c o r d i n g t o Mrs. S c o t t . H i s worker, i n August, 1945, s a i d t h a t the  Scotts were only keeping him out of respect for his father as well as their sympathy for Frank* He was moved In October, 1945, to his second foster heme, where he could, go to a school with special classes for the mentally-retarded with a CAS boy living in the second foster home. While with the Scotts he saw his father twice* He enjoyed both visits but was upset afterwards (this fact could be related to his "getting on Mrs, Scott*s nerves'*)* He lost his second foster home placement after eight months—he could not adjust to the foster heme* Be was then placed in a boarding school for retarded children* He remained there for two years and adjusted well* He was then discharged to his father. Fulton and George are the two boys referred to in category 9. George was 9 when placed with the Scotts in January, 1947, on admission to care* His mother was destitute and his father had deserted* He remained in the foster home for six months and was discharged to his mother* Fulton was 9 when he was placed with the Scotts in April, 1947, on admission to care* His mother had tuberculosis and his father was unable to plan for him. He remained for five months in the foster home and was discharged to his father. Both George and Fulton get along very well with the Scotts* The latter established a sound working relationship with George's mother and Fulton's parents, with the help of the CAS. The three unsuccessful Medium placements in Period 2 will now be briefly described in order of the time of placement in the Scott foster home* As mentioned earlier, the three boys involved were adolescents* One was. removed because of his behaviour; the other two were removed after running away* Gilbert was 13 when placed with his older brother, Harold, 15, in the Scott foster home, at the same time, in June, 1939, on admission to care. Their five siblings were also admitted to care at the same time and placed separately* Gilbert's mother had deserted her family, and his father, a sheepherder, was unable to care for his children* Gilbert was removed from the Scott foster home in September, 19399 because he was encouraging his brother to get into a l l kinds of mischief around the foster home and in the neighbourhood, including fighting with the other CAS boys in the foster home, petty stealing, and so forth* Both Gilbert's worker and the Scotts felt that he should be moved for Harold's sake and for the morale of the foster home; also, he expressed a desire to be  85  sent t o a country f o s t e r home. He was not d i s t u r b e d a t removal from the S c o t t s o r s e p a r a t i o n from h i s b r o t h e r — h e kept i n touch w i t h C h a r l i e a f t e r w a r d s and v i s i t e d him a t the S c o t t s . The S c o t t s f e l t s o r r y t o see him go because they r a t h e r l i k e d him. He spent t e n months i n h i s second f o s t e r home—*in the c o u n t r y — w h e n he was removed because o f r e b e l l i o u s n e s s and sex d i f f i c u l t i e s (he t r i e d t o seduce a 12-year o l d g i r l ) . G i l b e r t ' s f a t h e r d i e d i n December, 1939? which upset him i n h i s second f o s t e r home* He remained I n h i s t h i r d f o s t e r home ( a l s o i n the country) f o r 2% y e a r s * He got a l o n g w e l l t h e r e . He l e f t t o take a .job as a sheepherder ( l i k e his; f a t h e r ) under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Branch. He was d i s c h a r g e d from care i n 1948. Today he i s working on a ranch and i s m a r r i e d . H i s b r o t h e r , H a r o l d , remained w i t h the S c o t t s f o r 16 months, a f t e r whieh he a l s o l e f t f o r a sheepherding j o b . He w i l l be d e s c r i b e d l a t e r as a Long-term placement* .  Hubert was 16 when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n A p r i l , 1940, on committal t o c a r e . a s a j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t , H i s mother began t o i n t e r f e r e almost immediately w i t h . h i s placement, by a g i t a t i n g , f o r h i s r e t u r n t o h e r , which upset him i n the f o s t e r home. He r a n away t o h i s mother i n l a y , 1940 and a g a i n i n J u l y , 1940. On apprehension i n J u l y , 1940, he was sent t o the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l f o r t h e f t , then r e l e a s e d he j o i n e d the Wavy. The S c o t t s were v e r y fond o f Hubert. He c a l l e d H r s . S c o t t "Toots." He .worked as a d e l i v e r y boy ivhile i n the f o s t e r home and p a i d p a r t o f h i s maintenance. Today he I s a mechanic and i s married w i t h s i x c h i l d r e n . The S c o t t s have heard from him through the y e a r s .  Ian was 14 when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n August, 1948. on admission t o c a r e . He had been r e l e a s e d from the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l and h i s p a r e n t s , who were s e p a r a t e d , were unable t o p l a n f o r him. He was an e m o t i o n a l l y - d i s t u r b e d a d o l e s c e n t who had been r e j e c t e d by h i s mother from b i r t h . H i s f a t h e r was d i c t a t o r i a l . H i s parents had used him and h i s * s i b l i n g s as weapons a g a i n s t each o t h e r . On b e i n g p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s , h i s worker d e s c r i b e d Mrs. S c o t t as " r i g i d but f l e x i b l e w i t h r e g a r d t o g i v i n g c o n c e s s i o n s i f obeyed." Ian was r e s e n t f u l towards the CAS, h i s worker, and the S c o t t s a t the beginning o f h i s placement* He l a t e r became p o l i t e l y d e f i a n t of the f o s t e r home's " r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , " In November, 1948, he r a n away t h r e e t i m e s . He asked t o be r e t u r n e d t o the S c o t t s a f t e r h i s f i r s t two runaways. A f t e r h i s t h i r d , h i s worker and the S c o t t s d e c i d e d t h a t he s h o u l d be moved* On e n q u i r y , he t o l d h i s worker t h a t the S c o t t s were too s t r i c t w i t h r e g a r d t o chores and keeping r e g u l a r hours* H i s worker noted a t t h i s time, i n l a n ' s r e c o r d , t h a t "Sirs. S c o t t seems t o be the dominant person i n the f o s t e r home; however, the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p seems t o be s t a b l e . "  - 86 *  Ian r a n away frost three subsequent f o s t e r homos between November, 1948, and February, 1949, when he was s e n t t o the Boys* i n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l f o r s i x months* He was d i s c h a r g e d t o h i s f a t h e r afterwards but soon l e f t him.  There were two Medium placements i n P e r i o d a c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e 1.  B o t h were s u c c e s s f u l ,  3,  They w i l l  be  b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d i n o r d e r o f time o f placement i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home* John was 14 when he was p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n October, 1949» on a p a r t - b o a r d i n g b a s i s * He came i n t o c a r e i n 1943 when h i s p a r e n t s , who were r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , were charged w i t h n e g l e c t i n g him* He had two f o s t e r home p l a c e ments b e f o r e coming t o the S c o t t s * H i s f i r s t ended i n 1945 when the f o s t e r p a r e n t s moved away from the c i t y * H i s second ended when the f o s t e r mother's h e a l t h broke down* He s t a y e d w i t h the S c o t t s f o r . e i g h t months, d u r i n g which he completed grade 9* He then went t o work i n a l o g g i n g camp. He got along w e l l i n the f o s t e r home and Mrs* S c o t t was p l e a s e d . w i t h h i s g e n e r a l p r o g r e s s * H i s o n l y complaint w h i l e w i t h t h e S c o t t s was t h a t Mrs* S c o t t ' s s i s t e r , who had been l i v i n g i n the f o s t e r home f o r many y e a r s , nagged and c r i t i c i z e d him u n n e c e s s a r i l y on o c c a s i o n * John maintained a f a i r l y - r e g u l a r contaet w i t h h i s p a r e n t s throughout and a f t e r he was d i s c h a r g e d from c a r e * Joseph was 16 when he was p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n September, 1942, He remained u n t i l November, 1952, beyond the 21-yearp e r i o d o f t h i s t h e s i s study* However, i t s h o u l d be mentioned t h a t s i n c e 1952 he has been a t sea but makes the S c o t t home h i s "home" w h i l e i n the c i t y * He came,into c a r e i n 1939 with h i s f o u r s i b l i n g s . H i s mother was charged w i t h n e g l e c t . She was l i v i n g promiscuously. H i s f a t h e r had been dead f o r two y e a r s * H i s f i r s t f o s t e r home placement ended i n 1948. He was g e t t i n g a l o n g f a i r X y w e l l but h i s mother was i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h h i s placement and kept t r y i n g i n v a i n t o g e t him t o r e t u r n t o her* He l i v e d i n h i s second f o s t e r home u n t i l September, 1952, when the f o s t e r p a r e n t s decided t o , d i v o r c e . He moved t o the S c o t t s because h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r , K e l v i n , who had spent 26 months i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home, had recommended the move* K e l v i n w i l l be d e s c r i b e d as a Long-term placement i n P e r i o d 3*  87  Summary  Twenty-five  p r e - a d o l e s c e n t and a d o l e s c e n t boys and  one a d o l e s c e n t g i r l had Medium placements i n t h e S c o t t f o s t e r home d u r i n g P e r i o d s 1 , 2 , and 3»  ° l y t h r e e placements, Q  i n v o l v i n g three a d o l e s c e n t boys i n P e r i o d 2 , were u n s u c c e s s f u l . With r e f e r e n c e t o these t h r e e boys i t seems t h a t t h e S c o t t s cannot be blamed f o r t h e i r removal, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e cases o f Hubert and I a n . Hubert had a t i e w i t h a mother who cons t a n t l y i n t e r f e r e d w i t h h i s placement.  Ian's r e b e l l i o u s  a t t i t u d e towards a u t h o r i t y , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f h i s age group and  i n c r e a s e d by h i s own parents use o f him as a weapon a g a i n s t  each o t h e r , which o n l y undermined t h e i r a u t h o r i t y over him, was c a r r i e d i n t o c a r e and i n t o t h e S c o t t f o s t e r home.  I n the  case o f G i l b e r t , t h e wisdom o f removing him from the S c o t t s might be q u e s t i o n e d , e s p e c i a l l y when he was separated his brother.  from  However, i n t h e l o n g r u n , the move seems sound. Long-term Placements  Period 1 ; With r e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e 1 , n i n e c h i l d r e n had Longterm placements i n P e r i o d 1 , one o f which i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d unsuccessful.  The e i g h t s u c c e s s f u l placements, which  Included  three p r e - a d o l e s c e n t and f i v e a d o l e s c e n t boys ( a t the time they were p l a c e d i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home), w i l l be b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d i n order o f the time they were p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s , f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the one u n s u c c e s s f u l placement.  K i l b y was 9 whan p l a c e d i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home i n March, 1932, He was a n orphan without f a m i l y t i e s , o f i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h , and had been i n c a r e s i n c e 1925* He had f o u r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o s t e r home placements b e f o r e b e i n g p l a c e d w i t h t h e S c o t t s . He got a l o n g f a i r l y w e l l i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home u n t i l J u l y , 1937, when h i s a d o l e s c e n t r e b e l l i o u s n e s s and eheekiness caused the S c o t t s and h i s worker t o d e c i d e on h i s removal t o a country f o s t e r home a f t e r b e i n g w i t h the S c o t t s f o r 64 months* He remained i n the c o u n t r y f o s t e r home f o r 3 months and asked t o be r e t u r n e d t o the S c o t t s because o f b r u t a l t r e a t m e n t — h i s country f o s t e r p a r e n t s and o l d e r country f o s t e r b r o t h e r were s t r a p p i n g and b e a t i n g him u n m e r c i f u l l y * Thus, K i l b y r e t u r n e d t o the S c o t t s . He remained w i t h them f o r another 13 months* He had t o be removed a g a i n because of r e b e l l i o u s n e s s and p u g n a c i t y towards Mr* S c o t t * He had s i x more f o s t e r home placements when, i n 1942, he j o i n e d t h e Army* K i l b y was somewhat e m o t i o n a l l y - d i s t u r b e d throughout c a r e , dependent, and o f low-normal i n t e l l i g e n c e . He l e f t s c h o o l when i n Grade 7, a t the age o f 15, i n 1938. When he l e f t the S c o t t f o s t e r home the f i r s t time, h i s Worker s a i d t h a t he had shown " a g e n e r a l , a l l - r o u n d , h e a l t h y improvement i n fundamental a t t i t u d e s towards people." He has maintained c o n t a c t w i t h the S c o t t s through the y e a r s . He wrote t o them w h i l e Overseas i n the Army i n World War I I . They a t t e n d e d h i s wedding i n 1946* He attended Mr. S c o t t ' s f u n e r a l * Today he i s h a p p i l y married w i t h f o u r c h i l d r e n and has h i s own b u s i n e s s * He i s c o n s i d e r e d a s u c c e s s f u l placement because he has made a good adjustment today which, I n no s m a l l measure, i s the r e s u l t o f h i s spending more than s i x years i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home* . Testimony o f t h i s f a c t i s h i s c o n t i n u e d c o n t a c t w i t h t h e S c o t t s w i t h whom he spent more than o n e - t h i r d o f h i s 17 years i n c a r e and whose home was o n l y one o f the e l e v e n CAS f o s t e r homes i n which he was p l a c e d * take was 3 when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n August, 1932* He remained u n t i l J u l y , 1937* He had been admitted t o c a r e i n Hovember, 1930, w i t h h i s 3 s i b l i n g s * H i s mother was dead and h i s f a t h e r was n e g l e c t i n g the f a m i l y . He was p l a c e d s e p a r a t e l y from h i s s i b l i n g s i n h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home* He was removed because h i s f i r s t f o s t e r mother was p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t him because o f h i s forward manner i n c o n t r a s t t o t h a t o f another CAS boy i n the f o s t e r home who was s h y — s h e l i k e d shyness i n a boy. He was then moved t o the S c o t t s . He got along f a i r l y w e l l I n the f o s t e r home and a t s c h o o l * He saw h i s f a t h e r r a r e l y but kept up c o n t a c t s w i t h h i s s i b l i n g s i n c a r e * However, towards t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f 1936, he became i n c r e a s i n g l y u n w i l l i n g to cooperate i n the S c o t t f o s t e r h o m e — w i t h h i s c h o r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y . He was a l s o cheeky and engaging i n p e t t y t h e f t , which was c a u s i n g I r s * S c o t t t o s c o l d and d i s c i p l i n e him much o f t h e time* I n a d d i t i o n , he was o f h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e and h i s worker f e l t t h a t he was t o o s u p e r i o r , I n t e l l e c t u a l l y , a t the age o f 13, to remain i n a f o s t e r home w i t h w o r k i n g - c l a s s l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s .  89  As a r e s u l t he was moved, a f t e r n e a r l y f i v e years w i t h the S c o t t s , t o h i s t h i r d f o s t e r home. He remained t h e r e from J u l y , 1937, u n t i l September, 1941, when he j o i n e d the Army. D e s p i t e h i s h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e , he q u i t s c h o o l i n 1941. He had completed Grade 8 a t the age o f 17* He kept i n c o n t a c t w i t h the S c o t t s u n t i l he Joined the Army. Luke i s c o n s i d e r e d a s u c c e s s f u l placement i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home because o f the l e n g t h o f h i s placement, h i s continued c o n t a c t w i t h the S c o t t s a f t e r J u l y , 1937, and the f a c t t h a t he had o n l y had one f o s t e r home placement, which l a s t e d more than 4 y e a r s , a f t e r l e a v i n g them, As i n the case o f K l l b y j u s t d e s c r i b e d , the S c o t t s p l a y e d a n Important p a r t i n "re-moulding" Luke , f o r the f u t u r e and bore the brunt o f h i s I n i t i a l a d o l e s c e n t r e b e l l i o u s n e s s , I t seems t h a t some t i m e l y casework might have kept both K i l b y and Luke i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home f o r a l o n g e r time because they b o t h developed s t r o n g t i e s w i t h the Scotts, 9  1  L o u i s was 15 when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n October, 1936* He was a h i g h l y - s t r u n g boy who came from a broken home and had been a ward s i n c e coming i n t o c a r e i n 1925* Incontinence and a q u i c k temper caused h i s removal from f o u r p r e v i o u s f o s t e r homes p r i o r t o placement w i t h the S c o t t s , He g r a d u a l l y developed c o n t r o l o f h i s temper and stopped s o i l i n g a f t e r b e i n g p l a c e d i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home. H i s behaviour.soon became a c c e p t a b l e . He was removed i n October, 1938, because the f o s t e r home was becoming overcrowded ( t h e r e were 7 CAS boys w i t h the S c o t t s a t the t i m e ) . H i s worker f e l t t h a t , because L o u i s was the o l d e s t boy (he was 17), he was a l o g i c a l c h o i c e f o r removal. He was on a p a r t - b o a r d i n g b a s i s a t the time as he was working a t odd j o b s . He had two s h o r t s u c c e s s f u l f o s t e r home placements a f t e r l e a v i n g the S c o t t s and b e f o r e j o i n i n g the Army i n 1939* He had l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h h i s f a m i l y s i n c e the e a r l y 1930's. He d i d not seem t o bo upset a t removal from the S c o t t s and he saw them on a number o f o c c a s i o n s b e f o r e j o i n i n g the Army. He seemed t o understand the reason f o r h i s removal from the S c o t t s , which was d i s c u s s e d w i t h him by h i s worker and•the S c o t t s * M i c h a e l was 17 when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n I?ovember, 1936* He remained w i t h them u n t i l August, 1938. H® was committed to care i n November, 1930 w i t h h i s 3 s i b l i n g s . H i s d e s e r t e d and n e a r l y - b l i n d f a t h e r was unable t o c a r e f o r h i s f a m i l y . H® l o s t 5 f o s t e r home placements between November, 1930, and November, 1936, because o f i n t e r f e r e n c e by a seemingly g u i l t y mother who had r e t u r n e d t o the c i t y i n 1931 a f t e r d e s e r t i n g her f a m i l y e a r l i e r . She a g i t a t e d without reason f o r h i s r e t u r n . He r a n away t o her s e v e r a l times b e f o r e coming t o th© S c o t t s and was i r r e s p o n s i b l e i n h i s f i r s t f i v e f o s t e r homes. He was p l a c e d w i t h h i s s i b l i n g s i n h i s f i r s t two f o s t e r homes and was c o n t i n u a l l y b u l l y i n g them. As a r e s u l t , he was  - 90  -  separated from them on b e i n g moved t o h i s t h i r d f o s t e r home* He was removed from the S c o t t f o s t e r home beeause the S c o t t s were.making p l a n s to move to a s m a l l e r homo i n Burnaby and c o u l d not a n t i c i p a t e space f o r him t h e r e (as i n the ease o f another o l d e r boy, L o u i s , aforementioned). A t the time o f h i s removal from the S c o t t f o s t e r home, M i c h a e l was working a t odd jobs and had expressed a d e s i r e t o " s t r i k e out on h i s own*" As a r e s u l t * he was i n f a v o u r o f removal and went t o l i v e w i t h h i s mother, who was l e s s i n t e r f e r i n g w h i l e he was l i v i n g w i t h the S c o t t s * He got along w e l l i n the f o s t e r home d u r i n g h i s 21-month placement. He o b t a i n e d a f u l l - t i m e , job a f t e r l e a v i n g the S c o t t s * He l a t e r married the daughter o f a c l o s e f r i e n d of the S c o t t s , whom he met w h i l e l i v i n g i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home. He has kept i n c o n t a c t w i t h the S c o t t s through the years* ;  Morris.was 17 when p l a c e d w i t h t h e S c o t t s i n December, 1936* He remained w i t h them u n t i l June, 1938* He had.come i n t o c a r e i n 1929, when h i s s t e p f a t h e r had d e s e r t e d him and h i s mother was l i v i n g immorally* He was unable t o a d j u s t t o 7 f o s t e r homes b e f o r e being p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s , l a r g e l y because o f i n t e r f e r e n c e from h i s p a r e n t s , whom.he was allowed t o see s e p a r a t e l y , a t p e r i o d i c i n t e r v a l s , . a t the CAS* M o r r i s worked a t odd jobs w h i l e w i t h the S c o t t s and got along f a i r l y well* He t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o r e c o n c i l e h i s p a r e n t s , who had been separated f o r s e v e r a l years* During the e a r l y months o f h i s placement w i t h the S c o t t s he began t o have c l a n d e s t i n e v i s i t s w i t h h i s p a r e n t s . He l e f t , t h e S c o t t s without n o t i f y i n g them, i n June, 1938, and o b t a i n e d a job out-of-town* He had t r i e d i n v a i n t o o b t a i n steady employment i n the c i t y * He . l a t e r j o i n e d the Army* Today he i s a s u c c e s s f u l businessman w i t h a f a m i l y * The S c o t t s have heard from him through the years* T h i s placement i s c o n s i d e r e d s u c c e s s f u l because M o r r i s l e f t the S c o t t s due t o circumstances e x t e r n a l t o the f o s t e r home and remained w i t h them f o r 18 months, d u r i n g which he behaved f a i r l y w e l l . A l s o , he kept i n c o n t a c t w i t h them a f t e r w a r d s , and i s s u c c e s s f u l today* N i c h o l a s was 16 when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n J u l y , 1937* He remained w i t h them u n t i l August, 1938. was committed . t o care i n J u l y , 1933s because o f p a r e n t a l n e g l e c t . He had two u n s u c c e s s f u l f o s t e r home placements p l u s a s t a y i n the A l e x a n d r i a orphanage b e f o r e coming t o the S c o t t s — b e c a u s e . o f emotional and behaviour problems* He got along w e l l i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home* He was p a r t i c u l a r l y f r i e n d l y w i t h M i c h a e l (aforementioned)* As i n the cases o f L o u i s and M i c h a e l , he was removed because the S c o t t s were p l a n n i n g to move t o a s m a l l e r home i n Burnaby* He d i d not seem to be upset a t removal, the reason f o r which was d i s c u s s e d w i t h him by h i s . worker and the S c o t t s * He remained i n h i s next f o s t e r home u n t i l November, 1939, when he was. d i s c h a r g e d to h i s mother* H  e  *  9 1  -  Norbert was 14 when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s In December, 1937* He remained w i t h them u n t i l February, 1939* He was admitted to c a r e as an orphan i n 1937 and was immediately p l a c e d i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home. H i s r e l a t i v e s were no l o n g e r a b l e t o c a r e f o r him. He was e n u r e t i c d u r i n g h i s f i r s t few weeks w i t h the S c o t t s , H i s e n u r e s i s g r a d u a l l y began t o d i s a p p e a r as he began t o f e e l more " a t home** i n the f o s t e r home. He q u i t s c h o o l when 15, i n September, 1939> when i n Grade 8. With the S c o t t ' s h e l p , he o b t a i n e d a j o b as a d e l i v e r y boy. He got along w e l l i n the f o s t e r home a l t h o u g h he l a c k e d i n i t i a t i v e . He was d i s c h a r g e d t o h i s o l d e r , married s i s t e r i n the i n t e r i o r o f the p r o v i n c e , as she wanted him t o l i v e with her. O r v i l l e was*8 when p l a c e d w i t h t h e S e o t t s on admission t o c a r e i n June, 1938. He remained w i t h them u n t i l J u l y , 1944. He was a r e s e r v e d boy. H i s mother had d i e d i n January, 1938, and h i s f a t h e r and the housekeeper were unable t o c o n t r o l O r v i l l e and h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r , Oswald, who was a l s o admitted to care i n June, 1938, and p l a c e d i n another f o s t e r home. The two b r o t h e r s had been s t e a l i n g from the housekeeper and had been d e s t r u c t i v e i n t h e i r own home* O r v i l l e got a l o n g extremely w e l l w i t h the S c o t t s * He completed Grade 2 i n June, 1938, and Grade 9 I n June, 1944* ' He was more h i g h l y i n t e l l i g e n t than the average GAS boy p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s * He was strapped o n l y once, i n February, 1940, f o r l y i n g . He l o s t p r i v i l e g e s oecaslonally*sometlmes f o r duping the S c o t t ' s own son i n t o committing m i s c h i e f , such ag b r e a k i n g neighbourhood windows, and so f o r t h * However, he and Angus were good f r i e n d s and o f the same age (Mrs. S c o t t r e f e r r e d t o them as "the twins," and what she bought f o r one i n t h e way o f c l o t h e s she bought f o r the o t h e r ; A l s o , she was "put t o a t e s t " when her own son was i n v o l v e d i n d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s and d i d h e r b e s t t o mete out d i s c i p l i n e without d i s c r i m i n a t i o n * Generally, however, Angus d i d n o t take p a r t i n d e s t r u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s * O r v i l l e had r e g u l a r c o n t a c t s w i t h Oswald who was d i s c h a r g e d from care i n 1942, and h i s o l d e r , m a r r i e d h a l f - s i s t e r s and h a l f - b r o t h e r s (by h i s f a t h e r ' s f i r s t m a r r i a g e — h i s f a t h e r had married t w i c e ) . These members o f O r v i l l e s f a m i l y cooperated f u l l y w i t h the CAS and t h e S c o t t s d u r i n g h i s placement. He saw h i s f a t h e r , who r e j e c t e d him from b i r t h , one® a y e a r — o n Labor D a y — w h i l e i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home* On t h i s h o l i d a y , the f a t h e r would gather t h e f a m i l y t o g e t h e r f o r an "annual p i c n i c " a t S t a n l e y Park* O r v i l l e had no t i e s w i t h h i s f a t h e r . The other f a m i l y members f u l l y understood th© p s y c h o l o g i c a l Impact o f p e r s o n a l and w r i t t e n c o n t a c t s w i t h O r v i l l e w h i l e he was i n placement; and they were c a r e f u l not t o upset him. H i s worker deserves much c r e d i t f o r developing t h i s understanding on t h e i r p a r t * The S c o t t s , w h i l e fond o f O r v i l l e , always kept i n mind t h a t one day h * would be l e a v i n g — l i k e a l l the o t h e r CAS f o s t e r c h i l d r e n 1  -  92  -  p l a c e d w i t h them. In J u l y , 1944, he was d i s c h a r g e d t o a m a r r i e d h a l f - s i s t e r i n C a l g a r y . He completed Grade 12 t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r . He and h i s f a m i l y (other than h i s f a t h e r ) kept i n touch w i t h the S c o t t s long a f t e r he was removed. O r v i l l e i s now married and l i v i n g i n Edmonton. The  one u n s u c c e s s f u l Long-term placement i n P e r i o d 1  w i l l be b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d t P h i l i p was 12 when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n November, 1932. He remained w i t h them u n t i l August, 1936. He came i n t o c a r e w i t h h i s 3 s i b l i n g s i n 1928, when h i s d e s e r t e d mother was unable t o care f o r her c h i l d r e n . A f t e r a s h o r t s t a y In the A l e x a n d r i a Orphanage, he was p l a c e d i n h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home with h i s older brother. He remained t h e r e 44 y e a r s . He was removed f o r behaviour problems and d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s . A l s o , he had been e x e r t i n g an unfavourable i n f l u e n c e on h i s b r o t h e r and another CAS boy; i n a d d i t i o n , h i s mother had been c o n s t a n t l y i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h h i s placement. He moved from h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home t o the S c o t t s . He r e q u i r e d constant watching i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home. The S c o t t s put up w i t h much i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n from him and i n t e r f e r e n c e from h i s mother, u n t i l f i n a l l y , i n August, 1936, Mrs, S c o t t asked f o r h i s removal. H i s behaviour was b e g i n n i n g t o n e g a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e the younger CAS boys i n the f o s t e r home. He was p l a c e d i n the A l e x a n d r i a , C h i l d r e n ' s Home. Ho r a n away two months l a t e r t o h i s mother and was d i s c h a r g e d from c a r e . He l a t e r became an electrician.  Per^CO- gi According  t o T a b l e 1, 14 boys had Long-term p l a c e -  ments i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home i n P e r i o d 2.  The f o l l o w i n g  t a b l e g i v e s the outcome o f these placements i n o r d e r o f time o f placements  (Table 10, page 93).  T a b l e 10, l i k e T a b l e 1, u n s u c c e s s f u l placements. cent boys.  The  The  10  lists  ..  .  10 s u c c e s s f u l and  4  14 placements i n v o l v e d a d o l e s -  They averaged over 30  f o s t e r home.  .  months each i n the S c o t t  s u c c e s s f u l placements w i l l now  b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d i n o r d e r o f time o f placement w i t h  be the  - 93 -  Table 10. Osteoma of Long*term £fr Period,,! '  A g e when Placed I n Foster Home  Placements  When Placed in Foster Home  Length o f Placement (months)  Paul  15  March, 193?  32  Beason f o r Removal Special interests  Harold  16  June, 1939  16  Employment  Quinton  12  D e c , 1939  32  Education  Robert  13  Oct,, 1940  22  Education  Ramsay  13  Sov*, 1941  23  To Country Foster Home  J u l y , 1942  42  Discharged from Care  Name  Stephen Sidney  12  October, 1942  42  Employment  Thomas  13  ^October, 1942  16  Behaviour*  Thornton  12  August, 1943  36  To Country Foster Home^  Urban  13  November, 1943  54  Discharged From Care  Warren  12  October, 1944  44  Ban Away*  Vincent  13  June, 1945  17  Behaviour*  Wallace  13  February, 1946  17  Scotts Planning t o Move  Terry  13  December, 1948  27  Behaviour*  i  ^Unsuccessful Placement, S c o t t s , a f t e r which there w i l l be a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the 4 unsuccessful placements, i n s i m i l a r o r d e r .  T  94 -  P a u l was 15 when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s , on admission t o c a r e , i n l a r c h , 1939* He remained w i t h them f o r 32 months* He was admitted t o c a r e because o f emotional problems and d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s and a t the r e q u e s t of h i s parents i n the c o u n t r y . He was unaccustomed t o l i f e i n the c i t y ( l i k e some o f the o t h e r country boys p l a c e d i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home) and caused a l o t o f amusement as he groped h i s way around the f o s t e r home, w i t h i t s modern equipment* However, P a u l , a b i g , f r i e n d l y , S c a n d i n a v i a n boy, got a l o n g v e r y w e l l i n the f o s t e r home, and a t s c h o o l , where he was b r i l l i a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the s c i e n c e s . He corresponded r e g u l a r l y w i t h h i s f a m i l y * He completed Grade II i n June, 1941* I n J u l y , 1941, he showed s i g n s o f r e s t l e s s n e s s ; he had not seen h i s f a m i l y f o r two y e a r s . He p a i d them a s h o r t v i s i t and s e t t l e d down a g a i n i n the f o s t e r h o m e — f o r a s h o r t t i m e . In t h e autumn o f 1941 he expressed a d e s i r e t o q u i t s c h o o l and j o i n the A i r F o r c e . He was q u i t e i n t e r e s t e d i n A i r F o r c e cadet a c t i v i t y a t the time, a l s o , which n e c e s s i t a t e d l o n g t r i p s i n t o Vancouver from Burnaby. These t r i p s were expensive and time-consuming f o r a Grade 12 s t u d e n t . I t was m u t u a l l y agreed t h a t he be moved t o a f o s t e r home i n Vancouver, whieh would be more advantageous f o r him i n the l i g h t of h i s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s . The S c o t t s wore s o r r y t o see him l e a v e , as was t h e i r daughter, who.was a t t r a c t e d t o him (she was i f a t the t i m e ) . He moved t o h i s second f o s t e r home i n January, 1942, and remained t h e r e u n t i l June, 1942, when he was d i s c h a r g e d t o h i s p a r e n t s * He completed Grade 12 i n h i s second f o s t e r home* He l a t e r j o i n e d the A i r F o r c e , He kept i n touch w i t h the S c o t t s through the y e a r s * A f t e r World War IX he attended u n i v e r s i t y and i s now working as a mechanic* H a r o l d was 16 when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n June, 1939s on admission t o care w i t h h i s s i x s i b l i n g s * H i s mother had d e s e r t e d him, and h i s f a t h e r , a sheep farmer, was unable t o car® f o r the c h i l d r e n * H a r o l d and h i s b r o t h e r , G i l b e r t were p l a c e d together I n the S c o t t f o s t e r home ( G i l b e r t was a prematurely-removed Medium placement i n P e r i o d 2 ) . Harold got along s a t i s f a c t o r i l y w i t h the S c o t t s u n t i l he was removed i n October, 1940, t o take a sheepherding job i n h i s home community* He was r a t h e r mischievous u n t i l G i l b e r t was removed from the S c o t t f o s t e r horn® i n September, 1939* H e i t h e r b r o t h e r was upset by the move and maintained c o n t a c t a f t e r w a r d s , H a r o l d was upset by h i s f a t h e r ' s death i n December, 19399 however, but soon " s e t t l e d down" a g a i n . H® had completed Grade 6 i n June, 1940, a f t e r s t a r t i n g the s i x t h grade i n September, 1939* He belonged t o the J u n i o r F o r e s t Wardens w h i l e w i t h the S c o t t s and maintained r e g u l a r c o n t a c t w i t h h i s f a m i l y w h i l e i n car®. There was mutual sorrow when he l e f t the S c o t t s . They s t i l l hear from him. He i s now half-owner o f a ranch.  Quinton was 12 when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n December, 1939. He had been committed t o c a r e i n June, 1939, &t the r e q u e s t o f h i s p a t e r n a l grandparents. He had been b a d l y neglected' by h i s d i v o r c e d , i n e f f e c t u a l mother* H i s f a t h e r , a l s o i n e f f e c t u a l , was g r o s s l y dependent on the p a t e r n a l grandp a r e n t s . Quinton was p l a c e d i n two u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o s t e r homes b e f o r e coming to the S c o t t s * I n the f i r s t , the f o s t e r mother was too demanding o f him; i n the second, the f o s t e r mother was too p o s s e s s i v e o f him. He got along f a i r l y w e l l w i t h the S c o t t s u n t i l the autumn o f 1941, when he began t o be d e c e i t f u l . . H i s behaviour i n t h i s r e s p e c t worsened i n the f o l l o w i n g months* S h o r t l y b e f o r e Christmas, 1941, he r a n away t o h i s mother. He was r e t u r n e d t o the S c o t t s i n a few hours by h i s worker. He was upset* H i s mother had r e l u c t a n t l y "surrendered" him to the worker ana had s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i z e d the S c o t t f o s t e r home. She had been i n and out o f j a i l s i n c e December, 1939, f o r t h e f t , and had been i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h h i s placement w i t h the S c o t t s s i n c e March, 1941. She had arranged c l a n d e s t i n e v i s i t s w i t h him and sent l e t t e r s t o him s e c r e t l y a g a i n s t CAS r e g u l a t i o n s . T h i s f a c t had been l e a r n e d by h i s worker i n November, 1941, and she was reprimanded. Quinton s f a t h e r , who showed no i n t e r e s t i n him a f t e r he was coinmitted t o c a r e , was committed t o Essondale as a s c h i z o p h r e n i c i n March, 1941, When Quinton was r e t u r n e d t o the S c o t t s a f t e r the runaway d e s c r i b e d above, h i s worker and the S c o t t s had a long t a l k w i t h him and t r i e d t o p o i n t out t h a t they understood why he r a n away but how unwise i t was t o do so, because h i s mother was unable t o c a r e f o r him* He was r e a s s u r e d when he l e a r n e d t h a t he would n o t be punished f o r running away and t h a t "everyone was behind him," H i s behaviour began t o Improve almost immediately* In the meantime, h i s worker s t r o n g l y reprimanded h i s mother f o r v i o l a t i n g CAS r e g u l a t i o n s (which she had c o n t i n u e d t o do a f t e r b e i n g reprimanded a month p r e v i o u s l y f o r a s i m i l a r o f f e n c e ) * The worker t h r e a t e n e d l e g a l a c t i o n f o r a f u t u r e v i o l a t i o n . Her i n t e r f e r e n c e soon stopped, Quinton completed Grade 9 i n June, 1942» and became an A i r Force cadet i n J u l y , 1942, He was t r a n s f e r r e d t o another f o s t e r home ( h i s t h i r d ) i n August, 1942, t o be n e a r e r a t e c h n i c a l h i g h s c h o o l ( a l t h o u g h one might q u e s t i o n the wisdom o f a move f o r t h i s r e a s o n ) . He had two more f o s t e r home placements. He remained i n h i s t h i r d f o s t e r home u n t i l January, 1943* He was removed because he was " l a z y . " He. f i n i s h e d Grade 10, i n June, 1943, while i n h i s fourth foster home* He went to l i v e w i t h h i s r e l a t i v e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a few months l a t e r . While he was w i t h the S c o t t s , and throughout c a r e , h i s p a t e r n a l grandparents cooperated f u l l y w i t h the CAS* They became f r i e n d l y w i t h the S c o t t s * They h e l p e d Quinton i n every p o s s i b l e way by p r o v i d i n g him w i t h emotional support and making t h e i r home a p l a c e he c o u l d v i s i t , w i t h CAS p e r m i s s i o n , a t any time* He .went t o the A n t a r c t i c w i t h v  - 96  the Byrd e x p e d i t i o n i n 1947* When l a s t heard from, I n 1948, he was a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , He was t a k i n g a n e n g i n e e r i n g c o u r s e , 'He kept i n touch w i t h the S c o t t s f o r many years and has v i s i t e d them from the B n i t e d , States* Robert was 13 when p l a c e d w i t h th© S c o t t s i n October, 1940. He remained w i t h them f o r 22 months* He' was admitted t o car© i n A p r i l , 1939* H i s mother had d i e d when he was 2, a f t e r , which h i s p a t e r n a l grandparents cared f o r h i m — h i s f a t h e r tuas unable to, do so. He was admitted t o c a r e because o f the i l l n e s s o f h i s p a t e r n a l grandparents* H i s 'father was away and had had l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h him* Hobert had a c l u b f o o t and t u b e r c u l o s i s o f the h i p * He had a n o t i c e a b l e limp* Ho had f i v e f o s t e r home placements b e f o r e coming t o the S c o t t s * H© was removed from the flv© f o s t e r homes seemingly because off h i s p h y s i c a l handicaps. The v a r i o u s f o s t e r parents d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t him because o f t h i s f a c t , a l t h o u g h they r a t i o n a l i z e d o t h e r w i s e — h © was e i t h e r not "companionable" o r d i d not seem "normal enough." Re was i n Grade 7 when he oam© to the S c o t t s * He got along q u i t e w e l l w i t h them, a l t h o u g h , a t t i m e s , i t was f e l t t h a t he was t r y i n g t o c a p i t a l i z e a l i t t l e on h i s l a m e n e s s — w i t h r e g a r d t o c h o r e s . H© o b t a i n e d o r t h o paedic boots i n A p r i l , 1941, l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t o f the S c o t t ' s h e l p * He f i n i s h e d Grade 8 i n June, 1942* He v«s moved t o another f o s t e r horn© I n August, 1942, i n order t o b© -nearer t o a t e c h n i c a l h i g h s c h o o l ( l i k e Qulnton aforementioned, who was moved d u r i n g the same month and f o r the same r e a s o n ) * One might q u e s t i o n Robert's being moved f o r t h i s r e a s o n — l i k e Qulnton, he had been g e t t i n g along w e l l w i t h the S c o t t s * I n any case, Robert l i v e d i n t h r e e f o s t e r homes, a f t e r l e a v i n g .th© S c o t t s , b e f o r e b e i n g d i s c h a r g e d t o h i s p a t e r n a l grandmother i n March, 1944, He was i n Grade 10 a t the time. H i s p a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r had d i e d e a r l i e r . Robert has worked a s a r a d i o mechanic and auto body worker s i n c e h i s d i s c h a r g e from c a r e . The S c o t t s have heard from him s i n c e he l e f t th© f o s t e r home * Ramsay was 13 when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n November, 1941, oh committal t o c a r e * He remained w i t h them f o r 23 months. He was committed a s an orphan who had been l e f t w i t h a maternal aunt who was no longer a b l e t o c a r e f o r him. He had been a n orphan f o r two y e a r s . He l i k e d the S c o t t f o s t e r horn© immediately: he l i k e d th© seven CAS boys who were i n the f o s t e r home a t the time, a l t h o u g h he was always on the f r i n g e of a c t i v i t i e s * I n January, 1942, h i s maternal aunt began t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h h i s placement; she became c r i t i c a l o f the S c o t t f o s t e r home; however, she v i s i t e d Ramsay r a r e l y * He was not p a r t i c u l a r l y upset by her behaviour* He was promoted t o  •»  9 7  Grade 5 i n February, 1942. He was examined at the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c i n February, 1942. He was diagnosed as a "high grade moron who i s .functioning to capacity i n an excellent foster home." Ramsay saw various r e l a t i v e s on d i f f e r e n t occasions between February, 1942, and June, 1943* He was not upset after seeing them* He was s t i l l i n Grade 5 i n June, 1943» and had reached the l i m i t of h i s capacity f o r academic work, During the summer of 1943 he expressed a desire to l i v e on a farm, to which he was moved i n October, 1943« His behaviour i n the Scott foster home has been s a t i s f a c t o r y a t a l l times. He l e f t the farm i n May, 1944, and has worked at various u n s k i l l e d jobs since* While some* what r e s e n t f u l of the CAS while i n care, he i s not so anymore, according to one of h i s former workers, who met him some time ago* Stephen, a reserved, shy boy, was 1 3 when placed with the Scotts i n August, 1942, on committal to care. He remained with them, f o r 3^ years. He had been apprehended i n August, 1942, a f t e r a series of potty thefts* His home was declared to be u n f i t . His parents were separated* His mother, with whom he had. been l i v i n g , was promiscuous and l i v i n g common*lav?. He got along well with the Scotts. He started Grade in , September, 1942, and h a l f completed Grade 9 i n January, 1946. Be passed into Grade 9 with honours i n June, 1 9 4 5 . He was discharged to h i s mother at t h i s time* He was generally cooperative i n the f o s t e r home and held the Scotts i n high esteem* However, he had a strong t i e with h i s mother and never gave up the idea of returning to her* She objected to his committal to care and began to strongly agitate f o r h i s return to her i n 1945* His worker f e l t that he had received enough of the fundamentals of sound l i v i n g i n the Scott f o s t e r home to carry him through future c r i s e s a f t e r returning . to h i s mother* She was s t i l l l i v i n g common-law with the man she was with i n 1942* Stephen l e f t h i s mother several years ago and i s a businessman today* The Scotts have heard from him through the years. Sidney, an outgoing, a t h l e t i c boy, was 12 when placed with the Scotts i n October, 1942. He remained with them f o r 3<| years* He had been committed to care with eight s i b l i n g s i n A p r i l , 1940* His mother had been deserted and was l i v i n g GOMison-law. Sidney and h i s s i b l i n g s had been p h y s i c a l l y and morally neglected* He and h i s older brother, Thomas (who w i l l be described as a Long-term placement who was prematurely removed i n Period 2 ) , were placed together i n t h e i r f i r s t f o s t e r home i n A p r i l , 1940* They were unable to adjust to t h i s home* They were rebellious and ran away several times* The brothers were then placed with the Scotts ( i n October, 1942)* The placement was intended t o be temporary, pending a move to a country f o s t e r home* However, Sidney got along so w e l l with the Scotts that he stayed In the foster home u n t i l A p r i l ,  1946, when he o b t a i n e d a job out-of-town. While w i t h the S c o t t s he became a cadet Sergeant i n the S t , John's Ambulance and was the l e a d e r o f the "gang" i n the f o s t e r home a t the time he l e f t . He was not seemingly upset when h i s b r o t h e r , Thomas, was removed i n March, 1944, f o r l y i n g and s t e a l i n g . Thomas a l s o , was not a p p a r e n t l y upset a t being moved, and v i s i t e d Sidney a t the S c o t t s a f t e r w a r d s . Sidney was upset, however, i n September, 1945, when he saw h i s mother f o r the f i r s t time s i n c e October, 1942. However, h i s worker e x p l a i n e d to him t h a t h i s mother was not i n a p o s i t i o n t o car® f o r him. H i s d i s t u r b a n c e soon ceased. Sidney had l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h h i s mother a f t e r l e a v i n g the S c o t t s , a l t h o u g h he kept i n t o u c h w i t h some of h i s o l d e r s i b l i n g s , i n c l u d i n g Thomas. He was l o g g i n g when l a s t heard from i n 194$. Thornton was twelve when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n August, 1943. He remained w i t h them f o r t h r e e y e a r s * Ee was illegitimate* H i s p u t a t i v e f a t h e r disappeared b e f o r e he was born* H i s mother .was committed t o Essondale i n November, 1942, and he went t o l i v e w i t h .his maternal aunt a t t h i s time* She r e j e c t e d him and asked t h a t he be committed t o CAS c a r e i n August, 1943. He was p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s on committal t o car®. He f i t t e d i n v e r y w e l l i n the f o s t e r home, a l t h o u g h some of the boys " p i c k e d on" him d u r i n g the f i r s t month or. so o f h i s placement. The S c o t t s reprimanded the boys f o r t h e i r behaviour towards Thornton and they q u i c k l y became more a c c e p t i n g o f him* H© was ''slower" than the other boys, who sensed t h i s f a c t on f i r s t meeting him* He had d i f f i c u l t y at. s c h o o l because o f h i s l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e . A c c o r d i n g t o the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , i n 1944, he had an I.Q. o f 65* He reached the l i m i t o f h i s academic c a p a c i t y i n June, 1946, when i n Grade 5* During the summer of 1946 he expressed a d e s i r e t o be p l a c e d i n a c o u n t r y f o s t a r home. He had l i v e d i n the c o u n t r y p r i o r . t o committal t o c a r e and l i k e d farm work. H i s worker and th® S c o t t s f e l t t h a t f u r t h e r s c h o o l i n g was u s e l e s s . Thornton f e l t the sam® way. H© was moved t o a c o u n t r y f o s t e r home In August, 1946,»where he remained u n t i l he was d i s c h a r g e d from ear® a t the ag© o f e i g h t e e n . Today he i s married and working i n a r e s t a u r a n t i n the c i t y . He has kept i n touch w i t h the S c o t t s through the y e a r s . He and h i s w i f e v i s i t e d Mrs. S c o t t l a s t Christmas. Urban was t h i r t e e n when p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n November, 1943. He- remained w i t h them u n t i l he was d i s c h a r g e d from c a r e i n May, 1948. He c o n t i n u e d t o l i v e w i t h them u n t i l 1950, when he got m a r r i e d . H i s b r o t h e r , two years o l d e r than he, i s c l a s s i f i e d as a Medium placement who l e f t the S c o t t s a f t e r a five-month placement, i n A p r i l , 1944, t o take a, job out-of-town. (See category 1, T a b l e 9.) Urban and h i s b r o t h e r cam© from a s o r d i d home background* T h e i r p a r e n t s were separated. T h o i r o l d e r s i s t e r had j u s t had a c h i l d by t h e i r common-law f a t h e r  when they were committed t o c a r e as n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n i n November, 19*3. They were Immediately p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s * The placement was intended t o be temporary, pending removal to a country f o s t e r home* However, Urban and h i s b r o t h e r got along q u i t e w e l l w i t h the S c o t t s and were not moved as planned. Urban was not upset when h i s b r o t h e r l e f t the c i t y and kept i n touch w i t h him* Urban had few c o n t a c t s w i t h h i s mother w h i l e i n c a r e and had a very weak t i e w i t h her* He completed Grade 9 June, 1946* He then q u i t s c h o o l and o b t a i n e d a steady job i n a c i t y f u r n i t u r e f a c t o r y . The S c o t t ' s own son, Angus, who was tJrban's age, complete Grade 9 a t the same time, and a l s o q u i t s c h o o l . He o b t a i n e d a job a l o n g s i d e Urban* The two were t o g e t h e r f o r s e v e r a l years and were c l o s e f r i e n d s * While going t o s c h o o l Uban had a p a r t - t i m e job i n a c a f e , d e l i v e r e d newspapers, and so f o r t h * He d i d h i s chores f a i t h f u l l y . He a l s o belonged t o the S t . John's Ambulance cadets* He was q u i t e a c t i v e i n community l i f e a f t e r l e a v i n g s c h o o l , was p o p u l a r w i t h g i r l s , and generally well-liked* He was not i n t e r e s t e d i n r e t u r n i n g t o h i s mother* As a r e s u l t , when he was d i s c h a r g e d from c a r e i n May, 1948, he d e c i d e d t o remain w i t h the S c o t t s * A f t e r Urban got married i n 1950 he went t o Vancouver I s l a n d where he now makes h i s home* He I s a mechanic* The S c o t t s have heard from him o f t e n s i n c e 1950. l  n  Wallace was t h i r t e e n when p l a c e d w i t h t h e S c o t t s i n F e b r u a r y , 1946. H i s placement was intended t o be temporary* He remained w i t h them f o r seventeen months* He was o f i l l e g i t i mate b i r t h and h i s f a t h e r disappeared b e f o r e he was born* H i s mother was Committed t o Essondale i n 1935 a f t e r g i v i n g b i r t h t o h i s h a l f - b r o t h e r , who was a l s o l l l e g l t a m e t l y born* She showed l i t t l e concern f o r e i t h e r c h i l d . She d i e d i n 1936 i n Essondale* The two boys were cared f o r by maternal r e l a t i v e s who badly n e g l e c t e d them* They were committed t o c a r e i n February, 193& and p l a c e d i n separate f o s t e r homes* Wallace had f i v e foster-home and two Receiving-Home placements b e f o r e b e i n g p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s * He was removed from h i s second, f o u r t h , and f i f t h f o s t e r homes because the f o s t e r parents i n v o l v e d made l i t t l e attempt t o t r y t o understand t h a t h i s l i t t l e a c t s o f m i s c h i e f and minor outbreaks o f temper were symptomatic o f an u n d e r l y i n g f e e l i n g o f emotional insecurity* H i s behaviour was t h a t which any c h i l d would show* A l s o , i n h i s second f o s t e r home he l i v e d w i t h h i s h a l f b r o t h e r , whom the f o s t e r mother favoured* B o t h were removed because they were not making s u i t a b l e p r o g r e s s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r worker* Wallace was moved from h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home because o f the f o s t e r mother's h e a l t h * He was moved from h i s t h i r d f o s t e r home because the f o s t e r p a r e n t s moved away. He a d j u s t e d f a i r l y w e l l i n these two f o s t e r homes* He had an I.Q. o f 80 a c c o r d i n g t o the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c i n 1944* He f a i l e d Grade 6 i n June, 1947, w h i l e working c l o s e t o c a p a c i t y * He had been w i t h the S c o t t s s i x t e e n months a t the  -  100  time* H i s behaviour had been reasonably s a t i s f a c t o r y , although he had been i n c l i n e d t o be l a z y * He had a heart murmur, which he o f t e n used as an excuse t o avoid doing chores* The Scotts set reasonable l i m i t s on h i s l a z i n e s s * I n J u l y , 194?» Wallace t i r e d ef s c h o o l , asked to be moved t o a country f o s t e r home* A l s o , the S c o t t s , because of Mr* Scotts i l l h e a l t h , were t h i n k i n g of moving t o a smaller home* For these reasons he was moved t o a country f o s t e r heme i n J u l y , 1947* The move seemed unwise i n the l i g h t of h i s past placement experience and the outcome of h i s f u t u r e placements i n care* He was unable to adjust to f o u r country f o s t e r homes between J u l y , 1947, and September, 1943, when he was sent to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School f o r t h e f t * He was r e b e l l i o u s and pugnacious I n the country f o s t e r homes* He has been on the f r i n g e of the underworld s i n c e 1948* His brother was more s u c c e s s f u l i n care* He found t h i s irksome as he grew o l d e r * He a l s o has f r u i t l e s s l y searched f o r h i s f a t h e r . Pqsuceessfal The four unsuccessful Long-term placements i n P e r i o d 2 w i l l how be b r i e f l y described i n order of time o f placement*  As Table 10 i n d i c a t e s , three boys were removed  f o r emotional and behaviour problems; the f o u r t h ran away* Thomas was t h i r t e e n when placed w i t h the Scotts i n October, 1942* He i s a brother of Sidney, who was placed w i t h the S c o t t s a t the same time and who remained w i t h them f o r f o r t y * two months as a s u c c e s s f u l Long-term placement I n P e r i o d 2. Sidney's placement has already been b r i e f l y described* Thomas remained w i t h the S c o t t s only 16 months* The two brothers, were to have remained w i t h the S c o t t s temporarily o n l y , pending a move t o a country f o s t e r home* However, t h i s p l a n was discarded as the boys seemed to be a d j u s t i n g w e l l t o the f o s t e r home* They were placed together i n t h e i r f i r s t f o s t e r home a f t e r committal t o care w i t h other s i b l i n g s from a broken, n e g l e c t f u l home i n A p r i l , 1940* They were moved t o the S c o t t s two years l a t e r because t h e i r f i r s t f o s t e r parents were moving t o a smaller heme* Their behaviour had been only f a i r ; they had been insubordinate and had run away s e v e r a l times* I n the Scott f o s t e r home Thomas completed Grade 3 i n June, 1943, a t the age of 14. He had shown reasonably good behaviour up t o t h i s time but was g r a d u a l l y assuming leadership of the "gang* i n the f e s t e r home* By December, 1943, he was leading some of the boys, i n c l u d i n g Sidney, on s t e a l i n g expeditions i n the neighborhood* He was moved t o a country f o s t e r home f o r t h i s reason i n March, 1944. The S c o t t s were 1  -  101  sorry to see him go but found him too u p s e t t i n g f o r the other boys. He d i d not'seem t o be upset a t removal or a t s e p a r a t i o n from h i s brother. He v i s i t e d him a t the Scotts afterwards. He got along f a i r l y w e l l i n the country f o s t e r home. He l e f t t h i s home i n A p r i l * 1947, when he went t o work elsewhere* He was discharged to h i s s i s t e r i n January, 1943, H® l a t e r was j a i l e d f o r car t h e f t . Thomas and Sidney had l i t t l e contact w i t h t h e i r parents a f t e r 1940. Warren was twelve when placed w i t h the Scotts I n October, 1944. He remained w i t h them f o r t y - f o u r months and then ran away. He was committed t o care i n A p r i l , 1942. His stepf a t h e r was overseas and h i s mother was unable to c o n t r o l h i s l y i n g and s t e a l i n g ; She a l s o neglected him* He- had Influenced h i s younger brother t o l i e and s t e a l ; Warren remained i n h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home f o r twenty-six months, during which time he ran away t o h i s mother s e v e r a l times and became I n c r e a s i n g l y r e b e l l i o u s towards the f o s t e r parents* He was- then placed i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home and only allowed to v i s i t h i s mother every three months a t the CAS as a precautionary measure. He saw both parents together a t such I n t e r v a l s when h i s stepfather returned from overseas i n 1946. U n t i l the autumn of 1947 Warren got along w e l l w i t h the Scotts and at school (he was i n Grade 7 a t the time and working to- c a p a c i t y ) . He had not run away* He had d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f w i t h the St* John's Ambulance cadets. However, during the l a t t e r p a r t of 1947 he became i n c r e a s i n g l y upset a f t e r seeing h i s parents and became r e b e l l i o u s and a n t a g o n i s t i c I n the f o s t e r homo, p a r t i c u l a r l y towards Mr* S c o t t ' s a u t h o r i t y . i'. S c o t t ' s h e a l t h was f a i l i n g a t the time. Warren began t o s t e a l from customers on h i s newspaper route* H i s behaviour g r a d u a l l y worsened and he f i n a l l y ran away t o h i s parents I n June, 1948. He was discharged t o them. H i s worker f e l t t h a t ho had outgrown the S c o t t f o s t e r horn®, although th® S c o t t s wore w i l l i n g to have him returned t o them. He was diagnosed as a psychopathic p e r s o n a l i t y I n 1949 a f t e r he was sent t o the Boys* I n d u s t r i a l School f o r t h e f t * H® has been i n and out o f j a i l s i n c e . He has worked as a c l e r k and as a t a i l o r but has been u n r e l i a b l e and dishonest, Vincent was t h i r t e e n when placed w i t h th® S c o t t s i n June, 1945, on committal to care* He remained w i t h them f o r seventeen months* H i s adoptive mother had him committed on an i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y charge* Sh® seemingly had r e j e c t e d him* H i s adoptive f a t h e r had been o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e towards him* • Vincent's placement w i t h th® S c o t t s began w a l l . However, h i s mother, who seamed to be both r e j e c t i n g and g u i l t y , soon began to c r i t i c i z e th® f o s t e r home. Vincent began t o f o l l o w s u i t . Although he was accepted by everyone i n the f o s t e r home and. encouraged by the S c o t t s t o engage i n community a c t i v i t i e s and develop a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards work (he j o i n e d th®  102 *  S t , John's Ambulance cadets and obtained a newspaper route on encouragement from the S c o t t s ; he a l s o had c e r t a i n r o u t i n e chores to perform l i k e the other boys), h i s behaviour began t o worsen and a l s o h i s school work, As h i s mother's i n t e r f e r e n c e continued, he became more uncooperative, u n t r u t h f u l , and d e s t r u c t i v e around the f o s t e r home. The S c o t t s asked t h a t he be removed i n Hovember, 194©, I r s , Scott was i l l at. the time, Vincent*was i n h i s second f o s t e r home f o r s i x months. He r a n away s e v e r a l times to h i s parents and was discharged to them. He i s s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g today. He v i s i t e d Mrs, Scott r e c e n t l y - a f t e r a s i x - y e a r absence, Terry was 13 when placed w i t h the S c o t t s i n December, 1948, on committal to care. He remained w i t h them f o r 27 months. He was removed because of h i s behaviour. He was committed t o care i n December, 1943', as an i n c o r r i g i b l e . He had, been g u i l t y of p e t t y t h e f t s i n h i s r u r a l community. H i s f a t h e r had deserted and h i s mother was l i v i n g common-law. He received a customary c h e e r f u l welcome when he a r r i v e d a t the S c o t t f o s t e r home, was Introduced to everyone, and made t o f e e l *at home*" He was acquainted w i t h the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s of the f o s t e r home and assigned h i s chores, which included c e r t a i n household tasks and work w i t h the, p o u l t r y and animals--there was no garden work a t t h a t time of the year, Terry immediately l i k e d the l a r g e f a m i l y atmosphere. However, w i t h i n a few weeks, he began to s t e a l money i n the f o s t e r home, Mrs, S c o t t made him pay every cent b a c k — h e soon stopped t h i s h a b i t , ' His behaviour was g e n e r a l l y good u n t i l August, 1950, both i n the f o s t e r home and a t school (he was promoted to Grade 6 i n June, 1949, and Grade 7 I n • June* 1950)* He had been g e t t i n g l o t s of a t t e n t i o n from Mrs, S c o t t (which he craved); he was i n the S t . John's Ambulance cadets* a Boy Scout troop, and had a newspaper route; he was a c t i v e i n s p o r t s ; he went t o camp each summer; he l i k e d h i s chores. However, i n August, 1950, h i s mother v i s i t e d him f o r the f i r s t time s i n c e h i s committal t o care. He became very unruly i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home afterwards. He g r a d u a l l y began to abandon h i s various outside a c t i v i t i e s ; he began to s t e a l i n the f o s t e r home again. A f t e r he* had s t o l e n money from Mrs. S c o t t ' s s i s t e r twice w i t h i n a month, he was removed a t the Scott's request i n l a r c h , 195* • He remained i n h i s second f o s t e r home f o r one month and ran away to h i s mother. He was then discharged to her. He was a t r u c k e r i n A l b e r t a when l a s t heard of I n 1952.  103  In P e r i o d 3 there was only one Long-term p l a c e ment according t o Table 1. I t was s u c c e s s f u l and w i l l be b r i e f l y described.  .  !  K e l v i n was 18 when placed w i t h the S c o t t s i n December, 1949* He remained w i t h them w h i l e i n ears f o r 26 months. He i s a brother of Joseph, whose s u c c e s s f u l Medium placement i n P e r i o d 3 has been b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d . K e l v i n was committed t o c a r e , along w i t h Joseph and throe other s i b l i n g s , i n February, 1939* They had been neglected by t h e i r feeble-minded, p r o s t i t u t e mother who was l i v i n g common-law. K e l v i n ' s f a t h e r had died two years e a r l i e r . K e l v i n was' placed w i t h a brother other than Joseph I n h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home, i n February, 1939» where he remained u n t i l August, 1943, The two brothers got along w e l l i n the f o s t e r home, and although they saw t h e i r mother o c c a s i o n a l l y they r e c e i v e d l i t t l e emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n from seeing h e r — a t the CAS. They were not upset a f t e r seeing her. K e l v i n and h i s brother were removed from t h e i r f i r s t f o s t e r home i n August, 1943, because t h e i r f o s t e r parents decided to separate. K e l v i n had been promoted t o Grade 7? a t the age o f 12, i n June, 1943. He and h i s brother were s o r r y to leave t h e i r f i r s t f o s t e r home. They p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e d ' t h e i r f i r s t f o s t e r mother and v i s i t e d her long a f t e r t h e i r removal. Their second f o s t e r home placements were separate. K e l v i n remained i n h i s second f o s t e r home from August, 1943» u n t i l May, 1947. He was removed because h i s second f o s t e r parents could not understand or cope w i t h some of h i s adolescent s t r i v i n g s — h e was "too popular a t school w i t h g i r l s and' too smart g e n e r a l l y , " and so f o r t h . H i s behaviour had been s a t i s f a c t o r y . He was i n Grade eleven a t the age o f 16. He was I n h i s t h i r d f o s t e r home from May, 1947, u n t i l June, 1949* His t h i r d set o f f o s t e r parents t r i e d t o dominate him comp l e t e l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the f o s t e r f a t h e r , who was j e a l o u s o f h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l s u p e r i o r i t y * I n any case', K e l v i n almost completed h i s Grade 12, i n June, 1949, before asking t o be moved. He had l o s t a month at sehool i n February, 1949, because o f an o p e r a t i o n on h i s bladder. He had seen h i s mother o c c a s i o n a l l y s i n c e 1943 but was not p a r t i c u l a r l y keen to see h e r . In any event, he went to l i v e w i t h h i s mother i n June, 1949, i n a semi-skid-road s e t t i n g . He had p r e v i o u s l y l e f t h i s t h i r d f o s t e r home'without permission to v i s i t her. He went logging w i t h i n a week o f r e t u r n i n g t o h i s mother. He returned t o the c i t y and t o h i s mother i n September, 1949, and s t a r t e d a d r a f t i n g course w i t h CAS a s s i s t a n c e * He decided t o leave h i s mother i n December, 1949, and was placed w i t h the S c o t t s . He got along very w e l l i n the Seott f o s t e r horn®. The S c o t t s were proud of him when he s u c c e s s f u l l y completed h i s d r a f t i n g course i n May, 1950, and began work as a draftsman.  -  104  .He was d i s c h a r g e d from c a r e i n February, 1952, and remained w i t h the S c o t t s u n t i l September, 19539 when he got married and s e t t l e d down i n the v i c i n i t y of the S c o t t f o s t e r home. He kept i n touch w i t h h i s s i b l i n g s w h i l e i n c a r e and a f t e r w a r d s . He recommended the S c o t t f o s t e r home t o h i s b r o t h e r , Joseph, aa mentioned e a r l i e r i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Medium placements. I n summary, 24 p r e - a d o l e s c e n t and a d o l e s c e n t boys, had Long-term placements d u r i n g P e r i o d s 1, placements wore s u c c e s s f u l .  2,  and 3.  nineteen  The f i v e u n s u c c e s s f u l placements  i n v o l v e d a d o l e s c e n t b o y s — P h i l i p I n P e r i o d 1, Warren, V i n c e n t , and T e r r y i n P e r i o d  and Thomas,  2.  I t seems t h a t P h i l i p had too s t r o n g a t i e w i t h h i s mother t o make a good adjustment  t o CAS  f o s t e r home c a r e ;  h i s s i t u a t i o n worsened when he reached a d o l e s c e n c e , w h i l e the S c o t t f o s t e r home; the S c o t t s were understandably t o c o n t r o l him a t t h i s time.  unable  H i s r u n n i n g away t o h i s mother  a f t e r removal from the S c o t t s seems t o have had r e s u l t s a t the time.  in  positive  T h i s f a c t might i n d i c a t e t h a t he  was  kept I n care f o r too long a time. Thomas a l s o had d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g to  CAS  f o s t e r home c a r e , a l t h o u g h he had weak p a r e n t a l t i e s .  He  and  h i s b r o t h e r d i d not a d j u s t w e l l t o t h e i r f i r s t f o s t e r home. They were t o have gone t o a country f o s t e r home a f t e r removal t o the S c o t t s and a temporary s t a y w i t h the l a t t e r . p l a n was  As  this  not c a r r i e d out, f o r reasons a l r e a d y mentioned, i t  seems t h a t i t should have been In the case o f Thomas, who a l o n g w e l l i n a country f o s t e r home a f t e r removal from S c o t t s because o f h i s behaviour.  tho  got  Warren's t i e w i t h h i s p a r e n t s and h i s a d o l e s c e n t stage o f p e r s o n a l i t y development proved t o be t o o f o r m i d a b l e ah o b s t a c l e f o r t h e S c o t t ' s , a f t e r he had remained w i t h them f o r f o u r y e a r s , a l t h o u g h he made a s a t i s f a c t o r y i n the f o s t e r home f o r t h r e e y e a r s .  adjustment  H i s t i e with h i s parents  .might have been a n e u r o t i c one, I n view C f h i s h i s t o r y subsequent  t o h i s running away and removal from the S c o t t s * Vincent's t i e with h i s parents, i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s  mother's i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h h i s placement made h i s adjustment one r a t h e r poor*  and h i s a d o l e s c e n c e ,  t o t h e S c o t t f o s t e r home and h i s  subsequent  H i s d i s c h a r g e t o h i s p a r e n t s seemed wise a t  the time i n view o f l a t e r i n f o r m a t i o n on V i n c e n t , < f e r r y , l i k e Warren, a d j u s t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t o the S c o t t f o s t e r home, u n t i l h i s t i e w i t h a p a r e n t - f i g u r e began to a s s e r t i t s e l f *  T h i s t i e , combined w i t h h i s a d o l e s c e n c e ,  made h i s placement  w i t h t h e S c o t t s untenable e v e n t u a l l y * F o r  the f o r e g o i n g r e a s o n s , he was unable t o a d j u s t t o h i s next f o s t e r home, on removal, from t h e S c o t t s *  H i s discharge to  h i s mother seemed t i m e l y i n view o f l a t e r i n f o r m a t i o n on him* I t seems t h a t b o t h V i n c e n t and T e r r y were kept i n c a r e t o e l o n g , as i n the case o f P h i l i p * F i n a l l y , i t seems t h a t t h e f i v e u n s u c c e s s f u l Long-term placements  aforementioned t  i n t h e S c o t t f o s t e r home  were l a r g e l y due t o f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l t o t h e f o s t e r home Itself*  106  *  Coneinsionj T h i s chapter has c l a s s i f i e d , s u b - c l a s s i f i e d d e s c r i b e d the 120  and  placements i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home, i n  terms o f reasons f o r , time o f , and l e n g t h o f placement, d u r i n g the 2i-year p e r i o d the f o s t e r home was from September, 1931,  t o September,  an a c t i v e CAS  resource**  1952,  There has been l i t t l e d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o r y i n t h i s chapter*  However, the soundness o f t h e o r y , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r  r e f e r e n c e t o the s e c t i o n i n Chapter IX d e a l i n g w i t h the problems o f l a t e n c y and a d o l e s c e n c e , i s i l l u m i n a t e d by t h i s  chapter's  study o f the S c o t t ' s f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the unsucc e s s f u l Medium and Long-term  placements.  Poor emotional growth i n the developmental  phases  causes emotional maladjustment, d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s , behaviour problems and r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Many o f the  c h i l d r e n p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o the Medium and Long-term placements,  both s u c c e s s f u l and  u n s u c c e s s f u l (because these placements, were, d e s c r i b e d i n some d e t a i l ) , presented the f o r e g o i n g problems o f c h i l d r e n .  These  problems a r e magnified i n care because o f i n c r e a s e d emotional i n s e c u r i t y as a r e s u l t o f a l a c k o f h e a l t h y , n a t u r a l , f a m i l y ties*  The dangers o f c o n t i n u a l replacement  of children,  a l r e a d y b a d l y damaged p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s chapter*  Such c h i l d r e n ' s f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l worth and  a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e , a l r e a d y low, s i n k t o an even lower ebb they experience r e j e c t i o n w i t h each new  placement*  as  - 107  The  S c o t t s handled  -  5 out o f 6 c h i l d r e n placed with  them s u c c e s s f u l l y a c c o r d i n g t o m a t e r i a l presented chapter,  A c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e 1,  49 o f the 120  i n this  placements i n  the f o s t e r home were almost e v e n l y - d i v i d e d between Medium and Long-term (which were 25 and 24 r e s p e c t i v e l y ! t h e r e were 3 u n s u c c e s s f u l Medium and 5 u n s u c c e s s f u l Long-term  placements).  The f o r e g o i n g f a e t s i n d i c a t e t h a t almost 5 out o f 12 c h i l d r e n p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s , most o f whom were a d o l e s c e n t boys, remained w i t h them l o n g enought t o d e r i v e some b e n e f i t from tho c o n d i t i o n i n g p r o c e s s o f l i f e i n a good f o s t e r home. Only 8 o f the 49 placements f o r more than two months were u n s u c c e s s f u l ; a l l were a d o l e s c e n t boys.  The 41 s u c c e s s f u l  placements i n c l u d e d 32 a d o l e s c e n t s and 9  pre-adolescents.  CHAPTER I ?  A mm  OF THE FOSTER HOME FROM 1931 TO 1952  Reasons f o r Studying the Foster Home The Vancouver CAS was Incorporated I n 1901, Vancouver was incorporated as a c i t y only a decade-and-a-half earlier*  There have been many changes i n the CAS through the  years, j u s t as there have been changes i n Vancouver and i t s surrounding m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  The greatest and most evident  change i n both has been very r a p i d growth. Greater Vancouver's p o p u l a t i o n has increased from a f i g u r e o f approximately 1,000 i n 1886, t o n e a r l y 500,000 today. The CAS had 29 c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i n 1901. no f o s t e r homos then.  I t had  A t the end o f 1955 i t had 1,184 c h i l d r e n  1  I n f o s t e r homes. As greater Vancouver has increased i t s p o p u l a t i o n during the l a s t 69 years, the number o f c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g the CAS' care has a l s o i n c r e a s e d .  Many o f these c h i l d r e n have  r e q u i r e d f o s t e r homes which o f f e r e d warmth, l o v e , understandi n g , and acceptance o f themselves by a happy f a m i l y group. F o r t u n a t e l y , d e s p i t e the pressures o f community growth, the CAS, s i n c e i t s f o s t e r home program began a f t e r the C h i l d Welfare Survey o f 1927, has found many good f o s t e r homes. The Scott f o s t e r home appears t o be one o f these, from i t s number 1  The Vancouver CAS Annual Report f o r 1955*  -  of  109  s u c c e s s f u l placements) and the c h i l d r e n , now a d u l t s , who  r e t u r n t o v i s i t o r who correspond w i t h t h e f a m i l y .  The  f o s t e r home has developed d e s p i t e t h e extreme p r e s s u r e s o f OAS and community growth, a severe economic d e p r e s s i o n , a World War., and a very s e r i o u s l a g I n hoarding c a r e r a t e s . Those r a t e s have been a d j u s t e d b e l a t e d l y , from time t o time,, to  t h e c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index but have never kept apace w i t h  the l a t t e r , even on a minimum s u b s i s t e n c e b a s i s . In  t h i s chapter the S c o t t f o s t e r home w i l l be  s t u d i e d l a r g e l y i n the q u a l i t a t i v e sense, I n an attempt t o e x p l o r e tho p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and s p i r i t u a l elements i n the f o s t e r home from 1931 A . ^ r l f l f Bescrip ^io n of ,,^he i  Prior to  i  li  l  v  ffM  1952. Parents  &  Wl  •Sr.  S c o t t was born i n S c o t l a n d i n  second e l d e s t o f 8 c h i l d r e n . and completed his  flack^ro^  to  Grade 4.  1885,.  He was t h e  He was o f th® P r e s b y t e r i a n f a i t h  He was r a i s e d i n t h e c o u n t r y , where  f a t h e r , th® head o f a c l o s e l y - k n i t f a m i l y , was a tenant  farmer and sheep h e r d e r .  Mr. S c o t t cam® t o Canada and  Saskatchewan i n 1907. He stayed w i t h an aunt and worked as a warehouseman and teamstor u n t i l 1910,  when he came t o Vancouver.  He worked as a longshoreman here and went overseas as a Canadian s o l d i e r , i n World War I . his  The remaining members o f  f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g h i s p a r e n t s , cam® t o Vancouver from  S c o t l a n d b e f o r e 1914.  Two o f h i s b r o t h e r s were k i l l e d on th®  * 110  b a t t l e f i e l d d u r i n g World War A l b e r t a as a rancher*  I.  -  One b r o t h e r l a t e r s e t t l e d i n  Mr. S c o t t ' s parents have been dead f o r  many y e a r s . Mr.  S c o t t was  s h e l l - s h o c k e d i n World War  E r a . S c o t t i n England d u r i n g the war her a f t e r h i s r e t u r n to Canada*  and  I.  corresponded  He fflet with  He worked as a longshoreman  here a f t e r h i s m i l i t a r y d i s c h a r g e and l i v e d w i t h an a u n t . 1924  Mrs.  In  S c o t t came t o Vancouver from England and the S c o t t s  were married the same y e a r .  Mr*  S c o t t continued  to work as a  longshoreman* Mrs. S c o t t was She was  born i n I890 near London, England.  the youngest o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n *  b r o t h e r and s i s t e r * p l e t e d Grade 9*  She  She has an o l d e r  i s o f the A n g l i c a n f a i t h and com-  Her f a t h e r was  a bookkeeper and the head o f  a m i d d l e - c l a s s E n g l i s h f a m i l y , which she remembers as a happy group* her  Her p a r e n t s a r e now  t o work u n t i l World War  deceased* I—her  They would not  f a t h e r had  permit  sufficient  means and d i d not w i s h t o o f f e n d a custom o f the day which frowned on the employment o f m i d d l e - c l a s s women,  She worked  i n a government o f f i c e d u r i n g the war*  she worked  Afterward  1  i n a " h i g h c l a s s " E n g l i s h r e s t a u r a n t u n t i l 1924* when she came t o Canada*  She was  a l i v e l y , s o c i a b l e Person, b e f o r e  her  marriage, Mrs* S c o t t had  l i t t l e household r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  b e f o r e coming t o Canada and knew l e s s about c h i l d r e n * was  i n c l i n e d t o be a tomboy and was  She  p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e to her  b r o t h e r , who was 14 months o l d e r than she, They correspond (he i s I n E n g l a n d ) . Canada i n t h e 1930's.  still  Mrs. S c o t t ' s s i s t e r , came t o  She moved i n w i t h the S c o t t s i n 1938,  She was c r i p p l e d and was n o t a b l e t o h e l p much around the home.  She remained w i t h t h e S c o t t s u n t i l 1952, when she  e n t e r e d a home f o r the aged, a f t e r t h e S c o t t s were m a r r i e d they l i v e d w i t h Mr. S e o t t ' s e l d e r l y aunt i n K l t s i l a n o u n t i l 1930,  He had l i v e d  w i t h her p r i o r t o h i s marriage a s a l r e a d y mentioned. The S c o t t s moved t o Crandview  i n 1930, because the aunt was  c o n t i n u a l l y nagging t h e S c o t t ' s own c h i l d r e n , J e s s i e , born i n 192?,  and Angus, born i n 1930,  (Another daughter, born i n  1925>> d i e d o f a p p e n d i c i t i s i n 1926.) " g e t t i n g on the aunt's nerves." the  The c h i l d r e n were  The S c o t t s thought t h a t , i n  b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f the c h i l d r e n and the aunt, a move should  be made. The S c o t t s d e c i d e d t o become f o s t e r p a r e n t s i n February, 1931. her  J e s s i e , then f o u r , f r e q u e n t l y r a n away from  i s o l a t e d , unfenced home and the S c o t t s f e a r e d she was  becoming " s e l f i s h and independent,"  They thought t h a t another  c h i l d ' s companionship would c o r r e c t h e r tendency t o r u n away. They thought they had been s p o i l i n g her because o f h e r s i s t e r ' s e a r l y death. or  A l s o , Mrs. S c o t t wanted another c h i l d  two as company f o r h e r s e l f .  She s t i l l f e l t v e r y k e e n l y  about her other daughter's d e a t h . When t h e S c o t t s made t h e i r o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n f o r  - 112 •»  foster  c h i l d r e n to  preference school  for  age.  one  They  back  to  move  into- t h e i r  As  this  felt  KItsilano  could  KItsilano  iff In  but  or  They  children they  in  i n February, children of  indicated  the  home,  larger  as  than  they  They  1931*  Grandview  least  sex  four  stated  and  planned  Mr, Scott's  the at  they  1931?  either  that  autumn o f  accommodate  of  to  move  expected  aunt one,  had the  a  •  to  died* Scotts  children i n .  CAS  necessary* Grandview  were  should  would  two  also  "homebodies."  alone*  CAS  former  home w a s  they  the  the  Their not  any  young  active  receive  send  Scotts  were  not  children could  churchgoers  some . r e l i g i o u s  foster  socially  children  but  not felt  training,  to  church or  active,  be  left  that and  a l l  said  Sunday  school* The original  of  home  study,  1931?  were  as  home*  They  managed  $20  off w h i e h  The  Scotts  good  impressions  foster  February, type"  general  was  were  training  spent  Character  All  recommended They  high morals,  family  a  to  stated  devotion  that for  It  worker of  the  Scotts  on a  couple  "who  Scotts  had an  no  the  in  "average  monthly  $100  afforded  who made  income,  luxuries*  would  give  a  child  it,"  doctor, the  case  nicely  references  the  parents.  as  the  The  on rent*  kind  KItsilano, highly  the  follows:  described  and be  in  of  included  former neighbours  a,minister,  Scotts the their  as  Scotts  and  a  storekeeper*  prospective had  children,  good  in  foster  living  community  habits, respect,  113  and an a b i l i t y t o manage on a l i m i t e d income d u r i n g a g e n e r a l economic d e p r e s s i o n . The S c o t t s were approved as f o s t e r p a r e n t s i n A p r i l , 1931.  They a c c e p t e d t h e i r f i r s t f o s t e r c h i l d i n September,  1931,  a f t e r they had r e t u r n e d t o K i t s i l a n o , 16,  Ann,  The c h i l d  was 1.  l i s t e d as a s u c c e s s f u l Medium placement i n P e r i o d  A Study o f the S c o t t s a ? , F o s t e r , P a r e n t s 1 Lorsne Stubbins  says t h a t t h e r e a r e some q u a l i t i e s  i n f o s t e r p a r e n t s w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l i f t h e placement o f a c h i l d i n a f o s t e r home i s t o be a m u t u a l l y - s a t i s f y i n g experience.  These q u a l i t i e s a r e :  (a) e m o t i o n a l m a t u r i t y ;  (b) fondness f o r c h i l d r e n and t h e a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t a c h i l d and h i s background as i t i s ; ( c ) f l e x i b i l i t y ) (d) an' a b i l i t y t o work w i t h t h e agency* The f o l l o w i n g , more i n t i m a t e f a c t s about Mr. Mrs, S c o t t s h o u l d shed some l i g h t on t h e i r q u a l i t i e s f o s t e r parents*  and  as  These f a c t s have been l e a r n e d f r o m a s t u d y o f  agency f i l e s and from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h I r s , S c o t t , Mr, S c o t t was average h e i g h t .  an i n t e l l i g e n t , r o b u s t man  He was p h y s i c a l l y s t r o n g t h r o u g h most o f h i s  l i f e and had a handsome, C e l t i c appearance. s t e a d i l y as a longshoreman from 1910 World War health*  p*  1  2*  X.  ©f a b o v e -  He r e t i r e d i n 1946,  t o 1946,  a t 61,  He worked except during  because o f h i s  He had, a t t h a t t i m e , h i g h b l o o d p r e s s u r e , a weak  S t u b b i n s , L o r e n e , C a n a d i a n W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , Ottawa,  1951*  — • 114 '—'  h e a r t , and v a r i c o s e v e i n s .  He  had a l s o been bothered  by  deformed f e e t , which were caused by wearing o u t - s i z e d when he was  a boy.  He r e c e i v e d the war  veterans  from.1946 u n t i l h i s death r e c e n t l y a t the age  shoes  allowance  1  of  70.  r  l r . S c o t t was drink.  He was  grudge," and  not  s o c i a l l y gregarious  an even-tempered man  He had few  who  and d i d not  never " c a r r i e d a  i n t e r e s t s o u t s i d e h i s j o b , home, f a m i l y  r e l a t i v e s , and he was  not a strong churchgoer.  He  pre*  f e r r e d t o spend h i s l e i s u r e time working around the house, garden, animals and p o u l t r y , a boyhood i n t e r e s t . i n t e r e s t e d i n and  l i k e d c h i l d r e n , and  share h i s l e i s u r e - t i m e p u r s u i t s *  He  l i k e d to have them  He would g i v e any  every encouragement and h e l p t o l e a r n about them* d e s c r i b e d by one man  who  as a man  CAS  ohlld He  was  worker as a " c l e a n - c u t , k i n d l y , f r i e n d l y  i s very fond o f c h i l d r e n . " who  was  " j u s t loved k i d s and  Mrs.  Scott described  him  enjoyed being a f o s t e r  father." Mr.  S c o t t ' s r e l a t i v e s i n Vancouver took a  i n t e r e s t i n the S c o t t and  foster children.  friendly  They o f t e n took  the f o s t e r f a m i l y on o u t i n g s and maintained a s t r o n g  personal  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the S c o t t s a t a l l times. Mrs* S c o t t i s a woman o f keen i n t e l l i g e n c e , She r a t h e r w i r y I n b u i l d and  o f average h e i g h t .  She  complexion and has always enjoyed good h e a l t h . c h e e r f u l and a l e r t appearance. manner and  She  has  i s f r i e n d l y i n a d i r e c t way.  has She  is  a ruddy has  a  a somewhat b l u n t She  has a d r y , merry  sense o f humour. Mrs.  S c o t t i s o u t g o i n g , u n l i k e her husband.  i s more g r e g a r i o u s  than he was.  hood f r i e n d s d u r i n g P e r i o d s  1,  She 2,  had numerous neighbour*  and 3»  L i k e her husband,  she has not been p a r t i c u l a r l y a churchgoer. non-drinker.  She  She  does smoke a t t i m e s .  She  She  also i s a  can be  "sharp-  tongued" but, l i k e her husband, she never " c a r r i e d a grudge." In the main, I r s . S c o t t ' s i n t e r e s t s have been i n her f a m i l y — h e r She  husband, s i s t e r , own  and her husband d i d not "go  and  foster children.  out" o f t e n a f t e r becoming  f o s t e r p a r e n t s — t h e y sometimes went to an o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t e d f r i e n d s and  relatives.  show, or  However, they were always i n  attendance when t h e i r f e s t e r o r own  c h i l d r e n were p e r f o r m i n g  i n some community a c t i v i t y — b e i t a s p o r t s c o n t e s t , d i s p l a y , s c h o o l p l a y , or the l i k e .  A l s o , Mrs,  cadet  S c o t t enjoyed  t a k i n g a i l the c h i l d r e n to the beach i n the summertime. would "go a l o n g " w i t h neighbours and would have "a l o t o f f u n , " very o f t e n . The  Mr,  their  children—everyone  S c o t t d i d not go t o the beach  He p r e f e r r e d t o s t a y a t home and  " p u t t e r about,"  S c o t t s never took a " r e a l h o l i d a y " a f t e r 1931*  Mrs,  S c o t t l e f t the lower mainland area f o r the f i r s t time i n years when, i n 194-8, she and Seattle. Mr,  She  17  J e s s i e spent a week-end i n  There have been no h o l i d a y t r i p s s i n c e , f o r e i t h e r  or Mrs* S c o t t . According  f o s t e r c h i l d r e n had  t o Mrs.  S c o t t , her home was  a f e e l i n g o f belonging  one  i n which  regardless  of  *  116  background.  Tho  home was  governed by a s e t o f  Chores were compulsory and The  rulesi  i n r e t u r n p r i v i l e g e s were extended.  f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , as i n d i v i d u a l s , wore t r e a t e d  Scott  c h i l d r e n i n terms of d i s c i p l i n e and  Scotts believed  like  affection.  t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n needed d i s c i p l i n e  affection i n judicious  quantities;  tho Tho  and  t h a t they needed a sense  o f s e c u r i t y which c o u l d o n l y come from " l o t s o f l o v e and f i r m hand a t the same t i m e — a n d f l e x i b l e a c c o r d i n g to child  a  tho  involved." The  Scotts believed  t h a t the most Important  q u a l i t y o f f o s t e r p a r e n t s i s to be a b l e t o "mix c h i l d r e n and  do  t h i n g s w i t h them."  with t h e i r foster children. p l a y e d f o o t b a l l w i t h "her  On one  w i t h a l l tho  They " d i d e v e r y t h i n g " o c c a s i o n , Mrs.  S e o t t even  c h i l d r e n " when they needed an  player.  The  Interest  o f f o s t e r p a r e n t s i n them, and  extra  Seotts f e l t that f o s t e r c h i l d r e n appreciate  tho  t h a t they w i l l d i s c u s s  t h e i r problems more openly as a r e s u l t . The children. to be  S e o t t s wore a b l e to empathize w i t h t h e i r  They understood what i t meant f o r a f o s t e r  i n a homo o t h e r than h i s own.  Tho  Angus had  been i n  S c o t t s were aware of the e x i s t e n c e o f  f o s t e r c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s or r e l a t i v e s and They were a l s o aware of J e s s i e ' s c h i l d r e n i n a f o s t e r home. and  child  They c o u l d " v i s u a l i z e  what i t would have been l i k e " i f J e s s i e and a f o s t e r homo.  foster  and  consequent  a  ties.  Angus* s i t u a t i o n as  "own"  T h i s awareness, u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  a b i l i t y t o empathize, i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e i r r o l o  of  - 1X7  f o s t e r parents,  "only developed over the y e a r s . "  p a r t i c u l a r l y Mrs* S c o t t , seemed t o possess I n t u i t i v e a b i l i t y regarding  the h a n d l i n g  The S c o t t s ,  considerable  of children*  t h e i r i n t u i t i o n , and i n c r e a s i n g experience as f o s t e r  With parents,  p l u s support from CAS workers, t h e S c o t t s developed i n t h e i r role.  Thus, they were a b l e t o g r a d u a l l y improve as f o s t e r  p a r e n t s as the years went by* accept,  They l e a r n e d t o understand,  l o v e , e a r s f o r and, when tho time came, r e l i n q u i s h  t h e i r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n one by one.  F o r example, they q u i c k l y  l e a r n e d t h a t when a c h i l d was p l a c e d w i t h them t h a t he was f a c i n g a new experience and was, perhaps, f e a r f u l o f what " l a y ahead."  i n order  t o a l l a y h i s f e a r s , Mrs. S c o t t would  g i v e him a "warm" hug and something t o e a t when he f i r s t entered  t h e home—which might be a t any hour*  S c o t t would r e a s s u r e  She and Mr,  him t h a t he was t o f e e l " a t home."  They would i n t r o d u c e him t o o t h e r s  i n t h e home as a "member  o f the f a m i l y " w i t h e q u a l s t a t u s *  Sometimes a boy would o n l y  stay o v e r n i g h t  However, he would always  o r f o r a few days.  r e c e i v e the same welcome.  He would be i n t r o d u c e d  to the  r u l e s o f the f o s t e r home, whieh a p p l i e d t o a l l t h e c h i l d r e n , almost immediately, so t h a t he would know "where he stood and what was expected o f him."  I f a boy remained f o r more than a  week or.two, the S c o t t s always t o l d him t h a t they would be happy i f he wished t o c a l l them "mother and d a d " — h e u s u a l l y did*  Mrs* S c o t t made i t a p r a c t i c e t o k i s s the younger  c h i l d r e n when they r e t i r e d a t n i g h t *  Sometimes she k i s s e d the  118  *  o l d e r ones i f she i n t u i t i v e l y f e l t t h a t i t was wanted and needed.  The S c o t t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Mrs. S c o t t * a l s o made i t  a p r a c t i c e t o " s i z e up" a boy u n o b t r u s i v e l y — t o h e l p them understand him and t o h e l p meet h i s b a s i c needs.  The  Scotts,  i n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g " a i l " t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h good p h y s i c a l c a r e , f e l t t h a t the younger s h o u l d be segregated from the o l d e r because i n age.  o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r e s t s as w e l l as  They found i t " h e a r t b r e a k i n g , " u s u a l l y , when a boy  l e f t them a f t e r a l e n g t h y s t a y , whether he was removed o r n o t .  prematurely  They had watched him grow and develop as an  i n d i v i d u a l by g i v i n g him more and more independence w i t h guidance, d i s c i p l i n e , and l o v e — a n d i t was  mixed  difficult  to  see the product o f some o f t h e i r l a b o u r , w i t h whom they had developed an understandable emotional attachment, f o s t e r home, t h e r e f o r e *  They t o l d every boy on  whatever r e a s o n — t h a t he was the f u t u r e *  l e a v e the  leaving—for  always welcome t o "drop i n , " i n  They always concealed t h e i r " f e e l i n g of l o s s "  when a c h i l d l e f t i n o r d e r "not t o upset him."  Many former  f o s t e r o h i l d r e n remembered the S c o t t ' s p a r t i n g i n v i t a t i o n t o r e t u r n — t h e "good ones and the not-so-good f e l t t h a t "no boy was  r e a l l y bad").  ones" (the S c o t t s  They have "dropped i n "  and have kept i n touch w i t h the S c o t t s through the y e a r s * When Mr* S c o t t d i e d l a s t autumn, many former f o s t e r c h i l d r e n attended h i s f u n e r a l * The S c o t t s always had a good working w i t h the CAS,  relationship  the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n ' s own p a r e n t s and p a r e n t *  s u r r o g a t e s , when circumstances p e r m i t t e d , and the community*  119 *  The  S c o t t s arranged, f o r Instance, e a r l y i n P e r i o d 1 f o r one  worker,to s u p e r v i s e a l l t h e f o s t e r c h i l d r e n p l a c e d w i t h them as more mutually  s a t i s f y i n g and e f f i c i e n t ,  Mrs. S c o t t  r e p o r t s t h a t once i n a w h i l e a young worker would i r k h e r by p r o f f e r i n g unasked f o r a d v i c e concerning  child  eare»~issrs.  S c o t t would " c l e a r l y " p o i n t out t o the worker Involved  that  such a d v i c e was unnecessary—sometimes t o t h e c h a g r i n o f the worker.  T h i s s o r t o f t h i n g happened a f t e r Mrs. S c o t t became  e s t a b l i s h e d i n her r o l e as a f o s t e r mother.  The S c o t t s  never r e f u s e d t o take a GAS c h i l d i f they c o u l d "squeeze him in  somewhere," which i s f u r t h e r evidence  ing  o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the agency.  o f t h e i r true  feel-  They a l s o r e a l i z e d  the importance o f a f o s t e r c h i l d ' s background and emotional ties.  On many o c c a s i o n s , t h e parents  S c o t t f o s t e r o h i l d r e n telephoned  o r r e l a t i v e s o f the  o r v i s i t e d the f o s t e r home,  w i t h CAS p e r m i s s i o n and the f u l l e s t c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e S c o t t s , A l s o , which i s very Important from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n ' s f e e l i n g s about themselves,.the S c o t t s were always "part'' o f t h e i r K I t s i l a n o and Burnaby communities because o f t h e i r I l k e a b i l i t y and continued in  and a c t i v e i n t e r e s t  t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e i r own a n d . f o s t e r c h i l d r e n .  It i s o f  i n t e r e s t t o note t h a t t h e S c o t t ' s i n t e r e s t i n and concern f o r the w e l f a r e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n was s o g r e a t t h a t , p a r t i c u l a r l y I n P e r i o d 1, because,of low CAS board r a t e s they "dug i n t o t h e i r own pockets" f o s t e r home.  t o p r o v i d e adequate p h y s i c a l care i n t h e  T h i s was done without  b i t t e r n e s s o r unreasonable  - 120  complaint t o the CAS  or o t h e r s .  The S c o t t ' s marriage seems t o have been a s t a b l e one and i d e a l i n many w a y s — a p r e - r e q u l s i t e f o r f o s t e r p a r e n t hood*  There i s no evidence o f marked disagreement  o c c u r r i n g between them* the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n .  ever  They d i d n o t d i s a g r e e openly b e f o r e  They l i v e d t o g e t h e r as a " t r u e husband  and w i f e team* ' w i t h a common I n t e r e s t i n t h e i r own  and  1  f o s t e r c h i l d r e n and a happy f a m i l y l i f e *  Each had  definite  areas o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the u p b r i n g i n g o f the c h i l d r e n * Mr*  S c o t t s u p e r v i s e d compulsory  h i s own  and n e c e s s a r y chores done by  and f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the  p o u l t r y , a n i m a l s , and household r e p a i r s * how  garden,  He taught the boys  t o "manage" the garden, c a r e f o r the p o u l t r y and  and handle t o o l s *  animals,  A l s o , he t o l d the younger c h i l d r e n bedtime  s t o r i e s i f he happened t o be a t home and not away working* He seems t o have been a good masculine example f o r the c h i l d r e n to f o l l o w *  I r s * S c o t t handled "the f i n a n c e s * "  She  was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r "running" the f o s t e r home and e n s u r i n g t h a t her own  and the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n d i d compulsory  and  necessary  household c h o r e s , a c c o r d i n g t o the r u l e o f the f o s t e r home, whleh a l s o p r e s c r i b e d the chores t o be performed Scott's supervision.  Hrs* S c o t t was  under  Mr*  also primarily responsible  f o r the p h y s i c a l c a r e , s c h o o l work, o u t s i d e employment, and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f a l l the c h i l d r e n , as w e l l as r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the CAS and the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n ' s p a r e n t s and r e l a t i v e s , or p a r e n t - s u r r o g a t e s *  121  Mr.  and Mrs*. S c o t t had equal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s I n  r e g a r d t o d i s c i p l i n e and a f f e c t i o n .  Discipline  was adminis-.  t e r e d f o r a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e r a l e s o r o t h e r misbehaviour*. I t usually resulted the  i n t h e withdrawal o f p r i v i l e g e s * .  s t r a p was used f o r c h i l d r e n ,  S c o t t s made i t a p o l i c y  u s u a l l y up t o ten,.  Up t o 1940,. The  from t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r  c a r e e r as f o s t e r p a r e n t s n o t t o i n t e r f e r e disciplined a child—foster  i f one o r t h e o t h e r  o r own*. A l s o , i f a c h i l d was  d i s c i p l i n e d a t s c h o o l , he was n o t d i s c i p l i n e d when he r e t u r n e d home*.  A c h i l d was never d i s c i p l i n e d  f o r running away*. The  S c o t t s f e l t badly when running away occurred*.  They sometimes  f e l t t h a t they might have been a t f a u l t , a l t h o u g h they were always aware t h a t background emotional t i e s c o u l d be l a r g e l y responsible*  They were extremely k i n d t o r e t u r n i n g runaways  and  t r i e d t o e l i c i t t h e i r reasons f o r " t a k i n g off*'*  patiently  I n t h e matter o f sex e d u c a t i o n , Mr* and M r s , . S c o t t always gave t h e i r own and f o s t e r  children  answers when sex q u e s t i o n s were r a i s e d , guide a c h i l d r a t h e r than t o f r i g h t e n older children The  carefully-worded  hoping t o a d v i s e and  him*  Generally, the  "educated" t h e younger i n t h e f o s t e r S c o t t s a p p l i e d many p r i n c i p l e s  handed down t o them by t h e i r own p a r e n t s .  home.  of family  living  They t r i e d t o p u t  those p r i n c i p l e s — b a s e d on a h e a l t h y mixture o f a f f e c t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e — i n t o p r a c t i c a l use as f o s t e r p a r e n t s . principles  These  p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r the atmosphere o f the f o s t e r  home, t h e r u l e s ,  the d i s c i p l i n e a d m i n i s t e r e d , and t o a  * 122  c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t the a t t i t u d e s o f the S c o t t s towards t h e i r own  and f o s t e r c h i l d r e n .  The  S c o t t s were a b l e t o manage  f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y , a l a r g e number o f placements over many y e a r s , and many d i f f i c u l t f o s t e r c h i l d r e n .  Only t h e i r  advancing age and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , the h e a l t h o f Mr.  Scott,  caused them to r e t i r e a f t e r 21 y e a r s as f o s t e r p a r e n t s . The S e o t t s seemed t o have had  the b a s i c u n d e r l y i n g  q u a l i t i e s f o r f o s t e r parents mentioned by Lorene Stubblns  and  referred to e a r l i e r i n this section* Wf  ,ift the Fpjfter ffoae,. The  i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s s e e t i o n has been o b t a i n e d  i n a r e c e n t , f r i e n d l y i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mrs.  S c o t t and from a  study of agency f i l e s .  l i v i n g alone i n the  H r s . S c o t t i s now  s m a l l home t o whieh the S c o t t s moved i n J u l y , 1950* In P e r i o d 1, the S e o t t s l i v e d i n an o l d , two-storey wooden house, surrounded by a s m a l l , fenced earlier* but was  The  f o s t e r home was  l o t , as mentioned  not p r e t e n t i o u s i n appearance  always i n a f a i r s t a t e o f r e p a i r .  other homes In i t s w o r k i n g - c l a s s  I t was  neighbourhood.  t y p i c a l of There was  a  c o a l and wood shed a t the r e a r off the house, as w e l l as a s m a l l garden, c h i c k e n house, and r a b b i t pens. the house were simply but adequately  The rooms o f  furnished.  living  room was  used as a bedroom by Mr.  room was  used as a combination l i v i n g and d i n i n g room.  k i t c h e n was  f a i r l y large.  the d i n i n g room, and  and Mrs. S c o t t .  The  There were two  The  dining The  s m a l l bedrooms o f f  t h r e e medium-sized bedrooms and  a  * 123  bathroom u p s t a i r s *  Bach c h i l d had a s i n g l e bed o r bunk*  t h e r e were u s u a l l y one o r two s m a l l e r  children  downstairs i n each o f the s m a l l bedrooms. two  sleeping  There were one o r  o l d e r c h i l d r e n sleeping' i n each bedroom u p s t a i r s *  shared a room' d o w n s t a i r s ' w i t h a f o s t e r b r o t h e r .  Angus  J e s s i e had  a room upstairs', which she shared w i t h h e r aunt a f t e r 1 9 3 8 . The  house had an u n f i n i s h e d  a t t i c and no basement*  I t was adequately heated and had t h e u s u a l household con* veniences o f t h e time*  I t was r e a s o n a b l y c l e a n *  c l o s e t o a l l community f a c i l i t i e s * cat  9  and c a n a r i e s ,  household p e t s *  I t was  The S c o t t s kept a dog*  i n a d d i t i o n t o c h i c k e n s and r a b b i t s , as  The c h i c k e n s and r a b b i t s , as w e l l as the  garden, pi*evided food f o r th© t a b l e . " ,  A c c o r d i n g t o Mrs* S c o t t , t h e r u l e s mentioned) "made t h e f o s t e r home t i c k * "  (already  They were c e n t e r e d  on t h e compulsory performance o f chores and conformance t o the household r o u t i n e , c e r t a i n l e i s u r e time h o u r s , and movements* and  Any v i o l a t i o n o f t h e r u l e s was a broach o f d i s c i p l i n e  c o u l d r e s u l t i n a c h i l d being strapped ( u n t i l 1940) and/or  s u f f e r i n g the l o s s o f p r i v i l e g e s — w i t h respect  t o "going  and/or r e c e i v i n g spending money, and/or " b r i n g i n g over*"  The r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s  out,"  friends  a p p l i e d t o Angus (when  o l d e r ) and J e s s i e as w e l l as t h e f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , as mentioned earlier* The t o perform*  S c o t t and f o s t e r c h i l d r e n had c e r t a i n chores They had t o make t h e i r own beds and c l e a n o u t  - 124  t h e i r rooms d a l l y ; had  They had  -  t o h e l p w i t h the d i s h e s *  t o c a r e f o r the c h i c k e n s and r a b b i t s .  the garden (each c h i l d had h i s own and brought i n wood.  They had t o  "patch").  tend  They chopped  They d i d some r e p a i r work around  house, such as c a r p e n t r y and p a i n t i n g .  they  the  They r a n errands  s o l d s u r p l u s eggs from the c h i c k e n f l o c k .  and  Each c h i l d d i d  a l t e r n a t e chores weekly, where p o s s i b l e ; i . e . , a c h i l d  (or  perhaps two) would h e l p w i t h the d i s h e s one week and work o u t s i d e the next* together, Every  The younger c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y worked  Svery Saturday morning'the e n t i r e house was  child participated, If possible,  cleaned.  A c h i l d c o u l d hot have  a l e i s u r e time u n t i l h i s chores wore f i n i s h e d , and he had  to  i n f o r m the S c o t t s o f h i s whereabouts a t a l l times* The S c o t t s encouraged the c h i l d r e n t o o b t a i n c a s u a l or steady  employment* depending on t h e i r s c h o o l s t a t u s *  Employment was  e l u s i v e i n the  1930*s*  However, "the boys"  o f t e n found work d e l i v e r i n g f o r neighborhood s t o r e s , c u t t i n g lawns, d e l i v e r i n g newspapers and h a n d b i l l s , s e l l i n g magazines, and  so f o r t h .  The  S c o t t s and the CAS  sometimes c o l l a b o r a t e d  t o o b t a i n such employment f o r the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n * sometimes helped an o l d e r boy  ( u s u a l l y one who  s c h o o l ) t o o b t a i n work on the w a t e r f r o n t *  The  had  Mr.  Scott  left  S c o t t s were  most anxious t h a t the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o a p p r e c i a t e v a l u e o f money by having  t o work f o r i t * I f a boy had  spending money, because work was 10  cents weekly*  He was  the  no  not a v a i l a b l e , he r e c e i v e d  encouraged to s t a r t a bank account*  - 125  if  -  possible. 12}  The younger o h i l d r e n ( u s u a l l y those under g e n e r a l l y were i n bed by 9 p.m.,  the o l d e r ones by 10  In accordance w i t h the r u l e s , b r e a k f a s t was and u s u a l l y extended  from 6 . 3 0  t o 9 a.m.  p.m.  a t no s e t hour,  The younger c h i l d r e n  u s u a l l y a t e l a t e t o a l l o w them e x t r a s l e e p .  Dinner and  were a t r e g u l a r hours and a snack, c o n s i s t i n g o f bread cocoa was  served t o everyone b e f o r e r e t i r i n g .  i n the home was  p l a i n but wholesome.  There was  board  always enough own  rates.  The c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y had adequate c l o t h i n g . S c o t t would p e r i o d i c a l l y go downtown w i t h h e r CAS vouchers*  and  The food served  t o e a t — p a r t l y because the S c o t t s spent some o f t h e i r funds on food because o f low CAS  supper  Mrs.  clothing  She would take the c h i l d r e n w i t h her and  purchase  needed c l o t h i n g . Everyone had a b a t h a t l e a s t once weekly. bathroom l i n e - u p was  The  " q u i t e l o n g " on Saturday n i g h t s .  The S c o t t s were q u i t e I n t e r e s t e d i n the w e l f a r e o f a i l the c h i l d r e n w i t h r e g a r d t o s c h o o l i n g , working, and p l a y * Ing.  ESrs. S c o t t kept i n c l o s e touch w i t h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s  helped her c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r homework*  and  She encouraged them  t o j o i n cub and scout groups o r army c a d e t s , and t o p a r t i c i pate i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r s c h o o l and o t h e r community a c t i v i t i e s * The S c o t t s were q u i c k t o show t h e i r a p p r o v a l f o r a c c o m p l i s h ment, and encouragement d u r i n g d i f f i c u l t y .  Sir. o r Mrs* S e o t t ,  •*  or both, would a t t e n d any performance i n which one o f t h e i r own  or f o s t e r c h i l d r e n was  t a k i n g p a r t — s u c h as a s c h o o l p l a y ,  las  for instance.  A l l t h e c h i l d r e n were f r e e t o go t o church o r  Sunday s c h o o l *  If  they d i d n o t do s o , they would be g i v e n a  chore t o do* Every c h i l d had a b i r t h d a y cake on h i s b i r t h d a y * Christmas every c h i l d r e c e i v e d a g i f t from t h e S c o t t s *  At  "Ho  stone was l e f t unturned" t o make t h i s day a memorable one " f o r t h e boys*"  Turkey* " w i t h a l l the trimmings" was s e r v e d ,  and so f o r t h * A l l t h e c h i l d r e n were allowed t o b r i n g t h e i r f r i e n d s t o t h e f o s t e r home* u n l e s s they were b e i n g d i s c i p l i n e d . times t h e f r i e n d s stayed f o r a meal. were h e l d on t h e week-ends. how t o dance and encouraged over*"  Many p a r t i e s and dances  I r s * S c o t t taught t h e o l d e r boys them t o " b r i n g t h e i r g i r l  friends  The younger c h i l d r e n would be a l l o w e d " t o watch" the  f e s t i v i t i e s u n t i l ? P*m* 10 p.m.  Some-  t h e p a r t i e s u s u a l l y ended about  Mr* S c o t t would be more o f an onlooker than a p a r t i c i -  pant a t these p a r t i e s — h e c o u l d n o t dance* u s u a l l y enjoyed " t h e f u n * "  However, he  During t h e summer, Mrs. S c o t t  would take the "gang" down t o K l t s i l a n o beach a t every opportunity*  Sometimes t h e e n t i r e day would be spent t h e r e *  She would o f t e n be accompanied by neighbourhood their children* "everyone"  friends with  Sometimes, Mr. S c o t t ' s r e l a t i v e s would take  f o r a c a r r i d e on Sunday a f t e r n o o n *  would n o t always take p a r t i n these o u t i n g s * h a p p i e r " p u t t e r i n g around  t h e house*"  Mr* S c o t t He seemed t o be  n e v e r t h e l e s s he never  begrudged these r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f Mrs* S c o t t and t h e  127 *  children*.  The c h i l d r e n a l s o went t o GAS camp d u r i n g t h e  summer o r went on week-end camping t r i p s by t h e m s e l v e s - - i f they were older*, When a CAS worker v i s i t e d t h e home, i t was u s u a l l y a pleasant v i s i t * .  The S e o t t s had no o b j e c t i o n s t o a boy  t a l k i n g t o h i s worker alone*  The Worker would u s u a l l y t a l k t o  Mrs. S c o t t i o r both Mr. and Mrs. S c o t t , f i r s t , and w i t h the, c h i l d , i n h i s room o r o u t s i d e later*.  Sometimes  the c h i l d , the  S c o t t s , and t h e worker t a l k e d t o g e t h e r . As a l r e a d y mentioned, t h e S c o t t s had no o b j e c t i o n to a f o s t e r c h i l d phoning o r v i s i t i n g h i s p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s o r having them v i s i t him i n t h e f o s t e r home, as l o n g as t h e CAS approved*  On many o c c a s i o n s r e l a t i v e s v i s i t e d  c h i l d r e n i n t h e S c o t t home*  foster  F o r example, t h e r e l a t i v e s o f  O r v i l l e , a s u c c e s s f u l Long-term placement i n P e r i o d 1, v i s i t e d the S c o t t s s e v e r a l times*  The S e o t t s enjoyed  t a l k i n g over h i s  problems w i t h them,. According  t o t h e r u l e s , t h e younger c h i l d r e n  ( u s u a l l y under 10) were " c o n f i n e d t o the b l o c k " when n o t a t s c h o o l , doing c a s u a l work, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some  community  a c t i v i t y , o r on an o u t i n g w i t h t h e S e o t t s o r t h e i r own p a r e n t s or r e l a t i v e s . movement.  Older o h i l d r e n were allowed more freedom o f  A l l c h i l d r e n h a d t o be " i n " by a c e r t a i n hour* 1  The younger ones had t o be i n by 8 p.m., t h e e l d e r ones l a t e r * He one stayed out a f t e r 10 p.m.* without from-'Mr. o r Mrs*. S c o t t .  special  permission  128  I n the  matter of  d i s c i p l i n e , d u r i n g P e r i o d 1, a hoy  c o u l d be strapped f o r l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , w i l f u l d i s o b e d i e n c e and d e s t r u c t i o n , f i g h t i n g , and extreme " c h e e k i n e s s . "  He  c o u l d l o s e p r i v i l e g e s f o r "coming i n l a t e " o r f a i l u r e t o perform c h o r e s .  U s u a l l y , i f a boy was n o t s t r a p p e d , he was  "kept i n " and/or h i s weekly allowance, which he u s u a l l y a t a movie, was w i t h h e l d u n t i l l a t e r .  spent  Sometimes he was b o t h  strapped and kept i n ; sometimes he a l s o had h i s allowance withheld.  I f a boy was kept i n , he was u s u a l l y c o n f i n e d t o  the house o r y a r d , Scott*  He was "canned i n , " a c c o r d i n g t o Mrs,  He might be "canned i n # every evening f o r a week.  Whan he was n o t allowed t o a t t e n d a movie, he found " i t went hard*"  Mrs. S c o t t s t a t e d  hard way, by watching  thatTsuoh  times a boy l e a r n e d "the  the o t h e r s troop o f f t o the show*-the  poor l i t t l e p e c c a d i l l o * "  There were times when Mrs* S c o t t  kept a l l t h e boys i n u n t i l a n o f f e n d e r admitted h i s g u i l t — f o r some misdeed* usually  She thought i t was "hard on everyone" b u t  effective* In  extreme  circumstances,  the  S c o t t s loaned money  t o f o s t e r c h i l d r e n and were always r e p a i d — b o t h i n money and gratitude* The S c o t t s were q u i t e p o p u l a r i n K i t s i l a n o — t h e f o s t e r o h i l d r e n were w i d e l y accepted t h e r e , which must have i n c r e a s e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l worth.  The S c o t t s  neighbours were s o r r y t o see them move, b u t they d i d move t o Burnaby i n February, 1939* l a r g e l y f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons* The S c o t t s and the f o s t e r and own c h i l d r e n were a l s o s o r r y t o  129 sr  leave K i t s l l a n o .  However, the S e o t t s maintained c o n t a c t w i t h  their old friends i n KItsilano i n Period  afterwards,  2 the f o s t e r home i n Burnaby was a l i t t l e  l a r g e r p h y s i c a l l y , than t h a t i n K I t s i l a n o *  I t was surrounded  by an a c r e o f l a n d , t w o - t h i r d s o f which was covered by a l a r g e garden, and an e n c l o s u r e f o r c h i c k e n s , ducks, geese, r a b b i t s , and goats*  The acreage was p a r t l y fenced*  Although,  somewhat i s o l a t e d , the f o s t e r home was w i t h i n easy walking distance  o f community The  facilities*  house was a two-storey wooden s t r u c t u r e .  There  were f o u r l a r g e bedrooms u p s t a i r s and two s m a l l e r ones downstairs. The  L i v i n g arrangements were s i m i l a r t o those i n K I t s i l a n o *  S c o t t s and the younger c h i l d r e n s l e p t d o w n s t a i r s , t h e  older children upstairs* bunks were used* one  room.  upstairs  There were never more than three persons i n  through most o f P e r i o d  2.  J e s s i e and h e r aunt shared  The house had t h e u s u a l conveniences and  p h y s i c a l l y c o m f o r t a b l e and r e a s o n a b l y c l e a n *  unfinished At  Sometimes  Angus shared a room w i t h a f o s t e r b r o t h e r o r two  a room u p s t a i r s . was  Bach boy had a bed*  a t t i c and a basement c o n t a i n i n g  I t had an  a s m a l l workshop.  times t h e r e were 13 people l i v i n g i n the house d u r i n g  Period  2, i n c l u d i n g 7 GAS f o s t e r c h i l d r e n .  p e t s , i n c l u d i n g a dog,  The household  c a t , and c a n a r i e s , were brought t o  Burnaby, and, as I n K I t s i l a n o , were a source o f enjoyment and companionship f o r everyone. The  h i g h standard o f p h y s i c a l c a r e and r u l e s o f  13Q  P e r i o d 1 continued varied.  i n P e r i o d 2*  D i s c i p l i n e was  discarded.  Mrs.  a l t e r e d i n 1940  S c o t t had  e a r l i e r as she had  Chores were s i m i l a r but more  considered  whan the s t r a p  d i s c a r d i n g the  found i t a r a t h e r f u t i l e d e v i c e  h a n d l i n g boys, e s p e c i a l l y e m o t i o n a l l y - d i s t u r b e d was  convinced  o f t h i s when, i n 1940,  The  for  ones.  She  Mr.  Scott  worker a t the t i m e .  S c o t t s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r stock o f p o u l t r y  animals e a r l y i n P e r i o d 2. supply  strap  her s t r a p p i n g of Angus  f o r misbehaviour brought no p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . agreed t o t h i s move as d i d the CAS  o f f o o d , which was  r a t i o n i n g i n World War  was  T h i s measure i n c r e a s e d  and  their  important because o f g e n e r a l  II.  T h e i r goat herd was  a c c i d e n t a l l y and not a c c o r d i n g  to p l a n .  food  started rather  I n 1940  one  of  the  "boys" brought a " l o s t " . g o a t home; Mrs* S c o t t " n e a r l y had fit." decided was  However,:when the owner c o u l d not be found, Mr* t o keep the animal*  very pleased*  the herd was  Mr*  started*  The  a  Scott  f o s t e r c h i l d i n question,  S c o t t bought a mate f o r the goat  and  Mrs* S c o t t , w h i l e c h i e f l y a c t i v e w i t h .  household a c t i v i t i e s , d i d spend some time w i t h the p o u l t r y , garden, and a n i m a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n P e r i o d 2 as Mr. h e a l t h began t o f a i l .  One  o f her c h i e f t a s k s was  Scott's  milking  the  g o a t s — f e w o f the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n cared f o r the t a s k , nor d i d J e s s i e and Angus* During P e r i o d 2, spending money was easy t o l e a r n , World War prosperous.  X l was  comparatively  i n p r o g r e s s ; times were  Newspaper r o u t e s and  other p a r t - t i m e  jobs were  easy t o o b t a i n | as were steady summertime and  year-round  j o b s , f o r the o l d e r boys, In nearby m i l l s , and  the l i k e .  Iff  an o l d e r f o s t e r o h i l d stayed w i t h t h e * S c o t t s d u r i n g P e r i o d f o r more than a few months, he u s u a l l y earned  2,  sufficient  .•I  money through h i s own hand, i f a c h i l d was  withheld  a bicycle.  w i t h o u t funds he was  allowance o f 25 cents T h i s was  e f f o r t s t o buy  g i v e n a weekly  f o r a d i s c i p l i n i n g b r e a c h as i n P e r i o d  s t a n c e s , as i n P e r i o d  i n extreme  f o s t e r c h i l d r e n ' s own  1.  circum-  the were  1.  a s t r o n g community f e e l i n g i n Burnaby  The  community was  a new  many a c t i v i t i e s f o r the S c o t t and  one,  a c t i v e , and  foster children.  Angus j o i n e d the S t . John's Ambulance cadets 1940's and  and  parents, or parent-surrogates,  s i m i l a r t o those i n P e r i o d There was  i n the e a r l y  encouraged a l a r g e number o f h i s f o s t e r b r o t h e r s  follow s u i t .  to  Many o f the boys belonged t o the J u n i o r F o r e s t  Wardens and m i l i t a r y cadet groups a t s c h o o l and L i f e w i t h i n the f o s t e r home was h e c t i c than i t was  i n P e r i o d 1.  The  elsewhere.  s i m i l a r but more  c h i l d r e n had s i m i l a r  p r i v i l e g e s , l e i s u r e - t i m e and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s * went t o the beach or camp i n the summer.  Mrs.  Scotts. continued  They  Scott r e c a l l s  t a k i n g the c h i l d r e n back t o K I t s i l a n o on "Sunday The  1).  1.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s between the S c o t t s , CAS,  provided  other  (an i n c r e a s e of 15 cents over P e r i o d  Sometimes the S c o t t s loaned money t o a hoy  d u r i n g P e r i o d 2.  On the  excursions."  t o show an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n a l l the  - 132  -  a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n and became known and w e 1 1 - l i k e d In the neighborhood which was o f Immense importance t o the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n ' s f e e l i n g o f p e r s o n a l worth and s t a t u s *  Mr.  S c o t t ' s r e l a t i v e s showed a c o n t i n u i n g . i n t e r e s t i n the f o s t e r family.  Week-end p a r t i e s continued  J e s s i e was teaching  t o take p l a c e .  1943,  By  some o f t h e f o s t e r c h i l d r e n how t o dance.  She taught Angus i n 1945*  During the war years & number o f  the S c o t t f o s t e r c h i l d r e n j o i n e d the f o r c e s . v i s i t e d t h e f o s t e r home w h i l e on l e a v e *  They o f t e n  Mr* S c o t t  obtained  work f o r some o f them* on t h e decks, o c c a s i o n a l l y , a f t e r they had  exhausted t h e i r funds and wanted temporary work*  main, however, t h e r e was a heavy turnover P e r i o d 2 as Chapter I I I i n d i c a t e s * were made*  The p r e s s u r e s  In the  of children i n  Many emergency placements  o f wartime had "broken" many f a m i l i e s  i n the Vancouver area and i n c r e a s e d t h e need f o r more CAS f o s t e r homes* P e r i o d 1, them*  There were never enough.  The S c o t t s , as i n '  had an average o f s i x CAS f o s t e r c h i l d r e n l i v i n g  with  Some o f them were q u i t e d i s t u r b e d and a l l r e q u i r e d con*  s l d e r a b l e p a t i e n c e and c a r e ,  A l s o , J e s s i e and Angus reached  adolescence i n P e r i o d 2 and experienced o f t h i s developmental p e r i o d *  the usual  "struggles"  As s t a t e d i n Chapter XXI, an  average o f nine c h i l d r e n per y e a r were p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s i n P e r i o d 2, handling  Toward the l a s t , the p r e s s u r e s  occasioned  by  so many c h i l d r e n i n t h i s P e r i o d , as w e l l as the  advancing ages o f the f o s t e r parents*  Mr. S c o t t ' s  falling  h e a l t h , and the e f f e c t o f the,presence o f so many "newcomers"  •* 133  on t h e emotional e q u i l i b r i u m o f t h e f o s t e r f a m i l y , took a " t o l l " o f Mr. and Mrs, foregoing  Scott*  as a p a r t i a l r e s u l t o f the  f a c t o r s , the S c o t t s , a f t e r 1 9 * 8 , went i n t o "semi-  retirement"  as f o s t e r  parents*  In P e r i o d 3 l i f e i n t h e S e o t t f o s t e r home was comparatively 1949,  quiet.  Few placements were made a f t e r F e b r u a r y ,  as Chapter I I I i n d i c a t e s .  I T , S c o t t , who had been  r e t i r e d f o r three years and who was i n poor h e a l t h , j u s t "puttered  about t h e house."  J e s s i e was m a r r i e d I n 1950 and  moved "away from h e r p a r e n t s .  The Scotts' moved t o a s m a l l e r  home., i n Burnaby, a f t e r h e r marriage, a f t e r s e l l i n g p o u l t r y and a n i m a l s .  their  The r u l e s and system o f d i s c i p l i n e o f  e a r l i e r years p r e v a i l e d i n P e r i o d 3 "cut the range o f " o u t s i d e " chores. w.as. g r e a t l y redueed a f t e r the f o s t e r p a r e n t s moved i n 1950.  Angus j o i n e d the Army I n 1951» and t h e S c o t t f o s t e r  home was c l o s e d i n September, they c o u l d no longer  1952*  The S c o t t s f e l t  that  serve t h e CAS because o f Mr. S c o t t ' s  health. Mrs.  S c o t t , l h l o o k i n g back over h e r years as a  f o s t e r mother,said, i n the aforementioned Interview,  that  being a f o s t e r mother "was wonderful and t h a t she enjoyed every minute o f i t . "  She went on t o say t h a t " i t was a l o t  o f hard work, t e a r s and h e a r t b r e a k , b u t i t was mostly I'd do i t a l l over  again."  fun--  134  l a t e r v i e w s w i t h Former F o s t e r  Children  This section w i l l describe interviews with four former S c o t t f o s t e r c h i l d r e n r e l a t i v e t o l i f e i n the f o s t e r home as seen by them; one  i n P e r i o d 2,  described  Two Ix ed w i t h the S c o t t s i n P e r i o d  and one i n Pc i o d 3,  1,  The i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be  i n the order o f t h e P e r i o d i n which these f o s t e r  c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s .  A l l i n t e r v i e w s were  pleasant.  Period 1:. K i l b y was a s u c c e s s f u l Long-term placement i n P e r i o d 1 and one o f the f i r s t f o s t e r c h i l d r e n p l a e e d w i t h the Scotts,  He was e i g h t when plaoed w i t h them i n 1932.  Kilby,  through the g r e a t e r p a r t off h i s s t a y w i t h the S c o t t s , shared the f o s t e r home w i t h s e v e r a l o l d e r boys from the CAS. A c c o r d i n g t o K i l b y , Mr. S c o t t was a f i r m b u t k i n d l y man. He g e n e r a l l y administered d i s c i p l i n e f a i r l y and "knew how t o use the s t r a p . " K i l b y f e l t t h a t Mr* S c o t t u s u a l l y "abided by the judgment o f I r s . S c o t t concerning d i s c i p l i n a r y and household matters and t h a t Mr. S c o t t was " t h e boss out** side,*? K i l b y s a i d t h a t Mr. S c o t t brought a p a i r off r a b b i t s to the f o s t e r home I n 1932. Soon a f t e r he taught K i l b y how t o breed, r a i s e , and k i l l r a b b i t s and c h i c k e n s t o " p r o v i d e food f o r the t a b l e and t o enable him t o make a l i t t l e money." Mr, S c o t t a l s o taught K i l b y "sometiling" about gardening and how t o do r e p a i r work "around the house." K i l b y l i k e d Mr. Scott, . .. K i l b y thought t h a t Mrs. S c o t t was " t o o s t r i c t . " I f he was a few minutes l a t e , he was "kept i n , " sometimes f o r a week. Sometimes h i s weekly allowance was w i t h h e l d , ' S t r a p p i n g made him r e s e n t f u l . He was sometimes strapped f o r " c h e e k i n e s s " when h o n e s t l y denying an o f f e n c e . However, he admitted t h a t he was u s u a l l y strapped f o r a good r e a s o n — h e was alway r e b e l l i o u s and wanting t o argue and f i g h t . He s t a t e d t h a t he was " e i t h e r s p o i l e d o r abused" i n e a r l i e r f o s t e r homes and found the " s t r i c t though u s u a l l y f a i r "  m  -  S c o t t d i s c i p l i n e "hard t o take a t times." He thought t h a t Mrs. S c o t t c o u l d have g i v e n him more l o v e and a f f e c t i o n because he always responded p o s i t i v e l y when she was k i n d t o him. A l s o , according t o K i l b y , i f the Scotts could not "connect" a p a r t i c u l a r o f f e n c e w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r boy "everyone" was "kept i n u n t i l t h e guy was found out." K i l b y thought t h i s u n f a i r . He was n o t punished f o r running away—he d i d so t w i c e , f o r a day o r so each time, t o t h e o u t s k i r t s o f t h e c i t y . He was encouraged to r u n away each time by P h i l i p , an o l d e r CAS boy w i t h t h e S c o t t s a t t h e time ( P h i l i p was t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l Long-term placement i n P e r i o d 1 ) . K i l b y s a i d t h a t he was removed from the S c o t t s i n J u l y , 1937j " f o r being o r n e r y , " He mentioned being b r u t a l l y strapped i n h i s next f o s t e r home and a s k i n g t o be r e t u r n e d t o the S c o t t s i n October, 1937 (as s t a t e d i n Chapter I I I ) . He a l s o mentioned h i s removal from the S e o t t s a second time, I n May, 1 9 3 8 . He s a i d that'he s t r u c k Mrs. S c o t t " i n a f i t o f temper because she annoyed him." Mr, S c o t t was p r e s e n t and t r i e d t o i n t e r c e d e . Mr. S o o t t and K i l b y had a f i g h t . Kilby was removed s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s . K i l b y was upset a f t e r each move b u t f e l t t h a t they were n e c e s s a r y . K i l b y s t a t e d t h a t , d e s p i t e I r s . S c o t t ' s being " t o o s t r i c t " a t times, i t was o n l y through h e r e f f o r t s t h a t he s u c c e s s f u l l y completed Grade 4 i n 1935* She c o n s u l t e d h i s teacher when he was "bogged down" and arranged t h a t he do e x t r a homework. She h e l p e d him w i t h h i s s t u d i e s i n t h e evenings. He ranked second I n h i s Grade 4 graduating c l a s s . He g e n e r a l l y d i d f a i r l y w e l l a t s c h o o l w h i l e w i t h t h e S c o t t s , because Mrs. S c o t t always "kept a f t e r him." He thought she was t h e "main cog" i n t h e f o s t e r home, and t h a t the S c o t t marriage r e l a t i o n s h i p was s t a b l e . K i l b y l i k e d and g o t along w e l l w i t h Angus and Jessie. (Angus was two and J e s s i e f i v e i n 1 9 3 2 . ) He s a i d they were n o t favoured over the CAS boys I n t h e f o s t e r home, w i t h whom he u s u a l l y got along s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . He was younger than they were, u s u a l l y , and d i d n o t have "too much t o do w i t h them." He added t h a t Angus and J e s s i e d i d n o t r e s e n t the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r home, K i l b y had no complaints about h i s p h y s i c a l c a r e i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home. He always had enough t o e a t and wear* The house was c o m f o r t a b l e . He had a bed and sometimes a room to h i m s e l f , Mrs. S c o t t k i s s e d him a t bedtime, which he " d i d n ' t mind." He got s u f f i c i e n t s l e e p and enjoyed good h e a l t h w i t h t h e S c o t t s . He thought t h e d a i l y r o u t i n e o f l i f e i n the f o s t e r home was s a t i s f a c t o r y . K i l b y made no complaints about CAS workers who v i s i t e d the S c o t t f o s t e r home d u r i n g h i s placement t h e r e .  He  13©  s a i d they " d i d n ' t come around vary o f t e n * " When they d i d , they u s u a l l y t a l k e d t o Mrs. S c o t t , or t o both Mr. and Mrs* S c o t t f i r s t , and to him l a t e r — a l o n e i n h i s room or " o u t s i d e the house." Sometimes a worker would t a l k t o K i l b y and one o r b o t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s t o g e t h e r * Whatever the v i s i t i n g arrangements were, they were s a t i s f a c t o r y as f a r as K i l b y and the S c o t t s were c o n c e r n e d — a c c o r d i n g t o K i l b y * K i l b y went t o Sunday s c h o o l w h i l e w i t h the S c o t t s — f o r the "value he got out o f i t " and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , u n t i l he was t e n , because going t o Sunday s c h o o l gave him an o p p o r t u n i t y t o "get o f f the b l o c k or out o f the backyard*" K i l b y s a i d he was " r e s t r i c t e d " t o these areas u n t i l he was t e n . K i l b y s a i d t h a t he s o l d eggs f o r the S c o t t s . He s o l d them throughout the neighborhood* They were s u r p l u s eggs "from the c h i c k e n s * " While he d i d not r e c e i v e remunerat i o n f o r t h i s work, he enjoyed i t . He s a i d t h a t t h i s task was "one o f h i s c h o r e s * " K i l b y s o l d r a b b i t s he h i m s e l f had bred " i n the backyard" w i t h Mr* S c o t t ' s h e l p * He was a l l o w e d t o keep the proceeds f o r spending money* He o b t a i n e d c e r t a i n p a r t - t i m e jobs w i t h Mrs* S c o t t ' s h e l p , such as c u t t i n g lawns, d e l i v e r i n g g r o c e r i e s , and so f o r t h * He kept h i s e a r n i n g s and had a s m a l l bank account "some o f the time," When he was "broke," he r e c e i v e d 10 c e n t s weekly from Mrs* S c o t t u n l e s s he was being d i s c i p l i n e d f o r something " p r e t t y s e r i o u s * " He would get i t l a t e r i n any case* He u s u a l l y went t o a weekly movie when he was "behaving" h i m s e l f * Otherwise he was "kept I n . " He s a i d " l t wasn't easy" sometimes, watching the o t h e r k i d s go o f f t o the show--! j u s t had t o l e a r n t h i n g s the tough way, I guess*" K i l b y ' s c h o r e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o s e l l i n g eggs, i n c l u d e d keeping h i s room t l d y j h e l p i n g w i t h the d i s h e s , c a r r y i n g i n wood, a s s i s t i n g i n t h e weekly h o u s e e l e a n i n g , and c a r i n g f o r the c h i c k e n s and r a b b i t s — o n a r o t a t i o n b a s i s w i t h the o t h e r c h i l d r e n . K i l b y found h i s summers w i t h the S c o t t s v e r y e n j o y a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y on week-ends, when I r s * S c o t t and "the whole gang" i n the f o s t e r home went w i t h neighbours and t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o K i t s l l a n o beach f o r an e n t i r e day* He a l s o j o i n e d a Cub t r o o p i n the neighbourhood* L a t e r , he belonged t o a Scout troop f o r a s h o r t w h i l e . He s t i l l remembers p l a y i n g a p l e a s a n t game o f checkers or cards w i t h Mr. and Mrs. S c o t t and "the o t h e r s . " He does not remember s e e i n g Mr. and Mrs. S c o t t quarrelling* He s a i d t h a t sometimes they would have a d i s agreement and would "go o f f t o t h e i r room t o s e t t l e I t . "  137 K i l b y f e l t t h a t the S c o t t f o s t e r home and the l a s t one he l i v e d i n p r i o r t o j o i n i n g the Army, i n 1942, were the b e s t o f the 13 f o s t e r homes i n which he was p l a c e d d a r i n g 17 y e a r s . o f care* He s a i d t h a t he u s u a l l y knew where he s t o o d " i n these two f o s t e r homes* He has k e p t i n touch w i t h the S c o t t s (as mentioned In Chapter XXI) and attended Mr. S c o t t ' s funeral*, K i l b y became f r i e n d l y w i t h Herbert* (another s u c c e s s f u l Long-term placement i n P e r i o d 1). Herbert and K i l b y l i v e d w i t h the S c o t t s a t the same time and formed a f r i e n d s h i p t h a t remains s t r o n g today* They j o i n e d the Army t o g e t h e r , met overseas by arrangement, and have been i n touch w i t h one another s i n c e d i s c h a r g e from the Army. They corresponded w i t h the S c o t t s w h i l e o v e r s e a s . K i l b y i n t r o d u c e d h i s w i f e and  c h i l d r e n during  i n t e r v i e w , which took p l a c e i n h i s modest home. group seemed t o be a v e r y happy one. i n t e r e s t e d and and  The  family  K i l b y ' s w.ife was  f r i e n d l y l i s t e n e r throughout the  the  an  interview.  spoke w e l l o f the Scotts,. whom she has met*  Sen was a s u c c e s s f u l placement i n 1933 a t the age o f 18. He remained e i g h t months* He shared the S c o t t f o s t e r home w i t h M i c h a e l , N i c h o l a s , H e r b e r t , M o r r i s , L o u i s , and K i l b y . A l l were Long-term placements* A l l the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n except L o u i s and K i l b y were " o l d e r b o y s " — t h a t i s , 15 years or o l d e r * The older, boys had l e f t s c h o o l and were working, f u l l o r p a r t - t i m e , o r were l o o k i n g f o r work. J e s s i e was 11 and Angus In  8  1933*  Ben s a i d t h a t Mr* S c o t t t r e a t e d the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n k i n d l y . He would y e l l a t the o l d e r c h i l d r e n o c c a s i o n a l l y - * when they made too much n o i s e w h i l e engaged i n tomfoolery* He s a i d t h a t Mr* S c o t t , a " q u i e t man," who would t a l k w i t h the "boys," p a r t i c u l a r l y the younger ones* However, he was " I n t e r e s t e d " i n the o l d e r boys as w e l l , and helped some o f them f i n d work on the w a t e r f r o n t * He helped Ben get a job as a longshoreman f o r a s h o r t time* .According t o Ben, Mr. S c o t t had l i t t l e s o c i a l l i f e one e f the reasons being t h a t he was always t i r e d a t n i g h t a f t e r a hard day o f work. Sometimes, a l s o , Mr. S c o t t had t o work a t n i g h t , on s h o r t n o t i c e , a f t e r being i d l e a l l day. Because times were " d i f f i c u l t , " Mr. S c o t t "jumped" a t any o p p o r t u n i t y to "get i n h i s week's work" a t staggered and I r r e g u l a r working hours* Ben added t h a t Hr. S c o t t d i d n o t  g e t " t o o much s l e e p some weeks." According t o Ben, Mr, S c o t t had " t r o u b l e " w i t h h i s l e g s and f e e t i n 1938, and would soak them i n h o t water f o r a " l o n g time" a f t e r r e t u r n i n g from work, Mr,. S c o t t was not concerned t h a t a l l the c h i l d r e n have proper footwear because o f h i s u n f o r t u n a t e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h p o o r l y f i t t i n g shoes as a boy, Ben s a i d t h a t he l i k e d and had c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s p e c t f o r Mr. S c o t t , Mrs, S c o t t , a c c o r d i n g t o Ben, was a " p e r f e c t . complement" t o Mr. S c o t t . He s a i d t h a t "although t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s were d i f f e r e n t " they seemed t o have the same g o a l s i n l i f e — a happy marriage and a happy home l i f e . Ben thought t h a t Mrs. S c o t t had the " r u l i n g hand" i n the f o s t e r home, a l t h o u g h he always f e l t t h a t Mr. .Scott had t h e " f i n a l say" i n an emergency o r c r i s i s . He added, however, t h a t I r s . S c o t t c o u l d o f t e n "swing" Mr. S c o t t t o h e r way o f t h i n k i n g . Ben has fond memories o f Mrs. S c o t t . He s a i d t h a t a l t h o u g h she c o u l d n o t take t h e " r e a l " p l a c e o f a mother, she "came darned c l o s e t o i t | " and. w h i l e she d i d n o t " p u l l punches w i t h her tongue," she was n o t " s u l k y a f t e r t h i n g s went wrong." He s a i d she d i s c i p l i n e d summarily a f t e r an o f f e n c e . She d i d n o t m a i n t a i n i l l - f e e l i n g a g a i n s t the offender afterwards. Ben thought t h a t g e n e r a l l y she was t h e "main f o r c e " i n the f o s t e r home and t h a t both.Mr, and Mrs. S c o t t "played f a i r and square w i t h everyone." Ben r e c a l l e d how Mrs. S c o t t took a deep i n t e r e s t i n h i s l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s . He remembers how she would go to much t r o u b l e t o i r o n a s h i r t f o r him b e f o r e a date (as she d i d f o r the other o l d e r boys who had d a t e s ) , ©he would encourage Ben and "the o t h e r s " t o b r i n g t h e i r g i r l f r i e n d s t o the f o s t e r home on week-ends f o r an evening o f d a n c i n g . She taught him and the o t h e r boys t o dance. She danced w i t h them o f t e n . She "helped a l o n g " M i c h a e l i n h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h a daughter o f a f r i e n d o f the S c o t t s . M i c h a e l l a t e r m a r r i e d t h i s g i r l . Ben thought t h a t Mrs. S c o t t was a " b i t o f a gay b l a d e " i n her youth because o f h e r v i g o u r and enthusiasm d u r i n g the week-end dances. Sometimes she would g e t "a b i t rambunctious" and n e g l e c t h e r housework t o dance w i t h " t h e boys." A t such times Mr. S c o t t would " l e t h e r know about t h i s " and she would "ease up." Ben observed t h a t t h e S c o t t s "got a l o n g s w e l l . " He s a i d t h a t they always argued t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s q u i e t l y and "away from us." I n the matter o f d i s c i p l i n e , the S c o t t s would "meet a boy half-way; and so long as he p l a y e d b a l l he g o t along a l l r i g h t , " a c c o r d i n g t o Ben. Angus and J e s s i e , were d i s c i p l i n e d "before the o t h e r s , " i f n e e e s s a r y . He thought t h a t K i l b y (whose i n t e r v i e w precedes t h i s one) was " f a i r l y t r e a t e d . " He l i k e s K i l b y and hears from him o c c a s i o n a l l y . Ben s a i d t h a t  -  13?  the older boys were " p r e t t y w e l l s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g , " as far. as d i s c i p l i n e and obeying the r u l e s were concerned. They u s u a l l y s e t t l e d t h e i r problems amongst themselves, and the S c o t t s gave them " l o t s of leeway" i n t h i s respect. Ben "didn't mind" doing h i s chores—when he was not working; He r o t a t e d weekly according t o the S c o t t system. He s a i d that he saw . no f a v o u r i t i s m w i t h regard t o the f o s t e r and S c o t t c h i l d r e n I n connection w i t h d i s c i p l i n e and a f f e c t i o n . He thought t h a t t h i s was "amazing," when he considered other CAS f o s t e r homes he had l i v e d i n . He a l s o i n d i c a t e d that he* knew "where he stood" w i t h the S c o t t s . Ben stated that he d i d not have "much t o do" w i t h Angus and J e s s i e , who were much younger than he. He l i k e d them and regarded them as "the boss's k i d s and as a younger brother and s i s t e r . " However, as he looks back, he does n o t know why he had a "boss's k i d s f e e l i n g , " because there was no d i s t i n c t i o n made between the S c o t t and the f e s t e r c h i l d r e n . He thought t h a t , perhaps, he f e l t t h i s way because o f h i s experience i n other f o s t e r homes. Ha thought t h a t J e s s i e was a " b i t s p o i l e d " by so much masculine a t t e n t i o n , but l i k e a b l e " j u s t the same," According t o Ben, Angus and J e s s i e d i d not seem t o be r e s e n t f u l o f f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r home. Ben s a i d that he received good p h y s i c a l care w h i l e w i t h the S c o t t s • He u s u a l l y went t o bed a t 10 p.m., except on week-ends, when he could stay out u n t i l 11 or 12 o'clock. . He always had enough s l e e p and enough t o eat and found the f o s t e r home comfortable. He had a weekly bath l i k e the other boys. He remembered, w i t h a s m i l e , the " t e r r i f i c bathroom l i n e - u p s " — s o m e t i m e s — d e s p i t e the f a c t that baths "were staggered." Ben had a separate bed u p s t a i r s and shared a room w i t h M i c h a e l , He s a i d that he sometimes brought a f r i e n d over t o the Scotts f o r s u p p e r — a s d i d the other b o y s — d e s p i t e the depression and the f a c t that the S c o t t s were "hard put t o feed everyone." Ben, as an o l d e r and working boy, had fewer chores around the f o s t e r home than those who were younger and a t t e n d * ing s c h o o l . He and the other o l d e r boys d i d much o f t h e i r own "housekeeping" other than cooking and washing, They made t h e i r own beds and cleaned t h e i r rooms d a l l y . They helped i n the Saturday house-cleaning i f a t home. Sometimes Ben d i d a l i t t l e r e p a i r Work around the house or the odd chore- o u t s i d e , such as feeding the chickens and r a b b i t s , o r working I n the garden, While Ben was w i t h the S c o t t s , Herbert and K i l b y were attending s c h o o l , as w e l l as J e s s i e and Angus, L o u i s , Who had l e f t s c h o o l , had a newspaper route and worked a t odd jobs i n the neighbourhood, Ben and the other o l d e r boys were  140  -  working part-time or f u l l time, or l o o k i n g f o r work. Ben r e c e i v e d t e n cents weekly f o r spending money when he was without funds. O c c a s i o n a l l y he borrowed s m a l l sums from the S c o t t s , f o r which he was very g r a t e f u l . Ben saw few CAS workers i n , t h e S c o t t f o s t e r home. He s t a t e d t h a t one worker "handled" a l l the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n w h i l e he was t h e r e . The worker, a man, seemed t o get along very w e l l w i t h the S c o t t s . When he came, he would g r e e t everyone. Then he would u s u a l l y t a l k t o the S c o t t s and l a t e r t o the CAS boys, Ben s a i d t h a t o c c a s i o n a l l y a r e l a t i v e or parent o f a f o s t e r c h i l d would v i s i t the f o s t e r home. The v i s i t s were p l e a s a n t "as f a r as he knew." The v i s i t o r would t a l k to the S c o t t s f i r s t and then t a l k t o the boy a l o n e i n h i s room or "go f o r a walk," Sometimes the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n would v i s i t parents or r e l a t i v e s f o r a week-end w h i l e Ben was w i t h the S c o t t s . ' Ben s t a t e d t h a t l i f e i n the f o s t e r home was a " d a i l y , j o y f u l , and continuous bedlam" from 6,30 a.m. when the o l d e r boys and the S e o t t s a r o s e , u n t i l 10 p.m. He s a i d t h a t the K I t s i l a n o neighbourhood was a v e r y s o c i a b l e one and more so than t h a t i n Burnaby (he v i s i t e d the S c o t t s i n Burnaby a f t e r he was d i s c h a r g e d from c a r e ) . He went on t o say t h a t he had been " p r a c t i c a l l y an orphan without a n a t u r a l home l i f e " f o r ten years p r i o r t o coming to the S e o t t s , He had come i n t o care i n 1933 and had had s e v e r a l "bad" f o s t e r homes, p l u s s h o r t placements i n the A l e x a n d r i a orphanage, b e f o r e coming t o the S c o t t s i n 1937. He s a i d t h a t h i s p a r e n t s i n t e r f e r e d w i t h h i s placements p r i o r t o 1937» which upset him. Ben f e l t t h a t the S c o t t f o s t e r home "was more l i k e a home should be." The f o s t e r home was the o n l y one i n which he c o u l d be "almost c l o s e enough t o another boy t o c a l l him brother," He l i k e d and got along w e l l w i t h everyone t h e r e and s t i l l keeps In t o u c h w i t h Mrs. S c o t t , J e s s i e , Angus, N i c h o l a s , M i c h a e l , and K i l b y * He attended Mr. S c o t t ' s funeral. Ben had "no r e g r e t s " a f t e r l e a v i n g the S e o t t s t o take a job elsewhere, although he was " g l a d t o get out o f the c l u t c h e s o f the A i d . " He s a i d t h a t i t was " a i l f u n w i t h the S c o t t s . " He r e p e a t e d t h a t he f e l t " c l o s e " t o everyone i n the f o s t e r home and had a r e a l f e e l i n g o f b e i n g wanted and b e l o n g ing. He repeated t h a t the S c o t t and f o s t e r c h i l d r e n were treated a l i k e * He added t h a t " i f the S c o t t s had a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r A i d boy they sure d i d n ' t show i t * " He concluded t h a t i n o t h e r f o s t e r homes he had l i v e d In the " A i d k i d s were pushed around and d i d a l l the work; t h i s d i d n ' t happen a t the S c o t t s * "  The  i n t e r v i e w w i t h Ben took p l a c e i n h i s home.  One  o f h i s c h i l d r e n was i n t r o d u c e d , a f r i e n d l y boy o f about t e n . Ben's w i f e and other c h i l d r e n were o u t . Period; a* Thornton was a s u c c e s s f u l Long-term placement i n P e r i o d 2. 1943.  He was 12 when p l a c e d w i t h t h e S c o t t s I n August,  He remained w i t h them f o r three  years*  Thornton'3 i m p r e s s i o n s o f Mr* S c o t t were s i m i l a r t o those g i v e n by t h e two former S c o t t f o s t e r c h i l d r e n whose i n t e r v i e w s have j u s t been d e s c r i b e d * He d e s c r i b e d Mr. S c o t t as " s t r i c t b u t k i n d * " He added t h a t Sir. S c o t t was " r e a l l y a farmer a t h e a r t and made c e r t a i n t h a t everyone knew something about gardening., and c a r i n g f o r t h e p o u l t r y and animals b e f o r e they l e f t * " He s a i d t h a t he o n l y saw Mr. S c o t t p h y s i c a l l y d i s c i p l i n e a f o s t e r c h i l d on one o c c a s i o n ; he s a i d t h a t the bey, "a b i g I n d i a n , " was " s a s s i n g " Mr. S c o t t "something a w f u l , because Mr* S c o t t was remonstrating w i t h him f o r "coming i n l a t e * " S3r* S c o t t "shoved t h e guy a l i t t l e , " a c c o r d i n g t o Thorriton* Thornton observed t h a t he ^ c o u l d see" f i r . S c o t t ' s h e a l t h g r a d u a l l y worsen from 1943 t o 1946 b u t t h a t Mr. S c o t t was n o t t o o i r r i t a b l e as a r e s u l t . : Thornton thought t h a t Mrs. S c o t t was " f a i r b u t pretty s t r i c t * " He thought t h a t she c o u l d have been " a l i t t l e more u n d e r s t a n d i n g " as f a r as he was concerned* She o n l y "smacked" htm o n c e — f o r h e l p i n g h i m s e l f t o r a t i o n e d b u t t e r i n 1944* He f e l t t h a t he deserved the blow* He s a i d t h a t she r a r e l y s t r u c k anyone w h i l e he was i n the f o s t e r home. The s t r a p was never used* He was k e p t i n now and then f o r coming i n l a t e . Ha s a i d t h a t H r s . S c o t t i r k e d him and t h e o t h e r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f 1944; the S c o t t s had l a i d new l i n o l e u m on t h e main f l o o r o f t h e f o s t e r home and f o r about s i x months a f t e r w a r d s , u n t i l t h e l i n o l e u m was "broken i n everyone had t o remove h i s shoes on e n t e r i n g the house* Thornton and t h e o t h e r s thought t h e "whole t h i n g " was s i l l y * Thornton s t a t e d t h a t he was n o t "up t o t h e o t h e r s " i n the f o s t e r home—"they were smarter then me," he s a i d (he was o f high-grade moron i n t e l l i g e n c e ) * He was n e v e r " t o o c l o s e " t o o t h e r s i n t h e f o s t e r home* He s a i d t h a t the S c o t t s t r i e d t o make him f e e l more " a t home," b u t they c o u l d n o t  142 -  understand him. In any ease he found l i f e i n t h e f o s t e r home t o l e r a b l e because he knew "where he s t o o d , " and had some f e e l * ing o f b e l o n g i n g . He s a i d t h a t the S c o t t ' s own son, Angus was Q u i t e a p r a n k s t e r and l e a d e r o f the "gang" (Angus was 13 i n 1943), He added t h a t O r v i l l e (a s u c c e s s f u l Long-term p l a c e * ment from 1938 t o 1944 as mentioned i n Chapter III) was a C l e v e r t h i e f who caused some t r o u b l e i n the f o s t e r home. A i l the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n and Angus, who was " c l o s e " t o O r v i l l e , were kept i n u n t i l O r v i l l e admitted h i s g u i l t f o r some o f f e n c e , u s u a l l y p e t t y t h e f t o r window-breaking i n the neighbourhood* Thornton thought t h i s form o f c o l l e c t i v e punishment was u n f a i r * Thornton had a newspaper r o u t e l i k e t h e o t h e r CAS boys, as d i d Angus* He a l s o d i d odd jobs i n the neighbourhood* He r e c e i v e d 25 cents weekly when n o t working* He a l s o belonged to the S t * John's Ambulance Cadets w i t h Angus and o t h e r s i n the f o s t e r home. They p u t on a s k i t a t a S t . John's Ambulance g a t h e r i n g on one o c c a s i o n . Mr. and Mrs. S c o t t were i n a t t e n d ance. The s k i t was a "howling s u c c e s s . " Thornton s a i d t h a t the S c o t t s "took a r e a l I n t e r e s t i n e v e r y t h i n g we d i d * " Thornton went to' Sunday s c h o o l " f o r a w h i l e " and quit* He s a i d t h a t every CAS boy, had a c h o i c e i n the matter, as d i d Angus and J e s s i e , who u s u a l l y attended Sunday s c h o o l . Thornton added t h a t when he d i d n o t a t t e n d Sunday s c h o o l he worked " i n the backyard." 1  Thornton v e r i f i e d the p i c t u r e o f d a l l y l i f e i n the f o s t e r home d u r i n g P e r i o d 2 as g i v e n by Mrs. S c o t t . He d i d not mind h i s chores b u t thought some o f t h e CAS boys were a b i t squeamish about k i l l i n g p o u l t r y and r a b b i t s , which he d i d not mind d o i n g . However, he admitted t h a t a boy was n o t asked to r e p e a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t a s k i f he d i d n o t wish. t o . He added t h a t Ilr* S c o t t "meant w e l l " i n a c q u a i n t i n g the boys w i t h t h i s a s p e c t o f farm l i f e . Thornton s a i d t h a t he had d i f f i c u l t y a t s c h o o l and t h a t he was " g l a d t o l e a v e " a f t e r completing Grade 5* He s a i d t h a t Mrs. S c o t t and J e s s i e (who was 16 i n 1943) h e l p e d him w i t h h i s homework. Thornton s a i d he " g o t a l o n g " w i t h Angus and J e s s i e and t h e i r aunt. Angus and J e s s i e d i d n o t r e s e n t l i v i n g w i t h f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , a c c o r d i n g t o Thornton. He s a i d t h a t I r s * S c o t t ' s s i s t e r had been i n the home about f i v e y e a r s when he a r r i v e d . She d i d n o t bother anyone, a c c o r d i n g t o Thornton, because I r s . S c o t t kept h e r " i n h e r p l a c e . " Thornton thought t h a t Mr. and Mrs. S c o t t were a "happy c o u p l e . " Thornton s a i d t h a t he got a l o n g f i n e w i t h h i s CAS worker and t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e S e o t t s and the CAS "seemed t o be good." The S c o t t s never o b j e c t e d t o Thornton v i s i t i n g h i s aunt ( h i s mother was i n E s s o n d a l e ) , nor M s t a l k ing a l o n e w i t h a worker, when one came t o the S c o t t s .  Thornton complained about the amount o f f o o d he r e c e i v e d a t the S c o t t s — h e never had enough and " p i n c h e d " the odd cake from a neighbourhood s t o r e . He s a i d t h a t the o t h e r boys were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r meals and evening snacks. He a l s o s a i d t h a t h i s aunt would have kept him, Instead o f l e a v i n g him i n CAS c a r e , b u t f o r h i s " a p p e t i t e . " He complained about having t o d r i n k goat's m i l k a t b r e a k f a s t i n the S c o t t f o s t e r home on seme o c c a s i o n s — t h e cow's m i l k had been "used up" by the o l d e r boys who had a r i s e n e a r l i e r . Thornton d i d not l i k e the " s m e l l " o f goat's m i l k . Thornton remarked t h a t Christmas and b i r t h d a y s were "bang-up a f f a i r s " i n the f o s t e r home. He a l s o remembered when, a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s , t h e r e were 13 people s i t t i n g around the t a b l e , i n c l u d i n g e i g h t CAS boys, the S c o t t s * the aunt, Angus and J e s s i e . Sometimes a former f o s t e r c h i l d , then i n the armed f o r c e s , would v i s i t the S c o t t s on l e a v e and would be t r e a t e d l i k e he "belonged t h e r e . " He remembers t h a t H r s . S c o t t o f t e n wrote t o her former f o s t e r c h i l d r e n s e r v i n g i n the armed f o r c e s and t h a t she r e c e i v e d many l e t t e r s from them. A t Christmas time, the mantle-place was "covered" w i t h c a r d s from former f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . Many former f o s t e r c h i l d r e n v i s i t e d the S c o t t s between 1943 and 1946, d u r i n g Thornton's placement w i t h the S c o t t s . They o f t e n s t a y e d f o r a meal and sometimes o v e r n i g h t , o r f o r a few days, Thornton s a i d t h a t the S c o t t f o s t e r home was " a l l r l g h t f o r s m a l l o f f e n d e r s , " such as " d e l i n q u e n t s who were gland t o get out o f t h e i r own homes" and who had weak f a m i l y t i e s . Thornton f e l t t h a t he was not i n t h i s " c a t e g o r y * because he and h i s mother had been "good f r i e n d s " b e f o r e her committal t o E s s o n d a l e . He v i s i t e d her a few times from t h e S c o t t s , He stopped d o i n g so because she "stopped r e c o g n i z i n g him." He was a l s o upset by her "appearance and odd b e h a v i o u r , " wnile Thornton would never want t o l i v e i n any f o s t e r home a g a i n , he thought t h a t the S c o t t s were "much b e t t e r " than h i s second f o s t e r p a r e n t s * who used t o "beat him up a l l th® time" and use him as "cheap l a b o r from the A i d " (Thornton was d i s c h a r g e d from h i s second f o s t e r home, i n the c o u n t r y , and CAS c a r e * as o f age, a few y e a r s a f t e r he l e f t the S c o t t s ) , Thornton s t a t e d t h a t he can s t i l l remember the day he was p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s a f t e r b e i n g taken i n t o c a r e . His mother was i n Essondale and he was v e r y l o n e l y f o r h e r . He was c r y i n g when he reached the f o s t e r home, Mrs. S c o t t greeted him warmly and gave him a " b i g hug," H i s worker and Mrs, S c o t t t r i e d to r e a s s u r e him t h a t " e v e r y t h i n g would be a l l r l g h t , " Mrs. S c o t t p l a c e d a cup o f cocoa and some comic books i n f r o n t o f him. He pushed h i s cup o f cocoa o f f the  144 *  t a b l e and s c a t t e r e d the comic books " a l l over the k i t c h e n f l o o r . " Mrs. S c o t t was " v e r y p a t i e n t .and understanding" and d i d not get angry. Thornton was s u r p r i s e d . . He c r i e d "every n i g h t " d u r i n g h i s f i r s t two weeks w i t h the S c o t t s b u t g r a d u a l l y " s e t t l e d down." Mrs. S c o t t s t a r t e d t o k i s s him " b e f o r e she turned the l i g h t s out a t n i g h t . " the n i g h t he a r r i v e d i n the f o s t e r home—as she d i d w i t h the " o t h e r boys." She continued the p r a c t i c e d u r i n g h i s placement and he " l i k e d it." Thornton attended B r . S c o t t ' s f u n e r a l and has kept i n touch w i t h the S c o t t s through the y e a r s (as mentioned i n Chapter I I I ) . Thornton was a f t e r hours.  i n t e r v i e w e d a t h i s p l a c e o f employment  H i s w i f e was p r e s e n t .  the i n t e r v i e w .  She was  interested In  The young c o u p l e seemed t o be a happy  Thornton spoke q u i t e spontaneously and f r e e l y .  one.  He seemed t o  enjoy the i n t e r v i e w e x p e r i e n c e .  Period  3s K e l v i n was  P e r i o d 3.  a s u c c e s s f u l Long-term placement  in  He l i v e d w i t h the S c o t t s from December. 1949,  February, 1952,  as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I .  He i s now  to 26.  K e l v i n and another CAS boy, t e r r y , moved w i t h the S c o t t s t o a s m a l l e r home i n Burnaby i n J u l y , 1950.  They were  the o n l y f o s t e r c h i l d r e n w i t h the S c o t t s a t the time* had j u s t m a r r i e d and was her wedding.  Angus was  l i v i n g elsewhere. still  Jessie  K e l v i n attended  l i v i n g a t home.  K e l v i n had c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s p e c t f o r Mr. S c o t t , whom he d e s c r i b e d as a man who "came up the hard way and expected the same o f the boys." K e l v i n s a i d t h a t Mr. S c o t t ' s h e a l t h was poor w h i l e he l i v e d w i t h the S c o t t s ,  145  K e l v i n d e s c r i b e d Hrs* S c o t t as a woman who " l i k e d boys and had no i n h i b i t i o n s ; she c o u l d take a joke and g i v e one; she had great i n t u i t i o n , was always i n t e r e s t e d i n a f e l l o w and always knew when t h i n g s went wrong," He s a i d t h a t she o f t e n came up t o h i s room a t n i g h t a f t e r he had been brooding i n a "concealed way" and t r y t o " h e l p " him, K e l v i n thought t h a t the S c o t t s were a happy c o u p l e , w i t h Mrs* S c o t t "dominant on the s u r f a c e . " They were w e l l l i k e d i n the community, he s a i d , and s t i l l maintained c o n t a c t w i t h o l d f r i e n d s from K I t s i l a n o and Mr. S c o t t ' s r e l a t i v e s . He s a i d t h a t Mrs. S c o t t ' s s i s t e r "minded her own b u s i n e s s " i n the f o s t e r home because she "seemed t o know her p l a c e . " K e l v i n s t a t e d t h a t Mr, and Mrs. S c o t t were very fond o f Angus and J e s s i e , He a l s o s a i d t h a t l i f e i n the f o s t e r home was u s u a l l y q u i e t , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r 1950* He added t h a t the S c o t t s would spend many an evening p l a y i n g a q u i e t game o f cribbage together o r w i t h him and Angus. K e l v i n , as an o l d e r boy, had c o n s i d e r a b l e l i b e r t y i n the foster-home. He c o u l d s t a y out reasonably l a t e a t / n i g h t . He always t o l d the S c o t t s o f h i s whereabouts, t o conform w i t h the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s of t h e ; f o s t e r home—he d i d not mind t h i s . He had no r e g u l a r chores because he was s t u d y i n g and working. However,, he always kept h i s room t i d y and made h i s bed d a l l y ; he helped w i t h the d i s h e s , the weekly house-cleaning and house r e p a i r s when he had spare t i m e . B e f o r e the S c o t t s moved i n J u l y , 1950, he o c c a s i o n a l l y d i d farm chores* As the S c o t t s s o l d t h e i r p o u l t r y and a n i m a l s , except f o r the household dog, c a t , and c a n a r i e s , when t h e y moved i n 1950, t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e " o u t s i d e " work t o do, except i n a s m a l l garden* Mr. S c o t t , though i n f a i l i n g h e a l t h , maintained the garden w i t h the help o f K e l v i n , Angus, Mrs* S c o t t and other f o s t e r c h i l d r e n * v  K e l v i n saw no p h y s i c a l punishment i n the f o s t e r h o m e — o n l y withdrawal o f p r i v i l e g e s * He, h i m s e l f , was never d i s c i p l i n e d and always knew "where he s t o o d . " The S c o t t s took a f r i e n d l y i n t e r e s t i n K e l v i n ' s f r i e n d s . He c o u l d b r i n g them t o the f o s t e r home a t any t i m e . Sometimes they stayed f o r supper and an evening o f v i s i t i n g . K e l v i n ' s f r i e n d s l i k e d Mr. and Mrs. S c o t t e q u a l l y w e l l and s t i l l ask about them, as w e l l as about Angus and J e s s i e * K e l v i n brought a f r i e n d (a non-CAS boy) t o the S c o t t s i n 1951—to l i v e w i t h him. The f r i e n d stayed a year* He was working. He l e f t to get married* The S c o t t s were as i n t e r e s t e d i n him as anyone e l s e * He i s now a u n i v e r s i t y student*  146* -  his  As brother,  mentioned i n Chapter Joseph, to live with  III, K e l v i n arranged for the S c o t t s i n September,  1952. K e l v i n got along w e l l w i t h J e s s i e and Angus, and a t t e n d e d t h e i r w e d d i n g s i n 1950 a n d 1955 respectively. Jessie w a s 22 w h e n K e l v i n w a s p l a c e d w i t h t h e S e o t t s ; A n g u s w a s 19. T h e too S c o t t c h i l d r e n w e r e n o t f a v o r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , a c c o r d i n g t o K e l v i n , a n d d i d n o t r e s e n t CAS boys' i n t h e i r home. Kelvin  thought  that  the  Seotts  were  very  happy  together. K e l v i n ' s most s t r i k i n g memories o f l i f e i n the f o s t e r home a r e b a s e d o n t h e S c o t t ' s g o o d p h y s i c a l c a r e , their Interest i n his studies, job, personal problems, friends, t h e g i r l whom h e l a t e r m a r r i e d , a n a t h e i r c o n t i n u e d Interest i n him. He c o n t i n u e d c o n t a c t w i t h t h e m . H e a t t e n d e d Mr.* Scott's funeral. K e l v i n s a i d t h a t he w i l l a l w a y s remember M r s . S c o t t ' s c o m i n g a l l t h e way f r o m B u r n a b y t o t h e V a n c o u v e r G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l t o v i s i t h i m when h e was i l l f o r a s h o r t time. He w i l l " n e v e r f o r g e t " t h e S c o t t s l e n d i n g h i m money when h e was " s h o r t " a s t h e y d i d f o r o t h e r CAS b o y s . He e a s i l y r e c a l l e d t h e " i m p r e s s i v e s c e n e s " w h e n some o f t h e " o l d " f o s t e r c h i l d r e n v i s i t e d the S c o t t s , According to K e l v i n , i t w a s " j u s t l i k e o l d Home W e e k . " K e l v i n s a i d t h a t t h e S c o t t f o s t e r home was t h e b e s t o n e h e h a d l i v e d i n a n d t h a t h e h a d " l e a r n e d m o r e a b o u t how t o l i v e i n a n o r d e r l y , f r i e n d l y way w i t h t h e S c o t t s t h a n a n y where else."  observed  K e l v i n has f r i e n d l y f e e l i n g s towards t h a t the S c o t t s had s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s . The  place  of  employment.  information draftsman  interview  a n d was  and i s  took  place  K e l v i n was very  happily  most  friendly* married.  i n a  cafe  the  near  cooperative  He i s  CAS.  He  Kelvin's in  now w o r k i n g  giving as  a  147  Own C h i l d r e n ' s  Feedings About L i f e i n t h e F o s t e r Home  A foster family's  own c h i l d r e n c a n be an important  p a r t o f t h e f a m i l y from the f o s t e r c h i l d ' s p o i n t o f view. A c c o r d i n g t o many a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e i r response t o t h e presence o f a f o s t e r c h i l d may make a placement a " p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e or a s o r r o w f u l one." T h e r e f o r e , i t should be o f i n t e r e s t t o l e a r n how Angus and J e s s i e f e l t as "own c h i l d r e n " i n a f o s t e r home which was a s u c c e s s f u l one. J e s s i e and Angus were r e c e n t l y i n t e r v i e w e d . were most p l e a s a n t and c o o p e r a t i v e . w i l l be d e s c r i b e d  The i n t e r v i e w  They  w i t h Angus  first.  Angus d e s c r i b e d h i s f a t h e r i n terms s i m i l a r t o those used by h i s mother and t h e f o u r former f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n t e r v i e w e d . He a l s o d e s c r i b e d h i s f a t h e r as a man "who never s a t s t i l l and who was a r e a l masculine example f o r everyone." He added t h a t " t h e r e wasn't much about s m a l l s c a l e farming and h a n d l i n g t o o l s t h a t h i s f a t h e r d i d n ' t t e a c h everyone," Angus s a i d t h a t h i s f a t h e r " s e t down the law" i n the f o s t e r home, a l t h o u g h h i s mother "seemed t o be boss," Angus had the warmest f e e l i n g s and r e s p e c t f o r h i s f a t h e r , and thought t h a t he enjoyed being a f o s t e r f a t h e r because o f h i s "love f o r k i d s . " Angus thought t h a t -his mother was " f a i r t o a l l . " He f e l t t h a t she and h i s p a r e n t s t r e a t e d him, J e s s i e , and the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n " a l i k e " — a l t h o u g h he and J e s s i e always "knew" t h a t they were t h e S c o t t ' s own c h i l d r e n . Angus s a i d t h a t I n P e r i o d 1 he was t h e youngest c h i l d i n t h e home. He had " l o t s o f f u n " b u t o f t e n " g o t t h e d i r t y end o f the s t i c k " - - b e c a u s e he was younger " t h a n the o t h e r s . " I n P e r i o d s 2 and 3 he was c l o s e r i n age t o t h e f o s t e r c h i l d r e n and "everyone grew up t o g e t h e r , " Angus r e i t e r a t e d what has a l r e a d y been s a i d i n t h i s chapter about l i f e i n t h e f o s t e r home d u r i n g P e r i o d s 1, 2, and 3. Angus s a i d t h a t he and J e s s i e g o t along f i n e * together as b r o t h e r and s i s t e r .  - 148 •  Angus s a i d t h a t he was not strapped a f t e r 1940, when he was t e n — h i s mother saw the " f u t i l i t y of i t . " She never strapped anyone a f t e r t h a t time, a c c o r d i n g t o Angus. The matter was d i s c u s s e d w i t h the CAS worker a t the t i m e . Angus s a i d t h a t , as f a r as the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s and d i s c i p l i n e were concerned, h i s parents "sometimes kept us guessing but never ganged up on u s — w e u s u a l l y knew where we stood." Angus, when asked about h i s f e e l i n g s as en "own" c h i l d I n the f o s t e r home, s a i d t h a t i t was "a g r e a t experience and a l o t of f u n . " He s t a t e d t h a t he made many l a s t i n g f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h a number of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . He s a i d however, t h a t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n the f o s t e r home had i t s drawbacks. He s a i d t h a t he was not r e s e n t f u l because he had t o share h i s home w i t h f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , nor because he and J e s s i e were " t r e a t e d l i k e the o t h e r s , " p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r he r e a l i s e d , i n 1940, what i t "meant" f o r a c h i l d t o be l i v i n g I n a home not " r e a l l y " h i s own. He r e c a l l e d t h a t , i n 1940, he became "peeved" and "almost r a n away" because h i s p a r e n t s were spending t h e i r own money on the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n — t o supply them w i t h c l o t h i n g , f o o d , and spending money—because of low CAS board r a t e s . He f e l t t h a t h i s p a r e n t s would have been spending t h i s money on him but f o r the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . He s a i d h i s p a r e n t s were l i v i n g f r u g a l l y a t the t i m e . He complained to them about the f o r e g o i n g m a t t e r . I r s . S c o t t then e x p l a i n e d t o him "what I t was" t o be a f o s t e r o h l l d . She s i n g l e d out O r v i l l e , h i s f o s t e r b r o t h e r and c l o s e f r i e n d , as an example o f a boy without a r e a l home of h i s own. Angus s a i d t h a t he then began t o r e a l i z e O r v i l l e * s " r e a l s i t u a t i o n , " and t h a t o f the o t h e r foster children. He q u i c k l y "got over" h i s resentment. Angus s a i d t h a t h i s s i t u a t i o n had i t s drawbacks i n P e r i o d 1. He s a i d t h a t h i s e x p e r i e n c e as the youngest c h i l d , i n a home f i l l e d w i t h o l d e r c h i l d r e n , made him f e e l t h a t c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home should be near the age of the own children. Angus Is a b i g s t r a p p i n g man He  i s sincere  He  was  was  and  rather reserved.  m a r r i e d l a s t autumn and  i n t e r v i e w e d i n the  S c o t t l i v e s nearby. d u r i n g the  s u i t e he  Angus  1  He  of f a i r  appearance.  enjoyed the  interview.  l i v e s near h i s mother, and  w i f e was  h i s w i f e occupy. an  He Mrs.  Interested l i s t e n e r  interview. Angus q u i t s c h o o l i n 1945  a f t e r completing Grade  9.  149  He worked i n a f u r n i t u r e f a c t o r y w i t h . h i s c l o s e f r i e n d . Urban, a CAS f o s t e r c h i l d , p l a c e d w i t h t h e S c o t t s years a f t e r he l e f t s c h o o l ;  He l a t e r worked a s a t r u c k  d r i v e r f o r a department s t o r e . t o 1953*  H  e  i  s  n  o  w  f o r a few  He was i n t h e Army ftorn 1951  hack a t h i s o l d t r u c k - d r i v i n g j o b .  He  keeps i n touch w i t h h i s widowed mother, J e s s i e , h i s aunt, and  i s i n c o n t a c t w i t h many o f t h e former f o s t e r c h i l d r e n who  l i v e d i n t h e S c o t t home. J e s s i e d e s c r i b e d h e r f a t h e r i n terms s i m i l a r t o Angus, Mrs, S c o t t , and t h e former f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n t e r v i e w e d . She added t h a t , perhaps, he had " l e s s p a t i e n c e w i t h t h e boys" than h e r mother. She s a i d t h a t he was a " g r e a t one" f o r t e l l i n g bedtime s t o r i e s — t o h e r and "the o t h e r s " — a b o u t h i s e a r l y l i f e i n S c o t l a n d . She s a i d , w i t h a s m i l e * t h a t he sometimes c o n t r a d i c t e d h i m s e l f i n h i s s t o r y - t e l l i n g — w h i c h amused "everyone," She had warm f e e l i n g s f o r him. She thought he enjoyed b e i n g a f o s t e r f a t h e r because he had come from a l a r g e f a m i l y and l i k e d c h i l d r e n , J e s s i e had warm f e e l i n g s f o r h e r mother. She thought t h a t h e r mother was " b a s i c a l l y boss" i n t h e f o s t e r home. She r e i t e r a t e d much o f what has a l r e a d y been s a i d about l i f e i n the f o s t e r home. She remembers h e r mother " k i s s i n g the c h i l d r e n a t n i g h t " and how upset she was when a c h i l d r a n away. She thought h e r mother " l e a r n e d c h i l d psychology t h e hard way" because o f h e r background. She remembers how " l o s t " h e r mother f e l t when a c h i l d who had . been i n t h e home f o r some time had t o l e a v e f o r some r e a s o n or o t h e r . She added t h a t her mother " s o r t o f got used t o i t " as the years went by, J e s s i e thought t h a t h e r mother enjoyed being a f o s t e r mother as she "grew t o know" about h e r r o l e , and because she l i k e d c h i l d r e n and " l o t s o f company" and a c t i v i t y . She f e l t t h a t i f h e r f a t h e r ' s h e a l t h had n o t f a i l e d her parents would be f o s t e r p a r e n t s today, J e s s i e s a i d t h a t she and Angus got a l o n g w e l l as b r o t h e r and s i s t e r . In d e s c r i b i n g h e r f e e l i n g s about l i f e i n the f o s t e r home, J e s s i e s a i d t h a t h e r p o s i t i o n i n the home was a p r e f e r r e d one. She was " s p o i l e d " because she was t h e only girl. One o f t h e reasons why o n l y two g i r l s were p l a c e d was because she was " j e a l o u s o f h e r p o s i t i o n " as the c e n t r e pf  * 15P  a t t e n t i o n o f h e r p a r e n t s , b r o t h e r , and many f o s t e r b r o t h e r s * Mrs. S c o t t "knew t h i s and was i n f l u e n c e d by I t . " J e s s i e f e l t m i l d l y r e s e n t f u l o n l y o n c e — a s an own c h i l d i n a f o s t e r home* When she was 1 5 ( i n 1942} she began t o r e s e n t s h a r i n g h e r home w i t h "so many f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . " She had l i t t l e p r i v a c y when she brought f r i e n d s home. She was a l s o r e s e n t f u l a t t h i s time because she f e l t " d i f f e r e n t " t o h e r f r i e n d s , who d i d n o t have f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r homes. She s a i d she was n o t " d i r e c t l y " r e s e n t f u l a t t h e f o s t e r c h i l d r e n as i n d i v i d u a l s because she u s u a l l y g o t a l o n g very w e l l w i t h them. I n any c a s e , a f t e r t a l k i n g t o h e r p a r e n t s about h e r f e e l i n g s o f resentment, she began t o r e a l i z e t h a t she had a " s e l f i s h a t t i t u d e " towards h e r s i t u a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , she observed t o h e r s e l f , a t t h e time, t h a t none o f h e r f r i e n d s complained about t h e f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , whieh o n l y made h e r more aware o f h e r s e l f i s h f e e l i n g s * She soon got over h e r resentment* A c c o r d i n g t o J e s s i e , t h e f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , were completely accepted i n K I t s i l a n o and i n Burnaby* She a t t e n d e d s c h o o l w i t h some o f them i n both communities, and s a i d t h a t they were n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t I n the classroom o r e l s e where* J e s s i e r e c e i v e d t h e s t r a p u n t i l she was n i n e * She thought t h e r u l e s o f t h e f o s t e r home were s e n s i b l e and f a i r . She thought h e r p a r e n t s were a l i t t l e s t r i c t a t times as regards d i s c i p l i n e , and always f e l t sympathetic towards the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n and Angus when they were punished, J e s s i e s a i d t h a t h e r f i r s t d a t e was w i t h DaIton (the E a s t I n d i a n boy who was k i l l e d I n 1942). D a l t o n i r k e d her o c c a s i o n a l l y through t e a s i n g , but she was f o n d o f him. She was l e s s fond o f h i s b r o t h e r , an u n s u c c e s s f u l s h o r t p l a c e ment i n 1946. She was a l s o f o n d o f P a u l and Urban* J e s s i e s t a t e d t h a t she learned r a c i a l t o l e r a n c e i n her home. She s a i d t h a t f o s t e r c h i l d r e n o f e v e r y n a t i o n a l i t y and c o l o u r shared h e r home w i t h her and Angus. Through group l i v i n g w i t h them, she l e a r n e d t h a t n a t i o n a l i t y and c o l o u r were o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l a s p e c t s o f a p e r s o n . She.also l e a r n e d about the problems o f f o s t e r c h i l d r e n because o f h e r s i t u a t i o n . J e s s i e took q u i t e an i n t e r e s t i n r e l i g i o n a s a c h i l d . She was Upset when h e r p a r e n t s moved t o Burnaby from K I t s i l a n o , because she was near t h e top o f h e r Sunday s c h o o l c l a s s i n K I t s i l a n o and "missed out" on c e r t a i n awards a f t e r she l e f t . However, she continued a t Sunday s c h o o l i n Burnaby.  - 151 J e s s i e r e c a l l e d many p a r t i e s h e l d i n the f e s t e r heme* She remembers her mother t e a c h i n g f o s t e r c h i l d r e n how t o dance and a l s o dancing w i t h them* J e s s i e h e r s e l f , taught many of the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , and Angus, how t o dance, a f t e r Many former f o s t e r c h i l d r e n attended wedding i n 1950*  Jessie's  I n r e t r o s p e c t , J e s s i e s a i d t h a t she would n e v e r have wanted t o miss the experience o f being an own c h i l d i n a f o s t e r home. "There were times when the house was crowded, but i t was never l o n e l y and unhappy," was her conclusion* J e s s i e , who  completed Grade 12  t e c h n i c i a n b e f o r e her marriage, was She  was  very f r i e n d l y and  was  a t work and  husband and  her  two  and was  a  dental  i n t e r v i e w e d i n her home*  cooperative*  Her  husband* a c l e r k ,  s m a l l c h i l d r e n were a s l e e p *  she have had  a happy marriage*  Her  They keep i n c l o s e  touch w i t h Mrs* S c o t t , Angus, J e s s i e ' s m a t e r n a l aunt, and i n c o n t a c t w i t h a number o f former S c o t t f o s t e r  are  children*  ..Conclusions,. I t seems t h a t the m a t e r i a l t h a t the a t t i t u d e s of Mr. hood, more than any  and  i n t h i s chapter  Mrs* S c o t t  indicates  toward f o s t e r p a r e n t *  o t h e r f a c t o r , are the prime reason  they have been s u c c e s s f u l  f o s t e r parents*  They had  why  an  a t t i t u d e o f i n t e l l i g e n t understanding toward the f o s t e r c h i l d i n h i s s i t u a t i o n and had  i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r own  a c o n s i s t e n c y of viewpoint and  children;  they  d i s c i p l i n e — t h e foster  and  S c o t t c h i l d r e n always knew "where they s t o o d " ( w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the f o s t e r home's r u l e s and they had  administration  of  discipline);  an a t t i t u d e of i n t e r e s t e d a f f e c t i o n — f o c u s sed  In  part  o  - 152 on h e l p i n g the f o s t e r c h i l d f e e l e m o t i o n a l l y secure; experienced  s a t i s f a c t i o n as a c h i l d developed  they  abilities,  rewarded him f o r achievement, and p e r m i t t e d him I n c r e a s i n g freedom t o grow up and become independent*  The f o r e g o i n g  q u a l i t i e s or a t t i t u d e s , i n the o p i n i o n o f many a u t h o r i t i e s , a r e e s s e n t i a l t o the make-up o f s u c c e s s f u l f o s t e r p a r e n t s . The S c o t t s , as w e l l as having the e s s e n t i a l  atti-  tudes o f good f o s t e r p a r e n t s , p r o v i d e d t h e i r f o s t e r and c h i l d r e n w i t h the b e n e f i t s o f a s t a b l e marriage, c a r e , an o r d e r l y household  own  good p h y s i c a l  r o u t i n e , i n t e r e s t i n g chores  and  l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , e q u a l i t y w i t h each o t h e r i n terms o f a f f e c t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e , a f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g and p e r s o n a l worth, and community r e s p e c t . working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the GAS  having  The S c o t t s had a good  and a l s o w i t h p a r e n t s ,  p a r e n t - s u r r o g a t e s , and r e l a t i v e s o f f o s t e r c h i l d r e n p l a c e d w i t h them, whenever p o s s i b l e *  They were a l s o a b l e t o grow as  f o s t e r parents and c h a n g e — w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e abandonment o f the s t r a p i n 1940,  l e s s e n i n g o f s t r i c t n e s s and t h e  like.  The S c o t t s had some i m p e r f e c t i o n s , as Mrs* S c o t t r e a d i l y admits.  T h e i r sureness  t h a t a d u l t s must make major  d e c i s i o n s but can be wrong i s one o f t h e i r strengths,. p o i n t s stand out*  Three  The a f f e c t i o n from each o f the S c o t t s t o  each c h i l d , the scrupulous f a i r n e s s from the S c o t t s t o each c h i l d , and the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f working t o g e t h e r , w i t h each c h i l d c o n t r i b u t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o h i s a b i l i t y , but w i t h the f o s t e r parents t a k i n g o v e r a l l a d u l t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  CH&PtEB V  CONCLUSIONS HBtf  QrW^h and peyelppmenlf of, the Foster Pay^s When the Scotts applied for their first foster child  In 1931. they were motivated primarily by the need for cempanionshlp for their own daughter.  This In itself is not an  unusual beginning motivation for foster parent applicants, who are naturally interested in and concerned with their own children's needs. However, it seems that the Scotts were able to move from this kind of concern and motivation to a consideration of the needs of many foster children, 117 in number, over a 21-year-period, regardless of whether or not they served as companions for the two Scott children. Realistically, It does not seem that companionship was provided for Jessie, who was four in 1931, when Ann, who was 16, was placed in the foster home in 1931. Companionship for the Scott children was provided later, as this study indicates.  According to Frances  1 Coffino,  initially expressed motivation might seem to centra-  indicate the use of a particular home for foster care. Further study resulting in a fuller picture of the family often reveals qualities well related to the needs of foster children. The 1 Coffino, Frances* Development ef a Foster Home* Child Welfare League of America, Inc*, Bfew York, 1955*'P* 11.  1£4 -  c a p a c i t y o f the a p p l i c a n t t o r e f o c u s towards acceptance  of  the p a r t i a l nature o f f o s t e r parenthood needs t o be examined and the caseworker must be f l e x i b l e enough to a l l o w f o r differences. who  A l s o , o f prime importance t o the caseworker  must f i n d f o s t e r homes f o r c h i l d r e n , i s the acceptance  her p a r t t h a t f o s t e r p a r e n t s , l i k e everybody e l s e , a r e w i t h problems, w i t h l i m i t a t i o n s , w i t h needs o f c h e i r  on  people own.  A c c e p t i n g t h i s , the caseworker, i n e v a l u a t i n g the c a p a c i t y o f the p r o s p e c t i v e f o s t e r p a r e n t s , must a l s o e s t i m a t e the f o s t e r parents ' w i l l i n g n e s s and a b i l i t y t o use casework h e l p , t h e i r 1  a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e areas o f problem i n themselves as i t r e l a t e s t o them as f o s t e r p a r e n t s , and whether they a r e w i l l i n g and capable o f working on these problems i n o r d e r t o g i v e a f o s t e r c h i l d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o use h i s placement experience f o r h i s maximum growth and  development.  I t seems t h a t when the S c o t t s began t o a c c e p t f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n 1931,  and continued to do so i n the  years f o l l o w i n g , they accepted c h i l d r e n who s a r i l y companions f o r t h e i r own  children.  were not  neces-  Thus, by t a k i n g  c h i l d r e n f o r s t a y s of a l l l e n g t h s , they gave i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t they were a b l e t o a c c e p t something l e s s than  total  parenthood, a prime r e q u i s i t e f o r f o s t e r p a r e n t s . The o r i g i n a l f o s t e r home study o f the S c o t t s ( r e f e r r e d to i n Chapter  IV) i n 1931,  seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  the worker Involved f e l t t h a t the S c o t t s had a g r e a t d e a l to offer a foster child.  Mrs, S c o t t gave evidence o f her deep  mothering q u a l i t y , her r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p e o p l e , and t h a t was  a b l e t o e l i c i t a warm response from o t h e r s .  a l s o f e l t t h a t Mr, S c o t t was  she  The worker  a f a t h e r l y , masculine type o f  person w i t h whom f o s t e r c h i l d r e n c o u l d i d e n t i f y . The S c o t t s seemed t o have made r e a l movement towards f a c i n g the problems o f the f o s t e r p a r e n t — f o s t e r c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p , j u d g i n g by t h e i r s u c c e s s .  T h i s movement  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had some c a p a c i t y t o use casework h e l p , when n e c e s s a r y , which h e l p e d them t o grow, develop,  and  change as f o s t e r p a r e n t s and as agency p a r t n e r s . The S e o t t s a l s o q u i c k l y became c o m f o r t a b l e i n an understanding o f t h e i r r o l e s as f o s t e r p a r e n t s w i t h c h i l d r e n o f t h e i r own;  two  and any i n s e c u r i t y they might have  f e l t i n t h e i r relationship with foster children with respect to own p a r e n t s or p a r e n t - s u r r o g a t e s , r a p i d l y d i s a p p e a r e d .  As  a r e s u l t , they soon became a b l e t o f u n c t i o n i n a p o s i t i v e way w i t h t h e i r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n u n t i l each one, i n t u r n , the f o s t e r home.  left  The S c o t t s , i n such i n s t a n c e s , were l e f t  w i t h a sense o f l o s s but a sense o f g a i n , t o o .  They r e c e i v e d  a tremendous s a t i s f a c t i o n i n h a v i n g c o n t r i b u t e d t o the growth and development o f these c h i l d r e n , and i n h a v i n g served them, d u r i n g a c r i t i c a l time i n t h e i r l i v e s when they heeded the Scotts. Xt seems t h a t the S c o t t s p o s i t i v e l y I d e n t i f i e d w i t h the OAS.  They seemed t o have found i n the agency a source o f  growth, and t o have a c q u i r e d as f o s t e r p a r e n t s a sense o f  - 156" -  g r e a t e r c a p a c i t i e s and dimensions as human beings* I t seems t i m e l y t o mention t h a t i n F e b r u a r y , 1956* Mrs.  S c o t t was honoured as " F o s t e r Mother o f the Year" by t h e  CAS*  She was p r e s e n t e d w i t h a g o l d b r a c e l e t and a s c r o l l  which r e c o g n i s e d to Include autumn o f  h e r many years o f s e r v i c e t o t h e CAS*  Plans  Mr* S c o t t were i n t e r r u p t e d by h i s death i n the  1955*  Some C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e F o s t e r The noteworthy. other people.  Family  S c o t t s had c e r t a i n s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s t h a t a r e They possessed a n a b i l i t y t o grow and a c c e p t They had f a m i l y s t r e n g t h , b u t t h e i r  u n i t y was n o t one t h a t was s a t i s f i e d i n i t s e l f . seemed t o have room f o r one more.  family  They always  I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e "one  more" was almost always a CAS f o s t e r c h i l d , and w h i l e he was i n the f o s t e r home he was an important p a r t o f t h e f a m i l y group* The  S c o t t s had s t r o n g f a m i l y l o y a l t i e s , and any  CAS c h i l d p l a c e d w i t h them became p a r t o f t h e f a m i l y and was i n c l u d e d i n these l o y a l t i e s *  The c h i l d r e n were an Important  p a r t o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t t o Mr* and Mrs* S c o t t , and i n t h e i r f a m i l y atmosphere f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , i n a n amazing number o f c a s e s , and t h e i r own c h i l d r e n , grew and developed as human beings*  The f o s t e r f a m i l y grew from a concern f o r and l o y a l t y  t o t h e i r f i r s t f o s t e r c h i l d i n 1931 t o a concern f o r and l o y a l t y t o 116 subsequent f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n the ensuing  -  21  years.  157  -  They always seemed t o have room f o r one more  f o s t e r c h i l d , no matter how  crowded they were.  responded when the agency needed h e l p . f a c t i s contained  They always  Testimony t o t h i s  i n Appendices A and B to t h i s study, which  a r e c o p i e s o f l e t t e r s w r i t t e n t o the S c o t t s i n 1948 and Mrs. S c o t t t h i s year by CAS According  workers.  t o Gladys Day,  "a f o s t e r f a m i l y needs t o  be a b l e t o spread t o t a k e i n o t h e r s and y e t have the and  to  s t a b i l i t y t o h o l d c l o s e t o i t s own—and the  firmness  'other* must  1 become one o f i t s own."  I r s . Day has d e s c r i b e d the  specific  o v e r - a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the S c o t t f o s t e r f a m i l y t h a t made them a u s e f u l and i s t i c was  s u c c e s s f u l CAS  r e s o u r c e , and t h i s  the crux o f the S c o t t ' s a b i l i t y and  character-  c a p a c i t y t o be  a good f o s t e r f a m i l y . The  S c o t t s a l s o had o t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s needed by  good f o s t e r f a m i l i e s ,  L i f e i a th® f o s t e r home was  t o wholesome, o r d e r l y , and f e e l i n g tone.  t h e r a p e u t i c l i v i n g because o f i t s  T h i s f e e l i n g tone was  a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the  a t t i t u d e s o f the S c o t t s as f o s t e r parents a t t r i b u t e s they p o s s e s s e d .  conducive  The  S c o t t s had  as w e l l as t o o t h e r considerable  p a t i e n c e as f o s t e r p a r e n t s , as w e l l as understanding they c o u l d convey, and  they had  expecting immediate r e t u r n .  the c a p a c i t y t o g i v e  which without  They had a l i k i n g f o r a l l people  1 Day, Gladys Denison. Home F i n d i n g . The F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, 1951, p, 16,  *  158  those who wore d i f f e r e n t from themselves,  racially,  culturally  and otherwise, as w e l l as those who were l i k e  themselves*  They had r e a s o n a b l y happy f a m i l y backgrounds.  They have l e d  happy, i n t e r e s t i n g l i v e s as f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  Finally,  they  got on w e l l t o g e t h e r as husband and w i f e , and w i t h t h e i r own c h i l d r e n , r e l a t i v e s , f o s t e r o h i l d r e n , own p a r e n t s and p a r e n t s u r r o g a t e s , t h e CAS, and t h e community. Snme Observations There were 20 u n s u c c e s s f u l placements i n t h e S c o t t f o s t e r home, i n c l u d i n g 4 p r e - a d o l e s c e n t and 16 boys.  adoleocent  The u n s u c c e s s f u l Very S h o r t and Short placements  i n v o l v e d 4 p r e - a d o l e s c e n t and 8 a d o l e s c e n t boys* to  agency f i l e s ,  According  these 12 boys were v e r y d i s t u r b e d e m o t i o n a l l y  and t h e S c o t t s c o u l d n o t cope w i t h them o r f u l l y meet t h e i r b a s i c needs. of  I n a d d i t i o n , these boys a l s o upset t h e morale  t h e f a m i l y group i n a crowded home*  The u n s u c c e s s f u l  Medium and Long-term placements I n v o l v e d 8 a d o l e s c e n t boys, i n 3 Medium and 5 Long-term placements* these 8 boys, i t seems, f i r s t , to  With r e f e r e n c e t o  t h a t the S c o t t s were unable  oope w i t h 6 a d o l e s c e n t s who had s t r o n g p a r e n t a l t i e s .  2 o f t h e 6 c a s e s , t h e r e was a l s o p a r e n t a l i n t e r f e r e n c e .  In In  3 o f t h e 6 c a s e s , (one o f which i n c l u d e d p a r e n t a l i n t e r f e r e n c e as mentioned above) t h e boys i n v o l v e d appear t o have been kept I n c a r e t o o l o n g *  Secondly, w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e two  other u n s u c c e s s f u l a d o l e s c e n t placements n o t yet' discussed;,  199 -  (one Medium and the other Long-term), i t seems t h a t t h e S c o t t s were blocked l a r g e l y by unwise p l a n n i n g — t h e p l a c i n g o f two s e t s o f b r o t h e r s I n t h e i r home a t d i f f e r e n t  times,  where there were a t l e a s t f o u r o t h e r f o s t e r , c h i l d r e n , . The two boys i n v o l v e d subsequently a d j u s t e d t o c o u n t r y f o s t e r homes a f t e r removal from the S c o t t s . The f a i l u r e o f t h e SO u n s u c c e s s f u l placements was l a r g e l y due t o f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l t o the f o s t e r home i t s e l f . T h i s might suggest t h a t the f o s t e r home was u s e d ' i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y , and t h a t c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d w i t h o u t  sufficient  knowledge o f the t r u e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e f o s t e r f a m i l y and the problems t h a t some o f these c h i l d r e n might p r e s e n t on p l a c e ment w i t h the S c o t t s ,  I t seems, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e  t o t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l Very S h o r t and Short placements and t h e two "unwise" l o n g e r placements, proceeded  w i t h without due concern f o r t h e r e s u l t on t h e  foster family. an attempt  t h a t such placements were  I t i s t r u e t h a t i n the l a t t e r two placements  was made t o keep "brother-combinations"  i n the S c o t t f o s t e r heme. unworkable.  together  However, t h i s p l a n proved  I n regard t o the other 6 unsuccessful  t o be placements,  i n s u f f i c i e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made i n t o t h e meaning and s t r e n g t h o f t h e f a m i l y t i e s o f t h e boys i n v o l v e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y the t h r e e who were a p p a r e n t l y kept i n c a r e t o o l o n g .  There  i a a point of p r o f e s s i o n a l ethics involved i n connection with a l l 20 u n s u c c e s s f u l placements,  i n t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f the  f o s t e r f a m i l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y those o f t h e i r own and t h e f o s t e r  c h i l d r e n , should not have been j e o p a r d i s e d as a r e s u l t o f these placements• With r e f e r e n c e t o the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f u n s u c c e s s f u l placements, I t seems t h a t a l l 20 boys were e i t h e r u n s k i i l f u l l y p l a c e d or remained w i t h the S c o t t s i n care too l o n g .  With r e f e r e n c e t o the two boys who  and adjusted  t o c o u n t r y f o s t e r homes a f t e r l e a v i n g the S c o t t s , i t seems necessary  to p o i n t out how  v e r y important  c o n s u l t and d i s c u s s placement w i t h a boy,  i t i s to  thoroughly  regardless of h i s  b e i n g p l a c e d w i t h a b r o t h e r I n the same f o s t e r home* r e f e r e n c e t o the boys who p a r t i c u l a r l y those who  had  With  significant family t i e s ,  seemingly remained i n c a r e too  i t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t i t Is extremely important  and long, that  workers be always aware o f the f a c t t h a t a f o s t e r c h i l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y an a d o l e s c e n t boy,  can become v e r y d i s t u r b e d i f  h i s r e t u r n t o h i s home i s I n d i c a t e d and no a c t i o n i s t a k e n . Because o f i t s r a p i d growth i n an urban c e n t e r , the CAS  has always been s h o r t o f good f o s t e r homes, and  c o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d with-the  this  l a r g e number o f placements i n the  S c o t t f o s t e r home, i n c l u d i n g the 20 u n s u c c e s s f u l ones*  It t  must be remembered however, t h a t when c h i l d r e n a r e  unwisely  p l a c e d by an agency i t must accept some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e s u l t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l damage t o the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d . The S c o t t f o s t e r home s u c c e s s f u l l y handled 100  out  o f 120 placements.  In a d d i t i o n t o what has a l r e a d y been s a i d  i n Chapters X X I and  IV about the " s p e c i f i c s " o f l i f e i n the  - 161 -  f o s t e r home* i t seems t h a t i t s system o f a c t i v i t i e s a form o f o c c u p a t i o n a l  provided  and group therapy which enabled the  f o s t e r and own c h i l d r e n t o a c q u i r e c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l 00 important f o r t h e a d o l e s c e n t It  skills*  boys p l a c e d w i t h the S c o t t s .  a l s o seems p o s s i b l e * t h a t t h e f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y  the a d o l e s c e n t  boys, saw t h e f o s t e r home group as a p a r e n t -  s u r r o g a t e , which b u i l t up an emotional b r i d g e between the f o s t e r f a m i l y and S o c i e t y ,  Further, the w a y - o f - l i f e i n the  f o s t e r home was w e l l - o r g a n i z e d  and p r o v i d e d  a structure  w i t h i n which a f o s t e r c h i l d c o u l d l i s t d e f i n i t e e x p e c t a t i o n s i n r e t u r n f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o l i f e and a c t i v i t y I n t h e f o s t e r home, i n r e l a t i o n t o the f o s t e r p a r e n t s and t h e other children.  T h i s f a c t served  t o enhance h i s f e e l i n g s o f s e l f -  worth and was a primary a i d i n h i s growth and development as an i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e aforementioned reasons why the S c o t t s were s u c c e s s f u l w i t h <? out o f 6 c h i l d r e n p l a c e d w i t h them, and t o what has been s a i d e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter* i t seems s i g n i f i c a n t t o mention t h a t t h e S c o t t f o s t e r home began In 1931?  when Mrs,  S c o t t was 40 and Mr* S c o t t 45,  As t h e  years passed by, and as they grew o l d e r , I t seems q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t they became, i n t h e eyes o f many o f the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n who were s t i l l t i e d t o t h e i r own p a r e n t s o r p a r e n t surrogates,  "grandparent-substitutes"  substitutes.  0  Because they d i d n o t seem l i k e  they might have been l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g children*  r a t h e r than " p a r e n t parent-substitutes,  t o some o f t h e f o s t e r  - 162  -  With reference to Chapter IV, and the interview with the Scott's own son, Angus, I t seems timely to mention the importance of adequate board rates*  Angus mentioned that  the inadequacy of CAS board rates i n 1940 obliged h i s parents to spend t h e i r own money on f o s t e r children to what he f e l t was h i s disadvantage*  He almost ran away from home and was  quite b i t t e r about the matter u n t i l h i s mother "explained* to him.  Angus' reaction'to t h i s matter, one that might have  completely disrupted the foster home as a CAS resource, i s one that should provide a cause f o r deep r e f l e c t i o n .  It is a  well known fact that i f an agency pays Inadequate board rates most foster parents w i l l be d i s s a t i s f i e d .  The approach to  paying board has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y an u n r e a l i s t i c one* 1  H i s t o r i c a l l y and out of necessity, according to Gladys Day; agencies began to pay board f o r the children i n t h e i r care. However, soeial workers "shared—perhaps helped to c r e a t e — t h e 2 community's fear of people's taking children f o r the money." The feelings of s o c i a l workers and the community about the amount of board paid has, according to Mrs. Day, "long been a confused mixture of a desire to economise, a b e l i e f i n the salutary nature of foster parents' digging Into t h e i r own pockets to make ends meet, an u n c l a r l f l e d confusion of board 1  °ay, Home Finding* p. 5-  2  Loo, c i t .  * 163  payments with r e l i e f , and the pleasure of getting a good 1  bargain," Mrs. Bay also mentioned that during the last few years much thought has been given to. the problem of board rates; that payments for service have been discussed and board rates have been increased.  However, she added that the  rising cost of living has diminished the effects of raises i n board rates and they are s t i l l far from adequate.  Xn this  connection, l t was encouraging to learn that the ExecutiveDirector of the CAS told the Society's 45th Annual Meeting i n 2  February of this year  that during 1955  a  committee of Board  members, staff, volunteers * and foster parents, completed an exhaustive study of current board rates.  As a result of their  recommendations, the CAS hopes to be i n a position to increase board rates i n the near future*  As mentioned before, CAS  board rates have never kept pace with the standard-of-living here.  However, the impending increase should undoubtedly  ease the financial burdens of the agency's foster parents, and •i  make available as foster parents couples who have not previously f e l t they could shoulder the expense* Angus Interview also produced another point of 1  discussion, when lis described his feelings as an own son In a foster home* He mentioned that he "got the dirty end of the 1  Loc. cit*  2 The Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B . C . j Annual Report. 1955.  *  s t i c k * when he was stated  1  164  •  the youngest c h i l d i n the home.  t h a t when f o s t e r c h i l d r e n are p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home  where t h e r e are own mately the age  c h i l d r e n , the former should be  of the own  children*  i n g s i n t h i s r e g a r d t o h i s own o f the own  children's  ,He  experience*  feelings,.then,  i s t r u e t h a t Angus was  An  he was  there*  still  understanding  regarding a d e c i s i o n  During the  e x t e n t , the  feelings  l a t e r y e a r s of the Period,, when  the youngest, o n l y h i s p a r e n t s ' l o v e and  interview  w i t h J e s s i e , the S c o t t ' s  produced an i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t t h a t she girl.  for discussion*  f e l t "uncomfortable" when she was  She  f e l t " d i f f e r e n t " from her  skillful  and  more understanding and r e a c t i o n t o her a t the age  of 15  once a g a i n , how times how  own  She end  daughter,  mentioned an  adolescent  H a p p i l y , her mother  J e s s i e became l e s s uncomfortable a c c e p t i n g o f her  s i t u a t i o n as an own  situation*  and  Jessie's  daughter i n a f o s t e r home  s h o u l d be o f i n t e r e s t because i t p o i n t s  out  Important I t i s f o r workers t o know a t a l l  ohildren  f e e l i n a f o s t e r home, and  t l c u l a r need t o know a t a d o l e s c e n c e . q u i t e upset and  15  own  part*  f r i e n d s because they d i d  not have f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r homes. " e x p l a i n e d " to her  to  While i t  h a n d l i n g prevented undue emotional d i s t u r b a n c e on h i s The  feel*  too young d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s o f  1 to v o i c e h i s f e e l i n g s t o any  were s t i l l  approxi-  attributed his  p l a c e a c h i l d i n a f o s t e r home I s most important*  Period  He  disrupting  the  par*  J e s s i e might have become  i n the f o s t e r home, which would  have o b v i o u s l y I l l - a f f e c t e d the morale and  s t a b i l i t y of  the  165 -  e n t i r e f o s t e r f a m i l y , b u t f o r h e r mother's s k i l l f u l h a n d l i n g of  Jessie's  feelings.  The I n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e f o u r former f o s t e r c h i l d r e n were i n t e r e s t i n g and i n f o r m a t i v e .  A l l f o u r boys acknowledged  the S c o t t s as good f o s t e r p a r e n t s ; two o f t h e boys, K i l b y and Thornton, mentioned l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e f o s t e r home.  Kilby  s a i d t h a t Mrs. S c o t t might have been more a f f e c t i o n a t e ; Thornton s a i d t h a t t h e S c o t t s c o u l d n o t understand him. T h e i r v e r b a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e i r f e e l i n g s about t h e S c o t t s a r e of  t h i s c h a r a c t e r , b u t n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h i s , b o t h boys have  maintained f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e S c o t t s f o r many y e a r s and s t i l l do. of  Strong emotional t i e s have developed r e g a r d l e s s  Imperfections o f understanding f e l t by these two boys.  The f o s t e r home i s l i k e an own home, where a f f e c t i o n  remains  s t r o n g o r more s t r o n g , because minor weaknesses c a n be openly admitted. F i n a l l y , the I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mrs. S c o t t was extremely significant.  During the i n t e r v i e w she v o i c e d h e r f e e l i n g s as  a f o s t e r mother.  To r e p e a t , she s t a t e d t h a t h e r e x p e r i e n c e  as a f o s t e r mother was a "wonderful one and t h a t she l o v e d every minute o f i t . " of  She went on t o say t h a t " i t was a l o t  hard work, t e a r s , and h e a r t b r e a k , b u t i t was mostly f u n ,  and t h a t she would become a f o s t e r mother a l l over a g a i n . " From a l l t h e evidence o f the S c o t t ' s p a r t n e r s h i p , and Mr. S c o t t ' s i n t e r e s t i n and work w i t h the c h i l d r e n , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s would have been h i s f e e l i n g t o o .  Conclusions A campaign f o r more f o s t e r homes i s c u r r e n t l y  1 being planned by the CAS, that  which i s w e l l aware o f the f a c t  too few f o s t e r homes a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r p h y s i c a l l y  handi-  capped c h i l d r e n , those o f mixed r a c i a l o r i g i n , those w i t h emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s , and teen-agers* A c c o r d i n g t o many a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e r e i s no comp l e t e l y good f o s t e r home*.  No f a m i l y  i s perfect;  this i s aa  t r u e o f a f o s t e r home as i t i s o f any other home*-  A good  f o s t e r home study should show both t h e s t r e n g t h s and weakness In a family's capacity  t o become f o s t e r p a r e n t s *  W i l l be good homes f o r many c h i l d r e n ;  1  Some homes  some w i l l be good f o r  some; some w i l l be Inadequate f o r any c h i l d . -  Emotional  d i s t u r b a n c e , poor moral s t a n d a r d s , I n a b i l i t y t o t r e a t or t o l i k e c h i l d r e n n o t one's own, p h y s i c a l housing, o r poor l i v i n g  equally  i l l n e s s , poor  s t a n d a r d s , a r e the u s u a l reasons why-  f o s t e r parent a p p l i c a n t s  are rejected*  With r e f e r e n c e t o the c u r r e n t and f u t u r e  CAS  campaigns f o r f o s t e r homes, i t must be remembered t h a t a discriminatory applicants  s e l e c t i o n o f f o s t e r homes must be made on  as t o t h e i r having the g e n e r a l e s s e n t i a l s  of f o s t e r  p a r e n t s * and a l s o on t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s f o r d i f f e r e n t kinds of f o s t e r children*  1  This w i l l require  The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y  refinement o f  o f Vancouver, B.C.,  diagnostic  e f f i c i e n c y i n the Home-Finding Department.  i s a paramount need t o c o n s i d e r the background of the  There foster  c h i l d , h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h h i s p a r e n t s or p a r e n t - s u r r o g a t e s , and  t h e i r continuing  i n f l u e n c e , b e f o r e and  p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home and  a f t e r he has  been  as long as he remains t h e r e .  There i s a l s o a paramount need t o c o n t i n u a l l y c o n s i d e r f e e l i n g s of own  c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes where f u t u r e  ments w i l l be made, and  a l s o the f e e l i n g s of the  the place-  foster  c h i l d r e n being p l a c e d . . T h i s study g e n e r a l l y  points  when agency workers e v a l u a t e and  out  t h a t i n the  future  s u p e r v i s e f o s t e r homes  they musts 1.  Use m a t e r i a l about the f a m i l y background and i n t e r e s t s i n t e l l i g e n t l y and s k i l l f u l l y , t o appropri«a t e l y a s s e s s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses i n terms of i n t r a - f a m i l y , i n t e r - f a m i l y and famiiy«-communlty relationships;  2.  Determine what k i n d o f c h i l d r e n , i f any, b e n e f i t from the f o s t e r home;  3„  Determine i f the f o s t e r - p a r e n t a p p l i c a n t s can share a f o s t e r c h i l d w i t h h i s own p a r e n t s or p a r e n t s u r r o g a t e s , and i f so what k i n d o f p a r e n t s or p a r e n t * surrogates;  4.  Determine i f the f o s t e r - p a r e n t a p p l i c a n t s can a c c e p t the agency and work w i t h i t oh a c o o p e r a t i v e b a s i s ;  5.  C o n t i n u a l l y e v a l u a t e the f o s t e r homes a f t e r c h i l d r e n a r e p l a c e d to determine I f the f o s t e r home i s f u n c t i o n i n g as a u s e f u l agency r e s o u r c e and i f n o t c l o s e i t as Inadequate;  6.  When c h i l d r e n must be moved from one f o s t e r home t o another, e v a l u a t e what caused f a i l u r e so as to prevent i d e n t i c a l f a i l u r e s i n the f u t u r e . Too o f t e n placement f a i l u r e s are not a n a l y z e d ; P o t e n t i a l l y good f o s t e r homes f a i l , inadequate f a m i l i e s c o n t i n u e t o g i v e poor c a r e to c h i l d r e n and c h i l d r e n s u f f e r . ;  can  best  168 *  F i n a l l y $ i t must be s a i d a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t I t I s unusual t o f i n d a f o s t e r home w i t h the degree o f s t r e n g t h , warmth, f a i r n e s s and concern f o r c h i l d r e n o f the S c o t t home* I t i s o f t e n e a s i e r t o overload breaking  such a home, even t o t h e  p o i n t , than t o seek and use a new home; and few  homes have t h e a b i l i t y shown b y t h e S c o t t home t o w i t h s t a n d such p r e s s u r e s *  The S c o t t home suggests a number o f Important  f a c t o r s t o be sought i n any f o s t e r home f o r a d o l e s c e n t Among these a r e steady warmth and p e r s o n a l  boys*  concern from t h e  a d u l t s , v a r i e d I n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o a l l , reasonable b u t i r o n - c l a d r u l e s w i t h f i x e d p e n a l t i e s , a f e e l i n g from t h e a d u l t s o f i n t e r e s t and a d v e n t u r e — a " j o i e de vivre"—and  absolute  f a i r n e s s , assumption o f a d u l t  leader-  s h i p and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t r u e h u m i l i t y from t h e a d u l t s * In a d d i t i o n , the f a m i l y r o o t s must be s t r o n g l y s e t i n t h e community, and the f a m i l y m a i n t a i n i t s i d e n t i t y and worth, i n c l u d i n g and sponsoring  as I t s own those f o s t e r c h i l d r e n  who become, even t e m p o r a r i l y ,  i t s members*  • 169 APPENDIX A  Vancouver,  B.C.,  September 10,  1948,  Mr* and Mrs. S c o t t , Burnaby, B.C. Dear Mr. and Mrs* S c o t t : I am -just w r i t i n g t h i s l i t t l e note b e f o r e I l e a v e the Agency t o thank you most h e a r t i l y f o r your kindness i n so many ways to me w h i l e I served as your s u p e r v i s o r * I know many times you d i d not r e l i s h seeing me come down the p a t h f o r f e a r I had another boy i n the c a r or another problem tucked away somewhere* However, I must say t h a t never d i d 1 v i s i t your home t h a t you d i d not always g i v e me the support and help t h a t I wanted* You have had some of our worst boys as w e l l as some o f our r e a l l y f i n e l a d s and I have never f e l t t h a t you have ever once not g i v e n e v e r y t h i n g you had t o our boys* I t was most h e a r t e n i n g when I v i s i t e d the camps t h i s Summer t o f i n d out i n p r a c t i c a l l y every case i t was a C h i l d r e n ' s A i d boy who had been e l e c t e d e i t h e r C h i e f Camper or b e s t boy* A t C u l t u s Lake the honours went t o young Joe who l i v e s on L u l u I s l a n d w h i l e up a t San West U n i t e d Church Camp, A l v l n was s e l e c t e d as the honour camper. I o f t e n f e e l t h a t sometimes you f o s t e r parents f e e l the work i s p r e t t y u s e l e s s but when you see boys t u r n out on top I am sure your s a t i s f a c t i o n must be as g r e a t as any we have i n the Agency* for  I g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d knowing you and working w i t h the p a s t f i v e years and w i s h t o say "thank you." Yours s i n c e r e l y ,  you  - . 170  APPENDIX B  Vancouver* B*C*. January 26, 195© •  Mrs. Scott,. South Burnaby, B.C. Dear M r s . Scott:.  The Board o f D i r e c t o r s , s t a f f , and the many c h i l d r e n t h a t passed through your hands s i n c e 1931» ftish t o thank you f o r your years o f r e a l s e r v i c e t o our agency*. We a r e s o r r y t h a t we were n o t aware u n t i l r e c e n t l y t h a t your husband had passed away. Too o f t e n i n the r u s h and t u r m o i l o f our world today and o f the world o f c h i l d w e l f a r e we a r e a p t t o .let t h i n g s t h a t seem s m a l l , but r e a l l y are g r e a t , pass by. We mean by t h i s , s a y i n g thank you t o you and your dear husband. We f e e l sure t h a t the f a c t t h a t your f i r s t boy r e t u r n e d t o your home f o r your husband's f u n e r a l spoke volumes, and perhaps i n some way expressed the f e e l i n g o f a l l the boys t h a t you have n u r t u r e d , guided and s e n t o u t t o f a c e t h e w o r l d b e t t e r f o r knowing t h e both o f y o u . Over the y e a r s many workers, t o o , have passed through your d o o r — s o m e young and i n e x p e r i e n c e d , some knowing q u i t e a b i t , some wanting t o t e l l you e v e r y t h i n g , and some w i l l i n g to l e a r n from you* These people a l s o , we a r e s u r e , l e f t t h e b e t t e r o f the v i s i t * I t i s hard t o measure, i n any way* the v a l u e o f such work* "Johnny," o r "pop," o r "dad," as Mr. S c o t t was known, d i d a yeoman s e r v i c e f o r the boys* One does n o t r e a d i l y f o r g e t the scene o f Hr* S c o t t r e t u r n i n g w i t h a young tyke from the s c h o o l c o n c e r t w h i l e you y o u r s e l f got busy t o a t t e n d another c o n c e r t the same day w i t h another boy* One does n o t f o r g e t s e e i n g your own son e q u a l i n every r e s p e c t w i t h f o u r of our l a d s g i v i n g an e x c e l l e n t d i s p l a y a t the S t . John's ambulance i n s p e c t i o n w i t h Mom and Dad l o o k i n g p r o u d l y en. Nor does one f o r g e t . a k i t c h e n scene a t 3 o ' c l o c k i n the m o r n i n g — a c o l d , wet, m i s e r a b l e l i t t l e boy b e i n g warmly b u t f i r m l y welcomed by y o u r s e l f ; a cup o f cocoa on the t a b l e and  171  >  s l i c e s o f homemade bread g e n e r o u s l y p i l e d by. Nor does one f o r g e t the f e s t i v e Christmas scene when e i g h t e e n o l d boys r e t u r n e d t o your generous t a b l e . We o f the Agency a p p r e c i a t e t h i s , Mrs. S c o t t , more than mere words can s a y . We a r e s o r r y , as we s a i d b e f o r e , t h a t t h i s thank you s h o u l d not have gone much sooner so t h a t you both c o u l d have In some way had' a "thank you" f o r your noble work. We c o u l d n o t c l o s e t h i s l e t t e r without thanking your f a m i l y t o o - - J e s s i e , Angus, and your s i s t e r * We f e e l the f a c t , Mrs. S c o t t , t h a t you were a b l e t o draw your whole f a m i l y t o g e t h e r i n t o the work o f f o s t e r parenthood by h a v i n g them a l l . p l a y a share i n g i v i n g each l a d h i s d i g n i t y and h i s p e r s o n a l worth. We r e a l i z e t h a t some d i d n o t t u r n out as we had hoped. Some perhaps d i d not a p p r e c i a t e a t the time what you were t r y i n g t o do, but we a r e sure t h a t I n t h e i r h e a r t s they knew what you were d o i n g , and w i l l never f a i l t o look back w i t h g r a t i t u d e . We r e a l i z e a t the p r e s e n t moment you a r e no l o n g e r an a c t i v e f o s t e r mother, b u t your s p i r i t and the s p i r i t o f your l a t e husband and your f a m i l y i s c a r r i e d , we a r e s u r e , i n the h e a r t o f every l a d . I n c l o s i n g , one remark o f a l a d , we t h i n k , e x e m p l i f i e s e v e r y t h i n g we have t r i e d to say i n t h i s l e t t e r . He was asked, "why don't you ever r u n away from the S c o t t s ? You d i d from o t h e r f o s t e r homes." Johnny looked a t the worker ' w i t h astonishment, and s a i d "what, r u n away from Mom and dad! We Can do l o t s o f t h i n g s , but we c o u l d never do t h a t ! " Yours  sincerely,  r  i72 -  APPBHDIX C BIBLIOGRAPHY BjDOJ^S, Aichorn, August, Wayward Youth* Viking P r e s s , Hew York, I945. ' Gharnley, Jean, T,he A r t of C h i l d Placement. University of Minnesota P r e s s , Minneapolis, 1955* Day, Gladys D , , Home Finding—The Placemen^ of Children i n F a m i l i e s . C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, 1951* •  English* G . S . , and Pearson, O . H . J . , Emotional Problems of L i v i n g , f , W , l o r t o n and Company, Mew York, 1946, . F i n k , Arthur E . , The F i e l d of S o c i a l Work. Henry Holt and C o , , Hew York, 1942. Hutchinson, Dorothy, In Quest of Foster Parents. Columbia University P r e s s , Uew York, 1943, Kasius, Cora ( E d . ) , P r i n c i p l e s and Techniques i n S o c i a l Casework. Family Service Association of America, 1950. Towle, Charlotte, Common Human Heeds. American Association of S o c i a l Workers, Hew York, 1953, Pamphlets Some Practices i n Home F i n d i n g . Child Welfare League of America, Kew York, 1946. Standards f o r Children's Organizations Providing; Foster Family Care. C h i l d Welfare League o f Americ^;. Mew Y o r k , , 1941. Reports  Report by Margaret Angus on The Children's Aid;Society of Vancouver B . C . . 1901 «, 19*1. t  Annual Report. 19?*. C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society of Vancouver, • ' B.C.  7  m  *  Articles C o f f i n o , F r a n c e s , Development o f a F o s t e r Home. C h i l d Welfare League o f America, New York, October, 1955» C o r n w a l l , C h a r l o t t e , S t r u c t u r e Change Concerning F a m i l i e s and C h i l d r e n . Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , N o v e m b e r , 1954. G r i f f i t h s . Margaret H., The C h i l d Faces Placement. Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Ottawa, March, 1946. Hutchinson, Dorothy, The P a r e n t - C h i l d R e l a t i o n s h i p as ,fi F a c t o r i n C h i l d Placement. The F a m i l y W e l f a r e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, Hew York, A p r i l , 1946. Lewis, Mary E., Long Time Temporary Placement. C h i l d Welfare League o f America, Hew York, October, 1951. Richman, Leon M., Problems o f F o s t e r C a r e . Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , November, 1948. Boss, H e l e n , The Caseworker and the A d o l e s c e n t . F a m i l y S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, Hew York, Nov., 1941. Schoenberg, C a r l , Long Time Home Care As An Agency S e r v i c e . C h i l d Welfare League o f America, May, 1951 • S t u b b i n s , Lorene, F o s t e r Home C a r e . Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , Ottawa, November, 1951* Weisenbarger, Ruth, D i r e c t Casework w i t h the C h i l d I n F o s t e r Home Placement. C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f America, Mew York, A p r i l , 1951* Wires, E m i l y M . . . Long-Time Care i n a P u b l i c C h i l d - P l a c i n g Agency. J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Casework, May, 1951* Wires, S m i l y 1., Some F a o t o r s i n the Worker»Foster P a r e n t R e l a t i o n s h i p . C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f America, October,  1954*  Young, Leon t i n e , piaepmenfr From the CftUd's VfrewpQint, J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Casework, June, 1950•  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106259/manifest

Comment

Related Items