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A survey of wards not in foster-homes : study of the group who severed contact with the agency (Children's… Homer, Donald Garth 1956

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A SURVEY OF WARDS NOT Bl FOSTER-HOMES: Study of the Group Who Severed Contact With The Agency (Children's Aid Society, Vancouver). by DONALD GARTH HOMER Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of MAST© OF SOCIAL WOE£ SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK 1956 The University of British Columbia ( i ) TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter 1. Guardianship and C h i l d Care Page The h i s t o r i c a l development of c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n and of c h i l d care s e r v i c e s . The h i s t o r i c a l development of c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. P u b l i c Guardianship - a way of p r o t e c t i n g the r i g h t s of c h i l d r e n and a means of f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r needs. I n s t i t u t i o n a l placement as a form of c a r e . Focus and method of the study 1. Chapter 2. S i x t e e n Wards Who Are Lost The f a m i l y background of these c h i l d r e n . Problems of the parents. Reasons f o r care. Problems manifested by the c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n as wards. F a c t o r s prevent-i n g these c h i l d r e n from making e f f e c t i v e use of Agency car e . E v a l u a t i o n of the adjustment of the c h i l d r e n while i n care ....v................................ 20. Chapter 3. Pour C h i l d r e n Who Are Lost . A d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n i s made f o r f o u r c h i l d r e n i n regard t o f a m i l y background, t h e i r problems a t the date of admission t o care, the Agency's s e r v i c e s extended t o them, and an e v a l u a t i o n of these s e r v i c e s . . . 4 1 . Chapter 4. F i n d i n g s and I m p l i c a t i o n s The problems of the c h i l d r e n i n r e l a t i o n t o the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the Agency. Agency and community i m p l i c a t i o n s 80. Appendices: A. D e f i n i t i o n of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of P a r e n t a l Problems. '.' B. D e f i n i t i o n of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s Problems. C. Schedule Used f o r Cases. D . B i b l i o g r a p h y . TABLES IN THE TEXT Table. 1. M a r i t a l s t a t u s of parents a t date of c h i l d ' s . committal t o care 20. Table 2. Problems manifested by parents a t time of c h i l d ' s committal t o care..... 22. ( i i ) Page Table 3» Age and sex of c h i l d r e n a t the date of committal...25. Table 4. Frequency of occurrence of types of problems a t time of c h i l d r e n ' s admission t o care .26. Table 5 . Length of time l o s t and placement from which the c h i l d r e n became lost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 . Table 6. Comparison between frequency of problems a t date of admission and date l o s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 8 . ( i i i ) ABSTRACT This t h e s i s i s p a r t of a l a r g e r study o f f a l l wards of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Vancouver, who axe not l i v i n g i n f o s t e r homes. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s a study of the 16 wards whose whereabouts were unknown t o the S o c i e t y a t the time the i n i t i a l survey was undertaken i n October, 1954' As a background t o the study the h i s t o r i c a l development of c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n Great B r i t a i n and the United States i s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s t o the p r i n c i p l e and s t a t u s of p u b l i c guardianship incorporated i n Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n . I n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Vancouver, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g out the d u t i e s of guardianship and of s u p e r v i s i o n f o r c h i l d r e n made wards of the S o c i e t y , e i t h e r u n t i l they a t t a i n the age of 21 years or u n t i l a court order i s made r e t u r n i n g the c h i l d t o h i s parents. L e g i s l a t i o n , moreover, s p e c i f i e s foster-home placement as the most d e s i r a b l e form of care f o r c h i l d r e n made p u b l i c wards. A c c o r d i n g l y , t h i s study attempts t o assess the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p u b l i c guardianship f o r a sm a l l group of wards who e v e n t u a l l y became l o s t , w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r -ence t o t h e i r problems of adjustment and foster-home placement. A simple schedule was devised appropriate f o r summarizing the q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e data contained i n the f i l e s of the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Summary methods of c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n were developed i n order t o analyse and compare the m a t e r i a l . Examination of t h i s m a t e r i a l show^b t h a t the emotion-a l d e p r i v a t i o n and i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n -ships experienced by t h e s e - c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e i r e a r l y years o f t e n prevented them from a d j u s t i n g t o the f o s t e r home type of care . Moreover, i t was evident t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e forms of care and the casework s e r v i c e s which the problems of these c h i l d r e n demanded has not been a v a i l a b l e , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t they e v e n t u a l l y became l o s t t o the e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n of the Agency. Case i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r f o u r of the c h i l d r e n were used t o present a more d e t a i l e d and comprehensive p i c t u r e of the needs of these c h i l d r e n during t h e i r p e r i o d i n care and of the s e r v i c e s provided by the Agency t o a s s i s t i n t h e i r b e t t e r adjustment. The i l l u s t r a t i o n s d i s c u s s the p s y c h o - s o c i a l h i s t o r y a v a i l a b l e from the case r e c o r d s , and p o i n t up the damaging e f f e c t s on these c h i l d r e n of c e r t a i n experiences during t h e i r e a r l y childhood, ( i v ) exacerbated by t h e i r subsequent experience of foster-home placements. The study l e d t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of c e r t a i n recommend-a t i o n s , the most important of these being the need f o r complete d i a g n o s t i c assessment of the o h i l d both when.he i s f i r s t ad-mitted t o care and a t c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r v a l s throughout h i s pe r i o d i n care. Prom t h i s d i a gnosis a p l a n f o r the care of the c h i l d should be made which w i l l s a t i s f y h i s needs. Three types of r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s are suggested which would provide the appropriate placement and treatment f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d by those c h i l d r e n f o r whom foster-home placement has proved u n s u i t a b l e . (v) AOCTOWKEDGEMEST I wish t o acknowledge indebtedness t o Miss Dorothy Coombe, Executive D i r e c t o r of the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , who made the m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e f o r the pr e p a r a t i o n of t h i s study. The d i r e c t i o n and encouragement re c e i v e d from Miss M a r j o r i e J . Smith, D i r e c t o r of the School of S o c i a l Work, Dr. Leonard C. Marsh, Research D i r e c t o r of the School of S o c i a l Work, and Mr. Michael Wheeler of the School of S o c i a l Work, are acknowledged w i t h g r a t i t u d e . A STUDY OP SIXTEEN LOST WARDS OP THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY, VANCOUVER CHAPTER ONE GUARDIANSHIP AND CHILD CARE The H i s t o r i c a l Development of C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n and  of Child-Care S e r v i c e s . , The English.speaking world has been attempting f o r s e v e r a l hundred years t o develop s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n whose parents were unable t o provide them w i t h proper care. L e g i s l a t i o n d i r e c t l y e f f e c t i n g c h i l d r e n has not always recognized t h e i r s p e c i a l needs, but as the knowledge of c h i l d r e n ' s needs has inoreased the l e g i s l a t i o n tended t o r e f l e c t t h i s and the s e r v i c e s t o the c h i l d r e n have grown a c c o r d i n g l y . In England, up t o the s i x t e e n t h century, the needs of the poor and t h e i r c h i l d r e n were provided f o r by the church but w i t h the d i s s o l u t i o n of the monastaries by Henry V l l l these s e r v i c e s t o the poor were c u r t a i l e d . At the same time the numbers of the poor were i n c r e a s i n g as a r e s u l t of the break-up of f e u d a l s o c i e t y and the r a p i d spread of the enclosure movement. Many of the poor r e s o r t e d t o begging and the laws of a p u n i t i v e nature were passed i n an attempt t o stop t h i s begging. These r e p r e s s i v e measures alone were not s u f f i c i e n t t o d e a l w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g problem of poverty and during Queen E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n laws were passed which recog-n i z e d t h a t the c h i l d r e n of the poor needed s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . This l e g i s l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d the system of indenture and the alms-house as means of c a r i n g f o r these c h i l d r e n . N e i t h e r of these 2 methods of care, however, was designed to'meet the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . During the f i r s t p a r t of the 19th century the E n g l i s h alms-house and the indenture system were being used i n the United S t a t e s . By the middle of the century the abuses of these systems began t o be recognized and one p r a c t i c a l outcome of t h i s recog-n i t i o n was the establishment of the New York C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y under the l e a d e r s h i p of Charles L o r i n g Brace. This was a s i g n i f i -cant development since i t marked the beginning of the f o s t e r home system of care f o r c h i l d r e n , but even so the Sooiety's programme showed l i t t l e regard f o r the c h i l d ' s i n d i v i d u a l needs. With the establishemfcnt of the Boston C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y under Charles B i r t w e l l , an attempt was made t o take Brace's idea a stage f u r t h e r by matching the c h i l d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r home. C h i l d p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada has l a r g e l y f o llowed the e a r l i e r p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d i n England and the United S t a t e s . The f i r s t l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n i n Canada was the Ontario Act of 1893. I t was based on the e a r l i e r S c o t t i s h Aot of 1854 e n t i t l e d " An Act t o render reformatory and i n d u s t r i a l schools i n Scotland more a v a i l a b l e f o r the b e n e f i t of vagrant 1. c h i l d r e n . " This Act defined the vagrant c h i l d . The Ontario Act of 1893 i n An Act f o r the Prevention of C r u e l t y t o and B e t t e r 2. P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n " defined the neglected c h i l d . Por the purpose of t h i s a neglected c h i l d was described as " any c h i l d under the 1. 17 and 18 V i c t o r i a , C.74, 1854. 2. Statutes of Ontario, C.45, 1893. 3 age of fourteen years..,, who i s found begging, receiving\alms or t h i e v i n g i n any s t r e e t , thoroughfare, t a v e r n , or place of p u b l i c consort, Or s l e e p i n g at n i g h t i n the open a i r ; (or) who i s found wandering about a t l a t e hours and not having any home or s e t t l e d 1. place of abode, or proper guardianship This d e f i n i t i o n provided f o r the neglected c h i l d , the abused, and the delinquent o h i l d . The Ontario Act provided f o r the appointment of a p r o v i n c i a l Superintendent of Neglected C h i l d r e n whose f i r s t duty was t o a s s i s t i n the establishment of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . These s o c i e t i e s became the State's agent f o r p r o v i d i n g p r o t e c t i o n t o c h i l d r e n . The a c t made i t p o s s i b l e t o remove from parents the r i g h t s they have i n respect t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n when such a c t i o n appeared neces-sary i n the i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d * The a c t a l s o provided f o r neglected c h i l d r e n t o be cared f o r i n s u i t a b l e f a m i l y homes or apprenticed t o "proper people," The other Canadian provinces have incorporated i n t o t h e i r c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n the Ontario a c t ' s d e f i n i t i o n of n e g l e c t , the p r a c t i c e of a p p o i n t i n g a superintendent, the e s t a b l i s h -ment of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , and the use of s u i t a b l e f a m i l y homes t o care f o r neglected c h i l d r e n . These p r o v i s i o n s lend a c e r t a i n u n i f o r m i t y t o Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n , the d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s provinces being l a r g e l y i n the matter of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e * Prom Great B r i t a i n , Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n d e r i v e s one concept of the s t a t e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n who 1. Smith, l a r j o r i e J . , " An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the H i s t o r i c a l Development of C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n i n Canada," C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n In Panada, Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, 1 9 5 4 . 4 are i n need of p r o t e c t i o n , w h i l e i n i t & p r o v i s i o n s f o r the a c t u a l s u b s t i t u t e care of c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes was borrowed c h i e f l y from the United S t a t e s . Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n has broadened from the f i r s t Ontario A c t , whose purpose was p r i m a r i l y t o o f f e r p r o t e c t i o n , t o the p o i n t where prevention as w e l l as p r o t e c t i o n e x i s t s as an o b j e c t i v e . The attainment of t h i s o b j e c t i v e has become more n e a r l y p o s s i b l e w i t h the increase i n government a i d f o r the expansion of welfa r e programmes. In Canada today i t i s now t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e f o r any c h i l d , r e g a r d l e s s of economic s t a t u s , t o r e c e i v e the s e r v i c e s appropriate t o h i s need. The H i s t o r i c a l Development of C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In B r i t i s h Columbia the f i r s t c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n 1. enacted was the n C h i l d r e n ' s P r o t e c t i o n Act " of 1901. As under the Ontario Act of 1893, a Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y was e s t a b l i s h e d charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o v i d i n g p r o t e c t i o n t o c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes. A d e f i n i t i o n of negleot s i m i l a r t o the Ontario d e f i n i t i o n was included and l e g a l p r o v i s i o n made f o r the t r a n s f e r of guardianship from the parents t o the newly created S o c i e t y . The method of care s t r e s s e d f o r these c h i l d r e n was the f o s t e r family-home i n accordance w i t h the Canadian t r a d i t i o n . I t soon became apparent, as welfare s e r v i c e s expanded, t h a t government f i n a n c i a l support was needed i f programmes were t o keep pace w i t h demands being made on the S o c i e t y . I n 1909 l e g i s l a t i o n 1. S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1901, C.9. 5 was passed whereby m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were obliged t o assume the c o s t s of the care of suoh c h i l d r e n as had l e g a l residence i n t h e i r area who were committed by the c o u r t s t o the care of the s o c i e t y . In t u r n the m u n i c i p a l i t y could seek reimbursement from the c h i l d ' s parents. P r o v i n c i a l government f i n a n c i a l support was not forthcoming u n t i l 1924 when a " Superintendent of Neglect-ed C h i l d r e n " was appointed. Within the next t e n years welfare programmes i n B r i t i s h Columbia expanded r a p i d l y . l e g i s l a t i o n provided s e r v i c e s t o unmarried parents, j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s , and mothers i n need of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , through the Adoption A c t , Unmarried Parents A c t , J u v e n i l e Courts Act, and Mother's Allowance Act r e s p e c t i v e l y . The Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . B r i t i s h Columbia's f i r s t " P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s Act " had l e d t o the establishment of the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n 1901. P r i o r t o 1927 the S o c i e t y ' s a c t i v i t i e s were confined t o the p r o t e c t i o n aspect of c h i l d w e l f a r e . C h i l d r e n committed t o the S o c i e t y were oared f o r p r i m a r i l y through orphanages, since s u i t a b l e adoption homes were not a v a i l a b l e i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers t o give each c h i l d a f a m i l y . In 1927 Miss C h a r l o t t e Whltton, Executive Secretary of the Canadian C o u n c i l of C h i l d Welfare, conducted a survey i n t o welfare s e r v i c e s and l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Among the recommendations made by Miss Whltton the f o l l o w i n g are noted as being e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the l i g h t of the S o c i e t y ' s previous p r a c t i c e . She recommended t h a t (a) more c o n s i d e r a t i o n be 6 given t o the f i n d i n g of f o s t e r homes s u i t e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d ; (b) t h a t p r e v e n t a t i v e s e r v i c e s should be given as w e l l as p r o t e c t i v e ones; (e) t h a t casework s e r v i c e s should be extended to f a m i l i e s and unmarried mothers; and (d) t h a t t r a i n e d workers should be employed. As a r e s u l t of t h i s survey, s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n were r e -organized and t r a i n e d s t a f f h i r e d . The numbers of c h i l d r e n i n orphanages were g r e a t l y reduced as the f o s t e r home programme expanded. Services of a preventive nature were i n s t i t u t e d t o un-married mothers and t o f a m i l i e s . More governmental funds became a v a i l a b l e f o r c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s . S e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n were provided i n the s p a r s e l y populated regions aa the p r o v i n c i a l w elfare depart®®^ expanded. These were departures from t r a d i t -i o n a l p r a c t i c e . B r i t i s h Columbia's present P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s Act was l a s t r e v i s e d i n 1948 when the d e f i n i t i o n of neglect was enlarged t o cover a wider v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e n e g l e c t s i t u a t i o n s . In i t ' s r e v i s e d form the Act s t r e s s e s t h a t c h i l d r e n should be placed i n f o s t e r homes. I t a l s o provides f o r the r e t u r n of c h i l d r e n , who have been committed t o the care of a s o c i e t y or superintendent, through the e o u r t s , t o t h e i r parents i f i t i s thought t h a t the c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s w i l l be served by t h e i r r e t u r n * P u b l i o Guardianship - A Way of P r o t e c t i n g the R i g h t s of C h i l d r e n  and a Means of F u l f i l l i n g t h e i r Heeds. As has been observed e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, c h i l d r e n have not always possessed l e g a l r i g h t s . Present l e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g 7 the c h i l d assigns p r i o r i t y t o the c h i l d ' s needs over the r i g h t s of the parents. The l e g i s l a t i o n r e f l e c t s the b e l i e f t h a t " the f u t u r e of the n a t i o n r e s t s i n the hands of i t s youth." This t h i n k -i n g has placed g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s upon the parents of the ohildren,. Sot only do parents have gr e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s but so does the s t a t e . The s t a t e today i s o b l i g a t e d t o p r o t e c t c h i l d r e n * This assumption by s o o i e t y , through the s t a t e , of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n , i s based on c e r t a i n concepts which have been c l e a r l y formulated i n a p u b l i c a t i o n of the 1* C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau of the American Fe d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency. The f i r s t of these p o i n t s out t h a t the c h i l d i s too imature and l a c k i n g i n experience t o make wise d e c i s i o n s and exereise w i s e l y h i s r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The second f o l l o w s the f i r s t , s t a t i n g t h a t the execution of these r i g h t s must be entrusted t o others who are capable and i n t e r e s t e d i n the e x e r c i s i n g of them. The t h i r d i s an extension of the second and d e c l a r e s t h a t the parents must accept t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The l a s t oonoept sets out the duty of the s t a t e t o "supplement and s u b s t i t u t e " f o r the c h i l d ' s parents whenever needed and t o promote the i n t e r e s t s and welfare of the c h i l d . With regard t o the f o u r t h concept of guardianship and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o the e x i s t i n g P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s Act i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the t r a n s f e r of guardianship from a c h i l d ' s parents or guardian t o a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o o i e t y or the superintend-ent of c h i l d welfare i s a l e g a l one and must be done through the 1. Weissman, I r v i n g ; et a l i a ; C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n # 330, ^ . l . j , Federal S e c u r i t y Agency, 1949. "8 c o u r t . The aot, under s e c t i o n 8 subsection 5, s p e c i f i c a l l y s e t s out the powers of a judge. He may adjourn the case sine d i e and order t h a t the e h i l d be returned t o the parents or persons having a c t u a l custody of the c h i l d a t the time of apprehension subject to the s u p e r v i s i o n of the superintendent of a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y or the superintendent of c h i l d w e l f a r e . The judge may decide t h a t the o h i l d should be returned t o h i s parents subject t o " suoh r e g u l a t i o n s as the circumstances render j u s t . " The judge too can t r a n s f e r the guardianship of the c h i l d t o the " care and custody of a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y or the superintendent." Under s e c t i o n 10, subsection 1 of the aot, the powers and du t i e s of a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y are s t a t e d . The s o c i e t y t o the care of which any c h i l d i s committed under the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s a c t s h a l l be the l e g a l guardian of the o h i l d u n t i l i t i s r e l i e v e d of t h a t guardianship by order of the judge or by the f a o t t h a t the c h i l d has reached the age of twenty-one, or, i f a female, i s married; and i t s h a l l be the duty of the s o c i e t y t o use s p e c i a l d i l i g e n c e i n p r o v i d i n g s u i t a b l e f o s t e r homes f o r such c h i l d r e n as are committed t o i t s care, and the s o c i e t y i s hereby authorized t o place such c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes on a w r i t t e n agreement, during m i n o r i t y , or f o r any l e s s period i n the d i s c r e t i o n of the s o c i e t y . Hot withstanding the p r o v i s i o n s of any such c o n t r a c t the s o c i e t y s h a l l have the r i g h t t o withdraw the c h i l d from any person having the custody of the c h i l d i f , i n the opinion of the s o c i e t y p l a c i n g out the c h i l d , the welfare of the c h i l d r e q u i r e s i t . i . Through the process of law, the superintendent of c h i l d w elfare or a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y becomes the l e g a l guardian of a c h i l d who i s deemed t o be neglected under the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s a c t . 1. S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 12 George VI, 0,47, 1948. 9 Such a c h i l d i s known as a ward. Present-day l e g i s l a t i o n r e f l e c t s the p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l work i n s t r e s s i n g the importance of p r e s e r v i n g the f a m i l y u n i t wherever p o s s i b l e . The experience of s o c i a l workers has shown th a t when a c h i l d i s committed t o the care of a s o c i a l agency he s u f f e r s emotionally i n the l o s s of h i s sense of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h h i s own f a m i l y , and t h a t any pl a n t h a t the agency may make f o r the c h i l d can o f f e r only a s u b s t i t u t e f o r the c h i l d ' s own home. Ac c o r d i n g l y , the d e c i s i o n t o apprehend a c h i l d i s made only a f t e r a l l other e f f o r t s t o help the f a m i l y i t s e l f provide adequate care have proved u n s u c c e s s f u l , and always on the understanding t h a t the purpose i n t r a n s f e r r i n g guardianship from parents t o the agency i s t o enable the c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s t o be b e t t e r served. I f i t appears a t some subsequent stage t h a t the c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s w i l l be served by r e - u n i t i n g him w i t h h i s f a m i l y , l e g i s l a t i o n permits t h i s t o be c a r r i e d out, and the re-establishment of the f a m i l y group i s an o b j e c t i v e towards which s o c i a l workers s t r i v e . The elements of a p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e as o u t l i n e d above have been defined i n a statement by a committee on C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n of the A s s o c i a t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s A i d f o r the Province of Ontario. ....a s e r v i c e on behalf of c h i l d r e n , undertaken by an agency upon r e c e i p t of in f o r m a t i o n which i n d i c a t e s that p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s toward those c h i l d r e n are not being e f f e c t i v e l y met. The s e r v i c e i s based on law and i s supported by community standards. I t s purpose i s the p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n through strengthening the home, or, f a i l i n g t h a t , making other plans f o r t h e i r care and custody through c o u r t . n 1. Committee on C h i l d P r o t e o t i o n , 1952-53, A s s o c i a t i o n of Chi l d r e n ' s A i d f o r the Province of Ontario, 1952-53. 10 Another maxim i n c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n , as p r a c t i s e d by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker, s t a t e t h a t the best way t o p r o t e c t the c h i l d i s t o guard the r i g h t s of the parents. This does not mean t h a t parents have absolute r i g h t s over c h i l d r e n as was given by E n g l i s h Common Law and Roman Law* l o r does i t mean t h a t the State has absolute r i g h t s over c h i l d r e n . E n g l i s h Poor Law and Common Law placed upon parents the o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o t e c t , educate, and support t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I n r e t u r n , the parents r i g h t s t o custody, control,and c o r r e c t i o n of the o h i l d were acknowledged. Parents were a l s o given the r i g h t s t o the c h i l d rs earnings and s e r v i c e s . To ob t a i n a balance between the two extremes i s the job of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker. A committee on c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n has stated the p o s i t i o n of the s o c i a l worker i n t h i s way: We seek t o achieve i n l e g i s l a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e a balance between p r o t e c t i n g the parents' r i g h t s s u f f i c i e n t l y and guarding a g a i n s t abuse of c h i l d r e n . R e a l i z i n g the danger of removing too many p a r e n t a l r i g h t s , we tend t o give parents greater r a t h e r than l e s s c o n t r o l when we are i n doubt. Eaoh s i t u a t i o n where a c t i o n i s being considered t o r e l i e v e parents of t h e i r r i g h t s and d u t i e s must be assessed c a r e f u l l y from the po i n t of view of whether a c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s are going t o be served b e t t e r through such a c t i o n . The p r o f e s s i o n of s o c i a l work has recognized from p r a c t i c e t h a t every c h i l d i s unique and from t h i s i t has evolved the 1. C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n In Canada, Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Ottawa, 1954, p. 31. 11 p r i n c i p l e t h a t any p l a n f o r h i s care must be i n accordance w i t h the c h i l d ' s p a r t i c u l a r needs. This demands a v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s by agencies who are attempting t o supplement and s u b s t i t u t e f o r a c h i l d ' s bare out of h i s own home. The foster-home type of care f o r c h i l d r e n has a r i s e n from the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the b a s i c u n i t of s o c i e t y i s the f a m i l y . Prom t h i s I t i s reasoned t h a t s i n c e a f o s t e r home most c l o s e l y approximates the n a t u r a l f a m i l y group, i t should t h e r e f o r e c o n s t i t u t e the c h i e f means of c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n . Sometimes t h i s p r i n c i p l e has rec e i v e d undue emphasis t o the p o i n t where s o o i a l workers have f o r g o t t e n t h a t every c h i l d i s unique and t h a t plans f o r care must take account of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Poster care has been defined as: any f u l l time care of a c h i l d by persons not b i o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o him, whether i t i s w i t h a group of other c h i l d r e n i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , or i n a f o s t e r f a m i l y home; whether i t i s of long or short d u r a t i o n ; whether i t i s paid f o r i n p a r t or e n t i r e l y by the c h i l d ' s own parents, r e l a t i v e s or guardian, or by p u b l i c or p r i v a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s ; and whether or not i t i s accompanied by l e g a l t e r m i n a t i o n of the r i g h t s of n a t u r a l parents and t r a n s f e r of guardianship t o a parent s u b s t i t u t e . " 1* This d e f i n i t i o n covers adoption and foster-home care as w e l l as i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . Poster homes i n t h i s study w i l l be used synonymously w i t h f o s t e r f a m i l y care as mentioned i n the d e f i n i t -i o n . The d e f i n i t i o n w i l l a l s o exclude those c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t -i o n s . 1. McGovern, C e c i l i a , Servioes t o C h i l d r e n i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , Washington, R a n s d e l l , 1948, p . l . 12 Once guardianship has been removed from a c h i l d ' s parents and t r a n s f e r r e d t o a s o c i a l agency a new r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e s t a b l i s h e d capable of a f f e c t i n g the c h i l d ' s whole l i f e * On becoming a ward he enters i n t o a new l e g a l s t a t u s . The d u t i e s and r i g h t s which are u s u a l l y i n the hands of h i s n a t u r a l parents are now entrusted t o people who may be t o t a l l y unrelated t o hinu The new guardian has the power and d u t i e s of parents i n respect t o marriage, medical care, adoption, and employment, as w e l l as the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the care, custody, and c o n t r o l of the c h i l d . There are d i f f e r e n c e s between the guardian of a c h i l d and h i s parents. Guardianship, as e s t a b l i s h e d by law, i s only f o r the period of a c h i l d ' s m i n o r i t y . In Canada the u s u a l age a t which a c h i l d a t t a i n s h i s m a j o r i t y i s 21 years. Guardianship assumes t h a t there w i l l be s u p e r v i s i o n from a p r o v i n c i a l l y appointed o f f i c i a l c a l l e d a "superintendent." A guardian does not have the r i g h t t o a ward's earnings or s e r v i c e s . The process of guardianship does not take away the r i g h t of a ward t o i n h e r i t from h i s n a t u r a l parents nor does he r e c e i v e the r i g h t t o i n h e r i t from h i s guardian. At i t s best, guardianship seeks t o provide an adequate s u b s t i t u t e f o r p a r e n t a l care, but i t remains, n e v e r t h e l e s s , only a s u b s t i t u t e . Por a proper a p p r e c i a t i o n of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of guardian-s h i p , which has the added d i f f i c u l t y t o contend w i t h of meeting the needs of c h i l d r e n deprived of a normal home l i f e , i t i s necessary t o consider the b a s i c needs of a l l c h i l d r e n , whether l i v i n g i n t h e i r own homes, i n f o s t e r homes, or i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . 13 In a review of t h e i r needs regarded as u n i v e r s a l t o c h i l d r e n , the Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l has noted the f o l l o w i n g : Regard f o r the c h i l d ' s i n d i v i d u a l worth. A home, f r e e from want, where he i s loved and oared f o r by parents. R e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s and a community i n which ; he i s accepted. R e l i g i o u s and e t h i c a l education and expression. S t i m u l a t i n g work and p l a y according t o i n t e r e s t and s t r e n g t h . Health p r o t e c t i o n . Education appropriate t o h i s c a p a c i t y . Community s e r v i c e s t o supplement or s u b s t i t u t e ^ f o r "each of the means of meeting any of these needs. These needs go beyond the b a s i c p h y s i c a l needs of food, s h e l t e r and c l o t h i n g . They recognize t h a t the c h i l d i s an unique i n d i v i d -u a l and t h a t he cannot be t r e a t e d as a type or adequately cared f o r i n the mass. They recognize t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n must be loved a t home and accepted i n the community and tha t work, education and pl a y must be i n aocord w i t h the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y . The community's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y not only t o be aware of these needs but a l s o t o make adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r s u b s t i t u t e means of meeting them, i s exp r e s s l y s t a t e d . A s o c i a l agency, supported by the community, must, through the medium of guardianship, meet these needs when the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y f a i l s t o do so. Some 20 years ago s o c i a l workers f e l t t h a t f o s t e r homes served the needs of c h i l d r e n best and the B r i t i s h Columbia a c t was i n * 1. Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , op* c i t . , p.7* accordance w i t h t h i s b e l i e f . To-day t h i s f e e l i n g s t i l l e x i s t s . However there i s a growing awareness, based on an accumulation of experience, t h a t c h i l d r e n need a v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s . low s o c i a l workers b e l i e v e t h a t not a l l c h i l d r e n can use a f o s t e r home nor does the f o s t e r home serve the needs of the same c h i l d a t a l l times. S o c i a l workers have discovered too t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s are not the f i n a l answer. These two systems of care are complementary and supplementary. As a r e s u l t , s o c i a l agencies now provide q u a s i -i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s such as r e c e i v i n g homes, g r o u p - l i v i n g homes, and s u b s i d i z e d boarding homes* C h i l d r e n Needing an I n s t i t u t i o n a l Placement. H.T. Wilson, i n a study of one p a r t i c u l a r r e c e i v i n g home, has described those s i t u a t i o n s where an i n s t i t u t i o n , r a t h e r than a f o s t e r home, i s l i k e l y t o be b e t t e r able t o meet the needs of the 1. c h i l d . Family c o n d i t i o n s , age, and problems of the c h i l d are a l l seen a3 determining f a c t o r s i n d e c i d i n g the most appropriate form of care. The p a r t i c u l a r groupings observed f o r those c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g some form of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care are summarized below. C h i l d r e n who are s t r o n g l y attached t o t h e i r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s and who are going t o be under the care of a s o c i a l agency f o r a short period of time, are best served i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . Under these circumstances, the c h i l d r e n have the s e c u r i t y of remaining w i t h t h e i r s i b l i n g s and, are spared the confusion of accepting "new parents." C h i l d r e n who have been so badly hurt because of experiences 1. H.T. Wilson, Embury House, A Receiving Home For C h i l d r e n , M.S.W. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950. 15 i n t h e i r own home; or who have had many un s u c c e s s f u l f o s t e r home placements; or whose parents cannot l e t them become an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a f o s t e r f a m i l y , o f t e n f i n d an i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement s a t i s f a c t o r y * The n e u t r a l i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g t o the parents w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t they can a l l o w t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o l i v e away from them. As t h i s t h r e a t i s removed, the parents become more co-operative w i t h the agency i n working out plans f o r the c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n too, f i n d the i n s t i t u t i o n more s a t i s f y i n g as they are not expected t o form c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s * C l o s e l y a l l i e d t o t h i s group are the c h i l d r e n who have been "starved" f o r a f f e c t i o n . Their demands i n t h i s area are too great f o r a f o s t e r f a m i l y t o provide. The g r o u p - l i v i n g experience i n an i n s t i t u t i o n appears t o f u l f i l l t h e i r needs b e s t . The c h i l d of parents who are divorced or separated i s caught between the l o y a l t i e s he has f o r both parents and as suoh may become a pawn of the parents. I n these circumstances the c h i l d i s confused and i n c o n f l i c t about h i s l o y a l t i e s and I s not ready t o r e l a t e t o f o s t e r parents. An i n s t i t u t i o n i s much more acceptable t o him. An agency, which i s faoed w i t h the s i n g l e parent who i s te m p o r a r i l y unable t o make a home f o r a c h i l d , oan best serve the parent and c h i l d through p l a c i n g the c h i l d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n * I n t e r i m care i s provided through an i n s t i t u t i o n without breaking up the f a m i l y . I n s t i t u t i o n s are best f i t t e d t o serve the needs of s o c i a l l y and mentally retarded c h i l d r e n . Programmes can be f i t t e d t o t h e i r 16 -"i *" needs* The c o n s i s t e n t , regulated r o u t i n e of l i v i n g provided i n sueh a s e t t i n g i s h e l p f u l f o r t h i s k i n d of c h i l d and troublesome behaviour can be d e a l t w i t h b e t t e r i n t h i s s e t t i n g . F i n a l l y , a l l maladjusted o h i l d r e n , on coming i n t o the care of a s o c i a l agency, r e q u i r e a per i o d during whieh they can be studied and abserved so t h a t the f u t u r e p l a n n i n g of the agency can be d i r e c t e d i n accordance with the c h i l d ' s needs. I n s t i t u t i o n s would seem t o f u l f i l l t h i s f u n c t i o n best. S e t t i n g of Study - The C h i l d r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t y of Vancouver. The Vancouver Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i s a l e g a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n whose l e g a l a u t h o r i t y i s determined by s e c t i o n 10-subsection 1, of the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s Act f o r the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, as o u t l i n e d before. The S o c i e t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g out the p r o v i s i o n s of the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s Act w i t h i n c e r t a i n geographical boundaries, i n c l u d i n g the C i t y of Vancouver. The operations of the S o c i e t y are r e s t r i c t e d t o c h i l d r e n of P r o t e s t a n t f a i t h . The Agency o f f e r s m u l t i p l e s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n . The s e r v i c e s s t r e s s p revention of the f a c t o r s t h a t lead t o the breakdown of f a m i l i e s and are not r e s t r i c t e d p u r e l y t o the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of complaints of n e g l e c t . For those c h i l d r e n of f a m i l i e s unable t o provide minimum oommunity standards Of care t o c h i l d r e n , the Agency assumes guardianship, i f a judge so d i r e c t s . Such c h i l d r e n as are committed t o the care of the Agency by a c o u r t , are cared f o r c h i e f l y i n f o s t e r homes. Foster-home care i s a l s o o f f e r e d t o c h i l d r e n who 17 are not committed by a c o u r t , but who,c f o r one reason or another, r e q u i r e care outside of t h e i r own horne i"c-r a p e r i o d of time. S e r v i c e s are provided t o the unmarried mother. The Agency i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i n g adoptions w i t h i n i t s area of l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The present study i s p a r t of a l a r g e r survey of a l l wards of the C h i l d r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t y who are not l i v i n g i n foster-homes. The survey was o r i g i n a l l y prompted by the a r r e s t of a ward of the S o c i e t y on a charge of drug a d d i c t i o n . This ward, although under the guardianship of the S o c i e t y , was found t o be l i v i n g on her own i n a rooming house a t the time of her a r r e s t * Subsequent examination of the S o c i e t y ' s records revealed t h a t out of a t o t a l of 1220 wards i n the care of the S o c i e t y , 211 c h i l d r e n were l i v i n g outside f o s t e r -homes. Among these 211 c h i l d r e n a number were found i n c o r r e c t i o n a l or mental i n s t i t u t i o n s , some were l i v i n g i n R e c e i v i n g Homes or i n su b s i d i z e d boarding homes, while others were i n commercial boarding homes. A f u r t h e r group had become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g and a number of c h i l d r e n were noted as being " l o s t " t o the S o c i e t y . These p a r t i c -u l a r groups of c h i l d r e n form the subject of s e v e r a l separate s t u d i e s according t o the nature of the placement a t the date of the o r i g i n a l survey, October 31, 1954 being taken as the b a s e - l i n e f o r the survey. focus and Method of t h i s Study. The present study i s ooncerned w i t h the 16 c h i l d r e n c l a s s i f i e d as " l o s t " a t the time of the survey. O r i g i n a l l y 18 c h i l d r e n were b e l i e v e d t o come w i t h i n t h i s category, but i t was subsequently 18 discovered t h a t the case of one c h i l d could be more appropriately-considered under a d i f f e r e n t oategory. In the case of the other c h i l d the Agency's f i l e was not a v a i l a b l e a t the time of study. The term " l o s t " r e f e r s t o those c h i l d r e n whose whereabouts were not known a t the time of the survey. Included i n t h i s group i are some c h i l d r e n who had been missing f o r only a b r i e f p e r i o d of time and who subsequently r e - e s t a b l i s h e d contact w i t h the S o c i e t y . A few others have since been discharged from care by reason of marriage or because they have a t t a i n e d t h e i r m a j o r i t y . Regardless of the a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a t u s included w i t h i n t h i s c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n of " l o s t " , the f a c t t h a t the whereabouts of these c h i l d r e n were unknown to the S o c i e t y f o r v a r y i n g periods of time r a i s e s Important questions as t o the amount of e f f e c t i v e super-v i s i o n i t was able t o give these c h i l d r e n i n the discharge of i t s l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of guardianship. The present study attempts t o i d e n t i f y f o r each of the 16 c h i l d r e n the p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d e s c r i p t i o n " l o s t " , both i n terms of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Agency and of t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r f u n c t i o n i n g on t h e i r own. Prom the examination of the group as a whole, i t i s hoped t o be able t o show the common and i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s i n the s i t u a t i o n s of these wards t h a t have con t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r becoming l o s t . M a t e r i a l f o r the study was obtained from a r e a d i n g of r e l e v a n t p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e from the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y ' s records of the 16 c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . P r e l i m i n a r y reading of the 19 f i l e s i n d i c a t e d the importance of c e r t a i n data, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the f a m i l y background of the c h i l d r e n , the problems manifested by the c h i l d r e n a t the time of committal, t h e i r experiences whi l e i n care, and the s e r v i c e s provided by the Agency. This i n f o r m a t i o n , which was of both a q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e nature, was tabulated under a number of headings f o r each of the 16 c h i l d r e n . In Chapter Two summary methods of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n have been developed f o r the purpose of a n a l y z i n g and comparing t h i s m a t e r i a l . In view of the wide v a r i a t i o n s i n the adequacy of the re c o r d i n g and the l a c k of uniform d e f i n i t i o n s of c r i t e r i a , the a n a l y s i s of the data i n Chapter Two has been supplemented i n Chapter Three by a d e t a i l e d examination of the c a s e - h i s t o r i e s of fou r c h i l d r e n who are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t h e i r s e v e r a l ways of the whole group. By means of the e a s e - i l l u s t r a t i o n method i t i s hoped t o provide a b e t t e r understanding of the e t i o l o g y of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of these c h i l d r e n w h i l e i n care, and t o p o i n t up the d i f f e r e n t kinds of s e r v i c e s which are r e q u i r e d i f t h e i r needs are t o be more e f f e c t i v e l y met. CHAPTER TWO " SIXTEEN WARDS WHO ARB** LOST " The F a m i l y Background of These C h i l d r e n . In examining the f a m i l y background of the 16 c h i l d r e n a c e r t a i n p a t t e r n emerged. Most of the c h i l d r e n came from homes i n which there was e i t h e r no l e g a l marriage a t a l l or, a t be s t , an unstable m a r i t a l union w i t h frequent changes of p a r t n e r s . In Table I the m a r i t a l s t a t u s of the parent having custody of the c h i l d a t the time of the c h i l d ' s committal t o care i s l i s t e d . Table I . MARITAL STATUS OP PARENTS AT DATE OP CHILD'S COMMITTAL TO CARE M a r i t a l Status of Parent Number of F a m i l i e s Parent Separated and L i v i n g i n a Common Law Union 4 Parent Separated or Deserted 2 Parent Divorced 2 N a t u r a l Mother - Step-Pather Union 2 N a t u r a l Father - Step-Mother Union 2 Married 1 Widow 1 Widower 1 Unmarried 1 T o t a l 16 21 In one instance only were the c h i l d r e n l i v i n g w i t h both of t h e i r n a t u r a l parents. I n t h i s instance the parents had des-erted t h e i r son whi l e he was i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . Seven of the c h i l d r e n were l i v i n g i n homes where the p a r e n t a l f a m i l y u n i t was not complete. E i g h t of the c h i l d r e n were l i v i n g w i t h one Of t h e i r n a t u r a l parents and a l e g a l or common law step-parent. A c c o r d i n g l y , a l l but one c h i l d was i n a home from which one, of h i s n a t u r a l parents was absent. In a d d i t i o n t o the change i n p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s many of these c h i l d r e n had experienced complete changes i n t h e i r environment p r i o r t o being committed as wards of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y * E i g h t of the c h i l d r e n had been placed p r i v a t e l y by t h e i r parents i n homes of r e l a t i v e s or f r i e n d s i n r e l i g i o u s c h i l d - c a r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s or i n boarding houses. One c h i l d was known t o have had as many as 19 placements i n two years. Problems of the Parents. A l l of the parents of these c h i l d r e n showed evidence of some form of i n s t a b i l i t y a t the time t h e i r c h i l d r e n were apprehended and taken i n t o care of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . Alooholism, p r o m i s c u i t y , poor work r e c o r d s , and poor i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n -ships were mentioned most f r e q u e n t l y . Por convenience of a n a l y s i s those problems recorded which could reasonably be held t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h the parents' a b i l i t y t o provide a s t a b l e f a m i l y l i f e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n have been c l a s s i f i e d under s e v e r a l broad headings, and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n among the f a m i l i e s i s shown In Table I I . 1. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on one developed by Reed, George, A. The Placement of Adolescent Boys, M.S.W, Thesis, 1950, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 22 Table I I PROBLEMS MANIFESTED BY PARENTS AT TIME OF CHILD'S COMMITTAL TO CARE Category of Problems (a) Number of F a m i l i e s i n Which Problems Appear Emotional 16 D i f f i c u l t i e s i n R e l a t i o n s h i p 14 Behaviour 10 A n t i - S o c i a l 4 Med i o a l - P h y s i o a l 2 Disturbed 2 (a) See Appendix A f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of items under the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s . A l l of the parents presented a t l e a s t one problem w h i l e many e x h i b i t e d more than one and i n some instances as many as f i v e problems. Problems of an emotional nature were present i n a l l of the f a m i l i e s . Fourteen parents had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r p e rsonal and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i l e ten manifested problems of behaviour. Two parents were considered t o be mentally d i s t u r b e d and f o u r manifested problems t h a t were a n t i - s o c i a l t o the degree where confinement In a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n was necessary. Two suf f e r e d from some form of p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y . I t i s evident t h a t these c h i l d r e n had been subjected t o a . v a r i e t y of damaging experiences i n t h e i r own homes, e.g. extreme 23 p a r e n t a l q u a r r e l i n g ; p a r e n t a l q u a r r e l s w i t h neighbors; periods of separ a t i o n from one or both of t h e i r parents; promisouous and a l c o h o l i c parents; unadequate housing and unstable f i n a n c i a l resources. I n some cases parents of some of these c h i l d r e n were e i t h e r mentally or p h y s i c a l l y i l l . With the exception of one ohild,who came i n t o care a t the age of one year, a l l of the c h i l d r e n studied had known v a r y i n g degrees of i n s t a b i l i t y and con f u s i o n i n t h e i r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r p eriods ranging from s i x t o 16 years. Table I I I showes the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the c h i l d r e n a t the date of t h e i r coming i n t o c a r e . Table I I I . AGE AND SEX OP THE CHILDREN AT THE DATE OP COMMITTAL Age a t Date of Number i of C h i l d r e n Committal Male Female 1 - 4 years 1 5 - 8 years 3 9-12 years 3 1 13 - 16 years 3 5 T o t a l 10 6 Three c h i l d r e n came i n t o care between the ages of s i x and e i g h t years and twelve were admitted between the ages of nine and 16 years. The g i r l s were admitted t o care a t a l a t e r age than were 24 the boys. Por a l l of the c h i l d r e n exoept one the most! c r u c i a l years of t h e i r development were spent i n the care of ; t h e i r parents. Reasons For Care. h _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - ( The absence of one of the parents from the home^ ' a^id the i n * a b i l i t y of the remaining n a t u r a l parent t o c o n t r o l or t o p l a n f o r the c h i l d * together w i t h v a r i o u s elements of neglec^, f i g u r e d i most prominently among the reasons f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s admission t o care. Seven c h i l d r e n were committed as a r e s u l t jof conimunity complaints regarding the care the c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d i n t h e i r homes. One c h i l d was committed because h i s mother, who was not married, was unable t o provide f o r her c h i l d . Another c h i l d , who was 15 years o l d , was committed beoause h i s parents had deserted him. Three parents requested wardship f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n beoause they were unable t o c o n t r o l the delinquent behaviour which t h e i r c h i l d -r e n had developed.. The remaining f o u r c h i l d r e n were committed because the parents or step-parents e i t h e r refused or were unable t o make adequate plans f o r t h e i r care. Although i l l n e s s , inadequate housing and i n s u f f i c i e n t income were among the c o n t r i b u t i n g ciroumstances which l e d t o these c h i l d r e n being committed as wards, the major reason appeared t o stem from the inadequacy of the parents themselves. None of these parents were able t o provide more than a marginal economic existence f o r themselves. They had extreme d i f f i c u l t y i n attempting t o handle t h e i r own problems which were, i n t u r n , i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r own deprived childhood. E v e n t u a l l y the added r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of parent-25 hood proved more than they oouid endure. problems Manifested by The C h i l d r e n . As these c h i l d r e n entered t h e i r new l i f e as wards of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y they d i d so w i t h many handicapps as a r e s u l t of the k i n d of care which was given them d u r i n g t h e i r form-a t i v e years. With the exception of one c h i l d , a l l of the c h i l d r e n during t h e i r f i r s t s i x years of l i f e had l i v e d w i t h parents beset by many problems. These parents, a t b e s t , provided marginal p h y s i c a l care and were unable t o meet s a t i s f a c t o r i l y the a f f e c t -i o n a l needs of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , mainly because of t h e i r own d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n assuming parent and a d u l t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The i n a b i l i t y of the parents t o provide c o n s i s t e n t treatment and a secure r e l a t -ionshipftto the c h i l d r e n ' s c o n f l i c t s w i t h a u t h o r i t y and t o t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i n g t o s i b l i n g s , peers, and a d u l t s , a l l of which tended t o f i n d expression i n behaviour c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , Sexual delinquency, e n u r e s i s , temper tantrums, vandalism, and running away from home.. The Agency was t h e r e f o r e faced w i t h the problem of p l a n n i n g care f o r c h i l d r e n who had passed through the most c r u c i a l formative years of t h e i r development, thus making the c o r r e c t i o n of a t t i t u d e s and p a t t e r n s of behaviour d i f f i c u l t . The c h i l d r e n were d i s t r u s t f u l of adults, and of f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s . Many of the c h i l d r e n openly expressed d i s t r u s t of the Agency. Some of the c h i l d r e n were r e s i s t a n t t o eoming i n t o care t o the p o i n t of running away to the homes of t h e i r parents or r e l a t i v e s . Examination of the case records revealed a m u l t i p l i c i t y of problems among the c h i l d r e n a t the time of t h e i r admission t o care. 26 Only one c h i l d had no recorded problems. I n order t o ob t a i n a broad p i c t u r e of the s i t u a t i o n among the c h i l d r e n , these s p e c i f i c problems have been grouped under c e r t a i n major areas or types of problems based on a system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n developed i n a 1.. previous study of adolescent wards. I t i s Important t o note t h a t the items included under the s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s (see Appendix B.) merely represent a f a c t , a s i t u a t i o n , or a symptom, i n d i c a t i v e of d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the c h i l d i n h i s pers o n a l and s o o i a l adjustment. They do not represent a diagnosed cause of the c h i l d ' s poor adjustment. I n Table IV the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the c h i l d r e n ' s . problems at t h e i r age a t admission t o care i s shown. Table IV* FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF TYPES OF PROBLEMS AT TIME OF CHILDREN'S ADMISSION TO CARE. Type of Problems (a) Number of C h i l d r e n i n Which Problems Appear Emotional 13 Behaviour 9 D i f f i c u l t i e s i n R e l a t i o n s h i p 9 Delinquency Tendencies 7 Incontinence 5 Sexual Delinquency 4 Low I n t e l l i g e n c e 7 P h y s i c a l - M e d i c a l 8 No Problems Recorded 1 (a) See Appendix B. f o r l i s t of items under d i f f e r e n t ' c a t e g o r i e s . Reed, o p . c i t . , Appendix B. 27 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t of the 15 c h i l d r e n f o r whom problems were recorded, only one c h i l d had only one problem area. The ward i n t h i s case was of low i n t e l l i g e n c e and been admitted t o care a t the age of 13 years from a mental h o s p i t a l because of "moral and p h y s i c a l n e g l e c t . " Fourteen of the c h i l d r e n manifested a t l e a s t two problems w i t h many of the c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t i n g more. Emotional problems were apparent i n 13 of the c h i l d r e n , and nine c h i l d r e n showed problems of behaviour. D i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p were noted problems f o r nine of the c h i l d r e n and an a d d i t i o n a l seven c h i l d r e n had begun t o e s t a b l i s h p a t t e r n s of delinquency. Pour c h i l d r e n manifested sexual d i f f i c u l t i e s . Incontinence was a present-i n g problem f o r f i v e of the c h i l d r e n . Low i n t e l l i g e n c e , as d i a g -nosed by C h i l d Guidance or school t e s t s , was considered t o be a problem of seven of the c h i l d r e n . E i g h t c h i l d r e n had a p h y s i c a l -medical problem while one c h i l d had no recorded problems. The C h i l d r e n As Wards. The Agency attempted t o meet the needs of a l l of these o h i l d -r e n through the medium of the f o s t e r home. Only one of the 16 c h i l d r e n studied was placed i n a r e c e i v i n g home upon h i s admission. This was done because no f o s t e r home was a v a i l a b l e . Probably the most important foster-home placement t o a c h i l d i s h i s f i r s t one. Prom h i s experiences i n t h i s home the c h i l d develops h i s a t t i t u d e s towards care. Furthermore, he may compare h i s experiences i n t h i s home w i t h the ki n d of l i f e he had i n h i s own home. Any attempt t o evaluate the s u i t a b i l i t y of these f i r s t placements was rendered d i f f i c u l t by the l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n i n 28 the records regarding the reasons f o r the s e l e c t i o n of the homes i n question. I t was s i g n i f i c a n t however, t h a t nine of these f i r s t placements were f o r s h o r t e r periods than s i x months and t h a t e i g h t of these placements were terminated because the c h i l d r a n away, or because the f o s t e r parents asked f o r removal on account of the c h i l d ' s behaviour; One replacement was e f f e c t e d beoause a f r i e n d of the f o s t e r parents wanted the c h i l d t o be a companion to t h e i r own f o s t e r c h i l d . Seven placements were f o r periods l o n g e r than seven months* One was f o r nine years but was terminated because of the f o s t e r mother's f a i l i n g h e a l t h . The other s i x placements were dis c o n t i n u e d beoause of the c h i l d ' s behaviour or by the c h i l d ' s running away* Gen e r a l l y the foster-home type of care was not s a t i s f y i n g t o these c h i l d r e n . Por most of the c h i l d r e n , l i f e i n care c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s of placements i n d i f f e r e n t f o s t e r homes, the number of placements ranging from one t o 16. Thus the p a t t e r n of changing p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s , as e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o c a r e , was continued f o r most of the c h i l d r e n d u r i n g care. I n n o t i n g the reasons l e a d i n g t o replacement of the c h i l d , s e v e r a l r e c u r r i n g f a c t o r s were apparent. Many placements were made as an expedient beoause of some emergency s i t u a t i o n . They were, f o r a temporary period of time, designed t o provide immediate care u n t i l other plans f o r the c h i l d could be arranged. I n such cases there was no evidence t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n had been g i v e n t o match-i n g the c h i l d ' s needs w i t h the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the f o s t e r parents. In most cases s u i t a b l e f o s t e r homes were not a v a i l a b l e and the 29 Agency was forced t o place the c h i l d i n any home which would take him. The reasons most f r e q u e n t l y noted f o r removing the c h i l d from one f o s t e r home t o another were the same as those which l e d t o the f a i l u r e of the f i r s t foster-home placement; namely, the f o s t e r parent's request f o r removal because of t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o under-stand, c o n t r o l , or t o accept the c h i l d ' s behaviour; or because the c h i l d had run away and refused t o r e t u r n t o the f o s t e r home; or the f o s t e r parents refused t o r e c e i v e him back. There were other reasons given too. Sometimes the c h i l d l e f t h i s f o s t e r home to r e t u r n t o h i s f a m i l y . Another reason given was the inadequate boarding r a t e s . I n t e r f e r e n c e on the p a r t of the • c h i l d ' s f a m i l y o c c a s i o n a l l y l e d t o a change i n f o s t e r homes f o r the c h i l d . Some replacements were e f f e c t e d so t h a t s i b l i n g s could be r e u n i t e d . I n others no s p e c i f i c reason was noted. Generally the l a s t foster-home placement these o h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d while under the care of the Agency d i d not adequately meet t h e i r needs, Two c h i l d r e n had only one placement d u r i n g t h e i r p e r i o d i n care. One of these c h i l d r e n was i n a f o s t e r home f o r ten days when he r a n away, he has not yet been found. The other c h i l d remained i n h i s f o s t e r home f o r three months when he returned t o h i s n a t u r a l parents. I t was evident, f o r the most p a r t , t h a t the c h i l d r e n entered i n t o t h e i r f i n a l foster-home plaoement having had u n s a t i s f a c t o r y experiences i n t h e i r previous f o s t e r homes. More-over, the c h i l d r e n were w e l l i n t o adolescence and were not eager t o accept the s u p e r v i s i o n of a d u l t s i n a f a m i l y - s e t t i n g . This 30 s i t u a t i o n was f u r t h e r complicated by the f a c t that the Agency had no choice i n a v a i l a b l e f o s t e r homes and placements were made w i t h those f o s t e r parents who were w i l l i n g t o care f o r problem adoles-cents* I n determining the s u i t a b i l i t y of the l a s t placement, account has been taken of the behaviour manifested by the c h i l d during t h i s l a s t placement. None of these placements could be considered s u c c e s s f u l from the p o i n t of view of meeting the c h i l d ' s needs or of reducing the problems of the c h i l d r e n . E v e n t u a l l y each p l a c e -ment f a i l e d . With the break-up of the l a s t foster-home placement the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d r e n and the Agency d e t e r i o r a t e d . S i x of the c h i l d r e n returned t o t h e i r n a t u r a l parents or r e l a t i v e s w i t h the Agency's knowledge, but without l e g a l s a n c t i o n , since the Agency could o f f e r D O a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s . With the c h i l d r e n ' s r e t u r n to t h e i r parents or r e l a t i v e s the Agency's contacts w i t h the c h i l d r e n became spasmodic or ceased a l t o g e t h e r . Two other c h i l d r e n were committed t o a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n and f i v e were placed i n a r e c e i v i n g home. Another two were placed i n a boarding home. The remaining c h i l d had r u n away from h i s f o s t e r home and could not be l o c a t e d . At some p o i n t during t h e i r care under the guardianship of the Child r e n ' s A i d Sooiety 14 of these c h i l d r e n had placements i n a r e c e i v i n g home. One of these 14 c h i l d r e n was placed immediately i n a r e c e i v i n g home when he was apprehended. This placement proved s u c c e s s f u l but when he was l a t e r placed i n a f o s t e r home h i s a n t i -s o c i a l behaviour became severe. There was very l i t t l e evidence t h a t 31 the i n s t i t u t i o n a l placements were c a r r i e d out as p a r t of a t o t a l treatment p l a n . U s u a l l y these c h i l d r e n had had many previous placements i n f o s t e r homes and had l o s t a l l confidence i n any plans the Agency might make. Furthermore, the i n s t i t u t i o n s were not equipped t o accept and handle the behaviour the c h i l d r e n manifested. As a r e s u l t of the f a i l u r e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l and foster-home placements i t was a matter of time before these c h i l d r e n became " l o s t . " When they f i n a l l y disappeared from t h i s e f f e o t i v e super-v i s i o n of the Agency i t was from a number of d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s and f o r v a r i o u s periods of time. The l e n g t h of time and the s e t t i n g from which these c h i l d r e n became " l o s t " i s shown i n Table V. Table V LENGTH OP TIME "LOST" AND PLACEMENT PROM WHICH THE CHILDREN BECAME "LOST" Placements Prom Which The C h i l d r e n Became Lost T o t a l Number of Months '"Lost" (a) Poster Homes Commercial Boarding Homes Receiving Homes Parents • or R e l a t i v e s C o r r e c t -i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n Number of C h i l d r e n 1-6 mos. 1 2 1 3 1 — r 8 7-12 mos 1 1 Over 12 mos 2 3 2 7 I TOTAL 3 5 1 6 1 16 I (a) As of October 31, 1954-32 Nine days was the s h o r t e s t p e r i o d t h a t a c h i l d was " l o s t . " This c h i l d r e - e s t a b l i s h e d contact w i t h the Agency w i t h her request t o marry. The request was granted and she was discharged from oare. The longest p e r i o d was f o r 62 months. This o h i l d became l o s t from a f o s t e r home and h i s whereabouts a t present are unknown* He was discharged from care having reached h i s m a j o r i t y i n September 1955* Nine c h i l d r e n were l o s t f o r periods under one year while seven were l o s t f o r periods longer than a year. Two of these seven c h i l d r e n were l o s t f o r periods of 19 t o 24 months. Another three of these seven were l o s t f o r 25 t o 30 months and a f o u r t h f o r a p e r i o d from 43 t o 48 months. The l a s t of the seven c h i l d r e n was l o s t f o r 62 months, Eleven of the 16 c h i l d r e n were l o s t from p r i v a t e boarding houses or from the homes of t h e i r parents or r e l a t i v e s . Apparently the Agency was unable t o provide the eame degree of s u p e r v i s i o n t o the c h i l d r e n who had returned t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s or who were l i v i n g i n commercial boarding houses as they were t o c h i l d r e n who were i n f o s t e r homes and r e c e i v i n g homes. Since these c h i l d r e n have been c l a s s i f i e d as being " l o s t " by the Agency, three of the 16 c h i l d r e n have r e - e s t a b l i s h e d contact w i t h the Agency. S i x c h i l d r e n have been discharged from care e i t h e r because, i n the case of a g i r l , who had married, or because the c h i l d r e n had reached t h e i r m a j o r i t y . However, seven of these c h i l d r e n are s t i l l wards of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society* Although they are wards they are not i n f o s t e r homes and t h e i r whereabouts are not known t o the Agency. 33 Factors Preventing These C h i l d r e n From Making E f f e c t i v e Use Of  Agency Care* There appear t o be f i v e main f a c t o r s which have tended t o i n h i b i t the c o n s t r u c t i v e use by the o h i l d r e n of the Agency's resources. These are: ( i ) the o h i l d ' s e a r l y h i s t o r y p r i o r t o coming i n t o care; ( i i ) the problems of the c h i l d r e n ; ( i i i ) the l a c k of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the c h i l d r e n w i t h regard t o the reason f o r t h e i r admission t o care and the r o l e of the Agency; ( i v ) a l a c k of s e c u r i t y f o r the c h i l d r e n ; and (v) i n t e r f e r e n c e by the c h i l d ' s parents or r e l a t i v e s . These c h i l d r e n had been s e v e r l y deprived of h e a l t h y , happy, f a m i l y experiences. Their l i v e s , p r i o r t o care, d i d not provide them w i t h s e c u r i t y . They were d i s t r u s t f u l of new f a m i l y experiences. For most of the c h i l d r e n f u r t h e r f a m i l y experiences were not wanted and would be r e s i s t e d . The c h i l d r e n themselves presented extreme problems which seemed t o be beyond the realm of the f o s t e r home t o c o r r e c t . The c h i l d r e n needed an opportunity t o a c t out t h e i r problems which f o s t e r parents were not capable of handling. A l s o the c h i l d r e n , e i g h t i n number, were i n the adolescent stage of t h e i r development and were r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t the a u t h o r i t y of parents. Several of the c h i l d r e n were somewhat retarded mentally and f o r these group l i v i n g experiences w i t h o h i l d r e n of s i m i l a r mental a b i l i t y would have seemed p r e f e r a b l e . The c h i l d r e n seemed t o be confused as t o the reasons f o r coming i n t o care. They appeared t o have l i t t l e understanding of the r o l e of the Agency and the f u n c t i o n of t h e i r worker. They seemed 34 t o be i n c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g the areas w i t h i n which the f o s t e r parent, the worker,and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , operated. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the c h i l d r e g a r d i n g h i s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the f o s t e r parents, h i s f a m i l y , and the Agency, was l a c k i n g . The records note l i t t l e or no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the c h i l d . I t may be t h a t t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was done I n i t i a l l y , but the c h i l d ' s records f a i l t o show t h i s . A c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s i n i t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the c h i l d was seldom given a f t e r the c h i l d had entered i n t o c a r e . In checking the records of the c h i l d r e n from t h i s p o i n t of view, twelve o h i l d r e n seemed t o have had no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . One record notes t h a t the reasons f o r the c h i l d ' s separation from h i s f a m i l y was e x p l a i n e d . In three of the records considerable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was g iven r e g a r d i n g the reasons f o r care and the r o l e of the Agency and the worker. The f a c t t h a t the Agency had not been able t o provide the much needed s e c u r i t y f o r these c h i l d r e n seems t o be the major f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the f a i l u r e of guardianship t o help these c h i l d r e n e f f e c t i v e l y . The frequent changes of f o s t e r homes and of workers appeared to c o n t r i b u t e most t o t h i s i n s e c u r i t y . The number of foster-home placements the c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d tended to enhance the i n s t a b i l i t y these o h i l d r e n had known i n t h e i r own home. Placements were made without adequate d i a g n o s i s of the c h i l d ' s needs. Moreover, there was no assessment of the f o s t e r parents' a b i l i t y t o meet these needs. The c h i l d r e n were asked repeat-ed l y t o accept new p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s even though t h e i r experiences i n the past w i t h "parents" had not been happy ones. E v e n t u a l l y a l l §f the c h i l d r e n r e b e l l e d and refused t o go t o any more f o s t e r homes. 3 5 For most of them, each move tended only t o accentuate t h e i r d i s -t r u s t of p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s . Two of the c h i l d r e n refused t o go t o another f o s t e r home a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t placement. The change of workers, which o f t e n accompanied a change of f o s t e r homes, increased the i n s e c u r i t y and conf u s i o n of the c h i l d . The frequency of changes i n workers ranged from one t o 17. Two c h i l d r e n had one worker, three had f o u r workers, three had f i v e workers, two had s i x workers, two had seven workers, one had 15 and another had 17workers. Averaging the t o t a l number of worker changes and the t o t a l l e n g t h of time the c h i l d r e n spent i n care each c h i l d had a new worker every nine months* This f i g u r e does not take account of the court worker, f a m i l y worker, or any worker g i v i n g s e r v i c e w h i l e the c h i l d ' s r e g u l a r worker was absent; The l a s t d i s r u p t i v e f a c t o r was i n t e r f e r e n c e on the p a r t of the f a m i l y . I n many instances the parents worked a t cross-purposes t o those of the Agency^. Except f o r one o h i l d , a l l of the c h i l d r e n maintained some s o r t of contact w i t h t h e i r parents or a blood r e l a t i v e . This c h i l d ' s parents had deserted him completely. There was a wide v a r i a t i o n i n the degree of the p a r e n t - c h i l d c o n t a c t s . E i g h t of the c h i l d r e n maintained r e g u l a r contacts w i t h a r e l a t i v e and/or parents throughout t h e i r e n t i r e period of care* Two c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d spasmodic v i s i t s from t h e i r parents. Four c h i l d r e n had not seen t h e i r parents nor had contacts w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i v e s f o r s e v e r a l years a f t e r being admitted t o care, but l a t e r v i s i t s between the f a m i l i e s and the c h i l d r e n were e s t a b l i s h e d . F i v e c h i l d r e n , during t h e i r p e r i o d of car e , were returned t o the parents 36 by the co u r t s but a f t e r s e v e r a l months f o u r of the c h i l d r e n were re-admitted t o the care of the Agency. The other c h i l d became " l o s t " when the court order r e t u r n i n g the c h i l d t o the parents was rescinded* I n a l l of these instances where the c h i l d , through l e g a l process, was returned t o h i s parents, they i n t u r n , were unable t o c o n t r o l t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In three instances the parents charged t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y and the c h i l d r e n returned t o care v i a the d e t e n t i o n home. The other c h i l d was r e -turned t o care under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the Agency a t the request •, of the parents as h i s behaviour was B out of c o n t r o l . t t The problems of the f o u r c h i l d r e n , who were returned t o care, were more severe, as noted from the r e c o r d i n g , than before t h e i r discharge t o t h e i r parents. Although one c h i l d ' s problems appeared t o be the same, t h i s boy had been i n care f o r only one day p r i o r t o h i s r e t u r n . For these c h i l d r e n , the r e t u r n t o t h e i r parents only appeared as a f u r t h e r r e j e c t i o n t o them and r e s u l t e d i n more severe behaviour. I n attempting t o evaluate the e f f e c t of these p a r e n t a l contacts the records i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r most of the c h i l d r e n they tended t o make the c h i l d r e n confused and u n s e t t l e d and caused a n x i e t y t o the f o s t e r parents. T h i r t e e n of the c h i l d r e n appeared t o be upset by v i s i t s from t h e i r parents or r e l a t i v e s . One c h i l d seemed t o be helped by v i s i t s i n i t i a l l y but l a t e r these occasioned unrest. I n the other oases, s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n was l a c k i n g t o c l a s s i f y . The value of the p a r e n t a l contact t o the c h i l d can only be assessed on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l however, th a t i n a l l cases 37 some help should be given t o the parents, focused on t r y i n g t o obtain the co-operation of the parents i n h e l p i n g t o c a r r y out the plans of the Agency. E v a l u a t i o n of the Adjustment of the C h i l d r e n While i n Care. An e v a l u a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n ' s problems a t the date they became " l o s t " revealed t h a t 14 of the c h i l d r e n s t i l l manifested problems. Information i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l was l a c k i n g i n two of the c h i l d r e n ' s f i l e s t o make a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of th§ir problems p o s s i b l e . Many of these 14 c h i l d r e n presented more than one problem. Hine c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t e d problems of behaviour,while e i g h t c h i l d r e n presented problems of delinquency. An a d d i t i o n a l e i g h t c h i l d r e n had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n forming harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s . Emotional problems were evident i n seven of the c h i l d r e n * S i x more c h i l d r e n had sex d i f f i c u l t i e s . Low i n t e l l i g e n c e remained a problem f o r seven c h i l d r e n , while a m e d i c a l - p h y s i c a l problem e x i s t e d f o r two c h i l d r e n . None of the c h i l d r e n had recorded problems i n the area of incontinence; Comparison of the c h i l d r e n ' s problems a t the date of admission i n t o care with.those at the date they beoame " l o s t " r e v ealed some changes i n the r e l a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the problems (Table V I ) . 38 Table V I . COMPARISON BETWEEN FREQUENCY OF PROBLEMS AT DATE OF ADMISSION AND DATE "LOST" Number of C h i l d r e n I Type of Porblem Appears Problem -A a Which B Emotional 7 Behaviour 9 9 D i f f i c u l t i e s i n R e l a t i o n s h i p 9 8 Delinquency Tendencies 7 8 Incontinence 5 Sexual Delinquency 4 6 Low I n t e l l i g e n c e 7 7 P h y s i c a l - M e d i c a l 8 2 No Problems Recorded 1 * I n s u f f i c i e n t Information t o C l a s s i f y 2 * A- a t time of admission i n t o care* B- p r i o r t o becoming " l o s t " * The problems a t the date " l o s t " are c l a s s i f i e d from the inf o r m a t i o n recorded d u r i n g the l a s t year the c h i l d was under e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n . The c h i l d r e n presented no problems i n the area of incontinence. This p a r t i c u l a r problem area disappeared 3 9 a l t o g e t h e r . Problems of an emotional nature decreased as d i d the problems of a p h y s i c a l - m e d i c a l nature. The c h i l d r e n received good care i n t h i s area and they were s u p p l i e d w i t h the v a r i o u s appliances needed t o c o r r e c t p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s . The two c h i l d -r e n who were s t i l l p r e s e n t i n g a mediaal problem were r e c e i v i n g treatment when they became " l o s t * " Problems r e l a t e d t o delinquency and sexual d i f f i c u l t i e s increased s l i g h t l y , w hile d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p d e clined s l i g h t l y . Low i n t e l l i g e n c e and behaviour problems remained constant* G e n e r a l l y , the problems p e r s i s t e d throughout the c h i l d ' s period under guardianship of the Agency, the notable exception being i n the area of p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . I t i s important t o note t h a t the worker who assessed the problems at the date of the c h i l d r e n ' s entrance i n t o care was not n e c e s s a r i l y the same worker who supervised the c h i l d p r i o r t o h i s becoming " l o s t . f t Often, the worker who supervised the c h i l d immediately p r i o r t o the date " l o s t " had fewer contacts w i t h the c h i l d than the f i r s t worker. A c c o r d i n g l y , although the same major problem areas p e r s i s t throughout the period of c a r e , ( w i t h the exception of incontinence and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h ) no s t r i c t l y accurate comparison i s p o s s i b l e on account of the l a c k of uniform d e f i n i t i o n of c r i t e r i a and of standardized methods of r e c o r d i n g . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t the degree of adjustment t h a t these c h i l d r e n can make i n regard t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o l i v e success-f u l l y as a d u l t s * P r e d i c t i o n s are d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by many un-c o n t r o l l a b l e circumstances. Nevertheless, using the c h i l d r e n ' s e a r l y experiences; t h e i r problems a t the date of admission i n t o c a re; the adjustment they were able t o make during care; and the 40 problems they manifested at the date "lost'/ i t would seem th a t 13 of the 16 c h i l d r e n w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y i n l i v i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y as a d u l t s . The recorded i n f o r m a t i o n f o r two c h i l d r e n i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o formulate a pr e d i c t i o n . . One c h i l d presented one problem i n the area of r e l a t i o n s h i p . This c h i l d would appear t o have the best p o s s i b i l i t y of s u c c e s s f u l l y assuming the respo n s i b -i l i t i e s of adulthood* Four c h i l d r e n , who are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the 16 c h i l d r e n , w i l l be studied i n d e t a i l i n the next chapter. I t i s hoped t h a t through the d e t a i l e d study of these f o u r c h i l d r e n , the observations noted i n t h i s chapter w i l l be made more c l e a r . CHAPTER THREE FOUR CHILDREN WHO ARE "LOST" The f o u r o h i l d r e n who w i l l be studied i n t h i s chapter have been s e l e c t e d as exemplifying i n t h e i r developmental h i s t o r i e s c e r t a i n f e a t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l the 16 wards who event-u a l l y became l o s t t o the Agency. I n determining the rep r e s e n t -a t i v n e s s of these f o u r c h i l d r e n accouht has been taken of:( a ) the age-range included i n the t o t a l group; (b) the t y p i c a l k i n d s of s i t u a t i o n s found i n the c h i l d r e n ' s f a m i l y backgrounds; (o) the nature of the emotional and a f f e o t i o n a l t i e s between parents and c h i l d ; and (d) the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the care provided by the Agency. Tom -Mann-.'. Tom was the youngest c h i l d t o come i n t o care of the 16 s t u d i e d . At the age of one year he, together w i t h three o l d e r s i s t e r s , was committed t o the care of the Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d Sooiety. Family Background: Tom's parents were both 40 years of age when he was born. His f a t h e r was employed a l t e r n a t e l y as a logger and farmer. The f a m i l y l i v e d on a small rented farm which, beoause of poor manage-ment, d i d not wholly maintain the f a m i l y . The f a t h e r ' s income was unstable and a t times the f a m i l y were p o o r l y fed and s h e l t e r e d . Mr. Mann was described as having a v i c i o u s , e x p l o s i v e temper which a l l of the f a m i l y f e a r e d . He drank e x c e s s i v e l y and had been 42 i n penal i n s t i t u t i o n s s e v e r a l times f o r t h e f t . As a r e s u l t of incestuous r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s o l d e r daughters he reoeived a s i x year sentence t o a p e n i t e n t i a r y , . Mr, Mann was unable t o keep him s e l f employed p a r t l y because of adverse economic c o n d i t i o n s , and p a r t l y because of the severe d i f f i c u l t i e s he had w i t h a u t h o r i t y . This u s u a l l y l e d t o h i s d i s -charge. I n a d d i t i o n t o the economic c o n d i t i o n s and h i s c o n f l i c t w i t h a u t h o r i t y Mr. Mann possessed no s p e c i f i c work s k i l l s . This l a c k of s k i l l l i m i t e d the range of employment a v a i l a b l e t o him and as a r e s u l t of the eoonomic resources a v a i l a b l e t o the f a m i l y were l i m i t e d . Mrs, Mann appeared, because of the f e a r she had of her husband, t o be unable t o prevent h i s sexual r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r daughters. She provided l i t t l e s t a b i l i t y i n the home. Li k e her husband, she drank e x c e s s i v e l y and was thought t o be promiscuous. Mrs. Mann provided poor p h y s i c a l care f o r her c h i l d r e n . She managed the r a t h e r meagre p r o v i s i o n s t h a t came i n t o the home p o o r l y . I t would seem that she d i d have an i n t e r e s t i n her c h i l d r e n but her plann i n g f o r t h e i r care was i n c o n s i s t e n t , i n a p p r o p r i a t e and i n e f f e c t u a l . As her c h i l d r e n grew o l d e r and challenged her a u t h o r i t y Mrs. Mann was unable t o deal w i t h the s i t u a t i o n . With Mr. Mann absent, on account of h i s confinement i n the p e n i t e n t i a r y , the element of f e a r was gone and the c h i l d r e n d i d as they pleased. The m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t t h a t e x i s t e d between Tom's parents centred around d r i n k i n g , p r o m i s c u i t y , l a c k of money, and d i s c i p l i n e of the c h i l d r e n . Neither parent seemed capable of s a t i s f y i n g the needs of the other, nor were they, as a r e s u l t of t h e i r own unmet 43 needs, able t o meet the needs of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . With Hr. Mann's i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n p r i s o n , Mrs. Mann was unable to assume the added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r her f a m i l y * She reacted t o t h i s new r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by d r i n k i n g more and t a k i n g even l e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than she had before. E v e n t u a l l y the community oomplainedcoftthe home c o n d i t i o n s and the l a c k of s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance being given t o the c h i l d r e n and wardship f o r the younger c h i l d r e n r e s u l t e d * In c o n s i d e r i n g the f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t i s noted t h a t the f a t h e r was the dominant f i g u r e i n the home and had a t t a i n e d t h i s p o s i t i o n by i n s t i l l i n g f e a r i n the other members. The parents were r e l u c t a n t t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c h i l d r e n and delegated the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the care of the younger c h i l d r e n t o the older c h i l d r e n . The o l d e r c h i l d r e n i n t u r n resented t h i s . Furthermore, i t seemed apparent th a t the c h i l d r e n had become a pawn between the parents. Each parent made b i d s f o r the l o y a l t y of the c h i l d r e n by undermining the p o s i t i o n of the other parent. As a consequence, the f a m i l y had s p l i t i n t o two groups - one support-i n g the mother and the other supporting the f a t h e r . This r e s u l t e d In confusion on the p a r t of the c h i l d r e n w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t and c o n t r a d i c t o r y ideas of d i s c i p l i n e . This f a m i l y d i d not l i v e i n harmony w i t h t h e i r community. Their neighbours were p u n i t i v e toward the c h i l d r e n and d i s c r i m i n -ated aga i n s t them. The town o f f i c i a l s described them i n negative terms and tagged the f a m i l y "worthless." The f a m i l y was allowed t o s t r u g g l e f o r many years under these c o n d i t i o n s but w i t h Mr. Mann's 44 c r i m i n a l c o n v i c t i o n , the town's people were aroused. A charge of neglect was proved and Tom came i n t o care. Tom a t the Time of Care: This boy had been l i v i n g i n h i s p a r e n t a l home f o r a year p r i o r t o coming i n t o care. He was the youngest of 13 c h i l d r e n . L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e concerning h i s e a r l y development but a t the date of h i s admission t o oare he was undernourished and i n poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , In view of t h i s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and h i s f a m i l y background, i t seemed reasonable t o assume t h a t t h i s boy's a f f e o t i o n a l needs had been i n d i f f e r e n t l y met as w e l l . S e r v i c e s i n Caret Tom* immediately a f t e r h i s admission, was placed i n an orphanage f o r two weeks. He was l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d t o h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home along w i t h h i s o l d e r s i s t e r . They remained i n t h i s home f o r three years. The f o s t e r parents were middle-aged and were h i g h l y recommended by t h e i r r e f e r e n c e s . The f o s t e r f a t h e r was r e t i r e d and s u f f e r e d from a heart c o n d i t i o n . He died d u r i n g the f i r s t year of Tom's placement. For years t h i s f o s t e r mother had boarded c h i l d r e n p r i v a t e l y , c a r i n g f o r as many as 14 c h i l d r e n a t one time as w e l l as her own teen-aged daughter. The record noted that the f o s t e r mother gave good p h y s i c a l care but d i d not give young o h i l d r e n a chance t o develop. During t h i s placement Tom developed very p o o r l y . He had s t a r t e d t o walk i n the orphanage but stopped a f t e r two weeks i n t h i s home. He d i d not resume walking u n t i l he was 20 months o l d . At t h i s time he was saying a few words and h i s t o i l e t t r a i n i n g 45 was f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , Tom appeared very l e t h a r g i c , was f e a r f u l of str a n g e r s , and took l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n h i s surround-i n g s . He was f r e q u e n t l y i l l d uring h i s f i r s t y e a r . i n t h i s home, s u f f e r i n g from severe c o l d s , rashes, and v a r i o u s i n f e c t i o n s . He appeared retarded i n h i s p h y s i c a l development. I n regard t o t r a i n -i n g , the f o s t e r mother was advised by the worker t h a t r e g u l a r t o i l e t h a b i t s should be s t r e s s e d . At the end of t h i s placement Tom was unable t o r e l a t e w e l l w i t h other c h i l d r e n and was m a n i f e s t i n g severe temper tantrums. A f t e r three years he was placed i n a second f o s t e r home, the o s t e n s i b l e reason f o r the move being so t h a t he could be c l o s e r t o h i s s i b l i n g s . Both c h i l d r e n were happy to leave the home* Tom's new f o s t e r parents were much younger than the previous ones. Besides Tom and h i s s i s t e r , there were f o u r other c h i l d r e n i n the home. The p h y s i c a l standards were described as being low. Many years l a t e r , i n f o r m a t i o n came t o the Agency s t a t i n g t h a t the c h i l d r e n placed i n t h i s home were t r e a t e d c r u e l y . This was i n v e s t i -gated and r e s u l t e d i n the home being c l o s e d . Tom remained i n t h i s home f o r e i g h t years. At the time of placement the record d i d not i n d i c a t e the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s these f o s t e r parents possessed f o r meeting Tom's needs. While i n h i s f i r s t school grade, Tom was te s t e d and found t o be mentally slow. He was described as being hyperactive and nervous. Hi s school achievement was "poor" but h i s c l a s s behaviour was " f a i r l y good." He f a i l e d t h i s grade. During h i s f i r s t year a t school a c h i l d w§s born t o the f o s t e r 46 parents. Tom had not been prepared f o r the b i r t h and seemed un-happy about i t . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s he contracted measels and was slow i n r e c o v e r i n g . In h i s second year i n Grade One Tom's behaviour became more severe* His teacher described him as being l a z y and not working t o c a p a c i t y . He was i n d u l g i n g i n sex a c t i v i t y w i t h h i s s i s t e r of an e x p l o r a t o r y nature. As the year progressed he " a t t a c k e d " h i s classmates because he " f e l t mad." He was disobedient t o the f o s t e r mother and was unable t o e x p l a i n the reason f o r t h i s . Tom was strapped or locked i n the c e l l a r f o r t h i s behaviour. The f o s t e r mother did not f e e l t h a t Tom was jealous of the new baby, but an entry i n the record suggested t h a t the f o s t e r f a t h e r showed l e s s i n t e r e s t i n Tom w i t h the a r r i v a l of the baby. The school p r i n c i p a l stated t h a t he f e l t t h a t Tom was "insecure i n t h i s home." I t was a l s o noted t h a t Tom was i l l much more f r e q u e n t l y . N either Tom nor the f o s t e r parents were given help by the worker i n understanding the meaning of t h i s behaviour. A suggestion-was made t o the f o s t e r parents t h a t they d i s c u s s the-sex a c t i v i t y w i t h Tom. I t i s not known whether t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was c a r r i e d out. Tom managed t o complete h i s Grade One and was promoted t o Grade Two. At the age of e i g h t years, t h i s boy was l y i n g and s t e a l i n g and the f o s t e r mother asked t h a t he be removed from her home. The f o s t e r mother however, wanted t o keep h i s s i s t e r . The placement continued as the worker d i d not wish t o separate the o h i l d r e n . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s there was a change i n workers. During t h i s year Tom was examined a t the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . 47 He was thought t o be i n the ,dull-^normal range of i n t e l l i g e n c e . The C l i n i c suggested t h a t he be placed i n a new f o s t e r home where he would r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n , but t h i s recommendation was not c a r r i e d out. Meanwhile, h i s behaviour became more severe; he exposed him s e l f i n the nude, and destroyed the property of neighbours. Por the next two and one-half years the f o s t e r mother cared f o r Tom u n w i l l i n g l y . She asked again f o r h i s removal« At schools he was d i s r u p t i v e of the c l a s s and was f i g h t i n g w i t h h i s c l a s s * mates. He f r e q u e n t l y t r u a n t e d , l i e d , and used obscene language* He continued w i t h h i s sexual a c t i v i t y and on severa l . o c c a s i o n s r a n away. The f o s t e r parents continued t o s e v e r e l y punish him. Tom was e v e n t u a l l y placed i n another f o s t e r home a t the age of twelve years. In h i s next home, Tom's behaviour appeared t o beoome more a c u t e l y d i s t u r b e d . This seemed t o be aggravated by a v i s i t w i t h an o l d e r brother who t o l d Tom about h i s f a m i l y of which Tom, apparently had no knowledge. Furthermore, an ol d e r boy was placed i n the home, m&ch t o the resentment of Tom. Tom and t h i s boy immediately began t o q u a r r e l and s h o r t l y afterwards Tom was i n -volved i n breaking and e n t e r i n g i n t o homes i n the neighborhood. I t was a t t h i s time t h a t the f o s t e r mother asked t h a t Tom be taken out of the home as she was no longer able t o accept h i s behaviour or c o n t r o l i t * Tom remained but the other boy was removed* A g i r l , near h i s own age, was placed i n the home and Tom soon began q u a r r e l i n g w i t h her. As a r e s u l t the f o s t e r mother i n s i s t e d t h a t Tom be removed* Tom was past 14 years of age when he was placed f o r 48 f o u r months i n the home of a married s i s t e r . She l a t e r asked f o r h i s removal because of h i s di s t u r b e d behaviour. At t h i s p o i n t i t would seem evident t h a t f u r t h e r foster-home placements could not help Tom and tha t an i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment centre was needed. In the next year Tom had twelve placements* He became most h o s t i l e toward the Agency and f o s t e r homes. He l e f t school i n Grade S i x and t r i e d t o work. However, he was unsuccessful and stayed a t a h o s t e l . At the age of 15 he was sentenced t o the I n d u s t r i a l School charged w i t h s t e a l i n g , d r i n k i n g , and vagrancy. He escaped from the School twice and was charged w i t h t h e f t each time he was f r e e . I n a l l , he spent three years i n the I n d u s t r i a l School. As a r e s u l t of h i s l a s t escape, Tom was sentenced t o Oakalla where he escaped and was sentenced t o a State P e n i t e n t i a r y a t the age of 18 years, Tom, a f t e r h i s discharge, v i s i t e d the Agency once and then disappeared. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t he returned t o h i s mother who had moved t o the United S t a t e s , Tom has since been discharged from care having reached h i s m a j o r i t y . The E f f e c t of Care: Many U n c o n t r o l l a b l e elements enter i n when an attempt i s made to determine the cause of Tom's behaviour i n r e l a t i o n t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the Agency's s e r v i c e s . I t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t one circumstance p r e c i p i t a t e d a p e r t a i n e f f e c t . However,.it would seem th a t , the r e j e c t i o n t h i s boy r e c e i v e d , both before and a f t e r h i s committal t o the care of the Agency, c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o the behaviour he was ma n i f e s t i n g 49 a t the date he became " l o s t , " The records are d e f i c i e n t i n in f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the ki n d of care t h i s boy received during h i s formative years* Consequently, i t i s necessary to r e s o r t t o co n j e c t u r e . During the f i r s t year of l i f e , w h ile i n h i s own home, Tom re c e i v e d inadequate care. However, he did manage t o progress f a i r l y w e l l as i t i s noted t h a t he was s t a r t i n g t o walk when he entered h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home* In h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home he r e c e i v e d adequate p h y s i c a l oare although the worker thought he re c e i v e d l i t t l e i n d i v i d u a l s t i m u l a t i o n t o develope emotionally. I f Tom's behaviour was i n d i c a t i v e of the ki n d of. care r e c e i v e d , then i t can be assumed t h a t t h i s was not s a t i s f a c t o r y . His p h y s i c a l development regressed. Some r e g r e s s i o n could be explained because of the placement, yet the record described him as being f e a r f u l , prone t o temper tantrums, l e t h a r g i c , and showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the things around him. Furthermore, he had frequent i l l n e s s e s . I t would seem, i n view of these f a c t o r s , t h a t t h i s placement was not s a t i s f y i n g h i s needs. At f i v e years of age Tom was moved again t o a home where he remained f o r e i g h t years. During the f i r s t two years, the e n t r i e s i n the record were not r e g u l a r and the time lapse between e n t r i e s was c o n s i d e r a b l e . The r e c o r d i n g f o r these two years notes t h a t both Tom and the f o s t e r parents seemed happy u n t i l the f o s t e r parents had a baby of t h e i r own. The baby had the e f f e c t of reducing the a t t e n t i o n the f o s t e r parents gave t o Tom. As a r e s u l t , Tom mis-behaved i n order t o obta i n a t t e n t i o n . This behaviour f u r t h e r e d the r e j e c t i o n . This increased r e j e c t i o n aggravated the misbehaviour 50 and the f o s t e r parents responded w i t h extreme c o r p o r a l punish-ment. The record made c l e a r t h a t h i s s i s t e r L o u i s e , who was more p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e than Tom, was p r e f e r r e d . This type of care was most u p s e t t i n g t o Tom and, when considered i n regard t o the l e v e l of h i s emotional development, would be more s e v e r e l y damaging. E v e n t u a l l y the f o s t e r parents were unable t o accept Tom's behaviour and asked f o r h i s removal. However, the workers changed and Tom was l e f t f o r another two and one-half years i n t h i s environment. Thus f o r ei g h t years t h i s boy was subjected t o severe r e j e c t i o n whieh no doubt c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o h i s a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour. This home was unable t o meet h i s needs. Tom's next placement was w i t h a married s i s t e r . This r e s u l t e d i n another r e j e c t i o n f o r him which appeared t o be the f a t e f u l one. A f t e r t h i s r e j e c t i o n by h i s own f a m i l y , Tom refused t o accept any more f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s . H is c o n f l i c t w i t h a u t h o r i t y , which began i n h i s e a r l y years, became more severe, and a t the p o i n t a t which he became " l o s t , " Tom was i n complete r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t any form of a u t h o r i t y . His l i m i t e d f e e l i n g s of s e l f - w o r t h seemed t o prompt him t o seek punishment. Tom, who was i n care f o r 19 years, r e c e i v e d 17 workers and 22 placements. Betty Smith:  Family Background: Be t t y came i n t o care at the age of twelve years. Her p a r e n t a l background was s i m i l a r t o t h a t of a l l of the c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d . She was the second youngest of s i x c h i l d r e n . Her f a t h e r , Mr. Smith, was 51 t h i r t y years old a t the time of her b i r t h . He was thought t o have l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e . His work record as an automobile mechanic was marked by many changes and by lengthy periods of unemployment. Mr. Smith was described as being "well-meaning" but unable t o make " r e a l i s t i c p l a n s . " He was i n d i o i s l v e and when forced t o make d e c i s i o n s , d i d so i m p u l s i v e l y and w i t h l i t t l e thought f o r the consequences of h i s d e c i s i o n s . Mr. Smith was an excessive d r i n k e r and was dependent upon others f o r guidance. Mrs. Smith was thought t o be of average I n t e l l i g e n c e . She had l i v e d i n two common-law unions p r i o r t o her marriage t o Mr. Smith. She was promiscuous and an excessive d r i n k e r . The•recording described her as being l a z y , a poor housekeeper, pleasure seeking, s e l f i s h , and i r r e s p o n s i b l e . She apparently lacked m a t u r i t y , being concerned wi t h the present only. She was unable t o place the needs of her c h i l d r e n before her own needs. Mrs* Smith was " r i g i d and p u n i t i v e " and provided poor care f o r her c h i l d r e n . When the Smiths entered marriage Mrs. Smith had three c h i l d r e n and a f u r t h e r three were born of t h i s union. B e t t y was the second c h i l d of t h i s marriage. From the record I t was noted t h a t the Smiths had l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l resources during t h e i r marriage, p a r t l y because of economic c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y , and p a r t l y because of Mr. Smith's poor work h a b i t s . F i n a n c i a l s t r e s s was always present i n t h i s home. The Smith's marriage was one of storm and s t r e s s which con-tinued f o r many years. Mr, Smith was i n constant f e a r t h a t h i s wif e would leave him and accepted her behaviour i n the hope t h a t she would remain w i t h him. 52 The mother was the dominant member of the f a m i l y . Eaoh parent competed f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s a f f e c t i o n s through c r i t i c i z i n g each other. Under these circumstances the c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d no c o n s i s t e n t p a r e n t a l s u p e r v i s i o n and were allowed t o do as they pleased. The m a r i t a l s t r i f e and poor care continued u n t i l 1948. At t h i s time a complaint was made t o the Agency, charging t h a t the Smiths were not p r o v i d i n g the care commensurate w i t h accepted standards. The oomplaint made s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o Mrs. Smith's immoral behaviour. I t suggested t h a t she was p r o s t i t u t i n g and d r i n k i n g e x c e s s i v e l y . I t f u r t h e r stated t h a t Mr. Smith was unable t o " c o n t r o l h i s f a m i l y " and was a l s o d r i n k i n g e x c e s s i v e l y . I n regard t o the c h i l d r e n , the complaint charged t h a t they begged i n the s t r e e t s , truanted from sc h o o l , and kept " l a t e hours." The Agency provided a p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e t o the f a m i l y . Soon a f t e r t h i s Mrs. Smith ended the marriage and e s t a b l i s h e d a oommon-law union. The c h i l d r e n were d i v i d e d between the two parents w i t h B e t t y and two of her s i b l i n g s going t o l i v e w i t h the mother. B e t t y was eleven years old a t t h i s time. During the next seven months Be t t y continued t o l i e , s t e a l , and t r u a n t from school, while her mother drank e x c e s s i v e l y . E v e n t u a l l y B e t t y was returned t o her f a t h e r who, i n t u r n , was unable t o c o n t r o l her. Subsequently, B e t t y and an o l d e r s i s t e r Joyce were sent from the f a t h e r ' s home t o t h e i r p a t e r n a l grand-parents i n A l b e r t a . The grandparents, a f t e r two months, returned both the c h i l d r e n because the g i r l s c o n t i n u a l l y fought w i t h one another. On t h e i r r e t u r n from A l b e r t a Joyce was sent t o her mother and B e t t y went t o l i v e w i t h her f a t h e r . The r e c o r d i n g noted t h a t 53 B e t t y seemed confused by these moves. The casework s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d t o the f a m i l y a t t h i s time seemed t o be focused on the parents r a t h e r than the c h i l d r e n * In J u l y 1949, B e t t y and Joyce were once again l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r . The home c o n d i t i o n s were d i r t y and overcrowded. Be t t y and Joyce were i n continuous c o n f l i c t . Moreover, the d i e t was "inadequate*" Subsequently, the neighbours complained t h a t the c h i l d r e n had been roaming the s t r e e t s a t n i g h t , had been s t e a l -i n g , and had not been a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l . As a r e s u l t , Mr. Smith appealed t o the Agency f o r h e l p . The mother and the p a t e r n a l grand-parents were approached by the Agency but n e i t h e r were able t o make plans f o r the care of the o h i l d r e n . As a consequence, a l l of the Smith c h i l d r e n were committed because of chronic negleot* P r i o r t o care t h i s g i r l had been placed 19 times. Betty At Time Of Caret Betty was committed t o the care of .the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Sooiety at the age of twelve years. I n her personal appearance she was po o r l y groomed and appeared "obese and u n a t t r a c t i v e . " A school mental t e s t assessed her i n t e l l i g e n c e as "du l l - n o r m a l " even though she was completing her s i x t h grade* Batty complained of many hypochondriacal symptoms. She dis p l a y e d severe temper tantrums and was described as being very demanding of a t t e n t i o n . A p a t t e r n of l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , and t r u a n t i n g , seemed t o have been e s t a b l i s h e d S e r v i c e s I n Care: Betty's f i r s t placement was not s u c c e s s f u l . The f o s t e r parents were e l d e r l y and t h e i r only daughter had r e c e n t l y married and l e f t the home. The f o s t e r mother had considerable l e i s u r e time and wanted 54 a c h i l d f o r companionship. L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e about the f o s t e r f a t h e r . The f o s t e r parents were seen once p r i o r t o Betty's placement and i t I s understood that they had no previous experience w i t h f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . The f o s t e r mother was described as being "opinionated, competent, and e f f i c i e n t , " The f o s t e r mother, upon meeting B e t t y , seemed " h o r r i f i e d " a t B e t t y ' s appearance and d i d not hide her disappointment* I n t e n days the f o s t e r mother asked t h a t Betty be taken from her home* B e t t y had s t o l e n some money and the f o s t e r parents were worried about t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n i n the community. Betty's second foster-home placement was more s u c c e s s f u l . I n t h i s home there were nine other c h i l d r e n , one of whom was B e t t y ' s s i s t e r Joyce. At the end of 22 months Be t t y was doing b e t t e r ,at s c h o o l , r e l a t e d more harmoniously w i t h other c h i l d r e n , and was able t o accept' a u t h o r i t y more e a s i l y . Although she was a f a i l i n g student, she was "working t o c a p a c i t y " and was mixing w e l l w i t h her classmates. In t h i s home B e t t y quarreled l e s s w i t h Joyoe. Mr. Smith had v i s i t e d B e t t y and Joyce s t e a d i l y i n the second f o s t e r home and i n the i n i t i a l stages of t h i s placement h i s v i s i t s had a d i s r u p t i n g e f f e c t upon B e t t y , They seemed t o confuse and r e t a r d her acceptance of foster-home care. During these v i s i t s Mr. Smith made u n r e a l i s t i c promises and showed a d e f i n i t e preference f o r Joyce. The f o s t e r mother was able t o accept these v i s i t s and the u p s e t t i n g behaviour which B e t t y would manifest a f t e r h i s v i s i t s . She was a l s o able t o show s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o B e t t y , which seemed a major f a c t o r i n making the placement s u c c e s s f u l . F u r t h e r -more, there was only one change of workers. 55 When Bet t y was 14 years old Fr..Smith married again and asked f o r the custody of Joyce and Betty* The Agency recommended t h a t the c h i l d r e n be returned t o the home of t h e i r f a t h e r and step-mother. The standards of the f a t h e r * a hew home were much higher than the standards of the home Mr, Smith provided before h i s c h i l d r e n oame i n t o care* Mr* Smith was working s t e a d i l y ; His w i f e was an " e f f i c i e n t , a g g r e s s i v e , d e c i s i v e , and capable" young woman. She had a good business t r a i n i n g and c a r r i e d t h i s i n t o her home. The re c o r d i n g noted t h a t she had had a nervous breakdown but the nature of t h i s was not known. The f a t h e r , the record noted, was " u n r e a l i s t i c " and appeared t o be a " d r i f t e r , " The r e c o r d i n g was b r i e f f o r the pe r i o d that B e t t y was i n the home of her f a t h e r and step-mother. There was l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n other than t h a t Joyce was unable t o get along w i t h the step-mother and a f t e r s i x months was returned t o care. B e t t y , on the other hand, appeared t o do w e l l i n the home f o r s i x months although she was q u a r r e l l i n g a g a i n w i t h Joyce. The court order which allowed B e t t y t o r e t u r n t o her f a t h e r was extended f o r another s i x months. During the seeond p e r i o d , B e t t y , who was now 15 years o l d , commenced q u a r r e l l i n g w i t h her step-mother. The records note t h a t these q u a r r e l s were p r e c i p i t a t e d by Betty's s t a y i n g out l a t e a t h i g h t , her b o y f r i e n d s , and the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t she was s e x u a l l y delinquent. The step-mother became most r e s e n t f u l of Betty's presence i n the home and Betty r e t a l i a t e d by becoming d e f i a n t and b e l l i g e r e n t . Mr. Smith, a f t e r B e t t y r a n away f o r a week, l a i d a charge of i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y and B e t t y returned t o care v i a the Detention Home. 56 B e t t y ' s n a t u r a l mother had V i s i t e d the home and encouraged B e t t y t o r un away. A f t e r nine months Be t t y returned t o the same f o s t e r home from which she had l e f t t o r e t u r n to' her f a t h e r . She was a l s o assigned t o a new worker. This time however, B e t t y refused t o aocept l i m i t s and the f o s t e r parents asked t h a t she he removed. Bet t y was assigned t o a new worker and was placed again i n a f o s t e r home. There were f i v e other c h i l d r e n i n the home i n c l u d -i n g her s i s t e r . This was an emergency placement which f a i l e d a f t e r f i v e months* I n t h i s fosteafr home Bet t y and Joyce began onoe again t o q u a r r e l . At school she became d e f i a n t , truanted, and seemed unable t o dfl» the academic work r e q u i r e d f o r Grade Bine. There was a strong suggestion t h a t she was delinquent s e x u a l l y . Her former p a t t e r n of l y i n g and s t e a l i n g r e t u r n e d . She stayed out l a t e a t ni g h t s and appeared beyond the c o n t r o l of her f o s t e r parents. B e t t y ' s teacher questioned the f o s t e r mother's a b i l i t y t o care f o r c h i l d r e n . E v e n t u a l l y B e t t y asked t h a t she be taken from the home. I n v e s t i g a t i o n showed t h a t the f o s t e r home was i n a s t a t e of "chaos" and possessed poor moral standards. At the age of 16 B e t t y entered her l a s t f o s t e r home. She a l s o had a new worker. The new f o s t e r parents were inexperienced. They were very young and had one n a t u r a l c h i l d aged three.The r e c o r d i n g d i d not note Betty's a t t i t u d e i n regard t o going i n t o t h i s home. The f o s t e r mother was described as q u i e t but w i t h a good d e a l of str e n g t h . The f o s t e r f a t h e r was a busy, energetic man who spent 57 considerable time outside the home. Their d e s i r e t o care f o r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n was t o provide companionship f o r the f o s t e r mother. This emergenoy placement seemed t o be s u c c e s s f u l from the p o i n t of view t h a t the f o s t e r parents were able t o accept Betty's behaviour and the d i s r u p t i n g v i s i t s of her parents. Her r e l a t i o n -ships w i t h her teacher and classmates seemed somewhat b e t t e r although her academiG achievement was poor. Mental t e s t s suggested t h a t she d i d not have the a b i l i t y t o go f u r t h e r i n s c h o o l . She l e f t school and, w i t h the f o s t e r parents support, managed t o keep h e r s e l f employed. B e t t y however, s t i l l manifested problems i n regard t o r e l a t i o n -s h i p . She became most h o s t i l e t o her worker and the Agency. B e t t y was a l s o a n t a g o n i s t i c t o her parents. Subsequently, she became i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnent and s h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s broke her t i e s 1. w i t h the Agency and her f o s t e r parents by running away. The E f f e c t of Care: S p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o B e t t y ' s developmental h i s t o r y was not a v a i l a b l e . However, i t i s reasonable t o assume, from the Information recorded during the year i n which the Agency provided a p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e , t h a t B e t t y r e c e i v e d only a minimal standard of care. The parents, because of t h e i r severe problems, were unable t o accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of parenthood. An unsuccessful preventive s e r v i c e was given t o the f a m i l y p r i o r t o the c h i l d r e n coming i n t o c a r e , Mrs. Smith seemed r e l i e v e d • B e t t y , a f t e r b e i n g l o s t f o r a few days, returned t o the Agency t o ask permission t o marry the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r . This permission was granted. 58 t h a t she was no longer r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her c h i l d r e n , while Mr.Smith seemed g u i l t y because of h i s f a i l u r e as a parent. At the time of apprehension there was no r e c o r d i n g on the f i l e s which would i n d i c a t e that the parents and the c h i l d r e n were prepared by the worker f o r wardship. The r e c o r d i n g noted l i t t l e more than those d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the parents which had the focus of determining whether or not there were a l t e r n a t i v e plans t o wardship. B e t t y and her parents, as suggested by the re c o r d s , appeared t o r e c e i v e l i t t l e help i n ? ( a ) a c c e p t i n g s e p a r a t i o n ; (b) understanding the purpose and reasons f o r wardship;(c) i n understanding the r e s p e c t -i v e r o l e s of the Agency and parents. I t would seem th a t i f more help had been extended t o B e t t y and her f a m i l y i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r wardship, and had t h i s continued a f t e r wardship, guardianship might have been more s u c c e s s f u l . B e t t y ' s f i r s t experience i n care was not pl e a s a n t . The f o s t e r home was h u r r i e d l y approved so tha t t h i s placement oould be made. L i t t l e regard was shown i n matching B e t t y ' s needs w i t h the capab-i l i t i e s of the f o s t e r parents. As a r e s u l t , B etty's f i r s t e x p e r i -ence i n care was one of r e j e c t i o n . The second f o s t e r home had p r e v i o u s l y cared f o r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . The f o s t e r parents had been s u c c e s s f u l w i t h c h i l d r e n who were slow mentally and who showed problems of behaviour. There were nine other c h i l d r e n i n the home who were apparently of s i m i l a r mental a b i l i t y t o B e t t y . I n e f f e c t , the placement was a q u a s i -i n s t i t u t i o n a l one. This placement s u i t e d B e t t y ' s needs f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons:(a) she p a r t i c i p a t e d , i n group l i v i n g experience w i t h c h i l d r e n of s i m i l a r mental a b i l i t y ; (b) the f o s t e r parents 59 d i d not attempt t o make her r e l a t e deeply; (c) the f o s t e r parents were able t o l e t B e t t y express her h o s t i l i t y ; (d) the f o s t e r parents provided s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o her; (e) she maintained her contacts w i t h her f a m i l y . I n t h i s home there was a u n i t y of purpose between the worker and the f o s t e r parents. The f o s t e r parents were able t o understand the worker's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of B e t t y ' s behav-i o u r and were able t o t r a n s l a t e t h i s i n t o p r a c t i c e . This home provided the environment which helped B e t t y t o make the t r a n s i t i o n from her parents t o the Agency, I n t h i s home Bet t y r e c e i v e d the type of care she needed. At the end of the placement Betty's behaviour and school performance were much improved. She a l s o had the same worker throughout t h i s placement. I t would seem t h a t Betty should not have returned t o her f a t h e r f o r two reasons. The f i r s t one was that she expressed the d e s i r e t o remain i n the f o s t e r home, Secondly, i n view of the f a t h e r ' s past i n a b i l i t y t o care f o r h i s c h i l d r e n , i t would seem th a t t h i s plaoement had l i t t l e chance f o r success. Furthermore, l i t t l e was known of the step-mother's c a p a c i t y t o care f o r B e t t y . Soon a f t e r t h i s placement B e t t y and her step-mother began t o q u a r r e l . The step-mother appeared t o be q u i t e immature and responded w i t h h o s t i l i t y and r e j e c t i o n when Be t t y began t o compete f o r Mr. Smith's a t t e n t i o n . Mr. Smith was unable t o r e c o n c i l e t h i s c o n f l i c t between h i s w i f e and daughter. He acted on h i s w i f e ' s i n s i s t a n c e and returned Betty, t o the care of the Agency, This served as another r e j e c t i o n f o r B e t t y , She i n t u r n , responded t o the r e j e o t i o n by r e t u r n i n g t o her former a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour. Both B e t t y and her 60 parents s u f f e r e d as a r e s u l t of t h i s unsuooessful placement. Mr. Smith's f e e l i n g s of inadequacy were aggravated and h i s marriage was threatened. The Agency l o s t the support of the Smith's who, because of t h e i r g u i l t a t having f a i l e d , became a n t a g o n i s t i c t o the Agency and attempted t o d i s r u p t the Agency's plans f o r B e t t y . P o s s i b l y placement i n a r e c e i v i n g home would have been more h e l p -f u l t o Be t t y and l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g t o her parents* Betty's next two f o s t e r homes f a i l e d . She refused t o accept a u t h o r i t y and was thought t o be s e x u a l l y delinquent. She refused t o keep reasonable hours and her past behaviour of l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , and t r u a n t i n g from school r e t u r n e d . Some of t h i s behaviour could be a t t r i b u t e d t o t y p i c a l adolescent r e b e l l i o n , but Be t t y ' s behaviour was more severe. Betty's l a s t placement was more s u c c e s s f u l . The g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h i s success seemed t o be the f o s t e r parents' a b i l i t y t o accept Betty's behaviour, and the worker's s e n s i t i v i t y i n working w i t h the f o s t e r parents r a t h e r than working w i t h B e t t y d i r e c t l y . Had t h i s plaoement continued f o r a longer p e r i o d of time B e t t y may have been able t o leave the care of the Agency, b e t t e r equipped t o become a r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n . However, a t the end of t h i s placement B e t t y once again r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y . She broke an engagement t o marry because i t appeared t o her that she was being asked t o r e l a t e too deeply. Immediately her behaviour became severe. She rebuked her parents, her f o s t e r parents, and the Agency. She q u i t her job and l a t e r became I l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnent. B e t t y was i n care f o r f i v e years. She re c e i v e d s i x f o s t e r -home placements and had f i v e workers. Two of these foster-home 61 placements seemed t o provide the kind of care B e t t y needed. I n these two homes Betty r e c e i v e d the acceptance, the a f f e c t i o n , and s t a b i l i t y which had been denied her f o r so many years. I n the other f o u r f o s t e r homes B e t t y was subjected t o the r e j e c t i o n and i n s e c u r i t y she had known i n her own home. She l e f t care without having her b a s i c a f f e c t i o n a l needs met. R e b e l l i o n and impulsive behaviour seemed t o be Betty's way of handling her dependency needs. I t i s wondered i f Betty,- who has not had her own a f f e c t -i o n a l needs met, can meet the a f f e c t i o n a l needs of her husband and c h i l d . Joyce Mason  Family Background: Joyce and her f a m i l y f i r s t oame t o the a t t e n t i o n of the Ch i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n October 1947, when she was eleven years o l d . Mr. Mason, a f i f t y year o l d fisherman, had deserted h i s wife t a k i n g Joyce w i t h him. They had been absent from the home f o r seven years. During these seven years Joyce and her f a t h e r had moved from one f i s h i n g p o r t t o another. The Mason marriage was a bigamous one as Mr. Mason had not obtained a d i v o r c e from h i s f i r s t w i f e . Joyce was the daughter of the second marriage. During the time t h a t Joyce was away w i t h her f a t h e r the mother had made no attempt t o see her daughter, Mr. Mason was described as an excessive d r i n k e r . He had few f r i e n d s because of h i s b e l l i g e r e n t and abusive behaviour. Mr. Mason was f r e q u e n t l y Involved w i t h the law and possessed l i t t l e r e s p ect f o r a u t h o r i t y . He was a s u c c e s s f u l fisherman and worked d i l l i g e n t l y 62 a t t h i s occupation. I t was s t r o n g l y suspected t h a t he had i n c e s t -uous r e l a t i o n s w i t h Joyce. Mrs. Mason, Joyce's mother, was an " i r r e s p o n s i b l e " woman. She was an a l c o h o l i c and was promiscuous. Her r e l a t i v e s noted t h a t she had never taken any i n t e r e s t i n her c h i l d and had o f t e n p h y s i c a l l y abused her. Mrs* Mason was of Indian parentage. The record revealed l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the Mason's marriage other than i t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by intense m a r i t a l d i s c o r d which, a f t e r f i v e years, ended i n se p a r a t i o n . During these f i v e years both parents drank e x c e s s i v e l y and both were promiscuous. A f t e r the se p a r a t i o n Mrs. Mason moved i n t o a common-law union and, l a t e r s t i l l , married and separated from another man. Mr. Mason entered i n t o s e v e r a l eommon-law unions. Joyce spent the f i r s t f i v e years of her l i f e i n a home where she was subjected t o t o t a l r e j e c t i o n by her mother and where extreme m a r i t a l s t r i f e e x i s t e d . There was however, a strong bond of a f f e c t i o n between Joyce and her f a t h e r * During one of the many placements t h a t Joyce had whi l e i n the care of her f a t h e r the Agency re c e i v e d a complaint from the p o l i c e and the S o c i a l Welfare Branch. At t h i s time she was i n the home of a maternal aunt. The complaint charged t h a t Joyce was not going t o school, had l i t t l e t r a i n i n g , and was i n an environment which was thought t o be u n f i t f o r a c h i l d . Although she was twelve years old she had Only managed t o complete Grade One. Before the Agency was able t o f i n a l i z e p l a n s , Mr. Mason removed Joyoe from t h i s home and placed her i n a convent. Three months l a t e r the convent contacted the Agency. The S i s t e r s had become anxious about Joyce's 63 behaviour. Furthermore, they had reoeived no f i n a n c i a l support from the f a t h e r . I n a d d i t i o n t o Joyce's severe behaviour, the S i s t e r s f e l t t h a t she mas mentally r e t a r d e d . Subsequently, she was admitted t o the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l . She remained i n the H o s p i t a l f o r one year. Her f a t h e r had disappeared and her mother refused t o accept any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Mr. Mason had no l e g a l r i g h t s t o Joyce because of the bigamous nature of the marriage. While i n the H o s p i t a l Joyce appeared t o progress t o the p o i n t where she no longer needed t o be conf i n e d . Her I.Q, was thought t o be 72. The H o s p i t a l a u t h o r i t i e s recommended t h a t Joyce be placed w i t h middle-aged f o s t e r parents who would not demand a high stand-ard of behaviour from a c h i l d , but where the home standards of s o c i a l behaviour were s u p e r i o r . When Joyce was discharged from the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l a t the age of 13, she was committed t o the care of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y as having no parents w i l l i n g or able t o provide f o r her care. Joyce At Time Of Care: At t h i s time, the record noted, Joyce was p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e and presented no marked Indian f e a t u r e s and c o l o u r i n g . She appeared pleasant and f r i e n d l y but was demanding of a t t e n t i o n . She appeared unhappy w i t h the se p a r a t i o n from her f a t h e r . S e r v i c e s I n Care: Joyce was immediately placed i n a f o s t e r home. The f o s t e r f a t h e r was e l d e r l y but h i s wife was considerably younger. The home possessed low p h y s i c a l standards. A mentally d e f e c t i v e boy of f i v e 64 years was.also I n the home. The records gave l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the f o s t e r parents other than t h a t of a s t a t i s t i c a l nature. The f o s t e r parents were thought t o have a s p e c i a l a b i l i t y i n c a r i n g f o r mentally retarded o h i l d r e n . Joyce remained i n t h i s home f o r f o u r months and appeared t o do w e l l . At the end of t h i s p e r i o d the worker was becoming con-cerned about the f o s t e r parents* laok of understanding f o r a d o l -escents. The worker thought t h a t the f o s t e r parents were too p r o t e c t i v e and c o n t r o l l i n g . .Friends of the f o s t e r parents suggested t h a t they would l i k e t o care f o r Joyce. These f r i e n d s were f o s t e r parents whom Joyce knew and l i k e d . As Joyce appeared s a t i s f i e d w i t h the proposed p l a n the worker r e a d i l y agreed t o . t h i s arrange-ment . During Joyce's f i r s t plaoement v i s i t s were made w i t h the n a t u r a l mother. These v i s i t s appeared most u p s e t t i n g t o the g i r l as she u s u a l l y fought w i t h her mother. Mrs. Mason was f r e q u e n t l y i n t o x i c a t e d during these v i s i t s . I n her Second home, Joyce was one of seven c h i l d r e n . There was one ol d e r g i r l , a younger male c h i l d , and f o u r s m a l l e r c h i l d -r e n , There were no n a t u r a l c h i l d r e n . The f o s t e r parents were described as being young and possessed a good r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. Their p e r s o n a l i t i e s , as noted i n the r e c o r d , were c a s u a l , cherry, and they had an easy, breezy manner. The f o s t e r f a t h e r was 15 years o l d e r than h i s w i f e . The p h y s i c a l standards of the home were low but i t was f e l t t h a t the couple could o f f e r a great d e a l of love t o c h i l d r e n . The f o s t e r parents had had considerable success w i t h handicapped c h i l d r e n i n the past. 65 Joyce remained i n t h i s home f o r 26 months. Academically she managed t o complete a school grade each year w i t h f a i r performance. At the end of the placement she had completed Grade Pour at the age of 15 years. I t i s p o s s i b l e of course, t h a t she may have been passed each year because of her age. Joyce's progress s o c i a l l y , however, was not as good. She and her 15 year old f o s t e r s i b l i n g r e s i s t e d the f o s t e r p arents' a u t h o r i t y . They were very argumentative, refused t o come home on time, and were thought t o be s e x u a l l y misbehaving. They were a l s o suspected of d r i n k i n g and they l i e d p e r s i s t e n t l y . L a t e r , the o l d e r g i r l was removed from the home. This caused a good deal of appre-hension on the p a r t of Joyce who was a f r a i d t h a t she would be moved too. The r e c o r d i n g i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e i n regard t o the method employed by the f o s t e r parents In t h e i r attempt t o handle t h i s behaviour. The worker's suggestions t o the f o s t e r parents were not recorded. The r e c o r d i n g d i d not d i s c l o s e the help given by the worker t o Joyce i n regard t o t h i s behaviour or the reasons f o r the removal of the other g i r l from the home, . While i n t h i s home Joyce had three worker changes. The f i r s t worker change, as noted, caused her considerable a n x i e t y . Moreover, both Joyce's mother and f a t h e r v i s i t e d t h i s home. The f a t h e r made promises t o Joyce t h a t he would take her away from the care of the Agency. He a l s o used these v i s i t s t o c r i t i c i z e Joyce's mother and attempted t o persuade Joyce t o leave the home and not accept the plans of the Agency. He encouraged Joyce t o b e l i e v e t h a t the Agency was endeavoring t o break the f a m i l y . Mrs* Mason pursued a s i m i l a r 66 « _ approach when Joyce v i s i t e d her. She would c r i t i c i z e Joyce's f a t h e r , charging him w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of breaking up the f a m i l y . Joyce r e c e i v e d no s u p e r v i s i o n on these v i s i t s and the mother was f r e q u e n t l y i n t o x i c a t e d . On other occasions, Mrs. Mason would not be home and Joyce would be l e f t t o do as she pleased. She sometimes stayed w i t h f r i e n d s and on one occasion stayed w i t h a young man. When t h i s s i t u a t i o n was discovered, the Agency allowed only supervised v i s i t s w i t h the mother and attempted t o c u r t a i l v i s i t s between Joyce and her f a t h e r . Joyce resented these r e s t r i c t -i o n s , The f o s t e r parents were confronted w i t h the problem of Joyce's school attendance* As a r e s u l t of her age and p h y s i c a l growth Joyce wanted t o d i s c o n t i n u e school* Her p h y s i c a l growth was f a r more advanced than her classmates and she was s e n s i t i v e about t h i s . She was a l s o slow t o l e a r n and r e c e i v e d l i t t l e s a t i s f a c t i o n academi-c a l l y or s o c i a l l y . E v e n t u a l l y , the f o s t e r parents asked t h a t Joyce be taken from t h e i r home as they were no longer able t o accept her behaviour. She was described as being l a z y , i r r e s p o n s i b l e , s e x u a l l y delinquent, and she was l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , and s t a y i n g out l a t e a t n i g h t s . Joyce was apprehensive about the move and s t a t e d t h a t she had had too many moves i n the past. She ran away t o her grandmother's home but there was no room f o r her there* Joyce was returned t o the same f o s t e r parents. The placement continued f o r an a d d i t i o n a l f o u r months. At the end of t h i s time the f o s t e r parents demanded Joyce's removal because the neighbours complained t h a t she was encouraging younger c h i l d r e n i n sexual a c t i v i t y . 67 In the next two months Joyce r e c e i v e d three more placements and one new worker. One of these placements was i n a r e c e i v i n g home. Joyce was removed from here because she could not get along w i t h the s t a f f or the other g i r l s . Her foster-home placements were e q u a l l y d i s s a t i s f y i n g and her behaviour became more unaccept-a b l e . She r a h away from one of the f o s t e r homes t o the home of an aunt, but was unable t o stay w i t h her. During these two months there was no contact noted between Joyce and her parents, Joyce, a t 16 years, was placed again i n a f o s t e r home. This was her l a s t placement. The f o s t e r parents i n t h i s home were r i g i d , c o n t r o l l i n g , and very r e l i g i o u s . The s o o i a l l i f e of the f a m i l y was s t r u c t u r e d around the church. Joyce r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t the l i m i t s set f o r her by these f o s t e r parents and ra n away from t h i s home t o another aunt. She was allowed t o stay i n the aunt's home u n t i l the Agency could f i n d another f o s t e r home f o r her. While i n the aunt's home, Joyce's behaviour was completely out of c o n t r o l . She refused t o accept the a u t h o r i t y of the school or her aunt. She was l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , t r u a n t i n g from s c h o o l , and was s e x u a l l y delinquent. Soon the aunt asked f o r Joyce's removal as she was unable t o c o n t r o l Joyce. While i n t h i s home Joyce became involved i n a q u a r r e l between her mother and the aunt. During the q u a r r e l the whole f a m i l y h i s t o r y was revealed and Joyce was blamed f o r the s t a t e of a f f a i r s t h a t the f a m i l y now found themselves i n , Joyce was once again plaoed i n a r e c e i v i n g home. She a l s o r e c e i v e d a new worker. W i t h i n a week she ran away from here and returned t o her mother. The mother had l e f t the man she had r e c e n t -l y married and was l i v i n g out of Vancouver. Two months l a t e r Joyce 68 l e f t her mother and went t o l i v e w i t h another aunt. The Agency-could o f f e r no p l a n and she was allowed t o remain w i t h the aunt. Two months l a t e r Joyce became I l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnent and returned to the Agency f o r h e l p . A new f o s t e r home was found and a new worker assigned. Joyce remained f o r two days i n t h i s home. She disappeared w i t h her f a t h e r . Although she i s s t i l l under the guardianship of the Agency her present whereabouts i s not known. The E f f e c t of Care: Prom i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , Joyce's l i f e p r i o r t o her admission i n t o oare was most unstable. I t was marked wHth numerous placements i n boarding homes. During the f i r s t f i v e years of her l i f e she l i v e d i n a home environment of depraved moral standards. While under the care of her f a t h e r , evidence suggests t h a t she was assaulted s e x u a l l y by her f a t h e r . C e r t a i n l y , the care she re c e i v e d p r i o r t o her placement i n the convent was most inadequate. Joyce received a sense of s e c u r i t y w i t h her placement a t the convent and the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l . While a t the convent she manifested severe problems of l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , temper, i r r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y , and sexual misbehaviour. She wa3 a l s o very hyperactive and nervous. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l experience a t the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l appeared t o have been s a t i s f a c t o r y i n meeting her needs. She l e f t t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n and entered her f i r s t f o s t e r home pres e n t i n g no problems, as noted i n the rec o r d s . There was a l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n on the f i l e a t the time of committal. The r e c o r d i n g d i d not note t h a t any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was given t o Joyce concerning the f u n c t i o n of the Agenoy, the r o l e of the worker and the f o s t e r parents, the reason f o r committal, her f u t u r e w h i l e i n care, or the r o l e of her parents a f t e r committal. 69 There was l i t t l e r e c o r d i n g which suggested t h a t Joyce was prepared f o r wardship or t o accept s e p a r a t i o n from her f a t h e r . The record f a i l e d t o r e v e a l t h a t the Masons were helped t o accept care or th a t any attempt was made t o secure t h e i r help i n co-operating w i t h the Agency, t o p l a n p o s i t i v e l y f o r Joyoe. The records made mention only of Mrs. Mason's r e f u s a l t o p l a n f o r Joyce and her apparent agreement t o have Joyce become a ward.lad t h i s work been done, wardship might have had a more b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t . At 13 years of age Joyce was placed i n her f i r s t f o s t e r home. At t h i s age some adolescent r e s i s t a n c e t o p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y could be reasonably expected. However. Joyoe d i d not manifest t h i s , probably as a r e s u l t of her retarded mental a b i l i t y and- p o s s i b l y because of the short time she was i n the home. The i n g r e d i e n t s f o r a severe r e b e l l i o n were present i n the s i t u a t i o n as the f o s t e r parents were described as being very p r o t e c t i v e , r i g i d , c o n t r o l l i n g , and p o s s e s s i v e , which would appear t o be conducive t o r e b e l l i o n . The f i l e made no suggestion as t o how t h i s home might meet Joyce's needs other than t h a t the parents had been s u c c e s s f u l i n c a r i n g f o r other mentally retarded c h i l d r e n . This placement terminated h a p p i l y and Joyce, the f o s t e r parents and the Agency seemed q u i t e s a t i s f i e d t h a t she should be placed i n the home of f r i e n d s of the f o s t e r parents. In her second home, s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s were noted which may help t o e x p l a i n her behaviour d u r i n g t h i s placement. F i r s t of a l l there were three changes of workers. The record i n d i c a t e d t h a t Joyce was upset w i t h the f i r s t change. This worker had been v i s i t i n g Joyce f o r nine months and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p had 70 been c l o s e . I n the next month there were two more worker changes. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , worker changes oft e n oocurred simultaneously w i t h changes i n the p h y s i c a l environment* There were a l s o s e v e r a l changes i n the home. The 15 year old g i r l - f r i e n d was removed because of her behaviour. The record made reference t h a t Joyce was anxious a t t h i s time l e s t she be replaced too. The record does not mention t h a t Joyce was helped t o understand the reasons f o r her f r i e n d ' s removal. Sometime l a t e r two other c h i l d r e n were removed from the home beoause of the f o s t e r mother's i l l n e s s . A l l these changes seemed t o make Joyce f e e l t h a t her p o s i t i o n i n t h i s home was tenuous. There was no mention made t h a t Joyce was given any understanding of the reasons f o r these changes. There was no reference t h a t Joyce was made t o f e e l t h a t t h i s home was a permanent p l a n f o r her. She di d not r e c e i v e a sense of s e c u r i t y . Secondly, t h i s s i t u a t i o n was f u r t h e r aggravated by the v i s i t s of her parents. Her f a t h e r , during h i s v i s i t s , apparently endeavoured to encourage Joyce t o r e s i s t the plans of the Agency. Mr. Mason was most h o s t i l e t o the Agency because of i t s a t t i t u d e towards h i s v i s i t s . He used these v i s i t s w i t h h i s daughter t o v e n t i l a t e h i s h o s t i l i t y both towards the Agency and h i s w i f e . I r s . Mason, during her v i s i t s w i t h Joyce, continued t o r e j e c t her daughter. When Joyce and Mrs. Mason di d come together Mrs. Mason used these v i s i t s t o c r i t i c i z e Joyce's f a t h e r . T h i r d l y , Joyce's school l i f e d i d not help her t o g a i n any secondary s a t i s f a c t i o n s . She was older and p h y s i c a l l y more developed than her classmates. As a consequence, the s o c i a l p u r s u i t s of the c l a s s had l i t t l e a t t r a c t i o n f o r her. Academically, s c h o o l provided 71 l i t t l e s a t i s f a c t i o n beoause of her l i m i t e d mental a b i l i t y . F i n a l l y , d uring t h i s placement Joyce s u f f e r e d f u r t h e r r e j e c t -i o n from her f a m i l y . Her aunt and her grandmother refused t o oare f o r her. L a t e r a f u r t h e r r e j e c t i o n r e s u l t e d when the f o s t e r parents demanded her removal because they were no longer able t o accept her behaviour. Joyce, a t t h i s p o i n t , would no longer accept a f o s t e r home. Three more f o s t e r homes were t r i e d but without success. At her aunt's home Joyce was subjected t o a f i n a l r e j e c t i o n when her mother placed a l l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n on her. Joyce's l i m i t e d f e e l i n g of s e l f - w o r t h s u f f e r e d another shock. Two i n s t i t u t i o n a l placements were t r i e d but the l e n g t h of these placements was too s h o r t . The f a i l u r e of these placements i n the r e c e i v i n g home t o meet Joyce's needs had the e f f e c t of being i n t e r p r e t e d by Joyce as being a r e j e c t i o n by the Agency. I t would seem th a t the i n s t i t u t i o n was not equipped t o handle t h i s c h i l d ' s behaviour. Joyce l e f t the care of the Agency and returned t o her f a m i l y i n an attempt t o g a i n some s e c u r i t y . I t would seem t h a t the Agency had not given her t h i s . The s e c u r i t y she was seeking was not obtained w i t h her f a m i l y * Her mother continued t o r e j e o t her as did her other r e l a t i v e s . F i n a l l y , Joyce r e - e s t a b l i s h e d h e r s e l f w i t h her f a t h e r who In a o t u a l i t y seemed t o have provided the only c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h i s g i r l had known. In three and one-half years Joyce r e c e i v e d f i v e f o s t e r - home placements, two i n s t i t u t i o n a l placements, and f i v e d i f f e r e n t workers. 72 Her needs were not adequately diagnosed and as a r e s u l t the type of care which might have met these needs was never provided. She l e f t the s u p e r v i s i o n of the Agency i l l - p r e p a r e d t o assume her r o l e as a r e s p o n s i b l e a d u l t . James Robb Family Backgroundt Jim i s the l a s t c h i l d t o be studied i n t h i s chapter. He was 15 years old a t the time he came i n t o care and was the t h i r d c h i l d of seven i n h i s f a m i l y . His two ol d e r brothers had f i n i s h e d t h e i r high school and were g a i n f u l l y employed, l i v i n g p e r i o d i c a l l y a t home. When Jim was t e n years old Mr. Robb, h i s f a t h e r , deserted the f a m i l y and has not been heard of s i n c e . Three years a f t e r the f a t h e r ' s d e s e r t i o n the f a m i l y was r e f e r r e d t o the Agency, Io i n -formation on the f a m i l y was a v a i l a b l e f o r the f i r s t t e n years of Jim's l i f e . However, some conclusions can be drawn from n o t i n g the achievement of the three o l d e s t c h i l d r e n . The two o l d e s t boys, a t the date of r e f e r r a l , had completed t h e i r high school and were working. Jim and h i s youngest brother B i l l were doing q u i t e w e l l at school. Jim was described as having the respect of h i s classmates and as being r e s p o n s i b l e . F u r t h e r , the S o c i a l Service Exchange had no record of the f a m i l y . I t would seem then t h a t some degree of s t a b i l i t y and s e c u r i t y had been given t o the f a m i l y . 73 At the date of r e f e r r a l the f a m i l y was i n d i r e s t r a i t s , Por the past two years many s o c i a l agencies had provided a s e r v i c e t o the f a m i l y as had many c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , A complaint charged t h a t I r s . Robb was a l l o w i n g her c h i l d r e n t o beg on the s t r e e t s . The f a m i l y d i d not have s u f f i c i e n t food* T h e i r housing was overcrowded and i n a f i l t h y c o n d i t i o n . The complaint suggested t h a t Mrs. Robb was p r o s t i t u t i n g and probably bootlegging. These c o n d i t i o n s apparently had p e r s i s t e d f o r q u i t e some time and had e v i d e n t l y been p r e c i p i t a t e d by the f a t h e r ' s d e s e r t i o n from the home. A f t e r the complaint was made the Agency provided a casework s e r v i c e t o the f a m i l y . This s e r v i c e continued f o r almost a year, A f t e r her husband's d e s e r t i o n , Mrs, Robb entered i n t o s e v e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men, her l a s t three c h i l d r e n being i l l e g i t i m a t e . Two of these c h i l d r e n had been placed w i t h Mrs, Robb's f r i e n d s . The p a t e r n i t y of two of the o h i l d r e n was unknown. The r e c o r d i n g s t a t e s t h a t Mrs. Robb was an a l c o h o l i c . She was i n constant c o n f l i c t w i t h her neighbours and landlord, and was most v i n d i c t i v e . She seemed incapable of planning r e a l i s t i c a l l y f o r her c h i l d r e n and was unable t o place her c h i l d r e n ' s needs before her own. She showed l i t t l e regard f o r the f u t u r e and was concerned only w i t h the g r a t i f i c a t i o n of her own present needs. She was Incapable of handling money and was described as having no respect tor law and order. This s i t u a t i o n continued f o r almost a year. At times she appeared most withdrawn and the worker noted i n the r e c o r d i n g t h a t she appeared p s y c h o t i c . The casework s e r v i c e s g i v e n t o Mrs, Robb had l i t t l e sucoess i n h e l p i n g her t o discharge her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r her f a m i l y e f f e c t i v e l y , 74 The focus of the s e r v i c e seemed t o he i n regard t o the youngest i l l e g i t i m a t e o h i l d . The f a t h e r of t h i s c h i l d was known and much e f f o r t was spent by the worker i n securing maintainance from the f a t h e r f o r t h i s c h i l d . A great d e a l of a t t e n t i o n was given i n t r y i n g t o appease the p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e Mrs. Robb and t h i s man had toward one another. E v e n t u a l l y , w i t h casework help, Mrs. Robb agreed t o a l l o w Jim and h i s younger br o t h e r B i l l to be made wards. Mrs. Robb however, envisaged care as a temporary expedient which would help her f o r the moment. She had l i t t l e understanding of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of wardship, but considered i t as a means of r e l i e v i n g the pressures on her. The committal of B i l l and Jim d i d r e l i e v e some of these pressures and f o r a temp-orary p e r i o d Mrs. Robb seemed !to be able t o improve the s i t u a t i o n of her f a m i l y . Soon a f t e r the c h i l d r e n were made wards however, Mrs. Robb re v e r t e d back t o her former behaviour and w i t h i n a year had remarried. The l e g a l s t a t u s of t h i s marriage.was not c l e a r . There was l i t t l e Information p e r t a i n i n g t o the i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the f a m i l y . The record stated t h a t Jim and h i s mother were c l o s e . There appeared t o be no severe s i b l i n g r i v a l r y . Jim At Time Of Care; Jim entered care a t 15 years of age. His f i r s t t e n years appeared t o be ones when he r e c e i v e d some s a t i s f a c t i o n , but h i s l a s t f i v e years were ones of n e g l e c t . However, Jim seemed t o pass through these f i v e years f a i r l y adequately. At the date of h i s committal he manifested no severe problems of behaviour, accord-i n g t o the r e c o r d . He was thought t o be of average i n t e l l i g e n c e . 75 S e r v i c e s In Care: As there was no f o s t e r home a v a i l a b l e t o Jim he was placed i n a r e c e i v i n g home, the placement c o n t i n u i n g f o r nine months. The reoord noted t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was g i v e n t o Jim i n regard t o the reasons f o r h i s coming i n t o , c a r e and he apparently r e c e i v e d some help i n accepting the s e p a r a t i o n from h i s f a m i l y . I t was f e l t t hat Jim was happy and contented i n the r e c e i v i n g home. He s u c c e s s f u l l y completed h i s Grade Eight and was able t o make f r i e n d s both i n the home and a t school. During t h i s placement Jim seemed anxious about h i s mother and wanted t o v i s i t her r e g u l a r l y . The r e c e i v i n g home placement ended when Jim was placed i n a f o s t e r home. The reason appeared t o be t h a t the Agency wanted t o make a more permanent p l a n f o r him. Another reason f o r the p l a c e -ment was t h a t Jim would be r e u n i t e d w i t h h i s brother B i l l , who was a l s o i n t h i s home. Jim's worker made few v i s i t s t o the home and the r e c o r d i n g was b r i e f . Jim's f o s t e r parents were described as being young. The home was h i g h l y recommended although the p h y s i c a l standards were p l a i n . There were three n a t u r a l c h i l d r e n i n t h i s home. The f o s t e r parents were thought t o be able t o f r e e l y i n t e g r a t e a o h i l d i n t o t h e i r f a m i l y . They showed a great c a p a c i t y t o give a f f e c t i o n t o c h i l d r e n and seemed t o possess the a b i l i t y t o give a f o s t e r c h i l d accept-ance and s e c u r i t y . I n i t i a l l y , the placement seemed s u c c e s s f u l . I t ended, a f t e r a few weeks, when both Jim and B i l l r a n away and returned t o t h e i r mother and refused t o r e t u r n t o the f o s t e r home. Tlrs. Robb was thought t o have caused the breakdown of t h i s placement because of 76 her v i s i t s . Jim, i n p a r t i c u l a r , a f t e r h i s v i s i t s w i t h h i s mother, became u n s e t t l e d i n the f o s t e r home and seemed preoccupied. He q u i t school i n order t o work and maintain h i s mother, Mrs. Robb l a t e r married Jim's employer. An order was made g i v i n g Mrs. Robb custody f o r s i x months as the Agency could o f f e r no a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n . W i t h i n a month Jim ran away from h i s mother and refused t o r e t u r n t o her. The order which gave Mrs. Robb custody was rescinded and Jim was placed i n a boarding h o t e l . : Jim's e f f o r t s t o h e l p h i s mother had f a i l e d . Mrs. Robb, even w i t h t h i s f i n a n c i a l help, was unable t o improve the f a m i l y s i t u a t -i o n and Jim appeared most discouraged because of h i s f a i l u r e . The boarding arrangement was not s u c c e s s f u l e i t h e r . Jim l e f t the h o t e l without the Agency's knowledge. He was l a t e r charged w i t h vagrancy and was placed i n a de t e n t i o n home. Jim returned t o the Agency from the de t e n t i o n home and was placed i n another f o s t e r home. However, t h i s placement was not s u c c e s s f u l . Mrs. Robb continued t o v i s i t . Jim r a n away again and s t o l e a c a r . He r e c e i v e d a suspended sentence and returned t o the same f o s t e r home, Jim stated t h a t he was unable t o understand h i s behaviour and f e l t compelled t o run away and do something. Again Mrs. Robb's v i s i t s were c r e a t i n g a n x i e t y f o r Jim. He ran away from the f o s t e r home and was again charged w i t h vagrancy. Uo l e g a l proceedings were taken and Jim returned t o h i s mother. The Agency had no a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n and Jim was allowed t o remain w i t h her. < With h i s r e t u r n t o h i s mother Jim commenced working* He took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r paying f o r h i s room and board and completed h i s pro b a t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y . S i x months a f t e r h i s r e t u r n home Jim again l e f t h i s mother and sought the help of the Agency i n o b t a i n i n g 77 employment, A job was found f o r him but he did not r e p o r t f o r work. I t was a t t h i s time t h a t Jim became " l o s t . " The E f f e c t of Care: There were many gaps i n the r e c o r d i n g which made an evaluat-i o n of the help Jim re c e i v e d during care d i f f i c u l t . H is f i r s t placement i n a r e c e i v i n g home appeared t o be the most s u c c e s s f u l . D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n as t o h i s l i f e i n the r e c e i v i n g home was not a v a i l a b l e . However, an examination of the known i n f o r m a t i o n gives some i n d i c a t i o n of the elements c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i t ' s suecess. F i r s t of a l l Jim was an adolescent who had d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s . He seemed c l o s e l y t i e d t o h i s mother i n an unhealthy manner. On the other hand, Mrs. Robb wanted her son t o provide f o r her. She d i d not want him t o become Independent, and apparently wanted Jim t o give t o her but t o ask f o r nothing i n r e t u r n . Under these circumstances, the i n s t i t u t i o n appeared t o be the best means of care f o r Jim. This s e t t i n g d i d not demand t h a t Jim r e l a t e t o parent f i g u r e s . His- g u i l t a t having l e f t h i s mother was lessened when a p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p was not demanded of hira. Mrs. Robb was able t o accept t h i s n e u t r a l s e t t i n g . She was threatened l e s s and appeared content w i t h t h i s s i t u a t i o n . This i n s t i t u t i o n a l plaoement had an added advantage because of i t s n e u t r a l i t y , The absence of p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s provided a good s e t t i n g i n which Jim could be helped t o assess h i s own f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n r e a l i s t i c a l l y * I t provided an opportunity f o r Jim t o examine, w i t h help, h i s f e e l i n g s toward h i s f a t h e r . I t a l s o gave the Agency an opportunity t o study Jim and p l a n f o r h i s f u t u r e care. 78 I t seemed apparent t h a t Jim was not ready f o r a foster-home placement when he was removed from the r e c e i v i n g home. Every foster-home placement had f a i l e d . The recorded reasons f o r the f a i l u r e were Mrs. Robb's i n t e r f e r e n c e and Jim's running away. C e r t a i n l y n e i t h e r Jim nor h i s mother could a l l o w a f o s t e r home t o be s u c c e s s f u l . E s s e n t i a l l y , Jim was running away from the prospect of becoming a member of a new f a m i l y . I n h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home Jim was asked t o become a f u l l member of the f a m i l y . This he could not do because of h i s g u i l t a t having l e f t h i s mother, Jim appeared t o f e e l t h a t he was not worthy of a happy l i f e i n a f o s t e r home. He appeared t o be i n c o n f l i c t over h i s l o y a l t y t o h i s mother and h i s adolescent d e s i r e f o r independence. He attempted t o handle these f e e l i n g s and gained temporary r e l i e f from h i s confusion through running away or s t e a l i n g . This compulsive be-haviour, and h i s p a t t e r n of r e t u r n i n g t o h i s mother, seemed t o be prompted by h i s need f o r punishment. A foster-home placement, and i n p a r t i c u l a r one which expected him t o absorb h i m s e l f complet-e l y i n t o the f o s t e r f a m i l y , was too t h r e a t e n i n g f o r Jim. An i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement was much more s a t i s f y i n g . As a f i n a l p r o t e s t Jim ran away from h i s mother's home and h i s whereabouts today i s unknown. Jim, w hile under the Agency's guardianship, was placed i n one i n s t i t u t i o n and two f o s t e r homes i n l e s s than three y e a r s . The one constant fea t u r e i n h i s l i f e under the Agency's care was h i s worker, although t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was not s t r o n g . Jim, w i t h h i s mother's help had always r e s i s t e d t h i s . I t i s almost c e r t a i n t h a t Jim's confusion i n the area of r e l a t i o n s h i p was as great when he disappeared from the e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n of the Agency as when he had f i r s t come i n t o care. 79 In summary, i t would seem from the d e t a i l e d examination of the f o u r cases t h a t these c h i l d r e n f a i l e d of o b t a i n the type of care they needed. In t h i s regard there appeared t o be a l a c k i n the Agency's p h y s i c a l resources which prevented them from h e l p i n g emotionally d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . Resources of both a d i a g n o s t i c and treatment nature were a l s o not adequate. The numbers of f o s t e r homes and r e c e i v i n g homes p r o v i d i n g on-going care were too few. Moreover, the inadequacy of these p h y s i c a l resources placed a great s t r a i n on the i n d i v i d u a l workers and as a consequence case-work s e r v i c e s t o the c h i l d , the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y , and the f o s t e r parents, had been g r e a t l y reduced. This was a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the l a c k of d i a g n o s i s of the c h i l d ' s needs which r e s u l t e d i n plans being made which were not s u i t a b l e t o the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . The Inadequacy of p h y s i c a l resources, i n s u f f i c i e n t casework s e r v i c e s , and l i m i t e d d i a g n o s i s , are prime f a c t o r s i n the c h i l d r e n f a i l i n g t o b e n e f i t from guardianship. CHAPTER POUR FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS I t i s evident from the m a t e r i a l presented i n Chapters Two and Three t h a t a combination of f a c t o r s have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the 16 wards e v e n t u a l l y becoming " l o s t " t o the Agency. While the weighting of these v a r i o u s f a c t o r s w i l l be i n d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s f o r each p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , i n g e n e r a l , three main areas of d i f f i -c u l t y a f f e c t i n g the suocess of wardship may be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d as common t o a l l the c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d . These r e l a t e t o : (a) the kind of problem presented by the c h i l d r e n both before and during care;(b) problems of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e nature a f f e c t i n g the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e given t o the c h i l d r e n ; and (o) a d e f i c i e n c y i n v a r i e t y as w e l l as i n number of s u i t a b l e placement resources w i t h i n the community, The Problems of the C h i l d r e n i n R e l a t i o n t o the Ser v i c e s Offered  by the Agency. Most of the 16 c h i l d r e n had come under the p r o t e c t i o n and care of the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s Aid S o c i e t y a t an advanced age. The m a j o r i t y of the c h i l d r e n , a t the time of t h e i r committal, manifested severe problems as a r e s u l t of t h e i r deprived f a m i l y backgrounds* Per a l l but one c h i l d the f i r s t s i x years of t h e i r l i v e s had been one of emotional, and f o r many, p h y s i c a l d e p r i v a t i o n . These years are thought t o be the most c r u c i a l i n the development of a c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y where s e c u r i t y and a f f e c t i o n from the parents are e s s e n t i a l . These c h i l d r e n c l e a r l y f a i l e d t o r e c e i v e 81 t h i s kind of p a r e n t a l care and came to the Agency p r e s e n t i n g severe emotional problems. The Agency, as a r e s u l t , was presented w i t h a most c h a l l e n g i n g task as i t attempted to p l a n a s u b s t i t u t e form of care f o r these c h i l d r e n * Plans f o r t h e i r care must endeavour t o provide experiences which w i l l compensate f o r the i n s e o u r i t y and deprived a f f e c t i o n a l experiences they have had'. The Agency needed a v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s t o meet each c h i l d ' s I n d i v i d u a l needs i n order t o provide the r i g h t p h y s i c a l and emotional environment t o compensate f o r the l a c k of s a t i s f a c t i o n s the c h i l d r e n had experienced i n t h e i r own homes* The Agency would have r e q u i r e d a v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s t o meet each c h i l d ' s p a r t i c u l a r needs. I t may w e l l be t h a t the problems of these c h i l d r e n were too severe t o be cared f o r adequately by t h i s Agency w i t h i t s l i m i t e d resources. During the time most of these c h i l d r e n were admitted t o c a r e , (1941-1951) the demands f o r s e r v i c e s upon the Agency g r e a t l y i n * creased. These demands became greater than the Agency could e f f e c t -i v e l y meet. As a r e s u l t , the i n d i v i d u a l worker was o f t e n under a severe s t r a i n and a t times was working under emergency c o n d i t i o n s . This emergency l e v e l of work was f u r t h e r aggravated by the l i m i t e d placement resources a v a i l a b l e t o the Agency. These c o n d i t i o n s undoubtedly help t o e x p l a i n ; (a) the many unsuccessful placements; (b) the number of placements of a temporary nature; (c) the over-l o a d i n g of the Agency's e x i s t i n g resouroes; (d) the l i m i t e d case-work s e r v i c e s given; (e) and the inadequate r e c o r d i n g . As a r e s u l t , the s e r v i c e s t o these 16 c h i l d r e n s u f f e r e d . 82 The frequency of the unsuccessful placements and the number of temporary foster-home placements experienced by these c h i l d r e n g r e a t l y added t o t h e i r I n s e c u r i t y . Each replacement was i n t e r p r e t e d by the c h i l d as being a r e j e c t i o n of h i m s e l f . Moreover, the l a c k of adeguate numbers of f o s t e r homes tended t o place an undue burden upon the Agency's best f o s t e r parents. This overloading occasion-a l l y r e s u l t e d i n the f o s t e r parents' withdrawal from a c t i v e p a r t -i c i p a t i o n i n the Agency's foster-home programme. I t a l s o l i m i t e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the f o s t e r parents' a b i l i t y t o care f o r the c h i l d r e n . Inadequate numbers of f o s t e r homes sometimes made i t impossible t o c a r r y out C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c recommendations. Large caseloads, and the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the worker's time which was spent on g i v i n g emergency s e r v i c e s , reduced the a b i l i t y of the worker t o p l a n h i s work e f f e c t i v e l y . This r e s u l t e d i n some ba s i c s e r v i c e s being denied t o the c h i l d r e n and the f o s t e r parents. Neither were being helped by the worker t o get the most out of the placement. Prom the records i t seemed th a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the c h i l d r e g arding the reasons he came i n t o care was not done adequately. The c h i l d r e n d i d not seem to understand the reason f o r the separat-i o n from t h e i r f a m i l i e s and they appeared t o be confused as t o the r o l e of the f o s t e r parents, the Agency, and the worker. The c h i l d ' s parents were s i m i l a r e l y confused. The r e c o r d i n g s u f f e r e d t t o o , because of the number of emergen-c i e s and h i g h caseloads. There were many gaps i n the records. Most noteable were: (a) the l a c k of m a t e r i a l w i t h respect t o the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y background; (b) the f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s of the people concerned; (c) a l a c k of d i a g n o s t i c m a t e r i a l f o r both the 83 c h i l d and the f o s t e r parents; (d) worker's impressions were u s u a l l y not noted; (e) the r e c o r d i n g d i d not show the i n t e r a c t i o n between the c h i l d and the f o s t e r f a m i l y , and community; ( f ) the areas of focus i n the treatment p l a n , w i t h respect t o the f o s t e r parents, c h i l d , and n a t u r a l parents, were not recorded; (g) the r e c o r d i n g lacked c o n t i n u i t y between workers. Most important, the r e c o r d i n g d i d not give the reader a c l e a r statement of the c h i l d ' s develop-ment i n the past, h i s needs a t the present, nor an i n d i c a t i o n of what h i s f u t u r e needs might be. The l a c k of s t a b i l i t y i n the c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s was f u r t h e r aggravated by the frequent changes of workers. The c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d , had a new worker, on the average, every nine months. Often the o h i l d r e n became apprehensive because of the numbers of temporary placements and the overcrowding of f o s t e r homes. I n such s i t u a t i o n s the home was i n a s t a t e of f l u x w i t h new c h i l d r e n coming i n t o the home, s t a y i n g f o r a short period of time, and then were removed, a l l of which had an u n s e t t l i n g e f f e e t on the c h i l d r e n and the f o s t e r parents. The s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the Agency t o these c h i l d r e n , were not always a p p r o p r i a t e . Poster homes seemed t o be the b a s i c way of meeting a l l the needs of the o h i l d r e n . Two of the 16 c h i l d r e n studied were placed i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . The one, a baby, was placed i n an orphanage f o r a short p e r i o d of time. This was accepted p r a c t i c e a t the time t h i s placement was e f f e c t e d . The other c h i l d was placed i n a r e c e i v i n g home because no f o s t e r home was a v a i l a b l e f o r him, but l a t e r he was replaced i n a f o s t e r home as soon as one became a v a i l a b l e . I n i t i a l placements were u s u a l l y made because of an 84 emergency s i t u a t i o n , w i t h l i t t l e evidence i n the records of a p r i o r assessment of the needs of the c h i l d , or the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the f o s t e r parents. Although l e g i s l a t i o n s t r e s s e s the f a o t t h a t c h i l d r e n should be placed i n f o s t e r homes, i t i s noteworthy t h a t the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s Act does provide f o r long term placements i n i n s t i t u t -ions w i t h the Superintendent's permission. Whatever the arguments may be i n favour of a r e v i s i o n of the l e g i s l a t i o n t o b r i n g i t more i n l i n e w i t h current p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i n k i n g t h a t the f o s t e r home does not always meet the needs of a l l c h i l d r e n a t a l l times, i t i s c e r t a i n , i n the cases of the c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d , the consent of the Superintendent was not a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n the Agency's use of i n s t i t u t i o n a l placements; Placements i n r e c e i v i n g homes were used s p a r i n g l y . I t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t o f t e n t h i s resource was not used beoause of the l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y of the Agency's i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, when i t was used, t h i s resource was not u s u a l l y employed e f f e c t i v e l y . Such placements were r a r e l y made as p a r t of a d e f i n i t e treatment p l a n , but r a t h e r occurred a f t e r a c h i l d had f a i l e d i n s e v e r a l f o s t e r homes. By t h i s time, the c h i l d had l o s t confidence i n the Agency's pla n s . G e n e r a l l y too, the c h i l d * s behaviour had become so extreme tha t when an i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement was e f f e c t e d , the i n s t i t u t i o n was not equipped t o handle the behaviour. I t i s noted t h a t the r e c e i v i n g home provided l i t t l e treatment s e r v i c e s and most of the c h i l d r e n , a t t h i s time, were i n need of something more than a g r o u p - l i v i n g experience i n a n e u t r a l environment. 85 H.T. Wilson suggests c e r t a i n groups of c h i l d r e n who can be 1. helped through the medium of an i n s t i t u t i o n . The groups suggested by him f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement possessed the same c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s as those c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d . With the exception of one c h i l d , who came i n t o care a t the age of one year, a l l of these o h i l d r e n could be included i n Wilson's groupings.- Many of the o h i l d r e n weres (a) adolescents who were r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y ; (b) many had strong p a r e n t a l t i e s ; (c) a l l had unhappy f a m i l y and p a r e n t a l experiences;(d) s e v e r a l of the c h i l d r e n ^ parents eould not, because of t h e i r own needs, a l l o w t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o be cared f o r by f o s t e r f a m i l i e s ; (e) s e v e r a l of the c h i l d r e n had d i v i d e d l o y a l t i e s i n regard t o t h e i r parents; ( f ) many of the c h i l d r e n were s o c i a l l y retarded and a few were mentally r e t a r d e d ; (g) n e a r l y a l l had s e v e r a l unsuccessful f o s t e r home placements. From t h i s p o i n t of view, an i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement, p r o p e r l y equipped, may have helped these c h i l d r e n . P r i o r t o , and during the process of the c h i l d ' s committal, the casework s e r v i c e s provided t o the f a m i l y , as noted from the r e c o r d i n g , appeared t o be on an environmental l e v e l . Such s e r v i c e s , i n regard t o securing employment, seouring f i n a n c i a l support from a f a t h e r , improving the housing, were s t r e s s e d . I t i s ap p r e c i a t e d , t h a t suoh s e r v i c e s are b a s i c t o casework he l p . However, i t seemed tha t such environmental s e r v i c e s were emphasized t o the exclusion', of the emotional problems whioh were b a s i c t o the parent's I n a b i l i t y t o discharge t h e i r parent and community r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . There 1. Wilson, o p . c i t . p.34. 86 seemed t o be l i m i t e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n given t o the parents and the c h i l d r e n w i t h the frequent r e s u l t t h a t the parents and the Agency were working a t cross-purposes, The casework s e r v i c e q u i t e o f t e n seemed t o be a d u l t - c e n t r e d . The records suggest t h a t the focus of t h i s s e r v i c e was i n c l i n e d t o be concentrated on the parent, which l i m i t e d the s e r v i c e provided t o the c h i l d r e n . Often the c h i l d i s helped best through f i r s t h e l p i n g the parents* However, the r e c o r d i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t some of these c h i l d r e n , because of the a d u l t - c e n t r e d casework s e r v i c e , were not prepared f o r wardship when such a course of a c t i o n was decided upon. The needs of these c h i l d r e n were not f u l l y known. Moreover, p r i o r t o the i n t e g r a t i o n of the Agency's Family D i v i s i o n and the C h i l d P l a c i n g D i v i s i o n , which has been r e c e n t l y accomp-l i s h e d , the C h i l d P l a c i n g D i v i s i o n was not given a s u f f i c i e n t p e r i o d of time t o adequately p l a n f o r the placement of the c h i l d -r e n whom the Family Department were committing. As a r e s u l t , emergency s i t u a t i o n s developed. With the i n t e g r a t i o n of these two Departments, t h i s c o n d i t i o n has been remedied. The l a c k of d i a g n o s i s and e v a l u a t i o n i n regard t o the c h i l d and h i s f a m i l y , and the consequent f a i l u r e t o use Agency resources. ( which i n c l u d e the worker's time as w e l l as placement resources) t o the best advantage, were major f a c t o r s l i m i t i n g the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t t h a t guardianship might have had upon these c h i l d r e n * The l a c k of d i a g n o s i s of the c h i l d ' s s t r e n g t h s , needs, and weaknesses, created more emergencies, which i n t u r n , f u r t h e r l i m i t e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s e r v i c e s . A d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of the 87 worker's time was spent i n emergencies. Basic s e r v i o e s of i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n , c l a r i f i c a t i o n , and support were neglected. The p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l workt were narrowly adherred t o . The d e s i r a b i l i t y of r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g the f a m i l y u n i t and of preserv-i n g the o h i l d - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s , the concept t h a t the f o s t e r home i s the best way of c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n outside of t h e i r own home, seemed t o reoeive undue emphasis. I t would seem t h a t these p r i n c i -p l e s were evolved, not t o be a p p l i e d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y , but t o serve as a guide t o good s o o i a l work p r a c t i c e . These p r i n c i p l e s should be considered from the p o i n t of view as t o whether they serve the p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s . Agency and Community I m p l i c a t i o n s . Since 1951 the Agency has expanded i t s s e r v i c e s and s t a f f r a p i d l y . As a r e s u l t , the worker's caseloads have been g r e a t l y reduced, which has had the d i r e c t e f f e c t of l e s s e n i n g the number of emergency s i t u a t i o n s . To*day, the workers are able t o give more i n t e n s i v e casework s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n and t o f a m i l i e s . However, there are s t i l l some Important resources needed i n order t o f u r t h e r improve the Agency's s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n . The most notable of these are; more f o s t e r homes, and I n s t i t u t i o n s , which can provide both d i a g n o s t i c and treatment s e r v i c e s t o o h i l d r e n m a n i f e s t i n g problems. A l l of the c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d , w i t h the exception of Tom Mann, appeared t o have needed a placement i n an i n s t i t u t i o n where they could have been observed and t h e i r problems evaluated w i t h a view to making a v a i l a b l e the most appropriate type of care. 88 Such an i n s t i t u t i o n should be s t a f f e d w i t h t r a i n e d personnel whose purpose would be t o diagnose and, on the b a s i s of the d i a g -n o s i s , evolve an appropriate p l a n f o r the care of the o h i l d . There should a l s o be a clo s e l l a s o n w i t h the s o c i a l worker who w i l l be se r v i n g the c h i l d when he leaves the i n s t i t u t i o n ' * The f i r s t essen-t i a l of a d i a g n o s t i c and o b s e r v a t i o n a l centre i s t h a t the populat-i o n should be small and in c l u d e a wide age-range. Both sexes should be represented i n the p o p u l a t i o n . There should be no parent f i g u r e , but s e v e r a l f r i e n d l y a d u l t s of both sexes should be present. C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c examinations should be a v a i l a b l e t o each c h i l d . The period of such an i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement should p r e f e r a b l y have d e f i n i t e l i m i t s set upon i t i n order t o obviate the use of the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r other t h a n . i t s proper purposes, and durin g t h i s , a dia g n o s i s and p l a n should be formulated through a group conference* Prom t h i s the needed resource f o r the c h i l d should then be made a v a i l a b l e . , Some c h i l d r e n , as a r e s u l t of t h e i r p eriod i n a d i a g n o s t i c and study c e n t r e , may r e q u i r e s p e c i a l treatment. Separate resources ( e i t h e r a f o s t e r home or an i n s t i t u t i o n ) should be a v a i l a b l e * I t i s not w i t h i n the scope of t h i s study t o describe such a resource. I t may be t h a t a s p e c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d f o s t e r parents could be f i n a n c i a l l y s u b s i d -i z e d and t r a i n e d t o provide t h i s s e r v i c e w i t h the support and 1. guidance of a s o o i a l worker* The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d i a g n o s t i c and treatment s e r v i c e s presupposes, not only s u f f i c i e n t f o s t e r 1. Wildy, L o i s , " The P r o f e s s i o n a l Poster Home C h i l d Welfare, January, 1955* 89 homes, but homes where f o s t e r parents possess a wide range of apt i t u d e s and s k i l l s which w i l l develope the p o t e n t i a l of the c h i l d , as revealed by the d i a g n o s t i c and treatment c e n t r e . I t i s r e a l i z e d that t h i s study has been r e s t r i c t e d t o a small percentage of the t o t a l number.of c h i l d r e n f o r whom the Agency provided a s e r v i c e . However, i t does seem important t o note t h a t 16 c h i l d r e n d i d not r e c e i v e the type of care they r e q u i r e d . L e g i s l a t i o n makes p r o v i s i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n should be cared f o r through p u b l i c guardianship when the parents f a i l t o provide adequate care. A c c o r d i n g l y , s e r v i c e s are r e q u i r e d which c a t e r t o the p a r t i c u l a r needs of d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n . The group s t u d i e d , although s m a l l , nevertheless need the s e r v i c e s which w i l l provide them w i t h the appropriate oare. The Agency, i n assuming guardian-s h i p , has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o v i d i n g the s e r v i c e s u i t a b l e t o the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . I t would seem t h a t the l a c k s i n the Agency's resources should be made known t o the community i n order t h a t these resources may be provided. When c h i l d r e n are "lost',' the Agency has not c a r r i e d out i t s l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as guardians. This study has d e a l t w i t h 16 c h i l d r e n f o r whom p u b l i c guard-i a n s h i p has not been s u c c e s s f u l . I t has attempted t o determine the reasons f o r t h i s f a i l u r e . The most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s appear t o be the s e v e r i t y of the c h i l d r e n ' s problems, and the i n s u f f i c i e n c y of a v a r i e t y of resources. These may be considered i n terms of? (a) the worker's time; (b) d i a g n o s t i c and treatment resources; and (c) resources p r o v i d i n g on-going care. From the study i t would 90 seem tha t 13 c h i l d r e n w i l l have extreme d i f f i c u l t i e s i n competing s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the a d u l t world, while one c h i l d w i l l have d i f f i -c u l t y i n forming harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p s but otherwise w i l l lead a moderately s a t i s f a c t o r y l i f e . Recorded i n f o r m a t i o n f o r two c h i l d r e n i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o formulate a p r e d i c t i o n . I t must be remembered t h a t these are but 16 c h i l d r e n of 1220 c h i l d r e n who were under the Agency's care i n 1954. 91 APPETOIX A. Problems Manifested by the C h i l d r e n ' s Parents Emotional Alcoholism Dependency Homosexuality Immaturity Immorality I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y M o l e s t i n g C h i l d r e n Overly p r o t e c t i v e of c h i l d r e n P r o m i s c u i t y R e j e c t i n g of c h i l d r e n Unable t o c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n -Behaviour Common lav? m a r i t a l union C o n f l i c t w i t h a u t h o r i t y Desertion H o s t i l e Lazy Overly aggressive Unstable work record Vagrant M e d i c a l - P h y s i c a l Disturbed A n t i S o c i a l B l i n d C r i p p l e d Deaf D i a b e t i c E p i l e p t i c Speech d i f f i c u l t i e s T uberculosis Undernourished Ps y c h o t i c Pre-psychotic Involvement w i t h the law r e s u l t i n g i n a c r i m i n a l c o n v i c t i o n D i f f i c u l t i e s i n R e l a t i o n s h i p Divorce M a r i t a l s t r i f e Poor f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s Separation Unable to l i v e harmoniously w i t h neighbors. # Based on Reed, G.A., The Placement of Adolescent Boys M.S.W. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950 92 APPENDIX B. *Problems Manifested by the C h i l d r e n Emotional Problems Compulsive Demanding E a s i l y l e d Excessive day dreaming Hyper a c t i v e Impulsive I r r e s p o n s i b l e Insecure Low sense, of personal worth Moody Over conforming Over dependent Over s e n s i t i v e Poor emotional tone Temper tantrums Unsettled Withdraw D i f f i c u l t i e s i n R e l a t i o n s h i p Cannot r e l a t e t o own age group R e j e c t i o n by parents S i b l i n g r i v a l r y {extreme) Strong parent t i e s Incontinence Eneuresis S o i l i n g U n c leanliness No Information Sex D i f f i e u l t i e s Sex behaviour Masturbation F e m i n i n i t y Delinquent Tendencies A n t i s o c i a l B u l l y i n g D e f i a n t Delinquent Lying R e b e l l i o u s S t e a l i n g Using a l c o h o l Behaviour Problems Bad language C o n f l i c t w i t h a u t h o r i t y Contrary Cheeky H o s t i l e Late hours Lazy - l a c k of ambition Non-c onforming Out of c o n t r o l Poor work record Running away Suspicious Truancy Unco-operative Vagrant Low I.Q.. Includes a l l up" t o low average I n s u f f i c i e n t inform-a t i o n t o c l a s s i f y Disturbed Psy c h o t i c Pre-psychotic Good Adjustment No problems recorded P h y s i c a l - M e d i c a l Headaches (migraine) Menstrual d i f f i c u l t i e s Poor hearing Poor v i s i o n Running ears Rupture Speech d i f f i c u l t i e s Undernourished * Based on Reed, G.A., The Placement of Adolescent Boys, M.S.W. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950 9 3 APPENDIX 0. Schedule Used for Gases I d e n t i f y i n g Information f o r C h i l d and Parent (1) Code number of c h i l d . (2) Reason f o r care. (3) Date of admission t o care* (4) Health of the c h i l d a t the date of admission t o care. (5) P h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n a t date of admission t o care. (6) P h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s at date of admission t o care. (7) Age a t admission t o care. (8) Date of committal t o care, ( 9 ) Education at date of admission t o care. (10) C h i l d ' s place i n the s i b l i n g l i n e . (11) T e s t i n g and/or e v a l u a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e at date of admission t o care* (12) Number of p r i v a t e placements p r i o r t o the c h i l d ' s admission to care. (13) Problems of the c h i l d at the date of admission t o care. (14) A t t i t u d e of the c h i l d r e n r e s p e c t i n g wardship. (15) Problems of the parents a t the date of c h i l d ' s admission t o care. (16) M a r i t a l s t a t u s of parents. Placement H i s t o r y (1) Number of workers ,v (2) Number of re-admissions t o care, (3) Number of f o s t e r homes. (4) The longest and sh o r t e s t foster-home placement. (5) O r i g i n of request f o r re-placement of the o h i l d . (6) The number and type of i n s t i t u t i o n a l placements the c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d . (7) S p e c i a l s e r v i c e s the c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d - e.g. C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s e r v i c e s * (8) P a r e n t - c h i l d contacts a f t e r the c h i l d r e n ' s admission t o care. . Adjustment (1) Problems of the c h i l d r e n at date l o s t . (2) Contacts w i t h the Agency a f t e r the date l o s t . (3) Date c h i l d became l o s t . (4) Environment from which the c h i l d became l o s t . (5) School grade completed a t the date the c h i l d became l o s t . 94 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Abbot, Grace, The C h i l d and the S t a t e , 2 v o l s . , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1938. Angus, Anne Margaret, C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver^ B.C. 1901-1951, Vancouver, B.C. 1951. A h i s t o r y of the Vancouver S o c i e t y prepared f o r the f i f t i e t h a n n iversary c e l e b r a t i o n . Burmeister, Eva, P o r t y - f i v e i n the Family, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York, 1949. Deutch, A l b e r t , Our Rejected C h i l d r e n , L i t t l e , Brown, and Co., Boston, 1950i McGovern, C e c e l i a * S e r v i c e s t o C h i l d r e n i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , Washington, R a n s d a l l , 1948, Thurston, Henry, The Dependent C h i l d , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1930. A r t i c l e s , Reports, and Other Studies B r i t i s h Columbia, Revised Statute 1948, Chap. 47, Sec. 7.. Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Canadian C o u n c i l on C h i l d and Family Welfare, Welfare L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada  and the Pr o v i n c e s , 1942-43, Ottawa, 1944. Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n i n Canada, Ottawa, 1954. Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Concerning C h i l d r e n , vol.3, no.7, Ottawa, March 1950. Committee on C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n , A s s o c i a t i o n of Chi l d r e n ' s Aid f o r the Province of Ontario, 1952-53-Reed, George, A. The Placement of Adolescent Boys, M.S.W. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950. Vaitman, Erna, A Study of C.A.S. Wards not i n Fo s t e r Homes, M.S.W. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955. Weissman, I r v i n g , e t . a l i a ; C h i l d r e n s Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n No. 330, Federal S e c u r i t y Agency, 1949. Wilson, Harold T., Embury House, A Receiving Home f o r C h i l d r e n , M.S.W. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950. 

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