UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A survey of wards not in foster-homes : study of the group who severed contact with the agency (Children's… Homer, Donald Garth 1956

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A SURVEY OF WARDS NOT B l FOSTER-HOMES: Study of the Group Who Severed Contact With The Agency (Children's Aid Society, Vancouver).  by DONALD GARTH HOMER  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of Social Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of MAST© OF SOCIAL WOE£  SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK  1956  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  (i) TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter 1.  G u a r d i a n s h i p and C h i l d  Care  The h i s t o r i c a l development o f c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n and o f c h i l d c a r e s e r v i c e s . The h i s t o r i c a l development o f c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. P u b l i c G u a r d i a n s h i p - a way o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e r i g h t s o f c h i l d r e n and a means o f f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r needs. I n s t i t u t i o n a l placement a s a form o f c a r e . Focus and method o f t h e s t u d y Chapter 2.  Page  1.  S i x t e e n Wards Who A r e L o s t  The f a m i l y background o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n . Problems of t h e p a r e n t s . Reasons f o r c a r e . Problems m a n i f e s t e d by t h e c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n a s wards. F a c t o r s p r e v e n t i n g t h e s e c h i l d r e n from making e f f e c t i v e use o f Agency c a r e . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e adjustment o f t h e c h i l d r e n while i n care ....v................................ 20. Chapter 3.  Pour C h i l d r e n Who A r e L o s t  . A d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n i s made f o r f o u r c h i l d r e n i n r e g a r d t o f a m i l y background, t h e i r problems a t t h e date o f a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e , t h e Agency's s e r v i c e s extended t o them, and an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s . . . 4 1 . Chapter 4.  F i n d i n g s and I m p l i c a t i o n s  The problems o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by t h e Agency. Agency and community implications  80.  Appendices: A. D e f i n i t i o n o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f P a r e n t a l Problems. '.' B. D e f i n i t i o n o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n ' s P r o b l e m s . C. Schedule Used f o r Cases. D. Bibliography. TABLES I N THE TEXT Table. 1. M a r i t a l s t a t u s o f p a r e n t s a t date o f c h i l d ' s . committal t o care  20.  T a b l e 2. Problems m a n i f e s t e d by p a r e n t s a t time o f c h i l d ' s committal t o care.....  22.  (ii) Page T a b l e 3» Age and sex of c h i l d r e n a t t h e date o f c o m m i t t a l . . . 2 5 . Table 4. Frequency o f o c c u r r e n c e of t y p e s o f problems time o f c h i l d r e n ' s a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e  at .26.  T a b l e 5 . L e n g t h of t i m e l o s t and placement from w h i c h the c h i l d r e n became l o s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 . T a b l e 6. Comparison between f r e q u e n c y o f problems a t date o f a d m i s s i o n and d a t e l o s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 8 .  (iii)  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s i s p a r t o f a l a r g e r s t u d y o f f a l l wards o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Vancouver, who axe n o t l i v i n g i n f o s t e r homes. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s a s t u d y o f t h e 16 wards whose whereabouts were unknown t o t h e S o c i e t y a t t h e time t h e i n i t i a l s u r v e y was u n d e r t a k e n i n October, 1954' As a background t o t h e s t u d y t h e h i s t o r i c a l development of c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n G r e a t B r i t a i n and t h e United States i s b r i e f l y described, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e p r i n c i p l e and s t a t u s o f p u b l i c g u a r d i a n s h i p incorporated i n Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n . I n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Vancouver, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g out t h e d u t i e s o f g u a r d i a n s h i p and o f s u p e r v i s i o n f o r c h i l d r e n made wards o f t h e S o c i e t y , e i t h e r u n t i l t h e y a t t a i n the age o f 21 y e a r s o r u n t i l a c o u r t o r d e r i s made r e t u r n i n g the c h i l d t o h i s p a r e n t s . L e g i s l a t i o n , moreover, s p e c i f i e s foster-home placement a s t h e most d e s i r a b l e form o f c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n made p u b l i c wards. A c c o r d i n g l y , t h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s to assess the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p u b l i c guardianship f o r a small group o f wards who e v e n t u a l l y became l o s t , w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r ence t o t h e i r problems o f a d j u s t m e n t and foster-home placement. A s i m p l e s c h e d u l e was d e v i s e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r summarizing t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f i l e s of t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Summary methods o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n were developed i n o r d e r t o a n a l y s e and compare t h e m a t e r i a l . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l show^b t h a t t h e emotiona l d e p r i v a t i o n and i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e s e - c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e i r e a r l y y e a r s o f t e n p r e v e n t e d them from a d j u s t i n g t o t h e f o s t e r home t y p e o f c a r e . Moreover, i t was e v i d e n t t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e forms o f c a r e and t h e casework s e r v i c e s which t h e problems o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n demanded has n o t been a v a i l a b l e , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e y e v e n t u a l l y became l o s t t o t h e e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e Agency. Case i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r f o u r o f t h e c h i l d r e n were used t o p r e s e n t a more d e t a i l e d and comprehensive p i c t u r e o f t h e needs of t h e s e c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e i r p e r i o d i n c a r e and o f t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e Agency t o a s s i s t i n t h e i r b e t t e r a d j u s t m e n t . The i l l u s t r a t i o n s d i s c u s s t h e p s y c h o - s o c i a l h i s t o r y a v a i l a b l e from the case r e c o r d s , and p o i n t up t h e damaging e f f e c t s on these c h i l d r e n of c e r t a i n experiences during t h e i r e a r l y childhood,  (iv)  e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e i r subsequent placements.  e x p e r i e n c e o f foster-home  The s t u d y l e d t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f c e r t a i n recommenda t i o n s , t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e b e i n g t h e need f o r complete d i a g n o s t i c assessment o f t h e o h i l d b o t h when.he i s f i r s t a d m i t t e d t o c a r e and a t c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r v a l s t h r o u g h o u t h i s p e r i o d i n c a r e . Prom t h i s d i a g n o s i s a p l a n f o r t h e c a r e o f t h e c h i l d s h o u l d be made which w i l l s a t i s f y h i s needs. Three t y p e s of r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s a r e suggested which would p r o v i d e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e placement and t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d by t h o s e c h i l d r e n f o r whom foster-home placement has proved u n s u i t a b l e .  (v)  AOCTOWKEDGEMEST  I w i s h t o acknowledge i n d e b t e d n e s s t o M i s s Dorothy Coombe, E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f t h e Vancouver  Children's  A i d S o c i e t y , who made t h e m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . The d i r e c t i o n and encouragement r e c e i v e d from M i s s M a r j o r i e J . S m i t h , D i r e c t o r o f t h e S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work, D r . Leonard C. Marsh, R e s e a r c h D i r e c t o r o f t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, and Mr. M i c h a e l Wheeler o f t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, a r e acknowledged  with gratitude.  A STUDY OP SIXTEEN LOST WARDS OP THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY, VANCOUVER  CHAPTER GUARDIANSHIP AND The  ONE CHILD CARE  H i s t o r i c a l Development of C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n and  of C h i l d - C a r e The  Services. ,  English.speaking  world  has been a t t e m p t i n g  for several  hundred y e a r s t o d e v e l o p s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s were unable t o p r o v i d e them w i t h p r o p e r c a r e . L e g i s l a t i o n d i r e c t l y e f f e c t i n g c h i l d r e n has not a l w a y s r e c o g n i z e d  t h e i r s p e c i a l needs,  but as the knowledge of c h i l d r e n ' s needs has i n o r e a s e d l e g i s l a t i o n tended t o r e f l e c t t h i s and  the  the s e r v i c e s t o the c h i l d r e n  have grown a c c o r d i n g l y . I n E n g l a n d , up t o the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , poor and  t h e i r c h i l d r e n were p r o v i d e d  the needs of t h e  f o r by the c h u r c h but  with  the d i s s o l u t i o n of the m o n a s t a r i e s by Henry V l l l t h e s e s e r v i c e s t o the poor were c u r t a i l e d . A t t h e same time the numbers of  the  p o o r were i n c r e a s i n g as a r e s u l t of the break-up of f e u d a l s o c i e t y and  the r a p i d spread o f the e n c l o s u r e  r e s o r t e d t o b e g g i n g and  movement. Many of the p o o r  the laws of a p u n i t i v e n a t u r e were passed  i n an a t t e m p t t o s t o p t h i s b e g g i n g . These r e p r e s s i v e measures a l o n e were not s u f f i c i e n t t o d e a l w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m of and  d u r i n g Queen E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n laws were passed w h i c h  poverty recog-  n i z e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n of the p o o r needed s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d the system of i n d e n t u r e  and  the alms-  house as means of c a r i n g f o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n . N e i t h e r of t h e s e  2 methods o f c a r e , however, was designed individual  to'meet t h e needs o f t h e  child.  D u r i n g t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y t h e E n g l i s h almshouse and t h e i n d e n t u r e system were b e i n g used i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . By t h e m i d d l e  o f t h e c e n t u r y t h e abuses o f t h e s e  began t o be r e c o g n i z e d and one p r a c t i c a l  outcome o f t h i s  systems recog-  n i t i o n was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e New York C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f C h a r l e s L o r i n g B r a c e . T h i s was a  signifi-  c a n t development s i n c e i t marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f o s t e r home system o f c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n , b u t even so t h e S o o i e t y ' s programme showed l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r t h e c h i l d ' s i n d i v i d u a l needs. With t h e establishemfcnt o f t h e B o s t o n C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y under C h a r l e s B i r t w e l l , an attempt was made t o t a k e B r a c e ' s  i d e a a stage  further  by m a t c h i n g t h e c h i l d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r home. C h i l d p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada has l a r g e l y f o l l o w e d t h e e a r l i e r p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d i n England  and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  The  f i r s t l e g i s l a t i o n f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n Canada  was  t h e O n t a r i o A c t o f 1893.  Aot o f 1854 e n t i t l e d  I t was based on t h e e a r l i e r  Scottish  " An A c t t o r e n d e r r e f o r m a t o r y and i n d u s t r i a l  s c h o o l s i n S c o t l a n d more a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f v a g r a n t 1. children." T h i s A c t d e f i n e d t h e v a g r a n t c h i l d . The O n t a r i o A c t of 1893i  n  An A c t f o r t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f C r u e l t y t o and B e t t e r 2.  P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n " d e f i n e d t h e n e g l e c t e d c h i l d . P o r t h e purpose o f t h i s a n e g l e c t e d c h i l d was d e s c r i b e d a s " any c h i l d under t h e 1. 17 and 18 V i c t o r i a , C.74, 1854. 2. S t a t u t e s o f O n t a r i o , C.45, 1893.  3  age  of f o u r t e e n y e a r s . . , , who  i s found b e g g i n g ,  receiving\alms  or t h i e v i n g i n any s t r e e t , t h o r o u g h f a r e , t a v e r n , or p l a c e of p u b l i c c o n s o r t , Or s l e e p i n g a t n i g h t i n the open a i r ; ( o r ) who  i s found  wandering about a t l a t e hours and not h a v i n g any home or s e t t l e d 1. p l a c e of abode, or p r o p e r g u a r d i a n s h i p  This  definition  p r o v i d e d f o r the n e g l e c t e d c h i l d , the abused, and the  delinquent  ohild. The  O n t a r i o A c t p r o v i d e d f o r t h e appointment of a p r o v i n c i a l  Superintendent  of N e g l e c t e d  i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  C h i l d r e n whose f i r s t d u t y was  to assist  of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . These s o c i e t i e s  became the S t a t e ' s agent f o r p r o v i d i n g p r o t e c t i o n t o c h i l d r e n . The a c t made i t p o s s i b l e t o remove from p a r e n t s the r i g h t s  they  have i n r e s p e c t t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n when such a c t i o n appeared n e c e s s a r y i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the c h i l d * The a c t a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n t o be cared f o r i n s u i t a b l e f a m i l y homes or a p p r e n t i c e d t o "proper The  people,"  o t h e r Canadian p r o v i n c e s have i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e i r  c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n the O n t a r i o a c t ' s d e f i n i t i o n of n e g l e c t , the p r a c t i c e of a p p o i n t i n g a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , t h e  establish-  ment of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , and the use o f s u i t a b l e f a m i l y homes t o c a r e f o r n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n . These p r o v i s i o n s l e n d a c e r t a i n u n i f o r m i t y t o Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s b e i n g l a r g e l y i n the m a t t e r  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  s t r u c t u r e * Prom Great B r i t a i n , Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n d e r i v e s  one  c o n c e p t o f the s t a t e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n who 1. S m i t h , l a r j o r i e J . , " An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the H i s t o r i c a l Development o f C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n i n Canada," C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n In Panada, Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Ottawa,  1954.  4  a r e i n need o f p r o t e c t i o n , w h i l e i n i t & p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e a c t u a l s u b s t i t u t e c a r e o f c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes was borrowed c h i e f l y from t h e U n i t e d  States.  Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n has broadened f r o m t h e f i r s t  Ontario  A c t , whose purpose was p r i m a r i l y t o o f f e r p r o t e c t i o n , t o t h e p o i n t where p r e v e n t i o n The  as w e l l a s p r o t e c t i o n e x i s t s a s an o b j e c t i v e .  a t t a i n m e n t o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e has become more n e a r l y  with the increase  possible  i n government a i d f o r t h e e x p a n s i o n o f w e l f a r e  programmes. I n Canada t o d a y i t i s now t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e f o r any  c h i l d , regardless  appropriate  o f economic s t a t u s , t o r e c e i v e t h e s e r v i c e s  t o h i s need.  The H i s t o r i c a l Development o f C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I n B r i t i s h Columbia t h e f i r s t c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n 1. enacted was t h e  n  legislation  C h i l d r e n ' s P r o t e c t i o n A c t " o f 1901. As under  the O n t a r i o A c t o f 1893, a C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y was e s t a b l i s h e d charged w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g p r o t e c t i o n t o c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes. A d e f i n i t i o n o f n e g l e o t s i m i l a r t o t h e O n t a r i o d e f i n i t i o n was i n c l u d e d and l e g a l p r o v i s i o n made f o r t h e t r a n s f e r of g u a r d i a n s h i p from t h e p a r e n t s t o t h e newly c r e a t e d  Society.  The method o f c a r e s t r e s s e d f o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n was t h e f o s t e r family-home i n accordance w i t h t h e Canadian t r a d i t i o n . I t soon became a p p a r e n t , as w e l f a r e  s e r v i c e s expanded, t h a t  government f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t was needed i f programmes were t o keep pace w i t h demands b e i n g made on t h e S o c i e t y . I n 1909 l e g i s l a t i o n 1. S t a t u t e s  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1901, C.9.  5  was  passed whereby m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were o b l i g e d t o assume the  c o s t s of the c a r e of suoh c h i l d r e n as had l e g a l r e s i d e n c e t h e i r a r e a who  in  were committed by the c o u r t s t o t h e c a r e of the  s o c i e t y . I n t u r n the m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d seek reimbursement from the c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s . P r o v i n c i a l government f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t was  not f o r t h c o m i n g  ed C h i l d r e n " was  u n t i l 1924  when a " S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of  Neglect-  appointed.  W i t h i n the n e x t t e n y e a r s w e l f a r e programmes i n B r i t i s h Columbia expanded r a p i d l y . l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e d unmarried p a r e n t s ,  services to  j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s , and mothers i n need of  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , t h r o u g h the A d o p t i o n A c t , Unmarried  Parents  A c t , J u v e n i l e C o u r t s A c t , and Mother's A l l o w a n c e A c t r e s p e c t i v e l y . The  Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . B r i t i s h Columbia's f i r s t " P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s A c t " had  l e d t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1901.  P r i o r t o 1927  of the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y  t h e S o c i e t y ' s a c t i v i t i e s were c o n f i n e d  to  the p r o t e c t i o n a s p e c t of c h i l d w e l f a r e . C h i l d r e n committed t o the S o c i e t y were oared f o r p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h orphanages, s i n c e s u i t a b l e a d o p t i o n homes were not a v a i l a b l e i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers t o g i v e each c h i l d a f a m i l y . I n 1927  Miss Charlotte Whltton,  S e c r e t a r y of the Canadian C o u n c i l of C h i l d W e l f a r e , s u r v e y i n t o w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and  Executive conducted a  l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Among the recommendations made by M i s s W h l t t o n the f o l l o w i n g a r e noted as b e i n g e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the l i g h t of the  Society's  p r e v i o u s p r a c t i c e . She recommended t h a t (a) more c o n s i d e r a t i o n be  6  g i v e n t o the f i n d i n g of f o s t e r homes s u i t e d t o the child;  (b) t h a t p r e v e n t a t i v e  as p r o t e c t i v e  should be g i v e n as  ones; (e) t h a t casework s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be  t o f a m i l i e s and s h o u l d be  services  individual  unmarried mothers; and  (d) t h a t t r a i n e d  well extended workers  employed.  As a r e s u l t of t h i s s u r v e y , s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n were r e o r g a n i z e d and  trained  s t a f f h i r e d . The  numbers of c h i l d r e n i n  orphanages were g r e a t l y reduced as the f o s t e r home programme expanded. S e r v i c e s  of a p r e v e n t i v e n a t u r e were i n s t i t u t e d t o  m a r r i e d mothers and  t o f a m i l i e s . More governmental funds became  available f o r c h i l d welfare services. Services p r o v i d e d i n the  un-  sparsely  t o c h i l d r e n were  p o p u l a t e d r e g i o n s aa the p r o v i n c i a l  w e l f a r e depart®®^ expanded. These were d e p a r t u r e s from t r a d i t ional practice. B r i t i s h Columbia's p r e s e n t P r o t e c t i o n l a s t revised  i n 1948  of C h i l d r e n ' s  when the d e f i n i t i o n of n e g l e c t was  Act  was  enlarged  t o c o v e r a w i d e r v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e n e g l e c t s i t u a t i o n s . I n i t ' s r e v i s e d form the A c t  s t r e s s e s t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be p l a c e d i n  f o s t e r homes. I t a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r the r e t u r n of c h i l d r e n ,  who  have been committed t o the c a r e of a s o c i e t y or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , t h r o u g h the e o u r t s ,  t o t h e i r parents i f i t i s thought t h a t  c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s w i l l be Publio and  s e r v e d by t h e i r r e t u r n *  G u a r d i a n s h i p - A Way  a Means of F u l f i l l i n g  the  of P r o t e c t i n g  the R i g h t s of  Children  t h e i r Heeds.  As has been observed e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , c h i l d r e n have not always possessed l e g a l r i g h t s . P r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g  7 the c h i l d a s s i g n s p r i o r i t y t o the c h i l d ' s needs over the r i g h t s of the p a r e n t s . The  l e g i s l a t i o n r e f l e c t s the b e l i e f t h a t " the  f u t u r e o f t h e n a t i o n r e s t s i n the hands of i t s y o u t h . " T h i s t h i n k ing  has p l a c e d g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s upon t h e p a r e n t s  ohildren,. Sot o n l y do p a r e n t s so does the s t a t e . The  of the  have g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  but  s t a t e today i s o b l i g a t e d t o p r o t e c t c h i l d r e n *  T h i s a s s u m p t i o n by s o o i e t y , t h r o u g h the s t a t e , of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for  the p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n , i s based on c e r t a i n c o n c e p t s  w h i c h have been c l e a r l y f o r m u l a t e d  i n a p u b l i c a t i o n of the 1*  C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau o f the A m e r i c a n F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency. The  first  of t h e s e p o i n t s out t h a t the c h i l d i s t o o imature  l a c k i n g i n experience his  t o make w i s e d e c i s i o n s and  r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The  and  exereise wisely  second f o l l o w s the  first,  s t a t i n g t h a t the e x e c u t i o n of t h e s e r i g h t s must be e n t r u s t e d o t h e r s who The  a r e c a p a b l e and  to  i n t e r e s t e d i n the e x e r c i s i n g of them.  t h i r d i s an e x t e n s i o n of the second and  declares that  the  p a r e n t s must a c c e p t t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The l a s t oonoept s e t s out the d u t y of the s t a t e t o "supplement and s u b s t i t u t e " f o r the c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s whenever needed and the i n t e r e s t s and w e l f a r e of t h e  t o promote  child.  W i t h r e g a r d t o the f o u r t h concept of g u a r d i a n s h i p  and i t s  a p p l i c a t i o n t o the e x i s t i n g P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s A c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the t r a n s f e r of g u a r d i a n s h i p parents  or g u a r d i a n  from a c h i l d ' s  t o a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o o i e t y or the  superintend-  ent of c h i l d w e l f a r e i s a l e g a l one and must be done t h r o u g h the 1.  Weissman, I r v i n g ; et a l i a ; C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n # ^ . l . j , F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency, 1949.  330,  "8  c o u r t . The a o t , under s e c t i o n 8 s u b s e c t i o n 5, s p e c i f i c a l l y s e t s out t h e powers o f a judge. He may a d j o u r n t h e case s i n e d i e and o r d e r t h a t t h e e h i l d be r e t u r n e d t o t h e p a r e n t s o r p e r s o n s a c t u a l custody of the c h i l d a t the time of apprehension  having  subject  to the s u p e r v i s i o n of the superintendent of a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y o r t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f c h i l d w e l f a r e . The judge may d e c i d e t h a t t h e o h i l d s h o u l d be r e t u r n e d t o h i s p a r e n t s s u b j e c t t o " suoh r e g u l a t i o n s a s t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e n d e r j u s t . " The judge t o o c a n t r a n s f e r t h e g u a r d i a n s h i p o f t h e c h i l d t o t h e " c a r e and custody o f a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y or the superintendent." Under s e c t i o n 10, s u b s e c t i o n 1 o f t h e a o t , t h e powers and d u t i e s of a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y are s t a t e d . The s o c i e t y t o t h e c a r e o f w h i c h any c h i l d i s committed under t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s a c t s h a l l be t h e l e g a l g u a r d i a n o f t h e o h i l d u n t i l i t i s r e l i e v e d o f t h a t g u a r d i a n s h i p by o r d e r of t h e judge o r by t h e f a o t t h a t t h e c h i l d has reached t h e age o f twenty-one, o r , i f a f e m a l e , i s m a r r i e d ; and i t s h a l l be t h e d u t y o f t h e s o c i e t y t o use s p e c i a l d i l i g e n c e i n p r o v i d i n g s u i t a b l e f o s t e r homes f o r such c h i l d r e n as a r e committed t o i t s c a r e , and t h e s o c i e t y i s hereby a u t h o r i z e d t o p l a c e such c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes on a w r i t t e n agreement, d u r i n g m i n o r i t y , o r f o r any l e s s p e r i o d i n t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e s o c i e t y . Hot w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f any such c o n t r a c t the s o c i e t y s h a l l have t h e r i g h t t o withdraw t h e c h i l d from any p e r s o n h a v i n g t h e c u s t o d y o f t h e c h i l d i f , i n the opinion of the s o c i e t y p l a c i n g out t h e c h i l d , t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e c h i l d r e q u i r e s i t . i . Through t h e p r o c e s s o f law, t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f c h i l d w e l f a r e or a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y becomes t h e l e g a l g u a r d i a n o f a c h i l d who i s deemed t o be n e g l e c t e d under t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s a c t .  1. S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  12 George V I , 0,47, 1948.  9 Such a c h i l d i s known as a ward. Present-day l e g i s l a t i o n r e f l e c t s the p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l work i n s t r e s s i n g t h e importance o f p r e s e r v i n g  the family unit  wherever p o s s i b l e . The e x p e r i e n c e o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s has shown t h a t when a c h i l d i s committed t o t h e c a r e o f a s o c i a l agency he suffers emotionally  i n t h e l o s s o f h i s sense o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  w i t h h i s own f a m i l y , and t h a t any p l a n t h a t t h e agency may make for  t h e c h i l d c a n o f f e r o n l y a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e c h i l d ' s own home.  Accordingly,  t h e d e c i s i o n t o apprehend a c h i l d i s made o n l y a f t e r  a l l other e f f o r t s t o help the f a m i l y i t s e l f provide have proved u n s u c c e s s f u l ,  adequate c a r e  and always on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t  the purpose i n t r a n s f e r r i n g g u a r d i a n s h i p from p a r e n t s t o t h e agency i s t o enable t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s t o be b e t t e r  served.  I f i t appears a t some subsequent stage t h a t t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s w i l l be served by r e - u n i t i n g him w i t h h i s f a m i l y ,  legislation  p e r m i t s t h i s t o be c a r r i e d out, and t h e r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of the  f a m i l y group i s an o b j e c t i v e towards w h i c h s o c i a l w o r k e r s s t r i v e . The  elements o f a p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e a s o u t l i n e d above have been  defined  i n a statement by a committee on C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e  A s s o c i a t i o n of Children's Aid f o r the Province  of Ontario.  ....a s e r v i c e on b e h a l f o f c h i l d r e n , u n d e r t a k e n by an agency upon r e c e i p t o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s toward those c h i l d r e n a r e n o t b e i n g e f f e c t i v e l y met. The s e r v i c e i s based on law and i s supported by community s t a n d a r d s . I t s purpose i s t h e p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e home, o r , f a i l i n g t h a t , making o t h e r p l a n s f o r t h e i r c a r e and c u s t o d y t h r o u g h c o u r t . n  1. Committee on C h i l d P r o t e o t i o n , 1952-53, A s s o c i a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n ' s A i d f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , 1952-53.  10  A n o t h e r maxim i n c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n , a s p r a c t i s e d by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r , s t a t e t h a t t h e b e s t way t o p r o t e c t the c h i l d i s t o guard t h e r i g h t s o f t h e p a r e n t s . mean t h a t p a r e n t s have a b s o l u t e  T h i s does n o t  r i g h t s over c h i l d r e n a s was g i v e n  by E n g l i s h Common Law and Roman Law* l o r does i t mean t h a t t h e S t a t e has a b s o l u t e Common Law p l a c e d and  r i g h t s over c h i l d r e n . E n g l i s h P o o r Law and upon p a r e n t s t h e o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o t e c t , e d u c a t e ,  support t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I n r e t u r n , the parents r i g h t s t o  custody, control,and  c o r r e c t i o n o f t h e o h i l d were acknowledged.  P a r e n t s were a l s o g i v e n the r i g h t s t o t h e c h i l d s e a r n i n g s and r  s e r v i c e s . To o b t a i n a b a l a n c e between the two extremes i s t h e job o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r . A committee on c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n has s t a t e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f the s o c i a l worker i n t h i s way: We seek t o a c h i e v e i n l e g i s l a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e a b a l a n c e between p r o t e c t i n g the p a r e n t s ' r i g h t s s u f f i c i e n t l y and g u a r d i n g a g a i n s t abuse o f c h i l d r e n . R e a l i z i n g the danger of removing too many p a r e n t a l r i g h t s , we tend t o g i v e p a r e n t s g r e a t e r r a t h e r t h a n l e s s c o n t r o l when we a r e i n doubt. Eaoh s i t u a t i o n where a c t i o n i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d  t o r e l i e v e parents  of t h e i r r i g h t s and d u t i e s must be a s s e s s e d c a r e f u l l y f r o m t h e p o i n t o f view o f whether a c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s a r e g o i n g t o be served b e t t e r t h r o u g h such a c t i o n . The  p r o f e s s i o n o f s o c i a l work has r e c o g n i z e d  from p r a c t i c e  t h a t e v e r y c h i l d i s unique and from t h i s i t has e v o l v e d t h e  1. C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n I n Canada, Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , Ottawa, 1954, p. 31.  11 p r i n c i p l e t h a t any p l a n f o r h i s c a r e must be i n accordance w i t h the c h i l d ' s p a r t i c u l a r needs. T h i s demands a v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c e s by a g e n c i e s who a r e a t t e m p t i n g  t o supplement and s u b s t i t u t e f o r a  c h i l d ' s bare o u t o f h i s own home. The foster-home t y p e o f c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n has a r i s e n from t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e b a s i c u n i t o f s o c i e t y i s t h e f a m i l y . Prom t h i s I t i s reasoned t h a t s i n c e a f o s t e r home most c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e s t h e n a t u r a l f a m i l y group, i t should t h e r e f o r e c o n s t i t u t e t h e c h i e f means o f c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n . Sometimes t h i s p r i n c i p l e has r e c e i v e d undue emphasis t o the p o i n t where s o o i a l w o r k e r s have f o r g o t t e n t h a t e v e r y c h i l d i s unique and t h a t p l a n s f o r c a r e must take a c c o u n t o f i n d i v i d u a l differences. P o s t e r c a r e has been d e f i n e d a s : any f u l l time c a r e o f a c h i l d by p e r s o n s n o t b i o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o him, whether i t i s w i t h a group o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , o r i n a f o s t e r f a m i l y home; whether i t i s o f l o n g o r s h o r t d u r a t i o n ; whether i t i s p a i d f o r i n p a r t o r e n t i r e l y by t h e c h i l d ' s own p a r e n t s , r e l a t i v e s o r g u a r d i a n , o r by p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s ; and whether or n o t i t i s accompanied by l e g a l t e r m i n a t i o n o f the r i g h t s o f n a t u r a l p a r e n t s and t r a n s f e r o f guardianship t o a parent s u b s t i t u t e . " * 1  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n c o v e r s a d o p t i o n and foster-home c a r e a s w e l l a s i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . P o s t e r homes i n t h i s study w i l l be used synonymously w i t h f o s t e r f a m i l y c a r e a s mentioned i n t h e d e f i n i t ion.  The d e f i n i t i o n w i l l a l s o e x c l u d e those c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t -  ions.  1. McGovern, C e c i l i a , S e r v i o e s t o C h i l d r e n i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , Washington, R a n s d e l l , 1948, p . l .  12  Once g u a r d i a n s h i p has been removed from a c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s and t r a n s f e r r e d t o a s o c i a l agency a new  relationship i s established  c a p a b l e of a f f e c t i n g the c h i l d ' s whole l i f e * he e n t e r s i n t o a new  On becoming a ward  l e g a l s t a t u s . The d u t i e s and r i g h t s w h i c h a r e  u s u a l l y i n the hands of h i s n a t u r a l p a r e n t s a r e now  entrusted to  p e o p l e who  guardian  may  be t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d t o h i n u The new  the power and d u t i e s of p a r e n t s i n r e s p e c t t o m a r r i a g e ,  has  medical  c a r e , a d o p t i o n , and employment, as w e l l as t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for  the c a r e , c u s t o d y , and c o n t r o l of the c h i l d . There a r e  d i f f e r e n c e s between the g u a r d i a n o f a c h i l d and h i s p a r e n t s . G u a r d i a n s h i p , as e s t a b l i s h e d by l a w , i s o n l y f o r the p e r i o d o f a c h i l d ' s m i n o r i t y . I n Canada the u s u a l age a t w h i c h a c h i l d  attains  h i s m a j o r i t y i s 21 y e a r s . G u a r d i a n s h i p assumes t h a t t h e r e w i l l s u p e r v i s i o n from a p r o v i n c i a l l y a p p o i n t e d  be  o f f i c i a l called a  " s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . " A g u a r d i a n does not have the r i g h t t o a ward's e a r n i n g s o r s e r v i c e s . The p r o c e s s of g u a r d i a n s h i p does not t a k e away the r i g h t o f a ward t o i n h e r i t from h i s n a t u r a l p a r e n t s  nor  does he r e c e i v e the r i g h t t o i n h e r i t from h i s g u a r d i a n . A t i t s b e s t , g u a r d i a n s h i p seeks t o p r o v i d e an adequate s u b s t i t u t e f o r p a r e n t a l c a r e , but i t r e m a i n s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , o n l y a s u b s t i t u t e . Por a p r o p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f g u a r d i a n s h i p , w h i c h has the added d i f f i c u l t y t o contend w i t h o f meeting the needs of c h i l d r e n d e p r i v e d of a normal home l i f e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r the b a s i c needs of a l l c h i l d r e n , whether l i v i n g i n t h e i r own homes, i n f o s t e r homes, o r i n i n s t i t u t i o n s .  13 I n a r e v i e w o f t h e i r needs r e g a r d e d a s u n i v e r s a l t o c h i l d r e n , the Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l has noted t h e f o l l o w i n g : Regard f o r t h e c h i l d ' s i n d i v i d u a l w o r t h . A home, f r e e from want, where he i s l o v e d and oared f o r by p a r e n t s . R e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s and a community i n w h i c h ; he i s a c c e p t e d . R e l i g i o u s and e t h i c a l e d u c a t i o n and  expression.  S t i m u l a t i n g work and p l a y a c c o r d i n g and s t r e n g t h .  to interest  Health  protection.  Education appropriate  t o h i s capacity.  Community s e r v i c e s t o supplement o r s u b s t i t u t e ^ f o r "each o f t h e means o f meeting any o f t h e s e needs. These needs go beyond t h e b a s i c p h y s i c a l needs o f f o o d , s h e l t e r and  c l o t h i n g . They r e c o g n i z e  t h a t t h e c h i l d i s an unique i n d i v i d -  u a l and t h a t he cannot be t r e a t e d a s a t y p e o r a d e q u a t e l y c a r e d for  i n t h e mass. They r e c o g n i z e  t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n must be l o v e d a t  home and a c c e p t e d i n t h e community and t h a t work, e d u c a t i o n and p l a y must be i n aocord w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y . The community's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y n o t o n l y t o be aware o f t h e s e needs b u t a l s o t o make adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r s u b s t i t u t e means o f meeting them, i s e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d . A s o c i a l agency, supported by t h e community, must, t h r o u g h t h e medium o f g u a r d i a n s h i p ,  meet t h e s e needs when  the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y f a i l s t o do s o . Some 20 y e a r s ago s o c i a l w o r k e r s f e l t t h a t f o s t e r homes s e r v e d the needs o f c h i l d r e n b e s t and t h e B r i t i s h Columbia a c t was i n *  1. Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , op* c i t . , p.7*  accordance  w i t h t h i s b e l i e f . To-day t h i s f e e l i n g s t i l l  However t h e r e i s a growing awareness, based on an  exists.  accumulation  of e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t c h i l d r e n need a v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c e s . low s o c i a l w o r k e r s b e l i e v e t h a t not a l l c h i l d r e n can use a f o s t e r home nor does t h e f o s t e r home s e r v e the needs of the same c h i l d a t a l l t i m e s . S o c i a l w o r k e r s have d i s c o v e r e d t o o t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e not t h e f i n a l answer. These two systems o f c a r e a r e complementary and  supplementary.  As a r e s u l t , s o c i a l a g e n c i e s now  provide quasi-  i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s such as r e c e i v i n g homes, g r o u p - l i v i n g homes, and s u b s i d i z e d b o a r d i n g homes* C h i l d r e n Needing an I n s t i t u t i o n a l P l a c e m e n t. H.T.  W i l s o n , i n a s t u d y of one p a r t i c u l a r r e c e i v i n g home, has  d e s c r i b e d t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s where an i n s t i t u t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n a f o s t e r home, i s l i k e l y t o be b e t t e r a b l e t o meet the needs o f t h e 1. c h i l d . F a m i l y c o n d i t i o n s , age, and problems o f t h e c h i l d a r e a l l seen a3 d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s i n d e c i d i n g t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e form of c a r e . The p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p i n g s observed  f o r those  children  r e q u i r i n g some form of i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e a r e summarized below. C h i l d r e n who s i s t e r s and who  a r e s t r o n g l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r b r o t h e r s and  a r e g o i n g t o be under t h e c a r e o f a s o c i a l agency  f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e , a r e b e s t s e r v e d i n an  institution.  Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e c h i l d r e n have t h e s e c u r i t y o f r e m a i n i n g w i t h t h e i r s i b l i n g s and, a r e spared t h e c o n f u s i o n of a c c e p t i n g "new  parents."  C h i l d r e n who  have been so b a d l y h u r t because of e x p e r i e n c e s  1. H.T. W i l s o n , Embury House, A R e c e i v i n g Home F o r C h i l d r e n , M.S.W. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950.  15 i n t h e i r own home; o r who have had many u n s u c c e s s f u l f o s t e r home placements;  o r whose p a r e n t s cannot l e t them become an i n t e g r a l  p a r t o f a f o s t e r f a m i l y , o f t e n f i n d an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  placement  s a t i s f a c t o r y * The n e u t r a l i t y o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g t o the parents w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t they can a l l o w t h e i r  children  t o l i v e away from them. As t h i s t h r e a t i s removed, t h e p a r e n t s become more c o - o p e r a t i v e w i t h t h e agency i n w o r k i n g out p l a n s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n t o o , f i n d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n more s a t i s f y i n g as t h e y a r e n o t expected t o form c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s * C l o s e l y a l l i e d t o t h i s group a r e t h e c h i l d r e n who have been " s t a r v e d " f o r a f f e c t i o n . T h e i r demands i n t h i s a r e a a r e t o o g r e a t f o r a f o s t e r f a m i l y t o p r o v i d e . The g r o u p - l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n appears t o f u l f i l l t h e i r needs b e s t . The c h i l d of p a r e n t s who a r e d i v o r c e d o r s e p a r a t e d i s caught between t h e l o y a l t i e s he has f o r b o t h p a r e n t s and a s suoh may become a pawn o f t h e p a r e n t s . I n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e c h i l d i s confused and i n c o n f l i c t about h i s l o y a l t i e s and I s n o t r e a d y t o r e l a t e t o f o s t e r p a r e n t s . An i n s t i t u t i o n i s much more a c c e p t a b l e t o him. An agency, w h i c h i s faoed w i t h t h e s i n g l e p a r e n t who i s t e m p o r a r i l y unable t o make a home f o r a c h i l d , oan b e s t s e r v e t h e p a r e n t and c h i l d t h r o u g h p l a c i n g t h e c h i l d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n * I n t e r i m c a r e i s p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h an i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h o u t b r e a k i n g up t h e f a m i l y . I n s t i t u t i o n s a r e b e s t f i t t e d t o serve t h e needs o f s o c i a l l y and m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . Programmes c a n be f i t t e d t o t h e i r  16  -" *" i  needs* The c o n s i s t e n t , r e g u l a t e d r o u t i n e o f l i v i n g p r o v i d e d i n sueh a s e t t i n g i s h e l p f u l f o r t h i s k i n d o f c h i l d and troublesome b e h a v i o u r can be d e a l t w i t h b e t t e r i n t h i s s e t t i n g . F i n a l l y , a l l m a l a d j u s t e d o h i l d r e n , on coming i n t o t h e c a r e of a s o c i a l agency, r e q u i r e a p e r i o d d u r i n g whieh t h e y c a n be s t u d i e d and abserved so t h a t t h e f u t u r e p l a n n i n g  o f t h e agency  can be d i r e c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s needs. I n s t i t u t i o n s would seem t o f u l f i l l t h i s f u n c t i o n b e s t . S e t t i n g o f Study - The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver. The Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i s a l e g a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n whose l e g a l a u t h o r i t y i s determined by s e c t i o n 10s u b s e c t i o n 1, o f t h e P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s A c t f o r t h e P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, as o u t l i n e d b e f o r e . The S o c i e t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g out t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n ' s Act w i t h i n c e r t a i n geographical Vancouver. The o p e r a t i o n s of P r o t e s t a n t  boundaries, i n c l u d i n g the C i t y of  of the Society are r e s t r i c t e d t o c h i l d r e n  faith.  The Agency o f f e r s m u l t i p l e s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n . The s e r v i c e s stress prevention  o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t l e a d t o t h e breakdown o f  f a m i l i e s and a r e n o t r e s t r i c t e d p u r e l y t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c o m p l a i n t s o f n e g l e c t . F o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n o f f a m i l i e s unable t o p r o v i d e minimum oommunity s t a n d a r d s Of c a r e t o c h i l d r e n , t h e Agency assumes g u a r d i a n s h i p ,  i f a judge so d i r e c t s . Such c h i l d r e n a s a r e  committed t o t h e c a r e o f t h e Agency by a c o u r t , a r e cared  for chiefly  i n f o s t e r homes. Foster-home c a r e i s a l s o o f f e r e d t o c h i l d r e n who  17  a r e not committed  by a c o u r t , b u t  who,c  f o r one r e a s o n or a n o t h e r ,  r e q u i r e c a r e o u t s i d e of t h e i r own horne i"c-r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . S e r v i c e s a r e p r o v i d e d t o t h e unmarried mother. The Agency i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i n g a d o p t i o n s w i t h i n i t s a r e a of l e g a l responsibility. The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s p a r t o f a l a r g e r s u r v e y o f a l l wards of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y who The s u r v e y was  a r e not l i v i n g i n f o s t e r - h o m e s .  o r i g i n a l l y prompted by t h e a r r e s t of a ward o f the  S o c i e t y on a charge of drug a d d i c t i o n . T h i s ward, a l t h o u g h under the g u a r d i a n s h i p of t h e S o c i e t y , was found t o be l i v i n g on her  own  i n a rooming house a t the time o f h e r a r r e s t * Subsequent e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e S o c i e t y ' s r e c o r d s r e v e a l e d t h a t out o f a t o t a l of 1220 wards i n the c a r e of t h e S o c i e t y , 211 c h i l d r e n were l i v i n g o u t s i d e f o s t e r homes. Among these 211 c h i l d r e n a number were found i n c o r r e c t i o n a l or mental i n s t i t u t i o n s , some were l i v i n g i n R e c e i v i n g Homes or i n s u b s i d i z e d b o a r d i n g homes, w h i l e o t h e r s were i n commercial  boarding  homes. A f u r t h e r group had become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g and a number of c h i l d r e n were noted as b e i n g " l o s t " t o the S o c i e t y . These p a r t i c u l a r groups of c h i l d r e n form t h e s u b j e c t o f s e v e r a l s e p a r a t e s t u d i e s a c c o r d i n g t o the n a t u r e of t h e placement s u r v e y , October 31,  a t the date of t h e  original  1954 b e i n g t a k e n as the b a s e - l i n e f o r t h e s u r v e y .  f o c u s and Method of t h i s  Study.  The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s ooncerned  w i t h the 16 c h i l d r e n c l a s s i f i e d  as " l o s t " a t the time of t h e s u r v e y . O r i g i n a l l y 18 c h i l d r e n were b e l i e v e d t o come w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , but i t was  subsequently  18  d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the case of one c h i l d c o u l d be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y c o n s i d e r e d under a d i f f e r e n t o a t e g o r y . I n the case o f the c h i l d the Agency's f i l e was  other  not a v a i l a b l e a t t h e time o f s t u d y .  The term " l o s t " r e f e r s t o those c h i l d r e n whose whereabouts were not known a t the time o f the s u r v e y . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s group i  a r e some c h i l d r e n who of time and who  had been m i s s i n g f o r o n l y a b r i e f p e r i o d  subsequently r e - e s t a b l i s h e d contact w i t h the S o c i e t y .  A few o t h e r s have s i n c e been d i s c h a r g e d from c a r e by r e a s o n marriage  of  or because t h e y have a t t a i n e d t h e i r m a j o r i t y . R e g a r d l e s s  o f the a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a t u s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h i s  class-  i f i c a t i o n o f " l o s t " , the f a c t t h a t the whereabouts of t h e s e c h i l d r e n were unknown t o t h e S o c i e t y f o r v a r y i n g p e r i o d s o f time r a i s e s Important  q u e s t i o n s as t o the amount o f e f f e c t i v e  super-  v i s i o n i t was a b l e t o g i v e t h e s e c h i l d r e n i n the d i s c h a r g e of i t s l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of g u a r d i a n s h i p . The p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o i d e n t i f y f o r each o f the  16  c h i l d r e n the p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d e s c r i p t i o n  "lost",  b o t h i n terms o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Agency and  of t h e i r  c a p a c i t y f o r f u n c t i o n i n g on t h e i r own.  Prom the e x a m i n a t i o n  o f the  group as a whole, i t i s hoped t o be a b l e t o show the common and i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s i n the s i t u a t i o n s of these wards t h a t have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r becoming l o s t . M a t e r i a l f o r the study was  o b t a i n e d from a r e a d i n g o f r e l e v a n t  p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e from the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y ' s r e c o r d s of the 16 c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . P r e l i m i n a r y r e a d i n g o f the  19 f i l e s i n d i c a t e d t h e importance o f c e r t a i n d a t a , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the f a m i l y background o f t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e problems m a n i f e s t e d by t h e c h i l d r e n a t t h e time o f c o m m i t t a l , t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s while  i n c a r e , and t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e Agency. T h i s  information,  w h i c h was o f b o t h a q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e  n a t u r e , was t a b u l a t e d  under a number o f h e a d i n g s f o r each o f t h e  16 c h i l d r e n . I n Chapter Two summary methods o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n have been developed f o r t h e purpose o f a n a l y z i n g and comparing this  material. I n view o f t h e wide v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e adequacy o f t h e  recording  and t h e l a c k o f u n i f o r m d e f i n i t i o n s o f c r i t e r i a , t h e  a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a i n C h a p t e r Two has been supplemented i n C h a p t e r Three by a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c a s e - h i s t o r i e s o f f o u r c h i l d r e n who a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  i n t h e i r s e v e r a l ways o f t h e  whole group. By means o f t h e e a s e - i l l u s t r a t i o n method i t i s hoped to provide a b e t t e r understanding of the e t i o l o g y of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h e s e c h i l d r e n w h i l e  i n c a r e , and t o p o i n t up t h e d i f f e r e n t  kinds of s e r v i c e s which are required e f f e c t i v e l y met.  i f t h e i r needs a r e t o be more  CHAPTER TWO " SIXTEEN WARDS WHO ARB** LOST " The F a m i l y Background o f These C h i l d r e n . I n examining t h e f a m i l y background  o f t h e 16 c h i l d r e n a  c e r t a i n p a t t e r n emerged. Most o f t h e c h i l d r e n came from homes i n w h i c h t h e r e was e i t h e r no l e g a l m a r r i a g e a t a l l o r , a t b e s t , a n u n s t a b l e m a r i t a l u n i o n w i t h f r e q u e n t changes o f p a r t n e r s . I n Table I t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f t h e p a r e n t h a v i n g c u s t o d y o f the c h i l d a t t h e time o f t h e c h i l d ' s c o m m i t t a l t o c a r e i s l i s t e d . Table I .  MARITAL STATUS OP PARENTS AT DATE OP CHILD'S COMMITTAL TO CARE  M a r i t a l Status of P a r e n t  Number of F a m i l i e s  P a r e n t Separated and L i v i n g i n a Common Law U n i o n  4  Parent  2  Separated or D e s e r t e d  Parent Divorced  2  N a t u r a l Mother - S t e p - P a t h e r  Union  2  N a t u r a l F a t h e r - Step-Mother  Union  2  Married  1  Widow  1  Widower  1  Unmarried  1  Total  16  21 I n one i n s t a n c e o n l y were t h e c h i l d r e n l i v i n g w i t h b o t h of t h e i r n a t u r a l p a r e n t s . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e p a r e n t s had des-  erted  t h e i r son w h i l e he was i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . Seven  of t h e c h i l d r e n were l i v i n g i n homes where t h e p a r e n t a l f a m i l y u n i t was n o t complete. E i g h t o f t h e c h i l d r e n were l i v i n g w i t h one Of t h e i r n a t u r a l p a r e n t s and a l e g a l o r common l a w s t e p - p a r e n t . A c c o r d i n g l y , a l l b u t one c h i l d was i n a home from w h i c h one, o f h i s n a t u r a l p a r e n t s was a b s e n t . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e change i n p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s many o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n had e x p e r i e n c e d complete  changes i n t h e i r environment  p r i o r t o b e i n g committed a s wards o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y * E i g h t o f t h e c h i l d r e n had been p l a c e d p r i v a t e l y by t h e i r p a r e n t s i n homes o f r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s i n r e l i g i o u s c h i l d - c a r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s o r i n b o a r d i n g houses. One c h i l d was known t o have had a s many a s 19 placements  i n two y e a r s .  Problems o f t h e P a r e n t s . A l l o f t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n showed e v i d e n c e o f some form o f i n s t a b i l i t y a t t h e time t h e i r c h i l d r e n were apprehended and t a k e n i n t o c a r e o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . A l o o h o l i s m , p r o m i s c u i t y , p o o r work r e c o r d s , and poor i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were mentioned most f r e q u e n t l y . P o r convenience  of a n a l y s i s  t h o s e problems r e c o r d e d w h i c h c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be h e l d t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h the parents' a b i l i t y t o provide a s t a b l e f a m i l y l i f e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n have been c l a s s i f i e d under s e v e r a l broad  headings,  and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n among t h e f a m i l i e s i s shown I n Table I I . 1. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on one developed by Reed, George, A. The Placement o f A d o l e s c e n t Boys, M.S.W, T h e s i s , 1950, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  22 Table I I  PROBLEMS MANIFESTED BY PARENTS AT TIME OF CHILD'S COMMITTAL TO CARE  Category of Problems (a)  Number o f F a m i l i e s i n Which Problems Appear  Emotional  16  Difficulties i n Relationship  14  Behaviour  10  Anti-Social  4  Medioal-Physioal  2  Disturbed  2  (a) See Appendix A f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f i t e m s under t h e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s . A l l o f t h e p a r e n t s p r e s e n t e d a t l e a s t one problem w h i l e many e x h i b i t e d more t h a n one and i n some i n s t a n c e s a s many a s f i v e problems. Problems o f an e m o t i o n a l n a t u r e were p r e s e n t i n a l l o f t h e f a m i l i e s . F o u r t e e n p a r e n t s had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i l e t e n m a n i f e s t e d problems o f b e h a v i o u r . Two p a r e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be m e n t a l l y d i s t u r b e d and f o u r m a n i f e s t e d problems t h a t were a n t i - s o c i a l t o t h e degree where confinement  I n a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n was n e c e s s a r y .  Two s u f f e r e d from some form o f p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n had been s u b j e c t e d t o a . v a r i e t y o f damaging e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e i r own homes, e.g. extreme  23 parental quarreling; p a r e n t a l quarrels w i t h neighbors; periods of s e p a r a t i o n from one o r b o t h o f t h e i r p a r e n t s ; promisouous and a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t s ; unadequate h o u s i n g and u n s t a b l e f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . I n some cases p a r e n t s o f some o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n were e i t h e r mentally or p h y s i c a l l y  ill.  W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one o h i l d , w h o came i n t o c a r e a t t h e age o f one y e a r , a l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d had known v a r y i n g degrees o f i n s t a b i l i t y and c o n f u s i o n i n t h e i r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r p e r i o d s r a n g i n g from s i x t o 16 y e a r s . T a b l e I I I showes t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n a t t h e date o f t h e i r coming i n t o c a r e . Table I I I .  AGE AND SEX OP THE CHILDREN AT THE DATE OP COMMITTAL  Age a t Date o f Committal  Number of C h i l d r e n Male Female  1-4  years  1  5-8  years  3 3 3  1  10  6  9-12  years  13 - 16 y e a r s  Total  i  5  Three c h i l d r e n came i n t o c a r e between t h e ages o f s i x and e i g h t y e a r s and t w e l v e were a d m i t t e d between t h e ages o f n i n e and 16 y e a r s . The g i r l s were a d m i t t e d t o c a r e a t a l a t e r age t h a n were  24  the boys. P o r a l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n exoept one t h e most! c r u c i a l y e a r s o f t h e i r development were spent i n t h e c a r e o f t h e i r p a r e n t s . ;  h  Reasons _ _ _ _ _ _F o _ r_ Care. __ -  (  The absence o f one o f t h e p a r e n t s from t h e home^' a^id t h e i n * a b i l i t y of the remaining n a t u r a l parent t o c o n t r o l or t o p l a n f o r t h e c h i l d * t o g e t h e r w i t h v a r i o u s elements  of neglec^, figured i  most p r o m i n e n t l y among t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t o c a r e . Seven c h i l d r e n were committed  admission  a s a r e s u l t jof conimunity  c o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e c a r e t h e c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d i n t h e i r homes. One c h i l d was committed  because h i s mother, who was n o t m a r r i e d ,  was unable t o p r o v i d e f o r h e r c h i l d . Another c h i l d , who was 15 y e a r s o l d , was committed  beoause h i s p a r e n t s had d e s e r t e d him.  Three p a r e n t s r e q u e s t e d w a r d s h i p f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n beoause t h e y were unable t o c o n t r o l t h e d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r w h i c h t h e i r c h i l d r e n had developed.. The r e m a i n i n g f o u r c h i l d r e n were  committed  because t h e p a r e n t s o r s t e p - p a r e n t s e i t h e r r e f u s e d o r were unable t o make adequate p l a n s f o r t h e i r c a r e . A l t h o u g h i l l n e s s , inadequate h o u s i n g and i n s u f f i c i e n t income were among t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g c i r o u m s t a n c e s w h i c h l e d t o t h e s e c h i l d r e n b e i n g committed  a s wards, t h e major r e a s o n appeared t o  stem from t h e inadequacy  o f t h e p a r e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . None o f t h e s e  p a r e n t s were a b l e t o p r o v i d e more t h a n a m a r g i n a l economic e x i s t e n c e f o r t h e m s e l v e s . They had extreme d i f f i c u l t y i n a t t e m p t i n g t o handle t h e i r own problems w h i c h were, i n t u r n , i n d i c a t i v e  o f t h e i r own  d e p r i v e d c h i l d h o o d . E v e n t u a l l y t h e added r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f p a r e n t -  25 hood proved more t h a n t h e y o o u i d endure. problems M a n i f e s t e d by The C h i l d r e n . As t h e s e c h i l d r e n e n t e r e d t h e i r new  l i f e as wards of the  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y t h e y d i d so w i t h many handicapps  as a  r e s u l t o f t h e k i n d o f c a r e w h i c h was g i v e n them d u r i n g t h e i r  form-  a t i v e y e a r s . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f one c h i l d , a l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n during t h e i r f i r s t by many problems.  s i x y e a r s of l i f e had l i v e d w i t h p a r e n t s b e s e t These p a r e n t s , a t b e s t , p r o v i d e d m a r g i n a l  p h y s i c a l c a r e and were unable t o meet s a t i s f a c t o r i l y the a f f e c t i o n a l needs o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , m a i n l y because o f t h e i r own  diffi-  c u l t i e s i n assuming p a r e n t and a d u l t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The  inability  of  t h e p a r e n t s t o p r o v i d e c o n s i s t e n t t r e a t m e n t and a secure  relat-  i o n s h i p f t t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c o n f l i c t s w i t h a u t h o r i t y and t o t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i n g t o s i b l i n g s , p e e r s , and a d u l t s , a l l o f w h i c h tended t o f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n b e h a v i o u r c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , S e x u a l d e l i n q u e n c y , e n u r e s i s , temper  tantrums,  v a n d a l i s m , and r u n n i n g away from home.. The Agency was t h e r e f o r e f a c e d w i t h t h e problem  o f p l a n n i n g c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n who  had  passed  t h r o u g h t h e most c r u c i a l f o r m a t i v e y e a r s of t h e i r development, t h u s making the c o r r e c t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s and p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r d i f f i c u l t . The c h i l d r e n were d i s t r u s t f u l of a d u l t s , and of f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s . Many of t h e c h i l d r e n openly expressed d i s t r u s t o f the Agency. Some o f t h e c h i l d r e n were r e s i s t a n t t o eoming i n t o c a r e t o t h e p o i n t of r u n n i n g away t o t h e homes o f t h e i r p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s . E x a m i n a t i o n of t h e case r e c o r d s r e v e a l e d a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f problems among the c h i l d r e n a t t h e time o f t h e i r a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e .  26 Only one c h i l d had no r e c o r d e d problems. I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a broad p i c t u r e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n among t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e s e s p e c i f i c problems have been grouped  under c e r t a i n major a r e a s o r t y p e s o f  problems based on a system o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n developed i n a 1.. p r e v i o u s s t u d y o f a d o l e s c e n t wards.  I t i s Important t o note t h a t  the i t e m s i n c l u d e d under t h e s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s (see Appendix B.) m e r e l y r e p r e s e n t a f a c t , a s i t u a t i o n , o r a symptom, i n d i c a t i v e o f d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r t h e c h i l d i n h i s p e r s o n a l and s o o i a l a d j u s t m e n t . They do n o t r e p r e s e n t a diagnosed cause o f t h e c h i l d ' s poor a d j u s t m e n t . I n T a b l e IV t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s . problems a t t h e i r age a t a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e i s shown. T a b l e IV*  FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF TYPES OF PROBLEMS AT TIME OF CHILDREN'S ADMISSION TO CARE.  Number o f C h i l d r e n i n Which Problems Appear  Type o f Problems (a) Emotional  13  Behaviour  9  Difficulties i n Relationship  9  Delinquency  7  Tendencies  Incontinence  5  Sexual Delinquency  4  Low I n t e l l i g e n c e  7  Physical-Medical  8  No Problems  1  Recorded  (a) See Appendix B. f o r l i s t o f i t e m s under different'categories. Reed, o p . c i t . , Appendix  B.  27 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t o f t h e 15 c h i l d r e n f o r whom problems were r e c o r d e d , o n l y one c h i l d had o n l y one problem a r e a . The ward i n t h i s case was o f low i n t e l l i g e n c e and been a d m i t t e d t o c a r e a t t h e age o f 13 y e a r s from a mental h o s p i t a l because o f "moral and p h y s i c a l n e g l e c t . " Fourteen of the c h i l d r e n manifested a t l e a s t two problems w i t h many o f t h e c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t i n g more. E m o t i o n a l problems were apparent i n 13 o f t h e c h i l d r e n , and n i n e  children  showed problems o f b e h a v i o u r . D i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p were noted problems f o r n i n e o f t h e c h i l d r e n and an a d d i t i o n a l seven c h i l d r e n had begun t o e s t a b l i s h p a t t e r n s o f d e l i n q u e n c y . Pour c h i l d r e n m a n i f e s t e d s e x u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . I n c o n t i n e n c e was a p r e s e n t i n g problem  f o r f i v e o f t h e c h i l d r e n . Low i n t e l l i g e n c e , a s d i a g -  nosed b y C h i l d Guidance o r s c h o o l t e s t s , was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a problem  o f seven o f t h e c h i l d r e n . E i g h t c h i l d r e n had a p h y s i c a l -  m e d i c a l problem w h i l e one c h i l d had no r e c o r d e d  problems.  The C h i l d r e n As Wards. The Agency attempted  t o meet t h e needs o f a l l o f t h e s e o h i l d -  r e n t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t h e f o s t e r home. Only one o f t h e 16 c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d was p l a c e d i n a r e c e i v i n g home upon h i s a d m i s s i o n . T h i s was done because no f o s t e r home was a v a i l a b l e . P r o b a b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t foster-home  placement t o a c h i l d  i s h i s f i r s t one. Prom h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h i s home t h e c h i l d d e v e l o p s h i s a t t i t u d e s towards c a r e . F u r t h e r m o r e ,  he may compare  h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h i s home w i t h t h e k i n d o f l i f e he had i n h i s own home. Any attempt t o e v a l u a t e t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e s e placements  first  was r e n d e r e d d i f f i c u l t by t h e l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n  28 the r e c o r d s r e g a r d i n g the r e a s o n s f o r the s e l e c t i o n of the homes i n q u e s t i o n . I t was  s i g n i f i c a n t however, t h a t n i n e o f t h e s e  first  placements were f o r s h o r t e r p e r i o d s t h a n s i x months and t h a t e i g h t o f t h e s e placements were t e r m i n a t e d because t h e c h i l d r a n away, or because the f o s t e r p a r e n t s asked f o r r e m o v a l on account c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r ; One replacement  was  o f the  e f f e c t e d beoause a f r i e n d  o f the f o s t e r p a r e n t s wanted the c h i l d t o be a companion t o t h e i r own f o s t e r c h i l d . Seven placements were f o r p e r i o d s l o n g e r t h a n seven months* One was f o r n i n e y e a r s b u t was mother's f a i l i n g h e a l t h . The  t e r m i n a t e d because of the f o s t e r  o t h e r s i x p l a c e m e n t s were d i s c o n t i n u e d  beoause of the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r  or by the c h i l d ' s r u n n i n g away*  G e n e r a l l y the foster-home type of c a r e was  not s a t i s f y i n g t o  t h e s e c h i l d r e n . Por most o f the c h i l d r e n , l i f e i n c a r e c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s o f placements i n d i f f e r e n t f o s t e r homes, the number of placements r a n g i n g from one t o 16. Thus the p a t t e r n o f p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s , as e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o c a r e , was  changing  continued f o r  most of the c h i l d r e n d u r i n g c a r e . I n n o t i n g the r e a s o n s l e a d i n g t o replacement  of the c h i l d ,  s e v e r a l r e c u r r i n g f a c t o r s were a p p a r e n t . Many p l a c e m e n t s were made as an e x p e d i e n t beoause o f some emergency s i t u a t i o n . They were, f o r a temporary p e r i o d of t i m e , designed t o p r o v i d e immediate c a r e u n t i l o t h e r p l a n s f o r the c h i l d c o u l d be a r r a n g e d . I n such t h e r e was ing  cases  no evidence t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n had been g i v e n t o match-  the c h i l d ' s needs w i t h the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  I n most cases s u i t a b l e f o s t e r homes were not a v a i l a b l e and  the  29  Agency was f o r c e d t o p l a c e the c h i l d i n any home w h i c h would  take  him. The r e a s o n s most f r e q u e n t l y noted f o r removing t h e c h i l d  from  one f o s t e r home t o a n o t h e r were t h e same as t h o s e w h i c h l e d t o t h e f a i l u r e o f the f i r s t foster-home placement; namely, the f o s t e r p a r e n t ' s r e q u e s t f o r r e m o v a l because of t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o unders t a n d , c o n t r o l , or t o a c c e p t the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r ; or because t h e c h i l d had r u n away and r e f u s e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e f o s t e r home; o r t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s r e f u s e d t o r e c e i v e him  back.  There were o t h e r r e a s o n s g i v e n t o o . Sometimes t h e c h i l d  left  h i s f o s t e r home t o r e t u r n t o h i s f a m i l y . A n o t h e r r e a s o n g i v e n was t h e inadequate b o a r d i n g r a t e s . I n t e r f e r e n c e on the p a r t of the • c h i l d ' s f a m i l y o c c a s i o n a l l y l e d t o a change i n f o s t e r homes f o r the c h i l d . Some r e p l a c e m e n t s were e f f e c t e d so t h a t s i b l i n g s c o u l d be r e u n i t e d . I n o t h e r s no s p e c i f i c r e a s o n was  noted.  G e n e r a l l y the l a s t foster-home placement t h e s e o h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d w h i l e under the c a r e o f the Agency d i d not a d e q u a t e l y meet t h e i r needs, Two c h i l d r e n had o n l y one placement d u r i n g t h e i r p e r i o d i n c a r e . One  of t h e s e c h i l d r e n was  i n a f o s t e r home f o r t e n  days when he r a n away, he has not y e t been f o u n d . The o t h e r c h i l d remained  i n h i s f o s t e r home f o r t h r e e months when he r e t u r n e d t o  h i s n a t u r a l p a r e n t s . I t was  e v i d e n t , f o r the most p a r t , t h a t the  c h i l d r e n e n t e r e d i n t o t h e i r f i n a l foster-home plaoement h a v i n g had u n s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s f o s t e r homes. Moreo v e r , the c h i l d r e n were w e l l i n t o a d o l e s c e n c e and were not eager t o a c c e p t the s u p e r v i s i o n of a d u l t s i n a f a m i l y - s e t t i n g . T h i s  30  s i t u a t i o n was f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Agency had no c h o i c e i n a v a i l a b l e f o s t e r homes and p l a c e m e n t s were made w i t h those f o s t e r p a r e n t s who were w i l l i n g t o c a r e f o r problem a d o l e s cents* I n determining the s u i t a b i l i t y of the l a s t placement, has been t a k e n o f t h e b e h a v i o u r m a n i f e s t e d by t h e c h i l d  account  during  t h i s l a s t placement. None o f t h e s e p l a c e m e n t s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d s u c c e s s f u l from t h e p o i n t o f view o f m e e t i n g t h e c h i l d ' s needs o r of r e d u c i n g t h e problems o f t h e c h i l d r e n . E v e n t u a l l y each p l a c e ment f a i l e d . With t h e break-up o f t h e l a s t foster-home placement t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e Agency d e t e r i o r a t e d . S i x of the c h i l d r e n returned t o t h e i r n a t u r a l parents o r r e l a t i v e s w i t h t h e Agency's knowledge, b u t w i t h o u t l e g a l s a n c t i o n , s i n c e the Agency c o u l d o f f e r D O a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s . W i t h t h e c h i l d r e n ' s r e t u r n t o t h e i r p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s t h e Agency's c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n became spasmodic o r ceased a l t o g e t h e r . Two o t h e r c h i l d r e n were committed t o a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n and f i v e were p l a c e d i n a r e c e i v i n g home. A n o t h e r two were p l a c e d i n a b o a r d i n g home. The r e m a i n i n g c h i l d had r u n away from h i s f o s t e r home and c o u l d not be l o c a t e d . A t some p o i n t d u r i n g t h e i r c a r e under t h e g u a r d i a n s h i p o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o o i e t y 14 o f these c h i l d r e n had placements i n a r e c e i v i n g home. One o f t h e s e 14 c h i l d r e n was p l a c e d i m m e d i a t e l y i n a r e c e i v i n g home when he was apprehended. T h i s placement proved s u c c e s s f u l b u t when he was l a t e r p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home h i s a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r became s e v e r e . There was v e r y l i t t l e e v i d e n c e  that  31 the i n s t i t u t i o n a l placements were c a r r i e d out a s p a r t o f a t o t a l t r e a t m e n t p l a n . U s u a l l y t h e s e c h i l d r e n had had many p r e v i o u s placements i n f o s t e r homes and had l o s t a l l c o n f i d e n c e i n any p l a n s t h e Agency might make. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s were n o t equipped t o a c c e p t and handle t h e b e h a v i o u r t h e c h i l d r e n m a n i f e s t e d . As a r e s u l t o f t h e f a i l u r e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l and foster-home placements i t was a m a t t e r o f time b e f o r e t h e s e c h i l d r e n became " l o s t . " When t h e y f i n a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d from t h i s e f f e o t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e Agency i t was from a number o f d i f f e r e n t  settings  and f o r v a r i o u s p e r i o d s o f t i m e . The l e n g t h o f time and t h e s e t t i n g from w h i c h these c h i l d r e n became " l o s t " i s shown i n Table V. Table V  Number of Months '"Lost" (a)  LENGTH OP TIME "LOST" AND PLACEMENT PROM WHICH THE CHILDREN BECAME "LOST"  Placements Prom Which The C h i l d r e n Became L o s t Poster Homes  Commercial Boarding Homes  Receiving Homes  Parents • Correctional or Relatives Institution  Total Number of Children —  1-6 7-12  mos.  1  2  1  mos  Over 12 mos  2  3  3  1  r  8  1  1  2  7 I  TOTAL  3  (a) As o f October 31,  5  1954-  1  6  1  16  I  32 Nine days was  the s h o r t e s t p e r i o d t h a t a c h i l d was  "lost."  T h i s c h i l d r e - e s t a b l i s h e d c o n t a c t w i t h the Agency w i t h her r e q u e s t t o marry. The r e q u e s t was  g r a n t e d and she was  d i s c h a r g e d from o a r e .  The l o n g e s t p e r i o d was f o r 62 months. T h i s o h i l d became l o s t from a f o s t e r home and h i s whereabouts a t p r e s e n t a r e unknown* He  was  d i s c h a r g e d from c a r e h a v i n g reached h i s m a j o r i t y i n September 1955* Nine c h i l d r e n were l o s t f o r p e r i o d s under one y e a r w h i l e seven were l o s t f o r p e r i o d s l o n g e r t h a n a y e a r . Two  o f t h e s e seven  c h i l d r e n were l o s t f o r p e r i o d s of 19 t o 24 months. A n o t h e r t h r e e of t h e s e seven were l o s t f o r 25 t o 30 months and a f o u r t h f o r a p e r i o d from 43 t o 48 months. The l a s t o f the seven c h i l d r e n was  lost  f o r 62 months, E l e v e n o f the 16 c h i l d r e n were l o s t from p r i v a t e b o a r d i n g houses or from the homes of t h e i r p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s . the Agency was  Apparently  unable t o p r o v i d e the eame degree o f s u p e r v i s i o n t o  the c h i l d r e n who  had r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s o r who  were l i v i n g  i n commercial b o a r d i n g houses as t h e y were t o c h i l d r e n who  were i n  f o s t e r homes and r e c e i v i n g homes. S i n c e t h e s e c h i l d r e n have been c l a s s i f i e d as b e i n g " l o s t " by the Agency, t h r e e of the 16 c h i l d r e n have r e - e s t a b l i s h e d c o n t a c t w i t h the Agency. S i x c h i l d r e n have been d i s c h a r g e d from c a r e e i t h e r because, i n the case of a g i r l , who c h i l d r e n had reached  had m a r r i e d , or because t h e  t h e i r m a j o r i t y . However, seven of t h e s e  c h i l d r e n a r e s t i l l wards o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y * A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e wards t h e y a r e not i n f o s t e r homes and t h e i r whereabouts a r e n o t known t o the Agency.  33  F a c t o r s P r e v e n t i n g These C h i l d r e n Agency Care*  From Making E f f e c t i v e Use  Of  There appear t o be f i v e main f a c t o r s w h i c h have tended t o i n h i b i t the c o n s t r u c t i v e r e s o u r c e s . These a r e :  use by the o h i l d r e n  of the  Agency's  ( i ) the o h i l d ' s e a r l y h i s t o r y p r i o r t o coming  i n t o c a r e ; ( i i ) the problems of the c h i l d r e n ;  ( i i i ) the l a c k  of  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the c h i l d r e n w i t h r e g a r d t o the r e a s o n f o r t h e i r a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e and  the r o l e of the Agency; ( i v ) a l a c k  s e c u r i t y f o r the c h i l d r e n ; and  (v) i n t e r f e r e n c e  by the  of  child's  p a r e n t s or r e l a t i v e s . These c h i l d r e n had  been s e v e r l y d e p r i v e d of h e a l t h y , happy,  f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e i r l i v e s , p r i o r t o c a r e , d i d not  provide  them w i t h s e c u r i t y . They were d i s t r u s t f u l of new  experiences.  family  F o r most of the c h i l d r e n f u r t h e r f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e s were not and  would be The  wanted  resisted.  c h i l d r e n themselves p r e s e n t e d extreme problems w h i c h  seemed t o be beyond the r e a l m of the f o s t e r home t o c o r r e c t .  The  c h i l d r e n needed an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c t out t h e i r problems w h i c h f o s t e r p a r e n t s were not c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g . A l s o the  children,  e i g h t i n number, were i n the a d o l e s c e n t s t a g e of t h e i r development and  were r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t the a u t h o r i t y  of p a r e n t s . S e v e r a l of  c h i l d r e n were somewhat r e t a r d e d m e n t a l l y and experiences w i t h o h i l d r e n seemed The  the  f o r t h e s e group l i v i n g  of s i m i l a r m e n t a l a b i l i t y would have  preferable. c h i l d r e n seemed t o be confused as t o the r e a s o n s f o r  coming i n t o c a r e . They appeared t o have l i t t l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r o l e of the Agency and  the f u n c t i o n  of t h e i r w o r k e r . They seemed  34 t o be i n c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g the a r e a s w i t h i n w h i c h the f o s t e r p a r e n t , the worker,and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , o p e r a t e d . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o  the  c h i l d r e g a r d i n g h i s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the f o s t e r p a r e n t s , h i s f a m i l y , and  the Agency, was  l a c k i n g . The  or no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the c h i l d . I t may was  r e c o r d s note l i t t l e  be t h a t t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  done I n i t i a l l y , but the c h i l d ' s r e c o r d s f a i l t o show t h i s .  continuation  of t h i s i n i t i a l  g i v e n a f t e r the c h i l d had  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the c h i l d was  t o have had  record  notes t h a t the r e a s o n s f o r  from h i s f a m i l y was  the r e c o r d s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was r e a s o n s f o r c a r e and The  records  of v i e w , t w e l v e o h i l d r e n seemed  no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . One  the c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n  seldom  e n t e r e d i n t o c a r e . I n c h e c k i n g the  of the c h i l d r e n from t h i s p o i n t  A  explained.  given regarding  the r o l e of the Agency and  f a c t t h a t the Agency had  In three  the  of  the  worker.  not been a b l e t o p r o v i d e  the  much needed s e c u r i t y f o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n seems t o be the major f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the f a i l u r e of g u a r d i a n s h i p t o h e l p t h e s e c h i l d r e n e f f e c t i v e l y . The  f r e q u e n t changes of f o s t e r homes and  appeared t o c o n t r i b u t e The  most t o t h i s i n s e c u r i t y .  number of foster-home placements the c h i l d r e n  tended t o enhance the i n s t a b i l i t y t h e s e o h i l d r e n had own  of w o r k e r s  received  known i n t h e i r  home. Placements were made w i t h o u t adequate d i a g n o s i s of  c h i l d ' s needs. Moreover, t h e r e was  no assessment of the  p a r e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o meet t h e s e needs. The e d l y t o a c c e p t new the p a s t w i t h  parental  " p a r e n t s " had  the c h i l d r e n r e b e l l e d and  the  foster  c h i l d r e n were asked r e p e a t -  f i g u r e s even though t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n not been happy ones. E v e n t u a l l y  r e f u s e d t o go t o any  a l l §f  more f o s t e r homes.  35  F o r most o f them, each move tended o n l y t o a c c e n t u a t e  their  dis-  t r u s t o f p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s . Two o f t h e c h i l d r e n r e f u s e d t o go t o a n o t h e r f o s t e r home a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t placement. The change o f w o r k e r s , w h i c h o f t e n accompanied a change o f f o s t e r homes, i n c r e a s e d t h e i n s e c u r i t y and c o n f u s i o n o f t h e c h i l d . The f r e q u e n c y  o f changes i n w o r k e r s ranged from one t o 17. Two  c h i l d r e n had one w o r k e r , t h r e e had f o u r w o r k e r s , workers,  two had s i x w o r k e r s ,  and another  t h r e e had f i v e  two had seven w o r k e r s ,  one had 15  had 17workers. A v e r a g i n g t h e t o t a l number o f w o r k e r  changes and t h e t o t a l l e n g t h o f time t h e c h i l d r e n spent i n c a r e each c h i l d had a new worker every n i n e months* T h i s f i g u r e does not t a k e a c c o u n t o f t h e c o u r t w o r k e r , f a m i l y w o r k e r , o r any w o r k e r g i v i n g s e r v i c e w h i l e t h e c h i l d ' s r e g u l a r w o r k e r was a b s e n t ; The  l a s t d i s r u p t i v e f a c t o r was i n t e r f e r e n c e on t h e p a r t o f  the f a m i l y . I n many i n s t a n c e s t h e p a r e n t s worked a t c r o s s - p u r p o s e s t o those o f t h e Agency^. Except f o r one o h i l d , a l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n maintained  some s o r t o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s o r a b l o o d  r e l a t i v e . T h i s c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s had d e s e r t e d him c o m p l e t e l y . There was a wide v a r i a t i o n i n t h e degree o f t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d c o n t a c t s . E i g h t of the c h i l d r e n maintained  regular contacts with a  r e l a t i v e and/or p a r e n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r e n t i r e p e r i o d o f c a r e * Two c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d spasmodic v i s i t s f r o m t h e i r p a r e n t s . Four c h i l d r e n had n o t seen t h e i r p a r e n t s n o r had c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i v e s f o r s e v e r a l years a f t e r being admitted t o care, but l a t e r v i s i t s between t h e f a m i l i e s and t h e c h i l d r e n were e s t a b l i s h e d . F i v e c h i l d r e n , d u r i n g t h e i r p e r i o d o f c a r e , were r e t u r n e d t o t h e p a r e n t s  36 by t h e c o u r t s b u t a f t e r s e v e r a l months f o u r o f t h e c h i l d r e n were r e - a d m i t t e d t o t h e c a r e o f t h e Agency. The o t h e r c h i l d became " l o s t " when t h e c o u r t o r d e r r e t u r n i n g t h e c h i l d t o t h e p a r e n t s was r e s c i n d e d * I n a l l o f t h e s e i n s t a n c e s where t h e c h i l d ,  through  l e g a l p r o c e s s , was r e t u r n e d t o h i s p a r e n t s , t h e y i n t u r n , were unable t o c o n t r o l t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I n t h r e e i n s t a n c e s t h e p a r e n t s charged  t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y and t h e c h i l d r e n  r e t u r n e d t o c a r e v i a t h e d e t e n t i o n home. The o t h e r c h i l d was r e t u r n e d t o c a r e under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e Agency a t t h e r e q u e s t •, of t h e p a r e n t s as h i s b e h a v i o u r was  B  out o f c o n t r o l .  t t  The problems  o f t h e f o u r c h i l d r e n , who were r e t u r n e d t o c a r e , were more s e v e r e , as noted from t h e r e c o r d i n g , t h a n b e f o r e t h e i r d i s c h a r g e t o t h e i r p a r e n t s . A l t h o u g h one c h i l d ' s problems appeared t o be t h e same, t h i s boy had been i n c a r e f o r o n l y one day p r i o r t o h i s r e t u r n . F o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n , t h e r e t u r n t o t h e i r p a r e n t s o n l y appeared as a f u r t h e r r e j e c t i o n t o them and r e s u l t e d i n more severe  behaviour.  I n a t t e m p t i n g t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t o f these p a r e n t a l c o n t a c t s the r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r most o f t h e c h i l d r e n t h e y tended t o make t h e c h i l d r e n confused and u n s e t t l e d and caused a n x i e t y t o t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s . T h i r t e e n o f t h e c h i l d r e n appeared t o be upset by v i s i t s from t h e i r p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s . One c h i l d seemed t o be helped by v i s i t s i n i t i a l l y b u t l a t e r these o c c a s i o n e d u n r e s t . I n the o t h e r o a s e s , s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n was l a c k i n g t o c l a s s i f y . The v a l u e o f t h e p a r e n t a l c o n t a c t t o t h e c h i l d c a n o n l y be a s s e s s e d on a n i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l however, t h a t i n a l l  cases  37 some h e l p should be g i v e n t o t h e p a r e n t s , f o c u s e d on t r y i n g t o o b t a i n t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s i n h e l p i n g t o c a r r y out the p l a n s o f t h e Agency. E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Adjustment o f t h e C h i l d r e n W h i l e i n C a r e . An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s problems a t t h e date became " l o s t " r e v e a l e d t h a t 14 o f t h e c h i l d r e n s t i l l problems.  they  manifested  I n f o r m a t i o n i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l was l a c k i n g i n two o f  the c h i l d r e n ' s f i l e s t o make a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f th§ir problems possible. Many o f t h e s e 14 c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t e d more t h a n one problem. Hine c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t e d problems o f b e h a v i o u r , w h i l e e i g h t c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t e d problems o f d e l i n q u e n c y . An a d d i t i o n a l e i g h t c h i l d r e n had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f o r m i n g harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s . E m o t i o n a l problems were e v i d e n t i n seven o f t h e c h i l d r e n * S i x more c h i l d r e n had sex d i f f i c u l t i e s . Low i n t e l l i g e n c e remained a problem f o r seven c h i l d r e n , w h i l e a m e d i c a l - p h y s i c a l problem  existed f o r  two c h i l d r e n . None o f t h e c h i l d r e n had r e c o r d e d problems i n t h e area of incontinence; Comparison o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s problems a t t h e date o f a d m i s s i o n i n t o c a r e w i t h . t h o s e a t t h e d a t e t h e y beoame " l o s t " r e v e a l e d some changes i n t h e r e l a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e problems (Table V I ) .  38  Table V I . COMPARISON BETWEEN FREQUENCY OF PROBLEMS AT DATE OF ADMISSION AND DATE "LOST"  Number o f C h i l d r e n Ia Which Porblem Appears B A  Type o f Problem Emotional  7  Behaviour  9  9  Difficulties i n Relationship  9  8  Delinquency Tendencies  7  8  Incontinence  5  Sexual Delinquency  4  6  Low  Intelligence  7  7  Physical-Medical  8  2  No Problems  1  *  Recorded  Insufficient Information t o C l a s s i f y  2  * A- a t t i m e o f a d m i s s i o n i n t o c a r e * B- p r i o r t o becoming " l o s t " * The problems a t t h e date " l o s t " a r e c l a s s i f i e d from t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t y e a r t h e c h i l d was under e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n . The c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t e d no problems i n t h e a r e a o f i n c o n t i n e n c e . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r problem a r e a d i s a p p e a r e d  39  a l t o g e t h e r . Problems o f an e m o t i o n a l n a t u r e decreased  as d i d the  problems o f a p h y s i c a l - m e d i c a l n a t u r e . The c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d good c a r e i n t h i s a r e a and t h e y were s u p p l i e d w i t h t h e v a r i o u s a p p l i a n c e s needed t o c o r r e c t p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s . The two c h i l d r e n who were s t i l l p r e s e n t i n g a m e d i a a l problem were r e c e i v i n g t r e a t m e n t when t h e y became " l o s t * " Problems r e l a t e d t o d e l i n q u e n c y and  sexual d i f f i c u l t i e s increased s l i g h t l y , while d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p d e c l i n e d s l i g h t l y . Low i n t e l l i g e n c e and b e h a v i o u r problems remained c o n s t a n t * G e n e r a l l y , t h e problems p e r s i s t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c h i l d ' s p e r i o d under g u a r d i a n s h i p o f t h e Agency, t h e notable exception being i n the area of p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t t h e worker who a s s e s s e d t h e problems a t t h e date of t h e c h i l d r e n ' s e n t r a n c e  i n t o c a r e was n o t  n e c e s s a r i l y t h e same worker who s u p e r v i s e d t h e c h i l d p r i o r t o h i s becoming " l o s t . immediately  f t  O f t e n , t h e worker who s u p e r v i s e d t h e c h i l d  p r i o r t o t h e date " l o s t " had fewer c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e  c h i l d t h a n t h e f i r s t w o r k e r . A c c o r d i n g l y , a l t h o u g h t h e same major problem a r e a s p e r s i s t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f c a r e , ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f i n c o n t i n e n c e and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h ) no s t r i c t l y comparison i s p o s s i b l e on a c c o u n t o f t h e l a c k o f u n i f o r m  accurate  definition  o f c r i t e r i a and o f s t a n d a r d i z e d methods o f r e c o r d i n g . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t t h e degree o f a d j u s t m e n t t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n c a n make i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o l i v e  success-  f u l l y as a d u l t s * P r e d i c t i o n s a r e d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by many unc o n t r o l l a b l e circumstances.  Nevertheless, using the c h i l d r e n ' s  e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s ; t h e i r problems a t t h e date o f a d m i s s i o n  into  c a r e ; t h e a d j u s t m e n t t h e y were a b l e t o make d u r i n g c a r e ; and t h e  40 problems t h e y m a n i f e s t e d a t t h e date " l o s t ' / i t would seem t h a t 13 of t h e 16 c h i l d r e n w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y i n l i v i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y as a d u l t s . The r e c o r d e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r two c h i l d r e n i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o f o r m u l a t e a p r e d i c t i o n . . One c h i l d p r e s e n t e d one problem i n t h e a r e a o f r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s c h i l d would appear t o have t h e b e s t p o s s i b i l i t y of s u c c e s s f u l l y assuming t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of adulthood* Four c h i l d r e n , who a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e 16 c h i l d r e n , w i l l be s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e next c h a p t e r . I t i s hoped t h a t through the d e t a i l e d study of these f o u r c h i l d r e n , the observations noted i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be made more c l e a r .  CHAPTER THREE FOUR CHILDREN WHO ARE "LOST"  The  f o u r o h i l d r e n who w i l l be s t u d i e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r  have  been s e l e c t e d a s e x e m p l i f y i n g i n t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t a l h i s t o r i e s c e r t a i n f e a t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l l t h e 16 wards who e v e n t u a l l y became l o s t t o t h e Agency. I n d e t e r m i n i n g  the represent-  a t i v n e s s o f t h e s e f o u r c h i l d r e n a c c o u h t has been t a k e n o f : ( a ) t h e age-range i n c l u d e d i n t h e t o t a l group; (b) t h e t y p i c a l k i n d s o f s i t u a t i o n s found i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s f a m i l y backgrounds; (o) t h e nature  of the emotional  and a f f e o t i o n a l t i e s between p a r e n t s and  c h i l d ; and (d) t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c a r e  provided  by t h e Agency. Tom -Mann-.'. Tom was t h e youngest c h i l d t o come i n t o c a r e o f t h e 16 s t u d i e d . A t the age o f one y e a r he, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h r e e o l d e r  sisters,  was committed t o t h e c a r e o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o o i e t y . Family  Background:  Tom's p a r e n t s were b o t h 40 y e a r s o f age when he was b o r n . H i s f a t h e r was employed a l t e r n a t e l y a s a l o g g e r and f a r m e r . The f a m i l y l i v e d on a s m a l l r e n t e d farm w h i c h , beoause o f p o o r management, d i d n o t w h o l l y m a i n t a i n t h e f a m i l y . The f a t h e r ' s income was u n s t a b l e and a t t i m e s t h e f a m i l y were p o o r l y f e d and s h e l t e r e d . Mr. Mann was d e s c r i b e d a s h a v i n g a v i c i o u s , e x p l o s i v e temper w h i c h a l l o f t h e f a m i l y f e a r e d . He drank e x c e s s i v e l y and had been  42 i n p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s e v e r a l t i m e s f o r t h e f t . As a r e s u l t o f incestuous  r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s o l d e r d a u g h t e r s he r e o e i v e d  a six  y e a r sentence t o a p e n i t e n t i a r y , . Mr, Mann was unable t o keep h i m s e l f employed p a r t l y because of a d v e r s e economic c o n d i t i o n s , and p a r t l y because o f t h e severe d i f f i c u l t i e s he had w i t h a u t h o r i t y . T h i s u s u a l l y l e d t o h i s d i s c h a r g e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e economic c o n d i t i o n s and h i s c o n f l i c t w i t h a u t h o r i t y Mr. Mann possessed no s p e c i f i c work s k i l l s .  This  l a c k o f s k i l l l i m i t e d t h e range o f employment a v a i l a b l e t o him and as a r e s u l t o f t h e eoonomic r e s o u r c e s  a v a i l a b l e t o the family  were l i m i t e d . Mrs, Mann appeared, because o f t h e f e a r she had o f h e r husband, t o be unable t o p r e v e n t h i s s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r d a u g h t e r s . She p r o v i d e d  little  s t a b i l i t y i n t h e home. L i k e h e r husband, she  drank e x c e s s i v e l y and was thought t o be p r o m i s c u o u s . M r s . Mann provided  poor p h y s i c a l c a r e f o r h e r c h i l d r e n . She managed t h e r a t h e r  meagre p r o v i s i o n s t h a t came i n t o t h e home p o o r l y . I t would seem t h a t she d i d have an i n t e r e s t i n h e r c h i l d r e n b u t h e r p l a n n i n g f o r t h e i r c a r e was i n c o n s i s t e n t , i n a p p r o p r i a t e and i n e f f e c t u a l . As h e r c h i l d r e n grew o l d e r and c h a l l e n g e d  h e r a u t h o r i t y M r s . Mann was  unable t o d e a l w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n . W i t h Mr. Mann a b s e n t , on a c c o u n t of h i s confinement i n t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y , t h e element o f f e a r was gone and t h e c h i l d r e n d i d a s t h e y The centred  pleased.  m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t t h a t e x i s t e d between Tom's p a r e n t s around d r i n k i n g , p r o m i s c u i t y ,  l a c k o f money, and d i s c i p l i n e  of t h e c h i l d r e n . N e i t h e r p a r e n t seemed c a p a b l e o f s a t i s f y i n g t h e needs o f t h e o t h e r , n o r were t h e y , a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r own unmet  43  needs, a b l e t o meet the needs of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . W i t h Hr. Mann's i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n p r i s o n , Mrs. Mann was  unable  t o assume the added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r her f a m i l y * She r e a c t e d t h i s new  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by d r i n k i n g more and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a n she had  t a k i n g even l e s s  b e f o r e . E v e n t u a l l y the community  o o m p l a i n e d c o f t t h e home c o n d i t i o n s and and  to  the l a c k o f  guidance b e i n g g i v e n t o the c h i l d r e n and  supervision  w a r d s h i p f o r the  younger c h i l d r e n r e s u l t e d * I n c o n s i d e r i n g the f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t i s noted t h a t f a t h e r was  the dominant f i g u r e i n the home and  had a t t a i n e d  p o s i t i o n by i n s t i l l i n g f e a r i n the o t h e r members. The  the  this  parents  were r e l u c t a n t t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c h i l d r e n  and  d e l e g a t e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c a r e of the younger c h i l d r e n t o the o l d e r c h i l d r e n . The  older c h i l d r e n i n turn resented  this.  F u r t h e r m o r e , i t seemed a p p a r e n t t h a t the c h i l d r e n had become a pawn between the p a r e n t s .  Each p a r e n t made b i d s f o r the l o y a l t y o f  the c h i l d r e n by undermining the p o s i t i o n of the o t h e r p a r e n t . a consequence, the f a m i l y had i n g the mother and In confusion  s p l i t i n t o two  the o t h e r s u p p o r t i n g  groups - one  As  support-  the f a t h e r . T h i s r e s u l t e d  on the p a r t of the c h i l d r e n w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t  and  c o n t r a d i c t o r y i d e a s of d i s c i p l i n e . T h i s f a m i l y d i d not l i v e i n harmony w i t h t h e i r community. T h e i r n e i g h b o u r s were p u n i t i v e toward the c h i l d r e n and a t e d a g a i n s t them. The terms and  town o f f i c i a l s d e s c r i b e d  tagged the f a m i l y " w o r t h l e s s . "  The  discrimin-  them i n n e g a t i v e  f a m i l y was  allowed  s t r u g g l e f o r many y e a r s under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s but w i t h Mr.  to  Mann's  44 c r i m i n a l c o n v i c t i o n , t h e town's p e o p l e were a r o u s e d . A charge o f n e g l e c t was proved and Tom came i n t o c a r e . Tom a t t h e Time o f Care: T h i s boy had been l i v i n g i n h i s p a r e n t a l home f o r a y e a r p r i o r t o coming i n t o c a r e . He was t h e youngest  o f 13 c h i l d r e n .  L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g h i s e a r l y development but a t t h e date o f h i s a d m i s s i o n t o oare he was u n d e r n o u r i s h e d and i n poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , I n v i e w o f t h i s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and h i s f a m i l y background,  i t seemed r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t  t h i s boy's a f f e o t i o n a l needs had been i n d i f f e r e n t l y met a s w e l l . S e r v i c e s i n Caret Tom* i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r h i s a d m i s s i o n , was p l a c e d i n a n orphanage f o r two weeks. He was l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d t o h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home a l o n g w i t h h i s o l d e r s i s t e r . They remained  i n this  home f o r t h r e e y e a r s . The f o s t e r p a r e n t s were middle-aged  and were  h i g h l y recommended by t h e i r r e f e r e n c e s . The f o s t e r f a t h e r was r e t i r e d and s u f f e r e d from a h e a r t c o n d i t i o n . He d i e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r o f Tom's placement. F o r y e a r s t h i s f o s t e r mother had boarded c h i l d r e n p r i v a t e l y , c a r i n g f o r a s many a s 14 c h i l d r e n a t one time a s w e l l a s h e r own teen-aged d a u g h t e r . The r e c o r d noted t h a t t h e f o s t e r mother gave good p h y s i c a l c a r e b u t d i d n o t g i v e young o h i l d r e n a chance t o d e v e l o p . D u r i n g t h i s placement  Tom developed v e r y p o o r l y . He had  s t a r t e d t o walk i n t h e orphanage b u t stopped a f t e r two weeks i n t h i s home. He d i d n o t resume w a l k i n g u n t i l he was 20 months o l d . A t t h i s time he was s a y i n g a few words and h i s t o i l e t  training  45  was  f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , Tom appeared v e r y l e t h a r g i c , was  f e a r f u l o f s t r a n g e r s , and took l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n h i s  surround-  i n g s . He was f r e q u e n t l y i l l d u r i n g h i s f i r s t y e a r . i n t h i s home, s u f f e r i n g from severe c o l d s , r a s h e s , and v a r i o u s i n f e c t i o n s . He appeared r e t a r d e d i n h i s p h y s i c a l development. I n r e g a r d t o t r a i n ing,  t h e f o s t e r mother was a d v i s e d by t h e worker t h a t r e g u l a r  t o i l e t h a b i t s should be s t r e s s e d . A t t h e end o f t h i s placement Tom was  unable t o r e l a t e w e l l w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n and was m a n i f e s t i n g  severe temper t a n t r u m s . A f t e r t h r e e y e a r s he was p l a c e d i n a second f o s t e r home, t h e o s t e n s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e move b e i n g so t h a t he c o u l d be c l o s e r t o h i s s i b l i n g s . B o t h c h i l d r e n were happy to  l e a v e t h e home* Tom's new f o s t e r p a r e n t s were much younger t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s  ones. B e s i d e s Tom and h i s s i s t e r , t h e r e were f o u r o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e home. The p h y s i c a l s t a n d a r d s were d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g l o w . Many y e a r s l a t e r , i n f o r m a t i o n came t o t h e Agency s t a t i n g t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n t h i s home were t r e a t e d c r u e l y . T h i s was i n v e s t i gated and r e s u l t e d i n t h e home b e i n g c l o s e d . Tom remained i n t h i s home f o r e i g h t y e a r s . A t t h e time o f placement t h e r e c o r d d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s these f o s t e r p a r e n t s possessed  for  meeting Tom's needs. W h i l e i n h i s f i r s t s c h o o l g r a d e , Tom was t e s t e d and found t o be m e n t a l l y slow. He was d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g h y p e r a c t i v e and n e r v o u s . H i s s c h o o l achievement was "poor" b u t h i s c l a s s b e h a v i o u r was " f a i r l y good." He f a i l e d t h i s grade. D u r i n g h i s f i r s t y e a r a t s c h o o l a c h i l d w§s b o r n t o t h e f o s t e r  46  p a r e n t s . Tom  had not been prepared f o r the b i r t h and seemed un-  happy about i t . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s he c o n t r a c t e d measels and  was  slow i n r e c o v e r i n g . I n h i s second y e a r i n Grade One Tom's b e h a v i o u r became more severe* H i s t e a c h e r d e s c r i b e d him as b e i n g l a z y and not w o r k i n g t o c a p a c i t y . He was  i n d u l g i n g i n sex a c t i v i t y w i t h h i s s i s t e r of an  e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e . As t h e y e a r p r o g r e s s e d he " a t t a c k e d " h i s c l a s s m a t e s because he " f e l t mad."  He was d i s o b e d i e n t t o the f o s t e r  mother and was unable t o e x p l a i n t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s . Tom  was  s t r a p p e d o r l o c k e d i n t h e c e l l a r f o r t h i s b e h a v i o u r . The  foster  mother d i d not f e e l t h a t Tom was  j e a l o u s of t h e new baby, b u t an  e n t r y i n the r e c o r d suggested t h a t t h e f o s t e r f a t h e r showed l e s s i n t e r e s t i n Tom  w i t h t h e a r r i v a l of t h e baby. The s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l  s t a t e d t h a t he f e l t t h a t Tom was a l s o noted t h a t Tom  was  " i n s e c u r e i n t h i s home." I t was  i l l much more f r e q u e n t l y . N e i t h e r Tom  nor  the f o s t e r p a r e n t s were g i v e n h e l p by the worker i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the meaning o f t h i s b e h a v i o u r . A suggestion-was  made t o t h e f o s t e r  p a r e n t s t h a t t h e y d i s c u s s t h e - s e x a c t i v i t y w i t h Tom. known whether t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was c a r r i e d  I t i s not  out.  Tom managed t o complete h i s Grade One and was promoted t o Grade Two.  A t t h e age of e i g h t y e a r s , t h i s boy was l y i n g and  s t e a l i n g and t h e f o s t e r mother asked t h a t he be removed from h e r home. The f o s t e r mother however, wanted t o keep h i s s i s t e r . placement  The  c o n t i n u e d as the worker d i d not w i s h t o s e p a r a t e the  o h i l d r e n . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s t h e r e was a change i n w o r k e r s . D u r i n g t h i s y e a r Tom  was  examined a t t h e C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c .  47 He was thought t o be i n the ,dull-^normal range o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . The C l i n i c suggested  t h a t he be p l a c e d i n a new f o s t e r home where  he would r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n , b u t t h i s recommendation was n o t c a r r i e d out. Meanwhile, h i s b e h a v i o u r became more s e v e r e ; he exposed h i m s e l f i n t h e nude, and d e s t r o y e d t h e p r o p e r t y o f n e i g h b o u r s . Por t h e next two and o n e - h a l f y e a r s t h e f o s t e r mother c a r e d for  Tom u n w i l l i n g l y . She asked a g a i n f o r h i s removal« A t s c h o o l s  he was d i s r u p t i v e o f t h e c l a s s and was f i g h t i n g w i t h h i s c l a s s * mates. He f r e q u e n t l y t r u a n t e d , l i e d , and used obscene language* He c o n t i n u e d w i t h h i s s e x u a l a c t i v i t y and on s e v e r a l . o c c a s i o n s r a n away. The f o s t e r p a r e n t s c o n t i n u e d t o s e v e r e l y p u n i s h him. Tom was e v e n t u a l l y p l a c e d i n a n o t h e r f o s t e r home a t t h e age o f twelve  years.  In h i s next home, Tom's b e h a v i o u r  appeared t o beoome more  a c u t e l y d i s t u r b e d . T h i s seemed t o be aggravated  by a v i s i t w i t h  an o l d e r b r o t h e r who t o l d Tom about h i s f a m i l y o f w h i c h Tom, a p p a r e n t l y had no knowledge. F u r t h e r m o r e , an o l d e r boy was p l a c e d i n t h e home, m&ch t o t h e resentment o f Tom. Tom and t h i s boy immediately  began t o q u a r r e l and s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s Tom was i n -  v o l v e d i n b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g i n t o homes i n t h e neighborhood. I t was a t t h i s time t h a t t h e f o s t e r mother asked t h a t Tom be t a k e n out o f t h e home a s she was no l o n g e r a b l e t o a c c e p t h i s  behaviour  or c o n t r o l i t * Tom remained b u t t h e o t h e r boy was removed* A g i r l , near h i s own age, was p l a c e d i n t h e home and Tom soon began q u a r r e l i n g w i t h h e r . As a r e s u l t t h e f o s t e r mother i n s i s t e d t h a t Tom be removed* Tom was p a s t 14 y e a r s o f age when he was p l a c e d f o r  48  f o u r months i n t h e home o f a m a r r i e d s i s t e r . She l a t e r asked f o r his  removal because o f h i s d i s t u r b e d b e h a v i o u r . A t t h i s p o i n t i t  would seem e v i d e n t t h a t f u r t h e r foster-home placements c o u l d n o t h e l p Tom and t h a t a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t c e n t r e was needed. I n t h e n e x t y e a r Tom had t w e l v e placements* He became most h o s t i l e toward t h e Agency and f o s t e r homes. He l e f t s c h o o l i n Grade S i x and t r i e d t o work. However, he was u n s u c c e s s f u l and s t a y e d a t a h o s t e l . A t t h e age o f 15 he was sentenced t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l charged w i t h s t e a l i n g , d r i n k i n g , and v a g r a n c y . He escaped from t h e S c h o o l t w i c e and was charged w i t h t h e f t each time he was f r e e . I n a l l , he spent t h r e e y e a r s i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l . As a r e s u l t o f h i s l a s t escape, Tom was sentenced t o O a k a l l a where he escaped and was sentenced t o a S t a t e P e n i t e n t i a r y at  t h e age o f 18 y e a r s , Tom, a f t e r h i s d i s c h a r g e , v i s i t e d t h e Agency once and t h e n  d i s a p p e a r e d . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t he r e t u r n e d t o h i s mother who had moved t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Tom has s i n c e been d i s c h a r g e d from c a r e h a v i n g reached h i s majority. The E f f e c t o f Care: Many U n c o n t r o l l a b l e elements e n t e r i n when a n a t t e m p t i s made t o determine t h e cause o f Tom's b e h a v i o u r i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e Agency's s e r v i c e s . I t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e , t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t one c i r c u m s t a n c e p r e c i p i t a t e d a p e r t a i n e f f e c t . H o w e v e r , . i t would seem t h a t , t h e r e j e c t i o n t h i s boy r e c e i v e d , b o t h b e f o r e and a f t e r h i s c o m m i t t a l t o t h e c a r e o f the  Agency, c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o t h e b e h a v i o u r he was m a n i f e s t i n g  49 a t t h e date he became " l o s t , " The r e c o r d s a r e d e f i c i e n t i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e k i n d of c a r e t h i s boy r e c e i v e d d u r i n g h i s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s * i t i s necessary  Consequently,  t o r e s o r t t o conjecture. During the f i r s t  year  of l i f e , w h i l e i n h i s own home, Tom r e c e i v e d i n a d e q u a t e c a r e . However, he d i d manage t o p r o g r e s s f a i r l y w e l l a s i t i s noted t h a t he was s t a r t i n g t o walk when he e n t e r e d h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home* I n h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home he r e c e i v e d adequate p h y s i c a l oare t h e worker thought he r e c e i v e d l i t t l e  although  individual stimulation t o  develope e m o t i o n a l l y . I f Tom's b e h a v i o u r  was i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e  k i n d of. c a r e r e c e i v e d , t h e n i t c a n be assumed t h a t t h i s was n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y . H i s p h y s i c a l development r e g r e s s e d . Some r e g r e s s i o n c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d because o f t h e placement, y e t t h e r e c o r d d e s c r i b e d him a s b e i n g f e a r f u l , prone t o temper t a n t r u m s , l e t h a r g i c , and  showed l i t t l e  i n t e r e s t i n t h e t h i n g s around him. F u r t h e r m o r e ,  he had f r e q u e n t i l l n e s s e s . I t would seem, i n view o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h a t t h i s placement was n o t s a t i s f y i n g h i s needs. At f i v e y e a r s o f age Tom was moved a g a i n t o a home where he remained f o r e i g h t y e a r s . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t two y e a r s , t h e e n t r i e s i n t h e r e c o r d were n o t r e g u l a r and t h e time l a p s e between e n t r i e s was  c o n s i d e r a b l e . The r e c o r d i n g f o r these two y e a r s n o t e s t h a t  b o t h Tom and t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s seemed happy u n t i l t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s had a baby o f t h e i r own. The baby had t h e e f f e c t o f r e d u c i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s gave t o Tom. As a r e s u l t , Tom m i s behaved i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a t t e n t i o n . T h i s b e h a v i o u r  furthered the  r e j e c t i o n . This increased r e j e c t i o n aggravated the misbehaviour  50 and t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s responded w i t h extreme c o r p o r a l p u n i s h ment. The r e c o r d made c l e a r t h a t h i s s i s t e r L o u i s e , who was more p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e t h a n Tom, was p r e f e r r e d . T h i s t y p e o f c a r e was most u p s e t t i n g t o Tom and, when c o n s i d e r e d i n r e g a r d t o t h e l e v e l o f h i s e m o t i o n a l development, would be more s e v e r e l y damaging. E v e n t u a l l y t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s were unable t o a c c e p t Tom's b e h a v i o u r and asked f o r h i s r e m o v a l . However, t h e workers  changed  and Tom was l e f t f o r a n o t h e r two and o n e - h a l f y e a r s i n t h i s environment. Thus f o r e i g h t y e a r s t h i s boy was s u b j e c t e d t o s e v e r e r e j e c t i o n whieh no doubt c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o h i s a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . T h i s home was unable t o meet h i s needs. Tom's n e x t placement was w i t h a m a r r i e d s i s t e r . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a n o t h e r r e j e c t i o n f o r him w h i c h appeared t o be t h e f a t e f u l one. A f t e r t h i s r e j e c t i o n by h i s own f a m i l y , Tom r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t any more f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s . H i s c o n f l i c t w i t h a u t h o r i t y , w h i c h began i n h i s e a r l y y e a r s , became more s e v e r e , and a t t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h he became " l o s t , " Tom was i n complete r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t any form o f a u t h o r i t y . H i s l i m i t e d f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - w o r t h seemed t o prompt him t o seek  punishment.  Tom, who was i n c a r e f o r 19 y e a r s , r e c e i v e d 17 workers and 22 p l a c e m e n t s .  B e t t y Smith: F a m i l y Background: B e t t y came i n t o c a r e a t t h e age o f t w e l v e y e a r s . Her p a r e n t a l background was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f a l l of t h e c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d . She was t h e second youngest o f s i x c h i l d r e n . Her f a t h e r , Mr. S m i t h , was  51  t h i r t y y e a r s o l d a t t h e t i m e o f h e r b i r t h . He was thought t o have l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e . H i s work r e c o r d a s a n a u t o m o b i l e  mechanic  was marked by many changes and by l e n g t h y p e r i o d s o f unemployment. Mr. S m i t h was d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g "well-meaning" b u t unable t o make " r e a l i s t i c p l a n s . " He was i n d i o i s l v e and when f o r c e d t o make d e c i s i o n s , d i d so i m p u l s i v e l y and w i t h l i t t l e t h o u g h t f o r t h e consequences  o f h i s d e c i s i o n s . Mr. S m i t h was a n e x c e s s i v e d r i n k e r  and was dependent upon o t h e r s f o r g u i d a n c e . Mrs. S m i t h was thought t o be o f average I n t e l l i g e n c e . She had l i v e d i n two common-law u n i o n s p r i o r t o h e r m a r r i a g e t o Mr. S m i t h . She was promiscuous and an e x c e s s i v e d r i n k e r . T h e • r e c o r d i n g d e s c r i b e d h e r a s b e i n g l a z y , a poor housekeeper, p l e a s u r e s e e k i n g , s e l f i s h , and i r r e s p o n s i b l e . She a p p a r e n t l y l a c k e d m a t u r i t y , b e i n g concerned w i t h t h e p r e s e n t o n l y . She was unable t o p l a c e t h e needs o f h e r c h i l d r e n b e f o r e h e r own needs. Mrs* S m i t h was " r i g i d and p u n i t i v e " and p r o v i d e d poor c a r e f o r h e r c h i l d r e n . When t h e Smiths e n t e r e d m a r r i a g e M r s . S m i t h had t h r e e c h i l d r e n and a f u r t h e r t h r e e were b o r n o f t h i s u n i o n . B e t t y was t h e second c h i l d o f t h i s m a r r i a g e . From t h e r e c o r d I t was noted t h a t t h e Smiths had l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s d u r i n g t h e i r m a r r i a g e , p a r t l y because  o f economic  c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y , and p a r t l y because o f  Mr. Smith's poor work h a b i t s . F i n a n c i a l s t r e s s was a l w a y s p r e s e n t i n t h i s home. The Smith's m a r r i a g e was one o f storm and s t r e s s w h i c h cont i n u e d f o r many y e a r s . Mr, S m i t h was i n c o n s t a n t f e a r t h a t h i s w i f e would l e a v e him and a c c e p t e d h e r b e h a v i o u r i n t h e hope t h a t she would r e m a i n w i t h him.  52 The mother was t h e dominant member o f t h e f a m i l y . Eaoh p a r e n t competed f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a f f e c t i o n s t h r o u g h c r i t i c i z i n g each o t h e r . Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d no c o n s i s t e n t p a r e n t a l s u p e r v i s i o n and were a l l o w e d  t o do a s t h e y  The m a r i t a l s t r i f e and p o o r care c o n t i n u e d  pleased.  u n t i l 1948. A t  t h i s t i m e a c o m p l a i n t was made t o t h e Agency, c h a r g i n g  that the  Smiths were n o t p r o v i d i n g t h e c a r e commensurate w i t h a c c e p t e d standards.  The o o m p l a i n t made s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e  t o M r s . Smith's  immoral b e h a v i o u r . I t suggested t h a t she was p r o s t i t u t i n g and d r i n k i n g e x c e s s i v e l y . I t f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t Mr. S m i t h was u n a b l e t o " c o n t r o l h i s f a m i l y " and was a l s o d r i n k i n g e x c e s s i v e l y . I n r e g a r d t o t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e c o m p l a i n t charged t h a t t h e y begged i n t h e s t r e e t s , t r u a n t e d from s c h o o l , and k e p t " l a t e h o u r s . " The Agency provided  a p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e t o t h e f a m i l y . Soon a f t e r t h i s M r s .  S m i t h ended t h e m a r r i a g e and e s t a b l i s h e d a oommon-law u n i o n . The c h i l d r e n were d i v i d e d between t h e two p a r e n t s w i t h B e t t y and two of h e r s i b l i n g s g o i n g t o l i v e w i t h t h e mother. B e t t y was e l e v e n years old a t t h i s  time.  D u r i n g t h e n e x t seven months B e t t y c o n t i n u e d and  to l i e , steal,  t r u a n t from s c h o o l , w h i l e h e r mother drank e x c e s s i v e l y .  E v e n t u a l l y B e t t y was r e t u r n e d  t o h e r f a t h e r who, i n t u r n , was  unable t o c o n t r o l h e r . S u b s e q u e n t l y , B e t t y and a n o l d e r  sister  J o y c e were s e n t from t h e f a t h e r ' s home t o t h e i r p a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s i n A l b e r t a . The g r a n d p a r e n t s , a f t e r two months,  returned  b o t h t h e c h i l d r e n because t h e g i r l s c o n t i n u a l l y f o u g h t w i t h one a n o t h e r . On t h e i r r e t u r n from A l b e r t a J o y c e was s e n t t o h e r mother and B e t t y went t o l i v e w i t h h e r f a t h e r . The r e c o r d i n g noted t h a t  53 B e t t y seemed confused by t h e s e moves. The casework s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d t o t h e f a m i l y a t t h i s time seemed t o be f o c u s e d on t h e p a r e n t s r a t h e r than the c h i l d r e n * In  J u l y 1949, B e t t y and Joyce were once a g a i n l i v i n g w i t h  t h e i r f a t h e r . The home c o n d i t i o n s were d i r t y and overcrowded. B e t t y and Joyce were i n c o n t i n u o u s c o n f l i c t . Moreover, t h e d i e t was  " i n a d e q u a t e * " S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e n e i g h b o u r s complained  that  t h e c h i l d r e n had been roaming t h e s t r e e t s a t n i g h t , had been s t e a l ing,  and had n o t been a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l . As a r e s u l t , Mr. S m i t h  appealed t o t h e Agency f o r h e l p . The mother and t h e p a t e r n a l grandp a r e n t s were approached by t h e Agency b u t n e i t h e r were a b l e t o make p l a n s f o r t h e c a r e o f t h e o h i l d r e n . As a consequence, a l l o f t h e Smith c h i l d r e n were committed because o f c h r o n i c n e g l e o t * P r i o r t o c a r e t h i s g i r l had been p l a c e d 19 t i m e s . B e t t y A t Time Of Caret B e t t y was committed t o t h e c a r e of .the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o o i e t y at  t h e age o f t w e l v e y e a r s . I n h e r p e r s o n a l appearance she was  p o o r l y groomed and appeared "obese and u n a t t r a c t i v e . " A s c h o o l mental t e s t a s s e s s e d h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e a s " d u l l - n o r m a l " even though she was c o m p l e t i n g h e r s i x t h grade* B a t t y complained h y p o c h o n d r i a c a l symptoms. She d i s p l a y e d severe temper  o f many tantrums  and was d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g v e r y demanding o f a t t e n t i o n . A p a t t e r n of  l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , and t r u a n t i n g , seemed t o have been e s t a b l i s h e d  S e r v i c e s I n Care: B e t t y ' s f i r s t placement was n o t s u c c e s s f u l . The f o s t e r p a r e n t s were e l d e r l y and t h e i r o n l y daughter had r e c e n t l y m a r r i e d and l e f t t h e home. The f o s t e r mother had c o n s i d e r a b l e l e i s u r e t i m e and wanted  54  a c h i l d f o r companionship. L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was the f o s t e r f a t h e r . The B e t t y ' s placement and  f o s t e r p a r e n t s were seen once p r i o r t o i t I s understood t h a t t h e y had  e x p e r i e n c e w i t h f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . The as b e i n g " o p i n i o n a t e d , competent, and The  a v a i l a b l e about  no  f o s t e r mother was  previous described  efficient,"  f o s t e r mother, upon m e e t i n g B e t t y , seemed " h o r r i f i e d " a t  B e t t y ' s appearance and d i d not h i d e her d i s a p p o i n t m e n t *  I n t e n days  the f o s t e r mother asked t h a t B e t t y be t a k e n from her home* B e t t y had  s t o l e n some money and  the f o s t e r p a r e n t s were w o r r i e d about  t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n i n the community. B e t t y ' s second foster-home placement was t h i s home t h e r e were n i n e o t h e r c h i l d r e n , one s i s t e r J o y c e . A t the end  more s u c c e s s f u l . I n of whom was  of 22 months B e t t y was  Betty's  d o i n g b e t t e r ,at  s c h o o l , r e l a t e d more h a r m o n i o u s l y w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n , and a b l e t o accept' a u t h o r i t y more e a s i l y . A l t h o u g h  she was  s t u d e n t , she was  mixing w e l l w i t h  classmates. Mr.  "working t o c a p a c i t y " and was  a  was failing her  I n t h i s home B e t t y q u a r r e l e d l e s s w i t h J o y o e .  S m i t h had v i s i t e d B e t t y and J o y c e s t e a d i l y i n the second  f o s t e r home and  i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e s of t h i s placement h i s v i s i t s  had a d i s r u p t i n g e f f e c t upon B e t t y , They seemed t o c o n f u s e and r e t a r d her a c c e p t a n c e of foster-home c a r e . D u r i n g t h e s e v i s i t s Mr. made u n r e a l i s t i c p r o m i s e s and J o y c e . The  f o s t e r mother was  u p s e t t i n g behaviour She was  showed a d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e  Smith for  a b l e t o a c c e p t t h e s e v i s i t s and  the  w h i c h B e t t y would m a n i f e s t a f t e r h i s v i s i t s .  a l s o a b l e t o show s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o B e t t y , w h i c h  seemed a major f a c t o r i n making the placement s u c c e s s f u l . F u r t h e r more, t h e r e was  o n l y one change of w o r k e r s .  55  When B e t t y was 14 y e a r s o l d F r . . S m i t h m a r r i e d a g a i n and asked f o r the custody  o f Joyce and B e t t y * The Agency recommended t h a t  the c h i l d r e n be r e t u r n e d t o t h e home o f t h e i r f a t h e r and step-mother. The  standards  the standards  o f t h e f a t h e r * a hew home were much h i g h e r t h a n  o f t h e home Mr, S m i t h p r o v i d e d b e f o r e h i s c h i l d r e n  oame i n t o c a r e * Mr* S m i t h was w o r k i n g s t e a d i l y ; H i s w i f e was a n " e f f i c i e n t , a g g r e s s i v e , d e c i s i v e , and c a p a b l e " young woman. She had a good b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g and c a r r i e d t h i s i n t o h e r home. The r e c o r d i n g noted t h a t she had had a nervous breakdown b u t t h e n a t u r e of t h i s was n o t known. The f a t h e r , t h e r e c o r d n o t e d , was " u n r e a l i s t i c " and appeared t o be a " d r i f t e r , " The r e c o r d i n g was b r i e f f o r t h e p e r i o d t h a t B e t t y was i n t h e home o f h e r f a t h e r and step-mother. There was l i t t l e  information  o t h e r t h a n t h a t Joyce was unable t o g e t a l o n g w i t h t h e step-mother and a f t e r s i x months was r e t u r n e d t o c a r e . B e t t y , on t h e o t h e r hand, appeared t o do w e l l i n t h e home f o r s i x months a l t h o u g h  she was  q u a r r e l l i n g a g a i n w i t h J o y c e . The c o u r t o r d e r w h i c h a l l o w e d  Betty  t o r e t u r n t o h e r f a t h e r was extended f o r a n o t h e r s i x months. D u r i n g t h e seeond p e r i o d , B e t t y , who was now 15 y e a r s o l d , commenced q u a r r e l l i n g w i t h h e r step-mother. The r e c o r d s note t h a t t h e s e q u a r r e l s were p r e c i p i t a t e d by B e t t y ' s s t a y i n g out l a t e a t h i g h t , h e r b o y f r i e n d s , and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t she was s e x u a l l y d e l i n q u e n t . The step-mother became most r e s e n t f u l o f B e t t y ' s presence i n t h e home and B e t t y r e t a l i a t e d by becoming d e f i a n t and b e l l i g e r e n t . Mr.  Smith, a f t e r B e t t y r a n away f o r a week, l a i d a charge o f  i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y and B e t t y r e t u r n e d t o c a r e v i a t h e D e t e n t i o n Home.  56  B e t t y ' s n a t u r a l mother had V i s i t e d t h e home and encouraged B e t t y t o r u n away. A f t e r n i n e months B e t t y r e t u r n e d t o t h e same f o s t e r home from w h i c h she had l e f t t o r e t u r n to' her f a t h e r . She was a l s o a s s i g n e d t o a new w o r k e r . T h i s time however, B e t t y r e f u s e d t o aocept l i m i t s and t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s asked t h a t she he removed. B e t t y was a s s i g n e d t o a new worker and was p l a c e d a g a i n i n a f o s t e r home. There were f i v e o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e home i n c l u d i n g h e r s i s t e r . T h i s was a n emergency placement w h i c h f a i l e d  after  f i v e months* I n t h i s fosteafr home B e t t y and Joyce began onoe a g a i n t o q u a r r e l . A t s c h o o l she became d e f i a n t , t r u a n t e d , and seemed  unable  t o dfl» t h e academic work r e q u i r e d f o r Grade B i n e . There was a s t r o n g s u g g e s t i o n t h a t she was d e l i n q u e n t s e x u a l l y . Her former p a t t e r n o f l y i n g and s t e a l i n g r e t u r n e d . She s t a y e d o u t l a t e a t n i g h t s and appeared beyond t h e c o n t r o l o f h e r f o s t e r p a r e n t s . B e t t y ' s t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n e d t h e f o s t e r mother's a b i l i t y t o c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n . E v e n t u a l l y B e t t y asked  t h a t she be t a k e n from t h e home.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n showed t h a t t h e f o s t e r home was i n a s t a t e o f "chaos" and possessed  poor m o r a l s t a n d a r d s .  A t t h e age o f 16 B e t t y e n t e r e d h e r l a s t f o s t e r home. She a l s o had a new w o r k e r . The new f o s t e r p a r e n t s were i n e x p e r i e n c e d . They were v e r y young and had one n a t u r a l c h i l d aged three.The r e c o r d i n g d i d n o t note B e t t y ' s a t t i t u d e i n r e g a r d t o g o i n g i n t o t h i s home. The f o s t e r mother was d e s c r i b e d a s q u i e t b u t w i t h a good d e a l o f s t r e n g t h . The f o s t e r f a t h e r was a busy, e n e r g e t i c man who spent  57  c o n s i d e r a b l e time o u t s i d e t h e home. T h e i r d e s i r e t o c a r e f o r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n was  t o p r o v i d e companionship f o r the f o s t e r mother.  T h i s emergenoy placement seemed t o be s u c c e s s f u l f r o m t h e p o i n t o f view t h a t the f o s t e r p a r e n t s were a b l e t o a c c e p t b e h a v i o u r and the d i s r u p t i n g v i s i t s o f her p a r e n t s . Her s h i p s w i t h her t e a c h e r and c l a s s m a t e s  Betty's  relation-  seemed somewhat b e t t e r  a l t h o u g h her academiG achievement was p o o r . M e n t a l t e s t s  suggested  t h a t she d i d not have the a b i l i t y t o go f u r t h e r i n s c h o o l .  She  l e f t s c h o o l and, w i t h the f o s t e r p a r e n t s s u p p o r t , managed t o keep h e r s e l f employed. B e t t y however, s t i l l m a n i f e s t e d  problems i n r e g a r d t o r e l a t i o n -  s h i p . She became most h o s t i l e t o her worker and t h e Agency. B e t t y was  a l s o a n t a g o n i s t i c t o her p a r e n t s . S u b s e q u e n t l y ,  i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnent and  she became  s h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s broke her t i e s 1.  w i t h the Agency and her f o s t e r p a r e n t s by r u n n i n g away. The E f f e c t o f Care: S p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o B e t t y ' s developmental h i s t o r y was  not a v a i l a b l e . However, i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume,  from the I n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d  d u r i n g the y e a r i n w h i c h the Agency  provided a p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e , that Betty received only a standard  minimal  of c a r e . The p a r e n t s , because of t h e i r severe p r o b l e m s ,  were unable t o a c c e p t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f p a r e n t h o o d . An u n s u c c e s s f u l p r e v e n t i v e s e r v i c e was  g i v e n t o the f a m i l y  p r i o r t o the c h i l d r e n coming i n t o c a r e , Mrs. S m i t h seemed r e l i e v e d • B e t t y , a f t e r b e i n g l o s t f o r a few d a y s , r e t u r n e d t o the Agency t o ask p e r m i s s i o n t o marry the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r . T h i s p e r m i s s i o n was g r a n t e d .  58  t h a t she was no l o n g e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r c h i l d r e n , w h i l e Mr.Smith seemed g u i l t y because o f h i s f a i l u r e a s a p a r e n t . A t t h e time o f apprehension  t h e r e was no r e c o r d i n g on t h e f i l e s w h i c h would  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p a r e n t s and t h e c h i l d r e n were p r e p a r e d  by t h e  worker f o r w a r d s h i p . The r e c o r d i n g noted l i t t l e more t h a n  those  d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e p a r e n t s w h i c h had t h e f o c u s o f d e t e r m i n i n g whether o r n o t t h e r e were a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s t o w a r d s h i p . and h e r p a r e n t s , a s suggested  Betty  by t h e r e c o r d s , appeared t o r e c e i v e  l i t t l e h e l p i n ? ( a ) a c c e p t i n g s e p a r a t i o n ; (b) u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e purpose and r e a s o n s f o r w a r d s h i p ; ( c ) i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s o f t h e Agency and p a r e n t s . I t would seem t h a t i f more h e l p had been extended t o B e t t y and h e r f a m i l y i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r w a r d s h i p , and had t h i s c o n t i n u e d a f t e r w a r d s h i p ,  guardianship  might have been more s u c c e s s f u l . B e t t y ' s f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e i n c a r e was n o t p l e a s a n t . The f o s t e r home was h u r r i e d l y approved so t h a t t h i s placement o o u l d be made. L i t t l e r e g a r d was shown i n m a t c h i n g B e t t y ' s needs w i t h t h e capabi l i t i e s o f t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s . As a r e s u l t , B e t t y ' s f i r s t e x p e r i ence i n c a r e was one o f r e j e c t i o n . The  second f o s t e r home had p r e v i o u s l y c a r e d f o r f o s t e r  c h i l d r e n . The f o s t e r p a r e n t s had been s u c c e s s f u l w i t h c h i l d r e n who were slow m e n t a l l y and who showed problems o f b e h a v i o u r .  There  were n i n e o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e home who were a p p a r e n t l y o f s i m i l a r m e n t a l a b i l i t y t o B e t t y . I n e f f e c t , t h e placement was a q u a s i i n s t i t u t i o n a l one. T h i s placement s u i t e d B e t t y ' s needs f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : ( a ) she p a r t i c i p a t e d , i n group l i v i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n of s i m i l a r mental a b i l i t y ;  experience  (b) t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s  59 did  not a t t e m p t t o make h e r r e l a t e d e e p l y ; ( c ) t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s  were a b l e t o l e t B e t t y e x p r e s s h e r h o s t i l i t y ;  (d) t h e f o s t e r  p a r e n t s p r o v i d e d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o h e r ; (e) she m a i n t a i n e d h e r c o n t a c t s w i t h h e r f a m i l y . I n t h i s home t h e r e was a u n i t y o f purpose between t h e worker and the f o s t e r p a r e n t s . The f o s t e r p a r e n t s were a b l e t o understand the worker's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f B e t t y ' s behavi o u r and were a b l e t o t r a n s l a t e t h i s i n t o p r a c t i c e . T h i s home p r o v i d e d the environment w h i c h h e l p e d B e t t y t o make t h e t r a n s i t i o n from h e r p a r e n t s t o t h e Agency, I n t h i s home B e t t y r e c e i v e d t h e type of c a r e she  needed.  A t t h e end o f t h e placement B e t t y ' s b e h a v i o u r and  school  performance were much improved. She a l s o had the same worker t h r o u g h o u t t h i s placement. I t would seem t h a t B e t t y s h o u l d not have r e t u r n e d t o h e r f a t h e r f o r two r e a s o n s . The f i r s t one was t h a t she expressed t h e d e s i r e t o r e m a i n i n the f o s t e r home, S e c o n d l y , i n view of t h e f a t h e r ' s p a s t i n a b i l i t y t o c a r e f o r h i s c h i l d r e n , i t would seem t h a t t h i s plaoement had l i t t l e chance f o r s u c c e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , l i t t l e was known of t h e step-mother's c a p a c i t y t o c a r e f o r B e t t y . Soon a f t e r t h i s placement B e t t y and h e r step-mother began t o q u a r r e l . The step-mother appeared t o be q u i t e immature and responded w i t h h o s t i l i t y and r e j e c t i o n when B e t t y began t o compete f o r Mr. Smith's a t t e n t i o n . Mr. S m i t h was unable t o r e c o n c i l e t h i s  conflict  between h i s w i f e and d a u g h t e r . He a c t e d on h i s w i f e ' s i n s i s t a n c e and r e t u r n e d Betty, t o t h e c a r e of t h e Agency, T h i s s e r v e d as a n o t h e r r e j e c t i o n f o r B e t t y , She i n t u r n , responded t o t h e r e j e o t i o n by r e t u r n i n g t o h e r f o r m e r a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . B o t h B e t t y and h e r  60 p a r e n t s s u f f e r e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s u n s u o o e s s f u l placement. Mr. Smith's f e e l i n g s o f inadequacy were aggravated was t h r e a t e n e d . The Agency l o s t t h e support  and h i s marriage  o f t h e Smith's who,  because o f t h e i r g u i l t a t h a v i n g f a i l e d , became a n t a g o n i s t i c t o the Agency and attempted t o d i s r u p t t h e Agency's p l a n s f o r B e t t y . P o s s i b l y placement i n a r e c e i v i n g home would have been more h e l p f u l t o B e t t y and l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g t o h e r p a r e n t s * B e t t y ' s n e x t two f o s t e r homes f a i l e d . She r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t a u t h o r i t y and was thought t o be s e x u a l l y d e l i n q u e n t . She r e f u s e d t o keep r e a s o n a b l e and  hours and h e r p a s t b e h a v i o u r  of l y i n g ,  t r u a n t i n g from s c h o o l r e t u r n e d . Some o f t h i s b e h a v i o u r  be a t t r i b u t e d t o t y p i c a l a d o l e s c e n t r e b e l l i o n , b u t B e t t y ' s  stealing, could behaviour  was more s e v e r e . B e t t y ' s l a s t placement was more s u c c e s s f u l . The g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h i s success seemed t o be t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t B e t t y ' s b e h a v i o u r , and t h e worker's s e n s i t i v i t y i n working w i t h the f o s t e r parents r a t h e r than working w i t h B e t t y d i r e c t l y . Had t h i s plaoement c o n t i n u e d f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f time B e t t y may have been a b l e t o l e a v e t h e c a r e o f t h e Agency, b e t t e r equipped t o become a r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n . However, a t t h e end o f t h i s placement B e t t y once a g a i n r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y . She broke a n engagement t o marry because i t appeared t o h e r t h a t she was b e i n g asked t o r e l a t e t o o d e e p l y . Immediately h e r b e h a v i o u r became s e v e r e . She rebuked h e r p a r e n t s , h e r f o s t e r p a r e n t s , and t h e Agency. She q u i t h e r j o b and l a t e r became I l l e g i t i m a t e l y p r e g n e n t . B e t t y was i n c a r e f o r f i v e y e a r s . She r e c e i v e d s i x f o s t e r home placements and had f i v e w o r k e r s .  Two o f these  foster-home  61  placements  seemed t o p r o v i d e t h e k i n d o f c a r e B e t t y needed. I n  t h e s e two homes B e t t y r e c e i v e d t h e a c c e p t a n c e , t h e a f f e c t i o n , and s t a b i l i t y w h i c h had been denied h e r f o r so many y e a r s . I n t h e o t h e r f o u r f o s t e r homes B e t t y was s u b j e c t e d t o t h e r e j e c t i o n and i n s e c u r i t y she had known i n h e r own home. She l e f t c a r e w i t h o u t h a v i n g h e r b a s i c a f f e c t i o n a l needs met. R e b e l l i o n and i m p u l s i v e b e h a v i o u r seemed t o be B e t t y ' s way o f h a n d l i n g h e r dependency needs. I t i s wondered i f Betty,- who has n o t had h e r own a f f e c t i o n a l needs met, c a n meet the a f f e c t i o n a l needs o f h e r husband and  child.  Joyce Mason F a m i l y Background: Joyce and h e r f a m i l y f i r s t oame t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n October 1947, when she was e l e v e n y e a r s o l d . Mr. Mason, a f i f t y y e a r o l d f i s h e r m a n , had d e s e r t e d h i s w i f e t a k i n g Joyce w i t h him. They had been absent from t h e home f o r seven y e a r s . D u r i n g t h e s e seven y e a r s J o y c e and h e r f a t h e r had moved from one f i s h i n g p o r t t o a n o t h e r . The Mason m a r r i a g e was a bigamous one a s Mr. Mason had not o b t a i n e d a d i v o r c e from h i s f i r s t w i f e . Joyce was t h e daughter of t h e second m a r r i a g e . D u r i n g t h e time t h a t Joyce was away w i t h h e r f a t h e r t h e mother had made no attempt t o see h e r d a u g h t e r , Mr. Mason was d e s c r i b e d a s an e x c e s s i v e d r i n k e r . He had few f r i e n d s because of h i s b e l l i g e r e n t and a b u s i v e b e h a v i o u r . Mr. Mason was f r e q u e n t l y I n v o l v e d w i t h t h e law and possessed l i t t l e r e s p e c t f o r a u t h o r i t y . He was a s u c c e s s f u l f i s h e r m a n and worked d i l l i g e n t l y  62 at  t h i s o c c u p a t i o n . I t was s t r o n g l y s u s p e c t e d t h a t he had i n c e s t -  uous r e l a t i o n s w i t h J o y c e . Mrs. Mason, J o y c e ' s mother, was an " i r r e s p o n s i b l e " woman. She was a n a l c o h o l i c and was promiscuous. Her r e l a t i v e s noted t h a t she had n e v e r t a k e n any i n t e r e s t i n h e r c h i l d and had o f t e n p h y s i c a l l y abused h e r . Mrs* Mason was o f I n d i a n p a r e n t a g e . The r e c o r d r e v e a l e d l i t t l e  i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e Mason's  m a r r i a g e o t h e r t h a n i t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y i n t e n s e m a r i t a l d i s c o r d w h i c h , a f t e r f i v e y e a r s , ended i n s e p a r a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e s e f i v e y e a r s b o t h p a r e n t s drank e x c e s s i v e l y and b o t h were promiscuous. A f t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n Mrs. Mason moved i n t o a common-law u n i o n a n d , l a t e r s t i l l , m a r r i e d and s e p a r a t e d from a n o t h e r man. Mr. Mason e n t e r e d i n t o s e v e r a l eommon-law u n i o n s . J o y c e spent t h e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s o f h e r l i f e i n a home where she was s u b j e c t e d t o t o t a l r e j e c t i o n by h e r mother and where extreme m a r i t a l s t r i f e e x i s t e d . There was however, a s t r o n g bond of  a f f e c t i o n between Joyce and h e r f a t h e r * D u r i n g one o f t h e many placements t h a t Joyce had w h i l e i n  the  c a r e o f h e r f a t h e r t h e Agency r e c e i v e d a c o m p l a i n t from t h e  p o l i c e and t h e S o c i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h . A t t h i s time she was i n t h e home o f a m a t e r n a l a u n t . The c o m p l a i n t charged t h a t J o y c e was n o t g o i n g t o s c h o o l , had l i t t l e t r a i n i n g , and was i n an environment w h i c h was thought t o be u n f i t f o r a c h i l d . A l t h o u g h she was t w e l v e y e a r s o l d she had Only managed t o complete Grade One. B e f o r e t h e Agency was a b l e t o f i n a l i z e p l a n s , Mr. Mason removed Joyoe from t h i s home and p l a c e d h e r i n a c o n v e n t . Three months l a t e r t h e convent c o n t a c t e d t h e Agency. The S i s t e r s had become a n x i o u s about J o y c e ' s  63 b e h a v i o u r . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y had r e o e i v e d no f i n a n c i a l  support  from t h e f a t h e r . I n a d d i t i o n t o J o y c e ' s severe b e h a v i o u r , t h e S i s t e r s f e l t t h a t she mas m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . S u b s e q u e n t l y , she was a d m i t t e d t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l M e n t a l H o s p i t a l . She remained  i n the  H o s p i t a l f o r one y e a r . Her f a t h e r had d i s a p p e a r e d and h e r mother r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Mr. Mason had no l e g a l r i g h t s t o Joyce because o f t h e bigamous n a t u r e o f t h e m a r r i a g e . W h i l e i n t h e H o s p i t a l Joyce appeared  t o progress t o the point  where she no l o n g e r needed t o be c o n f i n e d . Her I.Q, was thought t o be 72. The H o s p i t a l a u t h o r i t i e s recommended t h a t Joyce be p l a c e d w i t h middle-aged  f o s t e r p a r e n t s who would n o t demand a h i g h s t a n d -  a r d o f b e h a v i o u r from a c h i l d , b u t where t h e home s t a n d a r d s o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r were s u p e r i o r . When Joyce was d i s c h a r g e d from t h e P r o v i n c i a l M e n t a l H o s p i t a l a t t h e age o f 13, she was committed  t o the care o f the C h i l d r e n ' s  A i d S o c i e t y a s h a v i n g no p a r e n t s w i l l i n g o r a b l e t o p r o v i d e f o r her c a r e . Joyce A t Time Of Care: A t t h i s t i m e , t h e r e c o r d n o t e d , Joyce was p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e and p r e s e n t e d no marked I n d i a n f e a t u r e s and c o l o u r i n g . She appeared p l e a s a n t and f r i e n d l y b u t was demanding o f a t t e n t i o n . She appeared unhappy w i t h t h e s e p a r a t i o n from h e r f a t h e r . S e r v i c e s I n Care: Joyce was i m m e d i a t e l y p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home. The f o s t e r f a t h e r was e l d e r l y b u t h i s w i f e was c o n s i d e r a b l y younger. The home possessed low p h y s i c a l s t a n d a r d s . A m e n t a l l y d e f e c t i v e boy o f f i v e  64 y e a r s w a s . a l s o I n t h e home. The r e c o r d s gave l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f a s t a t i s t i c a l n a t u r e . The f o s t e r p a r e n t s were thought t o have a s p e c i a l a b i l i t y i n caring f o r mentally retarded ohildren. Joyce remained  i n t h i s home f o r f o u r months and appeared t o  do w e l l . A t t h e end o f t h i s p e r i o d t h e worker was becoming concerned about t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s * l a o k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . The worker thought t h a t t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s were t o o p r o t e c t i v e and c o n t r o l l i n g . .Friends o f t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s  suggested  t h a t t h e y would l i k e t o c a r e f o r J o y c e . These f r i e n d s were f o s t e r p a r e n t s whom Joyce knew and l i k e d . As Joyce appeared  satisfied  w i t h t h e proposed p l a n t h e worker r e a d i l y agreed t o . t h i s a r r a n g e ment . D u r i n g J o y c e ' s f i r s t plaoement v i s i t s were made w i t h t h e n a t u r a l mother. These v i s i t s appeared  most u p s e t t i n g t o t h e g i r l  as she u s u a l l y f o u g h t w i t h h e r mother. M r s . Mason was f r e q u e n t l y i n t o x i c a t e d during these v i s i t s . I n h e r Second home, J o y c e was one o f seven c h i l d r e n . There was ren,  one o l d e r g i r l , a younger male c h i l d , and f o u r s m a l l e r c h i l d There were no n a t u r a l c h i l d r e n . The f o s t e r p a r e n t s were  d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g young and possessed a good r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. T h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s , a s noted i n t h e r e c o r d , were c a s u a l , c h e r r y , and t h e y had a n easy, b r e e z y manner. The f o s t e r f a t h e r was 15 y e a r s o l d e r t h a n h i s w i f e . The p h y s i c a l s t a n d a r d s o f t h e home were low b u t i t was f e l t t h a t t h e c o u p l e c o u l d o f f e r a g r e a t d e a l o f l o v e t o c h i l d r e n . The f o s t e r p a r e n t s had had c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s w i t h handicapped  children i nthe past.  65 Joyce remained i n t h i s home f o r 26 months. A c a d e m i c a l l y she managed t o complete a s c h o o l grade each y e a r w i t h f a i r performance. A t t h e end o f t h e placement she had completed Grade Pour a t t h e age o f 15 y e a r s . I t i s p o s s i b l e o f c o u r s e , t h a t she may have been passed each y e a r because o f h e r age. J o y c e ' s p r o g r e s s s o c i a l l y , however, was n o t a s good. She and h e r 15 y e a r o l d f o s t e r s i b l i n g r e s i s t e d t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s ' a u t h o r i t y . They were v e r y a r g u m e n t a t i v e , r e f u s e d t o come home on t i m e , and were thought t o be s e x u a l l y m i s b e h a v i n g . They were a l s o s u s p e c t e d o f d r i n k i n g and t h e y l i e d p e r s i s t e n t l y . L a t e r , t h e o l d e r g i r l was removed from t h e home. T h i s caused a good d e a l o f a p p r e h e n s i o n on t h e p a r t o f Joyce who was a f r a i d t h a t she would be moved t o o . The r e c o r d i n g i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e i n r e g a r d t o t h e method employed by t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s I n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o handle t h i s b e h a v i o u r . The w o r k e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n s t o t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s were not r e c o r d e d . The r e c o r d i n g d i d n o t d i s c l o s e t h e h e l p g i v e n by t h e worker t o J o y c e i n r e g a r d t o t h i s b e h a v i o u r o r t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e o t h e r g i r l from t h e home, . While i n t h i s home J o y c e had t h r e e worker changes. The f i r s t worker change, a s n o t e d , caused h e r c o n s i d e r a b l e a n x i e t y .  Moreover,  b o t h J o y c e ' s mother and f a t h e r v i s i t e d t h i s home. The f a t h e r made p r o m i s e s t o J o y c e t h a t he would t a k e h e r away from t h e c a r e o f t h e Agency. He a l s o used t h e s e v i s i t s t o c r i t i c i z e J o y c e ' s mother and attempted t o persuade Joyce t o l e a v e t h e home and n o t a c c e p t t h e p l a n s o f t h e Agency. He encouraged J o y c e t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e Agency was e n d e a v o r i n g t o b r e a k t h e f a m i l y . Mrs* Mason pursued a s i m i l a r  66  «  _  a p p r o a c h when Joyce v i s i t e d h e r . She would c r i t i c i z e  Joyce's  f a t h e r , c h a r g i n g him w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of b r e a k i n g up f a m i l y . J o y c e r e c e i v e d no s u p e r v i s i o n on t h e s e v i s i t s and mother was  the  f r e q u e n t l y i n t o x i c a t e d . On o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , Mrs. Mason  would not be home and J o y c e would be l e f t t o do as she She  the  sometimes stayed w i t h f r i e n d s and  a young man.  When t h i s s i t u a t i o n was  on one  pleased.  occasion stayed  with  d i s c o v e r e d , t h e Agency a l l o w e d  o n l y s u p e r v i s e d v i s i t s w i t h t h e mother and attempted t o c u r t a i l v i s i t s between Joyce and her f a t h e r . J o y c e r e s e n t e d t h e s e  restrict-  ions, The  f o s t e r p a r e n t s were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the problem of J o y c e ' s  s c h o o l attendance*  As a r e s u l t of her age and p h y s i c a l growth  J o y c e wanted t o d i s c o n t i n u e s c h o o l * Her p h y s i c a l growth was more advanced t h a n h e r c l a s s m a t e s She was  and  she was  far  s e n s i t i v e about t h i s .  a l s o slow t o l e a r n and r e c e i v e d l i t t l e s a t i s f a c t i o n academi-  c a l l y or s o c i a l l y . E v e n t u a l l y , the f o s t e r p a r e n t s asked t h a t J o y c e be t a k e n from t h e i r home as t h e y were no l o n g e r a b l e t o a c c e p t behaviour.  She was  d e l i n q u e n t , and  d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g l a z y , i r r e s p o n s i b l e , s e x u a l l y  she was  n i g h t s . J o y c e was  her  l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , and  s t a y i n g out l a t e a t  a p p r e h e n s i v e about t h e move and  stated that  she  had had t o o many moves i n the p a s t . She r a n away t o her grandmother's home but t h e r e was  no room f o r her t h e r e * Joyce was  the same f o s t e r p a r e n t s . The f o u r months. A t the end  placement c o n t i n u e d  returned  to  f o r an a d d i t i o n a l  of t h i s time the f o s t e r p a r e n t s demanded  J o y c e ' s r e m o v a l because t h e n e i g h b o u r s complained t h a t she e n c o u r a g i n g younger c h i l d r e n i n s e x u a l a c t i v i t y .  was  67  I n t h e next two months Joyce r e c e i v e d t h r e e more placements and one new worker. One o f t h e s e placements was i n a r e c e i v i n g home. Joyce was removed from here because she c o u l d n o t g e t a l o n g w i t h t h e s t a f f o r t h e o t h e r g i r l s . Her foster-home  placements  were e q u a l l y d i s s a t i s f y i n g and h e r b e h a v i o u r became more unaccepta b l e . She r a h away from one o f t h e f o s t e r homes t o t h e home o f a n a u n t , b u t was unable t o s t a y w i t h h e r . D u r i n g t h e s e two months t h e r e was no c o n t a c t noted between J o y c e and h e r p a r e n t s , J o y c e , a t 16 y e a r s , was p l a c e d a g a i n i n a f o s t e r home. T h i s was h e r l a s t placement. The f o s t e r p a r e n t s i n t h i s home were r i g i d , c o n t r o l l i n g , and v e r y r e l i g i o u s . The s o o i a l l i f e o f t h e f a m i l y was s t r u c t u r e d around t h e c h u r c h . Joyce r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t t h e l i m i t s s e t f o r h e r by t h e s e f o s t e r p a r e n t s and r a n away from t h i s home t o a n o t h e r a u n t . She was a l l o w e d t o s t a y i n t h e a u n t ' s home u n t i l t h e Agency c o u l d f i n d a n o t h e r f o s t e r home f o r h e r . W h i l e i n t h e aunt's home, J o y c e ' s b e h a v i o u r was c o m p l e t e l y out o f c o n t r o l . She r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e s c h o o l or h e r a u n t . She was l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , t r u a n t i n g from s c h o o l , and was s e x u a l l y d e l i n q u e n t . Soon t h e aunt asked f o r J o y c e ' s r e m o v a l a s she was unable t o c o n t r o l J o y c e . While i n t h i s home Joyce became i n v o l v e d i n a q u a r r e l between h e r mother and t h e a u n t . D u r i n g t h e q u a r r e l t h e whole f a m i l y h i s t o r y was r e v e a l e d and Joyce was blamed f o r t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s t h a t t h e f a m i l y now found t h e m s e l v e s i n , Joyce was once a g a i n p l a o e d i n a r e c e i v i n g home. She a l s o r e c e i v e d a new w o r k e r . W i t h i n a week she r a n away from here and r e t u r n e d t o h e r mother. The mother had l e f t t h e man she had r e c e n t l y m a r r i e d and was l i v i n g out o f Vancouver. Two months l a t e r Joyce  68  l e f t h e r mother and went t o l i v e w i t h a n o t h e r a u n t . The Agencyc o u l d o f f e r no p l a n and she was a l l o w e d t o r e m a i n w i t h t h e a u n t . Two months l a t e r Joyce became I l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnent and r e t u r n e d to  t h e Agency f o r h e l p . A new f o s t e r home was found and a new  worker a s s i g n e d . Joyce remained f o r two days i n t h i s home. She d i s a p p e a r e d w i t h h e r f a t h e r . A l t h o u g h she i s s t i l l under t h e g u a r d i a n s h i p o f t h e Agency h e r p r e s e n t whereabouts  i s n o t known.  The E f f e c t o f Care: Prom i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , J o y c e ' s l i f e p r i o r t o h e r a d m i s s i o n i n t o oare was most u n s t a b l e . I t was marked wHth numerous placements i n b o a r d i n g homes. D u r i n g t h e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s o f h e r l i f e she l i v e d i n a home environment o f depraved m o r a l s t a n d a r d s . While under t h e c a r e o f h e r f a t h e r , e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t she was a s s a u l t e d s e x u a l l y by h e r f a t h e r . C e r t a i n l y , t h e c a r e she r e c e i v e d p r i o r t o h e r placement i n t h e convent was most i n a d e q u a t e . Joyce r e c e i v e d a sense o f s e c u r i t y w i t h h e r placement a t t h e convent and t h e P r o v i n c i a l M e n t a l H o s p i t a l . W h i l e a t t h e convent she m a n i f e s t e d s e v e r e problems o f l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , temper, sibility,  irrespon-  and s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o u r . She wa3 a l s o v e r y h y p e r a c t i v e  and n e r v o u s . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l M e n t a l H o s p i t a l appeared t o have been s a t i s f a c t o r y i n m e e t i n g h e r needs. She l e f t t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n and e n t e r e d h e r f i r s t f o s t e r home p r e s e n t i n g no problems, a s noted i n t h e r e c o r d s . There was a l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e f i l e a t t h e t i m e o f c o m m i t t a l . The r e c o r d i n g d i d n o t note t h a t any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was g i v e n t o Joyce c o n c e r n i n g t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e Agenoy, t h e r o l e of  t h e worker and t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s , t h e r e a s o n f o r c o m m i t t a l ,  her f u t u r e w h i l e i n c a r e , o r t h e r o l e o f h e r p a r e n t s a f t e r c o m m i t t a l .  69  There was l i t t l e r e c o r d i n g w h i c h suggested for  wardship  t h a t Joyce was prepared  o r t o a c c e p t s e p a r a t i o n from h e r f a t h e r . The r e c o r d  f a i l e d t o r e v e a l t h a t t h e Masons were helped t o a c c e p t c a r e o r t h a t any attempt was made t o secure t h e i r h e l p i n c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e Agency, t o p l a n p o s i t i v e l y f o r Joyoe. The r e c o r d s made m e n t i o n o n l y o f Mrs. Mason's r e f u s a l t o p l a n f o r Joyce and h e r apparent agreement t o have Joyce become a w a r d . l a d  t h i s work been  done, wardship might have had a more b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t . A t 13 y e a r s o f age Joyce was p l a c e d i n h e r f i r s t f o s t e r home. A t t h i s age some a d o l e s c e n t r e s i s t a n c e t o p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y e x p e c t e d . However. Joyoe d i d n o t m a n i f e s t  this,  p r o b a b l y a s a r e s u l t o f h e r r e t a r d e d m e n t a l a b i l i t y and- p o s s i b l y because o f t h e s h o r t time she was i n t h e home. The i n g r e d i e n t s f o r a s e v e r e r e b e l l i o n were p r e s e n t i n t h e s i t u a t i o n a s t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s were d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g v e r y p r o t e c t i v e , r i g i d ,  controlling,  and p o s s e s s i v e , w h i c h would appear t o be c o n d u c i v e t o r e b e l l i o n . The f i l e made no s u g g e s t i o n a s t o how t h i s home might meet J o y c e ' s needs o t h e r t h a n t h a t t h e p a r e n t s had been s u c c e s s f u l i n c a r i n g for  other mentally retarded c h i l d r e n . T h i s placement t e r m i n a t e d h a p p i l y and J o y c e , t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s  and t h e Agency seemed q u i t e s a t i s f i e d t h a t she should be p l a c e d i n the home o f f r i e n d s o f t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s . In  h e r second home, s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s were noted  w h i c h may h e l p t o e x p l a i n h e r b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g t h i s placement. F i r s t o f a l l t h e r e were t h r e e changes o f w o r k e r s . The r e c o r d i n d i c a t e d t h a t Joyce was upset w i t h t h e f i r s t change. T h i s worker had been v i s i t i n g Joyce f o r n i n e months and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p had  70  been c l o s e . I n t h e next month t h e r e were two more worker  changes.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , worker changes o f t e n oocurred s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h changes i n t h e p h y s i c a l environment* There were a l s o s e v e r a l changes i n t h e home. The 15 y e a r o l d g i r l - f r i e n d was removed because o f h e r b e h a v i o u r . The r e c o r d made r e f e r e n c e t h a t Joyce was a n x i o u s a t t h i s time l e s t she be r e p l a c e d t o o . The r e c o r d does n o t mention t h a t Joyce was h e l p e d t o understand t h e r e a s o n s f o r h e r f r i e n d ' s r e m o v a l . Sometime l a t e r two o t h e r c h i l d r e n were removed from t h e home beoause o f t h e f o s t e r mother's i l l n e s s . A l l t h e s e changes seemed t o make Joyce f e e l t h a t h e r p o s i t i o n i n t h i s home was t e n u o u s . There was no mention made t h a t Joyce was g i v e n any u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e changes. There was no r e f e r e n c e t h a t J o y c e was made t o f e e l t h a t t h i s home was a permanent p l a n f o r h e r . She d i d n o t r e c e i v e a sense o f s e c u r i t y . S e c o n d l y , t h i s s i t u a t i o n was f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t e d by t h e v i s i t s of h e r p a r e n t s . Her f a t h e r , d u r i n g h i s v i s i t s , a p p a r e n t l y endeavoured t o encourage Joyce t o r e s i s t t h e p l a n s o f t h e Agency. Mr. Mason was most h o s t i l e t o t h e Agency because o f i t s a t t i t u d e towards h i s v i s i t s . He used t h e s e v i s i t s w i t h h i s daughter t o v e n t i l a t e h i s h o s t i l i t y b o t h towards t h e Agency and h i s w i f e . I r s . Mason, d u r i n g her v i s i t s w i t h J o y c e , c o n t i n u e d t o r e j e c t h e r d a u g h t e r . When Joyce and Mrs. Mason d i d come t o g e t h e r Mrs. Mason used t h e s e v i s i t s t o c r i t i c i z e Joyce's f a t h e r . T h i r d l y , J o y c e ' s s c h o o l l i f e d i d n o t h e l p h e r t o g a i n any secondary s a t i s f a c t i o n s . She was o l d e r and p h y s i c a l l y more developed t h a n h e r c l a s s m a t e s . As a consequence,  the s o c i a l p u r s u i t s of the  c l a s s had l i t t l e a t t r a c t i o n f o r h e r . A c a d e m i c a l l y , s c h o o l p r o v i d e d  71 l i t t l e s a t i s f a c t i o n beoause of her l i m i t e d m e n t a l  ability.  F i n a l l y , d u r i n g t h i s placement Joyce s u f f e r e d f u r t h e r r e j e c t i o n from her f a m i l y . Her aunt and h e r grandmother  r e f u s e d t o oare  f o r h e r . L a t e r a f u r t h e r r e j e c t i o n r e s u l t e d when t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s demanded her r e m o v a l because t h e y were no l o n g e r a b l e t o a c c e p t her b e h a v i o u r . J o y c e , a t t h i s p o i n t , would no l o n g e r a c c e p t a f o s t e r home. Three more f o s t e r homes were t r i e d b u t w i t h o u t s u c c e s s . A t her a u n t ' s home Joyce was s u b j e c t e d t o a f i n a l r e j e c t i o n when her mother p l a c e d a l l t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e f a m i l y  situation  on h e r . J o y c e ' s l i m i t e d f e e l i n g of s e l f - w o r t h s u f f e r e d a n o t h e r shock. Two  i n s t i t u t i o n a l placements were t r i e d but the l e n g t h of  t h e s e placements was t o o s h o r t . The f a i l u r e of t h e s e placements i n the r e c e i v i n g home t o meet J o y c e ' s needs had the e f f e c t of b e i n g i n t e r p r e t e d by Joyce as b e i n g a r e j e c t i o n by t h e Agency. I t would seem t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n was not equipped t o handle t h i s c h i l d ' s behaviour. Joyce l e f t t h e c a r e of the Agency and r e t u r n e d t o her f a m i l y i n an a t t e m p t t o g a i n some s e c u r i t y . I t would seem t h a t t h e Agency had not g i v e n her t h i s . The s e c u r i t y she was  s e e k i n g was  not  o b t a i n e d w i t h h e r f a m i l y * Her mother c o n t i n u e d t o r e j e o t h e r as did  h e r o t h e r r e l a t i v e s . F i n a l l y , Joyce r e - e s t a b l i s h e d  w i t h h e r f a t h e r who  herself  I n a o t u a l i t y seemed t o have p r o v i d e d t h e o n l y  c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h i s g i r l had known. I n t h r e e and o n e - h a l f y e a r s J o y c e r e c e i v e d f i v e f o s t e r - home p l a c e m e n t s , two i n s t i t u t i o n a l p l a c e m e n t s , and f i v e d i f f e r e n t w o r k e r s .  72 Her needs were n o t a d e q u a t e l y diagnosed and a s a r e s u l t t h e t y p e of care w h i c h might have met t h e s e needs was n e v e r p r o v i d e d . She l e f t t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e Agency i l l - p r e p a r e d t o assume h e r r o l e as a r e s p o n s i b l e a d u l t .  James Robb Family  Backgroundt  J i m i s t h e l a s t c h i l d t o be s t u d i e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r .  He was 15  y e a r s o l d a t t h e time he came i n t o c a r e and was t h e t h i r d  child  of seven i n h i s f a m i l y . H i s two o l d e r b r o t h e r s had f i n i s h e d t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l and were g a i n f u l l y employed, l i v i n g p e r i o d i c a l l y a t home. When J i m was t e n y e a r s o l d Mr. Robb, h i s f a t h e r , d e s e r t e d t h e f a m i l y and has n o t been heard o f s i n c e . Three y e a r s a f t e r t h e f a t h e r ' s d e s e r t i o n t h e f a m i l y was r e f e r r e d t o t h e Agency, I o i n formation  on t h e f a m i l y was a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e f i r s t t e n y e a r s o f  J i m ' s l i f e . However, some c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be drawn from n o t i n g t h e achievement o f t h e t h r e e o l d e s t c h i l d r e n . The  two o l d e s t b o y s , a t t h e date o f r e f e r r a l , had completed  t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l and were w o r k i n g . J i m and h i s youngest b r o t h e r B i l l were d o i n g q u i t e w e l l a t s c h o o l . J i m was d e s c r i b e d a s h a v i n g the respect  o f h i s c l a s s m a t e s and a s b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e .  Further,  t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e Exchange had no r e c o r d o f t h e f a m i l y . I t would seem t h e n t h a t some degree o f s t a b i l i t y and s e c u r i t y had been given t o the f a m i l y .  73  At the date of r e f e r r a l the f a m i l y was  i n dire straits,  Por  the p a s t two y e a r s many s o c i a l a g e n c i e s had p r o v i d e d a s e r v i c e t o t h e f a m i l y as had many c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , A c o m p l a i n t charged t h a t I r s . Robb was a l l o w i n g her c h i l d r e n t o beg on t h e s t r e e t s . The f a m i l y d i d not have s u f f i c i e n t f o o d * T h e i r h o u s i n g was  overcrowded and i n a f i l t h y c o n d i t i o n . The c o m p l a i n t  suggested  t h a t Mrs. Robb was p r o s t i t u t i n g and p r o b a b l y b o o t l e g g i n g . These c o n d i t i o n s a p p a r e n t l y had p e r s i s t e d f o r q u i t e some t i m e and  had  e v i d e n t l y been p r e c i p i t a t e d by t h e f a t h e r ' s d e s e r t i o n from  the  home. A f t e r the c o m p l a i n t was made t h e Agency p r o v i d e d a casework s e r v i c e t o the f a m i l y . T h i s s e r v i c e c o n t i n u e d f o r a l m o s t a y e a r , A f t e r her husband's d e s e r t i o n , Mrs, Robb e n t e r e d i n t o s e v e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men, Two  her l a s t t h r e e c h i l d r e n b e i n g i l l e g i t i m a t e .  of t h e s e c h i l d r e n had been p l a c e d w i t h Mrs, Robb's f r i e n d s .  The p a t e r n i t y of two o f the o h i l d r e n was  unknown. The r e c o r d i n g  s t a t e s t h a t Mrs. Robb was an a l c o h o l i c . She was  i n constant c o n f l i c t  w i t h her n e i g h b o u r s and l a n d l o r d , and was most v i n d i c t i v e .  She  seemed i n c a p a b l e of p l a n n i n g r e a l i s t i c a l l y f o r her c h i l d r e n and was  unable t o p l a c e h e r c h i l d r e n ' s needs b e f o r e h e r own.  l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r t h e f u t u r e and was concerned g r a t i f i c a t i o n of her own p r e s e n t needs. She was h a n d l i n g money and was  She  showed  only w i t h the Incapable of  d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g no r e s p e c t tor  law  order. This s i t u a t i o n continued f o r almost a year. At times  and  she  appeared most w i t h d r a w n and t h e worker noted i n t h e r e c o r d i n g t h a t she appeared p s y c h o t i c . The casework s e r v i c e s g i v e n t o Mrs, Robb had l i t t l e for  sucoess i n h e l p i n g h e r t o d i s c h a r g e h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  her f a m i l y e f f e c t i v e l y ,  74  The f o c u s of the s e r v i c e seemed t o he i n r e g a r d t o t h e youngest  i l l e g i t i m a t e o h i l d . The f a t h e r of t h i s c h i l d was known  and much e f f o r t was  spent by the worker i n s e c u r i n g m a i n t a i n a n c e  from t h e f a t h e r f o r t h i s c h i l d . A g r e a t d e a l of a t t e n t i o n  was  g i v e n i n t r y i n g t o appease the p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e M r s . Robb and t h i s man  had toward one a n o t h e r . E v e n t u a l l y , w i t h casework h e l p ,  Mrs. Robb agreed t o a l l o w J i m and h i s younger b r o t h e r B i l l t o be made wards. Mrs. Robb however, envisaged c a r e as a  temporary  e x p e d i e n t w h i c h would h e l p h e r f o r the moment. She had  little  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of w a r d s h i p , b u t c o n s i d e r e d i t as a means of r e l i e v i n g t h e p r e s s u r e s on h e r . The c o m m i t t a l o f B i l l and J i m d i d r e l i e v e some o f t h e s e p r e s s u r e s and f o r a tempo r a r y p e r i o d Mrs. Robb seemed !to be a b l e t o improve t h e s i t u a t i o n of  h e r f a m i l y . Soon a f t e r the c h i l d r e n were made wards however,  Mrs. Robb r e v e r t e d back t o her former b e h a v i o u r and w i t h i n a y e a r had r e m a r r i e d . The l e g a l s t a t u s of t h i s marriage.was not c l e a r . There was l i t t l e  I n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o the i n t e r - p e r s o n a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y . The r e c o r d s t a t e d t h a t J i m and his  mother were c l o s e . There appeared  t o be no s e v e r e  sibling  rivalry. Jim  A t Time Of Care; Jim  appeared  e n t e r e d c a r e a t 15 y e a r s of age. H i s f i r s t t e n y e a r s t o be ones when he r e c e i v e d some s a t i s f a c t i o n , b u t h i s  l a s t f i v e y e a r s were ones of n e g l e c t . However, J i m seemed t o pass t h r o u g h t h e s e f i v e y e a r s f a i r l y a d e q u a t e l y . A t t h e date of h i s c o m m i t t a l he m a n i f e s t e d no severe problems o f b e h a v i o u r , a c c o r d ing  t o t h e r e c o r d . He was thought t o be o f average  intelligence.  75  S e r v i c e s I n Care: As t h e r e was  no f o s t e r home a v a i l a b l e t o J i m he was  placed  i n a r e c e i v i n g home, the placement c o n t i n u i n g f o r n i n e months. The r e o o r d noted t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was  given to Jim i n regard  t o the r e a s o n s f o r h i s coming i n t o , c a r e and he a p p a r e n t l y r e c e i v e d some h e l p i n a c c e p t i n g the s e p a r a t i o n from h i s f a m i l y . I t was f e l t t h a t J i m was  happy and contented  i n t h e r e c e i v i n g home. He  s u c c e s s f u l l y completed h i s Grade E i g h t and was a b l e t o make f r i e n d s b o t h i n the home and a t s c h o o l . D u r i n g t h i s placement J i m seemed a n x i o u s about h i s mother and wanted t o v i s i t her r e g u l a r l y . The r e c e i v i n g home placement ended when J i m was p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home. The r e a s o n appeared t o be t h a t the Agency wanted t o make a more permanent p l a n f o r him. A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r the p l a c e ment was  t h a t J i m would be r e u n i t e d w i t h h i s b r o t h e r B i l l , who  a l s o i n t h i s home. J i m ' s worker made few v i s i t s the r e c o r d i n g was  was  t o the home and  brief.  J i m ' s f o s t e r p a r e n t s were d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g young. The home was  h i g h l y recommended a l t h o u g h the p h y s i c a l s t a n d a r d s were p l a i n .  There were t h r e e n a t u r a l c h i l d r e n i n t h i s home. The f o s t e r  parents  were thought t o be a b l e t o f r e e l y i n t e g r a t e a o h i l d i n t o t h e i r f a m i l y . They showed a g r e a t c a p a c i t y t o g i v e a f f e c t i o n t o c h i l d r e n and  seemed t o p o s s e s s the a b i l i t y  ance and  to give a foster c h i l d  accept-  security.  I n i t i a l l y , the placement seemed s u c c e s s f u l . I t ended, a f t e r a few weeks, when b o t h J i m and B i l l r a n away and r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r mother and r e f u s e d t o r e t u r n t o the f o s t e r home. Tlrs. Robb  was  t h o u g h t t o have caused the breakdown of t h i s placement because o f  76 h e r v i s i t s . J i m , i n p a r t i c u l a r , a f t e r h i s v i s i t s w i t h h i s mother, became u n s e t t l e d i n t h e f o s t e r home and seemed p r e o c c u p i e d . He q u i t s c h o o l i n o r d e r t o work and m a i n t a i n h i s mother, M r s . Robb l a t e r m a r r i e d Jim's employer. An o r d e r was made g i v i n g Mrs. Robb c u s t o d y f o r s i x months a s t h e Agency c o u l d o f f e r no a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n . W i t h i n a month J i m r a n away from h i s mother and r e f u s e d t o r e t u r n t o h e r . The o r d e r w h i c h gave Mrs. Robb c u s t o d y was r e s c i n d e d and J i m was p l a c e d i n a b o a r d i n g h o t e l . :  Jim's e f f o r t s t o h e l p h i s mother had f a i l e d . M r s . Robb, even  w i t h t h i s f i n a n c i a l h e l p , was unable t o improve t h e f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n and J i m appeared most d i s c o u r a g e d because o f h i s f a i l u r e . The b o a r d i n g arrangement was n o t s u c c e s s f u l e i t h e r . J i m l e f t t h e h o t e l w i t h o u t t h e Agency's knowledge. He was l a t e r charged  with  vagrancy and was p l a c e d i n a d e t e n t i o n home. J i m r e t u r n e d t o t h e Agency from t h e d e t e n t i o n home and was p l a c e d i n a n o t h e r  foster  home. However, t h i s placement was n o t s u c c e s s f u l . M r s . Robb c o n t i n u e d t o v i s i t . J i m r a n away a g a i n and s t o l e a c a r . He r e c e i v e d a suspended sentence and r e t u r n e d t o t h e same f o s t e r home, J i m s t a t e d t h a t he was unable t o understand h i s b e h a v i o u r and f e l t compelled t o r u n away and do something. A g a i n Mrs. Robb's v i s i t s were c r e a t i n g a n x i e t y f o r J i m . He r a n away from t h e f o s t e r home and was a g a i n charged w i t h v a g r a n c y . Uo l e g a l p r o c e e d i n g s were t a k e n and J i m r e t u r n e d t o h i s mother. The Agency had no a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n and J i m was a l l o w e d t o r e m a i n w i t h h e r . < With h i s r e t u r n t o h i s mother J i m commenced w o r k i n g * He t o o k r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p a y i n g f o r h i s room and board and completed h i s p r o b a t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y . S i x months a f t e r h i s r e t u r n home J i m a g a i n l e f t h i s mother and sought t h e h e l p o f t h e Agency i n o b t a i n i n g  77 employment, A j o b was found f o r him b u t he d i d n o t r e p o r t f o r work. I t was a t t h i s time t h a t J i m became " l o s t . " The  E f f e c t o f Care: There were many gaps i n t h e r e c o r d i n g w h i c h made a n e v a l u a t -  i o n of the help J i m r e c e i v e d during care d i f f i c u l t . H i s f i r s t placement i n a r e c e i v i n g home appeared t o be t h e most s u c c e s s f u l . D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o h i s l i f e i n t h e r e c e i v i n g home was n o t a v a i l a b l e . However, a n e x a m i n a t i o n  o f t h e known i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e s  some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e elements c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i t ' s s u e c e s s . F i r s t o f a l l J i m was an a d o l e s c e n t who had d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s . He seemed c l o s e l y t i e d t o h i s mother i n an u n h e a l t h y manner. On t h e o t h e r hand, M r s . Robb wanted h e r s o n t o p r o v i d e f o r h e r . She d i d not want him t o become Independent, and a p p a r e n t l y wanted J i m t o g i v e t o h e r b u t t o a s k f o r n o t h i n g i n r e t u r n . Under these circumstances,  t h e i n s t i t u t i o n appeared t o be t h e b e s t means  of c a r e f o r J i m . T h i s s e t t i n g d i d n o t demand t h a t J i m r e l a t e t o p a r e n t f i g u r e s . His- g u i l t a t h a v i n g l e f t h i s mother was l e s s e n e d when a p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p was n o t demanded o f hira. M r s . Robb was  a b l e t o a c c e p t t h i s n e u t r a l s e t t i n g . She was t h r e a t e n e d  and appeared c o n t e n t w i t h t h i s  less  situation.  T h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l plaoement had an added advantage because of i t s n e u t r a l i t y , The absence o f p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s p r o v i d e d a good s e t t i n g i n w h i c h J i m c o u l d be helped situation realistically*  t o a s s e s s h i s own f a m i l y  I t p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r J i m t o  examine, w i t h h e l p , h i s f e e l i n g s toward h i s f a t h e r . I t a l s o gave the Agency an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y J i m and p l a n f o r h i s f u t u r e c a r e .  78 I t seemed a p p a r e n t t h a t J i m was n o t r e a d y f o r a foster-home placement when he was removed from t h e r e c e i v i n g home. E v e r y foster-home placement had f a i l e d . The r e c o r d e d r e a s o n s f o r t h e f a i l u r e were Mrs. Robb's i n t e r f e r e n c e and J i m ' s r u n n i n g away. C e r t a i n l y n e i t h e r J i m n o r h i s mother c o u l d a l l o w a f o s t e r home t o be s u c c e s s f u l . E s s e n t i a l l y , J i m was r u n n i n g away from t h e p r o s p e c t of Jim  becoming a member o f a new f a m i l y . I n h i s f i r s t  f o s t e r home  was asked t o become a f u l l member o f t h e f a m i l y . T h i s he  c o u l d not do because of h i s g u i l t a t h a v i n g l e f t h i s mother, J i m appeared t o f e e l t h a t he was not worthy o f a happy l i f e i n a f o s t e r home. He appeared t o be i n c o n f l i c t over h i s l o y a l t y t o his to  mother and h i s a d o l e s c e n t d e s i r e f o r independence. He a t t e m p t e d handle t h e s e f e e l i n g s and g a i n e d temporary r e l i e f from h i s  c o n f u s i o n t h r o u g h r u n n i n g away o r s t e a l i n g . T h i s c o m p u l s i v e beh a v i o u r , and h i s p a t t e r n of r e t u r n i n g t o h i s mother, seemed t o be prompted by h i s need f o r punishment. A foster-home placement, and i n p a r t i c u l a r one w h i c h expected him t o absorb h i m s e l f c o m p l e t ely  i n t o t h e f o s t e r f a m i l y , was t o o t h r e a t e n i n g f o r J i m . An  i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement was much more s a t i s f y i n g . As a f i n a l p r o t e s t J i m r a n away from h i s mother's home and h i s whereabouts t o d a y i s unknown. Jim,  w h i l e under t h e Agency's g u a r d i a n s h i p , was p l a c e d i n  one i n s t i t u t i o n and two f o s t e r homes i n l e s s t h a n t h r e e y e a r s . The one c o n s t a n t f e a t u r e i n h i s l i f e under t h e Agency's c a r e was his  w o r k e r , a l t h o u g h t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was n o t s t r o n g . J i m , w i t h  his  mother's h e l p had always r e s i s t e d t h i s . I t i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n  t h a t J i m ' s c o n f u s i o n i n t h e a r e a of r e l a t i o n s h i p was as g r e a t when he d i s a p p e a r e d from the e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n o f the Agency as when he had f i r s t  come i n t o c a r e .  79 I n summary, i t would seem from the d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of the f o u r c a s e s t h a t these c h i l d r e n f a i l e d of o b t a i n the t y p e of c a r e t h e y needed. I n t h i s r e g a r d t h e r e appeared t o be a l a c k i n the Agency's p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s w h i c h p r e v e n t e d them from emotionally and  disturbed  c h i l d r e n . Resources of b o t h a  t r e a t m e n t n a t u r e were a l s o not adequate. The  homes and  r e c e i v i n g homes p r o v i d i n g  helping  diagnostic  numbers o f f o s t e r  on-going c a r e were t o o  few.  Moreover, the inadequacy of t h e s e p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s p l a c e d a g r e a t s t r a i n on the i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r s and  as a consequence c a s e -  work s e r v i c e s t o the c h i l d , the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y , and p a r e n t s , had  been g r e a t l y r e d u c e d . T h i s was  l a c k of d i a g n o s i s  the  foster  a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the  of the c h i l d ' s needs w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n p l a n s  b e i n g made w h i c h were not s u i t a b l e t o the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d .  The  Inadequacy of p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , i n s u f f i c i e n t casework s e r v i c e s , and  l i m i t e d d i a g n o s i s , a r e prime f a c t o r s i n t h e c h i l d r e n f a i l i n g  t o b e n e f i t from g u a r d i a n s h i p .  CHAPTER POUR FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS I t i s evident and  from t h e m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r s Two  Three t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  the 16 wards e v e n t u a l l y becoming " l o s t " t o t h e Agency. W h i l e t h e w e i g h t i n g o f t h e s e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s w i l l be i n d i f f e r e n t for  proportions  each p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , i n g e n e r a l , t h r e e main a r e a s o f d i f f i -  c u l t y a f f e c t i n g t h e suocess o f w a r d s h i p may be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d as common t o a l l t h e c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d . These r e l a t e t o : (a) t h e k i n d o f problem p r e s e n t e d by t h e c h i l d r e n b o t h b e f o r e and d u r i n g c a r e ; ( b ) problems o f a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e n a t u r e a f f e c t i n g t h e q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e g i v e n t o t h e c h i l d r e n ; and (o) a d e f i c i e n c y i n v a r i e t y as w e l l as i n number o f s u i t a b l e placement r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n t h e community, The  Problems o f t h e C h i l d r e n i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e S e r v i c e s  Offered  by t h e Agency. Most o f t h e 16 c h i l d r e n had come under t h e p r o t e c t i o n and c a r e o f t h e Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s The  majority  A i d S o c i e t y a t a n advanced age.  o f t h e c h i l d r e n , a t t h e time o f t h e i r c o m m i t t a l ,  m a n i f e s t e d severe problems a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r d e p r i v e d  family  backgrounds* P e r a l l b u t one c h i l d t h e f i r s t s i x y e a r s o f t h e i r l i v e s had been one o f e m o t i o n a l , and f o r many, p h y s i c a l d e p r i v a t i o n . These y e a r s a r e thought t o be t h e most c r u c i a l i n t h e development of a c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y where s e c u r i t y and a f f e c t i o n from t h e p a r e n t s a r e e s s e n t i a l . These c h i l d r e n c l e a r l y f a i l e d t o r e c e i v e  81  t h i s k i n d of p a r e n t a l c a r e and came t o t h e Agency p r e s e n t i n g severe e m o t i o n a l problems. The Agency, as a r e s u l t , was p r e s e n t e d w i t h a most c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k as i t attempted  to plan a substitute  form  of c a r e f o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n * P l a n s f o r t h e i r c a r e must endeavour t o p r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h w i l l compensate f o r the i n s e o u r i t y and d e p r i v e d a f f e c t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h e y have had'. The Agency needed a v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s t o meet each c h i l d ' s I n d i v i d u a l needs i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e the r i g h t p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l environment  to  compensate f o r the l a c k of s a t i s f a c t i o n s the c h i l d r e n had e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e i r own homes* The Agency would have r e q u i r e d a v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c e s t o meet each c h i l d ' s p a r t i c u l a r needs. I t may w e l l be t h a t t h e problems o f these c h i l d r e n were t o o severe t o be c a r e d f o r a d e q u a t e l y by t h i s Agency w i t h i t s l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . D u r i n g the time most of t h e s e c h i l d r e n were a d m i t t e d t o c a r e , (1941-1951) the demands f o r s e r v i c e s upon t h e Agency g r e a t l y i n * c r e a s e d . These demands became g r e a t e r t h a n t h e Agency c o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y meet. As a r e s u l t , the i n d i v i d u a l worker was  o f t e n under a  severe s t r a i n and a t t i m e s was w o r k i n g under emergency c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s emergency l e v e l o f work was f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t e d by the l i m i t e d placement r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o the Agency. These c o n d i t i o n s undoubtedly h e l p t o e x p l a i n ; (a) t h e many u n s u c c e s s f u l p l a c e m e n t s ; (b) the number of placements  of a temporary  nature; (c) the over-  l o a d i n g of t h e Agency's e x i s t i n g r e s o u r o e s ; (d) the l i m i t e d  case-  work s e r v i c e s g i v e n ; (e) and the inadequate r e c o r d i n g . As a r e s u l t , the s e r v i c e s t o these 16 c h i l d r e n s u f f e r e d .  82  The f r e q u e n c y  of the u n s u c c e s s f u l placements and the number o f  temporary foster-home placements e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e s e c h i l d r e n g r e a t l y added t o t h e i r I n s e c u r i t y . Each r e p l a c e m e n t was i n t e r p r e t e d by the c h i l d as b e i n g a r e j e c t i o n o f h i m s e l f . Moreover, the l a c k of adeguate numbers o f f o s t e r homes tended t o p l a c e an undue burden upon the Agency's b e s t f o s t e r p a r e n t s . T h i s o v e r l o a d i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y r e s u l t e d i n the f o s t e r p a r e n t s ' w i t h d r a w a l from a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Agency's foster-home programme. I t a l s o l i m i t e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the f o s t e r p a r e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o c a r e f o r the c h i l d r e n . Inadequate numbers o f f o s t e r homes sometimes made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y out C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c recommendations. Large c a s e l o a d s , and the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the w o r k e r ' s time w h i c h was  spent on g i v i n g emergency s e r v i c e s , reduced the  ability  o f the worker t o p l a n h i s work e f f e c t i v e l y . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n some b a s i c s e r v i c e s b e i n g denied t o t h e c h i l d r e n and the f o s t e r p a r e n t s . N e i t h e r were b e i n g helped by the worker t o get the most out o f the placement. Prom the r e c o r d s i t seemed t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the c h i l d r e g a r d i n g the r e a s o n s he came i n t o c a r e was The c h i l d r e n d i d not seem t o understand  not done  t h e r e a s o n f o r the  i o n from t h e i r f a m i l i e s and t h e y appeared t o be confused  adequately. separat-  as t o t h e  r o l e of the f o s t e r p a r e n t s , the Agency, and the w o r k e r . The p a r e n t s were s i m i l a r e l y  child's  confused.  The r e c o r d i n g s u f f e r e d t t o o , because o f the number of emergenc i e s and h i g h c a s e l o a d s . There were many gaps i n the r e c o r d s . Most n o t e a b l e were: (a) the l a c k of m a t e r i a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y background; (b) the f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s of the people concerned; ( c ) a l a c k o f d i a g n o s t i c m a t e r i a l f o r b o t h  the  83  c h i l d and t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s ; (d) worker's i m p r e s s i o n s were u s u a l l y not noted; ( e ) t h e r e c o r d i n g  d i d n o t show t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between  the c h i l d and t h e f o s t e r f a m i l y , and community; ( f ) t h e a r e a s o f focus i n the treatment plan, w i t h respect t o the f o s t e r parents, c h i l d , and n a t u r a l p a r e n t s , were n o t r e c o r d e d ; (g) t h e r e c o r d i n g lacked  c o n t i n u i t y between w o r k e r s . Most i m p o r t a n t , t h e r e c o r d i n g  d i d n o t g i v e t h e r e a d e r a c l e a r statement o f t h e c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p ment i n t h e p a s t , h i s needs a t t h e p r e s e n t , n o r a n i n d i c a t i o n o f what h i s f u t u r e needs might b e . The  l a c k o f s t a b i l i t y i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s was f u r t h e r  a g g r a v a t e d by t h e f r e q u e n t changes o f w o r k e r s . The c h i l d r e n had  studied,  a new w o r k e r , on t h e a v e r a g e , e v e r y n i n e months. O f t e n t h e  o h i l d r e n became a p p r e h e n s i v e because o f t h e numbers o f temporary placements and t h e o v e r c r o w d i n g o f f o s t e r homes. I n such s i t u a t i o n s the home was i n a s t a t e o f f l u x w i t h new c h i l d r e n coming i n t o t h e home, s t a y i n g f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d  o f t i m e , and t h e n were removed,  a l l o f which had a n u n s e t t l i n g e f f e e t on t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e f o s t e r parents. The  s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d b y t h e Agency t o t h e s e c h i l d r e n , were n o t  always a p p r o p r i a t e .  P o s t e r homes seemed t o be t h e b a s i c way o f  m e e t i n g a l l t h e needs o f t h e o h i l d r e n . Two o f t h e 16 c h i l d r e n  studied  were p l a c e d i n a n i n s t i t u t i o n . The one, a baby, was p l a c e d i n a n orphanage f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d  o f t i m e . T h i s was a c c e p t e d  practice  a t t h e time t h i s placement was e f f e c t e d . The o t h e r c h i l d was p l a c e d i n a r e c e i v i n g home because no f o s t e r home was a v a i l a b l e f o r him, but l a t e r he was r e p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home a s soon a s one became a v a i l a b l e . I n i t i a l placements were u s u a l l y made because o f a n  84  emergency s i t u a t i o n , w i t h l i t t l e  e v i d e n c e i n the r e c o r d s  of a p r i o r  assessment of the needs of the c h i l d , or the c a p a b i l i t i e s of foster  the  parents.  A l t h o u g h l e g i s l a t i o n s t r e s s e s the f a o t t h a t c h i l d r e n should be p l a c e d  i n f o s t e r homes, i t i s noteworthy t h a t t h e P r o t e c t i o n of  C h i l d r e n ' s A c t does p r o v i d e  f o r l o n g term placements i n i n s t i t u t -  ions w i t h the Superintendent's permission. may  be i n f a v o u r  Whatever the arguments  of a r e v i s i o n of the l e g i s l a t i o n t o b r i n g i t more  i n l i n e w i t h c u r r e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i n k i n g t h a t the f o s t e r home does not always meet the needs of a l l c h i l d r e n a t a l l t i m e s , i t i s c e r t a i n , i n the c a s e s of the c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d , the c o n s e n t of S u p e r i n t e n d e n t was  not a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n the Agency's use  the of  i n s t i t u t i o n a l placements; Placements i n r e c e i v i n g homes were used s p a r i n g l y . I t i s r e a l i z e d that often t h i s resource  was  not used beoause of  the  l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y of t h e Agency's i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, when i t was  used, t h i s r e s o u r c e  was  not u s u a l l y employed e f f e c t i v e l y . Such  placements were r a r e l y made as p a r t of a d e f i n i t e t r e a t m e n t p l a n , but r a t h e r o c c u r r e d  a f t e r a c h i l d had  homes. By t h i s t i m e , the c h i l d had  failed i n several foster  l o s t confidence  i n the Agency's  p l a n s . G e n e r a l l y t o o , the c h i l d * s b e h a v i o u r had become so extreme t h a t when an i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement was was  e f f e c t e d , the  institution  not equipped t o handle the b e h a v i o u r . I t i s noted t h a t  r e c e i v i n g home p r o v i d e d  the  l i t t l e t r e a t m e n t s e r v i c e s and most o f  c h i l d r e n , a t t h i s t i m e , were i n need of something more t h a n a g r o u p - l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n a n e u t r a l environment.  the  85 H.T. W i l s o n s u g g e s t s c e r t a i n groups o f c h i l d r e n who c a n be 1. helped t h r o u g h t h e medium o f an i n s t i t u t i o n . by him f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement  The groups suggested  possessed t h e same c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s a s t h o s e c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one c h i l d , who came i n t o c a r e a t t h e age o f one y e a r , a l l o f t h e s e o h i l d r e n c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n W i l s o n ' s groupings.- Many o f t h e o h i l d r e n weres (a) a d o l e s c e n t s who were r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y ; (b) many had s t r o n g p a r e n t a l t i e s ;  ( c ) a l l had unhappy f a m i l y and  p a r e n t a l experiences;(d) s e v e r a l of the c h i l d r e n ^ parents eould n o t , because o f t h e i r own needs, a l l o w t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o be c a r e d f o r by f o s t e r f a m i l i e s ;  (e) s e v e r a l o f t h e c h i l d r e n had d i v i d e d  l o y a l t i e s i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r p a r e n t s ; ( f ) many o f t h e c h i l d r e n were s o c i a l l y r e t a r d e d and a few were m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d ; (g) n e a r l y a l l had s e v e r a l u n s u c c e s s f u l f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t s . From t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , an i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement, p r o p e r l y equipped, may have helped these c h i l d r e n . P r i o r t o , and d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e c h i l d ' s c o m m i t t a l , the casework s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d t o t h e f a m i l y , a s noted from t h e r e c o r d i n g , appeared  t o be on a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l l e v e l . Such s e r v i c e s ,  i n r e g a r d t o s e c u r i n g employment, s e o u r i n g f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t from a f a t h e r , i m p r o v i n g t h e h o u s i n g , were s t r e s s e d . I t i s a p p r e c i a t e d , t h a t suoh s e r v i c e s a r e b a s i c t o casework h e l p . However, i t seemed t h a t such e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e r v i c e s were emphasized t o t h e exclusion', o f t h e e m o t i o n a l problems whioh were b a s i c t o t h e p a r e n t ' s I n a b i l i t y t o d i s c h a r g e t h e i r p a r e n t and community r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . There 1.  W i l s o n , o p . c i t . p.34.  86  seemed t o be l i m i t e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n g i v e n t o t h e p a r e n t s and the c h i l d r e n w i t h the f r e q u e n t r e s u l t t h a t the p a r e n t s and the Agency were w o r k i n g a t c r o s s - p u r p o s e s , The casework s e r v i c e q u i t e o f t e n seemed t o be a d u l t - c e n t r e d . The r e c o r d s suggest t h a t t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s e r v i c e was  inclined to  be c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e p a r e n t , w h i c h l i m i t e d t h e s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d t o t h e c h i l d r e n . O f t e n the c h i l d i s helped b e s t t h r o u g h  first  h e l p i n g the p a r e n t s * However, the r e c o r d i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t some o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n , because o f the a d u l t - c e n t r e d casework s e r v i c e , were not prepared f o r w a r d s h i p when such a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n  was  d e c i d e d upon. The needs o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n were not f u l l y known. Moreover, p r i o r t o t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e Agency's F a m i l y D i v i s i o n and the C h i l d P l a c i n g D i v i s i o n , w h i c h has been r e c e n t l y accompl i s h e d , t h e C h i l d P l a c i n g D i v i s i o n was not g i v e n a  sufficient  p e r i o d of time t o a d e q u a t e l y p l a n f o r the placement of t h e  child-  r e n whom the F a m i l y Department were c o m m i t t i n g . As a r e s u l t , emergency s i t u a t i o n s d e v e l o p e d . W i t h the i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e Departments, t h i s c o n d i t i o n has been  two  remedied.  The l a c k of d i a g n o s i s and e v a l u a t i o n i n r e g a r d t o the c h i l d and h i s f a m i l y , and the consequent f a i l u r e t o use Agency r e s o u r c e s . ( w h i c h i n c l u d e the worker's  time as w e l l as placement r e s o u r c e s )  t o t h e b e s t advantage, were major f a c t o r s l i m i t i n g t h e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t t h a t g u a r d i a n s h i p might have had upon t h e s e c h i l d r e n *  The  l a c k of d i a g n o s i s of the c h i l d ' s s t r e n g t h s , needs, and weaknesses, c r e a t e d more emergencies,  which i n t u r n , f u r t h e r l i m i t e d  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the s e r v i c e s . A d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of t h e  87  w o r k e r ' s time was  spent i n emergencies. B a s i c s e r v i o e s of i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n , c l a r i f i c a t i o n , and  s u p p o r t were n e g l e c t e d .  The p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l workt were n a r r o w l y adherred The  d e s i r a b i l i t y of r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g the f a m i l y u n i t and  to.  of p r e s e r v -  i n g the o h i l d - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s , the concept t h a t the f o s t e r home i s the b e s t way  of c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n o u t s i d e of t h e i r own home,  seemed t o r e o e i v e undue emphasis. I t would seem t h a t t h e s e  princi-  p l e s were e v o l v e d , not t o be a p p l i e d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y , but  to  serve as a guide t o good s o o i a l work p r a c t i c e . These p r i n c i p l e s should be c o n s i d e r e d from the p o i n t of view as t o whether t h e y serve the p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s . Agency and Community I m p l i c a t i o n s . S i n c e 1951  the Agency has expanded i t s s e r v i c e s and  staff  r a p i d l y . As a r e s u l t , the worker's c a s e l o a d s have been g r e a t l y r e d u c e d , w h i c h has had the d i r e c t e f f e c t of l e s s e n i n g t h e number of emergency s i t u a t i o n s . To*day, the w o r k e r s a r e a b l e t o g i v e more i n t e n s i v e casework s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n and  t o f a m i l i e s . However,  t h e r e a r e s t i l l some Important r e s o u r c e s needed i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r improve the Agency's s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n . The most n o t a b l e these a r e ; more f o s t e r homes, and I n s t i t u t i o n s , w h i c h c a n b o t h d i a g n o s t i c and t r e a t m e n t  of  provide  services to ohildren manifesting  problems. A l l of the c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Tom  Mann,  appeared t o have needed a placement i n an i n s t i t u t i o n where t h e y c o u l d have been observed and t h e i r problems e v a l u a t e d w i t h a view t o making a v a i l a b l e the most a p p r o p r i a t e type of c a r e .  88  Such an i n s t i t u t i o n should be s t a f f e d w i t h t r a i n e d whose purpose would be t o diagnose and,  personnel  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e d i a g -  n o s i s , e v o l v e a n a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n f o r t h e c a r e o f t h e o h i l d . There should a l s o be a c l o s e l l a s o n w i t h t h e s o c i a l worker who w i l l be s e r v i n g t h e c h i l d when he l e a v e s t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ' * The f i r s t  essen-  t i a l o f a d i a g n o s t i c and o b s e r v a t i o n a l c e n t r e i s t h a t t h e p o p u l a t ion  s h o u l d be s m a l l and i n c l u d e a wide age-range. B o t h sexes  be r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n . There s h o u l d be no p a r e n t  should figure,  b u t s e v e r a l f r i e n d l y a d u l t s o f b o t h sexes s h o u l d be p r e s e n t . C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c e x a m i n a t i o n s  s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o each c h i l d .  The p e r i o d o f such a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement should p r e f e r a b l y have d e f i n i t e l i m i t s s e t upon i t i n o r d e r t o o b v i a t e t h e use o f the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r o t h e r t h a n . i t s p r o p e r p u r p o s e s , and d u r i n g t h i s , a d i a g n o s i s and p l a n s h o u l d be f o r m u l a t e d t h r o u g h a group c o n f e r e n c e * Prom t h i s t h e needed r e s o u r c e f o r t h e c h i l d  should  t h e n be made a v a i l a b l e . , Some c h i l d r e n , a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r p e r i o d i n a d i a g n o s t i c and  study c e n t r e , may r e q u i r e s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t . Separate  resources  ( e i t h e r a f o s t e r home o r a n i n s t i t u t i o n ) should be a v a i l a b l e * I t i s n o t w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h i s s t u d y t o d e s c r i b e such a r e s o u r c e . I t may be t h a t a s p e c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d f o s t e r p a r e n t s c o u l d be f i n a n c i a l l y s u b s i d i z e d and t r a i n e d t o p r o v i d e t h i s s e r v i c e w i t h t h e s u p p o r t and 1. guidance  o f a s o o i a l worker*  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i a g n o s t i c  and t r e a t m e n t s e r v i c e s presupposes,  not only s u f f i c i e n t  1. W i l d y , L o i s , " The P r o f e s s i o n a l P o s t e r Home J a n u a r y , 1955*  foster  Child  Welfare,  89 homes, b u t homes where f o s t e r p a r e n t s p o s s e s s a wide range o f a p t i t u d e s and s k i l l s w h i c h w i l l develope t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e c h i l d , a s r e v e a l e d by the d i a g n o s t i c and t r e a t m e n t c e n t r e . I t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s study has been r e s t r i c t e d t o a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f the t o t a l number.of c h i l d r e n f o r whom the Agency provided  a s e r v i c e . However, i t does seem i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t  16 c h i l d r e n d i d n o t r e c e i v e t h e type o f c a r e t h e y r e q u i r e d . L e g i s l a t i o n makes p r o v i s i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n should  be cared  for  through p u b l i c guardianship  when the p a r e n t s f a i l t o p r o v i d e  adequate c a r e . A c c o r d i n g l y ,  s e r v i c e s are r e q u i r e d which c a t e r t o  the p a r t i c u l a r needs o f d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n . The group s t u d i e d , although small, nevertheless them w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e  need t h e s e r v i c e s w h i c h w i l l  o a r e . The Agency, i n assuming  provide guardian-  s h i p , has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g the s e r v i c e s u i t a b l e t o the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . I t would seem t h a t t h e l a c k s i n t h e Agency's r e s o u r c e s  should be made known t o t h e community i n o r d e r  t h a t these resources  may be p r o v i d e d .  When c h i l d r e n a r e  "lost','  the Agency has n o t c a r r i e d out i t s l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s guardians. T h i s s t u d y has d e a l t w i t h 16 c h i l d r e n f o r whom p u b l i c guardi a n s h i p has n o t been s u c c e s s f u l . I t has attempted t o determine t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s f a i l u r e . The most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s appear t o be t h e s e v e r i t y o f the c h i l d r e n ' s p r o b l e m s , and t h e i n s u f f i c i e n c y of a v a r i e t y o f r e s o u r c e s . (a) the w o r k e r ' s t i m e ; and  (c) r e s o u r c e s  These may be c o n s i d e r e d  (b) d i a g n o s t i c and t r e a t m e n t  i n terms o f ? resources;  p r o v i d i n g on-going c a r e . From the s t u d y i t would  90 seem t h a t 13 c h i l d r e n w i l l have extreme d i f f i c u l t i e s i n competing s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h e a d u l t w o r l d , w h i l e one c h i l d w i l l have  diffi-  c u l t y i n f o r m i n g harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p s b u t o t h e r w i s e w i l l a m o d e r a t e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y l i f e . Recorded i n f o r m a t i o n  lead  f o r two  c h i l d r e n i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o f o r m u l a t e a p r e d i c t i o n . I t must be remembered t h a t t h e s e a r e b u t 16 c h i l d r e n o f 1220 c h i l d r e n were under t h e Agency's c a r e i n 1954.  who  91  APPETOIX A. Problems M a n i f e s t e d  by the C h i l d r e n ' s  Parents  Emotional  Behaviour  Alcoholism Dependency Homosexuality Immaturity Immorality Irresponsibility Molesting Children O v e r l y p r o t e c t i v e of c h i l d r e n Promiscuity R e j e c t i n g of c h i l d r e n Unable t o c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n -  Common lav? m a r i t a l u n i o n Conflict with authority Desertion Hostile Lazy Overly aggressive U n s t a b l e work r e c o r d Vagrant  Medical-Physical  Disturbed  Blind Crippled Deaf Diabetic Epileptic Speech d i f f i c u l t i e s Tuberculosis Undernourished  Psychotic Pre-psychotic  Difficulties  Anti Social Involvement w i t h the law r e s u l t i n g in a criminal conviction  i n Relationship  Divorce Marital strife Poor f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s Separation Unable t o l i v e h a r m o n i o u s l y w i t h neighbors.  # Based on Reed, G.A., The Placement of A d o l e s c e n t Boys M.S.W. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950  92 APPENDIX B. *Problems M a n i f e s t e d by t h e C h i l d r e n E m o t i o n a l Problems  D e l i n q u e n t Tendencies  Compulsive Demanding Easily led E x c e s s i v e day dreaming Hyper a c t i v e Impulsive Irresponsible Insecure Low sense, of p e r s o n a l w o r t h Moody Over c o n f o r m i n g Over dependent Over s e n s i t i v e Poor e m o t i o n a l tone Temper tantrums Unsettled Withdraw  Anti social Bullying Defiant Delinquent Lying Rebellious Stealing Using a l c o h o l  D i f f i c u l t i e s i n Relationship Cannot r e l a t e t o own age group R e j e c t i o n by p a r e n t s S i b l i n g r i v a l r y {extreme) Strong parent t i e s  Incontinence  Sex D i f f i e u l t i e s  Eneuresis Soiling Uncleanliness  Sex b e h a v i o u r Masturbation Femininity  No I n f o r m a t i o n I n s u f f i c i e n t information to c l a s s i f y Disturbed Psychotic Pre-psychotic  B e h a v i o u r Problems Bad language Conflict with authority Contrary Cheeky Hostile L a t e hours Lazy - l a c k o f a m b i t i o n Non-c onforming Out of c o n t r o l Poor work r e c o r d Running away Suspicious Truancy Unco-operative Vagrant  Good Adjustment No problems recorded  Low  I.Q..  I n c l u d e s a l l up" t o low average Physical-Medical Headaches ( m i g r a i n e ) Menstrual d i f f i c u l t i e s Poor h e a r i n g Poor v i s i o n Running e a r s Rupture Speech d i f f i c u l t i e s Undernourished  * Based on Reed, G.A., The Placement of A d o l e s c e n t Boys, M.S.W. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950  93  APPENDIX 0. Schedule Used for Gases I d e n t i f y i n g I n f o r m a t i o n f o r C h i l d and P a r e n t (1) Code number o f c h i l d . (2) Reason f o r c a r e . (3) Date o f a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e * (4) H e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d a t t h e date o f a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e . (5) P h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n a t date o f a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e . (6) P h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s a t date o f a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e . (7) Age a t a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e . (8) Date o f c o m m i t t a l t o c a r e , ( 9 ) E d u c a t i o n a t date o f a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e . (10) C h i l d ' s p l a c e i n t h e s i b l i n g l i n e . (11) T e s t i n g and/or e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e a t date of a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e * (12) Number o f p r i v a t e placements p r i o r t o t h e c h i l d ' s a d m i s s i o n to care. (13) Problems o f t h e c h i l d a t t h e date o f a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e . (14) A t t i t u d e o f t h e c h i l d r e n r e s p e c t i n g w a r d s h i p . (15) Problems o f t h e p a r e n t s a t t h e date o f c h i l d ' s a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e . (16) M a r i t a l s t a t u s o f p a r e n t s . Placement (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)  History  Number of workers , Number o f r e - a d m i s s i o n s t o c a r e , Number o f f o s t e r homes. The l o n g e s t and s h o r t e s t foster-home placement. O r i g i n o f r e q u e s t f o r re-placement o f t h e o h i l d . The number and type o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l placements t h e c h i l d r e n received. (7) S p e c i a l s e r v i c e s t h e c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d - e.g. C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c services* (8) P a r e n t - c h i l d c o n t a c t s a f t e r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e . . v  Adjustment (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)  Problems o f t h e c h i l d r e n a t date l o s t . C o n t a c t s w i t h t h e Agency a f t e r t h e date l o s t . Date c h i l d became l o s t . Environment from which t h e c h i l d became l o s t . S c h o o l grade completed a t t h e date t h e c h i l d became l o s t .  94  BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Abbot, Grace, The C h i l d and the S t a t e , 2 v o l s . , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1938. Angus, Anne M a r g a r e t , C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver^ B.C. 1901-1951, Vancouver, B.C. 1951. A h i s t o r y o f the Vancouver S o c i e t y prepared f o r the f i f t i e t h a n n i v e r s a r y c e l e b r a t i o n . B u r m e i s t e r , Eva, P o r t y - f i v e i n t h e F a m i l y , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York, 1949. Deutch, A l b e r t , Our R e j e c t e d C h i l d r e n , L i t t l e , Brown, and Co., B o s t o n , 1950i McGovern, C e c e l i a * S e r v i c e s t o C h i l d r e n i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , Washington, R a n s d a l l , 1948, T h u r s t o n , Henry, The Dependent C h i l d , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1930. A r t i c l e s , R e p o r t s , and Other S t u d i e s B r i t i s h Columbia, R e v i s e d S t a t u t e 1948, Chap. 47, Sec. 7.. Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , Canadian C o u n c i l on C h i l d and F a m i l y W e l f a r e , W e l f a r e L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada and the P r o v i n c e s , 1942-43, Ottawa, 1944. Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n i n Canada, Ottawa, 1954. Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , C o n c e r n i n g C h i l d r e n , v o l . 3 , no.7, Ottawa, March 1950. Committee on C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n , A s s o c i a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n ' s A i d f o r the P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , 1952-53Reed, George, A. The Placement o f A d o l e s c e n t Boys, M.S.W. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950. Vaitman, E r n a , A Study o f C.A.S. Wards not i n F o s t e r Homes, M.S.W. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955. Weissman, I r v i n g , e t . a l i a ; C h i l d r e n s Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n No. 330, F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency, 1949. W i l s o n , H a r o l d T., Embury House, A R e c e i v i n g Home f o r C h i l d r e n , M.S.W. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1950.  

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