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The forestry camp for prison workers : a review of the British Columbia (Probation Branch) programme,… Dewey, Fredrick Hartly 1955

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THE FORESTRY GAMP FOR PRISON WORKERS A r e v i e w o f the B r i t i s h Columbia  IjProbation  Branch)  Programme, 1951*1953*  by F r e d r i c k H a r t l y Dewey  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree Of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l work  Accepted a s conforming t o the s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r the degree of Master o f S o c i a l Work  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  1955 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  ill ABSTRACT The F o r e s t r y Camp for. P r i s o n Workers The subject-matter o f t h i s study i s a d e s c r i p t i v e account Of the p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camp programme which was o p e r a t i v e i n the K e t t l e R i v e r d i s t r i c t . i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1951 t o 1953* P e r s p e c t i v e i s g i v e n by examination o f the o r i g i n and p r o g r e s s o f the use o f p r i s o n l a b o u r i n g e n e r a l , and o f p r i s o n l a b o u r p r o j e c t s i n contemporary f o r e s t r y camps* The B r i t i s h Columbia p r o j e c t i s e v a l u a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the programme as p a r t o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process* The methods Used i n a r r i v i n g a t the c o n c l u s i o n s found i n the study have been those o f comparison and a n a l y s i s , by r e f e r ence t o (a) a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; (b) s e l e c t i o n o f inmates; ( c ) types o f inmate, and (d) components o f t h e programme, The p o s i t i v e and negative a s p e c t s o f the programme have been e v a l u a t e d as f a r as possible.* The b e n e f i t s which may be d e r i v e d by inmates a s s i g n e d to these camps i n c l u d e (a) improvement i n p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h from outdoor work and l i v i n g , (b) experience I n the camps which more c l o s e l y resembles t h a t o f normal s o c i e t y * These h e l p terminate a p r i s o n e r ' s sentence w i t h a more a c c e p t a b l e r e ^ i n t r o d u c t i o n t o community l i f e . On the o t h e r hand, i t I s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e many problems which can impede t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a programme o f t h i s nature, I n c l u d i n g a d i v i d e d administration,- u n t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l and inadequate f a c i l i t i e s and f i n a n c e s * Tee study suggests t h a t these d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e not insurmountable, and recommendations are made which would f u r t h e r the success and value o f such programmes*  ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1.  P r i s o n Labour ana p r i s o n F o r e s t r y O r i g i n s and H i s t o r y  Camps:  D e f i n i t i o n , o r i g i n and e a r l y systems o f p r i s o n o r oonviet l a b o u r . F u n c t i o n s and purposes. C r i t i c i s m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p r i s o n l a b o u r programme. E v o l u t i o n o f p o l i c i e s f o r p r i s o n l a b o u r and f o r e s t r y camps. ............ Chapter 2,  Page  1  Some Comparative F o r e s t r y Camp Projgrammes  The p r o j e c t s oompared ( C a l i f o r n i a , W i s c o n s i n , M i c h i g a n and M a s s a c h u s e t t s ) . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . S e l e c t i o n o f inmates. Nature o f work p r o j e c t s . E x t r a work a c t i v i t i e s , P h i l o s o p h y o f the Camp Programmes. C o n c l u s i o n s . .....*....*......»...•*...•..••..••.••......••..,.« 19 Chapter 3.  The B r i t i s h Columbia Programme: Treatment A s p e c t s .  O r i g i n ; a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; s e l e c t i o n o f inmates. Type o f inmate; p e r s o n n e l j nature o f work p r o j e c t s . O p e r a t i o n o f Programme; (1) camp r o u t i n e , (2) p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , (3) d i s c i p l i n e . Extra-work a c t i v i t i e s . P h i l o s o p h y o f camp programmes and s o c i a l work i m p l i c a t i o n s . •. .41 Chapter 4.  B e n e f i t s and D i f f i c u l t i e s  O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the group work method, impediments. Recommendations. C o n c l u s i o n s . ...................63 T a b l e s and Charts i n the Text Schedule A.  Table 1.  Bibliography  Comparative a n a l y s i s o f d i f f e r e n t f o r e s t r y damp p r o j e c t s ( C a l i f o r n i a , W i s c o n s i n , M i c h i g a n and M a s s a c h u s e t t s ) •  ..40  S o o i a l h i s t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e inmates i n the B r i t i s h Columbia P r i s o n F o r e s t r y Camp Programme d u r i n g the year 1953. ............. 49 .76  iv  ACKNO^XEDGEHENTS Thanks are extended t o : Mr. E . G. B, S t e v e n s . I n s p e c t o r o f G a o l s . Mr* Hugh G. C h r i s t i e , Warden o f O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm,  Mr.  0* X>* C l a r k , Deputy Warden o f Treatment O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm and Mr* R. M. D e i l d a l , who was the" s e n i o r o f f i c e r i n charge o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r i s o n F o r e s t r y Gamp programme from 1951 t o 1953, and who i s now A s s i s t a n t Deputy Warden o f Treatment O a k a l l a  Prison  Farm. S p e c i a l thanks are g i v e n t o ;  Wr* A* i f . M a r r i a g e o f t h o  S c h o o l o f s o c i a l Work* U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and Mr. R. M. D e i l d a l , A s s i s t a n t Deputy Warden o f Treatment P r i s o n Farm, f o r t h e i r time spent i n g i v i n g v a l u a b l e  Oakalla encourage*!  ment and a s s i s t a n c e , w i t h o u t which, t h i s study might n o t have been written*  The F o r e s t r y Gamp F o r P r i s o n Workers A Review o f the B r i t i s h Columbia ( P r o b a t i o n Branch) programme. 1951*1955*  I  Chapter I P r i s o n Labour and p r i s o n F o r e s t r y Camps: O r i g i n s and H i s t o r y .  P r i s o n l a b o u r i s t h e name $ i v e n t o t h a t phase o f p r i s o n o r g a n i s a t i o n eoaeernod w i t h t h e employment o f p r i s o n e r s .  In  ssoot c i v i l i s a t i o n s I t has been customary f o r t h e s t a t e t o u t i l i s e , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , the labour o f p r i s o n e r s ,  The  m o t i v e has been p r i m a r i l y , a l t h o u g h n o t e n t i r e l y , on© o f economy or p r o f i t *  The t y p e s o f work performed by t h e p r i s o n e r s has been  d e t e r m i n e d p a r t l y by e x i s t i n g economic and s o c i a l and  concepts.  institutions  P r i s o n l a b o u r may be r e g a r d e d a s a p u n i t i v e f a c t o r  i n a d d i t i o n t o i n c a r c e r a t i o n , a s an a m e l i o r a t i n g a s p e c t i a punishment, o r as a p a r t o f th© programme f o r t h e s o c i a l and economic r e f o r m a t i o n  of prisoners**  Work programmes i n p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e n o t a new i d e a , Such programmes were i n a u g u r a t e d s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e p r i s o n s were started.  Xn t h e p a s t , p r i s o n l a b o u r was  punishment.  Convicted offenders  c h i e f l y a form o f  were s e n t e n c e d t o p r i s o n f o r eo  many d a y s , y e a r s , o r whatever th© case was, a t " h a r d  labour*'*  N e i t h e r t h e c o u r t s n o r t h e p u b l i c gave l i t t l e t h o u g h t o r c o n c e r n t o what t h e o f f e n d e r s  d i d w h i l e a t p r i s o n , o r f u r t h e r s t i l l , what  B o b i n s o n , L o u i s K*, '•Prison L a b o r " , E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f t h e s o c i a l S c i e n c e s , Volume Twelve, K a c M l l l a n and Company, Eew Y o r k , 1934* p. 418.A  - 2  the p r i s o n d i d t o them. change. up a s :  -  Today t h e s i t u a t i o n has undergone a v a s t  I n most i n s t a n c e s the aims o f p r i s o n l a b o u r may (a) r e l i e v i n g the monotony and  be summed  idleness of p r i s o n  (b) r e d u c t i o n o f c r i m e ; (c) maintenance o f  life;  prison discipline;  (d) m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f economic p r o d u c t s t o reduce the  cost  of  s u p p o r t ; (e) r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t h r o u g h a u s e f u l work programme.*'' O r i g i n and E a r l y Systems o f P r i s o n o r C o n v i c t  Labour.  I n t r a c i n g the I n c e p t i o n o f p r i s o n l a b o u r i t has been n o t e d t h a t forced labour f o r persons held g u i l t y of c r i m i n a l was  employed as f a r b a c k as the a n c i e n t Romans and  P r i s o n e r s c a p t u r e d I n war,  paupers and  offences  Egyptians.  c h i l d r e n were f r e q u e n t l y  s o l d I n t o bondage, and p e o p l e c o n v i c t e d o f s p e c i a l o f f e n c e s  were  made s l a v e s . G a l l e y s l a v e s were t h o u g h t t o be among the f i r s t t o be made t o work i n what m i g h t be c a l l e d " f o r c e d l a b o r " . was  Whenever t h e r e  a s o a r c i t y o f f r e e l a b o u r , o r i f the t a s k s were of such a  n a t u r e t h a t t h e y were u n a t t r a c t i v e t o the o r d i n a r y w o r k i n g t h e n s l a v e s were c o n s o r i p t e d  man,  into service.  A t the c l o s e o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y  the s a i l i n g  ship  d i s p l a c e d the g a l l e y , and as a consequence o t h e r methods o f d e a l i n g w i t h the c o n v i c t had  t o be e s t a b l i s h e d .  p r i s o n s the d e a t h p e n a l t y , and  S i n c e t h e r e were no  the u t i l i z a t i o n of d e p o r t a t i o n  to  • G i l l e n , J o h n L e w i s , " C r i m i n o l o g y and P e n o l o g y " , D. A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y Company, I n c . , New Y o r k , London, 1945. p. 399. B a r n e s , E. H* and T e e t e r s , K. N., "New H o r i z o n s i n C r i m i n o l o g y " , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , New Y o r k , 1945, p, 686. 2  *  colonies m$e  mm  3  «*  frequently used.  Also $ r O T 4 n $ simultaneously  with these ttettads of puhisteeai tsere the workhouses i n "Europe. Although these workhouses were not o r i g i n a l l y entrusted ^ i t h th© custody of prisoners convicted of crime, a few of them gradually developed along these l i n e s *  They were the r e s u l t s of the e f f o r t s  of some of the more enlightened administrators of the day,  who  showed more of an a l t r u i s t i c concern with, regard to both the problem of dealing with orimiaals and alee, to some extent, t h e i r rehabilitation,  these workhouees were employed not only as a  place of detention f o r youthful offenders, but served also as a place whereby the offender could not only l e a r n a trade, but could toe productive to the benefit of the state or municipality* The next phase i n the o r i g i n of prison labour was of the f i r s t r e a l prison or penitentiary*  the r i s e  f b l s was an outcome of  the Philadelphia reformers renovating the Walnut s t r e e t J a i l .  The  substance of t h e i r plan was that prison labour should be both productive and reformative. 1790,  This plan materialized i n the year .  and t h i s date marks the beginning of the modern era of  prison labour*  I t marked the f i r s t time i n penal h i s t o r y that  oonvicts were employed at a d i g n i f i e d task*  They were paid a  wag© f o r t h e i r labours, and the whole process was oriented toward r e h a b i l i t a t i o n rather than punishment*  This system continued  until  the 18£Q*s when mass overcrowding of prisons l e d to a continually diminishing number of prisoners being; employed i n a p r o f i t a b l e laanner.  Gradually the t o t a l products from prison labour became  only a small percentage of the cost of administering the i n s t i t u t i o n s , and the Walnut Street J a i l , and s i m i l a r systems suffered both i n d u s t r i a l and f i n a n c i a l f a i l u r e *  Hoover*, soon a f t e r t h i s  "made-work" d e v i c e s such as t h e t r e a d m i l l and c r a n k were b r o u g h t i n t o use by t h e more hardened p e n o l o g i s t s o f t h a t day, who r e j e c t e d s o - c a l l e d " c o d d l i n g " o f t h e p r i s o n e r s b u t emphasized t h e r e t r i b u t i v e aspects.  I t was a t t i t u d e s such as these w h i c h l e d t o  the i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n t systems o f e a r l y p r i s o n labour, 1.  Contract labour:  T h i s system c o n s i s t e d i n t h e l e t t i n g o u t o f  the l a b o u r o f p r i s o n e r s t o an o u t s i d e c o n t r a c t o r who s u p p l i e d b o t h t h e raw m a t e r i a l s and m a c h i n e r y , and who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e p r i s o n e r s ' work.  T h i s c o n t r a c t p r a c t i c e was  most p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1825*1840, and by as e a r l y as 1819 d e f i c i t s i n o p e r a t i n g p r i s o n s were t r a n s p o s e d £.  Lease l a b o u r system:  into  profits.  T h i s was b u t a v a r i a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a c t  system inasmuch as t h e c o n t r a c t o r s assumed t h e complete c o n t r o l o f the p r i s o n e r s , s u b j e c t t o t h e s t i p u l a t i o n s f i x e d by s t a t u t e . c o n v i c t s were t a k e n from t h e p r i s o n s and were employed i n t a s k s a s a g r i c u l t u r e , q u a r r y i n g , b r i d g e and r o a d 3.  F a c t o r y system:  The  such  construction.  T h i s p r a o t l c e reached i t s peak d u r i n g the l a s t  h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e twentieth.  The aim o f t h e system was n o t o n l y t o o b v i a t e I d l e n e s s i n  p r i s o n s , b u t a t t h e same time t o d i s c i p l i n e , , p u n i s h , and make a n a t t e m p t a t r e f o r m i n g Inmates.  Trades were t a u g h t t o p r i s o n e r s  and i t was hoped t h a t t h e h a b i t s o f i n d u s t r y whioh t h e y  acquired  f r o m t h e s e would a i d them i n r e i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h s o c i e t y upon t h e i r release. 4.  P u b l i c works and ways:  T h i s system e n t a i l s t h e employment o f  p r i s o n l a b o u r i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e p a i r o f p u b l i c highways, s t r e e t s , and o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s ,  T h i s i s presumed t o be t h e  -  S  -  method which i s *&© most: a§3?£©abie to the ordinary taxpayer  who  f e e l s that the state or esUBioipallty should be d e r i v i n g some returns f o r t h e i r maintenance o f the convict, #:*  Farm system;  fb© early farm systems of p r i s o n labour were :  ©ore of a success f i n a n c i a l l y than they were from the reformative point of view.  In many of the Southern states In the United.  States, the whole prison system i s a farm system**  aeeently a  number o f states i n t h e tJ*$*A* bave developed p r i s o n f a m e as a part of t h e i r treatment pro^paigie f or the younger type of c r i m i n a l offender, $ae p r i s o n labour problem has been both a c o n t r o v e r s i a l and perplexing on© f o r many years*  For tbe benefit of the  prisoners themselves as v & l l as f o r the p u b l i c , prisoners should be engaged during t h e i r waking sours* i n oonstruotive and u s e f u l activities*  At the same time i t must be remembered that oorreo*  t i o n a l industries are not operated e n t i r e l y f o r the economic belief i t s , nor should they unduly i n t e r f e r e with p r i v a t e enter' prise*  fbere are a l s o other nurposes of th© programme such  as  the r e a e b i l l t a t i o n of men and the prevention of idleness and die* content within the ptieom  which have to be considered.  Qon&equ*-  eatly* such a debatable Issue provides grounds f o r a more detailed discussion ©n the subject* lunetlone and gunoeee* Ivery penal I n s t i t u t i o n should make i t both an objective and a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to r e h a b i l i t a t e the pri-soner*  A construetiy© work  prograiBjae i s one of the p r i n c i p a l means of a t t a i n i n g t h i s goal*  I b i d , p* ©0g*B3*  A c c o r d ! j&gly,. p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ought to pro v i a e u s e f u l work f o r ©very p r i s o n e r a b l e to v&rlt* The  tern "useful  not o n l y t o p r o d u c t i o n  mate'*  has  been i n t e r p r e t e d ass r e f e r r i n g  o f goods u t i l i s e d w i t h i n th©  prison  and  o r d i n a r y aaiateaanc© vjork„ hut i t a l s o connotes the b e n e f i t s which th© p r i s o n e r o b t a i n s and which w i l l he o f v a l u e t o him upon h i s eventual r e t u r a to society*  Ifevortheiess " u s o f u l work" does not  n e c e s s a r i l y mean o n l y t h a t type o f work which a l l o w s th©  prisoner  t o a c q u i r e a trad© o r p r o f e s s i o n which aay be a p p l i c a b l e ©a Job I n a f r e e s o c i e t y .  I t a l s o means the form o f tsork which w i l l  have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t upon tho i n d i v i d u a l i . e . , th© which w i l l bo and  an a s s e t t o him by th©  h a b i t s o f Industry*  I t has  Eowever  ft  type o f work  a c q u i s i t i o n of both  been a s s e r t e d  per c e n t o f a p r i s o n Inmate p o p u l a t i o n programme*  the  t h a t about  skills eighty  can p r o f i t from a good work  f o r the r e m a i n i n g twenty p e r coat I t i s v e r y  d i f f i c u l t t o do a n y t h i n g i n the way  o f d e v e l o p i n g work h a b i t s *  the more e x p l i c i t f u n c t i o n s o f p r i s o n l a b o u r  Include  1  the  following! 1*  Basin® th© problem o f p r i s e s d i s c i p l i n e .  I t may  t h a t a p r i s o n work programme reduces o r e l i m i n a t e s form and  stated  idleness*  The  the amount o f work a r e both importaat f a c t o r s h e r e .  The  Inmat© who  i s kept c o n s t a n t l y employed d u r i n g working hours  l e s s time t o o r g a n i z e p l a n s which ar© pline.  be  Further  subversive  has  of p r i s o n d i s c i *  i f the work i s o f a nature which meets not  only  T.C. and Kutash, s.B. " E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f C r i m i n ology"* P h i l i s o & h i o a l L i b r a r y , Hew York* June, 1049* p* 351.  * 7 t h e p h y s i c a l b u t p s y c h o l o g i c a l seeds o f t h e p r i s o n e r , , he w i l l have l e s s i n c e n t i v e t o c o n s p i r e a g a i n s t t h e p r i s o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Whatever o u r p e n a l p h i l o s o p h y ^  p r i s o n d i s c i p l i n e i s an i n d u b i t a b l e  n e c e s s i t y and i t i s p r o b a b l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f most p r i s o n a d m i n s t r a t o r s  t o say t h a t a f u l l j w o r k programme I s one  o f t h e s u r e s t means o f a c h i e v i n g 2*  this.  T e a c h i n g t h e inmates h a b i t s o f i n d u s t r y *  i t s Inmates d e v e l o p a p p r o p r i a t e  I f a p r i s o n Can h e l p  h a b i t s o f i n d u s t r y i t w i l l have  a c c o m p l i s h e d much toward t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , w h i c h i s t h e o n l y r e a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r any p e r i o d o f incarceration.  The m a j o r i t y o f p r i s o n inmates a r e u n f a m i l i a r w i t h  the v a l u e s o f work*  They adhere t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y  that  only  " s u c k e r s " work and f r o m t h i s work t h e y t h e m s e l v e s w i l l r e a p t h e benefits*  There i s a need f o r them t o l e a r n how t o work I n a  manner s u i t a b l e t o t h e I n d u s t r i e s o u t s i d e become a c q u a i n t e d the  the p r i s o n and  to  w i t h t h e V a l u e s o f work t o the w e l l - b e i n g o f  individual. There a r e few Inmates who p r i o r t o t h e i r imprisonment h e l d  p o s i t i o n s as p r o f e s s i o n a l , s k i l l e d o r s e m i - s k i l l e d p e o p l e * p r i s o n e r s have never learned, how t o work job*  o r how t o m a i n t a i n  lost a  Many s u f f e r f r o m t h e i l l u s i o n t h a t t h e w o r l d owes them a  l i v i n g and t h e y propose t o o b t a i n t h a t l i v i n g w i t h as l i t t l e e f f o r t as p o s s i b l e .  Since t h i s i s the case, p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s  and t h e i r s t a f f s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y waging a b a t t l e not o n l y t o g e t the inmates t o work and t o show them how t o , b u t a l s o t o t e a c h them t h a t work i t s e l f c a n be w o r t h w h i l e *  $«  A process f o r t r a i n i n g u n s k i l l e d labourers,  The opinion has  oftea been expressed that I f prisoners Om release were q u a l i f i e d t o follow a s k i l l e d or s e m i s k i l l e d trade is which there wore good employment opportunities, much of the problem of r e c i d i v i s m would disappear*  fines a prison labour programme i s established  two f&etors must be borne l a mind. F i r s t l y , o f f i c i a l s i n obarge of the progrssame must koep th© t r a i n i n g purpose i n view*  secondly, tho i n d i v i d u a l inmate  must be employed at tasks s i m i l a r to the type of work which he may be employed a t upon h i s release*  Branham and K&t&sh express  an a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t derived from such t r a i n i n g programmes* Prisoaers trained i n u s e f u l work habits and s k i l l s are l e s s apt to repeat o l d offenses or to commit now ones a f t e r release*, i t i s •estimated that from f i f t y to eighty per cent o f the prisoners ixt the i n s t i t u tio&s today are r e c i d i v i s t s * 1% would b© a tremendous saving to the state i f t h i s group were eliminated from l a s t ! t u t l o a s l care because of t r a i n i n g - i n work habits and s k i l l s suitable to the i n d i v i d u a l * * I t i s assumed, therefore, that not only are the earning powers of th® #***pr lecher * who has no s k i l l and no ts&S&lag* l i m i t e d , but also that he i s more l i k e l y to be a p o t e n t i a l recidivist*  ©a the other hand, I f an ex*prisoner has acquired  a trade while i n prison he i s l a a more favourable p o s i t i o n to compete f o r a prospective Job* Many Jobs l a the i a s t l t u t l o a are appropriat© f o r t r a l a l n g purposes*  For example, some o f the maintenance jobs have t h e i r  Braaham, V.G. and Kutash, s>B. "Encyclopaedia ology", p* 352* A  of Crimin-  corresponding trade l a s o c i e t y . a t one o f these  JOBS  The p r i s o n e r who becomes adept  I n the i n s t i t u t i o n stands a b e t t e r chance o f  both o b t a i n i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g employment o f a s i M l a r k i n d a f t e r h i e r e l e a s e from p r i s o n . 4* ing*  S e d u c i n g the aeure o f i d l e n e s s because i d l e n e s s i s d e m o r a l i s N o t h i n g i s more I n s i d i o u s l y c r u e l than f o r c i n g ; men t o s i t  day a f t e r day, w i t h n o t h i n g whatsoever t o do, o r h a v i n g them do such f u t i l e work as b r e a k i n g rook o r weeding gardens month a f t e r month. Warden fiuga @* C h r i s t i e o f O a k a l l a p r i s o n Farui says on t h e s u b j e c t , "You emn*t keep men  I d l e , working on t h e i r knees weeding,  f o r two y e a r s and r e h a b i l i t a t e them*  You must have a r e a s o n a b l e  amount o f work whiea has more c h a l l e n g e and some I n s t i t u t i o n a l value"**9»  1  A means o f r e d u c i n g the economic d i s u t i l i t y o f p r i s o n *  In  Canada the t o t a l disbursements f o r the nine f e d e r a l Institution© as o f March 31, 19S8, amounted t o tS»983,966.56*  P r o b a b l y a good  p r o p o r t i o n o f t h i s money c o u l d be s a v e d through the employment o f the prisoner© wao  ar© capable o f working i n e c o n o m i c a l l y  ficant activities*  signi-  Furthermore, i t might be argued t h a t t h e  government should not have to c a r r y the t o t a l maintenance o f the adult prisoner*  One w r i t e r s t a t e s t h a t i n the i d e a l o r p e r f e c t  % a n o o u v e r P r o v i n c e , March U ,  1955. p . 32.  B©miaiom o f Canada "Annual Report o f the Commission o f P e n i t e n t i a r i e s f o r the F i s c a l Year Ended March 31, 1953," Ottawa, 1953. p . 63, 3  * 10  *  system the inmate ought to bo ©bio "not  o n l y t o support h i m s e l f  t o h o l p oovor the oost o f investment and d e p r e c i a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l and safekeeping  employment as w e l l as t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the outside*"  remembered t h a t no d e s i r a b l e p r i s o h  l a b o u r system can o r should tee b u i l t os th©  theory  t h a t th©  i s g o i n g t o be a f i n a n c i a l a s a e t to the government. common sons© p r o s c r i b e s tii&t p r i o o n s to eeonomy o f o p e r a t i o n *  reformation  o f the  support  1  Botsevor, i t should be  ©y©  the  h o u s i n g p l a n t s which the s t a t e p r o v i d e s f o r h i s  gad  of h i s family  but  prison  Although  s h o a l d be m a i n t a i n e d w i t h  t h e i r u l t i m a t e aim  remains t h a t  ah of  prisoner*  C r i t i c i s m s A s s o c i a t e d .tffitfr a P r i s o n Xabourprogramme* fh© m a j o r i t y o f inmates o f p@nal i n s t i t u t i o n s work because they want t o , and  the r e a s o n f o r t h e i r wanting to I s a  relatively  simple one* they have l e a r n e d t h a t i d l e n e s s i s b o t h t e d i o u s h u m i l i a t i n g * and b e l i e v e t h a t the s a f e s t way breakdown i s t o keep t h e i r mints and  and  to prevent a mental  t h e i r b o d i e s busy.  However* the over©!! a t t i t u d e o f s o c i e t y w i t h r e s p e c t the treatment o f c r i m i n a l s makes i t very d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d s o l u t i o n t o the p r i s o n labour problem*  The  which surrounds  Th© w r i t e r has found t h a t most a u t h o r s w r i t i n g on  the s u b j e c t ar® back as 191S  a  f e a s i b i l i t y of  p r i s o n e r s tsorking i s obscured by the c o n t r o v e r s y the s u b j e c t *  to  i n favour of p r i s o n labour*  the o p i n i o n was  F o r example, as f a r  expressed t h a t c o n v i c t s should  *r&2iiis»bau»» Frank, ^ C r i m o and Company, 1 9 3 3 * p* 3 6 5 .  the Community," G l i m  be  and  11  -  made t o work and a t l e a s t e a r n t h e i r keep and  the expense o f m a i n -  t a i n i n g t h e p e n a l I n s t i t u t i o n as l o n g as the p r o d u c t s o f l a b o u r d i d not eompete w i t h t h a t o f the f r e e market.**'  their  Another  w r i t e r on t h e s u b j e c t , Governor Eugene N. F o s s o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s , m e n t i o n s i n a r e p o r t e n t i t l e d "Reform Through L a b o r " , t h a t a l l able-bodied  p e r s o n s s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e chance t o work a t some-  t h i n g t h a t w i l l h e l p r e s t o r e t h e i r sense o f u s e f u l n e s s responsibility.  and  i n a more r e c e n t s t u d y i t has been s t a t e d  that  the arguments a g a i n s t p r i s o n l a b o u r a r e i n a sense a b s u r d because i f a p r i s o n e r cannot work he must be s u p p o r t e d a t p u b l i c expense 3 and by the l a b o u r o f f r e e  men.  The f o r m o f l a b o u r most s u i t e d t o a p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n and the most e f f e c t i v e  i s generally highly standardized*  Yet  diversi-  f i e d employment s h o u l d be more eneouraged because i t a l l o w s p r i s o n e r t o experiment and  the  t r y out s e v e r a l forms o f work a c t i v i t y  I n an e f f o r t t o f i n d the one w h i c h meets most o f h i s needs. e f f e c t o f l a b o u r upon t h e h e a l t h , w e l l - b e i n g , and e v e n t u a l o f the p r i s o n e r ought t o be k e p t i n mind. fiscal  The reform  Complementer!ly the  I m p l i c a t i o n s o f p r i s o n l a b o u r and t h e degree t o w h i c h I t  t h r e a t e n s p r i c e s and employment must be t a k e n i n t o  consideration.  W h l t l n , B.S. " P e n a l S e r v i t u d e " , N a t i o n a l Committee on P r i s o n L a b o r , New Y o r k , 1912, p. 6, A  o  ^Annals o f the A m e r i c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , Volume 46, March 1913, p. 38,  and  Sooial  ^ E l l i o t t , M a b l e , A "Crime I n Modern S o c i e t y " , H a r p e r B r o t h e r s , New Y o r k , 1952, p. 677.  and  -  IS  -  t h e problem of inmate i d l e n e s s i n c o r r e c t i o n a l institution© has heea known f o r some time t o be d e t r i m e n t a l to b o t h th© t u t i o n and inmate a l i k e .  insti-  Though t h i s i s a r e c o g n i z e d f a c t o r there  are impediments i n overcoming t h i s o b s t a c l e as a r e s u l t o f a number of c o n f l i c t i n g a t t i t u d e s .  Such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , q u e s t i o n s  have ©eon posed as? " I s I t r i g h t t o p e r m i t p r i s o n e r s to manufacture goods which may  d e p r i v e u n i o n men  o f work?"  produced goods to compete w i t h the o r d i n a r y produetsl'" retort: o r "Why  " i s i t just for prison manufacturer's  ©a the o t h e r hand wardens and e o r r e e t i o a a l workers  "How  can we  r e h a b i l i t a t e the p r i s o n e r i f he i s kept I d l e ? "  should p r i s o n inmates not help pay f o r t h e i r  feoep?"  Are laerauf a c t u r o r s and wage e a r n e r s on good grouad whoa they express the o p i n i o n t h a t p r i s o a mad© goods are u n f a i r eompetitloa?, I t has beea aotad t h a t any typo o f prison, labour w i l l compete t o some extent w i t h f r e e l a b o u r *  S o a e t h e l e s s i t appears t h a t the  o v e r a l l competition Is very small*  "Loss t h a n one*tenth o f on©  per c e n t o f the p r o d u c t i v e l a b o u r s are l a p r i s o n , oad many of the p r i s o n e r s would be ©ore o r l e s s e f f i c i e n t l y employed i f they were aot i n p r i s o a *  f h l s makes the t o t a l c o m p e t i t i o n o f p r i s o a l a b o u r  iaslgalf leant" I t would seem r e a s o n a b l y s a f e t o say t h a t although  there  are n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s I n v o l v e d i a a p r i s o n l a b o u r programme they are h e a v i l y out-weighed by the p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s *  Few mea,  w i t h t h e i r f u l l freedom, can remain f o r a l o n g time h e a l t h y happy u a i e s s they have work t o do*  and  Although the i a d i v i d u & l l a  ^ S u t h e r l a n d , Sdwin H. " P r i n c i p l e s of Criminology", «T» B. L l p p l n c o t t Company, Chicago, 1947, p. 473* t  even  13 prison Is r e s t r i c t e d In hie freedom, fee nevertheless ©heuld be permitted  to work at something, within the l i m i t s o f h i s capacity,  which w i l l produce u s e f u l r e s u l t s *  I t i s probable taat even I f an  Individual Is never released from gaol he may  be able to l i v e and  die a better and a happier person merely by being kept busy at ©ose task which i s acceptable  to him*  Evolution of P o l i c i e s f o r Prison Labour and Forestry Camps. Prison f o r e s t r y camps had various precedents of a s i m i l a r nature*  The following discourse i l l u s t r a t e s the development of  such projects*  the material used pertains only to the United  States and i s mentioned i n order to a f f o r d continuity to the d i e * cussioa of present day f o r e s t r y programmes* Convict road campe had been practiced i n Colorado, Oregon,  Mm Mexico* %oming, Arlmmt and Utah j u s t p r i o r to 1913*  The  p o s i t i v e benefits derived froia them were that they were found t o have helped increase the self-respect* stamina of character,  and  sens® of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r inmates. fhe f i r s t convict road camp wbieh bears a resemblance t o current f o r e s t r y camps isae started i n 1908 ad©*  i n the state of Color-  T h i s . f i r s t camp functioned well, although slowly*  f e l t a t the time, however* that guarding the men asauaed o f f i c e as  at work*  toauen  attention was paid to  But l a t e r on when Thomas 3", Tynan  Warden of the Colorado State Penitentiary these  prelects took on a d i f f e r e n t shape. Increased  i t was  He expanded the honour system,  the number of caeps, eliminated the armed guards and  plaoed the isolates e n t i r e l y upon t a e i r honour*  The r e s u l t was  * 14  •  t h a t t r i p l e the q u a n t i t y o f work was done compared w i t h th© i o u s scheme,  prev*  i t was f o u n d t h a t th© men worked w i t h much more  e n t h u s i a s m t h a n t h e y had e v e r done p r e v i o u s l y , and I t was e l u d e d t h a t t h e y d i d so f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s .  con*  They were a n x i o u s  t o a t t a i n t h e a d d i t i o n a l t e a days a month t h a t th© r o a d work permitted  t o ho deducted f r o m t h e i r s e n t e n c e , as w e l l as t h e  normal r e m i s s i o n a l l o w e d by l a w t o r good B e h a v i o u r .  They a l s o  l i k e d the change i n environment and adopted t h e i d e a t h a t t h e y were w o r k i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s , t o r e t a i n t h e s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s o f s u n s h i n e , f r e s h a i r and o t h e r b e n e f i t s w h i c h th©  camps a f f o r d e d  them as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e p r i s o n s . Other p r o j e c t s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e soon f o l l o w e d the C o l o r * ado scheme.  The l e g i s l a t u r e l a th© s t a t e o f A r k a n s a s i n 1909  passed a l a w p e r m i t t i n g c o u n t y c o u r t s t o f o r m r o a d and d i s t r i c t s of several adjoining counties.  eoavlet  These camps i n A r k a n s a s  n o t o n l y o p e r a t e d ©a a minimum s e c u r i t y b a s i s , b u t i n a d d i t i o n when a m&a's seateac© had e x p i r e d he was f u r n i s h e d w i t h a good s u i t o f c l o t h e s , and $8*60 l a p o c k e t money. The Kalamazoo county l a the S t a t e o f M i c h i g a n adopted r o a d camps as a p o s s i b l e d e t e r r e n t f r o m v a g r a n c y aad p e t t y c r i m e * E a c h inmate o f the camp was p a i d f o r on© day's work f o r each week o f good b e h a v i o u r *  T h i s developed t o t h e ©stent where a man  eaoed f o r two months o b t a i n e d  seat-  $18*30 a t t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f h i s  s e n t e n c e , and t h i s money, as l a t h e A r k a n s a s p r o j e c t , was  Intended  to a i d the i n d i v i d u a l l a h i s r e h a b l l i t a t i o a * O h i o , Kew J e r s e y , aad Columbia a l l d e v e l o p e d schemes o f a  - 15 c o r r e s p o n d i n g n a t u r e t o those a l r e a d y mentioned, ness o f t h e importance  o f studying the c o n v i c t r a t h e r than  the e v a l u a t i o n and importance fore.  A g r a d u a l awarejust  o f h i s l a b o u r came s l o w l y t o t h e  T h e r e f o r e i t may be s a i d by 1909 p r o g r e s s was b e g i n n i n g t o  be made n o t o n l y toward t h e improvement o f p r i s o n management, b u t also f o r the general welfare of s o c i e t y a t large. A n o t h e r phase i n t h e development o f p r i s o n f o r e s t camps was t h e development o f camps f o r boy p r o b a t i o n e r s .  The C o u r t o f  Domestic R e l a t i o n s i n Columbus, O h i o , i n t h e y e a r 1930 c o n c e i v e d the i d e a o f i n s t i t u t i n g a camp f o r i t s boy p r o b a t i o n e r s . s t a r t e d w i t h twenty b o y s , and developed  The camp  t o t h e e x t e n t where i t was  p r o v i d i n g f o r one hundred boys each summer.  Some o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s  o f t h e camp were: 1. To I n d u c t u n s t a b l e boys I n t o a c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d and c o - o p e r a t i v e medium by showing them t h e j o y o f s u c c e s s f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r g a n i z e d group a c t i v i t i e s . 2. To e s t a b l i s h m u t u a l c o n f i d e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t h e c o u n s e l o r s and t h e b o y s . 3. To e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d s t o d i s p l a c e the misconceived standards which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f m a l a d j u s t e d and d e l i n q u e n t b o y s . 4. To r e v e a l t o t h e boys themselves t h e i r p e r s o n a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s by e n c o u r a g i n g them t o t r y o u t new activities. 5. To improve t h e boys* p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n by good and s u f f i c i e n t f o o d , outdoor l i v i n g , c o n t r o l l e d e x e r c i s e , and adequate r e s t . 1  A p r o j e c t s i m i l a r t o t h e Columbus scheme was s e t up i n 1931 by t h e P r o b a t i o n Department and t h e j u v e n i l e C o u r t o f L o s A n g e l e s County.  S i n c e the development o f t h i s p l a n i s more r e l e v a n t t o  •^Wagner, I r v i n g A., "A Camp f o r Boy P r o b a t i o n e r s " , Yearbook o f the N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k , 1937, p . 343.  - 16 the o r i g i n s o f p r i s o n f o r e s t r y oamps i t w i l l be d e a l t w i t h a t some l e n g t h a n d ' i n c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e t a i l .  I t was t h e e s t a b l i s h -  ment o f F o r e s t r y Camp 10 i n S a n Dimas Canyon. intended trouble*  The camp was  f o r v a g r a n t boys f r o m o t h e r s t a t e s who were I n s e r i o u s A l a r g e number o f these boys were ooming i n t o L o s  A n g e l e s , and were b e i n g r e t u r n e d  t o t h e i r homes a t t h e expense  o f t h e L o s A n g e l e s County, o n l y t o make many r e p e a t e d t r i p s o f a similar  nature, r  The  county f e l t  t h a t i f i t c o u l d e s t a b l i s h some f o r m o f  programme t o make t h e s e boys work f o r t h e i r r e t u r n t i c k e t s , t h e y might n o t be so a n x i o u s t o r e t u r n a g a i n . camp was i n s t i t u t e d as a n o p p o r t u n i t y  Therefore,  the f o r e s t r y  t o a f f o r d these vagrant  boys a chance t o e a r n t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n back home a t t h e r a t e of f i f t y c e n t s a day, i n c l u d i n g b o a r d and room.  I n order t o  r e c e i v e t h i s t h e y were o b l i g a t e d t o work e i g h t hours w i t h p i c k and  shovel.  The camp was under t h e a u s p i c e s  o f the county  f o r e s t r y department and the county p r o b a t i o n department,  the  l a t t e r b e i n g t h e one r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e boys and t h e i r s u p e r vision. From 1933 t o 1937 t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t s e n t boys c o n v i c t e d of b u r g l a r y , r o b b e r y , grand t h e f t and o t h e r o f f e n c e s Camp 10*  to forestry  E a c h boy r e c e i v e d f i f t y c e n t s p e r day f o r e i g h t h o u r s  o f p i c k and s h o v e l work.  Between t h e y e a r s 1931-1937 o v e r one  thousand boys had been h a n d l e d i n t h i s camp.  I t waa s t a t e d t h a t  "each boy»s problem i s c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d b e f o r e h i s r e l e a s e , and an e f f o r t made t o p l a c e him e i t h e r w i t h p a r e n t , r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s , where he w i l l have t h e b e s t chance t o complete h i s  ;  - 1? social rehabilitation". The  -  1  most p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h i s camp have been s t a t e d  h e l p i n g these young boys overcome t h e i r f e a r o f work, and them i n a d a p t i n g t o the s p i r i t o f the programme.  The  The  boys were s u p e r v i s e d  much o f the camp d i s c i p l i n e was themselves. mum  I t was  aiding  camp  i n c l u d e d an a c t i v e a t h l e t i c programme f o r the hoys and a programme.  as  school  by a d u l t c o u n s e l o r s , though  m a i n t a i n e d l a r g e l y by the boys  s t r i c t l y an honour camp, o p e r a t i n g  on a m i n i -  s e c u r i t y b a s i s , h a v i n g no l o c k s , f e n c e s , b a r r e d windows o r  guns.  The  e n t i r e camp p r o c e s s was  d i r e c t e d toward the  t i v e modes o f d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r , not the p u n i t i v e .  reconstrucThere i s no  doubt t h a t t h i s type o f F o r e s t r y  Camp was  p r e s e n t day p r i s o n f o r e s t camps.  Although i t developed n e a r l y  quarter  of a c e n t u r y ago,  a stepping-stone to  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i t h e a r a  u  d i s t i n c t semblance t o c u r r e n t P r i s o n r o a d camps and  projects.  f o r e s t camps a r e e s s e n t i a l l y honour  camps I n s t i t u t e d m a i n l y f o r the purpose o f g i v i n g a group o f p r i s o n e r s an o p p o r t u n i t y  selected  t o p r e p a r e t h e m s e l v e s not  only  p h y s i c a l l y but p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y t o the I n e v i t a b l e p r o b l e m of t h e i r places i n society again. these camps who  2  A  I b l d , , p,  taking  I t i s not o n l y the i n m a t e s of  b e n e f i t , but a l s o the p u b l i c .  the p r i s o n e r whose m e n t a l o u t l o o k and camp programme  a  I t Is f e l t  that  h e a l t h i s improved by  a  i s l e s s l i k e l y t o r e t u r n t o c r i m e t h a n i s the  man  359.  S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a Department of P u b l i c Works D i v i s i o n o f Highways, " P r i s o n Road Camps", R e p r i n t o f a s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s f r o m " C a l i f o r n i a Highways and P u b l i c Works", 1950. 2  -  18  who i s r e l e a s e d d i r e c t l y f r o m p r i s o n .  T h i s i s one o f t h e r e a s o n s  why many e x p e r i m e n t s o f t i l l s n a t u r e have r e c e n t l y been t r i e d , and i t i s the aim o f Chapter I I o f t h i s s t u d y t o g i v e d e t a i l s of few o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t p r o j e c t s o f t h i s t y p e *  a  Chapter I I Some Comparative F o r e s t r y Camp Progr.ammes*. The m a j o r i t y o f o f f e n d e r s s h o u l d n o t be c l a s s i f i e d a s wilfully anti-social*  Many o f them do n o t t r a n s g r e s s t h e l a w  by c h o i c e , b u t adopt d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s because o f t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o contend w i t h modern c i v i l i z a t i o n w i t h a l l i t s complex s i t u a t i o n s and d i s t u r b i n g problems*  Most s o c i o l o g i s t s  concur t h a t c i r c u m s t a n t i a l p r e s s u r e , n o t n a t u r a l p e r v e r s i t y , i s the c a u s a l f a c t o r o f crime* little  A c c o r d i n g l y , i t has been s a i d t h a t  i s t o be g a i n e d by p u n i s h i n g t h e s e men, and a l s o f o r t h e  same r e a s o n i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o keep a l l o f them b e h i n d b a r s and h i g h stone w a l l s *  steel  However, o n l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s has  s o c i e t y become t r u l y persuaded o f t h i s .  A l s o , many p r o g r e s s i v e  p e n o l o g i s t s a r e now s t r o n g l y recommending more employment o f p r i s o n s w i t h o u t w a l l s o r b a r s j t h a t i s , i n s t i t u t i o n s where t h e r e a r e no armed g u a r d s , no b a r s , o r w a l l a , w i t h t h e o n l y b a r r i e r t o escape b e i n g t h e word o f honour o f t h e i n m a t e s — a s e t t i n g where the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f t h e programme i s o r i e n t e d a l o n g t r e a t ment l i n e s * The r e c e n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camp p r o j e c t s may be r e g a r d e d as one a s p e c t o f such a movement.  They have  o n l y l a t e l y come I n t o b e i n g I n Canada, b u t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s such i d e a s , i n some l o c a t i o n s , have been i n p r a c t i c e f o r n e a r l y a q u a r t e r o f a century*.  Although there are e i g h t s t a t e s opera-  t i n g f o r e s t r y camps today t h a t t h e w r i t e r knows o f , t h e w r i t e r has chosen C a l i f o r n i a , W i s c o n s i n , M i c h i g a n , and M a s s a c h u s e t t s f o r the f o l l o w i n g comparitive d i s c u s s i o n *  California  was  - so s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s o f i t s prominence and i t s p i o n e e r i n g r o l e i n the development o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s *  Wisconsin  a l s o are l e a d e r s i n the f i e l d and have r e l a t i v e l y programmes.  and  Michigan  extensive  M a s s a c h u s e t t s , a l t h o u g h a s m a l l e r and a newer scheme,  has been i n c l u d e d because i t s o r i g i n i s a l m o s t contemporary w i t h t h a t o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a . Administrative Organization. P r i s o n f o r e s t r y camps have been i n o p e r a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a s i n c e 1931,  D u r i n g the p e r i o d 1949  t o 1950,  the number o f  inmates s e n t f r o m a d u l t male I n s t i t u t i o n s t o these camps 4,010,  D u r i n g the summer the approximate average d a i l y  t i o n was hundred.  was popula-  s e v e n hundred and f i f t y and i n t h e w i n t e r i s was D u r i n g the y e a r 1951  six  twenty f o r e s t and r o a d camps,  o p e r a t e d by t h e C o r r e c t i o n s Department i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the S t a t e D i v i s i o n o f Highways, the S t a t e D i v i s i o n of F o r e s t r y the TJ»S.  F o r e s t S e r v i c e , were a s s i g n e d more t h a n one  c a r e f u l l y chosen Inmates,  thousand  These camps a r e s i t u a t e d i n t h e  mountainous a r e a s o f s i x t e e n C a l i f o r n i a c o u n t i e s . camps are o p e r a t e d  and  While  twelve  the y e a r r o u n d , the remaining, e i g h t f u n c t i o n  o n l y i n the summer months. To promote the development o f camp o p e r a t i o n s the  Cali-  f o r n i a C o r r e c t i o n s Department has had the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i o n s i n mind: 1. To p r o v i d e h o u s i n g and employment f o r s t a t e p r i s o n e r s o f minimum s e c u r i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h u s h e l p i n g t o r e l i e v e the overcrowded c o n d i t i o n s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s .  - 21 2. To f u r n i s h inmate l a b o r t o s t a t e and f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s f o r t h e purpose o f c o n d u c t i n g work p r o j e c t s of b e n e f i t t o the p u b l i c which otherwise might not have been a c c o m p l i s h e d . 1  The  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of administering  these p r i s o n f o r e s t  camps has been d e l e g a t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n s by t h e Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s . I n 1953 C a l i f o r n i a had n i n e permanent f o r e s t r y camps and n i n e s e a s o n a l camps w h i c h a r e i n o p e r a t i o n o n l y d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g r e f o r e s t a t i o n season and the summer f i r e s e a s o n .  I n addition p  t h e r e a r e t h r e e r o a d oamps w h i c h o p e r a t e o n a y e a r round b a s i s . B e s i d e s t h e s e oamps f u n c t i o n i n g under t h e Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s , t h e r e a r e t h r e e camps e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e C a l i f o r n i a Y o u t h A u t h o r i t y , w h i c h was c r e a t e d by s t a t u t e i n 1941. The f i r s t Y o u t h A u t h o r i t y Camp was i n s t i t u t e d I n t h e C a l a v e r a s B i g T r e e s S t a t e P a r k I n 1943*  The t h r e e i n o p e r a t i o n  today are} (1) Ben  Lomond Gamp, a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t e e n m i l e s n o r t h f r o m S a n t a C r u z w i t h an average d a i l y p o p u l a t i o n o f s e v e n t y ; ( 2 ) P i n e Grove Gamp, n i n e m i l e s , e a s t o f J a c k s o n w i t h an average d a i l y p o p u l a t i o n o f n i n e t y , a n d , (3) C o a r s e g o l d Camp, f o r t y - f o u r m i l e s f r o m t h e C i t y o f F r e s n o w i t h a n average p o p u l a t i o n Of 125.  The age range i n a l l  camps i s s i x t e e n t o twenty-one. There i s l e s s r e g i m e n t a t i o n , opportunity  f e w e r r e s t r i c t i o n s , and g r e a t e r  f o r i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g a t t h e s e oamps w h i c h , a l o n g  ^ C a l i f o r n i a Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s , " B i e n n i a l R e p o r t " , December, 1950, p. 18. 2 A m e r i c a n P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n , "A Manual o f C o r r e c t i o n a l S t a n d a r d s " , Hew Y o r k , 1954, pp. 63-64.  22 -  w i t h t h e wholesome environment, p r o v i d e p o s i t i v e t h e r a p e u t i c values.  D u r i n g the camps* y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n , C a l i f o r n i a has  found them t o he a v e r y e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f adolescents.  One a u t h o r s t a t e s however, t h a t I t must be borne  I n mind t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e camps depends upon t h e i r  operat-  i n g a l o n g w i t h t h e more f o r m a l t y p e s o f c o r r e c t i o n a l t r a i n i n g s o h o o l s , f o r many boys r e q u i r e c l o s e c u s t o d i a l c a r e and c o u l d not be p l a o e d i n camps under any  circumstances.-"-  S e l e c t i o n o f Inmates. I n i t s assignment o f p r i s o n e r s t o t h e camps t h e C a l i f o r n i a Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s adheres t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n s s e t f o r t h i n "A Manual o f C o r r e c t i o n a l S t a n d a r d s f o r 1 9 5 4 " — i . e . , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n committee keeps i n mind t h e p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l f i t n e s s o f t h e p r i s o n e r , w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e inmate t o a c c e p t camp l i f e , and 2  so o n — a s do t h e C o r r e c t i o n s Department i n W i s o o n s i n and M i c h i g a n . B o t h t h e Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s and t h e C a l i f o r n i a Y o u t h A u t h o r i t y have proved by y e a r s o f s u c c e s s f u l p r i s o n camp  operation  t h a t c a r e f u l l y c l a s s i f i e d Inmates c a n be p l a c e d i n minimum s e c u r i t y c o n d i t i o n s w i t h b e n e f i t t o b o t h t h e s t a t e and t h e I n d i v i d u a l . Thus, these camps have become a c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a c o r r e c t i o n a l system, Nature o f Work P r o j e c t , Camp l a b o u r i s used f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f m o u n t a i n highways,  ••-Close, O.H., " C a l i f o r n i a Camps f o r D e l i n q u e n t s " , N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1945, p, 139, o  Yearbook  A m e r i c a n P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n , A Manual o f C o r r e c t i o n a l S t a n d a r d s " , New Y o r k , 1954, p. 67. rt  - 23 f o r e s t r o a d s and  -  t r a i l s , f o r e s t b u i l d i n g s and  telephone l i n e s .  inmates a l s o c o n t r i b u t e v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n the s u p p r e s s i o n forest fires*  I t has been e s t i m a t e d  t h a t d u r i n g 1949  t o 1950,  f r o m the Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s ' Gamps s u p p l i e d 250,000 hours o f a c t u a l f o r e s t f i r e f i g h t i n g time*  of men  man  F o r e s t o f f i c i a l s empha-  s i z e the v a l u e o f h a v i n g t h e s e t r a i n e d inmate f i r e crews, i o u s l y i t was  The  Prev-  n e c e s s a r y t o depend upon l a s t m i n u t e s u b s c r i p t i o n of  u n t r a i n e d p e r s o n s , w h i c h o f t e n caused l o s s o f time w i t h r e s u l t a n t i n c r e a s e d f i r e damage* A l l camp inmates are p a i d f o r t h e i r work ( f i f t e e n d o l l a r s per month) w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f s i x e i g h t - h o u r inmate who  days p e r week.  has dependents r e c e i v i n g s t a t e a i d must send  o f h i s monthly e a r n i n g s t o them* i s placed In a t r u s t fund.  Any  two-thirds  A p a r t o f e v e r y Inmate's wages  T h i s i s g i v e n t o him upon r e l e a s e .  The boys a t the C a l i f o r n i a Y o u t h A u t h o r i t y oamps a r e t r a i n e d t o be e f f e c t i v e f i r e - f i g h t e r s , w h i c h not o n l y  also  contributes  t o t h e w e l f a r e o f the s t a t e but t e a c h e s the boys t o work as a team g i v i n g them a s t r o n g s o c i a l i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e .  together There a r e  a l s o y e a r - r o u n d c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e f o r e s t a t i o n programmes s i m i l a r t o t h o s e c a r r i e d out by the Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s ' camps. Fxtra-work A c t i v i t i e s . The w r i t e r h a s  been Unable t o f i n d i n f o r m a t i o n  concerning  the r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l programmes I n t h e Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s ' camps.  However* m a t e r i a l has been o b t a i n e d  concern*  Ing t h e development o f these a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e C a l i f o r n i a Y o u t h A u t h o r i t y ' s camps. The  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s encourage s t a f f and boys t o p l a y  together  as w e l l a s t o work t o g e t h e r .  There a r e t h e u s u a l team s p o r t s ,  i n d o o r a t h l e t i c s , e r a f t and hobby programmes ( i n c l u d i n g c h o r a l and  t h e a t r i c a l groups) as w e l l as " l o w - o r g a n i z e d "  as c h e c k e r s ) .  activities  (such  A l i b r a r y o f books and magazines I s a l s o b e i n g  b u i l t up i n each camp. The  l i m i t e d number o f hours a v a i l a b l e p r e v e n t h a v i n g much  i n t h e way o f c o n v e n t i o n a l academic s c h o o l i n g .  However, such  p r o j e c t t y p e a c t i v i t i e s a s t h e b u i l d i n g o f r e l i e f maps and t h e r u n n i n g o f a camp newspaper p r o v i d e t i o n a l advancement.  Counselling services, including  work i n group t h e r a p y , Philosophy The  some o p p o r t u n i t y f o r educaexperimental  i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e i r programme.  Of Camp Programme. C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s f e e l s t h a t  the b e n e f i t s f r o m a f o r e s t r y camp programme a r e many., some t h a t t h e y have mentioned a r e as f o l l o w s : 1* I n p l a c e o f b e i n g a charge a g a i n s t t h e D e p a r t ment, t h e camps a r e s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g as t h e inmates a r e paid--f o r - t h e i r work and t h e c o s t o r o p e r a t i o n s ( f e e d i n g , h o u s i n g , e t c . ) b e i n g deducted f r o m t h e s e payments, 2. B e s i d e s t h e s p e c i a l work b e i n g don© by t h e s e i n m a t e s , on a n a s s o r t m e n t o f p r o j e c t s whioh perhaps c o u l d n o t o t h e r w i s e be a c c o m p l i s h e d , they a l s o c o n s t i t u t e a f o r c e o f t r a i n e d men who a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o combat f o r e s t f i r e s , 3. The assignment o f an inmate t o a Camp i s o f d e f i n i t e a s s i s t a n c e i n h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . He i s doi n g c o n s t r u c t i v e work i n h e a l t h y s u r r o u n d i n g s ; p a y i n g h i s own way and s a v i n g some money t o be o f a s s i s t a n c e t o h i s f a m i l y o r t o s t a r t him a g a i n i n f r e e s o c i e t y . 4. The p l a c i n g o f men i n camps a i d s i n r e l i e v i n g the overcrowded c o n d i t i o n s o f p r e s e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s , I t would c o s t s e v e r a l m i l l i o n d o l l a r s t o b u i l d and m a i n t a i n an I n s t i t u t i o n t o p r o p e r l y c a r e f o r 1,000 inmates.1  C a l i f o r n i a s t a t e Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s , "Seven Y e a r s o f P r o g r e s s " , J u l y 1, 1951, pp. 14-15. x  -  25  O r i g i n a l l y the main i d e a b e h i n d the Y o u t h A u t h o r i t y camps was  t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i v e work programme i t s e l f would have t h e r a -  p e u t i c v a l u e and  that s e l e c t e d youths could b e n e f i t from t h i s  r e l a t i v e l y f r e e , s i m p l e and open t y p e o f l i f e * c o r e o f the camp programme*  the  However', o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i v e a s p e c t s  of camp e x p e r i e n c e have d e v e l o p e d . s h i p I s one  This Is s t i l l  The  close staff-boy r e l a t i o n -  o f t h e most e f f e c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e s e camps*  Because the number o f boys seldom exceeds s i x t y , the s t a f f have an o p p o r t u n i t y  t o get t o know eaoh boy  as On the Job*  Eaoh s t a f f member has  particular responsibilities.  He  i n b i s s o o i a l group as w e l l s e v e r a l boys who  are  his  i s e x p e c t e d t o have weekly  c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h them and make w r i t t e n r e p o r t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e t a l k s w h i c h become a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g the boy's  progress.  I t i s found t h a t the f l e x i b i l i t y and I n f o r m a l i t y o f a f o r e s t r y camp p r o v i d e s  g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r new  such as group c o u n s e l l i n g - - w h i c h  experiments-  would be more d i f f i c u l t  t o under-  t a k e i n the t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s w i t h t h e i r l a r g e r  populations.  H a b i t s o f worlcy improved h e a l t h , and c h a r a c t e r  development'  t h r o u g h c o u n s e l l i n g and guidance a r e more l i k e l y t o be t h e come o f a w e l l - b a l a n c e d The Administrative  out-  programme. State of Wisconsin*  Organization.  W i s c o n s i n ^ f i r s t s t a t e p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camp was on August 1, 1931*  I t was  established  the s i t e o f a f o r m e r lumber camp  s i t u a t e d a t McNaughton, W i s c o n s i n * about two hundred m i l e s n o r t h the p r i s o n .  The  r e a s o n s f o r the development o f the I d e a a r o s e  a r e s u l t o f the f o l l o w i n g ;  as  of  - 26  *  1, S i n c e the p r i s o n was overcrowded the s t a t e had t o ohoose between b u i l d i n g a new p r i s o n , a d d i n g t o the o l d one, o r s e t t i n g up some t y p e o f camp system* 2, The d e s i r e on the p a r t o f the s t a t e C o n s e r v a t i o n Department t o e n l a r g e i t s r e f o r e s t a t i o n and f o r e s t p r e s e r v a t i o n programme by as cheap a method as p o s s i b l e . T h e r e f o r e , the use o f p r i s o n l a b o u r was a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t h e s i t a t i o n * 3, The b e l i e f t h a t the t r a n s f e r of p r i s o n e r s f r o m the p r i s o n t o camps might not o n l y be b e t t e r penology but a l s o , i n the i n i t i a l p r o c e d u r e , cheaper t h a n b u i l d i n g a new p r i s o n . I t was  thought t o be b e t t e r p e n o l o g y b e c a u s e j  1* P r i s o n e r s who had s u c h a s h o r t sentence t h a t t h e y were h a n d i capped i n l e a r n i n g a t r a d e i n the p r i s o n i t s e l f , c o u l d be l o o k e d a f t e r j u s t as w e l l , i f not b e t t e r , i n the s e t t i n g o f a camp, 2. The camp environment would be b e n e f i c i a l t o the h e a l t h of the prisoners* 3. F o r p r i s o n e r s who were s e r v i n g l o n g s e n t e n c e s the camps would serve the f u n c t i o n o f g r a d u a l l y h e l p i n g the p r i s o n e r t o p r e p a r e himself f o r h i s ultimate return to society* 4.  The  camp would p r o v i d e a wide range o f work a c t i v i t i e s .  1  A l l o f W i s c o n s i n f o r e s t r y camps are s i t u a t e d on l a n d owned by the s t a t e *  There i s a w o r k i n g agreement w i t h t h e  Department and  the v a r i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e a l l o c a t e d .  C o n s e r v a t i o n Department s u p p l i e s :  (1)  Conservation The  equipment f o r f o r e s t r y work,  (2) t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r work, (3) b u i l d i n g s f o r f o r e s t r y eqaipment and work, and,  (4)  t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e on f o r e s t r y work (the  of q u a l i f i e d F o r e s t Rangers are a v a i l a b l e on an a d v i s o r y the camps),, The  services basis  to  ,•'  o b l i g a t i o n on the p a r t o f the p r i s o n i n t h i s d u a l admin-  i s t r a t i o n was  t o f u r n i s h : (1)  the p r i s o n e r s ,  the b u i l d i n g s f o r h o u s i n g p r i s o n e r s , p o r t a t i o n f o r camp needs, and, t i o n Department i n i t i a l l y  (4)  (2) the g u a r d s ,  medical care,  (6) f o o d and  h e l d t h i s job but  (5)  (3)  trans-  c l o t h i n g (the C o n s e r v a l a t e r on an  expansion  ^Burke, J o h n C., "The Farm and F o r e s t r y Camp System o f W i s c o n s i n S t a t e P r i s o n " , J a n u a r y 4, 1954, pp. 1-13*  i n t h e p r i s o n budget a l l o w e d f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n t o a c c e p t the responsibility). The  number o f p r i s o n farms and f o r e s t r y oamps W i s c o n s i n  had o p e r a t i n g i n 1954  was  seven.  The inmate p o p u l a t i o n  f r o m a maximum o f s e v e n t y - f i v e i n one twenty i n a n o t h e r camp. from f i v e to  The  varied  camp t o a minimum o f  number of camp p e r s o n n e l v a r i e d  three.  S e l e c t i o n of Inmates. I t has been assumed i n the W i s c o n s i n e x p e r i m e n t t h a t s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f a camp programme i s c o n t i n g e n t e x t e n t , on the care and f o r the camps.  The  to a large  d i s c r e t i o n used I n s e l e c t i n g the  e x p e r i e n c e o f the s t a t e has  n i n e t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f the p r i s o n e r s a s s i g n e d and f a r m s were good s e c u r i t y r i s k s .  the  prisoners  shown t h a t about t o t h e i r oamps  This e x c e l l e n t record i s  founded on the grounds t h a t not o n l y are the s t a f f and programme adequate, but a l s o t h e i r s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s i n s e l e c t i n g the f o r assignment t o these open i n s t i t u t i o n s The  I s an e f f i c i e n t  men one.  s e l e c t i o n i s done not on the b a s i s o f one man's o p i n i o n ,  o f a' group o f men resources  who  u t i l i z e the v a r i o u s casework f i l e s and  but other  o f the i n s t i t u t i o n . . some o f t h e s e i n c l u d e : (1) p s y c h i -  a t r i c r e p o r t s , (2) m e d i c a l r e p o r t s , (3) F . B . I , r e p o r t s , verified social histories,  (5) p r i s o n work r e c o r d ,  (6)  (4) Chaplain's  r e p o r t , (7) conduct r e p o r t , (8) m a i l c e n s o r ' s r e p o r t , (9) r e p o r t s , and,  (10) guidance o f f i c e r r e p o r t s and  P r i s o n e r s who  are  school  recommendations.  thought t o be "poor r i s k s " a r e  classi-  f i e d and e a c h c a t e g o r y e l u c i d a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1,  Emotionally  d i s t u r b e d c a s e s . .The  I n s t a b i l i t y of t h i s  type  - 28 causes them t o u p s e t the e n t i r e camp r o u t i n e . There i s a l w a y s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t o t h e r p r i s o n e r s may shun them and so provoke them i n t o a b s c o n d i n g . 2, M a l i n g e r e r s * Inmates who c o n s t a n t l y demand m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n and who, i n g e n e r a l , s e t p o o r examples f o r o t h e r p r i s o n e r s , 3, The s i c k . There a r e l a c k o f m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s t o c a r e f o r them a t camp and, as a r e s u l t , t h e r e i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r becoming d e p r e s s e d and r u n n i n g away, 4, The t e m p o r a r i l y u p s e t . T h i s c l a s s i n c l u d e s those i n m a t e s who have j u s t undergone o r are u n d e r g o i n g some severe e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e * F o r example, an inmate who has a member of h i s f a m i l y about t o undergo a d e l i c a t e o p e r a t i o n * 5* P u b l i c i t y s e e k e r s . P r i s o n e r s who have the i n c e s s a n t urge t o be i n the " l i m e l i g h t * ' . They are a p t t o escape j u s t t o s a t i s f y t h i s need o f t h e i r s , 6. Sex p e r v e r t s . T h i e c a t e g o r y o f i n m a t e s , due t o t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n , may be i g n o r e d by o t h e r , p r i s o n e r s and as a r e s u l t may e s c a p e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y s h o u l d not be sent t o camps because i t p r o v i d e s them w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i c e the c r i m e . 7, A g i t a t o r s . They s h o u l d never be s e n t t o camps due t o the f a c t t h a t they a r e prone t o c r e a t i n g t r o u b l e amongst the r e s t of the inmates* 8* " F l o a t e r s " . The " w a n d e r l u s t * o f these t y p e s o f p r i s o n e r s makes them p o o r r i s k s * 9, Escapees* Inmates who have r e c o r d s o f p r e v i o u s p r i s o n escapes s h o u l d b«9 e x c l u d e d f r o m camps* 10. " S t o o l pigeons". T h i s type o f p r i s o n e r i s a p t t o be b o t h d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t and i g n o r e d by o t h e r p r i s o n e r s and, as a r e s u l t , m i g h t be a p o t e n t i a l e s c a p e e , 11* P r i s o n e r s w i t h " d e t a i n e r s " , i , e , , P r i s o n e r s who are wanted by o t h e r law enforcement a g e n c i e s f o r p r o s e c u t i o n . Camp i n m a t e s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y may e l o p e t o a v o i d f u r t h e r imprisonment., 12. ? e r y young and Immature Inmates* The m a j o r i t y o f these in-* mates a r e presumed t o be more e m o t i o n a l l y u n s t a b l e t h a n o l d e r men and,as a r e s u l t , a b s c o n d o f t e n e r * 13. P r i s o n e r s w i t h d i s a g r e e a b l e p e r s o n a l h a b i t s * T h i s c l a s s i n c l u d e s the p r i s o n e r who may be a p e r s i s t e n t b r a g g a r d * o r who snores e x c e s s i v e l y * There i s a chance t h a t inmates w i t h s u c h h a b i t s may be " p i c k e d on" o r O s t r a c i z e d and I n discouragement r u n away* 14. P r i s o n e r s who b e l i e v e t h e i r s e n t e n c e s are g r o s s l y u n f a i r . They a r e prone t o e s c a p i n g i n o r d e r t o "go out and get even", o r t o " f i x t h i n g s up on the o u t s i d e " . 15,, Inmates unaccustomed t o the c l i m a t e . Some men f r o m warm c l i m a t e s cannot a d j u s t t o c o l d ones, and t h e r e I s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e y may t r y t o escape r a t h e r t h a n ask f o r a r e t u r n t o the prison. P r i s o n e r s who the W i s c o n s i n  a r e c o n s i d e r e d good oamp s e c u r i t y r i s k s  inmate s e l e c t i n g group a r e , on th®  by  o t h e r hand, t y p e d  -  as:  29  -  (1) adequate p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l h e a l t h , (2) s u i t a b l e  civil  and p r i s o n work r e c o r d , (3) r e a s o n a b l y good p r i s o n b e h a v i o u r r e o o r d , (4) good f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , (5) a b u s i n e s s o r j o b t o r e t u r n t o , and,  (6) p r i s o n e r s sentenced t o l o n g terms who  a l r e a d y s e r v e d a good p o r t i o n o f t h e i r Men  serving l i f e  sentences may  have  sentence. be I n c l u d e d i n the programme,  b u t t h e y u s u a l l y have s e r v e d f i v e t o seven y e a r s o f t h e i r  sentence,  ( " L i f e r s " i n W i s c o n s i n a r e e l i g i b l e f o r p a r o l e a f t e r t h e y have s e r v e d e l e v e n y e a r s and t h r e e months o f t h e i r sentence.)  All  camp inmates a r e g r a n t e d f i v e days a d d i t i o n a l good time o f f by t h e W i s c o n s i n C o r r e c t i o n s Department, Mature o f Work P r o j e c t s . V a r i o u s k i n d s o f work such as r e f o r e s t a t i o n p l a n t i n g , maintenance o f s t a t e p a r k s , and f i g h t i n g o f f o r e s t f i r e s has b e e n done, and are b e i n g done, i n t h e W i s c o n s i n camps.  Other p r o j e c t s a r e the  o p e r a t i o n o f t r e e n u r s e r i e s , farms and gardens, and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  f o r e s t r y b u i l d i n g s , r o a d s , b r i d g e s , camp s i t e s , and f i r e l a n e s .  The c l e a r i n g o f underbush f r o m a l o n g r o a d s i d e s and i n the p a r k s and f o r e s t s , as a means o f l e s s e n i n g f i r e and d i s e a s e h a z a r d s , was  also  undertaken. Extra-work 1,  Activities.  Recreation.  B e s i d e s a v a r i e t y o f games p l a y e d on the a t h l e t i c  f i e l d t h e r e i s swimming, f i s h i n g and s k a t i n g on r i v e r s near the camp.  A movie i s shown once a month and i n f o r m a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t i s  produced by the p r i s o n e r s w i t h t h e i r own I n s t r u m e n t s .  Painting  and d r a w i n g , as w e l l as woodworking, a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e hobby activities.  - 30 * 2.  E d u c a t i o n a l Programme.  B e s i d e s v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g on t h e  job t h e r e a r e academic c l a s s e s , t a u g h t by inmates who were s u c c e s s f u l i n teaching i n the p r i s o n school, u n i v e r s i t y extension and d i r e c t e d r e a d i n g 3.  courses  courses,  Religious Services,  Once a month t h e camps a r e v i s i t e d by t h e  P r o t e s t a n t C h a p l a i n and by t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h a p l a i n who h o l d mass*  There i s no J e w i s h C h a p l a i n a v a i l a b l e , b u t J e w i s h  prisoners  are a l l o w e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e p r i s o n whenever t h e r e i s t o be a special service held. important Philosophy  They a r e a l s o n o t r e q u i r e d t o work on  J e w i s h r e l i g i o u s days. o f Camp Programme.  W i s c o n s i n endeavours t o o p e r a t e o n l y s m a l l p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camps w i t h inmate p o p u l a t i o n s o f about f i f t y .  I t i s f e l t t h a t by  f o l l o w i n g s u c h a p o l i c y a b e t t e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme c a n be c a r r i e d out.  The r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r t h i s a r e t w o - f o l d .  t h e y a r e more c o n d u c i v e  t o i n d i v i d u a l treatment.  Primarily,  F o r Instance,,  the camp p e r s o n n e l o f f i c e r i s i n a b e t t e r l p O s l t i o n t o become more t  c l o s e l y acquainted  w i t h the d i f f e r e n t inmates.  a b l e t o have a more i n t i m a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r o b l e m s , w o r r i e s , o r any Other e m o t i o n a l a r i s e from f a m i l y d i f f i c u l t i e s  Thus, he would be  of a prisoner's c o n f l i c t s w h i c h may  o r home developments.  In addition,  the importance o f s m a l l oamps I s e x p l a i n e d o n a n o t h e r b a s i s . . D i s e a s e s w h i c h may s t r i k e t h e camp sueh a s an i n f l u e n z a V i r u s c a n be h a n d l e d more e a s i l y .  Trouble,  c o n t r o l l e d t h a n i n l a r g e r groups..  i f i t a r i s e s , c a n be b e t t e r The d e t e c t i o n o f a g i t a t o r s ,  p o s s i b l e exeapees, and p r i s o n e r s who a r e g e n e r a l m i s f i t s t o the camp programme a r e more r e a d i l y d e t e r m i n e d i n advance o f d l f f i -  - 31 -  o u l t y i n a s m a l l camp t h a n i n a l a r g e one. The  W i s c o n s i n C o r r e c t i o n s Department s t r e s s e s t h e impor-  tance o f t h e c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f o f f i c e r s as a v a l u a b l e i n h e l p i n g t o i n s u r e t h e s u c c e s s o f a camp programme.  asset  The  Department s t a t e s t h a t one p o o r o f f i c e r i n a p r i s o n i s n o t b a d , but one poor o f f i c e r i n a camp i s t r a g i c .  A l l W i s o o n s i n camp  o f f i c e r s have been promoted f r o m t h e guard f o r o e . must be adept i n many f i e l d s .  Each o f f i c e r  H i s d u t i e s may r u n t h e gamut. He  may a t one time a c t a s a Warden, Deputy Warden, Shop O f f i c e r , S c h o o l T e a c h e r , P a r o l e O f f i c e r , R e o r e a t i o n D i r e c t o r , Nurse and member o f t h e c l e r g y .  E x p e r i e n c e i n W i s o o n s i n has shown t h a t  t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e q u a l i t y o f the camp o f f i c e r s and t h e number o f escapes and d i s c i p l i n a r y p r o b l e m oases t h a t a Camp h a s , I t i s t h e c o n t e n s i o n o f t h o s e most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the W i s c o n s i n camp programmes t h a t i t i s n o t o n l y t h e p r i s o n e r s who b e n e f i t f r o m s u c h programmes, b u t t h e whole s t a t e *  I t Is  hoped t h a t i f a camp programme c a n h e l p a p r i s o n e r by way o f a n improvement o f h i s h e a l t h and m e n t a l O u t l o o k , t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t he w i l l be l e s s l i k e l y t o r e t u r n t o d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r t h a n t h e man who i s r e l e a s e d s t r a i g h t f r o m p r i s o n . F o r example, when a n Inmate who has been employed a t a camp i s r e l e a s e d , he i s l e s s a p t t o f e e l as i n a d e q u a t e , h e l p l e s s , and bewildered  as t h e man who i s r e l e a s e d d i r e c t l y f r o m p r i s o n ,  because he has e x p e r i e n c e d  t h e g r a d u a l s t e p s t o freedom.  32 The S t a t e o f M i c h i g a n , Administrative Organization* "In  1947, some t o k e n crews o f s e v e r a l inmates were a s s i g n e d  on an i r r e g u l a r b a s i s t o P a r k Managers o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n ment f o r s m a l l t a s k s ,  Depart-  These l i t t l e t o k e n crews were a c t u a l l y t h e  f o r e r u n n e r s o f t h e P r i s o n Camp Program."* The  i d e a o f camps f o r p r i s o n inmates w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n work  as t h e i r assignment was a l m o s t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y suggested by b o t h the C o r r e c t i o n s and C o n s e r v a t i o n o f f i c i a l s .  The p l a n was a c c e p t e d  and i n t e r p r e t e d a s h a v i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r immediate s u c c e s s and v e r y s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r i t was p u t i n t o e f f e c t , M i c h i g a n ' s f i r s t p r i s o n f o r e s t r y oamp was i n a u g u r a t e d on May 19, 1948, and was named Camp W a t e r l o o ,  I t s o r i g i n a l s i t e was  a Vacant p r i s o n e r - o f - w a r camp i n t h e 13,523-acre W a t e r l o o  Recrea-  t i o n a l Area, nineteen m i l e s east o f the State P r i s o n a t Jackson, A c o m p a r a t i v e l y s i m p l e I n i t i a l agreement was soon f o r m u l a t e d between t h e two departments.  I t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n  Department would assume t h o r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  o f s u p p l y i n g t h e work,  t o o l s , n e c e s s a r y v e h i c l e s and o f p r o v i d i n g t h e pay o f f i f t y Cents p e r day f o r t h e p r i s o n e r s . the camp i t s e l f ,  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e o p e r a t i o n o f  t h e p r o v i s i o n o f guard foremen, m e d i c a l and d e n t a l  c a r e , t h e s e c u r i t y and d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e inmates was a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e C o r r e c t i o n s Department,  As a f o r m o f convenience  O i l m a n , s.iT., "The M i c h i g a n P r i s o n Camp Program", s t a t e o f M i c h i g a n , Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s , September 1953, pp. 3-44, \ \  *• 33 *  f o r b o t h Departments a s i m p l e i n t e r - a c c o u n t i n g system was construet©d whereby t h e r e s p e c t i v e departments c o u l d be r e i m b u r s e d f o r equipment used by one b u t owned by t h e o t h e r . By t h e y e a r 1953,  the M i c h i g a n P r i s o n Gamp Programme,  a l t h o u g h o n l y f i v e y e a r s o l d , had developed r a p i d l y f r o m t h e p i l o t camp i n the W a t e r l o o R e c r e a t i o n a l A r e a t o a permanent d i v i s i o n o f t h e C o r r e c t i o n s Department, about seven hundred Inmates o c c u p y i n g  C u r r e n t l y , there are  n i n e r e g u l a r work camps  and t h e r e I s a n a d d i t i o n a l M i c h i g a n P a r o l e - Gamp w h i c h has a p o p u l a t i o n o f 128 men. S e l e c t i o n o f Inmates, The  C o r r e c t i o n s Department o f M i c h i g a n has emulated t h e  A m e r i c a n P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n ' s "A Manual o f C o r r e c t i o n a l S t a n d a r d s , 1954"  suggestions  on s e l e c t i o n o f inmates f o r oamp programmes.  They I n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. Inmates s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d t h r o u g h a p p r o p r i a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s and i t s h o u l d be t h e i r p r e r o g a t i v e t o a c c e p t o r r e f u s e camp assignment. 2* P r i s o n e r s s h o u l d have b o t h m e d i c a l and d e n t a l e x a m i n a t i o n s b e f o r e b e i n g sent t o the 'Camp, T h i s would h e l p t o l e s s e n t h e number o f t r i p s back t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . 3. The o n l y p r i s o n e r who s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d f o r t h e Camp a r e those who a r e good custody r i s k s w i t h o u t t h e use o f gun-guards, c h a i n s , o r o t h e r u n d e s i r a b l e forms o f r e s t r a i n t * 4. I f i t i s p o s s i b l e p r i s o n e r s s h o u l d be p a i d wages f o r t h e work they perform. 5. The number o f i n m a t e s a s s i g n e d t o a Camp s h o u l d be I n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e amount o f work a v a i l a b l e , 6*. P r i s o n e r s s u s p e c t e d o f m a l i n g e r i n g s h o u l d be r e t u r n e d p r o m p t l y t o the m a i n j a i l . l  'American P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n , op, e i t . , pp, 61-68,,  - 34 Nature o f Work P r o j e c t s , A l t h o u g h t h e M i c h i g a n P r i s o n Gamp programme has been engaged c h i e f l y i n j o i n t C o r r e c t i o n s - C o n s e r v a t i o n has  i n some i n s t a n c e s  projects,i t  performed work i n s p e c i a l a r e a s s u c h a s  M i c h i g a n communities, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , and  t h e M i c h i g a n S t a t e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , D u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1951 t o 1952 p r i s o n Gamp inmate l a b o u r  a i d e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e I n t h e c o n t r o l of B l i s t e r Rust.  I n a d d i t i o n ; inmate l a b o u r p l a y e d an a c t i v e  p a r t i n t h e development o f community p r o j e c t s such a s t h e r e n o v a t i o n o f I r o n M o u n t a i n s k i jump f o r t h e 1951 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Olympic s k i - j u m p i n g t r i a l s , b u i l d i n g o f Boy and G i r l S c o u t Camps, c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e S o c i a l W e l f a r e Department's camps, and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a community r e c r e a t i o n b u i l d i n g i n G r e y l i n g . , I t was d i s c o v e r e d  t h a t by t h e s e p r o j e c t s t h e camp programme  i t s e l f n o t only r e c e i v e d b e t t e r acceptance b u t a l s o t h a t  public  r e l a t i o n s were immeasurably improved by b r i n g i n g t o t h e immediate view o f t h e p u b l i c t h e work performed on t h e s e d i f f e r e n t community projects*  I t was hoped a t t h e same t i m e , by t h i s accomplishment  of p r o j e c t s by p r i s o n camp l a b o u r ,  t h a t I t would h e l p b r i n g t o t h e  p u b l i c v i e w t h e f a c t t h a t p r i s o n s and p r i s o n e r s  a r e the r e s p o n s i -  b i l i t y o f a l l the people of Michigan.and not the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the C o r r e c t i o n s The  Department a l o n e .  p r i s o n camp programme r e c e i v e d r e p e a t e d and numerous  r e q u e s t s f r o m M i c h i g a n communities f o r h e l p o n p u b l i c p r o j e c t s . Whenever p o s s i b l e , s u c h h e l p i s g r a n t e d .  However, t h e  camp  - 55 programme s t i p u l a t e s t h r e e r e q u i r e m e n t s b e f o r e are  their  services  supplied:  1. There a r e t o be no c i v i l i a n w o r k e r s d i s p l a c e d . 2* The work t o be performed must be o f a p u b l i c n a t u r e and the l a n d and b u i l d i n g s public-owned..., 3, The r e s p o n s i b l e l e a d e r s o f t h e community must a s k f o r t h e a s s i s t a n c e , and a l s o t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d b y t h e inmate crews must be a g r e e a b l e t o t h e e n t i r e community b e f o r e t h e work commences. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e f u t u r e o f t h e P r i s o n Camp Programme i n M i c h i g a n i s u n l i m i t e d I n r e s p e c t t o t h e amount o f work w h i c h can be done.  The tremendous S t a t e F o r e s t s , P a r k and R e c r e a t i o n a l  A r e a s o f M i c h i g a n a r e presumed t o be a b l e t o p r o v i d e work f o r  a  thousand men f o r twenty y e a r s o r more..; Extra-work A c t i v i t i e s . Due  to insufficient  documentary m a t e r i a l t h e w r i t e r has  been u n a b l e t o p r e s e n t a n a c c o u n t o f t h e " e x t r a - w o r k a c t i v i t i e s " as p r a c t i s e d I n t h i s s t a t e . Philosophy  o f Camp Programme.  A l t h o u g h a t p r e s e n t t h e r e a r e t e n camp programmes f u n c t i o n i n g I n M i c h i g a n i t i s hoped t h a t l e g i s l a t i v e a p p r o v e ! o f a t w e l v e camp programme w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be o b t a i n e d . s c h e d u l e d t o be c o n s t r u c t e d  The e l e v e n t h camp i s  d u r i n g 1954 t o 1955,  d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1955 t o 1956.  and t h e t w e l f t h  I t has been m e n t i o n e d , however,  t h a t t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s dependent upon t h e accessibility  o f b o t h •'good s e c u r i t y r i s k " p r i s o n e r s and l e g i s -  l a t i v e approval.  I f such a p l a n was f o u n d t o be u n p r o f i t a b l e  inasmuch a s i t goes beyond t h e p o i n t o f d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s , t h e n the t e n Camp programme w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d as the optimum. The  Supervisory  P e r s o n n e l o f t h e M i c h i g a n p r i s o n camp  - 36 programme a r e r e q u i r e d courses.  t o take continuous i n - s e r v i c e  training  E a c h employee i s compelled t o a t t e n d a t l e a s t two  such c o u r s e s o f s t u d y e a c h y e a r *  The c o u r s e s d e a l w i t h s u p e r -  v i s i o n o f camp o f f i c e r s and p r i s o n e r s , o v e r a l l  day-to-day  f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e camps, l e a r n i n g o f s e c u r i t y measures, b u y i n g and o r d e r i n g o f camp s u p p l i e s and m a t e r i a l , and p u b l i c and i n t e r departmental r e l a t i o n s *  I t i s f e l t t h a t no m a t t e r how e x p e r i e n c e d  a camp o f f i c e r o r s e r g e a n t may b e , new s i t u a t i o n s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y a r i s i n g i n such a wide**spread programme t h a t s t u d y a n d c o n s t a n t p r o b i n g a r e needed t o keep a b r e a s t w i t h t h e changes. I n a d d i t i o n , i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s a r e g i v e n t o camp custodial personnel.  The purposes o f the c o u r s e s a r e t o a c q u a i n t  any new camp programme employee w i t h t h e p o l i c i e s and s t i p u l a t i o n s of  t h e camp c u s t o d i a l xvork, a n d t o b r i n g them i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h  the s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l w i t h whom t h e y w i l l work. used a s a r e f r e s h e r course f o r e x p e r i e n c e d employees.  I talso I s The c o u r s e  i n c l u d e s g e n e r a l o p e r a t i n g p o l i c i e s o f t h e camp programme a s w e l l as t h e h i s t o r y and p r i n c i p l e .  A l s o emphasis i s p l a c e d o n the f a o t  t b a t t r a i n i n g and t r e a t m e n t o f camp inmates i s a c a r e e r worthy o f and e n t a i l i n g much thought and s t u d y *  The p o l i c y o f t h e camp  programme i s t h a t each Gamp C u s t o d i a l O f f i c e r i s o b l i g e d t o take a two day i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c o u r s e a t l e a s t t w i c e eaoh y e a r . I n a s i m i l a r manner, s i n c e t h e M i c h i g a n p r i s o n camp p r o g ramme i s d u a l l y o p e r a t e d by C o r r e c t i o n s and C o n s e r v a t i o n D e p a r t ments, and s i n c e C o n s e r v a t i o n foremen a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h a n d l i n g Inmate crews, employees o f t h i s department have  to  - 37 t a k e what are termed " i n d o c t r i n a t i o n c o u r s e s " .  I t i sthe  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e C o r r e c t i o n s Department t o t r a i n them f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r work,  Th© main emphasis o f t h e i n d o c t r i n a t i o n  c o u r s e s e n t a i l s t r a i n i n g o f C o n s e r v a t i o n foremen I n t h e a r e a s o f e s t a b l i s h e d p e n o l o g i c a l methods a s w e l l a s i n the problems o f inmate c o n t r o l and d i s c i p l i n e .  important  The c o u r s e s a l s o  i n c l u d e such m a t t e r s a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f foremen, l i a i s o n b e t ween the two departments, assignment o f i n m a t e s , t h e C o r r e c t i o n s Law,  camp f e e d i n g problems and r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s .  This plan i s  r i g i d l y adhered t o a s i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f how much t r a i n i n g an i n d i v i d u a l may have had i n o r d i n a r y a r e a s o f human behaviour,  when he d e a l s w i t h p r i s o n i n m a t e s , he i s f a c e d w i t h  problems d i s s i m i l a r f r o m those o f any o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n . The P r i s o n Camp Programme f u n c t i o n s w i t h these i d e a s and principles: 1, To p r o v i d e u s e f u l and i n s t r u c t i v e work f o r p r i s o n inmates and t o a s s i s t them t o become good c i t i z e n s b y I n s t i l l i n g i n t o them good work h a b i t s and a b e t t e r attl<tude t o w a r d s o c i e t y , 2, To p r o v i d e f o r t h e Gamp Programme employees a s a t i s f y i n g way o f l i f e I n a work environment where t h e r e i s c o - o p e r a t i o n and harmony, aa w e l l a s t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r f o r m i n g u s e f u l human s e r v i c e , and an advancement i n a n honourable c a r e e r i n p e n o l o g y , » 3. To r e n d e r e c o n o m i c a l and e f f i c i e n t l a b o u r s e r v i c e t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n Department f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e p e o p l e and f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s who w i l l v i s i t and e n j o y t h e Improved r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , 4, To p r o t e c t . t h e community the Programme s e r v e s by m a i n t a i n i n g p r o p e r s u p e r v i s i o n and custody o f camp i n - , mates u n t i l they a r e r e l e a s e d by due p r o c e s s o f t h e l a w .  ^Oilman, S.JV, " C o r r e c t i o n s C o n s e r v a t i o n Gamp Program", State o f Michigan, Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s , December, 1953, p, 41.  •«* 38 «* The S t a t e o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s , M a s s a c h u s e t t s p r i s o n f o r e s t camps were i n i t i a t e d upon a s u r v e y conducted lay Mr, G a v i n ( D i r e c t o r o f Gamps) o f t h e camp prosrammes o f W i s c o n s i n and M i c h i g a n .  As a r e s u l t of the survey,  M a s s a c h u s e t t s has I n c o r p o r a t e d n e a r l y t h e same c o n c e p t s r e l a t i n g t o s e l e c t i o n o f i n m a t e s , a s p e c t s o f camp r o u t i n e , and p h i l o s o p h y o f programme,- as t h e s e two s t a t e s , i n t o i t s own camp p r o j e c t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e w r i t e r , I n o r d e r t o a v o i d r e p e t i t i o n , has e x c l u d e d these t h r e e components f r o m t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y .  At the  same t i m e , however, s i n c e t h e M a s s a c h u s e t t s camp programme i s almost contemporary w i t h t h e B r i t i s h Columbia one, t h e w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o t h i s s t u d y t o m e r r i t some mention-, M a s s a c h u s e t t s e s t a b l i s h e d i t s p i l o t camp i n May o f 1952 i n t h e form o f a D-shaped b u i l d i n g , c o n s t r u c t e d by o u t s i d e l a b o u r a t t h e approximate c o s t o f $35,000.00. The i n m a t e s , under s u p e r v i s i o n o f camp o f f i c e r s , h e l p e d t o modernize and t o add t o t h e b u i l d i n g i n s u c h ways as t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1, A c o m b i n a t i o n c h a p e l and r e c r e a t i o n h a l l was b u i l t , 2, A j o i n t work shop and a v o c a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g wa.s s e t up, 3, A garage, f o r t h e camp v e h i c l e s , and a s t o r a g e b u i l d i n g were c o n s t r u c t e d , ' 4,  .  A quonset t y p e s u p p l y b u i l d i n g and a bunk house were b u i l t . I n a d d i t i o n t o camp p r o j e c t s inmates c l e a r e d l a n d , b u i l t  roads and p a r k i n g l o t s , and c u t , s k i d d e d , decked and p r o c e s s e d l o g s , some o f w h i c h were f o r s t a t e u s e . •••Gavin, J o h n A., " P e n a l F o r e s t r y Camp I n f o r m a t i o n " , M a s s a c h u s e t t s Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s , November, 1953, p , 5-6.  A3 o f November 1953 a t t h a t t i m e ) t h e i r own  (the camp's t o t a l l e n g t h o f  operation  camp b u i l d i n g s had been r e n o v a t e d ,  hundred e x t r a camp s i t e s had been developed and  three  thousand  man-hours o f f o r e s t f i r e f i g h t i n g had been put I n by the The M a s s a c h u s e t t s p r i s o n camp programme works i n w i t h the s t a t e C o n s e r v a t i o n ment p r o v i d e s co-operation  Department.  the work p r o j e c t s and  The  one  Conservation  inmates; conjunction Depart-  the C o r r e c t i o n s Department, I n  w i t h them, s e l e c t s the work gangs o f p r i s o n i n m a t e s . Conclusions.  I t I s the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t t h i s c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y cannot be a d e q u a t e l y c o n c l u d e d w i t h o u t some a p p r a i s a l o f i t s components. A l t h o u g h the w r i t e r i s u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the e f f i c i e n c y o f these p r i s o n camp programmes, t h e r e are c e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s  he  has made: 1.  The m a t e r i a l used i n t h i s s t u d y i s o f a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s  n a t u r e and o f f e r s l i t t l e scope f o r a p o s s i b l e S,  The  critique.  c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n of inmates ( e s p e c i a l l y W i s c o n s i n )  seems so e x c l u s i v e t h a t the number o f p r i s o n e r s e l i g i b l e f o r the camps must be v e r y 3.  limited;  The p r o c e s s employed by the inmate s e l e c t i n g committees o f '  W i s o o n s i n and M i c h i g a n i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n of p r o s p e c t i v e camp inmates seems t o be a v e r y comprehensive'one, e.g., r e p o r t s , F.B.I, r e p o r t s , e t c . usefulness  Chaplain's  However; the e x t e n s i v e n e s s  o f e a c h r e p o r t would be open t o  question.  and  40  © CO ©  to +3 •H  © ©  H  IO  © CO O fl U3  io  H  © ©  P  w  o  O  „  ta  H  I © fl.flr l «Hw  p iH O  «H  ©  fid  00  «s  H  01  o ©  o  ta •p p>  &  o  u  ©  >i F-i  od  •p  O  -•5  fl  ©  •H  « O SQ  • H 0} H  fl  <3 ->  P  cd  cd  <3j  fl rt 01  n  to  0 CO  H  fl © fl  •P to  ©  N O .d  © ro  ©  o  p  •H  P _ PS fl O «rt  ©  to to © o  H O  vfl  (3  ©  fl  IO  10 Gi  fl  © P.  •H  H  _ fl 03 «H  0>  •6J  fl  at  .fl fl ,fl o p o 0) i4 P fl o p -p co CO  • .flH o  CQ  •  fx  Cd © $>  fl -P  fl as' o «H  p © f) ca & o p  fl  $-4  fl  f-4 «H p . O P O © oI "H P o H P fl  • OH J  o  O  o •H  fl  _  o •H  fl O  •p U P ©  03  §8 O  cd 3 fl  •H -H  •  • © 53 . H  fl ©  UJ O tt) CQ  to fl  P P«  o ' • H fl © P P o _ © «H fl © P o h O © «H S4 fl P P o pS td O ^ P fl 03 • O p o si P4 ^ P © fl -H  td > N © ca fl O  Ct-H £ O  a fl  p Pi  o _  ©  • H fl o P o _ O «H fl © P o rH fl P -P o 0 ca cd O *<-aP t> fl t/3 p-t • O © p o & m  P<  +3  © fl «n  fl  o  03 fl O •P  fl  u o  <»H •rl r-i OJ  1 M  fl ©  P' O  u •a o  P  o o  S  p  S 3  1  •H P  O  •©  © P  rH ©  O •'-s>P  fl D3 • © P O ^5 P. © fl «H  1 ctf CO •H +» ^ fl fl O  o _  © o o> © e  >9  S<5 H  o> to  ei •H  P  fl  fl  •H  O <+-!  fl O O  H  cd  o  CQ  CO  •H  fl G  ©  © «H  fn fl P P O fl cd ca  in O  Rj H *H P  fl  © -H  «  al  ©  fl  o  © CO  •fl o d 03 to cd  Chapter I I I The B r i t i s h Columbia Programme: Treatment A s p e c t s , Origin,  The i d e a o f a p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camp programme f o r  B r i t i s h Columbia was  c o n c e i v e d i n F e b r u a r y 1951.  I t arose  as  a r e s u l t o f a s u g g e s t i o n made almost s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e by Mr. G* Wismer, the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l f o r B r i t i s h Columbia a t t h a t t i m e , and Mr* Kenny, the M i n i s t e r o f Lands and F o r e s t s .  They suggested t h a t a summer f o r e s t work  p r o j e c t might be a s u i t a b l e r e h a b i l i t a t i v e delinquents.  The concept was  programme f o r young  s u b m i t t e d f o r a p p r o v a l t o Mr*  E. G. B. S t e v e n s , the I n s p e c t o r o f G a o l s f o r B r i t i s h who  c o n s i d e r e d the p l a n f e a s i b l e .  t i o n t h e p l a n was  Columbia,  A f t e r administrative prepara-  inaugurated.  B r i t i s h Columbia embarked upon I t s f i r s t y e a r o f a summer p r i s o n camp programme on June 18, 1951.  On t h a t day  eleven  young o f f e n d e r s were r e l e a s e d from the Young O f f e n d e r s * U n i t o f the O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm under the p r o v i s i o n s o f the " T i c k e t o f Leave A c t " *  1  The group was  f l o w n t o p e n t i c t o n by C a n a d i a n  P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s , from whence they c h a r t e r e d a bus and were t r a n s p o r t e d t o the oamp a r e a . camp a r e a was  The approximate  l o c a t i o n o f the  i n the upper r e a c h e s o f the K e t t l e R i v e r i n t h e  T h e " T i c k e t o f Leave A c t " , i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the R e m i s s i o n ' s B r a n c h o f the Department of J u s t i c e f o r Canada. I t a l l o w s inmates t o l i v e o u t s i d e the p r i s o n under s u p e r v i s i o n . The p r i s o n e r who v i o l a t e s i t s t i p u l a t i o n s has h i s " t i c k e t " revoked. A  - 42 Monashee P a s s , f i f t y m i l e s e a s t of Vernon. I n May  o f 1952,  as a r e s u l t o f the  s u c c e s s f u l camp p r o g -  ramme i n the p r e v i o u s y e a r , B r i t i s h Columbia launched f o r e s t camp programme. Forest D i s t r i c t .  Two  camps were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e  E a c h camp c o n t a i n e d t w e l v e inmates, who  r e l e a s e d as i n the p r e c e d i n g One  i t s second  camp was  Nelson were  y e a r under t h e " T i c k e t o f Leave A c t " .  s i t u a t e d on f o r e s t a c c e s s r o a d  approximately  s i x and o n e - h a l f m i l e s s o u t h o f the Monashee P a s s Road.  J t was  on  the u p p e r r e a c h e s o f the K e t t l e R i v e r i n the mountain range between the Okanagan and the Arrow L a k e s .  The  towns n e a r e s t t o the camp  were Lumby, about s i x t y m i l e s w e s t , and Edgewood, about f i f t y east.  T h i s camp, named R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Camp No.  miles  1, was under the  s u p e r v i s i o n o f the Edgewood d i s t r i c t F o r e s t Ranger. The was  second f o r e s t r y camp, c a l l e d R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Camp No. I I ,  l o c a t e d a t the n o r t h end o f C h r i s t i a n V a l l e y , about f i f t y  n o r t h o f Rock Creek. thirty-five miles.  The d i s t a n c e between the two  camps was  miles about  However, s i n c e they were not o f easy a c c e s s , a  d i s t a n c e o f some two hundred and f i f t y m i l e s had t o be t r a v e l l e d i n o r d e r t o get f r o m one camp t o the  other*  2  """British Columbia Department of the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , "Annual R e p o r t o f the I n s p e c t o r of G a o l s , F o r the Y e a r Ended March 3 1 s t , 1952", V i c t o r i a , 1953, p. 22. M a t e r i a l used i n C h a p t e r I I I o f t h i s study has been obt a i n e d f r o m t h e A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f the I n s p e c t o r o f Gaols f o r the y e a r s ended March 31, 1951, 1952, and 1953. I n a d d i t i o n , informat i o n has been a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a number o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Mr. E.G.B. S t e v e n s , the I n s p e c t o r G a o l s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and Mr. R.M. D e i l d a l , the S e n i o r O f f i c e r i n charge o f t h e s e f o r e s t r y camps d u r i n g t h e i r t h r e e y e a r s of o p e r a t i o n . " A n n u a l R e p o r t of the I n s p e c t o r o f G a o l s " , f o r the Year Ended March 31, 1953, p. 41. 2  43 The 1953 B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t r y camp o f t h e p r e v i o u s e x p e r i m e n t s o f 1951 and 1952. i n t h i s r e s p e c t - - i t was named a g a o l .  was a c o n t i n u a t i o n However, i t d i f f e r e d  I n "Order i n C o u n c i l " ,  number 1183, dated May 19, 1953, i t was s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e was t o be c o n s t r u c t e d  a g a o l , t o be l o c a t e d i n t h e same p l a c e s a s the  camps o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r s and i t was t o be c a l l e d t h e " F o r e s t Camp G a o l " .  Then, by "Order i n C o u n c i l "  number 1184, May 1 9 t h ,  s i x inmates f r o m O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm and f o u r t e e n f r o m Young O f f e n d e r s * U n i t o f O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm were t o be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the F o r e s t  Camp G a o l .  u n t i l discharged  These inmates were t o be d e t a i n e d  by due course o f t h e l a w o r u n t i l f u r t h e r  there order.  The inmates were t o be t r a n s f e r r e d u n d e r s e c t i o n f i v e o f t h e " P r i s o n s and R e f o r m a t o r i e s A c t " .  T h i s t r a n s f e r was t o be e f f e c t i v e  on o r a f t e r May 3 1 s t and i t s s t a t e d purpose was t o e n a b l e t h e s a i d p r i s o n e r s t o c a r r y o u t a work programme a t o r i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f the s a i d camp under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e F o r e s t r y B r a n c h o f t h e Provinoe,  1  By c h a n g i n g t h e name t o t h e F o r e s t Gamp G a o l t h e r a t h e r awkward p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e " T i c k e t o f Leave A c t " was done away w i t h , and t h e moving o f t h e inmates f r o m t h e main g a o l t o t h e F o r e s t Camp G a o l was f a c i l i t a t e d . name F o r e s t  A l s o , by t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e  Camp G a o l i t a l l o w e d f o r t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e  camp t o be c e n t r a l i z e d i n t h e hands o f t h e C o r r e c t i o n s  branch.  ."""Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Copy o f a M i n u t e o f t h e Honourable the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , May 19, 1953.  - 44 Administration. S i n c e t h e p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camp i n 1951 was t h e f i r s t t o be e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e r e was no p r e c e d e n t t o f o l l o w and so t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e camp was developed the programme p r o g r e s s e d .  as  This lack of d e f i n i t i o n i n administra-  t i v e p o l i c y produced some c o n f u s i o n between t h e two a u t h o r i t i e s involved.  They were t h e B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e O f f i c i a l s  o f N e l s o n D i s t r i c t and "the P r o v i n c i a l P r o b a t i o n B r a n c h .  The  m a j o r i t y o f problems, however, were r e s o l v e d by c o n s u l t a t i o n s between t h e s u p e r v i s o r s o f each department. The  1952 f o r e s t r y camp had a more c l a r i f i e d f o r m o f admin-  i s t r a t i o n than i t s predecessor.  I n t h i s year the o f f i c i a l s o f  the B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f t h e Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s and t h e o f f i c i a l s o f t h e P r o b a t i o n B r a n c h d e c i d e d t o operate  two camps. The F o r e s t S e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h e d and equipped  the oamps.  They were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f o o d s u p p l i e s ,  t o o l s , v e h i c l e s and h o u s i n g  (tents).  A foreman and cook were  a p p o i n t e d by t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e t o each camp and they were under the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e F o r e s t Rangers o f t h e a r e a .  The j o b o f t h e  foreman was t o d i r e o t t h e work p r o j e c t , t o m a i n t a i n t h e equipment and t o s u p e r v i s e any a d d i t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l who might be w o r k i n g i n t h e oamp a r e a . The  s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e 1952 camp was t h e same p e r s o n a s i n  the p r e v i o u s y e a r (Mr. R. M, D e i l d a l ) .  He was on l o a n f r o m t h e  P r o v i n c i a l P r o b a t i o n B r a n c h and was r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e I n s p e c t o r of Gaols.  H i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was t o s u p e r v i s e t h e i n m a t e s .  F u r t h e r d u t i e s o f t h e S u p e r v i s o r were those o f d i s c i p l i n e ,  custody,  -  programme and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e The  -  45  planning.  f o r e s t r y programme f o r the y e a r 1953  the same j o i n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as those years.  There was,  f u n c t i o n e d under  camps of the  preceding  however, a more adequate p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h i s  y e a r ' s p r o j e c t w h i c h i n c l u d e d a few changes i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements.  The A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s  department had  complete  c o n t r o l o v e r the s u p e r v i s i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the camp. D e l l d a l who  was  the earap s u p e r v i s o r t h i s y e a r , h e l d the p o s i t i o n  o f temporary camp warden. appointed  Mr,  The A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s  Department  a foreman and cook, as w e l l as a s u p e r v i s o r who  was  put  i n charge o f r e c r e a t i o n . The  sum of #20,000.00 was  f o r o p e r a t i o n o f the p r o j e c t *  secured from the F o r e s t s e r v i c e  The  camp warden, t h r o u g h t h e  F o r e s t D i s t r i c t O f f i c e , assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the r e q u i s i t i o n i n g and  Kelson  processing  accounting.  The equipment f o r the camp was p r o v i d e d by t h e F o r e s t  Ser-  v i c e , and they were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r o a d l o c a t i o n and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f the work p r o j e c t s *  As a means of e n s u r i n g t h a t  s u c h ' s p e c i f i c a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out the F o r e s t S e r v i c e conducted p e r i o d i c i n s p e c t i o n s o f the work ana o f f e r e d the camp foreman any needed a d v i c e . S e l e c t i o n o f Inmates. F o r the 1951  and 1952  f o r e s t r y programmes inmates for  the  camps were chosen by t h e s t a f f o f the Young O f f e n d e r s ' U n i t and the O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm.  The  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r s and  respective s t a f f aided i n t h i s process. s e l e c t i o n of the inmates was  The  their  c r i t e r i a used f o r  f l e x i b l e b u t i n most c a s e s was  as  of  follows: 1. 2. 3. 4.  Good s e c u r i t y r i s k s , Wo d r u g a d d i c t s . Good h e a l t h - * m e d i c a l l y and d e n t a l l y . I n most i n s t a n c e s Inmates s e r v i n g s i x t o seven months 1  (prospective  parolees).  8  I t was found t h a t , t h e m a j o r i t y o f inmates had j u v e n i l e c o u r t r e c o r d s * b u t t h a t t h e y were s e r v i n g t h e i r f i r s t g a o l sentence.  N e a r l y a l l were s e r v i n g s e n t e n c e s o f a t l e a s t one y e a r *  The n a t u r e o f t h e o f f e n c e s were a u t o t h e f t , b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g , t h e f t overytwenty-five  d o l l a r s , and c o n t r i b u t i n g t o j u v e n i l e  delinquency. The c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e 1953 f o r e s t r y scheme were s e l e c t e d w e l l i n advance. Young O f f e n d e r s  1  They I n c l u d e d  n o t o n l y t h e inmates f r o m t h e  U n i t , a s I n former y e a r s , b u t "also a group o f  s i x men f r o m the main g a o l .  The d i r e c t o r and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  o f f i c e r o f Young O f f e n d e r s ' t f n i t , a l o n g W i t h t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r o f t h e O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm, c o n s t i t u t e d the s e l e c t i n g team.  The s t a n d a r d s used f o r C h o o s i n g t h e p r o s p e c t i v e  inmates was on t h e same b a s i s as i n the p a s t y e a r s * discovered,  as before,„that t h e m a j o r i t y of  I t was  Inmates had had  j u v e n i l e c o u r t r e c o r d s and were now s e r v i n g t h e i r f i r s t term.  camp  gaol  The p a t t e r n o f o f f e n c e s was n e a r l y t h e same as f o r t h e  preceding  two y e a r s .  i T h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s I n charge o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t p r i s o n camp programme were o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f d r u g a d d i c t s i n t h e programme would c o n s t i t u t e poor s e c u r i t y r i s k s and l e s s chance o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 2  ^Statement by R. M. D e i l d a l , p e r s o n a l  interview.  - 47 -  Type o f Inmate. The eamp p e r s o n n e l were p r o v i d e d w i t h s o o i a l h i s t o r i e s On the m a j o r i t y o f i n m a t e s .  Where no s o o i a l h i s t o r i e s were a v a i l a b l e ,  p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s were u t i l i z e d as t h e means o f o b t a i n i n g d e s i r e d information. The age range o f t h e p r i s o n e r s d u r i n g t h e t h r e e y e a r o p e r a t i o n p e r i o d o f the camp programme was f r o m f i f t e e n t o t w e n t y - s i x . The g r e a t e r number o f i n m a t e s , however, were i n t h e e i g h t e e n , n i n e t e e n and twenty y e a r o l d age group,  A l a r g e number Of  the  Inmates showed v a r y i n g degrees o f e m o t i o n a l i m m a t u r i t y . Many o f them had p r i m a r y b e h a v i o u r d i s o r d e r s r a t h e r t h a n s e r i o u s n e u r o s e s or p r e - p s y o h a t i o b e h a v i o u r .  The average i n t e l l i g e n c e o f t h e  inmates was thought t o be s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e g e n e r a l population.  The e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ranged from p r i m a r y s c h o o l t o  one o r two y e a r s o f u n i v e r s i t y , w i t h t h e average s c h o o l i n g b e i n g about Grade V I I I .  1  Table 1 g i v e s a d e t a i l e d t a b u l a t e d account o f  the  s o c i a l h i s t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e twenty inmates i n c l u d e d i n  the  1953 camp programme. About t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e inmates came f rom urfe,an e n v i r o n -  ments and t h e remainder from s m a l l t o w n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and other provinces.  Most o f t h e Inmates were f o u n d t o have come  from an u n s u i t a b l e home environment, t h a t i s , broken and i n a d e quate homes r a t h e r t h a n j u s t m a t e r i a l impoverishment. There were v e r y few inmates who were f i r s t o f f e n d e r s .  The b u l k o f them had  been p r o c e s s e d t h r o u g h the. F a m i l y C o u r t , J u v e n i l e C o u r t , J u v e n i l e  Annual Report of the i n s p e c t o r of Gaols f o r the Tear Ended March 31, 1953, V i c t o r i a , 1954, p. 48.  -  48  -  D e t e n t i o n Home, Boys* I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l and a few had even s e r v e d sentences a t O a k a l l a . V e r y few p r i s o n e r s had e v e r worked b e f o r e , and t h o s e had were d i s c o v e r e d t o have had poor work h a b i t s , w i t h changes of employment.  who  frequent  The u s u a l r e a s o n f o r an inmate q u i t t i n g a  j o b was f o u n d t o he the i n d i v i d u a l ' s I n a b i l i t y t o g e t a l o n g  with  h i s employer. I t was n o t e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f inmates had an e x t r e m e l y narrow range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s * i n t e r e s t e d I n hobbies.  Only a few p r i s o n e r s were  Movie p i c t u r e s , b o w l i n g a l l e y s , p o o l  and o t h e r forms o f c o m m e r c i a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t inmates.  halls  were p r e f e r r e d by t h e  I t was o b s e r v e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f p r i s o n e r s were n o t  o n l y u n r e s o u r c e f u l as a group b u t a l s o as i n d i v i d u a l s , and t h i s was b e l i e v e d t o be a c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r I n t h e i r  delinquency..  * 49 T a b l e 1. Sooial History Information  o f t h e Inmates i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbia  P r i s o n F o r e s t r y Camp Programme d u r i n g t h e y e a r 1953.  . . ....  .... AGE GROUP  ITEM  •16-17  •19-20 '21-23 »26-27 'T01BAI  5  Number o f Inmates Schooling Grade V I Grade V I I Grade V I I I Grade I X Grade X Grade X I University  3  «  2  2 mm  2 *' mm  Institutional History Boys* I n d u s t r i a l ' S c h o o l Probation J u v e n i l e Court  X  Previous Convictions at O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm  1  2 -  1 4  -'  L e n g t h o f Sentence 9 months 12 months 15 months 18 months 24 months Offence B r e a k i n g * E n t e r i n g and Stealing Auto T h e f t Possession of Liquor R e t a i n i n g s t o l e n Goods T h e f t o v e r $25.00 T h e f t under #25.00 P r o p e r t y damage o v e r #20.0< A s s a u l t i n t e n d i n g t o rob I n d e c e n t a s s a u l t (female) Contributing to j u v e n i l e Delinquency  2 1  -  2 1 •' 1'  •« •  1  i .  —  —  mm •mm  '  1 '  3 3  1 1  mm  **  mm  3  2  3  2  1  1  1 •  -  •-  2 1  I  -  3 1  m) ;  1  •im> mm  -  1 mm-  <*>  mm  1  2'  3  mm  1  *#  *»•  -  5  mjm  ••»  1  2 . 2. 8  —  -  2 2  «•  1 1 2 1  1  •2  ;i  - ;  20  7 4 2  mm  ;—  5  -  —  .  4.  1  I —  .mm.  - ' 1 .4*  - . .1  1  1 14 2 2 1  ••-5 11 1 1  3 . f-  :.i I  i ' i  - 50 Personnel. The 1951 B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t r y camp programme was impeded I n i t s o p e r a t i o n b y t h e type o f s t a f f and by the newness of the s i t u a t i o n .  A l l t h e s t a f f , i n c l u d i n g t h e camp s e n i o r o f f i c e r ,  R. M. D e i l d a l , were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h a p r i s o n camp programme a t t h e beginning of t h e i r f i r s t year.  The camp foreman and Cook who were  b o t h s u p p l i e d by the F o r e s t s e r v i c e had had no p r e v i o u s  experience  at a l l i n dealing with p r i s o n e r s . The  s t a f f p r o b l e m d i d n o t improve much i n 1952,  Personnel  a p p o i n t e d by t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e p r o v e d t o be f a r f r o m s a t i s f a c t o r y . The foreman i n charge o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Camp No. 1 was t h e same man who had b e e n foreman t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r .  Although experienced i n  managing f o r e s t oamps, he was u n s u i t a b l e i n a camp o f t h i s type* He was unable  t o understand  o r a p p l y t h e s o c i a l work method w i t h t h e  p r i s o n e r s and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r was u n s a t i s factory.  The foreman i n charge Of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Gamp No, I I a l s o  had l i t t l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the inmates and, f i n d i n g t h e j o b n o t t o h i s l i k i n g worked o n l y a s h o r t w h i l e . The  s u p e r v i s o r s f o r these two camps were r e c e n t  o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h e o t h e r was a t h e o l o g y s t u d e n t .  graduates  One was a B a c h e l o r o f A r t s They had been g i v e n temporary  appointment t o the c o r r e c t i o n s b r a n c h f o r t h e camp p e r i o d and were under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f R, M. D e i l d a l , who was a g a i n S e n i o r Camp Officer,  B o t h men, a l t h o u g h a b l e t o get a l o n g w i t h the Inmates,  were i n e x p e r i e n c e d I n h a n d l i n g p r i s o n e r s and i n r u n n i n g t h i s o f programme. discipline.  type  As a r e s u l t t h e y had some d i f f i c u l t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g  51  F u r t h e r m o r e , d u r i n g t h i s y e a r , t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n s e c u r i n g good camp cooks.  I n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Camp  No. I I a l o n e t h e r e was a s u c c e s s i o n o f f o u r cooks.  The m a j o r i t y  Of these employees were f o u n d t o be e i t h e r i n e f f i c i e n t ,  unsani-  t a r y , o r r e f u s e d t o conform t o camp r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , and so had t o be d i s c h a r g e d .  E v e n t u a l l y , i n Camp No, I I t h e inmates  ended up by d o i n g t h e i r own coOking.  T h i s l e d t o waste and  I n e f f i c i e n t ordering o f supplies- with r e s u l t i n g high costs. A f t e r the discouraging experiences w i t h the c a l i b r e of the employees d u r i n g t h e s e two y e a r s , p l a n n i n g f o r t h e 1953 p r o g ramme emphasized t h e earefu.1 s e l e c t i o n o f p e r s o n n e l .  This year  Mr. R.M, D e i l d a l was g i v e n t h e temporary appointment o f warden, and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h i r i n g a l l t h e s t a f f f o r t h e f o r e s t r y programme was e n t i r e l y Incumbent upon t h e c o r r e c t i o n s b r a n c h . The person.'  foreman employed t h i s y e a r was a v e r y competent  As w e l l as h a v i n g had e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e  he had good c o n t r o l o f t h e inmates*  H i s manner w i t h  i n t h e woods, them was  a c c e p t a b l e and he i n s t i n c t i v e l y d i d t h e r i g h t t h i n g I n h a n d l i n g situations. The cook t h i s y e a r a g a i n had no knowledge o f d e a l i n g w i t h inmates, but h i s work was s a t i s f a c t o r y .  They k e p t him i s o l a t e d  f r o m t h e inmates and any c o m p l a i n t s p e r t a i n i n g t o h i s work were made t o one o f t h e p e r s o n n e l , n o t d i r e c t l y t o him. I n c l u d e d on the camp p e r s o n n e l t h i s y e a r was a s u p e r v i s o r who was on l o a n f r o m Young O f f e n d e r s experience  1  Unit.  He n o t o n l y had  i n d e a l i n g w i t h d e l i n q u e n t boys b u t a l s o had been  w o r k i n g on t h e 3:00 p.m. t o 11:00 p.m. s o c i a l i z a t i o n programme a t  - 52 the Young O f f e n d e r s ' U n i t .  He had Knowledge o f group a c t i v i t i e s  and e x p e r i e n c e i n o r g a n i z i n g v a r i o u s e v e n t s and games w h i c h he C a r r i e d o u t w i t h competence. Nature o f Work F r o .1e c t s * The  c h i e f work p r o j e c t o f t h e camp programme f o r 1951 was  the b u i l d i n g o f a n e i g h t m i l e r o a d f r o m the camp s i t e t o F i s h Greek.  The p r i s o n e r s c l e a r e d t h e f o r e s t t o produce a r i g h t - o f - w a y  f o r t h e r o a d and t h e n h e l p e d a s "swampers" On t h e t r u c k s and a s g r a v e l s p r e a d e r s when t h e a c t u a l r o a d b u i l d i n g began.  For this  work t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e s e n t i n b u l l d o z e r s and o t h e r r o a d b u i l d i n g equipment. D u r i n g the month o f August o f t h e same y e a r t h e Inmates were engaged i n f i r e - f i g h t i n g .  FOr t h e f i r s t e i g h t h o u r s o f f i r e -  f i g h t i n g they r e c e i v e d t h e i r r e g u l a r wages*  F o r any a d d i t i o n a l  hours they o b t a i n e d f i r e - f i g h t i n g pay a t t h e r a t e o f s e v e n t y - f i v e cents p e r h o u r .  1  The f o r m o f work o f b o t h camps i n 1952 was much t h e same as i n 1951.  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Camp No• I c o n t i n u e d on w i t h t h e m a i n  p r o j e c t s t a r t e d t h e p r e v i o u s year*;  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Camp No* I I  c l e a r e d a d d i t i o n a l t r e e s and d i d o t h e r r o a d - b u i l d i n g work a s t h e i r main p r o j e c t .  B o t h camps were termed f i r e s u p p r e s s i o n eamps, a s  i n the previous  y e a r , and inmates b u i l t f i r e t r a i l s and were  prepared f o r f i r e - f i g h t i n g . I n 1953 t h e camp work programme was p r i m a r i l y t h e c l e a r i n g  ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , "Annual R e p o r t o f t h e I n s p e c t o r o f G a o l s " f o r the Y e a r I n d e d March 31, 1952, V i c t o r i a , 1953,pp. 22-23.  - 53 of the r i g h t - o f - w a y f o r the f o r e s t access road a l o n g t h e K e t t l e River..  The. inmates were s u b j e c t t o f i r e * f i g h t i n g d u t i e s and were  r e c o g n i z e d a s a f i r e s u p p r e s s i o n group b u t t h e i r s e r v i c e s were n o t needed a s i t was a wet summer* D u r i n g t h i s summer t h e work p r o j e c t was b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d by F o r e s t s e r v i c e P e r s o n n e l t h a n i n p a s t y e a r s .  Emphasis was  p l a c e d o n k e e p i n g t h e inmates busy on t h e b a s i s o f a f o r t y - f o u r hour week.  The camp foreman was g i v e n s u p e r v i s i o n and o n d i f f e r e n t  o c c a s i o n s t h e inmate crew was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r s h e l p i n g t h e foreman as " s t r a w b o s s e s " •  1  O p e r a t i o n o f Camp Programme* 1.  Camp r o u t i n e :  one o f r o u t i n i s m .  The average w o r k i n g day f o r each inmate was The inmates, were wakened a t 6:45 a,m* by t h e  camp " f l u n k e y " and b r e a k f a s t was s e r v e d a t .7:30 a.m.  Before  r e p o r t i n g f o r work each Inmate was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making h i s own bed and f o r h e l p i n g c l e a n up t h e t e n t s and t e n t a r e a .  The work  p e r i o d i n t h e m o r n i n g was from 8:00 a.m. u n t i l t w e l v e o ' c l o c k * D u r i n g t h e work p e r i o d one o r two b r e a k s f o r smoke p e r i o d s were a l l o w e d , s i n c e due t o t h e f i r e h a z a r d I n t h e bush, t h e i i m a t e s were p r o h i b i t e d from smoking on t h e j o b .  The a f t e r n o o n work  p e r i o d c o n t i n u e d f r o m 1:00 p . m . ' u n t i l 4:30 p,m* w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e smoke p e r i o d s * oooupied  Supper was s e r v e d a t 5:30 p*m.  The i n m a t e s  t h e i r evenings by e i t h e r r e s t i n g , r e a d i n g books o b t a i n e d  f r o m t h e camp l i b r a r y , f r i e n d l y d i s c o u r s e , o r e n g a g i n g i n t h e  ^Annual R e p o r t o f t h e i n s p e c t o r o f G a o l s f o r t h e Y e a r Ended March 31, 1954, V i c t o r i a , 1955, p. 50.  -  54  d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e a t the camp. a d d i t i o n , the s u p e r v i s o r s time was  In  a v a i l a b l e during the evening  t o the inmates f o r c o u n s e l l i n g and d i s c u s s i o n of d i f f e r e n t problems.  The  commissary was  opened s e v e r a l t i m e s a week a f t e r  supper and the inmates c o u l d buy etc.  t o b a c c o , candy, s o f t  The p r i c e o f the p u r c h a s e s was  deferred earnings.  The  day  deducted f r o m the inmates*  terminated  l i g h t s out i n the s l e e p i n g t e n t s .  drinks  a t 10:30  There was,  p.m.  with a l l  however, no  l a t e d time f o r l i g h t s out on a day p r i o r t o a non-work 2,  Physical f a c i l i t i e s :  The  f a c i l i t i e s o f the 1951  Columbia f o r e s t r y p r o j e e t were somewhat i n a d e q u a t e .  regu-  day.  British D u r i n g the  n e x t two y e a r s o f the programme, however, t h e y improved somewhat. The f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t e n t d u r i n g t h e 1953 programme can be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s ! (1) m e d i c a l and d e n t a l s e r v i c e s , (2) ing,  (3) camp commissary, and  (4) m i s c e l l a n e o u s  E a c h inmate, b e f o r e coming t o camp, was medical  and d e n t a l e x a m i n a t i o n .  Inmates who  camp equipment. given a thorough  were i n need o f  d e n t a l treatment r e c e i v e d i t before l e a v i n g O a k a l l a . be p r a c t i c a l and t h a t t h e r e was was  cloth-  I n Order t o  t o a v o i d m a l i n g e r i n g the inmate group were t o l d  no means of l o o k i n g a f t e r s i c k p e o p l e i n camp. I t  e x p l a i n e d t o the group t h a t anybody w i t h an i l l n e s s of more  t h a n two  or t h r e e days d u r a t i o n would have t o be t r a n s f e r r e d back  to the main g a o l . necessary,  It happened, however, t h a t such a c t i o n s were not  and no time was  s e v e r a l inmates had ment.  A l s o , due  l o s t through i l l n e s s ,  to be e s c o r t e d t o Vernon f o r  nevertheless, emergency t r e a t -  t o a number o f a c c i d e n t s , m o s t l y axe  cuts, a  few  -  55  -  inmates had t o be t a k e n t o a d o c t o r a t Vernon. r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own  The  crewmen were  d e n t a l b i l l s , but the m e d i c a l b i l l s  were s e n t I n t o the c o r r e c t i o n s b r a n c h and Workmen's Compensation forms were s u b m i t t e d . B e f o r e l e a v i n g g a o l , e a c h inmate was  outfitted with a  complete s e t o f work c l o t h e s , the c o s t o f w h i c h came t o dollars.  T h i s was  deducted f r o m t h e inmate's e a r n i n g s .  of c l o t h e s c o n s i s t e d o f b o o t s , r u n n i n g and  A commissary was The  The  issue  shoes, s o c k s , p a n t s , s h i r t s ,  g l o v e s , w h i e h the inmates were a l l o w e d  inmates.  sixty-five  t o keep a f t e r  discharge,  s e t up as p a r t o f the programme f o r the  d i f f e r e n t a r t i c l e s w h i e h were s o l d were p u r c h a s e d  by the s e n i o r o f f i c e r of the camp a t the w h o l e s a l e p r i c e and t o the inmates a t the r e t a i l p r i c e .  sold  The p r o f i t s made f r o m t h i s  p r o c e d u r e were used t o buy r e c r e a t i o n a l equipment f o r the camp, as w e l l as v a r i o u s p r i z e s f o r d i f f e r e n t c o n t e s t s such as whieh were h e l d t h r o u g h o u t the summer* was  A l i m i t o f two  fishing  dollars  s e t on t h e amount o f commissary purchase t h a t each inmate  c o u l d make p e r week* The group was  inmates were d i v i d e d i n t o groups o f f o u r * and  a l l o t t e d a t e n t as t h e i r s l e e p i n g q u a r t e r s *  s e n i o r o f f i c e r had h i s own office*  each  The  camp's  s l e e p i n g t e n t and i t a l s o s e r v e d as  S i m i l a r l y * t h e camp s u p e r v i s o r and foreman e a c h  an  had  t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s l e e p i n g t e n t s i n w h i c h t h e y a l s o used t o  store  such equipment as sawsj hammers* and f i r s t a i d equipment*  Bach  bunk t e n t was  equipped w i t h a s m a l l s t o v e , army s t y l e c o t s  and  bed c l o t h e s *  Two  and  mess h a l l *  The  t e n t s s e t end t o end d i n i n g t e n t contained  served as a k i t c h e n  an e a t i n g t a b l e * a hot w a t e r  -  s t o r a g e drum and a s i n k .  56  -  In addition, a coal o i l  refrigerator  was a v a l u a b l e p i e o e o f oamp equipment. Other g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h t h e oamp p o s s e s s e d was a h a l f - t o n p i c k - u p t r u c k p r o v i d e d by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e *  The  v e h i c l e was q u i t e o l d and on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s p r o v e d t o be v e r y unreliable*  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t s e r v e d as a means o f t r a n s p o r t i n g  b o t h merchandise and inmates t o and f r o m town, 3*  Discipline:  I t was found t h a t when t h e inmates were k e p t busy  a t work t h e i r o v e r a l l b e h a v i o u r was a t i t s b e s t , and a t t b i s t i m e t h e y a l s o appeared t o be the h a p p i e s t *  The oamp programme was  w e l l equipped w i t h r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s * 1.  Deprivation of privileges*  Some o f them i n c l u d e d :  M i n o r misdemeanors were d e a l t w i t h  by t h i s t y p e Of d i s c i p l i n a r y measure,  FOr i n s t a n c e , an inmate  might have h i s commissary p r i v i l e g e s r e v o k e d due t o m i s b e h a v i o u r . He would be p r o h i b i t e d f r o m making p u r c h a s e s  f o r a few d a y s , the  p e r i o d o f t i m e c o n t i n g e n t upon the n a t u r e o f the o f f e n c e . 2.  Assignment o f u n p l e a s a n t work d e t a i l .  There were numerous  j o b s around the camp t h a t had to be done and y e t were arduous disagreeable labour.  and  Some o f t h e s e i n c l u d e d c u t t i n g e x t r a s u p p l i e s  o f wood, emptying garbage and g e n e r a l camp maintenance* 3.  D i s c i p l i n e r e l a t e d t o the damage done i n t h e course o f misbe-  haviour.  I t was Observed t o be a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f some of the  Inmates t o be Very c a r e l e s s w i t h the camp t o o l s and  equipment.  The inmate who w a n t o n l y damaged p r o p e r t y was r e q u i r e d t o e i t h e r r e p a i r i t o r pay f o r the damage Out o f h i s d e f e r r e d e a r n i n g s . 4.  Re-classification.  Inmates f o u n d g u i l t y o f misdemeanors o f a  - 57 more s e r i o u s n a t u r e , e.g., p e r s i s t e n t m a l i n g e r i n g , i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n , were t r a n s f e r r e d back t o the main gaol.-*Extra-work  Activities.  The camp a c t i v i t i e s , a p a r t f r o m t h o s e o f the work p r o g ramme, p o s s e s s e d no o r g a n i z e d form f o r e i t h e r the 1951 o r oamp p r o j e c t s .  1952  The inmates were p r o v i d e d the means t o make t h e i r  own r e c r e a t i o n and e n t e r t a i n m e n t , though on o c c a s i o n t h e y were t a k e n as a group t o the nearby town to see a moving p i c t u r e . The  camps were s i t u a t e d i n a s e t t i n g t h a t a f f o r d e d good  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r h i k i n g , e x p l o r i n g and f i s h i n g , but t h e more p a s s i v e type o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t seemed t o be p r e f e r r e d by t h e i n mates.  I t was found t h a t most o f the inmates would r a t h e r spend  t h e i r time i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h o t h e r i n m a t e s , o r t o r e a d p o c k e t s i z e d books w h i c h were s e n t t o t h e camp by the O a k a l l a P r i s o n Librarian. The 1953 f o r e s t r y camp e x t r a - w o r k a c t i v i t i e s were not o n l y b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d t h a n i n 1951 and 1952, b u t i n a d d i t i o n had a s t a f f p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e management o f them.  This  p e r s o n had had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n d i r e c t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes.  He encouraged  the inmates to o r g a n i z e tournaments and  s p o r t days and p r i z e s were p r o v i d e d . own  The inmates o r g a n i z e d t h e i r  s o f t b a l l team and competed a g a i n s t the n e i g h b o u r i n g towns o f  O h e r r y v i l l e and Edgewood, A number o f games were purchased chess, e t c ,  such as c h e c k e r s , monopoly,  A p i n g pong t a b l e and a p o o l t a b l e w h i c h were s e t Up  Statement by R.M.  D e i l d a l , personal interview.  - 58 i n s i d e a l a r g e t e n t were p o p u l a r i t e m s among the  inmates,  i n s t e a d o f t a k i n g t h e camp group i n t o town t o see movies as was done i n t h e p a s t y e a r s , a p r o j e c t o r machine and s c r e e n were borrowed t h i s y e a r f r o m the F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e and f e a t u r e l e n g t h f i l m s were r e n t e d and shown t o t h e Inmates i n Gamp,  The  F o r e s t S e r v i c e Department s u p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n a l f i l m s o f t h e i r own as w e l l . Philosophy The  o f Camp P r o l a m i n e s . philosophy  o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia P r i s o n F o r e s t r y  Camp Programme i s n o t u n l i k e t h o s e o f t h e programmes d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I X .  The w r i t e r has f o u n d t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h y ,  selection  o f Inmates and camp r o u t i n e o f a l l f o u r p r i s o n f o r e s t r y programmes i n c l u d e d i n C h a p t e r I I o f t h i s s t u d y , and o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia programme a r e r e l a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g the same*  I t h a s been o b s e r v e d ,  through the v a r i o u s research m a t e r i a l used i n t h i s study t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s I n t h e s e t h r e e components were i n t h e n a t u r e o f degree, not form*  Therefore I t i s probable that the aspects of the p a r t i c -  u l a r programme where documentary m a t e r i a l was n o t a v a i l a b l e would a l s o be s i m i l a r t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s u b j e c t where i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained. The philosophy  f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f f e a t u r e s are those r e l e v a n t t o the o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia programme: (%) removes t h e I n d i -  v i d u a l f r o m t h e c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e o f an overcrowded p r i s o n ; (2) a f f o r d s an O p p o r t u n i t y  for professionally trained staff to  g i v e I n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i n m a t e s ; (3) p r o v i d e s values?  group work  and (4) means o f r e d u c i n g government e x p e n d i t u r e i n t h e  •treatment o f  offenders.  S o o l a l Work I m p l i c a t i o n s , P l a n s f o r the Gare and w e l f a r e o f the p r i s o n e r s were d e s i g n e d t o h e l p them a d j u s t f r o m p r i s o n t o c i v i l i a n l i f e  by  p r o v i d i n g work o p p o r t u n i t i e s under h e a l t h f u l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t were not u n l i k e the c o n d i t i o n s t h e y would have t o f a c e when r e l e a s e d from custody.  A l s o , b e i n g p a i d a wage o f #3.00 p e r day f o r t h e i r  work, inmates were a b l e to aocummulate f u n d s t o h e l p t i d e them o v e r the immediate p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e i r r e - e n t r y i n t o a f r e e society. T r a i n i n g f o r the development of good work h a b i t s was of the main r e h a b i l i t a t i v e f a c t o r s of t h e s e camps, O f f e n d e r s had never r e a l l y worked b e f o r e were h e l p e d to- g a i n f r o m a work s i t u a t i o n .  The  l a b o u r was  one who  satisfaction  made as i n t e r e s t i n g as  p o s s i b l e , . Remuneration f o r work performed t o o k t h e f o r m of compliments to the i n m a t e s , encouragement, r e c o g n i t i o n , g r a n t i n g o f c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s as w e l l a s the d a i l y wage. L i m i t s were s e t on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r , and i t was  a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t s i n c e most o f the p r i s o n e r s were immature  t i i e y would want t o t e s t t h e p a t t e r n * u s e d as s o c i a l work t o o l s .  The  I n f r a c t i o n of camp r u l e s was f a i r , c o n s i s t e n t and  C o n t r o l and punishment were  i m p o s i t i o n of p e n a l t i e s f o r the  done on a b a s i s t h a t was  Impersonal as p o s s i b l e .  as e x t r a means o f c o n t r o l and emphasis was  as f i r m ,  P r i v i l e g e s served  p l a c e d on the  of p r i v i l e g e s .  Statement by R.M*  Deildal,. personal  interview*  earning  -  One  60 -  o f t h e main s o c i a l work a s p e c t s o f t h e programme was  the case work c o u n s e l l i n g . s e r v i c e s w h i c h were a v a i l a b l e t o t h e Inmates.  Some inmates needed h e l p w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l problems  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g causes o f t h e i r d e l i n q u e n c y , w h i c h i n t u r n would h e l p them a d j u s t b e t t e r t o s o c i e t y o n t h e i r release,  A second type o f case work s e r v i c e was t h a t i n w h i c h  the S u p e r v i s o r s h e l p e d t h e inmates i n r e l a t i n g t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t a l a r g e p a r t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i n g p r i s o n e r s comes f r o m t h e i r response t o t h o s e whom t h e y c a r e most a b o u t . D u r i n g an I n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e w r i t e r , M r , H.M, D e i l d a l , who was t h e S e n i o r O f f l e e r i n charge o f t h e p r i s o n camps f r o m 1951 t o 1953, i l l u s t r a t e d how t h e s e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s were c a r r i e d out w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g ease.  I t was t a k e n f r o m the 1953  programme a n d i t d e v i a t e d somewhat from t h e n o r m a l , The inmate i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r oase came from a home e n v i r onment w h i c h was v e r y i n a d e q u a t e .  The f a t h e r was a n e x t r e m e l y  a u t o o r a t i o p e r s o n , and t h e mother a v e r y s u b m i s s i v e p e r s o n .  The  boy had been b e a t e n many t i m e s b y h i s f a t h e r , o f t e n w i t h o u t knowi n g the reason f o r i t .  Because o f t h i s k i n d o f f a m i l y  setting  and t h e i n c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e imposed upon t h e boy a s a youngs t e r , he developed a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward a u t h o r i t y *  Con-  c e r n i n g such b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s F r i e d l a n d e r has n o t e d t h a t f a m i l y backgrounds of r e a c t i o n ,  s i m i l a r t o t h i s boy's a r e o f t e n t h e cause o f t h i s type 1  The boy's a t t i t u d e e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o h i s i n c a r c e r a -  t i o n , and i t c a r r i e d o v e r from t h e g a o l , where he s e r v e d p a r t o f iriiMi  .ii  'I III i n " I il! n m . i i i r  ) i], II •  1  .i  rm.i.i.ii.  . .  ,i  'nil  i ' y i  n  i V ii i , • n i I'I nil if.  y  1.i T  ,II-nia'i.i n i l r i n i - i ' n n i n irn i  • • 11 i •. i f , .ir i - i  ^ F r i e d l a n d e r , K a t e j " P s y c h o - A n a l y t i c a l Approach t o J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y " , R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l L t d , , 1949, p . 253,  * 61 M s s e n t e n c e , t o t h e p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camp.  When t h e hoy f i r s t  a r r i v e d a t t h e camp, he p r o j e c t e d h i s h o s t i l i t y toward a u t h o r i t y a t anyone *  He would p r o t e s t e i t h e r by v e r b a l abuse o r more o f t e n  by the b r e a k i n g o f something such a s a n axe o r a s h o v e l . S i s b e h a v i o u r f o l l o w e d t h e p a t t e r n o f v i o l a t i n g a camp r u l e and t h e n w a i t i n g f o r what he thought was t h e i n e v i t a b l e punishment and rejection.  T h i s b e h a v i o u r a l r e a c t i o n was n o t e d by t h e s e n i o r  camp O f f i c e r ,  He was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e boy's s o c i a l h i s t o r y and  f e l t t h a t t h e boy was i n need o f s p e c i a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s t o h e l p him w i t h t h i s e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m .  D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f case  work c o u n s e l l i n g , f o l l o w i n g a n e m o t i o n a l  "blow-up" on t h e p a r t o f  the Inmate, t h e s e n i o r o f f i c e r t r i e d t o r e l a t e t o t h e boy why he "blew*up"*  He a t t e m p t e d t o convey t o t h e boy t h a t h i s b e h a v i o u r  was u n a c c e p t a b l e ,  b u t t h a t he h i m s e l f a s a p e r s o n was a c c e p t a b l e .  A f t e r a number o f i n t e r v i e w s t h e s e n i o r o f f i c e r was e v e n t u a l l y a b l e t o h e l p t h e boy g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o why he had t h e s e outbursts.  The boy was h e l p e d  emotional  t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e source o f  h i s problem stemmed f r o m h i s home environment. boy's b e h a v i o u r became more s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e .  Gradually the The r o l e o f t h e  s e n i o r o f f i c e r seemed t o change from one o f c o u n s e l l o r t o t h a t o f an a c c e p t i n g f a t h e r .  I n the o p i n i o n of the s e n i o r o f f i c e r i t  appeared t o be t h e o n l y time t h e boy had had a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a p e r s o n i n a u t h o r i t y who d i d n ' t r e j e c t him, b u t a c c e p t e d h i m f o r himself. Unfortunately,  t h e s u p e r v i s o r s a t t h e camps were n o t  always a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d f o r e x t e n s i v e casework, and t h e s e n i o r camp o f f i c e r , a l t h o u g h a t r a i n e d s o c i a l worker > was k e p t too busy  - 62 w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work t o spend much t i m e a t case work counselling,  n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e inmates a t  work and play,, t h e p e r s o n n e l became f a m i l i a r w i t h each i n d i v i d u a l . An e v a l u a t i o n was made o f t h e p e r s o n ' s work as w e l l as h i s h a b i t s , and p r e p a r a t i o n was made f o r t h e inmate's e v e n t u a l r e l e a s e . The e f f o r t s t o p l a c e inmates i n s u i t a b l e j o b s was v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n 1951 and 1952 due t o t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e S p e o i a l Placement S e o t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , t h e B. G, F o r e s t S e r v i c e , and t h e P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r s ,  Unfortunately,  t h e y met w i t h l e s s success i n 1953 and o n l y h a l f t h e inmates had f o u n d employment upon t h e i r r e l e a s e . w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e ,  The r e s t were r e g i s t e r e d  Chapter I V B e n e f i t s and D i f f i c u l t i e s ,  i Opportunities  f o r t h e Group Work Method.  The group work p r o c e s s was used hy t h e p e r s o n n e l a t t h e B r i t i s h Columbia P r i s o n F o r e s t r y Camps b u t i t i s p r o b a b l y  impossible t,  i,  t o a s s e s s t h e f u l l consequences o f t h e i r programme.  I f an inmate:*s  s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r improved a f t e r h i s r e l e a s e , i t would be  very  d i f f i c u l t t o prove whether t h i s was because o f t h e camp programme, / /  or i n s p i t e of i t .  However, t h e v a l u e s t h a t can be a t t r i b u t e d t o  any good group work programme s h o u l d a p p l y i n t h i s s e t t i n g t o o . Two c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s i n t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f group work a r e , (1) t h e core o f t h e m a t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s i s t h a t t h e maturi n g o f an i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s f r o m h i s c o n t a c t w i t h O t h e r p e o p l e , and (2) mOst p e o p l e mature and d e v e l o p a s a r e s u l t o f p r o b l e m s o l v ing.  When p e o p l e l i v e t o g e t h e r on a group b a s i s , as t h e y d i d i n  the p r i s o n camp, v a r i o u s problems i n e v i t a b l y a r i s e f r o m t h e s h a r i n g o f f o o d and f a c i l i t i e s , and because o f t h e s t r u g g l e f o r l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n t h e group. recognized  I n a group work programme the p e o p l e a r e  as i n d i v i d u a l s , b u t a r e t r e a t e d as members o f a group,  and problems a r e d e a l t w i t h on a group b a s i s . Group work l e a d e r s s h o u l d n e v e r f e e l t h a t t h e group members are " t o o d i s t u r b e d " t o p a r t i c i p a t e I n , o r b e n e f i t f r o m , a group work programme. Group work, when p r a c t i s e d c o r r e c t l y , i s a f l e x i b l e T r e c k e r d e f i n e s t h e group work method as "one way o f g i v i n g s e r v i c e o r h e l p t o i n d i v i d u a l s and t o some degree s o c i a l group work I s used I n a l l s o c i a l p r a c t i c e . P r i m a r i l y , i t i s a s p e c i a l i z e d method o f p r o v i d i n g growth o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and groups I n the f u n c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s Of s o c i a l work, r e c r e a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n " . T r e c k e r , H a r l e i g h B., " S o c i a l Group Work", s o c i a l Work Y e a r Book, New Y o r k & A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f s o c i a l Workers, 1947, pp. 484-485.  -  64  -  method o f h e l p i n g groups t o r e s o l v e t h e i r p r o b l e m s .  Effective  l e a d e r s h i p i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n a c u s t o d i a l s e t t i n g because most i n m a t e s w o u l d d r i f t a i m l e s s l y i f l e f t t o t h e i r own I l l u s t r a t i o n s f o l l o w o f how one  devices.  group work method was  u s e d as  a s p e c t o f t h e t r e a t m e n t p l a n i n the camp programme. There were f o u r inmates t o eaoh t e n t and  allowed  t o choose t h e i r own  the t e n t s had t e n t was done.  companions f o r the t e n t s .  t o be swept out and  a.m.  Eaoh  system f o r g e t t i n g the work  not done, the group was  penalized generally  d e p r i v a t i o n o f commissary p r i v i l e g e s . E a c h day, t e n t groups was  By 7:30  the t e n t a r e a c l e a n e d *  r e q u i r e d t o work out i t s own  I f I t was  the inmates were  one  o f the  by five  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c l e a n i n g the r e c r e a t i o n t e n t ,  l a v a t o r i e s and o v e r a l l camp s i t e and f o r f i l l i n g the wood  box.  Groups were s c o r e d f o r good work, and the crew w h i c h d i d t h e b e s t job was  rewarded, perhaps by a s p e c i a l o u t i n g t o get a l o a d of  wood o r by g i v i n g eaoh man The and  an e x t r a package of t o b a c c o .  inmates p a r t i c u l a r l y e n j o y e d b a l l games as  i n 1953  the r e c r e a t i o n o f f i c e r encouraged them t o f o r m a  committee the b e t t e r t o o r g a n i z e was  the games.  formed had a c h a i r m a n and a s e c r e t a r y who  meeting.  reoreation  The  committee t h a t  kept minutes of  the  E a c h o f the f i v e t e n t s sent one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and e i t h e r  the r e c r e a t i o n a l o f f i c e r o r the s e n i o r camp o f f i c e r were i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d the m e e t i n g s .  The  Inmates welcomed t h e i r p r e s e n c e  o n l y f o r t h e i r guidance but a l s o f o r s p e c i a l f a v o u r s might grant*  jing-pong,  not  t h a t they  p o o l and b r i d g e tournaments as w e l l as a  f i s h i n g derby were o r g a n i z e d  by t h i s Inmate committee.  Suggestions  p e r t a i n i n g t o a s p e c t s of camp r o u t i n e and the work programme were  «* 65  -  a l s o Drought up a t t h e i r meetings-  F o r example, when a r a i n y  s p e l l d e c r e a s e d t h e danger o f f o r e s t f i r e s , t h e inmates s u g g e s t e d t h a t f a o t o r y made o i g a r e t t e s , w h i c h were n o t u s u a l l y a l l o w e d i n oamp, be g i v e n as p r i z e s f o r t h e tournaments 1  instead of ordinary  tobacco. When t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r e c r e a t i o n t e n t was p l a n n e d a s a group p r o j e c t d u r i n g t h e inmates* t i m e o f f f r o m work, t h e Inmate committee a l l o c a t e d t h e j o b s . t o p l a n t h e work.  The r e c r e a t i o n o f f i c e r h e l p e d them  U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e inmates o n l y worked f o r a  s h o r t time b e f o r e t h e y l o s t I n t e r e s t , When some o f t h e a l l o c a t e d j o b s were l e f t i n c o m p l e t e d ,  t h e s e n i o r camp s u p e r v i s o r had t o s t e p  i n and o r d e r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n t o be f i n i s h e d .  When t h e b u i l d i n g  was c o m p l e t e d , t h e inmates r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d I t and f e l t e f f o r t s had been w o r t h w h i l e .  their  Thus, t h e p e r s o n n e l had t o be c a r e -  f u l t o g r a n t o n l y a s many d e m o c r a t i c  p r i v i l e g e s a s t h e Inmates  were capable o f r e s p o n d i n g t o . B e s i d e s b e i n g p l a c e d I n groups a t t h e camp t h e i n m a t e s were grouped w h i l e w o r k i n g .  The group was used as a medium t o h e l p t h e  i n d i v i d u a l who was f i n d i n g i t d i f f i c u l t t o a d j u s t t o a group e n v i r onment.  F o r example, a p e r s o n i n t h i s c a t e g o r y m i g h t be p l a o e d  I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t Dorothea F. S u l l i v a n , i n "Group Work i n an I n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g " , Group Work H o r i z o n s , S e l e c t e d p a p e r s f o r t h e y e a r 1044, A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e S t u d y o f Group Work, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New Y o r k , p. 72, d e s c r i b e s t h e importance o f a l l o w i n g groups t o make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s on v a r i o u s i s s u e s such as d e t e r m i n i n g t h e h o u r s f o r s l e e p i n g and e a t i n g , use o f equipment and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . C l e a r l y i m p l i c i t I n t h e a r t i c l e i s t h a t groups s h o u l d be g i v e n as many o p p o r t u n i t i e s a s p o s s i b l e t o p l a n and p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s , which would a f f o r d both the i n d i v i d u a l and t h e group w i t h chances f o r growth,.  - 66 w i t h a group o f inmates who was  were known t o work w e l l t o g e t h e r .  It  f o u n d i n most i n s t a n c e s t h a t the group p r o v e d t o he o f some  c o n s t r u c t i v e v a l u e f o r t h i s type o f inmate*  S i m i l a r l y , groups  w h i c h were "believed by the camp p e r s o n n e l t o be u n d e s i r a b l e , were b r o k e n up, whether the Inmates were w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r o r together.  I t was  living  hoped t h a t by a d o p t i n g such a p r o c e d u r e ,  each  group would have a t l e a s t been g i v e n the ohance t o f u l f i l l some positive function for Its participants* The  type of work t h a t the inmates d i d r e q u i r e d them t o  l e a r n c o - o p e r a t i o n and t o be i n t e r d e p e n d e n t ,  l o o k i n g out n o t o n l y  f o r t h e i r oxvn s a f e t y b u t f o r t h a t o f the o t h e r s t o o *  When c l e a r i n g  the f o r e s t the inmates l i k e d t o f e l l the t r e e s b u t d i d n o t l i k e t o c l e a r up the d e b r i s *  The  groups were encouraged t o work o u t  own arrangement f o r t h i s chore*  their  When good p r o g r e s s was made the  group was p r a i s e d and g i v e n t a n g i b l e rewards*  They m i g h t perhaps  be a l l o w e d t o b r e a k o f f e a r l y , and go swimming f o r i n s t a n c e .  On  the o t h e r hand when work was p o o r , t h e y might be d e p r i v e d o f special privileges* F i r e - f i g h t i n g o f f e r e d a ohance f o r good group work.  The  element o f danger made the work i n t e r e s t i n g and the inmates took p r i d e i n combating the f i r e s *  They were a l s o made more aware o f  t h e i r p l a c e i n the community.  T h i s type o f work demands a g r e a t  deal of co-operation.  The f o o d bad t o be c a r r i e d and, f o r the  f i r s t few d a y s , t h e r e was u s u a l l y a s h o r t a g e .  The  inmates had  to  l e a r n t o share and t o t a k e t u r n s c o o k i n g and c o l l e c t i n g w a t e r . The p e r s o n n e l t r i e d t o f o s t e r a c o m p e t i t i v e s p i r i t w i t h o u t s i d e f i r e * f i g h t l n g groups*  This r e s u l t e d i n c l o s e r co-operation w i t h i n  -  the group.  The  67  -  f o r e s t r a n g e r s as w e l l as t h e camp s u p e r v i s o r s  p r a i s e d them f o r work w e l l done* Impediments. D u r i n g the t h r e e y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n o f the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F o r e s t r y camps many o b s t a c l e s were e n c o u n t e r e d ,  fhe f o l l o w i n g  d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t e s t o the drawbacks o f the scheme i n e a c h  success-  i v e y e a r as o b s e r v e d by t h o s e p e r s o n s most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d the  projeot*  1*  1951  Programme:  t h e r e was  Because the camp was  with  formed r a t h e r h u r r i e d l y  l a c k o f p l a n n i n g and a number of problems a r o s e t h a t  not been a n t i c i p a t e d b e f o r e h a n d .  The  had  p e r s o n n e l were a t a d i s a d -  vantage because t h e y were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h such a scheme and because  those h i r e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e were  u n f a m i l i a r even w i t h the h a n d l i n g o f p r i s o n e r s . i t y was  A l i n e of author-  worked out but c o n t r o l s were i n o o n s i s t e n t and not r e a d i l y  enforced. The  d u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the c o r r e c t i o n s b r a n c h and  B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e p r o v e d t o be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . c l e a r l i n e o f a u t h o r i t y was definitely  delegated  a r t i c u l a t e d nor were  t o each department.  No  responsibilities  There were b a s i o  differ-  ences i n the a t t i t u d e s and p u r p o s e s o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f two departments a t camp l e v e l .  the  the  The F o r e s t S e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l were,  u n d e r s t a n d a b l y enough* more i n t e r e s t e d i n s e c u r i n g a c e r t a i n amount Of work f r o m the inmates r a t h e r t h a n w i t h the r e h a b i l a t o r y g o a l s . A n o t h e r d i s t u r b i n g f a c t o r was  t h a t the f i n a n c e s were com-  p l e t e l y i n the hands o f the F o r e s t r y Department. p a i d by cheque $3.00 a day,  The  of w h i c h t h e y were a l l o w e d  Inmates were t o spend  - 68 * f i f t y c e n t s p e r day, and t h e s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e camp had no c o n t r o l over i t .  As a r e s u l t t h e inmates were a b l e t o pay o u t s i d e r s t o  h r i n g c o n t r a b a n d I n t o t h e oamp. o f b e e r was smuggled i n * pretense  On one o c c a s i o n , a l a r g e q u a n t i t y  The camp o f f i c e r was l u r e d away on a  and on h i s r e t u r n he f o u n d h a l f t h e camp i n t o x i c a t e d .  An a d d i t i o n a l n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n o e on camp d i s c i p l i n e was t h e i n v a s i o n o f t h e oamp by o u t s i d e F o r e s t S e r v i c e employees o n v a r i o u s occasions.  One time t h e camp was Used as a " s t a g i n g r o u t e " w h i l e  f i g h t i n g a f i r e near t h e oamp s i t e and f o r e s t r a n g e r s k e p t coming I n and o u t o f t h e camp.  Other t i m e s some o f t h e i r p e r s o n n e l were  sent i n t o do s p e c i a l j o b s and l i v e d w i t h t h e Inmates*  These  p e o p l e , a s w e l l as t h e d r i v e r s o f t h e r o a d - b u i l d i n g equipment, d i d not come under t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r and f e l t t h e y were not s u b j e c t t o t h e r u l e s o f t h e camp.  T h e i r conduct i n t e r f e r r e d  c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h t h e d i s c i p l i n e and morale o f t h e i n m a t e s . The  s u p e r v i s o r was handicapped I n o t h e r ways.  He d i d n o t  r e c e i v e enough guidance o r d i r e c t i o n f r o m h i g h e r a u t h o r i t i e s o f h i s b r a n c h , p o s s i b l y because o f t h e r e l a t i v e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f the camp t o h e a d q u a r t e r s .  The camp was a l s o u n d e r s t a f f e d .  There  were o n l y t h r e e s t a f f members--the s u p e r v i s o r , t h e foreman and t h e cook.  As a r e s u l t , t h e s u p e r v i s o r was f o r c e d t o be on d u t y t w e n t y -  f o u r h o u r s a day seven days a week f o r t h e e n t i r e t h r e e and a h a l f month p e r i o d t h a t t h e programme was i n o p e r a t i o n . p r e s s u r e on one man was c e r t a i n l y U n d e s i r a b l e .  Such  oonstant  The foreman and  cook t o o k t h e o c c a s i o n a l week-end o f f b u t were s u b j e c t t o r e c a l l . The  foreman was sometimes r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r i s o n e r s *  custody  a f t e r h o u r s and t h e cook had t o have Inmate h e l p e r s t o a s s i s t him.  T h i s l a t t e r measure was  unsatisfactory"because  o f the tendency f o r  these inmates to s t e a l s u p p l i e s . The  r e l e a s e Of the p r i s o n e r s under the T i c k e t of Leave A c t  t u r n e d out t o he one o f the main impediments t o t h e s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f the 1951  project.  out on a f o r m of p a r o l e *  The p r i s o n e r s f e l t t h a t t h e y were  T h i s had an adverse p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t  on them f o r * i f they v i o l a t e d the s t i p u l a t i o n s o f t h e i r 0  t h e y l o s t b o t h th© A l s o , t h e r e was  time spent a t camp and t h e i r good conduct  no a l l o w a n c e f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g inmates who  i l l back t o the g a o l w i t h o u t was  ticket,  revocation  became  of their ticket.  When i t  necessary to t r a n s f e r a p r i s o n e r , considerable d i f f i c u l t y  e n c o u n t e r e d because the R.C.M.P.. were h e s i t a n t i n a c c e p t i n g a u t h o r i t y o f the camp s u p e r v i s o r on such 1952  time.  Programme:  b e t t e r prepared i n  many o f the o b s t a c l e s o f the p r e v i o u s  were e n c o u n t e r e d again..  s t i l l d i v i d e d between the  However, F o r e s t S e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l  d e f i n i t e l y recognized  year  P r i s o n e r s were s t i l l r e l e a s e d under t h e  T i c k e t of Leave A c t and a u t h o r i t y waa two departments*  the  matters*  A l t h o u g h the programme was  some r e s p e c t s i n 1952,  was  t h i s year  the s u p e r v i s o r as b e i n g i n charge o f oamp  discipline. M e d i c a l and d e n t a l c a r e f o r the inmates remained a p r o b l e m . Much d e n t a l work had t o be done and the t r i p s t o town became a n u i s a n c e because of the d i s t a n c e t h a t had t o be t r a v e l l e d and Inadequate  transportation available.  Moreover, time was  the  lost  f r o m the work programme whenever p r i s o n e r s had t o go f o r m e d i c a l or dental care.  There was  some m a l i n g e r i n g b u t a c e r t a i n number o f  a c c i d e n t s must be e x p e c t e d where i n e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n s a r e engaged  * 70 ~ i n t h i s k i n d o f work.  However, t h e r e would have been l e s s time  lost  I f a more c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e p r i s o n e r s b e f o r e t h e y were s e n t t o t h e camp and i f a d o c t o r had been more r e a d i l y  avail-  able, The 1952 work programme n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e u s e o f heavy machine r y w h i c h o f t e n broke down.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e work programme was  c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g d i s r u p t e d . T h i s was bad f o r t h e i n m a t e s  1  morale  f o r t h e y seemed t o , l i k e r o u t i n e a s t h e y t h e n knew what was e x p e c t e d of them,  1  Furthermore,  s t a r t i n g a j o b and f i n i s h i n g i t gave them a  sense o f accomplishment. There was a g a i n , '30a 1952, c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h incompetent p e r s o n n e l , e s p e c i a l l y cooks*  Although the supervisors  o f t h e two camps were u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s and had Some t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge o f how t o handle t h e men, they were t o t a l l y i n e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h i s t y p e o f work.  Because o f t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e two  camps i t was n o t easy f o r t h e s e n i o r s u p e r v i s o r t o g i v e guidance and a s s i s t a n c e t o them*  A s a r e s u l t , d i s c i p l i n e was f a r f r o m  s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t h e camps and t h r e e Inmates had t o be r e t u r n e d t o g a o l because o f t h e i r d e f i a n c e o f a u t h o r i t y , 1953 Programme:  The e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g two y e a r s  r e s u l t e d i n smoother f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e oamp and a n improvement i n p e r s o n n e l I n 1953. A l t h o u g h t h e r e was a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t h e two departments  t h i s y e a r , t h e r e was s t i l l a d i v i s i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  a u t h o r i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n i n g f i n a n c e s , a t t h e upper l e v e l .  I t has been f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n inmates have weak i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l s and a r e i n need o f an ongoing and unbroken r o u t i n e .  - 71  -  However, the c o r r e c t i o n s b r a n c h was for  the d i r e c t i o n of s t a f f and  g i v e n complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  the F o r e s t S e r v i c e  f e r e d w i t h the i n t e r n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  seldom i n t e r -  They d i d o f f e r g u i d a n c e ,  though, p e r t a i n i n g t o the work p r o j e c t . F i n a n c e s , equipment, and quate.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were s t i l l  L a c k o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was  problems t h i s y e a r *  one  o f the b i g g e s t  Sometimes thfere was  inade-  single  no v e h i c l e i n camp t o  t a k e a s e r i o u s l y i n j u r e d p e r s o n t o the h o s p i t a l i f s u c h a mishap occurred.  There was  a l s o no means o f t a k i n g the men  m i l e s t o t h e i r b a l l f i e l d , and  the  twelve  so the r e c r e a t i o n programme had  to  D e s p i t e the numerous h i n d r a n c e s t o s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n  of  be l i m i t e d ,  these camps, i t i s f e l t t h a t once  t h e s e impediments a r e overcome,  F o r e s t r y Camp p r o j e c t s w i l l a s s u m e an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n the t r e a t ment of the c r i m i n a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia as t h e y have done i n other places* Recommendations* The  B r i t i s h Columbia P r i s o n F o r e s t r y Camp Programme  w i t h many and 1953,  r e p e a t e d problems*  A l t h o u g h i t was  met  terminated i n  some w o r k e r s i n the B r i t i s h Columbia c o r r e c t i o n a l f i e l d - -  i n c l u d i n g Mr.  E.G.B. S t e v e n s , I n s p e c t o r  C o l u m b i a , Mr*  H* G. C h r i s t i e , Warden o f O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm,  Mr*  B*L.  and Mr*  o f G a o l s tor  British  C l a r k , Deputy Warden o f Treatment a t O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm, R . M * D e i l d a l * s e n i o r o f f i c e r i n charge o f the  camps d u r i n g  t h e i r o p e r a t i o n — s t i l l b e l i e v e t h a t such camps have t h e i r I n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s f o r the p r i s o n inmate* i s much i n d e b t e d to t h e s e p e o p l e f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n s  The  place writer  concerning  72  ~  f u t u r e a t t e m p t s a t s u c h programmes. mendations r e f l e c t the  Some o f the f o l l o w i n g recom-  i d e a s o f the w r i t e r , w h i l e o t h e r s a r e  the  s u g g e s t i o n s o f the i n d i v i d u a l s mentioned above* 1*  A t t e m p t s s h o u l d he made, when p l a n n i n g a p r i s o n camp programme,  t o a v o i d d i v i d e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between the t i o n s b r a n c h and  the o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l departments.  s h o u l d be s e t up, a d m i n i s t e r e d department o n l y .  and f i n a n c e d  The  correc-  camps  i f p o s s i b l e by  one  However, the second department c o u l d pay  for  the work t h r o u g h c o n t r a c t agreements* 2.  A p r i s o n f o r e s t camp programme s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h  I n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a t u s and  s e p a r a t e f r o m the p r i s o n *  The  c o u l d t h e n be r e c e i v e d under the g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n o f  inmates the  c o r r e c t i o n s b r a n c h , t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g the use of the T i c k e t o f Leave A c t , 3.  The  i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r i s o n camps r e q u i r e s s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n e d  p e r s o n n e l t o o p e r a t e them.  P e o p l e w i t h t r a i n i n g i n modern p e n o l o g y  Or w i t h some knowledge o f e i t h e r s o c i a l work p s y c h o l o g y o r represent for  the type o f a p p l i c a n t needed*  sociology  I d e a l l y the p e r s o n h i r e d  t h i s type o f work s h o u l d have academic t r a i n i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  a b i l i t y , knowledge o f the p r o j e c t , and should a l s o recognize  leadership a b i l i t y .  They  the use o f a u t h o r i t y and u n d e r s t a n d s t a f f  relationships. 4.  A camp programme s h o u l d be o p e r a t e d On a y e a r - r o u n d b a s i s  j u s t a seasonal  one*  T h i s would p r o v i d e  not  c o n t i n u i t y t o the programme  and a s a v i n g of f u n d s as t h e inmates and equipment w o u l d not have •These p e o p l e do not t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t l y e x p r e s s e d as such.  opinions  - 73 t o be t r a n s p o r t e d  t o and f r o m tlie p r i s o n e v e r y summer.  It  was  f o u n d by. Mr, R . M i B e i i a a l t h a t the B r i t i s h Columbia summer p r i s o n camps were v a l u a b l e inasmuch as t h e y h e l p e d t o i n t r o d u c e an and t o p r o v e i t s f e a s i b i l i t y * impossible  However, such a system made i t  t o employ a permanent t r a i n e d s t a f f and  each y e a r o f the programme i t was and s t a r t a f r e s h *  idea  consequently  n e c e s s a r y t o r e c r u i t new  staff  F u r t h e r m o r e a s h o r t term programme n e c e s s i t a t e d  the r e l e a s e of a l a r g e number o f inmates on the same date because of t h e eamp c l o s u r e .  T h i s o b v i o u s l y made i t d i f f i c u l t t o  obtain  employment f o r a l l the Inmates a t the same time w h i c h c o u l d overcome I f the programme was  a continuous  one. o  5.  There i s a need f o r p u r p o s e f u l  These s h o u l d be p r o p e r l y o r g a n i z e d  O  and c o n s t r u c t i v e work p r o j e c t s . so t h a t any workcdo°ne w i l l  of some v a l u e i n the t r a i n i n g of good work h a b i t s . ment o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s , f o r e s t f i r e s u p p r e s s i o n , and c l e a r a n c e  be  The  be  develop-  construction  o f f o r e s t a c c e s s r o a d s and r e f o r e s t a t i o n were work  '• p r o j e c t s used I n the 1951 Camp Programme.  t o 1953  B r i t i s h Columbia P r i s o n F o r e s t r y  They were f o u n d t o be a s u i t a b l e type o f work f o r  such a programme and  c o u l d be used a g a i n i n f u t u r e p r o j e c t s *  a d d i t i o n , the B r i t i s h Columbia C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h c o u l d  In  conceiv-  a b l y e n t e r i n t o a c o n t r a c t w i t h f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s s u c h as  the  Department of F i s h e r i e s f o r the p u r p o s e s o f r e s t o r i n g salmon spawning grounds on the B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t , c o u n t i n g  and  t a g g i n g o f f i s h and o t h e r forms o f f i s h e r y r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . There i s a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Department of P u b l i c Works c o u l d make use and  of p r i s o n l a b o u r i n r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n  t u n n e l l i n g as i s b e i n g done i n C a l i f o r n i a .  There a r e numerous  - 74 -  p r o j e c t s w h i c h c o u l d he used and i f embarked upon would n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be a t h r e a t t o f r e e l a b o u r .  However, even i f  problems s h o u l d a r i s e they c o u l d no doubt be worked o u t a s t h e y have been i n o t h e r p l a c e s . 6.  A p r i s o n camp programme s h o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be c o n f i n e d  f o r t h e use o f y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s a s i t was p r i m a r i l y i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbia p l a n .  W i t h p r o p e r method o f s e l e c t i o n t h e p r o g -  ramme c o u l d be used f o r o l d e r inmates as w e l l .  T h i s method has  been adopted a t t h e new Haney g a o l . 7.  Camps s h o u l d , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , be I s o l a t e d f r o m t h e  community, b u t a t t h e same time be w i t h i n r e a s o n a b l e c i t y o r town. considered 8.  access t o a  A d i s t a n c e o f about t e n t o f i f t e e n m i l e s might be  suitable.  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f h a v i n g a s e p a r a t e a l l o c a t i o n o f money v o t e d  by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a f o r e s t r y camp scheme ought t o be c o n s i d e r e d .  T h i s money c o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d  by t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e f o r e s t r y oamp programme. 9.  I t has been i l l u s t r a t e d t h r o u g h t h e B r i t i s h Columbia e x p e r i m e n t  that thorough p l a n n i n g i s extremely  i m p o r t a n t b e f o r e a new p r i s o n  f o r e s t r y camp p r o j e c t i s u n d e r t a k e n . ' The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f such a p l a n might be w e l l a d v i s e d t o send a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o A m e r i c a n s t a t e s t h a t a r e l e a d i n g i n t h i s type o f work t o see how t h e y function. 10.  S t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n n o t o n l y t o i n t e r p r e t b u t a l s o t o empha-  s i z e t h e m e r i t s o f a p r i s o n camp scheme t o b o t h t h e l e g i s l a t u r e and the p u b l i c .  F o r example, i t c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e c o s t o f  m a i n t a i n i n g a man i n p r i s o n i s h i g h when one i n c l u d e s t h e c o n s t r u e -  - 75 t i o n and maintenance o f the b u i l d i n g , s t a f f wages, f o o d and i n g and o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s e x p e n d i t u r e s .  cloth-  The t a x p a y e r h e l p s t o  p r o v i d e the money but r e c e i v e s few r e t u r n s f o r h i s o u t l a y *  The  B r i t i s h Columbia camp programme has proved t h a t under adequate s u p e r v i s i o n inmates can do p r o d u c t i v e l a b o u r . Conclusions. The p r i n c i p l e o f p r i s o n camps as i n i t i a t e d d u r i n g the 1951 t o 1953  years  i n the K e t t l e R i v e r d i s t r i c t o f B r i t i s h Columbia has  been f o l l o w e d up i n many r e s p e c t s by the work p r o j e c t a t Haney. A t the p r e s e n t time O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm has about f i f t y Inmates b e t ween the ages o f s i x t e e n and s i x t y - s i x w o r k i n g a t the s i t e o f the new B r i t i s h Columbia C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n a t Haney.  Although  t h i s i s c h i e f l y a work p r o j e c t camp where Inmates r e c e i v e fl.OQ  per  day f o r work done, i t i s a l s o a minimum s e c u r i t y p r o j e c t as was  the  f o r e s t r y programme. O t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p r i s o n l a b o u r b e s i d e s t h e Haney p r o j e c t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . A r e a s i n the p r o v i n c e t h a t m i g h t be  considered  u n p r o f i t a b l e by t r a d e u n i o n s c o u l d be developed. F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i n g camps I n the G a r i b a l d i a r e a , d e v e l o p i n g v a c a t i o n r e s o r t s , and p l a y g r o u n d s  and  and camp s i t e s I n the  howe sound a r e a . T h i s type o f work would g i v e Inmates something p r o d u c t i v e t o do r a t h e r t h a n the f u t i l e work w h i c h t h e y might o t h e r wise be employed a t . A l t h o u g h these p l a n s may  not prove f e a s i b l e , i t  n e v e r t h e l e s s has been proved a t Haney t h a t p r i s o n camps oan be a t e d on a y e a r round b a s i s .  oper-  I f i t can be done a t Haney, t h e n i t can  be done anywhere on the Lower M a i n l a n d .  -  76  Bibliography Books and Pamphlets 1*  A m e r i c a n P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n , A Manual o f C o r r e c t i o n a l S t a n d a r d s . New Y o r k , 1954.  2.  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