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The forestry camp for prison workers : a review of the British Columbia (Probation Branch) programme,… Dewey, Fredrick Hartly 1955

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THE FORESTRY GAMP FOR PRISON WORKERS A review of the B r i t i s h Columbia IjProbation Branch) Programme, 1951*1953* by Fredrick Hartly Dewey Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree Of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work 1955 The Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i l l ABSTRACT The Forestry Camp for. Prison Workers The subject-matter of t h i s study i s a descriptive account Of the prison f o r e s t r y camp programme which was operative i n the Ke t t l e River d i s t r i c t . i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the years 1951 to 1953* Perspective i s given by examination of the o r i g i n and progress of the use of pri s o n labour i n general, and of p r i s o n labour projects i n contemporary f o r e s t r y camps* The B r i t i s h Columbia project i s evaluated with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the programme as part of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process* The methods Used i n a r r i v i n g at the conclusions found i n the study have been those of comparison and analysis, by r e f e r -ence to (a) administration; (b) se l e c t i o n of inmates; (c) types of inmate, and (d) components of the programme, The p o s i t i v e and negative aspects of the programme have been evaluated as f a r as possible.* The benefits which may be derived by inmates assigned to these camps include (a) improvement i n p h y s i c a l and mental health from outdoor work and l i v i n g , (b) experience In the camps which more c l o s e l y resembles that of normal society* These help terminate a prisoner's sentence with a more acceptable r e ^ i n t r o -duction to community l i f e . On the other hand, i t Is evident that there are many problems which can impede the operation of a programme of t h i s nature, Including a divided administration,- untrained personnel and inadequate f a c i l i t i e s and finances* Tee study suggests that these d i f f i c u l t i e s are not insurmountable, and recommendations are made which would further the success and value of such programmes* TABLE OF CONTENTS i i Page Chapter 1. Prison Labour ana p r i s o n Forestry Camps: Origins and History D e f i n i t i o n , o r i g i n and early systems of prison or oonviet labour. Functions and purposes. C r i t i c i s m s associated with a prison labour programme. Evolution of p o l i c i e s f o r prison labour and f o r e s t r y camps. ............ 1 Chapter 2, Some Comparative Forestry Camp Projgrammes The projects oompared ( C a l i f o r n i a , Wisconsin, Michigan and Massachusetts). Administrative organization. Selection of inmates. Nature of work projects. E x t r a -work a c t i v i t i e s , Philosophy of the Camp Programmes. Conclusions. .....*....*......»...•*...•..••..••.••......••..,.« 19 Chapter 3. The B r i t i s h Columbia Programme: Treatment Aspects. Origin; administration; s e l e c t i o n of inmates. Type of inmate; personnelj nature of work projects. Operation of Programme; (1) camp routine, (2) phy s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , (3) d i s c i p l i n e . Extra-work a c t i v i t i e s . Philosophy of camp programmes and s o c i a l work implications. •. .41 Chapter 4. Benefits and D i f f i c u l t i e s Opportunities f o r the group work method, impediments. Recommendations. Conclusions. ...................63 Tables and Charts i n the Text Schedule A. Comparative analysis of d i f f e r e n t f o r e s t r y damp projects ( C a l i f o r n i a , Wisconsin, Michigan and Massachusetts)• ..40 Table 1. Sooial h i s t o r y information of the inmates i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Prison Forestry Camp Programme during the year 1953. ............. 49 Bibliography .76 i v ACKNO^XEDGEHENTS Thanks are extended to: Mr. E. G. B, Stevens. Inspector of Gaols. Mr* Hugh G. C h r i s t i e , Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm, Mr. 0* X>* Clark, Deputy Warden of Treatment Oakalla Prison Farm and Mr* R. M. D e i l d a l , who was the" senior o f f i c e r i n charge of the B r i t i s h Columbia Prison Forestry Gamp programme from 1951 to 1953, and who i s now Assistant Deputy Warden of Treatment Oakalla P r i s o n Farm. Special thanks are given to; Wr* A* if. Marriage of tho School of s o c i a l Work* U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and Mr. R. M. D e i l d a l , A s s istant Deputy Warden of Treatment Oakalla Prison Farm, f o r t h e i r time spent i n givi n g valuable encourage*! ment and assistance, without which, t h i s study might not have been written* The Forestry Gamp For Prison Workers A Review of the B r i t i s h Columbia (Probation Branch) programme. 1951*1955* I Chapter I P r i s o n Labour and p r i s o n F o r e s t r y Camps: O r i g i n s and H i s t o r y . P r i s o n labour i s the name $iven to t h a t phase of p r i s o n o r g a n i s a t i o n eoaeernod w i t h the employment of p r i s o n e r s . I n ssoot c i v i l i s a t i o n s I t has been customary f o r the s t a t e t o u t i l i s e , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , the labour of p r i s o n e r s , The motive has been p r i m a r i l y , although not e n t i r e l y , on© of economy or p r o f i t * The types of work performed by the p r i s o n e r s has been determined p a r t l y by e x i s t i n g economic and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and concepts. P r i s o n labour may be regarded as a p u n i t i v e f a c t o r i n a d d i t i o n t o i n c a r c e r a t i o n , as an a m e l i o r a t i n g aspect i a punishment, or as a p a r t of th© programme f o r the s o c i a l and economic reformation of p r i s o n e r s * * Work programmes i n penal i n s t i t u t i o n s are not a new i d e a , Such programmes were inaugurated s h o r t l y a f t e r the p r i s o n s were s t a r t e d . Xn the p a s t , p r i s o n labour was c h i e f l y a form of punishment. Convicted offenders were sentenced t o p r i s o n f o r eo many days, ye a r s , o r whatever th© case was, a t "hard labour*'* N e i t h e r the courts nor the p u b l i c gave l i t t l e thought o r concern to what the offenders d i d while at p r i s o n , o r f u r t h e r s t i l l , what ABobinson, L o u i s K*, '•Prison Labor", Encyclopaedia of the s o c i a l S c i e n c e s , Volume Twelve, K a c M l l l a n and Company, Eew York, 1934* p. 418.-- 2 -the p r i s o n d i d to them. Today the s i t u a t i o n has undergone a v a s t change. I n most instances the aims of p r i s o n labour may be summed up as: (a) r e l i e v i n g the monotony and i d l e n e s s of p r i s o n l i f e ; (b) r e d u c t i o n of crime; (c) maintenance of p r i s o n d i s c i p l i n e ; (d) manufacturing of economic products to reduce the cost of support; (e) r e h a b i l i t a t i o n through a u s e f u l work programme.*'' O r i g i n and E a r l y Systems of P r i s o n or Convict Labour. I n t r a c i n g the I n c e p t i o n of p r i s o n labour i t has been noted t h a t f o r c e d labour f o r persons h e l d g u i l t y of c r i m i n a l offences was employed as f a r back as the ancient Romans and Egyptians. P r i s o n e r s captured I n war, paupers and c h i l d r e n were f r e q u e n t l y s o l d Into bondage, and people co n v i c t e d of s p e c i a l offences were made s l a v e s . G a l l e y s l a v e s were thought to be among the f i r s t to be made to work i n what might be c a l l e d "forced l a b o r " . Whenever there was a s o a r c i t y of f r e e labour, or i f the tasks were of such a nature t h a t they were u n a t t r a c t i v e to the o r d i n a r y working man, then s l a v e s were consoripted i n t o s e r v i c e . At the c l o s e of the s i x t e e n t h century the s a i l i n g s h i p d i s p l a c e d the g a l l e y , and as a consequence other methods of d e a l -i n g w i t h the c o n v i c t had to be e s t a b l i s h e d . Since there were no p r i s o n s the death p e n a l t y , and the u t i l i z a t i o n of d e p o r t a t i o n to • G i l l e n , John Lewis, "Criminology and Penology", D. Apple-ton Century Company, Inc . , New York, London, 1945. p. 399. 2Barnes, E. H* and Teeters, K. N., "New Horizons i n Criminology", P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , New York, 1945, p, 686. * 3 «* colonies m$e mm frequently used. Also $ r O T 4 n $ simultaneously with these ttettads of puhisteeai tsere the workhouses in "Europe. Although these workhouses were not originally entrusted ^ i t h th© custody of prisoners convicted of crime, a few of them gradually developed along these lines* They were the results of the efforts of some of the more enlightened administrators of the day, who showed more of an a l t r u i s t i c concern with, regard to both the problem of dealing with orimiaals and alee, to some extent, their rehabilitation, these workhouees were employed not only as a place of detention for youthful offenders, but served also as a place whereby the offender could not only learn a trade, but could toe productive to the benefit of the state or municipality* The next phase i n the origin of prison labour was the rise of the f i r s t real prison or penitentiary* f b l s was an outcome of the Philadelphia reformers renovating the Walnut street J a i l . The substance of their plan was that prison labour should be both productive and reformative. This plan materialized i n the year . 1790, and this date marks the beginning of the modern era of prison labour* It marked the f i r s t time in penal history that oonvicts were employed at a dignified task* They were paid a wag© for their labours, and the whole process was oriented toward rehabilitation rather than punishment* This system continued u n t i l the 18£Q*s when mass overcrowding of prisons led to a continually diminishing number of prisoners being; employed i n a profitable laanner. Gradually the total products from prison labour became only a small percentage of the cost of administering the i n s t i t u -tions, and the Walnut Street J a i l , and similar systems suffered both industrial and financial failure* Hoover*, soon after this "made-work" devices such as the t r e a d m i l l and crank were brought i n t o use by the more hardened p e n o l o g i s t s of that day, who r e j e c t e d s o - c a l l e d " c o d d l i n g " of the p r i s o n e r s but emphasized the r e t r i b u t i v e aspects. I t was a t t i t u d e s such as these which l e d to the i n s t i t u t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n t systems of e a r l y p r i s o n l a b o u r , 1. Contract labour: This system c o n s i s t e d i n the l e t t i n g out of the labour of p r i s o n e r s t o an out s i d e c o n t r a c t o r who s u p p l i e d both the raw m a t e r i a l s and machinery, and who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s u p e r v i s i o n of the p r i s o n e r s ' work. This c o n t r a c t p r a c t i c e was most prevalent d u r i n g the years 1825*1840, and by as e a r l y as 1819 d e f i c i t s i n o p e r a t i n g p r i s o n s were transposed i n t o p r o f i t s . £. Lease labour system: This was but a v a r i a t i o n of the c o n t r a c t system inasmuch as the c o n t r a c t o r s assumed the complete c o n t r o l of the p r i s o n e r s , subject t o the s t i p u l a t i o n s f i x e d by s t a t u t e . The c o n v i c t s were taken from the p r i s o n s and were employed i n such tasks as a g r i c u l t u r e , quarrying, bridge and road c o n s t r u c t i o n . 3. Factory system: This p r a o t l c e reached i t s peak during the l a s t h a l f of the nineteenth century, and the e a r l y years of the twen-t i e t h . The aim of the system was not only to obv i a t e Idleness i n p r i s o n s , but at the same time to d i s c i p l i n e , , punish, and make an attempt at reforming Inmates. Trades were taught to p r i s o n e r s and i t was hoped that the h a b i t s of i n d u s t r y whioh they a c q u i r e d from these would a i d them i n r e i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h s o c i e t y upon t h e i r r e l e a s e . 4. P u b l i c works and ways: T h i s system e n t a i l s the employment of p r i s o n labour i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e p a i r of p u b l i c highways, s t r e e t s , and other p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , This i s presumed to be the - S -method which i s *&© most: a§3?£©abie to the ordinary taxpayer who feels that the state or esUBioipallty should be deriving some returns for their maintenance o f the convict, #:* Farm system; fb©:early farm systems of prison labour were ©ore of a success financially than they were from the reformative point of view. In many of the Southern states In the United. States, the whole prison system i s a farm system** aeeently a number of states i n the tJ*$*A* bave developed prison fame as a part of their treatment pro^paigie f or the younger type of criminal offender, $ae prison labour problem has been both a controversial and perplexing on© for many years* For tbe benefit of the prisoners themselves as v & l l as for the public, prisoners should be engaged during their waking sours* i n oonstruotive and useful ac t i v i t i e s * At the same time i t must be remembered that oorreo* tional industries are not operated entirely f o r the economic belief i t s , nor should they unduly interfere with private enter-' prise* fbere are also other nurposes of th© programme such as the reaebilltation of men and the prevention of idleness and die* content within the ptieom which have to be considered. Qon&equ*-eatly* such a debatable Issue provides grounds for a more detailed discussion ©n the subject* lunetlone and gunoeee* Ivery penal Institution should make i t both an objective and a responsibility to rehabilitate the pri-soner* A construetiy© work prograiBjae i s one of the principal means of attaining this goal* Ibid, p* ©0g*B3* Accord! j&gly,. penal i n s t i t u t i o n s ought to pro viae u s e f u l work f o r ©very prisoner able to v&rlt* The t e r n "useful mate'* has been interpreted ass r e f e r r i n g not only to production of goods u t i l i s e d within th© prison and ordinary aaiateaanc© vjork„ hut i t also connotes the b e n e f i t s which th© prisoner obtains and which w i l l he of value to him upon h i s eventual retura to society* Ifevortheiess "usoful work" does not necessarily mean only that type of work which allows th© prisoner to acquire a trad© or profession which aay be applicable ©a the Job In a free society. I t also means the form of tsork which w i l l have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t upon tho i n d i v i d u a l i . e . , th© type of work which w i l l bo an asset to him by th© a c q u i s i t i o n of both s k i l l s and habits of Industry* I t has been asserted that about eighty per cent of a prison Inmate population can p r o f i t from a good work programme* Eoweverft f o r the remaining twenty per coat I t i s very d i f f i c u l t to do anything i n the way of developing work h a b i t s * 1 the more e x p l i c i t functions of p r i s o n labour Include the following! 1* Basin® th© problem of p r i s e s d i s c i p l i n e . I t may be stated that a prison work programme reduces or eliminates idleness* The form and the amount of work are both importaat f a c t o r s here. The Inmat© who i s kept constantly employed during working hours has l e s s time to organize plans which ar© subversive of p r i s o n d i s c i * p l i n e . Further i f the work i s of a nature which meets not only T.C. and Kutash, s.B. "Encyclopaedia of Crimin-ology"* P h i l i s o & h i o a l L i b r a r y , Hew York* June, 1049* p* 351. * 7 -the p h y s i c a l but p s y c h o l o g i c a l seeds of the prisoner,, he w i l l have l e s s i n c e n t i v e to conspire a g a i n s t the p r i s o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Whatever our penal philosophy^ p r i s o n d i s c i p l i n e i s an i n d u b i t a b l e n e c e s s i t y and i t i s probably c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the experience of most p r i s o n adminstrators t o say t h a t a f u l l j w o r k programme I s one of the su r e s t means of a c h i e v i n g t h i s . 2* Teaching the inmates h a b i t s of i n d u s t r y * I f a p r i s o n Can help i t s Inmates develop appropriate h a b i t s of i n d u s t r y i t w i l l have accomplished much toward the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and treatment of the i n d i v i d u a l , which i s the o n l y r e a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r any p e r i o d of i n c a r c e r a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y o f p r i s o n inmates are u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the values of work* They adhere to the philosophy that o n l y "suckers" work and from t h i s work they themselves w i l l reap the b e n e f i t s * There i s a need f o r them t o l e a r n how to work I n a manner s u i t a b l e to the I n d u s t r i e s outside the p r i s o n and t o become acquainted w i t h the Values of work to the w e l l - b e i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l . There are few Inmates who p r i o r to t h e i r imprisonment h e l d p o s i t i o n s as p r o f e s s i o n a l , s k i l l e d o r s e m i - s k i l l e d people* l o s t p r i s o n e r s have never learned, how to work or how t o mai n t a i n a job* Many s u f f e r from the i l l u s i o n that the world owes them a l i v i n g and they propose to o b t a i n t h a t l i v i n g w i t h as l i t t l e e f f o r t as p o s s i b l e . Since t h i s i s the case, penal i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r s t a f f s are c o n t i n u a l l y waging a b a t t l e not o n l y to get the inmates to work and to show them how t o , but a l s o to teach them th a t work i t s e l f can be worthwhile* $« A process for training unskilled labourers, The opinion has oftea been expressed that If prisoners Om release were qualified to follow a skilled or semiskilled trade is which there wore good employment opportunities, much of the problem of recidivism would disappear* fines a prison labour programme i s established two f&etors must be borne l a mind. F i r s t l y , o f f i c i a l s i n obarge of the progrssame must koep th© training purpose i n view* secondly, tho individual inmate must be employed at tasks similar to the type of work which he may be employed at upon his release* Branham and K&t&sh express an additional benefit derived from such training programmes* Prisoaers trained i n useful work habits and s k i l l s are less apt to repeat old offenses or to commit now ones after release*, i t i s •estimated that from f i f t y to eighty per cent of the prisoners ixt the i n s t i t u -tio&s today are recidivists* 1% would b© a tremendous saving to the state i f this group were eliminated from last!tutloasl care because of training-in work habits and s k i l l s suitable to the individual** I t i s assumed, therefore, that not only are the earning powers of th® #***pr lecher * who has no s k i l l and no ts&S&lag* limited, but also that he i s more l i k e l y to be a potential recidivist* ©a the other hand, If an ex*prisoner has acquired a trade while i n prison he i s l a a more favourable position to compete f o r a prospective Job* Many Jobs l a the iast l t u t l o a are appropriat© for tralalng purposes* For example, some of the maintenance jobs have their ABraaham, V.G. and Kutash, s>B. "Encyclopaedia of Crimin-ology", p* 352* corresponding trade l a society. The prisoner who becomes adept at one of these J O B S In the i n s t i t u t i o n stands a b e t t e r chance of both obtaining and maintaining employment of a s i M l a r kind a f t e r hie release from prison. 4* Seducing the aeure of idleness because idleness i s demoralis-ing* Nothing i s more Insidiously c r u e l than forcing; men to s i t day a f t e r day, with nothing whatsoever to do, or having them do such f u t i l e work as breaking rook or weeding gardens month a f t e r month. Warden fiuga @* C h r i s t i e of Oakalla p r i s o n Farui says on the subject, "You emn*t keep men Idl e , working on t h e i r knees weeding, f o r two years and r e h a b i l i t a t e them* You must have a reasonable amount of work whiea has more challenge and some I n s t i t u t i o n a l value"**-1 9» A means of reducing the economic d i s u t i l i t y of prison* I n Canada the t o t a l disbursements f o r the nine f e d e r a l Institution© as of March 31, 19S8, amounted to tS»983,966.56* Probably a good proportion of t h i s money could be saved through the employment of the prisoner© wao ar© capable of working i n economically s i g n i -f i c a n t a c t i v i t i e s * Furthermore, i t might be argued that the government should not have to carry the t o t a l maintenance of the adult prisoner* One writer states that i n the i d e a l or perfect %anoouver Province, March U , 1955. p. 32. 3B©miaiom of Canada "Annual Report of the Commission of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s f o r the F i s c a l Year Ended March 31, 1953," Ottawa, 1953. p. 63, * 10 * system the inmate ought to bo ©bio "not only to support himself but to holp oovor the oost of investment and depreciation of the i n d u s t r i a l and housing plants which the state provides f o r h i s safekeeping gad employment as w e l l as to contribute to the support of his family o u t s i d e * " 1 Botsevor, i t should be remembered that no desirable p r i s o h labour system can or should tee b u i l t os th© theory that th© p r i s o n i s going to be a f i n a n c i a l asaet to the government. Although common sons© proscribes tii&t prioons shoald be maintained with ah ©y© to eeonomy of operation* t h e i r ultimate aim remains that of reformation of the prisoner* C r i t i c i s m s Associated .tffitfr a P r i s o n Xabourprogramme* fh© majority of inmates of p@nal i n s t i t u t i o n s work because they want to, and the reason f o r t h e i r wanting to Is a r e l a t i v e l y simple one* they have learned that idleness i s both tedious and humiliating* and believe that the safest way to prevent a mental breakdown i s to keep t h e i r mints and t h e i r bodies busy. However* the over©!! attitude of society with respect to the treatment of criminals makes i t very d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a s o l u t i o n to the p r i s o n labour problem* The f e a s i b i l i t y of prisoners tsorking i s obscured by the controversy which surrounds the subject* Th© w r i t e r has found that most authors w r i t i n g on the subject ar® i n favour of p r i s o n labour* For example, as f a r back as 191S the opinion was expressed that convicts should be *r&2iiis»bau»» Frank, ^ C r i m o and the Community," Glim and Company, 1 9 3 3 * p* 3 6 5 . 11 -made to work and a t l e a s t earn t h e i r keep and the expense of main-t a i n i n g the penal I n s t i t u t i o n as long as the products of t h e i r labour d i d not eompete w i t h t h a t of the f r e e market.**' Another w r i t e r on the s u b j e c t , Governor Eugene N. Foss of Massachusetts, mentions i n a report e n t i t l e d "Reform Through Labor", t h a t a l l able-bodied persons should be given the chance to work a t some-t h i n g t h a t w i l l help r e s t o r e t h e i r sense of u s e f u l n e s s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . i n a more recent study i t has been s t a t e d t h a t the arguments a g a i n s t p r i s o n labour are i n a sense absurd because i f a p r i s o n e r cannot work he must be supported at p u b l i c expense 3 and by the labour of f r e e men. The form of labour most s u i t e d to a penal i n s t i t u t i o n and the most e f f e c t i v e i s g e n e r a l l y h i g h l y standardized* Yet d i v e r s i -f i e d employment should be more eneouraged because i t a l l o w s the p r i s o n e r t o experiment and t r y out s e v e r a l forms of work a c t i v i t y I n an e f f o r t to f i n d the one which meets most of h i s needs. The e f f e c t of labour upon the h e a l t h , w e l l - b e i n g , and eventual reform of the p r i s o n e r ought to be kept i n mind. Complementer!ly the f i s c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of p r i s o n labour and the degree to which I t threatens p r i c e s and employment must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A W h l t l n , B.S. "Penal S e r v i t u d e " , N a t i o n a l Committee on P r i s o n Labor, New York, 1912, p. 6, o ^Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o o i a l Science, Volume 46, March 1913, p. 38, ^ E l l i o t t , Mable, A "Crime I n Modern S o c i e t y " , Harper and B r o t h e r s , New York, 1952, p. 677. - I S -the problem of inmate idleness i n c o r r e c t i o n a l institution© has heea known f o r some time to be detrimental to both th© i n s t i -t u t i o n and inmate a l i k e . Though t h i s i s a recognized f a c t o r there are impediments i n overcoming t h i s obstacle as a r e s u l t of a number of c o n f l i c t i n g a t t i t u d e s . Such characteristic, questions have ©eon posed as? "Is I t r i g h t to permit prisoners to manufacture goods which may deprive union men of work?" " i s i t j u s t f o r prison produced goods to compete with the ordinary manufacturer's produetsl'" ©a the other hand wardens and eorreetioaal workers r e t o r t : "How can we r e h a b i l i t a t e the prisoner i f he i s kept Idle?" or "Why should prison inmates not help pay f o r t h e i r feoep?" Are laerauf acturors and wage earners on good grouad whoa they express the opinion that p r i s o a mad© goods are u n f a i r eompetitloa?, I t has beea aotad that any typo of prison, labour w i l l compete to some extent with free labour* Soaetheless i t appears that the o v e r a l l competition Is very small* "Loss than one*tenth of on© per cent of the productive labours are l a prison, oad many of the prisoners would be ©ore or l e s s e f f i c i e n t l y employed i f they were aot i n prisoa* f h l s makes the t o t a l competition of p r i s o a labour i a s l g a l f leant" I t would seem reasonably safe to say that although there are negative factors Involved i a a p r i s o n labour programme they are heavily out-weighed by the p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s * Few mea, even with t h e i r f u l l freedom, can remain f o r a long time healthy and happy uaiess they have work to do* Although the ia d i v i d u & l l a ^Sutherland, Sdwin H.t " P r i n c i p l e s of Criminology", «T» B. Llp p l n c o t t Company, Chicago, 1947, p. 473* 13 -prison Is restricted In hie freedom, fee nevertheless ©heuld be permitted to work at something, within the limits of his capacity, which w i l l produce useful results* I t i s probable taat even If an Individual Is never released from gaol he may be able to li v e and die a better and a happier person merely by being kept busy at ©ose task which i s acceptable to him* Evolution of Policies for Prison Labour and Forestry Camps. Prison forestry camps had various precedents of a similar nature* The following discourse illustrates the development of such projects* the material used pertains only to the United States and i s mentioned i n order to afford continuity to the die* cussioa of present day forestry programmes* Convict road campe had been practiced i n Colorado, Oregon, Mm Mexico* %oming, Arlmmt and Utah just prior to 1913* The positive benefits derived froia them were that they were found to have helped increase the self-respect* stamina of character, and sens® of responsibility of their inmates. fhe f i r s t convict road camp wbieh bears a resemblance to current forestry camps isae started i n 1908 i n the state of Color-ad©* T h i s . f i r s t camp functioned well, although slowly* i t was f e l t at the time, however* that toauen attention was paid to guarding the men at work* But later on when Thomas 3", Tynan asauaed office as Warden of the Colorado State Penitentiary these prelects took on a different shape. He expanded the honour system, Increased the number of caeps, eliminated the armed guards and plaoed the isolates entirely upon taeir honour* The result was * 1 4 • t h a t t r i p l e the q u a n t i t y of work was done compared w i t h th© prev* ious scheme, i t was found t h a t th© men worked w i t h much more enthusiasm than they had ever done p r e v i o u s l y , and I t was con* eluded t h a t they d i d so f o r s e v e r a l reasons. They were anxious to a t t a i n the a d d i t i o n a l t e a days a month that th© road work permitted t o ho deducted from t h e i r sentence, as w e l l as the normal r e m i s s i o n allowed by law t o r good Behaviour. They a l s o l i k e d the change i n environment and adopted the id e a t h a t they were working f o r themselves, to r e t a i n the s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s of sunshine, f r e s h a i r and other b e n e f i t s which th© camps a f f o r d e d them as contrasted w i t h the p r i s o n s . Other p r o j e c t s o f a s i m i l a r nature soon f o l l o w e d the C o l o r * ado scheme. The l e g i s l a t u r e l a th© s t a t e of Arkansas i n 1909 passed a law p e r m i t t i n g county c o u r t s to form road and eo a v l e t d i s t r i c t s of s e v e r a l a d j o i n i n g c o u n t i e s . These camps i n Arkansas not only operated ©a a minimum s e c u r i t y b a s i s , but i n a d d i t i o n when a m&a's seateac© had e x p i r e d he was f u r n i s h e d w i t h a good s u i t of c l o t h e s , and $8*60 l a pocket money. The Kalamazoo county l a the S t a t e of Michigan adopted road camps as a p o s s i b l e d e t e r r e n t from vagrancy aad p e t t y crime* Each inmate o f the camp was p a i d f o r on© day's work f o r each week of good behaviour* This developed t o the ©stent where a man s e a t -eaoed f o r two months obtained $18*30 a t the e x p i r a t i o n o f h i s sentence, and t h i s money, as l a the Arkansas p r o j e c t , was Intended t o a i d the i n d i v i d u a l l a h i s r e h a b l l i t a t i o a * Ohio, Kew Je r s e y , aad Columbia a l l developed schemes of a - 15 -corresponding nature to those already mentioned, A gradual aware-ness of the importance of st u d y i n g the c o n v i c t r a t h e r than j u s t the e v a l u a t i o n and importance of h i s labour came slowly to the f o r e . Therefore i t may be s a i d by 1909 progress was beginning to be made not only toward the improvement of p r i s o n management, but a l s o f o r the general welfare of s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . Another phase i n the development of p r i s o n f o r e s t camps was the development of camps f o r boy p r o b a t i o n e r s . The Court of Domestic R e l a t i o n s i n Columbus, Ohio, i n the year 1930 conceived the idea of i n s t i t u t i n g a camp f o r i t s boy p r o b a t i o n e r s . The camp s t a r t e d w i t h twenty boys, and developed to the extent where i t was p r o v i d i n g f o r one hundred boys each summer. Some of the o b j e c t i v e s of the camp were: 1. To Induct unstable boys Into a c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d and co-operative medium by showing them the joy of s u c c e s s f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n organized group a c t i v i t i e s . 2. To e s t a b l i s h mutual confidence and understanding between the counselors and the boys. 3. To e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l l y acceptable standards t o d i s p l a c e the misconceived standards which are cha r a c t e r -i s t i c of maladjusted and delinquent boys. 4. To r e v e a l to the boys themselves t h e i r p e r s o n a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s by encouraging them t o t r y out new a c t i v i t i e s . 5. To improve the boys* p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n by good and s u f f i c i e n t food, outdoor l i v i n g , c o n t r o l l e d e x e r c i s e , and adequate r e s t . 1 A p r o j e c t s i m i l a r to the Columbus scheme was set up i n 1931 by the P r o b a t i o n Department and the j u v e n i l e Court of Los Angeles County. Since the development of t h i s p l a n i s more r e l e v a n t to •^Wagner, I r v i n g A., "A Camp f o r Boy P r o b a t i o n e r s " , Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , New York, 1937, p. 343. - 16 the o r i g i n s of p r i s o n f o r e s t r y oamps i t w i l l be d e a l t w i t h a t some le n g t h and'in corresponding d e t a i l . I t was the e s t a b l i s h -ment of F o r e s t r y Camp 10 i n San Dimas Canyon. The camp was intended f o r vagrant boys from other s t a t e s who were I n s e r i o u s t r o u b l e * A l a r g e number of these boys were ooming i n t o Los Angeles, and were being returned to t h e i r homes a t the expense of the Los Angeles County, only to make many repeated t r i p s of a s i m i l a r nature, r The county f e l t t h a t i f i t could e s t a b l i s h some form of programme to make these boys work f o r t h e i r r e t u r n t i c k e t s , they might not be so anxious to r e t u r n again. Therefore, the f o r e s t r y camp was i n s t i t u t e d as an opportunity t o a f f o r d these vagrant boys a chance to earn t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n back home a t the r a t e ; of f i f t y cents a day, i n c l u d i n g board and room. I n order t o rec e i v e t h i s they were o b l i g a t e d to work e i g h t hours w i t h p i c k and shovel. The camp was under the auspices of the county f o r e s t r y department and the county p r o b a t i o n department, the l a t t e r b eing the one r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the boys and t h e i r super-v i s i o n . From 1933 to 1937 the j u v e n i l e court sent boys c o n v i c t e d of b u r g l a r y , robbery, grand t h e f t and other offences to f o r e s t r y Camp 10* Each boy r e c e i v e d f i f t y cents per day f o r e i g h t hours of p i c k and shovel work. Between the years 1931-1937 over one thousand boys had been handled i n t h i s camp. I t waa s t a t e d t h a t "each boy»s problem i s c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d before h i s r e l e a s e , and an e f f o r t made to place him e i t h e r w i t h parent, r e l a t i v e s or f r i e n d s , where he w i l l have the best chance to complete h i s - 1? -s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n " . 1 The most p o s i t i v e aspects of t h i s camp have been s t a t e d as h e l p i n g these young boys overcome t h e i r f e a r of work, and a i d i n g them i n adapting t o the s p i r i t of the programme. The camp inc l u d e d an a c t i v e a t h l e t i c programme f o r the hoys and a s c h o o l programme. The boys were supervised by a d u l t counselors, though much of the camp d i s c i p l i n e was maintained l a r g e l y by the boys themselves. I t was s t r i c t l y an honour camp, o p e r a t i n g on a m i n i -mum s e c u r i t y b a s i s , having no l o c k s , fences, barred windows or guns. The e n t i r e camp process was d i r e c t e d toward the r e c o n s t r u c -t i v e modes of delinquent behaviour, not the p u n i t i v e . There i s no doubt th a t t h i s type of F o r e s t r y Camp was a stepping-stone to present day p r i s o n f o r e s t camps. Although i t developed n e a r l y a quarter of a century ago, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i t hear au d i s t i n c t semblance to current p r o j e c t s . P r i s o n road camps and f o r e s t camps are e s s e n t i a l l y honour camps I n s t i t u t e d mainly f o r the purpose of g i v i n g a s e l e c t e d group of p r i s o n e r s an opportunity t o prepare themselves not o n l y p h y s i c a l l y but p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y t o the I n e v i t a b l e problem of t a k i n g t h e i r p l a c e s i n s o c i e t y a g a i n . 2 I t i s not only the inmates of these camps who b e n e f i t , but a l s o the p u b l i c . I t I s f e l t that the p r i s o n e r whose mental outlook and h e a l t h i s improved by a camp programme i s l e s s l i k e l y t o r e t u r n t o crime than i s the man A I b l d , , p, 359. 2 S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a Department of P u b l i c Works D i v i s i o n of Highways, " P r i s o n Road Camps", Re p r i n t of a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s from " C a l i f o r n i a Highways and P u b l i c Works", 1950. - 18 who i s r e l e a s e d d i r e c t l y from p r i s o n . T h i s i s one of the reasons why many experiments of t i l l s nature have r e c e n t l y been t r i e d , and i t i s the aim of Chapter I I of t h i s study to give d e t a i l s of a few of the more important p r o j e c t s of t h i s type* Chapter I I Some Comparative F o r e s t r y Camp Progr.ammes*. The m a j o r i t y of offenders should not be c l a s s i f i e d as w i l f u l l y a n t i - s o c i a l * Many of them do not transgress the law by c h o i c e , but adopt delinquent behaviour p a t t e r n s because of t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to contend w i t h modern c i v i l i z a t i o n w i t h a l l i t s complex s i t u a t i o n s and d i s t u r b i n g problems* Most s o c i o l o g i s t s concur t h a t c i r c u m s t a n t i a l p r e s s u r e , not n a t u r a l p e r v e r s i t y , i s the c a u s a l f a c t o r of crime* A c c o r d i n g l y , i t has been s a i d t h a t l i t t l e i s to be gained by punis h i n g these men, and a l s o f o r the same reason i t i s not necessary t o keep a l l of them behind s t e e l bars and hig h stone w a l l s * However, only i n recent years has s o c i e t y become t r u l y persuaded of t h i s . A l s o , many pro g r e s s i v e p e n o l o g i s t s are now s t r o n g l y recommending more employment of p r i s o n s without w a l l s o r b a r s j t h a t i s , i n s t i t u t i o n s where there are no armed guards, no bars , o r w a l l a , w i t h the only b a r r i e r t o escape being the word of honour of the i n m a t e s — a s e t t i n g where the primary o b j e c t i v e of the programme i s o r i e n t e d a l o n g t r e a t -ment l i n e s * The recent establishment of p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camp p r o j e c t s may be regarded as one aspect of such a movement. They have only l a t e l y come Into being I n Canada, but i n the Uni t e d S t a t e s such i d e a s , i n some l o c a t i o n s , have been i n p r a c t i c e f o r n e a r l y a quarter of a century*. Although there are e i g h t s t a t e s opera-t i n g f o r e s t r y camps today t h a t the w r i t e r knows o f , the w r i t e r has chosen C a l i f o r n i a , Wisconsin, Michigan, and Massachusetts f o r the f o l l o w i n g comparitive d i s c u s s i o n * C a l i f o r n i a was - so -s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of i t s prominence and i t s p i o n e e r i n g r o l e i n the development of these p r o j e c t s * Wisconsin and Michigan a l s o are leaders i n the f i e l d and have r e l a t i v e l y e x t ensive programmes. Massachusetts, although a smaller and a newer scheme, has been i n c l u d e d because i t s o r i g i n i s almost contemporary w i t h t h a t of B r i t i s h Columbia. The S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n . P r i s o n f o r e s t r y camps have been i n o p e r a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a since 1931, During the p e r i o d 1949 t o 1950, the number of inmates sent from a d u l t male I n s t i t u t i o n s t o these camps was 4,010, During the summer the approximate average d a i l y popula-t i o n was seven hundred and f i f t y and i n the w i n t e r i s was s i x hundred. During the year 1951 twenty f o r e s t and road camps, operated by the C o r r e c t i o n s Department i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the State D i v i s i o n of Highways, the State D i v i s i o n of F o r e s t r y and the TJ»S. Forest S e r v i c e , were assigned more than one thousand c a r e f u l l y chosen Inmates, These camps are s i t u a t e d i n the mountainous areas of s i x t e e n C a l i f o r n i a c o u n t i e s . While twelve camps are operated the year round, the remaining, e i g h t f u n c t i o n only i n the summer months. To promote the development of camp operations the C a l i -f o r n i a C o r r e c t i o n s Department has had the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i o n s i n mind: 1. To provide housing and employment f o r s t a t e p r i s o n e r s of minimum s e c u r i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , thus h e l p i n g t o r e l i e v e the overcrowded c o n d i t i o n s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s . - 21 2. To f u r n i s h inmate l a b o r to s t a t e and f e d e r a l agencies f o r the purpose of conducting work p r o j e c t s of b e n e f i t to the p u b l i c which otherwise might not have been accomplished. 1 The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a d m i n i s t e r i n g these p r i s o n f o r e s t camps has been delegated to i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n s by the Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s . I n 1953 C a l i f o r n i a had nine permanent f o r e s t r y camps and nine seasonal camps which are i n o p e r a t i o n only d u r i n g the s p r i n g r e f o r e s t a t i o n season and the summer f i r e season. I n a d d i t i o n p there are three road oamps which operate on a year round b a s i s . Besides these oamps f u n c t i o n i n g under the Department of C o r r e c t i o n s , there are three camps e s t a b l i s h e d by the C a l i f o r n i a Youth A u t h o r i t y , which was created by s t a t u t e i n 1941. The f i r s t Youth A u t h o r i t y Camp was i n s t i t u t e d I n the Calaveras B i g Trees State Park I n 1943* The three i n o p e r a t i o n today are} (1) Ben Lomond Gamp, approximately s i x t e e n m i l e s north from Santa Cruz w i t h an average d a i l y p o p u l a t i o n of seventy; (2) Pine Grove Gamp, nine miles, east of Jackson w i t h an average d a i l y p o p u l a t i o n of ni n e t y , and, (3) Coarsegold Camp, f o r t y - f o u r m i l e s from the C i t y of Fresno w i t h an average p o p u l a t i o n Of 125. The age range i n a l l camps i s s i x t e e n t o twenty-one. There i s l e s s regimentation, fewer r e s t r i c t i o n s , and g r e a t e r opportunity f o r i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g a t these oamps which, a l o n g ^ C a l i f o r n i a Department of C o r r e c t i o n s , " B i e n n i a l Report", December, 1950, p. 18. 2 American P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n , "A Manual of C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards", Hew York, 1954, pp. 63-64. 22 -w i t h the wholesome environment, provide p o s i t i v e t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e s . During the camps* years of o p e r a t i o n , C a l i f o r n i a has found them to he a very e f f e c t i v e technique i n the t r a i n i n g of adolescents. One author s t a t e s however, t h a t I t must be borne In mind t h a t the success of the camps depends upon t h e i r operat-i n g along w i t h the more formal types of c o r r e c t i o n a l t r a i n i n g sohools, f o r many boys r e q u i r e c l o s e c u s t o d i a l care and could not be plaoed i n camps under any circumstances.-"-S e l e c t i o n of Inmates. I n i t s assignment of p r i s o n e r s to the camps the C a l i f o r n i a Department of C o r r e c t i o n s adheres to the suggestions set f o r t h i n "A Manual of C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards f o r 1 9 5 4 " — i . e . , the c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n committee keeps i n mind the p h y s i c a l and mental f i t n e s s of the p r i s o n e r , w i l l i n g n e s s of the inmate to accept camp l i f e 2 , and so o n — a s do the C o r r e c t i o n s Department i n Wisoonsin and Michigan. Both the Department of C o r r e c t i o n s and the C a l i f o r n i a Youth A u t h o r i t y have proved by years of s u c c e s s f u l p r i s o n camp o p e r a t i o n that c a r e f u l l y c l a s s i f i e d Inmates can be placed i n minimum s e c u r i t y c o n d i t i o n s w i t h b e n e f i t to both the s t a t e and the I n d i v i d u a l . Thus, these camps have become a c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t of the C a l i f o r n i a c o r r e c t i o n a l system, Nature of Work P r o j e c t , Camp labour i s used f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of mountain highways, ••-Close, O.H., " C a l i f o r n i a Camps f o r Delinquents", Yearbook N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1945, p, 139, o American P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n , rtA Manual of C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards", New York, 1954, p. 67. - 23 -f o r e s t roads and t r a i l s , f o r e s t b u i l d i n g s and telephone l i n e s . The inmates a l s o c o n t r i b u t e valuable a s s i s t a n c e i n the suppression of f o r e s t f i r e s * I t has been estimated t h a t d u r i n g 1949 to 1950, men from the Department of C o r r e c t i o n s ' Gamps s u p p l i e d 250,000 man hours of a c t u a l f o r e s t f i r e f i g h t i n g time* F o r e s t o f f i c i a l s empha-s i z e the value of having these t r a i n e d inmate f i r e crews, Prev-i o u s l y i t was necessary to depend upon l a s t minute s u b s c r i p t i o n of u n t r a i n e d persons, which o f t e n caused l o s s of time w i t h r e s u l t a n t increased f i r e damage* A l l camp inmates are p a i d f o r t h e i r work ( f i f t e e n d o l l a r s per month) which c o n s i s t s of s i x eight-hour days per week. Any inmate who has dependents r e c e i v i n g s t a t e a i d must send t w o - t h i r d s of h i s monthly earnings to them* A p a r t of every Inmate's wages i s placed I n a t r u s t fund. T h i s i s given to him upon r e l e a s e . The boys a t the C a l i f o r n i a Youth A u t h o r i t y oamps are a l s o t r a i n e d to be e f f e c t i v e f i r e - f i g h t e r s , which not o n l y c o n t r i b u t e s to the welfare of the s t a t e but teaches the boys to work together as a team g i v i n g them a s t r o n g s o c i a l i z i n g experience. There are a l s o year-round c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e f o r e s t a t i o n programmes s i m i l a r t o those c a r r i e d out by the Department of C o r r e c t i o n s ' camps. Fxtra-work A c t i v i t i e s . The w r i t e r has been Unable to f i n d i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l programmes I n the Department of C o r r e c t i o n s ' camps. However* m a t e r i a l has been obtained concern* Ing the development of these a c t i v i t i e s i n the C a l i f o r n i a Youth A u t h o r i t y ' s camps. The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s encourage s t a f f and boys to p l a y together as w e l l as to work together. There are the u s u a l team s p o r t s , indoor a t h l e t i c s , e r a f t and hobby programmes ( i n c l u d i n g c h o r a l and t h e a t r i c a l groups) as w e l l as "low-organized" a c t i v i t i e s (such as checkers). A l i b r a r y of books and magazines I s a l s o b e i n g b u i l t up i n each camp. The l i m i t e d number of hours a v a i l a b l e prevent having much i n the way of conv e n t i o n a l academic s c h o o l i n g . However, such p r o j e c t type a c t i v i t i e s as the b u i l d i n g of r e l i e f maps and the running of a camp newspaper provide some op p o r t u n i t y f o r educa-t i o n a l advancement. C o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g experimental work i n group therapy, i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e i r programme. Philosophy Of Camp Programme. The C a l i f o r n i a S t ate Department of C o r r e c t i o n s f e e l s t h a t the b e n e f i t s from a f o r e s t r y camp programme are many., some t h a t they have mentioned are as f o l l o w s : 1* I n place of being a charge a g a i n s t the Depart-ment, the camps are s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g as the inmates are paid--f o r - t h e i r work and the cost o r operations (feed-i n g , housing, etc.) being deducted from these payments, 2. Besides the s p e c i a l work b e i n g don© by these inmates, on an assortment of p r o j e c t s whioh perhaps co u l d not otherwise be accomplished, they a l s o c o n s t i -t u t e a f o r c e of t r a i n e d men who are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o combat f o r e s t f i r e s , 3. The assignment of an inmate to a Camp i s of d e f i n i t e a s s i s t a n c e i n h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . He i s do-i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e work i n healthy surroundings; paying h i s own way and saving some money to be of a s s i s t a n c e to h i s f a m i l y or to s t a r t him again i n f r e e s o c i e t y . 4. The p l a c i n g of men i n camps a i d s i n r e l i e v i n g the overcrowded c o n d i t i o n s of present i n s t i t u t i o n s , I t would cost s e v e r a l m i l l i o n d o l l a r s t o b u i l d and maintain an I n s t i t u t i o n to p r o p e r l y care f o r 1,000 inmates.1 x C a l i f o r n i a s t a t e Department of C o r r e c t i o n s , "Seven Years of Progress", J u l y 1, 1951, pp. 14-15. - 25 O r i g i n a l l y the main idea behind the Youth A u t h o r i t y camps was t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i v e work programme i t s e l f would have t h e r a -p e u t i c value and that s e l e c t e d youths could b e n e f i t from t h i s r e l a t i v e l y f r e e , simple and open type of l i f e * This I s s t i l l the core of the camp programme* However', other c o n s t r u c t i v e aspects of camp experience have developed. The c l o s e s t a f f - b o y r e l a t i o n -ship I s one of the most e f f e c t i v e f e a t u r e s of these camps* Because the number of boys seldom exceeds s i x t y , the s t a f f have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o get to know eaoh boy i n b i s s o o i a l group as w e l l as On the Job* Eaoh s t a f f member has s e v e r a l boys who are h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . He i s expected to have weekly conferences w i t h them and make w r i t t e n r e p o r t s concerning these t a l k s which become a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g the boy's progress. I t i s found that the f l e x i b i l i t y and I n f o r m a l i t y of a f o r e s t r y camp provides greater o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r new e x p e r i m e n t s -such as group counselling--which would be more d i f f i c u l t to under-take i n the t r a i n i n g schools w i t h t h e i r l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n s . Habits of worlcy improved h e a l t h , and c h a r a c t e r development' through c o u n s e l l i n g and guidance are more l i k e l y t o be the out-come of a well-balanced programme. The S t a t e of Wisconsin* A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n . W i s c o n s i n ^ f i r s t s t a t e p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camp was e s t a b l i s h e d on August 1, 1931* I t was the s i t e o f a former lumber camp s i t u a t e d a t McNaughton, Wisconsin* about two hundred m i l e s n o r t h of the p r i s o n . The reasons f o r the development of the Idea arose as a r e s u l t of the f o l l o w i n g ; - 26 * 1, Since the p r i s o n was overcrowded the s t a t e had t o ohoose between b u i l d i n g a new p r i s o n , adding to the o l d one, o r s e t t i n g up some type of camp system* 2, The d e s i r e on the p a r t of the s t a t e Conservation Department to enlarge i t s r e f o r e s t a t i o n and f o r e s t p r e s e r v a t i o n programme by as cheap a method as p o s s i b l e . Therefore, the use of p r i s o n labour was accepted without h e s i t a t i o n * 3, The b e l i e f that the t r a n s f e r of p r i s o n e r s from the p r i s o n t o camps might not only be b e t t e r penology but a l s o , i n the i n i t i a l procedure, cheaper than b u i l d i n g a new p r i s o n . I t was thought to be b e t t e r penology becausej 1* P r i s o n e r s who had such a short sentence t h a t they were handi-capped i n l e a r n i n g a trade i n the p r i s o n i t s e l f , c o uld be looked a f t e r j u s t as w e l l , i f not b e t t e r , i n the s e t t i n g of a camp, 2. The camp environment would be b e n e f i c i a l t o the h e a l t h of the p r i s o n e r s * 3. For p r i s o n e r s who were s e r v i n g l o n g sentences the camps would serve the f u n c t i o n of g r a d u a l l y h e l p i n g the p r i s o n e r t o prepare himself f o r h i s u l t i m a t e r e t u r n to s o c i e t y * 4. The camp would provide a wide range of work a c t i v i t i e s . 1 A l l of Wisconsin f o r e s t r y camps are s i t u a t e d on l a n d owned by the s t a t e * There i s a working agreement w i t h the Conservation Department and the v a r i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are a l l o c a t e d . The Conservation Department s u p p l i e s : (1) equipment f o r f o r e s t r y work, (2) t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r work, (3) b u i l d i n g s f o r f o r e s t r y eqaipment and work, and, (4) t e c h n i c a l advice on f o r e s t r y work (the s e r v i c e s of q u a l i f i e d F o r e s t Rangers are a v a i l a b l e on an a d v i s o r y b a s i s to the camps),, ,•' The o b l i g a t i o n on the p a r t of the p r i s o n i n t h i s dual admin-i s t r a t i o n was to f u r n i s h : (1) the p r i s o n e r s , (2) the guards, (3) the b u i l d i n g s f o r housing p r i s o n e r s , (4) medical care, (5) t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n f o r camp needs, and, (6) food and c l o t h i n g (the Conserva-t i o n Department i n i t i a l l y h e l d t h i s job but l a t e r on an expansion ^Burke, John C., "The Farm and F o r e s t r y Camp System of Wisconsin State P r i s o n " , January 4, 1954, pp. 1-13* i n the p r i s o n budget allowed f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n t o accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) . The number of p r i s o n farms and f o r e s t r y oamps Wisconsin had o p e r a t i n g i n 1954 was seven. The inmate p o p u l a t i o n v a r i e d from a maximum of s e v e n t y - f i v e i n one camp t o a minimum of twenty i n another camp. The number of camp personnel v a r i e d from f i v e t o t h r e e . S e l e c t i o n of Inmates. I t has been assumed i n the Wisconsin experiment t h a t the success or f a i l u r e of a camp programme i s contingent t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , on the care and d i s c r e t i o n used I n s e l e c t i n g the p r i s o n e r s f o r the camps. The experience of the s t a t e has shown tha t about ninety-nine per cent of the p r i s o n e r s assigned t o t h e i r oamps and farms were good s e c u r i t y r i s k s . This e x c e l l e n t r e c o r d i s founded on the grounds th a t not only are the s t a f f and programme adequate, but a l s o t h e i r screening process i n s e l e c t i n g the men f o r assignment to these open i n s t i t u t i o n s Is an e f f i c i e n t one. The s e l e c t i o n i s done not on the b a s i s of one man's o p i n i o n , but of a' group of men who u t i l i z e the v a r i o u s casework f i l e s and other resources of the i n s t i t u t i o n . . some of these i n c l u d e : (1) p s y c h i -a t r i c r e p o r t s , (2) medical r e p o r t s , (3) F.B.I, r e p o r t s , (4) v e r i f i e d s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s , (5) p r i s o n work r e c o r d , (6) Chaplain's r e p o r t , (7) conduct r e p o r t , (8) m a i l censor's r e p o r t , (9) school r e p o r t s , and, (10) guidance o f f i c e r r e p o r t s and recommendations. P r i s o n e r s who are thought to be "poor r i s k s " are c l a s s i -f i e d and each category e l u c i d a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1, E m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d cases. .The I n s t a b i l i t y of t h i s type - 28 -causes them to upset the e n t i r e camp r o u t i n e . There i s always the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t other p r i s o n e r s may shun them and so provoke them i n t o absconding. 2, M a l i n g e r e r s * Inmates who c o n s t a n t l y demand medical a t t e n t i o n and who, i n g e n e r a l , set poor examples f o r other p r i s o n e r s , 3, The s i c k . There are l a c k of medical f a c i l i t i e s t o care f o r them at camp and, as a r e s u l t , there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r becoming depressed and running away, 4, The t e m p o r a r i l y upset. This c l a s s i n c l u d e s those inmates who have j u s t undergone or are undergoing some severe emotional disturbance* For example, an inmate who has a member of h i s f a m i l y about to undergo a d e l i c a t e operation* 5* P u b l i c i t y seekers. P r i s o n e r s who have the incessant urge to be i n the " l i m e l i g h t * ' . They are apt t o escape j u s t t o s a t i s f y t h i s need of t h e i r s , 6. Sex p e r v e r t s . Thie category of inmates, due t o t h e i r reputa-t i o n , may be ignored by other, p r i s o n e r s and as a r e s u l t may escape. I n a d d i t i o n , they should not be sent to camps because i t p rovides them w i t h the opportunity to p r a c t i c e the crime. 7, A g i t a t o r s . They should never be sent t o camps due t o the f a c t t h a t they are prone to c r e a t i n g t r o u b l e amongst the r e s t of the inmates* 8* " F l o a t e r s " . The "wanderlust* of these types of p r i s o n e r s makes them poor r i s k s * 9, Escapees* Inmates who have records of previous p r i s o n escapes should b«9 excluded from camps* 10. " S t o o l pigeons". This type of p r i s o n e r i s apt t o be both d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t and ignored by other p r i s o n e r s and, as a r e s u l t , might be a p o t e n t i a l escapee, 11* P r i s o n e r s w i t h " d e t a i n e r s " , i , e , , P r i s o n e r s who are wanted by other law enforcement agencies f o r p r o s e c u t i o n . Camp inmates i n t h i s category may elope t o a v o i d f u r t h e r imprisonment., 12. ?ery young and Immature Inmates* The m a j o r i t y of these in-* mates are presumed to be more emot i o n a l l y unstable than o l d e r men and,as a result,abscond o f t e n e r * 13. P r i s o n e r s w i t h disagreeable p e r s o n a l h a b i t s * T h i s c l a s s i n c l u d e s the p r i s o n e r who may be a p e r s i s t e n t braggard* or who snores e x c e s s i v e l y * There i s a chance t h a t inmates w i t h such h a b i t s may be "picked on" or O s t r a c i z e d and In discouragement run away* 14. P r i s o n e r s who b e l i e v e t h e i r sentences are g r o s s l y u n f a i r . They are prone to escaping i n order t o "go out and get even", or to " f i x t h i n g s up on the o u t s i d e " . 15,, Inmates unaccustomed to the c l i m a t e . Some men from warm clim a t e s cannot a d j u s t to c o l d ones, and there I s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t they may t r y to escape r a t h e r than ask f o r a r e t u r n t o the p r i s o n . P r i s o n e r s who are considered good oamp s e c u r i t y r i s k s by the Wisconsin inmate s e l e c t i n g group are, on th® other hand, typed - 29 -as: (1) adequate p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h , (2) s u i t a b l e c i v i l and p r i s o n work r e c o r d , (3) reasonably good p r i s o n behaviour reoord, (4) good f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , (5) a business or job to r e t u r n t o , and, (6) p r i s o n e r s sentenced to l o n g terms who have already served a good p o r t i o n of t h e i r sentence. Men s e r v i n g l i f e sentences may be Included i n the programme, but they u s u a l l y have served f i v e to seven years of t h e i r sentence, ( " L i f e r s " i n Wisconsin are e l i g i b l e f o r p a r o l e a f t e r they have served eleven years and three months of t h e i r sentence.) A l l camp inmates are granted f i v e days a d d i t i o n a l good time o f f by the Wisconsin C o r r e c t i o n s Department, Mature of Work P r o j e c t s . Various kinds of work such as r e f o r e s t a t i o n p l a n t i n g , main-tenance of s t a t e parks, and f i g h t i n g of f o r e s t f i r e s has been done, and are being done, i n the Wisconsin camps. Other p r o j e c t s are the o p e r a t i o n of t r e e n u r s e r i e s , farms and gardens, and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of f o r e s t r y b u i l d i n g s , roads, b r i d g e s , camp s i t e s , and f i r e l a n e s . The c l e a r i n g of underbush from along roadsides and i n the parks and f o r e s t s , as a means of l e s s e n i n g f i r e and disease hazards, was a l s o undertaken. Extra-work A c t i v i t i e s . 1, R e c r e a t i o n . Besides a v a r i e t y of games played on the a t h l e t i c f i e l d there i s swimming, f i s h i n g and s k a t i n g on r i v e r s near the camp. A movie i s shown once a month and i n f o r m a l entertainment i s produced by the p r i s o n e r s w i t h t h e i r own Instruments. P a i n t i n g and drawing, as w e l l as woodworking, are i n c l u d e d i n the hobby a c t i v i t i e s . - 30 * 2. E d u c a t i o n a l Programme. Besides v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g on the job there are academic c l a s s e s , taught by inmates who were success-f u l i n teaching i n the p r i s o n s c h o o l , u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n courses and d i r e c t e d r e a d i n g courses, 3. R e l i g i o u s S e r v i c e s , Once a month the camps are v i s i t e d by the P r o t e s t a n t Chaplain and by the Roman C a t h o l i c Chaplain who h o l d mass* There i s no Jewish Chaplain a v a i l a b l e , but Jewish p r i s o n e r s are allowed to r e t u r n to the p r i s o n whenever there i s to be a s p e c i a l s e r v i c e h e l d . They are a l s o not r e q u i r e d to work on important Jewish r e l i g i o u s days. Philosophy of Camp Programme. Wisconsin endeavours to operate only s m a l l p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camps w i t h inmate populations of about f i f t y . I t i s f e l t t h a t by f o l l o w i n g such a p o l i c y a b e t t e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme can be c a r r i e d out. The reasons given f o r t h i s are t w o - f o l d . P r i m a r i l y , they are more conducive to i n d i v i d u a l treatment. For Instance,, the camp personnel o f f i c e r i s i n a b e t t e r t l p O s l t i o n to become more c l o s e l y acquainted w i t h the d i f f e r e n t inmates. Thus, he would be able t o have a more in t i m a t e understanding of a p r i s o n e r ' s problems, w o r r i e s , or any Other emotional c o n f l i c t s which may a r i s e from f a m i l y d i f f i c u l t i e s o r home developments. I n a d d i t i o n , the importance of sm a l l oamps I s explained on another basis.. Diseases which may s t r i k e the camp sueh as an i n f l u e n z a V i r u s can be handled more e a s i l y . Trouble, i f i t a r i s e s , can be b e t t e r c o n t r o l l e d than i n l a r g e r groups.. The d e t e c t i o n of a g i t a t o r s , p o s s i b l e exeapees, and p r i s o n e r s who are general m i s f i t s t o the camp programme are more r e a d i l y determined i n advance of d l f f i -- 31 -o u l t y i n a sm a l l camp than i n a l a r g e one. The Wisconsin C o r r e c t i o n s Department s t r e s s e s the impor-tance of the c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s as a val u a b l e a s s e t i n h e l p i n g to insure the success of a camp programme. The Department s t a t e s t h a t one poor o f f i c e r i n a p r i s o n i s not bad, but one poor o f f i c e r i n a camp i s t r a g i c . A l l Wisoonsin camp o f f i c e r s have been promoted from the guard f o r o e . Each o f f i c e r must be adept i n many f i e l d s . H i s d u t i e s may run the gamut. He may a t one time a c t as a Warden, Deputy Warden, Shop O f f i c e r , School Teacher, P a r o l e O f f i c e r , Reoreation D i r e c t o r , Nurse and member of the c l e r g y . Experience i n Wisoonsin has shown t h a t there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the q u a l i t y of the camp o f f i c e r s and the number of escapes and d i s c i p l i n a r y problem oases th a t a Camp has, I t i s the contension of those most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Wisconsin camp programmes t h a t i t i s not only the p r i s o n e r s who b e n e f i t from such programmes, but the whole s t a t e * I t I s hoped that i f a camp programme can help a p r i s o n e r by way of an improvement of h i s h e a l t h and mental Outlook, there i s a p o s s i -b i l i t y t h a t he w i l l be l e s s l i k e l y to r e t u r n to delinquent behaviour than the man who i s r e l e a s e d s t r a i g h t from p r i s o n . For example, when an Inmate who has been employed at a camp i s re l e a s e d , he i s l e s s apt to f e e l as inadequate, h e l p l e s s , and bewildered as the man who i s r e l e a s e d d i r e c t l y from p r i s o n , because he has experienced the gradual steps to freedom. 32 The State of Michigan, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Organization* "In 1947, some token crews of s e v e r a l inmates were assigned on an i r r e g u l a r b a s i s to Park Managers of the Conservation Depart-ment f o r s m a l l t a s k s , These l i t t l e token crews were a c t u a l l y the forerunners of the P r i s o n Camp Program."* The idea of camps f o r p r i s o n inmates w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n work as t h e i r assignment was almost simultaneously suggested by both the C o r r e c t i o n s and Conservation o f f i c i a l s . The p l a n was accepted and i n t e r p r e t e d as having p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r immediate success and very s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r i t was put i n t o e f f e c t , Michigan's f i r s t p r i s o n f o r e s t r y oamp was inaugurated on May 19, 1948, and was named Camp Waterloo, I t s o r i g i n a l s i t e was a Vacant prisoner-of-war camp i n the 13,523-acre Waterloo Recrea-t i o n a l Area, nineteen m i l e s east of the State P r i s o n a t Jackson, A comparatively simple I n i t i a l agreement was soon formulated between the two departments. I t was decided t h a t the Conservation Department would assume tho r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of supp l y i n g the work, t o o l s , necessary v e h i c l e s and of p r o v i d i n g the pay of f i f t y Cents per day f o r the p r i s o n e r s . On the other hand, the o p e r a t i o n of the camp i t s e l f , the p r o v i s i o n of guard foremen, medical and d e n t a l care, the s e c u r i t y and d i s c i p l i n e of the inmates was a r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y of the C o r r e c t i o n s Department, As a form of convenience Oilman, s.iT., "The Michigan P r i s o n Camp Program", s t a t e of Michigan, Department of C o r r e c t i o n s , September 1953, pp. 3-44, \ \ *• 33 * f o r both Departments a simple i n t e r - a c c o u n t i n g system was construet©d whereby the r e s p e c t i v e departments could be reimbursed f o r equipment used by one but owned by the other. By the year 1953, the Michigan P r i s o n Gamp Programme, although only f i v e years o l d , had developed r a p i d l y from the p i l o t camp i n the Waterloo R e c r e a t i o n a l Area to a permanent d i v i s i o n of the C o r r e c t i o n s Department, C u r r e n t l y , there are about seven hundred Inmates occupying nine r e g u l a r work camps and there I s an a d d i t i o n a l Michigan Parole- Gamp which has a po p u l a t i o n of 128 men. S e l e c t i o n o f Inmates, The C o r r e c t i o n s Department of Michigan has emulated the American P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n ' s "A Manual of C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards, 1954" suggestions on s e l e c t i o n of inmates f o r oamp programmes. They Include the f o l l o w i n g : 1. Inmates should be s e l e c t e d through appropriate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedures and i t should be t h e i r p r e r o g a t i v e t o accept or refuse camp assignment. 2* P r i s o n e r s should have both medical and de n t a l examinations before being sent to the 'Camp, This would help t o l e s s e n the number of t r i p s back to the i n s t i t u t i o n . 3. The only p r i s o n e r who should be s e l e c t e d f o r the Camp are those who are good custody r i s k s without the use of gun-guards, chai n s , or other u n d e s i r a b l e forms of r e s t r a i n t * 4. I f i t i s p o s s i b l e p r i s o n e r s should be p a i d wages f o r the work they perform. 5. The number of inmates assigned to a Camp should be I n propor-t i o n to the amount of work a v a i l a b l e , 6*. P r i s o n e r s suspected of m a l i n g e r i n g should be returned promptly to the main j a i l . l 'American P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n , op, e i t . , pp, 61-68,, - 34 -Nature of Work P r o j e c t s , Although the Michigan P r i s o n Gamp programme has been engaged c h i e f l y i n j o i n t C o r r e c t i o n s - C o n s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s , i t has i n some instances performed work i n s p e c i a l areas such as Michigan communities, the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , and the Michigan State Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , During the years 1951 to 1952 p r i s o n Gamp inmate labour aided the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e I n the c o n t r o l of B l i s t e r Rust. I n a d d i t i o n ; inmate labour played an a c t i v e p a r t i n the development of community p r o j e c t s such as the reno-v a t i o n of I r o n Mountain s k i jump f o r the 1951 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Olympic ski-jumping t r i a l s , b u i l d i n g of Boy and G i r l Scout Camps, c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the S o c i a l Welfare Department's camps, and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a community r e c r e a t i o n b u i l d i n g i n G r e y l i n g . , I t was discovered t h a t by these p r o j e c t s the camp programme i t s e l f not only r e c e i v e d b e t t e r acceptance but a l s o t h a t p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s were immeasurably improved by b r i n g i n g t o the immediate view of the p u b l i c the work performed on these d i f f e r e n t community p r o j e c t s * I t was hoped a t the same time, by t h i s accomplishment of p r o j e c t s by p r i s o n camp lab o u r , t h a t I t would help b r i n g to the p u b l i c view the f a c t t h a t p r i s o n s and p r i s o n e r s are the r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y of a l l the people of Michigan.and not the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the C o r r e c t i o n s Department alone. The p r i s o n camp programme r e c e i v e d repeated and numerous requests from Michigan communities f o r help on p u b l i c p r o j e c t s . Whenever p o s s i b l e , such help i s granted. However, the camp - 55 -programme s t i p u l a t e s three requirements before t h e i r s e r v i c e s are s u p p l i e d : 1. There are t o be no c i v i l i a n workers d i s p l a c e d . 2* The work to be performed must be of a p u b l i c nature and the l a n d and b u i l d i n g s public-owned..., 3, The r e s p o n s i b l e leaders of the community must ask f o r the a s s i s t a n c e , and a l s o the a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d by the inmate crews must be agreeable to the e n t i r e community before the work commences. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the f u t u r e of the P r i s o n Camp Programme i n Michigan i s u n l i m i t e d I n respect t o the amount of work which can be done. The tremendous State F o r e s t s , Park and R e c r e a t i o n a l Areas of Michigan are presumed t o be able to provide work f o r a thousand men f o r twenty years or more..; Extra-work A c t i v i t i e s . Due to i n s u f f i c i e n t documentary m a t e r i a l the w r i t e r has been unable to present an account of the "extra-work a c t i v i t i e s " as p r a c t i s e d I n t h i s s t a t e . Philosophy of Camp Programme. Although at present there are t e n camp programmes f u n c t i o n -i n g I n Michigan i t i s hoped th a t l e g i s l a t i v e approve! of a twelve camp programme w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be obtained. The elev e n t h camp i s scheduled to be constructed d u r i n g 1954 t o 1955, and the t w e l f t h during the years 1955 to 1956. I t has been mentioned, however, t h a t the attainment of t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s dependent upon the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of both •'good s e c u r i t y r i s k " p r i s o n e r s and l e g i s -l a t i v e a p p roval. I f such a p l a n was found t o be u n p r o f i t a b l e inasmuch as i t goes beyond the p o i n t of d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s , then the t en Camp programme w i l l be maintained as the optimum. The Supervisory Personnel of the Michigan p r i s o n camp - 36 programme are r e q u i r e d to take continuous i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g courses. Each employee i s compelled to attend at l e a s t two such courses of study each year* The courses d e a l w i t h super-v i s i o n of camp o f f i c e r s and p r i s o n e r s , o v e r a l l day-to-day f u n c t i o n i n g of the camps, l e a r n i n g of s e c u r i t y measures, buying and o r d e r i n g of camp s u p p l i e s and m a t e r i a l , and p u b l i c and i n t e r -departmental r e l a t i o n s * I t i s f e l t t h a t no matter how experienced a camp o f f i c e r or sergeant may be, new s i t u a t i o n s are c o n t i n u a l l y a r i s i n g i n such a wide**spread programme t h a t study and constant probing are needed t o keep abreast w i t h the changes. I n a d d i t i o n , i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g courses are given t o camp c u s t o d i a l personnel. The purposes of the courses are t o acquaint any new camp programme employee w i t h the p o l i c i e s and s t i p u l a t i o n s of the camp c u s t o d i a l xvork, and to b r i n g them i n t o contact w i t h the supervisory personnel w i t h whom they w i l l work. I t a l s o I s used as a r e f r e s h e r course f o r experienced employees. The course i n c l u d e s general o p e r a t i n g p o l i c i e s of the camp programme as w e l l as the h i s t o r y and p r i n c i p l e . A l s o emphasis i s placed on the f a o t t b a t t r a i n i n g and treatment of camp inmates i s a career worthy of and e n t a i l i n g much thought and study* The p o l i c y of the camp programme i s th a t each Gamp C u s t o d i a l O f f i c e r i s o b l i g e d to take a two day i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g course a t l e a s t twice eaoh year. I n a s i m i l a r manner, since the Michigan p r i s o n camp prog-ramme i s d u a l l y operated by C o r r e c t i o n s and Conservation Depart-ments, and since Conservation foremen are o c c a s i o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h a n d l i n g Inmate crews, employees of t h i s department have to - 37 -take what are termed " i n d o c t r i n a t i o n courses". I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the C o r r e c t i o n s Department to t r a i n them f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r work, Th© main emphasis of the i n d o c t r i n a t i o n courses e n t a i l s t r a i n i n g of Conservation foremen I n the areas of e s t a b l i s h e d p e n o l o g i c a l methods as w e l l as i n the important problems of inmate c o n t r o l and d i s c i p l i n e . The courses a l s o i n c l u d e such matters as r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of foremen, l i a i s o n b e t -ween the two departments, assignment of inmates, the C o r r e c t i o n s Law, camp fe e d i n g problems and r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s . T h i s p l a n i s r i g i d l y adhered t o as i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t r e g a r d l e s s of how much t r a i n i n g an i n d i v i d u a l may have had i n o r d i n a r y areas of human behaviour, when he deals w i t h p r i s o n inmates, he i s faced w i t h problems d i s s i m i l a r from those of any other p r o f e s s i o n . The P r i s o n Camp Programme f u n c t i o n s w i t h these ideas and p r i n c i p l e s : 1, To provide u s e f u l and i n s t r u c t i v e work f o r p r i s o n inmates and to a s s i s t them to become good c i t i z e n s by I n s t i l l i n g i n t o them good work h a b i t s and a b e t t e r attl<-tude toward s o c i e t y , 2, To provide f o r the Gamp Programme employees a s a t i s f y i n g way of l i f e I n a work environment where there i s co-operation and harmony, aa w e l l as to provide opportunity f o r performing u s e f u l human s e r v i c e , and an advancement i n an honourable career i n penology, » 3. To render economical and e f f i c i e n t labour s e r v i c e to the Conservation Department f o r the b e n e f i t of the people and f o r f u t u r e generations who w i l l v i s i t and enjoy the Improved r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , 4, To p r o t e c t . t h e community the Programme serves by ma i n t a i n i n g proper s u p e r v i s i o n and custody of camp i n - , mates u n t i l they are r e l e a s e d by due process of the law. ^Oilman, S.JV, " C o r r e c t i o n s Conservation Gamp Program", State of Michigan, Department of C o r r e c t i o n s , December, 1953, p, 41. •«* 38 «* The State of Massachusetts, Massachusetts p r i s o n f o r e s t camps were i n i t i a t e d upon a survey conducted lay Mr, Gavin ( D i r e c t o r of Gamps) of the camp prosrammes of Wisconsin and Michigan. As a r e s u l t of the survey, Massachusetts has Incorporated n e a r l y the same concepts r e l a t i n g to s e l e c t i o n of inmates, aspects of camp r o u t i n e , and philosophy of programme,- as these two s t a t e s , i n t o i t s own camp p r o j e c t . Therefore, the w r i t e r , I n order t o avo i d r e p e t i t i o n , has excluded these three components from t h i s s e c t i o n of the study. At the same time, however, si n c e the Massachusetts camp programme i s almost contemporary w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia one, the w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t enough to t h i s study to m e r r i t some mention-, Massachusetts e s t a b l i s h e d i t s p i l o t camp i n May of 1952 i n the form of a D-shaped b u i l d i n g , constructed by outside labour a t the approximate cost of $35,000.00. The inmates, under s u p e r v i s i o n of camp o f f i c e r s , helped to modernize and to add to the b u i l d i n g i n such ways as the f o l l o w i n g : 1, A combination chapel and r e c r e a t i o n h a l l was b u i l t , 2, A j o i n t work shop and a v o c a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g wa.s set up, 3, A garage, f o r the camp v e h i c l e s , and a storage b u i l d i n g were constructed, ' . 4, A quonset type supply b u i l d i n g and a bunk house were b u i l t . I n a d d i t i o n to camp p r o j e c t s inmates c l e a r e d l a n d , b u i l t roads and p a r k i n g l o t s , and cu t , skidded, decked and processed l o g s , some of which were f o r s t a t e use. •••Gavin, John A., "Penal F o r e s t r y Camp Information", Massachusetts Department of C o r r e c t i o n s , November, 1953, p, 5-6. A3 of November 1953 (the camp's t o t a l l e n g t h of o p e r a t i o n at t h a t time) t h e i r own camp b u i l d i n g s had been renovated, one hundred e x t r a camp s i t e s had been developed and three thousand man-hours of f o r e s t f i r e f i g h t i n g had been put I n by the inmates; The Massachusetts p r i s o n camp programme works i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the s t a t e Conservation Department. The Conservation Depart-ment provides the work p r o j e c t s and the C o r r e c t i o n s Department, I n co-operation w i t h them, s e l e c t s the work gangs of p r i s o n inmates. Conclusions. I t I s the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t t h i s comparative study can-not be adequately concluded without some a p p r a i s a l of i t s compon-ents. Although the w r i t e r i s u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the e f f i c i e n c y of these p r i s o n camp programmes, there are c e r t a i n observations he has made: 1. The m a t e r i a l used i n t h i s study i s of a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s nature and o f f e r s l i t t l e scope f o r a p o s s i b l e c r i t i q u e . S, The c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n of inmates ( e s p e c i a l l y Wisconsin) seems so e x c l u s i v e t h a t the number of p r i s o n e r s e l i g i b l e f o r the camps must be very l i m i t e d ; 3. The process employed by the inmate s e l e c t i n g committees of' Wisoonsin and Michigan i n the e v a l u a t i o n of p r o s p e c t i v e camp inmates seems to be a very comprehensive'one, e.g., Chaplain's r e p o r t s , F.B.I, r e p o r t s , e t c . However; the extensiveness and usefulness of each r e p o r t would be open to question. 40 01 o © ta •p o p> u © ro & o © © o to >i od F-i •P to © • 6 J O fl at -•5 fl •H .fl o © •H • « fl •H O J O fl O SQ o •H 0} •H H « fl al <3 fl u -> o <»H P • r l cd r-i u OJ •a o S 3 o o M P ' P S 1 H O © © o • H «H IO w •p fl H © cd fl fl rt n 01 (3 © © 0> p •H N O .d 0 CO <3j 10 Gi v f l P _ PS fl O «rt fl CO CQ fl o •p © p © o P o $-4 o fl o o fl -P _ P fl •H O f-4 «H . O P I "H O H P fl cd 3 fl .fl p fx as' «H fl U o ,fl o 0) i4 P p -p co Cd © $> p © f) ca & o p 03 • §8 O • © 53 .H • H - H fl © UJ O tt) CQ © CO © to +3 p iH O P IO fl • H 1 1 in O fl ctf CO © •H +» ^ •H fl fl O O P O o _ • © p Rj H *H P © o o> © e ei • H fl O <+-! >9 H cd o S<5 H fl • H CQ fl O O CO •H © CO fl U3 I H © fl © © © „ O io ta H fl «H . r l w 00 «s H fid fl © P. to to © o H H O _ fl 03 «H to P a p fl P« fl Pi o © ' o _ © •H fl P •H fl o P o _ P o _ © «H fl O «H fl © P o © P o h O © «H S4 fl P P rH fl P -P o pS td td o 0 ca cd O ^ P > O *<-aP t> fl 03 N fl t/3 p-t • O © • O © p o si ca p o & m P4 ^ P fl P< +3 fl © fl -H O © fl «n o Ct-H £ O 03 fl O © fl •P o © - H fl © P © rH © © «H fn fl P P O fl cd ca O •'-s>P fl D3 • © P O 5^ P. © fl «H o> fl G to P © CO •fl o d 03 to cd Chapter I I I The B r i t i s h Columbia Programme: Treatment Aspects, O r i g i n , The idea of a p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camp programme f o r B r i t i s h Columbia was conceived i n February 1951. I t arose as a r e s u l t of a suggestion made almost simultaneously i n the Prov-i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e by Mr. G* Wismer, the Attorney-General f o r B r i t i s h Columbia a t t h a t time, and Mr* Kenny, the M i n i s t e r of Lands and F o r e s t s . They suggested that a summer f o r e s t work p r o j e c t might be a s u i t a b l e r e h a b i l i t a t i v e programme f o r young del i n q u e n t s . The concept was submitted f o r approval to Mr* E. G. B. Stevens, the Inspector of Gaols f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, who considered the p l a n f e a s i b l e . A f t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e prepara-t i o n the p l a n was inaugurated. B r i t i s h Columbia embarked upon I t s f i r s t year of a summer p r i s o n camp programme on June 18, 1951. On that day eleven young offenders were r e l e a s e d from the Young Offenders* U n i t of the O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm under the p r o v i s i o n s of the " T i c k e t of Leave A c t " * 1 The group was flown to p e n t i c t o n by Canadian P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s , from whence they chartered a bus and were transported to the oamp area. The approximate l o c a t i o n of the camp area was i n the upper reaches of the K e t t l e R i v e r i n the AThe " T i c k e t of Leave A c t " , i s administered by the Remission's Branch of the Department of J u s t i c e f o r Canada. I t allows inmates to l i v e outside the p r i s o n under s u p e r v i s i o n . The p r i s o n e r who v i o l a t e s i t s t i p u l a t i o n s has h i s " t i c k e t " revoked. - 42 -Monashee Pass, f i f t y m i l e s east of Vernon. I n May of 1952, as a r e s u l t of the s u c c e s s f u l camp prog-ramme i n the previous year, B r i t i s h Columbia launched i t s second f o r e s t camp programme. Two camps were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Nelson F o r e s t D i s t r i c t . Each camp contained twelve inmates, who were r e l e a s e d as i n the preceding year under the " T i c k e t of Leave A c t " . One camp was s i t u a t e d on f o r e s t access road approximately s i x and one-half m i l e s south of the Monashee Pass Road. J t was on the upper reaches of the K e t t l e R i v e r i n the mountain range between the Okanagan and the Arrow Lakes. The towns nearest t o the camp were Lumby, about s i x t y m i l e s west, and Edgewood, about f i f t y m i l e s east. This camp, named R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Camp No. 1, was under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the Edgewood d i s t r i c t F o r e s t Ranger. The second f o r e s t r y camp, c a l l e d R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Camp No. I I , was l o c a t e d at the n o r t h end of C h r i s t i a n V a l l e y , about f i f t y m i l e s n o r t h of Rock Creek. The distance between the two camps was about t h i r t y - f i v e m i l e s . However, since they were not of easy access, a distance of some two hundred and f i f t y m i l e s had t o be t r a v e l l e d i n order to get from one camp t o the o t h e r * 2 """British Columbia Department of the Attorney-General, "Annual Report of the Inspector of Gaols, For the Year Ended March 31st, 1952", V i c t o r i a , 1953, p. 22. M a t e r i a l used i n Chapter I I I of t h i s study has been ob-t a i n e d from the Annual Reports of the Inspector of Gaols f o r the years ended March 31, 1951, 1952, and 1953. I n a d d i t i o n , informa-t i o n has been acquired through a number of p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Mr. E.G.B. Stevens, the Inspector Gaols f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and Mr. R.M. D e i l d a l , the Senior O f f i c e r i n charge of these f o r e s t r y camps during t h e i r three years of o p e r a t i o n . 2"Annual Report of the Inspector of Gaols", f o r the Year Ended March 31, 1953, p. 41. 43 -The 1953 B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t r y camp was a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the previous experiments of 1951 and 1952. However, i t d i f f e r e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t - - i t was named a g a o l . I n "Order i n C o u n c i l " , number 1183, dated May 19, 1953, i t was st a t e d t h a t there was to be constructed a g a o l , to be l o c a t e d i n the same places as the camps of the previous years and i t was to be c a l l e d the "Forest Camp Gaol". Then, by "Order i n C o u n c i l " number 1184, May 19th, s i x inmates from O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm and fo u r t e e n from Young Offenders* U n i t of Oak a l l a P r i s o n Farm were to be t r a n s f e r r e d to the Forest Camp Gaol. These inmates were to be detained there u n t i l discharged by due course of the law or u n t i l f u r t h e r order. The inmates were to be t r a n s f e r r e d under s e c t i o n f i v e of the "Pr i s o n s and Reformatories A c t " . T h i s t r a n s f e r was to be e f f e c t i v e on or a f t e r May 31st and i t s s t a t e d purpose was to enable the s a i d p r i s o n e r s to c a r r y out a work programme a t o r i n the v i c i n i t y of the s a i d camp under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the F o r e s t r y Branch of the P r o v i n o e , 1 By changing the name to the For e s t Gamp Gaol the r a t h e r awkward procedure i n v o l v e d i n the " T i c k e t of Leave A c t " was done away w i t h , and the moving of the inmates from the main gaol t o the Fore s t Camp Gaol was f a c i l i t a t e d . A l s o , by the adoption of the name For e s t Camp Gaol i t allowed f o r the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the camp to be c e n t r a l i z e d i n the hands of the C o r r e c t i o n s branch. ."""Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, Copy of a Minute of the Honourable the Executive C o u n c i l of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia, May 19, 1953. - 44 -A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Since the p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camp i n 1951 was the f i r s t t o be experimented w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia, there was no precedent to f o l l o w and so the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the camp was developed as the programme progressed. This l a c k of d e f i n i t i o n i n a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e p o l i c y produced some confusion between the two a u t h o r i t i e s i n v o l v e d . They were the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S e r v i c e O f f i c i a l s of Nelson D i s t r i c t and "the P r o v i n c i a l P r o b a t i o n Branch. The m a j o r i t y of problems, however, were r e s o l v e d by c o n s u l t a t i o n s between the su p e r v i s o r s of each department. The 1952 f o r e s t r y camp had a more c l a r i f i e d form of admin-i s t r a t i o n than i t s predecessor. I n t h i s year the o f f i c i a l s of the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S e r v i c e of the Department of Lands and F o r e s t s and the o f f i c i a l s of the P r o b a t i o n Branch decided t o operate two camps. The Fo r e s t S e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h e d and equipped the oamps. They were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the food s u p p l i e s , t o o l s , v e h i c l e s and housing ( t e n t s ) . A foreman and cook were appointed by the Forest S e r v i c e to each camp and they were under the d i r e c t i o n of the Fo r e s t Rangers of the area. The job of the foreman was to d i r e o t the work p r o j e c t , to ma i n t a i n the equipment and to supervise any a d d i t i o n a l personnel who might be working i n the oamp area. The s u p e r v i s o r of the 1952 camp was the same person as i n the previous year (Mr. R. M, D e i l d a l ) . He was on l o a n from the P r o v i n c i a l P r o b a t i o n Branch and was r e s p o n s i b l e to the Inspector of Gaols. His r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was t o supervise the inmates. F u r t h e r d u t i e s of the Supervisor were those of d i s c i p l i n e , custody, - 45 -programme and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e p l a n n i n g . The f o r e s t r y programme f o r the year 1953 f u n c t i o n e d under the same j o i n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as those camps of the preceding years. There was, however, a more adequate p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h i s year's p r o j e c t which included a few changes i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements. The Attorney-General's department had complete c o n t r o l over the s u p e r v i s i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the camp. Mr, D e l l d a l who was the earap s u p e r v i s o r t h i s year, h e l d the p o s i t i o n of temporary camp warden. The Attorney-General's Department appointed a foreman and cook, as w e l l as a s u p e r v i s o r who was put i n charge of r e c r e a t i o n . The sum of #20,000.00 was secured from the F o r e s t s e r v i c e f o r o p e r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t * The camp warden, through the Kelson F o r e s t D i s t r i c t O f f i c e , assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o c e s s i n g the r e q u i s i t i o n i n g and accounting. The equipment f o r the camp was provided by the F o r e s t Ser-v i c e , and they were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the road l o c a t i o n and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the work p r o j e c t s * As a means of ensuring t h a t s u c h ' s p e c i f i c a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out the F o r e s t S e r v i c e conducted p e r i o d i c i n s p e c t i o n s of the work ana o f f e r e d the camp foreman any needed advice. S e l e c t i o n of Inmates. For the 1951 and 1952 f o r e s t r y programmes inmates for the camps were chosen by the s t a f f of the Young Offenders' U n i t and o f the O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a f f aided i n t h i s process. The c r i t e r i a used f o r s e l e c t i o n of the inmates was f l e x i b l e but i n most cases was as f o l l o w s : 1. Good s e c u r i t y r i s k s , 2. Wo drug a d d i c t s . 1 3. Good h e a l t h - * m e d i c a l l y and d e n t a l l y . 4. I n most instances Inmates s e r v i n g s i x t o seven months (prospective p a r o l e e s ) . 8 I t was found that,the m a j o r i t y of inmates had j u v e n i l e court records* but that they were s e r v i n g t h e i r f i r s t g a o l sen-tence. Nearly a l l were s e r v i n g sentences of a t l e a s t one year* The nature of the offences were auto t h e f t , b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g , t h e f t overytwenty-five d o l l a r s , and c o n t r i b u t i n g to j u v e n i l e delinquency. The candidates f o r the 1953 f o r e s t r y scheme were s e l e c t e d w e l l i n advance. They Included not o n l y the inmates from the Young Offenders 1 U n i t , as In former years, but "also a group o f s i x men from the main g a o l . The d i r e c t o r and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r of Young Offenders' t f n i t , along With the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r of the O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm, c o n s t i t u t e d the s e l e c t i n g team. The standards used f o r Choosing the pr o s p e c t i v e camp inmates was on the same b a s i s as i n the past years* I t was discovered, as before,„that the m a j o r i t y of Inmates had had j u v e n i l e court records and were now s e r v i n g t h e i r f i r s t g a o l term. The p a t t e r n of offences was n e a r l y the same as f o r the preceding two years. iThe a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s I n charge of the B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t p r i s o n camp programme were o f the o p i n i o n t h a t the i n c l u s i o n of drug a d d i c t s i n the programme would c o n s t i t u t e poor s e c u r i t y r i s k s and l e s s chance of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 2 ^Statement by R. M. D e i l d a l , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . - 47 -Type of Inmate. The eamp personnel were provided w i t h s o o i a l h i s t o r i e s On the m a j o r i t y of inmates. Where no s o o i a l h i s t o r i e s were a v a i l a b l e , p e rsonal i n t e r v i e w s were u t i l i z e d as the means of o b t a i n i n g d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . The age range of the p r i s o n e r s d u r i n g the three year opera-t i o n p e r i o d of the camp programme was from f i f t e e n t o twenty-six. The greater number of inmates, however, were i n the eighteen, nineteen and twenty year o l d age group, A l a r g e number Of the Inmates showed v a r y i n g degrees of emotional immaturity. Many of them had primary behaviour d i s o r d e r s r a t h e r than s e r i o u s neuroses or pre-psyohatio behaviour. The average i n t e l l i g e n c e of the inmates was thought to be s l i g h t l y lower than t h a t of the general p o p u l a t i o n . The e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ranged from primary school to one or two years of u n i v e r s i t y , w i t h the average s c h o o l i n g b e i n g about Grade V I I I . 1 Table 1 gives a d e t a i l e d t a b u l a t e d account of the s o c i a l h i s t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n of the twenty inmates i n c l u d e d i n the 1953 camp programme. About two-thirds of the inmates came f rom urfe,an e n v i r o n -ments and the remainder from s m a l l townsin B r i t i s h Columbia and other p r o v i n c e s . Most of the Inmates were found to have come from an u n s u i t a b l e home environment, t h a t i s , broken and inade-quate homes r a t h e r than j u s t m a t e r i a l impoverishment. There were very few inmates who were f i r s t o f f e n d e r s . The bulk of them had been processed through the. Family Court, J u v e n i l e Court, J u v e n i l e Annual Report of the i n s p e c t o r of Gaols f o r the Tear Ended March 31, 1953, V i c t o r i a , 1954, p. 48. - 48 -Detention Home, Boys* I n d u s t r i a l School and a few had even served sentences a t O a k a l l a . Very few p r i s o n e r s had ever worked before, and those who had were discovered t o have had poor work h a b i t s , w i t h frequent changes of employment. The us u a l reason f o r an inmate q u i t t i n g a job was found to he the i n d i v i d u a l ' s I n a b i l i t y to get a l o n g w i t h h i s employer. I t was noted that the m a j o r i t y of inmates had an extremely narrow range of r e c r e a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s * Only a few p r i s o n e r s were i n t e r e s t e d I n hobbies. Movie p i c t u r e s , bowling a l l e y s , p o o l h a l l s and other forms of commercial entertainment were p r e f e r r e d by the inmates. I t was observed that the m a j o r i t y of p r i s o n e r s were not only u n r e s o u r c e f u l as a group but a l s o as i n d i v i d u a l s , and t h i s was b e l i e v e d to be a c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r I n t h e i r delinquency.. * 49 -Table 1. S o o i a l H i s t o r y Information of the Inmates i n the B r i t i s h Columbia P r i s o n F o r e s t r y Camp Programme d u r i n g the year 1953. . . .... AGE GROUP .... ITEM •16-17 •19-20 '21-23 »26-27 'T01BAI Number of Inmates 5 4. 5 20 Schooling Grade VI - 2 - ; •« • 2 Grade V I I 1 1 «• . 2. Grade V I I I 3 2 1 8 Grade IX « mm - 2 1 3 Grade X 2 - 1 - 3 Grade XI * ' i . mm — 1 U n i v e r s i t y mm — •mm ' 1 ' 1 I n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y Boys* I n d u s t r i a l 'School 2 2 2 1 <*> 7 P r o b a t i o n 1 1 2 mm- - 4 J u v e n i l e Court X •' 1' mm 2 Previous C o n v i c t i o n s a t Oak a l l a P r i s o n Farm 1 2 - 1 1 — 5 Length of Sentence 9 months 1 - ' mm ** mm 1 12 months 4 3 2 3 2 14 15 months - 2 ' 2 18 months - 1 1 2 24 months . — mm 1 • - • - 1 Offence Breaking* E n t e r i n g and S t e a l i n g •2 mjm 2 - I - ••-5 Auto Theft 3 1 3 - 11 Possession of L i q u o r ; — 1 mm 1 R e t a i n i n g s t o l e n Goods m) ; 1 .mm. - . 1 Theft over $25.00 ; i 1 - 3 Theft under #25.00 *# . 1 . f-Property damage over #20.0< •im> 1 - ' :.i A s s a u l t i n t e n d i n g to rob mm I I Indecent a s s a u l t (female) ••» - - 1 - i C o n t r i b u t i n g to j u v e n i l e Delinquency *»• — .4* 1 ' i - 50 -Personnel. The 1951 B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t r y camp programme was impeded I n i t s o p e r a t i o n by the type of s t a f f and by the newness of the s i t u a t i o n . A l l the s t a f f , i n c l u d i n g the camp sen i o r o f f i c e r , R. M. D e i l d a l , were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h a p r i s o n camp programme at the beginning of t h e i r f i r s t year. The camp foreman and Cook who were both s u p p l i e d by the Fo r e s t s e r v i c e had had no previous experience at a l l i n d e a l i n g w i t h p r i s o n e r s . The s t a f f problem d i d not improve much i n 1952, Personnel appointed by the For e s t S e r v i c e proved t o be f a r from s a t i s f a c t o r y . The foreman i n charge of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Camp No. 1 was the same man who had been foreman the previous year. Although experienced i n managing f o r e s t oamps, he was u n s u i t a b l e i n a camp of t h i s type* He was unable to understand o r apply the s o c i a l work method w i t h the p r i s o n e r s and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the supervisor was u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y . The foreman i n charge Of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Gamp No, I I a l s o had l i t t l e understanding of the inmates and, f i n d i n g the job not to h i s l i k i n g worked only a short w h i l e . The supervisors f o r these two camps were recent graduates of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, One was a Bachelor of A r t s and the other was a theology student. They had been given temporary appointment to the c o r r e c t i o n s branch f o r the camp p e r i o d and were under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f R, M. D e i l d a l , who was again Senior Camp O f f i c e r , Both men, although able to get along w i t h the Inmates, were inexperienced I n ha n d l i n g p r i s o n e r s and i n running t h i s type of programme. As a r e s u l t they had some d i f f i c u l t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e . 5 1 Furthermore, during t h i s year, there was considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n se c u r i n g good camp cooks. I n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Camp No. I I alone there was a succession of f o u r cooks. The m a j o r i t y Of these employees were found to be e i t h e r i n e f f i c i e n t , u n s a n i -t a r y , o r ref u s e d to conform to camp r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , and so had to be discharged. E v e n t u a l l y , i n Camp No, I I the inmates ended up by doing t h e i r own coOking. This l e d to waste and I n e f f i c i e n t o r d e r i n g of supplies- w i t h r e s u l t i n g high c o s t s . A f t e r the dis c o u r a g i n g experiences w i t h the c a l i b r e of the employees d u r i n g these two years, planning f o r the 1953 prog-ramme emphasized the earefu.1 s e l e c t i o n of personnel. T h i s year Mr. R.M, D e i l d a l was given the temporary appointment of warden, and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of h i r i n g a l l the s t a f f f o r the f o r e s t r y programme was e n t i r e l y Incumbent upon the c o r r e c t i o n s branch. The foreman employed t h i s year was a very competent person.' As w e l l as having had extensive experience i n the woods, he had good c o n t r o l of the inmates* H i s manner w i t h them was acceptable and he i n s t i n c t i v e l y d i d the r i g h t t h i n g I n h a n d l i n g s i t u a t i o n s . The cook t h i s year again had no knowledge of d e a l i n g w i t h inmates, but h i s work was s a t i s f a c t o r y . They kept him i s o l a t e d from the inmates and any complaints p e r t a i n i n g to h i s work were made t o one of the personnel, not d i r e c t l y to him. Included on the camp personnel t h i s year was a su p e r v i s o r who was on l o a n from Young O f f e n d e r s 1 U n i t . He not only had experience i n d e a l i n g w i t h delinquent boys but a l s o had been working on the 3:00 p.m. t o 11:00 p.m. s o c i a l i z a t i o n programme a t - 52 the Young Offenders' U n i t . He had Knowledge of group a c t i v i t i e s and experience i n o r g a n i z i n g v a r i o u s events and games which he Ca r r i e d out w i t h competence. Nature of Work Fro .1 e c t s * The c h i e f work p r o j e c t of the camp programme f o r 1951 was the b u i l d i n g of an ei g h t m i l e road from the camp s i t e to F i s h Greek. The p r i s o n e r s c l e a r e d the f o r e s t t o produce a right-of-way f o r the road and then helped as "swampers" On the t r u c k s and as g r a v e l spreaders when the a c t u a l road b u i l d i n g began. For t h i s work the F o r e s t S e r v i c e sent i n b u l l d o z e r s and other road b u i l d i n g equipment. During the month of August of the same year the Inmates were engaged i n f i r e - f i g h t i n g . FOr the f i r s t e i g h t hours of f i r e -f i g h t i n g they r e c e i v e d t h e i r r e g u l a r wages* For any a d d i t i o n a l hours they obtained f i r e - f i g h t i n g pay at the r a t e of s e v e n t y - f i v e cents per hour. 1 The form of work of both camps i n 1952 was much the same as i n 1951. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Camp No• I continued on w i t h the main p r o j e c t s t a r t e d the previous year*; R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Camp No* I I c l e a r e d a d d i t i o n a l t r e e s and d i d other r o a d - b u i l d i n g work as t h e i r main p r o j e c t . Both camps were termed f i r e suppression eamps, as i n the pre v i o u s year, and inmates b u i l t f i r e t r a i l s and were prepared f o r f i r e - f i g h t i n g . I n 1953 the camp work programme was p r i m a r i l y the c l e a r i n g ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Attorney-General, "Annual Report o f the Inspector of Gaols" f o r the Year Inded March 31, 1952, V i c t o r i a , 1953,pp. 22-23. - 53 -of the right-of-way f o r the f o r e s t access road along the K e t t l e River.. The. inmates were subject t o f i r e * f i g h t i n g d u t i e s and were recognized as a f i r e suppression group but t h e i r s e r v i c e s were not needed as i t was a wet summer* During t h i s summer the work p r o j e c t was b e t t e r organized by F o r e s t s e r v i c e Personnel than i n past years. Emphasis was pl a c e d on keeping the inmates busy on the b a s i s of a f o r t y - f o u r hour week. The camp foreman was given s u p e r v i s i o n and on d i f f e r e n t occasions the inmate crew was d i v i d e d i n t o three groups w i t h the sup e r v i s o r s h e l p i n g the foreman as "strawbosses"• 1  Operation of Camp Programme* 1. Camp r o u t i n e : The average working day f o r each inmate was one of r o u t i n i s m . The inmates, were wakened at 6:45 a,m* by the camp "f l u n k e y " and br e a k f a s t was served a t .7:30 a.m. Before r e p o r t i n g f o r work each Inmate was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making h i s own bed and f o r h e l p i n g c l e a n up the te n t s and t e n t area. The work p e r i o d i n the morning was from 8:00 a.m. u n t i l twelve o'clock* During the work p e r i o d one or two breaks f o r smoke pe r i o d s were allowed, since due to the f i r e hazard I n the bush, the i i m a t e s were p r o h i b i t e d from smoking on the job. The after n o o n work p e r i o d continued from 1:00 p.m.'until 4:30 p,m* w i t h appropriate smoke p e r i o d s * Supper was served at 5:30 p*m. The inmates oooupied t h e i r evenings by e i t h e r r e s t i n g , reading books obtained from the camp l i b r a r y , f r i e n d l y d i s c o u r s e , o r engaging i n the ^Annual Report of the i n s p e c t o r of Gaols f o r the Year Ended March 31, 1954, V i c t o r i a , 1955, p. 50. - 54 d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e a t the camp. I n a d d i t i o n , the s u p e r v i s o r s time was a v a i l a b l e during the evening to the inmates f o r c o u n s e l l i n g and d i s c u s s i o n of d i f f e r e n t problems. The commissary was opened s e v e r a l times a week a f t e r supper and the inmates could buy tobacco, candy, s o f t d r i n k s e t c . The p r i c e of the purchases was deducted from the inmates* de f e r r e d earnings. The day terminated a t 10:30 p.m. w i t h a l l l i g h t s out i n the s l e e p i n g t e n t s . There was, however, no regu-l a t e d time f o r l i g h t s out on a day p r i o r to a non-work day. 2, P h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s : The f a c i l i t i e s of the 1951 B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t r y p r o j e e t were somewhat inadequate. During the next two years of the programme, however, they improved somewhat. The f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t e n t d u r i n g the 1953 programme can be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s ! (1) medical and d e n t a l s e r v i c e s , (2) c l o t h -i n g , (3) camp commissary, and (4) miscellaneous camp equipment. Each inmate, before coming to camp, was given a thorough medical and d e n t a l examination. Inmates who were i n need of d e n t a l treatment r e c e i v e d i t before l e a v i n g O a k a l l a . I n Order to be p r a c t i c a l and to a v o i d m a l i n g e r i n g the inmate group were t o l d t h a t there was no means of l o o k i n g a f t e r s i c k people i n camp. I t was e x p l a i n e d t o the group t h a t anybody w i t h an i l l n e s s of more than two or three days d u r a t i o n would have to be t r a n s f e r r e d back to the main g a o l . It happened, however, t h a t such a c t i o n s were not necessary, and no time was l o s t through i l l n e s s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , s e v e r a l inmates had to be escorted to Vernon f o r emergency t r e a t -ment. A l s o , due t o a number of a c c i d e n t s , mostly axe c u t s , a few - 55 -inmates had to be taken to a doctor at Vernon. The crewmen were re s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own d e n t a l b i l l s , but the medical b i l l s were sent In to the c o r r e c t i o n s branch and Workmen's Compensation forms were submitted. Before l e a v i n g g a o l , each inmate was o u t f i t t e d w i t h a complete set of work c l o t h e s , the c o s t of which came to s i x t y - f i v e d o l l a r s . T h i s was deducted from the inmate's earnings. The i s s u e of c l o t h e s c o n s i s t e d of boots, running shoes, socks, pants, s h i r t s , and gloves, whieh the inmates were allowed to keep a f t e r discharge, A commissary was set up as p a r t of the programme f o r the inmates. The d i f f e r e n t a r t i c l e s whieh were s o l d were purchased by the s e n i o r o f f i c e r of the camp a t the wholesale p r i c e and s o l d to the inmates a t the r e t a i l p r i c e . The p r o f i t s made from t h i s procedure were used to buy r e c r e a t i o n a l equipment f o r the camp, as w e l l as v a r i o u s p r i z e s f o r d i f f e r e n t contests such as f i s h i n g whieh were h e l d throughout the summer* A l i m i t o f two d o l l a r s was set on the amount of commissary purchase th a t each inmate could make per week* The inmates were d i v i d e d i n t o groups of f o u r * and each group was a l l o t t e d a t e n t as t h e i r s l e e p i n g quarters* The camp's seni o r o f f i c e r had h i s own s l e e p i n g t e n t and i t a l s o served as an o f f i c e * S i m i l a r l y * the camp sup e r v i s o r and foreman each had t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s l e e p i n g t e n t s i n which they a l s o used to store such equipment as sawsj hammers* and f i r s t a i d equipment* Bach bunk tent was equipped w i t h a s m a l l stove, army s t y l e c o t s and bed c l o t h e s * Two t e n t s set end to end served as a k i t c h e n and mess h a l l * The d i n i n g t e n t contained an e a t i n g t a b l e * a hot water - 56 -storage drum and a s i n k . I n a d d i t i o n , a c o a l o i l r e f r i g e r a t o r was a v a l u a b l e pieoe of oamp equipment. Other general p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s which the oamp possessed was a h a l f - t o n pick-up t r u c k provided by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e * The v e h i c l e was quite o l d and on d i f f e r e n t occasions proved to be very u n r e l i a b l e * Nevertheless, i t served as a means of t r a n s p o r t i n g both merchandise and inmates to and from town, 3* D i s c i p l i n e : I t was found t h a t when the inmates were kept busy at work t h e i r o v e r a l l behaviour was a t i t s b e s t , and a t t b i s time they a l s o appeared t o be the happiest* The oamp programme was w e l l equipped w i t h r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s * Some o f them i n c l u d e d : 1. D e p r i v a t i o n o f p r i v i l e g e s * Minor misdemeanors were d e a l t w i t h by t h i s type Of d i s c i p l i n a r y measure, FOr i n s t a n c e , an inmate might have h i s commissary p r i v i l e g e s revoked due t o misbehaviour. He would be p r o h i b i t e d from making purchases f o r a few days, the p e r i o d of time contingent upon the nature of the o f f e n c e . 2. Assignment of unpleasant work d e t a i l . There were numerous jobs around the camp that had to be done and yet were arduous and disagreeable labour. Some of these i n c l u d e d c u t t i n g e x t r a s u p p l i e s of wood, emptying garbage and general camp maintenance* 3. D i s c i p l i n e r e l a t e d t o the damage done i n the course of misbe-haviour. I t was Observed t o be a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of some of the Inmates t o be Very c a r e l e s s w i t h the camp t o o l s and equipment. The inmate who wantonly damaged property was r e q u i r e d to e i t h e r r e p a i r i t o r pay f o r the damage Out of h i s deferred earnings. 4. R e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Inmates found g u i l t y of misdemeanors of a - 57 -more s e r i o u s nature, e.g., p e r s i s t e n t m a l i n g e r i n g , i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n , were t r a n s f e r r e d back to the main gaol.-*-Extra-work A c t i v i t i e s . The camp a c t i v i t i e s , apart from those of the work prog-ramme, possessed no organized form f o r e i t h e r the 1951 or 1952 oamp p r o j e c t s . The inmates were provided the means to make t h e i r own r e c r e a t i o n and entertainment, though on o c c a s i o n they were taken as a group t o the nearby town to see a moving p i c t u r e . The camps were s i t u a t e d i n a s e t t i n g that a f f o r d e d good o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r h i k i n g , e x p l o r i n g and f i s h i n g , but the more passive type of entertainment seemed to be p r e f e r r e d by the i n -mates. I t was found that most of the inmates would r a t h e r spend t h e i r time i n conversation w i t h other inmates, or t o read pocket-s i z e d books which were sent to the camp by the O a k a l l a P r i s o n L i b r a r i a n . The 1953 f o r e s t r y camp extra-work a c t i v i t i e s were not only b e t t e r organized than i n 1951 and 1952, but i n a d d i t i o n had a s t a f f person r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the management of them. This person had had previous experience i n d i r e c t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes. He encouraged the inmates to organize tournaments and sport days and p r i z e s were provided. The inmates organized t h e i r own s o f t b a l l team and competed aga i n s t the neighbouring towns of O h e r r y v i l l e and Edgewood, A number of games were purchased such as checkers, monopoly, chess, e t c , A p i n g pong t a b l e and a p o o l t a b l e which were set Up Statement by R.M. D e i l d a l , personal interview. - 58 -i n s i d e a l a r g e t e n t were popular items among the inmates, i n s t e a d of t a k i n g the camp group i n t o town to see movies as was done i n the past years, a p r o j e c t o r machine and screen were borrowed t h i s year from the F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e and f e a t u r e l e n g t h f i l m s were rented and shown t o the Inmates i n Gamp, The Fo r e s t S e r v i c e Department s u p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n a l f i l m s of t h e i r own as w e l l . Philosophy of Camp Prolamines. The philosophy of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r i s o n F o r e s t r y Camp Programme i s not u n l i k e those o f the programmes discussed i n Chapter IX. The w r i t e r has found t h a t the philosophy, s e l e c t i o n of Inmates and camp r o u t i n e of a l l f o u r p r i s o n f o r e s t r y programmes inc l u d e d i n Chapter I I of t h i s study, and of the B r i t i s h Columbia programme are r e l a t i v e l y speaking the same* I t has been observed, through the v a r i o u s research m a t e r i a l used i n t h i s study t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s I n these three components were i n the nature of degree, not form* Therefore I t i s probable t h a t the aspects of the p a r t i c -u l a r programme where documentary m a t e r i a l was not a v a i l a b l e would a l s o be s i m i l a r to the corresponding subject where i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t of f e a t u r e s are those r e l e v a n t to the philosophy of the B r i t i s h Columbia programme: (%) removes the I n d i -v i d u a l from the c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e of an overcrowded p r i s o n ; (2) a f f o r d s an Opportunity f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s t a f f to give I n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n to the inmates; (3) p r o v i d e s group work values? and (4) means of reducing government expenditure i n the •treatment of o f f e n d e r s . S o o l a l Work I m p l i c a t i o n s , P l a n s f o r the Gare and welfare of the p r i s o n e r s were designed to help them adjust from p r i s o n t o c i v i l i a n l i f e by p r o v i d i n g work o p p o r t u n i t i e s under h e a l t h f u l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t were not u n l i k e the c o n d i t i o n s they would have t o face when r e l e a s e d from custody. A l s o , being p a i d a wage of #3.00 per day f o r t h e i r work, inmates were able to aocummulate funds to help t i d e them over the immediate p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e i r r e - e n t r y i n t o a f r e e s o c i e t y . T r a i n i n g f o r the development of good work h a b i t s was one of the main r e h a b i l i t a t i v e f a c t o r s of these camps, Offenders who had never r e a l l y worked before were helped to- g a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n from a work s i t u a t i o n . The labour was made as i n t e r e s t i n g as p o s s i b l e , . Remuneration f o r work performed took the form of compliments to the inmates, encouragement, r e c o g n i t i o n , g r a n t i n g of c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s as w e l l as the d a i l y wage. L i m i t s were set on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s behaviour, and i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t since most of the p r i s o n e r s were immature tiiey would want to t e s t the p a t t e r n * C o n t r o l and punishment were used as s o c i a l work t o o l s . The i m p o s i t i o n of p e n a l t i e s f o r the I n f r a c t i o n of camp r u l e s was done on a b a s i s t h a t was as f i r m , f a i r , c o n s i s t e n t and Impersonal as p o s s i b l e . P r i v i l e g e s served as e x t r a means of c o n t r o l and emphasis was placed on the earning of p r i v i l e g e s . Statement by R.M* D e i l d a l , . p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w * - 60 -One of the main s o c i a l work aspects of the programme was the case work c o u n s e l l i n g . s e r v i c e s which were a v a i l a b l e to the Inmates. Some inmates needed help w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l problems and understanding of the u n d e r l y i n g causes of t h e i r delinquency, which i n t u r n would help them a d j u s t b e t t e r to s o c i e t y on t h e i r r e l e a s e , A second type of case work s e r v i c e was t h a t i n which the Supervisors helped the inmates i n r e l a t i n g to t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t a l a r g e p a r t of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g p r i s o n e r s comes from t h e i r response t o those whom they care most about. During an In t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , Mr, H.M, D e i l d a l , who was the Senior O f f l e e r i n charge of the p r i s o n camps from 1951 to 1953, i l l u s t r a t e d how these c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s were c a r r i e d out w i t h the f o l l o w i n g ease. I t was taken from the 1953 programme and i t deviated somewhat from the normal, The inmate i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r oase came from a home e n v i r -onment which was very inadequate. The f a t h e r was an extremely a u t o o r a t i o person, and the mother a very submissive person. The boy had been beaten many times by h i s f a t h e r , o f t e n without know-i n g the reason f o r i t . Because of t h i s k i n d of f a m i l y s e t t i n g and the i n c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e imposed upon the boy as a young-s t e r , he developed a negative a t t i t u d e toward a u t h o r i t y * Con-ce r n i n g such behaviour p a t t e r n s F r i e d l a n d e r has noted t h a t f a m i l y backgrounds s i m i l a r to t h i s boy's are o f t e n the cause of t h i s type of r e a c t i o n , 1 The boy's a t t i t u d e e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o h i s i n c a r c e r a -t i o n , and i t c a r r i e d over from the g a o l , where he served p a r t of i r i i M i .ii 'I III in " I il! n m . i i i r ) i], II • 1 . i r m . i . i . i i . . . ,i ' n i l i ' y i n i V ii i , • n i I'I nil if. y 1.i T ,II-nia 'i.i n i l r in i - i 'nn in irn i • • 11 i •. i f , .ir i - i ^ F r i e d l a n d e r , Kate j " P s y c h o - A n a l y t i c a l Approach to J u v e n i l e Delinquency", Routledge and Kegan P a u l L t d , , 1949, p. 253, * 61 -M s sentence, t o the p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camp. When the hoy f i r s t a r r i v e d a t the camp, he p r o j e c t e d h i s h o s t i l i t y toward a u t h o r i t y a t anyone * He would p r o t e s t e i t h e r by v e r b a l abuse or more o f t e n by the breaking of something such as an axe or a sh o v e l . S i s behaviour f o l l o w e d the p a t t e r n of v i o l a t i n g a camp r u l e and then w a i t i n g f o r what he thought was the i n e v i t a b l e punishment and r e j e c t i o n . This b e h a v i o u r a l r e a c t i o n was noted by the s e n i o r camp O f f i c e r , He was f a m i l i a r w i t h the boy's s o c i a l h i s t o r y and f e l t t h a t the boy was i n need of s p e c i a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s t o help him w i t h t h i s emotional problem. During the course of case work c o u n s e l l i n g , f o l l o w i n g an emotional "blow-up" on the p a r t of the Inmate, the s e n i o r o f f i c e r t r i e d to r e l a t e to the boy why he "blew*up"* He attempted to convey t o the boy t h a t h i s behaviour was unacceptable, but t h a t he himself as a person was acceptable. A f t e r a number of i n t e r v i e w s the sen i o r o f f i c e r was e v e n t u a l l y able to help the boy ga i n i n s i g h t i n t o why he had these emotional o u t b u r s t s . The boy was helped to understand t h a t the source of h i s problem stemmed from h i s home environment. G r a d u a l l y the boy's behaviour became more s o c i a l l y acceptable. The r o l e of the sen i o r o f f i c e r seemed t o change from one of c o u n s e l l o r to t h a t of an a c c e p t i n g f a t h e r . I n the o p i n i o n of the s e n i o r o f f i c e r i t appeared to be the only time the boy had had a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a person i n a u t h o r i t y who didn't r e j e c t him, but accepted him f o r h i m s e l f . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the sup e r v i s o r s a t the camps were not always adequately t r a i n e d f o r e x t e n s i v e casework, and the se n i o r camp o f f i c e r , although a t r a i n e d s o c i a l worker > was kept too busy - 62 -w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work t o spend much time a t case work coun-s e l l i n g , n e v e r t h e l e s s , through o b s e r v a t i o n of the inmates a t work and play,, the personnel became f a m i l i a r w i t h each i n d i v i d u a l . An e v a l u a t i o n was made of the person's work as w e l l as h i s h a b i t s , and p r e p a r a t i o n was made f o r the inmate's eventual r e l e a s e . The e f f o r t s to pl a c e inmates i n s u i t a b l e jobs was very s u c c e s s f u l i n 1951 and 1952 due to the co-operation of the S p e o i a l Placement S e o t i o n of the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , the B. G, For e s t S e r v i c e , and the P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r s , U n f o r t u n a t e l y , they met w i t h l e s s success i n 1953 and only h a l f the inmates had found employment upon t h e i r r e l e a s e . The r e s t were r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , Chapter IV B e n e f i t s and D i f f i c u l t i e s , i O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the Group Work Method. The group work process was used hy the personnel a t the B r i t i s h Columbia P r i s o n F o r e s t r y Camps but i t i s probably impossible t, i , to assess the f u l l consequences of t h e i r programme. I f an inmate:*s s o c i a l behaviour improved a f t e r h i s r e l e a s e , i t would be very d i f f i c u l t to prove whether t h i s was because of the camp programme, / / or i n s p i t e of i t . However, the values t h a t can be a t t r i b u t e d to any good group work programme should apply i n t h i s s e t t i n g too. Two c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s i n the theory and p r a c t i c e of group work a r e , (1) the core of the maturation process i s t h a t the matur-i n g of an i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s from h i s contact w i t h Other people, and (2) mOst people mature and develop as a r e s u l t of problem s o l v -i n g . When people l i v e together on a group b a s i s , as they d i d i n the p r i s o n camp, v a r i o u s problems i n e v i t a b l y a r i s e from the shar-i n g of food and f a c i l i t i e s , and because of the s t r u g g l e f o r l e a d e r -ship w i t h i n the group. I n a group work programme the people are recognized as i n d i v i d u a l s , but are t r e a t e d as members of a group, and problems are d e a l t w i t h on a group b a s i s . Group work lea d e r s should never f e e l t h a t the group members are "too d i s t u r b e d " t o p a r t i c i p a t e I n , or b e n e f i t from, a group work programme. Group work, when p r a c t i s e d c o r r e c t l y , i s a f l e x i b l e Trecker d e f i n e s the group work method as "one way of g i v i n g s e r v i c e or help to i n d i v i d u a l s and to some degree s o c i a l group work I s used In a l l s o c i a l p r a c t i c e . P r i m a r i l y , i t i s a s p e c i a l i z e d method of p r o v i d i n g growth o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and groups I n the f u n c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s Of s o c i a l work, r e c r e a t i o n and education". Trecker, H a r l e i g h B., " S o c i a l Group Work", s o c i a l Work Year Book, New York & American A s s o c i a t i o n of s o c i a l Workers, 1947, pp. 484-485. - 64 -method of h e l p i n g groups t o r e s o l v e t h e i r problems. E f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i s e s p e c i a l l y important i n a c u s t o d i a l s e t t i n g because most inmates would d r i f t a i m l e s s l y i f l e f t to t h e i r own d e v i c e s . I l l u s t r a t i o n s f o l l o w of how group work method was used as one aspect of the treatment p l a n i n the camp programme. There were f o u r inmates to eaoh t e n t and the inmates were allowed to choose t h e i r own companions f o r the t e n t s . By 7:30 a.m. the t e n t s had to be swept out and the t e n t area cleaned* Eaoh tent was r e q u i r e d to work out i t s own system f o r g e t t i n g the work done. I f I t was not done, the group was p e n a l i z e d g e n e r a l l y by d e p r i v a t i o n of commissary p r i v i l e g e s . Each day, one of the f i v e t e n t groups was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c l e a n i n g the r e c r e a t i o n t e n t , l a v a t o r i e s and o v e r a l l camp s i t e and f o r f i l l i n g the wood box. Groups were scored f o r good work, and the crew which d i d the best job was rewarded, perhaps by a s p e c i a l o u t i n g t o get a l o a d of wood or by g i v i n g eaoh man an e x t r a package of tobacco. The inmates p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed b a l l games as r e o r e a t i o n and i n 1953 the r e c r e a t i o n o f f i c e r encouraged them to form a committee the b e t t e r t o organize the games. The committee t h a t was formed had a chairman and a s e c r e t a r y who kept minutes of the meeting. Each of the f i v e t e n t s sent one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and e i t h e r the r e c r e a t i o n a l o f f i c e r or the s e n i o r camp o f f i c e r were i n v i t e d t o attend the meetings. The Inmates welcomed t h e i r presence not only f o r t h e i r guidance but a l s o f o r s p e c i a l favours t h a t they might grant* jing-pong, p o o l and bridge tournaments as w e l l as a f i s h i n g derby were organized by t h i s Inmate committee. Suggestions p e r t a i n i n g t o aspects of camp r o u t i n e and the work programme were «* 65 -a l s o Drought up at t h e i r meetings- For example, when a r a i n y s p e l l decreased the danger of f o r e s t f i r e s , the inmates suggested th a t f a o t o r y made o i g a r e t t e s , which were not u s u a l l y allowed i n oamp, be given as p r i z e s f o r the tournaments i n s t e a d of o r d i n a r y 1 tobacco. When the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r e c r e a t i o n t e n t was planned as a group p r o j e c t d u r i n g the inmates* time o f f from work, the Inmate committee a l l o c a t e d the jobs. The r e c r e a t i o n o f f i c e r helped them to p l a n the work. U n f o r t u n a t e l y the inmates only worked f o r a short time before they l o s t I n t e r e s t , When some of the a l l o c a t e d jobs were l e f t incompleted, the s e n i o r camp sup e r v i s o r had t o step i n and order the c o n s t r u c t i o n to be f i n i s h e d . When the b u i l d i n g was completed, the inmates r e a l l y appreciated I t and f e l t t h e i r e f f o r t s had been worthwhile. Thus, the personnel had to be car e -f u l to grant o n l y as many democratic p r i v i l e g e s as the Inmates were capable of responding t o . Besides being placed In groups a t the camp the inmates were grouped while working. The group was used as a medium t o help the i n d i v i d u a l who was f i n d i n g i t d i f f i c u l t to a d j u s t t o a group e n v i r -onment. For example, a person i n t h i s category might be plaoed I n connection w i t h t h i s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that Dorothea F. S u l l i v a n , i n "Group Work i n an I n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g " , Group Work Horizons, S e l e c t e d papers f o r the year 1044, American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Study of Group Work, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New York, p. 72, describes the importance of a l l o w i n g groups t o make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s on v a r i o u s i s s u e s such as determining the hours f o r s l e e p i n g and e a t i n g , use of equipment and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . C l e a r l y i m p l i c i t I n the a r t i c l e i s t h a t groups should be given as many o p p o r t u n i t i e s as p o s s i b l e t o p l a n and p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s , which would a f f o r d both the i n d i v i d u a l and the group w i t h chances f o r growth,. - 66 -w i t h a group of inmates who were known to work w e l l together. I t was found i n most instances t h a t the group proved to he of some c o n s t r u c t i v e value f o r t h i s type of inmate* S i m i l a r l y , groups which were "believed by the camp personnel t o be u n d e s i r a b l e , were broken up, whether the Inmates were working together or l i v i n g together. I t was hoped th a t by adopting such a procedure, each group would have a t l e a s t been given the ohance to f u l f i l l some p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n f o r I t s p a r t i c i p a n t s * The type of work t h a t the inmates d i d r e q u i r e d them to l e a r n co-operation and to be interdependent, l o o k i n g out not o n l y f o r t h e i r oxvn s a f e t y but f o r t h a t of the others too* When c l e a r i n g the f o r e s t the inmates l i k e d to f e l l the t r e e s but d i d not l i k e to c l e a r up the d e b r i s * The groups were encouraged to work out t h e i r own arrangement f o r t h i s chore* When good progress was made the group was p r a i s e d and given t a n g i b l e rewards* They might perhaps be allowed to break o f f e a r l y , and go swimming f o r i n s t a n c e . On the other hand when work was poor, they might be deprived of s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s * F i r e - f i g h t i n g o f f e r e d a ohance f o r good group work. The element of danger made the work i n t e r e s t i n g and the inmates took p r i d e i n combating the f i r e s * They were a l s o made more aware of t h e i r place i n the community. This type of work demands a great d e a l of co-operation. The food bad to be c a r r i e d and, f o r the f i r s t few days, there was u s u a l l y a shortage. The inmates had to l e a r n to share and t o take t u r n s cooking and c o l l e c t i n g water. The personnel t r i e d t o f o s t e r a competitive s p i r i t w i t h o u t s i d e f i r e * f i g h t l n g groups* This r e s u l t e d i n c l o s e r co-operation w i t h i n - 67 -the group. The f o r e s t rangers as w e l l as the camp su p e r v i s o r s p r a i s e d them f o r work w e l l done* Impediments. During the three years of o p e r a t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t r y camps many o b s t a c l e s were encountered, fhe f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t e s t o the drawbacks of the scheme i n each success-i v e year as observed by those persons most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r o j e o t * 1* 1951 Programme: Because the camp was formed r a t h e r h u r r i e d l y there was l a c k of p l a n n i n g and a number of problems arose t h a t had not been a n t i c i p a t e d beforehand. The personnel were a t a d i s a d -vantage because they were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h such a scheme and because those h i r e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e were u n f a m i l i a r even w i t h the h a n d l i n g of p r i s o n e r s . A l i n e of author-i t y was worked out but c o n t r o l s were i n o o n s i s t e n t and not r e a d i l y enforced. The dual a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the c o r r e c t i o n s branch and the B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e proved to be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . No c l e a r l i n e of a u t h o r i t y was a r t i c u l a t e d nor were r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d e f i n i t e l y delegated t o each department. There were basio d i f f e r -ences i n the a t t i t u d e s and purposes of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the two departments a t camp l e v e l . The F o r e s t S e r v i c e personnel were, understandably enough* more i n t e r e s t e d i n s e c u r i n g a c e r t a i n amount Of work from the inmates r a t h e r than with the r e h a b i l a t o r y goals. Another d i s t u r b i n g f a c t o r was t h a t the f i n a n c e s were com-p l e t e l y i n the hands of the F o r e s t r y Department. The Inmates were p a i d by cheque $3.00 a day, of which they were allowed to spend - 68 * f i f t y cents per day, and the sup e r v i s o r of the camp had no c o n t r o l over i t . As a r e s u l t the inmates were able to pay o u t s i d e r s to h r i n g contraband Into the oamp. On one occasion, a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of beer was smuggled i n * The camp o f f i c e r was l u r e d away on a pretense and on h i s r e t u r n he found h a l f the camp i n t o x i c a t e d . An a d d i t i o n a l negative i n f l u e n o e on camp d i s c i p l i n e was the i n v a s i o n of the oamp by out s i d e F o r e s t S e r v i c e employees on v a r i o u s occasions. One time the camp was Used as a " s t a g i n g r o u t e " while f i g h t i n g a f i r e near the oamp s i t e and f o r e s t rangers kept coming In and out of the camp. Other times some of t h e i r personnel were sent i n to do s p e c i a l jobs and l i v e d w i t h the Inmates* These people, as w e l l as the d r i v e r s of the r o a d - b u i l d i n g equipment, d i d not come under the a u t h o r i t y of the su p e r v i s o r and f e l t they were not subject to the r u l e s of the camp. T h e i r conduct i n t e r f e r r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h the d i s c i p l i n e and morale of the inmates. The s u p e r v i s o r was handicapped In other ways. He d i d not re c e i v e enough guidance o r d i r e c t i o n from higher a u t h o r i t i e s of h i s branch, p o s s i b l y because of the r e l a t i v e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the camp to headquarters. The camp was a l s o u n d e r s t a f f e d . There were only three s t a f f members--the s u p e r v i s o r , the foreman and the cook. As a r e s u l t , the sup e r v i s o r was f o r c e d to be on duty twenty-f o u r hours a day seven days a week f o r the e n t i r e three and a h a l f month p e r i o d that the programme was i n o p e r a t i o n . Such oonstant pressure on one man was c e r t a i n l y U n desirable. The foreman and cook took the o c c a s i o n a l week-end o f f but were subject to r e c a l l . The foreman was sometimes r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r i s o n e r s * custody a f t e r hours and the cook had to have Inmate helpers to a s s i s t him. This l a t t e r measure was unsatisfactory"because of the tendency f o r these inmates to s t e a l s u p p l i e s . The r e l e a s e Of the p r i s o n e r s under the T i c k e t of Leave Act turned out to he one of the main impediments to the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of the 1951 p r o j e c t . The p r i s o n e r s f e l t t h a t they were out on a form of p a r o l e * This had an adverse p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t on them f o r * i f they v i o l a t e d the s t i p u l a t i o n s of t h e i r t i c k e t , 0they l o s t both th© time spent a t camp and t h e i r good conduct time. A l s o , there was no allowance f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g inmates who became i l l back to the gaol without r e v o c a t i o n o f t h e i r t i c k e t . When i t was necessary to t r a n s f e r a p r i s o n e r , considerable d i f f i c u l t y was encountered because the R.C.M.P.. were h e s i t a n t i n a c c e p t i n g the a u t h o r i t y of the camp sup e r v i s o r on such matters* 1952 Programme: Although the programme was b e t t e r prepared i n some r e s p e c t s i n 1952, many of the o b s t a c l e s of the previous year were encountered again.. P r i s o n e r s were s t i l l r e l e a s e d under the T i c k e t of Leave Act and a u t h o r i t y waa s t i l l d i v i d e d between the two departments* However, F o r e s t S e r v i c e personnel t h i s year d e f i n i t e l y recognized the supervisor as being i n charge of oamp d i s c i p l i n e . M e d i c a l and d e n t a l care f o r the inmates remained a problem. Much d e n t a l work had to be done and the t r i p s to town became a nuisance because of the distance t h a t had to be t r a v e l l e d and the Inadequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . Moreover, time was l o s t from the work programme whenever p r i s o n e r s had to go f o r medical or d e n t a l care. There was some ma l i n g e r i n g but a c e r t a i n number o f accid e n t s must be expected where inexperienced persons are engaged * 70 ~ i n t h i s k i n d of work. However, there would have been l e s s time l o s t I f a more c a r e f u l examination was given t o the p r i s o n e r s before they were sent to the camp and i f a doctor had been more r e a d i l y a v a i l -a b l e , The 1952 work programme n e c e s s i t a t e d the use of heavy machin-ery which o f t e n broke down. Consequently, the work programme was co n s t a n t l y b e i n g d i s r u p t e d . This was bad f o r the inmates 1 morale f o r they seemed t o , l i k e r o u t i n e as they then knew what was expected of them, 1 Furthermore, s t a r t i n g a job and f i n i s h i n g i t gave them a sense of accomplishment. There was again, '30a 1952, considerable d i f f i c u l t y w i t h incompetent personnel, e s p e c i a l l y cooks* Although the s u p e r v i s o r s of the two camps were u n i v e r s i t y graduates and had Some t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge of how to handle the men, they were t o t a l l y inexperienced i n t h i s type of work. Because of the dis t a n c e between the two camps i t was not easy f o r the sen i o r s u p e r v i s o r t o give guidance and a s s i s t a n c e to them* As a r e s u l t , d i s c i p l i n e was f a r from s a t i s f a c t o r y i n the camps and three Inmates had to be returned to gaol because of t h e i r defiance of a u t h o r i t y , 1953 Programme: The experience gained i n the preceding two years r e s u l t e d i n smoother f u n c t i o n i n g of the oamp and an improvement i n personnel I n 1953. Although there was a b e t t e r understanding between the two departments t h i s year, there was s t i l l a d i v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y concerning f i n a n c e s , a t the upper l e v e l . I t has been f r e q u e n t l y observed t h a t the m a j o r i t y of penal i n s t i t u t i o n inmates have weak i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l s and are i n need of an ongoing and unbroken r o u t i n e . - 71 -However, the c o r r e c t i o n s branch was given complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n of s t a f f and the F o r e s t S e r v i c e seldom i n t e r -f e r e d w i t h the i n t e r n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . They d i d o f f e r guidance, though, p e r t a i n i n g to the work p r o j e c t . Finances, equipment, and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were s t i l l inade-quate. Lack of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was one of the b i g g e s t s i n g l e problems t h i s year* Sometimes thfere was no v e h i c l e i n camp to take a s e r i o u s l y i n j u r e d person to the h o s p i t a l i f such a mishap occurred. There was a l s o no means of t a k i n g the men the twelve m i l e s to t h e i r b a l l f i e l d , and so the r e c r e a t i o n programme had to be l i m i t e d , Despite the numerous hindrances to s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of these camps, i t i s f e l t t h a t once these impediments are overcome, F o r e s t r y Camp p r o j e c t s w i l l a s s u m e an important p a r t i n the t r e a t -ment of the c r i m i n a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia as they have done i n other p l a c e s * Recommendations* The B r i t i s h Columbia P r i s o n F o r e s t r y Camp Programme met w i t h many and repeated problems* Although i t was terminated i n 1953, some workers i n the B r i t i s h Columbia c o r r e c t i o n a l f i e l d - -i n c l u d i n g Mr. E.G.B. Stevens, Inspector of Gaols tor B r i t i s h Columbia, Mr* H* G. C h r i s t i e , Warden of O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm, Mr* B*L. C l a r k , Deputy Warden of Treatment at O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm, and Mr* R.M*Deildal* s e n i o r o f f i c e r i n charge of the camps durin g t h e i r o p e r a t i o n — s t i l l b e l i e v e t h a t such camps have t h e i r place I n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process f o r the p r i s o n inmate* The w r i t e r i s much indebted to these people f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n s concerning 72 ~ f u t u r e attempts at such programmes. Some of the f o l l o w i n g recom-mendations r e f l e c t the ideas of the w r i t e r , w h i l e others are the suggestions of the i n d i v i d u a l s mentioned above* 1* Attempts should he made, when plann i n g a p r i s o n camp programme, to a v o i d d i v i d e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between the c o r r e c -t i o n s branch and the other p r o v i n c i a l departments. The camps should be set up, administered and f i n a n c e d i f p o s s i b l e by one department onl y . However, the second department could pay f o r the work through c o n t r a c t agreements* 2. A p r i s o n f o r e s t camp programme should be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h I n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a t u s and separate from the p r i s o n * The inmates could then be r e c e i v e d under the general s u p e r v i s i o n of the c o r r e c t i o n s branch, thus e l i m i n a t i n g the use of the T i c k e t of Leave A c t , 3. The i n s t i t u t i o n of p r i s o n camps r e q u i r e s s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n e d personnel to operate them. People w i t h t r a i n i n g i n modern penology Or w i t h some knowledge of e i t h e r s o c i a l work psychology or s o c i o l o g y represent the type of a p p l i c a n t needed* I d e a l l y the person h i r e d f o r t h i s type of work should have academic t r a i n i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y , knowledge of the p r o j e c t , and l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y . They should a l s o recognize the use of a u t h o r i t y and understand s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 4. A camp programme should be operated On a year-round b a s i s not j u s t a seasonal one* This would provide c o n t i n u i t y to the programme and a saving of funds as the inmates and equipment would not have •These people do not take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o p i n i o n s d i r e c t l y expressed as such. - 73 -to be t r a n s p o r t e d to and from tlie p r i s o n every summer. I t was found by. Mr, R . M i B e i i a a l t h a t the B r i t i s h Columbia summer p r i s o n camps were v a l u a b l e inasmuch as they helped t o introduce an idea and to prove i t s f e a s i b i l i t y * However, such a system made i t impossible t o employ a permanent t r a i n e d s t a f f and consequently each year of the programme i t was necessary to r e c r u i t new s t a f f and s t a r t a f r e s h * Furthermore a short term programme n e c e s s i t a t e d the r e l e a s e of a l a r g e number of inmates on the same date because of the eamp c l o s u r e . This o b v i o u s l y made i t d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n employment f o r a l l the Inmates at the same time which c o u l d be overcome I f the programme was a continuous one. o O 5. There i s a need f o r p u r p o s e f u l and c o n s t r u c t i v e work p r o j e c t s . These should be p r o p e r l y organized so t h a t any workcdo°ne w i l l be of some value i n the t r a i n i n g of good work h a b i t s . The develop-ment of p r o v i n c i a l parks, f o r e s t f i r e suppression, c o n s t r u c t i o n and clearance of f o r e s t access roads and r e f o r e s t a t i o n were work '• p r o j e c t s used In the 1951 to 1953 B r i t i s h Columbia P r i s o n F o r e s t r y Camp Programme. They were found to be a s u i t a b l e type of work f o r such a programme and could be used again i n f u t u r e p r o j e c t s * I n a d d i t i o n , the B r i t i s h Columbia C o r r e c t i o n s Branch could conceiv-a b l y enter i n t o a c o n t r a c t w i t h f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s such as the Department of F i s h e r i e s f o r the purposes of r e s t o r i n g salmon spawning grounds on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast, counting and tagging of f i s h and other forms of f i s h e r y r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . There i s a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Department of P u b l i c Works could make use of p r i s o n labour i n road c o n s t r u c t i o n and t u n n e l l i n g as i s being done i n C a l i f o r n i a . There are numerous - 74 -p r o j e c t s which could he used and i f embarked upon would not n e c e s s a r i l y be a t h r e a t to f r e e labour. However, even i f problems should a r i s e they could no doubt be worked out as they have been i n other p l a c e s . 6. A p r i s o n camp programme should not n e c e s s a r i l y be confined f o r the use of y o u t h f u l offenders as i t was p r i m a r i l y i n the B r i t i s h Columbia p l a n . With proper method of s e l e c t i o n the prog-ramme could be used f o r o l d e r inmates as w e l l . T h i s method has been adopted at the new Haney g a o l . 7. Camps should, t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , be I s o l a t e d from the community, but a t the same time be w i t h i n reasonable access to a c i t y or town. A distance of about ten to f i f t e e n m i l e s might be considered s u i t a b l e . 8. The p o s s i b i l i t y of having a separate a l l o c a t i o n of money voted by the P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r the o p e r a t i o n of a f o r e s t r y camp scheme ought to be considered. T h i s money could be administered by the d i r e c t o r of the f o r e s t r y oamp programme. 9 . I t has been i l l u s t r a t e d through the B r i t i s h Columbia experiment that thorough p l a n n i n g i s extremely important before a new p r i s o n f o r e s t r y camp p r o j e c t i s undertaken.' The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of such a p l a n might be w e l l advised to send a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o American s t a t e s t h a t are l e a d i n g i n t h i s type of work to see how they f u n c t i o n . 10. Steps should be taken not only t o i n t e r p r e t but a l s o t o empha-s i z e the m e r i t s of a p r i s o n camp scheme to both the l e g i s l a t u r e and the p u b l i c . For example, i t c o u l d be explained t h a t the cos t of ma i n t a i n i n g a man i n p r i s o n i s high when one i n c l u d e s the construe-- 75 -t i o n and maintenance of the b u i l d i n g , s t a f f wages, food and c l o t h -i n g and other miscellaneous expenditures. The tax payer helps to provide the money but r e c e i v e s few r e t u r n s f o r h i s o u t l a y * The B r i t i s h Columbia camp programme has proved t h a t under adequate s u p e r v i s i o n inmates can do productive l a b o u r . Conclusions. The p r i n c i p l e of p r i s o n camps as i n i t i a t e d d u r i n g the years 1951 t o 1953 i n the K e t t l e R i v e r d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia has been f o l l o w e d up i n many re s p e c t s by the work p r o j e c t a t Haney. At the present time Oakalla P r i s o n Farm has about f i f t y Inmates bet-ween the ages of s i x t e e n and s i x t y - s i x working at the s i t e of the new B r i t i s h Columbia C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n a t Haney. Although t h i s i s c h i e f l y a work p r o j e c t camp where Inmates r e c e i v e fl.OQ per day f o r work done, i t i s a l s o a minimum s e c u r i t y p r o j e c t as was the f o r e s t r y programme. Other suggestions f o r p r i s o n labour besides the Haney p r o j e c t should be considered. Areas i n the province t h a t might be considered u n p r o f i t a b l e by trade unions could be developed. For i n s t a n c e , there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n s t r u c t i n g camps In the G a r i b a l d i area, and developing v a c a t i o n r e s o r t s , and playgrounds and camp s i t e s I n the howe sound area. This type of work would give Inmates something productive to do r a t h e r than the f u t i l e work which they might other-wise be employed a t . Although these plans may not prove f e a s i b l e , i t nevertheless has been proved at Haney t h a t p r i s o n camps oan be oper-ated on a year round b a s i s . I f i t can be done at Haney, then i t can be done anywhere on the Lower Mainland. - 76 B i b l i o g r a p h y  Books and Pamphlets 1* American P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n , A Manual of C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards. New York, 1954. 2. Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l  S cience. Volume 46. March 1913* 3* Barnes, E.H. and Teeters, K.N., New Horizons i n C r i m i n -ology. P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , New York, 1945. 4. Branham, V.C. and Kutash, S.B., Encyclopaedia of Cr i m i n - ology. P h i l i s o p h i o a l L i b r a r y , New York, June, 1949. 5. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Attorney-General, Annual Report of the In s p e c t o r of Gaols f o r the Year Ended March 51. 1952, 1955 and 1954, V i c t o r i a , 1953* 1954, 1955. ' 6. Burke, John C , (Warden), The Farm and F o r e s t r y Camp  System of Wisconsin s t a t e P r i s o n * January 4. 1954, 7. Burke John C , (Warden), "Federal P r o b a t i o n " , A Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l of C o r r e c t i o n a l Philosophy and P r a c t i c e . Volume XI No. 3, July-September, 1947, "* 8. C a l i f o r n i a , Department of P u b l i c Works, D i v i s i o n of High-ways, p r i s o n Road Camps. Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a , J u l y , 1950. 9. C a l i f o r n i a , Stat® Department of C o r r e c t i o n s , B i e n n i a l Report. December, 1950, 10. C a l i f o r n i a , S t ate Department of C o r r e c t i o n s , Seven Years of Progress. Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a , J u l y , 1951, 11* C a l i f o r n i a Youth A u t h o r i t y , Progress Report. J u l y 1, 1948, to December 31, 1952. 12. Chute, Charles L., " C a l i f o r n i a Youth A u t h o r i t y 1944", Probation* 1945-1947. N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , October, 1944. 13. Clemmer, Donald, The P r i s o n Community. Christopher P u b l i s h -i n g House, Boston, 1940, 14. Close, O.H., " C a l i f o r n i a Camps f o r Delinquents", Yearbook  N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . New York, 1945. 15. Dominion of Canada, Annual Report of the Commissioner of  P e n i t e n t i a r i e s f o r the F i s c a l Year Ended March 51. 1953. Ottawa, 1953. ' ! " 77 16. E l l i o t t , Mable A., Crime i n Modern S o c i e t y . Harper and Bro t h e r s , New York, 1952. " 17. F a i r c h i l d , Henry P., D i c t i o n a r y of s o c i o l o g y . P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , New York C i t y , 1944. 18. F r i e d l a n d e r , Kate, The P s y c h o - A n a l y t i c a l Approach to J u v e n i l e  Delinquency. Routledge and Kegah P a u l L t d . , 1949. 19. Gavin, John A., Penal F o r e s t r y Gamp Information. Massachusetts Department of C o r r e c t i o n s , November, 1953. 20. G i l l i n , John L., Criminology and Penology. D. Appleton-Century Company Inc . , New York, London, 1945. 21. Oilman, S.J., The Michigan P r i s o n Camp Program. State of Michigan, Department of C o r r e c t i o n s , September, 1953. 22. Holton, K a r l , "The C a l i f o r n i a Youth A u t h o r i t y " , Yearbook  N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , New York, 1946. 23. Konopka, G i s e l a , Group Work i n the I n s t i t u t i o n . Whiteside, I n c , New York, 1954. " "~" 24. Murray, Bowens, and Hogrefe (eds.), Group Work i n Community  L i f e . A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New York, 1954, 25. Paterson, S i r Alexander, Paterson on P r i s o n s . F r e d e r i c k M u l l e r Ltd..London, 1951" : 26. Robinson, Lou i s N,, " P r i s o n Labor", Encyclopaedia of the  S o c i a l sclenoes. V o l . 12, MacMillan and Company, New York, 1934. 27. Sutherland, Edwin H., P r i n c i p l e s of Criminology. J . B . L i p p i n -c o t t Company, Chicago, 1947. 28. T a f t , D . R i , Criminology, MacMillan Co., New York, 1950. 29. Tannenbaum, Frank. Crime and the Community. Ginn and Co., 1938. 30. The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , March 11, 1955. 31. Wagner, I r i v i n g A., Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n  A s s o c i a t i o n . New York, 1937. ;; 32. W h i t i n , E. S., Penal Se r v i t u d e . N a t i o n a l Committee On P r i s o n Labor, New York, 1912, 

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