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The disassociated man in Buchner's Woyzeck and Toller's Hinkemann Egert, Eugene 1961

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THE DISASSOCIATED MAN IN BUCHNER'S WOYZECK AND TOLLER'S HINKEMANN b y EUGENE EGERT B. S c . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1958 A T H ESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f German We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1961 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. - i i -A b s t r a c t G.eorg B u c h n e r , an a n o m a l y i n h i s own c e n t u r y , i s f r e q u e n t l y v i e w e d a s a p e r c u r s o r o f E x p r e s s i o n i s m . W i t h t h i s f a c t i n m i n d i t i s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e a n d compare B u c h n e r ' s Woyzeck and t h e e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c drama Hinkemann b y E r n s t T o l l e r , n o t i n g t h e same b a s i c theme w h i c h , however, g i v e s r i s e t o d i s s i m u l a r s o l u t i o n s . The m e thod o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e s e a n a l o g o u s dramas was e s s e n t i a l l y one o f r e s e a r c h i n t o a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e s . S e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s ( w h i c h were numerous f o r B u c h n e r b u t s c a r c e f o r T o l l e r ) were c o n s u l t e d a s an a i d i n t h e e x p o s i t i o n o f Woyzeck a n d Hinkemann as s e p a r a t e p l a y s . T h e r e was, h o w e v e r , p r a c t i c a l l y no s e c o n d a r y m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e r e l a t i n g d i r e c t l y t o t h e p r o b l e m u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s w ork. The c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d were b a s e d on p r i v a t e e x a m i -n a t i o n o f t h e two d r a m a s . Woyzeck i s a p o o r s o l d i e r o f t h e 1 9 ^ c e n t u r y . Out o f l o v e f o r h i s " w i f e " he a l l o w s h i m s e l f t o b e u s e d a s s u b j e c t f o r a d o c t o r ' s s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t s . D e s p i t e W o y z e c k ' s c a r e and p a s s i o n a t e l o v e f o r h e r , M a r i e succumbs t o t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e . s e n s u a l drum m a j o r . T h u s Woyzeck n o t o n l y e x p e r i e n c e s p h y s i c a l a b u s e , b u t a l s o m e n t a l a n g u i s h a s a r e s u l t o f M a r i e ' s i n f i d e l i t y . T h r o u g h t h i s l o n e l y , s e n s e l e s s s u f f e r i n g h i s v a l u e s a r e p u t i n t o q u e s t i o n . Woyzeck d e s p a i r s o f l i f e a n d e x p r e s s e s h i s t o t a l r e j e c t i o n o f t h e w o r l d b y m u r d e r i n g M a r i e a n d t h e n b y d r o w n i n g h i m s e l f . H i n k e m a n n , a l s o a common s o l d i e r , r e t u r n s home f r o m t h e F i r s t W o r l d War e m a s c u l a t e d b y a b u l l e t . F e a r i n g t h e l o s s - i i i -o f h i s w i f e ' s l o v e a n d r e s p e c t , he t o o s t o o p s t o t h e l e v e l o f an a n i m a l t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r h i s s e x u a l i n c a p a c i t y . D e s i r i n g t o p r o v i d e h e r a f e w p l e a s u r e s , Hinkemann h i r e s h i m s e l f o u t t o a showman who u t i l i s e s h i m i n a r e p u l s i v e c i r c u s a c t . However, h i s s e n s u a l w i f e , l i k e M a r i e , a l s o p r o v e s u n f a i t h f u l . H e r s e d u c e r , G r o s s h a h n , c a u s e s H i n k e m a n n ' s p r i m e s u f f e r i n g b y c a u s i n g h i m t o b e l i e v e t h a t G r e t e l a u g h e d a t h i m i n h i s d e b a s e d c o n d i t i o n . A l t h o u g h f i n a l l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t s h e d i d n o t l a u g h , H i n k e m a n n , l i k e h i s c o u n t e r p a r t Woyzeck, f a i l s t o s e e a n y g o o d p u r p o s e i n t h e w o r l d a n d g i v e s u p . He no l o n g e r h a s t h e s t r e n g t h t o s t r u g g l e a n d a s k s h i s w i f e t o l e a v e h i m . B u t G r e t e , a f r a i d t o l i v e a l o n e , commits s u i c i d e . H inkemann g o e s on e x i s t i n g . T h us t h e b a s i c p a t t e r n i s t h e same i n b o t h : Woyzeck a n d H i n k e m a n n , two s o l d i e r s i n t h e p r i m e o f l i f e , a l l o w t h e m s e l v e s t o b e m i s u s e d f o r t h e s a k e o f a woman's l o v e . B o t h l o s e t h i s l o v e w h i c h a l o n e g i v e s , t h e i r l i f e m e a n i n g . F o r c e d i n t o t o t a l i s o l a t i o n b y an e v i l a n d l o v e l e s s w o r l d , b o t h Woyzeck a n d H inkemann no l o n g e r s e e any p u r p o s e i n l i f e , b u t t h e r e a c t i o n o f e a c h i s d i f f e r e n t . Woyzeck r e a c t s v i o l e n t l y t o t h i s d i s c o v e r y o f t h e l a c k o f g o od p u r p o s e i n t h e u n i v e r s e . Out o f v e n g e a n c e he w a n t s t o h u r t t h e w o r l d t h a t h a s h u r t h i m . He e n d s i n c o m p l e t e , a c t i v e n i h i l i s m . H i n k e m a n n , a man w e akened b y f a t e , r e a c t s l e s s v i o l e n t l y : he comes t o a p a s s i v e a c c e p t a n c e o f m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s i n t h e w o r l d . F o r h i m , s t r u g g l e i s i n v a i n . T h u s t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n s o l u t i o n , r e s u l t i n g f r o m an i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n w h i c h l i e s a t t h e c o r e o f t h e s e i v -p l a y s . B u c h n e r h e r e d e a l s w i t h one b a s i c theme: i s o l a t i o n u l t i m a t e l y l e a d i n g t o n i h i l i s m . T o l l e r , i n a d d i t i o n , d e a l s w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e c o m p l e t e man. The l o s s o f e i t h e r t h e a n i m a l o r t h e s p i r i t u a l a s p e c t o f man's n a t u r e r e n d e r s h i m r i d i c u l o u s . And f o r T o l l e r , i t i s t h i s r i d i c u l e w h i c h i s o l a t e s man. T h u s h i s p l a y i s more c o m p l e x , i t h a s r a m i f i -c a t i o n s o f t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h B u c h n e r d o e s n o t e x p l o r e . A l s o c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e d i s s i m i l a r s o l u t i o n s a r e t h e a u t h o r s ' d i f f e r e n t v i e w s o f l i f e . W o y z e c k ' s n i h i l i s t i c e n d i s e n t i r e l y i n c o n s o n a n c e w i t h B u c h n e r * s f a t a l i s t i c a n d u t t e r l y h o p e l e s s v i e w o f l i f e . S i m i l a r l y , H i n k e m a n n ' s p e s s i m i s t i c r e s i g n a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o T o l l e r ' s p o i g n a n t d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t ( b u t n o t c o m p l e t e d e s p a i r ) w i t h m a n k i n d . - V -Contents page Introduction 1 Chapter I Background of the s u f f e r i n g i n Woyzeck 6 Chapter I I "Unedles Ungluck" i n Woyzeck 18• Chapter I I I "Edles Ungluck' i n Woyzeck 32 Chapter IV Background of the s u f f e r i n g i n Hinkemann . . . . 44-Chapter V "Unedles Ungluck" i n Hinkemann 5 3 Chapter VI "Edles Ungluck" i n Hinkemann 62 Conclusions 74 Footnotes • SO Bibliography 88 - 1 -Introduction Georg Buchner i s frequently viewed as an important precursor of expressionistic drama. It w i l l be the purpose of this thesis, to investigate and compare the treatment of a similar theme i n his Woyzeck and i n an expressionistic play: Ernst Toller's Hinkemann. Buchner was an anomaly in his own time. As an i n d i -vidualist he did not subscribe to the tenets of any recognised movement i n liter a t u r e . Nor did he have any close t i e s with the poets of his day, with the exception of Gutzkow to; whom he sent his Dantons Tod for publication. Like his hero, Woyzeck, Buchner stood alone. He found i t increasingly impossible to endorse the p o l i t i c a l nature of Young German literature, whose members used art as propaganda to attain social and p o l i t i c a l changes. Literature became the mere tool for expressing their revolutionary views. In his letters Buchner clearly states his attitude and relation, to this journalistic group, the most Important l i t e r a r y movement of his time. On January 1, 1856, he wrote his family from Strassburg: "tTbrigens gehore ich fur meine Person keines-wegs zu dem sogenannten Jungen Deutschland, der l i t e r a r i -schen Partei Gutzkows und Heines. Nur ein volliges Miss-kennen unserer gesellschaftlichen Verhaltnisse konnte die Leute glauben machen, dass durch die Tagesliteratur eine vollige Umgestaltung unserer religiosen und gesellschaft-lichen Ideen moglich sei."' L Neither i s Buchner an admirer of the Romanticism which s t i l l persisted i n his time. Being a forward-looking person, - 2 -he c o u l d n o t t o l e r a t e n o s t a l g i c f l i g h t i n t o m e d i e v a l t i m e s a n d away f r o m t h e r e a l i t i e s o f l i f e as he saw t h e m . C l a r i -f y i n g h i s r e l a t i o n t o t h e R o m a n t i c s , B u c h n e r s u c c i n c t l y w r i t e s t o h i s f r i e n d Gutzkow ( S t r a s s b u r g , 1835): " S i e e r h a l t e n h i e r b e i e i n Bandcheri G e d i c h t e v o n meinen F r e u n d e n S t o b e r . D i e Sagen s i n d s c h o n , a b e r i c h b i n k e i n V e r e h r e r d e r M a n i e r a l a Schwab u n d U h l a n d und d e r P a r t e i , d i e immer r u c k w a r t s i n s M i t t e l a l t e r g r e i f t , w e l l s i e i n d e r Gegenwart k e i n e n P l a t z a u s f i i l l e n k a n n . " ( p . 4-06) S i n c e B u c h n e r was a h e a d o f h i s age i n h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h e s s e n t i a l h u m a n i t y , i t i s s m a l l wonder t h a t t h e E x p r e s s i o n ' i s t s f o u n d i n h i m a c o n g e n i a l c o m p a n i o n . I n B u c h n e r t h e y saw a man o f k i n d r e d s p i r i t , a man who l i k e t h e m s e l v e s was s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e p o o r u n d e r d o g and who y e a r n e d f o r a new h u m a n i t y . B u c h n e r ' s w o r k s , l a r g e l y u n d i s c o v e r e d u n t i l t h e c e n t u r y , a t t a i n e d t h e r e p u t a t i o n t h e y now e n j o y t h r o u g h t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e E x p r e s s i o n i s t g e n e r a t i o n . H i s W o y z e c k , a l t h o u g h w r i t t e n i n 1835 o r 1836, was n o t s e e n on t h e s t a g e u n t i l 1913. I t i s a l s o n o t e w o r t h y t h a t A l b a n B e r g composed h i s d r a m a t i c m a s t e r p i e c e , t h e o p e r a W o z z e c k , i n t h e e r a o f E x p r e s s i o n i s m (1920), e i g h t y - f i v e y e a r s a f t e r t h e o r i g i n a l work was w r i t t e n . B u c h n e r i s o f t e n s e e n as t h e c o n n e c t i n g l i n k between E x p r e s s i o n i s m a n d t h e s i m i l a r , r e v o l u t i o n a r y a n d i c o n o c l a s t i c S t o r m and S t r e s s movement o f t h e 18 c e n t u r y . I n h i s book on E x p r e s s i o n i s m , W a l t e r H . S o k e l w r i t e s : "The E x p r e s s i o n i s t s g r e a t l y esteemed S t o r m and S t r e s s a u t h o r s l i k e L e n z a n d K l i n g e r . G e o r g B u c h n e r f o r m s an i n t e r e s t i n g n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l i n k between t h e S t o r m - 3 -a n d S t r e s s a n d t h e drama o f W e d e k i n d , J o h s t , a n d B e r t B r e c h t . " ' B u c h n e r i s n o t o n l y a f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e E x p r e s s i o n i s t s i n t h o u g h t , b u t i s a l s o one o f t h e p r o p h e t s o f e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c s t y l e . The l o o s e n e s s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e e p i s o d i c n a t u r e o f s c e n e s u c c e s s i o n , a n d t h e g r o t e s q u e a n d a p h o r i s t i c n a t u r e o f t h e l a n g u a g e a r e a l l i n d i c a t i v e o f what i s t o come i n E x p r e s s i o n i s m . I n d e e d , t h e v e r y a t m o s p h e r e o f B u c h n e r * s Woyzeck h a s b e e n an i n f l u e n c e on t h e e x p l o s i v e e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c d r a m a t i c s t y l e . A l b e r t S o e r g e l goes so f a r a s t o c l a i m : "Ohne W o y z e c k s t i m m u n g o d e r W o y z e c k z e i c h n u n g , ohne W o y z e c k -b l u t kaum e i n e x p r e s s i o n i s t i s c h e s D r a m a I " ^ L a t e r h e d e c l a r e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y r e g a r d i n g H i n k e m a n n a n d W o y z e c k , t h e p l a y s we s h a l l be c o n s i d e r i n g : " G r a u e n l i e g t u b e r i h r f H i n k e m a n n j , w i e u b e r B i i c h n e r s . W o y z e c k , d e s s e n F r i i h e x p r e s s i o n i s m u s s i e n a h e r v e r w a n d t i s t , a l s z e i t g e n o s s i s c h e e x p r e s s i o n i s t i s c h e 4-W e r k e . " B u c h n e r * s t h e m e s o f h u m a n i t y , o f l o v e f o r m a n k i n d , o f s y m p a t h y t o t h e p o o r , a n d o f r e v o l t a g a i n s t a d e c a d e n t s o c i e t y r e c u r i n E x p r e s s i o n i s m . . A l s o , t h e theme o f c o m p a s s i o n f o r t h e u n d e r d o g , i s o l a t e d f r o m h i s f e l l o w s b y s u f f e r i n g a n d e x i s t e n t i a l a w a r e n e s s , a s s e e n i n Woyzeck i s f r e q u e n t l y t a k e n up i n e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e , a n d p e r h a p s n o w h e r e i n s u c h s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y a s i n H i n k e m a n n . K u r t P i n t h u s , an E x p r e s s i o n i s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h T o l l e r , w r i t e s : " W h i l e s t i l l i n j a i l , he [ T o l l e r ] h a d w r i t t e n t h e g r o t e s q u e t r a g e d y o f a v i c t i m o f w a r , e n t i t l e d H i n k e m a n n . T h i s p l a y i s i n f l u e n c e d b y G e o r g B u c h n e r ' s W o y z e c k , t h e f i r s t r e a l i s t i c p r o l e t a r i a n d r a m a , w r i t t e n a l m o s t one h u n d r e d y e a r s a g o . H i n k e m a n n , l i k e W o y z e c k , i s a m i s t r e a t e d h u m b l e s o l d i e r , - 4 -who returns from the war seemingly sound, hut whose sexual 5 potency has been destroyed by shrapnel."^ We s h a l l t r e a t the s u f f e r i n g of these two s o l d i e r s , Woyzeck and Hinkemann, i n the frame of reference as given by Max Brod i n h i s book Heidentum, Christentum, Judentum, one of the great source books of Expressionist thought. Brod makes a d e f i n i t e d i s t i n c t i o n between what he c a l l s "edles und unedles Ungluck." Noble s u f f e r i n g , he says, stems from the very nature of human existence. Man, endowed with reason, yearns f o r an answer to the puzzle of t h i s universe, but he receives none. No amount of s o c i a l reform can eradicate such s u f f e r i n g : i t w i l l be present as long as man e x i s t s . Even i n the a c t i v i s t i c Utopia t h i s metaphysical e v i l w i l l e x i s t , f o r i t r e s u l t s from the discrepancy between man's f i n i t e , f r a i l nature and h i s recognition of the i n f i n i t e . The consciousness of t h i s discrepancy causes man pain. At the same time i t l i e s at the basis of the attempts at ennoblement to be found i n mankind's r e l i g i o n s . Brod defines noble s u f f e r i n g : Der Mensch steht a l s ein korperliches, also durchaus endliches, und seelisches, also meist endliches, nur i n ekstatischen Ausnahmeminuten unendliches Wesen dem Unendlichen gegenuber. Dies i s t sein t i e f s t e r Schmerz, sein durchaus unabwendbares Ungluck. Immer wieder seine Grenze f i i h l e n , die Wandelbarkeit des Herzens, den V e r f a l l des Leibes, die Abhangigkeit der hochsten Eunktionen von den n i e d r i g s t e n , das Ermatten im Aufschwung, die Luge im a u f r i c h t i g -sten Versuch der E h r l i c h k e i t — d a s i s t der Orgelpunkt a l l e r menschlichen Melodie. Quite d i f f e r e n t from t h i s unavoidable noble s u f f e r i n g i s the ignoble s u f f e r i n g which r e s u l t s d i r e c t l y from e v i l - 5 -s o c i a l conditions or the s t u p i d i t y and callousness of man. War and poverty are i l l u s t r a t i o n s of ignoble s u f f e r i n g . This type of s u f f e r i n g can, and must, be eradicated because i t i s debasing to the d i g n i t y of man. Whereas noble s u f f e r i n g can bring man a sense of humility, ignoble s u f f e r i n g brings f r u s t r a t i o n and useless indignation. Brod writes: Es g i b t also (und i n diesem grauenhaften Dasein i s t dies eine Erkenntnis, die aufrecht erhalten zu werden verdient) neben dem unabwendbaren Un-gluck auch abwendbares, es gibt ein Elend, das i n die Macht des Menschen, i n seinen Willen g e s t e l l t i s t , dem er abhelfen kann und dem ab-zuhelfen (aus dem Konnen ergibt s i c h sofort das Sollen) ein T e i l seiner Bestimmung i s t . . . . Das E r l e b n i s unedlen Unglucks bri n g t i n jedem gesunden Menschen, s e i er Betroffener oder Be-t r a c h t e r , das Gefuh.1 der Entriistung, der Em-porung, der Auflehnung hervor. - Edles Ungluck mahnt zur Demut . . . . Es i s t A r i c h t i g , ' es hat n i c h t s Aufreizendes an s i c h . With Brod's d i s t i n c t i o n i n mind we s h a l l begin our discussion of Woyzeck i n the next chapter by i n v e s t i g a t i n g the back-ground of Woyzeck's s u f f e r i n g . - 6 -C h a p t e r O n e B u c h n e r p o r t r a y s t h e f a t e o f W o y z e c k i n a s e r i e s o f e p i s o d i c s c e n e s , w h i c h o f t e n a r e , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , n o t l o g i c a l l y c o n n e c t e d . H o w e v e r , b y s h o w i n g h i s p r o t a g o n i s t a t v a r i o u s , i n t i m a t e m o m e n t s o f l i f e , t h e a u t h o r i s a b l e t o d e p i c t v i v i d l y t h e u n f o r t u n a t e l o t o f t h e o r d i n a r y m a n . B u c h n e r ' s p l a y o p e n s w i t h W o y z e c k , t h e p o o r , u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o l d i e r h u r r i e d l y s h a v i n g h i s c a p t a i n . T h e n W o y z e c k i s s e e n c u t t i n g s t i c k s , w h i c h h e s e l l s t o t h e c a p t a i n i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e a l i t t l e m o n e y f o r t h e s u p p o r t o f h i s c o m m o n - l a w w i f e a n d h i s c h i l d . O u t o f l o v i n g c o n c e r n f o r h i s f a m i l y , W o y z e c k e v e n s t o o p s t o t h e l e v e l o f s e l l i n g h i s b o d y t o t h e d o c t o r a s a n o b j e c t f o r m e d i c a l e x p e r i m e n t s . F o r t h r e e m o n t h s W o y z e c k h a s b e e n e a t i n g o n l y p e a s , a n d t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s a b n o r m a l d i e t t h e d o c t o r i n s i s t s t h a t h i s s u b j e c t r e t a i n h i s u r i n e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e d o c t o r , s h o w i n g n o h u m a n s y m p a t h y o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t r e a t s W o y z e c k l i k e a n a n i m a l . W o y z e c k c a n e n d u r e t h i s d e g r a d i n g t r e a t m e n t , h e c a n a l l o w h i m s e l f t o b e e n s l a v e d b y t h e c a p t a i n a n d t h e d o c t o r , o n l y a s l o n g a s h e c a n b e s u r e o f M a r i e , who a l o n e g i v e s p u r p o s e t o h i s e x i s t e n c e . When h e f i n a l l y l e a r n s t h a t s h e w a s u n f a i t h f u l t o h i m b y g i v i n g h e r s e l f t o t h e m o r e v i r i l e d r u m m a j o r , W o y z e c k n o l o n g e r s e e s a n y s e n s e i n l i f e . T h e m e n i a l l i f e h e h a s l e d h a s b e e n i n v a i n . H e e x p r e s s e s h i s u t t e r d e s p a i r b y k i l l i n g h i s b e l o v e d . W o y z e c k c o m p l e t e s h i s Q r e j e c t i o n o f a l l v a l u e s i n l i f e b y c o m m i t t i n g s u i c i d e . T h e m a t e r i a l f a c t s w h i c h u n d e r l i e W o y z e c k ' s t r a g e d y , i n t h e m s e l v e s n o t t h e e n t i r e c a u s e o f h i s . a c t i o n s , a r e d e l i n e a t e d i n some d e t a i l , However, of Woyzeck's family we l e a r n very l i t t l e . In the barracks-scene where he i s disposing of h i s meager belongings, he divulges that h i s s i s t e r ("Das Kreuz i s t meiner Schwester und das R i n g l e i n . " (p. 170)) and mother ("Mein Mutter f l i b i t nur noch, wenn i h r die Sonn auf die Hand s c h e i n t — d a s tut n i x . " (p. 171)) are s t i l l a l i v e . Although the above quotation gives an i n d i c a t i o n of the mother's s l i g h t influence upon h i s l i f e at present, a previous maternal i n f l u e n c e i n r e l i g i o n i s shown i n the f a c t that he s t i l l has h i s mother's B i b l e . Paternal influence, however, i s t o t a l l y missing, f o r h i s f a t h e r i s never mentioned. Usual family connections have no place i n Woyzeck's l i f e . He i s alone. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n papers which he reads to h i s f r i e n d Andres seem indeed to contain a l l the d e t a i l s of h i s uneventful career: " P r i e d r i c h Johann Franz Woyzeck, Wehrmann, F u s i l i e r im 2 . Regiment, 2 . B a t a i l l o n , 4. Kom-pagnie, geboren Maria Verkundigung, den 2 0 . J u l i . - Ich bin heut a l t 30 Jahr, 7 Monat und 12 Tage." (p. 171) Quite i n keeping with h i s humble o r i g i n , Woyzeck's language betrays a p r i m i t i v e or non-existent formal education. Lacking tutored i n t e l l i g e n c e , he i s not a l o g i c a l , a r t i c u l a t e person. For example, Woyzeck has great d i f f i c u l t y expressing himself regarding the perplexing v i s i o n s he has seen: Woyzeck. Sehn Sie, Herr Doktor, manchmal hat einen so 'en Charakter, so 'ne Struktur. -Aber mit der Natur i s t ' s was anders, sehn Sie; mit der Natur (er kracht mit den Fingern), das i s so was, wie s o i l i c h doch sagen, zum B e i s p i e l . . . Doktor. Woyzeck, Er p h i l o s o p h i e r t wieder. Woyzeck. ( v e r t r a u l i c h ) Herr Doktor, haben Sie schon was von der doppelten Natur ge-sehen? Wenn die Sonn i n Mittag steht und - 8 -es i s t , a l s ging die Welt i n Feuer auf, hat schon eine f i i r c h t e r l i c h e Stimme zu mir geredt! Doktor. Woyzeck, Er hat eine Aberratio. Woyzeck. ( l e g t den Finger an die Nase) Die Schwamme, Herr Doktor, da, da steck t ' s . Hahen Sie schon gesehn, in. was f u r Figuren die Schwamme auf dem Boden wachsen? Wer das lesen konntl (p. 159) In reading Woyzeck, one gains the impression that t h i s unpretentious, coarse and clumsy s o l d i e r has l a t e n t p o t e n t i -a l i t y , hut that t h i s mental a b i l i t y has never r e a l l y been developed by formal t r a i n i n g . He i s an o r i g i n a l thinker. In h i s own way Woyzeck reveals h i s concern about the sense-lessness of l i f e . Whether one decides to l i v e or die i n t h i s c r u e l world depends on whether one affirms or negates l i f e Woyzeck t e l l s the captain i n n a i v e l y poetic form: "Wir haben schon Wetter, Herr Hauptmann. Sehn S i e , so ein schoner, f e s t e r , grauer Himmel; man konnte Lust bekommen, ein* Kloben hineinzuschlagen und s i c h daran zu hangen, nur wegen des Gedankenstrichels zwischen Ja und wieder J a — u n d Nein. Herr Hauptmann, Ja und Nein? I s t das Nein am Ja oder das Ja am Nein schuld?" (p. 163) The inane captain, on the other hand, can only think within the bounds of a circum-scribed system. To him o r i g i n a l thought i s an absolutely strange and dangerous phenomenon: "Aber du denkst z u v i e l , das zehrt; du sieh s t immer so verhetzt aus." (p. 153) Unable to understand h i s i n s i g h t i n t o l i f e , the captain and h i s fellows believe Woyzeck i s on the verge of i n s a n i t y . At f i r s t the doctor does not apprehend Woyzeck's puzzling remarks and dismisses them with: "Woyzeck, Er ph i l o s o p h i e r t wieder." (p. 159) but, f i n a l l y , he reaches the conclusion - 9 -that Woyzeck i s mentally disturbed: "Woyzeck, Er hat eine Aberratio." (p. 159) I t indeed appears as i f Woyzeck i s going insane, as i f he i s breaking down. Marie d i s p l a y s strong fears that h i s mind may completely snap: "Was hast du, Franz? Du siehst so v e r s t o r t . . . Der Mann! So ver-g e i s t e r t . . . Er schnappt noch uber mit den Gedanken!" (pp. 154, 155) S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Marie seizes upon Woyzeck's p r o c l i v i t y toward thought rather than her own g u i l t to explain h i s distraught condition. Woyzeck himself admits to confusion and turmoil i n h i s mind: "Wenn i c h die Aug zumach, dreht sich's immer, und i c h hor die Geigen, immer zu, immer zu. Und dann s p r i c h t ' s aus der Wand." (p. 167) In many instances h i s strange remarks leave us asking whether these are the utterances of a madman or of ah other-worldly v i s i o n a r y . On one occasion he t e l l s Marie, r e v e a l i n g h i s dangerous mental condition: "Es i s t h i n t e r mir hergangen bi s vor die Stadt. Etwas, was wir n i c h t fassen, begreifen, was uns von Sinnen b r i n g t . Was s o l i das werden?" (p. 155) Such doubts concerning r e a l i t y , as contrasted with the dogmatic systems of thought personified, i n the doctor and the captain, show us that Woyzeck alone has an independent i n s i g h t into the essence of t h i n g s — i n f a c t i t i s t h i s i n s i g h t which unse t t l e s him. He i s constantly haunted by the i n e x p l i -cable i n nature; he r e a l i z e s there are mysterious, uncon-t r o l l a b l e forces at work, which he i s at a l o s s to explain. Woyzeck also r e a l i z e s that there i s a mysterious, unfathomable element i n man: "Jeder Mensch i s ein Abgrund; es schwindelt einem, wenn man hinabsieht." (p. 164) Through such utterances - 1 0 -B u c h n e r e x p o s e s W o y z e c k 1 s i n n a t e f a c u l t y f o r r e f l e c t i v e t h o u g h t , a s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h mere a b i l i t y t o r e t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r i n t h e s e s e e m i n g l y l u n a t i c r e m a r k s t h e r e i s o f t e n a p r o f o u n d t r u t h w h i c h t h e l e a r n e d d o c t o r a n d t h e s u p e r c i l i o u s c a p t a i n c a n n o t e v e n g r a s p . Woyzeck i s n a t u r a l l y i n t e l l i g e n t . He g i v e s one o f t h e most s t a r t l i n g e v i d e n c e s o f h i s n a t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e i n t h e e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e c a p t a i n o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f m o r a l i t y . He d e m o n s t r a t e s h e r e t h a t he i s c a p a b l e o f c o g e n t a n d p e n e t r a t i n g r e m a r k s w h i c h r e f u t e t h e s u p e r f i c i a l a r g u m e n t s o f t h e c a p t a i n . I n h i s " n a t u r a l n e s s " Woyzeck d o e s n o t c o m p l y w i t h t h e c o n -v e n t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s o f m o r a l i t y . He l o o k s on b o u r g e o i s m o r a l i t y a s b a s e d u p o n m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y : " . . . wenn i c h e i n H e r r war u n d h a t t e i n ' H u t u n d e i n e U h r u n d e i n e A n g l a i s e u n d k o n n t v o r n ehm r e d e n , i c h w o l l t s c h o n t u g e n d h a f t s e i n . E s muss was S c h o n e s s e i n um d i e T u g e n d , H e r r H a u p t -mann. A b e r i c h b i n e i n a r m e r K e r l l " ( p . 1 5 2 ) M o r a l i t y n e e d s an e c o n o m i c b a s e : man n e e d s f o o d a n d c l o t h i n g b e f o r e he c a n h a v e m o r a l s . I n w o r d s r e m i n i s c e n t o f B r e c h t ( " E r s t kommt d a s P r e s s e n , d a n n kommt d i e M o r a l . " ) , B u c h n e r a r g u e s t h a t t h e p o o r p e o p l e who h a v e no money c a n h a v e no m o r a l i t y i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l , b o u r g e o i s s e n s e . A c c o r d i n g t o Woyzeck, p o v e r t y c r e a t e s i t s own " n a t u r a l " m o r a l i t y w h i c h he f o l l o w s . When t h e c a p t a i n a c c u s e s h i m o f h a v i n g a c h i l d w i t h o u t t h e b l e s s i n g o f t h e c h u r c h , Woyzeck r e s p o n d s w i t h h i s a s t u t e a n s w e r : " H e r r Hauptmann, d e r l i e b e G o t t w i r d d e n armen Wurm n i c h t drum a n s e h e n , ob d a s Amen d r i i b e r g e s a g t i s t , eh e r gemacht wurde. D e r H e r r s p r a c h : L a s s e t d i e K l e i n e n z u m i r kommen." - 11 -(p. 152) Woyzeck knows no a r t i f i c i a l moral laws but only the laws of the natural morality, the law of love, which he f i n d s i n C h r i s t ' s words. As such a "Naturmenseh," Woyzeck frequently r e f e r s to the involuntary drives of nature, point i n g out that a man io cannot help himself i n the face of nature's demands. In the opening scene Woyzeck i s t a l k i n g with the captain about the sexual drive: "Man hat auch sein F l e i s c h und Blut . . . wir gemeine Leut, das hat keine Tugend, es kommt einem nur so die Natur . . . " (p. 152)"^ Somewhat l a t e r , Woyzeck uses e s s e n t i a l l y the same phrase, "wenn einem die Natur kommt" (p. 158), but t h i s time he i s r e f e r r i n g to the u r i n a t i n g episode, f o r which the doctor reproaches him. The doctor, i n the tone of the Enlightenment, p i o u s l y defends the freedom of the w i l l over nature: "Woyzeck, der Mensch i s t f r e i , i n dem Mensehen v e r k l a r t s i c h die I n d i v i d u a l i t a t zur F r e i h e i t . " (pp. 158, 159) But Woyzeck knows of no such freedom. He i s "natural" j u s t l i k e the indecent horse at the f a i r , which obediently c a r r i e s out the drives of nature 12 when necessary. Woyzeck l i v e s according to the showman's i n s t r u c t i o n s , "Mensch, s e i n a t u r l i c h l " (p. 157)» and f o r Woyzeck, t h i s i s the core of human morality. Although he does not understand Woyzeck's poignant remarks, the monied and moral captain fin d s him to be a good man. "Du b i s t ein, guter Mensch, ein guter Mensch.:! (p. 153), he says i n a concessive recognition of Woyzeck's inherent v i r t u e . Indeed, i n h i s "natural" behaviour, Woyzeck demonstrates a b i g heart and a t r u s t i n g , almost canine - 12 -affection. His absolute and natural devotion to Marie i s the cause for his le t t i n g himself be mistreated and exploited. Even though not obliged to do so (they are not married), he feels he must support her and his ch i l d . He informs the doctor: "Das Geld fur die Menage kriegt meine Frau." (p. 160) In the naive goodness of his heart Woyzeck wants to believe the best in a l l people. His I m p l i c i t trust in Marie, and in humanity, i s part of his "natural" being. Woyzeck*s suspicions are not easily aroused: i t takes a great deal of evidence to convince him of Marie's i n f i d e l i t y . One day he completely surprises Marie i n her room while she i s lovingly admiring a set of ear-rings, which she undoubtedly received from the drum major. Although everything does not seem to be i n order, Woyzeck i s w i l l i n g to forget the incident. However, he i s not permitted to do so, for the knowledge of Marie's relations with the drum major has come to the ears of the captain, and the l a t t e r , thinking to have some amuse-ment, taunts Woyzeck with crude hints about Marie's unfaith-fulness. Woyzeck i s so shocked by this sudden disclosure as to be thrown into utter confusion: "Herr Hauptmann, die Erd i s hollenheiss—mir eiskalt, e i s k a l t — D i e Holle i s t kalt, wollen wir wetten. - - Unmoglich! Menschi MenschI unmoglichl" (p. 162) Even then he i s not entirely convinced. Marie looks so sweet and innocent that he can hardly believe the captain's revelation. Such a crass sin should be clearly v i s i b l e . Woyzeck simply does not want to believe. But, the evidence mounts: at a dance he himself sees her i n the arms of the drum major. Then Andres supplies the f i n a l convincing piece - 13 -of information by revea l i n g to Woyzeck that he had seen the drum major and a f r i e n d v i s i t Marie. Not u n t i l then i s the naive and magnanimous Woyzeck aroused to h i s d r a s t i c act of sado-masochistic de s t r u c t i o n . © Buchner's concern with the s o c i a l and economic d i s t r e s s of the common people, which i s the basis f o r most of h i s ear l y w r i t i n g , i s s t i l l c l e a r l y seen i n Woyzeck. The f a c t that Woyzeck must debase himself to the l e v e l of an animal and perform menial tasks i n order to provide meager means f o r h i s family i s abundant evidence of the misery of the poor p e o p l e — t o whom he belongs. The poor know only work and p r i v a t i o n , i n t h i s l i f e and i n the next. For them death i t -s e l f would provide no r e s t : "Ich glaub, wenn wir i n Himmel kamen, so mussten wir donnern helfen." (p. 152) When he disposes of h i s scanty belongings, Woyzeck reveals h i s u t t e r poverty. A l l that he f i n d s worth mentioning i s "das Kami-solchen . . . das Kreuz . . . das Ri n g l e i n . . . ein H e i l i -gen . . . zwei Herze und schon Gold . . . ." (p. 170) Marie reveals s i m i l a r penury i n the jewel scene which seems to be c l o s e l y modelled a f t e r the jewel scene i n Faust I. She shows great delight with such a simple g i f t as a p a i r of ear-rings. I t i s pathetic to observe her pride and pleasure with t h i s simple luxury. She l i k e Woyzeck could say: "Ich b i n ein armer T e u f e l — u n d hab sonst n i c h t s auf der Welt." (p. 162) On January 1, 1836, Buchner wrote h i s parents from Strassburg: "Ich komme vom Christkindelsmarkt: u b e r a l l Haufen zerlumpter, f r i e r e n d e r Kinder, d i e mit aufgerissenen - 14 -Augen und traurigen Gesichtern vor den H e r r l i c h k e i t e n aus Wasser und Mehl, Dreck und Goldpapier standen. Der Gedanke, dass f i i r die meisten Menschen auch die armseligsten Geniisse und Ireuden unerreichbare Kostbarkeiten sind, machte mich sehr b i t t e r . " (p. 408) Such b i t t e r n e s s against abject poverty and s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e i s e s p e c i a l l y r e f l e c t e d here 13 i n the pungent c a r i c a t u r e s , the captain and the doctor. I t seems congruous to conclude that the Strassburg market experience (and others l i k e i t ) l e f t i t s mark on Woyzeck, f o r the idea of t h i s play must have been germinating i n Buchner's mind at about t h i s time. Although i t contains considerable c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d at the r u l i n g c l a s s of s o c i e t y , i t i s a f a l l a c y to maintain that Buchner wrote h i s Woyzeck purely as propaganda f o r s o c i a l reform. Nowhere i n the play does Buchner advocate r e v o l u t i o n of the lower c l a s s against i t s r u l e r s , nor i s there the s l i g h t e s t hope given f o r a change i n society. Kurt May writes: "Im 'Woyzeck'-Drama se l b s t i s t n i c h t mit einem einzigen Wort die Hoffnung auf eine mogliche Anderung der g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e n Ordnung der Z e i t verktindet. Darum ge l i n g t es n i c h t , dem 'Woyzeck' den Charakter eines s o z i a l -revolutionaren Kampf- und Tendenzstuckes mit p r o g r e s s i v e s Bedeutung aufzuzwingen, obwohl doch das Leiden der armen Leute an der unertraglichen Verderbtheit der herrschenden 14 Sozialordnung h i e r auf die Szene gebracht i s t . " Thus, i n dealing with the socio-economic basis f o r Woyzeck's s u f f e r i n g , one must be c a r e f u l to put i t i n the proper perspective. C e r t a i n l y , Woyzeck's s u f f e r i n g i s due i n part to h i s s o c i a l - 15 -a n d e c o n o m i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s , b u t t h i s one a s p e c t o f t h e drama must n o t be u n d u l y s t r e s s e d t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s s u c h a s W oyzeck's p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e a n d t h e u n i v e r s a l n e e d f o r l o v e . Some c r i t i c s s e e o n l y t h e r e a l i s t i c a n d r e v o l u t i o n a r y B u c h n e r , t h e a u t h o r o f t h e B e s s i s c h e L a n d b o t e , a n d b a s e t h e i r e n t i r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Woyzeck u p o n i t s p u r p o r t e d s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m . Woyzeck i s s e e n o n l y a s a n o u t c r y a g a i n s t t h e i n j u s t i c e a n d c r u e l t y o f 19 c e n t u r y s o c i e t y . T h e p r o t a g o n i s t ' s s u f f e r i n g a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g m u r d e r o f M a r i e a r e c a u s e d s o l e l y , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , b y t h e 15 e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . One c a n n o t , h o w e v e r , go t o t h e o p p o s i t e e x t r e m e an d i g n o r e t h e s o c i a l a n d r e v o l u t i o n -a r y a s p e c t o f B u c h n e r ' s work. To o b t a i n t h e p r o p e r p e r -s p e c t i v e i n t h i s r e s p e c t i t i s h e l p f u l t o e x amine B u c h n e r ' s p r i v a t e c h a n g e o f v i e w a s a r e s u l t o f h i s p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i -e n c e s . B u c h n e r f i r s t became c o n c e r n e d a b o u t p o l i t i c s w h i l e a t t e n d i n g t h e u n i v e r s i t y a t S t r a s s b u r g . He came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t o n l y mass r e v o l u t i o n c a n b r i n g a b o u t a n y c h a n g e s i n s o c i e t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , he h a d no i n t e n t i o n s o f b e c o m i n g i n v o l v e d i n p e t t y German p o l i t i c s . H o w e v e r , when B u c h n e r , i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n s , t r a n s -f e r r e d t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f G i e s s e n he s o o n became i n v o l v e d i n t h e r a d i c a l movement w h i c h h a d a r i s e n a f t e r t h e a b o r t i v e p e a s a n t s ' r e v o l t o f 1830. One o f t h e a g e n c i e s f o r B u c h n e r ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s was t h e 11 G e s e l l s c h a f t d e r M e n s c h e n -r e c h t e , " w h i c h he f o u n d e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s e v e r a l f r i e n d s . T h i s s o c i e t y was i n t e n d e d a s a p r o p a g a n d a c e n t e r where p a m p h l e t s - 1 6 -were to be p r i n t e d f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n among the peasants. Being an outspoken advocate of action, Buchner—together with Pastor Weidig—published i n 18J4- Der Hessische Landbote, which bore the motto from the French Revolution: "Priede den Huttenl Krieg den Palasten." In t h i s inflamatory t r a c t he denounced the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the peasants and c a l l e d on them to r e v o l t . The appearance of t h i s pamphlet l e d the a u t h o r i t i e s to take d r a s t i c action: Buchner was questioned and several of h i s f r i e n d s imprisoned. Being held suspect, Buchner returned home to Darmstadt, where he i n a few weeks wrote Dantons Tod. In t h i s play Buchner exposes h i s view on the French Revolution which had become t a i n t e d with l e s s i d e a l i s t i c motives. He comes to a f a t a l i s t i c view of h i s t o r y . Even re v o l u t i o n s , he f e e l s , are subject to a l l powerful f a t e . Shortly t h e r e a f t e r he had to f l e e across the border to Strassburg. D i s i l l u s i o n e d with the turn of events, Buchner now t o t a l l y withdrew from p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . He was d i s -i l l u s i o n e d with the weakness, the d i v i s i o n of the revolutionary party i t s e l f and recognized that i n such a condition i t could 1 7 accomplish nothing. ' From a youthful enthusiasm f o r revo-l u t i o n Buchner's views changed to despair: he no longer believed i n the e f f i c a c y of r e v o l u t i o n i n bringing about 18 s o c i a l and economic equal i t y , but rather saw i n p o l i t i c a l movements the b l i n d workings of c r u e l destiny. F. W. Kaufmann sums up the r a d i c a l change of view i n Buchner: "Buchner, the revolutionary who had hoped to lead man to a higher l e v e l and who had seen h i s endeavours f a i l because of the pettiness and s t u p i d i t y of revolutionary comrades and h i s - 17 -opponents, despairs of h i s t o r i c a l progress and of any possible 19 upward evolution of mankind." Although d i s i l l u s i o n e d with open r e v o l u t i o n , Buchner, 20 i n consonance with h i s compassionate philosophy of l i f e , s t i l l depicts the misery of the poor people i n h i s Woyzeck. Here are mirrored the actual s o c i a l and economic conditions of the 19 century state of Hesse-Darmstadt. Buchner, i n portraying the indigent condition of the lower c l a s s e s , demonstrates h i s continued sympathy f o r the underdog. Buchner here reveals h i s sympathy f o r "das arme Volk" by depicting the l o t of one of i t s mistreated members, Woyzeck, but, as we s h a l l see i n the next two chapters, by t h i s time h i s v i s i o n has expanded to the point where he sees every i n d i -v i d u a l s u f f e r i n g from a more "noble" m i s f o r t u n e — t h e condition of being a l i v e i n an i n e x p l i c a b l e and e v i l universe. - 18 -Chapter Two The material background of Woyzeck's s u f f e r i n g i s provided by the economic s i t u a t i o n i n which he f i n d s himself, but the deeper cause of h i s s u f f e r i n g i s h i s need f o r love. Here we must c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e between Woyzeck's tender, homely a f f e c t i o n f o r h i s "family" and h i s passionate love f o r Marie. I t has already been indicated that Woyzeck i s a kind i n d i v i d u a l aware of h i s moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to "wife" and c h i l d . One example w i l l s u f f i c e to i l l u s t r a t e h i s a f f e c t i o n f o r h i s "family." In the jewel scene he reveals h i s tender love f o r h i s son. The l i t t l e f e llow has f a l l e n asleep on a c h a i r , but i n an awkward p o s i t i o n : "Was der Bub s c h l a f t l G r e i f inn unters Jfrmchen, der Stuhl druckt i h n . " (p. 158) Woyzeck submits to the basest of mistreat-ment at the hands of the doctor and captain only because of such gentle love and care f o r h i s "family." Of greater importance, however, since the tragedy centers i n i t , i s h i s personal love f o r Marie. He needs some one whom he can love, but more than that he needs some one to love him: he needs that love to be returned. This b e l i e f i n a r e c i p r o -cated love provides h i s existence with meaning, which other-wise i s t o t a l l y l a c k i n g . Hence he i s prepared to-make any s a c r i f i c e to r e t a i n Marie's love. No s u f f e r i n g i s too degrading i f i t i s the means of keeping t h i s r e c i p r o c a l love i n t a c t . When she breaks the r e l a t i o n s h i p he has no f u r t h e r cause f o r l i v i n g . Ultimately, because of h i s need f o r Marie's love, Woyzeck i s pressured into the supreme degradation: that - 19 -of s e l l i n g h i s very person to the doctor to he used as subject i n the l a t t e r ' s s c i e n t i f i c experiments. For three months Woyzeck has been on a r i d i c u l o u s d i e t of nothing but peas. The doctor and h i s students make close observations on the subject to t e s t the e f f e c t that t h i s d i e t has on the pulse and eyes: "Sehen Sie: der Mensch, s e i t einem V i e r t e l j a h r i s s t er n i c h t s a l s Erbsen; bemerken Sie die Wirkung, fxihlen Sie einmal: was ein ungleicher Puis! der und die Augenl" (p. 168) Every emotional disturbance-resulting from such treatment i s u t i l i s e d as an occasion f o r fu r t h e r observation. Even when Woyzeck i s completely disconcerted by the captain's crass h i n t s about Marie, the doctor can think only of h i s experiment and quickly exclaims: "Den Puis, Woyzeck, den Puis! - K l e i n , hart, hupfend, unregelmassig . . . . Ge-sichtsmuskeln s t a r r , gespannt, zuweilen hupfend. Haltung aufgeregt, gespannt . . . . Phanomen! Woyzeck, Zulage!" (pp. 162, 163) M. Heimann b r i e f l y sums up the Woyzeck-doctor r e l a t i o n : "Ein Arzt h a l t ihn s i c h , wie s i e s i c h heute Hunde und Meerschweinchen und Ratten halten, zum Experimen-21 t i e r e n . . . ." In actual f a c t , Mr. Heimann i s too kind i n h i s e s t i -mation of the doctor, f o r to the l a t t e r Woyzeck i s , i f any-thing, worth l e s s than an animal. The doctor s t o i c a l l y refuses to become concerned about a mere human being: "Behute, wer wird s i c h uber einen Menschen argern, e i n ' Menschen! Wenn es noch ein Proteus ware, der einem kre-p i e r t ! " (p. 159) The doctor ignores Woyzeck the human being, choosing rather to look upon him as a mechanism r e a c t i n g to - 2 0 -s t i m u l i . In h i s preoccupation with abstract science the doctor f a i l s to recognize the worth and d i g n i t y of man; he i s , i n f a c t , a he a r t l e s s , t o t a l product of r a t i o n a l i t y who observes the world as an ul t i m a t e l y e x p l i c a b l e cause and ef f e c t s e r i e s . He refuses to recognize the i r r a t i o n a l , i n c a l c u l a b l e core of the human being which loves and s u f f e r s . In his experimenting, the doctor has l o s t a l l sense of human v a l u e s — h i s only concern i s the e g o i s t i c drive f o r s c i e n t i f i c experimentation. T y p i c a l of the doctor's r e a c t i o n to Woyzeck*s behaviour i s the scene where Woyzeck makes seemingly incoherent observations on the d u a l i t y of nature to him. The doctor's immediate answer i s : "Woyzeck, Er phi l o s o p h i e r t wieder . . . . Woyzeck, Er hat eine Aberratio." (p. 159) The f i r s t ex-pression i s one of condemnation, "philosophieren" being a nebulous u n s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e f o r which the doctor cannot be held accountable. But to h i s joy, he f i n d s a s c i e n t i f i c term which accounts f o r Woyzeck's behaviour. He rhapsodizes upon the word "Aberratio," c l a s s i f y i n g Woyzeck's disturbance according to the diagnostic handbook: "Woyzeck, Er hat die schonste Aberratio mentalis p a r t i a l i s , d i e zweite Spezies, sehr schon ausgepragt. Woyzeck, Er k r i e g t Zulagei Zweite Spezies: f i x e Idee mit allgemein vernunftigem Zustand." (pp. 159, 160) Of course, Buchner's p o r t r a y a l reveals to us a man f o r whom terminology covers a lack of r e a l under-standing and who uses L a t i n mumbo jumbo to t e r r i f y the uneducated. In a subsequent s i m i l a r scene the doctor throws a cat out of the window to demonstrate the law of g r a v i t y to h i s students. Woyzeck captures the cat, but i t b i t e s - 21 -him. Showing obvious signs of weakness from the experimental ordeal, he begins to tremble. The doctor d i s p l a y s absolutely no sympathy f o r human agony and sees yet another opportunity f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Joyously rubbing h i s hands, he exclaims: " E i , e i ! schon, Woyzeck!" (p. 167), and h e a r t l e s s l y goes on to. use h i s weakened subject i n a class-room demonstration 22 of muscular c o n t r o l by f o r c i n g Woyzeck to wiggle h i s ears. The doctor's i n s e n s i t i v i t y to s u f f e r i n g i s rendered even more loathsome by h i s personal ambitions. He i s motivated by a strong desire f o r renown. The doctor i s maniacally convinced that h i s f i n d i n g s w i l l r e v o l u t i o n i z e science: "Es gibt eine Revolution i n der Wissenschaft, i c h sprenge s i e i n die L u f t . Harnstoff 0, 10, salzsaures Ammonium, Hyperoxydul - " (p. 159) In t h i s c a r i c a t u r e of the doctor, Buchner mocks and attacks the s o u l l e s s i n t e l l e c t u a l with e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c vigour and i n consonance with the f e e l i n g s he expresses i n a l e t t e r of February 1834, to h i s family. Here Buchner expounds h i s intense hatred of such s u p e r f i c i a l i t y i n education—education which i s concerned only with the t r a i n i n g of the mind and neglects the heart. Shallow i n t e l l e c t u a l s , he declares, f e e l superior to ordinary people and scorn them, whereas the t r u l y educated man f e e l s a bond of sympathy with a l l humanity. I n t e l l e c t u -alism i s seen here as a reprehensible outgrowth of egoism and i s put on a plane with the p o l i t i c a l tyranny which Buchner, as a revolutionary, of necessity opposed: Ich habe f r e i l i c h noch eine Art von Spott, es i s t aber n i c h t der der Verachtung, sondern der - 22 -des Hasses. Der Hass i s t so gut erlaubt a l s die Liebe, und i c h hege inn. im v o l l s t e n Masse gegen di e , welche verachten. Es i s t deren eine grosse Zahl, d i e , im Besitz einer l a c h e r l i c h e n Ausser-l i c h k e i t , die man Bildung, oder eines toten Krams, den man Gelehrsamkeit h e i s s t , die grosse Masse i h r e r Briider ihrem verachtenden Egoismus opfern. Der Aristokratismus i s t die schandlich-ste Verachtung des H e i l i g e n Geistes im Menschen; gegen inn kehre i c h seine eigenen Waffen: Hochn* mut gegen Hochmut, Spott gegen Spott. (p. 378) p In the professor-horse scene of Woyzeck Buchner attacks the s u p e r f i c i a l i n t e l l e c t u a l even more n a t u r a l i s t i c a l l y . The t r a i n e d horse i s brought on stage to d i s p l a y a s a t i r i c anomaly termed "animal reasonableness." By various twists the author equates animal and man, the animal man and the human animal with the purpose of showing reason as a 24 corrupting influence on i d e a l nature. With thxs horse, which i s a professor and a member of i n t e l l e c t u a l s o c i e t y , Buchner renews h i s attack against empty e g o i s t i c scholar-ship: "Welchen Sinn hatte jener Entwurf der Marktschreier-szene, die Prasentierung des gelehrten Pferdes . . . wenn ni c h t den, Professorenphilosophie und Gelehrsamkeitsdunkel 25 mit erneuter B i t t e r k e i t zu verspotten." Wilbrand, the Professor of Anatomy at Giessen, i s known to have served as model f o r c e r t a i n aspects of the doctor i n Woyzeck. Por example, the demonstration of ear muscles was apparently one of Wilbrand's f a v o u r i t e amusements. Very frequently he would bring h i s l e c t u r e s to a climax with a demonstration of ear muscle movement by h i s son, who was 27 evidently quite adept i n t h i s . Buchner was w e l l - q u a l i f i e d to attack so b i t t e r l y the shallow s c i e n t i s t , f o r he was the son of a medical doctor - 23 -a n d h i m s e l f s p e n t c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e s t u d y i n g t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s and m e d i c i n e . D u r i n g h i s f i r s t s t a y i n S t r a s s b u r g he c o n c e n t r a t e d on z o o l o g y and c o m p a r a t i v e anatomy, a n d a t G i e s s e n he c o n t i n u e d t h e s e s t u d i e s . E v i d e n t l y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h h i s f a t h e r ' s w i s h e s he a l s o b e g a n t h e s t u d y o f p r a c t i c a l m e d i c i n e t h e r e . A f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o S t r a s s b u r g a s a p o l i t i c a l r e f u g e e , B u c h n e r d e l i v e r e d a p a p e r e n t i t l e d "Memoire s u r l e s y s t e m e n e r v e u x du b a r b e a u " t o t h e " S o c i e t e d ' h i s t o i r e n a t u r e l l e de S t r a s b o u r g . " W i t h t h i s same t h e s i s he l a t e r t o o k h i s d o c t o r a t e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Z u r i c h . H i s t r i a l l e c t u r e d e l i v e r e d a t Z u r i c h was a l s o on a s c i e n t i f i c s u b j e c t , " u b e r S c h a d e l n e r v e n . " B e s i d e t h e d o c t o r , t h e r e i s s t i l l a n o t h e r m a j o r f i g u r e who c o n t r i b u t e s n o t o n l y t o W oyzeck's p h y s i c a l a b u s e a n d m i s t r e a t m e n t , b u t a l s o t o h i s c o m p l e t e e s t r a n g e m e n t f r o m t h e w o r l d . The drum m a j o r , l o o k i n g f o r a v i c t i m on whom he c a n g i v e v e n t t o h i s e x c e s s e n e r g y , c h a l l e n g e s t h e h e l p -l e s s Woyzeck t o a f i g h t : "Du K e r l , s a u f l I c h w o l l t , d i e W e l t war S c h n a p s , S c h n a p s — d e r Mann muss s a u f e n i (Woyzeck p f e i f t . ) K e r l , s o l i i c h d i r d i e Zunge aus dem H a l s Ziehen u n d s i e urn den L e i b h e r u m w i c k e l n ? ( S i e r i n g e n , Woyzeck v e r l i e r t . ) " ( p . 169) More i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e ' p h y s i c a l p a i n t h e drum m a j o r i n f l i c t s on Woyzeck i s t h e m e n t a l a n g u i s h he c a u s e s h i m b y s e d u c i n g M a r i e . T h i s h u m i l i a t i o n i s much more s e v e r e t h a n t h e p h y s i c a l b e a t i n g he r e c e i v e s , f o r o u t o f t h e s e d u c t i o n o f M a r i e a r i s e s W o y z e c k ' s i n t e n s e p s y c h i c a g o n y . Out o f l o v e f o r M a r i e he h a s doomed h i m s e l f t o p h y s i c a l d e g e n e r a t i o n - 2 4 -through a d i e t of peas. But i r o n i c a l l y , he thereby has l o s t her respect and l o v e — t h e very thing against which he was desperately t r y i n g to guard—and has driven her into the arms of the robust drum major. For Woyzeck there i s no way out of t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n brought upon him by the drum major who represents the whole overpowering lovelessness of the world. The drum major ( l i k e the r e s t of the world) does not know what love i s ; he equates love with the sex act: "Was ein Weibsbildl . . . Und zur Zucht von TambourmajorsI . . . Das i s t ein Weibsbild!" (pp. 1 5 6 , 157) To Marie he exclaims: "Sapperment, wir wollen eine Zucht von Tambourmajors anlegen. He? (Er umfasst s i e . ) . . . Wild T i e r ! " (p. 1 6 0 ) Later, Andres repeats some of the drum major's comments: "Ein k o s t l i c h WeibsbildJ die hat Schenkel, und a l l e s so h e i s s ! " (p. 1 6 8 ) While watching Marie dance with the drum major, Woyzeck bursts out: "Der K e r l , wie er an i h r herumgreift, an ihrem LeibI Er, er hat s i e — w i e i c h zu Anfang." (p. 1 6 6 ) A lo v e l e s s world, represented by a man preoccupied with sex, robs Woyzeck of h i s beloved, and leads to h i s ultimate despair. Woyzeck's simple f r i e n d Andres i s a d i f f e r e n t character from the c r u e l , e g o i s t i c doctor, or from the b e l l i g e r e n t drum major. Andres does not rev e a l malevolence; he i s an average self-centered human who i s too apathetic to be genuinely concerned about the s u f f e r i n g of others. Buchner implies that that i s the way humans are. Andres i s not ma l i c i o u s l y c r u e l as the doctor and the drum major are. He knows there i s something wrong with Woyzeck, but he cannot - 25 -comprehend the nature of h i s agony. Being an ordinary, care-f r e e man, he does not t r y to fathom Woyzeck*s s u f f e r i n g . Andres mistakes h i s f r i e n d ' s mental and s p i r i t u a l anguish f o r p h y s i c a l pain. This lack of understanding leads him to r i d i c u l e Woyzeck s l i g h t l y : on two occasions he c a l l s Woyzeck a f o o l . A f t e r Woyzeck's suspicions regarding Marie have been aroused he confides i n Andres, t e l l i n g him that he i s upset and r e s t l e s s , but a l l h i s f r i e n d answers i s "Narr." (p. 164-) Andres f e e l s that Woyzeck need not be so concerned about a f a i t h l e s s woman. He cannot comprehend the complete love which Woyzeck f e e l s f o r Marie and the resu l t a n t f r u s t r a t i o n s which are impelling him int o t o t a l r e j e c t i o n of the world. One night Woyzeck i s kept from sleeping by the haunting v i s i o n s , and to receive consolation he wakes up Andres. The l a t t e r becomes annoyed on hearing more of the v i s i o n s and sharply t e l l s Woyzeck, "Schlaf, Narr!" (p. 167), before turning over on the other side and going back to sleep. In a subsequent scene, however, the e f f e c t of t h i s r i d i c u l e i s modulated, f o r Andres shows a l i t t l e genuine c h a r i t y . However, s t i l l not recognizing the nature of Woyzeck's s u f f e r i n g , he believes Woyzeck has a high fever which can be cured by drinking brandy with quinine: "Franz, du kommst in s Lazarett. Armer, du musst Schnaps trin k e n und Pulver d r i n , das tot das Fieber." (p. 171) That Woyzeck s u f f e r s from a malady which no panacea can sooth i s beyond the understanding of t h i s common man. The c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e which Buchner displays toward Andres i s i n t e n s i f i e d i n the maudlin captain who i s anything - 26 -but a m i l i t a r y f i g u r e : be i s f a t , over-sentimental and too t a l k a t i v e . He does not consciously intend to hurt Woyzeck, but merely enjoys using him as a butt and whipping boy. P r i n c i p a l l y , Woyzeck i s an assurance to him of h i s own s u p e r i o r i t y and serves to b o l s t e r h i s own egoism: Hauptmann. Was i s t heut f u r Wetter? . . . Ich glaub, wir haben so was aus Sud-Nbrd? Woyzeck. Jawohl, Herr Hauptmann. Hauptmann. Hal ha! ha! Sud-Nord! Ha! ha! na! Oh, Er i s t dumm, ganz abscheulich dummi (pp. 1 5 1 , 1 5 2 ) The e n t i r e beginning dialogue i n d i c a t e s the captain's s e l f -centered unconcern. He wants Woyzeck to slow down i n shaving him, because otherwise he w i l l be through too soon. The melancholy captain does not know what to do with the extra ten minutes. He i s only concerned about f i l l i n g out h i s time, even though he does so by r i d i c u l i n g the already unsettled 2 8 Woyzeck. While the captain i s not b l a t a n t l y c r u e l as are the doctor and drum major, with h i s i n s i d i o u s use of r i d i c u l e he can be more subtly v i c i o u s . In h i s crude d i s c l o s u r e regarding Marie, the captain hurts Woyzeck more than the doctor, f o r the stupid captain f i n d s i t hi g h l y amusing that Marie has been untrue to Woyzeck. Por Woyzeck t h i s i s the most t e r r i b l e r e v e l a t i o n i n the entire play. Just f o r a moment the captain i s perplexed and almost f e e l s sorry f o r the poor creature he r i d i c u l e s , but at the end he summons up enough o b j e c t i v i t y to laugh at Woyzeck's grotesque, animal-like g a i t — t h e h u r r i e d g a i t of one who i s being pursued. The captain, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , can laugh at Woyzeck and see him as a grotesque f i g u r e , but he i s unable to laugh - 27 -at himself. For example, i n the scene where the doctor confronts him with imminent death, the captain becomes extremely alarmed: "Herr Doktor, erschrecken Sie mich n i c h t ! Es sind schon Leute am Schreck gestorben, am b l o s -sen h e l l e n Schreck. - Ich sehe schon die Leute mit den Zitronen i n den Handen; . . . (p. 161) Woyzeck i s powerless to r e t a l i a t e against the r i d i c u l e of s o c i e t y . Hence, Buchner must take up the cudgels f o r him., and through the captain he judges (and condemns) an age which has l o s t the true sense of values, an age which has l o s t a l l contact with e s s e n t i a l humanity. This s o c i e t y has no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r l i v i n g on. In a l e t t e r of 1836 Buchner writes: "Ich glaube, man muss i n soz i a l e n Dingen von einem absoluten Reehtsgrundsatz ausgehen, die Bildung eines neuen geistig e n Lebens im Volke suchen und die abgelebte moderne Gesellschaft zum Teufel gehen lassen. Zu was s o i l ein Ding wie diese zwischen Himmel und Erde herumlaufen? Das ganze Leben derselben besteht nur i n Versuchen, s i c h die entsetz-l i c h s t e Langeweile zu vertreiben. Sie mag aussterben, das i s t das e i n z i g Neue, was s i e noch erleben kann." (p. 412) Marie, l i k e the r e s t of t h i s s ociety, cannot comprehend Woyzeck's anguish. She has found l i f e with him becoming more and more d i f f i c u l t : h i s v i s i t s have been infrequent because he l i v e s i n the barracks and i s continuously occupied i n earning money f o r her. When he does come she i s unable to understand h i s mystifying comments. She begins to f e a r him. Ignoring her g u i l t , she f e e l s that perhaps he i s becoming insane: "Er schnappt hoch uber mit den Gedankeni . . . - 2 8 -Ich h a l t ' s n i t aus; es schauert michi" (p. 155) But, l i k e most human beings, she does not exert h e r s e l f to understand other people or the world, and thus she finds l i f e b e a u t i f u l . Her philosophy of l i f e i s summed up i n four of her own words: "Komische Welt! schone Welti" (p. 155) Marie affirms l i f e ; as a whole i t i s b e a u t i f u l . The vexations which occur from time to time cannot cause her to repudiate i t , rather they make i t unaccountably i n t e r e s t i n g ("Komische Welt"). Marie wants to enjoy l i f e (witness her pleasure at the f a i r and her excitement at the dance). In her way she has been f a i t h f u l to Woyzeck, but now the drum major comes upon the scene representing everything l a c k i n g i n her r e l a t i o n -ship with Woyzeck and she cannot r e s i s t the temptation. The drum major, following h i s sensual nature, takes advantage of Marie's n a t u r a l hedonism and i s e a s i l y able to seduce her. In t h i s "Mann, wie ein Baum" who stands "auf seinen Pussen wie ein Low" (p. 154) she sees sex p e r s o n i f i e d . Marie, f i n d i n g the drum major i r r e s i s t i b l y appealing to her momen-t a r i l y dominant animal nature, submits to h i s d e s i r e s . For the instant the appeal of nature i s so strong i n Marie that she can ignore the e f f e c t the action w i l l have on Woyzeck. To be sure she repudiates Woyzeck's love, a love which we recognize to be f a r worthier than the drum major's. However, Buchner cannot condemn her because she i s u n f a i t h -f u l . This i s nature at work. She i s at f a u l t rather because she hurts the deeply s e n s i t i v e Woyzeck. In the "Mariens Kammer" scene where Woyzeck confronts Marie with h i s knowledge - 2 9 -of her unfaithfulness she adopts a defiance to which she i s t e c n n i c a l l y j u s t i f i e d . They are not married. He cannot command her: "Ruhr mich an, Franz! Ich hatt l i e b e r ein Messer i n den Leib a l s deine Hand auf meiner." (p. 164) But the defiance has a r i n g to i t which t e l l s of indignation concealing g u i l t . She has v i o l a t e d the t r u s t of a man with a s o u l . From externals one might judge that Marie shares the same i n d i f f e r e n c e and egoism as the captain or Andres. But, i n contrast to the others who have caused Woyzeck mental torment, she i s capable of self-reproach and remorse: a f t e r her a f f a i r with the drum major she i s p r i v a t e l y aware of her s i n against Woyzeck. She reproaches h e r s e l f : "Ich bin doch ein schlecht Mensch! Ich konnt mich erstechen." (p. 158) On t h i s occasion her confession of g u i l t sounds rather super-f i c i a l and unconvincing because she concludes with a r a t i o n -a l i z a t i o n of her act: "Ach! was Welt! Geht doch a l l e s zum Teu f e l , Mann und Weib!" (p. 158) Nevertheless, t h i s scene i s important f o r i t foreshadows the genuine remorse which she l a t e r f e e l s . Marie i s a r e l i g i o u s person, but her f a i t h does not deter her from s i n . She has no compunctions about l i v i n g with a man and having a c h i l d by him out of wedlock. In f a c t , she speaks with a c e r t a i n p r o l e t a r i a n pride of her "arm Hurenkind." However, the strong f e e l i n g s of remorse which we u l t i m a t e l y witness are associated with her r e l i g i o u s upbringing. F i l l e d with c o n t r i t i o n , she i s driven to her Bi b l e f o r comfort. She reads of the woman who was caught - 3 0 -i n adultery and was brought to Jesus, and of the s i n f u l woman who anointed C h r i s t ' s f e e t . Marie recognizes that she too i s s i n f u l . In t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of s i n there i s more than s e l f - p i t y : she i n d i c a t e s a genuine f e e l i n g f o r Woyzeck, whom she knows she has wronged. Now her c h i l d only reminds her of her s i n against Woyzeck: "Das Kind g i b t mir einen S t i c h ins Herz." (p. 170) She i s concerned about Woyzeck's unusually long absence. In her d i s t r e s s she can f i n d no comfort i n the B i b l e . She cannot pray and she cannot.even weep, i n d i c a t i n g an honest f r u s t r a t i o n i n her soul. She knows her own nature i s s i n f u l , and at the same time she f e e l s the worth of her man Woyzeck and her treachery to him. She i s caught between the sensual and the i d e a l aspects of her nature, a c o n f l i c t which gives r i s e to her f r u s t r a t i o n . Every e f f o r t to f i n d the needed assurance of forgiveness of her s i n i s to no a v a i l . Her r e l i g i o u s f a i t h i s unable to a l l e v i a t e the s p i r i t u a l s u f f e r i n g r e s u l t i n g from her dilemma. F i n a l l y , beating her breast, although she knows she cannot contact her saviour, she c r i e s out i n despair: " A l l e s t o t ! Heiland! Heiland! i c h mochte d i r die Eusse s a l b e n i " (p. 170) That Marie i s genuinely downcast about her act against Woyzeck i s also revealed i n l a t e r scenes. When the c h i l d r e n on the s t r e e t ask her to sing f o r them, she, s t i l l taken up with remorse, cannot comply with t h e i r wishes. Also, her actions i n the death scene show a change of a t t i t u d e . She answers Woyzeck tenderly, whereas before she was ca u s t i c and s a r c a s t i c . One gains the impression that Marie i s t r y i n g to make up f o r her wrong, although she can never ask f o r forgiveness. - 31 -Woyzeck i s t o t a l l y estranged from t h i s world which has no heart. The e g o i s t i c doctor contributes to h i s i s o -l a t i o n by degrading h i s humanity, the su p e r c i l i o u s captain by crude j e s t i n g , the simple Andres by normal i n d i f f e r e n c e to h i s s u f f e r i n g , and the b e l l i g e r e n t drum major by the seduc-t i o n of h i s only g i r l . Marie completes Woyzeck's estrange-ment from the r e s t of humanity by severing the r e c i p r o c a l love r e l a t i o n s h i p which alone gave him reason f o r l i v i n g . Woyzeck, a man with heart, has no more purpose i n l i f e except perhaps i n the destruction of t h i s e v i l world. - 3 2 -Chapter Three Woyzeck, a man given to i n a r t i c u l a t e brooding, i s obsessed with the e v i l i n the world, which Buchner represents i n the somewhat Romantic symbol of voices and v i s i o n s . C o i n c i d e n t a l l y with them Woyzeck has come to f e e l the senselessness of l i f e . For a b r i e f moment he f i n d s purpose i n l i f e i n h i s love f o r Marie, but upon discovering the l o s s of her love he returns to a deeper co n v i c t i o n of senselessness, which he expresses i n h i s act of vengeance. By k i l l i n g what he loved best, he r e j e c t s the world that through Marie has r e j e c t e d him. His s u i c i d e completes h i s repudiation of any purpose i n existence. The voices and v i s i o n s r e f l e c t the e s s e n t i a l e v i l i n an incomprehensible universe, both the macrocosm and the microcosm. These forces constantly haunt him, i n the c i t y , i n the f i e l d s , and i n the barracks. He can f e e l them pressing i n around him and almost d r i v i n g him out of h i s mind: "Es i s t h inter mir hergangen b i s vor die Stadt. Etwas, was wir n i c h t fassen, begreifen, was uns von Sinnen b r i n g t . Was s o i l das werden?" (p. 155) These des t r u c t i v e f o r c e s , symbolized by the voices, also command the murder: "Ha! was, was s a g t i i h r ? Lauter! l a u t e r ! S t i c h , s t i c h die Zickwolfin t o t ? — s t i c h , s t i c h d i e — Z i c k w o l f i n t o t ! — S o i l ich? muss i c h ? " (p. 166) Furthermore, Woyzeck, with the dullness of an elemental soul, perceives the chaotic nature of the whole universe, which i s not only senseless but also dangerous to man. Man seems to be l i v i n g on a t h i n crust which could break - 33 -a t a n y moment, d e v o u r i n g h i m l i k e a w i l d "beast. When Woyzeck c r i e s o u t , " H o h l , h o r s t du? a l l e s h o h l d a u n t e n i " ( p . 1 5 3 ) , he e c h o e s t h e w o r d s o f a c h a r a c t e r i n D a n t o n s T o d : " J a , d i e E r d e i s t e i n e dunne K r u s t e ; i c h m e i n e immer, i c h k o n n t e d u r c h f a l i e n , wo so e i n L o c h i s t . - Man muss m i t V o r s i c h t a u f -t r e t e n , man k o n n t e d u r c h b r e c h e n . " ( p . 39) The f a c t t h a t t h e w o r l d i s h e a d e d f o r d e s t r u c t i o n ( a c c o r d i n g t o W o y z e c k 1 s v i s i o n s ) i s a l s o i n d i c a t i v e o f i t s e s s e n t i a l e v i l . H i s v i s i o n s , w h i c h a r e f r e q u e n t l y b a s e d on B i b l i c a l a c c o u n t s o f d e s t r u c t i o n , p r e d i c t u t t e r r u i n . Q u o t i n g f r o m t h e A p o c a l y p s e ( 9 : 2 ) , Woyzeck s e e s a s c e n e o f d e v a s t a t i o n b y f i r e : "Und s i e h , d a g i n g e i n R a u c h vom L a n d , w i e d e r R a u c h vom O f e n ? " ( p . 155) N o t o n l y i s t h e u n i v e r s e o u t s i d e e v i l a n d s e n s e l e s s , b u t man i s a l s o empty o f g o o d p u r p o s e . I t i s u n n e r v i n g e v e n t o t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d man: " J e d e r M e n s c h i s [ s i c ] e i n Ab-g r u n d ; e s s c h w i n d e l t e i n e m , wenn man h i n a b s i e h t . " ( p . 164) T h r o u g h h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f l o n e l i n e s s — c u l m i -n a t i n g i n h i s r e j e c t i o n b y M a r i e — W o y z e c k h a s come t o a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e w o r l d a s s e n s e l e s s a n d h e n c e e v i l . I n a d d i t i o n he s e e s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s l o s t a n d h e l p l e s s i n i t s d a r k c o n f i n e s . T he i n d i v i d u a l must g r o p e t h r o u g h l i f e , c o n s t a n t l y f e a r i n g t h a t t h e v e r y w o r l d w i l l d i s i n t e -g r a t e i n h i s f i n g e r s : "Wenn d i e N a t u r a u s i s t , d a s i s t , wenn d i e N a t u r — a u s i s t . Wenn d i e W e l t so f i n s t e r w i r d , d a s s man m i t d e n Handen an i h r h e r u m t a p p e n muss, d a s s man m e i n t , s i e v e r r i n n t w i e S p i n n e w e b . Das i s t s o , wenn e t w a s i s t u nd d o c h n i c h t i s t , wenn a l l e s d u n k e l i s t u n d n u r n o c h - 34 -e i n r o t e r S c h e i n i m W e s t e n , w i e v o n e i n e r E s s e . " ( p . 502) Woyzeck r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e r e i s no r e a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e : f o r e x a m p l e , he a n d t h e c a p t a i n do n o t c o m m u n i c a t e , b u t m e r e l y t a l k p a s t e a c h o t h e r . Woyzeck knows t h a t e v e r y one l i v e s a n d s u f f e r s a l o n e . He e x p e r i e n c e s what D a n t o n h a d e x p r e s s e d : " W i r w i s s e n w e n i g v o n e i n a n d e r . W i r . s i n d D i c k h a u t e r , w i r s t r e c k e n d i e Hande n a c h e i n a n d e r a u s , a b e r e s i s t v e r g e b l i c h e Muhe, w i r r e i b e n n u r d a s g r o b e L e d e r a n e i n a n d e r a b , — w i r s i n d s e h r e i n s a m . " ( p . 9) We know t h a t B u c h n e r i n h i s own l i f e a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s l o n e l i n e s s : " I c h b i n a l l e i n , w i e i m G r a b e ; warm e r w e c k t m i c h D e i n e Hand? M e i n e F r e u n d e v e r l a s s e n m i c h , w i r s e h r e i e n u n s w i e T a u b e e i n a n d e r i n d i e O h r e n ; i c h w o l l t e , w i r w a ren stumm, d a n n konn-t e n w i r u n s d o c h n u r a n s e h e n . . . ." ( B r i e f a n d i e B r a u t , G i e s s e n , P e b r u a r , p . 378) D e s p i t e h i s u l t i m a t e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e e s s e n t i a l e v i l o f man a n d o f t h e u n i v e r s e , Woyzeck a s l o n g a s he m a i n t a i n s f a i t h i n M a r i e ' s l o v e s t i l l s e e s l i f e a s a m b i v a l e n t — b o t h g o o d a n d e v i l . When he s e e s t h e p a r a d o x i c a l s i t u a t i o n a t t h e f a i r w h e r e an o l d man s i n g s i n a b a r o q u e v e i n a b o u t t h e i n c o n s t a n c y o f l i f e , a n d t o t h i s m u s i c a y o u n g c h i l d j o y f u l l y d a n c e s , Woyzeck c r i e s : " H e i , H o p s a ' s ! - A r m e r Mann, a l t e r Manni Armes K i n d , j u n g e s K i n d ! S o r g e n u n d E e s t e ! " ( p . 155) However, a s e v e n t s show f i n a l l y Woyzeck a l s o r e j e c t s t h i s n o t i o n t h a t l i f e c a n b r i n g h a p p i n e s s a s w e l l as s u f f e r i n g . I n h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e l o n e l i n e s s a n d s e n s e l e s s -n e s s i n t h e w o r l d , B u c h n e r a r r i v e s a t an e x t r e m e f a t a l i s m . - 35 -A l l o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s a r e d e t e r m i n e d b y a n d a r e t h e v i c t i m s o f a n a l l - p o w e r f u l o u t s i d e f o r c e — f a t e . As we h a v e n o t e d , e v e n i n t h e o u t s t a n d i n g e v e n t o f h i s t i m e , t h e R e v o l u t i o n , B u c h n e r comes t o s e e a c a t a s t r o p h e o f h i s t o r y w h i c h c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a v o i d e d , r a t h e r t h a n an e x p r e s s i o n o f a p o l i t i -c a l w i l l . I n t h e f amous l e t t e r t o h i s f i a n c e e , he e x p r e s s e s h i s e x t r e m e l y p e s s i m i s t i c v i e w s on t h e f a t a l i s m o f h i s t o r y : I c h s t u d i e r t e d i e G e s c h i c h t e d e r R e v o l u t i o n . I c h f u h l t e m i c h w i e z e r n i c h t e t , u n t e r dem g r a s s l i c h e n F a t a l i s m u s d e r G e s c h i c h t e . I c h f i n d e . i n d e r Men-s c h e n n a t u r e i n e e n t s e t z l i c h e G l e i c h h e i t , i n d e n m e n s c h l i c h e n V e r n a l t n i s s e n e i n e u nabwendbare G e w a l t , a l i e n u n d k e i n e m v e r l i e h e n . B e r e i n z e l n e n u r Schaum a u f d e r W e l l e , d i e G r o s s e e i n b l o s s e r Z u f a l l , d i e H e r r s c h a f t d e s G e n i e s e i n P u p p e n s p i e l , e i n l a c h e r l i c h e s R i n g e n g e g e n e i n e h e r n e s G e s e t z , es z u e r k e n n e n d a s H o c h s t e , e s z u b e h e r r s c h e n unmog-l i c h . E s f a l l t m i r n i c h t mehr e i n , v o r d e n P a r a d e -g a u l e n u n d E c k s t e h e r n d e r G e s c h i c h t e m i c h z u b u c k e n . I c h gewohnte mein.Auge a n s B l u t . A b e r i c h b i n k e i n G u i l l o t i n e m e s s e r . Das Muss i s t e i n s v o n d e n Verdammungsworten, womit d e r M e n s c h • g e t a u f t w o r d e n . D e r A u s s p r u c h : es muss j a J S r g e r -n i s kommen, a b e r wehe dem, d u r c h d e n e s k o m m t — i s t s c h a u d e r h a f t . Was i s t d a s , was i n u n s l u g t , mor-d e t , s t i e h l t ? I c h mag dem G e d a n k e n n i c h t w e i t e r n a c h g e h e n . K o n n t e i c h a b e r d i e s k a l t e u n d gemar-t e r t e H e r z an D e i n e B r u s t l e g e n i ( p . 374) H e r e B u c h n e r i s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r i n g t o h i s s t u d i e s p r i o r t o w r i t i n g P a n t o n s T o d , t h e p l a y i n w h i c h he d e p i c t s t h e f a t a l i s m o f h i s t o r y t h r o u g h a n i m p o r t a n t h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t . D a n t o n i s aware t h a t man ( a n d e v e n r e v o l u t i o n s ) a r e p o w e r l e s s b e f o r e t h e m y s t e r i o u s I t . T h i s i m p e r s o n a l power o f f a t e c o n t r o l s p e o p l e l i k e p u p p e t s : "Puppen s i n d w i r , v o n u n b e k a n n t e n G e w a l t e n am D r a h t g e z o g e n ; n i c h t s , n i c h t s w i r s e l b s t l d i e S c h w e r t e r , m i t d e n e n G e i s t e r k a m p f e n — m a n s i e h t n u r d i e Hande n i c h t , w i e i m M a r c h e n . " ( p . 45) The g o d s m a n i p u l a t e man a s a p l a y t h i n g t o p r o v i d e t h e m s e l v e s - 36 -enjoyment i n t h e i r boredom. They u t i l i s e man f o r t h e i r own pleasure regardless of the pain they i n f l i c t on him. In b i t t e r pessimism, Buchner again picks up t h i s theme of fate r u l i n g man: Danton. Aber wir sind die armen Musikanten und unsere Korper-die Instrumente. Sind denn die hasslichen Tone, welche auf ihnen herausge-pfuscht werden, nur da, urn hSher und hoher dringend und endlich l e i s e verhallend wie ein wo l l i i s t i g e r Hauch i n himmlischen Ohren zu sterben? Herault. Sind wir wie F e r k e l , die man f u r f i i r s t -l i c h e T a f e ln mit Ruten t o t p e i t s c h t , damit i h r F l e i s c h schmackhafter werde? Danton. Sind wir Kinder, die i n den gluhenden Molochsarmen dieser Welt gebraten und mit L i c h t s t r a h l e n g e k i t z e l t werden, damit die pq Gotter s i c h iiber i h r Lachen freuen? (p. 7 8 ) Danton, recognizing the f u t i l i t y of s t r u g g l i n g against the power of f a t e , sums up Buchner's view i n one clause: "Das Schicksal f u h r t uns den Arm, . . . M (p. 5 8 ) There i s no i n d i c a t i o n that Buchner's views on f a t e changed by the time he wrote Woyzeck. Here he reveals that f a t e also controls the unimportant i n d i v i d u a l as well as great h i s t o r i c a l events. In Woyzeck Buchner gives a concrete 30 i l l u s t r a t i o n of fate d i r e c t i n g a man. The poor d e v i l Woyzeck i s exposed to the r e l e n t l e s s forces of destiny, not knowing any reason f o r the r e s u l t i n g s u f f e r i n g . Buchner i s here d i s p l a y i n g h i s own view of l i f e . V i e t o r writes concerning Buchner's conception of h i s protagonist: "Woyzecks Mord, f u r den unwissenden Psychologen eine Tat, i s t f i i r Buchner ein unentwirrbares Verhangnis, i n dem ein armer Teufel aufgeopfert wird. Aus dem, was dem Mediziner ein psychologisches Problem war, i s t dem Dichter ein S i n n b i l d der furchtbaren Beschaffenheit des Lebens geworden und - 37 -des Schicksals, das die sich auswirkende Unerbittlichkeit 31 dieses Lebens i s t . n > To be sure, for Buchner l i f e and fate are p i t i l e s s . But this "fate" may only be terminology to obscure the fact that he can see no guiding moral principle i n the universe. He cannot believe i n the existence of a moral, personal God. Hence, he ascribes everything to an incomprehensible force which for lack of anything better he terms "fate." Fate i s neither good nor e v i l . Consequently, both the macrocosm and the microcosm are amoral, for fatalism excludes a l l p o s s i b i l i t y of g u i l t . Buchner's characters, who have no religious morality, follow the blind dictates of nature, frequently referring to their "Natur . . . Charakter . . . Struktur" to j u s t i f y their actions. They do not hold themselves responsible for 32 their actions (and nor does Buchner). The characters appear to be free, but they themselves recognize an underlying determinism. Acknowledging a compelling urge to e v i l , Danton asks as Buchner does in his letter: "Wer w i l l der Hand fluchen, auf die der Fluch des Muss gefalien? Wer hat das Muss gesprochen, wer? Was i s t das, was i n uns lugt, hurt, stieh l t und mordet?" (p. 4-5) It i s Buchner's conviction that there i s an impersonal force of events and circumstances beyond the control of the individual which causes him to l i e , fornicate, steal, and murder. Hence, Woyzeck i s not personally responsible for the murder, because the powerful "It" compels him to carry i t out. The incomprehensible f o r c e s — t y p i f i e d 33 by the voices—spur him on to his last desperate act. Neither can Marie be held guilty for her unfaithfullnes to - 38 -Woyzeck, f o r s h e m e r e l y a c t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o m p e l l i n g d i c t a t e s o f h e r p a s s i o n a t e n a t u r e . I n d i s t i n c t i o n t o D a n t o n , whose c o n v i c t i o n s a r e f a i r l y w e l l f o r m e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p l a y , Woyzeck i s b r o u g h t t o a f o r c e f u l , i n d e e d v i o l e n t r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e b a s i c a m o r a l i t y o f t h e u n i v e r s e d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p l a y . As l o n g a s p u r p o s e e x i s t s i n h i s l i f e , he c a n w i t h s t a n d t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t s o f a m o r a l f a t e , t h e v i s i o n s a n d v o i c e s . W i t h t h e l o s s o f p u r p o s e he s u c c u m b s . He c o n f i r m s h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f an a m o r a l u n i v e r s e t h r o u g h v i o l e n t r e j e c t i o n o f m o r a l i t y i n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n who h a s h e r e t o f o r e e m b o d i e d t h i s m o r a l i t y f o r h i m . Woyzeck a n d t h e c a p t a i n a r e t h e o n l y p e r s o n s i n t h e p l a y who a r e a b l e t o r e f l e c t a n d who r e c o g n i z e t h e s e n s e l e s s -n e s s a n d s u f f e r i n g i n t h e w o r l d . Woyzeck i s k e e n l y aware 34 o f t h e e x i s t e n t i a l s u f f e r i n g o f man: l i f e means s u f f e r i n g . T h i s n o b l e s u f f e r i n g , he r e c o g n i z e s , i s c a u s e d b y l i f e i t s e l f a n d n o t b y a n y s i n f u l m a t e r i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . E v e r y o n e i s c a u g h t i n t h e s n a r e o f e x i s t e n c e a n d no one c a n e x t r i c a t e h i m s e l f . S t r u g g l e i s i n v a i n . I n Woyzeck B u c h n e r g i v e s a p o i g n a n t p i c t u r e o f t h e t r a g e d y o f t h e w o r l d where e x i s t e n c e i t s e l f i s t o i l a n d e f f o r t , e v e n i n t h e n e x t l i f e : " I c h g l a u b , wenn w i r i n Himmel kamen, so m u s s t e n w i r d o n n e r n h e l f e n . " ( p . 152) A s Woyzeck s e e s h i s s o n s l e e p i n g u n c o m f o r t a b l y on a c h a i r , he e x c l a i m s : " D i e h e l l e n T r o p f e n s t e h e n i h m a u f d e r S t i r n ; a l l e s A r b e i t u n t e r d e r Sonn, s o g a r S c h w e i s s i m S c h l a f . W i r arme L e u t ! " ( p . 1 5 8 ) T h i s a g a i n i s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e t r a g e d y o f l i f e . E v e n t h e c h i l d w h i l e a s l e e p seems t o s t r u g g l e u n d e r t h e b u r d e n o f e x i s t e n c e : " . . . a l l e s A r b e i t u n t e r - 39 -der Sonn, sogar Schweiss im Schlaf." Woyzeck's l a s t outcry, "Wir arme L e u t i " i s ambiguous: be might be r e f e r r i n g to hi s s o c i a l group, but he i s equally well bemoaning the f a t e of humanity as such. The captain also looks upon a senseless world. He too has some recognition of the tragedy of existence (although i t remains s u p e r f i c i a l ) . Being a r i d i c u l o u s l y sentimental person, the captain reveals a maudlin melancholy when r e f l e c t i n g on the nature of l i f e . He i s often frightened, nervous and r e s t l e s s , r e v e a l i n g a fundamental fear of l i f e and death. Whenever he meditates on the eternal problem of time and boredom (one of Buchner's f a v o u r i t e themes) and on the problem of existence, the captain, t a l k i n g i n the maudlin tone of King Peter i n Leonee und Lena, becomes very depressed: "Es wird mir ganz angst urn die Welt, wenn i c h an die Ewig-k e i t denke. Beschaftigung, Woyzeck, Beschaftigung! Ewig: das i s t ewig, das i s t ewig—das siehst du ein; nun i s t es aber wieder n i c h t ewig, und das i s t ein Augenblick, j a ein Augenblick—Woyzeck, es schaudert mich, wenn i c h denke, dass s i c h die Welt i n einem Tag herumdreht! Was 'n Zeitverschwen-dung! Wo s o i l das hinaus? Woyzeck, i c h kann kein Muhlrad mehr sehn, oder i c h werd melancholisch." (p. 151) Both Woyzeck and the captain encounter the same problem of a meaningless world, but i n Woyzeck the r e s u l t i s t r a g i c and i n the captain comic. There must be a reason f o r the d i f f e r e n c e . Woyzeck i s an ordinary man who has a heart that f e e l s — h e i s susceptible to strong emotions such as love. He needs love and purpose i n l i f e . In response to t h i s need - 40 -Woyzeck gives himself completely to Marie. The captain, on the other hand, t a l k s rather than f e e l s . His lamentations about l i f e and e t e r n i t y remain on the surface, because he never r e a l l y becomes involved with l i f e . He never personally experiences the tragedy of l i f e , f o r he i s un w i l l i n g to and incapable of committing himself to another i n love. For him, as f o r the drum major, love i s sex, but h i s spurious morality keeps him from experiencing even t h i s animal love: "Wenn i c h am Fenster l i e g , wenn's geregnet hat, und den weissen Strumpfen so nachseh, wie s i e uber die Gassen s p r i n g e n — v e r -dammt, Woyzeck, da kommt mir die Liebe! . Ich hab auch F l e i s c h und Blut. Aber, Woyzeck, die Tugendi die Tugendi" (p. 152) The captain sees the lack of purpose i n l i f e ; he makes super-f i c i a l maudlin observations on the f a c t and goes on l i v i n g . But Woyzeck, deeply involved with l i f e , notes and experiences the lack of sense i n the world. To f i n d purpose he gives himself i n love, but Marie, repudiates t h i s love, causing h i s v i o l e n t r e a c t i o n : the t o t a l r e j e c t i o n of value i n the world. This n i h i l i s m i n Woyzeck i s already prefigured i n Dantons  Tod. Danton, completely s i c k of l i f e , f e e l s that there i s only a degree of happiness i n i n t o x i c a t i o n ("das sind gliick-l i c h e Leute, die s i c h noch besaufen konnen." (p. 7 2 ) ) , and i n madness ("Der g l u c k l i c h s t e Mensch war der, welcher s i c h einbilden konnte, dass er Gott Vater, Sohn und H e i l i g e r Geist s e i . " (p. 7 6 ) ) . He despairs even of death, because he fi n d s i t impossible to bel i e v e i n e x t i n c t i o n : Danton. . . .Der ver f l u c h t e Satz: Etwas kann n i c h t zu n i c h t s werden! Und i c h b i n etwas, das i s t der Jammer! . . . - 41 -Camille. Die Welt i s t der ewige Jude, das Nichts i s t der Ted, aber er i s t unmoglich. . . . Danton. Wir sind a l l e lebendig begraben . . . . Wir kratzen f u n f z i g Jahre lang am Sargdeckel. Ja, wer an Vernichtung glauben konntel dem ware geholfen. - Da i s t keine Hoffnung im Tod; er i s t nur eine einfachere, das Leben eine verwickeltere F a u l n i s , das i s t der ganze Unterschiedl (pp. 6 6 , 6 7 ) For Danton, l i f e i s a courtesan who c a r r i e s on p r o s t i t u t i o n with the whole world, and death i s no b e t t e r . The apex of Danton*s n i h i l i s m i s seen i n h i s caustic r e j e c t i o n of value i n t h i s world: "Die Welt i s t das Chaos. Das Nichts i s t der zu gebarende Weltgott." (p. 7 9 ) In b i t t e r d i s i l l u s i o nment with an e v i l and incompre-hensible world, Buchner's n i h i l i s m becomes; even more pro-nounced i n Woyzeck. Robbed of Marie, Woyzeck sees absolutely no sense i n l i f e . There i s nothing worth l i v i n g f o r i n a meaningless world where humans are mere robots i n the c o n t r o l of f a t e . A l l values are rejec t e d ; everything i s r o t t e n and worthless—even the earth i t s e l f i s thin-crusted, so that i t might d i s i n t e g r a t e at any moment. Buchner gives two separate formulations of h i s negation of the world, one the deadly serious f a i r y t a l e concerning the deserted c h i l d , and the o t h e r — i t s i r o n i c c o u n t e r p a r t — a comical "sermon" on "Warum i s t der Mensch?" The grim f a i r y t a l e t o l d by the grandmother depicts the "desperate l o n e l i n e s s of man i n a world of d i s s i p a t i o n and c r u e l boredom."^ This "Marchen" i s n i h i l i s m i n i t s blackest form. Here, Buchner, completely d i s i l l u s i o n e d with the universe, puts h i s n i h i l i s m i n t o grotesque poetry, lending the e s s e n t i a l tone to Woyzeck. A l l Woyzeck's e f f o r t s to - 42 -f i n d meaning.in the world have been abortive, j u s t as the orphan's e f f o r t s to f i n d a home have been abortive. .The b i t t e r i s o l a t i o n of man i n a c r u e l universe puts him on a l e v e l with the c h i l d . And i n a departure from the t r a d i t i o n a l happy end of the f a i r y t a l e there i s no s a l v a t i o n here, there i s no way out, and no sign of any hope f o r the f u t u r e . There i s only helplessness and despair: Es war einmal ein arm Kind und hatt kein Vater und keine Mutter, war a l l e s t o t , und war niemand mehr auf der Welt. A l l e s t o t , und es i s hingangen und hat gesucht Tag und Nacht. Und weil auf der Erde niemand mehr war., w o l l t ' s i n Himmel gehn, und der Mond guckt es so f r e u n d l i c h an; und wie es endlich zum Mond kam, war's ein Stuck f a u l Holz. Und da i s es zur Sonne gangen, und wie es zur Sonne kam, war's ein verwelkt Sonnenblum. Und wie's zu den Sternen kam, waren's kl e i n e goldne Mucken, die waren ange-steckt, wie der Neuntoter s i e auf die Schlehen steckt. Und wie's wieder auf die Erde w o l l t , war die Erde ein umgestiirzter Hafen. Und es war ganz a l l e i n . Und da hat sich's hingesetzt und geweint, und da s i t z t es noch und i s ganz a l l e i n . (p. 172) Just as the grandmother's e v i l t a l e i s a mockery of human optimism i n the form of a f a i r y t a l e travesty, the comic "sermon" s a t i r i z e s the consolation of s u p e r f i c i a l r e l i g i o n . In an inn a drunken working l a d jumps on the table and gives h i s extemporaneous "sermon." His preaching i s ludicrous and yet with the p e c u l i a r f a c u l t y of the insane or the drunk, he preaches the truth; Buchner argues that t r u t h or r e a l i t y i s found only i n innocence and i n i n t o x i -c a t i o n . Lacroix, i n Cantons Tod, states the author's view: "Narren, Kinder und—nun? - Betrunkene sagen die Wahrheit." (p. 21) Through the drunken l a d Buchner attacks and r i d i c u l e s those people who provide pat answers f o r every problem, regardless of i t s nature. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , Buchner - 43 -argues, there i s no answer to the question of existence. A l l ends, i n complete negation of the world, f o r " a l l e s Irdische i s t ubel." The "sermon" i s worth quoting i n f u l l : Warum i s t der Mensch? Warum i s t der Mensch? -Aber wahrlich, i c h sage euch: Von was hatte der Landmann, der Weissbinder, der Schuster, der Arzt leben s o l l e n , wenn Gott den Menschen n i c h t geschaffen hatte? Von was hatte der Schneider leben s o l l e n , wenn er dem Menschen ni c h t die Empfindung der Scham eingepflanzt hatte, von was der Soldat, wenn er ihn n i c h t mit dem Be-durfnis s i c h totzuschlagen ausgerustet hatte? Darum zweifelt n i c h t — j a , j a , es i s t l i e b l i c h und f e i n , aber a l l e s Irdische i s t l i b e l , s elbst das Geld geht i n Verwesung uber. (p. 166) Woyzeck 1s i s o l a t i o n , accentuated by r i d i c u l e , leads him to a profound questioning of the meaning of l i f e . The question "Warum i s t der Mensch?" resounds throughout the drama. What i s man's p o s i t i o n i n t h i s amoral world? I f God i s a l l powerful and a l l good, how can he t o l e r a t e the existence of e v i l ? Woyzeck's very l i f e becomes involved i n these questions, but he can f i n d no s a t i s f a c t o r y answer. - 44 -C h a p t e r F o u r H i n k e m a n n , one o f t h e p l a y s t h a t T o l l e r w r o t e w h i l e i n p r i s o n , p o r t r a y s t h e s u f f e r i n g o f a s o l d i e r e m a s c u l a t e d b y an enemy b u l l e t i n ' t h e F i r s t W o r l d War. Eugen H i n k e m a n n , f e a r i n g t h a t he w i l l l o s e t h e l o v e and r e s p e c t o f h i s w i f e b e c a u s e o f h i s s e x u a l i m p o t e n c e , t a k e s on a most d e g r a d i n g j o b t o be a b l e t o p r o v i d e h e r w i t h a f e w , s i m p l e p l e a s u r e s o f l i f e . I n a c i r c u s a c t he b i t e s i n t o t h e n e c k s o f l i v i n g r a t s and m i c e t o e n t e r t a i n t h e b l o o d t h i r s t y s p e c t a t o r s . D e s p i t e h i s c o n c e r n f o r h i s w i f e , s h e , a p a s s i o n a t e woman l i k e M a r i e i n Woyzeck, f a l l s p r e y t o t h e s e d u c t i o n o f t h e v i r i l e P a u l G r o s s h a h n , a f r i e n d o f t h e H i n k e m a n n s . G r o s s -hahn adds t o H i n k e m a n n ' s m e n t a l t o r m e n t b y l y i n g t o h i m and c a u s i n g h i m t o b e l i e v e t h a t G r e t e has l a u g h e d a t h i m when v i e w i n g h i s c i r c u s a c t . The t r u t h o f t h e m a t t e r i s t h a t she h a d r e v e a l e d h e r r e a w a k e n i n g sympathy f o r h e r m i s t r e a t e d h u s b a n d as s o o n a s she saw h i m p e r f o r m i n g h i s r e p u l s i v e a c t on t h e c i r c u s s t a g e . G r e t e t r i e s t o b r i n g a b o u t a r e c o n -c i l i a t i o n b y a s k i n g h i s f o r g i v e n e s s f o r h e r u n f a i t h f u l n e s s , b u t H i n k e m a n n , b e l i e v i n g a permanent r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i m p o s s i b l e , r e q u e s t s h e r t o l e a v e h i m a n d b e g i n a new l i fe a l o n e . G r e t e , a f r a i d t o l i v e a l o n e i n a h e a r t l e s s w o r l d , s e e s no o t h e r s o l u t i o n b u t s u i c i d e : she t a k e s h e r own l i f e b y t h r o w i n g h e r s e l f o u t t h e window. Hinkemann a p p a r e n t l y goes on l i v i n g b e c a u s e he i s t o o weak t o b r e a k t h e s n a r e o f e x i s t e n c e . T o l l e r g i v e s more i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t h i s p r o t a g o n i s t ' s f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d t h a n B u c h n e r . As i n t h e c a s e o f W o y z e c k , - 45 -t h e p a t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e h a s b e e n m i s s i n g i n H i n k e m a n n * s l i f e . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p l a y H inkemann l e a r n s t h e s h o c k i n g t r u t h t h a t h i s f a t h e r h a d n o t d i e d when he ( E u g e n ) was s i x m onths o l d , a s h e h a d b e l i e v e d h e r e t o f o r e . One n i g h t , he l e a r n s , h i s f a t h e r r e t u r n e d home s l i g h t l y d r u n k on t h e arm o f a n o t h e r woman whom he h a d p i c k e d up on t h e s t r e e t . H i s m o t h e r t e l l s E u g e n o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e : "'Weib,* s c h r i e e r m i c h a n , 'geh h e u t e z u d e i n e n E l t e r n u n d s c h l a f e d o r t . I c h b r a u c h e j u n g e s B l u t i n s B e t t . M i c h f r i e r t b e i d i r , s e i t d u 36 e i n J u n g e s g e w o r f e n h a s t * . . . . "^ H i s m o t h e r s u d d e n l y saw i n h e r h u s b a n d o n l y t h e b e a s t w h i c h c a s t s away i t s m u t i l a t e d p r e y . She t h r e a t e n e d h i m w i t h a k n i f e , he l a u g h e d i n h e r f a c e , t o o k h i s b e l o v e d , l e f t t h e h o u s e an d d i d n o t r e t u r n 37 f o r 29 y e a r s . B u t now t h e o l d H i n k e m a n n comes b a c k home, s i c k a n d i n r a g s . " I c h b i n zuruckgekommen urn b e i d i r z u s t e r b e n " ( p . 49) he t e l l s h i s w i f e . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f a h u s b a n d , E u g e n H i n k e m a n n ' s m o t h e r h a s h a d t o s u p p o r t t h e f a m i l y ; she h a s done so b y g o i n g o u t o n t o t h e s t r e e t s : " I c h g i n g a u f d i e S t r a s s e . • • urn B r o t z u v e r d i e n e n f u r d i c h . I c h war n i c h t h a s s l i c h i n m e i n e r J u g e n d . " ( p . 49) She became a p r o s t i t u t e o u t o f n e c e s s i t y , i n c o n s o n a n c e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l expressidnis'.tLc t r e n d t o ex-p l a i n f e m i n i n e m i s b e h a v i o u r t h r o u g h r e c o u r s e t o m a t e r i a l d e m a n d s . ^ Woman, h e r e a s i n much e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e , i s f o r c e d i n t o p r o s t i t u t i o n , b u t she n e v e r t h e l e s s r e t a i n s 39 h e r e s s e n t i a l g o o d n e s s a n d i n n o c e n c e . I n H i n k e m a n n * s own m a r r i e d l i f e t h e t r a g e d y o f a f a i t h l e s s p a r t n e r i s r e p e a t e d i n what seems t o be an e n d l e s s c h a i n o f - 4 6 -m i s e r y . H i s m o t h e r h a d b e e n g r i e v o u s l y w r o n g e d b y h e r b e s t i a l h u s b a n d , f o r n o t o n l y h a d he come home w i t h a n o t h e r woman, b u t w o r s e t h a n t h a t , T o l l e r d e c l a r e s , he h a d l a u g h e d a t h e r 40 i n h e r a g o n y . I n E u g e n ' s l i f e t h e s i t u a t i o n i s r e v e r s e d : i t i s t h e woman who p r o v e s u n f a i t h f u l , w r o n g i n g h e r m i s t r e a t e d h u s b a n d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t r a g e d i e s o f t h e m o t h e r and t h e s o n : E u g e n ' s w i f e d i d n o t r i d i c u l e h i m i n h i s d e g r a d i n g p o s i t i o n — h e e r r o n e o u s l y b e l i e v e s t h a t s h e l a u g h e d . W i t h r e s p e c t t o e d u c a t i o n H inkemann h a s no a d v a n t a g e o v e r Woyzeck. A c o m p r e h e n s i v e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n seems i m -p r o b a b l e , f o r when he m a r r i e s a t t w e n t y h e h a s a l r e a d y b e e n e m p l o y e d f o r some t i m e i n t h e f a c t o r y a s an o r d i n a r y w o r k e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , , l a c k i n g a f a t h e r , i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t a t an e a r l y age he h a d t o h e l p h i s m o t h e r s u p p o r t t h e f a m i l y . H i n k e m a n n , i n h i s l a c k o f t u t o r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , r e v e a l s what seems a t f i r s t a s l u g g i s h , unawakened m i n d . T o l l e r c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i m i n t h e f i r s t s t a g e d i r e c t i o n : "Hinkemann s p r i c h t weder ' f l i e s s e n d ' n o c h ' p a t h e t i s c h . ' Immer h a t s e i n e S p r a c h e d a s A u s d r u c k s s c h w e r e , Dumpfe d e r e l e m e n t a r i s c h e n S e e l e . " (p..1) S i n c e h i s i n j u r y he i s c o n f u s e d i n h i s t h i n k i n g , f i n d i n g i t h a r d t o g i v e m e a n i n g t o a c h a o t i c and c r u e l w o r l d . I n h i s d u l l n e s s he c a n n o t q u i c k l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f l i f e : " J a , s e i t m e i n e r Verwundung i m K r i e g e m e i n e i c h s e l b s t , i c h b i n e i n b i s s c h e n v e r w o r r e n i m Denken . . . J e d e n T a g , wenn i c h a u f s t e h e , k o s t e t es m i c h u n g e h e u r e A n s t r e n g u n g , urn i n a l l d a s , was i n m i r i s t , was m i c h a n f a l l t , was a u f m i c h e i n b r i c h t , m i c h b e t a s t e t , m i c h - 4 7 -beftihlt, durch ein paar Worte, ein paar Gedanken Ordnung hineinzubringen . . . man f r a g t s i c h , ob man das Leben uber-haupt erfassen kann . . . Morgens, wenn man aufstent, i s t Chaos i n einem da und wenn man s i c h abends zu Bett l e g t , i s t wieder Chaos da . . ." (pp. 2 6 , 2 7 ) But soon we see i n Hinkemann's "dullness" the same naivete as i n Woyzeck, expressed i n a mystifying concern with ultimate t r u t h to the exclusion of smaller everyday matters. Hinkemann—like Woyzeck—reveals h i s s u r p r i s i n g i n s i g h t s i n sudden cogent remarks and questions. For example, i n the inn scene he.shows h i s great perception concerning the nature of e x i s t e n t i a l s u f f e r i n g . By the penetrating questions regarding the p o s i t i o n of the man who i s s i c k i n h i s soul i n the Utopia envisioned by h i s comrades, Hinkemann confounds and puts them to shame: Hinkemann. Und wenn einer krank i s t an seiner Seele? Michel Unbeschwert. (robust, unsentimental) Der kommt i n eine H e i l a n s t a l t . . . . Hinkemann. Ich denke ni c h t an solche, die krank sind im Kopf oder im Gehirn . . . Ich meine solche, die gesund sind und doch krank i n i h r e r Seele. Michel Unbeschwert. Das gibt es n i c h t i Wer einen gesunden Korper hat, hat auch eine gesunde Seele. (pp. 2 7 , 28) Hinkemann i s not a "Naturmensch" to the same degree as Woyzeck: he does not a t t r i b u t e h i s actions to the i n s t i n c t s of nature, nor does he subscribe to the same unsophisticated, "natural" code of morality. However, l i k e Woyzeck, he demonstrates a "natural" goodness of heart. Man, T o l l e r seems to be arguing, i s born good. Hinkemann i s a f f e c t i o n a t e and displays deep devotion to h i s young wife, of whom he - 48 -constantly dreams and thinks while i n the war. And when he returns home sexually incapacitated he loves her even more, with a more profound and s p i r i t u a l i s e d love. During the separation of the war years he began to appreciate the true worth of h i s wife: "Als er noch zu Hause war, hatte er sein Weib l i e b , das versteht s i c h . Aber erst da draussen im Felde glaubte er s i e zu sehen wie s i e war." (p. 29) U n t i l the war they had merely existed: they had l i v e d a mechanical l i f e with no r e a l appreciation f o r the mystery of l i f e . Now since the a b i l i t y to create l i f e has been taken from him he has come to see the worth of a l l l i f e . Consequently, he i s s i n g u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e and kind-hearted. To be sure, h i s kindness does not stem from h i s i n j u r y , but h i s personal s u f f e r i n g has confirmed him i n h i s kindness. His own s u f f e r i n g causes him to extend human compassion to a l l the world. Now more than ever he r e a l i z e s the d i g n i t y of a l l l i f e , since he, i n h i s own s u f f e r i n g , has been made .aware of the s u f f e r i n g of other creatures. He cannot bear to see even the smallest animal s u f f e r (witness h i s indignation at the b l i n d i n g of the b i r d ) . At the c i r c u s h i s wife reveals h i s increased s e n s i t i v i t y and kindness: "Der Mann konnt keiner F l i e g e was zuleide tun! Der Mann hat s i c h einmal an meiner Mutter v e r g r i f f e n , weil s i e ihrem Finken die Augen geblendet hat. Der Mann hat mir nic h t erlaubt, eine S c h l a g f a l l e i n der Kiiche a u f z u s t e l l e n , weil das eine sundhafte Qualerei f u r Mause s e i . . . " (p. 19) However, i n b i t t e r e s t irony, Hinkemann, the hypersensitive c r i p p l e , i s forced to earn h i s money by b i t i n g into the - 4-9 -l i v i n g b o d i e s ' o f r a t s a n d m i c e , r e v e a l i n g b o t h t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e German p r o l e t a r i a t a n d t h e c r u e l demands m a n k i n d makes u p o n t h e g e n t l e human b e i n g . The d i r e e c o n o m i c s t r a i t s o f t h e H i n k e m a n n s i s G r e t e ' s p r i m e c o n c e r n a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e work. The s e t t i n g ( t h e i r humble l i v i n g q u a r t e r s where- t h e k i t c h e n a l s o s e r v e s as l i v i n g room) b e a r s o u t t h i s c o n c e r n . E u g e n h a s b e e n a t h i s m o t h e r - i n - l a w ' s t o f e t c h some c o a l , b u t he h a s r e t u r n e d e mpty-handed. I n a few w o r d s G r e t e d e p i c t s t h e i r p l i g h t : " E u g e n! . .. i c h f r a g t e d i c h n u r , ob M u t t e r d i r K o h l e n gab . . G i b d o c h A n t w o r t . . . A l s ob e r n i c h t i m Zimmer ware! . . . E u g e n , s p r i c h d o c h ! . . . Am V e r z w e i f e l n b i n i c h ! K e i n S t u c k c h e n H o l z ! K e i n e K o h l e i . . . E u g e n , s o l i i c h m i t u n s e r m B e t t d e n O f e n a n s c h u r e n ? " ( p . 1 ) ^ L a t e r , E u g e n f u r t h e r r e v e a l s t h e i r f i n a n c i a l n e e d : " D i e R e n t e l a s s t u n s n i c h t g enug zum L e b e n u n d z u v i e l zum S t e r b e n . " ( p . 4-) The H i n k e m a n n s do n o t h a v e s u f f i c i e n t money f o r t h e i r d a i l y n e e d s a n d i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r h i m t o o b t a i n r e s p e c t a b l e employment. A l l t h e f a c t o r y g a t e s a r e c l o s e d . The showman c a l l o u s l y i n f o r m s him: " V e r s u c h e n S i e d o c h n e a n d e r e A r b e i t z u bekommen, Mann. A l l e s b e s e t z t ! H a h a h a i E n t w e d e r — o d e r i " ( P . i 4 ) 4 2 However, a s T o l l e r d e p i c t s i t , e v e n f o r t h e man who h a s work l i f e i s a p e r p e t u a l s t r u g g l e . The wage i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o s u p p l y t h e b a r e e s s e n t i a l s , a n d t o make m a t t e r s w o r s e , t h e w o r k e r i s n o t e v e n r e c o g n i z e d as a p e r s o n who h a s i n d i v i d u a l w o r t h . I n t h e f a c t o r i e s t h e w o r k e r s e l l s h i s e n e r g y a s a s e r v i c e s t a t i o n a t t e n d a n t s e l l s a g a l l o n o f g a s o l i n e ; t h e w o r k e r i s a mere m a c h i n e : - 50 -Was h a t derm s o n P r o l e t v o n s e i n e m L e h e n ? Wenn e r a u f d i e W e l t kommt, f l u c h t d e r A l t e , d a s s w i e d e r e i n E s s e r mehr d a i s t . H u n g r i g g e h t e r morgens i n d i e S c h u l e , u n d wenn e r a b e n d s i n s B e t t g e h t , z w i e b e l t d e r H u n g e r d a s Gedarm. Na, u n d d a n n kommt e r i n d i e P r o h n . E r v e r k a u f t s e i n e A r b e i t s k r a f t , w i e man e i n e n L i t e r P e t r o l e u m v e r k a u f t u n d g e h o r t dem U n t e r n e h m e r , dem P r i n z i p a l . E r w i r d . . . s o z u s a g e n . . . e i n Hammer o d e r e i n S t u h l o d e r e i n D a m p f h e b e l o d e r e i n P e d e r h a l t e r , o d e r e r w i r d e i n B u g e l -e i s e n . E s i s t d o c h s o i ( p . 7)^3 I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e m i s e r y o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t t h e r e i s 44 t h e e x t r a v a g a n c e o f t h e r i c h . U n b e s c h w e r t , an a d h e r e n t t o m o d e r a t e s o c i a l i s m , d e s c r i b e s t h e s u m p t u o u s n e s s o f t h e w e a l t h y : " J a , d a s G l u c k wohnt h e u t e i n den P a l a s t e n , i n d e n V i l l e n . Wo s i e z w a n z i g Zimmer h a b e n u n d i h n e n d i e Woh-n u n g zu eng i s t . " ( p . 23) The enormous d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e r i c h V a n d t h e p o o r makes t h e l o t o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t e v e n more i n t o l e r a b l e . The p o o r p e o p l e a r e f o r e v e r o c c u p i e d w i t h m a k i n g a b a r e l i v i n g ; a l l t h e y know i s work: "Wie k a n n armes V o l k s u n d i g e n ? . . . es ( h a t ) k e i n e Z e i t z u s u n d i g e n v o r l a u t e r S c h u f t e n u n d S c h i n a k e l n . " ( p p . 5» 6) The r i c h , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , do n o t know what t o do w i t h t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e i r boredom: "'What c a n I do t o k i l l t i m e ? ' was t h e d o m i n a t i n g q u e s t i o n o f t h e age; an age when t h e f e w who were w e l l f e d were h a r d p u t t o i t t o f i n d i n t e r e s t s f o r t h e i r l e i s u r e , and when t h e many who were h u n g r y were s t i l l more 45 h a r d p u t t o i t t o f i n d a moment o f l e i s u r e f o r t h e m s e l v e s . 1 1 B u t T o l l e r s e e s b e y o n d a n y U t o p i a n s o l u t i o n t o t h e e v i l s o f h i s t i m e . I n Hinkemann he r e v e a l s t h e s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s o f a p u r e l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c s o c i a l i s m : i t i s u n a b l e t o d e a l w i t h s p i r i t u a l p r o b l e m s , s u c h a s t h e s u f f e r i n g o f a s o u l . - 5 1 -I n a p a s s a g e f r o m h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y T o l l e r r e v e a l s more e x p l i c i t l y t h a n i n t h i s d rama t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t s o c i a l i s m i s v e r y c i r c u m s c r i b e d i n i t s a b i l i t y t o c o p e w i t h s u f f e r i n g : " Auch d e r S o z i a l i s m u s w i r d n u r j e n e s L e i d l o s e n , d a s h e r -r i i h r t aus d e r U n z u l a n g l i c h k e i t s o z i a l e r S y s t e m e , immer b l e i b t e i n R e s t . A b e r s o z i a l e s L e i d i s t s i n n l o s , n i c h t n o t w e n d i g , 46 i s t t i l g b a r . " I n a l e t t e r t o S t e f a n Z w e i g he e x p r e s s e s a s i m i l a r r e c o g n i t i o n : " I c h habe d a s Werk ^ H i n k e m a n n j i n e i n e r Z e i t g e s c h r i e b e n , i n d e r i c h , s c h m e r z h a f t , d i e t r a g i s c h e G r e n z e a l l e r G l i i c k s m o g l i c h k e i t e n s o z i a l e r R e v o l u t i o n e r k a n n t e . D i e G r e n z e , j e n s e i t s d e r d i e N a t u r m a c h t i g e r i s t a l s mensch-47 l i c h e s E i n z e l w o l l e n u n d g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e s W o l l e n . " I n H i nkemann T o l l e r r e j e c t s t h e A c t i v i s t s ' b e l i e f t h a t a new s o c i e t y — t h e U t o p i a — c a n be b r o u g h t a b o u t b y r e v o l u t i o n . He s e e s no h ope f o r a P a r a d i s e on e a r t h when e v e n t h e s o c i a l i s t s d i s a g r e e among t h e m s e l v e s . U n b e s c h w e r t , t h e s o c i a l d e m o c r a t o f H inkemann, f i r m l y b e l i e v e s i n t h e g r a d u a l e v o l u t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l i s t s t a t e : "Aus dem S c h o s s e d e r h i s t o r i s c h e n E n t -w i c k l u n g d e r V e r h a l t n i s s e w i r d d i e n e u e G e s e l l s c h a f t s o r d n u n g h e r a u s g e b o r e n . So w i e d i e O s t s e e u n d d i e N o r d s e e immer mehr un d mehr s i c h i n s L a n d h i n e i n f r e s s e n , ohne d a s s w i r e s i m I n l a n d m e rken, so werden w i r i n den s o z i a l i s t i s c h e n S t a a t h i n e i n w a c h s e n , a u c h ohne d a s s w i r es m e r k en." ( p . 24) Max K n a t s c h , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s a l o u d m o u t h e d a n a r c h i s t — a s h i s name a p t l y i n d i c a t e s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e m a s s e s c a n h a v e r e v o l u t i o n ( a n d t h e new i d e a l s t a t e ) a n y t i m e ; t h e r e i s no n e e d t o w a i t f o r s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . K n a t s c h c o n f i d e n t l y a f f i r m s : " . . . u n d wenn d i e M e n s c h e n 52 -revolutionaren Willi ens sind, konnen s i e i n a l i e n V erhalt-nissen ein neues Leben beginnen. Gleicb. Noch heute." (p. 25) In contrast to these A c t i v i s t views, T o l l e r , through Hinkemann, defends the purely e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c view: only through a personal regeneration of each i n d i v i d u a l can there be a change i n so c i e t y . In e f f e c t T o l l e r makes an impassioned p l e a f o r a return to the teachings of p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y : love of mankind, tolerance, f a i t h i n man, and genuine humility. Hinkemann reproves h i s f r i e n d s f o r t h e i r party s p i r i t , t h e i r pride and intolerance: "Wie musst i h r anders werden, urn eine neue Gesellschaft zu bauen! Bekampft den Bourgeois und s e i d aufgeblaht von seinem Dunkel, seiner S e l b s t g e r e c h t i g k e i t , seiner Herzenstragheit I Einer hasst den andern, weil er i n ner anderen Parteisekte i s t , weil er aufn andres Programm schwort! Keiner hat Vertrauen zum andern. Keiner hat Ver-trauen zu s i c h . Keine Tat, die nicht e r s t i c k t i n Hader und Verrat." (p. 35) Hinkemann denounces unregenerate society f o r unceasing c r u e l t y to i t s members. But h i s p r i n c i p a l concern, as i n d i c a t e d i n h i s s i l e n c e at Grete*s lamentations about t h e i r poverty, i s not material d i s t r e s s , but rather the incursions against the human soul f o r which our s o c i e t y i s responsible. In the next chapter we s h a l l deal with the c h i e f i l l u s t r a t i o n of the inhumanity of the age: Hinkemann's personal mistreatment. - 53 -Chapter Five As i n Woyzeck's case, the e s s e n t i a l cause of Hinkemann*s s u f f e r i n g i s the u n i v e r s a l desire f o r love. On h i s return from the war as a sexual c r i p p l e , Hinkemann t r i e s desperately to maintain h i s wife's love. However, h i s love now i s and must he e n t i r e l y s p i r i t u a l . I t i s completely free of any e r o t i c element: sex can no longer play a part i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to one another. Since he i s by no means recon-c i l e d to h i s l o s s he seeks to compensate through kindness and consideration. He i s determined to obtain work, f o r he knows that material well-being i s an a i d i n r e t a i n i n g Grete's love and respect: " . . . Ich schaff A r b e i t ! . . . Und wenn i c h g l e i c h mich ducken musst wie ein T i e r ! . . . " (p. 5) In p i t i f u l eagerness to please, Eugen desires work not f o r h i s own betterment but to give h i s wife a' few modest pleasures: "Ich schaff A r b e i t , Grete, da kannst du d i c h drauf verlassen . i c h w i l l d i r doch was schenken konnen zu Weihnachten! . . . " (p. 8) He d i s t i n c t l y t e l l s the c i r c u s showman that i t i s the fear of l o s i n g h i s wife's love which compels him to take on such humiliating work: "Es . . . i s t . . . nur . . . urn . . . meine. . . Frau . . . (Herausstossend) Wenn man von einem Menschen g e l i e b t wird! Wenn man Angst hat, man konnte das bisschen Liebe v e r l i e r e n l Unsereiner hat nicht v i e l L i e b e l . . . Konnen Sie mich n i c h t sonstwo beschaftigen, Herr? . . . (Stammelnd, f a s t wimmernd) Och . . . och . . . och . . • och . . . achtzig Mark . . . och . . . Unsereiner . . . unser-einer! . . . Ich tus, Herr." (p. 14) - 54 -As i n Woyzeck, Hinkemann*s problem i s not simply the n a t u r a l need f o r love, but rather i s concerned with the removal of the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r love. Like Woyzeck he i s a t r a g i c f i g u r e because he s u f f e r s through no f a u l t of h i s own but from the malevolence of f a t e . Hinkemann, the unfortunate war veteran, has been i l l - t r e a t e d by f a t e i n that he was emasculated i n the war. Not everyone who went to war was hurt as he was—by a f a t e which s t r i k e s b l i n d l y , h i t t i n g t h i s one and that one. As a sexually incapacitated man, he e l i c i t s the r i d i c u l e of s o c i e t y . In addition, Eugen's s u f f e r i n g f o r the sake of h i s wife i s the d i r e c t r e s u l t of h i s emasculation, f o r i f he had returned home a v i r i l e man he would not have been i n jeopardy of l o s i n g her love. Further, he would not have been forced to .debase himself i n the hands of the showman. The showman i s the only major f i g u r e who mistreats Hinkemann p h y s i c a l l y . F u l l y r e a l i z i n g Eugen's desperate p l i g h t , he e x p l o i t s him i n a device whose irony i s a l l too apparent. Hinkemann i s to pose as, "Der deutsche Held." F e a r l e s s l y he i s to b i t e i n t o the necks of l i v i n g r a t s and mice, drawing blood: "Hier ein K a f i g mit Ratten! Hier ein K a f i g mit Mausen! Kleines Vermogen d r i n ! Ihre Nummer: Beissen i n jeder Vorstellung einer Ratte und einer Maus die Kehle durch. Lutschen ein paar Ziige Blut. Geste! Weg! Volk r a s t vor Lust!" (pp. 13, 14) I t i s impossible to ignore T o l l e r ' s caustic c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of humanity i n the c i r c u s showman's r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of t h i s vulgar act: "Volk w i l l Blut seheni!! B l u t ! ! ! Trotz zweitausend Jahren - 55 -c h r i s t l i c h e r MoralJ Mein Unternehmen tr a g t dem Rechnung. So harmoniert Volksinteresse mit P r i v a t i n t e r e s s e . " (p. 1 3 ) The German nation also.receives a denunciation i n the i r o n i c announcement of the showman: "Der deutsche Heidi Die deutsche Kultur! Die deutsche Mannerfaustl Die deutsche Kraft I . . . die . . . fleischgewordene deutsche K r a f t ! " (pp. 16, 1 7 ) But most importantly, the scene provides pro-found t r a g i c irony i n showing Hinkemann brought to the point of contravening h i s own k i n d l y nature through love f o r h i s wife. And p r e c i s e l y t h i s act, as Hinkemann i s l e d to believe, e l i c i t s only r i d i c u l e from Grete. But i n consonance with the commercial s p i r i t , the m a t e r i a l i s t i c showman i s only concerned that h i s c i r c u s act 4-8 be a f i n a n c i a l success. People want to see the sensational and even the t e r r i f y i n g . Hence the spectators come streaming i n to see the c r u e l show, the showman pockets the handsome p r o f i t s , but the helpless Hinkemann i s the v i c t i m of t h i s v i c i o u s e x p l o i t a t i o n . And i t i s impossible f o r Hinkemann to escape, from h i s p l i g h t . When he informs the showman that he i s q u i t t i n g h i s job, the showman, thinking only of h i s finances, immediately reminds Hinkemann of the signed contract which he cannot terminate prematurely without paying the l e g a l consequences: "Wer hat Kontrakt unterschrieben f i l r d ie ganze Saison? Sie oder ich? (Brutal) Mann, i c h lasse Sie durch Polizeigewalt zur Arbeit, zwingen . . . . . Entweder Sie sind morgen punk t l i c h zur S t e l l e oder Sie kommen per Polizeischub." (p. 3 9 ) As a s o u l l e s s , b r u t a l i n d i v i d u a l , we can e a s i l y see the - 56 -showman t o he a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s o c i e t y . B u t s t r a n g e l y e n o u g h, H i n k e m a n n , r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i n h u m a n i t y o f t h e a g e , a l s o s e e s i n h i s own i n j u r y a s y m b o l o f t h e t i m e : " I c h b i n l a c h e r l i c h w i e d i e s e Z e i t . D i e s e Z e i t h a t k e i n e S e e l e . I c h ha b k e i n G e s c h l e c h t . 1 s t . d a e i n U n t e r s c h i e d ? " ( p . 58) B o t h H i n k e m a n n a n d t h e age a r e r i d i c u l o u s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a b n o r m a l , t h e y a r e i n c o m p l e t e . The c o m p l e t e man h a s b o t h a s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e ( " S e e l e " ) a n d an a n i m a l n a t u r e ( " G e s c h l e c h t " ) . W i t h o u t e i t h e r man i s r i d i c u l o u s , T o l l e r a r g u e s . Man i n c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y i s so e n t r e n c h e d i n h i s h e a r t l e s s n e s s a n d c a l l o u s n e s s t h a t i t r e q u i r e d a b u l l e t t o make e v e n Hinkemann t r u l y aware o f h i s s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e a n d o f t h e s u f f e r i n g o f a n o t h e r c r e a t u r e . The w o r l d i s b l o o d t h i r s t y , a n d t h e showman, b e i n g an a s t u t e b u s i n e s s man, knows how t o make u s e o f s o c i e t y ' s c r u e l t y , e v e n t h o u g h h i s p l a n means s u f f e r i n g a n d shame f o r a f e l l o w human b e i n g . S i m i l a r l y s o c i e t y makes a g o o d b u s i n e s s o u t o f e v e r y t h i n g . The p r e s s c a p i t a l i z e s on man's l o v e f o r t h e s e n s a t i o n a l . G r e e d y men draw p r o f i t f r o m t h e l o v e i n s t i n c t o f y o u n g g i r l s . I n H i n k e -mann 's c a s e a s o u l l e s s s o c i e t y d raws b o t h g a i n a n d p l e a s u r e f r o m h i s s u f f e r i n g , j u s t a s G r e t e ' s m o t h e r wants t o draw p l e a s u r e f r o m a h a r m l e s s b i r d b y p u t t i n g o u t i t s e y e s t o make i t s i n g b e t t e r . Eugen n o t i c e s t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n h i s s u f f e r i n g a n d t h a t o f t h e b i r d , f o r he d r a w s a p a r a l l e l : " W o l l t i h r m i c h s i n g e n h o r e n ? ( M i t F i s t e l s t i m m e s i n g e n d ) : 'Warum denn w e i n e n , wenn man a u s e i n a n d e r g e h t ' . . . S i n g i c h n i c h t so g u t w i e e i n g e b l e n d e t e r D i s t e l f i n k ? . . . " ( p . 35) I n p a r t T o l l e r i s c a s t i g a t i n g s o c i e t y h e r e f o r t h e - 57 -"unedles Ungluck" ( s u f f e r i n g which can he remedied) which i t imposes upon i t s members. In a conversation with Howard DeForest, T o l l e r expresses h i s sentiments regarding such unnecessary s u f f e r i n g i n these terms: "Love, or c h a r i t y i s the only law of l i v i n g . l e t c h a r i t a b l e organizations, even those with the purest motives, are only c o r r e c t i n g the r e s u l t of the harshness of someone or something else. There should 49 not be even opportunity to show such c h a r i t y . " The mental anguish Hinkemann has to endure i s worse than the p h y s i c a l mistreatment he receives at the hands of the showman. Grosshahn, who i s a d i r e c t p a r a l l e l to the drum major i n Woyzeck, i s responsible f o r most of the s u f f e r i n g by r i d i c u l e imposed on Hinkemann. The sensual Paul Grosshahn i s already characterized by h i s symbolical name.^ To be sure he seduces Grete, but t h i s i s not h i s blackest crime. I t i s the r i d i c u l e which hurts Hinkemann most. Grosshahn i s not merely unsympathetic and unfeeling as the showman: he i s expressly malevolent i n r i d i c u l i n g the l o s s of Hinke-mann' s manhood. When Grete, who can contain her g r i e f no longer, t e l l s him about her husband's condition, he cannot help but laugh: "Paul Grosshahn prustet einen kurzen, rohen Lachlaut." (p. 10) Showing l i t t l e sympathy he again mocks the emasculated ex-soldier i n h i s r o l e at the c i r c u s : "So sieht der deutsche Held aus! Einer ohne . . . Ein Eunuch . . . Hahahaha!" (p. 11) In the inn he r i d i c u l e s Hinkemann i n fr o n t of h i s f r i e n d s : " S o i l man n i c h t tiber einen laehen, der . . . der . . . haha . . . der s i c h a l s s t a r k s t e r Mann ausgibt und i s t doch gar kein Mann!" (p. 33) These reactions - 5 8 -of Grosshahn with t h e i r lack of sympathy f o r a f e l l o w human being are a l l too human. However, he goes f u r t h e r to a c t u a l l y torment Hinkemann through a malicious l i e . He f a b r i c a t e s the story that Grete laughed on seeing her husband i n the "Homunkulus" act: "Sie hat gelacht i E r s t hat s i e s i c h ge-ekelt . . . dann hat s i e gelacht . . . ." (p. 3 3 ) The extreme c r u e l t y of Grosshahn's act l i e s i n the f a c t that i t destroys Hinkemann's f a i t h i n h i s wife and i n the world since she alone gives s i g n i f i c a n c e to h i s shattered existence. Eugen i s able to endure r i d i c u l e from the others because they mean l i t t l e to him, but Grete's supposed r i d i c u l e deprives him of h i s basis f o r l i f e — h e r love. Although not of c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , the j i b e s of Hinkemann's associates are i n t e r e s t i n g f o r what they reveal of T o l l e r ' s s a t i r i c intent toward various human types. Immergleich, a phlegmatic man who preserves composure i n any s i t u a t i o n , chuckles s o f t l y when Eugen poses the problem of how the s o c i a l i s t i c state would deal with a man who had l o s t h i s sex i n war or industry. And as Grosshahn informs them that Eugen i s a eunuch, a l l h i s f r i e n d s i n the inn give a loud snort of laughter: " A l l e , auch Singegott, auch Michel Unbeschwert, lachen wiehernd auf." (p. 3 5 ) However, a f t e r Hinkemann has l e f t the inn, Singegott e c s t a t i c a l l y exclaims, thereby r e l a t i n g Hinkemann's s u f f e r i n g to the innocent s u f f e r i n g of C h r i s t on the cross: "Ich habe das himmlische L i c h t ausgeloscht! Ich habe einen Menschen am Kreuz verhohnti" (p. 3 6 ) In these circumstances such a comparison seems hyperbolic or even i r o n i c , yet we must f e e l - 59 -that T o l l e r , l i k e a l l E x pressionists, sees C h r i s t as an exemplar of a l l human s u f f e r i n g . T o l l e r f e e l s that laughter i n the face of s u f f e r i n g i s the worst s i n man can commit. In the scene with the o l d Frau Hinkemann he e x p l i c i t l y states t h i s opinion. Speaking of her husband's desertion 29 years ago, Eugen asks h i s mother: "Was war das B i t t e r s t e , Mutter?" (pp. 4 9 , 50) The worst s u f f e r i n g was not that her husband spent h i s wages on drink, she says, nor that he brought home another woman and wanted to sleep with her i n h i s wife's bed. Being the object of laughter himself, Hinkemann perceives the answer: "So war es, weil er lachte, a l s deine Seele s i c h wehrte im grossen Schmerz?" (p. 50) Mrs. Hinkemann admits: "Das war es, Eugen." (p. 50) By laughing at h i s wife the o l d Hinkemann scorned and deprecated the i d e a l human being ("die Seele") i n her. The laughter was the outward expression of contempt f o r "das Menschliche," yes more f o r "das G o t t l i c h e " i n man,^ f o r T o l l e r here employs r e l i g i o u s terminology: " . . . a l s deine Seele s i c h wehrte im grossen Schmerz . . . . Das war das B i t t e r s t e , dass er uber s i e gelacht hat, a l s i h r e Seele wund s i c h wand i n Not." (pp. 5 0 , 51) In s i m i l a r language Hinkemann s c o r n f u l l y , and perhaps with a hidden desire to e l i c i t a d e n i a l of her alleged r i d i c u l e , reproaches h i s wife: "Du kannst lachen, wenn einer seine nackte, schwielige Seele i n den Strassenkot l e g t ! " (p. 53) Hinkemann t r i e d desperately to avoid r i d i c u l e . At the outset of the drama he implores h i s wife i n a straightforward plea: "Gretchen, n i c h t wahr, du konntest n i c h t uber mich - 60 -lachen, das konntest du mir n i c h t antun?" (p. 5) When r e l a t i n g his story (which he pretends i s the n a r r a t i v e of a f r i e n d ) to h i s associates i n the inn, he takes pains to report that h i s wife d i d not laugh at him: "Sein Weib ver-achtete inn n i c h t , sein Weib hasste ihn n i c h t , sein Weib verlachte ihn n i c h t . . . ." (p. 31) This i s an evident expression of h i s own desire to believe i n the e s s e n t i a l goodness of the one he loves, to believe that he at l e a s t w i l l not be r e j e c t e d by her through r i d i c u l e . Laughter i n the face of anguish i s so t e r r i b l e a s i n that Hinkemann, i n agony himself, f e e l s i t i s punishable only by death or extreme t o r t u r e . E e l i e v i n g h i s wife laughed at him, Eugen informs her: "Und dafur musst du sterben, Weib. Nicht dafur, dass du einen anderen nahmst—das war dein Recht . . . n i c h t dafur dass du mich b e l o g s t — d a s nahmst du d i r a l s Recht . . . sterben musst du, weil du mich verlacht hast vor der Jahrmarktsbudel Eine Mutter kann i h r Kind erwurgen, und keiner braucht einen Stein auf s i e zu werfen. Wurde s i e aber i h r Kind erwurgen und dann hohnisch lachen, weil dem Kind die geschwollene Zunge aus dem Halse hangt . . . . Qualen s o l l t e n s i e brennen b i s ans Ende a l l e r Tage!" (p. 56) R i d i c u l e i s punishable by death, because by h i s wife's purported laughter Hinkemann has .been stripped of a l l worth as an i n d i v i d u a l . That i s , he as a person has been murdered by r i d i c u l e . But Grete d i d not laugh. In the midst of a r u t h l e s s society she i s the only p o s i t i v e element. Like Marie i n Woyzeck she—because of her normal sensual nature and her - 61 -love f o r p l e a s u r e — f a l l s prey to the seduction of the more v i r i l e man. However, when she discovers that her husband i s being shamefully abused her sympathy f o r him i s reawakened. She recognizes the sinfulness of her act against Eugen: "Und i c h , was bin i c h f i i r ein Weibi Ich bin schlechter a l s eine arme Hure . . . Die verkauft ihren Korper, und i c h ver-kaufe meinen Mann . . . " (p. 1 9 ) She even r e l a t e s her act to that of Judas, once again emphasizing the p a r a l l e l with C h r i s t ' s s u f f e r i n g s : "Ich habe dich verraten f u r ein paar S i l b e r l i n g e . . . Ich habe an d i r gehandelt wie ein schlecht Mensch!" (pp. 5 4 , 5 5 ) Grete regrets her i n f i d e l i t y and wants to ask h i s forgiveness, even though she may have to s u f f e r f o r her misdeed. She t r i e s desperately to bring about a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with the man she s t i l l loves. Although i t e n t a i l s a great s a c r i f i c e on her part, she wants to stay with him and help him. Out of compassion f o r her husband she promises him: "Ich w i l l dich nie mehr verlassen." (p. 5 7 ) However, her u n s e l f i s h e f f o r t s are to no a v a i l , f o r he no longer has the strength nor the w i l l to l i v e . Hinkemann, through h i s own b i t t e r experience of s u f f e r i n g , has come to an e x i s t e n t i a l awareness of the l o n e l i n e s s and f u t i l i t y of l i f e . - 62 -Chapter Six Hinkemann's i n j u r y and the r i d i c u l e attendant upon i t doom him to l o n e l i n e s s and also to r e f l e c t i o n upon the meaning of l i f e . Because of personal experience, Eugen has also had h i s eyes opened to the i s o l a t i o n of every i n d i v i d u a l human being. Forced into solitude himself, he recognizes the loneliness of man i n general. On returning from the war Eugen 52 xs ostracized from society by the nature of h i s i n j u r y . The street scene where he i s subject to d e l i r i o u s dream-v i s i o n s i s symbolic of Hinkemann's r e l a t i o n to the r e s t of humanity. While he i s l y i n g on the s t r e e t many people (who are interested only i n the sensational) gather around him, but. as soon as they hear the more e x c i t i n g m i l i t a r y music everyone abandons him. Hinkemann i s l e f t alone on the deserted str e e t i n - h i s weakened condition. Here we have the picture of Eugen's l i f e : a s i c k , l o n e l y man l y i n g on a dark, deserted s t r e e t . His only communion i s with the i n f i n i t e . His companions are the sky and the stars which continue to shine over a l o n e l y world: "Und uber mir der ewige Himmel . . . Und uber mir die ewigen Sterne . . . " (p. 45) Through personal s u f f e r i n g i n s o l i t u d e , he comes to r e a l i z e the lack of r e a l contact between a l l i n d i v i d u a l s . On one occasion he exclaims (as Danton had exclaimed almost 100 years before): "Doch was sehen wir voneinander? Da s i t z t du und da s i t z i c h . Ich sehe dich. Wie sehe i c h dich? Ein paar Handgriffe sehe i c h und ein paar Worte hore i c h . Das i s t a l l e s . . . Nichts sehen wir voneinander . . . nichts - 63 -wissen wir voneinander . . . " (p. 31) In h i s l e t t e r s T o l l e r expresses the same b e l i e f . Even before w r i t i n g h i s Hinkemann, he declared (Niederschonfeld, Juni 1 9 2 0 ) : "Einsamkeit i s t . Keine Briicke fuhrt zum andern." ^ Despite the crowd man i s b a s i c a l l y alone. T o l l e r writes to Tessa: "Wir a l l e werden einsam sterben, wie Dein Freund e i n -sam starb, umgeben von Freunden. Das i s t das tragische 54 Schicksal der Menschen unserer Z e i t . . . ." Hinkemann also r e a l i z e s that man i s doomed to bear h i s s u f f e r i n g alone, and society can do nothing about i t . Where the panaceas of the s o c i a l i s t s reach the l i m i t s of t h e i r effectiveness, there the s u f f e r i n g of the lonesome i n d i v i d u a l begins: Da steht der Mensch a l l e i n Da tut s i c h ein Abgrund auf, der h e i s s t : Ohne Trost Da wolbt s i c h ein Himmel, der h e i s s t : Ohne Gluck Da wachst ein Wald, der h e i s s t : Hohn und Spott Da brandet ein Meer, das h e i s s t : L a c h e r l i c h Da wiirgt eine F i n s t e r n i s , die h e i s s t : Ohne Liebe Wer aber h i l f t da? (p. 36) Not only does Hinkemann f e e l the l o n e l y s u f f e r i n g of mankind, but also he sees the e v i l and heartlessness of the world, which rob human l i f e of meaning: "Die Menschen sehe i c h ! Die Z e i t sehe i c h ! HerrDirektor, der Krieg i s t wieder da! Die Menschen morden s i c h unter Gelachterl Die Menschen morden s i c h unter G e l a c h t e r l " (p. 38) Cruelty i s possible since the age has no soul and men have no soul. Man i s a mere ph y s i c a l skeleton; Hinkemann explains to Grete that the soullessness of man i s one of the reasons f o r h i s despair: "Ich bin durch die Strassen gegangen, i c h sah keine Men-schen . . . Fratzen, l a u t e r Fratzen. Ich bin nach Hause gekommen, i c h sah Fratzen . . . und Not . . . sinnlose, unend-- 64 -l i c h e Not der blinden Kreatur . . . Ich habe die K r a f t nicht mehr." (p. 58) P r i o r to h i s i n j u r y Hinkemann evidently has l e d a mechani-c a l , carefree existence without any r e a l search f o r values. However, since the chaotic turmoil of the war experience and h i s personal l o s s Eugen endeavours to understand both himself and the world. While the tragedy he has experienced opens up a world of speculation f o r him, i t at the same time destroys the standard o p t i m i s t i c appraisal of the world and leaves him t o t a l l y a d r i f t : "Das Leben i s t so merkwiirdig . . . s o v i e l drangt auf einen ein, was man n i c h t versteht, n i c h t e r f a s s t , wovor man s i c h geradezu bangt . . . man sieht gar keinen Sinn . . . man f r a g t s i c h , ob man das Leben uberhaupt erfassen kann . . . ob das nicht so i s t , a l s wollte man s i c h unter-stehen, ein Meer auszuschopfen . . . ." (pp. 26, 27) Nevertheless, Hinkemann has come to g r i p s with the r e a l i t i e s of l i f e . In a b l i n d s o c i e t y he i s one of the few who can see. T o l l e r argues that the healthy i n d i v i d u a l i s b l i n d to t h e . s u f f e r i n g of other creatures. In speaking of the mother b l i n d i n g the b i r d , T o l l e r l e t s Hinkemann exclaim: ". . . Wie mit B l i n d h e i t geschlagen i s t der gesunde Mensch!" (p. 2) In Eine Jugend i n Deutschland T o l l e r gives expression to the same view: "An der Wand meiner Z e l l e f l i r r e n Sonnen-l i c h t e r . Zwei eirunde Plecke bilden s i c h , wie sahe der Mensch das Leben, den der Krieg entmannt hat, i s t der gesunde Mensch nicht mit B l i n d h e i t geschlagen? Minuten spater 55 schreibe i c h die Pabel zu meinem Drama 'Hinkemann'." Because of h i s own s u f f e r i n g Hinkemann dimly perceives the - 65 -nature of the world. For him the injury was the starting point for his knowledge of l i f e : "Der Schuss, der war wie eine Frucht vom Baume der Erkenntnis . . . Alles Sehen wird mir Wissen, alles Wissen Leid . . . " (pp. 58, 59) However, the immediate cause for this recognition i s r i d i c u l e . It i s the laughter that r e a l l y opens his eyes to the essence of the world. Following the inn scene where he i s ridiculed for his injury and i s "informed" ahout Grete's laughter, H i n k e m a n n p r o c l a i m s that he real l y knows the world: "Ich bin namlich auch sehend geworden, Herr Direktor. Mir haben sie den Star gestocheni Das grelle Lichti Nacht! Es werde Nacht! Es werde Nacht! . . . Bis auf den Grund sehe ich! . . . Die Menschen sehe ich! Die Zeit sehe ich!" (p. 38) Hinkemann has come to perceive the existential suffering ("edles Ungluck") of man. In fact he himself has become a symbol of this suffering. He represents that suffering which stems from the very nature of l i f e and which as a result i s unconquerable by human means: "Ich wollte in Hinkemann nicht nur das unlosliche, also tragische Leid eines fiir viele gesetzten Typus darstellen, sondern auch die tragischen Grenzen der Gesellschaft zeigen, wo sie dem 56 Individuum nicht mehr helfen kann." Hinkemann portrays the tragedy of the human with whom no society can deal adequately because his suffering i s s p i r i t u a l more than material. He i s one of those whom the best social order can never give happiness: ". . . es gibt Menschen denen kein Staat und keine Gesellschaft, keine Familie und keine Gemein-schaft Gliick bringen kann." (p. 35) Hinkemann realizes that - 66 -there w i l l always be i n d i v i d u a l s l i k e himself who are sick i n t h e i r very soul and whom nothing i n t h i s world can make happy. Recognizing the u n i v e r s a l i t y of t h i s s u f f e r i n g at the basis of existence i n every age, T o l l e r accepts i t s i n e v i t a b i l i t y : "There must always remain a residue of s u f f e r i n g , the l o n e l y s u f f e r i n g imposed upon mankind by l i f e and death. And only t h i s residue i s necessary and i n e v i t a b l e , 57 i s the t r a g i c element of l i f e and l i f e ' s symbolizer, a r t . " ' The best example of Hinkemann's recognition of the "edles Ungluck" suffered by other creatures i s the scene where he i s convinced that Grete d i d not laugh. Suddenly he sees i n her a f e l l o w - s u f f e r e r who i s j u s t as tormented as he: "Wie b l i c k e n deine Augen drein? . . . Die Augen kenne i c h i . . . Die Augen der gehetzten, der geschlagenen, der gepei-nigten, der gemarterten Kreatur . . . Ja, Gretchen, i c h dachte, du b i s t v i e l r e i c h e r a l s i c h , und dabei b i s t du ebenso arm und ebenso h i l f l o s . . . Ja, wenn das so i s t , wenn das so i s t . . . dann sind wir Bruder und Schwester." (p. 56) Grete reveals her s i m i l a r recognition i n her f e a r of e x i s t e n t i a l s o l i t u d e : "Ich habe solche Angst vorm Lebeni Denk doch! a l l e i n l Im Leben a l l e i n ! In einem Wald v o l l gehetzter Tiere a l l e i n l . . . Keiner i s t gut heute." (p. 59) Although Grete cannot grasp any meaning i n t h i s world, she r e a l i z e s , with c l e a r v i s i o n , that i t holds a f a t a l g r i p on a l l human beings, j u s t as the spider enmeshes and eventually k i l l s i t s captive: "Mein Gott, i c h finde mich ni c h t mehr zurecht. Wir sind i n einem Netz, Eugen, i n einem Netz. Eine Spinne s i t z t da und l a s s t uns n i c h t l o s . Sie hat uns - 67 -eingesponnen. Ich kann meinen Kopf kaum noch bewegen. Ich versteh das Leben ni c h t mehr . . . " (p. 60) Although i n Grete Hinkemann fi n d s an understanding companion i n s u f f e r i n g , he asks her to leave him. He f i r m l y r e j e c t s her o f f e r to remain with him, as i f i n a masochistic desire to enforce upon himself the c r u e l l o n e l i n e s s he perceives so c l e a r l y : "Immer musst du mich a l l e i n lassen. Und immer muss i c h dich a l l e i n lassen." (p. 57) He wants her, a p h y s i c a l l y healthy woman, to l i v e and f i g h t f o r a new and better world, a world where love and j u s t i c e r u l e :. His own ph y s i c a l i n j u r y marks him as l o s t . He has no future. He can henceforth only be a hindrance to Grete. Furthermore, Eugen r e a l i z e s that a permanent r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s impossible, CO f o r he i s aware of the f r a i l t y of the marriage bond, e s p e c i a l l y i f i t i s based on a P l a t o n i c love r e l a t i o n s h i p as t h e i r s has to be. He knows the nature of the human being. Men are both angels and animals. He has been forced into an as c e t i c l i f e of abstinence, but he cannot expect h i s wife to surrender v o l u n t a r i l y part of her nature as a human being f o r h i s sake. The sexless i n d i v i d u a l , l i k e the s o u l l e s s , i s abnormal or to use T o l l e r ' s supreme epithet of r e v u l s i o n — " l a c h e r l i c h . " Hinkemann knows that the more powerful i n s t i n c t s of nature w i l l u l t i m a t e l y overcome Grete's present s a c r i f i c i a l a t t i t u d e . He r e a l i z e s that Grete w i l l i n the course of time again succumb to her sensual nature. In addition, Eugen -fears that h i s sympathetic recognition of the s u f f e r i n g of a l l creatures may not be durable. I f Grete once again proves u n f a i t h f u l , he, despite h i s present r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n s , - 68 -may murder out of jealousy (a strong n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t ) , j ust as s i x years ago he almost murdered because of another drive of nature, hunger. Regarding t h i s incident he r e l a t e s to hi s wife: Einmal, vor sechs Jahren, ging es mir arg schlecht. Der Hunger l i e s s mir das Wasser im Munde zusammen-laufen, wenn i c h einen Menschen essen sah! Was fu r ein G-efuhl, Grete, wenn i c h liber die Kinder-s p i e l p l a t z e i n den Stadtbezirken der reichen Leute ging, und vor mir ein k l e i n e r Junge mit zufriedenem Mund i n sein grosses Butterbrot b i s s ! Wie einem da die Gier kam! Wie dann der Hunger auf einmal gar nich t mehr so weh t a t ! Der Junge, der kaute, brachte mich zum Rasen! Ich ware f a s t ein Morder geworden, nur urn den Jungen ni c h t mehr kauen zu sehen! (p. 57) Grete does not understand a l l t h i s ; she does not comprehend h i s r e s o l u t i o n to stay alone, hence he explains to her that a l l t h i s simply means: "Dass i c h n i c h t weiss, wie lange das bei mir anhalt, was i c h da erkannt habe. Die lebendige Natur vom Menschen i s t starker a l s sein Verstand. Der Verstand, ein M i t t e l zum Selbstbetrug." (p. 58) Hence, he continues to i n s i s t that she leave him. However, h i s r a t i o n a l arguments f a i l to convince Grete. She i s a f r a i d to l i v e alone i n a heartless world. She too i s aware of her passionate nature. Undoubtedly she fears that by h e r s e l f she might again f a l l prey to seduction and be destroyed by b e s t i a l forces such as Grosshahn symbolizes. Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , she recognizes that kindness and understanding are rare quantities which she may never f i n d again: "Lass mich n i c h t a l l e i n . . . Ich gehe i r r e im Dunkeln . . . Ich tue mir weh ... . Ich f a l l e . . . A l l e s i s t wund an mir . . . Wie es schmerzt! . . . I n einem Wald v o l l gehetzter Tiere a l l e i n ! . . . - 69 -Keiner i s t gut heute. Jeder nagt an deinem Herzen . . . Nicht a l l e i n l a s s e n i ! " (p. 59) Nevertheless, he s t i l l i n s i s t s . But she, a tormented creature h e r s e l f , cannot l i v e alone and, as he suggests, f i g h t f o r a new world: "Wenn i c h . . . wenn i c h s e l h s t wollte . . . i c h kann es nich t mehr . . . Ich hah n i c h t den Mut, i c h bin wie zer-brochen." (p. 60) With a C h r i s t i a n prayer f o r redemption on her l i p s , she goes out and commits s u i c i d e . Grete's tragedy i s more profound than Hinkemann's, f o r she, a p h y s i c a l l y sound woman, goes in t o a voluntary death rather than abandon her husband. She has the choice of l i f e or death, whereas fate has so weakened him that he does not have the strength to end h i s l i f e . Hinkemann equates Grete's decision f o r death with a strength which he does not possess: "Sie war gesund und hat das Netz z e r r i s s e n . Und i c h steh noch h i e r . . . i c h steh h i e r , k o l o s s a l und l a c h e r l i c h . . . " (p. 61) Eugen merely e x i s t s , because he does not have the strength to l i v e a meaningful l i f e . He no longer wants to struggle, f o r he i s lac k i n g an i d e a l to struggle f o r : "Ich habe die K r a f t nicht mehr. Die Kraft n i c h t mehr zu kampfenj die Kraft n i c h t mehr zum Traum. Wer keine K r a f t zum Traum hat, hat keine K r a f t zum Leben." (p. 58) Grete, r e a l i z i n g she has nothing more to l i v e f o r , draws the l o g i c a l conclusion and acts accordingly. Hinkemann goes on l i v i n g because he does not have the strength even to adopt a con v i c t i o n . As was previously intimated, Eugen has been reduced to t h i s anemic condition by f a t e . However, i n Hinkemann T o l l e r expounds only a p a r t i a l f a t a l i s m . He recognizes that fate - 70 -i s playing with man, hut i n d i r e c t l y . Fate uses the i n s t r u -mentality of soc i e t y . E a r l y i n the play Hinkemann reveals awareness that he i s a plaything being p u l l e d from a l l sides: "Ich bin j a ein Hampelmann, an dem s i e solange gezogen haben, b i s er kaput war . . . " (p. 4-) He recognizes as the cause of i n j u r y to man a transcendent power of f a t e , a s o c i a l impetus, which often overrides the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l : "Auf a l i e n Strassen der Welt schreien s i e nach Erlosung! Der Franzos, der mich zum Kruppel schoss, der Neger, der mich zum Kruppel schoss, s c h r e i t v i e l l e i c h t nach Erlosung . . . Ob er noch leben mag? Und wie wird er leben? . . . I s t er b l i n d , ohne Arm, ohne Bein? Er t a t mir weh, und ein andrer t a t ihm weh . . . Wer aber t a t uns a l i e n weh? . . . " (p. 60) In obedience to s o c i a l impulse man subjects h i s i n d i v i d u a l w i l l . He becomes part of a f a t e f u l whole: "Ein Geist sind wir, ein Leib." (p. 60) But the s o c i a l w i l l exercises no c o n t r o l over the private a t t i t u d e of the i n d i v i d u a l to existence. Here T o l l e r sub-scribes to a rigorous typology. Eugen speaks of t h i s to h i s comrades: " . . . i c h b i n zu dem Ergebnis gekommen, dass wir das Gluck auch n i c h t jedem bringen konnen . . . das wahre Gluck meine i c h . . . dass das Gliick etwas i s t . . . was einer hat oder was einer n i c h t hat." (p. 24) Here Hinkemann p o s i t s a basic amorality behind the workings of the world which corresponds c l o s e l y to that underlying the Woyzeck tragedy. Eugen leaves the stage recognizing the i n d i f f e r e n c e of f a t e , not recognizing any reason f o r h i s s u f f e r i n g : "Immer werden Menschen stehen i n i h r e r Z e i t wie i c h . Warum aber t r i f f t - 71 -es mich, gerade mich? . . . Wahllos t r i f f t es. Den t r i f f t es und den t r i f f t es. Den t r i f f t es n i c h t und den t r i f f t es nicht . . . Was wissen wir? . . . Woher? . . . Wohin? . . (p. 61) Apart from t h i s basic a t t i t u d e toward l i f e , Hinkemann admits of.no determinism other than the nature of man. Man's goodness i s not determined by environmental f a c t o r s . Men could be d i f f e r e n t i f they wanted to learn from past experiences, but instead of honouring human l i f e men i n t h e i r i n d i f f e r e n c e desecrate i t . Men are cr u e l to each other as though they had to be. T o l l e r s t i l l does not a t t r i b u t e t h i s c r u e l t y to inherent e v i l i n man, but rather to sheer lethargy Man has the source of redemption within himself, but he i s too b l i n d (as T o l l e r phrases the state of being o b l i v i o u s to suffering) to recognize the f a c t : "So sind die Menschen . Und konnten anders sein, wenn s i e wollten. Aber s i e wollen n i c h t . Sie steinigen den Geist, s i e hohnen ihn, s i e schanden das Leben, s i e kre]uzigen es . . . Machen s i c h arm und konnten r e i c h sein und brauchten keine himmlische Erlosung . . . die Verblendeten! A ls ob s i e so tun mussten im blinden Wirbel der Jahrtausende! Nicht anders konnten. Mussten. Gleich S c h i f f e n , die der Malstrom an s i c h r e i s s t und zwingt e i n -ander zu zermalmen . . . " (p. 61) Thus because man's e v i l actions are not i n d i v i d u a l l y preordained, T o l l e r can i n s i s t on the moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , of the i n d i v i d u a l i n societ y . Consequently, both Hinkemann and Grete, as members of society, f e e l g u i l t y f o r the s u f f e r i n g r e s u l t i n g from the inhumanity of mankind. Although - 7 2 -he has been struck by f a t e , Eugen sees himself as personally responsible f o r h i s i n j u r y : "Ich b in l a c h e r l i c h geworden durch eigene Schuld. A l s i c h mich hatte wehren s o l l e n , damals a l s die Mine entzundet wurde von den grossen Verbre-chern an der Welt, die Staatsmanner und Generale genannt werden, habe ic l i . e s n i c h t ,.getan." (pp. 5 7 , 5 8 ) S i m i l a r l y , Grete recognizes that she as a member of society i s also responsible f o r her husband's s u f f e r i n g . She remonstrates against h e r s e l f and the world i n which she l i v e s : "Wie habe i c h an dem Mann gehandelt! Was konnte er f i i r den Schussi Schuld habe i c h , dass i c h ihn i n den Krieg Ziehen l i e s s ! Schuld hat seine Mutter I Schuld hat eine Z e i t , i n der es sowas g i b t ! " (p. 19) A f t e r ' d i s c o v e r i n g Hinkemann's t e r r i b l e p l i g h t , Unbeschwert (quite i r o n i c a l l y , considering h i s name), sums up society's g u i l t f o r not being d i f f e r e n t : "Die Schand-welt i s t schuld, i n der wir leben!" (p. 3 6 ) Hence, T o l l e r ' s view of l i f e i n Hinkemann i s not f a t a l i s t i c but merely p e s s i m i s t i c , f o r he holds men i n general morally responsible f o r t h e i r e v i l deeds. W. A. W i l l i b r a n d writes concerning T o l l e r and f a t a l i s m : "He fought that th dominant 19 century f a t a l i s m according to which man was the h e l p l e s s , w i l l - l e s s creature of environment."^ In Hinkemann T o l l e r argues that society acts as f a t e , that events sweep men to t h e i r destruction. Yet t h i s i s due only to the lethargy of the i n d i v i d u a l . I f man were w i l l i n g to act, he could control events. In the end, however, even good actions do not determine whether one i s happy or not. That seems to be born i n the i n d i v i d u a l . - 73 -Despite h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t with the contemporary chaos i n the world, T o l l e r s t i l l b elieves i n man. He never gives up h i s long-range hope f o r humanity, although i n Hinkemann i t reaches i t s lowest point. In a l e t t e r to Stefan Zweig i n which he discusses Hinkemann, T o l l e r writes of h i s ambi-valent a t t i t u d e to the age: "Ich verfluche diese Z e i t und segne s i e doch."^ 1 S i m i l a r l y , i n Hinkemann he s t i l l reveals a s l i g h t hope f o r better things, even though he i s b i t t e r l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d with man: "Jeder Tag kann das Paradies bringen, jede Nacht die S i n t f l u t . " (p. 61) Conclusion From the preceding discussion i t can be seen that the basic pattern of the problem i n the two plays i s the same. In each case i t i s the tragedy of a young s o l d i e r (Woyzeck at the beginning of the 19, century and Hinkemann a f t e r the F i r s t World War) whose values are put in t o question by the senseless s u f f e r i n g they undergo. Both men are kind i n d i -v i d u a l s w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e everything f o r the women they love. Because of the n e c e s s i t y f o r love they are w i l l i n g to l e t themselves be degraded to the l e v e l of an animal i n the hands of unscrupulous men. However, both Woyzeck's and Hinkemann's love i s repudiated i n favour of the l e s s worthy sexual a t t r a c t i o n of the drum major and Grosshahn. The unfaithfulness of Marie and Grete removes the very basis of these protagonists' e x i s t e n c e — t h e i r l o v e — a n d gives r i s e to intense anguish i n Woyzeck and Hinkemann. By debasing them-selves they had hoped to r e t a i n respect and love, but i r o n i -c a l l y t h i s degradation leads to the l o s s of t h e i r love (Hinkemann's s u f f e r i n g i s j u s t as severe as Woyzeck's because he believes that he has l o s t Grete's love and does not discover the t r u t h u n t i l l a t e i n the p l a y ) . Through the p h y s i c a l mistreatment of the doctor and of the showman, and, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , through the mental anguish caused by r i d i c u l e , Woyzeck and Hinkemann are estranged from the r e s t of soci e t y . This i s o l a t i o n leads them to question a l l values and u l t i m a t e l y to recognize the senselessness of l i f e . Both Woyzeck and Hinkemann are about 30 years old; i n other words they are - 75 -i n the prime of l i f e . They are at an age when l i f e should have i t s greatest meaning and purpose. However, i t i s part of the i r o n i c structure of these works that instead of accepting l i f e p o s i t i v e l y i n t h e i r prime, these men at that moment r e a l i z e the u t t e r f u t i l i t y of l i f e . Instead of being hopeful and o p t i m i s t i c they are extremely p e s s i m i s t i c . When put i n t o question by s u f f e r i n g the values which they held d i s i n t e g r a t e , leaving them nothing to l i v e f o r . The basic pattern i s the same i n both, but the reaction of the protagonists i s d i f f e r e n t . Woyzeck reacts v i o l e n t l y to the lo s s of value: he repudiates a l l values i n the universe. This r e j e c t i o n of every value i s c a r r i e d out i n h i s murder of Marie and then h i s own s u i c i d e . When h i s only reason f o r l i v i n g , Marie's love, i s l o s t to him, he i s driven to despair. For him the murder i s already completed when he exclaims to hi s f r i e n d : "Aber, Andres, s i e war doch ein e i n z i g Madel." (p. 168) This pathetic outburst reveals the enormity of h i s l o s s when he i s forced to r e j e c t the l a s t value i n h i s l i f e . Sick of existence, he l o g i c a l l y has to put an end to h i s misery. Regarding Woyzeck's murder, Benno von Wiese writes: "Es i s t der Ausdruck eines l e t z t e n Lebenspessimismus, j a Lebensekels, f i i r den die Erde zur Ho l l e geworden i s t . . . . Ausdruck dafiir, dass das Leben jede Basis, auf der es noch 32 auszuhalten ware, verloren hat." Following h i s sado-masochistic act of destruction, Woyzeck returns to the inn to take part again i n the turmoil of sensual l i f e . However, h i s strong g u i l t f e e l i n g (symbol-i z e d by the blood on h i s elbow) compels him to go back to - 76 -the scene of the murder and an accounting with himself. Buchner symbolizes t h i s attempt by Woyzeck's f r a n t i c washing i n the pond. However, he cannot get r i d of h i s g u i l t . Like reprehensible objects i n a f a i r y t a l e i t seems to multiply with every attempt to eliminate i t : "Bin i c h noch b l u t i g ? Ich muss mich waschen. Da ein Fleck, und da noch einer . . . " (p. 174) F i n a l l y , i n t o t a l despair, Woyzeck, a f t e r t h i s symbolic r e a p p r a i s a l of h i s deed, brings h i s miserable existence to an end. Although the conclusion of the play i s much d i s p u t e d — > because of the fragmentary natureuof Buchner's w o r k — i t seems to the present author that s u i c i d e i s the most consistent ending f o r the play. F i r s t l y , Woyzeck's suicide i s e n t i r e l y i n consonance with h i s complete n i h i l i s m . There i s no reason f o r l i v i n g i n a world hat has l o s t a l l meaning. Secondly, the atmosphere of the play gives a l o g i c a l preparation f o r Woyzeck's s u i c i d e . What would otherwise be the reason f o r the o b i t u a r y l i k e scene where Woyzeck disposes of h i s few possessions? I t i s a summation, an objective and b r i e f account of h i s l i f e as i t approaches i t s conclusion: " F r i e d r i c h Johann Franz Woyzeck, Wehrmann, F u s i l i e r im 2, Regiment, 2. B a t a i l l o n , 4 . Kompagnie, geboren Maria Verkundigung, den 2 0 . J u l i . - Ich bin heut a l t . 3 0 Jahr, 7 Monat und 12 Tage." (p.. 171) S i m i l a r l y , the f i n a l scene of the play by auditory means v i v i d l y conveys the gruesome atmosphere of suicide and culminates i n the image of a broken b e l l , evidently representing the human being cracked apart through r e l e n t l e s s subjugation to the c r u e l t i e s of l i f e . The f o r t i s s i m o at the end i s more than men can bear: - 77 -Erste Person. H a i t i Zweite Person. Horst du? S t i l l ! Dort! Erste. Uu! Da! Was ein Ton! Zweite. Es i s t das Wasser, es r u f t : schon lang i s t niemand ertrunken. F o r t ! es i s t n i c h t gut, es zu horen! Erste. Uu! j e t z t wiederl - wie ein Mensch, der s t i r b t l Zweite. Es i s t unheimlich! So dunstig, allenthalhen. Nebelgrau—und das Summen der Kafer wie gesprungene Glocken. Port! Ers t e . Nein, zu d e u t l i c h , zu l a u t ! Da hinauf! Komm mit! (p. 175) Hinkemann reacts l e s s v i o l e n t l y than Woyzeck when h i s values are put in t o question by s u f f e r i n g . He does not murder (although i n d i r e c t l y he i s responsible f o r Grete's death), nor does he commit s u i c i d e . His end i s resignation and despair because he i s too weak to d i e . A l l he can do i s resign himself to an evidently unjust, senseless existence of s u f f e r i n g . Although he f i n d s an understanding companion i n Grete, Hinke-mann cannot agree to remain with her and begin a new l i f e , f o r he r e a l i z e s that t h i s s o l u t i o n based on f i c k l e human sympathy w i l l not be l a s t i n g . The demands of nature are stronger than those of momentary sentiment or of reason. He f e e l s that reason i s only a means of deceiving himself into b e l i e v i n g that such a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i l l be permanent. His i n s i s t e n c e that Grete leave him leads to her despair and s u i c i d e . Weakened by f a t e and completely d i s i l l u s i o n e d with l i f e , Hinkemann no longer i s able even to imagine a better world: "Wer keine Kraft zum Traum hat, hat keine K r a f t zum Leben." (Motto of the play.) But neither does he have s u f f i c i e n t strength to end h i s l i f e . He can only continue to e x i s t i n h i s pessimism. - 7 8 -Thus, despite the same basic pattern, the solutions are quite d i f f e r e n t : t o t a l a c t i v e n i h i l i s m i n the face of the l o s s of value i n Woyzeck and passive pessimism (an acceptance of the meaninglessness of the world) i n Hinkemann. Further-more, another d i s t i n c t i o n between the two dramas i s of im-portance. Buchner i s e s s e n t i a l l y dealing with one s t r a i g h t -forward theme: the mistreatment and r e s u l t a n t i s o l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l which u l t i m a t e l y lead to the repudiation of values and t o t a l n i h i l i s m . T o l l e r , i n the 2 0 ^ century, has expanded t h i s theme. He i s concerned with the t o t a l man, with the sensual and the s p i r i t u a l aspect of h i s nature. The loss of e i t h e r aspect renders man " l a c h e r l i c h , " the worst of epithets i n T o l l e r ' s vocabulary. For T o l l e r i t i s t h i s r i d i c u l e (and not merely.physical mistreatment) which leads to man's i s o l a t i o n and ultimate breakdown of values. Hinke-mann bears a measure of g u i l t himself. He d i d not exercise h i s duty to oppose the war, but allowed himself to be swept by f a t e into the maelstrom and has returned only a p a r t i a l human. Woyzeck, on the contrary, f e e l s no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own tragedy. Thus, although T o l l e r ' s play has at i t s core the same problem as Buchner's—the nece s s i t y of love to give s i g n i f i c a n c e to life—Hinkemann contains r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the problem which Buchner does not explore i n Woyzeck. The d i s s i m i l a r solutions i n the two plays no doubt also result, from the d i f f e r e n t views of the authors. Buchner, the f a t a l i s t , could see no hope f o r h i s contemporary s o c i e t y . He had become d i s i l l u s i o n e d with the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s o c i a l change imposed from without, and he nowhere in d i c a t e s the l i k e l i h o o d of a change brought about by the personal regeneration of each i n d i v i d u a l — a s the Expressionists be-l i e v e d . Buchner had a completely f a t a l i s t i c view of l i f e when wr i t i n g Woyzeck. For him, a f t e r a period of unavailing revolutionary a c t i v i t y , the hope of a revolutionary change i n s o ciety had become i l l u s o r y . According to Buchner, the only s o l u t i o n was to l e t the contemporary decadent society expire, awaiting the b i r t h of a new one: "Ich glaube, man muss i n sozialen Dingen von einem absoluten Rechtsgrundsatz ausgehen, die Bildung eines neuen geisti g e n Lebens im Volke suchen und die abgelebte moderne Gesellschaft zum Teufel gehen lassen." (p. 412) For T o l l e r the p i c t u r e i s not so dark. Although he r e l i n q u i s h e d h i s hope f o r an absolute Utopia, T o l l e r tempers hi s pessimism and disillusionment somewhat with h i s long-range b e l i e f i n a better order: "Das Absolut-Gute, das 'Paradies auf Erden' wird kein Gesellschaftssystem schaffen, es handelt s i c h e i n z i g darum, f i i r das r e l a t i v beste, das der Mensch finden und ' 63 verwirklichen kann, zu kampfen." The hope of a new order brought about by the regeneration of the i n d i v i d u a l lightens up the whole p i c t u r e . Although h i g h l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d with mankind i n Hinkemann, T o l l e r can s t i l l v i s u a l i z e the p o s s i b i l i t y of a better s o c i a l order i f man only recognizes h i s p o t e n t i a l self-redeeming power. - 80 -FOOTNOTES Introduction Georg Buchner, Werke und Br i e f e (Wiesbaden, 1958), p. 408. A l l subsequent references to Buchner's works w i l l be taken from t h i s e d i t i o n . The page reference w i l l be placed within parentheses immediately a f t e r each quotation. The Writer i n Extremis (Stanford, 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 19-Im Banne des Expressionismus ( L e i p z i g , 1927) , p. 635 . Soergel, Expressionismus, p. 772. " L i f e and Death of Ernst T o l l e r , " Books Abroad, XIV, 6 . (Munchen, 1 9 2 2 ) , I, 28. Heidentum, I, 2 9 , 3 2 . ' Chapter I 8. The c o n t r o v e r s i a l ending of Woyzeck w i l l be dealt with at greater length i n the concluding chapter of t h i s work. 9 . Bertold Brecht, "Die Dreigroschenoper," Stucke f u r das  Theater am Schiffbauerdamm ( 1927-1933) , I, ( B e r l i n , 1955) , 100, writes: Ihr l e h r t uns, wann ein Weib die Rocke heben Und i h r e Augen einwarts drehen kann Zuerst musst i h r uns zu fressen geben Dann k6*nnt i h r reden: damit fangt es an. Ihr, d i e auf unsrer Scham und eurer Lust besteht Das eine wisset ein f u r allemal: Wie i h r es immer schiebt und wie i h r ' s immer dreht Erst kommt das Fressen, dann kommt die Moral. Erst muss es mo'glich sein auch armen Leuten Vom grossen B r o t l a i b s i c h i h r T e i l zu schneiden. 1 0 . Buchner, i n Dantons Tod, had previously given h i s views regarding the human sex drive—man i s helpless before i t s i n s i s t e n t urge. Marion t e l l s Danton of her experience: "Ein junger Mensch kam zu der Z e i t ins Haus . . . Endlich sahen wir nicht e i n, warum wir ni c h t ebensogut zwischen zwei Bettuchern beieinander l i e g e n , a l s auf zwei Stuhlen nebeneinander s i t z e n 1. 2 . 3 . 4. 5 . 6 . 7 . - 81 -durften . . . . Wir taten's heimlich. Das ging so f o r t . Aber i c h wurde wie ein Meer, was a l l e s verschlang und s i c h t i e f e r und t i e f e r wuhlte. Es war f u r mich nur ein Gegensatz da, a l l e Manner verschmolzen i n einen L e i b . Meine Natur war einmal so, wer kann da driiber hinaus?" (p. 25) 11. Marie and the drum major are l i v i n g examples of t h i s f a c t ; they l i v e according to t h i s "natural" sex law. Both follow the urgent demands of t h e i r sensual nature and not the accepted code of morality. 12. V. Michael Hamburger, "Georg Buchner," Reason and v Energy (London, 1957), P« 202: "The p a r a l l e l between Woyzeck's behaviour and that of the horse i s obvious; . f o r previously the doctor had reprimanded Woyzeck f o r r e l i e v i n g himself i n p u b l i c and depriving him of material f o r h i s experiment." 13. These two c a r i c a t u r e s w i l l be discussed i n considerable d e t a i l i n the next chapter. 14-. "Buchner. Woyzeck," Das Deutsche Drama, ed., Benno von Wiese (Dusseldorf, 1958), I I , 91. 15* For example, Hans Mayer, Georg Buchner und seine Z e i t (Wiesbaden, I960), pp. 331, 332, writes: " . . . die Armut, die 'Umstande' seines materiellen Lebens treiben jenen Woyzeck i n die Umdusterung, i n die AuflSsung seiner Bindung zur Umwelt, in s Verbrechen." 16. June 1833, he informs h i s parents: "Ich . . . habe . . . gelernt, dass nur das notwendige Bedurfnis der grossen Masse Umanderungen herbeifuhren kann, dass a l l e s Bewegen und Schreien der einzelnen vergebliches Torenwerk i s t . Sie schreiben—man l i e s t s i e n i c h t ; s i e handeln-—man h i l f t ihnen nicht . . . Ihr konnt voraussehen, dass i c h mich i n die Giessener W i n k e l p o l i t i k und r e v o l u t i o -naren Kinderstreiche nicht einlassen werde." (p. 371) 17. From Strassburg Buchner writes h i s brother: " "Ich wiirde Dir das n i c h t sagen, wenn i c h im entferntesten j e t z t an die Moglichkeit einer p o l i t i s c h e n Umwalzung glauben konnte. Tch habe mich s e i t einem halben Jahre vollkommen uberzeugt, dass n i c h t s zu tun i s t . . . i c h weiss, wie schwach, wie unbedeutend, wie zerstiickelt die l i b e r a l e P a r t e i i s t , i c h weiss, dass ein zweckmassiges, uberein-stimmendes Handeln unmoglich i s t und dass jeder Versuch auch n i c h t zum geringsten Resultate fuhrt . . . Eine genaue Bekanntschaft mit dem Treiben der deutschen Revolutionars im Auslande hat mich uberzeugt, dass auch von dieser Seite n i c h t das geringste zu hoffen i s t . Es herrscht unter ihnen eine babylonische Verwirrung, die n i e gelost werden wird. Hoffen wir auf die Z e i t ! " (p. 396) - 82 -18. Disregarding completely the changes which Buchner*s views have undergone, Georg Lukacs, "Der f a s c h i s t i s c h v e r f a l s c h t e und der w i r k l i c h e Georg Buchner," Deutsche  Realist e n des 19. Jahrhunderts ( B e r l i n , 1952),~"p. 83, states: "Buchner hat die wenigen Jahre seines Lebens konsequent und ohne Schwankungen gewirkt: a l s p l e b e j i s c h -demokratischer Revolutionar i n seiner p o l i t i s c h e n T a t i g -k e i t . . . " 19. "Georg, Buchner," German Dramatists of the 1 9 t h Century (Los Angeles, 1940), p. 104. 20. In a l e t t e r he once remarks: "Ich hoffe noch immer, dass i c h leidenden, gedruckten Gestalten mehr m i t l e i d i g e B l i c k e zugeworferi a l s kalten, vornehmen Herzen h i t t e r e Worte gesagt habe." (p. 378} Chapter I I 21. "Georg Buchner," Neue Rundschau, 1910, p. 1460. 22. The f i g u r e of the unsympathetic doctor does not have i t s counterpart i n Hinkemann, but i t appears i n T o l l e r ' s Die Wandlung (Potsdam, 1924). T o l l e r ' s doctor i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to Buchner's: he too f a i l s to recognize true humanity, although i n s c i e n t i f i c terms he i s well-educated. He answers F r i e d r i c h ' s question, "Herr Doktor, glauben Sie an den Menschen?." on a medical basis which has no relevance to the question. He mis-understands the young s o l d i e r ' s i n q u i r y completely: "Dumme Frage. Hochst e i n f a l t i g e Frage. Ich glaube, dass die meisten Menschen eine gute Verdauung haben. Denjenigen, bei denen s i e schlecht i s t , muss man Rhizinus geben, einen grossen L o f f e l f u r Erwachsene, einen kleinen L o f f e l f u r Kinder. DummerFrage." (p. 84) As i n Woyzeck the doctor i s so shocked by such an unusual question, by t h i s "Philosophieren," that he wants to examine h i s curious pa t i e n t . His conclusion, "Psychose i n hohem Stadium" i s s i m i l a r to Woyzeck's supposed, "Aberratio mentalis p a r t i a l i s . " Both doctors endeavour to explain away remarks they do not understand by a t t r i b u t i n g them to mental derangement and seek to cover t h e i r own emptiness with the appearance of great knowledge imparted by L a t i n designations. 23. K a r l V i e t o r , Georg Buchner, P o l i t i k , Dichtung, Wissen-schaft (Bern, 1949), p. 196, i n examining the r e l a t i o n of t h i s passage to the c a r i c a t u r e scenes i n Woyzeck, writes: "Das i s t die Gesinnung, die s i c h im S t i l dieser Szenen ausdriickt: Spott aus Hass, aus emporerischer Wut gegen eine Klasse, deren Herrschaft ihm a l s Anmassung erscheint, weil s i e dunkelhaft und gefuhllos - 83 -den Menschen im P r o l e t a r i e r nicht achten w i l l . " 24. Writing to h i s family Buchner had e a r l i e r expressed the view that reason i s not the most important part of man's being, thus leaving the way open f o r t h i s con-c l u s i o n i n Woyzeck: "Der Verstand nun gar i s t nur eine sehr geringe Seite unsers geistigen Wesens und die Bildung nur eine sehr z u f a l l i g e Form desselben." (p. 377) 2 5 . Mayer, Buchner, pp. 334, 335. 26. The doctor i n Woyzeck receives great pleasure by d i s -playing Woyzeck's extraordinary a b i l i t y : " . . . Woyzeck, beweg den Herren doch einmal die OhrenI Ich hab es Ihnen schon zeigen wollen, zwei Muskeln sind bei ihm t a t i g . . . . So meine Herren! Das sind so Ubergange zum E s e l , haufig auch die Folge weiblicher Erziehung und die Muttersprache." (p. 168) 2 7 . A. H. J . Knight, Georg Buchner (Oxford, 1951) , p. 29 , records part of K a r l Vogt's d e s c r i p t i o n of one of these l e c t u r e s : "Der Glanzpunkt dieser Vorlesungen war die Demonstration der Ohrmuskeln. Der Sohn, der die Ohr-muskeln b r i l l a n t bewegen konnte, musste dann erscheinen und man erzahlte, dass die Szene dann i n folgender Weise si c h a b s p i e l t e . Nach der Beschreibung der Ohrmuskeln sagte der Professor: 'Diese Muskeln sind beim Mens-ken obsolet geworden. Der Mens-k kann die Ohren n i c h t bewegen, das konnen nur die Aeff-ken. J o l i o s , niach's mall' Der ungluckliche J o l i o s musste dann. aufstehen und mit den Ohren wedeln." 28. Regarding the captain, Heimann, Neue Rundschau, 1910, p. 1460, con c i s e l y writes: " . . . ein Hauptmann hetzt mit S p i t z f i n d i g k e i t e n den hintersinnigen, armen Teiifel umher i n seiner Angst und seiner Ohnmacht." Chapter I I I 2 9 . Compare a very s i m i l a r outcry i n one of Buchner's l e t t e r s : " . . . ach, wir armen, schreienden Musikanten! das Stohnen auf unserer P o l t e r , ware es nur da, damit es durch die Wolkenritzen dringend und weiter, weiter klingend wie ein melodischer Hauch i n himmlischen Ohren s t i r b t ? War en wir das Opfer im gliihenden Bauch des P e r i l l u s s t i e r s , dessen Todesschrei wie das Aufjauchzen des i n den Flammen s i c h aufzehrenden G o t t s t i e r s k l i n g t ? " (p. 379) 3 0 . Ernst Johann, Georg Buchner (Hamburg, 1958) , p. 123, makes t h i s point: "Buchner hatte kein besseres S i n n b i l d - 84 -f u r seine Uberzeugung vom 'Fatalismus' erfinden konnen al s die FIgur dieses Morders wider Willen, die aus der W i r k l i c h k e i t genommen war." 3 1 . Georg Buchner, p. 210. 3 2 . By h i s view of determinism Buchner i s forced to remove a l l personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from the i n d i v i d u a l . In February 1834, he wrote h i s parents: "Ich verachte niemanden, am wenigsten wegen seines Verstandes oder seiner Bildung, weil es i n niemands Gewalt l i e g t , kein Dummkopf oder kein Verbrecher zu werden—weil wir durch gleiche Umstande wohl a l l e g l e i c h wiirden und weil die Umstande ausser uns l i e g e n . " (p. 377) 3 3 . With respect to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the voices and v i s i o n s , K. V i e t o r , Buchner, p. 211, writes: "Seine f i x e n Ideen und Gesichte sind Zeichen dafur, dass die Hand des Schicksals s i c h urn ihn s c h l i e s s t , dass er unter ihrem Druck e r z i t t e r t . " 3 4 . Through Lena, i n Leonce und Lena, Buchner gives p i t h y expression to the c e n t r a l theme of h i s works, the problem of e x i s t e n t i a l s u f f e r i n g : "Es kommt mir ein entsetz-l i c h e r Gedanke: i c h glaube,- es gibt Menschen, die ungiucklich sind, unheilbar, bloss weil s i e sind." (p. 136) 3 5 . August Class, " N i h i l i s m and Modern German Drama," Medusa's Mirror (London, 1957) , P. 161. Chapter IV 36. Ernst T o l l e r , Hinkemann (Potsdam, 1924), p. 48. A l l subsequent references to t h i s play w i l l be taken from t h i s e d i t i o n ; the page number w i l l be placed within parentheses immediately following the quotation. 37. Thus Hinkemann, l i k e Woyzeck, i s also about 30 years o l d . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the age of the two protagonists w i l l be discussed i n the conclusion. 38. This theme of p r o s t i t u t i o n out of material necessity appears already i n Buchner's work. In Dantons Tod Simeon, s l i g h t l y drunk, makes a scene on the s t r e e t when he learns that h i s daughter i s a common s t r e e t -walker. However, h i s wife defends the g i r l ' s actions on economic grounds: "Und meine Tochter war da hiriunter-gegangen um die E c k e — s i e i s t ein braves Madchen und ernahrt i h r e E l t e r n . " (p. 14) To her husband she elaborates, g i v i n g moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r her daughter's conduct: "Du Judas! hattest du nur ein paar Hosen hinaufzuZiehen, wenn die jungen Herren die Hosen ni c h t - 85 -bei i h r hinunterliessen? . . . Wir arbeiten mit a l i e n Gliedern, warum denn ni c h t auch damit; i h r e Mutter hat damit geschafft, wie s i e zur Welt kam, und es hat i h r weh getan; kann s i e f u r ihre Mutter nicht auch damit schaffen, he? und tut ' s i h r auch weh dabei, he? Du Dummkopf!" (p. 14) As the drunk father c a l l s f o r a knif e to stab h i s daughter, a c i t i z e n says, p o i n t i n g out her r e a l motives: "Ja, ein Messer, aber nicht f i i r d ie arme Hure! Was t a t sie? Nichts! Ihr Hunger hurt und b e t t e l t . " (p. 14) 39. The motif of an innocent woman being forced into p r o s t i t u t i o n by economic necessity also recurs i n T o l l e r ' s Die Maschinenstiirmer ( L e i p z i g , 1922). Here Mary Wible s e l l s h e r s e l f to Henry Cobbett i n order to earn a few pence f o r t h e i r l i v i n g . On entering the house from a v i s i t to Cobbett, she i s asked by her husband: John Wible: Hat dic h der Cobbett gut entlohnt? Mary ( w i r f t Geld auf den Tis c h ) : Piinf Pence. John Wible: Der Schuftl Der Schuft! Mary: Lass mir die H a l f t e . Nicht ein Brot im Haus. Ich gab d i r l e t z t e Woche a l l das Siindengeld. (pp. 35> 36) Later i n the play Mary i s attacked by other women as she s t e a l t h i l y t r i e s to leave Cobbett's garden, and i s only rescued by the appearance of Ned Lud, who recog-nizes that her motives were economic rather than promiscuous. With keen perception he asks the women: "Peitscht i h r ein Kind, das g i e r i g s i c h auf Brocken Brotes s t i i r z t ? " (p. 65) Then of Mary he inqu i r e s : "Sag', Mary, warum warst du dort?" to which she q u i e t l y r e p l i e s : "Ich b i n . . . so arm . . . wie diese da . . . Ich tu's o a • • • nicht f i i r mich . . . " (p. 65) 40. The theme of r i d i c u l e at s u f f e r i n g w i l l be treated i n the next chapter. 41. Compare a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n Die Maschinenstiirmer where Margret has had to s e l l the bed, one of the basic n e c e s s i t i e s i n l i f e because i t represents the natural human need f o r r e s t : "Ich musste mein l e t z t e s Stuck Mobel verkaufen, ein Bett. Wie ein Blutegel sass mir der Kramer auf. In diesem Bett s c h l i e f e n der Sohn, die Tochter, der Schlafbursche, der Vater, der Mann und ic h . Bei Gott, i c h weiss n i c h t , wer mich manche Nacht umarmte! Ich habe dieses eine Bett versetzen miissen." (p. 60) 42. The Hinkemanns are only one of many f a m i l i e s which are in d i r e s t r a i t s . A working woman i n Hinkemann t e l l s of s i m i l a r poverty; she has to r e l i n q u i s h e s s e n t i a l a r t i c l e s of c l o t h i n g to be able to keep a l i v e : "Wenn i c h diese Hemden auch ins Leihhaus trage, so brauchen Sie nic h t - 8 6 -zu glauben, dass i c h keine Hemden mehr im Schrank habe . . . i c h besitze sogar eine teure, p i k f e i n e , seidene Mantilje . . . von meiner Grossmutter her . . . Aber es i s t n i c h t s mehr von Wert im Haus . . . da miissen eben die Hemden herhalten . . .'' (p. 2 0 ) 4 5 . The problem of the machine-man r e l a t i o n occurs frequently i n Expressionism. Georg Kaiser, "Gas I," Das Deutsche  Drama 1 8 8 0 - 1 9 5 3 , ed., H. Steinhauer (New York, 1 9 5 8 ) , I I , 7 2 , gives a f i n e p i c t u r e of a fa c t o r y worker who i s l i t t l e more than a robot. The g i r l says of her brother: "Ich wusste n i c h t , dass i c h einen Bruder hatte. Ein Mensch ging morgens aus dem Hause und kam abends—und s c h l i e f . . . . Eine Hand war g r o s s — d i e andere k l e i n . Die grosse Hand s c h l i e f n i c h t . Die s t i e s s i n einer Bewegung hin und" h e r — T a g und Nacht . . . . Diese Hand war der Mensch! - Wo b l i e b mein Bruder? . . . In Arbeit stiirzte er. Die brauchte nur die eine Hand von ihm — d i e den Hebel driickte und h o b — . . . Keinen Hub l i e s s er a u s — p u n k t l i c h schlug sein Hebel an, vor dem er stand wie t o t und bediente." 4 4 . The rich': are frequently war p r o f i t e e r s whom the woman i n Die Wandlung, p. 5 3 , aptly describes as "die paar Reichen, die prassen und prassen und uns aussagen, die mit dem Ertrag unserer Arbeit galantes S p i e l t r e i b e n . " 4 5 . Ernst T o l l e r , "Author's Introduction," Seven Plays (London, 1 9 5 5 ) , P« i x . 4 6 * Ernst T o l l e r , Eine Jugend i n Deutschland (Amsterdam, 1 9 5 5 ) , PP. 2 7 5 , 2 7 6 . 4 7 . Ernst T o l l e r , B r i e f e aus dem Gefangnis (Amsterdam, 1 9 5 5 ) , P . 2 0 4 . Chapter V 4 8 . The showman c y n i c a l l y sums up the s p i r i t of the time: "Mit Kriegsgreuel—Panoptikum verdienen Sie heute keine zehn Pfennig mehr. Aus! Jet z t i s t Kultur Trumpf i n Europa! . . . Man muss was l e i s t e n l Leistung! Das i s t Schlussel zu unserer Z e i t ! G l e i c h g i i l t i g was!" (p. 58) 4 9 . Howard De Forest, " P a c i f i s t i n E x i l e , " (Interview), L i v i n g Age, CCCLI (Sept. 1956-Feb. 1957) , 509. 5 0 . T o l l e r ' s names a l l contain rather apparent references to the characters of t h e i r bearers: Hinkemann i s a c r i p p l e , Singegott a r e l i g i o u s e c s t a t i c , and Immer-g l e i c h a phlegmatic s o c i a l i s t . Grosshahn i s the - 87 -s t r i d e n t embodiment of sex and e a s i l y associated with "Hahnrei" and other terms denoting i n f i d e l i t y . 51. W. A. W i l l i b r a n d , "Ernst T o l l e r ' s I d e o l o g i c a l Skepticism," GQ, XIX (1946), 181, points out concerning T o l l e r : "Mensch was to him a s p i r i t u a l concept which the materi-a l i s t i c s o c i a l ideology d i d not seem to recognize." - Chapter VI 52. William Rose, Men, Myths, and Movements i n German  L i t e r a t u r e (London, 1931), p. 217, writes regarding T o l l e r ' s drama: " I t i s the tragedy, i n t e n s i f i e d to the extreme l i m i t , of the man returned from the War to f i n d himself estranged from the r e s t of humanity." 53. T o l l e r , B r i e f e , p. 31. 54. B r i e f e , p. 151. 55. P. 275. 56. T o l l e r , B r i e f e , p. 239. 57« Seven Plays, p. x. 58. In speaking to Max Knatsch Hinkemann reveals the weakness of marriage bonds i n general: Hinkemann. . . . Wie lange b i s t du verheiratet? > Max Knatsch. Dreiundzwanzig Jahre. Hinkemann. Du w o l l t e s t dich einmal scheiden lassen? Max Knatsch. Den Gedanken hatte i c h wohl. Aber man hat s i c h aneinander gewohnt. Die Kinder sind der K i t t . Hinkemann. Der K i t t — d i e Kinder . . . Scheidung, das i s t Trennung von Bett und T i s c h . . . " (p. 47) 59. W. A. W i l l i b r a n d , Ernst T o l l e r , Product of two Revolutions (Norman, 1941), p. 40. 60. Ernst T o l l e r , Product, p. 18. 61. B r i e f e , p. 206. Conclusion 62. Die deutsche Tragodie von Lessing b i s Hebbel (Hamburg, 1948), I I , 330, 331. 6 3 . B r i e f e , p. 205 . - 88 -BIBLIOGRAPHY I . Primary Sources Brecht, Bertold. "Die Dreigroschenoper, " Stucke f i i r das  Theater am Schiffbauerdamm (1927-1933)* V o l . I , B e r l i n , 1955, 5-165". Brod, Max. Heidentum, Christentum, Judentum. V o l . I, Miinchen, 1922. Buchner, Georg. Werke und B r i e f e . Ed. by F r i t z Bergemann. Wiesbaden, 1958. Kaiser, Georg. "Gas I," Das Deutsche Drama - 1880-1935. Ed. by H. Steinhauer. V o l . I I , New York, 1938, 33-95. T o l l e r , Ernst. B r i e f e aus dem Gefangnis. Amsterdam, 1935« . Die Maschinensturmer. L e i p z i g , 1922. . Die Wandlung. Potsdam, 1924. . Eine Jugend i n Deutschland. Amsterdam, 1933. . Hinkemann. Potsdam, 1924. . Seven Plays. London, 1935* I I . Secondary Sources A. General [Closs, A.J " N i h i l i s m and Modern German Drama," Medusa1 s  Mirror. London, 1957, 147-163. Dosenheimer, E l i s e . Das deutsche s o z i a l e Drama von Lessing  b i s Sternheim. Konstanz, 1949. Garten, H. F. Modern German Drama. London, 1959. Grenzmann, W. Deutsche Dichtung der Gegenwart. Frankfurt/M., 1953. Kayser, Wolfgang. Das Groteske i n Malerei und Dichtung. Hamburg, I960. Rose, William. Men, Myths, and Movements i n German L i t e r a t u r e . London, 1931. "" - 89 -Samuel R. & R. Hinton Thomas. Expressionism i n German L i f e , L i t e r a t u r e and the Theater (1910-1924). Cambridge, 1939. Soergel, A l b e r t . Dichtung und Dichter der Zeit (Im Banne  des Expressionismus). L e i p z i g , 1927. Sokel, ¥. H. The Writer i n Extremis. Stanford, 1959. Wiese, Benno von. Die Deutsche Tragodie von Lessing b i s  Hebbel. V o l . I I , Hamburg, 1948. B. Buchner [Bergemann, E . J "Georg Buchner Schrifttum s e i t 1937," Deutsche V i e r t e l . j a h r s c h r i f t , XXV (1951), 112-121. Brinkmann, Donald. Georg Buchner a l s Philosoph. Zurich, 1958. Brinkmann, K a r l . Erlauterungen zu Georg Buchners "Dantons  Tod" und "Woyzeck". H a l l f e l d (no date). Buttner, Ludwig. Georg Buchner, Revolutionar und Pessimist. Nurnberg, 1948. [Dam, Hermann van.] "Zu Georg Buchners 'Woyzeck'," Akzente, I (1954), 82-99. (Gundolf, P.l "Georg Buchner," Romantiker. B e r l i n , 1930, 375-395. [Hamburger, M.J "Georg Buchner," Reason and Energy. London, 1957, 179-208. [Hauch, E. P.] "The Reviviscence of Georg Buchner," PMLA, XLIV (September 1929), 892-900. [Heimann, M.jf "Georg Buchner," Neue Rundschau, 1910, 1458-1462. [Jancke, R . J "Grabbe und Buchner," Germanisch Romanische  Monatschrift, XV (1927), 274-286. Johann, Ernst. Georg Buchner i n Selbstzeugnissen und B i l d -dokumenten. Hamburg, 1958. fKaufmann, P. W.J "Georg Buchner," German Dramatists of the  19th Century. Los Angeles, 1940. Knight, A. H. J . Georg Buchner. Oxford, 1951. Krapp, Helmut. Per Dialog b ei Georg Buchner. Darmstadt, 1958. - 90 -[Kresch, J . G.J "Georg Buchner's reputation as an economic r a d i c a l , " GR, VIII (1933), 44-51. [Lukacs, GeorgJ "Der f a s c h i s t i s c h v e r f a l s c h t e und der wirklich e Georg Buchner," Deutsche Realis t e n des 19*  Jahrhunderts. B e r l i n , 1952, 66-88. [Majut, R.J "Aufriss und Probleme der modernen Buchner-forschung," Germanisch Romanische Monatschrift, XVII (1929), 356-372. Marcuse, Ludwig. Georg Buchner und seine besten Buhnenwerke. B e r l i n , 1921. [Martens, W.~] "Zur Earikatur i n der Dichtung Buchners (Woyzecks Hauptmann)," Germanisch Romanische Monatschrift, NF VIII (1958), 64-71. [Mautz, K . J "Georg Buchner," Deutsche V i e r t e l . j a h r s c h r i f t , XV (1937), 115-123. [May, Kurt."] "Buchners 'Woyzeck'," Form und Bedeutung. Stuttgart, 1957, 263-272. £ . 1 "Buchner. Woyzeck," Das Deutsche Drama. • Ed. by Benno von Wiese. V o l . I I , Diisseldorf, 1958, 89-100. Mayer, Hans. Georg Buchner und seine Z e i t . Wiesbaden, I960. [Oppel, H.J "Buchner Forschung," Euphorion, XLIX (1955), 91-109. [Peacock, R.l "A note on Georg Buchner's plays," German  L i f e and L e t t e r s , X (1957), 189-197. fPohl, G .J "Ein V o r b i l d des Charakters, Georg Buchner," Deutsche Rundschau, CCXLIX (1936), 247-250. Schmid, Peter. Georg Buchner, Versuch tiber die tragische Existenz. Bern, 1940. fschwarz, Egon.J "Tod und Witz im Werke Georg Buchners," Monatshefte f i i r deutschen Unterricht, XLVI (1954), 123-136. Vi'etor, K a r l . Georg Buchner. P o l i t i k , Dichtung, Wissenschaft. Bern, 1949. Winkler, Hans. Georg Buchners "Woyzeck". Greifswald, 1925. C. T o l l e r [De Forest, H.] " P a c i f i s t i n E x i l e , " L i v i n g Age, CCGLI (September 1936-February 1937), 506-509. - 91 -(jentzsch, R.] "Ernst T o l l e r i n seinen Dramen," Z e i t s c h r i f t  f u r Deutschkunde, XL (1926), 813-822. [Loving, P i e r r e ^ "A note on Ernst T o l l e r , " D i a l , LXXXVI (March 1929), 205-210. [Pinthus, Kurt.] " L i f e and death of Ernst T o l l e r , " Books  Abroad, XIV (Winter, 1940), 3-8. ' Wil l i b r a n d , W. A." Ernst T o l l e r and h i s ideology. Iowa C i t y , 1945. f • "Ernst T o l l e r ' s i d e o l o g i c a l skepticism," L GO., XIX (1946), 181-186. . Ernst T o l l e r , Product of two Revolutions. Norman, Oklahoma, 1941. [ .] "The timely dramas of Ernst T o l l e r , " Monatshefte f u r deutschen Unterricht, XXXIX (March 1947), 157-169. [wirth, Otto . J "Ernst T o l l e r , Der Mensch i n seinem Werk," Monatshefte f i i r deutschen Unterricht, XXXI ( 1 9 3 9 ) , 339-348. 

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