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The disassociated man in Buchner's Woyzeck and Toller's Hinkemann Egert, Eugene 1961

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THE  D I S A S S O C I A T E D MAN AND  I N BUCHNER'S  TOLLER'S  WOYZECK  HINKEMANN  by  EUGENE B.  A  Sc., University  THESIS  SUBMITTED  THE  of British  IN PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS  MASTER  in  EGERT  OF  FOR  Columbia,  1958  F U L F I L M E N T OF  THE DEGREE  OF  ARTS  t h e Department of German  We  accept  required  THE  this  thesis  as conforming  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY  OP  October,  BRITISH 1961  COLUMBIA  In p r e s e n t i n g the  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  of  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y I f u r t h e r agree t h a t  permission  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may g r a n t e d by  the  Head o f my  It i s understood t h a t f i n a n c i a l gain  Department  Department o r by h i s  be  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  s h a l l not  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada.  Columbia,  written  permission.  -  i i -  Abstract  G.eorg B u c h n e r , viewed mind  as a percursor  of Expressionism.  i t i s the purpose  compare  Buchner's  Hinkemann however,  essentially  Buchner  but scarce  exposition  There  Secondary  directly  The c o n c l u s i o n s  nation  o f t h e two dramas.  Woyzeck  for  a doctor's  of the.sensual  experiences Marie's  suffering of  life  physical  h i svalues  Marie  Hinkemann, World  War  also  under  as an a i d i n plays.  material  discussion  available  i n this exami-  of the 19^  century.  Out o f  t o be used Despite  as  succumbs  mental  question.  rejection  by drowning  to the not only  anguish  lonely,  subject  Woyzeck's  Thus Woyzeck  this  are put into  emasculated  numerous f o r  on p r i v a t e  but also  a common  was  were b a s e d  major.  h i s total  which,  dramas  as separate  no s e c o n d a r y  himself  Through  were  consulted  f o rh e r , Marie  abuse,  and then  (which  experiments.  drum  infidelity.  and expresses  murdering  First  he allows  love  analogous  and Hinkemann  soldier  theme  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e  sources  reached  scientific  and p a s s i o n a t e  desires  of  i s a poor  f o rh i s "wife"  care  into  t o the problem  work.  fact i n  solutions.  f o r T o l l e r ) were  o f Woyzeck  this  t h e same b a s i c  to dissimular  was, h o w e v e r , p r a c t i c a l l y  relating  love  noting  one o f r e s e a r c h  sources.  With  i s frequently  t h e s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e and  of i n v e s t i g a t i n g these  primary  century,  and t h e e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c drama  Toller,  rise  method  of this  Woyzeck  by Ernst gives  The  the  a n a n o m a l y i n h i s own  as a  result  senseless Woyzeck  despairs  of t h e world  by  himself.  soldier,  returns  by a bullet.  home  Fearing  from the  the loss  -  of  his wife's  of  an  animal  Desiring himself  to  love to  provide  out  to  a  proves  unfaithful.  that  However,  suffering  him  in his  she  and  to  pattern  of  him. man a  of  f o r the  by  no  He  ends  passive  in by  an  of he  important  of  a  life  and  i s a  of  woman's  also Hinkemann's  Grete  finally  laughed convinced  counterpart  the  world  live  and  and  gives  asks  alone,  in  both:  life,  his  commits  love.  meaning.  any  purpose  in  Forced  wants  to  hurt  good the  purpose world  active nihilism.  reacts  less  in  this  into Woyzeck  but  the  violently in  the  universe.  that  has  hurt  Hinkemann,  violently:  meaninglessness  lose  both  life,  and  themselves  Both  Woyzeck r e a c t s of  Woyzeck  allow  l o v e l e s s world,  lack  of  causes  struggle  same  prime  the  fate,  i s in  there  i s the  see  complete,  repulsive  that  in  hires  Marie,  his  to  level  existing.  the  evil  to  afraid  i s different.  acceptance  struggle  in  sake  longer  each  vengeance  on  gives, t h e i r  discovery  Thus an  soldiers  alone  weakened  him,  basic  two  Hinkemann  Out  Grete,  the  isolation  this  But  like  purpose  a  like  Although  strength  him.  in  believe  Hinkemann,  goes  which  to  the  Hinkemann  Grosshahn,  the  misused  reaction  him  Hinkemann  Hinkemann,  total  seducer,  to  incapacity.  him  wife,  has  leave  love  sensual  longer  to  stoops  sexual  utilises  good  wife  be  who  condition.  laugh,  too  pleasures,  any  no  to  few  see  He  Thus  he  to  up.  suicide.  -  for his  causing  debased  fails  a  his  Her  by  d i d not  Woyzeck,  her  showman  act.  at  respect,  compensate  circus  prime  and  i i i  he  the  comes  world.  a to For  vain. difference in  distinction  which  lies  solution, at  the  resulting  core  of  from  these  iv  plays.  Buchner  ultimately with  the  leading  problem  the  animal  him  ridiculous.  isolates cations  or  of  different  views  consonance  view  of  life.  corresponds complete  to  the  And  the of  with  for his  which  is  with  in  loss  this  mankind.  either renders  ridicule  which  i t has  does  explore.  fatalistic  poignant  deals  complex,  solutions  Hinkemann's  of  man's n a t u r e  is  more  isolation  addition,  not are  the  Woyzeck's n i h i l i s t i c  Buchner*s  Toller's  of  i t  theme:  The  Buchner  dissimilar life.  man.  aspect  Toller, play  basic  Toller,  complete  Similarly,  despair)  one  nihilism.  problem  to  with  spiritual  Thus  the  deals  to  of  the  man.  contributing  in  here  -  and  is  utterly  disillusionment  Also  authors'  end  pessimistic  ramifi-  entirely  hopeless  resignation (but  not  -  V  -  Contents page  Introduction  1  Chapter I Background o f t h e s u f f e r i n g i n Woyzeck  6  Chapter I I "Unedles Ungluck" i n Woyzeck  18•  Chapter I I I " E d l e s Ungluck' i n Woyzeck  32  Chapter IV Background o f t h e s u f f e r i n g i n Hinkemann  . . . .  44-  Chapter V "Unedles Ungluck" i n Hinkemann Chapter VI " E d l e s Ungluck" i n Hinkemann  53  Conclusions  74  Footnotes Bibliography  62  •  SO 88  - 1 -  Introduction Georg Buchner i s frequently viewed as an important precursor of e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c drama.  I t w i l l be the purpose  of t h i s thesis, to i n v e s t i g a t e and compare the treatment of a s i m i l a r theme i n h i s Woyzeck and i n an e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c play:  Ernst T o l l e r ' s Hinkemann. Buchner was an anomaly i n h i s own time.  As an i n d i -  v i d u a l i s t he d i d not subscribe to the tenets of any recognised movement i n l i t e r a t u r e .  Nor d i d he have any close t i e s with  the poets of h i s day, with the exception of Gutzkow to; whom he sent h i s Dantons Tod f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . Woyzeck, Buchner stood alone.  L i k e h i s hero,  He found i t i n c r e a s i n g l y  impossible to endorse the p o l i t i c a l nature of Young German l i t e r a t u r e , whose members used art as propaganda to a t t a i n s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l changes.  L i t e r a t u r e became the mere  t o o l f o r expressing t h e i r revolutionary views.  In h i s l e t t e r s  Buchner c l e a r l y states h i s a t t i t u d e and r e l a t i o n , to t h i s j o u r n a l i s t i c group, the most Important l i t e r a r y movement of h i s time. Strassburg:  On January 1, 1856, he wrote h i s family from "tTbrigens gehore i c h f u r meine Person keines-  wegs zu dem sogenannten  Jungen Deutschland, der l i t e r a r i -  schen P a r t e i Gutzkows und Heines.  Nur ein v o l l i g e s Miss-  kennen unserer g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e n Verhaltnisse konnte die Leute glauben machen, dass durch die T a g e s l i t e r a t u r eine v o l l i g e Umgestaltung  unserer r e l i g i o s e n und g e s e l l s c h a f t -  l i c h e n Ideen moglich sei."'  L  Neither i s Buchner an admirer of the Romanticism s t i l l p e r s i s t e d i n h i s time.  which  Being a forward-looking person,  - 2 -  he c o u l d n o t  tolerate  a n d away f r o m t h e fying  his  writes  his  der Manier a l a  Since  Schwab  greift,  ists  found i n him a c o n g e n i a l  humanity.  his  the  dramatic  is  w o r k was w r i t t e n . link  also  (1920),  1835):  "Sie  v o n meinen F r e u n d e n  sie  age  in his  companion.  largely  was n o t  His  seen  years  often  after  seen  as  similar,  authors  an i n t e r e s t i n g  movement  the  the  greatly  l i k e Lenz and K l i n g e r . nineteenth-century  the  stage  composed  i n the  era  of  original  connecting  revolutionary  book on E x p r e s s i o n i s m , W a l t e r H .  Stress  a new  Woyzeck,  that Alban Berg  century.  "The E x p r e s s i o n i s t s  was  through  on t h e  Storm and S t r e s s  writes:  they  t h e y now e n j o y  and i c o n o c l a s t i c In h i s  Expression'  undiscovered u n t i l  o p e r a Wozzeck,  between E x p r e s s i o n i s m and the  the  themselves  generation.  noteworthy  Buchner i s  preoccupation  who y e a r n e d f o r  reputation  eighty-five  immer  Gegenwart  In Buchner  a man who l i k e  the  die  i n der  s m a l l wonder t h a t  o r 1836,  masterpiece,  Expressionism  succinctly  4-06)  his  Expressionist  i n 1835  written It  the  Clari-  i c h bin kein Verehrer  p o o r underdog and  attained  of  1913.  until  is  Buchner's works,  efforts  although  it  kindred s p i r i t ,  century, the  humanity,  times  saw t h e m .  Buchner  well  (p.  ahead o f  essential  the  medieval  und U h l a n d und d e r P a r t e i ,  with  to  a s he  aber  ausfiillen kann."  saw a man o f  into  (Strassburg,  sind schon,  B u c h n e r was  sympathetic  life  Romantics,  ins Mittelalter  keinen Platz  flight  e i n Bandcheri G e d i c h t e  D i e Sagen  ruckwarts  the  of  f r i e n d Gutzkow  erhalten hierbei Stober.  realities  r e l a t i o n to  to  nostalgic  of  esteemed  the  18 Sokel  Storm and  Georg Buchner  l i n k between the  forms  Storm  -  and S t r e s s  3  -  and t h e drama o f W e d e k i n d , J o h s t ,  and B e r t  Brecht."'  Buchner i s not o n l y a f o r e r u n n e r of the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s thought, style.  but  is  also  one o f  The l o o s e n e s s  of  scene s u c c e s s i o n ,  of  the language  are  Expressionism.  of  the prophets  c o n s t r u c t i o n , the  and t h e  grotesque  expressionistic episodic  the very  Woyzeck h a s b e e n  an i n f l u e n c e  dramatic  Albert Soergel  atmosphere  on t h e  DramaI"^  "Grauen l i e g t  wie uber B i i c h n e r s . Woyzeck, naher verwandt  ist,  als  dessen  come  in  expressionistic  as t o c l a i m : ohne  Woyzeck-  L a t e r he  r e g a r d i n g Hinkemann and Woyzeck,  s h a l l be c o n s i d e r i n g :  nature  Buchner*s  explosive  "Ohne W o y z e c k s t i m m u n g o d e r W o y z e c k z e i c h n u n g ,  specifically  to  of  goes so f a r  b l u t kaum e i n e x p r e s s i o n i s t i s c h e s  nature  and a p h o r i s t i c  a l l i n d i c a t i v e o f what i s  Indeed,  style.  of  in  declares,  the plays  we  uber i h r fHinkemannj,  Friihexpressionismus  zeitgenossische  sie  expressionistische  4Werke." of  sympathy t o  society for  B u c h n e r * s themes the poor,  of humanity,  and o f r e v o l t  the underdog,  awareness,  as  seen  a  decadent  in jail,  i n Hinkemann.  a v i c t i m of war,  i n f l u e n c e d by Georg B u c h n e r ' s Woyzeck, proletarian Hinkemann,  "While  grotesque  This play the f i r s t  is  a m i s t r e a t e d humble  tragedy is  realistic  d r a m a , w r i t t e n a l m o s t one h u n d r e d y e a r s l i k e Woyzeck,  nowhere  Kurt Pinthus,  with Toller, writes:  e n t i t l e d Hinkemann.  and  frequently  and p e r h a p s  he [ T o l l e r ] h a d w r i t t e n t h e  compassion  by s u f f e r i n g  i n Woyzeck i s  literature,  such s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y as  an E x p r e s s i o n i s t a s s o c i a t e d  of  against  i s o l a t e d from h i s f e l l o w s  t a k e n up i n e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c  still  love f o r mankind,  r e c u r i n E x p r e s s i o n i s m . . A l s o , t h e theme o f  existential  in  of  ago.  soldier,  - 4 -  who r e t u r n s from the war seemingly sound, hut whose s e x u a l 5  potency has been destroyed by s h r a p n e l . " ^ We s h a l l t r e a t the s u f f e r i n g of these two s o l d i e r s , Woyzeck and Hinkemann, i n the frame of r e f e r e n c e as given by Max Brod i n h i s book Heidentum, Christentum, Judentum, one of the great source books of E x p r e s s i o n i s t thought. Brod makes a d e f i n i t e d i s t i n c t i o n between what he c a l l s "edles und unedles Ungluck."  Noble s u f f e r i n g , he says, stems  from the v e r y nature of human e x i s t e n c e .  Man, endowed w i t h  reason, yearns f o r an answer to the p u z z l e of t h i s u n i v e r s e , but he r e c e i v e s none. such s u f f e r i n g :  No amount of s o c i a l reform can e r a d i c a t e  i t w i l l be present as l o n g as man  exists.  Even i n the a c t i v i s t i c U t o p i a t h i s metaphysical e v i l w i l l e x i s t , f o r i t r e s u l t s from the d i s c r e p a n c y between man's f i n i t e , f r a i l nature and h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of the i n f i n i t e . The consciousness of t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y causes man p a i n . the  At  same time i t l i e s at the b a s i s of the attempts at  ennoblement t o be found i n mankind's r e l i g i o n s .  Brod d e f i n e s  noble s u f f e r i n g : Der Mensch s t e h t a l s e i n k o r p e r l i c h e s , a l s o durchaus e n d l i c h e s , und s e e l i s c h e s , a l s o meist e n d l i c h e s , nur i n e k s t a t i s c h e n Ausnahmeminuten unendliches Wesen dem Unendlichen gegenuber. Dies i s t s e i n t i e f s t e r Schmerz, s e i n durchaus unabwendbares Ungluck. Immer wieder seine Grenze f i i h l e n , d i e Wandelbarkeit des Herzens, den V e r f a l l des L e i b e s , d i e Abhangigkeit der hochsten Eunktionen von den n i e d r i g s t e n , das Ermatten im Aufschwung, d i e Luge im a u f r i c h t i g sten Versuch der E h r l i c h k e i t — d a s i s t der Orgelpunkt a l l e r menschlichen Melodie. Quite d i f f e r e n t from t h i s unavoidable noble s u f f e r i n g i s the i g n o b l e s u f f e r i n g which r e s u l t s d i r e c t l y from e v i l  - 5 -  s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s or the s t u p i d i t y and War  and p o v e r t y  callousness of  are i l l u s t r a t i o n s of i g n o b l e s u f f e r i n g .  T h i s type o f s u f f e r i n g can, and must, be it  i s debasing  can b r i n g man  man.  to the d i g n i t y of man.  e r a d i c a t e d because  Whereas n o b l e s u f f e r i n g  a sense o f h u m i l i t y , i g n o b l e s u f f e r i n g b r i n g s  f r u s t r a t i o n and u s e l e s s i n d i g n a t i o n .  Brod w r i t e s :  Es g i b t a l s o (und i n diesem grauenhaften D a s e i n i s t d i e s eine Erkenntnis, d i e aufrecht erhalten zu werden v e r d i e n t ) neben dem unabwendbaren Ung l u c k auch abwendbares, es g i b t e i n E l e n d , das i n d i e Macht des Menschen, i n s e i n e n W i l l e n g e s t e l l t i s t , dem er a b h e l f e n kann und dem abz u h e l f e n (aus dem Konnen e r g i b t s i c h s o f o r t das S o l l e n ) e i n T e i l s e i n e r Bestimmung i s t . . . . Das E r l e b n i s unedlen Unglucks b r i n g t i n jedem gesunden Menschen, s e i er B e t r o f f e n e r oder Bet r a c h t e r , das Gefuh.1 der E n t r i i s t u n g , der Emporung, der Auflehnung h e r v o r . - E d l e s Ungluck mahnt zur Demut . . . . Es i s t A r i c h t i g , ' es hat n i c h t s A u f r e i z e n d e s an s i c h . With Brod's d i s t i n c t i o n i n mind we  s h a l l b e g i n our d i s c u s s i o n  o f Woyzeck i n the next c h a p t e r by i n v e s t i g a t i n g the background of Woyzeck's s u f f e r i n g .  -  6  -  Chapter  Buchner episodic  scenes,  logically various, depict  to  a  Woyzeck doctor  as  which  money  child.  an  to  object  for  Woyzeck  has  of  abnormal d i e t  this  retain no  his  human  only  Woyzeck  himself as  long  purpose was  to  as  his  unfaithful  drum  major,  menial utter  he  despair  sells the  level  medical only  the  he  peas,  doctor  this  enslaved  by  be  sure  existence. to  him by  has  no led  longer has  k i l l i n g his  The  his  Marie,  is  in  order  family,  body  For  that  to  his  subject showing like  treatment,  alone  learns  sense He  doctor,  that  she  v i r i l e  life.  The  expresses  Woyzeck  can  gives  more  in  an  he  and the  the  months  effect  Woyzeck  who  the  three  the  doctor,  to  in vain.  beloved.  man.  his  test  finally  any  to  common-law  his  captain  at  unsophisticated  for  treats  herself  sees  been  of  degrading  When h e  able  captain  selling  insists  of  giving  the  and to  the  not  Then Woyzeck  concern  of  is  ordinary  poor,  of  protagonist  experiments.  endure  can  to  series  speaking, his  the  support  loving  a  author  the  understanding,  be  by  of  or  Woyzeck  life  lot  investigation.  can  to  the  for  sympathy  animal. allow  urine  of  the  eating  showing  captain.  he  for  Out  stoops  been  by  life,  his  in  strictly  Woyzeck,  shaving  l i t t l e  even  of  with  Woyzeck  are,  unfortunate  sticks,  and h i s  often  of  However,  opens  hurriedly  secure  fate  moments  the  play  cutting  wife  which  intimate  vividly  soldier  the  connected.  Buchner's  seen  portrays  One  his  completes  his  Q rejection The  of  a l l  values  material  themselves  not  the  facts  in  life  which  entire  by  committing  suicide.  underlie Woyzeck's  cause  of  his.actions,  tragedy, are  in  delineated  in  some d e t a i l ,  little.  However, of Woyzeck's f a m i l y we  I n the b a r r a c k s - s c e n e  Although  are s t i l l  and  alive.  at present, a previous  i n f l u e n c e i n r e l i g i o n i s shown i n the f a c t t h a t he  s t i l l has h i s mother's B i b l e .  P a t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e , however,  t o t a l l y m i s s i n g , f o r h i s f a t h e r i s n e v e r mentioned.  U s u a l f a m i l y c o n n e c t i o n s have no p l a c e i n Woyzeck's He  mother  the above q u o t a t i o n g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n of the  mother's s l i g h t i n f l u e n c e upon h i s l i f e maternal  Kreuz  f l i b i t nur noch, wenn i h r d i e Sonn auf d i e  Hand s c h e i n t — d a s t u t n i x . " (p. 171))  is  ("Das  meiner Schwester und das R i n g l e i n . " (p. 170))  ("Mein Mutter  very  where he i s d i s p o s i n g of h i s  meager b e l o n g i n g s , he d i v u l g e s t h a t h i s s i s t e r ist  learn  i s alone.  The  life.  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n papers which he r e a d s  to  his  f r i e n d Andres seem i n d e e d t o c o n t a i n a l l t h e d e t a i l s  his  uneventful career:  Wehrmann, F u s i l i e r im 2 . pagnie,  of  " P r i e d r i c h Johann F r a n z Woyzeck, Regiment, 2 .  B a t a i l l o n , 4.  geboren M a r i a Verkundigung, den  heut a l t 30 J a h r , 7 Monat und  12  Tage."  20. (p.  Kom-  J u l i . - Ich bin 171)  Q u i t e i n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s humble o r i g i n , Woyzeck's language b e t r a y s a p r i m i t i v e or n o n - e x i s t e n t f o r m a l  education.  L a c k i n g t u t o r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , he i s not a l o g i c a l ,  articulate  person.  expressing  F o r example, Woyzeck has g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y  h i m s e l f r e g a r d i n g the p e r p l e x i n g v i s i o n s he has  seen:  Woyzeck. Sehn S i e , H e r r Doktor, manchmal h a t e i n e n so 'en C h a r a k t e r , so 'ne S t r u k t u r . Aber mit der Natur i s t ' s was anders, sehn S i e ; mit der Natur ( e r k r a c h t mit den F i n g e r n ) , das i s so was, wie s o i l i c h doch sagen, zum Beispiel . . . Doktor. Woyzeck, E r p h i l o s o p h i e r t wieder. Woyzeck. ( v e r t r a u l i c h ) H e r r Doktor, haben Sie schon was von der d o p p e l t e n Natur gesehen? Wenn d i e Sonn i n M i t t a g s t e h t und  - 8 -  es i s t , a l s g i n g d i e Welt i n Feuer a u f , h a t schon e i n e f i i r c h t e r l i c h e Stimme zu m i r g e r e d t ! Doktor. Woyzeck, E r h a t e i n e A b e r r a t i o . Woyzeck. ( l e g t den F i n g e r an d i e Nase) D i e Schwamme, H e r r Doktor, da, da s t e c k t ' s . Hahen S i e schon gesehn, i n . was f u r F i g u r e n d i e Schwamme auf dem Boden wachsen? Wer das l e s e n k o n n t l ( p . 159) In  r e a d i n g Woyzeck, one g a i n s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t  u n p r e t e n t i o u s , c o a r s e and clumsy s o l d i e r has l a t e n t  potenti-  a l i t y , h u t t h a t t h i s mental a b i l i t y has never r e a l l y developed by f o r m a l t r a i n i n g . In  He i s an o r i g i n a l  this  been  thinker.  h i s own way Woyzeck r e v e a l s h i s c o n c e r n about t h e sense-  lessness of l i f e .  Whether one d e c i d e s t o l i v e o r d i e i n  t h i s c r u e l w o r l d depends on whether life  one a f f i r m s o r n e g a t e s  Woyzeck t e l l s t h e c a p t a i n i n n a i v e l y p o e t i c  "Wir haben schon Wetter, H e r r Hauptmann.  form:  Sehn S i e , so e i n  schoner, f e s t e r , g r a u e r Himmel; man konnte L u s t bekommen, e i n * Kloben h i n e i n z u s c h l a g e n und s i c h daran zu hangen, n u r wegen des G e d a n k e n s t r i c h e l s zwischen J a und wieder Nein.  H e r r Hauptmann, J a und Nein?  das J a am N e i n s c h u l d ? "  ( p . 163)  Ja—und  I s t das N e i n am J a oder The i n a n e c a p t a i n , on t h e  o t h e r hand, c a n o n l y t h i n k w i t h i n t h e bounds o f a c i r c u m s c r i b e d system.  To him o r i g i n a l thought i s an a b s o l u t e l y  s t r a n g e and dangerous phenomenon:  "Aber du denkst  das z e h r t ; du s i e h s t immer so v e r h e t z t aus."  zuviel,  ( p . 153)  Unable t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s i n s i g h t i n t o l i f e ,  the captain  and h i s f e l l o w s b e l i e v e Woyzeck i s on t h e verge o f i n s a n i t y . At  first  the d o c t o r does n o t apprehend Woyzeck's p u z z l i n g  remarks and d i s m i s s e s them w i t h : wieder."  "Woyzeck, E r p h i l o s o p h i e r t  ( p . 159) b u t , f i n a l l y , he r e a c h e s t h e c o n c l u s i o n  -  9  -  t h a t Woyzeck i s m e n t a l l y d i s t u r b e d : Aberratio."  (p. 159)  "Woyzeck, Er h a t  eine  I t i n d e e d appears as i f Woyzeck i s  g o i n g i n s a n e , as i f he i s b r e a k i n g down.  Marie d i s p l a y s  s t r o n g f e a r s t h a t h i s mind may  snap:  du, Franz? geistert  Du  . . .  (pp. 154,  155)  completely  s i e h s t so v e r s t o r t  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Marie  Und  So  ver-  Gedanken!"  guilt  to  Woyzeck h i m s e l f admits  c o n f u s i o n and t u r m o i l i n h i s mind:  zumach, d r e h t s i c h ' s immer, und  hast  s e i z e s upon Woyzeck's  r a t h e r than her own  explain his distraught condition.  zu, immer zu.  Der Mann!  E r schnappt noch uber mit den  p r o c l i v i t y toward thought  to  . . .  "Was  "Wenn i c h d i e  Aug  i c h hor d i e Geigen, immer  dann s p r i c h t ' s aus der Wand."  (p.  167)  I n many i n s t a n c e s h i s s t r a n g e remarks l e a v e us a s k i n g whether t h e s e are the u t t e r a n c e s of a madman o r o f ah o t h e r - w o r l d l y visionary.  On  one  o c c a s i o n he t e l l s M a r i e , r e v e a l i n g h i s  dangerous mental c o n d i t i o n : bis  vor die Stadt.  was  uns von  "Es i s t h i n t e r mir hergangen  Etwas, was  Sinnen b r i n g t .  Was  wir n i c h t fassen, b e g r e i f e n , s o l i das werden?"  Such doubts c o n c e r n i n g r e a l i t y , dogmatic systems of thought  (p.  as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h  p e r s o n i f i e d , i n the d o c t o r  the c a p t a i n , show us t h a t Woyzeck alone has  the  and  an independent  i n s i g h t i n t o t h e essence  of t h i n g s — i n f a c t i t i s t h i s  which u n s e t t l e s him.  i s c o n s t a n t l y haunted by the  He  155)  c a b l e i n n a t u r e ; he r e a l i z e s t h e r e are m y s t e r i o u s ,  insight inexpli-  uncon-  t r o l l a b l e f o r c e s a t work, which he i s a t a l o s s t o e x p l a i n . Woyzeck a l s o r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e r e i s a m y s t e r i o u s ,  unfathomable  element i n man:  schwindelt  einem, wenn man  "Jeder Mensch i s e i n Abgrund; es hinabsieht."  (p. 164)  Through such  utterances  -  Buchner  exposes  as  contrasted  in  these  truth  even  the  most  the  encounter  In  startling  as  Anglaise Es  mann.  Aber an  can  kommt that in  the  blessing "Herr drum  konnt was  the  captain the  ansehen,  ob  Herr  he  over  i s often  a  thought, for  profound  supercilious captain  the  superficial  Woyzeck  He  gives  morality.  He  of  e i n ' Hut  comply looks  s e i n um  ein  armer  base:  man  und  Kerll" needs  food  words  reminiscent  dann  kommt  die  have  no  bourgeois  i t s own  captain.  with  the  con-  bourgeois  schon  eine tugendhaft  Herr  Haupt-  Morality  clothing  of  Moral."),  Brecht  before ("Erst  Buchner have  no  argues  morality Woyzeck,  " n a t u r a l " m o r a l i t y which  he  follows.  him  sense.  und  152)  money c a n  wenn  to  of  having  a  Woyzeck r e s p o n d s  der  liebe  das  Amen  sprach:  the  According  accuses church,  of  Uhr  and  In  who  penetrating  Tugend, (p.  morality.  " . . .  ich wollt  in  and  on  eine  die  of  cogent  material prosperity:  hatt  of  intelligence  arguments  does not  one  question  i s capable  Schones  people  creates  Der  there  information,  his native  reden,  morals.  poor  of  vornehm  ich bin  Hauptmann,  wurde.  und  Pressen,  of  for reflective  retain  and  captain  the  of  conventional,  poverty  doctor  that  upon  economic  das the  war  muss  have  the  When  refute  based  und  sein.  he  here  standards  ein Herr  needs  the  "naturalness"  morality  to  remarks  evidences  with  which  ventional  ich  lunatic  learned  demonstrates  his  ability  i s naturally intelligent.  the  remarks  mere  faculty  grasp.  Woyzeck  He  with  -  innate  1  seemingly  which  cannot  Woyzeck s  10  Gott  wird  den  driiber  gesagt  Lasset  die  child with  without his  astute  a r m e n Wurm i s t , eh  Kleinen  zu  the  er mir  answer:  nicht gemacht kommen."  - 11  -  (p.  152)  the  laws o f the n a t u r a l m o r a l i t y , t h e law o f l o v e ,  Woyzeck knows no a r t i f i c i a l  moral laws but o n l y which  he f i n d s i n C h r i s t ' s words. As such a "Naturmenseh," Woyzeck f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r s t o the  i n v o l u n t a r y d r i v e s o f n a t u r e , p o i n t i n g out t h a t a  man  io cannot h e l p h i m s e l f i n the f a c e o f n a t u r e ' s demands. In  the opening scene Woyzeck i s t a l k i n g w i t h the c a p t a i n  about the s e x u a l d r i v e : Blut  "Man  hat auch s e i n F l e i s c h  und  . . . w i r gemeine L e u t , das hat k e i n e Tugend, es kommt  einem nur so d i e Natur  ..."  (p. 152)"^  Somewhat l a t e r ,  Woyzeck u s e s e s s e n t i a l l y the same p h r a s e , "wenn einem d i e N a t u r kommt" ( p . 158),  but t h i s time he i s r e f e r r i n g t o the  u r i n a t i n g e p i s o d e , f o r which the d o c t o r r e p r o a c h e s him. d o c t o r , i n t h e tone o f the E n l i g h t e n m e n t , p i o u s l y the  freedom  o f the w i l l over n a t u r e :  ist  frei,  zur  Freiheit."  i n dem  Mensehen v e r k l a r t (pp. 158,  159)  The  defends  "Woyzeck, d e r Mensch  sich die Individualitat  But Woyzeck knows o f no  such  freedom.  He i s " n a t u r a l " j u s t l i k e t h e i n d e c e n t h o r s e at  the  which o b e d i e n t l y c a r r i e s out the d r i v e s o f n a t u r e  fair,  12 when n e c e s s a r y . instructions,  Woyzeck l i v e s a c c o r d i n g t o the showman's  "Mensch, s e i n a t u r l i c h l "  (p. 157)»  and f o r  Woyzeck, t h i s i s the c o r e o f human m o r a l i t y . A l t h o u g h he does not u n d e r s t a n d Woyzeck's p o i g n a n t remarks, good man. (p.  153),  t h e monied and moral c a p t a i n f i n d s him to be a "Du b i s t  ein, g u t e r Mensch, e i n g u t e r Mensch.  :!  he says i n a c o n c e s s i v e r e c o g n i t i o n o f Woyzeck's  inherent v i r t u e . demonstrates  Indeed, i n h i s " n a t u r a l " b e h a v i o u r , Woyzeck  a b i g h e a r t and a t r u s t i n g , almost c a n i n e  - 12 -  affection.  His absolute and n a t u r a l devotion to Marie i s  the cause f o r h i s l e t t i n g himself be mistreated and e x p l o i t e d . Even though not obliged to do so (they are not married), he f e e l s he must support her and h i s c h i l d . doctor:  He informs the  "Das Geld f u r die Menage k r i e g t meine Frau."  (p. 160)  In the naive goodness of h i s heart Woyzeck wants to believe the best i n a l l people.  His I m p l i c i t t r u s t i n Marie,  and i n humanity, i s part of h i s "natural" being. suspicions are not e a s i l y aroused:  Woyzeck*s  i t takes a great deal  of evidence to convince him of Marie's i n f i d e l i t y .  One  day  he completely s u r p r i s e s Marie i n her room while she i s l o v i n g l y admiring a set of ear-rings, which she undoubtedly received from the drum major.  Although everything does not seem to  be i n order, Woyzeck i s w i l l i n g to forget the i n c i d e n t . However, he i s not permitted to do so, f o r the knowledge of Marie's r e l a t i o n s with the drum major has come to the ears of the captain, and the l a t t e r , t h i n k i n g to have some amusement, taunts Woyzeck with crude h i n t s about Marie's u n f a i t h fulness.  Woyzeck i s so shocked by t h i s sudden d i s c l o s u r e  as to be thrown into u t t e r confusion:  "Herr Hauptmann, die  Erd i s h o l l e n h e i s s — m i r e i s k a l t , e i s k a l t — D i e H o l l e i s t k a l t , wollen wir wetten. - - Unmoglich! (p. 162)  Menschi  MenschI  Even then he i s not e n t i r e l y convinced.  unmoglichl" Marie looks  so sweet and innocent that he can hardly believe the captain's revelation.  Such a crass s i n should be c l e a r l y v i s i b l e .  Woyzeck simply does not want to b e l i e v e . mounts:  But, the evidence  at a dance he himself sees her i n the arms of the  drum major.  Then Andres supplies the f i n a l convincing piece  - 13 -  o f i n f o r m a t i o n by r e v e a l i n g t o Woyzeck t h a t he had seen t h e drum major and a f r i e n d v i s i t M a r i e .  Not u n t i l then i s t h e  n a i v e and magnanimous Woyzeck aroused t o h i s d r a s t i c a c t of sado-masochistic d e s t r u c t i o n . © Buchner's concern w i t h t h e s o c i a l and economic d i s t r e s s o f t h e common p e o p l e , which i s t h e b a s i s f o r most o f h i s early writing, i s s t i l l  c l e a r l y seen i n Woyzeck.  The f a c t  t h a t Woyzeck must debase h i m s e l f t o t h e l e v e l o f an animal and perform m e n i a l t a s k s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e meager means f o r h i s f a m i l y i s abundant evidence o f t h e m i s e r y o f t h e p o o r p e o p l e — t o whom he b e l o n g s . privation, i n this l i f e  The poor know o n l y work and  and i n t h e n e x t .  s e l f would p r o v i d e no r e s t :  F o r them d e a t h i t -  " I c h g l a u b , wenn w i r i n Himmel  kamen, so mussten w i r donnern h e l f e n . "  ( p . 152) When he  d i s p o s e s o f h i s s c a n t y b e l o n g i n g s , Woyzeck r e v e a l s h i s u t t e r poverty.  A l l t h a t he f i n d s worth mentioning  s o l c h e n . . . das Kreuz . . . das R i n g l e i n gen  . . . zwei Herze und schon G o l d  i s "das Kami-  . . . ein H e i l i -  . . . ."  (p. 170)  Marie r e v e a l s s i m i l a r penury i n t h e j e w e l scene which seems t o be c l o s e l y modelled She  a f t e r t h e j e w e l scene  i n Faust I .  shows g r e a t d e l i g h t w i t h such a simple g i f t as a p a i r  of e a r - r i n g s .  I t i s p a t h e t i c t o observe h e r p r i d e and p l e a s u r e  w i t h t h i s simple l u x u r y .  She l i k e Woyzeck c o u l d say: " I c h  b i n e i n armer T e u f e l — u n d hab sonst n i c h t s a u f d e r Welt." (p. 162) On January Strassburg:  1, 1836, Buchner wrote h i s p a r e n t s  " I c h komme vom C h r i s t k i n d e l s m a r k t :  from  uberall  Haufen z e r l u m p t e r , f r i e r e n d e r K i n d e r , d i e m i t a u f g e r i s s e n e n  - 14  Augen und  -  t r a u r i g e n G e s i c h t e r n v o r den H e r r l i c h k e i t e n aus  Wasser und  Mehl, Dreck und  Goldpapier  standen.  Der  Gedanke,  dass f i i r d i e m e i s t e n Menschen auch d i e a r m s e l i g s t e n und  Ireuden u n e r r e i c h b a r e  sehr b i t t e r . " poverty  and  (p. 408)  Kostbarkeiten  Geniisse  s i n d , machte mich  Such b i t t e r n e s s a g a i n s t  abject  s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e i s e s p e c i a l l y r e f l e c t e d here 13  i n the pungent c a r i c a t u r e s , the c a p t a i n and  the  doctor.  I t seems congruous to c o n c l u d e t h a t the S t r a s s b u r g experience  (and  others l i k e i t ) l e f t  market  i t s mark on Woyzeck,  f o r the i d e a o f t h i s p l a y must have been g e r m i n a t i n g Buchner's mind at about t h i s  in  time.  Although i t contains considerable  criticism directed  at the r u l i n g c l a s s o f s o c i e t y , i t i s a f a l l a c y to  maintain  t h a t Buchner wrote h i s Woyzeck p u r e l y as propaganda f o r s o c i a l reform.  Nowhere i n the p l a y does Buchner advocate  r e v o l u t i o n o f the lower c l a s s a g a i n s t i t s r u l e r s , nor i s t h e r e the s l i g h t e s t hope g i v e n f o r a change i n s o c i e t y . K u r t May  writes:  "Im  'Woyzeck'-Drama s e l b s t i s t n i c h t  mit  einem e i n z i g e n Wort d i e Hoffnung auf e i n e mogliche Anderung der g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e n Ordnung der Z e i t verktindet.  Darum  g e l i n g t es n i c h t , dem  sozial-  'Woyzeck' den  r e v o l u t i o n a r e n Kampf- und  Charakter eines  Tendenzstuckes mit  progressives  Bedeutung aufzuzwingen, obwohl doch das L e i d e n L e u t e an der u n e r t r a g l i c h e n V e r d e r b t h e i t Sozialordnung  armen  herrschenden 14  h i e r auf d i e Szene gebracht i s t . "  i n d e a l i n g w i t h the one  der  der  Thus,  socio-economic b a s i s f o r Woyzeck's s u f f e r i n g ,  must be c a r e f u l to put  i t i n the p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e .  C e r t a i n l y , Woyzeck's s u f f e r i n g i s due  i n p a r t to h i s  social  - 15  and  economic  must  not  factors need  be  circumstances, unduly  such  for  as  love.  revolutionary and  base  outcry  Buchner, entire  social  against The  murder  Marie  the  the  see  one  of  the the  Woyzeck  protagonist's caused  the  and  important  the  universal  realistic Bessische  seen  cruelty  s u f f e r i n g and  of  and Landbote,  only  their  i t s  as  19  the  drama  other  Woyzeck upon  i s  solely, in  of  of  nature  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  and  aspect  exclusion  only  author  injustice  are  this  problematic  criticism.  the  society. of  to  Some c r i t i c s  their  purported  but  stressed  Woyzeck's  -  an  century resulting  opinion,  by  the  15 economic to  the  ary  and  social  opposite  aspect  spective private  of  in  conditions.  extreme  and  Buchner's  this  change  work.  respect  of  view  ignore To  One  cannot,  the  social  obtain  i t i s helpful  as  a  r e s u l t of  to his  the  however, and  go  revolution-  proper  examine  per-  Buchner's  political  experi-  ences. Buchner attending  first  the  became  u n i v e r s i t y at  conclusion  that  changes  society.  in  becoming when  in  ferred  to  in  radical  peasants'  the  This  society  in petty  German  compliance  with  of  of  1830.  he  was  founded intended  was  state  bring no  to  the  about  any  intentions  he  regulations, soon  arisen  of  the  had  came  while  of  p o l i t i c s . H o w e v e r ,  had  One  politics He  can  he  Giessen  which  activities  which  Strassburg.  Consequently,  movement  revolt  about  mass r e v o l u t i o n  University  revolutionary rechte,"  only  involved  Buchner,  the  concerned  the 11  became  transinvolved  after  the  abortive  agencies  for  Buchner's  Gesellschaft  in  conjunction  as  a  propaganda  with  der  Menschen-  several  center  where  friends. pamphlets  -  16 -  were t o be p r i n t e d f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n among t h e p e a s a n t s . B e i n g an outspoken advocate o f a c t i o n , B u c h n e r — t o g e t h e r w i t h P a s t o r W e i d i g — p u b l i s h e d i n 18J4- Der H e s s i s c h e Landbote, which bore t h e motto from t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n : den H u t t e n l  K r i e g den P a l a s t e n . "  "Priede  In t h i s inflamatory  he denounced t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t s and on them t o r e v o l t .  tract  called  The appearance o f t h i s pamphlet l e d the  a u t h o r i t i e s t o take d r a s t i c a c t i o n :  Buchner was  and s e v e r a l o f h i s f r i e n d s i m p r i s o n e d .  questioned  Being h e l d  suspect,  Buchner r e t u r n e d home t o Darmstadt, where he i n a few weeks wrote Dantons Tod.  I n t h i s p l a y Buchner exposes h i s view  on t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n which had become t a i n t e d w i t h i d e a l i s t i c motives.  less  He comes t o a f a t a l i s t i c view o f h i s t o r y .  Even r e v o l u t i o n s , he f e e l s , are s u b j e c t t o a l l p o w e r f u l f a t e . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r he had t o f l e e a c r o s s t h e b o r d e r t o Strassburg. now  D i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h the t u r n o f e v e n t s , Buchner  t o t a l l y withdrew from p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y .  i l l u s i o n e d w i t h t h e weakness, party i t s e l f  He was  dis-  the d i v i s i o n of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y  and r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n such a c o n d i t i o n i t c o u l d 17  accomplish nothing. '  From a y o u t h f u l enthusiasm f o r r e v o -  l u t i o n Buchner's views changed t o d e s p a i r :  he no  longer  b e l i e v e d i n t h e e f f i c a c y o f r e v o l u t i o n i n b r i n g i n g about 18 s o c i a l and economic e q u a l i t y ,  but r a t h e r saw i n p o l i t i c a l  movements the b l i n d workings o f c r u e l d e s t i n y .  F. W. Kaufmann  sums up t h e r a d i c a l change o f view i n Buchner:  "Buchner,  the r e v o l u t i o n a r y who l e v e l and who  had hoped t o l e a d man  to a h i g h e r  had seen h i s endeavours f a i l because o f t h e  p e t t i n e s s and s t u p i d i t y o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y comrades and h i s  - 17 opponents, d e s p a i r s o f h i s t o r i c a l p r o g r e s s and o f any p o s s i b l e  19 upward e v o l u t i o n o f mankind." Although  d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h open r e v o l u t i o n , Buchner, 20  i n consonance w i t h h i s compassionate p h i l o s o p h y o f still  life,  d e p i c t s the misery o f the poor p e o p l e i n h i s Woyzeck.  Here are m i r r o r e d the a c t u a l s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of the 19  c e n t u r y s t a t e o f Hesse-Darmstadt.  p o r t r a y i n g t h e i n d i g e n t c o n d i t i o n of the lower  Buchner, i n classes,  demonstrates h i s c o n t i n u e d sympathy f o r the underdog. here r e v e a l s h i s sympathy f o r "das t h e l o t of one we  depicting  o f i t s m i s t r e a t e d members, Woyzeck, b u t ,  s h a l l see i n the next two  v i s i o n has  arme V o l k " by  Buchner  as  c h a p t e r s , by t h i s time h i s  expanded t o the p o i n t where he sees e v e r y i n d i -  v i d u a l s u f f e r i n g from a more "noble" m i s f o r t u n e — t h e c o n d i t i o n of b e i n g a l i v e i n an i n e x p l i c a b l e and e v i l u n i v e r s e .  - 18  -  Chapter The  Two  m a t e r i a l background of Woyzeck's s u f f e r i n g i s  p r o v i d e d by the economic s i t u a t i o n i n which he f i n d s h i m s e l f , but the deeper cause o f h i s s u f f e r i n g i s h i s need f o r l o v e . Here we  must c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e between Woyzeck's  tender,  homely a f f e c t i o n f o r h i s " f a m i l y " and h i s p a s s i o n a t e f o r Marie.  I t has  love  a l r e a d y been i n d i c a t e d t h a t Woyzeck i s  a k i n d i n d i v i d u a l aware o f h i s moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s " w i f e " and  child.  One  example w i l l  his affection f o r his "family." h i s tender  l o v e f o r h i s son.  s u f f i c e to  In the jewel  The  little  illustrate scene he  f e l l o w has  a s l e e p on a c h a i r , but i n an awkward p o s i t i o n : Bub  schlaftl  ihn."  Woyzeck submits t o the b a s e s t  reveals  fallen  "Was  G r e i f i n n u n t e r s Jfrmchen, der S t u h l  (p. 158)  to  der  druckt  of m i s t r e a t -  ment at the hands of the d o c t o r and c a p t a i n o n l y because of such g e n t l e l o v e and  care f o r h i s "family."  importance, however, s i n c e the t r a g e d y h i s personal love f o r Marie.  Of  greater  centers i n i t ,  He needs some one whom he  l o v e , but more than t h a t he needs some one he needs t h a t l o v e to be r e t u r n e d .  to l o v e  This b e l i e f i n a r e c i p r o -  Hence he i s p r e p a r e d  s a c r i f i c e to r e t a i n Marie's l o v e . degrading intact.  can  him:  c a t e d l o v e p r o v i d e s h i s e x i s t e n c e w i t h meaning, which wise i s t o t a l l y l a c k i n g .  is  No  to-make  otherany  s u f f e r i n g i s too  i f i t i s the means o f k e e p i n g t h i s r e c i p r o c a l l o v e When she breaks the r e l a t i o n s h i p he has no f u r t h e r  cause f o r l i v i n g . U l t i m a t e l y , because o f h i s need f o r M a r i e ' s l o v e , Woyzeck i s p r e s s u r e d  i n t o the supreme d e g r a d a t i o n :  that  - 19 -  of  s e l l i n g h i s v e r y person  t o t h e d o c t o r t o he used as s u b j e c t  i n t h e l a t t e r ' s s c i e n t i f i c experiments. Woyzeck has been on a r i d i c u l o u s The  isst Sie  d i e t o f n o t h i n g but peas.  d o c t o r and h i s s t u d e n t s make c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e  subject to t e s t the e f f e c t and  F o r t h r e e months  eyes:  "Sehen S i e :  t h a t t h i s d i e t has on t h e p u l s e  d e r Mensch, s e i t einem  Vierteljahr  e r n i c h t s a l s Erbsen; bemerken S i e d i e Wirkung, fxihlen einmal:  was e i n u n g l e i c h e r P u i s ! emotional  d e r und d i e Augenl"  (p. 168)  Every  d i s t u r b a n c e - r e s u l t i n g from  treatment  i s u t i l i s e d as an o c c a s i o n f o r f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n .  Even when Woyzeck i s c o m p l e t e l y c r a s s h i n t s about M a r i e ,  d i s c o n c e r t e d by t h e c a p t a i n ' s  t h e d o c t o r can t h i n k o n l y o f h i s  experiment and q u i c k l y e x c l a i m s : Puis! -  "Den P u i s , Woyzeck, den  K l e i n , h a r t , hupfend, u n r e g e l m a s s i g  sichtsmuskeln  . . . .  s t a r r , gespannt, zuweilen hupfend.  a u f g e r e g t , gespannt . . . . (pp. 162, 163)  such  Phanomen!  Woyzeck,  Ge-  Haltung Zulage!"  M. Heimann b r i e f l y sums up t h e Woyzeck-  doctor r e l a t i o n :  "EinArzt halt  i h n s i c h , wie s i e s i c h heute  Hunde und Meerschweinchen und R a t t e n h a l t e n , zum Experimen21 tieren  . . . ."  I n a c t u a l f a c t , Mr. Heimann i s too k i n d i n h i s e s t i mation o f t h e d o c t o r , f o r t o t h e l a t t e r Woyzeck i s , i f anyt h i n g , worth l e s s than an a n i m a l . r e f u s e s t o become concerned  The d o c t o r s t o i c a l l y  about a mere human b e i n g :  "Behute, wer w i r d s i c h uber einen Menschen a r g e r n , e i n ' Menschen! piert!"  Wenn es noch e i n P r o t e u s ware, d e r einem k r e ( p . 159)  The d o c t o r i g n o r e s Woyzeck t h e human b e i n g ,  c h o o s i n g r a t h e r t o l o o k upon him as a mechanism r e a c t i n g t o  -  stimuli.  20 -  In h i s preoccupation with abstract science the  d o c t o r f a i l s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e worth and d i g n i t y o f man; he is,  i n f a c t , a h e a r t l e s s , t o t a l product  observes effect  o f r a t i o n a l i t y who  t h e world as an u l t i m a t e l y e x p l i c a b l e cause and  series.  He r e f u s e s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r r a t i o n a l ,  i n c a l c u l a b l e c o r e o f t h e human b e i n g which l o v e s and s u f f e r s . In h i s experimenting,  t h e d o c t o r has l o s t a l l sense o f human  v a l u e s — h i s o n l y concern i s t h e e g o i s t i c d r i v e f o r s c i e n t i f i c experimentation. behaviour  T y p i c a l o f t h e d o c t o r ' s r e a c t i o n t o Woyzeck*s  i s t h e scene where Woyzeck makes seemingly  o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e d u a l i t y o f n a t u r e t o him. immediate answer i s :  incoherent  The d o c t o r ' s  "Woyzeck, E r p h i l o s o p h i e r t wieder . . . .  Woyzeck, E r h a t e i n e A b e r r a t i o . "  ( p . 159)  The f i r s t ex-  p r e s s i o n i s one o f condemnation, " p h i l o s o p h i e r e n " b e i n g a nebulous  u n s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e f o r which t h e d o c t o r cannot  be h e l d a c c o u n t a b l e . term which accounts  But t o h i s j o y , he f i n d s a s c i e n t i f i c f o r Woyzeck's b e h a v i o u r .  He r h a p s o d i z e s  upon t h e word " A b e r r a t i o , " c l a s s i f y i n g Woyzeck's d i s t u r b a n c e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i a g n o s t i c handbook:  "Woyzeck, E r h a t d i e  schonste A b e r r a t i o m e n t a l i s p a r t i a l i s , d i e zweite sehr schon ausgepragt. Spezies:  Woyzeck, E r k r i e g t Z u l a g e i  f i x e Idee m i t a l l g e m e i n v e r n u n f t i g e m  Spezies, Zweite  Zustand."  (pp. 159, 160) Of c o u r s e , Buchner's p o r t r a y a l r e v e a l s t o us a man f o r whom t e r m i n o l o g y  c o v e r s a l a c k o f r e a l under-  s t a n d i n g and who uses L a t i n mumbo jumbo t o t e r r i f y t h e uneducated.  I n a subsequent s i m i l a r scene t h e d o c t o r throws  a c a t o u t o f t h e window t o demonstrate t h e law o f g r a v i t y to h i s students.  Woyzeck c a p t u r e s t h e c a t , b u t i t b i t e s  - 21  him.  Showing obvious  s i g n s of weakness from the  o r d e a l , he b e g i n s to tremble. no  -  experimental  The d o c t o r d i s p l a y s a b s o l u t e l y  sympathy f o r human agony and sees y e t another  for investigation. "Ei,  ei!  opportunity  J o y o u s l y r u b b i n g h i s hands, he  schon, Woyzeck!"  (p. 167),  exclaims:  and h e a r t l e s s l y goes  on to. use h i s weakened s u b j e c t i n a c l a s s - r o o m  demonstration 22  o f muscular c o n t r o l by f o r c i n g Woyzeck t o w i g g l e h i s e a r s . The d o c t o r ' s i n s e n s i t i v i t y to s u f f e r i n g i s r e n d e r e d even more loathsome by h i s p e r s o n a l a m b i t i o n s . by a s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r renown. convinced  The  He  i s motivated  doctor i s maniacally  that h i s f i n d i n g s w i l l revolutionize science:  "Es g i b t e i n e R e v o l u t i o n i n der W i s s e n s c h a f t , sie i n die Luft. Hyperoxydul - "  H a r n s t o f f 0, 10, (p.  i c h sprenge  s a l z s a u r e s Ammonium,  159)  In t h i s c a r i c a t u r e of the d o c t o r , Buchner mocks and a t t a c k s the s o u l l e s s i n t e l l e c t u a l w i t h  expressionistic  v i g o u r and i n consonance w i t h the f e e l i n g s he a l e t t e r o f F e b r u a r y 1834,  to h i s f a m i l y .  expresses i n  Here Buchner  expounds h i s i n t e n s e h a t r e d of such s u p e r f i c i a l i t y i n education—education  which i s concerned  only with  t r a i n i n g o f the mind and n e g l e c t s the h e a r t . i n t e l l e c t u a l s , he d e c l a r e s , f e e l people  the  Shallow  superior to ordinary  and s c o r n them, whereas the t r u l y educated  f e e l s a bond of sympathy w i t h a l l humanity.  man  Intellectu-  a l i s m i s seen here as a r e p r e h e n s i b l e outgrowth of egoism and i s put on a p l a n e w i t h the p o l i t i c a l t y r a n n y which Buchner, as a r e v o l u t i o n a r y , o f n e c e s s i t y opposed: I c h habe f r e i l i c h noch e i n e A r t von S p o t t , es i s t aber n i c h t der der Verachtung, sondern der  - 22  -  des H a s s e s . Der Hass i s t so gut e r l a u b t a l s d i e L i e b e , und i c h hege inn. im v o l l s t e n Masse gegen d i e , welche v e r a c h t e n . Es i s t deren e i n e g r o s s e Z a h l , d i e , im B e s i t z e i n e r l a c h e r l i c h e n A u s s e r l i c h k e i t , d i e man B i l d u n g , oder e i n e s t o t e n Krams, den man Gelehrsamkeit h e i s s t , d i e g r o s s e Masse i h r e r Briider ihrem v e r a c h t e n d e n Egoismus opfern. Der A r i s t o k r a t i s m u s i s t d i e s c h a n d l i c h s t e Verachtung des H e i l i g e n G e i s t e s im Menschen; gegen i n n kehre i c h s e i n e eigenen Waffen: Hochn* mut gegen Hochmut, S p o t t gegen S p o t t . (p. 378) p  I n the p r o f e s s o r - h o r s e  scene of Woyzeck Buchner a t t a c k s  the s u p e r f i c i a l i n t e l l e c t u a l even more n a t u r a l i s t i c a l l y . The  t r a i n e d horse  i s brought on stage to d i s p l a y a  anomaly termed "animal the author  reasonableness."  equates animal  human animal  and man,  satiric  By v a r i o u s t w i s t s  the animal man  w i t h the purpose o f showing r e a s o n  and  as  the  a  24 c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e on i d e a l n a t u r e . which i s a p r o f e s s o r and  With t h x s  a member of i n t e l l e c t u a l s o c i e t y ,  Buchner renews h i s a t t a c k a g a i n s t empty e g o i s t i c ship:  "Welchen S i n n h a t t e j e n e r Entwurf d e r  n i c h t den, P r o f e s s o r e n p h i l o s o p h i e und erneuter B i t t e r k e i t Wilbrand,  scholar-  Marktschreier-  szene, d i e P r a s e n t i e r u n g des g e l e h r t e n P f e r d e s  mit  horse,  . . . wenn  Gelehrsamkeitsdunkel 25  zu v e r s p o t t e n . "  the P r o f e s s o r o f Anatomy at G i e s s e n ,  i s known  t o have s e r v e d as model f o r c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e d o c t o r i n Woyzeck.  Por  a p p a r e n t l y one  example, the demonstration  o f ear muscles  o f W i l b r a n d ' s f a v o u r i t e amusements.  Very  f r e q u e n t l y he would b r i n g h i s l e c t u r e s to a c l i m a x w i t h demonstration  was  of ear muscle movement by h i s son, who 27  a  was  e v i d e n t l y q u i t e adept i n t h i s . Buchner was  w e l l - q u a l i f i e d t o a t t a c k so b i t t e r l y  s h a l l o w s c i e n t i s t , f o r he was  the son o f a m e d i c a l  the  doctor  - 23  and  himself  sciences he  spent  and  medicine.  concentrated  Giessen with  he  his  considerable  on  continued  father's  wishes After  refugee,  Buchner  delivered  systeme  naturelle took  his  lecture "uber  nerveux de  world. can  the  give  Woyzeck  Welt  war  pfeift.)  vent to  also  to a  Kerl,  the  in  also  as  practical a  political sur  d'histoire  t h e s i s he  a  at  accordance of  Zurich.  on  and  "Memoire  "Societe same  Strassburg  study  entitled  seducing  Marie.  for  his  soli Leib  later  His  trial  scientific  subject,  major  physical  abuse  complete  looking  excess "Du  estrangement  for  energy, Kerl,  herumwickeln?  a  v i c t i m on  challenges  saufl  Mann  ich dir die  than  muss  Zunge  Ich  aus  (Sie  dem  figure and from whom  the  help-  wollt,  saufeni  die  (Woyzeck  Ziehen  Hals  ringen,  the' p h y s i c a l p a i n  i s the  This  has  mental  humiliation he  receives,  a r i s e s Woyzeck's he  his  another  Woyzeck  169)  Woyzeck  Marie  Woyzeck's  major,  physical beating Marie  to  i s s t i l l  Schnaps—der  important on  love  in  Strassburg  this  was  to  fight:  (p.  inflicts  of  to  natural  anatomy,  the  U n i v e r s i t y of  there  only  drum  Schnaps,  verliert.)" More  not  but  s i e urn d e n  the  to  a paper  Zurich  doctor,  The  less  und  at  stay  Evidently  began  return  the  Schadelnerven."  mistreatment,  he  also  With  the  first  comparative  barbeau"  at  delivered  contributes  the  his  Strasbourg."  doctorate  Beside who  du  studying  studies.  he  there.  his  and  these  medicine  le  time  During  zoology  -  intense  doomed  the  anguish  he  i s much  more  for  of  out  psychic  himself  to  drum  causes  major him  severe  the  agony.  physical  by  than  seduction Out  of  degeneration  -  through  a d i e t o f peas.  2 4  -  But i r o n i c a l l y , he t h e r e b y has l o s t  h e r r e s p e c t and l o v e — t h e v e r y t h i n g a g a i n s t which he was d e s p e r a t e l y t r y i n g t o g u a r d — a n d has d r i v e n h e r i n t o t h e arms o f t h e r o b u s t drum major.  F o r Woyzeck t h e r e i s no way out  o f t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n brought upon him by t h e drum major who r e p r e s e n t s t h e whole overpowering l o v e l e s s n e s s o f t h e w o r l d . The  drum major ( l i k e t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d ) does n o t know  what l o v e i s ; he equates l o v e w i t h t h e sex a c t : Weibsbildl  . . .  "Was e i n  Und zur Zucht von TambourmajorsI  Das i s t e i n W e i b s b i l d ! "  (pp. 1 5 6 , 157)  . . .  To Marie he  exclaims:  "Sapperment, w i r w o l l e n e i n e Zucht von Tambourmajors anlegen. He?  ( E r umfasst s i e . ) . . .  Wild T i e r ! "  (p. 1 6 0 )  Andres r e p e a t s some o f t h e drum major's comments: k o s t l i c h WeibsbildJ (p. 1 6 8 )  an ihrem L e i b I  "Ein  d i e h a t S c h e n k e l , und a l l e s so h e i s s ! "  While watching  Woyzeck b u r s t s o u t :  Later,  Marie dance w i t h t h e drum major,  "Der K e r l , wie e r an i h r h e r u m g r e i f t ,  E r , e r h a t s i e — w i e i c h zu Anfang."  (p. 1 6 6 )  A l o v e l e s s w o r l d , r e p r e s e n t e d by a man p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h sex, r o b s Woyzeck o f h i s b e l o v e d ,  and l e a d s t o h i s u l t i m a t e  despair. Woyzeck's simple f r i e n d Andres i s a d i f f e r e n t  character  from t h e c r u e l , e g o i s t i c d o c t o r , o r from t h e b e l l i g e r e n t drum major.  Andres does n o t r e v e a l malevolence;  he i s an  average s e l f - c e n t e r e d human who i s t o o a p a t h e t i c t o be g e n u i n e l y concerned  about t h e s u f f e r i n g o f o t h e r s .  Buchner  i m p l i e s t h a t t h a t i s t h e way humans a r e . Andres i s n o t m a l i c i o u s l y c r u e l as t h e d o c t o r and t h e drum major a r e .  He  knows t h e r e i s something wrong w i t h Woyzeck, but he cannot  -  25 -  comprehend t h e n a t u r e o f h i s agony.  B e i n g an o r d i n a r y ,  care-  f r e e man, he does n o t t r y t o fathom Woyzeck*s s u f f e r i n g . Andres m i s t a k e s h i s f r i e n d ' s mental and s p i r i t u a l for physical pain.  T h i s l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g l e a d s him t o  r i d i c u l e Woyzeck s l i g h t l y : a fool.  on two o c c a s i o n s  he c a l l s Woyzeck  A f t e r Woyzeck's s u s p i c i o n s r e g a r d i n g  aroused he c o n f i d e s and  anguish  M a r i e have been  i n Andres, t e l l i n g him t h a t he i s u p s e t  r e s t l e s s , b u t a l l h i s f r i e n d answers i s "Narr."  ( p . 164-)  Andres f e e l s t h a t Woyzeck need n o t be so concerned about a f a i t h l e s s woman.  He cannot comprehend t h e complete  love  which Woyzeck f e e l s f o r M a r i e and t h e r e s u l t a n t f r u s t r a t i o n s which a r e i m p e l l i n g him i n t o t o t a l r e j e c t i o n o f t h e w o r l d . One  n i g h t Woyzeck i s kept from s l e e p i n g by t h e h a u n t i n g  v i s i o n s , and t o r e c e i v e c o n s o l a t i o n he wakes up Andres. The  l a t t e r becomes annoyed on h e a r i n g more o f t h e v i s i o n s  and  s h a r p l y t e l l s Woyzeck, " S c h l a f , N a r r ! "  t u r n i n g over on t h e o t h e r  ( p . 167),  before  s i d e and g o i n g back t o s l e e p .  I n a subsequent scene, however, t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s i s modulated, f o r Andres shows a l i t t l e However, s t i l l n o t r e c o g n i z i n g  ridicule  genuine c h a r i t y .  t h e n a t u r e o f Woyzeck's  s u f f e r i n g , he b e l i e v e s Woyzeck has a h i g h f e v e r which can be c u r e d by d r i n k i n g brandy w i t h q u i n i n e : ins Lazarett.  "Franz, du kommst  Armer, du musst Schnaps t r i n k e n und P u l v e r  d r i n , das t o t das F i e b e r . "  ( p . 171) That Woyzeck s u f f e r s  from a malady which no panacea can s o o t h i s beyond t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s common man. The  critical  a t t i t u d e which Buchner d i s p l a y s toward  Andres i s i n t e n s i f i e d i n t h e maudlin c a p t a i n who i s a n y t h i n g  -  but  a military figure:  talkative. but  26  -  be i s f a t , o v e r - s e n t i m e n t a l  and too  He does n o t c o n s c i o u s l y i n t e n d t o h u r t Woyzeck,  merely enjoys u s i n g him as a b u t t and whipping boy.  P r i n c i p a l l y , Woyzeck i s an assurance t o him o f h i s own s u p e r i o r i t y and s e r v e s  t o b o l s t e r h i s own  egoism:  Hauptmann. Was i s t heut f u r Wetter? . . . I c h g l a u b , w i r haben so was aus Sud-Nbrd? Woyzeck. Jawohl, H e r r Hauptmann. Hauptmann. Hal ha! h a ! Sud-Nord! Ha! ha! n a ! Oh, E r i s t dumm, ganz a b s c h e u l i c h dummi (pp. The  151,  152)  e n t i r e beginning dialogue  centered him,  unconcern.  i n d i c a t e s the captain's  self-  He wants Woyzeck t o slow down i n s h a v i n g  because o t h e r w i s e he w i l l be through too soon.  The  melancholy c a p t a i n does n o t know what t o do w i t h t h e e x t r a t e n minutes.  He i s o n l y concerned about f i l l i n g  even though he does so by r i d i c u l i n g t h e a l r e a d y 28 Woyzeck.  and drum major, w i t h h i s i n s i d i o u s use o f r i d i c u l e  can be more s u b t l y v i c i o u s .  regarding doctor,  unsettled  While t h e c a p t a i n i s n o t b l a t a n t l y c r u e l as are  the d o c t o r he  out h i s time,  I n h i s crude d i s c l o s u r e  M a r i e , t h e c a p t a i n h u r t s Woyzeck more than t h e  f o r t h e s t u p i d c a p t a i n f i n d s i t h i g h l y amusing t h a t  Marie has been u n t r u e t o Woyzeck.  P o r Woyzeck t h i s i s t h e  most t e r r i b l e r e v e l a t i o n i n t h e e n t i r e p l a y . moment t h e c a p t a i n i s p e r p l e x e d  Just f o r a  and almost f e e l s s o r r y f o r  the poor c r e a t u r e he r i d i c u l e s , but a t t h e end he summons up enough o b j e c t i v i t y t o l a u g h a t Woyzeck's g r o t e s q u e , a n i m a l - l i k e g a i t — t h e h u r r i e d g a i t o f one who i s b e i n g pursued. The  c a p t a i n , s i g n i f i c a n t l y , can l a u g h a t Woyzeck and  see him as a grotesque f i g u r e , b u t he i s unable t o l a u g h  - 27 -  at h i m s e l f .  F o r example, i n the scene where the d o c t o r  c o n f r o n t s him w i t h imminent extremely alarmed: nicht!  d e a t h , t h e c a p t a i n becomes  "Herr Doktor, e r s c h r e c k e n S i e mich  Es s i n d schon L e u t e am Schreck g e s t o r b e n , am  sen h e l l e n S c h r e c k . - I c h sehe schon d i e L e u t e mit Z i t r o n e n i n den Handen; . . .  blos-  den  (p. 161)  Woyzeck i s powerless t o r e t a l i a t e a g a i n s t the r i d i c u l e of s o c i e t y .  Hence, Buchner  must t a k e up the c u d g e l s f o r  him., and t h r o u g h t h e c a p t a i n he judges (and condemns) an which has l o s t the t r u e sense o f v a l u e s , an age which l o s t a l l c o n t a c t w i t h e s s e n t i a l humanity. no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r l i v i n g on. writes:  " I c h g l a u b e , man  has  T h i s s o c i e t y has  I n a l e t t e r o f 1836  muss i n s o z i a l e n Dingen von  a b s o l u t e n R e e h t s g r u n d s a t z ausgehen,  age  Buchner einem  d i e B i l d u n g e i n e s neuen  g e i s t i g e n Lebens  im V o l k e suchen und d i e a b g e l e b t e moderne  Gesellschaft  T e u f e l gehen l a s s e n .  zum  Zu was  soil  wie d i e s e zwischen Himmel und Erde herumlaufen?  e i n Ding  Das  ganze  Leben d e r s e l b e n b e s t e h t nur i n Versuchen, s i c h d i e e n t s e t z l i c h s t e L a n g e w e i l e zu v e r t r e i b e n . i s t das e i n z i g Neue, was  S i e mag  a u s s t e r b e n , das  s i e noch e r l e b e n kann."  ( p . 412)  M a r i e , l i k e t h e r e s t o f t h i s s o c i e t y , cannot comprehend Woyzeck's a n g u i s h . and more d i f f i c u l t :  She has found l i f e w i t h him becoming more h i s v i s i t s have been i n f r e q u e n t  because  he l i v e s i n the b a r r a c k s and i s c o n t i n u o u s l y o c c u p i e d i n e a r n i n g money f o r h e r .  When he does come she i s u n a b l e t o  u n d e r s t a n d h i s m y s t i f y i n g comments.  She b e g i n s t o f e a r  him.  I g n o r i n g h e r g u i l t , she f e e l s t h a t perhaps he i s becoming insane:  "Er schnappt hoch uber mit den Gedankeni  . . .  -  Ich  28 -  h a l t ' s n i t aus; es s c h a u e r t m i c h i "  ( p . 155)  But, l i k e  most human b e i n g s , she does n o t e x e r t h e r s e l f t o u n d e r s t a n d o t h e r p e o p l e o r t h e w o r l d , and thus she f i n d s l i f e Her p h i l o s o p h y o f l i f e words:  "Komische Welt!  affirms l i f e ;  beautiful.  i s summed up i n f o u r o f h e r own schone W e l t i "  ( p . 155)  as a whole i t i s b e a u t i f u l .  Marie  The v e x a t i o n s  which o c c u r from time t o time cannot cause h e r t o r e p u d i a t e it,  r a t h e r t h e y make i t u n a c c o u n t a b l y i n t e r e s t i n g  ("Komische  Welt"). Marie wants t o enjoy l i f e  (witness her pleasure a t the  f a i r and h e r excitement a t t h e dance).  I n h e r way she has  been f a i t h f u l t o Woyzeck, b u t now t h e drum major comes upon the scene r e p r e s e n t i n g e v e r y t h i n g l a c k i n g i n h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Woyzeck and she cannot r e s i s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n .  The  drum major, f o l l o w i n g h i s s e n s u a l n a t u r e , t a k e s advantage o f M a r i e ' s n a t u r a l hedonism and i s e a s i l y a b l e t o seduce h e r . In  t h i s "Mann, wie e i n Baum" who stands "auf s e i n e n Pussen  wie e i n Low" ( p . 154) she sees sex p e r s o n i f i e d .  Marie,  f i n d i n g t h e drum major i r r e s i s t i b l y a p p e a l i n g t o h e r moment a r i l y dominant animal n a t u r e , submits t o h i s d e s i r e s . For  t h e i n s t a n t t h e a p p e a l o f n a t u r e i s so s t r o n g i n  M a r i e t h a t she can i g n o r e t h e e f f e c t t h e a c t i o n w i l l on Woyzeck.  To be sure she r e p u d i a t e s Woyzeck's l o v e , a l o v e  which we r e c o g n i z e t o be f a r w o r t h i e r than t h e drum However, Buchner cannot condemn h e r because ful.  have  T h i s i s n a t u r e a t work.  major's.  she i s u n f a i t h -  She i s a t f a u l t r a t h e r  she h u r t s t h e d e e p l y s e n s i t i v e Woyzeck.  because  I n t h e "Mariens  Kammer" scene where Woyzeck c o n f r o n t s M a r i e w i t h h i s knowledge  -  29  -  o f h e r u n f a i t h f u l n e s s she adopts a d e f i a n c e t o which she i s tecnnically justified. command h e r :  They a r e not m a r r i e d .  "Ruhr mich an, F r a n z !  He cannot  Ich hatt l i e b e r ein  Messer i n den L e i b a l s d e i n e Hand auf meiner."  (p. 164)  But the d e f i a n c e has a r i n g t o i t which t e l l s o f i n d i g n a t i o n concealing g u i l t .  She has v i o l a t e d the t r u s t o f a man  with  a soul. From e x t e r n a l s one might judge t h a t M a r i e s h a r e s t h e same i n d i f f e r e n c e and egoism as the c a p t a i n o r A n d r e s . i n c o n t r a s t t o the o t h e r s who  But,  have caused Woyzeck mental  torment, she i s c a p a b l e o f s e l f - r e p r o a c h and remorse:  after  h e r a f f a i r w i t h the drum major she i s p r i v a t e l y aware o f h e r s i n a g a i n s t Woyzeck.  She r e p r o a c h e s h e r s e l f :  e i n s c h l e c h t Mensch!  I c h konnt mich e r s t e c h e n . "  On t h i s o c c a s i o n her c o n f e s s i o n o f g u i l t ficial  " I c h b i n doch ( p . 158)  sounds r a t h e r super-  and u n c o n v i n c i n g because she c o n c l u d e s w i t h a r a t i o n -  a l i z a t i o n of her act: T e u f e l , Mann und Weib!"  "Ach!  was Welt!  (p. 158)  Geht doch a l l e s  zum  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s scene  i s important f o r i t foreshadows the genuine remorse which she l a t e r  feels.  Marie i s a r e l i g i o u s p e r s o n , b u t h e r f a i t h does not d e t e r h e r from s i n . She has no compunctions about w i t h a man  living  and h a v i n g a c h i l d by him out o f wedlock.  In  f a c t , she speaks w i t h a c e r t a i n p r o l e t a r i a n p r i d e o f h e r "arm H u r e n k i n d . "  However, t h e s t r o n g f e e l i n g s o f remorse  which we u l t i m a t e l y w i t n e s s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h e r r e l i g i o u s upbringing.  F i l l e d w i t h c o n t r i t i o n , she i s d r i v e n t o h e r  B i b l e f o r comfort.  She r e a d s o f the woman who  was  caught  - 3 0 -  i n a d u l t e r y and was brought t o J e s u s , and o f the s i n f u l woman who is  anointed C h r i s t ' s f e e t . sinful.  Marie r e c o g n i z e s t h a t she too  In t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f s i n t h e r e i s more t h a n  self-pity:  she i n d i c a t e s a genuine f e e l i n g f o r Woyzeck,  whom she knows she has wronged.  Now  h e r o f her s i n a g a i n s t Woyzeck:  "Das K i n d g i b t mir e i n e n  S t i c h i n s Herz."  ( p . 170)  u n u s u a l l y l o n g absence. comfort i n t h e B i b l e .  her c h i l d only  reminds  She i s concerned about Woyzeck's  In her d i s t r e s s she can f i n d She cannot p r a y and she  no  cannot.even  weep, i n d i c a t i n g an honest f r u s t r a t i o n i n h e r s o u l .  She  knows her own n a t u r e i s s i n f u l , and a t the same time she f e e l s the worth o f her man  Woyzeck and h e r t r e a c h e r y t o him.  She i s caught between the s e n s u a l and the i d e a l a s p e c t s o f h e r n a t u r e , a c o n f l i c t which g i v e s r i s e t o her f r u s t r a t i o n . E v e r y e f f o r t t o f i n d the needed her s i n i s t o no a v a i l .  assurance o f f o r g i v e n e s s o f  Her r e l i g i o u s f a i t h i s u n a b l e t o  a l l e v i a t e t h e s p i r i t u a l s u f f e r i n g r e s u l t i n g from h e r dilemma. F i n a l l y , b e a t i n g her b r e a s t , a l t h o u g h she knows she cannot c o n t a c t h e r s a v i o u r , she c r i e s out i n d e s p a i r : Heiland!  Heiland!  "Alles tot!  i c h mochte d i r d i e Eusse s a l b e n i "  (p. 170)  That M a r i e i s g e n u i n e l y downcast about her a c t a g a i n s t Woyzeck i s a l s o r e v e a l e d i n l a t e r scenes.  When the c h i l d r e n  on the s t r e e t ask her t o s i n g f o r them, she, s t i l l w i t h remorse, cannot comply  with t h e i r wishes.  taken up  A l s o , her  a c t i o n s i n the death scene show a change o f a t t i t u d e . answers  Woyzeck t e n d e r l y , whereas b e f o r e she was  and s a r c a s t i c .  One  She  caustic  g a i n s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t Marie i s t r y i n g  t o make up f o r h e r wrong, a l t h o u g h she can n e v e r ask f o r forgiveness.  -  31  -  Woyzeck i s t o t a l l y e s t r a n g e d from t h i s w o r l d which has no h e a r t . lation  The e g o i s t i c d o c t o r c o n t r i b u t e s t o h i s i s o -  by d e g r a d i n g h i s humanity, t h e s u p e r c i l i o u s c a p t a i n  by crude j e s t i n g , t h e simple Andres by normal i n d i f f e r e n c e to  h i s s u f f e r i n g , and t h e b e l l i g e r e n t drum major by t h e seduc-  t i o n of h i s only g i r l .  M a r i e completes  Woyzeck's e s t r a n g e -  ment from t h e r e s t o f humanity by s e v e r i n g t h e r e c i p r o c a l l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p which a l o n e gave him r e a s o n f o r l i v i n g . Woyzeck, a man w i t h h e a r t , has no more purpose perhaps  i n the destruction of t h i s e v i l  world.  in life  except  -  32  -  C h a p t e r Three Woyzeck, a man  given to i n a r t i c u l a t e brooding,  i s obsessed  w i t h the e v i l i n the w o r l d , which Buchner r e p r e s e n t s somewhat Romantic symbol o f v o i c e s and v i s i o n s . w i t h them Woyzeck has life.  i n the  Coincidentally  come t o f e e l the s e n s e l e s s n e s s  of  For a b r i e f moment he f i n d s purpose i n l i f e i n h i s  l o v e f o r M a r i e , but upon d i s c o v e r i n g the l o s s o f her he r e t u r n s to a deeper c o n v i c t i o n o f s e n s e l e s s n e s s , he  e x p r e s s e s i n h i s a c t of vengeance.  which  By k i l l i n g what  l o v e d b e s t , he r e j e c t s the w o r l d t h a t through Marie r e j e c t e d him. purpose i n  love  has  H i s s u i c i d e completes h i s r e p u d i a t i o n of  essential evil in  an i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e u n i v e r s e , b o t h the macrocosm and microcosm.  These f o r c e s c o n s t a n t l y haunt him,  in  the f i e l d s ,  in  around him  and and  i n the b a r r a c k s . almost d r i v i n g him  He  i n the  city,  can f e e l them p r e s s i n g  out o f h i s mind:  h i n t e r mir hergangen b i s v o r d i e S t a d t .  "Es  Etwas, was  uns  s o i l das werden?"  These d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s ,  (p. 155)  von  the  n i c h t f a s s e n , b e g r e i f e n , was  Sinnen b r i n g t .  symbolized by the v o i c e s , a l s o command the murder: was,  was  sagtiihr?  Lauter!  Zickwolfin t o t ? — s t i c h , ich?  any  existence.  The v o i c e s and v i s i o n s r e f l e c t the  ist  he  muss i c h ? "  (p.  lauter!  Stich, stich  stich die—Zickwolfin  wir  Was  "Ha! die  tot!—Soil  166)  Furthermore, Woyzeck, w i t h the d u l l n e s s o f an  elemental  s o u l , p e r c e i v e s the c h a o t i c n a t u r e o f the whole u n i v e r s e , which i s not Man  o n l y s e n s e l e s s but  seems to be  a l s o dangerous t o  man.  l i v i n g on a t h i n c r u s t which c o u l d break  - 33 -  at  a n y moment,  cries he  out, "Hohl,  echoes  Erde  i s t eine  treten,  man  world  wo  so e i n L o c h  konnte  i s also  visions,  which  vom  predict  "Und s i e h ,  da ging  e i n R a u c h vom  man  only  empty  nating  h i s personal  i n h i s rejection of the world  addition  sees  in  i t s dark  that  constantly  grate  i n h i s fingers: die Natur—aus  dass  man  ist  und doch  t o Woyzeck s 1  evil.  His  accounts  from the by  wie d e r Rauch  nicht  man  as senseless  ist,  wenn  h a s come  i s lost must  alles  to a  evil.  and  through  will  disinte-  das i s t ,  so f i n s t e r  wird,  muss, d a s s  D a s i s t s o , wenn dunkel  In  helpless  grope  aus i s t ,  an i h r herumtappen  wie Spinneweb.  ( p . 164)  loneliness—culmi-  and hence  d i e Welt  even  i s [ s i c ] e i n Ab-  the very world  Wenn  senseless,  hinabsieht."  experience of  that  and  I t i s unnerving  "Wenn d i e N a t u r  ist.  m i t den Handen  s i everrinnt  wenn  The i n d i v i d u a l  fearing  wenn  evil  purpose.  the individual  confines.  life,  meint,  Land,  by Marie—Woyzeck  recognition he  that  of devastation  "Jeder Mensch  es s c h w i n d e l t einem,  Through  scene  outside  o f good  t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d man:  grund;  die  155)  i s the universe  i s also  a  Quoting  sees  (p.  The f a c t  on B i b l i c a l  ruin.  "Ja,  i c h konnte  of i t s essential  utter  153),  (p.  Tod:  (according  based  Woyzeck  muss m i t V o r s i c h t a u f -  ( p . 39)  f o rdestruction  When  da unteni"  immer,  - Man  durchbrechen."  indicative  "beast.  i n Dantons  Woyzeck  Not  to  hohl  (9:2),  Ofen?"  but  ist.  are frequently  destruction,  fire:  alles  of a character  i s headed  Apocalypse  du?  a wild  dunne K r u s t e ; i c h meine  visions)  of  horst  t h e words  durchfalien,  the  devouring him l i k e  i s t und n u r  man etwas noch  - 34 -  ein  roter  Schein  im  Woyzeck r e a l i z e s other  people:  communicate, that  every  Danton  had  but  aber  es  Buchner  ab,—wir  a l l ein,  Freunde  einander wir  faith good at the  joyfully  evil.  Eeste!"  (p.  also  rejects  well  as In  ness  other.  alone.  He  wissen  wenig  sehr also  im  .  .  .  an  of  s t i l l  this  the  o l d man  Woyzeck  155)  sees  sees  life,  Manni  knows  9)  Wir  this  erweckt  waren  ."  (Brief  Leder  know  that  loneliness:  mich  wir  .  aus,  grobe We  what  Deine wie  Taube  stumm, an  Hand?  dann  die  konn-  Braut,  378)  When h e  where  das  s e h r e i e n uns  ich wollte,  ansehen  Woyzeck  voneinander.  (p.  experienced  wir  not  experiences  r e i b e n nur  warm  with  nacheinander  einsam."  Grabe;  502)  (p.  c a p t a i n do  each  u n i v e r s e , Woyzeck love  dances,  alter  p.  the  inconstancy  Mann,  past  Esse."  communication  the  his ultimate recognition  of  fair  life  nur  i n Marie's and  sind  Ohren;  Pebruar,  and  the  "Wir  real  and  suffers  einer  s t r e c k e n d i e Hande  wie  doch  Despite man  he  v e r l a s s e n mich,  i n die uns  Giessen,  of  i s no  talk  and  wir  i n h i s own  bin  ten  merely  von  i s t v e r g e b l i c h e Muhe, w i r  aneinander  Meine  there  expressed:  Dickhauter,  wie  example,  lives  sind  "Ich  that  for  one  Westen,  of  as  life  long as  to  cries:  essential as  this  he  maintains  situation  baroque  music  a  vein  young  "Hei, Hopsa's!  -  junges  Kind!  However,  events  show f i n a l l y  notion  that  life  can  bring  about  child Armer  Armes K i n d , as  evil  ambivalent—both  paradoxical  sings i n a  and  the  Sorgen  und Woyzeck  happiness  as  suffering. his preoccupation  i n the  world,  Buchner  with  the  arrives  loneliness at  an  and  extreme  senselessfatalism.  - 35 -  All of  of an  even  his  characters  all-powerful in  Buchner  the  are  outside  outstanding  comes t o  not  have  been  cal  will.  his  extremely  see  a  avoided,  In  the  determined  by  and  force—fate.  As  event  of  his  time,  are we  the have  the  of  history  rather  an  expression  famous  pessimistic  noted,  Revolution,  catastrophe than  victims  which  could  of  letter  to  his  fiancee,  he  views  on  the  f a t a l i s m of  a  politi-  expresses history:  Ich s t u d i e r t e die Geschichte der Revolution. Ich f u h l t e m i c h wie z e r n i c h t e t , u n t e r dem grasslichen Fatalismus der Geschichte. Ich f inde. i n der Menschennatur eine e n t s e t z l i c h e G l e i c h h e i t , i n den m e n s c h l i c h e n V e r n a l t n i s s e n eine unabwendbare Gewalt, a l i e n und keinem v e r l i e h e n . Ber e i n z e l n e nur Schaum auf d e r W e l l e , d i e G r o s s e e i n b l o s s e r Zufall, d i e H e r r s c h a f t des Genies e i n P u p p e n s p i e l , e i n l a c h e r l i c h e s Ringen gegen e i n ehernes Gesetz, es zu e r k e n n e n das H o c h s t e , es zu b e h e r r s c h e n unmoglich. Es f a l l t m i r n i c h t mehr e i n , v o r den Paradeg a u l e n und E c k s t e h e r n der G e s c h i c h t e m i c h zu bucken. I c h gewohnte mein.Auge ans B l u t . Aber ich bin kein Guillotinemesser. Das Muss i s t e i n s von den Verdammungsworten, womit d e r Mensch • get auf t worden. Der A u s s p r u c h : es muss j a JSrgern i s kommen, a b e r w e h e dem, d u r c h den es kommt—ist schauderhaft. Was i s t d a s , was i n uns l u g t , mordet, s t i e h l t ? I c h mag dem Gedanken n i c h t weiter nachgehen. K o n n t e i c h a b e r d i e s k a l t e und gemart e r t e H e r z an D e i n e B r u s t l e g e n i (p. 374) Here prior the  to  Buchner writing  fatalism  event.  Danton  powerless of von  fate  die  history i s  aware the  controls  die  the  through that  play  an  man  mysterious  in  (and It.  This  am  Draht  gezogen;  mit  denen  Geister  as  a  play  im  puppets:  even  Gewalten  wie  Marchen."  thing  to  to  which  important  like  Schwerter,  man  Tod,  referring  people  Hande n i c h t ,  manipulate  specifically  Pantons  before  unbekannten  selbstl nur  of  i s  provide  studies  he  depicts  historical  revolutions) impersonal  "Puppen  (p.  his  sind  nichts,  power wir,  nichts  kampfen—man 45)  are  The  themselves  wir  sieht  gods  - 36 -  enjoyment i n t h e i r boredom.  They u t i l i s e man f o r t h e i r  p l e a s u r e r e g a r d l e s s of t h e p a i n t h e y i n f l i c t  on him.  own  In  b i t t e r pessimism, Buchner a g a i n p i c k s up t h i s theme o f f a t e ruling  man:  Danton. Aber w i r s i n d d i e armen Musikanten und unsere K o r p e r - d i e Instrumente. S i n d denn d i e h a s s l i c h e n Tone, welche auf i h n e n herausgep f u s c h t werden, n u r da, urn hSher und hoher d r i n g e n d und e n d l i c h l e i s e v e r h a l l e n d wie e i n w o l l i i s t i g e r Hauch i n himmlischen Ohren zu sterben? Herault. S i n d w i r wie F e r k e l , d i e man f u r f i i r s t l i c h e T a f e l n mit Ruten t o t p e i t s c h t , damit i h r F l e i s c h schmackhafter werde? Danton. S i n d w i r K i n d e r , d i e i n den gluhenden Molochsarmen d i e s e r Welt g e b r a t e n und mit L i c h t s t r a h l e n g e k i t z e l t werden, damit d i e pq G o t t e r s i c h iiber i h r Lachen f r e u e n ? (p. 7 8 ) Danton, r e c o g n i z i n g the f u t i l i t y  o f s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t the  power o f f a t e , sums up Buchner's view i n one c l a u s e : S c h i c k s a l f u h r t uns den Arm,  . . .  "Das  (p. 5 8 )  M  There i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Buchner's views on f a t e changed by t h e time he wrote Woyzeck.  Here he r e v e a l s  that  f a t e a l s o c o n t r o l s t h e unimportant i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as great h i s t o r i c a l events.  I n Woyzeck Buchner g i v e s a c o n c r e t e 30  i l l u s t r a t i o n o f f a t e d i r e c t i n g a man.  The poor d e v i l  Woyzeck i s exposed to t h e r e l e n t l e s s f o r c e s o f d e s t i n y , not knowing any r e a s o n f o r t h e r e s u l t i n g s u f f e r i n g . is  here d i s p l a y i n g h i s own view o f l i f e .  Buchner  Vietor writes  c o n c e r n i n g Buchner's c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s p r o t a g o n i s t :  "Woyzecks  Mord, f u r den unwissenden P s y c h o l o g e n e i n e T a t , i s t f i i r Buchner e i n u n e n t w i r r b a r e s V e r h a n g n i s , i n dem Teufel aufgeopfert wird.  Aus dem,  e i n armer  was dem M e d i z i n e r e i n  p s y c h o l o g i s c h e s Problem war, i s t dem D i c h t e r e i n S i n n b i l d der  f u r c h t b a r e n B e s c h a f f e n h e i t des Lebens geworden und  - 37 des Schicksals, das die s i c h auswirkende U n e r b i t t l i c h k e i t 31 dieses Lebens i s t .  n >  To be sure, f o r Buchner l i f e and f a t e are p i t i l e s s . But t h i s " f a t e " may  only be terminology to obscure the f a c t  that he can see no guiding moral p r i n c i p l e i n the  universe.  He cannot b e l i e v e i n the existence of a moral, personal  God.  Hence, he ascribes everything to an incomprehensible force which f o r lack of anything better he terms " f a t e . " neither good nor e v i l .  Fate i s  Consequently, both the macrocosm and  the microcosm are amoral, f o r f a t a l i s m excludes a l l p o s s i b i l i t y of g u i l t .  Buchner's characters, who  have no r e l i g i o u s morality,  follow the b l i n d d i c t a t e s of nature, frequently r e f e r r i n g to t h e i r "Natur . . . Charakter . . . Struktur" to j u s t i f y t h e i r actions.  They do not hold themselves responsible f o r  32 t h e i r actions (and nor does Buchner).  The characters appear  to be f r e e , but they themselves recognize determinism.  Acknowledging a compelling  asks as Buchner does i n h i s l e t t e r :  an  urge to e v i l , Danton  "Wer  w i l l der Hand  fluchen, auf die der Fluch des Muss gefalien? Muss gesprochen, wer? s t i e h l t und mordet?"  Was  i s t das, was  (p. 4-5)  underlying  Wer  hat  das  i n uns l u g t , hurt,  I t i s Buchner's conviction  that there i s an impersonal force of events and circumstances beyond the c o n t r o l of the i n d i v i d u a l which causes him to l i e , f o r n i c a t e , s t e a l , and murder.  Hence, Woyzeck i s not  personally  responsible f o r the murder, because the powerful " I t " compels him to carry i t out. by the v o i c e s — s p u r  The incomprehensible f o r c e s — t y p i f i e d 33 him on to h i s l a s t desperate act.  Neither can Marie be held g u i l t y f o r her u n f a i t h f u l l n e s to  -  Woyzeck,  f o r she merely  dictates  of her passionate  whose the  Woyzeck  recognition course  life,  he  visions He  of the play.  can withstand and v o i c e s .  confirms  violent person  i s brought  of the basic  to the  w e l l formed  to  Danton,  at the beginning  to a forceful,  indeed  of  violent  amorality of the universe  during  As  i n his  long  as purpose  the encroachments  With  the loss  exists  of amoral  of purpose  he  fate,  the  succumbs.  universe  through  of morality i n the destruction of the  has heretofore  Woyzeck  compelling  In d i s t i n c t i o n  h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f an a m o r a l  rejection who  according  nature.  convictions are f a i r l y  play,  the  acts  38 -  embodied  this  m o r a l i t y f o r him.  and the c a p t a i n a r e the o n l y  play  who  are able  to reflect  ness  and s u f f e r i n g  a n d who  i n the world.  persons  recognize  Woyzeck  i n the  the senseless-  i s keenly  aware  34 of  the existential  This and is  not by  any s i n f u l  material circumstances.  itself wenn  i n the snare Struggle picture  i s toil  As  chair,  Stirn;  he  alles  of the tragedy  and e f f o r t ,  under  kamen,  Woyzeck  sees  exclaims: Arbeit  arme L e u t ! "  tragedy  of existence  i s i n vain.  w i r i n Himmel 152)  recognizes,  means  he  poignant  Wir  life  suffering,  himself.  a  o f man:  noble  caught  (p.  suffering  of l i f e .  the burden  ( p . 158)  and no  life  can  i n the next  itself  extricate  Buchner  of the world  so mussten  by  Everyone  one  I n Woyzeck  gives  where  d e r Sonn, This  the c h i l d  of existence:  a  existence  life:  "Ich glaub,  w i r donnern h e l f e n . "  h i s son s l e e p i n g uncomfortably  "Die hellen  unter  Even  even  i s caused  suffering.  Tropfen  stehen  sogar  Schweiss  again while " . . .  on  ihm  auf der  im  Schlaf.  i s a recognition of the asleep alles  seems Arbeit  to struggle unter  -  der  39  Sonn, sogar Schweiss im S c h l a f . "  "Wir arme L e u t i " i s ambiguous: his of  -  Woyzeck's l a s t  outcry,  be might be r e f e r r i n g t o  s o c i a l group, but he i s e q u a l l y w e l l bemoaning t h e f a t e humanity as such. The c a p t a i n a l s o l o o k s upon a s e n s e l e s s w o r l d .  He too  has some r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e t r a g e d y o f e x i s t e n c e ( a l t h o u g h i t remains s u p e r f i c i a l ) .  Being a r i d i c u l o u s l y  sentimental  p e r s o n , t h e c a p t a i n r e v e a l s a maudlin melancholy when r e f l e c t i n g on the n a t u r e o f l i f e .  He i s o f t e n f r i g h t e n e d , nervous and  r e s t l e s s , r e v e a l i n g a fundamental f e a r of l i f e  and d e a t h .  Whenever he m e d i t a t e s on t h e e t e r n a l problem o f time and boredom (one o f Buchner's f a v o u r i t e themes) and on t h e problem of  e x i s t e n c e , t h e c a p t a i n , t a l k i n g i n t h e maudlin tone of  K i n g P e t e r i n Leonee und Lena, becomes v e r y depressed: "Es w i r d mir ganz angst urn d i e Welt, wenn i c h an d i e Ewigk e i t denke.  B e s c h a f t i g u n g , Woyzeck, B e s c h a f t i g u n g !  das i s t ewig, das i s t e w i g — d a s aber wieder n i c h t  s i e h s t du e i n ; nun i s t es  ewig, und das i s t e i n A u g e n b l i c k , j a e i n  Augenblick—Woyzeck,  es s c h a u d e r t mich, wenn i c h denke,  s i c h d i e Welt i n einem Tag herumdreht! dung!  Wo  Ewig:  s o i l das h i n a u s ?  Was  dass  'n Z e i t v e r s c h w e n -  Woyzeck, i c h kann k e i n Muhlrad  mehr sehn, oder i c h werd m e l a n c h o l i s c h . "  ( p . 151)  Both Woyzeck and the c a p t a i n encounter t h e same problem of  a meaningless w o r l d , but i n Woyzeck t h e r e s u l t i s t r a g i c  and i n the c a p t a i n comic. difference.  There must be a r e a s o n f o r the  Woyzeck i s an o r d i n a r y man  who  has a h e a r t  that  f e e l s — h e i s s u s c e p t i b l e to s t r o n g emotions such as l o v e . He needs l o v e and purpose i n l i f e .  In r e s p o n s e to t h i s  need  -  40 -  Woyzeck g i v e s h i m s e l f c o m p l e t e l y t o M a r i e . the o t h e r hand, t a l k s r a t h e r than f e e l s . about l i f e  The c a p t a i n , on H i s lamentations  and e t e r n i t y remain on t h e s u r f a c e , because he  never r e a l l y becomes i n v o l v e d w i t h l i f e . experiences the tragedy of l i f e , i n c a p a b l e o f committing  He never p e r s o n a l l y  f o r he i s u n w i l l i n g t o and  h i m s e l f t o another  i n love.  F o r him,  as f o r t h e drum major, l o v e i s sex, but h i s s p u r i o u s m o r a l i t y keeps him from ich  e x p e r i e n c i n g even t h i s animal l o v e :  am F e n s t e r l i e g , wenn's geregnet  "Wenn  h a t , und den weissen  Strumpfen so nachseh, wie s i e uber d i e Gassen  springen—ver-  dammt, Woyzeck, da kommt m i r d i e L i e b e ! . I c h hab auch F l e i s c h und  Blut.  The  c a p t a i n sees t h e l a c k o f purpose i n l i f e ;  ficial  Aber, Woyzeck, d i e Tugendi  maudlin  o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e f a c t  But Woyzeck, d e e p l y i n v o l v e d w i t h l i f e , the l a c k o f sense i n t h e w o r l d .  d i e Tugendi"  ( p . 152)  he makes super-  and goes on l i v i n g . n o t e s and e x p e r i e n c e s  To f i n d purpose he g i v e s  h i m s e l f i n l o v e , b u t Marie, r e p u d i a t e s t h i s l o v e , c a u s i n g h i s violent reaction:  the t o t a l r e j e c t i o n of value i n the world.  T h i s n i h i l i s m i n Woyzeck i s a l r e a d y p r e f i g u r e d i n Dantons Tod.  Danton, c o m p l e t e l y s i c k o f l i f e ,  o n l y a degree o f happiness  f e e l s that there i s  i n intoxication  ("das s i n d  gliick-  l i c h e L e u t e , d i e s i c h noch besaufen konnen." ( p . 7 2 ) ) , and in  madness ("Der g l u c k l i c h s t e Mensch war d e r , welcher  sich  e i n b i l d e n konnte, dass e r Gott V a t e r , Sohn und H e i l i g e r Geist s e i . " (p. 7 6 ) ) .  He d e s p a i r s even o f death, because he  f i n d s i t impossible to b e l i e v e i n extinction: Danton. . . .Der v e r f l u c h t e S a t z : Etwas kann n i c h t zu n i c h t s werden! Und i c h b i n etwas, das i s t der Jammer! . . .  - 41  -  Camille. D i e Welt i s t der ewige Jude, das N i c h t s i s t der Ted, aber er i s t unmoglich. . . . Danton. Wir s i n d a l l e l e b e n d i g begraben . . . . Wir k r a t z e n f u n f z i g Jahre l a n g am S a r g d e c k e l . Ja, wer an V e r n i c h t u n g glauben k o n n t e l dem ware g e h o l f e n . - Da i s t k e i n e Hoffnung im Tod; er i s t nur e i n e e i n f a c h e r e , das Leben e i n e v e r w i c k e l t e r e F a u l n i s , das i s t der ganze Unterschiedl (pp. 6 6 , 6 7 ) F o r Danton, l i f e  i s a c o u r t e s a n who  c a r r i e s on  w i t h the whole world, and death i s no b e t t e r .  prostitution The  apex o f  Danton*s n i h i l i s m i s seen i n h i s c a u s t i c r e j e c t i o n o f v a l u e in  t h i s world:  "Die Welt i s t das Chaos.  zu gebarende W e l t g o t t . " In  (p.  Das N i c h t s i s t der  79)  b i t t e r d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h an e v i l and  incompre-  h e n s i b l e w o r l d , Buchner's n i h i l i s m becomes; even more p r o nounced i n Woyzeck. no  sense i n l i f e .  meaningless of  fate.  There i s n o t h i n g worth l i v i n g f o r i n a  w o r l d where humans are mere r o b o t s i n the  control  A l l v a l u e s are r e j e c t e d ; e v e r y t h i n g i s r o t t e n  worthless—even it  Robbed of Marie, Woyzeck sees a b s o l u t e l y  and  the e a r t h i t s e l f i s t h i n - c r u s t e d , so t h a t  might d i s i n t e g r a t e at any moment.  Buchner g i v e s  two  s e p a r a t e f o r m u l a t i o n s o f h i s n e g a t i o n of the w o r l d ,  one  the d e a d l y s e r i o u s f a i r y t a l e c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e s e r t e d  child,  and the o t h e r — i t s i r o n i c c o u n t e r p a r t — a c o m i c a l "sermon" on  "Warum i s t d e r Mensch?" The grim f a i r y t a l e t o l d by the grandmother d e p i c t s the  "desperate l o n e l i n e s s o f man c r u e l boredom."^ form.  i n a world of d i s s i p a t i o n  and  T h i s "Marchen" i s n i h i l i s m i n i t s b l a c k e s t  Here, Buchner, c o m p l e t e l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h  u n i v e r s e , p u t s h i s n i h i l i s m i n t o grotesque the e s s e n t i a l tone t o Woyzeck.  the  poetry, lending  A l l Woyzeck's e f f o r t s t o  - 42 -  f i n d meaning.in the w o r l d have been a b o r t i v e , j u s t as t h e orphan's e f f o r t s t o f i n d a home have been a b o r t i v e . b i t t e r i s o l a t i o n o f man l e v e l with the c h i l d .  .The  i n a c r u e l u n i v e r s e p u t s him on a And i n a d e p a r t u r e from the t r a d i t i o n a l  happy end o f t h e f a i r y t a l e t h e r e i s no s a l v a t i o n h e r e , t h e r e i s no way  o u t , and no s i g n o f any hope f o r t h e f u t u r e .  There  i s o n l y h e l p l e s s n e s s and d e s p a i r : Es war einmal e i n arm K i n d und h a t t k e i n V a t e r und k e i n e M u t t e r , war a l l e s t o t , und war niemand mehr auf d e r Welt. A l l e s t o t , und es i s hingangen und hat gesucht Tag und Nacht. Und w e i l auf der Erde niemand mehr war., w o l l t ' s i n Himmel gehn, und d e r Mond guckt es so f r e u n d l i c h an; und wie es e n d l i c h zum Mond kam, war's e i n Stuck f a u l H o l z . Und da i s es zur Sonne gangen, und wie es zur Sonne kam, war's e i n v e r w e l k t Sonnenblum. Und wie's zu den S t e r n e n kam, waren's k l e i n e goldne Mucken, d i e waren anges t e c k t , wie d e r N e u n t o t e r s i e auf d i e Schlehen s t e c k t . Und wie's wieder auf d i e Erde w o l l t , war d i e Erde e i n umgestiirzter Hafen. Und es war ganz allein. Und da hat s i c h ' s h i n g e s e t z t und geweint, und da s i t z t es noch und i s ganz a l l e i n . (p. 172) J u s t as the grandmother's  e v i l t a l e i s a mockery of  human optimism i n the form o f a f a i r y t a l e t r a v e s t y , the comic "sermon" s a t i r i z e s t h e c o n s o l a t i o n o f s u p e r f i c i a l religion.  I n an i n n a drunken working l a d jumps on the t a b l e  and g i v e s h i s extemporaneous  "sermon."  His preaching i s  l u d i c r o u s and y e t w i t h the p e c u l i a r f a c u l t y o f t h e i n s a n e o r t h e drunk, he preaches t h e t r u t h ; Buchner  argues t h a t  t r u t h o r r e a l i t y i s found o n l y i n innocence and i n i n t o x i cation.  L a c r o i x , i n Cantons Tod, s t a t e s t h e a u t h o r ' s view:  "Narren, K i n d e r u n d — n u n ? - Betrunkene sagen d i e Wahrheit." (p. 21)  Through the drunken l a d Buchner  t h o s e p e o p l e who  a t t a c k s and  ridicules  p r o v i d e p a t answers f o r every problem,  r e g a r d l e s s of i t s nature.  I n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s ,  Buchner  -  argues,  43  -  t h e r e i s no answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f e x i s t e n c e .  All  ends, i n complete n e g a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d , f o r " a l l e s I r d i s c h e  ist  ubel."  The "sermon" i s worth q u o t i n g i n f u l l :  Warum i s t d e r Mensch? Warum i s t d e r Mensch? Aber w a h r l i c h , i c h sage euch: Von was h a t t e der Landmann, der W e i s s b i n d e r , d e r S c h u s t e r , d e r A r z t l e b e n s o l l e n , wenn Gott den Menschen n i c h t geschaffen hatte? Von was h a t t e d e r S c h n e i d e r l e b e n s o l l e n , wenn e r dem Menschen n i c h t d i e Empfindung d e r Scham e i n g e p f l a n z t h a t t e , von was d e r S o l d a t , wenn e r i h n n i c h t mit dem Bed u r f n i s s i c h totzuschlagen ausgerustet hatte? Darum z w e i f e l t n i c h t — j a , j a , es i s t l i e b l i c h und f e i n , aber a l l e s I r d i s c h e i s t l i b e l , s e l b s t das G e l d geht i n Verwesung uber. ( p . 166) Woyzeck s i s o l a t i o n , a c c e n t u a t e d by r i d i c u l e , 1  him t o a p r o f o u n d  leads  q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e meaning o f l i f e .  q u e s t i o n "Warum i s t d e r Mensch?" resounds throughout drama.  What i s man's p o s i t i o n i n t h i s amoral world?  The the If  God i s a l l p o w e r f u l  and a l l good, how can he t o l e r a t e t h e  existence of e v i l ?  Woyzeck's v e r y l i f e  in  becomes i n v o l v e d  these q u e s t i o n s , b u t he can f i n d no s a t i s f a c t o r y answer.  -  44  -  Chapter Four  Hinkemann,  one o f  the  in  p r i s o n , portrays the  by  an enemy b u l l e t  fearing  that  because  of  job of  to  be  his  act  viewing  his  his  husband as  falls  believe  circus  that  into  she,  prey to  act.  soon as  she  stage.  to  sympathy  tries  live  to  s o l u t i o n but out  because  he i s  Toller  i n a heartless  suicide:  herself  the  she  window.  too  weak  by l y i n g to  laughed  at  matter  for her  her  world,  is  snare of  g i v e s more i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t  background than Buchner.  his  As i n t h e  him and  that  she  act  a recon-  impossible,  alone.  s e e s no  t a k e s h e r own l i f e  break the  Gross-  repulsive  life  a new  the  unfaithfulness,  Hinkemann a p p a r e n t l y to  woman  mistreated  b r i n g about for  living  h i m when  a permanent r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  l e a v e him and b e g i n alone  of  spectators.  saw h i m p e r f o r m i n g h i s Grete  pleasures  seduction of  the  wife  degrading  a passionate  torment  by a s k i n g h i s f o r g i v e n e s s  her to  simple  his  the Hinkemanns.  The t r u t h o f  but Hinkemann, b e l i e v i n g requests  of  the necks  the  G r e t e has  her reawakening  circus  ciliation  family  wife,  emasculated  on a most  a few,  while  Eugen Hinkemann,  the blood t h i r s t y  Hinkemann's mental  had r e v e a l e d  afraid  takes  Paul Grosshahn, a f r i e n d of  c a u s i n g him to  a soldier  and r e s p e c t  he b i t e s  entertain  concern f o r  hahn adds t o  on t h e  love  provide her with  M a r i e i n Woyzeck,  virile  the  impotence,  a circus  and mice t o  Despite like  In  to  of  T o l l e r wrote  F i r s t World War.  lose  sexual  able  life.  rats  his  that  suffering  in'the  he w i l l  plays  by  Grete,  other  throwing  g o e s on  living  existence. protagonist's  case of  Woyzeck,  - 45 -  the  paternal  During truth  the  his  old,  learns, of  course  that  months  mich  brauche  he  the  had  father  Eugen  'geh  i n Hinkemann*s  died  learns  when he  had  that  zu  home  picked  up  Eltern  Bett.  Mich  One drunk  on  experience:  deinen  ins  slightly  the  shocking  the  six  night,  he  on  arm  the  street.  "'Weib,*  und  l i f e .  ( E u g e n ) was  believed heretofore.  of  Blut  missing  Hinkemann  not  returned  heute  junges  been  play  woman whom h e  tells  an,  of  f a t h e r had  as  his  another  mother  i n f l u e n c e has  His  schrie  er  schlafe dort.  friert  bei  Ich  dir, seit  du  36 ein in  Junges her  geworfen  husband  prey.  She  face,  took  hast*  only  the  threatened his  .  .  .  beast  him  beloved,  . "^  His  which  casts  with  left  a knife,  the  house  mother  suddenly  saw  away i t s m u t i l a t e d  he  laughed  in  her  and  d i d not  return  37 for  29  sick  years.  and  i n rags.  sterben" In has  had  onto zu  (p. the to  the  he  absence support  verdienen  fur  (p.  consonance  plain  feminine  demands.^ is  49)  forced  now  bin  tells of the "Ich  dich.  a  o l d Hinkemann zuruckgekommen  his  husband,  family; ging Ich  auf  She  became  with  the  general  as  has  die  urn b e i  zu  done  so  Strasse  nicht  .  hasslich  a prostitute  dir  out  by •  i n much but  recourse  mother  going • urn  out  Brot  in  meiner  of  necessity,  expressidnis'.tLc t r e n d  through  prostitution,  home,  Eugen Hinkemann's  she  war  misbehaviour  comes b a c k  wife.  49)  Woman, h e r e into  the  "Ich  streets:  Jugend." in  But  to  to  ex-  material  expressionistic literature,  she  nevertheless  retains  39 her  essential  goodness  and  In  Hinkemann*s  own  partner  i s repeated  i n what  innocence.  married  life  seems  to  the be  tragedy an  of  endless  a  faithless  chain  of  -  misery.  H i s mother  husband,  f o r not only  but  worse  than  46  had been  that,  -  grievously  wronged  h a d h e come home w i t h Toller  declares,  by her  another  bestial  woman,  he had laughed  at her  40 in  h e r agony.  it  i s t h e woman who  husband. in  I n Eugen's  In addition,  the tragedies  did  believes  that  With  respect  probable, employed  A  to education  f o r when  he m a r r i e s time  what  seems  Hinkemann formal  a  h a s no  i t i s quite  sluggish,  cruel the  world.  unawakened  Kriege  meine  Denken  . . .  ungeheure mich  of l i f e :  i c hselbst, Jeden  mind.  was  direction:  he cannot  quickly  meiner  e i n b r i c h t , mich  Toller "Hinkemann  elementarischen i nh i s and  understand  Verwundung  i c h aufstehe,  urn i n a l l d a s , w a s  family.  to a chaotic  i c hb i n e i n bisschen  auf mich  at  Immer h a t  Dumpfe d e r  meaning  "Ja, seit  T a g , wenn  Anstrengung,  anfallt,  to give  In h i s dullness  intricacies  that  the  h i s i n j u r y he i s confused  i thard  worker.  intelligence, reveals  das Ausdrucksschwere,  finding  been  of tutored  'pathetisch.'  thinking,  im-  support  ' f l i e s s e n d ' noch  Since  seems  h i s mother  spricht  (p..1)  advantage  likely  stage  Seele."  erroneously  as an o r d i n a r y  him i n the f i r s t  Sprache  wife  he has already  characterizes  seine  difference  Eugen's  education  a t twenty  a father,  i n h i s lack  at first  weder  mistreated  position—he  i n the factory  age he h a d t o h e l p  Hinkemann,  her  important  and t h e son:  comprehensive  f o r some  early  i s another  reversed:  laughed.  Furthermore,, l a c k i n g an  there  him i n h i s degrading  she  Woyzeck.  the situation i s  u n f a i t h f u l , wronging  o f the mother  not ridicule  over  proves  life  im  verworren  kostet  es  im  mich  i n m i r i s t , was betastet,  mich  -  b e f t i h l t , durch hineinzubringen  47  -  e i n paar Worte, e i n paar Gedanken Ordnung . . . man  f r a g t s i c h , ob man  haupt e r f a s s e n kann . . .  Morgens, wenn man  Chaos i n einem da und wenn man i s t wieder Chaos da  aufstent, i s t  s i c h abends zu B e t t  (pp. 2 6 ,  . . ."  das Leben u b e r -  27)  legt,  But soon we  see  i n Hinkemann's " d u l l n e s s " the same n a i v e t e as i n Woyzeck, expressed  i n a m y s t i f y i n g concern  e x c l u s i o n o f s m a l l e r everyday  w i t h u l t i m a t e t r u t h to the  matters.  Hinkemann—like Woyzeck—reveals h i s surprising insights i n sudden cogent remarks and inn of  questions.  F o r example, i n the  scene he.shows h i s g r e a t p e r c e p t i o n c o n c e r n i n g existential suffering.  By the p e n e t r a t i n g  r e g a r d i n g the p o s i t i o n of the man  who  the  nature  questions  i s sick i n h i s soul  i n the U t o p i a e n v i s i o n e d by h i s comrades, Hinkemann confounds and p u t s them to shame: Hinkemann. Und wenn e i n e r krank i s t an s e i n e r S e e l e ? M i c h e l Unbeschwert. (robust, unsentimental) Der kommt i n eine H e i l a n s t a l t . . . . Hinkemann. I c h denke n i c h t an s o l c h e , d i e krank s i n d im Kopf oder im G e h i r n . . . I c h meine s o l c h e , d i e gesund s i n d und doch krank i n i h r e r Seele. M i c h e l Unbeschwert. Das g i b t es n i c h t i Wer e i n e n gesunden Korper h a t , hat auch e i n e gesunde Seele. (pp. 2 7 , 28) Hinkemann i s not a "Naturmensch" to the same degree as Woyzeck:  he does not a t t r i b u t e h i s a c t i o n s to the  instincts  of n a t u r e , nor does he s u b s c r i b e t o the same u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d , " n a t u r a l " code of m o r a l i t y .  However, l i k e Woyzeck, he  demonstrates a " n a t u r a l " goodness of h e a r t . seems t o be a r g u i n g , i s born good.  Man,  Toller  Hinkemann i s a f f e c t i o n a t e  and d i s p l a y s deep d e v o t i o n t o h i s young w i f e , of whom he  - 48 -  c o n s t a n t l y dreams and t h i n k s w h i l e i n t h e war.  And when he  r e t u r n s home s e x u a l l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d he l o v e s h e r even more, w i t h a more p r o f o u n d and s p i r i t u a l i s e d l o v e .  During the  s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e war y e a r s he began t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e t r u e worth o f h i s w i f e :  " A l s e r noch zu Hause war, h a t t e e r s e i n  Weib l i e b , das v e r s t e h t s i c h .  Aber e r s t da draussen im F e l d e  g l a u b t e er s i e zu sehen wie s i e war." t h e y had merely  existed:  ( p . 29)  t h e y had l i v e d a mechanical  w i t h no r e a l a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e mystery the a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e l i f e  U n t i l t h e war  of l i f e .  life  Now  since  has been t a k e n from him he has  come t o see t h e worth o f a l l l i f e .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , he i s  s i n g u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e and k i n d - h e a r t e d .  To be s u r e , h i s  k i n d n e s s does n o t stem from h i s i n j u r y , b u t h i s p e r s o n a l s u f f e r i n g has c o n f i r m e d him i n h i s k i n d n e s s . causes him t o extend human compassion  H i s own s u f f e r i n g  to a l l the world.  Now more than ever he r e a l i z e s t h e d i g n i t y o f a l l l i f e ,  since  he, i n h i s own s u f f e r i n g , has been made .aware o f t h e s u f f e r i n g of  other c r e a t u r e s .  He cannot bear t o see even t h e s m a l l e s t  animal s u f f e r ( w i t n e s s h i s i n d i g n a t i o n a t t h e b l i n d i n g o f the b i r d ) .  At the c i r c u s h i s wife r e v e a l s h i s i n c r e a s e d  s e n s i t i v i t y and k i n d n e s s : was z u l e i d e t u n !  "Der Mann konnt k e i n e r F l i e g e  Der Mann h a t s i c h einmal an meiner  Mutter  v e r g r i f f e n , w e i l s i e ihrem F i n k e n d i e Augen geblendet h a t . Der Mann h a t m i r n i c h t e r l a u b t , e i n e S c h l a g f a l l e i n d e r Kiiche a u f z u s t e l l e n , w e i l das e i n e sundhafte Q u a l e r e i f u r Mause s e i . . . "  ( p . 19)  However, i n b i t t e r e s t i r o n y , Hinkemann, t h e h y p e r s e n s i t i v e c r i p p l e , i s f o r c e d t o earn h i s money by b i t i n g i n t o t h e  - 4-9 -  living of  bodies'of  t h e German  upon  gentle  The  dire  human  concern  living  room) b e a r s  .  ..  sprich  Stuckchen unserm  nicht  zum  and  callously  A l s ob  makes  .  .  Am  .  .  und  him:  .  im  zum  sufficient  gates  besetzt!  returned  ware!  bin i c h !  (p. 1 ) ^  f o r him  at  plight:  Zimmer  soli  Eugen lasst  (p.  uns  4-)  money f o r t h e i r  to obtain  . .  i c h mit  "Die Rente Sterben."  .  . .  Kein  Later,  daily  respectable  are closed.  "Versuchen S i e doch  Alles  their  Eugen,  need:  zu v i e l  as  been has  (their  M u t t e r d i r K o h l e n gab  Verzweifeln  anschuren?"  n o t have  ob  Grete's  serves  he  depicts  i s  setting  has  but  er nicht  Leben  Mann.  life  sufficient  to  as  as  gasoline;  a  Toller  depicts  i s a perpetual supply  the worker  individual  energy  nur,  financial  do  poverty  ne  Hahahai  The  showman  andere  Arbeit  Entweder—oderi"  4 2  work  worse,  dich  Grete  their  informs  bekommen,  i4)  .  Eugen  some c o a l ,  A l l the f a c t o r y  However,  has  concern.  words  i t i s impossible  employment.  has  this  .  Ofen  reveals  Hinkemanns  needs  (P.  also  Keine Kohlei  den  genug  .  o f t h e Hinkemanns  where- t h e k i t c h e n  few  doch!  Holz!  Bett  further  .  the  demands m a n k i n d  The  i c h fragte  doch Antwort  Eugen,  a  both  o f t h e work.  mother-in-law's to fetch  "Eugen!  zu  out  In  revealing  the cruel  straits  quarters  empty-handed.  The  and  at the outset  living  Gib  mice,  being.  economic  humble  his  and  proletariat  the  prime  rats  worth.  service  the worker  even  struggle.  the bare  i s not  it,  The  essentials,  even r e c o g n i z e d  In the factories  station i s a  attendant  mere  f o r t h e man  and as  i s not  t o make m a t t e r s  a person  the worker  sells  machine:  wage  a  who  who  sells  gallon  of  his  - 50 Was h a t d e r m s o n P r o l e t v o n s e i n e m L e h e n ? Wenn er a u f d i e W e l t kommt, f l u c h t d e r A l t e , dass w i e d e r e i n E s s e r mehr d a i s t . Hungrig geht er m o r g e n s i n d i e S c h u l e , u n d wenn e r a b e n d s i n s B e t t g e h t , z w i e b e l t d e r Hunger das Gedarm. Na, u n d d a n n kommt e r i n d i e P r o h n . Er verkauft s e i n e A r b e i t s k r a f t , w i e man einen L i t e r P e t r o l e u m v e r k a u f t u n d g e h o r t dem Unternehmer, dem P r i n z i p a l . Er wird . . . sozusagen . . . ein Hammer o d e r e i n S t u h l o d e r e i n D a m p f h e b e l oder e i n Pederhalter, oder er w i r d e i n Bugeleisen. Es i s t doch s o i (p. 7)^3 In  contrast  to  the  misery  of the  proletariat  there i s  44 the to  extravagance moderate  wealthy: den  the  zu  " J a , das  more  Wo  eng  richV  the  socialism,  Villen.  nung  of  Gluck  poor  intolerable.  The  making  a  bare  living;  vor  S c h u f t e n und  the  o t h e r hand,  in  their  boredom:  dominating were w e l l leisure,  .  do  and  when  .  l o t of  people  . es  are  "'What the  hard the  can  put  und  I  do  to  age;  an  age  to  i t to  m a n y who  were  ihnen  the  the in  die  Woh-  proletariat  forever  5»  do  with  k i l l  find hungry  "Wie zu  6)  with  kann sundigen  The  rich,  themselves  time?'  when  even  occupied  Zeit  (pp.  to  of  d i s c r e p a n c y between  (hat) keine  know what  adherent  Palasten,  i s work:  Schinakeln."  not  question of f e d were  haben  a l l t h e y know  sundigen?  on  i n den  enormous  the  an  sumptuousness  heute  The  poor  the  Zimmer  makes  armes V o l k lauter  wohnt  ( p . 23)  the  Unbeschwert,  describes  s i e zwanzig  ist."  and  rich.  the  was  the  few  who  interests  for  were  s t i l l  their  more 45  hard  put  to  But  Toller  of  h i s time.  of  a purely  with  i t to  find  sees  a  moment  beyond  I n Hinkemann materialistic  spiritual  problems,  any he  of  leisure  Utopian  reveals  socialism: such  as  the  for  themselves.  solution  the  to  serious  of  evils  limitations  i t i s unable suffering  the  1 1  to a  deal  soul.  -  In  a  passage  explicitly is  very  from  than  his  in  circumscribed  der  Sozialismus  riihrt  aus  der  ein  autobiography  this  "Auch  Rest.  -  5 1  drama  in  the  wird  nur  soziales Leid  reveals  recognition  i t s ability  to  jenes  Unzulanglichkeit  Aber  Toller  cope  Leid  that with  losen,  socialism suffering:  das  s o z i a l e r Systeme, i s t sinnlos,  more  her-  immer  nicht  bleibt  notwendig,  46 ist  tilgbar."  similar Zeit  aller  Grenze,  liches  sees  hope  Inland  as can  der  name  there  So  Knatsch  das  ins so  be  on  the  aptly  need  confidently  die  machtiger  brought  in  on  about  earth  in  dem  the  Ostsee  other  wir dass  in  und  den  wir  hand, He  a  erkannte.  i s t a l s mensch47  the  new  die  a  new  revolution. even  the  social  socialists  democrat  evolution  historischen  Nordsee  ohne  dass  merken."  immer  wir  wait  for  special  (p.  loudmouthed  ideal  " . . .  that  In  of Ent-  Gesellschaftsordnung  believes  (and  affirms:  einer  es  mehr im  s o z i a l i s t i s c h e n Staat  es  i s  the  der  neue  hineinfressen,  ohne  when  gradual  Schosse die  by  a  tragische  belief  Unbeschwert,  indicates.  to  expresses  Werk ^ H i n k e m a n n j  Activists'  wird  die  werden  auch  he  sozialer Revolution  Natur  the  "Aus  Land  Zweig  schmerzhaft,  a Paradise  wie  revolution  i s no  Stefan  g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e s Wollen."  Verhaltnisse  sich  Knatsch,  have  die  rejects  state:  merken,  his  ich,  firmly believes  hineinwachsen, Max  to  habe  among t h e m s e l v e s .  socialist  mehr  und  for  herausgeboren. und  der  Utopia—can  Hinkemann,  wicklung  "Ich  j e n s e i t s der  Toller  no  disagree  the  letter  Gliicksmoglichkeiten  society—the  of  in  Einzelwollen  Hinkemann  He  a  recognition:  geschrieben,  Grenze Die  In  that  state)  24) anarchist—  the any  masses time;  circumstances. und  wenn  die  Menschen  52 revolutionaren  Willi ens  s i n d , konnen s i e i n a l i e n  n i s s e n e i n neues Leben beginnen. In c o n t r a s t  Noch heute."  to these A c t i v i s t views, T o l l e r ,  Hinkemann, defends the p u r e l y through a p e r s o n a l be  Gleicb.  Verhalt-  a change i n s o c i e t y .  only  of each i n d i v i d u a l can  In e f f e c t T o l l e r makes an  p l e a f o r a r e t u r n to the t e a c h i n g s  there  impassioned  of p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y :  l o v e of mankind, t o l e r a n c e , f a i t h i n man,  and  genuine h u m i l i t y .  Hinkemann r e p r o v e s h i s f r i e n d s f o r t h e i r p a r t y s p i r i t , p r i d e and  intolerance:  "Wie  neue G e s e l l s c h a f t zu bauen! aufgeblaht  von  i n ner  musst i h r anders werden, urn eine Bekampft den  Bourgeois und  seid  E i n e r hasst  den  andern, w e i l  er  anderen P a r t e i s e k t e i s t , w e i l er aufn andres Programm  schwort! trauen  their  seinem Dunkel, s e i n e r S e l b s t g e r e c h t i g k e i t ,  seiner HerzenstragheitI  Keiner  zu s i c h .  Verrat."  (p. 35)  hat V e r t r a u e n zum  andern.  Keiner  hat  Ver-  K e i n e T a t , d i e n i c h t e r s t i c k t i n Hader  und  Hinkemann denounces unregenerate s o c i e t y  f o r u n c e a s i n g c r u e l t y t o i t s members.  But  his principal  c o n c e r n , as i n d i c a t e d i n h i s s i l e n c e a t G r e t e * s l a m e n t a t i o n s about t h e i r p o v e r t y , i s not the i n c u r s i o n s a g a i n s t i s responsible.  m a t e r i a l d i s t r e s s , but  In the n e x t c h a p t e r we  mistreatment.  rather  the human s o u l f o r which our  society  s h a l l deal with  c h i e f i l l u s t r a t i o n of the inhumanity of the personal  25)  through  e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c view:  regeneration  (p.  age:  the  Hinkemann's  -  53  -  Chapter F i v e As i n Woyzeck's c a s e , the  e s s e n t i a l cause of Hinkemann*s  s u f f e r i n g i s the u n i v e r s a l d e s i r e f o r l o v e . from the war  as a s e x u a l  to maintain h i s wife's must he  consideration.  h i s own  S i n c e he i s by no  means r e c o n -  He  i s determined t o o b t a i n work, f o r  "...  Ich schaff A r b e i t ! . . .  eagerness t o p l e a s e ,  i c h w i l l d i r doch was  Und  ein T i e r ! . . . "  meine. . . F r a u  . . .  Menschen g e l i e b t w i r d !  a' few  modest  for pleasures:  verlassen  schenken konnen zu Weihnachten!  l o v e which compels him  "Es  ...  ist . . .  .  ..."  (Herausstossend) Wenn man  Liebe v e r l i e r e n l  (Stammelnd, f a s t wimmernd)  on  . . . urn . . .  Wenn man  Angst h a t , man  von  einem  konnte  das  U n s e r e i n e r hat n i c h t v i e l L i e b e l  Och  . . . och  . . . a c h t z i g Mark . . . och . . .  to t a k e  nur  Konnen S i e mich n i c h t sonstwo b e s c h a f t i g e n ,  einer!  5)  (p.  d i s t i n c t l y t e l l s the c i r c u s showman t h a t i t i s the  such h u m i l i a t i n g work:  och  wenn  Eugen d e s i r e s work not  to g i v e h i s w i f e  f e a r of l o s i n g h i s w i f e ' s  bisschen  he  i s an a i d i n r e t a i n i n g G r e t e ' s  " I c h s c h a f f A r b e i t , G r e t e , da kannst du d i c h d r a u f  He  any  seeks to compensate through k i n d n e s s  betterment but  (p. 8)  and  longer play a part i n t h e i r  i c h g l e i c h mich ducken musst wie In p i t i f u l  is  I t i s c o m p l e t e l y f r e e of  knows t h a t m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g l o v e and r e s p e c t :  desperately  However, h i s l o v e now  another.  c i l e d t o h i s l o s s he and  love.  sex can no  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one  his return  c r i p p l e , Hinkemann t r i e s  entirely spiritual.  e r o t i c element:  On  Ich tus, Herr."  Herr? . . .  . . . och  . . . Unsereiner  (p.  14)  . . .  . . •  . . . unser-  - 54 -  As  i n Woyzeck, Hinkemann*s problem i s not  n a t u r a l need f o r l o v e , but  L i k e Woyzeck he  s u f f e r s through no  from the malevolence of f a t e . war  veteran,  has  but  unfortunate  Not  everyone who  was  went t o war  was  as he w a s — b y a f a t e which s t r i k e s b l i n d l y , h i t t i n g  t h i s one  and  t h a t one.  As  a s e x u a l l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d man,  e l i c i t s the r i d i c u l e of s o c i e t y . s u f f e r i n g f o r the his  f a u l t o f h i s own  Hinkemann, the  removal  i s a tragic  been i l l - t r e a t e d by f a t e i n t h a t he  emasculated i n the war. hurt  the  r a t h e r i s concerned w i t h t h e  o f the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r l o v e . f i g u r e because he  simply  In a d d i t i o n , Eugen's  sake of h i s w i f e i s the d i r e c t r e s u l t of  e m a s c u l a t i o n , f o r i f he had  returned  home a v i r i l e  he would not  have been i n j e o p a r d y of l o s i n g her  he would not  have been f o r c e d t o .debase h i m s e l f  of the  man  love.  Further,  i n the  hands  showman.  The  showman i s the  Hinkemann p h y s i c a l l y .  o n l y major f i g u r e who  e x p l o i t s him  apparent.  Hinkemann i s to pose as,  F e a r l e s s l y he  i n a device  whose i r o n y i s a l l too "Der  deutsche H e l d . "  i s to b i t e i n t o the necks o f l i v i n g r a t s  mice, drawing b l o o d : K a f i g mit Mausen!  "Hier  e i n K a f i g mit R a t t e n !  K l e i n e s Vermogen d r i n !  Beissen i n jeder Vorstellung Kehle d u r c h .  mistreats  F u l l y r e a l i z i n g Eugen's d e s p e r a t e  p l i g h t , he  (pp.  13,  14)  and  Hier  ein  I h r e Nummer:  e i n e r R a t t e und  L u t s c h e n e i n paar Ziige B l u t .  Volk r a s t vor Lust!" ignore  he  e i n e r Maus d i e Geste!  I t i s impossible  Weg! to  T o l l e r ' s c a u s t i c c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of humanity i n the  c i r c u s showman's r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of t h i s v u l g a r w i l l Blut seheni!!  Blut!!!  Trotz  act:  zweitausend J a h r e n  "Volk  -  c h r i s t l i c h e r MoralJ  55 -  Mein Unternehmen t r a g t dem Rechnung.  So harmoniert V o l k s i n t e r e s s e The German n a t i o n  mit P r i v a t i n t e r e s s e . "  also.receives a denunciation  i r o n i c announcement o f t h e showman: Die deutsche K u l t u r ! KraftI  (p. 1 3 ) i n the  "Der deutsche H e i d i  D i e deutsche M a n n e r f a u s t l  D i e deutsche  . . . d i e . . . f l e i s c h g e w o r d e n e deutsche K r a f t ! "  (pp. 16, 1 7 )  But most i m p o r t a n t l y ,  t h e scene p r o v i d e s  pro-  found t r a g i c i r o n y i n showing Hinkemann brought t o t h e p o i n t of contravening wife.  h i s own k i n d l y n a t u r e through l o v e f o r h i s  And p r e c i s e l y t h i s a c t , as Hinkemann i s l e d t o b e l i e v e ,  elicits But  o n l y r i d i c u l e from G r e t e . i n consonance w i t h t h e commercial s p i r i t , t h e  m a t e r i a l i s t i c showman i s o n l y concerned t h a t h i s c i r c u s a c t 4-8  be a f i n a n c i a l and  success.  People want t o see t h e s e n s a t i o n a l  even t h e t e r r i f y i n g .  Hence t h e s p e c t a t o r s  come s t r e a m i n g  i n t o see t h e c r u e l show, t h e showman p o c k e t s t h e handsome p r o f i t s , but t h e h e l p l e s s Hinkemann i s t h e v i c t i m o f t h i s vicious exploitation.  And i t i s i m p o s s i b l e  t o escape, from h i s p l i g h t .  f o r Hinkemann  When he i n f o r m s the showman t h a t  he i s q u i t t i n g h i s j o b , t h e showman, t h i n k i n g o n l y o f h i s f i n a n c e s , immediately reminds Hinkemann o f t h e s i g n e d  contract  which he cannot t e r m i n a t e p r e m a t u r e l y w i t h o u t p a y i n g t h e l e g a l consequences: Saison?  "Wer h a t K o n t r a k t u n t e r s c h r i e b e n  S i e oder i c h ?  Polizeigewalt  (Brutal)  f i l r d i e ganze  Mann, i c h l a s s e S i e durch  z u r A r b e i t , zwingen . . . . .  Entweder S i e s i n d  morgen p u n k t l i c h z u r S t e l l e oder S i e kommen p e r P o l i z e i s c h u b . " (p. 3 9 ) As a s o u l l e s s , b r u t a l i n d i v i d u a l , we can e a s i l y see t h e  - 56 -  showman  t o he a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s o c i e t y .  enough, Hinkemann, also  sees  hab  kein  Both  wie diese  they  spiritual  nature  Zeit.  Diese  1st.da  ("Seele")  man  Hinkemann  truly  suffering  o f another  aware  creature.  business  capitalizes  o n man's  draw p r o f i t  from  m a n n 's c a s e  a soulless  from  it  sing  from  "Wollt  Eugen  and that  i h rmich  'Warum d e n n  just  weinen,  bird  notices  part  Toller  even  and o f the  i s bloodthirsty, man,  k n o w s how t o  h i splan  o f young both  The p r e s s  Greedy  girls.  gain  mother  means  Similarly  In  Distelfink? society  t o make  between h i s a  parallel:  ( M i tF i s t e l s t i m m e auseinandergeht'  Hinke-  t o draw  out i t s eyes  f o r he draws  men  and pleasure  wants  the similarity  i s castigating  a  Man i n  t o make  nature  by putting  so g u t w i e e i n g e b l e n d e t e r In  argues.  though  draws  as Grete's  w e n n man  has both  ("Geschlecht").  f o r the sensational.  horen?  they are  out of everything.  of the bird,  singen  man  human b e i n g .  instinct  Ich  ( p . 58)  nature  a bullet  even  society  a harmless  better.  suffering  nicht  the love  h i s suffering,  pleasure  love  Seele.  i n h i s heartlessness  an a s t u t e b u s i n e s s cruelty,  "Ich bin  because  The w o r l d  a n d shame f o r a f e l l o w  makes a good  Toller  of h i s spiritual  make u s e o f s o c i e t y ' s  society  and an a n i m a l  i trequired  t h e showman, b e i n g  suffering  hat keine  The complete  i s so entrenched  callousness that  o f the age,  o f t h e time:  Zeit  i s ridiculous,  society  strangely  einUnterschied?"  are incomplete.  either  contemporary  and  a symbol  and t h e age a r e r i d i c u l o u s  abnormal,  and  injury  Geschlecht.  Hinkemann  Without  recognizing the inhumanity  i n h i s own  lacherlich  But  singend):  . . . Sing i c h . . . " ( p . 35)  here  f o r the  -  57  -  "unedles Ungluck" ( s u f f e r i n g which can he remedied) which it  imposes upon i t s members.  In a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Howard  D e F o r e s t , T o l l e r expresses h i s sentiments r e g a r d i n g unnecessary  s u f f e r i n g i n these terms:  the o n l y law o f l i v i n g .  "Love, o r c h a r i t y i s  l e t c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , even  those w i t h the p u r e s t motives, of t h e harshness  such  are o n l y c o r r e c t i n g the r e s u l t  of someone or something e l s e .  There s h o u l d  49 n o t be even o p p o r t u n i t y t o show such  charity."  The mental anguish Hinkemann has t o endure i s worse than the p h y s i c a l mistreatment the showman.  Grosshahn, who  he r e c e i v e s a t the hands o f  i s a d i r e c t p a r a l l e l t o the drum  major i n Woyzeck, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most o f the by r i d i c u l e imposed on Hinkemann.  The  suffering  s e n s u a l P a u l Grosshahn  i s a l r e a d y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i s s y m b o l i c a l n a m e . ^  To  be  sure he seduces G r e t e , but t h i s i s not h i s b l a c k e s t c r i m e . I t i s the r i d i c u l e which h u r t s Hinkemann most. i s not merely unsympathetic he i s e x p r e s s l y malevolent mann' s manhood.  h e l p but l a u g h : Lachlaut."  i n r i d i c u l i n g the l o s s of  Showing l i t t l e  f r o n t of h i s f r i e n d s : der  . . . der  a u s g i b t und  rohen  sympathy he a g a i n mocks  e x - s o l d i e r i n h i s r o l e a t the c i r c u s :  (p. 1 1 )  no  cannot  "Paul Grosshahn p r u s t e t e i n e n k u r z e n ,  s i e h t der deutsche H e l d aus! Hahahaha!"  Hinke-  can c o n t a i n her g r i e f  about h e r husband's c o n d i t i o n , he  (p. 1 0 )  the emasculated  and u n f e e l i n g as the showman:  When G r e t e , who  l o n g e r , t e l l s him  Grosshahn  E i n e r ohne . . .  "So  E i n Eunuch . . .  In the i n n he r i d i c u l e s Hinkemann i n " S o i l man  n i c h t tiber einen l a e h e n ,  . . . haha . . . der s i c h a l s s t a r k s t e r Mann  i s t doch gar k e i n Mann!"  ( p . 33)  These r e a c t i o n s  -  -  58  o f Grosshahn w i t h t h e i r l a c k o f sympathy f o r a f e l l o w human b e i n g a r e a l l t o o human.  However, he goes f u r t h e r t o a c t u a l l y  torment Hinkemann through  a malicious l i e .  the s t o r y t h a t Grete laughed "Homunkulus" a c t : ekelt  He f a b r i c a t e s  on s e e i n g h e r husband i n t h e  "Sie hat gelachti  E r s t h a t s i e s i c h ge-  . . . dann h a t s i e g e l a c h t . . . ."  c r u e l t y o f Grosshahn's a c t l i e s  (p. 3 3 )  The extreme  i n the f a c t that i t destroys  Hinkemann's f a i t h i n h i s w i f e and i n t h e w o r l d s i n c e she alone gives s i g n i f i c a n c e to h i s s h a t t e r e d e x i s t e n c e .  Eugen  i s a b l e t o endure r i d i c u l e from t h e o t h e r s because t h e y mean little  t o him, but G r e t e ' s  of h i s b a s i s f o r l i f e — h e r Although  supposed r i d i c u l e d e p r i v e s him love.  not of c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , the j i b e s of  Hinkemann's a s s o c i a t e s a r e i n t e r e s t i n g f o r what t h e y r e v e a l of T o l l e r ' s s a t i r i c  i n t e n t toward v a r i o u s human t y p e s .  Immergleich, a phlegmatic  man who p r e s e r v e s composure i n  any s i t u a t i o n , c h u c k l e s s o f t l y when Eugen poses t h e problem of how t h e s o c i a l i s t i c  s t a t e would d e a l w i t h a man who had  l o s t h i s sex i n war o r i n d u s t r y .  And as Grosshahn  informs  them t h a t Eugen i s a eunuch, a l l h i s f r i e n d s i n t h e i n n g i v e a loud snort of laughter:  " A l l e , auch S i n g e g o t t , auch  M i c h e l Unbeschwert, l a c h e n wiehernd auf." a f t e r Hinkemann has l e f t t h e i n n , S i n g e g o t t  (p. 3 5 )  However,  ecstatically  e x c l a i m s , t h e r e b y r e l a t i n g Hinkemann's s u f f e r i n g t o t h e innocent  s u f f e r i n g o f C h r i s t on t h e c r o s s :  himmlische L i c h t a u s g e l o s c h t ! Kreuz v e r h o h n t i "  (p. 3 6 )  "Ich habe das  I c h habe e i n e n Menschen am  I n these c i r c u m s t a n c e s  such a  comparison seems h y p e r b o l i c o r even i r o n i c , y e t we must  feel  - 59  -  t h a t T o l l e r , l i k e a l l E x p r e s s i o n i s t s , sees C h r i s t as an  exemplar  of a l l human s u f f e r i n g . T o l l e r f e e l s t h a t l a u g h t e r i n the f a c e of s u f f e r i n g i s t h e worst  s i n man  can commit.  In the scene w i t h the o l d  F r a u Hinkemann he e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s t h i s o p i n i o n .  Speaking  o f her husband's d e s e r t i o n 29 y e a r s ago, Eugen asks h i s mother: "Was  war  (pp. 4 9 ,  das B i t t e r s t e , M u t t e r ? "  s u f f e r i n g was  50)  The  worst  not t h a t her husband spent h i s wages on d r i n k ,  she says, nor t h a t he brought  home another woman and wanted  t o s l e e p w i t h her i n h i s w i f e ' s bed.  Being the o b j e c t o f  l a u g h t e r h i m s e l f , Hinkemann p e r c e i v e s the answer:  "So  es, w e i l er l a c h t e , a l s d e i n e S e e l e s i c h wehrte im  grossen  ( p . 50)  Schmerz?" Eugen."  (p. 50)  Mrs. Hinkemann admits:  "Das  war  The  l a u g h t e r was  f o r "das M e n s c h l i c h e , " f o r T o l l e r here  es,  By l a u g h i n g a t h i s w i f e the o l d Hinkemann  scorned and d e p r e c a t e d the i d e a l human b e i n g ("die i n her.  war  Seele")  t h e outward e x p r e s s i o n o f contempt  yes more f o r "das G o t t l i c h e " i n  employs r e l i g i o u s t e r m i n o l o g y :  "...  d e i n e S e e l e s i c h wehrte im g r o s s e n Schmerz . . . .  (pp. 5 0 ,  51)  als  Das  das B i t t e r s t e , dass er uber s i e g e l a c h t h a t , a l s i h r e wund s i c h wand i n Not."  man,^  war  Seele  In s i m i l a r language  Hinkemann s c o r n f u l l y , and perhaps w i t h a hidden d e s i r e t o elicit "Du  a d e n i a l of her a l l e g e d r i d i c u l e , r e p r o a c h e s  kannst  l a c h e n , wenn e i n e r s e i n e n a c k t e ,  i n den S t r a s s e n k o t l e g t ! "  (p.  h i s wife:  schwielige Seele  53)  Hinkemann t r i e d d e s p e r a t e l y t o a v o i d r i d i c u l e .  At  the  o u t s e t of the drama he i m p l o r e s h i s w i f e i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d plea:  "Gretchen, n i c h t wahr, du k o n n t e s t n i c h t uber mich  - 60  -  l a c h e n , das k o n n t e s t du mir n i c h t antun?"  (p. 5)  When  r e l a t i n g h i s s t o r y (which he p r e t e n d s i s the n a r r a t i v e of a f r i e n d ) t o h i s a s s o c i a t e s i n the i n n , he takes p a i n s t o r e p o r t t h a t h i s w i f e d i d not l a u g h a t him:  " S e i n Weib v e r -  a c h t e t e i n n n i c h t , s e i n Weib h a s s t e i h n n i c h t , s e i n Weib verlachte ihn nicht  . . . ."  e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s own  (p. 31)  T h i s i s an e v i d e n t  d e s i r e t o b e l i e v e i n the  essential  goodness o f t h e one he l o v e s , t o b e l i e v e t h a t he a t l e a s t w i l l not be r e j e c t e d by h e r through Laughter  ridicule.  i n the f a c e of anguish i s so t e r r i b l e a s i n  t h a t Hinkemann, i n agony h i m s e l f , f e e l s i t i s p u n i s h a b l e o n l y by d e a t h or extreme t o r t u r e . at him, Eugen i n f o r m s her: Weib.  "Und  E e l i e v i n g h i s wife  d a f u r musst du s t e r b e n ,  N i c h t d a f u r , dass du e i n e n anderen  d e i n Recht  laughed  nahmst—das  war  . . . n i c h t d a f u r dass du mich b e l o g s t — d a s  nahmst du d i r a l s Recht  . . . s t e r b e n musst du, w e i l du mich  v e r l a c h t h a s t v o r der Jahrmarktsbudel  E i n e Mutter kann i h r  K i n d erwurgen, und k e i n e r b r a u c h t einen S t e i n auf s i e zu werfen.  Wurde s i e aber i h r K i n d erwurgen und dann h o h n i s c h  l a c h e n , w e i l dem hangt . . . . Tage!"  K i n d d i e geschwollene  Qualen  ( p . 56)  Zunge aus dem  Halse  s o l l t e n s i e brennen b i s ans Ende  aller  R i d i c u l e i s p u n i s h a b l e by death, because  by h i s w i f e ' s p u r p o r t e d l a u g h t e r Hinkemann has .been s t r i p p e d o f a l l worth as an i n d i v i d u a l . been murdered by  That i s , he as a p e r s o n  has  ridicule.  But G r e t e d i d not l a u g h .  In the midst of a r u t h l e s s  s o c i e t y she i s the o n l y p o s i t i v e element.  L i k e Marie i n  Woyzeck s h e — b e c a u s e of h e r normal s e n s u a l n a t u r e and  her  - 61  -  l o v e f o r p l e a s u r e — f a l l s p r e y t o the s e d u c t i o n v i r i l e man. being She "Und  However, when she d i s c o v e r s t h a t her husband i s  shamefully  recognizes i c h , was  abused her  sympathy f o r him  b i n i c h f i i r e i n Weibi  kaufe meinen Mann . . . "  (p. 1 9 )  to t h a t of Judas, once again Christ's sufferings: Silberlinge  i h r e n K o r p e r , und She  her misdeed.  She  e n t a i l s a great  even r e l a t e s her  emphasizing the p a r a l l e l  even though she may  t r i e s desperately she  still  Out  ein schlecht  Although i t  "Ich w i l l d i c h n i e mehr v e r l a s s e n . "  the w i l l t o l i v e .  b i t t e r experience  life.  with  she (p. 5 7 )  a v a i l , f o r he  no  Hinkemann,  o f s u f f e r i n g , has  to an e x i s t e n t i a l awareness of the l o n e l i n e s s and of  wants  t o b r i n g about a  of compassion f o r her husband  the s t r e n g t h nor  through h i s own  with  have to s u f f e r  loves.  However, her u n s e l f i s h e f f o r t s are t o no l o n g e r has  act  s a c r i f i c e on her p a r t , she wants t o s t a y  and h e l p him.  promises him:  i c h ver-  Grete r e g r e t s her i n f i d e l i t y and  54,55)  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h the man  him  Ich bin schlechter a l s  . . . I c h habe an d i r gehandelt wie  (pp.  Eugen:  "Ich habe d i c h v e r r a t e n f u r e i n paar  to ask h i s f o r g i v e n e s s , for  i s reawakened.  the s i n f u l n e s s o f her a c t a g a i n s t  eine arme Hure . . . Die v e r k a u f t  Mensch!"  of the more  come  futility  - 62  -  Chapter Hinkemann's i n j u r y and doom him  to l o n e l i n e s s  of l i f e .  the  r i d i c u l e a t t e n d a n t upon i t  a l s o to r e f l e c t i o n upon the  Because of p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , Eugen has  h i s eyes opened to the being.  and  Six  of man  also  had  i s o l a t i o n of every i n d i v i d u a l human  F o r c e d i n t o s o l i t u d e h i m s e l f , he  loneliness  meaning  i n general.  On  recognizes  returning  the  from the  war  Eugen  52 xs o s t r a c i z e d The  street  visions  scene where he  the n a t u r e of h i s  While he  interested  i s s u b j e c t to d e l i r i o u s dream-  i s l y i n g on  o n l y i n the  everyone abandons him.  the  infinite.  of Eugen's l i f e :  His  His  companions are  alone on  100  one  o n l y communion i s w i t h the  sky  and  uber mir  "Und  stars  years before): da  the which  uber mir  ewigen Sterne  exclaims (as Danton had "Doch was  sitz ich.  Ich  sehen w i r  der ..."  comes  ist alles . . .  exclaimed almost  voneinander?  sehe d i c h .  E i n paar H a n d g r i f f e sehe i c h und Das  die  the  on  l a c k of r e a l c o n t a c t between a l l i n d i v i d u a l s .  o c c a s i o n he  s i t z t du und  have  lying  Through p e r s o n a l s u f f e r i n g i n s o l i t u d e , he  t o r e a l i z e the On  Und  him,  the  Here we  a s i c k , l o n e l y man  c o n t i n u e t o s h i n e over a l o n e l y world: ewige Himmel . . .  (who  more e x c i t i n g m i l i t a r y music  Hinkemann i s l e f t  a dark, d e s e r t e d s t r e e t .  of  s t r e e t many p e o p l e  d e s e r t e d s t r e e t i n - h i s weakened c o n d i t i o n . the p i c t u r e  rest  s e n s a t i o n a l ) gather around  but. as soon as they hear the  (p. 45)  injury.  i s symbolic of Hinkemann's r e l a t i o n t o the  humanity. are  from s o c i e t y by  Wie  Da  sehe i c h d i c h ?  e i n paar Worte hore i c h .  N i c h t s sehen w i r voneinander . . . n i c h t s  - 63  (p. 31)  wissen w i r voneinander . . . " T o l l e r e x p r e s s e s the his  D e s p i t e the Tessa: sam  same b e l i e f .  Hinkemann, he d e c l a r e d  "Einsamkeit i s t .  In h i s l e t t e r s  Even b e f o r e  (Niederschonfeld,  Keine Briicke f u h r t  crowd man  "Wir  -  zum  Juni  Das  ^  T o l l e r writes  a l l e werden einsam s t e r b e n , wie Freunden.  1920):  andern."  i s b a s i c a l l y alone.  s t a r b , umgeben von  writing  to  Dein Freund e i n -  i s t das  tragische  54 S c h i c k s a l der  Menschen u n s e r e r Z e i t . . . ."  a l s o r e a l i z e s t h a t man and  s o c i e t y can  o f the  Da Da Da Da Da Da Wer  do n o t h i n g about i t .  s u f f e r i n g of the  only  mankind, but  l i m i t s of t h e i r  panaceas  effectiveness,  lonesome i n d i v i d u a l b e g i n s :  does Hinkemann f e e l the a l s o he  w o r l d , which rob  da!  Where the  s t e h t der Mensch a l l e i n t u t s i c h e i n Abgrund auf, der h e i s s t : Ohne T r o s t wolbt s i c h e i n Himmel, der h e i s s t : Ohne Gluck wachst e i n Wald, der h e i s s t : Hohn und S p o t t brandet e i n Meer, das h e i s s t : Lacherlich wiirgt e i n e F i n s t e r n i s , d i e h e i s s t : Ohne L i e b e aber h i l f t da? (p. 36)  Not  ich!  i s doomed to bear h i s s u f f e r i n g a l o n e ,  s o c i a l i s t s r e a c h the  t h e r e the  Hinkemann  Die  sees the  human l i f e  Z e i t sehe i c h !  l o n e l y s u f f e r i n g of  e v i l and  heartlessness  o f meaning:  HerrDirektor,  s i n c e the age  has  mere p h y s i c a l  skeleton;  soullessness  no  of man  s o u l and  (p. 38) men  der K r i e g i s t wieder Die  Menschen  Cruelty i s possible  have no  soul.  Hinkemann e x p l a i n s  i s one  the  "Die Menschen sehe  Die Menschen morden s i c h u n t e r G e l a c h t e r l  morden s i c h u n t e r G e l a c h t e r l "  of  Man  is a  to Grete that  o f the r e a s o n s f o r h i s  the  despair:  "Ich b i n d u r c h d i e S t r a s s e n gegangen, i c h sah k e i n e Menschen . . .  Fratzen,  lauter Fratzen.  gekommen, i c h sah F r a t z e n  . . . und  Not  I c h b i n nach Hause . . . s i n n l o s e , unend-  - 64  l i c h e Not der b l i n d e n K r e a t u r mehr."  (p.  -  . . .  I c h habe d i e K r a f t  nicht  58)  P r i o r t o h i s i n j u r y Hinkemann e v i d e n t l y has l e d a mechanic a l , c a r e f r e e existence without  any r e a l s e a r c h f o r v a l u e s .  However, s i n c e the c h a o t i c t u r m o i l of t h e war  experience  h i s p e r s o n a l l o s s Eugen endeavours t o understand and the w o r l d .  While  the t r a g e d y he has  up a w o r l d of s p e c u l a t i o n f o r him,  both himself  experienced  totally  adrift:  "Das  drangt auf einen e i n , was wovor man  s i c h geradezu  S i n n . . . man  opens  i t a t the same time  the s t a n d a r d o p t i m i s t i c a p p r a i s a l of the world and him  and  destroys  leaves  Leben i s t so merkwiirdig . . . s o v i e l man  nicht versteht, nicht  bangt . . . man  f r a g t s i c h , ob man  kann . . . ob das n i c h t so i s t , stehen, e i n Meer auszuschopfen  s i e h t gar  erfasst,  keinen  das Leben uberhaupt e r f a s s e n  a l s w o l l t e man . . . ."  sich unter-  (pp. 26,  27)  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Hinkemann has come t o g r i p s w i t h t h e r e a l i t i e s of l i f e . who  can see.  In a b l i n d s o c i e t y he i s one  of the  few  T o l l e r argues t h a t the h e a l t h y i n d i v i d u a l i s  b l i n d t o t h e . s u f f e r i n g of o t h e r c r e a t u r e s .  In s p e a k i n g of the  mother b l i n d i n g the b i r d , T o l l e r l e t s Hinkemann e x c l a i m : ". . . Wie (p. 2)  mit B l i n d h e i t geschlagen  I n E i n e Jugend i n D e u t s c h l a n d  t o the same view: lichter.  i s t der gesunde Mensch!" T o l l e r gives expression  "An der Wand meiner Z e l l e f l i r r e n  Zwei e i r u n d e P l e c k e b i l d e n s i c h , wie  Mensch das Leben, den  Sonnen-  sahe der  der K r i e g entmannt h a t , i s t der gesunde  Mensch n i c h t mit B l i n d h e i t geschlagen?  Minuten s p a t e r 55  s c h r e i b e i c h d i e P a b e l zu meinem Drama 'Hinkemann'." Because of h i s own  s u f f e r i n g Hinkemann d i m l y p e r c e i v e s the  - 65 -  nature of the world.  For him the i n j u r y was the s t a r t i n g  point f o r h i s knowledge of l i f e :  "Der Schuss, der war wie  eine Frucht vom Baume der Erkenntnis . . . A l l e s Sehen wird mir  Wissen, a l l e s Wissen L e i d . . . " (pp. 58, 59) However,  the  immediate cause f o r t h i s recognition i s r i d i c u l e . I t  i s the laughter that r e a l l y opens h i s eyes to the essence of for  the world.  Following the inn scene where he i s r i d i c u l e d  h i s i n j u r y and i s "informed" ahout Grete's laughter,  H i n k e m a n n p r o c l a i m s that he r e a l l y knows the world: "Ich bin  namlich auch sehend geworden, Herr Direktor.  sie  den Star gestocheni  Nacht!  Das g r e l l e L i c h t i  Nacht!  Mir haben Es werde  Es werde Nacht! . . . B i s auf den Grund sehe i c h !  . . . Die Menschen sehe i c h !  Die Z e i t sehe i c h ! "  (p. 38)  Hinkemann has come to perceive the e x i s t e n t i a l s u f f e r i n g ("edles Ungluck") of man.  In f a c t he himself has become a  symbol of t h i s s u f f e r i n g .  He represents that s u f f e r i n g  which stems from the very nature of l i f e and which as a r e s u l t i s unconquerable by human means:  "Ich wollte i n  Hinkemann nicht nur das u n l o s l i c h e , also tragische L e i d eines fiir v i e l e gesetzten Typus d a r s t e l l e n , sondern auch die tragischen Grenzen der Gesellschaft zeigen, wo s i e dem 56 Individuum nicht mehr helfen kann." the  Hinkemann portrays  tragedy of the human with whom no society can deal  adequately because h i s s u f f e r i n g i s s p i r i t u a l more than material.  He i s one of those whom the best s o c i a l order can  never give happiness:  ". . . es gibt Menschen denen kein  Staat und keine Gesellschaft, keine Familie und keine Gemeinschaft Gliick bringen kann."  (p. 35) Hinkemann r e a l i z e s that  -  there w i l l in  66  -  always be i n d i v i d u a l s l i k e  h i m s e l f who  are  sick  t h e i r v e r y s o u l and whom n o t h i n g i n t h i s w o r l d can make  happy.  R e c o g n i z i n g the u n i v e r s a l i t y of t h i s s u f f e r i n g a t  the b a s i s of e x i s t e n c e i n e v e r y age, T o l l e r a c c e p t s i t s inevitability:  "There must always remain a r e s i d u e o f  s u f f e r i n g , the l o n e l y s u f f e r i n g imposed upon mankind by and death. is  And  o n l y t h i s r e s i d u e i s n e c e s s a r y and  the t r a g i c element o f l i f e  life  inevitable,  57 and l i f e ' s s y m b o l i z e r , a r t . " '  The b e s t example of Hinkemann's r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e " e d l e s Ungluck" s u f f e r e d by o t h e r c r e a t u r e s i s the scene where he is  c o n v i n c e d t h a t Grete d i d n o t l a u g h .  in  her a f e l l o w - s u f f e r e r who  "Wie .  Suddenly he  sees  i s j u s t as tormented as  he:  b l i c k e n d e i n e Augen d r e i n ? . . . Die Augen kenne  . . Die Augen der g e h e t z t e n , der geschlagenen,  n i g t e n , der gemarterten du b i s t v i e l  Kreatur  ichi  der g e p e i -  . . . J a , Gretchen,  i c h dachte,  r e i c h e r a l s i c h , und d a b e i b i s t du ebenso  und  ebenso h i l f l o s  ist  . . . dann s i n d w i r Bruder und Schwester."  arm  . . . J a , wenn das so i s t , wenn das  so  56)  (p.  Grete r e v e a l s her s i m i l a r r e c o g n i t i o n i n her f e a r of existential solitude: Denk doch!  alleinl  " I c h habe s o l c h e Angst vorm Lebeni Im Leben a l l e i n !  gehetzter Tiere a l l e i n l Although  Grete cannot  In einem Wald  voll  . . . K e i n e r i s t gut heute."  (p.  grasp  r e a l i z e s , with clear v i s i o n ,  any meaning i n t h i s w o r l d , that i t holds a f a t a l  grip  59)  she on  a l l human b e i n g s , j u s t as the s p i d e r enmeshes and e v e n t u a l l y k i l l s i t s captive: zurecht.  Wir  E i n e Spinne  "Mein G o t t , i c h f i n d e mich n i c h t mehr  s i n d i n einem Netz, Eugen, i n einem N e t z .  sitzt  da und  l a s s t uns n i c h t l o s .  S i e hat  uns  - 67 -  eingesponnen.  I c h kann meinen Kopf kaum noch bewegen.  v e r s t e h das Leben n i c h t mehr . . . "  (p.  Ich  60)  A l t h o u g h i n Grete Hinkemann f i n d s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g companion i n s u f f e r i n g , he asks her t o l e a v e him. r e j e c t s her o f f e r t o remain w i t h him,  He  as i f i n a m a s o c h i s t i c  d e s i r e t o e n f o r c e upon h i m s e l f the c r u e l l o n e l i n e s s p e r c e i v e s so c l e a r l y : Und  firmly  "Immer musst du mich a l l e i n (p. 57)  immer muss i c h d i c h a l l e i n l a s s e n . "  he lassen.  He  wants  h e r , a p h y s i c a l l y h e a l t h y woman, t o l i v e and f i g h t f o r a and b e t t e r w o r l d , a w o r l d where l o v e and j u s t i c e r u l e . :  own He  p h y s i c a l i n j u r y marks him as l o s t .  He has no  can h e n c e f o r t h o n l y be a h i n d r a n c e t o G r e t e .  new His  future. Furthermore,  Eugen r e a l i z e s t h a t a permanent r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e , CO  f o r he i s aware of the f r a i l t y of the marriage bond, e s p e c i a l l y i f i t i s based on a P l a t o n i c l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p as t h e i r s has t o be. Men  He knows the n a t u r e of the human b e i n g .  are b o t h a n g e l s and a n i m a l s .  ascetic l i f e  He has been f o r c e d i n t o  of a b s t i n e n c e , but he cannot  an  expect h i s w i f e t o  s u r r e n d e r v o l u n t a r i l y p a r t of her n a t u r e as a human b e i n g f o r h i s sake.  The  s e x l e s s i n d i v i d u a l , l i k e the s o u l l e s s , i s  abnormal or t o use T o l l e r ' s supreme e p i t h e t of r e v u l s i o n — "lacherlich."  Hinkemann knows t h a t the more p o w e r f u l  o f n a t u r e w i l l u l t i m a t e l y overcome G r e t e ' s p r e s e n t attitude.  instincts  sacrificial  He r e a l i z e s t h a t Grete w i l l i n the c o u r s e of time  a g a i n succumb t o her s e n s u a l n a t u r e .  In a d d i t i o n , Eugen -  f e a r s t h a t h i s sympathetic r e c o g n i t i o n of the s u f f e r i n g of all  c r e a t u r e s may  not be d u r a b l e .  I f G r e t e once a g a i n  p r o v e s u n f a i t h f u l , he, d e s p i t e h i s p r e s e n t r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n s ,  - 68 -  may murder out o f j e a l o u s y ( a s t r o n g n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t ) , as s i x y e a r s ago he almost murdered because o f another of  n a t u r e , hunger.  his  Regarding  just drive  t h i s i n c i d e n t he r e l a t e s t o  wife: E i n m a l , v o r sechs J a h r e n , g i n g es m i r a r g s c h l e c h t . Der Hunger l i e s s m i r das Wasser im Munde zusammenl a u f e n , wenn i c h e i n e n Menschen essen s a h ! Was f u r e i n G-efuhl, G r e t e , wenn i c h liber d i e K i n d e r s p i e l p l a t z e i n den S t a d t b e z i r k e n d e r r e i c h e n L e u t e g i n g , und v o r m i r e i n k l e i n e r Junge m i t zufriedenem Mund i n s e i n g r o s s e s B u t t e r b r o t b i s s ! Wie einem da d i e G i e r kam! Wie dann d e r Hunger auf einmal g a r n i c h t mehr so weh t a t ! Der Junge, d e r kaute, b r a c h t e mich zum Rasen! I c h ware f a s t e i n Morder geworden, n u r urn den Jungen n i c h t mehr kauen zu sehen! ( p . 57)  Grete does n o t understand  a l l this;  she does n o t comprehend  his  r e s o l u t i o n t o s t a y a l o n e , hence he e x p l a i n s t o h e r t h a t  all  t h i s s i m p l y means:  bei  m i r a n h a l t , was i c h da erkannt habe.  "Dass i c h n i c h t weiss, wie l a n g e das  vom Menschen i s t s t a r k e r a l s s e i n V e r s t a n d . ein to  Mittel  zum S e l b s t b e t r u g . "  i n s i s t t h a t she l e a v e him.  fail  to convince Grete.  h e a r t l e s s world.  ( p . 58)  Die lebendige  Natur  Der V e r s t a n d ,  Hence, he c o n t i n u e s  However, h i s r a t i o n a l arguments  She i s a f r a i d t o l i v e alone i n a  She t o o i s aware o f h e r p a s s i o n a t e n a t u r e .  Undoubtedly she f e a r s t h a t by h e r s e l f she might a g a i n  fall  p r e y t o s e d u c t i o n and be d e s t r o y e d by b e s t i a l f o r c e s such as Grosshahn s y m b o l i z e s . that kindness  Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  she may never f i n d a g a i n : Ich  a r e r a r e q u a n t i t i e s which  "Lass mich n i c h t a l l e i n  . . .  gehe i r r e im Dunkeln . . . I c h t u e m i r weh ... . I c h  falle .  she r e c o g n i z e s  . . . A l l e s i s t wund an m i r . . . Wie es schmerzt!  . . I n einem Wald v o l l g e h e t z t e r T i e r e a l l e i n !  . . .  - 69 -  K e i n e r i s t gut heute. Nicht  allein  insists. live  J e d e r nagt an deinem Herzen . . .  lasseni!"  ( p . 59)  N e v e r t h e l e s s , he s t i l l  But she, a tormented c r e a t u r e  h e r s e l f , cannot  alone and, as he s u g g e s t s , f i g h t f o r a new w o r l d :  "Wenn i c h . . . wenn i c h s e l h s t w o l l t e n i c h t mehr . . . brochen."  . . . i c h kann es  I c h hah n i c h t den Mut, i c h b i n wie z e r -  ( p . 60)  With a C h r i s t i a n p r a y e r f o r redemption  on h e r l i p s , she goes out and commits s u i c i d e . G r e t e ' s t r a g e d y i s more p r o f o u n d than Hinkemann's, f o r she,  a p h y s i c a l l y sound woman, goes i n t o a v o l u n t a r y  rather  than abandon h e r husband.  death  She has t h e c h o i c e o f l i f e  or death, whereas f a t e has so weakened him t h a t he does n o t have t h e s t r e n g t h  t o end h i s l i f e .  Hinkemann equates G r e t e ' s  d e c i s i o n f o r death w i t h a s t r e n g t h  which he does n o t p o s s e s s :  " S i e war gesund und h a t das Netz z e r r i s s e n . noch h i e r  Und i c h  steh  . . . i c h s t e h h i e r , k o l o s s a l und l a c h e r l i c h . . . "  (p. 61)  Eugen merely e x i s t s , because he does n o t have t h e  strength  t o l i v e a meaningful l i f e .  struggle,  f o r he i s l a c k i n g an i d e a l t o s t r u g g l e  habe d i e K r a f t n i c h t mehr.  hat keine Kraft  f o r : "Ich  D i e K r a f t n i c h t mehr zu kampfenj  d i e K r a f t n i c h t mehr zum Traum. hat,  He no l o n g e r wants t o  Wer k e i n e K r a f t  zum Leben."  ( p . 58)  zum Traum  Grete, r e a l i z i n g  she  has n o t h i n g more t o l i v e f o r , draws t h e l o g i c a l  and  acts accordingly.  Hinkemann goes on l i v i n g because he  does n o t have t h e s t r e n g t h As was p r e v i o u s l y t h i s anemic c o n d i t i o n expounds o n l y  conclusion  even t o adopt a c o n v i c t i o n .  intimated, by f a t e .  Eugen has been reduced t o  However, i n Hinkemann T o l l e r  a partial fatalism.  He r e c o g n i z e s t h a t  fate  - 70 i s p l a y i n g w i t h man, hut i n d i r e c t l y . mentality of society.  F a t e uses t h e i n s t r u -  E a r l y i n t h e p l a y Hinkemann r e v e a l s  awareness t h a t he i s a p l a y t h i n g b e i n g p u l l e d from a l l s i d e s : " I c h b i n j a e i n Hampelmann, an dem s i e solange gezogen haben, b i s e r kaput war . . . "  ( p . 4-) He r e c o g n i z e s as t h e  cause o f i n j u r y t o man a t r a n s c e n d e n t power o f f a t e , a s o c i a l impetus,  which o f t e n o v e r r i d e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l :  "Auf  a l i e n S t r a s s e n d e r Welt s c h r e i e n s i e nach E r l o s u n g !  Der  F r a n z o s , d e r mich zum K r u p p e l s c h o s s , d e r Neger, d e r mich zum K r u p p e l s c h o s s , s c h r e i t v i e l l e i c h t nach E r l o s u n g . . . Ob er noch l e b e n mag?  Und wie w i r d e r leben?  b l i n d , ohne Arm, ohne Bein? t a t ihm weh . . . In obedience will.  . . .  I s t er  E r t a t m i r weh, und e i n andrer  Wer aber t a t uns a l i e n weh? . . . "  ( p . 60)  t o s o c i a l impulse man s u b j e c t s h i s i n d i v i d u a l  He becomes p a r t o f a f a t e f u l whole:  wir, ein Leib."  "Ein Geist  sind  ( p . 60)  But t h e s o c i a l w i l l e x e r c i s e s no c o n t r o l over t h e p r i v a t e attitude of the i n d i v i d u a l to existence. scribes to a rigorous typology. comrades:  Here T o l l e r  Eugen speaks  sub-  of t h i s t o h i s  " . . . i c h b i n zu dem E r g e b n i s gekommen, dass w i r  das Gluck auch n i c h t jedem b r i n g e n konnen . . . das wahre Gluck meine i c h . . . dass das Gliick etwas i s t . . . was e i n e r hat oder was e i n e r n i c h t h a t . "  ( p . 24)  Here Hinkemann p o s i t s  a b a s i c a m o r a l i t y behind t h e workings o f t h e world which corresponds c l o s e l y t o t h a t u n d e r l y i n g t h e Woyzeck t r a g e d y . Eugen l e a v e s t h e stage r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e o f f a t e , not r e c o g n i z i n g any r e a s o n f o r h i s s u f f e r i n g : Menschen stehen i n i h r e r Z e i t wie i c h .  "Immer werden  Warum aber  trifft  - 71 -  es mich, gerade mich? . . . Wahllos t r i f f t es und den t r i f f t es n i c h t (p.  es.  Den t r i f f t  es.  Den  trifft  es n i c h t und den t r i f f t  . . . Was wissen w i r ? . . . Woher? . . . Wohin? . .  61) Apart from t h i s b a s i c a t t i t u d e toward l i f e ,  Hinkemann  admits of.no determinism o t h e r than t h e n a t u r e o f man. Man's goodness  i s n o t determined by e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s .  Men c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i f t h e y wanted t o l e a r n from p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s , but i n s t e a d o f honouring human l i f e i n d i f f e r e n c e desecrate i t . though t h e y had t o be.  men i n t h e i r  Men a r e c r u e l t o each o t h e r as  Toller s t i l l  does n o t a t t r i b u t e  this  c r u e l t y t o i n h e r e n t e v i l i n man, b u t r a t h e r t o sheer l e t h a r g y Man has t h e s o u r c e o f redemption w i t h i n h i m s e l f , but he i s too to  blind  (as T o l l e r p h r a s e s t h e s t a t e o f b e i n g o b l i v i o u s  suffering) to recognize the fact:  "So s i n d d i e Menschen .  Und konnten anders s e i n , wenn s i e w o l l t e n . nicht.  Aber  s i e wollen  S i e s t e i n i g e n den G e i s t , s i e hohnen i h n , s i e schanden  das Leben, s i e kre]uzigen es . . . Machen s i c h arm und konnten r e i c h s e i n und b r a u c h t e n k e i n e himmlische E r l o s u n g . . . d i e Verblendeten! der  A l s ob s i e so t u n mussten im b l i n d e n W i r b e l  Jahrtausende!  N i c h t anders konnten.  Mussten.  Gleich  S c h i f f e n , d i e d e r Malstrom an s i c h r e i s s t und zwingt e i n ander zu zermalmen . . . "  ( p . 61)  Thus because man's e v i l  actions are not i n d i v i d u a l l y  p r e o r d a i n e d , T o l l e r can i n s i s t  on t h e moral  of  Consequently, both Hinkemann  the i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y .  responsibility,  and G r e t e , as members o f s o c i e t y , f e e l g u i l t y f o r t h e s u f f e r i n g r e s u l t i n g from t h e inhumanity o f mankind.  Although  -  72  -  he has been s t r u c k by f a t e , Eugen sees h i m s e l f responsible f o r h i s injury: d u r c h eigene S c h u l d .  as p e r s o n a l l y  " I c h b i n l a c h e r l i c h geworden  A l s i c h mich h a t t e wehren  sollen,  damals a l s d i e Mine entzundet wurde von den grossen V e r b r e chern an d e r Welt, d i e Staatsmanner und Generale genannt (pp. 5 7 , 5 8 )  werden, habe i c l i . e s n i c h t ,.getan." Grete r e c o g n i z e s  Similarly,  t h a t she as a member o f s o c i e t y i s a l s o  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r husband's s u f f e r i n g .  She r e m o n s t r a t e s  a g a i n s t h e r s e l f and t h e w o r l d i n which she l i v e s : i c h an dem Mann g e h a n d e l t ! Schuld  Was konnte e r f i i r den S c h u s s i  habe i c h , dass i c h i h n i n den K r i e g Ziehen  Schuld hat seine MutterI sowas g i b t ! "  (p. 19)  liess!  S c h u l d h a t eine Z e i t , i n d e r es  A f t e r ' d i s c o v e r i n g Hinkemann's t e r r i b l e  p l i g h t , Unbeschwert ( q u i t e i r o n i c a l l y , sums up s o c i e t y ' s g u i l t f o r n o t b e i n g welt  "Wie habe  i s t schuld, i n der w i r leben!" Hence, T o l l e r ' s view o f l i f e  c o n s i d e r i n g h i s name), different:  "Die Schand-  (p. 36)  i n Hinkemann i s n o t  f a t a l i s t i c b u t merely p e s s i m i s t i c , f o r he h o l d s men i n g e n e r a l m o r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r e v i l deeds. writes concerning  T o l l e r and f a t a l i s m :  W. A. W i l l i b r a n d  "He fought  that  th dominant 19  century f a t a l i s m according  t o which man was  the h e l p l e s s , w i l l - l e s s c r e a t u r e o f e n v i r o n m e n t . " ^  In  Hinkemann T o l l e r argues t h a t s o c i e t y a c t s as f a t e , t h a t events sweep men t o t h e i r d e s t r u c t i o n . to t h e l e t h a r g y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . a c t , he c o u l d c o n t r o l e v e n t s .  Yet t h i s i s due o n l y  I f man were w i l l i n g t o  I n the end, however, even  good a c t i o n s do n o t determine whether one i s happy o r n o t . That seems t o be born i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  - 73 -  D e s p i t e h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h t h e contemporary chaos in  the world, T o l l e r s t i l l  b e l i e v e s i n man.  He never g i v e s  up h i s l o n g - r a n g e hope f o r humanity, a l t h o u g h i n Hinkemann it  reaches i t s lowest p o i n t .  in  which he d i s c u s s e s Hinkemann, T o l l e r w r i t e s o f h i s ambi-  v a l e n t a t t i t u d e to the age: segne s i e d o c h . " ^  1  In a l e t t e r t o S t e f a n Zweig  "Ich v e r f l u c h e d i e s e Z e i t  S i m i l a r l y , i n Hinkemann he s t i l l  und  reveals  a s l i g h t hope f o r b e t t e r t h i n g s , even though he i s b i t t e r l y disillusioned  w i t h man:  jede Nacht d i e S i n t f l u t . "  "Jeder Tag kann das P a r a d i e s b r i n g e n , (p. 61)  Conclusion From t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n i t can be seen t h a t b a s i c p a t t e r n o f the problem  i n the two p l a y s i s the same.  In each case i t i s the t r a g e d y of a young s o l d i e r at the b e g i n n i n g of the 19, F i r s t World War)  (Woyzeck  c e n t u r y and Hinkemann a f t e r the  whose v a l u e s are put i n t o q u e s t i o n by the  s e n s e l e s s s u f f e r i n g t h e y undergo. viduals w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e love.  the  Both men  are k i n d i n d i -  e v e r y t h i n g f o r the women t h e y  Because of the n e c e s s i t y f o r l o v e t h e y are w i l l i n g  to l e t themselves be degraded the hands of u n s c r u p u l o u s men.  t o the l e v e l o f an animal i n However, b o t h Woyzeck's and  Hinkemann's l o v e i s r e p u d i a t e d i n f a v o u r of t h e l e s s worthy s e x u a l a t t r a c t i o n of the drum major and Grosshahn.  The  u n f a i t h f u l n e s s of Marie and Grete removes the v e r y b a s i s of these p r o t a g o n i s t s ' e x i s t e n c e — t h e i r l o v e — a n d g i v e s r i s e t o i n t e n s e a n g u i s h i n Woyzeck and Hinkemann.  By d e b a s i n g them-  s e l v e s t h e y had hoped t o r e t a i n r e s p e c t and l o v e , but  ironi-  c a l l y t h i s d e g r a d a t i o n l e a d s t o the l o s s of t h e i r l o v e (Hinkemann's s u f f e r i n g i s j u s t as severe as Woyzeck's because he b e l i e v e s t h a t he has l o s t Grete's l o v e and does not d i s c o v e r the t r u t h u n t i l l a t e i n the p l a y ) . mistreatment  Through the p h y s i c a l  o f the d o c t o r and of the showman, and, more  s i g n i f i c a n t l y , through the mental  anguish caused by  ridicule,  Woyzeck and Hinkemann are e s t r a n g e d from t h e r e s t of  society.  T h i s i s o l a t i o n l e a d s them t o q u e s t i o n a l l v a l u e s and  ultimately  t o r e c o g n i z e t h e s e n s e l e s s n e s s of l i f e . Hinkemann are about  Both Woyzeck  and  30 y e a r s o l d ; i n o t h e r words t h e y are  - 75 -  in  t h e prime o f l i f e .  They a r e a t an age when l i f e  have i t s g r e a t e s t meaning and purpose. of the i r o n i c accepting  However, i t i s p a r t  s t r u c t u r e o f these works t h a t i n s t e a d o f  life  p o s i t i v e l y i n t h e i r prime, these men a t t h a t  moment r e a l i z e t h e u t t e r f u t i l i t y o f l i f e . hopeful put  should  Instead  of being  and o p t i m i s t i c t h e y a r e extremely p e s s i m i s t i c .  i n t o question  by s u f f e r i n g t h e v a l u e s which they h e l d  d i s i n t e g r a t e , l e a v i n g them n o t h i n g The  When  to l i v e f o r .  b a s i c p a t t e r n i s t h e same i n b o t h , b u t t h e r e a c t i o n  of t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s  i sdifferent.  to the l o s s of value:  Woyzeck r e a c t s  he r e p u d i a t e s  T h i s r e j e c t i o n o f every v a l u e  a l l values  violently  i n the universe.  i s c a r r i e d out i n h i s murder  of Marie and then h i s own s u i c i d e .  When h i s o n l y r e a s o n f o r  l i v i n g , M a r i e ' s l o v e , i s l o s t t o him, he i s d r i v e n t o d e s p a i r . F o r him t h e murder i s a l r e a d y completed when he e x c l a i m s t o his  friend:  (p. 168)  "Aber, Andres, s i e war doch e i n e i n z i g Madel."  This pathetic outburst  r e v e a l s t h e enormity o f h i s  l o s s when he i s f o r c e d t o r e j e c t t h e l a s t v a l u e Sick of existence, misery. "Es  inhis life.  he l o g i c a l l y has t o p u t an end t o h i s  R e g a r d i n g Woyzeck's murder, Benno von Wiese w r i t e s :  i s t d e r Ausdruck e i n e s l e t z t e n Lebenspessimismus, j a  L e b e n s e k e l s , f i i r den d i e Erde z u r H o l l e geworden i s t . . . . Ausdruck d a f i i r , dass das Leben jede B a s i s , auf d e r es noch 32 a u s z u h a l t e n ware, v e r l o r e n h a t . " Following  h i s sado-masochistic a c t of d e s t r u c t i o n ,  Woyzeck r e t u r n s of sensual  t o t h e i n n t o take p a r t  life.  i z e d by t h e b l o o d  again  i n the turmoil  However, h i s s t r o n g g u i l t f e e l i n g (symbolon h i s elbow) compels him t o go back t o  - 76  the scene o f the murder and Buchner symbolizes in  the pond.  -  an a c c o u n t i n g  with  himself.  t h i s attempt by Woyzeck's f r a n t i c  However, he  washing  cannot get r i d of h i s g u i l t .  Like  r e p r e h e n s i b l e o b j e c t s i n a f a i r y t a l e i t seems t o m u l t i p l y w i t h every attempt to e l i m i n a t e i t : I c h muss mich waschen. (p. 174)  Da  "Bin i c h noch b l u t i g ?  e i n F l e c k , und  da noch e i n e r  F i n a l l y , i n t o t a l d e s p a i r , Woyzeck, a f t e r t h i s  r e a p p r a i s a l of h i s deed, b r i n g s h i s m i s e r a b l e end.  the p r e s e n t  for  e x i s t e n c e to  an  Buchner's w o r k — i t  seems  author t h a t s u i c i d e i s the most c o n s i s t e n t  ending f o r the p l a y . in  symbolic  A l t h o u g h the c o n c l u s i o n of the p l a y i s much d i s p u t e d — >  because of the fragmentary n a t u r e u o f to  ..."  F i r s t l y , Woyzeck's s u i c i d e i s e n t i r e l y  consonance w i t h h i s complete n i h i l i s m . l i v i n g i n a w o r l d hat has  lost  There i s no  a l l meaning.  reason  Secondly,  the atmosphere o f the p l a y g i v e s a l o g i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r Woyzeck's s u i c i d e .  What would otherwise  be the reason  the o b i t u a r y l i k e scene where Woyzeck d i s p o s e s possessions? of h i s l i f e  den  as i t approaches i t s c o n c l u s i o n :  Bataillon, 4. 20.  Tage."  few  I t i s a summation, an o b j e c t i v e and b r i e f  Johann F r a n z Woyzeck, Wehrmann, F u s i l i e r im 2, 2.  of h i s  for  Kompagnie, geboren M a r i a  "Friedrich Regiment,  Verkundigung,  J u l i . - I c h b i n heut a l t . 3 0 J a h r , 7 Monat und (p.. 171)  S i m i l a r l y , the f i n a l  account  scene of the  12  play  by a u d i t o r y means v i v i d l y conveys the gruesome atmosphere of s u i c i d e and  culminates  i n the image o f a broken  e v i d e n t l y r e p r e s e n t i n g the human b e i n g c r a c k e d r e l e n t l e s s subjugation f o r t i s s i m o at the end  apart  t o the c r u e l t i e s o f l i f e . i s more than men  can  bell,  bear:  The  through  - 77  -  Erste Person. Haiti Zweite P e r s o n . H o r s t du? Still! Dort! Erste. Uu! Da! Was e i n Ton! Zweite. Es i s t das Wasser, es r u f t : schon l a n g i s t niemand e r t r u n k e n . F o r t ! es i s t n i c h t gut, es zu horen! Erste. Uu! j e t z t w i e d e r l - wie e i n Mensch, der s t i r b t l Zweite. Es i s t u n h e i m l i c h ! So d u n s t i g , a l l e n t h a l h e n . N e b e l g r a u — u n d das Summen der K a f e r wie gesprungene Glocken. P o r t ! E r s t e . N e i n , zu d e u t l i c h , zu l a u t ! Da hinauf!  Komm m i t !  (p.  175)  Hinkemann r e a c t s l e s s v i o l e n t l y than Woyzeck when h i s v a l u e s are put i n t o q u e s t i o n by s u f f e r i n g .  He does not murder  ( a l t h o u g h i n d i r e c t l y he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r G r e t e ' s d e a t h ) , n o r does he commit s u i c i d e . because  H i s end i s r e s i g n a t i o n and d e s p a i r  he i s too weak t o d i e .  A l l he can do i s r e s i g n  h i m s e l f t o an e v i d e n t l y u n j u s t , s e n s e l e s s e x i s t e n c e of s u f f e r i n g . A l t h o u g h he f i n d s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g companion i n G r e t e , H i n k e mann cannot agree t o remain w i t h her and b e g i n a new for  life,  he r e a l i z e s t h a t t h i s s o l u t i o n based on f i c k l e human  sympathy w i l l not be l a s t i n g .  The demands of n a t u r e are  s t r o n g e r than those of momentary sentiment o r of r e a s o n .  He  f e e l s t h a t r e a s o n i s o n l y a means of d e c e i v i n g h i m s e l f i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t such a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i l l be permanent.  His  i n s i s t e n c e t h a t Grete l e a v e him l e a d s t o h e r d e s p a i r and suicide.  Weakened by f a t e and c o m p l e t e l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h  l i f e , Hinkemann no l o n g e r i s a b l e even t o imagine a b e t t e r world: Leben."  "Wer  zum  (Motto of the p l a y . )  sufficient to  keine Kraft  Traum h a t , hat k e i n e K r a f t But n e i t h e r does he have  s t r e n g t h to end h i s l i f e .  e x i s t i n h i s pessimism.  zum  He  can o n l y c o n t i n u e  -  78  -  Thus, d e s p i t e the same b a s i c p a t t e r n , the s o l u t i o n s are quite d i f f e r e n t :  t o t a l a c t i v e n i h i l i s m i n the f a c e of  the  l o s s o f v a l u e i n Woyzeck and p a s s i v e pessimism (an  acceptance  of the meaninglessness of the world) i n Hinkemann.  Further-  more, another portance. forward  d i s t i n c t i o n between the two  dramas i s of  Buchner i s e s s e n t i a l l y d e a l i n g w i t h one  theme:  im-  straight-  the mistreatment and r e s u l t a n t i s o l a t i o n  of  the i n d i v i d u a l which u l t i m a t e l y l e a d to the r e p u d i a t i o n of T o l l e r , i n the 2 0 ^  v a l u e s and t o t a l n i h i l i s m . has  expanded t h i s theme.  He  i s concerned w i t h the t o t a l  w i t h t h e s e n s u a l and the s p i r i t u a l aspect The  l o s s o f e i t h e r aspect r e n d e r s man  of e p i t h e t s i n T o l l e r ' s v o c a b u l a r y . ridicule  century, man,  of h i s n a t u r e .  " l a c h e r l i c h , " the worst For T o l l e r i t i s t h i s  (and not m e r e l y . p h y s i c a l m i s t r e a t m e n t ) which l e a d s  to man's i s o l a t i o n and u l t i m a t e breakdown of v a l u e s . mann bears  a measure of g u i l t h i m s e l f .  h i s duty to oppose the war,  He  d i d not  Hinke-  exercise  but a l l o w e d h i m s e l f to be  swept  by f a t e i n t o the maelstrom and has r e t u r n e d o n l y a p a r t i a l human.  Woyzeck, on the c o n t r a r y , f e e l s no  f o r h i s own  tragedy.  responsibility  Thus, a l t h o u g h T o l l e r ' s p l a y has  at  i t s core the same problem as B u c h n e r ' s — t h e n e c e s s i t y of l o v e to g i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e to l i f e — H i n k e m a n n  contains  r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the problem which Buchner does not  explore  i n Woyzeck. The  d i s s i m i l a r s o l u t i o n s i n the two  p l a y s no doubt a l s o  r e s u l t , from t h e d i f f e r e n t views o f the a u t h o r s . the f a t a l i s t ,  Buchner,  c o u l d see no hope f o r h i s contemporary s o c i e t y .  He had become d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s o c i a l  change imposed from w i t h o u t , and he nowhere i n d i c a t e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f a change brought about by the regeneration lieved.  personal  of each i n d i v i d u a l — a s the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s  Buchner had  a c o m p l e t e l y f a t a l i s t i c view of  when w r i t i n g Woyzeck.  F o r him,  a f t e r a p e r i o d of  be-  life  unavailing  r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y , the hope o f a r e v o l u t i o n a r y change in  s o c i e t y had  become i l l u s o r y .  o n l y s o l u t i o n was expire, awaiting  the b i r t h of a new  ausgehen, d i e B i l d u n g  one:  einem a b s o l u t e n  (p.  Rechtsgrundsatz  Teufel  412) so d a r k .  r e l i n q u i s h e d h i s hope f o r an a b s o l u t e  Although  Utopia,  Toller  he tempers  d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t somewhat w i t h h i s long-range  b e l i e f i n a b e t t e r order:  "Das  A b s o l u t - G u t e , das  Erden' w i r d k e i n G e s e l l s c h a f t s s y s t e m  schaffen,  e i n z i g darum, f i i r das r e l a t i v b e s t e ,  das  ' 63 v e r w i r k l i c h e n kann, zu kampfen." brought about by the r e g e n e r a t i o n up the whole p i c t u r e .  of a b e t t e r s o c i a l order power.  The  'Paradies  es h a n d e l t  hope o f a new  i f man  auf  sich  der Mensch f i n d e n  und  order  of the i n d i v i d u a l l i g h t e n s  Although h i g h l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d  mankind i n Hinkemann, T o l l e r can  self-redeeming  man  e i n e s neuen g e i s t i g e n Lebens im V o l k e  F o r T o l l e r the p i c t u r e i s not  pessimism and  the  society  "Ich glaube,  d i e a b g e l e b t e moderne G e s e l l s c h a f t zum  gehen l a s s e n . "  his  t o Buchner,  t o l e t the contemporary decadent  muss i n s o z i a l e n Dingen von  suchen und  According  still  v i s u a l i z e the  only recognizes  with possibility  his potential  - 80  -  FOOTNOTES  Introduction  1.  Georg Buchner, Werke und B r i e f e (Wiesbaden, 1958), p. 408. A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s t o Buchner's works w i l l be taken from t h i s e d i t i o n . The page r e f e r e n c e w i l l be p l a c e d w i t h i n p a r e n t h e s e s immediately a f t e r each q u o t a t i o n .  2.  The W r i t e r i n E x t r e m i s  3.  Im Banne des E x p r e s s i o n i s m u s  4.  Soergel, Expressionismus,  5.  " L i f e and Death o f E r n s t T o l l e r , " Books Abroad, XIV,  6.  (Munchen, 1 9 2 2 ) , I ,  7.  Heidentum, I , 2 9 ,  Chapter  32.  ( S t a n f o r d , 1 9 5 9 ) , p.  p.  19-  ( L e i p z i g , 1 9 2 7 ) , p.  635.  772. 6.  28. '  I  8.  The c o n t r o v e r s i a l ending of Woyzeck w i l l be d e a l t w i t h at g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n the c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r of t h i s work.  9.  B e r t o l d B r e c h t , "Die D r e i g r o s c h e n o p e r , " Stucke f u r das Theater am Schiffbauerdamm ( 1 9 2 7 - 1 9 3 3 ) , I , ( B e r l i n , 1 9 5 5 ) , 100, w r i t e s : I h r l e h r t uns, wann e i n Weib d i e Rocke heben Und i h r e Augen e i n w a r t s drehen kann Z u e r s t musst i h r uns zu f r e s s e n geben Dann k6*nnt i h r r e d e n : damit f a n g t es an. I h r , d i e auf u n s r e r Scham und e u r e r L u s t b e s t e h t Das e i n e w i s s e t e i n f u r a l l e m a l : Wie i h r es immer s c h i e b t und wie i h r ' s immer d r e h t E r s t kommt das F r e s s e n , dann kommt d i e M o r a l . E r s t muss es mo'glich s e i n auch armen Leuten Vom g r o s s e n B r o t l a i b s i c h i h r T e i l zu s c h n e i d e n .  10.  Buchner, i n Dantons Tod, had p r e v i o u s l y g i v e n h i s views r e g a r d i n g the human sex d r i v e — m a n i s h e l p l e s s b e f o r e i t s i n s i s t e n t urge. Marion t e l l s Danton of h e r experience: " E i n junger Mensch kam zu der Z e i t i n s Haus . . . E n d l i c h sahen w i r n i c h t e i n , warum w i r n i c h t ebensogut zwischen zwei B e t t u c h e r n b e i e i n a n d e r l i e g e n , a l s auf zwei S t u h l e n nebeneinander s i t z e n  - 81  -  durften . . . . Wir t a t e n ' s h e i m l i c h . Aber i c h wurde wie e i n Meer, was a l l e s s i c h t i e f e r und t i e f e r wuhlte. Es war Gegensatz da, a l l e Manner verschmolzen Meine Natur war einmal so, wer kann da (p. 25) 11.  Das g i n g so f o r t . v e r s c h l a n g und f u r mich nur e i n i n einen L e i b . driiber h i n a u s ? "  Marie and the drum major are l i v i n g examples o f f a c t ; they l i v e a c c o r d i n g to t h i s " n a t u r a l " sex Both f o l l o w the urgent demands of t h e i r s e n s u a l and not t h e accepted code of m o r a l i t y .  12. v  this law. nature  V. M i c h a e l Hamburger, "Georg Buchner," Reason and Energy (London, P« 202: "The p a r a l l e l between Woyzeck's behaviour and t h a t of the horse i s obvious; . f o r p r e v i o u s l y the d o c t o r had reprimanded Woyzeck f o r r e l i e v i n g h i m s e l f i n p u b l i c and d e p r i v i n g him of m a t e r i a l f o r h i s experiment."  1957),  13.  These two c a r i c a t u r e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l i n the next c h a p t e r .  14-.  "Buchner. Woyzeck," Das Deutsche Drama, ed., von Wiese ( D u s s e l d o r f , 1958), I I , 91.  15*  For example, Hans Mayer, Georg Buchner und s e i n e Z e i t (Wiesbaden, I960), pp. 331, 332, w r i t e s : "... die Armut, d i e 'Umstande' s e i n e s m a t e r i e l l e n Lebens t r e i b e n jenen Woyzeck i n d i e Umdusterung, i n d i e A u f l S s u n g s e i n e r Bindung zur Umwelt, i n s V e r b r e c h e n . "  16.  June 1833, he i n f o r m s h i s p a r e n t s : " I c h . . . habe . . . g e l e r n t , dass nur das notwendige B e d u r f n i s der grossen Masse Umanderungen h e r b e i f u h r e n kann, dass a l l e s Bewegen und S c h r e i e n der e i n z e l n e n v e r g e b l i c h e s Torenwerk i s t . S i e s c h r e i b e n — m a n l i e s t s i e n i c h t ; s i e handeln-—man h i l f t ihnen n i c h t . . . I h r konnt voraussehen, dass i c h mich i n d i e G i e s s e n e r W i n k e l p o l i t i k und r e v o l u t i o naren K i n d e r s t r e i c h e n i c h t e i n l a s s e n werde." (p. 371)  17.  From S t r a s s b u r g Buchner w r i t e s h i s b r o t h e r : " " I c h wiirde D i r das n i c h t sagen, wenn i c h im e n t f e r n t e s t e n j e t z t an d i e M o g l i c h k e i t e i n e r p o l i t i s c h e n Umwalzung glauben konnte. T c h habe mich s e i t einem h a l b e n Jahre vollkommen uberzeugt, dass n i c h t s zu tun i s t . . . i c h w e i s s , wie schwach, wie unbedeutend, wie z e r s t i i c k e l t d i e l i b e r a l e P a r t e i i s t , i c h w e i s s , dass e i n zweckmassiges, u b e r e i n stimmendes Handeln unmoglich i s t und dass j e d e r V e r s u c h auch n i c h t zum g e r i n g s t e n R e s u l t a t e f u h r t . . . E i n e genaue Bekanntschaft mit dem T r e i b e n der deutschen R e v o l u t i o n a r s im Auslande hat mich uberzeugt, dass auch von d i e s e r S e i t e n i c h t das g e r i n g s t e zu h o f f e n i s t . Es h e r r s c h t u n t e r ihnen eine b a b y l o n i s c h e V e r w i r r u n g , d i e n i e g e l o s t werden w i r d . H o f f e n w i r auf d i e Z e i t ! "  (p.  396)  Benno  - 82 -  18.  D i s r e g a r d i n g c o m p l e t e l y t h e changes which Buchner*s views have undergone, Georg Lukacs, "Der f a s c h i s t i s c h v e r f a l s c h t e und der w i r k l i c h e Georg Buchner," Deutsche R e a l i s t e n des 19. J a h r h u n d e r t s ( B e r l i n , 1952),~"p. 83, states: "Buchner h a t d i e wenigen J a h r e s e i n e s Lebens konsequent und ohne Schwankungen g e w i r k t : als plebejischdemokratischer Revolutionar i n seiner p o l i t i s c h e n T a t i g keit . . . "  19.  "Georg, Buchner," German D r a m a t i s t s o f the 1 9 (Los A n g e l e s , 1940), p . 104.  20.  In a l e t t e r he once remarks: " I c h h o f f e noch immer, dass i c h l e i d e n d e n , gedruckten G e s t a l t e n mehr m i t l e i d i g e B l i c k e zugeworferi a l s k a l t e n , vornehmen Herzen h i t t e r e Worte g e s a g t habe." (p. 378}  t h  Century  Chapter I I 21.  "Georg Buchner," Neue Rundschau,  1910, p . 1460.  22.  The f i g u r e o f t h e unsympathetic d o c t o r does not have i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n Hinkemann, b u t i t appears i n T o l l e r ' s Die Wandlung (Potsdam, 1924). T o l l e r ' s d o c t o r i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o Buchner's: he too f a i l s t o r e c o g n i z e t r u e humanity, a l t h o u g h i n s c i e n t i f i c terms he i s w e l l - e d u c a t e d . He answers F r i e d r i c h ' s q u e s t i o n , "Herr Doktor, glauben S i e an den Menschen?." on a m e d i c a l b a s i s which has no r e l e v a n c e t o t h e q u e s t i o n . He misunderstands the young s o l d i e r ' s i n q u i r y c o m p l e t e l y : "Dumme F r a g e . Hochst e i n f a l t i g e F r a g e . I c h g l a u b e , dass d i e meisten Menschen e i n e gute Verdauung haben. Denjenigen, b e i denen s i e s c h l e c h t i s t , muss man R h i z i n u s geben, einen g r o s s e n L o f f e l f u r Erwachsene, einen k l e i n e n L o f f e l f u r K i n d e r . DummerFrage." ( p . 84) As i n Woyzeck the d o c t o r i s so shocked by such an unusual q u e s t i o n , by t h i s " P h i l o s o p h i e r e n , " t h a t he wants to examine h i s c u r i o u s p a t i e n t . H i s c o n c l u s i o n , "Psychose i n hohem Stadium" i s s i m i l a r t o Woyzeck's supposed, "Aberratio mentalis p a r t i a l i s . " Both d o c t o r s endeavour t o e x p l a i n away remarks t h e y do n o t u n d e r s t a n d by a t t r i b u t i n g them t o mental derangement and seek t o c o v e r t h e i r own emptiness w i t h t h e appearance o f g r e a t knowledge imparted by L a t i n d e s i g n a t i o n s .  23.  K a r l V i e t o r , Georg Buchner, P o l i t i k , D i c h t u n g , Wissens c h a f t (Bern, 1949), p . 196, i n examining the r e l a t i o n of t h i s passage t o t h e c a r i c a t u r e scenes i n Woyzeck, writes: "Das i s t d i e Gesinnung, d i e s i c h im S t i l d i e s e r Szenen a u s d r i i c k t : S p o t t aus Hass, aus e m p o r e r i s c h e r Wut gegen e i n e K l a s s e , deren H e r r s c h a f t ihm a l s Anmassung e r s c h e i n t , w e i l s i e d u n k e l h a f t und g e f u h l l o s  - 83 -  den Menschen im P r o l e t a r i e r n i c h t achten  will."  24.  W r i t i n g to h i s f a m i l y Buchner had e a r l i e r expressed the view t h a t r e a s o n i s n o t t h e most important p a r t o f man's b e i n g , thus l e a v i n g t h e way open f o r t h i s conc l u s i o n i n Woyzeck: "Der V e r s t a n d nun g a r i s t n u r e i n e sehr g e r i n g e S e i t e u n s e r s g e i s t i g e n Wesens und d i e B i l d u n g n u r e i n e sehr z u f a l l i g e Form d e s s e l b e n . " ( p . 377)  25.  Mayer, Buchner, pp. 3 3 4 , 3 3 5 .  26.  The d o c t o r i n Woyzeck r e c e i v e s g r e a t p l e a s u r e by d i s p l a y i n g Woyzeck's e x t r a o r d i n a r y a b i l i t y : " . . . Woyzeck, beweg den Herren doch einmal d i e OhrenI I c h hab es Ihnen schon z e i g e n w o l l e n , zwei Muskeln s i n d b e i ihm t a t i g . . . . So meine H e r r e n ! Das s i n d so Ubergange zum E s e l , h a u f i g auch d i e F o l g e w e i b l i c h e r E r z i e h u n g und d i e M u t t e r s p r a c h e . " ( p . 168)  27.  A. H. J . K n i g h t , Georg Buchner ( O x f o r d , 1 9 5 1 ) , p . 2 9 , r e c o r d s p a r t o f K a r l Vogt's d e s c r i p t i o n o f one o f these lectures: "Der Glanzpunkt d i e s e r Vorlesungen war d i e Demonstration der Ohrmuskeln. Der Sohn, d e r d i e Ohrmuskeln b r i l l a n t bewegen konnte, musste dann e r s c h e i n e n und man e r z a h l t e , dass d i e Szene dann i n f o l g e n d e r Weise s i c h a b s p i e l t e . Nach d e r Beschreibung d e r Ohrmuskeln sagte d e r P r o f e s s o r : 'Diese Muskeln s i n d beim Mens-ken o b s o l e t geworden. Der Mens-k kann d i e Ohren n i c h t bewegen, das konnen n u r d i e A e f f - k e n . J o l i o s , niach's mall' Der u n g l u c k l i c h e J o l i o s musste dann. a u f s t e h e n und mit den Ohren wedeln."  28.  Regarding t h e c a p t a i n , Heimann, Neue Rundschau, 1 9 1 0 , p. 1460, c o n c i s e l y w r i t e s : " . . . e i n Hauptmann h e t z t mit S p i t z f i n d i g k e i t e n den h i n t e r s i n n i g e n , armen T e i i f e l umher i n s e i n e r Angst und s e i n e r Ohnmacht."  Chapter I I I 29.  Compare a v e r y s i m i l a r o u t c r y i n one o f Buchner's letters: " . . . ach, w i r armen, s c h r e i e n d e n Musikanten! das Stohnen auf u n s e r e r P o l t e r , ware es nur da, damit es d u r c h d i e W o l k e n r i t z e n d r i n g e n d und w e i t e r , w e i t e r k l i n g e n d wie e i n m e l o d i s c h e r Hauch i n himmlischen Ohren stirbt? War en w i r das Opfer im gliihenden Bauch des P e r i l l u s s t i e r s , dessen T o d e s s c h r e i wie das A u f j a u c h z e n des i n den Flammen s i c h aufzehrenden G o t t s t i e r s k l i n g t ? " (p. 379)  30.  E r n s t Johann, Georg Buchner (Hamburg, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 1 2 3 , makes t h i s p o i n t : "Buchner h a t t e k e i n b e s s e r e s S i n n b i l d  - 84  -  f u r s e i n e Uberzeugung vom ' F a t a l i s m u s ' e r f i n d e n konnen a l s d i e F I g u r d i e s e s Morders wider W i l l e n , d i e aus der W i r k l i c h k e i t genommen war." 31.  Georg Buchner, p.  210.  32.  By h i s view of determinism Buchner i s f o r c e d to remove a l l p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from the i n d i v i d u a l . In F e b r u a r y 1834, he wrote h i s p a r e n t s : "Ich v e r a c h t e niemanden, am wenigsten wegen s e i n e s V e r s t a n d e s oder s e i n e r B i l d u n g , w e i l es i n niemands Gewalt l i e g t , k e i n Dummkopf oder k e i n V e r b r e c h e r zu w e r d e n — w e i l w i r durch g l e i c h e Umstande wohl a l l e g l e i c h wiirden und w e i l d i e Umstande ausser uns l i e g e n . " (p. 377)  33.  With r e s p e c t to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the v o i c e s and v i s i o n s , K. V i e t o r , Buchner, p. 211, writes: "Seine f i x e n Ideen und G e s i c h t e s i n d Zeichen d a f u r , dass d i e Hand des S c h i c k s a l s s i c h urn i h n s c h l i e s s t , dass er u n t e r ihrem Druck e r z i t t e r t . "  34.  Through Lena, i n Leonce und Lena, Buchner g i v e s p i t h y e x p r e s s i o n to the c e n t r a l theme o f h i s works, the problem of e x i s t e n t i a l s u f f e r i n g : "Es kommt mir e i n e n t s e t z l i c h e r Gedanke: i c h glaube,- es g i b t Menschen, d i e ungiucklich sind, unheilbar, bloss weil sie sind." (p. 136)  35.  August C l a s s , " N i h i l i s m and Modern German Drama," Medusa's M i r r o r (London, 1 9 5 7 ) , P. 161.  Chapter IV 36.  E r n s t T o l l e r , Hinkemann (Potsdam, 1924), p. 48. All subsequent r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s p l a y w i l l be taken from t h i s e d i t i o n ; the page number w i l l be p l a c e d w i t h i n p a r e n t h e s e s immediately f o l l o w i n g the q u o t a t i o n .  37.  Thus Hinkemann, l i k e Woyzeck, i s a l s o about 30 y e a r s old. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the age of the two p r o t a g o n i s t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the c o n c l u s i o n .  38.  T h i s theme of p r o s t i t u t i o n out of m a t e r i a l n e c e s s i t y appears a l r e a d y i n Buchner's work. In Dantons Tod Simeon, s l i g h t l y drunk, makes a scene on the s t r e e t when he l e a r n s t h a t h i s daughter i s a common s t r e e t walker. However, h i s w i f e defends the g i r l ' s a c t i o n s on economic grounds: "Und meine T o c h t e r war da h i r i u n t e r gegangen um d i e E c k e — s i e i s t e i n b r a v e s Madchen und e r n a h r t i h r e E l t e r n . " (p. 14) To her husband she e l a b o r a t e s , g i v i n g moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r her daughter's conduct: "Du Judas! h a t t e s t du nur e i n paar Hosen h i n a u f z u Z i e h e n , wenn d i e jungen H e r r e n d i e Hosen n i c h t  - 85 b e i i h r h i n u n t e r l i e s s e n ? . . . Wir a r b e i t e n m i t a l i e n G l i e d e r n , warum denn n i c h t auch damit; i h r e Mutter h a t damit g e s c h a f f t , wie s i e z u r Welt kam, und es h a t i h r weh getan; kann s i e f u r i h r e Mutter n i c h t auch damit s c h a f f e n , he? und t u t ' s i h r auch weh d a b e i , he? Du Dummkopf!" ( p . 14) As t h e drunk f a t h e r c a l l s f o r a k n i f e t o s t a b h i s daughter, a c i t i z e n says, p o i n t i n g out her r e a l motives: " J a , e i n Messer, aber n i c h t f i i r d i e arme Hure! Was t a t s i e ? N i c h t s ! I h r Hunger h u r t und bettelt." ( p . 14) 39.  The m o t i f o f an i n n o c e n t woman b e i n g f o r c e d i n t o p r o s t i t u t i o n by economic n e c e s s i t y a l s o r e c u r s i n T o l l e r ' s D i e Maschinenstiirmer ( L e i p z i g , 1922). Here Mary Wible s e l l s h e r s e l f t o Henry Cobbett i n o r d e r t o earn a few pence f o r t h e i r l i v i n g . On e n t e r i n g t h e house from a v i s i t t o Cobbett, she i s asked by h e r husband: John Wible: Hat d i c h d e r Cobbett gut e n t l o h n t ? Mary ( w i r f t G e l d a u f den T i s c h ) : Piinf Pence. John Wible: Der S c h u f t l Der S c h u f t ! Mary: Lass m i r d i e H a l f t e . N i c h t e i n B r o t im Haus. I c h gab d i r l e t z t e Woche a l l das Siindengeld. (pp. 35> 36) L a t e r i n t h e p l a y Mary i s a t t a c k e d by o t h e r women as she s t e a l t h i l y t r i e s t o l e a v e Cobbett's garden, and i s o n l y r e s c u e d by t h e appearance o f Ned Lud, who r e c o g n i z e s t h a t h e r motives were economic r a t h e r than promiscuous. With keen p e r c e p t i o n he asks t h e women: " P e i t s c h t i h r e i n K i n d , das g i e r i g s i c h a u f Brocken Brotes s t i i r z t ? " ( p . 65) Then o f Mary he i n q u i r e s : "Sag', Mary, warum warst du d o r t ? " t o which she quietly replies: " I c h b i n . . . so arm . . . wie d i e s e da . . . I c h t u ' s o • • • n i c h t f i i r mich . . . " ( p . 65) a  40.  The theme of r i d i c u l e a t s u f f e r i n g w i l l be t r e a t e d i n the next c h a p t e r .  41.  Compare a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n D i e Maschinenstiirmer where Margret has had t o s e l l t h e bed, one o f t h e b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s i n l i f e because i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e n a t u r a l human need f o r r e s t : "Ich musste mein l e t z t e s Stuck Mobel v e r k a u f e n , e i n B e t t . Wie e i n B l u t e g e l s a s s m i r der Kramer auf. I n diesem B e t t s c h l i e f e n d e r Sohn, die T o c h t e r , d e r S c h l a f b u r s c h e , d e r V a t e r , d e r Mann und ich. B e i G o t t , i c h weiss n i c h t , wer mich manche Nacht umarmte! I c h habe d i e s e s e i n e B e t t v e r s e t z e n miissen." (p. 60)  42.  The Hinkemanns a r e o n l y one o f many f a m i l i e s which a r e in d i r e s t r a i t s . A working woman i n Hinkemann t e l l s of s i m i l a r p o v e r t y ; she has t o r e l i n q u i s h e s s e n t i a l a r t i c l e s of c l o t h i n g t o be a b l e t o keep a l i v e : "Wenn i c h d i e s e Hemden auch i n s L e i h h a u s t r a g e , so brauchen S i e n i c h t  -  86  -  zu glauben, dass i c h k e i n e Hemden mehr im Schrank habe . . . i c h b e s i t z e sogar eine t e u r e , p i k f e i n e , seidene M a n t i l j e . . . von meiner Grossmutter her . . . Aber es i s t n i c h t s mehr von Wert im Haus . . . da miissen eben d i e Hemden h e r h a l t e n . . .'' (p. 2 0 ) 45.  The problem o f the machine-man r e l a t i o n occurs f r e q u e n t l y in Expressionism. Georg K a i s e r , "Gas I , " Das Deutsche Drama 1 8 8 0 - 1 9 5 3 , ed., H. S t e i n h a u e r (New York, 1 9 5 8 ) , I I , 7 2 , g i v e s a f i n e p i c t u r e o f a f a c t o r y worker who i s l i t t l e more than a r o b o t . The g i r l says o f her b r o t h e r : "Ich wusste n i c h t , dass i c h einen Bruder h a t t e . E i n Mensch g i n g morgens aus dem Hause und kam a b e n d s — u n d s c h l i e f . . . . E i n e Hand war g r o s s — d i e andere k l e i n . Die g r o s s e Hand s c h l i e f n i c h t . D i e s t i e s s i n e i n e r Bewegung h i n und" h e r — T a g und Nacht . . . . Diese Hand war der Mensch! - Wo b l i e b mein Bruder? . . . I n A r b e i t s t i i r z t e e r . Die b r a u c h t e nur d i e eine Hand von i h m — d i e den H e b e l d r i i c k t e und h o b — . . . Keinen Hub l i e s s e r a u s — p u n k t l i c h s c h l u g s e i n Hebel an, v o r dem e r stand wie t o t und b e d i e n t e . "  44.  The rich': are f r e q u e n t l y war p r o f i t e e r s whom the woman i n Die Wandlung, p . 5 3 , a p t l y d e s c r i b e s as " d i e paar R e i c h e n , d i e prassen und p r a s s e n und uns aussagen, d i e mit dem E r t r a g u n s e r e r A r b e i t g a l a n t e s S p i e l t r e i b e n . "  45.  E r n s t T o l l e r , "Author's I n t r o d u c t i o n , " Seven P l a y s (London, 1 9 5 5 ) , P« i x .  46*  E r n s t T o l l e r , E i n e Jugend i n D e u t s c h l a n d 1955),  47.  PP.  275,  (Amsterdam,  276.  E r n s t T o l l e r , B r i e f e aus dem Gefangnis (Amsterdam, 1955),  P.  204.  Chapter V 48.  The showman c y n i c a l l y sums up t h e s p i r i t o f t h e time: "Mit K r i e g s g r e u e l — P a n o p t i k u m v e r d i e n e n S i e heute k e i n e zehn P f e n n i g mehr. Aus! J e t z t i s t K u l t u r Trumpf i n Europa! . . . Man muss was l e i s t e n l Leistung! Das i s t S c h l u s s e l zu u n s e r e r Z e i t ! G l e i c h g i i l t i g was!" (p. 5 8 )  49.  Howard De F o r e s t , " P a c i f i s t i n E x i l e , " ( I n t e r v i e w ) , L i v i n g Age, CCCLI (Sept. 1956-Feb. 1 9 5 7 ) , 5 0 9 .  50.  T o l l e r ' s names a l l c o n t a i n r a t h e r apparent r e f e r e n c e s t o the c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e i r b e a r e r s : Hinkemann i s a c r i p p l e , S i n g e g o t t a r e l i g i o u s e c s t a t i c , and Immerg l e i c h a phlegmatic s o c i a l i s t . Grosshahn i s t h e  - 87  -  s t r i d e n t embodiment of sex and e a s i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h "Hahnrei" and o t h e r terms d e n o t i n g i n f i d e l i t y . 51.  -  W. A. W i l l i b r a n d , " E r n s t T o l l e r ' s I d e o l o g i c a l S k e p t i c i s m , " GQ, XIX (1946), 181, p o i n t s out c o n c e r n i n g T o l l e r : "Mensch was to him a s p i r i t u a l concept which the m a t e r i a l i s t i c s o c i a l i d e o l o g y d i d not seem t o r e c o g n i z e . "  Chapter VI 52.  W i l l i a m Rose, Men, Myths, and Movements i n German L i t e r a t u r e (London, 1931), p. 217, w r i t e s r e g a r d i n g T o l l e r ' s drama: " I t i s the t r a g e d y , i n t e n s i f i e d t o the extreme l i m i t , o f t h e man r e t u r n e d from t h e War t o f i n d h i m s e l f e s t r a n g e d from t h e r e s t o f humanity."  53.  T o l l e r , B r i e f e , p.  54.  B r i e f e , p.  55.  P.  56.  T o l l e r , B r i e f e , p.  57«  Seven P l a y s , p.  58.  In s p e a k i n g to Max K n a t s c h Hinkemann r e v e a l s the weakness of marriage bonds i n g e n e r a l : Hinkemann. . . . Wie lange b i s t du v e r h e i r a t e t ? > Max K n a t s c h . Dreiundzwanzig J a h r e . Hinkemann. Du w o l l t e s t d i c h einmal scheiden l a s s e n ? Max K n a t s c h . Den Gedanken h a t t e i c h wohl. Aber man h a t s i c h aneinander gewohnt. Die K i n d e r s i n d der K i t t . Hinkemann. Der K i t t — d i e K i n d e r . . . Scheidung, das i s t Trennung von B e t t und T i s c h . . . " (p. 47)  59.  W. A. W i l l i b r a n d , E r n s t T o l l e r , Product (Norman, 1941), p. 40.  60.  Ernst T o l l e r , Product,  61.  B r i e f e , p.  31.  151.  275. 239.  x.  p.  of two  Revolutions  18.  206.  Conclusion 62.  Die deutsche T r a g o d i e 1948), I I , 3 3 0 , 331.  63.  B r i e f e , p.  205.  von L e s s i n g b i s Hebbel (Hamburg,  - 88 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  I . P r i m a r y Sources Brecht, B e r t o l d . "Die D r e i g r o s c h e n o p e r , " Stucke f i i r das Theater am Schiffbauerdamm (1927-1933)* Vol. I , Berlin,  1955,  5-165".  Brod, Max. Heidentum, C h r i s t e n t u m , Judentum. Miinchen, 1922. Buchner, Georg. Werke und B r i e f e . Wiesbaden, 1958.  V o l . I,  Ed. by F r i t z Bergemann.  K a i s e r , Georg. "Gas I , " Das Deutsche Drama - 1880-1935. Ed. by H. S t e i n h a u e r . V o l . I I , New York, 1938, 33-95. Toller, Ernst.  B r i e f e aus dem G e f a n g n i s .  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