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Laurier and the British Columbia Liberal party, 1896-1911 : a study in federal-provincial party relations Dwyer, Melva Jean 1961

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LAURIER AND THE BR I T I S H COLUMBIA LIBERAL PARTY, 1896-1911: A STUDY IN FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL PARTY RELATIONS by MELVA JEAN DWYER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1943 A T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f th e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e De p a r t m e n t o f HISTORY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BR I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1961 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date ABSTRACT A s t u d y o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l p a r t y d u r i n g t h e L a u r i e r p e r i o d f r o m 1896 t o 1911 r e v e a l s the p o l i t i c a l i m m a t u r i t y w h i c h s t i l l e x i s t e d i n t h e w e s t e r n P r o v i n c e . By 1896 c o n v i c t i o n was s t i l l l a c k i n g t h a t p a r t y p o l i t i c s was the most a c c e p t a b l e method o f g o v e r n i n g t h e P r o v i n c e . A l t h o u g h b o t h L i b e r a l a n d C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s were o r g a n i z i n g , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n were u n -i n t e r e s t e d i n i m p o r t i n g E a s t e r n p o l i t i c a l . q u a r r e l s ; t h e y f e l t t h a t p e r s o n a l r u l e was s u p e r i o r f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n c o n s e q u e n c e , when L a u r i e r c a l l e d t h e L i b e r a l N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n i n 1893, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e n t no d e l e g a t e s . The L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o u n d e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1887, was l o a t h e t o show t o o g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n a D o m i n i o n g a t h e r i n g . P r i o r t o 1896 t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s e n t t o Ottawa f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d a l l p r o f e s s e d t o b e i n g C o n s e r v a t i v e s b u t w i t h L a u r i e r ' s ^ c o m i n g t o o f f i c e f o u r o f the s i x B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a members c a l l e d t h e m s e l v e s L i b e r a l s . U n t i l 1908 the L i b e r a l s s e n t a m a j o r i t y t o t h e f e d e r a l House f r o m t h e w e s t e r n P r o v i n c e . But t h e 1908 and 1911 e l e c t i o n s saw a c o m p l e t e a n n i h i l a t i o n o f the L i b e r a l c a u s e . W i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e the L i b e r a l s f a r e d e v e n l e s s w e l l . B e f o r e 1903 the p r o v i n c i a l government was o r g a n i z e d o n t h e b a s i s o f p e r s o n a l f a c t i o n s w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t i n s t a b i l i t y . I n 1903 p a r t y p o l i t i c s were a c c e p t e d by R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e ^ l e a d e r ; f r o m t h a t t i m e t h e L i b e r a l s r e m a i n e d i n O p p o s i t i o n . A t no . t i m e were t h e y a b l e t o g a i n a m a j o r i t y d u r i n g L a u r i e r ' s r e g i m e and by 1911 t h e y were a l l b u t e c l i p s e d , h a v i n g o n l y one member i n the / B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g i s l a t u r e . To e x p l a i n t h i s r a t h e r p e c u l i a r s i t u a t i o n , s i n c e t h e P r o v i n c e h a d g a i n e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r o p p o r t u n i s m , we f i n d t h a t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y seemed t o be p l a g u e d b y d i s s e n s i o n f r o m i t s i n c e p t i o n . A t no t i m e , f r o m 1887 t o 1911, was t h e r e c o m p l e t e u n i t y o f p u r p o s e w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s q u a r r e l i n g a n d u n c e r t a i n t y o f p a r t y p h i l o s o p h y d i s r u p t e d p a r t y r a n k s and p r e -v e n t e d i n t e n s i v e e l e c t i o n campaigns w h i c h m i g h t have won t h e i r s u p p o r t . L a c k o f a c l e a r c u t L i b e r a l p h i l o s o p h y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a l s o r e s u l t e d i n p r o b l e m s e v e r y t i m e t h a t f e d e r a l a p p o i n t m e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d . L a u r i e r d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o make any f e d e r a l a p p o i n t m e n t whicfo' w o u l d s a t i s f y a l l p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s . D e l a y s o c c u r r e d w h i c h t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e l e c t o r a t e f a i l e d t o u n d e r s t a n d . A t t h e same t i m e , compromise c a n d i d a t e s were f r e q u e n t l y s e l e c t e d i n an a t t e m p t t o s a t i s f y the m a j o r i t y . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t a p p e a r e d , was n o t r e a d y to a c c e p t t h e f e d e r a l p r i n c i p l e o f w o r k i n g f o r t h e good o f the whole r a t h e r t h a n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l P r o v i n c e . T h i s was d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e a t t i t u d e a d o p t e d by t h e L i b e r a l s i n the p r o b l e m o f A s i a t i c i m m i g r a t i o n and t h e demand f o r B e t t e r Terms. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p o l i t i c i a n s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l p o s i t i o n was u n i q u e and d e s e r v e d s e p a r a t e t r e a t -ment; g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n and t o p o g r a p h i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s were among t h e arguments u s e d t o s u p p o r t t h e i r c l a i m s . L a u r i e r d i s c o u r a g e d t h i s a t t i t u d e , t o him, t h e f e d e r a l u n i o n was o f p r i m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e was c o n t i n u a l c o n t r o v e r s y b e t w e e n f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s and t h e c a u s e o f L i b e r a l i s m d i d n o t p r o s p e r . Towards the e n d o f t h e t e r m some o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s began tc understand the meaning of the party system—to accept the party philosophy and fight for i t against a l l odds T-but not u n t i l 1916 were the Liberals able to form the government. i v ACKNOWLEDGMENT Without the understanding and encouragement of Mr. Neal Harlow, former University L i b r a r i a n , t h i s thesis could not have been attempted. At the same time, the con-tinued support from Dean Soward, Head, Department of History, has been greatly appreciated. The kind cooperation of Willard Ireland, Provincial Archvist and Prov i n c i a l L i b -r a r i a n and his assistant, Miss Inez. M i t c h e l l , i s also grate-f u l l y acknowledged. But without the advice and assistance of Dr. Margaret Ormsby,. Department of History, who was always ready to give c r i t i c a l a i d whenever i t was requested, this work would never have been completed. To these individuals and to a l l my friends and colleagues who have given me the i r understanding, I wish to acknowledge my sincere appreciation. V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE 1 L a u r i e r L i b e r a l i s m 1 2 Federal p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n 1 3 3 P r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n 2l± 4 Some problems i n f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s 1 8 9 6 - 1 9 1 1 : f e d e r a l appointments 4 8 a) cabinet members lr? b) ' senators 5 6 c) j u d i c i a r y 5 8 d) lieutenant-governor 6 0 5 Some problems i n f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s 1 8 9 6 - 1 9 1 1 : A s i a t i c immigration 71 6 Some problems i n f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s 1 8 9 6 - 1 9 1 1 : B e t t e r Terms and T a r i f f s 8 9 a) Bett e r Terms 8 9 b) T a r i f f s 1 0 0 7 Conclusion 1 0 8 APPENDICES 1 O f f i c i a l Report of L i b e r a l Convention, 1 8 9 3 , Resolutions 1 1 7 2 C o n s t i t u t i o n and Resolutions o f B. C. L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 0 7 1 2 2 3 Act Adm i t t i n g B. C. to the Union, S e c t i o n I I 12I4. 4. Formation of L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , D i s t r i c t of V i c t o r i a , 1 8 8 7 1 2 5 5 L i b e r a l p l a t f o r m , 1 8 9 7 126 6 Opposition P a r t y C i r c u l a r i s s e d by C. A. Semlin 1 2 8 7 B. C. L i b e r a l Convention Pl a t f o r m , 1 9 0 2 1 3 0 v i 8 B. C. L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n M a n i f e s t o , 1903 132 9 M e m o r i a l f r o m P r o v i n c i a l R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n 133 10 L e t t e r t o R o d o l p h e L e m i eux f r o m Count H a y a s h i 135 11 A c t A d m i t t i n g B. C. t o the U n i o n , S e c t i o n s I - I I I 136 12 I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1906, L e t t e r G o u i n t o M c B r i d e 137 13 B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , 190? 138 11+ Customs T a r i f f A c t , 1897, S e c t i o n 1? and S c h e d u l e D ll+O 15 W e s t e r n F a r m e r s ' D e l e g a t i o n t o Ottawa, 1910 llj.<l FOOTNOTES 1^2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 160 v i i PLATES A l l p h o t o g r a p h s were r e p r o d u c e d f r o m t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f th e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B. C. PLATE .. PAGE I S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r , P r i m e M i n i s t e r , 1896-1911 v i i i I I B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F e d e r a l L i b e r a l Leader , 1 8 9 6 - 1 9 1 1 l k a I I I B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e m i e r s , 1896-1900 35a IV B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e m i e r s , 1900-1911 36a V B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l L e a d e r s 1896-1909 kOa V I B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l L e a d e r 1909 h i a ¥ 1 1 J o h n O l i v e r ' s R a i l w a y P o l i c y , 1909 45a V I I I B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l S e n a t o r s , 1896-1911 57a IX B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r s , 1896-1906 6 l a X B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r s , 1906-1911 67 a X I P o l i t i c a l C a r t o o n s , 1903, 1907 88a v i i i PLATE I S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r , P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f C a n a d a , 1896-I911 N a t i o n a l L i b e r a l L e a d e r 1887-1917 CHAPTER I L a u r i e r L i b e r a l i s m "I am one o f t h o s e who b e l i e v e t h a t i n a l l human a f f a i r s t h e r e a r e a b u s e s t o r e f o r m , new h o r i z o n s t o d i s c o v e r , a n d new f o r c e s t o d e v e l o p , S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r made t h i s s t a t e m e n t a t Quebec C i t y i n 1877 when he spoke on P o l i t i c a l L i b e r a l i s m . To him, L i b e r a l i s m was p r o g r e s s i v e and c h a n g i n g ; a way o f l i f e w h i c h s o u g h t t o b e t t e r t h e l o t o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f mankind. On t h e o t h e r h a nd, C o n s e r v a t i s m t e n d e d to be c o n t e n t w i t h the p a s t , o f t e n d i s -r e g a r d i n g t h e n e e d f o r change o r r e f o r m . L a u r i e r c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y was p l e d g e d t o work f o r the r i g h t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o e n j o y f r e e d o m i n c i v i l r i g h t s s u c h a s l a n g u a g e , r e l i g i o n , a n d e d u c a t i o n u n l e s s s u c h f r e e d o m e n c r o a c h e d upon the r i g h t s o f o t h e r s . W i t h t h i s as a b a s i c p r i n c i p l e , t h e C a n a d i a n p a r t y emerged as t h e s t a u n c h s u p p o r t e r o f p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s , m i n o r i t y g r o u p s , and t h e u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d . The d e s i r e f o r autonomy on t h e p a r t , o f a p r o v i n c e o r group was n o t p e r m i t t e d t o weaken t h e D o m i n i o n . L a u r i e r r e j e c t e d t h e t h e o r y o f p r o v i n c i a l s upremacy and demanded f e d e r a l u n i t y o n o c c a s i o n s when he c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e n a t i o n was a t s t a k e . I n e v i t a b l y c l a s h e s o c c u r r e d between f e d e r a l a n d p r o -v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the powers d e s i g n a t e d t o e a c h by t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t . When c o n t r o v e r s y d eve-l o p e d L a u r i e r , as Prime M i n i s t e r , a t t e m p t e d t o a r r i v e a t a com-p r o m i s e . He e n v i s i o n e d , f o r the f u t u r e , a u n i t e d Canada,, w i t h a d e g r e e o f autonomy w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e . When B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t t e m p t e d t o f o r c e a c c e p t a n c e o f h e r a n t i - A s i a t i c l e g i s l a t i o n from 1897 to 1908, Laurier repeatedly urged disallowance of the provincial acts. He considered that the British Columbia'policy ,was a threat to the peaceful relations which existed between Canada, Great^Britain and Japan. By aiming to suppress a minority group, the Province was undermining the democratic principles of the right of the individual to protection. f Laurier, although spokesman and leader of the Canadian Liberal party fro?nl887 to 1917> was not the founder of the movement; there had been reformers in Canada from the 1820's. The Reform movement in Canada had gained ground during the l820»s and f30 !s under the leadership of William Lyon Mackenzie and Louis-Joseph Papineau. Disgusted by the control exercised by the Family Compact and the Chateau Clique, they demanded the adoption of more democratic government through reform. When i t seemed that such reform could not come peacefully, the more radical members resorted to open rebellion, - advocating separation from Britain and the adoption of an American form of government. Seeds from these movements continued to survive into the next decade. The more moderate reformers now came to the front and gained sufficient support to form the f i r s t party ministry in l8k8, under their leaders, Robert Baldwin and Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine. However, the moderate reformers did not succeed in satisfying the demands of the electorate long; by l8i>k more radical groups i n both Canada East and Canada West were showing their strength. The "Clear Grits" of Canada West demanded "cheap, simple government ... which aimed at popular democracy and the destruction of inequality in either church or state." "Les Rouges" in Canada East wanted - 3 -universal suffrage and secular education but at the same time, demanded protection of their French-Canadian heritage. In l8£8, the leaders of the two reform groups, George Brown and Antoine-Aime Dorion, agreed to form a c o a l i t i o n to oppose John A, Macdonald and the Conservatives. They were w i l l i n g to t r y to work out a system of representation by population which would give adequate protection to the r i g h t s of French-Canadians. This c o a l i t i o n was to be short l i v e d . The p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Canada was gradually reaching a deadlock as i t became increasingly impossible for the government to r e t a i n the majority i n both English and French sections of the united Canadas. By 1864, both Conservative and L i b e r a l leaders saw the value of a federal union which would delegate certai n p r i v i l e g e s to the central government but would permit the pro-vinces to control t h e i r own a f f a i r s i n matters of l o c a l i n t e r e s t . Brown and Macdonald agreed to sink t h e i r differences to work for a federal union of a l l the B r i t i s h provinces; Dorion would not cooperate. He considered that such a union with a strong central government would sound the death k n e l l of French-Canadian autonomy. Brown worked whole heartedly for Confederation but as soon as i t was an accomplished fact he withdrew from active p o l i t i c s . After Confederation the Liberals were s t i l l not a united party. Some of the Reformers- decided to remain with the Conser-vatives under Macdonald 1s leadership but most of the Clear Grits wanted to form the Opposition. Alexander Mackenzie became leader of the Ontario L i b e r a l s ; Dorion remained L i b e r a l leader i n Quebec. Each Reform group s t i l l had i t s own ideas as to what the Opposition p o l i c y s h o u l d be; t h e o n l y r e a l u n i f y i n g f o r c e was t h a t o f o p p o s i n g M a c d o n a l d ' s government. M a c k e n z i e d e s i r e d f r e e t r a d e , r e c i p r o c i t y w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and a n n e x a t i o n o f the N o r t h West t e r r i t o r i e s ; D o r i o n demanded r a c i a l and r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a t i o n ; w h i l e J o s e p h Howe, R e f o r m l e a d e r f r o m Nova S c o t i a , demanded b e t t e r t e r m s f o r the M a r i t i m e s . W i t h s u c h d i v e r s i t y , i t was n o t u n t i l I87O t h a t t h e O p p o s i t i o n b e g a n t o f o r m a u n i t e d p a r t y u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f M a c k e n z i e . The p r i n c i p l e s s u p p o r t e d b y M a c k e n z i e as L i b e r a l l e a d e r became, " f r e e t r a d e , a l o w - c o s t economy, r e c i -p r o c i t y , m a i n t e n a n c e o f the B r i t i s h c o n n e c t i o n , and C a n a d i a n c o n t r o l o f p u r e l y C a n a d i a n a f f a i r s . " ^ T h i s p l a t f o r m was f u r t h e r e x p a n d e d b y M a c k e n z i e when he s u c c e e d e d i n f o r m i n g t h e f i r s t L i b e r a l m i n i s t r y i n 1873. D u r i n g the y e a r s t h a t C a n a d i a n L i b e r a l i s m was s t r u g g l i n g t o o r g a n i z e , t h e B r i t i s h L i b e r a l s h a d been a c t i v e i n i n s t i g a t i n g r e f o r m s . T h r o u g h the e f f o r t s o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f Whigs and R a d i c a l s t h e R e f o r m B i l l o f 1832 h a d b e e n p a s s e d i n B r i t a i n and a s e r i e s o f r e f o r m s i n i t i a t e d w h i c h w i t n e s s e d th e emergence o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s as the c o n t r o l l i n g f o r c e i n B r i t i s h p o l i t i c s . The f i f t y y e a r s a f t e r 1832 saw g r a d u a l e x t e n s i o n o f f r a n c h i s e , w i t h t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e t h e o r y o f u n i v e r s a l ^ s u f f r a g e ; a d o p t i o n o f f r e e t r a d e ; improvement o f w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h r o u g h l e g i s -l a t i o n ; e x t e n s i o n o f r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a t i o n and o t h e r r e f o r m s aimed a t t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . To L a u r i e r , the i d e a l f o r m o f L i b e r a l i s m was f o u n d i n G r e a t B r i t a i n : "Look a t t h e work o f t h e g r e a t E n g l i s h l i b e r a l p a r t y . The r e f o r m s t h e y h a v e c a r r i e d o u t , t h e a b u s e s t h e y have s u p p r e s s e d " 5 " w i t h o u t v i o l e n c e , w i t h o u t commotion, w i t h o u t d i s t u r b a n c e . " ^ " The e s s e n c e o f B r i t i s h s t r e n g t h l a y i n the f a c t t h a t L i b e r a l p o l i t i -c i a n s h a d r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e e d f o r r e f o r m and a c h i e v e d i t b e f o r e t h e p e o p l e h a d b e e n f o r c e d t o r e s o r t t o b l o o d s h e d t o o b t a i n i t . I n most E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s r e v o l u t i o n s h a d b e en n e c e s s a r y t o g a i n r e f o r m a n d t h e t r u e s p i r i t o f L i b e r a l i s m h a d b e e n l o s t . "They ( l e a d e r s , o f European, r e v o l u t i o n s ) a r e n o t L i b e r a l s t h e y a r e R e v o l u t i o n i s t s . T h e i r p r i n c i p l e s c a r r y them so f a r t h a t t h e y a s p i r e t o n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n th e d e s t r u c t i o n o f modern s o c i e t y . " ^ J u s t as t h e B r i t i s h L i b e r a l s d i s t r u s t e d v i o l e n c e as a means o f a c h i e v i n g s u c c e s s so d i d L a u r i e r ; as P r i m e " M i n i s t e r he was c a r e f u l t o a v o i d l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h m i g h t c a u s e o p e n r e v o l t . He c o n s i d e r e d t h a t d i p l o m a c y and compromise were f a r more e f f e c -t i v e weapons t h a n l e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d a t t h e h e a t o f a n argument. L a u r i e r e n t e r e d t h e f i e l d o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s i n 1871; t h e r e b h e q u i c k l y d i s p l a y e d h i s a b i l i t y as a s p e a k e r . As a n O p p o s i t i o n member u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f H e n r i J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e i n t h e Quebec p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e he a t t a c k e d the l a c k o f i n d u s -t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h c a u s e d C a n a d i a n l a b o u r e r s t o e m i g r a t e t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s to s e e k employment; he d e p l o r e d the l a c k o f a p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m ; he c o n s i d e r e d d u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , as t h e n i n e x i s t e n c e , f a u l t y s i n c e i t t e n d e d t o s u b o r d i n a t e p r o -6 1 v i n c i a l i s s u e s t o f e d e r a l p o l i c y . I n J u l y , 1877, he assumed l e a d e r s h i p o f the Quebec p r o v i n c i a l l i b e r a l p a r t y ; j u s t p r i o r t o t h i s he h a d g i v e n h i s famous l e c t u r e on P o l i t i c a l L i b e r a l i s m i n Quebec C i t y . T h r e e months l a t e r he e n t e r e d M a c k e n z i e » s f e d e r a l c a b i n e t as M i n i s t e r o f I n l a n d Revenue. - 6 -M a c k e n z i e ' s g o v e r n m e n t was d e f e a t e d i n l e s s t h a n a y e a r and once more L a u r i e r became a member o f the O p p o s i t i o n . Edward B l a k e was p a r t y l e a d e r . M a c k e n z i e h a d b e e n a f i r m b e l i e v e r i n f r e e t r a d e and " l a i s s e z - f a i r e , " b u t B l a k e d i d n o t see t h e p r a c - . t i c a b i l i t y o f s u c h a s t a n d . I n a s p e e c h made a t M a l v e r n i n 1887, B l a k e • s t a t e d , No man, I c a r e n o t how c o n v i n c e d a n a d v o c a t e o f a b s o l u t e f r e e t r a d e f o r Canada he may b e , h a s y e t s u g g e s t e d a p r a c t i c a l p l a n whereby o u r g r e a t r e v e n u e needs c a n be met o t h e r w i s e t h a n b y t h e c o n t i n u e d ^im-p o s i t i o n o f v e r y h i g h d u t i e s o n goods s i m i l a r t o t h o s e we make or c a n make w i t h i n o u r own bounds o r o n r a w m a t e r i a l . 7 When, s h o r t l y a f t e r i s s u i n g t h i s s t a t e m e n t , B l a k e , f o r t h e s e c o n d t i m e , went down t o d e f e a t i n a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n , he d e c i d e d t o r e l i n q u i s h the p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p . H i s p e r s o n a l c h o i c e as h i s s u c c e s s o r was W i l f r e d y L a u r i e r . I n 1887 t h e p a r t y c a u c u s c h o s e L a u r i e r as n a t i o n a l l e a d e r . I n h i s own p r o v i n c e L a u r i e r a l r e a d y h a d won c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s p e c t b y h i s a b i l i t y t o o r g a n i z e t h e L i b e r a l s ; he h a d a l s o overcome much o f t h e : o p p o s i t i o n t h a t Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y h a d f e l t t o w a r d s "Le R o u g e . " He was known t o be a man o f h i g h p r i n c i p l e s as w e l l as an e x c e l l e n t o r a t o r , b u t e v e n he d o u b t e d t h e wisdom o f s e l e c t i n g f o r t h e n a t i o n a l p a r t y l e a d e r a F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n . Y e t he h a d been f a v o u r e d as the man most l i k e l y t o s u c c e e d b y B l a k e , a n d t h e c a u c u s h a d g i v e n h i s s e l e c t i o n i t s a p p r o v a l . From t h e t ime o f h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f the l e a d e r s h i p , L a u r i e r ' s c a r e e r , a c c o r d i n g t o J . S . W i l l i s o n , was r e m a r k a b l e f o r c o n s i s t e n t and u n c h a n g i n g d ' e v o t i o n t o t h r e e g r e a t o b j e c t s ; t h e a s s e r t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f f e d e r a l i s m , a r d e n t - 7 -and u n f l i n c h i n g c h a m p i o n s h i p o f c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s f r e e d o m , p a t i e n t and c o u r a g e o u s r e s i s t a n c e t o the d e n a t i o n a l i z i n g t e n d e n c i e s o f r a c i a l i s m , s e c t a r i a n i s m and p r o v i n c i a l i s m . L a u r i e r ' s f i r s t f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaign as l e a d e r o f t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y was f o u g h t i n 1891. The i s s u e was u n r e s t r i c t e d r e c i p r o c i t y w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ; on t h i s s t a n d he went down t o d e f e a t . A f t e r t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l c ampaign, L a u r i e r b e g an to l o o k t o r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d t o a new p o l i c y t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e p a r t y . He summoned t h e f i r s t n a t i o n a l L i b e r a l c o n v e n t i o n t o meet i n | Ottawa i n J u n e , l893» A l t h o u g h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s the p a r t y c o n v e n t i o n h a d b e e n a c c e p t e d as t h e b e s t method o f s e l e c t i n g a c a n d i d a t e and a r r i v i n g a t p a r t y p l a t f o r m , u n t i l now, no n a t i o n a l p a r t y c o n v e n t i o n h a d b e e n c a l l e d i n Canada. But, t o L a u r i e r , a p a r t y c o n v e n t i o n c o u l d s e r v e a d u a l p u r p o s e : i t was an i d e a l means o f u n i t i n g t h e d i v e r s e e l e m e n t s o f a p a r t y a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , p r o v i d i n g p a r t y members w i t h a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o become b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e i r l e a d e r . Those i n a t t e n d a n c e a t the O t tawa c o n v e n t i o n were t h e L i b e r a l members o f p a r l i a m e n t and L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s who h a d been d e f e a t e d i n t h e e l e c t i o n s o f 1891. T h e r e were a l s o f i v e d e l e g a t e s f r o m e a c h L i b e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n . I n t h o s e i n s t a n c e s where a n e l e c t o r a l d i s -t r i c t was e n t i t l e d t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f more t h a n one member i n t h e House o f Commons, the number o f d e l e g a t e s was f i v e , t i m e s t h e number o f i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h e House. A s p e c i a l i n v i t a t i o n was e x t e n d e d t o t h e L i b e r a l p r e s s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y to be p r e s e n t . 9 ^.1 t h e p r o v i n c e s o f Canada were r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e ) e x c e p t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n t h a t p r o v i n c e , p a r t y l i n e s h a d n o t y e t b e e n drawn and hence t h e r e was no a c t i v e L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n e x i s t e n c e . But a group of L i b e r a l p a r t y f o l l o w e r s sent a telegram to the convention which s t a t e d , Although not represented B r i t i s h Columbia takes warm i n t e r e s t i n the proceedings of the L i b e r a l Con-ven t i o n . Sentiment here favours a p o l i c y of f r e e r trade r e l a t i o n s w i t h Great B r i t a i n and her c o l o n i e s , e s p e c i a l l y A u s t r a l i a , and r e c i p r o c i t y of trade w i t h a l l other n a t i o n s . l ^ During the course of the convention, L a u r i e r r e a f f i r m e d h i s f a i t h i n the d o c t r i n e s of the school of B r i t i s h L i b e r a l i s m . But above a l l else he s t r e s s e d t h a t he was a Canadian and as such he would always work f o r what he considered to be the general wel-f a r e of the Canadian people. At the c l o s e of the sessions the meeting expressed i t s e n t i r e confidence i n L a u r i e r as, leader of the p a r t y . 11 The new program, c o n s i s t i n g of ten r e s o l u t i o n s , was intended to strengthen the L i b e r a l p a r t y and a s s i s t i t to get back i n t o power. The delegates, emphasizing the n e c e s s i t y of having a t a r i f f f o r revenue purposes, dropped u n r e s t r i c t e d r e c i -p r o c i t y and at the same time condemned the Conservative p o l i c y of h i g h p r o t e c t i o n as " r a d i c a l l y unsound, and u n j u s t to the masses of the people. "-^ That L i b e r a l s s t i l l maintained t h e i r f a i t h i n some form of r e c i p r o c i t y was shown by the second r e s o l u t i o n passed by the Convention. In t h i s , the b e n e f i t s which Canada would r e c e i v e from a w e l l conceived r e c i p r o c i t y agreement w i t h the United States we*se s t r e s s e d ; the only Items s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned f o r i n c l u s i o n were manufactured goods. The 1893 meeting c r i t i c i z e d the Conservative government f o r p e r m i t t i n g the mismanagement of p u b l i c funds. In 1891, the - 9 -Department of Public Works, under Hector Langevin had come under censure. A parliamentary enquiry disclosed that the entire Department was corrupt, but L8(ngevin was not considered to be completely at f a u l t . He was permitted to r e t a i n his cabinet p o s i t i o n despite opposition from the Liberal party. Laurier be-l i e v e d that a l l cabinet ministers should be above reproach i f the government expected to r e t a i n the f a i t h of the electorate. Not only did the Canadian people themselves suffer from corrupt government but the r e l a t i o n s which Canada enjoyed with other countries were weakened i f the honesty of the Canadian o f f i c i a l s was i n question. The L i b e r a l s also attacked the Franchise Act of 1885. This act had been passed by Macdonald fo r the purpose of creating uniformity of franchise i n the Dominion. P r i o r to 1885 each province had regulated Its own franchise; the 1885 act made pro-perty q u a l i f i c a t i o n s the basis for establishing the electorate throughout the country. Some consideration was given f o r i n d i v i -dual difference i n the provinces but the purpose"of the act was uniformity. By the same l e g i s l a t i o n the preparation of voters' l i s t s became a federal matter instead of p r o v i n c i a l . A federal government appointee c a l l e d a r e v i s i n g o f f i c e r was to be responsible for the l i s t s i n each d i s t r i c t ; most of these men were to be judges. In 1885» the Liberals had objected strenuously to the passage of the act; vthey considered that i t was an infringement of p r o v i n c i a l rights and an attempt by the Conservatives to gain an u n f a i r advan-tage i n future elections. By l893> they f e l t that the act was i n need of drastic r e v i s i o n . The Representation Act of 1892 was also attacked by the Convention. This was a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n act passed to make the necessary changes i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of seats as a result of the 1891 census. The L i b e r a l s declared that the l e g i s l a t i o n did no-thing but gerrymander the e l e c t o r a l d i v i s i o n s to give the Conser-vatives the advantage. The 1882 act for the same purpose had created tremendous controversy when i t had been passed, since many e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s were established with purely a r b i t r a r y boundaries. The only possible explanation for the 1882 act had been the Conservative party's desire to ensure r e e l e c t i o n . The 1892 act had been managed on much the same basis with fewer changes being made .since the increase i n population was less than i n the previous decade. Laurier and the Liberals urged that a committee representing "both p a r t i e s be established to draw up the boundaries but the Conservatives had refused to consider the sug-gestion. The Convention r e i t e r a t e d the L i b e r a l c r i t i c i s m of the two Representation Acts. One of the l a s t resolutions passed by the Convention was to urge the necessity o f Senate reform. The Liberals attacked the Senate on the grounds that i t was e n t i r e l y divorced from the w i l l of the people because the members were appointed and not elected. They also considered that since Macdonald had been j appointing none but Conservative members the Upper Chamber did not represent a true picture of Canadian p o l i t i c s . Reform was advocated to bring the Senate more clos e l y i n l i n e with the L i b e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Senate's p o s i t i o n i n a federal system. The L i b e r a l s f e l t that the electorate should have greater control over the Upper House. The f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n suggested the need for a Pr o h i b i t i o n plebescite~ to see i f the Canadian people desired a federal Pro-h i b i t i o n Act. The Canadian Temperance Act of I 8 7 8 , passed by Mackenzie, provided f o r l o c a l elections on the li q u o r question on p e t i t i o n by the voters. The B r i t i s h North America Act, i n Section 92, had s p e c i f i c a l l y given the provinces the ri g h t to control liquor sales while the federal government con t r o l l e d the manufacture of l i q u o r . By 1893, a strong temperance movement had developed i n the United States which had also gained much support i n Canada, many of the Lib e r a l s were i n favour of some method of p r o h i b i t i o n and the Liberal party favoured a federal law rather than continuing to r e l y on l o c a l l e g i s l a t i o n . Between 1893 and 189& the L i b e r a l party was able to consoli-date i t s p o s i t i o n . The delegates from the convention had returned to t h e i r constituencies f i l l e d with enthusiasm for the new leader and the platform. The Conservatives, on the other hand, were having increasing d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g a leader to replace Macdonald. In the federal elections of 1896 Laurier gained a sweeping vic t o r y ; winning 122 seats out of a t o t a l of 213. The Conservatives obtained only 88 seats and for the f i r s t time since I878 they formed the Opposition. In B r i t i s h Columbia four Liberals were returned out of a t o t a l of s i x members.^3 With Laurier's acceptance, i n I 8 9 6 , of the o f f i c e of Prime Minister, the L i b e r a l party entered a new phase i n i t s development. The party, after eighteen years i n opposition, was eager to imple-ment i t s p o l i c i e s . Quarrels which p r i o r to vi c t o r y had disrupted party unity were now forgotten. - 12 -In selecting his f i r s t Cabinet, Laurier had so l i t t l e trouble i n finding able men that he was faced with "an embar-rassment of riches."" 1"^ The Liberals while i n Opposition had declared that a cabinet should be small so Laurier f e l t bound to hold by his opinion. Consequently he found i t impossible to supply positions for a l l those party members who had hoped to be represented i n the Cabinet. "When a l l the posts were f i l l e d , there were seventeen ministers, including two without p o r t f o l i o , or one m i n i s t e r i a l place for every seven L i b e r a l members. Even so, many of outstanding a b i l i t y and service could not be included. Only one Minister was named from the West; C l i f f o r d Sif ton was ap-pointed Minister of the I n t e r i o r i n November, 1896, upon settlement of the Manitoba School Question. Laurier hoped to s a t i s f y a l l elements of his party i n his choice of executive members. He had chosen a Cabinet which, i n terms of a b i l i t y , was possibly the strongest i n the h i s t o r y of the young Dominion. But Liberals i n B r i t i s h Columbia were disappointed that no appointment had been made from their Province. This d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n created almost immediate f r i c t i o n between the federal L i b e r a l and the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l p a r t i e s . - 13 -CHAPTER I I  F e d e r a l P a r t y O r g a n i z a t i o n i "A p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , however l o f t y i t s p r i n c i p l e s , i s as s o u n d i n g b r a s s u n l e s s i t c a n a c h i e v e power.""^ B u t t o c o n t i n u e i n o f f i c e , a p a r t y must n o t o n l y d e v e l o p a p l a t f o r m w h i c h w i l l j a p p e a l t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e e l e c t o r a t e b u t a l s o h a v e an o r g a n i -z a t i o n w h i c h w i l l keep t h e v o t e r s i n l i n e a n d make them aware o f p a r t y p o l i c y . I n 1 8 9 6 t h e L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was s t i l l so n e b u l o u s t h a t many p e o p l e c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e L i b e r a l v i c t o r y was due t o a happy c o m b i n a t i o n o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s more t h a n t o any s t r e n g t h o f o r g a n i -z a t i o n . A f t e r t h e d e a t h o f S i r J o h n A. M a c d o n a l d the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y s u f f e r e d f r o m l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p ; t h e c o u n t r y was i n t h e g r i p o f a n e conomic r e c e s s i o n . P r i o r t o t h e L i b e r a l v i c t o r y i n 1 8 9 6 , " b i g b u s i n e s s " f a v o u r e d t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y , L i t t l e f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g f o r the L i b e r a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n was t h e r e f o r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . Once i n power, however, and i n c o n t r o l of p a t r o n a g e , t h e s i t u a t i o n c h a n g e d . The  C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s l i s t s names of company d i r e c t o r s who gave s u p p o r t t o t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y a f t e r 1 8 9 6 . On a n a t i o n a l l e v e l t h e w h o l e s y s t e m o f p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n was s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d t o b e " t h e e x c l u s i v e domain o f the p a r t y l e a d e r and h i s p a r l i a m e n t a r y c o h o r t s . " A N a t i o n a l o f f i c e , a l t h o u g h m a i n t a i n e d a t Ottawa, d i d l i t t l e i n t h e way o f o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l work and an o f f i c i a l p a r t y o r g a n was not i s s u e d u n t i l ' 1 9 1 3 . The N a t i o n a l L i b e r a l p l a t f o r m , , a c c e p t e d i n l 8 9 3 v , was m o d i -f i e d as r e q u i r e d b y d i s c u s s i o n s b e t w e e n L a u r i e r and members o f h i s - Ik -cabinet or the party caucus; no further national conventions were j c a l l e d by Laurier. The p r o v i n c i a l organizations continued after 1 8 9 3 to be the working units of the party; i n matters of party opinion and p o l i c y the national leader retained the director's seat. Laurier was f u l l y aware of his importance to the party organization.' When Senator Templemanl^ t r i e d to impress upon 1 him the necessity of appointing a cabinet minister with p o r t f o l i o from B r i t i s h Columbia, Laurier informed him, In these matters, the judgment of the Prime Minister i s the judgment of an Umpire. You wilLI 1 believe, c r e d i t me with a sincere desire of doing f a i r l y by a l l sections of the country and by a l l my friends. I t i s always very d i f f i c u l t , however, to s a t i s f y them a l l at the same time, though i t i s possible with some patience to arrive at that end. 2 0 Party organization on the national l e v e l was most active immediately preceding an e l e c t i o n . Between 1 8 9 6 and 1 9 1 1 there were f i v e occasions when the national machinery was calDe d into action. On four of these occasions, i n 1 8 9 6 , 1 9 0 0 , 1 9 0 k and 1 9 0 8 , the L i b e r a l party was successful i n being returned to power, but whether the v i c t o r i e s were due to the party having a more e f f i c i e n t organization than that of the Conservatives i s doubtful. Rather, they seem to be r e l a t e d to the strength of Laurier's personal leadership and the good fortune of being i n o f f i c e during a period of general economic prosperity. The same party machinery could be used for both federal and pro-v i n c i a l elections. The federal p r o v i n c i a l party leader was chosen I by the members of his party who had been elected to the federal l e g i s -l a t u r e . William Templeman, who was selected as the p r o v i n c i a l PLATE II B r i t i s h Columbia Federal L i b e r a l Leader 1896-1911 Honourable William Templeman Senator 1897-1906 Minister without P o r t f o l i o 1902-1906 Minister of Inland Revenue 1906-1911 Minister of Mines 1907-1911 -15 -l e a d e r I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1896, was t o be r e t a i n e d i n t h e ^ p o s i t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r on the n a t i o n a l l e v e l u n t i l 1911 and t h e d e f e a t o f t h e L a u r i e r government. D u r i n g t h i s t i m e he a t t e m p t e d to a c t as i n t e r p r e t e r , w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e , o f t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p o l i c y and a t t h e same time as i n f o r m a n t t o t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y o f a c t i v i t i e s among t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s . D u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n s i n Ottawa he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e t a i n i n g t h e v o t e s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l members f o r t h e g o v e r n -ment and f o r m a i n t a i n i n g a w a t c h i n g b r i e f o n a f f a i r s w h i c h t o u c h e d o n t h e P r o v i n c e ' s i n t e r e s t s ; a t t i m e s he was c a l l e d u p o n by L a u r i e r t o o f f e r a d v i c e o n p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . B etween s e s s i o n s , when he was i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Templeman s p e n t much o f h i s t i m e tryjng t o i n t e r p r e t d o m i n i o n p o l i c y t o t h e e l e c t o r a t e o f t h e p r o v i n c e . He v i s i t e d n o t o n l y s e c t i o n s o f h i s own c o n s t i t u e n c y b u t o f t e n t r a v e l 3 e d e x t e n s i v e l y t h r o u g h t h e p r o -v i n c e t o r e c e i v e d e l e g a t i o n s who wanted to p r e s s some p o i n t home t o t h e f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s . I n p r e s e n t i n g t o L a u r i e r , i n 1902, | t h e p r o v i n c i a l c a s e f o r h a v i n g a M i n i s t e r w i t h P o r t f o l i o , Templeman e x p l a i n e d so me o f h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s . The p o s i t i o n o f a M i n i s t e r w i t h o u t p o r t f o l i o , when t h e r e i s o n l y one m i n i s t e r f r o m t h e P r o v i n c e i s n o t a v e r y e a s y one, a v e r y g r e a t d e a l i s e x p e c t e d o f h i m and he i s n o t i n a p o s i t i o n t o do much ... I am i n V i c t o r i a t h r e e o r f o u r weeks and e v e r y moment o f t h a t t i m e h a s b e e n g i v e n up t o q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o d e p a r t m e n t a l and p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s and I c a n _ s e e s e v e r a l months o f t h e same k i n d s t i l l a head. A t . t h i s t i m e h i s a t t e n t i o n was o c c u p i e d w i t h s u c h m a t t e r s as c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e M a r i n e H o s p i t a l , a g r i e v a n c e o n the p a r t o f t h e C o w i c h a n I n d i a n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r l a n d , t h e l h a r m f u l e f f e c t o f t h e t a r i f f o n t h e lu m b a r t r a d e , a n d v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s r e l a t i n g - 16 -t o t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . " W i t h a l l t h e mi)nor q u e s t i o n s t h a t a p o l i t i c i a n h a s t o c o n s i d e r , I c a n n o t g e t away f r o m t h i s work i f I t r i e d , and h a v i n g no a u t h o r i t y t o d e a l d e c i s i v e l y w i t h t h o s e t h a t w o u l d p e r m i t o f s u c h a c o u r s e , I c a n o n l y p r o m i s e t o i n v e s - I 22 t i g a t e , and r e p o r t t o t h e m i n i s t e r s c o n c e r n e d . " The most i m p o r t a n t u n i t i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was t h e p o l l o r r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n . I t was h e r e t h a t t h e p a r t y ' s p o l i c i e s were k e p t b e f o r e the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e l o c a l members. The p o l l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o an e l e c t i o n , was- r e s -p o n s i b l e f o r o b t a i n i n g t h e v o t e r s ' l i s t and e x a m i n i n g i t t o a s s e s s t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e p a r t y . The p o l l o r g a n i z a t i o n p a i d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h o s e p e r s o n s vho were c o n s i d e r e d t o b e d o u b t f u l i n t h e i r p a r t y a f f i l i a t i o n and t r i e d t o p e r s u a d e them t o g i v e s u p p o r t t o t h e L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e . The l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n assumed t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of f u r n i s h i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o t a k e t h e v o t e r s t o t h e p o l l s o n e l e c t i o n day. S i n c e the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o m p a n i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were known t o f u r n i s h f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g t o the C o n s e r v a t i v e c a u s e , t h e L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s s u s p e c t e d t h a t much c o u l d be done t o p r e v e n t t h e a r r i v a l 23 o f t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s a t t h e p o l l s . H e w i t t B o s t o c k , c a m p a i g n i n g i n ^ t h e Y a l e - C a r i b o o d i s t r i c t v o i c e d t h i s o p i n i o n when he w r o t e t o L a u r i e r i n J u n e , 1896. The C.P.R. has so much power i n t h i s c o u n t r y f r o m ^ E a s t t o West and t h e B.C. E x p r e s s Co. f r o m A s h c r o f t t o B a r k e r v i l l e and L i l l o o e t , and t h e steamboat companies i n E a s t a n d West K o o t e n a y t h a t t h e r e i s room f o r an immense amount o f work t o be done a b o u t p o l l i n g day i n s t o p p i n g my v o t e r s f r o m g e t t i n g t o t h e P o l l s and i n t a k i n g Mara's ( h i s o p p o n e n t ) v o t e r s t h e r e . 4 •\ T h i s p r o b l e m was no d o u b t worse i n some p l a c e s t h a n i n o t h e r s b u t - 17 -t h e l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a d t o be on the a l e r t e v e r y w h e r e i f t h e y d i d n o t want t o f i n d a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e d o u b t f u l v o t e r s t u r n i n g up a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n b o o t h s . P o l i t i c a l p a t r o n a g e was an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t weapon d u r i n g ' t h i s p e r i o d i n Canada. The C o n s e r v a t i v e s , u n d e r M a c d o n a l d , h a d b e e n a c c u s e d b y the L i b e r a l s o f u s i n g e v e r y t y p e o f p a t r o n a g e p o s -s i b l e i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e v o t e s . The P u b l i c e x p e c t e d t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y t o be e q u a l l y w i l l i n g to p a y f o r s e r v i c e s i f i t w i s h e d t o s e c u r e f a v o u r s . L a u r i e r d i d n o t r e a l l y b e l i e v e i n t h e p a t r o n a g e s y s t e m i n p o l i t i c s b u t so o n f o u n d t h a t i f he w a n t e d t o r e m a i n i n power f o r l o n g t h a t a c e r t a i n anount o f p a t r o n a g e was n e c e s s a r y . , f One method o f d i s t r i b u t i n g p a t r o n a g e i n t h e l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was t h r o u g h t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f s c r u t i n e e r s and o t h e r e l e c t i o n o f f i c i a l s . Good p a r t y w o r k e r s c o u l d be a s s u r e d o f a p a y i n g j o b a t l e a s t o n e l e c t i o n d a y . .'>.-?n ! Sometimes the, men h i r e d f o r t h e s e p o s i t i o n s were d i s h o n e s t . I I n t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s o f 1908 an i n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d i n the K o o t e n a y a r e a where t h e r e t u r n i n g o f f i c e r s a p p a r e n t l y a b s c o n d e d w i t h t h e f u n d s s e n t f r o m Ottawa t o p a y f o r t h e e l e c t i o n e x p e n s e s . 25 ' When J o h n O l i v e r w r o t e t o L a u r i e r s t a t i n g t h a t t h i s was one o f t h e c a u s e s f o r l o c a l c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t t h e government, L a u r i e r r e p l i e d , "The f a u l t i s n o t w i t h t h e Government: i t seems t o b e w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the men who were s e l e c t e d as R e t u r n i n g O f f i c e r s . I n many c a s e s c o m p l a i n t s came t o me when i n f a c t the money h a d b e e n i n t h e hands o f t h e R e t u r n i n g O f f i c e r f o r many weeks."^^ One o f t h e d a n g e r s o f the p a t r o n a g e s y s t e m was the I m p o s s i -b i l i t y o f k e e p i n g c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f a l l p e r s o n s - 18 -who s u p p o s e d l y were p a r t y f o l l o w e r s ; t h i s was s o , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , where t h e p r o s p e c t o f p e r s o n a l g a i n was one o f the m a i n r e a s o n s f o r an i n d i v i d u a l g i v i n g s u p p o r t t o a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . To o b t a i n membership i n a p r o v i n c i a l o r l o c a l p a r t y a s s o c i a -t i o n was g e n e r a l l y a s i m p l e m a t t e r : w i l l i n g n e s s t o g i v e some t i m e t o p a r t y a f f a i r s was one o f t h e c h i e f r e q u i s i t e s . When a member-s h i p f e e was c h a r g e d i t was f r e q u e n t l y o n l y t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s and '27 v e r y o f t e n t h i s sum was n o t c o l l e c t e d t o o r e g u l a r l y . T h e i r s l i m r e s o u r c e s made i t n e c e s s a r y f o r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s t o s e e k ' f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m b u s i n e s s f i r m s o r i n d i v i d u a l s whose p h i l a n t h r o p y o f t e n was b a s e d on t h e hope o f w i n n i n g a government c o n t r a c t . G e n e r a l l y , i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e were , two l a r e l s o f a s s o c i a t i o n above t h e l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ! t h e e l e c -t o r a l d i s t r i c t a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d the p r o v i n c i a l b ody. These two g r o u p s became p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e a t the t i m e o f a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n ; g e n e r a l l y t h e same e x e c u t i v e p l u n g e d i n t o t h e work o f c a r r y i n g o n t h e c a m p a i g n f o r a D o m i n i o n e l e c t i o n . The e x e c u t i v e o f a d i s t r i c t a s s o c i a t i o n was o r d i n a r i l y s e l e c t e d a t a c o n v e n t i o n o f d e l e g a t e s f r o m t h e l o c a l g r o u p s . These e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s , p l u s a f i x e d number o f d e l e g a t e s f r o m e a c h l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n were, i n t u r n , a b l e to a t t e n d a p r o v i n c i a l c o n v e n t i o n i f one was c a l l e d . To s e l e c t c a n d i d a t e s f o r a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , i t was c u s t o -mary t o c a l l a c o n v e n t i o n o f e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s At; t h i s : c o n v e n - . t i o n , n o m i n a t i o n s were made, v o t e s were c a s t and t h e o f f i c i a l c a n d i d a t e c h o s e n . The s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e was t h e n e x p e c t e d t o c a r r y on a n a c t i v e campaign t h r o u g h o u t h i s own d i s t r i c t . M o s t o f - 19 -the f u n d s f o r t h e s e t o u r s were o f t e n s u p p l i e d h y t h e c a n d i d a t e s \ t h e m s e l v e s . B o s t o c k r e f e r r e d t o t h i s custom i n a l e t t e r t o L a u r i e r i n 1895• "Of c o u r s e i n t h e e v e n t o f my r u n n i n g , t h e q u e s t i o n I a s k d d y o u i n my l a s t l e t t e r as t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l com-m i t t e e b e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n f u n d s f r o m t h e E a s t to h e l p i n the e l e c t i o n w i l l n o t a p p l y as I am p r e p a r e d t o s t a n d my own e x p e n s e s . " V e r y f r e q u e n t l y no p r o v i n c i a l c o n f e r e n c e was c a l l e d b e f o r e a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n ; i n t h i s c a s e i t was u s u a l f o r the p a r t y p l a t f o r m t o b e a n n o u n c e d a t t h e d i s t r i c t c o n f e r e n c e s where t h e c a n d i d a t e was c h o s e n . U n l e s s a l l t h e c a n d i d a t e s were i n t o t a l agreement w i t h ^ O t t awa t h i s meant t h a t t h e r e was a c e r t a i n d i s u n i t y w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . I f , However, a p r o v i n c i a l c o n f e r e n c e was c a l l e d b y t h e e x e c u t i v e , t h e f i n a l announcements a b o u t p l a t f o r m a n d c ampaign p r o c e d u r e s were made a t t h e t i m e . I t was a l s o a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l / m e e t i n g t h a t a p a r t y o r g a n i z e r was s e l e c t e d i f one was n e e d e d . ' I n 1898, R. L. D r u r y ^ was a p p o i n t e d b y t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e 30 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n ^ t o b e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r . A l t h o u g h D r u r y ' s a p p o i n t m e n t was made p r i o r t o a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n he was e x p e c t e d t o a c t i n t h e same c a p a c i t y f o r t h e n e x t f e d e r a l campaign. O f t e n , however, t h e r e was no o r g a n i z e r i n B r i t i s h ^ C o l u m b i a f o r e i t h e r p r o v i n c i a l o r f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s . The p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i s s u i n g cam-p a i g n l i t e r a t u r e ; s u p p l y i n g s p e a k e r s f o r m e e t i n g s t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e ; d i s p e n s i n g c ampaign f u n d s and w o r k i n g w i t h o r g a n i z e r s o r campaign managers i n the e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s . D u r i n g m o s t o f L a u r i e r ' s p e r i o d i n o f f i c e , l i t t l e t h o u g h t was g i v e n t o t h e employ-ment o f a p a i d , f u l l - t i m e o r g a n i z e r f o r the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h j C o l u m b i a who w o u l d t a k e c h a r g e o f f e d e r a l c ampaigns as l i a i s o n b e t w e e n - 20 -Ottawa and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s h a d s u c h an o f f i c i a l . I n 1910, Templeman r e c e i v e d the f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r f r o m a V i c t o r i a s u p p o r t e r . A l l we want i s s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s to engage an o r g a n i z e r s i m i l a r t o S a s k a t c h e w a n . M a n i t o b a h a s r e c e n t l y e n g a g e d t h e i r man and A l b e r t a i s , I b e l i e v e , d o i n g l i k e w i s e . The man and the money c a n be f o u n d and t h e work i s n e c e s s a r y ... Money c o u l d be s a v e d and more and t h o r o u g h work a c c o m p l i s h e d by a t t e n d i n g t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n as we went a l o n g r a t h e r t h a n b y p u t t i n g e v e r y t h i n g o f f t i l l a n e l e c t i o n was i n s i g h t . 3 1 D u r i n g a f e d e r a l c ampaign, some o f the C a b i n e t members f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t e d t h e more d i s t a n t p r o v i n c e s t o a s s i s t the l o c a l c a n d i d a t e s . B u t , i n 1896, B o s t o c k r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e was no n e e d o f i m p o r t i n g s p e a k e r s f r o m t h e e a s t f o r h i s c o n s t i t u e n c y , s i n c e , " C o n s e r v a t i v e s i m p o r t e d E . K i n g Dodds f r o m T o r o n t o h e r e . And the 32 p e o p l e h a ve r e s e n t e d i t . " A few y e a r s l a t e r , when no e a s t e r n members v i s i t e d the P r o v i n c e on t h e e v e o f the 1908 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , t h e r e was g e n e r a l f e e l i n g t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was b e i n g n e g l e c t e d . D u r i n g the l a s t h a l f o f h i s t e r m , L a u r i e r was r e p e a t e d l y a s k e d t o v i s i t t h e w e s t o r t o s e n d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r o m Ottawa who would h e l p t u r n t h e t i d e f o r t h e L i b e r a l s . I n 33 t h i s v e i n R. G-. M a c p h e r s o n w r o t e t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r i n September, 1908: We w i l l a l l b e s o r r y i f y o u c a n n o t make t h e t r i p West, b u t i t seems t h a t t h e t i m e may be t o o s h o r t f o r y o u , Mr. F i e l d i n g , and Mr. L e m i e u x t o come. You w o u l d c e r t a i n l y do an immense d e a l o f good as no M i n i s t e r s h a v e v i s i t e d t h e West i n a. c a m p a i g n i n g way s i n c e t h e L i b e r a l s came i n t o power. L e t t e r s w r i t t e n b y Templeman and o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s u p p o r t e r I n d i c a t e t h a t i t was f e l t t h a t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a l t h o u g h t h e - 21 -s t r e n g t h e f the f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was c e n t r e d i n Ottawa, t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c a r r i e d t h e g r e a t e r b u r d e n d u r i n g e l e c t i o n ^ c a m p a i g n s . I i i d e e d , t h e s t r e n g t h o f the p a r t y w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e f o r t h e f e d e r a l as w e l l as f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s d e p e n d e d u p o n the e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the l o c a l u n i t s . B e c a u s e o f weak o r g a n i z a t i o n i n some p r o v i n c i a l a r e a s as w e l l as g e n e r a l p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p r o p o s e d r e c i p r o c i t y a g r e e m e n t w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y f o u n d i t s e l f , i n 1911, c o m p l e t e l y r o u t e d i n t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f a i l e d t o r e t u r n a s i n g l e L i b e r a l member; h e r e t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e l y i n e f f e c t u a l . One r e a s o n f o r t h e l a c k o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e L i b e r a l s i n 1911 was t h e f a c t t h a t L a u r i e r d i d n o t make as e f f e c t i v e u s e o f t h e p r e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as d i d t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s . From the b e -g i n n i n g o f p a r t y p o l i t i c s , c o n t r o l o f t h e p r e s s h a s b e e n one o f t h e methods e m p l o y e d by p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s t o i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c o p i n i o n . No n e w s p a p e r s i n Canada h a v e b e e n owned b y n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s b u t many have b e e n owned and e d i t e d b y p r o m i n e n t p o l i t i -c i a n s . - ^ The T o r o n t o G l o b e had b e e n famed f r o m the b e g i n n i n g as a l i b e r a l n e wspaper. I n e v e r y p r o v i n c e o f C a n a d a p a p e r s w i t h s t r o n g p a r t y a f f i l i a t i o n s have a l w a y s e x i s t e d ; B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s b e e n no e x c e p t i o n . Two o f t h e l e a d i n g p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s owned c o n t r o l l i n g i n t e r e s t s i n n e w s p a p e r s f o r some t i m e d u r i n g L a u r i e r ' s p e r i o d ; B o s t o c k f o u n d e d The P r o v i n c e , Templeman was the m a j o r s h a r e h o l d e r o f The T i m e s . C o n s e r v a t i v e s u p p o r t e r s were e q u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e n ewspaper b u s i n e s s , f o r f o u r y e a r s f r o m 1902 t o 1906, James Dunsmuir owned t h e V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t . - 22 -D e s p i t e t h e r e c o g n i z e d s u p p o r t g i v e n t o t h e p a r t i e s b y t h e p r e s s , L a u r i e r d i s c l a i m e d a n y f o r m o f government c o n t r o l o v e r any newspaper i n t h e D o m i n i o n when a p p r o a c h e d by B o s t o c k i n 1 8 9 8 . The Government h a s no o r g a n anywhere, as y o u know. The o n l y t h i n g t h a t we c a n do f o r f r i e n d l y n e w spapers i s t o g i v e them what l i t t l e p a t r o n a g e i n t h e way o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s we may have a t o u r d i s p o s a l , b u t we / h a v e made no a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h anybody whereby some _, p a r t i c u l a r p a p e r i s t o be a u t h o r i z e d t o s p e a k f o r u s . The D a i l y W o r l d , w h i c h was t h e c a u s e o f B o s t o c k ' s c o m p l a i n t , was C o n s e r v a t i v e i n 1 8 9 8 b u t b e c a m e a r e c o g n i z e d L i b e r a l o r g a n d u r i n g L a u r i e r ' s t e r m . Y e t t h e r e was a s t e a d y d e c l i n e o f n e w s p a p e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h i c h gave s u p p o r t t o t h e L i b e r a l c a u s e . I n 1 9 0 9 , O l i v e r w r o t e t h a t t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s c o n t r o l l e d 8 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e n e w s p a p e r s o f the P r o v i n c e , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h h a d h e l p e d t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e d e f e a t of- the P r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s i n t h e 1 9 0 8 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s : - ^ o n l y two o f s e v e n members r e t u r n e d t o Ottawa were L i b e r a l . To remedy the d i f f i c u l t y , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l l e a d e r s u r g e n t l y r e q u e s t e d f u n d s f r o m E a s t e r n Canada t o h e l p e s t a b -l i s h n e w spapers i n V a n c o u v e r and N e l s o n . L a u r i e r r e p u d i a t e d t h e i d e a t h a t f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d f r o m t h e E a s t d e s -p i t e h i s agreement w i t h O l i v e r t h a t more L i b e r a l n e w s p a p e r s were r e q u i r e d . When t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l l e a d e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t D u ncan R o s s - ^ h a d b e e n p r o m i s e d a s s i s t a n c e i n 1 9 0 8 t o e s t a b l i s h a newspaper i n V a n c o u v e r , L a u r i e r r e p l i e d , " . . . I t o l d h i m v e r y f r a n k l y t h a t u n d e r e x i s t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t w o u l d n o t b e ' p o s s i b l e f o r u s t o r a i s e any money i n t h e E a s t and t h a t i t was a c a s e where 39 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a wealthy as i t i s , c o u l d c e r t a i n l y s u p p l y f u n d s . " D e s p i t e t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a c o n t r o l l e d - 23 -p r e s s a t e l e c t i o n t i m e s i n b o t h t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d s , L a u r i e r h e s i t a t e d t o g i v e o p e n s u p p o r t t o l o c a l o r g a n s . He c o n -s i d e r e d t h a t p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , b y f i n a n c i n g t h e i r own"newspapers, w o u l d g a i n i n s t r e n g t h a n d u n i t y . The P r i m e M i n i -s t e r saw t h a t f e d e r a l s u p p o r t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p r e s s would l e n d I t s e l f t o c r i t i c i s m . I t w o u l d be v e r y e a s y f o r t h e Conservative, 1.; O p p o s i t i o n t o c l a i m t h a t t h e L i b e r a l s were i n f r i n g i n g on p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s . The L i b e r a l p a r t y s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d i t s e l f t h e champion o f th e p r o v i n c i a l c a u s e d e s p i t e L a u r i e r ' s g r o w i n g d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o b u i l d a s t r o n g f e d e r a l u n i o n . Y e t , i f some s u p p o r t h a d b e e n g i v e n t o the r e q u e s t s f o r ) a s s i s t a n c e t o e s t a b l i s h n e w s p a p e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e c o u r s e o f d e f e a t w h i c h was b e g u n i n 1 9 0 8 and c o m p l e t e d i n 1 9 1 1 m i g h t have b e e n a v o i d e d . A p a r t y w h i c h n e g l e c t e d o r made an enemy o f t h e p r e s s h a d g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n r e t a i n i n g o f f i c e . T h i s was p r o v e n c o n c l u -s i v e l y a t t h e expense o f t h e L i b e r a l s . D a f o e once d e c l a r e d t h a t , "The L a u r i e r government died i n 1 9 H » n o t so much f r o m t h e a s s a u l t s o f i t s enemies as f r o m h a r d e n i n g o f i t s a r t e r i e s and f r o m o l d a g e . " ^ The a l m o s t c o m p l e t e d i s r e g a r d o f t h e u s e o f t h e c o n t r o l l e d p r e s s a l o n g w i t h the l a c k o f u n i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h e x i s t e d w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l b r a n c h o f t h e p a r t y s p e l l e d r u i n f o r the L i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ; The t i m e h a d come i n t h e p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y o f the most w e s t e r l y p r o v i n c e f o r a r e a s s e s s m e n t o f p a r t y p o l i c i e s i f t h e two p a r t y s y s t e m was t o c o n t i n u e i n e x i s t e n c e . - 2k -CHAPTER I I I P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y O r g a n i z a t i o n G e o g r a p h y has b e e n a m a j o r f o r c e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f ' p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The p r o b l e m s c r e a t e d b y t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l f a c t o r s p r e s e n t i n t h e P r o v i n c e h a v e i n f l u e n c e d e v e r y s t a g e o f p r o v i n c i a l growth; t h e p e r i o d o f p a r t y d e v e l o p m e n t h a s b e e n no e x c e p t i o n . Prom t h e f u r t r a d e e r a t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n f r o m t h e r e s t o f Canada and E u r o p e has h a d a n e f f e c t o n many a s p e c t s o f l i f e i n the a r e a . The f u r c o m p a n i e s , w i t h h e a d -q u a r t e r s i n M o n t r e a l a n d E n g l a n d e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g men and s u p p l i e s t o t h e w e s t e r n p o s t s and, i n t u r n , h a d p r o b l e m s s h i p p i n g f u r s t o m a r k e t . Men i n t h e w e s t e r n p o s t s became more I s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t t h a n t h o s e i n l e s s i s o l a t e d r e g i o n s ; l a r g e r p o s t s h a d t o be e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e s u p p l i e s o v e r l o n g e r p e r i o d s . L a t e r , d u r i n g c o l o n i a l d a y s , d i f f i c u l t i e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n G r e a t B r i t a i n and t h e two we s t c o a s t c o l o n i e s r e s u l t e d i n many d i s p u t e s and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s d e v e l o p i n g b e t w e e n t h e G o v e r n o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and the C o l o n i a l ' O f f i c e i n London. O f f i c e r s I n t h e C o l o n i e s f o u n d d e l a y s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t o l e r a b l e and u s u a l l y p r o c e e d e d w i t h t h e i r p l a n s b e f o r e r e c e i v i n g a u t h o r i z a t i o n f r o m B r i t a i n . G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s was, o n more t h a n one o c c a s i o n , r e p r o v e d f o r m a k i n g p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s b e f o r e he h a d r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . I n 1862 and 1863 when he c o n t i n u e d w i t h h i s a r r a n g e m e n t s to b o r r o w money f o r r o a d b u i l d i n g w i t h o u t o b t a i n i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n f i r m a t i o n f r o m L o n d o n , he was s h a r p l y r e p r i m a n d e d . To overcome t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s c r e a t e d b y d i s t a n c e i t 1 was a g r e e d - 2 5 -b y t h e t e r m s o f t h e A c t o f U n i o n ^ i n 1871 t h a t a r a i l w a y was t o be c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n t e n y e a r s t o c o n n e c t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h t h e r e s t o f C a nada. F r e q u e n t disputes a r o s e between P r o v i n c e and D o m i n i o n when u n f o r e s e e n d e l a y s o c c u r r e d i n c o n s t r u c t i o n . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p o l i t i c i a n s were n o t e d f o r a s i n g l e m i n d e d n e s s o f p u r p o s e w h i c h e a r n e d f o r them a r e p u t a t i o n o f b e i n g o p p o r t u n i s t s . They were e x p e c t e d t o p r e s s p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f l o y a l t y t o any p a r t y i n power. L o c a l l y , i t was a r g u e d , t h a t t h e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s owed g r e a t e r l o y a l t y t o t h e i r P r o v i n c e and t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s t h a n t o any p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . I n 1876, d u r i n g t h e M a c k e n z i e r e g i m e , The C o l o n i s t was v o c a l on t h e s u b j e c t . I t i s w e l l t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f t h i s P r o v i n c e s h o u l d d e p r e c a t e e v e r y a t t e m p t t h a t may be made t o i m p o r t p o l i t i c a l s t r i f e s and h e a r t b u r n i n g s w h i c h now a g i t a t e t h e m i n d s o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e E a s t e r n p r o v i n c . e s , and g i v e o u r p u b l i c men t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t i n d e a l i n g w i t h C anada t h e y must know n e i t h e r G r i t s n o r T o r i e s . A l l B. C. a s k s i s j u s t i c e . She s e e k s a l l i a n c e w i t h n e i t h e r p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i n t h e E a s t ... To us t h e Ottawa g o v e r n -ment i s Canada. W i t h t h a t government we must d e a l i f we d e a l w i t h Canada, and i t w o u l d be t h e h e i g h t o f u n -wisdom f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s - "whose p o l i t i c s a r e t h e r a i l w a y , " - t o s u f f e r o u r m i n i s t e r s t o l e t o u r g r e a t e s t and b e s t i n t e r e s t l a n g u i s h a n d d i e w h i l s t ; t h e y e n g a g e d i n p o l i t i c a l s q u a b b l e s i n w h i c h t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e P a c i f i c P r o v i n c e h a v e as much i n t e r e s t as t h e man i n t h e moon . 4 - 2 From 1871 t o 1896 a l l t h e members e l e c t e d t o t h e f e d e r a l h o u s e f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were s a i d t o be f r o m t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . N o t u n t i l I 8 9 6 , when a L i b e r a l v i c t o r y seemed a s s u r e d and t h e t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y was an a c c o m p l i s h e d fact, d i d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e t u r n f o u r o u t o f s i x members to Ottawa who c a l l e d t h e m s e l v e s L i b e r a l s . . ^ T h i s s i g n o f s u p p o r t d i d n o t mean t h a t the L i b e r a l p a r t y -fe&d-- 26 -h a d g a i n e d a s e c u r e p o s i t i o n I n t h e P r o v i n c e . Many o f t h e o l d e r r e s i d e n t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a remembered t h e p e r i o d o f A l e x a n d e r M a c k e n g i e ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f r o m 1873 t o 1878 as one when t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e P r o v i n c e h a d b e e n b e t r a y e d . M a c k e n z i e h a d o p p o s e d t h e r a i l w a y c l a u s e o f t h e Terms o f u n i o n on the g r o u n d t h a t i t was " I m p o s s i b l e o f f u l f i l m e n t . " ^ He r e j e c t e d t h e i d e a t h a t a commer-c i a l company s h o u l d be g r a n t e d l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d as a s u b s i d y f o r b u i l d i n g t h e r a i l w a y ; " i t w o u l d p l a c e an e x c e s s i v e amount o f th e D o m i n i o n ' s p a t r i m o n y i n t h e hands o f s p e c u l a t o r s . " ^ B u t by 1896, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was w i l l i n g t o f o r g e t t h e p r e v i o u s L i b e r a l t e r m and g i v e s u p p o r t t o L a u r i e r i n h i s e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h f r e e r t r a d e and p r o m i s e d w e s t e r n d e v e l o p m e n t . Y e t t h e g e e l i n g p e r s i s t e d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was d i v i d e d , b o t h g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , f r o m t h e r e s t o f Canada and as l a t e as 1909 t h i s was g i v e n as t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e p o o r s h o w i n g made b y t h e L i b e r a l s i n t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1908. P. C. W a d e ^ i n f o r m e d L a u r i e r t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e ' s p o s i t i o n on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e m o u n t a i n s meant t h a t Ottawa i n f l u e n c e was v e r y weak and t h a t A m e r i c a n i n f l u e n c e was much s t r o n g e r . ^ The n a t u r a l t r a d e a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n r o u t e s a l l t e n d e d t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e n o r t h -s o u t h a t t a c h m e n t . G e o g r a p h i c a l s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e r e s t o f Canada u n d e r l a y t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s l i k e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s f o r a n y t h i n g a p p e a r i n g as i n t e r f e r e n c e o n t h e p a r t o f E a s t e r n e r s i n p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . When M a l c o l m C a m e r o n ^ v i s i t e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1863 he was i n f o r m e d t h a t e a s t e r n p o l i t i c s and e a s t e r n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s h a d no p l a c e i n the w e s t e r n c o l o n y ; M o s t o f the p e o p l e who s e t t l e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d i s t r u s t e d a n y t h i n g r e s e m b l i n g i n t e r f e r e n c e b y - 27 -t h e f e d e r a l g o v ernment and were p a r t i c u l a r l y j e a l o u s o f t h e i r r i g h t t o l o o k a f t e r t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . I n I87O, when the s u b j e c t o f u n i o n w i t h C a nada was b e i n g d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e , c o n t r o v e r s y d e v e l o p e d o v e r t h e n e e d t o i n t r o d u c e r e s p o n s i b l e g o v ernment. Dr. Helmcken, one o f the p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s ^ i n t h e c o l o n y , o p p o s e d r e s p o n s i b l e government on the g r o u n d s t h a t " t h e c o u n t r y was n o t p r e p a r e d f o r i t , t h e p e o p l e d i d n o t i n r e a l i t y d e s i r e i t , and t h a t i t meant o f f i c e s p o i l s and c o r r u p t i o n - g o v e r n -ment by and f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s . " ^ The j e a l o u s y between t h e M a i n l a n d and the I s l a n d w h i c h p l a g u e d t h e e a r l y p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f t h e P r o v i n c e was a n o t h e r c r e a t u r e o f g e o g r a p h y . The p r o v i n c i a l . L i b e r a l s h a b i t u a l l y r e g a r d e d t h e P r o v i n c e as b e i n g s e p a r a t e d i n t o two r i v a l camps, M a i n l a n d and I s l a n d , b o t h o f them c o m p e t i n g f o r any s p o i l s o f o f f i c e . When S e n a t o r Templeman was a p p o i n t e d M i n i s t e r o f I n l a n d Revenue i n 1906, c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n t o o k p l a c e i n the P r o v i n c e c o n c e r n i n g t h e c h o i c e o f s u c c e s s o r . R. G-. M a c p h e r s o n p o i n t e d o u t t o L a u r i e r t h a t Templeman r e p r e s e n t e d V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and t h a t the a p p o i n t m e n t o f George R i l e y , 5 ® who a l s o l i v e d on t h e I s l a n d , would meet w i t h oppo-s i t i o n . L a u r i e r , i n r e p l y i n g , showed a t o t a l l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l o c a l s e c t i o n a l r i v a l r y . " T h e r e a r e no t e r r i t o r i a l d i v i s i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a so f a r as t h e S e n a t e i s c o n c e r n e d t h o u g h I must b e g t o have some l a t i t u d e i n a m a t t e r as t o w h i c h I c a n n o t t a k e g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a l o n e b u t o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . " Prom l871 t o l89h t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h e ^ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g i s l a t u r e were f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . . As a r e s u l t , many p o l i t i c i a n s i n the P r o v i n c e b e l i e v e d t h a t the I s l a n d -- 28 -had a claim on the major portion of federal appointments. But i n 1894, a Redistribution B i l l divided the thirty-three seat house i n such a way that nineteen representatives came from Mainland con-stituencies and the remaining fourteen from the Island. Future changes i n 1902 increased the l e g i s l a t i v e seats to forty-two but the Island retained only twelve of them. No one could claim here-afte r that the Island was exercising undue influence i n the B r i t i s h 53 Columbia p o l i t i c a l scene. The quarrel remained a l i v e only when fede r a l - p r o v i n c i a l appointments were being considered. Yet sectional r i v a l r y within the province tended to weaken the unity ^> of both p o l i t i c a l parties. Although party l i n e s were not drawn i n B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l 1903, considerable party a c t i v i t y occurred i n the province as early as 1871. In September, 1871, The Dally B r i t i s h Colonist made rather scathing remarks about an. attempt to form a L i b e r a l party organization. .» Who and what i s the so-called L i b e r a l party? An | attempt was made to form a party but only 9 members appeared and another meeting was not c a l l e d . We do not, of course, pretend to assert that the L i b e r a l party i s a myth; but we are of the opinion, that, i f such an organization has been formed, the people of the Capital C i t y should not be l e f t i n ignorance of i t s objects, i t s p r i n c i p l e s , and i t s c o n t r o l l e r s . 5 4 From t h i s , and subsequent unfavourable comments, i t was apparent that many electors i n the Provinee <4id not see any reason for introducing the party system. This attitude became f i x e d with those who held o f f i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the next t h i r t y years. In the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e d i v i s i o n between groups was drawn on Mainland-Island - 29 -l i n e s r a t h e r t h a n o n p a r t y l i n e s . T h i s d i v i s i o n o r i g i n a t e d i n I 8 7 I when P r e m i e r M c C r e i g h t , i n s e l e c t i n g members f o r the f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t , c h o s e one member f r o m t h e M a i n l a n d and two f r o m t h e I s l a n d . P r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h i s f o r m was t o i e m a i n t h e p a t t e r n f o r some y e a r s . The d e l a y I n o r g a n i z i n g p o l i t i c a l ' p a r t i e s w i t h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was l a r g e l y due t o t h e a t t i t u d e o f d i s t r u s t w h i c h h a d """" d e v e l o p e d . P e r s o n a l r u l e seemed p r e f e r a b l e t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e e l e c t o r a t e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , some o f t h e t o o l s a d o p t e d b y p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s were a c c e p t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r i o r t o t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e p a r t y s y s t e m . I n I878 a p o l i t i c a l c o n v e n t i o n o f a b o u t t h i r t y i n v i t e d e l e c t o r s met i n V i c t o r i a " t o s e l e c t two c a n d i d a t e s a s b e a r e r s o f t h e L i b e r a l - C o n s e r v a t i v e b a n n e r a t t h e e n s u i n g commons e l e c t i o n . " T h i s a p p e a r s t o have b e e n t h e f i r s t t i m e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t c a n d i d a t e s were f o r m a l l y n o m i n a t e d b e f o r e an e l e c t i o n . P r i o r t o I878 a c a n d i d a t e h a d announced h i m s e l f b y i n s e r t i n g newspaper n o t i c e s i n w h i c h he s t a t e d h i s p o l i c i e s and s o l i c i t e d v o t e s . The c o n v e n t i o n became i n t i m e t h e a c c e p t e d way o f s e l e c t i n g c a n d i d a t e s I n 1882 a c o n v e n t i o n met i n V i c t o r i a , t h i s t i m e t o n o m i n a t e oppo-s i t i o n c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e p n c w i n c i a l e l e c t i o n ; b y I89I4. c o n v e n t i o n s were h e l d t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e . - ^ The p r o v i n c i a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o a v o i d p a r t y l i n e s seems a p p a r e n t i n t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f L i b e r a l - C o n s e r v a t i v e a s t h e t e r m d e s c r i b i n g t h e c a n d i d a t e s f o r the 1878 e l e c t i o n . By t h i s t i m e , t h e r e was no s u c h p a r t y i n t h e f e d e r a l f i e l d and i t was o n l y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t s u c h compromise c a n d i d a t e s e x i s t e d . - 30 -D u r i n g t h e l880's l o c a l o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a government c r e a t e d s u f f i c i e n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n t o p e r m i t t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an o r g a n i z e d O p p o s i t i o n . A L i b e r a l A s s o -c i a t i o n a p p e a r e d i n V i c t o r i a i n 1887. The C o l o n i s t h a d a l r e a d y commented on t h e f a c t t h a t p w s o n a l r u l e was no l o n g e r a d e q u a t e i n p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . "A c a n d i d a t e w i l l h a v e n o t o n l y t o p o s s e s s a c o d e o f p r i n c i p l e s b u t he w i l l h a v e to show t h a t he h a s t h e p h y s i c a l c o u r a g e and m e n t a l c a p a c i t y t o u r g e them a t a l l t i m e s 57 and a g a i n s t a l l o d d s . " The f o r m a t i o n o f a p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p o i n t e d up t h e f a c t t h a t a d e c i d e d change h a d o c c u r r e d i n t h e m inds o f a t l e a s t some o f the c i t i z e n s . I n 1871, few i f any, h a d s e e n any a d v a n t a g e i n h a v i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , b u t b y 1887 many r e s i d e n t s f e l t t h a t p a r t y l i n e s were a n e c e s s i t y . The i n a u g u r a l m e e t i n g o f t h e V i c t o r i a L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n was h e l d i n F e b r u a r y , 1887, p r i o r to a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . A p a r t y p l a t f o r m was a d o p t e d c o n s i s t i n g o f t h i r t e e n p l a n k s ^ and an e x e c u t i v e was e l e c t e d . To a s s i s t i n d e f r a y i n g e x p e n s e s a t w e n t y -f i v e c e n t membership f e e was l e v i e d . A c o mmittee o f f i f t e e n was named to o r g a n i z e t h e f o r t h c o m i n g f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaign. Dr. G. L. M i l n e ^ was s e l e c t e d as t h e c a n d i d a t e t o c a r r y t h e p a r t y h o n o u r s f o r t h e d i s t r i c t . The p l a t f o r m a d o p t e d b y t h i s L i b e r a l c o n v e n t i o n r e v e a l s t h e f a c t t h a t agreement then, e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e aims o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l p a r t y a n d t h e n a t i o n a l L i b e r a l p a r t y . B u t , e v e n s o , m a i n t e n a n c e o f p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s was s t r e s s e d as t h e f i r s t o b j e c t i v e i n t h e p r o g r a m . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r the P r o v i n c e i n t h e - 31 -f e d e r a l c a b i n e t w§.s r e q u e s t e d , and t h i s demand a p p e a r e d as a j p l a n k i n a l l f u t u r e p l a t f o r m s u n t i l 1906 when a m i n i s t r y was f i n a l l y g i v e n t o a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a member. The a d m i s s i o n d u t y f r e e i n t o C a nada o f raw m a t e r i a l t o .be m a n u f a c t u r e d w i t h i n t h e c o u n t r y was s u p p o r t e d i n p r i n c i p l e ; r e c i p r o c i t y w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was l i k e w i s e d e c l a r e d t o b e a d v a n t a g e o u s . Canada's power t o n e g o t i a t e c o m m e r c i a l t r e a t i e s w i t h f o r e i g n n a t i o n s , a r i g h t f i r s t s u p p o r t e d b y M a c k e n z i e , was now f a v o u r e d b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p a r t y . P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f the c o u n t r y f r o m s p e c u l a t o r s was u r g e d . I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t ' t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d g r a n t s , t i m b e r l i m i t s , c o a l f i e l d s o r s u b -s i d i e s t o r a i l w a y s s h o u l d be more c a r e f u l l y s u p e r v i s e d . I n e v e r y i n s t a n c e t h e b o n a f i d e s e t t l e r was t o be g i v e n p r i o r i t y o v e r t h e l a n d a g e n t o r s p e c u l a t o r . T h u s , f r o m the i n c e p t i o n o f t h e p a r t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e L i b e r a l s c o m b i n e d s u p p o r t o f t h e p h i l o - ) s o p h y o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y w i t h t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t p r o v i n c i a l j r i g h t s be p r o t e c t e d . By 1896, t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p a r t y h a d g a i n e d s u f f i c i e n t g r o u n d t o r e t u r n t o O t tawa t h e m a j o r i t y o f members f r o m t h e P r o v i n c e . I n t h i s s w i t c h f r o m a l l - C o n s e r v a t i v e s u p p o r t , p r o v i n c i a l h a b i t o f t r a n s f e r r i n g a l l e g i a n c e t o a p a r t y l i k e l y t o g a i n power was e v i d e n t ^ The C o n s e r v a t i v e f o r t u n e s seemed so dim i n 1896 t h a t B r i t i s h Colum-b i a n s f e l t t h a t t h e y w o u l d g a i n b y s u p p o r t i n g t h e L i b e r a l c a u s e . W i t h i n t h e n e x t y e a r a number o f L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n s h a d become a c t i v e , i n t h e P r o v i n c e and a t t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f S e n a t o r ! T e m p l e m a n f a n d . t h e H o n o u r a b l e H e w i t t B o s t o c k , th e f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l c o n v e n t i o n was c a l l e d . B u t p a r t y l i n e s h a d s t i l l not b e e n a c c e p t e d - 32 -i n p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s as B o s t o c k p o i n t e d o u t t o L a u r i e r : I t was t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r the d i f f e r e n t L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e P r o v i n c e and t o g i v e them a common h e a d and a c e n t r e f r o m w h i c h t o work t h e n when t h e P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n s come on w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y r u n n i n g th e e l e c t i o n s o n p a r t y l i n e s w h i c h w o u l d be o b j e c t i o n a b l e t o a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e i n t h e p r o v i n c e t h e l i b e r a l s i n e a c h d i s t r i c t w i l l do t h e i r b e s t t o see t h a t a L i b e r a l i s n o m i n a t e d i n e a c h d i s -t r i c t i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t government and i f t h e y h a n g t o g e t h e r t h e y c a n e l e c t t h e i r nominee i n m ost c a s e s t h e n when the members a r e r e t u r n e d |hope , t o f i n d a l i b e r a l m a j o r i t y i n t h e h o u s e and t h e n t h e y c a n e l e c t t h e i r own l e a d e r . ° ° C r i t i c i s m was e x p r e s s e d b o t h a t V a n c o u v e r an d Nahaimo o f what was c o n s i d e r e d t o be h i g h h a n d e d a c t i o n on the p a r t o f t h e o r g a n i z e r s o f t h i s c o n v e n t i o n . The Nanaimo A s s o c i a t i o n , m e e t i n g o n O c t o b e r 6, p a s s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n : T h a t t h e L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Nanaimo h a v i n g 1 r e a d t h e n o t i c e s e n t c a l l i n g a c o n v e n t i o n o f L i b e r a l s a t New W e s t m i n s t e r on O c t o b e r 8 , 1 8 9 7 » deem i t m o s t i n a d v i s a b l e t o h o l d a c o n v e n t i o n o f t h e L i b e r a l s o f t h i s P r o v i n c e a t t h i s t i m e and e s p e c i a l l y i f D o m i n i o n p a r t y p o l i t i c s a r e t o be i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s . o l I n many a r e a s o f t h e P r o v i n c e t h e f e a r o f i n t r o d u c i n g f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s i n t o p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s s t i l l l o o m e d l a r g e enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d a danger and i n t h e c a s e o f t h e Nanaimo A s s o c i a t i o n t h e f e e l i n g was p r o b a b l y l i n k e d w i t h t h e j e a l o u s a t t i t u d e w h i c h p r e v a i l e d t o w a r d t h e M a i n l a n d . I n s p i t e o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f s e v e r a l g r o u p s , t h e c o n v e n t i o n was h e l d on O c t o b e r 8 t h as' o r i g i -n a l l y s c h e d u l e d . One h u n d r e d and f i f t e e n were p r e s e n t when the r o l l c a l l was t a k e n and a l l d e c l a r e d t h e m s e l v e s t o b'e L i b e r a l i n p h i l o s o p h y . An e x e c u t i v e f o r t h e P r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f p r e s i d e n t , v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , s e c r e t a r y and t r e a s u r e r was c h o s e n , - 3 3 -t h e s e men w e r e t o m e e t w i t h a v i c e - p r e s i d e n t f r o m e a c h D o m i n i o n e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t a n d t h r e e e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s f r o m e a c h p r o v i n -c i a l d i s t r i c t t o d e t e r m i n e f u t u r e p a r t y p o l i c y . S e n a t o r T e m p l e m a n , p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r o f t h e f e d e r a l m e m b e r s , was e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t o f t h e n e w l y c r e a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t r e -- 62 p o r t e d t h a t a p l a t f o r m o f s e v e n m a j o r c l a u s e s was a d o p t e d . T h i s p l a t f o r m o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n s t r e s s e d o n c e m o r e p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s . A t t h e same t i m e , a s u g g e s t i o n was p u t f o r w a r d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e w h i c h was f a r a h e a d o f a n y t h i n g y e t c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p a r t y : t h e f i r s t c l a u s e o f t h e p l a t f o r m a p p r o v e d a p o l i c y d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e J u l t i m a t e o w n e r s h i p b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f r a i l w a y s . A t t h i s t i m e , L a u r i e r a n d t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r s d i d n o t a d v o c a t e s u c h g o v e r n m e n t o w n e r s h i p . T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s a l s o c l a r i f i e d t h e i r d e m a n d made i n 1887 a t V i c t o r i a t h a t l a n d b e made r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o b o n a f i d e s e t t l e r s r a t h e r t h a n t o s p e c u l a t o r s o r a s ^ s u b s i d i e s t o c o n s t r u c t i o n c o m p a n i e s . C l a u s e t w o , w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e a t s i n t h e ' p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e e d o f g i v i n g s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a n t h e m o r e p o p u l o u s d i s t r i c t s . T h i s d e m a n d a r o s e f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e P r o v i n c e s u c h e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s a s Y a l e -C a r i b o o a n d K o o t e n a y w e r e v e r y l a r g e i n t e r r i t o r y b u t h a d s m a l l , s c a t t e r e d p o p u l a t i o n s . T a x a t i o n c h a n g e s i n t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y , w h i c h was o n c e m o r e a m a j o r i n d u s t r y i n t h e P r o v i n c e , w e r e u r g e d . L i k e w i s e , p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t w e a l t h o f t h e P r o v i n c e was c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f p r i m e 1 - 3k -imp'ortance. T h i s p o l i c y was a l s o s u p p o r t e d b y t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p a r t y . The p r o v i n c i a l body a d v o c a t e d a c o n t r o l l e d s a l e o f t i m b e r l i m i t s and a r e f o r e s t a t i o n p r o g r a m . A c l a u s e w h i c h was o f p u r e l y l o c a l i n t e r e s t h a d to do w i t h O r i e n t a l l a b o u r . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p a r t y w i s h e d t o d i s c o u r a g e by a l l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means t h e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o , t h e P r o v i n c e and th e employment i n i t o f A s i a t i c s . H e r e t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p a r t y r a n c o u n t e r t o t h a t o f L a u r i e r a n d t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y . The p r o t e c t i o n o f m i n o r i t y g r o u p s was c o n s i d e r e d b y L a u r i e r t o be one o f t h e b a s i c L i b e r a l i d e a l s . S t r i k i n g a t t h e u n n e c e s s a r y s q u a n d e r i n g o f p r o v i n c i a l r e v e n u e and the a w a r d i n g o f r o a d c o n t r a c t s as a method o f p a t r o n a g e ( a p r a c t i c e f o l l o w e d b y t h e T u r n e r government, t h e n i n o f f i c e ) , t h e p l a t f o r m u r g e d a f a i r e r method o f a w a r d i n g s u c h . c o n t r a c t s . F i n a l l y , t h e c o n v e n t i o n c a l l e d f o r h o n e s t y and p r o g r e s s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e . By 1 8 9 7 , p r o -g r e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d p r a c t i c a l l y come t o a h a l t as a r e s u l t o f f r e q u e n t c h a n g e s i n t h e government and a p e r e n n i a l l y u n b a l a n c e d b u d g e t . The L i b e r a l s a d v o c a t e d t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a d e q u a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i -t i e s to d e v e l o p t h e w e a l t h o f t h e i n t e r i o r r e g i o n s . The p a r t y c o n s i d e r e d t h a t b y t h e s e methods d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d b e i n e v i t a b l e . The f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p l a t f o r m s e r v e d as a model f o r some y e a r s . L o c a l L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n s were b o l s t e r e d b y ; the adop-t i o n o f a common p o l i c y - - b u t some d i s s e n s i o n s t i l l e x i s t e d w i t h i n t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . And i n t h e l e g i s l a t u r e a t V i c t o r i a , ) p e r s o n a l i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y c o n t i n u e d t o r u l e . • ; , - 35" -By 1898 t h e c o n v e n t i o n h a d become a c c e p t e d i n B r i t i s h 1 I i C o l u m b i a as t h e method o f s e l e c t i n g c a n d i d a t e s f o r p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s . A d v a n t a g e s were a l s o s e e n i n a p p o i n t i n g e l e c t i o n c o m m i t t e e s t o l o o k a f t e r c a mpaigns i n u r b a n c e n t r e s . B u t p a r t y l i n e s were s t i l l n o t r e c o g n i z e d i n the p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d . The I898 e l e c t i o n s were f o u g h t o n a n o n - p a r t i s a n b a s i s w i t h C. A. S e m l i n , ^ l e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n i s s u i n g a m a n i f e s t o . ^ Prom S e r a l i n ' s m a n i f e s t o i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t the O p p o s i t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was i n r e a l i t y L i b e r a l i n p h i l o s o p h y . ' None o f the e i g h t p o i n t s i n h i s p l a t f o r m r a n c o u n t e r t o t h o s e o f t h e 1897 L i b e r a l c o n v e n t i o n . I f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h a d b e e n w i l l i n g t o f o r g e t p e r s o n a l i t i e s and s u p p o r t t h e p l a t f o r m s worked o u t b y t h e / p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t h e i n s t a b i l i t y w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e i r f a i l u r e t o a c c e p t t h e two p a r t y s y s t e m would h a v e b e e n a v o i d e d . B u t a p p a r e n t f e a r o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f D o m i n i o n p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s was one o f t h e m a j o r r e a s o n s f o r t h i s s h o r t s i g h t e d p o l i c y a c c o r d i n t o S e m l i n i n t h e p r e a m b l e t o t h e o p p o s i t i o n c i r c u l a r . The committee b e l i e v e s t h a t i t w i l l have t h e s u p p o r t ^ o f a v e r y l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f the P r o v i n c i a l v o t e r s ..., i n i t s v i e w t h a t i t would be e x t r e m e l y d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e whole P r o v i n c e a t t h e p r e s e n t time t o i n t r o d u c e D o m i n i o n p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s i n t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . 6 ^ The a d o p t i o n o f a p a r t y p l a t f o r m o n a p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l h a d b e e n one more s t e p t o w a r d s t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f p a r t y p r i n c i p l e s b u t t h e f i n a l acknowledgement o f t h e wisdom o f the two p a r t y s y s t e m d i d n o t o c c u r u n t i l 1903. ! A t a L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n m e e t i n g h e l d i n V a n c o u v e r i n 1900, J o s e p h M a r t i n , 0 0 t h e n e n d e a v o u r i n g t o s e c u r e the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r s h i p , s u p p o r t e d t h e a d o p t i o n o f p a r t y l i n e s . B u t many o f t h e 35a PLATE I I I B r i t i s h Columbia Premiers 1896-1900 Honourable John H. Turner, 1895-1898 Honourable Charles A. Semlin, I898-I9OO - 36 -l e a d i n g L i b e r a l s were f e a r f u l o f s e l e e ' t i n g M a r t i n ; he h a d p r o v e n t o be a s t o r m c e n t r e o n more t h a n one o c c a s i o n b o t h b e f o r e and a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n t h e P r o v i n c e f r o m M a n i t o b a . The m o t i o n t o a d o p t p a r t y l i n e s f o r t h e n e x t e l e c t i o n was d e f e a t e d . A member o f t h e V a n c o u v e r L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e , James MacQueen, who r e p o r t e d t h a t he p e r s o n a l l y s u p p o r t e d p a r t y l i n e s b u t f e a r e d t h a t M a r t i n ' s p e r s o n a l i t y w o u l d i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e p r o p o s i t i o n , s t a t e d t h a t i n c o n s e q u e n c e he v o t e d a g a i n s t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f p a r t y p o l i t i c s . ^ 7 A s e c o n d p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l c o n v e n t i o n was c a l l e d i n V a n c o u v e r on J a n u a r y 30 , 1902, to a g a i n c o n s i d e r t h i s v i t a l q u e s t i o n o f p a r t y l i n e s . E l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s were r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h r e e d e l e g a t e s f o r e a c h member o f the p r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e . O t h e r d e l e g a t e s i n c l u d e d t h e L i b e r a l members o f t h e House o f Commons; L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s d e f e a t e d i n the 1900 D o m i n i o n e l e c t i o n ; L i b e r a l members o f t h e l o c a l L e g i s l a t u r e ; o f f i c e r s and members o f t h e e x e c u t i v e o f the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n and, f i n a l l y , t h e L i b e r a l m a n a g i n g Aft e d i t o r s o f t h e n e w s p a p e r s t h a t s u p p o r t e d the D o m i n i o n government. I t was h o ped t h a t some o f t h e q u a r r e l s w h i c h h a d a r i s e n o v e r d e l e -g a t e c r e d e n t i a l s a t p r e v i o u s L i b e r a l m e e t i n g s would be a v o i d e d . B u t t h e o p e n i n g s e s s i o n saw c o n t r o v e r s y d e v e l o p on two p o i n t s i m m e d i a t e l y : t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e e x e c u t i v e t o a p p o i n t i t s members as d e l e g a t e s and t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e p r e s s . F i n a l l y , a f t e r h o u r s o f d i s c u s s i o n a n d d e l a y , t h e e x e c u t i v e and p r e s s were e x p e l l e d b y a m a j o r i t y v o t e . The d e l e g a t e s who r e m a i n e d e l e c t e d G. R. M a x w e l l ^ as p r e s i d e n t o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n and J o s e p h M a r t i n as P r o -v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r . A unanimous r e s o l u t i o n was a d o p t e d t o s u p p o r p a r t y l i n e s and a p l a t f o r m o f t w e l v e p l a n k s a c c e p t e d . ? 0 \ r 36a PLATE IV B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e m i e r s 1900-1911 H o n o u r a b l e J o s e p h M a r t i n , M a r c h 1, 1900-June 14 , 1900, H o n o u r a b l e James Dunsmuir 1900-1902 F o r p h o t o g r a p h see P l a t e I H o n o u r a b l e R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , 1903-1916 H o n o u r a b l e Edward G. P r i o r , 1 9 0 2 - 1 9 0 3 C o n s e r v a t i v e T h i s p l a t f o r m r e s t a t e d t h e aims o f t h e 1897 L i b e r a l c o n -v e h t i o n ; a t t h e same t i m e , i t r e c o g n i z e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e h a d b e e n r a p i d e c o n o m i c e x p a n s i o n i n the P r o v i n c e . Government owner- ^ s h i p , n o t o n l y o f r a i l w a y s , b u t o f a l l p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s now became t h e aim o f the p a r t y . T h i s demand was e v e n more a d v a n c e d t h a n t h e L i b e r a l r e s o l u t i o n o f 1897 i n w h i c h o n l y r a i l w a y s h a d b e e n s u g g e s t e d as n e e d i n g t o come u n d e r s t a t e c o n t r o l . By 1902 t h e d e s p e r a t e n e e d f o r f u r t h e r r a i l w a y d e v e l o p m e n t was a p p a r e n t . The L i b e r a l s a d v o c a t e d i m m e d i a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a number o f s h o r t l i n e s t o s e r v e t h e s t i l l i n a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s i n t h e ' Province.. A t t h e same t i m e , t h e y a g a i n demanded t h a t c a s h and n o t l a n d s h o u l d be u s e d f o r s u b s i d i e s t o a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n c o m p a n i e s . • F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e the p a r t y r e q u e s t e d government l e g i s -l a t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h d y k i n g and d r a i n a g e s y stems so t h a t l a r g e a c r e a g e s o f t h e l o w e r F r a s e r V a l l e y m i g h t be b r o u g h t u n d e r c u l t i -v a t i o n and t h e i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e a r e a c o u l d be s u p p o r t e d b y a g r i c u l t u r e . J o h n O l i v e r was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s p r o b l e m s i n c e h i s land, a t Mud Bay r e q u i r e d d y k i n g , b u t i n s t e a d o f s u b s c r i b i n g t o a government o r m u n i c i p a l p r o g r a m he p r e f e r r e d t o h a v e t h e p r o j e c t r e m a i n i n d e p e n d e n t o f a l l government s p o n s o r e d schemes.'^ A t t h i s t i m e the L i b e r a l s were c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h the ^ L a b o u r movement i n t h e P r o v i n c e . I n f a c t , R a l p h S m i t h , ^ a s t r o n g L a b o u r spokesman, was one o f the l e a d i n g L i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h Colum-b i a d u r i n g most o f L a u r i e r ' s t e r m o f o f f i c e . T h i s c l o s e c o o p e r a -t i o n b e t w e e n L i b e r a l and L a b o u r was r e f l e c t e d i n t h r e e c l a u s e s o f ^ t h e 1902 p l a t f o r m . P o i n t s e v e n demanded t h a t t h e government p r o t e c t t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y a g a i n s t combines and t r u s t s , and i f n e c e s s a r y , - 38 -b u i l d and o p e r a t e s m e l t e r s and r e f i n e r i e s . C l a u s e e i g h t r e p e a t e d the p r e v i o u s p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y on O r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n , w h i l e c l a u s e n i n e r e q u e s t e d t h e government t o a d o p t c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a -t i o n t o p r e v e n t s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s . T h e s e a d d i t i o n s t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l p l a t f o r m were, i n most c a s e s , more r a d i c a l i n t h e i r n a t u r e t h a n t h o s e o f ^ o t h e r L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n C a n a d a . D e s p i t e t h e i r a d v a n c ed i d e i l s , however, t h e L i b e r a l s c o u l d n o t g a i n a l a r g e f o l l o w i n g ^ i n t h e P r o v i n c e . T h i s was b e c a u s e o f i c o n t i n u a l s q u a b b l i n g ' a m o n g the p a r t y l e a d e r s . D i s u n i t y d e s t r o y e d c o n f i d e n c e . . T h a t L a u r i e r was f u l l y aware o f the s i t u a t i o n , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s a p p a r e n t i n c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e Prime M i n i s t e r 1 73 and members o f the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y . To W. W. B. Mclnne s he w r o t e , o n F e b r u a r y 21, 1902: The c o u r s e w h i c h I h a v e i n v a r i a b l y f o l l o w e d , up t o t h i s t i m e , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , has b e e n to l e a v e my f r i e n d s a b s o l u t e l y f r e e t o a c t as t h e y p l e a s e and t o o r g a n i z e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own i n c l i n a t i o n s . That! t h i s i s a work w h i c h i t ' m u s t t a k e some t i m e t o do, I j r e c o g n i z e f r e e l y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e P a r t y seems t o be t o r n b y d i s s e n s i o n s . T h e r e a r e . s t i l l w h e e l s w i t h -i n w h e e l s and r i n g s w i t h i n r i n g s a n d t h e b e s t t h i n g w h i c h must be done i s t o have t h e work o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t h o r o u g h l y a c c o m p l i s h e d . I t w o u l d n o t be a d v i s a b l e , i n my e s t i m a t i o n , a t t h i s moment, f o r the F e d e r a l Government t o i n t e r f e r e a t a l l . I n t h e p r e s e n t c o n -d i t i o n o f t h i n g s , i t w o u l d c e r t a i n l y be d a n g e r o u s f o r u s t o take an a c t i v e p a r t i n y o u r p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . 7 4 I n much the same v e i n he w r o t e t o J o s e p h M a r t i n , s t e a d f a s t l y r e f u s i n g t o take any s i d e i n p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y q u a r r e l s . 7 5 Whether t h i s s t a n d was j u s t i f i e d i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e . L a u r i e r b e l i e v e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s s h o u l d be a l l o w e d c o m p l e t e f r e e d o m to o r g a n -i z e t h e m s e l v e s , b u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e a n d was r e m o t e f r o m t h e c e n t r a l o f f i c e a t Ottawa. A show o f l e a d e r -- 39 -s h i p a t t h i s t i m e by L a u r i e r or b y some member o f t h e f e d e r a l c a b i n e t m i g h t have a s s i s t e d i n u n i t i n g t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p a r t y . I f u n i t y h a d come i n 1902 i t c o u l d w e l l have l e d to v i c t o r y i n t h e 1903 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s w h e n 1 p a r t y l i n e s were drawn f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . As i t was, t h e L i b e r a l c a u s e was d e f e a t e d and t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s , u n d e r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , were g i v e n t h e t a s k o f f o r m i n g t h e f i r s t o n e - p a r t y c a b i n e t i n the' P r o v i n c e . The L i b e r a l s c o u l d n o t f u r n i s h t h e s t a b i l i t y and l e a d e r s h i p n e e d e d in*.a P r o v i n c e w h i c h h a d s e e n f i v e m i n i s t e r i e s f r o m 1895 t o 1903; f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s t h e y r e m a i n e d She. o f f i c i a l O p p o s i t i o n u n t i l 191b. R i c h a r d M c B r i d e became p r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o n June 2, 1903. P r o b a b l y on t h e a d v i c e of L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r H e n r i J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e t h e new p r e m i e r d e c i d e d t o a d o p t p a r t y l i n e s . J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e f e l t t h a t t h e p a r t y s y s t e m was t h e o n l y method o f g o v e r n i n g a d e m o c r a t i c c o u n t r y , "Avec n o t r e systdme P a r l e m e n t a i r e a n g l a i s i l f a u t a b s o l u m e n t l a D i s c i p l i n e de p a r t i s . C ' e s t une u t o p i e que de reaver u n gouvernement p a r l e m e n t a i r e s t a b l e j l a ou c e u x q u i l e s u p p o r t e n t r e f u s e n t de p r e n d r e l a r e s p o n s a b i l i t e ' de s e s a c t e s . " ^ S i r H e n r i J o l y h a d b e e n most d i s t u r b e d b y t h e p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y i n the P r o v i n c e f r o m t h e t i m e o f h i s a r r i v a l i n 1900; he f e l t t h a t i t was h i s d u t y t o do e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o e n c o u r a g e s o u n d o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e government. , I n r e a l i t y , the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y o f 1903 was l i t t l e more / ,| u n i f i e d t h a n were t h e L i b e r a l s ; i t r e m a i n e d f o r M c B r i d e and h i s a i d e s t o g a i n u n i t e d s u p p o r t . I t s p e a k s w e l l o f M c B r i d e ' i s a b i l i t i e s t h a t he was a b l e t o r e t a i n c o n t r o l o f p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s f o r t h i r t e e n y e a r s . - ko -After the 1903 elections the L i b e r a l strength i n B r i t i s h Columbia continued to decline. The party leaders t r i e d to whip up enthusiasm but because of quarreling within the party and the growing d i s t r u s t of the federal L i b e r a l p o l i c i e s on such matters as A l i e n immigration, Better Terms, and Reciprocity, they were repeatedly faced by defeat. Joseph Martin s t i l l believed himself to be the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l leader although the 1902' and 1903 p r o v i n c i a l conventions had both refused to give him unanimous supports For a l l intents and purposes the L i b e r a l party c a r r i e d on the el e c t i o n campaign during the summer of 1903 without a leader. ' ! When McBride and the Conservatives gained control, Laurier wrote to Charles Lugrin?? that i n his opinion the Liberal'cause would always be doomed unless the Party would organize behind an acknowledged leader.^ 0" On October 19th, 1903, the L i b e r a l member of the p r o v i n c i a l house c a l l e d a caucus to elect a p r o v i n c i a l --— leader. After four b a l l o t s , J. A. Macdonald,^ member from Rossland, was elected to t h i s o f f i c e . In commenting :upon the choice, the Lieutenant-Governor wrote on January 17th, 190k, "I am very favourably impressed with the leader of the Opposition, Mr. Macdonald, who shows firmness and moderation i n the control o hi s followers, and I hope that he w i l l be able to keep up i n the course he has started. Lieutenant-Governor Joly de Lotbiniere, who had urged the acceptance of party government i n the Province, was j u s t l y proud of the r e s u l t s as he wrote to h i s son i n February, 190k, on the prorogation of the f i r s t session under the new system. l+Oa PLATE y B r i t i s h Columbia Pro v i n c i a l L i b e r a l Leaders 1896-1QOQ t Honourable James Alexander MacDonald Leader of L i b e r a l Opposition 1 9 0 3 - 1 9 0 7 Chief Justice 1 9 0 ? -L Honourable John Oliver Leader of Li b e r a l Opposition 1907-1909 L i b e r a l Premier 1918-1927 - IP- - , /•' A/ L a s t n i g h t , I h a d t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f p r b r o g i n g P a r l i a m e n t a f t e r a s u c c e s s f u l s e s s i o n . The r e s u l t f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f r o m the: a d o p t i o n o f p a r t y d i s c i p l i n e , i n s t e a d o f g u e r i l l a w a r f a r e - The Government f e e l t h a t t h e y h a v e i l T T o r c e - a t t h e i r b a c k , o n whom t h e y may r e l y f o r c a r r y i n g on what t h e y c o n s i d e r s o u n d l e g i s l a t i o n , and t h a t t h e y a r e n o t a t t h e m e r c y o f a few men, d i s a p p o i n t e d i n t h e i r h o p e s o f f o r c i n g t h e i r \ c l a i m s f o r p e r s o n a l f a d v a n t a g e - I n e v e r so w e l l r e a l i z e d as I do now, t h e v a l u e o f d i s c i p l i n e . " 1 j A l m o s t f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s i n c e / C o n f e d e r a t i o n ] B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d a s t a b l e p r o v i n c i a l g overnment. M c B r i d e and h i s p a r t y managed t o b r i n g o r d e r o u t o f c h a o s i n p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c e s and by 1905 t h e b u d g e t was b a l a n c e d f o r a l m o s t the f i r s t t i m e s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n . The O p p o s i t i o n c o u l d f i n d l i t t l e t o c r i t i -c i z e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f M c B r i d e ' s m i n i s t r y . Y e t the l o c a l L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n s k e p t i n f a i r l y a c t i v e c o n t a c t w i t h f e d e r a l l e a d e r s i n hope t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y c o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s . F e d e r a l , r a t h e r t h a n p r o v i n c i a l m a t t e r s , l o o m e d l a r g e s t f o r a t i m e o n t h e L i b e r a l h o r i z o n . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p a r t y h o p e d t o g a i n f a v o u r b y s u p p o r t i n g L a u r i e r b u t i t s members f r e q u e n t l y e n c o u n t e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l r a n k s s i n c e L a u r i e r ' s p o l i c i e s o f t e n r a n c o u n t e r t o what was t h o u g h t t o be B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s i n t e r e s t s . J . A. M a c d o n a l d r e m a i n e d p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r u n t i l 1909, a t ' w h i c h ti m e he was a p p o i n t e d t o t h e j u d i c i a r y ; J o h n O l i v e r f r o m D e l t a t h e n became the new l e a d e r . From 1902 to 1909 the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l p l a t f o r m r e m a i n e d a l m o s t u n c h a n g e d . The p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h h a d b e e n a d o p t e d i n 1902 were r e i t e r a t e d a t e a c h p r o v i n c i a l m e e t i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e y h e l d l i t t l e a p p e a l when p l a c e d a g a i n s t t h e c o n c r e t e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f M c B r i d e a n d t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s . I n f a c t many L i b e r a l s f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f s u p p o r t i n g / l | l a PLATE VI B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l Leader 1909-L J Honourable Harlam Carey Brewster Leader of L i b e r a l Opposition 1909-1916 F i r s t L i b e r a l Premier 1916-1918 - k2 -t h e O p p o s i t i o n when p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s seemed t o be t h r e a t e n e d . j They f e l t t h a t L a u r i e r a n d t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y were n o t i n sympathy w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e w e s t . Not o n l y d i d t h e L i b e r a l s f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s b u t so o n a l s o t o t h e S o c i a l i s t L a b o u r p a r t y w h i c h h a d become v e r y s t r o n g i n the m i n i n g a r e a s o f the P r o v i n c e . I n a c o u n t r y w i t h a s p a r s e p o p u l a t i o n t h i s d r a s t i c s p l i t t i n g o f v o t e s meant d i s a s t e r f o r t h e L i b e r a l s . S e n a t o r B o s t o c k summarized t h e s i t u a t i o n as i t e x i s t e d i n t h e K o o t e n a y s i n 1906 when he w r o t e t o L a u r i e r t h a t i n p l a c e s l i k e R o s s l a n d where t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y s u p p o r t e d the C o n s e r v a t i v e s and t h e l a b o u r e r s t h e 1 S o c i a l i s t s , Op t h e L i b e r a l s were i n ~ a p o o r p o s i t i o n i n d e e d . ^ -I n a d d i t i o n , s t r i f e c o n t i n u e d w i t h i n the r a n k s o f t h e p a r t y . J o s e p h M a r t i n h a d a n n o u n c e d h i s w i t h d r a w a l f r o m p o l i t i c s a f t e r h i s d e f e a t i n 1903 b u t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , E . A. Haggen, e d i t o r o f t h e K o o t e n a y M a i l w r o t e t o L a u r i e r w a r n i n g h i m o f M a r t i n ' s h o s t i l i t y t o f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s : "Not t h a t I f e a r he w o u l d do t h e p a r t y much harm b u t he h a s an a r d e n t f o l l o w i n g i n t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y w h i c h he m i g h t a l i e n a t e f r o m u s ..." ^ E v e n t u a l l y , i n 1909, M a r t i n w i t h d r e w f r o m * * r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p o l i t i c s t o t r y h i s f o r t u n e i n G r e a t B r i t a i n b u t t h i s was n o t b e f o r e he a n d h i s f r i e n d s h a d s u c -c e e d e d i n w e a k e n i n g the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s t h r o u g h c o n t i n u a l b i c k e r i n g . By 1907 t h e L i b e r a l l e a d e r s f e l t t h a t c o m p l e t e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n ^ was n e c e s s a r y : i n O c t o b e r a p r o v i n c i a l c o n v e n t i o n was c o n s e q u e n t l y h e l d i n V a n c o u v e r . L a u r i e r was a s k e d t o a t t e n d b u t he c o u l d n o t do s o . A t t h e V a n c o u v e r c o n v e n t i o n some c o n c r e t e d e c i s i o n s were made and a new c o n s t i t u t i o n was a d o p t e d . The aims o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n - k3 -were s t a t e d as b e i n g : " t o u n i t e t h e L i b e r a l s of t h i s d i s t r i c t so t h a t t h e y may t h e b e t t e r s t u d y a n d u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o l i c i e s o f Canada and the p l a t f o r m o f the L i b e r a l p a r t y . " ^ J o h n O l i v e r was j e l e c t e d as p r e s i d e n t , and an e x e c u t i v e o f f i f t e e n f r o m a l l r e g i o n s o f t h e P r o v i n c e e x c e p t t h e K o o t e n a y s was c h o s e n . ^ 5 R e s o l u t i o n s e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h i s c o n v e n t i o n were a d d r e s s e d t o b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s . They r e q u e s t e d an e a r l y s o l u t i o n to t h e p r o b l e m o f A s i a t i c i m m i g r a t i o n t o Canada. The f e d e r a l government was a s k e d to h a s t e n t h e p a s s a g e o f a N a t a l A c t i n o r d e r t o p u t a s u c c e s s f u l e n d t o t h e p r o b l e m . The p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s were, a t the same t i m e , a s k e d t o r e p a s s a n a c t e x c l u d i n g A s i a t i c s w h i c h t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r h a d r e f u s e d t o s i g n . B u t t h e s e r e s o l u t i o n s d i d n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e unanimous o p i n i o n o f the c o n f e r e n c e : the L i b e r a l l e a d e r , M a c d o n a l d , r e p o r t e d t o L a u r i e r t h a t he d i d n o t w h o l l y a g r e e w i t h them b u t t h a t he h a d b e e n ' o v e r r i d d e n b y t h e m a j o r i t y . A m a j o r i t y o f t h e L i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o p e n l y o p p o s e d ^ L a u r i e r ' s p o l i c y o n A s i a t i c i m m i g r a t i o n . L a u r i e r h o p e d t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m b y d i p l o m a c y and t o a v o i d l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h m i g h t c r e a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t ; b o t h G r e a t B r i t a i n and Canada h a d ^ t r e a t i e s w i t h J a p a n w h i c h p e r m i t t e d f r e e a c c e s s o f J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l s t o t h e i r c o u n t r i e s . The P r i m e M i n i s t e r saw t h e p r o v i n c i a l s t a n d as d a n g e r o u s t o t h e D o m i n i o n . L a u r i e r c o n s i d e r e d t h a t s i n c e t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s were aware o f t h e f e d e r a l p o l i c y t h e y s h o u l d a g r e e t o s u p p o r t i t d e s p i t e t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e , demand f o r t h e p a s s a g e o f a N a t a l A c t . But, as shown by t h e 1907 L i b e r a l c o n v e n t i o n , most o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s f a v o u r e d s u c h an A c t s i n c e t h e y saw t h e - kh -p r o b l e m s as p u r e l y p r o v i n c i a l and r e f u s e d t o u n d e r s t a n d the f e d e r a l o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . A t t h e same t i m e , a l t h o u g h d e n y i n g L a u r i e r ' s p o l i c y on A s i a t i c i m m i g r a t i o n , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s r e t a i n e d t h e i r f a i t h i n the Pri m e M i n i s t e r s ' s a b i l i t y as a l e a d e r . A t a l m o s t e v e r y p a r t y m e e t i n g l e t t e r s and r e s o l u t i o n s were s e n t t o Ottawa e x p r e s s i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s l e a d e r s h i p . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e man, i f n o t h i s p o l i t i c s was s u p p o r t e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s . The p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y h a d n o t y e t a c c e p t e d t h e t r u e m e a n i n g o f p a r t y p o l i t i c s ; o n l y t h o s e e l e m e n t s o f the f e d e r a l p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h t h e y saw as a b e n e f i t t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were c o n s i d e r e d t o be w o r t h y o f s u p p o r t . L a u r i e r , f o r h i s p a r t , c o n s i d e r e d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s s h o u l d be w i l l i n g t o u p h o l d f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s u n a n i m o u s l y \ and t h i s would h e l p them t o g a i n u n i t y w i t h i n t h e i r r a n k s . F o r -t h e r e s o u n d i n g d e f e a t o f t h e L i b e r a l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1 9 0 8 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , M a c d o n a l d blamed t h e f e d e r a l p o l i c y o n A s i a t i c i m m i g r a t i o n . L a u r i e r , o n t h e o t h e r hand, c o n s i d e r e d , " I t was i m p o s s i b l e t o w i n , O r i e n t a l q u e s t i o n o r no O r i e n t a l q u e s t i o n , i n New W e s t m i n s t e r where t h e two r i v a l f a c t i o n s o f J a r d i n e and Kennedy were a t war as t h e y were. I t was a l s o i m p o s s i b l e t o w i n i n V a n c o u v e r , w i t h Mclnne s and M a r t i n b o t h r u s h i n g t o t h e f r o n t , k e e p i n g away o t h e r c a n d i d a t e s , and, b e i n g i n t h e s a d d l e f i g h t i n g l i k e c a t s and d o g s . " ^ L a u r i e r b a s e d h i s e n t i r e c r i t i c i s m o f ,the s i t u a t i o n w h i c h p r e -v a i l e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o n t h e q u a r r e l s w i t h i n p a r t y r a n k s . To h i m t h e r e c o u l d be o n l y one p a r t y p h i l o s o p h y , the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p l a t f o r m and o n l y one p a r t y l e a d e r , h i m s e l f . As l o n g as B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s c o n t i n u e d to ac k n o w l e d g e h i m as t h e i r l e a d e r he f e l t t h a t t h e y s h o u l d w i l l i n g l y s u p p o r t h i s p o l i c i e s . He h a d no p a t i e n c e w i t h the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d e s i r e t o a c c e p t o n l y t h o s e p a r t s of t h e p r o g r a m w h i c h were most a p p e a l i n g t o t h e P r o v i n c e . The e l e c t i o n o f 1 9 0 9 was the l a s t p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g L a u r i e r ' s r e g i m e . A t t h i s t i m e t h e Con- ) s e r v a t i v e s a l m o s t w h o l l y e l i m i n a t e d o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e . / To t h e f o r t y - t w o member h o u s e o n l y f o u r n o n - C o n s e r v a t i v e s were r e t u r n e d : two L i b e r a l s and two S o c i a l i s t s . O l i v e r , p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r , and h i s l i e u t e n a n ^ Wadej were b o t h b a d l y d e f e a t e d . O l i v e r h a d d e c i d e d to f i g h t t h e e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n b y a t t a c k i n g M c B r i d e ' s r a i l w a y p o l i c y . The agreement made b y t h e P r e m i e r w i t h M a c k e n z i e and Mann to c o n s t r u c t a r a i l w a y t h r o u g h t h e Y e l l o w h e a d Pass t o Kamloops a n d t h e n c e t o t h e c o a s t , o p e n e d l i t t l e new t e r r i t o r y . The L i b e r a l l e a d e r u r g e d , t h a t I f e l e c t e d , t h e L i b e r a l s w o u l d b u i l d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n e s t o d i s t r i c t s w h i c h s t i l l l a c k e d d i r e c t c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h c o a s t a l r e g i o n s . To s u p p o r t h i s p r o g r a m , O l i v e r p r e p a r e d a l a r g e map w h i c h o u t l i n e d h i s p r o -posed r o u t e s . ® 7 The C o n s e r v a t i v e s t o o k much d e l i g h t i n d e r i d i n g t h e whole scheme as i m p r a c t i c a l ; d e s p i t e the L i b e r a l ' l e a d e r ' s r e c o g n i z e d h o n e s t y , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e l e c t o r a t e d i d n o t e n d o r s e t h e L i b e r a l p l a t f o r m . O l i v e r h a d r e q u e s t e d a s s i s t a n c e f r o m L a u r i e r i n t h e f o r m o f a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y would b a c k h i s r a i l w a y p r o p o s a l s . L a u r i e r r e f u s e d t o c o n s i d e r a n y t h i n g more t h a n m o r a l s u p p o r t ; t h i s p r o v e d i n s u f f i c i e n t . ^ The P r o v i n c e was e n j o y i n g a p e r i o d o f u n p r e c e d e n t e d p r o s p e r i t y w h i c h made a change o f l e a d e r seem u n n e c e s s a r y t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f v o t e r s . P o o r l e a d e r s h i p , d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r i f e were a l l g i v e n PLATE VTT  The L i b e r a l P latform, 1 9 0 9 John O l i v e r ' s Railway P o l i c y Prom: The Vancouver Province, November 22, 1909, p. - k6 -as r e a s o n s f o r t h e r e s o u n d i n g d e f e a t o f the L i b e r a l s . But a n o t h e r e l e m e n t was e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t . The L i b e r a l p a r t y h a d l i t t l e o r no s u p p o r t f r o m t h e p r e s s . Campaign f u n d s were a l s o i n s h o r t s u p p l y J I n c o n t r a s t , I n V a n c o u v e r a l o n e , an e s t i m a t e d $60,000 was expended by t h e M c B r i d e government w i t h i n a few d a y s o f t h e e l e c t i o n s . ^ A f t e r t h e 1909 e l e c t i o n s i t was a p p a r e n t , t h a t w h a t e v e r t h e c a u s e o f d e f e a t , a c o m p l e t e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f b o t h p a r t y m a c h i n e r y and p h i l o s o p h y was n e c e s s a r y . When L a u r i e r v i s i t e d the p r o v i n c e i n 1910 much e n t h u s i a s m was a r o u s e d ; / r e s o l u t i o n s o f l o y a l t y were p a s s e d i n a l l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s . Y e t t h e f e e l i n g o f p e r s o n a l l o y a l t y h a d a l m o s t t o t a l l y d i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n s i x months. F o r t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o e n t e r i n t o a r e c i p r o c i t y agreement w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s was u n p o p u l a r w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n d e e d , a l a r g e number o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s now became s u p p o r t s o f ^~ M c B r i d e . They saw r e c i p r o c i t y as c o n s t i t u t i n g one more a t t a c k on t h e w e l f a r e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . J o h n J a r d i n e , ^ 0 one o f t h e two L i b e r a l members i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e , moved t o t h e Con- j s e r v a t i v e s i d e e a r l y i n 1911 and l e f t H. C. B r e w s t e r ^ as l o n e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e L i b e r a l c a u s e . J a r d i n e ' s d e f e c t i o n removed one o f t h e most d i s c o r d a n t e l e m e n t s f r o m the p a r t y r o s t e r b u t h i s d e p a r t u r e d i d l i t t l e t o g a i n p u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r t h e L i b e r a l s . I t was t o o w i d e l y known t h a t t h e p a r t y was weakened b y c o n t i n u a l j e a l o u s y . I n t h e f e d e r a l c a m p a i g n o f 1911, O l i v e r , a l t h o u g h d e f e a t e d i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s c a r r i e d o n an a c t i v e p r o g r a m i n s u p p o r t o f L a u r i e r and r e c i p r o c i t y . D e s p i t e th e f e e l i n g b y most L i b e r a l s t h a t t h e f a r m e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d s u f f e r g r e a t l y f r o m r e c i p r o c i t y O l i v e r d i s a g r e e d . He a r g u e d t h a t "what was good f o r - k7 -Canada would be good for them a l l , and i t would open a broader market f o r them i n the United States. His arguments were not s u f f i c i e n t l y convincing and B r i t i s h Columbia returned no Liberals to the federal house. Nevertheless, the fact that Oliver, along with other L i b e r a l leaders agreed to f i g h t an active campaign i n support of r e c i p r o c i t y was a sign that a core of the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l party was beginning to r e a l i z e the true meaning of party p o l i t i c s . For the / f i r s t time, the national rather than the l o c a l significance of the L i b e r a l p o l i c y was being exploited. But the cause of Liberalism i n B r i t i s h Columbia, both i n the p r o v i n c i a l and federal arenas was eclipsed by the popularity of the Conservative success. Five more years were to elapse before the L i b e r a l party was able to convince the electorate that i t s platform was the best for the Province. In 1916 Brewster was elected premier to bring to an end thirteen years of Conservative r u l e . - k8 -CHAPTER IV Some P r o b l e m s i n F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s  1896-1911: F e d e r a l A p p o i n t m e n t s ' A l t h o u g h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d n o t y e t a c c e p t e d * t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f p a r t y p o l i t i c s i n p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s when L a u r i e r became Prime ^ M i n i s t e r i n 1896, t h e P r o v i n c e f e l t t h a t she h a d d e m o n s t r a t e d h e r l o y a l t y b y r e t u r n i n g a m a j o r i t y o f L i b e r a l members t o t h e D o m i n i o n House. Some f a v o u r e d t r e a t m e n t f r o m f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s seemed f i t t i n g . L a u r i e r d i d n o t s u b s c r i b e t o t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e rnment s h o u l d be f o r c e d to c u r r y f a v o u r i n t h e p r o v i n c e . On more t h a n one o c c a s i o n he r e f u s e d to u s e h i s i n f l u e n c e t o s e c u r e a p p o i n t m e n t s f o r p e r s o n s whose o n l y q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r o f f i c e was t h a t t h e y were l o y a l p a r t y s u p p o r t e r s . To L a u r i e r , i f a man were t o be g i v e n a p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , he must be s o m e t h i n g more t h a n a p a r t y f o l l o w e r . T h i s a t t i t u d e was d e m o n s t r a t e d when the Pr i m e M i n i s t e r s e l e c t e d h i s f i r s t c a b i n e t . He c h o s e men who were e x p e r i e n c e d i n p o l i t i c s ; who p o s s e s s e d o u t s t a n d i n g a b i l i t y t o l e a d o t h e r s ( t h e r e were f i v e f o r m e r p r o v i n c i a l p r e m i e r s i n h i s f i r s t c a b i n e t ) ; and who h a d worked e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y . I t was d i f f i c u l t f o r any member f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o meet t h e s e s t a n d a r d s . The P r o v i n c e h a d n o t p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e t o t r a i n l e a d e r s w i t h t h e s e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f h i s t e r m o f o f f i c e , L a u r i e r met w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e f r u s t r a t i o n whenever he a t t e m p t e d t o mae a f e d e r a l a p p o i n t m e n t f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . N e g o t i a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e P r o v i n c e and the f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s . f r e q u e n t l y t o o k s e v e r a l y e a r s t o c o m p l e t e - k9 -The c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y was the a p p a r e n t i n a b i l i t y o f the P r o v i n c i a l o f c o n f l i c t i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s was s e n t to L a u r i e r whenever an a p p o i n t m e n t was imminent. As a r e s u l t , d e l a y s o c c u r r e d as t h e Prime M i n i s t e r a t t e m p t e d t o v e r i f y the s t a t e m e n t s by c o n s u l t i n g w i t h t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a members a t Ottawa o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . ' When L a u r i e r a n n o unced h i s f i n a l c a b i n e t a p p o i n t m e n t s i n l 8 9 o c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s a p p o i n t m e n t was f e l t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ^ b e c a u s e no one was named f r o m t h e w e s t e r n P r o v i n c e ; o n l y C l i f f o r d S i f t o n r e p r e s e n t e d t h e a r e a west o f t h e G r e a t L a k e s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n was t r a g i c f o r t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s s i n c e t h e y h a d b o a s t e d t h a t i f t h e L i b e r a l s s u c c e e d e d i n g a i n i n g o f f i c e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a would have c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s b e l i e f h a d b e e n f o s t e r e d b y L a u r i e r on h i s v i s i t t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 189k; he h a d h i n t e d r a t h e r b r o a d l y t h a t c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w o u l d be f o r t h c o m i n g i f th e L i b e r a l s were s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e n e x t e l e c t i o n s . The C o n s e r -v a t i v e s h a d s u c c e e d e d g i h h a v i n g E . G. P r i o r a p p o i n t e d C o n t r o l l e r I o f I n l a n d Revenue l a t e i n 1895; e q u i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t was e x p e c t e d f r o m t h e L i b e r a l s . The demand f o r c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was l i n k e d w i t h the c a s e j p r e s e n t e d b y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r B e t t e r Terms. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r g u e d t h a t t h e amount c o n t r i b u t e d b y t h e P r o v i n c e t o t h e f e d e r a l r e v e n u e was p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e r t h a n amounts f r o m o t h e r p r o v i n c e s w h i c h meant t h a t c a b i n e t membership s h o u l d be g i v e n r e c o g n i t i o n . To h e l p d r i v e home t h e p o i n t t o L a u r i e r , Templeman t o l d him, " A l t h o u g h no p r o v i n c e h a s a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t t o demand r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n L i b e r a l p a r t y t o s u p p o r t o n l y one c a n d i d a t e f o r an o f f i c e . - 50 -the cabinet, which may be formed without geographical lines, the interests of the Dominion as a i<iiole w i l l be best served by a 9 3 ministry whose members are chosen from a l l provinces.". Several Liberals in the Province had considered themselves suitable candidates; of the names proposed, William Templeman, Hewitt Bostock, George Maxwell, W. W. B. Mclnnes and Joseph Martin a l l had spokesmen who wrote glowing letters of support to Laurier. But the petty wrangling which s p l i t the party during the f i r s t twenty-five years of i t s existence weakened the chances of any British Columbian being selected. Since the British Columbia party could not decide on a single candidate, the Prime Minister refused to consider any. Bostock, whose advice Laurier frequently sought and followed, suggested that Laurier delay making an appointment u n t i l he could ascertain the feelings of the people in a l l parts of the Province; in particular, he strongly advised him against appointing either Senator Mclnnes or his son, "It would be absolutely fatal to the Liberals here in the near future."^ Further justification for cabinet representation advanced by Br i t i s h Columbia's leaders was the rapid growth in the population of the Province. The o f f i c i a l census figures reveal an increase of over 80 per cent in the population of the Province between 1891 and 1901 as i t increased from 98,173 to 178,657.9^ The region west of the Great Lake s was the fastest growing area of Canada. Laurier knew this and admitted the validity of British Columbia's claim. But he wanted to await the f u l l census returns- before making a redistribution of parliamentary seats and possible increasing the size of the cabinet. At the same time, he hesitated to name anyone - 5 1 -f r o m t h e w e s t e r n P r o v i n c e who d i d n o t have t h e unanimous s u p p o r t 'I o f the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y . To A u l e y M o r r i s o n 7 he w r o t e , W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e C a b i n e t , I h a v e i t i n m i n d a l l the , t i m e , and I hope t h a t a t an e a r l y day I w i l l be a b l e ' t o g i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n t o y o u r p r o v i n c e . I must s a y , however, t h a t t h e a c t i o n o f o u r f r i e n d s i n the West, f a i l i n g t o a g r e e u pon one man as t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e h a s .not so f a r h e l p e d t o a t t a i n my o b j e c t . 97 The c a b i n e t a p p o i n t m e n t w h i c h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s o u g h t was t h a t o f M i n i s t e r o f M a r i n e and F i s h e r i e s . L a t e i n 1901 an i d e a l o p p o r t u n i t y a r o s e f o r L a u r i e r t o s a t i s f y the p r o v i n c i a l demand; t h e p o r t f o l i o became v a c a n t on S i r L o u i s D a v i e s b e i n g e l e v a t e d t o the Supreme C o u r t . Then, o n t h e d e a t h o f R i c h a r d D o b e l l f r o m Quebec, L a u r i e r d e c i d e d i n F e b r u a r y , 1902, t o make S e n a t o r Templeman a member o f t h e C a b i n e t w i t h o u t P o r t f o l i o ; t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s d i s a p p o i n t m e n t he gave the M i n i s t r y o f M a r i n e and F i s h e r i e s l a t e r i n t h e y e a r t o Raymond P r e f o n t a i n e o f Quebec. I n s t e a d o f t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f S e n a t o r Templeman m e e t i n g w i t h a p p r o v a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t was s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d . Two com-p l a i n t s were made: i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e i t was f e l t t h a t s i n c e Templeman was a l r e a d y a S e n a t o r he s h o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n named t o t h e C a b i n e t , and s e c o n d l y , t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was e n t i t l e d t o have more t h a n a M i n i s t e r w i t h o u t P o r t f o l i o who h a d no d e p a r t m e n t t o a d m i n i s t e r . S e n a t o r Templeman c o n s e q u e n t l y , i n December, 1903, a f t e r t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f A. G. B l a i r , M i n i s t e r o f R a i l w a y s and C a n a l s , wrote t o L a u r i e r t o u r g e t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a be g i v e n a m i n i s t r y , p r e -f e r a b l y t h a t o f M a r i n e and F i s h e r i e s . But L a u r i e r was n o t a t a l l r e c e p t i v e t o t h e i d e a o f m a k i n g the c h a n g e s i n the C a b i n e t w h i c h would be r e q u i r e d t o make a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a p p o i n t m e n t . - 52 - . , I t i s t r u e t h a t a t t h i s moment, t h e r e i s a p o r t -f o l i o v a c a n t b y t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f B l a i r b u t t h e v e r y j manner i n v i i i c h h i s r e s i g n a t i o n h a s t a k e n p l a c e makes i t encumbent t o t a k e h i s s u c c e s s o r i n t h e C a b i n e t f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e he r e p r e s e n t e d . I hope t h a t y o u s h a r e a l s o i n t h i s v i e w . I f y o u t h i n k d i f f e r e n t l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o have y o u r o p i n i o n , b u t w h a t e v e r i t may be, f o r my p a r t , I f e e l v e r y s t r o n g l y t h a t u n d e r e x i s t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s no o t h e r c o u r s e i s l e f t open.^o When H. R. Emmerson o f New B r u n s w i c k was a p p o i n t e d t o t h e p o s t i n , ; J a n u a r y , 190k, members o f b o t h t h e L i b e r a l a n d C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s r o s e i n p r o t e s t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The p r e s s o f t h e P r o v i n c e , w h i c h was f o l l o w i n g a f f a i r s i n Ottawa c l o s e l y , b i t t e r l y c r i t i c i z e d t h e government. S e n a t o r Templeman a g a i n c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ; t o h i m L a u r i e r j u s t i f i e d h i s d e c i s i o n on thB b a s i s o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h e r e were t h i r t e e n members i n t h e House o f Commons f r o m New B r u n s w i c k , he s a i d , b u t o n l y s i x f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : " i t w i l l n o t alw a y s be s o , b e c a u s e t h e c e n t e r o f p o l i t i c a l g r a v i t y i s now d i s p l a c i n g and g o i n g t o w a r d s t h e West. B u t a t t h i s j u n c t u r e t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s one w h i c h c a n n o t be w e l l i g n o r e d . u < ^ D e s p i t e d i s a p p o i n t m e n t o v e r f a i l u r e t o r e c e i v e c a b i n e t r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e t u r n e d a s o l i d L i b e r a l s l a t e t o Ottawa i n 190k. The R e d i s t r i b u t i o n B i l l p a s s e d a f t e r t h e 1901 c e n s u s h a d g i v e n t h e w e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s e v e n members. T h i s s e e m i n g l y w h o l e -h e a r t e d s u p p o r t o f -hhis p a r t y d i d n o t , however, c o n v i n c e L a u r i e r t h a t any change s h o u l d be made i m m e d i a t e l y i n h i s c a b i n e t . He c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y was i n t h e e a s t and t h a t t h e west s t i l l h a d t o p r o v e i t s e l f . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n i s shown i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n b y Duncan Ross t o L a u r i e r i n - A u g u s t , 1905. - 53 -' . ' B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a went s o l i d l y f o r t h e L i b e r a l , p a r t y b e c a u s e h e r p e o p l e l i k e d t h e b r o a d and com- ' p r e h e n s i v e g e n e r a l p o l i c y o f y o u r Government, b u t a t t h e same t i m e t h e r e was a s t r o n g f e e l i n g t h a t so f a r as m a t t e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y a f f e c t i n g t h i s P r o v i n c e were c o n c e r n e d , i t was g e t t i n g no " s q u a r e r " d e a l f r o m t h e L i b e r a l Government t h a n i t r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e T o r y Government .... As W e s t e r n L i b e r a l s how c a n we d e f e n d t h e p e r s o n n e l o f y o u r c a b i n e t f r o m a g e o g r a p h i c a l s t a n d p o i n t ? The P r o v i n c e s west o f Lake S u p e r i o r h a v e p r a c t i c a l l y o n l y one r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e i n a c a b i n e t o f 15 o r 16 members. S e n a t o r Templeman i s a member o f y o u r c a b i n e t , i t i s t r u e , b u t t h e p o s i t i o n he h o l d s r a t h e r a g g r a v a t e s t h e i n j u s t i c e o f w h i c h t h e west c o m p l a i n s . I n t h e days p r i o r t o 1896, t h e L i b e r a l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c r i t i c i z e d t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e government b e c a u s e t h i s p r o v i n c e d i d n o t r e c e i v e what we c o n s i d e r e d f a i r t r e a t m e n t a t t h e hands o f t h e D o m i n i o n Government. We demanded f u l l c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and we j s n e e r e d when a c o n t r o l l o r s h i p was o f f e r e d C o l o n e l P r i o r as a sop t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . A f t e r n i n e y e a r s o f L i b e r a l r u l e we have a c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n i n name only. 1 0 0 Many o f t h e L i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r a l l i e d to s u p p o r t t h e c i a i m s o f Templeman f o r a p o r t f o l i o . E v e n some C o n s e r v a t i v e s were w i l l i n g t o see h i m g i v e n a d e p a r t m e n t . But i t was n o t u n t i l F e b r u a r y , 1906, f o u r y e a r s a f t e r b e i n g c r e a t e d M i n i s t e r w i t h o u t P o r t f o l i o t h a t he was named M i n i s t e r o f I n l a n d Revenue. I n t h e j f o l l o w i n g y e a r , u p o n c r e a t i o n o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s , he was g i v e n t h i s a p p o i n t m e n t as w e l l . Templeman was a member o f t h e S e n a t e a t the t i m e he was named M i n i s t e r o f I n l a n d Revenue; L a u r i e r s t i p u l a t e d t h a t he m ust r e p r e s e n t a c o n s t i t u e n c y . On t h e a d v i c e o f the L i b e r a l p a r t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i t was d e c i d e d t o h o l d a b y - e l e c t i o n i n V i c t o r i a C i t y , t h e n r e p r e s e n t e d b y George R i l e y . To c r e a t e t h e r e q u i r e d | v a c a n c y i n t h e c o n s t i t u e n c y , R i l e y was a p p o i n t e d t o t h e S e n a t e . L a u r i e r h a d p r e v i o u s l y r e c e i v e d a s s u r a n c e f r o m C o n s e r v a t i v e s as ^ w e l l as L i b e r a l s t h a t no o p p o s i t i o n w o u l d be g i v e n t o Templeman. - Sh -. T r o u b l e s o o n d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e r a n k s o f the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p a r t y . B o t h S e n a t o r Templeman and George R i l e y r e s i d e d i n V i c t o r i a ; and L a u r i e r h a d c h o s e n to i g n o r e S e n a t o r Templeman's w a r n i n g t h a t t h e I s l a n d must n o t r e c e i v e a l l t h e p o l i t i c a l p l u m s . The u n i t y w h i c h h a d b e e n d i s p l a y e d i n c a m p a i g n i n g f o r a c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r was soon s h a t t e r e d . An e d i t o r i a l i n The V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e w r i t t e n a t t h e time o f S e n a t o r Templeman's a p p o i n t m e n t e x p r e s s e d t h e M a i n l a n d ' s o p i n i o n . Templeman i s a t l e a s t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s i and p r o b l e m s o f V i c t o r i a b u t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f I t h e M a i n l a n d he h a s l i t t l e , i f any more a c q u a i n t a n c e t h a n h a ve the m i n i s t e r s f r o m t h e M a r i t i m e P r o v i n c e s . What p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d e s i r e d was t h a t an e l e c t e d member f r o m t h e M a i n l a n d s h o u l d be g i v e n f u l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e C a b i n e t . 1 0 1 I n v i e w o f t h i s c r i t i c i s m w h i c h p r o v e d t o be p r e v a l e n t i n t h e p r o -v i n c e , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g f r o m t h i s t i m e f o r t h , Templeman l a c k e d t h e itfhole h e a r t e d s u p p o r t o f the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p a r t y . As c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r he s o o n f o u n d h i m s e l f i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s on t h o s e o c c a s i o n s when i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d i s c u s s p r o v i n c i a l - f e d e r a l r e l a t i o n s . I n t h e e l e c t i o n o f 1908, he was d e f e a t e d i n h i s V i c t o r i a r i d i n g where t h e e l e c t o r a t e c o n -s i d e r e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l s t a n d o n a l i e n i m m i g r a t i o n , b e t t e r t e r m s and o t h e r c o n t e n t i o u s s u b j e c t s c o u l d be s u p p o r t e d b y a C o n s e r v a t i v e as w e l l as by a L i b e r a l . L a u r i e r was a t a c o m p l e t e l o s s t o u n d e r s t a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' d e f e c t i o n i n 1908: he h a d n o t a n t i c i p a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f Temple-man's d e f e a t . Of g r o w i n g d i s c o n t e n t i n t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e he h a d b e e n warned by s e v e r a l l e a d i n g L i b e r a l s , b u t he h a d n o t t a k e n t h e w a r n i n g s e r i o u s l y . To a p a r t y f o l l o w e r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a he - 55 -e x p r e s s e d h i s r e a c t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e e l e c t i o n . Templeman s h o u l d h a v e b e e n e l e c t e d e a s i l y i n V i c t o r i a and h i s d e f e a t i s s t i l l a m y s t e r y t o me. i t e m p h a s i z e s a f a c t however w h i c h i s o n l y t o o o b v i o u s , and t h i s f a c t i s t h a t t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y ha_s l o s t g r o u n d s i m p l y f r o m want o f c o u r a g e t o f i g h t t h e i s s u e s and g i v e b a t t l e t o t h e enemy u p o n t h e l i n e s l a i d down by us h e r e a t Ottawa. L a u r i e r b l a m e d t h e weakness o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i -z a t i o n f o r t h e d e f e a t ; on t h e o t h e r h a n d , p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s b l a m e d t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s i n t e r e s t s . The t r u t h o f t h e m a t t e r seems t o be t h a t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e v o t e r s t i l l p r e f e r r e d t o s u p p o r t a n i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n a p a r t y p h i l o s o p h y . The wisdom o f c h o o s i n g Templeman as B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e may w e l l be q u e s t i o n e d . A t no t i m e d i d he e n j o y t h e c o m p l e t e s u p p o r t o f t h e L i b e r a l s f r o m t h e M a i n l a n d . B u t he was t h e L i b e r a l l e a d e r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who a r o u s e d l e a s t c o n t r o v e r s y and, i n f a c t , he was a compromise c a n d i d a t e . A f t e r B o s t o c k ' s r e t i r e m e n t f r o m a c t i v e p o l i t i c s i n 1900 L a u r i e r seemed t o f e e l t h a t Templeman was t h e s o u n d e s t L i b e r a l o f t h e P r o v i n c e . A l t h o u g h Templeman was d e f e a t e d i n t h e 1908 F e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s , b o t h t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s and L a u r i e r w i s h e d t o r e t a i n h i m i n t h e c a b i n e t . To do t h i s , W i l l i a m S l o a n 1 0 ^ r e s i g n e d f r o m Comox-A t l i n t o p e r m i t a b y - e l e c t i o n ; Templeman won b y a c c l a m a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v a l when the M i n i s t e r ' s p o s i t i o n was i n d o u b t , the C o l o n i s t c a u s t i c a l l y r e m a r k e d , "Mr. Templeman s h o u l d r e s i g n t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p s i n c e i t has b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d he i s no l e a d e r .... Mr. Templeman's p r e s e n c e as a c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r h a s b e e n o f no b e n e f i t t o t h i s p r o v i n c e as a p r o v i n c e . " 1 ^ - 56 -The S e n a t e , o r U p p e r House I n t h e C a n a d i a n government, h a s n e v e r r h a d t h e power o r a u t h o r i t y o f t h e House o f Commons. When M a c d o n a l d and t h e o t h e r l e a d e r s o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n d e c i d e d on t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s e c o n d house t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e p r i m e p u r p o s e w o u l d be f o r the S e n a t e t o a c t as a c h e c k and b a l a n c e to t h e House o f Commons. The C a n a d i a n S e n a t e was n o t t o have t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e A m e r i c a n S e n a t e n o r were t h e members t o be e l e c t e d , b u t i n s t e a d , t h e ' S e n a t o r s were t o be a p p o i n t e d f o r l i f e b y t h e Prime M i n i s t e r . B e c a u s e o f t h i s method o f a p p o i n t m e n t i t was n o t l o n g b e f o r e n a m i n g members t o t h e U p p e r House was one o f t h e b e s t methods o f d i s t r i -b u t i n g p a t r o n a g e . M a c d o n a l d e s t a b l i s h e d t h e p r e c e d e n t o f u s i n g S e n a t e a p p o i n t m e n t s as p o l i t i c a l r e w a r d s so L a u r i e r was e x p e c t e d t o do l i k e w i s e when he t o o k o f f i c e . D u r i n g h i s e n t i r e t e r m o f n i n e t e e n y e a r s , M a c d o n a l d a p p o i n t e d o n l y one L i b e r a l and one I n d e p e n d e n t ; L a u r i e r named o n l y L i b e r a l s . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e i r v i c t o r y i n I 8 9 6 , t h e L i b e r a l s p r o m i s e d t h a t S e n a t e r e f o r m w o u l d be one o f t h e aims o f t h e p a r t y . T h i s was n e v e r a t t e m p t e d ; L a u r i e r f o u n d t h a t the s y s t e m o f a p p o i n t m e n t p e r m i t t e e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a t r o n a g e w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e . F u r t h e r -more any a t t e m p t a t r e f o r m would most l i k e l y have c r e a t e d d i f f i -c u l t i e s w i t h Quebec and t h e M a r i t i m e P r o v i n c e s . Quebec, e n j o y i n g a c o n s t a n t t w e n t y - f o u r members, w o u l d l o o k a s k a n c e a t any a t t e m p t t o a l t e r t h i s number. To Quebec, the S e n a t e r e p r e s e n t e d p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n m i n o r i t y . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e M a r i t i m e - 57 -P r o v i n c e s f o u n d i n t h e S e n a t e a d e g r e e o f e q u a l i t y w i t h t h e r e s t o f Canada w h i c h , due t o a d w i n d l i n g p o p u l a t i o n , was s o o n t o be p o s s i b l e nowhere e l s e . 1 ^ When L a u r i e r came i n t o o f f i c e he f o u n d t h a t as a r e s u l t o f t h e e x c e p t i o n a l l y l o n g p e r i o d o f C o n s e r v a t i v e r u l e i n t h e c o u n t r y th e S e n a t e was a l m o s t one h u n d r e d p e r c e n t C o n s e r v a t i v e . By t h e e n d ' o f 190k, j u s t o v e r h a l f o f the e i g h t y - t h r e e S e n a t o r s were L i b e r a l s . By S e c t i o n 8 o f t h e O r d e r i n C o u n c i l o f 1871 a d m i t t i n g | B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o the D o m i n i o n , t h e P r o v i n c e was a l l o w e d t h r e e S e n a t o r s . T h i s number r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d u n t i l 1915 when an amendment to t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t i n c r e a s e d t h e t o t a l j membership o f t h e House t o n i n e t y - s i x and g a v e e a c h o f the f o u r w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s s i x S e n a t o r s . S h o r t l y a f t e r L a u r i e r t o o k o f f i c e i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t a new S e n a t o r w o u l d h a v e t o be named f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n I 8 9 6 , t h e t h r e e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a members w e r e : W i l l i a m J o h n Mac-D o n a l d , James R e i d and Thomas R. M c l n n e s . O f t h e s e men, the f i r s t two were a c k n o w l e d g e d C o n s e r v a t i v e s , M c l n n e s , however, d e c l a r e d h i m s e l i t o be an i n d e p e n d e n t w i t h a s t r o n g l e a n i n g t o w a r d L i b e r a l i s m . The o f f i c e o f L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r was t o become v a c a n t i n t h e P r o -v i n c e i n 1897; t o f i l l i t L a u r i e r c o n s i d e r e d t h a t S e n a t o r M c l n n e s w i t h h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n the C a n a d i a n l e g i s l a t u r e a n d h i s l e g a l t r a i n i n g w o u l d be a most s u i t a b l e c a n d i d a t e . M c l n n e s 1 a p p o i n t m e n t j t o t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r s h i p c r e a t e d a S e n a t e v a c a n c y . On November 18, 1897, Templeman was named t o t h e S e n a t e . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n L a u r i e r and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s shows I t h a t Templeman, whose name h a d b e e n p u t f o r w a r d f o r t h e p o s i t i o n o f 57a PLATE VIII  B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Senators Senator Hewitt Bostock, 190k-x Senator William Temoleman, 1897-1906 1  for picture see Plate Senator George Riley, 1906-' - 58 -L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r , was p r o m i s e d t h e f i r s t c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n a v a i l a b l e , f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i f he w o u l d a c c e p t t h e S e n a t o r s h i p i n 1 8 9 7 . 1 0 9 ' S i n c e t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p o l i t i c i a n s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r a b i l i t y , w e r e a l w a y s e a g e r t o s e i z e a v a i l a b l e o f f i c e s , S e n a t e a p p o i n t m e n t s c r e a t e d some p r o b l e m s . The u s u a l q u a r r e l b e t w e e n t h e r e g i o n s o f t h e P r o v i n c e r e a r e d i t s h e a d whenever a p o l i t i c a l a p p o i n t ment was made. I n 1901, the G r a n d F o r k s L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n u r g e d t h a t t h e n e x t S e n a t o r be s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e K o o t e n a y r e g i o n w h i c h h a d n e v e r b e e n r e p r e s e n t e d . ^ Q B u t L a u r i e r a l w a y s i g n o r e d geo-g r a p h i c a l c l a i m s i n m a k i n g a p p o i n t m e n t s , n a m i n g o n l y men he knew h a d g i v e n c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t t o t h e L i b e r a l c a u s e . A f t e r t h e d e a t h o f S e n a t o r R e i d i n 190k, B o s t o c k , a p a r t y s t a l w a r t , was a p p o i n t e d t o t h e v a c a n c y and i n Ma r c h , 1906, R i l e y r e p l a c e d S e n a t o r Templeman. B o t h men h a d b e e n a c t i v e i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n . No f u r t h e r a p p o i n t m e n t s t o the S e n a t e were made f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s i n c e S e n a t o r W. J . M a c D o n a l d r e m a i n e d i n t h e U p p e r House u n t i l a f t e r 1911. From 190k u n t i l the end o f L a u r i e r ' s t e r m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e S e n a t e was c o m p r i s e d o f two L i b e r a l s and one C o n s e r v a t i v e . E v e r y ! f e d e r a l a p p o i n t m e n t c r e a t e d d i s c u s s i o n and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . When t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e was c a l l e d u p o n t o name members t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l j u d i c i a r y , h e s t u m b l e d u p o n the same p r o b l e m s as L a u r i e r i n a p p o i n t i n g t o t h e c a b i n e t and t h e S e n a t e . As e a r l y as September, 1896, L a u r i e r was warned t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia did not r e l i s h the appointment of non-residents to j u d i c i a l posts. Aulay Morrison expressed the hope that a l o c a l man would be appointed to the V i c t o r i a j u d i c i a r y where a vacancy had o c c u r r e d . 1 1 1 Geographical jealousy crept into any discussion concerning j u d i c i a l appointments. When H. Dallas Helmcken wrote to support 112 Gordon Hunter for the Chief Justiceship, he stressed three points i n Hunter's favour: he was a resident of the Mainland, he was a resident of the Province and he was a strong L i b e r a l suppor-t e r . 1 " ^ Less stress was placed upon his j u d i c i a l a b i l i t y . After almost two years of negotiations, instead of Hunter, Laurier appointed A. J. M c C o l l 1 1 ^ to be Chief Justice. In pressing the case for Hunter, Morrison used an argument which had not been previously mentioned i n any of the correspon-dence over appointments. Writing to Laurier to support the choice 11^ of Hunter over Archer Martin, ^ another candidate for the p o s i t i o n , he stated: Now i n our province we have always had a Judge of the Roman Catholic f a i t h u n t i l the present. Mr. Martin not only i s not a Roman Catholic but i s very pronounced the other way and parenthetically I may say that impetuousity of youth o r d i n a r i l y i s another t r a i t of t h i s young man which should u n f i t him for j u d i c i a l p o s i t i o n .... Mr. Gordon Hunter who on the, other hand, has acted as counsel with the la t e Theodore Davie for the Church, would be acceptable to 'that wing of our party i n the province. 1 1"^ Consideration of the r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n of a proposed appointee does not appear to have entered l a r g e l y into the choice of B r i t i s h Columbia public o f f i c i a l s , although Edith Dobie, i n her study of p o l i t i c a l parties i n the Province, states that, "an a r i s t o c r a t i c conservative tendency i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e may have been related to re l i g i o u s trends. u l l 7 i t i s more ce r t a i n that there were times when - 6 0 -r e l i g i o n p l a y e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i n the m a k i n g o f p r o v i n c i a l a p p o i n t m e n t s . The p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y t e n d e d more l a r g e l y t o w a r d s membership i n the A n g l i c a n c h u r c h t h a n d i d t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y . The a p p o i n t m e n t o f a L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r f o r t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o v e d the most t r o u b l e s o m e a p p o i n t m e n t w h i c h L a u r i e r h a d t o make t h r o u g h o u t h i s t e r m o f o f f i c e . V e r y s h o r t l y a f t e r L a u r i e r ' s e l e c t i o n , L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r Dewdney's p e r i o d o f o f f i c e e x p i r e d . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e d the Prime M i n i s t e r m a k i n g an i m m e d i a t e a s s e s s m e n t o f the c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e p o s i t i o n ; as u s u a l t h e r e were a g r e a t many a s p i r a n t s . B o t h M a c d o n a l d and L a u r i e r r e -g a r d e d the o f f i c e o f L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r as one o f p o l i t i c a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e ; t o them the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r was a f e d e r a l o f f i c e r n o t a s o c i a l f i g u r e . The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p o s i t i o n were p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and some knowledge o f c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l a w , n o t an e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l r e p u t a t i o n . 1 1 ^ ! S i n c e a p p o i n t m e n t t o a l i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r s h i p was one o f t h e h i g h e s t awards i n t h e p a t r o n a g e s y s t e m , L a u r i e r f o u n d i t v e r y d i f -f i c u l t to' f i n d a c a n d i d a t e among t h e a s p i r i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s who met h i s own i d e a l s o f s u i t a b l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . P o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e P r o v i n c e was t o o y o u n g i n 1 8 9 6 t o h a v e f u r n i s h e d a t r a i n i n g g r o u n d f o r many. A c c o r d i n g t o Templeman, who was d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m , t h e r e were t h r e e names m e r i t i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n : D r . G. L. M i l n e , S e n a t o r T. R. M c l n n e s and h i s own. 119 Templeman c o n s i d e r e d t h a t he was as w e l l q u a l i f i e d as - 6 1 -t h e o t h e r two. T h a t he d i d h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t i s a t t e s t e d t o b y t h e many l e t t e r s w h i c h were s e n t to L a u r i e r on h i s b e h a l f d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g and summer o f 1 8 9 7 . One o f t h e most v i g o r o u s s t a t e m e n t s i n s u p p o r t a p p e a r e d i n t h e N e l s o n E c o n o m i s t i n A u g u s t , 1 8 9 7 : ] The E c o n o m i s t n o t b e i n g i n sweet a c c o r d w i t h t h e L i b e r a l g overnment h a s r e f r a i n e d f r o m d i s c u s s i n g t h i s m a t t e r ( a p p o i n t m e n t o f Templeman as L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ) b u t t h e r e c a n be no harm i n e n d o r s i n g t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a p e r s o f a l l s h a d e s i n p o l i -t i c s . The L i b e r a l p a r t y h a s always b o a s t e d o f I t s r e a d y r e s p o n s e t o the u n i v e r s a l v o i c e o f t h e p e o p l e , and i t w i l l now be s e e n w h e t h e r t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g i n i t s p r o f e s s i o n . N i n e - t e n t h s o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h i s P r o v i n c e have e x p r e s s e d t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g i n f a v o r o f Mr. Templeman's a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h e o f f i c e o f L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ; w i l l the L i b e r a l p a r t y i g n o r e t h e d e s i r e o f t h e p e o p l e a n d a p p o i n t someone e l s e ? . . . W i l l B. C. be made the dumping I g r o u n d f o r t h e p o l i t i c a l r e f u s e o f t h e E a s t e r n P r o v i n c e s ? 1 2 0 C o n s i d e r a b l y l o b b y i n g a l s o t o o k p l a c e f o r t h e o t h e r c a n d i d a t e s . As i t h a p p e n e d , L a u r i e r knew S e n a t o r M c l n n e s p e r s o n a l l y and M c l n n e s was a b l e "to g a i n tremendous s u p p o r t f r o m h i s f r i e n d s i n Ottawa. E v e n t u a l l y t h e Prime M i n i s t e r d e c i d e d t o f a v o u r M c l n n e s whom he ' f e l t p o s s e s s e d t h e n e c e s s a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and p a r l i a m e n t a r y e x p e r i e n c e . S e n a t o r M c l n n e s h a d f i r s t b e e n s e l e c t e d as a C o n s e r v a t i v e s u p p o r t e r t o t h e S e n a t e by M a c d o n a l d i n 1 8 8 2 . Then, p r i o r t o L a u r i e r ' s e l e c t i o n , he s w i t c h e d h i s a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y t o s u p p o r t u n r e s t r i c t e d r e c i p r o c i t y . A f t e r t h i s p o l i c y was d r o p p e d as i m p r a c t i c a l and u n p o p u l a r , he c o n t i n u e d t o a l l y h i m s e l f w i t h t h e L i b e r a l s . L a u r i e r named him, i n November, 1 8 9 7 , L i e u t e n a n t -G o v e r n o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; a t t h e same t i m e Templeman was a p p o i n t e d t o t h e S e n a t e and p r i v a t e l y p r o m i s e d the f i r s t c a b i n e t 61 a PLATE i x B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r s 1896-1906 L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r S i r H e n r i J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e , 1900-1906 - 62 -p o s i t i o n . t h a t became a v a i l a b l e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . By t h e s e two moves the Prime M i n i s t e r h o p e d t o p l e a s e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s . The wisdom o f t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r ' s s e l e c t i o n was s o o n b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d , f o r i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r M c l n n e s was' c o n n e c t e d t o o c l o s e l y w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o m a i n t a i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f n e u t r a l i t y demanded by h i s o f f i c e . I n July,1898, a c r i s i s d e v e l o p e d when, as L i e u t e n a n t -G o v e r n o r , he r e f u s e d to. a p p r o v e s e v e r a l O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l p a s s e d -i p-i b y P r e m i e r J o h n H. T u r n e r . M c l n n e s c l a i m e d t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n j u s t c o m p l e t e d , i n w h i c h , u o t h t h e Government and O p p o s i t i o n h a d won e q u a l s u p p o r t c o n s t i t u t e d a want o f c o n f i d e n c e v o t e i n the T u r n e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand, P r e m i e r T u r n e r a r g u e d t h a t he s h o u l d n o t be d i s m i s s e d s i n c e t h e r e were s t i l l two seats., t o be h e a r d f r o m , and t h e s e were bound t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r t h e g overnment. He a l s o f e l t t h a t he s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d t o meet w i t h t h e l e g i s l a t u r e t o d i s p r o v e t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s , c o n t e n t i o n . 1 ^ M c l n n e s r e f u s e d , however, t o c hange h i s c o u r s e . He i n v i t e d R o b e r t B e a v e n 1 ^ t o f o r m a g o v e r n m e n t : t h i s p r o v e d i m p o s s i b l e f o r Beaven. C h a r l e s S e m l i n , l e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n u n d e r T u r n e r , was t h e n c a l l e d u pon. He was a b l e t o o r g a n i z e a m i n i s t r y , vrhich, as i t t u r n e d o u t , r e m a i n e d i n o f f i c e e i g h t e e n months. By t h a t time t h e weakness o f t h e S e m l i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n once more was 'so a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r t h r e a t e n e d t o d i s m i s s t h e m i n i s t r y . Some L i b e r a l s i n t h e P r o v i n c e f e l t t h a t M c l n n e s had' assumed \ t o o much a u t h o r i t y ; t h e y a p p e a l e d t o Ottawa t o p r e v e n t h i m f r o m c a r r y i n g o u t h i s p l a n . L a u r i e r i n s t r u c t e d t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , R. W. S c o t t , t o communicate w i t h M c l n n e s a d v i s i n g h i m as t o h i s - 63 -powers and d u t i e s as a L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r . 1 2 k S e m l i n ' s d i s m i s s a l , j however, h a d a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d . M c l n n e s now t u r n e d t o J o s e p h M a r t i n t o f o r m a government. M a r t i n ' s u n p o p u l a r i t y was so g r e a t t h a t he f o u n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o g a i n s u f f i c i e n t s u p p o r t . He d e l a y e d summoning t h e l e g i s l a t u r e h o p i n g - t o h o l d an e l e c t i o n i n J u n e , 1900, when the new v o t e r s ' l i s t s w o u l d be r e v i s e d and p u b l i s h e d . T h i s o b v i o u s move to mark j t i m e p r o v e d so u n p o p u l a r t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t L i b e r a l s and O p p o s i t i o n a l i k e f l o o d e d Ottawa w i t h c o m p l a i n t s . F e d e r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s was n o t t o L a u r i e r ' s l i k i n g b u t he now f e l t j u s t i f i e d i n h i s a c t i o n . When M c l n n e s r e j e c t e d h i s a d v i c e n o t t o d i s m i s s S e m l i n , he removed t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r f r o m o f f i c e , s i n c e he f e l t t h a t i f t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d e t e r i o r a t e d f u r t h e r , s t a b i l i t y t h r o u g h o u t th e whole D o m i n i o n w o u l d be a f f e c t e d . By 1900, t h e P r o v i n c e was d i v i d e d i n t o r i v a l camps w h i c h s u p p o r t e d t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r o r o p p o s e d h i m . L a u r i e r h e a r d ^ f r o m b o t h s i d e s . The P r o v i n c i a l R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n s e n t a l o n g m e m o r i a l to Ottawa r e q u e s t i n g the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s d i s m i s s a l . - ^ 5 V a n c o u v e r and V i c t o r i a L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n s s e n t r e s o l u t i o n s sup-p o r t i n g h i s a c t i o n s . Many c r i t i c s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the L i e u t e n a n t -G o v e r n o r was w o r k i n g f o r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f h i s s o n W. W. B. M c l n n e s who d e s i r e d t h e c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e w h i c h h a d b e e n s u p p o s e d l y p r o m i s e d by M a r t i n . x ^ The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r h i m s e l f f e l t t h a t h i s own a c t i o n s were j u s t i f i e d . He b e l i e v e d v e r y s t r o n g l y i n h i s own p e r s o n a l a b i l i t y t o d i r e c t ' t h e d e s t i n y o f a P r o v i n c e w h i c h was b e g i n n i n g t o b e n e f i t - 6 k -f r o m economic p r o g r e s s . P r o f e s s o r S a y w e l l a l s o f e e l s t h a t M c l n n e s , "had a v e r y u n u s u a l , a n d m i s t a k e n i m p r e s s i o n o f the power and i n f l u e n c e o f a L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r . " ! 2 7 D e s p i t e the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s tremendous u n p o p u l a r i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , L a u r i e r ' s d i s m i s s a l was c r i t i c i z e d . I n June, 1 9 0 0 , t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r w r o t e t o R. L. D r u r y t o d e f e n d h i s d e c i s i o n . We must have c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e . D o m i n i o n , and i n t h i s , I am s u r e y o u w i l l a g r e e w i t h me. The o r d i n a r y methods o f r e s -p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t o u g h t n o t t o be d e p a r t e d f r o m . T h i s must be d e t e r m i n e d l y s e t down as the p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y . t o w h i c h a l l L i b e r a l s w i l l g i v e t h e i r a d h e r e n c e w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o p a r t y e x p e d i e n c y . 1 2 ° L a u r i e r i m m e d i a t e l y made a n o t h e r a p p o i n t m e n t . E x p l a i n i n g h i s a c t i o n , he w r o t e t o D. J . M u n n 1 ^ G f t h e V a n c o u v e r B o a r d o f T r a d e on June 2 5 , 1 9 0 0 . '. We came t o t h e . c o n c l u s i o n t h a t so l o n g as he ( M c l n n e s ) was i n o f f i c e , b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s w o u l d be j e o p a r d i z e d and t h a t the p r o v i n c e w o u l d make no : p r o g r e s s . H i s a c t i o n s i n c e he has b e e n i n o f f i c e more t h a n j u s t i f i e d h i s d i s m i s s a l , a n d we h a v e a c t e d a c c o r d i n g l y . I gave h i m t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f r e s i g n i n g , w h i c h w o u l d have b e e n more p l e a s a n t f o r e v e r y b o d y . To t h i s o u r f r i e n d w o u l d n o t a g r e e . Then came the q u e s -t i o n o f h i s s u c c e s s o r . A t f i r s t , o u r i n c l i n a t i o n w ould have b e e n t o a p p o i n t a man f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e , b u t we c o u l d n o t s e l e c t anybody t h e r e who h a d n o t b e e n i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the b i t t e r s t r i f e s w h i c h have r e c e n t l y t a k e n p l a c e . We t h o u g h t i t p r e f e r a b l e t o a p p o i n t a man o f n a t i o n a l r e c o r d , t o a p p o i n t a man : o f n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n a n d whose r e c o r d f o r h o n e s t y , f a i r n e s s a n d I m p a r t i a l i t y i s w e l l known. We f o u n d s u c h a man i n the p e r s o n o f S i r H e n r i J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e . S i r H e n r i i s a F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n o f Huguenot d e s c e n t and a p r o t e s t a n t b y f a i t h . T h e r e i s no more h o n e s t man l i v i n g . I h a v e g r e a t hopes he w i l l p r o v e a s u c c e s s . 1 3 0 . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r h a d shown a s p i r i t w h i c h many d i d n o t r e a l i z e t h a t he p o s s e s s e d . I t was o f t e n s a i d 1 t h a t he was t o o s o f t s poken and t o o much a l o v e r o f p e a c e t o b e . w i l l i n g t o - 65 -u s e t h e f u l l power o f h i s o f f i c e . B u t i f t h e o c c a s i o n w a r r a n t e d i t , L a u r i e r c o u l d be as d e t e r m i n e d a s anyone. O n l y b y f i r m a c t i o n , he r e a l i z e d , c o u l d he hope to g a i n r e s p i t e f r o m t h e u s u a l p e t t y s t r i f e I w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d e v e r y a p p o i n t m e n t he made i n B r i t i s h Columbia'. The Prime M i n i s t e r c o n s i d e r e d t h a t J o l y ' s wide p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n b o t h p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l f i e l d s f i t t e d h i m a d m i r -a b l y f o r t h e p o s i t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B u t t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s d i d n o t s e i z e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f b e n e f i t t i n g f r o m t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r 1 s e x p e r i e n c e , i n s t e a d , t h e y c r i t i c i z e d h i s a p p o i n t m e n t o n t h e g r o unds t h a t he was f r o m E a s t e r n C a n a d a and t h e y r e f u s e d t o c o o p e r a t e f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g . On h i s a r r i v a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1900, J o l y was much c o n c e r n e d b y t h e p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y t h a t he f o u n d i n t h e P r o -v i n c e . The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n h i m and h i s son, Edmond, i n d i c a t e s . t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s f a i t h i n t h e two p a r t y s y s t e m ; he c o u l d n o t v i s u a l i z e a d e m ocracy w i t h o u t i t . When M c B r i d e s u c c e e d e d i n f o r m i n g h i s f i r s t C o n s e r v a t i v e c a b i n e t , J o l y h a s t e n e d t o c o n g r a t u -l a t e him. The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r c o n s i d e r e d t h i s as t h e c u l m i n a t i n g p o i n t o f h i s t e r m o f o f f i c e . By v i r t u e o f t h e i r d e f e a t i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s o f 1903, t h e L i b e r a l s were f o r c e d i n t o t h e r o l e o f O p p o s i t i o n ; many o f t h e p a r t y t h o u g h t t h a t J o l y was f a v o u r i n g the C o n s e r v a t i v e c a u s e . B e f o r e t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s t e r m e x p i r e d i n 1905, the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s were u r g i n g an a p p o i n t m e n t more to t h e i r l i k i n g . The Con-s e r v a t i v e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, a s k e d S e n a t o r Templeman t o f o r w a r d a p e t i t i o n r e q u e s t i n g an e x t e n s i o n o f J o l y ' s j b e r i o d o f o f f i c e . I n f o r w a r d i n g t h e p e t i t i o n , Templeman t o o k t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e l l L a u r i e r t h a t the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r h a d made himseLf p o p u l a r w i t h - 66 t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s b u t n o t w i t h t h e L i b e r a l s who c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e y h a d been o s t r a c i z e d . f r o m Government House. Templeman c o n -s i d e r e d t h a t t h i s was n o t e n t i r e l y t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s f a u l t s i n c e few L i b e r a l s moved i n government c i r c l e s s o c i a l l y . ^ 1 ' The p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s w a nted someone who w o u l d f a v o u r t h e i r p a r t y b u t L a u r i e r was e q u a l l y d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e a p p o i n t e e would be someone who would e x e r c i s e a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e o f i m p a r t i a l i t y . The p e t i t i o n s w h i c h were s e n t t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r s t r e s s e d one p a r t i c u l a r f a c t : t h e new man s h o u l d be f r o m B r i t i s h ! C o l u m b i a . The names f o r w a r d e d w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t f r e q u e n c y were t h o s e o f S e n a t o r Templeman and George R i l e y . Rumours were a l w a y s a r i s i n g ; a t one t i m e i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t George R o s s , f o r m e r P r e m i e r o f O n t a r i o , m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e o f f i c e . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n The V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e commented, " I t would be t o o b a d i f l o c a l d i s s e n s i o n made the g u b e r n a t o r i a l o f f i c e a n e a s y one f o r j an a m b i t i o u s and p e r h a p s u n d e s i r a b l e e a s t e r n e r t o o b t a i n . " 1 3 2 L a u r i e r f o u n d t h a t as u s u a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s c o u l d n o t s e t t l e on one c a n d i d a t e . The P r i m e M i n i s t e r was w i l l i n g t o make a n immediate a p p o i n t m e n t b u t he a l s o wanted t o b e a s s u r e d t h a t any one he m i g h t s e l e c t w o u l d h a v e u n i t e d s u p p o r t . T h a t he was aware o f a l l t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e p r o b l e m i s shown b y h i s l e t t e r t o S e n a t o r Templeman. I am s o r r y , t h o u g h n o t s u r p r i s e d , t h a t he ( J o l y ) s h o u l d have g i v e n s u c h o f f e n c e to o u r f r i e n d s . I t has a l w a y s b e e n t h e t r o u b l e w i t h o u r f r i e n d t o g i v e a t t e n -t i o n t o h i s o p p o n e n t s more t h a n t o h i s f r i e n d s i f h i s o p p o n e n t s were n i c e t o him. I am s u r e t h a t i f o u r f r i e n d s h a d b e e n a s s i d u o u s t o h i m as were t h e T o r i e s , t h e y w o u l d have no c a u s e f o r c o m p l a i n t , b u t as t h e y a l l o w e d t h e T o r i e s t o fawn on h i m w h i l s t t h e y a t t e n d e d t o t h e i r own b u s i n e s s , t h e y s h o u l d b e a r i t p h i l o s o - 1 p h i c a l l y and s t i l l c o n t i n u e t o a t t e n d t o t h e i r b u s i n e s s - 67 -w i t h o u t murmuring. Now as t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f h i s s u c c e s s o r , my judgment i s v e r y s t r o n g t h a t Dunsmuir i s the man. I am w e l l aware o f a l l t h a t y o u t e l l me, t h a t t h i s w o u l d be d i s p l e a s i n g t o t h e g r e a t body o f o u r f r i e n d s , b u t i n t h i s , t h e y a r e a b s o l u t e l y wrong, and my a d v i c e w o u l d be t h a t y o u s h o u l d g e t them t o g e t h e r and r e p r e s e n t t o them how much t h e r e i s t o be g a i n e d b y n e u t r a l i z i n g t h e p o w e r f u l ' i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e Dunsmuir f a m i l y a n d p o s s i b l y m a k i n g i t f r i e n d l y . E v e r y s e n s i b l e man w o u l d a g r e e t o t h i s and t h e r e f o r e , as t i m e went on, e v e r y b o d y w o u l d be r e c o n c i l e d t o s u c h an a p p o i n t m e n t . 33 L a u r i e r 1 s arguments i n f a v o u r o f Dunsmuir d i d n o t a p p e a l t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s who d i s t r u s t e d tSie f o r m e r P r e m i e r . D u r i n g h i s t e r m o f o f f i c e f r o m 190.0 t o 1902 Dunsmuir h a d worked c l o s e l y w i t h M c B r i d e and o t h e r l e a d i n g C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n o p p o s i t i o n to M a r t i n and t h e L i b e r a l s . I n 1901, he had p r e s e n t e d B r i t i s h C o l -umbia's c a s e f o r B e t t e r Terms t o Ottawa b u t h a d r e c e i v e d no s a t i s f a c t i o n , s i n c e L a u r i e r r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l c l a i m . A t t h e same t i m e the P r i m e M i n i s t e r a s s u r e d D u n s muir, " I have no r e a s o n s t o suppose t h a t you h a v e h a d o t h e r f e e l i n g , b u t f e e l i n g s o f f r i e n d s h i p t o w a r d s t h i s Government, and y o u may p e r h a p s be aware t h a t I h a v e b e e n m y s e l f a n i m a t e d by t h e same f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s y o u r s e l f . "134-I n 1905, S e n a t o r Templeman c o u l d n o t f i n d anyone, who w o u l d s a t i s f y b o t h the e x e c u t i v e o f the L i b e r a l p a r t y and the m a j o r i t y o f p a r t y f o l l o w e r s . F i n a l l y , l a t e i n t h e y e a r , i t was d e c i d e d t o a s k L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e t o r e m a i n i n o f f i c e f o r a n o t h e r few months u n t i l a s u i t a b l e p e r s o n c o u l d be l o c a t e d . T h i s d e c i s i o n . w a s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o e v e r y o n e and rumours c o n t i n u e d t o s p r e a d t h a t an e a s t e r n a p p o i n t m e n t would be made. A t l a s t , i n May 1906, L a u r i e r a n n o u n c e d t h a t James D u n s m u i r 1 - ^ w o u l d be t h e n e x t L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r . The a p p o i n t m e n t was made o v e r t h e o p p o s i t i o n L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r H o n o u r a b l e Thomas W i l s o n P a t e r s o n , 1909-- 68 -o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p a r t y whose members were no n e a r e r a g r e e -ment t h a n t h e y h a d b e e n i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . B u t L a u r i e r r e g a r d e d Dunsmuir as an a s t u t e b u s i n e s s m a n and h o p e d t h a t as L i e u t e n a n t -G o v e r n o r he would be a w o r t h y s u c c e s s o r t o J o l y . But t h e L i b e r a l s o p p o s e d h i s a p p o i n t m e n t as v i g o r o u s l y as t h e y o p p o s e d an e a s t e r n c a n d i d a t e . S i n c e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r Dunsmuir was n o t the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y ' s c h o i c e , he was a t t a c k e d a t once as b e i n g c o m p l e t e l y u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p o s i t i o n . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s c o n -s i d e r e d t h a t t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s h a d s c o r e d a v i c t o r y . C r i t i c i s m a l s o a r o s e b e c a u s e th e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r e m p l o y e d A l i e n L a b o u r t o work i n h i s c o a l m i n e s o n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . C h i n e s e h a d b e e n e m p l o y e d by D u n s m u i r ' s f a t h e r i n t h e c o l l i e r i e s i n the 1880's and t h e f a m i l y h a d c o n t i n u e d t o h i r e A s i a t i c l a b o u r e r s f r o m t h a t t i m e . O r i e n t a l and o t h e r a l i e n i m m i g r a t i o n h a d become one o f the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Those i n d u s t r i a l i s t s who s u p p o r t e d a l i e n i m m i g r a t i o n were c o n s i d e r e d to b e w o r k i n g a g a i n s t t h e e c o n o m i c i n t e r e s t s o f t h e P r o v i n c e . P. J . D e a n e 1 ^ w r o t e t o S e n a t o r Templeman i n 1907 t o v o i c e h i s p e r s o n a l d i s a p p r o v a l o f b o t h Dunsmuir and t h e a c t i o n o f the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s i n a p p o i n t i n g h i m . He ( D u nsmuir) h a s a l l o w e d h i s p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s t c s u p e r s e d e h i s p u b l i c o b l i g a t i o n s . P e r s o n a l l y , w h i l s t I am a s t r o n g L i b e r a l and w i t h a l l my h e a r t hope t o see L a u r i e r r e t a i n e d i n power f o r the n e x t d e c a d e , I would n o t v o t e f o r y o u o r any o t h e r L i b e r a l i n t h e coming c o n t e s t i f Dunsmuir be p e r m i t t e d t o v f l a u n t h i s c o n t empt f o r the L i b e r a l p a r t y i n t h e j f a c e o f the p e o p l e w i t h o u t s e v e r e r e b u k e and the o n l y I d i g n i f i e d r e b u k e t h a t c a n be a d m i n i s t e r e d i s to i n s i s t u p o n h i s immediate r e s i g n a t i o n . O t t a w a b l u n d e r i n g h a s c o s t t h e B. C. L i b e r a l p a r t y h e a v i l y and g i v e n i t an a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t a s k i n t h e c o m i n g c a m p a i g n t o r e e l e c t i t s p r e s e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 37 S u c h c r i t i c i s m was t y p i c a l o f c o m p l a i n t s s e n t t o S e n a t o r Templeman and L a u r i e r f r o m a l l p a r t s o f t h e P r o v i n c e . Hugh Watt, a d o c t o r a t P o r t S t e e l e , who was an a r d e n t L i b e r a l s u p p o r t e r , l a t e r b l a m e d t h e d e f e a t o f the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s i n t h e 1908 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s o n D u n s m u i r ' s a p p o i n t m e n t . By 1909 t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s were a l m o s t u n i t e d i n t h e i r demand t h a t L a u r i e r r e q u e s t t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s r e s i g n a t i o n . But t h e Prime M i n i s t e r , a r g u i n g t h a t Dunsmuir was n o t e x c e e d i n g h i s powers b y i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e l e g i s l a t i o n ? r e f u s e d t o e n t e r t a i n t h i s i d e a . I n a l e t t e r t o O l i v e r w r i t t e n e a r l y i n 1909, L a u r i e r j u s t i -f i e d h i s s t a n d . A t t h e same t i m e , he p o i n t e d o u t , t h a t as l o n g as t h e P r o v i n c e s u p p o r t e d a C o n s e r v a t i v e government a t V i c t o r i a t h e L i b e r a l s c o u l d n o t r e a s o n a b l y e x p e c t p r e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t f r o m t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r . L a u r i e r compared t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s p o s i t i o n t o t h a t o f t h e K i n g o f E n g l a n d who h a d t o be a b s o l u t e l y i m p a r t i a l , a c c e p t i n g t h e a d v i c e o f h i s m i n i s t e r s , u n l e s s s o m e t h i n g was p r o p o s e d w h i c h was most h a r m f u l t o . t h e g e n e r a l good.-^o* L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r D u n s m u i r f i n a l l y t e n d e r e d h i s r e s i g n a t i o n i n t h e autumn o f 1909 a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h L a u r i e r . The Prime M i n i s t e r d i d n o t u r g e h i m t o c o m p l e t e h i s t e r m o f o f f i c e . S i n c e D u n s m u i r ' s r e s i g n a t i o n h a d been p e n d i n g f o r some months L a u r i e r h a d h a d t i m e t o d e c i d e on a s u i t a b l e r e p l a c e m e n t . T h i s t i m e he made t h e p o i n t o f c o n s u l t i n g w i t h t h e L i b e r a l members f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n Ottawa. T. W. P a t e r s o n , 1 ^ a f o r m e r L i b e r a l member i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g i s l a t u r e f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d was s e l e c t e d . The new L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r h a d n e v e r b e e n i n v o l v e d i n the c o n t r o v e r s y c o n c e r n i n g a p p o i n t m e n t s , b u t he was an a c t i v e p a r t y - 70 -s u p p o r t e r and c o n s i d e r e d t o be a man o f sound p o l i t i c a l a n d b u s i n e s s judgment. He was a l s o a r e s i d e n t o f t h e P r o v i n c e . I n m a k i n g t h i s s e l e c t i o n , L a u r i e r was m a i n t a i n i n g h i s s t a n d t h a t t h e L i e u t e n a n t -G o v e r n o r s h o u l d be above p a r t y c o n t r o v e r s y . The v a r i o u s p e t i t i o n s w h i c h h a d p o u r e d i n t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s o f f i c e h a d o n l y s e r v e d I t o annoy h i m s i n c e he c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the L i b e r a l l e a d e r s s h o u l d ' a c c e p t t h e d o c t r i n e t h a t t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r s h i p s h o u l d be above o r d i n a r y p a r t y p a t r o n a g e . I n s e e k i n g a d v i c e a n d s u p p o r t he h a d c o n f e r r e d w i t h C l i f f o r d S i f t o n who t o l d him, " I q u i t e a p p r e c i a t e y o u r p o i n t o f v i e w i n r e g a r d t o the p o s i t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .... I t a p p e a r s , however, t h a t t h e f a r t h e r west one goes t h e l e s s t h e f i n e r f e a t u r e s o f d i p l o m a c y seem t o be i n vogue. "-^O B u t i n P a t e r s o n , L a u r i e r h a d f o u n d a man who s a t i s f i e d a l l e l e m e n t s , i n t h e P r o v i n c e . An a c t i v e L i b e r a l and a s t r o n g o p p o n e n t o f the-M c B r i d e g overnment he was n o t c r i t i c i z e d as Dunsmuir h a d been. D u r i n g h i s e n t i r e p e r i o d o f o f f i c e P a t e r s o n s u c c e e d e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g c o m p a r a t i v e p e a c e and t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y b e g a n t o r e o r g a n i z e and u n i t e ; c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r the c h o i c e o f L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r , was p e r m i t t e d t o d i e . - 71 -CHAPTER V Some P r o b l e m s i n F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s  1896-1911: A s i a t i c I m m i g r a t i o n I m m i g r a t i o n i s a l w a y s a m a j o r p r o b l e m i n d e v e l o p i n g a com-p a r a t i v e l y new c o u n t r y . I n Canada, the f i r s t waves o f s e t t l e m e n t p e n e t r a t e d as f a r as t h e G r e a t L a k e s and t h e n c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t h e a r e a s w h i c h became t h e p r o v i n c e s o f Quebec, O n t a r i o and the M a r i t i m e s . By 1900, t h e b e s t l a n d h a d l o n g b e e n o c c u p i e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l p r o v i n c e s a n d i t was t h e w e s t e r n r e g i o n s o f Canada w h i c h were e n t i c i n g p r o s p e c t i v e s e t t l e r s t o t h e D o m i n i o n . D u r i n g L a u r i e r ' s p e r i o d o f o f f i c e an a l l o u t campaign was made u n d e r C l i f f o r d S i f t o n , M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r , t o f i l l t h e empty s p a c e s b e t w e e n t h e G r e a t L a k e s and t h e R o c k i e s w i t h s e t t l e r s f r o m E u r o p e , E a s t e r n Canada, and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , west o f t h e R o c k i e s , was n o t i n v o l v e d i n t h e new f e d e r a l s e t t l e m e n t schemes to t h e same e x t e n t as t h e P r a i r i e r e g i o n s . From E u r o p e , t h e P r o v i n c e was n o t as a c c e s s i b l e , e v e n by r a i l , as t h e a r e a s e a s t o f t h e R o c k i e s ; f u r t h e r m o r e , l a n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was f a r more d i f f i c u l t t h a n on t h e p r a i r i e s t o b r i n g u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n . But B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was as i n t e r e s t e d i n i m m i g r a t i o n as t h e r e s t o f w e s t e r n Canada and f o r some y e a r s she h a d a t t r a c t e d s e t t l e r s f r o m a c r o s s t h e P a c i f i c . P r i o r t o t h e g o l d r u s h w h i c h b e g a n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1858, the m a i n l a n d h a d no p e r m a n e n t s e t t l e m e n t . Much o f the a r e a was a n unknown w i l d e r n e s s w i t h a few Hudson's Bay Company p o s t s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h t h e I n t e r i o r . The o n l y a r e a w i t h p e r m a n e n t p o p u l a t i o n was o n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d where a t V i c t o r i a , E s q u i m a l t , Sooke and Nanaimo p o s s i b l y 1000 w h i t e s were engaged i n m a k i n g t h e i r l i v i n g from, c o a l - 72 -m i n i n g , t r a d i n g , l u m b e r i n g , f i s h i n g o r f a r m i n g . 1 ^ 1 W i t h t h e d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d o n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , p o p u l a t i o n s u r g e d i n t o t h e m a i n l a n d . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e m i n e r s were n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n p e r m a n e n t s e t t l e m e n t , t h e y wanted t o make t h e i r f o r t u n e s a n d r e t u r n t o t h e i r homes. By A u g u s t , 1858, G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s w r o t e i n h i s r e p o r t t o t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , " T h e r e a r e now a b o u t 10,000 f o r e i g n m i n e r s i n F r a s e r ' s R i v e r , and upwards o f 3000 o f t h a t number a r e p r o f i t a b l y e n g a g e d i n g o l d mining."^42 L a t e r i n h i s d i s p a t c h , t h e G o v e r n o r m e n t i o n e d t h e v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l i t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s f i r s t i n f l u x : B r i t i s h , A m e r i c a n , F r e n c h , German, A f r i c a n and C h i n e s e . The C h i n e s e who f i r s t a r r i v e d i n t h e C o l o n y came f r o m C a l i f o r n i a a n d A u s t r a l i a where t h e y h a d b e e n m i n i n g . I n t h o s e regionSj t h e y h a d n o t a s s i m i l a t e d w e l l i n t o t h e l i f e o f the c o u n t r y , as t h e y t e n d e d t o r e m a i n a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y i n t h e community a n d s e n d most o f t h e i r e a r n i n g s b a c k t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n C h i n a . S i n c e t h e y h a d a l o w e r s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g t h a n t h e w h i t e m i n e r s t h e y were c o n t e n t t o r e w o r k c l a i m s abandoned b y o t h e r s and f o r m i n i n g com-p a n i e s t h e C h i n e s e w o r k e d f o r l o w e r wages t h a n w h i t e m i n e r s . Because o f what was c o n s i d e r e d to be u n f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n f o r w h i t e men C a l i f o r n i a p a s s e d r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h a i m e d a t d r i v i n g th e C h i n e s e o u t o f t h e c o u n t r y . A u s t r a l i a was b e g i n n i n g to do l i k e -w i s e b y 1858 . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s t r e a t e d t h e O r i e n t a l m i n e r w i t h more t o l e r a t i o n and t r i e d t o p r o t e c t h i m f r o m u n j u s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n m i n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . D o u g l a s f e l t t h a t t h i s p o l i c y was i n l i n e w i t h t h e B r i t i s h s y s t e m o f j u s t i c e : m i n o r i t y g r o u p s s h o u l d e n j o y f u l l p r o t e c t i o n u n d e r t h e law. I n i860 he wrote t o t h e Duke o f N e w c a s t l e a t t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e s t a t i n g t h a t t h e C h i n e s e were n o t a d e s i r a b l e c l a s s as p e r m a n e n t p o p u l a t i o n b u t t h a t t h e y were u s e f u l as l a b o u r e r s and as r e v e n u e p r o d u c e r s . I n c o n s e q u e n c e he c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be p r o t e c t e d f r o m payment o f d i f f e r e n t i a l d u t i e s . l k 3 A l t h o u g h G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s h e l d t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s t h e w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c o l o n y was s o o n a g i t a t i n g f o r some f o r m ' o f c o n -t r o l o v e r C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n . The C h i n e s e were c h a r g e d w i t h c r e a t i n g u n f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n by h a v i n g a l o w e r s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g , w h i c h p e r m i t t e d them t o a c c e p t l o w e r wages i n m i n i n g , r o a d b u i l d i n g , p a c k i n g and o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s . D e s p i t e t h i s a g i t a t i o n , however, l i t t l e r e s t r i c t i v e a c t i o n was t a k e n b e f o r e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n t e r e d c o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1871. W i t h C o n f e d e r a t i o n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a c c e p t e d t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , i n c l u d i n g among i t s c l a u s e s , t h o s e w h i c h p e r -t a i n e d t o I m m i g r a t i o n and A l i e n s . S e c t i o n 95 o f t h e A c t gave con-t r o l o f l e g i s l a t i o n on I m m i g r a t i o n t o t h e p r o v i n c e s p r o v i d i n g t h a t s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n was n o t r e p u g n a n t t o any A c t o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f Canada. A t t h e same t i m e , S e c t i o n 91 l i s t e d N a t u r a l i z a t i o n a n d A l i e n s as coming u n d e r t h e d i r e c t j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e D o m i n i o n . 1 ^ I n l a t e r ' d i s p u t e s b e t w e e n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and the f e d e r a l a u t h o r i -t i e s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t e n d e d t o i g n o r e S e c t i o n 91 and b a s e d i t s c l a i m t o power on a b r o a d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f S e c t i o n 95* A t t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1871 1 a n t i - O r i e n t a l l e g i s l a t i o n was p r o p o s e d . A t t h a t t i m e i t was f e a r e d t h a t t h e f o r t h c o m i n g r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n w o u l d i n v o l v e t h e employ-ment o f much O r i e n t a l l a b o u r . The f i r s t r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n , an Act. i n 1875 w h i c h l i m i t e d - 7k -t h e p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s o f t h e C h i n e s e and I n d i a n s , t o o k away t h e r i g h t , p r e v i o u s l y e n j o y e d u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , to v o t e i n ^ p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s . 1 ^ S e v e r a l o t h e r a c t s p r o p o s e d a t t h i s t i m e were d e c l a r e d u l t r a v i r e s b y t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r and t h e Supreme C o u r t o f t h e P r o v i n c e . Debate o n C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n t o o k p l a c e i n t h e House o f 1 Commons f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n 1878 when a member f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d a t t e m p t e d t o have a c l a u s e i n s e r t e d i n a l l l a b o u r c o n t r a c t s f o r the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h w o u l d p r e v e n t t h e employment o f C h i n e s e l a b o u r e r s . A l t h o u g h many members a g r e e d t h a t t h e 1 O r i e n t a l w o r k e r d i d c o n s t i t u t e u n f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e w h i t e l a b o u r e r , i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t any l i m i t a t i o n o f O r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n w o u l d r e s u l t i n a s l o w down o f r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n . C a n a d a's p o p u l a t i o n was s t i l l t o o s m a l l t o s u p p l y an a d e q u a t e l a b o u r f o r c e f o r s u c h v a s t p r o j e c t s a s r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n . As the r a i l -way p r o g r e s s e d the s i t u a t i o n was a g g r a v a t e d ; 15,701 C h i n e s e e n t e r e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a between l88l and l88k. l i ; 6 W o r r i e d by t h i s h e a v y i n f l u x , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a members a t Ottawa a t t e m p t e d t o i n d u c e t h e f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o impose some f o r m o f r e s t r i c t i o n b u t Prime M i n i s t e r M a c d o n a l d c o n s i d e r e d i t n e c e s s a r y t o p e r m i t the e n t r y o f C h i n e s e l a b o u r i f t h e r a i l w a y was t o be c o m p l e t e d . He a l s o f e a r e d t h a t f u t u r e t r a d e w i t h the O r i e n t w o u l d be s e r i o u s l y e n d a n g e r e d i f d i s c r i m i n a t o r y i g i s l a t i o n was p e r m i t t e d . O n ' B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s i n s i s t e n c e , a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on C h i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n was a p p o i n t e d i n 188k t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e whole s u b j e c t , " i t s t r a d e r e l a t i o n s , i t s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , and a l l t h o s e m o r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h make C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n a d v i s a b l e . " 1 ^ - 75 -The Commission's f i n d i n g s d i d n o t s u p p o r t t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e n t i o n t h a t O r i e n t a l s s h o u l d be e n t i r e l y e x c l u d e d . M o d e r a t e r e s t r i c t i o n was f a v o u r e d b y t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s w i t h c a r e f u l r e g u -l a t i o n and a h e a d t a x o f $10 i m p o s e d on C h i n e s e a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i r e n t e r i n g t h e P r o v i n c e . " ^ 0 " O p i n i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e C o m mission's f i n d i n g s ; c o n t i n u e d p r o t e s t s were made c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n a c t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s . F i n a l l y , i n A p r i l , 1885, t h e House o f Commons p a s s e d an a c t i m p o s i n g a $50 h e a d t a x on C h i n e s e and l i m i t i n g t h e i r i m m i g r a t i o n t o one p e r s o n f o r e v e r y f i f t y t o n s o f the c a p a c i t y o f t h e c a r r y i n g v e s s e l . 1 ^ F o r a few y e a r s t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s seemed t o be e f f e c t i v e ; t h e p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s r e m a i n e d m o d e r a t e l y s a t i s f i e d u n t i l 1891. The 1891 c e n s u s showed t h a t o u t o f a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 98,173 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d 8,910 C h i n e s e . 1 ^ 0 These s t a t i s t i c s p r o v i d e d the i n c e n t i v e f o r r e n e w i n g a t t a c k s on f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s . The government was now a s k e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e h e a d t a x to $200 and to f u r t h e r l i m i t t h e r a t i o o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s to s h i p p i n g tonnage B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a u t h o r i t i e s a l s o r e q u e s t e d f o r the f i r s t t i m e t h a t t h e same l i m i t a t i o n s be p l a c e d on J a p a n e s e . But a u t h o r i t i e s i n Ottawa r e f u s e d to t a k e any a c t i o n , a r g u i n g once more t h a t f u t u r e t r a d e m i g h t be harmed i f f u r t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n was imposed. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o t a k e m a t t e r s i n t o h e r own hands and i n 1895 t h e l e g i s l a t u r e p a s s e d an amendment t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l V o t e r s A c t w h i c h d e c l a r e d t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o C h i n e s e ^ and I n d i a n s , J a p a n e s e were i n e l i g i b l e t o v o t e i n p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n I n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , the l e g i s l a t u r e p a s s e d a c o n s o l i d a t i o n and amendment o f t h e E l e c t o r s and E l e c t i o n s i n M u n i c i p a l i t i e s A c t i n w h i c h S e c t i o n 7 s t a t e d : "No C h i n e s e , J a p a n e s e , or I n d i a n s h a l l be - 76 -e n t i t l e d to vote at any municipal e l e c t i o n f o r the e l e c t i o n of a Mayor, Reeve, Alderman or C o u n c i l l o r . " l £ 2 W h i t e population of the Province hoped that by l i m i t i n g the c i v i l r i g h t s of the Oriental an element of control would be exercised on the numbers of A s i a t i c s entering the Province. I f Ottawa would not protect I B r i t i s h Columbia, she would protect herself. This was the s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia when Laurier assumed the o f f i c e of Prime Minister. The p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l Associations were as determined to control the A s i a t i c immigration as any other element i n the province, and since 1 8 8 7 , every p l a t -form of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l party had included a demand for the r e s t r i c t i o n of Oriental immigration. With a L i b e r a l administration i n o f f i c e i n Ottawa i t was hoped i n B r i t i s h Columbia that a change i n attitude on the part of the federal government would be f o r t h -coming. Laurier had professed himself to be a strong supporter of p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s ; to the minds of the majority of B r i t i s h Columbia l e g i s l a t o r s Oriental immigration was purely a p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r which could be regulated l o c a l l y . But i t soon became apparent that Laurier f e l t otherwise. He saw i n the Oriental problem a possible danger to c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s then e x i s t i n g between Canada and Great B r i t a i n and t h e i r a l l y Japan. On the basis of imperial i n t e r e s t , the Prime Minister argued that B r i t i s h Columbia had no r i g h t to consider the matter as one of purely p r o v i n c i a l significance. By 1896, B r i t i s h Columbia was sharing i n the general economic development of Canada: mining was being extended, new railways were being constructed, the forest and f i s h i n g industries were expanding. But many i n d u s t r i a l i s t s considered i t impossible to develop these industries quickly without a supply of Oriental labour. S i r William - 77 -V a n H o m e commented on t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o b l e m i n 1896 when he w r o t e t o the e d i t o r o f t h e V a n c o u v e r W o r l d , I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n a t u r e h a s p r o v i d e d e x t r a -o r d i n a r y r e s o u r c e s , b u t i t h a s a t t h e same t i m e o p p o s e d e x t r a o r d i n a r y o b s t a c l e s t o t h e i r d e v e l o p -ment. An abundance o f c h e a p l a b o u r i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o t h e r a p i d p r o g r e s s o f t h e c o u n t r y . I t c a n o n l y be h a d f r o m C h i n a and t o a s m a l l e x t e n t f r o m J a p a n . I f i r m l y b e l i e v e t h a t I am w e l l w i t h i n t h e mark i n s a y i n g t h a t f o r e v e r y t h r e e C h i n e s e l a b o u r e r s b r o u g h t i n , a demand w i l l be c r e a t e d f o r one w h i t e w o r k i n g man f o r employment i n c a p a c i t i e s b e t t e r t h a n o r d i n a r y l a b o u r w i t h p i c k and shovel.153 T h i s same o p i n i o n was v o i c e d by t h o s e e m p l o y e r s i n t h e P r o v i n c e who r e q u i r e d a l a r g e l a b o u r f o r c e . B u t d i f f e r e n t v i e w s were h e l d by workingmen who f e a r e d c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m cheap l a b o u r . By 1896, t h e T r a d e U n i o n s were b e c o m i n g v e r y a c t i v e i n t h e P r o v i n c e , so a c t i v e t h a t i n a few y e a r s t h e i r o p p o n e n t s c l a i m e d , " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s a t p r e s e n t b e i n g t y r a n n i s e d o v e r by A m e r i c a n T r a d e U n i o n s l " 1 ^ When L a u r i e r gave no i n d i c a t i o n o f w i l l i n g n e s s t o g i v e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e h o p e d f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n s o l v i n g t h e O r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n p r o b l e m , t h e ' B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g i s l a t u r e d e c i d e d t o t a k e m a t t e r s i n t o I t s own h a n d s . I n 1897 an A l i e n L a b o u r A c t - ^ 5 was p a s s e d w h i c h p r o h i b i t e d t h e employment o f C h i n e s e and Japanese-o n works a u t h o r i z e d b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l government. The f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s p r o m p t l y d i s a l l o w e d t h e a c t on the g r o u n d t h a t i t v i o -l a t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t y r i g h t s . D u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r a L a b o u r R e g u l a t i o n s A c t , l898,"^6 h a v i n g t h e same p u r p o s e | w a s p a s s e d ; i t met a s i m i l a r f a t e . A t u g o f war b etween B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Ottawa h a d s t a r t e d . The p r o v i n c i a l government p e r s i s t e d i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t i t h a d t h e r i g h t t o l e g i s l a t e on O r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n ; O t t a w a c o n s i d e r e d t h a t - 78 -t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n was f e d e r a l r a t h e r t h a n p r o v i n c i a l I s i n c e i t i n v o l v e d t h e n a t i o n a l s o f J a p a n , a c o u n t r y w i t h whoni G r e a t B r i t a i n h a d h a d a t r a d e agreement s i n c e l 8 9 k . F e d e r a l o f f i c i a l s p o i n t e d t o t h e c l a u s e s i n t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t f o r t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . J o s e p h M a r t i n , a l w a y s most o u t s p o k e n when he b e l i e v e d t h e f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s a t f a u l t , w r o t e t o L a u r i e r i n 1899 t o w a r n t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f t h e p o w e r f u l f e e l i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a g a i n s t O r i e n t a l s . " I f y o u r Government u n d e r t a k e t o d i s a l l o w t h e s e A c t s ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s a n t i - O r i e n t a l l e g i s l a t i o n ) y o u c a n c o u n t u p o n e v e r y c o n s t i t u e n c y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a g o i n g a g a i n s t y o u a t the n e x t e l e c t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n y o u would a l i e n a t e a l l t h e l a b o u r u n i o n s and t h e l a b o u r v o t e g e n e r a l l y i n o t h e r P r o v i n c e s . L a u r i e r ' s f i r s t c o n c r e t e e f f o r t t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m was made i n J u n e , 1900, when, a f t e r r e p e a t e d demands f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a he r a i s e d t h e h e a d t a x on C h i n e s e f r o m $50 t o $100 b y a n amendment o f t h e f e d e r a l a c t p f 1885; b u t he would n o t c o n s i d e r a p p l y i n g t h e measure t o t h e J a p a n e s e . By t h i s t i m e , h owever, many p e o p l e o f t h e P r o v i n c e demanded t o t a l e x c l u s i o n o f t h e O r i e n t a l . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s l e a d e r s s u g -g e s t e d t h a t t h i s c o u l d be done by e i t h e r one o f two m e thods; by i n c r e a s i n g t h e h e a d t a x t o $500, o r b y p a s s i n g an a c t s i m i l a r i n i t s p r o v i s i o n s t o t h e N a t a l A c t w h i c h d e b a r r e d A s i a t i c s b y means o f an e d u c a t i o n t e s t . I n N a t a l , where s u c h an a c t h a d b e e n p a s s e d i n 1897, i t h a d p r o v e n most s u c c e s s f u l i n e x c l u d i n g E a s t I n d i a n s . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T r a d e s and L a b o u r C o u n c i l , a l o n g w i t h a l a r g e number o f p r i v a t e g r o u p s , i n May, 1900, u r g e d t h e f e d e r a l government t o e s t a b l i s h a c o m m i s s i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e whole O r i e n -t a l p r o b l e m . U n r e s t r i c t e d J a p a n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n was now c o n s i d e r e d t o be more t h r e a t e n i n g t o t h e w e l f a r e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s economy and w o r k e r s t h a n C h i n e s e . 1 ^ A g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n p r e -v a i l e d t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e were more a g g r e s s i v e t h a n t h e C h i n e s e and were more i n t e r e s t e d i n b r i n g i n g t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n t o t h e c o u n t r y t o e s t a b l i s h p e r m a n e n t homes. To' s a t i s f y t h e s e c o n t i n u a l demands, L a u r i e r a n n o unced i n J u n e , 1900, t h a t he w o u l d a p p o i n t a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e 1 t h e whole m a t t e r o f C h i n e s e a n d J a p a n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n . Names o f s u i t a b l e members f o r . t h e c o m m i s s i o n were i m m e d i a t e l y p r o p o s e d t o t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r b y g r o u p s o f i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s i n t h e P r o v i n c e . D e t e r m i n e d to h a v e a s t r o n g c o m m i s s i o n and one w h i c h w o u l d command r e s p e c t , L a u r i e r s o u g h t B o s t o c k ' s a d v i c e . 1 ^ The men recommended by B o s t o c k p r o v e d t o be a c c e p t a b l e t o L a u r i e r ; he t h e r e f o r e a p p o i n t e d Roger C l u t e , as c h a i r m a n ; R a l p h S m i t h and Duncan J . Munn, as members; P. J . Deane, as s e c r e t a r y . The a p p o i n t m e n t o f S m i t h t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n was c r i t i c i z e d b y J a p a n e s e r e s i d e n t s who c o n s i d e r e d him t o be t o o s t r o n g a s u p p o r t e r o f a n t i - O r i e n t a l l e g i s l a t i o n . o t S m i t h h i m s e l f c o n s i d e r e d t h a t b e c a u s e o f h i s s t r o n g l a b o u r a f f i l i a t i o n he s h o u l d n o t r e m a i n a member o f 0. t h e e C o m m i ssi on; he t h e r e f o r e r e s i g n e d . H i s p o s i t i o n was t a k e n by C h r i s t o p h e r F o l e y , a l a b o u r u n i o n l e a d e r a t R o s s l a n d . L a u r i e r was d e t e r m i n e d t o keep a t r a d e u n i o n man on t h e C o m m i s s i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r t o A s i a t i c i m m i g r a t i o n was w e l l r e c o g n i z e d . The R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n b e g a n i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n O c t o b e r , 1900, b y p a y i n g a v i s i t t o W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. vihere t h e members s t u d i e d t h e whole h i s t o r y o f O r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The f i r s t h e a r i n g s were d e l a y e d b y S m i t h ' s r e s i g n a t i o n , u n t i l M a r ch, 1901, when t h e y o p e n e d a t V a n c o u v e r . The C h i n e s e and t h e J a p a n e s e - 80 -q u e s t i o n s were t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t they! were d e a l i n g w i t h two d i s t i n c t p r o b l e m s . Upon c o m p l e t i n g t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o u r , the C o m m i s s i o n e r s v i s i t e d S e a t t l e , P o r t l a n d and S a n F r a n c i s c o , t h e m a j o r c e n t e r s o f o r i e n t a l s e t t l e -ment o n t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t . A f t e r e x a m i n i n g e v e r y a s p e c t o f C h i n e s e l i f e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s d e c i d e d t h a t t h e C h i n e s e d i d n o t a s s i -m i l a t e w e l l , t h a t t h e y a f f o r d e d u n f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n f o r w h i t e l a b o u r , a n d t h a t i t was t o t h e a d v a n t a g e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a an d the D o m i n i o n t o have t h e P r o v i n c e c o n t a i n B r i t i s h s t o c k . The r e p o r t i s s u e d i n 1902 d e c l a r e d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s i d e n t s a l m o s t u n a n i m o u s l y s u p p o r t e d g r e a t e r r e s t r i c t i o n s and recommended t h a t f u r t h e r immi-g r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e l a b o u r e r s be p r o h i b i t e d b y t r e a t y s u p p o r t e d by | s u i t a b l e l e g i s l a t i o n ; u n t i l t h i s c o u l d be done, t h e c a p i t a t i o n t a x s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d f r o m $100 t o $ £ 0 0 . l A 4 I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h J a p a n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n , t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s f o u n d t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e government h a d v o l u n t a r i l y t a k e n a c t i o n i n 1900 t o p r o h i b i t t h e e m i g r a t i o n o f J a p a n e s e l a b o u r e r s t o the D o m i n i o n . As l o n g as t h e I m p e r i a l J a p a n e s e government was w i l l i n g t o do t h i s , t h e s i t u a t i o n w o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d ; b u t i f a t any t i m e u n r e s t r i c t e d i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o C a nada was a l l o w e d , t h e R e p o r t r e -commended t h a t e f f e c t i v e m e a s u r e s be a d o p t e d by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n -ment t o c o n t r o l t h e members o f J a p a n e s e l a b o u r e r s who e n t e r e d the c o u n t r y . 1 ^ \ L a u r i e r a c c e p t e d the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e R e p o r t . I n 1903 t h e f e d e r a l government, t h e r e f o r e , i n c r e a s e d t h e c a p i t a t i o n t a x o n C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s t o $£00 a s recommended, b u t t o o k no a c t i o n 1 w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e J a p a n e s e . L a u r i e r h a d a l l o w e i s i x y e a r s t o - 81 -e l a p s e b e f o r e a g r e e i n g t o a method o f c o n t r o l . Most o f t h e p e o p l e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o n s i d e r e d t h a t s u c h d e l a y was u n n e c e s s a r y ; j b e c a u s e o f i t t h e y were a l r e a d y t u r n i n g a g a i n s t t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y t o g i v e s u p p o r t t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s . A l t h o u g h l i m i t a t i o n o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n was a c h i e v e d b y th e 1903 C a n a d i a n l e g i s l a t i o n , J a p a n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n was s t i l l u n-c h e c k e d . B e f o r e t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n h a d begun i t s s i t t i n g s i n t h e f a l l o f 1900, t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g i s l a t u r e h a d d e c i d e d o n A u g u s t 31, 1900 ^  t o p a s s a n a c t , , t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f the N a t a l A c t } f o r p r o -v i n c i a l l e a d e r s d i d n o t t r u s t v o l u n t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n s b y t h e government o f J a p a n . An A c t t o R e g u l a t e I m m i g r a t i o n i n t o B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 190Q, i n c l u d e d an e d u c a t i o n t e s t : The i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o f any p e r s o n who, when a s k e d t o do s o by t h e o f f i c e r a p p o i n t e d u n d e r t h i s A c t , s h a l l f a i l h i m s e l f t o w r i t e o u t and s i g n , i n t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f some l a n g u a g e o f E u r o p e , an a p p l i -c a t i o n t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t o t h e e f f e c t o f t h e f o r m s e t o u t i n . S c h e d u l e "B" t o t h i s A c t annexed, s h a l l be u n l a w f u l . I o D I t was a r g u e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t the N a t a l A c t , h a v i n g b e e n a l l o w e d t o s t a n d i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e , s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d i n Canada. The J a p a n e s e government, however, h a d an e n t i r e l y 1 d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w — i t demanded t h a t the D o m i n i o n d i s a l l o w t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . N o t o n l y d i d S. S h i m i z u , the J a p a n e s e c o n s u l i n V a n c o u v e r , make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o Ottawa, b u t C o unt H a y a s h i , t h e J a p a n e s e ambassador t o London, a s k e d t h e B r i t i s h F o r e i g n O f f i c e t o have t h e a c t d i s a l l o w e d . A f t e r e x a m i n i n g t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , J o s e p h C h a m b e r l a i n , t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e A c t d i d n o t g i v e a p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e t h e power to impose r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n o n immi-1 g r a t i o n ; . he i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l government s h o u l d d i s a l l o w - - 8 2 -t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a c t o f 1900. D O L a u r i e r , u p o n r e c e i p t o f the d i s p a t c h 'from C h a m b e r l a i n , a d v i s e d the J a p a n e s e c o n s u l t h a t t h e i a c t would be d i s a l l o w e d . By 1900, J a p a n h a d emerged as t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l n a t i o n o f t h e P a c i f i c . G r e a t B r i t a i n who w i s h e d t o s a f e g u a r d h e r i n t e r e s t s i n t h e E a s t , c o n s i d e r e d t h a t an a l l i a n c e w i t h J a p a n w o u l d be bene-f i c i a l ; i n 1900, t a l k s were b e g u n t o t r y t o e s t a b l i s h an a l l i a n c e . T h ese d i s c u s s i o n s c u l m i n a t e d i n 1902 w i t h t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e A n g l o -J a p a n e s e A l l i a n c e w h i c h was t o r u n f o r t h r e e y e a r s ; i n 1905 i t was renewed. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s a c t i o n i n l e g i s l a t i n g a g a i n s t t h e i m m i g r a -t i o n o f J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l s was c o n s i d e r e d t o e n d a n g e r t h e f r i e n d s h i p ^ b etween B r i t a i n and J a p a n ; L a u r i e r was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t C a n a d a s h o u l d n o t be b l a m e d f o r d i s r u p t i n g A n g l o - J a p a n e s e r e l a t i o n s , he r e m a i n e d f i r m i n h i s s t a n d t h a t any B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h d i s -c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t t h e J a p a n e s e s h o u l d be d i s a l l o w e d . I n d e f e n d i n g h i s a c t i o n , he h e l d t o t h r e e a r g u m e n t s : Canada and J a p a n , f a c i n g one a n o t h e r a c r o s s t h e P a c i f i c , s h o u l d r e m a i n on f r i e n d l y t e r m s ; t h e J a p a n e s e ; g o v e r n m e n t h a d i t s e l f r e s t r i c t e d i m m i g r a t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t a s s u r a n c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; f i n a l l y , Canada h o p e d t o i n c r e a s e h e r t r a d e w i t h J a p a n i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e so must m a i n t a i n f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s . 1 ° 9 D e s p i t e L a u r i e r ' s a r g u m e n t s , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g i s l a t u r e j r e p a s s e d t h e i r I m m i g r a t i o n A c t i n 1903; 1905; 1907 and 1908. T e n -s i o n mounted b e t w e e n f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s . S i n c e L a u r i e r i n f o r m e d n e i t h e r the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p a r t y n o r t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , government c o n c e r n i n g t h e B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , i t was t h o u g h t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t the Prime M i n i s t e i - 83 -and t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s were e n t i r e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i s - | a l l o w a n c e s . The p r o b l e m was f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t e d b e c a u s e some e i g h t o r n i n e 1 months a l w a y s e l a p s e d b e t w e e n t h e p a s s a g e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g i s l a t i o n and d i s a l l o w a n c e by O t t a w a . D u r i n g the months t h a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I m m i g r a t i o n A c t was i n e f f e c t t h e a n t i - A s i a t i c c l a u s e was r i g i d l y e n f o r c e d . The o n l y way t h i s awkward s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be a v o i d e d was b y the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r e m p l o y i n g h i s p r i v i l e g e o f r e s e r v a t i o n . L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r D u n s m u i r d i d t h i s i n 1907 w h i c h p r o v e d t o be a m o s t u n p o p u l a r move; he was a c c u s e d o f i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e w o r k i n g o f r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t . L a u r i e r , who was t h o u g h t to be e n c o u r a g i n g D u n s m u i r , was c o n s i d e r e d t o be m e d d l i n g i n p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . M a c d o n a l d a n d o t h e r B r i t i s h C o l u m - j b i a L i b e r a l l e a d e r s u r g e d L a u r i e r t o p e r m i t p a s s a g e o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' a n t i - O r i e n t a l l e g i s l a t i o n . The c o n t i n u e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f J a p a n as a P a c i f i c n a t i o n i n f l u e n c e d t h e a t t i t u d e o f f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s ; p r i o r t o 1902, t h e r e h a d b e e n l i t t l e i n t e r c o u r s e b e t w e e n J a p a n and Canada b u t w i t h t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e A n g l o - J a p a n e s e A l l i a n c e , Canada began t o c o n s i d e r t h e f e a s a b i l i t y o f e n t e r i n g i n t o t r a d e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e A s i a n c o u n t r y . I n 1906 a c o n v e n t i o n was c o n c l u d e d w h i c h a p p l i e d t o commerce and n a v i g a t i o n b e t w e e n Canada and J a p a n ; i n J a n u a r y , J L 9 0 7 , ^ t h i s became a f o r m a l t r e a t y . W i t h t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s t a k i n g p l a c e i t was n a t u r a l t h a t L a u r i e r s h o u l d c o n s i d e r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s i n s i s t e n c e o n a n t i -A s i a t i c l e g i s l a t i o n most u n f o r t u n a t e . The P r i m e M i n i s t e r hoped t o r e a c h a compromise b y w h i c h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h e f e d e r a l a s s u r a n c e t h a t s h o u l d J a p a n d e c i d e t o l i f t h e r - 8k -v o l u n t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n o n i m m i g r a t i o n b e g u n i n 1900, t h e n , r e s -t n i c t l v e ' l e g i s l a t i o n w o u l d b e p a s s e d b y t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . L a u r i e r c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h i s w o u l d b e t h e i d e a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m . B u t i n 1907 t h e f l o w o f A s i a t i c i m m i g r a t i o n b e g a n t o i n c r e a s e a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i m m e d i a t e l y saw h e r s e l f a t t h e m e r c y o f u n -c o n t r o l l e d A l i e n i m m i g r a t i o n . T h e f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t e s w e r e a c c u s e d o f d o i n g n o t h i n g t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m , w h i l e , a t t h e same t i m e , t h e y r e f u s e d t o p e r m i t t h e P r o v i n c e t o t a k e r e s t r i c t i v e m e a s u r e s . M a n y h e a t e d m e e t i n g s w e r e h e l d i n V a n c o u v e r , V i c t o r i a a n d New W e s t m i n s t e r a t w h i c h a c c u s a t i o n s w e r e h u r l e d a g a i n s t the f e d e r a l . g o v e r n m e n t . R o b e r t M a c p h e r s o n , M . P . f r o m V a n c o u v e r was p a r t i c u l a r l y o u t s p o k e n a g a i n s t t h e J a p a n e s e . L a u r i e r f e l t c a l l e d u p o n t o r e -p r i m a n d h i m f o r h i s a t t i t u d e . I w o u l d l i k e y o u a n d o u r f r i e n d s t o r e m e m b e r t h a t J a p a n i s a n a l l y o f G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d t h a t we h a v e a t r e a t y o f c o m m e r c e p a s s e d w i t h t h a t c o u n t r y r e c e n t l y w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f e v e r y o n e I n C a n a d a a n d t h a t m o d e r a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e w o u l d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e b e m o r e t h a n u s e f u l . 1(0 M a c p h e r s o n ' s s p e e c h e s w e r e made e a r l y i n t h e summer o f 1907 when s h i p s w e r e a r r i v i n g i n V a n c o u v e r w i t h g r e a t n u m b e r s o f A s i a t i c s o n b o a r d . He d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e g o v e r n m e n t i n t e n d e d t o swamp t h e w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n ; t h i s , i n d e e d , a p p e a r e d t o b e t h e c a s e , f o r d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t e n m o n t h s o f 1907 n o l e s s t h a n 8,123> J a p a n e s e e n t e r e d C a n a d a . 1 7 1 i t was n o t o n l y t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e n u m b e r s o f J a p a n e s e w h i c h w o r r i e d p e o p l e ; C h i n e s e a l s o b e g a n t o a r r i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s . T h e $500 h e a d t a x w h i c h h a d d i s c o u r a g e d C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n when i t was e n f o r c e d i n 1903 n o l o n g e r s e e m e d a h a n d i c a p . 1 Due t o a s h o r t a g e of l a b o u r i n the P r o v i n c e t h e C h i n e s e workman c o u l d s o o n e a r n enough t o compensate f o r the amount p a i d t o e n t e r t h e c o u n t r y . A t h i r d A s i a t i c g r o u p , t h e E a s t I n d i a n s h a d d e c i d e d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c l i m a t e a n d i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l p r o v i d e d a s u i t a b l e l o c a l e f o r s e t t l e m e n t . T h i s g r o u p h a d begun t o a r r i v e i n v e r y s m a l l numbers i n 190k b u t b y 1908 i t s numbers h a d i n c r e a s e d t o j u s t o v e r 5000. E a s t I n d i a n s were l o o k e d u p o n w i t h e v e n more d i s -t r u s t t h a n t h e two O r i e n t a l g r o u p s , t h e i r s t r a n g e customs' and d r e s s s e t them < e v e n more a p a r t f r o m t h e r e s t o f the p o p u l a t i o n t h a n t h e C h i n e s e o r J a p a n e s e . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e lumber i n d u s t r y t h e y o f f e r e d c o m p e t i t i o n " f o r the w h i t e w o r k e r w h i c h was q u i c k l y r e s e n t e d . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T r a d e s and L a b o u r © o u n c i l saw M o n g o l i a n l a b o u r as a d i s t i n c t d a n g e r t o i t s own o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s . By 1900 a l l L a b o r P a r t y p r o g r a m s i n t h e P r o v i n c e i n c l u d e d demands f o r a n t i - f A s i a t i c r e s t r i c t i o n s . L a b o u r a g i t a t i o n a g a i n s t A l i e n l a b o u r i n c r e a s e d i n i n t e n s i t y . . D u r i n g t h e summer o f 1907 an a n t i - A s i a t i c E x c l u s i o n League was f o r m e d i n V a n c o u v e r by L a b o u r a g i t a t o r s who h a d come t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A t a p u b l i c m e e t i n g a t t e n d e d b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r s r e s o l u t i o n s u r g i n g t h e immediate c o n t r o l o f O r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n were f o r m u l a t e d . By September, the s i t u a t i o n was so t e n s e t h a t when rumours were s p r e a d t h a t a l a r g e number o f J a p a n e s e were a r r i v i n g o n September 8, r i o t s b r o k e o u t i n t h e C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e s e c t i o n s o f t h e c i t y . T h i s mob v i o l e n c e b r o u g h t t h e whole q u e s t i o n o f l i m i t a t i o n t o a s u d d e n 1 h e a d . What h a d h i t h e r t o b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a l o c a l p r o b l e m now assumed n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n s . The r i o t e r s ' a c t i o n s were condemned by most C a n a d i a n s who b e l i e v e d t h a t m i n o r i t y - 86 -g r o u p s s h o u l d be p r o t e c t e d b y law. L a u r i e r a n d the f e d e r a l g o v e r n -ment were p e r t u r b e d by t h e t r o u b l e s i n c e t h e y f e a r e d t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e a u t h o r i t i e s w o u l d make an i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e o f the s i t u a t i o n and demand c a n c e l l a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g t r e a t i e s . T b ^ s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e the P r i m e M i n i s t e r a p p o i n t e d | W. L . M a c k e n z i e K i n g , D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r , as c o m m i s s i o n e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e l o s s e s s u f f e r e d b y t h e J a p a n e s e i n t h e r i o t s . A t t h e same t i m e he a n n o u n c e d t h a t R o d o l p h e Lemieux, M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r , w o u l d go t o J a p a n t o d i s c u s s i m m i g r a t i o n p r o b l e m s w i t h the I m p e r i a l g overnment a t T o k y o. B u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s were d e t e r m i n e d t o f o r c e L a u r i e r ' s h a nd. A t a p r o v i n c i a l c o n v e n t i o n h e l d i n O c t o b e r , 1907, r e s o l u t i o n s were p a s s e d w h i c h p o i n t e d o u t t h e d a n g e r o f O r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n t o t h e economy o f t h e P r o v i n c e and r e q u e s t e d i m m e d i a t e l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n t o p r e v e n t f u r t h e r A s i a t i c i m m i g r a t i o n . L a u r i e r ' s r e a c t i o n t o the 190? c o n v e n t i o n was v i g o r o u s ; he d e n o u n c e d t h e i m p a t i e n c e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s . I do n o t mean t h a t we s h o u l d h a v e u n r e s t r i c t e d 1 J a p a n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n , b e c a u s e I know t h a t t h i s w o u l d ' p r o v o k e c o n s t a n t t r o u b l e w i t h t h e w h i t e e l e m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , b u t I i n s i s t u p o n i t t h a t a r e s -t r i c t e d i m m i g r a t i o n must be b r o u g h t a b o u t b y d i p l o m a t i c a c t i o n . T h i s i s what we a r e t r y i n g t o do. Our f r i e n d s , however, do n o t seem t o r e a l i z e t h i s and t h e y have s i m p l y a l l o w e d t h e m s e l v e s t o be d i c t a t e d t o b y t h e u n r e a s o n i n g e l e m e n t s w h i c h a r e q u i t e r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s t o t h e c o u n t r y and themselves.173 L a u r i e r was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s h o u l d be s o l v e d by d i p l o m a c y ; t h e e x i s t i n g a l l i a n c e s made any o t h e r method d a n g e r o u s . By t h e C a n a d i a n t r a d e a g r e e m e n t J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l s h a d o b t a i n e d f u l l l i b e r t y t o e n t e r , t r a v e l , o r r e s i d e i n Canada; L a u r i e r c o u l d n o t see how t h e c o u n t r y c o u l d now l e g a l l y c o n s i d e r l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h - 87 - ' w o u l d l i m i t J a p a n e s e e n t r y . The o n l y method o f c o n t r o l , he a r g u e d , was by a " g e n t l e m a n ' s a g r e e m e n t " worked o u t by b o t h c o u n t r i e s t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n . Upon Mr. L e m i e u x ' s r e t u r n t o Canada i n J a n u a r y , 1908, announcement was made i n the House o f Commons o f such' an a greement. A l e t t e r w r i t t e n by V i s c o u n t H a y a s h i , ' J a p a n e s e F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r , t o L e m i e ux was r e a d i n w h i c h t h e J a p a n e s e g o v e r n -ment u n d e r t o o k t o c o n t r o l i m m i g r a t i o n t o Canada and w o u l d "give, c a r e -f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n Canada ..."^"^ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was n o t p l e a s e d w i t h t h e a greement. I t s c i t i z e n s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t a n y t h i n g l e s s t h a n l e g i s l a t i o n o r t r e a t y was d e p e n d e n t u p o n the v a g a r i e s o f human n a t u r e . What g u a r a n t e e was t h e r e to p r e v e n t t h e J a p a n e s e a u t h o r i t i e s f r o m s u d d e n l y c h a n g i n g t h e i r m i n ds an d i g n o r i n g t h e a g r e e m e n t ? To remedy -this d e f e c t l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n t e s t was r e v i v e d i n F e b r u a r y , 1908. When t h e l e g a l i t y o f t h i s a c t was t e s t e d i n a few weeks t i m e , C h i e f J u s t i c e H u n t e r d e c l a r e d i t t o be c o n t r a r y t o the terras o f t h e 1 nc J a p a n e s e t r e a t y and t h e r e f o r e i n o p e r a t i v e . I n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r J . A. M a c d o n a l d , the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l p a r t y was now i n a most d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . L i b e r a l s , no more t h a n th e C o n s e r v a t i v e s o r S o c i a l i s t s , w i s h e d t o p e r m i t u n r e s t r i c t e d O r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n b u t , a t t h e same t i m e , i f p a r t y a f f i l i a t i o n was t o mean a n y t h i n g t h e P r o v i n c i a l l i b e r a l s were o b l i g e d t o s u p p o r t t h e f e d e r a l s t a n d . I n o t h e r words, t h e y w o u l d have t o r e c o g n i z e t h e j u s t i c e o f d i s a l l o w i n g t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g i s l a t i o n . S e e k i n g a compromise, M a c d o n a l d u r g e d th e f e d e r a l g overnment t o a l l o w t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n t o s t a n d . L a u r i e r f a i l e d t o c o u n t e n a n c e t h i s s u g g e s t i o n . He p r e f e r r e d , he s a i d , " t o r i s k some and e v e n a g o o d d e a l o f u n p o p u l a r i t y and f o l l o w the r i g h t course.-^77 T h a t t h e i s s u e of A s i a t i c i m m i g r a t i o n h a d made L a u r i e r and t h e L i b e r a l s most u n p o p u l a r i n t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e was a p p a r e n t when t h e r e s u l t s o f the 1908 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s were announced. Of t h e s e v e n f e d e r a l members f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o n l y two were now L i b e r a l s . Templeman, M i n i s t e r o f I n l a n d Revenue and M i n e s , was j d e f e a t e d . He was t h e o n l y c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r who was n o t r e t u r n e d i n t h e whole o f Canada. L a u r i e r was n o t a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s a t t i -t u d e . He c o u l d n o t see why compromise and d i p l o m a c y were u n a c c e p -t a b l e when t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d . He t e n d e d t o blame the weakness o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s i n n o t p r e s e n t i n g a f i r m enough s t a n d a g a i n s t t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s . I do n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h a t our p o l i c y on the A s i a t i c ^ q u e s t i o n c o u l d h a v e b e e n a g a i n s t u s , b e c a u s e t h e f a c t i s t h a t we have s u c c e s s f u l l y c h e c k e d A s i a t i c immi-g r a t i o n : t h e C h i n e s e b y l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e H i n d o o s b y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n ; and t h e J a p a n e s e b y n e g o t i a t i o n . I f t h e p e o p l e w i l l n o t a p p r e c i a t e t h a t a c t i o n we c a n n o t h e l p I t , b u t I t seems t o me t h a t i f n o t now, a t l e a s t l a t e r on, t h e y must g i v e u s c r e d i t f o r i t . l T o F o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f L a u r i e r ' s t e r m the p r o b l e m o f J a p a n e s e immi-g r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d u n r e s o l v e d ; L a u r i e r m a i n t a i n e d h i s s t a n d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l government must a b i d e s t r i c t l y b y t h e t e r m s o f the J a p a n e s e t r e a t y . . I n 1911, when t h e 1906 c o m m e r c i a l agreement was r e -n e g o t i a t e d f o r a f u r t h e r two y e a r p e r i o d no change was made i n t h e i m m i g r a t i o n p o l i c y . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i t was f e l t t h a t t h e L i b e r a l s h a d n e v e r u n d e r s t o o d t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e P r o v i n c e . As a r e s u l t , i n b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s , t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s were g i v e n a l m o s t c o m p l e t e s u p p o r t . ^ PLATE XI  P o l i t i c a l Cartoons, 1 9 0 3 , 1 9 0 7 L i b e r a l Party A s i a t i c Immigration P o l i c y . From: The V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t , September 2 9 , 1 9 0 3 , p. 2 L i b e r a l Hopes f o r V i c t o r y . From: The Vancouver World, January 2 9 , 1 9 0 7 - 89 -CHAPTER V I Some P r o b l e m s i n F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s 1 8 9b-1911 t B e t t e r Terms and T a r i f f s By the terms o f t h e A c t o f U n i o n 1 ? 9 a d m i t t i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada the n e t d e b t o f the P r o v i n c e was assumed by t h e f e d e r a l g overnment a n d a n n u a l g r a n t s a m o u n t i n g t o $216,000 were p r o m i s e d . These a r r a n g e m e n t s seemed t o be v e r y j u s t to t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e a d e r s i n 1871. F o r the f i r s t s i x months a f t e r j o i n i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n t h e new P r o v i n c e was a b l e t o l i v e w i t h i n i t s b u d g e t ; t h e r e a f t e r , d e f i c i t s became c u s t o m a r y . l o > 0 g u t " i n s t e a d o f c u r t a i l i n g e x p e n d i t u r e , i t p s f e r r e d t o gamble upon t h e a d v e n t o f good t i m e s w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e P a c i f i c r a i l w a y , and to keep i t s e l f a f l o a t b y b o r r o w i n g and.by d r a w i n g u p p n i t s d e b t c r e d i t a t -i Q-t O t t a w a . " - 1 0 ± When an a d j u s t m e n t was made to t h e d e b t a l l o w a n c e s o f a l l the p r o v i n c e s b y M a c d o n a l d i n 188k, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s t i l l c o n -s i d e r e d t h a t t h e f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s were s a t i s f a c t o r y . U n t i l a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the r a i l w a y n o t t o o much t h o u g h t was g i v e n t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r ' s i n a b i l i t y t o b a l a n c e t h e b u d g e t . The l o c a l government r a t h e r t h a n t h e terms o f . u n i o n was b l a m e d . 1 8 2 When c o m p l a i n t s c o n c e r n i n g the f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s were f i r s t r a i s e d b y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a > the E a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s a n d t h e f e d e r a l government p o i n t e d t o t h e tremendous e x p e n s e i n v o l v e d i n b u i l d i n g t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , w h i c h , i t was c l a i m e d , h a d b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d s o l e l y f o r the b e n e f i t o f t h e w e s t e r n P r o v i n c e . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , o n t h e o t h e r hand, a r g u e d t h a t t h e r a i l w a y h a d b e e n b u i l t t o f u r t h e r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f Canada and as s u c h i t was a n a t i o n a l u n d e r t a k i n g . l 8 ^ - 90 -B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e g a n to a s s e r t a r i g h t t o B e t t e r Terms w i t h O t t awa by d emanding a more e q u i t a b l e d i v i s i o n o f t h e r e v e n u e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e C h i n e s e h e a d t a x . A c c o r d i n g t o An A c t t o R e s t r i c t and  R e g u l a t e C h i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n i n t o C a n a d a p a s s e d i n 1885, o n e - t h i r d o f t h e c a p i t a t i o n t a x c o l l e c t e d was t o go t o the P r o v i n c e and two-t h i r d s r e t a i n e d by t h e D o m i n i o n . I n J a n u a r y , 1897, P r e m i e r T u r n e r w r o t e t o L a u r i e r t o s u g g e s t t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was e n t i t l e d t o a l a r g e r s h a r e o f t h i s t a x . He p o i n t e d o u t t h a t s i n c e most o f t h e C h i n e s e r e m a i n e d i n the P r o v i n c e , the P r o v i n c e was p u t t o the e x p e n s e o f f u r n i s H L n g p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n , h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and o t h e r a m e n i t i e s ; t h e c o s t o f t h e s e f a r e x c e e d e d t h e r e v e n u e . 1 8 ^ -O n l y a y e a r o r two b e f o r e T u r n e r made h i s s u g g e s t i o n , a demand h a d a r i s e n f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s m a t t e r was now l i n k e d w i t h the r e q u e s t f o r B e t t e r Terms. The C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n the P r o v i n c e b e g a n t o argue t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s per c a p i t a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o f e d e r a l r e v e n u e was l a r g e enough t o w a r r a n t a c a b i n e t a p p o i n t m e n t . 1 8 ^ The c ampaign f o r B e t t e r Terms, however, d i d n o t g a i n momentum u n t i l a f t e r P r e m i e r Dunsmuir v i s i t e d Ottawa e a r l y i n 1901 t o d i s c u s s w i t h L a u r i e r a number o f p r o v i n c i a l needs s u c h a s : a s s i s t a n c e t o f i n i s h r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i s h e r i e s r i g h t s , b o u n d a r i e s o f I n d i a n r e s e r v e s and r e v e n u e p r o b l e m s . Dunsmuir p r e -s e n t e d a v e r y s t r o n g c a s e i n s u p p o r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s r e q u e s t f o r a b e t t e r f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t . He p o i n t e d o u t t h a t f r o m 1871 t o 1901 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d c o n t r i b u t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y $k2,000,000 t o t h e D o m i n i o n r e v e n u e , w h i c h , when compared w i t h t h e amount f r o m j t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , showed t h a t " 1 / 5 5 o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a d c o n -t r i b u t e d a b o u t l / 2 0 o f t h e r e v e n u e o f Canada i n 30 y e a r s . " l 8 ° The - 91 -P r e m i e r a l s o a r g u e d t h a t t h e c o s t o f l i v i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was much g r e a t e r t h a n i n E a s t e r n Canada s i n c e consumer goods h a d to be p u r c h a s e d i n t h e E a s t a n d s h i p p e d t o the West, t h e f r e i g h t c h a r g e s added c o n s i d e r a b l y t o t h e i r c o s t . The P r o v i n c e , on t h e o t h e r hand, was f o r c e d t o s e l l i t s own p r o d u c t s on a n u n p r o t e c t e d m a r k e t where i t competed w i t h c o u n t r i e s whose c o s t s were l o w e r . L a u r i e r was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p r e s s e d by t h e p r o b l e m as p r e -s e n t e d b y Dunsmuir; he r e f u s e d t o g i v e t h e P r e m i e r any r e a d j u s t m e n t and w o u l d o n l y go so f a r as t o agree to D u n s m u i r ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n be s u b m i t t e d to a c o n v e n t i o n . I n O c t o b e r , 1901, L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e e x p r e s s e d h i s c o n c e r n o v e r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f e d e r a l government ha d n o t t a k e n any a c t i o n f o l l o w i n g D u nsmuir's v i s i t . ... l a t a c h e de M. Dunsmuir s e r a i t b i e n p l u s f a c i l e s i v o t r e Gouvernement v o u l a i t a c c o r d e r a. c e t t e P r o v i n c e l a p a r t de l ' a i d e d o n t e l l e a p l u s b e s o i n qu'aucune a u t r e P r o v i n c e , e t a l a q u e l l e e l l e a d r o i t m a i s qui l u i e s t r e -f u s e e . L e s r e s u l t a t s de ce r e f u s s o n t f a c i l e s a" p r e V o i r . 1 8 ? L a u r i e r t o o k c o n s i d e r a b l e e x c e p t i o n to t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s a c c u s a t i o n ; he demanded f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n f r o m J o l y . The L i e u t e n a n t -G o v e r n o r r e p l i e d c o n f i d e n t i a l l y to L a u r i e r a t once t h a t he was ex-p r e s s i n g h i s p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n on the m a t t e r , b u t , he s a i d , he s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d h i s b e l i e f t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c l a i m s were j u s t and t h a t L a u r i e r w o u l d do w e l l t o r e c o g n i z e t h e m . 1 8 8 T h i s a t t i t u d e o f the L i e u t e n a i t - G o v e r n o r , a man o f L i b e r a l p e r s u a s i o n , was t h e same as t h a t e x p r e s s e d l a t e r b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l ^ L i b e r a l p a r t y when P r e m i e r M c B r i d e c a m p a i g n e d f o r B e t t e r Terms. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p o l i t i c i a n s ^ w h ether C o n s e r v a t i v e - o r L i b e r a l , were u n i t e d i n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e r i g h t of the P r o v i n c e t o ' h a v e a b e t t e r f i n a n c i a l s e t t l e m e n t . . Some d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n d i d a r i s e o v e r t h e - 9 2 -b e s t method o f o b t a i n i n g t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s , a l l s t r e s s e d t h e . n e c e s s i t y f o r a c t i o n . T h i s s i t u a t i o n made f o r g r a v e d i f f e r e n c e s I o f o p i n i o n b e t w e e n f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s and p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s . P r e m i e r Dunsmuir was u n w i l l i n g t o l e a v e , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o b l e m dormant f o r l o n g . The demand f o r B e t t e r Terms now became th e o f f i c i a l government p o l i c y . I n J a n u a r y , 1902, he w rote t o L a u r i e r t o make t h e f i r s t o f f i c i a l demand f o r a r e v i s i o n o f t h e t e r m s o f t h e A c t o f U n i o n . The P r e m i e r , who h a d b e e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r h i s a c t i o n i n a t t e m p t i n g t o s o l v e t h e s i t u a t i o n b y d i r e c t n e g o t i a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a members a t Ottawa, s t r e s s e d t h a t he was p r e s e n t i n g t h e c a s e on b e h a l f o f t h e P r o v i n c e and n o t on b e h a l f o f a n y one p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . Dunsmuir was a b u s i n e s s m a n b e f o r e he was a p o l i t i c i a n and p r e f e r r e d the m ethod o f d i r e c t n e g o t i a t i o n t o t h a t o f t h e more i n d i r e c t d i p -l o m a t i c methods o f p o l i t i c s . I n r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s c a s e he s t r e s s e d " t h e p e c u l i a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h e x i s t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a geo-g r a p h i c a l l y " and p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e E a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s when t h e y e n t e r e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n a l r e a d y h a d f a i r l y a d e q u a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s i n c o n t r a s t t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a where t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t . F u l l y i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e j u s t n e s s o f o u r c a u s e , he t o l d L a u r i e r , i t i s n o t o u r i n t e n t i o n t o r e l i n q u i s h I t s a d v o c a c y o r d e p a r t f r o m t h e c o u r s e we c o n s i d e r i n e q u i t y t o be o u r r i g h t and d u t y t o p u r s u e , and I t r u s t t h a t no Government t h a t may s u c c e e d t h e p r e s e n t w i l l do l e s s . 189 L a u r i e r ' s r e s p o n s e t o D u n s m u i r ' s m e m o r i a l was b l u n t i n d e e d . The P r i m e M i n i s t e r m a i n t a i n e d t h a t he h a d no o b j e c t i o n t o a C o n f e r e n c e t o d i s c u s s t h e q u e s t i o n s p r o p o s e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e m i e r b u t he gave no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he was p r e p a r e d t o c o n c e d e the j u s t i c e o f any o f t h e demands.190 L a u r i e r 1 s a t t i t u d e a p p e a r s t o have b e e n - 9 3 -i n f l u e n c e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t b y s u g g e s t i o n s r e c e i v e d f r o m B o s t o c k and o t h e r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s i m p l y i n g t h a t Dunsmuir was i n t e r e s t e d more i n p r e s e n t i n g a c a s e f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a n i n p r o m o t i n g t h e w e l f a r e o f the P r o v i n c e . S i m i l a r a c c u s a t i o n s were t o be made a g a i n s t P r e m i e r P r i o r } ^ 1 when he and A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l E b e r t s 1 ^ 2 v i s i t e d Ottawa e a r l y in ; 1 9 0 3 on a s i m i l a r m i s s i o n . 1 9 3 Dunsmuir r e s i g n e d as B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s P r e m i e r i n November, 1902. P r i o r , h i s s u c c e s s o r , b e g a n a t once t o a r r a n g e d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h L a u r i e r and t h e f e d e r a l government. On J a n u a r y 26, 1903, t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g was h e l d ; f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s t o o k p l a c e a t t h e b e -g i n n i n g o f t h e f o l l o w i n g month. P r i o r p l a c e d " t h e r e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f t h e P r o v i n c e w i t h t h e D o m i n i o n " 1 ^ a t t h e top o f h i s l i s t o f i t e m s f o r d i s c u s s i o n . He b a s e d h i s p l e a f o r f i n a n c i a l a d j u s t m e n t o n f o u r p o i n t s i n r e s p e c t t o w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o be u n i q u e : 1. t h e c o s t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o w i n g t o t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c o u n t r y . . 2. t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m th e c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e s o f E a s t e r n Canada. 3. t h e n o n - i n d u s t r i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the P r o v i n c e as compared w i t h E a s t e r n Canada, whereby a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f goods a r e i m p o r t e d and consumed, i n c r e a s i n g t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e F e d e r a l T r e a s u r y , i n t h e way o f t a x e s , i n a r a t i o o f t h r e e t o one. h . t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e o f the P r o v i n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e m a r k e t s f o r i t s s p e c i a l p r o d u c t s . 195 The w e s t e r n P r o v i n c e d i d n o t want t o be i n c l u d e d i n a g e n e r a l r e v i s i o n o f s u b s i d y payments. The P r o v i n c e c o n s i d e r e d i t was en-t i t l e d t o s e p a r a t e and s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t . T h e s e f o u r a r g u m e n t s , b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r f o r the f i r s t t i m e were t o be u s e d i n f u t u r e d i s -c u s s i o n s to j u s t i f y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c l a i m t o a u n i q u e p o s i t i o n . - 9k -For this reason, and using the excuse that there was a con-f l i c t of dates because of the holding of p r o v i n c i a l by-elections, B r i t i s h Columbia did not send delegates to the Inter-Provincial Conference which was held i n Quebec City i n December, 1902, to dra f t a resolution providing for a change i n the f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s be-tween p r o v i n c i a l and federal governments. In the end B r i t i s h Columbia subscribed to the resolution which emanated from the Conference, but s t i l l maintained her p o s i t i o n that she was e n t i t l e d to separate treatment. Arguing for separate negotiations, Premier Prior had pointed out that no precedent would be established I f British-' Columbia's desire was granted since, i n 1868, a change i n the Terms 196 of Union had been made to ass i s t Nova Scotia f i n a n c i a l l y . 7 P r a c t i c a l l y the only concrete change r e s u l t i n g from Prior's v i s i t to Ottawa i n January, 1903, was a change i n the proportion of the capitation tax to be paid to the Province. By An Act to  Amend the Chinese Immigration Act, 1900 passed i n 1902 the Province would receive one-half Instead of one-third of the head tax.197 In July, 1903, Richard McBride accepted o f f i c e as Premier \ and established party l i n e s i n p o l i t i c s . Henceforth, Better Terms ' was to be part of the platform of his Conservative government. The new Premier was f u l l y convinced of the justice of B r i t i s h Columbians claims. In December, 190k, McBride n o t i f i e d Laurier that he intended to carry on an agitat i o n for better f i n a n c i a l arrangements. Laurier had not changed h i s attitude on the matter; he main-tained his former stand ... that the f i n a n c i a l relations between the Dominion Government and the d i f f e r e n t provinces, unless dealt with as a whole, must remain exactly as they were made at the time they entered the Union and should not u n t i l then, be disturbed either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y . . . 198 - 95 -M c B r i d e s u g g e s t e d as the most s u i t a b l e method o f s e t t l i n g t h e d i s p u t e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s p e c i a l C ommission; t o t h i s s u g -g e s t i o n L a u r i e r r e p l i e d n e g a t i v e l y . The Prime M i n i s t e r was d e t e r -m i n e d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h o u l d n o t r e c e i v e p r e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t w h i c h c o u l d l e a d t o a breakdown o f the f e d e r a l u n i o n . The o n l y method o f s e t t l e m e n t a p p r o v e d b y L a u r i e r was an I n t e r - P r o v i n c i a l C o n f e r e n c e a t w h i c h an agreement c o u l d be r e a c h e d by a l l p r o v i n c e s . I f a C o n f e r e n c e r e c o g n i z e d i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e n , the P r i m e M i n i s t e r w o u l d c o n s i d e r c h a n g i n g f e d e r a l p o l i c y b u t n o t o t h e r w i s e . W h i l e M c B r i d e was m a k i n g h i s f i r s t demands on L a u r i e r the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n a g r o u p , a p p a r e n t l y s m a l l i n numbers c e n t r e d a r o u n d A s h c r o f t , i n f o r m e d L a u r i e r o f t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o M c B r i d e 1 s s t a n d . ... When i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e D o m i n i o n an d t h a t the p o l i c y o f t h e p r e s e n t government a t Ottawa i s one o f m a k i n g a G r e a t e r Canada, i t s h o u l d be s t r i c t l y b o r n e i n m i n d t h a t F e d e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e o f t h e u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e and f a r t r a n s c e n d e v e n t h e q u e s t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l Autonomy w h i c h the A s s o c i a t i o n u p h o l d s , so l o n g as t h a t autonomy i s n o t i n i m i c a l t o t h e t r u e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n and the D o m i n i o n . The i m p o r t a t i o n o f p a r t y p o l i t i c s i n t o t h i s q u e s t i o n was p e r se m i s c h i e v o u s and t h i s E x e c u t i v e b e l i e v e t h a t i n o p p o s i n g a m i s c h i e v o u s a g i t a t i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e i t h a s done i t s d u t y t o the p r o v i n c e ahd to t h e D o m i n i o n a l i k e . 1 ^ B u t, f o r t h e most p a r t , t h e L i b e r a l s were r e m a r k a b l y s i l e n t j c o n c e r n i n g the d i s c u s s i o n o f B e t t e r Terms. T h i s was p r o b a b l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t a l a r g e number s y m p a t h i z e d and e v e n s u p p o r t e d M c B r i d e and t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n t h i s m a t t e r and d i d n o t want t o c r i t i c i z e a s t a n d w h i c h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s w o u l d t a k e i f i n o f f i c e . A c l u e t o t h e a t t i t u d e o f most p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s may be f o u n d i n a l e t t e r f r o m S e n a t o r Templeman t o L a u r i e r : - 96 -I feel like giving up the do-nothing policy. ] Thus f a r we have l e f t the claims in abeyance, or ' simply hung them up hoping for the time soon to come when a Liberal government would be in power in British Columbia with which we could deal. But there is no doubt that the feeling rightly or wrongly i s general, even among Liberals that the province i n many respects is being unfairly dealt w i t h . 2 0 0 If the Liberals were not being vocal on the subject, the Conservatives certainly were. During 190k one of the leading Con-servatives, George H. Cowan,201 wrote and published a small pamphlet entitled, British Columbia's Claim upon the Dominion Government for  Better Terms. This was to be used extensively by McBride and the Conservatives in a l l forthcoming debates on the question. As a clear picture of the financial situation the publication l e f t l i t t l e to be desired; the various tables presented comparisons of the income and expenditures in the western Province with those in the rest of Canada. The case for Better Terms was discussed at length: "Tax as we may, we cannot l i f t that extra burden of expenditure which our mountains impose upon us and which the Terms of Union f a i l to provide against." 2 0-^ Armed with this information, and determined to obtain a f a i r hearing for British Columbia, Premier McBride attended the Inter-Prdvincial Conference held at Ottawa, October, 1906. Premiers, along with cabinet members, were in attendance from a l l the provinces of Canada; i n the case of Brit i s h Columbia, McBride was sole delegate. The problem of additional allowance for British Columbia occupied the greater portion of the proceedings. McBride presented the case clearly and precisely, but he withdrew from the Conference after a motion had been made to recogni ze British Columbia's claims only to the extent of granting an additional $100,000 annually f o A ten years.2Q3 - 97 -To him, t h i s amount was i n s u f f i c i e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , , he f e l t t h a t the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o b l e m s h o u l d be r e f e r r e d t o a r b i t r a t i o n . T h i s . r i g h t t h e C o n f e r e n c e d e n i e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s M c B r i d e d i d g a i n a v i c t o r y i n one r e s p e c t ; he o b t a i n e d r e c o g n i t i o n of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a ' s c l a i m t o e x c e p t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t . 2 0 k B u t t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n was made s o l e l y on a n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s c r e a t e d b y g e o g r a p h y ; no r e f e r e n c e was made t o t h e arguments a d v a n c e d by t h e P r o v i n c e o f economic d i s c r e p a n c y . The C o n f e r e n c e d e l e g a t e s c o u l d a p p r e c i a t e t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s m o u n t a i n o u s and r u g g e d t e r r a i n w o u l d a d d c o n s i d e r a b l y to t h e ex p e n s e s o f g o v e r n i n g the P r o v i n c e b u t t h e y d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o D o m i n i o n r e v e n u e h a d b e e n e x c e s s i v e . Upon M c B r i d e ' s r e t u r n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o n t r o v e r s y c o n - i c e r n i n g h i s s t a n d a t Ottawa a r o s e . The C o n s e r v a t i v e s were l o u d i n t h e i r p r a i s e o f t h e P r e m i e r and d e n o u n c e d L a u r i e r a n d the L i b e r a l s . The k amloops S t a n d a r d d e c l a r e d " t h e f u t u r e p o l i c y must be ' s u c c e e d o r s e c e d e « " 2 0 5 a s t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s c o n t i n u e d t o demand B e t t e r Terms f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . They a r g u e d t h a t s i n c e t h e u n i q u e g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h made f o r i n c r e a s e d government e x p e n s e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a would n o t d i s a p p e a r i n t e n y e a r s t h e r e was no j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o t h e award o f $100,000 a n n u a l l y f o r t e n y e a r s . M c B r i d e c o n s i d e r e d t h a t ' t h e r e s h o u l d be no t i m e l i m i t p l a c e d on t h e a d d i t i o n a l g r a n t . To t e s t p r o v i n c i a l support, o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s t a n d M c B r i d e c a l l e d an e l e c t i o n f o r F e b r u a r y , 1907, a t w h i c h he and h i s p a r t y were g i v e n a c l e a r m a j o r i t y . The P r e m i e r ' s a c t i o n s were v i n d i c a t e d b y the e l e c t o r a t e : t h e L i b e r a l p o l i c y was r e j e c t e d . W i t h t h e e l e c t i o n o v e r , M c B r i d e d e c i d e d t o t a k e the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a q u a r r e l t o a h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y . As w e l l as o b j e c t i n g t o t h e - 98 -t e n y e a r l i m i t a t i o n on t h e a d d i t i o n a l g r a n t t o t h e P r o v i n c e , he wanted r e c o g n i t i o n t o be made o f t h e l a r g e r p e r c a p i t a amount b e i n g p a i d b y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o the f e d e r a l t r e a s u r y . F i n a l l y , M c B r i d e w o u l d n o t a c c e p t i n c l u s i o n o f t h e p h r a s e " f i n a l and u n a l t e r a b l e " w h i c h L a u r i e r w i s h e d t o a p p l y t o the p r o p o s e d amendment t o the B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t w h i c h would i n c o r p o r a t e the new f i s c a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g i s l a t u r e a g r e e d t h a t the P r o v i n c e ' s c a s e s h o u l d be t a k e n t o I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s ; on M a r c h 30, 1907, t h e P r e m i e r was a p p o i n t e d " S p e c i a l A g e n t and D e l e g a t e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f l a y i n g t h e a p p e a l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e f o r e t h e I m p e r i a l Government." I n May, M c B r i d e i n t e r v i e w e d L o r d E l g i n , S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r C o l o n i e s , I n L o n d o n and p r e s e n t e d t h e P r o -v i n c e ' s c l a i m s . He p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s e d d i s l i k e o f the i n c l u s i o n o f t h e p h r a s e " f i n a l and u n a l t e r a b l e . " T h i s p h r a s e h a d b e e n i n s e r t e d i n t h e p r e a m b l e o f the p r o p o s e d amendment by L a u r i e r who c o n s i d e r e d t h a t w i t h o u t s u c h p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i n c i a l demands f o r f i s c a l r e v i s i o n m i g h t be r e c u r r e n t and c o n -t i n u e t o c r e a t e d i s s e n s i o n i n f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s . The P r i m e M i n i s t e r was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e agreement r e a c h e d a t t h e 1906' I n t e r - P r o v i n c i a l C o n f e r e n c e would have a d e g r e e o f permanency. The B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t s u c h a s t a t e m e n t was a p p r o p r i a t e i n a U n i t e d Kingdom s t a t u t e s i n c e the r i g h t o f r e v i s i o n was c o n s i d e r e d t o be one o f the a d v a n t a g e s o f B r i t i s h l a w . I n c o n -s e q u e n c e , i n t h e amendment t o t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t o f 1907, L a u r i e r ' s p h r a s e " f i n a l a n d u n a l t e r a b l e " a p p e a r s o n l y i n t h e s c h e d u l e t o t h e amendment. On June 5th, L o r d E l g i n i s s u e d h i s f i n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n on t h e m a t t e r . I n t h i s , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e d e n i e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s - 9 9 r r i g h t t o s e p a r a t e t r e a t m e n t and d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e B r i t i s h government c o n s i d e r e d t h a t s i n c e a l l t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s o f Canada were w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h e agreement made a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e a t _ Ottawa, the w e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s h o u l d do l i k e w i s e . The o n l y s u c c e s s won b y M c B r i d e was i n t h e m a t t e r o f t h e o f f e n d i n g words " f i n a l and u n a l t e r a b l e . " W i t h t h e I m p e r i a l d e c i s i o n , M c B r i d e and h i s government must p e r f o r c e a g r e e . The P r e m i e r h a d n o t managed t o w i n t o o much i n t h e way o f c o n c e s s i o n s , b u t he was r e c e i v e d w i t h a c c l a i m when he r e t u r n e d home. The C o n s e r v a t i v e s c o n s i d e r e d h i s m i s s i o n t o h a v e b e e n a r e -s o u n d i n g s u c c e s s . The p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s once more i n a j d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . J . A. M a c d o n a l d , p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r , w r o t e t o L a u r i e r i n O c t o b e r , . 1 9 0 7 , t o p o i n t o u t t h a t the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s h a d c o n s i s t e n t l y made B e t t e r Terms a p a r t o f t h e i r p a r t y p o l i c y and t h a t u n t i l t h e C o n f e r e n c e o f 1 9 0 6 b o t h L i b e r a l s a n d C o n s e r v a t i v e s h a d b e e n p r a c t i c a l l y i n a greement on t h e s u b j e c t . B u t a f t e r M c B r i d e r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t t h e C o n f e r e n c e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s h a d b e e n f o r c e d i n t o a p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y h a d t o j u s t i f y t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p o l i c y d e s p i t e t h e i r p r i v a t e view; t h a t t h e a g r e e m e n t was u n j u s t and t h e t e r m " f i n a l arid u n a l t e r a b l e ' 1 i n the amendment t o t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t o b j e c t i o n a b l e . We r e g r e t t e d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d n o t b e e n \ g r a n t e d a l a r g e r sum and r e a f f i r m e d h e r c l a i m to more J g e n e r o u s t r e a t m e n t . A t t h e same time we p o i n t e d o u t t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , h a v i n g s u b m i t t e d h e r c l a i m s t o t h e C o n f e r e n c e c o u l d n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y deny t h e r i g h t o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e to d e a l w i t h them, n o r c o u l d she blame the D o m i n i o n p a r l i a m e n t f o r a c t i n g u p o n the r e -commendations o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e . 2 0 8 The p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y was t o r n b e t w e e n the d u t y t o s u p p o r t L a u r i e r and t h e f e d e r a l g overnment and i t s own b e l i e f t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l demands were j u s t . - 100 -B u t t o L a u r i e r , t h e r e was o n l y one r i g h t a c t i o n : t h i s was t o a c c e p t t h e C o n f e r e n c e d e c i s i o n i n c l u d i n g t h e " f i n a l a n d u n a l t e r a b l e " amendment. " W i t h r e g a r d to t h e P r o v i n c i a l s u b s i d i e s y o u p u r p o s e l y l e a v e t h e q u e s t i o n o p e n " , he w r o t e t o M a c d o n a l d , "where i s t h i s t o l e a d u s ? T h e r e must be f i n a l i t y some time and somewhere."209 D e s p i t e L a u r i e r ' s c r i t i c i s m o f t h e s t a n d o f the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s , M a c d o n a l d , a n d l a t e r O l i v e r , as p a r t y l e a d e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , r e f u s e d t o commit t h e m s e l v e s c o m p l e t e l y t o a t t a c k i n g M c B r i d e ' s p o l i c y o n B e t t e r Terms. I n s t e a d , t h e y a t t e m p t e d , b u t . w i t h o u t s u c c e s s , t o r e g a i n t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e e l e c t o r a t e b y a d o p t i n g a c o n c i l i a t o r y a t t i t u d e . B e t t e r Terms was too i m p o r t a n t t o e v e r y p e r s o n i n the p r o v i n c e f o r t h i s i s s u e to. d i v i d e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i e s . B o t h C o n s e r v a t i v e s and L i b e r a l s b e l i e v e d t h e P r o v i n c e h a d t o f i g h t Ottawa i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . The C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was c o n s i d e r e d to h a v e won a v i c t o r y i n the m a t t e r o f B e t t e r Terms; the L i b e r a l p a r t y i n t h e P r o v i n c e , w h i c h h a d b e e n f o r c e d i n t o an anomalous p o s i t i o n , was h a n d i c a p p e d . The o n l y c r i t i c i s m t h e y c o u l d make a b o u t M c B r i d e c o n c e r n e d t h e methods he j h a d e m p l o y e d t o o b t a i n b e t t e r f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . But t h i s c r i t i c i s m was n o t s u f f i c e n t l y v i t a l t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r s u p p o r t . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c l a i m f o r B e t t e r Terms was t h e P r o v i n c e ' s i n t e r e s t i n f e d e r a l t a r i f f p o l i c y . When t h e R e c i p r o c i t y T r e a t y o f l8£l|.210 b e e n n e g o t i a t e d b e t w e e n t h e Cana-d i a n p r o v i n c e s and the U n i t e d S t a t e s the p r i v i l e g e s were e x t e n d e d t o t h e M a r i t i m e p r o v i n c e s b u t the c o l o n y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d was - 101 -e x c l u d e d . The d i s t a n c e o f the west c o a s t f r o m p o t e n t i a l A m e r i c a n m a r k e t s and t h e s t i l l n e g l i g i b l e q u a n t i t y o f w e s t e r n p r o d u c t s a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e o m i s s i o n . A f t e r g i v i n g n o t i c e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a b r o g a t e d t h e R e c i -p r o c i t y T r e a t y i n 1866. Canada, t h e A m e r i c a n s f e l t , was r e a p i n g t h e g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e t r e a t y and, a t t h e same t i m e , no c o m p e t i t i o n was w anted f o r e n t e r p r i s e s i n t h e N o r t h e r n S t a t e s . The r e p e a l o f R e c i p r o c i t y h a s t e n e d the movement f o r C a n a d i a n f e d e r a t i o n , s i n c e i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t a p o l i t i c a l u n i o n o f B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a n p r o v i n c e s w o u l d c r e a t e a c u s t o m s - f r e e m a r k e t f o r b o t h raw m a t e r i a l s and m a n u f a c t u r e d , g o o d s . A f t e r I867, d e s p i t e d e s i r e b y t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s t o p l a c e p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f s on C a n a d i a n goods, t h e t a r i f f was s t i l l l a r g e l y f o r r e v e n u e p u r p o s e s o n l y when B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n t e r e d c o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1871. By 1871, O n t a r i o and Quebec were e s t a b l i s h e d as t h e c e n t e r s o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g . The M a r i t i m e s were s t i l l r e l y i n g o n t h e e x p o r t o f n a t u r a l p r o d u c t s and h a d few s e c o n d a r y i n d u s t r i e s . The new p r o -v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was a r e g i o n r i c h i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s b u t w i t h no m a n u f a c t u r i n g ahd o n l y a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n . Her l o c a t i o n made t r a d e w i t h o v e r s e a s m a r k e t s o r the w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s more n a t u r a l and a d v a n t a g e o u s t h a n t r a d e w i t h E a s t e r n Canada. D u r i n g the f i r s t f i f t e e n y e a r s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s membership i n t h e D o m i n i o n t h e w e s t e r n P r o v i n c e e v i n c e d l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t r a d e w i t h C a nada. M a n u f a c t u r e d goods were s t i l l i m p o r t e d f r o m G r e a t B r i t a i n o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d home p r o d u c t i o n r e m a i n e d l i m i t e d u n t i l a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . The e f f e c t s o f the N a t i o n a l P o l i c y , t h e s y s t e m o f h i g h t a r i f f s a i m e d p r i m a r i l y a t the p r o t e c t i o n o f E a s t e r n C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r i e s , - 102 -p u t I n t o e f f e c t b y t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n 1879, were f e l t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a f t e r 1885. The P r o v i n c e ' s t r a d e was r e - o r i e n t e d w i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; now she b o u g h t h e r consumer goods l a r g e l y f r o m E a s t e r n Canada, and the p r i c e o f t h e s e was e n h a n c e d by t h e p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f as w e l l as h i g h f r e i g h t r a t e s . Her own p r o -d u c t s , b e i n g m o s t l y n a t u r a l , u n m a n u f a c t u r e d i t e m s , were s o l d on a c o m p e t i t i v e w o r l d m a r k e t . T h i s s i t u a t i o n e x i s t e d when L a u r i e r came to power. C o m p l a i n t s a b o u t the i n e q u a l i t y o f t h e b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e t a r i f f were made by D u nsmuir, P r i o r and M c B r i d e , and l i n k e d by them t o t h e demand f o r B e t t e r Terms. But t h e f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s and t h e o t h e r E a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e q u a r r e l . A t the n a t i o n a l L i b e r a l C o n f e r e n c e i n 1893, c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s -c u s s i o n c e n t r e d a r o u n d the t a r i f f p o l i c y . 211 The L i b e r a l s d e c l a r e d t h e m s e l v e s t o be s u p p o r t e r s o f a l o w e r t a r i f f t o be l e v i e d f o r r e -venue o n l y . F r e e r t r a d e w i t h (Sjreat B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s was s u g g e s t e d w i t h r e c i p r o c i t y as t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l . A f t e r the L i b e r a l v i c t o r y i n 1896, t h e p a r t y f o u n d t h a t E a s t e r n m a n u f a c t u r e r s c o u l d n o t be i g n o r e d . I n O p p o s i t i o n , S i r R i c h a r d C a r t w r i g h t h a d d e c l a r e d i n 1890, " I s a y t h a t t h e whole b u s i -n e s s o f p r o t e c t i o n i s r o b b e r y — l e g a l i s e d r o b b e r y ; t h a t y o u s u b s i d i s e t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s , and t h a t i n r e t u r n the m a n u f a c t u r e r s s u b s i d i s e you."212 B U t i n o f f i c e t h e L i b e r a l s a l s o began to s u b m i t to the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e moneyed i n t e r e s t s . D u r i n g t h e t a r i f f e n q u i r y o f I896 m a n u f a c t u r e r s and i m p o r t e r s were q u e s t i o n e d a b o u t t a r i f f changes Edward P o r r i t t d e c l a r e d , T h e y ( m a n u f a c t u r e r s ) s u c c e e d e d i n c o n v i n c i n g t h e n e w l y - e l e c t e d L i b e r a l Government t h a t any d i s t u r b i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e s c h e d u l e s , and any abondonment o f t h e b o u n t i e s w h i c h t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s h a d e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1883 ... were i n e x p e d i e n t , u n w i s e and i m p o l i t i c , and w o u l d d i s l o c a t e C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r i e s , a n d be h a z a r d o u s t o t h e c a p i t a l embarked i n them.213 When The Customs T a r i f f , 1897, was b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e House i n A p r i l , 1897, i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t e a s t e r n m a n u f a c t u r e r s h a d g a i n e d a v i c t o r y . The L i b e r a l i n t e r e s t i n f r e e r t r a d e was e v i d e n t o n l y i n t h e p r o v i s i o n made f o r a r e c i p r o c a l t a r i f f w h i c h w o u l d g i v e p r e f e r e n c e t o B r i t i s h goods.2 1 k T h r o u g h o u t L a u r i e r ' s c a r e e r B r i t i s h p r e f e r e n c e r e m a i n e d a dom i n a n t e l e m e n t o f h i s t a r i f f p o l i c y . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s h a d s u p p o r t e d r e c i p r o c i t y i n t h e i r f i r s t p l a t f o r m o f l 8 8 7 , * 2 1 ^ t h e y h a d r e a f f i r m e d t h e i r s t a n d i n t h e t e l e g r a m s e n t t o t h e 1893 N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e w e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s u p p o r t e d t h e B r i t i s h p r e f e r e n c e as w e l l as f r e e t r a d e w i t h i n t h e E m p i r e . But g r a d u a l l y , as t h e i n d u s t r i e s o f t h e west b e g a n t o d e v e l o p , f o r e i g n m a r k e t s were r e q u i r e d and p r o -t e c t i o n was s o u g h t a g a i n s t "dumping" b y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e y were aware t h a t t h e lumber and l e a d i n d u s t r i e s were s u f f e r i n g s e v e r e l y f r o m A m e r i c a n c o m p e t i t i o n . I n I 8 9 8 L a u r i e r r e c e i v e d p e t i t i o n s f r o m t h e K o o t e n a y r e g i o n r e q u e s t i n g an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i m p o r t d u t y on l e a d p r o d u c t s 2 l 6 s u f -f i c i e n t t o compensate f o r the two c e n t s p e r p o u n d customs d u t y c h a r g e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s on l e a d o r e e n t e r i n g t h e c o u n t r y f o r s m e l t i n g p u r p o s e s . No customs d u t y was c h a r g e d on s i l v e r - l e a d o r e p r o v i d e d t h e s i l v e r was i n e x c e s s o f l e a d b u t much o f the C a n a d i a n o r e was o f l o w grade.2 1 7 D e s p i t e L a u r i e r ' s a s s u r a n c e to B o s t o c k t h a t , t h e p r o b l e m o f the K o o t e n a y m i n e r s w o u l d r e c e i v e e v e r y c o n s i -d e r a t i o n , s e v e r a l y e a r s e l a p s e d b e f o r e he t o o k p r o t e c t i v e a c t i o n . M e a n w h i l e , t h e lumbermen o f the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a B o u n d a r y r e g i o n were demanding p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t " t h e c h e a p e r l o g s , c h e a p e r l a b o u r - 10k -and c h e a p e r s u p p l i e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . U e : - x u The K o o t e n a y - B o u n d a r y r e g i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y the U n i t e d S t a t e s . " R a i l w a y i n t e r e s t s , p r o s p e c t o r s , p r o m o t e r s , s e t t l e r s and l a b o u r l e a d e r s were a l l A m e r i c a n f o r c e s i n t h e r e g i o n . " 2 1 9 g u t d e s p i t e t h i s d o m i n a n t A m e r i c a n i n f l u e n c e , t h e K o o t e n a y s , b e i n g C a n a d i a n , were f o r c e d t o compete w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s when s e l l i n g t h e i r goods on a w o r l d m a r k e t . T h a t L a u r i e r b e l i e v e d i n t h e L i b e r a l d o c t r i n e o f f r e e t r a d e , a l t h o u g h he h a d b e e n f o r c e d to a c c e p t some p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f s by the E a s t e r n m a n u f a c t u r e r s , was d e m o n s t r a t e d b y h i s r e p l y to R a l p h S m i t h i n 1901 when B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a lumbermen were j o i n e d b y O n t a r i o l u mber and s h i n g l e o p e r a t o r s i n a s k i n g f o r an i m p o r t d u t y . "We have n o t s e e n o u r way so f a r , t o g r a n t s u c h a r e q u e s t , and f o r o b v i o u s r e a s o n s . An i n c r e a s e d d u t y w h i c h w o u l d make the p r i c e o f lumber h i g h e r to the s e t t l e r s , w o u l d come v e r y h e a v i l y u pon a c l a s s , w h i c h o f a l l c l a s s e s , s h o u l d be f r e e f r o m a d d i t i o n a l t a x a t i o n . "220 r p h e 1897 t a r i f f h a d p l a c e d i m p o r t d u t i e s o n l y o n f i n i s h e d o r d r e s s e d l u m b e r and wood p u l p . C o n s e q u e n t l y s h i n g l e s and o t h e r u n f i n i s h e d l u mber p r o d u c t s c o u l d f l o o d t h e C a n a d i a n m a r k e t f r o m s o u t h o f t h e b o r d e r . By 190k t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e O p p o s i t i o n , a l o n g w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n M a n u f a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n were demanding h i g h e r t a r i f f s ; t h e L i b e r a l s , t h e r e f o r e , b e g an t o c o n s i d e r r e v i s i o n o f t h e r a t e s . The f a r m e r s , who were now o r g a n i z i n g , were a s k i n g f o r a r e v e n u e t a r i f f o n l y . L a u r i e r was soon t o be f o r c e d to f i n d a compromise; h i s f i r s t move was t o e s t a b l i s h a T a r i f f C o m m i s s i o n t o s t u d y t h e s i t u a t i o n i n a l l p a r t s o f Canada. - 105 -The C o m m i s s i o n b e g a n i t s s i t t i n g s i n W i n n i p e g i n September, 1905, and ended them i n Ottawa i n F e b r u a r y , 1906.. I n B r i t i s h C o l -u mbia r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the f r u i t g r o w e r s , lumbermen and m i n e r s were h e a r d f r o m . I n s e v e r a l o f the b r i e f s t h e h a r d s h i p s s u f f e r e d u n d e r th e f e d e r a l t a r i f f p o l i c y were r e l a t e d t o the demand f o r PPT B e t t e r Terms. A b r i e f s u b m i t t e d by S m i t h C u r t i s p r o d u c e d f i g u r e s w h i c h " i n d i c a t e d t h a t the a v e r a g e r a t e o f F e d e r a l d u t y i m p o s e d on goods most l a r g e l y consumed i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was much g r e a t e r t h a n goods most l a r g e l y u s e d i n t h e r e s t o f Canada."222 The a d v e r s e arguments p r e s e n t e d b y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were, once a g a i n , l a r g e l y t h e r e s u l t o f h e r g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n . O n l y s i n c e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y h a d t h e P r o v i n c e h a d a m a r k e t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r any m a n u f a c t u r e d goods she m i g h t p r o d u c e . As l a t e as 1905 t h e f a r m i n g p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e P r a i r i e p r o -v i n c e s was s t i l l i n t e r e s t e d o n l y I n b u y i n g f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s u c h p r i m a r y p r o d u c t s as f r u i t and l u m b e r ; i n d u s t r i a l goods c o u l d be o b t a i n e d more r e a d i l y and more e c o n o m i c a l l y f r o m E a s t e r n Canada. O n t a r i o , Quebec, U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t a i n s t i l l s u p p l i e d m o s t o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r e d a r t i c l e s r e q u i r e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r l o c a l i n d u s t r y was s t i l l n o t w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . The h e a r i n g s o f t h e T a r i f f C o m m i s s i o n d u r i n g 1905 and 1906 r e s u l t e d i n The Customs A c t , 1 9 0 6 . T h i s l e f t t h e g e n e r a l t a r i f f a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same l e v e l as i n 1897. The B r i t i s h p r e f e r e n c e o f 33 1/3 p e r c e n t was c o n t i n u e d , w h i l e an I n t e r m e d i a t e T a r i f f was a d d e d w h i c h c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o c o u n t r i e s o u t s i d e t h e Empire w h i c h e n t e r e d i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s as f a v o u r e d n a t i o n s . F o r t h e most p a r t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e outcome a l t h o u g h some p r o -v i n c i a l i n d u s t r i e s s o u g h t f u r t h e r p r o t e c t i o n . - 106 -D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e C a n a d i a n G r a i n G r o w e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n s were o r g a n i z i n g ; t h e f a r m e r s were now a b l e t o p r e s e n t an i m p o s i n g f o r c e a g a i n s t t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s . The f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e r e d the f a r m e r s ' g r o u p s to p r e s s t h e i r c a s e home t o L a u r i e r o c c u r r e d i n 1910 when t h e Prime M i n i s t e r made h i s w e s t e r n t o u r . B r i e f s were p r e s e n t e d a t . t h i s t i m e i n w h i c h t a r i f f r e d u c t i o n s arid r e c i p r o c i t y w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were s u g g e s t e d . A l t h o u g h t h e Prime M i n i s t e r saw t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f r e c i p r o c i t y w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s he was d e t e r m i n e d t o r e t a i n t h e B r i t i s h p r e -f e r e n c e f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1897. T h i s was a p p a r e n t i n the s p e e c h L a u r i e r d e l i v e r e d a t N e l s o n i n t h e summer o f 1910. I t w i l l be o u r aim to e v o l v e a t a r i f f s u i t a b l e t o a l l men and c a l c u l a t e d to b e n e f i t t h e whole c o u n t r y . We w i l l make p r o g r e s s . . The t a r i f f i s n o t y e t p e r f e c t , b u t one t h i n g we h a v e done, one c a r -d i n a l o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e T a r i f f i s t h e B r i t i s h P r e f e r e n c e and so l o n g as we s t a y i n o f f i c e i t w i l l r e m a i n . ^ I n December L a u r i e r a n n o unced t h a t t a r i f f r e f o r m was i n o r d e r b u t he s t i l l r e f u s e d to commit t h e L i b e r a l s t o o u t r i g h t r e c i p r o c i t y . The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f A g r i c u l t u r e met i n Ottawa d u r i n g t h e month and p r e s e n t e d a b r i e f to t h e government w h i c h s t r e s s e d government o w n e r s h i p o f p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , r e c i p r o c i t y w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and a r e d u c t i o n o f d u t i e s on B r i t i s h goods. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . f a r m e r s h a d n o t j o i n e d t h e o t h e r s i n m a k i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n Ottawa. F a r m e r s i n t h e P r o v i n c e c o n s i d e r e d r e c i p r o c i t y - t o be u n d e s i r a b l e ; t h e y f e a r e d c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e i r p r o d u c t s f r o m A m e r i c a n s o u r c e s . The C a n a d i a n M a n u f a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h t o o k a s t r o n g s t a n d a g a i n s t r e c i p r o c i t y p r e s e n t e d a m e m o r i a l t o the D o m i n i o n g o v e r -nment i n J a n u a r y , 1911. They a r g u e d t h a t p r o t e c t i o n was n e c e s s a r y - io? -to permit the development of Canadian industry. American enter-prises were f u l l y developed but Canadian were not and would suffer grave damage i f they were l e f t wholly unprotected. In short, "The United States may be ready for r e c i p r o c i t y ; Canada i s not. "22° Laurier, disturbed by the storm of opposition from the manufacturers oontinued the negotiations but decided to put the matter before the Canadian people i n an e l e c t i o n to be held i n the summer of 1911• As soon as h i s decision was known, the Vancouver L i b e r a l s , i n an attempt to revive the party, c a l l e d a meeting i n March, 1911. At this time there was only one L i b e r a l member i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Legislature and two i n the federal House. The fortunes of the party were at their lowest ebb. The Vancouver meeting endorsed the p r i n -c i p l e of r e c i p r o c i t y , This mass meeting of c i t i z e n s of Vancouver places i t s e l f on record as being strongly i n favor of the r a t i f i c a t i o n of the proposed trade agreement between the Dominion.of Canada and the United States, as fas-c i l l t a t i n g increased and mutually advantageous com-mercial intercourse between two f r i e n d l y and neighboring peoples, and as o f f e r i n g to each one extended markets for the producer and cheaper pro-ducts for the consumer, while at the same time i t leaves to each perfect freedom i n i t s p o l i t i c a l and national development.227 Liberals i n B r i t i s h Columbia had i n this instance set aside j l o c a l preferences and conformed with the federal party's p o l i c y . Formerly, the L i b e r a l s had tended to side step federal party issues which were not too popular i n the Province. This time they supported them. John Oliver seized the challenge and became act i v e l y involved i n the campaign as he gave whole-hearted supported to r e c i p r o c i t y . But "Reciprocity John" was unable to sway the electorate who decided protection was a better p o l i c y for B r i t i s h Columbia. - 1 0 8 -CHAPTER V I I C o n c l u s i o n When L a u r i e r and t h e L i b e r a l - p a r t y t o o k o f f i c e i n Ottawa i n 1 8 9 6 ' B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d b e e n a member o f t h e f e d e r a t i o n f o r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e the P r o v i n c e h a d c o n s i s t e n t l y s u p p o r t e d the C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s . I t s c o u r s e f o r t h e f i r s t f i f t e e n y e a r s h a d b e e n a p o l i c y o f demanding t h e r a i l w a y and n o t h i n g b u t the r a i l w a y . E v e n w i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y the P r o v i n c e c o n t i n u e d t o s e n d t o Ottawa o n l y men who p r o f e s s e d t o be C o n s e r v a t i v e s . I n I 8 9 6 , however, B r i t i s h C o l -u m bia r e a l i z e d t h a t a L i b e r a l v i c t o r y was imm i n e n t . I n I 8 9 6 , as w e l l as i n t h e 1900 and 190k e l e c t i o n s , the m a j o r i t y o f members r e t u r n e d t o Ottawa were p r o f e s s e d L i b e r a l s . I n t h e P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e , p a r t y l i n e s were n o t o f f i c i a l l y a c c e p t e d u n t i l 1 9 0 3 . U n t i l t h a t t i m e a s y s t e m o f p e r s o n a l l e a d e r -s h i p p r e v a i l e d w h i c h p e r m i t t e d a f l e x i b l e a l i g n m e n t . W i t h L a u r i e r ' s c o m i n g t o o f f i c e , e ncouragement was g i v e n by th e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s to t h o s e w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e who c a l l e d them-s e l v e s L i b e r a l s t o o r g a n i z e and f o l l o w t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y p h i l o s o p h y as l a i d down b y t h e 1 8 9 3 C o n v e n t i o n and l a t e r by L a u r i e r and t h e p a r c a u c u s i n Ottawa. The p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y , however, seemed t o be i n -c a p a b l e o f f o l l o w i n g t h i s c l e a r c u t p a t t e r n . R e c r i m i n a t i o n s and p e t t y j e a l o u s i e s c o n t i n u o u s l y c a u s e d d i s s e n s i o n w i t h i n t h e p a r t y r a n k s , m a k i n g t h e e l e c t i o n o f a l o c a l L i b e r a l government an impos-s i b i l i t y . I n t h e c a s e o f A l b e r t a , i t h a s b e e n s a i d t h a t , "The L i b e r a l p a r t y came i n t o power i n A l b e r t a i n 1 9 0 5 not b e c a u s e o f any - 109 -c o n v i c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f A l b e r t a v o t e r s o f the v a l i d i t y o f L i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s b u t b e c a u s e a L i b e r a l g o v ernment was i n power i n O t t a w a . " T h i s h a r d l y h e l d t r u e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : a l t h o u g h t h e r e was t h e same l a c k o f c o n v i c t i o n a b o u t t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f L i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s . The s e t t i n g up o f a L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Ottawa d i d n o t i n d u c e an e f f o r t on the p a r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' L i b e r a l s t o s e t up a L i b e r a l government i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The c l o s e s t t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a came t o h a v i n g a L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d u r i n g L a u r i e r ' s t e r m was the government o f P r e m i e r S e m l i n who was i n o f f i c e f r o m 1898 t o 1900. The M a r t i n m i n i s t r y , w h i c h f o l l o w e d , was i n c o n t r o l o n l y f o u r months and p r e s e n t e d no s emblance o f a government a c c e p t i n g L i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s d e s p i t e M a r t i n ' s known s u p p o r t o f L i b e r a l i s m . The L i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e m a i n e d i n O p p o s i t i o n u n t i l 1916, l o n g a f t e r L a u r i e r ' s d e f e a t . L a u r i e r h a d e x p e c t e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h C o l -u m b i a to show a s t r e n g t h o f l e a d e r s h i p w h i c h would p e r m i t them t o g i v e sound c r i t i c i s m o f the a c t i o n s o f the l o c a l C o n s e r v a t i v e government and a t t h e same t i m e to i n t e r p r e t and d e v e l o p L i b e r a l p a r t y p o l i c i e s . The p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y seemed i n c a p a b l e o f d o i n g t h i s . I t s l a c k o f v i t a l i t y was r e v e a l e d by one L i b e r a l who w r o t e , "A p a r t y t h a t w i l l o n l y c r i t i c i z e w i l l n o t e n j o y t h e s a c r e d t r u s t o f g o v e r n i n g t h e s t a t e . I f we condemn we must have an a l t e r n a t i v e t o o f f e r . " 2 2 9 I t was n o t u n t i l a f t e r t h e 1911 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s when t h e s i t u a t i o n h a d become a l m o s t h o p e l e s s f o r the L i b e r a l s i n b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d s , t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s c o m p l e t e l y a c c e p t e d t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p l a t f o r m . I n s t u d y i n g t h e p e r i o d some f a c t o r s become a p p a r e n t w h i c h h e l p - n o -to e x p l a i n the obvious l a c k of understanding i n B r i t i s h Columbia of true p a r t y d i s c i p l i n e . Fight against g e o g r a p h i c a l _ _ i s o l a t i o n as one ~~~~ might, the f a c t that B r i t i s h Columbia was separated from the r e s t of the Dominion by a mountain range and from the centre of government by many m i l e s , created d i f f i c u l t i e s to the combining of i n t e r e s t s . At the time when p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s were o r g a n i z i n g f o r the f i r s t time i n B r i t i s h Columbia the i s o l a t i o n of the Province from the e a s t e r n centres of Canada prevented frequent v i s i t s from f e d e r a l l e a d e r s . Thus l o c a l p a r t i e s were unable to b e n e f i t from the exper-1 ience of parent bodies. In the case of the L i b e r a l s l a c k of advice and guidance from e a s t e r n members tended to become c a t a s t r o p h i c . In a d d i t i o n , the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p a r t y d i d not f i n d a strong l e a d e r f o r a number of years. J . A. M a c d o n a l d , who was p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , and W i l l i a m Templeman, the f e d e r a l l e a d e r , were both f i n e men but were too given to compromise and s o f t speaking to wage su c c e s s f u l b a t t l e s against the Conservative Opposition i n the Pro-vince or to demand a s t r o n g l y u n i t e d f o l l o w i n g . Time and again requests came from B r i t i s h Columbia f o r a v i s i t from L a u r i e r or a L i b e r a l cabinet member, but due to the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n making an extended t r i p , the p l e a s were unanswered. I f more v i s i t s had been p o s s i b l e , many misunderstandings could have been iron e d out and not allowed to develop i n t o open c o n t r o v e r s i e s . In 1909, O l i v e r , .the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r , repeated the o l d request that L a u r i e r v i s i t the Province. I f the Prime M i n i s t e r could make the t r i p , O l i v e r intended to c a l l a p r o v i n c i a l convention i n an e f f o r t t o reorganize the party. L a u r i e r again made what had become a t y p i c a l r e p l y to the request, "Impossible to teisit B r i t i s h Columbia t h i s year, I hope to be able to spend my h o l i d a y s i n the - I l l -p r o v i n c e n e x t y e a r . " 2 ^ 0 F i n a l l y , i n 1910, L a u r i e r d i d p a y h i s p r o m i s e d v i s i t t o t h e west, t h e f i r s t s i n c e I89I+. E v e r y w h e r e he was met w i t h g r e a t e n t h u s i a s m b u t b y t h i s t i m e t h e damage had b e e n done. I n t h e 1911 e l e c t i o n s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p e n a l i z e d t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y f o r h i s n e g l e c t . W i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e , t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t i o n o f m o u n t a i n — — — r a n g e s r u n n i n g n o r t h - s o u t h made f o r i s o l a t e d p o c k e t s o f s e t t l e m e n t a n d c r e a t e d o b s t a c l e s t o p a r t y c o h e s i o n . L u g r i n d e s c r i b e d t h e s i t u a t i o n t o L a u r i e r i n 1905, C o n d i t i o n s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e a r e n o t and have n o t ) b e e n f a v o r a b l e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p a r t y l e a d e r . Our p o p u l a t i o n i s - d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f c o m m u n i t i e s , more o r l e s s i s o l a t e d , and t h e r e i s a l m o s t none o f t h a t d a i l y i n t e r c o u r s e between t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s , w h i c h i s p o s s i b l e i n t h e more c o m p a c t l y s e t t l e d p r o v i n c e s o f t h e E a s t . Hence i t i s t h a t t h e man, who i s l o o k e d upon as a l e a d e r i n one s e c t i o n , s e es no r e a s o n why he s h o u l d c o n c e d e that'some o t h e r man i n some o t h e r s e c t i o n s h o u l d be h i s l e a d e r and as y e t no one has d i s p l a y e d the q u a l i -f i c a t i o n s w h i c h command s u p p o r t f r o m a l l s e c t i o n s . 2 3 1 The more a c t i v e L i b e r a l s t e n d e d to come e i t h e r f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d o r t h e Vancouver-New W e s t m i n s t e r a r e a s where t h e l a r g e s t c o n c e n - r t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n was t o be f o u n d . The i n t e r i o r r e g i o n s saw l i t t l e o f t h e s e would-be l e a d e r s and knew o n l y o f t h e q u a r r e l s , w h i c h t h e y seemed t o d e l i g h t i n s t i r r i n g up, t h r o u g h the p r o v i n c i a l p r e s s . O n l y a few o f t h e l e a d i n g L i b e r a l s , B o s t o c k , O l i v e r and — — R a l p h S m i t h , t r i e d t o b r e a k t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l b a r r i e r s b y e x t e n s i v e t r a v e l l i n g t h r o u g h th e P r o v i n c e . The d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l h e a d q u a r t e r s a l s o p r e v e n t e d c o n s t a n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e two p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F r e q u e n t l y n o t i c e s a r r i v e d i n t h e P r o v i n c e f r o m Ottawa t o o l a t e f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s t o t a k e a c t i o n . ' D u r i n g the L a u r i e r r e g i m e the i n v i t a t i o n t o P r e m i e r P r i o r t o a t t e n d t h e I n t e r - P r o v i n c i a l - 112 -Conference i n 1902 was so delayed that he was unable to accept owing to p r o v i n c i a l commitments. Naturally the B r i t i s h Columbia government f e l t slighted when.such oversights occurred. B r i t i s h Columbia generally f e l t that there was d i s i n t e r e s t i n Its a f f a i r s on the part of Ottawa. Lack of understanding and l o c a l topographical d i f f i c u l t i e s helped to create the demand for Better Terms which assumed such proportions from 1902 u n t i l 1907. Many of the p r o v i n c i a l arguments were based on the unique geographical s i t u a t i o n of the Province. Pew Eastern p o l i t i c i a n s had ever v i s i t e d B r i t i s h Columbia, they could not v i s u a l i z e the problems which existed; and they f e l t the demands excessive. This lack of understanding d i d not create a happy f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , e s p e c i a l l y when p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s themselves wholeheartedly supported the plea for Better Terms. During his entire career, Laurier believed f i r m l y i n the p o l i c y of compromise. By wise compromise he was able to bring harmony be-tween the French and the English provinces. Liberalism he f e l t was b a s i c a l l y a philosophy of giving freedom to the i n d i v i d u a l but only to the degree that freedom would not harm the majority. He con-sidered that the federation of provinces could only be b u i l t into a strong united nation i f this p r i n c i p l e was recognized. This he was determined to accomplish. But B r i t i s h Columbia wished to be treated as ah i n d i v i d u a l province and to be given special consideration be-cause of i t s unique problems. B r i t i s h Columbia, i n consequence, refused to attend Inter-Provincial Conferences u n t i l 1906. Laurier, however, although a firm advocate of p r o v i n c i a l rights, would never allow one province to dictate to and threaten the welfare of the - 1 1 3 -f e d e r a l u n i o n . O n l y b y e v e r y u n i t s h o w i n g i t s w i l l i n g n e s s t o com-p r o m i s e a h d t o work f o r t h e good o f t h e whole c o u n t r y , he t h o u g h t , would t h e D o m i n i o n p r o s p e r . He w o u l d n o t t o l e r a t e c o n t i n u a l w a r r i n g b etween f a c t i o n s , f o r t h i s would be d i s a s t r o u s f o r the v e r y young n a t i o n . I n the m a t t e r o f B e t t e r Terms, L a u r i e r c o n s i d e r e d i t most s u i t a b l e t h a t an I n t e r - P r o v i n c i a l agreement s h o u l d be made among t h e p r o v i n c e s t h e m s e l v e s . To t h i s t h e f e d e r a l government would t h e n s u b s c r i b e . He r e f u s e d t o c o u n t e n a n c e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s p l e a f o r a s e p a r a t e s e t t l e m e n t f o r he b e l i e v e d t h a t i n m a t t e r s o f f i n a n c e what was a c c e p t a b l e to one p r o v i n c e s h o u l d be a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l . W i t h o u t a c e r t a i n u n i f o r m i t y o f o p i n i o n a n d o u t l o o k L a u r i e r c o u l d n o t see how the f e d e r a l u n i o n c o u l d s u r v i v e . He d i d n o t b e l i e v e i n e m p h a s i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s f o r s u c h e m p h a s i s m i g h t harm the g e n e r a l w e l f a r e . To him, l a n g u a g e , r e l i g i o n and e d u c a t i o n were e n t i r e l y , d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r s f r o m g e o g r a p h i c a l o r f i n a n c i a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s . A w i s e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o f r a c e and c r e e d was n e c e s s a r y b u t a t t h e same time he c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t o o g r e a t d i v e r g e n c e i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and p h i l o s o p h y w o u l d weaken t h e f e d e r a t i o n . The p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s d i d n o t a g r e e c o m p l e t e l y w i t h L a u r i e r i n h i s d e s i r e t o have B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o n f o r m . Most o f the L i b e r a l f o l l o w e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r i n s t a n c e , b e l i e v e d i n t h e r i g h t o f the P r o v i n c e t o p a s s r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n i n o r d e r to c o n t r o l A l i e n I m m i g r a t i o n . T h a t t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n m i g h t e n d a n g e r Canada's r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h J a p a n and G r e a t B r i t a i n was o f l e s s i m p o r t a n c e t o them t h a n t h e immediate d a n g e r t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n v o l v e d i n u n r e s t r i c t e d i m m i g r a t i o n . L a u r i e r p u t h i s f a i t h i n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s - Ilk -o f d i p l o m a c y t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m ; B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a saw t h i s method as too s l o w and u n c e r t a i n . B o t h L i b e r a l s and C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r g u e d a g a i n s t t h e f e d e r a l s t a n d . The p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s L a u r i e r c o u l d n o t a p p r e c i a t e : i n h i s m i n d t h e r e was no q u e s t i o n as what t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a J L i b e r a l p a r t y s h o u l d d o - - i t s h o u l d s u p p o r t the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p o l i c y u n r e s e r v e d l y . P o s s i b l y t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o f t h e w o r k i n g o f p a r t y government was t h a t t h e \ P r o v i n c e was t o o i n e x p e r i e n c e d i n s u c h m a t t e r s . The p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d n o t h a d to f i g h t to a c h i e v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r r e s p o n s i b l e government; i n s t e a d , t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s h a d b e e n e a s i l y g r a n t e d o r s u p e r i m p o s e d * The p o l i t i c a l i m m a t u r i t y w h i c h c o n t i n u e d t o e x i s t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g L a u r i e r ' s p e r i o d was r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n o f the P r o v i n c e was s t i l l l a r g e l y composed o f s t r o n g i n d i v i d u a l i s t s . Many o f t h e men who emerged as p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h a d come f r o m t h e E a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s where t h e y h a d s e e n p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . They h a d moved t o t h e west s e e k i n g g r e a t e r s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t h e y h o p e d t o f i n d g r e a t e r o u t l e t f o r t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i d e a s and a m b i t i o n s . The a t t e m p t b y E a s t e r n immi-g r a n t s t o become spokesmen f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was f r e q u e n t l y met w i t h r e b u f f , s i n c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s o f l o n g e r r e s i d e n c e t h e r e was a d e e p l y - i n g r a i n e d s u s p i c i o n o f E a s t e r n i n f l u e n c e . Thus t h e r e came i n t o b e i n g a number o f r i v a l f a c t i o n s , e a c h i n t e n t on s e i z i n g power and m a k i n g u s e .of w h a t e v e r e l e m e n t s o f t h e L i b e r a l o r Con-s e r v a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y b e s t s u i t e d a p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e . P o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y was d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e methods f r e q u e n t l y - i i 5 -e m p l o y e d t o s e l e c t o f f i c e r s o f l o c a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Some-t i m e s t h e o f f i c e r s were s e l e c t e d s o l e l y b e c a u s e a g r o u p wanted t o o u s t o t h e r s f r o m . o f f i c e . L i t t l e t h o u g h t was g i v e n t o w h e t h e r t h e p a r t y as a whole w o u l d b e n e f i t b y t h e c h a n g e . One f o r m e r o f f i c e r o f a l o c a l L i b e r a l group r e p o r t s , " I was w a l k i n g down t h e s t r e e t one e v e n i n g when Mr. s t o p p e d me. He said,'Come on down t o t h e Committee Rooms, we a r e h a v i n g e l e c t i o n s t o n i g h t and want t o g e t and h i s gang o u t o f o f f i c e . ' " 2 - ^ 2 My i n f o r m a n t went t o t h e m e e t i n g and was e l e c t e d v i c e - p r e s i d e n t . Men l i k e t h i s were o f t e n h o n e s t and a b l e p e r s o n s b u t s u c h d i s r e g a r d f o r p a r t y p h i l o -s ophy was c e r t a i n t o r e s u l t i n w a v e r i n g and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g when c o n t r o v e r s i a l q u e s t i o n s a r o s e . T h i s r a t h e r h a p h a z a r d a c c e p t a n c e o f p a r t y a l l e g i a n c e was n o t r e a d i l y u n d e r s t o o d by t h o s e w i t h p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n the more s t a b l e e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . L a u r i e r a r g u e d t h a t i f a p e r s o n p r o f e s s e d t o be a L i b e r a l he s h o u l d a c c e p t the L i b e r a l p a r t y p l a t f o r m and s u p -p o r t i t t h r o u g h e v e r y a d v e r s i t y . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s a r g u e d , however, t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d t o s u p p o r t f e d e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o n l y so l o n g as t h o s e p r i n c i p l e s d i d n o t e n d a n g e r the w e l f a r e o f t h e P r o v i n c e . I f t h e P r o v i n c e s t o o d t o b e n e f i t f r o m a d h e r e n c e t o the C o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i c y , t h e n th e L i b e r a l s were w i l l i n g t o s u p p o r t t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s . To L a u r i e r , t h e p e t t i n e s s u n d e r l y i n g the l o c a l q u a r r e l s w h i c h c o n t i n u a l l y c a u s e d t u r m o i l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was i n c r e d i b l e . He was i n t e n t on w e l d i n g t h e p r o v i n c e s i n t o a s t r o n g f e d e r a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d e n a b l e Canada t o become an autonomous p a r t o f the B r i t i s h E m p i r e . He h a d l i t t l e p a t i e n c e w i t h t h o s e c a l l i n g t h e m s e l v e s " L i b -e r a l s " , who t h o u g h t o n l y o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t and who r e f u s e d t o - 116 -a c d e p t the f i r s t p r i n c i p l e o f a p a r t y g o v e r n m e n t : s u p p o r t f o r the p a r t y ' s p h i l o s o p h y . When T. R. M c l n n e s t r i e d t o e x p l a i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s a t t i - j t u d e i n 1909, he w r o t e , " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f e e l s big, i t i s o p t i m i s t i c ; i t i s i n a h u r r y , i t i s i m p a t i e n t o f r e d t a p e . F a c i l i t a t e the e n t e r -p r i s e s and a p p l i c a t i o n s . They a p p r e c i a t e q u i c k a c t i o n . , l 233 T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p r o v i n c i a l a t t i t u d e was l a c k i n g i n L a u r i e r . To L a u r i e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c o n s t a n t demands w i t h o u t t h o u g h t o r c o n c e r n f o r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s and f o r t h e d o m i n i o n as a w h o l e f o r i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n i n v o l v e d t h e danger o f a n a r c h y and t h e d i s r u p t i o n o f u n i t y . The f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p a r t i e s were n e v e r i n t e - \ g r a t e d i n o u t l o o k d u r i n g the P r i m e M i n i s t e r ' s t e r m , a n d u n t i l a m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r aims c o u l d be r e a c h e d , c o n t r o v e r s y b e t w e e n f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s w o u l d c o n t i n u e . A l t h o u g h a s l i g h t move towards t h i s end began t o a p p e a r i n 1911 when J o h n O l i v e r and some o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s a c c e p t e d t h e p l a t f o r m o f r e c i p r o c i t y , t h i s change o f h e a r t came t o o l a t e t o b e n e f i t L a u r i e r . Harmony i n p h i l o s o p h y b e t w e e n f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s was s t i l l a l o n g way i n the f u t u r e . - 117 -APPENDIX I O f f i c i a l R e p o r t o f t h e L i b e r a l C o n v e n t i o n h e l d a t Ottawa, 1893 RESOLUTIONS FIRST RESOLUTION - T A R I F F REFORM pp. 71-72 . . . t h e customs t a r i f f o f t h e D o m i n i o n s h o u l d be b a s e d , n o t as i t i s now, upon t h e p r o t e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e , b u t upon t h e r e q u i r e -ments o f t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e ; T h a t t h e e x i s t i n g t a r i f f , f o u n d e d upon an unsound p r i n c i p l e , and u s e d as i t has b een by t h e Government, as a c o r r u p t i n g a g e n c y w h e r e w i t h t o k e e p t h e m s e l v e s i n o f f i c e , has d e v e l o p e d m o n o p o l i e s , t r u s t s and c o m b i n a t i o n s ; I t h a s d e c r e a s e d , t h e v a l u e o f f a r m and o t h e r l a n d e d p r o p e r t y ; I t has o p p r e s s e d t h e masses t o t h e e n r i c h m e n t o f a" few; I t has c h e c k e d i m m i g r a t i o n ; I t has c a u s e d g r e a t l o s s o f p o p u l a t i o n ; I t h a s impeded commerce; I t has d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t G r e a t B r i t a i n . I n t h e s e and I n many o t h e r ways i t has o c c a s i o n e d g r e a t p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n j u r y , a l l o f w h i c h e v i l s must c o n t i n u e t o grow i n i n t e n s i t y as l o n g as t h e p r e s e n t t a r i f f s y s t e m r e m a i n s i n f o r c e . T h a t t h e h i g h e s t i n t e r e s t s o f Canada demand a r e m o v a l o f t h i s o b s t a c l e t o o u r c o u n t r y ' s p r o g r e s s , by t h e a d o p t i o n o f a sound f i s c a l p o l i c y , w h i c h , w h i l e n o t d o i n g i n j u s t i c e t o any c l a s s , w i l l p r o m o t e d o m e s t i c and f o r e i g n t r a d e , , and h a s t e n t h e r e t u r n o f p r o s p e r i t y t o o u r p e o p l e . T h a t t o t h a t end, t h e t a r i f f s h o u l d be r e d u c e d t o t h e n e e d s o f h o n e s t , e c o n o m i c a l and e f f i c i e n t g o v e r n m e n t . T h a t i t s h o u l d be so a d j u s t e d as t o make f r e e , o r t o b e a r as l i g h t l y as p o s s i b l e upon, t h e n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e , and s h o u l d be so a r r a n g e d t o p r omote f r e e r t r a d e w i t h t h e whole w o r l d , more p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h G r e a t B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . We b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r o t e c t i v e s y s t e m have g r e v i o u s l y d i s a p p o i n t e d t h o u s a n d s o f p e r s o n s who h o n e s t l y s u p p o r t e d i t , and t h a t t h e c o u n t r y , i n t h e l i g h t o f e x p e r i e n c e , i s now p r e -p a r e d t o d e c l a r e f o r a sound f i s c a l p o l i c y . The i s s u e between t h e two p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s on t h i s q u e s t i o n i s now c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . - 118 -The Government themselves admit the f a i l u r e of t h e i r f i s c a l p o l i c y , and now profess t h e i r willingness to make some change; hut they say that such changes must be based only on the p r i n c i p l e of protection. We denounce the p r i n c i p l e of protection as r a d i c a l l y unsound, and unjust to the masses of the people, and we declare our con-v i c t i o n that any t a r i f f changes based on that p r i n c i p l e must f a i l to afford any substantial r e l i e f from the burdens under which the country, labors. This issue we unhesitatingly accept, and upon i t we await with the f u l l e s t confidence the verdict of the electors of Canada. SECOND RESOLUTION - RECIPROCITY p. 8l That, having regard to the prosperity of Canada and the -"United States as adjoining countries, with many mutual i n t e r e s t s , i t i s desirable that there should be the most f r i e n d l y r e lations and broad and l i b e r a l trade intercourse between them; That' the interests a l i k e of the Dominion and of the Empire would.be materially advanced by the establishing of such r e l a t i o n s ; That the period of the old r e c i p r o c i t y treaty was one of marked prosperity to t h e . B r i t i s h North American colonies; That the pretext/under which the Government appealed to the country i n 1891 respecting negotiation for a treaty with the United States was misleading and dishonest and intended to de-ceive the electorate; That no sincere e f f o r t has been made- by them to obtain a treaty, but that, on the contrary, i t . i s manifest that the present Government, controlled as they are by monopolies and combines, are hot desirous of promoting a treaty on terms honorable to both countries; 1 ;,. That the f i r s t step towards obtaining the end i n viewj i s to place a party i n power who are sincerely desirous of promoting a treaty on terms honorable to both countries; That a f a i r and l i b e r a l r e c i p r o c i t y treaty would develop the great natural resources of Canada, would enormously increase the"trade and commerce between the two countries, would tend to encourage f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s between the two peoples, would remove many causes which have i n the past provoked i r r i t a t i o n and trouble to the .Governments of both countries,'and would promote those kindly relations between the Empire and the Republic which afford the best guarantee f o r peace and prosperity; - 119 -: That the L i b e r a l party i s prepared to enter into negotiations with, a view to obtaining such a treaty, Including a well 'considered l i s t of manufactured a r t i c l e s , and we are s a t i s f i e d that any treaty so arranged w i l l receive the assent of"Her Majesty's Government, without whose approval no treaty can be made. THIRD RESOLUTION - CORRUPTION CONDEMNED p. 99 That the Convention deplores the gross corruption i n the' management and expenditure of public moneys which for years past has existed under the rule of the Conservative party, and the revelations of which by the d i f f e r e n t parliamentary committees of inquiry have brought disgrace upon the f a i r name of Canada. The Government, which p r o f i t e d p o l i t i c a l l y by these expen-ditures of public moneys of which the people have been defrauded, and which,, nevertheless, have never punished the g u i l t y parties, must be held responsible f o r the wrongdoing. We arraign the Government- f o r ret a i n i n g in o f f i c e a Minister of the Crown proved to have accepted very large contributions of money for el e c t i o n purposes from the funds of a railway company, which, while paying the p o l i t i c a l contributions to him, a member of the Government, with one hand, was receiving Government subsidies with the other. The conduct of. the minister and the approval of his colleagues after:the proof-became known to them are calculated to degrade Canada.In the estimation of the.world and deserve the severe con-demnation of the people. FOURTH RESOLUTION - ECONOMY p. 105 We cannot but view with alarm the large increase of the public debt and of the controllable annual expenditure of the; Dominion and the consequent undue taxation of the people under the Governments that have been continuously i n power since 1878, and we demand the s t r i c t e s t economy i n the administration of the government of the country. FIFTH RESOLUTION - FOR RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT p.- 116 That the Convention regrets that by the action of Ministers and t h e i r supporters i n Parliament, i n one case i n which serious charges were made against a Minister of the Crown, investigation was altogether refused, while i n another case the charges pre-ferred were altered and then referred to a commission appointed upon the advice of the Ministry'contrary to the well s e t t l e d practice of Parliament; and this:Convention affirms: That i s Is the ancient and undoubted right of the House of Commons to inquire into a l l matters of public expenditure, and into a l l charges of misconduct In o f f i c e against Ministers of the I - 120 -Crown, and t h e r e f e r e n c e o f s u c h m a t t e r s t o r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s c r e a t e d u p o n . t h e a d v i c e o f t h e a c c u s e d i s a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e due r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f M i n i s t e r s t o t h e House o f Commons and t e n d s t o weaken t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e House o v e r t h e E x e c u t i v e Government, and t h i s C o n v e n t i o n a f f i r m s t h a t , t h e powers o f t h e p e o p l e ' s. r e p -r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s r e g a r d s h o u l d on a l l f i t t i n g o c c a s i o n s be u p h e l d . SIXTH RESOLUTION - THE LAND FOR THE SETTLER p . 118 T h a t i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h i s C o n v e n t i o n t h e s a l e s o f p u b l i c l a n d s o f t h e D o m i n i o n s h o u l d be t o a c t u a l s e t t l e r s o n l y , and n o t t o s p e c u l a t o r s , upon r e a s o n a b l e terms o f s e t t l e m e n t , and i n s u c h a r e a s as c a n be r e a s o n a b l y o c c u p i e d and c u l t i v a t e d by t h e s e t t l e r . SEVENTH RESOLUTION - THE FRANCHISE- ACT p.. 122 T h a t t h e F r a n c h i s e A c t s i n c e i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n - has. c o s t t h e D o m i n i o n T r e a s u r y o v e r a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , b e s i d e s e n t a i l i n g a he a v y e x p e n d i t u r e t o b o t h p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s ; T h a t e a c h r e v i s i o n i n v o l v e s an a d d i t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e o f a f u r t h e r q u a r t e r o f a m i l l i o n ; T h a t t h i s e x p e n d i t u r e h as p r e v e n t e d a n - a n n u a l r e v i s i o n , as o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f w h i c h y o u n g v o t e r s e n -t i t l e d t o t h e f r a n c h i s e h a v e , i n numerous i n s t a n c e s , b een p r e v e n t e d f r o m e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r n a t u r a l r i g h t s ; T h a t i t has f a i l e d t o s e c u r e u n i f o r m i t y , w h i c h was t h e p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n a s s i g n e d f o r i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n ; T h a t i t has p r o d u c e d g r o s s a b u s e s by p a r t i z a n P r e v i s i n g b a r r i s t e r s a p p o i n t e d by t h e Government o f t h e day; T h a t i t s p r o v i s i o n s a r e l e s s l i b e r a l t h a n t h o s e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g i n many P r o v i n c e s o f t h e D o m i n i o n , and t h a t i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h i s C o n v e n t i o n t h e A c t s h o u l d be r e p e a l e d , and we s h o u l d r e v e r t t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l F r a n c h i s e . EIGHTH RESOLUTION - THE GERRYMANDER p . 129 T h a t by t h e G e r r y m a n d e r A c t s t h e e l e c t o r a l d i v i s i o n s f o r .the r e t u r n o f members o f t h e House o f Commons have been so made as t o p r e v e n t a f a i r e x p r e s s i o n , o f t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y .at t h e g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s , , and t o s e c u r e t o t h e p a r t y now i n power a s t r e n g t h o u t o f a l l p r o p o r t i o n g r e a t e r t h a n t h e number o f e l e c t o r s s u p p o r t i n g them w o u l d w a r r a n t . To p u t an end t o t h i s a b u s e , t o make t h e H o u s e ' o f Commons a f a i r . e x p o n e n t o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n , and t o p r e s e r v e t h e h i s t o r i c c o n t i n u i t y o f c o u n t i e s , i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f e l e c t o r a l d i v i s i o n s , c o u n t y b o u n d a r i e s s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d and t h a t i n no c a s e p a r t s o f d i f f e r e n t c o u n t i e s s h o u l d be p u t i n one e l e c t o r a l d i v i s i o n . - 121 -NINTH RESOLUTION - SENATE REFORM p. 134 The p r e s e n t c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the Senate i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e " F e d e r a l p r i n c i p l e i n our system o f government and i s I n o t h e r r e s p e c t s d e f e c t i v e , as i t makes the Senate independent o f the p e o p l e and' u n c o n t r o l l e d hy t h e p u b l i c o p i n i o n o f the c o u n t r y , and s h o u l d be so amended as t o b r i n g i t i n t o harmony w i t h the p r i n -c i p l e s o f p o p u l a r government. TENTH RESOLUTION - PROHIBITION PLEBISCITE p. 135 That whereas p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n i s a t p r e s e n t much d i r e c t e d t o the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e a d m i t t e d l y g r e a t e v i l s o f i ntemperance, I t ' i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t the mind o f the p e o p l e s h o u l d be c l e a r l y a s c e r t a i n e d on t h e q u e s t i o n o f P r o h i b i t i o n by means o f a Dominion p l e b i s c i t e . A VOTE OF THANKS p. 140 R e s o l v e d , t h a t t h i s C o n v e n t i o n cannot s e p a r a t e w i t h o u t e x p r e s s i n g deep a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the k i n d n e s s t h a t they have r e -c e i v e d from the P r e s i d e n t , A l e x . McLean; the Honorary S e c r e t a r y , H. A. B a t e , and the members o f the Ottawa Reform A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e Ottawa F r e e P r e s s and Le Canada. The g e n e r a l arrangements f o r t h e h o l d i n g o f the C o n v e n t i o n have,been beyond p r a i s e , and i n t h e name o f the L i b e r a l p a r t y o f t h i s Dominion we s i n c e r e l y thank th e Reform 1 A s s o c i a t i o n o f Ottawa and. numerous, o t h e r c i t i -zens ©I? t h e C a p i t a l who have c o n t r i b u t e d i n so marked a degree t o the comfort o f the d e l e g a t e s . CONFIDENCE IN THE LEADER p. l 4 l That t h i s C o n v e n t i o n d e s i r e s t o e x p r e s s i t s e n t i r e con-f i d e n c e i n the l e a d e r s h i p o f the Hon. W i l f r i d L a u r i e r and i t s a d m i r a t i o n o f h i s b r i l l i a n t e l o q u e n c e , h i s e n d e a r i n g p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s and h i s broad and s t a t e s m a n l i k e u t t e r a n c e s upon the p u b l i c q u e s t i o n s o f the day. O f f i c i a l R e p o r t o f the L i b e r a l C o n v e n t i o n h e l d I n Response t o t h e  C a l l o f Hon. W i l f r i d L a u r i e r .... Ottawa, Tuesday, June 20th and Wednesday, June 21st,. . 1093-. T o r o n t o , Budget P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g Co., Ib93. . ~ — - 122 -APPENDIX I I Constitution and Resolutions of the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Association : October 1-3, 1907 B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Association O f f i c e r s Honorable President President Vice Presidents Treasurer • Secretary Executive Committee S i r W i l f r i d Laurier John Oliver, Delta Dr. 0. M. Jones, V i c t o r i a Mr. J. 'A. MacDonald, Rossland Mr. A. M. Pound, Vancouver' Mr. J . C. Mcintosh, Esquimalt Upper Country New Westminster D i s t r i c t Nanaimo Vancouver .Victoria Vancouver Island Dr. McDonald, Vernon Mr. Alex Cruickshank, Matsqui Robert Jardine, New Westminster Alex Forrester, Nanaimo W. W..B. Mclnnes J . H. Senkler R. L. Drury W. E. Ditchburn H. P i l l a r , Comox Constitution of the L i b e r a l Association Objects of the Association: to unite the Liberals of this d i s t r i c t so that they may the better study and understand the p o l i t i c s of Canada and the platform of the L i b e r a l Party. Membership . Every male person of the age of 18 years and upwards who i s a B r i t i s h subject and who now i s or hereafter may become a resident of E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t , may become a member of thi s Association by signing the membership r o l l and paying to the Secretary-Treasurer the sum of per year. El e c t i o n of O f f i c e r s The o f f i c e r s of the Association s h a l l be elected annually by b a l l o t t at-the regular meeting to be held on the ....... in the month of i n each year, or on such other day i n the month of ... i n any year as the Executive Committee s h a l l decide upon, and at such elections a majority vote s h a l l p r e v a i l - 123 -D u t i e s o f o f f i c e r s s e t down I t s h a l l be t h e d u t y o f t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee t o r e p o r t a l l m a t t e r s upon w h i c h t h e a c t i o n o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n may be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e q u i r e d ; t o recommend t o t h e A s s o c i a t i o n s u b -j e c t s f o r d i s c u s s i o n , and t h e o c c a s i o n f o r h o l d i n g p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , and g e n e r a l l y t o employ s u c h a c t i v e m e a s u r e s f o r c a r r y i n g o u t t h e o b j e c t s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n as may be deemed a d v i s a b l e . M e e t i n g s A m e e t i n g may be c a l l e d a t any t i m e a t t h e r e q u e s t o f 5 members. Quorum t o be s e t down by t h e A s s o c i a t i o n 10 m i n u t e s p e r s p e a k e r i n d e b a t e s o r d i s c u s s i o n c a n d i d a t e f o r membership must be p r o p o s e d by a member i n good s t a n d i n g a t a r e g u l a r m e e t i n g 2/3 n e c e s s a r y t o e l e c t c a n d i d a t e t o membership p r i v i l e g e s o f membership d e n i e d n o n - p a i d up members e x e c u t i v e c o mmittee may amend r u l e s C o n s t i t u t i o n L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n and R e s o l u t i o n s a d o p t e d by C o n v e n t i o n o f B. C. L i b e r a l s h e l d a t V a n c o u v e r , B. C , O c t o b e r 1, 2, 3, 1907, V i c t o r i a , T h o s . R. C u s a c k , 1907. - 1 2 k -APPENDIX III O r d e r o f H e r M a j e s t y I n C o u n c i l a d m i t t i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t o t h e U n i o n S e c t i o n OT The Government o f the D o m i n i o n u n d e r t a k e t o s e c u r e the commence-ment s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , w i t h i n two y e a r s f r o m t h e d a t e o f the U n i o n , o f th e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r a i l w a y f r o m t h e P a c i f i c t o w a r d s t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s , and f r o m s u c h p o i n t as may be s e l e c t e d , e a s t o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s , towards t h e P a c i f i c , t o c o n n e c t the s e a b o a r d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h t h e r a i l w a y s y s t e m o f Canada; and f u r t h e r , t o s e c u r e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f s u c h r a i l w a y w i t h i n t e n y e a r s f r o m t h e d a t e o f t h e U n i o n . And the Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a g r e e t o c o n v e y t o t h e D o m i n i o n Government, i n t r u s t , t o be a p p r o p r i a t e d i n s u c h manner as th e D o m i n i o n Government may deem a d v i s a b l e i n f u r t h e r a n c e o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the s a i d r a i l w a y , a s i m i l a r e x t e n t o f p u b l i c l a n d s a l o n g t h e l i n e o f r a i l w a y t h r o u g h o u t i t s e n t i r e l e n g t h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( n o t t o e x c e e d , however, t w e n t y ( 2 0 ) m i l e s o n e a c h s i d e o f s a i d l i n e , ) as may be a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r the same p u r p o s e b y the D o m i n i o n Government f r o m t h e p u b l i c l a n d s o f t h e N o r t h - W e s t t e r r i -t o r i e s and the P r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a : P r o v i d e d t h a t the q u a n t i t y o f l a n d w h i c h may be h e l d u n d e r p r e - e m p t i o n r i g h t o r by Crown g r a n t w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f t h e t r a c t o f l a n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o be so c o n v e y e d t o t h e D o m i n i o n Government s h a l l be made good t o t h e D o m i n i o n f r o m c o n t i g u o u s p u b l i c l a n d s ; and p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r , t h a t u n t i l t h e commencement, w i t h i n two y e a r s , as a f o r e s a i d , f r o m f r o m t h e d a t e o f t h e U n i o n , o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the s a i d r a i l -way, t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h a l l n o t s e l l o r a l i e n a t e any f u r t h e r p o r t i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c l a n d s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n any o t h e r way t h a n u n d e r r i g h t o f p r e - e m p t i o n r e q u i r i n g a c t u a l r e s i d e n c e o f t h e p r e - e m p t o r o n t h e l a n d c l a i m e d by him. I n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the l a n d t o be so c o n v e y e d i n a i d o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s a i d r a i l w a y , t h e D o m i n i o n Government a g r e e t o p a y t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e d a t e o f t h e U n i o n , t h e sum o f 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 d o l l a r s p e r annum, i n h a l f - y e a r l y payments i n a d v a n c e . Canada, Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t and Amendments  ( t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r a c t s arid o r d e r s i n c o u n c i l . . . ) 1867-I9k3, Ottawa, K i n g s P r i n t e r , 1 9 k 3 , p p . 1 6 3 - I 6 k . - 125 -, APPENDIX IV F o r m a t i o n o f L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n  f o r t h e . D i s t r i c t o f V i c t o r i a , S a t u r d a y , F e b r u a r y 1 2 , 1 8 8 7 I 2 5 .cents c h a r g e d members f o r e x p e n s e s P l a t f o r m o f t h i r t e e n p l a n k s a d o p t e d : 1 . P r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s . 2 . Manhood s u f f r a g e ; one man, one v o t e . The p r o v i n c e t o ?— c o n t r o l i t s own f r a n c h i s e . 3 . P r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e C a b i n e t . 4. An e q u i t a b l e a p p o r t i o n m e n t o f p u b l i c m onies f o r e x p e n d i t u r e w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . 5 . An a d o p t i o n o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e scheme t o i m p r o v e V i c t o r i a ' s h a r b o r . 6. A r e a d j u s t m e n t o f p r e s e n t f i s c a l p o l i c y whereby p r e s e n t i n e q u a l i t i e s w i l l be removed. A d m i s s i o n f r e e o f d u t y o f a l l raw m a t e r i a l , n o t t h e n a t u r a l p r o d u c t o f t h e c o u n t r y I n t e n d e d f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g p u r p o s e s . 7 . R e v i v a l o f t h e r e c i p r o c i t y t r e a t y w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a . 8 . . The r i g h t o f Canada t o n e g o t i a t e c o m m e r c i a l t r e a t i e s w i t h a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y . 9 . The r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e D o m i n i o n S e n a t e . 1 0 . The r a p i d a c c u m u l a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l d e b t r e n d e r s c u r t a i l m e n t i n t h e e x p e n d i t u r e i m p e r a t i v e . 1 1 . To c h e c k members o f t h e crown f r o m a c c e p t i n g b r i b e s i n t h e shape o f l a n d g r a n t s , t i m b e r l i m i t s , c o a l l a n d s o r s u b s i d i e s t o r a i l w a y s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r e s t e d . 1 2. To u r g e t h e g u a r d i n g o f t h e l u m b e r domain f r o m p l u n d e r and s p o l i a t i o n by l a n d g r a b b e r s and s p e c u l a t o r s t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t h e bona f i d e s e t t l e r . 1 3 . The c u r t a i l m e n t o f a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h f o r e i g n e m i g r a t i o n . The V i c t o r i a D a i l y S t a n d a r d , F e b r u a r y 14, 1 8 8 7 , p . 3 . - 126 -APPENDIX V The Liberal Platform, 1897 Platform said to have been adopted at the Convention at New Westminster on October 8 and 9 , 1897-We denounce the Turner administration which has justly for-feited the confidence of the people of this province by i t s reckless squandering of the public revenue; it s alienation of the public lands by grants to railway promoters and p r i -vate speculators (notably the grant to the Casslar Central Railway Companyits system of class taxation; Its encourage-ment of monopolies; i t s open support of Oriental labour and Its persistent attempts to encourage sectional jealousies between the Island and Mainland for p o l i t i c a l purposes. And we denounce the practise of ministers of the crown making use of their o f f i c i a l positions to promote their private interests by associating their names with mining and other speculative companies,. We advocate: I. Railways and- Land 1. The adoption of a policy directed towards ultimate ownership of railways by the government. 2. That public lands be reserved for actual settlement, and that such legislation be enacted as w i l l prevent the ;.-.>' holding of large tracts by speculators and company promoters. 3. That when a grant of land is made in aid of railways and other public undertakings the government retain a l l equi-valent Interest in such undertakings" by way of control of freight rates or. other wise. 4. That the status of existing grants of land be thoroughly,. Investigated with a view to compelling the'opening up' of the same to settlement where the conditions upon which such grants have been made have not been complied with. 5. That the system of transfer and registration of land be simplified and made less expensive while securing abso-lute validity of t i t l e . II. Redistribution 1. A f a i r readjustment of the present representation on the basis of population always allowing to sparsely populated di s t r i c t s a proportionately larger representation than to populous districts and c i t i e s . 2. The abolition of the $200 deposit required from candidates. III. Taxation 1. The repeal of the mortgage tax. 2. The repeal of miners' licences for those working for wages in mines. 3. That coal mines be placed on the same footing as other mines with respect to taxation. - 127 -IV. T i m b e r 1 . The d i s p o s a l o f t i m b e r l i m i t s by open c o m p e t i t i o n and i n s u c h q u a n t i t i e s o n l y as w i l l meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the', t r a d e . 2. The e n a c t m e n t o f an a c c u r a t e s y s t e m o f government s c a l i n g o f l o g s and i t s r i g i d e n f o r c e m e n t . 3. The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a s y s t e m o f f o r e s t r y f o r t h e p u r -p o s e o f c o n s e r v i n g and r e p r o d u c i n g o u r f o r e s t s . V. C h i n e s e 1 . . The d i s c o u r a g e m e n t by a l l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l methods o f t h e i m m i g r a t i o n and employment o f O r i e n t a l l a b o r e r s , and t h e amendment i n a c c o r d a n c e t h e r e w i t h o f t h e C o a l M i n e s ' R e g u l a t i o n s A c t . V I . Road Money 1 . The a b o l i t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t c o r r u p t p r a c t i c e o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e p u b l i c r o a d money i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f government s u p p o r t e r s . V I I . H o n e s t y and P r o g r e s s ; 1 . The; h o n e s t management o f p r o v i n c i a l ' ' a s s e t s i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e p u b l i c . •.'•,<. 2. The' t a k i n g o f a c t i v e m e a s u r e s f o r t h e s y s t e m a t i c e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e and t h e a d o p t i o n o f a v i g o r o u s p o l i c y o f c o n s t r u c t i n g t r a i l s , r o a d s and b r i d g e s and t h e e ncouragement o f o t h e r p u b l i c works i n s u c h a manner as w i l l ' a s s i s t t h e s p e e d y d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e r e s o u r c e s o f 'the whole' p r o v i n c e . V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t , November 1 9 , 1 8 9 7 , p. 8 . - 128 -A P P E N D I X V I P a m p h l e t I s s u e d b y C . A . S e m l i n  C h a i r m a n O p p o s i t i o n . C i r c u l a r f r o m t h e E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n P a r T y I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a r e q u e s t t o t h a t e f f e c t f r o m r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e men o f t h e p a r t y i n a l l s e c t i o n s o f t h e P r o v i n c e , t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e c o n s e n t e d t o a c t a s a n E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e o f t h e P a r t y . I n t h a t c a p a c i t y t h e members r e c e n t l y h e l d a m e e t i n g when I t was t h o u g h t d e s i r a b l e t o l a y down t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e p o l i c y w h i c h h a s g u i d e d t h e O p p o s i t i o n i n i t s c o u r s e i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e a n d o n w h i c h , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e C o m m i t t e e , t h e p a r t y c a n w i t h c o n f i d e n c e a p p e a l t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l v o t e r s a t t h e e n s u i n g g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s . T h e c o m m i t t e e b e l i e v e s t h a t i t w i l l h a v e t h e s u p p o r t o f a v e r y l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l v o t e r s w h e t h e r t h e y a r e s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n o r t h e G o v e r n m e n t , i n i t s v i e w t h a t i t w o u l d b e e x t r e m e l y d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e w h o l e P r o v i n c e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t o i n t r o d u c e D o m i n i o n p o l i t i -c a l i s s u e s i n t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . T h e C o m m i t t e e , i n c o n s o n a n c e w i t h t h i s v i e w , p r o p o s e s t h e f o l l o w i n g a s t h e p l a t f o r m o n w h i c h t h e O p p o s i t i o n w i l l a p p e a l t o t h e e l e c t o r a t e : 1. T h e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e o n a g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e , b y w h i c h a n e q u i t a b l e s y s t e m w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d . D i s t r i c t s t h i n l y s e t t l e d a n d r e m o t e f r o m t h e p o p u l o u s c e n t r e s r e c e i v i n g a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a n t h o s e d i s t r i c t s w i t h a g r e a t e r p o p u -l a t i o n a n d n e a r e r t h e l a r g e c i t i e s , w h i l e i n t u r n t h o s e d i s t r i c t s w i l l h a v e a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e r r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n t h a n t h e c i t i e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e . 2. R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e w i t h a v i e w t o g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y a n d e c o n o m y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 3. L i b e r a l e x p e n d i t u r e o n n e c e s s a r y p u b l i c w o r k s u n d e r s u c h r i g i d s u p e r v i s i o n a s w i l l s e c u r e c o m m e n s u r a t e r e s u l t s . 4. D i s c o u r a g e m e n t o f O r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n . 5. T h e amendment o f t h e L a n d A c t s o t h a t c o a l w i l l b e r e s e r v e d a l o n g w i t h o t h e r m i n e r a l s . T i m b e r t o b e d i s -p o s e d o f b y o p e n c o m p e t i t i o n a n d i n s u c h q u a n t i t i e s a s \ t h e t r a d e d e m a n d s . A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s t o b e r e s e r v e d f o r a c t u a l s e t t l e r s . - 1 2 9 -6. R e p e a l o f t h e tax. coitxnonly known as. t h e M o r t g a g e t a x . 7. Amendment o f t h e law I n r e g a r d , t o F r e e M i n e r ' s L i c e n s e s , so t h a t a man s h a l l , n o t he. c o m p e l l e d t o t a k e o u t a F r e e M i n e r ' s L i c e n s e b e f o r e he c a n work i n a mine f o r wages. 8. P r o v i n c i a l a i d t o r a i l w a y s i n t h e p a s t h a v i n g r e s u l t e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , b o t h as r e g a r d s economy i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and m o d e r a t i o n i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on c h a r g e s , any f u t u r e a i d t o r a i l w a y s t o be b a s e d on e f f i c i e n t P r o v i n c i a l con= t r o l b o t h o f t h e r a i s i n g and e x p e n d i t u r e o f t h e c a p i t a l and o f t h e r a t e s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . W h i l e t h e Committee b e l i e v e s t h a t an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P r o -v i n c i a l a f f a i r s on t h e l i n e s l a i d down i n t h e f o r e g o i n g p l a t f o r m , w o u l d c o n d u c e t o t h e g e n e r a l p r o s p e r i t y and a s s i s t i n t h e r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e g r e a t n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e , i t does n o t i g n o r e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e most s a g a c i o u s p o l i c y may f a i l i n r e s u l t s by e x t r a v a g a n c e o r i n c o m p e t e n c y i n c a r r y i n g i t o u t and i t c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t Government i s open t o t h e s t r o n g e s t c o n d e m n a t i o n i n b o t h t h e s e r e s p e c t s . W i t h u n i t e d and e n e r g e t i c a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h o s e who ' a r e i n sympathy w i t h t h e v i e w s o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n , t h e Committee has no f e a r o f t h e r e s u l t s . C.A. S e m l i n , C h a i r m a n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s . P a m p h l e t C o l l e c t i o n . C. A. S e m l i n , P a m p h l e t i s s u e d by C.A. S e m l i n , C h a i r m a n O p p o s i t i o n , C i r c u l a r f r o m t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n Par€yT n . d . - 130 -APPENDIX'VII B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l C o n v e n t i o n V a n c o u v e r , F e b r u a r y o t h and 7 t h , 190~2 P l a t f o r m 1. The Immediate r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n c i e s ; o f t h e P r o v i n c e on t h e b a s i s o f p o p u l a t i o n , b u t a l l o w i n g a s m a l l e r u n i t o f p o p u l a t i o n p e r s e a t f o r t h e o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s.-2 . Government o w n e r s h i p D o m i n i o n , P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s o r u t i l i t i e s i s sound and s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 3. S h o u l d i t be a d v i s a b l e a t any t i m e t o g r a n t a i d t o a r a i l w a y company, s u c h s h a l l be i n c a s h and n o t i n l a n d , and no bonus o f any k i n d s h a l l be g i v e n w i t h o u t d e f i n i t e and e f f e c t i v e means b e i n g t a k e n t o s a f e g u a r d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e i n t h e management o f t h e r o a d , c o n t r o l t h e f r e i g h t and p a s s e n -g e r r a t e s and p r o v i s i o n made a g a i n s t any s u c h r a i l w a y h a v i n g any l i a b i l i t y a g a i n s t i t e x c e p t a c t u a l c o s t s . 4. Immediate c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C o a s t K o o t e n a y R a i l w a y , t h e C a r i b o o R a i l w a y , t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e I s l a n d R a i l w a y , a R a i l -way f r o m A l b e r n i t o a p o i n t on t h e E a s t C o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , and a r o a d i n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e P r o v i n c e f r o m t h e c o a s t t o t h e e a s t e r n b o u n d a r y w i t h an e x t e n s i o n t o t h e n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r y , t h e r a i l w a y f r o m V e r n o n t o Midway by West f o r k o f K e t t l e R i v e r w i t h a l l n e c e s s a r y b r a n c h l i n e s , f e r r i e s and c o n n e c t i o n s . 5 . The e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e a c t now on t h e s t a t u t e book c o m p e l l i n g t h e s c a l i n g o f l o g s by Government s c a l e r s . 6. T h a t s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n s h o u l d be e n a c t e d as w i l l r e s u l t i n d r a i n i n g t h e l a n d s i n c l u d e d i n t h e v a r i o u s d y k i n g a r e a s a v a i l -a b l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e and s e c u r e prompt payment o f a s s e s s m e n t s when due. 7 . T h a t t h e government s h o u l d keep i n t o u c h w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h m i n i n g , p r o t e c t i n g s a i d i n d u s t r y a g a i n s t combines and t r u s t s , and i f . n e c e s s a r y f o r t h a t p u r p o s e b u i l d and o p e r a t e s m e l t e r s and r e f i n e r i e s . No r a d i c a l change s h o u l d be made i n the- m i n i n g l a w s w i t h o u t f u l l n o t i c e t o a l l p a r t i e s •L i n t e r e s t e d , g i v i n g f u l l , o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i s c u s s i o n and c r i t i c i s m . 8. As t h e p r o v i n c e c a n o n l y a d v a n c e by t h e s e t t l e m e n t w i t h i n i t s b o r d e r s of. t h r i f t y and p r o s p e r o u s c i t i z e n s , and as O r i e n t a l s n e v e r become c i t i z e n s i n any p r o p e r s e n s e o f t h e word, we d e c l a r e i t t o be t h e d u t y o f t h e Government t o d i s c o u r a g e O r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n and employment by e v e r y means w i t h i n i t s power and we a p p e a l t o o u r f e l l o w L i b e r a l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e D o m i n i o n t o a i d us i n o u r e f f o r t s t o p r o t e c t o u r s e l v e s a g a i n s t - 131 -t h e r u i n o u s c o m p e t i t i o n of men h a v i n g a s t a n d a r d of d e c e n c y and c o m f o r t t i m m e n s e l y . b e l o w t h a t o f c i v i l i z e d p e o p l e , and who s h i r k e v e r y d u t y and o b l i g a t i o n o f c i t i z e n s h i p w h i c h t h e law w i l l a l l o w them t o e s c a p e . 9 . The Government ought t o p r e v e n t t h e waste and s u f f e r i n g c a u s e d by s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s , and an e a r n e s t e f f o r t o u g h t to be made t o p r o v i d e some o f t h e means o f p r e v e n t i n g s u c h s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s , and we a p p r o v e t h e a d o p t i o n o f c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n . 10. The F i s c a l s y s t e m o f t h e p r o v i n c e s t a n d s i n n e e d o f r e v i s i o n . T a x a t i o n s h o u l d b e a r upon p r i v i l e g e r a t h e r t h a n i n d u s t r y , and no a d d i t i o n s h o u l d be made t o t h e d e b t o f t h e p r o v i n c e e x c e p t f o r p u b l i c works p r o p e r l y c h a r g e a b l e t o c a p i t a l . 1 1 . The r e t a i n i n g , o f t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' a s ah a s s e t f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e p e o p l e and t a k i n g e f f e c t i v e m e a s u r e s t o p r e v e n t t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f t h e P u b l i c domain e x c e p t t o a c t u a l s e t t l e r s o r f o r a c t u a l bona f i d e b u s i n e s s o r i n d u s t r i a l p u r -p o s e s , p u t t i n g an end t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f s p e c u l a t o r s i n c o n n e c -t i o n w i t h t h e same. 1 2 . The c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f r o a d s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o -v i n c e t o a i d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m i n i n g and a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t s . I i P r o c e e d i n g s . o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l C o n v e n t i o n h e l d i n V a n c o u v e r , on F e b r u a r y b t h and 7th, 1 9 0 2 , L a u r i e r P a p e r s R e l a t i n g t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , UBC M i c r o f i l m , R e e l 2 . , pp.. b 2 9 4 1 - b 2 9 4 3 . - 132 -APPENDIX V I I I B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n " M a n i f e s t o , September 4 t h , 1903' P l a t f o r m t h e same as t h a t I s s u e d F e b r u a r y 6, 1902, A p p e n d i x VII,-' - i pp. 130-131 Immediate a t t e n t i o n c a l l e d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. ' C i v i l s e r v i c e r e f o r m by k e e p i n g down t h e number o f employees t o a c t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ; by m a k i n g good c o n d u c t and e f f i c i e n c y t h e t e n u r e o f o f f i c e ; ; ;and by m a k i n g f i t n e s s , n o t f a v o u r i t i s m , t o g o v e r n a p p o i n t m e n t s . 2. F i s c a l r e f o r m by k e e p i n g e x p e n d i t u r e w i t h i n r e v e n u e and b o r r o w i n g money, i f a t a l l , o n l y f o r works p r o p e r l y c h a r g e a b l e t o c a p i t a l ; by a w i s e and p r o v i d e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e so as t o p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t r e v e n u e , e n c o u r a g e i n d u s t r y , e n a b l e t h e r e p e a l o f o b n o x i o u s t a x e s and make p o s s i b l e a r e a d j u s t m e n t o f the- u n p o p u l a r and i n j u r i o u s m i n i n g t a x . 3 . R e f o r m i n l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by o p p o s i t i o n t o a l l l a n d g r a n t s t o r a i l w a y s o r r e s e r v a t i o n o f l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d ; by t h e . e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f f r e e h o m e steads on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s t h r o u g h f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s t o s e t t l e r s ; and by t h e o b t a i n i n g and m a k i n g p u b l i c f u l l and e x a c t i n f o r m a t i o n as t o a l l p u b l i c l a n d f i t t e d f o r s e t t l e m e n t . 4. A i d t o t h e F a r m i n g i n d u s t r y by p l a c i n g t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l D e p artment o f t h e Government upon a more e f f i c i e n t and p r a c -t i c a l b a s i s ; by l e g i s l a t i n g so as t o make t h e i r l a n d s more r a p i d l y a v a i l a b l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n ; by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f u t i l i z i n g t h e w a t e r s u p p l y i n t h e " d r y - b e l t " f o r i r r i g a t i o n p u r p o s e s . * 5. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f a s y s t e m f o r t h e e c o n o m i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f r o a d s t o g e t h e r w i t h g r e a t e r a i d i n t h i s r e s p e c t t o some o f t h e new d i s t r i c t s . 6. Amendment o f t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h A c t so as t o p r o v i d e f o r s a n i t a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n i n x t n - i n c o r p o r a t e d d i s t r i c t s . 7 . E x c l u s i o n o f O r i e n t a l l a b o u r and i n s i s t e n c e upon t h e r i g h t o f t h e P r o v i n c e " t o . make s u c h p r o v i s i o n s as i t s h a l l s ee f i t i n a l l c o n t r a c t s , g r a n t s and l e a s e s u n d e r P r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l . " J . C a s t e l l H o p k i n s , The C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s 1903, T o r o n t o , A n n u a l Review P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1904... pp. 219-220. - 133 -APPENDIX I X A M e m o r i a l f r o m t h e P r o v i n c i a l R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M a r c h 9 , 1900 T h i s m e m o r i a l a s k s t h a t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n be made i n t o t h e c o n d u c t o f L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r Thomas B. M c l n n e s s i n c e h i s a p p o i n t m e n t t o o f f i c e and. p e n d i n g s u c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t M c l n n e s be s u s -pended f r o m - * e x e r c i s i n g t h e h i g h f u n c t i o n s o f h i s o f f i c e , and t h a t an a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t h e government be i n t h e meantime a p p o i n t e d i n h i s p l a c e , and i f t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e s a i d Thomas R. -Mclnnes be f o u n d t o be i n d e f e n s i b l e t h r o u g h o u t , t h a t he be removed f r o m o f f i c e . 1. f o r h a v i n g d i s m i s s e d t h e T u r n e r Government w i t h o u t j u s t c a u s e . 2 . f o r h a v i n g by s u c h d i s m i s s a l k e p t t h i s P r o v i n c e w i t h o u t any Government f o r one week e x c e p t what he had i n a d e s p o t i c way a r r o g a t e d t o h i m s e l f . 3. f o r h a v i n g a t t h a t t i m e i g n o r e d t h e e n t i r e l e g i s l a t u r e , and f o r h a v i n g c a l l e d on a g e n t l e m a n who was n o t a t t h e t i m e a member o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e , b u t who,., a f t e r one week's a t t e m p t , was c o m p e l l e d t o s u r r e n d e r h i s c o m m i s s i o n , t h e members o f t h e House a t t h e t i m e h a v i n g r e f u s e d t o e n t e r t h e p r o p o s e d f i a t c a b i n e t . 4. f o r h a v i n g o n l y c o n s e n t e d t o c a l l upon t h e L e g i s l a t u r e when t h e by ways r e f u s e d t o c o u n t e n a n c e h i s u n w a r r a n t e d c o u r s e , w h i c h c o m p e l l e d h i m t o c a l l on t h e a c k n o w l e d g e d l e a d e r o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n , C h a r l e s A. S e m l i n , and f o r h a v i n g u n d u l y i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e House by n o t s e l e c t i n g t h r o u g h i t s l e a d e r t h e p r o p o s e d members o f t h e C a b i n e t . 5 . f o r t a k i n g t h e p a r t o f t h e l a t e S i r C h a r l e s M e t c a l f t h r o u g h o u t and f o r now b r i n g i n g on c h a o s and c o n f u s i o n worse c o n f o u n d e d , n o t so much f o r d i s m i s s i n g t h e S e m l i n Government w h i c h was more o r l e s s h i s own c r e a t i o n , b u t f o r r e f u s i n g t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t L e g i s l a t u r e when i t had come t o an a r r a n g e m e n t t o c a r r y on t h e . b u s i n e s s o f t h e House ... 6. f o r h a v i n g a g a i n k e p t t h e c o u n t r y w i t h o u t government e x c e p t t h a t which was p e r s o n i f i e d i n h i s own d e s p o t i c d e t e r m i n a -t i o n , h i s own undue i n t e r f e r e n c e s , as he had done b e f o r e and f o r s e l e c t i n g a man o f q u e s t i o n a b l e p u b l i c r e p u t a t i o n , J o s e p h M a r t i n , t o be h i s c h i e f a d v i s e r , and i g n o r i n g men o f u n q u e s t i o n a b l e i n t e g r i t y , t h u s m a k i n g t h e f a r c e o f R e s p o n s i b l e Government. - 13k -7. f o r h a v i n g g i v e n t h e s a i d J o s e p h M a r t i n a . l a t i t u d e o f p u r p o s e t h a t w o u l d be i n d e f e n s i b l e e v e n were t h e com-m i s s i o n , e n t r u s t e d t o "Men o f u n q u e s t i o n e d a b i l i t y and h o n o r " and f o r h a v i n g b r o u g h t C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Government i n t h i s P r o v i n c e i n t o s c o r n and c o n t e m p t . P r o v i n c i a l R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , L a u r i e r P a p e r s R e l a t i n g t o B r i t i s h Columbia,. UBC M i c r o f i l m , R e e l 1, pp. 431 OB-wjigi ~~—~ - 135 -APPENDIX X T o k i o , December 23, 1907 M o n s i e u r l e M i n i s t r e , -I n r e p l y t o y o u r n o t e o f e v e n d a t e , I have t h e h o n o u r t o s t a t e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e e x i s t i n g t r e a t y b etween J a p a n and Canada a b s o l u t e l y g u a r a n t e e s t o J a p a n e s e s u b j e c t s f u l l l i b e r t y t o e n t e r , t r a v e l and r e s i d e i n any p a r t o f the D o m i n i o n o f Canada, y e t i t i s n o t t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e I m p e r i a l government t o i n s i s t u p o n t h e c o m p l e t e enjoyment o f t h e r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s g u a r a n t e e d by t h o s e s t i p u l a t i o n s w h e n ,that would i n v o l v e d i s r e g a r d o f s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h may . p r e v a i l i n Canada f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . A c t i n g i n t h i s s p i r i t and h a v i n g p a r t i c u l a r r e g a r d t o c i r c u m -s t a n c e s o f r e c e n t o c c u r r e n c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e i m p e r i a l g overnment have d e c i d e d t o t a k e e f f i c i e n t means t o r e s t r i c t e m i -g r a t i o n t o Canada. I n c a r r y i n g b u t t h i s p u r p o s e , t h e i m p e r i a l g overnment i n p u r s u a n c e o f t h e p o l i c y above s t a t e d , w i l l g i v e c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n Canada, w i t h a v i e w t o m e e t i n g t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e government o f the D o m i n i o n as f a r as i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e s p i r i t o f the t r e a t y and w i t h the d i g n i t y o f t h e s t a t e . ' A l t h o u g h , as s t a t e d i n t h e n o t e j u n d e r r e p l y , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e f o r me t o a c q u i e s c e i n a l l o f the p r o p o s a l s made b y y o u o n b e h a l f o f t h e C a n a d i a n government. I t r u s t t h a t y o u w i l l f i n d i n t he s t a t e m e n t made h e r e i n p r o d f o f t h e e a r n e s t d e s i r e o f t h e i m p e r i a l government t o promote b y e v e r y means w i t h i n t h e i r power, the g r o w t h and s t a b i l i t y o f t h e . c o r d i a l and m u t u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l r e l a t i o n s w h i c h e x i s t b e t w e e n o u r c o u n t r i e s . I v e n t u r e t o b e l i e v e a l s o t h a t t h i s d e s i r a b l e r e s u l t w i l l be f o u n d to have b e e n m a t e r -i a l l y a d v a n c e d by t h e f u l l e xchange o f v i e w s w h i c h h a s t a k e n p l a c e b e t w e e n u s , and i t g i v e s me s p e c i a l p l e a s u r e t o acknowledge t h e o b l i g a t i o n u n d e r w h i c h I have b e e n p l a c e d b y y o u r f r a n k and c o n -s i d e r a t e e x p l a n a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e a t t i t u d e and w i s h e s o f y o u r government. I a v a i l m y s e l f & c , & c , T a d a s u H a y a s h i The H o n o u r a b l e R o d o l p h e Lemieux, P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l a n d M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r f o r Canada, T o k i o Canada, House o f Commons, D e b a t e s , 1907-1908, pp. 2 0 k 0 - 2 0 k l . - 136 -APPENDIX X I O r d e r o f H e r M a j e s t y i n C o u n c i l  A d m i t t i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t o t h e U n i o n S e c t i o n I Canada s h a l l be l i a b l e f o r the d e b t s and l i a b i l i t i e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e x i s t i n g a t t h e t i m e o f t h e U n i o n . S e c t i o n I I B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n o t h a v i n g i n c u r r e d d e b t s e q u a l t o t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s now c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e D o m i n i o n , s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i v e , b y h a l f - y e a r l y p a y m e n t s , i n a d v a n c e f r o m t h e G e n e r a l Government, i n t e r e s t a t the r a t e o f f i v e p e r c e n t p e r annum on t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a c t u a l amount o f i t s i n d e b t e d -n e s s a t t h e d a t e o f t h e U n i o n , and t h e i n d e b t e d n e s s p e r h e a d o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Nova S c o t i a and New B r u n s w i c k (27.77 d o l l a r s ) , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e i n g t a k e n a t 60,000, S e c t i o n I I I The f o l l o w i n g sums s h a l l be p a i d b y Canada t o B r i t i s h C o l -u m bia f o r the s u p p o r t o f i t s Government and l e g i s l a t u r e , t o w i t , an a n n u a l s u b s i d y o f 3 5»QOO d o l l a r s , and a n a n n u a l g r a n t e q u a l t o 80 c e n t s p e r h e a d o f s a i d p o p u l a t i o n o f 60,000, b o t h h a l f - y e a r l y i n a d vance, s u c h g r a n t o f 80 c e n t s p e r h e a d t o be augmented i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i n c r e a s e o f p o p u l a t i o n , as may be shown b y e a c h s u b s e q u e n t d e c e n n i a l c e n s u s , u n t i l t h e p o p u l a t i o n amounts t o h00,000, a t w h i c h r a t e s u c h g r a n t s h a l l t h e r e a f t e r r e m a i n , i t b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e f i r s t c e n s u s be t a k e n i n t h e y e a r l 8 8 l . Canada, Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t and  Amendments,- 1867-19J4-3, pp. 161-162 - 137 -APPENDIX X I I I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Conference., 1906 L e t t e r f r o m Lomer G o u i n t o R i c h a r d M c B r i d e H o n o u r a b l e R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , Prime M i n i s t e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . D e a r S i r , I am i n s t r u c t e d b y t h e I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l C o n f e r e n c e t o acknowledge the r e c e i p t o f y o u r l e t t e r o f t h e 13th i n s t a n t , s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e p o s i t i o n assumed b y y o u towar d s i t s , and, i n answer, t o s t a t e as f o l l o w s : The R e s o l u t i o n t o w h i c h y o u r e f e r and w h i c h was a d o p t e d on t h e day y o u a d d r e s s e d y o u r l e t t e r t o me, r e a d s t h u s : " T h a t , I n v i e w o f t h e l a r g e a r e a , g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n "and v e r y e x c e p t i o n a l p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h " C o l u m b i a , i t i s the o p i n i o n "of t h i s C o n f e r e n c e t h a t the s a i d " P r o v i n c e s h o u l d r e c e i v e a r e a s o n a b l e a d d i t i o n g . 1 a l l o w a n c e f o r t h e "p u r p o s e o f C i v i l Government i n e x c e s s o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s made i n " t h e Quebec R e s o l u t i o n s o f 1902, and t h a t s u c h a d d i t i o n a l a l l o w a n c e " s h o u l d be t o the e x t e n t o f one h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y " f o r t e n y e a r s . " T h i s R e s o l u t i o n shows d i s t i n c t l y t h a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e r e c o g -n i z e d t h e c l a i m o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r e x c e p t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t . I am s p e c i a l l y d i r e c t e d t o add t h a t i t was p a s s e d a f t e r a l l the d a t a p r e s e n t e d b y y o u h a d b e e n f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d . I h a v e t h e h o n o u r t o be, S i r , Y o u r s r e s p e c t f u l l y , LOMER GOUIN C h a i r m a n o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e . D o m i n i o n P r o v i n c i a l and I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l C o n f e r e n c e s f r o m 1887 t o  1826, Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1951, PP« 62-63. - 1 3 8 -APPENDIX X I I I . B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , 1 9 0 7 7 Edward V I I , C h a p t e r 1 1 An A c t t o make f u r t h e r p r o v i s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e sums t o be p a i d b y C a n a d a to the s e v e r a l P r o v i n c e s o f t h e D o m i n i o n . 1 . ( l ) The f o l l o w i n g g r a n t s s h a l l be made y e a r l y b y C a n a d a t o e v e r y p r o v i n c e , w h i c h a t the commencement o f t h i s A c t i s a p r o v i n c e o f t h e D o m i n i o n , f o r i t s l o c a l p u r p o s e s and the s u p p o r t o f i t s Gov-ernment and L e g i s l a t u r e : -(a) A f i x e d g r a n t -where t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e i s u n d e r one h u n d r e d and f i f t y t h o u s a n d , o f one h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s ; where t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e i s one h u n d r e d and f i f t y t h o u s a n d , b u t does n o t e x c e e d two h u n d r e d t h o u -s a n d , of. one h u n d r e d and f i f t y t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s ; where t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e i s two h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d , b u t does n o t e x c e e d f o u r h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d , o f one h u n d r e d and e i g h t y t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s ; where t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e i s f o u r h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d , b u t does n o t e x c e e d e i g h t h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d , o f one hun-d r e d and n i n e t y t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s ; where t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e i s e i g h t h u n d r e d t h o u -s a n d , b u t does n o t e x c e e d one m i l l i o n f i v e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d , o f two h u n d r e d and t w e n t y t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s ; i where t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e e x c e e d s one m i l l i o n f i v e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d , o f two h u n d r e d and f o r t y t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s ; and (b) S u b j e c t t o the s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t as t o t h e p r o -v i n c e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , a g r a n t a t t h e r a t e o f e i g h t y c e n t s p e r h e a d o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e up t o t h e number o f two m i l l i o n f i v e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d , a n d a t t h e r a t e o f s i x t y c e n t s p e r h e a d o f so much o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n as e x c e e d s t h a t number. (2) A n a d d i t i o n a l g r a n t o f one h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s s h a l l be made y e a r l y to t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r a p e r i o d o f t e n y e a r s f r o m t h e commencement o f t h i s A c t . (3) The p o p u l a t i o n o f the' p r o v i n c e s h a l l be a s c e r t a i n e d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e i n t h e c a s e o f t h e p r o v i n c e s of M a n i t o b a and S a s k a t -chewan, and A l b e r t a r e s p e c t i v e l y by the l a s t q u i n q u e n n i a l c e n s u s o r s t a t u t o r y e s t i m a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n made u n d e r th e A c t s e s t a b l i s h i n g t h o s e p r o v i n c e s o r any o t h e r A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t o f C anada making p r o -v i s i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e , and i n t h e c a s e o f any o t h e r p r o v i n c e b y t h e l a s t d e c e n n i a l c e n s u s f o r t h e time b e i n g . (k) The g r a n t s p a y a b l e u n d e r t h i s A c t s h a l l be p a i d h a l f -y e a r l y i n advance t o e a c h p r o v i n c e . ( 5 ) The g r a n t s p a y a b l e u n d e r t h i s A c t s h a l l be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e g r a n t s o r s u b s i d i e s ( i n t h i s A c t r e f e r r e d t o as e x i s t i n g g r a n t s ) p a y a b l e f o r t h e l i k e p u r p o s e s a t the commencement o f t h i s A c t t o t h e s e v e r a l p r o v i n c e s o f the D o m i n i o n , u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f . s e c t i o n one h u n d r e d and e i g h t e e n o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , 1867, o r o f any O r d e r i n C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h i n g d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e p a y -ment o f any s u c h g r a n t o r s u b s i d y , and t h o s e p r o v i s i o n s s h a l l c e a s e t o h a v e e f f e c t . (6) The Government o f Canada s h a l l have t h e same power o f d e d u c t i n g sums c h a r g e d a g a i n s t a p r o v i n c e on a c c o u n t o f the i n t e r e s t o n p u b l i c d e b t i n t h e c a s e o f t h e g r a n t p a y a b l e u n d e r t h i s A c t t o t h e p r o v i n c e as t h e y have, i n t h e c a s e o f t h e e x i s t i n g g r a n t . (7) N o t h i n g i n t h i s A c t s h a l l a f f e c t . t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f the Government o f Canada t o p a y to any p r o v i n c e any g r a n t f o r w h i c h th e g r a n t u n d e r t h i s A c t i s s u b s t i t u t e d . (8) I n t h e c a s e o f t h e p r o v i n c e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , t h e amount p a i d on a c c o u n t o f t h e g r a n t p a y a b l e p e r h e a d o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o t h e p r o v i n c e s u n d e r t h i s A c t s h a l l n o t a t any t i m e be l e s s t h a n t h e amount o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g g r a n t p a y a b l e a t t h e commencement o f t h i s A c t ; and i f i t i s f o u n d o n any d e c e n n i a l c e n s u s t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e h a s d e c r e a s e d s i n c e t h e l a s t d e c e n n i a l c e n s u s , t h e amount p a i d on a c c o u n t o f the g r a n t s h a l l n o t be d e c r e a s e d b e l o w t h e amount t h e n p a y a b l e , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e d e c r e a s e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . 2. T h i s A c t may be c i t e d as t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , 1907, a n d s h a l l t a k e e f f e c t as f r o m t h e f i r s t day o f J u l y n i n e t e e n h u n d r e d and s e v e n . C a nada, Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t and  Amendments, l867-19k3, pp. 79-81. ' ' - IkO -APPENDIX XIV An A c t t o C o n s o l i d a t e and Amend t h e A c t s R e s p e c t i n g t h e D u t i e s o f Customs 17. When t h e customs t a r i f f o f any c o u n t r y a d m i t s the p r o d u c t s o f Canada o n terms w h i c h , on t h e w h o l e , a r e as f a v o u r a b l e t o Canada as t h e t e r m s o f t h e r e c i p r o c a l t a r i f f h e r e i n r e f e r r e d t o a r e t o t h e c o u n t r i e s t o w h i c h i t may a p p l y , a r t i c l e s w h i c h a r e t h e g r o w t h , p r o -d u c e , o r m a n u f a c t u r e o f s u c h c o u n t r y , when i m p o r t e d d i r e c t t h e r e f r o m , may t h e n be e n t e r e d f o r d u t y , - o r t a k e n o u t o f warehouse f o r consum-p t i o n i n Canada, a t t h e r e d u c e d r a t e s o f d u t y p r o v i d e d i n t h e r e c i -p r o c a l t a r i f f s e t f o r t h i n s c h e d u l e D t o t h i s A c t . 2. Any q u e s t i o n a r i s i n g as t o t h e c o u n t r i e s e n t i t l e d t o t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e r e c i p r o c a l t a r i f f s h a l l be d e c i d e d b y t h e C o n t r o l l e r o f Customs, s u b j e c t t o t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . 3. The G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may e x t e n d t h e b e n e f i t s o f the r e c i p r o c a l t a r i f f t o any c o u n t r y e n t i t l e d t h e r e t o by v i r t u e o f a t r e a t y w i t h H e r M a j e s t y . k. The C o n t r o l l e r o f Customs may make s u c h r e g u l a t i o n s as a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r c a r r y i n g o u t t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s e c t i o n . SCHEDULE D R e c i p r o c a l T a r i f f On a l l t h e p r o d u c t s o f c o u n t r i e s e n t i t l e d t o the b e n e f i t s o f t h i s R e c i p r o c a l T a r i f f , u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f s e c t i o n s e v e n t e e n , t h e d u t i e s m e n t i o n e d i n s c h e d u l e A s h a l l be r e d u c e d as f o l l o w s : On a n d a f t e r t h e t w e n t y - t h i r d o f A p r i l , 1897, u n t i l t h e t h i r t i e t h day o f J u n e , I 8 9 8 , I n c l u s i v e , t h e r e d u c t i o n s h a l l i n e v e r y c a s e be o n e - e i g h t h o f t h e d u t y m e n t i o n e d i n s c h e d u l e A, and t h e d u t y t o be l e v i e d , c o l l e c t e d and p a i d s h a l l be s e v e n - e i g h t h s o f the d u t y m e n t i o n e d i n s c h e d u l e A. On and a f t e r t h e f i r s t day o f J u l y , 1898, t h e r e d u c t i o n s h a l l i n e v e r y c a s e be o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e d u t y m e n t i o n e d i n s c h e d u l e A, and t h e d u t y t o be l e v i e d , c o l l e c t e d and p a i d s h a l l be t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e d u t y m e n t i o n e d i n s c h e d u l e A. P r o v i d e d , however, t h a t t h e s e r e d u c t i o n s s h a l l n o t a p p l y t o any p f t h e f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s , a n d t h a t s u c h a r t i c l e s s h a l l i n a l l c a s e s be s u b j e c t t o t h e d u t i e s m e n t i o n e d i n s c h e d u l e A, v i z . : - w i n e s , m a l t -l i q u o r s , s p i r i t s , s p i r i t u o u s l i q u o r s , l i q u i d m e d i c i n e s and a r t i c l e s c o n t a i n i n g a l c o h o l ; s u g a r , m o l a s s e s and s y r u p s o f a l l k i n d s , t h e p r o -d u c t o f t h e s u g a r cane o r b e e t r o o t ; t o b a c c o , c i g a r s and c i g a r e t t e s . Canada, Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , The Customs T a r i f f , 1897, c h a p t e r 16, 1897, p p . 85-132. - l k l APPENDIX XV F i s c a l R e q u e s t s o f t h e W e s t e r n F a r m e r s ' D e l e g a t i o n t o - O t t a w a , December, 1910 1. T h a t we s t r o n g l y f a v o u r r e c i p r o c a l f r e e t r a d e between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n a l l h o r t i c u l t u r a l , f u e l , a g r i c u l -t u r a l a n d a n i m a l p r o d u c t s , s p r a y i n g m a t e r i a l s , f e r t i l i z e r s , i l l u -m i n a t i n g , f u e l and l u b r i c a t i n g o i l s , cement, f i s h and l u m b e r . . 2. R e c i p r o c a l f r e e t r a d e b e t w e e n the two c o u n t r i e s i n a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l i m p l e m e n t s , m a c h i n e r y , v e h i c l e s and p a r t s o f e a c h o f t h e s e ; and, i n t h e e v e n t o f a f a v o u r a b l e a r r a n g e m e n t b e i n g r e a c h e d , i t be c a r r i e d i n t o e f f e c t t h r o u g h t h e i n d e p e n d e n t a c t i o n o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e Governments r a t h e r t h a n b y t h e h a r d and f a s t r e q u i r e -ments o f a t r e a t y . 3 . We a l s o f a v o u r t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e B r i t i s h p r e f e r e n t i a l t a r i f f , and u r g e a n immediate l o w e r i n g o f t h e d u t i e s on a l l B r i t i s h goods t o o n e - h a l f t h e r a t e s c h a r g e d u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l t a r i f f s c h e -d u l e , w h a t e v e r t h a t may,be and t h a t any t r a d e a d v a n t a g e s g i v e n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n r e c i p r o c a l t r a d e r e l a t i o n s be e x t e n d e d t o G r e a t B r i t a i n . k. F o r s u c h f u r t h e r g r a d u a l r e d u c t i o n o f t h e r e m a i n i n g p r e -f e r e n t i a l t a r i f f as w i l l e n s u r e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o m p l e t e f r e e t r a d e b e t w e e n Canada and t h e M o t h e r l a n d w i t h i n t e n y e a r s . 5. T h a t t h e f a r m e r s o f t h i s c o u n t r y a r e w i l l i n g t o f a c e d i r e c t t a x a t i o n , i n s u c h f o r m as may be a d v i s a b l e , t o make up the r e v e n u e r e q u i r e d u n d e r new t a r i f f c o n d i t i o n s . J . C a s t e l l H o p k i n s , The C a n a d i a n A n n u a l Review, 1910, p . 3 3 k . >- l k 2 -FOOTNOTES C h a p t e r I  L a u r i e r L i b e r a l i s m 1. W i l f r i d . L a u r i e r , L e c t u r e o n P o l i t i c a l L i b e r a l i s m , 26 June 1877. Q u e b e c , / M o r n i n g Chronicle, 1877> p . 10. [ 2. J . M. S. C a r e l e s s , Brown o f t h e G l o b e , T o r o n t o , The M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada, 1959, v o l . I , pp. 110-111. 3 . D a l e C. Thomson, A l e x a n d e r M a c k e n z i e , C l e a r G r i t , T o r o n t o , The M a c m i l l a n Company of. Canada, I 9 6 0 , p. 1 1 5 . k. W i l f r i d L a u r i e r , I b i d . , p . 1 2 . 5. I b i d . , p . 16. 6 . O s c a r D o u g l a s S k e l t o n , L i f e and L e t t e r s o f S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r , New Y o r k , The C e n t u r y Company, 1922, V o l . I , p p . 1 1 3 - 1 1 8 . 7. J o h n W i l l i s o n , R e m i n i s c e n c e s , P o l i t i c a l and P e r s o n a l , T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t , 1919, p . 1 5 7 . 8. J o h n S. W i l l i s o n , S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r , a n d the L i b e r a l P a r t y , T o r o n t o , George N. Morang & Company, 1903, V o l . 2, p . 3 5 5 . 9. O f f i c i a l R e p o r t o f t h e L i b e r a l C o n v e n t i o n h e l d i n R e s p o n s e t o 'the C a l l o f Hon. W i l f r i d L a u r i e r , Ottawa, June 2 0 t h and June 2 1 s t , 1893, T o r o n t o , B u dget P r i n t i n g & P u b l i s h i n g Co., I b 9 3 , P r e f a c e . 10. I b i d . , p . 2 5 11. F o r f u l l t e x t o f t h e r e s o l u t i o n s as p a s s e d a t t h e c o n v e n t i o n see A p p e n d i x I , p p . 117-121. 12. O f f i c i a l R e p o r t o f the L i b e r a l C o n v e n t i o n . . . , I b i d , p . 7 2 . 1 3 . E r n e s t J . Chambers, e d . , The C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y G u i d e , 1910 Ottawa, M o r t i m e r Company L t d . , 1910, p . 2 k l . l k . O s c a r D. S k e l t o n , I b i d . , V o l . I I , p . 11 1 5 . I b i d . , p . 5 . - Ik3 -Chapter II  Federal Party Organization 16 Robert MacGregor Dawson, The Government of Canada, 3d ed rev., Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 19k7, p. 512. 17 J. C a s t e l l Hopkins, The Canadian Annual Review of Public  A f f a i r s , 190k, Toronto, The Annual Review Publishing Col, Ltd., 190k, p. 233. 18 John Lederle, "The Li b e r a l Convention of 1893," Canadian  Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, XVI : 5 l February, 1950. 19 William Templeman was born i n Ontario i n l 8 k k . In 1867 he established the AlmonteGazette and i n l 8 8 k he moved to V i c t o r i a , B.C. where he founded The Times newspaper. He was defeated i n the federal elections of 1891 and 1896 as a Liberal candidate. In 1897 he was appointed to the Senate and i n 1902 named Minister without P o r t f o l i o i n the Cabinet. In 1906 he was appointed Minister of Inland Revenue and i n 1907 Minister of Mines when that department was created. From: The Canadian Who's Who, 1910, pp. 220-221. 20 S i r W i l f r i d Laurier to William Templeman, January 1.9, 190k, PAC, Laurier Papers Relating to B. C. UBC Microfilm, Reel 3 , p. 80983A. 21 Templeman to Laurier, October 28, 1903, Ibid., Reel 3 , pp. 79860-79861, 22 Ibid., p. 79862. 33 Hewitt Bostock was born and educated i n England and came to Canada i n 1893. After considerable t r a v e l l i n g he sett l e d i n B. C. and founded The Province newspaper i n V i c t o r i a . He was elected as a L i b e r a l to the federal house i n 1896. In 1902, after his r e t i r e -ment from active p o l i t i c s , he was appointed Senator. From: The Canadian Who's Who, 1910, p..22 2k Hewitt Bostock to Laurier, June 7, 1896, Ibid., Reel 1, p. k32&, 25 John Oliver was born i n 1856 i n England. His family moved to Ontario and i n 1877 John moved to B.C. He se t t l e d on a farm i n Delta and was elected to the B.C. Legislature i n 1900, 1903, and 1907 on the L i b e r a l t i c k e t . He became p r o v i n c i a l leader of the L i b e r a l party i n 1907 but was defeated i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of 1909. He resigned the party leadership i n favour of H. C. Brewster and tempo-r a r i l y withdrew from p o l i t i c s . By 1916 he had again taken up p o l i t i c s and was elected for Dewdney and became Minister of Agriculture and Railways for B.C. under Premier Brewster. After Brewster's death i n 1918 he became Premier of the Province. From: James Morton, Honest John Oliver, London, J. M. Dent and Sons Ltd., pp. 269-270. - l k k -26 L a u r i e r t o J o h n O l i v e r , A u g u s t 31, 1909, I b i d . , R e e l 5, p . 1591888. 27 F o r f u l l d e t a i l s as t o membership i n a p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s e e A p p e n d i x I I , pp. 122 - 1 2 3 , C o n s t i t u t i o n and R e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e B. C. L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n ... 1907. 28 B o s t o c k t o Laurier,' ; F e b r u a r y 21, 1895, I b i d . , R e e l 1, p . 3603. 29 R i c h a r d Low D r u r y was b o r n and e d u c a t e d i n O n t a r i o . When he moved t o V i c t o r i a he was P r o v i n c i a l Manager o f the M u t u a l L i f e o f Canada, and a g e n t i n B.C. f o r t h e T o r o n t o and B. C. Lumber Co. He was d e f e a t e d i n t h e 1900 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s b u t e l e c t e d i n 1903 t o the B.C. L e g i s l a t u r e as a L i b e r a l . From: The C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y G u i d e , 1905, p . k 3 2 . 30 R. L . D r u r y t o L a u r i e r , F e b r u a r y 21, 1898, I b i d . , R e e l 1, p . 20795. 31 Angus , V i c t o r i a , B.C. t o Templeman, F e b r u a r y 8 , 1910, PAC, L a u r i e r P a p e r s , S e r i e s A, C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , M i c r o f i l m , R e e l 888 pp. 1 6 7 1 k ° - 1 6 7 1 k l . ( T h i s l e t t e r was b a d l y damaged so t h a t t h e s i g n a t u r e was i l l e g i b l e . ) 32 B o s t o c k t o L a u r i e r , J u n e 7, 1896, PAC, L a u r i e r P a p e r s R e l a t i n g  t o B.C., UBC M i c r o f i l m R e e l 1, .p. 1+328. 33 R o b e r t George M a c p h e r s o n was b o r n i n O n t a r i o and moved t o New W e s t m i n s t e r i n 1888. I n 1895 he moved t o V a n c o u v e r a n d o p e r a t e d a d r u g b u s i n e s s . I n 1903 and 190k he was e l e c t e d as a L i b e r a l to t h e House o f Commons. He was a p p o i n t e d p o s t m a s t e r a t V a n c o u v e r i n 1908. From: Who's Who i n W e s t e r n Canada, 1911, p . I k 6 . 3k R. G. M a c p h e r s o n t o L a u r i e r , September k, 1908, I b i d . , R e e l 5, p . I k k 2 3 9 . 35 M o n t r e a l J u n i o r B o a r d o f Trade , ' R e p o r t o f t h e Committee o n  the S u r v e y o f C a n a d i a n - P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s , Mimeo., 1931, p . 21. 36 L a u r i e r t o B o s t o c k , December 9, I 8 9 8 , I b i d . , R e e l 1, pp. 28531-28532. 37 O l i v e r to L a u r i e r , J une 15, 1909, I b i d . , R e e l 5 , p . 157000. 38 Duncan Ross was b o r n i n O n t a r i o i n 1870. A f t e r he moved t o B.C. he s e t t l e d i n Greenwood where he p u b l i s h e d The B o u n d a r y C r e e k Times. He was a c t i v e i n c i v i c a f f a i r s and i n 190k was e l e c t e d to t h e House o f Commons t o r e p r e s e n t the Y a l e - C a r i b o o d i s t r i c t . From: C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y G u i d e , 1905, p . 11+5. 39 L a u r i e r t o O l i v e r , June 22, 1909," I b i d . , p . 157002 kO J . S. D a f o e , L a u r i e r , a S t u d y o f C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c s , T o r o n t o , Thomas A l l e n , c. 1922, p . 52. - I k 5 -C h a p t e r I I I P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y O r g a n i z a t i o n k l F o r S e c t i o n 11 o f Her M a j e s t y ' s O r d e r i n C o u n c i l a d m i t t i n g  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada s e e A p p e n d i x I I I , , p. 12k. k2 The D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , J a n u a r y 5 , I 8 7 6 , p . 2. k3 E d g a r P a c k a r d Dean, "How Canada has V o t e d : 1867 t o 1 9 k 5 , " C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l Review, 3 0 : 2 k l , 19k9, kk D a l e C. Thomson, A l e x a n d e r M a c K e n z i e , p . 12k. k5 I b i d . , pp. 12k-125". k6 F r e d e r i c k C o a t e Wade was b o r n i n O n t a r i o i n i 8 6 0 . I n h i s y o u t h he was an e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r f o r b o t h t h e T o r o n t o D a l l y G l o b e and the M a n i t o b a F r e e P r e s s . He was c a l l e d t o t h e M a n i t o b a b a r i n 1886 and was most a c t i v e i n L i b e r a l a f f a i r s i n M a n i t o b a . He s e r v e d as l e g a l a d v i s e r t o the Y u k o n C o u n c i l i n 1898. He moved to V a n c o u v e r i n 1907 and i m m e d i a t e l y j o i n e d t h e L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n 1909 he was d e f e a t e d i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n . From: The C a n a d i a n Who's Who, 1910, p . 229. k7 F. C. Wade t o L a u r i e r , J a n u a r y 17, 1909, I b i d . , R e e l 5, pp. 151570-151582. k8 M a l c o l m Cameron was b o r n i n S c o t l a n d . He s e t t l e d n e a r S a r n i a , O n t a r i o , i n 1833 and b e g a n t o s p o n s o r s e t t l e m e n t o f S c o t t i s h f a r m e r s . He p r o s p e r e d i n t h e l u m b e r b u s i n e s s and b y l 8 k 7 was t h e l e a d i n g c i t i -z en o f the a r e a . He became an a c t i v e R e f o r m e r and was a member o f the L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y o f Upper Canada. I n l 8 k 9 he r e s i g n e d f r o m t h e government s i n c e he o p p o s e d George Brown and he a l l i e d h i m s e l f w i t h The G r i t s . He r e e n t e r e d p o l i t i c s i n l 8 5 l and became p r e s i d e n t o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . He was now i n o p p o s i t i o n t o A l e x a n d e r M a c K e n z i e as w e l l . From: D a l e C. Thomson, A l e x a n d e r M a c K e n z i e , p p. 23-2k. k9 The D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , November 10, I87O, p . 2 . ,. 50 George R i l e y was b o r n i n O n t a r i o i n l 8 k 3 . He moved t o ^ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1885 where he e n t e r e d the b u s i n e s s w o r l d . De-f e a t e d i n t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1900 he was e l e c t e d i n 1902 and r e - e l e c t e d i n 190k. He r e s i g n e d i n 1906 f r o m t h e House o f Commons and was a p p o i n t e d S e n a t o r t o r e p l a c e Templeman. From: Who's Who i n W e s t e r n Canada, 1911, p . 323. 5 l M a c p h e r s o n t o L a u r i e r , F e b r u a r y 6, 1906, I b i d . , R e e l 3, 1 p . 106857. 52 L a u r i e r t o M a c p h e r s o n , F e b r u a r y 8, 1906, I b i d . , p . 106858. - Ik6 -53 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , L e g i s l a t i v e  E l e c t o r a t e s a n d E l e c t i o n s , chap. 26, 189)+' An A c t f o r t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t o E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t s chap. 3b, 1898. An A c t f o r the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t o E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t s , chap. 58, 1902. 5k The D a i l y B r i t i s h . C o l o n i s t , September 2 0 , 1871, p . 2 . 55 I b i d . , J u l y 2 5 , 1878, p . 3 . 56 E d i t h D o b i e , "Some a s p e c t s o f P a r t y H i s t o r y i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia, 1871-1903," P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w, I n o . 2 : 2 k 2 , 1932. 57 The V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t , O c t o b e r 22, 1 8 8 5 , p . 2 . 58 F o r t h e c o m p l e t e p a r t y p l a t f o r m as a d o p t e d and r e p o r t e d i n The S t a n d a r d s e e A p p e n d i x - I V , p . 1 2 5 . 59 Dr. George Lawson M i l n e was b o r n i n S c o t l a n d i n 1 8 5 0 . He came t o Canada I n 1857 a n d t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1880 where he b e g a n h i s c a r e e r as a d o c t o r i n V i c t o r i a . He t o o k an a c t i v e p a r t i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s and was a member o f the B. C. L e g i s l a t u r e f r o m 1890-I89k. I n 1896 he was d e f e a t e d i n the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . From: Who's Who i n W e s t e r n Canada, 1911, p . 285. 60 B o s t o c k t o L a u r i e r , September 2 0 , 1897, I b i d . , R e e l 1, p . l 6 9 5 k . 61 V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t , O c t o b e r 6, 1897, p . 3 . 62 F o r t h e L i b e r a l p l a t f o r m a s a d o p t e d a t t h e c o n v e n t i o n a t New W e s t m i n s t e r , O c t o b e r 8 and 9 , 1897, see A p p e n d i x V, 126-127. 63 C h a r l e s A. S e m l i n was b o r n i n O n t a r i o i n I 8 3 6 . He came t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1862 t o p r o s p e c t i n t h e C a r i b o o g o l d f i e l d s . He p u r c h a s e d l a n d a t Cache C r e e k i n I87O. I n 1871 he was e l e c t e d t o the B. C. house b u t was d e f e a t e d i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s o f 1875 and I 8 7 8 . He was r e e l e c t e d i n 1882 and h e l d o f f i c e c o n t i n u o u s l y u n t i l 1900. I n 1903 he r e t i r e d f r o m p o l i t i c s . From: F. W. Howay and E. 0. S. S c h o l e f i e l d , B. C. f r o m the e a r l i e s t  t i m e s t o t h e p r e s e n t , V a n c o u v e r , S. J . C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g C o l , 191k» v o l . IV, p. 879. 6k F o r f u l l t e x t o f t h e C i r c u l a r from, t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n P a r t y see A p p e n d i x V I , pp. 128-129. 65 C A. S e m l i n , Pamphlet i s s u e d b y C. A. S e m l i n , C h a i r m a n  O p p o s i t i o n , C i r c u l a r f r o m t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n  P a r t y , n.d., P r e a m b l e . 66 J o s e p h M a r t i n was b o r n i n O n t a r i o i n 1852. He moved t o M a n i t o b a i n 1882 where he was c a l l e d t o the b a r . From 1883 t o 1892 he was a member o f the M a n i t o b a l e g i s l a t u r e . As A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l i n 1890 he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e M a n i t o b a S c h o o l A c t w h i c h a b o l i s h e d - Ik7 -s e p a r a t e s c h o o l s . I n 1897 he moved to B. C. a n d was s o o n e l e c t e d t o the B. C. l e g i s l a t u r e and b e c a m e . A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l a n d P r e m i e r . I n 1909 he r e t i r e d f r o m B. C. p o l i t i c s and moved to L ondon, E n g l a n d , and was e l e c t e d t o the B r i t i s h House o f Commons i n 1910. He r e t u r n e d t o Canada i n 1911. FromS. The C a n a d i a n Who's Who, 1910, pp. I k 9 - l 5 0 . 67 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , M a r c h 7, 1900, p. 5» 68 I b i d . , December 16, 1901 . 69 George R i t c h i e M a x w e l l was b o r n i n S c o t l a n d i n 1857. He was e d u c a t e d i n Glasgow, where he became a m i n i s t e r o f the P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h . He came t o Canada i n 1885 where he was p a s t o r i n s e v e r a l Quebec p a r i s h e s . I n 1890 he moved t o V a n c o u v e r and was e l e c t e d t o t h e House o f Commons i n 1896 and a g a i n i n 1900 as a L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e . Prom: C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y Guide, . 1 9 0 1 , p . 108. 70 F o r t h e p a r t y p l a t f o r m as a d o p t e d a t t h e L i b e r a l C o n v e n t i o n h e l d i n V a n c o u v e r , J a n u a r y 30, 1902, see A p p e n d i x V I I , pp. 130-131. 71 James M o r t o n , H o n e s t J o h n O l i v e r , p . k7 • 72 R a l p h S m i t h was b o r n i n E n g l a n d i n l 8 5 8 . He came to C a n a d a i n 1892. He h a d worked i n the N e w c a s t l e c o a l m ines f r o m the age o f e l e v e n a n d h a d worked up t o a n o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n b e f o r e he l e f t E n g l a n d . On h i s a r r i v a l i n Canada he became the a g e n t f o r B. C. c o a l m i n e r s . I n 1898 he was e l e c t e d t o the B. C. l e g i s l a t u r e and e l e c t e d t o t h e f e d e r a l h o u s e i n 1900, 190k, and 1908. He was a s t a u n c h L i b e r a l s u p p o r t e r as w e l l as a l a b o u r l e a d e r . From: C a n a d i a n Who's Who, 1910, p . 211. 73 W. W. B. M c l n n e s was b o r n i n B r i t a i n i n 1871. He came w i t h h i s f a m i l y t o B. C. a t a n e a r l y age and was c a l l e d t o the b a r i n 1893. I n I 8 9 6 he was e l e c t e d t o t h e House o f Commons b u t r e s i g n e d i n 1900 and e l e c t e d t o t h e B. C. l e g i s l a t u r e where he r e m a i n e d a member u n t i l 1905. From 1905 t o 1907 he was C o m m i s s i o n e r t o the Yukon. He was d e f e a t e d i n t h e 1907 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s and a g a i n i n t h e 1908 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . S h o r t l y a f t e r h i s s e c o n d d e f e a t he was named a j u d g e . From: Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , I b i d . , v o l . IV, p . 110k. 7k L a u r i e r t o W. W. B. M c l n n e s , F e b r u a r y 2L, 1902, I b i d . , R e e l 2, p . 62628. 75 L a u r i e r t o M a r t i n , F e b r u a r y 21, 1 9 0 2 , , I b i d . , p . 62667. 76- H e n r i J o l y de L o t b i n i ^ r e t o Edmond L o t b i n i e r e , May 23, 1902, L e t t e r s o f S i r J o l y de L o t b i n i ^ r e 1901-1906, PABC M i c r o f i l m . 77 C h a r l e s L u g r i n was b o r n i n New B r u n s w i c k i n l 8 k 9 where he was most a c t i v e i n p o l i t i c s . H i s i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s t u r n e d h i m t o e d i t o r i a l work f i r s t i n S a i n t J o h n , t h e n i n S e a t t l e , and f i n a l l y - Ik8 i n V i c t o r i a . He moved t o . V i c t o r i a i n 1897 to e d i t The C o l o n i s t h u t he r e s i g n e d i n 1902 when Dunsmuir b o u g h t t h e c o n t r o l l i n g i n t e -r e s t . He became a v e r y a c t i v e L i b e r a l and a l s o w o r k e d i n c i v i c a f f a i r s . He r e t u r n e d t o The C o l o n i s t i n 1906 where he r e m a i n e d u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1917. From: D a i l y C o l o n i s t , J u l y 22, 1951, M a g a z i n e S e c t i o n , p . 11; December 7, 1958, M a g a z i n e S e c t i o n , p. 11. 78 L a u r i e r to C h a r l e s H. L u g r i n , O c t o b e r 13, 1903, I b i d . , R e e l 2, p p . 77539-77541. 79 J . A. M a c d o n a l d was b o r n i n O n t a r i o i n 1858. He moved t o R o s s l a n d i n 1896 t o p r a c t i c e law. I n 1903 he was e l e c t e d t o t h e B. C. l e g i s l a t u r e and was e l e c t e d l e a d e r o f the O p p o s i t i o n . He r e s i g n e d i n 1909 t o become C h i e f J u s t i c e . From: Who's Who i n W e s t e r n Canada, 1911, p . 2k7. 80 S i r H e n r i J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e t o Edmond L o t b i n i e r e , J a n u a r y 17, 190k, I b i d . 81 I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 11, 190k. 82 B o s t o c k t o L a u r i e r , J u l y 18, 1906, I b i d . , R e e l k, P- 113250. 83 E. A. Haggen t o L a u r i e r , A u g u s t 13, 190k, I b i d . , R e e l 3 , p . 88985. 8k C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n a n d R e s o l u t i o n s  a d o p t e d by C o n v e n t i o n o f B. C. L i b e r a l s , V a n c o u v e r , O c t o b e r 1, 2, 3 , 1907, p. 5-85 F o r a c o m p l e t e c o p y o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n as a d o p t e d see A p p e n d i x V I I I , p. 132. 86 L a u r i e r t o Templeman, November 10, 1908, I b i d . , R e e l 5 , p . Ik7231. 87 F o r p h o t o g r a p h s o f c a r t o o n s o f O l i v e r ' s r a i l w a y p o l i c y see plate 2., p. <Sc. 88 L a u r i e r t o O l i v e r , O c t o b e r 22, 1909, I b i d . , R e e l 5, p . 16087k. 89 Wade t o L a u r i e r , November 27, 1909, I b i d . , p . 169871. 90 J o h n J a r d i n e ' was b o r n i n S c o t l a n d i n 185k. He went t o V i c t o r i a i n 188k a f t e r a b r i e f s t a y i n U. S. A. By t r a d e he was a house p a i n t e r . He was d e f e a t e d i n t h e 1903 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s b u t was e l e c t e d i n 1907. A l t h o u g h o r i g i n a l l y o f L i b e r a l p h i l o s o p h y he became an a r d e n t s u p p o r t e r o f M c B r i d e and moved a c r o s s the House i n 1911. From: Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , I b i d . , v o l . IV, p . kk. - Ik9 -91 H a r l a m C a r e y B r e w s t e r was b o r n i n New B r u n s w i c k i n l 8 ? 0 . I n B. C. he became manager o f a c a n n e r y . A f t e r O l i v e r ' s d e f e a t i n 1909 he became l e a d e r o f the O p p o s i t i o n and i n 1916 was t h e f i r s t L i b e r a l p r e m i e r t h a t the p r o v i n c e h a d h a d s i n c e a c c e p t i n g p a r t y government. Prom: Who's Who i n W e s t e r n Canada, 1911, p . 118. 92 James M o r t o n , H o n e s t J o h n O l i v e r , p . 109. C h a p t e r IV Some P r o b l e m s i n F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s  1896-1911: F e d e r a l A p p o i n t m e n t s 9 3 Templeman t o L a u r i e r , F e b r u a r y k, 189k, I b i d . , R e e l 1 , pp. 3570-3571. 9k B o s t o c k to L a u r i e r , June 26, 1896, I b i d . , p . k726. 9 5 Canada, D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , Canada 1 9 5 1 , Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 1 , p. 5 5 . 96 A u l a y M o r r i s o n was b o r n i n Nova S c o t i a i n 1863. He was a d m i t t e d t o the b a r i n H a l i f a x i n 1888 and l e f t f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h o r t l y a f t e r . He s e t t l e d i n New W e s t m i n s t e r and i n 1896 and 1900 was e l e c t e d t o t h e House o f Commons f r o m t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r c o n -s t i t u e n c y . I n 190k he was a p p o i n t e d to the Supreme C o u r t a s P u i s n e judge and i n 1909 was named C h i e f J u s t i c e . From: V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 27, 19k2j The C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y  G u i d e , 1901, p . 110. 97 L a u r i e r t o A u l a y M o r r i s o n , J a n u a r y 2k, 1902, I b i d . , R e e l 2, p . 61637. 9 8 L a u r i e r t o Templeman, December 2 1 , 1903, I b i d . , R e e l 3, p . 79867. " 9 9 I b i d . , J a n u a r y 19, 190k, R e e l 3, pp. 80983-80983A. 100 Duncan Ross t o L a u r i e r , A u g u s t 16, 1905, I b i d . , R e e l % pp. 1006kk-1006k5. 101 The V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , J a n u a r y 3, 1906, p . 8 . 102 L a u r i e r t o G. G. S. L i n d s a y , December 1 7 , 1908, I b i d . , R e e l 5, p. Ik766l. 1 0 3 W i l l i a m S l o a n was b o r n i n O n t a r i o i n I867 . He moved to V i c t o r i a i n 1867, t h e n t o V a n c o u v e r and f i n a l l y s e t t l e d i n Nanaimo. He was d e f e a t e d i n t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1900 b u t e l e c t e d i n 1901J. and a g a i n i n 1908 when he r e s i g n e d i n f a v o u r o f Hon. W i l l i a m Temple-man. He was L i b e r a l o r g a n i z e r f o r V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d f o r a t i m e and T r e a s u r e r o f t h e B. C. L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n . From: Who's Who i n W e s t e r n Canada, 1911, p . 3 k k . - i5o -10k The C o l o n i s t , J a n u a r y 2 , 1909. 105 R o b e r t A. Mackay, The U n r e f o r m e d S e n a t e o f Canada, London, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1926, p . 17k. 106 I b i d . , p.. 207. 107 C a n a d a , Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t and  Amendments, l 8 6 7 - 1 9 k 3 , Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 19k3» p p . 1 6 3 , 8 3 . 1 0 8 Thomas R. M c l n n e s was b o r n i n Nova S c o t i a i n l 8 k 0 . He g r a d u a t e d w i t h h i s M.D. f r o m R u s h M e d i c a l S c h o o l i n C h i c a g o . F o r a s h o r t time he s e r v e d o n t h e m e d i c a l s t a f f o f t h e C o n f e d e r a t e Army d u r i n g t h e A m e r i c a n C i v i l War, a f t e r w a r d s he r e t u r n e d t o C a nada t o l i v e i n O n t a r i o . I n 1 8 7 4 n e moved t o New W e s t m i n s t e r where he was e l e c t e d Mayor i n l 8 7 7 « I n 1 8 7 9 he was e l e c t e d t o t h e House o f Commons as ah I n d e p e n d e n t c a n d i d a t e . He was named t o t h e S e n a t e i n l 8 8 l and a p p o i n t e d L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r o f B. C. by L a u r i e r i n 1 8 9 7 . He was d i s m i s s e d f r o m o f f i c e i n 1 9 0 0 and moved t o V a n c o u v e r . He r a n f o r a s e a t i n t h e House o f Commons i n a 1 9 0 3 b y - e l e c t i o n b u t was d e f e a t e d . From: Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , I b i d . , v o l . IV, pp. 1116-1118. 1 0 9 Templeman t o W i l l i a m M a c K e n z i e , O c t o b e r 20, 1 8 9 7 , I b i d . , R e e l 1 , pp. 1 7 2 9 2 - 1 7 2 9 3 . 1 1 0 G r a n d F o r k s L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n t o L a u r i e r , A u g u s t 2 , 1 9 0 1 , I b i d , . . R e e l 2 , pp. 5 7 8 6 7 - 5 7 8 6 8 . 1 1 1 M o r r i s o n to L a u r i e r , September 25, I 8 9 6 , I b i d . , R e e l 1, p . 7 k 6 6 1 1 2 G o r d o n H u n t e r was b o r n i n O n t a r i o i n I 8 6 3 . He was c a l l e d t o t h e b a r i n 1888 and moved t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1 8 9 1 where he b e -came' t h e f i r s t l a w r e p o r t e r t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f the p r o v i n c e . I n M a r c h , 1 9 0 2 , he was named C h i e f J u s t i c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B e f o r e c o m i n g t o the p r o v i n c e he h a d h e l p e d t o o r g a n i z e t h e Young Men's L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n T o r o n t o i n 1 8 8 7 . From: The C a n a d i a n Who's Who, 1910, p . 1 1 2 . 113 H. D a l l a s Helmcken t o L a u r i e r , December 1 , 1 8 9 7 , I b i d . , R e e l 1 , p . 1 8 5 0 3 . I l k Angus J o h n M c C o l l was b o r n i n O n t a r i o i n J 1 8 9 5 and was c a l l e d t o the b a r i n O n t a r i o i n 1 8 7 5 . I n I 8 7 8 he went t o W i n n i p e g where he p r a c t i s e d f o r f o u r y e a r s b e f o r e coming t o B. C. i n 1 8 8 2 . He f i r s t went i n t o p r a c t i s e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r and l a t e r , i n I 8 9 6 , moved t o R o s s l a n d . He was a p p o i n t e d a j u s t i c e o f the Supreme C o u r t o f t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1 8 9 6 and i n 1 8 9 8 he s u c c e e d e d Hon. T h e o d o r e D a v i s as C h i e f J u s t i c e . He d i e d i n 1 9 0 2 . From: Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , I b i d . , v o l . IV, pp. k55-k56. 115 A r c h e r M a r t i n was b o r n i n O n t a r i o i n 1 8 6 5 . He p r a c t i s e d l a w f i r s t i n M a n i t o b a and t h e n , o n m o v i n g t o B. C , was c a l l e d to t h e b a r i n 1 8 9 5 . He s e r v e d as l e g a l a d v i s e r on s e v e r a l government com-m i s s i o n s and i n 1 9 0 2 was a p p o i n t e d Judge i n A d m i r a l t y f o r B. C. - 151 -S e v e r a l l e g a l t r e a t i s e s ahd. h i s t o r i c a l works were w r i t t e n b y him. Prom: Who's Who i n W e s t e r n Canada, 1911, p . 259. 116 M o r r i s o n t o L a u r i e r , A u g u s t 2k, 1898, I b i d . , R e e l 1, pp. 259k3-259kk. 117 E d i t h D o b i e , "Some a s p e c t s o f P a r t y H i s t o r y i n B. C , 1871-1903," P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l Review, I no. 2 :236 T 1932. 118 J o h n S a y w e l l , The O f f i c e o f L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r , T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Press,, 1957, p . 21. 119 . Templeman t o M c K e n z i e , November 22, 1896, I b i d . , R e e l 1, p p . 8 7 k l - 8 7 k 6 . 120 N e l s o n E c o n o m i s t , A u g u s t 11, 1897, i n L a u r i e r P a p e r s R e l a t i n g  t o B. C., UBC M i c r o f i l m , R e e l 1, p . 17310 . • 121 J o h n H. T u r n e r was b o r n i n E n g l a n d i n 183k. He f i r s t m i g r a t e d t o H a l i f a x , N.S., i n 1856 and t h e n moved t o P.E.I, f o r a s h o r t t i m e . F i n a l l y , i n 1862, he s e t t l e d , i n B.C. where he became a merchant and i n s u r a n c e a g e n t . He was a member o f t h e C i t y C o u n c i l and t h e n Mayor o f V i c t o r i a f r o m I872-I882. He was e l e c t e d t o t h e B.C. l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1886, 1890, and 189k and o n t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f T h e o d o r e D a v i e t o the C h i e f J u s t i c e s h i p , he became p r e m i e r i n 1895. I n I898 a f t e r a s t o r m y s e s s i o n he was d i s m i s s e d b y L i e u t e n a n t -G o v e r n o r M c l n n e s . He a c c e p t e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f M i n i s t e r o f - F i n a n c e , and Agriculture i n t h e Dunsmuir m i n i s t r y i n 1900 f r o m w h i c h he r e -s i g n e d i n 1901 t o become B. C. A g e n t - G e n e r a l i n London. From: C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y G u i d e , 1897, pp. 377; 1905, p. k26 . 122 Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , T u r n e r to M c l n n e s , 16, A u g u s t 9 , 1898. 123 R o b e r t Beaveri was b o r n i n " E n g l a n d i n I 8 3 6 . He was t a k e n t o C a nada as a y o u n g boy and came t o B.C. i n 1857 t o seek g o l d i n t h e C a r i b o o . He moved t o V i c t o r i a i n 1866 where he became a c l o t h i e r a nd r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t . From 1867 t o 1872 he was C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n d s and Work's i n t h e c o l o n y ; f r o m 1878 t o 1882 B.C. M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e and A g r i c u l t u r e . He was p r e m i e r f o r a y e a r i n 1882 and t h e n became l e a d e r o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n f o r e l e v e n y e a r s . I n 1892 t o 1893, 1896, he was mayor o f V i c t o r i a . From: D a i l y C o l o n i s t , F e b r u a r y 29, 19k8, p . 7. 12k L a u r i e r t o Templeman, September l k , 1899, I b i d , , R e e l 1, p . 37k07. ' 125 See A p p e n d i x IX, pp. 133-13k, f o r P r o v i n c i a l R i g h t s  A s s o c i a t i o n M e m o r i a l . T h i s i s t y p i c a l o f the c r i t i c i s m s e n t f r o m B. C. t o L a u r i e r . 126 Templeman t o L a u r i e r , A u g u s t 10, 1898, I b i d . , R e e l 1, p p . 25669-25670. - 1 5 2 -127 J o h n T. S a y w e l l , I b i d . , p. 1 3 8 . 128 L a u r i e r to D r u r y , June 2 1 , 1 9 0 0 , I b i d . , R e e l 2 , p . k 6 k 9 5 . 129 Duncan J . Munn was b o r n i n P r i n c e E d w ard I s l a n d . In. 1 8 9 3 he moved t o B.C. where he engaged i n m e r c h a n d i s i n g a n d t r a d i n g . He a l s o became i n t e r e s t e d , i n the f i s h c a n n i n g b u s i n e s s . I n 1 9 0 0 he was a member o f the R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on A s i a t i c i m m i g r a t i o n . From: Howay a n d S c h o l e f i e l d , I b i d . , v o l . IV, p . 5 7 1 . 130 L a u r i e r t o D. J . Munn, June 2 1 , 1 9 0 0 , I b i d . , R e e l 2 , pp. k 6 6 2 2 - k 6 6 2 3 . 1 3 1 Templeman t o L a u r i e r , F e b r u a r y 1 2 , 1 9 0 k , I b i d . , R e e l 3, p . 8 1 8 3 3 . 1 3 2 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 1 2 , 1 9 0 6 , p . 8 . 1 3 3 L a u r i e r t o Templeman, September 1 6 , 1 9 0 5 , I b i d . , R e e l 3 , pp. 1 0 1 2 8 k - 1 0 1 2 8 5 . 1 3 k L a u r i e r t o James Dunsmuir, F e b r u a r y 1 8 , 1 9 0 2 , I b i d . , R e e l 2 , p . 6 2 5 9 0 . 1 3 5 Jame s Dunsmuir was b o r n i n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e i n 1 8 5 1 . He was b r o u g h t t o C anada a t an e a r l y age'where he r e c e i v e d h i s e d u c a t i o n , H i s f a t h e r , R o b e r t Dunsmuir, was i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company a t Nanaimo. He l a t e r went i n t o t h e c o a l m i n i n g b u s i n e s s f o r h i m s e l f . James worked i n t h e f a m i l y c o a l mines i n o r d e r t o f a m i l i a r i z e h i m s e l f w i t h t h e whole p r o c e s s . He was p r e s i d e n t o f the W e l l i n g t o n C o l l i e r y Co. a n d a l s o o f the E s q u i m a l t and Nanaimo r a i l w a y . I n 1 8 9 8 he was f i r s t e l e c t e d t o the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g i s l a t u r e and i n 1 9 0 0 he became p r e m i e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e w h i c h p o s i t i o n he h e l d u n t i l 1 9 0 2 . On May 1 1 , 1 9 0 6 , he was a p p o i n t e d L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r by L a u r i e r and he r e s i g n e d i n 1 9 0 9 . From: The C o l o n i s t , June 1 9 , . 1 9 1 0 ; The C a n a d i an Who' s Who, 1 9 1 0 , p. 6 9 . 1 3 6 F r a n c i s J o h n Deane was b o r n i n I n d i a i n 1 8 6 8 . He was e d u c a t e d i n E n g l a n d and B e l g i u m and came t o B. C. i n 1 8 8 9 . He was a member o f t h e B.C. L e g i s l a t u r e f r o m 1 8 9 8 t o 1 9 0 0 . He was an e d i t o r a n d p u b l i s h e r i n C r a n b r o o k and Kamloops. I n 1 9 0 0 he was a p p o i n t e d s e c r e t a r y o f the R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r o b l e m o f A s i a t i c i m m i g r a t i o n . From: Who's Who i n W e s t e r n Canada, 1911, p . 1 5 7 . 1 3 7 F. J . Deane t o Templeman, December 8 , 1 9 0 7 , I b i d . , R e e l k, pp. I33k86 - 1 3 3 4 8 7 . 1 3 8 L a u r i e r t o O l i v e r , June 28, 1 9 0 9 , I b i d . , R e e l 5 , p . 1 5 7 1 9 6 . - 153 -139 Thomas W i l s o n P a t e r s o n was b o r n I n S c o t l a n d i n l 8 5 l . He came t o Canada as a boy and was e d u c a t e d i n O n t a r i o . I n 1885 he moved t o B. C. as c o n t r a c t o r f o r t h e E s q u i m a l t & Nanaimo R a i l w a y . He a l s o worked on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Shu swap an d Okanagan r a i l w a y and b u i l t the V i c t o r i a and Sydney l i n e . He was e l e c t e d t o t h e B. C. l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1902 and 1903 as the member f r o m n o r t h V i c t o r i a . I n December, 1909, he was a p p o i n t e d L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r o f t h e p r o v i n c e w h i c h p o s i t i o n he h e l d u n t i l 191k. From: Who's Who i n W e s t e r n Canada, 1911, pp. 30k-305,* V i c t o r i a  C o l o n i s t , A u g u s t 30, 1921. IkO C l i f f o r d S i f t o n t o L a u r i e r , O c t o b e r 19, 1909, I b i d , . R e e l 5, p . 161113. C h a p t e r V Some Problems i n F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s 1896-1911: A s i a t i c I m m i g r a t i o n l k l M a r g a r e t A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : a H i s t o r y , The M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada, 1958, pp. 127; 131. I k 2 James D o u g l a s t o Edward B u l w e r L y t t o n , A u g u s t 19, 1858, P a p e r s R e l a t i n g t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C0/60, UBC M i c r o f i l m , R e e l 1, p . 87. I k 3 D o u g l a s t o N e w c a s t l e , A p r i l 23, i 8 6 0 , I b i d , R e e l 7, p . 206. l k k Canada, Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t and  Amendments l 8 6 7 - 1 9 k 3 , pp. k9 -50 ; 53. I k 5 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , An A c t R e l a t i n g t o  an A c t t o make b e t t e r P r o v i s i o n f o r t h e Q u a l i f i c a t i o n a n d R e g i s t r a t i o n  o f V o t e r s , no. 2, 1875, P. 13. I k 6 C h a r l e s J . Woodsworth, Canada and the O r i e n t , T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada, 1 9 k l , p . 29. Ik7 Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, D e b a t e s , 188k, p . 1287. I k 8 Canada, R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on C h i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n , R e p o r t , 1885, pp. x c i - x c i i . Ik9 Canada, Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , An A c t t o R e s t r i c t and R e g u l a t e  C h i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada, I 8 8 5 , c h a p t e r 71, pp. 207-212. 150 Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , R e p o r t o f the R o y a l  Commission on C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n , no. Sk> 1902, p . 7. 151 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , An A c t t o amend the  P r o v i n c i a l V o t e r s A c t , c h a p t e r 20, 1895, p . 73. - 15k -1^2 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , An A c t t o C o n s o l i d a t e  and Amend the Law R e l a t i n g t o E l e c t o r s a n d E l e c t i o n s i n M u n i c i - p a l i t i e s , c h a p t e r 38, I896, P. 289. 153 S i r W i l l i a m Van Horne to J . C. McLagan, J u l y 17, 1896, I b i d , . R e e l 1, p . 57k8. 151+ E a r l G r e y t o L a u r i e r , O c t o b e r k, 1906, G r e y o f Howlck P a p e r s , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r , PAC M i c r o f i l m , R e e l 1, p . 000323. 155 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , An A c t R e l a t i n g t o  t h e Employment o f C h i n e s e o r J a p a n e s e p e r s o n s o n Works c a r r i e d on  u n d e r F r a n c h i s e g r a n t e d by P r i v a t e A c t s , c h a p t e r 1, 1897, PP. 3-k. 156 I b i d . , c h a p t e r 28, 1898, pp. 139-lkO. 157 M a r t i n t o L a u r i e r , J a n u a r y 17, 1899, I b i d . , R e e l 1, p . 29731. 158 Canada, Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , An A c t R e s p e c t i n g and R e s t r i c t i n g  C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n , c h a p t e r 32, 1900, p . 215. 159 T r a d e s and L a b o r C o u n c i l o f B. C. t o G. R. M a x w e l l , May 21, 1900, I b i d . , R e e l 2, p p . k6l92-k6l93. 160 L a u r i e r t o B o s t o c k ^ June 29, 1900, I b i d . , R e e l 2, p. k6956. 161 Roger C l u t e was Queen's C o u n s e l f r o m T o r o n t o . He was named as c h a i r m a n o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e Immi-g r a t i o n . From: J.CHbj»Kmf ? af.The C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s , 1901,j>.4l{ 162 S. S h i m i z u t o L a u r i e r , November 20, 1900, I b i d . , R e e l 2 p . 51282. 163 C h r i s t o p h e r F o l e y was b o r n i n O n t a r i o . He e m i g r a t e d t o t h e w e s t c o a s t where he m i n e d f o r g o l d f r o m M e x i c o t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . He became a b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r i n V a n c o u v e r b u t moved t o R o s s l a n d t o e n t e r the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y a n d became an a c t i v e u n i o n l e a d e r t h e r e . I n 1900 he was named t o the R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n . A f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n he moved b a c k t o V a n c o u v e r where he was a c t i v e i n t h e B u i l d i n g L a b o u r e r s ' U n i o n . He a l s o t o o k p a r t i n the f o r m a t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y . From: Thomas R o b e r t Loosemore, The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L a b o r Movement  and P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n , 1879-1906, M.A. T h e s i s i n the D epartment o f H i s t o r y , U.B.C., 195k, pp. 135* 165. 16k Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l  C o m m i s s i o n o n C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e Immigration"! no. 5k, 1902, p . 279. 165 I b i d . , pp. "399-kOO. • - 155 -166 B r i t i s h Columhia, Laws, Statutes, etc., An Act to Regulate  Immigration into B r i t i s h Columbia, chapter 11, 1900, p. 36. 167 Shimizu to Laurier, March 7, 1901, Ibid., Reel 2, pp. 53980-53982. 168 Canada, Parliament, Sessional Papers, no. 7kb, 1907-8, pp. 66; 70. 169 Charles J. Woodsworth, Ibid., p. 65. 170 Laurier to Macpherson, July 26, 1907, Ibid.., Reel 2, pp. 53980-53982. 171 Charles J. Woodsworth, Ibid., p. 73 . 172 Thomas Robert Loosemore, Ibid., p. i l k . 173 Laurier to Macdonald, October 29, 1907, Ibid., Reel k, pp. 130367-130368. 17k Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, Debates, 1907-1908, pp. 2 0 k 0 - 2 0 k l ; For f u l l text of l e t t e r see Appendix X, p. 135. 175 J. C a s t e l l Hopkins, The Canadian Annual Review of Public  A f f a i r s , 1908, p. 5 k l . 176 Macdonald to Templeman, January 2k, 1908, Ibid., Reel 5 , p. 135856. 177 Laurier to Frederick Peters, Feburary l k , 1908, Ibid., Reel 5 , p. 136161. . 178 Laurier to Macdonald, November 2, 1908, Ibid., p. Ik6k03. Chapter VI Some Problems i n Federal-Provincial Relations 1 1896-1911: Better Terms 179 See Appendix X I , pi 136, f o r sections 1 - 3 of the Order i n Council Admitting B r i t i s h Columbia into the Union. 180 B r i t i s h Columbia,. L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, Sessional Papers, Comparative Statement of the Receipts and Expenditures of the Pro- vince of B r i t i s h Columbia, Table no. 1, 2. 1899. PP . 516A-516B. 181 J. A. Maxwell, Federal Subsidies to the Provincial Governments  i n Canada, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1937, p. 91. .182 Harold Percival Johns, B r i t i s h Columbia's Campaign for Better  Terms, 1871-1907, M.A. Thesis i n the Department of History, U. B. C. 1935, -P. ?-k. - 156 -183 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , R e p o r t o f t h e D e l e g a t i o n t o Ottawa, 1 9 0 1 , p . 56k~«~ l 8 k J . H. T u r n e r t o L a u r i e r , J a n u a r y k, 1 8 9 7 , I b i d . , R e e l 1 , p . 1 0 6 7 2 . 185, H. p . Johns, I b i d . , p . k7. 186 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , I b i d . , 1901, p . 56k. 187 J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e to L a u r i e r , O c t o b e r 31, 1 9 0 1 , I b i d . , R e e l 2 , p . 5 9 6 3 8 . 188 I b i d . , November 1 8 , 1 9 0 1 , pp. 6 0 0 2 5 - 6 0 0 2 6 . 189 James Dunsmuir t o L a u r i e r , J a n u a r y 7, 1 9 0 2 , I b i d . , R e e l 2 , p p . 6133k; 6 1 3 3 8 . 190 L a u r i e r to Dunsmuir, J a n u a r y 2 2 , 1 9 0 2 , I b i d . , R e e l 2 , p . 6 l 3 k 2 . 191 Edward Gawler P r i o r was b o r n i n E n g l a n d i n 1 8 5 3 . He t r a i n e d as a m i n i n g e n g i n e e r and e m i g r a t e d t o V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d i n 1873 where he became m i n i n g e n g i n e e r ( and s u r v e y o r f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r C o a l M i n i n g and L a n d Company. He became government I n s p e c t o r of M i n e s i n I 8 7 8 b u t r e s i g n e d i n 1880 t o become a hardware m e r c h a n t . From 1886-1888 he was a member o f t h e B.C. L e g i s l a t u r e ; I 8 8 8 - I 8 9 6 he was a Con-s e r v a t i v e member f r o m B.C. t o t h e House o f Commons. I n 1896 he became B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s f i r s t c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r as C o n t r o l l e r o f I n l a n d Revenue. From November, 1902 to May 31, 1 9 0 3 , he was P r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . From: The C a n a d i a n Who's Who, 1910, p . 188,. 192 D a v i d McEwen E b e r t s was b o r n i n O n t a r i o i n 1 8 5 0 . He moved t o V i c t o r i a i n 1878 and was c a l l e d t o the b a r i n 1 8 8 0 . He was f i r s t e l e c t e d t o t h e B.C. L e g i s l a t u r e i n 1890 and r e e l e c t e d i n l 8 9 k , 1900, and 1 9 0 7 . From 1895-1898 and a g a i n f r o m 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 0 3 he was A t t o r n e y -G e n e r a l . He was s p e a k e r of t h e B.C. L e g i s l a t u r e i n M c B r i d e ' s g overnment a f t e r 1907. -From: Who's Who, i n W e s t e r n Canada, 1911 , p . 1 6 8 . 193 E. V. B o d w e l l to J . A. L i n d s a y , December 13, 1 9 0 2 , I b i d . , R e e l 2, p . 6912k . 19k B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1 9 0 3 , K3. 195 I b i d . , K7. 196 I b i d . , K 6 . 197 Canada, Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , An A c t t o Amend the C h i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n A c t , 1 9 0 0 , C h a p t e r 5 , 1 9 0 2 , p . 6 7 . - 157 -198 L a u r i e r t o M c B r i d e , J a n u a r y k,. 190k, I b i d . , R e e l 3, p . 8 0 6 k k . 199 P r o v i n c i a l R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o L a u r i e r , J a n u a r y 11, 1905, I b i d . , R e e l 3 , p . 9 3 6 1 5 . 200 Templeman t o L a u r i e r , November 2 9 , 1 9 0 5 , I b i d . , R e e l 3, p . 1 0 3 7 9 1 . 201 PrfinrgR Han-ny r.a^n-h was b o r n i n O n t a r i o i n 1858. He was c a l l e d t o t h e b a r i n O n t a r i o i n 1889 and t h e n moved t o B r i t i s h C o l -u m b i a where he was c a l l e d i n 1 8 9 3 . He was d e f e a t e d i n t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s o f 1896 b u t e l e c t e d i n 1908 as a C o n s e r v a t i v e member. He w r o t e the a r t i c l e o n t h e C h i n e s e q u e s t i o n i n Canada f o r the C a n a d i a n E n c y c l o p a e d i a and t h e p a m p h l e t o n B e t t e r Terms. Prom: C a n a d i a n Who's Who. 1910, P. 5 l 202 George H. Cowan, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c l a i m u p o n t h e D o m i n i o n  Government f o r B e t t e r Terms, V a n c o u v e r , The I n d e p e n d e n t P r i n t i n g Co., 190k, p . 28. 203 D o m i n i o n P r o v i n c i a l and I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l C o n f e r e n c e s from  1887 t o 1926, Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1951, P. 60. 20k See A p p e n d i x X I I , p. 137, f o r l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o P r e m i e r M c B r i d e b y Lomer G o u i n , C h a i r m a n o f t h e Quebec C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 0 6 . 205 J . C a s t e l l H o p k i n s , The C a n a d i a n Annual R e v i e w o f P u b l i c  A f f a i r s , 1 9 0 6 , p . 522. 206 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1 9 0 8 , p . C12 . 207 See A p p e n d i x X I I I , p p. 1 3 8 - 1 3 9 , f o r B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , 1 9 0 7 . 208 M a c d o n a l d t o L a u r i e r , O c t o b e r 11, 1 9 0 7 , I b i d . , R e e l k, p . 1 3 0 3 6 1 . 209 L a u r i e r t o M a c d o n a l d , October 29] 1937, I b i d . , R e e l k, p . 130367. 210 C a n a d a , Laws, S t a t u t e s , e t c . , An A c t f o r g i v i n g e f f e c t on  the 1 p a r t o f t h i s P r o v i n c e , t o a c e r t a i n T r e a t y between Her M a j e s t y  and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , Cap. I , 185k. 211 See A p p e n d i x I , pp. 117-121, f o r R e s o l u t i o n s p a s s e d a t t h e N a t i o n a l L i b e r a l P a r t y C o n v e n t i o n , I 8 9 3 . 212 Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, D e b a t e s , A p r i l 11, 1 8 9 0 . 213 Edward P o r r i t t , S i x t y Y e a r s o f P r o t e c t i o n i n Canada, l 8 k 6 - 1 9 0 7 , L o n d o n , M a c m i l l a n and C o l , 1 9 0 8 , p . 3 8 2 . 21k . See A p p e n d i x XIV, p. IkO, f o r s e c t i o n 17 and. S c h e d u l e D o f The Customs T a r i f f , 1897. - 1^8 -215 See A p p e n d i x IV, p . 125, f o r P l a t f o r m o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l P a r t y , 1887. 216 B o s t o c k t o L a u r i e r , A p r i l lk,/ 1 8 9 8 , I b i d . , R e e l 1, p . 22k9k. 217 J o h n S p e n c e r C h u r c h , M i n i n g Companies i n the West K o o t e n a y  and Boundary R e g i o n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1890-1900, M.A. T h e s i s i h t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y , U.B.C., 1961, p . 75. 218 K o o t e n a y L a k e Lumbermen t o L a u r i e r , M a r c h 5» 1899, I b i d . , R e e l 1, p . 31696. 219 John S p e n c e r C h u r c h , I b i d . , p. 18. 220 L a u r i e r t o R a l p h S m i t h , P e b u r a r y 16, 1901, I b i d . , R e e l . 2, p . 53k50. 221 D a v i d S m i t h C u r t i s was b o r n i n Ohio i n 1856. He was e d u c a t e d i n O n t a r i o and came t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 187k. 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