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The married woman in employment -- an exploratory study of how her employment affects the woman, and… Bardal, Margret Stefania 1956

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THE MARRIED WOMAN IN EMPLOYMENT An Exploratory Study of how her Employment Affects the Woman, and her Relationship with her Family, and the Community by MARGRET STEFANIA BARDAL ENA ROSS ROGERSON MARGARET BEATON DICK Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1956 The University of British Columbia i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. The Married Woman in a Changing Society Page Historical review of the place of the woman in the family and in the community. The contemporary situation of the married woman in employment. The social significance of these developments. Aims of present project as related to the national survey conducted by Women's Bureau, Department of Labour, Ottawa. Method of survey, and i t s limitations 1 Chapter 2. The Married Woman with Dependent Children Her home responsibilities, Her employment. Reasons for working. Arrangements for child care. Gains and Losses............. 18 Chapter 3. The Married Woman without Dependent Children Employment - past and present. Reasons for working, financial and psychological. Effect on marital relationship. Gains and losses... • 30 Chapter 4. The ferried Woman who i s Chief Breadwinner Family and household constellations. Employment. Care of children. Gains and losses 42 Chapter 5. The Married Woman Working - Pros and Cons Effect of her employment on her role as parent, wife. Community implications 57 Appendices A. Information sought by the schedule. 31 B. Table 16 - Women's participation in the Labour Force of Canada, 1931-1951..82 C. Occupational categories as used in the study......... $3 D. Bibliography... 84 TABLES IN THE TEXT Table 1. Family Constellation (in cases where both parents are employed). 18 Table 2. Dependent children (in cases where both parents are employed).,. 18 Table 3. Occupations of Women (in cases where both parents are employed). 19 Table 4. Family Constellation (in cases of childless couples) 30 Table 5. Education and employment training (in cases of childless couples) 31 Table 6. Entry into the Labour Force (in cases of childless couples) 32 Table 7. Family constellation (in handicapped families)...... 43 Table 8. Children in the handicapped families • 43 i i i Page Table 9. Education and employment training (in handicapped families) • 46 Table 10. Period of Entry into Labour Force (in handicapped families)....•••••••••••*•.•.•*..••••••••••••••.« .. • • 47 Table 11. Income and occupational grade (in handicapped families)..... 4$ Table 12. Ways and means of supplementing income (in handicapped families) •• 49 Table 13* Family constellation of total families 57 Table 14. Dependent children of total families 58 Table 15. Income and occupational grade of total group ••• 58 iv ABSTRACT The proportion of women in the Canadian labour force has grown steadily in recent decades. Many of these, however, are younger women who retire from gainful employment after marriage. Married women who work are a special section of the population; they have been the subject of social studies in several countries, but not so far in Canada. This thesis i s a supplementary study, influenced by the nation-al survey of married women who are gainfully employed now being undertaken (1956) by the Women's Bureau of the Canadian Department of Labour. The facts reviewed in this present report are obtained from only f i f t y of the women Interviewed in one of the sample cities (Vancouver); but the oppor-tunity has been taken to make them the basis of a l l the pros and cons of the situation, including the reasons for working, the types of work, and the effects on family l i f e . The schedule used for the interviews is a standardized, compre-hensive one worked out with the assistance of a national advisory committee including the research directors of the Schools of Social Work in Canada,, Only a minimum of statistical tabulation is undertaken for this limited sample; a few other schedules obtained from university students were added, and there is no intention to present the information as statistically representative. A systematic review of the qualitative material i s attempt-ed, however, to illustrate the differentials which must be considered in a definitive assessment. After experiment with other classifications, i t was found most effective to distinguish three main groups (a) families composed of husband and wife without children (or younger dependents); (b) "complete" families with husband and wife and children in the home, and (c) "broken" families, in which the working mother was a widow, separated or divorced, or with dependent or partially dependent husband. The significance of these differ-ences i s readily apparent from the views recorded. It was also apparent that the socio-economic differences associated with different levels of income and grade of work (e.g., profes- . sional, clerical, service, factory) are of direct importance in modifying the consequences for the family; but these could only be indicated i l l u s -tratively. In a final section, an endeavour is made to bring together a l l provisional findings, distinguishing broadly the implications (a) for the woman as a person and as a marital partner, (b) for the children, and paren-tal aspects of family l i f e , and (c) for the community as a whole. V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to express our thanks to a l l those whose interest and active help have made this study possible* We particularly acknowledge the help of the Women's Bureau for the preparation of the Questionnaire and sampling; to the women who participated so warmly in the interviews; and to the following persons for direction, criticism and counsel, Dr. Leonard Marsh, and Mr. Michael Wheeler. THE MARRIED WOMAN IN EMPLOYMENT CHAPTER 1 THE MARRIED WOMAN IN A CHANGING SOCIETY "The family as a social institution i s not only universal now, but i t has been a universal feature of a l l human societies".! This is a widespread view confirmed by anthropologists. One measure of the different cultural changes to which i t is subjected may be found in the personal and social relations between the two sexes, and especially in the changing concepts of the role and status of the woman. The historical developments that have most clearly affected the role of the woman are the Industrial Revolution, the enormous ex-pansion of wage-paid work and later of service occupations, increasing urbanization, and the two world-wars. It is against this background that the social phenomenon of the married woman working for pay needs to be considered. North American society includes a great variety of family patterns, but on the whole the pattern has been a continuation from the dominant English culture known as Victorianism. One of the strongest influences in this tradition represented a blend of puritan and chivalrous ideology the power of the individual husband exalted at the expense of the freedom and personalities of other members of the family, with compensatory satisfaction for the woman found in the cult of idealized feminine purity. 1. Jacobs, M. & St;ern B., General Anthropology, Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1947. - 2 -Prior to World War 1, the majority of married women accepted the fact that "woman's place was in the home". Early Christian teaching influenced this thinking. The Book of Proverbs (31:27) contains a descrip-tion of what was then considered the ideal wife, "She looketh well to the ways of her household, and eateth not the bread of idleness". The many and varied tasks in the home kept body and mind occupied and at the same time gave her status. Towards the end of the nineteenth century such beliefs were challenged as new and radical ideas were presented in the realm of science and politics, and as new opportunities for employment opened up for women. The great moving force behind these changes was the Industrial Revolution and the rapid spread of the factory system. This gave women opportunities for employment outside the home; tasks such as spinning, weaving, and garment making were gradually shifted from the home to factory. As women became more independent financially, marriage was less economically necessary. The increased freedom and leisure of women in the upper classes encouraged the activist-woman-movement, concerned not only with the status of women but with humanitarian ideals; at the same time, in the working classes the new industrial structure led to impersonal exploitation of women through low wages and long hours of work, and i t i s noteworthy that these two streams of development have persisted, in modi-fied foims, throughout the course of women's social and economic emancipation. As a result of these social and economic changes, Western society has seen a major shift in the nature and function of the family: - 3 -"The large kinship family has given place to the small conjugal family. The family i s no longer a producing unit, or a major educational one. The main trend i s i n the direction of individualism". 1 What forces have operated i n Canada to produce changes i n the family patterns leading to the employment of women outside the home? The main forces may be summarized as those of economics, technology, and education. F i f t y years ago, Canada's economy was essentially agri-cultural. Today, i t i s a highly industrialized economy as a result of mechanization, f a c i l i t y of communication and transportation, concen-tration of population i n c i t i e s rather than rural areas - a l l of which has been accelerated by two world wars. What has happened i n this transition i s largely the response of family structure to industrial urban c i v i l i z a t i o n . With the change i n the family structure, the individual has been freed from the economic and social control of the kinship family and has the privilege of setting his or her own goals. Mechanization on a large scale has influenced the a c t i v i t i e s of the home as well as industry. New e l e c t r i c a l l y operated appliances and processing of foods and clothing materials f a c i l i t a t i n g household tasks, meant a reduction i n the amount of energy required for performance of these tasks. Production of synthetic materials, such as plasties, nylon, and dacron, at f i r s t necessary i n war, later speeded the intro-duction of these products into peacetime use; these have played a s i g n i f i -cant part i n lightening the daily household routine. 1. The Chronicle, Nov. 1955-56, Canadian Federation of University Women. Report on address given by Marion V. Royce, Director of the Women's Bureau, Dept. of Labour, Ottawa. - 4 -Technological developments are increasing; also transportation and coiamunicationsj and, together with the increased production of goods and multiplicity of services, jobs and more jobs have opened up for women. Our expanding economy calls for an increasing number of women i n office employment to operate comptometers, telephone switchboards, dictaphones, typewriters, etc. Prior to the beginning of the twentieth century, since woman's place was considered to be i n the home, education was primarily f o r men. 141th the emancipation of women, development of roles outside the home necessitated more specific education and training. Before the 1914-18 War, slight changes were noticeable; women had entered the teaching and nursing professions, were employed i n offices and l i b r a r i e s , as well as domestic service. Before they obtained the right to vote (1919), i n principle, women had equal opportunities with men i n education and employment, but i n r e a l i t y i t was seldom recognized u n t i l after World War 11. Women's struggle for recognition i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the case of Clara Brett Martin, f i r s t woman barrister i n The Br i t i s h Empire, who was called to the Bar of Ontario i n 1897. Miss Martin had f i r s t to fight to get the legislature to pass an act to allow her to become enrolled as a student s o l i c i t o r and ultimately to practice as a s o l i c i t o r . It was necessary for Miss Martin to convince not only men lawyers prac-ti c i n g then, but also legislators, a l l of whom were men, that women should be allowed to choose and practise a profession, but that i t was f a i r and just that women who came before the courts should be able to be represented by women, i f they so desired.^ 1. Hyndman, Margaret P., et a l . Department Broadcasts Six Talks About Women i n Employment. The labour Gazette. Vol. L1V, No. 3, 1954, p.380. Dept. of Labour, Ottawa. - 5 -It is due to the persistent efforts of such women as Miss Martin and organized groups of women that recognition has been obtained for women in labour forces. The most recent developments are clerical and sales occupationsj equal pay for equal work; opening of the professions (law, architecture); women's services in the armed forces, etc. One of the earliest pieces of legislation passed on behalf of women were Minimum Wage Acts; this legislation was based on the recognition that women workers were more obviously exploited and their wages were lowest and i t s passage was facilitated by the fact that sentiment was more easily aroused to protect women. In Canada "over a period of years the women's organizations of Canada, speaking for large numbers of women, urged that a Women's Bureau be set up in the Department of Labour. Recognizing that the problems raised by these women's organizations deserved attention, the Department of Labour established, in September 1954, a Bureau which was to concern itsel f with the particular problems of women workers."^ The national census figures for the period 1941 to 1951 (i.e. both wartime and post-war years) show an increase of 308 per cent in the number of married women working. Accordingly, one of the f i r s t subjects to receive consideration by the Women's Bureau was that of married women in employment. The national survey has been launched in eight Canadian cities. The present study (which utilizes only a small proportion of the hundreds of schedules to be collected) does not aim at being as statistically definitive as the Women's Bureau tabula-tion will be. It is more a review of the pros and cons of married 1. Facts and Figures a leaflet published by the Department of Labour, Ottawa, Canada, - 6 -women's employment for married l i f e and the family i n general, but one which, i t i s hoped, may be of value i n suggesting some of the many points of inter-pretation which w i l l be involved i n a f u l l appreciation of the s t a t i s t i c a l facts. Another study, undertaken at the same time as the present one, by a Master of Social Work candidate at the University of British Columbia, i s The Strathcona Nursery School; Its Contributions f o r Working Mothers.^" This confines i t s e l f to the circumstances of family and employment for a representative group of mothers whose children attend a well known Nursery School sponsored by the Community Chest i n Vancouver; but uses a modified form of the Women's Bureau schedule. From the his t o r i c a l review i t i s obvious that woman's role i n society has changed greatly; but, as so often happens, changes i n attitude have not kept up with technological changes. One s t i l l encounters people who have grave misgivings about women i n employment; for example, while the present survey was being conducted i n Vancouver, the Market 2 Research Associates were asking 500 Vancouverites, chosen at random, "Do you think married women with husbands who are employed should work, or not?" The comments amongst the 59 per cent who approved of childless wives working included "some women weren't meant to be housewives", and, "in most cases both husband and wife have to work to keep the home going". Of the 37 per cent who disapproved, some made the comment "too many single people need jobs", and " i t ' s the main cause of broken homes". A smaller proportion, 19 per cent, approved of the 1. Stewart, Donald. The Strathcona Nursery School; i t s Contri- butions for Working Mothers. Master of Social Work Thesis, University of Brit i s h Columbia, 1956. 2 . Vancouver Daily Province, January 16, 1956. - 7 -married woman with children working; but the 76 per cent who disapproved said "the family's interests shouldn't be sacrificed", and "a mother should be looking after her children", or "only i f the husband i s sick and can't work". As usual, a small percentage i n each case gave no opinion. Another lag which occurs many times i s . i n institutions. Technological changes take place, and sometimes even the attitudes change slightly, e.g. many people believe that a woman may work i f her husband's salary i s so small, or so irregular, that they cannot maintain a standard of l i v i n g that w i l l ensure reasonable standards of health, but a period of time elapses before the institutions change to meet the needs. Such lags can be seen i n the adjustment of hours of work, and i n f a c i l i t i e s for child care, for instance. It i s a l l too obvious that the general public — and not least married women themselves have confused, and conflicting ideas, about the whole matter. There are those who fe e l that a pro-fessional woman may work after marriage but a domestic may not. It i s interesting to note that when a dishwasher won a sweepstake la t e l y she received a number of letters from strangers stating that now she had money she had no right to return to her job. She was a recent immigrant, and i n a newspaper interview she commented that i n her country the decision as to whether or not she worked would be up to her, but i n this country i t seemed to depend on the type of work one was engaged i n . Others f e e l that the decision revolves around the husband's income. If he i s "well-paid" the wife has no business i n the labour force. S t i l l others can only accept the idea of the wife working i f she can prove that she must do so i n order to support dependents. The whole matter, - 8 -then, is of general interest and importance. One has only to look at the caseloads of social agencies to realize that the whole matter i s of real concern to social workers. Family agency files reveal many cases where the woman's decision to work, or not to work, may be the clue to the family breakdown. Social assis-tance and child-caring agencies are constantly faced with instances where the same dilemma needs to be considered in making proper treat-ment plans. Social assistance agencies find that a large proportion of their families are those where, because of emotional or physical inadequacy; desertion; or death of the husband, the wife must either work or seek assistance. Family courts are daily faced with the question as to whether i t i s better for a particular woman to seek employment rather than face years of dragging her husband through one court hear-ing after another. It is obvious, then, that social workers are concerned with this problem both for their own caseloads, and for that great majority who never seek agency help. Here, too, one is faced with the conflict between attitudes and institutions. Social workers accept, as one of their basic beliefs, the fact that the individual has the right to plan his own l i f e within the limits set by his own capacity and those imposed by society. In spite of this, many instances exist where a mother i s (a) discouraged, or actually prevented, from taking employment by refusal of the agency to make available to her any form of day care, or (b) placed in the position where she must find substitute care for her children, and find employment because she has been refused social assistance. It - 9 -is particularly fitting, then, that social workers should undertake this study into the implications of the employment of married women. Social workers, along with many others, view the family as the basic unit in society, and all-importantj but i t i s equally true that most social workers believe that i f the family unit is to be a strength to every member of i t , i t must have certain assets. One of these i s financial security. There should be sufficient income to provide for adequate food, shelter and clothing; to provide, and main-tain physical health, and to provide medical care in case of illness. Can the husband's salary provide this? Are families with children penal-ized in the housing market? Is i t necessary for young couples to delay child-bearing until they can afford a home of their own? Leisure and recreation are also necessary to the adequate functioning of any marriage. Is i t possible for the married woman who works and carries the dual role of homemaker and employee to enjoy leisure for the pursuit of her own interests and hobbies, and time to spend with her husband and children? Do firms which employ married women make any concessions in the way of suitable hours of employment? Is the dual role so frustrating that both the woman's physical and men-tal health suffers? Concepts held by the social work profession in regard to the care of children have been well summed up by Dr. Irene Josselyn in the following: During the f i r s t six years of l i f e , the child requires a mother (or a mother substitute) who meets his physical needs with affec-tion and gives him security as his emotional dependence increases. - 10 Later, as he transfers some of his emotional ties to his own age-group, and to other adults, he has less intense need for his parents unless faced with an unfamiliar problem with which he cannot cope, at which time the parental role involves giving him security as he needs i t , but per-mitting him freedom to move into a wider world gaining confidence through his successes, and through his parent's confidence in his ability to face, and tackle new problems. In this process also, one of the major contributions made by the parents is that of being a pattern of stable adulthood. "The most stable philosophy of l i f e and social living has i t s roots in the inter-relationship between the child and the parent-figures and the experience the child has with their philosophy!!^ Dr. Josselyn goes on to say that one of the great mistakes which is commonly made is in believing that, since a l l children need mothers, a l l women can f u l f i l l that function. This ignores the fact that every mother is an individual with needs, fears, and potentiali-ties arising from her own upbringing and Life experiences. Not a l l mother-child relationships will meet the child's needs by any means, and i t i s , therefore "imperative that in each individual case plans be formu-lated that guarantee a maximum utilization of what the relationship can offer, and a minimum opportunity for the expression of the destruc-tive aspects. To demand more of the mother than she i s able to give will arouse resentment in her which will be detrimental to the child. To expect too l i t t l e of her will make her frustrated and unhappy and dis-2 tract her from serving her child." She must also be assisted to find satisfactions outside the mother-role so that she can free the child 1. Josselyn, I. & Goldman. Social Service Review, Vol. XXIII, No.I, March, 1949. Should Mothers Work? 2. Ibid, page 4. - l i -as the child develops. "Otherwise she may, unconsciously, attempt to arrest the child's development so as to continue to meet her own emotional needs. Finally she should be given an opportunity, and en-couragement, to find a pattern of l i f e gratifying to herself, and acceptable to the community. Otherwise the child may have greater d i f f i -culty in developing an attitude toward l i f e and social living that will constructively serve, rather than destructively attack, the social world". Another real concern centers around what the changing role of the woman in the employment field means to the marital relationship. As woman has achieved greater status in the field of employment there has been a corresponding change in the role of the man, he i s no longer the sole support; his sense of independence is shaken; and he is re-quired to share the household duties which he would formerly have viewed as "women's work". Social workers believe that both man, and wife are individuals with individual needs to growth and expression but that, in any marriage, there must be a careful meshing of these needs i f there is to be a harmonious marriage. How do the husbands feel about the employment of the wife? How i s the family l i f e affected by i t ? Method Plans for a Canadian survey of married women who work origin-ated with the establishment of the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labour in Ottawa. Surveys made in 1954 showed that, amongst the large group of women in employment, there were over 400,000 married women working. Over a ten-year period, from 1941 to 1951, the percentage of married women working increased 308 per cent. Recognizing that work must have a special 1. Ibid, page 4« - 12 -meaning to these women i n relation to the problems of family l i f e , the Women's Bureau proceeded with plans for a survey to be carried out i n eight c i t i e s across Canada, including Vancouver. In those c i t i e s where there were Schools of Social Work, the Women's Bureau obtained permission for students to participate i n the survey. It was considered that special s k i l l s developed i n professional social work could be used to advantage In the brief contact with each married woman interviewed. The specific aims of the survey as outlined by the Women's Bureau were: 1) To estimate the occupational status of the married women, i n terms of the jobs they were doing as compared to their previous training and experience. 2) To determine the work patterns of married women. 3 ) To relate patterns of work to family and household responsibil-i t i e s . 4) To find out as much as possible about the reasons f o r working. 5) To estimate the extent of occupational mobility among married women. Each schedule was completed as part of this larger survey, with an added goal, i n the interests of social work research, of determining how family l i f e i s affected by married women working. More specifically, the aims of the social workers who participated i n the survey were to determine what motivates the married woman to go to work, what satisfactions does she get from her employment i n relation to her household responsibilities, and how does her working affect her relationship to other members of the - 13 -immediate family. The survey, as set up by the Women's Bureau, specifically applied to: 1) Currently married women, who as married women have worked for pay or profit in Canada for the equivalent of three months within the twelve > months preceding the interview. 2) Women who are widowed, divorced or separated, who have worked for pay or profit in Canada for the equivalent of three months within the twelve months preceding the interview, who have dependent children. The selection of women to be interviewed was done by the Women's Bureau by means of a sampling procedure. Throughout Greater Vancouver samples of blocks were selected, and within each chosen block, there was a selection of dwellings. The survey required that a visit be made to each selected dwelling; here, every working woman who fitted into the above category was to be approached for an interview. In cases where there was no response, two call-backs were made. As there were approximately eighteen hundred addresses selected, i t was not possible for three Master of Social Work students to complete the survey during the school year. Visits were discontinued after 875 calls had been made and 50 interviews had been obtained. Those 50 cases provided a basis for the research study as they represented a variety of family situations. The interview with each woman followed the pattern of the schedule prepared by the Women's Bureau."*" The information asked in each case covered three areas 1) her work history, 2) objective data on her current situation, 1. See Appendix A. - 14 -and 3) motives and attitudes, 1) The work history included information about the woman's labour force a c t i v i t i e s , starting with her f i r s t job and following through job changes, periods devoted to housework and li k e a c t i v i t i e s , and extended periods of job-seek-ing up u n t i l the time of the interview. The changes of status were related to such events as marriage and birth of children. 2) Current "objective" information covered such matters as occupa-tion and industry, hours and patterns of work (full-time or part-time, regular, seasonal or casual), income, education and training, number and age of dependent children and child care arrangements, housework routine, recreation and type of housing. 3) The section on "motives and attitudes" explored reasons for the woman working and the satisfactions or dissatisfactions with her job, hours, child-care arrangements, and special problems created by the job, how others i n her family f e l t about her working, and the good and bad effects of her work-ing as i t related to her home and family. This last section was particularly important i n evaluating the effect on family l i f e . In the door-to-door v i s i t i n g , the interviewers, upon learning that the woman i n the dwelling was el i g i b l e for an interview, produced an identi-fi c a t i o n card as representatives of the Women's Bureau, Department of Labour, and explained the purpose of the survey. To permit the woman to decide for her-self whether she wished to be interviewed, she was given, 1) a brochure describ-ing the Women's Bureau and i t s functions and 2) a le t t e r from the Director of the Women's Bureau s o l i c i t i n g the woman's cooperation i n discussing the problems - 15 -of her dual role as worker and homemaker. It was stressed that her help was of value and that her participation in the survey was entirely voluntary. Refusal was met in some cases because of the woman's lack of time or interest. This reaction might also have been due to the fact that the inter-viewers were representing a government department. Frequently women would ask whether they would be identified in any way and they were assured that names were not used. Although the survey was focussed primarily on the married woman, other members of the family were encouraged to participate i f they showed in -terest. Frequently the woman was in the midst of baking, ironing or sometimes scrubbing floors and in such circumstances she was encouraged to continue as she was interviewed. Occasionally she would suggest that the interviewer return later and this was arranged. The time factor was important as these women fre-wuently had heavy home responsibilities upon their arrival home from work. In some cases the husband welcomed the interviewer into the home but his wife reacted unfavourably. Such situations were easily recognized and care was taken to allow the woman to refuse an interview i f she really did not wish i t . Repeated experiences of meeting these women made the interviewers more and more aware of the fact that these women were tired, frequently under pressure to complete household chores while they were home, and were not immediately receptive to an unexpected caller. Once an interview was agreed to, however, the woman seemed to enjoy the experience and seemed to appreciate an oppor-tunity to talk about her problems. Interviews lasted from thirty minutes to two hours, generally averaging one hour. In the, evaluation of the findings of the survey, fairly distinct patterns were recognized in three different situations: - 16 -1) where both the woman and her husband were employed and there were dependent children to support, 2) where both the woman and her husband were employed and there were no dependent children, 3) where the woman was the sole breadwinner (and had dependent children). In the fi r s t instance, the woman has several considerations to make when she decides to go to work. She becomes concerned about the effect her work-ing might have upon the children, upon her husband and upon herself when this added strain is placed upon her. When she is working, the problems that arise in the family are more likely to be due to the fact that she does work outside the home. She i s concerned too about the community's attitude toward her working when she has these home responsibilities and must make arrangements for substi-tute care for her children. Her relationship with her husband and her children, and her feeling about community attitudes a l l affect her in this new role. The second group of women do not have dependent children to plan for while they are absent from the home, but strive to maintain a happy marital rela-tionship in spite of the strains resulting when both she and her husband work. On the whole this group of women are younger than those who have children to con-sider, and are either planning for a family or are delaying childbirth until they can afford to have children. In some cases, they are women who have re-turned to the labour force since their children have grown up and left home. The third group of women are working because of necessity and the pressures they face are likely to detract from the satisfaction they might ordinarily find in employment. Some are widowed, some divorced or separated, while others have husbands who are unable to work. The sole responsibility for supporting the family in most of these cases rests with the woman, and added to - 17 -this is her wish to provide adequate care and good family l i f e for her children. For this reason, her problems are also considered separately. These three situations are dealt with in Chapters II, III and IV. CHAPTER II THE MARRIED WOMAN WITH DEPENDENT CHILDREN Eighteen of the women interviewed in the survey were married women whose husbands were employed and who had dependent children to consider. In a way, this is the more normal kind of family that comprises a community. When the woman decides to go to work, her decision must be evaluated with f u l l recognition of the need to maintain and protect the husband-wife relationship and parent-child relationship, as well as the mother-child relationship. Be-cause of her role as a wife and a mother, there i s greater possibility that there will be some loss to the family when she has to take the added respon-sibility of outside employment. When problems arise in these families, they are more likely to be due to the fact that she i s working and that this added pressure i s felt by the family. These women have taken jobs with the hope of improving family l i f e , and, on the whole, are conscientious in this desire. Table I Family Constellation Age of Woman Total Family Group Under 25 years 25-34 years 35-44 years 45-54 years Married Couples, one child Married Couples, two children Married Couples, three children 2 1 2 3 1 4 1 2 2 6 10 2 Total ? 6 5 4 18 Table 2 Dependent Children Pre- Grades Grades Families school 1-8 9-13 Univ. Total Married Couples, one child 4 1 1 1 7 Married Couples, two children 4 11 3 1 19 Married Couples, three children 1 4 1 6 Total number of children 9 lZ 5 2 ?2 - 19 -Among these eighteen families, the ages of the women range from twenty years to fifty-four years, the median age being thirty five, while the ages of their dependent children range from seven months to twenty-four years. Seven of the eighteen families have children of pre-school age (one of these families also has children in school). The remaining eleven families have children in school or university. Of the thirty-two children in these eighteen families, sixteen children (fifty per cent) are attending elementary school. The average size of the household (including the parents, dependent children, and in some cases, non-dependent children and relatives, living in the home) is 4«11 persons. The majority of the families (ten of them) have two dependent children, two families have three dependent children, and six families have only one depen-dent child. A l l but one of the families lived in houses which they are renting or buying. One family with an only child, eight months old, occupied a three-roomed apartment. None of the women complained about inadequate housing. Home responsibilities were shared by the family members in the majority of cases. Very l i t t l e was spent for outside services such as laundry and housecleaning. Three sent some of their laundry out, and one woman paid a neighbor a day's wage to come in once a week to do the housecleaning and ironing for her. Occupations and Earnings Table 3 Occupations of Women Age Group Professional Business Clerical Service Factory Total 20-24 2 1 3 25-34 2 4 6 35-44 3 2 5 45-54 - 1 1 2 4 Total 2 1 4 9 2 ia The occupations of the women varied from weighing cheese in a factory to operating a kindergarten at home. Although one woman had only grade four educa-tion and one had a university degree and post-graduate training, the majority had - 20 -some high school education and vocational training. Of the eighteen women, half of them were employed in service occupations, four in clerical work, two in fact-ory work, two in professional occupations and one operated a business of her own. Ten women work f u l l time, five part-time and three are in casual employment. Only four have worked for the f u l l year prior to the interview, eleven have worked from six to twelve months and three have worked from three to six months. In six cases the woman expected to continue working indefinitely, one of these has a child of pre-school age. In the remaining twelve families, the women planned to work only a short time. Of the ten women employed full-time^ eight have day hours, one works night shifts and one has an evening shift. Of the five women employed part-time, three work during the children's school hours, one works from one to five in the afternoon, and one works different shifts of eight hours each. The three in casual employment go to work when called, sometimes on a part-time basis and sometimes for a f u l l day. Information about income was obtained from seventeen of the women. One woman declined to give this information as she fe l t i t did not enter into her reasons for working. Of the seventeen, the women's earnings varied from $300 to approximately #3,000,, the majority (six of them) earning from $1,000 to $1,499. The husband's income varied from $1,600 to $4,250, the average income approximately $3,000. In most of the cases the husband had worked during the f u l l twelve-month period prior to the interview. Five had worked for only part of the year, bet-ween six and twelve months and none had worked for less than that period. The average total income for seventeen of the eighteen families was $4,172. Reasons for Working While the majority of the women gave their reasons for working as - 21 "financial", many of these spoke of the psychological satisfactions of working. A few went to work primarily for psychological reasons. Fourteen of these eighteen women have gone to work primarily for financial reasons. Eight of them are s t i l l paying for their homes or plann-ing on buying, while others are making improvements to their homes, buying new furnishings and making replacements. In some of the cases there are debts to pay off and in two instances the women are working to ensure future financial security and higher education for the children. Of this group of fourteen, eleven enjoyed their work, partly because of the extra income and higher stan-dard of living afforded the family and partly because of the social outlet her job provided for her. Some working full-time admitted they had l i t t l e time for leisure activities but s t i l l preferred to work. Typical responses given were that outside employment gives a "broader outlook", a "zest for living", "easier living". Some described their work as "interesting activity", said they enjoyed the "atmosphere of the office", they like the people they meet and work with, the companionship at work compared with the loneliness at home (when children are in school). Three of this group who are working for financial reasons fel t a real economic need to work and achieved material gains only. A l l three worked because the family was in debt and the husband's income was only three thousand or less. A l l three women worked full-time. One of these, having a couple of children of school-age, is continuing to work but hopes to find part-time employment, while the other two, each with three children, stopped work. One had been working in a factory and was pressured by home responsibilities, and • the other, a new Canadian, had a nervous breakdown. She had been a dishwasher and elevator operator in a hotel and accomplished two of her goals of working, - 22 -the repayment of the |900 fare that brought the family from Germany and they were able to move from a "nasty old rooming house" into a home of their own. They want to continue to improve their l i v i n g standards. Four women did not f e e l financially pressed to seek employment but had other reasons of a psychological nature. One was a new Canadian interested i n learning the English language and making new friends. She worked during noon hours as a waitress i n a men's club and learned to speak English better but was nervous about her language handicap. She has not found friends i n her job as the other waitresses "did not share the same interests". Another simply wanted "independence" and "pocket money" but stopped working when the job she had en-joyed before marriage (as a cook i n a club) lost i t s appeal. In both of these cases the husbands disapproved of the women working. Another was having mari-t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s - her husband would "forget to come home" i n the evening. She took casual employment as a counter-girl i n a dairy and her husband had to come home directly from work to stay with the children. The most satisfied of this group of women was a kindergarten teacher who operated the kindergarten i n her own home each morning. She f e l t the work she did gave her a feeling of status and independence and was contributing to the mental health of the community. Satisfactions i n Employment In terms of the satisfactions gained from working, those women employed i n professional occupations, the woman with a business of her own, and those i n c l e r i c a l jobs expressed positive feelings about their work. Of those i n service occupations, only the telephone operators and salesclerks found some satisfaction i n the job, whereas the waitresses, the cook and the dishwasher-elevator-operator were not happy. One employed i n factory work has discontinued her job. Other than the material gain, she spoke of no satisfaction from her work (weighing cheese). Pressures of her home responsibilities would probably - 23 -detract from the satisfaction of any outside employment she would undertake. The other woman employed in factory work did not describe her job as satisfying but expressed no negative feeling about i t . Having a job did not seem important to her but i t enabled her to purchase a few extras far the family, e.g. a new bed for her daughter. The family had lived in the same neighborhood for sixteen years and when a new factory opened up in that part of town she and another neighbor applied for work. As she said, being forty years old, she did not expect to be accepted for employment. Both she and her neighbor were hired to package dates. She was not disappointed, eight months later, to be laid off during a slack period. This woman managed her household routine efficiently, had two children of school age, and by paying a neighbor seven dollars weekly to do her housecleaning and ironing, she did not feel pressured. When asked whether she would be interested in job-training, she replied jokingly that she supposed she might train for a job where she could "use her brains". She re-ferred to her eight months employment as "easy living" and being laid off meant that she could catch up on some of her home responsibilities such as sewing, etc. Those women with the heaviest home responsibilities were too much under pressure to find satisfaction in their jobs, especially full-time employ-ment. In both the families where there are three dependent children, the woman has given up her job. Both feel a financial need to go back i f they can find part-time work. One of these, as already mentioned, suffered a nervous break-down. Satisfactions of working were less for those who were pressed into employ-ment because of the financial need. The job was not a social outlet for them, as in other cases, but a matter of dire necessity. In some cases the husband's disapproval of the woman working affect-ed the enjoyment she received from employment outside the home. In one case, however, despite the husband's disapproval (as she said "this is a forbidden subject") she has continued her work as a switchboard operator. She works from nine to six and her husband i s employed from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. The woman's mother looks after the children. Most husbands were reconciled to the woman working but, as three women stated, he would prefer to be "sole supporter" of the family. When the husband expressed acceptance i t was due to his recogni-tion that the woman was happier or because he had a part i n the decision that her employment would raise the family's standard of l i v i n g . The husband's acceptance of her employment meant greater sharing of home responsibilities and less pressure on the woman. In such cases she was happier i n her dual role. Arrangements for Child Care Arrangements for child care were not required i n three of the eighteen families. In one case the only "dependent chi l d " i s a university student. In another situation where the woman operated a kindergarten i n her own home, she was occupied only during the hours when her children were at school or university. In the third case the woman worked part-time during the noon hour and her children, who were attending school, were able to manage on their own. Of the fifteen families where child care was needed, one woman with three children i n school did not provide for their supervision. Her working hours were eight to four-thirty. Of the remaining fourteen families, eleven women arranged for the children to be cared for by family members (the husband, the woman's mother or an older child i n the family), and three had baby-sitters or neighbors to watch over their children. In the eleven instances where the family members stayed with the children, the husband took complete charge i n four of the families, and i n four others he took partial responsibility. The woman's mother took complete charge i n three of the families and parti a l responsibility i n the fourth instance. In one case the older child (of high school age) took responsibility for the young-er one and in another family the woman's sister stayed with the children until the husband came home. Where the children were cared for by an outside person, baby-sitters were hired in two cases (where children were of pre-school age) and neigh-bors watched over the children in another family (where the children were attend-ing school). Dissatisfaction about the child-care arrangements was expressed by four of the women, (three of them worked full-time). In the situation where the school children were left to themselves the woman worried about their lack of supervision after school, particularly because their home was located near a correction institution for girls. She also felt that girls were overburdened with home responsibilities. Where an older child was left in charge of a young-er brother, the woman worried about emergencies arising, such as fi r e . In the other two situations the children were of pre-school age. One, where a baby-sitter needed to be hired until the husband came home, was an unsatisfactory arrangement as the family were unable to get a regular, reliable sitter and the woman worried about the kind of care her baby was getting. In the other situa-tion in which the husband and the woman's sister took turns caring for the child-ren, there was too much strain on the husband; while the woman worked days he worked nights and could not get adequate sleep with this added responsibility. The woman did feel, however, that the arrangement was better than having the children with strangers. In the remainder of the families, the women felt that the child care was adequate. Four with children of pre-school age had assistance from family members. The f i f t h took her eight-month old baby over to a neighbor, an elderly - 26 -man, who cared for the child while the woman worked four hours each afternoon. She described this arrangement as "very satisfactory". The other six families i n this group, who found child-care arrangements adequate were less burdened because their children were of school age. Generally the feeling of a l l the women who worked was that the children were best cared for i n their own homes and by a member of the family. The most satisfactory arrangement was i n cases where the woman's mother was free to take this responsibility. In such cases the woman's mother also took on added responsibilities such as preparing the evening meal. Attitudes of the Children In most cases where the children were of pre-school age the woman did not describe any negative effects on the child but said he was "too young" to show any reaction. One woman who has her mother caring f o r her ch i l d said "she has learned to go to someone besides me". "She i s not too dependent on me". Another woman whose child i s cared for sometimes by her husband, sometimes by the woman's mother and sometimes by a g i r l who lives next door, said that she f e l t the children were better off because the family had no fin a n c i a l worries and the children also received extra attention from their father. There was some difference i n attitudes expressed by children attend-elementary school and those attending high school. Those i n high school did not mind having their mother work, whereas some of the reactions from elementary school children were negative. One ten-year old g i r l "doesn't mind too much, but would much prefer to come home for lunch". Another twelve-year old boy would l i k e to have his mother home when he comes from school. An eleven-year old child complained "when are you going to be through working so you can f i x my clothes?" As one woman said, her two children "do not complain or make comments", "they appreciate the extras I can purchase f o r them". Two other children i n - 27 -elementary school "much prefer to have her at home"; they feel over-worked when she is employed. The children who had their grandmothers with them seemed more accepting but the mother described them in one case as "not as happy and relaxed" because their mother was constantly rushed and unable to devote leisure time to the family-. Those children in high school reacted more positively to having their mother work. One fourteen-year old boy's reaction to his mother's decision to work was "Oh boy, mom, more money", as his allowance would be increased. In other situations the older child showed pride in his mother's working. The women felt in these cases that the children were better off as they learned to assume responsibility. Effect on the Total Family Situation One of the questions asked of these eighteen women was in regard to family recreation and the extent of time available for this. A l l of those with children of pre-school age described their social l i f e as limited, except for one woman whose mother also lived in the home. In one case where the couple have an eight-month old baby, there i s sometimes as much as two weeks when the husband and wife scarcely see one another. She works in shifts as a nurse, alternating with his shifts as a fireman. In most cases the women had to do their chores in the evening which limited social activities. Lack of recreation was often due to fatigue or because of the financial strain including the expense of getting a baby-sitter for younger children. The women with children of school-age did not feel as deprived in this respect. There was an added strain on the husband in most cases when the woman was employed. He helped with household chores in a l l the cases where there were children on pre-school age in the family. Husbands took on such responsib-- 2a -i l i t i e s as preparing the evening meal (six of them relieved their wives in this way), helping with the dishes and assisting with heavier housecleaning and the weekly laundry. Although i t was difficult to evaluate family relationships, in most cases they seemed basically good. In five situations there seemed to be some question. In one, the woman was looking for satisfactions outside of the home by returning to the job she had held before marriage. In another, while the husband worked from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m., a telephone operator chose to work from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. when i t seemed that many positions were open to her at more convenient hours. In two situations, the woman's working increased her husband's feelings of inadequacy. In one of these cases the woman recognized this but financial pressures forced her to work as her husband had only recently re-covered from a long illness. In the other case family relationships were ob-viously affected by the husband's feelings of inadequacy. A family argument occurred during the interview in regard to the household help given the woman while she worked. The husband's comment about her working was "it's her busi-ness, as long as nothing else is neglected". His employment as a mairhenance man was unstable and the woman had worked for thirteen years of their twenty-six years of marriage. Although she worked only part-time, her contribution to the family income during the year prior to the interview was 43 per cent. She stated as her reason for working that she was helping her son through university. As her husband said, "mother" handles the money in the family and pays a l l the b i l l s . There was some indication of a close bond bettveen the woman and her student son. One-woman felt that her working improved family relations as her husband no longer "forgot to come home". She went to work evenings and her hus-band was required to come home to stay with the children. In the other thirteen cases, good family relationships seemed to - 29 -exist despite the stresses placed on the family by both parents working. In some cases this may have been due to the material gains and in some cases due to the psychological satisfactions the woman gained from outside employment. Another significant factor may be that the majority of these women, fourteen out of the eighteen, have been working for less than a year. CHAPTER III THE MARRIED WOMAN WITHOUT DEPENDENT CHILDREN Needs, problems, and satisfactions in working, are a l l different for the working mother as compared with the woman who i s without dependents. If nothing else, the woman without dependents has less complicated problems in that she does not have the care, or the need to provide substitute care, for her children. For this reason the nineteen women interviewed who had no dependent children (three of them had grown-up children no longer in the home) are being treated separately in this chapter. As a preliminary examination reveals some difference between attitudes or situations of younger and older women, the in-formation is being grouped (a) wives from 20-34 years of age, and (b) those aged 35-54 years of age. These wil l be referred to, for convenience, as the younger and older groups, respectively. The median age of the younger group is 25-34 years, and that of the older group is 35-44 years. Table 4 Family Constellation Family Group Age of Wife Total Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 Married couples, with no dependent children 4 7 6 2 19 Employment - Past and Present Of the eleven women in the younger group, five were employed in clerical positions. The remaining six were employed as, a factory worker, a telephone operator, a private duty nurse, an x-ray technician, a home economist, 1. Three families, two in 35-44 age group, and one in the 45-54 year old age-group, have grown-up children now out of the home. - 31 -and an owner-operator of a small confectionery. In the older group the categor-ies are broadly the same. In that group four of the eight women are employed in clerical capacities, and the remainder were a factory worker, two salesclerks, and a doctor's assistant. Table 5 Education and Employment Training Education and Training Age of Wife Total Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 Education Level Elementary 1 1 2 Grades IX-XI 2 2 . 4 Grades XII and higher 3 5 3 2 13 Total 4 7 6 2 19 Training Post-graduate 2 2 Vocational 2 4 3 1 10 None 2 1 3 1 7 Total 4 7 6 2 19 A study of the educational backgrounds shows that almost a l l are employed full-time, are working during the daytime, and are working a five-day week. The exceptions are the two women who are operating their own small con-fectionery-grocery stores who work long hours, seven days per week; and a tele-phone operator who works shifts six days per week. With the majority of the group there was a definite plan to work in those jobs where they would have a five day week so that they might have time for their housework, and yet have time for relaxation, and time with their husbands. There was a marked preference for having Saturday, rather than any other day, free. - 32 -Table 6 Entry into the Labour Force Present Age of Wife Date of Entering Labour Force Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 Total Trained: 1921-1930 2 2 1931-1940 3 3 Since 1940 3 6 9 Untrained: 1921-1930 2 2 1931-1940 1 1 2 Since 1940 1 1 Total 4 7 6 2 19 In reviewing the woman's period i n the labour force tte difference i n the two groups shows quite clearly. In the younger group one woman married at 16, five between the ages of 20-24, and five between the ages of 25-34. A l l except the two university graduates (who did not enter the labour force u n t i l they were 23) were employed by the time they were 20, and a l l but four of that younger group have worked right through without a break, i n spite of the i r marriage. The other four have been out of the labour force less than five years since their marriage. In the older group the age of marriage i s quite different. Three of them married under 20 years of age, four between 30-35, and one over 35. Without exception they were employed by the time they were 20, and their period of employment prior to marriage varied from the women who married and took employment simultaneously, to the woman who had 21 years experience before marriage. Three of that group have worked continuously, and, of the remaining fi v e , one was a housewife for less than five years since marriage, one was five to nine years, two were nine to fourteen years, and one was sixteen years out of the labour force. It is interesting to note that of the three women in the older group who have had children, a l l were out of the labour force for considerable periods while their children were small. One was out for 16 years and only re-entered the labour force when she secured a divorce at the time her youngest child was 13 years of age. The other two remained in their homes until their children were ten and twelve years old, and then recommenced work with part-time jobs until the children were no longer dependent on them. The great majority of the women in both groups are in the same type of employment as before marriage. In the younger group there are just two excep-tions. One is a woman who owns a grocery store but who previously worked in a factory, as a chambermaid, and as a salesclerk. The other is now a telephone operator but was, before marriage, a student nurse who gave up her training be-cause i t interfered with her plans to marry. In the older group there are four who have changed their type of employment. The woman who is presently operating a power-machine was, previously a domestic. Another woman commenced her employment as a receptionist, then be-came a jeweller's clerk and buyer, until the long hours and heavy responsibilities broke her health, and she is now a doctor's assistant. The third woman has been a telephone operator, a salesclerk, and more recently, a psychiatric nurse. She gave up the latter position because she found i t too nervously wearing, and she satisfied a longrfelt desire to have her own business by purchasing a small, run-down confectionery store. The other woman, once in the needleworking trade, is now a clerk in a retail store. Reasons for Working In most of the interviews i t was obvious that there were both finan-cial and psychological reasons involved in the decision of the married woman to - 34 -take employment. It is difficult in some cases to decide which was the most im-portant reason. It can be evaluated, partly, by considering the reasons in the light of their realism, and in the light of the woman's statement concerning her "future plans". In many cases, of course, the woman had more than one financial goal in working. In two of the younger group of women she stated she was working to supplement her husband's wages for day-to-day living expenses. In one of these two cases the husband i s a salesman earing 1 2 , 0 0 0 . per year, and i t is reasonable that his wife may find this a very meagre income for daily expenses. The other woman has a husband who i s earning $ 4 , 0 0 0 . per year as a commercial artist, and i t would seem very likely that, in this case, the psychological reasons are more important than the financial ones. Two women in the older group give day-to-day living expenses as one of their financial reasons for working. One i s the wife of a labourer making | 2 , 0 0 0 . per year, but the other husband i s a draughtsman earning #4,000. per year. Her reasons for working, originally, were certainly to meet minimum living expenses for her husband had just been discharged from TB sanitarium, and i t was impossible for him to work for a year, but, as time has passed, and he is now working f u l l time, her reasons for working have shifted to provision, of a home, and to psychological reasons. Five women in the younger group, and three in the older group, are working to buy furniture. With the younger couples this has been the f i r s t stage in preparing for a home of their own. Amongst those who are working to purchase a home there is consider-able difference between the two groups. In the younger group nine are bending a l l their efforts toward this end, while in the older group only three are so occupied. There is a further difference, also, in the present housing situation - 35 -which throws light on this plan. Amongst the younger group a l l but two are l i v -ing in inadequate, but expensive apartments, while in the older group one owns an apartment, three are buying houses at this moment, and only one is renting. Par-ticularly among the younger women the plan i s that they will earn and save suffi-cient for a down payment of such proportions that the husband will be able to carry the mortgage payments on his salary without undue strain. 'As the salaries of the husbands vary from $2,500. to $4,200. with a mediam income of $3,500. the plan looks fairly, realistic. The only woman in the older group who has not yet purchased the home for which she i s working, i s the wife of a shipper who earns $3,200.00. The others have already purchased their homes and are working to keep up the payments. Those who are living in apartments stressed the cost, and the fact that they cannot hope to have a family until such time as they can move into a house. The fact that most apartment owners wiH not permit children in their quarters is commented upon frequently. Unfortunately the schedule did not include any questions about the family's plans for having children; but repeatedly the interviewer was told "we want to get into a house as soon as possible so we can have a baby." Another version was, "I wouldn't want to work after my babies come, but this way I can have babies sooner," One got the de-finite impression that most of the younger women were delaying childbearing. With them one felt that they had the urge to have children, and the fairly care-ful budgetting they had done, meant they would be able to carry out their plans to leave their jobs. In ten out of the eleven cases the period mentioned was anything from six months to three years. The one exception was a woman who, while she wants children, has some reason to doubt whether she will be able to bear a child. - 36 -In the older age group the situation is understandably different. In that group one woman i s planning short-term employment, but the other seven talk in terms of "five or six years", "may be another ten years", "indefinitely or as long as the employer will have me". One woman in the younger group, and two in the older group, were working to provide better savings for their retirement period. And one woman was working to provide for her aged parents who live in the home. She pointed out that i t was one thing"to expect her husband to share his living quarters with her parents, and quite another for her to expect him to support them, also. She had, therefore, gone to work to supply the financial support. Psychological reasons for working showed in eight of the eleven younger cases, and in six of the eight older cases. A number of women stated that there was insufficient to keep them occupied in their apartments, and that working was better than "sitting moping", or "letting things get on my nerves". Many had obviously enjoyed their pre-marriage employment, and f e l t that housework was less constructive than employment in the business world. One, the wife of the commercial artist mentioned above, had come recently to Canada, and found employ-ment an excellent way of making friends, and learning Canadian ways. Several women spoke of the joy of feeling independent, and of having status. In this connection one writer has said "Home l i f e is a matter of fact experience; i t is just taken for granted. This can be done by every woman, but to work in industry is to prove oneself equal to a man. A woman worker acquires a higher status. She can earn her living and stand on her own feet. She can feel independent and have a security altogether different from a housewife. She can bargain with men on equal terms 'She justifies her existence fully' — this phrase ex-presses typically a woman's attitude. A man would not think that he needs to justi-fy his existence.Another woman said, and several implied, "once you have worked 1. Zweig, F. Women's Life and Labour: Victor Gollancz Ltd; London; 1952. Page 16. - 37 -you hate to be dependent on anyone, even your husband". One woman stated that she felt working had a value to the marital relationship in that the working wife understood better those pressures and strains of business which so many husbands have to endure alone. Some voiced the idea that "for me work i s a habit — and I love i t " . Effect on the Marital Relationship One of the questions in the mind of a social worker is what this employment means to the marital relationship. In the great majority of the cases -nine out of eleven in the younger group, and six out of eight in the older group -the working hours are very similar although they may vary an hour or two. In two instances, one in each group, the woman works days while the husband works grave-yard shift. In both cases the families are trying to establish themselves and view this as a necessary sacrifice which they will make for a limited time. In two other instances, again one in each group, the man works-days, while the wife works shifts. In one case this is necessary because the woman i s a special duty nurse who does not work continuously. In the other case the young woman i s a druggist clerk who deliberately chose shift work as i t gives her better time for her housework and for her husband. Another question arises as to the husband's attitude to his wife working. It is recognized that the schedule elicited the wife's understanding of her husband's views, and did not get his directly in most cases. Neverthe-less those, taken in conjunction with the help which the husband does, or does not give in the home, i s indicative of his attitude. The answers to this ques-tion ranged from the woman who said "he'd be offended i f I quit", through those where the husband had been unhappy about the plan to start with but had become reconciled to i t provided that i t was for a brief period; to those where he was merely "reconciled" to i t ; and those where he was pleased about her employment - 3 8 -because of the improvement i t had created in her mental health. Out of the entire group only three husbands are not sharing the housework. In one of the three cases there is no necessity for him to assist because the mother-in-law i s in the home and responsible for the housekeep-ing. In the other two instances the marital relationship appeared strained, and the man took no part i n the home responsibilities. In the other cases the men did considerable, ranging a l l the way from doing the dishes, or the floors, to "helping on a 50-50 basis - I'd never be able to manage i f he didn't". In the great majority of cases the wife had the housekeeping well organizedj doing certain portions of i t at night, or before she left in the morning, and leaving the heavy cleaning and washing until Saturday. AH this group felt that having Saturday off was essential. One of the two women who had a grocery store found her household routines extremely difficult because of her long hours, constant interruptions, and the fact that her hus-band gave practically no assistance with the housework. Three others, who were not too fond of homemaking, had no set routines. It was noticeable that routine was necessary i f the situation was to be satisfactory for both partners. Paid services were considered too expensive to be practicable. Although the schedule made no mention of health, the interviewers were well aware that over-tiredness was a constant drain on the health of these women. Time after time the husband, or wife, mentioned this. This will, inevitably, make for short tempers, general i r r i t a b i l i t y , and unwilling-ness for joint recreation, a l l of which are a strain on the marital relation-ship. The area of recreation is a large, and important one. It i s d i f f i -cult to be sure, in many cases, whether the limited recreation, which i s typical of this sampling, is the result of the woman working, or whether i t has always been neglected in a particular family. There were instan-ces, such as the older couple, where the woman works four hours a day to keep herself occupied, and provide for their old age, where recreation is adequate and well planned, e.g. their garden and horse-racing are their summer interests, and in winter they enjoy Television, their lodge meetings, and night school courses which they attend with a group of their neighbours. At the other extreme is one of the grocery owners who works such long hours, seven days a week, that they have absolutely no shared recreation except for two weeks in the summer when she gets someone in to tend the store, and she and her husband go away on a trip together. One of the younger couples spend a good deal of time together golfing, and in a sports car club, but admitted that, when they move into their own home next month, they know this will have to give way to gardening — which to them is not recreation. Seven of the families have l i t t l e recreation of any kind, but this was explained, in part, by such remarks as "my husband isn't very sociable", "not much, but a l l we want". Gains and Losses Each woman interviewed was asked to evaluate what she felt she had gained, or lost, by working. It is interesting to examine the thinking of these two age groups in this regard. In the younger group six women (of whom two were working half time, only) felt that they had lost nothing, while in the older group six out of the smaller group of eight, agreed with them. Amongst the younger women four felt that their social l i f e had suffered from the fact that they were employed. One, a very young wife who was working toward a home, felt that while this was a fact, i t was not too serious for " i t won't hurt us to wait for that". Two wives (one works shifts as a drug clerk, and one oper-ates her own grocery) felt that their social l i f e was seriously affected and were deeply regretful of i t . Amongst the older women only one complained of the curtailment of her social activities because of her job. Injury to health through overwork was specifically listed as one of the losses by the grocery owner, and by a woman who is an office clerk. The interviewers were conscious of i t in other cases, also. One woman commented that her house was neglected, but, as work seemed to be for her an escape from house-work, i t is doubtful whether this can rightfully be charged against her job. No one commented that this meant delaying childbirth, but one could not help but be aware that this was a loss to them. Al l the women felt that there had been real material gains. These included bank accounts toward home purchase which were sufficiently large that the woman knew i t was only a matter of a very short time until her dreams would be reality (one couple had bought a home the day before our visit, and another was expecting to move into her new home within three months when her husband would be far enough on with the actual construction to make i t liveable, i f not complete). Several listed such material gains as being able to provide for aged parents; sending a daughter to university; making i t possible to marry a fiance just released from TB sanitorium, and in subsequent years, ease the pressures on him; establishing funds to supple-ment husband's retirement provisions; and providing luxuries such as a car, membership in a golf club, extra clothing, and gifts to children of a pre-vious marriage. It i s interesting that only one, viz., the grocery owner, saw material gains as the only achievement. - 41 -In the younger group there was much more interest in the companion-ship gained from the job, than among the older group. Five listed this as a gain in the younger group while only one listed i s among the older women. The proportion was reversed when i t came to the feeling that work gave them a broader outlook. In that case 50% of the older group listed i t as a gain, while only 22 per cent of the younger women saw i t in that light. The younger group saw work as a means of learning, i.e. learning interest-ing occupations, learning to get along with people, learning efficiency which could later be applied to housekeeping methods, learning Canadian ways, and learning to enter more fully into their husband's worries, and strains. The older women were, naturally, less interested in learning, and more in-terested in being kept mentally alert in their work, and three of them cited this as one of their gains. Women in both groups spoke of the satisfactions they got from feeling not only that they were independent, but of feeling that they were part of the community, and were making a worthwhile contri-bution to i t . And several commented that they got real enjoyment — "as much as I do out of curling" —• from the actual job i t s e l f . CHAPTER IV THE HANDICAPPED FAMILY What may be called 'handicapped families' are of many kinds. In a l l of them (for the purposes of this survey) the husband is either absent or unable to continue as the chief breadwinner. More particularly, this group includes widows who have dependent children; women who are separated or divorced and have children to support partially or wholly. The families where the husband is incapacitated by either illness or injury, i s in very irregular employment or retired, because of handicap or age, are rare, but s t i l l important. A l l these families are faced with the high cost of hous-ing and the increase in the cost of living which has characterized the post-war years. To meet the daily living needs, the woman has found i t necessary to return to the labour force in order to contribute to the family budget. This also means greater responsibilities, as the woman has no choice but to go to work. The different situations show complications, especially in cases where the husband is incapacitated. The widow, divorcee, or the woman separated from her husband must take over the role of both parents, and further, she is faced with loneliness in the home from the lack of adult companionship. On the other hand, having a job to do and getting "out of the house" daily has certain compensations. Family and Household Constellation Of the f i f t y married women working for pay, who were interviewed, thirteen came within the categories mentioned above. - 43 -Table 7. Family Constellation Age of Wife Family Group 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 Total •a-Group A Married Couples with No Children One Dependent Child Two or more Dependent Children 2 1 1 1 1 2 Sub-Total 2 2 4 *«• Group B Mother with One Dependent Child Two or more Dependent Children 2 2 3 1 1 4 5 Total 4 2 6 1 13 # In Group A, three of the husbands were retired or incapacitated, the other a marginal case in which the man had only irregular (seasonal)work. ** In Group B, three of the women were widows, three separated, and three divorced. Table 8. Children in the Families Pre- Grades Grades Families school 1-8 9-13 Higher Total Married Couples with One child 1 1 Two or more children 2 3 5 Widows with Dependent children 3 2 5 Separated or Divorced with Dependent children 2 9 1 12 Total Children 4 2 2 2? (a) One of these children in institution for Mentally Retarded Children, Only one of the thirteen homes was childless. In the other twelve homes there are twenty three children, 17 or 74 percent of the children are in school, Grades 1-13; four children are pre-schoolers; and two are taking higher education. - 44 -It is interesting to learn from the schedules that ten out of the thirteen families are living in a house. Four families own their home; five families are purchasing their homes; but only one rented the house. Five of the houses were large (eight rooms), two are six-roomed dwellings, two are five-roomed and one is a four-roomed dwelling. This latter is being purchased by the childless couple. The three families living in suites and renting are not as fortunate, since their homes are not as spacious, having only two to four rooms. Care of the Children From the schedules, i t is interesting to note that a l l the child-ren are cared for in their own homes, with the exception of the one mentally re-tarded child. There is only, (a) one child in five of the homes; (b) two children in three homes; and, (c) three children in four of the homes. Where the woman has given thought to her dual role of mother-house-wife and wage-earner, hours of employment are important. The woman objects stren-uously to employment which calls for working hours on Saturday and/or Sunday. The objections arise around the care of the children. The job with the greatest appeal i s the one with the working hours corresponding to the hours the children are in school. The location of the employment is also given consideration for the same reason. The woman will take work with less income i f i t means more time at home. If the location of employment means an hour or two travel time, of necessity she may accept the job, but will be constant-ly looking for a change. The hours she likes best are 9 :00 a.m. to not later than 5 :00 p.m., this gives her time to see the children prepared for school; and at the end - 45 -of the day, the children are not without supervision for too long a period. Four of the women interviewed commenced work at 8:00 or 8:30 in the morning working until 4:00, 4:30 or 5:00 in the afternoon. One woman worked from 9:00 to 5:00, another from 9:00 to 3:00, A mother working from 10:00 to 3:00, three days a week, could benefit financially from f u l l time employment, but has not been able to obtain a job with hours to f i t in with what she considers necessary care for her children. Another mother worked 9:00 to 6:00, three days a week, and 12:00 noon to 9:00 p.m. two days a week. This working arrangement suited her situation because i t allowed her four mornings out of seven to be with her pre-school children. The nurse on the 3:00 to 11:30 p.m. shift, with one adult son, whose husband is retired, felt the late shift dovetailed best into their way of l i f e . One woman whose husband is incapacitated by a progressive crippling condition, accepted temporary jobs as a cook in logging camps. She had been a saleslady prior to her marriage. The woman planned according to her s i t -uation. They are a childless couple and the husband i s s t i l l able to care for himself. Accepting temporary employment for a period of two or three months means to this woman a satisfactory income, low expenses (such as clothing and transportation) and, most important, she is able to spend about half the year at home (full-time housewife) with her husband. Another family which is handicapped due to the father's injury, manages because the father is in the home and able to look after the child-ren. The mother has many anxious moments when she contemplates the future and any disruption to this plan, such as, the father being re-admitted to hospital. - 46 -The family in which the mother i s working because of the father's seasonal employment, arrange the care of the three children between them. Their plan is such that the children are seldom left without parental super-vision for more than an hour or two at a time. These mothers are conscientious and understand the needs of child-ren. They believe the children should be cared for in their own homes; and, as their limited budget will not allow for paid help, the care of the child-ren i s of great concern to them. Employment The women who have become wage-earners due to the unfortunate circum-stances in the home, were full-time homemakers in the majority of cases, until faced with the necessity of contributing financially to the family's need. Table 9» Education and Employment Training Age Group Total Education and Training 25-34 35-44 45 and Over Educational Level Elementary 1 1 2 Grades IX - XI 4 2 1 7 Grades XII and higher 4 4 Total 4 3 6 Training Post-graduate 2 2 Vocational 1 4 5 None 3 3 6 Total 4 3 6 13 Table 3 shows the education and employment training of these women. From the figures, the majority in the older age group have a higher education-al standing and are trained for employment. Of the thirteen women interviewed, nine are in the same or similar job classifications as prior to their marriage; two have obtained and been - 47 -able to hold jobs of a higher classification than previously; and two are in employment which may be considered a lower classification. The circumstances in each case are sufficiently varied as to pre-clude general comparison. Invariably, the woman has chosen work to suit her own situation or is seeking employment that will f i t in with the needs of her family and their budget. Table 10 Period of Entry into Labour Force Presenl t Age Total Date Entering Labour Force 25-34 35-44 45 and Over Trained: 1911-1920 2 2 1921-1930 3 3 1931-1940 1 1 Since 1941 1 1 Untrained: 1911-1920 1 1 1921-1930 0 1931-1940 1 2 3 Since 1941 2 2 1 Total 4 2 7 1? The employment history of the woman separated from her husband shows a l i t t l e different pattern. One, who had always worked, was out of the labour force only long enough to have her children; a second was in and out of the labour force two-thirds of her married l i f e ; the situation of the third one resembled the problem of the divorcee, in as much as a Court Order from the Family Court was not honoured by the husband, and employment for the woman be-came necessary to supplement the irregular income from the husband. The sampling from the survey is too small to be significant, but i t is note that the number of trained and untrained employees are about equal. The greater number of the older women in employment are trained or have had some training previous to their application for employment. - 48 -Income Among the anxieties and responsibilities accompanying the woman's dual role, the attempt to meet the present cost-of-living, and higher living standards generally, poses a real problem, since this demands a higher family income. Table 11 Income and Occupational Grade Income Group Occupations Total Professional Business Clerical Service Factory $ 500 - $ 999 $1,000 - $1,499 $1,500 - $1,999 $2,000 - $2,499 , $2,500 - $2,999 $3,000and over 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 3 3 1 2 Total 2 1 5 3 2 13 The interviews revealed i t is the woman with training who earns the higher wage and who i s in a position to make a choice of employment, loca-tion of work to homefand hours of labour. Her situation is noticeably different in that education and training have made planning less difficult. These women are able to move towards promotion or may change their positions as opportunities arise, for better working conditions and a higher wage. Only one of the thirteen women interviewed is attending night school, moving towards better and more remunerative employment. Another hoped to be able to plan to take a refresher course, for three reasons: namely, to qualify herself for more ski l l f u l occupation of the kind she enjoyed prior to marriage, viz: clerical work as opposed to her present occupation in industry, the regular hours of work which this would involve as well as an increase in wages. - 49 -Table 12 Ways and Means of Supplementing Income Woman's Income Bracket Income Supplemented by TOTAL No. with Supple-mentary Income Roomers and/or Boarders W.C.(a) Allow-ance Hus-band • s Pension Hus-band's Income Rela-tives Janitor Services Family Court Order $ 500-1 999 $1,000-$1,499 $1,500-$1,999 $2,000-$2,499 $2,500-$2,999 $3,000 & Over 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 Total No. of Women 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 (a) Workmen's Compensation Allowance. Nine of the thirteen women interviewed were supplementing their in-come by:- 1. Renting rooms. 2. Opening their homes to one or two boarders. 3. Helping with janitor service in the apartment block where they were residing, 4. Sharing home with maternal grandparents, 5. Irregular support from Family Court Order. 6. The husband incapacitated by illness was in receipt of a small pension. 7. The husband incapacitated by injury was in receipt of a Workmen's Compensation Allowance. 8. The seasonal worker (husband) contributed thirty eight per cent of the total family income. The contribution by the husband who has retired i s "not stated". One of the questions presented in the schedule i s , "would the woman interviewed be interested in job training?" Seven of the women gave "no" as their answer; one i s presently taking post-graduate work at a university; five made suggestions, such as, typing, shorthand, nurse's aid, post-graduate work in nursing, and a course in the selection of personnel. Several comments were, "there i s no money for this". Among the questions asked was whether the woman had ever contributed to a pension fund in connection with a job. One woman, in the 45-54 age group, - 50 -is presently contributing to a pension fund and also stated she had changed her employment to gain this security; one woman, in the 55-64 age group, said she had contributed prior to her marriage; and the other eleven women answered "no" to this question. The schedule did not ask for information on Trade Union membership and for the most part the woman interviewed did not mention this aspect of employ-ment. One woman, however, did volunteer an interesting item of information, her employer was about to reduce her wages when the Union intervened and the reduction was stopped. The woman had commented in the interview that she was "not too popu-lar at the store now". Reasons for Woman Working Of the thirteen women interviewed, nine were faced with the necessity of earning a living for themselves and their children. In four other cases, two were working for their children and incapacitated husbands, one husband was on seasonal work only, and one husband was retired from employment. They had l i t t l e choice of work in most cases and plans had to be formulated, without too much delay, to meet their needs. One woman did live on her capital for two years, but found her income so depleted in this short period that she re-entered the labour force after having had time to plan for i t . What is the attitude to work in this group? The answer in most cases i s "good". The one woman who did complain bitterly, i s one who might be referred to as a "professional widow*! in the sense of the term as used by F, Zweag in his book Women's Life and Labour. This woman feels "the community should support her and the child". She was on shift work - complained about the hours of work, also single girls and New Canadians getting a preference; but she did not seem to realize that her indifferent attitude and frequent absenteeism created problems for her employer. This woman was not presently working but - 51 -claimed to be looking for work. Twelve of the women interviewed planned to work for a long-term period and one said an "indefinite period". The young woman, whose husband i s incapacitated by injury, realizes that i f they are going to be able to move out of a small apartment into a house, she must continue working. She hopes to continue working for a number of years, providing she is able to plan child-care that is satisfactory. The women who have been out of the labour force for some years feel "housework gets me down" and working as a wage-earner is a "morale builder". Whereas, those who have been in the labour force during most of their married l i f e prefer "homemaking" and quite frankly say that even though they are earning a living they have lost "the very real pleasure in carrying out in a more complete and more leisurely way the job of housewife and mother". Although the schedule did not enquire about the health of the woman and her family, i t was a source of worry to most of them. They expressed some concern on this subject, such as, being satisfied with their present plan.BUT i f the children are sick,'complications arise. In almost every interview the woman indirectly brought up the element of fatigue resulting from long hours of work and home-life. Fatigue was a complaint, but not classified as such. En-ergy and time for household responsibilities, personal interests, family activi-ties seemed to be the pressure points, and there were indications that the psy-chological load was greater than the physical one. Being a member of the labour force i s only one facet of the woman's l i f e , and with the other duties of housewife and parent, in many instances, the woman had forgotten to think of herself as a person. The majority of the women were pleased to take part in the survey, some had heard or read about i t and seemed thrilled to learn they had been chosen. They had not considered them-- 52 -selves and their problems important; their every-day l i f e seemed to be concerned only with getting through the necessary jobs and having enough energy to go around. The interview seemed to help some of the women to think and to put into words the situations they are facing - planned household duties, family respon-sibi l i t i e s , personal and family gains and losses in their dual role, personal and family activities. For the most part, they liked their jobs, but there are three facets to consider — work, home-life, and leisure. It is the leisure time to be with her family and time for her own personal, interests that she considers her greatest loss. The woman wage-earner i n the handicapped family goes to work out of necessity and duty, as she is responsible for the present and future plans of the family. It is with great admiration that you listen to the story these women pour out and with amazement realize how they have adapted their lives to the new situation. The young married woman, whose husband i s incapacitated by injury, has enjoyed going back to factory work, i t has given her a "feeling of indepen-dence, greater responsibility, gives her a broader outlook, and has helped her to make friends". She came from Britain and returning to factory work may be a link with her former l i f e . The separated or divorced woman views her situation differently; she has her worries and anxieties but, on her own, is able to cope with them. "I manage better without my husband" i s a phrase repeated. She now knows what her total income is and plans accordingly, which, to her, i s an improvement from the days of wondering how much money her husband would bring home for the family. These women were receiving no support from their husbands, with the exception of one who did get some support irregularly. During the interview, they did not complain of non-support; they talked in more positive terms regarding finances. They did not seem to have the bitter tone of voice or the frustrated attitude - 53 -of the woman who is continually laying a charge of non-support; their moral standards seemed higher than the "professional widow" who looks to public assis-tance for support. This was quite noticeable in the interview with the woman who goes to work as a cook to help support her incapacitated husband (illness). She realizes when her husband's condition regresses to the point he cannot help him-self, she will be obliged to stay at home and they may have to apply for some type of public assistance. In the meantime, this couple are proud of their plans for "independence". One divorcee, with two small children, found herself in the d i f f i -cult situation of being considered a "poor risk" in the financial world when she decided to purchase a home. The mortgage company questioned her ability to plan for such an undertaking. However, she was able to work through this problem with the support of her parents and a few good references. The maternal grand-parents also live in the new home on a 50-50 basis and take care of the children during the woman's working hours. Her planning shows ingenuity and resourceful-ness. During the past six years, this trained employee has changed her job three times, increasing her salary with each change, and she is now earning two and a half times the salary on the f i r s t job. Since her ex-husband complained about her inability to manage, this woman is more than pleased with her achieve-ments. Women working from necessity had difficulty in looking at their "gains and losses". As chief breadwinner, they had no choice but to return to the labour force to "earn a living" but the fact they are "independent" i s a predominant factor in their attitude towards l i f e . Their gains are not as materialistic as those of the married woman working, who is a member of a normal family group. They are working to keep the family together, clothe, feed and educate the children, and this gives them a greater feeling of status. One woman said her children felt insecure when she f i r s t accepted employment, but - 54 -she feels "they will understand better later on". Home-Making The care of the children is of great concern to the woman. The Day Nursery hours do not f i t into the schedule of the vrorking mother. However, most mothers expressed the belief the children are happier and feel more secure when in their own home and coimnunity during her absence. The woman, who must leave the pre-adolescent and the adolescent without parental supervision after school hours, has her worries about their activities and friendships. The possibility that delinquent behaviour might develop was a real fear. The woman's income does not allow her to employ a reliable person to substitute for her. The mater-nal grandmother who cared for the two children said "I know these children better than their mother". However, one mother had a more positive attitude towards her plann-ing. Although she preferred home-making to employment, she had an excellent work-ing arrangement with her child. The mother worked a five-day week from 9:00 to 5:00; and, the child attended school Monday through Friday, 9:00 to 4:00. They both concentrated on their respective jobs during week days and play together each week-end. This mother tried having her child in a boarding school Monday through Friday, but she found this separation meant divided loyalties and a poor relation-ship. She also f e l t , while she would like to be a f u l l time home-maker, the child probably benefitted from her working, as she did not have time "to fuss too much over the child". On the other hand, the mother, who could not afford any of the paid services, said "we don't spend too much time together". Few women were able to buy services to lighten their burden. This was, naturally, noticeable in the lower income group. The small group who had the advantage of higher education and employment training, plus material assets, - 55 -such as, being a home-owner, were able to plan for paid services. One woman was able to plan for a cleaning woman one day a week, sent her bed linen to the laun-dry, and paid a woman to supply the family with home baking. At the other ex-treme, there is the woman who had to take on the added chore of helping the land-lord to take care of the apartment block in order to have the rent cut in half. In between, there are the women who get up early, go to bed late, and use their week-ends for house cleaning, washing, ironing and baking. There is l i t t l e won-der these women need a five-day week. The woman wage earner must also concern herself with economical buying. Shopping becomes a time consuming chore, which is sometimes given over to the children. The community in which the big markets stay open one evening a week i s a real asset in this woman's l i f e . Gains and Losses Each woman's situation i s different and she faces the two facets of her l i f e - work and home-life - with reality. However, she has l i t t l e time and energy left for leisure and her job and the people she meets there are a substi-tute for social l i f e . Participation in community affairs is not part of her l i f e ; the associations she does belong to often pertain to family affairs, such as, The Parent-Teacher Associations or parent groups in connection with scouts or guides. Three women expressed their love of music, and their leisure time was saved for concerts and musical groups. Another woman made a practise of attend-ing a "T" group once a week. Visiting with other families and return visits to their home were considered the recreation most indulged in and enjoyed. The occasional movie and television also shared top place in their form of recreation. A quiet type of recreation for the woman seemed to be what she desired. The woman at the head of the handicapped family has a three-fold job-work, home l i f e , and her own development as a person. When the call to duty came, - 56 -she adapted and adjusted her l i f e to the situation, and often a new personality develops. The woman gave willingly her opinions, views, and attitudes. Un-fortunately, the schedule did not bring out the woman's feelings about the im-portance of the father figure in the development of the child. The sampling in this survey is too small to have statistical value, but^as this is the f i r s t study of i t s kind in Canada, much will be learned of the reasons, problems, attitudes and implications of the married woman and her family, where the woman has worked in the labour force during the past twelve months. CHAPTER V THE MARRIED WOMAN WORKING - PROS AND CONS It now remains to consider the general pros and cons of the married woman working for pay. These will be considered from three aspects: the effect on her role as a parent, as a wife, and as a member of the community. For the most part, this summary i s derived from information secured in the interviews, though on a few points the experience gained from the survey has been brought to bear on some fairly well known points of view. To help give a review of the total group of women interviewed, some of the most indicative material from the schedules has been gathered in table form: Table 1 3 Family Constellation Age of Woman Family Group Under 2 5 - 3 4 3 5 - 4 4 4 5 - 5 4 Total 2 5 yrs yrs yrs yrs Total Families A. Married Couples with: No Children 4 7 6 3 2 0 One Dependent Child 2 2 3 7 Two or more Dependent Children 3 4 5 2 1 4 Total 9 1 1 8 4 1 B. Mothers with: One Dependent Child 3 1 4 Two or More Dependent Children 2 2 1 5 Total 2 2 4 1 9 Total Families 5 0 - 5 8 -Table 1 4 Dependent Children Description Pre- Grades Grades of Families school 1-8 9-13 Higher Total Married Couples with: One Child 4 1 2 7 Two or more Children 7 18 5 1 31 Widows with Children 3 2 5 Separated or Divorced Women with Children 2 9 1 12 Total Number of Children 13 31 7 4 55 Table 1 5 Income and Occupational Grade Occupations 1 Income Profess- Business Clerical Service Factory Total Group ional $ 199-1 499 1 4 5 500- 999 1 1 2 4 1,000- 1,499 2 6 3 4 15 1 , 5 0 0 - 1,999 1 1 3 2 7 2,000- 2,499 2 4 4 10 2 , 5 0 0 - 2,999 1 5 6 3,000 or more 2 2 •^ Unknown 1 1 Total 7 4 17 16 6 50 #Woman declined to give this information. The Care of Children In evaluating the effect on the child of having his mother work, impressions can be based only upon the woman's reactions, since for the most part there was no opportunity to assess the child's reactions directly. Some assessment can be made, however, of the working mothers' statements in regard to the care provided for the children; the gains and losses for the children as they see them, and the reservations they express about leaving children while they work. - 59 -Since the child's need for dependency upon the mother decreases as he grows older, i t seems advisable to consider separately three groups among the children included in the study: 1) The very young child (pre-school) 2) The child attending elementary school (pre-adolescent) 3) The teen-ager attending high school (adolescent) The Child of Pre-School Age Most child welfare authorities agree that the quality of parental care which a child receives in his early years is of vital importance for his future mental health. Dr. Benjamin Spock states: "The important thing for a mother to realize is that the younger the child, the more necessary i t i s for 1 him to have a steady, loving person taking care of him1". In a summary of John Bowlby's report on Child Care and the Growth of Love is the statement, "what is believed to be essential for mental health is that the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother-substitute - one person who steadily 'mothers' 2 him) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment". Many of the women visited in the survey have not found complete satisfaction and enjoyment in their role as mothers and have sought employment for this reason. In regard to the mother's employment, Josselyn and Goldman recognize that "Certainly, in some cases of this type the mother returns from employment stimulated and eager for the short period of companionship and emotion-al relationship with her child. She has just so much to give a child. She can give i t intensely in a few hours, whereas, spread over an entire day i t would soon wear thin. Such mothers are actually better mothers because they do 3 work." This very thought seemed evident in a statement of one young nurse 1. Spock, Benjamin, The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, Inc. N.I. 19k6~. 2. Bowlby, John, Child Care and the Growth of Love, Pelican Books, 1953. 3. Josselyn, Irene, M..& Goldman, Ruth Schley, "Should Mothers Work?" Social Service Review, Vol.XXIII, Number I, March 1949. - 60 -interviewed, "I love the baby, but I'd get bored and frustrated i f I was never able to get away from her". It was not true in other cases, however. The survey brought to light those mothers who have tried working but have found the experience exhausting rather than satisfying. Again, as Josselyn and Goldman state, "In many instances the (working) mother is so exhausted by the physical strain she i s under that she is unable to give emotionally to the child, in spite 1 of her primary capacity to do so". Judging from the few examples in the present limited survey, the mother's decision to work has sometimes proved satisfactory, and there are other examples where i t has been unsatisfactory, both for herself and the child. Those mothers who are sole breadwinners of the family have l i t t l e choice in regard to their dual role. The two families in this category, having pre-school children, recognized that the children were not happy about the mother working. One woman whose husband i s on compensation for a fractured spine, is employed in a factory. She enjoys her work and has the assurance that the children are in their father's care, but told the interviewer that the children beg her to stay at home. The other woman who has been separated from her hus-band for three years also enjoys her work (as a cashier) but has had difficulty keeping a regular and reliable baby-sitter. The children often t e l l her, "why don't you stay home?" In homes where both parents are employed, the woman in most cases can choose to stay home with the young child rather than work. The effect on the child as the result of her working depends upon a number of factors, three of which seem of particular importance: 1) Whether the child's physical and emotional needs are being met adequately by a steady substitute during the mother's absence, and that this is not a source of worry for her. 1. Ibid - 61 -2) Whether the mother receives satisfactions from her work, enabling her to give optimum emotional grati-fication to the child (she must be relatively happy to express her fullest emotional potential) and, 3) Whether she i s able to assume a dual role as worker and mother and not feel over-burdened and fatigued by the pressures of her responsibilities. These factors showed up in the survey to some extent. Among the seven women with pre-school children, two of them, employed in less-interesting service occupations (cook and dishwasher-elevator operator) did not find their work satisfying and gave up their jobs. The cook was unable to employ a regular baby-sitter and said she always left the house worrying about the child's care. The dishwasher-elevator operator (who also had two children in school), described her work as "very fatiguing" and recognized that her child-ren did not have as much contact with their mother as they should have had. She described herself as "so tired and cross a l l the time". On the other hand, two women employed in professional occupations, the nurse and the x-ray technician, were both well satisfied in their work and with the arrangements made for child care. Both women limited their hours of work to twenty-four hours a week and neither found their jobs fatiguing. Their babies were under a year old and they did not feel they were deprived in any way. One of them was able to leave the child in her husband's care, and the other had a baby-sitter, an "old family friend". Both were satisfied with the child care arrangements. Since both of these women have been happier working, they engage in only part-time employment that i s not fatiguing, and they have made provision for consistent and adequate child-care during their hours of work, i t is quite possible that the mother-child relationship, so important in early development, is better than i t would be otherwise. - 62 -In the other three situations, two of the women are office clerks and one a telephone operator. The telephone operator does not leave for work until 5 P»nu and works until midnight, leaving her two young children with her husband, her mother or a teen-aged g i r l who lives next door. While care of the children is not consistent, i t would be similar to an arrangement made in any. home where the mother has social obligations in the evening. This telephone operator does not feel the children are deprived in any way as she is with them a l l day long. The interviewer describes this woman as "bright and perky". One advantage she expresses about her working is that this brings the children and their father closer together. The children are both over a year old. The two office clerks worked full-time during the day. One f u l l -time hours too exhausting and felt that her children lacked attention and affec-tion. Since her husband worked night shifts and took care of the children dur-ing the day time, neither of the parents were able to provide more than bare physical care for the children. The woman recognized this and, because of the economic need she felt to continue employment, she was looking for part-time employment. The other office clerk went to work when her child was seven months old and has been working full-time for a year. She i s satisfied with the care the child is receiving from the maternal grandmother who lives with them. She feels that the child is better off as "she i s not too dependent on me". In this situation, the child's grandmother seems to be taking over the major part of the mother-role. The child's father puts the baby to bed. The child does receive consistent care during the mother's absence from the home, but one would wonder, as Josselyn and Groldman state, whether such a person is "incapable of function-ing in a mother-role".^ The mother sees that the child is benefitting materially 1. Ibid - 63 -by her working, and states "I would rather work when she's.small. It does not make so much difference to her". At the same time the mother was concerned that "I can't keep the house just the way I'd like to have. i t " . In summary, the mother-child relationship may be benefitted i f the mother desires to work at a job she enjoys, particularly i f she arranges this on a part-time basis. She will gain more satisfaction from her working i f she i s relieved by the knowledge that her child i s in good care. In these cases the mothers have found that the children are best cared for i f one person consistent-ly substitutes in her absence, either a relative or a reliable baby-3itter. When the child's father i s willing and able to take this responsibility, the child undoubtedly benefits. This allows greater depth in the father—child relationship to help the child grow in a healthy, happy manner. Apart from the emotional gains seen by these women, there are the physical advantages afforded by the additional income. In many situations, i t has bettered the family's standard of living and thus increased the physical well-being of the child. In those instances where the mother's working did not benefit the mother-child relationship, i t was usually due to the mother's working full-time at a job that was uninteresting and exhausting. Added to this was the inadequate care provided for the child. An extreme example of this might well be a case for a child-protection agency. The woman who worked as an elevator-operator and dishwasher on shifts from 4:30 p.m. to 1:00 a.m., 7 to 3 a.m. and 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. expected to provide day time care for her four year old child as well as her two children of school age. Fortunately she stopped working. The Child Attending Elementary School As Dr. Spock says in regard to the pre-adolescent, "After six years - 64 -and particularly after eight, the child's nature seeks and enjoys independence, turns more to outside adults (especially to good teachers) and children, for his ideals and companionship. He can get along comfortably for hours at a time without having to turn to a close adult for support. After school he s t i l l ought to have a feeling he belongs somewhere, even i f he forgets to go there".^" Dr. Josselyn and Ruth Schley Goldman add to this: "As the child, through social contacts and through school experiences, gains new confidence in his ability to handle situations that arise, and as he transfers some of his emotional ties to his own age group and to other adults, he manifests less need for an intense tie to his parents or parent substitutes. This shift, however, is possible only when the child i s confident of his ability to deal with the demands which the external world places upon him and when he requires only diluted experiences of dependency gratification. Faced with some problem with which he feels com-pletely incapable of dealing, he has again an intense need to turn to someone who will give him the same depth of security that was so essential in his earlier l i f e . He then seeks the security he can consistently find only in 2 parent figures". The brief contact with the women in the survey did not allow for a valid appraisal of the mother-child relationship. An assessment, again, can be based upon only the mother's statements. To determine how the relationship i s affected by the mother working, the following factors seemed most important: 1) Whether the mother's hours of work coincide with the child's school hours. 2) Whether satisfactory arrangements can be made for the child i f the mother i s s t i l l at work when he arrives from school or when he is home week-ends and during school vacations. 3) Whether the child accepts his mother's employment* 1. Spock, Benjamin, The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care. Duell, Sloan and Pearce, Inc. N.Y. 1946. 2. Josselyn, Irene, M., and Goldman, Ruth Schley, "Should Mothas Work?", Social Service Review, Vol. XXIII, NumberOne, March 1949. - 65 -Of the eight homes in which the mother was the sole breadwinner in the family, two of the mothers had worked a comparatively short time and were able to choose employment in which the hours of work coincided with school hours. Both of them could stop working during school vacations. One of them was unable to be free during Christmas and Easter vacations but, since she worked only a few doors away, the children could reach her easily. In each of these families the mothers expressed concern about their children becoming i l l and said they would stay home with the child i f this happened. These mothers could manage working on a part-time basis since one, an office clerk, had been separated three and a half years and received occasional financial help from her husband, and the other, a church secretary, had been a widow for two years and had some private income. Six of the women worked full-time, five during day hours and one, a nurses' aide, on eight hour shifts. One of these, a widow with a thirteen-year old boy, operated a rest home which included living quarters and she did not have to worry about child-care arrangements. Another who worked as a legal stenographer, has had the same housekeeper for three years and finds this arrange-ment satisfactory. Her nine-year old g i r l goes to. camp for part of the summer vacation. A waitress managed to work 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. as her husband was temporarily unemployed and could stay home with the children. She had to work occasionally on Saturdays and did not find this too satisfactory. She also took time off from work when one of her children was i l l . A divorcee, employed as a secretary, had her parents living with her, which relieved her problem to some extent. Working full-time caused problems for two of the mothers, one a factory worker, and the other, the nurses' aide, who worked eight-^hour shifts. After five years employment, the nurses' aide decided shift work was unsatis-factory and was looking for another job. Her boy who i s now eight, was boarded - 66 -with her aunt until he started school, then the child's older sister, a divorcee, came to live with the family and assumed responsibility for him. ATth ough the arrangement was better with the child living at home, the mother described him as insecure and unhappy because of her working. The factory worker i s divorced from her husband and receives no support from him. One of her boys, aged fifteen and in Grade 6 , was placed in an institution for retarded children, and the other boy, aged fourteen and in Grade 7 , is unsupervised after school and during vaca-tions. She leaves the home at 7 : 3 0 a.m. and he must get his own breakfast and lunch. As she says, she has not had any worries about him yet. They live in a downtown rooming house and he is on his own most of the time, makes use of the facilities at the Y.M.C.A., belongs to the Sea Cadets and has his own group of friends. This woman's brother, living in another city, is willing to take her boy to live with his family and the mother feels this i s a good plan, i f the boy will agree to i t . She intends to try i t on his next summer vacation. She feels she has "lost the companionship of the kids" by working, and recognizes that she cannot give adequate supervision and support them too. The children's reaction to having their mothers work can be assessed only from the views expressed by the mother. Where child-care arrangements were not required due to the mothers' part-time vrork, the children seemed less affected. One, who worked part-time, was particularly sensitive to the children's feelings about having a mother who worked. She suggested perhaps the children might under-stand better when they are older, that "it was hard to explain this to them now. She seemed relieved that they had "good neighbours". "We have lived here a long time". As in most cases, this woman was conscious of the attitude of the community, both in relation to herself and the effect this had on the children. In another family this was recognized by the interviewer but not by the mother. The mother, who operates a rest home, seemed quite unrealistic in believing her child looked upon her work as "wonderful", since she commented later in the - 6 7 -interview that he had asked her "not to put a name on the outside of the house". In cases where child-care arrangements had to be made, the children seemed better cared for and happier when they could remain in their own homes* The divorcee who now has her parents living with her and caring for her two girls, learned from experience that boarding her younger child with an aunt for four years had a detrimental effect on her relationship with the child. This arrange-ment was made to relieve the child's grandmother while the l i t t l e g i r l was of pre-school age. The older child remained at home. The mother said that her younger child felt "pushed out" and added that she is "trying to make this up to her now". Even when the children are cared for by their grandmother in their own home, the substitute care provided affects the mother-child relationship. In this case, the grandmother told the interviewer, "I know the children better than she does". In spite of the mother's conscientious effort to provide adequately for her children, and her real concern for their physical and emotional well-being, i t is sometimes difficult for her to protect her relationship with her children when she is employed full-time. The legal stenographer who has a housekeeper to relieve her in her absence, did not find this arrangement unsatisfactory. Instead, she saw some advantages for the child, in that she might fuss too much over the child's appe-tite, clothing and activities i f she were not working. This is probably realis-t i c ; she may recognize that, i f she were not meeting some of her own needs by working in an interesting job, she might easily become absorbed in her only child. Having a housekeeper allows her the freedom to spend time with the child even-ings and week-ends. Her child expresses no objections to her working as she knows i t is necessary. In general, the pre-adolescent child in these families i s old enough to understand that his mother needs to work, and i s accepting of whatever arrange-ment his mother is able to make for his care while she i s absent from the home. It seemed particularly important for the child's happiness, that he be allowed to remain in his own home where his surroundings were familiar and wtere i t was possible for him to turn to his mother when he needed her* In families where the father was also in the home and earning the major part of the family income, the woman had not worked for long, in most cases, and had not planned as carefully to provide care for her child while she worked. The burden of her responsibility as a parent was not felt as keenly as in those cases where the woman was not only the chief breadwinner but also missed the emotional support of a husband. With the exception of a kindergarten teacher who had operated a kindergarten in her own home for ten years, the average length of employment for these married women was less than two years. Of the nine families in this group, five of the mothers had been iirorking full-time. Child-care was adequate when relatives were able to be home with the children in the mother's absence. In three cases where the children were left to fend for themselves until their mothers arrived home from work, the youngsters felt that they were burdened with too much responsibility and preferred to find the mother at home after school. Those mothers whose employment required that they work Saturdays and during vacations, felt that this arrangement was particularly unsatisfactory, especially when the children were left unsupervised. One mother recognized the advantage of having resided in the same community for sixteen years as the neighbors knew the children well and took an interest in them. It i s probable that many of the working mothers felt the disapproval of the community, as some tended to defend their need to work and emphasized the material benefits to the family. As one woman said, her girls "do not complain or make comments", but "appre-ciate the extras" she is able to purchase for them. Another woman said, "you feel kind of guilty" in case home responsibilities might be neglected. Another - 69 -mother commented that since she has been working, she "hasn't the same control" over the children. Some saw advantages to being employed; as one woman said about her ten-year old g i r l , "I spoil her when I'm not working". However, the g i r l feels i t is "nicer when she's home". In most cases, this particular group of mothers felt that i f they continued to work, part-time employment during school hours would be satisfactory. Only three planned to continue working f u l l -time, two of these had their mothers staying with the children and the third was able to leave the responsibility of her twelve-year old child to his six-teen-year old sister. The kindergarten teacher, working only part-time, believed that her work enriched their family l i f e . The children enjoyed sharing in the kinder-garten activities, have gained a valuable understanding of children and parents, have profited by the school equipment and library, and, because of her added i n -terest, they have greater freedom to develop emotionally. The Child Attending High School. It i s understandable that when a child reaches adolescence, he has less need for dependency upon his parents. Providing that his earlier years have given him a sense of security in his family relationships, he has a greater capacity, at this stage, "to deal with reality through his own judgment rather than through complete compliance to a parent figure"."'" In the five homes where there were adolescent children, four also included pre-adolescent children. In such cases the mother seemed more concerned about the reactions from the younger girls and boys as the adolescent did not ex-press objection unless he was overburdened with responsibility. Her employment meant more to the older child in terms of the financial gains to the family, especially when i t meant an increase in allowance. In one home where the only 1. Josselyn, Irene, M., Psychosocial Development of Children, Family Service Association of America, 1948. - 70 -children, two boys, were high school students, their mother's employment had real meaning to them in terms of the extra income being set aside for their university education. One of these boys happened to be present when the in-terviewer visited the home and seemed obviously proud of his mother. Although she has worked as a telephone operator almost continuously since the boys were small, she appears to have maintained a close relationship with them and is accomplishing her goals in working. Apart from the consideration of general factors already mentioned pertaining to the mother's employment, her hours of work and arrangements for child care, the determination of which mothers should work and which should not is a determination that must be made on an individual-case basis, involving evaluation of personalities and relationships. Other Aspects of Family l i f e Although a married woman may not be a mother, she must be a wife -and the marital relationship can be strengthened or weakened by her employment. If i t i s to be strengthened there are certain requisites, such as, that both husband and wife are agreed on her need to work; that the job must be satisfy-ing to the wife; that the hours of work must permit them to spend time together in the running of the home, in leisure, and in participation in social activi-ties; and the husband must be willing to share the household duties to lighten the strain of the dual role which the woman bears. In those situations where the woman is a widow, or separated, or divorced, or has an incapacitated husband, there i s l i t t l e need to discuss her reasons for working — in almost every instance, she had an urgent need to work to provide the essentials for her family. For the woman whose husband i s fully employed, hoxrever, the situation may be different. A large proportion of the women interviewed gave financial need as a prime reason for taking employment. As the husband's wages in the past twelve months varied from $1,600. to $5,000. with a median income of $3,300. i t is obvious that this was a realistic reason in many cases. Even where the husband's wages did meet the actual day-to-day expenses, few of them were able to provide security. Actual want i s much less common in North America today than previously, but lack of security is one of the serious problems. Security means different things to different people. To one family i t may take the form of their own home; to another i t may be a retirement fund or annuity; to another i t may be further education for the children so that they may be more secure in their future. And to another woman i t may be that she feels she must seek employment to support her aged parents lest the burden on her husband prove too much, and place undue strain on the marriage. A l l these pressures are realistic and the wife has the right to seek security. There are other women for whom the need to work is psychological. The childless woman, in this day of labour-saving devices, may find herself with too l i t t l e to do to keep herself busy and happy, and social l i f e does not attract her. Then, too, there are women for whom housework i s not satisfying. They need the companionship of fellow-workers; the approval that goes with a job well done (not taken for granted, as are so many of the housewife's efforts); and the feeling that they are doing something constructive which gives them status and a sense of independence. This sense of status i s listed by Dr. Zweig as one of the three essentials of mental health -— the other two being love and security. These women seek employment which will f i l l their needs for security and psychological satisfaction insofar as their education, and the jobs avail-able at the moment, permit. Once again this survey demonstrates that the woman with the best education is the one who can choose between jobs, and can get - 72 -most satisfaction from i t . It is noticeable that in this sampling those who found least satisfaction in the job were those in the service-type jobs such as waitress, dishwasher, and elevator operator. This may have been coloured by their working conditions and by the type of employer but i f so, this was not mentioned by the women. Those who had positive feelings about the job were those who had speci-f i c skills which measured up fairly closely with the needs of the particular job. To be satisfying, and to be a strength to the marriage, the reasons for work must be acceptable to both husband and wife. The small number of wives who stated that their husband disapproved of them working, admitted that this greatly lessened their enjoyment of the job. Most of the wives reported that their husbands had resisted the idea at fi r s t because of a desire to be the sole support, but had accepted the idea gradually, on a temporary basis, and as they recognized the improvement in the wife's mental health. The willingness of most of the husbands to undertake a sizeable share of the household duties may be an indication of their willingness to cooperate in the plan. It is hard to be cer-tain of this, however, in view of the fact that there are strong cultural differ-ences which must be taken into account. In the younger age group, however, the idea that the husband shares the household duties seems to be fairly acceptable. The hours of work can be vital in the strengthening or weakening of the marital relationship. If the wife works a day shift while her husband works at night, as was true of a small minority in the present survey, the s i t -uation is intolerable. Some families justify this on the grounds that they have such heavy budget committments that they must make this sacrifice. Even on a temporary basis, however, i t would seem to be a dangerous threat to the marriage. Similar hours, or shorter hours for the wife, but certainly a similar shift to that of the husband; these would seem to hold most for the home l i f e . - 73 -Reasonable leisure from the job, and reasonable leisure from home-making itself — these are necessities. There should be time for both quiet relaxation,. and for active social l i f e . Too much active social l i f e , of course, can become a continuation of the rush and tension of work, and housework. It may be stated in passing, that television was so frequently one of the "hazards" of interviewing, that one was moved to wonder i f a l l the women were working in order to pay for television sets! Further experience with the in-terviews indicated that television had something to offer in such homes where the woman was often too overworked to have the time, or the inclination, for outside activity, but could share some of the family's enjoyment even when per-forming a sedentary task, such as ironing. It was noticeable that, for so many of the families encountered in this survey, there seemed to be no outside social l i f e . In some instances there were indications that this had been the family's pattern even before the wife took employment. In others, however, a real, unsatisfied desire for social activity was expressed. Finally, i t should be noted that paid services such as laundry, housecleaning, diaper service, etc., could have relieved the house-hold pressures to permit more recreation, but, because of the expense i t was rarely used. For the married woman employment does seem possible, without ser-iously injuring the marital relationship, provided that certain safeguards are observed. In most cases, however, i t would seem to be a strain on both man and wife. With the separated or divorced woman there i s another aspect, about which, unfortunately, the schedule did not e l i c i t sufficient material to draw conclusions. The schedule did not reveal the causes of the separation but i t did reveal that a l l the women in this category had been full-time housekeepers - 74 -prior to the separation. One wonders, however, whether the knowledge that she was employable, and able to earn a living, was a factor in her decision to sep-arate. In several instances the woman was getting a great deal of satisfaction from her job, and stated that she was actually much better off than before sep-aration. Her mental health appeared to be much better than that of the major-ity of women who take court action for support, and are, in so many cases, ridden by hate, and a desire to punish the erring husband. Community Implications In addition to her role as wife and mother, the married woman in employment plays her part as a citizen. Why do married women work? In the modern urban household, fewer demands are made on her time in the home and there are also more opportunities for her services in the labour force. As a result, far greater numbers of married women have found employment. It i s often stated that married women work from necessity or for psychological reasons, but these generalizations can be misleading: as shown by this survey, there are many reasons why married women become wage-earners. In some instances, women are working for some contribution to economic security, for example, saving to invest in a home, to help build up a retirement fund, or a fund permitting higher education for their children. Is part-time work primarily a married woman's field? This study does not furnish a complete answer; but, of the f i f t y married women interviewed twenty were part-time workers, and about forty per cent of the total number were without dependent children. One of the advantages of part-time work is the time factor, since i t permits more opportunity for child care by the mother, better organized household routine, and leisure time which can be spent with husband and children. The women seemed to consider part-time work largely in terms of what i t meant for hours of school and the husband's hours of work. - 75 -Importance of Hours of Work The married woman worker feels she can carry on her dual role, under present conditions, only through planned hours of employment. She is more likely to seek a job with minimum responsibility and a shorter day. Some business and community services are already making an analysis of operations and services adaptable to part-time schedules, and through careful recruiting and selection of applicants have gone a long way towards making part-time work mutually profitable and satisfactory to the employees, employers, and the community. The married woman who works full-time would like special consider-ations to plan her employment, in regard to hours of work and days off, to cc— . incide with the family schedules. Whether or not these concessions to married women create a problem in administration or for the personnel manager in their overall planning and schedules, can only be left to conjecture as the study did not include interviews with them. Information regarding the reaction of fellow-workers, who do not receive special consideration of this sort, was not available for this study. If other types of interviews had been included, such as, information supplied by personnel managers in business, the findings of this part of the study might have been more factual. Dr. F. Zweig, in his study of the whole range of sex differentials in industry (in the Lancashire, Cheshire, Staffordshire, Yorkshire and London districts in England) found that, "Some firms give married women half a day off for shopping, not regarding this as absenteeism, but where the practice is not adopted married women often do this on their own responsibility. It i s important for them to have at least one half-day free, i f the week-end is not going to be " a l l work" and husbands neglected at the time when they are free to enjoy life".-*-1. Zweig, F. Women's Life and Labour. Gollancz, 1952, London. - 76 -Many of the women interviewed showed l i t t l e interest in long-term employment, since homemaking was the important aspect of their l i f e . For this reason, they attach l i t t l e importance to further vocational training as a means to a more responsible position. Because the community as a whole very often fails to understand the economic problems faced by the married woman and her family, she meets with opposition i n the form of prejudice. She may be criticized for neglect-ing her family or for taking work from a woman who has no other means of support. Generally, the prejudice emanates from a member of the older genera-tion who s t i l l believe that "woman's place is in the home". The younger gen-eration enter into marriage expecting to share economic responsibility and home planning. It is interesting to note that the prejudice against married women working does not extend to certain types of work, for example, when women are giving service to the family, such as, nursing or domestic help. This may be because this woman i s meeting a need and giving personal service, or because society considers this type of job exclusive to women and, there-fore acceptable. Another form of prejudice is that frequently entertained by married women themselves who are not in the labour force. Criticism may be directed against the working mother who has no immediately apparent financial need to work. In such cases, the effect on the children of the mother's ab-sence from the home i s likely to be questioned. In general, however, this kind of prejudice does not enter into those situations where the family has acquired some standing in the neighborhood and where i t is known that con-scientious plans have been made for the care of the children. - 77 -Community Resources The woman who contemplates employment outside the home must con-sider the welfare of her family i n the areas of child care, health, and recrea-tion, so that she may feel more secure i n her dual role. The woman who lives i n a community where health and social services are available to her i n the care of the pre-school children, i n an emergency such as i l l n e s s , or providing recreation for the family, i s fortunate indeed. There are not many communi-ties that have a l l these services; but as the need increases the trend i s to-wards an extension of health and welfare services by private and public agenc-ies, so that the mother w i l l be able to remain i n the labour force where she i s needed. Nursery schools have not kept pace with the growing need either i n numbers or scheduled hours to accommodate the working mother. Some author-i t i e s , such as Dr. Benjamin Spock, claim"that the nursery school i s a cold i n -stitution, lacking i n individual attention and affection. "''"In some instances, i t has been found helpful to have a professional social worker appointed to take charge of intake work. When the parents are familiar with the policy of the school, and the staff have knowledge of the child's background, an attempt can be made to meet the emotional as well as the physical needs of the pre-school child. Dr. F. Zweig interviewed matrons and sisters i n nursery schools: the points frequently made were"that the child should be brought to the nur-sery gradually; that the hours of separation from the mother should be short; that the units of nurseries should be small; and, that the standard of the nurseries should not clash violently with the standard at home." 1. Spock, Benjamin, Baby and Child Care, Pocket Books, Inc., New York. 2. Zweig, F. Women's Life and Labour, Gollancz, 1952, London. - 78 -Varying points of view were brought out during the present survey. The majority of women interviewed expressed the opinion that the children are best cared for i n their own home and neighborhood. In the home environment, the children were happier and had a greater feeling of security. Some married women, who were not eligible to complete the ques-tionaire as they were not working, said that they wanted to work, full-time or part-time, but child care arrangements i n the home were either too expen-sive or too complicated, and i t was frequently mentioned that a nursery school was not available. In the homes where there are pre-adolescent and adolescent child-ren, another problem arises. There may be a period of two hours between the time school i s dismissed and the mother's return to the home. Unless adequate supervision i s provided, the mother i s anxious about how they may occupy their timej for example, l i v i n g i n a questionable d i s t r i c t , a mother of three g i r l s , ages 10 to Ik years, planned that the g i r l s watch television i n their home un-t i l she returned from work. On her ar r i v a l home, they planned outside a c t i v i -ties when she was there to give supervision. Another mother, l i v i n g i n a good residential d i s t r i c t , carried on supervision by telephone and a fellow-worker told of the anxieties surrounding these telephone c a l l s , especially i f there was no answer from the home. This problem i s being p a r t i a l l y met i n some areas through the community centres, the Y.M.C.A. or Y.W.C.A., various kinds of organized church and service groups. In a few agencies, trained social group-workers are giv-ing leadership. Besides catering to the children, the agencies provide re-creational a c t i v i t i e s for adults, and, i f the married women workers can stretch their day to include recreation, these are available to her. - 79 -The health of the family is also of great concern. Illness can become a hazard and a source of anxiety for the married women in employment. As the survey was not primarily concerned with the health problem, specific observations on this were not included in the interview schedule. Many of the women interviewed, however, brought up the question both directly and indirec-tly, and referred to their anxieties when there is illness in the family. Ade-quate health services are needed and these might include a registry of practi-cal nurses and homemaker services, to allow the married women worker to meet an emergency with the aid of a supervising agency. This would help to elimin-ate the procession of unreliable baby-sitters, which i s their only source of available help. It is appropriate to conclude with a quotation from an address by Marion V. Royce, Director of the Women's Bureau, which has been the sponsor of this national survey to which the present study is related. "We are living in a time, as i t were, 'between the times' when the old ways are no longer useful though, as yet, the ways of the future are drawn only vaguely. In this context the role and status of women are aligned closely with changes in patterns of family l i f e and the organization of work, especially the division of labour between men and women". One conclusion that is relevant to this study is that the married woman will probably be a permanent member of the labour force, both because she is needed by the economy and because of present day cultural and scientific changes which have altered family living in so many ways. The old adage "woman's work is never done" was formerly applied only to the woman with a home to manage and several children to rear; how far i t need be true for a middle-class woman with labour-saving domestic appliances i s another story to-1. The Chronicle, 1955-56, Pub. by Canadian Federation of University Women - excerpts from address by Marion V. Royce, Director of the Women's Bureau, Dept. of Labour, Ottawa. - 80 -day. But for the married woman who is also working i t may have a new meaning for her in her dual role. Scientific methods of homemaking have not released her from the responsibilities and anxieties of wife and mother; being a wage-earner has decreased her time to participate in neighbourliness and in commun-ity affairs. Sharing the responsibilities of housekeeping and child care to relieve the pressures i s something which will have to come either from the husband or the community or both. - 81 -APPENDIX A This summary of information sought was attached to a letter from the Director, Women's Bureau, Department of Labour, Ottawa, which was given to the woman prior to the interview. EiEPAR'MENT OF LABOUR Canada WOMEN'S BUREAU" SURVEY OF MARRIED WOMEN WHO ARE WORKING- FOR PAY Outline of Information Marital status; age group. Country of birth. Education and training. Current or last job; period of work; work experience. Earnings; pension participation. Busband's job; period of work; income. Size of household. Dependent children; care of children. Housekeeping duties. Recreational interests. Purposes in working. Ideas about convenient working hours for married women. Future plans with respect to work. APPENDIX B Table 16 Women's Participation in the Labour Force of Canada, 1931 - 1951 Labour Force 1931 1941 1951 Total Labour Force (men and women) 3,921,833 4,510,535 5,286,153 Single Women 537,657 665,623 723,433 Married Women 66,798 85,633 348,961 Widowed and Divorced 61,335 81,546 91,927 Total Women in Labour Force 665,790 832,802 1,164,321 Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Census of Canada, 1931, 1941, 1951. APPENDIX C Occupational Categories as used in the Study A. Professional Nurse X-ray technician Agricultural technician Home economist Social worker B. Business Confectionery-grocery owner Rest-home owner Kindergarten owner C* Clerical Secretary Bookkeeper Doctor's assistant Stenographer Legal stenographer Office clerk Filing clerk Comptometer operator D, Service Salesclerk Telephone operator Switchboard operator Nurse's aide Waitress Cook Elevator operator E. Factory Package hands (cheese, dates, ice-cream, e t c ) Warper (woollen mill) Power machine operator - 84 -APPENDIX D Bibliography Caplow, Theodore—The Sociology of Work, University of Minnesota Press, 1954. Chapter 10. Komarovsky, Mirra—Women i n the Modern World; Their Education and their Dilemmas. L i t t l e , Brownj Boston, 1953. Lundberg, Ferdinand and Farnham, Marynia—Modern Woman, The Lost Sex, Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York and London, 1947. Zweig, F.—Women's Life and Labour, Victor Gollancz, Ltd., London, England, 1952. Spock, Benjamin, The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, Inc., N.Y., 1946. Josselyn, Irene, M. and Goldman, Ruth Schley, "Should Mothers Work?" Social Ser- vice Review. Vol. XXIII, No. I, March, 1949. Josselyn, Irene, M. Psychosocial Development of Children, Family Service Associa-tion of America, 1948. Bowlby, John, Child Care and the Growth of Love, Pelican Books, 1953* CANADA Labour Gazette - "Women i n the Labour Force", March 1954. Labour Gazette - "Womanpower", Ap r i l , May, June, 1954* UNITED STATES Part-time Jobs for Women - Bulletin No. 238, Women's Bureau, United States Department of Labour. Women's Jobs, Advance and Growth, Bulletin No. 232, Women's Bureau, United States Department of Labour. Changes i n Women's Occupations, 1940-1950, Bulletin No. 253, Women's Bureau, United States Department of Labour. Women's Occupations Through Seven Decades, Bulletin No. 218, Women's Bureau, United States Department of Labour. The Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and Social Sciences. "Women's  Opportunities and Responsibilities 1, 1 May, 1947. 


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