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Forest types of the coastal western hemlock zone Orlóci, László 1961

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FOREST TYPES OP THE COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE by LASZLO ORLOCI B.S.F., University of British Columbia, Sopron Division, 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED LN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in the Department of BIOLOGY AND BOTANY We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1961 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver $, Canada. i i ABSTRACT This thesis contributes an a l y t i c a l and synthetical data on the forest phytocoenoses and proposes a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Detailed f l o r i s t i c a l and environmental descriptions are given, also consideration of succession and li f e - f o r m d i s t r i b u t i o n . The following ecosystem c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s proposed: I. Dry edaphic and mesic zonal forest types of the dry subzone 1) Pseudotsugetum menziesii a) subassoc. tsugetosum heterophyllae or the orthic Gaultheria forest type b) subassoc. legosolicum or the legosolic Gaultheria forest type c) subassoc. mahonietosum or the Gaultheria - Mahonia forest type 2) Tsugetum heterophyllae Subassoc. plagiothecietosum undulati a) var. muscosum or the orthic Plagiothecium forest type b) var. mahoniosum or the Plagiothecium - Mahonia forest type I I . Dry edaphic and mesic zonal forest types of the wet subzone 3) Tsugeto - Gaultherietum a) subassoc. typicum or the orthic Vaccinium alaskaense - Gaultheria forest type b) subassoc, legosolicum or the legosolic Vaccinium alaskaense - Gaultheria forest type i i i 4 ) Abieteto - Tsugetum heterophyllae a) vara clintoniosum or the Yaccinium alaskaense - Plagiothecium - Clintonia forest type b) var0 acerosum circinati or the Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagiothecium - Acer circinatum forest type III. Seepage forest types 5) Thujeto - Polystichetum or the Polystichum forest type 6) Thu.jeto - Blechnetum a) subassoc. typicum or the orthic Blechnum forest type b) subassoc, gleysolicum or the gleysolic Blechnum forest c) subassoc. turfosum or the peaty Blechnum forest type d) subassoc. rubetosum vitifolii or the Blechnum - Rubus  vitifolius forest type 7) Abieteto - Oplopanacetum or the Oplopanax - Adiantum forest type 8) Piceeto - Lysichitetum or the Vaccinium alaskaense - Lysichitum forest type IV. Moor forest types 9) Pineto - Ledetum or the Ledum forest type 10) Thujeto - Coptetum or the Lysichitum - Coptis forest type V. Flood plain forest types 11) Piceeto - Symphoricarpetum or the Symphoricarpos - Disporum forest type 12) Piceeto - Oplopanacetum a) var, populosum trichocarpae or the Ribes braeteosum - Oplopanax - Populus forest type iv b) var. abietosum amabilis or the Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax - Abies amabilis forest type 13) Populeto - Loniceretum or the Lonicera - Rubus spectabilis forest type 14) Alneto - Ribisetum bracteosi or the Ribes bracteosum - Lysichitum forest type 15) Saliceto - Oenanthetum or the Lysichitum - Oenanthe forest type The florlstic structure of the phytocoenoses was studied, described and correlated with factors of the environment. Variations in the floristic and ecotopic characteristics of the units support this classification. These characteristics were used in the key proposed for identification of the forest types. Forest types as basic ecosystem units are offered for practical use. They are uniform in composition and, therefore, potentionally they require different treatments in forest management. V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes to express sincere thanks to Dr. V.J. Krajina for his generous counsel i n a l l phases of the study, for his assistance in the iden-tification of the bryophytes, lichens, and higher plants, and for his guidance in the organization of the research. Thanks are extended to Dr. T.M.C. Taylor, Head of the Department, for his personal help and for f a c i l i t i e s made available i n the Department of Biology and Botany; to the National Research Council for continuous financial support; to Mr. Gy. Lesko and Mr. S. Eis for their kind cooperation in the study; to Mrs. M. Orloci for preparation of the synthesis tables and for her general assistance and encouragement; to Mr. R.C» Brooke and Mr. M.A.M. Bell for reading the manuscript. The author i s grateful for the f a c i l i t i e s made available by the Vancouver Foundation (1958), by the Faculty of Forestry and the University Research Forest, Haney, and by the Greater Vancouver Water District. TABLE OP CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 THE AREA OP STUDY 3 THE VEGETATION 7 PRINCIPLES AND METHODS .., 12 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ; 19 DESCRIPTION OF THE FOREST TYPES 22 I. Dry. edaphic and mesic zonal forest types of the dt'Y subzone 22 1. Pseudotsugetum menziesii 24 a. The orthic Gaultheria forest type 27 b. The legosolic Gaultheria forest type 30 c. The Gaultheria - Mahonia forest type 32 2. Tsugetum heterophyllae 34 a. The orthic Plagiothecium forest type 37 b. The Plagiothecium - Mahonia forest type ... 40 II, Dry edaphic and mesic zonal forest types of the wet subzone 42 3 . Tsugeto - Gaultherietum 43 a. The orthic Vaccinium alaskaense -Gaultheria forest type 46 b„ The legosolic Vaccinium alaskaense - Gaultheria forest type 49 4. Abieteto - Tsugetum heterophyllae 51 a. The Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagio- thecium - Clintonia forest type 53 b. The Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagio- thecium - Acer circinatum forest type .... 55 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page I I I . Seepage forest types £6 5. Thujeto - Polystichetum 57 The Polystichum forest type 59 6. Thu.jeto - Blechnetum 62 a. The orthic Biechnum forest type ...... 65 b. The gleysolic Biechnum forest type ... 67 c. The peaty Biechnum forest type 68 d. The Biechnum - Rubus vit i f o l i u s forest type 68 7. Abieteto - Oplopanacetum 69 The Oplopanax - Adiantum forest type .• 70 8. Piceeto - Lysichitetum • 70 The Vaccinium alaskaense - Lysichitum forest type •« 72 IV. Moor forest types 75 9. Pineto - Ledetum 75 The Ledum forest type 76 10. Thu.ieto - Coptetum 76 The Lysichitum - Coptis forest type ..76 V. The flood plain forest types 77 11. Piceeto - Symphoricarpetum 81 The Symphoricarpos - Msporum forest type 82 12. Piceeto,- Oplopanacetum 83 a. The Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax - Populus forest type 86 b. The Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax - Abies amabilis forest type 87 viii TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page 13. Populeto - Lord cere turn 88 The Lonicera - Rubus spectabilis forest type 90 14. Alneto - Ribisetum bracteosi 91 The Ribes braeteosum - Lysichitum forest type 92 15. Saliceto - Oenanthetum 93 The Lysichitum - Oenanthe forest type .. 94 THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANT COMMUNITIES 95 1. The flood plain complex 96 2. The muskeg complex 99 3. The rock outcrop complex 100 4. The complex of the glacial drift and alluvial deposits 101 DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE-FORMS 105 KEY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE FOREST TYPES 115 SUMMARY 126 REFERENCES 135 APPENDIX 140 , ix TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) TABLES P a& e Table 1. Climatic data of some representative stations 8 Table 2. Numerical values for species significance ... 16 Table 3. Forest units 21 Table 4. Distribution of life-form groups of the Pseudotsugetum menziesii 26 Table 5. Distribution of constancy classes of the Pseudotsugetum menziesii 27 Table 6. Distribution of life-form groups of the Tsugetum heterophyllae plagiothecietosum undu-r l a t i 36 Table 7. Distribution of constancy classes of the Tsugetum heterophyllae plagiothecietosum  undulati . 36 Table 8. Distribution of life-form groups of the Tsugeto - Gaultherietum 46 Table 9. Distribution of constancy classes of the Tsugeto - Gaultherietum 46 Table 10. Distribution of life-form groups of the Abieteto - Tsugetum heterophyllae 52 Table 11. Distribution of constancy classes of the Abieteto - Tsugetum heterophyllae 53 Table 12. Distribution of life-form groups of the Thu.jeto - Polystichetum hylocomietosum  splendentis 59 Table 13. Distribution of constancy classes of the Thu.jeto - Polystichetum hylocomietosum splen-r. dentis 59 Table 14. Distribution of life-form groups of the Thujeto - Blechnetum 64 Table 15. Distribution of constancy classes of the Thujeto - Blechnetum 64 X TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page Table 16. Distribution of life-form groups of the Piceeto - Lysichitetum 72 Table 17. Distribution of constancy classes of the Piceeto - Lysichitetum 72 Table 18. Distribution of life-form groups of the Piceeto - Symphoricarpetum 81 Table 19. Distribution of constancy classes of the Piceeto - Symphoricarpetum . , 82 Table 20. Distribution of life-form groups of the Piceeto - Oplopanacetum 85 Table 21. Distribution of constancy classes of the Piceeto - Oplopanacetum .» 86 Table 22. Distribution of life-form groups of the Populeto - Lonicereturn 89 Table 23. Distribution of constancy classes of the Populeto - Loniceretum 89 Table 24. Distribution of life-form groups of the Alneto - Ribisetum bracteosi 92 Table 25. Distribution of constancy classes of the Alneto - Ribisetum bracteosi 92 Table 26. Distribution of life-form groups of the Saliceto - Oenanthe turn 94 Table 27. Distribution of constancy classes of the Saliceto - Oenanthetum 94 Table 28. Proportional distribution of the life-form groups in the associations 106 Table 29. Comparison of mean cover degrees of herb;, layer elements, including the sum of chamaephytes, geophytes and hemicryptophytes in the main forest types 109 Table 30. Comparison of mean cover degrees of the nanophanerophytes in the main associations . . 110 xi TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page Table 31• Comparison of mean cover degrees of the geophytes in the main associations I l l Table 32. Comparison of mean cover degrees of the hemicryptophytes in the main associations 112 Table 33. Comparison of mean cover degrees of the chamaephytes in the main associations ........ 113 xii TABLE OP CONTENTS (continued) FIGURES P a g e Figure 1. Topographic sequence of forest types (Dry subzone) 28 Figure 2. Topographic .sequence of forest types (Met subzone) 45 Figure 3. Topographic sequence of forest types (Flood plain) 79 Figure 4. Trends in the succession of plant commu-nities of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone 104 Figure 5 to Photographs of plant communities 126 to 134 Figure 40. xfii TABLE OF. CONTENTS (continued) Page APPENDIX SUPPLEMENTARY DATA ON THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LIFE-FORM DISTRIBUTION 141 LIST OF PLANTS 145 SYNTHESIS TABLES 152 1 INTRODUCTION In situations where forest management is exclusively a mechanical activity of utilization (harvesting and marketing) of the products, the artificial approach which considers only stand structural charac-teristics (age, growth, density, and mixture) in the preparation of forest compartments is generally accepted. Intensive silviculture and forest protection, however, make inevitable the use ofanatural (basic) approach in the classification of forest stands. This approach to forestry started about the turn of the century. Kiss (1892) used plant indicators in the classification of forest habitats for reforestation on the Hungarian Great-Plain; Morozov (1903) introduced typology to the forestry practices in Russia; and Cajander (1909) established forest types and used them in the preparation of forest compartments in Finland, Similar applications of a natural approach were quite frequent in forestry practice between the two world wars. The establishment of plant succession studies (Clements, 1916); the foundation of the modern approach in the study and classification of the phytocoenoses (Braun-Blanquet, 1932); the initiation of the holocoenotic (vegetational and environmental) study of the forest communities (Krajina, 1933); and the introduction of the concepts of ecosystem (Tansley, 1935) and biogeocoenosis (Sukachev, 1947) were important contributions to the complex (holocoenotic) approach in ecosystem forest classifications. 2 The practical application of the ecosystem concept started on a wide scale. In five representative places in Hungary with the work i i i i i i I) of Soo, Simon, Timir, I. Karpati, Horvath, and Zolyomi from 1949 practical application aimed at ecosystem study and mapping of the forest communities. The Soviet Academy of Sciences discussed these forestry problems and adopted similar plans in 1950. Practical appli-cation of the ecosystem concept was discussed again->at the Fourth World Forestry Congress in India in 1954 and at the Ninth International Botanical Congress in Montreal in 1959. Further discussion by a group of Canadian scientists (Rowe, Haddock, Hi l l s , Krajina, and Linteau) took place at the Fifth World Forestry Congress in I960. Among eight basic proposals resulting from the discussion at the I960 Congress, they recommended "that for forestry purpose, ecosystem units be identified as significant segments of the forest land spectrum". Thus one can see that the application of the ecosystem concept i s now well established in forestry. In line with these proposals, the object of this thesis was to make an ecosystem classification of the forest stands of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. The investigation started in the summer of 1958 and continued through 1959 and I960. It included floristic; . study and classification of the forest types (L. Orloci), study of the edaphotope and recognition of the soil subgroups (Gy. Lesko), and ,u analyses of the ecoclimate and stand productivity (S. Eis). The investigation was supervised by Dr. V.J. Krajina, Department of Biology and Botany, University of British Columbia. ^ From Soo and Zolyomi (1950). 3 THE AREA OF STUDY The area studied i s located in the southern portion of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone on the Mainland of British Columbia between Howe Sound and the University Research Forest, Haney. Forest stands were analysed within the altitudes of approximately 30 to 3200 feet above sea level. The surface of the area i s divided by a system of valleys which have a general trend from north to south. The main valleys are U-shaped. The mountains sometimes rise above timber line and their slopes are steep. Fast-running mountain creeks are very numerous. The large streams actively meander over the Pleistocene sediments of the wide valley bottoms. Their flood plains are excellent forest producing habitats. The surface materials are granitoid rocks (mostly quartz diorites, diorites and monzonites). The bed rock i s frequently buried beneath thick deposits of glacial d r i f t , marine and lacustrine sediments, alluvial deposits, and the organic accumulates of the peat bogs. The following soil subgroups occur more generally in the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone^: 1. Subaqueous Soils Dy. Biologically inert A.C. soils (having only A and C horizons), which are usually covered by water deeper than 6 feet. T h e y The soils of the area were described by Gy. Lesko. The names of soils were originally used in the Outline of the Classification of Canadian Soils (1958), and in the Soils of Europe (Kubiena, 1953). 2) For delimitation of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone see Krajina (1959). 4 developt over acid rock in lakes surrounded by podzolic soils. Eutrophic Gyttja. A.G. soils (having only A and G horizons) which are covered by water shallower than 6 feet. The profile is deep and rich in organic matter. Vegetation is mainly Nuphar and Menyanthes. Gyttja occurs in the shallow margins of the lakes and in the oxbows of the flood plains. 2.Organic Soils Sphagnum Peat. This soil consists of undecomposed Sphagnum peat saturated with water. Pitch Peat Anmoor. This soil develops on old Sphagnum peat. The peat is decomposed on the surface and converted into black muck humus. The top twelve inches of the soil is drained during the driest months of the year. Spring Line Pitchy Anmoor. The top soil is a partly water-logged, mineral-deficient black muck which is thicker than twelve inches. The humus horizon is underlain by a permanently waterlogged mineral gley horizon. This soil occurs in spring-water swamps on slopes. 3.Gleysolic Soils Orthic Dark Grey Gleysol. Soils with a dark colored Ah horizon which is underlain abruptly by a gleyed layer(or layers) without distinct illuvial or eluvial subhorizons. A thin 0 horizon (0 - 4 in.) may cover the Ah. Orthic Gleysol. The 0 horizon is 1 - 6 inches thick. The Ah horizon is less than 2 inches thick and underlain by a 5 strongly gleyed layer (pr layers) without noticeable eluvial or illuvial subhorizons. 4. Regosolic Soils Alluvial Regosol. This soil consists of alluvium usually repeatedly and periodically deposited. Profile development is only initiated. Acid Legosol. Embryonic soils of acid rock outcrops which have a black colored Ah horizon a few inches thick, Eluviated Acid Legosol. Soils with 0 and Ae horizons which developed on acid parent rock. Illuviation is absent or very limited in the cracks of the parent rock. 5. Brunisolic Soils Degraded Concretionary Brown. These soils have an 0 horizon and a thin in. or less) continuous Ae horizon which contains grey concretions which lack iron coatings. The dark reddish brown to pale brown B horizon (of low base saturation) contains concretions and iron coatings. Mottling is absent in the B horizon. Orthic Brown Podzolic. This soil has a strong to medium acid 0 horizon (generally -§- to 2 in. thick) possibly with 1, f or h sub-horizons. The Ah horizon is less than 2 in. thick or lacking, medium to strongly acid and of low base saturation. The Ae horizon is generally absent or, if present, does not exceed \ inch in thickness. The B horizon is brown to yellowish brown, medium to strongly acid, and of low base saturation 6 without any noticeable accumulation of clay or sesquioxid.es. Slight mottling may be found in the lower B horizon. The C layer is acid in reaction. Modal Acid Dark Brown. Soils with a distinct greyish brown to black Ah horizon which is low in base saturation (below 50$). The brownish B horizon is low in base saturation and free of mottling. 6.Podzolic Soils Gleyed Podzol. This soil has an organic (o) horizon, an eluviated (Ae) horizon, and an illuvial (B) horizon containing accumulations of organic matter and sesquioxides, Gleying, indicated by mottling, is evident in the upper B or Ae horizons. Qrtherde Podzol. Soils with a profile similar to the previous one but they do not have mottling in the upper B or Ae horizons. The accumulation of organic matter does not reach 10$ in the B horizon. Minimal Podzol. These soils have an organic (o) surface horizon, a thin (less than 1 in.) light colored eluvial (Ae) horizon (which may be discontinuous), and an illuvial (B) horizon which contains accumulations of organic matter and sesquioxides. A distinct Bh horizon is lacking. Orterde Humic Podzol. These soils have a moderately thick 0 horizon, a distinct acid Ae horizon, and a friable Bh horizon containing 10$ or more organic matter and iron. This is under-lain by a friable Bhf horizon. The Bh horizon is more than 3 in. thick. 7 Humic Podzol. These soils are similar to the orterde humic podzol but their Bh horizon i s thinner than 3 i n . The climate of the Coastal Western Hemlock zone i s mild, humid, and oceanic. Local variations are indicated by the climatic records of a few selected stations (see Table l ) . The lowest precipitation i n the zone i s about 40 inches, but more frequently the zone starts with precipitation exceeding 70 inches. One may consider 110 inches as the precipitation limit between the dry and wet subzones. This limit may go as high as 120-130 inches in lower altitudes and decrease to 85 -90 inches in higher elevations. The reason for the decrease i s the lower mean temperature, the shorter vegetative season, and the greater proportion of snow which f a l l s in higher altitudes. THE VEGETATION At the end of the last glaciation, an estimated eleven thousand years ago (Armstrong, 1956), the invading vegetation on the new surface was considerably different from that of today. The invaders came from distant ice free refuge centers. Such centers were in Alaska and Yukon, for the northern parts of British Columbia, and in the United States (Washington, Oregon, California) for the southern and coastal parts of British Columbia. Hansen (1947) studied the post-glacial changes of vegetation i n Western Washington through pollen analyses of the muskegs. He found that "... the post glacial pioneer invaders of glaciated terrain were lodgepole pine and western white pine, which were rapidly Station Annual total Wettest Driest Annual Mean annual Mean monthly precipitation month month snow fall temperature temperature i n . i n . i n . i n . Jan. July above below max. min. 50°F 32°F 0 F op University Forest, Haney 10 years Dry subzone 91.7 13.9 2.8 60.3 47 32 61 5 n i l 95 -5 Cfb Coquitlam Lake Prec. 41 years Temp, 20 years Wet subzone 138.1 22,4 2.9 47.2 47 33 61 5 n i l 98 -6 Cfb Generally for the zone (From Krajina, 1959) 70-262 11-45.7 2.8-6.5 10-65 49 40 64 5 1 1 1 1 106 +4 C f b Table 1. Climatic data of some representative stations (1957). co 9 replaced by Douglas-fir and western hemlock. Hemlock expanded more slowly than Douglas-fir because of unfavourable soil conditions, the development of warm, dry climate reaching a niaximum between 8000 and 4000 years ago, and periodic fire. After a return to a moister and cooler climate about 4000 years ago, hemlock expanded more rapidly to supersede Douglas-fir in some areas, and to become co-abundant in others." The present forest stands of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone consist predominantly of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), and to a lesser extent western redcedar (Thu.ja plicata). Their zonal asso-ciate in the wet subzone is amabilis f i r (Abies amabilis)."^ The characteristic species for the zone and the species differ-entiating the dry and wet subzones are shown in the following table: Species Differentiating Species Differentiating Characteristic Combination the Dry Subzone the Wet Subzone of Species for the Zone Cornus nuttallii  Prunus emarginata  Sorbus sitchensis  (Gaultheria shallon) Mahonia nervosa  Rubus vitifolius  Rosa gymnocarpa  Rosa nutkana  (Polystichum muniturn) Achlys triphylla Bazzania tricrenata Abies amabilis  Sorbus occidentalis  Vaccinium alaskaense  Vaccinium ovalifolium  Rubus pedatus  Tclrnus canadensis) Clintonia uniflora  Chimaphila menziesii  Rhytidiopsis robusta  (Blechnum spicant) Streptopus streptopoides  Lycopodium obscurum Tiarella unifoliata Tsuga heterophylla  Thuja plicata  Goodyera oblongifolia  Linnaea borealis  Tiarella trifoliata  Listera cordata  Listera caurina  Trientalis latifolia  Plagiothecium undulatum  Rhytidiadelphus loreus  Pseudisothecium stoloniferum  Lepidozia reptans  Bazzania ambigua 1) See footnote on page 10. 10 Species Differentiating Species Differentiating Characteristic Combination the Dry Subzone the Wet Subzone of Species for the Zone (contdo) Pilophoron hallii  Usnea longissima Corallorhiza maculata  Hemitomes conge3turn Pyrola secunda  Eurhynchium oreganum  Hylocomium splendens  Hypnum circinale  Parmelia physodes  Cetraria glauca  Cladonia subsequamosa  Icmadophila ericetorum The wet edaphic: habitats are inhabited by sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). western redcedar, red alder (Alnus rubra), black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), big leaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) and willows (Salix sp.) The other tree species occurring in the zone are either found through-out the zone (Pseudotsuga menziesii) or local pioneers (Pinus  monticola. Betula papyrifera. and Populus tremuloides), and rarely as shade tolerant species (Tsuga mertensiana. Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) that occur mainly in the Coastal Mountain Hemlock Zone. Western Hemlock occurs exclusively on edaphic habitats in the Coastal Douglas-fir Zone and amabilis f i r is completely missing. Western hemlock may associate with mountain hemlock (Tsuga  mertensiana) in a narrow transitional belt between the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone and the Coastal Mountain Hemlock Zone. As one approaches the higher altitudes (3200 feet) western hemlock disappears from the mixture. Amabilis f i r extends farther into the Coastal Mountain Hemlock Zone. 11 On particular edaphic habitats, one will find many species which are either relic elements of an extinct post-glacial flora or recent migrants from other zones* For example, isolated populations of Pinus eontorta. Rubus chamaemorust Vaccinium myrtilloides. V. uliginosum (Seymour Creek Valley), Dryopteris arguta. Polystichum andersonii, Botrychium virgin!anum (Squamish River and Seymour Creek Valleys), Phyllodoce empetriformis. and Populus tremuloides (University Research Forest, Haney) are present but rare in the zone. It is of interest to mention that Abies gitr^iddis was found in the area of study only sporadic-ally in alluvial habitats on the banks of the Squamish River (circa 30 -50 feet above sea level). 12 PRINCIPLES AND METHODS 1. Approach to ecosystem classification There are two basic approaches proposed for the classification of ecosystems in Canada. (i) One is the environmental approach in which combined macro-climate and landform units provide the basic classification of ecosystems (Hills, I960). Because different ecosystems may be associated with the same landform within a bioclimatic zone or subzone, the use of landform alone would lead to confusion in the classification of forest ecosystems as would any other approach which is not holocoenotic. (ii) The other is the holocoenotic approach of Krajina .(l952i) and his-students in which vegetational and environmental characteristics are combined with equal importance. The application of the holocoenotic approach generally includes the establishment of basic vegetation units (phytocoenoses of ecosystems) and the study of the floristict '•. and ecotopic aspects of the ecosystems bound with those vegetation units. The basic vegetation unit may coincide with a single ecosystem. Sometimes, however, i t has to be s t i l l divided by mainly edaphic or rarely climatic characteristics into two or more individual ecosystems. In general, the study of J .J old immature or mature stands should precede the study of the more ecologically difficult young immature and disturbed stands. After determining the key ecotopic and vegeta-tional characteristics of the original ecosystems ih mature stands,  Jy .1 one can recognize the original ecosystems in disturbed localities. 13 The ecosystematic unit used here is the forest type.1^ The forest type frequently coincides with the plant association, how-ever, sometimes i t does not. This is the reason why the phytocoe-nosystematic position of the forest type varies. The classification and description of the forest types is designed for practical forestry use. The holocoenotic approach serves this aim well because i t results in the establishment of a moderate number of units, makes generalization possible on the forest type level, and its application requires only a limited knowledge in fundamental taxonomy of plants and soil science. The recognition of too many units, that commonly occur with environmental approaches, would not be practical because the number of applicable forestry methods (silvicultural and other) is very limited. The biological approach, as presented here, does not attempt to replace the conventional methods of forest inventory or regulation. It is recommended rather for use in estimation of site quality and potential productivity; in selection of sample plots for forestry research; and in the preparation of biological forest compartments representing silvicultural problems in artificial or natural regene-ration; in selection of tree species for plantations, and in clearing and thinning operations. It may also be useful in fore-casting the effect of slash burns and possibly in forming operational units for forest pathology and entomology. It has potential application Defined later in the text 14 i n wildlife and range management as well as for potential agricul-ture use. Indeed, i t s applicability aims for the multiple use of forests. 2. Methods'' a. The reconnaissance phase This phase of the investigation involved gathering general information of the area with special concern for the flora, soils, climate, geology, geography, f i r e and management history, distribution of the mature stands, and recognition of the vegetational units. b. The selection of the sample plots Selection of the sample plots for study required the recognition of phytocoenoses and the delimitation of their boundaries. Although the rigid sampling techniques of the classical forest inventory methods may not be used in this phase of the work, the random distribution of sample plots over the entire ecological and geographical range of each forest type was attempted. Since the homogeneity of the stand on the sample plot i s of great importance, special care was taken to exclude disturbed forest edges and recognizable transitions. The usual size of the sample plot was l / 5 acre, however, smaller plots were also used occasionally. "'"'Methods used were similar to those by Mueller-Dombois (1959). Modifications of these are described briefly in the text. Ecological terminology i s based mainly on terms discussed by Boros (1955), Carpenter (1956), Oosting (1956), Dansereau (1957), Daubenmire (1959), and reports on the IX. International Botanical Congress (i960). Documentary plants are stored in the herbarium, Dept. of Botany, University of British Columbia. 15 c. The analysis The analysis of each sample plot involved a description of the layering,"*^ estimation of the cover degree of each layer, and an evaluation of the species significance, sociability, and vigour of the component species, the characteristics of the ecotope (soil samples were collected by Gy. Lesko, ecoclimate was studied by S. Eis), and the forest stand mensuration (carried out mainly by S. Eis). Species significance (total estimate of abundance and dominance), sociability, and vigour were evaluated using Domin and Krajina's scale (after Krajina, 1933). d. The synthesis Synthesis is the summation of the analytical data into synthesis tables and the determination of constancy, fidelity, and the life-form spectrum. Constancy was calculated as recommended by Braun-Blanquet (1932). Fidelity was evaluated with the scale proposed by Szafer-Pawlowsky (1927) and Braun-Blanquet (1932) in Becking1s interpretation (1957). In this concept, fidelity is a measure of the degree of ecological adaptation of the species to the habitat factors represented by the phytocoenosis. It is calculated by the ' For the designation of the different vegetational layers, capital letters were used. Letter A designated the tree layer, B the shrub layer, C the herb layer, and D the bryophyte and lichen layer. The sublayers were indicated by Arabic numerals used as subscripts (e.g. A]_, A 2). The corticolous and lignicolous bryophytes were included into D layer, where a distinction was made between those, growing on the humus (i.e„ on the ground), indicated by letter h, and those occurring either as lignicolous (letter l ) , or corticolous (letter c) plants. Sublayers of each layer are summarized by the total cover of the layer (Gesamtdeckung by Krajina, 1933) under letters A, B, C and D. Radforth (1952) used capital letters to designate coverage classes which should not be confused in meaning with these symbols. 16 comparison of corresponding values for the species in the related phytocoenoses as to its constancy, species signi-ficance, vigour, and sociability. With fidelity values, one establishesthe characteristic species of the associations or higher vegetation units. Constant species, the average cover degree of which is over 500, are constant dominants. e. Life-forms1^ Life-form of the species is indicated using Raunkiaer's system (Krajina, 1933, and Braun-Blanquet, 195l). The l i f e -form classes recognized in the flora of the vegetation units studied are the megaphanerophytes (P^), nanophanerophytes, (PJP , chamaephytes (C^), hemicryptophytes (H), geophytes (G), bryophytes (B), and lichens (L). Species significance Range % Humerical Value + 0 1 0 2 less than 5% 1 3 5 4 5 - 10 10 5 10 - 25 25 6 25 - 33 33 7 33 - 50 50 8 50 - 75 75 9 75 - 95 95 10 95 - 1 0 0 100 Table 2 . Numerical values for species significance. ' The proportional distribution of life-forms is calculated both from species occurrence as well as from total cover degree. Total cover degree of individual species in an association is the sum of the numerical values of that species in each plot. These values are summed by life-form and are expressed as absolute and relative (percentage) life-form cover for each association. These numerical values, tabulated in Table 2 , were subtituted for the species significance symbols. 17 f. Classification Classification involved the recognition of ecosystems (which in this study are called: forest types) and the establishment of their systematic position using vegetational and ecotopic characteristics. g. Association and Lower Categories The association is defined here after Krajina (i960). The sub-associations are units recognized within the association. These association sub-units are characterized by edaphic and/or microclimatic factors, or by the combination of such factors with geographical and/or macroclimatological influences (Drees, 1953). The variants differ from each other by macroclimatological factors. A phase is a phytocoenosis in a very juvenile stage of organization and, therefore, i t is subject to rapid substantial changes within a short time. h. Forest Type To avoid difficulties arising from use of hierarchical units of phytocoenology, the basic ecosystem category in the classification is the forest type (Zolyomi, 1954)! The forest type is a practical ecosystematic unit which is defined by a certain type of vegetation and its ecotope. Indeed, i t is a geographical category. The systematic position of the forest type varies —that is, i t may assume the level of association, subassociation, or variant. Recognition of the forest type is possible by both vegetational (constant dominant and character species combinations) and ecotopic characteristics. The concept From Zolyomi, Jakucs, Barath and Horanszky (1954). 18 of utilizing the factor which most obviously characterizes a peculiar ecosystem, regardless of its floristical or ecotopic nature, is generally accepted. Therefore, no hesita-tion was used to stress individual environmental (e.g. Thu.jeto -Blechnetum gleysolicum) or vegetational characteristics (e.g. Abieteto - Tsugetum heterophyllae clintoniosum) i f i t was useful in the recognition of the ecosystem. Categories higher than the forest type are environmental (group) or bioclimatic (zone and subzone). i . Zonal1 Forest Types The forest type which occurs over the widest range of edaphic and topographic conditions (except for the extremes), without substantial changes in its vegetational structure is the zonal forest type. It is often called the climatic climax because essentially i t is controlled by the macroclimate and represents a stage toward which a l l the other phytocoenoses in the area tend to develop. The zonal forest types are limited by a narrow range of macroclimate, characterizing their respect-ive subzones. j . Edaphic Forest Types These types are essentially controlled by local extremes of edaphic or topographic conditions. Edaphic forest types are distributed over a wide range of macroclimatic conditions without marked changes in their floristic structure or produc-tivity.  "^ The term zonal is used in this study with similar meaning as in soil science. It was applied to plant communities as early as 1926 by Alechin, and also by Walter in 1943 (according to Whittaker, 1953). 19 REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE Forest zones (formations, climatic types) were reported by Whitford and Craig from the Pacific Coast as early as 1918. They described and roughly mapped five climatic types. In defining their units, they used the records of climatic stations and considered the component forest tree species. Although the aim of their work was forest inventory, their climatic types were so well established that they are s t i l l accepted. Two decades later, Halliday (1937) described large bioclimatic units, the so-called forest sections, from the same area. His e sections were more heterogenous with respect to the vegetation and climate than the climatic types of Whitford and Craig. Despite their extremely general nature, Halliday's descriptions contributed valuable information to the understanding of the forest zones. Rowe^ swork (1959) was a refinement of Haliday^s forest sections. A progressive step in the establishment of bioclimatic zones was taken by Krajina (1959) who defined forest zones by means of their climate, soil, and vegetational characteristics. The corresponding terms which were used in the different classifications are summarized in Table #3. Phytocoenological studies started in the Pacific Northwest in the late 1920's. Ilvessalo (1929) initiated the studies and published some observations on forest stands from Vancouver area. Kujala described several forest types in this area in 1931 (published in 1945). On a purely quantitative basis, he recognized the Gaultheria 20 type (Stanley Park, Capilano), Tiarella - Aspidium muniturn type (Stanley Park), Achlys - Gaultheria type (langford), Achlys -Tiarella - Aspidium muniturn type (Cowichan Lake), Lysichitum type (Stanley Park, Capilano), and the Tiarella - Fatsia type (Stanley Park, Capilano). Spilsbury and Smith (1947), who attempted the classification of secondary Douglas-fir stands, recognized the Polystichum site type, Polystichum - Gaultheria site type, Gaultheria site type, Gaultheria - Parmelia site type, and the Gaultheria - Usnea site type on the Pacific Coast. The original classification was extended and partially revised by Krajina and Spilsbury (1950) with a study of mature virgin stands. The ecosystem concept in classification of forests on the Pacific Coast was first employed by Krajina (1952). Prom the Coastal Douglas-fir Zone, Krajina described seven units on the association level. These were: Gaultheria - Peltigera, Gaultheria,. Eurhynchium - Hylocomium, Polystichum. Lysichitum. Adiantum and Sphagnum. The corticolous and lignicolous flora of Krajina1s associations were studied by Szczawinski (1953), Szczawinski and Krajina (1959), the water relations by McMinn (1957), and the secondary stands in the initial stage after logging by Mueller-Dombois (1959). 21 Whitford and Craig 1918 Halliday 1937 Rowe 1959 Krajina 1959 Douglas-fir -Madrona - Oak Transition Section (C.l) Strait of Georgia Section (Cl) Coastal Douglas-fir Zone, Dry Subzone - Redcedar type South Pacific Coastal Douglas-fir Zone, Wet Subzone . Redcedar -- Hemlock type Southern Coast Section Coast Section (C2) Coastal Wes-tern Hemlock Zone, Dry Subzone Hemlock -- Balsam type (C2) Coastal Wes-tern Hemlock Zone, Wet Subzone Subalpine and muskeg type Coastal subalpine Section Subalpine Mountain Hemlock Zone Hemlock - Sitka spruce type Part of the Southern and Central Coast Sections (C.l, C.2) and Nor-thern Coast Section (C.4) Part of the North Pacific Coast Section (C,3), and Queen Char-lotte Section (C4) Coastal Wes-tern Hemlock Zone, Sitka spruce Subzone Table 3. Forest Units. 22 DESCRIPTION OP THE FOREST TYPES Five environmental groups were formed on the basis of the environmental similarities of the forest types. These groups are: I. Dry edaphic and mesic zonal forest types of the dry subzone II. Dry edaphic and mesic zonal forest types of the wet subzone III. Seepage forest types IV. Moor forest types V. Flood plain forest types I. Dry edaphic and mesic zonal forest types of the dry subzone Both dry and mesic forest types receive their water supply from precipitation. The solum is coarse textured and either shallow (dry sites) or deep (mesic sites). The soil water economy is relatively poor compared with other environmental groups. Within this group, however, the solum of the mesic habitats is finer textured than the solum of the dry habitats. Consequently, the soil water economy of the mesic habitats is better than that of the dry habitats. In the mesic habitats of some localities, slight seepage may appear deep in the soil for short periods of time in the early spring or following rain. Such periodic seepage, however, does not effect sub-tantially the vegetational structure or vigour of the component ^ For an explanation of the a\ synsystematical terms used, see the chapter on Methods. 2 3 species. The higher productivity of mesic habitats compared with the productivity of the dry habitats is due to the relatively high water-holding capacity of the former with their relatively deep and fine textured solum and rich out-wash materials. The herb layer is generally poor or lacking. This may be explained by: (i) The inadequate soil moisture content which prevents the establishment in larger number of the shade tolerant seepage elements such as Polystichum muniturn, AthyTJum f i l i x - femina, and Tiarella triofoliata. The sporadic occurrence of stunted individuals of these plants indicates the rich substratum, (ii) The shade which eliminates the shade intolerant mesophytic elements such as, Pteridium aquilinum. Anaphalis margaritacea. Epilobium augustifolium and other species that invade after logging, (iii) The general lack of shade tolerant subxerophytic or mesophytic species in the flora of the Western Hemlock Zone. The lower shrub stratum is generally well developed in the dry forest types (mainly Gaultheria shallon, or Gaultheria and Mahonia nervosa) but is lacking or mainly Mahonia nervosa in the mesic forest types. If the crown canopy is opened, Gaultheria  shallon and Mahonia nervosa invade mesic habitats. In such 24 localities, the recognition of the original forest type will he possible by soil profile and topographic characteristics. The total relative proportion, of hemicryptophytes, geo-phytes, and chamaephytes ranges from 3.5 (dry forest types) to 2.5$ (mesic forest types) in contrast with the high proportion of the same life-form classes in the seepage group. The relative proportion of nanophanerophytes varies from 23$ (dry forest types) to 10.5$ (mesic forest types). The forest canopy, occupying dry habitats is dominated by Pseudotsuga menziesii. The forest cover of the mesic habitats is mainly of Tsuga heterophylla. This group includes the following forest types: A. Dry edaphic forest types a) orthic Gaultheria b) legosolic Gaultheria c) Gaultheria - Mahonia B. Mesic zonal forest types a) orthic Plagiothecium b) Plagiothecium - Mahonia I. A. Synsystematic designation of the dry edaphic forest types: Association 1. Pseudotsugetum menziesii (Kujala) nom. nov.' Synonym: Gaultheria type Kujala, 1945 p.p., (namely rec. 160 and I6l); Gaultheria site type Spilsbury and Smith, 1947 p.p. (records indicate codominance of Polystichum muniturn in 30$ of the sample plots with reduced vigour); Gaultherieto «* Pseudotsugetum Becking, 1954 p.p. -^Nomenclature is in accordance with the recommendations of Braun-Blanquet (1951), Drees (1953), and Dansereau (1957). 25 Type-record: Kujala, 1945» Composition: Character species: Gaultheria shallon Holodiscus discolor Constant dominant species: Pseudotsuga menziesii Vaccinium parvifolium Thuja plicata Pteridium aquilinum Tsuga heterophylla Eurhynchium oreganum Constant species (not dominant): Scapania bolanderi Dicranum fuscescens Hypnum circinale Pseudisothecium stoloniferum Lepidozia reptans Cladonia subsquamosa Distribution: This association occurs in the dry subzone of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone and in the Coastal Douglas-fir Zone. Further classification: a) subassoc. tsugetosum heterophyllae subass. nov. Composition: Character and constant species of the association. Differentiating species: Tsuga heterophylla (in A^ , and occasionally in A^). Soil: orterde podzol, orterde humic podzol, degraded cocretionary brown. b) subassoc. legosolicum subass. nov. Composition: Characteristic and constant species of the association. 26 Differentiating species: Calliergonella schreberi  Plagiothecium undulatum Peltigera canina  Cladonia rangiferina  C. impexa Cladonia furcata C. coniocraea C, bellidiflora C, pityrea C, macilenta Soil: eluviated acid legosol. c) subassoc, mahonietosum (Krajina and Spilsbury) stat. nov. Synonym: Pseudotsuga menziesii — Gaultheria shallon association Krajina and Spilsbury, 195$. Type-record: Krajina and Spilsbury, 1953* Composition: Character and constant species of the association. Differentiating species: Mahonia nervosa  Chimaphila umbellata Soil: minimal podzol. Rosa gymnocarpa  Eurhynchium oreganum p M PN Cfi H G B L by total cover ($) 48 23 1 0,5 2 25*5 -by species ($) 7 18 4 6 5 40 , 20 Table 4. Distribution of life-form groups of the Pseudo tsugetum menziesii 27 5 4 3 2 1 (in f>) 15 4 9 10 62 Table 5. Distribution of constancy classes of the Pseudotsugetum menziesii Description of the dry edaphic forest types: a. The orthic Gaultheria forest type (i.e. Pseudotsugetum menziesii tsugetosum heterophyllae) This forest type occurs exclusively in the dry sub-zone of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. It is established either on convex slopes or on dry and coarse alluvial and outwash terraces. The soil depth varies from 11 to 34 inches. It is coarse textured and has extremely good drainage. The soil groups which are associated with this forest type are the orterde podzol, the orterde humic podzol, and degraded concretionary brown. The stand productivity is poor. The average site index for Pseudotsuga menziesii is 110 feet and i t is even less for Tsuga heterophylla (102 feet) and especially low for Thu.1a plicata (84 feet). The primary use for this forest type is (i) soil and water conservation on the convex slopes or (ii) wood production on the coarse alluvial or outwash flats. DRY SUBZONE L E G E N D G- G A U L T H E R I A L l L I C H E N LG. L E G O S O L I C G A U L T H E R I A OG. O R T H I C - n -G M . G A U L T H E R I A - M A H O N I A R.. P L A G I O T H E C I U M Po. P O L Y S T I C K U M BR. B L E C H N U M — R U B U S PB. P E A T Y B L E C H N U M L C L Y S I C H I T U M - C O P T I S Lt L E D U M N. N U P H A R - [ N J 00 TOPOGRAPHIC SEQUENCE OP THE FOREST TYPES Figure 1, 29 The crown canopy is dominated hy Pseudotsuga  menziesii., Tsuga heterophylla and even Thu.ja plicata (this tree is usually shorter than hemlock) occur in the orthic Gaultheria forest type more commonly than in the Gaultheria - Mahonia forest type of the Coastal Douglas-f i r Zone* The average cover of the A layer is 78^. The shnub layer is well developed. The upper stratum (B^) is composed mainly of Thuja plicata. Tsuga  heterophylla and sporadic Comus nuttallii. In the lower shrub stratum (B2), Gaultheria shallon is an absolute dominant, but its vigour is not as high as in the Gaultheria - Mahonia forest type. Vaccinium parvifolium forms a weak inter-mediate horizon between the B^  and "B^ layers. Holodiscus  discolor occurs sporadically. There are several companion species which do not have any preference in the habitats of the orthic Gaultheria forest type. The cover of the poorly developed herb layer is less than 5$. It is composed mainly of Pteridium aquilinum. The shade tolerant mesophytic and subhygrophytic elements are represented by a few stunted individuals of Polystichum  muniturn (indicating a richer type of parent material) and the accidental species Dryopteris austriaca. The ground cover of mosses is composed mainly of Hylocomium splendens. Eurhynchium oreganum. and Plagiothecium undulatum. Rhytidiadelphus loreus and Mnium punctatum 30 indicate better humus moisture conditions. The total cover of the humicolous mosses (Dh) is about 50$. The drier wood (with less advanced decay) of Tsuga  heterophylla and Pseudotsuga menziesii is populated by Dicranum fuscescens. Hypnum circinale. Scapania bolanderi. Lepidozia reptans. and Cladonia subs^ quamosa. On the moist more decayed woody materials, Mnium punctatum forms complexes with Cephalozia media. Calypogeia suecica. Bazzania tricrenata. and the above listed lignicolous and humicolous species, Pseudisothecium stoloniferum is hanging on the shaded branches. Corticolous syhusiae are composed of (i) the moist lignicolous and ordinary humicolous elements in the zone of accumulation of the bark, and (ii) the dry lignicolous elements and sporadic Parmelia physodes, Cetraria glauca, and Sphaerophorus  globosus higher on the stem. On the bark of Thu.ja plicata, Frullania nisquafclensis may occur. This species, however, is more frequent on the bark of Taxus brevifolia, b. The legosolic Gaultheria forest type (i.e. Pseudotsugetum menziesii legosolicum) This forest type occurs exclusively in the drier part of the Western Hemlock Zone and occupies outcrop hilltops and exposed convex slopes. Its physiognomy is comparable with the legosolic Vaccinium - Gaultheria forest type of the wetter part of the Western Hemlock Zone (see latter in the text), or with the Gaultheria - Peltigera forest type ft 31 of the Douglas-fir Zone (Krajina, 1952). The soil is generally shallow ( 1 - 11 in.) a coarse textured eluviated acid legosol without a distinguishable horizon of accumulation (B). The stand productivity is lowest in the zone. The average site index for Pseudotsuga menziesii is 78 feet and for Tsuga heterophylla is 73 feet but Thuja plicata reaches in average only 67 feet. The primary uses for the legosolic Gaultheria forest type are soil and water conservation and the protection of the nearby habitats from deterioration. It is evident that this forest type should not be logged. Its protective function is especially important in localities where i t forms association complexes with other non-forest rock out-crop communities such as the Gaultheria thicket and the Danthonia and Cladonia - Rhacomitrium communities. Pseudotsuga menziesii and Thuja plicata"^ are dominant are composed of Thuja plicata. Tsuga heterophylla. and Pseudotsuga menziesii. The average cover of the A layer is only 50%a The relatively high presence of Thuja plicata in this habitat maybe due to presence of rich diorite bedrock which is a continuous source of bases, (especially Ca"^). Thuja plicata is known to prefer the calcium rich habitats. in the crown canopy. 1) 32 The shrub layer is stratified. Thuja plicata. Tsuga heterophylla. and Pseudotsuga menziesii form the shrub stratum (B-^. Gaultheria shallon and Vaccinium  parvifolium dominate in the B 2 layer. The sporadic occurrence of Vaccinium alaskaense and Menziesia ferru- ginea may be an indication of the longer snow period. The average cover of the B layer is 80$ of which the B 2 layer occupies about 65$, The herb layer is similar to that of the orthic Gaultheria forest type. It covers less than 5$. The dry edaphotope is indicated by the frequent occurrence of Calliergonella schreberi and several Cladonia species established on the humus. Eylocomium  splendena. and Plagiothecium undulatum are s t i l l dominant. The average cover of the Dh layer is 62$. The composition of the lignicolous and corticolous synusiae is practically identical with that of the orthic Gaultheria forest type. However, the proportion of dry lichen elements is greater in a l l the layers, c. The Gaultheria - Mahonia forest type (i.e. Pseudotsugetum menziesii mahonietosum) This forest type frequently occurs in the drier part of the Western Hemlock Zone. Its main occurrence is in the Coastal Douglas-fir Zone. The ecotope of this forest type differs considerably from the orthic and legosolic 33 variations by the deeper solum (39 - 48 in.) which is s t i l l very coarse. The soil group is the minimal podzol. The productivity of the Gaultheria - Mahonia forest type is slightly lower than that of the orthic variation. The average site index for Pseudotsuga  menziesii is 98 feet, Tsuga heterophylla 90 feet, and Thu.ja plicata 75 feet. Since the deeper solum in this case does not effect productivity and the shade tolerant seepage elements are s t i l l lacking (except some poorly growing individuals of Polystichum muniturn), i t may be assumed that the soil water economy of this habitat is essentially the same as that of the orthic variation. Therefore, i t is believed that the abundant occurrence of Mahonia is the only indication of the deep solum. In a locality where abundant Mahonia associates with more of the shade tolerant seepage elements, then one can predict a deep moist solum and the higher productivity. The composition of the crown canopy is similar to the orthic variation in every respect. The shrub layer, how-ever, differs considerably, In the lower stratum (Bg), Mahonia nervosa (the differentiating species of this forest type) is codominant. Gaultheria shallon is s t i l l the absolute dominant. Vaccinium parvifolium is also very frequent. In the Coastal Douglas-fir Zone Rosa gymnocarpa 34 grows frequently in this forest type. The average cover of the B layer in the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone is up to 85$ and the cover of the Bg layer is more than 80$. The higher shrub layer (B^) is similar to the B^  layer of the orthic variation. The herb layer is essentially the same as the herb layer of the orthic variation except for the greater proportion of Linnaea borealis and Chimaphila umbellata. The composition of the humicolous, lignicolous, and corticolous synusiae is practically identical with that of the orthic Gaultheria forest type. I. B. Synsystematic designation of the mesic zonal forest types: Association 2, Tsugetum heterophyllae (Krajina) nom. nov. Synonym: Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla -Evlocomium splendens - Eurhynchium orgeganum association Krajina, 1952. Type-record: Krajina, 1952. Composition: Character species: Hemitomes congestum Chimaphila menziesii Corallorhiza maculata Constant dominant species: Pseudotsuga menziesii Tsuga heterophylla Thuja plicata Pteridium aquilinum Eurhynchium oreganum Hylocomium splendens 35 Constant species (not dominant): Polystichum muniturn Mnium punctatum Scapania bolanderi Dieranum fuscescens Hypnum circinale Lepidozia reptans  Cladonia subsquamosa Distribution: The association occurs in the dry part of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone and on slopes with moderate seepage in the Coastal Douglas-fir Zone. Further classification: Two subassociations may be distinguished: (l) subassoc. plagiothecietosum undulati subass. nov. Type-record: Synthesis table 2. Composition: Character and constant species of the association. Differentiating species: Plagiothecium undulatum Rhytidiadelphus loreus Pseudisothecium stoloniferum In this subassociation two variants are recognized: (a) var. muscosum var. nov. Composition: Character and constant species of the association. Absence of Mahonia nervosa (b) var. mahoniosum var. nov. Composition: Character and constant species of the association and Gaultheria shallon (with low abundance), Vaccinium 36 parvifolium and Mahonia nervosa. Differentiating species: Mahonia nervosa (2) subassoc. eurhynchietosum oregani (Krajina) stat. nov. Synonym: as for the association. Described on Vancouver Island by Krajina, 1952, Type-record: Krajina, 1952. Differentiating species: Monotropa uniflora Viola orbiculata Achlys triphylla p M C„ H a B L n by total cover ($) 61 10.5 0.5 2 26 -by species (fo) 8 16 9 8 8 49 2 Table 6. Distribution of life-form groups of the Tsugetum heterophyllae plagiothecietosum undulati * 5 4 3 2 1 in $ 23 8 18 51 Table 7. Distribution of constancy classes of the Tsugetum hete- rophyllae plagiothecietosum  undulati. 37 Description of the mesic zonal forest types: The orthic Plagiothecium forest type (i.e. Tsugetum heterophyllae plagiothecietosum undulati muscosum) The orthic Plagiothecium forest type, compared to the other forest types of the dry subzone of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone, covers a wide range of topographic and edaphic conditions. This forest type may occur on slopes, hilltops, or flat terrain without seepage or rarely with very slight seepage. If seepage is present, i t is only temporary, weak, and located deeply in the soil. Its effect is problematic. The complex edaphic factors affecting the orthic Plagio- thecium forest type are: (i) the deep solum (30 - 55 in.) (ii) the soil texture which is finer than in the Gaultheria forest types (iii) the parent material which is frequently of glacial outwash origin and, therefore, potentially rich in nutrients. The effect of topography, since i t is never extreme in this forest type, is greatly modified by the varying soil depth, texture of the soil, and richness of parent material. In this region the same ecosystem may occur with different topo-graphic forms. A closely related subassociation eurhynchietosum oregani was described by Krajina (1952) and studied by McMinn (1957) 38 and Mueller-Dombois (1959). This variation is reported from Vancouver Island where i t occurs mainly on gentle slopes or flat areas (McMLnn 1957). The relatively high productivity of the orthic Plagio- thecium forest type (approaching the productivity of the subhydrophytic seepage habitats) reflects the richness of the parent material and the more adequate soil moisture economy. The average site index for Pseudotsuga menziesii is 142 feet. Krajina and Spiibury (1950) found that the average site index of the subassoc. eurhynchietosum oregani for Pseudotsuga menziesii is 150 feet. McMinn (1957) found here the average site index 144 feet for Pseudotsuga menziesii. The crown canopy is usually dense. The upper crown cover (A^) is dominated by Tsuga heterophylla and Pseudotsuga  menziesii. The lower strata. (Ag and A^) include Tsuga  heterophylla and Thuja plicata. The development of the Alnus  rubra consociation is possible after logging. The average cover of the A layer is 83$. The shrub layer is stratified. The layer covers 18$ and is composed of Thuja plicata. Tsuga heterophylla. and Acer circinatum1^. ' Acer circinatum is extremely useful for maintaining site quality. The leaves decompose easily and thus help the decomposition of the coniferous needles. Its altitudinal distribution is apparently limited by the total snow f a l l . The upper distributional limit for Acer circinatum is between 900 - 1500 feet above sea level. The lower value refers to the northern aspects. 39 Stunted Gaultheria shallon is present sporadically with an average cover of about 5$. The opening of the crown canopy provides a better chance for Gaultheria to form larger colonies. The average cover of the B layer is 22$0 The abundant occurrence of Mahonia nervosa indicates a warmer climatic variant (var. mahoniosum). Vaccinium  alaskaense. Menziesia ferruginea. and Abies amabilis (possi-bly Rhvtidiopsis robusta) may form a mosaic complex within this forest type occasionally occupying gentle depressions. These species -serve as an indication of the relatively greater local yearly accumulation of snow. The poorly developed herb layer and the sparse occurrence of Polystichum muniturn make the appearance of the Plagiothecium forest type similar to that of a shaded Polystichum forest type. The subhygrophytic seepage elements of the Polystichum forest type are generally shade tolerant species. They grow abundantly in even deeper shade than that under the average mature stand of the Plagiothecium forest habitats. Therefore, shading does not explain the stunted growth of Polystichum or its occasional complete lack on these habitats. These characteristics are correlated with the inadequate soil moisture content. The sporadically occurring poor individuals of Polystichum muniturn reflect the richness of the parent material. If the forest floor is not too much shaded, then Pteridium  aquilinum. a shade intolerant species, will occur quite abundantly. 40 The green moss caxpet of the forest floor (Dh) is domina-ted by Plagiothecium undulatum. Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Eurhynchium oreganum. and Hylocomium splendens. The propor-tion of Eurhynchium oreganum increases with disturbances. Milium punctatum is quite common and indicates moist humus, Lignicolous synusiae of relatively dry and less decayed wood are dominated again by Hypnum circinale. Dicranum fusces- cens. Scapania bolanderi. Cladonia subse'quamosa. and Lepidozia  reptans. On relatively moister strongly decayed wood, Mnium  puntatum. Dicranum scoparium. Cephalozia media (and other Cephalozia species), Lophocolea heterophylla. Calypogeia  suecica (and other Calypogeia species), and Bazzania ambigua occur more frequently. The composition of the corticolous synusiae is identical with that of the orthic Gaultheria forest type, except Pseudisothecium stoloniferum. which is becoming more frequent in the orthic Plagiothecium forest type. The Plagiothecium - Mahonia forest type (i.e. Tsugetum heterophyllae plagiothecietosum undulati.mahoniosum). This forest type is a warmer climatic variation of the zonal Tsugetum heterophyllae. It occurs exclusively in the drier subzone and occupies simple slopes (up to 35°) and less commonly flat areas. Seepage is apparently lacking here. The solum is deep (18 - 50 in.) and coarse textured. The soil groups frequently associated with this forest type are the orterde podzol, orterde humic podzol, and orthic brown podzolic. 4 1 The productivity is intermediate and similar to the orthic variant. The average site index for Pseudotsuga menziesii is 1 3 9 feet, Tsuga heterophylla 1 1 0 feet, and Thu.ja plicata 89 feet. menziesii. The intermediate A 2 layer is dominated by Tsuga  heterophylla and Thu.ja plicata occurs mainly in the suppressed A^ layer. The lack of Tsuga heterophylla in the dominant (A^) layer and the confinement of Thu.ja plicata to the supressed (Aj, B) layers are indications of the relatively drier and warmer ecoclimate. The average cover of the A layer is 81$. The lower shrub layer (B2) is strongly developed in contrast with the orthic Plagiothecium forest type. The abun-dant occurrence of Mahonia nervosa and the codominant Vaccinium  parvifolium and Gaultheria shallon characterize the B 2 layer. The composition of the higher shrub layer (B^) is identical to the B 1 layer of the orthic variant. The average cover of the B layer is about 60$. The herb layer is again poor. The proportion of Pteridium  aquilinum varies with the amount of light reaching the forest floor. Polystichum muniturn is frequent although its vigour is s t i l l very low. An increased proportion of Linnaea borealis is characteristic in some localities. The average cover of the C layer is about 7$. The ground cover of mosses is less abundant than in the orthic variant. It is composed mainly of Eurhynchium oreganum. The upper Hylocomlum splendens and Plagiothecium undulatum are less abundant. Rhytidiadelphus loreus occurs sporadically. The average cover of the Dh layer is 17$. The composition of the lignicolous and corticolous bryophytic synusiae is identical to that of the orthic Plagiothecium forest type. The bark of Cornus nuttallii supports Frullania nisquallensis. Metzgeria furcata. Porella platyphylla, Meckera douglasii. Porella navicularis. and other bryophytes, growing more frequently on deciduous trees. The same species may occur on the bark of Alnus  rubra. Acer circinatum. and Taxus brevifolia. II. Dry edaphic and mesic zonal forest types of the wet and cool subzone. These forest types are again dependent < - upon precipitation for their water supply. Temporary seepage may occur in the mesic habitats deep beneath the soil surface during spring or following rain. The solum is shallow and coarse textured in the dry habitats. It is deep and relatively fine textured in the mesic habitats. In the latter case, the soil water holding capacity is greater than in the former case. This group differs climatically from the previously described environmental group by having higher precipitation from which a relatively higher proportion is received in the form of snow. 43 Cooler and wetter conditions are indicated by the abundant occurrence of Abies amabilis and Yaccinium alaskaense. The group is physiognomically characterized by the poor herb layer (the relative proportion of hemicryptophytes is less than 5%), the dense ground cover of bryophytes, and the stratified layer of shrubs (B^, and B^). The well developed layer of Gaultheria  shallon with low growth (B^) differentiates the dry habitats from the mesic habitats. The forest cover of the dry habitats is main-ly Tsuga heterophylla. Thu.ja plicata. Chama.ecyparis nootkatensis, Pinus monticola, and rarely Abies amabilis and even Tsuga mertensiana. The mesic habitats are occupied by Tsuga heterophylla. Thu.ja plicata. and Abies amabilis• The following forest types are included in this group: A. Dry edaphic forest types a) orthic Vaccinium alaskaense - Gaultheria b) legosolic Vaccinium alaskaense - Gaultheria B. Mesic zonal forest types a) Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagiothecium - Acer circinatum b) Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagiothecium - Clintonia II. A. Synsystematic designation of the dry edaphic forest types: Association 3. Tsugeto - Gaultherietum (McMinn) nom. nov. Synonym: Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla - Gaultheria shallon asoociation (McMinn, 1957) Type-record: McMinp,1957. i 44 Composition: Character species: Pinus monticola Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Menziesia ferruginea Linnaea borealis Goodyera oblongifolia Chimaphila menziesii Listera caurina L. cordata Rhytidiopsis robusta Constant dominant species: Tsuga heterophylla Thu.ja plicata Thuja plicata Vaccinium alaskaense Gaultheria shallon Eylocomium splendens Rhytidiadelphus loreus Plagiothecium undulatum Rhytidiopsis robusta Constant species (not dominant): Vaccinium parvifolium Menziesia ferruginea Biechnum spicant Goodyera oblongifolia Chimaphila menziesii Dicranum fuscescens Scapania bolanderi Hypnum circinale Pseudisothecium stoloniferum Cladonia subsquamosa Distribution: In the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. Further classification: a) subassoc. typicum Composition: Character species and constant species of the association. Soil: A-B-C. b) subassoc. legosolicum subass. nov. Type-record: Synthesis table 3. Composition: Character species and constant species of the association. WET SUBZONE L. L C H E N LVG. LEGOSOLIC VACCIHIUM-GAULTHERIA OVG. ORTHIC VP. NACC IN1UM-PLAGIOTHECIUM GB. O L E Y B O L I C BLECMNUM VL. VAC C l N I U M — L Y S I C H I T U M OA. O P L O P A H A X - A O U N T U M HO. R I B E 8 - 0 P L 0 P 1 N A X VG. VACCINIUM-OAULTMERIA TOPOGRAPHIC SEQUENCE OF THE FOREST TYPES FIGURE 2. Differentiating features are the presence of CaUiergonella schreberi and the eluviated acid legosol soil (A-C). p p M N H G B L by total cover ($): 44 21 2 0.5 - 32.5 by species ($): 9 13 7 8 7 44 12 Table 8„ Distribution of the life-form groups of the Tsugeto - Gaultherietum. 5 4 3 2 1 25 9 19 23 24 Table 9. Distribution of constancy classes of the Tsugeto - Gaultherietum. Description of the dry edaphic forest types: The orthic Vaccinium alaskaense - Gaultheria forest type (i.e. Tsugeto - Gaultherietum typicum) This forest type occurs in the cooler and wetter part 47 of the Western Hemlock Zone on ridges, hilltops, and exposed convex slopes indicating "top-climate" 1. The Vaccinium - Gaultheria forest types, both orthic and legosolic, are transitional phytocoenoses toward the Coastal Subalpine Zone. Their ecoclimate i s cool and the accumulation of snow is greater than in other phyto-coenoses of the Western Hemlock Zone. The common occurrence of the subalpine elements (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis. Vaccinium ovalifolium. Rhytidiopsis robusta. and occasion-ally Tsuga mertensiana) and the elements of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (Tsuga heterophylla. Thuja plicata. Vaccinium parvifolium. Acer circinatum. Gaultheria shallon. and others) also indicate transitional conditions. The counterpart of this forest type was described by McMinn (1957) on Vancouver Island. Its vegetational structure differs from the subass. typicum (the orthic forest type) mainly by the presence of Gaultheria ovati-f o l i a . The ecbtope i s probably also slightly different. McMinn (1957) observed seepage movement in the solum of this subassociation during part of the year. The depth of solum i s only 6-12 inches (considerably less than in the plant community observed by McMinn and "Top-climate" i s an expression used when the climatic conditions of a cooler and higher vegetation zone occur locally in a warmer and lower vegetation zone due to the extreme topography. 48 more than in the legosolic habitats (2-6 inches)). The soil group associated with the orthic Yaccinium -Gaultheria forest type is the orterde humic podzol. The solum is coarsely textured and has extremely good drainage. This forest type, however, frequently surrounds small local depressions which may be only a few feet in diameter where a vadose type of soil develops. The vadose soil is always strongly gleysolic and occupied by colonies of Sphagnum recurvum. and S. robustum. The productivity of the orthic Vaccinium - Gaultheria forest type is extremely low. The average site index of Pseudotsuga menziesii is only 75 feet and is, of course, less for the other species. The primary use of this forest type is for soil and water conservation and pro-tecting the nearby habitats from deterioration. The upper crown cover is dominated by Tsuga hetero- phylla (A^). Pseudotsuga menziesii. Thuja plicata. Pinus monticola. and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis are sporadic companions in the A^ layer. The lower layers , and Aj) are composed of Tsuga heterophylla. Thuja  plicata. and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis. Abies amabilis may occur in any layer. The average cover of the A layer is 71$. The herb layer is poor. Its average cover is less than 5$. The occurrence of Linnaea borealis. Goodyera 49 oblongifolia. Chimaphila menziesii, Corallorhiza and Listera species is quite characteristic. Poorly-growing Biechnum spicant is always present in very small quantities. The ground cover of bryophytes (Dh) is about 86$. Rylocomium splendens. Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Plagiothe- cium undulatum. and Rhytidiopsis robusta are the main component species. On decaying wood Dicranum fuseescens. Seapania bolan- deri. Hypnum circinale. Cladonia subsquamosa. Lepidozia  reptans and the humicolous elements are frequent. The bark of trees within hand reach attracts a high number of lichens such as Parmelia vittata. Lobaria pulmonaria. Cladonia subsquamosa. Parmelia physodes. Sphaerophorus  globosus. and Cetraria glauea. Porella platyphylla, Frullania nisquallensis. Ueckera menziesii. and Porella  navicularis occur on the bark of Chamaecyparis nootkatensis and Taxus brevifolia. The legosolic Vaccinium alaskaense - Gaultheria forest type (i.e. Tsugeto - Gaultherietum legosolicum) The legosolic variation indicates even more severe ecotopic conditions than the orthic Vaccinium - Gaultheria forest type. It occurs exclusively on exposed ridges and hilltops in the cool and wet subzone of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. This is again a transitional subalpine 50 forest community. The s o i l i s a shallow ( 2 - 6 i n . ) , coarse, eluviated acid legosol (0, Ae, and c) without a horizon of accumu-l a t i o n ( B ) . The stand productivity i s very poor. The average s i t e index of Pseudotsuga menziesii i s 70 feet. Site indices of a l l other tree species are less than Douglas-f i r except Pinus monticola. The primary use of t h i s forest type i s again for s o i l and water conservation and the protection of the nearby habitats from deterioration. I t i s evident that t h i s forest type should not be logged. Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja p l i c a t a are dominant i n monticola. and Chamaecyparis nootktensis are sporadic companions i n the A^ layer. Except for Pinus monticola. a l l other species occur regularly i n the lower tree strata The composition and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the shrub and herb layers atve p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l i n both orthic and legosolic subassociations. The legosolic subassociation also has a well-developed layer of humicolous bryophytes. This layer i s character-ized by a l l the species l i s t e d i n the description of the orthic subassociation. I t d i f f e r s from the orthic v a r i a -tion by the frequently present (sometimes dominant) Calliergonella schreberi. a d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g species of this the upper crown 51 forest type. In the lignicolous and the corticolous synusiae, the proportion of the lichen element is higher in this forest type than in the orthic Vaccinium -Gaultheria forest type, II, B, Synsystematic designation of the mesic zonal forest types: Association 4. Abieteto - Tsugetum heterophyllae ass, nov. Type-record: Synthesis table 4. Composition: Character species: Absent Constant dominant species: Tsuga heterophylla Thuja plicata Abies amabilis Vaccinium alaskaense Biechnum spicant Plagiothecium undulatum Rhytidiadelphus loreus Mnium punctatum Hylocomium splendens Constant species (not dominant): Tiarella trifoliata"^ Scapania bolanderi Hypnum circinale Dicranum fuscescens Pseudisothecium stoloniferum Distribution: Exclusively in the wet and cool part of the Western Hemlock Zone as the zonal forest formation. Further classification: a) var, clintoniosum var. nov. S^ample plots with relatively high occurrence of Tiarella trifoliata and Streptopus amplexifolius may be regarded here as degraded Thujeto- Blechnetum communities which closely approached the status of the mesic zonal association. Tiarella trifoliata indicates rich parent material and relatively high soil moisture content which is responded also by constant Biechnum spicant. Composition: Constant species as above. Differentiating species: Rhytidiopsis robusta Clintonia uniflora A cooler and wetter climatic variant with longer snow period, b) var. acerosum circinati var. nov. Composition: Constant species as above. Differentiating species: Acer circinatum. A warmer and drier climatic variant with shorter snow period. The relatively strong effect of nutritionally rich igneous rocks upon the edaphotope is indicated by the occurrence of Acer circinatum. p M PN C H H G B L by total cover (in $) 57 11 1.5 5 0.5 25 -by species (in fo) 7 14 8 11 12 4 7 Table l ) . Distribution of the life-form groups of the Abieteto - Tsugetum heterophyllae. 53 5 4 3 2 1 16 7 9 20 48 Table 11. Distribution of constancy classes of the Abieteto - Tsugetum hete- tophyllae. Description of the mesic zonal forest types: The Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagiothecium - Clintonia forest type (i.e. Abieteto - Tsugetum heterophyllae clintoniosum) This forest type is a climatic variant of the Abieteto -Tsugetum heterophyllae. It differs from the Acer circinatum variant by its cooler temperature, the longer snow period and by its shorter vegetative season. The local ecotopic conditions are best indicated by the occurrence of Vaccinium ovalifolium. Clintonia uniflora. and Rhytidiopsis robusta. The ecoclimate of this forest type is similar to the climate of the subalpine transition (Tsugeto - Gaultherietum). The main factors in which they differ are those of the edaphotope. The solum of the Vaccinium - Plagiothecium - Clintonia forest type is generally 19 - 58 inches deep whereas i t is extremely shallow in the Tsugeto - Gaultherietum association. The soils of this forest type are of glacial outwash origin but they are mostly autochthonous in the Tsugeto - Gaultherietum association. The most common soil groups associated with this 54 forest type are the minimal podzol, the orthic brown podzolic, and the orterde humic podzol. There i s no seepage in this forest type apart from a possible slight temporary seepage deep beneath the soil surface during the spring or after rain. Therefore, seepage has l i t t l e effect upon vegetational structure and stand productivity. The stand productivity i s low or intermediate. The average site index of Pseudotsuga menziesii i s 115 feet, Tsuga  heterophylla 112 feet, Thu.ja plicata 98 feet, and Abies amabilis 97 feet. Tsuga heterophylla i s becoming the dominant tree in the upper crown layer. Thu.ja plicata and Abies amabilis are also frequent in the A^ layer. The suppressed strata are composed of Tsuga heterophylla. Thu.ja plicata. and Abies amabilis. Pseudotsuga menziesii i s a relatively rare, sporadic species occurring exclusively in the dominant layer (A^), The average cover of the A layer i s 74$. The composition of the higher shrub layer i s similar to the composition of the crown canopy. The lower shrub layer (l^) i s dominated by Yaccinium alaskaense. The occurrence of Gaultheria shallon i s only sporadic and i t grows mainly on decay-ing wood. The subalpine Vaccinium ovalifolium and Menziesia  ferruginea are constant elements of the lower shrub layer. The average cover of the B layer i s 64$. The herb layer includes a number of species which are 55 sporadic here but usually quite abundant in the seepage habitats. There are no real fidele species in this forest type. The most frequent elements of the herb layer are Blechnum spicant. Cornus canadensis. Rubus pedatus. Tiarella  trifoliata"^, and the differentiating Clintonia uniflora. The average cover of the herb layer is less than 20$. The layer of humicolous bryophytes (Dh) is well-developed. Plagiothecium undulatum and Rhytidiadelphus loreus are the main component species. Their associates are Mnium punctatum. Hylocomium splendens. and Rhytidiopsis robusta. The total cover of the humicolous and lignicolous species may be as high as 100$. Decaying wood is mainly covered by humicolous elements. Besides ./them Scapania bolanderi. Hypnum circinale. Dicranum  fuscescens. Bazzania ambigua. several Calypogeia species, and Lepidozia reptans are also very common on decaying wood. The composition of the corticolous synusiae of Tsuga  heterophylla. Thuja plicata. and Pseudotsuga menziesii is similar to that of the Tsugetum heterophyllae. Abies amabilis is similar to Alnus rubra in this respect. (b) The Yaccinium alaskaense - Plagiothecium - Acer circinatum forest type (i.e. Abieteto - Tsugetum heterophyllae acerosum circinati) The main factors which differentiate this forest type Usually with very low vigour. 56 from the climatic Clintonia uniflora variant are the shorter snow period, the higher temperature, and the longer vegetative season. These differences are well expressed by the presence of Acer circinatum and by the absence of Vaccinium ovalifolium. Clintonia uniflora. and Rhytidiopsis  robusta. The general characteristics concerning productivity and floristic structure are so similar in both climatic variants that their description would be superfluous in this chapter. For other details, see synthesis table 4. III. Seepage forest types Seepage is an additional source of water supply in this group. The seepage is located deep beneath the soil surface in the Polys— tichum forest type (average depth 35 in.), near the soil surface in the Biechnum forest types (average depth 24 in.), and at the soil surface in the Oplopanax - Adiantum and Vaccinium - Lysichitum forest types. Seepage is permanent or temporary in the Polystichum forest type and permanent in the others. The most obvious vegetational feature of the group is the luxuriant herb layer, rich in species. The total relative proportion of chamaephytes, hemicryptophytes, and geophytes varies from 23.5$ to 28$ as compared with the 2.5$ to 7$ of the dry edaphic and zonal groups. The variations in the soil moisture regime within the group are reflected by shifts in the proportion of the different 57 life-form groups. Progressing from the moist (Polystichum) habitat toward the wet, . therel is- .a. considerable increase in the relative proportion of geophytes (0.5$ to 23$) and a. gradual decrease in hemicryptophytes (23$ to 9$). The seepage habitats are occupied largely by Tsuga heterophylla. Thu.ja plicata. and Abies amabilis. The stands are generally under-stocked. This group includes the following forest types: A. Polystichum B. 1, orthic Biechnum 2. gleysolic Biechnum 3. peaty Biechnum 4. Biechnum - Rubus C. Oplopanax - Adiantum D. Vaccinium alaskaense - Lysichitum III. A. Synsystematic designation of the Polystichum forest type: Association 5. Thu.ieto - Polystichetum (Kujala) ncm. nov. Synonym: Tiarella - Aspidium muniturn type Kujala, 1945 p.p. Type-record: Kujala, 1945. Composition: Character species: Polystichum muniturn Trillium ovatum Mnium insigne  Tiarella trifoliata Constant dominant species: Thuja plicata Tiarella trifoliata Tsuga heterophylla Athyrium filix-femina Rubus spectabilis Mnium punctatum Polystichum muniturn Dryopteris austriaca 58 Constant species (not dominant): Hypnum circinale Dicranum fuscescens Scapania bolanderi Pseudisothecium stoloniferum Distribution: Mainly in the warm and dry subzone of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone; rarely in the lower part of the wet and cool subzone; in the Douglas-fir Zone on Vancouver Island. Further classification: 1. subassoc. hylocomietosum splendentis subass. nov. Type-record: Synthesis table 3. Composition: Character and constant species of the association. Differentiating species: Rylocomium splendens Plagiothecium undulatum  Rhytidiadelphus loreus 2„ subassoc. tiarelletosum laciniatae/ (Spilsbury and Smith) Becking/ comb. nov. Type-record: Spilsbury and Smith, 1947. Synonym: Polystichum site type Spilsbury and Smith, 1947; Pseudotsuga menziesii - Thuja  plicata - Polystichum muniturn association Krajina, 1952; Polysticheto - Pseudotsugetum  tiarelletosum laciniatae Becking, 1954. Composition: Character and constant species of the association. Differentiating species: Tiarella laciniata Carex hendersonii 59 Achlys triphylla Disporum oreganum Smilacina stellata Eurhynchium stokesii Galium triflorum p p M N C H H G B L by total cover (in fo) 46.5 13 23 9 58 3 by species (in f>) 7 14 6 17 7 47 2 Table 12. Distribution of the life-form groups of the Thu.ieto - Polystichetum hylocomieto-sum splendentis. ( i n * ) 5 4 3 2 1 15 8 9 20 48 Table 13. Distribution of the constancy classes of the Thujeto - Polystichetum hyloco- mietosum splendentis. Description of the Polystichum forest type: (e.i. Thujeto - Polystichetum hylocomietosum splendentis) This forest type occurs largely in the warm and dry sub-zone on lower concave slopes and outwash terraces. It may also occur in the wet subzone on steep, southern exposures, 60 with little accumulation of snow and a short snow period. The subassoc. tiarelletosum laciniatae was studied by Krajina and Spilsbury (1950), by McMinn (1957), and Mueller-Dombois (1959) on Yancouver Island. This variant occurs on terraces and concave slopes. It has deep soil with or without seepage. In some localities, edaphic conditions, snow and/or a shorter vegetative season are apparently limiting factors in the vertical distribution of many elements of the Polystichum forest type, eeg, Acer circinatum. Alnus rubra. Acer macrophyllum. Cornus nuttallii. Rubus vitifolius. Polystichum muniturn. Festuca  subuliflora. Trisetum cemuum. Achlys triphylla. Mnium insigne. and possibly several other species. As a product of the mixed deciduous and coniferous stand and the abundant herb layer, the modal acid dark brown forest soil develops most frequently under this forest type. Others, like the minimal podzol, the orterde humic podzol, and the orthic brown podzolic groups are less common. This forest type has permanent seepage in localities of coarse outwash substrata. If the solum is finer textured, then seepage is usually only temporary. The seepage is always located deeper than 24 inches below the surface. The great amount of readily decomposing deciduous tree leaves and herbaceous residue prevents the accumulation of raw humus. Organic material is leached into the top mineral 61 horizon i n some q u a n t i t i e s (melanization). The organic layer i n a l l other f o r e s t types i s rather raw humus, p i t c h peat, or peat. I t i s duff-mull (moder) only i n the Poly- stichum f o r e s t type. The p r o d u c t i v i t y of t h i s f o r e s t type i s highest i n the zone. The average s i t e index of Pseudotsuga menziesii i s 163 f e e t , Tsuga heterophylla 130 f e e t , and Thuja p l i c a t a 115 f e e t . The crown canopy i s dominated by Pseudotsuga menz i e s i i . Thu.ia p l i c a t a . and Tsuga heterophylla. Alnus rubra or Acer  macrophyllum consociations are common a f t e r logging. Acer  macrophyllum i s e s p e c i a l l y important on coarse a l l u v i a l fans or t a l u s . The average cover of the A la y e r i s about 75$. The shrub l a y e r i s w e l l developed and d i s t i n c t l y s t x ' a t i f i e d . The upper (B^) la y e r consists of the tree l a y e r elements and Acer circinatum. Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s . Vaccinium parvifolium (mainly on decaying wood), and Sambucus pubens form the Bg l a y e r . Gaultheria shallon grows e x c l u s i v e l y on decaying wood. The cover of the B l a y e r i s about 22$. Polystichum muniturn i s the absolute dominant species i n the herb l a y e r . Bryopteris a u s t r i a c a . Athyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a .  T i a r e l l a t r i f o l i a t a . and Biechnum spicant are constant compa-nions. The cover of the C la y e r i s up to 100$. The l a y e r of bryophytes covers about 20$. Plagiothecium  undulatum. Mnium punctatum. Rhytidiadelphus loreus. Hylocomium 62 splendens. Mnium insigne, and Eurhynchiijm oreganum are the main components. On decaying wood, the humicolous elements and Hypnum  circinale. Dicranum fuscescens. Scapania bolanderi. Lepidozia  reptans. Cephalozia media. Lophocolea cuspidata. Calypogeia  trichomanis. and Bazzania ambigua are the common species. The bark of Tsuga heterophylla. Thu.ia plicata. Pseudotsuga  menziesii. Alnus rubra, and Acer circinatum is inhabited by the same bryophytes as in the orthic Plagiothecium forest type. The bryophytic synusiae on bark of Acer macrophyllum and Populus trichocarpa are rich in Porella navicularis. P. platy- phylla. Frullania raisquallensis. Neckera menziesii. N. douglasii. Heterocladium heteropteroides. Radula complanata. R. bolanderi. Homalothecium nuttallii. Camptothecium lutescens. Mnium venustum. Metzgeria pubescens. M. furcata. and Antitrichia curtipendula. III. B. Synsystematic designation of the Biechnum forest types: Association 6. Thu.ieto - Biechnum ass. nov. Type-record: Synthesis table 6. Composition: Character species: Streptopus streptopoides Constant dominant species: Tsuga heterophylla  Rubus spectabilis  Biechnum spicant  Tiarella trifoliata Abies amabilis  Vaccinium alaskaense  Cornus canadensis  Dryopteris austriaca 63 Itoium punctatum Rhytidiadelphus loreus Plagiothecium undulatum Constant species (not dominant); Athyrium filix-fetnina Streptopus amplexifolius Pseudisothecium stoloniferum Lepidozia reptans Scapania bolanderi Hypnum circinale Cladonia subsquamosa Dicranum fuscescens Distribution: In the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. Further classification: 1. subassoc. typicum Composition: Character species and the constant species of the association. 2. subassoc. gleysolicum subass. nov. Composition: Character and constant species of the association. Differentiating features are the lack of Pseudotsuga menziesii and the gleysolic soil (reducing conditions). 3. subassoc. turfosum1^ subass. nov. Composition: Constant species of the association. Differentiating feature: Peaty soil . 4. subassoc. rubetosum vi t i fo l i i subass. nov. turfosus (Latin) = peaty. 64 Composition: Constant species (except Abies amabilis?) of the association. Differentiating species: Rubus vitifolius P V r M N CH H G B L by total cover (in $): 40 12 6 15 3 24 by species (in fo) 7 15 6 14 12 41 5 Table 14. Distribution of the life-form Thujeto - Blechnetum. groups of (In SO 5 4 3 2 1 15 9 12 15 49 Table 15. Distribution of the constancy classes of the Thu.ieto - Blechnetum. This association may be divided into four Blechnum forest types the description of which is as follows: 65 1. The orthic Blechnum forest type (i.e. Thu.jeto - Blechnetum typicum) The orthic Blechnum forest type occurs exclusively in the wet subzone. It usually occupies lower concave slopes. The soil depth is medium (average 34 in,). Seepage is permanent and located near the soil surface (average 27 in.). The very sporadic occurrence of stunted Lysichitum americanum and Oplopanax horridus is a vegetational expression of the high permanent seepage which differentiates the Blechnum forest types generally from the Yaccinium - Plagiothecium forest types. The soil groups associated with the orthic Blechnum forest type are the orterde humic podzol, the orthic brown podzolic, and the minimal podzol. The productivity of this forest type is medium. The average site index of Pseudotsuga menziesii is 133 feet, Tsuga heterophylla 114 feet, Thuja plicata 111 feet, and Abies amabilis 117 feet. The crown canopy is dominated by Tsuga heterophylla. Thuja plicata. and Abies amabilis. Pseudotsuga menziesii is locally dominant. The average cover of the A layer is 73$. The shrub layer covers about 50$, The upper layer (B^) includes tree layer elements. In the lower shrub layer (B9) Rubus spectabilis and Vaccinium alaskaense are 66 the dominant species. The very sporadic occurrence of Oplopanax horridus is an important characteristic in the recognition of the Blechnum forest types. Acer  circinatum is becoming dominant in lower localities, whereas the lack of that species indicates a colder climate and longer snow period. The abundant occurrence of Sambucus pubens indicates good nitrification. The herb layer (c) is luxuriant. Blechnum spicant. Cornus canadensis. Tiarella trifoliata. Dryopteris  austriaca. Athyrium filix-femina. and Streptopus amplexi- folius are the main component species. Rubus pedatus is locally dominant. The sporadic occurrence of stunted individuals of Lysichitum americanum is again a differen-tiating feature of the Blechnum forest types. Polystichum  muniturn and Streptopus roseus are sporadiccompanions. The number of adventive and accidental species is extre-mely high. The herb layer covers about 50$. The layer of bryophytes (Dh) is well developed. Mnium punctatum. Rhytidiadelphus loreus. and Plagiothecium  undulatum are constant dominants. The sporadic occurrence of Pellia epiphylla. j?. columbiana. Hookeria lucens. and Conocephalum conicum are important in the recognition of the Blechnum forest types. Sphagnum sauarrosum. S, recurvum. Eurhynchium, stokesii. and Rhytidiadelphus  triquetrus are important adventive associates. The average cover of the Dh layer is 33$. 67 Decaying wood is covered mainly by the humicolous species. Of the lignicolous elements, Lepidozia rep- tans. Hypnum circinale. Scapania bolanderi. Dicranum  fuscescens. Calypogeia trichomanis. Cephalozia media, and C, bicuspidata are again the most common species. 2. The gleysolic Biechnum forest type. (i.e. Thujeto - Blechnetum gleysolicum) This forest type occurs in the wet and cool subzone. It differs mainly from the orthic Biechnum forest type by the shallower solum (average 16 in.), the high seepage level (average 15 in.), and reducing conditions in the soil. The main soil forming process is gleyzation. There is no considerable difference in productivity between this and the orthic forest type. Their floristic structure is also similar except for the absence of some species such as Pseudotsuga menziesii (apparently due to edaphic factors), Vaccinium parvifolium. Gaultheria shallon. Acer circinatum. and Polystichum muniturn (possibly because of climatic reasons^). The recognition of the gleysolic variation as a forest type within the Thujeto - Blechnetum is necessary because potentially i t presents specific problems in Unfortunately, a l l the plots are at higher altitudes. 68 silviculture. This is one of the few habitats not suitable for the establishment and growth of Pseudot- suga menziesii. 3. The peaty Biechnum forest type (i„e, Thujeto - Blechnetum turfosum) The peaty Biechnum forest type differs from the orthic variation mainly by edaphic characteristics. The soil is a pitch peat developed on organic substrata. Permanent seepage is located approximately 10 inches below the soil surface. Productivity is very low. The site index of Tsuga  heterophylla. Thuja plicata. and Abies amabilis varies between 87 - 100 feet. The differences in edaphotope are again expressed mainly by the absence of species, such as Pseudotsuga  menziesii. Acer circinatum. Polystichum muniturn, and others. Their absence may be explained by the peculiar edaphic conditions. 4. The Biechnum - Rubus vitifolius forest type (i.e. Thujeto - Blechnetum rubetosum vitifolii) In the dry and warm subzone, the Thujeto - Blechnetum is represented by the Biechnum - Rubus forest type. This forest type occurs mainly on lower concave slopes where permanent seepage is near the soil surface (average 22 in.). The effect of the drier and warmer climate is 69 expressed by the abundant occurrence of Rubus vitifolius. Abies amabilis is generally lacking. However, in some transitional localities, despite the sporadic occurrence of Abies amabilis. stands were included in the Biechnum -Rubus forest type i f they contained differentiating vegetational elements of the dry subzone. The occurrence of Rubus vitifolius in this forest type is always associated with extremly high productivity. The average site index of Pseudotsuga menziesii is about 170 feet, Tsuga heterophylla 148 feet, and Thuja plicata 145 feet. The general vegetation characteristics of this forest type are similar to those of the orthic variation. The main differences have been mentioned previously. III. C. Synsystematic designation of the Oplopanax - Adiantum forest type: Association 7. Abieteto - Oplopanacetum ass. prov. nov. (This is only a provisional unit because i t is not supported by the synthesis of its floristic structure and ecotope). Composition: Apparent character species: Apparent constant species: Thu.ia plicata  Abies amabilis  Rubus spectabilis  Vaccinium ovalifolium  Tiarella trifoliata Adiantum pedatum Tsuga heterophylla  Oplopanax horridus  Vaccinium alaskaense  Lysichitum americanum  Adiantum pedatum 70 Blechnum spicant  Viola glabella  Athyrium filix-femina  Cdnocephalum conicum  Mnium punctatum  Plagiothecium undulatum Gymnocarpium dryopteris  Dryopteris austriaca  Streptopus amplexifolius  Veratrum viride  Hookeria lucens  Sphagnum squarrosum Distribution: In hoth subzones of the Western Hemlock Zone represented by a single forest type. Description of the Oplopanax - Adiantum forest type: (i.e. Abieteto - Oplopanaceturn) In both subzones this forest type develops in ravines. The seepage is at the soil surface. The steep slope or coarse soil texture prevents the establishment of the spring-water swamp (Piceeto - Lysichitetum). Stand productivity is low. The site index of Tsuga  heterophylla is 84 feet, Thu.ia plicata 100 feet, and Abies  amabilis 76 feet. Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus monticola frequently establish on hummocks or at the dry edge where their productivity is very high. III. D. Synsystematic designation of the Vaccinium alaskaense -Lysichitum forest type: Association 8. Piceeto - Lysichitetum ass. nov. Type-record: Synthesis table 7. Composition: Character species: Rubus pedatus  Carex bolanderi Lycopodium selago  Eurhynchium stokesii 71 Equlsetum telmateia Conocephalum conicum Stellaria crispa Pellia epiphylla Sphagnum squarrosum S. robustum £i. papillosum Constant dominant species: Tsuga heterophylla Mnium punctatum Vaccinium parvifolium Conocephalum conicum Rubus spectabilis Pellia epiphylla Lysichitum americanum P. columbiana Blechnum spicant Rhytidiadelphus loreus Tiarella trifoliata Hylocomium splendens Eurhynchium stokesii Sphagnum squarrosum Plagiothecium undulatum Distribution: In the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. This association may be related to the Lysichitum type described by Kujala ( 1 9 4 5 ) . However, there are too many differences between his typesnd this association red., therefore, author considers them as distinct associations. Krajina (1952) described Thuja plicata - Lysichitum americanum association, that should be called Thujeto -Lysichitetum. which is differentiated by the following species: Oenanthe sarmentosa Mimulus moschatus Cardamine breweri Adiantum pedatum Scirpus microcarpus Claytonia sibirica Veronica americana Glyceria striata Mitella ovalis G. elata Circaea pacifica Brachythecium washingtonianum Stachys clllafau. There is an absolute absence of Sphagnum species in the Thujeto -Lysichitetum. The relatively great difference between the Piceeto - Lysichitetum and the Thujeto - Lysichitetum is caused by different macroclimatic factors especially in precipitation. 72 Thujeto - Lysichitetum shows considerable similarity with Saliceto - Lysichitetum from flood plains. p p M N °H H G B L by total cover (in f>): 25 18 2 9 17 29 by species (in fo)i 7 12 5 12 13 48 3 Table 16. Distribution of the life-form groups of the Piceeto - Lysichitetum. (info) 5 4 3 2 1 22 7 17 25 29 Table 17. Distribution of the constancy classes of the Piceeto - Lysichitetum. Description of the Vaccinium alaskaense - Lysichitum forest type (i.e. Piceeto - Lysichitesum) The habitat of this forest type is characterized by . . depressions or gently sloping topography with permanent seep-age located at the soil surface. The soil groups described 73 for this forest type are „ J orthic dark grey gleysol, orthic gleysol, and springline pitchy anmoor. This forest type occurs in both subzones without considerable changes in its floristic structure. Tree productivity of Piceeto - Lysichitetum is poor. The site index of Tsuga heterophylla is 102 feet, Thu.ia  plicata 104 feet, Abies amabilis 94 feet and Picea sitchensis 116 feet. Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus monticola may grow well i f established on hummocks high above the water table. This forest type is important for water storage. In addition to its water storage function, the Vaccinium -Lysichitum forest type may also be utilized for production of Thu.ja plicata. Picea sitchensis. and even Pseudotsuga  menziesii and Pinus monticola (established on natural or artificially formed hummocks). The sparse crown canopy is dominated by Tsuga heterophylla and Thu.ja plicata. Picea stichensis is a sporadic species. Abies amabilis occurs very frequently in the suppressed strata. The average cover of the A layer is 51$. The shrub layer is well developed. The upper stratum (B^) is dominated by crown canopy elements. Vaccinium  alaskaense and Rubus spectabilis are the constant dominants in the Bg layer. Oplopanax horridus is a subconstant asso-ciate. Taxus brevifolia. Vaccinium parvifolium, Sambucus  pubens. Gaultheria shallon (on decaying wood), and Vaccinium  ovalifolium are sporadic companions. The number of 74 adventive and accidental species is very high. The average cover of the B layer is 64$. The herb layer is rich and luxuriant. Its absolute dominant is Lysichitum americanum. Other constant species in the herb layer are Blechnum spicant. Dryopteria austriaca  Comua canadensis. Tiarella trifoliata. Athyrium filix-femina. Streptopus amplexifolius. and'the preferent Rubus pedatus. Carex bolanderi. Equisetum telmateia. Stellaria crispa. and Lycopodium selago are sporadic preferent companions or adventive species. In addition to the above mentioned plant species, many others may occur in the herb layer of this forest type without any preference for the Vaccinium - Lysi- chitum habitats. The average cover of the C layer is 77$. The grourid cover of bryophytes is well developed. The constant dominants of this layer are Eurhynchium stokesii. Mnium punctatum. Conocephalum conicum. Pellia epiphylla. P. columbiana. Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Hylocomium splendens. Sphagnum squarrosum. and Plagiothecium undulatum. The occurrence of Sphagnum robustum. S_. papillosum. S. tenellum. £3. fimbriatum. and S. recurvum is highly characteristic for the Vaccinium - Lysichitum forest type. The average cover of the Dh layer is 49$. In addition to humicolous elements, decaying wood is also rich in lignicolous species such as Scapania bolanderi. Cladonia subsquamosa. Lepidozia reptans. Plagiochila aspleni-oides, Dicranum fuscescens. Hypnum circinale. Cephalozia media. and several other species. 75 IV. Moor forest types These forest types develop on organic soil as final stages in the muskeg succession. On the edge of the muskeg, some hori-zontal water movement is indicated and subsequently the Coptis -Lysichitum forest type develops. On the higher and drier parts, the Ledum forest type represents the edaphic forest stage. The Coptis - Lysichitum forest type is a low moor forest formation whereas the Ledum forest type is s t i l l a high moor formation. IV. Synsystematic designation of the moor forest types: Association 9. Pineto - Ledetum (Krajina) nom. nov. Type-record: Krajina, 1952. Synonym: Pinus contorta - Ledum groenlandicum - Sphagnum capillaceum association Krajina, 1952. Composition: Krajina states the following character species: Pinus contorta  Ledum groenlandicum  Kalmia polifolia  Andromeda polifolia  Myrica gale  Vaccinium uliginosum  V. oxycoccos Eriophorum chamissonis  Carex pauciflora  Tofieldia glutinosa  Prosera rotundifolia  Sphagnum capillaceum S. papillosum S. palustre S, fuscum Aulacomnium palustre Distribution: In the Coastal Douglas-fir Zone and in the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. 76 Regarding its floristic structure, this community is a relic sample of the once widely existing but long vanished flora of the early post-glacial age. Stand productivity is very low. The site index of Tsuga  heterophylla is 81 feet, Thuja plicata 75 feet, and Chamaecyparis  nootkatensis 59 feet. The crown canopy consists of Pinus contorta. P. monticola. Thuja plicata. Chamaecyparis nootkatensis. Tsuga heterophylla. and Tsuga mertensiana. Its total cover is about 85$. The shrub layer is made up mainly of Ledum groenlandicum. Kalmia polifolia. Spiraea douglasii and the crown canopy elements. Pinus contorta grows in the shrub layer only close to the openings. The sporadic occurrence of the relic Vaccinium uliginosum. V. myr- tilloides. and the subalpine Cassiope mertensiana is characteristics for this forest type. The total cover of the B layer is about 45$. Association 10. Thujeto - Coptetum ass. prov. nov. (This is only a provisional unit because i t is not supported by the synthesis of its floristic structure and ecotope.) Composition: See the description of the forest type. Description of the Lysichitum - Coptis forest type (e.i. Thujeto - Coptetum) The Coptis - Lysichitum forest type develops on old Spha- gnum peat substratum which has a thin pitch peat (black muck) 77 surface horizon. These habitats are affected by runoff water and seepage. The drainage level of the Coptis -Lysichitum forest type is considerably lower than that of the original high moor^. The crown canopy consists of Thu.ja plicata. Tsuga hete- rophylla. and sporadic Pinus monticola. The total cover of the A layer is about 90$. The species of the shrub layer are Taxus brevifolia. Menziesia ferruginea. Vaccinium parvifolium. Gaultheria shallon. Sambucus pubens. and the elements of the canopy. The B layer covers about 20$. Stunted Lysichitum americanum dominates the relatively poor herb layer, Coptis trifolia. C. asplenifolia. Dryopteris  austriaca. Athyrium filix-femina. Biechnum spicant. and Cornus  canadensis are frequent associates. The cover of the C layer is about 15 - 20$. The layer of bryophytes consists of Mnium punctatum. Sphagnum squarrosum. S. recurvum, flylocomium splendens. and Plagiothecium undulatum. The cover of the Dh layer is about 20$. V. The flood plain forest types Forest types which have developed under the influence of inter-mittent surface or underground floods are included in this group. Flood plain ecotopes and plant communities are frequently areas of ^ See footnote on page 78. 78 rapid changes. They are governed by the type and frequency of flooding, and the type, as well as the amount, of the deposited materials. In considering the governing factors, one must also emphasize the importance of the location of the habitats. In flood plains two basic topographical forms are distin-guished: (i) flood plain levels (ii) meander scars (old river beds with very poor drainage). Flood plain levels refer here to the gentle sloping, flat micro-topographic units which indicate recent positions of the river bed within the active flood plain. The relative eleva-tions on the lower Squamish River flood plains are as follows: I. High flood plain level (Symphoricarpos - Disporum forest type) more than 10 feet above average water level. II. Intermediate flood plain level (Ribes bracteosum -Oplopanax forest types) , 4 - 1 0 feet above average water level. III. Low flood plain level (or Lonicera - Rubus spectabilis forest type), less than 4 feet above average water level. ' Lowering of the drainage level initiates the decomposition of organic materials on the surface. The partially decomposed peat absorbs much less water than the living Sphagnum this in turn acce-lerates drainage. The subsequent change in pH will make possible the establishment of Lysichitum americanum and its low moor companions. Under the effect of the new formation of vegetation, the pitch peat (black muck) horizon is formed. The entire process results in the transformation of the high moor into a swamp (low moor) formation. The final stage is the peaty Biechnum forest type. J FLOOD PLAIN DRY SUBZONE R SD. RO OX LO RO. LR E RO. LEGEND R P O L Y S T I C H U M SD. S Y M P H 0 R I C A . R P O 8 - 0 I S P 0 R U M RO. R I B E B - O P L O P A N A X OX. O X B O W L A K E C O M P L E X LO. LY81CH1TUM — U E N A N T H E LR. L O N I C t H A - R U B U S E. t O U l S E T U M TOPOGRAPHIC SEQUENCE OP THE FOREST TYPES FIGURE 3, 80 The establishment of terrestrial vegetation takes place on the flood plains above the average water level. This level coincides with the occurrence of the Equisetum arvense synusiae on fine alluvium and with the occurrence of the Seouleria -Hygrohypnum synusiae on rocks and boulders. Meander scars are usually places of typical low moor deve-lopment (oxbow lake). They are newly flooded only by the highest floods (perhaps once a year). Floods may wash away the organic material which accumulated during the inter-flood period and at the same time deposit- '. fine silt and clay. Therefore, the f i l l of the oxbow lake is rich in clay, mostly mineral, partially organic. This preserves the low moor character of the lake and prevents the establishment of Sphagnum species. The forest types discussed within this group are: A. Symphoricarpos - Bisporum B. 1. Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax - Populus 2. Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax - Abies amabilis C. Lonicera - Rubus spectabilis D. Ribes bracteosum - Lysichitum E. Oenanthe - Lysichitum Although these forest types occupy relatively small areas, their economical importance is generally high due to their excellent productivity and good accessibility. 81 V. A. Synsystematic designation of the Symphoricarpos -Disporum forest type: Association 11. Piceeto - Symphoricarpetum ass. nov. Type-record: Synthesis table 8. Composition: Character species: Acer macrophyllum  Symphoricarpos rivularis  Ribes divaricatum  Aruncus vulgaris  Trautvetteria grandis  Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus Constant dominant species: Acer macrophyllum  Populus trichocarpa  Symphoricarpos rivularis  Mnium insigne Constant species (not dominant): Polystichum muniturn Athyrium filix-femina Dryopteris austriaca Osmorhiza chilensis Distribution: On high alluvial flood plain levels of the Squamish River, represented by a single forest type. Acer circinatum  Rubus parviflorus  Disporum oreganum  Dryopteris arguta  Botrychium virginianum Picea sitchensis  Acer circinatum  Disporum oreganum P N c H H a B L by total cover (in $) 37 38 3 19 3 -by species (in $) 12 24 26 21 17 -Table 18. Distribution of the life-form groups of the Piceeto - Symphoricarpetum. 82 5 4 3 2 1 19 8 17 23 33 Table 19. Distribution of the constancy classes of the Piceeto - Symphoricarpetum. Description of the Symphoricarpos - Disporum forest type : (i.e. Piceeto - Symphoricarpetum) This forest -fcype develops on high flood plain levels and is affected by periodic underground or rarely surface floods. If, this flood plain type is transitional toward terraces, the soil is a deep sandy loam alluvial regosol, then the crown canopy consists of Picea sitchensis (dominant), over-mature Populus trichocarpa and Alnus rubra (intermediate or already suppressed individuals), which indicates that the development was not interrupted by sudden changes. However, the development of this forest type on rather shallow and coarse alluvium deposits with a very shallow loamy sand top horizon over a gravel substratum, indicates a very recent shift in the river bed position and the type of flooding. This shift results in rapid changes in the composition of the lesser vegetation (originally: the Lonicera - Rubus forest type) within a short period of time. The crown canopy, however, will remain relatively unaffected. Subsequently, the Symphoricarpos =• Disporum forest type will develop with the crown canopy of immature Populus trichocarpa. 83 Alnus rubra, and Acer macrophyllum (remnants of a preceding successional association,, the Lonicera - Rubus forest type, in which Picea sitchensis occurs only in the suppressed tree layers). The shrub layer is well developed and stratified. In the B^  layer Acer circinatum is dominant. Symphoricarpos  rivularis forms a dense lower shrub layer (B 2). The occurrence of Thuja plicata and Rubus parviflorus is frequent. The average cover of the B layer is 68$. The herb layer consists mainly of Disporum oreganum. Polystichum muniturn. Athyrium filix-femina. Dryopteris austriaca. and Osmorhiza chilensis are the constant sporadic associates. The average cover of the C layer is 61$. Such rare species as Trautvetteria grandis. Botrychium •virginianum and Dryopteris arguta were found only in this forest type in the area of this study. The layer of humicolous bryophytes is very weak and consists mainly of Mnium insigne. Its average cover is less than 5$. V. B. Synsystematic designation of the Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax forest types: Association 12. Piceeto - Oplopanacetum ass. nov. Type-record: Synthesis table 9. Composition: Character species: Oplopanax horridus Streptopus roseus 84 Tiarella uniforliata  G;ymaocarpium dryopteris  Poa palustris  Circaea alpina  Veratrum viride  Cinna latifolia  Tiarella laciniata  Polystichum andersonii  Pogonatum alpinum Constant dominant species: Picea sitchensis Abies amabilisTlocally) Populus trichocarpa , (locally) Rubus spectabilis  Athyrium filix-femina  Streptopus roseus  Tiarella trifoliata  Viola glabella  Smilacina stellata  Rhytidiadelphus loreus Smilacina stellata  Luzula parviflora  Tolmiea menziesii  Boykinia elata  ..Trisetum cemuum  Thelypteris phegopteris  Urtica l y a l l i i  Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus Tsuga heterophylla  Acer macrophyllum  Ribes bracteosum  Oplopanax horridus  Sambucus pubens  Maianthemum dilatatum  Osmorhiza chilensis  Dryopteris austriaca  Gymnocarpium dryopteris  Mnium insigne M. punctatum Constant species (not dominant): Tiarella unifoliata  Luzula parviflora Dicranum fuscescens Polystichum muniturn  Poa palustris  Antitrichia curtipendula  Scapania bolanderi Hypnum circinale  Pseudisothecium stoloniferum Cladonia subsquamosa  Rhytidiadelphus*, squarro sus Tiarella unifoliata and Streptopus roseus are rather subalpine species, that may be relatively easily established by floods." Distribution: On intermediate flood plain levels in the active flood plain. Classification: 1. var. populosum trichocarpae var. nov. A geographic variant developed in Squamish River Valley. Composition: Character species as for the association except Luzula parviflora Veratrum viride Polystichum andersonii Tiarella laciniata  Urtica l y a l l i i Constant species as for the association exclu-ding Abies amabilis and including Populus  trichocarpa. Differentiating species: Populus trichocarpa 2. var. abietosum amabilis var. nov. A geographic variant in the narrow valleys of mountain creeks and rivers (Seymour Creek). Composition: All constant and character species of the association. Differentiating species: Abies amabilis PN C H G B L by total cover (in %) 31 27 19 10 13 -by species (in fo) 7 10 2 24 10 44 3 Table 20. Distribution of life-form groups of the Piceeto - Oplopanacetum. 86 (in fo) 5 4 3 2 1 26 12 17 17 28 Table 21. Distribution of the constancy classes of the Piceeto - Oplopanacetum. Description of the Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax forest types Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax - Populus forest type (i.e. Piceeto - Oplopanacetum populosum trichocarpae) This forest type develops on intermediate levels' which are affected by surface floods once or twice a year. The soil is a deep sandy loam regosol. This developmental stage is normally reached within the l i f e -time of one Populus trichocarpa generation. In the more primitive stages of this forest type, the vigour of Oplopanax horridus is medium to poor (due apparently to relatively frequent flooding) and the proportion of Lonicera involucrata is high. The crown canopy is mainly Populus trichocarpa. Picea sitchensis occurs only in the lower stratum. In the more advanced stages, the vigour of Oplopanax  horridus is excellent, the proportion of Lonicera  involucrata is low, Acer circinatum is abundant in the layer, and the crown canopy is dominated by Picea sit- chensis. 87 The productivity apparently is similar to the productivity of the var. abietosum amabilis. The shrub layer is dominated by Ribes bracteosum. Oplopanax horridus. Rubus spectabilis. Sambucus pubens. and Acer circinatum. The average cover of the B layer is 77$. The composition of the herb layer is expressed by the species given in the li s t concerning the association. The average cover of the C layer is 70$. Mnium insigne is the most common element of the Dh layer. Mnium punctatum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus are sporadic in distribution. This layer is relatively unimportant compared with that of the non-flood plain communities. The Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax - Abies amabilis forest type, (i.e. Piceeto - Oplopanacetum abietosum amabilis) This forest type differs from the Populus variant by the presence of Abies amabilis and the narrow valley environment, Populus trichocarpa is replaced by Alnus  hu'brq; i is apparently due to high precipitation. The presence of Vaccinium alaskaense is also a peculiar-ity of this forest type. Again, this forest type occupies intermediate flood plain levels. The soil group is an alluvial regosol with a sandy loam texture. 88 The stand productivity is medium. The average site index for Tsuga heterophylla is 107 feet, Thu.ja  plicata 98 feet, Abies amabilis 98 feet, and Picea  sitchensis 155 feet. The natural stands of the Ribes - Oplopanax forest types are always understocked. Picea sitchensis should be recommended for plantations in a l l stages of this forest type. The vegetational composition of this forest type is sufficiently illustrated in the general description of the association. V. C. Synsystematic designation of the Lonicera - Rubus forest type: Association 13. Populeto - Loniceretum ass. nov. Type-records: Synthesis table 10. Composition: Equisetum arvense Distribution: On low ;levels • of the Squamish River^flood plain. Classification: Character species: Elymus glaucus Equisetum arvense Pyrola asarifolia var. bracteata Equisetum hiemale Constant dominant species: Populus trichocarpa  RUbus spectabilis  Coraus occidentalis  Sambucus pubens  Maianthemum dilatatum Alnus rubra  Lonicera involucrata  Picea sitchensis  Elymus glaucus  Osmorhiza chilensis a) typicum 89 Composition: same as the association. b) •phase Elymus glaucus 1 Differentiating species: Scouleria aquatica S. marginata Hygrohypnum ochraceum c) phase Equisetum arvense Differentiating feature: The abundant occurrence of Equisetum arvense. p PN C H H G B L by total cover (in %) 43 35 0,5 10 11 0.5 -by species (in $) 15.5 22 2.5 27.5 15.5 17 -Table 22. Distribution of the life-form groups of the Populeto - Loniceretum. 5 4 3 2 1 19 9 10 27 35 Table 23. Distribution of constancy classes of the Populeto - Loniceretum. 90 Description of the Lonicera - Rubus spectabilis forest type: (i.e. Populeto - Loniceretum) This forest type develops on low, frequently flooded flood plain levels. The soil is a shallow loamy sand regosol underlain with coarse gravel and boulders. The crown canopy is composed of Populus trichocarpa and Alnus rubra. The presence of Salix lasiandra. _S. sitchensis. and the higher proportion of Alnus rubra indicates juvenile stages. Picea sitchensis and Thuja plicata occur only in the suppressed strata. The shrub layer (cover: 63$) is dominated by Lonicera  involucrata and Rubus spectabilis. In the transitions between the Lonicera — Rubus and Ribes - Oplopanax forest types, the proportion of Lonicera involucrata strongly declines. The herb layer is mainly composed of rhizomatous geophytes such as Maianthemum dilatatum and Smilacina stellata. Elymus  glaucus colonies are always present, however, this species becomes very abundant only in the Elymus phase. The cover of the C layer is about 60$. The initial Elymus phase evolves from the open Scouleria -Hygrochypnum stage which is established on the top of stabilized boulders. The boulders are s t i l l not completely buried under the alluvial sand. The Equisetum phase represents an initial stage on sandy loam deposits. This phase is preceeded by the open Equisetum 91 arvense stage. As soon as the surface is lifted above the average water level, the establishment of Salix. Alnus. and Populus begins. The status of the proper Lonicera - Rubus forest type is reached within 20 to 30 years. V. D. Synsystematic designation of the Ribes - Lysichitum forest type: Association 14, Alneto - Ribisetum bracteosi ass, nov. Type-records: Synthesis table 11, Composition: Character species: Ribes bracteosum Constant dominant species: Alnus rubra  Sambucus pubens  Rubus spectabilis  Viola glabella  Dryopteris austriaca Constant species (not dominant) Tsuga heterophylla Tiarella trifoliata Viola palustris Ribes bracteosum  Picea stichensis  Lysichitum americanum  Maianthemum dilatatum  Mnium punctatum Streptopus amplexifolius  Viola palustris Athyrium filix-femina Distribution: Meander scars in Seymour Creek Valley with moderate drainage and frequent floods. 92 p p M a c H H a B L by total cover (in fo) 28 35 11 22 4 by species (in %) 5 H 25 14 40 2 Table 2 4 . Distribution of the life-form groups of the Alneto - Ribisetum bracteosi,.' 5 4 3 2 1 25 3 13 25 34 Table 2 5 . Distribution of the constancy classes of the Alneto - Ribisetum bracteosi. Description of the Ribes - Lysichitum forest type: (i.e. Alneto - Ribisetum bracteosi) This forest type occurs exclusively on moderately drained young meander scars of the larger mountain creeks. The soil; group associated with this forest type is the orthic dark gray gleysol. This is one of the original habitats of Alnus rubra. 93 Stand productivity is medium. The average site index of Thuja plicata is 107 feet, Tsuga heterophylla 114 feet, Picea sitchensis 125 feet, and Alnus rubra 96 feet. For the floristic composition, see the l i s t of plants in the descrip-tion of the association. V. E. Synsystematic designation of the Oenanthe - Lysichitum forest type: Association 15. Saliceto - Penantheturn ass. nov. Type-records: Synthesis table 12. Composition: Character species: Salix lasiandra  Mains diversifolia  Oenanthe sarmentosa  Angelica genuflexa  Veronica americana  Carex sitchensis  Carex aquatilis  CH macium dendroides Constant dominant species: Salix lasiandra  Lonicera involucrata  Comus occidentalis  Oenanthe sarmentosa  Athyrium filix-femina Constant species (not dominant): Picea.sitchensis Maianthemum dilatatum S. sitchensis  Prunus virginiana  Glyceria pauciflora  Scirpus microcarpus  Equisetum fluviatile C_. retrorsa  Ranunculus repens S. sitchensis  Rubus spectabilis  Lysichitum americanum  Glyceria pauciflora  Angelica genuflexa 94 p p M N C H H G B L by total cover (in f>) 9 44 12 33 2 by species (in fo) 8 18 32 13 27 2 Table 26. Distribution of the life-form groups of the Saliceto - Oenanthetum. 5 4 3 2 1 19 5 8 21 47 Table 27. Distribution of the constancy classes of the Saliceto - Oenanthetum. Description of the Oenanthe - Lysichitum forest type (i.e e Saliceto - Oenanthetum) This type is located in oxbow lake swamps with Salix  lasiandra. £3. sitchensis. and sporadic Picea sitchensis. Productivity is very low. The soil group is orthic dark gray gleysol. The l i s t of character and constant species describes the floristic composition of this forest type (see the association). THE DEVELOPMENT OP PLANT COMMUNITIES 95 Vegetation is in continual change due to the effect of environmental and competition factors either in primary or secondary successions. The environmental modifications, which to a great extent are generated by the vegetation itself, gradually build up a condition that inhibits more and more the performance of normal life functions of the phytocoenosis. This deteriora-tion of conditions ultimately results in the extinction of the old and the formation of a new phytocoenosis. This process is known as succession. The vegetational composition of the new phytocoenosis will depend largely upon the competition between the different plant species. As a strong selective force, competition may prevent the establishment of certain plant species which are otherwise environmentally fitted. Competition is one of the forces which is essentially responsible for the floristic homogeneity of the phytocoenoses and the narrowing of transi-tions between successional stages. An attempt was made to indicate the position of each phytocoenosis in the successional series which originate from habitats representing the initial conditions that now exist in the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. The phytocoenoses which descend from the common initium (terra nova) form a successional series. The direction of 96 changes within a successional series normally progresses toward a zonal stage. Retrogression or temporary stabiliza-tion is possible. The dynamic stabilization of a stage for periods of time may be due to the effect of extreme edaphic factors. This stage is known as the edaphic climax. Retrogression is the result of either natural or artificial disturbances. Under uniform macro-climate, originally different successional series theoretically progess through their respective initial and more advanced intermediate stages toward the same zonal (climatic climax) phytocoenosis. The successional series of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone are grouped into four successional complexes : 1. The flood plain complex 2. The muskeg complex 3a The rock outcrop complex 4, The complex of glacial drift and alluvial deposits 1. The flood plain complex The general trend in environmental changes on the flood plains is toward gradual building up of the surface accompanied by a decrease in the duration of the flood period. "For successful establishment of terrestrial vegetation, the surface of the terrain must be raised above the average water level of the river. The rapidity of development and the composition of the established vegetation units will greatly depend on the 97 length of the flood period, the type of flood water (whether i t is stagnant or moving), and the type and quality of the deposited material. In accordance with the above specifications on local flood - p la in3 , two basic groups of habitats are recognized. Each group supports the development of different successional series. a. The active river bed On fine loamy sand or finer alluvium, the series of Equisetetum arvonsis Populeto - Loniceretum —* r (Equisetum arvense phase —>• typicum) —J- Piceeto - Oplo- • panacetum develops. . On the other hand, coarse alluvium supports development of the Scoulerietum aquaticae (on top of boulders) —»• Populeto - Loniceretum (Elymus glaucus phase typicum) —»• Piceeto - Oplopanacetum series. If destruction does not occur, the Populeto - Loni- ceretum would be approached in not more than 20 to 30 years (the life time of a Salix generation). The process always includes an approximate 20 - 40 inches i rise of the soil surface by deposits of the intermittent floods. In localities of the Equisetum arvense and Scouleria  aquatica synusiae, the surface of the alluvium has already exceeded the average water level of the river. The dense cover of these elements acts as a great filter which results in the increasing deposition of finer materials, which in turn gradually raise the surface causing an essential change in the edaphotope and vegetation. The establishment of the Alnus  rubra and Salix thicket initiates the development of the Populeto - Loniceretum. The series terminates in the development of the Piceeto - Oplopanacetum. which is regularly approached within the lifetime of a Populus trichocarpa generation. The meander scars Where drainage is poor near the silted mouth of the meander scar, the series of Caricetum retrorsae —~ Saliceto - Caricetum —?• Saliceto - Oenanthetum — (develops apparently to) Piceeto - Oplopanacetum. If both mouths of a meander scar are silted up, an oxbow lake is formed. The oxbow lake is invaded by marginal vegetation. The most resistant places to invasion are the outer curves where water remains deepest. The succession of vegetation in a typical oxbow lake shows the following pattern: Nupharetum  polysepali —•* Equisetetum fluviatilis — 3 - Caricetum  retrorsae —T (Spiraeetum douglasii) —*• Saliceto -Caricetum — S a l i c e t o - Oenanthetum —?* (?) Piceeto -Oplopanacetum. This succession is extremely slow. 99 In the moderately drained meander scars of the mountain creeks, the rare series of Alneto - Ribisetum  bracteosi — P i c e e t o - Oplopanacetum may develop. Prom the Piceeto - Oplopanacetum upward, the succession goes through the following stages: Piceeto - Oplopanacetum —» Thujeto - Blechnetum Piceeto - Symphoricarpetum —Tsugetum heterophyllae I Thujeto - Polystichetum The progress of succession on these higher levels may be extremely slow and is dependent entirely upon changes in water supply. 2. The muskeg complex Two different types of muskegs are relatively common in the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. One originates in poorly drained depressions under forest cover and the other develops from mesotroph lakes. The initial stage in the depressional muskeg type involves the establishment of Sphagnum species (mainly J3. squarrosum. J3. magellanicum. S. girgensohnii. and later S_. papillosum. S. palustre. S. capillaceum and jS. fuscum) on the ground which overwhelm the habitat and gradually eliminate the original forest cover. This type of muskeg develops out-ward from the center (centrifugal development). Its surface tends to be convex in shape. The ground water table is high and rises with development of the moor. 100 This type of highmoor accumulates water. In a more advanced stage, the highmoor is characterized by a revolving change of the wet moss — * dry moss —=?• dry shrub —=9- wet shrub phases. As soon as the surface of the muskeg is raised high enough for drainage of the ground water, the muskeg reaches its final phase in which forest re-develops. In the older parts of the high moor, the Pineto - Ledetum. and at the wetter edges, the Thujeto -Coptetum. represent the first forest stage. The vegetation which invades the mesotroph lakes from the margin is a mixture of. Sphagnum, (mainly S. palustre. £>. papillosum, and S. fuscum) and Eriophorum (and Carex). Part of the organic mass floats on the water. The develop-ment of the vegetation in a mesotroph lake shows the follow-ing pattern: Hupharetum polysepali i Menyanthetum trifoliatae 1 Eriophoreto - Sphagnetum I Ledetum groenlandici I Thujeto - Coptetum  Pineto - Ledetum The Menyanthes Ledum regenerating cycle is notable. 3. The rock outcrop complex In contrast to the relatively rapid changes characterizing the previously described series, the development on rtO.ok outcrop is a.very slow process. 101 This involves-, a deepening of the s o i l and thus improvement in the soil water economy. In the dry subzone on rock outcrops, one may observe the development of Cladonieto - Rhacomitrietum — * Danthonietum  spicantis —» Hylocomieto - Calliergonelletum —*• Gaultherietum  shallonis —?• Pseudotsugetum menziesii (legosolicum —> typicum mahonietosum) —^- Tsugetum heterophyllae series. The stages following the subassociation legosolicum are purely hypthetical in this series as the autochthonous soil development on rock outcrops did not produce an adequate medium for the establishment of the higher successional stages. The subassociations typicum, mahonietosum, and the Tsugetum heterophyllae develop almost exclusively on outwash substrata in the region. In the wetter subzone the following successional series develops on rock outcrops: Cladonieto - RhQcomitrietum — ^ Hylocomieto - Calliergonelletum Gaultherieto - Vaccinietum —  Tsugeto - Gaultherietum (legosolicum —typicum) —*- Abieteto -Tsugetum heterophyllae. Again the stages following the subassociation legosolicum are only hypothetical in this series. 4, The complex of the glacial drift and alluvial deposits There are no known primary i n i t i a on glacial d r i f t in the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone at the present time. Glacial dr i f t , however, may represent secondary initium due 102 to natural or artificial disturbances. The development of vegetation on these habitats depends on the kind and amount of water available to the plants. In accordance with the water supply, two extremes of the initial habitats will be discussed, a. Seepage group If seepage nears the gently sloping soil surface, the development of the spring-water swamp (Piceeto -Lysichitetum) is most probable. The development upward from this stage depends largely on;changes in: (i) the soil depth to the impervious layer, (ii) the existence and duration of seepage water, (iii) oa the general drainage pattern of the locality. The progessive trend in development is apparently toward improvement of drainage by lowering the soil drainage level or by exhaustion of the source of seepage water. This trend is as follows: Piceeto - Lysichitetum —- Thujeto - Blechnetum  Abieteto - Tsugetum heterophyllae Thujeto - Polystichetum  Tsugetum heterophyllae In moist ravines where surface gradients are large enough to prevent development of the spring-water swamp, the Abieteto - Oplopanacetum develops. 103 b. Dry group In dry situations with glacial drift or coarse alluvium, the general trend of development is toward improvement in soil water economy due to: (i) the deepened solum, (ii) the weathering and translocation of materials, (iii) the formation of an impervious layer. Succession passes through the following stages on coarse alluvial deposits: Gladonieto - Rhacomitrietum -> Arctostaphyletum  uva-ursi > Gaultherietum shallonie —Pseudo- tsugetum menziesii (typicum —mahonietosum) — Tsugetum heterophyllae. Dry glacial drift and fine alluvial deposits are initially colonized by Alnus rubra representing a phase in secondary succession preceeding the zonal stages. Alnus rubra requires moist and nutritionally rich substrata for tits establishment. Therefore, i f organic material is present the establishment of Alnus  rubra is apparently not possible. Between the extremes of seepage and the dry glacial drift or alluvial •. ... habitats, one may observe the existence of many intermediates which may support different initial stages of the vegetation cover. In these intermediates one thing is common - they will develop in the direction that is indicated by changes in the water supply. SEEFAGE o***tnc QC»QStT« F L O O D P L A I N Muni M«r, u m t M i T H J J E T O -S L C C H N E T U M O L E T S O L I C U M A L L U V I A L DEPOSITS R O C K O U T C R O P DRY S U B Z O N E GLACIAL DRIFT ROCK OUTCROP WET SUBZONE Pig,4 Trends in the succession of plant communities of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone, 105 DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE-FORMS Bife-forms are classified according to the position and mode of protection of the perennating organs (Braun-Blanquet, 1951 after Raunkiaer), Life-form of a species expresses its adjustment to the ecotope, particularly to the extremes of the temperature. Within the forest stands studied, seven basic groups of life-forms were recognized. These are the mega- and nanopha-nerophytes, chamaephytes, hemicryptophytes, geophytes, bryophyte and lichens. Megaphanerophytes are the dominating elements in the l i f e -form spectrum of the zone. Nanophanerophytes represent the second largest group; Vascular chamaephytes are only sporadic. Hemicryptophytes are important on seepage habitats. Geophytes are either hydatophytic (ecologically resembling Lysichitum  americanum and Oenanthe sarmentosa) or relatively drier terestrial species (resembling Clintonia uniflora.Lilium columbianum and Streptopus roseus) and occurring sporadically. The geophytic species of the dry edaphic habitats mainly belong to the Monotro- paceae and the Orchideaceae families. The geophytes of wet edaphic habitats are dominantly of the Araceae and Liliaceae families. The mesic habitats are transitional in this respect. The bryophytes and lichens are regarded as special groups in the life-form spectrum (Krajina, 1933). The vascular therophytes-do not occur in the studied forest stands. However, they are present in small number of species after logging and fire. 106 Life-form p M C H H G B L / by total cover in fo) Dy species Pseudotsugetum menziesii 48 23 1 0.5 2 25.5 7 18 4 6 5 40 20 Tsugetum heterophyllae 61 10.5 - 0.5 2 26 8 16 9 8 8 49 2 Tsugeto - Gaultherietum 44 21 2 0.5 . 32.5 9 13 7 8 8 43 12 Abieteto - Tsugetum 57 11 1.5 5 0.5 25 7 14 8 11 12 4 7 Thujeto - Blechnetum 40 12 6 15 3 24 _ 7 15 6 14 12 41 5 Piceeto - Lysichitetum 25 18 2 9 17 29 7 12 5 12 13 48 3 Alneto - Ribisetum 28 35 11 22 4 5 14 25 14 40 2 Saliceto - Oenanthetum 9 44 12 23 2 8 18 32 13 27 2 Piceeto - Symphoricarpetum 37 38 3 19 3 a—' 12 24 26 21 17 Populeto - Loniceretum 43 35 0.5 10 11 0.5 15.5 22 2.5 27.5 15.5 17 Thujeto - Polystichetum 46.5 13 23 0.5 17 7 14 6 17 7 47 2 Piceeto - Oplopanacetum 31 27 19 10 13 _ 7 10 2 24 10 44 3 Table 28. Proportionate distribution of the life-form groups in the associations. 107 Classification of the studied forest types by their l i f e -form spectra: Megaphanerophytic group I„ Bryosa subgroup The total relative proportion of the chamae-phytes, hemicryptophytes and geophytes is less than 7$. a, Bryophytic forest types 1. orthic Plagiothecium 2. Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagiothecium - Acer circinatum 3. Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagiothecium - Clintonia b. Nanophanerophytic forest types 1. legosolic Gaultheria 2. orthic Gaultheria 3. Gaultheria - Mahonia 4. Plagiothecium - Mahonia 5. orthic Vaccinium alaskaense - Gaultheria II. Herbosa subgroup The total relative proportion of the chamaephytes, hemicryptophytes and geophytes is more than 20$. a, Geophytic forest types (with hydatophytous elements) 1. Vaccinium alaskaense - Lysichitum 108 2. Lysichitum - Oenanthe 3. Ribes bracteosum - Lysichitum (with drier terrestrial elements) 4. Symphoricarpos - Disporum 5. Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax 6. Lonicera - Rubus spectabilis 7. A l l Blechnum. representing transitions to the hemicryptophytic unit. b. Hemicryptophytic forest type Polystichum The between-group comparison of mean cover degrees of the herb layers in different forest types indicates significant differences for forest types (where the number of readings were adequately high). The within-group comparison of means shows mostly non-significant differences. II. RO. -VL. N BR. N N GB. N N N OB. N N N N Po. 0,1 0,1 N N 109 Table 2.% Comparison of mean cover degrees^ of herb layer elements, including the sum of chamaephytes, geophytes and hemicryp-tophytes in the main forest types. N VP1C. 0,1 0.1 5 5 1 0.1 VP1A. 0.1 0.1 0.1 1 0.1 0.1 N LVG. 0.1 Ool 5 0.1 0,1 0,1 N N GM. 0.1 0.1 N N 1 0,1 I N N P1M. 0.1 0.1 1 0,1 0.1 0.1 1 N H N OVG. 0.1 0.1 N I 5 0.1 N N N N N 0P1. 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 N 1 0.1 OG. 0.1 0.1 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1 N 5 0.1 N 5 LG. 0,1 0.1 5 5 0.1 0.1 5 5 N N 1 N N RO. VL. BR. GB. OB. Po. VP1C. VP1A. LVG. GM. ELM. OVG. 0P1. II. I. Legend I. Bryosa subgroup VP1C, : Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagio thecium - Clintonia VP1A, : Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagiothecium - Acer circinatum LVG. : legosolic Vaccinium alaskaense - Gaultheria GM. : Gaultheria - Mahonia P1M. : Plagiothecium - Mahonia OVG, : orthic Vaccinium alaskaense - Gaultheria 0P1, : orthic Plagiothecium OG. : orthic Gaultheria LG. : legosolic Gaultheria II. Herbosa subgroup RO. : Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax GB. : gleysolic Blechnum VL. : Vaccinium alaskaense - Lysichitum OB. : orthic Blechnum BR. : Blechnum - Rubus vitifolius Po, : Polystichum Comparisons have been made with the use of graphs of the Student's t distribution for 5, 1, and 0,1$ significance levels. I indicates non-significant differences bet-ween means. For basic data see appendices. 110 I. II. The subdivision of the bryosa subgroup into the nanophanero-phytic and bryophytic forest types i s also supported by statistical evidence. II. I. RO. VL. VG. G. P1M. B. Po. VP.l 0P1. 0.1 0.1 0.1 0,1 0.1 0.1 1 0.1 VP1. 0.1 0.1 0.1 1 5 N I Po. 0.1 1 1 N N N B. 0.1 5 1 1 N P1M. N N N N G. 5 N N VL. N ' RO. _ Legend I. Bryophytic forest types 0P1. : orthic Plagiothecium VP1. : Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagiothecium (types) II. Phanerophytic forest types Po. : Polystichum B. : Biechnum (types) P1M. : Plagiothecium - Mahonia G. : Gaultheria (types! VG. : Vaccinium alaskaense - Gaultheria (types) VL. : Vaccinium alaskaense - Lysichitum RO. : Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax (types) Table 30. Comparison of the mean cover degrees of the nano-phanerophytes in the main associations. I l l The subdivision of the herbosa group into the geophytic and hemicryptophytic forest types is again supported by significant differences between the mean cover degrees of the geophytes as well as hemicryptophytes in the comparison of the forest types. I. PO. II. VG. N VP1. N Pl . N G. 1 N N I 1 1 N III. VL. 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 IV. B . 0.1 RO. 0.1 Po. I. 5 1 1 N 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 VG. VP1. P l . G. II. 0.1 1 VL. III. 0.1 B . RO. IV. Legend I. and II. III. IV. Kon-geophytic forest types Hydatophytous forest types Drier terrestrial geophytic forest types The abbreviations are identical with those of the preceeding table. Table 31. Comparison of geophytes in the main associations. 112 PI. N VG. 1 N VP1. 0.1 0.1 1 VL. 0.1 0.1 1 5 B. 0.1 0.1 1 0.1 I Po. 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1 N RO. 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1 N N G. PI. VG. VP1. VL. B. P< . RO. I. II. Legend I. Bryosa group II. Herbosa group Abbreviations are identical with those of the preceeding table. Table 32. Comparison of mean cover degrees of the hemi-cryptophytes in the main associations. Vascular chamaephytes do not indicate any significant preference in the above grouping. There are, however, communities which differ from others significantly. 113 VP1. — L. and OG. 0.1 Po. 0.1 N N P1M. 0.1 N 5 N VP1. 0.1 N 1 N N VL. 0.1 5 1 N N H GM, 0.1 1 0.1 5 N N H VG. 0.1 5 1 N M N N N B. 0.1 1 0.1 5 5 1 N N 0P1. L. and OG. Po. RO. ELM. VP1. VL. GM. Abbreviations are identical with those of the preceeding table. Table 33. Comparison of the mean cover degrees of the chamae-phytes in the main associations. Life-forms are used in the key offered for identification of the forest types. Using the total relative proportion; of the chamaephytes, hemicryptophytes and geophytes, one does not need to distinguish between these life-form groups. It is recommended to evaluate the cover degree of the herb layer only, expressing i t as the percentage of the total of the cover degrees of all layers. For example, i f the structural spectrum of a forest type is: A(PM) : 90$; C(CH, H, G) : 10$ B(Pff) : 2$; Dh(B) : 25$ B(PN) : 5$; Dh(L) m mmmm, • 114 then the total relative proportions of the chamaephytes, hemicrypto-phytes, and geophytes is: C(CH, H, G) = — ^ . 100 = 7.5 ^ 8$ 115 KEY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE FOREST TYPES IN THE STUDIED PORTION OF THE COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE'" I, Non-flooded terrains l) a. Forest stands of mainly Tsuga heterophylla. Thu.ja plicata. Abies amabilis and Pseudotsuga menziesii. The dominating shrub is Vaccinium alaskaense. Precipitation usually exceeds 110 in. per annum. Subzone wet b. Forest stands of mainly Tsuga heterophylla. Thu.ja plicata and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Abies amabilis is absent. Prunus  emarginata. Cornus nuttallii. and Mahonia nervosa are present. Precipitation is usually less than 90 in. per annum. Subzone dry Subzone wet 1 a) Herb layer poorly developed. The total relative proportion of chamaephytes, geophytes, and hemi-cryptophytes is less than 10$. Solum is without seepage or only temporary seepage which is located deeper than 28 in. below the mineral surface 2 b) Herb layer luxuriant (summer aspect). The total relative proportion of chamaephytes, geophytes, and hemicryptophytes exceeds 23$. Solum has permanent seepage located in the depth of less than 3 feet (sedlom a lit t l e deeper). Lysichitum america- num and Oplopanax horridus are sporadic or abundant .3 I T -This key is offered for use in older immature and mature stands. 116 2 a) A Tsuga heterophylla stand with admixture of Pinus  monticola. Chamaecyparis nootkatensis. or rarely Tsuga mertensiana. Dominating shrubs are Vaccinium  alaskaense and Gaultheria shallon. Cover of the herb layer less than 5$. Site index^ of Pseudo-2) tsuga menziesii lower than 80 feet. Depth of solum ' between 2-12 inches. Ridge or hilltop topography. TSUGETO - GAULTHERIETUM i) Soil group is an eluviated acid legosol with 0, Ae, and C horizons. Calliergonella schreberi. a differentiating species, freqouently present. Subassoc. LEGOSOLICUM (the legosolic Vaccinium alaskaense - Gaultheria forest type) i i ) Soil group different with 0, Ae, B, and C horizons. Calliergonella schreberi absent. Subassoc. TYPICUM (the orthic Vaccinium alaskaense - Gaultheria forest type) b) A Tsuga heterophylla. Thu.ia plicata. and Abies  amabilis stand without the admixture of the tree species listed in (a). Site index of Pseudotsuga  menziesii between 105 - 135 feet. Soil depth averaging 3 (l»5 - 4.5) feet. A zonal "^Site index indicates the average height of dominant and codominant trees in the stand at 100 years, 2) Depth to the. impervious layer or to bedrock. 117 forest formation occurring on various topographic forms except the extremes. ABIETETO - TSUGETUM HETEROPHYLLAE i) Occurs at lower elevations which have a shorter snow period. Acer circinatum abundant, Var. ACEROSUM CIRCLNATI (the Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagiothecium - Acer  circinatum forest type) i i ) Snow period longer. Acer circinatum lacking. Clintonia uniflora and/or Rhytidiopsis robusta present. Var, CLINTONIOSUM (the Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagiothecium -Clintonia forest type) 3 a) Seepage near the soil surface at an average depth of 24 (2 - 42) inches. Stunted Lysichitum americanum and/or Oplopanax horridus sporadically present. THUJETO - BLECHNETUM i) Rubus vitifolius absent i/a) Soil group is a pitch peat anmoor. Depth of seepage approximately 10 inches. Subassoc. TURFOSUM (the peaty Blechnum forest type) i/b) Soil group is a gleysol.. Depth of seepage average 15 inches (always less than 22 in.). Subassoc. GLEYSOLICUM (the gleysolic Blechnum forest type) i/c) Soil group different. Depth of seepage 118 averaging 27 inches (less than 37 (42) in.). Subassoc. TYPICUM (the orthic Biechnum forest type) i i ) Rubus vitifolius present. Lower, warmer loca-lities (see Thu.jeto - Blechnetum in the dry subzone. b) Seepage at the soil surface. Lysichitum or Oplo- panax dominate with the highest vigour ....4 4 a) Oplopanax horridus and Lysichitum americanum abundant, Adiantum pedatum present. Ravine forest formation. ABIETETO - OPLOPMACBTUM (the Oplopanax - Adiantum forest type) b) Picea sitchensis is a sporadic constant, Vaccinium  alaskaense and Lysichitum americanum dominating. Topography depressional or gently sloping. Spring-water swamp forest formation. PICEETO - LYSICHITETUM (the Vaccinium alaskaense - Lysichitum forest type) Subzone dry 1 a) Herb layer lacking or when poorly developed mainly Pteridium aquilinum. Seepage elements lacking or sporadic with strongly retarded vigour. The total relative proportion;; of chamaephytes, geophytes, and hemicryptophytes is less than 5$. Solum without 119 seepage or seepage only temporary and located deeper than 3 feet below the surface 2 b) Herb layer luxuriant (summer aspect). The total relative proportion: of chamaephytes, geophytes, and hemicryptophytes exceeds 20$. Lysichitum. Oplopanax. or both are sporadic or dominant. Solum with permanent seepage except the Polystichum forest type which may have only temporary seepage 3 2 a) Gaultheria shallon forms the dominant cover (lO) 20 -95$. The relative proportion of nanophanerophytes is higher than 20$. Site index of Pseudotsuga  menziesii less than 120 (l27) feet. Soil texture is coarse, and i f an alluvial terrace, then the soil texture is very coarse. Depth of solum less than 3 (4) feet. Topography is a convex slope or ridge. PSEUDOTSUGETUM MENZIESII i) Mahonia nervosa absent. Depth of solum less than 34 inches. i/a) Soil group is an eluviated acid legosol with 0, Ae, and C horizons. Solum 1 -10 in. deep (average 4 in.). Callier- gonella schreberi frequently present, as a differentiating species. , Subassoc. LEGOSOLICUM (the legosolic Gaultheria forest type) 120 i/b) Soil group with 0, Ae, B, and C horizons. Solum 1 - 3 feet deep (average 2 feet). Calliergonella schreberi lacking. Subassoc. TSUGETOSUM HETEROPITCLLAE (the orthic Gaultheria forest type) i i ) Mahonia nervosa codominant with Gaultheria  shallon. Solum 3 - 4 feet deep. Subassoc. MAHOMIETOSUM (the Gaultheria - Mahonia forest type) b) The lower shrub layer (B^) lacking or i f present main-ly Mahonia nervosa. If Gaultheria shallon; • present, i t is established largely or almost exclusively on decaying wood. The relative proportion of nanopha-nerophytes less than 11$. Site index of Pseudotsuga  menziesii higher than(ll7) 130 feet. Soil texture finer than in (a). Depth of solum more than (li§) , 2.5,, feet. A zonal forest formation occurring on different topographic forms except the extremes. TSUGETUM HETEROPHYTITIAE  Subassoc.PLAGIOTHECIETOSUM UNDULATI i) The lower shrub layer lacking or mainly Gaultheria  shallon in the openings. Var. MUSCOSUM (the orthic Plagiothecium forest type) i i ) Mahonia nervosa dominant in the B2 layer Var. MAHONIOSUM (the Plagiothecium - Mahonia forest type) 121 3 a) Polystichum muniturn dominant. Seepage deep be-neath the mineral surface (2 feet or more) and permanent (if soil texture coarse) or temporary (in finer textured solums). Soil group is frequently a modal acid dark-brown forest type. Topography is a concave gentle slope (in lower altitudes) or steep (in higher altitudes). Site index for Pseudotsuga menziesii higher than (143) 150 feet. THUJETO - POLYSTICHETUM Subassoc. HYLOCOMIETOSUM SPLENDENTIS (the Polystichum forest type) b) Seepage permanent and near or at the soil surface but always less than 28 inches deep. Lysichitum  americanum and/or Oplopanax horridus sporadic or abundant. 4 4a) Seepage near the soil surface (between 1.5 ? 2.5 feet). Lysichitum americanum and/or Oplopanax horridus are sporadic in occurrence and poor in vigour. Rubus  vitifolius and other elements of the dry and warmer subzone present. Lower concave slope topography. THUJETO - BLECHHBTUM  Var. RUBETOSUM VITIFOLII (the Blechnum - Rubus vitifolius forest type) 122 b) Seepage at the soil surface. Lysichitum americanum or Oplopanax dominating and excellent in vigour. see 4(a) and (b) in the wet subzone. II. Muskegs 1. Ledum groenlandicum dominates in the shrub layer. Soil surface is a living mat of Sphagnum species. PINETO - LEDETUM (the Ledum forest type) 20 Ledum groenlandicum absent. Sphagnum species reduced in dominance or absent. Lysichitum americanum is a sporadic constant. Coptis trifolia constant. THUJETO - COPTETUM (the Coptis forest type) III. Flood plains 1 a) Drained flood plain levels. .2 b) Partially filled meander scars and oxbow lakes 5 2 a) Lower flood plain level (approx. up to 4 feet above the average water level"*" ^ ). Ribes bracteosum and Oplopanax  horridus lacking. Picea sitchensis occurs only in the lower shrub stratum. Immature stands (age 5-60 years). 3 b) Intermediate and high flood plain levels i(more than 4 feet above the average water level). Ribes bracteosum and 1) The level for the establishment of terrestrial vegetation is considered as the average water level. 123 Oplopanax horridus present. Symphoricarpos rivularis level also included. 4 3 a) Boulders partially covered with coarse alluvial sand. Elymus glaucus dominates. Scouleria aquatilis. S. marginata. and Hygrophypnum ochraceum s t i l l present. Salix sp. dominates in the crown canopy. Age 15 - 20 years. POHJLBTO - LONICERETUM ELYMUS GLAUCUS phase (the Elymus phase of the Lonicera - Rubus spectabilis forest type) b) Pine loamy sand alluvium. Equisetum arvense dominating in the herb layer. Salix and Alnus sp. codominant in the crown canopy. Similarly young stands as in (a). POPULETO - LQMICERETUM  EQUISETUM ARVENSE phase (the Equisetum phase of the Lonicera - Rubus spectabilis forest type) c) Soil level slightly higher. Lonicera involucrata and Rubus spectabilis dominating in the shrub layer. Populus  trichocarpa dominant in the crown canopyi Alnus rubra and Salix sp. suppressed and gradually becoming extinct. Age 20 - 60 years. POPULETO - LONICERETUM TYPICUM (the orthic Lonicera - Rubus forest type) 124 4 a) Mature or older immature stands with Picea sitchensis forming the dominant stratum. Oplopanax horridus and Ribes bracteosum dominating in the shrub layer. Intermediate flood-plain levels. PICEETO - OPLOPANACETUM i) Narrow valley environment. Abies amabilis present. Var. ABIETOSUM AMABILIS (the Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax - Abies amabilis forest type) i i ) Larger flood plains. Populus trichocarpa present. Var. POPULOSUM TRICHOCARPAE or the Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax - Populus forest type. b) Highest alluvial levels: in the flood plain. Symphori- carpo s rivularis dominating. PICEETO - SYMPHORICARPETUM (the Symphoricarpos - Disporum forest type) 5 a) Oxbow lakes or poorly drained meander scars. Salix lasiandra. Lysichitum americanum. and Oenanthe sarmentosa constant dominants. (The abundant occurrence of Carex retrorsa indicates a more primitive stage of this forest type.) SALICETO - OENANTHETUM (the Oenanthe - Lysichitum forest type) 125 b) Drained meander scars of mountainous streams. Alnus  rubra dominating in the crown canopy. Ribes bracteo- sum and Lysichitum americanum abundant. ALNETO - RIBISETUM BRACTEOSI (the Ribes bracteosum - Lysichitum forest type) 126 SUM1ARY The provisional subdivision of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone into the dry and wet subzones (Krajina, 1959) was found to be correct. Both subzones are distinct categories in their respective ecoclimate, floristic structure and the zonal plant association. The Tsugetum heterophyllae is the zonal (climatic climax) association in the dry subzone and the Abieteto- Tsugetum  heterophyllae in the wet subzone. Five ecotopic groups of forest types were established. These are the dry edaphjc and mesic zonal groups in the dry as well as in the wet subzones, the seepage group, the moor group and the flood plain group. These categories, however, should be replaced by higher synsystematic units (alliances, orders, etc.). Within these ecotopic groups, fifteen plant associations were studied. The essential uniformity of the plant associations is reflected in their constancy and life-form spectra. Life-form spectra can be correlated with the ecotopic factors and thus they are useful in the identification of the associations. The practical ecosystem unit in the classification is the forest type. Forest type is a geographic category. It can be recognized by combined ecotopic and vegetational characteristics. It is a practical unit as i t is homogeneous in composition and presents specific problems to forest management in general. Forest type sometimes coincides with the plant association, sometimes i t does not. Therefore, its synsystematic position varies. 127 Forest types are either zonal or edaphic. Zonal forest types are essentially controlled by their respective macroclimate and they represent a stage toward which al l the phytocoenoses tend to develop within the subzone. The edaphic forest types are essentially controlled by local extremes of the edaphic or topographic factors. The zonal forest types are limited by a narrow range of macroclimate. They extend over a wide range of Edaphic conditions. The edaphic forest types may occur under a wide range of macroclimate without substantial change in their vegetational structure and edaphotope. Duration and type of water supply, soil depth, soil texture, and richness of the minerals are apparently the main factors affecting the floristic structure under a relatively uniform macroclimate. Topography is also decisive i f extreme (hilltop, depression, etc.). The development of plant communities was studied. Successional series were established of phytocoenoses which descend from common initia. The stages of the successional series are real existing categories which reflect conditions of the present time. The main driving forces for development of phytocoenoses are ecotopic and competitional. Competition is the main reason for the distinct entities of successional stages. Competition works against the continuum pattern in vegetational distribution. On the base of ecotopic similarities, series were grouped into successional complexes. 128 It was found that the holocoenotic (combined ecotopic and phytocoenologic) approach can be successfully used for the classification of forest stands of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. The holocoenotic approach included: (i) the recognition of the vegetation units (phytocoenoses), (ii) the study of the ecosystems bound with the vegeta-tion units (iii) the recognition of the forest types (basic ecosystem units) ; the establishment of the systematic position of the forest types. Pig. 5 Squamish River. Fig. 6 The eroded bank. Fig. 7 Meander scar at the open mouth. Fig. 8 Zonation of the vegetation at the active bed. a. bare alluvium b. Equisetum arvense synusium c. Lonicera - Rubus forest type Equisetum phase ds orthic Lonicera - Rubus forest type Fig. 9 Establishment of Salix. Alnus. and Populus seedlings as the first stage in the development of the Lonicera -Rubus spectabilis forest type. Fig. 10 On coarse alluvium, an<.. Elymus phase preceeds the Lonicera - Rubus spectabilis forest type. to follow page 129 Pig. 9 F i g . 10 Fig. 11 Lysichitum - Oenanthe forest type. Fig. 12 Ribes bracteosum - Lysichitum forest type. Fig. 13 orthic Lonicera - Rubus spectabilis forest type. Fig. 14 Early spring aspect of Maianthemum dilatatum in a Lonicera - Rubus spectabilis forest type. Fig. 15 Ribes bracteosum - Oplopanax forest type. Fig. 16 Symphoricarpos - Disporum forest type. to follow page 130 Pig. 15 Fig, 16 Fig. 17 Zonation of the vegetation in an oxbow lake. a. Nuphar polysepalum association. b. Equisetum fluviatile and Carex retrorsa complex, c; Penanthe - Lysichitum forest type. Fig. 18 Zonal complex of Equisetum fluviatile and Spiraea  douglasii (in the backgroundX Fig. 19 The expansion of the Carex retrorsa belt indicates an advanced stage in the development of an oxbow lake. Fig. 20 Zonal complex of Equisetum fluviatile. Carex retrorsa. and Salix sitchensis. Fig. 21 The meander scar at the silted mouth already shows and characteristics of an initial swamp. The zonation Fig. 22 on Fig. 22.: a. bare silt b. Carex retrorsal (and Scirpus microcarpus) c» Salix - Carex transition d. Lonicera - Rubus spectabilis forest type to follow page 131 P i g . 21 F i g . 22 Fig. 23 Zonal complex of Cladonia - Rhacomitrium and Gaultheria shallon communities on rock out-crop soil. Fig. 24 Danthonia spicata association. Fig. 25 The legosolic and orthic Vaccinium alaskaense -and Gaultheria forest types. Fig. 26 Fig. 27 The Vaccinium alaskaense - Plagiothecium - Clinto-nia forest type. Fig. 28 The Plagiothecium - Mahonia forest type. to follow page 132 Fig. 27 28 Pig. 29 Vaccinium alaskaense - Lysichitum forest type. Pig, 30 , Lysichitum - Coptis forest type. Pig, 31 Oplopanax - Adiantum forest type. Pig. 32 The orthic Blechnum forest type. Pig. 33 Polystichum forest type. Pig. 34 The orthic Plagiothecium forest type. to follow page 133 Fig. 33 Pig. 35 Meander scar with coarse alluvial deposit. Pig. 36 Cladonia - Rhacomitrium community on alluvial deposit. Pig. 37 Regenerating complex of Cladonia - Rhacomitrium and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi on dry alluvial deposit. Pig, 38 The orthic Gaultheria forest type. Pig*. 39 The orthic Plagiothecium forest type. Pig. 40 Polystichum forest type. to follow page 134 Pig. 39 Fig. 40 135 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, L. 1940-1951. Illustrated flora of the Pacific States, Washington, Oregon and California. Vol. 1-3. Stanford University Press, Stanford. Armstrong, J.E. 1954. Preliminary map, Vancouver North, B.C. Geol. Surv. Canada, Paper 53 - 28. 1956. Surficial geology of Vancouver area, B.C. Geol. Surv. Canada. Paper 55 - 40. 1957. Surficial geology of New Westminster map-area, B.C. Geol. Surv. Canada. Paper 57-5. Barkman, J.J. 1958. Phytosociology and ecology of cryptogamic epiphytes. 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Suggested classification of muskeg for the engineer. The Engineering Journal, November, 1952. Rowe, J.S. 1959. Forest regions of Canada. Forestry Branch, Bulletin 123. Ottawa, 139 Row, J.S., P.G. Haddock, G.A. Hills, V.J. Krajina and A. Linteau. I960. The ecosystem concept in forestry. Progress report on ecology of the forests of the Pacific Northwest (by Krajina). Appendix H. Mimeographed. Dept. of Biology and Botany, U.B.C, Vancouver, B.C. Soo, R. 1953. Novenyfoldrajz. Tankonyvkiado, Budapest. ?••'.. and B. Zolyomi. 1950. Novenyfoldrajzi terkepezesi tanfolyam jegyzete. Vacratoti Botanikai Kutato Intezet. Vacratot. Hungary. Spilsbury, R.H. and D.S. Smith. 1947. Forest site types of the Pacific North-west. B.C. Forest Service Technical Publ; no. 30. Sukadev, V.I. 1947. The bases of forest biogeocoenology. Jubilee Sb. Acad. Science USSR. Szafer, ¥. & B. Pawlowski. 1927. Die Pflanzenassoziationen des Tatragebirges A. Bemerkungen uber die angewandte Arbeitsmethodik.III, IV und V Bull. Int. Acad. Polon. Sci. Lettres. Krakow. Szczawinski, A, 1953. Corticolous and lignicolous plant communities in the Douglas-fir forest on Vancouver Island. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Biology and Botany, University of B.C., Vancouver, B.C. 1959. The orchids of British Columbia, B.C. Provincial Museum, Hand-book no. 16, Victoria, B.C. and V.J. Krajina. 1959. Corticolous and lignicolous synusiae of the forest phytocoenoses in the Coastal Douglas-fir Zone on Vancouver Island. Dept. of Biology and Botany, U.B.C, Vancouver, B.C. St. John, H. 1937. Flora of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho. Students Book Co., Pullman, Wash. . Tansley, A.G. 1935. The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16. Taylor, T.M.C 1956. The ferns and fern-allies of British Columbia. B.C. Provincial Museum, Handbook no. 12, Victoria, B.C. Weaver, J.E. and F.E. Clements, 1929. Plant ecology. McGraw-Hill, New York. 1938. Plant ecology. McGraw-Hill, New York. Whitford, H.N. and R.D. Craig, 1918. Forests of British Columbia. Commission of Conservation, Canada. Whittaker, R.H. 1953. A consideration of climax theory: the climax as a population and pattern. Ecol. Monog. vol.23 : 41 - 78. Wilde, S.A. 1958. Forest soils, their properties and relation to silviculture. Ronald Press, New York. Zolyomi, B. and P. Jakucs, Z. Barath, A. Horanszky. 1954. Forstwirtschaftliche Ergebnisse der Pflanzengeographischen Kartierung des Bukk-Gebirges ( i . Teil). Az Erdo, III. evf. 3. szam: 78 - 82. Budapest. 140 APPENDIX 141 SUPPLEMENTARY DATA ON THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OP LIPE-PORM DISTRIBUTION In the statistical analysis, sample means were compared using the Student's t test. X. - X,. i i i SED i - i i where : SED. .. = 1 - 1 1 n. . V. + n.. „ V.. 1 1 i i i i i n. + n.. - 2 l i i n. n. i i SS. V. - i -l n. - 1 i The basic data (x^ ) is obtained from the synthesis tables. I. Analysis of the herb layer 142 Forest type * i SS. X n. l V. x n., V. X X LG. 0.2 0.8 5 0.2 1.0 OG. 0.25 1.5 8 0.21 1.7 OP1. 1.43 22.0 14 1.7 24.0 OVG. 5.3 50.5 3 25.3 76.0 P-jM. 6.0 57.0 8 8.2 65.0 GM. 10.2 355.0 4 118.3 473.0 LVG. 12.0 793.0 5 198.5 991.0 VP-jA. 17.6 3789,0 14 291.4 4080.0 28.4 2299.0 7 383.1 2682.0 Po. 74.0 15352.0 23 697.9 16049.0 OB. 88.0 22757.0 11 2275.5 25033.0 GB. 98.5 4-2570,0 4 4190.0 16760.0 BR. 105.0 12655,0 4 4218.3 16873.0 VL. 111.0 6649.0 8 949.8 7599.0 RO. 121.0 6994.0 11 699.4 7693.0 II. Analysis of the nanophanerophytes 143 Association X. i SS. l n. X V. X n.. V. X X 0P1. 6.6 413 13 34 447 VP1. 34 11492 21 575 12067 Po. 41 27052 23 1230 28281 B. 48 15661 21 783 16443 0P1M. 67 13899 8 1986 15884 G. 72 28750 17 1797 30546 VG. 78 867 8 124 990 VL. 81 7018 8 1002 . 8021 RO. 116 27414 11 2742 30153 III. Analysis of the geophytes Association x.^  SSi VG. 0.2-5 1.48 8 0.21 1.69 Po. 1.5 118 23 5.35 123 VP1. 2 549 . 20 28.8 578 PI. 4.8 1155 22 55 1210 G« 7.3 828 17 52 880 Bo 13.5 5254 22 250 5542 RO, 38.7 2477 11 248 2725 VL. 84.7 8566 8 1224 9789 144 IV. Analysis of the hemicryptophytes Association X . 1 ssi n. I V. l n,. V. i I G. 0.06 1.5 17 0.09 1.6 PI. 1.12 147 22 7 154 VG. 1.8 29 8 4.2 34 VP1. 15.3 3256 21 163 3419 VL. 35.1 7301 8 1043 8344 B. 57.6 33941 21 1697 35637 Po. 71.5 17759 23 807 18565 RO. 79.2 4752 11 475 5227 V. Analysis of the chamaephytes Association x i SSi n^ V.^  n^. Vi 0P1. —- —— — —— — OLG. 0.15 1.16 13 0.09 1, Po. e.5 40 23 1.83 42 RO. 0Q5:: 22.8 11 2.28 25 P1M. 2 94 8 13.4 107 VP1. 4.9 1124 21 56 1180 VL. 7.4 803 8 115 918 GM. 10 350 4 116 467 VG. 10 1233 8 176 1409 B. 22.5 12436 21 622 13058 CHECK LIST OF SPECIES Trees Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes) A. grandis Lindl. Acer macrophyllum Pursh Alnus crispa (Ait.) Pursh ssp. 3 i n u a t a (Kegel) Hulten A. rubra Bong. Arbutus menziesii Pursh Betula papyrifera Marsh Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D, Don.) Spach. Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. Pinus contorta Loud. P. monticola Dougl. Populus tremuloides Michx. P. trichocarpa Torr.& Gray. Prunus emarginata (Dougl») D.Dietr. P. virginiana L« Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco Thuja plicata D.Don. Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. T. mertensiana (Bong.) Carr. Shrubs Acer circinatum Pursh Amelanchier alnifolia Iftztt. Andromeda polifolia L. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Cassiope mertensiana" (Bong.) Don. Cladothamnus pyrolaeflorus Bong. Cornus nuttallii Audub. C. occidentalis (T, & G.) Coville. Corvlus California. (A. DC.) Rose Crataegus douglasii Lindl. Gaultheria shallon Pursh Holodiscus discolor (Pursh) Maxim. Kalmia polifolia (Wanger. Ledum groenlandicum Oedr. Lonicera involucrata Banks. Mohania nervosa (Pursh) Nutt* Malua diversifolia (Bong.) Roem. Menziesia ferruginea Hook. Myrica gale L* Oplopanax horridus (Smith) Mig. Phylodoce empetriformis (Smith) D. Don. Physooarpus capitatus (Pursh) Kitze Rhamnus purshiana DC Ribes bracteosum Dougl, R. divaricatum Dougl, R, sanguineum Pursh Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt, R, nutkana Presl, Rubus leucodeimis Dougl» R. parviflorus Nutt* R« spectabilis Pursh R. vitifolius C, & S, Salix hookeriana Benth, S_, lasiandra Benth S. scouleriana Barr. S» sitchensis Sans. Sambucus pubens Michx. Sorbus occidentalis (S, Wats.) Greene S_, sitchensis Roema Spiraea douglasii Hook, S» menziesii Hook, Symphoricarpos rivularis Suks, Taxus Brevifolia Nutt. Vaccinium alaskaense Howell V, membranaceum Dougl« V. myrtilloides Michx, V. ovalifolium Smith V, parvifolium Smith V. uliginosum "L, Viburnum pauciflorum Raf, Herbs and Chamaephytes Achillea millefolium L. Achlys triphylla (Smith) DC, Adenocaulon bicolor Hobk. Actaea arguta Hutt. Adiantum pedatum L. Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) B. & H, Angelica genuflexa Nutt, Aquilegia formosa Fish, Aruncus vulgaris Raf. Asarum caudatum Lindl. Athyrium filix^femina (L.) Roth Blechnum spicant (L.) Smith. Bos'hiaki'a hookeri Walp. Bromus vulgaris (Hook.) Shear Boykinia elata (jfutt.) Greene Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauy. Cardamine breweri Wats, 147 Carex aquatilis Whal. C, bolanderi Olney C» hendersonii Bailey C. leptopoda Mack. C_. pauciflora Lightf» C. retrorsa Schm. C_« rossii Boott. C. sitchensis Presl, C. spectabilis Desv. Chimaphila menziesii (R. Br.) Spreng £. umbellata (L.) Nutt. Cinna latifolia (Trev.) Griseb. Circaea alpina L. £• pacifica Asch. & Mag. Cirsium edule Nutt. Claytonia sibirica L. Clintonia uniflora (Schult.) Kunth. Coptis asplenifolia Salisb. C. trifolia Salisb. Corallorhiza maculata Raf. C. striata Lindl. Cornus canadensis L. Dactylis glomerata L. Dantonia spicata (L.) Beauv. Dicentra formosa Andr. Disporum oreganum (S. Wats.) Benth, & Hooks Prosera ftongifolia L. D« K O t u n d i f o l i a L. Dryopteris austriaca (Jacq,) Woynar D. arguta (Kaulf.) Wats. Elymus glaucus Buckl. Epilobium adenocaulon Haussk. E. angustifolium L. E. alpinum L. Equisetum arvense L. E. fluviatile L. E. hiemale L. E. telmateia Ehrh, E. variegatum Schleich. Eriophorua chamissonis C.A. Mey. E. gracile Koch. Erigeron speciosus (Lindl.) DC Festuca subuliflora Schribn. Galium triflorum Michx, Geum macrophyllum Willd. Glyceria elata (Nash.) Hitchc. G r . pauciflora Presl, Cr. striata (Tarn.) Hitchc. Goodyera oblongifolia Raf. Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newm. Habenaria saocata Greene H. orbiculata (pursh) Torr. Hemitomes congestum Gray Heuchera glabra Willd. Hieraceum albiflorum Hook. Holcus lanatus L. Lactuca muralis (l.) Presen Lilium columbianum Hans. Linnaea borealis L. Listera caurina Piper L. cordata (L.) R. Br, Luzula paryjflora (Ehrh.) Desv. Lycopodium clavatum L. L. complanatum L. L_» obsourum L. L. selago L, Lycopus uniflorus Michx, Lysichitum americanum Hulten & St. John Maianthemum dilatatum (Wood.) Abrams Menvanthes trifoliata L» Mitella ovalis Greene Mimulus moschatus Dougl. Moneses uniflora (L«) Gray Monotropa lanuginosa Michx, Nuphar polysepalum Engelman. Oenanthe sarmentosa Pres. Osmorhiza chilensis H. & A. Penstemon serrulatus Menz, Poa palustris L. P. pratensis L* P. trivialis L* Polypodium vulgare L» Polystichum andersonii Hopkins P. muniturn (Kaulf.) Presl, Prenanthes alata (Hooki) D. Dietr. Prunella vulgaris L. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Pyrola asarifolia Michx. P, secunda L. Ranunculus repens L„ Rubus chamaemorus L. R. pedatus Smith, Sapguisorba microcephala Presl, Scirpus microcarpus Presl. SmiLlacina stellata (L.) Desf. S_. racemosa (L«) Desf, Stachys ciliata Dougl. Stellaria crispa C, & S. Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. S. roseus Michx, S_» streptopoides (Ledeb.) F. & R. Thalictrum occidentale A. Gray Thelypteris phegopteris ( L . ) Solosson Tofieldia glutinosa (Michx.) Presl„ Tiarella laciniata Hook, To trifoliata L. T. unifoliata Hook, Tolmiea menziesii (Pursh) T. & G, Trautvetteria grandis Nutt. Trientalis latifolia Hook. Trillium ovatum Pursh Trisetum cemuum Trin. Urtica l y a l l i i Wats. Vaccinium oxycoccos L. Veratrum viride Ait. Veronica americana (Raf.) Schwein. Tiola glabella Nutt. V. orbiculata Geyer. V. sempervirens Greene Bryophytes Antitrichia curtipendula (Hedw.) Brid. Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) Beauv. Aulacomnium palustre (w. & M.) Schw. Bazzania ambigua (Lindenb.) Trev. B. denudata (Torr.) Trev. B» nudicaulis Evans B. tricrenata (Whal.) Trev. Blepharostoma trichophyllum ( L . ) Dum, Brachythecium washingtonianum Eaton & Grout Buxbaumia aphylla Hedw, Calypogeia neesiana (M. & C.) K. Muell. C. suecica (A. & P.) K. Muell. C. trichomanis (L. ) Corda Camptothecium lutescens (Huds.) Br. & Sch. C. megaptilum Sull. Cephalozia bicuspidata ( L . ) Dumort C. Iammer3iana (Huebo) Spruce C. media Lindb. Cephaloziella papillosa (Douin) Schiffn. Climacium dendroides (Hedw.) W. & M, Claopodium crispifolium (Hooks,) R, & C. C. bolanderi Best. Conocephalum conicum ( L . ) Duml Dicranella heteromaTLa (Hedw.) Schimp, JDicranoweisia cirrhata (Hedw.) Lindb. Dicranum fuscescens Turn. D. scoparium Hedw. D. maius Smith. Diplophyllum taxifolium (Wahl.) Bum. Douinia ovata (Dicks.) Buch, Eurhynchium oreganum (Sull.) Lesq. & James E« stokesii (Tum.) Bruch. & Schimp. Fontinalis kindbergii R. & C. Frullania nisquallensis Sull. Grimmia apocarpa Hedw. Heterocladium heteropteroides Best. H. procurens (Mitts) Rau. & Hervey Hookeria lucens Sm. Homalothecium nuttallij (Wils.) Grout. Hygrohypnum ochraceum (Turn.) Loeske Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Bry, Eur. Hypnum circinale Hook, H. subimponens Lesq. Lepidozia reptans (L.) Dumort, Lophocolea cuspidata (Nees.) Limpr, L. heterophylla (Schrad.) Dum. Lophozia incisa (Schrad.) Dum, Marsupella sphacelata (Gieseke) Dum. Metzgeria conjugata Lindb. M. furcata (Dicks.) Lindberg M. pubescens (Schrank) Raddi Mnium insigne Mitt. M. menziesii (Hook.) C.M, M o punctatum Hedw. M. spinulosum Bruch. & Schimp. M. venustum Mitt. Heckera douglasii Hook, N. menziesii Hook. Pellia columbiana Krajina & Brayshaw P o epiphylla (L.) Corda Plagiochila asplendioides (L.) Dum. Plagiothecium denticulatum (Hedw.) Bry. P.. elegans (Hooks) Sull, P. undulatum (Hedw.) Br, & Sch. P. seligeri (BHd.) Lindb. P. sylvaticum (Brid.) Bry. Eur. Plectocolea rubra (Underw.) Buch. Pogonatum alpinum (Hedw.) Roehl. Pohlia cruda Lindb. Polytrichum juniperinum H<§dw. P. piliferum Hedw. ' Porella navicularis (L. & L.) Lindb, P. platiphylla (L.) Lindb. Porotrichum neckeroides (Hook.) Will. Pseudisothecium stoloniferum (Hook.) Grout. Ptilidium oalifornicum (Aust.) Underw. & Cook P. pulcherrimum (Web.) Hamke Radula complanata (L,) Dum. Rhacomitrium canescens Brid, R. heterostichum (Hedw.) Brid. Rhacomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. Rhytidiadelphus loreus (Hedw.) Warnst R. squarrosus (Hedw.) Warnst R* triquetrua (Hedw.) Warnst Rhytidiopsis robusta (Hook.) Broth. Riccardia palmata (Hedw.) Carruth. Ro 3 inuata(Dicks.) Trev, Scapania bolanderi Aust* Scouleria aquatica Hook. S. marginata E.G.B. Sphagnum capillaceum (Weiss*) Schr. S. fuscum (Schimp.) Kling. S_o girgenshonii Russ. S. magellanicum Brid. S. palustre L. S«> papillosum Lindb. S. recurvum Beauv. S. robustum (Russ.) Roell. S. squarrosum Pers. S, tenellum Pers, Tetraphis pellucida Hedw, Ulota megalospora Vent. Lichens Alectoria jubata (L.) Ach, A. sarmentosa Ach. Cetraria glauca ( L . ) Ach. C_. herrei Imshaug Cladonia conioorea (Flk.) Sandst C. furcata (Huds.) Schr. C_. gracilis (L.) Willd. C, impexa Harm. C_. pityrea (Plk.) Pr. C_» rangiferina (L.) Web. £. bellidiflora (Ach.) Sch. C_» subsquamosa Nyl» Icmadophila ericetorum (L.) Zahl. Lobaria pulmonaria (L . ) Hoffm. Parmelia physodes (L.) Ach. P. tubolosa (Hag9) Bitt, P. vittata (Ach.) Rohl. Peltigera canina (L.) Willd. P. rufescen3 (Weis.) Humb-Pertusaria ambigens (Nyl.) Tuck. Sphaerophorus globosus (Huds.) Wainio Usnea hirta (LT ) Wigg. 152 SYNTHESIS TABLES Synthesis tables contain analytical and synthetical data of their respective sample plots. Analytical data include plot number, date, locality, altitude, exposure and sloping, topography, layering (cover $'s by sublayers and layers), site indices (calculated by S. Eis), remarks (soil subgroups after Gy« Lesko), and l i s t of plants with species significance values (by sublayers). Data are stratified by the sub-units within the association. Synthesis includes constancy (of each species and constancy spectra), total cover degree, fidelity, life-forms (and life—form spectra), average cover by the vegetation layers, and average site indices for forest trees (at one hundred years) by forest types. Synthesis tabic 1, Pseudotougctum monziosii List of Plants A Pseudotsuga nenzieoii subassoc. legosolicun Thuja plicata Touga het erophy 11a B Thuja plicata  Tsuga 1 5.7.3 3.4.2 4.4.2 2 5.8.2 '4.4.1 3 3.4-.1 1 - 4.7.3 3.+. 2 4.7.2 2 4.7.3 6.10.2 6.9,2 3 4.7.2 4.8.1 1 3.+ .3 4.6.3 2 2.4-.2 3.7.3 2.4.2 3 2.7.1 3.4-. 2 1 5.7.2 3.7.2 2 4.5,2 1 2 3*7,2 4.4.2 -6.4.0 6.4-.2 4.4.0 4,5.3 7.9,3 5.6.3 5.7.3 6.8.2 4.6.2 3.6.2 4.7.2 3.5.3 5.5.3 Plot No. . B- E- E— E— E— l i - E— E— E- l i - E- E— E- E- E— E-69 25 6Q 94 102 68 es 22/c 45 129 as 128 104 01 147 105 106 Date 9.5. 9.12. 8.27. 5.28. 6.5. 9.5. 9.4. 8.5.. 8.18. 6.9. 5.20. 7.9. 6.10. 6.22. 7.23. 6.11. 6.11. 58 58 58 59 59 58 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 58 59 59 59 Locality H. C.L. H. S.Cr. S.Cr. H. • H. S.M. H. C.M. S.Cr. G.M. H. Cy.Cr. C.Cr. H. H. Altitude (Feet) 1400 600 1250 900 650 1360 810 960 1000 750 650 1640 1030 600 900 900 Expoourc and Sloping Hilltop s. 33. S.E. w. E. s. s. s. s. N.E. s.w. H . H.E. S.E. w. ±8° 40° 30° 11-22° 26-400 8-46° •40 120 120 3° 90 ? 50 3-310 ±40° 35° Topography B B B B B B A A B t B ? B B B A layering (Cover %) Al 25 25 20 30 15 25 15 30 30 30 15 45 5 65 30 15 20 A2 35 40 25 25 60 50 40 40 40 60 15 40 30 40 70 60 A 3 20 15 10 20 25 25 30 25 30 20 35 25 20 15 A 60 65 40 30 50 85 70 75 85 90 85 65 70 85 80 70 80 ?1 20 15 20 90 20 15 20 25 35 15 20 25 25 20 20 5 5 ?2 50 60 50 75 100 10 50 40 20 30 60 70 80 70 85 65 B 60 65 70 100 100 20 60 50 50 15 40 80 90 100 80 90 70 C 5 5 5 5 2 3 2 5 10 1 1 5 10 1 5 15 10 Dh 95 80 75 15 45 80 80 60 45 4 30 35 75 60 25 80 85 Dl 5 20 25 15 15 20 20 20 10 1 30 15 10 10 10 15 10 0 100 100 100 30 60 100 100 80 55 5 60 50 85 70 35 95 95 Site index T 63 69 73 ? 107 94 114 122 96 106 117 100 127 ? 109 90 96 Hu 64 64 67 99 96 90 114 87 94 96 122 90 126 ? 90 29 91 Cr 54 46 69 86 80 80 107 90 76 80 77 80 81 ? 71 75 78 Remarks IM. M, M. M. M. IM, IM. . IM.. IM. IM. m . E.A.L. E.A.L. E.A.L. E.A.L. E.A.L. ? OE.P. D.C.B. ? 'OEjBLP, ? D.C.B. M.P. ? M.P. oubasDoc. typicum* 5.7.3 5,+.3 4.7.3 6.+ .2 8.10.3 8.10.2 7.9.2 5.8,2 4.7.1 3.+.0 5.7.2 4.6.0 2.4.2 4.+.3 3.7.3 2.4.2 6,9.2 6.8.2 4,4.2 4.7.2 6.9.3 4.7.3 5.7.2 4.4.3 6.8.3 3.7.3 6.8.3 7.9.3 4.6.2 4.4.0 4.4.2 5.7.2 4.4.3 6.8.3 5.8.3 7.9.3 4.4.1 5.8.3 6.7.2 7.10,3 4.4.3 4.4.2 4.4.1 subass»c. mahpnietqsun 7.10.3 6.9.2 5.6.2 5.7.2 5.8.3 7.10.3 5.7.3 4.4.2 3.4.2 4.4.3 2.4.2 5.7.1 5.6.2 5.6.2 4.7.2 3.6.3 5,7.2 3.7.3 3.5.2 +-.4.1 3.6.2 2.4-,2 1.5.2 3.7.3 1.4.2 1.4.2 1.4.2 4.7.2 3.7.2 3^ 5.2 5.6.2 5,6.2 5,6,3 5,6.2 5.5.2 4,5,2 4.5.3 4.6,2 4.5.3 2,3.2 8.10.3 6.8.3 3.4.3 7.10.3 8.9.3 5.6.2 3.7.2 4.7.2 4.4.2 2.6.2 4,4.2 6.8.2 4,4.3 6.9.3 3.4.2 5.7.2 4.6.3 7.8.3 5.7.3 5.7.3 4.7.3 8.9.3 3.4.2 4.7.2 5.7.3 5.6.3 3.6.3 3.6.3 5.7.2 3.6.2 2.5.2 2.5.3 4.5.3 3.4.2 1.4.2 4.6.3 2.5.2 5,6.3 2.+.2 4.4.3 Synthesis tabic 1. Pseudotsugetum menziesii (Cont»d) U o fe last of Plants B Gaultheria shallon  Yaccinium" paryifolitm  tfahonia nervosa Rubus vi t i f o l i u s Taxus brevifolia u a 1 subassoc. legosolicum to 1 2 7 .8 .2 8.10.2 6 .8 .2 7 .9 .3 1 2 .4 .2 2 +.+.2 4 . 6 . 2 2 .4 .1 5 .5 .3 1 2 1 2 +.+ .2 1 3 .5 .3 2 +.+.2 1 1.4.2 2 3 .6 .3 +.+.2 2 . 4 . 3 1 2 1 4.4-.+ 2 +.+.1 1 2 2 .5 .2 3 .5 .3 .3. +.+ .2 2 ffenziesia ferruginea  Cornus n u t t a l l i i Pseudotsuga menziesii"  Vaocinlua alaskaonsb  Holodlscus disoolor C Pteridiun aquilimgn 3 .5 .3 + .+^2 4 .5 .2 Polystiohuci nunitum +.+.1 Linnaea boreali3 . 4»3— 2 Trientalis l a t i ? b l i a 3 .4 .2 Eurhynohiura oreganura Hylooomiun  splendens Plagiothecium  undulatm" Diqranun  fuscescens Hypnura oiroinalQ P3eudis otheoiun stolonif erua Soapania bolanderi b. 4 . 7 . 3 6 .8 .3 1 2 . 3 . 2 2 .3 .3 c h 1 o h 1 c h 1 o h 1 o h 1 c h 1 c 3 .5 .3 4 . 5 . 3 2 .3 .3 2 .4 .3 1 .2 .3 3 .5 .3 +-.3.3 2 .4 .3 +.3.3 1.2.3 +.1.2 8 .9 .3 3 .5 .3 4 . 3 . 3 . 4-.2.3 3 .5 .3 1.2.3 2 .4 .3 +.3 .2 2.+.2 2 .3 .3 2 .2 .3 1.3.3 2 . 3 . 3 2 . 3 . 3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2 .3 1.3.3 +.3.2 1 .2 .3 +.1.3 +.3.3 +.1 .2 1.2.3 +.3.3 2 .1 .2 + .3 .2 +.2.3 2 . 2 . 3 +.2.3 subassoc. typioum 9 .10 .3 4 . 5 . 2 7 .9 .2 5 .6 .3 +.+.2 2 .4 .2 +.+.2 +.+.3 + .+ .3 +.+.2 +.+.1 +.+.2 2.+.2 1.+ . 2 1 .2 .2 +.+.2 3 .3 .2 2 .4 .2 4 . + . 2 6 . 5 . 3 3 .4 .3 9 .10 .3 7 .9 .3 1 .3 .3 4 . 6 , 3 6 . 7 . 3 2 . 5 . 3 2 . 3 . 3 4 . 5 . 3 5 . 5 . 3 2 . 3 . 3 2 . 3 . 3 +.2,3 +.2 ,3 +.1.3 + .1 .2 +.1 .3 1.2.3 +.2 .3 2 . 3 . 3 + . 2 . 3 3 .3 .3 +.2.3 +.2 .3 +.2.3 3 .4 .3 + .3 .3 4 . 5 . 3 + .2 .3 2 . 3 . 3 + .1 .3 2 . 3 . 3 + . 1 . 3 2 . 3 . 3 + .3 .3 2 .5 .2 4 . 6 . 2 +.+.2 +.5.2 5 .8 .2 4 . 5 . 2 2 .5 ,2 2 .+.2 2 .4 .1 +.+.1 +.+.2 + .+.2 2.+.2 2 . 5 . 3 1.+ .2 2 .5 .3 +.+.2 4 . 5 . 2 3.+.1 +.+. 1 2 . 5 . 2 6 . 9 . 3 3 .4 .2 2 .3 .2 4 . 7 . 3 3 .5 .2 2 . 3 . 2 + .2 .2 3 .5 .3 2 . 4 , 3 4-.3.2 + .2 .2 2 , 3 . 3 H-,2.3 + . 4 . 3 3 .4 .3 + . 2 . 2 + .2 .2 + .1 .2 3ubass oc.' mahonietpsun ra § o o o a H u rt o EH O rH O § o •3 5 884 3 % 6 . 8 , 2 7 .10 .2 8 .10 .2 8 .10 .3 6 .7 .2 9 .10 .2 8 .10 .2 3 .5 .3 6 .5 .3 3 .6 .2 +.+.3 5 218 2 % 5 . 4 . 3 3 .5 .2 5 .5 .3 6 . 5 . 2 4 . 5 . 3 3 85 2 % 5 .7 .2 4 , 6 . 3 5 .6 .3 5 .4 .3 1.+.2 3 5 2 % +.+.1 +.+.2 +.+.2 +.+.2 +.+.3 2 5 2 % 1.5.2 3 .5 .3 2 16 1 % 3 . 4 . 3 . + .+ .3 +.6.2 2 1 3 PN 2 .5 .2 +.4 .2 4 . 7 . 1 — 21 — P M 2 . 5 . 3 2 7 2 % +.+.3 +.+.3 +.+.2 1 - 3 % 3.4 .2 5 .4 .2 5 .6 .2 2 . 4 . 2 2.+ . 3 3 .6 .3 4 . 5 . 2 5 124 3 G +.+.2 +.+.1 +.+.2 +.+.2 1.3.2 +.+.2 4 36 1 H +.3.2 + . 4 . 3 3 .4 .3 5 .6 .3 4 . 6 . 3 3 42 1 CH + .+ .3 2.+.2 2 1 2 H 5 .8 .3 6 . 7 . 3 5 .4 .3 7 .10 .3 4 . 5 . 3 8 .10 .3 7 .8 .3 5 731 2 B 5 .6 .3 1 .3 .3 4 . 5 . 3 4 . 4 . 3 2 .4 .2 +.1.2 +.3.2 +.4 .3 4 . 5 . 3 4 . 4 . 3 +.3.3 2 . 3 . 3 7 .7 .3 6 . 7 . 3 5 268 2 B +.3.3 + .3 .3 4 . 3 . 3 1 .3 .3 + .3 .2 4 . 6 . 3 4 . 5 . 2 5 .7 .3 2 .3 .2 4 . 6 . 3 2 .3 .3 2 . 4 . 3 5 149 2 B 5 .6 .3 2 . 4 . 3 1 .3 .3 +.2 .3 + .3 .2 5 15 2 B + . 2 . 3 2 .3 .2 2 . 2 . 3 -V.2.3 1.2 .3 1.2.2 + .1 .2 + .1 .2 +.2 .2 + .2 .3 +.1.2 +.1.2 +.1.3 5 41 2 B 2 .3 .3 3 .5 .3 1 .2 .3 4 . 4 . 3 2 . 3 . 3 3 .4 .3 2 . 4 . 3 +.3 .3 + . 2 . 2 2 .3 .2 + .3 .3 + . 3 . 3 + .2 .3 5 20 2 B 2 .3 .2 2 . 3 . 2 +.2.3 2 . 3 . 3 1 .3 .3 +.2.2 + .3 .2 +.3 .3 +.2.2 + .3 .2 5 34 2 B 3 .4 .3 2 . 3 . 2 3 .4 .3 2 . 3 . 3 2 . 3 . 3 2 .3 .3 2 . 5 . 3 + . 1 . 2 1 .2 .3 + . 1 . 2 + . 3 . 3 + . 2 . 2 H Layer 3 P o • £ o H ' a CQ or rHH 614 olg euro V O o t? I ! p H H> O P cr P o k cHP O l ! 9 o -a o o O O P H-P O H t? It w o p-CJ co 2 P - l P as-% o o o o B. tr 1* H P H S 4 o a § 6 r* P o 3 cr P o cr p< a H* P V 8 ta o s ! o u CQ 0 H t * O H : * 0 H r * O H P ' 0 H P ' 0 H t ^ 0 H I * O H ^ 0 H t * O H ! * O H r * O H f ^ O H t * O H & ' 0 H t ^ O H ! 3 ' Subl^ ffcr 4- 4- 4- 4- +•+- 4- + • H • • • ro • 4-• ro * H • • • • • « • « co CO CO CO coro CO CO 4- 4- 4- H 4- + t- H H t 4-• ro • H » • CO CO • * * V • 4-• CO ft H • • • • • • • • • • • ro coco CO CO ro co CO CO ro 4- 4- +- +- -r + 4-# * • • • ft • ro f + 4- 4- ro i • • • • • • CO CO ro ro row CO 4-ro + co 4-4-• • roro • « CO CO + +- roJ> 4-• » • • » H-r CO U I H • • ft • ft ro ro co co co H +- cn co 4-• » • • • H ro4> cn ro • • • • • ro ro co co co 4-4-• » ro co • • coco 4-ro CO H CO -r h CO CO • • • co 4- H • • • coro co +• CO CO 4-ro 4-4-• • roH CO CO CD g. p CO CO O a H l » o tt O H H O CQ CJ a o d-CO * <rt-o o cr H + ro co • • roro 4- +4-• • • + f + • « * ro ro ro ro 4- + > • * » • H ro H • * ro CO O J + + -fr-• • * • ro — ro • • • CO CO ro CO 4- 4- 4- 4- H 4-• • • * • • ' * CO CO ro CO — CO ro • * • • • ft • CO CO CO CO ro ro CO ro 4-H ro » co ro CO co ro J> cn co CO CO CO -ft. CO co ro CO Ol co U14- 4-• • • c i H ro • • • C O C O CO Oi4-4-• • • vjnro CO CO CO ro H H • • t CO A CO • ft ft ro ro ro + CO • ft CO ^ « » to CO CO 4-H ft' CO CO ft CO CQ & p 14 4- 4-ft « - ro CO CO •r-ro ro 4-4-• « rohj ro co ro CO ro CO -t> CO ft « cn A • • CO CO t CO ft ro + ro io to roco 4- + • • • • co ro ro co • « • • ro u> ro co ro ro co 4-» 4-ro 4-4-4-• ft • C O H 4-• • • roro ro 4- + • « H H co ro ro » CO + H ft ft roco » • CO CO 4-4- +• H H + • • • CO CO CO .4-V ft ro 4- 4^  * • roco 4-H CO H 4 -• • • roro • • * ro co ro ro cn +H • • » • co U I H ro • • • • co co ro ro 4-4-• • H H > • CO CO 4- 4-4- +-• * CO CO + ft CO -t-4-ft CO CO ft^-.H H ro • • CO CO ro CO CO CO ro L O ft CO - ro » • ro co CO ro ro co ro CO 4- •1- + + + 4- + • • • « m • • • • — — CO H CO H ro H • • • ft • ft. • < * • ro CO ro CO C O O ) ro CO CO 4- 4-• ro • . ro • ro • • « CO CO ro CO -r-r ft ft roro • • roro 4-ro • co J>4-4-• • • uiroH • • • co roro + H co 4- 4-• • • • • ro J> U I H ro • • » • • co co co roco co + 4-roro • • ro co 4- +-• « roco • * CO CO 2 ro ro ro u> co u) i I c o c o t o . 4 > J > A t n u i Constancy l l l l l l l o ^ t i i i o j H T o t a l & H H Cover Degree r o r o r o r o r o r o i I r o r o r o r o r o r o r o r o F i d e l i t y L Synthesis table 1. Pseudotsugctun i.ienzicsii (Cont'd) Jj, List of Plants pj" subassoc. logosolioum D Dicranum soopariun Lophooolea  cus pidaTa rrl I h 1 c h 1 a 2.3.3 +.3.3 +.1.3 +. 1.3 subassoc. typicurn 2.3.3 + .+.2 subass-oc. nvih oniet oaun 1.2.2 +.2.3 +.2.2 +.1.2 + . 1 . 3 + .1.3 y +> a o o o a H U o o •H H o 2 I o TREES AND SHRUBS j ACER CIRCINATUM 65 (1.4.2) ALNUS RUBRA 60 (1.4,2), 65 (+.+ .1), 85 (+.+.2) A. SDJUATA 60 (+.+.2), 85 (+.+.2) AMELANCHIER FLORIDA 102 (+.+.2) ARBUTUS MENZIESII 01 (+.+.2) PINUS MONTICOLA 69 (3.4,0) PRUNUS EMiRGINATA 22/c (2.4.2), 45 (+.+.2), 01 (1.+.2) SALIX HOOKERIANA 01 (+.+.2) S. SCOULERIANA 22/c (+.4.1) SORBUS SITCHENSIS 25 (+.+.2), 147 (+.+.3) RHAMNUS PURSHIANA 102 (+.+.3) ROSA GYMNCCARPA 102 (4.5.3), 22/c (+.+.2) VACCINIUM OVALIFOLIUM 25 (4*4.2), 60 (1.3.1) HERBS AND CHAMAEPHYTES: BIJSCHNUM SPICANT 65 (+.+.2), 85 (+.+.2) CHimPHILA UMBELLATA 25 (+.+-.3) CORALLCRHIZA M2VCULATA 01 (+.3.2) CORNUS CANADENSIS 94 (+.3.2), 85 (+.3.2) DRYOPTERIS AUSTRIACA 94 (+,+.l) EPILOBIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM 94 ( 2.+.2), 147 (+.+ .3) GOOBZERA OBLONGIFOLIA 25 (l*+.3) LYCOPODIUM SELAGO 25 (+.+.3) MONOTROPA LANUGINOSA 68 (+.2,3), 147 (+.+.3) SPORADIC SPECIES HERBS AND CHAMAEPHXTES (Cont'd) STULACINA RACEMOSA 25 (+.+ .2) TRILLIUM OVATUM 65 (+.+.1), 45 (+.+.3) BRYOPHYTES: CALLIERGONELLA SCHREBERI 25 (5.6.3), 94 (1.3.3) CALYP0GE3A NEES1ANA 128 (+.1.3), 01 (+.2.3), 105 (+.1.3) C. TRICHOMANES 102 (+.2.3) CEPHALOZIA LAW1ERSIANA 45 (+.2.3) C. PAPILLOSA 102 (+.1.3) DICRANELLA HETER0MA.LA. 102 (+.1.3). 68 (+.1.3) DICRANOVrEISIA C3KRHATA 102 (1.2.3), 01 (+.1.3) DICRANUM M7LJUS 60 (4.6.3) DIPLOPHYLLUM TAXIFOLIUM 128 (+.1.3) FRULLANIA. NISQ.UALLENSIS 25 (+.i.2), 65 (+.1.3), 105 (+.1.2) GRIMMIA APOCARPA 60 (+.2.3) HETEROCLADIUM HETEROFTEROIDES 106 (+.3.3) H. PROCURRENS 106 (+.2.3) LOPHOCOLEA HETEROPHYLLA 94 (+.2,3),68(+.1.3),105(+.2.3) M1RSUPELLA SPHACELATA 60 (4.4.3) PERTUSARIA AMBIGUA 45 POGONATUM ALPINUM 102 + + : (4^.3) (+.2.3), 106 (+.3.2) A. LIFE FORM PM *& OH H G B L By Total Cover £ Cover 2827 1331 42 38 124 1481 8 O O 48 23 1 0.5 2 25.5 By Species Number 7 18 4 6 5 41 20 y° 7 18 4 6 5 40 20 ABBREVIATIONS A. : Simple Topography D.C.B.: B. : Complex Topography M.P.: M.: Mvfcuro F.: In.: ifcanaturc Hv;, E.A.L.: Eluviated Acid Legosol OE,p.: Orterde Podzol OE.H.P.: Orterde Humic Podzol BRYOPHYTES (Cont'd) POLYTRICHUM JUNIP&UWUM 6 0 ( 1 . 3 . 3 ) P. PILIFIRUM 6 0 ( + . 3 . 3 ) , 1 0 2 ( 2 . 2 . 3 ) PTILIDIUM aiLIFORNICUM 0 1 ( 2 . 3 . 2 ) , 1 0 5 ( + . 1 . 3 ) RRACGMITRIUM HETEROSTICHUM 6 0 ( + . 3 . 3 ) R. CANESCENS 6 0 ( + . 3 . 3 ) , 9 4 ( 2 . 3 . 3 ) LICHENS: ALECTORIA SARMENTOSA 1 0 2 ( + . 2 . 3 ) CETRARIA HERREI 6 9 ( + . 3 . 3 ) , 2 5 ( + . 2 , 3 ) CLADONIA BELLIDIFLORA 6 0 ( + . 3 . 3 J , 1 0 5 ( + . 2 . 3 ) , 1 0 6 ( + . 1 . 3 ) C. CHLGROPHAEA 9 4 ( + . 2 . 3 ) C. CONIOCRAEA 9 4 (4 . 1 . 3 ) , 1 0 2 ( + . 1 . 3 ) C. FURCATA 6 0 ( 2 . 5 . 3 ) C. GRACILIS 9 4 (4 . 2 . 3 ) , 1 0 2 (4 .2 .2) C. IMPEXA 6 0 ( 2 . 4 . 3 ) , 9 4 ( + . 2 . 3 ) C. MACILENTA 9 4 ( 4 . 2 . 3 ) C. PITYREA 1 0 2 (4 .2 .3) C. RANGIFERINA 6 0 ( 3 . 5 . 3 ) PARMELIA TUBULOSA 6 0 (4 , 2 . 3 ) P. VITTATA 2 5 (4 . 2 . 3 ) , 22/c (4 . 2 . 3 ) , 4 5 ( + . 2 . 3 ) PELTIGERA CANINA 6 9 ( 1 . 4 . 3 ) USNEA HIRTA 6 9 (4 . 2 , 3 ) , 1 0 2 ( + . 3 , 3 ) Degraded Concrationary Brovm Minimal Podzol Pseudotsuga menziesii  Tsuga heterophylla Cr,: Thuja plicata LOCALITIES H.: Haney C.L.i Coquitlam Lake S.Cr.: Seymour Crock Valley S.M.: Mount Seymour G.M.: Grouse Mtn. Cy.Cr.: Cypress Creek Valley C.Cr.: Capilano Croc!; Valley CONSTANCY CLASS 5 4 3 Z 1 ft 9 Number 15 4 9 10 63 % 15 4 9 10 62 legosolicum typicum" mahonietosum Average Cover in % A I B I c — I t . " 30" 78 79 8 0 5 1 8 5 <5 5 " 5 2 " 51 6 2 legosolicum typicum mahonietosum Avcrago Site Index in Feet F Hw Cr 78 110 98 78 102 90 67 84 75 S y n t h e s i s t a b i c 2 . TSUGETUM HETEROPRYLIAE P l o t N o . E— 46 E -154 E -141 139 E -130 E -121 E -120 E— 02 E— 107 E -44 E -84 E— 116 E— 124 E— 143 Date 8 . 1 8 . 58 7 . 3 1 . 59 7 . 1 7 . 59 7 . 1 6 . 59 7 . 9 . 59 7 . 2 . 59 . 7 . 2 . 59 6 . 2 5 . 58 6 . 1 2 . 59 8 . 1 9 . 58 8 . 1 9 . 58 6 . 2 6 . 59 7 . 3 . 59 7 . 2 1 . 59 L o c a l i t y H . U . B . C . C . C r . C . C r . C . C r . L . C r . L . C r . C y . C r . H . H , S . C r . G . M . S . C r . C . C r . A l t i t u d e ( F e e t ) 1030 200 1010 500 ? 530 530 550 1050 1030 730 950 800 1010 Exposure and S l o p i n g S . E . E . 1 4 - 1 9 ° 0 s(sw) 2 ° s.w. 2 ° S.W. 4 ° N .W.W. 3 - 1 4 ° 0 4 ° E . 4 - 2 4 ° s.w. 5 - 9 ° S . E . E . 4 ° 1 4 ° s. 3 ° s.w. 1 - 8 ° Topography B B B A A A A A B A A A A A S i t e i n d e x Remarks o L i s t o f P l a n t s •3 A l 25 20 30 30 10 30 20 55 4 0 45 40 50 50 ) A 2 60 65 50 4 0 30 60 80 25 30 25 50 60 60 % 20 10 20 20 20 2 0 10 10 20 10 20 A 90 85 90 85 4 5 95 95 70 75 70 95 97 90 % 15 1 2 10 100 10 5 35 5 1 10 5 40 B2 3 3 5 5 30 10 5 5 5 B 15 1 5 10 100 20 5 60 15 1 15 10 4 0 C 2 30 10 5 1 5 1 5 10 5 5 1 5 Dh 50 40 25 25 15 20 20 50 70 50 20 5 30 DL 30 15 40 30 5 30 30 20 25 4 0 30 10 20 D 80 55 65 55 20 50 50 70 95 90 50 15 50 F 136 138 155 145 150 145 130 134 146 U M 141 157 117 Hw 111 129 133 138 126 129 103 83 123 113 107 134 121 C r 94 132 132 100 72 94 97 70 90 88 112 112 114 I M . I M . I M . I M . I M . I M . I M . M . P . ? ? ? ? ? ? M . P . O E . H . P . M . P . ? O E . H . P . M . P . fe rH CO v a r . musoosun A. PSEUDOTSUGA 1 5 .+ .2 6 . 8 . 3 6 . 8 . 3 K E B Z I E S H 2 7.10.3 8 . 1 0 , 3 7 . 9 . 3 3 1*4-,+ 3 .+ .1 3 ,+ .2 TSUGA 1 +. +.3 HETERO- 2 6 . 8 . 2 5 . 6 , 3 PHYLIA 3 3 . 7 . 3 4 . . 2 THUJA 1 PLICATA 2 4 . 7 . 2 +.+.3 3 4 . 6 . 2 3 .+ .2 +.+.3 +.+.3 4 . + . 3 5 .+ .3 7 . 1 0 . 3 6 . 8 . 3 +.+.0 6 . 9 . 2 5 . 7 . 3 +.+.0 5 . 8 . 3 7 .+ .3 +.+.3 +.+.3 6 .+ .3 5 . 7 , 3 8 , 1 0 . 3 8 . 1 0 . 3 6 . 1 0 . 3 8 . 1 0 . 3 9 . 1 0 . 3 5 . 8 . 2 4 . 6 . 3 5 . 7 . 2 5 . 6 . 3 5 , 7 . 2 5 . 6 . 2 5 . 6 . 2 - 4 . 6 . 2 +.+.0 +.+.2 +.+.1 6 . 8 . 3 +.+.3 4 . + . 3 4 . 7 , 3 +.+.3 5 . 6 . 2 +.+.2 4 . + . 2 5 . 5 . 2 6 . 5 . 2 7 . 1 0 . 3 6 . 9 . 3 5 .+ .2 +,4>»2 +.+.3 +.+.2 8 . 8 , 1 5 60 30 85 10 5 15 5 30 20 50 149 143 104 4 , + , 3 8 . 9 . 3 4 . + . 3 +.+.1 4 . 8 . 3 7 . 9 . 3 +.+.3 8 . 1 0 . 3 8 . 1 0 . 3 8 . 1 0 . 3 5 . 6 . 2 5 . 6 , 2 » . + . 2 5 . 8 . 2 +.+.2 3 .+ .2 4 . 6 . 3 +.+•3 5 . 7 . 2 +.+.3 7 . 1 0 . : 6 . 6 . 3 6 . 8 . 3 6 . 7 . 3 +.+.3 5 . 6 . 3 E -125 E -152 E— 150 E -99 E— 149 E— 148 E— 111 E— 2 2 / 6 7 . 4 . 59 7 . 2 9 . 59 7 . 2 4 , 59 6 . 1 . 59 7 . 2 4 . 59 7 . 2 3 . 59 8 . 1 9 . 59 8 . 4 . 58 S . C r . B r . C . C r . L . C r . C . C r . C . C r . L . C r . S . M . 360 380 950 520 880 950 450 940 S . S . W . 1 4 ° N . W . 3 1 ° W. 25° S . S . W . N . N . E . 3 1 ° 3 1 - 3 5 ° S . E . E . 5 - 0 ° S . 1 1 ° A A A A A A A A 25 5 35 65 60 20 15 25 45 50 4 0 40 50 40 70 50 20 20 20 4 0 25 25 20 15 80 80 75 95 85 75 85 75 15 15 50 25 60 30 25 15 4 0 20 20 10 50 60 85 50 35 60 30 60 65 75 95 5 5 5 5 2 5 20 15 75 75 30 2 2 50 35 35 25 20 45 8 3 10 5 20 100 95 75 10 5 60 4 0 55 150 117 133 155 134 141 161 121 122 112 97 99 104 118 132 95 91 76 95 88 81 108 85 90 I M . I M . I M . ? ? ? 0 E . P . ? ? O E . H . P . O . B . o o fe a u fr ° h i -P rH H 1 var. mahoniosuQ § it <H O O «H -i-l O EH &H • H •.+.3 +.+.3 J . 9 . 3 8 .10 .3 8 .10 ;3 5.+,3 5 .8 ,3 6 .+ .2 5 1189 2 ^ +.+.2 5 . + . 2 6 . 8 . 3 5 .8 .3 5 .8 .3 +.+.2 7 .10 .3 . +.+.2 4 . 7 . 2 6 . 8 . 3 5 1749 2 P M 8 .10 .3 7.10.3 7 .10,3 6 .8 .2 ' 7 . 9 . 3 7.10.3 8 .10 .2 5 .6 .2 6 . 7 . 3 4 . 6 . 2 5 .6 ,2 4 , 6 . 3 5»+.2 +.+.1 4 .+ .3 +.+.0 5 425 2 PM +.+.2 +.H-.2 6 ,8 .3 +.+.0 6 .6 .2 +.+.3 5 .7 .3 4 . 6 . 2 6 .7 .2 5 .6 .2 1 ^ . 2 M + + CO 1-3 cl bd C/J CJ Q O W I I S P N H N H N H M M f o H N H N H + ro ro H ron H CO • • 4 \ . ui ro 1-3 H3 N H N H + CO • « » ron ro Layer H H -P CO a c+ c+ CO o I* O to 09 Sublaycr H o ro ro ro ro oo ro ro co ro ro ro + ro ro + ro + + ro ro ro ro H CO ro + ro ro ro w ro + u> LO ro cn ro ro ro .+ ro ro ro • ro ro ro ro co ro U! ro ro * ro + co + « ro CO OJ % • » • ro ro ro ro >-> o\o » • U 1 H • O ro« ro + CO + H 1 ro ro + ro co ro + + ro + ro *> + co o> + cn • • • ro ro ro cn ro ro « ro co cn ro ro 3" cn ro co • • ••• cn cn • • • ro co ro LO J > J> cn • • • • • » « • ro LO co co + + Ul ro ro co ro ro ro ro ro co ro + + H ro H ro ro ro ro .+ ro + ro ro ro H co .+ ro Ul H + « + ro + t ro ro ro + ro ro ro co 4. 4. • • • • UIUM- + • • • • co ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro .+ ro + i ro + + ro cn • ro cn co ' Ul ro ro .+ .+ .+ .+ roro + + • ro CO ro ro ro » CD ro ro ui LO ro ro ro ro + cn • • roro ro + H ro ro t ro + + ro ro ro co cn CO CO ro co ui ro co • • « . 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H ro v • CO Co ro CO ro cu r CO .+1 , ro H » • CO CO 4-H H LO H •* 4i CO + * ro * to 4-LO CO .+ H CO H « • LO t H • ro • '.. 4-* CO to . ro • * • • to CO CO to r3 t ro • * CO to LO * « • • CO to to to H CO t ro ro ro LO * CO t « CO 4-4-CO CO « ro 4-ro co t ro CO 4-• CO 4- H • • Pro • • ro co ro 4-« ro co ro to ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro w to" to to td to ro to LO Constancy H , Total Covor Degree ro td ro Fidel ity ta Life-tfom 091 Synthesis table 2. TSUGETUM HETEROPHYLLAE (Cont'd) LIFE-FORM H G B L 50 152 1657 -0.5 2 26 6 6 39 2 8 8 49 2 •rl t O P< o By Total Cover i. Cover 3988 61 700 10.5 17 By Spooies Number 6 8 13 16 7 9 CONSTANCY CLASS 5 4 3 2 1 Number 18 - 6 15 40 % 23 - 8 18 51 LOCALITIES: H.: Haney C.Cr.: Capilano Creek Valley L.Cr.: Lynn Crook Valley Cy.Cr.: Cypress Creek Valley S.Cr.: Seymour Creek Valley S.M.: Mt. Seymour G.M.: Grouse Mountain Br.: Britannia Average Cover in % A B C Dh musoosum 83 22 6 25 mahoniosum 81 59 7 17 Average Site Indax in Feet F Hw Cr musoosum mahonioeum. 142 121 101 139 110 89 ABBREVIATIONS: A. : Simple Topography B. : Complex Topography F.: Pseudotsuga menziesii Hw. : Tsuga heterophylla Cr.: Thu.ja plicata M.: Mature In.: BnnaturG M.P.: Minimal Podzol 0E.H.P. : Ortcrdo Humic Podzol O.B.P.: Orthic Brown Podzolic H O H 162 Synthesis table 3. TSUGETO - G-iULTIIERIETUM Plot No. E-37 £-47 E-52 E-57 E-56 E-62 E-54 E-103 Date 9.9. 8.21. 8.22. 8.26. 8.26. 8.28. 8.25. 6.8. 56 58 58 58 58 58 56 59 Locality C.L. H. H. H. H. H. H. H* Altitude (Feet) 590 1690 1800 1680 1800 1450 1730 2000 Exposure and Sloping s. H i l l - H i l l - s. s. s. s.w.w. 2-50 ±10° top top +50 80 160 5-10° Topography B B B B B B B B Layering (Cover %) 15 50 45 30 20 20 25 25 4 30 15 15 50 60 40 35 40 10 25 — — 20 15 20 10 A 50 70 55 60 80 60 75 75 B l 25 30 20 35 20 10 25 20 50 55 50 65 40 30 40 80 B 60 70 60 80 50 40 60 85 C 10 5 5 1 1 5 1 5 % 90 75 90 95 35 85 85 90 10 5 10 5 5 15 5 1 D 100 80 100 100 40 100 90 90 Site index F 80 ? 60 67 72 ? 70 79 Hw 75 58 47 39 59 69 53-: 63 Cr 81 52 38 38 54 84 48 63 Ba r 40 ? ? ? ? 59 ? Cy ? 63 70 2 ? ? 44. ? Remarks M. M. M. M. M, M. Hi. tt. u E.A.L. E.A.L. E.A.L. E.A.L. OE.HJP. QE.HJ5. OE.H.P. o r^> List of Plants TSUGA HETEROPHYLIxV THUJA PLICATA PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII PINUS MONTICOLA CTLVmKTPARIS NOCCKATENSIS ABIES AMABILIS r i j subassoc, legosolicum I 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 7,9.3 7.9.2 6.8.3 6.9.2 4.+.2 4.7.2 4.7.2 3.8.2 4.7.2 . . 4.+.3 4.+.1 4.+.2 4,9.2 5„+.l 4.7.2 5.8.2 +.+.2 +.+.2 +.+.2 5.+.2 5.+,3 5.+.3 +.+.3 5.+,2 5 516 2 7.9.3 7,9.2 5.7.2 4.7.2 7.10.3 4.7.2 5.9.2 4.5.2 6.+.3 5 266 2 6.8.2 5.+.2 +.+.2 5.+.2 5.7,2 +.+.2 +.+c2 5.6.2 5.+.2 4 60 2 4. +.2 +.+.2 +.+.2 5.+.1 +.+-.2 3.+.0 +,+,3 +.*.3 5.8.2 TSUGA 1 5.8.3 4.7.2 5.7.2 3.6.2 5.8.2 5.6,2 6.7.3 3.5.2 204 % HETEROPHYLIA 2 3.6.2 4.6.2 3.5.2 2.5.2 4.5.2 4.6,2 4.5.3 THUJA PLICAIA 1 +.+.3 5.6.2 7.8.2 +.+.2 4.5.2 — 86 2 2.5.2 VACCINIUM 1 2.5.3 6.7.2 1.5.2 5 258 2 ALASKAENSE 2 6.9.3 7.10.3 6.10.2 7.9.2 6.7.3 7.9,2 8.10.3 VACCINIUM 1 5 31 2 % PARVIFOLIUM 2 4.5.3 +.+.2 1.+.2 4.5.2 3.5.2 3.4.2 2.5.2 MENZIESIA 1 +.+.3 +.5.2 +.5.2 2.5.2 2.4.2 5 15 3 % FERRUGETEA 2 2.5.3 1.4,2 3.5.2 2.4.2 2.4.2 3.5.2 2.5.2 aiULTHERIA 1 5 176 1 SHALLON 2 4.6.2 3.6.2 6.10.1 7.8.2 4.5.1 6.7.2 5.6.2 4.5.2 Cmj^ ElECYPARIS 1 4.6,2 +.+.3 4 11 5 PM NOOTKATENSIS 2 +.+,2 2.+.3 2.5.2 1.5.2 +.5.3 ABIES AMlBILIS 1 3.6,2 3.6.2 +•+.2 +.+.3 3 12 2 % 2 2.6.2 1.5.2 TAXtIS HIEVIFOLIA 1 +.+.3 1.5.3 2 2 % 2 1.+ .2 subassoc, typicum g +.+.3 2.+.+ v.+.O 5.+.3 6.8.2 3.+.2 3.+.2 o I •rl r+ U rH 03 O O O 5 .rl O If 4l rP % 31 5 % 88 - P M 5 2 P M Synthesis table 3. TSUGETO - GAULTHERIETUM (Cont'd) o g, List of Plants 3 CO B ACER CIRCINATUM 1 2 VACCINIUM 1 OVALIFOLIUM 2 subassoc. logosolioum 3.5.2 2.6.3 2.6.3 3.5.3 LINNAEA BCREALIS 5.6.3 BLECHNUM SPICANT 2.5.2 GOODYERA OBLQNGI— 1.3.3 FOKLA CHIMAPHILA 1.+.3 MEKZIESH CQRNUS CANADENSIS 4.5.3 PTERIDIUM AQUILINUM 2.4.2 LISTERA CAURINA LISTERA CORDATA CORALLORHIZA +.+.2 M4CU1ATA POLYSTICHUM MUNITUM 1.3.2 • • +.+.2 * • 3.+.2 2.3.3 2.4.2 +.+.3 +.3.3 2.4.2 1.2.3 2.5.3 2,5.2 1.+.3 +.+.2 +.+.2 +.+.3 2.3.3 +.+»2 l*+.2 2.5.2 +.+ .1 3.6.3 +.+.2 3.3.2 DRYOPTERIS AUSTRIACA CLINTONIA UNIFLORA 1.3.2 +.+.3 +,+.3 + .+ .2 +.2.2 +.+ .2 +.+.3 +.+.3 +.+.3 HYLOCOMIUM h 9.10.3 6.9.3 5.8.3 7.10.3 5.6.3 9.10.3 4.5.3 6.7.3 SPLENDENS 1 + .3.3 4.5.3 +.2.3 RHYTIDIADELPHUS c h 5.6.3 5.6.3 5.5.3 3.4.3 4.6.3 5,5.3 7.6.3 5.5.3 LOREUS 1 1.2.2 + .4.3 3.4.3 4.4.3 + .2.3 c + .2.2 + .3.3 + .2.2 + .+.2 +.+,2 DICRANUM h FUSCESCENS 1 2.2.3 1,3.2 +.3.2 1.3.3 2.1.3 +.2.3 c +.2.3 +.2.2 +.2.2 +.2.2 +.2.2 +.2.2 +.1.2 SCAPANIA h BOLANDERI 1 4.5.3 2.3.3 1.3.3 1.2.3 3.2.2 2.3.3 +.2.3 c +.3.3 +.3.3 +.4.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 HYPNUM CIRCINALE h 1 2.3.3 3.4.3 2,5.3 3.5.3 1.3.3 2.2.3 +.3,2 c +.2.3 +.3.2 +.4.3 +.5.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.4,3 PLAGIOTIIECIUM h 2.3.2 4.3.2 3.2.2 3.4.3 4.5.3 4.5.3 6,8.3 4.4,3 ' -UNDULATUM 1 1.3.2 1.3.2 2.3.3 2.3,3 c +.3.3 +.2.3 PSEUDISOTHECIUM h +.2.2 STOLONIFERUM 1 2.3.3 3 #-4 «3 ,+.3.3 4.5,3 +.3,2 c +.2.3 +.4.3 +.3.3 +.3.2 +.3.3 +.2.2 CLADONIA h SUBSQUAMOSA 1 +.2.3 +.1.2 +.3.3 1.+.2 1.1.2 c +.2.3 +.3.2 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.2 +.2.3 +.+,2 +.+.2 RHYTIDIOPSIS h +.2.3 1.4.3 1.3.2 6*8,3 6.8.3 4.6.3 3.4.3 ROBUSTA 1 PARMELIA o h PHTSODES 1 +.2.3 +.+.2 c +.+.3 + .3.3 + .3.3 + .2.3 DICRANUM h 3.2.3 2.5*3 2.3,3 +.1.2 +.4.3 SCOPARIUM 1 1.2.3 +.2.3 TSUGA c h +.+.2 1.+.2 HETEROPHYLLA 1 +.+.2 +.+.1 1.+.3 +.+.2 SPIIAEROPHORUS c h GLOBOSUS 1 +.1.2 1.2.2 +.2.3 c +.2.3 +.5.3 +.5.3 +.2.3 LEPIDOZIA h REFTANS 1 +.2.3 +.2.3 1.2.3 +.+.2 c +.1.3 CETRARIA GLAUCA h T X c +.3.3 +.2.3 +.3,3 +.2.3 +.2,3 PORELLA h PLATYPHYLLA 1 c +.3.3 +.1,3 +.2.3 +.2^,3 subassoc. typicua +.+.3 +.+.3 2.+,2 +.+,3 1.+.3 + .+ .1 +.+ .1 1.3.1 +•+ .2 fct Layer O r' C O H !9 CO 8 GO T J H CQ O H P ' O H P * 0 H P " 0 H P" 0 ti £8 co O CO cr P* Q CO H-CO d-P o* H o CO H f O H t i ' O H t ^ o H P ' O H t i ' O H P ' O H P ' O H P ' O H t ^ O H t J ' O H f Sublayer H 00 . H 4- + CO H • • • • ft co ro ro Ul « • • ft ft CO CO CO CO w ro + + H 4-* • •> • • « ft ro CO U ) ro CO ro « •ft « • ft • ro CO u> CO CO CO 4- 4- + + 4- + • • • • ft ft + + H ro H • • • • • • - ft CO ro CO CO CO CO + ft H ro 4-ro co H ft 4-• ro oo • iO ft CO o> ft ft CO ft+.H.+ ro co co 4-ro « CO .+ U ) ft CO .+ ro CO .+ ro CO H H « • ro'co « • CO CO ft+ ro ro CO ro »* • CO CO ft Ul • CO co 4-• • enro * • CO CO 4-* • -CO + 4-« ro C O p o o H o o CQ o H o I ta o .+ OJ ft ro CO T ) T I 3£ 8 •dfcJOQj t->HtJt4i 4-H « ro CO m CO CO 4- 4-ft • • ft Ol ft ro • ro * t ro CO CO ro + 4- 4- 4-• « • * ro 4-• • • • CO CO CO CO 4-ro co H + roro CO CO ro CO ft ro 4-• • CO 4- + CO 4-• ft ft * ro 4- ro ro • * • OJ roco CO o o ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro 1 CO CO CO CO co Constancy ! i H 1 1 I H o I 1 H o co 1 1 1 O) 1 Total Cover Dogroc ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro 1 ro ro ro ro ro Fidelity td tr1 tr< td td td td td td td I? cr1 td td td td Lifc-f om O 4=-Synthesis table 3, TSUGETO - GAULTHERIETUM (Cont'd) 165 LIFE-FORM % % °H H G B L g By Total £ Cover 1279 597 61 15 2 939 1 W •H | Covor % 44 21 2 0.5 - 32.5 -O Pi o £ . By Number 7 10 5 6 5 32 9 Species — 9 13 7 8 7 12 CONSTANCY CLASS 5 4 3 2 1 Number 19 7 14 15 18 Proportion % 25 9 19 23 24 Average Cover in °fo Average Sito Index in Foot A B C Eh F Hw Cr B cy typicun 63 64 5 77 70 56 53 59 44 legosolicum 71 61 5 86 75 61 65 40 66 ABBREVIATIONS B.: Complex Topography F.: Pseudotsufta menziesii Hw.: Tsuffa heterophylla Cr«: Thuja plioata Bj\,«: Abies amabilis Cy.: Chamaecyparis nootkatensis M,: Mature IM,: Immature E.A.L.: Eluviatcd Aoid Legosol OE.H.P,: Orterde Humus Podzol C.L.: Coquitlam Lake H,: Haney Synthesis table 4. ABIETETO - TSUGETUM HETEROPHYLLOE Plot No. E- E— E- E— E— E— 108 48 53 131 13 14 Date 6.16. 8.21. 8.22. 6.7. 7.16. 7.18. 59 58 58 59 58 58 Locality H. H. H. G.M. S.M, S.M. Altitude (fee) 2000 1700 1690 2330 2730 2510 Exposuro and Sloping N. N.E.E. N.E.E. s. S.W. s.w. 25° 13° 30° 5° 4° 5° Topography A A A A A A Layering (Cover %) A l 35 25 20 30 50 80 A2 40 30 40 80 A3 30 20 25 20 A 80 65 70 85 50 80 B l 15 25 15 35 20 30 60 50 50 45 60 35 B 70 70 55 65 70 50 C 15 15 30 25 20 20 Dh 60 50 35 20 5 5 D L 30 20 10 15 10 5 D 90 70 45 35 15 10 Site index F ? 123 ? ? 105 96 Hw 116 97 91 107 129 118 Cr 101 111 90 85 94 89 B 78 ? 92 90 123 77 Remarks M. M. M . O IM, IM. M.P. M.P. O.B.P. { M.P. M.P. u o U o >» List of Plants ri H •§ var, c lintoniosua uniflorao w A. TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA 1 6.8.3 +.+ .3 +.+.3 7.8.3 7.9.3 9.10o3 2 7.9.3 5,8„2 6.10,3 8.10.3 3 4„7„3 6„8o3 5„702 5.7.2 THUJA PLICATA 1 +.+.2 5e8.3 4.+.3 +.+.0 4.+.2 2<>+o2 2 +.+„2 6,+,2 4„+c2 +,+,2 3 6.7.2 +,+.2 +,+,1 4„ 02 ABIES AMABILIS 1 o +„+.53 +.+.3 407,3 +.+»l 3 +.+o2 6.8.3 E— 88 5.22. 59 S.Cr. 690 s.w. 50 A 20 60 25 85 50 40 70 10 65 25 90 ? 107 113 117 0E.II.P. 509.3 6c7r2 +>.h,,3 5„9a3 7.I0o3 E— 113 6.23. 59 H. 2100 E-119 6.27. 59 G.M. 1100 W.S.W. S.E. 50 ia° A 15 60 35 95 5 10 15 5 70 30 100 118 111 95 84 M.P. A 30 50 20 80 10 5 10 5 45 25 70 ? 109 105 120 IM. M.P. E— 89 5.23. 59 S.Cr. 660 S.E. 3° E-18 7.21. 58 S.M. 1735 S.S.W. S.S.W. 3° IOO E- E— E— E-22/c 22/f 22/g 26 8.7. 8.7. 9.8. 9.10. 58 58 58 58 S.M. S.M. S.M. C.L. 1780 1790 1800 880 s.w, 160 S.S.E. W. 11° 4° E— 27 8.15. 58 C.L. 610 W. 150 E— 31 E-32 8.12. 8.11. 58 58 C.L. 570 N.E. 5-100 C.L. 550 W. 7° E-32 a 8.14. 58 C.L. 580 W. 7° E-36 9.11. 58 C.L. 550 W. 16o var, acorosutn circinati +.+.2 7.8.3 5.6.2 +*+=2 5 ,5T2 4r6„2 5.+.3 7.9,3 40V«3 4,7,3 6.+a3 4.+.2 6.+.3 4.+.2 5.+.2 8.10.3 7.10.3 6.8.2 5.7.2 5.8.2 5.7.2 3.+.2 6.8,3 +.+.0 3.+.2 4,+02 2.+.2 2.+.2 7.,8,3 3e+,3 +,+.3 4.703 +.+.2 5.7.3 2.+.2 +.+.2 .7.2 7.+.3 .10.3 +.+.3 .8.2 3.+.2 +.+.1 3.8.3 5.8.3 6.8.3 3.8.2 7.9.2 7.9.2 2.6.3 5.7.2 5.9.2 7.9.2 +. 7.9.2 7.8.2 5. 5.8.2 3.+,2 6. 6.+.3 +.+.3 7. E-90 5.23 59 S.Cr. 760 A A A A A A A A A A A •? 20 30 45 30 40 25 40 35 40 55 50 50 50 50 35 45 40 35 45 40 50 55 20 35 25 25 20 15 20 20 25 40 20 20 25 25 85 85 75 80 75 70 85 85 80 80 70 90 5 15 6 5 60 50 30 25 60 30 30 50 10 20 4 15 40 30 25 5 30 15 40 20 15 30 10 20 70 75 50 30 75 40 60 70 5 5 10 5 15 20 15 2 15 5 15 10 25 15 15 35 40 50 15 15 20 20 40 30 35 65 15 25 20 25 30 20 15 10 20 30 60 80 30 60 60 75 45 25 35 30 60 60 ? 135 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 104 134 122 120 96 101 101 88 100 95 106 96 ? 85 104 89 112 ? 9 ? 136 103 148 ? 117 129 80 79 78 104 104 77 101 73 80 124 M. M» IM. M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M. H.P. OE.II.P. M.P. O.B.P. M.P. M.P, M.P. M.P. 0E.H.B M.P. M.P. M.P. »-.2 7.2 5.8.3 8.2 6.8.2 10.3 +.2 8„2 8,2 .7.2 7.9.2 5.8.2 5,9.3 6.+„3 +.+.3 + 5.9.3 4.8.2 5.7,2 4 4.8.3 2.+.3 4.7.2 4 .+.2 +.+.2 .7.2 +.+.2 5. 7.8.3 +.2 6.8.3 8.2 +.+.3 o o o o fe o a u o is d •p o EH 5 1646 •H H o 2 o I 3 rM 5 305 2 % 5 659 2 % t- 1 O CT-^rnthesis tablo 4, ABIETETO - TSUGETUM HETEROPHYLLAE (Cont'd) u o List of Plants d var. clintoniosura uniflorae U o 1 A PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII 1 2 3 B TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA 1 2 THUJA PLICATA 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 GAULTHERIA SHALLON 1 2 MENZIESIA 1 FERRUGINEA SAMBUCUS PUBENS ABIES AMABILIS VACCINIUM ALASKAENSE VACCINIUM PARVIFOLlUM RUBUS SPECTABILIS VACCINIUM OVALIFOLIUM ACER CIRCINATUM TAXUS BREVIFOLIA 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 +.+.3 4.6.3 6.7.2 3.5.2 2. +,2 +.+.2 4.6.2 3. +.2 1.+.2 2.+.3 3.6.2 8.10.3 6.9.2 2.5.2 2.5.2 2.5.2 3.5.2 2.6.1 3.4.3 2.6*2 2.3.3 2,6<2 +.+•2 4.7.2 3.4.3 3.6.2 3.5.2 3.5.3 6.9.2 +.4.2 4.6.2 +.+.3 4.5.2 3^ 5.3 5.6.3 4.5.3 +.+.3 +.+.2 6.7.2 5,6.3 +.+.2 +.+.3 4.7.2 5.7.2 3.4.2 2.+,2 2.5.2 2.+.2 3.5,2 2.+.2 6.9.3 5.7.2 5.7.3 4.7.3 1.+.2 6.9,3 7.9.3 3.6.2 4.6.3 4.7,2 4.8.3 1.5.3 3.6,3 + n+ al 3.4.2 5,7.3 +.5.3 .5.3 4.5.3 2.6.2 var. accroauu circinati « d £) o o o BLECHNUM SPICANT 4.3.3 4.5.2 5.6.2 2.3.2 4.6.3 2.3.2 4.5,2 +,+ .3 2.3.2 3.4.2 +.3.2 5.6,2 2.4.2 TIARELLA TRIFOLIATA 3.3,2 +.+.3 3.5.3 1.3.2 + ,+.2 +,+,2 +.+.2 +.+.2 3.5.2 +.3,2 CORNUS CANADENSIS 3.3.3 2.4.3 4.5.3 5.7.3 1.3.2 +.4,2 DRYOPTERIS AUSTRIACA 3.4.2 1.3.2 2.5.2 1.+.2 2.4.2 1.3.2 2.5.2 +.1.3 POLYSTICHUM MUNITUM 3.4.2 2.+.1 +.+. + .+.2 3.4.2 1.+ .1 ATHYRIUM FILIX- 4.5.3 3.5.2 +.+,2 1.5.2 +.+.2 FEftlNA PTERIDIUM AGlUILINUM 4.+.3 2,4.3 + ,+ ,2 + .+ .2 + .+ .2 2.+ , l +.+.1 STREPTOPUS +„+.,2 +.+ .2 AMPIiEXIFOLITJS RUBUS PEDATUS . 2,3,3 + *2.,2 •V.6,3 LINNA.JEA BOREALIS 3C4..3 2o403 MAIANTHEMUM DILATATUM 1,2.3 2e5,3 2,3,2 3„303 1.+ .2 CLINTONIA UNIFLORA 1.4-.3 + o2,;3 4.4,3 3.2.2 2.4.. 3 + ,4.2 +.+.3 1.+.3 1.+.2 + ^+.2 1.5/2 1.3.2 + .5,2 +.+ . 2.5 +„3 .2 .2 3,5.3 + .+ •2 + .3.2 2 12 2 -2 2 2 2 •p •H H O +.+.3 • • +.+.2 • • • * • • • • • 2 10 2 4.+.0 3.5.2 5.6.2 3.+.2 4.7.2 4.7.1 4.7.0 8.10,3 6.9.3 5.7.3 4.7.2 7.10.2 2.+.2 6.9.3 7.10.2 655 3.4.2 +.+.2 +.+.2 4.5,2 3.4.3 7.10.3 2.6.2 3.5.2 1.5.2 5.7.2 3.4.2 4.7.2 2.4,2 3.5.2 +.+.2 +.+.2 1.+.2 2.+.2 +,+.3 41 2.6.2 +.+»2 +.+.2 +.+.2 +.3.2 1.+.2 3.6.3 +.3.3 3.+.2 +.+.2 2.+.2 3.7.2 4.7.3 7.10.3 4.6,3 3.6.2 5.8.3 3.6.2 5.8.3 +,+.2 wm 273 +.+.3 +.+.2 2.6.2 1.+.2 3.7.2 3.5.3 2.6.2 3.5.2 4.3.2 2.6.2 +.+.1 1.5.3 3.6.3 2.6.3 5 431 2 4.6.3 2.5.2 5.6.2 5.5.2 2.4.2 5.6.2 4.7.3 5.6.3 3.5.3 2.5,3 4.7.3 3.5.2 6.8.3 3.6.2 +.+.2 2.6.3 4 23 2 2.4.2 2.4.3 3.5.2 2.5.2 2.5.3 3.5.2 2.4.3 1.5.2 3.5.3 +.1.3 +.5.2 +.+.2 4 25 2 1.+.1 +.+.2 2.3.1 2.5.2 1.5.2 +.3,2 +.+.1 2.5.2 +.+.1 2.4.2 +.+.2 3 16 1 +.+.1 +.+.1 +.4.2 +.5.1 +.4.1 +.4,1 +,+,1 +.4.2 +.+,2 3 27 1 3.4,3 2.4.3 +,+.2 +.2.2 3.5,3 +.+.1 +.+.2 3 46 2 3.5.2 2.3.2 3.6.2 1.+.2 +.+.1 +.+.1 +.+.1 +.+.1 2 18 2 3.6.3 6.7,3 4.8,3 5.8,3 2.6.2 +.5.3 2 95 1 +.+.2 +.+,2 +*+»2 1.4.2 2.6.2 4,7.2 3.4.3 3.5.3 2 - 2. o t o a. •3.-PM M PM rN rN 3.7.3 5.7.2 5.7.3 3,4.1 2.+ .1 4.6.3 4.5.3 5.6.2 6,7.2 3.5.2 5 232 2 H 3.4,3 1.2.2 2.4.2 2.4.2 2.+.2 2.3.2 5 30 2 3.5.2 1.4.2 2,4.2 4.5,3 2.4.2 4.5.2 + .4.3 4 73 2 2,4.2 +.4.2 3.5.3 2.3.4 2.4.2 +*+.! + .+.2 4 16 2 +«+.2 +.+.2 +,+.2 1.4.2 3.4.2 3 16 1 H 1.4.2 +.+.2 2.4.2 2.+ . 2 + .+ .2 3 17 "2 "H 1 G 2 G 17 1 CHH 11 1 CIIO 7 2 G -0 16 2 G Syntnos.is table 4. ABIETETO - TSUGETUM HETEROPHYLLAE (Cont'd) 4t c3 Iiiat of Plants H var. clititoniostim uniflorae •§ to D PLAGIOTHECIUM h 7.8.3 4.6,2 5.7.3 3.4,3 4.3.3 2.3.3 8.10.3 UNDULATUM 1 4.5.3 2.4.2 1,3.2 3.4.3 1.2.3 5.5,3 0 +.2.2 +.2.3 +.3.3 RHYTIDIADELPHUS h 6.6.3 5.6.3 5.5,3 2.3.3 4.5.3 LOREUS 1 3.5.3 2.4,3 3,4.3 4.5.3 2.1.2 2.4.3 c +.+.2 +.3.2 +.4,3 JOTUM PUNCTATUM h 4,5,3 2,4,2 2.4.3 3.2.2 2.+.2 2.3.2 1 +.2.3 3.5.2 3.4.3 3.5.3 c +.2.2 HYLOCOMIUM h 2.4.3 5.7.3 4.6.2 3.5.3 SPLENDENS 1 2.4.3 1.3.3 2.4.3 0 4^ 3.3 SCAPANIA BOLANDERI b. 1 1.3.3 3.4.3 3.4.2 1.2.3 +.3,3 +.3.2 +.1.2 c +.2.3 +.4,2 +.3.2 +.2.3 HYPNUM CIRCINAIJE h 1 1.2.3 1.4.3 2.4.3 3.3.3 4.3.2 1.2.3 +.1.3 c +.3.3 +.2.2 +.3.2 +.3,3 +.2.3 DICRANUM h 2.3.2 FUSCESCENS 1 1.2.3 2.4.3 2.3.3 3.1.2 3.2.3 +.2.2 c +.2.3 +.2.3 PSEUBISCmiECTUM h STOLONIFERUM 1 3.4.3 c +.2.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 +vf.2 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.6.3 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA h 1.+ .3 1.2.2 2.+.2 3.4.3 1 +,+.3 2.5.2 4.3,3 c CLADONIA h SUBSaUAMOSA 1 1,2,2 2.1.2 +.1,2 0 +,+,3 +.2,1 +.1.2 +.+.3 +.2.3 +.2.2 PLAGIOCHIIA h ASPL2NI0IDES 1 +.1.2 +.2.2 c +.2.3 + ,2C3 BAZZANIA AMBIGUA h 1 2.4.3 3,4C3 o +.2,3 +.1.2 -:-.3,3 CALYPOGEIA h NEESIANA 1 + .*.3 1.3.2 1.2.3 ^ +82,3 c +.+o3 +.3.2 +.1,3 LEPID07IA h REPXA1TS 1 +..1-.3 1.2.3 +.2.3 c .2 & I * § var. acerosun oircinati « d o "o o o o o O E-iO 5.4.2 6.5.3 5.6.3 3.5.2 5.6.3 5.7.3 6.8.3 6.8.3 4.6.3 3.5.2 4.5.3 4.7.3 6.8.3 6.7.2 5.4.3 5.6.3 7.7.3 4.5,3 4.7.3 5.8.3 3.4.0 3.5.2 3.6.3 3.6.3 3.5.3 6.5.3 +.2.3 +.3.2 +.2.3 +.2.2 +.2.3 +.3.2 +.2.2 5.6.3 2.4.3 4.4.3 2.4.2 +.5.3 1.3.3 2.3.2 1.3.2 3.5.3 3.3.2 5.3.3 3.6.3 5.6.3 4.3.3 4.4.3 3.4.3 4.6.3 1.2.3 2.4.2 2.5.3 2.3.2 3.6.2 4.6.3 2.4.3 4.6.3 2.3.3 +.3,3 +.3.2 +.2.2 +.2.2 +.2.2 +.3.3 +.+.2 1.3.2 3,5.3 4.7.3 5.6.3 3.5.3 3.5.3 1.4.2 3.2.3 1.2.2 +.1.3 4.6.3 4.5.3 4.5.3 3.6.3 5.7.3 5.6.3 5.6.3 3.5.2 4.7.3 1.2.3 3.5.3 +.+.2 +.+.2 +.1.2 5.6.3 3.4.3 +.+.1 1.3.2 4.6.3 3.5.3 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.3 6.8.3 2.3.3 4.5.3 2.5.2 +.+.2 2.3.2 2.4.2 2.3.3 2.4.2 1.3.2 +.3.2 +.2.1 +.4,3 +.3.2 +.2.3 2.3.3 1.2.3 2.3.3 2.3.3 3.4.3 1.3.2 4.5.2 +.3.2 1.2.2 3.5.2 2.5.3 3.4.2 +.2.3 +.2.2 +.2.3 1.3.3 +.1.3 +.4.3 +.3.2 +.4.2 +.2.3 +.2.3 2.1.3 2.4.3 3.5.3 2.4.3 4.4.2 1.3.3 1.4.3 +.2.3 3.5.3 +.3.2 +.2.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.3.2 +.+.2 +.4.2 +.3.2 +.3.2 +.2.3 2.4.2 2.3.2 + .2.3 3.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.2 4.5.3 2.3.2 1.2.1 2.3.2 1.3.2 2.3.3 +.2.2 +.1.3 +.+.3 +.1.2 +.2.3 +.2.2 +.3.2 +.2.2 1.1.2 +.3.2 +.2.3 +.4.3 2.3.3 +.+.2 +.3.3 2.4.3 2.4.2 4.5.3 1.1.2 2.3.3 +.3.3 +.5.3 £.5.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.5,2 +.6.3 +.4.3 +.4.3 +.6.3 +.2.3 +.5.3 3.4,3 2.3.3 +.+.3 2.3.2 +.+.2 2.+.2 2.3.2 1.3.2 1. .2 1.2.2 2.+.2 +.+.2 3.4.3 2.3.3 +.+,3 +.+.2 2.3.2 2.+.2 1.+.3 +.+.3 2.3.2 1.+.2 +,1>3 +.1.2 +.1.2 1.2.2 +.1.2 +.2.2 +.+.3 +.1.2 +.1.2 +.1.2 +.2.2 1.3.2 2.1.3 2.2.3 2.2.3 2.3.3 2.1.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 1.2.2 1.1.3 1.1.2 2.3.3 2.2.3 +.~+.2 +.2.3 +.2.3 * 2C3,3 2.2.3 2.3.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.+.2. +.2.3 +.2,3 . +.2.3 - ( +,2.3 +,1.3 1.1.2 +.2.2 +.1.2 +.1,3 +.1.3 5 725, 2 B 5 285 2 B 5 219 2 B 5 152 2 B 5 39 2 B 5 39 2 B 5 35 2 B 5 19 2 B - 36 - % 4 1 2 L 4 7 2 B 3 9 2 B 3 - 2 B 2 O 2.3,3 +.2.3 +.1.2 +.2,3 +.+ .2' +.2.3 a> + .2.3 +.1.2 +.2.2-- , +.1.3 8 to H tr1 H CO Layer ,cp O H f O H P* O H f O H f Q H f O HP'O H P* O H P* O H F O HP* + IN) + ro CO + H o CO H CO CO + CO CO + ro ro + 4- 4- H CO • • • 0 « ro + CO 4i • • • ft ft CO CO CO CO CO + + • • cn 4-• ft CO ro 4- H ro • • • cn ro CO • e ft CO CO CO co ro + + + H co cn • • « • • • • • ro ro ro H H H cn o> • • • • * • • • CO CO CO ro CO CO CO CO + + Ol • • ft H H 0 ft • ro CO CO + ft H o CO t .+ + + o ft ro ro -r + + f 0 0 ro ro ro co + ro» co 01 c+ o H i t <+ S H O CD g H) H O o p" o ef-ts a" H o Sublayor 9 o I I 8 0 o i o o & •S- + + + ft ft ft ft CO CO ro ro c ft 9 0 co ro roco ro ro + + • • • • CO 4> + ro 0 ft • • CO CO ro CO tt + H ro co p 4 H + + + • 0 • ft • H + ro ro H « ft • • • CO ro CO CO CO ro co 4-H ro 4-o ro .+ ro • co IF* + ro co + ro co CO *> ft CO + ft ro • CO ft+ H ft CO CO CO* ft ft co ro + c H CO + + + + roro H CO ro •lift » CO ft+ ft+ «• H + + ft CO t f CO + + ro t ro + fr CO 4-+ H + 9 H » • CO H H H ro * • roro t t t ro co ro + + to ro ro I ro ro ro ro ro ro | co Constancy I I -J o> I ! I P | ro Total ro I ro ro ro ro ro M l ro Cover Degree Fidelity Synthesis table 4. ABIETETO - TSUGETUM HETEROHIYLLAE (Cont'd) SPORADIC SPECIES ySHRUBS: MAHONIA NERVOSA 119(+.+,2), 22/g(+.+,l) SORBUS OCCIDENTALIS lOSf+.+ .S), 22/0^ ,+ .2), 22/gfr> .+ .2) S. SITCHENSIS 48(+.+,3), 53(+.+.2), 32(+.5.3) HERBS AND CHAMHEPILYTES: COPTIS ASPLENIFOLIA 108(2,+,3), 48(+.+»2) CQRALLORHIZA MACULATA 131(+.3.3) GALIUM TRIFLORUM 22/f(+.3.3) GOODYERA CBLONGIFOLIA 108(+.+.3), 53(+.2.2) HABENARIA SACCATA 18(+.+.3) LISTERA CAURINA 108(4.+.3), 48(+.+.3), 13l(+(+.3), 113(+.+.3) " 108(2.+.3), 131?+.+.3), 113(+.+.3) ' LUZUIA PARVIFLORA 13(2.3.2) L. CORDATA LYCOPODIUM SELAGO 108(1.3.3) MONESES UNIFLORA 113(+.2.3) HERBS AND CHAMHEPIIYTES (Conttd): FYROLA SECUNDA 131 (+.2. 3) SMTLACINA STELLATA 14(+.2.2) STELLARIA CRISPA 13(+.3.2), 14(2.6.2) STREPTOPUS -ROSEUS 108(+.+ .2), 13l(+.+,3) S. STREPTOPOIDES 131(3.4.3), 14(1.2.2) TIARELLA UNIFOLIATA 48 ( +. +.2) BRYOPHYTES: ANTITRICHIA CURTIPENDULA 13l(+.3.2), 113(+.2.3) BAZZANIA NUDICAULIS 108(1,2.3) BLEPHAROSTOMA TRICH 0H1YLLUM 89(+.+.3) CALYPOGEIA TRICHOMANIS 22/c (+.1.3) CEPHALOZIA LAMMERSIANA 48(+.2.3) C. MACOUNII 48(+.2.3) C. BICUSPIDATA 108(+.2.3), 13l(l.i,3), 89(+.i„:3}> 27(+.+.3) LIFE-FORM % % CH H G B ! L a o By Total £ Cover 3625 716 102 313 41 1611 1 • H Cover % 57 11 1.5 5 0.5 25 -P< O Number 4 1?. 7 10 11 36 6 By Species % 5 15 8 11 12 42 7 BRYOPHYTES (Cont'd): HOOKERIA LUCENS 27(4,1.2) METZGERIA FURCATA 89(+.2.3) MNIUM INSIGNE 22/o(3.4.3) NECKERA MENZIESII 108(+,1.2) PMGIOTIIECiUM SELIGERI 3l(+,+.3) PCRELLA NAVICULARIS 88(+,3,3) P. PLATYPHYLLA 88(+.2.3) PTILIDIUM CALIFORNICUM 108(+.1.3), 13l(+.3.3), , 22/o(+.2.3) SPHAGNUM ROBUSTUM 48(1.5.3) S. saUARROSUM 48(+.3.3) LICHENS: ALECTORLA SARMENTOSA 13l{+.1.2) CETRARIA GIAUCA 90(+.1.3) LOBARIA PULMONARIA 13l(+*+f3) PARMELIA PHYSODES 48(+.1.2), 53(+.2.2), 13ltr.+.2) LOCALITIES: n.: Haney G.M„: Grouse Mountain S.M,: Mt. Seymour S.Cr.: Seymour Creel: Valley C.L,: Coquitlam Lake ABBREVIATIONS: CONSTANCY CLASS si o •rt += u O Pt o Number 14 6 9 17 40 16 7 10 20 47 Average Cover in % Average Site 3hdox in Feet A. A B C Dh F Hw Cr B * . Hw. Cr. clintoniosum 74 64 19 34 108 109 98 95 B. M. acerosum 81 41 10 31 126 106 109 96 UU M.P. O.B.P. 0E.H.P. Staple Topography Pseudotsuga menziesii  Tsuga heterophylla Thuja plicata  Abies amabilis Mature j&xiature Minimal Podzol Orthic Brown Podzolic Orterde Humic Podzol H -o o Synthesis table 5. THUJETO - POLYSTICHETUM HYLCCOMEETOSUM Plot No. E-03 E-04 E-28 E-21 E-42 E— 71 E-67 E— 114 E— 30 E-59 E~ 92 Date 7.23. 58 7.23. 58 9.19. 58 7.15. 58 8.20. 58 9.5. 58 8.4. 58 6.25. 59 9.19. 58 8,27. 58 5.27. 59 Locality Cy.Cr. Cy.Cr. C.L. S.M. H. H. H. G.M. C.L. H. S.Cr. Altitude(Feet) 520 540 560 900 1080 760 750 1000 630 1200 700 Exposure and Sloping S.S.E. 8° N.E.E. 28° E« r, 15-20° S.E. 7-12° N.W, 4-6° W * 15° s.w. 10° E* 12° 16-24° W?> 13° E* 20° Topography Layering A^ (Cover %) A? A3 A d i 2 C Dh DL D A A A A A A A A A A A 15 55 10 70 25 60 20 15 5 25 25 40 30 15 25 40 70 45 70 30 30 45 20 45 30 10 20 5 15 20 60 75 70 85 65 95 70 95 40 45 85 15 15 20 15 10 25 30 90 10 50 20 20 45 65 15 5 5 10 5 20 40 30 60 70 20 25 30 5 95 10 65 60 40 20 50 85 15 60 30 60 50 45 20 4 15 15 5 10 70 10 35 15 15 25 6 45 10 15 15 15 5 15 20 15 25 10 60 5 20 25 85 15 50 35 30 Site index F Hw Cr Remarks u o g, List of $ 3 Plants •§ CO 143 163 145 162 145 149 177 166 ? 170 162 102 111 103 149 115 139 131 147 109 159 129 96 98 103 90 122 125 120 121 121 110 93 M. IM. IM. M, M. IM, IM. IM. IM. IM. M.P. 0E.H.PJ1AI1B. MA JIB. MA JIB. O.B.P. O.B.P. MJU3.B. O.B.P. M.P. MJU.B. A THUJA 1 +.•.1 4.+.3 +.+.3 7.9.2 +.+.1 5.7.3 PLICATA 2 1.+.2 3.7.2 5.7.3 3.+.2 7.10.3 4.+.2 +.+.3 3 6.9.2 4.6.2 4.+.2 +.+.2 +.+.2 +.+.2 4.+.3 +.+.2 TSUGA 1 5.+.3 5.8.3 +.+.3 HETERO- 2 4.7.3 3.7.2 4.+.3 +.+.3 +.+.2 6.7.2 5.8.3 +.+.2 8.10.3 6.10.3 7.9.3 PHYLLA 3 4.8.3 5.7,3 4.7.2 5.6.2 2.+.2 5.7.3 6.7.3 PSEUDOT- 1 4.+.3 5.8.3 4.8.3 7.10.3 6.+.3 8.10.3 5.8.3 7.10.3 +.+.3 SUGA 2 3,*,3 4,8„2 4.7,2 +.+.2 3.+.2 MENZJESJI3 4„702 2.+.0 E— E— E— E— E— E— E— E— E— E— E— E— 22/a 96 97 98- 109 110 115 140. 145 144 66 153 8.4. 5.29. 5.29. 6.1. 6.18. 6.23. 6.25. 7.17. 7.22. 7.22. 9.4. 7.30. 58 58 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 58 59 S.M, S.Cr, S.Cr. L.Cr. H. II. G.M, C.Cr. C.Cr, C.Cr. H. H.M, 900 560 430 510 1120 2220 1000 800 850 1010 850 250 S.S.W. E. W. S.W. E. E. S.S.E. E. S.W. S.W. ? S. 2-3° 40° 35° 70° 13° 35° 20° 11° 16° 1-3° 6° 8° A A A A A A A A B A A A 80 20 10 35 50 15 35 35 25 20 30 15 40 45 30 30 50 45 50 50 30 40 50 30 20 10 20 15 40 20 15 20 90 75 60 60 70 70 95 85 80 70 75 80 30 40 20 75 10 5 5 15 10 40 20 25 40 45 10 20 30 15 20 15 30 25 10 55 60 25 90 30 20 5 30 20 60 45 35 65 35 95 75 85 90 20 95 70 70 65 65 35 45 35 40 3 10 20 5 5 30 5 5 20 20 30 20 7 30 10 20 20 20 5 40 65 20 65 60 10 40 30 25 25 50 10 170 170 180 192 174 175 151 146 177 163 168 145 135 110 157 132 359 130 131 119 142 130 113 142 91 104 146 103 165 127 120 133 110 126 101 123 IM, M. M. IM. IM. IM, M.P. Q.B.P. MA.D.B. MAJUB. MAD.B. MA.D.B. MAJ.B. ? ? ? ? ? o o fe a & § h 0 « O -P O +» rH i-( I ri O O o o y l O EH K3 4.+. 3 4.+.3 +.+.3 4.+.3 +.+.3 +.+.3 +•+.3 +•+.3 5 478 2 5.7.3 +.+,3 +.+.3 +.+.2 6.7.3 5.6.3 4.+.3 4.7.3 4.7.2 6.7.3 +.+.2 +.+.2 +.+.3 +.+.3 6.7.3 5.7,3 5.8.3 +.+.3 6.8.3 +.+.3 5.8.3 5.+.3 +.+.3 5.+.3 5 1010 2 7.10.3 5.7.3 5.8.3 5.6.3 6.8.3 7.9.3 6.7.3 5,6.3 5.8.3 +.+.3 6.+.2 6.7.3 4.7.3 4.7.3 5.6.2 4.+.3 5.7.2 4.7.2 4.6.2 +.+.2 +.+.3 5.8.3 4.7.3 +.+.3 6.8.3 7.10.3 6.8.3 6.+.3 5.+.3 4 708 2 +.+.2 4.+.3 7.10.3 4.6.2 5.7.3 7.10.3 3.6.2 +.+.0 5.7.2 3.+.0 PM PM Synthesis table 5. THUJETO - POLYSTICHETUM (Cont'd) o List of >, S1 Plants H co o o >> fe a a. £ ca ;• « H r ri f l l - l O H O O a -p • o o o u u i s a ALNUS 1 • 6.9.3 • RUBRA 2 5.9.3 3.8.2 5.9.3 3 2.6.2 3.7.2 3.7,2 ACER 1 4.8.2 MACRO- 2 3.7.2 PHYLLUM 3 ABIES 1 AMABILIS2 3 THUJA 1 4.7.3 4.7.3 3.7.2 4.6.2 PLICATA 2 3.7,3 4.7.3 3.6.3 6.7.3 TSUGA 1 2.+.* 3.6.2 2.7.2 3.+.3 HETERO— 2 2,5.2 2.5.2 2.5.3 PHYLLA VACCINIUM1 •+.+.3 2.5.2 3.5.3 PARVT— 2 1.4.2 3.5.2 2.5,3 3.3.2 FOLIUM RUBUS 1 SPECT- 2 2.4.2 2.5.3 2.+.1 3.3.2 ABILIS SAMBUCUS 1 2.7.3 PUBENS 2 2.5.2 2.+.2 2.5.3 GAUL- 1 THERIA 2 3.7.2 3.6.2 3.6.2 7.6.3 SHALLON ACER CTR-1 4.7.3 CINATUM 2 2.5.2 RUBUS 1 VHI- 2 1.5.2 +.+.2 +.5.3 4.6.2 FOLIUS MAHONIA 1 3.6.3 NERVOSA 2 2.5.2 SORBUS 1 SITCHEN-2 +.+.3 SIS TAXUS 1 2.6.3 2.+.2 BREVI- 2 2.5.2 FOLIA VACCXNIUMl ALASKA- 2 4.5^ ENSE RUBUS 1 PARVD- 2 1 , 5 , 2 FLORUS 9.10.3 . +.+.2 . . . . . . . . + . + . 3 4 436 2 P, 3.7.2 +.+.1 6,7.2 7.10.3 +.+.2 6.7.3 6.7.2 6.8.2 7.8.3 •+,+,0 3.+,2 +.+.2 +.+.2 +.+.0 2 5 3 3*6*3 +.+.2 +.+.2 4.6.3 2.4.3 2.4.3 3.5.2 +.5.3 +.4.2 +.+.2 +.+.2 4.5.3 +.+.2 +.+.2 M + . + . 3 2 7 4 1 P M 5 , 8 , 3 + . + . 1 6 . 9 . 3 2 . 7 , 2 + , + . 3 2 1 0 2 P M 4 , * , 3 + . + , 2 + , + , 3 + . + . 2 + . + , 2 + , + . 2 + . + . 3 5 . 8 . 3 2 . + . 2 4 . 7 . 3 + . + , 2 5 . 6 . 3 3 . + . 2 +,+,3 4 . 6 . 3 3 . + , 2 5 , 6 . 3 4 . 7 . 3 5 . 6 , 2 - 2 7 9 - P M 1 . + . 2 + . + . 2 + . + . 2 5 . 7 . 3 + , + . 3 3 . 4 . 3 4 . 5 , 3 3 , 4 , 3 + , + . 2 3 , 5 . 2 1 2 . 5 . 2 3 . 7 . 2 3 . 6 . 2 + . + . 2 + . + , 2 7 . 9 . 3 " ? 2 . + . 3 6 . 7 . 3 5 . 5 . 3 5 . 6 . 3 2 . 5 . 3 3 . 6 , 2 5 . 6 . 2 5 . 6 . 2 3 . 7 . 3 4 . 5 . 2 - 2 9 4 - P M 2 . 5 . 2 + . + . 2 + . + . 2 1 . 2 . 2 5 . 6 . 3 4 . 5 . 3 3 . 5 . 3 4 . 5 . 3 3 . 4 . 3 3 . 5 . 3 2 . 5 . 2 2 . + . 2 l.+.l 3 . 6 . 2 2 . + . 2 1 . + . 2 5 1 2 1 2 P W 1 . 5 . 3 l.+.l 2 . 4 . 2 1 . + . 2 + . + . 2 3 . + . 2 3 , 5 . 3 5 . 5 . 3 3 . 4 . 3 + . 4 . 3 2 . 4 . 3 4 . 5 . 2 4 . 5 . 3 4 . 5 , 3 5 . 5 . 2 2 . + . 3 4 . 7 3 + . + . 3 5 1 0 9 2 P N 2 , 4 . 2 + . + , 2 + . + . 2 + . + . 2 2 . 5 . 2 + . + . 2 5 . 8 . 3 3 . 5 . 3 3 . 4 . 3 6 . 5 . 3 4 . 5 . 3 3 . 5 . 3 3 , 5 . 3 2 . 4 . 3 + . 4 . 2 2 . 6 3 + . 4 . 2 + .+ .3 3 . 6 , 3 4 2 1 2 PJJ + . + , 3 + . + . 2 + . + . 1 1 . + . 2 + . + . 3 2 . 5 . 3 + . + . 3 3 . 5 . 3 + . + , 2 + . + . 2 3 . 4 . 3 + . 5 . 2 + . + . 2 4 9 8 1 % 2 . 6 . 2 + . 3 , 1 2 . 5 . 2 2 , 5 . 2 3 . 5 . 2 4 . 5 . 2 + . 3 . 2 + . 4 . 2 3 . 5 . 2 + . 4 . 2 4 . 7 . 2 1 . 5 . 2 6 . 7 . 2 9 . 1 0 . 3 4 . 6 . 3 5 . 8 . 3 4 . 7 . 3 5 . 7 . 3 5 . 6 . 3 8 . 1 0 . 3 + . + . 3 4 , 7 , 3 + . 6 . 3 4 3 7 7 1 % + . + . 2 4 . 6 . 2 3 . 5 . 3 4 . 6 . 2 2 . 5 . 3 3 . 5 . 2 4 * 8 . 3 4 . 5 , 3 2 . 4 . 3 3 . 5 . 3 2 . 5 . 3 1 . 5 . 2 3 . 4 . 2 3 5 7 2 % 1 . 5 . 2 + . + . 2 3 . 7 . 3 2 . 4 . 3 5 . 5 . 3 4 . 4 . 3 2 . + . 3 + . 5 . 2 3 1 3 2 P N + . + , 3 1 . + . 2 1 . 4 . 2 2 . 3 . 3 3 . 5 . 2 2 . 5 , 3 +,+,3 + . + . 2 2 . + . 2 + .+ .3 2 2 3 % + . + . 2 2 . 5 . 2 + . + . 2 + ,+ .3 2 . + . 3 4 . 6 . 3 +-.+.3 + . + . 3 2 1 9 2 P N + . + . 3 + . + . 2 + . + . 3 3 . + . 3 + . + . 3 2 3 3 2 Pjj 2 10 1 % Synthesis taolc 5. TIIUJETO - POLYSTICHETUM (Cont'd) U S List of £ &• Plants $ S I B RHAMNUS 1 . . 1.3.2 . . . . . PUR- 2 +.3.3 +.+.3 SHIANA MENZIESIA1 4.6.3 FERRU— 2 4.6.3 +.4.2 GINEA CORNUS 1 1.+.2 1.6.2 3.6.2 N0TTALLH2 2.+.2 OPLOPANUCl II0RRinJS2 +.+.+ ABIES 1 AMA.BUJIS2 C POLY- 7.9.3 6.8.3 4.6.3 7.9.3 7.10,3 4,7.3 8.9.3 5.6.2 6.9.3 STICHUM MUNIIUM DRYOPTERIS 4.7.2 4.7.2 2.4.3 3.4.2 2.5.2 +.+.2 3.4.3 3.3.2 4.5.2 AUSTRIACA TIARELLA +.+.2 2.3.2 1.5.3 5.7.2 2,3,2 3.4,3 2.3.2 +.+.2 TRIPOLIATA ATHYRIUM +.+.2 +.+.2 3.4.2 1.4.3 +.4.3 FILDC-FEMTNA BLECHNUM 1.2.3 5.6.3 1.3.2 2.+.2 3.5.2 1.5.3 SPICANT CORNUS 2.3.3 1.3.2 +.3.2 CANADENSIS GALIUM TRI- +.4.2 2,+.2 1,4.2 +.+.3 3.4,3 FLGRUM PTERIDIUM 3,6.2 +.+.2 3.+.2 1.+.2 2.5,2 AQUILINUM LUZULA 2.+.2 +.3,3 +.+.2 +.2.2 PARVIFLORA LACTUCA +.+.2 +.+.2 +.+.1 +.+.2 MURALIS GyMOCARPIUM 2.5.3 3.3.2 DRYOPTERIS CAREX ,4.3 BOLANDERI TRIHJTALIS 2.+.2 +.+.3 2.+.3 LATIFOLIA STREPTOPUS +.+.2 l,+,2 +.+.2 AMPLEST— F0LIU3 ° | h i n a p o o O O O y l .rj O 6 H O h >] • 2.+.3 +.+-.2 • • • • +.+.3 • +»+,3 • • • 2 1 2 PN 3.5.3 +.+.2 4.7.3 3.5.3 +.5.3 2.*.2 2.4.3 +.4.3 +.+.3 2 2 32 16 1 1 % +.+.1 2.5.3 4.5.3 +.+.2 +.+.2 +.+.3 1.5.3 2 11 2 % 6.8.3 8.10.3 6.8.3 9.10,3 7.9.3 7.7,3 7.9.3 5.5.3 8,10.3 8,10,3 7.9.3 7.9.3 8,10.3 5 1122 3 H 3.5.3 6.B.3 4.5.3 +.+.2 3.4.3 5,4.3 4.5,3 4.4.3 4.5.3 2.3.3 4,5.3 2.5,3 5.5.3 5 193 2 H 3.4.3 3.4.3 3.4.3 2.+.2 4.3.3 4,5.3 4.3.3 3.+.2 3.+.2 2.+.2 4.3,3 +.3.2 5 UO 2 H 2.4.3 1.4.2 +.4.3 2.4.2 3.4.3 4.5.3 3.5.3 4.3.2 3.5,3 +.3.3 2.4.3 +.+.3 +.3.3 5 44 2 H 4.6.3 3.5.3 4.5.3 3.4.3 5.4.3 2.4.3 4.5.2 Z»+-2 +.4.3 2.4.3 4.5.3 5.5.2 5 159 2 II +.3.3 2,.3.3 +.3.3 2.4.3 +.+.2 +.+.2 3 3 2 +.+.2 +,2.3 +.3.3 +.+.2 +.+.3 +.+.3 1.5.2 3 6 2 H 2.6.3 2.4.3 4.+.3 2.3.2 +.+.2 2.+.2 2.4,3 1.3.2 3 26 1 G +.2.3 +.3.3 +.+.3 +.+.2 +.+.3 1.8.3 3 1 1 H +.+.2 +.+.2 2 - 2 H +.+.3 +.+.2 3.4.2 2.3.3 +.+.2 +.+.3 2.3.3 2.+.3 1.+.2 1.3.2 2 2 2 8 8 1 1 2 G II H +.+.2 +.+.2 +.+.2 2 - 2 G -<1 Synthesis table 5. THUJETO - POLYSTICHETUM (Cont'd) U & o List of fe a Plants H C TRILLIUM • • • +.+,3 +.+.2 1.+.3 • • +.+.2 • • • • • +.+.3 • • • • • +.+.3 • OVATUM D PLAGIO- h 2.3.2 1.3.3 2.4.3 3.5.3 1.3.2 +.4.3 4.6.3 5.6.3 2.4.3 3.4.3 4 .5„3 6.8.3 2.3.2 7.6.3 2.5.3 2.4.3 6.7.3 4.5.3 3,5.3 4.6.3 +.2.2 THECIUM 1 2.3.3 4.5.3 3.5.3 +.3.3 2.3.3 2.3.3 2.4.3 3.5.3 2.5.3 5.5.3 3.3.3 5.5.3 2.5.3 3.4.3 3.4.3 4.5.3 4.5.3 +.2.3 2.3.3 4.6.3 UNDU- c +.2.3 +.2.3 +.3.2 +.1.2 +.2.2 +.2,2 +.3,3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.+.2 +.2.2 +.2.2 +.3,3 +.2.3 LATUM MNIUM h 3.4.3 2.3.3 2.3.3 3.5.3 3.5.3 1.3.3 4.5.3 4.4.3 2.5.3 2.4.3 2.3.3 1.3.2 4.3.3 +.3.3 5.4.3 +.2.2 4.5.3 4.3.3 1.3.3 2.3.3 4.6.3 PUNCTAT-1 3.5.3 2.3.3 2.2.3 4.5.3 3.5.3 2.4.3 2.4.3 +.+.2 1.3.2 4.6.3 4.5.3 1.3.3 1.3.3 5.4.2 2.4.3 1.3.2 2.5.3 3.4.3 2.3.3 4.5.3 4.5.3 3.5.3 UM c +.2.3 +.2.3 +.+.2 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.3.2 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.2 +,+.2 +.2.2 +.1.2 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.3.2 EURHYN— h 4.5,3 3.4.3 3.4.3 1.3.3 3.6.3 5.7.3 2.5.3 +.3.3 +.4.3 +.2.3 4.5.2 3.4.3 +.4.3 5.5.3 3.5.3 4.6.3 6.7.3 2.3.2 CHIUM 1 2.3.3 3.4.3 2.3.3 4.6.3 +.3.2 3.5.2 3.5.3 +.4.3 +.3.3 3.3.3 2.4.3 3.4.3 2,4*3 3.5.3 2.3.3 CREGANUMc ?+.2.2 +.2.2 +.2.3 +.+.2 +.3.2 +.2.3 +.+.2 +.3.3 +.2.3 RHYTIDB-h 2.3.2 1.3.3 3.4.3 1.3.3 2.5.3 4.5.3 3.5.3 4.5.3 2.3,3 +.3,3 +.2.3 3.4.3 +.2.3 3.4.3 2.4.3 4.6.3 1.3.3 DELPHUS 1 +.4.3 2.4.3 5,6.3 3.4.3 2,4.3 2.3.3 3.5.3 1.4.3 3.4.3 3.4.3 3.4.3 5.6.3 2.3.3 2.4.3 2.3.3 +.4.3 2.3.3 3.3.3 2.3.3 LOREUS c +.3.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 HYPNUM h CIRCIN- 1 3.5.3 3.4.3 +.1.3 2.3.3 1.3.2 +.3.3 2.3.3 2.3.3 1.3.3 3.5.3 4.5.3 2.3.3 +.2.3 3.4.3 1.3.3 2.2.3 2.3.3 1,3,3 2.3.3 3.4.3 1.2.3 ALE o +.4.3 +.2.3 +.+.3 +,1.3 +.2.3 +.1.2 +.4,3 +.2.3 +.4.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 +.1.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 +.2,3 +.2.3' +.2.3 DICRANUM h 1.+.2 FUSCES- 1 1.3.3 1.2.3 1.2.3 1.2.3 +.1.2 1.2.2 1.2.3 +.1.3 1.3.3 1.3.3 +.3.3 2.2.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.1.2 +.+.2 1.2.3 CENS c +.3.3 +.2,2 +.2.3 +.1.2 +.1.2 +.2.2 +.+.3 +.2.2 +.2.2 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.3,3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.2.2 +.+,2 +.1.3 +.1.2 +.1.2 +.1.3 HYLOw h 3.5.3 2.3.3 2.4.2 2.4.2 6.7.3 2.5.3 2.5.3 2.4.3 4.4.3 5.6.2 +.2.2 2.3.3 +.+.2 2.4.3 2.4.3 5.6.3 COMIUM 1 +*2.3 4.5,3 3.5.3 3.4.3 2.5.3 4.6.3 3.3.3 1.2.3 +.4.3 1.3.3 2.3.3 +.3.3 +.+,2 2.3.3 2.3.3 SPLEMDENSc +.3.3 +.+.2 +.4.3 +.3.2 SCAPANIA h BQLAN- 1 1.2.3 1,2.3 2.4.3 3.2.3 2.4.3 +.2.2 2.4.2 1.2.3 2.4.3 + .2.3 3.4.3 3.4.3 +.1.3 2.2.3 4.5.3 2.3.3 +.2.3 1.2.3 2.3.2 2.3.3 3.4.3 DERI o +.3.3 • +.2.2 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.5.3 +.1.2 +.3.3 +.5.3 +.1.3 +.4.3 +.4.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.2 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 PSEUDI- h SOTHECIUMl 1.3.2 3.5.3 3.5.3 2.3.3 2.4.2 3.4.3 2.4.3 1.4.3 3.5.3 3.5.3 2.3.3 +.3.3 2.3.3 2.3.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 2.3.3 STOLQNI-o +.5,3 +.5.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.3,3 +.4.2 +.5.3 +.3.3 +.5.3 +.6.3 +.3.3 +.5.3 +.2.2 +.2.2 +.3.2 +.5.3 +.3,3 +.6.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 FERUM LEPIDOZLA h REPTANS 1 1.2.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 1.2.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.1.3 +.1.3 +.+.3 +.2.2 2.3.3 +.2.3 2.3.3 +.4.3 c +.3.3 +.2.3 +.+.3 +.1.3 +.+.2 +.1.3 1.3.3 +.1.3 PLAGIO- h +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.2 2.3.3 +.2.3 +.2.2 +.2.2 THECIUM 1 +.2.3 +•2.3 +.1.2 +.2.3 +.1.3 2.3.2 +.2.2 ELEGANS o +.2.3 + * i . » +.?.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.2,3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.1.2 +.+.2 +.2.3 MNIUM h 2.4,3 +.3.3 1.2.3 4.6.3 +.4.3, +.3.3 1.3.3 2.3.3 4.6.3 +.2.3 3.5.3 4.5.3 4.5.3 1.2.3 +.2.3 2.3.3 3.5.3 INSIGNE 1 1.2.2 4,5,3 3.5.3 2.3.3 c +.+.2 +.3.3 +.3.3 CEPHA- h LOZIA 1 +i;2a3 +. <-o3 +,1.2 +.+.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.+.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 MEDIA c +.+.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 2 M. fe. 5 •P H H I ra d <a o o Pi +> > TJ <w o o b T< -H O EH O Pi i-3 2 - 3 G 5 324 2 B 5 208 2 B 5 185 2 B 5 142 2 B 5 42 2 B 5 1 2 B 5 146 2 B 5 38 2 B 5 32 2 B 4 1 2 B 4 2 2 B 4 69 2 B 4 - 2 B Synthesis table 5. THUJETO — POLYSTTCHETDM (Cont*d) u U o j» Li3t of - fr S* Plants H CO o o S, fe R -P H rH \ g -gfe S tl O EH O H3 D^GJO- ^ • 2-1.3 . . . . . . 3.5.3 . . 2.4.3 +,2.3 • 4 7 2 * SH ? J +5 3 +* 2' 3 *'2'3 +' 2* 3 H'l + J ' 3 *'1-3 +' i' 3 ^.2 U.3 +.3.3 2 B 1.2,3 3 - 2 B LOPHO- h 3 - 2 B COLEA 1 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.+.3 +.2.3 +.+.3 1.2,3 CUSPI- o +.1.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 4,2.3 DATA CALY- h +.3.3 POGEIA 1 +.2.3 1.3.3 +.2.3 +.+.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.+.2 +.1.3 +.1.3 +.1.2 +.+,3 TRICHO-o +.2,3 +.+.3 +.+,3 +.1.3 +.2.3 PLAGIO- h , +.2.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 3 6 2 B CHILA 1 1.2.3 2.3.3 1.2.3 +,2.3 3.4.3 +,2.3 ASPLENI-o +.3.3 +.3.3 +.3,3 +.2.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 OIDES TSUGA h +.+.2 1.+.2 1.2.2 2.3.3 +.+.2 - 4 _ R , HETERO-1 +.+.3 +,+.2 1.+.2 +.2.2 2.3.3 +.+.2 2.3.3 2.3.3 +.+.3 +.+.3 +.+,3 +.+.2 PBYLLA o BASZANIA h UB^l 1« 3« 3 + 3 , +.3.3 +.2.3 +.3.2 3.4.3 +.2.3 2.3.3 +.2.2 . S 0 B C I Q L } A , „ +- 2' 3 . . „ +.1.3 +.2.3 +.+.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 3 6 2 B 3 - 2 B +.2.3 c +.1.3 +.1.3 FRUIIAN3A h NISQUAIr-1 LENSIS o +.2.3 +.1.3 +.1.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.+.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 PORELLA h PLATHY— 1 PHYLLA c +.3.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.2,3 LOPHO- h COLEA 1 +.+,3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 HETERO— O +.2.3 +. +.3 PHYLLA PTILIDIlMh , „ „ . „ CALIFOR-1 +.1.3 *.2.3 +.2.3 NICUM o +.1.2 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.2 +.2.3 +.2,2 +.1.3 CALY- h POGEIA 1 +.1.3 +.2.3 NEESIANAc +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 BAZZANIA h TRI- 1 2.4.3 2.4.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 4.1.3 +.2.3 CRENATA c +.2.3 +- 2' 3 '•+.2.3 +.2.3 2 — 2 B +.2.3 2 - 2 B +.3.3 2 - 2 B 2 — 2 B 2 — 2 B 2 2 2 B www J oo o |r! S> . i C0>§ . + H ^ " ro ro o o H * H O D CCW + ro. + row + • H H * • • H • .—•CO OJ +• o> 4.* • ui» oo-—• • T oo oo <o oo-co 'OJ o ' ro"" ro!. GO GO tO • ro 4- —.cn OJ J. • • M + CO j . « • ro-~^»* co i • * 00>->« CO •—«• CO • — ' H * — 8 ftr" CO CO » « ro co 4-« • ro* co co Ki co-tO IS * tO x -^00 +— CO CO s CO ro +• • • 4-co + • o + ro .4-4-00 I 00 00 O H C O H f O H P * O H P * Layer I* a o Sublayer OJ <J1 CO 4-ro t ro 4-ro 4-* CO ro 4-ro co ro 4- 4-• • roro • • co ro 4-CO CO 4 T CO ro • < CO ro ro « « CO OJ .+ CO ro 4-CO CO 4-ro CO 4-ro» « ro 4-H • ro 4-ro ro I ro td ro ro td ro ro Constancy I ro td Total Cover Degree ro Fidelity td Life—form 9ZT Synthesis table 5. THUJETO - POLYSTICHETUM (Cont'd) LIFE-FORM % % CH H G B L g By Total £ Cover 3307 954 7 1644 34 1229 t P. o Cover % 46.5 13 - 23 0.5 17 -Number 8 17 7 21 9 58 3 £ By Species % 7 14 6 17 7 47 2 CONSTANCY CLASS 5 4 3 2 1 Number 18 10 11 26 58 15 8 9 20 48 Average Site Index in Feet F Hw 163 130 Cr 115 ABBREVIATIONS: A. : Simple Topography B. : Complex Topography M.: Mature IM, : Insaaturo F.: Pseudotsuga menziesii Hw.: Tsuga heterophylla M. P.: Minimal podzol Q E . H . P . : Orterde Humic Podzol M.A.D.B.: Modal Acid Dark Brown O.B.P.: Orthic Brown Podzolio Cr.: Thuja plicata LOCALITIES: Cy.Cr.: Cypress Crock Valley C.L.: Coquitlam Lake S.M.: Mt. Seymour H.: Haney G. M.: Grouse Mountain S.Cr, : Seymour Creek Valley C.Cr.: Capilano Crock Valley H. M.: Hollybura Mountain Synthesis table 6, THUJETO - BLECHNETUM Plot No. E» E— E— B- E- E- E- E— E- E— E- fi- E— E- E- E— 49 83 91 101 142 23 20 17 117 07 61 15 l l 06 132 138 50 Date 8.22. 5.19. 5.26. 6.5. 7.21. 9.8. 7.24. 7.21. 7.26. 6.16. 8.28. 7.12. 7,18. 7.15. 7.7. 7.16. 8.25. 58 60 59 59 59 58 58 58 59 58 58 58 58 58 59 59 58 Locality- H . S.Cr. S.Cr. S.Cr. C.Cr. C .L . S.M. S.M, G.M. S.M. H , S.M. S.M. S.M. G.M. C.Cr. H . Altitude 1680 920 700 705 ? 570 1760 1800 1000 2950 1450 2680 2890 2880 2650 ? 1600 Expos\lrc and Sloping N.E. N.W. S.W. w. s.w. w. S.E. N.W. E. N.W. S.E. N.W. S.E. S. s.w. s.w. 1 6° 12° 2° 20 3-5° 100 7o 3-100 10° 5-6o 2-50 I40 10° 5-6° 50 10° Topography A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Layering (Cover %) A l 25 40 45 20 10 10 30 40 25 30 25 50 35 50 5 40 40 4 40 35 15 45 55 50 35 40 60 40 30 35 30 10 40 50 25 4 20 10 25 15 20 20 15 15 20 15 10 20 5 25 20 20 A 3 70 75 75 70 75 70 70 80 95 70 60 80 70 60 65 95 70 Bl 15 30 15 30 40 45 5 10 5 5 15 20 20 40 15 20 25 B2 35 45 50 45 30 20 10 15 7 60 55 60 35 35 50 40 60 B 40 60 60 65 60 60 15 20 10 60 60 70 50 70 60 50 80 C 60 75 65 45 40 50 15 25 15 85 70 60 40 70 20 10 60 Eh 35 25 30 50 55 40 60 40 5 5 20 30 20 10 50 60 35 DL 25 25 20 30 20 25 20 50 15 10 40 10 30 10 20 10 25 D 60 50 50 80 75 65 80 90 20 15 60 40 50 20 70 70 60 Site index JT 124 149 ? 142 129 ? 140 ? 115 ? ? ? ? ? ? 102 — Hw 118 96 125 116 107 91 112 136 138 97 113 123 104 116 98 95 105 Cr 103 111 ? ? 105 149 85 121 100 ? 113 ? 112 1 ? 87 104 B 96 131 136 115 ? 111 94 141 132 106 106 113 111 122 92 72 102 Remarks M. M. M. o M. IM. Dis- M. M. M. M. M. IM. P.P.A. M. O.B.P. M.P. O.B.P, i O.B.P. OjyUP. O.B.P. turbed 3EJBtP. M.P. O.G. G.P. G.P. O.G. P.P.A. u u - s u b a s s 0 c i a t i 0 a s S List of Plants «5 H typicum gleys olicum turfosum A TSUGA HETEROPHyLLA.1 2 3 4.7.2 4.9.3 5.8.3 ABIES AM&.BILIS THUJA PLICATA 3 1 2 3 +.5.3 +.+.3 7,10,3 3.+,2 +.+.2 5.9.2 +.+.3 6.8.3 7.9.3 4.+.2 5.7.3 7.9.3 5.+ . 3 +.+.3 +.+ .2 7,9.3 5.7.3 3.+.3 7.10.3 7.9.3 5.7,2 6.8.3 7.10.2 7.10,3 5.7.3 5.6.2 3.6.2 4.8.2 4.7.2 5.6.2 4.7.2 +.+.3 5.8.3 4.8.3 +.+.3 5.+.3 5.7,3 6.9.3 5.7.3 3,+ . 2 6.8.3 5.8.3 4.6.3 5.8.3 3.7.3 2.+.2 5.7.2 +.+.3 +.+.3 +.+.3 6.8,3 3.+.2 +.+ .2 5.6.2 +.+.2 +.+.3 6.8,3 4.+.3 5.8,3 6.7.2 4.7.3 5.8.3 +.1.2 4.7.2 +.+.2 3.+ .2 6.8.3 6.10.3 +.+.3 -6.+ . 3 6.8.2 4.7.3 4.8.2 5.7.3 4.+ . 3 2.4.2 6.7.3 4.+.2 3.4.2 +.+ .3 5.8.3 6.7.3 7.10.2 5.6.1 5.8.3 6.+ . 3 6.10.3 4.8.2 5.7.3 5.8.2 4. + .2 +.+ .2 +.+.2 6.7.3 7.10.3 5.+.2 4.7.3 3.6.2 E-112 7.19. 59 . E~ 127 7.8. 59 5 30 35 65 45 20 60 65 2 3 5 178 126 128 ? M. Q&H.P. A 50 30 25 75 45 50 80 75 40 30 70 159 124 130 ? E-19 7.21. 58 L.Cr. L.Cr. S.M. 460 370 1740 S. S.S.W, S.W, 30° 2° 4-6° A 50 60 90 1 9 10 35 40 50 90 157 162 153 ? rubctosum v i t i f o l i i 6.7,3 5.6.3 +,+.3 +.+.2 6.9.3 5.7.2 5.+.3 3.+.3 7.9.3 5.7.2 +.+ .3 3.+ . 3 4.7,2 E-70 9.5. 58 H. 1200 W. A 25 60 20 95 15 5 20 30 30 20 50 180 180 170 ? IM. IM. M.P. O.B.P. 4.7.3 5.7.3 5^7,3. c3 •P o o 0 o a u o +> o o o o "5 1199 rM rM t—1 Oo 512 Synthesis table 6. THUJETO - BLECHNETUM (Cont'd) £ tj. s u b a s s o c i a t i o n g, List of Plants S A |g 'typicum PSEUDOTSUGA 1 6.+«3 7.10.3 • -•.-+.3 * -3.7.3 • • <* MENZIESII 2 +.+.2 +.+.2 2.7.2 3 +.+.+ +.+.• ALNUS RUBRA 1 2 ABIES AMABILIS 3 1 +.•.3 5.7.3 5.7.3 4.+.3 4.7.3 •.+.2 2.+ .2 4.8.3 4.6.2 2 3.5.3 3.5.3 2.4.3 +.2.3 4.6.3 l , + . 2 1.+ .3 •*V3- 4.8.3 5.7.3 TSUGA 1 4.6.3 6.10.3 4.7.3 5.7.2 5.8.3 3'.+. 3 3.7.2 •.•.3 3.6,3 4.7.3 HETEROPHYLLA 2 3.5.2 5.7.3 4.6.3 4.5.3 6.5.2 3.5.2 3.6.2 3.5.3 2.5.2 RUBUS 1 1.5.2 2.6.3 3.5.2 1.+.2 2.5.3 SPECTABILIS 2 2.5.3 4.7.3 4.6.3 5.5.3 3.5.3 3.6.3 5.8.3 3.7.3 VACCINIUM 1 2.5.3 7.9.3 ALASKAENSE 2 6.9.3 6.9.3 6.7.3 5.6.3 3.5.3 4.7.3 2.5.3 4.7.3 2.3.3 6.8.3 VACCINIUM 1 +.+.3 2.5.3 PARVIFOLIUM 2 2.4.2 3.5.3 3.+.3 3.5.3 2.+.3 2.4.2 2.5,3 4.5.3 SAMBUCUS PUBENS 1 +.+.3 +.5.3 +.+.2 +.•.2 +.+.3 2 3.5.3 +.+ .2 +.+ .3 2.+.2 +.+ .2 1.5.3 THUJA PLICATA 1 4.5.3 2.6.3 1.+.2 +.+.3 2 +.+.3 +.+.3 3.4.3 +.+.2 2.5.3 OPLOPANAX HORRHUS1 2 1.6.2 3.5.2 +.+.2 +.4.2 +.5,2 1.5.2 +.+.1 GAULTHERIA 1 SHALLON 2 3.6.2 1.5.2 3.5.2 2.4.2 +.+.2 4.6.2 MENZIESIA 1 •.+.3 FERRUGINEA 2 1.5.3 +.+.2 2.5.3 2.5.3 TAXUS BREVIFOLIA 1 +.+.3 •.+.2 5.6.3 •.+.2 2 +.+.2 ACER CIRCINATUM 1 4.6.2 5.7.3 3.7.3 +.5.2 2,6.3 2 3.4.3 2.+.2 +.5.2 RUBUS VITIFOLIUS 1 9 VACCINIUM £ 1 5.7,2 OVALIFOLIUM 2 BLECHNUM SPICANT 7.9.3 6.6.3 7.7,3 6.4.3 6.7.3 7.10.3 3.5.3 5.7.3 4.5.3 3.5.3 4.6,3 CORNUS CANADENSIS 4.7.3 5.5.3 3.4.3 2,3.3 +.4.3 3.5.2 2.5,3 +.3,1 1.3.2 5.7.3 TIARELLA TRIFOLIATA 3.5.3 5.5.3 4.5.3 4.4.3 5.3.2 5.5^ 3 3.5.2 2.4.2 3.4.3 2.5.2 7.8.3 ATHYRIUM FILIX- 1.4.2 +.4.3 3.5.3 4.5.3 2.3.2 2.4.2 3.4.2 3.5.3 2.4.2 +.3,3 FEMINA STREPTOPUS +.+.3 +.+.3 2.+.3 +.+ .2 +.+.2 +.2.3 +.+,2 +.+.2 +.+.3 AMPLEXIFOLIUS gleysolicum 4.6.3 4.7.2 1.3.2 6.8.2 +.+.1 2.5.2 +.+.2 4.6.3 5.3.3 3.5.2 2.3.2 +.+.2 4.7.2 3.7.3 3.7.3 2.5.3 6.7.3 3.+ .2 2.6.3 2.5.2 5.8.3 4.7,2 4.7.2 3.6.3 1.4.2 5.6.2 +.+.2 +,+.2 2.5.2 3.4.3 4.3.2 2.3.3 +.+.3 +.+.2 2.+. 3 4.6.2 5.3.3 +.+.2 +.+.3 4.6.3 3.5.3 4.6,3 4.5.3 4.6.3 6.7.3 +.4.3 3.5.3 +.4.2 4.5.3 4.4.3 5.5.3 5.4.3 3.4.3 turfos un +,+.3 3.+.2 3.7.2 3.6.3 4.5.3 5.8.2 4.5.3 4.7.2 3.6.3 6.10.3 7.10.3 3.5.2 +.+.2 4.5.1 4.+.2 +.+.2 +.+.2 2.5.2 2.5.2 4.5.2 1.+.2 +.4.3 +.+.2 6.7.3 3.5.2 6.6.3 2.4.2 +.+ .2 +.+ .3 rubetoaum vit i f o l i i •.+.3 +.+.2 6.8.2 4.6.3 3.4.3 2.3.2 4.4.2 +.4.3 +.+.2 3.5.3 3.4.3 +.5.2 4.6.2 8.10,3 3.7.3 •j*.2 +.+.2 +.+ ,1 5.7.3 +.+.2 3,4.3 3.5.3 .2.4.2 2.+.2 4.6,3 +.6.2 3.4.3 2.5.2 6.6.2 2.5.2 2 . 4 . 3 + . + . 2 + . + . 2 7 . 7 . 3 4 . 3 . 3 +.+.3 5.6.2 4.5.3 8.10.3 6.5.3 2*3^3 5 ^ 3 « 3 4.3.3 5.3.3 7.7.3 5.5.3 2.4.2 3.3.2 2.3.2 5.+.3 •.+.2 4.6.2 1.3.2 3.5.2 3.4.2 +.4.2 4.5.2 2.4.2 2.3.1 +.+.2 +.+.1 4.6.2 3.5.3 3.4.3 1.+.3 3.5.3 5 . 6 . 3 + . 3 , 3 5 . 5 , 3 1.3.2 « o O 5 5 4 4 5.6.2 4 3 3 3 3 1 1 5 5 5 5 o fe a H JH rt o 194 33 257 387 126 452 46 12 74 5 76 6 35 151 15 46 570 129 3 J 2 80 •rt •rl fe 2 2 2 2 1 3-1 2 1 2 2 2 !2 2 2 o t — p, M % % % % % % % % % % % PN H H vo +.+ .3 +.+ .2 +.+ .2 Synthoeris table 6. THUJETO — BLECHNETUM (Cont'd) & &List of Plants A typiavm s u b a s s o c i a t i o n C DRYOPTERIS +.+.2 5.5.3 5.5.3 4.4.3 AUSTRIACA RUBUS PEDATUS 4.7.3 4.5.3 5.6.3 4.3.3 LYSICHITUM +.5.2 +.+.2 +.4.2 AMERICANUM POLYSTICHUM MUNITUM 1.3.2 4.5.3 +.+.3 +.3.2 STREPTOPUS ROSEUS +.+.2 3.4.3 +.+.3 +.+.2 XJNNAEA. BOREaLIS 4.5.3 +.3.3 GYMcJCCARPIUM 4.6.3 4.4.3 4.3.3 DRYOPTERIS CLINTONIA. UNIFLORA. 3.6.3 3.5.3 LUZULA. PARVIFLORA. +.+.2 PTERIDIUM AQ.UILINUM GALIUM TRIFLORUM STREPTOPUS STREP!0-POIDES D MNIUM PUNCTATUM h 4.6.3 4.6.3 5.6.3 1 4.5.3 3.5.3 3.5.3 5.6.3 c +.2.3 +.1.3 +.1.3 RHYTIDIADELPHUS b. 5.6.3 3.5.3 2.4.3 LCREUS 1 3.4.3 3.5.3 3.4.3 2.3.3 0 +.3,3 +.3.3 +.2.3 PLAGIOTHECIUM h 4.6.3 5.6.3 5.6.3 6.6.3 UNDULATUM 1 3.4.3 5.5.4 5.5.3 o +.3.3 *.4.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 TSUGA h 2.5.2 HETEROPHYLLA 1 2.3.3 3.5.2 1.2.3 1.3.2 PSEUDISOTHECIUM c h STOLONIFERUM 1 1.3.3 1.3.3 2.3.3 2.3.3 o +.3.3 +.4.3 +.6.3 LEPIDOZIA REPTANS h 1 +.2.3 •.2.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 c +.2.3 +.2.3 +.1,3 SCAPANIA b. BOLANDERI 1 3.5.3 3.6.3 2.3.3 3.5.3 o +.4.3 +.5.3 +.3.3 +.4.3 HYPNUM CIRCINALE h 1 3.5.3 1„3.3 +.2.3 1.2.3 0 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.1.3 CLADONIA h SUBSQUAMOSA 1 2£3 2 +.lo3 +.+,2 o +,2t2 +,2, 3 +.1.3 +«+.2 2.+.2 3.4.2 2.3.2 2.4.2 +.+.3 3.6.3 2.5.2 •.+.2 8.10.3 5.7.3 4.4.2 1.5.2 3.5.2 1.3.1 1.+.2 +.+.1 4.4.3 3.6.3 2.+.2 1.3.2 3.5.2 5.6,3 2.2.3 +.+.2 4.5.3 1.3.2 2.3.2 +.3.3 +.2.2 +.3.3 •.+ .2 1.3.3 +.3.2 +.+.2 +.5.3 5.8.3 4.5.3 3.5.3 2.4.3 5.7.3 1.4.3 4.5.3 2.5.3 2.3.3 5.6.3 4.6.2 4.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.3 2.4.3 +.3.2 4.3.3 4.6.3 4.6.3 4.5.3 1.3.3 3.5.3 +.3.3 3.5.3 3.5.2 2.3.3 4.5.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 5.6.3 6.9.3 6.8.3 7.8.3 3.4.3 2.3.2 3.5.3 4.4.3 4.5.3 5.6.2 4.5.3 5.5.3 2.3.3 2.5.3 +.2.3 +.2.2 +.3.3 2.3.3 2.3.2 2.+.3 •.•.3 2.3.3 1.2.2 2.3.3 2.5.3 1.3.3 2.3.3 +.2.2 2.5.3 +.2.2 +.2.2 5.6.3 +.2.3 +.3.2 +.3.3 +.5.3 1.3.3 +.2.3 1.3.3 +.2.3 •.2.3 2.3.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 2.3.3 1.2.3 2.3.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 1.3.3 3.5.3 +.+.2 +.4.3 +.3.3 •.•.2 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.2.2 +.1.2 2,1.3 2.5.3 2.3.3 2.5.3 2.3.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.3,3 +.4.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.1.2 1.3.2 +.2.3 +.+.1 +.2.2 +.+.3 +.1.2 +.2.3 +.2.3 gleyaolicum +.4.2 2.3.3 4.4.3 4.7.3 4.7.3 8.9.3 6.8.3 3.6.2 2.6.2 2.+.2 3.4.3 2.3.3 5.5.3 3.6.3 3.4.3 2.4.2 6.5.3 +.3.2 1.+.2 2.4.3 5.5.3 +.3.3 4.4.3 4.7.3 1.2.3 3.4.3 5.6.3 3.5.2 2.3.3 5.6.3 +.2.2 2.3.2 5.6.3 2.4.3 5.4.3 3.4.3 2.3.2 4.4.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 +.3.2 2.4.3 3.2.2 4.5.3 3.4.3 +.4.2 4.3.3 +.2.3 1.+.3 1.+ .3 4.5.3 +.•.2 2.+.3 5.4.3 +.3.3 +.1.3 1.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 3.5.3 4.4.3 +.4.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.+.3 +.2.3 +.+.2 +.2.3 1.3.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 3.4.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 3.2.3 2.3.3 +.2.3 3.4.3 +.2.2 +.1.3 +.+.2 turf Q S V E I 4.5,3 +.+.2 5.6.2 4.4.2 3.5.2 2.3.2 3.+.2 2.3.2 4.3.3 7.8.3 4.5.3 +.2.3 +.4.3 +.2.3 +.1,3 +.2.2 +.1.3 2.4.3 +.1.2 +.+.2 +.2.2 +.4.3 +.1.3 1.2,3 2.3.2 +.5.3 1.3.3 +.3.2 +.1.2 +.+.3 rubotosum -yHtif o l i i 5,3.3 5.5.3 2.4.2 1.3.2 2.5.3 2.3.2 +.+ .1 3.5.3 5.5.3 3.+.2 4.5.2 +.+.2 3.5.3 2.3.3 3.2.3 +.+ .3 1.+.3 +.+.3 4.3.2 2.4.2 1.+.2 4.5.2 +.+.3 2.3.3 6.6.3 1.4.3 7.8.3 6.8.3 5.6.3 4.5.3 +.2.2 +.1.3 6.5.3 +.+.2 5.6.3 6.6.3 7.9.3 5.6.3 3,4.3 4.5.2 +.3.3 2.4.3 +.3.2 2.4.2 3.4.2 2.4.3 5.5.3 7.9.3 1.5.2 +.2.3 4.3.3 +.2.3 2.3.2 3.4,3 +.2.3 +.+ .2 1.2.2 2.3U3 +.2.3 3.+. 3 l.+ ,2 1.+ .2 +.3.3 +.2.2 +.2.3 +.1.2 +.2.2 +.1.2 2.3.2 1.3.3 +.3.2 2.2.3 +.1.2 2.5.3 +.2.2 2 0 3 fg 3 3 ff ay 12 +.2.2 +.3.2 4.5.3 +.2.2 2.3.3 2.3.3 +.1.3 o o >> fe a s +> r-i U Vt cl P o g o o •rt CJ P=« 5 146 2 4 309 1 4 37 2 4 101 1 3 38 1 2 27 1 2 35 1 2 55 2 2 _ 1 2 26 1 2 1 2 2 51 3 5 523 2 5 288 2 5 565 2 - 56 -5 38 2 5 7 2 5 27 2 5 43 2 5 1 2 % a H H G G H G H G L +.+ .3 +.1.2 Synthesis table 6. THUJETO - BLECHNETUM (Cont'd) N List of Plants D DICRANUM FUSCESCENS HYLOCOMTUM SPLENDENS CALYPOGEIA TRICHOMANES BAZZANIA AMBIGUA PLAGIOTHECIUM ELEGANS CEPHALOZIA MEDIA PLAGIOTHECIUM DENTICULATUM ABIES AMABILIS PLAGIOCHILA ASPLENIOIDES EURHYNCHIUM OREGANUM THUJA PLICATA CEPHALOZIA BICUSPIDATA CALYPOGEIA SUECICA DICRANUM SCOPARIUM o h 1 c h 1 o h 1 o h 1 c h 1 c h 1 o h 1 o h 1 o h 1 c h 1 o h 1 o h 1 c h 1 o h 1 c 2.3.2 +.1.3 4.4.3 1.2.3 +.1.3 2.4.3 +.4.3 +.2.2 +.2.3 +.3.2 +.3.3 1.2.3 +.2.3 1.4.3 1.4.3 +.5.3 3.5 3,3.3 +.1.3 +.1.3 3.6.3 +.4.3 1.5.3 +.1.2 +.+.3 2.4.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.+.2 +.+.3 1.3*3 1.2.3 2.4,3 +.1.3 typicuni s u b a s s o c i a t i o n s gleysolic tan 2.2.3 +.2.3 2.2.3 2.3.2 2.3.2 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.1.2 +.2.2 +.2.2 2.4 +.2.3 5.5.3 4.5.3 +.2.2 1.3.2 2.4.3 +.2.3 3.5.3 3.4.2 1.2.2 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.+.3 2.3. + +.+.2 +.2.3 1.2.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.3.2 4.5.3 +.2.3 1,3.2 3,5.3 +,1,3 +.2.3 +.3,2 +.2.3 +.2,3 +.+.2 JL2.2 +.2.3 -+V+.3 1.+.2 +.2.3 +.1.3 +»2„3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 «.2a3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.+.3 +.+.2 1.3.3 2.2.3 2.2.3 1.3.3 -+.2.3 +.3.3 2.4.3 +.3.3 .-+.2.2 +.+.2 r+.2.2 +.+.3 +.3.2 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.1.3 +.2.3.-^ 2,3 2,2.3 1.2.3 2.3.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 6.7.3 6,6.3 +.2.3 1,3.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 1.2.2 +.1.3 +.2.3 2.4.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 •.+.2 1.2.3 +.3.3 +.+.2 1.+.2 +.1.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 ,1.3 1.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 •i.1.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.+.3 +*+.3 2,3,2 +.2.3 +,1.2 +.2.3 2.3.3 +.2.3 +.2,3 +.2.3 +.4.3 +.2.3 2.3.3 +.2.3 +.2„3 +.+.3 +.3.3 2.3.3 4.3.3 +.+.3 +.1.3 2.3.3 >„2.3 +.+.3 +.1.3 +n2.3 +.1.3 +.1.3 3*3,3 "«-.lo3 4.3.3 +.2,2 turf.os 133 +.3.2 +.2.2 2.3.2 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.+^ 2 +.+.2 +.2.'3 o o >, fe a a rubctosum v i t i f o l i i 3.5.3 +.2.2 3.5.2 +.3.2 2.3.2 +.+.2 +.2.3 +.1.3 3 3 3 +.2.3 •P r-i U iM ta a p o <J ii -p > V3 <H O O O M-( *H O H O fe J • • • • • 5 14 2 B 3.2.2 +.2.3 1.3.2 2.3.2 2.1.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 1.2,1 3.4.3 2.5.2 5.5.3 4 170 2 B +.+.2 4.4.3 +.+.1 2.3^ 3 4 2 B +.3.2 +.1.3 +.+.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 1.3.3 4 14 2 B 3.5.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.5.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 4 12 2 B 1.2.3 +.1.3 *;+.2 +.2.3 4 2 2 B +.+.3 +.3.3 +.1.3 +.1.3 3 1 2 B 1.2.2 +.2.3 +.2,3 2.2.3 - 2 -1.2.3 3 1 2 B 1.2.3 3,4„3 4.5.3 +.+.3 7.8.3 3 92 2 B - - % 5 2 B 2 B i. .11 2 B Co Synthesis table 6. THUJETO - BLECHNETUM (Cont'd) u o §>List of Plants ^ CO D PELLIA. EPIPHYLLA h 2.4.3 1.4.3 and COLUMBIANS 1 c HOOKERIA LUCENS h 1.2.3 1 s u b a s s o o i a t i o n s typicum +.2.3 1.2.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 1.2.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 2.5.3 +.2.3 BAZZANIA TRICRENATA SPHAGNUM SauARROSUM POGGNATUM ALPINUM CONCCEPHALLUM CONICUM h 1 1.2.3 +.1.3 0 +.2.3 +.3.3 h 5.7.3 1 +.2.3 o h 1 1.3.3 c +.2.3 h 1.3.3 1 c 3.4.4 +.2.3 +.2^ 3 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 1.4.3 +.2.3 SPHAGNUM RECURVUM h 1 o h 1 o h EURBYNCRTUM STCEE3II BLEPHAROSTOMA TRICHOPHYLLUM 1 +.1.3 c +.2.3 ATRICHUM UNDULATUM CEPHALOZIA LAMMERSIANA h 1 o h +04o3 2.4.3 2.5.3 +.1.3 +.1.3 1.3.2 3,6.3 2.3.3 +.3.3 2.4.2 +.3.3 1 +.1.3 1.4.3 c +.+.3 h 1 +.1,3 o h 1 O 'rV2.:2 RHYTTDIADELPHUS h TRiaUETRUS 1 *02.,3 + ,2r3 c CALYPOGEIA NEESIANA PTILIDIUM CALIFORNICUM +.1.3 +.1,3 +.1.3 +.+.3 +.3.3 +.1.3 -+-.3.3 +.4.3 + . 3 , 3 +.3.3 gleysolioum 1.4.3 -2.3,3 +.5.3 2,3.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.3,. 3 +.2»3 •>c2^ 3 +.2.2 turfosum 3.5.3 +.2.3 1.3.3 +.2.2 5.5.3 3.4.3 +.3.3 + « + . 3 +t2£3 rubetosum v i t i f o l i i + .2.3 1.3.3 •,3.3 3,5,3 2,5,3 +.3,3 +.2.3 +.4.3 +.2.3 1.3.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 fe o .. ... H h r-i I » rt o o 6 si +> t 4-4 o o 5 .ri U H O 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 I B 2 B 5 2 B 50 1 B - I B 5 1 B 14 2 B 2 1 B 2 B 2 B - 2 B 2 B 2 B - I B I—1 Co ro H roS -i o w ro + H - — O o W 8 .+ ro o w ro vl T + ro ro .+ ro Layer O el O H f OHt^OHt' Sublayer + ro co + ro CO * + » C O roro* CO CO 4 o o 3. • ft • CO S 3 * CO J> • + • ft ft ft ui cn uiroft  • • « CO CO CO CO + ft H » ft CO J> ro •f • • • cn co A ft « • ft CO CO CO ro J> • • CO ui • ft co ro • C0 4> • • • ro cn cn • * < U) CO to • CO o H ct t» co CO o O H» S» i c o Q d W W P o o -j oi g+ wro*+u^ CO CO* » -co + - — • 8 CO - Q H ( B|aP§i Q H W < - e n r t o 1 ov-r* co H 4* ft + ED'-S- f ^ * • o* co* co+ M - + • CD r o H H * ro-~ft- 3 » roco^——- o*» f H 0 2 ro« .—> 4. ro-—-co• • • co 4. • •—" •—ro co-~-LO—• H U » » • —••+00 ro co* vj co* • to ro ro H o ~ J ^ - ' r o ^ - -~a^--c5» (-"• + • - -r»UI—' M Co • ft+V+co^T H » ro po To co ft CO ft .*-•» M'*-' CO—'CO + COM* <• CO* +>o • • (-1 —ro* + •vJCOft — H .+ to H • — • CO H 1 ro + ro * C O ft ro C O + « ro CO 4-ft H CO r3 H ro td ro Constancy 1 Total Cover Degree ro Fidelity Life-form £ 9 1 Synthesis table 6. THUJETO - BIJX3QJETUM (Cont'd) LIFE-FORM PM °H H G B L g By Total -£ Cover 3241 976 466 1212 301 1984 1 •H t 0 Cover % 40 12 6 15 3 24 -P< o Number 9 19 8 18 16 53 7 By Species % 7 15 6 14 12 41 5 CONSTANCY CLASS 5 4 3 2 1 Number 19 12 15 20 64 % 15 9 12 15 49 Average Cover in % Average Site Index in Feet A B C Bh F Hw Cr B typicum 73 46 50 33 133 114 111 117 gleysolicun 69 63 63 28 - 110 112 110 turf os tin 83 65 30 48 102 100 96 87 rubetosum 81 42 46 28 169 148 145 -ABBREVIATIONS: A. : Simple Topography B. : Complex Topography F.: Pseudotsuga menziesii Hw.: Tsuga heterophylla Cr.: Thuja plicata B.: Abies amabilis 0E.H.P,: Orterde Ironic podzol O.B.P.: Orthic brown podzolic M.P. Minimal podzol O.G.: Crrthic gleysol G.P.t Grey podzol P.P.A,: Pitch peat anmoor M.: Mature IM,: Immature LOCALITIES: H,: Haney S.V.: Seymour Crook Valley C.Cr.: Capilano Creek Valley C.L.: Coquitlam Lake S.M. i Mt. Seymour G.M,: Grouse Mountain L.Cr.: Lynn Creek Valley 185 Synthesis table 7. PICEETO - LYSICHITETUM Plot No. E- E- E- E— E- E- E- E-126 95 93 58 43 . 24 - 22/h 10 Date 7.8. 5.28. 5.27. 8.27. 8.20. 9,10. 9.9. 7.17. 59 59. 59 58 58 58- 58 58. Locality L.Cr. S.Cr. S.Cr. H. H. C.L. S.M. S.M. Altitude 330 750 620 3100 1040 900 ?. 2930 Exposure and Sloping S.E. E. s.w. S.E. 2° 4° l 5 1° l 5 15° Topography A A A A A A A A Layering (Cover ^ ) A l 15 30 30 10 25 20 30 25 A2 25 40 20 30 30 25 10 4 30 25 15 15 20 15 A 65 75 50 50 60 50 30 30 B l 35 20 30 20 45 55 20 10 4 30 30 40 50 70 90 40 30 B 60 50 60 65 90 95 50 40 C 80 95 100 55 85 65 55 80 40 45 80 35 65 50 35 40 % 20 20 20 25 25 30 50 20 D 60 65 100 60 90 80 85 60 Site Index Hw 110 88 130 97 91 96 104 ? Cr 105 89 124 115 98 125 76 ? o B ? 86 94 117 ? 109 64 ? lo o a Remarks ? O.G. S.P.A. O.D.G.G.S.P.A. O.D.G.G. O.G. S.P.A, u o o 6- g u >, e o •P o List of Plants d H 08 •P H "r 3 m g rf •P o o *5 •H O EH pi. A TSUGA 1 . .3 3,+,3 +.+.3 5.8.2 +,+.3 5 261 2 % HETEROPHYLLA 2 5.7.3 5.9.3 5.8.3 3,7.2 4.+.3 6,8,2 +.+,2 +.•.2 3 6.7.3 5.8.3 4,7,2 5.8.3 4.+,3 3.8.2 PICEA SITCHENSIS 1 +.•.3 •.+.3 6.8.3 +.+.2 +.•.2 5 33 2 2 +.+.2 +.+.3 n 3 +.+.1 THUJA PLICATA 1 8.10.3 +.+.2 6.+.3 6.*, 3 +.+.2 4 304 2 % 2 1.7.3 8,10.3 5.7.2 6.8,2 3 4.+.2 4.8.3 3.7.2 3,+ .2 ABIES AMABILIS 1 2.6.3 4 12 2 PM 2 3.*. 3 3.+ . 3 +.•.2 11 3 +.+.3 +.+,3 •i+,3 2.7,2 ALNUS RUBRA 1 2 20 2 PM 2 3.+.2 3 3.7.3 4.7.2 TAXUS BREVTFOLIA 1 - - — % £ 3 +.+.3 +.+.3 PINUS MONTICOLA 1 2 Q +.+.2 mm mm B TSUGA •3 1 4.7.2 4.5,3 5.6.3 3.6.3 4.7.3 3.5.2 5.7.2 3.*.2 125 % HETEROPHYLLA 2 4.5.3 4.5.2 1.5.2 3.6.2 3.5.2 +.•.2 VACCINIUM 1 4.5.3 6.7.3 3.6.3 5 218 2 ALASKAENSE 2 4.5.3 4.6.2 8.10.3 5,6,3 5.6.3 5.6.2 RUBUS 1~ 6.6i3 +44.3 4.7,3- 1.6.3 2.6.3 5 220 2 % SPECTABILIS 2 5.6.3 8.10.3 1.5.2 7,9.3 5.7.3 2.5.2 THUJA PLICATA 1 + .+ .2 4.5.3 1.5.2 +.+ .2 1.+ .2 . — 16 — FM 2 +.+.3 3.5.2 + .+ .3 2.*.2 ABIES AMABILIS 1 3.6.3 + .+ .2 4.7.2 4.6.2 +.+ .2 — 33 — % 2 4.5.3 + .+ .3 2.6,3 2.5.2 2.+.2 OPLOPANAX 1 +.+ .3 + .+ .3 1.5.3 3.6,3 4 36 1 HORRIDUS 2 4.5.3 4.5.3 4.6.3 + .+ .2 2.5.2 TAXUS 1 + .7.2 3.6.3 3.6.3 3 11 2 PM BREVTFOLIA 2 + .+.2 2.5.2 + .+ .3 VACCINIUM 1 2.4.2 3 7 2 PARVIFOLIUM 2 + .+ .2 3.6,3 2.5.2 186 Synthesis table 7. PICEETO - LYSIOTCTETUM (Cont'd) 6 U o S O +> o List of Plants t a cl o © * •§ § -s fe 3 i i W O EH O fct B SAMBUCUS PUBMS 1 2.5.3 . . +.5.3 2 2.5.2 +.+.2 GAULTHERIA 1 SHALLON 2 4.6.1 5.5.3 1.5.1 5.8.2 VACCINIUM 1 OVALIFOLIUM 2 2.4.3 1.5.3 +.5.2 RIBES BRACTEOSUM 1 +.5.3 2 4.5.3 ALNUS RUBRA 1 1.6.2 3.6.2 2 PICEA SITCHENSIS 1 +.+.3 2 C LYSICHITUM 7.9.3 9.10.3 9.10.3 7.8.3 8.10,3 AMERICANUM BLECHNUM SPICANT 5.6.3 3.5.3 +.+ .2 4.6.3 4.5.3 DRYOPTERIS 4.5.3 2.5.3 3.5.3 2.4.3 2.5.2 AUSTRIACA CORNUS CANADENSIS 2.4.3 2.4.3 +.+.3 5.7.3 TIARELLA TRIFOLIATA 5.4.3 2.4.3 4.5.3 3.4.3 2.5.3 4.4.2 1.5.3 ATHYRIUM FIKEX- 2.5.3 4.5.3 1.4.2 FEMTNA STREPTOPUS +.+.3 +.+.3 2.3.3 +.+.2 +.+.3 AMPLEXIF OLIUS CAREX BOLANDERI +.+.3 1.3.3 +.3.2 RUBUS PEDATUS 2.4.3 2.3.3 +.3.1 3.5.3 POLYSTICHUM 3.5.2 + .4.2 + .+ .1 MUNTTUM GALIUM TRIFLORUM 3,4.2 +.2.3 1.5.3 LINNAEA BOREALIS +.3.3 +.3.3 2.5.2 LUZULA PARVIFLORA +.+.3 +.2.3 VIOLA GLABELLA 2.5.3 1.4.2 GYmoCARPIUM 1.+ .3 DRYOPTERIS EQUISETUM TELMATEIA 2. +. 2 +.+ . 3 EPILOBIUM +.+.2 ADENOCAULON MAIANTHEMUM 5.4.3 5.5.3 2.3.3 DILATATUM HABENARIA SACCATA 3.4.3 +.+,3 1.+.3 LISTERA CORDATA +.+.3 +.+.2 CARLAMENE BREWERII 3.5.3 STELLARIA CRISPA +.+.2 CIRCAEA ALPINA 3.+.3 2.+ .3 LYCOPODIUM SELAGO 1.+.3 +.+.3 TIARELLA UNIFOLIATA MCNESES UNIFLORA D EURHYNCHIUM STOKESII MNIUM PUNCTATUM CONOCEPHALUM CONICUM PELLIA EPIPHYLLA and COLUMBIANA o RHYTIDIADELPHUS h 2.3.2 +.3.3 2.3.3 6.7.3 . • 2.3.3 5 53 2 B LOREUS 1 2.5.3 +,+.3 2.5.3 4.5.3 3.6.3 1.3.3 c +.2.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.+ .2 +.3,2 +,2.3 HYLOCOMrUM h 3.4.3 4.5.3 4.5.3 1.5.3 3.5.2 3.5.3 +.2.3 5 64 2 3 SPLENDENS 1 2.3.3 1.3.3 2.5.3 5.5.3 2.4.3 2,4.3 o +.2.3 +,3.3 +.2.3 +.3.2 +.2.2 SPHAGNUM h 3.5.3 4.5.3 5.5,3 4.6.3 5.6.3 3.5.3 3.5.3 4.5.3 5 100 4 B SQ.UARROSUM 1 3.4.3 c h 5.6.3 5.5.3 8.9.3 3.5.3 4,4.3 1 + .3.3 + .2.3 + .2.3 c + .4.3 h 5.6.3 6.5.3 4.5.3 3.6.3 2.3.3 1 6.5.3 5.5.3 4.6.3 2.3.3 c + .1.3 + .+.2 + .1.3 + .+.3 h 4.5.3 4.3.3 4.3.3 3.4,3 2.3.3 1 + .3.3 c h 3.4.3 2.4.3 3.5.3 5.6.3 4.5.3 1 + .2.3 9 • 3 2 2 PN +.+.2 3 60 1 % 3 11 2 % 4.6.2 2 10 2 PN 5 _ P™ M — — — PM 7.8.3 7.8.3 7.8.3 5 515 2 G 7.9.3 4.5.3 4.4.2 5 120 2 H 4.6.3 3.5.3 +.+ .3 5 32 2 H 3.5.3 2.5.3 2.5.2 5 34 2 % 4.5.3 3.4.2 3.4.2 5 71 2 H 3.6.3 4.5.3 1.+.2 5 27 2 H 2.+ . 3 2.+.2 5 3 2 G 3.4.3 3.4.3 3.4.3 1.4.2 4.5.2 5 22 3 CH 3.5.3 3 10 1 H 2.4.3 3 6 2 H 2.5.2 3 2 1 CH +.3.3 1.2.3 3 — 1 H 2.3.3 +.+.2 3 2 2 H + .+.3 +.3.2 + .+.2 3 — 1 G 2 1 3 G +.+ .3 2 - 2 G 2 51 2 G 2 5 2 G 1.+.2 2 — 1 G +,+ .2 2 5 2 G + .3.3 1.4.2 2 — 3 H 3.4.3 2 11 1 H + .+.2 + .+.2 2 2 " 3 1 H * + .+.2 2.3.2 2 1 2 % 2.5.3 2.5.3 4.5.3 5 152 3 3 5.6.3 5.7.3 5.6.3 5 251 2 B 6.7.3 5.4.3 3.5.3 4.5.3 5 76 3 B 2,4.3 4.6.3 5.6.3 5 82 3 B O H P ' O H P " 0 H f O H f O H f O H f O M P ' O H P* O H P* O H P* O H P * 0 H P ' O H P ' O ' H t i ' O H P" 0 H P* O H f O H t f O H P* O H P* O H P" O H P* O H P * Sublayer T l + 4- 4- ro 4- 4- 4 - H ro 4- 4-co + 4-ro + H 4 - H 4- 4- 4- 4- 4-co 4- 4- A ro Ul C O :CE • « « • • • • • • • , • • -« • • ft ft • ft ft • « ft « • • • ft ft ro ro no C O ro H H ro C O C O P O -t> J > ro J > ro ro H ro oo ro ro ro ro ui 4 - H C O 00 co 4^ « * • • • • • • • ft ft • ft ft o ft • • • • • « • • • ft • • ft ft ft ft o C O 00 C O C O C O C O C O O J co ro co co C O C O C O 00 C O C O O J C O C O C O C O 00 r o r o C O C O C O C O | 4- ro + 4- 4- 4- 4- ro 4- H 4- 4- 4- 4-4- 4- ro 4 - H 4- 4- 4- 4 - H 4- co + tJ • • • • • • ft ft • • • • « • • • ft • ft ft ft + 00 + ro ro ro 4- C O ro r o H H co co ro ro co rooo H H ro co ro ro J> oj w • • • • • » • • • * » • • • * • • • • * ft • • • ft ft ft H . 00 C O C O O J C O C O C O ro C O O J C O C O C O C O C O O J C O C O 00 C O C O C O C O C O C O C O 4- 4- + ro ^ 4- 4- 4- 4- 4- 4- + 4- 4- 4- ro • • ft. • • • • • • * * ft • ft • ft Rl 4- co ro ro u i ro co ro H ro ro C O S3 • • • • • • • • • • • • • ft ft 00 4- 00 00 O J C O C O C O C O ro C O C O O J C O C O C O C O « 4- H 4- 4- H H 4- 4- 4- ro 4- + „ » • • • -* • • ft • • • • o 00 ro co ui C O ro ro C O H IN) C O C O ro ooft  • -ft « • ft • ft ft ft ft ft p C O C O C O C O C O ro C O C O C O C O C O C O C O a-m + + 4- + 4- 4- ro J > 4 - H r o r o 4- 4- 4-4- 4- 4- ro ^ 4- 4- 4- 4- 4- C O • 'ft • • • • • • • • • * • • • • * « • ft ft • • * • ft 4- + ro ro 4- H ui ro co co cn co H r o r o ro H ro co H ro 4- 4- C O Ul C O f t « • « « • • • • • • • « « • • • - • « • « ft ft « • ft ft ft 00 00 O J O J C O ro ro C O 00 C O C O C O C O ro co co C O co co co ro co r o r o C O O J ro + + 4- ro + H 4- 4- C O U) 4- p 4- co 4- H ro 4- 4- H 4- co + r o H • • « • « • • • • ft ft ft • • • • • • « • ft ft • T • • 4- 4- C O C O H H 4- 4- t> Ul C O ro O J Ul C O C O H ro H H ro ro oo ro • ft • • * • • • ft ft ft • ft ft ft • • • * • • • • • • coro C O C O C O C O oo ro C O C O C O C O C O 00 ro C O C O C O ro co C O C O C O C O O J + 4- 4- 4- H 4- ^ 4- co r o H 4- H H 4- 4- H 4- A + ro ro • • • » » • ft • « • • ft ft • ft • ft ft ft ft • T • • + 4- ro H ro 4. ro ui C O C O H C O ro ro H 00 H O ) ro ui ^ • * • « • • • • • • ft ft ft • • • • ft ft • • • r o r o C O C O ro ro C O C O 00 C O 00 co ro C O C O C O C O C O 00 C O C O C O + 4- H 4- H ro H + + 4 - H 4-ro 4- 4- H 4- 4- ro • • • * ft ft « • • « • • • • « ft <T • H H ro ro 4" 4- coro co ro co H C O C O roro ro C O H -t> • • • • • ft • • • • • ft ft ft • • • ft • • O J C O C O C O O J C O 00 C O 00 C O C O C O C O C O CO C O O J C O ro co ro | c o c o c o c o c o c o c o l C O C O J > £ > J > J > U I U ] U ) U ! U I U I U I Constancy I H ro | 1 1 H H H 1 H C O ro Ul C O o ro ro H Ul ro Ul H Ul I ro - j .£> UI ro ro ro ro ro ro ro 1 ro ro Ul ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro w td td td bd td bd td td td td td bd td f bd bd Total -0 188 Synthesis table 7. PICEETO - LYSICHITETUM (Cont'd) List of Plants $ D MMIUM HTSIGNE PIAGIOTHECIUM DENTICTLATUM PTILJU)IUM CALIFORNICUM PMGIOTHECIUM ELEGANS ANTITRICHIA. CURTIPENDULA h +.3.3 1 c h 1 +.2.3 c h 1 +.1.2 c +.2.3 h 1 o +.2,3 h 1 c +.2.3 SPHAGNUM PAPILLOSUM CALYPOGEIA NEESIANA LOPHOCOLEA HETEROPHYLLA SPHAEROPHORUS GLOBOSUS PORELLA PLATYPHYLLA BLEPHAROST OMA TRICHOPHYLLUM CEPHALOZIA BICUSPIDATA METZGERIA CONJUGATA RIC&ARDIA SBJUATA h 1 o h 1 o h 1 c h 1 o h 1 o h 1 o h 1 o h 1 c h 1 o 1.3.2 1.3.3 +.2.3 2.3.3 +.3.3 NECKERA MENZIESII h 1 o +.1.3 METZGERIA FURCATA h 1 c +.1.3 +.+.3 +.3.3 +.1.3 +.+.3 +.+.2 +.1.3 +.3.2 +.2.3 +.1.3 2.3.3 +.1.3 +.1.2 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 +.+.3 +.1.3 +.+.3 +.2,3 +.+ .3 +.1.3 +.4.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 to 1 a 1 & & 1 ti -rl <H +> i-} U H I « d O O p g s a 2 - 2 B 2 - 2 B 2 1 2 B 2 - 2 B 2 — 2 B 2 - 2 B 2 - 2 B 2 1 3 B 2 - 2 B 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 B 2 L 2 B 2 B 2 B 2 B 2 B +.1.3 +.2.3 SPORADIC SPECIES TREES AND SHRUBS; CJBAMAECYPARIS NOOTKATENSIS 10(+.2.2) CORNUS OCCIDENTALS 43J+.+.3) LONICERA WOLUCRATA 58(+.5.3) MALUS DIVERSIFOLIA 58(+.7.2) PHYSOCARPUS CAPITATUS 58(3„6.3) PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII 126 (+.7.3) RIBES DIVARICATUM 58(+.+.2) TSUGA MERTENSIANA 10(+.+.2J HERBS AND CHAMYEPHYTES: ACTAEA ARGUTA 58(2,5.3) CLINTONIA UNIFLORA 10(4.5.2) EPILOBIUM ALPINUM 58(+.+.2) LISTERA CAURINA 43(l.+.3) FTERIDIUM A&UILINUM 126(+.+.2) FYROLA SECUNDA 10(+.1,2) TRISETUM CERNUUM 22/Ti( +. +. 2) VERATRUM VIRIDE 10(2.+.2) BRYOPHYTES: AULAC OMNIUM PALUSTRE 58 (+. 4. 3) Q\LYPOGEIA TRICHOMANES 126(+,+.3) CEPHALOZIELLA PAPULOSA 22/h(+.+.3) CLAOPODIUM BOLANDERI 43 (+.1.3) C. CRISPIFOLIUM 43(+.1.3) DOUINIA OVATA 24 (+.1.3) FONTINilLIS EENDBERGII 43(+.1.3) ICMADOPHILA ERICETORUM 22/h(+.1.3) HETEROCLiVDIUM HETEROPTEROIDES 24(+.2.3) LOPHOZIA INCISA 93(+.+.3) POHLIA CRUDA 58(+.+.3) RADULA COMPLAKATA 126(+.1.3) SPHAGNUM FIMBRIATUM 24(+.3.3) S. GIRGENSONH 22/h(l.4.3) S. RECURVUM 24(2.5.3) S. TENELLUM 95(3.5.3) LICHEN: CETRARIA HERREI 189 Synthesis tabic 7. PICEETO - LYSICHITETUM (Cont'd) LIFE-FORM PM % % H G B L § By Total £ Cover 828 586 59 289 583 970 -•rt Cover % 25 18 2 9 17 29 -o Number 8 14 6 14 15 57 4 By Species % 7 12 5 12 13 48 3 CONSTANCY CLASS 5 4 3 2 1 Number 26 8 20 30 34 % 22 7 17 25 29 Average Cover in % xAvoragc Site Index in Feet A B C Hw Cr B 51 64 77 49 102 104 94 ABBREVIATIONS Hw.: Tsuga heterophylla Cr.: Thuja plicata B.j Abies amabilis O.G.: Orthic gleysol S.P.A.: Spring line pitchy anmoor O.D.G.G.i Orthic dark grey gleysol L.Cr»j Lynn Creek Valley S.Cr,: Symour Creek Valley H.: Haney C.L,: Coquitlam Lake S.M,: Mt, Seymour 190 Synthesis tabic 8. PICEETO - SYMPHORICARPETUM Plot No. F- F- F- F- F-8 7 12 17 5 Date 8.6. 8.6. 9.6. 9.6. 8.6. 60 60 60 60 60 Locality Squ. Squ. Squ. Squ. Squ. Altitude (in Feet) 30 80 70 60 80 Exposure and Sloping -*• _ 0 0 0 0 0 Topography A A A A A Layering (Cover %) A l 40 50 40 10 70 A 2 50 40 50 80 40 A3 20 50 80 mm A 80 85 80 100 85 % 20 60 70 50 80 60 _ 30 B2 75 60 75 50 80 C 80 65 70 30 60 °h — 3 10 _ _ DL 1 5 5 5 D 1 8 10 5 5 Remarks IM. IM. IM. IM. IM. a u o & I | J * g List of Plants « £ H £ <* % g -P T) <H " o 5 £ 3 A ACER MVCR0PRYLLUM 1 7.8.3 7.8.3 5 183 3 P M 2 5.8.3 5.7.3 6.8.3 +.+.3 n 3 +.+.3 +.+.3 PICEA SITCHENSIS 1 6.8.3 +.+.3 5 203 2 P 2 7.9.3 7.8.3 7.10.3 +.+.3 M 3 4.7.3 4.6.3 +.+.3 POPULUS TRICHOCARPA 1 5.+.3 +.+.3 +.+ .3 +.+ .3 8.10.3 5 150 2 P M 2 +.+.3 7.9.3 n 3 ALNUS RUBRA 1 3 33 2 P 2 +.+ .2 6.8.3 +.+ .2 M 3 +.+ .2 ABIES GRANDIS 1 2 10 2 PM 2 +.+.3 " 3 4.4,3 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA 1 +.+.3 2 - 2 PM 2 +.+ .3 U 3 ACER CIRCINATUM 1 „ 179 2 6.7.3 3 7.10.3 9.10.3 THUJA PLICATA 1 - 25 - P, 2 +.+ .3 3 5.6.3 B ACER CIRCINATUM 1 4.+.3 2 SYMPHORICARPOS 1 RIVULARIS 2 6.8.3 RUBUS PARVIFLORUS 1 2 4.5.3 THUJA PLICATA 1 4„6,2 2 3 5 3 LONICERA INVOLUCRATA 1 2 +.5,2 RUBUS SPECTABILIS 1 2 5.6,3 OPLOPANAX HORRIDUS 1 2 1,5,2 RIBES DIVARICATUM 1 2 4.5.3 M 6.7.3 7.9.3 4.5.3 8.10,3 5.6.2 4.5.3 6.7.3 6.7.3 3.5.3 7a10.3 6,8.3 4„5.3 5 5 4 203 182 35 3 5 3 % % % + .+ .2 + .+,2 + ,+.2 3„5.3 + ,+.3 4 3 20 2 2 PN 5.5.3 + .+.3 3 50 2 4.5,2 2,5.1 3 11 1 PN + v+,3 3.5,3 3 15 4 191 Synthesis table 8. PICEETO - SYMPHORlCARPETUTl (Cont'd) 0 o >> List of Plants jf J H u H *f o n c9 p o o SAMBUCUS PUBENS 1 • +.+.2 • +.+.3 • 2 - 2 PN CORNUS £ I +.+.3 2 _ 2 FN OCCIDENTALIS 2 +.+.3 PICEA SITCHENSIS 1 O 5.7.2 +.+ .3 +.+.3 — 25 — ACER MA.CROFHYLLUM 1 5.7.3 5.6.3 - 50 -TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA c 1 — — _ 2 +.+ .2 ABIES GRANDIS 1 2 +.+ .3 +.+ .3 — Pf DISPORUM OREGANUM 5.+.3 5.4.3 6.5.3 5.6,3 6.5.3 5 141 3 G POLYSTICHUM MUNITUM 2.+ .3 +.+.3 +.+.2 +.+.2 +.+.2 5 1 1 H ATHYRIUM FHnX-FEMTNA 4.5.3 +.4.3 3.5.3 2.5.3 +.+.3 5 16 2 H DRYOPTERIS AUSTRIACA 3.5.3 +.3.3 3.4.3 2.5.3 +.+.3 5 11 2 H OSMORHIZA CHILENSIS 2.3.3 3.5.3 3.4.3 4.5.3 2.*. 3 5 22 2 H LACTUCA MURALIS +.+.3 2.+.3 +.+,3 +.+.3 4 1 2 H GALIUM TRIFLORUM 2.+.3 2.4.3 +.+.3 1.+.3 4 2 2 H SMILACINA STELLATA +.+.3 4.6.3 2.4,3 4.5.3 4 21 1 G MAIANTHEMUM DILAIATUM 9.10.3 4,5.3 3,5.3 3 110 2 G CLAYTONIA SIBIRICA +.+.3 +,.+.3 2,+.3 3 1 2 H BROMUS VULGARIS +.+,3 +.+ .2 +.+.2 3 — 2 H ARUNCUS VULGARIS +.+.3 +.+.3 2 — 3 H EQUTSETUM ARVENSE +,•,3' +.+.2 2 — 1 G DICENTRA FORMOSA 4.5.3 3.5.3 2 15 2 G FESTUCA SUBULIFLORA +.+.3 +.+.2 2 — 2 H CLINTONIA UNIFLQRA 4.5.3 4.5.3 2 20 2 G DRYOPTERIS ARGUTA +.5.3 +.5.3 2 — 4 H MNIUM INSIGNE h +.3.3 4.5.3 5.4.3 5 45 2 B 1 3.5.3 3.4.3 B RHYTIDIADELPHUS h 3 2 3 TRiaUETRUS 1 2.3.3 +.4.3 2.4.3 EURHYNCHIUM h +.3.3 2 — 1 B STOXESII 1 + .3.3 B RHYTIDIADELPHUS h 2 — 1 SaUARROSUS 1 +.3.3 +.3.3 B MNIUM MENZIESII h 2 — 2 1 +.3.3 +.3.3 B HYLOCOMEUM h 2 — 2 SPLENDENS 1 +.4.3 +.4.3 SPORADIC TREES AND SHRUBS: PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII F-12(+.+ .3) RHAMNUS PTMSHIANA F-7(+.+,3) RIBES BRACTEOSUM F-8 (* ,+. 3) R. SANGUINEUM F-17(+0+^3) RUBUS VITIFOLIUS F-12(2.4.3) HERBS: ACTAEA ARGUTA F-17( +. *„3) ASARUM CAUDATUM F-17(+„>.3) BOTRYCHIUM VIRGINIANUM F-17 ( «, 5 , 3) CIRCAEA ALPINA F-8(2.3(,2) HERBS (Cont'd)J EQUISETUM HlfcMALE F-7(5.+.3) GYMNOCARPIUM DRYOPTERIS F-12^.+.3) PTERIDUM AOUILINUM F-l2(+.+ ,3) SMILACINA RACEMOSA F-5{+,+,3) STREPTOPUS ROSEUS F-12(+.+,2) TRAUTVETTERLA GRANDIS F-8(2.3.2) BRYOPHYTES: DICRANUM FUSCESCMS F-7(+ . 3 . 3) MNIUM PUNCTATUM F-7(3.4.3) PLAGIOTHECIUM UNDULATUM F-17(+.3.3) RHYTIDIADELPHUS LOREUS F-5(l.4.3) 192 Synthesis table 8. PICEETO - SYMPHORICARPETUM (Cont'd) LIFE-FORM SPECTRUM LIFE-FORM % % H G B L d £ Cover 679 695 25 55 312 52 — s | By Total Cover % 37 38 1.5 3 17.5 3 -6p< o Number 7 14 1 15 11 10 — By Species % 12 24 1.5 26 19.5 17 -CONSTANCY SPECTRUM CONSTANCY CLASS 5 4 3 2 1 Average Cover in % Number 11 5 9 14 19 A B C Dh Proportion 19 8 17 23 33 86 68 61 5 ABBREVIATIONS IM.: Ihmature A.: Simple Topography Squ.: Squamish Synthesis table 9. PICIETO - OPLOPANACETUM Plot No. Date Locality Altitude (in Feet) Exposure and Sloping Topography Layering (Cover in %) t 1 i 3 u fe List of Plants A PICEA SITCHENSIS TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA ABIES AM4.BILIS ALNUS RUBRA THUJA PLICATA B C r-i •§ C Q F- F- E— E- E- E- E— E- E- E~ E— 11 3 78 82 79 . 80 . 136 .134 • 137 133 75 5.9. 7.9. 5.10. 5.14. 5.11. 5.11. 7.14. 7.10. 7.15. 7.10. 5.9. 60 60 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 Squ. Squ. S.Cr. S.Cr. S.Cr. S.Cr. S.Cr. S.Cr. S.Cr. S.Cr. S.Cr 120 60 750 750 740 797 700 720 680 700 700 0 0 0 0-20 0-1° 0-10 0 0 0 20 0-10 A A A A A A A A A A A 35 40 45 40 20 40 35 45 10 30 50 50 35 20 30 30 30 30 20 50 35 10 60 25 10 25 30 25 20 20 25 90 85 65 80 70 80 60 60 70 75 70 75 80 20 45 40 25 20 40 15 25 30 80 25 70 20 100 80 85 80 15 75 80 90 65 90 45 100 100 90 95 40 70 70 60 60 75 45 80 75 90 75 80 35 5 30 30 35 15 60 10 30 45 50 15 10 20 20 15 10 10 10 15 50 15 50 50 60 25 60 20 40 60 50 var. pcpulosum trlchooarpae 5.+.3 6.8.3 .+.3 .+.3 +.+.3 +.+ . 2 + . + . 2 -S-.+.3 .9.3 .8.3 .7.3 var, abietosum amabilis +.+.3 6.10.3 . .3 7.10.3 7.10.3 +.+.2 6.10.3 5.7,3 4.+.3 5.8.3 +.+.3 +.+.3 +.+,2 +.+,2 6.9,3 +.+ ,3 6,10,3 +,+,2 5,+.3 4.8.2 6,9.3 5.10.3 +.+,2 5,6,2 . . 7,8.3 6.8.3 +.+.2 4.7.2 5.9.3 6.10.2 4.+.2 4.6.2 3.+ .+ +.+.3 *.*»3 5.7.2 +.+.2 6.8.3 3.+.3 3.+.3 5.+.3 5.7.3 6.10.3 +.+.2 3.+.3 4.+.3 3.+.3 5.6.3 5.7.3 3.7.2 7.10.3 7.10.2 4.+.2 6.8.3 +.+.2 4.+.3 +.+ .2 +.•.3 +.+ .3 +.+.3 +.+.3 •+•.+ .1 Synthesis table 9. PICEETO - OPLOPANACETUM (Cont'd) X List of Plants U ca fr r-f on A ACER CIRCINATUM" B RIBES BRACTEOSUM' 1 2 3 1 2 OPLOPANAX HORRIDUS 1 2 RUBUS SPECTABILIS 1 2 SAMBUCUS PUBENS 1 2 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA. 1 2 ACER CIRCINATUM 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3, ABIES AMABILIS VACCINIUM OVALIFOLIUM VACCINIUM PARVIFOLIUM VACCINIUM ALASKAENSE PICEA SITCHENSIS C ATHYRIUM FIL3X—FEMINA MA3ANTHEMUM DILATATUM STREPTOPUS ROSEUS OSMQRHIZA CHILENSIS TIARKIiLA TRIFOLIATA DRYOPTERIS AUSTRIAC2L TIARELLA UNIFOLIATA VIOLA GLABELLA GYMNOCARPIUM DRYOPTERIS SMILACINA STELLATA POLYSTICHUM MUNITUM LUZULA PARVIFLORA POA PALUSTRIS STREPTOPUS AMPLEXIFOLIUS var. populostro  trichocarpae 7.8.3 4.6.3 5.6.3 8.10.3 9.10.3 3.5.3 6.7.3 2.5.3 +.+.3 4.6.3 4.5.3 5.6.3 6.7.3 3.4.3 4.5.3 4.5.3 6.6.3 4.5.3 2.4.3 1.3.3 4.6.3 +,4,3 +o+.3 5.5.3 3.4.3 +.3.3 4.5.3 +,+.3 2.4.3 4.5.3 +,+r3 2.3,3 +.+.3 var. abietosum amabilis 3.5.3 4.5.3 5.6.3 2.3.3 4.5.3 2.3.3 6.7.3 3.5.3 4.5.3 1.+ .3 +vf.3 +.+.3 2.3.3 ca -p 03 a o O <0 O fe a H h oJ o •So-2.3.3 3.4.3 2.*.3 4.5.3 2.4.3 3.4.3 2.3.3 4.6.3 5,5.3 2.4.3 1.3 .3 2.3.3 3.4.3 6.7.3 3.4.3 5.4.3 2.5.3 3.4.3 5.7.3 5.6.3 3.4.3 3.+ .2 +.3.3 2.3.3 +.+.3 4.5.3 4.5.3 2.4.3 3.4.3 2.3.3 5.4.3 3.4.3 5.5.3 +.+.2 +.3.3 2.+.2 1.+.3 2.3.3 3.4.3 2.3.3 5.6.3 3.4.3 5.4.3 4.5.3 2.3.3 3.4.2 +.2.3 2.3.3 +.+ .3 2.3.3 4,5.3 2.3.3 5.6.3 4.5.3 2.4.3 2.3.3 2.3.3 4.5.3 2.4.3 1.3.3 -3.4.3 +.+.3 3.4.3 3.4.3 +.3.3 8.7.3 4.4.3 2.3.3 4.3.3 4.3.3 5.6.3 +.4.3 +.•.3 2.3.3 2.3.3 3.4.3 5.6.3 6.6.3 3.+.3 +.+.3 3.4.3 2.3.3 +.2.3 2,3.3 +.+ .3 5,7.3 5.6.3 2.3.3 3.3.2 2.4.3 1.3.2 5.7.3 3.4.3 +.3.3 +,•.2 3.2.3 4.5.3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 74 118 59 96 20 146 86 112 12 5 22 1 H 2 3 2 2 2 4 2 3 3 1 3 3 2 o o •3 • • • • • • • • • 50 % 4.6.3 4.6.3 4.6,3 5.8.3 3.5.3 5 213 2 % 7.8.3 6,8.3 5,6.3 4.5.3 +.•.3 4.6.3 4.5.3 5 471 3 % 4.5.3 4.7.3 8.10.3 4.6.3 7.9.3 8.10.3 7.8.3 2.5.3 2.5.3 5 150 2 % 4.7.3 5.7.3 3.6,3 4.6,3 5.6.3 5.5.3 4.6.3 2.4.2 4.6.3 2.+ . 3 2.6.2 2.5.3 5.6.3 3.6.3 4.6.3 5 85 2 PN 2.5.3 3,5.3 5.5.3 2.5.2 2.+.2 4.7.3 3.6.3 3.5.3 +.+.2 4.5.3 2.+.2 — 58 — PM 3.5.3 2.4.3 4.5.3 4.5.3 2.5.3 5.6.3 7.10,3 5.8.2 4.7.2 5.8.3 5.7.2 6.8.2 4 233 1 % 4.5.2 A "S T 4.5.3 2.+.3 3.6.3 3.7.2 4.7.3 4.5.3 3.+.3 5.5.3 +.+.3 — 77 — PM 3.5.3 3.5.2 2.5.3 3.4.3 1.2.2 3 16 2 ?N +.+,2 +.4.2 3.5.3 2.5.3 4.5.3 3 11 2 % +.+ .2 3.6.3 +.5.2 2,5.3 +.+.2 3.5.2 3 60 2 % 4.6.3 3.5.2 4.5,3 5.6.3 4.6.3 5,8.3 — 35 — % +.+.3 4.5.3 4.5.3 5.4.3 5.6.3 5,6,3 5.6.3 3.4.3 5 183 2 H G G H H H H < H 'G G H H H G t—1 sD Synthesis table 9. PICEETO - OPLOPANACETUM (Cont'd) U o List of Plants u o $ CO m var. ulosizn .chooarpae C GALIUM TRIFLORUM CIRCAEA ALPINA DISPORUM OREGANUM TOLMEEA MENZIESII BOYELNIA ELATA VERATRUM VIRIDE BLECHNUM SPICANT CLAYTCNIA SIBIRICA TRISETUM CERNUUM CINNA LATIFOLIA CORNUS CANADENSIS THELYPTERIS PHEGOPTERIS CAREX LEPTOPODA 2.3.3 2.3.3 .2.3 * 3.5.3 3.5.3 +.3.3 2.4.3 4.5.3 3.3,3 5.4.3 + + 3 2.3.3 +.+.3 +.3.3 +.+.3 +.+.3 •.+.3 •.+.3 1.+ .3 2.+.3 +.+.3 2.4.3 +.+ .3 +,+.3 3.3.2 1.3.3 MNIUM INSIGNE h 1 c 7.8.3 3.5.3 5.6.3 3.4.3 +.2.3 3.4.3 2.4.3 1.3.3 +.2.3 5.6.3 2.4.3 +.1.3 2.3.3 MJIUM PUNCTATUM h 3.5.3 +.4.3 4.5.3 4.2.3 3.5.3 6.8.3 4.6.3 2.3.3 1 +.+.3 4.5.3 4.6.3 2.3.3 c +.+.3 +.3.3 +.4.3 +.3.3 +.1.2 +.1.2 RHYTIDIADELPHUS h 2.4.3 4.5.3 3.5.3 3.5.3 4,6.3 6.7.3 LOREUS 1 4.6.3 +.3.3 4.5.3 2.2.3 o +.4.3 +.5.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.4.3 +.3,3 DICRAHUM h FUSCESCENS 1 4.5.3 +.2.3 1.3.2 o +.2.3 +.3.3 +.4.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 ANTITRICHIA h CURTIPENDUIA 1 +.3.3 +.3.3 o +.3.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.2.2 +.3.2 +.3.2 HYPNUM CIRCINA1E h 1 +.2.3 +.2.3 1.3.2 +.2.3 +.2.3 1.2.3 +.3.3 o +.2.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 SCAPANIA BOLANDERI h 1 +.2.3 +.2.3 2.3.3 o +.3.3 +.5.3 +.4.3 +.2.2 +.2.3 PSSUDISOTHECIUM h STOLONIFERUM 1 *.2«3 1.3.2 o +.3.3 +.3.2 +.4.3 +.5.3 +.5,3 +.4.3 CLADCNIA h SU3SQ.UAMOSA 1 o +.2.3 +.3,3 +.2.3 +.3U2 +.3.2 +,2U3 •.1.3 var. abietosum amabilis 3.+.3 2.3.3 3.+.2 2.+.3 +.3.2 4.5.3 +.4.3 +.+.3 +.3.3 1.+.3 2.3.3 3.3.3 4.5.3 +.+.3 3.+.3 2.3.3 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.4,3 1.3.3 +.+.3 +.+.2 1.3.3 3.4.3 3.4.3 +.4.3 2.+.3 3.4.3 +.+.3 +.+ .3 2.3.3 +.4.3 6.5.3 2.3.3 4.5.3 3.5.3 +.3.3 5.4.3 3.5.3 +.5.3 2.3.3 • +.2.3 2.3.3 1.4.3 +.+ .3 2.3.3 2.4.3 +.4,3 +.4.3 •.+.3 1.+.3 3.5.3 5.4.3 2.4.3 +.+.3 2.3.3 2.4.3 +.+.2 2.3.2 2.3.3 1.2.2 +.+ .2 4.5.3 3.4.3 2.3.3 4.5.3 4.5.3 2.4.3 +.4.3 2.5.3 3.5.3 +.2.3 +.1.2 +.1.2 4.5.3 5.5.3 3.5.3 2.5.3 3.5.3 2.4.3 +.3.3 +.4.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 2.4.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.•.2 +,+.2 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.1.2 1.2.3 1.2.3 +.3.2 1.3.2 2.3.2 +.4.2 +.3.3 +.6.3 +.2.3 1.2.2 +.2.3 +.2.3 •.2.3 <o a & g B a> P) •P o a) •rl +» H U H I ra <fl p a o P! o +> > o o •cf •H O E-iO H3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 16 52 28 42 1 3 2 6 1 168 5 137 5 162 12 1 6 2 2 4 1 5 5 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 H H G H H G H H H H % G 2 H 2 B 2 B 2 B 2 B 2 B 2 B 2 B 2 B 2 L C H t ^ O H P" O H P* O H P* O H P* O H P* O H P ' O H P* O H P ' O H P ' O H P ' O H P* O H P ' O H P * OJ * OJ c (O 10 <*• 6 H « 00 4-II 00 + ro OJ 4-H OJ ro« CO 00 + • • • ro 00 • • • 00 OJ OJ H ro OJ J> ro H + 4- + ro H 4-• • • • • • • • • H 4* Ul Ul Ul oo ro OJ ro GO* • • • • • • • • # » # • 00 OJ 00 00 00 00 00 00 OJ OJ 00 OJ 4- 00 00 4-c • c • • • 4^  ro ro 4* H D -• • • • OJ 00 00 00 OJ OJ 4- H H H 4- 4- 4-• • • • • • • ro H ro£> OJ ro • • • • OJ OJ 00 OJ ro 00 CO 4-ro 00 4-CO CO • » ro co H H • « CO C O • • OJ OJ C O i. OJ +'0J « • • J\> co coro co • » 4^ Ul m • CO CO OJ H « CO CO .4-CO * 4-CO CO • • CO CO • H + 4- 4- OJ 4- 4-« • • • • • • • • H CO CO CO H ro 4* ro ro • • • • * • • • • • • ro ro CO ro ro CO CO OJ CO 4- OJ 4- 4- 4- ro • • • • * » CO 4* H ro ro ro • • • • • • • CO CO CO OJ CO CO 4- 4- CO 4- 4- 4-* • • • • » • • H H CO 4* 00 OJ CO ro • * • • • • • • ro CO CO CO CO OJ CO CO 4- H 4- 4-• • • • « ro 00 CO ro ro« • • • • • CO OJ 00 CO CO •> 4- + H + 4> Ul 00 ro 4-« • • • • • • • » • * H H ro roro ro ui oi Ul 00 e • • • « • • • » • • OJ CO CO CO OJ ro co oo OJ OJ OJ 4- 45. H ro H H OJ ro 4- 4-• • * • • • • • • • • H CO Ul CO CO OJ CO Ul CO CO • • * » • • • « « • • CO CO CO CO CO CO ro OJ CO CO OJ CO CO 00 CO CO CO CO 4* -fc. 4* Ul 1 1 1 o> g H H 1 1 s K ro 1 ro ro ro ro H H ro ro ro ro 00 ro H 4* ta td td td td bd td td bd bd bd td td bd Sublayer H. •tfS H 2 o 4 t o • 4 o ! P S Constancy Total Cover Degree Fidelity Life—form 961 Synthesis table 9* PICEETO - OPLOPANACETUM (Cont'd) <0 jj> List of Plants 3 D PORELLA MVICTLARISh 1 c BAZZANIA TRICRENATAh 1 o HETEROCLADIUM h PROCURENS 1 c DICRANUM SCOPARIUM h 1 c h 1 o h 1 o h 1 c h 1 o h 1 c h 1 c h 1 o METZGERIA JTURCATA h 1 o NECIffiRA MENZIESII h 1 o HOMALOTHECIUM h NUTTALLII .1 c CLAOPODIUM CRISPIFOLIUM LOPHOZIA INCISSA CEPHALOZIA HECUSPIDATA ABIES AMABILIS BAZZANIA AMBIGUA PIAGIOTKECIUM ELEGANS PORELLA PLAIY-PHYLLA Tar, populosum  triohooarpae +.2.3 +.1.3 var. abietosum amabilis +.3.3 +.1.3 +.1.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 +,1,3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.1 2.3.2 1.2.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.+.3 +.1.3 +.1.3 +.+.3 1.+.3 +.2 +.3.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 +.1.3 +.1.3 +n2,3 +.3.3 +.1 +.3 co£ n >ri p H 3 CO H GO H C O Layer co P I CD CQ H o 10 o H P* o H P ' O H P ' O H P ' O HP*O HP*O H P ' O H P ' O HP* Sublayer + c ro C O 4- + • • C O ro • • C O L O H co 4-ro C O + CO C O .+ 4-C O 4-H » C O 4-C O C O H £ o n i 3 o 1 g 8 o o § 4-C O 4-4-4-4-C O ro C O C O 4- 4-• • H H • « C O O J 4- 4-• • H H • • C O 00 C O 4- 4-4- H ro 4- 4- 4- 4-• • « • « • • • • C O ro ro ro co ro ro ro H » » • • • • • • • C O C O C O C O O J C O C O C O O J 4- ro 4- 4-• « • • ro 4- C O • • • * O J C O O J O J ro ro H 5f I ta CD" ro Constancy . Total Cover Degree ro Fidelity w Life-form 961 199 -p g 1 o § 1 o 1 of <u H .a <fl -P •rl to CB t co H 8 P-. co O a OH CO pq w c^ a? I | cn n N H i d v S a 3 t o o> CM si" CM CM CM co CM CM H H. o H cn s H 00 cn U o v. g I o H cc! •P O EH ra o •rl O CD a CO uo-co^ iodooa u o O o to g I O H o r-H cn CM CM o> r~-H H cn in o <o cn CM CO w o CD CO g o nof a/todoo<j 200 Synthesis table 10. POPULETO - LONICERETUM Plot No. F-6 F-13 F-16 F-20" F-14 Date 6.7.60 6.10.60 6.11.60 8.6.60 6.10,60 Locality Altitude (in Feet) Exposure and Sloping Topography Layering (Cover %) AT I 2 C LV 5 © S 1 5 | o Remarks IM. IM. IM, IM. IM. h c o & f>» 8 O 4? Squ. Squ. Squ. Squ, Squ, R. R. R. R. R. 50 - 150 0 0 0 0 0 A A A A A 40 80 50 80 80 60 10 60 85 85 80 80 80 65 15 30 20 20 55 75 70 65 60 90 20 80 70 75 70 35 65 IM. IM. IM, IM. IM i»> List of Plants r H P £ t -3 3 £ W O EH fa ^ POPULUS TRICHOCARPA 1 6,8.3 8.9.3 7.8.3 5.9.3 7.9.3 5 243 2 2 4. +.2 ALNUS RU3*A •3 1 8.10.3 6.8.3 7.10.3 6.8.3 5 241 2 % 2 O 7.8.3 THUJA PLICATA CJ 1 mm _ PM 2 +.+.3 +.+.3 PICEA SITCHENSIS O 1 + .+ .3 25 _ PM 2 >^ •,+ .3 5.7.3 SALIX SITCHENSIS •3 1 •.+.3 _ 10 — PN 2 «> 4.+.2 SALIX LASIANDRA 1 4.6.3 2 20 1 PN 2 *> 4.7.3 ACER MA.CR0PRYLLUM 1 — - PM 2 3 + .•.3 RUBUS SPECTABILIS 1 7.8.3 + .4.3 7.9,3 5 183 2 PN 2 6.8.3 7.8.3 219 LONICERA INVOLUCRATA 1 6.7.3 4.6.3 2.5,3 5 2 % 2 7.8,3 8.9.3 7.8.3 65 CORNUS OCCIDENTALIS 1 4.5.3 5.7.3 +.5.3 5 2 PN 2 •.+.3 5.6.3 3.5.3 PICEA SITCHENSIS 1 5.6.3 4.+.3 5 65 2 PM 2 4.+.3 4.5,3 + .+.3 4.5.3 SAMBUCUS PUBENS 1 +,•.2 5.6.3 5.7.3 4.5.3 5 60 2 PN 2 + .'>,2 ACER MA.CROPHYLLUM 1 3.5.3 3.5.3 *.+.3 4 10 1 % 2 +.•.3 THUJA PLICATA 1 3.+.3 4,5,3 4 26 2 PM 2 2.*.3 +.•.2 4.5,3 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA. 1 4.+.3 3.^ .3 + .+.3 3 15 2 PM SPIRAEA MENZIESII <-\ •.+.2 *.4.3 3 1 2 % 2 2.5,2 SALIX SITCHENSIS 1 + .+.2 *,+,2 2 1 PN ALNUS S3NUATA £ l 2 •.+.3 +.+.2 2 - 2 201 Synthesis table 10, POPULETO - LONICERETUM (Cont'd) g List of Plants i f 3 "a ci o I c§ O EH O fe J B ACER CIRCINATUM 1 , , +.+,3 , 2 - 1 Pjj 2 +.+,2 ALNUS RUBRA 1 4,6.3 3.6,3 - 15 - % 2 RHAMNUS PURSHIANA 1 3,5,3 + . + . 3 2 5 2 PN 2 ABIES GRANDIS 1 +.+,3 + ,+,3 2 2 P M 2 SALIX LASSIANDRA 1 +.+.2 - - - P N 2 E L Y M U S G L A U C U S 6 . 5 . 3 5 . 7 . 3 3 . 5 . 3 6 . 7 . 3 4 . 5 . 3 5 1 0 6 5 H MAIANTHEMUM D H A T A T U M 5 . 5 . 3 3 . 7 . 3 7 . 8 . 3 + . 3 . 3 6 . 7 . 3 5 1 1 3 2 G 0 S M 0 R H I Z A C H I L E N S I S 2 . 4 . 2 3 . 4 . 3 + .+ .2 + . + . 2 2 . + . 2 5 7 2 H E Q U I S E T U M A R V E N S E 3 . 5 . 3 + . + . 3 4 . + . 3 + . + . 3 2 . + . 3 5 1 6 4 G S M I L A C I N A S T E L L A T A 5 . 7 . 3 3 . 7 . 3 + .+ .3 4 . 6 , 3 4 4 0 1 G L A C T U C A M U R A L I S 3 . 4 . 3 1 . + . 3 + . + . 3 2 . + . 3 4 6 2 H P Y R O L A A S A R I P O L I A + . + . 3 3 . 6 . 3 + . + . 3 3 , 5 . 3 4 1 0 5 SH G A L I U M T R I F L O R U M + . + . 3 2 . 3 . 3 2 . 3 , 3 3 2 2 HT BROMUS V U L G A R I S 2 . 5 . 3 + .+ .3 3 . 4 , 3 3 6 2 H A T B Y R I U M F I L C C - F E M I N A 4 . 5 . 3 + . + . 3 2 1 0 2 H POA P A L U S T R I S 4 . 5 . 3 3 . 5 . 3 2 1 5 1 H D I C E N T R A FORMOSA + . + . 3 • . + . 3 2 — 2 G E Q U I S E T U M R T E M A L E 3 . + . 3 + . + . 2 2 5 3 P H ST R E PT OPUS A M P L E X I F O L I U S + . 4 . 3 + . + . 3 2 — 2 G V I O L A G L A B E L L A + . • . 3 + . + . 2 2 — 2 H V I O L A P A L U S T R I S + . + . 3 + . + . 3 2 — 2 H C A R E X L E P T O P O D A + . + . 3 +^f.2 2 — 2 H S M I L A C I N A RACEMOSA +.+ . 3 + . + . 3 2 — 2 G POA P R A T E N S I S • . 3 . 3 + . • . 3 2 — 1 H R H Y T I D I A D E L P H U S 1 + . 1 . 2 • . 2 , 3 • . 2 . 3 3 1 B SaUARROSUS B M N I U M I N S I G N E 1 + . 1 . 2 + . 2 , 3 + . 3 . 3 3 - 2 SPORADIC SPECIES TREES AND SHRUBS: BETULA PAFYRIFERA F-20(+.+.3) PHYSOCARPUS CAPITATUS F-20(+.5.3) PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII F-20(5.+.2) RUBUS LEUCODERMIS F-6(+.+.3) SYMPHORICARPOS RIVULARIS F-20(+.5.3) HERBS: ANGELICA GENUFLEXA F-16(2 DACTYLIS GLOMERATA F-20(+ EPILOBIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM F-HABENARIA SACCATA F-16(+.+.3 LYCOPUS UNIFLQRUS F-14(+.+.3 .5.3 '-13 (+.+ .3) HERBS (Cont'd): POLYSTICHUM MUNITUM F-20(+. +. 1) PRUNELLA. VULGARIS F-14(+.4.3) BRYOPHYTES: DICRANUM FUSCESCENS F-16(+,+.2) EURHYNCHIUM OREGANUM F-20(2,2.3) HYPNUM CIRCINALE F-16(+.+,2) BYGROHYPNUM OCHRACEUM F-20(+.3.3) MNIUM PUNCTATUM F-16(+.3.2) RHICOMTTRIUM CANESCENS F-20(+.3.3) SCOULERIA AQUATICA F-20(2.4.3) S. MARGINATA F-20(l.4.3) LIFE-FORM % H G B L C l £.Cover 665 563 15 149 174 6 -3 By Total Cover % 0.5 t 43 35 0.5 10 11 0 0 Number 9 13 2 16 9 10 -By Species % 17 15.5 22 3.5 26.5 15.5 CONSTANCY CLASS 5 4 3 2 1 Proportion Number % 11 5 6 15 20 19 9 10 27 35 ABBREVIATIONS Squ.R.: IM,: A.: *.: Squami8h River Enmature Simple topography ElymuB phase 202 Synthesis table 11. Plot No. Date Looality Altitude (in Feet) Exposure and Sloping Topography Layering (Cover %) ALNETO - RIBISETUM BRACTEOSI E-76 E-156 E-81 IM F-19 5.9.59 8.6,59 5.14.59 7.7.60 7,7,60 S . C r , S.Cr, S.Cr, S.Cr. S.Cr, Remarks List of Plants A ALNUS RUBRA PICEA SITCHENSIS THUJA PLICATA TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA RIBES BRACTEOSUM SAMBUCUS PUBENS PICEA SITCHENSIS TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA RUBUS SPECTABILIS ACER CIRCINATUM OPLOPANAX HORRIDUS VACCINIUM OVALIFOLUM ALNUS RUBRA THUJA PLICATA RIBES DIVARICATUM t 1 A J C t 800 0 A 5 30 10 40 5 100 100 80 40 10 50 IM. LYSICHITUM AMERICANUM STREPTOPUS AMPLEXIFOLIUS 1.3.3 VIOLA GLABELLA TIARELLA TRIFOLIATA MAIANTHEMUM DILATATUM DRYOPTERIS AUSTRIACA VIOLA PALUSTRIS ATHYRIUM FIL3X—FEMINA 800 0 A 20 40 50 50 60 100 75 5 15 20 IM. 800 850 860 0 0 0 A A A 80 70 75 80 70 75 10 5 100 100 100 100 100 25 70 60 2 10 33 1 10 13 3 20 30 IM. IM. IM. I •p CO § a u I o H rt •P o EH 10 •.•.2 9.10.3 7.8.3 8.10.3 5 303 2 6.9.2 7.8.3 +.+.1 +.+.3 +.+.3 mm 5 — % +.+ .3 3.7.2 5.8.3 2 50 2 PM 5.+ ,3 +.+.3 _ 33 _ % 6.+.2 8.10.3 5 300 2 % 8.10.3 5.6.3 7.9.3 8.10.3 2.6.3 5.7.3 5 61 2 PN 5.7.3 + .5,3 4.5.2 + .+.2 2.+.2 2.+.1 3.+,3 5.+.3 +.+.2 5 32 2 % +.+.1 3.7.2 +.+.1 +.+.2 5 10 2 % +.+.2 3.5.2 5 109 2 % 6.7.3 +.6,3 6.7.3 6.7.3 4.5.2 4.6.3 3 86 1 % 2.5.3 8.10.3 +.+.3 2 1 1 % 2.5.3 +.+.1 + .+,2 2 — 2 PN 1.4.3 4.+.2 + .+.1 3.6.1 + .5.2 — 5 — PM +.•.2 +.+.2 2 — 1 PN +.+.2 7.8.3 6.6.3 5.7.3 6.7.3 5.6.3 5 166 2 G +.+.3 +.+.3 +• + . « *J 2.+.3 5 1 2 G 5.7.3 2.5.3 4.3.3 3.5,3 4.5.3 5 51 2 H 3.5.3 +.•.2 2.4.3 1.4,2 3.5.3 5 11 2 H 4.6.3 8.9.3 +.4.3 5.6,3 4.3.3 5 120 2 G 2.3.3 4.5.3 2.4.3 + .5,3 5.4.3 5 37 2 H" +.+.3 1.3.3 +.3.3 + .3,3 +.3.3 5 — 4 H 2.5.3 •.+.3 3.4.3 + .+.3 + .+.3 5 6 2 H 203 Synthesis table 11. ALNETO - RIBISETUM BRACTEOSI (Cont'd) § k © s o o >, fe List of Plants ^ SMEUC3NA STELLATA 2.4.3 + .3.3 3.4.3 +.4.3 BLECHNUM SPICANT +.+.2 + .+.2 +.5.3 2.+.2 POA PALUSTRIS 5,5.3 1.3.3 +.3.3 CAREX LEPTOPODA 2.3.3 +.+.2 +.3.3 OSMORHIZA CHILENSIS 2.4.3 2.4.3 +.2.3 GYMNOCARPIUM DRYOPTERIS 3.4.3 +.+.2 2.5,3 CIRCAEA ALPtNA +.2.3 +.+,2 +.+,3 DISPORUM OREGANUM +.3.3 +.3.2 CINNA LATIFOLIA 3.4.3 + .+.3 VERATRUM VIRIDE 3.+.3 +.+.2 POLYSTICHUM MUNTTUM + .+ .2 3'.+.3 PRUNELLA VULGARIS + .+.2 +.3.2 MNIUM INSIGNE h T 1.4.3 2.3.3 +.3.3 +.5.3 +.3,3 MNIUM PUNCTATUM X h 2.4.2 +.3,3 +.2.3 1.3.3 + .4.3 1 4.5.3 3.5,3 4.3.3 4.5.3 CONOCEPHALUM CONICUM h 2.5C3 +.3.3 2.5.2 2.4.3 3.5.3 1 + .3.-3 PELLIA EPIPHYLLA h 1.4,3 2.2.3 3.3.3 +.3.3 +.2.3 and COLUMBIANA 1 +.4.3 PSEUDISOTHECIUM h STOLONIFERUM 1 2.3.3 *3.3 +.2.3 SCAPANIA BOLANDERI h 3.5.3 1 1.2.3 +.3.3 DICRANUM FUSCESCENS h 1 2.3.3 +.2.3 + .2.3 EURHYNCHIUM STOKESII h i 1.4.3 2.4.3 +.5.3 RHYTIDIADELPHUS h + .3.3 +.3.2 LOREUS 1 2.4.3 RHYTIDIADELPHUS h 1.3.3 SOUARROSUS 1 +.2.3 HOOKERIA LUCMS h T + .3.3 +.2.3 SPHAGNUM SauARROSUM JL h 1 +.3.3 +.3.3 HYPNUM CIRCINALE Xh n + .2.3 +.2.3 DICRANUM SCOPARIUM Xh +.3.3 + .2.3 HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS X h +,+.2 +.+.-1 RHYTIDIADELPHUS ± h +.3.3 TRiaUETRUS 1 +.3,3 PLAGIOTHECIUM h 1.3.2 +.2.3 ELEGANS 1 Consta] Total Cover '. Fideli 1 a 4 6 1 G 4 1 2 H 3 25 1 H 3 1 2 H 3 2 2 H 3 6 1 G 3 — 1 H 2 — 1 G 2 5 1 H 2 5 1 G 2 5 1 H 2 - 2 H 5 1 2 B 5 36 2 B 5 8 1 B 5 6 1 B 3 1 2 B 3 5 2 B 3 1 2 B 3 1 1 B 2 1 2 B 2 - 1 B 2 - 2 B 2 - 1 B 2 - 2 B 2 - 2 B 2 - 2 B 2 - 1 B 2 2 B SPORADIC SPECIES SHRUBS: PRUNUS EMARGINATA E-156(+.+.2) RHAMNUS PURSHIANA E-156(+,+.3) VIBURNUM PAULIFLORUM E-76(1.4.3) HERBS: ARUNCUS VULGARIS E-76(+.+.3) BOYKENIA ELATA E-76(2,3.3) DICENTRA FORMOSA E-8l(5.7,3) EauiSETUM TELMATEIA F-156(+.+.3) GALIUM TRIFLORUM E-76(+.2,3) LUZULA PARVTFLORA E-76(1.3.3) STREPTOPUS ROSEUS E-76(6.7.3) TIARELLA UNIFOLIATA E-76(2.4.3) TOLMIEA MENZIESII F-19(5.4.3) BRYOPHYTES: ATRICHUM UNDULATUM E-8l(+.2.3) CALYPOGEIA NEESIANA E-76(+.1.3) CEPHALOZIA LAMVIERSIANA E-81 (+.1.3) DIPLOPHYLLUM TAXIFOLIUM E-76(+.1.3) FRULLANIA NISQUALLENSIS F-4(+.2.3) LEPIDOZIA REPTANS F-19(+.2.3)/ LOPHOCOLEA HETEROPHYLLA E-156 (+.2.3) MNIUM MENZIESII E-76(l.3.2) PLAGIOTHECIUM DENTICULATUM E-76 (+.2.3) P. UNDULATUM E-156 (+.3.2) POGONATUM ALPINUM E-81 (+.3.3) PORELLA NAVICULARIS E-76(l.3.3) LICHEN: PELTIGER.A CAN3MA Synthesis table 11, ALNETO - RIBISETUM BRACTEOSI (Cont'd) 2L% LIFE-FORM % H G B L £ Cover 448 557 _ 171 362 70 -o •rl By Total Cover t % Z8 35 11 22 4 — o Pi o Number 4 10 19 10 29 1 (f? By Species % 5 14 - 25 14 40 2 CONSTANCY CLASS 5 4 3 2 1 Number 18 2 10 18 25 Proportion % 25 3 13 25 34 ABBREVIATIONS S.Cr,t Seymour Creek A,: Simple topography IM.: Immature 205 Synthesis table 12, SALICETO - OENAJNTHETUM Plot No. F-15 E-74 F-9 F-10 F-2 Date 6.10. 5.18, 6,9, 6.9. 5.9. 60 59 60 60 60 Locality Squ.R. Squ.R, Squ.R. Squ.R. Squ.R. Altitude (in Feet) 50 - 150 Exposure and Sloping 0 0 0 0 0 Topography A A A A A Layering (Cover %) A-. 15 Ag 30 A3 A 65 40 60 40 50 Bi 25 Bg 80 B 50 60 60 60 90 C 100 90 65 70 50 D^  1 10 I 1 10 | Remarks IM. IM. IM. IM, IM, « u 9 fe 0 a +» -a CO o o t* , t>, a o -P o £ List of Plants 8 « H $ ^ a co o O EH £ i-3 A SALIX 1ASIANDRA 1 5.7.3 , . 4.6.3 7.8.3 5 95 3 P N 2 +.+.2 4.7.3 3 PICEA SITCHENSIS 1 4.7.3 4 . 4 . 3 + . 4 , 2 5 10 2 P M 2 +.+.3 + . 4.2 3 ALNUS RUBRA 1 7.8.3 6.8.2 3 83 2 % 2 +.4-.2 3 THUJA PLICATA 1 +.+.3 +.+.3 3 - 2 % 2 3 SALIX SITCHENSIS 1 5.6.3 6.8.3 6.7,3 - 91 - % 2 3 L O N I C E R A I N V O L U C R A T A 1 5 . 6 . 3 4 . 6 . 3 4 . 5 . 3 4 . 6 . 3 3 . 5 . 3 5 7 0 2 P N 2 4 . 5 . 3 S A L I X S I T C H E N S I S 1 3 . + . 3 +.+.2 +.+.2 7 . 1 0 . 3 5 . 6 . 3 5 9 0 4 % 2 4 . 5 . 3 R U B U S S P E C T A B I L I S 1 4 . 5 , 3 6 , 8 . 3 4 . 5 . 3 5 . 7 . 3 5 1 7 3 2 % 2 9 . 1 0 . 3 CORNUS 0 C C I D E N T A L I S 1 3 . 6 . 3 3 . 5 . 3 + . + . 3 3 . 5 . 3 5 . 6 . 3 5 5 0 2 % 2 4 . 5 . 3 S A L I X I A S I A N D R A 1 + . 5 . 3 5 . 6 . 3 5 . 6 . 3 — 5 5 — 2 3 . 5 , 3 SAMBUCUS P U B E N S 1 O 4 . 5 . 3 + .+.2 2 1 0 2 P N A L N U S RUBRA 1 4 , 6 . 3 3.6.2 - 1 5 - % M A L U S D 3 V E R S I F 0 L I A l 2 . 5 . 3 + . + . 3 2 1 3 % SPIRAEA. M E N Z I E S I I c 1 p 5 . 5 . 3 3 . 5 . 3 2 3 0 2 % T H U J A P L I C A T A c 1 O + . + . 3 - - - P M P I C E A S I T C H E N S I S C 1 2 + .4.3 - - - RM 206 Synthesis table 12. SALICETO - OENANTHETUM (Cont'd) 4 u I |- a ^ J . List o f Plants $ « « LYSICHITUM AMERICANUM 9.10.3 8.10,3 7.7.3 7.8,3 6.5.3 5 303 2 G OENANTHE SARMENTOSA 6.7.3 5.6.3 7,6.3 6.5.3 5.5.3 5 166 5 G GLYCERIA PAULIFLORA 4.5.3 5.7.3 4.5.3 5.6,3 3.4.3 5 75 5 H ATHYRIUM FILIX-FEMINA 2.5.3 5.6.3 2.5.3 4»5.3 3.4.3 5 42 2 H ANGELICA GENUFLEXA 3.5.3 3.5.3 3.4.3 3.5.3 3.4.3 4.5.3 5 25 5 H miANTHEMUM DILATATUM + .5.3 3.5.3 2.4.3 2.5.3 5 17 2 G SC3RPUS MICROCARPUS +.3.3 +.4.3 2.3.3 2.5.3 4 2 5 G VERONICA AMERICANA 1.+.3 +.+.3 +.+.3 3.5.3 3 — 4 G EQUISETUM PLUVTATILE 3.4.3 3,4.3 3 15 4 G CAREX LEPTOPODA 2.4.3 2.4.3 +.3.3 3 2 2 H CAREX SITCHENSIS 3.5.3 +.4.3 2 5 3 H VIOLA. GLABELLA + .+.2 •.•.3 4.5.3 2 — 2 H CAREX RETRORSA +.+.3 2 10 3 H EPILOBIUM ADENOCAULON +.+ ,3 +.+.3 2 — 2 H VIOLA PALUSTRIS + .+.3 2.3.3 2 1 1 H CLAYTONIA SIBERICA +.+.3 +.+.2 2 — 2 H CLIMACIUM h +.3.3 +.2.3 +.2.3 +,3,3 4 - 5 B DENDROILES 1 EURHYNCHIUM h 3,4.3 +.3.3 3.5.3 4 35 1 B STOKESII 1 5.4.3 AULAC OMNIUM h 2 1 1 B PALUSTRE 1 2.5.3 +.3.3 PLAGIOTHECIUM h 2 - 2 B ELEGANS 1 +.3.3 +.2.2 MNIUM PUNCTATUM h 2 - 2 B 1 +.3.2 +,2.3 PSEUDISOTHECIUM h 2 - 2 B STOLONIFERUM 1 +.3.3 +.3.3 TREES AND SHRUBS: POPULUS TRICHOCARPA E-74(5.+ f l ) PRUNUS EMARGINATA E-74(+.+ .3) P. VIRGINXANA E-74(+.+.3) SPIRAEA DOUGLASII E-74(+.+.3) VIBURNUM PAUCIFLORUM E-74(+.+.3) HERBS: xIRUNCUS VULGARIS F-£(+.+.2) BROMUS VULGARIS F-2(+,*.2) CAREX AQUATILIS F-15(+.+.3) CARDAMINE BREWERII E-74 (4.5.3) EQUISETUM ARVENSE E-74(2.3.3) GALIUM TRIFLORUM F-10(+,+,3) HABENARIA SACCATA F-10(*,+,3) HOLCUS LANATUS E-74(*,*,3) POA TRIVIALIS E-74(l,4,3) RANUNCULUS REPENS E-74(4.6,3) STACHIS CILIATA E-74(2. +.3) SPORADIC SPECIES BRYOPBYTES: CEPHALOZIA BICUSPIDATA E-74(+.2.2) DICRANUM FUSCESCENS E-74 (+,2.3) HYPNUM CIRCIN;1LE E-74 (+.2.3) LEPIDCZIA REPTANS E-74(+.1.2) MNIUM INSIGNS F-2(+. 3.3) M. MENZIESII E-74(+.3.3) POGCNATUM ALPINUM E-74(+.2.3) PORELLA 1\LAVICULARIS E-74 (+.1.3) RHYTIDIOPSIS ROBUSTA F-2(+.4.3) RHYTIDIADELPHUS TRIQUETRUS F-2(+.3.3) RHYTIDIADELPHUS LOREUS E-74(+.1.2) LICHEN: CLADONIA SUBSQUAMOSA E-74 (+.1.3) LIFE—FCRM § By Total Cover • H 1 P, O £ By Species CONSTANCY CLASS g • H Number % % CH H G B L Cover 133 675 181 504 36 % 9 44 - 12 33 2 -Number 5 11 - 20 8 17 1 % 8 18 - 32 13 27 2 5 4 3 2 1 ABBREVIATIONS 12 3 5 13 29 A.: Simple topography IM,: Immature 19 5 8 21 47 Squ.R.: Squamish River 

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