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Organ weight-body weight interrelationships in the family Mustelidae : (order carnivora) Daniel, Michael John 1959

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ORGAN WEIGHT-BODY WEIGHT INTERRELATIONSHIPS IN THE FAMILY MUSTELJDAE: (ORDER CARNIVORA.) by Michael John Daniel, B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957-A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l filment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of Zoology. We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1959 I ABSTRACT The main objective of t h i s study was t o draw up p r e d i c t i o n t a b l e s o f presumably "normal" organ weights from the computed regression equations f o r the following species of the f a m i l y Mustelidae: Mustela  vison, Martes americana, and Martes pennanti. These t a b l e s would be of value t o the path o l o g i s t , the n u t r i t i o n i s t , and t o the w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t i n t e r e s t e d i n these important fur-bearers. The ranch mink used i n t h i s study were s a c r i f i c e d by two methods. One hundred by hydrogen cyanide and n i n e t y - s i x by e l e c t r o c u t i o n . H i s t o l o g i c a l sections of the organs were prepared to compare the e f f e c t s of these two methods. I t was found that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e i n the equations f o r the cyanide s a c r i f i c e d mink. The electrocuted mink, however, showed marked sex d i f f e r e n c e s with the exponents of the females being from 3-5 times those of the males. H i s t o l o g i c a l sections showed t h i s t o be due t o d i f f e r e n t i a l engorgement. The mink were found t o have r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t e r hearts and lungs than both of the other Mustelids and the predicted values of Brody. The adrenal glands of the mink were a l s o w e l l below those of the marten and f i s h e r and Brody's f i g u r e s . The weights of the t h y r o i d and parathyroid glands of the marten and f i s h e r were a l s o w e l l below those predicted by Brody. The regression of organ weight and body weight gave high c o r r e l a t i o n s i n the three species studied f o r the heart, lungs, kidney, l i v e r and stomach. Low c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were found f o r the spleen, adrenal glands, t h y r o i d and parathyroid glands and the t e s t e s . The heart weight, being the organ l e a s t a f f e c t e d by changing p h y s i o l o g i c a l conditions i n an animal, i s t e n t a t i v e l y proposed as a new base l i n e against which t o express the other organ systems. In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Zoology? _^ The University of British Columbia, Vancouver S, Canada. Date April, 1959. i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT page i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES i v LIST OF FIGURES v LIST OF PHOTOMICROGRAPHS v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i INTRODUCTION I SOURCES OF MATERIAL 4 TECHNIQUES OF DISSECTION 6 CALCULATIONS 7 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 8 1. Differences i n organ weight between cyanided and electrocuted mink. 8 2. P r e d i c t i o n of organ weights f o r electrocuted mink. 50 5. The marten and f i s h e r . (a) Concerning "normal" organ weights. (b) Regression equations. 52 (c) Comparison of organ weights. 55 (d) P r e d i c t i o n t a b l e of organ weights. 47 4. The presence of "breaks" or a t y p i c a l curves i n the regression l i n e s , $6 5. The use of the body weight as the base l i n e f o r expressing organ systems. $6 CONCLUSIONS 60 LITERATURE CITED 6j APPENDIX. I. P r e d i c t i o n Table f o r electrocuted mink. 65 I I . P r e d i c t i o n Table f o r steel-trapped marten. 66 I I I . P r e d i c t i o n Table f o r steel-trapped f i s h e r . 67 i v LIST OF TABLES Table. Page. 1. Breakdown of the mink into sex and colour phase. 5 2 . Organ weight r e l a t i v e to body weight i n mink. 9 5 . Organ weight r e l a t i v e to body weight i n cyanided mink. 10 4. Organ weight r e l a t i v e to body weight i n electrocuted mink. II 5 . Organ weight r e l a t i v e to body weight i n steel-trapped marten. 55 6 . Organ weight r e l a t i v e to pelted body weight i n trapped f i s h e r . 5^ 7. Species comparison t a b l e #1. Animals at 700 grams. 56 8 . Species comparison t a b l e #2. Animals at 2000 grams. $6 9 . Organ weight r e l a t i v e to heart weight i n electrocuted mink. 59 LIST OF FIGURES. Page. I. Regression of body weight So spleen weight.Electrocuted mink. 15 2. Regression of body weight So kidney weight.Electrocuted mink. 14 5. Regression of body weight So adrenal weight.Electrocuted mink. 15 4. Regression of body weight So l i v e r weight. Electrocuted mink. 16 5. Regression of body weight So lung weight. Electrocuted mink. 17 6. Regression of body weight So heart weight. Electrocuted mink. 18 7. Regression of body weight So stomach weight,Electrocuted mink. 19 8. Regression of body weight So spleen weight. Trapped marten. 57 9 . Regression of body weight So kidney weight. Trapped marten. 58 10. Regression of body weight So adrenal weight. Trapped marten. 59 I I . Regression of body weight So l i v e r weight. Trapped marten. 40 12. Regression of body weight So lung weight. Trapped marten. 4 l 15. Regression of body weight So heart weight. Trapped marten. 42 14. Regression of body weight So testes weight. Trapped marten. 45 15. Regression of body weight So t h y r o i d weight.Trapped marten. 44 16. Regression of pelted body weight So spleen weight. Trapped f i s h e r . 48 17. Regression of pelted body weight So kidney weight. Trapped f i s h e r . 49 18. Regression of pelted body weight So adrenal weight.Trapped f i s h e r . 50 19/ Regression of pelted body weight So l i v e r weight. Trapped f i s h e r . 51 20/ Regression of pelted body weight So lung weight. Trapped f i s h e r . 52 21. Regression of pelted body weight & heart weight. Trapped f i s h e r . 55 22. Regression of pelted body weight So testes weight. Trapped f i s h e r . 54 25. Regression of pelted body weight So t h y r o i d weight.Trapped f i s h e r . 55 LIST OF PHOTOMICROGRAPHS. Photomicrographs Pages 1. Adrenal gland of cyanided female mink. 25 2. Adrenal gland of electrocuted female mink. 25 5. Spleen of cyanided female mink. 26 4 . Spleen of electrocuted female mink. 26 5. Kidney of cyanided female mink. 27 6. Kidney of electrocuted female mink. 27 7. Liver of cyanided female mink. 28 8. Liver of electrocuted female mink. 28 9. Lung of cyanided female mink. 29 10. Lung of electrocuted female mink. 29 v i i A C M CWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r wishes t o extend h i s sincere gratitude t o Dr David Fowle, Dr Audrey Fyvie and Mr R. 0 . S t a n d f i e l d , of the D i v i s i o n of Research, Department of Lands and Forests, Maple, Ontario, f o r supplying the marten and f i s h e r used i n t h i s study and f o r generously allowing me t o c o l l e c t data on the Mustelidae while working on a problem of beaver ecology. To Dr I. McT. Cowan, Department of Zoology, and Dr A. J . Wood, Department of Animal Science, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, go my sincere thanks f o r t h e i r support and encouragement throughout t h i s study. For the h i s t o l o g i c a l sections I wish t o thank Miss Sachiko Tabata, and f o r the photomicrographs my thanks t o to Mr L i n Kemp. ORGAN WEIGET-BODY WEIGHT INTERRELATIONSHIPS IN THE FAMILY MUSTELIDAE. (ORDER OARNIVORA.) Introduction The interrelationship;, e x i s t i n g between the organ weights and the body weights of many animals has been the subject of numerous publications i n the l a s t f i f t y years. Addis and Gray (l950),Hatai (1915) and Brody (19^5). The value of such data to students of pathology and n u t r i t i o n i s beyondj question. The lack of such data f o r the mink fMu3tela vison. has handicapped inv e s t i g a t i o n s on t h i s important species. For example,before one can i n t e r p r e t the changes which a r i s e coincident with n u t r i t i o n a l deficiency states or i n f e c t i o u s diseases,one must have a "normal" standard against which which these changes can be expressed. For t h i s reason during the l a s t few years we have c o l l e c t e d what might be termed "normal" organ weights f o r the mink. A preliminary report on t h i s mink data has been recorded. Daniel (1957). The present work was designed to extend the e a r l i e r study with the a i d of more r e f i n e d s t a t i s t i c a l procedures and to permit a comparison of t h i s species with other members of the Family Mustelidaej the marten. Martes americana f and the f i s h e r , Martes pennanti. S u f f i c i e n t numbers of the o t t e r f Lutra canadensis f and the s h o r t t a i l weasel, Mustela erminea. were not a v a i l a b l e to warrant the a p p l i c a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l methods of a n a l y s i s . Many methods have been suggested to give mathematical expression to the organ weight-body weight i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . The s o - c a l l e d growth parabola, which may be expressed by the equation, b Y ~ a X , has been used i n biology f o r over one hundred yearsC Brody \ I9^) Since 1891 i t has been used f o r quantitative expression of organ systems. 2-In 1895 DuBois and Lapicque used t h i s equation f o r r e l a t i n g the b r a i n weight of d i f f e r e n t species t o t h e i r body weight. They found a l i n e a r d i s t r i b u t i o n of such data on logarithmic g r i d s which y i e l d e d a slope of O .56 when body weight was the independent v a r i a b l e . They showed that although the value of the slope "b" was the same f o r many species, the value of the y-i n t e r c e p t "a" was the highest f o r man, next f o r the anthropoid apes and so on down the supposed scale of evolution. Lapicque c a l l e d t h i s constant "a" the ceph a l i z a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . Hatai (1913), used the parabola t o express organ weight-body weight i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n r a t s . However i t was not u n t i l 1932 that the parabola received wider a t t e n t i o n when Huxley (1932) made use of t h i s simple exponential r e l a t i o n s h i p to i l l u s t r a t e the heterogenic nature of the growth processes. Huxley and T e i s s i e r (1936), gave i t the name, the a l l o m e t r i c equation, implying the equation by which anything can be measured. The form used by Huxley was as follows: where "b" i s the y- i n t e r c e p t and c a l l e d by him the f r a c t i o n a l c o e f f i c i e n t . This constant may be of doubtful b i o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . For the present purposes i t i s b e t t e r l e f t with i t s mathematical meaning as the y-i n t e r c e p t f o r the regression equation. The constant "k" i s the exponent, which i s the value of the slope of the^regression l i n e . More r e c e n t l y _ S h o l l (1954), has pointed out that the a l l o m e t r i c equation p l o t t e d on double logarithmic paper w i l l tend to straighten out a wide v a r i e t y of curves. Since 1932, Brody (1945) and Addis and Gray (1950) have found the parabola t o be e f f e c t i v e f o r the quantitative expression of organ systems. I t i s appreciated that t h i s method of expression i s inadequate to r e l a t e c e r t a i n of the endocrine glands and the gonads to body weight. Brody (1945)• - 5 -For purposes of c l a r i t y the objectives of t h i s study may be enumerated as follows: 1. To draw up p r e d i c t i o n t a b l e s based on regression equations f o r the various organs of the three species. These supposedly "normal" values should be of value to the mink rancher, the pathologist, the n u t r i t i o n i s t and the w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t who may be i n t e r e s t e d i n these important furbearers. 2. To compare the po s s i b l e d i f f e r e n t i a l premortem e f f e c t s of e l e c t r o c u t i o n and cyanosis on the v i s c e r a l organs of the mink. 3. To a s c e r t a i n i f there are any s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the regression equations f o r any of the organs, as have been reported f o r some organs, notably the adrenal gland and the gonads i n the growing rabbit by K i b l e r and Bergman (1943). 4. To a s c e r t a i n i f any "breaks" or a t y p i c a l curves occur i n the regression equations f o r any of the organs, which may be a r e f l e c t i o n of more profound p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes. "Breaks" have been reported f o r the kidneys i n cats,^Brody 1945), i n the testes and ovaries and adrenals of rabbits by K i b l e r (1943) and i n the gonads and adrenals of growing guinea pigs by Mixner and Bergman (1943). 5. To examine how the r e l a t i v e organ weights of these three species r e f l e c t the p h y s i o l o g i c a l adaptations of each t o i t s own " e c o l o g i c a l niche". I t i s to be expected that the adaptations i n the r e l a t i v e s i z e of some of the organs i n the mink, a semi-aquatic species, would d i f f e r from the r e l a t i v e s i z e s of the - 4 -same organs i n the marten and f i s h e r which are a c t i v e t e r r e s t r i a l and at times semi-arboreal species of Mustelid. SOURCES OF MATERIAL 1. Mink Mustela vison Ranch mink were used i n t h i s study. The animals were obtained i n December 1956 during the normal p e l t i n g season. One sample consisted of one hundred mink k i l l e d by exposure t o hydrogen cyanide gas. They were from the ranch of Mr R. C. C o l l i n g s . The other sample of n i n e t y - s i x mink k i l l e d by e l e c t r o c u t i o n were procured from the U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. experimental ranch. The el e c t r o c u t i o n was c a r r i e d out with the standard t r a p used by mink ranchers, using a 110 v o l t , 15 ampere A.C. current. These two methods are the most common used to-day by the ranch mink indu s t r y . This sample contained adults of both sexes and k i t s of the year. A breakdown of the two samples by sex and colour phase i s given i n Table I. - 5 -Table I A Breakdown of the Mink Sample i n t o Sex and Colour Phase Males Females T o t a l 100 Cyanide k i l l e d mink P a s t e l 20 30 50 Standard 16 14 30 Sapphire 7 9 16 A r c t i c 1 - 1 Homo. 1 — 1 .Blond. 1 — 1 t§-Standard 1 — 1 96 Electrocuted mink Standard 44 26 70 P a s t e l 20 1 21 g-Palomino - 2 2 S i l v e r - b l u - 2 2 B.C. Mink 1 — 1 2. Marten. Martes americana The marten are wild trapped animals from northern Ontario, obtained from commercial trappers i n the season of. 1956-57• The animals were c o l l e c t e d by d i s t r i c t b i o l o g i s t s and sent t o the Southern Research S t a t i o n at Maple, Ontario. They were stored there at zero degrees F. A t o t a l of f o r t y - f o u r marten were used i n t h i s study, comprising t h i r t y -one males and t h i r t e e n females. Both adults and k i t s of the year were represented i n the sample. As f a r as i s known these animals were a l l k i l l e d by exposure i n s t e e l traps. The average time of death i n subzero weather from t h i s method i s not known. I t i s , however, known from d i r e c t observation that a caught marten w i l l f i g h t the tr a p u n t i l exhausted. - 6 -5. Fisher. Martes pennant!. The twenty-two f i s h e r used i n t h i s study,composed of f i f t e e n males, and seven females, were also obtained from commercial trappers i n northern Ontario. These animals however were c o l l e c t e d without the raw p e l t weight being recorded. Therefore the regression equations f o r t h i s species were drawn up using the pelted body weight instead of the t o t a l body weight. This might give a more accurate expression than using the t o t a l body weight because of the removal of the subcutaneous fat,which va r i e s considerably i n amount from specimen to specimen. TECHNIQUES The weights of the carcasses and t h e i r p e l t s i n the case of the mink were obtained immediately a f t e r death. The carcass of each animal was then placed i n a Kraft paper bag for tran s p o r t a t i o n to the laboratory,where they were deep frozen f o r one month. The marten and f i s h e r were frozen as soon as possible and held i n the f r e e z e r at the Southern Research Stat i o n at Maple,Ontario. Most of these animals were dissected at Maple; however,the remainder were flown to Vancouver i n dry i c e and dissected here. On removal from cold storage the animals were thawed f o r twelve hours. Dissection was then c a r r i e d out as soon as possible to prevent excessive dehydration, A. number of animals weighed before and a f t e r the f r e e z i n g revealed that l i t t l e change i n weight occurred due to f r e e z i n g and thawing. The method of organ removal was described i n d e t a i l i n the preliminary report on the mink.Daniel ( 1 9 5 7 ) . However some of the - 7 -more important d e t a i l s bear r e p e t i t i o n . Each organ was removed and separated from associated t i s s u e s with care, t o ensure uniformity of method, and placed momentarily on a sheet of absorbent paper t o remove any excess of adherent blood or moisture. The heart weights were recorded a f t e r removal of the blood c l o t s . In the case of the hearts, i t was e s s e n t i a l that the a u r i c l e s be removed to f a c i l i t a t e the removal of the c l o t t e d blood. Thus the heart weights are i n e f f e c t only the weights of the v e n t r i c l e s . I t i s pertinent t o record that the a u r i c l e s represent approximately one-fourth of the t o t a l heart weight. The d i s s e c t i o n technique used f o r the heart could not eliminate the p o s s i b i l i t y of v a r i a b l e r e t e n t i o n of blood i n the numerous vessels and c a p i l l a r i e s a r i s i n g from hyperemia e f f e c t s induced by the method of k i l l i n g . The l i v e r s were dipped i n cold water t o remove the surplus blood from the severed hepatic vein and then d r i e d l i g h t l y with a paper towel. The recorded weights f o r the kidneys and adrenals are those from the l e f t side of the animal only. However the weights of the t h y r o i d and parathyroid gland are those of both p a i r s . The weights of the t e s t e s do not include the vasa deferentia. CALCULATIONS The exponential equations r e l a t i n g organ weight t o body weight ou.H%.iaA i * were c a l c u l a t e d using the l e a s t squares regression m e t h o d E z e k i e l (1930). The method f o r the Analysis of Covariance follows'Snedecor (1946). I t should be emphasized that the standard error of estimate used i s the standard d e v i a t i o n from the regression l i n e and i s not the more usual - 8 -and perhaps more meaningful standard d e v i a t i o n from the mean. The former method was used because i t has been used i n e a r l i e r work i n the l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s subject. The two d i s t i n c t populations of mink vrere treated as separate e n t i t i e s f o r purposes of c a l c u l a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . There appeared t o be ample j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r separate s t a t i s t i c a l treatment of the data from the electrocuted and cyanided mink, based on the extensive l i t e r a t u r e of f o r e n s i c medicine. Reese (1906); Smith (1928); Fulton (1955). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1. Differences i n organ weight between the cyanided and electrocuted mink Previous workers, Hatai (1913), Addis and Gray (1950) and Brody (1945)* have recorded organ weight-body weight i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s using the data from males and females as a s i n g l e population. This was based on the assumption that f o r organs l i k e the heart, lungs, l i v e r and kidneys, there are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes. The above authors found, however, s t r i k i n g sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the equations f o r such organs as the adrenals, t h y r o i d , thymus and the male and female gonads. This study was started accepting t h i s assumption as v a l i d and the regression equations were drawn up using the pooled data from both sexes. These equations and pertinent s t a t i s t i c a l values are given i n Table 2. Considering f i r s t l y the i n f l u e n c e of method of s a c r i f i c e on the organ weights, i t i s apparent that when the sexes are treated as a sin g l e population, only the weights of the spleen and adrenal gland d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y when the two methods are compared. TABLE 2 ORGAN WEIGHT RELATIVE TO BODY WEIGHT IN MINK Data f o r males and females combined Organ Weight =» a Body Weight** Cyanide K i l l e d Mink Electrocuted Mink Regression Equation Standard Error Cor r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t Regression Equation Standard Error C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t SW = 0.011 BW*76 20*',-17* .67 Spleen SW = 0.354 BW'28 67*,-40* .20 • KW =» 0.019 BW 7 3 17*,-14* .87 Kidney KW - 0.012 BW'79 16*,-14* • 94 AW - 0.082 B W 5 4 68*,-40* .41 Adrenal** AW » 0.002 BW1-1 56*,-36* .66 LW - 0.244 BW'73 13*,-11* .89 L i v e r LW - 0.079 BW-89 21*,-11* • 98 LW = 0.166 BW*63 17*,-1A* .90 Lungs LW = 0.121 BW'66 16*,-14* • 85 HW = 0.022 BW 7 8 26*,-21* .88 Heart HW = 0.022 BW*78 14*,-8* • 95 SW - 0.143 BW*49 19*,-16* .75 Stomach SW = 0.127 BW*50 18*,-15* .77 values f o r adrenal-gland i n centigrams TABLE 3 ORGAN WEIGHT RELATIVE TO BODY WEIGHT IN ELECTROCUTED MINK Data f o r males and females separate Organ weight = a Body weight*5 Female mink Male mink Regression Equation Standard Er r o r C o e f f i c i e n t c o r r e l a t i o n Regression Equation Standard Error C o e f f i c i e n t c o r r e l a t i o n SW - 0.0023 BW 1 , 0 40*,-28* .36 Spleen SW » 0.074 BW'52 60*,-37* .34 KW =• 0.00001 BW1'9 23*,-17* .85 Kidney KW * 0.271 BW'37 19*,-16* • 77 AW - 0.0075 BW1'2 ; 70*,-42* .30 XX Adrenal AW = 1.57 BW-48 50*,-33* .26 LW - 0.0001..BW1*9 20*,-17* .83 L i v e r LW - 0.929 BW'56 12*,-11* .60 LW = 0.017 BW'95 13*,-12* .74 Lungs LW - 0.622 BW'44 16*,-14* .68 HW = 0.09 BW'56 24*,-12* .94 Heart HW - 0.013 BW'85 9*,-8* .91 SW =- 0.011 BW 8 7 15*,-13* .80 Stomach SW = 0.118 BW*52 19*,-16* .50 Values f o r adrenal glands are i n milligrams TABLE 4 ORGAN WEIGHT RELATIVE TO BODY WEIGHT IN CYANIDE KILLED MINK Data f o r males and females separate Organ weight - a Body weight'3 Fema l e Mink Male Mink Regression Equation Standard Error C o e f f i c i e n t c o r r e l a t i o n Regression Equation Standard E r r o r C o e f f i c i e n t c o r r e l a t i o n SW =0.032 BW 6 0 32$,-27$ .33 Spleen SW = 0.139 BW'42 32$,-24$ .24 KW = 0.222 BW*37 22% ,-9% .68 Kidney KW - 0.049 BW*61 15%,-13$ • 55 AW = 5.35 B W 2 4 65$,-38$ •35 Adrenal AW = 9.80 BW*22 58%,-35% .41 LW = 1.54 BW 4 6 6$,-4$ • 77 L i v e r LW =» 1.30 BW'51 16%, -14$ .67 LW - 0.74 BW,/f0 18$,-15$ .64 Lungs LW ^4.67 BW'18 37%,-28% .57 HW ^  0.187 BW*46 13$,-12$ .80 Heart HW = 0.206 BW'48 i3%,-n% .84 S ¥ = 3.58 BW«°3 19$,-16$ • 51 Stomach SW = 4.09 BW*06 18$,-16$ .40 X X - Values f o r adrenal glands are i n milligrams - 12 -However, when the electrocuted and cyanided data were p l o t t e d on l o g - l o g paper, i t became apparent that i n the electrocuted s e r i e s there were two d i s t i n c t phases i n the curve of most of the organs. These phases, u n l i k e the three phases i n the adrenal gland of the r a t , H a t a i (1913), or the three phases i n the tes t e s and ovaries i n the r a t , Addis and Gray (1950), represent d i s t i n c t l y separate phases i n the curves f o r the males and females. This meant that f o r the ele c t r o c u t e d mink, the computed equations representing the pooled data, Table 2, were worthless and did not represent the l i n e of best f i t f o r each d i s t i n c t phase i n the curve of points. Following t h i s f i n d i n g , a l l t h e data was recomputed and separate regression equations were drawn up f o r each sex and f o r each method of s a c r i f i c e . These r e s u l t s are presented i n Tables 3 and 4- The regression l i n e s f i t t e d t o the data by the method of l e a s t squares are shown f o r each organ i n Figures 1-7. A study of Table 4 shows that the exponent values f o r the males and females i n the cyanide k i l l e d mink f o r the organs studied are very s i m i l a r . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these d i f f e r e n c e s f o r each organ was t e s t e d u s i n g the " t " t e s t comparing the two values of "b", the slopes, i n the regression l i n e s of the two s e r i e s . The r e s u l t was as expected. None of the differences between the two s e r i e s was found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus f o r the cyanide k i l l e d mink, the assumptions of Hatai and Addis and Gray seem to be borne out f o r the organs studied. The re g r e s s i o n equations i n Table 2 f o r the cyanided mink are therefore s t i l l v a l i d even though the data has been pooled. However, from Table 3, the equations f o r the electrocuted mink show s t r i k i n g sex-differences f o r most of the organs studied. 32-416a 52-41ba 52-41U Lttho'd bjr Best M i m e o g r a p h C o . L t d . , Vancouier, B . C . L l t h o ' d by Best M i m e o g r a p h C o . L t d . , Vancouver, B.C. Utho'd by Beet Mimeograph Co. Ltd., Vkncoarer, B.C. - 20 -See Figures 1-7- I t can be seen that the values f o r the exponents f o r the females are i n some cases 3-4 times the corresponding values f o r the males and f o r t h e i r cyanide counterparts. These sex di f f e r e n c e s were t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e and i t was found that the kidney, l i v e r , and adrenal were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , (p ^ 0.010) while the spleen and lungs were s i g n i f i c a n t (p ^ 0.050). The exponents f o r the heart and stomach were not s i g n i f i c a n t , even at the 5% l e v e l . I t should be emphasized that the above t e s t only compares the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the slopes of the regression l i n e s . A f a r more r e f i n e d method f o r t e s t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the slope and the y-intercept at the same time i s the A n a l y s i s of Covariance, Snedecor, (1946). The regression equations of the female electrocuted mink were compared with the female cyanide mink using t h i s r e f i n e d s t a t i s t i c a l technique. The r e s u l t s were as expected. The exponents and y-intercepts of the female electrocuted mink were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r the kidney, l i v e r and adrenal, (p ^0.010). Those f o r the spleen and lungs were s i g n i f i c a n t at the % l e v e l , (p = 0.050). Those for the heart were not s i g n i f i c a n t at a l l . I t appears from these f i n d i n g s that there may be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more engorgement i n the various organs of the female electrocuted mink, than i n the l a r g e r organs of the males of the same s e r i e s . I t i s well documented i n the many texts of f o r e n s i c medicine that the v i s c e r a l organs of man and other animals become g r e a t l y engorged with blood, both i n e l e c t r o c u t i o n and as the r e s u l t of death by hydrogen cyanide gas. Reese (1906), Smith (1928), Fulton (1955). According t o J. J. Reese, i n the text, Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology, (1906) i n the post mortem examinations of electrocuted men, - 21 -"The b r a i n and c e r e b r a l membranes s u f f e r most, , the lungs are congested and i n j u r e d , the stomach and i n t e s t i n e s , l i v e r and spleen are also much congested with blood. The heart does not seem to show any s p e c i a l a l t e r a t i o n . " Sydney Smith, i n Forensic Medicine, (1928), states that the post mortem signs of e l e c t r o c u t i o n are "The trachea i s much congested, the lungs deeply engorged and the great vessels f u l l of f l u i d blood. The abdominal v i s c e r a i s also deeply engorged with blood." The post mortem signs of death by hydrogen cyanide gas are very s i m i l a r to those recorded above. In humans there i s congestion of the c e r e b ral vessels, the lungs and l i v e r and also the mucous membranes of the stomach, e s p e c i a l l y about the cardiac extremity, (Reese, (1906). According t o S. Smith (1928), a feature of death by cyanide asphyxia i s the dark blood i n the venous side of the c i r c u l a t i o n . This i s due t o the impeded oxygenation of the t i s s u e s by the cyanide and a l s o t o the presence of cyanomethaemoglobin. As f a r as could be determined, death by electrocution was almost instantaneous, within 5-10 seconds. With the mink, as i n the ra b b i t s used by Urquhart, (1927), on a p p l i c a t i o n of the current the animals went i n t o a generalized contraction, which was maintained f o r the duration of the current. When the current was broken, a few convulsions were noted and then complete muscular r e l a x a t i o n occurred. There are many views as to what a c t u a l l y causes death when an e l e c t r i c current passes through an animal. However, the most generally accepted theory i s that there are three possible causes of death, J e l l i n c k , (1913), MacWilliam, (1915) and Urquhart, (1927). 1. Arrest of r e s p i r a t i o n from p a r a l y s i s of the r e s p i r a t o r y centre while the heart goes on beating. Death here i s due t o asphyxia. - 22 -2. Overthrow of normal heart a c t i o n by sudden development of v e n t r i c u l a r f i b r i l l a t i o n r e p l a c i n g the normal s y s t o l e . 3. A combination of the two. The r e l a t i v e incidence of these types of death depends on the l o c a t i o n of the a p p l i c a t i o n of the current, and on the strength and pressure of that current. MacWilliam, (1915)- According t o Urquhart, (1927 and 1951), when a current of high voltage traverses the animal from head t o t a i l , the death i s caused by v e n t r i c u l a r f i b r i l l a t i o n i n 45* of the cases. However, he found that with high voltages, over 500 v o l t s , the b r a i n and s p i n a l cord were more often a f f e c t e d , while with lower voltages the heart was the s i t e most often a f f e c t e d . I t was f i r s t reported by Prevost and B a t t e l l i that there i s a decided d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t of s i m i l a r e l e c t r i c currents on animals of d i f f e r e n t species, and indeed on animals of the same species, Urquhart, (1927). This seems t o apply t o the mink, where the females, being the l i g h t e r animals, show greater e f f e c t s from the current, than do the heavier males. I t i s possible that the females react more because per gram of body weight the females get almost twice the current that the males receive. This would, however, tend to lower the exponent values f o r the females and not r a i s e them as was the case. In humans the females are more susceptible t o e l e c t r i c current, because t h e i r skin with l e s s h a i r and more sweat glands o f f e r s l e s s resistance than the tough skin of the male. J e l l i n c k , (1913). This would of course have no a p p l i c a t i o n t o the female mink. However, the reason for t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l engorgement i n the female mink l i e s not i n - 25 -the f a c t that the females are l i g h t e r but i n the f a c t , found by J e l l i n c k (1913), that when animals are w e l l wetted down, the l a r g e r the surface area, the more current flows over the surface of the animal, and l e s s flows i n s i d e the animal, t o do damage t o the r e s p i r a t o r y centre or the heart. With t h i s theory the smaller female mink would receive much more current than the males. This, however, does not explain why the smallest females, 500-700 gms, do not react more strongly than the l a r g e r females. In order t o explore t h i s apparent d i f f e r e n c e i n response t o l e t h a l agencies h i s t o l o g i c a l sections were prepared i n the following way. Four adult female mink were s a c r i f i c e d , two by each method. The organs were q u i c k l y removed and preserved i n Bouin's s o l u t i o n . The t i s s u e s were then cut at seven microns and stained with haematoxylineosin and mounted i n the normal way. Examination of these two sets of h i s t o l o g i c a l sections show that the c a p i l l a r i e s i n both sets are swollen with blood. The adrenal glands In the electrocuted s e r i e s the adrenal cortex i s d e f i n i t e l y more vasculated than the same area i n the cyanided mink, Photomicrographs 1 and 2 . From the photomicrograph i t can be seen that the vascul*ct**cl parts of the cortex are the zona f a s c i c u l a t a and the zona r e t i c u l a r i s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that the medulla of the cyanide adrenals i s more vascular-rxWthan the medulla of the other s e r i e s . This d i f f e r e n c e i s not understood. The spleen From photomicrographs 3 and 4 i t can be seen c l e a r l y that the - 24 -red pulp and sinusoids of the spleen from the electrocuted animals are conspicuously more vasculat?»Wthan the corresponding areas i n the cyanide s e r i e s . The a r t e r i e s and veins i n the trabeculae of both s e r i e s appear t o be equally engorged. The l i v e r , lungs and kidney From photomicrographs 5-10 i t can be seen that these organs are engorged by both methods of s a c r i f i c e . However, because of t h e i r l a r g e and complicated nature, a small increase i n vascularixafa*iwhich would be obvious i n such small organs as the spleen and adrenals, would remain undetected. The sinusoids of the l i v e r and the medulla of the kidney i n the electrocuted s e r i e s appear more v«scula.fc»V«s£ however no means could be discovered to permit q u a n t i t a t i v e expression of the degree of vascularization. From Figures 1-7, i t can be seen that the curves of the l i g h t e r male mink follow c l o s e l y those of the female mink. This i n d i c a t e s that the d i f f e r e n t i a l response to e l e c t r o c u t i o n i s not dependent on the sex but on the body weight and hence r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r surface area of the smaller animals. It i s appreciated that f u r t h e r work i s needed on the exact changes which occur i n various t i s s u e s when d i f f e r e n t l e t h a l agents are used. I t i s hoped that other workers w i l l t r y e l e c t r o c u t i n g both males and females of the same species by varying the amount of current and n o t i n g the h i s t o l o g i c a l changes. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to f i n d out i f the same r e s u l t s occur i n female mink when the current i s halved. - 25-Photomicrograph I. Adrenal gland, cyanided female Blink. Exposure 2 seconds. High contrast green f i l t e r used. Magnification 34-Photomicrograph 2. Adrenal gland, electrocuted female mink. Exposure 2 seconds. High contrast green f i l t e r used. Magnification 34• Photomicrograph 3. Spleen. Cyanided female mink. Exposure 2 seconds. High contrast green f i l t e r used. Magnification 34-Photomicrograph 4. Spleen. Electrocuted female mink. Exposure 2 seconds. High contrast green f i l t e r used. Magnification 34. Photomicrograph 6. Kidney. Electrocuted female mink. Exposure 2 seconds. High contrast green f i l t e r used. Magnification 34. - 28 -Photomicrograph 7- Liver. Cyanided female mink. Exposure 2 seconds. High contrast green f i l t e r used. Magnification 34-Photomicrograph 8. L i v e r . Electrocuted female mink. Exposure 2 seconds. High contrast green f i l t e r used. Magnification 34. - 29 -Photomicrograph 9. Lung. Cyanided female mink. Exposure 2 seconds. High contrast green f i l t e r used. Magnification 34-Photomicrograph 10. Lung. Electrocuted female mink. Exposure 2 seconds. High contrast green f i l t e r used. Magnification 34« - 50 -Results and Discussion 2. P r e d i c t i o n t a b l e of organ weights f o r electrocuted mink The p r e d i c t i o n t a b l e of organ weights was drawn up using the data from the electrocuted mink because t h i s method of s a c r i f i c e i s the one most commonly used to-day, hence the t a b l e would have more value than one based on mink k i l l e d by any other method. However, i t should be noted that t h i s t a b l e , i n Appendix I, i s only of r e a l value f o r those organs where the c o r r e l a t i o n i s reasonably high. For t h i s reason the values f o r the spleen and the adrenal gland are u n r e l i a b l e . These two organs are, however, included i n the p r e d i c t i o n t a b l e f o r the sake of completeness, but i n the opinion of the w r i t e r they may have l i t t l e value. When consulting the t a b l e f o r organ weights at any given body weight, the calculated allowable er r o r should be kept i n mind. For d e t a i l s of the standard error and c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t see Table 3. The writer r e a l i z e s the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s t a b l e and f o r t h a t matter also the t a b l e s given i n Brody (1945)• I f , however, these l i m i t a t i o n s are not overlooked, i t i s hoped that the p r e d i c t i o n s are of some value. This p r e d i c t i o n t a b l e , Appendix I, i s based on the regression equations where the sexes were c a l c u l a t e d separately, Table 3, and not on the equations where the sexes were combined as i n Table 2. The predicted values f o r the kidney and adrenal gland r e f e r t o those from the l e f t side of the animal only. I t was found that the r i g h t kidney was k% heavier than the l e f t one. This was taken i n t o account - 51 -i n the s p e c i a l comparison t a b l e . No d i f f e r e n c e was detected between the weights of the l e f t and r i g h t adrenal gland. 3. The Marten and Fisher (a) Concerning "normal" organ weights The marten and f i s h e r used i n t h i s study were caught, as has been mentioned previously, i n s t e e l traps by commercial trappers i n northern Ontario. One of the objects of t h i s study was t o c o l l e c t a s e r i e s of "normal'' organ weights f o r these three species. However, there may be reason to doubt i f there i s such a t h i n g as a "normal" organ. I t i s c l e a r that these two species were under conditions of extreme str e s s before they died i n the traps. The time taken to die i n these traps i s not known, but i t i s assumed that the more healthy animals survived f o r several hours i n s p i t e of subzero weather. Thus i t seems that the s t r e s s i n g s t i m u l i , i n t h i s case, rage, fear, exhaustion from f i g h t i n g the trap, and c o l d , were s u f f i c i e n t t o e l i c i t an a drenocortical response. This i s the now famous " s t r e s s adaptation syndrome" of Selye, (1946). I f t h i s was the case, the values obtained f o r the adrenals would be heavier than normal due to c o r t i c a l hypertrophy. This increase i n adrenal weights due to prolonged s t r e s s has been found t o be due to an i n c r e a s e i n c o r t i c a l t i s s u e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the zona f a s c i c u l a t a . C h r i s t i a n , (1955)' The adrenal medulla, however, does not contribute t o t h i s increase i n weight i n r a t s as found by Rogers and Richter, (1948). However, according t o Selye, (1946), the stress must be of s u f f i c i e n t i n t e n s i t y and over a long period of time before there i s any a c t u a l increase i n the adrenal c o r t i c a l t i s s u e . For s t r e s s of shorter - 52 -duration there must be s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the amount of f l u i d , p a r t i c u l a r l y blood, i n such organs as the spleen, adrenal and l i v e r . From the h i s t o l o g i c a l sections taken of the v i s c e r a l organs of mink, i t has already been shown that even when the animal died within 20-30 seconds, there i s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a l engorgement of these organs with blood. I t has been shown by C h i t t y (1955), that when the s t r e s s i n g s t i m u l i are s u f f i c i e n t l y strong and continued f o r a long period of time, the weights of the adrenals, spleen and l i v e r go up. He found a l s o that the weight of the thymus gland went down. This was a l s o recorded by C h r i s t i a n (1957), who said that the weights of the thymus gland were r e l a t e d i n a roughly inverse fashion t o the weights of the adrenals. In t h i s study not enough data on t h i s gland was recorded f o r comparative purposes. Clark, (1953), a l s o working with the vole, Microtus a g r e s t i s , found a s i m i l a r r i s e i n the weights of the spleen and adrenal with prolonged s t r e s s . This s p l e n i c hypertrophy was confirmed i n voles by Dawson (1956). Thus i t i s appreciated that the weights recorded f o r the marten and f i s h e r f o r c e r t a i n of the organs are by no means "normal". However, as long as t h i s i s kept i n mind, the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s that v a l i d comparisons can be made between these three species.and with the predicted values given by Brody (1946), computed from a large number of mammals. (b) Regression equations The regression equations f o r the marten are given i n Table 5, and the data i s presented g r a p h i c a l l y i n Figures 8-15. For the f i s h e r the equations and other pertinent s t a t i s t i c a l data are presented i n Table 6. The same r e s u l t s are presented g r a p h i c a l l y i n Figures 16-23. TABLE 5 ORGAN WEIGHT RELATIVE TO BODY WEIGHT IN STEEL TRAPPED MARTEN Males and females combined Y = aX b Regression Equation Standard E r r o r C o e f f i c i e n t of Corre l a t i o n Spleen* SW ~ 0.3429 BW'53 18$,-16$ .47 Kidney KW = 0.0160 BW'77 20$,-16$ • 70 Adrenal** AW = 9.997 BW'27 52$,-34$ .24 L i v e r LW ^  0.1748 BW'73 . 16$,-34$ • 96 Lungs LW* 0.0520 BW'82 15$,-12$ .62 Heart HW = 0.0368 BW*77 11$,-9$ .84 T e s t e s 3 0 0 1 TW ^ 0.03Q3 BW1'30 22$,-18$ .76 Thyroid & parathyroid ThW= 0.1294 BW'93 78$,-43$ .34 x Values f o r spleen i n decigrams xx Values f o r adrenal gland i n milligrams xxx Values f o r testes i n milligrams xxxx Values f o r t h y r o i d and parathyroid glands i n milligrams TABLE 6 ORGAN WEIGHT RELATIVE TO PELTED BODY WEIGHT B l STEEL TRAPPED FISHER Date f o r males and females combined Y = aX b Regression Equation Standard Er r o r C o e f f i c i e n t of Corr e l a t i o n Spleen SW ^0.0018 BW1'00 24*,-20* .51 Kidney KW = 0.0028 BW 1 , 0 3 14*,-12* .86 Adrenal* AW = 0.4017 BW'82 50*,-35* • 51 Li v e r LW = 0.0163 BW 1 , 1 2 25*,-18* .85 Lungs LW = 0.0814 B W 3 4 20*,-16* .68 Heart HW - 0.0763 BW*72 9*,-6* .92 Testes TW = 0.0036 BW'80 50*,-35* .55 Thyro i d * * parathyroid ThW = 1.91 B W , 6 ° 40*,-25* .54 K Values f o r adrenal gland i n milligrams sex Values f o r th y r o i d and parathyroid glands i n milligrams - 55 -For these two species, two a d d i t i o n a l organs have been studied i n a d d i t i o n t o those studied f o r the mink. These are the t h y r o i d and parathyroid glands and the testes without the vasa deferentia. The thy r o i d s with t h e i r c l o s e l y associated parathyroids were recorded because both Brody (1945) and Addis and Gray (1950) have data f o r these glands f o r a number of species, which would make comparison easier. According to C h r i s t i a n (1955) there i s no detectable change i n the weight of the thy r o i d s i n animals which have undergone prolonged s t r e s s . Due to i n s u f f i c i e n t data the sexes were not separated when computing the regression equations f o r the d i f f e r e n t organs. However the equations f o r the f i s h e r were computed using the pelted body weight i n s t e a d of the usual t o t a l body weight. This was done because of lack of data on the raw p e l t weights of t h i s species. From the data of the mink and marten, the average raw p e l t weight i s approximately 20% of the t o t a l body weight or k0% of the pelted body weight. Using t h i s f i g u r e of k0%, which admittedly i s only approximate, because the raw p e l t weights of the l a r g e r f i s h e r may not fol l o w c l o s e l y those of the ranch mink, comparisons can be made. (c) Comparison of organ weights of the marten, mink and f i s h e r In Table 7 5 the mink and marten at a body weight of 700 gms are compared with the predicted organ weights f o r a 700 gm animal from the table i n Brody (op. c i t . ) . This table was computed using the data from a la r g e number of t e r r e s t r i a l mammals. - 56 -TABLE 7 Species Comparison Table Mo. 1. A l l at 700 gms. Species JS Adrenal 3B£ Thyroid L i v e r Lungs Heart Kidneys Spleen Mink 40 mgs 26 gms 9.0 gms 3.5 gms 4.1 gms 1.6 gms Marten 120 gms 60 mgs 21 gms 11.2 gms 5.7 gms 4.9 gms 1.1 gms Brody's p r e d i c t -i o n s 206 mgs 93 mgs 24 gms 7-9 gms 4.1 gms 5.4 gms K The weights f o r the l e f t adrenal were doubled, assuming that the two adrenals are of approximately the same weight. jog The weights of the t h y r o i d gland include both the thyroids and the parathyroids. mat In the mink and marten i t was found that the r i g h t kidney was 1$ heavier than the l e f t kidney. Addis and Gray found a 3% d i f f e r e n c e i n the white r a t . Thus the t o t a l weight f o r both kidneys was computed taking t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n t o account. The mink used f o r t h i s t a b l e were 700 gm electrocuted mink. From t h i s t a b l e i t can be seen that:-(1) The mink has a r e l a t i v e l y smaller heart and lungs than both the marten and the values predicted by Brody. This was expected because the heart weight of any animal i s r e l a t e d t o the exercise l e v e l of the species. I t has been found by Brody (1945) that an aquatic or semi-aquatic species i n v a r i a b l y has a smaller heart than t e r r e s t r i a l animals because t h e i r weight i s counterpoised by the water that they d i s p l a c e . I t i s appreciated that the mink used were ranch mink and not w i l d mink. However, i t seems probable that t h i s condition would also be found i n the wild mink. (2) The mink also has r e l a t i v e l y smaller lungs than the marten but smaller than those of Brody's animal. This follows the theory that a 52-416» Lit ho'd by Best Mimeograph Co. Ltd., vancourtr, B C . 52-416a " , ^ Llthod by Seat Mimeograph Co. Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. Utho'd by Best Mimeograph Co. ltd., V u m n r a r , B.C. - 4 5 -d i v i n g species requires l a r g e r lungs than a t e r r e s t r i a l animal of s i m i l a r s i z e . However, the f a s t running t e r r e s t r i a l animals l i k e the horse and the deer have r e l a t i v e l y even l a r g e r lungs than the aquatic species. Brody (op. c i t . ) (3) The marten, being a highly a c t i v e t e r r e s t r i a l and semi-arb o r e a l species has a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r heart and lungs than both the mink and Brody 1s animal. This adaptation i n the marten presumably i s of great importance t o the species because of t h e i r mode of hunting. I t i s undoubtably of advantage t o the species that while hunting such prey as the chipmunk and s q u i r r e l , sudden manoeuvres be made at high speed. I t can be argued that the marten and f i s h e r being both boreal species are not p a r t i c u l a r l y adapted f o r a hig h l y a c t i v e existence. In f a c t the short legs with the h e a v i l y clawed f e e t and the long bushy t a i l i n d i c a t e t h a t these species are not e x t e r n a l l y adapted f o r high speed i n the chase. However i t i s postulated that because of these disadvantages these t wo species have evolved a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r heart and l a r g e r lungs than e i t h e r the mink or Brody*s t y p i c a l t e r r e s t r i a l mammal. - 45 -(4) The r e l a t i v e weights of the adrenal glands are i n t e r e s t i n g . From the t a b l e i t can be seen that the mink has the smallest adrenals, followed by the marten and then by Brody's animal with a predicted weight of 206 mgs. I t i s poss i b l e that the mink and marten r e a l l y have adrenals of s i m i l a r s i z e and weight, and that the 120 mgs value f o r the marten might represent enlarged adrenals due to c o r t i c a l hypertrophy. (5) The t h y r o i d weight of the marten i s w e l l below that of Brody 1 s p r e d i c t i o n . Since t h i s endocrine gland i s not a f f e c t e d by str e s s , C h r i s t i a n (1955), t h i s d i f f e r e n c e might exist i n the l i v e animal i n the wi l d . What im p l i c a t i o n s t h i s might have i s not known. (6) The values f o r the l i v e r , kidneys and spleen are so s i m i l a r t h a t comparison i s not required. In Table 8, a male electrocuted mink of 2000 grams i s compared with a male 2000 gram f i s h e r and a 2000 gram predicted animal from Brody 1s t a b l e . From t h i s table i t can be seen t h a t : -(1) The mink again has a r e l a t i v e l y smaller heart and lungs than the other two. (2) The f i s h e r , being i n e f f e c t just a l a r g e r version of the marten, a l s o has a l a r g e r heart and lungs, again doubtless adaptations f o r hunting at high speed. (3) The adrenals of the Mustelids are again i n the same order, with the mink having the smallest, then the f i s h e r and the p r e d i c t i o n by Brody being the l a r g e s t . Here again the value f o r the f i s h e r may - 47 -well represent enlarged adrenals due to "stress". However, i t is interesting to find that the mink, which is ranch reared in close proximity to hundreds of other mink, have the smallest adrenals. This might mean that the ranch mink is particularly well adapted to living under such crowded and unnatural conditions. Whether this is the case of the wild mink is not known. (4) The values for the thyroids are again similar, with the fisher having significantly smaller glands than those predicted by Brody. Unfortunately i t is not possible to draw up a table comparing the three species of Mustelidae. This is because the largest marten are much smaller than the smallest fisher and extrapolation of the regression line up in the case of the marten and down for the fisher iirould be highly inaccurate. The lines of best f i t are those for the observed data and there is no justification to presume that the extrapolation of the line in either direction would f i t the unobserved data. (d) Prediction tables of organ weights for the marten and fisher The prediction tables of organ weights of the marten are presented in Appendix II and for the fisher in Appendix III. For the standard errors and correlation coefficients consult Tables 5 and 6. 3 2 - 4 1 0 3 L i t h o ' d by Best M i m e o g r a p h C o . L t d . , Vancouver, B . C . LOGARITHMIC: Z 3'« By C H J'1-irw.n n t u a . Q Litho'd by Best Mimeograph C o . Ltd., Vancouver. B . C . L i t h o ' d by Best M i m e o g r a p h C o . L t d . , Vancouver, B . C . Lltho'd by Best M i m e o g r a p h C o . L t d . , Vancouver, B . C . ui ex I ui -C tr < UJ 7 8 9 1 u » u u u uy D « B I nameugrnLju u u . LIU., » 4 i i t u u v e r , a Litho'd by Best M i m e o g r a p h C o . L t d . , V a n c o u v e r . R C. - 56 -TABLE 8. Species Comparison Table 2. A l l at 2000 Gms. Species Adrenals Thyroids L i v e r Lungs Heart Kidneys Spleen Mink 120 mg. - 66 gm 18 gm 8.4 gm 9.2 gm 3.88 gm Fisher 300 mg. 150 mg 54 gm 28 gm 14 gm 9 . 8 gm 2.70 gm Brody"s pre d i c t -i o n s 475 mg 245 mg 61 gm 22 gm 12 gm 13 gm -The t o t a l weights f o r the adrenals and kidneys were computed i n the same way as i n Table 7 . 4. The presence of "breaks" or a t y p i c a l curves i n the regression l i n e s From a study of Figures 1-23 i t can be seen that the only n a t u r a l "breaks" i n any of the regression l i n e s are when the electrocuted mink data i s broken down i n t o the two sexes. Here the "breaks" take the form of d i f f e r e n t regression l i n e s f o r the sexes. They occur i n a l l the organs of the electrocuted mink but some are more pronounced than others. There were no observed "breaks" i n any of the three species s i m i l a r t o those found by K i b l e r , (1943), i n the ovaries and adrenals of ra b b i t s , or i n the kidneys of cats by Brody, (1946). These "breaks" i n the l i t e r a t u r e were found mainly on growing animals and represented p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes i n the growth rate of that p a r t i c u l a r organ at such times as puberty and maturity. Since the animals used i n t h i s study were mainly adults, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that s i m i l a r r e s u l t s were not found. 5. The use of the body weight as the base l i n e f o r expressing organ weight From Tables 2-6 i t can c l e a r l y be seen that when the logarithm - 57 -of body weight i s p l o t t e d against the logarithm of organ weight, the c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n are high only i n such organs as the heart, lungs, l i v e r , stomach and kidney. For such organs as the endocrine glands and the gonads the c o r r e l a t i o n between the two i s very low. C h r i s t i a n (1955) found a b e t t e r l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r the adrenal weight by taking the logarithm of the adrenal gland i n milligrams and p l o t t i n g i t against the head and body length i n centimetres. I t i s p o s s i b l e that t h i s method could be used f o r expressing a l l the endocrine glands, such as the adrenals, thyroids and parathyroids, thymus and p i t u i t a r y , and also f o r the testes and ovaries. Further work i s needed t o t e s t t h i s f o r the other endocrine glands. However the base l i n e , body weight, i s l i a b l e t o severe l i m i t a t i o n s . For example, depending on the p a t h o l o g i c a l and n u t r i t i o n a l s t ate of the animal being examined, the body weight could vary considerably. This would have d e f i n i t e e f f e c t s on the values obtained f o r the slope of the regression l i n e f o r the various organs. I t would therefore be d e s i r a b l e i f a more stable base l i n e could be introduced. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s are l i m i t e d because t h i s base l i n e must not vary very much even when the animal undergoes severe conditions such as a lowered n u t r i t i o n a l state or a p a t h o l o g i c a l condition. The brain weight remains f a i r l y constant i n s p i t e of marked changes i n the p h y s i o l o g i c a l state of the animal. But the b r a i n weight would be v i r t u a l l y impossible t o record with any degree of r e p e a t a b i l i t y i n the f i e l d . Of the l a r g e r i n t e r n a l organs the heart has been shown to be the l e a s t a f f e c t e d by the status of the animal, and hence appears worthy of consideration as the independent v a r i a b l e against which to express other organs or organ systems. - 58 -I t was found by the w r i t e r that a f t e r s i x days s t a r v a t i o n the mean weights of the kidneys, l i v e r and adrenals i n ra t s were reduced by as much as 30$, while the l o s s i n heart weight was only j u s t over 5$. I t was therefore decided to r e l a t e a l l the organs to the heart weight i n the electrocuted mink to see what kind of equations resulted. These r e s u l t s are presented i n Table 9- I t i s , however, d i f f i c u l t to determine the meaning of such an expression as: • 43 Spleen weight =5 1.03 Heart weight i n the female electrocuted mink. I t means that f o r a 100$ increase i n the heart weight, there w i l l be only a 43$ increase i n spleen weight. I t i s not known what r e a l value t h i s method of expression has. However i t i s t e n t a t i v e l y offered i n the hope that i t w i l l give more accurate r e s u l t s when d i f f e r e n t species are being compared. This new proposal f o r a base l i n e , which i s unaltered by the p h y s i o l o g i c a l state o f the animal, i s t e n t a t i v e l y offered without f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s , i n the hope that some future worker w i l l make a d e t a i l e d study of organ systems f o r several species i n t h i s way. In t h i s connection some of the r e s u l t s shown i n Brody 1s compilation, (1945), f o r d i f f e r e n t species are open to serious c r i t i c i s m and i n the writer's opinion are not accurate or r e l i a b l e . U n t i l there i s a standard base l i n e which i s not d r a s t i c a l l y changed by the p h y s i o l o g i c a l state of the animal, any comparisons made between species must be open t o serious e r r o r . TABLE 9 ORGAN WEIGHT RELATIVE TO HEART WEIGHT IN ELECTROCUTED MINK Separate values f o r males and females Organ weight — a Heart weight Organ Females Regression Equation Males Regression Equation Spleen SW = 1.03 HW*43 SW ^  1.45 HW*44 Kidney KW = 1.36 HW*42 77 KW = 0.96 HW' Adrenal* AW * 3.75 HW 1 - 3 AW - 11.0 HW'82 L i v e r LW = 10.8 HW"79 LW * 15.9 HW'66 Lungs LW =• 4.76 HW'55 LW - 3.77 HW*76 Stomach SW - 2.41 HW'33 SW = 1.64 HW'70 * Values f o r the adrenals i n milligrams - 60 -CONCLUSIONS 1. In comparing mink s a c r i f i c e d by hydrogen cyanide and by e l e c t r o c u t i o n with the sexes combined, the regression equations f o r the organs are only s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n the case of the spleens and adrenals. 2. When the sexes of cyanide s a c r i f i c e d mink are treated separately, there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the regression equations f o r any of the organs. 3. In electrocuted mink the regression equations f o r the organs with the sexes separate are s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t . The values f o r the exponents of the females varying from 3-5 times those of the male f o r the same organ. 4. There i s considerably more engorgement with blood i n the organs of the electrocuted female mink than i n the female cyanide s a c r i f i c e d mink. In the adrenal glands of the former, the zona f a s c i c u l a t a was dramatically more vasculafcaeil than the same area i n the l a t t e r mink. However, the adrenal medulla of the cyanided animals was more v a s c u l a r i s ^ than the same area i n the electrocuted animals. For the other organs studied, the lungs, spleen, l i v e r and kidney, the photomicrographs showed more blood i n the electrocuted s e r i e s than i n the cyanide s e r i e s . A quantitative comparison of the vasculariftjii was not attempted. 5- The weights of the adrenal glands of the marten and f i s h e r may have been abnormal due to e i t h e r engorgement or to c o r t i c a l hypertrophy due to severe " s t r e s s " conditions met with i n the traps before death. - 61-Ct her organs such as the spleen and l i v e r s may have been s i m i l a r l y enlarged. 6. The mink, being a semi-aquatic species i n the wild s t a t e , was found to have r e l a t i v e l y a l i g h t e r heart and lungs than both the marten and f i s h e r and the predicted values i n Brody f o r a t y p i c a l t e r r e s t r i a l mammal. 7. The marten and f i s h e r were found t o have a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r heart and lungs than both the mink and the predicted values of Brody. This i s thought t o be an adaptation i n these boreal species.for a c t i v e predation. 8. The adrenal glands of the ranch mink were considerably l i g h t e r than those of the other two Mustelids and w e l l below those predicted by Brody. 9. The^weights of the t h y r o i d and parathyroid glands of the marten and f i s h e r were w e l l below those predicted f o r t e r r e s t r i a l mammals. This might i n d i c a t e a p e c u l i a r i t y of the Mustelids or a p o s s i b l e error i n Brody's values. 10. The regression of organ weight and body weight with the body weight as the independent v a r i a b l e gives high c o r r e l a t i o n s i n the species studied f o r the heart, lungs, l i v e r , kidney and stomach. 11. Poor c o r r e l a t i o n s were found i n the following organs: the spleen, adrenal glands, t h y r o i d and parathyroid glands and the t e s t e s . This i n d i c a t e s that p r e d i c t i o n t a b l e s based on the computed equations f o r these organs would have l i t t l e value. -62-Because of the f l u c t u a t i o n i n the body weight of an animal due t o i t s n u t r i t i o n a l and p a t h o l o g i c a l state, the body weight as the independent v a r i a b l e i s considered to be u n r e l i a b l e . The heart weight i s t e n t a t i v e l y proposed as the new base l i n e against which to express the other organ systems, because with the exception of the brain weight, the heart seems t o be the l e a s t a f f e c t e d of a l l the organs i n the body by the changing p h y s i o l o g i c a l conditions of the animal. - 65 -LITERATURE CITED Addis, T. and H. Gray. Body Size and Organ Weight, Growth, 14:49- 1950 Addis, T. and H. Gray. Body Size and Suprarenal Weight, Growth, 14' 81-92. 1950. Addis, T. and H. Gray. Body Size and Gonad Weight, Growth, 14:93-106. 1950. Brody, S. Bioenergetics and Growth, Reinhold Pub. Corp. New York. 1945 C h i t t y , D. Adverse E f f e c t s of Population Density upon the V i a b i l i t y of Later Generations. The Numbers of Man and Animals. O l i v e r and Boyd, London. 1955. C h r i s t i a n , J . J . The E f f e c t of Population Size on the Adrenal Glands of Male Mice i n Fixed Populations, Amer. Jour. Physiol. 182: 292-300. 1955. C h r i s t i a n , J . J . and D. E. Davis. The Relationship between Adrenal ¥eight and Population Status of Norway Rats, Jour. Mammalogy, ^7: 4. 1956. C h r i s t i a n , J. J . A Review of the Endocrine Responses i n Rats and Mice t o Increasing Population Size. Naval Medical Research I n s t i t u t e , Bethesda, Maryland. Lecture Series 57-2. 1957-Clarke, J.R. The E f f e c t s of F i g h t i n g on the Adrenals, Thymus and Spleen of the Vole, Jour. Endoc, 9:114-126. 1953-D a n i e l , M.J. The Growth Parabola, Y = aX b, used f o r r e l a t i n g Body Weights to Thoracic and Abdominal Viscera Weights of Mink, B.A. Thesis, Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of B.C. 1957-Dawson, J. Splenic Hypertrophy i n Voles, Nature, 178:1183-4. 1956. DuBois, E. On the Relation between the Quantity of Brain and the Size of the Body i n Vertebrates, B u l l . Soc. Anthropol. P a r i s . 8:337- 1897. Fulton, J.F. A Textbook of Physiology, 17th e d i t i o n . W.B. Saunders Co., London. 1955. Hatai, S. On the Weights of Viscera of the Albino Rat According t o Body Weight, Amer. Jour. Anatomy, 15:87- 1913-Huxley, J.S. Problems of Relative Growth, D i a l Press. New York, 1932. J e l l i n c k , S. E l e c t r i c a l Accidents from the C l i n i c a l and Forensic Standpoint, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 6:17. 1913-- 64 -K i b l e r , H.H. and A. J. Bergman. Relation of Certain Endocrine Glands t o Body Weight i n Growing and Mature New Zealand White Rabbits. Endocrinology, 33:250. 1943-Lambert, R. and G. T e i s s i e r . Theorie de l a Si m i l i t u d e Biologique, Ann. Physiol, et Physico-chim. B i o l . , 2:22. 1927-MacWilliam, J.A. Discussion on Pathological Changes Produced by E l e c t r i c a l Shock, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 15:49. 1922. Mixner, J.P. and A. J. Bergman. Relation of Certain Endocrine Glands to Body Weight i n Growing and Mature Guinea Pigs. Endocrinology, 32:298- 1943-Reese, J . J . Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology. Blakiston, P h i l a d e l p h i a . 1906. Rogers and Richter. Anatomical Comparison between Adrenal Glands of Wild Norway Rats and Domestic Norway Rats. Endocrinology 42: 46-55- 1948. Selye, H. The General Adaptation Syndrome, Jour. C l i n . Endocrinology, 6:117-230. 1946. S h o l l , D.A. R e g u l a r i t i e s i n Growth Curves, i n c l u d i n g gythms and Allometry. Dynamics of Growth Processes. Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, Princeton. 1954. Smith, S. and F. S. Fiddes. Forensic Medicine. C h u r c h i l l Press. London. 1949-Snedecor, G.W. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods. 5th e d i t i o n . Iowa State Press, Iowa. Urquhart, R.W.I. Experimental E l e c t r i c Shock. Jour. I n d u s t r i a l Hygiene. 7:65- 1927-Urquhart, R.W.I. Patholog i c a l Symptoms of E l e c t r i c Shock. Ontario Medical Review. 18:4- 1951. 1956 . Appendix I P r e d i c t i o n Table of Organ Weights of Electrocuted Mink calculated from the regression equations with sexes separate. (The wts of the adrenal gland and kidney r e f e r to l e f t organ only) Spleen wt (gms) Adrenal wt (mgs) L i v e r wt (gras) : L^ngs wt (gms) Heart wt (gms) Kidney wt (gms) Standard E r r o r 40$ -28$ 70$ -42$ 20$ . -17$ • 13$ •:: -12$ 24$ -12$ 23$ -17$ Body weight Females: 500 gms 1.1 12.9 13.7 6.5 2.9 1.1 550 1.2 14-5 16.4 7.1 3.1 1.3 600 1.4 16.0 19.4 7.7 3.2 1.5 650 1.5 17.7 22.6 8 . 4 3.4 1.7 700 1.6 19.2 26.0 9.0 3.5 2.0 750 1.7 21.0 29-6 9.6 3.6 2.3 800 1.8 22.7 33.5 10.2 3.8 2.6 850 1.9 24.4 37-6 10.8 3 . 9 2.9 900 2 .0 .26.1 41.9 11.4 4.0 3 . 3 950 2.2 27.7 46.1 12.0 4.2 3.6 1000 2.3 29.6 51.2 12.6 4.3 3.9 Males: Standard 60$ 50$ 12$ 16$ 9$ 19$ E r r o r -37$ -33$ -1356 -14$ -8$ -16$ 800 2.4 38.4 39.2 11.8 3.8 3.2 850 2.4 39.6 40.6 12.2 4.0 3.2 900 2.5 40.7 41.9 12.5 4.2 3 . 3 950 2.6 41.7 43-1 12.8 4.4 3.4 1000 2.7 42.8 44.5 13.0 4.6 3.4 1050 2.7 43.8 45.7 13.4 4.8 3.5 1100 2.8 44.9 46.9 13.7 5.0 3.6 1150 2.9 45.8 48.1 13.9 5.2 3.6 1200 2.9 46.7 49.2 14.1 5-4 3.7 1250 3.0 47.7 50.1 14.4 5.6 3.7 1300 3.1 48.6 51.5 14-7 5.8 3.8 1350 3.1 49.4 52.6 14.9 6.0 3.9 1400 3.2 50.3 53-7 15-1 6.1 3-9 1450 3.2 51.2 54.7 15.4 6.3 4.0 1500 3 . 3 52.0 55-8 15.6 6.5 4.0 1550 3 . 3 52.8 56.8 15.9 6.7 4.1 1600 3-4 53.6 57-9 16.1 6.9 4.1 1650 3.5 54.4 58.9 16.3 7.1 4.2 1700 3.5 55.2 59.8 16.5 7.3 4.2 1750 3 . 6 56.0 60.9 16.7 7.4 4.3 1800 3 . 6 56.8 61.8 16.9 7.6 4.3 1850 3.7 57-5 62.8 17.2 7.8 4.3 1900 3.7 58.3 63.7 17.4 8.0 4.4 1950 3.8 59.0 64.6 17.6 8.2 4-4 2000 3.8 59.7 65.6 17.8 8.3 4.5 2050 3.9 60.4 66.5 17-9 8.5 4.5 2100 3-9 61.1 67,4 18.1 8.7 4 . 6 2150 4.0 61.8 68.3 18.3 8.9 4 . 6 2200 4.0 62.5 69.2 18.6 9.0 4 . 6 - 66 -APPENDIX I I P r e d i c t i o n Table of Organ Weights f o r Steeltrapped Marten Calculated from the regression equations i n Table 5-Males and females combined Kidney (gms) Heart (gms) Lungs (gms) L i v e r (gms) Adrenal (mgs) Thyroicfs (mgs) Testes (mgs) Spleen (gms) Standard E r r o r 20% -16% 11% -9$ 15$ -12$ 16$ -14$ 52$ -34$ 78$ -43$ 22$ -18$ 18$ -16$ Body weight (gms) 300 1.3 2.9 5.6 11.2 46.6 26.0 50.4 0.7 350 1.5 3.3 6.3 12.4 48.6 30.0 61.6 0.7 400 1.6 3-7 7-1 13.8 50.4 34.1 73.2 0.8 450 1 .7 4.1 7.8 15.1 52.0 37.9 85.4 0.8 500 1.9 4.4 8.5 16.3 53-5 41.8 97-9 0.9 550 2.0 4.7 9.2 17.5 54.9 45.7 110 0.9 600 2.2 5.1 9.9 '. 18 .6 56.2 49.6 124 1.0 650 2.3 5-4 10.1 19.5 57-4 53.4 137 1.1 700 2.5 5.7 11.2 20.8 58.6 57.2 151 1.1 750 2.6 6.0 11.8 21.9 59-7 61.0 165 1.1 800 2.7 6.3 12.4 23.0 60.8 64-8 180 1.2 850 2.9 6.6 33-1 24.0 61.7 68.5 195 1.2 900 3 .0 6.9 33.7 25.0 62.7 72.3 210 1.3 x These weights f o r the kidney r e f e r to the l e f t kidney only. The right kidney i s approximately 4$ heavier than the l e f t . xx The adrenal weights a l s o r e f e r to the l e f t side only. I t i s assumed that the two are of approximately the same weight. xxx The t h y r o i d weights are the combined weights of the two thyroids and the two parathyroids. xxxx The weights f o r the testes are the weights without the vasa d e f e r e n t i a . - 67 -APPENDIX I I I P r e d i c t i o n Table of Organ Weights f o r Pelted Fisher Calculated from the regression equations i n Table 6 Males and females combined Kidney Heart Lungs L i v e r Adrenal Thyroids Testes Spleen (gms) (gms) (gms) (gms) (mgs) (mgs) (gms) (gms) Standard 1 4 $ 9 $ 2 0 $ 2 5 $ 5 0 $ 40$ 5 0 $ 24$ E r r o r - 1 2 $ - 6 $ - 1 6 $ -18$ - 3 5 $ - 2 5 $ - 3 5 $ - 2 0 $ Pelted Body-Weight 1 0 0 0 3 . 4 1 1 . 0 2 1 . 6 3 7 . 5 1 1 5 1 2 0 0 . 9 2 . 0 1 1 0 0 3 . 3 1 2 . 0 23-2 41-5 1 2 5 1 2 7 1 . 0 2 . 1 1 2 0 0 4 . 2 1 2 . 5 2 5 . 0 4 5 . 0 1 3 2 1 3 4 1 . 1 2 . 3 1 3 0 0 4 . 5 1 3 . 2 26 . 5 5 0 . 0 1 4 2 1 4 0 1 . 2 2 . 5 1 4 0 0 4 . 9 1 4 . 0 2 8 . 5 5 4 . 0 1 5 0 148 1 . 2 2 . 7 1 5 0 0 5 . 2 1 4 . 8 3 0 . 0 5 8 . 0 1 6 0 1 5 2 1 . 3 2 . 8 1 6 0 0 5 . 6 1 5 - 5 3 1 . 5 6 3 . 0 1 7 0 1 6 0 1 . 4 3 . 0 1 7 0 0 6 . 0 1 6 . 2 3 3 . 2 6 8 . 0 178 1 6 5 1 . 4 3 . 2 1800 6 . 4 1 7 . 0 3 5 . 0 7 2 . 0 188 1 7 0 1 . 5 3 - 4 . 1 9 0 0 6.7 1 7 - 4 3 6 . 0 7 6 . 0 ' 1 9 5 1 7 5 1 . 5 3 - 5 2 0 0 0 7 . 0 18.0 3 7 - 5 8 1 . 0 2 0 5 180 1 . 6 3 . 7 2 1 0 0 7 . 4 1 8 . 9 3 9 . 0 8 6 . 0 2 1 0 188 1 . 6 3 - 9 2 2 0 0 7 - 8 19-5 4 1 . 0 9 0 . 0 2 2 0 1 9 5 1 . 7 4 . 0 2 3 0 0 8 . 2 2 0 . 0 4 2 . 0 9 5 . 0 228 2 0 0 1 . 7 4 . 2 2 4 0 0 8 . 5 2 0 . 8 4 4 . 0 1 0 0 2 3 5 2 0 4 1 . 8 4 . 4 2 5 0 0 8 . 9 2 1 . 2 4 5 . 0 1 0 4 2 4 5 2 1 0 1 . 9 4 . 6 2 6 0 0 9 - 2 2 2 . 0 4 6 . 5 1 1 0 2 5 0 2 1 5 1 . 9 4 . 7 2 7 0 0 9 . 6 2 2 . 5 4 8 . 0 1 1 4 2 6 0 2 2 0 2.0 4 . 8 2800 1 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 4 9 . 0 118 2 7 0 224 2 . 0 5 . 1 2 9 0 0 1 0 . 3 2 3 - 5 5 1 . 0 1 2 2 2 7 8 228 2 . 1 5 . 2 3 0 0 0 1 0 . 6 2 4 . 0 5 2 . 0 128 2 8 5 2 3 0 2 . 1 5 . 4 3 1 0 0 1 1 . 0 2 5 . 0 5 4 . 0 1 3 2 2 9 0 2 3 5 2 . 2 5 . 6 3 2 0 0 1 1 . 4 2 5 . 5 5 5 . 0 1 3 8 3 0 0 2 4 0 2 . 2 5 . 8 3 3 0 0 1 1 . 8 2 6 . 0 5 6 . 5 1 4 2 3 1 0 2 4 5 2 . 3 6 . 0 3 4 0 0 1 2 . 2 2 6 . 5 5 8 . 0 1 4 8 3 1 5 2 5 0 2 . 3 6 . 1 3 5 0 0 1 2 . 5 2 7 . 0 5 9 . 5 1 5 1 3 2 5 2 5 5 2 . 4 6 . 2 3 6 0 0 1 2 . 9 2 7 . 5 6 1 . 0 1 5 6 3 3 0 2 6 0 2 . 4 6 . 4 3 7 0 0 1 3 . 2 28.3 6 2 . 0 1 6 2 3 4 0 2 6 5 2 . 5 6 . 6 3 8 0 0 13 - 5 2 9 . 0 6 4 . 0 168 3 4 5 2 7 0 2 . 5 6 . 8 3 9 0 0 1 4 . 0 2 9 . 5 6 5 . 0 172 3 5 5 2 7 4 2.6 7 - 0 4 0 0 0 1 4 . 5 3 0 . 0 6 6 . 0 178 3 6 0 280 2 . 6 7 . 2 D e t a i l s on the kidney, adrenals, thyroids and t e s t e s are the same as f o r the marten. 

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